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h - 









Tbachbb of English in the Agnes Jswin School 

"JSpeedjfinelg framed Heliflfjtetfj tfje eatss.'^ 

BOSTON : : :--.- : 

1908 ; \v^^\ :: !■ 


Ai^IOH, ;.LN<;--: AND 

T;LL£N .- ..;;iNl.)Ali.;NS 

R 1 y^:u L. 

Copyright, 1906, 


^/ rights rgstrvid. 


'•-» •* • prfnttrs 

f*:^ «>PHHJLL A Co., Boston. U. 8. A. 




In preparing these exercises, the aim has been 

to provide simple, abundant, and worthy material 

for practice in the intermediate work of English 

grammar. Besides a few proverbs, the extracts 

^ supplying this material have been selected from 

standard authors alone^ with constant avoidance of 

difficult idioms and other irregular usages. In the 

presentation of the successive constructions, the 

^ strictest grading has been observed ; for, in order 

to secure accuracy and thoroughness, not only the 

^ details of sentence-structure are to be learned in 

;^ progressive order, but also every word in every sen- 

fence must be parsed, at least mentally, though not 

"1 every word is necessarily recited. The exercises 

y^ should be taken up in the order printed, except 

^-c^ VII, VIII, and IX ; these three can be taught more 

*5 readily after the development gained by some prac- 

'^; tice in analysis of sentences. Especially is this 

1 true of Exercises VIII and IX, which, indeed, if 

> deferred sufficiently, may be quickly familiarized in 

' sight-work in class. Nor until the first few very 



easy sentences of Exercise XI have been studied 
is the Method of Analysis important ; if this, too, is 
deferred, the pupil will come to feel it a help and 
not a burden. 

The detached Parsing Card, which accompanies 
each book, should be gradually mastered in the 
closest connection with the exercises. In the 
pupil's preparation of lessons out of class, the card 
needs to be always at hand until it has been mem- 
orized, but in recitation its use should be at first 
discouraged and then forbidden. The duplicate 
directions on page 87 are supplied for reference 
only, in case of emergency, and should never be 
used in general work, as by laying the card along- 
side of the open book, the lesson can be taught 
and studied more quickly and in a more orderly 
manner than when pages have to be repeatedly 

For obtaining the knowledge required to begin 
the use of this book. Dr. Edwin A. Abbott's " How 
to Tell the Parts of Speech " cannot be too strongly 
recommended. Its clear, simple, and convincing 
style appeals directly to children, often without the 
guidance of a teacher, and its value to older pupils 
for review and reference is equally apparent. 
Among the many other admirable grammars con- 


suited while the introductions to the exercises were 
under consideration, Dr. Abbott's " How to Parse " 
has been the most helpful, and from it several 
adaptations have been made, with permission of 
the author. Grateful acknowledgments are also 
here offered to fellow-teachers and other friendly 
counsellors, whose suggestion and criticism have 
been of service in many ways. 









Tbachbb of English in the Agnes Jswin School 

"JSpeedjfinels franuH Heliflfjtetfj tfje zwol" 



1908 : i:<^: -- v' V 
^_. ' - • ■ 



>( 27. The buttercup catches the sun in her chalice. 

28. Truth hath a quiet breast. 

\ 29. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate. 

30. A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. 

31. Truth loves open dealing. 

X 32. One star differeth from another star in glory, 

y 33. Above all things truth beareth away the" victory. 

y 34. Far througli the memory ghines a happy day. 

y 35. Great oaks from little acorns grow. 

36. I know a bank where tfie wild thyme grows. 

37. Every heart contains perfection's germ. 

38. When the cat 's away the mice will play. 

39. The ear trieth words as the mouth tasteth 


40. At the door on summer evenings 
Sat the little Hiawatha. 

41. The green grass tiowetla. like a stream 

Into the ocean's blue. 

42. The c hildhood shows the man 
As morning shows the day. 

43. He shook the fragment of his blade, 
And shouted " Victory ! " 

44. Music, when soft voices die, 
Vibrates in the memory. 

45. Now the autum^ crisps the forest. 
Hunters gather, bugles ring. 

46. The early sunshine was already pouring its gold 

upon the mountain-tops. 

47. Far from the tumult fled the roe, 
Close in her covert cowered the doe. 

48. Sweetly over the village the bell of the Ange* 

lus sounded. 
/, 49. Under a spreading chestnut tree 
. The village smithy stands. 


/I 60. America has furnished to the world the charac- 

• — 

ter of Washingto n. 

61. Along the bridge Lord Marmion rode ; 

Proudly his red-roan charger trode. 

62. The sunset smouldered as we drove 

Beneath the deep hill-shadows. 

63. The silent snow possessed the earth 
And calmly fell our Christmas-eve. 

54. His flaxen hair of sunny hue 

Curled closely round his bonnet blue. 
N( 66. She went by dale and she went by down 

With a single rose in her hair . 
y^ 66. They shook the depths of the desert gloom 
With their hymns of lofty cheer . 
"a^ 67. Behind the cloud the starlight lurks, 
Throi^h showers the sunbeams fall. 
68. Hither the busy birds shall flutter 

With the light timber for their nests. 
59. Fell here and there through the branches a 
tremulous gleam of the moonlight. 
^ 60. Like the swell of some sweet tune, 
Morning risei^ into noon, \ 
Maj_glides onward into June. 

61. Above in the light 
Of the starlit night 

Swift birds of passage wing their flight 
Through the dewy atmosphere. 

62. Up the beach the oceajL^lidfifch 

With a whisper of delight, I 
And the mooa in silence ^lidetn 
Through the peaceful blue of night. 
^63. The sky was blue and cloudless^ and the sliding 
surface of the river held up, in smooth places, 
a mirror to the heaven and the shores. 

« '^ V^^^^ 


64. In fancy I can hear again 

The Alpine torrent's roar, 
The mule-bells on the hills of Spain, 
The sea at Elsinore. 
&&, The clouds in bars of rusty red 
Along the hill-tops glow, 
And in the still, sharp air the frost 
Is like a dream of snow. 

66. Her presence freshens the air, 

Sunshine steals light from her face, 
The leaden footstep of care 
Leaps to the tune of her pace. 

67. Clearly the blue river chimes in its flowing 

Under my eye ; 
Warmly and broadly the south winds are blowing 
Over the sky. 

68. From a radiant centre, over the whole length 

and breadth of the tranquil firmament, great 
shoots of light streamed among the early 

69. The^inow-plumedjangel of the North t' 

Has dropped T&ig icy spear ; ^ 

Again the moss^^arthj loots forth, 
I ^ Again the streams ruish clearr 

*^ 70. The breaking waves dashed high 

On a stern anS rocdBoun'd coast, \ 
And the woods against a stormy skjil 
Their giant branches tossed. 

71. The melody of waters filled 

The fresh and boundless wood ; 
And torrents dashed and rivulets played, 
And fountains spouted in the shade. 

72. In the second century of the Christian Era, the 

empire of Rome comprehended the fairest 


part of the earth and the most civilized por- 
tion of mankind. 

73. Hedge-crickets sing, and now with treble soft 
The red-breast whistles from a garden croft, 
And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. 

74. The appearance of Rip, with his long, grizzled 

beard, his rusty fowling-piece, his uncouth 
dress, and an army of women and children at 
his heels, soon attracted the attention of the 
tavern politicians. 

75. The wild rose, eglantine, and broom 
Wasted around their rich perfume. 
The birch trees wept in fragrant balm ; 
The aspens slept beneath the calm ; 
The silver light, with quivering glance, 
Played on the water's still expanse. 


If you look again carefully at the subjects and 
objects you have studied, you will see that the ob- 
ject of a verb is a different person or thing from 
the subject ; as, for example, in the sentence. 

The velvet scabbard held a sword of steel, 

" sword," the object of the verb " held,*' is a differ- 
ent thing from " scabbard," the subject of the verb. 
But sometimes a noun follows a stating verb, and 
means the same person or thing as the subject ; as> 

Fair play is o, jewel. 

Such a noun is called a Supplement to the verb. 

1. The supplement is a noun, or some word or 
words used as a noun. 

2. It is used after the verb in the position of an 

3. It differs from the object, because it is the same 
person or thing as the subject, while the object is a 
different person or thing from the subject. 



1. Bread is the staff of life. 

2. Flowers are the poetry of earth. 

3. A good c onscience is a soft pillow. 

4. Hunger is"the best sauce. 

5. Fro crastination is the thief of time. 

6. K'ece ssilLV is the mother of invention. 

7. Hunger is a fierce dog. 

8. Order is heaven's first law. 

9. Diligence is the mother of good luck. 

10. Brutus is an honorable man. 

11. fwas a Viking old 1 

12. Boston State-house is the hub of the solar 


13. Eacts__a re stubborn things. 
,14. The bully^ is always a coward. 

15. One maSrs meat is another man's goison. 

16. Every ijyyaji is Sie architect of his own fortune. 

17. Truth is truth to the end of reckoning. 

18. Mine honor is my life. 

19. Great truths are portions of the soul of man. 

20. Progress is the law of life. 

21. Anger is a short madness. 

22. Flattery is the food of fools. 

23. Afidictions are blessin|B6 in disguise. 

24. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. 



25. A good book is the precious life-blood of a master- 


26. To-day is yesterday's gupil,. 

27. A little learning" is a dangerous thing. 

28. Manners^are the shadows of virtues. 

29. The proper study'oFmankind is man. 

30. Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge. 

31. Men at some time are masters of their fate. 

32. Beauty is ijs own excuse for being. 

33. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. 

34. The better part of valor is discretion. 

35. John Gilpi n was a^citizen 
Of credit and renown. 

36. The Alhambra is an ancient fortress or castel- 

late3^alace of the Moorish tings of Granada. 
y 37. The eagle is a bird of large ideas, he embraces 
long distances ; the continent is his home. 
38. A wise son maketh a glad father ; but a foolish 
son is the heaviness of his mother. 
The history of England is jpmphatically\the his- 
tory of progress. J"*"'" ' 

40. She clad herself in a russet gown, 

She was no longer Lady Clare. 

41. Eighteousness exalteth a nation; but sin is a 

reproach to any people. 

42. The riches of the commonwealth 

Are free, strong minds and hearts of health. 

43. Virginia was the Cavalier of the Colonies, Mas- 

sachusetts was the Puritan. 
• 44. At times the small black fly upon the pane 
^ — -. May seem the black ox of the distant plain. 
■ 46. iThe successors of the old Cavaliers had turned 
— ' demagogue^.; the successors of the old Round- 
heads had tui^ed courtiers. 



r46w Ere the silver 8ickla. of that month 
^■^ Became her golden shield, I stole from court 
With Cyril and with Florian. 
t^'47. A verse of a Lapland song 

lis haunting! mv memory still : 
^TAKoVgJwill is the wind's will, . 
And the tKoughts of youth are /longJ long 
thoughts.'^ * 


You have learned that the pronouns in the fol- 
lowing sentences are called Eelative Pronouns, and 
that they are Conjunctive ; that is, they act as con- 
junctions as well as pronouns.* 

1. >A. dog has been given to the children, who are 
fond of pets. 

2. Edith weeded her flower-bed, which she likes 
to keep in order. 

3. We climbed the hill that commands a beautiful 

You have also learned to prove this conjunctive 
nature by separating each of the sentences above 
into two smaller sentences, and then comparing the 
separated sentences with the corresponding sen- 
tences in the combined form. 

1. A dog has been given to the children. The 
children are fond of pets. 

2. Edith weeded her flower-bed. She likes to 
keep her flower-bed in order. 

3. "We climbed the hill. The hill commands a 
beautiful view. 

When we are explaining sentences which, like 
those above, are made up of smaller sentences^ it 

* See Abbott's " How to Tell the Parts of Speech," page 95 
and following pages. 



is more convenient to have a special name for the 
smaller sentences, in order to distinguish them 
from the whole sentence. This name is Clause. 
Clauses, then, are the smaller sentences that have 
been joined together to make a larger sentence. 
So we may say that the Eelative Pronoun always 
connects together two clauses, that is, the clause to 
which it belongs itself, and another clause. 

And you will see, if you look again carefully at 
the examples above, and also at those in the fol- 
lowing Exercise, that the noun or pronoun for 
which the relative pronoun stands, and which you 
have learned to call the Antecedent, is always in 
the same sentence (but not in the same clause) with 
the relative pronoun. This is not true of ordinary 
pronouns, which may stand for nouns in other 

Thus we may say : 

1. Who, Which, and That ^are Relative PrO' 

2. A Relative Pronoun differs from an ordinary 
pronoun in being Conjunctive. 

3. It connects together Clauses, but not Sentences. 

4. The noun or pronoun for which it is used is 
called its Antecedent, and the relative pronoun and 
its antecedent are always in the same sentence. 

