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.Among tho native pnxlucts of the American continent, 
tht-re \^ nom* which 8o strikingly distinguishes it as the 
titliarco [ilant, an<l the purposes to which it« leaf is 
applied ; for even could it 1x5 proved that the use of it 
a* a nanM»tic, and the practice of smoking its burning 
leaf, had originated independently in the Old World, 
th«- siuTiNl institution of the peace-pipe must still remain 
tli«- p<H*uliar chararterlstic of the Red Indian of America. 
It.-* name -ilerived l>y some from the Haitian tamlxiku, 
an«l l»y others from TaUicOy a province of Yucatan, 
wh«n.' the Spsiniunls are aftirme<l to have first met with 
ir, ap|N*ar8 to havi» lx»en the native term for the I>ipe, 
and not for the plant, whicli wjis variously cjdled kohtha, 
j^f'tn, f/»itA'hartaf\ \ipp6n\H\ f/^>ooAv, and indeed had a 
dilft-n-nt name fnmi ahnost eveiy ancient and modern 
iriU- and nation. Tlie talpacOy or inii)lement originally 
u-tl l»y th«' Indians of Hispaniola for inhaling the 
•»ni«»k»' of xhr hjftilMi, or tolKicc<vj)lant, is des<Tibed by 
Ovi.^lo as a h«>llow, forke<l cane like the letter Y, the 
«i«'uM»- eniL* of which wen^ ins4M*te<l in the nostrils, 
whil«* the sin*rU' end wan applied to the Immin}; h'aves 



of the herb. This, however, was a peculiar insular 
custom, and a mere local name, though since brought 
into such universal use as the designation of the plant ; 
while the pipe, which plays so prominent a part among 
the traces of the most ancient arts and rites of the con- 
tinent, is now common to every quarter of the globe. 
Nothing, indeed, more clearly proves the antiquity 
and universality of the use of tobacco throughout the 
whole continent of America, than the totally distinct and 
diverse names by which it is designated in the various 
languages of the Indian tribes. 

>So far as we can now infer from the evidence fur- 
nished by native arts and relics connected with the use 
of the tobacco-plant, it seems to have been as familiar 
to most of the ancient tribes of the North-west, and the 
aborigines of the Canadian forests, as to those of the 
American tropics, of which the Nicotiana tabcicinn is 
believed to be a native. No such remarkable deposi- 
tories indeed have been found to the north of the great 
chain of lakes as those disclosed to the explorers of the 
tumuli of " Mound City," in the Scioto Valley ; but 
even now the tobacco-pipe monopolizes the ingenious 
art of many of the wild forest-tribes of the continent, 
and somp of their most curious legends and supersti- 
tions are connected with the favourite national imple- 
ment. Among them it retains the dignity of a time- 
honom-ed institution, the sacredness of which still 
8ur\'ives with much of its ancient force ; and to this 
accordingly the student of America's primeval anri- 
quities is justified in turning, as an important link 
connecting the present with that ancient past When 
referring to the miniature sculptures procured from the 
moimds of the Ohio and Scioto valleys, Messrs. Squier 
and Davis remark : — " From the appearance of these 
relics it is fairly inferable that among the Mound-Builders, 


AM anioog the tribes of North American Indians, the 
practice of smoking was veiy general, if not imiversaL 
The conjecture that it was also more or less interwoven 
with their civil and religious observances is not without 
its rapport. The use of tobacco was known to nearly all 
the American nations, and the pipe was their grand diplo- 
mati:$t. In making war and in concluding peace it per- 
formed an important part. Their deliberations, domestic 
as well as public, were conducted under its influences ; 
and no tivaty was ever made unsignalized by the passage 

• »f the calumet. The transfer of the pipe from the lips 
of one indi\'idual to those of another was the token of 
amity and friendship, a gage of honour with the chi- 
valrv of the forest wUch was seldom violated. In their 
religious ceremonies it was also introduced with various 
dejrrvcs of solemnity." But it is worthy of note that 
the form of the mound-pipes is altogether peculiar, and 
ciiffvrs essentially from the endless varieties of form and 
{Kittem, wrought by Indian ingenuity from tlic most 
«Iiv»*n<e materials perUiining to the native localities of 
triU's of the forest and prairie. Some consideration, 
th*-nfore, of the arts of the modem pipe-sculptor, and 
of the native customs and traditions associated with the 
u-^ of t'»liaeco, is necessiir)', as a means of comjiarison 
l»-twf*«n the ancient and the moilern nations and triW 
of the New World. Nor will it lx» out of place to ccai- 
--•i'hT h'-re whether America wiis indiHKl the sole oriirinator 

• •f th«* prat-tirc of smoking, and consi^<|Ucntly how far 
itj* intPMluttion into EurojKi and the Old World at large 
m:iv U* iiiritlv rcrkone^l as one of the n^ults of Colum 
'r»-a>'?* :iiIventurous daring. 

In tho OM World of the idciis connected with 
»lh' toliiicco-piiK.' are homely and prosaic enough : and 
tri<»iiirh we a.*«^N*iate the (*l)ilM»iik with the {>oeticaI re- 
\»-ries of the oricnt;d chiy-<lreaiuer, and the IuH»kah with 


the pleastmt fancies of the Anglo-Indian reposing in the 
shade of his bungalow, neverthelass, its seductive antique 
mystery, and all its symbolic significance, pertain alone 
to the New World. The tobacco-pipe, indeed, consti- 
tutes the peculiar and most characteristic symbol of 
America, intimately interwoven with the rites and super- 
stitions, and with the relics of ancient customs and 
historical traditions of its aborigines. U Europe boi*^ 
rowed from it the first knowledge of its prized narcotic, 
the gift was received imaccompanied by any of the 
sacred or peculiar virtues which the Red Indian still 
attaches to it aa the symbol of hospitality and amicable 
intercourse ; and Longfellow, accordingly, with no less 
poetic vigour than fitness, opens his Song of HiciiLKitha 
with the institution of " the peace-pipe "^ by the Great 
Spirit. The Master of Life descends on the mountains 
of the prairie, breaks a fragment from the red stone of 
the quarry, and, fashioning it with curious art into a 
figured pipe-head, he fills it with the bark of the red 
willow, chafes the forest into flame with the tempest of 
his breath, and kindling it, smokes the calumet as a 
signal to tlie nations, and the tribes of the ancient alx)- 
rigines gathering from river, lake, and prairie, assemble 
at tlie divine summons, listen to the warnings and pro- 
mises with which the Great Spirit seeks to guide them ; 
and tliis done, iuid the waniors having buried their war- 
dubs, tliey smoke their first peace-pipe, and depart :- 

** Whilu the Master of Life, ascending, 
Tliroiigh the opening of cloud-curtains, 
Through the doorways of the heaven, 
Vauishe<l from before their faces, 
In the smoke that rolled around him. 
The pukwana of the peace-pijie !" 

It is no mean triumph of the poet thus to redeem 
fi-om associations, not only prosaic, but even offensive, 
a custom which so peculiarly pertains to the usages and 


I be rites of the Americcin continent from the remotest 
times of which its historic memorials furnish any trace ; 
ami which was no sooner practically introduced to the 
kniiwk^tlpie of the Old World than that royal pedant, 
King JiimeH, directed against it his world-famous 
CuUhUrbUiM to ToIhuvo, describing its use as " a cus- 
tom IitatheHume to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful 
to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black 
i^tiuking fume thereof nearest resembling the horrible 
-ty«nan smoke of the pit that is bottomless !'' In those, 
however, as in other passages of his national epic, the 
Ameriran |K>et has only embodied in forms of modem 
versi- the cherishixl legends of the New World : placing 
the o|4*ning scene of Hinicatha on the heights of the 
^rreat rwl pipi*-8tone quarry of Coteau des Prairieij, 
Utweeu the Minnesota and Missouri rivers^ in the 
Far West. 

i >u the summit of the ridge between these two tribu- 
lari«-j* of the Mississippi rises a Iwld perjx^ndicular clifl", 
t-MUtifully markefl with distinct horizontal layers of light 
i:r» y and mst* or flesh-<-oloured quartz. From the base 

• •f thi> a level prairie of alnrnt half a mile in width runs 
|;irull*'l to it, and here it is that the famous red pipe- 
-t««n»- is pnK:ure<l, at a depth of from four to five feet 
fn -m the surface. Numei-ous tnices of ancient and moileni 
f-X'-avations indicate the resort of the Indian tribes of 
iiijiuv su(«*essive ir<*ncnitioiis to the lo<-alitv. "That this 
j.i:i< »■ -houM have i>een xisited," s;iys Catlin, " for centuries 
J L-t by all the nci<^hlM>uring tribt»s, who have hidden the 
uar •lub a.s thry appnuuhrd it, and stayed the cnielties 
if til** -M-alpin^r-knifi*, un<ler the fear <»f the vengeance of 
!ii» tin at Spirit who overlooks it, will not seem strange 

• •I uiiii.itural wh«'n their superstitions are known. That 
«:: h L'i.-^ Inen the eustoni there is nnt a shallow of doul)t, 
.■li'l tli:it even so ivcentlv as to have in^en witnessed by 


hundreds and thousands of Indians of diffei^ent tribes 
now living, and from many of whom I have personally 
drawn the information ; and, as additional and still more 
conclusive e\ddence, here are to be seen the totems and 
arms of the diflFerent tribes who have visited this place 
for ages past^ deeply engraven on the quartz rocks.''* 
The enterprising traveller who narrates this, speaks else- 
where of the thousands of inscriptions and paintings 
observed by him on the neighbouring rocks ; while the 
feeling in which they originate was thus illustrated by 
an Indian whose portrait he painted when in the Man- 
dan country. " My brother," said the Mandan, " you 
have made my picture, and I like it mucL My friends 
tell me they can see the eyes move, and it must be very 
good; it must be partly alive. I am glad it is done, 
though many of my people are afraid. I am a young 
man, but my heart is strong. I have jimiped on to the 
Medicine Rock ; I have placed my arrow on it, and no 
Mimdan can take it away. The red stone is slippeiy, 
but my foot was true ; it did not slip. My brother, this 
pipe whicli I give to you I brought from a high moun- 
tain ; it is towanls the rising sun. Many were the pipes 
we brouglit from thence, and we l:)rought them away in 
peace. We left our totems on the rocks ; we cut them 
deep in the stones, they are there now. The Great Spirit 
told all nations to meet there in peace, and all nations 
liid the war-club and the tomahawk. Tlie Dahcotalis, 
who are our enemies, are very strong ; they have taken 
up the tomahawk, and the blood of our waniors has run 
oil the rocks. We want to \dsit our medicines. Our 
piju^s are old and wom out." 

