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Full text of "Practice and science of standard barbering; a practical and complete course of training in basic barber services and related barber science. Prepared especially for use by barber schools, barber students, barber apprentices, practicing barbers in preparation for barber state board examinations"

Science 









KANSAS TECHNICAL INSTITUTE 
LIBRARY 



From the collection of the 

7 n 
_ z _ m 

o Prelinger 
v JJibrary 
t P 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



Practice. a#id Science 

STANDARD BARBERING 



A practiced and complete course of training in 

basic barber services and 

related barber science. 



Prepared Especially For Use By 

BARBER SCHOOLS BARBER APPRENTICES 

BARBER STUDENTS PRACTICING BARBERS 

IN PREPARATION FOR 
BARBER STATE BOARD EXAMINATIONS 



Copyright 1951 

Milady Publishing Corp. 

Printed in U.S.A. 



1953 Printing 



MILADY PUBLISHING CORP. 

3837-3839 WHITE PLAINS AVENUE :: NEW YORK 67, N. Y. 



FOREWORD 



"The Practice and Science of Standard Barbering" 
marks a major advance in barber training. With 
the help of leading barber schools, instructors and 
educators, all the essential fundamentals and 
know-how of barbering have been combined into 
one comprehensive textbook. 

Step-by-step instructions are clearly described for 
basic barber services. Many illustrations, charts, 
examinations and a glossary have been included. 
The regular study of this text assures complete 
training and thorough preparation for State Board 
Examinations. 

Every barber who wants to combine professional 
skill with modern, scientific knowledge, and desires 
to maintain high standards of service will find 
that this text answers a real need. 

THE AUTHOR. 



1 History of Barbering 1 

Origin of the Barber; Superstitions in Barbering; Beautifying the 
Body; Significance of the Beard; Greek and Roman Influence; 
Razors of the Past; English Influence; The Rise and Fall of Barber- 
Surgeons. 

Modern Trends; Historical Notes on Barbering; Haircuts and Beards 
in Vogue at the Onset of the 20th Century; Haircuts and Beards 
in Vogue During the 19th Century. 
Review Questions and Answers on History of Barbering 10 

PART I 
2 Personal Hygiene 15 

Good Health; Personal Hygiene; Public Hygiene; Mental Hygiene; 
Cleanliness; Air; Food; Posture; Types of Standing Posture; 
Exercise; Sleep; Good Health Habits; Your Personal Hygiene is 
Very Important. 

Your Personality Chart; Personal Inventory; Rating Your Person- 
ality; Personality Improvement; Record of Personality Improvement. 
Review Questions and Answers on Personal Hygiene 24 

3 Bacteriology 25 

Bacteriology Defined; Classification of Bacteria; Pathogenic and 
Non-Pathogenic Organisms; Parasites; Structural Classification of 
Bacteria; Three General Forms of Bacteria; Groupings of Bacteria; 
Six Disease-Producing Bacteria; Movement of Bacteria; Bacterial 
Growth and Reproduction; Spore-Forming Bacteria; Infection; Local 
Infection; General Infection. 

Common Contagious Diseases Met in the Barber Shop; The Routes 
in which Bacteria Enter the Body; Immunity; Natural Immunity; 
Acquired Immunity; Human Disease Carrier; Destruction of Bacteria. 
Review Questions and Answers on Bacteriology 30 

4 Sterilization 33 

Sterilization Defined; Methods of Sterilization; Physical Agents; 
Chemical Agents; Forms of Heat; Boiling; Steaming; Dry Heat; 
Light; Antiseptics and Disinfectants; Wet Sterilizer; Using Alcohol 
as Sterilizing Agent; Sterilizing Instruments Having a Fine Cutting 
Edge; Sterilizing Electrodes; Dry Sterilizer; How Fumigant is Pre- 
pared; Formalin Defined; Formalin Used in Various Strengths; Pro- 
portions for Making Percentage Solutions; Table of Equivalents. 
How to Sterilize: Combs and Brushes; Metallic Implements; 
Electrodes; Moist Heat Sterilization. 

Preparations Used in Barber Shops; Antiseptic Preparations; Disin- 
fectant Preparations; Definitions Pertaining to Sterilization; Safety 
Precautions; Sterilization Rules. 
Review Questions and Answers on Sterilization 44 

5 Sanitation 47 

Sanitation Defined; Board of Health; State Board of Barbering; 
Importance of Sanitation; Water and Soap; Sanitary Rules. 
Review Questions and Answers on Sanitation ... ... 50 



PART II 

6 Will You Be A Success or Failure? 52 

What to Do in Order to be Successful. 

7- Barber Implements 53 

Straight Razors; Balance of Razor; Grind of Razor; Tempering the 

Razor; Size of Razor; Finish of Razor; Care of Razors. 

Haircutting Shears; The French Type; The German Type; Size and 

Grinds of Shears; Thinning Shears. 

Clippers; The Hand Clipper; Electric Clippers; Cutting Thickness. 

Hones; Natural Hones; Synthetic Hones; Water Hone; Belgium Hone; 

Swaty Hone; Carborundum Hone; General Information on Hones; 

Care of Hones. 

Strops; Canvas and Leather Strops; How Strops are Broken In and 

How They Are Taken Care Of; Russian Strop; Russian Shell; 

Horsehide Strop. 

Accessory Implements; Combs; Brushes; Lather Receptacles; Shav- 
ing Soap; Tweezer; Comedone Extractor. 
Review Questions and Answers on Barber Implements 68 

8 Honing and Stropping 71 

Honing Defined; Preparation for Honing; How to Hold Razor; How 

to Stroke Razor; Testing Razor Edge; Care of Hones. 

Stropping Defined; Technique; Care of Strops. 

Review Questions and Answers on Honing and Stropping 77 

9 Face Shaving 79 

Why Face Shaving is Important; Fundamentals of Face Shaving; 
Four Standard Shaving Positions and Strokes; Free Hand Position 
and Stroke; Back Hand Position and Stroke; Reverse Free Hand 
Position and Stroke; Reverse Back Hand Position and Stroke. 
Shaving: How to Prepare A Customer; How to Prepare the Face 
for Shaving; Positions and Strokes in Shaving; The Second Time 
Over; Once Over Shave; Close Shaving; Accidental Cuts in Shav- 
ing; Wrapping Towel Around Hand; Final Steps in Face Shaving; 
Neck Shave; Why A Customer May Find Fault with a Shave; 
The Mustache; Styles of Mustaches. 

Special Problems; Eyebrow Shaping; Tweezing; Trimming Eyebrows; 
Styptic Powder; Blackheads; Whiteheads; Ingrown or Wild Hair. 
Review Questions and Answers on Face Shaving 109 

10 Men's Haircutting 113 

Haircutting Defined; Fundamentals in Haircutting; Haircutting Im- 
plements; Important Steps for a Complete Haircut. 
Haircutting: How to Prepare A Customer; Clipper Technique; 
Shears and Comb Technique; Arching Technique; Finger and 
Shears Technique; Front Outline; Preparation for a Neck Shave; 
Shaving Outlined Areas; Final Checkup; Combing of the Hair; 
Sanitary Reminders; Why A Customer May Find Fault with a 
Haircut; Basic Steps of a Standard Haircut. 

The Art of Basic Haircutting; The Short Cut; The Medium Cut; 
Medium Trim; Long Trim; Short Pompadour; Medium Pompadour; 
Long Pompadour; Sideburns. 

Special Problems; Hair Thinning; Shear Point Tapering; Beards; 
Singeing. 

Popular Hair Styles; For Men; For Boys; Principles of Men's Hair 
Styling; Face with Regular Features; The Short Round Face; The 
Long Thin Face. 

Review Questions and Answers on Men's Haircutting 158 



11 Shampooing 161 

Shampooing Defined; Preparation of Supplies; How to Prepare A 
Customer for Inclined Position; How to Prepare A Customer for 
Reclined Position; Step-by-Step Procedure for a Plain Shampoo; 
Massage Manipulations During Shampoo; Common Faults in Sham- 
pooing; Superior Shampoo Service. 

Special Shampoos; Hot Oil Shampoo; Egg Shampoo; Special 
Shampoos. 
Review Questions and Answers on Shampooing 168 

12 Hair Tonics 170 

Hair Tonics Defined; When to Use Hair Tonics; Benefits of Hair 

Tonics; Scalp Steam. 

Review Questions and Answers on Hair Tonics 172 

13 Scalp Treatments 173 

Scalp Massage; Benefits of Scalp Massage; Step-by-Step Pro- 
cedure for Scalp Massage; When to Recommend Scalp Treatments; 
General Scalp Treatment. 

Special Problems; Dry Scalp Treatment; Oily Scalp Treatment; 
Dandruff Treatment; Treatment for Alopecia. 
Review Questions and Answers on Scalp Treatments 182 

14 Theory of Massage 183 

Massage Defined; Effleurage; Petrissage; Friction; Percussion or 
Tapotement; Vibration; Physiological Effects of Massage; Electrical 
Appliances Used with Massage. 
Review Questions and Answers on Theory of Massage 187 

15 Facial Treatments 189 

Benefits of Facial Treatments; Equipment Needed; Plain Facial; 
Preparation for Plain Facial; Step-by-Step Procedure for Plain 
Facial; Rolling Cream Massage; Points to Remember in Facial 
Massage; Why A Customer May Find Fault with a Facial Massage; 
Facial Massage Movements Using Hands; Facial Massage Move- 
ments Using Vibrator; Rules to Follow in Using Vibrator. 

Review Questions and Answers on Facial Treatments 196 

Special Problems; Dry Skin Facial; Facial for Oily Skin and Black- 
heads; Facial for Whiteheads; Clay Pack; Hot Oil Mask; Bleach 
Pack; Acne Facial; Acne Rosacea Facial; Faradic Facial. 
Review Questions and Answers on Special Facial Problems 208 

PART III 

16 Anatomy and Physiology 211 

Importance of Anatomy and Physiology; Definitions of Anatomy, 
Physiology and Histology; Cells; Tissues; Organs; Systems. 
Review Questions and Answers on Anatomy and Physiology 217 

17 Skeletal System 219 

Skeletal System Defined; Composition of Bones; Types of Bones; 
Nutrition of Bones; Functions of Bones; Forms or Shapes of Bones; 
Joints; Cartilage and Ligaments; Bones of the Head, Face and Neck. 
Review Questions and Answers on Bones 225 

18 Muscular System 227 

Muscular System Defined; Function of Muscles; Origin and In- 
sertion of Muscles; Nutrition of Muscles; Types of Muscles; Stim- 
ulation of Muscles; Muscles of the Head, Face and Neck. 
Review Questions and Answers on Muscles 236 



19 The Nervous System 239 

Nervous System Defined; Functions of the Nervous System; Neurons 
(Nerve Cells); Sensory Nerves; Motor Nerves; Cerebro-Spinal Sys- 
tem; Sympathetic or Autonomic System; Nerve Fatigue; Nutrition 
of Nerves; Important Nerves of the Head, Face and Neck; Motor 
Nerve Points of the Head. 
Questions and Answers on Nerves _.. 250 

20 Circulatory (Vascular) System 253 

Circulatory System Defined; Blood Vascular System; The Function 

of the Blood Vascular System; The Heart; The Blood Vessels; 

Circulation of Blood; Composition of Blood; Functions of Blood. 

The Lymph Vascular System; Lymphatic Structures; Composition 

and Functions of Lymph. 

Arteries and Veins; Important Arteries and Veins of Head, Face 

and Neck. 

Review Questions and Answers on Circulation 266 

21 Endocrine System 269 

Endocrine System Defined; Types and Functions of Glands. 
Review Questions and Answers on Endocrine Glands 271 

22 Excretory System 272 

Excretory System Defined; Organs; Urinary System; Liver. 

Review Questions and Answers on Excretion 273 

23 Respiratory System 274 

Respiratory System Defined; Organs; Lungs; Breathing. 

Review Questions and Answers on Respiration 276 

24 Digestive System 277 

Digestive System Defined; Physical and Chemical Changes in 

Digestion; Process of Digestion; Overcoming Constipation. 

Review Questions and Answers on Digestion _ 280 

25 The Skin 281 

The Skin Defined; Structure of the Skin; Blood and Lymph Supply 
to the Skin; Nerves of the Skin; Pliability of the Skin; Color of the 
Skin; Sweat and Oil Glands; Functions of the Skin. 
Review Questions and Answers on The Skin 286 

26 The Hair 288 

Hair Defined; Composition of Hair; Shapes of Hair; Structure of 
Hair; Color of Hair; Regeneration of Hair; Life and Density of Hair. 
Review Questions and Answers on Hair 294 

27 Electricity 297 

Benefits of Electricity; How Electricity is Produced; How Electricity 
is Transmitted; Electrodes; Forms of Electricity; Types of Electrical 
Circuits; Safety Practices; Electrical Measurements; High-Frequency 
Current; Methods of Using Tesla Current; The Vibrator; Wall Plate; 
Galvanic Current; Other Electrical Currents. 
Review Questions and Answers on Electricity 305 



28 Light Therapy 307 

Composition of Light; Speed of Light; How Light Rays Are Repro- 
duced; Ultra-Violet Rays; Infra-Red Rays; Visible White Light; 
Visible Blue Light; Visible Red Light. 
Review Questions and Answers on Light Therapy 313 

29 Chemistry 315 

Chemistry Defined; Organic Chemistry; Inorganic Chemistry; 
Matter; Changes in Matter; Acids, Bases and Salts; Chemistry of 
Water; United States Pharmacopeia. 

Chemistry Applied to Cosmetics; Classification of Cosmetics in the 
Barber Shop; Powders; Solutions; Emulsions; Ointments; Soaps; 
Shaving Soaps; Chart of Cosmetics for Skin, Scalp and Hair. 
Review Questions and Answers on Chemistry 324 

30 Diseases of the Skin, Scalp and Hair 327 

Importance of Disease Recognition; Skin Lesions; Primary Skin 
Lesions; Secondary Skin Lesions; Definitions of Disease Terms; 
Diseases of Sebaceous (Oil) Glands; Diseases of the Sudoriferous 
(Sweat) Glands; Dandruff; Skin Inflammations; Types of Alopecia; 
Parasitic Affections; Non-Contagious Hair Affections; Skin Pigment- 
ations; Skin Growths; Nail Disorders. 
The Control of Venereal Disease; Syphilis; Gonorrhea. 
Review Questions and Answers on Diseases of Skin, 

Scalp and Hair 359 

PART IV 

31 Women's Haircutting 365 

32 Finger Waving and Pin Curling 379 

33 Men's Hair Bleaching 387 

34 Men's Hair Tinting 400 

35 Barber Ethics 427 

Barber Ethics Defined; Good Ethics; Poor Ethics. 

36 Barber Shop Management 428 

Functions Performed by a Barber Shop; Organizing the Barber 
Shop; Types of Ownership; Selecting the Right Location; Equipping 
the Barber Shop; Advertising the Barber Shop; Salesmanship in the 
Barber Shop; Records in the Barber Shop; Operating and Admini- 
strative Expenses; First Aid; Things to Consider When Going into 
Business; Business Law for the Barber Shop. 

37 State Board Educational Requirements 

for Barber Licenses of All States 439 

PART V 

38 Review Examinations 441 

1000 Latest Type Examination Questions with Answers. 

PART VI 

39 Glossary 469 

40 Bibliography 502 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 

The history of barbering is deeply rooted in the progress 
of mankind. As civilization advanced, barbering developed 
from an insignificant practice to a recognized vocation. To 
study the history of barbering is to appreciate the accom- 
plishments and the role of the barber in early times. This 
rich cultural heritage should be the basis for prestige and 
respect in serving the public. 

Primitive man had to devise rather crude instruments 
with which to cut the hair. Simple cutting implements were 
usually prepared from sharpened flint or oyster shells. To 
this very day, the savages of Polynesia still use similar 
objects in cutting the hair. 

Superstitions 

The beginning of barbering was steeped in strange super- 
stitions. There was a general belief among savages that people 
could be bewitched by hair clippings. Hence, the privilege of 
hair cutting was designated to the priest or medicine man of 
the tribe. The Irish peasantry believed that if hair cuttings 
were burned or buried no evil spirits would haunt the 
individual. 

Among the American Indians, the belief existed that the 
hair had a vital connection with the body, and that "any- 
one possessed of a lock of hair of another might work his 
will on that individual." 

It was the widespread ancient belief in the magic in- 
fluence of long-haired persons which caused Roman judges 
to order the hair of Christian martyrs cut before putting 
them to death. 

Origin of the Barber 

As far back as four hundred years before Christ, shaving 
was introduced by the Macedonians. Later it spread to 
Egypt and all Eastern countries, including China. The word 
barber is derived from a Latin word "barba" meaning 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 

beard. The word tonsorial in Latin means the cutting, 
clipping and trimming of hair with shears or cutting with 
a razor. 

Beautifying the Body 

The Egyptians were the first to cultivate beauty in an 
extravagant fashion. Excavations from tombs have brought 
to light such relics as combs, brushes, mirrors and cosmetics. 
Eye paint was the most popular of all cosmetics. Slaves 
enhanced the beauty of the Egyptian ladies by applying 
perfumed oil to their skins and henna to their hair. 

Significance of the Beard 

Although the importance of the beard belongs more with 
the past than to the present, nevertheless, it is interesting 
to note the various fashions and customs associated with 
it. A curious custom of the Middle Ages was that of im- 
bedding three hairs from the king's beard in the wax of the 
seal. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth in England, it was 
fashionable to dye the beard and cut it into a variety of 
shapes. 

In early times, the beard was considered by almost all 
nations as a sign of wisdom, strength and manhood, and 
was carefully cherished as being almost sacred. Among the 
Jews, the beard was regarded as a symbol of manliness; 
to cut off another man's beard was an outrage. According 
to the Greek philosopher, Pythagoras, the hair was the source 
of the brain's inspiration and the cutting of the hair de- 
creased intellectual capacity. In Rome, the first day of 
shaving (22nd birthday) was looked upon as a sign of 
manhood and was celebrated with great festivities. 

The commands of certain rulers were at times responsible 
for the removal of beards. For instance, Alexander the Great 
ordered his soldiers to shave so that their enemies might not 
seize their beards in battle. After the Gauls were conquered, 
Julius Caesar compelled them to cut off their beards. Peter 
the Great made shaving compulsory by imposing a tax on 
beards. 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 3 

In the spread of the Christian faith, long hair gradually 
became to be despised because it was considered sinful. Hence 
the clergy were directed to shave their beards. Among the 
Jews, shaving of the beard was forbidden, but they used 
the scissors to remove all excess hair. The Moslems observed 
great care in trimming the beard after prayer, and the 
hairs that fell out were carefully picked up and preserved 
for subsequent burial with the owner. 

Barbers first became popular in Rome about the year 296 
B.C. In Greece, barbers became popular as early as 500 B.C. 

Greek and Roman Influence 

In Greece and Rome, barbering was a highly developed 
art. Persons of means were shaved by their valets. The 
common people frequented the barber shops which were 
the resorts of loungers and newsmongers. 

The Greeks and Romans gave considerable attention 
to beautifying the hair. Sparkling gems and hairpins of silver 
and gold adorned the elegant hair styles of the Greek women. 
The Roman women often dyed their hair, and some replaced 
the hair with fashionable wigs. 

In ancient Rome, the color of a woman's hair indicated 
her rank. Women of the nobility tinted their hair red ; those 
of the middle class colored their hair yellow; while women 
of the poorer classes were compelled to dye their hair black. 

The Greeks were noted for the cultivation of health by 
natural methods. They realized the value of exercise and 
massage for building a strong body. Hippocrates, the father 
of modern medicine, advocated the use of sunlight, water 
and diet, as important aids to recovery from illness. The 
motto of the Greeks was "a sound mind in a sound body". 

Some of the finest bathing establishments were erected in 
Rome. Soap was first discovered and came into common 
usage there. Later, with the decay of Rome and the rise of 
Christianity, the use of soap and bathing was banned because 
these practices were associated with the cruelty and wick- 
edness of Roman rulers. 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 



RAZORS OF THE PAST 



FANCY RAZOR 
OF THE 1890'S 




HISTORY OF BARBERING 5 

English Influence 

The ancient Britons were extremely proud of the length 
and beauty of their hair. Their yellow hair was brightened 
with washes composed of tallow, lime, and the ashes of 
certain vegetables. The Danes and Anglo-Saxons also ad- 
mired long, flowing locks. The young Danes were partic- 
ularly attentive to dressing the hair, which they combed at 
least once a day in order to captivate the affections of 
English ladies. 

The Rise and Fall of Barber-Surgeons 

During the Middle Ages, the barbers not only practiced 
shaving, haircutting and hairdressing, but also dressed 
wounds and performed surgical operations. That is why 
they were called barber-surgeons. Much of the barbers 5 
experience was acquired from the monks, whom they as- 
sisted in the practice of surgery and medicine. 

The barber-surgeons became quite numerous when Pope 
Alexander III forbade the clergy to shed blood in surgical 
operations. To protect themselves, the Barbers' Company of 
London was organized in the thirteenth century. The object 
of the trade guild was to regulate the profession for the 
benefit of its members. Among the regulations passed was 
that no barber was to keep more than four apprentices in 
his establishment. 

The Company of Barbers was ruled by a Master, and 
consisted of two classes of barbers, viz: those who practiced 
barbering and those who specialized in surgery. Under 
Edward III, the barbers made a complaint against un- 
skilled practitioners in surgery. As a result, the court chose 
two Masters to inspect and rule the guild and give exami- 
nations to test the skill of applicants. 

The sign of the barber-surgeon consisted of a striped pole 
from which was suspended a basin: the fillet around the pole 
indicating the bandage twisted around the arms previous to 
blood-letting and the basin the vessel for receiving blood. An- 
other interpretation of the colors in the barber's pole was that 



B HISTORY OF BARBERING 

red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the 
bandage. This sign, without the basin, has been generally re- 
tained by the modern barber. 

Besides the Barbers' Guild, there was also a Surgeons' 
Guild in England. There was reason to believe that com- 
petition and antagonism existed between these two organ- 
izations. In 1450, both groups were united by law for the 
purpose of fostering the science of surgery. A law was en- 
acted that no one doing surgery should practice barbering 
and that no barber should practice any point in surgery 
except the pulling of teeth. The long slumbering jealousy 
between the two guilds soon reached a climax. The surgeons 
harbored a dislike for a system under which the diplomas 
were signed by Governors, two of whom were always barbers. 
Finally, in 1745 a bill was passed separating the barbers 
from the surgeons. 

The barber-surgeons also flourished in France and Ger- 
many. In 1371, a corporation was organized for the French 
barber-surgeons under the rule of the King's barber. With 
the advent of the French revolution, the corporation was 
dissolved. Wigs became so elaborate in the nineteenth cen- 
tury that a separate corporation of barbers was formed in 
France. Not until 1779 was a corporation formed in Prussia. 
This was disbanded in 1809 when new unions were started. 

The Dutch and Swedish settlers in America brought with 
them barber-surgeons from their native countries to look 
after the well being of the colonists. They not only shaved 
but performed everyday medical and surgical procedures. 

Modern Trends 

By the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, barbering was 
completely separated from religion and medicine, and began 
to take on an independent position. Rapid strides have been 
marie in barbering since the invention of electricity, the 
development of better instruments for cutting and shaving 
the hair, and the discoveries in hygiene, chemistry and med- 
icine. 

With the exception of Virginia and certain counties in 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 7 

Alabama, the remaining states have passed laws regulating 
the practice of barbering. The state boards are primarily in- 
terested in maintaining high standards of education and 
training in order to assure competent and intelligent service. 
The barber schools, barber unions, and Master Barbers As- 
sociation, have cooperated in the enforcement of state laws 
and in the protection of the barbers' rights and privileges. 

Important discoveries which have improved the practice 
of barbering in recent times are as follows: 

1. The use of electricity and electrical appliances in the 
barber shop. 

2. The use of better barber implements. 

3. The practice of sterilization and sanitation in the 
barber shop. 

4. The study of anatomy dealing with those parts of the 
body (face, head and neck) which are served by the barber. 

5. The study of preparations used in connection with fa- 
cial, scalp and hair treatments. 

Historical Notes on Barbering 

The Journeymen Barbers 5 Union was organized 1887, and 
the first convention was held on November 5, 1887, at 
Buffalo, New York. 

The first barber school in the United States was started 
by A. B. Moler in Chicago, in 1893. 

The first state to pass a barber license law was Minnesota, 
in 1897. 

The Associated Master Barbers of America was organized 
in 1924, at Chicago, Illinois. 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 



HAIRCUTS AND BEARDS IN VOGUE 
AT THE ONSET OF THE 20th CENTURY 






HISTORY OF BARBERING 



HAIRCUTS AND BEARDS IN VOGUE 
DURING THE 19th CENTURY 






10 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 



1. What is the origin of the 
word "barber"? 



"Barba" is a Latin word meaning 
beard. 

They were signs of wisdom, strength 
and manhood. 



2. Why did men wear beards in 
ancient times? 



3. Name two ancient nations 
which practiced barbering. 



Ancient Egypt and China. 



4. When did the Macedonians 
introduce the practice of 
shaving? 

5. In what year did barbers be- 
come known in Rome? 



About 400 years B.C. (before the 
birth of Christ). 

About 296 B.C. 



6. When did barbers 
popular in Greece? 

7. Who were the barber-sur- 
geons? 

"8. a) Whe^id~thVblwbTivsur^ 
geons start their practice? 
b) When did the barber-sur- 
geons end their practice? 

^TWhat~were the duties of lhe~ 
barber-surgeons? 



become About 500 B.C. 



Barbers who assisted the clergy in the 
practice of surgery and medicine. 

"About 110 A.D7~(after~the birthTof 
Christ). 
In the year 1745. 

Besides being a barber, they did blood- 
letting, performed operations, pulled 
teeth and dressed wounds. 



10. Describe the barber's sign 
used by the barber-surgeons. 



The barber's sign consisted of a striped 
pole, from which was suspended a 
basin. The white band around the 
pole indicated the ribbon for band- 
aging the arm, the red band indicated 
the bleeding and the basin was in- 
tended to receive the blood. 



11. What was the origin of the 
modern barber pole? 



The modern barber pole started in the 
days when the barber-surgeons bled 
their patients in treating disease. 



12. What kind of organization 
was the Barbers' Company 
of London? 



A trade guild or society for the pro- 
tection of barber-surgeons. 



13. When was the Barbers' Com- 
pany organized in London? 

14. When was the first school 
for barber-surgeons opened 
in France? 



During the thirteenth century. 

In the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. 



15. Who brought the barber- 
surgeons to America? 



The early Dutch and Swedish settlers. 



ln what year did A 

ler open the first barber 

school in America? 



17. In what year did the State 
of Minnesota pass the first 
barber license law? 



In 1893. 



In 1897. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



11 



18. What are three important 
advantages of having barber 
license laws? 



1. Elevates the standards and practice 
of barbering. 

2. Eliminates incompetent barbers who 
lack the required training and exper- 
ience. 

3. Protects the public health and as- 
sures better service. 



19. In what year were the Mas- 
ter Barbers of America or- 
ganized? 



20. When was the Journeymen 
Barbers' International Union 
organized in America? 



21. Which important discoveries 
improved the practice of bar- 
bering in recent years? 



In 1924. 



In 1887. 



1. The use of electricity and electrical 
appliances in the barber shop. 

2. The use of better barber implements. 

3. The practice of sterilization and 
sanitation in the barber shop. 

4. The study of anatomy dealing with 
those parts of the body (face, head 
and neck) which are serviced by the 
barber. 

5. The study of preparations used in 
connection with facial, scalp and hair 
treatments. 



PART I 



HYGIENE, SANITATION AND 
STERILIZATION 



15 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 

Good health is a valuable asset to the barber. It permits 
him to function efficiently and render satisfactory service 
to his customers. Poor health is a serious handicap which in- 
terferes with the best work of the barber. A sick person, 
having a contagious disease, tends to spread it to others. 
Any bacterial disease which affects the body should be 
sufficient to disqualify the barber from doing his work. An 
annual physical examination will help to discover the pre- 
sence of any communicable disease. 

Personal hygiene concerns the intelligent care given by 
the individual to preserve health. This requires a know- 
ledge of good eating and drinking habits, and a wholesome 
mental attitude. A good balance between work, sleep and 
play, is fundamental to hygienic living. 

Public hygiene or sanitation refers to the measures used 
by governmental agencies to preserve the health of the com- 
munity. It is the responsibility of the barber to know san- 
itation and sterilization rules so that he may cooperate with 
the Board of Health and the State Board of Barbering in 
the maintenance of a high standard of public health. 

Mental Hygiene 

The mind and body operate as a unit; and the neglect 
of either must be to the detriment of both. Optimistic and 
encouraging thoughts promote good health. Healthy mental 
attitudes can be cultivated by self-control and practice. Make 
up your mind as to what is right and then continue to do it 
until a habit is established. In place of worry and fear, 
the health-giving qualities of cheerfulness, courage and 
hope, should be promoted. Outside interests and recreation 
tend to relieve the strain of monotony and hard work. 

Thoughts and emotions influence bodily activities. A 
thought may cause the face to turn red and increase the 
heart action. A thought may either stimulate or depress 
the functions of the body. Strong emotions such as worry 
and fear have an injurious reaction on the heart, arteries 



16 PERSONAL HYGIENE 

and glands. Mental depression impairs the functions of 
these organs, thereby lowering the immunity of the body 
to disease. 

Cleanliness 

Cleanliness is an important factor in maintaining personal 
hygiene. It is essential to the preservation of health and 
the prevention of disease. A clean person is careful not only 
with his body but also with his clothing and surroundings. 
The barber must be dressed in a clean, washable outer 
coat or uniform. Shoes should be neat and comfortable. 
Clean personal habits reflect themselves in the physical 
condition of the barber shop. 

For the body to be truly clean, only pure food, water 
and air should be consumed, and the waste products should 
be regularly eliminated. Otherwise, self-poisoning will ensue. 
Since constipation is a hindrance to internal cleanliness, it 
should be remedied by a change in eating and living habits. 

The skin must be kept clean for hygienic as well as aes- 
thetic reasons and to keep the pores open to allow the impur- 
ities to be excreted. Bathing with soap and water assists in 
the removal of surface dirt. 

Body odor or foul breath is an indication of faulty per- 
sonal hygiene and diet. The use of deodorants helps to 
counteract a disagreeable body odor. 

To keep the teeth and mouth in a healthy condition, ad- 
equate mouth hygiene is required. Brush the teeth at 
least twice daily. Rinse the mouth with water after each 
meal. All decayed teeth should be either filled or removed. 

Adequate personal hygiene demands appropriate attention 
to the needs of the body. Six requirements are essential to 
good health: 

1. Breathe clean air. 

2. Eat wholesome food. 

3. Drink pure water in sufficient quantity. 

4. Keep the body clean, both internally and externally. 

5. Be moderate in work, play, exercise and sleep. 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 17 

6. Stand, sit and walk correctly and maintain good 
posture. 

Air 

The quality of air a person breathes is important to 
health. Whereas warm, dry air is depressing, cool air with 
the proper amount of moisture is stimulating to the func- 
tions of the body. Country air is purer than city air because 
plants remove carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in the 
presence of the sun. Excess moisture, especially in hot air, 
causes great discomfort and renders the body susceptible 
to colds upon exposure to a draft. On hot and humid days, 
the body cannot readily dispose of the accumulated perspira- 
tion. 

The air within a barber shop should be neither dry nor 
stagnant. Stagnant air has a stale, musty odor. Room tem- 
perature should be about 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Dry air 
in a heated room can be overcome by placing a water pan 
on the radiator or by having plants in the barber shop. 
Opening of the windows, one at the top and another at 
the bottom, helps to secure good ventilation. The impure 
air containing the carbon dioxide leaves through the top 
of the window, whereas the fresh air enters through the 
bottom. Drafts must be avoided. Fresh air is refreshing, 
not so much because of less carbon dioxide and more oxygen, 
but because it is usually cooler and less laden with moisture. 

Food 

Since no one food is in itself adequate for the nourish- 
ment and growth of the body, it becomes necessary to 
properly select and combine various foods so as to yield a 
balanced diet. The individual's choice should be guided by 
the purity, wholesomeness and freshness of foods. Contam- 
inated water and food contain many harmful bacteria. 
Proper sanitation of water and food is supervised by govern- 
mental agencies. 

Individuals differ in their nutritive needs and in their 
ability to digest and assimilate foods. A strong, healthy 
person, living an outdoor and active life, can easily digest 



18 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 




TYPES OF STANDING POSTURE 



Excellent Mechanical Use 
of the Body 

1. Head straight above 
chest, hips and feet. 

2. Chest up and forward. 

3. Abdomen in or flat. 



Poor Mechanical Use 
of the Body 

1. Head forward of chest. 

2. Chest flat. 

3. Abdomen relaxed and 
forward. 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 19 

any kind of food. On the other hand, a person who works 
with his mind more than with his hands requires simple 
and easily digested foods. 

For the continuance of sound health, certain hygienic 
eating and drinking rules must be observed. 

1. Eat only when hungry and in the proper frame of 
mind. Worry and fatigue are not conducive to good di- 
gestion. 

2. Drink several glasses of water daily. Do not gulp 
the food down with water. Iced water chills the stomach 
and decreases the rate of digestion in the stomach. Warm 
drinks promote the flow of the digestive juices. 

3. All foods should be washed and cleaned before being 
cooked and eaten. The removal of dirt also carries with 
it harmful bacteria. Decomposed or spoiled food should 
not be eaten. 

4. The food should be eaten slowly and thoroughly 
chewed with the saliva. Crisp and hard foods stimulate 
the flow of the saliva and also exercise the teeth and gums. 
The thorough chewing of foods prevents overeating. 

5. Overeating, even of the best foods, is harmful to 
health. An excessive intake of food stretches the stomach 
and leads to intestinal decomposition. The absorption of 
decomposed intestinal residues overburdens the organs of 
elimination. Overeating makes the individual put on ex- 
cess weight. 

Posture 

Correct posture is of particular importance to the barber, 
who is required to stand on his feet for long periods of time. 
Faulty posture places a strain on the muscles, which in 
turn increases fatigue and lowers efficiency. 

To stand or walk correctly, the shoulders should be 
kept straight and backward while the abdomen is retained 
inward. Drooping shoulders limit the action of the lungs, 
which results in deficient aeration of the blood. Correct pos- 
ture gives balance to the body and evenly distributes body 
weight. 



20 PERSONAL HYGIENE 

Exercise 

Exercise has a beneficial effect on the metabolic func- 
tions of the body. During exercise, the rate of breathing 
is increased, thereby supplying the blood with more oxygen 
with which to oxidize the food. The circulation of the blood 
and the nutrition of the cells are likewise improved. 

Mild exercise is preferred to any violent exercise which 
may be a strain on the heart. To get the best results from 
exercise it should be conducted in the open air, should 
bring a large number of muscles into play and should be 
pleasurable. Do not start any exercise when tired nor con- 
tinue it if fatigued. Strenuous exercise after a hearty meal 
impairs digestion. The best kinds of exercise are sports, 
walking, swimming, and dancing. 

Sleep 

Sleep is necessary in order to revitalize the body and to 
neutralize and eliminate the products of mental and physical 
fatigue. During waking hours, the end products of metab- 
olism accumulate faster than can be eliminated. Sound 
sleep permits the body to neutralize the waste products 
and discharge them from the system. During sleep, the 
body is recharged with energy. A clear mind and refreshed 
body are signs of adequate sleep. 

Good Health Habits 

1. Eat three good meals a day. Include the necessary 
variety of wholesome foods such as milk, eggs, fruit, 
vegetables, meat or fish and cereals. 

2. Have regular times for meals, sleep and elimination. 

3. Get sufficient sleep every night to feel rested and alert 
the next day. 

4. Use leisure time for rest and recreation. 

5. Avoid unnecessary infection by washing hands before 
and after serving customers, and by treating cuts and 
scratches promptly. 

6. Steer clear of excesses in food, alcohol, sex or tobacco. 

7. Adopt a cheerful attitude towards life and conquer the 
temptation to worry when things go wrong. 

8. Have periodic check-ups by your doctor and dentist. 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 



21 



YOUR PERSONAL HYGIENE 
IS VERY IMPORTANT 

To keep your appearance at its best, give daily attention 
to correct posture, cleanliness and neatness. 



Daily Bath and Deodorant 

Keep the body clean and fresh 
by having a daily shower or 
bath, and if necessary by using 
an underarm deodorant. 
Teeth and Breath 
Clean and brush the teeth reg- 
ularly. Use mouth wash to 
sweeten the breath. 

Face 

Shave the face daily. If worn, 
keep the mustache trimmed 
neatly. 

Hair 

Keep the hair clean, properly 
trimmed and dressed. 

Hands and Nails 

Keep the hands clean and 
smooth, and have the nails man- 
icured. 

Clothes 

Wear clean pants and uniform 
that is properly fitted and 
pressed. Keep barber imple- 
ments out of pockets. Wear 
shoes that are well-fitted and 
shined. 




A Weil-Groomed Barber 



22 PERSONAL HYGIENE 



YOUR PERSONALITY CHART 

No barber can hope to have or maintain a successful 
career in barbering unless he develops a pleasing personality. 

Personality is your greatest asset in life. It can be cul- 
tivated by giving careful attention to details in grooming and 
the forming of good habits and desirable traits. 

Try to make this personality chart a true picture of your- 
self. Consult your teacher, friend or doctor, to find out what 
can be done to improve your personality. Check yourself 
every three months to find out what progress you are making. 

PERSONAL INVENTORY 

To determine to what extent you posses each of the traits 
or qualities listed, place a check in the proper box. 

Rnrlvr r^lAOYiKn^oc Excellent Good Fair Poor 

body Cleanliness 100 o /o 750/o 50 o /0 2 5% 

Hands and Nails: 
Hands clean and free from nicotine 

stains D D D D 

Nails cleaned and properly trimmed .... D D D D 
Face: 

Face properly shaved D D D D 

Mustache properly trimmed D D D D 

Nostrils and ears clean and free from 

protruding hairs D D D D 

Hair: 

Hair clean and properly trimmed D D D D 

Hair properly groomed D D D D 

Offensive Odor: 

Body odor D D D D 

Breath odor D D D D 

Clothing Cleanliness 
Uniform : 

Uniform clean and pressed. (Pockets 
free of implements.) D D D D 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 23 

Pants : 
Pants clean and pressed D D D D 

Shoes and Socks: 

Shoes shined D D D D 

Socks clean .-. D D D D 

Clothing Habits: 

Uniform and working apparel neat, 
well fitted and properly worn D D D D 

Personal Habits 

Sanitary Habits: 

Handkerchief clean and pressed D D D D 

Manner of blowing and wiping nose. ~ D D D D 

Posture Habits: 

Erect standing posture D D D D 

Proper walking posture without 
shuffling the feet D D D D 

Speech Habits: 

Tone of voice D D D D 

Ease in talking D D D D 

RATING YOUR PERSONALITY 

Add percentages for each trait or quality and get totals 
for each column. Add combined totals to get grand total. Di- 
vide grand total by 20 to get average percentage for all. 

To evaluate your personality, compare the final rating with 
the following standards: 

Excellent Personality 85-100% 

Good Personality 75 - 85% 

Fair Personality 50- 75% 

Poor Personality 40- 50% 

PERSONALITY IMPROVEMENT 

After finishing this personal inventory, take stock of your 
good and bad traits. Make a list of those traits in need of 
correction or improvement. Select the most glaring fault first. 



24 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 



Each day make a conscious effort to do the right thing. Do 
not give up until you have formed the desirable habit. When 
one good habit has been formed, then follow the same pro- 
cedure for the correction of another personal trait. 

Every three months check -your personal inventory to note 
what progress has been made towards your personality im- 
provement. 

RECORD OF PERSONALITY IMPROVEMENT 





Now 


After 
3 Months 


After 
6 Months 


After 
9 Months 


After 
1 Year 


RATING ^ 













PERSONAL HYGIENE 



1. Why is the practice of per- 
sonal hygiene important to 
the barber? 



In order to keep the body clean, 
healthy and free from disease. 



2. What is hygiene? 



The science which treats of the pre- 
vention of disease and the improve- 
ment of health. 



3. Name two important branch- 
es of hygiene. How is each 
applied? 



Personal hygiene and public hygiene. 
Personal hygiene is applied to the in- 
dividual. Public hygiene or sanitation 
is applied to the community. 



4. Name six requirements of 
good health. 



1. Breathe clean air. 

2. Eat wholesome food. 

3. Drink pure water in sufficient quan- 
tity. 

4. Keep the body clean, both extern- 
nally and internally. 

5. Be moderate in work, play, rest and 
sleep. 

6. Stand, sit and walk correctly. 



5. How should the barber be 
dressed? 



6. What are three signs of 
correct standing posture? 



Wear a clean, washable outer coat or 
uniform. 

Keep head up, chest up and forward, 
abdomen flat. 



7. How can body odors and 
foul breath be eliminated? 



Bathe daily and if necessary use a 
deodorant under the armpits. Gargle 
the jnouth with an antiseptic solution. 



8. What hygienic care should 
be given to the teeth? 



Brush and clean them each day. Visit 
the dentist to fill or remove bad teeth. 



9. Why are regular physical ex- 
aminations necessary? 



To check the condition of the body 
and treat any disease that is dis- 
covered. 



25 



BACTERIOLOGY 

Bacteriology is that science which deals with the study 
of micro-organisms called bacteria. In order for the barber 
to understand the importance of sterilization, it is necessary 
that he first make a study of bacteria. 

While it is true that the barber is not concerned with 
the treatment of disease, he must understand how the spread 
of disease can be prevented, and become familiar with the 
precautions which must be taken to protect his own, as 
well as his customer's health. Contagious diseases, skin in- 
fections and blood poisoning are caused either by the con- 
veyance of infectious material from one individual to an- 
other, or by using contaminated implements ( such as combs, 
brushes, razors, etc. ) on an individual without being ster- 



ilized. 



Bacteria are minute one-celled vegetable micro-organ- 
.s. They are especially numerous in dust, dirt, refuse and 
;ased tissues. Ordinarily, bacteria are not visible except 
wjth the aid of a microscope. Fifteen hundred rod-shaped 
bacteria will barely reach across a pinhead. It is only when 
thousands of them have grown in one spot to form a "col- 
ony" that they become visible as a mass. Harmful bacteria 
are also known as germs, or microbes. 

Bacteria are classified as to their harmful or beneficial 
qualities. It must be borne in mind that not all bacteria are 
harmful; in fact, a great majority are helpful and useful. 

There are two types of bacteria. 

1. Non-pathogenic organisms constitute the majority of 
all bacteria and perform many useful functions such as de- 
composing refuse and improving the fertility of the soil. To 
this group belong the saprophytes which live on dead matter. 

2. Pathogenic organisms (microbes or germs), although 
in the minority, produce considerable damage by invading 
plant or animal tissues. Pathogenic bacteria are harmful be- 
cause they produce disease. To this group belong the para- 



26 BACTERIOLOGY 

sites which require living material for their growth. 

It is due to the pathogenic bacteria that the practice of 
sterilization and sanitation is necessary in a barber shop. 

Structural Classification of Bacteria 

There are many hundreds of different kinds of bacteria 
which may be classified according to their shape or form. 
Each bacterium has a specific structure and definite char- 
acteristics. They are arranged into three main classes as 
follows : 

1. Cocci (singular, coccus) are round-shaped organisms 
which appear singly or in groups as follows: 

a) Staphylococci (singular, staphylococcus) are pus- 
forming organisms which grow in bunches or clust- 
ers, and are present in abscesses, pustules and boils. 

b) Streptococci (singular, streptococcus) are pus- 
forming organisms which grow in chains, and are 
found in such diseases as erysipelas and blood 
poisoning. 

c) Gonococci (singular, gonococcus) grow in pairs 
and are responsible for gonorrhea (clap). 

d) Diplococci (singular, diplococcus) grow in pairs, 
and cause pneumonia. 

2. Bacilli (singular, bacillus) are rod-shaped organisms 
which present either a short, thin or thick structure. 
They are the most common and produce such diseases 
as tetanus (lockjaw), influenza, typhoid, tuberculosis 
and diphtheria. Many bacilli are spore producers. 

3. Spirilla (singular, spirillum) are curved or corkscrew- 
shaped organisms. They are further subdivided into 
several groups, of chief importance being the spiro- 
chaetal organisms. The spirochaeta or Treponema 
pallida is the causative agent in syphilis. 

Movement of Bacteria 

The ability to move about is limited to the bacilli and 
spirilla, for the cocci rarely show active motility. Wherever 
any motility of bacteria is shown, we find hair-like projec- 



BACTERIOLOGY 



27 



THREE GENERAL FORMS OF BACTERIA 



Cocci Bacilli 




Spirilla 



GROUPINGS OF BACTERIA 



OD 




CD 



Diplococci Tetracocci Streptococci Staphylococci 




SIX DISEASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA 

(PATHOGENIC BACTERIA) 




Typhoid Bacillus Tubercle Bacillus 
showing Flagella (Tuberculosis) 



Streptococcus 




Diphtheria 
Bacillus 



Cholera 
(Microspira) 



Tetanus Bacillus 
with spores 



28 BACTERIOLOGY 

tions, known as flagella or cilia, extending from the sides, end 
or sides and end, of certain bacteria. By moving these fine 
hairs with a whip-like motion, these bacteria propel them- 
selves about through a liquid. 

Bacterial Growth and Reproduction 

Bacteria consist of an outer cell wall and internal proto- 
plasm. They manufacture their own food from the surround- 
ing environment, give off waste products and are capable of 
growth and reproduction. 

Bacteria may exhibit two distinct phases in their life 
cycle. 

1. The active or vegetative stage in which the bacterial 
cell grows and reproduces. 

2. The inactive or spore stage in which the bacterial cell 
remains dormant and does not grow or reproduce itself. 

Germs live and multiply best in warm, dark, damp and 
dirty places where sufficient food is present. Many parts of 
the human body offer a suitable breeding place for bacteria. 

When conditions are favorable, bacteria reproduce with 
marvelous rapidity. As food is absorbed and converted into 
protoplasm, the bacterial cells increase in size. When the 
limit of growth is reached, it divides crosswise into halves, 
thereby forming two daughter cells. From one bacterium, 
as much as sixteen million germs may develop in half a day. 

Spore-forming bacteria. When favorable conditions cease 
to exist, bacteria either die or cease to multiply. To with- 
stand periods of famine, dryness and unsuitable temperature, 
certain bacteria such as the anthrax and tetanus bacilli can 
form spherical spores having a tough outer covering. In this 
stage, the spore can be blown about in the dust and is not 
harmed by disinfectants, heat or cold. 

When favorable conditions are restored, the spore changes 
into the active or vegetative form and then starts to grow 
and reproduce. 



BACTERIOLOGY 29 

Infections 

Pathogenic bacteria become a menace to health when 
they successfully invade the body. An infection occurs if 
the body is unable to cope with the bacteria or their harm- 
ful poisons. At first, the infection may be localized as in a 
boil. A general infection results when the blood stream car- 
ries the bacteria and their poisons to all parts of the body. 

The presence of pus is a sign of infection. Found in pus 
are bacteria, body cells and blood cells, both living and dead. 

An infectious disease becomes contagious because it 
tends to spread more or less readily from one person to an- 
other by direct or indirect contact. The most common con- 
tagious diseases met in the barber shop are ringworm, favus, 
scabies, and head lice. 

In addition to these contagious diseases, a barber is not 
allowed to work in a shop if he has either diphtheria, influ- 
enza, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, gonorrhea or syphilis. Se- 
vere coughs and colds also prevent the barber from working 
in the shop, as they are contagious and may be spread to 
customers. 

The chief sources of contagion are: unclean hands, un- 
clean instruments, open sores and pus, and mouth and nose 
discharges. Uncovered coughing and sneezing in public also 
spreads germs. Through personal hygiene and public sani- 
tation, infections can be prevented and controlled. 

The body attempts to fight infections by using its de- 
fensive forces. The first line of defense is the unbroken 
skin. In a healthy person, bodily secretions such as perspi- 
ration and digestive juices discourage bacterial growth. 
Within the blood, there are white blood cells to destroy harm- 
ful bacteria, and anti-toxins to counteract the poisons pro- 
duced by the bacteria. 

Bacteria enter the body through the following routes: 

1. Through the mouth (with food, water and air). 

2. Through the nose (with air). 

3. Through the eyes (on dirt). 

4. Through cracks or wounds in the skin. 



30 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Immunity is the ability of the body to resist invasion and 
destroy bacteria once they have gained entrance. Immunity 
against disease is a sign of good health. It may be natural 
or acquired. Natural immunity is partly inherited and partly 
developed by hygienic living. Acquired immunity, being ar- 
tificial, is secured after the body has by itself overcome 
certain diseases, or when it has been assisted by animal 
injections to fight bacterial attacks. 

A person may be immune to a disease and yet carry 
germs which can infect other people. Such a person is called 
a human disease carrier. The diseases most frequently spread 
in this manner are typhoid fever and diphtheria. 

The destruction of bacteria may be accomplished by 
physical agents such as heat (boiling, steaming or baking) ; 
and chemical agents such as antiseptics, disinfectants or 
germicides. 

BACTERIOLOGY 

1. What is bacteriology? The science or study of bacteria. 

2. What are bacteria? Bacteria are minute one-celled veg- 

etable organisms. 



3. Where are bacteria generally In the air, water, dust, dirt, and in 
found? diseased and decayed tissues. 

4. Classify and describe bac- 1. Cocci (sing., coccus) are round- 
teria according to their shape. shaped and appear in groups, pairs or 

clusters. 

2. Bacilli (sing., bacillus) are rod- 
shaped and have a short, thin or thick 
appearance. 

3. Spirilla (sing., spirillum) are cork- 
screw-shaped, having from one to eight 
curves. 

5. Name and distinguish be- Pathogenic bacteria are harmful and 
tween two types of bacteria. produce disease. Non-pathogenic bac- 
teria are beneficial and do not produce 

disease. 

6. By what other names are Germs and microbes. 
pathogenic bacteria general- 
ly known? 

7. Name two common pus-form- Staphylococcus and streptococcus. 
ing bacteria. 

8. Which substances are usual- Bacteria, body cells, blood cells, both 
ly found in pus? living and dead. 



9. Which kind of bacteria caus- Staphylococcus. 
es boils and pimples? 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



31 



10. Which, kind of bacteria caus- 
es blood poisoning? 



Streptococcus. 



11. Which kind of bacteria caus- 
es gonorrhea (clap)? 

12TName four requirements for 
the growth of bacteria. 



Gonococcus. 



Warm, dark, damp and dirty places 
where sufficient food is present. 



13. How do bacteria multiply? 



Each bacterium lengthens and divides 
in the middle, thus forming two bac- 
teria. 



14. How fast do bacteria gener- 
ally multiply? 



From one bacterium, as many as six- 
teen million germs may develop hi 
half a day. 



15. What causes an infection? 



The invasion of harmful bacteria into 
a weakened body. 



16. Distinguish between a local 
infection and a general in- 
fection. 



A local infection such as a boil is con- 
fined to a small part of the body. A 
general infection such as blood poison- 
ing results when bacteria or their poi- 
sons enter the blood stream. 



17. Through which four routes 
do bacteria enter the body? 



1. The mouth (with air, water, or food). 

2. The nose (with air). 

3. The eyes (on dirt). 

4. The skin (through cracks or wounds 
in the skin). 



18. Which blood cells destroy 
bacteria hi the body? 



White blood cells. 



19. How can infection be pre- 
vented in the barber shop? 

20. What is immunity?" 



By the practice .of personal hygiene, 
sterilization and sanitation at all times. 



The ability of the body to fight and 
overcome certain diseases caused by 
germs and their poisons. 



21. What is a human disease car- 
rier? Give two examples. 



A human disease carrier is a person 
who, although immune to the disease 
himself, can infect other persons with 
the germs of the disease. Two exam- 
ples are diphtheria and typhoid fever. 



22. What is a communicable or 
contagious disease? 



A disease which can be readily spread 
from one person to another by direct 
or indirect contact. 



23. Name ten communicable di- 
seases that prevent a barber 
from working. 



diphtheria 
influenza 
typhoid fever 
tuberculosis 
syphilis 



gonorrhea 
ringworm 
favus 
scabies 
head lice 



24. Why should severe colds or 
coughs prevent a barber from 
working? 



Because the germs of coughs due to 
colds are easily spread. 



33 



STERILIZATION 

Sterilization is of practical importance to the barber be- 
cause it deals with methods employed to check or destroy 
all kinds of micro-organisms, particularly those which are 
responsible for infections and communicable diseases. 

The barber should know the local regulations of the 
Health Department and Board of Barbering regarding ac- 
ceptable methods of sterilization. 

Sterilization is the process of making an object germ- 
free by the destruction of all micro-organisms, whether bene- 
ficial or harmful. 

- Methods of Sterilization 

There are four methods of sterilization with which the 
barber should be familiar. These may be grouped under 
two main headings: 

1. Physical agents: 

a) Moist heat (boiling or steaming.) 

b) Dry heat (baking in an oven). 

2. Chemical agents: 

a) Antiseptics and disinfectants. 

b) Vapors (fumigation) to keep articles sterile. 

The choice of the sterilizing agent will depend to a very 
large extent on its effectiveness and cost and the available 
facilities in the barber shop. 

Forms of Heat 

Moist heat. An effective and relatively inexpensive method 
of sterilizing implements in a barber shop is boiling or steam- 
ing. The temperature and duration of heat are important 
considerations. The time is counted not from the moment 
the flame is lighted or the switch turned on, but from the 
time the particular temperature or pressure has been reached. 
To avoid cracking fragile objects and burning fingers, im- 
plements must never be placed in or removed from heated 
sterilizers with the hands; use forceps to insert and remove 
objects from the receptacles. 



34 STERILIZATION 

Instruments and glassware for immediate use are readily 
sterilized by boiling or steaming as follows : 

1. Boiling. Boiling water at 212 Fahrenheit (100 cen- 
tigrade) is germicidal in action, and will completely destroy 
all bacteria except spores. Instruments, glassware, towels, or 
headbands, should be placed in boiling water and allowed 
to remain for at least twenty minutes.* Adding a small 
quantity of sodium carbonate (washing soda) to the water 
will keep the instruments bright. 

2. Steaming. Exposure to direct steam is probably one 
of the most effective methods of sterilization. Steam at ordi- 
nary atmospheric pressure never exceeds a temperature of 
212 Fahrenheit (100 Centigrade), but if it is confined 
within a given area, the temperature will rise with increased 
pressure. The average steam pressure sterilizer is an air-tight 
chamber in which steam is generated from water by the ap- 
plication of heat. All forms of micro-organisms, including 
spore-forming bacteria are completely destroyed at 15 Ibs. 
pressure (equivalent to a temperature of 250 Fahrenheit 
(121 Centigrade) for 20 minutes.* 

Dry heat. This method of sterilization is not practical in 
the barber shop and is therefore rarely used. However, it is 
employed by hospitals to sterilize sheets, towels, gauze, cotton 
and similar materials. 

Light. Bacteria cannot tolerate the effect of direct sun- 
light for more than a few hours. Almost all bacteria may be 
killed or weakened by ultra-violet irradiation. 

Antiseptics and Disinfectants 

Next to heat, chemical agents are most effective in des- 
troying or checking bacteria. The chemical agents used for 
sterilizing purposes are either antiseptics or disinfectants 
(germicides). A distinction is usually made between an anti- 
septic and disinfectant. 



*The boiling or steaming time of water should conform to State Board 
regulations issued by your state. 



STERILIZATION 35 

1 . An antiseptic* is a substance which may kill, or retard 
the growth of bacteria without killing them. Antiseptics can 
be used with safety on the skin. 

2. A disinfectant destroys bacteria and is used for the 
sterilization of instruments. 

A chemical such as formalin can be classed under both 
heads: a strong solution of it acting as a disinfectant; a 
weak solution acting only as an antiseptic. 

Wet Sterilizer 

A wet sterilizer is any receptacle large enough to hold 
the disinfectant solution and completely immerse the objects 
to be sterilized. A cover is provided to prevent contamination 
of the solution. Various sizes and shapes of wet sterilizers 
can be purchased from the barber supply dealer. 

Before immersing objects in a wet sterilizer containing a 
disinfectant solution, they should be thoroughly cleansed with 
soap and water. This procedure prevents contamination of 
the solution. Besides, soap suds actually kill ordinary germs 
except the typhoid bacilli and staphylococci. 

The kind and strength of chemical solution to use de- 
pends on the objects to be sterilized. The implements are 
usually immersed for a period ranging from 10 to 20 minutes. 

After the barber implements arq removed from the dis- 
infectant solution, they should be rinsed in clean water, 
wiped dry with a clean towel and stored in a dry sterilizer 
until ready to be used. 

Combs and brushes will be completely sterilized by im- 
mersion into a 10% formalin solution for 20 minutes. 

Metallic instruments will be completely sterilized and will 
not corrode if they are immersed for 10 minutes in a 25% 
formalin solution to which glycerine has been added. 

*The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic law interprets the meaning of an 
antiseptic as follows: If an antiseptic is intended for short contact on body 
surfaces, it should possess the effectiveness of a disinfectant and be able to 
kill germs. For prolonged contact as in the case of an antiseptic dusting 
powder y the product may exert an inhibiting effect on bacteria. 



36 



STERILIZATION 



Using Alcohol As A Sterilizing Agent 
Instruments having a fine cutting edge, such as razors, 
shears and clipper blades, may be sterilized either by immer- 
sion into 70% alcohol or by rubbing the surface with a cot- 
ton pad dampened in 70% alcohol which prevents the cut- 
ting edges from becoming dull. 

Electrodes may be safely sterilized by gently rubbing the 
exposed surface with a cotton pad dampened in 70% alcohol. 

Floors, Sinks, Toilet Bowls and Cuspidors 

The disinfection of floors, sinks, toilet bowls and cuspidors 
in the barber shop calls for the use of such commercial prod- 
ucts as lysol, CN, pine needle oil or similar disinfectants. De- 
odorants are also useful to combat offensive odors and for im- 
parting a refreshing odor. Whatever disinfectant is being 
used, make sure that it is properly diluted as suggested by 
the manufacturer. 

Dry Sterilizer 

Dry sterilizer is an air-tight cabinet containing an active 
f umigant ( formaldehyde gas ) . The sterilized implements are 
kept sterile by placing them in 
the cabinet until ready for use. 

How fumigant is prepared. 
Place one tablespoonful of bor- 
ax and one tablespoonful of 
formalin on a small tray or blot- 
ter on the bottom of the cabi- 
net. This will form formalde- 
hyde vapors. Replace chemicals 
periodically to insure effective- 
ness of the fumigant. 

Formalin 




Dry Sterilizer 



Formalin is a safe and effective sterilizing agent which 
can be used either as an antiseptic, disinfectant or deodorant, 
depending on its percentage strength. As purchased, formalin 
is approximately 37% to 40% of formaldehyde gas in water. 



STERILIZATION 37 

When properly diluted with water, formalin serves many 
useful purposes in the barber shop. 

Formalin is used in various strengths, as follows: 

25% solution (equivalent to 10% formaldehyde) used 
to. sterilize instruments, by allowing them to remain in the 
solution for at least ten minutes. (Preparation: 2 parts for- 
malin, 5 parts water, 1 part glycerine). 

10% solution (equivalent to 4% formaldehyde) used 
to sterilize articles such as combs and brushes, by allowing 
them to remain in the solution for at least twenty minutes. 
(Preparation: 1 part formalin, 9 parts water). 

5% solution (equivalent to 2% formaldehyde) used to 
cleanse the hands in extreme measures, i.e., when they have 
been in contact with wounds or skin eruptions. It is also 
used for the sterilization of shampoo boards and chairs. 
(Preparation: 1 part formalin, 19 parts water). 

2 J/2% solution (equivalent to 1% formaldehyde) used 
as a deodorant for sponging the armpits. ( Preparation : 1 part 
formalin, 39 parts water). 

PROPORTIONS FOR MAKING PERCENTAGE SOLUTIONS 

100% Active Liquid Concentrate Strength 

5 drops of liquid to 1 oz. water or 

1 teaspoonful of liquid to 12 oz. water \% 

10 drops of liquid to 1 oz. water or 

2 teaspoonfuls of liquid to 12 oz. water 2% 

4 teaspoonfuls of liquid to 12 oz. water 4% 

5 teaspoonfuls of liquid to 12 oz. water 5% 

10 teaspoonfuls of liquid to 12 oz. water 10% 

TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS 

60 Drops 1 teaspoonful 

8 Teaspoonfuls 1 oz. 

Ordinary Measured Glass 8 oz. 

One Pint 16 oz. 

One Quart 32 oz. 

Half Gallon . 64 oz. 



38 STERILIZATION 

HOW TO CLEAN AND STERILIZE 
COMBS AND BRUSHES 

1 . Arrange necessary supplies. 

a) Prepare bowl of warm, soapy water to which is 
added a little ammonia (proportion of 1 table- 
spoonful to 2 quarts of water). 

b) Prepare bowl of warm water for rinsing purposes. 

c) Prepare sufficient quantity of 10% formalin solu- 
tion or other approved disinfectant and place it 
into wet sterilizer. 

d) Prepare dry sterilizer. Mix 1 tablespoonful of bo- 
rax with 1 tablespoonful of formalin in a small 
tray, and place into dry sterilizer. 

e) Have ready a supply of clean towels and individ- 
ual envelopes. 

2. Clean combs and brushes. 

a ) Remove hair from combs and brushes. 

b) Immerse combs and brushes (with bristles down) 
into bowl of soapy water for several minutes. 

c ) Glean each comb separately with a small brush, 
d)- Clean the brushes two at a time by rubbing the 

bristles against each other. 

e) When thoroughly cleansed, rinse combs and brush- 
es in bowl of clear, warm water. 

f ) Drain off water and remove any adhering hairs. 

3. Sterilize combs and brushes. 

a) Immerse combs and brushes into formalin solution 
for 20 minutes. 

b) Remove combs and brushes, rinse in clean water, 
and dry them thoroughly with a clean towel. 

c) Rest comb and brushes (with bristles down) on a 
clean towel in an airy, dust-free place, and allow 
them to dry thoroughly. 

4. Store combs and brushes- 

a) When completely dry, place combs and brushes 
into dry sterilizer, or wrap in sealed individual en- 
velopes, until ready for use. 



STERILIZATION 39 

HOW TO CLEAN AND STERILIZE 
METALLIC IMPLEMENTS 

(Razors, Shears, Tweezers and Comedone Extractors) 

1. Arrange necessary supplies. 

a ) Prepare a bowl of warm soapy water. 

b) Prepare disinfectant in wet sterilizer (25% forma- 
lin) to which a small amount of glycerine has been 
added, or use any other type of disinfectant ap- 
proved by the State Board. 

c) If necessary, replace chemicals in dry sterilizer. 

d) Have ready a supply of clean towels and individ- 
ual envelopes. 

2. Clean metallic implements. 

a) Clean implements with warm soapy water. 

b) Dry them thoroughly in a clean towel. 

3. Sterilize metallic implements. 

a) Immerse implements in disinfectant solution for 10 
minutes, or follow your State Board requirements. 
Caution: In sterilizing razors or shears, it is advis- 
able that only the blades be dipped into the solu- 
tion, the handles should remain suspended in spe- 
cially constructed sterilizers. 

b) Remove implements, rinse them in clean water and 
dry thoroughly. 

4. Store metallic implements. 

a ) Place sterilized implements in dry sterilizer or wrap 
them in individual envelopes until ready for use. 

Moist Heat Sterilization 

Moist heat (either boiling water or steam under pressure) 
can be used to sterilize barber implements, glassware, towels 
and linens. Objects that are readily destroyed by heat can- 
not be sterilized by this method. 

The following procedure is recommended : 

1. Cleanse the sterilizing kettle with soap and warm 
water. 



40 STERILIZATION 

2. Cleanse the implements and articles with warm water 
and soap. 

3. Fill sterilizing kettle with sufficient water for articles to 
be sterilized. Add some sodium carbonate to the water 
in order to prevent the rusting of metallic implements. 

4. Turn on the heat and bring the water to a boil. 

5. Grasp articles with a forceps and immerse them into 
boiling water for the required time. 

6. Allow water to cool, remove articles with forceps and 
dry them in clean towels. 

7. Place sterilized articles into dry sterilizer until ready 
for use. 

To use steam sterilization in the barber shop requires 
special apparatus. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for 
the particular steamer being used. 

HOW TO CLEAN AND STERILIZE 
ELECTRODES 

1. Clean electrodes. 

a) Clean surface of electrodes with warm, soapy 
water. Caution should be taken so that wires and 
metal attached to the electrodes do not come in 
contact with the water, as they may corrode or 
cause a short circuit. 

b) Dry thoroughly. 

2. Sterilize electrodes. 

a) Dip a piece of cotton pad into 70% grain alcohol, 
or other approved disinfectant, and rub over the 
surface of the electrodes. 

b) Re-apply disinfectant. 

c) Dry electrodes thoroughly. 

3. Store electrodes. 

a) Place electrodes in dry sterilizer or wrap in indi- 
* yidual envelopes until ready for use. 



STERILIZATION 



41 



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42 



STERILIZATION 



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STERILIZATION 43 

Definitions Pertaining to Sterilization 

1 . Sterilize to render sterile ; to make aseptic. 

2. Sterile free from all living organisms. 

3. Antiseptic a chemical agent having the power to kill 
or prevent the growth of bacteria. 

4. Germicide or Bactericide (Disinfectant) a chemical 
agent having the power to destroy germs or microbic life. 

5. Deodorant a chemical agent having the power to de- 
stroy offensive odors. 

6. Asepsis freedom from disease germs. 

7. Sepsis poisoning due to pathogenic organisms. 

8. Styptic an agent causing contraction of living tissue, 
such as powdered alum, used to stop bleeding in cases of 
small cuts. 

9. Prophylaxis an agent used in the prevention of 
disease. 

10. Fumigant a vapor used to keep disinfected objects 
sterile. 

Safety Precautions 

The use of sterilizing agents involves certain dangers, un- 
less safety measures are taken to prevent mistakes and ac- 
cidents. 

1. Purchase chemicals in small quantities and store them 
in a cool, dry place ; otherwise they deteriorate due to contact 
with air, light and heat. 

2. Weigh and measure chemicals carefully. 

3. Keep all containers labeled and covered under lock 
and key. 

4. Do not smell chemicals or solutions, as many of them 
have pungent odors. 

5. When dissolving or diluting chemicals, avoid spilling 
on clothing or furniture. 

6. Wear rubber gloves to protect the skin from stains or 
burns. Burns resulting from touching hot objects can be 
prevented by using a forceps to insert or remove the objects 
from the source of heat. 



44 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



Sterilization Rules 

1. Solutions or chemicals in sterilizers must be changed 
regularly. 

2. All articles must be clean and free from hair before 
being sterilized. 

3. Combs, brushes, razors, shears, clipper blades, and 
tweezers must be sterilized after each customer has been 
served. 

4. Shampoo boards and bowls must be cleaned and ster- 
ilized before using again. 

5. All cups, bowls or similar objects must be sterilized 
with yellow soap, lysol, chlorozol oj similar disinfectant, prior 
to being used for another customer. 



STERILIZATION 



1. What is sterilization? 



Sterilization is the process of com- 
pletely destroying all kinds of bacteria, 
whether infective or not. 



2. Name four methods of ster- 
ilization. 



Moist heat, dry heat, disinfectants, and 
vapors. 



3. Which type of bacteria makes 
necessary the practice of 
sterilization and sanitation 
in the barber shop? 



Pathogenic bacteria. 



Infectious diseases may be spread from 
one person to another. 



4. What are the dangers of 
using unsterilized barber im- 
plements and linens on cus- 
tomers? 



5. Distinguish between asepsis, 
sterile and sepsis. 



Asepsis freedom from germs. 
Sterile free from all living organisms. 
Sepsis poisoning due to germs. 



6. Which forms of heat will 
kill bacteria? 



Boiling, steaming and dry heat. 



7. Which groups of chemicals 
will check or destroy bac- 
teria? 



Antiseptics, disinfectants, and fumi- 
gants. 



8. What is an antiseptic? 



A chemical agent which may kill or 
prevent the growth of bacteria. 



9. What is a disinfectant? 



A chemical agent which destroys harm- 
ful bacteria. 



10. What is a fumigant? 



A chemical vapor used to keep disin- 
fected objects in a sterile condition 
until ready for use. 



11. Which kind of objects are 
best sterilized by means of 
moist heat (boiling water or 
steam)? How long? 



Objects which can withstand heat such 
as metallic instruments and glassware. 
Twenty minutes. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



45 



12. What are the disadvantages 
of sterilizing barber imple- 
ments with boiling water? 



Implements may become tarnished and 
dull. 



13. Which chemical added to 
boiling water keeps metallic 
instruments bright? 



A small quantity of sodium carbonate 
(washing soda). 



14. Where is the dry heat me- 
thod of sterilization mostly 
used? For which objects? 



Dry heat is used mostly in hospitals 
for the sterilization of linens, sheets, 
gauze, cotton and similar articles. 



15. Which objects are best ster- 
ilized with a disinfectant so- 
lution? 



Objects which cannot be boiled or 
steamed such as combs, brushes, raz- 
ors, clipper blades, and shears. 



16. When using a disinfectant, 
how are objects sterilized? 



Clean each object with soap and hot 
water and place it into a suitable dis- 
infectant solution for about twenty 
minutes. 



17. What should be done with 
barber implements after ster- 
ilization in a disinfectant so- 
lution? 



Rinse implements in clean water, dry 
them in a clean towel and place them 
in a cabinet sterilizer until ready to 
be used. 



18. How should combs be kept 
after sterilization? 



Wrap them in an individual paper en- 
velope and place them into a dust- 
proof cabinet or cabinet sterilizer un- 
til ready for use. 



19. What is a dry sterilizer? 



A closed air-tight cabinet containing 
an active fumigant (formaldehyde gas). 



20. What is the proper way to 
produce formaldehyde va- 
pors in a cabinet sterilizer? 



Place one tablespoon of borax and 
one tablespoon of formalin solution on 
a small tray or blotter in the cabinet 
sterilizer. 



21. What is the composition of 
formalin? 



Formalin is a 37% to 40% solution of 
formaldehyde gas dissolved in water. 



47 



SANITATION 

Sanitation is the application of hygienic measures to pro- 
mote public health and prevent the spread of infectious dis- 
eases. Various governmental agencies protect community 
health by providing for a wholesome food and water supply 
and the quick disposal of refuse. These steps are only a few 
of the ways in which the public health is safeguarded. 

In many states and localities, the Board of Health and the 
State Board of Barbering have formulated sanitary regu- 
lations governing the barber shop. The barber must be 
familiar with these regulations so that he may obey them. 

Sanitary conditions cannot be maintained in the barber 
shop in the presence of any infectious disease. A person with 
an infectious disease is a source of contagion to others. Hence, 
barbers having colds or any communicable disease must not 
be permitted to handle customers. Likewise, customers ob- 
viously suffering from an infectious disease must not be served 
in a barber shop. In this way, the best interests of other cus- 
tomers will be served. 

The public has learned the importance of sanitation and 
is now demanding that every possible sanitary measure be 
used in the barber shop for the promotion of public health. 
Barbers who desire to attract public patronage should aim to 
conduct their shops in a clean and orderly manner. A high 
standard of sanitary efficiency should be practiced. Adopting 
the sanitary rules on page 48 will result in cleaner and better 
service to the public. 

Water 

Since water is used internally and externally for personal 
hygiene and as an aid in the barber's work, it becomes 
necessary to know more about the properties of water. 
Water for drinking purposes should be odorless, colorless 
and free from any foreign matter. Crystal clear water may 
still be unsanitary because of the presence of pathogenic 
bacteria which cannot be seen with the naked eye. The 
transmission of disease by water depends upon the intro- 



48 SANITATION 

duction of germs or refuse into the water. Local health 
boards exercise control over the purity of the water supply. 

Even though water may be suitable for drinking pur- 
poses, it may still be unsatisfactory for use with soap. When 
used externally for shaving or bathing, the water should be 
soft so that it will easily lather with the soap. Hard water 
produces an insoluble curd which wastes soap and inter- 
feres with its cleansing action. Water is said to be "hard" 
when it contains the soluble compounds of calcium and 
magnesium. Temporary hard water can be overcome by 
boiling which converts the soluble salts into insoluble com- 
pounds. The precipitate is removed mechanically. When 
permanent hard water is not softened by boiling, it can be 
rendered soft either by distillation or by chemical treat- 
ment. Hard water can be softened by using borax or wash- 
ing soda. Besides softening the water, these agents make 
the water alkaline in reaction. 

Sanitary Rules 

1. Every barber shop must be well lighted and ven- 
tilated in order to keep it in a clean and sanitary condition. 

2. The walls, curtains and floor covering must be wash- 
able and kept clean. 

3. All barber shops must be supplied with running hot 
and cold water. 

4. The barber shop is not to be used for eating, sleeping 
or living quarters, unless a special room is provided for 
that purpose. 

5. All hair, cotton or waste material, must be removed 
from the floor without delay, and deposited in a closed 
container. 

6. The washroom should be kept in a sanitary condition 
and be provided with individual towels and drinking cups. 

7. Each barber must wear a uniform or coat while 
working on customers. 

8. The barber must cleanse his hands throughly before 
and after serving a customer. 



SANITATION 49 

9. A freshly laundered towel must be used for each cus- 
tomer. Towels ready for use must be stored in clean, closed 
containers. 

10. Neck-strips and headrest covering must be changed for 
each customer. 

1 1 . The use of the same neck duster and styptic pencil on 
more than one customer is prohibited, for they may spread 
infection. 

12. Liquids, creams and powders must be kept in clean, 
closed containers, and used individually for each customer. 
Use clean spatula instead of fingers to remove cream from 
container. Use sterile cotton pledgets to apply or remove 
facial creams. 

13. Objects dropped on the floor or kept in the pocket are 
no longer sterile and are not to be used again until sterilized. 



50 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



SANITATION 



1. What is sanitation? 



Sanitation is the application of hy- 
gienic measures to promote public 
health and prevent the spread of in- 
fectious diseases. 



2. Which unsanitary practices 
may spread disease in the 
barber shop? 



Contact with a person having an in- 
fectious disease, unclean hands, use of 
unsterilized instruments and the com- 
mon use of towels, combs, brushes, 
drinking cups, shaving mugs or styp- 
tic pencils. 



3. How should the hands be 
treated after touching a cus- 
tomer suspected of having a 
skin or scalp infection? 



Wash hands with tincture of green 
soap and water, apply 60% alcohol or 
rinse hands in an antiseptic solution. 



4. What are five sanitary re- 
quirements of a barber shop? 



1. Keep the barber shop well venti- 
lated and lighted. 

2. Keep the walls, curtains and floor 
coverings in a clean condition. 

3. Have running hot and cold water 
in a barber shop. 

4. The barber must cleanse his hands 
thoroughly before and after serving 
a customer. 

5. Keep all waste materials in closed 
containers and have them removed 
regularly. 



5. Which sanitary rule should 
be observed regarding the 
use of headrests? 



6. Why are neck-strips or tow- 
els required? 



Cover the headrest with a clean towel 
or paper tissue and change it for each 
customer. 



To prevent the shaving cloth or hair 
cloth from touching the customer's 
neck. 



7. What is the sanitary way 
to keep lotions, ointments, 
creams and powders? 



Keep them in closed, dust-proof con- 
tainers. 



8. What is the sanitary way 
to remove creams and oint- 
ments from their containers? 



With a spatula or wooden tongue blade. 



9. Where should towels be kept 
after laundering? 



In closed, dust-proof cabinet or towel 
cabinet. 



10. Where should dirty towels 
be kept? 



In closed containers, separate from the 
clean towels. 



11. Which barber supplies must 
be changed for each cus- 
tomer? 



Neck-strip, headrest covering, and 
towels. 



12. Why should styptic pencils 
never be used hi common? 



The use of the same styptic pencil on 
more than one person may spread in- 
fection in the barber shop. 



PART II 



BARBER PRACTICE 



WILL YOU BE A 
SUCCESS .. OR . FAILURE? 






Get to work on 
time and you 
won't miss any 
customers 



Tardiness 
never paid. 



Be courteous; 

have a pleasant Discourtesy i 

disposition, and inexcusabl 

everyone will 

like you. 



Be neat, clean, 

attractive, and Slovenliness; 

free from body poor posture is 

odors and unbecoming. 

halitosis. 



Be gentle, 
and they will 
remember you. 



Mind your own* 
business and 
they will 
trust you. 



Harsh, rough 

treatments 

chases them 

away. 



Gab! . . . 

and they will 

distrust you. 





TO BE SUCCESSFUL you must learn to do 
the little things that will make people like you 



53 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 

A barber can be no better than the tools he selects and 
uses. Limitations and defects in equipment are not only 
hazardous but usually give rise to work of poor quality. 
The purchase of standard materials helps to improve the 
quality of the barber's work. To do his best work, the barber 
should buy and use only superior implements obtained from 
a reliable manufacturer. Uninformed and improper use will 
quickly destroy the efficiency of any implement, however 
perfectly made at the factory. 

In order to give a satisfactory haircut or shave, the 
barber has occasion to use three principal instruments, name- 
ly, razors, shears and clippers. Besides these major imple- 
ments, certain accessory implements are employed such as 
hones, strops, combs, brushes and latherizers. Without these 
accessory implements, the effective use of the razors, shears 
and clippers, would be impaired. 

Among the important facts to know about each imple- 
ment are the following: 

1. The main parts. 

2. The material composition. 

3. The various types and sizes. 

4. The proper use and care. 

Straight Razors 

The straight razor is one of the most important imple- 
ments used by the barber. Over the years the razor has un- 
dergone improvement in quality and design. For superior 
service, the barber should use only the highest quality razor. 

The barber's tool kit should include several high grade 
razors. Should one razor become unfit for use, an immediate 
replacement will be available. Besides, razors receive less 
wear and better care when they are changed regularly. 

Selecting the right kind of razor is a matter of personal 
choice. The best guides for buying high quality razors are: 

1. Consult with reliable company or salesman who can 



54 BARBER IMPLEMENTS 

recommend the type of razor best suited to the barber's work. 

2. Consult with more experienced barbers as to which 
razors they have found best for shaving. 

Judging the value of a razor in any other ways may be 
misleading. Merely observing the color or design of a razor 
does not reveal the true quality of the implement. Nor does 
the ring of a razor have any significance as far as its hardness 
or softness is concerned. Ornamental handles on razors some- 
times hide inferior quality. 

The important points to know about a straight razor 
are: the main parts, the balance, the temper, the size, the 
grind, the style, and the finish. 

The straight razor is constructed of a hardened steel 
blade attached to a handle by means of a pivot. The handle 



HEAD. BA , CK 




POINT 

tUG 

Main Parts of a Straight Razor 

is made of either hard rubber, celluloid or bone. When the 
blade is closely examined, the following parts can be seen, 
namely: the head, back, shoulder, tang, shank, heel, edge 
and point. 

The balance of a razor refers to the relative weight and 
length of the blade as compared with that of the handle. 

A straight razor is properly balanced when the weight of 
the blade is equal to that of the handle. Proper balance 
means greater ease in shaving with the straight razor. 

The grind of razor represents the shape of the blade after 
it has been ground over a stone. The most common types of 
grinds are: the full concave, the half concave and the wedge 
grind. 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



55 



Cross-Sectional View 
of a Full Concave 
Grind 
BACK 
SHOULDER 



CONCAVE 



Sizes of Razor Blades 
Expressed in Fractions of an Inch 





WEDGE 



FULL CONCAVE 



The full concave grind is generally preferred by most bar- 
bers. It presents a hollow appearance when observed between 
the back and edge of the razor, being slightly thicker between 
the hollow part and the extreme edge. 

The half concave grind has less hollowness than the full 
concave. There will not be more thickness between the con- 
cave and the extreme edge of the razor. 

The wedge grind has no hollowness or concavity, both 
sides of the blade forming a sharp angle at the extreme edge 
of the razor. The old type razors were made with a wedge 
grind. For most barbers, learning how to sharpen a wedge 
grind is quite difficult. Once barbers get accustomed to using 
the wedge grind, they usually find that it produces an ex- 
cellent shave. 

Tempering the razor involves a special heat treatment 
given by the manufacturer. When razors are properly tem- 
pered, they acquire the proper degree of hardness and tough- 
ness necessary for good cutting quality. Razors can be pur- 
chased with either a hard, soft or medium temper. From this 
assortment, the barber can select the kind of temper which 
produces the most satisfactory shaving results. Generally, the 
medium temper of razor is preferred by barbers. 



56 / BARBER IMPLEMENTS 

The size of the razor deals with the length and width of 
the blade. The width of the razor is measured in eighths or 
sixteenths of an inch, most generally in eighths such as 4/8, 
5/8, 6/8 and 7/8. The 5/8 inch size is the one most fre- 
quently used. It is not advisable to purchase a smaller size 
razor, as repeated honings will wear out the blade and render 
the razor valueless. 

The style of a razor indicates its shape and design. The 
modern razor has such features as a straight, parallel back 
and edge, a round heel, a square point, and a flat or slightly 
round handle. To prevent scratching of the skin, the barber 
usually rounds off the square point of the razor. 

The finish of a razor is the condition of its surface which 
may be either plain steel, crocus (polished steel) or metal 
plated (nickel or silver). Of these types, the crocus finish is 
the choice of the discriminating barber. Although the crocus 
finish is more costly, it usually lasts longer and does not show 
any signs of rusting. The metal plated razors are undesirable 
because they wear off quickly and often hide a poor quality 
steel. 

Care of razors. Razors will maintain their cutting quality 
if care is taken to prevent corrosion of the extremely fine 
edge. After use, they should be stropped and a little castor oil 
applied over the cutting edge, thus preventing the corrosive 
action of moisture. Be careful not to drop the razor as the 
blade may be damaged. 

Haircutting Shears 

The two most general kinds of shears used by barbers are 
the German type, without a finger brace, and the French 



NOVIM POINT FiNGEKGRIP 

MOVING BLADE piyOT 

SCREW 




CUTTING EDGES ^^-^T^ J< SHANK FINGER, WUCE 



STILL BLADE 



THUMB GRIP 



STILL POINT 

The Main Parts of a Haircutting Shears 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 57 

type, with a brace for the small finger. The French type is 
used to a greater extent than the German type. 

The main parts. Barber shears are composed of two 
blades, one movable and the other still, fastened by a screw 
which acts as a pivot. Other parts of the barber shears are 
the cutting edges of the blades, two shanks, finger grip, finger 
brace, and thumb grip. 

Size. Shears differ both in their length and size. The most 
popular length of shears is 7 and 7j/i inches. The barber 
selects the one which is most convenient for easy handling. 

Grinds. There are two types of shear grinds, the plain 
and the corrugated. The plain grind is most frequently used. 
It may be finished either smooth (knife edge), medium or 
coarse. The medium finish is usually preferred. 

Thinning Shears 

Thinning or serrated shears are used occasionally by the 
barber, particularly for ladies' haircutting. These shears 
serve to reduce the thickness of the hair or can be employed 
to taper the hair. There are two general types of thinning or 
serrated shears available. 




Thinning Shears with One Blade Notched 




Thinning Shears with Both Blades Notched 

1. Thinning shears having notched teeth on the cutting 
edge of one blade, while the other blade has a straight cut' 
ting edge. 

2. Thinning -shears having overlapping notched teeth on 
the cutting edges of both blades. 



58 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



Thinning shears may also differ in respect to the number 
of notched teeth on the cutting blade. The greater the num- 
ber of notched teeth, the finer the hair strands can be cut. 

Clippers 

Two types of hair clippers are often used by barbers. 
They are the hand clipper and the electric clipper. 

The hand clipper. If the hand clipper is taken apart the 
following parts will be noted : cutting blade, still blade, finger 
guide, movable handle, still handle, thumb rest, thumb screw, 
set screw, and heel. 



STILL BLADE 
-CUTTING BLADE 



ON AND OFF 
SWITCH 




HEEt 

CUTTING 
BLADE 

^STILL BLADE 

Electric Clipper 




Hand Clipper 



The electric clippers operate either by means of a motor 
or by magnetic action. They have either a detachable cutting 
head or a non-detachable cutting head. The magnetic electric 
clippers are the most popular among barbers. The visible 
parts of an electric clipper are: cutting blade, still blade, 
heel, switch, set screw and conducting cord. 

Cutting thickness. The blades of both the hand and 
electric clippers are indicated in cutting thickness by ciphers. 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 59 

The range in the cutting thickness of the clipper blade is from 
0000 (the shortest cut) to 000, 00, 0, 1 and 2 (the longest 
cut). 

Accessory Implements 

The accessory implements include those aids which ren- 
der the razor, shears and clippers, more effective in. the pro- 
cess of shaving the beard and cutting and dressing the hair. 
The accessory implements include the hone, strop, comb, 
hair brush, hair duster, shaving brush, and latherizer. 

Hones 

Various types of. hones are available for the purpose of 
sharpening a razor. A hone is primarily a rectangular block 
composed of abrasive material. Being harder than steel, the 
abrasive in the hone is capable of cutting an edge on the 
razor. 

The final choice of hone rests mainly with the barber. The 
question often arises as to which type of hone will best serve 
to sharpen a razor. As a general rule, any type of hone is 
satisfactory, provided it is properly used and produces a 
sharp cutting edge on the razor. 

As a result of their experiences, barbers may prefer one 
type of hone to another. The student barber usually practices 
with a slow cutting hone ; while the experienced barber gen- 
erally prefers a faster cutting hone. 

Depending on their source, hones are classified as : 

1 . Natural hones such as the water hone and the Belgian 
hone, derived from natural rock deposits. These hones are 
usually used wet with either water or lather. 




Synthetic or Manufactured Hone 



60 BARBER IMPLEMENTS 

2. Synthetic hones such as the Swaty hone and the car- 
borundum hone are manufactured products. These hones 
can be used dry, or a lather can be spread over them 
before use. 

Water hone. It is a natural hone usually imported from 
Germany. Accompanying the water hone is a small piece of 
slate of the same texture, called the rubber. As the rubber is 
applied over the water hone moistened with water, a proper 
cutting surface is developed. Care must be taken when using 
the rubber on the water hone not to work a bevel into 
the hone. 

The water hone is primarily a slow cutting hone. When 
used as directed by the manufacturer, a smooth and lasting 
edge is formed on the razor. Its color may be either grey or 
darkish yellow. Of the two colors, the greyish yellow water 
hone is considered to be a slightly better grade, and also 
exerts a slightly faster cutting action. 

Belgium hone. It is a natural hone cut out of rock forma- 
tion found in Belgium. It is a slow cutting hone, but a little 
faster than the water hone. It is capable of putting on a very 
sharp edge on the razor. Lather is generally applied to the 
hone when honing. 

One type of Belgium hone consists of a light yellowish 
colored rock glued on to a dark red slate back. The principal 
advantage is to yield a keen cutting edge on the razor. It 
can be used either wet or dry. 

Swaty hone. It is a synthetic hone usually imported from 
Austria. Because it cuts faster than the water hone, it has the 
advantage of yielding a keen cutting edge on the razor. 

Carborundum hone. It is a synthetic hone produced in 
this country. The barber has a choice of several types, rang- 
ing from a slow cutting hone to a fast cutting hone. Many 
barbers prefer the faster cutting type of hone because of its 
quick sharpening action. In the hands of a beginner, the 
carborundum hone should not be used because it may pro- 
duce a very rough edge. , 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 61 

General Information on Hones 

Hones are to a large extent a matter of choice and the 
type of steel in a razor may make some difference as to 
whether a good edge can be put on it with a particular type 
of hone. There are a great many other hones on the market 
besides the several mentioned which will give very satisfac- 
tory results. 

Care of hone. Whenever a hone fills with steel, it should 
be removed. The best method is by using water and a pum- 
ice stone. If a new hone is very rough, the same method can 
be used to work it into shape. 

When wet honing is done, the hone should always be 
wiped dry after each usage. This aids in cleaning the hone 
and also wipes away the tiny particles of steel that adhere to 
its cutting surface. 