Another relative pronoun, what, is used dififer- 
ently. In the sentence, 

♦ Remember that who and which are also used interrogatively. 
The word that is used as several different parts of speech. 

I will tell you what I saw, 

what may be expressed by that which, while the 
meaning of the sentence remains the same. When 
used in this way, what always includes in itself 
these two pronouns ; the second one, which, being 
the relative, and the other, that, being the antece- 
dent. What is therefore called the Compound 



L- -I. Jfe gives twicej ighp gives quickly. 

2. They laugh thit win. 

3. They stumble that run fast. 

4. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 

5. He jests at scars who never felt a wound. 

6. The dog that snapped the shadow dropped the 
± j^ bone. J 

C--' •/7. The path is smooth jfchat leadeth on to dange;'. 
8. J^ind word s are littje sunbeams | '' '' ' / ' 
TT^of oi^Q^kTe^a s they fall. ' • V ■ 
goo dlHvesl in that wood 

)slopes /down^t o the sea. 

Those who thint must govern those who toil. 

11. We wandered to the pine forest 
That skirts the ocean's foam. 

12. The moon had climbed the highest hill 
WhMk riseSj^C^f tijl a9urcey)f Dee. 

I Th^^^Ma^^k d^iv^s after ^hemf. p 
The smoEeTbMt rQM Tinto the skylhad lo^t its 
^fr diSy hue and fa^^ a brightness upon it.t^ 
Se[t5&t wrestles with usj stren^hens our nerves 
and shar^ns our skill. *^' 

16. A slender wire the living light conveys 
That startles midnight with its noonday blaze. 

17. I have seen manners that make a similar im- 

pression with personal beauty. 
U 18. I love the old melodious lays 

Which softly melt the ages through. 



\l9) ^^^ovedlthe brimming Hrav4|fliatjfewam K 
Throufth ^iet ijrieaaows pound the miJJ. 
S6> The beaffliies of the sunset hM/notyaded from 
the"long light films of cloud rthat llj^ at peace 
in the horizon.^ i 

21. From Poets' Corner I continued my stroll towards 
that part of the Abbey which contains the 
sepulchres of the kings. 
^2. Th ejtidej rippled on in waves offepaitlingjsilver, 
ttiat imperceptibly, yetj rapidly j gained upon 
the sand. 

23. At the top of the woods, which do not climb 

very high upon this cold ridge, I struck left- 
ward by a path among the pines. 

24. The trees in this secluded spot were .chiefly 

beeches and elms of huge magnitude] which 
rose like great hU|^ of leaves into the ^ir. 

25. TheiCOck,}thatls thelirumpet'it^ 

Doth, mthlBrs^of tyjand sTirill-sounding throat, 
^ y Awake the god of day. 

* ^. |/^6. Here the red rays of the sun shot a broken and 
•^^ discolored lightjthat partially hung upon the 

shattered boughs and mossy trunks of the 

27. The hand of the reaper 

Takes the ears that are hoary, 
But the voice of the weeper 
Wails manhood in glory. 

28. To him who in the love of Nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various lg.nguage. , / '. 

29. He: that loV^th a boob' will, never want a faithful 
" ' friend, a wholesomd counsellor, a cheerful com- 
panion, an effectual comforter. 


--\ ^ t^. ^«— — _ p, 

30. ; The sun had ma steredjhe clouds, and fwas ghiij j r 
inff through the boughs of the tall elms/ thl^' 
oft^de a deep nest for the gardener's aottage. U-^' 
(31. Pn^ tllPti thy words, the t houghts control 
J X^t'o'er thee s wfeU l an d (throftgi / . — • 

_ J ^pdensftn vithin thft soul 

"And jahangre to purpose strong. 
(^ Hundred^of Hrna Ajj Aa^]pH^s^|i nvt-flf^ni mA^ , wide- 
branched oaksfij^ichpad witnessed^erhaps 
the stately march of the Roman soldiery, flung 
their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of the 
most delicious greensward. 
/^. teoldka st ibhafc |«MchJ is good. 

34. <5enius does wnat it must, and Talent does what 

it can. 
36. What he hath lost noble Macbeth hath won. 
36. Lend thy serious hearing 

To what I shall unfold. 
37 What we gave, we have; 
What we spent, we had; 
What we left, we lost. 



In your definition of Verbs, what is the gram- 
matical name of " anything ? " * 

When the subject of a verb is doing something, 
the verb is said to be in the Active Voice. When 
something is being done to the subject, the verb is 
said to be in the Passive Voice. Transitive verbs 
can be changed from the active voice to the passive 
voice by taking the object of the verb in the active 
voice and making it the subject of the same verb 
in the passive voice. Thus, if 

Mary studied her lesson, then 
The lesson was studied. 

If A boy throws a ball, then 
The ball is thrown. 

The passive voice can be made only in this way ; 
that is, by changing the form of a verb in the ac- 
tive voice, so that its object becomes the subject of 
the same verb in the passive voice. And so you 
will see that only a transitive verb can have the 
passive voice. 

1. The passive voice is derived from the active 

2. The object of a verb in the active voice becomes 
the subject of the same verb in the passive voice, 

3. Only transitive verbs can have the passive 

* See Abbott* 8 " How to Tell the Parts of Speech,*' page 24. 


1. The gentle mind by gentle deeds is known. 

2. With home-life sounds the desert air was stirred. 

3. The silvery mist was touched with the first rays 

of the moonlight. 

4. Lost time is never found again. 

5. Small lights are soon blown out, huge fires abide. 

6. A threefold cord is not quickly broken. 

7. When clouds are seen, wise men put on their 


8. Grand masses of cloud were hurried across the 


9. A heart unspotted is not easily daunted. 

10. My crown is called content. 

11. Often I think of the beautiful town 

That is seated by the sea. 
\^} The(cam£X>f thei^rusaders Cas^surrounded^^ 
almost besieged by clouds of(Jight;tcavalry. 

13. Weary hearts by thee are lifted, 
Struggling hearts by thee are strengthened. 

14. The sheep before the pinching heaven 
^-v To sheltered dale and down are driven. 
j^' His garb is humble ; ^ge'eji was seen 

C&idijgarb with such a noble mien. 
16. TEat country is the fairest which is inhabited 
by the noblest minds. 



17. The charities that soothe and heal and bless 
Are scattered at the feet of man, like flowers. 

18. All the hearts of men were softened 
By the pathos of his music. 

19. Small curs are not regarded when they grin, 
But great men tremble when the lion roars. 

20. Fair flowers that are not gathered in their prime, 
Rot and consume themselves in little time. 

^2i. Then peace was spread throughout the land, 
The lion fed beside the tender lamb. 

22. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were 

guarded by ancient renown and disciplined 

23. The rock-built barrier of the sea was passed, 
And I was on the margin of a lake. 

Li4t. James ^was declaredj a mortal and bloody |enemyJ 
a tyrant, a murderer, and a usurper. 

25. Sad souls are slain in merry company; 
Grief best is pleased with griePs society. 

26, When faith is lost, when honor dies. 

The man is dead. 
*^ 27. When the lamp is shattered, 
I The light in the dust lies dead. 

^ 28. As shines the moon inlcl^^g^skies 
She in her poor attire was seen. 
29. Now is the winter of our discontent 

Made glorious summer by this sun of York. 
80. Through the intricate wildwood 

A maze of life and light and motion 
Is woven. 
31. Their oaths are said, 

Their prayers are prayed. 
Their lances in the rest are laid, 
They meet in mortal shock. 


3§. The shades of eve ccHne ^lowl y/dQWiu 
The woods are wrapt iii5eeper| brow^ 
The owl awakens fronj hey dell. 
The fox is heard upon the fell. 

33. No longer autumn^s glowing red 
Upon our forest hills is shed ; 

No more, beneath the evening beam, 
Fair Tweed reflects their purple gleam. 

34. From the close-shut windows gleams no spark, 
The night is chilly, the night is dark ; 

The poplars shiver, the pine-trees moan. 
My hair by the autumn breeze is blown. 
^36. (flggggljjfoared theJswollenJborrent, 

And the pasa (wa8 w rapped pn gloom, 
When the jclansmenf roser^ogether 
Fro mfch^ir} lair amidst the broom. 



Three kinds of verb-adjectives are formed from 
verbs : 

First, a verb-adjective that is just like other ad- 
jectives ; as, " a sleeping child," " expected guests." 

Second, a verb-adjective that is used as a part of 
a stating verb ; as, " the child was sleeping," " the 
guests are expected." 

Third, a verb-adjective that is neither an ordinary 
adjective nor a part of a stating verb, but one that 
combines the uses of a verb and an adjective ; as. 

The patient oxen stand, 
Lifting the yoke-encumbered head. 

The word "lifting" is this third kind of verb- 
adjective, and is called a Participle. " Lifting " is 
formed from the verb to lift, and qualifies " oxen " 
as if it were an adjective; but the sense of the 
sentence would be changed if you should put it 
directly before its noun, as you can always do 
with an ordinary adjective. " Lifting " also takes 
an object, which an ordinary adjective cannot do. 
So, you will see, 



1. A participle is formed from a verb, and, like 
a verb, it sometimes takes an object 

2. Like an adjective, it is joined to a noun in 
sense, but it does not come directly before that noun. 

3. It is called *' participle " because it participates 
in the nature of the verb and of the adjective. 



iS My merry comrades call me, \sounding on the 
bugle-horn. "^ 

2. From the stately elms I hear 
The bluebirdiprophesying spring. 

3. Wide waves theTeaglepIume, 

Blended with heather.- 

4. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner, 
Eating his Christmas pie. 

5?\ Thou comest, AutumB, heralded by the rain. 
61 Hearken to yon pine- warbler 

Singing aloft in the tree. 
7. Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, 

©Onward througl LJi fe he goes. 
Announced by^ljthe trumpets of the sky, 
^ Arrives the snow. 

S^ Cheered by the ^oo^ man's words, Evangeline 
labored and walfeflT ***** 

10. The snake lies rolled in the cheerful sun. 

11. The path wended through water-meadows, trav- 

ersed by little brooks. 

12. The cattle are grazing. 
Their heads never raising. 

13. The clustered spires of Frederick stand, 
^^^ Green-walled by the hills of Marylandt, j 

flSj Scattered^erk and there are two or ^reg dusky 
^Jy figures,^ft9la in mantles of fur. 

1 He followed through a lowly anjJjM way, 
Brushing the cobwebs with hia^td^t^ pl pme. 



16. The staghounds, weary with the chase, 
Lay stretched upon the rushy floor. 

17. The fire, with well -dried logs supplied, 
Went roaring up the chimney wide. 

^8J Storm ed at with shot and shell, 
^oldmthey rode and well. 

19. KeHected in the crystal pool, 
Headland and bank lay fair and cool. 

20. Daisies and buttercups give way to the brown 

waving grasses, tinged with the warm red sorrel. 

21. The robin and the bluebird, piping loud, 
Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee. 

I Looking up the dell, jjou saw a brawling brook, 
issuing in foamy haste from a covert of under- 
Phewthe black slave-ship swims, 

sighted with human forms. 
We sat and talked until the night. 
Descending, filled the little room. 
^SS^^The white dew on the new-bladed gr gg fgj^ 
Just piercing the dark earth, hung/^Sen^^ 
The stone hut was made a soft nfflrtor her, 
^^ lined wifelTSowny patience. "" 

f2W The river, reflecting the clear blue of the sky, 
glistened and sparkled as i^ flowed jiwseiesal^ 

A^^ft^eap he could feel his scabbard of steel 
cHfiiting his stallion's flank. 
29. He rose at dawn, and, fired with hope, 
Shot o'er the seething harbor bar. 
Every kingdom divided against itself is brought 
to desolation. 

lie war, that for a space did fail, 
^o^ trebly thundering swelled the gale. 


32. New-born flocks in rustic dance 
Frisking ply their feeble feet. 

33. Swarms of minnows show their little heads, 
Staying their wavy bodies 'gainst the streams. 

34. Dotting the fields of corn and vine, 

Like ghosts the huge gnarled olives stand. 

35. Following the windings of the beach, they 

passed one projecting point or headland of 
rock after another. 

36. My soul to-day 
Is far away, 

Sailing the Vesuvian bay. 

37. The old order changeth, yielding place to new. 

38. All sat mute, 
Pondering the danger with deep thoughts. 

39. A spirit haunts the year's last hours, 
Dwelling among these yellowing bowers. 

40. Moderation is the silken string running through 

the pearl chain of all virtues. 

41. Pale ocean in unquiet slumber lay, 

And the wild winds flew round, sobbing in their 

42. One good deed, dying tongueless. 
Slaughters a thousand waiting upon that. 

43. Ambition, ruled by reason and religion, is a virtue. 

44. Every nolDle life leaves a fibre of it interwoven 

forever in the work of the world. 