The Medicine or Leaping-Rock, here refen'ed to, is a 
detached column standing between seven and eight feet 

' lUitstratlonj* qf the Mannfm^ etc., of the Xorth American Inditum, By 
(.jeo. Catlin. Eighth etlition. Vol. ii. p. 1G7. 


from the precipitous cliff ; and the leap across this chasm 
i^ a during feat which the young warriors are ambitious 
of |)erforming. It was pointed out to Catlin by a Sioux 
«'hivf, whoee flon had perished in the attempt A conical 
liiuund marked the spot of his sepulture ; and though the 
sanctity of this ancient neutral ground has been invaded, 
and the powerful nation of the Sioux now refuse to per- 
mit other tribes to have access to it^ this is of quite recent 
oix-urrence. Alike by the evidence of the belief of many 
independent tribes, the memorials of their presence on 
the graven rocks, and the niunerous excavations, sepul- 
rhnil mounds, and other earthworks iu the vicinity : the 
Indian tradition receives confirmation, that from time 
inuuf-morial this has been the sacred neutral ground of 
all the tribes to the west, and of many of those to the 
•-a-Ht tif the Mississippi, and the place whither they have 
made their regular pilgrimages to renew their pipes fix)m 
the ruck consecrated by the footprints of the Great Spirit. 
Tb«-?<i* marks of his footsteps are pointed out, deeply 
inipn*s«e<l in the rock, and resembling the track of a large 
binl ! Nor is it without a special interest for us to note 
A Man^lan tradition respecting this sacred spot ; for the 
niiixnitions of that once powerful Indian nation have l)eeu 
trai-t-d fn»m the country lying Ix^tween Cincinnati and 
F^ike Erit*, down the valley of the Ohio, over the graves 
'•f the ancient Mound-Builders, and thence up the great 
w.-teni branch of the Mississippi, until th(*ir utter ex- 
tin<-ti«»ii, chiefly i)y the frightful ravages of the smaII-j)ox 
in the year 18:^8, at their latest settlements on the Tpper 
Mi-vi-iuri. The site of their hu^t homes, and the place of 
rh^'ir extin<*tion, lies to the north of the Sioux s (-ountry, 
in whos4: |)«>ss4'ssion the area of the pipe-stone quarries 
i^ now veste<l by the law of the strongest ; and they, 
.1* i>»nlingly, may 1 Hi considered as the guardians of tlie 
tnifiitious n{ the lo<*aIity. For, although they have thus 


set at defiance its most sacred and universally recognised 
characteristic, and so slighted the mandate of the Great 
Spirit, they do not the less strongly hold by the other 
superstitious ideas associated with the spot. 

One of these legends derives its form from some of the 
peculiar features of the scene. Near the base of the per- 
pendicular clifi*, already described, there lies on the level 
prairie, where the Indian pipe-stone quarries are opened, 
a group of five large granite boulders disposed in a row. 
The largest of them is about twenty-five feet in diameter, 
and the smallest fi'om twelve to fifteen feet. These, as 
prominent objects on the level plain, have attracted the 
attention of the superstitious visitors of the spot, and arc 
regarded with awful reverence by the Indians. Two 
holes under them are the abodes of the guardian spirits 
of the spot ; and Catlin, who not only visited the quarry, 
but broke off and carried away with him fragments of 
these sacred boulders, remarks : " As for the poor Indian, 
his superstitious veneration of them is such, that not a 
spear of grass is broken or bent by his feet- within three 
or four roods of them, where he stops, and, in humble 
supplication, by tlirowdng plugs of tobacco to them, 
solicits permission to dig and carry away the red stone 
for his pipes." Here, according to the traditions of many 
independent tribes, not only took place the mysterious 
birth of the red pipe, but the postdiluvian creation of 
the human race. 

The tradition of the institution of the peace-pipe varies 
among the different tribes, but its general form is that 
which Longfellow has embodied in his Indian epic. It Is 
thus nan-ated by the Sioux of the Mississippi : " Many 
ages after the red men were made, when all the different 
tribes were at war, the Great Spirit called them aU together 
at the Red Rocks, lie stood on the top of the rocks, and 
the red nations were assembled in infinite numbei's on the 


pLiiu In low. He took out of the rock a piece of the red 
^lont^ and made a large pipe. He smoked it over them 
all : u >ld them that it was part of their flesh ; that though 
tiny wt-n- at war, they must meet at this place as friends; 
that it U'longc^l to them all ; that they must make their 
«*alunii'ts from it, and smoke them to him whenever they 
wislie*! to ap{ lease him or get his goodw^ill. The smoke 
frum his lug pipe rolled over them all, and he disap- 
iMiUvil in its cloud. At the last whiflF of his pipe a blaze 
of fiix' rolh-d over the rocks and melted their surface. 
At that moment two Indian maidens passed in a flame 
un«K'r the two meilicine rocks, where they remain to this 
«lay. The v^iiies of Tsomecostee and Tsomecostewondee, 
Ofi tlh'^' an* named, are heanl at times in answer to the 


invficiitionfl of the suppliants, and they must be propi- 
tiatetl In'fore the piix* stone is Uiken away.'* 

An <»tfering of toliacco is almost invariably the propi- 
tiat^rj' gift, and it api)ears to liave been used in similar 
a«t> i»f worship and sacrifice frum the earliest jx^riod of 
int«nourse with Eunipoans, In the narrative of the 
vi.yagf of Dnike, in 1572, it is noted that the natives 

• •ri»u«:ht a little basket made* of rushes, and filled with 
.ui h« rb whi<-h they called tohnh. This, which was the 
ti»!«;Mi<^-plant, was rrj^anled by the voyagers as a proju- 
tiatory otTrring ; an the writer sulisequeutly notes, they 
•• rami* n«>w the second time to us, bringing with them, 
.1-. iM-fi.n- had Ikm/h <lone, fcathei's and bags of tolxik for 
].r»-*iits, i»r nillier, indrt-d, for s;icnfi<(.'s, upon this jrt- 
«u;t^ion that wi* were go<ls/' In all probability, lis iilrea<ly 
-n'jifi-fftrd, \\\v. pnictire of snmking originated in the ust' 
«'f th«- intoxicating fum<^ fur jiuqiuses of divination, or 

• 'th«T ^ujH-rstitious rit«.*s : and the univei-sality of the« r u>i- of the plant has not entirely divested it of 
I!- -aii«-«l ejianicl4T. Harriot, who formed one (»f the 
Vi.yag«r- i»y whom ^'irginia was discovered, tells, in his 


"Briefe and Trae Report of the New Found Land of 
Virginia,'' of a plant which has diverse names in the 
West Indies, according to the several places and coun- 
tries where it is used. The Spaniards generally call it 
tohaccOy but it is there named by the natives uppdivoc. 
" This uppowoc is of so precious estimation among them, 
that they think their gods are marvellously delighted 
therewith, whereupon sometime they make halowed fires, 
and cast some of the powder therein for a sacrifice. 
Being in a storme upon the waters, to pacific their gods 
they cast some up into the aire ; and into the water ; 
so a weare for fish being newly set up, they cast some 
therein and into the aire ; also, after an escape of danger, 
they cast some into the aire likewise ; but all done with 
strange gestures, stamping, sometime dancing, clapping 
of hands, holding up of hands, and staring up into the 
heavens, uttering therewithal and chattering strange 
words and noises." Such practices and ideas of propi- 
tiatory offerings among the more southern Indian tribes 
of the sixteenth century, abundantly prove that the 
offerings of tobacco still made by the Sioux to the spirits 
that haunt the pipe-stone quarry, are of no merely local 
origin, but were anciently as universal as the peace-pipe 
itself. Nor were such religious associations with the 
favourite narcotic confined to the northern continent. 
Among the Peruvians the cocoa plant took the place of 
tobacco in this as well as in other respects. Dr. Tschudi 
states that he found the cocoa stiU regarded by the 
Peruvian Indians as something sacred and mysterious. 
" In all ceremonies, whether religious or warlike, it was 
introduced for producing smoke at the great offerings, 
or as the sacrifice itself. During divine worship the 
priests chewed cocoa-leaves ; and, unless they were sup- 
plied with them, it was believed that the favour of the 
gods could not be propitiated." Christianity, after an 


intcn'ul of upwards of three hundred years, has not 
i*nulicute<l the Indiain's faith in the virtues of the sacred 
plant. In the mines of Cerro de Pasco, masticated cocoa 
\a thn»wn on the hard veins of metal to propitiate the 
jZTiumeii of the mine, who, it is believed, would otherwise 
n*nder the mountains impenetrable ; and the leaves of 
the rocoa arc secretly placed in the mouth of the dead, 
to smooth his passage to another world. Thus we find, 
in the su{)er8titions perpetuated among the Indians of 
iiw southern Cordilleras, striking analogies to those which 
.«urvivf among the northern Sioux, and give character to 
the Ktrange rites they practise at the red pipe-stone 
i|uarn% on the Coteau des Prairies. 