62 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



Strops 

A good strop is made of durable and flexible material, has 
the proper thickness and texture, and shows a smooth finished 
surface. Some barbers like a thin strop ; whereas others pre- 
fer a thick heavy strop. Most barber strops are made in pairs, 
one side being leather and the other side being canvas. The 
best assurance for a good strop is the reliability of the 
manufacturer. 

For the barber's choice there are 
available various types of strops such as 
the canvas strop, and the Russian shell 
and the Russian strop. Leather strops 
are made out of cowhide, horsehide and 
pigskin. The better grade strops are 
broken in by the manufacturer before 
they are purchased by the barber. 

Canvas strop. It is composed of high 
quality linen or silk woven into a fine or 
coarse texture. A fine texture linen 
strop is most desirable for putting a last- 
ing edge on a razor. 

To obtain the best results, a new 
canvas strop should be thoroughly bro- 
ken in. A daily hand finish will keep its 
surface smooth and in readiness for 
stropping. 

For a hand finish, the canvas strop 
is given the following treatment: 

1. Attach swivel end of strop to a fixed point such as 
a nail. 

2. Hold the other end tightly over a smooth and level 
surface. 

3. Rub bar of dry soap over strop, working it well into 
the grain of the canvas. 

4. Rub a smooth glass bottle several times over the strop 
each time forcing the soap into the grain and also re- 
moving any excess soap. 




Leather and 
Canvas Strop 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 63 

Russian strop. This strop was originally imported from 
Russia. Most of these strops are now made in this country 
from cowhide leather. The name Russian strop still persists, 
and usually signifies that the Russian method of tanning was 
employed. 

The Russian strop is one of the best strops in use today. 
If new it requires a daily hand finish until such time as it is 
thoroughly broken in. Thereafter, it will require an occa- 
sional servicing. There are several ways of breaking in a 
Russian strop. One method frequently used is as follows : 

1. Rub dry pumice stone over the strop in order to re- 
move the outer nap and develop a smooth surface. 

2. Rub stiff lather into the strop. 

3. Rub dry pumice stone over the strop until smooth. 

4. Clean off the strop. 

5. Rub fresh stiff lather into the strop. 

6. Rub a smooth glass bottle several times over the strop 
until a smooth surface is developed. 

Another method of breaking in a Russian strop is to omit 
the pumice stone. Instead, stiff lather is rubbed into the strop 
with the aid of a smooth glass bottle or with the palm of the 
hand. 

Russian shell. This is a high quality horsehide strop taken 
from the rump muscle of the horse. Although it is quite ex- 
pensive, it makes one of the best possible strops for the bar- 
ber. It always remains smooth and requires very little, if any, 
breaking in. 

Horsehide strop. This strop is of medium grade and has a 
fine grain. It has a tendency to become very smooth and in 
this condition does not readily impart the proper edge on the 
razor. For this reason, it is not recommended for the barber's 
use. However, it is suitable for private use. 



64 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



Combs 

Combs are made of either hard rubber, celluloid or bone. 
The celluloid combs are undesirable for professional use as 




Comb 

they are combustible and not as durable as the other kinds 
of combs. Combs made of hard rubber are mainly used by 
barbers. The teeth of the comb may be fine (close together) 
or coarse (far apart). To keep combs in good condition, 
avoid contact with heat and moisture, and store them in a 
cool, dry place. 

Brushes 

The brushes that some barbers still use are the hair brush, 
the hair or neck duster, and the lather brush. The texture of 
brushes varies with the kind of brush, a hair brush is usually 
stiff, a hair duster is soft, and a lather brush is flexible. 

The lather brush serves to apply the soap lather which 
softens the beard. Most barbers favor the number three type 
of lather brush. However, some barbers use the larger sizes. 
The vulcanized type of lather brush is the most 
durable, since its bristles will not fall apart in hot 
water. 

To protect the public against contaminated 
brushes, many states have passed laws requiring 
that brushes made from animal hair be free from 
anthrax germs at the time of purchase. These 
brushes must contain the imprint "Sterilized" to 
show that the manufacturer has taken necessary 
steps to destroy the anthrax germs. 

Several states consider brushes to be unsanitary 
and do not allow them to be used at all. 




Shaving 
Brush 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



65 



Lather Receptacles 

Shaving receptacles are containers used to produce lather 
necessary for shaving. The most commonly used shaving re- 
ceptacles are: 

1. Electric latherizer. 3. Tube of shaving cream. 

2. Atomizer latherer. 4. Lather mug. 




Electric Latherizer 
Bar Soap Type 




Electric Latherizer 
Cream Soap Type 




Lather Mug with 
Paper Lining 




Electric Latherizer 
Cream Soap Type 




Atomizer Latherizer 




Lather Mug 



LATHER RECEPTACLES 



66 BARBER IMPLEMENTS 

Lather mugs are gradually disappearing from the barber 
shop. Gaining in popularity and also replacing the lather 
mug to a large extent are the newer lather making machines. 
They offer many advantages to the barber in terms of greater 
convenience and better service to his customers. 

Lather mugs are receptacles made out of glass or earth- 
enware. When the lather mug is to be used, shaving soap 
and warm water are thoroughly mixed with the aid of the 
lather brush. Since the lather mug is continually exposed and 
collects dirt easily, it requires a thorough cleansing regularly. 

To be sanitary, a separate paper lining should be used in 
the lather mug for each customer. Lather mugs come in 
handy in the absence or break down of lather electric 
equipment. 

Lather making machines, such as the electric latherizer 
and the hand operated atomizer latherer, are far superior to 
the lather mug. Not only are these machines cleaner and 
more sanitary, but they are more convenient and easier to 
operate. Customers are favorably impressed by the clean 
sanitary lather coming from these modern machines. For 
satisfactory performance, follow the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions on proper use and care. 

Shaving Soap 

Shaving soap is available in the form of powdered soap, 
shaving stick or cake soap, and shaving cream (lathering and 
latherless). 

Shaving soaps are preparations made by a chemical pro- 
cess. When an alkali (potassium or sodium hydroxide) is 
mixed and heated with oils and fats, a soap is the final prod- 
uct. The addition of cocoanut oil to the soap improves its 
lathering qualities. Also present in the shaving soap are 
varying amounts of water and special ingredients. 

Hard soap. The use of sodium hydroxide yields a hard 
soap which is available in the form of either powdered shav- 
ing soap, shaving stick or cake soap. 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



67 



A soft soap is the result when sodium hydroxide is used. 
Lather shaving cream usually contains a soft soap and large 
quantities of water, 

The brushless or latherless shaving cream differs from 
any other shaving preparation. Its principal ingredients are 
uncombined 4 fatty acids (stearic and palmitic acids) together 
with large amounts of water. Other chemicals present in 
this type of shaving cream may be soda, potash and special 
agents. 

Tweezer 

The tweezer is a metallic implement having two blunt 
prongs at one end. The blunt prongs of the tweezer are used 
to pluck unsightly hair and to shape the eyebrows. 



Tweezer 

Comedone Extractor 

The comedone extractor is a metallic implement having 
a screwed attachment at each end. The fine needle point at 
one end is used in piercing whiteheads. The rounded end on 
the other side is used to press out blackheads. 







Comedone Extractor 



68 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



BARBER IMPLEMENTS 



1. Name the principal imple- 
ments used in barbering. 

2. Name the accessory imple- 
ments used by the barber. 

3. What should the barber look 
for in the purchase of im- 
plements? 



Razors, shears and clippers. 



Hones, strops, combs, 
lather receptacles. 



brushes, and 



High quality, good workmanship, guar- 
antee and reliability of the manufac- 
turer. 



Straight Razors 



1. Name seven important points 
to be learned about razors. 



The various parts, styles, widths, 
lengths, tempers, grinds, and finishes 
of razors. 



2. Name the important parts of 
a razor. 



The head, back, shoulder, pivot, blade, 
point, edge, heel, shank, tang, and 
handle. 



3. Describe the standard style 
of a razor. 



The back and edge are straight and 
parallel, the head and heel are round- 
ed, while the point is square. 



4. Why should the barber round 
off the sharp point of a razor? 

5. Which razor widths are com- 
monly used by barbers? 
Which width is the most 
commonly used? 



To prevent scratching of the skin dur- 
ing shaving. 



4/8, 5/8, 6/8 or 7/8 of an inch. 
5/8 is the most commonly used. 



6. Which part of the razor is 
ground by the manufacturer? 

7. Name two types of grinds 
found on razors. 



The blade. 



The regular wedge and hollow or con- 
cave grind. 



8. What is meant by the finish 
of a razor? 



Its final polish. 



9. Name three kinds of razor 
finishes. 



Plain steel, crocus or nickel plated. 



10. What is a crocus finish? 



A steel surface polished with crocus 
or rouge powder. 



11. Why is a nickel or steel- 
plated finish not to be rec- 
ommended? 



Such razors are usually made of in- 
ferior steel. 



12. Why is balance important in 
a razor? 



For efficient handling, the weight of 
the blade should be equal to that of 
the handle. 



13. What is meant by the tem- 
per of a razor? 



The proper degree of hardness and 
toughness imparted to the steel of the 
razor. 



14. What is the proper way to 
care for razors? 



After being used, strop and dry the 
razors and then apply a little castor 
oil over the blades. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



69 



Shears 



1. Name the important parts of 
haircutting shears. 



Moving point, moving blade, still point, 
still blade, two cutting edges, pivot 
screw, two shanks, finger grip, thumb 
grip and finger brace. 



2. Distinguish between the Ger- 
man and French types of 
haircutting shears. Which one 
is mostly used? 



The German type has no finger brace. 
The French type has a brace for the 
small finger. The French type is 
mostly used. 



3. How is the size of the shears 
usually measured? Which 
sizes are mostly used? 

4. What are the two main types 
of shear grinds, and which 
type is mostly used? 



Shears are usually measured by half 
inches. 7 and 7 1/2 inch sizes are 
mostly used. 

The plain edge and the corrugated 
edge. The plain grind is mostly used. 



5. Give the finish of the var- 
ious plain grinds. Which one 
is preferred by the barber? 



Smooth, medium or coarse. The med- 
ium is preferred. 



Clippers 



1. Name two types of hair clip- 
pers. 



The hand clipper and the electric 
clipper. 



2. Name the parts of the hand 
clipper. 



Cutting blade, still blade, finger guide, 
movable handle, still handle, thumb 
rest, thumb screw, set screw, and heel. 



3. Name the visible parts of an 
electric clipper. 



Cutting blade, still blade, heel, switch, 
set screw and conducting cord. 



4. List six sizes of cutting blades 
used in hair clippers. 



0000, 000, 00, 0, 1, 2. 



5. Which size gives the shortest 
cut? 



0000. 



Accessory Implements 



1. What is a hone? 



A solid block containing an abrasive 
for sharpening razors. 



2. Name two types .of hones 
available to barbers. 



The natural hone obtained from quar- 
ried rock and the synthetic or manu- 
factured hone. 



3. Name a popular synthetic 
hone used in the barber shop. 



The Swaty hone. 



4. Name two kinds of natural 
hones. 

5. Describe the water hone. 



The water hone and Belgian hone. 



It is a slow cutting hone having a 
grey or darkish yellow appearance. 



6. Describe the Belgian hone. 



It is a slow cutting hone but a little 
faster than the water hone, whose up- 
per surface is yellow and whose bot- 
tom portion is dark red. 



7. Which natural hones are us- 
ually used wet, either with 
water or lather? 



The water hone and Belgian hone. 



70 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



8. Which hones may be used 
either dry or with lather? 



Synthetic hones. 



9. What is a slow cutting hone? 
Give an example. 



A slow cutting hone takes time to pro- 
duce a sharp razor. A water hone. 



10. What is a fast cutting hone? 
Give two examples. 



A fast cutting hone gives a sharp edge 
quickly. Swaty and carborundum. 



11. Which strops are used by A leather strop and a canvas strop. 
barbers? 

12. Of what are combs made? Bone, hard rubber and celluloid. 



13. Which combs are best for 
the barber? 



Hard rubber and bone combs. 



14. Name three types of brushes 
that some barbers still use. 

15. What should the barber look 
for in the purchase of 
brushes? 



The hair brush, the hair duster and 
the lather brush. 

Purchase brushes of good quality bris- 
tles capable of being easily sterilized 
without destroying the bristles. 



16. Name four shaving soap re- 
ceptacles. 



1. Atomizer latherer. 

2. Electric latherizer. 

3. Tube of shaving cream. 

4. Lather mug. 



17. Name three types of shaving 
soap used in a barber shop. 



Shaving cream (lathering or lather- 
less), powdered soap and stick or cake 
soap. 



71 



HONING AND STROPPING 

An expert barber who knows the right way to hone and 
strop razors is in a position to render satisfactory service to 
his customers. To acquire the right technique in honing and 
stropping requires constant practice and long experience un- 
der the guidance of an instructor or licensed barber. 

Honing 

Honing is the process of sharpening a razor blade on a 
hone. The main object in honing is to obtain a perfect cutting 
edge on the razor. For the beginner a slow cutting hone is 
preferable to the' fast cutting hone. Use an old, useless 
razor for practicing the various movements. 

Prepare hone for honing. Honing will be more satis- 
factory if the razor and hone are kept at room temperature. 
Depending on which hone is used, it may be moistened with 
water or lather, or kept dry. When in use, the hone must be 
kept perfectly flat. Sufficient space should be provided to 
permit free arm movements in honing. 

Technique of honing. This is accomplished by honing the 
razor with smooth, even strokes of equal number and pres- 
sure on both sides of the blade. The angle at which the blade 
is stroked must be the same for both sides of the blade. 




Proper Honing of a Razor 



72 HONING AND STROPPING 

How to hold the razor. Grasp the razor handle comfort- 
ably in the right hand as follows: 

1 . Rest index finger on top of the side part of the shank. 

2. Rest ball of thumb at the joint. 

3. Place second finger back of the razor near the edge of 
the shank. 

4. Fold remaining fingers around the handle to permit 
easy turning over of the razor. 

First stroke in honing. The razor blade must be stroked 
diagonally across the hone, drawing the blade towards the 
cutting edge and heel of the razor, as in Fig. 1. 

Second stroke in honing. After the completion of the first 
stroke, the razor is turned on its back with the fingers in the 
same manner as you would roll a pencil, without turning the 
wrist, and then the second stroke is made, as in Fig. 2. 

From three to six strokes each way generally does a 
good job. 

Testing razor on moistened thumb nail. Depending on 
the hardness of the hone and the number of strokes taken, the 
razor edge may be either blunt, keen, coarse or rough. Dif- 
ferent sensations are felt when the razor is passed lightly 
across the thumb nail which has been moistened with water 
or lather. (See Fig. 3.) 

To test the razor edge, place it across the nail of the 
thumb and slowly draw it from the heel to the point of the 
razor. 

1. A perfect or keen edge has fine teeth and tends to dig 
into the nail with a smooth steady grip. 

2. A blunt razor edge passes over the nail smoothly, with- 
out any cutting power. 

3. A coarse razor edge digs into the nail with a jerky 
feeling. 

4. A rough or overhoned edge has large teeth which stick 
to the nail and produce a harsh, disagreeable feeling. 

5. A nick in the razor. A feeling of a slight gap or un- 
evenness in the draw will indicate a nick in the razor. 



HONING AND STROPPING 





Fig. 3 Testing Razor on 
Moistened Thumbnail 



Fig. 4 Magnified Razor Edge 



Correcting an overhoned razor. To eliminate an over- 
honed edge, draw the razor backward in a diagonal line 
across the hone, using the same movement and pressure as in 
regular honing. One or two strokes each way will usually re- 
move the rough edge. Then, the razor is honed again, being 
careful to prevent overhoning. 

Seldom does it become necessary to put an entirely new 
edge on the razor. If after repeated honings or abuse, the 
razor edge remains blunt, it may require a new edge. For 
this purpose, the razor should be forwarded to an expert 
sharpener of cutlery. 

Magnified razor edge. While honing, the abrasive ma- 
terial makes small cuts in the sides of the razor blade. The 
small cuts resemble the teeth of a saw, and they point in the 
same direction as the stroke, as shown in Fig. 4. 

Care of the Hone 

The barber should know how to use and take care of the 
particular type of hone he has selected. The manufacturer's 
instructions offer a reliable guide for keeping the hone in a 
serviceable condition. 

New hones may require a preliminary treatment to put 
it into good working shape. If a new hone is very rough, rub 
its surface with water and pumice stone. No preliminary 



74 HONING AND STROPPING 

treatment is required for the water hone as it is ready for 
immediate use. 

Before using, make sure that the surface of the hone is 
smooth and clean. Use the hone either moist or dry, as di- 
rected by the manufacturer. 

After using any kind of hone, always wipe the surface 
clean and cover it. Make sure that all adhering steel part- 
icles resulting from the honing are completely removed. 
Whenever a dry hone has been used, rub its surface with 
water and pumice stone. 



HONING AND STROPPING 



75 




Stropping 

Stropping a razor is a 
fine art developed by re- 
peated practice. The aim 
in stropping is to smooth 
and shape the razor edge 
into a keen cutting instru- 
ment. After being honed, 
the razor seldom needs any 
stropping on the canvas. 
Instead, the honed razor is 
stropped directly over the 
surface of the leather strop. 
The time to use the canvas 
strop is when the razor de- 
velops a smooth edge from 
continued use. 

The Technique of 
Stropping 

Hold the end of the 
strop firmly in the left 
hand so it cannot sag. 
Hold it close to the side, 
and as high as it is com- 
fortable. Take razor in 
right hand, well up into 
the hand, holding the 
shank of razor with the 
thumb and next two fin- 
gers so that the razor can 
be rolled in the same man- 
ner as a lead pencil. 

In stropping the razor, 
use a long diagonal stroke 
with even pressure from 
the heel to the point. 



76 HONING AND STROPPING 

Note: The direction of the razor in stropping is the reverse 
of that used in honing. 

First stroke. Start about two-thirds down the strop, as in 
Fig. 1. Draw the razor edge perfectly flat and straight over 
the surface of the strop, proceeding towards the back of the 
razor for a distance of twelve to eighteen inches. 

Second stroke. When the first stroke is completed, turn 
the razor on the back of the blade by rolling it in the fingers 
without turning the hand, as in Fig. 2. Now draw the razor 
twelve inches to eighteen inches away from you, thus com- 
pleting the second stroke in honing. 

Bear just heavy enough on the strop to feel the razor 
draw. Rapid movement is necessary, and this will come to 
you gradually as you practice. 

Final testing of razor on moistened tip of thumb, prior 
to shaving. Touch the razor edge lightly and note the re- 
action, as in Fig. 3. A dull edge produces no drawing feeling. 
A razor that has the proper cutting edge produces a keen 
drawing feeling. 

If the razor edge produces a rough, disagreeable feeling 
upon testing, it indicates that the cutting edge is still wiry. 
To correct this condition, additional finishing on the leather 
strop is necessary. 

Should the razor edge yield a smooth feeling upon test- 
ing, finish it again on the canvas strop, followed by a few 
more strokes on the leather strop. 

Care of Strops 

A leather strop becomes better or worse according to the 
care it is given. Do not fold a strop, but keep it suspended 
or attached to a swivel, or laid flat. When a leather strop ap- 
pears rough, it needs a hand finish to make it smooth. A can- 
vas strop needs a daily hand finish to keep it in good condi- 
tion. How to break in strops is described on pages 62 and 63. 

A strop is sanitary if it is kept clean. Accumulated grit 
is removed from a canvas strop by rubbing it with lather. 
To remove imbedded dirt, the leather strop is softened with 
lather and then scraped with the back side of the shear blade 
or similar implement. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



77 



HONING AND STROPPING 



1. What is the proper way to 
learn how to hone and strop 
razors in a barber shop? 



By continued study, practice and ex- 
perience. 



2. What is accomplished by 
proper honing? 

3. Describe the manner of strok- 
ing a razor on a hone. 

4. Describe the first stroke used 
in honing. 



The razor acquires a perfect cutting 
edge. 

Hold the razor at the proper angle and 
use smooth, even strokes and pressure 
on both sides of the blade. 



Stroke the razor blade to the left diag- 
onally across the hone, from the heel 
to point towards the edge. 



5. How is the second stroke 
performed in honing? 



6. What happens to the razor 
edge as it is honed? 



7. Why should the honed razor 
be tested on a moist thumb 
nail? 



Turn the razor over on its back and 
stroke the blade to the right diagon- 
ally across the hone, from the heel to 
the point towards the edge. 

The abrasive material on the hone 
makes small cuts in the sides of the 
razor's edge. 

To determine if the razor edge is either 
blunt, keen, coarse or rough. 



8. What are the signs of a keen 
vidge or a properly honed 
i azor? 



It tends to dig into the nail with a 
smooth steady grip. 



9. Vhat are the signs of a blunt 
jazor edge? 

*o. What are the signs of a 
coarse razor edge? 

11. What are the signs of a 
rough or overhoned razor 
edge? 



It passes over the nail smoothly with- 
out any cutting power. 

It tends to dig into the nail with a 
jerky feeling. 

It has large teeth which stick to the 
nail and give a harsh, cutting feeling. 



12. What is the proper care of 
a dry hone? 



13. What is the proper care of 
a wet hone? 



14. What is the purpose of strop- 
ping the razor after honing? 

15. How does stropping differ 
from honing? 



Use hone as directed by manufacturer. 
After being used, rub its surface with 
water and pumice stone, then wipe 
clean and keep covered. 

Use hone as directed by manufacturer. 
After being used, keep its surface 
clean, smooth and covered. 

To smooth the razor's edge. 



16. Which strop is used on a 
freshly honed razor? 



The stroking of the razor blade in 
stropping is just the reverse of honing. 

The leather strop. 



17. What is the proper way to 
hold the strop? 



Grasp the end of the strop with the 
left hand and hold it firm and tight. 



78 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



18. How should the razor be held 
for stropping? 



Hold the razor in the right hand with 
the fingers wrapped around the handle 
and shank. 



19. Where should the first stroke 
be started? 



Start about two-thirds down the strop. 



20. Describe the movements used 
in stropping. 



1. Place the razor flat against the strop 
with the back towards the barber about 
two-thirds down the strop. 

2. Draw the razor towards the barber. 

3. Turn the razor over on its back 
with the fingers. 

4. Draw the razor away from the 
barber. 

5. Repeat these movements until razor 
is properly stropped. 



21. Which fingers are used in 
rolling and turning the razor 
in the hand? 



The thumb and next two fingers of 
right hand. 



22. How much pressure should 
be applied in stropping? 



Use normal pressure at the point and 
heel for -both sides of the razor. 



23. How is the razor edge tested 
after stropping? 



Touch the razor edge lightly over the 
cushion of the thumb. 



24. What is the sign of a smooth, 
sharp razor edge? 



It produces a keen, drawing sensation. 



25. What is the sign of a dull 
razor edge? 



It produces no drawing sensation. 



26. How can the strop be kept 
clean and smooth? 



Apply lather or soap to the strop, then 
wipe it clean to remove accumulated 
grit. 



27. What is the purpose of strop- 
ping the razor before shav- 
ing? 



To smooth and shape the edge of the 
razor into a keen cutting edge. 



28. In what way should the 
strops be kept? 



Either suspended or attached to 
swivel, or laid flat. 



29. What is used to remove ac- 
cumulated grit from leather 
strops? 



Rub lather into the strop, then remove 
lather and grit with back side of a 
shear blade or similar implement. 



79 



FACE SHAVING 

Face shaving is necessary for hygienic, business or social 
reasons. To feel clean and look their best, most men require 
regular shaving. Since there is a universal need for face shav- 
ing, every effort should be made to attract men to the bar- 
ber shop for this service. 

Shaving is one of the basic services rendered in the barber 
shop. It deserves greater attention and skill than it has re- 
ceived in the past. With the introduction of the safety razor 
and now the electric razor, the income from shaving grad- 
ually declined in the barber shop. Instead of making a vig- 
orous effort to offset this trend, the barber devoted less of his 
time to shaving. As a result, shaving soon became a lost art. 

Barbers are now beginning to realize that they are losing 
a considerable amount of business that should rightfully be 
theirs. More and more barbers are now featuring shaving as 
a means of holding on to their customers. Men who make a 
regular habit of being shaved in the barber shop are likely 
prospects for other services such as haircuts, facials and scalp 
treatments. The barber's prestige and earning power will be 
vastly increased if he is capable of giving the best shaves to 
his customers. 

Fundamentals of Face Shaving 

The object of shaving is to remove the visible part of the 
hair extending over the surface of the skin of the face and 
neck in such a manner so as not to cause irritation to the 
skin. For this purpose, a straight razor and lather are com- 
monly used for shaving a man's beard. 

Although there are certain general principles of shaving 
which apply to all men, there are nevertheless particular ex- 
ceptions. Account should be taken *of the texture of the hair 



80 FACE SHAVING 

(coarse, medium or fine), the grain of the beard and the sen- 
sitivity of the skin to the razor edge, shaving cream, hot tow- 
els and astringent lotion. Hot towels should not be used when 
the skin is chapped or blistered from heat or cold. A person 
having any infection of the beard must not be shaved by a 
barber, as this may be the means of spreading the infection. 

Four Standard Shaving Positions and Strokes 

To obtain the best cutting stroke, the razor must glide 
over the surface at an angle with the grain of the hair, and 
be drawn in a sawing movement with the point of the razor 
in the lead. 

To shave the face and neck with the greatest of ease and 
efficiency, the barber employs the following standard po- 
sitions and strokes: 

1. Free Hand Position and Stroke. 

2. Back Hand Position and Stroke. 

3. Reverse Free Hand Position and Stroke. 

4. Reverse Back Hand Position and Stroke. 

Under each of the standard shaving positions and strokes, 
consideration should be given to : 

1 . When to use the shaving stroke. 

2. How to hold the razor. 

a) Position of right hand with razor. 

b) Position of left hand. 

3. How to stroke the razor. 

Review the proper method of honing and stropping the 
razor before learning each shaving stroke. 



FACE SHAVING 



81 



Exercise No. 1 
Free Hand Position and Stroke 

In the first lesson, the barber student learns the correct 
way to perform the free hand position and stroke. To master 
this important shaving skill requires regular practice. 

1. When to use the free hand stroke. The free hand 
position and stroke comprises six of the fourteen shaving 
areas. See Numbers 1, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12 on the accompanying 
illustration. 



1. Free hand. 

2. Back hand. 

3. Free hand. 

4. Free hand. 

5. Reverse free hand. 

6. Back hand. 

7. Back hand. 

8. Free hand. 

9. Back hand. 

10. Reverse free hand. 

11. Free hand. 

12. Free hand. 

13. Reverse free hand. 

14. Reverse free hand. 




14 11 1213 

Diagram of Shaving Are,as 

The Free Hand strokes are shown 

in white. 



2. How to hold razor. The position of the right hand is 
as follows: 

a) Take the razor in right hand. 

b) Hold handle of razor between third and fourth 
fingers, the small finger-tip resting on the tang of 
the razor. Place tip of thumb on shank close to 
blade and rest tips of fingers back of the shank. 

c) Raise elbow of the right arm nearly level with the 
shoulder. This is the position used in the arm 
movement. 

(Note: Some barbers prefer to use the wrist movement, in 
which case the elbow is not raised as high.) 

The position of the left hand is as follows: 

a) Keep the fingers of the left hand dry in order to 
prevent them from slipping on the wet face. 



82 



FACE SHAVING 

b) Keep left hand back of razor in order to stretch 
skin tightly under razor. 




Free Hand Stroke 
Area No. 1 

3. How to stroke the razor. The free hand stroke is per- 
formed in the following manner : ;- ' . 

a) Use a gliding stroke towards you. 

b) Direct the stroke towards the point of the razor in 
a back and forth sawing movement. 

c) Keep the length of the strokes 'from one inch to 
three inches, depending upon the location of the 
part of the face being shaved. 



FACE SHAVING 



83 



Exercise No. 2 
Back Hand Position and Stroke 

After the barber student has developed skill in performing 
the free hand position and stroke, he is now ready to proceed 
with the back hand position and stroke. 

1. When to use the back hand stroke. The back hand 
stroke comprises four steps in the fourteen basic shaving 
areas. See Numbers 2, 6, 7, 9 on the accompanying il- 
lustration. 









* 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 


Free hand. 
Back hand. 
Free hand. 
Free hand. 
Reverse free 
Back hand. 
Back hand. 
Free hand. 
Back hand. 
Reverse free 
Free hand. 
Free hand. 
Reverse free 
Reverse free 


hand. 

hand. 

hand, 
hand. 



14 11 IZ 13 

Diagram of Shaving Areas 

The Back Hand strokes are 

shown in white. 



2. How to hold razor. The position of the right hand 
is as follows : 

a ) Hold the shank of the razor firmly with the handle 
bent back. 

b) Rest the shank of the razor on the first two joints 
of the first two fingers. Hold thumb on the shank. 
Rest end of tang on inside of first joint of third 
finger. Little finger remains idle. 

c) Turn the back of the hand away from you and 
bend the wrist slightly downward. Then raise the 
elbow so that you can move the arm freely. This 
is the position used for back hand stroke with arm 
movement. 

(Note: Some barbers prefer to use the wrist movement, in 
which case the arm is not held as high as for the arm 
movement.} 



84 



FACE SHAVING 



The position of the left hand is as follows : 

a) Keep the fingers of the left hand dry in order to 
prevent them from slipping. 

b) Hold hand as if stretching the skin tightly under 



razor. 



Back Hand Stroke 
Shaving Area No. 2 




Back Hand Stroke 
Shaving Area No. 7 



3. How to stroke the razor. The back hand stroke is 
performed in the following manner : 

a) Use a gliding stroke away from you. 

b) Direct stroke towards the point of the razor in a 
back and forth sawing movement. 

c) Keep the length of the stroke from one inch to 
three inches, depending upon the location of the 
part of the face being shaved. 



FACE SHAVING 



85 



Exercise No. 3 
Reverse Free Hand Position and Stroke 

The reverse free hand stroke and the free hand stroke are 
similar in some respects, the main difference being that the 
movement is directed upwards in the reverse free hand stroke. 

1 . When to use the reverse free hand stroke. The reverse 
free hand stroke comprises four steps in the fourteen basic 
shaving areas. See Numbers 5, 10, 13, 14 on the accomp- 
anying illustration. 



1. Free hand. 

2. Back hand. 

3. Free hand. 

4. Free hand. 

5. Reverse free hand. 

6. Back hand. 

7. Back hand. 

8. Free hand. 

9. Back hand. 

0. Reverse free hand. 

1. Free hand. 

2. Free hand. 




11 1213 

Diagram of Shaving Areas 

The Reverse Free Hand strokes 

are shown in white. 



13. Reverse free hand. 

14. Reverse free hand. 



Reverse Free Hand Stroke 
Shaving Area No. 5 

Note: Left hand is used 
to stretch skin. 




86 



FACE SHAVING 



2. How to hold the razor. The position of the right 
hand is as follows: 

a) Hold the razor firmly as in a free hand position, 
turn hand slightly toward you so that the razor 
edge is turned upward. 

The position of the left hand is as follows: 

a) Keep the hand dry and use it to pull the skin 
tightly under the razor. 

3. How to stroke the razor. The reverse free hand stroke 
is performed in the following manner: 

a) Use small upward semi-arc stroke towards you. 

b) The movement is from the elbow to the hand with 
a slight twist of the wrist. 




Reverse Free Hand Stroke 
Shaving Area No. 10 

Note: Left hand stretching skin between 
thumb and middle finger. 



FACE SHAVING 



87 



Exercise No. 4 
Reverse Back Hand Position and Stroke 

The reverse back hand position and stroke, although not 
frequently used, must be practiced diligently in order to 
master this shaving technique. 

1 . When to use the reverse back hand stroke. The reverse 
back hand stroke is used for making left sideburn outline and 
for shaving the left side behind the ear when the customer is 
sitting in an upright position. 

2. How to hold the razor. The position of the right hand 
is as follows: 

a) Hold the razor firmly as in the back hand position. 

b) Turn the palm of the hand upward with the point 
of the razor directed downward. 

c) Drop the elbow close to the side. 
The position of the left hand is as follows : 

a) Raise the left arm and hand in order to draw the 
skin tightly under the razor. 

3. How to stroke the razor. The reverse back hand 
stroke is performed in the following manner : 

a) Use a gliding stroke and direct the stroke down- 
ward towards the point of the razor in a sawing 
movement. 



Reverse Back Hand 

Stroke 

Shaving Left Side of 
Neck below Ear 

Note the position of the 

razor. 

The razor is stroked with 
the point of the razor in 
the lead. 




88 



FACE SHAVING 



Exercise No. 5 
Fourteen Shaving Areas 

Before proceeding with the next lesson, review the correct 
way to handle the razor as for: 

1. Free Hand Position and Stroke (Exercise No. 1). 

2. Back Hand Position and Stroke (Exercise No. 2). 

3. Reverse Free Hand Position and Stroke (Exercise 

No. 3). 

There are fourteen shaving areas in giving a shave the 
first time over. The right side is shaved first, using the free 
hand stroke. The shaving areas and strokes used are indi- 
cated in numerical order, as follows: 




H II 13 .-12 



Diagram of Shaving Areas 



1. Free hand. 

2. Back hand. 

3. Free hand. 

4. Free hand. 

5. Reverse free hand. 

6. Back hand. 

7. Back hand. 



8. Free hand. 

9. Back hand. 

10. Reverse free hand. 

11. Free hand. 

12. Free hand. 

13. Reverse free hand. 

14. Reverse free hand. 



To give a face shave with skill and ease, it is necessary to 
learn the fourteen basic shaving areas in the order named 
and practice them regularly. 



FACE SHAVING 



89 



Exercise No. 6 

Ho\y To Prepare 
A Customer For Shaving 

As the customer enters the 
shop, you are to arise and 
stand at attention on the right 
side of the chair, facing the 
prospective customer with an 
attitude of willingness to serve. 

Smile as you greet the cus- 
tomer by name. If the custom- 
er is known casually refer to 
him as Mister with his last 
name. Only when well ac- 
quainted should a customer be 
called by his first name. 

1. Seat customer comfort- 
ably in barber chair. 

2. Wash hands with soap 
and warm water, and dry them 
thoroughly.* 

3. Grasp neck-pieces of chair 
cloth and bring it over front 
of customer, as in Fig. 1. 

4. Change paper cover on 
headrest and adjust the head- 
rest to the proper height. 

5. Lower, adjust and lock 
barber chair to the proper 
height and level. 

6. Unfold a clean face 
towel, and lay it diagonally 
across the customer's chest. 

7. Tuck in the left corner 
of the towel along the right 
side of the customer's neck, the 
edge tucked inside the neck- 
band with a sliding movement 
of the forefinger of the left 
hand, as in Fig. 2. The lower 
left end of the towel is crossed 
over to the other side of the 
customer's neck and tucked 
under the neck-band with a 
sliding movement of the fore- 
finger of the right hand, as in 
Fig. 3. 

*Some barbers prefer to wash 
hands after Step 5. 






90 



FACE SHAVING 



Exercise No. 7 
How To Prepare The Face For Shaving ^ 

Lathering and steaming the face are very important steps 
before shaving the face, for the following reasons: 
Lathering the face serves the following purposes: 

1. Cleans the face by dislodging dirt and foreign matter. 

2. Fills spaces between hairs and keeps them in an erect 
position. 

3. Affords a smooth, flat surface for the razor to glide 
over. 

Steaming the face is helpful for the following reasons: 

1 . Softens the cuticle or outer layer of the hair. 

2. Provides lubrication by stimulating the action of the 
oil glands. 

3. Soothes and relaxes the customer. 

Do not use steam towel if the face is sensitive, irritated, 
chapped or blistered. 

The face is prepared for shaving as follows : 

1 . Prepare lather and spread it evenly over bearded parts 

of face and neck. To prepare shaving lather, use any 

of the following: 



a) Electric latherizer. 

b) Atomizer latherizer 

2. Rub lather well in- 
to bearded area, us- 
ing rotary move- 
ments with the cu- 
shion tips of the 
right hand. Rub la- 
ther on right side of 
face, then gently 
turn the head with 
the left hand, by 
gently grasping the 
back of the head 



c ) Tube of shaving cream. 

d) Shaving soap or powder.* 




*Requires the use of a shaving 
mug and brush. See Exercise 8. 



Rubbing Lather 
in a Rotary Movement 



FACE SHAVING 



91 



near the crown, and rub lather on the other side of 
face. Rubbing time from one to two minutes, de- 
pending upon the stiffness and density of the beard. 

3. Take a clean Turkish 
towel, fold it once 
lengthwise. Then fold 
it again the short way 
by bringing together 
both ends of the towel. 
Place folded towel un- 




4. 



Saturating and Heating the Towel 



der stream of hot wa- 
ter, allowing it to be- 
come thoroughly sat- 
urated and heated. 



5. Wring out towel 
until fairly dry. 

6. Bring the steam 
towel behind the 
barber's chair. Un- 
fold it and hold 
each end. Place 
center of towel un- 
der customer's chin 
and lower part of 
neck. Carefully 
wrap towel around 
face and forehead, 
leaving the nose 

exposed. Finally, fold the ends over each other on 
the forehead. 

7. While the steam towel is on the customer's face, strop 
the razor and immerse it into disinfectant solution.* 
Then wipe the razor dry on the corner of the face tow- 
el, and place it in a dry sterilizer until ready for use. 

8. In removing steam towel, wipe lather off in one 
operation. 

*Some barbers prefer to disinfect the razor before stropping or honing. 




Applying Heated Towel Over Face 



92 FACE SHAVING 

9. Re-lather the beard a second time, then wipe the 

hands free of soap. 

10. Now pick up the razor, take a position on the right 
side of the customer, and place sanitary tissue or paper 
on customer's chest for wiping lather off razor. 

Exercise No. 8 
How to Use Shaving Mug and Brush 

In the absence or breakdown of a mechanical latherizer, 
extra supplies are needed for producing shaving lather. For 
this purpose, the barber shop should have on hand shaving 
mugs, disposable paper linings, shaving brushes and shaving 
soap or powder in sufficient quantity to meet its needs. 

Preparing Lather with Shaving Powder 

1. Rinse the brush and mug thoroughly in warm water, 
insert paper lining, and retain a little water at bot- 
tom of mug. 

2. Sprinkle shaving powder on brush and mix in mug to 
form a creamy lather. 

$ To apply lather to face, grasp handle of brush in palm 
of right hand, with the fingertips at base of bristles. 




Proper Way to Hold Shaving Brush 



4. Starting at right side of neck just below jaw bone, rub 
lather well, using rotary movements with brush. 

5. Gently turn face and rub lather with brush into left 
side of face. 



FACE SHAVING 93 

6. Place brush in mug and work lather into bearded 
area, using cushion tips of right hand. 

7. Continue with steps 3-10 as outlined in Exercise 7. 

Preparing Lather with Cake Soap 

Pick up the shaving cup with cake soap and brush with 
the left hand, holding the thumb on the brush so that it will 
not overbalance and fall. Rinse the brush and mug thor- 
oughly with warm water, leaving some water in the mug. 
Mix up a lather with the brush until it forms a creamy con- 
sistency. Avoid making noise by rattling the handle of the 
brush on the sides of the mug. Apply lather to the face as 
explained in steps 3 to 7. 



94 



FACE SHAVING 





MOV. 51 



Exercise No. 9 

Positions 

and Strokes 

in Shaving 

The barber is now 
ready to begin shaving. 
Proper coordination of 
both hands makes for bet- 
ter and safer shaving. 
While the right hand holds 
and strokes the razor, the 
fingers of the left hand as- 
sist in stretching the skin 
tightly around the part 
being shaved. A tight skin 
has the advantage that it 
allows the beard to be cut 
more easily. To prevent 
slipping, the fingers of the 
left hand must be kept 
dry at all times. 

Shaving Area No. 1 
Free Hand Stroke. Bar- 
ber stands on right side 
of chair. Gently turn cus- 
tomer's face to the left. 
With second finger of left 
hand, remove lather from 
hairline. Hold razor as for 
a free hand stroke. Use 
long gliding diagonal 
strokes with the point of 
the razor in the lead. Be- 
ginning at hairline on 
right side, shave down- 
ward towards the jaw- 
bone. Shave right side of 
face to the corner of the 
mouth. 

Shaving Area No. 2 
Back Hand Stroke. Re- 
maining in the same po- 
sition, wipe razor clean on 
lather paper. Hold the ra- 
zor as for a back hand 
stroke; use a diagonal 
stroke with the point of 
the razor in the lead. 
Shave all of the beard on 
the right side of the face 
up to the point of the 
chin. 



FACE SHAVING 



95 



Shaving Area No. 3 

Free Hand Stroke. Keep- 
ing the same position, wipe 
razor clean. Hold razor as 
for a free hand stroke. Shave 
underneath the nostril and 
over the right side of upper 
lip, using the fingers of the 
left hand to stretch the un- 
derlying skin. When shaving 
underneath the nostril, slight- 
ly lift the tip of the nose 
without interfering with the 
breathing. To stretch the up- 
per lip, place fingers of left 
hand against nose while hold- 
ing the thumb below the low- 
er corner of the lip. 



Shaving Ara No. 4 

Free Hand Stroke. With- 
out wiping the razor, start at 
point of chin and shave all 
that portion below the jaw- 
bone down to the change in 
the grain of the beard. While 
shaving, hold the skin tight- 
ly between thumb and fingers 
of left hand. 



Shaving Area No. 5 

Reverse Free Hand Stroke. 

Step to back of chair. Hold 
the razor as for a reverse 
free hand stroke. Shave the 
remainder of the beard up- 
ward with the grain. This 
movement completes shaving 
the right side of the face. 




96 



FACE SHAVING 







MOV. 6 





Diagram of shaving areas for 
left side of face. 



MOV. 7 



Shaving Area No. 6 

Back Hand Stroke. Wipe 
razor clean and strop it. 
Stand on right side of cus- 
tomer and ' turn customer's 
face upward so that you can 
shave the left upper lip. Hold 
razor as for a back hand 
stroke. While gently pushing 
the tip of the nose to the 
right with thumb and fingers 
of left hand, shave the left 
side of upper lip. 

Note-. Some barbers prefer 
to shave the upper lip after 
Step No. 8. 



Shaving Area No. 7 

Back Hand Stroke. Stand 
slightly back of customer. 
Gently turn his face to the 
right. Re-lather left side of 
face. Clean lather from hair- 
line. Stretching the skin 
with the fingers' of the left 
hand, shave downward to the 
lower part of the ear and 
slightly forward, on the face. 
Caution : Be careful to stretch 
the skin well with the left 
hand as the razor may dig 
in along the ear. 



FACE SHAVING 



97 



Shaving Area No. 8 

Free Hand Stroke. Wipe 
off razor. Step to right 
side of customer. Hold ra- 
zor as for free hand stroke. 
Shave downward on left 
side of face towards jaw- 
bone and point of chin. 

Note: Some barbers pre- 
fer to shave the upper lip 
(See Step No. 6) at this 
time. 



Shaving Area No. 9 

Back Hand Stroke. 

Wipe off razor. Keeping 
the same position, hold 
razor as for back hand 
stroke. With the fingers 
of the left hand tightly 
stretching the skin, shave 
downward from point of 
chin to where the grain 
of the beard changes on 
the neck. Complete shav- 
ing upper part of neck. 



Shaving Area No. 10 

Reverse Free Hand 
Stroke. Wipe off razor. 
Stand slightly back of 
customer. Hold razor as 
for reverse free hand 
stroke. Stretching the skin 
tightly with the left hand, 
shave the left side of the 
neck in an upward direc- 
tion. 




98 



FACE SHAVING 




Shaving Area No. 11 

Free Hand Stroke. Take 
your position at the side 
of the customer and turn 
his head so the face is 
pointing upward. Hold ra- 
zor as for free hand stroke, 
shave across upper part of 
the chin. Continue shav- 
ing across the chin until 
it has been shaved to a 
point below the jawbone. 
The skin is stretched with 
the left hand. 



Shaving Area No. 12 

Free Hand Stroke. 

Stretch the skin with the 
left hand and shave the 
area just below the chin 
until the change in the 
grain of the beard is 
reached. 



Shaving Area No. 13 

Reverse Free Hand 
Stroke. Change position 
to back of chair. Hold the 
razor as for a reverse free 
hand stroke. Stretch the 
skin tightly and shave up- 
ward on the lower part of 
the neck. 



FACE SHAVING 



99 



Shaving Area No. 14 
Reverse Free Hand Stroke. 

Remain back of chair. Shave 
upwards on lower lip with a 
few short reverse free hand 
strokes. 

Wipe off razor again, and in 
so doing, fold the lather paper 
in half. 

During Steps 13 and 14 the 
barber should avoid breathing 
into the customer's face as this 
is annoying and unhealthy to the 
customer. 

Second Time Over 

The second time over is for 
the purpose of removing any 
rough spots or unshaved parts. 

While the face is steaming, 
strop the razor and place it on 
work bench. Remove steam 
towel, pick up water bottle, and 
sprinkle a little water in the 
cupped palm of the left hand. 
Moisten the bearded part of 
the face, place bottle on work 
stand, and proceed with the 
second time over. Use the free 
hand and reverse free hand 
strokes in shaving the second 
.time over. 

Stand a little in back of 
customer. With a free hand 
stroke (see illustration), start 
to shave right side of face. 
Stroking the grain of the 
beard sideways, shave the up- 
per lip and work downward to 
the lower jawbone. Shave low- 
er part of neck with a reverse 
free hand stroke and follow 
the grain of the beard. 

Now, turn the customer's 
face towards you.^With a free 
hand stroke, start to shave 
left side of face. Stroking the 
grain of the beard sideways, 
shave from ear towards eye. 
When finished, wipe off razor 
on lather paper and discard it 
into container. 





100 FACE SHAVING 

Once Over Shave 

If the customer requests a "once over" shave, the barber 
should be able to comply with his wishes. The "once over" 
shave has the advantage that it takes less time to give a com- 
plete and even shave. For a "once over" shave, give a few 
more strokes at different angles when each shaving movement 
is completed. . 

Close Shaving 

Close shaving is the practice of shaving the beard against 
the grain of the hair during the second time over. This shav- 
ing practice is undesirable because it irritates the skin and 
may cause an infection or ingrown hairs. For this reason, 
the barber should avoid close shaving. 

Accidental Cuts in Shaving 

The barber should know what to do in case the face is 
cut or scratched in shaving. For a minor cut, apply a little 
styptic powder with a piece of sterilized cotton. When the 
bleeding stops, carefully wipe off the powder with clean 
cotton. 

For a deeper cut, apply an antiseptic solution with a 
piece of sterilized cotton. Then cover cut with a small 
band-aid. 



FACE SHAVING 



101 



Exercise No. 10 
WRAPPING A TOWEL AROUND THE HAND 

A properly trained barber knows how to wrap a towel 
around the hand with ease and skill for the purpose of: 

1. Cleansing and drying the face. 

2. Applying powder to the face. 

3. Removing all traces of powder, lather and any loose 
hair from face, neck 

and forehead. 



The student should prac- 
tice the following exercise un- 
til he is able to wrap the towel 
around the hand with ease 
and skill. 



1 



Hold the towel the long 
way and grasp both 
ends as in Fig. 1. 

Hold the right hand in 
front of you, draw the 
upper edge of the towel 
across the palm of the 
right hand. 



3. 



Then grasp the towel 
and draw it towards the 
right arm as in Fig. 2. 

4. Holding the towel in 
this position twist it 
around the outside of 
wrist and hold ends of 
towel from flapping on 
the face, as in Fig. 3. 





102 



FACE SHAVING 



Exercise No. 11 
FINAL STEPS IN FACE SHAVING 

The final steps in face shaving require attention to a 
number of important details. 

1 . Apply face cream with massage movements. 

2. Prepare steam towel and apply it over face. 

Suggest facial treatment at this time. 

3. Remove steam towel from face. 

4. Apply finishing lotion with several facial manipulations. 

5. Pick up towel from customer's chest. 

6. Take your position behind the barber chair. 

7. Spread towel over customer's face and first dry the 



8. 



lower part and then the upper part of the face. 




Drying Customer's Face 



Take your position on 
the right side of the 
chair. 

9. Wrap towel around 
hand as described in 
Exercise 10. 

10. Thoroughly dry the 
face. 

11. Select a dry spot of 
towel and fold it 
around the hand. 

12. Sprinkle talcum pow- 
der over dry towel. 

13. Apply powder evenly to face. 

14. Raise barber chair to an upright position. 

15. Shave the neckline, if necessary, as described in 
Exercise 12. 

16. Comb the hair neatly. 

17. With neck towel, wipe off loose hair, lather or powder 
on face and clothing. 

18. Trim mustache, if desired. 

19. Remove neck-band and linens. 

20. Release customer. 



FACE SHAVING 103 

Exercise No. 12 
NECK SHAVE 

The neck shave, as part of the regular shave, involves 
shaving the neckline on both sides of the neck below the ears. 

Raise the chair slowly in an upright position, tuck the 
face towel around the back of the neck, and apply lather. 
Shave neckline, first at the right side using a free hand 
stroke and then at the left side using a reverse free hand 
stroke, as described in Exercise No. 4. 

Wipe shaved part of the neck with warm damp towel. 
Remove face towel from around the neck, and dry thor- 
oughly. (This is the time to suggest scalp treatment, or 
hair tonic.) 

Take your position behind the chair, and comb the hair 
as desired by the customer. 

Take towel from the back of neck, and fold it around the 
right hand. Remove all traces of powder and any loose hair. 




Shaving Right Side Shaving Left Side 

of Neck of Neck 



Points to Remember in Shaving 

1 . The experienced barber will observe the hair slope and 
shave with, never against it. 

2. A heavy growth of beard requires care in the lathering 
process and special technique in the use of the razor. 



104 . FACE SHAVING 

3. The lather should not be scattered carelessly all over 
the face. 

4. The fingers of the left hand should be kept dry in 
order to grasp and stretch the skin and hold it firmly. 

5. Hot towels should not be used on excessively sensitive 
skin, nor should they be used when the skin is chapped or 
blistered from cold or heat. 

6. Take precaution in shaving: beneath lower lip, lower 
part of neck, and around the Adam's apple, as these parts 
of the face and neck are usually the most tender and sensi- 
tive, and are easily irritated by very close shaving. 

Eleven Reasons Why A Customer May Find Fault 
With A Shave 

1. Dull or rough razors. 

2. Unclean hands, towels and shaving cloth. 

3. Cold fingers. 

4. Heavy touch of hand. 

5. Poorly heated towels. 

6. Lather which is either too cold or too hot. 

7. Offensive body odor, foul breath or tobacco odor. 

8. Sticking your fingers in customer's mouth. 

9. Glaring lights over head. 

10. Unshaved hair patches. 

11. Scraping the skin and close shaving. 

THE MUSTACHE 

A shave is not completed unless the barber gives attention 
to the care of the mustache. 

The man who possesses a mustache likes to have it shaped, 
trimmed, and possibly waxed, because it tends to improve 
his appearance. If the color of the mustache does not match 
that of the hair, dyeing or bleaching may be advisable. The 
barber who is prepared to render such additional services is 
the one whom the customer will prefer and appreciate. 



FACE SHAVING 



105 



STYLES OF MUSTACHES 




1. Shaping is done 
with razor during 
the shave as much 
as possible. 

2. At the end of the 
shave, the trim- 
ming is done with 
the shears to the 
desired length. 

3-10. Various styles 
of men's mustach- 
es, selected accord- 
ing to prevailing 
trends and facial 
characteristics of 
the wearer. 

Added services for 
mustaches are: 
Waxing : 

Mustache ends. 
Penciling: 

Temporary color. 
Dyeing : 

Permanent color. 
Bleaching : 

Removing color. 











106 



FACE SHAVING 



SPECIAL PROBLEMS 
EYEBROW SHAPING 

Eyebrows may be re-shaped either by plucking with 
tweezers or shaving. The service generally rendered in a 
barber shop is the shaving or plucking of hair that grows too 
thick between the brows or of the hair that grows too high 
above the eyebrows. 

TWEEZING 

The skin should be softened 
with cream, and cotton pads 
dipped in hot water and ap- 
plied to the brows. Extract the 
hair by pulling quickly in the 
direction in which the hair 
grows, at the same time stretch- 
ing the skin to reduce pain. 
Finish with an application of 
astringent lotion. 




Tweezing Eyebrows 

TRIMMING EYEBROWS 

If the eyebrows are too thick or bushy they may 
trimmed to a uniform shape with the comb and scissors. 



be 




Trimming Eyebrows 

STYPTIC POWDER 

Whenever a slight cut or 'scratch drawing blood has oc- 
curred, apply styptic powder sparingly to the cut on a small 
pledget of cotton, and wipe off carefully. 



FACE SHAVING 107 

Never use a styptic pencil or any other astringent that 
will come in contact with more than one face, as there is 
great danger of infection. 

BLACKHEADS OR COMEDONES 

Blackheads, which make their appearance on the face 
and more particularly around the nose, may be removed by 
means of a comedone extractor, and by steaming. 




Comedone Extractor 

It is not well to attempt to remove all the blackheads ap- 
pearing on the surface at one time ; they should be removed 
by a series of treatments extending over a period of time. 

Facial massage helps to dislodge and remove a number 
of blackheads. 

WHITEHEADS 

To remove whiteheads, the skin must first be cleansed 
with soap and water, followed by the application of steam 
towels. Then, each whitehead is pierced with the sharp end 
of a sterilized needle, tweezer or comedone extractor. Gently 
press out each whitehead with a pledget of sterilized cotton. 
Finally, apply antiseptic solution over the treated area. 

INGROWN OR WILD HAIR 

An ingrown hair is one that has grown underneath the 
skin, causing a lump in which pus forms. Usually caused by 
very close shaving or the rubbing of a shirt collar. 

To remove a wild hair or dead hair, open the affected part 
with a sterilized needle, pull out the hair with a sterilized 
tweezer, then apply an antiseptic solution. 



108 FACE SHAVING 

NOTES 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



109 



REVIEW QUESTIONS ON SHAVING 



1. What three points should the 
barber know about the cus- 
tomer's skin and hair? 



1. Condition of the skin. 

2. Texture of the hair. 

3. Slope and grain of beard. 



2. What are nine requirements 
of a good shave? 



1. Hands, razor and towels should be- 
properly sterilized. 

2. Razor properly honed and stropped. 

3. Beard well lathered. 

4. Towels properly heated and applied. 
5 Beard cut smoothly. 

6. Lather completely removed. 

1, Astringent or face lotion properly 

applied. 

8. Face dried thoroughly. 

9. Powder evenly applied. 



3. How should the customer be 
prepared for shaving? 



1. Barber washes hands. 

2. Arrange shaving cloth. 

3. Adjust headrest paper and adjust 
headrest to proper level. 

4. Recline chair to comfortable posi- 
tion. 

5. Tuck in towel. 



4. How should the beard be 
prepared for shaving? 



Apply lather to face; apply steam 
towel over lather; remove lather with 
steam towel; re-lather beard. 



5. What sanitary precautions 
should be observed by the 
barber? 



1. Use clean hands. 

2. Use sterilized razor. 

3. Use sanitary receptacle' for shaving 
soap. 

4. Use sanitary tissue to wipe lather 
from razor. 



6. What is the most effective 
way to rub lather into the 
beard? 



To rub lather into the beard use the 
cushion parts of finger tips with a 
circular movement. 



7. What action does the lather 
have on the beard? 



The lather softens and lubricates the 
skin and beard. 



8. What is the purpose of steam- 
ing the face? 



The heat softens the outer layer of 
the hair and stimulates the flow of oil 
from the skin glands, the added lubri- 
cation helps the razor to glide over 
the face. 



9. When should a hot towel not 
be applied to the face? 



If the face is very sensitive, irritated, 
chapped or blistered. 



10. Name the four standard 
positions and strokes used in 
shaving. 



Free hand; back hand; reverse free 
hand; reverse back hand. 



11. How should the razor be used 
to accomplish the free hand 
stroke? 



Hold the razor in a free hand position. 
Use a gliding stroke towards the point 
of the razor in a sawing movement. 



110 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



12. How should the razor be used 
to accomplish the back hand 
stroke? 



Hold the razor in a back hand position 
and stroke it in a sawing movement 
away from you towards the point of 
the razor. 



13. How should the razor be used 
to accomplish the reverse free 
hand stroke? 



14. What should be the direction 
of the shaving strokes in re- 

spect to the grain of the hair? 

15. When is the reverse back 
hand position and stroke us- 
ually used? 



The razor is held similarly to the free 
hand position and the stroke is per- 
formed with a slight rotation of the 
wrist, forming a small upward arc. 

The shaving strokes are made with the 
grain of the hair. 



16. How many shaving areas are 
there in shaving the first 
time over? 



As the customer sits in an upright po- 
sition, the barber evens the sideburn 
at left temple and outlines the haircut 
on the left side of the neck behind 
the ear. 

14 shaving areas. 



17. Which side of the face is 
shaved first and which stroke 
is used first? 



The right side is shaved first. The 
free hand stroke is the first stroke. 



18. How is a once-over shave 
given? 



A few more strokes at different angles 
to the beard may be taken at the com- 
pletion of each movement, thereby as- 
suring a complete and even shave. 



19. What part of the neck is 
shaved with the standard or 
regular shave? 



The sides of the neck below the ears. 



20. What are the final steps after 
shaving? 



Comb the hair neatly, wipe off exces- 
sive powder, and any loose hair. 



21. When should a facial be 
suggested to the customer? 



As the last steam towel is being re- 
moved. 



22. When should a hair tonic or 
scalp treatment be suggested 
to the customer? 



Just before combing the hair. 



23. Give eleven reasons why a 
customer may find fault with 
a shave. 



1. Dull or rough razors. 

2. Unclean hands, towels and shaving 
cloth. 

3. Cold fingers. 

4. Heavy touch of hand. 

5. Poorly heated towels. 

6. Lather which is either too cold or 
too hot. 

7. Offensive body odor, foul breath or 
tobacco odor. 

8. Sticking your ringers in customer's 
mouth. 

9. Glaring lights over head. 

10. Unshaved hair patches. 

11. Scraping the skin and close shaving. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



111 



24. What is an ingrown hair? 



An ingrown hair is one which has 
grown underneath the skin and causes 
an infection to develop. 



25. What is the cause of an in- 
grown hair? 



Usually caused by very close shaving 
and the wearing of shirt collars which 
rub against the neck. 



26. What is the proper treatment 
for an ingrown hair? 



To remove an ingrown hair, open the 
affected part with a sterilized needle 
or tweezer and then pull out the hair 
with the tweezer. Finally, apply an 
antiseptic such as peroxide or tincture 
of iodine. 



27. How is a close shave pro- 
duced? 



Shaving the beard against the grain of 
the hair during the second time over. 



28. Why is a close shave unde- 
sirable? 



A close shave irritates the skin and 
may cause ingrown hairs or infection. 



113 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

The art of haircutting involves a distinctive cut and ar-. 
rangement of the hair to suit the individual requirements of 
the customer. Each customer presents a new problem which 
the shop owner cannot afford to neglect by careless or indif- 
ferent workmanship. Mistakes should be prevented rather 
than covered up. or changed. Expert workmanship in hair- 
cutting can best be acquired by competent instruction and by 
patient practice on living models. 

Fundamentals in Haircutting 

It is essential that the barber acquire an easy, graceful 
position when cutting the hair. Avoid stooping, bending the' 
knees, or twisting the body into awkward positions. In hair- 
cutting, work to the right of you, as this will give you a better 
view of your* work. Learning correct habits in haircutting 
will relieve fatigue and make your work more efficient. 

Implements 

The principal implements used in haircutting are: clip- 
pers, shears and combs. 

Important Steps For A Complete Haircut 

The important steps in giving a complete haircut are: 

1. Preparation. 

2. Clipper technique. 

3. Shears and comb technique. 

4. Arching technique. 

5. Finger and shears technique. 

6. Front outline. 

7. Shaving outlined areas. 

8. Final checkup. 

9. Combing the hair. 



114 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Exercise No. 1 
How To Prepare A Customer For A Haircut 

Before starting a haircut, the following preparation is 
required : 

1. Have on hand all necessary linens, sterilized imple- 
ments and supplies. 

2. Seat customer comfortably in barber chair, facing 
mirror. -. 

3. Remove headrest from barber chair. 

4. Wash and dry hands. 

5. Grasp neck-pieces of chair cloth and bring it over the 
front of customer, as in Fig. 1 . 




Fig. 1 Placing Chair 'Cloth 
Over in Frorrt of Customer 



6. Use tissue neck-strip 
or towel protector 
under neck-pieces of 
chair cloth. 
a) If a tissue neck- 
strip is used, 
bring it com- 
pletely around 
the customer's 
neck with the 
ends overlap- 
ing in the back, 
as in Fig. 2. 




Fig. 2 Adjusting Tissue Neck-Strip 
Around Neck of Customer 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 115 

Over the tissue neck-strip, place the neck-pieces of 
the chair cloth and fasten it securely in the back. 
Extending portion of the tissue neck-strip is folded 
neatly over the neck-pieces of the chair cloth, as 
in Fig. 3. 




Fig. 3 The extended portion of the Neck-Strip 
is folded over Neck-pieces of hair Cloth 

b) If a towel is used, spread it straight across back of 
customer, the upper edge being tucked in at the 
neckline. Bring both ends of the towel around the 
customer's neck, allowing one end to overlap the 
other under the chin. Over the towel, place the 
neck-pieces of the chair cloth and fasten it securely 
in the back. 
7. Sprinkle talcum powder on a tissue and apply it over 

the back of the customer's neck. 



116 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Exercise No. 2 
Clipper Technique 

For the beginner, it is best to learn how to use the hand 
clipper before trying the electric clipper. Since the hand 
clipper is slow cutting, it is easier to control in removing the 
proper amount of hair from the head. 

To learn the proper handling of the clipper the student 
should practice the following exercises diligently. 

1 . How to Hold Clipper and Comb. 

The position of the right hand is 
as follows: 

a) Pick up the clipper with the 
right hand. 

b) Place thumb along still han- 
dle attached to lower blade 
and hold movable handle in 
the first joint of the fingers, 
placing the index finger in 
front of the projecting guide 
and the rest of the fingers in 
back of it. 




Fig. 1 Holding the 
Hand Clipper 




Fig. 2 Using the Index Finger as a Guide 



The position of the left hand is as follows: 

a) Place the index finger of the left hand on the set 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING U7 

screw and use it as a guide to steady the clipper. 
See Fig. 2. 
b) Hold comb between thumb and index finger, ready 

to use the comb whenever necessary. 
2. How to Use Clipper and Comb. 

a) Use clipper blade which gives longer cut before 
using clipper blade which gives shorter cut. 

b) For a gradual even taper, tilt the blade as you clip 
so that the clipper rides on the heel of the bottom 
blade. See Fig. 3 for correct and incorrect tapering. 

c ) In order to cut the hair with ease, use the full span 
of the movable handle with the aid of the fingers. 
Do not move the clipper up into the hair too fast 
as it will have a tendency to jam the clipper blades 
and pull the hair. 

d) After tapering one strip of hair, comb hair down 
smooth and start tapering the undipped hair to 
the right.* 

I 
CORRECT M| INCORRECT] 

METHOD MS METHOD 





Fig. 3 Correct and Incorrect Methods 
of Tapering the Hair 

Haircut styles that require clipper tapering all around 
the head should begin at the left temple and continue around 
the head,, finishing at the right temple. Haircut styles that 
require clipper tapering at the back of the neck only should 
begin at the left side of the neck, finishing at the right side 
of the neck.* 

*Some barbers prefer to work from right side to left side, in which case 
the routine of clipping the hair is reversed. 



118 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Exercise No. 3 
Shears and Comb Technique 

Shears and comb technique is used to cut the ends of the 
hair and even up the clipper taper. It is usually employed 
after the clipper work is completed. 

To learn shears and comb technique the student should 
practice the following exercises: 

1. How to Hold Shears and Comb. See Fig. 1. 
The position of the right hand is as follows, 
a ) Pick up shears firmly and insert thumb into thumb 
grip, place third finger into finger grip and leave 
little finger on finger brace of shears. 
The position of the left hand is as follows : 

a ) Hold comb with tips of the first two fingers at the 
end of teeth and place thumb at the back of 
the comb. 

b) To comb hair downward turn comb towards cus- 
tomer's head, as in turning a key. See Fig. 2. 

The position of both the right hand and left hand is 
as follows: 

a) Hold shears and comb slightly to the right front 
of you. 

b) Hold comb parallel with the still blade of the 
shears, as in Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2 The turning of the comb 
downward is accomplished by 
turning the comb towards the 
head by using the thumb and 
first two fingers of the left 
hand. 



Fig. 1 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



119 



2. How to Use Shears and Comb. See Fig. 1. 

a) Keep one blade still while moving the other blade 
with the thumb. 

b) While manipulating the shears move both shears 
and comb upward slowly at the same time. 

c) Turn teeth of comb downward when combing the 
hair downward. 

d) Finish one vertical strip at a time before proceed- 
ing with the next strip to the left. Working from 
right to left gives a better view of the work. 




Fig. 3 Shears and comb work 
over the ear, using the tine 
teeth of the comb. Start at right 
side of head, work around the 
head and finish at left temple. 



Fig. 4 Shears and comb work 
behind the ear. Note the 
angle in which the shears and 
comb are held so that they 
will not interfere with the ear. 
The fine teeth of the comb 
are used. 




Fig. 5 Using shears and 
comb to even up the clipper 
taper at the nape of the neck. 
The fine teeth of the comb 
are used in this operation. 



Fig. 6 Shears and comb 
work at the crown, using the 
coarse teeth of the comb. 



120 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Exercise No. 4 
Arching Technique 

Arching technique means marking the outer border of 
the haircut in front and over the ears and side of the neck. 
This outlining is accomplished with the points of the shears 
and is usually performed while doing the shears and comb 
work as described in Exercise No. 3. 

To learn arching technique the student should practice 
the following exercise diligently. 



How to Hold Shears with Right Hand. 

a) Pick up shears and insert thumb into thumb grip, 
place third ringer into finger grip and leave the 
little finger on brace of shears. 

b) Place point of shear blade against scalp. The 



Fig. 1 Outlining the hair 
in front of and over the ear. 



^ 1 




Fig. 2 Outlining the hair 
on side of neck and back 
of ear. 




MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 121 

fingers holding the shears are on the bottom and 

the thumb on top. See Fig. 1. 
c) Use the most convenient finger-tip of left hand to 

steady point of shears. 
2. How to Use Shears. 

The proper way to use shears is as follows: 

a) Always make outline around ear as close to the 
edge as possible. 

b) Start in front of ear and make a continuous out- 
line around the ear and down the side of neck, as 
in Fig. 1. 

c) Reverse the direction of arching back to the start- 
ing point. See Fig. 2. 

d) Continue arching around ear until a definite out- 
line is formed. 

e) Mark outline for length of sideburns. 



122 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

Exercise No. 5 
Finger and Shears Technique 

In order to finish the haircut properly, any noticeable un- 
evenness remaining after shears and comb work should be 
removed by means of finger and shears technique. If the 
top hair needs shortening it may be accomplished during the 
finger and shears operation. 

To perform finger technique on left side of head, stand 
on left front side of customer. 

1. Hold shears and comb as follows: 

a) Hold shears by inserting third finger into finger 
grip and place little finger on brace. 

b) Grasp comb with left hand. 

2. Start just above the left temple, palm shears in right 
hand, transfer comb from left hand to fingers of right 
hand and comb a strand of hair two or three inches 
from you towards the back of the head. 

3. Raise the comb sufficiently to permit first and second 
fingers of the left hand to grasp the hair underneath 
the comb. The fingers holding the hair should bend 
to conform with the shape of the head. 

4. Place comb between thumb and index finger of left 
hand. 

5. Cut the hair the proper 
length to blend well with 
the shorter hair on side of 
head. See Fig. 1. 

6. Hold on to the cut hair, 
palm the shears, transfer 
comb from left to right 
hand and comb through the 
hair contained in the fin- 
gers of the left hand. 




MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



123 



7. Release the fingers, sliding the comb and picking up 
underneath hair beyond the cut just made, and cut 
the hair. 

8. Comb the hair at that point again and repeat the same 
cutting movements until the back of the head is 
reached. 

9. Start again at the front of the head going a little high- 
er, continue to comb and cut until the back of the 
head is reached again. 

10. Continue to comb and cut, going a little higher each 
time until the top of the head is reached. See Figs. 
2 and 3. 





To perform finger technique on right side of head stand 
in back of the customer. 

1. The finger technique for the right side of the head is 
done in the same manner as on the left side, with the 
exception that the barber stands in back of the custo- 
mer and the hair is combed towards the barber. See 
Figs. 4 and 5. 





124 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Exercise No. 6 
Front Outline 

The front outline is shaped soon after completing the 
finger and shears technique. 

The length to which the front outline is cut depends prin- 
cipally on the choice of haircut, whether short, medium or 
long, and the way the hair is to be parted. 

To learn to make the front outline the student should fol- 
low these suggestions. 

1. Comb all hair to right side bringing the hair straight 
down over the right temple, as in Fig. 1. 





Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 



2. Hold shears, as in Fig. 1, and cut straight across to the 
proper length. If necessary, use comb to hold hair in 
place and cut hair, as in Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 125 

3. Comb all hair to left side, bringing the hair straight 
down over left temple, as in Fig. 3. 

4. Hold shears, as in Fig. 3 and cut hair straight across 
to the proper length. If necessary, use comb to hold 
hair in place and cut hair, as shown in Fig. 4. 




When the work is properly done the front appearance of 
the hair as it is combed forward should form to a "V". 



126 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

Exercise No. 7 
Preparation For A Neck Shave 

The neck shave contributes to the appearance of the fin- 
ished haircut. Shaving the outlined areas of the sideburns, 
around the ears and the sides of the neck below the ears gives 
the customer a clean cut appearance. If the haircut requires 
a round or square outline at the nape of the neck, the free 
hand stroke should be used at the back of the neck. 

To prepare for a neck shave follow these steps: 

1. Remove all cut hair around the head and neck with 
clean towel or tissues. 

2. Loosen the chair cloth and neck-band carefully, so that 
no cut hair will go down the neck. 

3. Empty the cut hair at the base of the chair in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

Pick up the chair cloth at the lower edge and bring it 
up to the upper edge. Remove chair cloth carefully so 
that no cut hair will fall on the customer. Drop upper 
edge of chair cloth, giving a slight shake to dislodge 
all cut hair. 

4. Replace chair cloth as before. It should be left a few 
inches away from the neck so that it does not come in 
contact with the customer's skin. 

5. Spread a face towel straight across the shoulders, then 
tuck it in the neck-band. 

Applying Lather For Neck Shave 

1. Prepare lather same as for the beard. 

2. Lather both sides of the head and the back of the 
neck as follows: 

Give a light coat of lather at the hairline around and 
over the ears, to the temples and down the sides of 
the neck. If round neck shave is to be given, apply 
lather to the back of the neck up to the hairline. 

3. Rub the lather in lightly with the ball part of the 
finger-tips. 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



127 



Exercise No. 8 
Shaving Outlined Areas 

This exercise is a follow-up of Exercise No. 4, on Arch- 
ing Technique. The purpose of this exercise is to shave over 
outlined areas of the ears, neck and sideburns. 

Before starting this exercise, prepare and apply lather 
over outlined areas, as explained in Exercise No. 7. Strop 
razor, then proceed as follows: 

1. Shaving Right Side. 

The proper way to 
shave outlined area 
is as follows : 







a) Hold razor as in 
free hand stroke. 

b) Place thumb of 
left hand on the 
scalp above the 
point of razor, 

%and stretch scalp 
under razor. 

Shave sideburn to the proper length. 
Shave around ear at hairline and down side of 
neck, using a free hand stroke with the point of 
razor. See Figs. 1, 2 and 3. 



d) 





128 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



2. Shaving Left Side. 

The proper way to shave outlined area is as follows : 

a) Hold razor as in reverse back hand stroke. 

b) Place thumb of left hand on scalp above point of 
razor and stretch scalp under razor. 

c) Shave sideburn to the proper length. 

d) Shave around ear at hairline using a free hand 
stroke. 

e ) Shave neck below ear, using the reverse back hand 
stroke with point of razor. See Fig. 4. Hold ear 
away with fingers of left hand. 





Shaving Left Side of Neck using 
Reverse Back Hand Stroke 



Medium Haircut 
with Round Neck Shave 



the 



3. Depending on the customer's preference, shave 
neck outline to form a round or square back. 

After the neck shave has been completed, remove the ex- 
cess soap with a warm damp towel. Dry the neck thoroughly. 
Replace the towel across the customer's shoulder and tuck it 
in neatly in the neck band. 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 129 

Exercise No. 9 
Final Checkup and Combing of the Hair 

A checkup of the haircut and combing of the hair are the 
steps to complete a haircut. Here is a suggested routine to 
follow : 

1 . Replace the face towel across the customer's shoulders 
and tuck it neatly in neck-band. 

2. Retouch parts of the haircut wherever necessary with 
shears and comb. 

3. Trim hair in ears, in nose, and on eyebrows. (Ask the 
customer before trimming the eyebrows.) 

4. Massage the scalp for a 
few seconds. This is the 
time to suggest a sham- 
poo, hair tonic or any 
other hair and scalp ser- 
vice. 

5. If the customer's answer 
is negative, then ask him 
if he wants his hair 

combed dry or damp. Combing the Hair 

6. Comb the hair into its 

customary style or ask the customer's wishes. 

// a hair brush is allowed in your state, be sure that it is prop- 
erly cleaned and sterilized before using it on the customer. 

Final Checkup 

1. Go over the finished haircut to correct any uneven 
parts. 

2. Allow customer to see back view of haircut with the 
aid of a mirror. 

3. Make corrections as requested by the customer. 

4. Remove all traces of loose hairs around the neck, fore- 
head or nose with a clean towel wrapped around the 
right hand, or with tissues. 

5. Remove chair cloth. 

6. Adjust barber chair to level position. 

7. Release customer from barber chair. 

8. Make out check and thank customer when giving it 
to him. 




130 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

REMINDERS 

Sanitary Measures 

, After releasing the customer, take care of the following 
sanitary measures: 

1. Discard used towel and neck-strip, 

2. Shake hair cloth at the base of chair, fold and place 
it on arm of chair. 

3. Clean and sterilize used barber implements. 

4. Place barber implements into dry (cabinet) sterilizer. 

5. Sweep hair from floor and place it into a closed 
container. 

6. Have needed supplies in readiness for next customer. 

Ten Reasons Why A Customer May Find Fault 
With A Haircut 

1 . Improper hairstyle. 

2. Poor workmanship. 

3. Cutting off too much or too little hair. 

4. Irregular hairlines. 

5. Unsanitary practices such as unsterilized implements, 
unclean towels or chair cloths. 

6. Allowing cut hairs to fall down customer's neck. 

7. Pulling the hair with dull shears or clippers. 

8. Offensive body odor, bad breath or tobacco odor. 

9. Blowing loose hair off the customer's neck. 

10. Scratching the customer's scalp in combing the hair. 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 131 

BASIC STEPS OF A STANDARD HAIRCUT 

Preparation. 

1. Arrange necessary implements and supplies. 

2. Wash and dry hands. 

3. Adjust chair cloth over customer. M. 

4. Adjust neck-strip or towel around neck and fasten 
neck-pieces of chair cloth around it. 

5. Comb hair just enough to keep it in place. 

6. Ask customer how hair is to be cut and styled. 

Procedure. 

A. Clipper Work. 

1. Taper hair evenly with hajid clipper, working 
from left side to right side of head. (Some barbers 
prefer to work from the right side to the left side 
of the head.) 

B. Shears and Comb Work. 

1. Even up hair taper at right side of head. 

2. Trim sideburns, if necessary. 

3. Outline right arch, if necessary. 

4. Blend in edge of hair with rest, working from 
right side to left side of the head. 

5. Outline left arch, if necessary. 

C. Finger and Shears Work. 

1. Shorten or reduce any pronounced unevenness in 
the hair, on left top side of head. 

2. Shorten or reduce any pronounced unevenness in 
the hair, on right top side of head. 

3. Trim front outline, if necessary. 

4. Comb hair and note where further trimming is 
needed. 

5. Drum out loose hair with finger-tips of both hands. 

6. Comb hair casually. 

7. Brush off loose hair from forehead, ears and neck 
with towel or tissue. 

8. Loosen chair cloth, remove neck-strip and finish 
dusting off any loose hair. 



132 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

D. Neck Shave, 

1. Place towel around neck. 

2. Apply lather over outlined areas of sideburns, 
around ears and sides of neck. 

3. Shave outlined areas. Shave right side of head 
.first and then the left side. 

4. Wipe off remaining lather with warm damp towel 
and dry thoroughly. 

5. Place towel around neck to protect clothing. 

6. Retouch haircut wherever necessary, with shears 
and comb. 

7. Trim extra hairs from .ears, nose and eyebrows, 
if necessary. 

8. Give a few scalp manipulations and suggest a suit- 
able hair tonic or scalp treatment. 

9. If no hair tonic is to be used, ask customer if he 
wishes the hair to remain dry or dampened with 
water. 

10. Comb hair neatly. 

E. Final Steps. 

1. Wipe off loose hair with towel or tissue. 

2. Remove towel and chair cloth from customer. 

3. Make out price check for customer. 

4r. Thank customer as he is handed the price check. 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 133 

THE ART OF BASIC HAIRCUTTING 

To be successful the barber must perfect his skill in hair- 
cutting. Each haircut should represent a work of art. Try 
to give the type of haircut that will emphasize the proper 
contour lines of the head. 

From experience the barber has found out that most hair- 
cuts fall into the following patterns : 

1. The short cut. 

2. The medium cut. 

3. Trims (medium or long). 

4. Pompadours (short, medium or long). 

Each haircut requires the personal touch of the barber. 
Always keep in mind the customer's needs and wishes and 
what type of haircut is most becoming to his personality. 

Before giving a haircut make sure to ask the customer 
which type of haircut he desires. If the customer asks for 
the barber's advice then recommend the type of haircut 
which best improves his appearance. 

THE SHORT CUT 

The short cut or full crown haircut is popular in sum- 
mer time for both young and old. 

When giving this cut the barber should keep in mind the 
following important points. 

1 . Be guided by the customer's wishes as to any variations 
in the short cut. The shape of the head should be 
considered also. 

2. Begin clipper work at the left temple, continue around 
the head, finishing at the right temple* Go up as high 
as the hat band, tilting the clipper teeth outward at 
the point where the gradual taper begins. 

3. Begin shear and comb work at right temple, continue 
around the head, finishing at the left temple. 



*Some barbers prefer to do clipper work from right temple to left temple, 
in which case the routine is reversed. 



134 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 




CLOSE-UP OF 

CLIPPER TAPER 

AREA 



Clipper Taper for Short Cut 

4. Use shears and fine teeth of comb for removing traces 
of the clipper line. 

5. Always turn the teeth of the comb out when tapering 
the hair. 

6. Use shears and coarse teeth of comb when removing 
longer part of hair. 

7. Finger work is performed to the top of the head only 
if necessary. 





Short Cut with 
Pompadour Effect 



Short Cut with Hair 

following the natural shape of 

the head 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



135 



THE MEDIUM CUT 

The medium cut is similar to the short cut except for the 
following differences: 

1. The hair is left longer than in the short cut. 

2. The clipper is used all around the head, but not 
so high. 

When giving a medium cut, the barber should keep in 
mind the following points: 




CLOSE-UP OF 

CLIPPER TAPER 

AREA 

Clipper Taper for Medium Cut 

1. Be guided by the customer's wishes as to any varia- 
tions in the medium cut. 

2. Clip the hair about pjj 
as high as half way 

up to the crown. 

3. Always tilt the clip- 
per teeth outward 
at the point where 
the gradual taper 
begins. 

4. Use shears and the 
coarse teeth of comb 
fo*r removing longer 
hair above clipper 

line. Showing One Side of Head 

Properly Tapered with Clippers 




136 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



5. Always turn the teeth 
of the comb out when 
tapering the hair. 

6. Use shears and the fine 
teeth of comb for re- 
moving traces of clip- 
per line. 





Using Hand Clippers to Clean 
Neck of Protruding Hairs 



MEDIUM CUT 
Left Front View 
Lower Left Side View 
Lower Right Back View 




MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



137 



TRIMS 
Medium Trim 

The medium trim, usually worn by business men, is dif- 
ferent from the medium cut, not only in length of the hair, 
but also in outline. 

In the medium trim the No. 1 clipper may be used at the 
temples in front of the ears. The No. 00 or No. 000 clipper 
is recommended for the lower part of the ne^k. 

The shears and comb work is started at the right sideburn 
and the trimming is continued towards the left sideburn. 

Caution should be taken not to trim the hair too short. 

The finger work is used to reduce the bulk of the top hair 
and to blend in with the rest of the hair. 



Clipper Taper 

. for 
Medium Trim 







CLOSE-UP OF 

CUPPER TAPER 

AREA 









Medium Trim Back View 





HI 
Medium Trim Side View 




138 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Long Trim 

The long trim is similar to the medium trim with the ex- 
ception that the hair is left a trifle longer. 

In the long trim, clipper work is done at the back of the 
neck with the taper evident near the lower tip of the ears. 
With the point of the shears, outline the right sideburn to the 
desired length and mark off the hairline in front of and 
around the ears. Trim right sideburn with shears and comb, 
continue around the head and finish at the left sideburn. 

In doing finger work, be careful to cut off the proper 
amount of hair. (For different lengths of sideburns, see 
page 144.) 




CLOSE-UP OF 
CLIPPER TAPER 
AREA 



Clipper Taper for Long Trim 




Evening the Clipper Taper 
at the Nape of the Neck 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



139 







Long Trim Front View 



Long Trim Side View 



Electric Clipper 

Experience with the hand clipper makes it easier to use 
the electric clipper. Because of its rapid cutting action, the 
electric clipper must be handled skillfully, as follows: 





Tapering the Hair 
at the Nape of the Neck 
with the Electric Clipper 



Tapering the Hair 
Held through the Teeth 

of the Comb 
with the Electric Clipper 



1. Select the proper size of clipper blade. 

2. Feed the clipper slowly into the hair held with the 
teeth of the comb. 

3. In making the taper, gradually tilt the clipper. 



140 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



THE POMPADOUR 

Short Pompadour 

For the short pompadour, use the clipper high all around 
the head, as in the short cut, leaving the top of the head 
undipped. 

Before using the shears, comb the hair straight back to 
the crown. Stand to the front, left side of the customer when 
cutting the hair on top of the head, and start cutting at the 
forehead, shortening the hair gradually until you reach the 
crown. Trim and taper the sides and back of the head to 
blend with the top of "the head. 




CLOSE-UP OF 
CLIPPER TAPER 

AREA 



Clipper Taper for Short Pompadour 




I 
Cutting the Hair in a Brush Top Effect 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



141 




Short Pompadour 
(Brush Top) 



J 



Short Pompadour 
(Brush Top) Back View 




Short Pompadour 
(Round Top) 



142 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

MEDIUM POMPADOUR 

The medium pompadour follows the same pattern as the 
medium trim with the exception that the hair on top of the 
head is left somewhat longer. 

The clipper technique used is similar to the medium cut. 
(See page 135.) 

In doing the finger work, part the hair in the center, then 
follow the technique as explained in Lesson 5, page 122-123. 

Care must be taken that too much hair is not removed. 




Medium Pompadour 

Mark off outline and shave sideburns, around ears and 
back of neck. Retouch any uneven spots with shears and 
comb. Finally, the hair is combed straight back! 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



143 



LONG POMPADOUR 

The long pompadour follows the same pattern as the long 
trim (see pages 138-139) with the exception that the hair is 
left a little longer on top of the head. 

The finger technique is the same as the medium pompa- 
dour, but the hair is left a little longer. 




Long Pompadour 

with Medium Sideburns, 

Dressed with Wide Wave 



Long Pompadour 

with Long Sideburns 

Dressed Close to the Head 




144 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

SIDEBURNS 




Sideburns should be made 
according to the desire of 
the customer, style of the 
haircut, and the customer's 
features. 

Fig. 1 None. 

Fig. 2 Short. 

Fig. 3 Pointed (Slant). 

Fig. 4 Medium. 

Fig. 5 Long. 





MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



145 



. SPECIAL PROBLEMS 
HAIR THINNING 

Hair thinning is required to reduce the bulk of the hair 
wherever necessary. Any of the following implements and 
methods can be used for this purpose. 

1. Thinning (serrated) shears. The hair strand is 
combed, and the spread hair held between the index and 
middle fingers, as in Fig. 1. Then the hair is cut about one 
inch from the scalp. If another cut is necessary it should be 
made about one inch from the first cut. To shorten the hair 
the regular shears is used. 

Plan of cutting the hair. The barber stands in back of 
the customer, combs away the front hair which does not re- 
quire thinning, as in Fig. 2. The hair is then thinned on 
both sides of the head, strand by strand as required, and the 
loose cut hair is combed out. The top part is usually done 
last. 

Caution: Do not cut the hair too close to the scalp nor 
thin out too much hair. 





2. Thinning (serrated) shears and comb. Instead of the 
index and middle fingers, the comb may be used in holding 
the hair, as in Fig. 3. The thinning is done in the usual 
manner. 



146 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 





Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



3. Regular shears. Hold a small strand of hair between 
the thumb and index finger, insert the strand in the shears, 
as in Fig. 4. Slide the shears up and down the strand, closing 
them slightly each time the shears is moved towards the 
scalp. Slither enough to allow the hair to lie close to the 
scalp wherever needed. 

SHEAR POINT TAPERING 

Shear point tapering is 
a useful technique for thin- 
ning out difficult heads of 
hair occasioned by hollows, 
wrinkles and creases in the 
scalp and by whorls of hair 
on the scalp. Dark and 
ragged hair patches on the 
scalp can be minimized by 
this special technique. 

The shear point taper 
is performed with the cut- 
ting points of the shears. 

Only a few hairs are cut at a time and then combed out. 

Continue cutting around the objectionable spot until it be- 

beccmes less noticeable and blends in with the surrounding 

outline of the haircut. 




MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



147 



BEARDS 

There are still a few professional men who insist on wear- 
ing beards, made popular during the sixteenth century by the 
great painter Van Dyke. However, such styles as shown on 
this page are seldom seen nowadays. 




The Van Dyke 



Beard with Shaven Chin Area 



The cutting of the full beard is done with the shears over 
the comb, usually starting near the ear and working toward 
the chin. The length and shape depend upon the customer's 
wishes. 

For the goatee beard, it is customary to first shave the 
sides of the face and then trim the beard to the desired shape 
and length. The mustache is trimmed and dressed last in 
accordance with the customer's wishes. 




The Goatee Beard 



148 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



SINGEING 

Before commencing to singe, it is necessary to brush 
and comb the hair thoroughly in order to remove the short 
hairs which inevitably remain after haircutting. 

Singeing by means of the wax taper is done in the follow- 
ing manner. The hair is first combed into position, approxi- 




Singeing with the Teeth of the 
Comb Pointing Downward 



Singeing with the Teeth of the 
Comb Pointing Upward 



mately as usually worn. Then commence the singeing by 
placing the comb in the hair at a point just below the crown. 
The comb is moved slowly down the hair in the direction 
from the crown toward the nape of the neck. As the comb 
moves through the hair, the lighted taper is passed along the 
ends of the hair which protrude through the teeth of the 
comb, thus singeing off the extreme points. After the back 
and sides have been treated in this manner, the edges of the 
short hair in the nape of the neck and sides are singed, using 
the comb in an upward direction. 

VALUE OF SINGEING Present day authorities claim that singeing is not ben- 
eficial to the hair, and classify it as a quack treatment; however, it does provide 
temporary relief for split hair ends, and some customers desire a finishing touch 
to their hair that cannot be acquired otherwise. Since there are some customers 
who desire singeing, and there is an added financial return for the work, it is 
advisable to learn the technique of singeing thoroughly. 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



149 



POPULAR HAIR STYLES FOR MEN 



The skilled barber should be able to advise his customers as to 
which type of haircut is best fitted to their age, personality, shape 
of head and facial features. Study the following hair styles for sug- 
gestions as to how to bring out the best qualities in each customer. 