45. History is philosophy teaching by examples. 

46. My strong imagination sees a crown 
Dropping upon thy head. 

47. His reasons are two grains of wheat hid in two 

bushels of chaff. 

48. I beheld proud Maximilian, kneeling humbly on 

the ground ; 


I beheld the gentle Mary, hunting with her hawk 
and hound. 

49. Proud Maisi^ is in the wood, 

Walking bo early ; 
Sweet Eobin sits on the bush, 
Singing so rarely. 

50. Dip down upon the northern shore, 
sweet new-year, delaying long. 

51. O'erhead the unmolested rooks 
Upon the turret's windy top 
Sit, talking of the farmer's crop. 

b2. In the market-place of Bruges stands the belfry 
old and brown ; 
Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded, still it 
watches o'er the town. 

53. All the sloping pastures murmured, sown 
With happy faces and with holiday. 

54. The gray-eyed morn smiles on the frowning night, 
Checkering the eastern clouds with streaks of 


55. As we drove into the great gateway of the inn, I 

saw on one side the light of a rousing kitchen 
fire beaming through a window. 

56. Take her up tenderly. 

Lift her with care ; 

Fashioned so slenderly, 

Young and so fair. 

57. That belt of battlements studded with square 

towers, straggling round the whole brow of the 
hill, is the outer boundary of the fortress. 
f/)8. iHencei in Wlencejand in sorrow, toiling still with 
Likean bmigran1(J^WanderedJ seeking for the 
better land. 


59. Our hero turned to a little oaken wicket-door, well 

clenched with iron nails, which opened in the 
courtyard wall at its angle with the house. ^ 

60. From my study I see in the lamplight, 

Descending the broad hall-stair, 
Grave Alice and laughing Allegra, 
And Edith with golden hair. 

61. A wild and fitful melody, rising and falling with 

strange thrilling cadence, was borne upon the 

62. The vessel now tossed 
Through the low-trailing rack of the tempest, 

is lost 
In the skirts of the thunder-cloud. 

63. The rocky summits, split and rent, 
Formed turret, dome, and battlement. 

64. The hearth's decaying brands were red, 
And deep and dusky lustre shed, 
Half showing, half concealing all 

The uncouth trophies of the hall. 

y5^ While tfTWt> Iittle bark glides down the bay, 
Wafting the stranger on his way again, 
M6rn^;)genial influence roused a minstrel gray. 

6o^ Secluded from the town by the rising ground, 
which also screened it frgifttlie northwest 
wind, the house had a ^litary^ nd sheltered 

67. .They'were^-Qow Lnear the centre of a deep but 
narrow bay or recess, formed byvtwoj)rojecting 
capes of high and inaccessible rock, which shot 

^.-^ out into the sea like the horns of a crescent. 

6SyJln a deep curve of the mountains lay a breadth of 
green land curtained by ^entl^ tree-shadowed 
slopes leaning towards the^ifocky heights. 


69. On the hearth the lighted logs are glowing, 
And, like Ariel in the cloven pine-tree, 
Groans and sighs the air imprisoned in them. 

70. The midday sun is shining on the armor in the 

gallery, making mimic suns on bossed sword- 

^ hilts and the angles^ polished breastplates. 

^y Like warp and woofyainiestinies 
Are woven fast, 
Linked in sympathy like the keys 

_,..,^ Of an organ vast. 

(72^ On gve^ side the seven gables pointed |[^ajply) 
towards the sky, and presented the aspectoTia 
whole sisterhood of edificesbreathing through 
the spiracles of one great^^EimneJ> 
73. Thick with towns and hamTels studded, and 
with streams and vapors gray. 
Like a shield embossed with silver, round and 

Ovast the landscape lay. 
he lark, springing up fro m the reeking bosom 
of the meadow, toweredgwa^intb the bright 
fleecy cloud, pouring (^rtn^orrents of melody. 
76. Willows whiten, aspens quiver. 
Little breezes dusk and shiver. 
Through the wave that runs forever 
By the island in the river 

Flowing down to Camelot. 

76. Multitudes of dense white fleecy clouds 

Were wandering in thick flocks along the moun- 
Shepherded by the slow unwilling wind. 

77. An abundant supply of water, brought from the 

mountains by old Moorish aqueducts, circu- 
lates throughout the palace, supplying its 
baths and fish-pools, sparkling in jets within 


its halls, or murmuring in channels along the 
marble pavements. 

78. The Gothic cathedral is a blossoming in stone, 

subdued by the insatiable demand of harmony 
in man. 

79. The great August moonlight, 
Through myriad rifts slanted, 
Leaf and bole thickly sprinkles 
With flickering gold. 

80. The perfume of new-mown hay and the breath 

of roses came mingled with the distant music 
of bells, and the twittering song of birds, and 
a low surf -like sound of the wind in summer 

81. I remember the black wharves and the ships, 

And the sea-tides tossing free ; 
And Spanish sailors with bearded lips. 
And the beauty and mystery of the ships, 
And the magic of the sea. 
'^^ Like the flaming sword, turning (igyery> gyay, that 
guarded the gate of Paradise, vj^ashin^ton^ 
example is the<JieftS.on) shining at the opening 
of our annals and lighting the path of our 
^ national life. 

;(83./ Sweetened with the summer light. 

The full-juiced apple, waxingover-mellow, 
^^^ Drops in a silent autumn gi ^ j ) 
^^) A dewdrop, falling on the^nd^ea-wave, 

Exclaimed in fear, " I perish in this grave ! " 
But, in a shell rec eived, <jSaD drop of dew 
Unto a pearl of^jS-rvellousTjaeauty grew. 
,^o) At weary bay ^^TshSt^e^ band, 
Eyeing their foemen,f6ternl^stand ; 
"ir "banners stream like tattered sail 


That flings its fragments to the gale, 
And broken arms and disarray 
Marked the fell havoc of the day. 

86. In the summer or autumn evenings, when the 

glow of the setting sun fell upon the oak and 
chestnut trees of the adjacent forest, the old 
house, partaking of its lustre, seemed their fit 

87. Far away on each hand stretch the rich pastures, 

and the patches of dark earth made ready for 
the seed of broad-leayed green crops, or touched 
already with the tender-bladed autumn-sown 

88. The heights by great men reached and kept 

Were not attained by sudden flight ; 
But they, while their companions slept, 
Were toiling upward in the night. 

89. Things done well 

And with a grace, exempt themselves from fear. 

90. The forest cracked, the waters curled. 

The cattle huddled on the lea ; 
And, wildly dashed on tower and tree, 
The sunbeam strikes along the world, 

91. All the little boys and girls, 
With rosy cheeks and flaxen curls, 

And sparkling eyes and teeth like pearls. 
Tripping and skipping came merrily after 
The wonderful music with shouting and laughter. 

92. Hither the busy birds shall flutter, 
With the light timber for their nests. 
And, pausing from their labor, utter 
The morning sunshine in their breasts. 

93. Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth, 
And delves the parallels in beauty's brow. 


94. The ocean is a wilderness reaching round the 

globe, wilder than a Bengal jungle and fuller 
of monsters, washing the very wharves of our 
cities and the gardens of our seaside resi- 

95. From hills that looked across a land of hope, 
We dropt with evening on a rustic town 
Set in a gleaming river's crescent curve. 

98. Another heaven hallowed and deepened the pol- 
ished lake, and through that nether world the 
fishhawk's double floated with balanced wings, 
or, wheeling suddenly, flashed his whitened 
breast against the sun. 

97. The shepherd shifts his mantle's fold, 
And wraps him closer from the cold ; 
His dogs no merry circles wheel. 
But shivering follow at his heel ; 

A cowering glance they often cast, 
As deeper moans the gathering blast. 

98. A fabric huge ^ 
Rose like an exhalation, with the sound 
Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet, 
Built like a temple where pilasters round 
Were set and Doric pillars overlaid 
With golden architrave. 

99. A parapet's embattled row 

Did seaward round the castle go ; 
Sometimes in dizzy steps descending, 
Sometimes in narrow circuit bending, 
Sometimes in platform broad extending, 
Its varying circle did combine 
Bulwark and bartizan and line 
And bastion, tower, and vantage-coign. 


A noun added to another noun, for tha sake of 
description or explanation, is said to be in Apposi- 
tion to that noun. " Apposition " means " standing 
alongside of," or " placed near." Often the noun in 
apposition stands next the other noun ; as, 

Katharine, queen of England, come into the court. 

Here " queen " is in apposition to " Katharine." 

Often, also, the noun in apposition may be sepa- 
rated by other words from the noun it describes, 
though it is always somewhere in the same sentence. 
The appositive noim is much like the supplement ; 
the difference between them is that the supplement 
is brought into connection with the other noim by 
the help of a verb, while in the case of the apposi- 
tive the connection lies wholly in the meaning, 
without the use of a verb to bring it about. 



1. Alfred, king of the Saxons, 

Had a book upon his knees. 

2. I have tribute from the Finns, 

Whalebone and reindeer skins. 

3. Here Alfred, the truth-teller, 

Suddenly closed his book. 

4. Fairest of all the maids was Evangeline, Bene- 

dict's daughter. 
6. In came Mrs. Fezziwig, one vast substantial 

6. The lighthouse lifts its massive masonry, 
A pillar of fire by night, of cloud by day. 

7. At anchor in Hampton Koads we lay. 

On board of the Cumberland, sloop-of-war. 

8. He is dead, the beautiful youth. 

The heart of honor, the tongue of truth. 
^. I Strode) with a ^nartial) air Miles Standish, the 
Puritan Icaptain.l 

10. He passed into the chamber of the sleeper, 
The dark and silent room. 

11. Henry, king of England, come into the court. 

12. They bring me sorrow touched with joy. 
The merry, merry bells of Yule. 

13. He wandered away and away 
With Nature, the dear old nurse. 

14. The black bat, night, has flown. 

15. I pray thee, Rosalind, sweet my coz, be merry. 



16. Here comes Bassanio,hrour most noble kinsman. 

17. Underneath day's azure-ey^s^ 
Ocean's nursling, Venice lies. 

18. He put his trembling hands to his head, and gave 

a wild ringing scream, the cry of desolation. 

19. Oft shall the pilgrim lift the latch 
And share my meal, a welcome guest 

20. There the blithe bee his fragrant fortress builds. 
The freeborn wanderer of thy mountain air. 

21. Long at the window he stood and wistfully gazed 

at the landscape, 
Washed with a cold gray mist, the vapory breath 
of the east wind. 

22. I met a lady in the wood, 

Full beautiful — a fairy's child. 

23. My winged boat, 
A bird afloat. 

Swims round the purple peaks remote. 

24. Not far away we saw the port, 

The strange, old-fashioned, silent town. 
The lighthouse, the dismantled fort, 
The wooden houses, quaint and brown. 

25. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang. 
And through the dark arch a charger sprang, 
Bearing Sir Launfal, the maiden knight. 

26. Some dappled mists still floated along the 

peaks of the hills, the remains of the morning 
clouds; for the frost had broken up with a 
smart shower. 

27. Next Marmion marked the Celtic race. 
Of different language, form, and face, 

A various race of men. 

28. Now the bright morning star, day^s harbinger, 
Gomes dancing from the east. 


29. Each at his back — a slender store — 
His forty days' provision bore. 

30. A blithesome brother at the can, 

A welcome guest in hall and bower, 
He knows each castle, town, and tower. 

31. Here when art was still religion, with a sim- 

ple, reverent heart. 
Lived and labored Alljrecht Dtirer, the evan- 
gelist of art. 

32. She was a phantom of delight 

When first she gleamed upon my sight, 
A lovely apparition. 

33. The knight also bore, secured to his saddle, with 

one end resting on his stirrup, the long steel- 
headed lance, his own proper weapon. 

34. Tauler, the preacher, walked, one autumn day, 
Without the walls of Strasburg by the Ehine, 
Pondering the solemn miracle of life. 

36. The lark could scarce get out his notes for joy, 
But shook his song together as he neared 
His happy home, the ground. 

36. Our acts our angels are, for good or ill 
The fatal shadows that walk by us still. 

37. Othere, the old sea-captain, 

Who dwelt in Helgoland 
To King Alfred, the lover of truth, 
Brought a snow-white walrus tooth. 

Which he held in his brown right hand. 

38. No longer courted and caressed. 
High placed in hall, a welcome guest. 
He poured to lord and lady gay 

The unpremeditated lay. 

39. At the door on summer evenings 
Sat the little Hiawatha; 


Heard the whispering of the pine trees, 
Heard the lapping of the waters, 
Sounds of music, sounds of wonder. 
40. Every sound is sweet ; 

Myriads of rivulets hurrying through the lawn, 
The moan of doves in immemorial elms, 
And murmuring of innumerable bees. 