Fn>m among the many Indian traditions connected 
mith that interesting locality, one of those which seem to 
[M-qit'tuate the idea of a general deluge, may l>est illustrate 
itM must ancient associations. It was narrated to Catliu, 
by a diiitinguished Knisteneaux on the Upper Missouri, on 
thf- occasion of presenting to him a handsome red-stone 
pijv. " In the time of a great freshet, which took place 
many centuries ago, and destroyed all the nations of the 
<':trth, all the tribes of the re<l men assembled on the 
i ^»t«-au dfs Prairies, to get out of the way of the waters. 
Afi^-r they hail all gathered here from every part, the water 
f Mutinm-d to ri^?, until at length it covered them all in a 
lu.X'vt, and their flesh was converted into red pipe-stone. 
Tli»p-'f«»re, it has always been considered neutml ground : 
it U'loiigs to all triU-s alike, and all were allowed to get 
It and smok<* it tojx«»tlKT. While they were all drowning 
in a mxitv^, a young woman, Kwaptiihw, a virgin, caught 
i*«»M of the fo<»t of a ver}' large bird that was flying 

• •vt-r, and was carried to the top of a high elifl' not far 

• •iT. tluit wa.** al)ove the water. Here she had twins, and 
th«ir father wvla the war-eagle, and ln*r children have 
Mner fieoplc^l the earth." The idea that the red pipe- 


stone is the Hesh of their ancestors is a favourite one 
among different and entirely independent tribes. When 
Catlin and his party attempted to penetrate to the sacred 
locality, they were stopped by the Sioux, and one of 
them addressing him, said : " This red pipe was given to 
the red men l)y the Great Spirit. It is a part of our 
flesh, and therefore is great medicine. We know that 
the whites are like a great cloud that rises in the east, 
and will cover the whole country. We know that they 
will have all our lands ; but if ever they get our red -pipe 
quarry they will have to pay very dear for it." Thus is 
it that even in the farthest West the Indian feels the 
fatal touch of that white hand ; and to the intrigues of 
interested white traders is ascribed the encroachment of 
the Sioux on the sacred neutral ground, where, within 
memoiy of Hving men, every tribe on the JMLssomi had 
smoked with their enemies, while the Great Spirit kept 
the peace among his red children on that spot consecrated 
by the traditions of ages. 

Apart, then, from such indications of superior skill, and 
a truly artistic power of imitation, by which the ancient 
[)ipe-sculptors are distinguished, it becomes an object of 
some interest with us to observe other elements, either 
of comparison or contrast, between the memorials of the 
Mound-Builder's skill, and the nimierous specimens of 
pipe-sculpture produced by modem tribes. Nor are the 
distinctive points cither slight or unimportant. 

Notwithstanding the endless variety which character- 
izes the form of the ancient JMound-Builder's pipes, one 
general tyjie is traceable through the whole. " They are 
always carved from a single piece, and consist of a flat 
cuiTcd base, with the bowl rising from the centre of the 
convex side. From one of the ends, and communicating 
with the hollow of the bowl, is diilled a small hole, which 
answci's the puri)osc of a tube; the corresponding oppasite 


ilivisioii being left for the manifest purjKxse of holding the 
implement t4) the mouth." The authoi-s of the Ancient 
Monuments of the ifuHsissippi Valley express their convic- 
tion, derived from the inspection of hundre<ls of specimens 
whi<-h luive come under their notice, during their explor- 
ations of the ancient mounds, that the instrument is 
romplete as found, and was used without any such tube 
or pi {>e- stem, as is almost invariably employed by the 
mo<lem Indian, and also by the modem perfiime-loving 
c»riental when he fills his chi1)Ouk with tlie odorous 
Bhiraz or mild latakia. It is otherwise with the ex- 
amples of pipe-heads car\'ed out of the beautiful red 
pipe-stone, and other favourite materials for the pipe- 
ficulpture of the m<Hlem Indian. It would seem, there- 
fore, tliat the pipe-stem is one of the clianicteristics of 
th<* modem nice ; if, in<leed, it does not distinguish the 
northern tril>es fn>m Aztec, Toltecan, and other essen- 
tially diverse ancient peoples. 

The use of tobacco, from the earliest eras of which we 
•■an n*cover a glinifM^*, |)ertaine<l l)oth Uy the northern 
and southem nations ; but the pipe-head would appear 
tn be thi* eml)lem of the one, while the pipe-stem gives 
<luira<ter to the singular rites and 8Ui>erstitions of the 
• it her. Tlie in4Temat4»d pi|K»-heads of the ancient Mound- 
Builders illustrate the siicred i|sages of the one ; while 
fh«- hkill with whi<»h the Indian medicine-man decorates 
th»* s^Uiii of his m«Mliein<*-pij)e, and the awe and reverence 
with which the whole triix? regard it, abundantly prove 
the virtues iu^crilKHl to that implement of the medicine- 
m;ai*s art. Mav it not Ix*, that in the sacred associations 
ciiiinect4Ml with the pi|M; by the Mound-Builders of the 
MU<^i*^-«ippi Valley, we have indi<-atioiis of contact Ik? 
twtft-n the niiirratin^ ma* of »Southem and Central Ame- 
rica, among whom no sui>erHtitious pijxs usjiges are 
tnneable, an<l the trilies of the north where such su|)i»r 


r-wom «toue8 in the bed of the river, to carry home 
fi*r the purpose of pipe manufacture, although they were 
then fuUy five hundred miles fix>m their lodges. Such 
traditional adherence to the choice of a material peculiar 
!«> a remote source, as well as the })erpetuation of special 
f«>nns and patterns among the scattered members of the 
triU% may frequently prove of considerable value as a 
i-lue to former migrations. 

Among the CVee Indians a double pipe is occasionally 
in use, consisting of a bowl carved out of stone without 
much attempt at ornament^ but wnth perforations on two 
skles^ so tLit two smokers can insert their pipe-stems at 
once, and enjoy the same supply of tobacco. This form 
would seem peeidiarly adapted for sealing the new-bom 
amity of ancient foes turned friends ; but I have not 
been able to learn tliat any special significance is at- 
tached to the singular fancy. The Chippewas, on the 
St- Louis river, at the head of Lake Superior, a branch 
«if the great Algomjuin nation, also car\'e their pipes out 
of an eai^ily ^Tought dark close-grained stone ; and fre- 
<|Ucntly intrcxluce groups of animals and human figures 
with considerable artistic skiU, but generally ^^'ith ac- 
c*um{Kiniments which betniy the influence of European 
intercourse on the development of native art. 

itoe of the most celebrated Indian pipe-sculptors is 
Paf^i/ime:vul, or the Flier, an Old Chippi'wa, still living 
on the Great Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron ; but 
more generally known iis Picuhjuuehty the Pij)e Maker, 
literally ** he makes pijx^s/' Thoujxh l)rought in contact 
with the (*hristi;in Indians of the Manitoulin Islands, he 
re*Jutcly a^lheres to the pagan cn»ed and rites of liLs 
father*, an<l n^sists all the encroachments of civilisation. 
Hw mat«-rials an* the muhlcuUdti-pkruhjunahlH^vl:, or 
bLii*k pijH'-stone of Lake Hun»n, tlic uxililH^pinOujuuah' 
h^ci, or while pipe ston<\ procured on »St. .losephV Island, 

** VSEIUHTOmc .V-l.V. [Chai 

att>i the tuisti^-jjtrnhgtinahbeck, r>r red pipe-stone of l 
Cotean des Prairies. His saw, with whif^h the stone i 
fii3t roughly lilix-kt-d out, is made by himself out of i 
bit of iron hoop, and IiLs dther tools arc corresponiUngljj 
rode ; nevertheless the workmanship of Pabahmei 
Rhowa him to be a nwister of his art. A eharactcristB 
illustration of his ingenious seulptui-e is engraved hen 

(Fig. 2B), fi-om the oiiginal, in the museum of thej 
University of Toronto. 