Medium Pompadour with Off-Center Part 
The Hair Dressed Close to the Head 





A 



Medium Pompadour 
with Side Part 



Medium Pompadour 
with Center Part 



150 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 




Medium Pompadour, Pointed Sideburns Medium pompadour, Pointed Sideburns 






Medium Pompadour 
Hair Dressed Close to the Head 



m F 




Medium Pompadour 



Medium Haircut with Side Part 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



151 




Short Haircut with Brush Top Effect 



Medium Haircut with Center Part 



1 




Medium Pompadour 



Medium Haircut with Center Part 
Hair Dressed Close to the Head 



152 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 







ompadour with Part and Poin 






Three-Quarter Back View 
of Medium Haircut 





& 




Medium Haircut 
with Round Neck Shave 



Medium Haircut 
with Round Neck Shave 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



153 



POPULAR HAIR STYLES FOR BOYS 



Just as with men's haircuts, it is good business to give flattering 
haircuts to boys. The barber who caters to boys is likely to win 
over their fathers as regular customers. For suggestive guidance, 
study the following individualized types of haircuts for boys. 




As a general 
rule, boys' and 
children's hair 
should be cut 
shorter than 
the men's hair, 
depending on 
the age and 
desire of the 
customer. 




Medium Pompadour 
Front View 



Medium Pompadour 
Side View 





Medium Trim 
Center Part 



Medium Trim 
Side Part 



154 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 




Brush Top Haircut 

Cut Close All Around 

the Head 



POPULAR 

HAIR 

STYLES 

FOR 

BOYS 




\ 



Medium Haircut 
with Side Part 




Medium Haircut 
with Side Part 





Medium Haircut 
with Side Part 




Medium Haircut 
with Natural Curls 



Short Haircut 
Combed Forward 



MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



155 





Popular Hair Style During 1950-1951 

PASTE HERE LATEST HAIR STYLES 



156 MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

PRINCIPLES OF MEN'S HAIR STYLING 

To render the best service to his customers, the barber 
should know the principal styles of haircuts and be able to 
select the one best suited for a particular customer. The bar- 
ber who knows the fundamentals of artistic hair styling can 
emphasize the best features of his customers and make them 
look more attractive for their age, weight and height. 

In determining the best way to cut and style the custo- 
mer's hair, the barber should take into account his prefer- 
ences, as well as his : 

1. Facial contour and features. 

2. Head contour. 

3. Hairline. 

Other factors which influence the choice of haircut are 
the amount and length of hair on the head, partial baldness 
and the presence of such characteristics as a high or low 
forehead, high cheekbones, prominent chin, heavy jowls, 
small or large ears, and a thin or thick neck. 

Although there are numerous variations in facial char- 
acteristics, the barber deals most frequently with three basic 
facial types: 

1. Face with regular features. 

2. The short, round face. 

3. The long, thin face. 

Face with Regular Features 

Most customers have regular fea- 
tures, that is, their face is neither fat 
nor thin, neither long nor short. With 
the customer's consent, the hair may be 
cut shorter or left longer. In either 
event, the hair should be evenly grad- 
uated all the way, while the neck is 
feather edged. The sideburns are left 
short. 




MEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



157 




The Short, Round Face 

For this facial type, the hair is cut 
shorter all around and also graduated 
all the way. The sideburns are kept 
high. 

Should the customer have a full 
face with hollow temples, allow the hair 
to grow fuller at the sides and keep the 
sideburns at medium length. 



The Long, Thin Face 

Recessed temples are typical of this 
facial type. In cutting the hair, keep it 
both long and full at the sides. The rest 
of the hair is cut medium length. In 
the back, the hair is kept long, being 
feather-cut and graduated from the 
neck up. Long sideburns are recom- 
mended. 




158 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



HAIRCUTTING 



1. What is meant by the art of 
haircutting? 



The process of cutting, tapering, trim- 
ming, moulding, styling and dressing 
men's hair. 



2. What is meant by a hair trim? Cutting the hair lightly. 



3. How can the art of haircut- 
ting be acquired? 



By obtaining good instruction and by 
gaining experience and practice on 
customers. 



4. Name four basic styles of 
haircuts. 



1. The short cut or full crown. 

2. The medium cut. 

3. Trims (medium or long). 

4. Pompadours (short, medium or 
long). 



5. Which sanitary precautions 
should be observed by the 
barber? 



Wash hands and use only sterilized im- 
plements, sterile towels and clean lin- 
ens on customers. 



6. How should the customer be 
prepared for a haircut? 



Seat customer comfortably in chair, 
place neck-strip or towel around neck 
and then adjust chair cloth over neck- 
strip or towel. 



7. Where is clipper work gen- 
erally started and finished on 
the customer's head? 



Generally started on the left side of 
the head and carried around to the 
right side. 



8. Why should the barber first 
learn to use hand clippers 
before attempting to use 
electric clippers? 



Hand clippers are slow cutting, and 
there is less likelihood of making mis- 
takes. 



9. How should the clipper be 
used in tapering the hair? 



Gradually tilt the blades in using the 
clipper so that it rides on the heel of 
the bottom blade. 



10. What is the proper position 
of the shears and comb in 
haircutting? 



The comb is held parallel to the shears. 



11. What is the purpose of fin- 
ger work in haircutting? 



It shortens the hair evenly and helps 
to reduce any ridges that may appear 
in the haircut. 



12. What plan is followed in 
shaving the neck outline? 



Depending on the desired hair style, 
shave around the top and back of the 
ears and the sides and back of the 
neck. 



Name the shaving strokes 
used: 1) over the right side 
of the neck. 2) Left side of 
the neck. 



1. For the right side of the neck, use 
a free hand stroke. 

2. For the left side of the neck, use a 
reverse back hand stroke. 



4. When should hair singeing 
be recommended? 



To prevent further splitting of hair 
ends. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



159 



15. How is hair singeing accom- 
plished? 



Run the flame of a wax taper over the 
hair ends, held straight through the 
teeth of a comb. 



16. Give ten reasons why a 
customer may find fault with 
a haircut. 



1. Improper hairstyle. 

2. Poor workmanship. 

3. Cutting off too much or too little 
hair. 

4. Irregular hairlines. 

5. Unsanitary practices such as unster- 
ilized implements, unclean towels or 
chair cloths. 

6. Allowing cut hairs to fall on the 
customer's neck. 

7. Pulling the hair with dull shears or 
clippers. 

8. Offensive body odor, bad breath or 
tobacco odor. 

9. Blowing loose hair off the custo- 
mer's neck. 

10. Scratching the customer's scalp in 
combing the hair. 



161 



SHAMPOOING 

The chief purpose of shampooing the scalp and hair 
is to maintain a clean and healthy condition of the scalp 
and hair. The hair should be shampooed on the average 
of once a week or as frequently as is required to keep the 
hair and scalp clean. 

Preparation 

Adequate preparation is the first step in giving a good 
shampoo. Before starting, the barber should have on hand all 
necessary supplies and equipment, and should wash his hands 
with soap and water. Following a definite procedure not 
only saves time, but makes for greater efficiency. 

The essential supplies needed for a shampoo are: 

1 . Pure liquid soap having a low alkaline content. 

2. Soft, warm water capable of producing an abundance 
of lather with the shampoo. Hard water will not pro- 
duce lather unless softened by boiling or chemical 
treatment. 

3. Shampoo bowl or tray, chair cloth, and towels. 



Combination Hot 

and Cold Water 

Faucet with 

Hand Spray 

Attachment 



How To Prepare Customer For Shampoo 

1. Seat customer in a comfortable and relaxed position. 

2. Arrange chair cloth as follows: 

a) With each hand, grasp each end of the neck of the 
chair cloth. 

b) Place the chair cloth over the front of the customer. 

c) Place towel around neck. 




162 



SHAMPOOING 



d) Secure chair cloth at the back of the neck over 
the towel. 

3. Unfold one face towel lengthwise and tuck it around 
the customer's left side of neck from center of back 
to center of front, allowing remainder of towel to fall 
over left shoulder. 

4. Unfold another face towel lengthwise and repeat on 
right side of neck. 

Depending on available facilities, the barber can use 
either the inclined position or the reclined position for the 
customer while giving the shampoo. 

How To Prepare Customer For Inclined Position 

The inclined position of sham- 
pooing is used in barber shops hav- 
ing limited facilities. The shampoo 
bowl is generally placed at a dis- 
tance away from the barber chair. 
While giving the shampoo, the cus- 
tomer's head is bent forward over 
the shampoo bowl. 

The following procedure is 
necessary for the inclined position 
in shampooing. 

1. Place clean towel over edge 
of shampoo bowl. 

2. Have customer sit on a stool close to shampoo bowl. 

3. Massage scalp to loosen dandruff and to increase the 
blood circulation. Vj 

4. Follow steps 1-8 as for a 
plain shampoo. 

How To Prepare Customer 
For Reclined Position 

The reclined position of 
shampooing is generally used if 
there is a shampoo bowl next 
to the barber's chair. While 





SHAMPOOING 163 

giving the shampoo the barber chair is reclined so that the 
customer's head rests on a shampoo board. This method of 
shampooing is most comfortable for the customer, while it 
allows the barber to work rapidly. 

The following procedure is necessary for the reclined 
position in shampooing. 

1. Remove the headrest and adjust the shampoo board 
on shampoo bowl. 

2. Massage scalp to loosen dandruff and to increase the 
blood circulation. 

3. Turn the barber chair around with its back facing the 
shampoo bowl. 

4. Tilt the barber chair at an angle so that customer's 
head rests in groove of shampoo board and allows 
water to drain into the shampoo bowl. 

5. Place folded towel in groove of shampoo board to sup- 
port customer's neck. 

6. Follow steps 1-8 as for a plain shampoo. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For Plain Shampoo 

1. Adjust temperature of water and wet hair thoroughly 
with warm water. 

2. Apply shampoo to form a thick lather over scalp 
and hair. 

3. Massage scalp for several minutes as described below. 

4. Rinse hair thoroughly with warm water and repeat 
lathering if necessary. 

5. Rinse hair thoroughly with cool water. 

6. Wipe face and ears thoroughly. 

7. Dry the hair completely. 

Suggest hair tonic or hair dressing at this time. 

8. Comb hair neatly. 

Massage Manipulations During Shampoo 

The proper way to massage the scalp during a shampoo 
is as follows: 

1. Stand behind the customer, after the lathering is done. 

2. Place the finger-tips at the back of the head just be- 
low the ears. 



164 



SHAMPOOING 



3. Apply rotary movements from the ears to the temples 
up to the forehead, then over the top of the head down 
to the neck. 

4. Repeat these movements for several minutes. 





Scalp Massage Movements 



Lathering the Head 



Common Faults In Shampooing 

A good barber makes every effort to please his customers. 
A dissatisfied customer may find fault with a shampoo for 
any of the following reasons : 

1. Improper selection of shampoo. 

2. Insufficient scalp massage. 

3. Insufficient rinsing of hair. 

4. Water too cold or too hot. 

5. Allowing soapy water to run down the customer's fore- 
head, eyes, or ears. 

6. Wetting or soiling the customer's clothing. 

7. Scraping the scalp with finger nails. 

8. Improper drying of the hair. 

Superior Shampoo Service 

If the barber is to develop a superior type of shampoo 
service, he must give individual attention to his customer's 
needs. First of all, the barber should be able to select the 
kind of shampoo best suited to the condition of the scalp and 
hair. The effectiveness of the shampoo will depend in a large 
measure on : 



SHAMPOOING 



165 



1. The way the shampoo is applied. 

2. The way the scalp is massaged. 

3. The way the shampoo is rinsed from the hair. 

A good shampoo service, not only removes dirt and dan- 
druff from the scalp and hair, but also helps to keep the scalp 
and hair in a healthy condition. The barber who gives the 
utmost care and attention to his shampoo service will succeed 
in pleasing his customers. 

HOT OIL SHAMPOO 

A hot oil shampoo is indicated where a dry condition of 
the scalp is present. The dry scalp may be caused either by a 
deficiency of natural oil or its removal by frequent hair 
washings. Men whose occupation require exposure to more 
than the usual amount of dust and dirt tend to wash their 
hair frequently. Fresh olive oil or sweet almond oil is used 
both for its soothing effect as well as for overcoming the 
dry scalp. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Hot Oil Shampoo 

1. Prepare the customer as for a plain shampoo. 

2. Give regular scalp manipulations. 

3. Apply cotton swab, dipped into oil, over scalp by part- 
ing hair at about every inch. 

4. Expose scalp to heat of red dermal lamp or infra-red 
lamp for five to ten minutes as required. 

5. Apply a good shampoo and massage it well into the 
hair and scalp. 




Applying Oil to the Scalp 
with a Swab 




Applying Heat 
with Infra-Red Lamp 



-166 SHAMPOOING 

15. Rinse hair thoroughly with warm water, and repeat 
lathering if necessary. 

7. Dry the hair thoroughly with a clean towel. 

8. Heat the oil in a double boiler to the desired tem- 
perature. 

9. Apply cotton swab, dipped into warm oil, over scalp 
by parting hair at about every inch. 

10. Comb hair neatly. 

EGG SHAMPOO 

An egg shampoo is a mild cleansing agent for an irri- 
tated scalp. None of the natural oil is removed while using 
an egg shampoo and it is therefore, best for a dry, brittle 
condition of the hair, and tender scalp. 

The egg shampoo is prepared with the following in- 
gredients: One whole egg (or an equivalent amount of 
prepared egg powder), one tablespoon of witch hazel and 
one teaspoon of salt. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For An Egg Shampoo 

1. Prepare the egg mixture. 

2. Prepare customer as for a plain shampoo. 

3. Apply regular scalp manipulations. 

4. Apply one-half of the egg mixture and work it well 
into the scalp. 

5. Rinse the hair with warm or tepid water. 

6. Reapply egg mixture as often as necessary to insure 
a clean scalp. 

7. Rinse the hair thoroughly with tepid or warm water. 

8. Comb hair neatly. 

Only tepid water should be used for rinsing the hair. If 
the rinse water is too hot, the white of the egg tends to harden 
and stick to the hair. 

SPECIAL SHAMPOOS 

There are various shampoo mixtures available for the 
barber's use on customers. At times, the barber is uncertain 
as to which particular shampoo to use. To find out for him- 
self, the barber should carefully read the label and literature 



SHAMPOOING 167 

accompanying the shampoo. Such information will reveal the 
principal ingredients of the shampoo and the advantages 
claimed for the product. 

One way to test a particular brand of shampoo is to give 
it a fair trial for a period of time. Make sure to follow the 
manufacturer's instructions. Keeping a written record of the 
shampoo used and the results obtained on customers will 
eliminate guesswork. In this way, the actual merits of the 
shampoo can be demonstrated to the barber's satisfaction. In 
addition, the customer will benefit from the barber's ex- 
perience. 



168 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



PLAIN SHAMPOO 



1. What is the purpose of a 
plain shampoo? 



To keep the hair and scalp in a clean 
and healthy condition. 



2. How often should the hair 
be shampooed? 



3. Outline the important steps 
in giving a shampoo. 



At least once a week or as often as 
necessary. 

1. Proper preparation of customer. 

2. Selection of a good shampoo. 

3. Proper application of shamrloo and 
water. 

4. Sufficient scalp massage to stimulate 
the scalp. 

5. Thorough rinsing to remove dirt 
and lather. 

6. Drying and combing the hair. 



4. What kind of soap should be 
used in a shampoo? 

5. What kind of water should" 
be used to shampoo the hair; 
why? 



Pure liquid soap having a low alkaline 
content. 

Soft, warm water. Hard water will 
not produce any lather unless soft- 
ened by boiling or chemical treatment. 



6. Which supplies are needed 
to give a shampoo? 



Shampoo, shampoo bowl or tray, warm 
and cold water, chair cloth, and towels. 



7. How should the barber pre- 
pare himself for a shampoo? 

8. How should the customer be 
prepared for a shampoo? 

9. Why should the scalp be 
massaged before giving a 
shampoo? 



Arrange necessary supplies and wash 
hands with soap and warm water. 
Seat customer in a comfortable posi- 
tion and properly adjust the towels 
and chair cloth. 

To loosen the dandruff and stimulate 
the circulation of the blood to the scalp. 



10. Briefly outline the procedure 
for giving a plain shampoo. 



11. Briefly outline the massage 
manipulations applied to the 
scalp during a shampoo. 



1. Adjust temperature of water and 
wet hair with warm water. 

2. Apply shampoo to form thick lather 
over scalp and hair. 

3. Massage scalp for several minutes. 

4. Rinse hair with warm water and re- 
peat lathering if necessary. 

5. Rinse hair thoroughly with cool 
water. 

6. Wipe face and ears thoroughly. 

7. Dry and comb hair. 

1. After the lathering is done, stand 
behind the customer. 

2. Place the finger-tips at the back of 
the head just below the ears. 

3. Apply rotary movements from the 
ears to the temples up to the forehead, 
then over the top of the head down 
to the neck. 

4. Repeat these movements for several 
minutes. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



169 



12. Give eight reasons why a 
customer may find fault with 
a shampoo. 



1. Improper selection of shampoo. 

2. Insufficient scalp massage. 

3. Insufficient rinsing of hair. 

4. Water too cold or too hot. 

5. Allowing soapy water to run down 
the customer's forehead, eyes, or ears. 

6. Wetting or soiling the customer's 
clothing. 

7. Scraping the scalp with finger nails. 

8. Improper drying of the hair. 



13. For what purpose is a 
oil shampoo indicated? 



hot 



To correct 
scalp. 



a dry condition 



14. What kind of oil is best for 
a hot oil shampoo? 



Either fresh olive oil or almond oil. 



15. When is it advisable to rec- 
ommend an egg shampoo? 



If the customer has a dry, brittle con- 
dition of the hair, and a tender scalp. 



170 HAIR TONICS 



HAIR TONICS 

The barber should be familiar with the different types 
of hair tonics so that he will be able to advise the correct 
tonic for a particular condition (dry or oily scalp). 

A hair tonic is a solution containing alcohol, water, oil, 
and an antiseptic or irritant (a chemical agent which has a 
stimulating action). The liquids cleanse the scalp and help 
to remove dandruff. Whereas the antiseptic prevents the 
growth of bacteria on the scalp, the irritant, together with 
the alcohol, stimulates the circulation. The small amount of 
oil dresses the hair. 

If the label or advertising literature of the hair tonic 
does not reveal the amount of alcohol, antiseptic or irritant 
it contains, it is advisable to get this information direct from 
the manufacturer. To note if there is any improvement 
in the condition of the scalp over a period of time, the 
barber should keep a written record of the kind of tonic used 
and the number of applications. This information will be 
helpful in judging the relative merits of different hair tonics. 

Hair tonics have an important place in the barber shop. 
They can be used to advantage with many scalp and hair 
treatments, or when the hair is to be dressed. The barber 
who knows his work is in a position to discover scalp troubles 
and recommend suitable hair tonics for their correction. Cus- 
tomers appreciate the friendly interest shown by barbers and 
generally follow their advice. The most appropriate time to 
start such a conversation and explain the reason for the tonic 
is just before the hair is to be combed. Once a customer starts 
to use a hair tonic, he will probably continue its use if re- 
minded at the proper time. 

Scalp Steam 

The effectiveness of a hair tonic is increased by means 
of either : 

1. Steaming towels. 

2. Scalp steamer. 



HAIR TONICS 171 

To increase the effectiveness of a hair tonic application, 
the steaming of the scalp is recommended. The steam relaxes 
the pores, softens scalp and hair, increases circulation, making 
the hair and scalp more receptive to hair tonics. 

The scalp steamer is a helpful piece of equipment. It 
assures a constant and controlled source of steam. When 
ready to be used, fill the container with water, fit the hood 
over the customer's head and turn on the electricity. Many 
hoods have openings on the side for the hands to be inserted 
in order to give a scalp massage together with the scalp steam. 

Steaming towels are used in the absence of a scalp steam- 
er. They are prepared, one at a time, by soaking the towel in 
steaming water. The excess water is wrung out and the 
steaming towel is wrapped around the customer's head. As 
the towel cools, another one is applied in its place. 

Step-by-Step Procedure in Giving A Scalp Steam 

1. Apply regular scalp manipulations to increase the cir- 
culation of the blood. 

2. Steam the scalp with two hot towels or scalp steamer. 

3. Apply the hair tonic carefully and massage it well into 
the scalp. 

4. Comb the hair neatly. 



172 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



HAIR TONICS 



1. What are hair tonics and 
what are their benefits? 



Hair tonics are lotions or cosmetics 
applied to the hair or scalp for the 
purpose of preventing or removing 
dandruff and for dressing the hair. 



2. Why should the barber know 
the various kinds of hair 
tonics? 



In order to be able to recommend the 
correct hair tonic for the required con- 
dition of the hair or scalp. 



3. Where can the barber obtain 
reliable information about 
hair tonics? 



Read advertising literature, read labels 
on bottles carefully and consult with 
the manufacturer of each hair tonic. 



4. Why should the barber keep 
a record of the customer's 
hair tonic treatments? 



To note the progress of the treatment 
and for future references in similar 
conditions. 



5. What is a scalp steam? 



The steaming of the scalp by means of 
steaming towels or a scalp steamer, 
followed by the application of a hair 
tonic. 



6. Give the four steps for ap- 
plying a scalp steam. 



1. Apply regular scalp manipulations 
to stimulate the circulation of the blood. 

2. Steam the scalp with two hot towels 
or scalp steamer. 

3. Apply the hair tonic carefully and 
massage it well into the scalp. 

4. Comb the hair neatly. 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



173 



SCALP TREATMENTS 

Scalp Massage 

Scalp massage as used in barbering is given either as a 
separate treatment or in connection with other hair and scalp 
treatments. To become competent in scalp massage, barbers 
require sound training as well as continued practice. 

The purpose of a scalp massage is to preserve the health 
of the scalp and hair, and combat such disorders as dandruff 
and excessive hair loss. 

A thorough scalp massage is beneficial in the following 
ways: 

1. The blood and lymph flow is increased. 

2. Nerves are rested and soothed. 

3. Scalp muscles are stimulated. 

4. Sweat and oil glands become more active. 

5. Scalp is made more flexible. 

6. Promotes hair growth and makes the hair lustrous. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Scalp Massage 



Position: Place the finger-tips of each hand 
at the hair-line on each side of the custo- 
mer's head, hands pointing upward. (Fig. 1). 

Movement: Slide the fingers firmly up- 
ward, spreading the finger-tips. Continue 
until the fingers meet at the center or top 
of the scalp. Repeat three or four times. 



Fig. 1 

Position: Place the fingers of each hand on 
the sides of the head. (Fig. 2.) 

Movement: Use the thumbs to massage 
from behind the ears towards the crown. 
Repeat four or five times. Move the fingers 
so that both thumbs meet at the hair-line 
at the back of the neck. Rotate the thumbs 
upwards towards the crown. 





Fig". 2 



174 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



Position: Step to the right side of the cust- 
omer. Place the left hand back of the head. 
Stretch the thumb and fingers of the right 
hand against and over the forehead, just 
above the eyebrows. (Fig. 3.) 

Movement: Massage the right hand slowly 
and firmly in an upward direction towards 
the crown; while keeping the left hand 
in a fixed position at the back of the head. 
Repeat four or five times. 





Fig. 3 



Position: Step to the back of the customer. 
Place the hands on each side of the head, 
just in front of the hair-line. (Fig. 4.) 

Movement: Rotate the finger-tips three 
times. On the fourth rotation, apply a 
quick, upward twist, firm enough to move 
the scalp. Continue this movement on the 
sides and top of the scalp.. Repeat three 
or four times. 



Fig. 4 

Position: Place the fingers of each hand on 
the side of the head. 

Movement: Rotate the thumbs behind the 
ears. Repeat three or four times. Move 
the thumb to the back of the neck at the 
hair-line. Apply rotary movements in an 
upward direction towards the crown. 




Fig. 5 Diagram of Rotary 
Movements of the Scalp 



Rotary movements are used in scalp massage because 
they loosen the scalp tissue as well as improve the health of 
hair and scalp. When giving a scalp massage, care should 
be taken to give the manipulations slowly without pulling the 
hair in any way. 

To derive the greatest benefit from scalp massages, they 
should be given at least once a week for normal scalps. In 
cases of hair loss or other hair or scalp troubles, give three or 
four treatments each week. A series of scalp treatments 
yields better results than if given occasionally or irregularly. 



SCALP TREATMENTS 175 

When To Recommend Scalp Treatments 

The barber employs scalp treatments in his work for an-y 
of the following reasons: 

1. To keep the scalp clean and healthy. 

2. To promote the growth of hair. 

3. To prevent the excessive loss of hair. 

When advising customers to take scalp treatments, al- 
ways explain that regular, systematic treatments are neces- 
sary to assure lasting improvement. In mild cases, at least 
one scalp treatment a week is required. For severe cases, 
the frequency of treatment is increased to twice or three 
times a week. Scalp treatments can be given less frequently 
if any improvement is noted. 

No barber should undertake to treat any scalp disease. 
If the customer has any abnormal scalp condition, it is safest 
and best to refer him to his private doctor. To assist recov- 
ery, the doctor may suggest that the patient receive supple- 
mentary scalp treatment by the barber. Cooperating with 
the doctor is in the best interests of the customer. 

GENERAL SCALP TREATMENT 

The purpose of a general scalp treatment is to keep the 
scalp and hair in a clean arid healthy condition. Regular 
scalp treatments are also beneficial in preventing baldness. 

Step-by-Step Procedure After A Shampoo 

1. Dry the hair and scalp thoroughly. 

2. Part the hair and apply a scalp ointment directly to 
the scalp. 

3. Place both thumbs about ^4 of an mcn apart on 
each side of the parted hair. 

4. Rotate the thumbs in a circular manner, pressing 
firmly against the scalp. 

5. Make another hair part about an inch away from 
the first one. Apply ointment and massage. 

6. Repeat steps 2-5 and continue until the entire scalp 
has been treated. 



176 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



7. Expose scalp to red dermal light or infra-red lamp 
for four to eight minutes, parting the hair to permit max- 
imum exposure. 





Applying Heat 
with Infra-Red Lamp 



Applying High-Frequency 
Current 



8. Stimulate the scalp with high-frequency current for 
three to five minutes. 

9. Apply hair tonic and work it well into the scalp. 
10. Comb hair neatly. 

Scalp Treatment with Vibrator 

A vibrator is an effective 
mechanical aid in giving a 
stimulating scalp massage. 

Before using the vibrator, 
it is adjusted on the back of 
the hand, leaving the thumb 
and fingers free. Then, turn 
on the current. The vibrations 
are transmitted through the 
cushions of the finger-tips. The 
same movements are followed 
as for a regular hand scalp 
massage. 

When using the vibrator on the scalp, be careful to regu- 
late the intensity and duration of the vibrations as well as 
the pressure used. 




Massaging the Scalp 
with Vibrator 



SCALP TREATMENTS 177 



SCALP STEAM 

A scalp steam is used to stimulate the blood supply going 
to and from the scalp. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Scalp Steam 

1. Apply regular scalp manipulations. 

2. Steam the scalp with two hot towels or with scalp 
steamer. 

3. Apply hair tonic carefully and massage it well into 
the scalp. 

4. Comb hair neatly. 

DRY SCALP TREATMENT 

Inactivity of the oil glands or the excessive removal of 
natural oil from the hair and scalp may produce a dry 
Rendition of the scalp. Among the contributory causes of a 
ey scalp are leading an indoor life, frequent washing of 
5e hair with strong soaps or alcoholic shampoos and the con- 
Siued use of drying tonics or lotions on the hair and scalp. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Dry Scalp Treatment 

1. Massage and stimulate the scalp. 

2. Apply prepared egg shampoo and work it into the 
hair and scalp. If scalp is exceedingly dry, hot oil should be 
applied and massaged into the scalp before the egg shampoo. 

3. Rinse hair with tepid water and dry scalp thoroughly. 

4. Apply tissue cream into the scalp with rotary fric- 
tional movements. 

5. Apply a red dermal light or infra-red lamp over the 
scalp for a period of five minutes. 

6. Apply high-frequency current over the scalp for five 
to six minutes. 

7. Comb hair neatly. 



178 SCALP TREATMENTS 

OILY SCALP TREATMENT 

The main causes of an oily scalp are excessive intake 
of fatty foods in the diet and the resultant over-activity 
of the oil glands. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For An Oily Scalp Treatment 

1. Gently massage the scalp to relax the nerves and 
muscles. 

2. Wash the scalp with tar shampoo. 

3. Dry excessive moisture from the hair, leaving the 
hair in a damp condition. 

4. Apply a mild astringent lotion to the scalp by part- 
ing the hair, and steam it well with several steam towels. 

5. Dry excessive moisture with a towel. 

6. Barber and customer wear eye goggles. 

7. Expose scalp to ultra-violet rays for six to eight 
minutes. 

8. Apply an astringent or alcoholic scalp lotion to the 
scalp. 

9. Expose the scalp to the red dermal lamp for five 
minutes. 

10. Dress the hair, without brushing, using comb only. 

DANDRUFF TREATMENT 

The principal signs of dandruff are the appearance of 
white scales on the hair and scalp and the accompanying 
itching of the scalp. Dandruff may be associated with either 
a dry or oily condition of the scalp. The more common causes 
of dandruff are poor circulation of blood to the scalp, im- 
proper diet, neglect of cleanliness and infection. To prevent 
the spread of dandruff in the barber shop, the barber must 
sterilize all barber implements and avoid the use in common 
of combs, brushes and scalp applicators. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Dandruff Treatment 

1. Shampoo according to the condition of the scalp 
(dry or oily dandruff). 

2. Dry the hair thoroughly. 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



179 



3. Apply a dandruff lotion or antiseptic lotion to the 
scalp with a cotton pledget. 

4. Apply four or five steam towels or use scalp steamer 
over the lotion. 

5. Dry the hair thoroughly. 




Applying Ultra- Violet Rays 



6. Barber and customer put on goggles. 

7. Expose scalp to ultra-violet rays for six to ten min- 
utes, parting the hair every half-inch across the head from 
temple to temple. 

8. Apply regular scalp manipulations for five minutes. 

9. Apply dandruff ointment to the scalp and retain 
it until the next treatment. 

10. Expose scalp to red dermal light for five minutes. 

1 1 . Apply high-frequency current for 6 to 8 minutes. 

12. Comb hair neatly. 





Simple Dandruff 



Excessive Dandruff 



180 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



TREATMENT FOR ALOPECIA 

Alopecia refers to a condition of premature baldness or 
excessive hair loss. The chief causes responsible for alopecia 
are poor circulation, lack of proper stimulation, improper 
nourishment and certain infectious skin diseases such as tinea, 
erysipelas and syphilis. The treatment for alopecia is direct- 
ed at stimulating the blood supply and reviving the hair 
papillae involved in hair growth. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For Treating Alopecia 

1. Apply regular scalp manipulations. 

2. Shampoo the scalp as required. For a dry scalp, 
use an oil shampoo; for an oily scalp, use a tar shampoo. 

3. Dry the scalp thoroughly. 

4. Cover the eyes with goggles. 

5. Expose the scalp to ultra-violet rays for about five 
minutes. 

6. Apply scalp ointment or lotion. 

7. Apply high-frequency current with glass rake elec- 
trode for about five minutes, without sparking. 

8. Comb hair neatly. 





Beginning baldness in men from 30 to 40 
Scalp treatments are most beneficial at this stage 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



181 





Partial baldness in men from 40 to 50 
Scalp treatments are worth trying at this stage 





Extensive baldness in men from 50 to 60 
Too late for scalp treatments 



Extensive baldness in men 

from 61 and over 
Too late for scalp treatments 




182 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



SCALP TREATMENTS 



1. What is the purpose of scalp 
massage? 



To maintain a healthy scalp and hair, 
and to combat such disorders as dan- 
druff and excessive hair loss. 



2. In what ways does scalp 
massage benefit the blood 
and nerves? 



The blood flow is increased, while the 
nerves are rested and soothed. 



3. What is the purpose of gen- 
eral scalp treatment? 



4. What is accomplished by 
using a scalp steam? 



5. When is a dry scalp treat- 
ment recommended? 



To keep the scalp and hair in a 
healthy condition, and to prevent bald- 
ness. 

A scalp steam stimulates the blood 
supply to the scalp. 
If there is a deficiency of natural oil 
in the scalp and hair. 



6. What are some of the com- 
mon causes of a dry scalp? 



Leading an indoor life, frequent wash- 
ing of the hair and the continued use 
of alcoholic lotions, tonics and sham- 
poos on the scalp and hair, and in- 
activity of the oil glands in the scalp. 



7. What are the main causes of 
an oily scalp? 



Excessive intake of fatty foods in the 
diet, and the resultant over-activity of 
the oil glands in the scalp. 



8. What are the principal signs 
of dandruff? 



The appearance of white scales on the 
scalp and hair and the accompanying 
itching of the scalp. 



9. What are the common caus- 
es of dandruff? 



Poor circulation of blood to the scalp, 
improper diet, uncleanliness and in- 
fection. 



10. What are the chief causes of 
alopecia? 



11. What is the aim in treating 
alopecia? 

12. Give the four steps for ap- 
plying a scalp steam. 



Poor blood circulation, lack of proper 
stimulation, improper nourishment and 
certain infectious skin diseases such 
as tinea, erysipelas and syphilis. 
Stimulating the blood supply to the 
hair papillae encourages the growth 
and replacement of hairs. 
"l7~Apply regular scalp manipulations. 

2. Steam the scalp with either 2 hot 
towels or a scalp steamer. 

3. Apply hair tonic carefully and mas- 
sage it well into the scalp. 

4. Comb hair neatly. 



183 



THEORY OF MASSAGE 

Most customers enjoy a facial or scalp massage for its 
stimulating and relaxing effects. It produces a glow in the 
cheeks and a sparkling feeling in the scalp, besides removing 
that tired look. The barber who has acquired a skillful 
touch in applying massage movements is the one whose 
services will be in greatest demand. 

Massage involves the application of external manipula- 
tions to the face or any other part of the body. This is ac- 
complished by means of the hands or with the aid of me- 
chanical or electrical appliances. Each massage movement is 
applied in a definite way to accomplish a particular purpose. 

Parts of the body usually massaged by the barber are the 
head, face and neck. 

The basic manipulations used in massage are as follows: 

1. Effleurage (stroking movement) : This is a light, con- 
tinuous movement applied in a slow and rhythmic manner 
over the skin. No pressure is employed. Over large surfaces, 
the palm is used ; while over small surfaces, the finger-tips are 
employed. Effleurage is frequently applied to the forehead, 
face and scalp, for its soothing and relaxing effects. 




Palmar Stroking 
of Face 



Digital Stroking 
of Forehead 



Digital Stroking 
to Side of Head 



184 



THEORY OF MASSAGE 



2. Petrissage (kneading movement) : In this movement, 
the skin and flesh are grasped between the thumb and fin- 
gers. As the tissues are lifted from their underlying struc- 
tures, they are squeezed, rolled or pinched with a light, firm 
pressure. This movement exerts an invigorating effect on 
the part being treated. 




Digital Kneading of Cheeks 

3. Friction (deep rubbing movement) : This movement 
requires pressure on the skin while it is being moved over the 
underlying structures. The fingers or palm are employed in 
this movement. Friction has a marked influence on the cir- 
culation and glandular activity of the skin. 





Palmar Circular 
Friction of Face 



Circular Friction 
with Finger-Tips 



Circular Friction 
with Thumb 



4. Percussion or tapotement (tapping, slapping and 
hacking movement ) : This form of massage is the most stimu- 
lating. It should be applied with care and discretion. Tap- 
ping is more gentle than slapping movements. Percussion 
movements tone the muscles and impart a healthy glow to 
the part being massaged. 

In tapping, the finger-tips are brought down against, the 
skin in rapid succession ; whereas in slapping, the whole palm 



THEORY OF MASSAGE 



185 



is used to strike the skin. Hacking movement employs the 
outer ulnar borders of the hands which are struck against 
the skin in alternate succession. 

In facial massage, light digital tapping only is used. 




Digital Tapping of Face 

5. Vibration (shaking movement) : The hands or vibra- 
tor are used to transmit a trembling movement to the skin 
and its underlying structures. To prevent over-stimulation, 
this movement should be used sparingly and should never 
exceed a few seconds duration on any one spot. 





Vibratory Movement 
on Face 



Vibrating Nerve Motor 
Points of Face 



Physiological Effects of Massage 

Skillfully applied massage influences the structures and 
functions of the body, either directly or indirectly. The im- 
mediate effects of massage are first noticed on the skin. The 
part being massaged responds by increasing its functional 
activities, as noticed by a more active circulation, secretion, 
nutrition and excretion. There is scarcely an organ of .the 
body which is not favorably affected by scientific massage 
treatments. 



186 THEORY OF MASSAGE 

Beneficial results may be obtained by proper facial and 
scalp massage, as follows: 

1. The skin and all its structures are nourished. 

2. The muscle fiber is stimulated and strengthened. 

3. Fat cells are reduced. 

4. The circulation of the blood is increased. 

5. The activity of the glands is stimulated. 

6. The skin is rendered soft and pliable. 

7. The nerves are soothed and rested. 

8. Pain is sometimes relieved. 

Rest and relaxation are brought about by giving soft, 
light, slow rhythmical movements, or very slow, light vibra- 
tions for a very short time. 

The tissues are stimulated by movements of moderate 
pressure, speed and time, or by light vibrations of moderate 
speed and time. 

Contours or fatty tissues are reduced by firm kneading or 
fast slapping movements, producing a sensation of heat or 
warmth over a fairly long period of time. Moderately fast 
vibrations with firm pressure will also accomplish this re- 
duction. 

Electrical appliances most commonly used in giving facial 
and scalp massage are as follows: 

1. Vibrators. 

2. High-frequency applicators. 

3. Therapeutic lamps. 

a) Infra-red lamp. 

b) Ultra-violet lamp. 

c) White or colored bulbs. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



187 



THEORY OF MASSAGE 



1. What is massage? 



A system of manipulation applied with 
the hands or with the aid of mechani- 
cal or electrical devices. 



2. Which parts of the body are 
usually massaged by the 
barber? 



The head, face and neck. 



3. Name five basic movements 
used in massage. 



1. Effleurage or stroking movements. 

2. Petrissage or kneading movements. 

3. Friction or deep rubbing movements. 

4. Percussion movements (tapping, slap- 
ping or hacking). 

5. Vibration or shaking movements. 



4. What are the effects of mas- 
sage on the skin? 



The skin is nourished, stimulated and 
rendered soft and flexible. 



5. What is the effect of massage 
on the blood? 



The blood circulation is improved. 



6. What are the effects of mas- 
sage on the nerves? 



The nerves are rested and soothed. 



7. What are the effects of mas- 
sage on the muscles? 



The muscles 
strengthened. 



are stimulated and 



8. What is the effect of massage 
on fatty deposits? 



Fat cells are reduced. 



9. Which massage movements 
produce a relaxing effect on 
the customer? 



Soft, light, slow movements, either 
with the hands or vibrator. 



10. Which massage movements 
produce a stimulating effect 
on the customer? 

11. Which massage movements 
reduce fatty tissue? 



Moderate pressure and speed, either 
with the hands or vibrator. 



Firm kneading movements. 



189 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 

Facial treatments can be developed into profitable ser- 
vices which will keep customers satisfied. Discriminating 
men seek facials for their soothing and refreshing benefits. 
Special facials are available for particular conditions of the 
skin. A tactfully directed sales talk can materially help to 
stimulate revenue from facial business. 

To be competent with facials, the barber should know 
how to analyze the condition of the customer's skin and rec- 
ommend the most effective treatment. To accomplish this 
scientifically requires a knowledge of the anatomy of the 
head, face and neck in connection with facial massage. 

Quiet, orderly surroundings are essential for giving fa- 
cials. A quiet manner on the part of the barber is conducive 
to the customer's relaxation. Customers appreciate a clean, 
comfortable facial service. 

Facial treatments are beneficial for the following reasons. 

1. To cleanse, nourish and stimulate the skin. 

2. To rest tired nerves and eyes. 

3. To strengthen weak or sagging muscles. 

4. To preserve the youthful texture and complexion of 
the skin. 

5. To prevent the formation of wrinkles, ageing lines or 
double chin. 

To give various facial treatments, the following supplies 
and equipment should be available: 

Hot and cold water, towels, vibrator, therapeutic lamp, 
and various preparations such as facial creams, ointments, 
lotions, oils, packs, masks and powders. 

Plain Facial 

The plain facial is a general treatment beneficial for its 
cleansing and stimulating action on the skin. It also exer- 
cises as well as relaxes the facial muscles, thereby preserving 
a youthful appearance and preventing the formation of 
wrinkles. 



190 FACIAL TREATMENTS 

The five causes of wrinkles are: 

1. Loosening of the elastic skin fibers because of ab- 
normal tension or relaxation of the facial muscles. 

2. Shrinking of the skin tissue because of advancing years. 

3. Excessive dryness or oiliness of the skin. 

4. Facial expressions which continually crease and fold 
the skin. 

5. Improper hygienic care of the skin. 

Preparation For Plain Facial 

In preparing the customer for a plain facial, the barber 
should pay attention to the following points: 

1. Arrange all necessary supplies in their proper place. 

2. Adjust chair, linens and towels. 

3. Protect customer's hair by fastening a towel around 
his head. 

4. Recline the barber chair. 

5. Wash hands with soap and warm water. 

All creams and other products should be removed from 
their containers with a spatula; never, under any circum- 
stances, should the fingers be dipped into any of the prod- 
ucts used. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Plain Facial 

The following steps are employed in giving a plain facial : 

1. Apply cleansing cream over the face, using stroking 
and rotary movements. 

2. Remove cleansing cream with a smooth warm towel. 

3. Steam face mildly with three towels. 

4. Apply tissue cream with finger tips into the skin. 

5. Gently massage the face, using continuous and rhyth- 
mic movements. (See facial movements on page 192.) 

6. Wipe off excess cream with a hot towel. 

7. Steam the face with hot towels. 

8. Remove hot towel and follow with a cool towel. 

9. Pat an astringent or face lotion over the face and dry. 

10. Apply powder over the face and remove excess powder. 

1 1 . Raise the barber chair. 

12. Comb hair neatly. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 191 

ROLLING CREAM MASSAGE 

The purpose of a rolling cream massage is to cleanse 
and massage the skin of the face. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Rolling Cream Massage 

1. Prepare the customer and steam the face with warm 
towels. 

2. Apply the soft rolling cream. 

3. Manipulate the face with rhythmic, rotary, stroking, 
rubbing movements, performed with the tips of the fingers, 
until most of the cream has been rolled off. 

4. Apply a little cold cream, and cleanse the skin with 
a few lighter manipulations. 

5. Remove all the cream with a warm towel, and follow 
with a mild witch-hazel steam. 

6. Apply one or two cool towels and apply a toilet 
lotion. 

7. Dry thoroughly and powder. 

Points To Remember In Facial Massage 

1. Have customer thoroughly relaxed. 

2. Provide quiet atmosphere. 

3. Maintain a clean, orderly arrangement of supplies. 

4. Follow systematic procedure. 

5. Give facial massage properly. 

Seven Reasons Why A Customer May Find Fault 
With A Facial Massage 

1. Not being careful or sanitary. 

2. Harming or scratching the skin. 

3. Excessive or rough massage. 

4. Getting facial creams into eyes. 

5. Using towels that are too hot. 

6. Breathing into the customer's face. 

7. Offensive body odor, foul breath or tobacco odor. 



192 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



FACIAL MASSAGE MOVEMENTS USING HANDS 



Facial Massage Movements 





Fig. 1 

1. Apply cleansing cream light- 
ly over the face with stroking, 
spreading and circular move- 
ments. (Fig. 1). 



Fig. 2 

2. Stroke fingers across fore- 
head with up and down move- 
ments. (Fig. 2). 




Fig. 3 

3. Manipulate fingers across 
forehead with a circular move- 
ment. (Fig. 3). 



Fig. 4 

4. Stroke fingers upward along 
side of nose (Fig. 4). 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



193 




Fig. 5 

5. Apply a circular movement 
over side of nose and use a 
light, stroking movement around 
the eyes. (Fig. 5). 




Fig. 7 

8. Gently stroke both thumbs 
across upper lip. (Fig. 7). 




Fig. 9 

12. Manipulate fingers from un- 
der chin and neck to back of 
ears, and up to temples. (Fig. 
9, 10). 

Repeat all massage movements 
three to six times. 




Fig. 6 

6. Manipulate the temples with 
a wide circular movement. 
(Fig. 6). 

7. Manipulate the front and 
back of the ears with a circular 
movement. (Fig. 6). 

V 




Fig. 8 

9. Manipulate fingers from cor- 
ners of mouth to cheeks and 
temples with a circular move- 
ment. (Fig. 8). 

10. Manipulate fingers along 
lower jaw bone from tip of chin 
to ear with a circular move- 
ment. (Fig. 8). 

11. Stroke fingers above and 
below along lower jaw bone 
from tip of chin to ear (Fig. 8). 



K 




Fig. 10 



194 FACIAL TREATMENTS 



FACIAL MASSAGE MOVEMENTS USING VIBRATOR 

1. Adjust the vibrator 
on right hand and place 
finger-tips on left nostril. 
Vibrate left side of face as 
follows : 

2. Vibrate a few light 
up and down movements on 
the left side of nose. 

3. Gently slide fingers 
around eyes and then direct 
them toward center of fore- 
head, n^ 

4. Vibrate rotary move- 
ment towards the left tem- 
ple. Pause for a moment. Facicd 







5. Continue the rotary 

movements down along the jaw line toward the tip of chin. 

6. Vibrate from the chin towards the cheek, using 
wider, firmer movements. 

1 '. Continue with a slow, light stroke at the temple, 
around the left ear, over the jaw bone, towards the center 
of the neck and then below the chin. 

8. Vibrate rotary movements over the neck, behind 
the ear, up to the temple and then towards the center of 
the forehead. 

9. Repeat steps 2-8 on the right side of the face. 

10. Repeat steps 2-8 on the left side and then over on 
the right side of face. 

Rules to Follow in Using Vibrator 

1. Regulate the number of vibrations to avoid over- 
stimulation. 

2. Do not use the vibrator too long in any one spot. 

3. Vary the amount of pressure in accordance with 
the results desired. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



195 



4. Do not use vibrator over the upper lip as the vibra- 
tions may cause discomfort. 

5. For soothing and relaxation effects, give very slow, 
light vibrations for a very short time. 

6. For stimulating effects, give light vibrations of mod- 
erate speed and time. 

7. For reducing fatty tissues, give moderate, fast vibra- 
tions with firm pressure. 





ELECTRIC VIBRATORS 

Illustrations of three different types of electric hand vibrators 

popular with barbers which are used for 

facial and scalp massage. 



196 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



1. What are five benefits of fa- 
cial treatments? 



1. To cleanse, nourish and stimulate 
the skin. 

2. To rest tired nerves and eyes. 

3. To strengthen weak or sagging mus- 
cles. 

4. To preserve the youthful texture 
and complexion of the skin. 

5. To prevent the formation of wrin- 
kles, ageing lines or double chin. 



2. Name five causes of wrinkles. 



1 Loosening of the elastic skin fibers 
because of abnormal tension or relax- 
ation of the facial muscles. 

2. Shrinking of the skin tissue because 
of advancing years. 

3. Excessive dryness or oiliness of the 
skin. 

4. Facial expressions which continually 
crease and fold the skin. 

5. Improper hygienic care of the skin. 



3. Which supplies and equip- 
ment are required for facial 
treatments? 



4. Why should the barber know 
the histology of the skin and 
the anatomy of the head, 
face and neck in giving fa- 
cial massage? 



Hot and cold water, towels, vibrator, 
therapeutic lamp and various prepar- 
ations such as facial creams, oint- 
ments, lotions, oils, packs, masks and 
powders. 

In order to select the proper cream for 
each type of skin and be able to apply 
the proper massage manipulations as 
required by the customer. 



5. Why should the barber know 
the composition and action 
of various creams applied to 
the skin? 



In order to select and recommend the 
proper preparation for the particular 
condition of the skin being treated. 



PLAIN FACIAL 



1. In giving a plain facial, what 
attention should the barber 
show toward his customer? 

2. Why should the barber nev- 
er lean over the customer's 
face? 



Make customer comfortable and make 
a facial as restful and refreshing as 
possible. 

To avoid inhaling each other's breath 
or smelling each other's body odor. 



3. How should the customer be 
protected from offensive to- 
bacco odor? 



The barber should never use tobacco 
while working on a customer. If to- 
bacco was used, rinse mouth before 
starting to work. 



4. What preparation should be 
made before giving a plain 
facial? 



Arrange all necessary supplies in their 
proper place; wash hands; adjust lin- 
ens and towels; protect the customer's 
hair by fastening a towel around his 
head; recline the customer. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



19V 



5. Briefly outline the procedure 
for giving a plain facial. 



1. Apply cleansing cream over the face, 
using stroking and rotary movements. 

2. Remove cleansing cream with a 
smooth, warm towel. 

3. Steam face mildly with* three towels. 

4. Apply tissue cream into the skin 
with finger-tips. 

5. Gently massage the face, using con- 
tinuous and rhythmic movements. 

6. Wipe off excess cream with a hot 
towel. 

7. Steam the face with hot towels. 

8. Remove hot towels from face and 
follow with a cool towel. 

9. Pat an astringent or face lotion over 
the face, and dry. 

10. Apply powder over the face and 
remove excess powder. 

11. Raise the barber chair. 

12. Comb hair neatly. 



6. What are five important 
points to remember in giv- 
ing a plain facial? 



7. Give seven reasons why a 
customer may find fault with 
a plain facial. 



1. Have customer thoroughly relaxed. 

2. Provide quiet atmosphere. 

3. Maintain clean, orderly arrangement 
of supplies. 

4. Follow systematic procedure. 

5. Give facial massage properly. 

1. Not being careful and sanitary. 

2. Harming or scratching the skin. 

3. Excessive or rough massage. 

4. Getting facial cream into eyes. 

5. Using towels that are too hot. 

6. Breathing into customer's face. 

7. Offensive body odor, foul breath or 
tobacco odor. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



199 



SPECIAL PROBLEMS 
DRY SKIN FACIAL 

The purpose of a dry skin facial is to stimulate the 
activity of the oil glands and to replenish a deficiency of 
the natural oil on the skin. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Dry Skin Facial 

1 . Prepare customer as for a plain facial. 

2. Apply cleansing cream over the face. 

3. Remove the cream with a soft, dry towel. 

4. Swab face with cotton pads dipped in witch hazel. 

5. Steam the face moderately with 3 or 4 warm towels. 

6. Massage a tissue cream containing lanolin gently into 
the skin, using stroking, circular and rotary movements. 

7. Expose the skin to a red dermal light or infra-red 
lamp for three to six minutes. 





Applying Heat 
with Infra-Red Lamp 



Applying High-Frequency 
Current 



8. Knead the skin between the finger-tips and thumb 
by gently twisting it to the right and then to the left. 

9. Apply the high-frequency current with a glass elec- 
trode for three to four minutes. 

10. Wipe excess cream with three or four warm towels, 
followed by a cold towel. 

1 1 . Dry the face thoroughly with a soft towel. 

12. Rub several drops of muscle oil into the skin. 

13. Apply powder. 



200 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



FACIAL FOR OILY SKIN AND BLACKHEADS 

An excessively oily skin or any skin showing signs of 
enlarged pores or blackheads will benefit from this special 
facial treatment. This condition may be due to excessive use 
of starchy and oily foods, and also due to faulty hygienic 
habits. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For An Oily Skin Facial 

1. Prepare customer as for a plain facial. 




Notice Plug, or "Blackhead" Around Mouth 
of Hair Follicle 



2. Cleanse the skin either with cleansing cream or soap 
and warm water. 

3. Steam the skin with three hot towels. 

4. Press out blackheads with a sterilized comedone ex- 
tractor. 







Comedone Extractor 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



201 



5. Pat the face with an astringent lotion and then apply 
an astringent cream. 

6. Apply regular hand manipulations for about five 
minutes. 

7. Apply the mild high-frequency current for three 
to four minutes. 

8. Apply warm towels to remove astringent cream. 

9. Sponge the face with a soda solution (one table- 
spoonful of baking soda to one quart of water). 

10. Dip several layers of cheese cloth or a piece of linen 
into astringent lotion and spread it over the face for a 
few minutes. 

11. Remove covering and apply one or two cold towels. 

12. Apply an astringent lotion, dry and powder the face. 



FACIAL FOR WHITEHEADS (MILIA) 



Follow routine of facial for 
oily skin and blackheads for 

steps 1 to 3. The milia must be 
removed by opening the tiny 
sacs with the sharp sterilized 
end of the comedone extractor 
and expelling the contents. A 
piece of cotton dipped in an an- 
tiseptic solution should then be 
applied. Continue the treat- 
ment from steps 5 to 12. 



Neck of Hair Follicle 
and opening lor 
Hair Shalt 




Plug ol 

Sebaceous Matter 
including a 
Coiled Hair 

Hair Root 



Hair Bulb 

Hair Papilla 

Formation of Milia (Whitehead) 

and Enlargement of Sebaceous 

Gland with Horny Plug 




202 FACIAL TREATMENTS 

CLAY PACK 

The clay pack is suitable for 
all types of skin except a dry skin. 
It has a mild bleaching and tonic 
effect which prevents undue 
wrinkling of the skin. 
Clay Pack 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Clay Pack 

1. Prepare a warm clay pack according to the manu- 
facturer's directions. 

2. Prepare the customer by arranging the linen and fas- 
tening a towel around the head to protect the hair. 

3. Steam the skin with three moderately hot towels. 

4. Spread the warm clay pack over the warm skin, 
using continuous stroking and rotary movements. 

5. Cover the eyes with cotton pads moistened in witch 
hazel. 

6. Dry the pack on the skin by exposure to a red 
dermal lamp. 

7. Remove the pack with warm, damp steam towels. 

8. Expose the face to the soothing blue light for a few 
minutes. 

9. Apply cold cream or tissue cream with a few sooth- 
ing massage movements. 

10. Remove cream, and apply two cold towels. 

11. Apply a mild lotion, dry and powder. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 203 



HOT OIL MASK 

The hot oil mask is recommended for extremely dry, 
parched and scaly skins, prevalent during dry, hot or windy 
weather. .It is used to soften, smooth and stimulate the skin 
tissues. 




Hot Oil Mask 

Step-by-Step Procedure for Hot Oil Mask 

1. Prepare customer as for plain facial. 

2. Prepare mask. Saturate cotton pads (4x4 inches) or 
an 18-inch square of gauze, in warm mineral or 
muscle oil. 

3. Follow steps 1 to 5 as in plain facial on page 190. 

4. After the manipulations, do not remove cream, but 
place the cotton pads or gauze over the face. 

5. Adjust eye pads. 

6. Use red dermal light or infra-red lamp from ten to 
fifteen minutes. 

7. Remove mask and cream. 

8. Finish the facial as in plain facial. 



204 FACIAL TREATMENTS 

BLEACH PACK 

The bleach pack is used for the purpose of lightening 
the shade of any tan or freckles present on the skin. Re- 
peated treatments are necessary before any noticeable im- 
provement can be obtained. 

A bleach pack can be prepared by mixing together the 
following ingredients: One tablespoon of fine almond meal, 
one tablespoon of starch, two tablespoons of citric acid, 
ten drops of tincture of benzoin, and two or three table- 
spoons of peroxide. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Bleach Pack 

1. Prepare bleach pack freshly for each application. 

2. Prepare customer by arranging linen and fastening 
a towel around the head to protect the hair. 

3. Cover the eyes with cotton pads and protect the 
eyebrows and sideburns with cold cream. 

4. Steam the skin with three warm towels. 

5. Spread the bleach mixture with the finger-tips over 
the entire face. 

6. Retain the bleach mixture on the face for six to 
eight minutes. 

7. Remove the pack gently with warm, moist towels. 

8. Apply lemon cream with light, soothing manipula- 
tions. 

9. Remove excess cream and apply two cool towels. 
10. Apply a mild lotion, dry and powder. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 



205 




ACNE FACIAL 

Upon the advice of a physician 
local treatments are helpful in cor- 
recting acne and in clearing up the 
skin. Cleanliness and sterilization 
must be strictly observed in treating 
any form of acne. 

Step-by-Step Procedure 
For An Acne Facial 

1. Cleanse the skin with cleans- 
ing cream. 

2. Steam the face with three 
moderately hot towels, and remove 

Pimples , . , . , , 

the cream with the last towel. 

3. Press out whiteheads and blackheads with a steri- 
lized comedone extractor. 

4. Sponge the skin well with an 
antiseptic acne lotion. 

5. Rub an acne cream gently 
into the skin. 

6. Cover the eyes with cotton 
pads moistened in witch hazel. 

7. Expose the face to the red 
dermal light or infra-red lamp from 
five to ten minutes. 

8. Apply high-frequency cur- 
rent for five minutes. Do not spark. 

9. Wipe off excess cream with 
two or three warm towels. 

10. Sponge the skin with an 
astringent lotion. 

1 1 . Apply one or two cool towels, followed by an appli- 
cation of witch hazel. 

12. Dry and powder the face. 



Hmr Shall 

Opening of Puslule 




Formation of Acne Pustule 

and Enlargement of 
Sebaceous Gland with Pus 



206 FACIAL TREATMENTS 

ACNE ROSACEA FACIAL 

Acne Rosacea is also known as Rosacea 

Acne rosacea is a chronic, inflammatory congestion of the 
cheeks and nose. It is characterized by redness, dilation of 
the blood vessels, and the formation of papules and pustules. 

Acne rosacea is usually caused by bad digestion and over- 
indulgence in alcoholic liquors. It may also be caused by 
over-exposure, constipation, faulty elimination and hyper- 
acidity. It is usually aggravated by eating and drinking hot, 
highly spiced, or highly seasoned foods or drinks. 

The treatment of acne rosacea belongs in the hands of a 
physician, but the barber can improve the condition by giving 
the following treatment under the guidance of the physician. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For Treating Rosacea 

No hot towels are used in this facial. 

1. Apply cleansing cream. 

2. Remove cream gently with a soft towel. 

3. Sponge the face with a soda lotion (dissolve one 
large tablespoon of baking soda in one quart of water). 

4. Apply astringent cream. , 

5. Expose the face to the blue light for five minutes. 

6. Apply high-frequency current from ten to fifteen 
minutes. (The galvanic current may be used with the positive 
electrode instead of the high-frequency current). 

7. Sponge face with witch hazel. 

8. Dry and powder the face. 



FACIAL TREATMENTS 207 

FARADIC FACIAL 

Faradic facial is recommended as a general stimulant. It 
gives the muscles and tissues a mild passive exercise with a 
soothing relaxation to the nerves. It has no chemical effect. 

Step-by-Step Procedure For A Faradic Facial 

1. Cleanse the skin with a cleansing cream. 

2. Steam the face mildly and apply a cold cream. 

3. Apply the faradic current, using the electrode. 

4. Give facial manipulations as in facial massage. 

5. Wipe the cream with a couple of warm towels, and 
finish with two cool towels. 

6. Apply a good antiseptic astringent. 

7. Dry and powder the face. 



208 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



SPECIAL PROBLEMS FACIAL TREATMENTS 



1. What is the purpose of a dry 
skin facial? 



2. What are the principal caus- 
es of an oily skin? 



3. When is a bleach pack ad- 
vised for a customer? 



To stimulate the activity of the oil 
glands and to replenish a deficiency 
of natural oil on the skin. 

Excessive intake of starchy and oily 
foods, and faulty hygienic habits. 

To lighten the shade of tan or freckles. 



4. Which instrument is used to 
press out blackheads and 
whiteheads? 



Sterilized comedone extractor. 



5. What is the action of a clay 
pack on the skin? 



6. Which facial treatments re- 
quire the guidance of a phy- 
sician? 



It has a mild bleaching and tonic ef- 
fect which prevents undue wrinkling 
of the skin. 

Acne facial and rosacea facial. 



7. What are the beneficial ef- 
fects of a faradic facial? 



8. In which facial treatments 
should the eyes be covered 
with cotton pads? 



Affords mild exercises for the facial 
muscles and relaxes the nerves. 

Clay pack, bleach pack, and acne 
facial. 



9. In which facial treatments 
should an astringent lotion 
or cream be applied? 



10. In which facial treatment are 
hot towels omitted? 



11. When is a hot oil mask rec- 
ommended? 



Oily skin facial, acne facial, rosacea 
facial and faradic facial. 



Rosacea facial. 



For customers whose skin is extreme- 
ly dry, parched and scaly. 



PART III 



BARBER SCIENCE 



211 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

Anatomy and physiology are sciences dealing with the 
structure and functions of the body. The body is organized 
into a complex network of bones, muscles, nerves and blood 
vessels. What affects one part ultimately influences the wel- 
fare of the entire body. 

The study of anatomy and physiology will help the bar- 
ber to adjust his procedures in accordance with bodily 
conditions. 

Physiology is the study of the functions or activities per- 
formed by the various organs of the body. 

Anatomy is the study of the gross structure of the body, 
which can be seen with the naked eye, such as muscles, 
bones and arteries. 

Histology is the study of the minute structure of the body 
which can be seen only with the aid of a microscope such as 
the layers of the skin or hair. 

To practice barbering it is necessary for the barber to 
shave with the grain of the beard and to know the reaction 
of the skin to shaving. It is equally important that he know 
the reaction of the skin, scalp and hair to the applications of 
hot and cold towels, soaps, hair tonics, creams, massage and 
electricity. For these reasons, the barber should study his- 
tology of the skin, scalp and hair as well as the anatomy of 
the underlying structures of the head, face and neck. 

CELLS 

In order to understand anatomy and physiology it is nec- 
essary to study the structure and activities of cells. The 
human body is composed of millions of specialized cells which 
perform the functions required for living. 

Cells are the basic units of all living matter animals, 
plants and bacteria. Living cells differ from each other in 
respect to their size, shape, structure and function. In the 
human body, the cells are highly specialized, and perform 
such vital functions as movement, absorption, reproduction, 
growth and elimination. 



212 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



The cell consists of protoplasm and contains the following 
essential parts: 




Cell Membrane 
or Wall 

Centrosome 
Cytoplasm 

Nuclear Membrane 
Nucleus 

Nucleoli 



STRUCTURE 
OF THE CELL 




Diagram illustrating Indirect Division or Mitosis of the Cell 



Composition. Most cells consist of the following parts: 

1. Protoplasm: 

a) Cytoplasm. b) Centrosome. c) Nucleus. 

2. Cell membrane or wall. 

All living cells contain protoplasm, a colorless jelly-like 
substance in which protein, fat, carbohydrate, water and 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 213 

mineral salts are present. A thin cell membrane or wall per- 
mits soluble substances to enter and leave the protoplasm. 
Near the center of the cell a nucleus ( dense protoplasm ) is lo- 
cated. Outside the nucleus, cytoplasm (less dense proto- 
plasm) and a centrosome are found. The cytoplasm con- 
tains food materials necessary for growth, reproduction and 
self-repair. The centrosome and nucleus control the repro- 
duction of the cell. 

Growth of the cell. As long as the cell receives an ade- 
quate supply of food, oxygen ancl water, eliminates waste 
products and is surrounded by a favorable environment ( pro- 
per temperature and the absence of poisons and pressure), 
it will continue to grow and prosper. When these require- 
ments are not fulfilled, the cell will stop growing and may 
eventually die. 

In the human body, the bone and nerve cells stop grow- 
ing at maturity. Most body cells are capable of growth 
and self-repair during their life cycle. However, the deli- 
cate nerve cells are incapable of self -repair after injury or 
destruction by disease. 

Reproduction of the cell. When the cell reaches maturity, 
reproduction may take place by direct or indirect division. 

1. Direct division, or amitosis, is a simple process where- 
by the cell elongates, the nucleus and cytoplasm divide in 
half, forming two separate cells. This method of reproduc- 
tion occurs mainly among bacteria and plant life and rarely 
takes place in human tissues. 

2. Indirect division, or mitosis, is a complex process 
whereby a series of changes occur in the nucleus before the 
cell divides in half. This method of reproduction occurs in 
human tissues. (See illustration on preceding page.) 

Metabolism is a complex chemical process whereby the 
body cells are nourished and supplied with energy to carry on 
their many activities. In a healthy body, the metabolic rate is 
kept under control by a secretion from the thyroid gland. 

There are two phases to metabolism: 

1. Anabolism, a constructive process. 

2. Catabolism, a destructive process. 



^14 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

During anabolism, the cells of the body absorb water, 
food and oxygen for the purposes of growth, reproduction 
and repair. In catabolism, the cells consume what they have 
absorbed in order to perform specialized functions, such as 
muscular effort, secretion or digestion. 

TISSUES 

Tissues are composed of groups of cells of the same kind. 
Each tissue has a specific function and can be recognized by 
its characteristic appearance. Body tissues are classified as 
follows : 

1. Connective tissue: serves to support, protect and bind 
together other tissues of the body. Bone, cartilage, ligament, 
tendon, and adipose tissue are examples of connective tissue. 
Adipose or fatty tissue forms a protective layer underneath 
the skin, surrounds the vital organs and affords support to 
blood vessels and nerves in these areas. 

2. Muscular tissue: serves to contract and move various 
parts of the body. 

a) Voluntary muscle tissue (striated) is under the 
control of the will and permits the movements of muscles 
such as those of the face, arms and legs. 

b) Involuntary muscle tissue (non-striated) is under 
the control of special nerve centers which permit the move- 
ment of the intestines, stomach, and blood vessels. 

c) Heart muscle tissue (cardiac) permits the move- 
ment of the heart as the blood is pumped through it. 

3. Nerve tissue: serves to carry messages, controls and co- 
ordinates body functions by means of neurons or nerve cells 
found in the muscles, skin, vital organs and glands. 

4. Epithelial tissue: serves as a protective covering of the 
outer and inner body surfaces such as that found on the skin, 
mucous membranes, linings of the heart, digestive and res- 
piratory organs and glands. 

5. Liquid tissue: serves as a carrier of food, waste prod- 
ucts, and hormones, by means of the blood and lymph. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 215 

ORGANS 

Organs are structures containing two or more different 
tissues which are combined to accomplish a definite func- 
tion. Each organ is so constructed that in a state of health 
it will perform its function with ease and efficiency. Among 
the important organs found in the body are the brain, 
heart, lungs, kidneys, and the various glands. 

SYSTEMS 

Systems are groups of organs which cooperate for a 
common purpose. The human body is composed of the fol- 
lowing important systems. 

Skeletal System Circulatory System Respiratory System 
Muscular System Endocrine System Digestive System 
Nervous System Excretory System Reproductive System 

The skeletal system is the physical foundation of the body. 
It is composed of differently shaped bones united by movable 
and immovable joints. The function of the skeletal system 
is to serve as a means of protection, of support or of loco- 
motion. 

The muscular system covers and shapes the skeleton. 
Practically every contraction and movement of the body is 
due to the action of muscles. The obvious movements of 
the arms and hands, the contraction of the heart and stom- 
ach, ajid the changes in facial expression, are the direct 
result of muscular activity. 

The nervous system is a highly developed and sensitive 
organization of nerve tissues. Through it the individual is 
made aware of his existence and relation to the outside 
world. Nerves, branching out from the brain and spinal 
cord, carry messages to and from all parts of the body. 

The circulatory system is composed of the heart, blood 
vessels, blood and lymph. The pumping action of the heart 
distributes the vital fluids, blood and lymph, through the 
blood vessels to all parts of the body. The blood acts as 



216 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

a two-way carrier of supplies, bringing oxygen and food 
materials to the cells and taking away waste products and 
secretions from the cells. The lymph reaches all parts of the 
body not reached by the blood, and assists in the exchange of 
supplies required by the cells. 

The endocrine system represents a group of specialized 
glands which produce secretions called hormones. Among 
the important endocrine glands are the pituitary and thy- 
roid glands whose hormones regulate the processes of growth 
and metabolism. 

The excretory system includes the skin, kidneys, liver, 
lungs and large intestine, which are engaged in the process of 
eliminating waste products from the body. The skin gives off 
perspiration, the lungs exhale carbon dioxide gas, the kid- 
neys excrete urine, and the large intestine discharges refuse 
from the body. The liver produces bile which contains certain 
waste products. 

The respiratory system is confined to the chest cavity 
where the lungs are located. The blood, as it passes through 
the lungs, is purified by the removal of carbon dioxide gas 
and the intake of oxygen gas. 

The digestive system includes the mouth, stomach and 
intestines, which are part of a continuous tube about thirty 
feet in length. The function of digestion is to break down 
complex food substances into simple materials fit to be ab- 
sorbed and used by the body cells. Various digestive glands, 
including the pancreas and liver, form and discharge, at 
various points along the route, enzymes that act o'n food 
in the process of digestion. 

The reproductive system, the function of which is to 
insure the continuance of the race by the reproduction of 
other human beings. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



217 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



1. Define anatomy. 



Anatomy is the study of gross struc- 
tures of the body, such as muscles, 
bones or arteries. 



2. Define physiology. 



3. Why should the barber study 
the anatomy of the head, 
face and neck? 



Physiology is the study of the func- 
tions or activities performed by var- 
ious organs of the body. 
In order to have a knowledge of those 
parts upon which the barber works. 



Cells 



1. What is a cell? 



2. Of what are cells composed? 

3. Name the principal parts of 
the cells and their functions. 



4. What is metabolism? 



A cell is the basic unit of all living 

matter. 

Cells are composed of protoplasm and 

a cell membrane or wall. 

1. Cytoplasm contains food materials. 

2. Nucleus necessary for reproduction 
of the cell. 

3. Centrosome controls reproduction 
of the cell. 

4. Cell membrane or wall permits sol- 
uble substances to enter and leave the 
protoplasm. 

Complex chemical process whereby 
body cells are nourished and perform 
their functions. 



5. Name two phases of metab- 
olism. 



Anabolism and catabolism. 



6. Which activities occur dur- 
ing anabolism? 



The cell takes in whatever it needs of 
food, water and oxygen. 



7. Which activities occur dur- 
ing catabolism? 



The cell uses up whatever it has taken 
in. 



8. Name two methods of cellu- 
lar reproduction. 



Direct division or amitosis. 
division or mitosis. 



Indirect 



9. What are tissues? Name 5. 



Groups of cells performing the same 
function. Bone tissue, muscle tissue, 
nerve tissue, liquid tissue and epi- 
thelial tissue. 



10. What is an organ? Give five 
examples. 



A structure containing two or more 
different tissues and performing a vi- 
tal function of the body. Brain, heart, 
lungs, kidneys and various glands. 



11. What are systems? 



A group of organs which work to- 
gether in performing the various func- 
tions of the body. 



12. Name nine body systems. 



Skeletal, muscular, nervous, circula- 
tory, endocrine, excretory, respiratory, 
digestive and reproductive systems. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



219 



THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 

The skeletal system is the framework of the body which 
supports and protects the other body systems. It is composed 
of bones, cartilages and ligaments. 

The skeleton of the adult consists of 206 bones, compris- 
ing about 1 6 % of the weight of the body, as follows : 

Skull 22 Upper extremities 64 

Spinal column 26 Lower extremities 62 

Hyoid bone 1 Ear bones 6 

Ribs and sternum 25 

Total 206 

Bones* 

Composition. Bone is the hardest structure, forming the 
framework of the body. It is composed of about one-third 
animal matter and two-thirds mineral or earthy matter. 

1. The animal (organic) matter consists of bone cells, 
blood vessels, connective tissues and marrow. 

2. The mineral (inorganic) matter consists mainly of 
phosphate and carbonate of lime. 




End covered 
with Cartilage 

Cancellous 
Tissue 



Medullary 
Cavity 



Compact 
Tissue 



End covered 
with Cartilage 

Cancellous 
Tissue 



Longitudinal Section of a Long Bone 

Appearance. Externally, bone appears to be light pink 
color; internally, deep red. 

Bone tissue. There are two types of bone tissue: cancel- 
lous (spongy) and dense (compact). 

*Throughout this text the official B.N.A. (Basle Anatomical Nomen- 
clature] system of classifying anatomical terms has been adopted. Old 
terms are placed in parentheses. 

NOTE: Side views of anatomical drawings have identical structures on 
both sides. 



220 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

1. The compact tissue forms the hard bone found in 
the shafts of long bones, and outside of flat bones. The com- 
pact bony tissue is traversed by small channels called Haver- 
sian canals, containing minute blood vessels. 

2. The cancellous tissue forms the interior of bones, the 
ends of bone shaft, and the very thin bones. It consists of 
a meshwork of bony arches through which blood vessels 
and nerves pass. 

Marrow is a soft fatty substance filling the cavities of 
bones whose function is largely concerned with the forma- 
tion of red corpuscles (red blood cells). 

Covering. The covering of bone is called periosteum, 
a fibrous membrane whose function is to protect the bone, 
and serve as an attachment for tendons, ligaments, blood 
vessels and nerves. 

Nutrition. Bone receives its nourishment through blood 
vessels (capillaries) which make their way through the 
periosteum into the interior of bones. Bone marrow also 
aids in the nutrition of bone. 

Functions of bones are as follows: 

1. To give shape and strength to the body, and keep 
the various parts and organs in position. 

2. To protect organs from injury. 

3. To afford a solid place for the attachment of muscles. 

4. To act as levers for all bodily movements. 

Forms or Shapes. There are several forms or shapes of 
bones found in the human body, namely: 

1. Flat bones, as the skull. 

2. Long bones, as the legs and a'rms. 

3. Short bones, as the fingers and toes. 

4. Irregular bones, as the vertebrae (spine), 

The various bones of which the skeleton consists are 
connected -at different parts of their surfaces, and such con- 
nections are called joints, or articulations. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 221 

Joints. The various joints come under the following 
classifications. 

1. Movable as in fingers. 

2. Immovable as in the skull. 

3. Slightly movable as in the spine. 

Types of Joints. The various types of joints found in 
the human body are as follows: 

1. Pivot the neck. 

2. Hinge the elbow and knees. 

3. Ball and socket the hips and shoulders. 

4. Gliding the spine. 

5. Condyloid the wrist and ankle. 

Cartilage and Ligaments 

Cartilage (also called gristle), is a firm and tough non- 
vascular, elastic substance, similar to bone but without its 
mineral content. It serves the following purposes: 

1. To cushion the bones at the joints. 

2. To prevent jarring between bones in motion, as 
in walking. 

3. To give shape to certain external features, such as the 
nose or ears. 

Ligaments are bands or sheets of fibrous tissues, which 
help to support the bones at the joints, such as the wrist or 
ankle. 

The synovial fluid is a lubricating fluid whose function 
is to prevent friction, at the joints. 

The Bones of the Head and Face 

The skull is the skeleton of the head. It is an oval bony 
case which shapes the head, and protects the brain. The 
skull is divided into two parts: the cranium, consisting of 
eight bones; and the skeleton of the face, consisting of 
fourteen bones. 

The Eight Bones of the Cranium 

Occipital bone Situated at back and lower part of 
the cranium. 



222 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



Two parietal bones By their union the sides and roof 
of the cranium are formed. 

Frontal bone This bone is divided into two portions : the 
vertical portion forming the forehead, and the horizontal or 
orbital portion, which is a part of the formation of the roof 
of the orbits (eye sockets) and nasal fossae (depressions). 

Two temporal bones Situated on either side of the skull 
below the parietal bones. 




Zygomatic Arch 



MastoiJ process 



Cervical Vertebrae 



BONES OF THE HEAD, FACE AND NECK 

Facial Bones: 

Two nasals. 

Two turbinals (inferior nasal 

Vomer. conchae) 

Two lacrimals. 

Two zygomatics (malar). 

Two palatines (palate). 

Two maxillae (upper jaw). 

Mandible (lower jaw). 
Cervical Vertebrae Neck region of the spinal column. 
Neck Bone Hyoid bone Front of throat. 



Cranial Bones: 

Occipital Base of skull. 
Two parietals Crown. 
Frontal Forehead. 
Two temporals Ear region. 
Ethmoid Between the orbits. 
Sphenoid Base of cranium and 
back of orbits (eye sockets). 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 223 

Ethmoid bone Light and spongy, situated between the 
orbits (eye sockets) at the root of nose, forming part of the 
nasal cavities. 

Sphenoid bone Situated at the base of the cranium and 
back of orbits, joins together all the bones of the cranium. 

The Fourteen Bones of the Face 

Two nasal bones Oblong bones placed side by side in 
the upper middle part of the face, forming the bridge of nose. 

Two turbinal bones (inferior nasal conchae) Thin layers 
of spongy bone curled upon themselves like a scroll, situated 
on either side of outer wall of the nasal fossae (depressions). 

Vomer A single bone at the back of the nasal fossae, 
forming part of the septum (dividing wall) of the nose. 

Two lacrimal bones The smallest and most fragile 
bones of the face, situated at the front part of the inner 
wall of the orbits (eye sockets). They contain part of the 
canals through which the tear ducts run. 

Two zygomatic or malar bones Small quadrangular 
bones in the upper and outer part of the face. They form 
the prominence of the cheeks, part of the outer wall and 
floor of the orbits, and part of the temporal and zygomatic 
fossae (depressions). 

Two palatine bones (palate) Situated at the back part 
of the nasal fossae, forming the floor and outer wall of the 
nose, the roof of the mouth, and the floor of the orbits. 

Two maxillae (upper jaw) Largest bones of the face, 
excepting the mandible ; by their union the whole upper jaw 
is formed. 

Mandible bone (lower jaw) The largest and strongest 
bone of the face. 

Bones of the Neck 

Hyoid bone A "U" shaped bone, between the root of the 
tongue and the laryngeal prominence (Adam's Apple). It 
supports the tongue. 

Cervical vertebrae Form the top part of the vertebral 
column located in the neck region. 



224 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



CRANIUM 



CERVICAL 
VERTEBRAE 




BONES OF 
TARSUS 



BONES OF 
METATARSUS 



PHALANGES 



Diagram illustrating the Human Skeleton 

Front view., showing the principal bones, their size and shape. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



225 



BONES 



1. What is bone? 



Bone is the hard tissue forming the 
framework of the body. 



2. What are four important 
functions of bones in the 
body? 



1. Gives shape and strength to the body. 

2. Protects organs from injury. 

3. Serves as an attachment for muscles. 

4. Acts as levers for all bodily move- 
ments. 



3. Of what is bone composed? 



About one-third organic matter (bone 
cells, blood vessels, connective tissue 
and marrow) and about two-thirds in- 
organic matter (mainly phosphate and 
carbonate of lime). 



4. Describe the external part of 
bones. 



It has a light pink color and consists 
of hard tissue protected by an outer 
covering known as the periosteum. 



5. Describe the internal part of 
bones. 



It has a deep red color and consists of 
a spongy tissue containing cavities 
filled with marrow. 



6. How does the bone receive 
its nourishment? 



Through blood vessels which enter the 
interior of the bone by way of the 
periosteum. 



7. What is a joint? 



A connection between the surfaces of 
bones. 



8. What is cartilage or gristle? 



Cartilage is a firm, elastic substance 
resembling bone but lacking its min- 
eral content, making it softer than bone. 



9. What is the main purpose of 
cartilage? 



It serves to cushion the bones at the 
joints. 



10. What is a ligament? 



A band of fibrous tissue which helps 
to support the bones at the joints as in 
the wrist or ankle. 



11. What is the function of syn- 
ovial fluid? 



To lubricate the joints to prevent fric- 
tion. 



12. What is the skull? 



An oval, bony case which shapes the 
head and protects the brain. 



13. How many bones are found 
in the skull? 



22 bones. 



14. How many bones are found 
in the cranium? Name them. 



8 bones. One occipital, two parietals, 
one frontal, two temporals, one eth- 
moid and one sphenoid. 



15. Locate the occipital bone. 



Back and lower part of the skull. 



16. Locate the parietal bones. 



The sides and top of head. 



17. Locate the frontal bone. 



Forehead. 



18. Locate the temporal bones. Located in the ear region. 



19. Locate the ethmoid bone. 



Placed between the eye sockets. 



20. Locate the sphenoid bone. 



Situated at the base of the cranium 
and back of the eye sockets. 



226 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



21. How many bones are found 
in the face? Name them. 



14 bones. Two nasals, two turbinals, 
two lacrimals, one vomer, two zygo- 
matics, two palatines, two maxillae 
(upper jaw), and one mandible (low- 
er jaw). 



22. Locate the nasal bones. 



23. Locate the vomer bone. 



Placed side by side in the upper mid- 
dle part of the face. 

Located back of nasal depressions. 



24. Locate the turbinal bones. 



Situated on the side wall of the nose. 



25. Locate the lacrimal bones. 



Situated at the front part of inner wall 
of eye sockets. 



26. Locate the zygomatic bones. 



Form the cheek bones at the upper 
and outer part of the face. 



27. Locate the palatine bones. 
What does it form? 



Situated at back part of nasal de- 
depressions. Forms roof of mouth. 



28. Which bony structure 
formed by the maxillae? 



is Upper jaw. 



29. Which bony structure is 
formed by the mandible? 



Lower jaw. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 227 

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 

The muscular system covers, shapes and supports the 
skeleton, and its function is to effect all movements of 
the body. The muscular system relies upon the skeletal and 
nervous systems for its activities. 

The muscular system consists of over 500 muscles, large 
and small, comprising approximately 40% to 50% of the 
weight of the body. 

Muscles 

Muscle is fibrous contractile and elastic tissue by which 
movements of every part of the body are accomplished. Mus- 
cles do not cover and surround the body in continuous 
sheets, but consist of separate bundles made up of elastic 
fibers varying in size and length, according to the function 
of each muscle. 

Muscles are attached to bones, cartilage, ligaments, ten- 
dons, skin, and sometimes to each other. 

Usually muscles are not directly connected to bones, but 
'are joined by means of glistening cords, called tendons, or 
sinews. Where one muscle connects with another, each mus- 
cle ends in a flat expanded tendon or fibrous sheet, called an 
aponeurosis. A delicate membrane of connective tissue called 
fascia covers the muscles and separates their numerous layers. 

Origin of muscle is the term applied to the more fixed 
attacKmenls, such as muscles attached to bones (referred to 
as skeletal muscles) or to some other muscle. Iaertio-of 
muscle is the term applied to the more movable attachments, 
such as muscles attached to the skin, or movable muscles. 

Nutrition. Each muscle has its own set of blood vessels, 
nerves and lymphatics, from which it receives nourishment. 

Types of muscles. There are three kinds of muscular 
tissue, namely: voluntary, involuntary and cardiac. 

1. Voluntary or striated muscles, which are controlled 
by the will. These muscles are attached to the skeleton and 
are in turn fastened to the bones, skin, and other muscles, 




228 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



by tendons. They are composed of cells which appear striated 
or striped under the microscope. 

MUSCLE CELLS 



NUCLEUS 





Non-Striated 




Striated 



Cardiac 



2. Involuntary or non-striated muscles, which function 
without the action of the will. These muscles are found 
in the walls of the stomach, intestines and blood vessels. They 
consist of smooth spindle-shaped cells which overlap at the 
ends. 

3. Cardiac or heart muscles are found in the substance 
of the heart. They are composed of cells which are not as dis- 
tinctly striated as the cells of skeletal muscle. They are quad- 
rangular in shape, joined end to end, and are grouped in 
bundles supported by a framework of connective tissue. 

Stimulation. Muscular tissue may be stimulated by any 
of the following* agencies: chemical (acid or salt), mechani- 
cal ( message), electrical agents (vibrator and faradic cur- 
rent), thermal agents (heat and therapeutic lamps) and 
nerve impulses. 

Several characteristics that enable muscular tissue to 
perform the functions of motion are: 

1. Excitability or irritability the power of responding 
to stimulation. 

2. Contractibility the thickening of a muscle when in 
action and its thinning when at rest. 

3. Extensibility the ability to stretch. 

4. Elasticity the ability to recover the original form. 

5. Muscle tone normal degree of tension and the quick- 
ness with which the muscle responds to stimulation. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



229 



MUSCLES OF THE HEAD, FACE AND NECK 

The voluntary muscles are the only ones affected by ex- 
ternal manipulations, and of these the barber is concerned 
only with the muscles of the face, head and neck. It is es- 
sential that the barber know where these muscles are located, 
so that facial and scalp manipulations will be directed at 
the muscles. 




Corrugator 

Procerus 

Nasalis 

Di{at Nam Ant 
Dilatator Naris Post. 
Depressor Septi 

Oris 

Buccinator 
Mentalis 
Quad. Labii In/. 

'riangularis 



Muscles of the Head, Face and Neck 

Muscle of the Scalp 

Epicranius (occipito-frontalis) A broad muscle covering 
the top of the skull. It consists of two parts: the occipitalis, 
or posterior part, and the frontalis, or anterior part, which 



230 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



are connected by an aponeurosis called galea aponeurotica. 
The two muscles act independently. The frontalis raises the 
eyebrow, draws the scalp forward and causes transverse 
wrinkles across the forehead. The occipitalis draws the scalp 
backward. 

Muscles of the Ear 

Muscles of the ear are practically functionless. 
Auricularis superior Raises the ear slightly. 
Auricularis posterior Draws the ear backward slightly. 
Auricularis anterior Draws the ear forward slightly. 

Muscles of the Eyebrow and Eyelid 

Orbicularis oculi (orbicularis palpebrarum) Surrounds 
the margin of the orbit, and closes the eyelid. It has an 
external or orbital section, which is controlled by the will; 
and an internal or palpebral portion, whose action is in- 
voluntary, as in blinking. 

Corrugator (torrugator supercilii) Extends along the 
line of the brow. It draws the eyebrow downward and in- 
ward, forming vertical wrinkles above the nose, as in 
frowning. 

Levator palpebrae superioris Opens the eye by raising 
the upper eyelid. (An internal eye muscle not affected by 
massage treatment.) 




MUSCLE SoP the 

eye 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



231 



Muscles of the Nose 

Procerus ( pyramidalis nasi) Covers the bridge of the 
nose. Draws down eyebrow and puckers up the skin over 
bridge of nose, causing transverse wrinkles over bridge 
of nose. 

Nasalis (compressor nasi) Compresses the nostril. 

Depressor septi (depressor alae nasi) Contracts the 
opening of the nostril. 

Dilatator (dilator) naris posterior and anterior Ex- 
pands the opening of the nostrils. 




MUSCLES of 
the MOUTH 



Muscles of the Mouth 

Quadratus labii superioris (levator labii superioris) 
Consists of three portions (angular head, infra-orbital head 
and zygomatic head) which function jointly to raise and 
draw back the upper lip and elevate the nostril, as expressed 
in distaste or contempt. 

Caninus (levator anguli oris) Raises angle of mouth 
and aids to keep it closed. 

Zygomaticus (zygomaticus major) Raises angle of 
mouth backward and upward, as in laughing or smiling. 



232 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY " 

Mentalis (levator menti) Raises and pushes up lower 
lip, causing wrinkling of the chin. 

Quadratus labii inferioris (depressor labii inferioris) 
Depresses the lower lip down and a little to one side, as in 
the expression of sarcasm. 

Triangularis (depressor anguli oris) Pulls down the 
corner of the mouth. 

Buccinator Contracts and compresses the cheek, as in 
blowing ; accessory muscle of mastication. 

Orbicularis oris Forms a flat band around the upper 
and lower lips. Holds mouth closed when contracted ; puck- 
ers and wrinkles lips as in kissing or whistling. 

Risorius Draws corner of mouth out and back, as in a 
broad grin. 

Facial Expressions 

Most of the changes in the expression of the face are 
caused by the action of the mouth and eye muscles and of 
those which are attached to them. For example, the lifting 
of the eyelids by the frontalis expresses surprise. The wrink- 
ling of the brows by the corrugator speaks disapproval or be- 
wilderment. The risorius, or grinning muscle, draws the 
corners of the mouth outward and backward. The quad- 
ratus labii superioris lifts the nostrils and upper lip together, 
expressing distaste or contempt. Pleasure is expressed by the 
lifting of the angles of the lips upward and outward, while 
grief depresses^ them. (There are but three of the depressors, 
or grieving muscles, on each side, and six for the manifest- 
ation of happier feelings.) 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



233 



MUSCLES of 
MASTICATION 




Superficial muscles have been removed to show 
the underlying muscles of mastication. 

Muscles of Mastication 

Masseter This muscle is made up of two layers, deep 
portion and superficial portion. Closes jaws, as in chewing. 

Temporalis (temporal muscle) Closes the jaws. 