All verbs that make a statement must, as you 
have learned, have a subject about which the state- 
ment is made. But a verb may be used also with- 
out a subject ; as, to come, to have walked. This is 
called the Infinitive Mood of the verb, and you will 
see that it is used in one of three different ways. 

1. The day begins to dawn. 

2. Leaves have their time to fall, 

3. I am glad to hear it. 

In the first of these sentences, the infinitive " to 
dawn " is used as a noun, the object of the stating 
verb " begins." In the second, it is used as an ad- 
jective, qualifying the noun "time;" that is, "time 
to fall" is equivalent to "falling time." In the 
third sentence, "to hear" is used as an adverb 
modifying the adjective " glad," showing on what 
account or why " I am glad." 


1. The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks. 

2. To will is to do. 

3. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 

4. To choose time is to save time. 

6. I come to bury Csesar, not to praise him. 

6. Cease to do evil, learn to do well. 

7. The perfection of art is to conceal art. 

8. He robs Peter to pay Paul. 

9. To give quickly is to give doubly. 

10; Fools who came to scofiP remained to pray. 

11. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. 

12. The stars come forth to listen 
To the music of the sea. 

13. They that stand high have many blasts to shake 


14. To cultivate kindness is a great part of the busi- 

ness of life. 

15. I trust to live and die in the faith of the re- 

formed Church of England. 

16. As the king rode in at his castle gate^ 
A maiden to meet him ran. 

17. Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor and to wait. 

18. Men fear death as children fear to go in the 


19. To err is human, to forgive divine. 


20. The reward of one duty is the power to fulfil 


21. I chatter, chatter, as I flow 
To join the brimming river. 

22. The tawny-tipped corn begins to bow with the 

weight of the full ear. 

23. Alone remained the drowsy squire 
To rake the embers of the fire. 

24. A cold silvery mist had veiled the afternoon, 

and the moon was not yet up to scatter it. 

25. Teach me to feel another's woe, 

To hide the fault I see. 
2^, Kenneth attempted to speak, but was unable to 
express himself distinctly. 

27. Sir Launf al flashed forth in his unscarred mail, 
To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail. 

28. There, in a meadow by the river's side, 
A flock of nymphs I chanced to espy. 

29. Thither the miser crept by stealth, 

To feel of the gold that gave him health. 

30. The redbreast loves to build and warble there, 
And little footsteps lightly print the ground. 

31. Woods begin to wear the crimson leaf. 

And suns grow meek and the meek suns grow 

32. Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace. 
To silence envious tongues. 

33. Trained abroad his arms to wield, 
Fitz-James's blade was sword and shield. 

34. Finding soon another road 

Beneath his well-shod feet. 
The snorting beast began to trot. 

35. I come from haunts of coot and hern, 

I make a sudden sally, 


And sparkle out among the fern 
To bicker down a valley. 

36. As I bent down to look, just opposite 

A shape within the watery gleam appeared, 
Bending to look on me. 

37. The goodman wipes his weary brow, 
The last long wain wends slow away, 
And we are free to sport and play. 

38. To earth they sprang, their swords they drew, 
And lifted high their shields, and flew 

To win the narrow pass. 

39. Mistress Gilpin, careful soul. 

Had two stone bottles found 

To hold the liquor that she loved, 

And keep it safe and sound. 

40. Once to every man and nation comes the moment 

to decide. 
In the strife of Truth with Falsehood, for the 
good or evil side. 

41. The king is come to marshal us, in all his armor 

And he has bound a snow-white plume upon his 
gallant crest. 

42. Now the herald lark 

Left his ground-nest, high towering to descry 
The Moon's approach. 

43. The heather on the mountain's height 
Begins to bloom in purple light ; 
The frost-wind soon shall sweep away 
That lustre deep from glen and brae. 

44. The trees were not yet in full leaf, but had 

budded forth sufficiently to throw an airy 
shadow, while the sunshine filled them with 
green light. 


20. The reward of one duty is the power to fulfil 


21. I chatter, chatter, as I flow 
To join the brimming river. 

22. The tawny-tipped corn begins to bow with the 

weight of the full ear. 

23. Alone remained the drowsy squire 
To rake the embers of the fire. 

24. A cold silvery mist had veiled the afternoon, 

and the moon was not yet up to scatter it. 

25. Teach me to feel another's woe, 

To hide the fault I see. 

26. Kenneth attempted to speak, but was unable to 

express himself distinctly. 

27. Sir Launf al flashed forth in his unscarred mail, 
To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail. 

28. There, in a meadow by the river's side, 
A flock of nymphs I chanced to espy. 

29. Thither the miser crept by stealth, 

To feel of the gold that gave him health. 

30. The redbreast loves to build and warble there, 
And little footsteps lightly print the ground. 

31. Woods begin to wear the crimson leaf, 

And suns grow meek and the meek suns grow 

32. Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace, 
To silence envious tongues. 

33. Trained abroad his arms to wield, 
Fitz-James's blade was sword and shield. 

34. Finding soon another road 

Beneath his well-shod feet, 
The snorting beast began to trot. 

35. I come from haunts of coot and hern, 

I make a sudden sally, 


And sparkle out among the fern 
To bicker down a valley. 

36. As I bent down to look, just opposite 

A shape within the watery gleam appeared, 
Bending to look on me. 

37. The goodman wipes his weary brow, 
The last long wain wends slow away, 
And we are free to sport and play. 

38. To earth they sprang, their swords they drew, 
And lifted high their shields, and flew 

To win the narrow pass. 

39. Mistress Gilpin, careful soul. 

Had two stone bottles found 

To hold the liquor that she loved. 

And keep it safe and sound. 

40. Once to every man and nation comes the moment 

to decide. 
In the strife of Truth with Falsehood, for the 
good or evil side. 

41. The king is come to marshal us, in all his armor 

And he has bound a snow-white plume upon his 
gallant crest. 

42. Now the herald lark 

Left his ground-nest, high towering to descry 
The Moon's approach. 

43. The heather on the mountain's height 
Begins to bloom in purple light ; 
The frost-wind soon shall sweep away 
That lustre deep from glen and brae. 

44. The trees were not yet in full leaf, but had 

budded forth sufficiently to throw an airy 
shadow, while the sunshine filled them with 
green light. 


45. With a single drop of ink for a mirror, the 

Egyptian sorcerer undertakes to reveal to any 
chance comer far-reaching visions of the past. 

46. In May, when sea-winds pierced our solitudes, 
I found the fresh Ehodora in the woods, 
Spreading its leafless blooms in a damp nook, 
To please the desert and the sluggish pool. 

47. Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife, 

Their sober wishes never learned to stray ; 
Along the cool sequestered vale of life 

They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. 

48. Time's glory is to calm contending kings. 

To unmask falsehood and bring truth to light. 
To stamp the seal of time in aged things, 
To wake the morn and sentinel the night. 

49. As we rode along, 
Down the dark of the mountain gap. 
To visit the picket guard at the ford, 
Little dreaming of any mishap, 

He was humming the words of some old song. 
60. To gild refinM gold, to paint the lily. 
To throw a perfume on the violet. 
To smooth the ice, or add another hue 
Unto the rainbow, or with taper light 
To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish. 
Is wasteful and ridiculous excess. 


Instead of saying "To walk is pleasant," we 
sometimes wish to put the subject " to walk " at 
the end of the sentence. Then we need to put in 
some little word at the beginning, to prepare the 
way for the subject of "is." So we say, "It is 
pleasant to walk." This " it " is called the Prepar- 
atory It. 

The word there is used in the same "prepara- 
tory" way, in such a sentence as, "There was a 
stag in the forest." Here the real subject of "was" 
is " stag," but it is placed after the verb, instead 
of in the usual place of the subject, while " there " 
prepares us to feel that something is coming. 
Hence it is called the Preparatory There. 




1. It is hard to put old heads on young shoulders. 

2. It is excellent 

To have a giant's strength, but it is tyrannous 
To use it like a giant. 

3. It was a fearful sight to see 
Such high resolve and constancy 
In form so soft and fair. 

4. Where ignorance is bliss 
^T is folly to be wise. 

5. ^T was wonderful to view 

How in a trice the turnpike men 
Their gates wide open threw. 

6. 'T was right, said they, such birds to slay 
That bring the fog and mist. 

7. 'Tis not for you to hear what I can speak. 

8. 'T is hard to part when friends are dear. 

9. It is good for us to be here. 

10. 'T is man's perdition to be safe 
When for the truth he ought to die. 

11. There is a pleasure in the pathless woods. 

12. There rose a noise of striking clocks. 

13. There was a man of our town. 
And he was wondrous wise. 

14. There is luck in odd numbers. 

16. In peace there 's nothing so becomes a man 

As modest stillness and humility. 
16. There was mounting in hot haste. 

^ 44 

«/r" AND *' THERE'* 45 

17. Where there is honey, there are bees. 

18. Throughout all the isle 
There was no covert, no retired cave, 
Unhaunted by the murmurous noise of waves. 

19. Little Miss Muffet 
Sat on a tuffet, 

Eating her curds and whey ; 

There came a black spider, 

And sat down beside her. 
And frightened Miss Muffet away. 

20. There 's joy in the mountains, 
There 's life in the fountains ; 
Small clouds are sailing. 
Blue sky prevailing. 

21. There is no armor against fate ; 
Death lays his icy hand on kings. 

22. Where there 's a will, there 's a way. 

23. In the fisherman^s cottage 

There shines a ruddier light, 
And a little face at- the window 
Peers out into the night. 

24. There was saddling and mounting in haste, 
There was pricking o'er moor and lea. 

25. He turned aside, and down his cheek 
A burning tear there stole. 

26. There are things of which I may not speak, 
There are dreams that cannot die. 

27. There is a tide in the affairs of men, 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune. 

28. There is a roaring in the bleak-grown pines 
When Winter lifts his voice. 

29. There was woman's fearless eye. 
Lit by her deep love's truth. 


In the sentences of the next exercise you will 
find nouns and pronouns used as subjects, but not 
in the usual way. Instead of being subjects of 
verbs they are connected with participles in such a 
manner that the subject and the participle together 
form an adverbial expression. 

The leaves upon her falling light, 
Through the noises of the night 
She floated down to Camelot. 

"Leaves" and "falling," in this example, are 
connected in meaning so as to act as an adverb 
modifying the stating verb " floated." Such a sub- 
ject is called the Subject Absolute, because the 
word " absolute " is derived from Latin words mean- 
ing "loosed from;" and this subject is "loosed 
from " the verb, with which, as you know, a subject 
is ordinarily used. 

Sometimes you will find this absolute noun or 
pronoun used even without the participle, but al- 
ways in that case you will see that the participle 
"being" is understood. 



1. By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 
Here once the embattled farmers stood. 
And fired the shot heard round the world. 

2. In an attitude imploring, 

Hands upon his bosom crossed, 

Wondering, worshipping, adoring. 

Knelt the Monk in rapture lost. 

3. Lying robed in snowy white 
rThatjloosely p ew to left anc^ right — 

The leaves upon her falling light -r— 
Through the noises of the night 
She floated down t o/Camelot./ 
1/ 4. Year after year unto her feet, 
She lying on her couch alone, 
Across the purple coverlet. 
The maiden' ^et-black ^ ai nhas grg 

5. Long at the window he stooa, and wistfidly gazed 

on the landscape. 
Washed with a cold, gray mist, the vapory breath 

of the east wind ; 
Forest and meadow and hill, and the steel-blue 

rim of the ocean 
Lying silent and sad. 

6. The livelong day he sat in his loom, his ear filled 

with its monotony, his eyes bent close down 
on the slow growth of sameness in the brown- 
ish web. 



7. A very pretty pasture it was, where the large- 

spotted, short-horned cow quietly chewed the 
cud as she lay and looked sleepily at her ad- 
mirers, — a daintily-trimmed hedge all around, 
dotted here and there with a mountain-ash or 
a cherry-tree. 

8. Before St. Mark still glow his steeds of brass, 
Their gilded collars glittering in the sun. 

9. Down that range of roses the great queen 
Came with slow steps, the morning on her face. 

10. Mute with amazement and sorrow, Priscilla, 

the Puritan maiden, 
Looked into Alden's face, her eyes dilated with 

11. Next Anger rushed, his eyes on fire. 

12. One man in his time plays many parts, 
His acts being seven ages. 

13. Her falt'ring hand upon the balustrade, 
Old Angela was feeling for the stair. 

14. I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs, 
A palace and a prison on each hand. 

15. In the stormy east wind straining, 
The pale yellow woods were waning, 

The broad stream in his banks complaining, 
Heavily the low sky raining, 
Over towered Camelot. 