It is impossible that a people manifesting such pecn-j 
liar ajttitudu for artistic imitation, should fiti] to t-opyj 
»ome of the novel arts aud objects brought under thei 
notii^e by European traders and setth-i-s. But the ua 
impn-iwiblc uatui-e of the Indian, and tlie dormimt statf 
of \m mental faculties, appear in the fact of his imita-l 
Uon «xt«uding only to the tmnsference of a few novel I 
forain to hi« eairvings, while all the ingenious diacoverica 
nn<l ujH^ful nrtii of the Enrojieau remain unheetled or 
flmptHt^L Here and there the manufaeturrs of Europe, 
Imrtcred by the fur trader for Indian peltries, find ac- 
Wjiliincr. The eop[M'r kettle dl'^places in part the rude 
Afid fnij^ilu elay euUInm, and the t»lanket gradually takes 
llin filiu'o of the more gnicefnl buffalo robt;. But the 
imml rharnrleriBtie and intt>re.stiug objects of native 
wwkiMiiit»liil' dinnppenr in this pnwess of exchange ; 


vith no other effect on the poor Indian than to make 
him more dependent on the civilisation which he despises, 
antl to roll him of the few simple arts which he has 
inherited from his fathers. 

The tendency to imitation, within the limited range 
(»f native art-manufacture, shows itself more like an 
onrvasoning instinct, where the Indian is now fre- 
quently found laboriously reproducing the simple form 
of the clay pipe in the hardest stones ; though here also 
his taste is seen to break the bonds of fashion, and to 
mpcradd incongruous, yet not ungraceful ornaments and 
devices to the homely European model But the most 
dalxNrmte of all the modem specimens of pipe-sculpture 
are those executed by the Babeen, or big-lip Indians, 
00 called from the singular deformity the females pro- 
duce by inserting a piece of wood into a slit made in 
the lower lip. The frontispiece to vol L illustrates the 
characteristic physiognomy of this tribe. It is an accu- 
mte portrait of a Cliimpseyan chief, from sketches taken 
by ilr. Paul Kane during his travels in the North-west. 
The Chimpseyan or Babeen Indians are found along 
the Pacific Coast, aliout latitude 54"" 40^ and extend 
fn»m the liorders of the Russian dominions eastwanl 
neairiy to Frazer River. Some of their customs ai*e 
Acarrely leas singular than that from whence their name 
lA derivwl, and are deser\'ing of minute comimrison 
with the older practi<re8 which pertainc<l to the more 
civiliz^tl regions of the continent. This is (\specially 
the cafle in relation to their rites of sepulture, wherein 
th#-v nuike another marked distinction between the 
»rxc3«. Tlieir females are wrapi>ed in niat^ and placed 
•Ki an flcvated platform, or in a canoi* ruise<l <»n poles, 
but they invariably bum their male dead. 

The pi|ies of the BalK?en, and also of the C'lalam 
Inilianx* ^iccupying the neighlx>uring Vancouver s Island, 




ftro carved with the utmost clalrorateuess, and in iL^ 
most singular and grotesque devices, from a soft blu?- 
daystone or slate found in that rcgioa The fonu is in 
part determined by the materinl, which is only procur- 
able in thin slabs ; so that the sculpturea, wrought on 
both sides, present a sort of douiile Iws-relief. From 
this, singular and gi-otesque groups are carved, without 
any apparent reference to the final destination of tin 
whole as a pipe. The lower side is generally straight , 
and in the specimens I have examined, the pipes measuti' 
from two or three to fifteen inches long ; so that in 
these the pipe-stem is included, A small hollow is 
carved out of some protruding ornament to serve as a 
bowl, and from the further end a perforation is drilled 
to connect with this. I'hc only addition made to it, 
when in use, is the insertion of a quill or straw as a 
mouth-piece instead of the usual pijie-stem, wliich would 
be incompatible with the pecidiar form, as well aa with 
the weight, of such elabomtc and somewhat brittle works 

Fin. 2;.-Di.l-:,-nrilm 

of art The woodcut (Fig. 27) illustrates the simpler 
devices of the Babeen sculptor in decorating one of his 
smaller pipes. But large and complicated designs ara 
of common occurrence. One of the largest brought 
back by Mr, Kane measures nearly fifteen inches long. 
It consists of a grotesque intermixture of figiuv.'!, in 
which that of the frog predominates ; though aex;om- 
ponied with strange monatroeities intermingling human 

LI ydscoric jurs axd svfMRSTiTioxs. 

Imtal furnus iuul prenenting some analogy to 
T tbc tteal|jCure on the temple-nims of Centmi 

b moTB eUbonto sppcimeo of pipe-scuJpture showu 
1 1^ 28, may b« regarded as the conventional ruprc- 

hf the Babvon arltitt, uf a Iteiir-huot in thu 
p of one of tbc Hudson's Hay Comp.iny» stations 
I iattM ; and f loesilily the swampy nature of the scene 
1 V- todicaU-d hy the fntgn, though tlie tatter are 
! ohjectc *nth the Babeen sculptors. The gro- 
DHkl imitated here, are executed the size of 
hfr. wmI brilluuitly coloured ; and famish a fret^uent 
t repoiito') in miniature on the claystone cirvingn. 
FnMB the OMtame, it is evident tliut the man who turns 
: oa the bear is intended to represent one of the 
n'a Bay Company's tnippers. The group consti- 
■•bb mltogvtbcr an ingL-uioos and spirited specimen of 
Htm nt, akH as would be recorded as no discredit- 
tUa {Xodact of cunvontioiial design if sculptured on 
■ Voman tapital of the twelfth century. 

McHKs. Sqnier and Davis cuuclude their rcmitrks on 
tfe acolptures of the Muuuils by olxerving : " It is un< 
r to any mon; iJiiUi that, as worka of art, tliey 
beyotkl anything winch the North 
IndiaiM are known to pm<lace, even at this 
d», vith all the ailggestioas t>f Eoropean art, and the 


advantages afforded by steel instniments. The Chinooks, 
and the Indians of the north-western coast, carve pipea^ 
phitters, and other articles, with much neatness^ from 
slate. We see in their pipes, for instance, a hetero- 
geneous collection of pulleys, cords, barrels, and rude 
human figures, e^adently suggested by the tackling of 
the ships trading in those seas. The utmost that can 
1)0 said of them is, that they are elaborate, unmeaning 
carvings, displaying some degree of ingenuity.*' This 
descriptive comparison of the moimd-sculptures with 
the arts of the Indians of the north-west coast, is based 
on deductions drawn from exceptional specimens very 
diffei-ent fivm many brought from the same localities^ 
or investigates! in the hands of the native sculptors ; 
which obviouslv constitute the true illustrations of Indian 
skill and aitiatic design. In addition to such, however, 
among a varied collection of Indian relics from the 
north-west coiist, now in the possession of the Hon. 
G. W. Allan, of Toronto, there is one of the ingenious 
exami>les of imitative skill referred to, which was pro- 
cui^ed on Vancouver s Island. But while this exhibits 
evidt^nce of the same skilful dexterity as other carvings 
in the bhie pii>e-slate of the Clalam and Babeen Indiums, 
it pi'csents the most striking contrast to them, alike in 
design luid style of art It has a regular bowl, imitated 
from that of a common clay pipe, and is decorated with 
twisted ropes, part of a ship's bulkhead, and other ob- 
jects — including even the head of a screw-nail, — all 
equally familiar to us, but which no doubt attracted the 
eye of the native artist from their novelty. 

Another example procured by Professor Hind during his 
command of the exploring expedition to the Assinaboin 
and Saskatchewan rivers, is a representation of one of 
the Hudson's Bay Company's forts, with figures in Eiuxh 
pean costume. These cannot for a moment be compared 


with the iDciinit mminil-Hcalpturcfi ; and, indeed, the 
butnan figunx on; fjrvatly iDferior to thoBc of the Chip- 
p<?Wft cculptnrea. NevertJielcsa, or evidencfH of the pre- 
dominaoo? of tht? imitative faculty even among tliis rude 
fcjl« iff iht; nalive Indians of North America, they are 
wiirthy <if carefid study. Hut these are not the 
i Iiy whii-h to judge of the art of the Babeeu eculp- 
Hia own geuuilic native denigua exliibit the most 
v»i, tkliorale, and iiujciful devices, including human 
, anme of them with birda' and beaats' beads, and 
lently prfJktnting cousidfrabk> ucKuracy of imitative 
Id somt- of the hirger pipes, tbe entire group pre- 
■rtits murh of the grotesque (!xul)enmre of fancy, mingled 
■lith imitutiums iMtrrowe*! din-i-tly from nature, which 
cuortitutg the i-harm of wiclcJMastieal sculptures of the 
nth century. The figures are grouped tt^tber in 
. vitheticft of poeture, and ingenioiuly intcr- 
wl by elaboralc ornaments ; the inter- 
i being pcrforHtetl, no aa t't give great 

iHcc to tlie whole. But tliough well 

1 toreemll the quaint products of the metliasval 
aadptor's chisvl : so fitr aiv these BalMu^n carvings from 

•nggesdng the aUghteat reaemblance to Enrnpeao modd^ 
tiMi wbra firat exoniiuiiig them, as well as specimoua in 
ba£ and iroiy fn»ni tbe Bimic Iocalily,--and still Dion- 


!W^ WUM ivory carvings executed by the Tawatiu IndiaDS 
ou Ktazer River, of wliich an example is figured here 
(Kig. :i9), — I was struck with certain resembliinces to 
peculiar style of ancient Mexican and still more of 
tiiU American art. In this they only confirm the traces 
of some commou relationship, or early intercourse lie 
tween those rude savage tribes of the North-west and tin- 
latest native civilized occupants of the Mexican plateau, 
which noticeable peculiarities in language and customs 
hml already suggested The ivory carving figured here 
measures four and a half inches long, and is executed 
with minute delicacy. On the reverse (Fig. 30) a whole 




is cut with couaiderable spirit ; and it ia curious to f 
in it the imtutored sculptor of the Pacific coast giving 
to the monster of the deep the same forked tongue which 
formed the conventional attribute of the dragons and . 
leviathans of mediHeval Europe. 