Pterygoideus internus and externus (not shown on illus- 
tration) Between mandible and cheek bone. Draw lower 
jaw (mandible) forward. (Not affected by massage treat- 
ment:) 

Muscles of the Neck and Back 

Platysma (platysma myoides) Depresses the lower jaw 
and draws down the lower lip. 

Sterno-cleido-mastoideus ( sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle) 
Turns head obliquely to one side; pulls head downward 
and forward. 

Trapezius Covers the back of the neck and upper re- 
gion of the back. Draws the head to one side or backward ; 
rotates shoulder blade. 



234 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



NOTE: BNA terms for various muscles are recorded in heavy type. 

MUSCLES OF THE SCALP 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Epicranius Occipitalis 
Occipito- 
frontalis Frontalis 


Occipital bone 

Aponeurosis 


Aponeurosis 
Skin of forehead on 
the line of eyebrows 


Draws scalp backward. 
Raises eyebrow, draws 
scalp forward, causes 
transverse wrinkles 
across the forehead. 


NERVES. The frontalis is supplied by the temporal branches, and the occipitalis by the posterior 
auricular branch of the facial nerve. 



MUSCLES OF THE NECK 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Platysma 
Platysma myoides 


Deep skin of neck 
and shoulder region 


Lower border of 
mandible & skin & 
muscles of mouth. 


Depresses lower jaw 
and draws down lower 
lip. 



NERVES. The platysma is supplied by the cervical branch of the facial nerve. 



Trapezius 


Middle of occipital 
bone, and the ver- 
tebrae of neck and 
chest 


All around the shoul- 
der, the clavicle in 
front and spine of 
the scapula in back 


Draws head to one side 
or backward; rotates 
the shoulder blade. 


Sterno-cleido- 
mastoideus 

Sterno-cleido-mastoid 
muscle 


Sternum and clav- 
icle, by two heads 


Mastoid process of 
temporal bone, and 
occipital bone. 


Turns head obliquely 
to one side; draws 
head downward and 
forward. 


NERVES. Trapezius and sterno-cleido-mastoideus are supplied by the spinal part of the accessory 
nerve and branches from the second and third cervical nerves. 



MUSCLES OF THE EYELIDS AND EYEBROWS 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Orbicularis oculi 
Orbicularis palpe- 
brarum 
This muscle consists of 
palpebral (internal) or 
orbital (external) parts. 


Palpebral Upper 
part of nasal bone 

Orbital Frontal 
process of maxilla 
and frontal bones 


Palpebral Skin at 
outer corner of eye 

Orbital Near its 
own origin 


Palpebral Closes the 
eye involuntarily as in 
blinking. 
Orbital Closes the eye 
forcibly, wrinkling the 
surrounding skin. 


Corrugator 
Corrugator supercilii 


Nasal prominence at 
inner end of eye- 
brow 


Skin about half way 
across the orbital 
arch 


Draws eyebrow down- 
ward & inward, caus- 
ing vertical lines above 
nose, as in frowning. 



NERVES. The Orbicularis oculi and Corrugator are supplied by the temporal and zygomatic 
branches of the facial nerve. 

Levator palpebrae superioris raises the upper eyelid. This muscle, being an internal eye 
muscle, is not affected by massage treatment. It is supplied by the oculomotor nerve. 

MUSCLES OF THE NOSE 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Procerus 

Pyramidalis nasi 


Skin covering bridge 
of nose. 


Skin over lower part 
of forehead between 
eyebrows 


Draws down the eye- 
brow and produces 
transverse wrinkles 
over bridge of nose. 


Nasalis 
Compressor nasi 


Maxilla near wing 
of nose 


Skin at lower bridge 
of nose 


Compresses the 
nostril. 


Depressor septi 
Depressor alae nasi 


A depression in front 
of maxilla 


Septum and back 
part of wing of 
nose 


Contracts the opening 
of the nostril. 


Dilatator (dilator) 
naris anterior and 
posterior 


Nasal notch of max- 
illa and cartilage 
of nose 


Skin near margin of 
nostril 


Expands the opening of 
the nostril. 



NERVES. Muscles of the nose are supplied by the buccal branches of the facial nerve. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



235 



MUSCLES OF THE MOUTH 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Quadratic labii 
superior is 
Levator labii 
superior-is 


Maxilla next to nose, 
lower margin of or- 
bit and zygomatic 
bone 


Cartilage wing and 
skin ofynose, orbic- 
ularis oris and up- 
per lip 


Raises and draws back 
upper lip and elevates 
nostril to express dis- 
taste or contempt. 



This muscle consists of three portions: angular head, infraorbital head, and zygomatic head. 



Caninus 
Levator anguli oris 


Canine depression of 
maxilla 


Skin at angle of 
mouth 


Raises angle of mouth, 
& aids to keep it closed. 


Zygomaticus 

Zygomaticus major 


Outer arch of zygo- 
matic bone 


Skin at angle of 
mouth 


Draws angle of mouth 
backward and upward, 
as in laughing or 
smiling. 


Orbicularis oris 


Other muscles of the 
mouth surrounding 

orbicularis oris. 


Acts as insertion for 
other muscles of 
the mouth 


Holds mouth closed 
when contracted; puck- 
ers & wrinkles lips as 
in kissing or whistling. 



NERVES. The above muscles of the mouth are supplied by the buccal branches of the facial nerves. 



Mentalis 
Levator menti 


Incisive depression 
of mandible 


Skin of chin 


Raises and pushes up 
lower lip, causing 
wrinkling of chin. 


Quadratic labii 
inferioris 
Depressor labii 
inferioris 


Oblique line of 
mandible 


Skin of lower lip 


Depresses lower lip 
down and a little to 
one side, as in expres- 
sion of sarcasm. 


Triangularis 
Depressor anguli oris 


Oblique line of 
mandible 


Skin at angle of 
mouth 


Pulls down corner of 
mouth. 


Risorius 


Fascia near ear over 
the masseter 


Skin at angle of 
mouth 


Draws corner of mouth 
out and back, as in a 
broad grin. 



NERVES. The above four muscles of the mouth are supplied by the mandibular and buccal branches 
of the facial nerve. 



Buccinator 


Alveolar portions of 
upper and lower 
jaw bones 


Orbicularis oris 


Contracts and com- 
presses cheek, as in 
blowing; accessory 
muscle of mastication. 


NERVES. The buccinator is supplied by the buccal branches of the facial nerve. Buccinator nerve 
from the trigeminal is sensory only in this area. 



MUSCLES OF MASTICATION 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Masseter 


Arch of zygomatic 
bone 


Lower border and 
around the corner 
of mandible 


Closes jaws, as in 
chewing. 


Temporalis 

Temporal muscle 


Temporal fossa and 
fascia 


Anterior border of 
crown-shaped pro- 
cess of m/ndible 


Closes the jaws. 



Pterygoideus externus and interims are two muscles which draw the lower jaw 
forward. These muscles are not affected by massage treatments. 

NERVES. Muscles of mastication are supplied by branches from the mandibular division of the 
trigeminal nerve. 

MUSCLES OF THE EAR 



NAME 


ORIGIN 


INSERTION 


FUNCTION 


Auricularis anterior 

Attrahens aurem 


Frontalis and 
aponeurosis 


Front of ear 


Draws the ear for- 2 i 
ward slightly. jj 


Auricularis superior 
Attollens aurem 


Aponeurosis 


Upper part of ear 


Raises the ear *^ 
slightly. 3 j; 


Auricularis posterior 

Retrahens aurem 


Mastoid portion- of 
temporal bone 


Back of ear 


Draws ear back- w "e 
ward slightly. .-2 



NERVES. The' auriculares anterior and superior are supplied by the temporal branches; the auric* 
ularis posterior is supplied by the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve. 



236 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



1. What are the important 
functions of muscles in the 
body? 



Muscles cover, shape and support the 
skeleton, and effect all bodily move- 
ments. 



2. Of what is a muscle com- 
posed? 



Muscle is composed of fibrous contrac- 
tile and elastic tissue. 



3. Name three kinds of mus- 
cular tissue. 



1. Voluntary or striated muscle. 

2. Involuntary or non-striated muscle. 

3. Cardiac or heart muscle. 



4. Distinguish between volun- 
tary and involuntary mus- 
cles. 



Voluntary muscles such as those of 
the face, arms and legs, are controlled 
by the will. Involuntary muscles such 
as those of the stomach and intestines, 
are not controlled by the will. 



5. What is a tendon or sinew? 



A tendon is a white glistening bundle 
of fibrous tissue which attaches a 
muscle to a bone. 



6. What is an aponeurosis? 



An aponeurosis is an expanded ten- 
don which serves to connect one mus- 
cle with another. 



7. What is a fascia? 



A fascia is a membrane of connective 
tissue which covers and separates mus- 
cular layers. 



8. How do the muscles receive 
their nourishment? 



Food elements are brought to the 
muscles by small blood and lymph 
vessels. 



9. Name five agents capable of 
stimulating muscular tissue. 



1. Chemical agents, such as acids or 
salts. 

2. Mechanical agents, such as massage. 

3. Electrical agents, such as the vibra- 
tor and faradic current. 

4. Thermal agents, such as heat and 
therapeutic lamps. 

5. Nerve impulses. 



10. Name the scalp muscle and 
its two portions. 



Epicranius muscle, consists of occipi- 
talis and frontalis. 



11. Locate the scalp muscle and 
its two portions. 



The epicranius covers the entire top 
of the scalp, from the base of the 
skull to the eyebrows. The occipitalis 
is the back portion; the frontalis is 
the front portion. 



12. Which structure connects the 
occipitalis and frontalis? 



An aponeurosis 
euro tic a. 



called galea apon- 



13. What is the function of the 
occipitalis? 



Occipitalis draws the scalp backward. 



14. What is the function of the 
frontalis? 



Raises the eyebrow and draws scalp 
forward, causing transverse wrinkles 
across forehead. 



15. Name two muscles of the 
eyes. 



Orbicularis oculi and corrugator. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



237 



16. Which muscle draws the eye- 
brow downward and in- 
ward? 



Corrugator. 



17. Which muscle closes the eye? 

18. Which muscle covers the 
bridge of the nose? 



Orbicularis oculi. 



Procerus. 



19. Which muscle depresses the 
lower lip? 



Quadratus labii inferioris. 



20. Which muscle raises and 
draws back the upper lip? 

21. Which muscle raises the 
angle of the mouth back- 
ward and upward? 



Quadratus labii superioris. 



Zygomaticus. 



22. Which muscle holds the 
mouth closed when con- 
tracted? 



Orbicularis oris. 



23. Which muscle pulls down 
the corner of the mouth? 



Triangularis. 



24. Which muscle raises and 
pushes up the lower lip? 



Mentalis. 



25. Which muscle contracts and 
compresses the cheek? 

26. What is mastication? 



Buccinator. 



The act of chewing. 



27. Name four important mus- 
cles of mastication. 



Masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus in- 
terims and pterygoideus externus. 



28. Name three important mus- 
cles of the neck and back. 



Platysma, trapezius and sterno-cleido- 
mastoid muscle. 



29. Which muscle draws the 
head downward and for- 
ward? 



Sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle. 



30. Which muscle depresses the 
lower jaw and draws down 
the lower lip? 



Platysma. 



31. Which muscle draws the head 
backwards or to one side? 



Trapezius. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



239 



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

The nervous system is considered to be one of the most 
important systems of the body because it controls and coor- 
dinates the functions of all the other systems and makes 
them work harmoniously and efficiently. 

The nervous system is composed of the brain, spinal cord, 
cranial nerves and spinal nerves. 

The functions of the nervous system are : 

1. To rule the body by controlling all visible and invisi- 
ble activities. 

2. To control human thoughts and conduct. 

3. To govern all internal and external movements of 
the body. 

4. To give the power to see, hear, smell, taste, move, talk, 
feel, think and remember. 

NUCLEUS 
DENDRITES 




PROTECTIVE 
FATTY SHEATH 



END 
BRANCHES 
AXON 



A neuron. 



A neuron is the structural unit of the nervous system. 
It is composed of a nerve cell (cell body) and its outgrowth 
of long and short fibers, called cell processes. The nerve 
cell (cell body) stores energy and nutriment for the cell 



240 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

processes which convey the nerve impulses throughout the 
body. Practically all the nerve cells are contained in the 
brain and spinal cord. 

Nerves are long white cords made up of fibers (cell pro- 
cesses) from nerve cells. They have their origin in the 
brain and spinal cord, and distribute branches to all parts 
of the body. 

Nerves furnish both sensation and motion. 

Sensory nerves, termed afferent nerves, carry impulses 
or messages from sense organs to the brain where sensations 
of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, smell, taste and pain are 
experienced. 

Motor nerves, termed efferent nerves, carry impulses 
from the brain to the muscles, the transmitted impulses 
causing movement. 

/ 1., Central Jl. Brain 

II. Cerebro-spinal ) System (2. Spinal cord 

NERVOUS ) nervous system \ 2> Peripheral Jl. Cranial nerves 

SYSTEM \ System \2. Spinal nerves 

'2. Sympathetic U. Ganglia: issued from spinal cord 
nervous system (2. Communicating Branches 

The nervous system is divided into two main divisions, 
namely: the cerebro-spinal nervous system, and the sympa- 
thetic nervous system. 

The cerebro-spinal nervous system, which consists of 
both the brain and the spinal cord, as well as the spinal 
nerves and cranial nerves, controls speech, taste, sight, touch 
and smell, and governs the voluntary muscles. Making 
up this large system are the central and peripheral systems. 

The central system consists of the brain and spinal cord. 

The brain, the principal nerve center, is the largest and 
most complex nerve tissue. It controls sensations, voluntary 
muscles, and the power to think and feel. It includes: 

1. Cerebrum, large frontal part, presides over such men- 
tal activities as reasoning, will, and higher emotions. 

2. Cerebellum, the smaller, lower part, keeps the body 
balanced, makes muscular movements smooth and graceful. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



241 



3. Medulla oblongata, connecting the brain with the 
spinal cord, regulates the movements of the heart, and 
organs of respiration and digestion. 

4. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves, originating in the 
brain, reach various parts of the head, face and neck. 




Sp.nol COrd 



Spinal Cord and 
Spinal Nerves 



Vertebrae 

Esophagus 



Diagram of the Head 



The spinal cord is composed of masses of nerve cells 
with fibers running upward and downward. It originates 
from the brain and extends down to the lower extremity 
of the trunk, being enclosed and protected by the spinal 
column. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extending from 
the spinal cord are distributed to the muscles and skin of 
trunk and limbs; and connect with the nerves of the sym- 
pathetic system. 

The peripheral system is located in the skin, muscles 
and sense organs. It consists of the terminal endings of the 
cranial and spinal nerves. These nerves send sensory im- 
pulses to the brain and spinal cord and receive motor im- 
pulses from the brain. 



242 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



The sympathetic or autonomic nervous system governs 
the involuntary muscles controlling the functions of circula- 
tion, digestion and respiration, and controls secretion of 
the glands as well. 



SKIN 




RECEPTOR 



SENSORY NEURON 



SYNAPSE 




EFFECTOR 



MOTOR NEURON 

The Path of a Nerve Impulse 




PIN At 
CORD 



A reflex arc is the path through which a nervous im- 
pulse travels in responding to a stimulus. For example, the 
quick removal of the hand from a hot object. 

Nerve fatigue is caused by excessive mental or mus- 
cular work, resulting in an accumulation of waste products. 
Weariness, poor complexion, and dull eyes may be signs 
of nerve exhaustion. Rest and relaxation, assisted by mas- 
sage, help to relieve nerve 'fatigue. 

Nutrition. Nerves are nourished through blood vessels, 
lymph spaces, and lymphatics found in the connective tis- 
sues surronding them. 

The nervous system may be stimulated by physical agents 
and chemical agents. 

1. Physical agents such as light, heat, electricity or 
massage. 

2. Chemical agents such as acids, bases or salts. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



243 



Cerebral (Cranial) Nerves 

There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves all connected 
to some part of the brain surface. They issue through open- 
ings on the sides and base of the cranium. They are classi- 
fied as motor, sensory, and mixed nerves containing both 
motor and sensory fibers. 

The cranial nerves are named numerically according to 
the order in which they arise from the brain, and also by 
names which describe their nature, function, or distribu- 
tion, as follows: 

Classification of Cerebral (Cranial) Nerves 



Number and Names 


Type 


Function 


1. Olfactory 


Sensory 


Sense of smell. 


2. Optic 


Sensory 


Sense of sight. 


3. Oculomotor 


Motor 


Motor nerve to eye muscles. 


4. Trochlear 


Motor 


Motor nerve to the superior oblique 
muscle of the eye. 


*5. Trigeminal or 
Trifacial 


Sensory-Motor 


Sensory nerve to scalp, forehead and 
face; motor nerve to muscles of mas- 
tication. 


6. Abducent 


Motor 


Motor nerve to lateral rectus muscle 
of eye. 


*7. Facial 


Sensory-Motor 


Sensory nerve to tongue (taste); motor 
nerve to muscles of facial expression, 
part of scalp and muscles of neck. 


8. Acoustic or 
Auditory 


Sensory 


Sense of hearing and maintenance of 
equilibrium. 


9. Glossopharyngeal 


Sensory-Motor 


Sensory nerve to tongue (taste); motor 
nerve to muscles of pharynx. 


10. Vagus or 
Pneumogastric 


Sensory-Motor 


Sensory nerve to respiratory and di- 
gestive organs; motor nerve to heart, 
respiratory and digestive organs. 


*11. Accessory 


Motpr 


Motor nerve to sterno-cleido-mastoid 
and trapezius muscles of neck. 


12. Hypoglossal 


Motor 


Motor nerve to muscles of tongue and 
hyoid bone. 



'Important nerves for the barber to know in facial and scalp services. 



244 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



NERVES OF THE HEAD, FACE AND NECK 

Of the twelve cerebral nerves, only three are of interest to 
the barber in giving facial and scalp treatments. These are: 

1. Fifth cerebral (trigeminal or trifacial) nerve. 

2. Seventh cerebral (facial) nerve. 

3. Eleventh cerebral (accessory) nerve. 

The cervical nerve, originating from the spinal cord in 
the neck, is also of interest to the barber. 

The proper use of massage or electric current can favor- 
ably influence the nerve and muscular functions of the area 
being treated. 



Temporal Br. 
of Zygomatic N. 



Auriculo' 
Temporal N. 

Temporal N. 




Supra-Orbital N. 
Supra-Trochlear N. 

Infra-Trochlear N. 

Nasal N. 
Infra-Orbital N. 

Upper Zygomatic N. 
Lou'er Zygomatic N. 

Buccal N. 

Mental N. 
Mandibutar N. 



Cervical N. 
Cervical Cutaneous N. 



Ant. Supra Clavicular N. 
Mid. Supra Clavicular N. 



Nerve Supply to Scalp, Face and Side of Neck. 
(Facial Nerves are marked in italics) 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



245 



Fifth Cerebral (Cranial) Nerve 

Fifth cerebral (trigeminal or trifacial) nerve is the largest 
of the cerebral nerves and is the chief sensory nerve of the 
face and the motor nerve of the muscles of mastication. It 
emerges from the brain, forms a ganglion just inside of the 
skull, just forward of the ear. It splits into three main divi- 
sions and many branches, all of which are inside of the skull 
with the exception of a few terminal branches. The three 
main divisions and their branches are ophthalmic, maxillary, 
and mandibular. 



1. Ophthalmic Division 
v 2. Maxillary Division 
[3. Mandibular Div v 




Supra-Orbital N. 
upra-Trochlear N. 

Frontal N. 
Naso-Ciliary N. 
Infra-Trochlear N. 

Infra-Orbital N 

Nasal N. 



Facial 
Auriculo-Tempa 

Inferior Alveolar N. 
Lingual N. 



External 
Carotid Artery 



Sup. Alveolar N. 
Buccinator N. 



Mental N. 



External Maxillary 
(Facial) Artery 

Sub. Maxillary Gland 



Fifth Cerebral Nerve 

Only important anatomical terms are explained in the text. Anatomi- 
cal terms of lesser importance are not explained in the text. 

A. Ophthalmic Division ( sensory nerve ) supplies branches to 
the skin of the forehead, eyelid, eyebrow and nose. Its 
principal branches are: 
1. Frontal nerve is subdivided to form: 

a) Supra-orbital nerve; affects the forehead, scalp, 
eyebrow, and upper eyelid. 



246 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

b) Supra-trochlear nerve; affects skin between eyes 
and upper side of nose. 

2. Naso-ciliary (nasal) nerve is subdivided to form: 

a) Infra-trochlear nerve; affects membrane and skin 
of nose. 

b) Nasal nerve; affects point and lower side of nose. 

c) Lacrimal nerve; affects upper eyelid and tear 
% glands. (Not shown on illustration.) 

B. Maxillary Division (sensory nerve) supplies the forehead, 
lower eyelid, upper lip and skin of cheek and nose. Its 
principal branches are: 

1. Zygomatic nerve; affects the temple, side of forehead 
and skin of upper part of cheek. 

2. Infra-orbital nerve; affects skin of lower eyelid, side 
of nose, upper lip, mouth and their corresponding 
glands. 

G. Mandibular Division (motor and sensory nerve) supplies 
the temple, auricle of ear, lower lip, lower part of face 
and muscles of mastication. Its principal branches are: 

1. The anterior portion (motor and sensory nerve) which 
is subdivided to form: 

a) Masseteric nerve; affects the masseter muscle. 
(Not shown on illustration.) 

b) Deep temporal nerves ; affect the muscles above the 
temple. ( Not shown on illustration. ) 

c) Buccinator nerve (sensory) ; affects the buccinator 
muscle and the skin of the cheek. 

2. The posterior portion (motor and sensory nerve) of 
the mandibular division is subdivided to form: 

a) Auriculo-temporal nerve; affects the external ear 
'"" and the skin above the temple and up to the top 

of the skull. 

b) Inferior alveolar nerve; affects all the teeth along 
the lower jaw. Its principal branch is: 

1. Mental nerve; affects the skin of lower lip and 
chin. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



247 



Temporal Br. 
'of ZygomatuTN. 



Supra-Orbital N. 

Supra-Trochlear N, 

Auriculo-Temporal N. 

Infra-Trochlear N. 
Malar Br. 




In/ra-Orbital 
Plexus 
Buccal N. 
Mental 1 

Lower Zygomatic N. 
Buccal N. 
Mandibular N. 
Cervical N. 

Distribution of the Fifth and Seventh Cerebral (Cranial) Nerves 

To Head, Face and Neck. 
(Facial nerves are marked in italics.) 

Seventh cerebral (facial) nerve is the chief motor nerve of 
the face. It emerges near the lower part of the ear ; its divi- 
sions and their branches spread through all the muscles of 
expression, and down to the muscles of the neck. Of all the 
branches of the facial nerve, those most important to the 
barber are: 

1. Posterior auricular nerve; affects the muscles behind 
the ear and at the base of skull. 

2. Temporal nerve; affects the muscles of the forehead, 
eyelid, temple and upper part of cheek. 

3. Zygomatic nerve (upper and lower) ; affects the mus- 
cles of the upper part of cheek. 

4. Buccal nerve; affects the buccinator and orbicularis 
oris muscles. 

5. Mandibular nerve; affects the muscles of chin and 
lower lip. 

6. Cervical nerve; affects the side of the neck and the 
prlatysma muscle. 



248 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



Cervical Br. 
of Facial Nerve 




Greater Occipital N. 



Smaller (Lesser) 
Occipital N. 



Cervical Cutaneous N. 



Ant. Supra Clavicular N 
Mid. Supra Clavicular N 



Third Occipital N. 
Great Auricular N. 

Accessory N. 



Post. Supra 
Clavicular N. 



Nerve Supply to Side of Neck and Back of Head 

Eleventh cerebral (accessory) nerve (motor) extends over 
the neck and upper part of back by means of two branches. 

1. Accessory portion is distributed only to internal struc- 
tures. 

2. The spinal portion affects the sterno-cleido-mastoid 
and trapezius muscles of the neck and back. 

Cervical nerves originate at the spinal cord and their 
branches supply the muscles and skin at the back of the head 
and neck, as follows : 

1 . Great Auricular nerve is subdivided to form : 

a ) Anterior branches which affect the skin of the face 
and external ear. 

b) Posterior branches affect the skin behind the ear. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



249 



2. Smaller (Lesser) Occipital nerve affects the scalp area 
at the base of the skull. 

3. Cervical Cutaneous (cutaneous colli) extends over 
front and side of neck as far down as the breast bone. 

4. Greater Occipital nerve affects the scalp and back 
part of the head as far up as the top of the head. 

MOTOR NERVE POINTS 



Posterior Auricular 
Greater Occipital - 



Smaller Occipital 
Great Auricular 




The Main Motor Nerve Points 
of the Head, Face and Neck 

Knowing the location of important nerve points of the 
face and scalp helps the barber to stimulate particular mus- 
cles with the least outside force. A nerve point represents that 
part of a nerve which comes closest to the surface of the skin 
and can, therefore, be reached by direct contact. 

Stimulation of the following nerve points has a beneficial 
effect in facial and scalp massage. 

A. Derived from the fifth cerebral (cranial) nerve are: 

1. Supra-orbital nerve point, located just above the 
eye socket, affects the forehead, scalp, eyebrow 
and upper eyelid. 

2. Infra-orbital nerve point, located just below the 
eye socket, affects the lower eyelid, side of nose, 
upper lip and mouth. 

3. Mental nerve point, located just below the pre- 
molar teeth on either side of the lower jaw, affects 
the lower lip and chin. 



250 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

B. Derived from the seventh cerebral (cranial) nerve are: 

1 . Facial nerve point, located in front of the ear lobe, 
affects all the muscles of facial expression. 

2. Temporal nerve point, located on sides of head, 
affects the muscles of the forehead, eyelid, temple 
and upper part of cheek. 

3. Posterior auricular nerve point, located back of the 
ear, affects the muscles behind the ear and at the 
base of skull. 

4. Mandibular nerve point, located slightly above 
and in front of angle of jaw, affects muscles of 
chin and lower lip. 

C. Derived from the cervical nerve of the spinal cord are: 

1 . Greater occipital nerve point, located in back of the 
head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of 
the head. 

2. Smaller occipital nerve point, located at base of 
scalp, affects the skin and muscles of this region. 

3. Great auricular nerve point, located at side of 
neck, affects the external ear and area in front and 
back of ear. 

4. Cervical cutaneous nerve point, located at side of 
neck, affects the front and side of neck as far down 
as the breast bone. 

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

1. What are the important 1. To rule the body by controlling all 
functions of the nerves in visible and invisible activities. 

the body? 2. To control human thoughts and 

conduct. 

3. To govern all internal and external 
movements of the body. 

4. To give the power to see, hear, 
move, talk, feel, think and remember. 

2. What is a neuron? A neuron is a nerve cell containing a 

central portion or cell body and short 
and long fibers called processes 

3i What is a nerve? A nerve is a long white cord consist- 

ing of nerve fibers and capable of car- 
rying messages to and from various 
parts of the body. 

4. Name two kinds of nerves 1. Sensory or afferent nerves. 
found in the body. 2. Motor or efferent nerves. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



251 



5. What is the function of sens- 
ory nerves? 



Sensory nerves carry messages regard- 
ing touch, heat, cold, sight, hearing, 
smell, taste and pain to the nerve cen- 
ters in the brain. 



6. What is the function of mo- 
tor nerves? 



Motor nerves carry messages from the 
brain to the muscles which produce 
bodily movements. 



7. Name the two main divisions 
of the nervous system. 



1. The cerebro-spinal nervous system. 

2. The sympathetic nervous system. 



8. Of what is the cerebro-spinal 
nervous system composed? 



Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves and 
spinal nerves. 



9. What is the function of the 
cerebro- spinal nervous sys- 
tem? 



To control all the voluntary muscles as 
well as speech, taste, sight, touch and 
smell. 



10. What is the function of the 
sympathetic nervous system? 



To control involuntary muscles and the 
functions of digestion, circulation, res- 
piration and secretions of the various 
glands. 



11. What is the cause of nerve 
fatigue? 



Excessive mental or muscular work. 



12. What are the signs of nerve 
fatigue? 



Weariness, poor complexion and dull 
eyes. 



13. What is the best way to re- 
lieve nerve fatigue? 



Proper use of rest, relaxation and 
massage. 



14. How many pairs of cerebral 
(cranial) nerves are there, 
and how are they known? 



There are twelve pairs of cerebral 
nerves, and they are known by their 
number or name. 



15. How many pairs of nerves 
issue from the spinal cord, 
and what are they called? 



Thirty-one pairs of nerves issue from 
the spinal cord, and they are called 
spinal nerves. 



16. Which two cerebral (cranial) 
nerves are the most import- 
ant in facial treatment? 



1. The Fifth or trigeminal nerve. 

2. The Seventh or facial nerve. 



17. Which is the largest cerebral 
(cranial) nerve? 



The Fifth or trigeminal nerve. 



18. What is the function of the 
fifth or trigeminal nerve? 



It is the chief sensory nerve of the 
face and the motor nerve of the mus- 
cles of mastication. 



19. Name three nerve points or- 
iginating from the fifth cere- 
bral nerve. 



The supra-orbital, infra-orbital and 
mental nerve points. 



20. Which cerebral (cranial) 
nerve controls the muscles of 
expression? 



The Seventh or facial nerve. 



21. Name four nerve points or- 
iginating from the seventh 
cerebral nerve. 



The facial, posterior auricular, tem- 
poral, and mandibular nerve points. 



22. Name four nerve points or- 
iginating from the cervical 
nerve of the spinal cord. 



Greater occipital, smaller occipital, 
great auricular, and cervical cutan- 
eous nerve points. 



252 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



23. Which cerebral (cranial) 
nerve controls the sense of 
sight? 



The optic nerve. 



24. Which cerebral (cranial) 
nerve controls the sense of 
smell. 



The olfactory nerve. 



25. Which cerebral (cranial) 
nerve controls the sense of 
hearing? 



The acoustic (auditory) nerve. 



26. Which cerebral (cranial) 
nerves control the motion of 
the eyes? 



The oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve 
and abducent nerve. 



27. Which region of the head is 
supplied by the greater oc- 
cipital nerve? 



The scalp of back part of the head 
as far up as the top of the head. 



28. Which cerebral nerve sup- 
plies the sterno-cleido-mas- 
toid and trapezius muscles? 



The spinal portion of the eleventh or 
accessory nerve. 



29. Which branches of the fifth 
cerebral (cranial) nerve sup- 
ply the following regions? 

a) Forehead 

b) Lower side of nose 

c) Skin of upper lip 

d) Skin of lower lip 

e) Skin above temple 

f ) Skin of upper part of cheek 



a) Supra-orbital 

b) Nasal 

c) Infra-orbital 

d) Mental 

e) Auriculo-temporal 

f) Zygomatic 



30. Which branches of the sev- 
enth cerebral nerve supply 
the following regions or 
muscles? 

a) Muscle of the forehead a) Temporal 

b) Muscles of chin and low- b) Mandibular 
er lip 

c) Platysma muscle 

d) Muscle behind ear 

e) Orbicularis oris 

f) Muscles of upper part of 
cheek 



c) Cervical 

d) Posterior Auricular 

e) Buccal 

f) Zygomatic 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 253 

THE CIRCULATORY (VASCULAR) SYSTEM 

The circulatory (vascular) system controls the circula- 
tion of the blood through the body in a steady stream, by 
means of the heart and blood vessels, and supplies body cells 
with nutrient materials and carries away waste products. 

There are two divisions to the vascular system: 

1. The blood-vascular system, which comprises the heart 
and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins) for the 
circulation of the blood. 

2. The lymph-vascular system, or lymphatic system, con- 
sisting of lymph glands and lymphatics through which the 
lymph circulates. 

These two systems are intimately linked with each other. 
Lymph is derived from the blood and is gradually shifted 
back into the blood stream. 

THE BLOOD- VASCULAR SYSTEM 
The Heart 

The heart is an efficient pump which keeps the blood 
moving in a steady stream through a closed system of ar- 
teries, capillaries and veins. 

The heart is a muscular, conical-shaped organ, about the 
size of a closed fist, located in the chest cavity, and enclosed 
in a membrane, the pericardium. Two sets of nerves, the 
vagus and sympathetic, regulate the heart beat. In a normal 
adult, the heart beats about 72 to 80 times a minute. 

The interior of the heart contains four chambers and 
four valves. The upper thin-walled cavities are the right 
atrium (auricle) and left atrium. The lower thick-walled 
chambers are the right ventricle and left ventricle. Valves 
allow the blood to flow in only one direction. With each 
contraction and relaxation of the heart, the blood flows in, 
travels from the auricles ( atria ) to the ventricles, and is then 
driven out, to be distributed all over the body. The atrium 
(pi., atria) is also called the auricle. 



254 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



Right Carotid Artery * jJLeft Carotid Artery 
Right Jugular Vein^Ty / /)/ .1. Af Left Jugular Vein 
Artery to right "n*^f fcs/[Jl/?-> Artery to left arm 
Vein from right arm-^^J U^t==rTT^s^Vem from left arm 



To Right Lungs 
From Right Lungs 




To Left Lungs 
From Left Lungs 



Diagram of the Heart 

The Blood Vessels 

The arteries, capillaries and veins, transport blood to 
and horn the heart and the various tissues of the body. 
The main artery of the body is the aorta which starts at 
the left ventricle of the heart, and subdivides into smaller 
arteries. 

Arteries are thick-walled muscular and elastic vessels that 
carry pure blood from the heart to the capillaries. They 
vary in size from the aorta, which is about an inch in di- 
ameter, to others which are but a small fraction of an inch. 

Capillaries are minute thin-walled blood vessels whose 
network connects the smaller arteries with the veins. Through 
their walls, the tissues receive nourishment and eliminate 
waste products. 

Veins are thin-walled, inelastic blood vessels containing 
cup-like valves to prevent backflow, and carrying impure 
blood from the various capillaries back to the heart. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 255 

The Circulation of the Blood 

The blood is in constant circulation from the moment 
it leaves until it returns to the heart. There are two systems 
taking care of the circulation. 

1. Pulmonary circulation is the blood circulation from 
the heart to the lungs, and back again to the heart. 

During the pulmonary circulation the blood is pumped 
by the heart to the lungs to be purified. With each res- 
piration, an exchange of gases takes place. During inhala- 
tion, oxygen is absorbed into the blood. During exhalation, 
carbon dioxide is expelled. 

2. General or Systemic Circulation is the blood circula- 
tion from the heart throughout the body and back again 
to the heart. 

Cycle of Blood Circulation 

1. The right atrium or auricle receives impure blood 
from a large vein, the vena cava. 

2. From the right atrium or auricle, the venous blood 
passes through a valve into the right ventricle. 

3. From the right ventricle, the venous blood is carried 
through the pulmonary artery up to the lungs to be oxygen- 
ated or purified. 

4. The left atrium or auricle receives the purified blood 
through the pulmonary vein. 

5. From the left atrium or auricle, the purified blood 
passes through a valve into the left ventricle. 

6. From the left ventricle, the aorta sends the arterial 
blood to all parts of the body, except the lungs. 

7. This cycle is repeated when the venous blood is 
brought back again to the right atrium or auricle. 

The Blood 

Blood is the nutritive fluid circulating throughout the 
blood-vascular system. It is salty and sticky, has an alkaline 
reaction, and maintains a normal temperature of 98.6 
Fahrenheit. From 8 to 10 pints of blood fill the blood vessels 
of an adult and constitute about 1/1 6th to l/20th of the 



256 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

body's weight. The skin holds about 1/2 to 2/3 of all 
the blood in the body. 

Color of blood. The blood has a distinct color, varying 
from bright red to scarlet in the arteries, and possessing a 
dark-red to crimson tint in the veins. The exceptions to this 
rule are the pulmonary artery (dark-red to crimson tint) 
and the pulmonary vein (bright red to scarlet color). This 
change in color is due to the gain or loss of oxygen as the 
blood passes through the lungs and other tissues of the body. 

Composition of blood. The blood is a liquid tissue con- 
sisting of blood plasma, red corpuscles, white corpuscles and 
blood platelets. Plasma constitutes about two-thirds of the 
blood and the other bodies about one-third. 

Plasma is the fluid part of the blood, straw-like in color, 
in which the red corpuscles, white corpuscles and blood 
platelets flow. About nine-tenths of plasma is water. The 
blood plasma also contains proteins, nutrients, mineral salts, 
waste products and other substances. Plasma is derived from 
the food and water taken into the body. 

Red corpuscles (red blood cells) or erythrocytes are cir- 
cular bi-concave discs colored with a substance called hemo- 
globin. The function of the red corpuscles is to carry oxygen 
from the lungs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide 
from the cells to the lungs. The red blood cells are formed in 
the red bone marrow and from cells lining the capillaries. 
They are far more numerous than the white blood cells. 

White corpuscles (white blood cells) or leucocytes differ 
from red blood cells in many respects. They are larger in 
size, colorless, and can change their form by movements. 
White corpuscles are produced in the spleen, lymph glands, 
and the yellow marrow of the long bones. The most im- 
portant function of these cells is to protect the body against 
disease by fighting harmful bacteria and their poisons. 

Blood platelets or thrombocytes are colorless, irregular 
bodies, much smaller than the red corpuscles. They are 
formed in the bone marrow. These cells play an important 
role in the clotting of the blood. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 257 

Clotting. When the blood leaves the body and comes in 
contact with the air, it hardens and clots. This clotting is 
due to the hardening of the fibrin in the blood and the clot 
thus prevents the further flow of the blood. 

Diseases of the blood. Hemophilia is characterized by ex- 
tremely slow clotting of blood and excessive bleeding from 
even very slight cuts. This disease is a sex-linked disease af- 
fecting only males, but transmitted by the female. 

Anemia is a condition in which there are too few red 
blood cells or too little hemoglobin. Iron (furnished by liver, 
calf -brain, spinach, and oatmeal) is frequently beneficial. 

Chief Functions of the Blood 

1 . It carries water, oxygen, food and secretions to all cells 
of the body. 

2. It carries away carbon dioxide and waste products to 
be eliminated through the lungs, skin, kidneys and large 
intestine. 

3. It helps to equalize the body temperature, thus pro- 
tecting the body from extreme heat and cold. 

4. It aids in protecting the body from harmful bacteria 
and infections through the action of the white blood cells. 

5. It coagulates or clots, thereby closing injured blood 
vessels and preventing the loss of blood through hemorrhage. 



258 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



THE LYMPH-VASCULAR SYSTEM 

(Lymphatic System) 

The lymph-vascular system acts as an aid to the venous 
system, and consists of lymph spaces, lymphatics and lymph 
glands. 

Lymph spaces are channels found between the walls of 
the capillaries and the body cells. 

Lymphatics are minute vessels that convey lymph. 

The smaller lymphatics unite to form two principal ves- 
sels (the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct), which 
empty their contents into a vein found below the base of 
the neck. This, in turn, empties into the vena cava, and also 
mixes the lymph with the venous blood just before it is re- 
turned to the heart. 




Lymph Nodes of the Head and Face 

Lymph glands or nodes are ductless organs in the course 
of lymphatic vessels. They filter the lymph and are a defense 
against the spread of infection. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 259 

Lymph 

Composition. Lymph is a slightly viscid, alkaline fluid, 
circulating through the lymph-vascular system. It is derived 
from plasma which has been forced through the capillary 
walls both by the pressure of the blood in the capillaries and 
by osmosis (an exchange of fluids through a thin membrane). 

Dissolved food materials and oxygen pass through the 
blood vessels by osmosis and are conveyed by the lymph to 
the body cells, which they enter by osmosis. In like manner, 
water, carbon dioxide and wastes are removed from the body 
cells. Lymph is well supplied with white blood cells. 

The functions of lymph are: 

1. To reach parts of the body not reached by the blood. 

2. To carry nourishment from the blood to the body cells. 

3. To remove waste material from the body cells. 

4. Carries constant interchange with the blood. 



260 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



ARTERIES OF THE HEAD, FACE AND NECK 

The common carotid arteries are the main sources of 
blood supply to the head, face and neck. They are located 
on either side of the neck, and each artery subdivides into an 
internal and external branch. The internal branch of the 
common carotid artery supplies the cranial cavity, while the 
external branch supplies the superficial parts of the head, 
face and neck. 




Parietal Branch 

(Posterior Temporal) 

Supra-Orbital 

Frontal Branch 
(Anterior Temporal) 

Frontal 



Angular 

Orbital 
Lateral Nasal 
Trans. Facial 
Infra-Orbital 
Septal 
Superior Labial 

Inferior Labial 



Submenu* 



External Maxillary 
(Facial Artery) 



Arteries of the Head and Face 



The external carotid artery subdivides into a number of 
branches which supply blood to various regions of the head 
and face. Of particular interest to the barber are the fol- 
lowing arteries: 






ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



261 



1. External maxillary (facial artery). 

2. Superficial temporal. 

3. Occipital. 

4. Posterior auricular. 




Superior Labial 
Inferior Labial 



Submental 



Maxillary 
(Facial Artery) 



EXTERNAL MAXILLARY (Facial Artery) 
AND BRANCHES 

The muscular tissue of the lips must be supposed 
to have been cut away, in order to show the course 
of the labial arteries. 



A. External maxillary (facial artery) supplies the lower re- 
gion of the face, and mouth and nose. Some of its 
branches are. 

1 . Submental artery ; supplies chin and lower lip. 

2. Inferior labial artery; supplies the lower lip. 

3. Angular artery; supplies side of nose. 

4. Superior labial; supplies the upper lip, septum (di- 
viding wall) of nose, and wing of nose. 



262 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



Parietal Branch 
{Posterior 




Temporal) 



Frontal Branch 
(Anterior Temporal) 



Orbital 



SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY 
AND BRANCHES 

B. Superficial temporal artery; continuation of the external 
carotid artery supplies muscles, skin and scalp to front, 
side and top of head. Some of its important branches are : 

1. Frontal artery; supplies the forehead. 

2. Parietal artery; supplies crown and side of head. 

3. Transverse facial artery; supplies the masseter. 

4. Middle temporal artery; supplies the temporalis. 

5. Anterior auricular artery; supplies the anterior part 
of the ear. 

6. Orbital artery; supplies the orbicularis oculi. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



263 




Auricular 

SuperfidaJ ^Temporal " 

''osterior Auricular 



Mcorillar* 



Maxillary 



Lingual 



OCCIPITAL AND POSTERIOR AURICULAR 
ARTERIES 

C. Occipital artery supplies the scalp, back of head up to the 
crown. Its most important branch is the sterno-cleido- 
mastoid artery which supplies muscle of the same name. 

D. Posterior auricular artery supplies the scalp above and 
back of the ear. Its most important branch is the auric- 
ular artery which supplies the skin back of ear. 



The internal carotid artery 

consists of several branches, all of 
which are inside the skull with the 
exception of the ophthalmic art- 
ery. This artery subdivides to form 
the supra-orbital artery which sup- 
plies the orbit, eyelid and fore- 
head. 

The frontal artery is an end 
branch of the ophthalmic artery; 
supplies the forehead. 




Branches of the Ophthalmic Artery 

Originating from the 
Internal Carotid Artery 



264 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



VEINS OF THE HEAD, FACE AND NECK 

The blood returning to the heart from the head, face and 
neck, flows on each side of the neck into two principal veins: 
the internal jugular and external jugular. The most import- 
ant veins of the face are placed almost parallel with the art- 
eries and take the same names as the arteries. 



Supra-Orbital 
Superior Palpebral 
Frontal 



Angular 




Anterior Facial 
Inferior Labial 



Submental 
Lingual 



Pharyngeal 



Superior Thyroid 



Veins of the Head, Face and Neck 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



265 



FACIAL 



TEMPORAL 

EXTERNAL 
JUGULAR 

INTERNAL 
JUGULAR 

SUBCLAVIAN 
AORTA 



AXILLARY 

BRACHIAL 



RADIAL 
ULNAR 




DORSALIS 
PEDIS 



Diagram illustrating the General Circulation of the Blood, 
Showing the Important Arteries and Veins of the Body 



266 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



CIRCULATION 



1. Name the two main divisions 
of the circulatory system. 



1. The blood-vascular system. 

2. The lymph-vascular system. 



2. Name the principal parts of 
the blood -vascular system, 
important 
blood-vas- 



3. What are the 
functions of the 
cular system? 



Heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins 
and capillaries). 

1. Carries water, food and oxygen to 
all cells of the body. 

2. Removes waste products. 

3. Regulates heat. 

4. Fights harmful bacteria. 

5. Clots to prevent loss of blood. 



4. What is the function of the 
heart? 



Pumps blood to all parts of the body 
by means of blood vessels and receives 
the blood on its return. 



5. Describe the interior of the 
heart. 



The heart consists of four chambers, 
two upper auricles and two lower 
ventricles, and four valves which con- 
trol the flow of blood. 



6. Name three kinds of vessels 
found in the blood-vascular 
system. 



Arteries, veins, capillaries. 



7. Which blood vessels are the 
smallest in size? 



The capillaries. 



8. Which blood vessels carry 
blood away from the heart? 



The arteries. 



9. Which vessels generally car- 
ry blood back to the heart? 



The veins. 



10. What is the normal tempera- 
ture of the blood? 



98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. 



11. What is the composition of 
blood? 



The blood is composed of two -thirds 
plasma and one-third cells (red blood 
cells, white blood cells and blood 
platelets). 



12. What is the composition of 
blood plasma? 



Blood plasma is composed of about 
90% water, and balance consists of 
proteins, nutrients, mineral salts, waste 
products and other substances. 



13. Which blood cells carry ox- 
ygen to the body cells? 



The red blood cells. 



14. Which blood cells 
harmful bacteria? 



destroy The white blood cells. 



15. Which blood cells aid in the 
clotting of the blood after 
an injury? 



The blood platelets. 



16. Which two systems take care 
of the blood circulation? 



1. The general circulation. 

2. The pulmonary circulation. 



17. Which path is taken by the 
general circulation? 



The blood flows from the heart 
throughout the body and then back 
again to the heart. 



18. Which path is taken by the 
pulmonary circulation? 



The blood circulates from the heart 
to the lungs and then back again. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



267 



Lymphatic System 



1. Name the principal parts of 
the lymphatic system. 



Lymph glands, lymphatic vessels and 
lymph spaces. 



2. What is lymph? 



Lymph is a slightly viscid, alkaline 
fluid originating from the blood plas- 
ma and circulating through the lymph- 
atic system. 



3. What are the important 
functions of the lymph? 



1 The lymph reaches parts of the 
body not reached by the blood. 

2. The lymph carries nourishment to 
body cells. 

3. The lymph removes waste products 
from body cells. 

4. Carries constant interchange with 
the blood. 



4. In what way is the lymph 
related to the blood? 



Lymph is derived from the blood plas- 
ma and contains white blood cells. 



Blood Vessels of the Head, Face and Neck 



1. Which main arteries supply 
blood to the entire head, face 
and neck? 



Common carotid arteries. 



2. Name two main branches of 
the common carotid arteries. 



Internal branch and external branch. 



3. Which branch of the com- 
mon carotid artery supplies 
the cranial cavity? 



Internal branch of the common car- 
otid artery. 



4. Which branch of the com- 
mon carotid artery supplies 
blood to the skin and mus- 
cles of the head and face? 



External branch of the common car- 
otid artery. 



5. Name four important branch- 
es of the external carotid 
artery. 



External maxillary, superficial temper- 
al, occipital, and posterior auricular. 



6. Inferior labial and superior 
labial arteries branch out 
from what artery? 



External maxillary. 



7. The angular artery is the 
end branch of what artery? 



External maxillary. 



8. Parietal branch and frontal 
branch originate from what 
artery? 



Superficial temporal. 



9. Name two arteries that 
branch out from the oph- 
thalmic artery. 



Supra-orbital and frontal. 



268 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



10. What parts of the head do 
the following arteries supply? 

a) Angular 

b) Parietal branch 

c) Superior labial 

d) Occipital 

e) Posterior auricular 

f) Supra-orbital 

g) Frontal artery 
h) Submental 

i) Inferior labial 



a) Side of nose. 

b) Crown and side of head. 

c) Upper lip. 

d) Back of head up to crown. 

e) Scalp above and back of ear. 

f) Forehead, eyelid and orbit. 

g) Forehead. 

h) Chin and lower lip. 
i) Lower lip. 



11. What muscles do the follow- 
ing arteries supply? 

a) Middle temporal 

b) Orbital 

c) Transverse facial 



a) Temporalis. 

b) Orbicularis oculi. 

c) Masseter. 



12. Name the principal veins by 
which the blood from the 
head, face and neck is re- 
turned to the heart. 



The internal jugular and the external 
jugular. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 

The endocrine system comprises a group of specialized 
glands which may beneficially or adversely affect the growth, 
reproduction and health of the body, depending on the qual- 
ity and quantity of their secretions. The hormones present in 
the blood stream have a profound influence on external ap- 
pearance and body processes. The absence or deficiency of 
certain hormones in the blood may cause certain glandular 
diseases. 

Glands are specialized organs which vary in size and 
function. The blood and nerves are intimately connected 
with the glands. The nervous system controls the functional 
activities of the glands. The glands have the ability to remove 
certain substances from the blood and to convert them into 
new compounds. The secretions manufactured by the endo- 
crine glands are known as hormones. 

PINEAL GLAND 

PITUITARY 
GLAND 

PARATHYROID 
GLANDS 

THYROID GLAND 

THYMUS 
GLAND 




PANCREAS 

ADRENALS 

SEX OR 
EPRODUCTIVe 
GLANDS 



The human endocrine glands. 

There are two main sets of glands. One group is called 
the duct glands (possess canals leading from the gland to 
a particular part of the body). Sweat and oil glands of the 



270 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

skin and intestinal glands belong to this group. The other 
group, known as ductless or endocrine glands, have their se- 
cretions thrown directly into the blood stream which in turn 
influences the welfare of the entire body. 

The endocrine glands operate as a unit. If there is an 
under or an over functioning of any ductless gland, it is 
bound to upset the delicate balance of the entire chain 
of endocrine glands. Some of the endocrine glands exert 
a regulatory and restraining influence over the other glands. 

Among the important endocrine glands are the following : 

The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, 
regulates the water balance and the height of the body. 

The thyroid gland, situated on either side of the trachea 
(wind pipe) produces a hormone, thyroxin, which controls 
the weight and the metabolic rate of the body. 

The adrenal glands, found immediately above the kid- 
neys, regulate the blood circulation. 

The sex glands are both duct and ductless glands. The 
male and female sex glands manufacture the reproductive 
cells and the sex hormones which are required for fertility 
and reproduction. 

The pancreas is located behind the stomach. Certain cells 
in the pancreas produce a hormone, known as insulin. This 
hormone is absorbed by the blood, brought to the tissues, and 
helps in the use of sugars by the body. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



271 



THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 



1. What is the endocrine sys- 
tem? 



The endocrine system is composed of 
glands whose functions are to aid the 
growth, health and reproduction of 
the body. 



2. How are the glands connect- 
ed with other parts of the 
body? 



Each gland is linked with other parts 
of the body by means of nerves and 
the blood stream. 



3. Why are glands dependent 
upon an adequate nerve and 
blood supply? 



The blood supplies the raw materials 
which glands utilize to produce se- 
cretions. The nerves control the func- 
tional activities of the glands. 



4. What is the function of duct 
glands? 



Duct glands produce secretions which 
are carried away through canals to 
particular parts of the body. 



5. Give examples of duct 
glands and explain their 
functions. 

6. What is the function of a 
ductless or endocrine gland? 



The skin glands are duct glands. They 
excrete perspiration and secrete se- 
bum which keeps the skin moist and 
lubricated. 

A ductless or endocrine gland has no 
duct but delivers its secretion directly 
into the blood or lymph streams, caus- 
ing actions remote from the regions of 
their formation. 



1. Give 2 examples of ductless 
or endocrine glands and ex- 
plain their functions. 



The pituitary gland regulates the water 
balance of the body. The thyroid 
gland controls the weight and metab- 
olic rate of the body. 



8. What is an important differ- 
ence between a duct and 
ductless gland? 

9. Which glands are both duct 
and ductless glands? 



A duct gland possesses a duct or ca- 
nal; whereas a ductless gland has no 
duct. 

The pancreas and sex glands. 



10. Which type of glands pro- 
duce hormones? 



The ductless or endocrine glands. 



11. Why are hormones import- 
ant to the body? 

12. Briefly describe the location 
and function of the adrenal 
glands. 



The hormones in the blood stream 
have a profound influence on external 
appearance and body processes. 
Located immediately above the kid- 
neys. They regulate the blood circu- 
lation. 



272 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 

The excretory system, including the kidneys, liver, skin, 
intestines and lungs, purifies the body by the elimination of 
waste matter. 

1. The kidneys excrete urine. 

2. The liver discharges bile pigments. 

3. The skin eliminates perspiration. 

4. The large intestine evacuates decomposed and undi- 
gested food. 

5. The lungs exhale carbon dioxide. 

Metabolic activities of body cells form various poisons 
which if retained would harm the body. 

Urinary System 

The important organs of the urinary system are the 
kidneys and the bladder. The kidneys are two bean-shaped 
glands located at the lower end of the spinal column and 
kept in place by the fatty tissues and the ureters. The 
ureters are tubes leading from the kidneys to the bladder 
where the urine is stored. The emptying of the bladder is 
accomplished by the passage of the urine through the ureth- 
ra. As the blood circulates through the kidneys it gives up 
a certain amount of water and rejects the various end pro- 
ducts of metabolism such as urea and uric acid. 

Liver 

With the exception of the skin, the liver is the largest 
organ in the body and is situated on the upper right side 
of the abdomen, immediately below and in contact with 
the diaphragm. The liver neutralizes poisonous substances 
which may have been absorbed from the intestines. The 
liver salvages a portion of the old red blood cells, the re- 
mainder being eliminated in the bile. The main functions of 
the liver are the production of bile, which aids the digestion 
of fats, and the storage of glycogen (animal starch) which is 
a reserve form of energy to be used when the body needs it. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 273 



THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 

1. Name the important organs The lungs, kidneys, skin, liver and 
of the excretory system. large intestine. 

2. What is the function of the The excretory system eliminates waste 
excretory system? products formed in the body. 

3. What happens if waste prod- The body will become poisoned by its 
ucts are retained instead of own waste products. 

being eliminated? 

4. Enumerate the waste prod- The kidneys excrete urine. The skin 
ucts removed by the various eliminates perspiration. The lungs ex- 
excretory organs. hale carbon dioxide. The large in- 
testine evacuates undigested food. The 
liver discharges bile. 



274 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 

The respiratory system is situated within the chest cav- 
ity which is protected on both sides by the ribs. The dia- 
phragm, a muscular partition which controls breathing, sep- 
arates the chest from the abdominal regions. 

The most important organs of the respiratory system are 
the nose, trachea (wind pipe), the bronchial tubes, and the 
lungs. When air is inhaled through the nose, it passes down 
the pharynx, trachea and bronchial tubes, into the lungs. Be- 
tween the trachea and the base of the tongue, the larynx 
(voice box) is located. 

Nasal breathing is healthier than mouth breathing because 
the air is warmed by the surface capillaries and the bacteria 
are caught by the hairs which line the mucous membranes of 
the nasal passages. 



NOSTRILS 

MOUTH 

EPIGLOTTIS 




'HARYNX 

GLOTTIS 

LARYNX (Voice Box) 
TRACHEA 

CARTILAGINOUS 
RINGS 

BRONCHUS 



PLEURA 



DIAPHRAGM 



The human respiratory system, 

Lungs 

The lungs are spongy tissues composed of microscopic 
cells into which the inhaled air penetrates. These tiny air 
cells are enclosed in a skinlike tissue or epithelium. Behind 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 275 

this epithelium, the fine capillaries of the blood vascular sys- 
tem are found. 

With each respiration, an exchange of gases takes place. 
During inhalation, oxygen is absorbed into the blood, while 
carbon dioxide is expelled during exhalation. As oxygen is 
brought to the body cells, it reacts chemically with liquid 
food, previously digested, to form living tissue. As a result, 
heat, energy and carbon dioxide gas are formed. 

Oxygen is more essential than either food or water to the 
body. Although a man may live more than sixty days 
without food, and a few days without water, if air is ex- 
cluded for a few minutes, death ensues. 

Breathing 

Breathing is instinctive because it is necessary to carry 
on the life functions. The rate of breathing is conditioned 
by the activity of the individual. Muscular activity and 
energy expenditures increase the bodily demands for ox- 
ygen. As a result, the rate of breathing is increased. A 
person requires about three times as much oxygen when 
walking than when standing at rest. 

The cultivation of abdominal breathing is of value in 
building health. Costal breathing is common to many peo- 
ple. This type of light or shallow breathing involves the 
use of the ribs to the exclusion of the diaphragm. Ab- 
dominal breathing means deep breathing, which brings the 
diaphragm into action. The maximum intake of oxygen and 
expulsion of carbon dioxide is accomplished with abdominal 
breathing. The rhythmic movements of the diaphragm ex- 
ert a favorable effect by massaging the liver and other 
intestinal organs. 



276 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 



1. Name the important organs 
of the respiratory system. 



Nose, trachea or wind pipe, bronchial 
tubes and lungs. 



2. What are the functions of 
the respiratory system? 



An exchange of gases takes place 
through the capillaries in the lung tis- 
sue, oxygen gas being inhaled and 
carbon dioxide gas being exhaled. 



3. What is the diaphragm and 
what function does it per- 
form? 



The diaphragm is a muscular sheet 
separating the chest from the abdom- 
inal cavity. It helps in expanding and 
contracting the lungs. 



4. Describe the appearance of 
the lung tissue. 



The lungs are two spongy sacs com- 
posed of microscopic cells into which 
the inhaled air penetrates. 



5. Why is abdominal breathing 
preferred to costal or shal- 
low breathing? 



Abdominal breathing utilizes all the 
lung space, thereby permitting a 
greater intake of oxygen and a greater 
expulsion of carbon dioxide. 



6. Why is nasal breathing pre- 
ferable to mouth breathing? 



Nasal breathing warms and cleans the 
air before entering the lungs. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 277 

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 

The digestive system changes food into a form suitable 
for use by the body. Digestion is started in the mouth and 
completed in the small intestine. From the mouth, the food 
passes down the pharynx and the esophagus (food pipe) into 
the stomach. In the small intestine, the food is completely 
digested with the aid of the secretions from the liver and the 
pancreas. The large intestine (colon) stores the refuse before 
being eliminated through the rectum. The time required for 
the complete digestion of a meal is about nine hours. 

Physical and Chemical Changes in Digestion 
Digestion is a process involving physical and chemical 
changes in the food taken into the body. Physical changes 
take place when the food is chewed and mixed with the di- 
gestive secretions. Responsible for the chemical changes in 
food are the enzymes present in the digestive secretions. 

Digestive enzymes are chemical agents which change cer- 
tain kinds of food into a form capable of being used by the 
body. Each enzyme is specific and can act only on a certain 
food constituent. 

The principal chemical constituents found in foods are 
starches, sugars, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. 

The Process of Digestion 

The mouth prepares the food for entrance into the stom- 
ach. Chewing stimulates the flow of saliva and tends to 
soften the food. The saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, 
contains an enzyme, ptyalin, which can change carbohydrate 
foods into the sugar stage. The tongue aids in the tasting and 
swallowing of the food. The chewed food easily passes down 
the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach. 

The stomach is a muscular sac, found below the dia- 
phragm, and capable of holding from one to two quarts. The 
soft, velvety lining of the stomach walls secrete an enzyme, 
pepsin, which partly digests protein in the presence of hydro- 
chloric acid. The churning action of the stomach brings the 



278 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



food in contact with the gastric juice. Protein and fatty foods 
remain in the stomach for a much longer period of time than 
do starches and sugars. 




Ascending 



Rectum 



Diagram illustrating the Human Alimentary Canal 
with its Principal Digestive Glands 



As the stomach contents empties into the small intestine, 
it is acted upon by the pancreatic juice. The pancreatic se- 
cretion contains three enzymes capable of completing the di- 
gestion of carbohydrate, fat and protein containing foods. 
The liver secretes bile which aids in the digestion of fats. 
Besides the bile and the pancreatic secretion, the intestinal 
secretion also assists in the process of digestion. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 279 

The final end products of carbohydrate digestion are the 
simple sugars; the end products of fat digestion are fatty 
acids and glycerine; and the end products of protein diges- 
tion are the amino salts. In the small intestine, the digested 
food is absorbed into the blood stream. 

Between the small and large intestine is found a valve, 
which must open to permit the passage of the digested food. 
The appendix is located on the right side of the large intest- 
ine. Although the exact function of the appendix is un- 
known, it is believed to be of value to the body. In the large 
intestine, water is absorbed, thereby making the waste mat- 
ter firm. When the rectum becomes full, bowel movement 
occurs. 

Overcoming Constipation 

Constipation and intestinal decomposition are the basis of 
many skin infections such as acne, acne rosacea and urticaria. 
The absorption of toxic substances from the intestine, and its 
subsequent elimination through the skin accounts for the 
presence of many skin blemishes. The logical remedy is to 
remove the underlying cause, namely constipation. A bal- 
anced diet containing plenty of water to make the intestinal 
contents soft, enough cellulose to stimulate intestinal move- 
ment, and abdominal exercises to strengthen the intestinal 
muscles these measures will be helpful in overcoming con- 
stipation. 



280 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 



1. What is digestion? 



Digestion is a process involving phys- 
ical and chemical changes in the food 
taken into the body. 



2. Name the principal chemical 
constituents found in foods. 



Starches, sugars, fats, proteins, miner- 
als and vitamins. 



3. Name the important organs 
of the digestive system. 



Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, 
small intestine, liver and pancreas. 



4. In which organ is digestion 
started? 



The mouth. 



5. In which organ is digestion 
completed? 



The small intestine. 



6. How do digestive enzymes 
aid digestion? 



Digestive enzymes are chemical agents 
which convert certain kinds of food 
into a form capable of being used by 
the body. 



7. What digestive changes oc- 
cur in the mouth? 



Food is chewed and mixed with sa- 
livary juice. Starchy foods are partly 
digested. 



8. What digestive changes oc- 
cur in the stomach? 



The food is combined with gastric 
juice. Protein foods are digested. 



9. What digestive changes oc- 
cur in the small intestine? 



Foods are completely digested and ab- 
sorbed into the blood. 



10. How does the liver aid di- 
gestion? 



The liver produces bile which enters 
the small intestine and digests fats in 
foods. 



11. How does the pancreas aid 
digestion? 



The pancreas produces a juice which 
enters the small intestine and digests 
starches, proteins and fats in foods. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 281 

THE SKIN 

The scientific study of the skin forms the basis for 
an effective program of skin care and barber treatments. 
The skin is the largest organ in the body and performs many 
vital functions required for health. The barber who has 
a thorough understanding of the skin, its structure and 
functions, will be in a better position to give professional 
skin treatments. 

A healthy skin shows signs of being smooth and flexible, 
has proper color and is free from any blemish or disease. 

The skin varies in thickness, being thinnest on the eye- 
lids and thickest on the palms and soles. Continued pres- 
sure over any part of the skin will cause it to thicken. 

The structure of the skin contains two clearly defined 
divisions : 

1. The epidermis, cuticle or scarf skin is the outermost 
protective layer. 

2. The dermis, corium or true skin is the deeper layer 
of the skin. 

Subcutaneous (adipose) tissue is a fatty tissue found 
below the dermis. ( See footnote *. ) 

The epidermis or cuticle forms the outer protective cov- 
ering for the body. It contains no blood vessels but has 
many small nerve endings. The epidermis contains the fol- 
lowing layers: 

1. The stratum corneum (horny layer) consists of tightly 
packed, scale-like cells which are continually being shed 
and replaced. As these cefls develop, they form keratin 
which acts as a water-proof covering. This layer of cells 
plays an important part in determining the character of 
the complexion. 

2. The stratum lucidum (clear layer) consists of small 
transparent cells through which light can pass. 

3. The stratum granulosum (granular layer) consists of 
cells which look like distinct granules. These cells are al- 

*Some hist olo gists refer to the subcutaneous tissue as a continuation of 
the dermis, while others consider it as a separate layer. 



282 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

most dead and undergo a change into a horny substance. 

4. The stratum mucosum (Malpighian layer) is com- 
posed of several layers of cells. Its deepest layer is sometimes 
called the stratum germinativum. (See footnote *.) 

5. The stratum germinativum (basal layer) is composed 
of a single row of columnar cells often called mother cells, 
responsible for the reproduction or growth of the epidermis. 
These cells contain a pigment called melanin which is re- 
sponsible for the coloration of the skin. 

The dermis is the true skin. It is also called derma, 
corium or cutis. In this layer is found an elastic network 
of cells through which are distributed blood and lymph 
vessels, nerves, sweat glands and oil glands. It contains the 
following layers: 

1. The papillary layer, which lies directly beneath the 
epidermis, contains the papillae, or little cone-like projections, 
made of fine strands of elastic tissue which extend upward 
into the epidermis. Some of these papillae contain looped 
capillaries, others contain terminations of nerve fibers called 
tactile corpuscles. This layer also contains some of the mel- 
anin skin pigment. 

2. The reticular layer, in whose network is contained 
the fat cells, the blood and lymph vessels, the sweat and 
oil glands, and the hair follicles. 

The subcutaneous tissue (subcutis) is regarded by some 
histologists as a continuation of the dermis. It varies in thick- 
ness according to the age, sex and general health of the indi- 
vidual. This fatty (adipose) tissue gives smoothness and con- 
tour to the body, besides providing a reservoir for fuel and 
energy and also acting as a protective cushion for the outer 
skin layers. This fatty layer contains a network of arteries, 
and a superficial and deep network of lymphatics. 

Blood and Lymph Supply to the Skin 

From 1/2 to 2/3 of the total blood supply of the body 
is found distributed to the skin. The blood and lymph, as 

*Some histologists classify the stratum germinativum and the stratum 
mucosum as one layer. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



283 



they circulate through the skin, contribute essential materials 
needed for its growth and nourishment. In the subcutaneous 
tissue are found networks of arteries and lymphatics which 
send their smaller branches to the papillae, the hair follicles 




Diagram of a Section of the Skin 



284 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

and the skin glands. The capillaries are quite numerous in 
the skin. 

Nerves of the skin. The skin contains the surface endings 
of many nerve fibers classified as follows: 

1. Motor nerve fibers which are distributed to the blood 
vessels and the arrectores pilorum muscle of the hair 
follicles. 

2. Sensory nerve fibers which react to heat, cold, touch, 
pressure and pain. 

3. Secretory nerve fibers which are distributed to the 
sweat and oil glands of the skin. 

Pliability of the skin. It depends upon the elasticity of 
the fibers of the dermis. For example, after expansion, the 
skin regains its former shape almost immediately. 

The color of the skin depends partly upon the blood 
supply, but more upon the melanin pigment or coloring 
matter which is deposited in the stratum germinativum and 
the papillary layer of the dermis. The pigment varies in dif- 
ferent people and races. 

Sweat and Oil Glands 

Glands of the skin. The skin contains two types of 
glands which extract materials from the blood to form new 
substances. 

1. The sudoriferous (sweat) glands excrete sweat. 

2. The sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum, an oily 
substance. 

The sweat glands (tubular type) consist of a coiled base 
or fundus and a tube-like duct which terminates at the 
skin surface to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of 
the body are supplied with sweat glands, being more nu- 
merous on the palms, soles, forehead and under the arm- 
pits. The sweat glands function like a miniature kidney 
and help to eliminate waste products from the body. Their 
activity is greatly increased by heat, exercise, mental excite- 
ment and certain drugs. The excretion of sweat is under the 
control of the nervous system. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 285 

The oil glands (sacular type) consist of little sacs whose 
duct opens into the neck of the hair follicle. They secrete 
sebum which lubricates the skin and preserves the softness 
of the hair. With the exception of the palms and soles, 
these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly 
the face. 

Functions of the Skin 

The principal functions of the skin are: 

1. Protection. 4. Sensation. 

2. Heat Regulation. 5. Absorption. 

3. Secretion and Excretion. 

1. Protection. The skin protects the body from injury 
and bacterial invasion. 

2. Heat Regulation. The healthy body maintains a con- 
stant internal temperature of about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. 
As changes occur in the outside temperature, the blood and 
sweat glands of the skin make necessary adjustments in 
their functions. 

3. Secretion and Excretion. By means of its sweat and 
oil glands, the skin acts both as a secretory and excretory 
organ. 

4. Sensation. The skin has a rich nerve supply which 
responds to the influences of heat, cold, touch, pain and 
pressure, thereby permitting the body to adapt itself to vary- 
ing conditions of the environment. 

5. Absorption. The skin has limited powers of absorp- 
tion through its pores. Small amounts of lanolin creams or 
fatty substances can be absorbed by the skin, whereas water 
and alcohol are not absorbed at all. 

Respiration. Some textbooks still list respiration among 
the functions of the skin. Recent studies have disproved this 
theory. However, in animals, there is a definite amount of 
oxygen gas taken in and carbon dioxide gas discharged di- 
rectly through the skin, but in man this is negligible. 

The appendages of the skin are: hair, nails, sweat and 
oil glands. 



286 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



THE SKIN 



1. Briefly describe the skin. 



The skin is a soft, strong, flexible 
covering of the body. 



2. What are five important 
functions of the skin? 



Protection, heat regulation, secretion 
and excretion, sensation, and absorp- 
tion. 



3. Name the two main divisions 
of the skin. 



The epidermis and dermis. 



4. Briefly describe the struc- 
ture of the epidermis. 



The epidermis consists of five layers 
and does not contain any blood ves- 
sels or nerve endings. 



STName the layers of the epi- 
dermis. 



1. Stratum corneum (horny layer). 

2. Stratum lucidum (clear layer) 

3. Stratum granulosum (granular lay- 
er). 

4. Stratum mucosum (Malpighian lay- 
er). 

5. Stratum germinativum (basal layer). 



6. Which epidermal layer is 
continually being shed and 
replaced? 



Stratum corneum. 



7. Which epidermal layer con- 
sists of small, transparent 
cells? 



Stratum lucidum. 



8. Which epidermal layer starts 
to undergo a change into a 
horny substance? 



Stratum granulosum. 



9. Where is the coloring matter 
of the skin found? 



In the stratum germinativum (basal 
layer) of the epidermis and the papil- 
lary layer of the dermis. 



10. What is the function of the 
stratum germinativum? 



Starts the reproduction of the epi- 
dermis. 



11. Describe the structure of Consists of an elastic network of cells 
the dermis. containing blood and lymph vessels, 

nerve endings, sweat glands, oil glands 
and hair follicles. 



12. Name the two layers of the 
dermis. 



The papillary layer and the reticular 
layer. 



13. Which structures are found 
in the papillary layer? 



Papillae or cone-like projections con- 
taining either capillaries or nerve 
endings 



14. Which structures are found 
in the reticular layer? 



Fat cells, blood and lymph vessels, 
sweat and oil glands and hair follicles. 



15. Which structures render the 
skin flexible? 



The fibers in the dermis. 



16. What is the function of the 
subcutaneous tissue? 



Acts as a protective cushion for outer 
skin layers, gives smoothness and con- 
tour to the body and also contains a 
reserve supply of fats. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



287 



Sweat and Oil Glands 



1. What is a gland? 



An organ which removes certain 
materials from the blood and forms 
new substances. 



2. Name two types of glands 
found in the skin. 



Sudoriferous or sweat glands; se- 
baceous or oil glands. 



3. Describe the structure of the 
sweat glands. 



Consist of a coiled base and a tube- 
like duct which forms a pore at the 
surface of the skin. 



4. Where are sweat glands 
found? 



Over the entire area of the skin, 
more numerous on the palms, soles, 
forehead and armpits. 



5. What is the function of the 
sweat glands? 



Eliminates waste products in the 
form of sweat. 



6. Name four agents capable 
of increasing the activity of 
the sweat glands. 



Heat, exercise, mental excitement and 
certain drugs. 



7. Describe the structure of 
the oil glands. 



Consist of small sacs whose ducts 
open into the neck of the hair follicle. 



8. Which substance is secreted 
by the oil glands? 



Sebum, an oily substance. 



9. What is the chief function 
of sebum? 



Lubricates the skin and hair, keeping 
them soft and pliable. 



10. Where are the oil glands 
found? 



Oil glands are found in all parts of 
the body with the exception of the 
palms and soles. 



288 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

THE HAIR 

The study of the hair is of importance to the barber. 
The chief purpose of the hair is to protect the body, promote 
beauty and conserve heat. To keep the hair healthy, proper 
attention must be given to its care and treatment. The bar- 
ber who has the knowledge of hair structure, its character- 
istics and qualities is in a better position to give professional 
hair treatments. 

Hair is a slender thread-like outgrowth of the skin and 
scalp of the human body. 

Composition of hair. Hair, an appendage of the skin, is 
composed of a horny substance, mainly keratin. There is no 
sense of feeling in the hair of the head or body, owing to the 
absence of nerves in the hair. 

The composition of the hair varies with different races 
and individuals. Keratin, the chief constituent of the hair, 
is made up of about 45% carbon and 30% oxygen, with 
lesser amounts of such chemical elements as hydrogen, ni- 
trogen and sulphur. 

* 

)S^~~ 

CURLY 





f CURL 
^^HAIK 



Shapes and Cross-Sections of Different Forms of Hair 
Shapes of the hair. The hair takes its shape, size and 
direction from the shape, size and direction of the follicles. 
The various shapes of hair are as follows: 

1. Straight hair is usually round. 

2. Wavy hair is usually oval. 

3. Curly or kinky hair is usually flat. 

Full grown hair as found on the human body is divided 
into two principal parts: 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



1. The hair root is that portion of the hair structure 
found beneath the skin surface. 

2. The hair shaft is that portion of the hair structure ex- 
tending above the skin surface. 

Structures closely associated with the hair root are the 
hair follicle, hair bulb and hair papilla. 

The hair follicle is a tube-like depression or pocket in the 
skin, enveloping the hair root. For every hair, there is a fol- 
licle. Hair follicles vary in depth from one thirty-second to 
one-eighth of an inch, depending upon the thickness and lo- 
cation of the skin. 



MEDULLARY 
SUBSTANCE 



NECK OF 
HAIR FOLLICLE 



INNER 
ROOT SHEATH 



OUTER 
ROOT SHEATH 




SEBACEOUS 
GLAND 



ARRECTOR 
PILI MUSCLE 



HAIR BULB 



HAIR PAPILLA 



The Hair and Follicle 



290 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



The hair bulb is a thickened, club-shaped structure form- 
ing the lower part of the hair root. The lower part of the 
hair bulb is hollowed out to fit over the hair papilla. 

The hair papilla is a small cone-shaped elevation found 
at the bottom of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. 
Within the hair papilla is a rich blood and nerve supply 
which contributes to the growth and regeneration of the hair. 

Hair is found all over the body, with the exception of 
the palms, soles, and lips. Due to human habits and en- 
vironmental needs, hair grows long only on the head, and 
there principally to form a cushion for the skull, which 
contains the most important organ of the body. 

There are three types of hair on the body: downy or 
lanugo hair, found on the forehead and body; short or 
bristly hair, such as eyelashes and eyebrows; and soft, long 
hair, growing on the scalp, face, and armpits. Hair kept 
closely cut as by shaving or trimming, does not coarsen 
it nor stimulate its growth. 

Technical terms given to hair on various part of body: 

Hirsuties or hypertrichosis means the growth of an unus- 
ual amount of hair, or of hair in unusual locations, as on the 
face of women or the back of men ; hairy ; superfluous hair. 
Capilli the head. Barba the beard. 

Cilia the eyelashes. Vibrissae the nostrils. 

Supercilia the eyebrows. Tragi the ears. 



Medulla of Hair j 

Cortex of Hair 5 

i 
Cuticle of Hair j 

Inner or Epidermic Coat ' 

ttl 

Outer or Dermic Coat d 
Inner Root Sheath ^ 

u. 

Outer Root Sheath 



Cross-Section of Hair and Follicle 




ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 291 

Hair is composed of three layers: the medulla, the center, 
pith or marrow of the hair shaft ; the cortex, the middle layer, 
containing pigment or coloring matter; and the cuticle, the 
outside layer, composed of scale-like cells overlapping like 
fish scales to give strength and elasticity. 




Cuticle Scales and Layers of Hair 

Color of hair. The cortex constitutes the chief part of 
the shaft. It is made up of long, spindle-shaped cells, in 
which is found coloring matter, minute grains of pigment. 
The source of pigment has not been definitely settled. It is 
probably derived from the color-forming substances in the 
blood, as is all pigment of the human body. 

The color of the hair, light or dark, depends upon the 
color of the grains of pigment. If the granules are dense 
the color will be deep or dark. If the granules are scarce, the 
color will be that of the granules, but lighter in tone. The 
presence of air in the hair will make it a lighter shade. When 
most of the pigment is gone and air spaces are still more 
numerous, the hair will be white or gray. Gray hair is 
really mottled hair-spots of white or whitish yellow scat- 
tered about the shafts. 

Albino is a person born with white hair, the result of an 
absence of coloring matter in the hair shaft; accompanied 
by no marked pigment coloring in the skin or iris of the eyes. 



292 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



The arrector pili muscle, connected to the hair follicle, 
contracts with fear and cold, thus causing the sensation de- 
scribed by "hair standing on end," and gives the skin ap- 
pearance of "goose flesh." 

Sebaceous (oil) glands are tiny glands emptying sebum 
at the mouth of the follicle, thereby supplying natural oils 
to hair and skin, keeping them soft and pliable. 

Regeneration of hair. From the papilla comes material 
for the growth of the hair. As long as the papilla is not de- 
stroyed, the hair will grow. If the hair is pulled out from the 
roots, it will nevertheless grow again, but if the papilla is de- 
stroyed, it will never grow again. 

In human beings there is a 
constant death and replacement 
of hair. In a hair about to be 
shed, the bulb becomes corni- 
fied and splits up into a num- 
ber of fibers. The hair then be- 
comes detached from the papil- 
la and the root sheath, and is 
cast off. The empty root sheath 
collapses and forms a cord of 
cells between the papilla and 
lower end of the shedding hair. 
If the dead hair is to replaced 
by a new one, there will soon 
occur a multiplication of cells 
in the region of the old papilla. 
From this "hair germ" the new 
hair is formed growing upward, 
under or to one side of the dead 
hair, which it finally replaces. 

If the blood supply to the pa- 
pilla is weak, due to poor cir- 
culation, the new hair produced 
will be thin, dry and weak in 
appearance. 




New 
Hair Bulb 



Papilla 



Vascular Loop 
(blood supply) 



New Hair 
Replacing Old Hair 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 293 

Life and density of hair. The average life of a hair on 
the head is from two to four years, after which time it is; 
replaced by a new one. Eyelashes and eyebrows are replaced 
every four or five months. The number of hairs on the 
head varies with the color of the hair, there being about 
140,000 for light blonde, 110,000 for brown, and 100,000 
for black and titian, the latter two are generally the coarsest. 

Hair can be both beautiful and healthy regardless of 
color or texture if there is a loose scalp, and elasticity in the 
hair. Normal hair will stretch about one-fifth of its natural 
length, and will spring back when released. 



294 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



THE HAIR 



1. What is hair? 



Hair is a slender thread-like out- 
growth of the skin and scalp of the 
human body. 



2. What is the chief constituent 
of the hair? 



Keratin. 



3. Name three functions of 
hair. 



Protects the body, promotes beauty 
and conserves heat. 



4. Name three types of hair 
found on the body. 



Long hair; short, stiff hair; soft, la- 
nugo hair. 



5. Where is long hair found? Scalp and face of man. 



6. Where is short, stiff hair 
found? 



Eyebrows and eyelashes. 



7. Where is soft, lanugo hair 
found? 



On the forehead and other paiTs of 
the body. 



8. Which parts of the body do 
not contain any hair? 



Palms of the hands, soles of the feet 
and lips. 



9. Name the two parts into 
which the length of the hair 
is divided. 



The hair root and hair shaft. 



10. What is the hair shaft? 



That portion of the hair which ex- 
tends beyond the skin. 



11. What is the hair root? 



That portion of the hair beneath the 
surface of the skin. 



12. What is the hair follicle? 



A tube-like depression or pocket in 
the skin. 



13. Which muscle and gland are 
attached to the hair follicle? 



The arrector pili muscle and oil gland 
in the skin. 



14. What is the hair bulb? 



The club-shaped structure forming the 
lower part of the hair root. 



15. What is the hair papilla? 



A small cone-shaped elevation at the 
bottom of the hair follicle that fits 
into the hair bulb. 



16. How does the hair receive 
its nourishment? 



From the tiny blood vessels in the 
papilla. 



17. Which three factors determ- 
ine the shape of the hair? 



The size, shape and direction of the 
hair follicle. 



18. Name three shapes of hair. 



Straight hair, wavy hair, and curly 
or kinky hair. 



19. Name three layers found in 
hair. 



Medulla, cortex and cuticle. 



20. Which hair layer makes hair 
elastic? 



The cuticle of the hair. 



21. Which hair layer contains 
coloring matter? 



The cortex of the hair. 



22. Explain the process of hair 
growth and replacement. 



Active hair growth starts at the pa- 
pilla. When the hair has reached its 
fullest growth, it begins to shed. If 
the hair papilla is alive and properly 
nourished by the blood, a new hair 
will grow again. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



295 



THE NAIL 

While the barber is not required to know the procedure 
for manicuring, the study of the structure and function of 
the nail will be beneficial. 

The condition of the nail, like that of the skin, reflects 
the general health of the body. The normal, healthy nail 
is firm and flexible and exhibits a slightly pink color. Its 
surface should be smooth, curved and unspotted without 
any hollows or wavy ridges. 

The nail, an appendage of the skin, is a horny plate 
which acts as a protective covering for the tips of the 
fingers and toes. 

Composition. The nails contain a complex substance, 
called keratin, which imparts a whitish appearance and al- 
lows the pink color of the nail bed to be seen. 

Growth. The average rate of growth in the normal adult 
is about one-eighth of an inch per month, being faster in the 
summer than in the winter. The nails of children grow more 

HYPONYCHIUM 

^ ,^ FREE EDGE 

EPIDERMIS 

DERMA or 
TRUE SKIN 

3rd PHALANX 



FREE EDGE 
NAIL BODY 



LUND LA 



CUTICLE 
NAIL ROOT 




LATERAL 
LIGAMENTS 




\- 

ANAIL BED 

J^NAIL BOD\ 
A-LUNULA 



X ROOT 
\MATRIX 



Diagram of the Nail 



rapidly; whereas those of elderly persons grow more slowly. 
The nail grows fastest on the middle finger and slowest on 
the thumb. Although toe nails grow more slowly than finger 
nails, they are thicker and harder. 



296 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

Definitions 

Parts of the nail. The nail consists of three parts: the 
body or plate, the root and the free edge. 

The nail body or plate is the visible portion of the nail 
extending from the nail root to the free edge. 

The nail root is at the base of the nail and is imbedded 
underneath the skin. The nail root originates from an act- 
ively growing layer known as the matrix. 

The free edge is the terminal portion of the nail body 
and reaches over the fingers tips. 

The lunula is the visible half -moon area at the base of 
the nail body. The pale color of the lunula is due to the 
numerous cells of the matrix which are less vascular. 

The nail grooves are furrowed edges on either side of 
the nail body. 

The skin adjoining the finger nail includes the nail bed, 
the matrix, the cuticle, the mantle and the nail walls. 

The nail bed is the portion of the skin on which the 
nail body rests. It is composed of vascular tissue correspond- 
ing to dermis and stratum mucosum of the skin. 

The matrix is that part of the nail bed extending be- 
neath the nail root. The matrix produces the nail, the cells 
of the matrix constantly undergoing a reproducing and 
hardening process. 

The cuticle is the overlapping part of the skin of the 
finger around the nail. 

The eponychium is the extension of excess cuticle at 
the base of the nail. 

The hyponychium is that portion of the epidermis, under 
the free edge where the nail leaves the nail bed. 

The mantle is the deep fold of the skin in which thfc 
nail root is lodged. 

The nail walls are the small folds of skin overlapping the 
nail body. 



297 



ELECTRICITY 

The beneficial effects of electricity have long been recog- 
nized to be of value in barbering. Electricity is a valuable 
servant, provided it is used intelligently and safely. Not 
only does it supply light and heat, but it can operate var- 
ious kinds of electrical machines and appliances to the 
advantage of the barber and the customer. Thus, time and 
energy are saved and the effectiveness of barber services 
is improved. 

Although the exact nature of electricity is not yet com- 
pletely understood, its generating sources and effects are 
known. It is generally believed that electricity is a form 
of energy, which when in motion, produces magnetic, chem- 
ical or heat effects. 

Electricity cay be produced chemically or mechanically. 
Battery cells, either dry or wet, change chemical energy 
into electrical energy. Dynamos and magnetos are mech- 
anical generators which convert the energy released by 
waterfalls or burning coal into electricity. 

A current of electricity is a stream of electrons (neg- 
atively charged particles) moving along a conductor. 

A conductor is a substance which readily transmits an 
electric current. Metals (copper, gold, silver, aluminum, 
zinc), carbon and watery solutions of acids and salts are 
good conductors of electricity. 

A non-conductor or insulator is a substance, such as 
rubber, silk, dry wood, glass, cement or asbestos, which 
resists the passage of an electric current. 

An electric wire is composed of metal (conductor) which 
is surrounded by rubber or silk (insulator or non-conductor). 

Electrodes, composed of good conductors, serve as points 
of contact when applying electricity to the body. 

Two forms of electricity are employed for commercial 
purposes, the direct and alternating currents. 



298 ELECTRICITY 

1. Direct current (D.C.) is a constant and even-flowing 
current, traveling in one direction. 

2. Alternating current (A.C.) is a rapid and interrupted 
current, flowing first in one direction and then in the op- 
posite direction. 

If necessary, one type of current can be changed to the 
other type by means of a converter or rectifier. 

A converter is an apparatus used to convert a direct 
current into an alternating current. A rectifier is used to 
change an alternating current to a direct current, which 
is required to generate galvanism. 

A complete circuit of electricity is the entire path traveled 
by the current from its generating source through various 
conductors (wire, electrode, body) and back to its original 
source. 

A closed circuit is one in which the current flows after 
proper connections have been made. 

A ground circuit is one in which one pole is used to de- 
liver current and the other pole is connected to a ground (a 
water pipe or radiator). 

An open circuit is one in which the flow of electricity 
has been interrupted or disconnected. 

A short (broken) circuit occurs when the current is 
diverted from its regular path by faulty connections or by 
frayed wires. 

A fuse is a safety device which prevents the overheating 
of electric wires. It will blow out because of overloading 
(too many connections on one wire) or through a short 
circuit. To re-establish the circuit, disconnect apparaus be- 
fore inserting a new fuse. 



ELECTRICITY 

SAFETY PRACTICES 
This 



299 




Use only one plug to each outlet. Overloading may cause fuse to 
blow out. 




To disconnect current, re- 
move plug without pulling 
cord. Never pull on cord as 
the wires may become loos- 
ened, and may cause a 
short circuit. 





In replacing a blown out 
fuse, make sure to: 

1. Use new fuse with prop- 
er rating. 

2. Stand on a dry surface. 

3. Keep hands dry. 





Examine cords regularly. 
Repair or replace worn 
cords to prevent short 
circuit, shock or fire. 




ON 



OFF 




In an emergency, turn off 
main switch, as illustrated, 
to shut off electricity for en- 
tire shop or building. 



300 ELECTRICITY 

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS 

Electrical measurements are expressed in terms of the 
following units: 

The volt is a unit of electrical pressure. 

The ampere is a unit of electrical strength. 

The ohm is a unit of electrical resistance. 

An electrical current flows through a conductor when the 
pressure is sufficiently great to overcome the resistance offered 
by the wire or body to the passage of the current. According 
to Ohm's law, it takes one volt of pressure to drive one am- 
pere of strength through one ohm of resistance in one sec- 
ond's time. 

Instead of the ampere which is too strong, the milli- 
ampere, I/ 1000th part of an ampere, is used for facial and 
scalp treatments. The milliamperemeter is an instrument for 
measuring the rate of flow of an electric current. 

The voltmeter is an instrument for measuring the exact 
voltage of an electric current. 

The transformer is a device for changing (either increas- 
ing or decreasing) the voltage of an electric current. It can 
be used only on alternating current. 