16. I called out my whole family to help at saving an 

after-growth of hay, and our guest offering his 
assistance, he was accepted among the number 

17. Westward the star of empire takes its way ; 

The first four acts already passed, 
The fifth shall end the drama with the day ; 
Time's noblest offspring is the last. 


When you studied about the Eelative Pronoun, 
it was explained that smaller sentences joined to- 
gether to make a larger sentence are called Clauses. 
Look now at the following sentences, and see that 
they are differently constructed. 

1. Fortune favors the brave. 

2. Patience is a bitter plant, but it bears sweet 


3. He loved the twilight that surrounds 
The border-land of old romance. 

4. I stood on the bridge at midnight, 
As the clocks were striking the hour. 

5. She answered, " We are seven.'' 

The first sentence has one subject and one verb. 
The second is made of two clauses, connected by 
the conjunction " but." The third, fourth, and fifth 
sentences have also two clauses; but, unlike the 
second sentence, the italicised clause in each will 
be seen to act like a part of speech. In the third 
sentence, "that surrounds the borderland of old 
romance," plays the part of an adjective qualifying 
the noun " twilight." In the fourth sentence, " As 
the clocks were striking the hour," plays the part of 
an adverb modifying " stood." In the fifth sentence, 
" We are seven," plays the part of a noun, which is 
the object of the verb " answered." 



In this exercise you will find the different kinds 
of sentences of which you have just learned. Sep- 
arate the clauses, and state whether any clause 
plays the part of a noim, an adjective, or an adverb, 
and explain its construction. 

1. The price of wisdom is above rubies. 

2. Fortune brings in some boats that are not 


3. Blessings brighten as they take their flight. 

4. Our hoard is little, but our hearts are great. 

5. He jests at scars who never felt a wound. 

6. Smooth runs the water where the brook is 


7. The noblest mind the best contentment has. 

8. Look before you ere you leap. 

9. I am never merry when I hear sweet music. 

10. If the hammer strikes hard, the anvil lasts 


11. Small service is true service while it lasts. 

12. Be patient, for the world is broad and wide. 

13. From the woods 

Come voices of the well-contented doves. 

14. We may hope that the growing influence of 

enlightened sentiments will promote the 
permanent peace of the world. 
' 50 


To the diflferences in sentences in the preceding 
exercise names have been given, which are described 
in the following definitions. 

1. A Sentence is a group of words in the form of 
a statement, a question, or a command. 

2. A Clause is a sentence joined with another 
sentence or sentences, to make a larger sentence. 

3. Clauses may be either IndrpenderU or Depen- 
dent. A dependent clause acts as one of three 
parts of speech ; namely, as a noun, as an adjective, 
or as an adverb. 

4. Clauses are Co-ordinate if they have the same 
rank in a sentence ; that is, if they are independent 
or if they have the same dependence. 

5. Co-ordinate Conjunctions join together co- 
ordinate clauses. 

6. A Subordinate Conjunction joins a dependent 
clause to the clause on which it depends. 

7. A Simple Sentence has only one subject and 
only one stating, questioning, or commanding verb. 

8. A Compound Sentence consists of two or more 
independent clauses. 

9. A sentence is Complex if it contains a depen- 
dent clause. 

This study of sentences, and their separation into 
clauses, we call Analysis. 



A simple sentence does not admit of analysis, as 
it has no clauses. Simple sentences are, however, 
included in the following exercise, for practice in 
perceiving and using them. 

To analyze a compound or complex sentence, 
write first its stating, questioning, or commanding 
verbs, in the order in which they occur. Look 
next for the clause belonging to each verb, and 
write its limits, — that is, its beginning and end ; 
keeping carefully to the order in which you wrote 
the verbs. Consider, then, each of these clauses 
separately, so as to find out its nature, — that is, 
whether independent or dependent ; and, if depen- 
dent, whether it plays the part of a noun, or of an 
adjective, or of an adverb; and write your deci- 
sion in the same order as before. You are now 
ready to name the kind of sentence : compound or 

This method may be expressed as follows : 

A. Verbs, in order. 

B. Limits of clauses. 

C. Nature of each clause, with construction 

if it is a dependent clause. 

D. Kind of sentence. 

Take, for example, the following sentences, and 
apply to them the method just explained. 



1. Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening^s 

Up yonder hill the village murmur rose. 

A. 1. was 
2. rose 

B. 1. Sweet — sound 
2. when — rose 

C. 1. Independent.' 

2. Dependent, adverb, modifies the 
adjective "sweet." 

D. Therefore, a complex sentence. 

2. The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks ; 
The long day wanes ; the slow moon climbs. 










The — rooks 


The — wanes 


the — climbs 


1. Independent. 

2. Independent. 

3. Independent. 

Therefore, a compound sentence. 

The song that nerves a nation's heart 


in itself 

a deed. 








that — heart 



The song is — deed 
Dependent, adjective, joined to noun 

2. Independent. 

Therefore, a complex sentence. 


1. My heart leaps up when I behold 

A rainbow in the sky. 

2. We know the forest round us 

As seamen know the sea. 

3. I hear the rushing of the blast 

That through the snowy valley flies. 

4. Waiting till the west-wind blows, 
The freighted clouds at anchor lie. 

5. They raised a wild and wondering cry 

As with his guide rode Marmion by. 

6. Merrily, merrily shall I live now 

Under the blossom that hangs on the bough. 

7. My cottage, while you grace it, is a palace. 

8. Flowers spring to blossom where she walks 

The careful ways of duty. 

9. In the chill sunbeam of the faint brief day 
The dusky waters shudder as they shine. 

10. Black shadows fall 
From the lindens tall 

That lift aloft their massive wall 
Against the southern sky. 

11. The silence, often, of pure innocence 
Persuades, when speaking fails. 

12. I hear the beat 

Of their pinions fleet 
As from the land of snow and sleet 
They seek a southern lea. 



13. He that wants money, means, and content is 

without three good friends. 

14. Thou shalt hear 
Distant harvest-carols clear, 
Rustle of the reaped corn, 
Sweet birds antheming the mom. 

15. While others yet doubted, they were resolved ; 

where others hesitated, they pressed forward. 

16. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat 

committeth himself to prison. 

17. While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand ; 
When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall. 

18. All places that the eye of heaven visits 
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens. 

19. Whenever I cross the river 

On its bridge with wooden piers, 

Like the odor of brine from the ocean 

Comes the thought of other years. 

20. With merry songs we mock the wind 

That in the pine-top grieves. 
And slumber long and sweetly 
On beds of oaken leaves. 

21. My shallop rustling through 
The low and bloomed foliage, drove 
The fragrant glistening deeps, and clove 

The citron-shadows in the blue. 

22. His solemn manner and his words 

Had touched the deep mysterious chords 
That vibrate in each human breast. 

23. As they approached the walls of the town, the 

whole country was pervaded by a stirring and 
diversified air of gladness. 

24. Love thyself last ; cherish those hearts that hate 



2b, The forests had put on their sober brown and 
yellow, while some trees of the tenderer kind 
had been nipped by the frosts into brilliant 
dyes of orange, purple, and scarlet. 

26. Linger awhile upon some bending planks 
That lean against a streamlet's rushy banks, 
And watch intently Nature's gentle doings. 

27. November's hail-cloud drifts away, 

November's sunbeam wan 
Looks coldly on the castle gray 
When forth steps Lady Anne. 

28. Through the rocks we wound ; 

The great pine shook with lonely sounds of 


That came on the sea wind. 

29. As from the bosom of the sky 

The eagle darts amain, 
Three bounds from yonder summit high 
Placed Harold on the plain. 

30. From yon blue heavens above us bent 
The gardener Adam and his wife 
Smile at the claims of long descent. 

31. He that wrongs his friend 

Wrongs himself more, and ever bears about 
A silent court of justice in his breast. 

32. A horseman darting from the crowd, 
Like lightning from a summer cloud. 
Spurs on his mettled courser proud. 

33. The daisy by the shadow that it casts 
Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun. 

34. Whene'er a noble deed is wrought. 
Whene'er is spoken a noble thought, 

Our hearts in glad surprise 
To higher levels rise. 


36. A quiet smile played round his lips, 

As the eddies and dimples of the tide 
Play round the bows of ships 
That steadily at anchor ride. 

36. In the east 

The broad and beaming sun lingeringly rose 
Between the black trunks of the crowded trees, 
While the faint stars were gathering overhead. 

37. Square thyself for use ; a stone that may 
Fit in the wall is left not in the way. 

38. I pace the leafy colonnade 

Where level branches of the plane 
Above me weave a roof of shade 
Impervious to the sun and rain. 

39. Every mountain now hath found a tongue, 
And Jura answers, through her misty shroud, 
Back to the joyous Alps, who call to her aloud. 

40. As the overhanging trees 
Fill the lake with images. 

As garment draws the garment's hem 
Men their fortunes bring with them. 

41. Foul-caDkering rust the hidden treasure frets. 
But gold that 's put to use more gold begets. 

42. This new and gorgeous garment, majesty, 
Sits not so easy on me as you think. 

43. He that filches from me my good name 
Robs me of that which not enriches him. 

44. I hear in the chamber above me 

The patter of little feet. 
The sound of a door that is opened, 
And voices soft and sweet. 

45. The fields are broad and wholly given up to the 

grazing of cattle and sheep, which dotted them 
thickly in the breezy sunshine. 


46. Now glowed the firmament 

With living sapphires; Hesperus, that led 
The starry host, rode brightest. 

47. The oars of the fishermen dipped into the water 

with a clear and liquid sound, as their heavy 
but pictui'esque boats glided slowly down the 

48. She is singing an air that is known to me, 
A passionate ballad gallant and gay, 

A martial song like a trumpet's call. 

49. The fault, dear Brutus, is not with our stars, 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings. 

60. While along the western hills 

We watched the changeful glory 
Of sunset, on our homeward way, 
I heard her simple story. 

61. To business that we love we rise betimes, 
And go to it with delight. 

62. The noble stag was pausing now 
Upon the mountain's southern brow. 
Where broad extended, far beneath, 
The varied realms of fair Menteith. 

63. In his eyes 

Respect was mingled with surprise 
And the stern joy which warriors feel 
In foeraen worthy of their steel. 

64. Now the noonday quiet holds the hill ; 
The grasshopper is silent in the grass 5 
The lizard, with his shadow on the stone, 
Rests like a shadow, and the winds are dead. 

66. The rays of the sun were lingering on the very 
verge of the horizon as the party ascended a 
hollow and somewhat steep path, which led to 
the summit of a rising ground. 


56. Well knows the fair and friendly moon 
The band that Marion leads, 
The glitter of their rifles, 

The scampering of their steeds. 

67. The day had been fine and warm; but at the 
coming on of night, the air grew cool, and 
in the mellowing distance smoke was rising 
gently from the cottage chimneys. 

58. Freckled nest-eggs thou shalt see 
Hatching in the hawthorn tree. 
When the hen-bird's wing doth rest 
Quiet on her mossy nest. 

59. Quaint old town of toil and traffic, quaint old 

town of art and song. 
Memories haunt thy pointed gables, like the 
rooks that round them throng. 

60. I have read in some old marvellous tale, 

Some legend strange and vague, 

That a midnight host of spectres pale 

Beleaguered the walls of Prague. 

61. Thou shalt, at one glance, behold 
The daisy and the marigold, 
White-plumed lilies, and the first 
Hedge-grown primrose that hath burst. 

62. I know myself now ; and I feel within me 
A peace above all earthly dignities, 

A still and quiet conscience. 

63. We left behind the painted buoy 

That tosses at the harbor-mouth. 
And madly danced our hearts with joy 
As fast we fleeted to the South. 

64. By dimpled brook and fountain-brim 

The wood-nymphs, decked with daisies trim, 
Their merry wakes and pastimes keep» 


65. He loved each simple joy the country yields. 

66. The swallow stopt as he hunted the fly, 

The snake slipt under a spray, 
The wild hawk stood with the down on his beak, 
And stared, with his foot on the prey. 

67. His daily teachers had been woods and rills, 
The silence that is in the starry sky, 

The sleep that is among the lonely hills. 

68. We spoke not as the shore grew less, 

But gazed in silence back 
Where the long billows swept away 
The foam behind our track. 

69. The ship has weathered every rack, the prize 

we sought is won. 

70. Birds sang within the sprouting shade, 

Bees hummed within the whispering grass, 
And children prattled as they played 
Beside the rivulet's dimpling glass. 

71. Often I think of the beautiful town 

That is seated by the sea ; 
Often in thought go up and down 
The pleasant streets of that dear old town, 

And my youth comes back to me. 