But there is another conclusion, of more general appli 
cation, suggested by these Babeen scalptures. They are 
desemng of special con-sideratiun, from illustrating, in 
some resiK-ctg, tlie just mctliod of inductive history as 
derived fi'om ancient relics of primitive art.. Impres 
with the discrepancy, which at fii-st sight is apt to sti 
even the loiiat ciireful investigator, between the elabon 
I nrt of the finer si-idpliu-es, and esperially the pipc-he< 


of the mounds, anil other traces of Bkill and civilisation 
of their builders, Mr. Haven assumes a foreign origin for 
all smch sculptures ; while others have inferred from 
them a native civilisation in the Mississippi and Ohio 
Valleys, corresponding in all respects to those isolated 
examples of art ; just as, from a rude but graceful Greek 
vatie, we can infer the taste of a Callicrates or a Phidias. 
IC however, the conclusions adopted from the geometri* 
cal accuracy of the regular figures in their earthworks, 
thi- |ierfectiun of their execution on the largest scale, and 
the existence of definite standards of measurement, as 
implied in the recurrence of such large earthworks con- 
structed of the same figures and precisely corresponding 
in size, are legitimate : then it cannot be said that we are 
without evidences of civilisation much more important 
and tmstworthy even than their finest sculpturea Such 
fseometrical construction and mensuration must have 
been aooompanied with the use of instruments^ a know- 
lealge of figures^ and other acquirements very far in 
atlvance of anything possessed by the most intelligent 
among the Indian tribes. What equivalent evidence, 
indeetl, of our boasted ci>'ili8ation would remain, if some 
tif the newer cities, built on the site of the ancient 
mounds and enclosures, were abandoned to the same 
Work of time which has buried the mounds of the Ohio 
in the depths of its ancient forest shadows ? ^Vhilst, 
however, we must guard against being misled by too 
p«wt"i'ping deductions, on the one hand : it is imiH)rtant 
to note, in n.'ferenee to such mcxlem ]>roductions of 
native art, tluit while the liiibeen sculptor executes a of pijie-ean'ing so elaI>oratc and ingenious as justly 
t«» eXi-ite our wonder and admiration, it furnishes no test 
• •f hU gt*neral progress in arts or civil isiit ion. On the 
e-.ntnirv. In' is ruder an<l mon* indifferent to the n»fine- 
ni«'nt>i of dre.«48 an<l deeoration than many Indian trilN^s 


who produce no such special examples of ingenious skilL 
Some of the conclusions which such facts suggest will be 
found applicable to not a few deductions derived by 
European archaeologists from isolated examples of primi- 
tive art 


Enough has been said to illustrate the endless variety 
of forms into which the favourite smoking implement 
of the New World has been wrought, in all ages, by 
the zealous devotees of the nicotian weed, working in 
such intractable materials, and supplied with the rudest 
and most imperfect tools. But the potter's art was not 
unknown, meanwhile, to the Indian smoker, and he also 
had his " clay/' which indeed supplied the first models 
for some at least of the European pipes. Upon the sites 
of old Indian villages firagments of pottery occur in great 
abundance, and among tJiese, clay pipes are of frequent 
occurrence. I have repeatedly dug them up in different 
Canadian localities ; and in nearly all such examples 
have found the bowl as small as the most diminutive of 
Scottish " Elfin pipes." They indicate the economic use 
of the tobacco among the older Indians, on whom it is 
well known to produce a highly intoxicating effect when 
indulged in to an excess which proves perfectly in- 
nocuous to the European ; and they help to throw some 
light on the question of the first introduction of the pipe 
to Europe. 

The potter's art is among the most ancient practised 
by man, in every quarter of the globe, and it contributes 
its evidences of America's early ingenuity and skill As 
applied, however, to the requirements of the smoker, its 
productions appear to belong chiefly to the later ages of 
the New World. In the vicinity of the city of Mexico 
large quantities of clay pipes have been dug up, in a 
variety of fimciful forms, one of which, given by Mr. 
Fairholt in his Tobacco, its Hisloi^^y and Associations, 


represcntB a male figure with the characteristic features 
of the Mexican type. The right leg forms the tube of 
the pipe, while the other is bent so as to act as a handle. 
Clay pipcis with globular or trumpet-shaped bowls of a 
large sixe, have been repeatedly foimd in Canada and the 
Northern States, along with relics which indicate an era 
8ulj6equent to the intercourse of the natives with Euro- 
p(*anii. They are not therefore of any very great anti- 
t}uity ; but it is worthy of note, that they bear a nearer 
n*8emblance tlian any figured or described among Ame- 
riran antiquities, to such as are introduced in ancient 
Mexican paintings ; ^ nor are examples wanting of a 
more antique style of art^ Many of the ancient clay 
pipes that have been discovered are described as having 
Dearly the same form ; and this presents so great a cor- 
i^iondence to that of the red clay pipe used in modem 
Turkey and Eg]rpt with a cherry-tree pipe-stem, that it 
might be supposed to have furnished the model The 
Uiwls of this class of pipes are not of the miniature pro- 
{Mirtions which, as it will be seen, indu(U3 a comparison 
U-twuen those of Canada and the early examples found 
in Britain ; neither do the stone pii)e-heads of the 
)Iuund-Builders suggest, by the size of the bowl, either 
tiie «elf den}4ng economy of the ancient smoker, or his 
practice of the Indian mode of exhaling the fumes of the 
t«»liacoc>, by wliich a small (juantity sufiices to produce 
tin* full narcotic effects of the favourite weed. They 
wtiuld rather seem to confirm the indications derived 
fn»ni other sourcoH, of an essential difference in the 
aurit-nt smoking usages of Central America imd the 
Mound Builders, from those which are still maintained 
in their primeval integrity among the Indians of the 

The |»i|«-, however, which among the ancient occupants 

* L(irH Kint^bortmghi Mexican AntyptUkA, voL iv. pUte« 17, A7. 


of the Mississippi Valley may have filled the place of the 
golden censer in the gorgeous rites of Pagan and Christian 
worship, and which presents so many and characteristic 
forms among the Indian tribes of the far West, what- 
ever may have been its importance in ancient times, is 
no loiter the special object of sacred associations. It 
is to the pipe-stem that the modem Indian attaches all 
his superstitious veneration. The medicine pipe-stem is 
the palladium of the tribe, on which depends its safety 
in peace and its success in war ; and it is accordingly 
guarded with all the veneration, and surrounded with 
the dignity befitting so sacred an institution ; while, in 
its use in the war-coimcil, or in the medicine dance, so 
long as the proper and consecrated pipe-stem is em- 
ployed, it matters not whether the pipe itself is of the 
richest carving of which the red stone of the Coteau 
des Prairies is susceptible, or l>e the begrimed stump of 
a trader's English " cky." 

The medicine pipe-stem carrier is accordingly an offi- 
cial of great dignity in the tribe, and is endowed with 
special, though somewhat burdensome honours and pri- 
vileges. A highly ornamental tent is provided for his 
use, and frequently he is required to have so many 
horaes as renders the office even more onerous than 
honourable. A bear-skin robe is set apart for WTappiiig 
up tlie medicine pipe-stem, when carried, and for laying 
it on while exposed to view. When wrapped up in its 
covering, it is usually carried by the favourite wife of 
the dignitary, while he himself bears the medicine-bowl, 
out of which he takes his food. But though the sacred 
pipe-stem is almost invariably borne by the wife of the 
Indian dignitary, it is never allowed to be uncovered in 
the presence of a woman ; and should one even by 
chance cast her eyes on it when thus exposed, its virtues 
can only be restored by a tedious ceremony, designed to 


coantenict the evil effects and propitiate the insulted 
spirit If the stem is allowed to fall to the ground, 
whether designedly or from accident, it is in like manner 
regarded as an omen of evil ; and many elaborate cere- 
monies have to be gone through before it is reinstated 
in its former favour and beneficent influence. Mr. Kane 
met with a young Cree half-breed who confessed to him 
that, in a spirit of daring scepticism, he had once secretly 
thn>wn down the medicine pipe -stem and kicked it 
a)M>ut ; ))Ut soon after, its official carrier was slain, and 
such misfortunes followed as left no doubt on his mind 
(»f the awfiil sanctity pertaining to this guardian and 
avenger of the honour of the tribe. The sacredness of 
the medicine pipe-stem attaches in part also to its bearer. 
Many special honours are due to him, and it is even a 
mark of disrespect, and unlucky, to pass between him 
and the fire. 