The frequency of a current is the number of complete 
cycles or waves occurring in one second. The ordinary alter- 
nating current operates at a rate of 60 cycles and at a voltage 
of 110. 

A high-frequency current refers to a current with 10,000 
or more cycles per second. 

A watt is a unit of electrical power which flows at the rate 
of one ampere under a pressure of one volt. It takes approx- 
imately 746 watts to make one horsepower. 

A kilowatt is a unit of quantity, representing 1000 watts. 
It is used to figure the cost of power consumed in the barber 
shop. 



ELECTRICITY 



301 



HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT 

There are three types of high-frequency current : d 5 Arson- 
val, Oudin and Tesla currents, named after their respective 
discoverers. These currents are characterized by a high rate 
of vibration, ranging from 10,000 or more cycles per second. 
Of chief interest to the barber is the Tesla current, commonly 
called the violet ray. The other two types are used in the 
practice of medicine. 

The Tesla current is of medium voltage and amperage 
and can be connected to either the direct or alternating cur- 
rents. The primary action of this current is thermal, or heat 
producing. Because of its rapid vibrations, there are no mus- 
cular contractions. The physiological effects are either stim- 
ulating or soothing, depending on the method of application. 



Facial Electrode 





High Frequency (Tesla) 



Scalp Electrode 



Metal Electrode 

The electrodes for high-frequency are made of glass or 
metal. Their shapes vary, the facial electrode being flat and 
the scalp electrode being rake-shaped. As the current passes 
through the glass electrode, tiny violet sparks are emitted 
when the electrode is held about half an inch from the skin. 
All treatments given with high-frequency should be started 



302 



ELECTRICITY 



with a mild current, and gradually increased to the required 
strength. The length of the treatment depends upon the con- 
dition to be treated. For a general facial or scalp treatment 
about five minutes should be allowed. 





Applying High-Frequency to Face Applying High-Frequency to Scalp 
Using Facial Electrode. Using Rake Electrode. 

There are three methods of using the Tesla current: 

1 . Direct surface application. The barber holds the elec- 
trode and applies it over the customer's skin. For effective 
facial treatments, the electrode should be applied directly 
over the cosmetic cream. 

2. Indirect application. The customer holds the elec- 
trode, while the barber uses his fingers to massage the surface 
being treated. At no time is the electrode attached to the 
barber. To prevent shock, the current is turned on after the 
customer has the electrode firmly in his hand; the current 
is turned off before removing the electrode from the cust- 
omer's hand. 

3. General electrification. By holding a metal electrode 
in his hand, the customer's body is charged with electricity 
without being touched by the barber. 

To obtain sedative, calming or soothing effects with high- 
frequency current, the general electrification treatment is 
used, or the electrode is kept in close contact with the parts 
treated by the use of direct surface application. 

To obtain a stimulating effect, the electrode is lifted 
slightly from the parts to be treated by using it through the 
clothing or a towel. 



ELECTRICITY 303 

In using high-frequency with hair tonics, never use a 
tonic with a high alcoholic content. If it is desirable to use 
this type of tonic, use the electricity first, and the tonic after 
the electricity has been applied. 

The removal of growths such as warts and moles may be 
accomplished by means of sparks of a high-frequency cur- 
rent. This treatment is called fulguration. 

The Vibrator 

The vibrator is an electrical appliance used by the barber 
as an aid in facial and scalp massage. It can be regulated to 
produce either a slow, medium or fast rate of vibration. 

When the vibrator is used for massage purposes, the fol- 
lowing benefits are derived by the customer. 

1 . Stimulates the functions of the skin. 

2. Stimulates muscular tissues. 

3. Increases the blood supply to the parts being massaged. 

4. Increases glandular activities. 

5. Soothes the nerves. 

The vibrator may be used in two ways: 

1. Indirectly with an applicator attached to the barber's 
wrist or hand. When in use, the vibrations are trans- 
mitted through the barber's fingers to the parts being 
treated. 

2. Directly with a rubber applicator. The rubber appli- 
cator transmits the vibrations directly to the parts be- 
ing treated. For sanitary reasons, a new rubber appli- 
cator should be used on each customer. Used rubber 
applicators cannot be effectively sterilized; therefore 
must be replaced with a new one for each customer. 

Although the vibrator produces beneficial results when 
properly used, it should never be used if the customer has a 
weak heart, fever, inflammation or an abscess. 



304 ELECTRICITY 

WALL PLATE 

A wall plate is a device used to adapt the different types 
of current supplied by the power plant or battery cells to suit 
the requirements of electrical appliances used in the barber 
shop. By adjusting certain switches, it is possible to obtain 
the type of current desired. 

GALVANIC CURRENT 

The galvanic current is a constant and direct current 
generated by a direct current (D.C.) or by battery cells. 
It possesses polarity as manifested by the chemical changes 
produced when this current is passed through certain solu- 
tions containing acids or salts. Chemical effects are also pro- 
duced when a galvanic current is passed through the tissues 
and fluids of the body. 

The negative pole of the galvanic current has a special 
use in electrolysis, and is employed for the permanent re- 
moval of unsightly hair from the body. 

SHORT-WAVE DIATHERMY 

The short-wave diathermy is another form of high-fre- 
quency current, and is also used for the rapid and permanent 
removal of undesirable hair from the body. 

FARADIC CURRENT 

The faradic current is an alternating and interrupted cur- 
rent capable of producing a mechanical reaction without a 
chemical effect. It is used principally to cause muscular 
contractions. 

SINUSOIDAL CURRENT 

The sinusoidal current resembles the faradic current in 
many respects. It is an alternating current which produces 
a mechanical effect on the body. The manner of application 
is the same as for the faradic current. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



305 



ELECTRICITY 



1. What is the nature of elec- 
tricity? 



A form of energy capable of pro- 
ducing magnetic, chemical or heat 
effects. 



2. What is a conductor? What 
substance is usually used as 
a conductor in an electric 
wire? 



A substance which readily carries an 
electric current. Copper is usually 
used as a conductor. 



3. What is a non-conductor or 
insulator? Give three ex- 
amples. 



A substance which resists the passage 
of an electric current, such as rubber, 
silk and glass. 



4. What are electrodes? 



Applicators used in applying elec- 
tricity to a customer. 



5. What is 
(B.C.)? 



a direct current 



A constant and even-flowing current, 
traveling in one direction. 



6. What is an alternating cur- 
rent (A.C.)? 



A rapid, interrupted current, flowing 
first in one direction and then in the 
opposite direction. 



7. Which apparatus changes a 
direct current into an alter- 
nating current? 



Converter. 



8. Which apparatus changes an 
alternating current to a di- 
rect current? 



Rectifier. 



9. Define a closed circuit. 



A closed circuit is one in which the 
current flows after proper connections 
have been made. 



10. Which type of circuit will 
not operate an electrical ap- 
pliance? 



An open circuit or a short circuit. 



11. Which safety device is need- 
ed to correct a short circuit? 



Fuse. 



12. Which three defects may 
cause a fuse to blow out? 



Overloading an electrical outlet, faulty 
connections, and frayed wires. 



13. What is a volt? 



A unit of electrical pressure. 



14. What is an ampere? 



A unit of electrical strength. 



15. What is an ohm? 



A unit of electrical resistance. 



16. What is a high-frequency 
current? 



A current having a high rate of vibra- 
tion, ranging from 10,000 or more cy- 
cles per second. 



17. Which type of high-frequen- 
cy current is commonly used 
in the barber shop? 



Tesla current. 



18. What effects does the Tesla 
current produce on the 
body? 



Either stimulating or soothing effects, 
depending on the method of appli- 
cation. 



306 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



19. Name three kinds of elec- 
trodes. 



The facial electrode, the scalp elec- 
trode and the metal electrode. 



20. Name three methods of ap- 
plying the Tesla current. 



Direct surface application; indirect 
application; general electrification. 



21. Briefly describe how to use 
direct surface application. 



The barber holds the electrode and 
applies it directly to customer's skin. 



22. Briefly describe how to use 
indirect application. 



While the customer is holding the 
electrode, the barber massages the 
surface being treated. 



23. Briefly describe how to use 
general electrification. 



The customer holds the metal elec- 
trode in his hand, thereby charging 
the body with electricity. 



24. Which method of application 
produces soothing results? 



Either direct surface application or 
general electrification. 



25. How are stimulating effects 
produced? 



By lifting the electrode slightly from 
the part being treated or by using it 
through a towel or clothing. 



26. How long should a general 
facial or scalp treatment 
last? 



About five minutes. 



27. What safety precaution 
should be observed in using 
hair tonics having a high 
alcoholic content? 



Use the high-frequency current first, 
followed by the application of hair 
tonic. 



28. What is a vibrator? 



An electrical appliance used as an 
aid in massage. 



29. Name five benefits produced 
by vibratory massage. 



1. Stimulates the functions of the skin. 

2. Stimulates muscular tissues. 

3. Increases the blood supply to the 
part being massaged. 

4. Increases glandular activities. 

5. Soothes the nerves. 



30. Under what conditions should 
a vibrator never be used? 



If the customer has a weak heart, 
fever, inflammation or abscess. 



31. Describe the methods 
using the vibrator. 



of The vibrator may be used directly 
or indirectly. It can be used directly 
with the rubber applicator to the 
parts to be treated. Or it may be 
used indirectly, by placing the vibra- 
tor on the back of the barber's hand, 
or wrist the vibrations are thus trans- 
mitted through the fingers to the parts 
to be treated. 



307 



LIGHT THERAPY 

Light therapy refers to the application of light rays for 
treatment of disease. Light or electrical waves travel at a 
tremendous speed 186,000 miles per second. The Angstrom 
Unit (A.U.) has been adopted to simplify the measurement 
of these waves. 

There are many kinds of light rays, but in barber shop 
work we are concerned with only three those producing 
heat, known as infra-red rays ; those producing chemical and 
germicidal reaction, known as ultra-violet rays; and visible 
lights, all of which are contained within the spectrum of 
the sun. 

If a ray of sunshine is passed through a glass prism, it 
will appear in seven different colors, known as the rainbow, 
arrayed in the following manner: red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, indigo and violet. These colors which are visible to the 
eye, constitute the visible spectrum, comprising about 12% 
of sunshine. 




Dispersion of Light Rays by a Prism 



Scientists have discovered that at either end of the visible 
spectrum are rays of the sun which are invisible to us. The 
rays beyond the violet are the ultra-violet rays, also known as 
actinic rays. These rays are the shortest and least penetrating 
rays of the spectrum, comprising about 8% of sunshine. The 
action of these rays is both chemical and germicidal. 

Below the red rays of the spectrum are the infra-red rays. 
These are pure heat rays, comprising about 80% of sunshine. 



308 



LIGHT THERAPY 



Ultra Violet Rays 


Solar Spectrum 


Infra Red Rays 


1 847 All to 3900 All 


3900 All to 7700 AU 


7700 AU to 14.000 AU 


Far 
1847-2200 


Middle 
2200-2900 


Near 
2900- 390Q 


.*- o c 5 co 

<U O> 9) o C 


Penetrating 


Gernvcida! 


Therapeutic 


Tonic 


0^5 S H S"g 
>,SO>Oc 


Analgesic 


Cold Invisible Rays 


Visible Rays 


Invisible Heat Rays 



Natural sunshine is composed of: 

8% ultra-violet rays; 12% visible light rays; 80% infra-red rays. 



Properties of ultra-violet raysr 

1. Short wave length. 

2. High frequency. 

3. Weak penetrating power. 



Properties of infra-red rays: 

1. Long wave length. 

2. Low frequency. 

3. Deep penetrating power. 



How Light Rays Are Reproduced 

A therapeutic lamp is an electrical apparatus capable of 
producing certain rays of the spectrum. There are separate 
lamps for infra-red and for ultra-violet. 

Types of U lira-Violet Lamps 
There are three general types of ultra-violet lamps. 

1. The glass bulb. 

2. The hot quartz. 

3. The cold quartz. 

ULTRA-VIOLET GENERATORS 





Glass Bulb 
Type 



Cold Quartz Type 



Hot Quartz Type 



The glass bulb lamp produces mostly longer ultra-violet 
rays. It is used mainly for cosmetic or tanning purposes. 

The hot quartz lamp produces both short and long ultra- 
violet rays. It is a general all purpose lamp suitable for tan- 
ning, tonic, cosmetic or germicidal purposes. 



LIGHT THERAPY 



309 



The cold quartz lamp produces mostly short ultra-violet 
rays. It has a limited use in the barber shop. 

Infra-red rays are best reproduced by metal generators, 
giving no light whatsoever, only a rosy glow when active. 
Special glass bulbs are also used to produce infra-red rays. 

The visible rays, sometimes referred to as dermal lights, 
are reproduced by carbon filament or tungsten bulbs in clear 
glass which gives the white light, or in colored bulbs giving 
the various colors. 

Protecting the eyes. The customer's eyes should always be 
protected with cotton pads saturated in a boric acid or witch 
hazel solution, placed on the eyelids during such treatments. 
The barber and customer should always wear goggles when 
using ultra-violet rays. 



ULTRA-VIOLET RAYS 

Ultra-violet rays are invisible rays beyond the violet of 
the spectrum. Their action is both chemical and germicidal. 
Plant and animal life need ultra-violet rays for healthy 
growth. In the human body, these rays produce changes in 
the chemistry of the blood and also stimulate the activity of 
body cells. 

Effects of ultra-violet rays. 
Ultra-violet rays increase re- 
sistance to disease by increas- 
ing the iron in the blood and 
the red and white cells in the 
blood. They also increase elim- 
ination of waste products ; re- 
store nutrition to the parts, 
stimulate the circulation and 
improve the flow of blood and 
lymph. 

Skin tanning is the result of one or more exposures to 
ultra-violet rays which stimulate the production of pigment 
or coloring matter in the skin. 




Applying Ultra-Violet Rays 



310 LIGHT THERAPY 

Sunburn may be produced by ultra-violet rays, in various 
degrees ; however, for cosmetic purposes, first degree only is 
given. This is manifested by a slight reddening, appearing 
several hours after application, without any signs of itching, 
burning or peeling. 

Treating diseases. Ultra-violet rays are used effectively in 
the treatment of acne, tinea and seborrhea. They may also 
be used to combat dandruff. They are beneficial in the pro- 
cess of healing, as well as to the growth of hair, because they 
increase the number of active tissue cells. 

How applied. Ultra-violet rays are the shortest light rays 
of the spectrum, and the farther they are from the visible 
light region, the shorter they become. In practically all skin 
and scalp disorders there is manifested a deficiency of cal- 
cium. The long ultra-violet rays tend to increase the fixation 
of calcium in the blood. If the lamp is placed from 30 to 36 
inches away, practically none of the shorter rays will reach 
the skin, so that the action is then limited to the effect of the 
longer rays. 

The shorter rays are obtained when the lamp is within 
twelve inches from the skin. These rays are not only destruc- 
tive to bacteria, but to tissue as well, if allowed to remain 
in use for too long a period of time. 

Average exposure may produce redness of the skin, and 
overdoses may cause blistering. It is well to start with a 
short exposure of two or three minutes, and gradually in- 
crease the time to seven or eight minutes. The barber and 
customer must wear eye goggles to protect their eyes. 

The slightest obstruction, of any nature whatever, will 
hinder ultra-violet rays from reaching the skin. Consequently 
the skin must be entirely cleansed of creams, oils, powders, 
etc., before being subjected to ultra-violet rays. 



LIGHT THERAPY 311 



INFRA-RED RAYS 

Generally speaking, infra-red rays, which are the longest 
rays of the spectrum, produce a soothing and beneficial type 
of heat which extends for some distance into the tissues of 
the body. 

Use and effect of infra-red rays: 

1. Increase metabolism in general. 

2. Relieve pain. 

3. Increase oxidation in tissues. 

4. Increase perspiration and secretion of sebum on skin. 

5. Dilate blood vessels, and therefore increase blood flow. 

6. Relax dermal tissues. 

7. Heat tissues in area of exposure to high temperature 
without increasing body temperature. 




Applying Infra-Red Rays 

How applied. The lamp is operated at an average dis- 
tance of thirty inches. It is placed closer at the start, and 
then moved back gradually as the surface heat becomes more 
pronounced. Always protect the eyes of the customer during 
exposure. 



312 LIGHT THERAPY 

VISIBLE LIGHTS 

The lamp used to reproduce visible lights is usually a 
dome-shaped reflector, mounted on a pedestal with a flexible 
neck. The dome is finished with highly polished metal lining 
capable of reflecting heat rays. The bulbs used with this 
lamp come in various colors for different purposes. As with 
all other lamps, the customer's eyes must be protected from 
the glare and heat of the light. For proper eye protection, the 
customer's eyes are covered with pads. 

Use and effect of the white light: 

1 . Relieves pain, especially in the congested areas ; more 
particularly around the nerve centers, such as the back of 
the neck and around and within the ear. 

Use and effect of the blue light: 

1 . Has a tonic and irritating effect on the bare skin. 

2. Is deficient in heat rays. 

3. Has a soothing effect on the nerves. 

4. To obtain the desired result, it is only used over the 
bare skin. Creams, oils, powders, etc., must not be present 
on the skin. 

Use and effect of the red light: 

1. Has strong heat rays. 

2. Has a stimulating and tonic effect when used over the 
bare skin. 

3. Penetrates more deeply than the blue light. 

4. Heat rays aid the absorption of cosmetic creams by 
the skin. 

5. Is recommended for dry, scaly, and shriveled skin. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS' AND ANSWERS 



313 



LIGHT THERAPY 



1. What is light therapy? 



The application of light rays for the 
treatment of disease. 



2. At what speed does light 
travel? 



About 185,000 miles per second. 



3. Which unit measures 
wave length of light? 



the Angstrom Unit (A.U.) 



4. What is the average com- 
position of natural sunshine? 



80% infra-red rays; 12% visible rays; 
8% ultra-violet rays. 



5. Name the colors composing 
the visible light rays. 



Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, in- 
digo, and violet. 



6. Which rays of the sun are 
invisible? 



Ultra-violet rays and infra-red rays. 



7. What is a therapeutic lamp? 



An electrical apparatus used in pro- 
ducing various rays of the sun. 



8. Name three characteristics of 
ultra-violet rays. 



Short wave length, high frequency 
and weak penetrating power. 



9. Name three types of thera- 
peutic lamps which produce 
ultra-violet rays. 



Glass bulb lamp, hot quartz lamp and 
cold quartz lamp. 



10. Which ultra-violet lamps are 
desirable for the barber 
shop? 



Glass bulb lamp and hot quartz lamp. 



11. What benefit does the blood 
receive from ultra-violet 
rays? 



The blood becomes enriched by an 
increase in the number of red and 
white cells. 



12. What effects do ultra-violet 
rays have on the body? 



Increases the blood and lymph flow, 
restores nutrition and increases the 
elimination of waste products. 



13. Which skin and sca,lp dis- 
orders are helped by ultra- 
violet rays? 



Acne, tinea, seborrhea and dandruff. 



14. What benefit does the hair 
receive from ultra-violet 
rays? 



Stimulates the growth of hair. 



15. How far should the ultra- 
violet lamp be kept from 
the skin? 



About twelve inches. 



To prevent irritation and injury to 
the eyes. 



16. Why should the eyes be 
covered with goggles during 
exposure to ultra-violet 
rays? 



17. How long should the skin 
be exposed for the first time? 



About two or three minutes. 



18. For how many minutes can 
exposure be gradually in- 
creased? 



Seven or eight minutes 



19. Why should prolonged ex- 
posure be avoided? 



May cause severe sunburn and blis- 
ters 



314 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



20. Which degree sunburn 
safe for customers? 



is First degree sunburn. 



21. What are the signs of first 
degree sunburn? 



Slight reddening of the skin, ap- 
pearing several hours after applica- 
tion, without any signs of itching, 
peeling or burning. 



22. What causes the skin to tan? 



The ultra-violet rays stimulate the 
production of pigment or coloring 
matter in the skin. 



23. Why should the skin be 
clean before exposure to ul- 
tra-violet rays? 



The slightest covering on the skin 
prevents these rays from reaching the 
skin. 



24. Name three characteristics 
of infra-red rays. 



Long wave length, low frequency and 
deep penetrating power. 



25. Which types of therapeutic 
lamps produce infra-red 
rays? 



Metal generators or special glass 
bulbs. 



26. How should the eyes be pro- 
tected during exposure? 



Cover the eyes with pads dipped into 
boric acid or witch hazel solution. 



27. How far should the infra-red 
lamp be kept from the skin? 



About thirty inches from the skin. 



28. What are the effects of in- 
fra-red rays on the body? 



1. Heats and relaxes dermal tissues. 

2. Increases blood flow. 

3. Increases formation of sweat and 
sebum. 

4. Increases oxidation and metabolism. 

5. Relieves pain. 



29. Which types of therapeutic 
lamps produce visible lights? 



Dermal lights, having a tungsten or 
carbon filament in clear or colored 
bulbs. 



30. Why should the eyes be 
protected during exposure? 



To protect the eyes from the heat 
and glare of the light. 



31. What are the benefits of 
using a white light? 



The heat relieves pain in congested 
areas. 



32. Which visible 
heat rays? 



light lacks Blue light. 



33. What are the benefits of 
using a blue light? 



Tones the bare skin and soothes the 
nerves. 



34. What are the benefits of 
using a red light? 



The heat penetrates the skin, and has 
a stimulating or tonic effect on the 
bare skin. 



315 



CHEMISTRY 

It is necessary for the barber to be familiar with 
the fundamentals of chemistry, a subject that has a direct 
bearing upon the composition and use of various cosmetics 
in the barber shop. 

Chemistry is the science which deals with the composition, 
characteristics, and changes of matter. 

Organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry which 
treats of carbon and its compounds, which may be derived 
from the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

Inorganic chemistry is that branch of chemistry that 
treats of substances found in or on the earth and are gen- 
erally of mineral origin. 

Matter is any substance which occupies space and has 
weight. It may exist in any or all of three forms: 

1. Solid having definite shape. 

2. Liquid having volume but no definite shape. 

3. Gaseous having neither volume nor definite shape. 

Changes in matter may be either physical or chemical. 

A physical change is one in which the identity of the sub- 
stance remains the same both before and after the change. 
There is merely a change in the physical combination of the 
substance. Example: Mixtures such as powders, solu- 
tions, etc., represent different combinations of matter. It is 
possible to separate the ingredients from each other by phy- 
sical means. 

A chemical change is one in which the chemical nature 
and characteristics of the substance are permanently lost and 
an entirely new substance is produced. Example: Soap is 
formed from the chemical reaction between an alkaline sub- 
stance (potassium hydroxide) and an oil or fat. The soap 
does not resemble the alkaline substance or the oil from 
which is it formed. 

Matter may be separated into two or more simple sub- 
stances which cannot be decomposed by any known agents. 
These substances are called elements. There are about ninety- 
two elements recognized at the present time, of which the 



316 CHEMISTRY 

most common are hydrogen and oxygen. Each element is 
identified by a letter or combination of letters, known as its 
symbol. Thus, the symbol for oxygen is O ; for hydrogen, H. 

A substance formed by the chemical union of two or more 
elements is known as a compound. For example, water is 
formed by the union of hydrogen and oxygen through the 
agency of electricity. Compounds may possess characteristics 
differing from any of the elements composing them. Hydro- 
gen and oxygen are gases, but the water resulting from their 
chemical union is a liquid. 

A chemical reaction involves a change in the identity and 
characteristics of the substance participating in the reaction. 

Analysis is a chemical reaction in which a substance or 
compound is separated into its component parts or elements. 

Synthesis is a chemical reaction in which two or more 
substances or compounds combine to form an entirely new 
product. 

A combination of elements which retain their identities 
as separate substances, however thoroughly mingled, is called 
a mixture, such as salt water. 

Chemical compounds are known by the symbols of the 
elements composing them. One atom, or smallest unit, of 
the element sodium (Na) combined with one atom of chlor- 
ine (Cl) makes one molecule (smallest particle of the com- 
pound) of the resulting product, sodium chloride (NaCl) 
or common salt. Two atoms of hydrogen (H) combined with 
one atom of oxygen (O) form one molecule of water, for 
which the formula is H 2 O. 

Acids, Bases and Salts 

The barber should observe certain elementary chemical 
reactions of acids, bases and salts. For purposes of study, 
absorbent litmus paper, dyed with a violet blue coloring 
matter obtained from lichens, is used for testing. 

Acids are sour substances containing hydrogen and some 
other non-metallic element such as nitrogen, sulphur, etc. 



CHEMISTRY 317 

An acid solution will turn blue litmus paper red. Well known 
acids include: Hydrochloric (HC1), Sulphuric (H 2 SO 4 ), 
Nitric (HNO 8 ), Acetic (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ), and Oxalic (C 2 H 2 O 4 ). 

Bases are bitter tasting substances containing hydrogen, 
oxygen and some metal, such as sodium or potassium. They 
are soapy to the touch and in solution will turn red litmus 
paper blue. Bases are also known as alkalies. Sodium hydrox- 
ide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) are common 
bases, both being used in the manufacture of soaps. 

When there is any doubt regarding the nature of any so- 
lution, litmus paper can be used to determine its acid or 
alkaline content. 

Salts are formed by the addition of acids to bases. Water 
is also formed in this manner, because of the natural altera- 
tion of hydrogen and oxygen. Acids are said to be neutralized 
by their contact with bases which is proved by the fact that 
litmus paper is not affected by salt solution. Salts contain 
metal and non-metal, and in some cases oxygen. Remember- 
ing the formulas of the acids and bases previously given, the 
barber will readily see how water is a natural by-product in 
the forming of salts. Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydrox- 
ide :: water + sodium chloride (HG1 + NaOH :: H 2 O 
+ NaCl). 

Some common salts and their formulas are as follows: 
sodium chloride (NaCl) contains sodium and chlorine; mag- 
nesium sulphate (MgSO 4 ) contains magnesium, sulphur and 
oxygen; and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) contains potassium, 
nitrogen and oxygen. 

Chemistry of Water 

Water is the most abundant substance known. It covers 
about 75% of the earth's surface and comprises about 65% 
of the human body. Many foods are largely composed of 
water. It is the universal solvent. It can absorb more heat 
than any other substance and it is a good conductor of 
electricity. 

Water serves many useful purposes in the barber shop. 
Only water of known purity is fit for drinking puposes. 
Suspended or dissolved impurities render water unsatisfactory 



318 CHEMISTRY 

for cleansing objects and for use in barber treatments. 

Impurities can be removed from water by the following 
methods : 

Filtration: passing through a porous substance, such as 
charcoal. 

Boiling: heating to a temperature of 212 Fahrenheit to 
destroy microbic life and drive off gases. 

Distillation: heating in a closed vessel arranged so that 
the resulting vapor passes off through a tube and is cooled 
and condensed to a liquid. This process is usually employed 
to purify water used in the manufacture of cosmetics. 

Soft water, such as rain water or distilled water, contains 
little or no minerals. It is very important that soft water be 
used for shampooing, bleaching or dyeing the hair. Hard 
water contains mineral substances that curdle soap instead of 
permitting a lather to form. Hard water may be softened by 
boiling, distillation, or by the use of borax or washing soda. 

For the latter method of softening water, a large vessel, 
with a faucet near the bottom, is filled with water and placed 
on a low platform. One pound of borax or washing soda is 
dissolved in two quarts of water ; and for each unit of twenty 
gallons of water in the tank, one ounce of borax solution is 
added. The water in the vessel is stirred vigorously with a 
clean wooden paddle. Any cloudiness appearing should be 
allowed to settle and then a small amount of the water drawn 
off for testing. 

A good test for soft water employs a standard soap solu- 
tion made by dissolving three-quarters of an ounce of pure 
powdered castile soap in a pint of distilled water. A pint 
bottle should be half rilled with fresh water, and one drop of 
soap solution added. The bottle is then shaken vigorously. 
If a lather forms at once and lasts for a few minutes, the 
water is very soft. If a lather does not appear at once, an- 
other drop of soap solution is added and the shaking repeated. 
If more than a few drops of the soap solution are needed to 
produce a good lather, the water must be softened. 



CHEMISTRY 319 

Softened water is tested as described, and another ounce 
of the borax solution to each twenty gallons of water must be 
added if a lather lasting two minutes cannot be produced. A 
record of the findings in this test is helpful in softening the 
next large quantity of water. 

United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) 

The barber needs to become familiar with certain drugs 
used in cosmetics. The United States Pharmacopeia 
is a book defining and standardizing drugs and is therefore 
in the possession of every druggist. The initials U.S.P. fol- 
lowing the name of any drug is an indication that it is listed 
in the above mentioned volume. 

Alcohol (grain or ethyl) is a colorless liquid obtained by 
the fermentation of certain sugars. It is a powerful antisep- 
tic and disinfectant, a 70% solution being usable for steril- 
ization of instruments, and 60% solution for the skin. 

Alum is an aluminum derivative, supplied in the form of 
crystals or powder, which has a strong astringent taste and 
action. It is used as a styptic in cases of small cuts by dusting 
the powder over the injury. 

Ammonia water, as commercially used, is a colorless liq- 
uid with a pungent, penetrating odor. It is a by-product of 
the manufacture of coal gas. As it readily dissolves grease, it 
is valued as a cleansing agent, and is also used with hydrogen 
peroxide in bleaching hair. A 28% solution of ammonia gas 
dissolved in water is commonly employed in the barber shop. 

Sodium carbonate (washing soda) is prepared by heating 
sodium bicarbonate. In the barber shop, it is used for water 
softening and to prevent the rusting of metallic instruments 
in sterilization. 

Bichloride of mercury is usually sold in tablet form, about 
7 J/2 grains, shaped peculiarly for ready identification. As 
it is a very strong poison, it should be employed very sparingly 
in barber shops. It may be used for the sterilization of the 
hands in the proportion of 1/2500. 

Boric acid, also called boracic acid, is a powder obtained 



320 CHEMISTRY 

from sodium borate. It is a mild, healing and antiseptic 
agent. It is sometimes used as a dusting powder, and in so- 
lution, as a cleansing lotion or eyewash. 

Formaldehyde is a gas, but in a water solution containing 
from 37% to 40% of the gas by weight, it is known as 
formalin. The gas is rendered inactive by the addition of 
ammonia. Formaldehyde has a very disagreeable strong 
odor, and is very irritating to the eyes and the mucous lin- 
ings of the nose and mouth. In barber shops formalin is used 
both in wet and dry sterilizers for sterilization of instruments. 

Glycerine is a clear, colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with 
a sweet taste. It is a type of alcohol formed by the decompo- 
sition of oils, fats or molasses. It is an excellent skin softener, 
and is an ingredient of face creams and lotions, brilliantine, 
etc. In sterilization, glycerine is added to the chemical so- 
lution to keep metal instruments from corroding. 

Iodine is obtained from seaweed which is burned and 
the ashes washed, yielding iodides of potassium and bromine. 
Iodine is only slightly soluble in water, when it appears 
gray, but is readily soluble in alcohol, when it appears 
dark brown, and is called tincture of iodine. The 2% 
tincture of iodine can be safely used on the skin to treat minor 
cuts and bruises. Iodine stains are readily removed with 
alcohol. 

Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a colorless oily fluid, heavy, 
with slight odor and sharp taste. It is very unstable, and since 
it decomposes readily in the presence of heat and light, it is 
kept in dark glass bottles, in a cool place. The 17 or 20 vol- 
ume hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a bleaching agent 
for the hair. A 3% or 10 volume solution of hydrogen per- 
oxide possesses antiseptic qualities. 

CHEMISTRY AS APPLIED TO COSMETICS 

Chemistry as applied to cosmetics is both a science and 
an art. The science of chemistry consists in knowing what to 
do in the correct manner, art involves the proper methods of 
preparing and applying the cosmetic to the body. 

A barber will be better equipped to serve the public 



CHEMISTRY 321 

if he has an understanding of the chemical composition, 
preparation and uses of cosmetics which are intended to 
cleanse, beautify and improve the hygiene of the external 
portions of the body. 

Cosmetics used in the barber shop may be classified 
according to their physical and chemical nature and the 
characteristics by means of which they are recognized. 

Physical and Chemical Classification of Cosmetics 

1. Powders 

2. Solutions 

3. Emulsions 

4. Ointments 

5. Soaps 

Powders 

Powders are a uniform mixture of insoluble substances 
which have been properly blended, perfumed and /or tinted 
to produce a cosmetic which is free from coarse or gritty 
particles. 

Solutions 

A solution is a preparation made by dissolving a solid, 
liquid or gaseous substance in another substance, usually 
liquid. 

A solute is a substance dissolved in the fluid. 

A solvent is a liquid used to dissolve a substance. 

Solutions are clear and permanent mixtures of solute and 
solvent which do not separate on standing. Since a good solu- 
tion is clear, filtration is often necessary, particularly if 
the solution is cloudy. 

Water is called a universal solvent because it is capable 
of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. Grain 
alcohol and glycerine are frequently used as solvents. Water, 
glycerine and alcohol readily mix with each other. 

Emulsions 

Emulsions (creams) are permanent mixtures of oil and 
water which are united with the aid of a binder (gum) or 



322 CHEMISTRY 

an emulsifier (soap). Emulsions are usually milky white in 
appearance. 

Creams differ from ointments in the large amount of 
water contained therein. 

Ointments 

Ointments such as sulphur ointment are semi-solid mix- 
tures of organic substances (lard, petrolatum, wax) and a 
medicinal agent. No water is present. For the ointment to 
soften, its melting point should be below that of the body 
temperature (98.6 Fahrenheit). 

Soaps 

Soaps are compounds formed in a chemical reaction be- 
tween alkaline substances (potassium or sodium hydroxide) 
and the fatty acids in the oil or fat. Besides the soap, glyc- 
erine is also formed. Potassium hydroxide produces a soft 
soap, whereas sodium hydroxide forms a hard soap. A mix- 
ture of the two alkalies will yield a soap of intermediate 
consistency. 

A good soap does not contain an excess of free alkali and 
is made from pure oils and fats. 

Shaving Soaps 

Shaving soaps can be purchased in various forms and 
shapes. Hard shaving soaps include those sold in cake, stick 
or powdered form, and are similar in composition to toilet 
soaps. Available as soft soap is shaving cream in tube or jar. 
Liquid soap can also be used by the barber. 

Whatever form of shaving soap is used, it usually contains 
animal and vegetable oils, alkaline substances and water. The 
presence of cocoanut oil improves the lathering qualities of 
the shaving soap. 



CHEMISTRY 



323 



Cosmetics for the Skin, Scalp and Hair 



NAME 


COMPOSITION 


USE 


Soap 


Contains oils and fats 
combined chemically with 
alkalies such as potas- 
sium hydroxide. 


Cleanses the skin. 


Shaving soap 


Contains soap combined 
with water and glycerine. 


Softens the hair and lubricates the 
skin prior to shaving. 


Cold cream 


Contains oil, borax, wax, 
water and perfume. 


All-purpose cream used to cleanse, 
protect and lubricate the skin. 


Cleansing cream 


Contains a cold cream 
base with a high content 
of mineral oil. 


Melts quickly and cleanses the 
skin. 


Tissue cream 


Contains oil, water, lano- 
lin, wax and perfume. 


Softens the skin and replaces any 
natural deficiency of oil. 


Massage cream 


Contains a cold cream 
base with starch or casein. 


Cleanses the skin and aids in 
facial massage. 


Muscle oil 


Contains vegetable or 
mineral oil, lecithin or 
cholesterol. 


Softens and lubricates the skin 
and aids in facial massage. 


Astringent (after- 
shave) lotion 



Contains alcohol, astring- 
ent and perfumed water. 


Closes the pores, and corrects an 
oily skin. 


Witch hazel 


Contains alcohol, water 
and extract of witch hazel 
bark. 


Cools and refreshes the skin after 
shaving. 


Bay rum 




Contains alcohol, oil of 
bay or other fragrant oils. 


Cools and refreshes the skin after 
shaving. 


Talcum powder 


Contains insoluble magne- 
sium compounds and per- 
fume. 


Soothes and dries the skin after 
shaving or used on back of the 
neck before and after haircutting. 


Shampoo 


Contains soap in liquid 
form. 


Cleanses the scalp and hair. 


Hair rinse 


Contains water, a mild 
acid or coloring agent. 


Removes insoluble soap residue 
from the hair, or tints the hair a 
definite shade. 


Hair tonic or 
scalp lotion 


Contains alcohol, water, 
oil, perfume and medi- 
cinal agent (either anti- 
septic or irritant). 


Stimulates circulation, reduces dan- 
druff, keeps scalp clean and 
healthy, and dresses the hair. 


Scalp ointment or 
dandruff ointment 


Contains lanolin, petrola- 
tum and medicinal agents. 


Used to correct dandruff and stim- 
ulate circulation of blood to the 
scalp. 


Brilliantine or 
pomade 


Available in liquid and 
solid form and contains 
vegetable or mineral oil, 
wax and perfume. 


Used as a hair dressing to keep 
the hair in place. 



324 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



COSMETICS 



1. What are cosmetics? 



Cosmetics are preparations used to 
cleanse and improve conditions of 
the skin, scalp, and hair. 



2. Why should the barber have 
a knowledge of cosmetics 
used in the barber shop? 



In order to select the right kind of 
cosmetic to meet the customer's re- 
quirements. 



3. What is the composition of 
water? 



Water contains the elements of 2 parts 
hydrogen and 1 part oxygen, known 
by the formula 



4. What is soft water? 



Water containing little or no minerals, 
such as rain water or distilled water. 



5. What is hard water? 



Water containing small amounts of 
mineral salts. 



6. Which type of water does 
not lather freely with soap? 



Hard water. 



7. Name three methods 
softening hard water. 



for 



Boiling, distillation or the use of 
borax or washing soda. 



8. Which ingredients are used 
in making soaps? 



Alkalies such as sodium hydroxide or 
potassium hydroxide are added to fats 
or oils to form a soap. 



9. What are the qualities of 
a good soap? 



A good soap does not contain an ex- 
cess of free alkali and is made from 
pure fats or oils. 



10. Which soap preparations may 
be used by the barber? 



Powdered soap, stick soap, cake soap, 
liquid soap and shaving cream. 



11. What is the composition of 
creams? 



Creams are a uniform mixture of 
oils, fats, waxes, soap, water and 
other special ingredients. 



12. Name four kinds of creams 
used by the barber. 



Cold cream, cleansing cream, tissue 
cream and massage cream. 



13. What is the composition of 
ointments? Give an example. 



Ointments are semi-solid mixtures of 
fatty substances, waxes and medicinal 
agents. Sulphur ointment. 



14. What is the composition of 
face powders? 



Face powders consist of a powder 
base, perfume and with or without 
a tint. 



15. What is the composition of 
facial lotions? 



Facial lotions are solutions of alcohol, 
water, astringent and perfume. 



16. What is the composition of 
witch hazel? 



Witch hazel is a solution of alcohol, 
water and an extract from witch 
hazel bark. 



17. What is the composition of 
bay rum? 



Bay rum is a solution of alcohol com- 
bined with oil of bay or other fra- 
grant oils. 



18. What is the composition of 
hair tonics? 



Hair tonics are solutions of alcohol, 
oil, water and an antiseptic or irritant. 



19. What is the composition of 
hair dressings? 



Hair dressings are a mixture of veg- 
etable or mineral oil, wax and per- 
fume. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 325 

20. Which cosmetics are gen- Cold cream, facial lotion, witch hazel, 
erally used after shaving? bay rum and talcum powder. 

21. Which cosmetics are gen- Hair tonic or hair dressing. 

erally used after haircutting? 

22. Which agents are generally Shampoo and water . 
used to cleanse the hair? 

23. Which agents are generally Soap and water, and cleansing cream. 
used to cleanse the skin? 

24! Name two types of shaving The brush shaving cream and the 
creams. brushless shaving cream. 



327 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP 
AND HAIR 

The barber should be able to recognize readily the com- 
mon disorders of the skin and scalp so that preventive meas- 
ures may be used to avoid more serious affections. Unusual 
or unfamiliar symptoms of disorder should be immediately 
referred to a physician for treatment. 

Dermatology is the science of the skin, its nature, struc- 
ture, functions, diseases and treatment. 

Dermatologist is a skin specialist. 

Trichology is the science of the hair and its diseases. 

Etiology is the science of the causes of disease. 

Diagnosis is the recognition of a disease from its 
symptoms. 

Prognosis is the foretelling of the probable course of a 
disease. 

Pathology is the science which treats of modifications of 
function and changes in structure caused by disease. 

LESIONS OF THE SKIN 

A lesion is a structural change in the tissues caused by 
injury or disease. There are three types: primary, secondary 
and tertiary. The barber is concerned with primary and 
secondary lesions only. 

Symptom is a sign of disease. The symptoms in diseases 
of the skin are divided into two groups. 

1. Subjective symptoms that can be felt, as in itching, 
burning, pains, etc. 

2. Objective symptoms that can be seen, as in pimples, 
pustules, etc. 

Primary Lesions 

1. Macule a small discolored spot or patch on the sur- 
face of the skin, neither raised nor sunken, usually found in 
rashes, such as measles. 



328 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



2. Papule a small elevation of the skin containing no 
fluid, but which may so develop that it will later contain pus. 

3. Wheal a raised ridge on the skin, usually caused by 
the blow of a whip, bite of an insect, or as the characteristic 
eruption of urticaria. 

4. Tubercle a solid elevation of the skin, varying in size 
from that of a flaxseed to about the size of a hickory nut. 

5. Tumor (phyma) an external swelling, varying in 
size, shape and color. 

6. Vesicle a small circumscribed elevation of the skin 
containing a serum-like fluid, such as a blister. 

7. Bulla (bleb) a blister containing a serum-like fluid, 
similar to a vesicle, but larger. 

8. Pustule an elevation of the skin having an inflamed 
base, containing pus. 



Papule p u stule 



Bleb 



Tumor 




Primary Skin Lesions 




Crust 



Excoriation Ulcer 

Secondary Skin Lesions 



Secondary Lesions 

1. Scale (squama) a dry or greasy separated portion of 
the epidermis. 

2. Crusts (scabs) three varieties: 

a) Blood crusts (red-black in color). 

b) Pus crusts (yellow-green). 

c) Serum crusts (honey-colored). 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 329 

3. Excoriation (abrasion) a raw surface due to the loss 
of the superficial skin after an injury. 

4. Fissure (rhagade) a crack in the skin penetrating 
into the derma, as in the case of chapped hands or lips. 

5. Ulcer an open lesion with formation of pus upon the 
surface of the skin. 

6. Scar (cicatrix) the tissue formed after the healing of 
a wound or an ulcer. 

7. Stain an abnormal discoloration remaining after the 
disappearance of moles, freckles or liver spots, sometimes 
apparent after certain diseases. 

DEFINITIONS OF COMMON TERMS 
APPLIED TO DISEASE 

Before describing the diseases of the skin and scalp so 
they will be recognized by the barber, it is well to understand 
what is meant by disease. 

A disease is any departure from a normal state of health. 

A skin disease is an infection of the skin characterized by 
an objective lesion (one that can be seen), which may consist 
of scales, pustules, etc. 

An acute disease is one manifested by symptoms of a more 
or less violent character. 

A chronic disease is one of long duration, usually marked 
by no violent character. 

An infectious disease is one due to a pathogenic micro- 
organism taken into the body as a result of contact with a 
lesion or contaminated object. 

A contagious disease is one that is communicable by 
contact. 

A congenital disease is one that is present in the infant 
at birth. 

A seasonal disease is one that is influenced by the weather, 
as prickly heat in the summer, and forms of eczema more 
prevalent in cold weather. 



330 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 

An occupational disease is one that is due to certain kinds 
of employment, such as dermatitis, caused by coming in 
contact with chemicals or dyes. 

A deficiency disease is one that is due to lack of some 
element in the diet ; such as scurvy or rickets. 

A parasitic disease is one that is caused by vegetable or 
animal parasites, such as lice, scabies or ringworm. 

A pathogenic disease is one produced by a disease pro- 
ducing bacteria, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus, 
pus-forming bacteria. 

A systemic disease is one that is due to lack or over func- 
tioning of the internal glands. One of the main causes may 
be due to faulty diet. 

A constitutional disease is one that is associated with or 
marked by a disturbance of metabolism ; a blood disease. 

A venereal disease is a contagious disease commonly ac- 
quired by contact with an infected person during sexual 
intercourse. 

An epidemic is the manifestation of a disease that attacks 
simultaneously a large number of persons living in a par- 
ticular locality ; such as infantile paralysis, Spanish influenza 
or small-pox. 

Allergy is a sensitivity which certain persons develop to 
normally harmless substances. Skin allergies are quite com- 
mon. Contact with certain types of cosmetics, medicines and 
dyes may bring about an itching eruption, accompanied by 
redness, swelling, blisters, oozing and scaling. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



331 



DISEASES OF THE SEBACEOUS (OIL) GLANDS 

There are several common diseases of the sebaceous (oil) 
glands which the barber should be able to identify and 
understand. 

Comedones, or blackheads, are a worm-like mass of hard- 
ened sebum, appearing most frequently on the face, forehead 
and nose. 







Blackhead (plug of sebaceous matter and dirt) Forming 
Around Mouth of Hair Follicle 

Blackheads accompanied by pimples frequently occur in 
youths between the ages of 13 and 20. During the adolescent 
period, the activity of the sebaceous glands is stimulated, 
thereby contributing to the formation of blackheads and 
pimples. Should this condition become severe, medical at- 
tention is necessary. 

m 

Milia or whiteheads 

A disorder of the seba- 
ceous (oil) glands caused 
by the accumulation of 
sebaceous matter beneath 
the skin. Occurs on any 
part of the face and may 
be associated with black- 
heads. L ,__.. 

Milia (Whiteheads) 





332 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



Acne rosacea is a 

chronic, inflammatory con- 
gestion of the cheeks and 
nose. It is characterized 
by redness, dilation of the 
blood-vessels, and the for- 
mation of papules and pus- 
tules. It is usually caused 
by poor digestion and over- 
indulgence in alcoholic li- 
Acne Rosacea quors. It may also be 

caused by over-exposure, constipation, faulty elimination and 
hyperacidity. It is usually aggravated by eating and drink- 
ing hot, highly spiced, or highly seasoned foods or drinks. It 
generally has three stages. 

The first stage starts with a slight pinkness all over the 
face, varying with the temperature, and temperament of the 
individual. 

The second stage affects the capillaries. Often they be- 
come so dilated that they are apparent to the naked eye. At 
this stage the sebaceous glands are always affected. Large 
pores, oiliness and comedones invariably result. 

The third stage is very disfiguring. The entire face be- 
comes congested, and the condition may remain chronic al- 
though dormant, for years, even after treatment. 

Steatoma (wen) or sebaceous cyst, is a subcutaneous tu- 
mor of the sebaceous glands, the contents consisting of sebum, 
smooth pea to orange size; usually occurring on the scalp, 
neck and back. 

Asteatosis is a condition of dry skin, characterized by 
absolute or relative deficiency of sebum, due to senile changes 
(old age) or some constitutional disorder or disease. In 
local conditions it may be caused by alkalies, such as are 
found in soaps and washing powders. 

Seborrhea is a skin condition due to over-activity and ex- 
cessive secretion of the sebaceous or oil glands. The appear- 
ance of the skin affected is oily and shiny. On the scalp it is 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



333 



readily detected by the unusual amount of oil on the hair. 
Seborrhea exists in two forms: 

1. Seborrhea oleosa, an oily condition. 

2. Seborrhea sicca, a dry condition. 

Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, oc- 
curring in or around a sebaceous gland, characterized by 
pustules, papules or tubercles, affecting chiefly the face. The 
cause of acne is generally held to be microbic, but predispos- 
ing factors are age and disturbances of the digestive tract. 

The different forms 
of acne are as follows: 

Acne vulgaris or 
simplex. The common 
pimple. An inflamma- 
tory skin disorder in- 
volving the sebaceous 
(oil) glands. Appears 
chiefly on the face and 
is often associated with 
blackheads and an oily 
skin. Acne (pimples) 
occur among adoles- 
cent youth. 

Acne papulosa vulgaris in which the papular lesions 
predominate. 



Acne pustulosa vul- 
garis in which the pustular 
lesions predominate. 




Acne Vulgaris 
(The Common Pimple) 




Acne Pustulosa 



334 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



Acne punctata red papules in which blackheads are 
usually found. 

Acne albida the presence of milia (whiteheads) in acne. 



Acne hypertrophica 

(acne scars) Scar forma- 
tion in acne varies with 
the severity of the lesions. 
Surface lesions give rise to 
little scar formation. Pit- 
ted scars result from deep- 
seated lesions affecting the 
sebaceous glands. 




Acne Scars 



Acne artificialis caused by the application of external 
irritants, or drugs taken internally. 

Acne indurata deep seated with hard tubercular lesions 
occurring chiefly on the face, neck and back. 

Acne cachecticorum occurring in the subject of anemia, 
or of some weakening constitutional diseases. 

Acne keratosa an eruption of papules consisting of horny 
plugs projecting from the hair follicles, accompanied by in- 
flammation. 

Acne urticaria a skin disease in which the lesions often 
lead to marked scar formation. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN SCALP AND HAIR 335 

DISEASES OF THE SUDORIFEROUS 
(SWEAT) GLANDS 

Anidrosis (lack of perspiration) is often a result of fever 
or certain skin diseases. 

Bromidrosis or osmidrosis refers to foul smelling perspira- 
tion, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet. 

Hyperidrosis (excessive perspiration) is caused by exces- 
sive heat or general body weakness. The most commonly 
affected parts are the armpits and joints. 

Chromidrosis (discolored perspiration), which is very 
rarely seen, is usually caused by nervous disorders. The 
excretion is brown, yellow or bluish in color. It should be 
referred to a physician for treatment. 

Hemidrosis (bloody sweat) is an affection similar to chro- 
midrosis except that the excretion is of a bloody fluid. It is 
very rare ; usually follows hysteria or extreme nervous excite- 
ment. It should be referred to a physician for treatment. 

Hydrocystoma (cysts of the coil-ducts) is a chronic, non- 
inflammable disorder, characterized by the presence on 
the face of scattered, isolated, deep-seated, persistent, clear 
vesicles. 

Uridrosis is an affection of the sweat glands having the 
characteristic odor of urine. It may occur with chromidrosis. 
It should be referred to a physician for treatment. 

Sudamen is a non-inflammatory affection of the sweat 
glands, consisting of tiny pimples that do not contain pus, 
but are filled with perspiration. It is accompanied by intense 
itching. 

Miliaria rubra (prickly heat), which is noticeable in 
burning and itching skin, is usually caused by exposure to 
excessive heat. 

Miliary fever (sweating sickness) is an infectious disease 
characterized by fever, profuse sweating and the production 
of sudamina. 



336 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



DANDRUFF 

Dandruff is the presence of small, white scales usually 
appearing on the scalp and hair. Dandruff is also known by 
such medical terms as pityriasis and seborrhea sicca. 

Just as the skin is continually being shed and replaced, 
in a similar manner, the uppermost layer of the scalp is being 
cast off all the time. Ordinarily, these horny scales are loose 
and fall off freely. The natural shedding of the horny scales, 
too infrequently removed, is often mistaken for dandruff. 




Simple Dandruff Excessive Dandruff 

Long neglected dandruff frequently leads to baldness. 
Tb e causes of dandruff are as follows : 

1 . A direct cause of dandruff is the excessive shedding of 
the epithelial cells. Instead of growing to the surface 
and falling off, the horny scales accumulate on the 
scalp. 

2. Indirect or associated causes of dandruff are a slug- 
gish condition of the scalp occasioned by poor circula- 
tion, lack of nerve stimulation, improper diet and un- 
cleanliness. Contributing causes are the use of strong 
soaps and insufficient rinsing of the hair after a 
shampoo. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 337 

The two principal types of dandruff are: 

1. Pityriasis capitis simplex, dry type. 

2. Pityriasis steatoides, a greasy or waxy type. 

Pityriasis capitis simplex (dry dandruff) is characterized 
by the presence of an itchy scalp and small, white scales us- 
ually attached in masses to the scalp or scattered loose in the 
hair, occasionally they are so profuse that they fall to the 
shoulders. 

Treatment Frequent oil treatments and oil shampoos, 
systematic and regular scalp massage, daily use of antiseptic 
scalp lotions, applications of scalp ointments and electrical 
treatments will correct this condition. 

Pityriasis steatoides (greasy or waxy type of dandruff) is 
scaliness of the epidermis mixed with sebum which causes it 
to stick to the scalp in patches. The associated itchiness 
causes the person to scratch the scalp, and if the greasy 
scales are torn off, bleeding or oozing of sebum may follow. 

Medical treatment is advisable. 

Precaution 

The nature of dandruff is not clearly defined by medical 
authorities. It is generally believed to be of infectious origin. 
Some authorities hold that it is due to a specific microbe. 
However, from the barber's point of view, both forms of dan- 
druff are to be considered contagious and may spread by the 
use of common brushes, combs or hair pins. Therefore, the 
barber must take the necessary precautions by sterilizing ev- 
erything that comes in contact with the customer. 



338 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



INFLAMMATIONS 

Dermatitis 

The term dermatitis is used to denote an inflammatory 
condition of the skin. The lesions come in various forms, such 
as vesicles, papules, etc. 

Dermatitis venenata is an eruptive skin affection caused 
by external applications of medicaments, such as lotions, 
powders, iodine, hair dyes, etc. 

Dermatitis medicamentosa is an eruption of blebs, pap- 
ules, etc., caused by internal introduction of bromides, anti- 
toxins, etc. 

Dermatitis combustionis is a variety of dermatitis pro- 
duced by extreme heat, or by the sun's rays. 

Dermatitis seborrheica is 

an inflammation of the skin 
co-existent with seborrhea. It 
is sometimes called eczema 
seborrheicum. It may be dis- 
tinguished from other forms 
of dermatitis and from simple 
eczema by its origin on the 
scalp, its oily secretion and 

crusts, and the yellowish color and sharp outline of its lesions. 

It should be referred to a physician for treatment. ^ 



Eczema 

Eczema is an inflammation of 
the skin of acute or chronic na- 
ture, presenting many forms of dry 
or moist lesions. It is frequently 
accompanied by itching, burning, 
and various other unpleasant sen- 
sations. All cases of eczema should 
be referred to a physician for treat- 
ment. 




Dermatitis Seborrheica 




Eczema 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 339 

The difference between dermatitis and eczema is that 
dermatitis usually refers to skin eruptions due to a known 
cause, while eczema refers to dermatitis of unknown origin. 

The unsatisfactory explanation of this condition by medi- 
cal authorities makes it almost impossible to describe eczema 
with any great degree of certainty. A great majority of phy- 
sicians class eczema under the general head of dermatitis. 

In general, eczema is not contagious. However, the stage 
of eczema where pustules are present (usually found on the 
scalp and supposed to result from poor nourishment) is some- 
times classed as infectious eczema or dermatitis, and is also 
known as eczema contagiosa. 

Miscellaneous Inflammatory Affections 

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which, 
when appearing on the scalp, forms patches of dry, white 
scales. These scales when scratched leave tiny bleeding points. 
Its cause is associated with internal disorders and certain 
foods. It should be referred to a physician for treatment. 

Herpes simplex is a virus infection commonly known as 
"fever blisters". It is characterized by the eruption of a 
single or group of vesicles on a red swollen base. The erup- 
tion may appear on the lips, nostrils, face or any part of the 
body. An attack rarely extends over a period of a week. 




Herpes Simplex or Fever Blisters 
involving the lips and nostrils 



340 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 





Pityriasis Pilaris 

Impetigo contagiosa 

(scrum-pox) is an inflam- 
matory skin disease. Pus- 
tules appear in isolated 
form as in small pox; the 
eruptions of pustules, 
which open, rupture or be- 
come crusted. They occur 
chiefly on the face, around 
the mouth and nostrils. 
Usually associated with 



Pityriasis pilaris is a chronic 
inflammatory disease character- 
ized by an eruption of papules 
surrounding the hair follicles, 
each papule being pierced by a 
hair, and tipped with a horny 
plug or scale. This condition 
should be referred to a phy- 



sician. 




Impetigo 



general weakness, faulty nutrition or hygienic neglect. 




Impetigo Contagiosa, showing formation of Skin Blister 
Filled with Pus Cells and Bacteria 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



341 



Variola or smallpox A 

contagious skin disease iden- 
tified by the presence of pap- 
ules, vesicles and pustules and 
associated with fever, head- 
ache and pains. 





Variola (Smallpox) 



Furuncle or Boil 



Furuncle or boil is an 
acute staphylococci in- 
fection of a hair follicle 
producing constant pain. 
A furuncle is the result 
of an active inflamma- 
tory process limited to a 
definite area and subse- 
quently producing a pus- 
tule perforated by a hair. 
Carbuncle is the 
result of an acute 
deep-seated staphyli- 
cocci infection larger 
than a furuncle, or 
boil. It should be re- 
ferred to a physician. 

Erysipelas, also 
known as St. Antho- 
ny's fire, is an acute, 
infectious disease 
characterized by intense inflammation of the skin and subcu- 
taneous tissue; it is limited in area, and attended by many 
constitutional symptoms, such as chills, fever and nausea. The 
skin assumes a shining redness with swelling, heat, and pain, 
and in many cases shows a tendency to vesicular or bleb 
formation. This disease is uncommon today. 




Carbuncle appears as a Deep Skin 
Infection, involving several Hair Shafts 



342 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



Urticaria (hives or nettle-rash) is an affection of the 
skin, characterized by eruptions of itching and stinging 
wheals or red elevations. Causes: external contact with 
herbs or shrubs of the nettle family, by eating shellfish, 
strawberries, etc., or the use of cosmetics which do not agree 
with the individual skin. 



Anthrax An inflamma- 
tory skin disorder caused by 
the use of an infected shav- 
ing brush. Detected by the 
presence of a small, red pap- 
ule, followed by the forma- 
tion of a pustule, vesicle and 
hard swelling. Accompanied 
by itching and burning feel- 
ings at the point of infection. 




Anthrax 

Ivy dermatitis A skin 
inflammation caused by ex- 
posure to the poison ivy, poi- 
son oak or poison sumac 
leaves. Blisters and itching 
develop soon after contact 
occurs. The infection spreads 
from one part of the body to 
another. It is very conta- 
gious and should be referred 
to a physician for treatment. 




Ivy Dermatitis (Poison Ivy) 



Alopecia 

Alopecia refers to the abnormal loss of hair arising from 
any cause, usually affecting the scalp. It is the technical term 
for any form of baldness. 

The natural falling out of the hair should not be con- 
fused with alopecia. When hair has grown to its full length, 
it comes out by itself and is replaced by a new hair. The 
natural shedding of the hair occurs most frequently in spring 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



343 



and fall. On the other hand, the hair lost in alopecia does 
not come back, unless special treatments are given to en- 
courage hair growth. 

Alopecia adnata is the technical term for congenital bald- 
ness. It is the complete absence, or partial absence, of hair, 
occurring at or soon after birth, due to a more or less com- 
pletely arrested development of the hair follicle. 

Alopecia senilis is the form of baldness occurring in old 
age. The loss of the hair is permanent. 

Alopecia premature. There are two types, as follow : 

1 . Alopecia prematura idiopathica is the form of baldness 
beginning any time before middle age by a slow thinning 
process, due to the fact that the first hairs that fall out are 
replaced by regrowth of weaker ones. 

2. Alopecia prematura symptomatica is the form of bald- 
ness resulting from some local or general disease, either of the 
scalp or body, such as fevers, shocks from operations, blood 
diseases, neurosis, pneumonia, etc. 

Alopecia areata is the 

sudden falling out of hair in 
round patches, or baldness in 
spots, sometimes caused by 
anemia, scarlet fever or ty- 
phoid fever, grippe, erysipe- 
las or syphilis. Affected areas 
are slightly depressed, smooth 
and very pale due to the de- 
creased blood supply. Patches 
may be round or irregular, 
and vary in size from J4 inch 
to 2 or 3 inches in diameter. 
In most conditions of alopecia areata, the nervous system 
has been subjected to some injury. And since the flow of 
blood is influenced by the nervous system the affected area 
is poorly nourished as well. 

Alopecia seborrheica (or seborrhea capitis) is loss of hair 
caused by a disease of the sebaceous glands. 




Alopecia Areata, caused by a 
syphilitic infection attacking the 
central neryous system. 



344 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 




Alopecia Cicatrisata 



Alopecia cicatrisata A 

scalp disorder identified 
by the presence of circu- 
lar, oval or irregular patch- 
es of baldness. The main 
lesions are small, reddish, 
inflammatory papules or 
pustules located at the 
mouth of hair follicles and 
pierced by hairs. Crusts 
and scars also form on the 
scalp and permanent bald- 
ness may result. 



Alopecia syphilitica is loss of hair resulting from syphilis 
occurring in the second stage of this disease. 

Alopecia dynamica is hair loss due to destruction of the 
hair follicle by ulceration or some disease process. 

Alopecia follicularis is 
hair loss occasioned when 
the hair follicle becomes 
inflamed, resulting in the 
loss of hair in the affected 
area. 

Alopecia localis is hair 
loss occurring in patches 
on the course of a nerve at 
the site of an injury. 

Alopecia maligna is a 
term denoting a form of alopecia that is severe and persistent. 

Alopecia universalis is a condition manifested by general 
falling out of the hair of the body. 

Alopecia follicularis is hair loss occasioned when the hair 
follicles become inflamed, resulting in the loss of hair in the 
affected area. 

Alopecia localis is hair loss occurring in patches on the 
course of a nerve at the site of an injury. 




Folliculitis, infection of hair follicle 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 345 

PARASITIC AFFECTIONS 

Tinea is the medical term for ringworm. The following 
are the different forms of ringworm: 

Tinea tonsurans or trichophytosis capitis ( ringworm of the 
scalp) is a contagious, vegetable parasitic disease of the hairy 
scalp, characterized by red papules or scalp spots at the open- 
ing of the hair follicles. The patches spread, the hair becomes 
brittle and lifeless and breaks off, leaving a stump, or falls 
from the enlarged open follicles. It is very contagious and 
should be referred to a physician. 

Tinea sycosis or trichophytosis barbae (barber's itch) is a 
fungus infection occurring chiefly over the bearded area of 
the face. Beginning as small, rounded, slightly scaly, inflamed 
patches, the areas enlarge, clearing up somewhat centrally 
with elevation of the borders. As the parasites invade the 
hairs and follicles, hard lumpy swellings develop. In severe 
cases, pustules form around the hair follicles and rupture, 
forming crusts. In the later stage, the hairs become dry, break 
off, and fall out or are readily extracted. Being highly con- 
tagious, medical treatment is required. 




Tinea Sycosis (Barber's Itch) 

Sycosis vulgaris ( f olliculitis barbae) is a chronic staphy- 
lococci infection involving the hair follicles of the beard and 
mustache areas. Caused by the use of unsterilized towels or 
barber implements, and made worse by irritation such as 
shaving or a continual nasal discharge. The main lesions are 
papules and pustules pierced by hairs. The surrounding skin 
is tender, reddened, swollen at times, and tends to itch. Med- 



346 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



ical care is required. (This affection must not be confused 
with tinea sycosis, which is due to ringworm fungus. ) 



Sycosis Vulgaris 



Differential 
Tinea Sycosis 

Typical case presents large 
lumpy or nodular tumefactions 
due to trichophyton fungus in- 
fection. 

Beard area affected but the 
mustache is rarely affected. 
Hairs broken and easily extract- 
ed. Roots usually dry. 

Course rapid. Marked changes 
from week to week. 

Not so chronic. 

Very contagious medical at- 
tention required. 



Diagnosis 
Sycosis Vulgaris 

Typical case presents small 
discrete papules or pustules 
pierced by hairs due to staphy- 
lococci infection. 

Beard area affected and mus- 
tache is frequently affected. 

Hairs firmly attached until 
loosened by suppuration. 

Course slow. Little change 
from week to week. 

Very chronic. 

Very contagious medical at- 
tention required. 



Favus (tinea favosa or 
honeycomb ringworm) is an 

infectious fungus growth due 
to a vegetable parasitic dis- 
ease that is characterized by 
dry sulphur-yellow, cup-like 
crusts, called scutula, on the 
scalp, having a peculiar mou- 
Favus sy odor. Scars from favus are 

bald patches ; pink or white and shiny. It is very contagious, 

and should be referred to a physician. 




DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 347 

Scabies (the itch) is a highly contagious animal parasitic 
skin disease, due to the itch mite. From the irritation of the 
parasite and still more from the scratching of the affected 
areas, vesicles and pustules may form. 

Ringworm (tinea) of the hands. A highly contagious 
disease caused by a fungus (vegetable parasite). The princi- 
pal symptoms are papular, red lesions occurring as patches or 
rings over the hands. Itching may be slight or severe. Ring- 
worm may also affect the nails. 




Ringworm (Tinea) of the Hands 

Pediculosis capitis is a contagious condition caused by 
the head louse (animal parasite) infesting the hair of the 
scalp. As the parasites feed on the scalp, itching symptoms 
are felt. The head louse is transmitted from one person to 
another by intimate contact with infested hats, combs, 
brushes or other personal articles. 

To treat head lice, shampoo the entire head with equal 
parts of larkspur tincture and ether before retiring. The next 
morning, shampoo again with germicidal soap. Repeat treat- 
ment as necessary. 



348 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 




Tinea unguium (ringworm 
of the nails) A local infectious 
disease. As the disease spreads, 
the nails become thickened, brit- 
tle and lose their natural shape. 
It is very contagious. 



Ringworm (Tinea) 
of the Nails 





Ringworm (Tinea) of the Foot 
(Athlete's Foot) 

Ringworm (tinea) of the foot. (Athlete's foot) A local 
infectious disease. The inflamed areas on the sole of the foot 
and between the toes show signs of redness, blisters and 
cracking of the skin. Itching and excessive sweating are 
also present. It is very contagious. 

Precaution 

Ringworm of the feet may spread and infect other parts 
of the body. Every barber infected must take special pre- 
caution to prevent the spread of this disease by sterilizing 
his hands, feet and socks until cured. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 349 



NON-CONTAGIOUS AFFECTIONS OF THE HAIR 

There are six non-contagious affections of the hair, as 
follows : 

Canities grayness of hair. 

Trichoptilosis split hair. 

Hypertrichosis (hirsuties) superfluous hair. 

Trichorrhexis nodosa knotted hair. 

Monilethrix beaded hair. 

Fragilitas crinium brittle hair. 

Canities 

Canities is the technical term for gray hair. It may be 
either of three types, as follows: 

1. Congenital canities occurs in albinism and occasion- 
ally in persons with perfectly normal skin. The patchy type 
of congenital canities may develop slowly or rapidly, accord- 
ing to the cause of the condition. 

2. Accidental canities grayness of hair resulting from 
fright. 

3. Acquired canities may be due to old age; or pre- 
mature, as in early adult life. 

Several causes of acquired canities are worry, anxiety, 
nervous strain, prolonged illness, various wasting diseases 
and hereditary tendency. All these play an important part in 
acquired canities. 

Ringed hair A rare form of canities, due to the alternate 
formation of medulla and no medulla, in which the hairs ap- 
pear silvery gray and dark in alternating bands. Usually 
seen in several members of the family. 

Hair losing its color is due to the absence of pigment in 
the cortex and the presence of air particles. As the pigment 
lessens in the cortex, the white color increases. No treatment 
is available, unless dyes are used. 

Trichoptilosis is the technical name for split hair. Treat- 
ment: The hair should be well oiled to soften and lubricate 
the excessively dry ends. The ends may also be removed by 
clipping or singeing. 



350 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 

Hypertrichosis (hirsuties) means superfluous hair; an 
abnormal development of hair on areas of the body nor- 
mally bearing only lanugo hair. Treatments: 

1. Dark hairs bleached to render them less conspicuous. 

2. Severe cases by electrolysis, shaving or epilation. 

Trichorrhexis nodosa, or knotted hair, is a dry, brittle 
condition with the formation of nodular swellings along the 
hair shaft. The hair breaks easily and shows a queer brush- 
like spreading out of the fibers of the broken off hair while 
the underlying tissues are normal. Shaving the head or soft- 
ening the hair with ointments may prove beneficial. 

Monilethrix is the technical term for beaded hair. The 
hair breaks between the beads or nodes. Scalp treatment 
may be beneficial. 

Fragilitas crinium is the technical term for brittle hair. 
The hairs may split at any part of their length. The hair 
should be brushed to distribute the natural oil, and scalp 
treatments may be given. 

Pigmentations of the Skin 

Tan is caused by excessive exposure to the sun. 

Lentigines (singular, lentigo) (freckles) are manifested 
by small yellowish to brownish colored spots occurring on 
those parts of the body exposed to sunlight and atmosphere, 
principally the face, hands and arms. 

Chloasma (moth patches or liver spots) is characterized 
by increased deposits of pigment in the skin that have taken 
in a more or less localized portion of the body, mainly on the 
forehead, nose and cheeks. 

Naevus (nevus) is commonly known as birthmark. It is 
a small circumscribed malformation of the skin due to pig- 
mentation or dilated capillaries. 

Leucoderma refers to abnormal whiteness in patches, a 
congenital condition of defective pigmentations of the skin. 
It is a colorless condition of the skin, classified as follows: 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



351 



1. Vitiligo an acquired condition of leucoderma. There 
is no treatment for this condition except to bleach the sur- 
rounding parts, thus making them less conspicuous. 

2. Albinism a congenital absence of pigment in the body 
including the skin, hair and eyes. This condition may be 
partial or entire. 




Epithelioma A destruct- 
ive skin cancer present on the 
skin. The new growth may 
appear on the surface of the 
skin or be deep-seated. It 
should always be referred to 
a physician. 



Deep-Seated Epithelioma 
(Skin Cancer) 



352 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



Hypertrophies (New Growths) 

Keratoma (callous) are acquired, superficial, circum- 
scribed, thickened patches of epidermis, occurring for the 
most part in regions of pressure and friction on the hands 
and feet. 

Verruca is the technical term for wart. 

Xanthoma is a wart-like growth commonly located on 
the eyelids. 

Keloid, a growth that develops in the subcutaneous tissue, 
is a dense fibrous growth usually forming at the site of a scar 
after an operation. 




Acne Keloid of the Chin 



Acne keloid of the chin 

An inflammation of the sub- 
cutaneous tissue of the skin, 
starting as pinhead papules 
which come together to form 
irregularly shaped scars. Also 
affects the subcutaneous tis- 
sue of the skin along the hair 
line at the back of the neck. 



Fibroma is a tumor composed mainly of fibrous connect- 
ive tissue and is non-malignant. 

Adenoma sebaceum is a small tumor of translucent ap- 
pearance, usually occurring on the face in multiples, origin- 
ating in the sebaceous glands. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 353 



NAIL DISORDERS 

The barber should be able to recognize and tell the dif- 
ference between normal and abnormal conditions of the nail. 

Nail Irregularities 

Corrugations or wavy ridges are caused by an uneven 
growth of the nails, usually resulting from illness. This con- 
dition is benefited by soaking the finger tips in warm olive 
oil for five minutes each day. 

Leuconychia or white spots are caused by bruises or air 
bubbles in the nail body. Sometimes the white spots are 
caused by injuring the nail root. As the nail continues to 
grow, these white spots eventually disappear. 

Onychauxis or hypertrophy is an overgrowth of the nail, 
either in length or thickness, usually caused by a local infec- 
tion or other bodily disturbance. 

Onychatrophia, atrophy or wasting away of the nail 
causes the nail to lose its lustre, become smaller and may shed 
entirely. Injury or disease may account for this nail irreg- 
ularity. The nail should be protected from injury or ex- 
posure to strong soaps and washing powders. 

Onychophagy or bitten nails is an acquired nervous habit 
which prompts the individual to chew the nail or the hard- 
ened cuticle. As a result, the nail may become permanently 
deformed. Oil should be applied to the cuticle regularly. 

Onychorrhexis or brittle nails. This condition is caused 
by strongly alkaline soaps or chemicals and by rough manual 
labor. To correct this condition, discontinue the use of dry- 
ing agents on the nails. Hot oil treatments are recommended. 
Cream or oil applied to the nail base, is also recommended. 

Hangnails (agnails) is a condition in which the cuticle 
splits around the nail. Failure to correct dryness of the cut- 
icle or cutting the cuticle too short or unevenly may result in 
hangnails. The cuticle should be softened with warm oil and 
then trimmed carefully. 



354 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 

Pterygium is a forward growth of the cuticle which ad- 
heres to the base of the nail. To remove the adhering growth 
use a sharp knife or instrument. 

A bruised nail may be kept from discoloring, by placing 
it alternately in bowls of hot and cold water, immediately 
after the accident. A tablespoonful of epsom salt, added to 
the hot water, has a healing effect. 

Nail Diseases 

Any nail disease which shows signs of infection or in- 
flammation (redness, pain, swelling or pus). Medical treat- 
ment is required for all nail diseases. 

Onychosis (onychonosus) is a technical term applied to 
any nail disease. 

Onychomycosis, tinea unguium or ringworm of the nails 

is an infectious disease caused by a vegetable parasite. The 
nails tend to become thick, furrowed and brittle in appear- 
ance. 

Paronychia or felon is an infectious and inflammatory 
condition of the tissues surrounding the nails. This condition 
is traceable to bacterial infection. 

Onychia is an inflammation of the nail matrix accomp- 
anied by pus formation. Improper sterilization of nail im- 
struments and bacterial infection may cause this disease. 

Onychocryptosis or ingrown nails may affect either the 
finger or toe. In this condition, the nail grows into the sides 
of the flesh and may set up an infection. Rounding nail 
corners and failing to correct hangnails are often responsible 
for ingrown nails. 

Blue nails may be attributed to poor blood circulation or 
a cardiac disorder. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 355 



SYPHILIS 

Syphilis probably kills more people than any other con- 
tagious disease. It may have serious consequences for the in- 
fected person if not properly treated. If neglected, it may 
cause grave complications such as heart trouble, blindness, 
paralysis or insanity. Besides causing harm to the individual, 
syphilis is also a menace to the community. This disease may 
be carried from one person to another. 

Syphilis is a dangerous disease caused by tiny germs 
known to doctors as the treponema pallida (also called the 
spirochaeta pallida). The disease germs enter the body 
through the skin or mucous membranes of the body. The 
most common way of infection is through sexual intercourse 
with a person having the disease. Other channels of infec- 
tion are kissing an infected person and the use of infected 
materials. 

The barber can do his part in preventing the spread of 
this harmful disease. Through his friendly help, the barber 
can direct a customer to seek competent advice if there is the 
slightest suspicion of syphilis. Delay reduces the chances of 
cure. Only a physician is qualified to diagnose and prescribe 
treatment for this condition. The infected person must never 
get into the hands of a quack doctor, or try to cure himself 
with patent medicines. If in doubt as to who is qualified to 
treat syphilis consult with your local Health Department. 

The symptoms or signs of syphilis appear in three stages. 

First stage. Several weeks after the disease germs get 
into the body, a sore or chancre usually appears at the spot 
where they entered. Little discomfort is experienced in early 
syphilis. After a few weeks, the chancre heals and leaves a 
scar. In the meantime, the disease germs reach the blood- 
stream and are carried to all parts of the body where they 
begin to do their damage. 

Second stage. This stage of syphilis develops about three 
to six weeks after the chancre has appeared. As the disease 



356 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 




Patchy Syphilitic Alopecia 
Occurring during the second stage of syphilis 

progresses, the following symptoms may occur in a mild or 
severe form. 

1. Skin rash. 4. Loss of hair. 

2. Sores in mouth and throat. 5. Fever and headache. 

3. Swollen glands. 

Third stage. If syphilis has not been treated and cured 
at this stage, it may damage the vital organs such as the 
heart and brain. 

Syphilis is most infectious in the primary and secondary 
stages, especially when the lesions (chancre and mucous 
patches) are located on an exposed part of the body or in 
the mouth. The open sores or chancres in syphilis contain 
the germs of the disease. Syphilis can be readily spread from 
the infected to the healthy person by direct, or immediate 
body to body contact ; and by indirect means through con- 
tact with infected objects. The barber has a responsibility 
to himself and his customers and should refuse to serve any 
person known or suspected of having syphilis in its early 
stages. If in doubt whether a person has syphilis, take every 
precaution to sterilize all objects coming in contact with 
the customer. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 357 



GONORRHEA 

Gonorrhea is a contagious disease which generally attacks 
the mucous membranes covering the mouth, eyes, sex organs 
and other internal structures of the body. It is caused by a 
tiny germ called the diplococcus (gonococcus) of Neisser. 
Gonorrhea, like syphilis, is usually spread by sexual relations 
with an infected person or contact with infected objects har- 
boring the disease germs. 

The first symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear in from 
two to five days after exposure. At first, itching and burning 
feelings are experienced in the affected parts. Shortly after- 
ward, a discharge of pus begins to come from the inflamed 
organ. The pus discharge from an infected person contains 
an abundance of disease germs. At this stage, gonorrhea is 
highly contagious and the barber should take every precau- 
tion to prevent the spread of the disease to others. 

As with syphilis, the barber should refuse to serve any 
person known or suspected of having gonorrhea. The best 
assistance the barber can give is to recommend medical treat- 
ment as soon as possible. 

Failure to treat gonorrhea in its early stages may cause 
the disease to spread to adjacent or remote tissues, thereby 
causing further complications. Occasionally, in the later 
stages, gonorrhea attacks the lining of the heart, the joints 
and the lining around the .\iver. 



358 DISEASES OF THE SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR 



THE CONTROL OF VENEREAL DISEASE 

The success of any program to eliminate syphilis and 
gonorrhea depends upon the wholehearted cooperation of 
every barber and member of the community. 

An effective program of venereal disease control is based 
upon prevention, diagnosis and treatment. 

The aim of every health program for control of venereal 
disease is to find infected persons and start treatment soon 
after the infection. The person who receives prompt treat- 
ment is more likely to be cured, besides preventing the spread 
of the infection to other people. If every infected person 
would refrain from exposing others to the disease, begin early 
treatment and continue treatments until cured or rendered 
non-infectious, venereal disease would soon be conquered. 

Medical science has introduced the use of penicillin and 
sulfa drugs for the treatment of venereal diseases. Patients 
may now be treated in hospitals and rendered non-infectious 
within a short period of time. Health Departments are now 
offering free treatments to those who cannot afford the 
services of a private doctor. 

Syphilis and gonorrhea can be cured if treated by a 
skilled physician as soon as the first sign of infection is de- 
tected. If treatment is either neglected or delayed, the cure 
may take a long time and permanent damage may be the 
final result. Only a reliable physician can safely decide which 
treatment is best for the patient. 

The barber can make his contribution to public health by: 

1 . Eliminating the sources of infection in the barber shop. 

2. Encouraging early medical treatment for those who 
need it. 

3. Urging the infected person to follow the doctor's in- 
structions. 

4. Cooperating with health officials on any campaign to 
control venereal diseases. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



359 



DISORDERS OF THE SKIN 



1. a) Define dermatology, 
b) What is a dermatologist? 



a) Dermatology is the science of the 
skin, its nature, structure, functions, 
diseases and treatment. 

b) A dermatologist is a skin specialist. 



2. a) What is the most com- 
mon disease of the oil 
glands? 
b) What causes it? 



a) Comedones or blackheads. 

b) A worm-like mass of hardened se- 
bum obstructing the duct of the oil 
gland. 



3. Name the primary lesions of 
the skin. 



Macule, papule, wheal, tubercle, tu- 
mor, vesicle, bulla, pustule. 



4. Differentiate between objec- 
tive lesion and subjective 
lesion. 



An objective lesion is one that can be 
seen, such as pimples, while a subjec- 
tive lesion is one that can be felt, as 
in itching, pains, etc. 



5. Define acne rosacea; is it 
contagious? 



Acne rosacea is a chronic congestion of 
the skin, usually confined to the nose 
and cheeks. It is not contagious. 



6. What are freckles, and what 
causes them? 



Freckles are yellowish to brownish 
colored spots occurring on those parts 
of the body exposed to sunlight and 
atmosphere, and are caused by excess 
pigmentation. 



7. Name the secondary lesions 
of the skin. 



Scale, crust, excoriation, fissure, ulcer, 
scar and skin stain. 



8. What is acne? 

Give three suggestions for its 
prevention. 



Acne is a chronic inflammation of the 
oil glands. 

Prevention extreme cleanliness, prop- 
er diet, and regular and thorough 
evacuation. 



9. Define hyperidrosis; what 
parts of the body are most 
commonly affected? 



Hyperidrosis is excessive perspiration. 
The most commonly affected parts are 
the armpits and joints. 



10. Name a disease of the skin 
caused by a vegetable para- 
site. 



Ringworm. 



11. Matching test: 

freckles cicatrix 
warts furuncles 

scar lentigines 

blackheads verrucae 
boils comedones 



Freckles lentigines. 
Warts verrucae. 
Scar cicatrix. 
Blackheads comedones. 
Boils furuncles. 



12. Name six different forms of 
acne. 



Acne vulgaris or simplex, acne punc- 
tata, acne papulosa, acne pustulosa, 
acne indurata, and acne rosacea. 



13. Matching test: 

milia tumor 

phyma fever blister 

squama whiteheads 

dermatitis inflammation 

herpes scale 

simplex 

impetigo scrum-pox 



Milia whiteheads. 
Phyma tumor. 
Squama scale. 
Dermatitis inflammation. 
Herpes simplex fever blister. 

Impetigo scrum-pox. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



14. What is a carbuncle, and 
what causes it? 



Carbuncle is a boil, caused by bac- 
terial infection. 



15. Define the following: 

a) eczema. 

b) albinism. 



a) Eczema is an inflammation of the 
skin accompanied by itching, burning, 
and other unpleasant sensations. 

b) Albinism is a congenital condition, 
a deficiency of the pigment in the 
skin, hair and eyes. 



16. Place the medical term after 
the common name in the list 
below: 

a) birthmark. a) naevus. 

b) liver spots. b) chloasma. 

c) hives. c) urticaria. 

d) callous. d) keratoma. 



17. Name six diseases of 
sebaceous (oil) glands. 



the 



Seborrhea, asteatosis, comedones, acne, 
milia and steatoma. 



18. What causes urticaria? 
Describe its appearance. 



Urticaria is caused by eating shellfish, 
strawberries, etc., or by contact with 
herbs or shrubs of the nettle family. 
It is characterized by eruptions of 
itching wheals or red elevations. 



19. Name the common diseases 
of the sweat glands, and 
briefly describe each. 



Hyperidrosis excessive sweating. 
Bromidrosis foul-smelling sweat. 
Miliaria rubra prickly heat. 
Anidrosis lack of perspiration. 
Sudamen non-inflammatory eruption 
containing perspiration. 



DISORDERS OF THE SCALP AND HAIR 



1. Define trichology. 



Trichology is the science of the hair 
and its diseases. 



2. Is the ordinary falling out of 
hair considered a disease? 
Explain. 



No; a certain amount of hair, that has 
grown to its full length, falls out when 
it is replaced by new hair. 



3. At what time of the year is 
falling out of the hair most 
noticeable? 



In the spring and fall. 



4. Define the following: 

a) trichoptilosis. 

b) trichophytosis. 

c) trichorrhexis nodosa. 



a) trichoptilosis split hair. 

b) trichophytosis ringworm of the 
scalp. 

c) trichorrhexis nodosa knotted hair. 



5. What is meant by: 

a) canities? 

b) name three types. 



a) Canities is the technical term for 
gray hair. 

b) Congenital canities, accidental ca- 
nities and acquired canities. 



6. What is meant by ringed 
hair? 



Ringed hair is a form of canities in 
which the hair shows alternate pig- 
mented and white segments. 



7. Give several causes for ac- 
quired canities. 



Worry, anxiety, nervous strain, pro- 
longed illness, various wasting diseases, 
and hereditary tendency. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



361 



8. How is dandruff recognized? 



Dandruff is recognized by the presence 
of white scales in the hair, and on the 
scalp. 



9. What is a direct cause of 
dandruff? 



A direct cause of dandruff is the ex- 
cessive shedding of the epithelial cells. 
Instead of growing to the surface and 
falling off, the horny scales accumu- 
late on the scalp. 



10. Give the medical term for: 

a) dandruff. 

b) dry type of dandruff. 

c) greasy or waxy type of 
dandruff. 



a) Pityriasis. 

b) Pityriasis capitis simplex. 

c) Pityriasis steatoides. 



11. What is meant by alopecia? 
Can it be cured? 



Alopecia is the technical term for bald- 
ness. It is curable only in the early 
stages of the disease. 



12. What is alopecia senilis? 



Alopecia senilis is baldness occurring 
in old age. 



13. What is the common name 
for each of the following 
medical terms? 

a) pediculosis capitis. 

b) tinea sycosis. 

c) tinea favosa. 

d) tinea tonsurans. 

e) scabies. 



a) Head louse. 

b) Ringworm of the bearded area. 

c) Honeycomb ringworm of the scalp. 

d) Ringworm of the scalp. 

e) The itch. 



14. How is pediculosis capitis 
treated? 



The entire head is shampooed with 
equal parts of larkspur tincture and 
ether before retiring, and shampooed 
with germicidal soap the next morn- 
ing. If necessary, the treatment should 
be repeated. 



15. What is alopecia areata? 



Alopecia areata is baldness in spots. 



16. What is hypertrichosis? 



Hypertrichosis is superfluous hair. 



17. What does oily condition of 
the hair indicate? 



A disturbance of the sebaceous glands, 
due to an excessive discharge of sebum. 



18. What is favus? What treat- 
ment would you suggest? 



Favus is an infectious parasitic fungus 
growth characterized by round crusts 
on the scalp, having a peculiar mousy 
odor. The customer should be referred 
to a physician. 



19. Name three contagious nail 
diseases. 



Onychomycosis, paronychia, and 
onychia. 



20. Name two contagious vener- 
eal diseases. 



Syphilis and gonorrhea. 



PART IV 

WOMEN'S HAIRGUTTING 

FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 

MEN'S HAIR TINTING AND BLEACHING 

BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

STATE BOARD REGULATIONS 



365 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

The art of haircutting or bobbing requires thorough in- 
struction in the proper way to shorten, thin and shape the 
hair by means of shears, razor or clipper. Skill can be de- 
veloped only after patient practice on living models. A good 
haircut is important because it serves as a foundation for 
beautiful coiffures. The barber's education is not complete 
until he has acquired artistic skill and judgment in hair- 
cutting. 

Modern haircuts are styled to bring out the customer's 
individuality and to accentuate her good points while con- 

VARIOUS SHAPES OF HEADS 




Normal 



Receding 



Bumpy 



Flat 



cealing her poor features. The barber must be guided by the 
customer's wishes as well as what is best for her personality. 
In selecting the proper hair style, the barber should take into 
consideration the customer's head shape, her facial contour, 
her neck line and hair texture. 

Preparation of Customer 

A hydraulic chair is used for hair cutting, and a tissue 
neck band is adjusted closely around the customer's neck. A 
hair cloth is then adjusted, allowing the tissue band to pro- 
trude for about half its width. 

The hair is then carefully combed straight down on the 
sides and in the back, and the contour of the head studied 
carefully. 



366 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Cutting Virgin Hair 

In cutting a virgin head of hair, it is customary to cut off 
the long hair with a few clips of the haircutting shears at a 
point about half an inch below the desired length. This will 
create a long straight bob. If this type of cut is desired, the 
shears are used to trim off any projecting ends. In case the 
hair is very thick, this straight bob must be thinned out, as 
described later. 




Cutting Hair Straight Off (Club Cutting) 

Slithering 

To bring out the graceful curves of the head, the hair 
must be thinned and tapered by slithering. This is accomp- 
lished by either of the following methods. 

Method 1 Using regular 
haircutting shears, hold a small 
strand of hair between the 
thumb and index finger, and 
insert the hair in the shears so 
that only the underneath sec- 
tion of the hair will be short- 
ened. Slide the shears up and 
down the strand, closing them 
slightly each time the shears is 
moved towards the scalp. Slith- 
er enough to allow the hair to 
lie close to the scalp wherever needed. 




The Process of Thinning 
the Hair (Slithering) 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



367 



\\vMu\\\i ill, 1 1/' W 




Back-Combing the 

Shortest Hair 
(Ruffing or Teasing) 




Slithering the Hair 
After Back-Combing 



The short hair may be ruffed or back-combed as shown 
in illustration, and then slithered as explained above. 