72. The pine boughs are singing 
Old songs with new gladness. 
The billows and fountains 
Fresh music are flinging. 

Like the notes of a spirit, from land and from 

73. The purest treasure mortal times afford 
Is spotless reputation. 

74. The man that once did sell the lion's skin, 
While the beast lived, was killed with hunting 



76. Night is a dead monotonous period under a roof; 
but in the open world it passes lightly, with 
its stars and dews and perfumes, and the hours 
are marked by changes in the face of Nature. 

76. The rain comes when the wind calls ; 
The river knows the way to the sea ; 
Without a pilot it runs and falls, 
Blessing all lands with its charity. 

77. The dust we trample heedlessly 
Throbbed once in saints and heroes rare. 

78. The windows, rattling in their frames, 

The ocean roaring up the beach, 
The gusty blast, the bickering flames, 
All mingled vaguely in our speech. 

79. Civilized states are ever developing into a more 

perfect organization, and a more exact and 
more various operation ; they are ever increas- 
ing their stock of thoughts and of knowledge. 

80. The yoke a man creates for himself by wrong- 

doing will breed hate in the kindliest nature. 

81. Thy plaintive anthem fades 

Past the near meadows, over the still stream, 
Up the hillside ; and now 't is buried deep 
In the next valley glades. 

82. At his feet the sand dripped and trickled in 

yellow rivulets, from crack to crack and ledge 
to ledge, or whirled past him in tiny jets of 
yellow smoke, before the fitful summer air. 

83. They that stand high have many blasts to shake 

And if they fall, they dash themselves to pieces. 

84. The country was yet naked and leafless; but 

English scenery is always verdant, and the 
sudden change in the temperature of the 


weather was surprising in its quickening ef- 
fects upon the landscape. 

85. The task he undertakes 

Is numbering sands and drinking oceans dry ; 
Where one on his side fights, thousands will fly. 

86. Presently the warmth had a lulling effect, and 

the little golden head sank down on the old 
sack, and the blue eyes were veiled by their 
delicate half-transparent lids. 

87. When Duty whispers low, Thou musty 
The youth replies, / can. 

88. The amity that wisdom knits not, folly may 

easily untie. 

89. We hear the sound of the wind among the trees ; 

and as it swells and freshens, the distant doors 
clap to, with a sudden sound. 

90. The Alhambra is an ancient fortress or castel- 

lated palace of the Moorish kings of Granada, 
where they held dominion over this their 
boasted terrestrial paradise, and made their 
last stand for empire in Spain. 

91. Men will forget what we suffer and not what 

we do. 

92. When descends on the Atlantic 

The gigantic 
Storm-wind of the equinox. 
Landward in his wrath he scourges 

The toiling surges 
Laden with seaweed from the rocks. 

93. 'T is always morning somewhere, and above 
The awakening continents, from shore to shore, 
Somewhere the birds are singing evermore. 

94. There she sees the highway near. 

Winding down to Camelot ; 


There the river eddy whirls, 
And there the surly village churls 
And the red cloaks of market girls 
Pass onward from Shalott. 

95. Several crows are walking about a newly-sowed 

wheat field we pass through, and we pause to 
note their graceful movements and glossy coats. 

96. You came and looked and loved the view 

Long-known and loved by me, 
Green Sussex fading into blue 
With one gray glimpse of sea. 

97. The cross upon his shoulders borne 
Battle and blast had dimmed and torn; 
Each dint upon his battered shield 
Was token of a foughfcen field. 

98. As slow our ship her foamy track 

Against the wind was cleaving. 
Her trembling pennant still looked back 
To that dear isle 't was leaving. 

99. The blossomed apple-tree. 

Among its flowery tufts, on every spray, 

Offers the wandering bee 
A fragrant chapel for his matin-lay ; 

And a soft bass is heard 
From the quick pinions of the humming-bird. 

100. That night from the castle gate went down. 
With silent, slow, and stealthy pace, 

Two shadows, mounted on shadowy steeds, 
Taking the narrow path that leads 
Into the forest dense and brown. 

101. The wind began to moan in hollow murmurs, 

as the sun went down carrying glad day else- 
where ; and a train of dull Wouds coming up 
against it menaced thunder and lightning. 


102. In the elder days of art 

Builders wrought with greatest care 
Each minute and unseen part ; 
For the gods see everywhere. 

103. It rears its irregular walls and massive towers 

like a mural crown round the brow of a lofty 
ridge, waves its royal banner in the clouds, 
and looks down with a lordly air upon the 
surrounding world. 

104. By the margin, willow -veil'd, 
Slide the heavy barges traiPd 
By slow horses ; and unhaiPd 
The shallop flitteth silken-sail'd, 

Skimming down to Camelot. 

105. Sometimes a troop of damsels glad, 
An abbot on an ambling pad ; 
Sometimes a curly shepherd-lad, 

Or long-haired page in crimson clad. 
Goes by to towered Camelot. 

106. Washington had attained his manhood when 

that spark of liberty was struck out in his 
own country which has since kindled to a 
flame, and shot its beams over the whole 

107. A cloud was hanging o'er the western moun- 

tains ; 
Before its blue and moveless depth were flying 
Gray mists poured forth from the unresting 

Of darkness in the North. 

108. From the ancient customs of Swiss cantons, 

from the meadow of Eunnyraede, from the 
Grand Remonstrance and the Petition of 
Eight, in steady Anglo-Saxon succession and 


with accumulating force, the principles of 
our constitution were derived. 

109. As I was rambling one day about the Moorish 

halls, I found in a remote gallery a door 
which I had not before noticed, communicat- 
ing apparently with an extensive apartment 
locked up from the public. 

110. Great is the earth, high is the heaven ; swift is 

the sun in his course, for he compasseth the 
heavens round about, and fetcheth his course 
again to his own place in one day. 

111. Open fly 

With impetuous recoil and jarring sound 
The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate 
Harsh thunder. 

112. The man that hath not music in himself, 

Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils. 

113. We often paused, and looking back, we saw 
The clefts and openings in the mountains filled 
With the bhie valley and the glistening brooks 
And all the low dark groves. 

114. Remember now and always that life is no idle 

dream, but a solemn reality, based upon eter- 
nity and encompassed by eternity. 

115. When I was a beggarly boy, 

And lived in a cellar damp, 
I had not a friend nor a toy, 
But I had Aladdin's lamp. 

116. Sweet are the uses of adversity, 
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head. 

117. Now rings the woodland loud and long, 

The distance takes a lovelier hue; 


And, drowned in yonder living blue, 
The lark becomes a sightless song. 

118. His loom, as he wrought in it without ceasing, 

had in its turn wrought on him, and con- 
firmed more and more the monotonous crav- 
ing for its monotonous response. 

119. The Brownie sits in the Scotchman's room. 

And eats his meat and drinks his ale, 
And beats the maid with her unused broom, 

And the lazy lout with his idle flail ; 
But he sweeps the floor and threshes the com, 
And hies him away ere the break of dawn. 

120. Swarms of minnows show their little heads, 
Staying their wavy bodies 'gainst the streams, 
To taste the luxury of sunny beams 
Tempered with coolness. 

121. Ever the words of the gods resound ; 

But the porches of man's ear 
Seldom in this low life's round 
Are unsealed that he may hear. 

122. The great crimson sun rose swiftly through 

the dim night-mist of the desert, and as he 
poured his glory down the glen, the haze rose 
in threads and plumes, and vanished. 

123. Round the cool green courts there ran a row 

Of cloisters, branched like mighty woods. 
Echoing all night to that sonorous flow 
Of spouted fountain-floods. 

124. I dwelt, a free and happy orphan child, 
By the sea-shore, in a deep mountain glen; 
And near the waves and through the forests 

I roamed, to storm and darkness reconciled. 

125. Sometimes the linnet piped his song ; 


Sometimes the throstle whistled strong ; 
Sometimes the sparhawk wheeled along, 
Hushed all the groves for fear of wrong. 

126. Small busy flames play through the fresh-laid 

And their faint cracklings o'er our silence 

Like whispers of the household gods that 

A gentle empire o'er fraternal souls. 

127. A thing of beauty is a joy forever ; 
Its loveliness increases ; it can never 
Pass into nothingness, but still will keep 
A bower quiet for us, and a sleep 

Full of sweet dreams and health and quiet 

128. Bright above him shone the heavens. 
Level spread the lake before him ; 
From its bosom leaped the sturgeon, 
Sparkling, flashing, in the sunshine ; 
On its margin the great forest 
Stood reflected in the water. 

129. Nature is not solitude : 

She crowds us with her thronging wood ; 
Her many hands reach out to us, 
Her many tongues are garrulous ; 
Perpetual riddles of surprise 
She offers to our ears and eyes. 

130. Timing his footsteps to a march, 

The warder kept his guard, 
Low humming, as he paced along. 
Some ancient Border-gathering song. 

131. No other sheep were near, the lamb was all 



And by a slender cord was tethered to a stone ; 
With one knee on the grass did the little 

maiden kneel, 
While to that mountain lamb she gave its 

evening meal. 

132. Their way lay through a deep and shady wood, 

cooled by the light wind which gently rustled 
the thick foliage, and enlivened by the songs 
of the birds that perched upon the boughs. 

133. Equality among the different States is a cardi- 

nal principle upon which all our institutions 

134. A single horseman rode at the head of the 

party, his bright arms catching a glance of the 
October sun as he moved steadily along. 

135. Then peace was spread throughout the land, 
The lion fed beside the tender lamb ; 

And with the kid 

To pasture led 
The spotted leopard fed ; 
In peace the calf and bear. 
The wolf and lamb reposed together there. 

136. Tossed on thoughts that changed from hue to 

Now poring on the glow-worm, now the star, 
I paced the terrace till the Bear had wheeled 
Through a great arc his seven slow suns. 

137. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I un- 

derstood as a child, I thought as a child; 
but when I became a man, I put away child- 
ish things. 

138. On sunny slope and beechen swell 
The shadowed light of evening fell ; 
And where the maple's leaf was brown, 


With soft and silent lapse came down 
The glory that the wood receives 
At sunset in its golden leaves. 

139. Laughter and songs and flutes and viols, invit- 

ing voices and complying responses, mingled 
with merry bells and with processional 
hymns, along the woodland paths and along 
the yellow meadow. 

140. While he was yet a boy, 
The moon, the glory of the sun, 

And streams that murmur as they run 
Had been his dearest joy. 

141. They rode together for some time in silence, 

the Saracen performing the part of director 
and guide of the journey, which he did by 
observing minute marks and bearings of the 
distant rocks. 

142. There is a glorious city in the sea ; 

The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets, 
Ebbing and flowing ; and the salt sea-weed 
Clings to the marble of her palaces. 

143. The blasts of autumn drive the winged seeds 
Over the eai-th ; next come the snows and rain 
And frosts and storms, which dreary winter 

Out of his Scythian cave, a savage train. 

144. His latest thought, his latest breath. 

To Freedom's duty giving. 
With failing tongue and trembling hand 
The dying blest the living. 

145. Now waneth spring, 
While all birds sing. 
And the south wind blows 
The earliest rose 


To and fro 

By the doors we know ; 
And the scented gale 
Fills every dale. 

146. Still and black 

The great woods climbed the mountain at our 

And on their skirts, where yet the lingering day 
On the shorn greenness of the clearing lay, 
The brown old farmhouse like a bird's-nest 


147. John Gilpin kissed his loving wife ; 

Much pleased was he to find 
That, though on pleasure she was bent, 
She had a frugal mind. 

148. We sang old songs that pealed 

From knoll to knoll, where, couched at ease. 
The white kine glimmered and the trees 
Laid their dark arms about the field. 

149. The three friends entered a long low-roofed 

room, furnished with a large number of high- 
backed leather-cushioned chairs of fantastic 
shapes, and embellished with a great variety 
of old portraits and roughly-colored prints of 
some antiquity. 

150. The steer forgot to graze. 

And, where the hedge-row cuts the pasture, 

Leaning his horns into the neighbor field, 
And lowing to his fellows. 

151. The noonday sun 

Now shone upon the forest, one vast mass 
Of mingling shade, whose brown magnificence 
A narrow vale embowers. 


152. As he spoke, they left the last field behind 

them, and entered upon a vast sheet of 
breezy down, speckled here and there by 
rocky glens ending in fertile valleys once 
thick with farms and homesteads. 

153. Where, twisted round the barren oak, 

The summer vine in beauty clung, 
And summer winds the stillness broke, 
The crystal icicle is hung. 

154. After the flitting of the bats, 

When thickest dark did trance the sky, 
She drew her casement curtain by 
And glanced across the glooming flats. 

155. Here are sweet peas, on tiptoe for a flight, 
With wings of gentle flush o'er delicate white, 
And taper fingers catching at all things. 

To bind them all about with tiny rings. 

156. My coursers are fed with the lightning, 

They drink of the whirlwind's stream. 
And when the red morn is brightening 
They bathe in the fresh sunbeam. 