At Fort Pitt, on the Saskatchewan river, Mr. Kane 
met with Kea-keke-sacowaw, the head chief of the Cree 
nation, then engaged in raising a war-party to make 
war on the Hlackfeet He had eleven medicine pipe- 
.«tems with him, gathered from the different bands of 
the tril)e who had already enlisted in the cause, and 
eai:h committed to him by the medicine-man of the 
Ijaud. Armed with such sacred credentials, he proceeds 
thn»uph the encampments of his nation, attended by a 
few uf his own immediate followers, but without the 
{ii|ii'-st4'm lx?arerH, whose rights and privileges pass for 
th«* time lieing to the chief. Whenever he comes to a 
vilLi*:f he calls on the braves to assemble, tells them he 
i-v petting up a war-party, recounts to them the un- 
avfn;;**^! wrongs of the trilie, recalls the names of those 
,-*laiu in fi^rmer feu<ls with the Blackfeet, and appeals to 
tht-m to join him in revenjijing their death. On such 
• Miasious th«» medicine pipe stems are not uncovered ; 


but Mr. Kane having persuaded the Cree chief to sit for 
his portrait, he witnessed the ceremony of " opening the 
medicine pipe-stem," as it is called, and during its pro- 
gress had to smoke each of the eleven pipes before he 
could be allowed to commence his work. His spirited 
portrait represents the grim old chie^ decorated with 
his war-paint, and holding in his hand a medicine pipe- 
stem, elaborately adorned with the head and plumes 
of an eagle. 

All this ceremonial, and the peculiar sanctity attached 
to the pipe-stem, apart from the pipe, are special charac- 
teristics of the Eed Indian of the North-west, of which 
no trace is apparent in the singular memorials of the 
ancient Mound-Builders, or in the sculptures and paint- 
ings of Mexico. The pipes of the Mound-Builders are 
complete, with their short flattened mouth-piece adapted 
to the lips ; and the same is the case with ancient 
Mexican examples. Throughout the whole elaborate 
illustrations of Lord Kingsborough's great work, the 
traces of Mexican usages connected with the tobacco- 
pipe are rare, and in no one can I discern anything 
which appears to represent a pipe-stem. In voL iv. 
plate 17, of a series copied from a Mexican painting 
preserved at Pass, in Hungary, a figure coloured as a 
black, carries in his hand a plain white pipe, somewhat 
of the form of the larger clay pipes found in Canada 
and in the State of New York, and from the bowl rise 
yellow flames. On plate 57 of the same volume, copied 
from a Mexican painting in the Borgian Museum, in the 
College of the Propaganda at Home, may be seen another 
figure, holding what seems to be a small clay tobacco- 
pipe, from whence smoke proceeds. One or two other 
pictures appear to represent figures putting the green 
tobacco, or some other leaf into the pipe, if indeed the 
instrument held in the hmd be not rather a ladle or 


fifttera. But any such illustrations are rare^ and some- 
what uncertain ; and only confirm the idea that the 
tobacco-pipe was not invested in Mexico or Central 
America with those singular and sacred attributes which 
we must believe to have attached to it among the ancient 
Mound-Builders of the Mississippi Valley ; and which, 
under other but no less peculiar forms, are reverently 
maintained among the native taibes of the North-west 

Having thus followed out with some minuteness the 
native memorials of the American pipe, we cannot hesi- 
tate to infer from the varied evidence thus afibrded that 
the singular practice of smoking the burning leaves of 
the tobacco plant reveals itself among the remotest 
tnif.-efi of human arts in the New World. When we turn 
Cmm archaeological to philological evidence, it is only to 
TCtvive confirmation of this idea. The terms existing in 
the widely diversified native vocabularies are as irrecon- 
cilable with the idea of the introduction of tobacco as 
a rvi'ently borrowed novelty among the northern tribes 
«»f the American continent, as the varied practices and 
v«*neruMe legends and superstitions associated with its 
u^-. We learn from the narrative of Father Francisco 
( *rvuxio, that the Jesuit missionaries of the seventeenth 
rrntury found tobacco in abundant use among the In- 
dian.-4 of Canada. So early as 1629 he describes the 
Hun»fLS as smoking immoderately the dried leaves and 
f-talLs of the nirotian plant, commonly called tobacco or 
jt^tuup. Another of the nations of Ui)per Canada re- 
o-ivtd from the French the name of Petuns, from their 
ext»'n«tive cultivation of the same favourite plant, which 
riia^-titutPil an object of traffic with the Indians of the 
lifWf-r St. Lfiwrence. This term a})iK'ars to l)e of Flori- 
dan firigin, and was }K*rhaps introduced by the mission- 
aries* themselves from the southern vocabulary. But the 
Chippewa name for tobacco is iu^Minah, 8et»mingly a native 


radical of onomatopoeic origin, and having no other ag- 
nificance or application. So also the Chippewas have 
the word hutta to express smoke, as the smoke of a fire ; 
but for tobacco fumes they employ a distinct term : hue- 
VKinay, literally, " it smokes," the puckwana of Longfel- 
low's Hiawaiha. Opwahgun is a " tobacco-pipe ; " and 
with the peculiar power of compound words and inflec- 
tions, so remarkable in the languages of tribes so rude as 
those of the American forests^ we have from this root 
niptoahgtineka, "I make pipes;" kiptoahguneka, "thou 
makest pipes;" pirnhguneka^ "he makes pipes;" etc. 
So also nisuggaswOy " I smoke a pipe ;" hisuggasvxi^ 
" thou smokest ; " suggaswa^ " he smokes,** etc. While,, 
therefore, Europe has borrowed the name of the Indian 
vreed from that portion of the New World first visited 
by its Genoese discoverer : the language of the great 
Algonquin nation exhibits an ancient and entirely inde- 
pendent northern vocabulary associated with the use of 
tobacco, betraying none of the traces of compoimded 
descriptive terms so discernible in all those applied to 
objects of European origin. The practice of smoking 
nan^oties is interwoven with all their habits, so that they 
oven riH'kon time by pipes, using such word-sentences as 
nin})0}H(\thgHn, " I was one pipe [of time] about it." 

Tho practice thus traceable through the languages, 
m*t«» *uiii customs of America, has had a very precise date 
HiirtijjiUHl to the first knowledge of it by Europeans; 
thiUi^h tlie ojuuion is far from being one of universal 
HiHH^ptauoo, lu the first week of November 1492, two 
iMiilow IuiuUhI fixaw the caravel of Columbus to explore 
\m'\ of tho iHvast of Cuba, and among others of the 
*ilron>{o \v\^\tU which they brought back to the great 
tH^uuujuuloi\ thov told him of having seen the natives 
MK\\ \\\}i w lighted firebrand, and perfuming themselves 
U\ y\\\\\\\}i ftniiu their mouths and noses a burning herb. 


which it would seem they used in the form of a cigax 
rolled up in the dried leaves of the maize or Indian com. 
The story of its later introduction by Raleigh into Eng- 
land is well known ; and the famous Caunterblaste to 
Tobacco^ promulgated by King James, gives a marked 
prominence to the revival, if not to the origin of the 
custom in England so late as the seventeenth century. 

The history of the custom thus dignified by the as- 
nults of royalty, and against certain uses of which the 
supreme pontiff, Urban viiL, fuhninated the thimders 
of the Church, has attracted considerable attention in 
modem times on various groimds, but especially in re- 
ference to the question, whether the practice of smoking 
nmrcotics, or the use and peculiar properties of tobacco, 
were known to the old world prior to the discovery of 
America. The green tobacco, Nicotiana rustical culti- 
vated in Thibet, western China, Northern India, and 
Syria, is a different species from the American plant ; 
and while it is affirmed by some to have been brought 
from America, and even the precise date of 1570 is 
asftigned for its importation into Britain, high authori- 
ties in botany are still found to maintain the indigenous 
character of the Nicotiana rusttca, in some parts of the 
OUl World, as in Northern India, where it is stated to 
prow iftdld. Du Walde (1793) speaks of tobacco as one of 
the natural productions of Formosa, whence it was largely 
imported by the Chinese ; and Savary, Olearius, Chartlin, 
and other vniters, are all quoted * to show that the Nico- 
tiana Persica^ which furnishes the famous Shiraz tobacco, 
lA not only indigenous to Persia, but that it was used for 
ffmoking from very ciirly times. That all the varieties 
of the Nicotiana are not confined to the New World, is 
unquestionalile. Of some fifty-eight admitted species, 
th«' great majority are indeed American, but a few 

* A. C If. Exeter. Nof^M aiul Qutrie*^ vol. iL p. 154. 


belong to the newer world of Australia^ besides those 
b«;lieved to be indigenous to Asia. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that after all the attention which this subject 
tias latterly, on various accounts, attracted, writea^ should 
1k5 found to maintain the opinion that the use of tobacco 
a« a narcotic was known and practised by Asiatics 
prior \a) the discovery of America. The oriental use of 
tobacco may indeed be carried back to an era old enough 
to witisfy the keenest stickler for the antiquity of the 
practice, if he is not too nice as to his authorities. Dr. 
YatcH, in his Tixivels in Egypt, describes a painting 
which he sjiw on one of the tombs at Thebes, containing 
Uhj n^preseutation of a smoking party. But this is mo- 
dem (M)nipared with a record said to exist in the works 
of tli(5 early fathers, and, at any rate, preserved as an old 
tradition of the Greek Church, which ascribes the in- 
ebriation of the patriarch Noah to the temptation of the 
I)(5vil by me^ms of tobacco ; so that King James was not, 
after all, without authority for the black Stygian parent- 
age he assigns to its fumes I 