STRANDS OF HAIR 



Before 
Thinning 



Medium 
Thinned 



Thinned 
Extremely 



368 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



Method 2 Holding the hair between the index and 
middle fingers. In this method more hair is slithered, thereby 
hastening the process. 






Holding the Hair between the Middle and Index Fingers 

In order to avoid the slipping out of the hair, the middle 
finger should overlap the index finger a trifle. 

Method 3 Using thinning shears, take a strand of hair 
between the index and middle fingers. Spread it well, and 




Thinning the Hair, using the 
Thinning (Serrated) Shears 



cut by means of simply closing the thinning shears held at 
right angles. The cuts are made starting about one inch 
from the scalp and repeated toward the ends of the hair, at 
regular intervals; then the hair strands are combed out to 
remove the cut hair ends. 

Method 4 Using the razor for thinning and tapering. 
For detailed instructions, see Razor Cutting on page 371. 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



369 



Layer Haircutting with Scissors 
and Thinning Shears 

Layer haircutting is the thinning operation repeated all 
over the head until the desired results are obtained. 





The Hair Correctly 
Sectioned 



Thinning the Lowest Layer 

Using Shears 

Top Layer Held Out of Way 
with Comb 



Before the hair can be properly cut, it is combed and 
brushed free from tangles. 

Part the hair across the crown from back of ear to back 
of ear, and then from each temple to crown. Pin the remain- 
ing hair on top of the head. The hair on each side of the head 
is held out of the way with combs. 




J 



Thinning the Lowest Layer Using 

Serrated Shears 

Top Layer Held Out of Way 

with Comb 




Thinning the Hair by Holding it 

between Index and Middle 

Fingers 



370 WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

Starting at the lowest layer, the thinning is done by di- 
viding the hair into small sections and parting and lifting 
each resulting lock separately. The length of the stroke in 
slithering depends upon the thickness or thinness of the hair. 
For instance, if the strand is thick the stroke is short, and if 
the strand is thin the stroke is long. 

After the lowest layer is completed, repeat the thinning 
process on the second layer, and continue with each layer 
until you have reached the crown. 

To thin the sides, part the hair previously pinned to the 
top of the head and slither the hair on the sides in layers, as 
directed for the back of the head. 

Suggestions for Deformed Heads 

For a long neck Do not expose the neck by giving a bob 
or shingle cut ; leave the hair longer. 

For a narrow head Thin the hair at the back of the head 
and leave it tapered and fluffy at the sides. 

For a broad head Thin the hair at the sides and leave it 
full or fluffy at the back. 

For a short, round head Taper the neck line into a V 
shape ; do not give a bob with a round neck line. 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



371 



Razor Haircutting 

Haircutting with a razor differs from other methods of 
haircutting in that a sharp razor is used when cutting hair 
that has been dampened by water. This method of haircut- 
ting is preferred by many hairstylist. Much care and skill 
are required to know where and how to cut the hair properly. 





Proper way to Hold the Hair 
for Razor Haircutting 



Layer Haircutting the Back 
Part of the Head 



After the hair has been dampened, combed, blocked and 
sectioned, it is ready to be cut with a razor. As the hair 
strand is drawn towards the operator, the razor is placed 
flat, not erect, about one inch from the scalp. Using short, 
steady, downward strokes towards the ends, the hair is 
tapered to the necessary thickness and length. Many hair- 
stylists prefer to taper both on top and bottom of the strand. 





Layer Haircutting the 
Sides of the Head 



Layer Haircutting 
the Bangs 



372 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



THE BOYISH BOB 

Also Known as The Shingle Bob 

The Boyish Bob may be parted on the side or in the mid- 
dle. It is cut in the following manner: 

First part the hair 
as desired and smooth 
down with comb and 
brush. If the hair is 
too long, cut evenly all 
around, about one and 
one-half inches below 
the ear lobe. Start to 
cut at the back of the 
head about three-quar- 
ters up from the nape 
of the neck. Continue 
this operation with 
graduating shortness as 
you go down toward 
the neck, increasing the 
length gradually as you 
go toward the side. How 
long the hair should be, 
or how close to the scalp 

it should be cut, must be decided in each case, depending 
upon the desire of the customer and the shape of the head. 

If thinning or tapering is desired, follow directions as 
previously explained. 

After establishing a hair line, taper upward, being careful 
to leave the ears well covered. Taper the side below the ear 
lobe slightly upward, and taper the hair below and in back 
of the ears to create a smooth contour. 




WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



373 



Helpful Hints On Shingling 
For The Boyish Bob 




Shingling the back of the head 
in a graduating effect 




Trimming the hair ends over 

forefinger and middle finger to 

even up any irregularities or 

protruding ends 





Trimming the neckline upward Shaping the neckline with the 
in a graduating effect points of the scissors 




Cleaning the Neck 
with Clippers 




Cleaning the Neck with the 
Points of the Shears 



374 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 





Tapering the Hair Ends by 

Cutting the Hair held in an 

Upward Position 



Trimming and Tapering the 

Hair Ends by Using the 

Slithering Method 



Shaping Neck Line 

The neck lines of short bobs can be shaped into natural, 
"V," oval or round shape first, then followed by shingling 
the hair to conform with the neck line, taking care not to 
allow too much of the neck exposed. The neck lines of con- 
servative bobs are shaped after the thinning is done. 

Completing the Haircut 

The customer is then given the opportunity of viewing 
her head in the mirror with the aid of a large hand mirror. 
The hair cloth is loosened, the tissue removed and discarded, 
and the hair cloth carefully removed so that no cut hair falls 
onto the customer's clothes. If any short hairs remain on the 
neck after the tissue band is removed, they can be removed 
with tissues sprinkled with talcum powder. 

Hair requiring waving. Should the hair require waving, 
leave the hair one inch longer to allow for the waves. 

Concerning the Clippers 

There is a mistaken idea amongst women that the use of 
the clippers to clean the neck line has a tendency to make 
the hair grow in thicker at the neck. This is not true, how- 
ever, as the amount of human hair can only be as great as 
the number of follicles on the neck, and these do not increase 
by the use of the clippers or any other instrument. 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 



375 



POPULAR HAIR STYLES FOR YOUNG GIRLS 





Special consideration should be given to children. Know- 
ing how to handle the children is where their mothers go 
and have their own hair done. 



376 WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS 
Correcting Split Hair Ends 

Trichoptilosis is the technical term for split hair ends. 
When the hair becomes dry and brittle, due to several causes, 
the hair ends frequently split. Temporary relief for this 
condition may be obtained either by singeing or clipping the 
hair ends. 

Singeing is the process of burning off split ends of the 
hair, and should be given just before a shampoo. 

The hair is combed thoroughly and divided into small, 
equal sections. Each section or strand is twisted tightly from 
the scalp to the ends, and left for an instant while the wax 
taper is lighted. 

The twisted strand is then held in the left hand while the 
extended fingers of the right hand ruff the strand upward 
to the scalp. During this process the lighted taper stands 
erect and out of the way. This ruffing motion frees the split 
end, which will now protrude from the tightly twisted strand 
of hair. 

Next the taper is passed under the strand so that the 
frayed hair ends are ignited. The strands are all treated in 
the same way, the taper is extinguished, and the hair thor- 
oughly brushed to remove burnt particles. The hair is then 
shampooed in the usual way. 





Ruffing the Protruding Singeing the Protruding 

Hair Ends Hair Ends 



WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 377 

Clipping 

Split ends may be clipped in case the customer prefers 
this process to singeing. 




Clipping the Protruding 
Hair Ends 

The hair is combed, divided, twisted and ruffed as before, 
but the split hair ends are removed with clipping shears. Be- 
ginning near the scalp, cut alongside of the strand all pro- 
truding hair ends, gradually moving downward to the end 
of the strand, where the remaining ends are cut. The hair 
is then brushed briskly to remove the short hair clippings. 

Terms Used in Connection with Haircutting 

Hairdressing is the art of arranging the hair into various 
becoming shapes or styles. The contour of the face, shape of 
the head, and the current season's styles, must all be con- 
sidered in this phase of the work. 

Hair stylist A hairdresser who has the artistic ability to 
suggest and create a becoming new hair fashion. 

Haircutting The shortening, thinning and tapering of 
the hair, using comb and shears, to mold the hair into a 
becoming shape. 

Hair bobbing The term commonly applied to the cut- 
ting of women's and children's hair. 

Hair trim or trimming Cutting the hair lightly in going 
over the already existing formed lines, cleaning and tidying 
the neckline. 

Shingling Cutting the hair close to the nape of the neck, 
leaving the hair gradually longer as you go higher toward the 



378 WOMEN'S HAIRCUTTING 

crown of the head, without showing a definite line. 

Thinning Decreasing the thickness of the hair where it 
is too heavy. 

Tapering Shortening and thinning the hair at the 
same time. 

Feathering Another term for thinning and tapering. 

Slithering The process used in tapering and thinning 
the hair. 

Shredding Another term for slithering. 

Effileing A French term for slithering. 

Clipping The operation of removing the hair by the use 
of hair clippers. Removing split hair ends or cutting the ex- 
treme ends of the hair with the shears is also known as 
clipping. 

Singeing Burning the hair ends by the quick passing of 
a lighted wax taper over the split ends of the hair. 

Club cutting Cutting the hair straight off, without thin- 
ning or tapering. 

Layer cutting Tapering and thinning the hair by di- 
viding it into many thin layers. 

Razor cutting The use of the razor in thinning or cut- 
ting the hair. 

Natural hair line Where no artificial hair line is cre- 
ated; the hair at the nape of the neck is left in its natural 
hair line. 

Artificial hair line A neck line which has been changed 
by cutting into a V, oval, or round shape. 

Featheredge When the hair line at the nape of the neck 
is carried smoothly upward into a graceful, straight effect, 
and the neck is cleaned at the base with clippers, a little 
higher than the natural hair line. 

Back-combing Combing the short hairs towards the 
scalp. Other terms used for back-combing are: teasing, 
ruffing. 



379 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 

Finger Waving 

Finger waving is popular in the designing of artistic hair 
styles. No expensive equipment nor complicated procedures 
are required for finger waving. With the aid of water, comb 
and his own fingers, the barber can employ finger waving 
anywhere and anytime. A barber who is competent as a 
finger waver can always command a good paying position. 

Finger waving is the art of shaping the hair, wetted with 
waving lotion, into becoming waves with the aid of the fin- 
gers and comb. Better results in producing soft, natural 
waves are obtained with hair that has a natural wave or has 
been permanently waved, rather than with straight hair. 

The use of the right kind of waving lotion is an aid to 
better finger waving. Besides making the hair more pliable, 
the application of a waving lotion holds the hair in place 
while the hair is drying. A good waving lotion is harmless to 
the hair and should not flake upon drying. 

A pleasing finger wave should harmonize with the shape 
of the customer's head, as well as her features. 

Practice on Dressing Block 

It is very much easier for beginners to learn finger waving 
by practice on hair pieces before attempting to wave living 
hair, and for that reason preliminary instructions are given 
for work on hair pieces. 

Preparation of hair. An ordinary switch or weft may be 
used, the support is fastened firmly to a dressing block. The 
hair piece is thoroughly moistened with water, using the fine 
teeth of a dressing comb to comb the water through the hair 
until the hair piece lies flat on the block. 



380 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 
Movements For A Right-Going Wave 




1. The hair is combed at 
a slightly slanted angle 
to the left. 



2. The index finger of the 
left hand is placed di- 
rectly above the position 
for the first ridge and 
the hair under the index 
finger is combed down- 
ward. 



3. With teeth pointing 
slightly upward, the comb 
is inserted directly under 
the index finger. In one 
motion, draw the comb 
l /4" away from the index 
finger and direct the hair 
3 /4 to the right. 






5. Remove the left hand 
from the dressing block and 
place the middle finger 
above the ridge and the in- 
dex finger on the teeth of 
the comb. Emphasize the 
ridge by closing the two 
fingers and applying pres- 
sure to the dressing block. 
DO NOT SQUEEZE THE 
RIDGE UPWARD. 



6. Without removing the 
comb, the teeth are 
turned downward and 
the hair combed in a 
right semi-circular effect 
to form a dip in the 
groove of the right-going 
wave. 



4: With the teeth 
still inserted in the 
ridge, the comb is 
flattened against 
the dressing block 
in order to hold 
the ridge in place. 
(The left hand is 
not shown in the 
illustration so that 
you may see the 
ridge and position 
of comb.) 

Left-going wave. The fingers of the left hand are now 
moved carefully. The index finger is placed directly above 
the position for the second ridge (to give the average size 
wave the index finger is placed about I 1 /? inches from the 
ridge just formed) the comb and fingers are now used to 
build another ridge by repeating the movements, except that 
the hair is directed to the left. The movements are repeated 
for the entire length of the hair strand. 

The index finger and the middle finger have the double 
duty of holding down the waves already made and forming 
the ridges between them. 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 



381 



Matching Waves 

When the student has learned to finger wave a straight 
hair piece, he is ready to learn the matching of waves. 

Part the hair into 2^ -inch sections for convenience in 
waving. Special care must be taken to match the waves 
exactly so that the finished work will show no line of demar- 
cation between the sections. This will require considerable 
practice before the waves can be matched perfectly without 
disturbing the complete section. 

The ends of the hair may be coiled into pin curls. 





Matching 
Right-going Waves 



Connecting 
Right-going Waves 



Place forefinger 1/4" to the left and above the ridge 
already made. With teeth upward, place comb under 
the forefinger and repeat the finger waving movements 
described previously, allowing the comb to work over 
part of the adjoining ridge and wave. 





Left Wave 
Begin on Left 



Connecting the 
Second Wave 



For a left-going wave, begin work on the left side of 
the hair piece or weft. 

The time spent in matching waves on the dressing block 
will be profitably expended as the student will learn to make 
even-sized, regular waves, and will become accustomed to the 
way in which hair lies on the human head. 



382 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 



FINGER WAVING ON A LIVE MODEL 

The barber washes his hands and has available sterile 
implements and clean supplies. The customer is seated com- 
fortably and a neck strip and shampoo cape are properly ad- 
justed. The proper amount of waving lotion to use should 
be based on the following factors : 

Naturally or permanently waved hair requires either light, 
medium or heavy waving lotion, governed by the texture and 
condition of the customer's hair. 

Shaping the Finger Wave 

1. Comb hair on heavy side away from the face. 

2. Place index finger of left hand on the front part of the 
head, from two to three inches from the part. 




Comb Hair 
Away from Face 



Directing the Hair for 
Left-Going Wave 



3. With comb in right hand, insert the teeth under index 
finger and direct hair for a left-going wave towards the face 
as previously explained on pages 380-381. 

4. To emphasize the ridge, press the fingers against the 
head. (Do not pinch the ridge as the hair would be pushed 
upward and out of position.) 

5. Roll the index finger upward and re-insert the fine 
teeth of the comb, and comb hair smooth. 

6. Follow the line of this ridge to crown where it is lost. 
(See illustration on next page.) 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 





The First Ridge 
Completed 



Diagram for Side Part 
Wide Wave Hair Style 



7. Now move to the opposite side of the customer. 

8. Comb hair on thin side away from face. 

9. Proceed for a right-going wave and continue this ridge 
around the head. This will complete the first wave on heavy 
side of the head. 





Light Side Completed 



Heavy Side Completed 



10. Begin second wave at the hair line on the heavy side, 
directing the hair towards the face. Continue this ridge 
around the head to the thin side. Work from one side to the 
other until the entire head of hair is waved. 

11. Finish the ends of the hair with pin curls. 

Completing the Finger Wave 

1. Attach net to hair and safeguard customer's forehead 
and ears with rubber discs and paper protectors. 

2. Adjust the dryer to medium and allow hair to dry 
thoroughly. 

3. Remove dryer, hair net and pins from hair. 

4. Comb out curls and reset waves into a soft coiffure. 



384 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 



Popular Finger Waved Hair Styles 




Side Part Medium Wave 
Hair Style 




Diagram for Side Part 
Medium Wave Hair Style 




Semi-Swirl Finger Wave 
Hair Style 




Diagram for 
Semi-Swirl Hair Style 




Pompadour 
Hair Style 




Diagram for 
Pompadour Hair Style 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 



PARTING THE HAIR 

The manner of parting the customer's hair should be ad- 
justed to her facial type and the desired hair style. 

The hair stylist should be guided by the natural parting 
of the customer's hair. To locate this part, first comb the hair 
back tightly and then push it forward. 

The following illustrations reveal the best hair partings 
for various facial types. 

Side part. A high 
side parting is suit- 
able for the oval 
facial type, whereas 
the low side parting 
is advisable for the 
triangle, round or 
square facial type. 

Center part. Usual- 
ly suggested for the 
oval facial type. 

Diagonal part. Rec- 
ommended for the 
round or square fa- 
cial type. 

Ear to ear . crown 
parting. Suggested 
for hair styles with 
high and low effects 
and forward move- 
ment of bangs. 

Center back part- 
ing. Creates length 
to the head. Sug- 
gested for warm 
weather. 

Cap shape crown. Some heads dress better without back 
partings. A cap shape wave that combs from the crown is 
suggested. This style requires a well-shaped head, and the 
face needs a halo effect of curls to frame it. 





386 



FINGER WAVING AND PIN CURLING 



PIN CURLS 

Pin curls, also called sculpture curls, are suitable for 
naturally curly or permanently waved hair. There are many 
methods of making pin curls. The ones described here are the 
most commonly used. The hair must be in a moist condition 
with water or with waving lotion. 

Hair Ends Inside of Curls 



Winding from Hair Ends 
to Scalp 




Winding from Scalp 
to Hair Ends 

1 Separate the hair into small 
strands, and comb smoothly. 
2 Place back of index finger of left 
hand against scalp. 
3 Wind hair with right hand around 
tip of finger, in the direction in which 
the resultant curl is to be set. 
4 Force curl off fingers with hair 
ends inside of curl and pin it se- 
curely. 



1 Separate the hair into small 
strands and comb smoothly. 
2 Place index finger about two 
inches on the strand from hair ends. 
3 Wind the hair ends around index 
finger, remove the wound hair off 
finger, pull slightly to insure a 
tight curl. 

4 Roll the curl towards the scalp. 
5 Pin the curl securely (left or 
right) in the direction in which it is 
to be combed. 




Illustration shows clockwise (c) wind- 
ing. To obtain counterclock (cc) curl 
reverse the winding. 




Overlapping Curl 



Hair Ends Outside of Curls 

1 Separate the hair into small strands, and comb 

smoothly. 

2 Place tip of left index finger in center of square 

and at right angles to the scalp. 

3 Wind the hair flat with right hand around the 

index finger, in the direction in which the resultant 

curl is to be set. 

4 Remove finger from curl and pin it securely. 



Hair Line Ringlets 



A small strand of hair is rolled between the 
thumb and index fingers of both hands, and adjusted 
in a circular form with the hair ends on the inside 
of the circle. Pin securely until dry. 




Hair Line Ringlet 



387 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 

Hair bleaching is a profitable source of income to the bar- 
ber who possesses the necessary knowledge, experience and 
skill of this specialty. Men are prompted to have their hair 
bleached mostly because of necessity, and to improve their 
appearance. The man who is satisfied with the initial treat- 
ment, is bound to come back for a retouch at periodic 
intervals. 

Hair bleaching removes color, upon application, and there 
is partial or total removal of the natural pigment. 

Hair bleaching involves the application of chemical 
agents for the purpose of: 

1. Lightening darker hairs so that gray hairs will not 
be too obvious. 

2. Restoring hair to its original shade (if hair had been 
previously tinted). 

3. Producing an entirely new shade of hair. 

Hair bleaching corrective treatments are recommended 
for: 

1. Men with prematurely gray hair. (Light complexion.) 

2. The business man. 

3. Men who must maintain a youthful appearance. 

4. Changing an unattractive shade of hair. 

To bleach hair successfully, one must have a know- 
ledge of: 

1. The general structure of hair and skin. 

2. The composition, merits and limitations of all bleach- 
ing agents and formulas. 

3. The chemical reactions following their application. 

4. The correct method of application. 

It is of great advantage to the barber to be capable in the 
art of hair coloring. His services become unlimited, and his 
customers do not have to look elsewhere for this service. The 
barber has a big advantage over the beautician when it comes 
to coloring hair. The application of bleach on women's hair 



388 MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 

is much more involved than the application to men's hair. 
Although the fee for the coloring service may be the same for 
both men and women, the cost of material for women's hair 
bleach is at least twice as much as that of men ; plus the fact 
that there is less than half the time involved for the applica- 
tion of bleaching men's hair. 

Hair Bleaching 

Hair bleaching is the process of partially removing the 
natural pigment from the hair. Hair that is not in the best 
possible condition, may be damaged by bleaching treatments. 
Hence, the barber should carefully examine the texture and 
condition of the hair. A bleach should never be given to a 
customer whose scalp is not free from eruptions or abrasions. 

The customer who has had his hair bleached for the first 
time, will appreciate good service by coming back for a re- 
touch to the same shop and the same barber. If a written 
record is kept of the bleaching treatments, the work of the 
barber, in giving the retouch, will be simplified. 
Prepared Bleaches 

Many of the prepared bleaching agents in use today con- 
tain coloring matter. As a hair coloring technician, you 
should use these products as directed by the manufacturer in 
order to achieve the most satisfactory results. 
Essentials For Hair Bleaching 

To produce the best results in hair bleaching, the tech- 
nician barber must be equipped with: 

1. Various sizes of glass or porcelain dishes or flat cups. 

2. Swab sticks and brushes. 

3. Measuring cup. 

4. Dropper. 

5. Fresh peroxide 17 to 20 volume. 

(Some barbers prefer to use 25 volume hydrogen peroxide for 
quicker bleaching results.) 

6. Ammonia water 28%. 

7. White henna. 

8. Oil bleaches. 

9. Absorbent cotton. 

10. Soap flakes. 

1 1 . Cream rinse. 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 389 

There are many formulas for bleaching hair in use today, 
but professionally, the following agents are used: 

1. Peroxide 17 to 20 volume. 25 volume for a quicker 
bleaching process. 

2. Peroxide and ammonia. 

3. Peroxide, ammonia and white henna. 

4. Prepared bleaching powder and peroxide. 

5. Colored oil bleaches. 

6. Peroxide, ammonia and soap flakes. 

Hydrogen Peroxide 

The chemical composition of hydrogen peroxide is H 2 O 2 , 
which is two parts of hydrogen and two parts of oxygen. Hy- 
drogen peroxide is a safe and dependable bleaching, softening 
and oxidizing agent, provided it is a fresh product, having 
17 to 20 volume strength. It is available in two forms, liquid 
and tablet. 

1. When tablets are used, it is important that they be 
completely crushed and dissolved, otherwise the full 
strength of the 20 volume hydrogen peroxide will not 
be released. 

2. Liquid hydrogen peroxide deteriorates, and should be 
purchased in pint sizes, kept closed when not in use, 
and stored in a cool, dark, dry place. 

Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide 

As a bleaching agent, hydrogen peroxide solution, whose 
function is to soften the cuticle of the hair shaft, oxidizes to 
a lighter shade the grains of pigment or coloring matter in 
its inner cortical layer. If a solution of less than 17 volume 
is used, it will act too slowly. Some barbers prefer to use 
25 volume hydrogen peroxide for quicker bleaching results. 

Bleaching makes the hair porous, as well as lighter in 
color. The shades that may be obtained range from light 
brown and golden brown to straw color and platinum, de- 
pending upon the basic color of the hair and the formula 
of the bleach. Continued use of bleaches will make some 
hair over-dry and brittle. The addition of 28% ammonia 
water hastens the bleaching action of hydrogen peroxide. 



390 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 



An excess of ammonia is undesirable, since it imparts a red- 
dish tint to the hair. 

As a softening agent, hydrogen peroxide solution softens 
the outer cuticle of the hair and makes it more receptive to 
the penetrating action of an aniline derivative dye. Care 
must be taken to control the softening process so that the hair 
is not bleached. 

As an oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide solution is used 
in all penetrating hair dyes. It acts as a developer to liberate 
oxygen gas which changes para-phenylene-diamine into a 
dark-colored compound capable of dyeing the hair. 

Testing For Volume Content 

There are two methods for testing the volume content of 
peroxide. 

1. The hydrometer method. 

2. The J tube method. 

The most popular and quicker of the two is the hydrom- 
eter method because it requires the least 
amount of equipment. 

The hydrometer method. Pour a little of 
the liquid peroxide into a test tube. Immerse 
hydrometer into peroxide so that it floats in 
the peroxide. The reading on the hydrom- 
eter reveals the strength of the peroxide. 

The J tube method. With the second me- 
thod, peroxide may be tested by the use of 
a small instrument, consisting of a J tube, 
marked off in graduations, each representing 
one unit volume of gas. A solution of copper 
sulphate (blue vitriol), containing free am- 
monia, is added to the tube. The pipette (a 
slender, transparent glass tube) is rilled with 
peroxide to be tested. One cubic centimeter 
of the peroxide is then released very slowly 
into the solution in the J tube, where oxida- 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 



391 



tion immediately begins. Oxygen bubbles immediately form 
and come to the surface at the top of the long arm of the 
J tube. 

When the last bubble has 
formed, note the number of the 
graduations to which the oxygen 
has forced the blue liquid. This 
number shows precisely the num- 
ber of cubic centimeters of oxygen 
gas, or unit volumes, contained in 
the original cubic centimeter of 
peroxide. If the number noted is 
less than "15 volume," it is not 
satisfactory for hair dyeing or 

hair bleaching purposes. 

J Tube and Accessories 

Procedure for Bleaching Virgin Head 

A virgin head of hair is one which has not been previously 
bleached or tinted. 

It is desirable to bleach the hair before giving a haircut 
in order to have more hair to work with. 

1 . Examine scalp and hair ; shampoo and dry hair. 

2. Section hair into quarters. 





Sectioned in 
quarters 



Subdividing hair into 
quarter inch strands 



Approximate number 

of quarter inch 

strands 



3. Prepare bleaching formula and use immediately to 
prevent deterioration. Note : The order of applying the 
bleach around the head is immaterial. If the hair 



392 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 



seems resistant or especially dark around the crown, 
then it is advisable to start at the back of the head to 
allow for extra time of contact at this region. 

4. Apply bleach with swab 
or brush in quarter inch 
strands, proceeding from 
scalp to within one inch 
of the hair ends. 

5. Continue to apply the 
bleach until the entire 
head is completed. 

6. At the sides of the head 
where the hair is ex- 
tremely short, the bleach 

is applied directly to hair without any attempt at 
sectioning. 

7. Comb the bleach through to the hair ends. 




Manner of applying 
bleach 





Applying bleach to neck hair 
with swab 



Applying bleach to sideburns 
with swab 



8. Watch carefully for the development of proper shade. 

9. Rinse hair with water and shampoo lightly. 

10. Apply cream rinse. After 3 minutes rinse with warm 
water. 

11. Dry hair and comb or dress hair as desired. 

Causes of Unsatisfactory Hair Bleaching 

1. Weakened peroxide. 

2. Too much ammonia water in the bleach. 

3. Bleaching formula left on the hair too long. 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 393 

4. Bleaching formula removed too soon. 

5. Poor application (overlapping). 

6. Too slow in applying bleaching formula. 

7. Using too large a swab for application. 

Bleach Retouch 

White henna, bleach cream or oil bleach, are generally 
used for a bleach retouch because its adhesive quality pre- 
vents the overlapping of the previously bleached hair. 

White henna is made by mixing powdered magnesium 
carbonate with 17 to 20 volume hydrogen peroxide, and cor- 
rect amount of 28% ammonia water to the consistency of a 
paste. To each ounce of peroxide add 3 to 5 drops of am- 
monia water, depending on the texture and color of the hair. 

For quicker bleaching results, 25 volume peroxide is 
used, provided the patron can tolerate the stronger peroxide. 

A bleach cream is prepared by beating the following in- 
gredients into a creamy foam: 

Half ounce of 1 7 to 20 volume hydrogen peroxide. 

One to three drops of 28% ammonia water. 

Add enough soap flakes to make a creamy mixture. 

A colored oil bleach is a mixture of oil, certified color, 
ammonia water and peroxide. It exerts a fast bleaching 
action and does not run. The presence of the oil offsets the 
harsh action of the bleach. It is available in four different 
shades (neutral, gold, red, drab). Use only as directed by 
the manufacturer. 

Procedure for a Bleach Retouch 

The procedure for a bleach retouch is the same as that for 
bleaching a virgin head, except that the mixture is applied 
only to the new growth of hair and not to the rest of the 
bleached hair. A swab is employed to apply the bleach mix- 
ture from the scalp to a point where the new growth ends, 
being careful to prevent overlapping. Using a swab, the 
bleach may be applied freely at the sides of the head and at 
the neckline where the hair is extremely short. 



394 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 



In keeping records of retouch bleaching, include such 
information as date, bleaching mixture, what section of the 

head application was started 
and length of time bleach re- 
mained on the hair. 

Bleaching Shampoos 

Bleaching shampoos are used 
to lighten the hair, but not to 
the extent where a retouch 
would be necessary. The effects 
of a bleaching shampoo fade 
out within a four week period, 
at which time, another application may be given. The fact 
that a retouch would not be necessary, indicates that a large 
range of shades cannot be produced with this process. Bleach- 
ing shampoos highlight and brighten the hair while the range 
of natural color remains the same. 




Manner of applying 
a bleach retouch 





Apply the bleach on the neck 
with a swab 



Apply the bleach to sideburns 
with a swab 



Bleaching shampoo is prepared with the following ingred- 
ients : 

Three parts of 20 volume peroxide. 

One part of concentrated shampoo. 

Five drops of 28% ammonia water. 

The mixture is applied as a regular shampoo treatment. 

Bleaching shampoos should be recommended to all cus- 
tomers who feel that their hair is lacking in color, but do 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 395 

not wish a drastic change in hair color. The only disadvant- 
age of bleaching shampoos is that frequent application will 
leave a line of demarcation. 

Bleaching Rinses 

The bleaching rinse is similar to the bleaching shampoo, 
with the exception of application. The bleaching rinse is 
applied on dry hair and is allowed to remain on the hair from 
two to four minutes before it is shampooed. The more porous 
the hair, the less time it remains on the hair. Although the 
mixture is the same as the bleaching shampoo, the action on 
the hair is twice as fast because it is applied on dry hair and 
is allowed to remain there from two to four minutes. Bleach- 
ing rinses are only recommended for the customer who wishes 
a noticeable change with one treatment. 

Caution must be taken not to repeat bleaching rinses too 
frequently. The effects of the rinse last approximately four to 
six weeks. If a second application is given before the effects 
of the first rinse wears off, the change in color will be too 
light, and will require a touch-up as in regular hair bleaching. 

While the actual color of the hair remains the same, the 
bleaching rinse will highlight and lighten the hair noticeably 
in one treatment. 



396 MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 

Special Problems in Hair Bleaching 

Reconditioning bleached hair. No matter how well hair 
has been treated during a bleaching process, it becomes very 
much affected by exposure to sun or salt water. Therefore, it 
is necessary to give reconditioning treatments at regular in- 
tervals. Commercial products are available for this treat- 
ment. Regular oil or cream treatments, although much slow- 
in responding, can be used for reconditioning. Hair that has 
been rendered very dry, brittle or porous, by excessive bleach- 
ing, requires reconditioning treatments to restore it to its 
normal condition. Remember that in giving reconditioning 
treatments, you are treating the hair itself, rather than the 
scalp. Take the hair between the palms of the hands and 
with a rotary movement, rub the oil well into the hair. After 
the application of oil or cream, the hair may be steamed or 
the therapeutic lamp or heating cap may be used. This treat- 
ment should be continued over a period of time until the 
hair is reconditioned. 

Over-bleaching. The hair becomes over-bleached be- 
cause it has been abused by the use of a strong bleaching 
formula, overlapping, or by retaining the bleach too long on 
the hair. If the hair is coarse, spongy and mats easily when 
wetted, it is over-bleached. Such hair should be given oil 
treatments, cream treatments or egg shampoos until such 
time as this condition has been corrected. 

Testing for copper. Hair that is suspected of having been 
dyed with copper salts should be tested to reveal the presence 
or absence of copper before giving a bleaching treatment. 
Prepare a mixture of one-half ounce of hydrogen peroxide 
and 5 drops of 28% ammonia water. Holding a small strand 
(preferably in the front of the head underneath the part) 
between two fingers, apply the mixture and observe if the 
hair becomes warm to the touch. If it does, it indicates that 
copper salts have been used on the hair and should, there- 
fore, be removed before bleaching is attempted; otherwise, 
breakage is likely to occur. 



MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 397 

Bleaching Streaked Hair 

Streaks of discoloration often appear on the hair, caused 
in part by unsuccessful and unskillful bleach applications. 
To correct streaked hair: 

1. Prepare bleach solution as for virgin head. 

2. Apply mixture only to the darker streaks. 

3. Work one strand at a time. 

4. Allow to remain until all streaks are removed. 

5. Shampoo hair. 

Removing Yellow Streaks 

Yellow streaks often appear in gray hair caused prin- 
cipally by strong soaps and exposure to sun. 
To remove streaks caused by soap or sun: 

1. Prepare bleach solution of one ounce 17 to 20 volume 
hydrogen peroxide with equal parts of alcohol, and 
one-quarter ounce of table salt. 

2. Apply with brush only to yellow streaks. 

3. Allow to remain, rewetting if necessary, until all traces 
of yellow disappear. 

4. Witch hazel rinse may be used to remove the salt 
after the hair has had one soaping. Avoid the use of 
colored rinses until the hair has had time to recover 
from treatments. 

Bleaching Partly Gray Hair 

Partly gray hair, particularly if the natural shade was 
light, may be bleached to a more even shade. While the 
bleach mixture will not affect the color of the gray hair, it 
will lighten the still natural color hair. Commercial products 
are available under the name of Drab Bleach for this treat- 
ment. Follow directions of manufacturer when using these 
products. 

Mustache and Eyebrow Bleaching 

The formula for mustache and eyebrow bleaching con- 
sists of: 



398 MEN'S HAIR BLEACHING 

1. 1 ounce 20 volume peroxide. 

2. 3 drops of ammonia water. 

3. Enough white henna to make a paste. 

It is applied to the hair only. Avoid getting the paste on 
the skin; allowing it to remain on the skin will result in a 
peroxide burn. It is dangerous to use any other bleaching 
formula for this purpose. 

Reminders and Hints for Hair Bleaching 

1. Always wash your hands, and use sterile swabs, 
brushes, combs and linens. 

2. Be careful in applying bleach so that it does not run 
over clothing, nor come in contact with skin of the hands, 
face and neck. 

3. To prepare an effective bleaching formula, use fresh 
materials having the proper strength, measure accurately, 
and use immediately after mixing. 

4. The strength of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia water 
solutions becomes weakened when such bottles are exposed 
to the air for a long time, or stored in a warm place. 

5. The strength of the bleaching formula and the length 
of time it is to be left on the hair, vary with the condition 
and texture of the hair and the shade of hair desired. Oily 
hair requires more time for bleaching than does dry hair. 

6. A preliminary shampoo is advisable if the hair is ex- 
cessively oily or dirty. Avoid irritation to the scalp during the 
shampoo. 

7. Never use an acid rinse before a bleach. 

8. Work as rapidly as possible in applying the bleach to 
produce a uniform shade without streaks. 

9. Overlapping in a retouch can be prevented by using 
just enough moisture on the swab for the hair to absorb. 

10. The final shampoo is given when desired shade has 
been obtained and all the paste mixture has been removed. 

1 1 . Bleached hair is fragile and, therefore, requires special 
care. A mild cleanser for bleached hair is an egg shampoo, 
followed by a hand dry. 

12. Keep a complete and confidential record of all bleach- 
ing treatments. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



HAIR BLEACHING 



1. What actually takes place 
when hair is bleached? 



The bleaching agent removes or oxi- 
dizes some of the original color in the 
hair. 



2. Give three uses for hydro- 
gen peroxide. 



Hydrogen peroxide may be used as a 
bleaching agent, as a softening agent 
prior to hair tinting, and as an oxi- 
dizing agent when mixed with a dye. 



3. How is the strength of the 
peroxide preserved? 



Keep bottle closed and store it in a 
cool, dark and dry place. Use bleach- 
ing formula soon after it is prepared. 



4. What shades can be ob- 
tained with a peroxide 
bleach? 



Light brown, golden 
color and platinum. 



brown, straw 



5. How long should a peroxide 
and ammonia bleach be left 
on the hair? 



Until the color of the hair reaches the 
desired shade. 



6. What are the most frequent 
causes of overbleaching? 



Too much ammonia water in the 
bleach, overlapping, and too long an 
application of the bleach will cause 
over-bleaching. 



7. What is the best treatment 
for overbleached hair? 



Hot oil treatments, cream treatments 
or egg shampoos. 



8. How can the action of the 
peroxide be hastened? 



The addition of ammonia water to the 
bleaching formula will hasten the ac- 
tion of peroxide. 



9. How can the action of per- 
oxide be slowed down? 



Diluting the bleaching mixture with 
water or antiseptic oil. 



10. What will stop the action of 
the bleach? 



Drying of the hair or a shampoo. 



11. What is white henna 
when is it used? 



and White henna is a creamy substance of 
powdered magnesium carbonate with 
hydrogen peroxide and ammonia 
water. It is used for a bleach retouch. 



12. To what part of the hair is a 
bleach retouch applied? 



A bleach retouch is applied only to 
the new growth of hair. 



13. Name two preparations that 
can be used instead of white 
henna for bleach retouch. 



Bleach cream and colored oil bleach. 



14. a) Give two methods for 
testing the volume content of 
hydrogen peroxide, b) Which 
is the quickest method? 



a) The hydrometer method and the J 
tube method. 

b) The hydrometer method. 



400 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

Hair tinting is another profitable source of income to the 
barber who possesses the necessary knowledge, experience 
and skill. Hair tinting involves the addition of an artificial 
color to the natural pigment in the hair. The resultant color 
may duplicate a natural shade or produce an entirely new 
shade of hair. 

Hair Tinting 

Hair tinting falls into two main groups, depending upon 
the action of the colorings, whether they are temporary or 
permanent. 

All hair dyes on the market are proprietary products, 
with the exception of vegetable colorings, the dyes should 
be used according to the manufacturer's directions. 

The routines given here, with minor exceptions, will be 
found satisfactory with practically every dye manufactured. 

Hair tinting involves the application of chemical agents 
for the purpose of: 

1. Covering gray hair. 

2. Restoring hair to its original shade. 

3. Producing an entirely new shade of hair. 
Hair tinting treatments are recommended for: 

1. Men with prematurely gray hair. 

2. The business man. 

3. Men who must maintain a youthful appearance. 

4. Restoring bleached hair to its natural shade. 

5. Changing an unattractive shade of hair. 

Aniline derivative dyes are the most popular with men's 
hair tinting because they can duplicate a natural shade of 
hair. A very small percentage of the men tinting their hair 
use metallic or compound dyestuffs. 

The successful barber who has a hair tinting practice, 
must have the knowledge of: 

1. The general structure of the hair and skin. 

2. The composition, merits and limitations of softeners, 
developers, hair dyes and bleaches. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 401 

3. The chemical reactions following their application. 

4. The correct method of application. 

There are unlimited advantages for the barber who main- 
tains a practice in hair tinting. Although his customer may 
stop off and get his hair cut in another establishment, the 
chances are that the same customer will never allow any one 
else to color his hair. This extra service not only insures a 
better income, but puts the barber on a higher level with his 
customers. 

Men's hair tinting is easier and more profitable than 
women's. The application of dye on women's hair is much 
more involved than the application on men's hair. Although 
the fee for coloring may be the same for both men and wo- 
men, the cost of material for women's hair tinting is at least 
twice as much as that for men ; plus the fact that there is less 
than half the time involved for the application on men's hair. 

The combination of smaller costs for material and less 
time for application, means greater profits in men's hair 
tinting. 

Examining Scalp and Hair 

The scalp and hair are carefully examined to determine 
if it is safe to use an aniline derivative dye and whether any 
special hair dyeing problems exist. 

An aniline derivative dye should not be used if the fol- 
lowing conditions are recognized. 

1. Signs of a positive skin test, such as redness, swelling, 
itching and blisters. 

2. Scalp sores or eruptions. 

3. Contagious scalp or hair disease. 

If the scalp and hair are in a healthy condition, carefully 
observe and record data relative to: 

1. Type of hair. Degree of porosity either very receptive, 
moderately receptive, very resistant or moderately resistant. 

2. Texture of hair. Coarse, medium, fine or wiry hair. 

3. Color of hair. Natural or artificial and the percentage 
of gray hair present. 



402 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

4. Forms of hair. Straight, curly, wavy or permanently 
waved. 

5. Condition of hair and scalp. Dry, normal or oily. 
The results of such an examination may indicate the need 

for any of the following : 

1. Giving reconditioning treatments. 

2. Using the proper strength of softener for the particu- 
lar type and texture of hair. 

3. Using hair dye remover to dissolve accumulated col- 
oring matter on the hair. 

4. Selecting an appropriate shade of hair dye. 

5. Testing the hair for color or breakage. 

Essentials For Hair Tinting 

To produce the best results in hair tinting, the barber 
must be equipped with: 

1. Various sizes of glass or porcelain dishes or flat cups. 

2. Swab sticks and dye brushes. 

3. Measuring cup. 

4. Dropper. 

5. Fresh peroxide 20 volume. 

6. Absorbent cotton. 

Temporary Hair Colorings 

1. Colored rinses are prepared rinses used to clean the 
hair and bring out its luster, or add color to the hair which 
will remain on the hair until the next shampoo. They are 
applied in the manner prescribed under the subject of rinses. 

2. Progressive shampoo tints are preparations similar to 
colored rinses compounded with soap. Several applications 
may be necessary in order to obtain the desired shade. How- 
ever, these tints must be applied according to the manufac- 
turer's directions. 

3. Crayons are sticks of coloring, compounded with soaps 
or synthetic waxes, used to color gray or white hairs between 
hair dye retouches. 

4. Color blenders are special hair tinting preparations 
which serve to blend in gray hair, while giving added color 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 403 

to the hair. Various colors are available for all shades of 
hair. Applied as a 15 minute shampoo, the results last for 
about six weeks. These products have the added advantage 
of not leaving any line of demarcation. No retouch is nec- 
essary. 

Permanent Hair Colorings 

Permanent hair colorings are grouped according to their 
chemical composition and their effects on the hair shaft. 
There are four different classes of permanent hair colorings, 
as follows: 

1. Aniline derivative dyes or synthetic organic dyes are 
those dyes having a base derived from aniline, a coal tar 
product. These preparations penetrate the horny layer of 
the hair shaft. The action of these dyes is instantaneous and 
their effect is permanent. Shampoo tints come under this 
classification. 

2. Pure vegetable dyes, comprised of Egyptian henna, 
indigo, camomile and sage. They deposit a thin film or coat- 
ing on the hair shaft. 

3. Metallic or mineral dyes are of the progressive type 
and form a metallic coating over the hair shaft. Applica- 
tions are made successively until the proper shade has de- 
veloped. 

4. Compound dyestuffs, such as compound henna, are 
combinations of vegetable dyes with certain metallic salts 
and other dyestuffs. The metallic salts are used as a mordant 
to fix the color. Compound dyes coat the hair shaft and are 
progressive in action. 

Aniline Derivative Dyes 

Aniline derivative dyes are also known as organic dyes, 
synthetic dyes, coal tar dyes, peroxide dyes, or liquid dyes. 

The most effective type of hair dye contains, as its es- 
sential ingredient, para-phenylene-diamine, or a related 
chemical compound. With this type of preparation, it is 
possible to duplicate the most unusual shade of human hair 
without impairing its luster or texture. The color of the hair 
remains permanent. A small percentage of customers are 



404 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

sensitive to aniline derivative dyes. To identify such indi- 
viduals, a skin test is required for all customers prior to ap- 
plying the dye. This is required by law. The stock of these 
dyes should be kept fresh as they deteriorate on standing. 
When the barber mixes the developer with the dye, a chem- 
ical reaction, known as oxidation, begins. After the mixture 
is applied to the hair, the reaction continues as long as the 
dye remains wet, or until removed when the desired shade 
has developed. Timing the development of the applied dye 
requires that the barber have a thorough knowledge of the 
commercial product, besides consulting the customer's hair 
dye record. 

Hydrogen Peroxide 

Its uses, how available, and method of testing for volume 
content, see page 389. 

Skin Test 

A skin test is also known as a patch test or predisposition 
test. Its purpose is to detect customers who may be sensitive 
to an aniline derivative dye. It is the duty of every barber 
to test the skin of every customer. It is required by law. 
The dye used for the skin test must be of the same mixture as 
the product intended to be used for the hair dyeing. 

The following procedure is suggested in giving a skin test : 

1 . Select test area, either behind ear extending partly into 
hairline, or on inner fold of elbow. 

2. Wash test area, about the size of a quarter, with mild 
soap and water. 

3. Dry test area by patting with absorbent cotton. 

4. Prepare test solution by mixing one-half teaspoon of 
dye and one-half teaspoon of 20 volume peroxide. 

5. Apply enough test solution with absorbent cotton- 
tipped applicator to cover the area previously cleansed. 

6. Allow test area to dry. Leave uncovered and undis- 
turbed for 24 hours. 

7. Examine test area for either negative or positive 
reactions. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 405 

A negative skin test will show no sign of inflammation; 
hence, an aniline derivative dye may be applied with safety. 

A positive skin test is recognized by the presence of in- 
flammatory signs, such as redness, burning, itching, blisters 
or eruptions. A customer, evidencing such symptoms, is al- 
lergic to an aniline derivative dye, and under no circum- 
stances should this particular kind of dye be used. 

Symptoms of hair dye poisoning are as follows: 

1. Itchy red spots which may spread to all parts of the 
body. 

2. Tiny blisters from which serum oozes. 

3. The customer suffers from headaches and vomiting. 
If these warning signs are neglected, and the customer 

fails to get immediate medical attention, other complications 
may ensue. 

Hair Tinting 

For successful hair tinting with an aniline derivative dye, 
the barber must plan and follow a definite procedure which 
makes for the greatest efficiency and also suits the customer's 
needs. A permanent record should be kept of each customer's 
hair dye treatments. Without a plan, the work takes longer, 
mistakes are apt to be made, and the customer readily be- 
comes dissatisfied. Customers will have more confidence in 
the barber's ability if he does his hair dyeing systematically. 

It is desirable to tint the hair before giving a haircut in 
order to have more hair to work with. 

The procedure for coloring a virgin head of hair which 
has not been previously bleached or dyed, is as follows : 

1. Preparation. 

a) Examine scalp and hair. 

b) Choose the correct shade of dye. 

c) Give skin test. 

d) Recondition hair, if necessary. 

2. Procedure. 

a) Shampoo, dry, and section hair. 

b) Soften or bleach hair, and dry. 



406 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 



c) Re-section hair. 

d) Prepare and apply hair dye. 
3. Completion. 

a) Test for color development. 

b) Give a final shampoo. 

c) Complete with vinegar rinse. 

Choosing The Correct Shade of Hair Dye 

The customer is always consulted in selecting the best 
shade to match the existing color of the hair or to impart an 
entirely new color to the hair. As a general rule, choose the 
shade which will cause the skin to appear lighter, yet har- 
monize with the general complexion. For a small percentage 
of gray hair, select a somewhat lighter shade of hair dye. In 
every case, follow the directions for selecting the proper shade 
as outlined by the manufacturer of the hair dye. 
Shampooing and Sectioning the Hair 

Give a preliminary shampoo with warm water, rinse and 
dry hair thoroughly. 

Water as here mentioned refers to soft water. Do not use hard water 
unless it is first softened by chemical treatment. Distilled water can be 
used in place of hard water. 

Comb the hair and divide it into four sections, parting 
the hair from forehead to nape of neck, and from ear to ear. 
Leave one section free for the application of softener or 
bleach. 

For normal hair. Leave the right front section free. 

For partly gray and abnormal hair. Leave the hair sec- 
tion free in which the color of the hair is darkest. 




Hair sectioned 
in quarters 



Subdividing hair into 
quarter-inch strands 



Approximate number 

of quarter-inch 

strands 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 407 

Softening or Bleaching the Hair 

The hair is bleached first only when it is to be dyed to a 
lighter shade. Otherwise, the hair is softened so that it will 
readily absorb the dye and thereby produce a more lasting 
shade. Insufficient softening often is the cause of an incom- 
plete development of the dye, and an insufficient coverage 
of gray hair. 

Preparation. Prepare softener or bleach. For coarse hair 
add 28% ammonia water to the peroxide. Measure the 
quantities accurately and keep a written record of the 
formula used. 

Procedure for normal hair. Apply softener or bleach on 
the front right section and continue application all around 
head. When applying the dye, begin on the same section of 
hair to which the softener or bleach was last applied. 

Procedure for partly gray and abnormal hair. On partly 
gray hair or hair that has a variable color, the softener or 
bleach is applied where the color is darkest. Start to apply 
the dye where the hair is grayest or lightest in color. 

Apply softener or bleach with brush to quarter-inch 
strands. Moisten both sides of strand from the scalp to with- 
in one inch of hair ends. When this is completed, comb 
through the hair to the ends. At sides of head, and at neck- 
line, where the hair is extremely short, apply the softener 
directly to the hair with a swab but without sectioning the 
hair. Allow softener to remain for the required length of 
time ( 10 to 30 minutes or longer, depending on the type and 
texture of hair). Finally, dry hair thoroughly. 

Preparing and Applying the Hair Dye 

Most aniline derivative dyes which are sold without de- 
velopers, use 20 volume peroxide as a developer. Other man- 
ufacturers who use tablets as a developer, supply the tablet 
with each bottle of dye. One bottle of hair dye is usually re- 
quired for treating a virgin head of men's hair. 

Mix equal parts, dye with 20 volume peroxide, in a glass 
dish, or cup, and use immediately. If a tablet is used as a 



408 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 



developer, crush it to a powder before opening and adding 
the dye solution. 

Applying the dye. The hair is ready to be tinted when it 
is perfectly dry and re-sectioned in quarters. Wear rubber 
gloves to avoid staining the hands. Begin application of dye 

as explained for normal hair or 
gray and abnormal hair. With a 
brush, apply an adequate amount 
of dye to both sides of quarter 
inch hair strands and stop within 
one inch of the hair ends. Care 
must be taken to prevent spilling 
the dye and having it run over the 
hairline. Apply the dye freely 
with a swab at sides and nape of 
neck without any attempt to sec- 
tioning the hair. 




Manner of applying dye to 
quarter-inch strands 



When all sections have been treated, comb the dye 
through to the hair ends. This procedure is modified with 
extremely porous hair by diluting the remaining portion of 





Applying dye to neck hair 
with swab 



Applying dye to sideburns 
with swab 



the dye with an equal amount of water or shampoo, and then 
applying this mixture to the hair ends. In this way, the por- 
ous hair ends will not develop a darker shade than the rest 
of the hair. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 409 

Judging from the manufacturer's directions and the hair 
texture, allow the dye to remain on the hair for the required 
length of time. The action of the hair dye continues so long 
as the hair and the dye remain in a moist condition. 

Test For Color Development 

After the dye has been on the hair for fifteen to twenty 
minutes, it is necessary to test for color development. This is 
done by wetting a small piece of cotton with soap and water 
or shampoo, wringing out some of the moisture, and then se- 
lecting a section of hair where most gray hair is evident. Re- 
move the dye with wet cotton. If the gray hair still shows, 
re-moisten this strand of hair with the dye, and leave the 
dye on for another five to ten minutes. Then make another 
test for color. 

It is impossible to give definite instructions as to the 
length of time required for color development, as no two 
heads of hair are alike. The barber will become proficient in 
determining the necessary time as he progresses with this 
work, and gains experience in judging hair textures. Again, 
we must emphasize the necessity for testing the ends of the 
hair and watching them carefully for color development, as 
the ends absorb the dye more readily than the rest of the hair. 

Giving A Final Shampoo 

Before proceeding with the shampoo, remove all dye 
stains from skin of hairline, ears and neck. This is accom- 
plished with either hydrogen peroxide, hot oil, cream, or left- 
over dye. 

After the color has developed to the desired shade, the 
hair must be sprayed thoroughly with a strong force of 
water.* This serves to set the color and removes all excess dye 
from the hair; the hair is then shampooed lightly with a 
neutral soap. Pour a vinegar rinse through the hair, to hard- 
en the color, and rinse off with warm water immediately. 
Then dry, or proceed with any other treatment the customer 
desires. 



*Some dye manufacturers recommend the use of water that is as hot as the 
customer can stand it; follow the manufacturer's instructions. 



410 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 



Causes of Unsatisfactory Hair Tinting 

1. Dye not applied immediately after mixing with de- 
veloper. 

2. Developer (peroxide 20 volume) in weakened 
strength. 

3. Poor application (overlapping). 

4. Improper application of softener. 

5. Improper mixture of softener. 

6. Softener removed too soon from the hair. 

7. Hair dye removed too soon from the hair. 

8. Hair dye remained on the hair for too long a period. 

9. Improper blending of retouch with hair previously 
dyed. 

Retouching Tinted Hair 

A "retouch" is the term commonly applied to hair which 
has been dyed, but where the new growth from the scalp 
must be dyed to match the rest of the hair. The customer's 
hair dye record should be consulted to determine the exact 
shade of dye to use, the strength of softener, and how long 
to keep it on the hair. 

The same procedure is followed as for dyeing virgin hair, 
except that a swab is used in applying both the softener and 

the dye. Both softener and dye are 
applied from the scalp to the point 
where the hair has already been 
dyed. Great care should be exer- 
cised to prevent either the dye or 
softener from running down on the 
hair that has already been dyed. 
Such overlapping would cause a 
streak which would not only be 
very ugly, but would make that 
portion of the hair darker than the 
rest. Should the dye or softener 
run, causing overlapping, remove 
it immediately by lifting the hair 
with the comb and rubbing a piece 




Manner of applying dye 
retouch with swab to 
quarter-inch strands 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 



411 



of dry absorbent cotton over it. Keep the wet hair free from 
the dyed hair as much as possible, otherwise the retouched 
hair may cause the previous hair coloring to streak. Make 
a test for color in the usual way, and once the color has suf- 
ficiently developed, shampoo and dry the hair. If hair, which 
had been previously dyed, is faded in color, add a little 
shampoo to the remaining dye mixture and wash through the 
hair for two minutes before shampooing. 





Applying dye to neck hair 
with swab 



Applying dye to sideburns 
with swab 



Prevent overlapping. Overlapping will not occur if the 
barber is careful to use a swab that is not too wet, and if both 
softener and dye are applied only to the point where the hair 
has already been dyed. 

Hair Dye Records 

A permanent record (either a book or a card file) should 
be kept of all hair dye treatments. 

It is of the utmost importance to keep an accurate record 
so that any difficulties encountered in one treatment, may be 
avoided in subsequent ones. A complete record should be 
made with information such as "dries out rapidly," "dye 
does not develop fast enough," or any other data connected 
with that particular head. 



412 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 



HAIR DYE RECORD CARD 

Name Tel. No. 

Address City 



DESCRIPTION OF HAIR 

Form: Length: Texture: Type: 

^] straight n long n fine n coarse D porous 

^] wavy Q] medium Q soft n harsh Q normal 

H curly n short n silky n wiry n resistant 

fn dry n oily n streaked n faded n % gray 

Condition: <! previously bleached for (time) 

[previously dyed with for 

(Original sample to be enclosed) 



PRELIMINARY TREATMENT 

Corrective treatments with 

Corrective treatments with 

(Sample of corrected hair to be enclosed) 
Time required for development of color minutes 



HAIR TINTING PROCESS 
Whole Head Retouch inches Shampooed 

Softened with 1 oz. peroxide and f no ) ammonia for minutes 

1 dr.j 

Shade desired: 

Shade used: equal parts of color and developer. 

color; developer; water 

Results: n good n poor n too light n too dark n streaked 
(Sample of tinted hair to be enclosed) 



Date Operator Date Operator 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 413 

Definitions Relating to Hair Tinting 

A virgin head of hair is a head of normal hair which has 
had no bleaching or dyeing treatments. 

A touch-up or retouch is the application of coloring to 
the new growth of hair, using the same procedure and shade 
as was employed in the virgin head treatment. 

Blending is the application of the same shade of liquid 
dye to faded hair ends in order to produce a uniform color, 
or match new dye with the old dye. 

Softening is the application of peroxide for a given length 
of time in order to prepare the hair to absorb the dye. 

Dye back is the coloring of the hair to its natural shade, 
after it has been bleached. 

Dye removal is the use of a dye solvent, bleach, or soften- 
ing treatments to remove an unsatisfactory shade of dye 
from the hair. 

Toning down is the application of a hair dye or shampoo 
tint on overbleached hair for the purpose of adding more 
color to the hair. 

Color testing is a method of sampling the action of a 
selected dye on a small strand of hair or the shampooing of a 
small strand of dyed hair to determine if the color has de- 
veloped to the desired intensity. 

Oxidation is a chemical reaction which takes place when 
peroxide and dye solution are mixed and applied to softened 
hair. 

A developer is an oxidizing agent, such as hydrogen per- 
oxide solution, which supplies the oxygen necessary for 
oxidation. 

Allergy is a condition of increased sensitivity of the body 
to some chemical substance. Only those people who are sus- 
ceptible, manifest definite physical reactions or symptoms 
upon contact with a particular chemical substance. 

Susceptible means capable of being allergic. 



414 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

Idiosyncrasy is an individual peculiarity which makes one 
susceptible to chemical substances in cosmetics, drugs and 
foods. 

A skin test is a procedure for determining whether or not 
a person is allergic to an aniline derivative dye. 

Reminders and Hints for Hair Tinting 

1. Always wash your hands and use sterile swabs, brush- 
es, combs and linens. 

2. A hair dye should never be used if there is a con- 
tagious disease or an eruption present anywhere on the scalp. 

3. Keep a complete and confidential record of all hair 
dyeing treatments. Consult this record whenever necessary. 

4. Examine scalp and hair and give skin test before ap- 
plying dye. If necessary, make a test for color or breakage. 

5. Avoid irritating the scalp with sharp fingernails, strong 
massage movements or hot water during preliminary sham- 
pooing. 

6. A preliminary shampoo, with a mild soap and soft 
water, removes dirt and oil which would ordinarily interfere 
with the action of the dye and the development of the 
proper shade. 

7. Choose a shade of dye which will cause the skin to 
appear lighter, yet harmonize with the general complexion. 

8. If hair is to be dyed to a lighter shade, it is bleached 
first and then dyed. 

9. A glass or porcelain dish is best for mixing the dye 
with the developer. Use a brush applicator for a virgin head 
and a swab for retouching. Discard left-over dye. 

10. Hair ends are more absorbent, whereas the hair next to 
the scalp is more resistant to the action of the dye. A full 
strength is not applied, nor allowed to collect at the hair ends. 

11. For brittle and split hair, the action of the dye is 
slowed down by adding water* or liquid soap, and combing 
the solution through the hair ends. 

12. Before applying dye, drain excess liquid from appli- 
cator by pressing it against side of dish. To distribute dye 

* Where hard water is the only kind available, soft water or distilled 
water must be used instead. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 415 

evenly, apply it to hair which is spread out in an upward di- 
rection, away from the scalp. 

13. Dye stains on the skin are removed with either hydro- 
gen peroxide, hot oil, cream, or left-over dye. 

14. The hair must be dry before applying the softener. 
The softening process takes anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes 
or longer, depending upon the texture and type of the hair. 
Resistant hair may require a second application of the 
softener. 

15. Depending upon the quality and condition of the hair, 
begin the application of the dye to the last strand of hair, 
wetted by the softener. On partly gray hair, the dye is ap- 
plied to the grayest part first. At the time the dye is applied, 
the hair should be thoroughly dry. 

16. As long as the hair remains moist, the action of the 
dye continues. 

17. The action of the dye is slowed by the addition of 
water or shampoo. The color of the dye is lightened by add- 
ing hydrogen peroxide. 

18. To prevent overlapping in a retouch, use the dye 
sparingly and apply only to the point where the hair has 
already been dyed. 

19. Tinted hair will be kept in prime condition by the use 
of oil or cream treatments. 

Metallic Hair Tints 

Metallic dyes are erroneously referred to as "color re- 
storers" or "hair restorers." They are of the progressive type, 
and form a metallic coating over the hair shaft. Applications 
are made successively until the proper shade has developed. 

The many disadvantages of metallic dyes limit their use- 
fulness in the barber shop. There is always the danger of 
absorption and poisoning by the metallic compound. The 
choice of shades is restricted to colors ranging from dark 
brown to black. Repeated applications result in unnatural 
and uncertain shades, besides causing the hair to become 
brittle. 



416 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

Metallic dyes are not used professionally by the barbers. 
They are sold in retail stores for home use. Continued use 
will leave a strong odor in the hair. 

Vegetable Hair Tints 

Pure vegetable dyes which deposit a thin film or coating 
on the hair shaft, are harmless, less effective and less perma- 
nent than aniline derivative dyes. They are used as a liquid 
or paste, and yield a limited range in shades. Repeated ap- 
plications, at frequent intervals, are required to offset the 
fading in the color of the hair. 

. Egyptian henna grows abundantly in Egypt and Asia. On 
the market it is available as green and brown henna. The 
green henna is stronger in staining qualities than the brown 
henna. Egyptian henna is employed as a tint, pack or rinse, 
which imparts a red tone to the hair. The exclusive use of 
henna coarsens the hair. 

Indigo is a very dark blue vegetable coloring which is 
used to modify unsatisfactory henna applications. When 
added to henna paste, indigo darkens the resulting shade. 

Camomile can be used as a rinse or pack to highlight 
faded blonde hair. 

Sage is used mainly as a rinse to darken hair and impart 
a greenish brown tone. 

Application of vegetable hair tints* Follow the manu- 
facture r's instructions. 

Henna Pack for Virgin Hair 

A henna pack imparts a red tone to hair and is indicated 
to highlight medium to dark shades of brown hair. The true 
shade does not develop until two to three days after the 
henna pack has been applied. For best results in the use of 
henna, buy a standard and reliable product. Henna is not 
suitable for black hair, nor for hair which has turned gray. 

Henna packs are not popular in the barber shop because 
of their unnatural look, and can only be recommended to one 
who has had natural red hair, or a complexion that will go 
with it 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 417 

The following procedure is recommended for preparing 
and applying a henna pack. 

1. Examine color, condition and texture of the hair. 

2. Shampoo hair and partially dry with towel. 

3. Comb and section hair into quarters. 

4. Consult customer regarding desired shade. 

5. Prepare henna pack by mixing 6 ounces of Egyptian 
henna with 12 ounces of hot water to form a smooth 
paste. Heat mixture in water bath. 

6. Treat each hair strand separately. Start with the 
right rear section and work clockwise around the 
head, treating the temple and hairs at the nape of the 
neck last. 

7. Apply hot henna paste with wide paint brush to center 
of strand of hair, work toward the scalp and then to 
within one inch of the ends. Comb henna through hair 
and apply to ends. 

8. Cover head with shower cap or waxed paper and place 
customer under a white therapeutic lamp or heating 
cap until the desired shade develops. For example: 
fifteen minutes for a slight tint, and thirty minutes for 
a brighter shade. 

9. Test for shade by sponging a small strand of hair with 
cotton, wet with shampoo or warm water. More than 
one test may be necessary before a satisfactory shade 
develops. 

10. Rinse henna from hair and shampoo. 

1 1 . Give acid rinse if necessary. 

Henna Pack Retouch 

The procedure for a henna pack retouch is identical with 
that of a virgin henna pack, except that the paste is applied 
only to the new growth of hair. When the desired shade has 
been obtained, the paste may be rinsed off and a thorough 
shampoo given, or else dilute the adhering paste with warm 
water and apply to the remainder of the hair for additional 
brightening. 



418 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

Shampoo Tints 

Shampoo tints are an innovation which have become in- 
creasingly popular with customers who may be reluctant to 
dye their hair, yet want a simple and quick way to blend gray 
hairs with the natural shade of their hair. The barber who is 
prepared and capable of rendering such a service, is not only 
a great help to his customer, but a valuable asset to his em- 
ployer. Shampoo tints possess the following advantages over 
the ordinary hair dyes. 

1 . Sales are more readily made and repeated. 

2. Less time is consumed in completing the treatment. 

3. Can be used on all textures, including bleached hair. 

4. Can be used over any penetrating dye. 

5. Fading of the shade is not very pronounced. 

There are various kinds of shampoo tints on the market. 
Basically, they are a mixture of a soap or soapless shampoo, 
together with a dye, producing very heavy lather, thoroughly 
cleansing the hair and scalp, leaving the hair lustrous and 
beautiful. The soap rinses out easily and no film is left on 
the hair. 

The action of shampoo tints falls into two main groups. 

1. Progressive shampoo tints which require a series of 
applications to color the hair to the desired shade. 
These tints must be applied according to the manu- 
facturer's instructions. 

2. Instantaneous shampoo tints which color the hair in 
one application. This type acts exactly like the pene- 
trating (aniline derivative) dyes, allowing for minor 
differences in manufacturers' directions. They may be 
used in two ways. 

a) With softener, applied to "ndividual strands, as in 
the standard method. The results are about the 
same. 

b) Without softener. This method requires more time 
for development of shade and the colors wear off 
more quickly. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 419 

Skin test must be given to determine if the patron can 
tolerate the aniline derivative type of shampoo tints. 

The actual application of shampoo tints is exactly the 
same as that of hair dyes, whether it be a virgin head or a 
touch-up. 

Color Rinses 

Color rinses serve as a temporary tinge of color to the 
hair, making it appear lustrous and blend in gray hair. There 
are two types of color rinses. The plain type, which is ap- 
plied to the hair after a shampoo, and fades out within one 
week; the other type has a more penetrating effect and re- 
mains on the hair until it is shampooed out of the hair. 

Color rinses should always be prepared according to the 
directions given with the product by the manufacturer. Be- 
fore applying the color rinse, remove excess moisture by 
towel drying the hair. These color rinses come in about 14 
different shades. The barber should recommend them to most 
all of his customers. 

For the man who does not have gray hair, the rinse will 
add color and highlight his natural color of hair. It is ap- 
plied by pouring the rinse over the head several times, catch- 
ing what is poured in another pan. Remove excess moisture 
and comb hair. 

For the customer who has gray hair, or small amounts of 
gray hair, we use the penetrating color rinse. Apply by part- 
ing the hair in small strands, treating the gray strands first. 
Continue by working your way from the back of the head to 
the front hairline, and finally the short hairs at the side of 
the head. 

Allow the rinse to remain on the hair for the length of 
time specified by the manufacturer, then rinse off with cool 
water. The rinsing action hardens the color and does not 
come off the hair until the hair is shampooed. 



420 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

Special Problems In Men's Hair Tinting 

Reconditioning hair which has been dyed, is of major im- 
portance, no matter how well the hair has been treated dur- 
ing the tinting process. It becomes very much affected by 
exposure to the sun or salt water. Therefore, it is advisable 
to give reconditioning treatments at regular intervals. Com- 
mercial products are available for this treatment. 

Regular oil treatments are also recommended for recon- 
ditioning but are much slower in responding. 

Hair that has been rendered very dry, brittle or porous, 
by excessive dyeing, requires reconditioning treatments to re- 
store it to its normal condition. All hair that has been sub- 
jected to the use of any metallic substance or discolored from 
the use of any of the various hair color restorers, etc., must 
be reconditioned before the hair dye is applied. Remember, 
that in giving reconditioning treatments, you are treating the 
hair itself, rather than the scalp. Take the hair between the 
palms of the hands and with a rotary movement, rub the oil 
well into the hair. After the application of oil, the hair may 
be steamed or the therapeutic lamp may be used. This treat- 
ment should be continued over a period of time until the hair 
is reconditioned. 

Dye Removal 

There are three ways in which hair dye can be removed 
from the hair: 

1. Application of dye solvent. 

2. White henna preparations. 

3. Hydrogen peroxide. 

It is a lengthy process and the hair passes through many 
light red shades before the dye is removed. There are many 
commercial hair dye removers on the market. When using 
such a product, follow the directions of the manufacturer. 

Correcting Poorly Tinted Hair 

With a little study, the barber will soon become familiar 
with the appearance of the hair when treated by the various 
hair preparations. Upon first examining the customer's hair, 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 421 

be sure to notice whether any preparations have been used, 
no matter how vociferously the customer may tell you he has 
used nothing. Many people do not realize that some of the 
so-called vegetable rinses and hair color restorers, are really 
hair dyes in disguise. A prospective customer should be ques- 
tioned as to the treatment of his hair during the past year. 
From the customer's description of the preparation used, the 
barber should be able to tell what treatment should be given. 
When in doubt, treatments should be given to remove the 
preparation that was previously used. If there is any ques- 
tion in your mind, it is advisable to make a test for color 
or breakage. 

Take a small strand of hair beneath the part, preferably 
in front of the head where any unknown preparation has 
been used most lavishly. Dye the strand as you would if you 
were dyeing the entire head, going through the same prelim- 
inary steps, and taking the same precautions (softening or 
bleaching, then dyeing). Allow twenty- four hours to elapse. 
Test the hair for breakage and look for discoloration. If dis- 
coloration or breakage occurs, preparations previously used, 
must be removed from the hair. 

Correcting Dark Streaks 

Dark streaks in tinted hair may be caused by improper 
application of softener, overlapping in retouching new 
growth, and the use of too much dye. To remove streaks, 
apply hydrogen peroxide, or hydrogen peroxide and am- 
monia water, and pass a hot iron over the streaked strands 
only. 

Tinting Bleached Hair To Its Natural Shade 

An appropriate shade of dye, with which to tint bleached 
hair, is selected so that it will match the natural shade of hair 
next to the scalp. A test for color on one or more strands of 
bleached hair is advisable, since it helps the barber in judging 
the proper dilution and timing of the dye. 

Since the bleached portion of the hair is very porous, the 
dye is diluted with hydrogen peroxide and water, or with 
equal parts of shampoo, and applied according to the manu- 



422 MEN'S HAIR TINTING 

facturer's directions. The new growth of hair, next to the 
scalp, is neither bleached nor dyed. The development of a 
very dark color can be prevented by working rapidly and 
drying each section as it is dyed. 

Correcting Over-Bleached Hair 

In correcting or toning down over-bleached hair, test first 
for the color the customer desires. It is advisable always to 
use two shades lighter than the customer requests, because 
the hair will appear much darker to the customer who has 
been accustomed to a light shade. Over-bleached hair should 
not be softened before the dye is applied, since it is already 
in a very porous condition, and will accept the dye very 
quickly. 

A drab shade is likely to turn purple on this type of hair 
due to the fact that the hair accepts the dye too readily, and 
an off-shade may be the result. It is, therefore, advisable to 
choose one of the warm shades in preference to a drab shade. 
Before applying the dye to the entire head, make a test for 
color as follows: 

Apply the dye to a strand of hair from the scalp to 
the ends. Watch the development carefully until it reaches 
the desired shade, timing the color development with each 
test made, and noting the shade and varying dilutions it may 
be necessary to use. If the action is too fast and the hair im- 
mediately turns dark, the action of the dye must be slowed 
down by adding two to three parts of water to the amount of 
dye used. If this solution turns a purple or off-shade on the 
hair, a warm shade should be chosen for testing. If this 
shade in turn is not satisfactory, use one part dye to two 
parts of hydrogen peroxide, and two parts of water. The ad- 
dition of water to the dye is not for the purpose of changing 
the shade, but to slow the action of the dye. 

If the original shade decided upon does not develop satis- 
factorily, another shade must be chosen and experimented 
with, until the desired result is obtained. 

After the correct shade has been determined, enough wa- 
ter should be added to the dye to allow the barber time to 
do the entire head. 



MEN'S HAIR TINTING 423 

Toning down over-bleached hair correctly is one of the 
most difficult things to do in hair dyeing. Only through prac- 
tice and experience will the barber become expert in this 
particular field. 

Tinting Eyebrows and Mustache 

An aniline derivative dye should never be used for color- 
ing the eyebrows or the mustache ; to do so may cause serious 
injury. Commercial products are available for this purpose. 
The choice of color is limited to light brown, dark brown 
or black. The light brown is used for customers with very 
light complexions only. Follow the directions given with 
the product. 

Rules For Coloring Eyebrows and Mustache 

1. Never shave around the mustache immediately before 
or after the dye treatment. 

2. Use cold instead of warm water to cleanse the skin 
around the eyebrows and the mustache. 

3. To prevent staining the surrounding skin, apply vase- 
line above and below the hairline of both eyebrows 
and mustache. 

4. The eyebrows and the mustache are colored from the 
outer end toward the nose. 

5. The color development varies with the product used, 
and is usually from 3 to 5 minutes. 

6. To remove grease and free coloring from eyebrows and 
mustache, use soap and water. 

7. Use stain remover solution with small swab if stains do 
not respond to soap and water. 

8. Smooth skin with cream. 



424 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



REVIEW QUESTIONS ON HAIR TINTING 



1. Give three good reasons why 
a customer might wish to 
have his hair dyed or sham- 
poo tinted. 



To retain a youthful appearance when 
hair becomes gray, to restore bleached 
hair to its natural shade, and to 
change an unattractive shade of hair. 



2. Classify hair dyes. 



Hair dyes are classified as follows: 
vegetable products, metallic prepara- 
tions, compound dyestuffs, and aniline 
derivatives. 



3. What preparations are in- 
cluded under pure vegetable 
dyes? 



Egyptian henna, camomile, indigo and 
sage. 



4. What is the action of metal- 
lic dyes? 



Metallic dyes form a coating over the 
hair shafts; applications are made suc- 
cessively until proper shade is ob- 
tained. 



5. What are compound dye- 
stuffs? Give an example. 



Compound dyestuffs are combinations 
of metallic preparations and vegetable 
extracts. Example compound henna, 
a mixture of henna and metallic salts. 



6. What are aniline deriva- 
tives? Describe their action. 



Aniline derivatives are dyes having a 
base derived from aniline, a coal tar 
product. They penetrate the horny 
layer of the hair shaft, and deposit the 
coloring in the deeper layers. 



7. From what group of dyes 
should a preliminary 24-hour 
skin test be given? Why? 



The aniline derivative group, in order 
to determine if the customer is allergic 
to the ingredients contained in the 
dye. A skin test is required by law. 



8. To be a successful hair dyer, 
what knowledge is essential? 



A knowledge of the general structure 
of the hair; composition of hair dyes; 
the chemical reactions following their 
application, and correct method of ap- 
plying them. 



9. How is a skin test given? 



Wash a spot behind the ear or bend 
of the arm with soap and water, dry, 
and then paint with a mixture of the 
dye and peroxide to be used; allow to 
dry and leave undisturbed for 24 
hours. If the spot is free from irrita- 
tion, it is safe to presume that the in- 
dividual is not allergic to the dye. 



10. Name two ways of using 
peroxide in dyeing with an 
aniline dye. 



Peroxide is used as a preliminary soft- 
ener or bleach, and as an oxidizing 
agent. 



11. How long should peroxide 
be left on the hair as a soft- 
ener? 



From ten to thirty minutes, depending 
upon how porous or resistant the hair 
may be. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



425 



12. What kinds of hair require 
reconditioning treatments? 



Dry, brittle or porous hair. 



13. Why must the hair be moist 
while the proper shade is 
developing? 



The action of the dye continues only 
as long as the hair remains moist. 



14. Can hair be dyed from a 
darker to a lighter shade? 
Explain. 



No; it must first be bleached to a 
light shade, and then dyed to the de- 
sired shade. 



15. How are dye stains removed 
from the skin and scalp? 



By using hydrogen peroxide, hot oil, 
cream, or left-over dye. 



16. What would you do for hair 
that has been dyed too dark? 



It may be lightened with a dye re- 
mover or hot oil treatments. 



17. How can the action of the 
dye be slowed? 



Dilute the dye with water or shampoo. 



18. What is the difference be- 
tween hair color restorers 
and penetrating dyes; which 
is considered better, and 
why? 



Restorers are usually a metallic form 
of dye and leave a deposit on the hair 
shaft which gives the hair its color. 
Penetrating dyes color the hair by 
actually penetrating into the hair 
shaft. The penetrating dyes are most 
commonly used because they tint the 
hair in shades which more closely re- 
semble natural hair. 



19. State the difference between 
compound henna and plain 
Egyptian henna. 



Egyptian henna is a vegetable color- 
ing which produces only red shades. 
Compound henna comes in various 
shades and usually contains metallic 
substances to give darker colors. 



20. What are dyes called that 
require a series of applica- 
tions? 



Progressive. 



21. What are dyes called that 
require one application? 



Instantaneous. 



22. What type of dyes are in- 
stantaneous dyes, and by 
what various names are they 
commonly known? 



Aniline derivative dyes; they are var- 
iously known as synthetic dyes, or- 
ganic dyes, peroxide dyes, and liquid 
dyes. 



23. What type of dyes are pro- 
gressive dyes? 



Metallic dyes. 



24. What test should be given 
to determine whether the 
customer is allergic to the 
hair dye? 



A skin test. 



25. What is the most important 
factor when considering a 
hair dye; why? 



A preliminary examination of the hair 
and scalp, to determine whether me- 
tallic substances have been used on 
the hair, and if there are abrasions on 
the scalp. 



426 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



26. Which part of the hair ab- 
sorbs the dye most readily? 



The hair ends. 



27. To what part of the hair is 
a retouch applied? 



Only to the new growth of hair. 



28. What is meant by virgin 
hair in hair dyeing? 



Head of hair that has never been 
dyed or bleached. 



29. Why should a skin test al- 
ways be given prior to dye- 
ing the hair? 



A skin test is given to determine 
whether the customer is allergic to a 
hair dye. 



30. What does the long contin- 
ued use of henna do to each 
hair? 



It coats the hair, and makes it coarser. 



31. a) What is a henna pack? 
b) When is it used? 



a) A henna pack is powdered Egyp- 
tian henna mixed with water to form 
a paste. 

b) It is used to highlight medium to 
dark shades of brown hair. 



32. What is a shampoo tint? 



A mixture of soap or soapless sham- 
poo together with a dye. 



33. What advantages do sham- 
poo tints possess? 



They require less time, can- be used 
for all textures of hair, and the fading 
of the shade is not very pronounced. 



34. Why does the instantaneous 
shampoo tint produce a more 
permanent color than the 
progressive shampoo tint? 



The instantaneous shampoo tint con- 
tains an aniline derivative dye and a 
developer which penetrate into the 
hair shaft. 



35. What kind of dye should 
never be used to color eye- 
brows? 



An aniline derivative dye. 



36. Why should barbers keep an 
accurate record card for 
each customer? 



In order to follow the information on 
the record card when giving a re- 
touch. 



427 

BARBER ETHICS 

Barber ethics deals with the proper conduct and business 
dealings of the barber in relation to his employer, customers 
and co-workers. The essential considerations in barber ethics 
are honesty, fairness, courtesy and respect for the feelings and 
rights of others. The ethical barber always gives the best pos- 
sible service to his customers, keeping in mind their desires, 
needs and welfare. 

Good ethics To build public confidence and retain a 
good following, the individual barber should live up to these 
rules of ethics: 

1. Acquire a thorough knowledge and practice of bar- 
bering. 

2. Believe in barbering sincerely and practice it con- 
scientiously. 

3. Keep your word and fulfill all your obligations. 

4. Obey all provisions of the Barber State Law. 

5. Cherish a good reputation and set an example of good 
conduct and behavior. 

6. Treat all customers fairly ; do not show any favoritism. 

7. Be loyal to your employer and associates. 

Poor ethics Barber ethics is violated by resorting to 
questionable practices, extravagant claims and unfulfilled 
promises which cast an unfavorable light on barbering in gen- 
eral and the individual barber in particular. 

BARBER ETHICS 



1. What is meant by barber Barber ethics deals with the proper 
ethics? conduct and business dealings of the 

barber in relation to his employer, 
customers and co-workers. 

2. How should the ethical bar- Give the best possible service to his 
ber treat his customers? customers; cater to their desires, needs 

and welfare; treat all customers fairly. 

3. How should the ethical bar- Speak only good of his fellow^barbers. 
ber speak of his fellow bar- 

bers? 

4. How should the ethical bar- Be loyal and conscientious towards 
ber behave towards his em- your employer; keep your word and 
ployer? fulfill your obligations. 

5. Which three practices reflect Resorting to questionable barber prac- 
unfavorably on the barber? tices, extravagant claims and unful- 
filled promises. 



428 




BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

For a barber shop to be 
successful, it must be care- 
fully planned and effi- 
ciently managed. Barber 
shop management implies 
the direct control and co- 
ordination of all activities 
that occur while the shop 
is in operation. Besides 
being an experienced bar- 
ber, a prospective owner 
of a barber shop must 
have a knowledge of busi- 
ness principles and book- 
keeping and must be able 

to cooperate with his employees in rendering satisfactory 

service to the public. 

Five important functions are performed by every barber 
shop. They are: 

1 . Finance or capital investment. 

2. Purchasing of equipment and fixtures. 

3. Publicity. 

4. Salesmanship. 

5. Systematic records as an aid in efficient management. 

Organizing the Barber Shop 

The type of barber shop organization depends largely on 
the amount of available capital. If the individual has enough 
money to be the sole proprietor, then the individual form of 
ownership should be considered. A lack of sufficient capital 
necessitates either a loan or a partner. When three or more 
people intend to operate a barber shop, the corporation is the 
best form of organization. 

The individual form of organization has certain merits 
over the partnership and corporation. 

1. The owner is his own boss and manager. 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 429 

2. The owner can determine his own policies and de- 
cisions. 

3. The owner receives all the profits. 

The individual form of organization has the following 
disadvantages: 

1 . The owner's expenditures are limited by the amount of 
capital investment. 

2. The owner is personally liable for all debts in the 
business. 

The partnership, being a combination of two or three 
people, has certain advantages over the individual form of 
ownership. There should always be a written agreement de- 
fining the duties and responsibilities of each member. The 
main advantages of a partnership are: 

1. More capital is made available to equip and operate 
the barber shop. 

2. Work, responsibilities and losses are shared. 

3. The combined ability and experience of each partner 
assist in the solution of business problems. 

The chief disadvantages of a partnership are : 

1. Each partner is responsible for the business actions of 
the other. 

2. Disputes and misunderstandings may arise between 
partners. 

A corporation has the advantage over a partnership in 
that its stockholders are not legally responsible in case of loss 
or bankruptcy. The earning capacity is in proportion to the 
profits and the number of stocks the individual has in the 
corporation. Although the corporation has a considerable 
financial backing, it may only do what is specifically auth- 
orized in the charter and approved by the board of directors. 
The corporation is subject to taxation and regulation by the 
State. 

In transacting business for the individual, partnership or 
corporation, a checking account is a convenient and safe way 
to make payments and withdrawals. The cancelled checks 
serve as receipts. If one person is the sole owner, the bank 



430 BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

and checking account is in his own name. In a partnership, 
there is usually a joint account, in which one or both partners 
may sign checks and withdraw money. A corporation bank 
account is issued in its own name, with a responsible person 
authorized to withdraw money and issue checks. 

Selecting A Location for the Barber Shop 

Just as important as capital investment is the selection of 
a desirable location for the barber shop. The best kind of 
store is one that is conveniently located and has the greatest 
number of people passing its windows. In a residential 
neighborhood, the main source of customers will be from that 
vicinity. On the other hand, a transient section supplies pa- 
trons both from surrounding and remote places. 

Before selecting a store, consult the local bank or real 
estate agent for assistance. Find out what the earning capac- 
ity and the living standards are of the people in a particular 
neighborhood. This information will help in deciding policies 
and prices. It is not advisable for a beginner to open a barber 
shop in a locality where there are many competitors. 

In judging the merits of a particular store, consideration 
must be given to the entrance, the window space, the inside 
area of the store, the water, lighting and heating facilities, the 
presence of a sanitary toilet and a sufficient number of win- 
dows for adequate ventilation. 

A lease is protection against any possible increase in rent. 
There should be a provision in the lease concerning altera- 
tions and painting of the barber shop. Before signing a lease, 
it should be read carefully to avoid any misunderstanding. 

Equipping The Barber Shop 

After the best site has been chosen by comparing various 
locations, the store is then ready to be furnished with fixtures 
and equipment. Standard and durable supplies, either new 
or renovated, are the best. If in the future, equipment has to 
be replaced or increased, it is easy to duplicate standard sup- 
plies. Electrical appliances should be able to work with var- 
ious types of current and under different conditions. Insur- 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 431 

ance of the store's contents is a protection against theft and 
fire. 

The main requisites for an attractive barber shop are 
cleanliness and comfortableness. The equipment should be 
easily accessible and arranged in an orderly manner. The 
electric lighting must be neither too dull nor too bright. Dirty 
towels or linens are not to be used again, but kept in closed 
containers. Sanitation and sterilization rules must be en- 
forced for the public's protection. 

Advertising The Barber Shop 

The right kind of publicity is important because it ac- 
quaints the public with the various services rendered by the 
barber shop. The best kind of publicity is that which reaches 
the greatest number of 'people at the cheapest cost. The 
choice of advertising medium is either a direct mailing, the 
distribution of circulars, an advertisement in the local town 
paper, or over the radio. For advertising to be effective, it 
must be repeated to make a lasting impression. Once a cus- 
tomer is attracted to the barber shop, only courteous and 
efficient service will bring him back and have him recom- 
mend others. 

A pleased customer is the best form of advertising. A 
pleasing personality is a priceless asset that creates good will 
and a friendly atmosphere. The barber must be mindful of 
his hygienic habits, being clean and tidy in his clothing and 
extremely careful to avoid body odor and bad breath. It is 
frequently necessary to sense the thoughts and feelings of 
customers so as not to antagonize them by word or action. 

Salesmanship In The Barber Shop 

The satisfaction of customers depends on the extent to 
which their needs are fulfilled. Besides trying to improve the 
quality of haircut and shave, the barber should practice the 
selling of additional services such as shampoo, facial and scalp 
massage, hair tonics, etc. The barber should be acquainted 
with the types of service offered, the names of the various 
cosmetic products, their costs and manner of application. By 
selling extra services the barber will make himself of greater 



432 BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

value to the customer, besides helping to increase the profits 
of the barber shop. 

The barber has occasion to use the art of salesmanship in 
convincing customers as to the merits and benefits of various 
facial and scalp preparations and treatments. A good sales- 
man knows all about the service or product he is selling. 
After a basis for confidence has been established, suggestive 
language, without any high-pressure tactics, may create a de- 
sire in the customer to try the new service or product. An 
attractive feature is to offer combination services at special 
prices. 

Records In The Barber Shop 

One of the causes for failure in operating a barber shop 
is the lack of complete and systematic records. All business 
transactions must be recorded in order to judge the condition 
of the business at a particular time. Records are valuable to 
the proprietor for the following reasons: 

1. Efficient operation of the barber shop. 

2. Indication of income, expenses, profits and losses. 

3. Proves value of barber shop to prospective buyer. 

4. Arrange for a loan from the bank. 

5. Basis for such reports as income tax, social security, 
unemployment insurance, minimum hour law and accident 
compensation. 

If a barber shop is to operate profitably, a simple system 
of bookkeeping must be instituted. An easy plan is to keep 
a daily account of income and expenses. The cash register in- 
dicates the daily income, whereas the receipts and cancelled 
checks constitute proof of payments. By adding the daily 
total income and expense, the weekly and monthly totals can 
be obtained. The difference between the total income and the 
total expense is the net profit. A profit accrues when the in- 
come is greater than the expense. When the expense is great- 
er than the profit, a loss occurs. Continued profits spell suc- 
cess, and continued losses may finally result in bankruptcy. 

A budget must be kept so that the income of money will 
be sufficient to cover the expenses. The following list of ex- 



REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 433 

penses are commonly met in the barber shop : 

Operating and Administrative Expenses 

Salaries Advertising and printing 

Rent Heat, light and water 

Taxes Sundry supplies such as soaps, 

Insurance tonics, towels, etc. 

Repairs Telephone 

Gleaning Miscellaneous 

The payments made on debts, equipment and fixtures are 
not classified as expenses, but are considered as a reduction in 
indebtedness which in turn adds to the value of the barber 
shop. 