157. If by love and nobleness we take up into our- 

selves the beauty we admire, we shall spend 
it again on all around us. 

158. The trumpets blew, the cross-bolts flew, 

The arrows flashed like flame, 
As spur in side, and spear in rest, 
Against the foe we came. 

159. The wind began next to arise ; but its wild and 

moaning sound was heard for some time, and 
its effects became visible on the bosom of 
the sea, before the gale was felt on shore. 

160. What in me is dark, 
Illumine ; what is low, raise and support. 


161. I hear a voice you cannot hear, 

Which says I must not stay ; 
I see a hand you cannot see, 
Which beckons me away. 

162. As I walked through the wilderness of this 

world, I lighted on a certain place where was 
a den, and laid me down in that place to 
sleep ; and as I slept, I dreamed a dream. 

163. Every great popular writer is, in a certain sense, 

a product of his country and his age, a reflec- 
tion of the intellect, the moral sentiment, and 
the prevailing social opinions of his time. 

164. Her warbling voice, a lyre of widest range. 
Struck by all passion, did fall down and glance 
From tone to tone, and glided through all change 
Of liveliest utterance. 

165. There now the sun had sunk ; but lines of gold 
Hung in the ashen clouds, and on the points 
Of the far level grass and nodding flowers 
And the old dandelion's hoary beard. 

And, mingled with the shades of twilight, lay 
On the brown mossy woods. 

166. The minstrels played their Christmas tune 

To-night beneath my cottage eaves; 
While, smitten by a lofty moon, 

The encircling laurels, thick with leaves, 
Gave back a rich and dazzling sheen, 
That overpowered their natural green. 

167. Underneath day's azure eyes. 
Ocean's nursling, Venice lies, 
A peopled labyrinth of walls, 
Amphitrite's destined halls. 
Which her hoary sire now paves 
With his blue and beaming waves. 


168. In that delightful land which is washed by 

the Delaware's waters, 
Guarding in sylvan shades the name of Penn 

the apostle, 
Stands on the banks of its beautiful stream the 

city he founded. 

169. Armor rusting in his halls 
On the blood of Clifford calls ; 

" Quell the Scot," exclaims the lance; 
" Bear me to the heart of France " 
Is the longing of the shield. 

170. Small lights are soon blown out, huge fires 

And with the wind in greater fury fret ; 
The petty streams that pay a daily debt 
To their salt sovereign, with their fresh fall's 

Add to his flow, but alter not his taste. 

171. A single vast gray cloud covered all the country, 

from which the small rain and mist had just 
begun to blow down in wavy sheets, alter- 
nately thick and thin. 

172. Sometimes a great ship, an East Indiaman, 

with rusty, seamed, blistered sides and dingy 
sails, came slowly moving up the harbor, 
with an air of indolent self-importance and 
consciousness of superiority which inspired 
me with profound respect. 

173. The sled and traveller stopped, the courier's 

Delayed, all friends shut out, the housemates 

Around the radiant fireplace, enclosed 
In a tumultuous privacy of storm. 


174. At noon, when by the forest's edge 
He lay beneath the branches high, 

The soft blue sky did never melt 
Into his heart ; he never felt 
The witchery of the soft blue sky. 

175. The path through which the traveller descended 

was occasionally shaded by detached trees of 
great size, and elsewhere by the hedges and 
boughs of flourishing orchards, now laden 
with summer fruits. 

176. Slowly the mist o'er the meadows was creeping, 

Bright on the dewy buds glistened the sun, 
When from his couch, while his children were 
Rose the bold rebel and shouldered his gun. 

177. The fall of prices had not yet come to carry 

the race of small squires and yeomen down 
that road to ruin for which extravagant 
habits and bad husbandry were plentifully 
anointing their wheels. 

178. On the right, amid a profusion of thickets, 

knolls, and crags, lay the bed of a broad 
mountain lake, lightly curled into tiny waves 
by the breath of the morning breeze, each 
glittering in its course under the influence 
of the sunbeams. 

179. A person familiar with nature and with the 

most celebrated productions of the human 
mind, can scarcely err in following the in- 
stinct, with respect to selection of language, 
produced by that familiarity. 

180. Where the embowering trees recede, and leave 
A little space of green expanse, the cove 

Is closed by meeting banks, whose yellow flowers 


Forever gaze on their own drooping eyes, 
Eeflected in the crystal calm. 

181. Come forth, old man, thy daughter's side 

Is now the fitting place for thee ; 
When time hath quelled the oak's bold pride, 
The youthful tendril yet may hide 

The ruins of the parent tree. 

182. Our old-fashioned country life had many differ- 

ent aspects, as all life must have when it is 
spread over a various surface and breathed 
on variously by multitudinous currents, from 
the winds of heaven to the thoughts of men. 

183. The Knight of the Leopard then disarmed 

himself of his heavy panoply, his Saracen 
companion kindly assisting him to undo his 
buckler and clasps, until he remained in the 
close dress of chamois leather which knights 
and men-at-arms used to wear under their 

184. The mass of waters, now dark and threatening, 

began to lift itself in larger ridges and sink 
in deeper furrows, forming waves that rose 
high in foam upon the breakers, or burst 
upon the beach with a sound resembling dis- 
tant thunder. 

185. The rose-bush does not break into fulness of 

bloom on some happy morning in June ; but 
with the warmth of early April the buds be- 
gin to swell and the green begins to deepen, 
and gradually, like a queen leisurely robing 
for her coronation, tint is added to tint, 
beauty to beauty, until it stands in the sov- 
ereign glory of perfect blossom. 

186. As the old man descended the hill above tKow 



little hamlet to which he was bending his 
course, the setting sun had relieved its in- 
mates from their labor, and the young men, 
availing themselves of the fine evening, were 
engaged in the sport of long-bowls on a patch 
of common, while the women and elders 
looked on. 

187. He is the poet of the dawn, who wrote 

The Canterbury Tales, and his old age 
Made beautiful with song ; and as T read 
I hear the crowing cock, I hear the note 
Of lark and linnet, and from every page 
Eise odors of ploughed field or flowery 

188. I loved the brimming wave that swam 

Through quiet meadows round the mill, 
The sleepy pool above the dam, 

The pool beneath it never still, 
The meal-sacks on the whitened floor, 

The dark round of the dripping wheel, 
The very air about the door. 

Made misty with the floating meal. 

189. The rambling and neglected dwelling had al\ 

the romantic excellence and practical draw- 
backs which such mildewed places share in 
common with caves, mountains, wildernesses, 
glens, and other homes of poesy, that people 
of taste wish to live and die in. 

190. The lake is passed and now they gain 
A narrow and a broken plain. 
Before the Trosachs' rugged jaws ; 
And here the horse and spearmen pause, 
While, to explore the dangerous glen, 
Dive through the pass the archer-men. 


191. The dew was falling fast, the stars began to 

blink ; 
I heard a voice ; it said, " Drink, pretty crea- 
ture, drink 1 " 
And looking o'er the hedge, before me I espied 
A snow-white mountain lamb with a maiden 
at its side. 

192. The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, 

Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to 

heaven ; 
And, as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name. 

193. In the ancient town of Bruges, 
In the quaint old Memish city, 
As the evening shad^ descended, 
Low at times and loud at times, 
And changing like a poet's rhymes, 
Rang the beautiful wild chimes 
Prom the belfry in the market 

Of the ancient town of Bruges. 

194. There is a charm in footing slow across a 

silent plain, 
Where patriot battle has been fought, where 

glory had the gain; 
There is a pleasure on the heath where Druids 

old have been. 
Where mantles gray have rustled by and swept 

the nettles green. 

195. The point of one white star is quivering still. 
Deep in the orange light of widening morn 
Beyond the purple mountains ; through a chasm 
Of wind-divided mist the darker lake 


Reflects it ; now it wanes ; it gleams again 
As the waves fade, and as the burning threads 
Of woven cloud unravel in pale air. 

196. Now the golden Morn aloft 

Waves her dew-bespangled wing; 
With vermeil cheek and whisper soft 

She wooes the tardy Spring, 
Till April starts and calls around 
The sleeping fragrance from the ground, 
And lightly o'er the living scene 
Scatters his freshest, tenderest green. 

197. Sabrina fair. 

Listen where thou art sitting 
Under the glassy, cool, translucent wave. 

In twisted braids of lilies knitting 
The loose train of thy amber-dropping hair ; 

Listen for dear honor's sake. 

Goddess of the silver lake, 
Listen and save ! 

198. To him who in the love of Nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various language ; for his gayer hours 

She has a voice of gladness and a smile 
And eloquence of beauty, and she glides 
Into his darker musings with a mild 
And healing sympathy that steals away 
Their sharpness ere he is aware. 

199. Day set on Norham's castled steep 
And Tweed's fair river broad and deep. 

And Cheviot's mountains lone ; 
The battled towers, the donjon keep. 
The loophole grates where captives weep, 
The flanking walls that round it sweep. 

In yellow lustre shone. 


200. The warriors on the turrets high, 
Moving athwart the evening sky, 

Seemed forms of giant height ; 
Their armor, as it caught the rays, 
Flashed back again the western blaze 

In lines of dazzling light. 

201. We scatter seeds with careless hand, 

And dream we ne'er shall see them more; 

But for a thousand years 

Their fruit appears 
In weeds that mar the land 
Or healthful store. 

202. That time of year thou mayst in me behold 
When yellow leaves or none or few do hang 
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold. 
Bare ruined choirs wh^re late the sweet birds 


203. I sat upon a promontory 
And heard a mermaid on a dolphiu's back. 
Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath 
That the rude sea grew civil at her song, 

And certain stars shot madly from their 

To hear the sea-maid's music. 

204. We, ignorant of ourselves. 

Beg often our own harms, which the wise powers 
Deny us for our good ; so find we profit 
By losing of our prayers. 

205. Columns of purple and green porphyry, among 

which gleamed the white limbs of delicate 
statues, surrounded a basin of water fed by 
a perpetual jet, which sprinkled with cool 
spray the leaves of oranges and the mimosas, 
mingling its murmurs with the warblings 


of the tropic birds who nestled among the 

206. Suddenly, as the child rolled downwards on its 

mother's knees, all wet with snow, its eyes 
were caught by a bright glancing light on 
the white ground, and, with the ready transi- 
tion of infancy, it was immediately absorbed 
in watching the bright living thing running 
towards it, yet never arriving. 

207. Strange to me now are the forms I meet 

When I visit the dear old town ; 
But the native air is pure and sweet, 
And the trees that o'ershadow each well-known 
As they balance up and down, 
Are singing the beautiful song, 
Are sighing and whispering still : 
" A boy's will is the wind's will, 
And the thoughts of youth are long, long 

208. The stag at eve had drunk his fill 
Where danced the moon on Monan's rill, 
And deep his midnight lair had made 
In lone Glenartney's hazel shade ; 

But when the sun his beacon red 

Had kindled on Benvoirlich's head, 

The deep-mouthed bloodhound's heavy bay 

Resounded up the rocky way. 

And faint, from farther distance borne. 

Were heard the clanging hoof and horn. 

209. The wave is clear, the beach is bright 

With snowy shells and sparkling stones ; 
The shore-surge comes in ripples light, 
In murmurings faint and distant moans ; 


And ever afar in the silence deep 
Is heard the splash of the sturgeon's leap, 
And the bend of his graceful bow is seen, 
A glittering arch of silver sheen, 
Spanning the wave of burnished blue 
And dripping with gems of the river-dew. 

210. With home-life sounds the desert air was 

stirred ; 
The bleat of sheep along the hill we heard, 
The bucket plashing in the cool sweet well, 
The pasture bars that clattered as they fell ; 
Dogs barked, fowls fluttered; cattle lowed; 

the gate 
Of the barnyard creaked beneath the merry 

Of sun-brown children, listening while they 

The welcome sound of supper bell to hear. 

211. The path wended through water-meadows trav- 

ersed by little brooks, whose quivering sur- 
faces were braided along their centres and 
folded in creases at the sides ; or, where the 
flow was more rapid, the stream was pied 
with spots of white froth, which rode on in 
undisturbed serenity. 

212. Without boasting, we may say that in no age 

or country has the public cause been main- 
tained with more force of argument, more 
power of illustration, or more of that persua- 
sion which excited feeling and elevated prin- 
ciple can alone bestow, than the revolutionary 
state papers exhibit. 

213. It is characteristic of the peculiar humor of the 

English, and of their love for what ia b\»»^ 


comic, and familiar, that they have embodied 
their national oddities in the figure of a 
sturdy corpulent old fellow, with a three 
cornered hat, red waistcoat, leather breeches, 
and stout oaken cudgel. 