Professor Johnst<)n — who marshals various authorities 
on th(i Asiatic use of tobacco for smoking, prior to the 
diHcov<»ry of America, without venturing on any very 
(Ic'finite o|muon of his own, — quotes Pallas as arguing 
in favour of the anticiuity of the practice from its ex- 
t«»nKive pn»valence in Asia, and especially in China. It 
would, indtM»d, be an important addition to the argu- 
nientrt in favour of a Mongol origin for the American 
alH)n((in«»H, if it eoultl be shown that the most character- 
JHtir and univei*Hal of all their practices is derived from 
an Artialie, and Mongol 80unH\ But the ethnological 
iNMirin^H n( the argument were not perceived when it 
wart l.huH advane(»d, and their very comprehensiveness 
rtMnpcIrt UH to weigh witli tlie more critical caution the 
evidenee by wlii(*h it. in sustained. "Among the Chi- 


nei^v" 8ay8 Pallaa, '' and amoug the Mougol tribes who 
bad the meet iutcrcourse with them, the custom of 
sniuking is so generd, so frequeut, and has become so 
iiidis|K*usable a liutury ; the tobacco -purse afiixed to 
thi-'ir licit so neces8£iry au article of dress ; the form of 
the i»i|M.'3S from which the Dutch seem to have takeu the 
m<Mlcl of theire, so origuial ; aud, lastly, the preparation 
of the VfUuw leaves^ which are merely rubbed to pieces, 
and then put into the pi{)e, so peculiar : that they could 
not iMNuibly derive all tliis from iVmeriai l)y way of 
Europe, eK|iecially as India, where the practice is not so 
gi'U<!nd, intervenes between Persia and China." But the 
opinions of Dr. Meyen, formerly Pn>fessor of Botany in 
the University of Berlin, are worthy of still greater 
wei<:ht, set fortli as they are, {dike on archaeological and 
liotanical grounds. In his Geography of Plants^ he 
olMerves : — "It has long been the opinion that the use 
of tobacco, as well as its culture, was peculiar to the 
l^etiple of America, but tliis is now proved to be incor- 
tvt'i by our present more exact acquaintance with China 
anil India. The consumption of tobacco in the Chinese 
< inpin* is of immense' extent, and the practice seems to 
lie of great antiquity, for on ver}' old sculptures I have 
o)Kier\'ed the ver}' simie tobacco pij^es which are still 
UM.'d. Besides, we now know the plant whieh funiislies 
the (*hinese toljjicco ; it is even said to grow -wild in 
the Eiist Indies. It is eertaiii that this tobae.eo plant 
of t\v»tem Asia is <juite ditferent from the American 
ftjieriirs."' To India, then, Dr. Meyen inclines, with 
othern, to refer the native habitat of an A.^iatie to- 
Ijotco, which he thus allinns to have b^en in use l)y 
tli<r iliint'si' ;ls a nareotie, and eoiisunied l^y inhaling its 
Mn«*ke thrt»ugh a piln*, altogether indej^endent of the 
intpHluctiiai *»f this luxuiv to Euroin* by the <lis4:overei*s 

vou 11. c 


of America in the fifteenth century. When we call to 
remembrance that that strange people preceded Europe 
in wood-engraving, printing, the compass, and others of 
the most important of modem discoveries, there would 
be no just cause of surprise should it be proved that to 
them also we must ascribe such merit as pertains to the 
initiative in the uses to which tobacco is applied. Such 
eWdence, however, must not be too hastily accepted ; 
for a profoundly scientific botanist, though an altogether 
trustworthy authority in relation to the habitat of the 
plant, may be less qualified to pronoimce an opinion on 
the value of such Chinese monumental evidence as Dr. 
Meyen loosely refers to imder the designation of " very 
old sculptures.'* 

The Koran has been appealed to, and its modem ver- 
sions even furnish the American name. A traditional 
prophecy of Mahomet is also quoted by Sale, which, 
while it contfedicts the assumed existence of tobacco in 
his time, foretells that, " in the latter days there shall 
be men bearing the name of Moslem, but not really 
such, and they shall smoke a certain weed which shall 
be called tobacco !''^ If the prophecy did not bear on 
the face of it such unmistakable evidence of being the 
invention of some Moslem ascetic of later times, it would 
furnish no bad proof of ]\lahomet's right to the title of 
" the false prophet f for Sale quotes, in the same pre- 
liminary discourse to his edition of the Koran, the 
Persian proverb, " coffee without tobacco is meat without 
salt." An appeal to the graphic pictures of eastern 
social habits in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments 
furnishes strong evidence against the ancient knowledge 
of a custom now so universal ; and in so far as such 
negative evidence may be esteemed of any value, the 
pages of our own Shakspere might seem equally conclu- 

* Sale's A'orrtw, 8vo, London, 1812, p. 164. 


sive : though, ob will be seen, the practice had not only 
been introduced into England, but was becoming fami- 
liarly kno^ii in his later years, and is made the subject 
of frequent reference by his dramatic contemporaries 
in the reign of James L When first introduced into 
England in the previous reign, it appears to have ))een 
chiefly favoured for its supposed medicinal virtues^ 
and in this capacity it is referred to by Spenser in 
the third book of the Faerie Queen, which issued from 
the pre.s8 in 1590, as "the soveraine weede, divine 

In this character of a foreign medicinal herb, tobacco 
was no doubt known to Shakspere, and was even fami- 
liarly introduced on the stage when he was spending 
hL) last days at Stratford-on-Avon ; but no reference 
in his dramatic writings betrays an allusion to the 
** drinking" of its fiunes as a fashion already so familiar 
as tu admit of his employing it in illustration of the 
ext-t-ftses of his day. 

It is curious, indeed, to note how nearly we can ap- 
proximate to a precise date for the literar}' recognition 
of the " Indian weed," which luus been such a favourite 
of the stu«lent in later times. Warner, who WTote his 
once {Hipular Albion s Enf/land in 1586, added to ^t 
thnre aililitional books in 16(^6, in the first of which 
ilfatok XIV. chap. 91) a critical imp inveighs against the 
deiline c^f the manners of the good old times ; and 
among other symptoms of decay, misses the smoke of 
ihf i»ld manor chimney, wliich once gave evidence of the 
hcK^pitable hearth within. But in lieu of this, he notes 
a more |H.*q)lexing smoke which " pnxreods from nostrils 
an«l fn»m throats of ladies, lords, and silly grooms," and 
txt.'laims af«toni^he(l 

" <trt*at lU'1/aKuli ! can a11 <»|.it fin- m well m thine?" 
' fnrii^ i^ur^H^ ^111. can. v. 32, 33. 


But his fellow Incubus allays his fears by telling liim 
that this novelty 

'* Was an Indian weed. 
That fumed away more wealth than would a many thousands feed." 

Tobacco, therefore, was not only in use, but already 
indulged in to an extravagant excess in Shakspere's 
later years. Though unnamed in his works, it repeatedly 
occurs in those of Lodge, Dekker, Middleton, and others 
of the early minor dramatists ; and still more familiarly 
in those of Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, and 
others of later date. In Middleton's Roaring Girly pro- 
duced in 1611, five years before the death of Shakspere; 
and peculiarly valuable from the lively, though suffi- 
ciently coarse picture it furnishes of London manners 
in his day : we learn that " a pipe of smoak*' was to be 
purchased for sixpence. In Ben Jonson's Alchemist of 
the same date, "Drugger, the tobacco man,*' playB a 
part ; and a similar character figures among the drama' 
lis lyersancB of Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornfid Lady. 
Aloreover, the earliest of these notices not only refers to 
the costliness of the luxurious weed, with a pipe of 
which Drugger bril>es the Alchemist ; but the allusions 
are no less distinct to the adulterations practised even 
at so early a date, and wliich were no doubt hinted at 
bv Jonson in the name of his tobacconist. 

Even thus early, however, Ben Jonson's allusions to 
tlie fiivouiite " weed" are not to an unfimiiliiu* novelty, 
though both vnXh him, and in the later works of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, it is referred to invariably as a 
costly luxury. "'Tis good tobacco, this!" exclaims 
Subtle ; " what is 't an ounce V and Savil, the steward 
in " The Scornful Lady," speaks ironicaUy of " wealthy 
tobacco-mt^rchants, that set up vdXh one ounce and 
break for three I" It shares, indeed, with gambling, 
drinking, and other vites, in helping on the young 


r>|ieiHlthrift8 of the ilrama to speedy ruin. In Beaumont 
and Fleti'herH " Wit without Money," Valentine, " a 
fTallaut tbit will not l>e persuaded to keep his estate," 
|»i<-turin^ to his faithlens riviiLs in his love-suit the 
bej^nury that awaits them, sums up a list rif the slightA 
of fortune with, *' £nglish tolwcco, with half-jMj>e8, nor 
in half a year once burnt/* More (quaint is the aUu- 
?^«in with which liolnn Goodfellow, in ''The Shepherds 
l>n.'am" (1012), fixes the intnxluction of the novel 
luxury, where, reluctantly admitting the benefits of the 
Refonnation, he tjewails the exit of Poj>ery and the intro- 
duction of tobacco as concurrent events ! 