From time to time, an inventory must be taken of all 
sundry supplies in the barber shop. This record will show 
what supplies have been consumed and what new supplies are 
needed. It is a better policy to have a slight excess of ma- 
terials rather than a deficiency. 

BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

1. Name five important func- Finance or capital investment, pur- 
tions performed by a barber chase of equipment and fixtures, pub- 
shop, licity, salesmanship and the keeping 

of systematic records. 

2. Name three forms of owner- Individual ownership, partnership and 
ship. corporation. 

3. What is the best location for A barber shop that is conveniently lo- 
a barber shop? cated and has the greatest number of 

people passing its windows. 

4. Of what protection is a lease A lease is a protection against any 
for a barber shop? possible increase in rent and defines 

the rights and responsibilities of the 
tenant. 

5. What is the best form of ad- A pleased customer. 
vertising? 

6. Of what value are records in Indicates the income, expenses, profits 
the barber shop? and losses. Necessary for income tax, 

Social Security, unemployment insur- 
ance, minimum hour law and accident 
compensation. 

7. When is first aid necessary? In cases of accidents or emergencies 

before the arrival of medical assistance. 



434 BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 



FIRST AID 

Emergencies arise in every line of business, and a knowledge of 
first aid measures is invaluable to shop managers and employees. 

A physician should be called as soon as possible after any acci- 
dent has occurred, both as a courtesy to the patient and as a pro- 
tection to the barber shop. There are certain first aid treatments, 
however, which the layman can give while awaiting medical as- 
sistance. 

Burns. Burns may be caused by electricity, hot irons, or flames, 
while scalds are usually due to exposure to hot liquids or live steam. 
Burns are classified as first degree, characterized by redness; sec- 
ond degree, having watery blisters; and third degree, involving 
deeper structures of the flesh with possible charring of tissues. 
First degree burns are treated by an application of cloths saturated 
with a solution of salt or baking soda. A mild dusting powder, such 
as boric acid, or a 5% boric acid ointment, may be applied. 10% 
boric acid, vaseline or 10% ichthyol ointment is used for second 
degree burns. A 1% solution of picric acid may be used as a wet 
dressing for second and third degree burns. If a burn is caused by 
a mineral acid, the flesh should be washed with running water, if 
possible, followed by a sodium bicarbonate solution. An alkali burn 
should also be flushed with water, and a dilute solution of vinegar 
and water applied. 

Electric shock. Severe electric shock seldom occurs in a barber 
shop, but in case such an accident should take place, the barber 
should be prepared for the emergency. The clothing should be loos- 
ened and the patient removed to a cool place. The head should be 
raised, and the tongue drawn forward to prevent strangulation. 
Artificial respiration should be administered as outlined below, and 
massage given over the heart. Alcoholic stimulants should not 
be given. 

Artificial respiration. The Schafer method of artificial respira- 
tion, to be employed in severe electric shock, prolonged fainting, 
drowning, poisoning, gas suffocation, etc., is outlined as follows: 

Place the patient on his abdomen with his face turned toward 
one side. Kneel beside or astride the patient, with the knees at 
his hips, facing his head. 

Place the palms of the hands on the small of his back, with the 
fingers extended and palms in line with his spine. 

First bear forward and bring the weight of your body on your 
hands, avoiding roughness. Hold this position for two seconds. 

Release all pressure and swing back to rest on your heels. Hold 
this position for two seconds. 

Repeat the above movements, alternating the application and 
release of pressure, at the rate of twelve to fifteen a minute until 
natural breathing is resumed. 

In obstinate cases, artificial respiration should be continued for 
at least two hours before hope of revival is abandoned. 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 435 

Epileptic fit. An epileptic fit is a nervous disorder, character- 
ized by unconsciousness, convulsions, contortions of the face, foam- 
ing at the mouth, and rolling of the eyes. 

Treatment consists of placing the patient in a flat posi- 
tion and fixing a wad of cotton between the teeth to prevent biting 
the tongue. Mild stimulants may be administered in moderation 
after recovery. If the patient falls into a deep sleep after the at- 
tack, he should not be disturbed until he awakens naturally. 

Fainting. Fainting is caused by lack of blood flowing to the 
brain, bad air, indigestion, nervous condition and unpleasant odors. 
It is characterized by pallor and loss of muscular control. There is 
temporary suspension of respiration and circulation. If there is a 
sign of fainting before it actually occurs, the patient should hold 
his head between his knees, as this action may check the faintness 
by causing the blood to flow quickly to the head. Treatment for 
fainting consists of loosening all tight clothing, changing the air 
in the room, and placing the patient in a reclining position with 
the head slightly lower than the body. If the patient is conscious, 
he should take aromatic spirits of ammonia and stimulants such as 
hot coffee, tea or milk. If the patient is unconscious, cold applica- 
tions to the face, chest, and over the heart are given, but cold 
water should not be dashed in the patient's face. 

Heat exhaustion. Heat exhaustion is a general functional de- 
pression due to heat. It is characterized by a cool, moist skin, and 
collapse. Clothing should be loosened and the patient removed to 
a cool, dark, quiet place. If conscious, the patient should take aro- 
matic spirits of ammonia. He should be kept lying down for sev- 
eral hours, as rest and quiet will hasten recovery. 

Nose bleed. Nose bleed is a hemorrhage from the nose, and is 
treated by loosening the collar and applying ice or pads saturated 
with cold water to the back of the neck. A solution formed by 
adding a teaspoonful of salt or vinegar to a cup of cold water may 
be snuffed up the nose. 



436 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 



THINGS TO CONSIDER 
WHEN GOING INTO BUSINESS 



CAPITAL 

Amount available 
Amount required 

ORGANIZATION 

Individual 

Partnership 

Corporation 

BANKING 

Opening a bank account 
Deposits 
Drawing checks 
Monthly statements 
Notes and Drafts 

SELECTING LOCATION 

Population 

Transportation facilities 

Transients 

Trade possibilities 

Space required 

DECORATING and 
FLOOR PLAN 

Selection of furniture 
Floor covering 
Installing telephone 
Interior decorating 
Exterior decorating 

Window displays 

Electric signs 

EQUIPMENT and SUPPLIES 

Selecting equipment 
Comparative values 
Installation 
Labor saving steps 

ADVERTISING 

Planning 

Direct mail 

Newspaper 

Radio 

Local house organs 

BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM' 

Installation 

Record of appointments 

Receipts 

Disbursements 

Petty Cash 

Profit and Loss 



LEGAL 

Lease 

Contracts 

Claims and law suits 

COST OF OPERATION 

Rent 

Light 

Salaries 

Supplies 

Depreciation 

Telephone 

Linen service 

Sundries 

Taxes 

MANAGEMENT 

Methods of building goodwill 

Analysis of materials and la- 
bor in relation to service 
charges. 

Greeting customers 

Adjusting complaints 

Handling employees 

Selling merchandise 

OFFICE ADMINISTRATION 

Office supplies 

Stationery 

Inventory 

INSURANCE 

Public liability 
Compensation 
Disability 
Unemployment 
Social Security 
Fire and burglary 

METHODS OF PAYMENT 

In advance 

C.O.D. 

Open account 

Time payments 

COMPLIANCE WITH 
LABOR LAWS 

Minimum wage law 
Hours of employment 
Minors 

ETHICS 

Courtesy 

Observation of trade practices 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 437 



BUSINESS LAW FOR THE BARBER SHOP 

A barber shop may be owned and operated by an individual, 
a partnership, or a corporation. Before deciding which type of 
ownership is most desirable, one should be acquainted with the 
relative merits of each. 

INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP 

1. The proprietor is boss and manager. 

2. The proprietor can determine policies and make decisions. 

3. The proprietor receives all profits and bears all losses. 

PARTNERSHIP 

1. More capital is available for investment. 

2. The combined ability and experience of each partner makes 
it easier to share work and responsibilities and make decisions. 

3. Profits are equally shared. 

4. Each partner assumes unlimited liability for debts and 
bankruptcy. 

CORPORATION 

1. A charter has to be obtained from the State. 

2. A corporation is subject to taxation and regulation by 
the State. 

3. The management resides in a board of directors who de- 
termine policies and make decisions in accordance with the con- 
stitution of the charter. 

4. The dividing of profits is proportionate to the number of 
shares of stock possessed by each stockholder. 

5. The stockholder is not legally responsible for losses or bank- 
ruptcy. 

BEFORE BUYING OR SELLING A BARBER SHOP 

1. A written purchase and sale agreement should be formu- 
lated in order to clarify any misunderstandings or errors between 
the contracting parties. 

2. For safe keeping and enforcement, the written agreement 
should be placed in the hands of an impartial third person who is 
to deliver the agreement to the grantee (one to whom the property 
is transferred) upon the performance of fulfillment of the speci- 
fied contract. 

3. The buyer or seller should take and sign a complete state- 
ment of inventory (goods, fixtures, etc.) and the value of each 
article. 

4. If there is a transfer of chattel mortgage, notes, lease, and 
bill of sale, an investigation should be made to determine any de- 
fault in the payment of debts. 

5. Consult your lawyer for additional guidance. 



438 BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 

AN AGREEMENT TO BUY AN ESTABLISHED 
BARBER SHOP SHOULD INCLUDE 

1. Correct identity of owner. 

2. True representations concerning the value and inducements 
offered to buy the barber shop. 

3. Use of shop's name and reputation for a definite period of 
time. 

4. An understanding that the seller will not compete with the 
prospective owner within a reasonable distance from present lo- 
cation. 

PROTECTION IN MAKING A LEASE 

1. Secure exemption of fixtures or appliances which may be at- 
tached to the store or loft, so that they can be removed without 
violating the lease. 

2. Insert into lease an agreement relative to necessary renova- 
tions such as painting, plumbing, fixtures and electrical installation. 

3. Secure option from landlord to assign lease to another per- 
son; in this way, the obligations for the payment of rental are kept 
separate from the responsibilities in operating the business. 

PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE, THEFT AND LAWSUITS 

1. Employ honest and able employees and keep premises se- 
curely locked. Follow safety precautions to prevent fire, injury and 
lawsuits. Liability, fire and burglary insurance should be obtained. 

2. Do not violate the medical practice law of your state by at- 
tempting to diagnose, treat or cure disease. 

3. Become thoroughly familiar with the barber law and sanitary 
code of your city and state. 

4. Keep accurate records of number of workers, salaries, length 
of employment, and Social Security numbers, for various State and 
Federal laws affecting the social welfare of employees. 

Remember Ignorance of the Law is No Excuse for its Violation 



CODE Explanation of numbers and abbreviations on page 439 

1 No reciprocity. 

2 Two years of barber experience. 

3 Three years of barber experience. 

4 Four years of barber experience. 

5 Five years of barber experience. 

6 Licensed apprentice or barber from another state must have substantially 

the same requirements as for barbers in this state. 
7 Attended an approved barber school and completed 21/2 years apprenticeship 

in this state. 
8 Examination required. 

9 Alabama No law except in Mobile and Jefferson Counties. 
10 Virginia No law except in Arlington County. 
None spec. None specified. 
Jour. journeyman. 



BARBER SHOP MANAGEMENT 



439 



State Boards Educational Requirements 
For Barber License 



State or Territory 


Preliminary 
Education 


Required Training and Education 


Red- 
procitY* 


Barber School Apprenticeship 


Ala., Mobile Co.-9 


8th grade 


Pass test in Barber Science & Practice 


1 


Ala., Jeff. Co.-9 










Alaska 


None spec. 






I 
678 


Arizona 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. 


18 mos. 


Arkansas 


7th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. 


18 mos. 


8 


California 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. 


18 mos. 


6 


Colorado 


8th grade 


1200 hrs. for 6 mos. 


24 mos. 


1 


Connecticut 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


30 mos. plus 
144 hrs. study 


1 


Delaware 


5th grade 




36 mos. 


1 


Dist. of Col. 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. AND 


24 mos. 


1,8 


Florida 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. 




1, 5,8 


Georgia 


None spec. 


Indefinite 




1 


Hawaii 











Idaho 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


12 mos. 


6 or 3, 8 "* 


Illinois 


8th grade 


1248 hrs. 


30 mos. 


5 or 7, 8 


Indiana 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. AND 


18 mos. 


6 or 2 PI 


Iowa 


8th grade 


6 mos. AND 


18 mos. 


1,5,8 -3 


Kansas 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. 


18 mos. 


6,8 g 


Kentucky 


2 yrs. H. S. 


1248 hrs. for 6 mos. OR 


12 mos. 


1,8 


Louisiana 


8th grade 


1500 hrs. AND 


18 mos. 


1,8 J5 


Maine 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. OR 


18 mos. 


6 ? 


Maryland 


None spec. 


1200 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


30 or 36 mos. 


1,3,8 8 


Massachusetts 


None spec. 


5 mos. AND 


24 mos. 


1, 2, 8 g 


Michigan 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. AND 


12 mos. 


1 S 


Minnesota 


8th grade 


1200 hrs. for 9 mos. AND 


15 mos. 


1, 5, 6, 8 1 


Mississippi 


8th grade 


1500 hrs. 


12 mos. 


1,8 5 


Missouri 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. AND 


18 mos. 


1,8 


Montana 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. AND 


12 or 18 mos. 


1,8 < 


Nebraska 


8th grade 


1248 hrs. for 6 mos. 


18 mos. 


1 


Nevada 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. 


18 mos. 


Non spec. {j 


New Hampshire 


None spec. 




12 mos. 


1 


New Jersey 


None spec. 


None spec. 


18 mos. 


5 ^ 


New Mexico 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. 




1 


New York 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


18 or 24 mos. 


1 2 


No. Carolina 


None spec. 


8 mos. 




1 -8 


No. Dakota 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


24 mos. 


i g 


Ohio 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. AND 


18 mos. 


6 or 2, 8 $ 


Oklahoma 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. OR 


18 mos. 


i g 


Oregon 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


18 mos. 


6 or 2, 8 -5 


Pennsylvania 


8th grade 


1250 hrs. for 9 mos. AND 


15 mos. 
(1250 hrs.) 


i 1 


Rhode Island 


8th grade 


1500 hrs. for 12 mos. OR 


24 mos. 


1,2,8 


So. Carolina 


None spec 


6 mos. AND 


18 mos. 


1 


So. Dakota 


8th grade 


6 mos. 


24 mos. 


6 or 5, 8 


Tennessee 


None spec. 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


12 mos. 


6,8 


Texas 


Read & write 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. AND 


18 mos. 


1,8 


Utah 


None spec. 


6 mos. 


12 mos. 


1, 3, 8 


Vermont 


None spec. 


1800 hrs. OR 


12 mos. or 
comb, of both 


1 


Virginia-10 


No law 








Washington 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. for 6 mos. 




1,8 


W. Virginia 


8th grade 


1800 hrs. 




1,8 


Wisconsin 


8th grade 




36 mos. 
Jour. 12 mos. 


1,4,8 


Wyoming 


8th grade 


1000 hrs. 


18 mos. 


Non spec. 



PARTY 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 



442 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 



HISTORY OF BARBERING 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

DIRECTIONS: Carefully read each statement. Some are true; others are 
false. If you believe the statement is true, draw a circle around the letter 
T; if you believe the statement is false, draw a circle around the letter F. 

1. The word barber comes from the Latin word meaning 
beard T P 

2. Barbering was never practiced in ancient Egypt or 
China T F 

3. The wearing of beards was a part of many religious 
customs T F 

4. Soap was first discovered in ancient Rome T F 

5. Barbering was a highly developed art in ancient Greece 

and Rome T F 

6. During the Middle Ages, barbers were not allowed to 
perform surgical operations T F 

ANSWERS 
1 T 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 F 



PART II INSERTION TEST 

DIRECTIONS: Read each statement carefully. Select one or more words 
from the following list and insert in proper space provided in the sentence. 

guilds Chicago Swedish 

England Minnesota France 

surgeons Dutch 

1. During the Middle Ages, barbering was regulated by trade 



2. Barber-surgeons were brought to America by and 

settlers. 

3. The first state in the United States to pass a barber law was 



4. After 1745, England separated the barbers from the 

5. The first barber school in the United States was started about 
1893 in 

ANSWERS 

1 guilds 4 surgeons 

2 Dutch, Swedish 5 Chicago 

3 Minnesota 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 443 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. Personal hygiene helps the barber to preserve his 
health T P 

2. The mind has no influence on the health of the body T F 

3. Cleanliness is an essential part of personal hygiene T F 

4. Air, water and food, of good quality, are required by the 

body to maintain health T F 

5. The over-eating of good foods is not harmful to health T F 

ANSWERS 
1_T 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 F 

PART II INSERTION TEST 

deodorants inward fatigue 

forward sleep circulation 

1. Faulty standing posture tends to increase 

2. In good standing posture, the chest is kept up and 

while the abdomen is kept 

3. Exercise is beneficial because it stimulates breathing and 

4. Rest and helps to combat fatigue. 

5. The use of offsets offensive body odor. 

ANSWERS 



1 fatigue 4 sleep 

2 forward, inward 5 deodorants 

3 circulation 



444 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 



BACTERIOLOGY 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. Bacteriology is the science that treats of infection T F 

2. Streptococci bacteria grow in chains T F 

3. Bacilli are rod-shaped organisms T F 

4. Pathogenic organisms produce disease T F 

5. All bacteria are harmful T F 

6. Immunity means lack of resistance to disease T F 

7. Moisture is essential for the growth of bacteria T F 

8. Infection refers to the entrance of bacteria into the 
tissues T F 

9. Bacteria are found everywhere 'T F 

10. Bacteria grow more favorably in dark, damp places T F 

11. A bacterial spore can be revived under favorable condi- 
tions T F 

12. Non-pathogenic germs are not disease-producing T F 

13. Boiling water will destroy most bacteria but not spore- 
forming bacteria T F 

14. Bacteria are to be found where dirt and unsanitary con- 
ditions exist T F 

15. The staphylococci bacteria produce boils and abscesses T F 

16. Harmful bacteria produce poisons T F 

17. Blood poisoning is caused by streptococci T F 

18. Gonorrhea is caused by a gonococcus T F 

19. A boil is general infection T F 

20. Improperly sterilized razors may cause an infection T F 

21. Immunity means the ability to get sick T F 

22. Infection is the destruction of harmful germs in the body T F 

23. Toxin means good health T F 

ANSWERS 

1 F 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 F 

6 F 7 T 8 T 9 T 10 T 

11 T 12 T 13 T 14 T 15 T 

16 T 17 T 18 T 19 F 20 T 

21 F 22 F 23 F 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

DIRECTIONS: Select the appropriate term from the following list and 
place in parenthesis alongside of statement. 

Bacilli Streptococci Bacteria 

Cocci Staphylococci Pathogenic 

Spirilla Infectious Non-Pathogenic 

1. Bacteria which are rod-shaped ( ) 

2. Bacteria which grow in chains ( ) 

3. Bacteria which are round-shaped ( ) 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 445 

4. Bacteria which grow in bunches ( ) 

5. Bacteria which are spiral-shaped ( ) 

6. Bacteria capable of producing disease ( ) 

7. A disease spread from one person to another ( ) 

8. Bacteria incapable of producing disease ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Bacilli 4 Staphylococci 7 Infectious 

2 Streptococci 5 Spirilla 8 Non-pathogenic 

3 Cocci 6 Pathogenic 

PART III INSERTION TEST 

immunity infect food 

infection cells broken 

dirt animals vegetable 

reproduce microscope unbroken 

1. Bacteria are minute one-celled micro-organisms. 

2. Many dangerous bacteria are found in 

3. Bacteria can enter the body through the skin. 

4. Bacteria are living organisms which grow and 

5. The ability of the body to resist disease is known as 

6. Bacteria are so small that it is necessary to have a 

to see them. 

7. Bacteria consist of single 

8. First aid care for cuts and wounds helps to prevent 

9. A human disease carrier can other persons. 

10. Without some bacteria will die. 

ANSWERS 

1 vegetable 4 reproduce 7 cells 

2 dirt 5 immunity 8 infection 

3 broken 6 microscope 9 infect 

10 food 



446 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

SANITATION AND STERILIZATION 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. An antiseptic prevents the growth of germs T F 

2. Borax and formalin are used in a cabinet sterilizer T F 

3. Sanitation applies to public health only T F 

4. Spatulas are used for removing creams from jars T F 

5. The headrest on each chair need not be changed for each 
customer T F 

6. When a comb is not in use, the barber may keep it in his 
pocket T F 

7. Lump alum as a styptic may be used on several cus- 
tomers T F 

8. The hands must be washed before and after working on 

each customer T F 

9. An object that has fallen to the floor should be treated 

as though it had already been used T F 

10. Cover coughs and sneezes with a handkerchief T F 

11. Keep clean towels in dust-proof cabinets T F 

12. A communicable disease is one which cannot be avoided T F 

13. For sterilization, water must be heated to 150 degrees 
Fahrenheit T F 

14. Hydrogen peroxide is used as an antiseptic T F 

15. Fumigation produces chemical vapors in a cabinet ster- 
ilizer T F 

16. Any implement that cannot withstand heat may be ster- 
ilized by chemicals T F 

17. Boric acid solution is used as a germicide T F 

18. Instruments that cannot be boiled may be sterilized by 
dipping them into 40% alcohol T F 

19. A disinfectant and a germicide can destroy germs T F 

20. Metal instruments, glass, towels and linens may be ster- 
ilized by boiling for two minutes T F 

21. Phenol is also known as carbolic acid T F 

22. Hard rubber combs and hair brushes are best sterilized 

in boiling water T F 

23. Electrodes may be sterilized with alcohol used on cotton 
pledget T F 

24. Glycerine added to formalin will prevent the rusting of 
instruments T F 

25. An object is sterile when it is free from germs T F 

26. Disinfectants may be used on the human body T F 

27. 25% formalin solution is a germicide T F 

28. 60% alcohol may be used on the skin as an antiseptic .... T F 

29. Combs and brushes are sufficiently sterilized by placing 

them in a cabinet sterilizer T F 

30. Complete sterilization is essential in order to destroy all 
germs and prevent infection T F 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 447 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 F 

6 F 7 F 8 T 9 T 10 T 

11 T 12 F 13 F 14 T 15 T 

16 T 17 F 18 F 19 T 20 F 

21 T 22 F 23 T 24 T 25 T 

26 F 27 T 28 T 29 F 30 T 



PART II MATCHING TEST 

Sterilization Dry heat Styptic 

Chemical Eye pads Wet sterilizer 

Deodorant Formalin Cabinet sterilizer 

Hygiene Combs Tincture of iodine 

1. Implements sterilized with disinfectant solution ( ) 

2. A 40% solution of formaldehyde gas in water ....( ) 

3. A use for cotton moistened with boric acid solu- 
tion ( ) 

4. Method of sterilization for objects that cannot 

be boiled ( ( 

5. The science of preserving health ( ) 

6. The destruction of all germs ( ) 

7. An agent which stops minor bleeding on the skin( ) 

8. An antiseptic for cuts and bruises ( ) 

9. Receptacle for keeping sterilized implements ....( ) 

10. Receptacle for a disinfectant solution ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Combs 4 Chemical 7 Styptic 

2 Formalin 5 Hygiene 8 Tincture of iodine 

3 Eye pads 6 Sterilization 9 Cabinet sterilizer 

10 Wet sterilizer 



PART III INSERTION TEST 

customer cabinet soap 

closed asepsis unsterilized 

water open protects 

barber infectious formaldehyde 

1. Responsibility for the prevention of disease in the barber 
shop rests with the 

2. Customers having an disease should not be treated 

in the barber shop. 

3. The active ingredient of formalin solution is gas. 

4. Sterilized implements are best stored in a closed ster- 
ilizer. 



448 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

5. A sanitary barber shop the public's health. 

6. The opposite of sepsis is 

7. Boiling is an effective agent for sterilizing barber 

implements. 

8. Clean all implements with and warm water before 

immersing them into a disinfectant. 

9. All refuse and hair cuttings should be kept in contain- 
ers. 

10. Infection can be caused by the use of implements. 

ANSWERS 

1 barber 4 cabinet 7 water 

2 infectious 5 protects 8 soap 

3 formaldehyde 6 asepsis 9 closed 

10 unsterilized 



PART IV MATCHING TEST 

Prophylaxis Boiling point of water 

Asepsis Disinfectant 

Styptic Formalin 

Sepsis Antiseptic 

Deodorant Fumigation 

1. Stops bleeding ( ) 

2. Prevention of disease ( ) 

3. Destroys offensive odors ( ) 

4. Poisoning due to germs ( ) 

5. Freedom from germs ( ) 

6. Checks bacterial growth ( ) 

7. 37-40% solution of formaldehyde ( ) 

8. Destroys bacteria ( ) 

9. Disinfect with chemical vapor ( ) 

10. 212 degrees Fahrenheit ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Styptic 6 Antiseptic 

2 Prophylaxis 7 Formalin 

3 Deodorant 8 Disinfectant 

4 Sepsis 9 Fumigation 

5 Asepsis 10 Boiling point of water 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 449 

CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS AND SYSTEMS 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. An organ is a group of similar cells performing the 

the same function T F 

2. The human body is composed of millions of specialized 

cells T F 

3. All cells have the same size and shape T F 

4. Muscle tissue is capable of contraction T F 

5. Metabolism represents both constructive and destructive 
processes T F 

6. Protoplasm is a jelly-like substance found in living cells T F 

7. Epithelial tissue serves as a protective covering of body 
surfaces T F 

8. The skin is a part of the endocrine system T F 

9. The heart is an example of an organ T F 

10. Cells do not have the power to grow and reproduce T F 

ANSWERS 

1 F 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 T 

6 T 7 T 8 F 9 T 10 F 

PART II INSERTION TEST 

respiratory thyroid organ 

circulatory mitosis food 

excretory amitosis tissue 

nucleus nerve muscles 

1. Metabolism is a complex chemical process controlled by the 
gland. 

2. Cells of the human body reproduce by a process called 

3. The stomach is an example of an 

4. The blood is an example of a liquid 

5. An injured cell is incapable of self-repair. 

6. The controls the reproduction of the cell. 

7. Adequate favors the growth of the cell. 

8. The movements of the body are due to the action of 

9. Waste matter is eliminated from the body through the 

system. 

10. The heart is an important organ of the system. 

ANSWERS 

1 thyroid 4 tissue 7 food 

2 mitosis 5 nerve 8 muscles 

3 organ 6 nucleus 9 excretory 

10 circulatory 



450 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

PART III MATCHING TEST 

Cell Nucleus 

Anabolism Catabolism 

Cytoplasm 

1. Less dense protoplasm ( ) 

2. Dense protoplasm ( ) 

3. Unit of living matter ( ) 

4. Destructive process ( ) 

5. Constructive process ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Cytoplasm 4 Catabolism 

2 Nucleus 5 Anabolism 

3 Cell 



BONES 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. The cranium consists of ten bones T F 

2. The mandible is located at the lower part of the face .... T F 

3. Bone is composed of organic and inorganic matter T F 

4. The cranium protects the brain T F 

5. The cranium is the bony case which encases the brain .... T F 

6. The occipital is located at the crown T F 

7. The parietal is located at the forehead T F 

8. Periosteum is a disease of the bone T F 

9. There are fourteen bones of the face T F 

10. The maxilla is a small bone of the ear T F 

ANSWERS 

1 F 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T 

6 F 7 F 8 F 9 T 10 F 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Hyoid Malar Periosteum 

Marrow Anatomy Ethmoid 

Mandible Frontal Sphenoid 

Occipital Temporal Physiology 

1. The study of the structure of the body ( ) 

2. A bone forming the back and lower part of the 

cranium ( ) 

3. The portion of the bone which supports blood 

vessels and nerves and also nourishes the bone....( ) 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 451 

4. A soft, fatty substance filling the cavities of the 

bone ( ) 

5. A U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue ( ) 

6. The cheek bone '... ( ) 

7. A bone at the side of the head ( ) 

8. The lower jaw bone ( ) 

9. A bone forming the forehead ( ) 

10. A bone which joins together all bones of the 

cranium ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Anatomy 4 Marrow 7 Temporal 

2 Occipital 5 Hyoid 8 Mandible 

3 Periosteum 6 Malar 9 Frontal 

10 Sphenoid 

PART III MATCHING TEST 

Base of skull Ear region 

Base of cranium Bridge of nose 

Lower jaw Forehead 

Upper jaw Front of throat 

Cheek Sides and crown of head 

1. Frontal ( ) 

2. Temporal ( ) 

3. Sphenoid ( ) 

4. Occipital ( ) 

5. Parietal ( ) 

6. Hyoid ( ) 

7. Mandible ( ) 

8. Maxilla ( ) 

9. Malar ( ) 

10. Nasal ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Forehead 6 Front of throat 

2 Ear region 7 Lower jaw 

3 Base of cranium 8 Upper jaw 

4 Base of skull 9 Cheek 

5 Sides and crown of head 10 Bridge of nose 



452 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

MUSCLES 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. The function of muscles is to produce all movements 
of the body 

2. The heart has no muscular structure 

3. The corrugator causes vertical wrinkles above the nose 

4. The arrector pili is one of the largest muscles of the face T F 

5. The epicranius controls the movements of the scalp, and 
wrinkles the forehead 

6. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the will 

7. The cardiac muscle is a voluntary muscle 

8. Aponeurosis is a flat expanded tendon T F 

9. Muscles may be stimulated by massage, heat, and 
electric current 

10. Striated muscles are involuntary 

11. The orbicularis oris is the muscle that surrounds the eye 

12. Muscles are always connected directly to bones T F 

13. The muscular system relies upon the skeletal and nerv- 
ous systems for its activities 

14. Contractility means able to be stretched or extended 

15. Muscles clothe and support the framework of the body T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 F 3 T 4 F 5 T 

6 T 7 F 8 T 9 T 10 F 

11 F 12 F 13 T 14 F 15 T 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Tendon Epicranius Non-striated 

Elastic Caninus Trapezius 

Aponeurosis Striated 

1. Meaning the same as voluntary muscle ( ) 

2. A broad, flat tendon, which serves to connect one 

muscle to another ( ) 

3. Meaning the same as involuntary muscle ( ) 

4. A fibrous tissue which connects muscle with bone( ) 

5. A muscle which draws the head backwards or 

to one side ( ) 

6. The ability to stretch and return to its natural 

shape ( ) 

7. The scalp muscle ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Striated 3 Non-striated 5 Trapezius 

2 Aponeurosis 4 Tendon 6 Elastic 

7 Epicranius 

PART III MATCHING TEST 

Anterior Posterior Levator 

Superior Inferior Lateral 

Dilator 

1. On the side ( ) 

2. Situated lower .. ( ) 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 453 

3. Situated higher ( ) 

4. In front of ( ) 

5. In back of ( ) 

6. That which enlarges ( ) 

7. That which lifts ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Lateral 3 Superior 5 Posterior 

2 Inferior 4 Anterior 6 Dilator 

7 Levator 

PART IV CLASSIFICATION TEST 

Platysma Temporalis Risorius 

Masseter Orbicularis oculi Epicranius 

Depressor septi Orbicularis oris Procerus 

Trapezius 

1. Scalp Muscle ( ) 

2. Eye Muscle ( ) 

3. Nose Muscles ( ) 

4. Mouth Muscles ( ) 

5. Muscles of Mastication ( ) 

6. Neck Muscles ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Epicranius 4 Orbicularis oris, risorius 

2 Orbicularis oculi 5 Masseter, temporalis 

3 Depressor septi, procerus 6 Platysma, trapezius 

PART V MATCHING TEST 

Cheek region Side of mouth Neck 

Nose Around mouth Entire scalp 

Side of head Around eyes Back part of scalp 

Front part of scalp 

1. Orbicularis oris ( ) 

2. Orbicularis oculi ( ) 

3. Epicranius ( ) 

4. Procerus ( ) 

5. Platysma ( ) 

6. Occipitalis ( ) 

7. Frontalis ( ) 

8. Buccinator ( ) 

9. Temporalis ( ) 

10. Risorius ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Around mouth 6 Back part of scalp 

2 Around eyes 7 Front part of scalp 

3 Entire scalp 8 Cheek region 

4 Nose 9 Side of head 

5 Neck 10 Side of mouth 



454 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

NERVES 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. Nerves can be both motor and sensory T F 

2. Nerves can be stimulated with massage T F 

3. The trifacial nerve is the smallest of all the cranial 
nerves T F 

4. The facial nerve controls the muscles of expression T F 

5. The cervical nerves supply the muscles and skin at the 

back of the head and neck T F 

6. There are twelve pairs of cerebral (cranial) nerves T F 

7. The trifacial nerve is the same as the facial nerve T F 

8. Nerves which respond to heat, cold, pressure, touch and 

pain are called sensory nerves T F 

9. Nerve points are not intended to be stimulated T F 

10. There are 15 pairs of spinal nerves T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 T 

6 T 7 F 8 T 9 F 10 F 



PART II MATCHING TEST 

Neuron Optic nerve 

Sympathetic system Motor nerve 

Sensory nerve Facial nerve 

Cerebro-spinal system 12 pairs 

Trigeminal nerve 31 pairs 

1. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves 

and cranial nerves ( ) 

2. Controls the involuntary muscles which affect 
respiration, circulation and digestion ( ) 

3. Carries impulses from a nerve center to a 

muscle ( ) 

4. A nerve cell ( ) 

5. The chief sensory nerve of the face ( ) 

6. A nerve which controls the sense of sight ( ) 

7. A nerve carrying sensations to a nerve center ....( ) 

8. A nerve which controls facial expression ( ) 

9. Number of cranial nerves ( ) 

10. Number of spinal nerves ( ) 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 455 

ANSWERS 

1 Cerebro-spinal system 6 Optic nerve 

2 Sympathetic system 7 Sensory nerve 

3 Motor nerve 8 Facial nerve 

4 Neuron 9 12 pairs 

5 Trigeminal nerve 10 31 pairs 



PART III MATCHING TEST 

Scalp area at base of skull Lower side of nose 

Forehead and temple Side of neck 

Behind ear Temple and ear 

Forehead and scalp Upper part of cheek 

Lower lip and chin Side of nose and mouth 

1. Supra-orbital ( ) 

2. Cervical ( ) 

3. Mental ( ) 

4. Infra-orbital ( ) 

5. Auriculo-temporal ( ) 

6. Lesser occipital ( ) 

7. Zygomatic ( ) 

8. Temporal ( ) 

9. Posterior auricular ( ) 

10. Nasal ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Forehead and scalp 6 Scalp area at base of skull 

2 Side of neck 7 Upper part of cheek 

3 Lower lip and chin 8 Forehead and temple 

4 Side of nose and mouth 9 Behind ear 

5 Temple and ear 10 Lower side of nose 



PART IV CLASSIFICATION TEST 

Directions: Classify the following cerebral nerves. Insert the correct 
nerves under the proper headings. 

Facial Optic Oculomotor 

Trifacial Acoustic Abducent 

Olfactory Vagus Accessory 

1. Sensory Nerves: 2. Motor Nerves: 3. Sensory-Motor: 



ANSWERS 

1 Olfactory, optic, acoustic 

2 Oculomotor, accessory, abducent 

3 Trifacial, facial, vagus& 



456 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 



CIRCULATION 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. The blood vascular system controls the circulation of 
blood T F 

2. The supra-orbital artery supplies the back of the head.... T F 

3. From 8 to 10 pints of blood circulates in the body of an 
adult person T F 

4. Lymph reaches parts of the body not reached by the 
blood T F 

5. General circulation carries the blood from the heart to 

the lungs T F 

6. The blood carries oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide 

from them T F 

7. Arteries always carry the impure blood T F 

8. The vascular system consists of the heart and blood 
vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) T F 

9. Red blood cells fight germs in the blood T F 

10. Arteries, veins and capillaries are blood vessels T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 F 

6 T 7 F 8 T 9 F 10 T 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Auricles Ventricles 

General circulation Vein 

Vascular Plasma 

White blood cells Red blood cells 

Jugular vein Lymph 

Carotid arteries Capillary 
Pulmonary circulation 

1. The smallest blood vessel ( ) 

2. Upper chambers of the heart ( ) 

3. Blood cells which carry oxygen ( ) 

4. Blood circulation throughout the body ( ) 

5. Main arteries supplying the head, face and neck ( ) 

6. The fluid part of the blood ( ) 

7. Blood cells which destroy pathogenic bacteria ....( ) 

8. The lower chambers of the heart ( ) 

9. A fluid derived from blood plasma ( ) 

10. Blood circulation from the heart to the lungs ... .( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Capillary 6 Plasma 

2 Auricles 7 White blood cells 

3 Red blood cells 8 Ventricles 

4 General circulation 9 Lymph 

5 Carotid arteries 10 Pulmonary circulation 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 457 

PART III MATCHING TEST 

Back of head Forehead 

Chin and lower lip Side of nose 

Orbicularis oculi Upper lip 

Scalp above and back of ear Crown and side of head 

Eye socket and forehead Lower lip 

1. Frontal ( ) 

2. Posterior auricular ( ) 

3. Submental (. ) 

4. Supra-orbital ( ) 

5. Angular ( ) 

6. Superior labial ( ) 

7. Occipital ( ) 

8. Parietal ( ) 

9. Inferior labial ( ) 

10. Orbital ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Forehead 6 Upper lip 

2 Scalp above and back of ear 7 Back of head 

3 Chin and lower lip 8 Crown and side of head 

4 Eye socket and forehead 9 Lower lip 

5 Side of nose 10 Orbicularis oculi 

PART IV MATCHING TEST 

Auricles Hemoglobin Veins 

Ventricles Lymphatics Pericardium 

1. A membrane enclosing the heart ( ) 

2. Vessels which convey lymph ( ) 

3. Upper cavities of the heart ( ) 

4. Blood vessels containing valves ( ) 

5. Coloring matter of red corpuscles ( ) 

6. Lower cavities of the heart ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Pericardium 3 Auricles 5 Hemoglobin 

2 Lymphatics 4 Veins 6 Ventricles 

PART V MATCHING TEST 

Frontal Superior labial 

Parietal Transverse facial 

Posterior auricular 

1. Crown and side of head ( ) 

2. Upper lip and septum of nose ( ) 

3. Masseter muscle ( ) 

4. Forehead ( ) 

5. Scalp, back of ear ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Parietal 4 Frontal 

2 Superior labial 5 Posterior auricular 

3 Transverse facial 



458 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

SKIN, HAIR AND GLANDS 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. The subcutaneous tissue of the skin lies directly beneath 

the corium T F 

2. Corium, derma and true skin are the same T F 

3. The skin is an external non-flexible covering of the body T F 

4. Dermatology is the study of the hair T F 

5. The appendages of the skin are the nails, hair, seba- 
ceous and sudoriferous glands T F 

6. Skin absorbs water readily T F 

7. Health, age and occupation have no influence on the 
texture of the skin T F 

8. The skin is the organ of protection, absorption, elimina- 
tion, heat regulation, and sensation T F 

9. The skin is the seat of the organ of touch T F 

10. The sebaceous glands secrete sebum T F 

11. The blood vessels which nourish the hair are located in 

the hair papilla T F 

12. When the blood supply is cut off, the growth of hair is 
stopped T F 

13. Under normal conditions hair grows about one-half inch 

a month T F 

14. Sebum cools the skin T F 

15. Hair will grow again even though the papilla has been 
destroyed T F 

16. There are more hairs than follicles T F 

17. After a hair has fallen out, new hair will appear in 
about three days T F 

18. Hair has no blood vessels T F 

19. The average life of a hair is from seven to eight years T F 

20. The health of the hair depends on the health of the body T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 F 5 T 

6 F 7 F 8 T 9 T 10 T 

11 T 12 T 13 T 14 F 15 F 

16 F 17 F 18 T 19 F 20 T 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 459 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Sudoriferous glands Subcutaneous tissue 

Melanin Sebaceous glands 

Derma Papilla 

Epidermis Follicle 

Stratum corneum Perspiration 
Sebum 

1. The outer layer of the skin ( ) 

2. The fatty tissue of the skin ( ) 

3. The true layer of the skin ( ) 

4. Glands which secrete sebum ( ) 

5. An excretion which cools the skin by evaporation ( ) 

6. Cone-shaped elevation which nourishes the hair ( ) 

7. Glands which produce perspiration ( ) 

8. The coloring pigment in the skin ( ) 

9. A product secreted by the oil glands ( ) 

10. The horny layer of the epidermis ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Epidermis 6 Papilla 

2 Subcutaneous tissue 7 Sudoriferous glands 

3 Derma 8 Melanin 

4 Sebaceous glands 9 Sebum 

5 Perspiration 10 Stratum corneum 

PART III INSERTION TEST 

Touch Melanin Granulosum 

Eyelids Skin Corneum 

Germinativum Arrector pili Limited 

Lucidum Blood Unlimited 

Nervous Duct 

1. The actively growing layer of the skin is called the stratum 



2. The excretion of sweat is under the control of the 

system. 

3. Attached to the hair follicle is the muscle. 

4. The skin is thinnest on the 

5. The coloring matter of the skin and hair is known as 

6. The sweat and oil glands of the skin are type of 

glands. 

7. The stratum is continually being shed and replaced. 

8. The skin has powers of absorption through its pores. 

9. The largest organ of the body is the 

10. The skin has nerve endings which respond to heat, cold and 



11. The largest amount of is found in the skin. 



460 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

ANSWERS 

1 Germinativum 5 Melanin 9 Skin 

2 Nervous 6 Duct 10 Touch 

3 Arrector pili 7 Corneum 11 Blood 

4 Eyelids 8 Limited 



PART IV MATCHING TEST 

Papillary layer Hirsute 

Stratum corneum Stratum germinativum 

Dermis Keratin 

Stratum lucidum Follicle 

Subcutaneous tissue Cortex 

Papilla 

1. Clear layer of the epidermis ( ) 

2. Skin layer containing elastic fibers ( ) 

3. Fatty tissue of the skin ( ) 

4. Layer of epidermis containing keratin ( ) 

5. Layer of dermis containing tactile corpuscles ....( ) 

6. A horny substance found in hair ( ) 

7. A tube-like depression extending into the dermis ( ) 

8. Hair layer containing pigment ( ) 

9. Hairy ( ) 

10. Cone-like elevation at the base of hair follicle.. ( ) 

11. Basal layer of epidermis ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Stratum lucidum 7 Follicle 

2 Dermis 8 Cortex 

3 Subcutaneous tissue 9 Hirsute 

4 Stratum corneum 10 Papilla 

5 Papillary layer 11 Stratum germinativum 

6 Keratin 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 461 

SKIN, SCALP AND HAIR DISEASES 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. Trichophytosis is the term applied to ringworm of the 
scalp T F 

2. Gray hair is best treated with safe hair dyes 

3. Anthrax may be treated by a barber T F 

4. Regular alopecia treatments alternated with hot oil 
treatments will correct canities T F 

5. Scabies refers to head lice T F 

6. Tinea tonsurans is ringworm of the scalp T F 

7. Keloid is a wartlike growth commonly located in the 
eyelids '. T F 

8. A communicable disease is one that can be transmitted 

from person to person T F 

9. Alopecia areata is baldness at time of birth T F 

10. Pityriasis is the term applied to an excessively oily con- 
dition of the scalp T F 

11. Canities is caused by fever, shock, nervousness, or 

old age T F 

12. Eczema is a contagious, parasitic disease of the skin, 

with crust formations, emitting a mousy odor T F 

13. Symptoms of alopecia areata and alopecia senilis are 

the same T F 

14. Pediculosis capitis is a scaly condition of the scalp T F 

15. A tight scalp is favorable to the growth of hair T F 

16. Skin friction may cause the formation of a callous T F 

17. The skin cannot function properly if the pores are 
clogged with dust, creams or sebum T F 

18. If the skin has a tendency to be very dry, soap should 

be used regularly T F 

19. Acne is a chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands 

of the skin T F 

20. No hair brushing is required when treating a dry scalp T F 

21. Long neglected dandruff frequently leads to baldness .... T F 

22. Pityriasis steatoides is also known as greasy or waxy 
dandruff T F 

23. The symptoms of pityriasis capitis simplex are itching 

scalp and dry dandruff T F 

24. Dandruff is considered a disease if the shedding of scales 

is excessive T F 

25. Oily foods tend to aggravate a dry condition of the skin T F 

26. Acne rosacea affects the sweat glands T F 

27. Anidrosis means the same as excessive perspiration .... T F 

28. In many cases the early stages of baldness can be cor- 
rected by proper treatment T F 

29. The cause of eczema is unknown T F 

30. Ringworm is a non-contagious disease T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 F 5 F 

6 T 7 F 8 T 9 F 10 F 

11 T 12 F 13 F 14 F 15 F 

16 T 17 T 18 F 19 T 20 F 

21 T 22 T 23 T 24 T 25 F 

26 F 27 F 28 T 29 T 30 F 



462 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Comedones Hyperidrosis Canities 

Pityriasis Papule Acne 

Seborrhea Eczema Pustule 

1. A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin 

occurring in or around a sebaceous gland ( ) 

2. A condition characterized by an excessive dis- 
charge of sebum ( ) 

3. Blackheads ( ) 

4. Excessive perspiration ( ) 

5. A lesion which contains pus ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Acne 3 Comedones 5 Pustule 

2 Seborrhea 4 Hyperidrosis 



PART III INSERTION TEST 

baldness brpmidrosis greasy 

gray skin non-contagious 

contagious pus follicle 

chronic contagious acute 

dry dermatitis 

1. Alopecia means 

2. Canities means hair. 

3. Foul smelling perspiration is known as 

4. Dermatology deals with diseases of the 

5. Dandruff may occur in a or form. 

6. A pustule is an elevation of the skin having an inflamed base 
containing 

7. A tumor is a skin lesion. 

8. A disease of long duration is known as a disease. 

9. Inflammation of the skin is called 

10. A boil is an infection of a hair 

ANSWERS 

1 baldness 4 skin 7 non-contagious 

2 gray 5 dry, greasy 8 chronic 

3 bromidrosis 6 pus 9 dermatitis 

10 follicle 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 463 

PART IV MATCHING TEST 

Scar Fissure Tumor 

Ulcer Vesicle 

1. Deep crack in the skin ( ) 

2. A blister ( ) 

3. External swelling ( ) 

4. Open lesion having pus ( ) 

5. Healed wound or healed ulcer ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Fissure 3 Tumor 5 Scar 

2 Vesicle 4 Ulcer 



PART V MATCHING TEST 

Asteatosis Acne pustulosa Acne vulgaris 

Seborrhea Acne indurata 

1. The common pimple ( ) 

2. Excessive discharge of sebum ( ) 

3. Deep-seated hardened lesions ( ) 

4. Dry skin due to senile changes ( ) 

5. Pimples containing pus ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Acne vulgaris 3 Acne indurata 5 Acne pustulosa 
2 Seborrhea 4 Asteatosis 



464 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 



ELECTRICITY AND LIGHT THERAPY 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. An alternating current flows first in one direction and 

then in the opposite direction T F 

2. High-frequency treatments may be given after an al- 
coholic tonic has been applied T F 

3. Infra-red rays are purely heat rays T F 

4. Ultra-violet rays are chemical rays T F 

5. Electricity may be transmitted to the customers through 

the use of the vibrator T F 

6. High-frequency is an oscillating current which is stim- 
ulating T F 

7. A closed circuit is one in which a current is continually 
flowing T F 

8. It is unnecessary to sterilize electrodes used with high- 
frequency T F 

9. An insulator conveys an electrical current T F 

10. Only first degree sunburn has cosmetic value T F 

11. An ohm is a unit of current resistance T F 

12. The infra-red rays have a chemical effect T F 

13. To obtain the most benefit from ultra-violet rays, the 

skin must be free of creams or other cosmetics T F 

14. Any substance which carries electricity freely is called 

a conductor T F 

15. The customer's eyes should be protected with goggles 
when using ultra-violet rays T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 F 

6 T 7 T 8 F 9 F 10 T 

11 T 12 F 13 T 14 T 15 T 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Conductor Ultra-violet rays 

Volt Ampere 

Infra-red rays Non-conductor 

High-frequency current Ohm 

1. A unit of electrical resistance ( ) 

2. The strength of an electric current ( ) 

3. Rays emitted from a quartz lamp ( ) 

4. A unit of electrical pressure ( ) 

5. Rays which have a deep penetrating effect on 

the skin ( ) 

6. A substance which transmits electricity ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Ohm 4 Volt 

2 Ampere 5 Infra-red rays 

3 Ultra-violet rays 6 Conductor 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 465 

SHAVING AND HAIRCUTTING 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE 

1. The width of the razor should be about % of an inch T F 

2. Steel razors are more durable than silver-plated ones.... T F 

3. The French type of shears has no finger brace T F 

4. Shears having a gauge of 7 inches and a plain edge are 
preferred to other kinds T F 

5. The number 1 cutting edge of a hair clipper is the small- 
est size available T F 

6. A razor is never used for thinning or tapering the hair T F 

7. Shaving cake soap or stick should never be used in 
common T F 

8. A razor has a perfect edge when its teeth are coarse ' T F 

9. A rotary movement is best in lathering the beard T F 

10. Before shaving, use hot towels for a sensitive or 
chapped face T F 

11. Ingrown hair is caused by close shaving T F 

12. In giving a haircut it is not necessary to consider the 
customer's facial features T F 

13. Alcohol may be used to sterilize clipper blades T F 

14. Use a fresh neck strip and towel for each customer .... T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 F 

6 F 7 T 8 F 9 T 10 F 

11 T 12 F 13 T 14 T 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Thinning Free hand Ingrown hair 

Singeing Tapering Clipping 

Hone Back hand 

1. Decreasing the amount of hair where it is 

too thick ( ) 

2. Burning the hair ends ( ) 

3. Hair growing underneath the skin ( ) 

4. A shaving stroke used most frequently ( ) 

5. An implement used to sharpen the dull edge of a 

razor ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Thinning 4 Free hand 

2 Singeing 5 Hone 

3 Ingrown hair 



466 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

PART III INSERTION TEST 

fourteen dull test 

steam two stropping 

left synthetic 0000 

right free 00 

grain back 

1. There are standard shaving areas. 

2. A towel is usually applied before and after shaving. 

3. Shaving strokes are made with the of the hair. 

4. The side of the face is usually shaved first. 

5. A number cutting blade on a hair clipper gives the 

shortest cut. 

6. A hone is a fast cutting hone. 

7. The edge of the razor requires honing and stropping. 

8. The hand stroke is used most often in face shaving. 

9. Always a razor after honing or stropping. 

10. The purpose of a razor before shaving is to make its 

edge smooth. 

ANSWERS 

1 fourteen 4 right 7 dull 

2 steam 50000 8 free 

3 grain 6 synthetic 9 test 

10 stropping 



REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 467 

FACIAL AND SCALP TREATMENTS 

PART I TRUE OR FALSE TEST 

1. Facial or scalp treatments are not to be given if a 
communicable disease is recognized in a customer T F 

2. The barber gives massage treatments only to the head, 

face and neck T F 

3. Dry hair requires more frequent shampooing than oily 

hair T F 

4. Firm kneading or fast tapping movements help to re- 
duce fatty tissue T F 

5. A lanolin cream is best for a dry skin T F 

6. An astringent lotion is recommended for an excessively 

dry skin T F 

7. A clay pack is good for all types of skin except a dry 

skin T F 

8. A hot oil mask is recommended for a dry skin T F 

9. After extracting comedones, do not apply an antiseptic 
solution to the skin T F 

10. Regular scalp massage will make a tight scalp flexible T F 

11. Regular and systematic treatments for the skin or scalp 

are more effective than an occasional treatment T F 

12. After an egg shampoo, use hot water to rinse the hair T F 

13. The frequent use of strong soaps and alcoholic tonics 

will cause the hair to become dry T F 

14. An acne facial may be given without the advice of 

a physician T F 

15. Pure castile soap is good for a general shampoo T F 

ANSWERS 

1 T 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 T 

6 F 7 T 8 T 9 F 10 T 

11 T 12 F 13 T 14 F 15 T 



468 REVIEW EXAMINATIONS 

PART II MATCHING TEST 

Dry hair Sulphur ointment Hard water 

Soft water Oily hair Neutral 

Alkaline Boiling Ultra-violet 

Egg shampoo Acid Manipulations 

1. Soap will not lather with ( ) 

2. Soap will form a lather with ( ) 

3. The easiest way to soften water is by ( ) 

4. The best therapeutic rays for the treatment of 

dandruff ( ) 

5. A medicinal ointment used in the treatment of 

alopecia ( ) 

6. Hand movements ( ) 

ANSWERS 

1 Hard water 3 Boiling 5 Sulphur ointment 

2 Soft water 4 Ultra-violet 6 Manipulations 



PART III INSERTION TEST 

effleurage stimulating pressure 

petrissage hands rotary 

relaxing face shaking 

nerves skin 

1. Massage is applied either with the or with electric 

appliances. 

2. Massage by the barber is usually limited to the regions of the 
head, and neck. 

3. A kneading massage movement is known as 

4. A stroking massage movement is applied in a slow, rhythmic 
manner without 

5 massage movements are frequently used in scalp 

massage. 

6. The are rested and soothed by massage. 

7. Applying massage with an even rhythm produces a 

effect on the customer. 

8. Vibration is described as a massage movement. 

9. Friction stimulates the circulation and glandular activities of 
the 

10. A stroking massage movement is also known as 

ANSWERS 

1 hands 4 pressure 7 relaxing 

2 face 5 rotary 8 shaking 

3 petrissage 6 nerves 9 skin 

10 effleurage 



PART VI 



GLOSSARY 

Used in connection with Barbering 
relationship only. 



ABDOMEN 



470 



ADIPOSE TISSUE 



GLOSSARY 

Compiled of words used in connection with barbering, defined in the sense of 
anatomical, medical, electrical, and barbering relationship only. Key to pro- 
nunciation will be found at bottom of each page. 



abdomen (ab-do'men): the belly. 

abducent nerve (ab-du'sent nurv) : the 
sixth cerebral nerve; a small motor 
nerve supplying the external rectus 
muscle of the eye. 

abductor (ab-duk'ter) : a muscle that 
draws a part away from the median 
line (opp., adductor). 

abnormal (ab-nor'mal) : irregular; con- 
trary to the natural law or custom- 
ary order. 

abrasion (a-bra'zhun) : scraping of skin. 

abscess (ab'ses): an enclosed cavity 
containing pus. 

absorption (ab-sorp'shun) : assimilation 
of one body by another; act of ab- 
sorbing. 

accessory nerve (ak-ses'6-re nurv): 
spinal accessory nerve; eleventh cer- 
ebral nerve; affects the sterno-cleido- 
mastoid and trapezius muscles of the 
neck and back. 

acetic (a-set'ik): pertaining to vinegar; 
sour. 

acid (as'id): any chemical compound 
having a sour taste. 

acid rinse (as'id rms): a solution of 
water and lemon juice or vinegar. 

acidosis (as-i-do'sis): a condition in 
which there is an excess of acid 
products in the blood or excreted in 
the urine. 

acidum boricum (as'i-dum bor'i-kum) : 
boric acid. 

acne (ak'ne): a skin disorder due to 
inflammatory changes of the seba- 
ceous glands. 

acne albida (al'bi-da): milium; white- 
head. 

acne artificialis (ar-ti-f ish-al'is) : pim- 
ples due to external irritants or 
drugs take internally. 

acne atrophica (a-trof 'i-ka) : acne in 
which the lesions leave a slight 
amount of scarring. 

acne cachecticorum (ka-kek-ti-kor- 
um): pimples occurring in the sub- 
jects having anemia or some weak- 
ening body disease. 



acne hypertrophica (hi-per-trof 'I-ka) : 
pimples in which the lesions on 
healing leave conspicuous pits and 
scars. 

acne indurata (m-du-ra'ta): deeply 
seated pimples with hard tubercles 
occurring chiefly on the back. 

acne keratosa (ker-a-to'sa) : an erup- 
tion of papules consisting of horny 
plugs projecting from the hair fol- 
licles, accompanied by inflammation. 

acne punctata (punk-ta'ta) : appear as 
red papules in which are usually 
found blackheads. 

acne pustulosa (pus-tu-16'sa) : acne 
in which the pustular lesions pre- 
dominate. 

acne rosacea (ro-za'she-a) : a form of 
acne usually occurring around the 
nose and cheeks, due to congestion, 
in which the capillaries become di- 
lated and sometimes broken. 

acne simplex (sim'pleks): acne vulgar- 
is; simple uncomplicated pimples. 

acne vulgaris (vul-gar'is) : acne sim- 
plex; simple uncomplicated pimples. 

acoustic (a-kdbs'tik) : auditory; eighth 
cerebral nerve; controlling the sense 
of hearing. 

actinic (ak-tin'ik): relating to the 
chemically active rays of the spec- 
trum. 

activity (ak-tiv'i-te) : natural or norm- 
al function or operation; physical 
motion or exercise of force. 

acute (a-kutO: attended with severe 
symptoms; having a short and rela- 
ively short course. 

ad (ad): a prefix denoting to, toward, 
addition. 

adductor (a-duk'ter): a muscle that 
draws a part toward the median line. 

adenoma sebaceum (a-den-6'ma se- 
ba'se-um): small tumor of trans- 
parent appearance, originating in the 
sebaceous glands. 

adipose tissue (tish'u): fatty tissue; 
connective tissue containing fat cells; 
subcutaneous tissue. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, Svent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



ADOLESCENCE 471 

adolescence (ad-6-les'ens) : state or 
process of growing from childhood 
to manhood or womanhood. 

adrenal (ad-re'nal): an endocrine gland 
situated on the top of the kidneys. 

adult (a-dultO: grown up to full age, 
size or strength. 

aeration (a-er-a'shun): the change of 
venous into arterial blood in the 
lungs. 

aerobic (a-er-6'bik): unable to live 
without oxygen. 

aesthetic, esthetic (es-thet'ik) : relating 
to sensation, either mental or phys- 
ical; appreciation of beauty and art. 

afferent nerves (a-fer'ent nurvz): con- 
vey stimulus from the external or- 
gans to the brain. 

affinity (a-fm-i-te): attraction. 

agent (a'jent): an active power which 
can produce a physical, chemical or 
medicinal effect. 

al (al): a word termination denoting 
belonging to, of, or pertaining to. 

alae nasi (ale na'zi): the wing cartil- 
age of the nose. 

albinism (al-bi-niz'm) : congenital leu- 
coderma or absence of coloring in 
the skin, hair and iris. 

albino (al-bi'no): a subject of albi- 
nism; a person with very little or 
no pigment in the skin, hair or iris. 

alcohol (al'ko-hol): a readily evapo- 
rating colorless liquid with a pun- 
gent odor and burning taste; power- 
ful stimulant and antiseptic. 

alimentary (al-i-men'ta-re): nourish- 
ing; relating to food or nutrition. 

alkali (al'ka-11): an electropositive 
substance; capable of making soaps 
from fats; used to neutralize acids. 

alkaline (al'ka-lin): having the prop- 
erties of an alkali. 

allergic (a-lur'jik): sensitive to; sus- 
ceptible. 

allergy (a'lur-je): a disorder due to 
extreme sensitivity to certain foods 
or chemicals. 

alopecia (al-6-pe'she-a) : deficiency of 
hair; baldness. 

alopecia adnata (ad-na'ta): baldness 
at birth. 

alopecia areata (a-re-a'ta): baldness 
in spots or patches. 

alopecia cicatrisata (si-ka-tri-sa'ta) : 
baldness in irregular spots or patch- 
es, due to shrinkage of the skin. 



ANATOMY 



alopecia dynamica (dlnam'i-ka): loss 
of hair due to destruction of the 
hair follicle by ulceration or some 
other disease process. 

alopecia follicularis (fol-ik-u-lar'is): 
loss of hair due to inflamed hair 
follicles. 

alopecia localis (16-ka'Hs): loss of hair 
occurring in patches on the course 
of a nerve at the site of an injury. 

alopecia maligiia (ma-lig'na): a term 
applied to any form of alopecia that 
is severe and persistent. 

alopecia prematura (pre-ma-tu'ra) : 
baldness beginning before middle 
age. 

alopecia seborrheica (seb-6r-e'I-ka) : 
baldness caused by diseased seba- 
ceous glands 

alopecia senilis (se-nil'is^: oaianess oc- 
curring in old age. 

alopecia syphilitica (sif-il-it'i'ka) : loss 
of hair resulting from syphilis; usu- 
ally a symptom of the second stage 
of the disease. 

alopecia universalis (u-ni-ver-sa'lis) : 
a condition manifested by general 
falling out of the hair of the body. 

alum, alumen (arum, a-lu'men): sul- 
phate of potassium and aluminum; 
an astringent; used as a styptic. 

amitosis (am-i-to'sis) : cell multiplica- 
tion by direct division of the nucleus 
in the cell. 

ammonia (a-mo'ne-a): a colorless gas 
with a pungent odor; very soluble 
in water. 

amperage (am-par'aj, am'per-aj): the 
strength of an electric curent. 

ampere (am-par): the unit of meas- 
urement of strength of an electric 
current. 

anabolism (an-ab'6-liz'm) : construct- 
ive metabolism; the process of assim- 
ilation of nutritive material and its 
change into living substance. 

analysis (a-nal'i-sis) : a process by 
which the nature of a substance is 
recognized and its chemical compo- 
sition determined. 

anaphoresis (an-a-f 6r-e'sis) : the pro- 
cess of forcing liquids into the tis- 
sues from the negative toward the 
positive pole while using the gal- 
vanic current. 

anatomy (a-nat'6-me) : the science of 
the gross structure of the body. 



HI; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



ANEMIA 



472 



AURICULAR 



anemia, anaemia (a-ne'me-a) : a con- 
dition in which the blood is deficient 
in red corpuscles, or in hemoglobin, 
or both. 

anesthetic, anaesthetic (an-es-thet'ik) : 
a substance administered to make 
the body incapable of feeling pain. 

angiology (an-je-61'6-je): the science 
of the blood vessels and lymphatics. 

Angstrom (ang'strom): a unit of meas- 
urement for the wave length of light. 

angular artery (ang'u-lar ar'ter-e): 
supplies muscles and skin at side of 
nose. 

anidrosis, anhidrosis (an-i-dro'sis) : a 
deficiency in perspiration. 

aniline (an'i-lm, -len): a product of 
coal tar used in the manufacture of 
artificial dyes. 

anode (an'od): the positive terminal 
of an electric source. 

anterior (an-te're-er) : situated before 
or in front of. 

anthrax (an'thraks): malignant pus- 
tule; gangrenous carbuncle-like le- 
sion. 

antibody (an'ti-bod-i) : a substance 
in the blood which builds resistance 
to disease. 

antidote (an'ti-dot): an agent prevent- 
ing or counteracting the action of 
a poison. 

an ti-pcrspi rant (an-ti-per-spi'rant) : a 
strong astringent liquid or cream 
used to stop the flow of perspiration 
in the region of the armpits, hands 
or feet. 

antiseptic (an-ti-sep'tik) : a chemical 
agent that kills or prevents the 
growth of bacteria. 

antitoxin (an-ti-tok'sm) : a substance 
in serum which binds and neutral- 
izes toxin (poison). 

aorta (a-or'ta) : the main arterial trunk 
leaving the heart, and carrying blood 
to the various arteries throughout 
the body. 

apex (a'peks) : the upper end of a lung 
or the heart. 

aponeurosis (ap-6-nu-ro'sis) : a broad, 
flat tendon; attachment of muscles. 

appendage (a-pen'dej): that which is 
attached to an organ, and is a part 
of it. 

appendix (a-pen'diks) : a small intes- 
tinal organ. 



applicator (ap'li-ka-ter) : an instru- 
ment for the application of cosmetics 
or electricity to the body. 

aqueous (a'kwe-us): watery; pertain- 
ing to water. 

aromatic (ar-6-mat'ik) : pertaining to 
or containing aroma; fragrant. 

arrector pili (a-rek'tor pill): plural of 
arrectores pilorum. 

arrectores pilorum (a-rek-to'rez pi- 
lor'um): a minute involuntary mus- 
cle fiber in the skin inserted into 
the base of the hair follicle. 

art (art): skill in performing any op- 
eration, intellectual or physical. 

arterial (ar-te're'al) : pertaining to an 
artery. 

artery (ar'ter-e) : a vessel that conveys 
blood from the heart. 

articulation (ar-tik-u-la'shun) : joint; 
a connection between two or more 
bones. 

asepsis (a-sep'sis) : a condition in 
which harmful bacteria are absent. 

assimilation (a-sim-i-la'shun): the 
change of food into living tissue. 

asteatosis (as-te-a-to'sis): a deficiency 
or absence of the sebaceous secre- 
tions. 

astringent (as-trm'jent): a substance 
or medicine that causes contraction 
of the tissues, and checks secretions. 

athlete's foot (athlete fdot): a fungus 
foot infection; ringworm of the foot. 

atom (at'um): the smallest part of an 
element capable of entering into the 
formation of a chemical compound. 

atrium (at're-um); pi., atria (-a): the 
auricle of the heart. 

atrophy (at'ro-fe): a wasting away of 
the tissues of a part or of the entire 
body from lack of nutrition. 

attollens aurem (at'6-lens 6'rem): aur- 
icularis superior; muscle that ele- 
vates the ear slightly. 

attrahens aurem (at'ra-hens 6'rem): 
auricularis anterior; muscle which 
pulls the ear forward slightly. 

auditory (6'di-to-re): eighth cerebral 
nerve; controlling sense of hearing. 

auricle (6'ri-k'l): the external ear; one 
of the upper cavities of the heart. 

auriculo-temporal (6-rik-u-16 tem'por- 
al): sensory nerve affecting the tem- 
ple and external ear. 

auricular (6-rik'u-lar) : pertaining to 
the ear or cardiac auricle. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, event, end, recent, ever; Ice, 



AUTO 

auto (6'to): a prefix meaning self; of 
itself. 

autonomic nervous system (6-ton'o- 
mik nurv'us sis'tem): the sympa- 
thetic nervous system; controls the 
involuntary muscles. 



473 BLOOD POISON 

axilla (ak-sil'a): the armpit. 
axon (ak'son): a long nerve fiber ex- 
tending from the cell body. 



bacillus (ba-sil'us); pi., bacilli (-1): 
rod-like shaped bacterium. 

bacteria (bak-te're-a) : microbes, or 
germs. 

bactericide (bak-te'ri-sid) : an agent 
that destroys bacteria. 

bacteriology (bak-te-re-ol'o-je): the 
science which deals with bacteria. 

bacterium (bak-te're-um); pi., bacte- 
ria (-a): one-celled vegetable micro- 
organism. 

baldness (bold'ness): a deficiency of 
hair; hair loss. 

barber (bar'ber): one whose occupa- 
tion is to shave or trim the beard, 
and to cut and dress the hair. 

barber science (si'ens): the study of 
the skin, scalp, beard and hair, and 
their treatments. 

barber's itch (bar'berz ich): tinea sy- 
cosis; ringworm of the beard; chron- 
ic inflammation of the hair follicles. 

basal layer (la'er): the layer of cells 
at base of epidermis closest to the 
dermis; stratum germinativum. 

base (bas): the lower part or bottom; 
chief substance of a compound; an 
electropositive element that unites 
with an acid to form a salt. 

battery (bat'er-e): an apparatus con- 
taining two or more cells, for gen- 
erating electricity. 

bayberry plant (ba'ber-e plant): the 
leaves of Myrcia acris yield oil of 
bay which is used to make bay rum. 

bay rum (ba rum): after shaving lo- 
tion; used as a tonic and astringent. 

benign (be-nln): mild in character. 

benzine (ben'zen): an inflammable li- 
quid derived from petroleum and 
used as a cleansing fluid. 

Bernay tablets (bur'na tablets): a 
trade name; special tablets dis- 
solved in water to be used as an an- 
tiseptic. 

bi (bi): a prefix denoting two, twice, 
double 



bicarbonate of soda (bi-kar'bon-at of 
so'da): baking soda; relieves burns, 
itching and insect bites. Adding bak- 
ing soda to the water in which in- 
struments are to be boiled will 
keep them bright. 

bichloride (bi-klo'rid) : a compound 
having two parts or equivalents of 
chlorine to one of the other element. 

bile (bil): a yellowish or greenish vis- 
cid fluid secreted by the liver; an 
aid to digestion. 

binding posts (bin'dmg posts): small 
metal posts in which are fitted the 
metal tips of the conducting cords. 

biology (bi-ol'6-je): the science of life 
and living things. 

birthmark (burth'mark) : any mark 
which is present at birth, usually 
lasting; a form of nevus. 

blackhead (blak'hed): a comedone; a 
plug of sebaceous matter. 

bleach (blech): to whiten or lighten. 

bleached hair (blecht har): hair from 
which the color has been wholly or 
partially removed by means of a 
bleaching solution. 

bleaching solution (blech'ing so-lu- 
shun): hydrogen peroxide with ad- 
dition of ammonia. 

bleb (bleb): a blister of the skin filled 
with watery fluid. 

blemish (blem'ish): a mark, spot or 
defect, marring the appearance. 

blister (blister): a vesicle; a collection 
of serous fluid causing an elevation 
of the skin. 

blond; blonde (blond) : a person of fair 
complexion, with light hair and eyes. 

blood (blud): the nutritive fluid cir- 
culating through the arteries and 
veins. 

blood poison (poi'z'n): an infection 
which gets into the blood stream. 



ill; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



BLOOD VASCULAR SYSTEM 



474 



CARBOLIC ACID 



blood vascular system (vas'ku-lar sis'- 
tem): comprised of structures (the 
heart, arteries, veins and capillaries) 
which distribute blood throughout 
the body. 

blood vessel (ves'el): an artery, vein 
or capillary. 

blue light (blob lit): a therapeutic 
lamp used to soothe the nerves and 
ease pain. 

bluing rinse (bloo'mg rms): a solution 
used to neutralize the unbecoming 
yellowish tinge on gray or white 
hair. 

B.N.A. meaning Basle Anatomical 
Nomenclature; a list of anatomical 
terms adopted by the German Ana- 
tomical Society in 1895. 

bob (bob): a short haircut for women 
and children. 

boil (boil): a furuncle; a deep skin 
abscess which drains out onto the 
surface of the skin 

boiling point (boiling point): 212 F. 
or 100 C. the temperature at which 
water begins to boil. 

bone (bon): os; the hard tissue form- 
ing the framework of the body. 

borax (bo'raks): sodium tetraborate; 
a white powder used as an antisep- 
tic and cleansing agent. 



boric acid (bo'rik as'id): used as an 

antiseptic dusting powder; in liquid 

form as an eye wash. 
brain (bran): that part of the central 

nervous system contained in the 

cranial cavity. 
brilliantine (bril-yan-tenO: an oily 

composition that imparts luster to 

the hair. 
bristle (bris"l): short, stiff hairs found 

on brushes. 

brittle (brit'l): easily broken; fragile. 
bromidrosis (bro-mi-dro'sis) : perspi- 
ration which smells foul. 
bronchus (bron'kus); pi., bronchi 

(-ki): the main branch of the wind 

pipe. 

brow (brou): the forehead. 
brunette (brob-net): a person having 

brown or olive skin, brown or black 

hair and eyes. 
buccal nerve (buk'al nurv): a motor 

nerve affecting the buccinator and 

the orbicularis oris muscle. 
buccinator (buk'si-na-ter) : a thin, flat 

muscle of the cheek, shaped like a 

trumpet. 
bulla (bobl'a, bul'a): a large bleb or 

blister. 



calamine lotion (kal'a-min 16'shun): 
zinc carbonate in alcohol used for 
the treatment of dermatitis in its 
various forms. 

calcium (kaTse-um): a brilliant sil- 
very-white metal; enters into the 
composition of bone. 

callous, callus (kaTus): skin which has 
become hardened; thick-skinned. 

calory, calorie (kal'6-re): a unit of 
heat. 

caiicellous (kan'se-lus) : having a por- 
ous or spongy structure. 

cancer (kan'ser): a harmful growth, 
especially one attended with great 
pain and ulceration. 

caninus (kan-nin'us) : the levator ang- 
uli oris muscle which lifts the angle 
of mouth and help to keep it closed. 

canitics (ka-nit'iKs): the science which 
treats of canities. 

canities (ka-msh'i-ez) : grayness or 
whiteness of the hair. 



canities, accidental (ak-si-den'tal) : 

grayness of hair caused by fright. 
canities, congenital (kon-jen'i-tal): 

a type of gray hair transmitted by 

heredity as in albinism. 
canities, premature (pre-ma-tur) : 

grayness of hair at an early age. 
canities, senile (se'nil, -ml): grayness 

of hair in old age. 

capillary (kap'i-la-re): any one of the 
minute blood vessels which connect 
the arteries and veins; hair-like. 

caput (ka'put); poss., capitis (kap'i- 
tis): pertaining to the head. 

carbohydrate (kar-bo-hi'drat) : an or- 
ganic substance containing carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen; such as 
starches and cellulose. 

carbolic acid (kar-bol'ik as'ld) : phenol; 
used in dilute solution as an anti- 
septic. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, Svent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



CARBON 



475 



CILIA 



carbon (kar'bon): coal; an elementary 
substance in nature which is found 
in all organic compounds, charcoal, 
and lampblack. 

carbon-arc lamp (kar'bon ark lamp): 
an instrument which produces ultra- 
violet rays. 

carbon dioxide (di-ok'sid): carbonic 
acid gas; product of the combustion 
of carbon with a free supply of air. 

carbon monoxide (mon-ok'sld) : a col- 
orless, odorless and poisonous gas. 

carbuncle (kar'bun-k'l) : a large en- 
closed inflammation of the deep skin 
tissue, similar to a furuncle, but 
much more extensive. 

cardiac (kar'de-ak): pertaining to the 
heart. 

carotid (ka-rot'id): the principal art- 
ery of the neck. 

cartilage (kar'ti-laj): gristle; a non- 
vascular connective tissue softer 
than bone. 

castile soap (kas'tel sop): a fine, hard, 
white soap containing olive oil and 
other oils; originally came from 
Castile, Spain. 

catabolism (ka-tab'6-liz'm) : chemical 
changes which involve the breaking 
down process within the cells. 

cataphoresis (ka-taf -6-re'sis) : the pro- 
cess of forcing medicinal substances 
into the deeper tissues, using the 
positive pole of the galvanic current. 

cathode (kath'od): the negative pole 
or electrode of a constant electric 
current. 

cation (kat'Ion): an ion carrying a 
charge of positive electricity. 

caustic (kos'tik): an agent that burns 
and chars tissue. 

cavity (kav'i-te): a hollow space. 

cell (sel): a minute mass of proto- 
plasm forming the structural unit 
of every organized body. 

cellular (sel'u-lar): consisting of or 
pertaining to cells. 

cellulose (seTu-los): a carbohydrate, 
such as vegetable fiber. 

centigrade (sen'ti-grad) : consisting of 
100 degrees; of or pertaining to cent- 
igrade thermometer. 

centrosome (sen'tro-som) : a cellular 
body which controls the division of 
the ceU. 

cerebellum (ser-e-beTum) : the post- 
erior and lower part of the brain. 



cerebral (ser'e-bral): pertaining to the 
cerebrum. 

cerebrospinal system (ser-e-bro'spi'nal 
sis'tem): consists of the brain, spinal 
cord, spinal nerves and the cranial 
nerves. 

cerebrum (ser'e-brum) : the superior 
and larger part of the brain. 

chancre (shan'ker): the primary lesion 
of syphilis. 

chemical (kem'i-kal): relating to 
chemistry. 

chemical dye remover (dl re-moov'er) : 
a dye remover containing a chemi- 
cal solvent. 

chemistry (kem'is-tre) : the science 
dealing with the composition of sub- 
stances, their reactions and the 
changes resulting from the formation 
and decomposition of compounds. 

chloasma (klo-az'ma): large brown 
irregular patches on the skin, such 
as liver spots. 

chlorazene (klo'ra-zene) : a trade term; 
a chemical used for preparing an 
antiseptic or disinfectant. 

chloro-zol (klo'ro-zol) : a trade name; 
a special tablet used for preparing 
an antiseptic or disinfectant. 

cholesterin; cholesterol (ko-les'ter-in; 
-61): a waxy alcohol found in ani- 
mal tissues; present in lanolin. 

chromosome (kro'mo-som) : tiny dark- 
stained bodies found in the nucleus 
of the cell; transmits hereditary 
characteristics in cell division. 

chromatin (kro'ma-tin) : a substance 
found in the nucleus of a cell. 

chromidrosis (kro-mi-dro'sis) : the ex- 
cretion of colored sweat. 

chronic (kron'ik): long- continued; the 
reverse of acute. 

chrysarobin (kris-a-ro'bm) : a power- 
ful parasiticide; used in the treat- 
ment of various forms of tinea. 

chyle (kil): a creamy fluid taken up 
by the lacteals from the intestine 
during digestion. 

chyme (kim): food reduced to a liquid 
form in the process of digestion. 

cicatrix (si-ka'triks, sik'a-triks) ; pi., 
cicatrices (sik-a-tri'sez) : the skin or 
film which forms over a wound, 
later contracting to form a scar. 

cilia (sil'i-a): the eyelashes; micro- 
scopic hair-like extensions which as- 
sist bacteria in locomotion. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



CIRCUIT 

circuit (cur'kit): the path of an elec- 
tric current. 

circuit, broken (bro'ken): caused by 
anything which changes the current 
from its regular circuit. 

circuit, closed (kloz'd): a circuit in 
which a current is continually flow- 
ing. 

circuit, complete (kom-plet): the path 
of an electric current in actual op- 
eration. 

circuit, ground (ground): electricity 
in which one pole is used to deliver 
current and the other pole is con- 
nected to a ground (waterpipe or 
radiator). 

circuit, open (6'pen): a circuit through 
which the flow of current is inter- 
rupted. 

circuit, short (short): caused by any- 
thing which changes the current 
from its regular circuit. 

circulation (sur-ku-la'shun) : the pass- 
age of blood throughout the body. 

circulation, general (jen'er-al): blood 
circulation from the heart through- 
out the body and back again. 

circulation, pulmonary (purmo-na- 
re): blood circulation from the heart 
to the lungs and back to the heart. 

citric acid (sit'rik as'id): acid found 
in the lemon, orange, grapefruit; 
used for making a lemon rinse. 

clavicle (klav'i-k'l): collar bone, join- 
ing the sternum and scapula. 

clay (kla): an earthy substance con- 
taining kaolin, etc. and used for 
facial packs. 

cleido (kli'do): prefix meaning per- 
taining to the clavicle (collar bone). 

clot (klot): a mass or lump of coag- 
ulated blood. 

club cutting (klub kut'mg): cutting 
the hair straight off without thin- 
ning or slithering. 

coagulate (ko-ag'u-lat) : to clot; to 
change a fluid into a soft jelly-like 
solid. 

coccus (kok'us); pi., cocci (kok'si): 
spherical cell bacterium. 

coiffeur (kwa-furO: a male hairdres- 
ser. 

coiffeuse (kwa-fuzO: a female hair- 
dresser. 

coiffure (kwa-furO: an arrangement 
or styling of the hair. 



476 



CONTAGION 



color rinse (kul'er rms): a rinse which 

gives a temporary tint to the hair, 
comb (kom): an instrument used to 

dress, comb and arrange the hair. 
combustion (kom-bus'chun) : the rapid 

burning of any substance. 
comedo; comedone (kom'e-do; -don): 
blackhead; a worm-like mass in an 
obstructed sebaceous duct. 

communicable (ko-mu'm-ka-b'l): able 
to be communicated; transferable. 

compact tissue (kom-pakf tish'u): a 
dense, hard type of bony tissue. 

complexion (kom-plek'shun) : hue or 
general appearance of the skin, es- 
pecially the face. 

composition (kom-po-zish'un) : the 
quality of being put together. 

compound henna (kom'pound hen'a): 
Egyptian henna to which has been 
added one or more metallic prep- 
arations. 

compressor (kom-pres'er) : a muscle 
that presses; an instrument for ap- 
plying pressure on a blood vessel to 
prevent loss of blood. 

concentrated (kon'sen-trat-ed) : con- 
densed; increasing the strength by 
diminishing the bulk of a substance. 

conducting cords (kon-dukt'mg 
kordz) : insulated copper wires which 
convey the current from the wall 
plate to the customer and operator. 

conductor (kon-duk'ter) : any sub- 
stance which will attract or allow 
a current to flow through it easily. 

congeal (kon-jel): to change from a 
fluid to a solid state. 

congenital (kon- jen'i-tal) : existing at 
birth; born with. 

congestion (kon-jes'chun): overfull- 
ness of the capillary and other blood 
vessels in any locality or organ. 

connecting cords (kon-ekt'ing kordz): 
the insulated strands of copper wires- 
which join together the apparatus 
and the commercial electric current. 

connective (ko-nek'tiv) : connecting; 
joining. 

constitutional (kon-sti-tu-shun-al) : be- 
longing to or affecting the physical 
or vital powers of an individual. 

contact (kon'takt): bringing together 
so as to touch. 

contagion (kan-ta'jun) : transmission 
of specific diseases by contact. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, 6vent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



CONTAGIOSA IMPETIGO 

contagiosa impetigo (kon-ta-je-6'sa 
im-pet-i-go): a form of impetigo 
marked by flat vesicles that first be- 
come pustular, then crusted. 

contagious (kon-ta'jus): acquired by 
contact. 

contamination (kon-tam-i-na'shun) : 
pollution; soiling with infectious 
matter. 

contour (kon'tobr): the outline of a 
figure or body. 

contour of the hair: shape of the hair, 
straight, curly or wavy. 

contra (kon'tra): a prefix denoting 
against; opposite; contrary. 

contraction (kon-trak'shun) : having 
power to become shorter; the act of 
shrinking, drawing together. 

converter (kun-vur'ter) : an apparatus 
used to change the direct current 
to alternating current. 

copious (ko'pe-us): large in amount. 

copper (kop'er): a metallic element, 
being a good conductor of heat and 
electricity. 

core (kor): the heart or most vital 
part of anything. 

corium (ko're-um): the derma or true 
skin. 

cornification (kor-m-fi-ka'shun) : the 
process of becoming a horny sub- 
stance or tissue. 

coronary (kur'6-na-re) : relating to a 
crown; encircling as a vessel or 
nerve. 

corpuscles, red (kor'pus-'l red): blood 
cells whose function is to carry 
oxygen to the cells. 

corpuscles, white (whit): blood cells 
whose function is to destroy disease 
germs. 

corrode (ko-rodO: to destroy a metal- 
lic substance by chemical action. 

corrosive sublimate (ko-ro'siv sub'H- 
mat): an antiseptic, similar to 
mercury bichloride. 

corrugations (kor-oo-ga'shuns) : alter- 
nate ridges and furrows; wrinkles. 

corrugator; corrugator supercilii (kor'- 
db-ga-ter su-per-sITe-i) : draws the 
eyebrows inward and downward, 
thus causing vertical wrinkles above 
the nose. 

cortex (kor'teks): the second layer of 
the hair. 



477 



CURRENT, GALVANIC 



cortical (kor'ti-kal) : pertaining to the 
cortex. 

cosmetic dermatology (koz-met'ik 
dur-ma-t6r6-je): a branch of der- 
matology devoted to improving the 
health and beauty of the skin, hair 
and nails. 

cosmetic therapy (ther'a-pe): a term 
used by some State Boards to desig- 
nate the practice of cosmetology; 
cosmetic treatment for skin, hair or 
nail disorders. 

cosmetics (koz-met'iks) : any external 
application intended to beautify the 
complexion, skin, hair or nails. 

costal breathing (kos'tal breth'ing): 
shallow breathing involving the use 
of the ribs. 

cowlick (kou'Hk): a tuft of hair form- 
ing a whorl. 

cranial (kra'ne-al): of or pertaining 
to the cranium. 

cranium (kra'ne-um): the bones of the 
head excluding bones of the face; 
bony case for the brain. 

cream (krem): a semi-solid cosmetic. 

cresol (kre'sol): a colorless, oily liquid 
or solid derived from coal tar and 
wood tar and used as a disinfectant. 

crown of the head (kroun): the top 
part of the head. 

curd (kurd): soap residue found on 
the hair after an unsatisfactory 
shampoo. 

curd soap (sop): a white soap of cur- 
dy texture, usually containing free 
alkali. 

cure (kur): to take care of; to heal. 

current, alternating; A.C. (kur'ent, al- 
ter-nat-ing) : an interrupted current. 

current, D'arsonval (d'-ar'son-val): a 
high-frequency current of low volt- 
age and high amperage. 

current, direct; D.C. (di-rektO: an un- 
interrupted and even-flowing cur- 
rent. 

current, electric (e-lek'trik) : electrici- 
ty in motion, or moving within a 
conductor. 

current, faradic (fa-rad'ik): an in- 
duced interrupted current whose 
action is mechanical. 

current, galvanic (gal-van'ik) : a direct 
constant current having a positive 
and negative pole and producing a 
chemical action. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, tip, circus; those 



CURRENT, HIGH FREQUENCY 

current, high-frequency; Tesla (hi- 
fre-kwen-se; tes'la): an electric cur- 
rent of medium voltage and medium 
amperage. 

current, sinusoidal (sin-u-soi'dal) : an 
induced interrupted current some- 
what similar to faradic current. 

curriculum (ku-rik'u-lum) : the course 
of study in a school. 

cutaneous (ku-ta'ne-us) : pertaining to 
the skin. 



478 DIAGNOSIS 

cuticle (ku'ti-k'l): epidermis; the very 
thin outer layer of the skin or hair. 

cutis (ku'tis): the derma or true skin. 

cycle (si'k'l): circle; a complete wave 
of an alternating current. 

cyst (sist): a closed abnormally devel- 
oped sac containing fluid. 

cytoplasm (si'to-plaz'm) : the proto- 
plasm of the cell body, exclusive of 
the nucleus. 



dandruff (dan'drof): pityriasis; scurf 
or scales formed in excess upon the 
scalp. 

de (de): a prefix denoting from; down 
or away. 

decomposition (de-kom-po-zish'un) : 
act or process of separating the parts 
of a substance. 

deficiency (de-f ish'en-se) : a lacking; 
something wanting. 

deltoid (deTtoid): a muscle of the 
shoulder. 

dense (dens): close; thick; heavy. 

deodorant (de-6'der-ant) : a substance 
that removes or conceals offensive 
odors. 

depilatory (de-pil'a-to-re) : a sub- 
stance used to dissolve or remove 
the hair. 

deportment (de-port'ment) : manner 
of conduct or behavior. 

depressor (de-pres'er) : that which 
presses or draws down; a muscle 
that depresses. 

depressor alae nasi (ale na'si): de- 
pressor septi; a muscle which con- 
tracts the opening of the nostril. 

depressor anguli oris (ang'u-li or'is): 
triangularis; a muscle that depresses 
the corner of the mouth. 

depressor labii inferioris (la'be-I in- 
fe-re-6r'is) : quadratus labii inferi- 
oris; a muscle that depresses lower 
lip down and a little to one side. 

derivative (de-riv'a-tiv) : anything ob- 
tained from another substance. 

derma (dur'ma): the true skin; the 
corium; the sensitive layer of the 
skin below the epidermis. 

dermal (dur'mal): pertaining to the 
skin. 

dermatician (dur-ma-tish'an) : one 
skilled in the treatment of the skin. 



dermatitis (dur-ma-ti'tis) : inflamma- 
tion of the skin. 

dermatitis combustiones (kom-bus-ti- 
6'nes): a type of dermatitis pro- 
duced by extreme heat. 

dermatitis medicamentosa (me-dik-a- 
men-to'sa): a type of dermatitis 
caused by the internal use of medi- 
cines, such as bromides. 

dermatitis seborrheica (seb-6-re'i-ka): 
a type of dermatitis found co-exist- 
ent with seborrhea. 

dermatitis venenata (ve-ne-na'ta) : in- 
flammation of the skin caused by 
the action of an irritant substance 
such as hair dye. 

dermatologist (dur-ma-tol'o-jist): a 
specialist who understands the sci- 
ence of treating the skin and its dis- 
eases. 

dermatology (dur-ma-tol'o- je) : the 
science which treats of the skin and 
its diseases. 

dermatosis (dur-ma-to'sis) : any di- 
sease of the skin. 

dermis, derma (dur'mis, dur'ma): the 
layer below the epidermis; the co- 
rium or true skin. 

detergent (de-tur'jent): an agent that 
cleanses the skin. 

device (de-visO: an apparatus for a 
particular use and purpose. 

dexterity (deks-ter'i-te): skill and 
ease in using the hands. 

di (di): a prefix denoting two-fold; 
double; twice; separation or revers- 
al. 

dia (di'a): a prefix denoting through; 
apart; asunder; between. 

diagnosis (di-ag-no'sis) : the recogni- 
tion of a disease from its symptoms. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, vent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



DIAPHRAGM 



479 



diaphragm (di'a-f ram) : a muscular 
wall which separates the chest from 
the abdomen. 

diathermy (di'a-thur-me): an instru- 
ment capable of generating a high- 
frequency current and elevating of 
temperature in the deep tissues. 

diet (di'et): a course of food selected 
with reference to a particular state 
of health. 

digestion (di-jes'chun): the process of 
converting food into a form which can 
be readily absorbed by the body. 

digits (dij'its): fingers or toes. 

dilatator; dilator (di-la-ta'-ter; di-; di- 
la'ter; di-): that which expands or 
enlarges a cavity or an opening. 

dilator naris anterior (na'ris an-te're- 
er): a muscle which expands the 
opening of the nostril. 

dilute (di-luf; di-): to make thinner 
by mixing, especially with water. 

diphtheria (dif-the're-a) : an infectious 
disease involving the air passages, 
and the throat. 

diplococcus (di-plo-kok'us) : a coccus 
occurring in pairs; bacterium caus- 
ing pneumonia. 

dis (dis): a prefix denoting apart; 
away; asunder; between. 