214. The hare limped trembling through the frozen 

And silent was the flock in woolly fold ; 
Numb were the Beadsman's fingers while he told 
His rosary, and while his frosted breath, 
Like pious incense from a censer old, 
Seemed taking flight for heaven, without a 

Past the sweet Virgin's picture, while his 

prayer he saith. 

215. Slow and sure comes up the golden year 

When wealth no more shall rest in mounded 
But smit with fre^r light shall slowly melt 
In many streams to fatten lower lands ; 
And light shall spread and man be liker man 
Through all the season of the golden year. 

216. A coat of linked mail, with long sleeves, plated 

gauntlets, and a steel breastplate, had not 
. been esteemed a sufficient weight of armor ; 
there was also his triangular shield suspended 
round his neck, and his barred helmet of 
steel, over which he had a hood and collar 
of mail. 

217. Southward the landscape indistinctly glared 
Through a pale stream ; but all the northern 

In clearest air ascending, showed far off 
A surface dappled o'er with shadows flung 


From brooding clouds ; shadows that lay in 

Determined and unmoved, with steady beams 
Of bright and pleasant sunshine interposed. 

218. Soldier, rest ! thy warfare o'er, 

Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking ; 
Dream of battled fields no more. 

Days of danger, nights of waking. 
In our isle's enchanted hall 

Hands unseen thy couch are strewing ; 
Fairy strains of music fall. 

Every sense in slumber dewing. 

219. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock, 

that pattern of a husband, a warrior, and a 
fine gentleman, clapping his burnished wings, 
and crowing in the pride and gladness of 
his heart, — sometimes tearing up the earth 
with his feet, and then generously calling his 
ever-hungry family of wives and children to 
enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered. 

220. I'll give my jewels for a set of beads. 
My gorgeous palace for a hermitage, 
My gay apparel for an almsman's gown, 
My figured goblets for a dish of wood. 
My sceptre for a palmer's walking-staff. 
My subjects for a pair of carved saints. 
And my large kingdom for a little grave, 
A little little grave, an obscure grave ; 
Or I'll be buried in the king's highway. 
Some way of common trade, where subjects' 

May hourly, trample on their sovereign's head. 

221. Rumor is a pipe 

Blown by surmises, jealousies, conjectures^ 


And of so easy and so plain a stop 
That the blunt monster with uncounted heads, 
The still-discordant wavering multitude, 
Can play upon it. 

222. At the passing of the breeze, the fir-trees sob 

and moan no less distinctly than they rock ; 
the holly whistles as it battles with itself ; 
the ash hisses amid its quiverings ; the beech 
rustles while its flat boughs rise and fall. 

223. Here at the fountain's sliding foot. 
Or at some fruit tree's mossy root, 
Casting the body's vest aside. 

My soul into the boughs does glide ; 
There like a bird it sits and sings, 
Then whets and claps its silver wings, 
And, till prepared for longer flight, 
Waves in its plumes the various light. 

224. In mild variety the seasons mild 

With rainbow-skirted showers and odorous 

And long blue meteors cleansing the dull night, 
And the life-kindling shafts of the keen sun's 
All-piercing bow, and the dew-mingled rain 
Of the calm moonbeams, a soft influence mild, 
Shall clothe the forests and the fields. 

225. The pale stars are gone ! 

Por the sun, their swift shepherd, 

To their folds them compelling 

In the depths of the dawn, 
Hastes in meteor-eclipsing array, and they flee 

Beyond his blue dwelling. 

As fawns flee the leopard. 

226. Children, at midnight. 
When soft the winds blow, 


When clear falls the moonlight, 

When spring-tides are low ; 
When sweet airs come seaward 

Prom heaths starred with broom, 
And high rocks throw mildly 

On the blanched sands a gloom ; 
Up the still glistening beaches, 

Up the creeks we will hie. 
Over banks of bright seaweed 

The ebb-tide leaves dry. 

227. When the British warrior queen, 

Bleeding from the Roman rods, 
Sought with an indignant mien 
Counsel of her country's gods, 

Sage beneath the sjireading oak 

Sat the Druid, hoary chief ; 
Every burning word he spoke 

Full of rage and full of grief. 

228. When red hath set the beamless sun 
Through heavy vapors dark and dun. 
When the tired plowman dry and warm 
Hears, half asleep, the rising storm 
Hurling the hail and sleeted rain 
Against the casement's tinkling pane, 
The sounds that drive wild deer and fox 
To shelter in the brake and rocks 

Are warnings which the shepherd ask 
To dismal and to dangerous task. 

229. The broom's tough roots his ladder made, 
The hazel saplings lent their aid ; 

And thus an airy point he won. 
Where, gleaming with the setting sun. 
One burnished sheet of living gold. 
Loch Katrine lay beneath him rolled ; 


In all her length far winding lay, 
With promontory, creek, and bay, 
And islands that empurpled bright, 
Floated amid the livelier light, 
And mountains that like giants stand, 
To sentinel enchanted land. 
230. I cannot see what flowers are at my feet, 

Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs ; 
But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet 

Wherewith the seasonable month endows 

The grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree 
wild, — 
White hawthorn and the pastoral eglantine, 

Past-fading violets covered up in leaves, 

And mid-May's eldest child, 
The coming musk rose, full of dewy wine, 

The murmurous haunt of flies on summer 



i. Form : Singular or Plural, 

ii. Construction : (1) Subject, (2) Object, (3) Possessive, 
(4) Vocative, (6) Supplement, (6) Apposition, 
(7) Subject Absolute. 
II. (a) PRONOUN (ordinary). — Form and Construction 
same as Noun ; stands for what Noun ? 
(b) PRONOUN RELATIVE. — Form and Con- 
struction same as Noun ; has for Antecedent — f 


i. Form : Positive, Comparative, or Superlative Degree. 
ii. Construction : joined to what Noun or Fronoon ? 


i. Nature : Transitive or Intransitive, 
ii. Form: (1) Voice, (2) Mood, (3) Tense, (4) Person, 

(6) Number. 
iii. Construction: 

A (1) has for Subject — ? (unless Infinitiye) 

(2) has for Object — 1 (unless Intransitive or 
If in the Inflnitive Mood, the Verb may be used as 
B (1) Noun, Subject or Object of—? 
(2) Adjective, qualifying — ? 
(S) Adverb, modifying — 1 

i. Made from what Verb f 
ii. Nature : Transitive or Intransitive, 
iii. Form : Active or Passive. 

iv. Construction : (1) joined to what Noun or Pronoun ? 
(2) if Active and Transitive, has for 
VI. ADVERB. — Modifies what Verb, Adjective, Adverb, 

or Sentence f 
VII. PREPOSITION. — Has what Object f 
VIII. CONJUNCTION. — Joins together what two Sen- 
tences or Words f 



1. In a series of words, all of the same part of 
speech, a comma is inserted between each two par- 

Thirty days hath September, 
April, June, and November. 

2. Appositives are cut off by commas. 

Alfred, King of the Saxons, 
Had a book upon his knees. 

3. Vocatives are cut oflf by commas. 

Listen, my children, and you shall hear 
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere. 

4. Intermediate expressions are cut ofif by 

The stars, with deep amaze, 
Stand fixed in steadfast gaze. 

5. A short quotation is preceded by a comma.* 

6. All clauses are separated from one another 
by commas, unless the connection is too close. 

* For this rule and the next, examples are so plentiful that 
they need not he given here. 



1 . A noun in the Possessive form is parsed as joined to an- 
other noun, as an adjective is joined to a noun; but the posses- 
sive noun remains a noun ; it does not become an adjective. 

2. A noun used as a name by which a person is called to 
or addressed, is said to be in the Vocative. In parsing such 
a noun, mention its construction by saying simply that it is 

3. A noun may sometimes be used adverbially ; as^ We 
are going home. One day it rained very hard. 


A personal pronoun in an extract that does not mention 
by name the person referred to, should be said to " stand for 
the person speaking," ** spoken to," etc. In parsing we or 
tL8y say stands for the person speaking and some other person or 


1. Of some verbs in the active voice it cannot truly be 
said that the subject is " doing something ; " as, " The child 
deserves praise," " The horses rest.*' But they have the same 
form as the large number of verbs which are plainly active in 
meaning, and it can therefore be said of them that they are 
in the active voice. This is true of the verb to he and of other 
verbs that have a similar nature; as, seem, become. Corre- 
spondingly, as the passive form is always derived from the 
active, if we say, " Praise is deserved by the child," we see 
that the object of ** deserves " in the active voice has become 
the subject of ** is deserved " in the passive voice ; and there- 
fore *'i9 deserved" can be said to be in the passive voice^ 


although we cannot think that anything is being done to 
"praise." Independently, then, of the active or passive 
meaning, all verbs that have the active form are said to be 
in the active voice ; all verbs that have the passive form are 
said to be in the passive voice. 

2. The form of the Passive Voice is always compound; 
that is, it consists of at least two words. One part of the 
compound is some form of the verb to he ; the other is the 
passive participle. But the form of the Active Voice Tnay be 
simple ; that is, it may consist of but one word. 

3. Verbs have differences of form according to mode (or 
mood or manner) of expression. In a plain declaration or 
statement, the verb is in the Indicative Mood. In a com- 
mand or demand, the verb is in the Imperative Mood. A 
verb used without a subject is in the Infinitive Mood, though 
this is not a true mood, as a verb in this form has the con- 
struction, in a sentence, of another part of speech ; that is, 
noun, adjective, or adverb. A fourth mood, the Subjunctive, 
must be studied later. 

4. The subject of a verb in the Imperative Mood is usu- 
ally not expressed, but "understood," in modem English. 
From the nature of such a verb, its subject must be in the 
" second person," singular or plural (thou or you), and this 
*• understood " subject should always be mentioned in pars- 
ing the imperative. 

5. The Infinitive Mood is commonly preceded by to, 
which is sometimes called its sign. But the infinitive is 
often used without to. 

6. Verbs have different forms to express present, past, or 
future time^ the word Tense being used for these forms, in- 
stead of the conunon word "time." The following group 
of forms, 

I study We study 

You study You study 

He studies They study 

is called the Present Tense (Indicative Mood) of the verb 
to study. 


The general past teDse is called Preterit ; as, 

I studied We studied 

Tou studied Tou studied 

He studied They studied 

By using this general past tense, it would be possible to 
mention any occurrence in past time. But it is very impor- 
tant to us to have two others, one related to present time, the 
other to past time. When we say that something hois hap- 
pened to-day, or this week, or this year, we refer to both past 
and present time in the same verb. For example, 

I have studied my lessons this afternoon. 
I have written a composition this week. 
I have studied Latin this year. 

Such verbs are said to be in the Perfect Tense. The full 
name of this tense is the Present-Perfect, since the action, 
although past, is completed, or perfected, in present time ; but 
it usually goes by the name of the perfect tense. It has 
always an auxiliary : have, has (hast, hath), which may be 
called the sign of the perfect tense. 

When we mention something as having happened in the 
past, before another event also in the past, we use what is 
called the Pluperfect Tense ; as, 

I had studied my lesson when my cousin came in. 

Here the pluperfect " had studied " is related to the preterit 
" came " in much the same way as a verb in the perfect tense 
is related to present time. (P/ws or plu- is the Latin word 
meaning more.) Had is the auxiliary of the pluperfect tense, 
and may be called its sign. 

Besides the simple Future Tense, 

I shall study We shall study 

You will study You will study 

He will study They will study 


we have the Fature Perfect, with the aoxiliaiy have^ like 
the perfect tense : 

I shall hare studied 

You will hare studied, etc. 

7. We may arrange these tense-names as follows : 


Perfect (have, hasj hast, halh)^ 
Pluperfect (had). 

Future i^^'^'p . , ,, , 
1^ Future Perfect (have). 

8. The emphatic form, I did stvdy, and the continuous, 
or progressive, form, I was stud\fing, are preterit, since they 
refer to past time in general, and are not related to the pres- 
ent or to another past. 


It is not always easy to see what a conjunction connects. 
If, however, we look first at the word or group of words 
directly follomng the conjunction, we shall have less difficulty 
in finding the other word or words. 


An Inteoduction to English Grammar. By 
Edwin A. Abbott, M. A., Head Master of the City 
of London School. 

American Edition, revised and enlarged by Prof. 
John G. R. McElroy, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Cloth, 16mo, 60 cents, net. 

This work is written for the purpose of simplify- 
ing the study of grammar. Its aim is to teach 
general principles with thoroughness, leaving the 
unimportant details for the acquisition of maturer 


An Attempt to Apply the Principles of Schol- 
arship TO English Grammar. With appendices in 
analysis, spelling, and punctuation. By Edwin A. 
Abbott, M. A. Cloth, 16mo, 75 cents, net. 


Rules and Exercises on English CoMPOsmoN. 
By Edwin A. Abbott, M. A. Cloth, 16mo, 46 
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