ELECTRODE 

discharge (dis-charj): the escape or 
flowing away of the contents of a 
cavity. 

disease (di-zez): a pathologic condi- 
tion of any part or organ of the 
body, or of the mind. 

disease carrier (kar'i-er): a healthy 
person capable of transmitting dis- 
ease germs to another person. 

disinfectant (dis-in-f ek'tant) : an ag- 
ent used for destroying germs. 

dispensary (dis-pen'sa-ri): a place 
where medicines or other supplies 
are prepared and dispensed. 

dissolve (di-zolv): to make a solution 
of; to break up. 

distal (dis'tal): farthest from the cen- 
ter or median line. 

dormant (dor'mant): inactive; asleep. 

dorsal (dor'sal): pertaining to the 
back. 

duct (dukt): a passage or canal for 
fluids. 

dye (di): to stain or color. 

dye remover (re-mobv'er) : a chemical 
liquid used to remove old dye from 
the hair. 

dynamo (di'na-mo): a machine for 
changing mechanical energy into 
electrical power. 



ecto (ek'to): a prefix denoting with- 
out; outside; external. 

eczema (ek'ze-ma): an inflammatory 
itching disease of the skin. 

efferent (ef'er-ent): carrying outward, 
as efferent nerves carrying impulses 
away from the central nervous sys- 
tem. 

efficiency (e-fish'en-se): usefulness; 
quality or degree of being able to 
produce results. 

effleurage (e-flu-razh') : a stroking 
movement in massage. 

Egyptian henna (e-jip'shan hen'a): a 
pure vegetable hair dye. 

elasticity (e-las'tis'i-te) : the quality 
of being elastic. 

electrical (e-lek'tri-kal) : consisting of, 
containing, producing, or operated 
by electricity. 

electricity (e-lek-tris'i-te): a form of 
energy, which when in motion, ex- 
hibits magnetic, chemical or thermal 
effects. 



electricity, fractional (f rik'shon-al) : 
a kind of electricity produced by 
rubbing certain objects together. 

electricity, induced or inductive (in- 
dust or in-duk'tiv): a kind of elec- 
tricity produced by nearness to an 
electrified body. 

electricity, magnetic (mag-net'ik) : a 
kind of electricity developed by 
bringing a conductor near the poles 
of a magnet. 

electricity, static (stat'ik): frictional 
electricity. 

electricity, voltaic (vol-ta'ik): galvan- 
ic or chemical electricity. 

electrification (e-lek'tri-f i-ka'shun) : 
the application of electricity to the 
body by holding an electrode in the 
hand and charging the body with 
electricity. 

electrode (e-lek'trod): an applicator 
for directing the use of electricity on 
a customer. 



fll; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



ELECTROLOGY 



480 



EXPERT 



electrology (e-lek-trol'6- je) : science 
in relation to electricity. 

electrolysis (e-lek-troH-sis) : decomp- 
osition of a chemical compound or 
body tissues by means of electricity. 

electrolytic cup (e-lek-tro-lit'ik kup): 
an appliance used to cleanse the 
skin, before giving a massage. 

electron (e-lek'tron) : an extremely 
minute body or charge of negative 
electricity. 

electropositive (e-lek"tr6-p6z'i-tiv) : 
relating to or charged with positive 
electricity. 

element (eTe-ment): a simple sub- 
stance, one which is incapable of 
being split up into other substances. 

elimination (e-lim-i-na'shun): act of 
expelling or excreting. 

embellish (em-beTish): to make beau- 
tiful or decorate. 

embryo (em'bre-o): in the first stages 
of development; a bud. 

emollient (e-mol'yent): an agent that 
softens or soothes the surface of the 
skin. 

emotion (e-mo'shun): mental excite- 
ment. 

emulsion (e-mul'shun) : a milky fluid 
obtained by suspending oil in water. 

endo (en'do): a prefix denoting inner; 
within. 

endocrine (en'do-krin) : any internal 
secretion or hormone. 

endosteum (en-dos'te-um) : the mem- 
brane covering the inner surface of 
bone in the medullary cavity. 

energy (en'er'je): power or capacity 
for performing work. 

environment (en-vi'run-ment) : the 
surrounding conditions. 

enzyme (en'zim): a complex organic 
substance which affects the rate of 
chemical reactions. 

epi (ep-i): a prefix denoting upon: be- 
side. 

epicranium (ep-i-kran'm-um) : the 
structure covering the cranium. 

epicranius (ep-i-kra'ne-us) : the occip- 
ito-frontalis; the scalp muscle. 

epidemic (ep-i-dem'ik) : common to 
many people; a prevailing disease. 

epidermis (ep-i-dur'mis) : the outer 
epithelial portion of the skin. 

epithelium (ep-i-the'le'um) : a cellular 
tissue or membrane, covering a free 
surface or lining a cavity. 



eponychium (ep-6-mk'e-um): the ex- 
tension of excess cuticle at base of 
nail. 

erector (e-rek'ter) : an elevating mus- 
cle. 

eruption (e-riip'shun) : a skin lesion 
due to a disease, marked by redness 
or papular condition, or both. 

erysipelas (er-i-sip'e-les) : an acute in- 
fectious disease accompanied by a 
spreading inflammation of the skin 
and mucous membrane. 

erythema (er-i-the'ma) : a superficial 
blush or redness of the skin. 

erythrocyte (e-rith'ro-sit) : a red blood 
cell; red corpuscle. 

eschar (es'kar): a dry slough, crust, 
or scab following a burn. 

esophagus; oesophagus (e-sof'a-gus): 
the canal leading from the pharynx 
to the stomach. 

esthetic; aesthetic (es-thet'ik): relating 
to sensation, either mental or phys- 
ical. 

ethics (eth'iks): principles of good 
character and proper conduct. 

ethmoid (eth'moid): a bone forming 
part of the walls of the nasal cavity. 

etiology (e-te-61'o-je) : the science of 
the causes of disease. 

evaporation (e-vap-6-ra'shun): change 
from liquid to vapor form. 

ex (eks): a prefix denoting out of; 
from; away from. 

excitation (ek-si-ta'shun) : the act of 
stimulating or irritating. 

excoriation (eks-ko-re-a'shun) : act of 
stripping or wearing off the skin; an 
abrasion. 

excretion (eks-kre'shun) : that which 
is thrown off or eliminated from 
the body. 

exercise (ek'ser-slz) putting muscles 
into action. 

exfoliation (eks-f o-le-a'shun) : the 
process of throwing off scales from 
the skin, as in dandruff. 

exhalation (eks-ha-la'shun) : the act 
of breathing outward. 

exhaustion (eg-zos'chun) : loss of vital 
and nervous power from fatigue or 
disease. 

expansion (eks-pan'shun) : distention; 
dilation or swelling. 

expert (eks'purt): an experienced per- 
son; one who has special knowledge 
or skill in a particular subject. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, (jvent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



EXTENSIBILITY 



481 



extensibility (eks-ten-si-bil'i-ti) : cap- 
able of being extended or stretched. 

extensor (eks-ten'sor) : a muscle which 
serves to extend or straighten out a 
limb or part. 

exterior (eks-te're-er) : outside. 

external (eks-tur'nal) : pertaining to 
the outside. 

externus (eks-tur'nus) : external; per- 
taining to the outside. 

extremity (eks-trem'i-te) : the distant 
end or part of any organ; a hand or 
foot. 



FREE EDGE 

exudation (eks-u-da'shun) : act of dis- 
charging from a body through pores 
or cuts as sweat, moisture or other 
liquid; oozing out. 

eye (I): the organ of vision. 

eyeball (I-bol): the globe of the eye. 

eyebrow (i'brou): the hair, skin and 
tissue above the eye. 

eyelashes (Ilesh-es): the hair of the 
eyelids. 

eyelid (Hid): the protective covering 
of the eyeball. 



facial (fa'shal): pertaining to the face; 
the seventh cerebral nerve. 

Fahrenheit (f a'ren-hit) : pertaining to 
the Fahrenheit thermometer or 
scale; water freezes at 32 F. and 
boils at 212 F. 

faradism (f ar'a-diz'm) : a form of elec- 
trical treatment used for stimulating 
activity of the tissues. 

fascia (fash'e-a): a sheet of connective 
tissue covering the muscles and sep- 
arating their layers. 

fat (fat): a greasy, soft-solid material 
found in animal tissue. 

fatigue (fa-tegO: body or mental ex- 
haustion. 

favus (fa'vus): a contagious parasitic 
disease of the skin, with crusts. 

feather edge (feth'er ej): a haircutting 
term; a very thin fringe of hair re- 
sembling the edge of a feather. 

fetid (fet'id; fa'tid): having a foul 
smell; stinking. 

fever (fe'ver): rise of body tempera- 
ture. 

fever blister (blis'ter): an acute skin 
disease characterized by the pres- 
ence of vesicles over an inflamma- 
tory base; herpes simplex. 

fiber; fibre (fl'ber): a slender thread 
or filament; thread-like in structure. 

fibrin (fi'brm): the active agent in co- 
agulation of the blood. 

fibrous (fi'brus): containing, consisting 
of, or like fibers. 

finesse (fi-nes): delicate skill. 

finger (fm'ger): one of the digits of 
the hand. 



fissure (fish'ur): a narrow opening 
made by separation of parts; a fur- 
row; a slit. 

flabby (flab'e): lacking firmness; flac- 
cid. 

flagella (fla-jel'a): slender hair-like 
parts which permit movement in 
certain bacteria. 

flexible (flek'si-b'l) : that which may 
be bent; not stiff. 

flexor (flek'sor): a muscle that bends 
or flexes a part or a joint. 

florid (flor'id): flushed with red. 

fluid (flob'id): a non-solid liquid. 

foam (fom): white bubbles forming 
on the surface of a liquid as a result 
of mixing or decomposition. 

folliculitis (fo-Hk-u-li'tis): an inflam- 
mation of any follicle. 

foramen (fo-ra'men): a passage or op- 
ening through a bone or membrane. 

formaldehyde (f or-maTde-hld) : a pun- 
gent gas possessing powerful disin- 
fectant properties. 

formalin (f or'ma-lin) : a 37% to 40% 
solution of formaldehyde. 

formula (for'mu-la): a prescribed me- 
thod or rule; a recipe or prescription. 

fossa (fos'a): pi., fossae (-e): a de- 
pression, furrow or sinus, below the 
level of the surface of a part. 

fragilitas crinium (fra-jil'i-tas kri'ne- 
um): brittleness of the hair. 

frayed (frad): worn away by friction 
or use. 

freckle (frek"l): a yellow or brown 
spot on the skin; lentigo. 

free edge (fre ej): part of the nail- 
body extending over the ringer tip. 



ill; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



FREQUENCY 482 

frequency (f re'kwen-se) : the number 
of complete cycles of current pro- 
duced by an alternating current 
generator per second. Standard fre- 
quencies are 25 and 60 cycles per 
second. 

friction (frik'shun): the resistance met 
in rubbing one body on another. 

frontal (frun'tal): in front; relating to 
the forehead; the bone of the fore- 
head. 

frontalis (f ron-ta'lis) : anterior portion 
of the epicranius; muscle of the 
scalp. 

fulling (fdol'ing): a massage move- 
ment in which the limb is rolled 
back and forth between the hands. 



GUMMA 

fumigate (fu'mi-gat): disinfect by the 
action of smoke or fumes. 

function (f unk'shun) : a normal or spe- 
cial action of a part. 

fundus (fun'dus): the bottom or low- 
est part of a sac or hollow organ. 

fungus (fun'gus): a vegetable para- 
site; a spongy growth of diseased 
tissue on the body. 

furrow (fur'6): a groove; wrinkle. 

furuncle (f u-run'k'l) : a boil. 

fuse (fuz): a special device which pre- 
vents excessive current from pass- 
ing through a cirruit. 



G 



galea (gale-a): the aponeurotic por- 
tion of the occipito-frontalis muscle. 

galvanism (garva-mz'm) : a constant 
current of electricity the action of 
which is chemical. 

ganglion (gan'gle-an) ; pi., ganglia (-a): 
bundles of nerve cells in the brain, 
in organs of special sense, or forming 
units of the sympathetic nervous 
system. 

gangrene (gan-grenO: the dying of 
tissue due to interference with local 
nutrition. 

gastric juice (gas'trik jobs): the diges- 
tive fluid secreted by the glands of 
the stomach. 

generator (jen'er-a-ter): a machine 
for changing mechanical energy into 
electrical energy; a dynamo; an ap- 
paratus for producing heat. 

germ (jurm): a bacillus; a microbe. 

germicide (jur'mi-sid): any chemical, 
especially a solution that will de- 
stroy germs. 

germinative layer (jur-mi-na'tiv la'- 
er): stratum germinativum; the 
deepest layer of the epidermis rest- 
ing on the corium. 

germitabs (jur'mi-tabs): a trade name; 
special tablets, which, when dis- 
solved in water, form an antiseptic 
solution. 

gland (gland): a secretory organ of 
the body. 



glossopharyngeal (glos-6-f a-rm'je-al) : 
pertaining to the tongue and phar- 
ynx; the ninth cerebral nerve. 

glycerin; glycerine (glis'er-in) : sweet 
oily fluid, used as an application for 
roughened and chapped skin; also 
used as a solvent. 

gonococcus (gon-6-kok'us) ; pi., gono- 
cocci (-se): the germ causing gon- 
orrhea. 

gonorrhea (gon-6-re'a) : a contagious 
disease of the sex organs. 

granular layer (gran'u-lar la'er): the 
stratum granulosum of the skin. 

granules (gran'ulz): small grains; 
small pills. 

granulosum (gran'u-los'um) : granular 
layer of the epidermis. 

great auricular (grat o-rik'u-lar) : a 
nerve affecting the face, ear and 
skin behind the ear. 

greater occipital (grat'er ok-sip'e-tal) : 
nerve affecting the scalp and back 
of the head as far up as the top 
of the head. 

gristle (gris"l): cartilage. 

groom (groom): to make neat or tidy. 

ground wire (ground wir): a wire 
which connects an electric current 
to a ground (waterpipe or radiator). 

gumma (gum'a): the gummy tumor 
in the tertiary stage of syphilis. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, vent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



HABIT 



483 



HERPES 



habit (hab'it): an acquired tendency 
to repetition. 

hacking (hak'ing): a chopping stroke 
made with the edge of the hand in 
massage. 

hair (har): pilus; a slender thread-like 
outgrowth of the skin and scalp. 

hair bobbing (bob'ing): the term com- 
monly applied to the cutting of wo- 
men's and children's hair. 

hair bulb (bulb): the lower extremity 
of the hair. 

hair clipping (klip'ing): removing the 
hair by the use of hair clippers; re- 
moving split hair ends of the hair 
with the scissors. 

haircutting (har'kut'ing) : cutting and 
molding the hair into a becoming 
style. 

hair dressing (har dres'mg): art of 
arranging the hair into various be- 
coming shapes or styles. 

hair dyeing (di'ing): to give the hair 
new and permanent color by im- 
pregnating it with a coloring agent. 

hair follicle (fol'i-k'l): the depression 
in the skin containing the root of 
the hair. 

hairline (har'lin): the edge of the 
scalp at the brow or neck where the 
hair growth begins. 

hair papilla (har pa-pil'a): a small 
cone-shaped elevation at the bottom 
of the hair follicle. 

hair pressing (pres'mg): a method of 
straightening curly or kinky hair by 
means of a heated iron or comb. 

hair pressing oil (oil): an oily or waxy 
mixture used in hair pressing. 

hair restorer (re-stor'er) : a prepara- 
tion containing a metallic dye. 

hair root (root): that part of the hair 
contained within the follicle. 

hair shaft (shaft): the portion of the 
hair which projects beyond the skin. 

hair shaping (shaping): the art of 
haircutting. 

hair straightener (strat'n-er) : a phy- 
sical or chemical agent used in 
straightening kinky or over-curly 
hair. 

hair test (test): a sampling of how 
the hair will react to a particular 
treatment. 



hair tint (tint): to give a coloring to 
the hair; color or shade of hair. 

hair trim (trim): trimming; cutting 
the hair lightly over the already ex- 
isting formed lines. 

halitosis (haT'i-to'sis) : offensive odor 
from the mouth; foul breath. 

hamamelis (ham-a-me'lis) : a shrub of 
eastern North America; witch-hazel 
is an extract of this plant, and is 
used as an astringent. 

hangnail (hang'nal): a tearing up of a 
strip of epidermis at the side of the 
nail; agnail. 

hard water (hard wo'ter): water con- 
taining certain minerals; does not 
lather with soap. 

Haversian canals (ha-vur'shan ka- 
nalzO: small channels in bone tissue 
which contain minute blood vessels. 

health (helth): state of being hale or 
sound in body and mind. 

heart (hart): a hollow muscular organ 
which, by contracting regularly keeps 
up the circulation of the blood. 

hematidrosis; hemidrosis (hem"a-ti- 
dro'sis, hem-i-dro'sis) : the excretion 
of sweat stained with blood or blood 
coloring. 

hematocyte (he'ma-to-sit) : a blood 
corpuscle. 

hemi (hem'i): a prefix signifying half. 

hemoglobin; haemoglobin (he"m6-gl6'- 
bin): the coloring matter of the 
red blood cell. 

hemorrhage (hem'6-raj): bleeding; a 
flow of blood, especially when pro- 
fuse. 

henna (hen'a) : the leaves of an Asiatic 
plant used as a dye to impart a red- 
dish tint. 

henna, compound (kom'pound): Egyp- 
tian henna to which has been added 
one or more metallic preparations. 

henna, white (whit): a mixture of 
magnesium carbonate, peroxide and 
ammonia used in giving a bleach 
retouch. 

heredity (he-red'i-ti) : the transfer of 
qualities or disease from parents to 
offspring. 

herpes (hiir'pez): an inflammatory di- 
sease of the skin having small vesi- 
cles in clusters. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



HERPES SIMPLEX 

herpes simplex (sim'pleks): fever blis- 
ter; cold sore. 

hidrosis (hi-dro'sis) : abnormally pro- 
fuse sweating. 

high-frequency, tesla (hi-fre'kwen-se, 
tes'la): violet ray; an electric current 
of medium voltage and medium am- 
perage. 

hirsute (hur'sut; her-sut'); hirsuties. 

hirsuties (hur-su'shi-ez) ; hypertricho- 
sis; growth of an unusual amount of 
hair in unusual locations, as on the 
face of women or the back of men; 
hairy; superfluous hair. 

histology (his-tol'o-je): the science of 
the minute structure of organic tis- 
sues; microscopic anatomy. 

hives (hivz): urticaria; a skin eruption. 

hormone (hor'mon): a chemical sub- 
stance formed in one organ or part 
of the body and carried in the blood 
to another organ or part which it 
stimulates to functional activity. 

humidity (hu-mid'i-ti) : moisture; 
dampness. 

hydro (hl'dro): a prefix denoting wa- 
ter; hydrogen. 

hydrocystoma (hid-ro-sis-to'ma) : a 
variety of sudamina appearing on 
the face. 



484 



INFECTION, LOCAL 



hydrogen (hi'dro-jen): a gaseous ele- 
ment, lighter than any other known 
substance. 

hydrogen peroxide (per-ok'sid) : a 
powerful oxidizing and bleaching 
agent; in liquid form is used as an 
antiseptic. 

hygiene (hi-jen): the science of pre- 
serving health. 

hygroscopic (hi-gro'skop'ik): readily 
absorbing and holding moisture. 

hyoid (hi'-oid): the "u" shaped bone at 
the base of the tongue. 

hyperemia (hi"per-e'me-a) : the pres- 
ence of an excessive quantity of 
blood in a part of the body. 

hyperhidrosis, hyperidrosis (hi"per-i- 
dro'sis) : excessive sweating. 

hypersecretion (hr"per-se-kre'shun) : 
excessive secretion. 

hypertrophy (hi"per-tr6'fe) : abnormal 
increase in the size or a part of an 
organ; overgrowth. 

hypo (hi'po): a prefix denoting under; 
beneath; lower state of oxidation. 

hypodermic (hr'po-dur'mik) : beneath 
the skin; a liquid injection into the 
subcutaneous tissues. 

hypoglossal (hr'po-glos'al): under the 
tongue; the twelfth cerebral nerve. 



I 



idiosyncrasy (id-e-6-sm'kra-se) : an 
individual characteristic due to the 
action of certain drugs or substances 
in certain food. 

imbrications of hair: tiny overlapping 
scales found on the hair cuticle. 

immerse (I-mursO: to plunge into; dip 
into a liquid. 

immiscible (i-mis'i-b'l) : a liquid that 
will not mix with another liquid. 

immunity (i-mun'i-te) : resistant to 
disease. 

impetigo (im-pe-ti'go) : an eruption of 
pustules, which soon rupture or be- 
come crusted, occurring chiefly on 
the face around the mouth and the 
nostrils. 

impetigo contagiosa (k6n-ta"je-6'sa): 
scrum-pox; a contagious disease, 
characterized by an eruption of flat 
vesicles and pustules. 

implement (im'ple-ment) : an instru- 
ment or tool used by man to ac- 
complish a given work. 



in (in): a prefix denoting not; nega- 
tive; within; inside. 

incandescent (m-kan-des'ent) : giving 
forth light and heat. 

incubation (in-ku-ba'shun) : the per- 
iod of a disease between the im- 
planting of the contagion and the 
development of the symptoms. 

index (in'deks): the forefinger; the 
pointing finger. 

induction (m-duk'shun) : the transfer 
of electricity from a current to a 
magnetized object. 

inert (m-urt): inactive. 

infection (m-f ek'shun) : the invasion 
of the body tissues by disease germs. 

infection, general (jen'er-el): the re- 
sult of the disease germs gaining 
entrance into the blood stream and 
thereby circulating throughout the 
entire body. 

infection, local (16'kal): confined to 
only certain portions of the body, 
such as an abscess. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, vent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



INFECTIOUS 

infectious (m-f ek'shus) : capable of 
spreading infection. 

inferior (in-fe're-er): situated lower 
down, or nearer the bottom or base. 

inferioris (in-f e"re-6r'is) : below; 
lower. 

inflammation (in-na-ma'shun) : the re- 
action of the body to irritation with 
accompanying redness, pain, heat, 
and swelling. 

influenza (in-fldb-en'za) : a contagious 
epidemic catarrhal fever, with great 
weakness and varying symptoms. 

infra (m'fra) : a prefix denoting below; 
lower. 

infra-mandibular (m''fra-man-dib'u- 
lar): below the lower jaw. 

infra-mental (men'tal): below the 
chin. 

infra-orbital (or'bi-tal): below the or- 
bit; nerve affecting the skin of low- 
er eyelid, side of nose, upper lip, 
mouth and their glands. 

infra-red (in"f ra-red) : pertaining to 
that part of the spectrum lying out- 
side of the visible spectrum and be- 
low the red rays. 

infra-trochlear (trokle-ar) : nerve af- 
fecting the membrane and skin of 
the nose. 

ingrown hair (In'gron har): a wild 
hair that has grown underneath the 
skin, thereby causing an infection. 

ingrown nail (m'gron nal): the growth 
of the nail into the flesh instead of 
toward the tip of the finger or toe, 
thereby causing an infection. 

inhalation (in-ha-la'shun) : the in- 
breathing of air or other vapors. 

innervation (in-er-va'shun) : distribu- 
tion of the nerves in a part. 

inoculation (m-ok-u-la'shun) : the 
process by which protective agents 
are introduced into the body. 

inorganic (m-6r-gan'ik) : composed of 
matter not relating to living organ- 
isms. 

insanitary; unsanitary (i-san'i-ta-re) ; 
un-); not sanitary or healthful; in- 
jurious to health; unclean. 



485 JUGULAR 

insoluble (in-sol'u-b'l) : incapable of 
being dissolved or very difficult to 
dissolve. 

instantaneous (m-stan-ta'ne-us) : act- 
ing immediately. 

insulator (in'su-la-ter) : a non-con- 
ducting material or substance. Ma- 
terials used to cover electric wires. 

insurance (m-shobr'ans) : protection 
against loss, damage or injury. 

integument (in-teg'u-ment) : a cover- 
ing, especially the skin. 

inter (m'ter): a prefix denoting amid; 
between; among. 

intercellular (m-ter-sel'u-lar) : be- 
tween or among cells. 

interior (in-te're-er) : inside. 

internal (m-tur'nal) : pertaining to the 
inside; inner part. 

interims (in-tur'nus) : internal; per- 
taining to the inside. 

interosseous (m-ter-os'e-us) : lying be- 
tween or connecting bones. 

intestine (m-tes'tm) : the digestive 
tube from the stomach to the anus. 

invasion (in-va'zhun) : the beginning 
of a disease. 

involuntary muscle (In-v6run-ta-re 
musl): function without the action 
of the will. 

iodine d'6-dm; -din): a non-metallic 
element used as an antiseptic for 
cuts, bruises, etc. 

ion (I'on): an atom or group of atoms 
carrying an electric charge. 

ionization (I-6n-i-za'shun) : the separ- 
ating of a substance into ions. 

irradiation (i-ra"di-a'shun) : the pro- 
cess of exposing an object to the 
natural or artificial sunlight. 

irritability (ir-i-ta-bil'i-ti) : readily ex- 
cited or stimulated. 

irritant (ir'i-tant): causing irritation; 
an irritating agent; a stimulus. 

ive (iv): a word ending meaning re- 
lating or belonging to, such as 
active. 

ize (iz): a word ending forming verbs, 
such as sterilize. 



jowl (jol): the hanging part of a 

double chin. 
joint (joint): a connection between 

two or more bones. 



jugular ( joo'gu-lar) : pertaining to the 
neck or throat; the large vein in the 
neck. 



HI; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



KELOID 



486 



LOTION 



keloid (keloid): a fibrous growth 
arising from irritation and usually 
from a scar. 

keratin (ker'a-tm): the principal con- 
stituent of horny tissues, hair, nails 
and feathers. 

kidney (kid'ne): a glandular organ 
which excretes urine. 



kilowatt (klTo-wot): one thousand 
watts of electricity. 

kinky (kmk'i): very curly hair. 

knead (ned): to work and press with 
the hands as in massage. 

knowledge (nol'ej): instruction; learn- 
ing; practical skill. 



laboratory (lab'6-ra-to-re) : a room 
containing apparatus for conducting 
experiments. 

lachrymal; lacrimal (lak'ri-mal) : per- 
taining to tears or weeping; bone at 
front part of inner wall of the orbit. 

lac tea Is (lak'te-alz): any one of the 
lymphatics of the small intestines 
that take up the chyle. 

lanolin (lan'6-lin): purified wool fat. 

lanugo (la-nu'go): the fine hair which 
covers most of the body. 

larkspur (lark'spur): the seeds of the 
Delphinium plant; its tincture is 
used to treat head lice. 

larynx (lar'mks): the upper part of 
the trachea or wind pipe; the organ 
of voice production. 

lateral (lat'er-al): on the side. 

lather (lath'er): froth made by mix- 
ing soap and water. 

latissimus dorsi (la-tis'i-mus dor'si): 
a broad, flat superficial muscle of 
the back. 

laxative (lak'sa-tiv) : a medicinal agent 
which relieves constipation. 

layer cutting (la'er kut'ing): tapering 
and thinning the hair by dividing 
it into many thin layers. 

lemon rinse (lem'un rins): a product 
containing lemon juice or citric acid; 
used to lighten the color of the hair. 

lentigo (len-tl'go): pi., lentigines (len- 
ti-jl'nez): a freckle; spot or colora- 
tion in the skin. 

lesion (le'zhun): a structural tissue 
change caused by injury or disease. 

lesser (smaller) occipital (les'er 6k- 
sip'i-tal): the nerve supplying scalp 
area at the base of the skull. 

leuco (lu'ko): a prefix denoting white; 
colorless. 

leucocyte (lu'ko-sit): a white corpus- 
cle; white blood cell. 



leucoderma (lu-ko-dur'ma) : abnormal 
white patches on the skin; absence 
of color in the skin. 

leuconychia (lu-ko-mk'e-a) : a whitish 
discoloration of nails; white spots. 

levator (le-va'tor): a muscle that ele- 
vates a part. 

levator anguli oris (ang'u-li or'is): ca- 
ninus; muscle that raises the angle 
of mouth and helps to keep it closed. 

levator labii superioris (la'be-I su-pe- 
re-6r'is): quadratus labii superioris; 
muscle that elevates and draws back 
upper lip and dilates the nostril. 

levator palpebrae superioris (pal'pe- 
bre): muscle that raises upper eye- 
lid. 

ligament (Hg'a-ment) : a tough band 
of fibrous tissue, serving to support 
bones at the joints. 

light therapy (lit ther'a-pe): the ap- 
plication of light rays for treatment 
of diseases. 

liquefy (lik'we-fi): to reduce to the 
liquid state; said of both solids and 
gases. 

liquid (Hk'wid): flowing like water; a 
fluid that is not solid or gaseous. 

liquor cresolis compound (Kk'er kre' 
sol'is kom'pound): a powerful ger- 
micide. 

listerine (Hs-ter-enO : a trade name; a 
mild antiseptic in liquid form. 

litmus paper (Ht'mus pa'per): strip of 
paper containing a blue coloring 
matter that is reddened by acids 
and turned blue again by alkalies. 

liver (H'ver): an internal organ which 
secretes bile for digestion. 

liver spots (liv'er spots): the lesions 
of chloasma. 

locomotion (lo-ko-mo'shun) : animal 
movement. 

lotion (16'shun): a liquid solution used 
for bathing the skin. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, vent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



LOUSE 



487 



louse (lous); pi., lice (Us): pediculus; 
an animal parasite infesting the 
hairs of the head. 

lubricant (lu'bri-kant) : anything that 
makes things smooth and slippery, 
such as oil. 

lung (lung): one of the two organs of 
respiration. 

lunula (lu'nu-la): the half moon- 
shaped area at the base of the nail. 



MENTAL NERVE 

lymph (Hmf): a clear yellowish or 
light straw colored fluid. 

lymphatic system (Hm-fat'ik sis'tem): 
consists of lymph flowing through 
the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, 
lacteals, and lymph nodes or glands. 

lysol (li'sol): a trade name; a disin- 
fectant and antiseptic; a mixture of 
soaps and phenols. 



M 



macroscopic (mak-ro-skop'ik) : visible 

to the unaided eye. 
macula (mak'u-la); pi., maculae (-le): 
a spot or discoloration level with 
skin; a freckle; macule. 
magnet (mag'net) : an instrument hav- 
ing the power to attract iron bodies. 
magnify (mag'ni-fl): to increase the 

size or importance of. 
malar (ma'lar): of or pertaining to the 

cheek; the cheek bone. 
malignant (ma-lig'nant) : resistant to 
treatment; growing worse; occurring 
in severe form. 

malnutrition (mal-nu-trish'un) : poor 
nutrition resulting from the eating 
of improper foods or faulty assim- 
ilation. 

malpighian (mal-pig'e-an) : stratum 
mucosum; the deeper portion of the 
epidermis. 
management (man'aj-ment): directing; 

carrying on; control. 
mandible (man'di-b'l): the lower jaw 

bone. 

mandibular nerve (man-dib'u-lar 
nurv): branch of the fifth cerebral 
nerve which supplies the temple, 
auricle of ear, lower lip, lower part 
of face and muscles of mastication. 
manipulation (ma-nip-u-la'shun): act 
or process of treating, working or 
operating with the hands or by me- 
chanical means, especially with skill. 
manus (ma'nus); pi., mani (-ni): the 

hand. 

marrow (mar'6): a soft fatty sub- 
stance filling the cavities of bone. 
mask (mask): a special cosmetic form- 
ula used to beautify the face. 
massage (ma-sazhO: systematic manip- 
ulations of body tissues with the 
hands and/or mechanical or elec- 
trical appliances. 



masseter (ma-se'ter): a chewer; the 
muscle which closes the jaws. 

masseur (ma-surO: a man who prac- 
tices massage. , 

masseuse (ma-suzO: a woman who 
practices massage. 

mastication (mas-ti-ka'shun) : the act 
of chewing. 

mastoid process (mas'toyd pros'es): a 
conical nipple-like projection of the 
temporal bone. 

matter (mat'er): pus; a substance that 
occupies space and has weight. 

maxilla (mak-si'la): jaw bone. 

maxilla, inferior (m-fe're-er): lower 
jaw bone or mandible. 

maxilla, superior (su-pe're-er) : upper 
jaw bone. 

mechanical (me-kan'i-kal) : relating to 
a machine; performed by means of 
some apparatus not manual. 

medial; median (me'de-al; -an): per- 
taining to the middle. 

medicine (med'i-sin): a drug; the art 
of preventing or curing disease. 

medius (me'de-us): the middle finger. 

medulla (me-duTa) : the marrow in the 
various bone cavities; pith of the hair. 

medulla oblongata (ob-lon-ga'ta) : the 
lowest, or posterior part of the brain, 
continuous with the spinal cord. 

medullary space (med'u-la-re spas): 
the cavity through the shaft of the 
long bones. 

mega (meg'a): a prefix denoting great; 
extended; powerful; a million. 

melanin (mel'a-nm) : the dark or black 

coloring which imparts various 

shades of coloring to skin and hair. 

membrane (mem'bran): a thin layer 

of tissue, serving as a covering. 
mental nerve (men'tal nurv): a nerve 
which supplies the skin of the lower 
lip and chin. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



MENTALIS 

mentalis (men-ta'lis) : the muscle that 
elevates and pushes up the lower lip. 

mercurochrome (mer-ku'ro-krom) : a 
trade name; a germicide. 

mercury bichloride (mur'ku-re bi-klo'- 
rid): a powerful germicide, poison- 
ous and also corrosive to metal. 

mercury cyanide (si'a-md): a power- 
ful germicide, very poisonous. 

meso (mes'6): a prefix denoting in the 
middle; intermediate. 

meta (met'a): a prefix signifying over; 
beyond; among. 

metabolism (me-tab'6-liz'm) : the con- 
structive and destructive life pro- 
cesses of the cell. 

metacarpus (met-a-kar'pus) : the bones 
of the palm of the hand. 

metatarsus (met-a-tar'sus) : the bones 
which make up the instep of the 
foot. 

metallic (me-tal'ik): relating to, or re- 
sembling metal. 

meter (me'ter): an instrument used 
for measuring; a measure of length, 
the basis of the metric system. 

metric (met'rik): pertaining to the 
meter as a standard of measurement. 

micro (mi'kro) : a prefix denoting very 
small; slight; millionth part of. 

microbe (ml'krdb): a micro-organism; 
a minute one-celled vegetable bac- 
terium. 

micrococcus (mi-kro-kok'us) : a mi- 
nute bacterial cell having a spherical 
shape. 

micro-organism (mi"kr6-6r'gan-iz'm') : 
microscopic plant or animal cell; a 
bacterium. 

microscope (mi'kro-skop) : an instru- 
ment for making enlarged views of 
minute objects. 

mid (mid): a prefix denoting the mid- 
dle part. 

milliampere (mil-e-am-par) : one thou- 
sandth of an ampere. 

milliamperemeter (-me'ter): an elec- 
trical instrument which registers the 
amount of current required for a 
given treatment. 

miliaria (mil-e-a're-a) : an eruption of 
minute blisters at the mouths of the 
sweat glands. 

miliaria rubra (robb'ra): prickly heat; 
burning and itching usually caused 
by exposure to excessive heat. 



488 MUSCLE OIL 

miliary fever (rmTe-a-re fe'ver): 
sweating sickness; an infectious di- 
sease characterized by fever, profuse 
sweating and sudamina. 

milium (miFe-um); pi., milia (-a): 
a small whitish pimple due to a re- 
tention of sebum, beneath the epi- 
dermis; a whitehead. 

mineral (min'er-al) : any inorganic 
material found in the earth's crust. 

minor (min'er): smaller; lesser; under 
age. 

mitosis (mi-to'sis): indirect nuclear 
division, the usual process of repro- 
duction of the human cells. 

mobility (mo-bil'i-ti) : being easily 
moved. 

mode (mod): fashion; way; style. 

mold; mould (mold): to form into a 
particular shape. 

mole (mol): a small brownish spot on 
the skin. 

molecule (mol'e-kul): the smallest 
possible unit of existence of any 
substance. 

monilethrix (mo-nil'e-thriks) : a con- 
dition in which the hairs show 
bead-like enlargements along the 
shaft and become brittle; beaded 
hair. 

morbid (mor'bid): diseased. 

motile (mo'til): having the power of 
movement, as certain bacteria. 

motor nerves (mo'ter mirvz): carry 
impulses from nerve centers to mus- 
cles for certain motions. 

motor oculi (ok'u-H): oculomotor; 
third cerebral nerve; the nerve con- 
trolling most of the eye muscles. 

mucous membrane (mu-kus mem'- 
bran): a membrane secreting mu- 
cus. 

mucus (mu'kus): the clear thick se- 
cretion which lubricates the mu- 
cous membranes found at natural 
openings of the body. 

mug (mug): a cup used for shaving 
soap. 

muscle (mus"l): the contractile tissue 
of the body by which movement is 
accomplished. 

muscle oil (oil): an oil, vegetable or 
mineral, in which either lecithin or 
cholesterin is dissolved; used in con- 
junction with massage to relieve fa- 
tigue and sore muscles. 



fate, senate, care, fan, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, event, end, recent, ever; Ice, 



MUSCLE STRAPPING 



muscle strapping (strap'ing): a heavy 
massage treatment used to reduce 
fatty deposits. 

muscle tone (ton): the normal degree 
of tension in a healthy muscle. 



489 NON-STRIATED 

myology (mi-61'6- je) : the science of 
the function, structure, and diseases 
of muscles. 



N 



naevus; nevus (ne'vus); pi., naevi; 
nevi (vi): a birthmark; a congenital 
skin blemish. 

nail (nal): unguis; the horny protect- 
ive plate located at the end of the 
finger or toe. 

nail-bed (bed): that portion of the 
skin on which the body of the nail 
rests. 

nail-body (bod'e): the horny nail 
blade resting upon the nail-bed. 

nail-fold (f old) : _nail-wall. 

nail-grooves (groovz): the furrows be- 
tween the nail-walls and the nail- 
bed. 

nail matrix (ma'triks): the portion of 
the nail-bed extending beneath the 
nail-root. 

nail-root (root): located at the base of 
the nail, imbedded underneath the 
skin. 

nail-wall (wol): cuticle covering the 
sides and base of the nail body. 

nape (nap) : the back part of the neck. 

naris (na'ris); pi., nares (-rez): a nos- 
tril. 

nasalis (na-sa'lis): a muscle of the 
nose. 

nasociliary (na-zo-sfl'ya-re) : a nerve 
affecting the mucous membrane of 
the nose. 

neck duster (nek dus'ter): a brush 
used to brush the hair from the 
neck after cutting; in most states its 
use is prohibited. 

neck line (nek lin): in hair cutting, 
where the hair growth of the head 
ends and the neck begins; hair line. 

negative (neg'a-tiv): the opposite of 
positive; expressing denial. 

negative pole, N. or (pol): the pole 
from which negative current flows. 

nerve (nurv) : a whitish cord, made up 
of bundles of nerve fibers, through 
which impulses are carried. 

nerve papillae (pa-pil'e): a bundle of 
nerve tissue in the derma. 



nervous (nur'vus): easily excited. 

network (net'wurk): any system of 
lines crossing each other at certain 
intervals. 

neuritis (nu-ri'tis): inflammation of 
nerves. 

neurology (nu-rol'6- je) : the science of 
the structure, function and pathol- 
ogy of the nervous system. 

neuron (nu'ron): the unit of the ner- 
vous system, consisting of the nerve 
cell and its various processes, 

neurosis (nu-ro'sis): a functional ner- 
vous disorder. 

neutral (nu'tral): exhibiting no posi- 
tive properties; indifferent; in chem- 
istry, neither acid nor alkaline. 

neutralization (nu-tral-i-za'shun) : the 
rendering ineffective of any action 
or process; a chemical reaction be- 
tween an acid and a base. 

neutralizer (nu'tral-iz-er) : an agent 
capable of neutralizing another sub- 
stance. 

nevus (ne'vus): a birthmark. 

nit (mt): the egg of a louse, usually 
attached to a hair. 

nitrogen (m'tro-jen): a colorless gas- 
eous element, tasteless and odorless 
found in air and living tissue. 

node (nod): a knot or knob; a swell- 
ing; a knuckle or finger joint. 

nodosa (no-dos'a): having nodes or 
knot-like swellings. 

nodule (nod'ul): a small node. 

non (non): a prefix denoting not. 

non-conductor (non-kon-duk'ter) : any 
substance that resists the passage of 
electricity, light or heat towards or 
through it. 

non-pathogenic (non-path-6- jen'ik) : 
non-disease producing; growth pro- 
moting. 

non-striated (stri'at-ed): involuntary 
muscle function without the action 
of the will; consists of spindle shaped 
cells without striations; smooth mus- 
cle. 



Ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



NON-VASCULAR 



490 



OSIS 



non-vascular (vas'ku-lar) : not sup- 
plied with blood vessels. 

nourishment (nur'ish-ment) : anything 
which nourishes; nutriment; food. 

noxious (nok'shus): harmful; poison- 
ous. 



nucleus (nu'kle-us); pi., nuclei (-1). 

the active center of cells, 
nutrition (nu-trish'un) : the process of 

nourishment. 



obese (6-bes): extremely fat. 

oblique (ob-lek'; -Ilk); obliquis (-us); 
slanting, or inclined. 

obnoxious odor (6b-n6k'shus 6-der): 
offensive ; hateful . 

occipital (ok-sip'i-tal) : pertaining to 
the back part of the head; the bone 
which forms the back and lower 
part of the cranium. 

occipito-frontalis (ok-sip'i-to-fron-ta'- 
lis): epicranius; the scalp muscle. 

occiput (ok'si-put): the back of the 
head. 

occupational disease (ok-u-pa'shun-al 
di-zez): due to certain kinds of em- 
ployment, such as coming into con- 
tact with chemicals, dyes, etc. 

oculomotor (6k"u-16-m6'ter): third 
cerebral nerve; controlling the mo- 
tion of the eye. 

oculus (ok'u-lus): pi., oculi (li): the 
eye. 

odor (6'der): smell. 

offensive (6-fen'siv): giving offense; 
disagreeable; obnoxious; distasteful. 

ohm (6m): a unit of measurement 
used to denote the amount of resist- 
ance in an electrical system or de- 
vice. 

Ohm's law (om's 16): the simple state- 
ment that the current in an electric 
circuit is equal to the pressure di- 
vided by the resistance. 

oil (oil): a greasy liquid. 

ointment (oint'ment): a fatty, medica- 
ted mixture used externally. 

olfactory (61-fak'to-re): relating to the 
sense of smell; first cerebral nerve, 
the special nerve of smell. 

onychia (6-mk'e-a): inflammation of 
the matrix of the nail with pus for- 
mation and shedding of the nail 

onychophagy (on-i-kof'a-je): the habit 
of eating or biting the nails. 



onychorrhexis (on-i-ko-rek'sis) : ab- 
normal brittleness of the nails with 
splitting of the free edge. 

onyx (6-niks): a nail of the fingers 
or toes. 

opaque (6-pak): not transparent to 
light. 

operator (op'er-a-ter) : one who is 
able to perform correctly any ser- 
vice rendered professionally in the 
care of the face, hair, etc. 

ophthalmic (of-thal'mik) : pertaining 
to the eye. 

optic (op'tic): second cerebral nerve; 
the nerve of sight; pertaining to the 
eye, or to vision. 

optimistic (op-ti-mis'tik) : hoping for 
the best. 

orbicular (or-bik'u-lar) : circular; a 
muscle whose fibers are circularly 
arranged. 

orbicularis oculi (6k'u-H): orbicularis 
palpebrarum; the ring muscle of the 
eye. 

orbicularis oris (or-bik'u-la'ris o'ris): 
orbicular muscle; muscle of the 
mouth. 

orbit (or'bit): the bony cavity of the 
eyeball; the eye-socket. 

organ (6r-gan): any part of the body 
exercising a specific function. 

organic (or-gan'ik): relating to an or- 
gan; pertaining to substances de- 
rived from living organisms. 

organism (or'gan-iz'm) : any living be- 
ing, either animal or vegetable. 

orifice (or'i-fis): a mouth; an opening. 

origin (or'i-jin): the beginning; the 
starting point of a nerve; the place 
of attachment of a muscle to a bone. 

oris (o'ris): pertaining to the mouth; 
an opening. 

orris root (or'is root): a special pow- 
der used to give a dry shampoo. 

os (6s): a bone. 

osis (6'sis): a word ending denoting 
an abnormal or a diseased condition. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, fcvent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



OSMIDROSIS 

osmidrosis (os-mi-dro'sis; 6z-): brom- 
idrosis; foul smelling perspiration. 

osmosis (os-mo'sis 6z-): the passage 
of fluids and solution through a 
membrane or other porous sub- 
stance. 

osseous; osseus (os'e-us): bony. 

osteology (os-te-ol'o-je): science of 
the anatomy, structure, and function 
of bones. 



491 PETROLEUM 

Oudin current (<56'dm kur'rent): high 
frequency current of high voltage 
and low amperage. 

oxidation (ok-si-da'shun): the act of 
combining oxygen with another sub- 
stance. 

oxygen (ok'si-jen): a gaseous element, 
essential to animal and plant life. 

oxygenation (6k"si-je-na'shun): com- 
bination with oxygen as the blood 
passes through the lungs. 



pack (pak): a special cosmetic formu- 
la used to beautify the face. 

palate (parat): the roof of the mouth 
and the floor of the nose. 

palatine bones (bonz): situated at the 
back part of the nasal fossae. 

palmar (pal'mar): referring to the 
palm of the hand. 

palpebra (pal'pe-bra); pi., palpebrae 
(-bre): eyelid. 

palpebrarum (pal-pe-bra'rum): of or 
pertaining to the eyelids. 

pancreas (pan'kre-as) : a gland con- 
nected with the digestive tract. 

papilla, hair (pa-pil'a, har): a small 
cone-shaped elevation at the bottom 
of the hair follicle in the dermis. 

papillary layer (pap'i-la-re la'er): the 
outer layer of the dermis. 

papular (pap'u-lar): characterized by 
papules. 

papule (pap'ul): a pimple; a small, 
enclosed elevation on the skin con- 
taining no fluid. 

para (pa'ra): a prefix denoting along- 
side of; beyond; beside; against; near. 

para-phenylene-diamine (par-a-fen'- 
i-len-di-am'm; di'a-men): an aniline 
derivative used in hair dyeing. 

parasite (par'a-sit): a vegetable or ani- 
mal organism which lives on or 
in another organism, and draws its 
nourishment therefrom. 

parasiticide (par-a-sit'i-sid) : a sub- 
stance that destroys parasites. 

parietal (pa-ri'e-tal) : pertaining to the 
wall of a cavity; a bone at the side 
of the head. 

paronychia (par-6-mk'e-a) : felon; an 
inflammation of the tissues sur- 
rounding the nail. 

parotid (pa-rot'id): near the ear; a 
gland near the ear. 



patch test (pach test): a skin test used 
to determine individual reaction to 
a chemical substance. 

pathogenic (path-6-jen'ik) : causing 
disease; disease producing. 

pathology (path-61'o-je): the science 
which treats of modification of the 
structural and functional changes 
caused by disease. 

patron (pa'trun): the person to whom 
service is rendered. 

pediculosis capitis (pe-dik"u-16'sis 
kap'i-tis): lousiness of the hair of 
the head. 

percussion (per-kush'un) : a form of 
massage consisting of repeated blows 
or taps of varying force. 

pH: symbol for hydrogen-ion concen- 
tration; the relative degree of acid- 
ity or alkalinity. 

peri (per'i-): a prefix denoting about; 
near; around. 

periosteum (per-i-6s'te-um) : the fi- 
brous membrane covering the sur- 
face of the bones. 

peripheral system (pe-rif'er-al sis- 
tem): consists of the nerve endings 
in the skin and sense organs. 

peroxide rinse (rms): it is used to 
lighten the color of the hair. 

personality (pur-sun-al'i-ti) : the sum 
total of physical and mental quali- 
ties in a person. 

perspiration (pur'spi-ra'shun) : sweat; 
the fluid excreted from the sweat 
glands of the skin. 

petrissage (pet-ri-saj): the kneading 
movement in massage. 

petrolatum (pet-ro-la'tum) : petroleum 
jelly; vaseline; a purified, yellow 
mixture of semi-solid hydrocarbons 
obtained from petroleum. 

petroleum (pe-tro'le-um) : an oily li- 
quid coming from the earth. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; 



PHAGOCYTE 



492 



POST 



phagocyte (fag'6-sit): a cell possessing 
the property of ingesting bacteria, 
particles, and other harmful cells. 

phalanx (falanks); pi., phalanges (fa- 
lan'jez): the long bone of the finger 
or toe. 

pharynx (far'inks): the upper portion 
of the digestive tube, behind the 
nose and mouth. 

phenol (fe'nol): carbolic acid; caus- 
tic poison; in dilute solution is used 
as an antiseptic and disinfectant. 

phoresis (fo-re'sis): the process of in- 
troducing solutions into the tissues 
through the skin by the use of gal- 
vanic current. 

phosphorus (f os'f 6r-us) : a chemical 
element found in the bones, muscles 
and the nerves. 

phyma (fi'ma): pi., phymata (fi'ma- 
ta): an enclosed swelling on the 
skin larger than a tubercle. 

physic (fiz'ik): a medicine, especially 
a laxative; drugs in general. 

physical (fiz'i-kal): relating to the 
body, as distinguished from the 
mind. 

physics (fiz'iks): the branch of science 
that deals with matter and motion 
and comprises the study of light, 
heat, electricity, sound and me- 
chanics. 

physiology (fiz-e-ol'o-je): the science 
of functions of living things. 

pigment (pig'ment): any organic col- 
oring matter, as that of the red 
blood cells, of the hair, skin and iris. 

pigmentation (pig"men-ta'shun) : the 
deposition of coloring in the skin 
or tissues. 

pilus (pilus); pi., pili (-11): hair. 

pimple (pim'p'l): any small pointed 
elevation of the skin; a papule or 
small pustule. 

pit (pit): a surface depression or hol- 
low. 

pith (pith): the marrow of bones; the 
center of the hair. 

pituitary (pi-tu'i-ter-e) : a ductless 
gland located at the base of the 
brain. 

pityriasis (pit-i-ri'a-sis) : dandruff; an 
inflammation of the skin character- 
ized by the formation and flaking of 
fine branny scales. 



pityriasis capitis simplex (kap'i-tis 
sim'pleks): a scalp inflammation 
marked by dry dandruff or branny 
scales. 

pityriasis pilaris (pi-la-ris): character- 
ized by an eruption of papules sur- 
rounding the hair follicles, each 
papule pierced by a hair, and tipped 
with a horny plug or scale. 

pityriasis steatoides (ste-a-toy'dez): a 
scalp inflammation marked by fatty 
type of dandruff characterized by 
yellowish to brownish waxy scales 
or crusts on the scalp. 

plasma (plaz'ma): the fluid part of 
the blood and lymph. 

platelets (plat'lets): blood cells which 
aid in the formation of clots. 

platysma (pla-tiz'ma) : a broad thin 
muscle of the neck. 

pledget (plej'et): a compress or small 
flat mass of lint, absorbent cotton, 
or the like. 

plexus (plek'sus): a network of nerves 
or veins. 

pluck (pluk): to pull with sudden 
force. 

pneumogastric nerve (nu-mo-gas'trik 
nurv): vagus nerve; tenth cerebral 
nerve. 

poise (poiz): the manner in which the 
head or body is carried. 

poison (poi'z'n): a substance, which 
when taken internally, is injurious 
to health, or dangerous to life. 

poison ivy (I'vi): a harmful plant 
which is poisonous to the touch. 

polarity (po-lar'i-te) : the property of 
having two opposite poles, as that 
possessed by a magnet or galvanic 
current 

pollex (pol-eks): the thumb. 

pomade (po-mad'; -mad'): a medi- 
cated ointment for the hair. 

pomphus (pom'fus): a whitish or 
pinkish elevation of the skin; a 
wheal. 

pore (por): a small opening of the 
sweat glands of the skin. 

porous (po'rus): full of pores. 

portable (por'ta-b'l) : easily carried. 

positive (poz'i-tiv): not negative; the 
presence of abnormal condition; hav- 
ing a relative high potential in elec- 
tricity. 

positive pole, P. or -)- (pol): the pole 
from which positive electricity flows. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, 6vent, end, recent, ever; Ice, 



POST 



493 



post (p5st): a prefix denoting back; 
after. 

posterior (pos-te're-er) : situated be- 
hind; coming after or behind. 

posterior auricular (6-rik'u-lar): a 
nerve which supplies muscles be- 
hind the ear and at base of the skull. 

posture (pos'tur): the position of the 
body as a whole. 

potassium hydroxide (hi-drok'sid) : a 
powerful alkali, used in the manu- 
facture of soft soaps. 

potential (po-ten'shal) : indicating pos- 
sibility; electric pressure enabling it 
to do work under suitable condi- 
tions. 

powder (pou'der): a dry mass of ex- 
tremely fine particles. 

precaution (pre-ko'shun) : to warn or 
advise beforehand. 

predisposition (pre-dis-po-zish'un): a 
condition of special susceptibility to 
disease; allergy. 

preventive (pre-ven'tiv) : a prophylac- 
tic; warding off disease. 

primary (pri'ma-re): first; primitive. 

procerus (pro-se'rus) : pyramidalis na- 
si muscle. 

process (pro'sess): a course of devel- 
opment; a projecting part. 

profession (pro-f esh'un) : vocation; 
those engaged in work which re- 
quires special knowledge to serve 
the public in a particular art. 

progressive dyes (pro-gres'iv diz) : hair 
restorers requiring time to oxidize; 
color develops gradually. 

prophylactic (pro-f i-lak'tik) : prevent- 
ing disease; relating to prophylaxis. 

prophylaxis (pro-f I-lak'sis): preven- 
tion of disease. 

proportion (pro-por'shun) : compara- 
tive relation of one thing to another. 



QUARANTINE 

protection (pro-tek'shun) : the act of 
shielding from injury. 

protein (pro'te-in): a complex organ- 
ic substance present in all living 
tissues, both animal and vegetable, 
necessary in the diet. 

protoplasm (pro'to-plaz'm) : the mate- 
rial basis of life; a substance found 
in all living cells. 

protozoa (pro-to-zo'a) : a class of ani- 
mal organisms. 

proximal (prok'sim-al) : nearest. 

psoriasis (so-ri'a-sis) : a skin disease 
with enclosed red patches, covered 
with adherent white scales. 

psychic (si'kik): relating to the mind. 

psychology (si-kol'o-je): the science 
of the mind and its operations. 

pterygium (te-rij'e-um) : a forward 
growth of the eponychium with ad- 
herence to the surface of the nail. 

pterygoideus (ter-i-goid'e-us) : intern- 
us and externus muscle between 
mandible and cheek bone, draws 
mandible forward. 

puberty (pu'ber-te): the period of life 
in which the organs of reproduction 
are developed. 

pulse (piils): the rhythmical dilation 
of an artery. 

purification (pu-ri-f i-ka'shun) : the act 
of cleaning or removing foreign 
matter. 

pus (pus): a fluid product of inflam- 
mation, consisting of a liquid con- 
taining leucocytes, dead cells and 
tissue elements. 

pustule (pus'tul): an inflamed pimple 
containing pus. 

pyogenic (pi-6-jen'ik): pus forming. 

pyramidalis nasi (pi-ram-i-da'lis na - 
si): procerus; muscle of the nose. 



Q 



quadratus labii super ioris kwod-ra'tus 
la'be-i su-pe' / re-6r / is) : a muscle of 
the upper lip. 

quality (kwol'i-ti): distinctive kind 
trait, or character. 



quarantine (kwor'an-ten) : the keeping 
of a person away from others to 
prevent spread of a contagious di- 



111; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



RADIATION 



494 



SCAB 



radiation (ra-di-a'shun) : the process 
of giving off light or heat rays. 

rash (rash): a skin eruption having 
little or no elevation. 

receptacle (re-sep'ta-k'l): a utensil 
used for storage. 

reconditioning treatment (re-kon-di- 
shun-mg tret'ment) : a treatment to 
bring the hair back to a healthy 
condition; cream or oil treatment. 

rectifier (rek'ti-f I-er) : an apparatus to 
change an alternating current of 
electricity into a direct current. 

rectus (rek'tus): in a straight line; the 
name of small muscle of the eye. 

reflex (re'fleks): an involuntary nerve 
reaction. 

relaxation (re-lak-sa'shun) : the act of 
being loose and less tense. 

reproductive (re-pro-duk'tiv) : per- 
taining to reproduction or the pro- 
cess by which plants and animals 
give rise to offspring. 

research (re-surch'): a careful search 
for facts or principles. 

residue (rez'i-du): that which remains 
after a part is taken; remainder. 

resilient (re-ziFi-ent) : elastic. 

resistance (re-zis'tans) : opposition; in 
electricity the opposition of a sub- 
stance to the passage through it of 
an electric current. 

respiration (res-pi-ra'shun) : the act of 
breathing; the process of inhaling 
air into the lungs and expelling it. 



respiratory system (re-splr'a-to-re 
sis'tem): consists of the nose, phar- 
ynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and 
lungs which assist in breathing. 

retouch (re'-tuch): application of hair 
dye or bleach to new growth of hair. 

retrahens aurem (re'tra-henz or'em): 
auricularis posterior; a muscle back 
of the ear. 

rhagades (rag'a-dez): cracks, fissures 
or chaps on the skin. 

rheostat (re-6-stat): a resistance coil; 
an instrument used to regulate the 
strength of an electric current. 

rhythm (rith'm): regular recurring 
movements. 

rickettsia (rik-et'si-a) : a type of path- 
ogenic microorganism, capable of 
producing typhus fever. 

ringed hair (rmgd har): a variety of 
canities in which the hair appears 
white or colored in rings. 

ringworm (rmg'wurm): a vegetable 
parasitic disease of the skin and its 
appendages which appears in cir- 
cular lesions and is contagious. 

rinse (rins): to cleanse with a second 
or repeated application of water af- 
ter washing; a prepared rinse water. 

risorius (ri-zor'e-us) : muscle at the 
corner of the mouth. 

rolling (ro'mg): massage movement in 
which tissues are pressed and twisted. 

root (root): in anatomy the base; the 
foundation or beginning of any part. 

rotary (ro'ta-ri): circular motion of 
the fingers as in massage. 



Sabouraud Rousseau (sa'boo-ro roo'- 
so): a discoverer of a 24-hour skin 
test used in hair dyeing to deter- 
mine whether or not a patron can 
tolerate an aniline derivative hair 
dye. 

sage tea rinse (saj te rins): given to 
darken the hair. 

saline (sa'lin): salty; containing salt. 

saliva (sa-li'va): the secretion of the 
salivary glands. 

salivary gland (sal'i-va-re gland): the 
gland in the mouth secreting saliva. 

salt (solt): the union of a base with 
an acid. 



sanitary (san'i-ta-re) : pertaining to 
cleanliness; promoting health. 

sanitation (san-i-ta'shun) : the use of 
methods to bring about favorable 
conditions of health. 

saponification (sa-pon'i-f i-ka'shun) : 
act, process or result of changing 
into soap. 

saprophyte (sap'ro-f it) : a micro-or- 
ganism which grows normally on 
dead matter, as distinguished from 
a parasite. 

saturate (sat'u-rat): to cause to be- 
come soaked. 

scab (skab): a crust formed on the 
surface of a sore. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, fevent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



SCABIES 



495 



scabies (ska'bi-ez): a skin disease 
caused by an animal parasite, at- 
tended with intense itching; the 
itch. 

scale (skal): any thin plate of horny 
epidermis; regular markings used as 
a standard in measuring and weigh- 
ing. 

scalp (skalp): the skin covering of 
the cranium. 

scalpial (skarpe-al): the technical 
term for general all around treat- 
ment of the scalp. 

scapula (skap'u-la): the shoulder 
blade; a large flat triangular bone of 
the shoulder. 

scar (skar): a mark remaining after a 
wound has healed. 

scarf skin (skarf skin): epidermis. 

science (si'ens): knowledge duly ar- 
ranged and systematized. 

scientific (sl-en-tif'ik): pertaining to, 
or used in science. 

scrum-pox (skrum'poks) : impetigo 
contagiosa. 

scurf (skurf): thin dry scales or scabs 
on the body especially on the scalp; 
dandruff. 

sebaceous (se-ba'shus) : oily; fatty. 
sebaceous cyst (sist): an enlarged oily 

or fatty sac. 
sebaceous glands (glandz): oil glands 

of the skin. 
seborrhea (seb-6-re'a) : over-action of 

the sebaceous glands. 
seborrhea oleosa (6-le-o'sa): excessive 

oiliness of the skin, particularly the 

forehead and nose. 
seborrhea sicca (sik'a): dandruff; pity- 

riasis. 

sebum (se'bum): the fatty or oily se- 
cretions of the sebaceous glands. 

secondary (sek'un-da-re) : second in 
order. 

secretion (se-kre'shun) : a product 
manufactured by a gland for a use- 
ful purpose. 

sectioning (sek'shun-ing) : dividing the 
hair into separate parts. 

segment (seg'ment): to divide and re- 
divide into small equal parts. 

selector switch (se-lek'ter swich): an 
apparatus used to select the kind of 
current desired for a treatment. 



SLEEK 

senility (se-nu'i-te) : quality or state 
of being old. 

sensation (sen-sa'shun) : a feeling or 
impression arising as a result of 
the stimulation of an afferent nerve. 

sensitive (sen'si-tiv) : easily affected 
by outside influences. 

sensory nerve (sen'so-re nurv): affer- 
ent nerve; a nerve carrying sensa- 
tions. 

sepsis (sep'sis): the presence of var- 
ious pus forming and other harmful 
organisms, or their toxins, in the 
blood or tissues. 

septic (sep'tik): relating to or caused 
by sepsis. 

septum (sep'tum): a dividing wall; a 
partition. 

serous (se'rus): relating to, or contain- 
ing serum. 

serratus anterior (se-ra'tus an-te're- 
er): a muscle of the chest assisting 
in breathing and in raising the arm. 

sewage (su'aj): the waste matter, sol- 
id and liquid, passing through a 
sewer. 

shaft (shaft): slender stem-like struc- 
ture; the long slender part of the 
hair above the scalp. 

shampoo (sham-poo): to subject the 
scalp and hair to washing and rub- 
bing with some cleansing agent such 
as soap and water. 

sheen (shen): gloss; brightness. 

shingling (shingling): cutting a wom- 
an's hair close to the nape of the 
neck and gradually longer toward 
the crown. 

short wave (short wav): a form of 
high-frequency current used in per- 
manent hair removal. 

singeing (smj'ing): process of lightly 
burning hair ends with a lighted 
wax taper. 

sinus (si'mis): a cavity or depression; 
a hollow in bone or other tissue. 

skeletal muscles (skeTe-tal musTz): 
muscles connected to the skeleton. 

skeleton (skeTe-tun): the bony frame- 
work of the body. 

skin (skin): the external covering of 
the body. 

skull (skul): the bony case or the 
framework of the head. 

sleek (slek): to render smooth, soft, 
and glossy. 



HI; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



SLITHERING 

slithering (slith'er-mg) : tapering the 
hair to graduated lengths with scis- 
sors. 

slough (sluf): to separate as dead mat- 
ter from living tissues; to discard. 

small pox (smol poks): a contagious 
skin disease resulting in the produc- 
tion of pock marks. 

snarls (snarlz): tangles, as of hair. 

soap (sop): compound of fatty acid 
with an alkaline base. 

soapless shampoo (soples sham-poo): 
a shampoo made with sulfonated oil, 
alcohol, mineral oil and water; this 
type of shampoo does not foam, and 
is usually slightly acid in reaction. 

socket (sok'et): a cavity in which a 
movable part is inserted. 

sodium bicarbonate (so-de-um bi-kar- 
bon-at): baking soda; bicarbonate of 
soda; it relieves burns and insect 
bites. 

sodium carbonate (kar'bon-at) : wash- 
ing soda; used to prevent rusting 
of metallic instruments when added 
to boiling water. 

sodium hydroxide (hl-drok'sid) : pow- 
erful alkali used in the manufacture 
of hard soaps. 

soft water (soft woter): water which 
readily lathers with soap. 

soluble (sol'u-b'l): capable of being 
dissolved. 

solution (so-lu'shun) : the act or pro- 
cess by which a substance is ab- 
sorbed into a liquid. 

solvent (sol'vent): an agent capable of 
dissolving substances. 

sparsely (spars'le): pertaining to the 
hair, thinly scattered. 

spatula (spat'u-la): a flexible, knife- 
like implement for removing creams 
from jars. 

specialist (spesh'a-list) : one who de- 
votes himself to some special branch 
of learning, art, or business. 

spectrum (spek'trum): the band of 
rainbow colors produced by decom- 
posing light by means of a prism. 

spermaceti (spur-ma-set'e) : an animal 
wax; used to give firmness to creams. 

sphenoid (sfe'noid): wedge-shaped; a 
bone in the cranium. 

spinal (spi'nal): pertaining to the 
spine or vertebral column. 

spinal accessory (ak-ses'6-re) : elev- 
enth cerebral nerve. 



496 



STIMULATION 



spinal column (kol'um): the backbone 
or vertebral column. 

spinal cord (kord): the portion of the 
central nervous system contained 
within the spinal, or vertebral canal. 

spinal nerves (nurz): the nerves aris- 
ing from the spinal cord. 

spine (spin): a short process of bone; 
the backbone. 

spirillum (spi-ril'iim); pi., spirilla (-a): 
curved bacterium. 

spirochaeta pallida (spi-ro-ke'ta pal'- 
i-da): pathogenic bacteria respon- 
sible for syphilis. 

spongy (spun'je): like a sponge; por- 
ous. 

spore (spor): a tiny bacterial body 
having a protective covering to 
withstand unfavorable conditions. 

spray (spra): to discharge liquid in 
the form of fine vapor. 

squama (skwa'ma): an epidermic 
scale made up of thin, flat cells. 

staphylococcus (staf -i-16-kok'us) : coc- 
cus which is grouped in clusters 
like a bunch of grapes; found in 
pustules and boils. 

steamer, facial (stem'er fa'shal): an 
apparatus, used in place of hot tow- 
els, for steaming the scalp or face. 

steatoma (ste-a-to'ma) : a sebaceous 
cyst; a fatty tumor. 

sterile (ster'il): barren; free from all 
living organisms. 

sterilization (ster-i-li-za'shun): the 
process of making sterile; the de- 
struction of germs. 

sterilizer (ster'-i-ll-zer) : an agent or 
receptacle for sterilization. 

sterilizer, wet (wet): a receptacle con- 
taining a disinfectant for the pur- 
pose of sterilizing implements. 

sterilizer, cabinet or dry (kab'i-net or 
dri): a closed receptacle containing 
chemical vapors to keep sterilized 
objects ready for use. 

sterno-cleido-mastoideus (stur"no-kli- 
do-mas-toid'e-us) : a muscle of the 
neck which depresses and rotates 
the head. 

sternomastoid (stur-no-mas'toid) : per- 
taining to the sternum and the mas- 
toid process. 

stimulant (stim'u-lant) : an agent that 
arouses functional activity. 

stimulation (stim-u-la'shun) : act of a- 
rousing increased functional activity. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, fevent, end, recent, ever; ice, 



STIMULUS 



497 



stimulus (stim'u-lus) : an agent which 
causes stimulation. 

stomach (stum'uk): the dilated por- 
tion of the alimentary canal, in 
which the first process of digestion 
takes place. 

strand (strand): a fiber, hair or the 
like. 

stratum (stra'tum); pi., strata (-a): 
layer of tissue. 

stratum corneum (kor'ne-um): horny 
layer of the epidermis. 

stratum germinativum (jur-mi-na'tiv- 
um): the deepest layer of the epi- 
dermis resting on the corium. 

stratum granulosum (gran-u-16'sum) : 
granular layer of the epidermis. 

stratum lucidum (lu'si-dum): clear 
layer of the epidermis. 

stratum muscosum (mu-ko'sum): mu- 
cous or malpighian layer of the 
epidermis. 

streptococcus (strep-to-kok'us): pus- 
forming bacteria that grow in chains; 
found in erysipelas and blood pois- 
oning. 

striated (stri'at-ed) : marked with par- 
allel lines or bands; striped; volun- 
tary muscle. 

stroking (strok'ing): a gliding move- 
ment over a surface; to pass the 
finger or any instrument gently over 
a surface; effleurage. 

structure (struk'tur): organization; 
manner of building or form. 

sty, stye (sti); pi., sties, styes (stiz): 
inflammation of one of the sebace- 
ous glands of the eyelid. 

styptic (stip'tik): an agent causing 
contraction of living tissue: used to 
stop bleeding; an astringent. 

sub (sub): a prefix denoting under; 
below. 

subcutaneous (sub-ku-ta'ne-us) : un- 
der the skin. 

submental artery (sub-men'tal ar'ter- 
e): supplies blood to the chin and 
lower lip. 

substance (sub'stans): matter; mater- 
ial. 

sudameii (su-da'men); pi., sudamina 
su-dam'i-na) : a disorder of the sweat 
glands with obstruction of their 
ducts. 

sudor (su'dor): sweat; perspiration. 

sudoriferous glands (su-dor-if'er-us 
glandz): sweat glands of the skin. 



SYMPTOM, SUBJECTIVE 

sulfonated oil (sul'fun-at-ed oil): an 
organic substance prepared by the 
chemical combination of oils with 
sulphuric acid; has a slightly acid 
reaction and mixes with water; used 
as a base in soapless shampoos. 

sulphur (sul'fur): a chemical element 
whose compounds are used in 
certain scalp ointments. 

sunburn (sun'burn): inflammation of 
the skin caused by excessive expo- 
sure to the sun. 

sunlight (sun'lit): the light rays com- 
ing from the sun. 

suntan (sun'tan): a brownish coloring 
of the skin as a result of sun expo- 
sure. 

super (su'per): a prefix denoting over; 
above; beyond. 

supercilium (su'per-sfl'e-um) ; pi., su- 
percilia (-a): the eyebrow. 

superficial cervical (su-per-fish'al sur'- 
vi-kal): a nerve which supplies the 
muscle and skin at back of head 
and neck. 

superior (su-pe're-er) : higher; upper; 
better or of more value. 

suppuration (sup-u-ra'shun) : the for- 
mation of pus. 

supra (su'pra): a prefix denoting on 
top of, above, over, beyond, besides; 
more than. 

supra-orbital (su-pra-ar'bi-tal) : above 
the orbit or eye. 

susceptible (su-sep'ti-b'l) : capable of 
being influenced or easily acted on. 

sycosis (sl-ko'sis): a chronic pustular 
inflammation of the hair follicles. 

sycosis barbae (bar'be): a chronic in- 
flammation of the hair follicles of 
the beard; folliculitis barbae. 

symbol (sim'bol): a mark represent- 
ing an atom of an element or a 
molecule of a radical. 

sympathetic nervous system (sim-pa- 
thet'ik nur'vus sis'tem): controls the 
involuntary muscles which affect 
respiration, circulation and digestion. 

symptom (sim'tum): a change in the 
body or its functions which indicates 
disease. 

symptom, objective (ob-jek'tiv): that 
which can be seen, as in pimples, 
pustules, etc. 

symptom, subjective (sub-jek'tiv): that 
which can be felt, as in itching. 



ill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



SYNTHETIC 

synthetic (sin-thet'ik) : made artificial- 
ly by the union of two or more 
substances. 

syphilis (sif'i-lis): a chronic, infectious 
venereal disease. 

system (sis' tern): a group of organs 
which especially contribute toward 
one of the more important vital 
functions. 



498 TINT 

systematic (sis-tem-at'ik) : proceeding 
according to system or regular 
method. 

systemic (sis-tem'ik): pertaining to a 
system or to the body as a whole. 



tactile corpuscle (tak'til kor'pus-'l): 
touch nerve endings found within 
the skin. 

tan (tan): sunburn; pigmentation of 
the skin from exposure to the sun. 

tannic acid (tan'ik as'id): a plant ex- 
tract used as an astringent. 

taper (ta'per): regularly narrowed to 
a point. 

tapotement (ta-pot-manO: a massage 
movement using a short, quick slap- 
ping or tapping movement. 

tapping (tap'ing): a massage move- 
ment; striking lightly with the part- 
ly flexed fingers. 

taut (tot): tensely stretched; not slack. 

technic; technique (tek'nik; tek'nek): 
manner of performance; a skill; a 
process. 

technical (tek'ni-kal) : relating to a 
technic. 

temperature (tem'per-a-tor) : the de- 
gree of heat or cold. 

temple (tern'pl): the flattened space 
on the side of the forehead. 

temporal bone (temp'6-ral bon): the 
bone at the side of the skull. 

temporalis (tem-po-ralis) : the tem- 
poral muscle. 

tendon (ten'dun): fibrous cord or 
band connecting muscle with bone. 

tension (ten'shun): stress caused by 
stretching or pulling. 

tepid (tep'id): neither hot nor cold; 
lukewarm; about blood heat. 

terminal (tur'mi-nal) : of or pertaining 
to the end or extremity. 

tertiary (tur'she-a-re): third in order. 

testes (tes'tes): the male reproductive 
glands. 

test, hair dye (test, hardi): a test made 
upon the scalp, behind the ear, or 
in the bend of the arm, for predis- 
position to the dye agent used; a 
test to determine the reaction of the 



dye upon the sample strand, regard- 
ing both color and breakage. 

texture of hair (har): the general 
quality and feel of the hair. 

texture of skin (skin): the general 
feel and appearance of the skin. 

theory (the'6-re): a reasoned and 
probable explanation. 

therapeutic lamp (ther-a-pu'tik lamp): 
an electrical apparatus producing 
any of the various rays of the spec- 
trum; used for skin and scalp treat- 
ments. 

therapy (ther'a-pe): the science and 
art of healing. 

thermal (thur'mal): pertaining to heat. 

thermometer (ther-mom'e-ter) : any 
device for measuring temperature. 

thinning, hair (thin'ing): decreasing 
the thickness of the hair where it is 
too heavy. 

thorax (tho'raks) : the part of the body 
between the neck and the abdomen; 
the chest. 

thrombocyte (throm'bo-sit) : a blood 
platelet which aids in clotting. 

thyroid gland (thi'roid gland): a large 
ductless gland situated in the neck. 

tinea (tin'e-a): a skin disease, espe- 
cially ringworm. 

tinea barbae (bar'be): tinea sycosis. 

tinea capitis (kap'i-tis): tinea tonsur- 
ans; ringworm of the scalp. 

tinea favosa (fa-vo'sa): favus; honey 
comb ringworm. 

tinea sycosis (si-ko'sis): parasitic sy- 
cosis; ringworm of the beard; bar- 
ber's itch. 

tinea tonsurans (ton-su'ranz) : tinea 
capitis; ringworm of the scalp. 

tinea unguium (un'gwe-um): ring- 
worm of the nail. 

tint (tint): to color the hair by means 
of hair dye, color rinse, or hair tint. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, event, end, recent, ever; ice, 



TISSUE 

tissue (tish'u): a collection of similar 
cells which perform a particular 
function. 

tissue, connective (ko-nek'tiv): bind- 
ing and supporting tissue. 

tone (ton): the normal activity or 
vigor of the body or its parts. 

tonic (ton'ik): increasing the strength 
or tone of the body. 

toupee (tob-peO: a small wig used to 
cover the top or crown of the head. 

toxemia (tok-se'me-a) : a form of blood 
poisoning. 

toxic (tok'sik): due to, or of the na- 
ture of poison; poisonous. 

toxin; toxine (tok'sm; -sen): a poison- 
ous substance of undetermined 
chemical nature, produced during 
the growth of harmful micro-or- 
ganisms. 

trachea (tra'ke-a; tra-ke'a): wind-pipe. 

transformer (trans-for'mer): used for 
the purpose of increasing or de- 
ceasing the voltage of the current 
used; it can only be used on an 
alternating current. 

transmission ( trans -mish'un): passing 
on by anything, often said of di- 
sease. 

transverse facial (trans-vurs' fa'shal): 
an artery supplying the masseter 
muscle. 

trapezius (tra-pe'ze-us) : muscle that 
draws the head backward and side- 
ways. 

tremor (tre'mor; trem'or): an invol- 
untary trembling or shaking. 

Treponema pallidum (trep-6-ne'ma 
pal'i-dum): the pathogenic parasite 
of syphilis. 



499 URTICARIA 

triangularis (tri-an-gu-la'ris) : depres- 
sor anguli oris; a muscle that pulls 
down corner of the mouth. 

trichology (tri-kol'6-je): the science 
of the care of the hair. 

trichonosus (trik-6-no'sus) : any dis- 
ease of the hair. 

trichophyton (tri-kofi-ton): a fungus 
parasite responsible for ringworm. 

trichophytosis (tri-kof-i-to'sis) : ring- 
worm of the skin and scalp, due to 
growth of a fungus parasite. 

trichoptilosis (tri-kop-ti-16'sis) : a 
splitting of the hair ends, giving 
them a feathery appearance. 

trichorrhexis (trik-6-rek'sis) : brittle- 
ness of the hair. 

trichosis (tri-ko'sis) : any disease or 
abnormal growth of hair. 

trifacial (tri-fa'shal): the fifth cere- 
bral nerve; trigeminus nerve. 

trigeminal (tri-jem'i-nal): relating to 
the fifth cerebral or trigeminal nerve. 

true skin (trob skin): the corium. 

tubercle (tu'ber-k'l) : a rounded, solid 
elevation on the skin or membrane. 

tumor (tu'mer): a swelling; an abnor- 
mal enlargement; a mass of new tis- 
sue which persists and grows in- 
dependently of its surrounding 
structures, and which has no physi- 
ological use. 

turbinal; turbinate (tur'bi-nal; -nat): 
a bone in the nose. 

tweezers (twez'ers): a pair of small 
forceps to remove or extract hair. 



U 



ulcer (ul'ser): an open sore not caused 
by a wound. 

ulna (ul'na): the inner and larger 
bone of the forearm. 

ultra (ul'tra): a prefix denoting be- 
yond; on the other side; excessively. 

ultra-violet (ul'tra-vi'6-let) : invisible 
rays of the spectrum which are be- 
yond the violet rays. 

un (un): a prefix denoting not; con- 
trary. 

imguis (un'gwis); pi., ungues (gwez): 
the nail of a finger or toe. 

^nguium, tinea (un'gwe-um tin'e-a): 
ringworm of the nails. 



unit (u'mt): a single thing or value. 

United States Pharmacopeia (u-mt'ed 
stats f ar-ma-ko-pe'ya) : an official 
book of drug and medicinal stand- 
ards. 

unsanitary (un-san'i-ta-re) : not san- 
itary; injurious to health. 

uridrosis (u-ri-dro'sis) : the presence 
of urea in sweat. 

urine (u'rin): the fluid secreted by 
the kidneys. 

urticaria (ur-ti-ka're-a) : a skin dis- 
ease in which wheals and severe 
itching develops; hives; nettle rash. 



Jill; old, obey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



VACCINATION 



500 



VOMER 



vaccination (vak-si-na'shun) : injection 
of the virus of cowpox, or vaccina 
as a means of producing resistance 
against small pox. 

vagus (va'gus): pneumogastric nerve; 
tenth cerebral nerve. 

valve (valv): a structure which tem- 
porarily closes a passage or opening 
or permits flow in one direction only. 

vapor (va'per): the gaseous state of a 
liquid or solid. 

vascular (vas'ku-lar) : supplied with 
or pertaining to blood or lymph 
vessels. 

vaseline (vas'e-lin; en): a trade name; 
petrolatum; a semi-solid greasy or 
oily mixture of hydrocarbons ob- 
tained from petroleum. 

vaso-constrictor (vas-6-kon-strik'ter) : 
a nerve which, when stimulated, 
causes narrowing of blood vessels. 

vaso-dilator (vas-6-di-la'ter) : a nerve 
which, when stimulated, causes ex- 
pansion of the blood vessels. 

vegetable dyes (vej'e-ta-bl diz): com- 
prised of Egyptian henna, indigo, 
and camomile used as hair dyes or 
hair rinses. 

vein; vena (van;ve'na): a blood vessel 
carrying blood toward the heart. 

vena cava (ka'va): one of the large 
veins which carry the blood to the 
right auricle of the heart. 

venereal (ve-ne're-al) : pertaining to 
a disease arising from unlawful sex- 
ual indulgence with an infected 
person. 

ventilate (ven'ti-lat) : to renew the air 
in a place. 

ventricle (ven'tri-k'l) : a small cavity; 
particularly in the brain or heart. 

vermin (vur'min): parasitic insects, as 
lice and bedbugs. 

verruca (ve-rob'ka) : a wart; small 
growths covered by thickened epi- 
dermis. 

vertebra (vur-te-bra) ; pi., vertebrae 
(bre): a bony segment of the spinal 
column. 

vertex (vur'teks): the crown or top of 
the head. 

vesicle (ves'I-k'l): a small blister or 
sac; a small elevation on the skin. 



vessel (ves"l): tube or canal in which 
blood, lymph, or other fluid is con- 
tained and circulated. 

vibration (vi-bra'shun) : shaking; a to 
and fro massage movement. 

vibrator (vi'-bra-ter) : an electrically 
driven massage apparatus causing a 
swinging, shaking sensation on the 
body, producing stimulation. 

vibrissae (vi-bris'a): stiff hairs in the 
nostrils. 

vibroid (vi'broid): a vibratory move- 
ment in massage. 

vinegar (vm'e-ger): formed by fer- 
mentation of wine, cider, etc.; it 
contains acetic acid, used as a rinse 
to remove soap curds from the hair. 

violet-ray (vi'6-let ra): high-frequen- 
cy; Tesla; an electric current of 
medium voltage and medium am- 
perage. 

virgin hair (vur'jm har): normal hair 
which has had no previous bleach- 
ing or dyeing treatments. 

virulent (vir'ob-lent) : extremely poi- 
sonous. 

virus (vi'rus): poison; the specific poi- 
son of an infectious disease. 

vitality (vi-tal'i-te): the state or qual- 
ity of being vital; power of enduring 
or of continuing. 

vitamin (vi'-ta-mm) : one of a group 
of organic substances present in a 
very small quantity in natural food- 
stuffs, which are essential to normal 
metabolism, and the lack of which 
in the diet causes deficiency diseases. 

vitiligo (vit-i-li'go) : milky-white spots 
of the skin, common in negroes. 

vogue (vog): fashion; custom; style. 

volatile (vol'a-til): easily evaporating; 
diffusing freely; not permanent. 

volt (volt): the unit of electromotive 
force. 

voltage (vol'taj): electrical potential 
difference expressed in volts. 

volume (vol'um): space occupied, as 
measured in cubic units. 

voluntary (vol'un-ta-re) : under the 
control of the will. 

vomer (vo'mer): the thin plate of 
bone between the nostrils. 



fate, senate, care, am, final, arm, ask, sofa; eve, eVent, end, recent, ever; Ice, 



WALL PLATE 



501 



ZYGOMATICUS 



W 



wall plate (wol plat): an apparatus 
equipped with indicators and con- 
trolling devices to produce various 
currents. 

wall socket (sok'et): a wall receptacle 
into which may be fitted the plug 
of an electrical appliance. 

wart (wort): verruca; an enclosed 
overgrowth covered by thickened 
epidermis. 

water (wo'ter): a compound of oxy- 
gen and hydrogen. 

water softener (sof"n-er): certain 
chemicals, such as the carbonate or 
phosphate of sodium, used to soften 
hard water to permit the lathering 
of soap. 

watt (wet): the electrical unit of en- 
ergy. 

wattage (wot'aj): amount of electric 
power expressed in watts. 



wen (wen): a sebaceous cyst, usually 
on the scalp. 

wheal (whel): a raised ridge on the 
skin, usually caused by a blow, a 
bite of an insect, urticaria, or sting 
of a nettle. 

whitehead (whit'hed): milium. 

wig (wig): an artificial covering for 
the head, consisting of hair inter- 
woven by a kind of network. 

windpipe (wind'pip): trachea. 

witch hazel (wich ha'z'l): after-shav- 
ing lotion; an extract of the bark of 
the hamamelis shrub. 

wrinkle (rmk'l): a small ridge or a 
furrow. 

wrist electrode (rist e-lek'trod): an 
electrode connected to the wrist. 



zygoma (zl-go'ma): a bone of the skull 
which extends along the upper and 
outer part of the face, below the 
eye; the malar or cheek bone. 

zygomatic (zi-go-mat'ik) : pertaining 
to the zygoma; pertaining to the 
malar or cheek bone. 



zygomaticus (zi-go-mat'i-kus) : a mus- 
cle that raises angle of mouth back- 
ward and upward. 



HI; old, 6bey, orb, odd, connect, soft, food, foot; use, unite, urn, up, circus; those 



In the preparation of this book, the following works have been 
consulted as authorities on the various phases of barbering treated 
herein. The student who seeks amplification of points covered 
briefly in this book will do well to refer to these sources: 

Men's Hair Tinting and Bleaching 

Anthony Colletti (Milady Publishing Corp.) 
The Hair and Scalp A. Savill, M.A., M.B. 
Electrotherapy and Light Therapy Richard Kovacs, M.D. 
Physical Treatment James B. Mennell, M.A., M.D., B.C. 
Morris' Human Anatomy 

J. Parsons Schaeffer, A.M., M.D., Ph.D., Sc.D. 
Human Anatomy and Physiology 

N. D. Millard, R.N., M.A., and Barry G. King, Ph.D. 
Modern Textbook of Barbering 

S. C. Thorpe (Milady Publishing Corp.) 
Barber State Board Regulations Milady Publishing Corp. 
The Barbers' Manual A. B. Moler. 
Skin Deep M. G. Phillips. 

Anatomy and Physiology Kimber, Gray, Stackpole and Leavell. 
Gray's Anatomy Charles Mayo Goss, M.D. 
Normal Histology William H. F. Addison. 
Diseases of the Skin Oliver S. Ormsby. 
Electricity and Light Noble M. Eberhart, M.D. 
Electricity Manual Glendora Stingley. 
Care of the Skin and Health Herman Goodman, M.D. 
Sanitation, Hygiene, Bacteriology and Sterilization 

Herman Goodman, M.D. 

Gould's Medical Dictionary George M. Gould, A.M., M.D. 
Stedman's Medical Dictionary 

Thomas Lathrop Stedman, A.M., M.D. 
Standard Textbook of Cosmetology 

Constance V. Kibbe (Milady Publishing Corp.) 
Baldness Richard Muller, M.D. 
Modern Cosmetics E. G. Thomssen. 



Date Due 



- 







- 




KANSAS TECHNICAL INSTITUTE 
LIBRARY 



6/6.7 
T398 

Thorpe, Sidney C. 

Practice and science 
r*d barber ir-.