From this date the allusions to the use and abuse of 
the Indian weed abound, and leave no ix)om to question 
the wide diffusion of the pmetice of smoking in the 
Ht*venteeuth century. Burton, in \n^ AncUoniy o/Melan- 
cttoiy (1621), prescribes tobacco as " a sovereign remedy 
to all di8casi*s, but one commonly abused 1)y most men;" 
while in Z:icharie Boy^ls La.< Battell of the Soule in 
Ih-nth^ printed at Blinburgh in 1G29, the (juaint old 
divine .*«iK.*aks of the li<u'kslider as c»ne with whom '* the 
wj-ne pint and tolmcco pypw with snuesiug jMjuder, pro- 
viJuug sneuele, were his heartes delight I" 

The term employetl by Ziirharie lioyd for snuff is 
•»tdl, in the abbreviated form of *' snees/tinj' the j)opular 
S'ottinh name for this prejwration of tnl)arro. TIhto 
an- not w;mting, however, abundant pnnifs of the 
anrirnt u.-^e of aii)m;itie j>owders as suulf long l>efon^ 
the intDMluction of toUicco to Europe. (Jne fami- 
ii:ir {los.'ijige from ShaksjKTe will oerur to all, where 
Houpur, dt'.-^-ribing the fopling lord *' jM»rfumed like 
a millin<T/* adds :— 

** An«i 'twivt hill tinpT ami hi« thiiiub he hM 
A |Mmfi<«-t-lM*x, mhi<h '-vit atxl aiiiui 
llr ^'a%i' \\in wt**', an«I t^nik't away a^ain ; 
Who. thvn-with ati^'ry, %\i*u it ii«'xt t*aiii«' lh«iv 

T*mik It lU KUUtY " 


The illustration which this passage affords of the ancient 
use of pungent and aromatic powders in one manner in 
which tobacco was used by the natives of South America 
in ante Columbian centuries, and in which it has been 
so extensively employed since its introduction into 
Europe, adds greatly to the force of the argument 
against any older employment of narcotics in the way 
of inhaling their fumes, based on the absence of earlier 
notices of so remarkable a custom. The use, indeed, of 
various narcotics, such as opium, bang, the leaf of the 
hemp plant, and the betel-nut, the fruit of the Areca 
palm, by the south-eastern Asiatics, appears to be trace- 
able to a remote antiquity. Northern Europe has, in 
like manner, had its ledum and hop, and in Siberia its 
Amanita muscaria, or narcotic fungus. But the evi- 
dence fails us which should prove that in the case of the 
pipe, as in that of the pouncct-box, the tobacco only 
came as a substitute for older aromatics or narcotics, 
similarly employed. Nor when the evidence is looked 
into more carefuUy, are such direct proofs wanting as 
suggest a comparatively recent origin, in so far as both 
Europe and Asia are concerned, for the peculiar mode 
of enjoying such narcotics by inhaling their fiimes 
through a pipe attached to the bowl, in which they are 
subjected to a slow process of combustion. 

When engaged in the preparation of the Prehistoric 
Annah of Scotland ^ my attention was directed, among 
various minor antiquities of the British Islands, to that 
curious class of relics popularly known in Scotland by 
the name of Celtic or Elfin pipes, in the north of Eng- 
land as Fairy pipes, and in Ireland, where they are more 
al)undant, as Danes' pipes. These objects have since then 
become much less novel, and are now familiar as minia- 
ture pipes formed of white clay, with some resemblance 
to the modem clay pipe, but variously ornamented, and 


always of a very small size compared with any tobacco- 
pipe in modern use. Similar relics have been observed 
in England^ found under circumstances calculated, like 
tho0e attending the discovery of some of the Scottish 
ezampleis to suggest an antiquity for them long anterior 
to the introduction of America's favourite narcotic, with 
what King James^ on finding its taxability, learned to 
designate its "precious stink !'' The most remarkable of 
such discoveries are those in which pi{)es of tliis primitive 
form have been found on Roman sites alongside of 
genuine Roman remains. Such was the case, on the 
expueure in 1852, of part of the ancient Roman wall of 
London at the Tower postern ; and along with masonry 
and dies of undoubted Roman workmanship, a mutilated 
sepulchral inscription was foimd possessed of peculiar 
interest from supplying the only example, as ib believed 
in Britain, of a Christian date of the second century. 
Only a few months later, similar discoveries were made 
on the site of the Roman town of Bremenium, and at one 
i>{ the fi)rt« on the wall of Hadrian in Northumberland. 
The Warned author of The Roman Widl refers to the dis- 
covery in the second edition of that work, and asks : 
** Shall we enumerate smoking pij^es among the articles 
belonging to the Roman peri^xl ? Some of them, indeed, 
have a meilixeval aspect ; but the fact of their being fre- 
quently found in Roman stations, along with the pottery 
and <»ther remains undoubtedly Roman, ought not to )>e 
vverK Hiked." Further investigiition, however, removeil 
all doubt on this subject from Dr. liruce's mind ; and in 
a communication on the subject, 8ubmitte<l to the Society^ 
€»f Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon Tyne in 1857, after 
noting their rare and irregular occurrence on Roman 
sit^-s, and the total absence of any reference to smoking 
either by classic authors or in ancient herbaK ^^ ^^^^ • 
" These old pi|H^ hud together, exhibit a regular grada- 


tion in size, from the fairy bowl t^) the pipe of the pre- 
sent day. Elfin pipes were found some years ago at 
Hoylake in Chesliire, on the site where the troops of 
William iii. were encami>cd previous to their embarka- 
tion for Ireland ; on the battle-field of Boyne at Dundalk, 
and in other parts of Ireland where William's troops were 
quartered. With respect to the little tol)acco-pipe bowls, 
their comparatively diminutive size may l)e well explained 
by the fact, that in the time of Queen Elizal)eth, tobacco 
was sold at five guineas the ounce, and that, in after 
times, those who indulged in the expensive luxury of 
smoking tobacco, were accustomed, in buying it^ to throw 
five-shilling pieces into the opposite scale." 

But though the Anglo-Roman antiquary has renounced 

Vu.. 31.- 8<ottii)h Elflu V\\iv. 

the ploiisiuit fancy, which accorded to his mural Icgionaiy 
tlie luxury of a pi[»e to beguile his dreary outlook from 
the bleak Noi-thumbrian outposts of Imperial civilisation, 
the converts to his earlier opinion jire loath to abandon 
an idea that seemed to evoke a new bond of sympathy 
between that ancient classic world and our own. The 
Abl)6 (-ochet, in his work on Subterranean Normandy, 
mentions the discovery of the same class of miniatui-e 
clay ])ip(\s in the Roman necropolis near Dieppe. He at 
fii'st considered them to belong to the seventeenth cen- 
tury, or perhaps to the time of Henry iii. and Henry iv. 
The Al)l)e, however, changed his opinions on reading the 
earlier remarks of Dr. Bruce in his Roman Wall; and 
the liaron de Bonstetten, who has since taken up the 


nuKjcct in tlie RecwU dvx Aniuiuitca Sames, pultliRhcs 
dntwinfp of two olijects in clay, wlilcli he rcganls as 
qierimens of European Eonoking- pipes in uhc before the 
•lays of Columbus, if not indeed before those of Julias 

The circunistiUiccK under which such objcctfi have been 
occiuaoaally met with nrc iii<h<cd perplexing enough, and 
moMt warn the enthusiastic antiquary against building 
ntmprebeni>ive theories on cue or two chance discoveries. 
Tbey are affirmol to have been found by treasurc-set-kcra 
at IWoey Mount in Lanoritshin-, under an ancient 
Rtonding'Stone, alongside of a stone hatchet and " BJBn 
iHiltis** or flint arrow-heads ; ' and at Misk in Ayrshire, 
ill ((inking a pit for coal, after digging through many feet 

•tf Niiid.* The anncXfil woodcut (Kig. S2) FL-prem-nt** a 
tt>lKiciv»-pi|>e, cut ill n-d siutdstone, .somewhat after an 
AnwricAn mmlel. in the form of an imimal's head, with a 
perforation at one of the eycH, scemiiigly for the insertion 
iif a n»e«i or strnw, as was cominonly done by the early 
Enf;li->h omoker wifli a walnut shell. It wan f.minl a few 
yf;tr* since, in difrgiiiji a ilraiii, iH the villat;e of Mnniinfi 
-ide. near E<linbur<;h, in a liK-ality where iiunu-nius relicH 
• >f Soittinh pn-historic time.-* have lie<-ii dug up. Tf» thi^ 
unitjtie cx.-iniple, may Ih' further add*il the description "f 
a curious old Scottish memorial of the bixur}-, wliii-h 
woul-1 .'ueni at Iea.-<t to ].nrt'e that wc mUKt trace the 
intDMlurtion of toUicco into this countr}- U> a date nnnh 

> Stie St-Ui4»itr,l A-»i>Hl, Tol. It- \<. .'iSI. ■ lhi,l V..1. V |. 4:UI 


nearer the discovery of the New World by Columbus 
than the era of Raleigh's colonization of Virginia. The 
grim old keep of Cawdor Castle, associated in defiance 
of chronology with King Duncan and Macbeth, is aug- 
mented, like the majority of such Scottish fortalices^ by 
additions of the sixteenth century. In one of the apart- 
ments of this latter erection, is a stone chimney richly 
carved with armorial bearings, and the grotesque devices 
common on works of the period. Among these are a 
mermaid playing the harp, a monkey blowing a horn, a 
cat plapng a fiddle, and a fox smoking a tohacco-pipe} 
There can be no mistake as to the meaning of the last 
lively representation, and on the same stone is the date 
1510, the year in which the wing of the castle is ascer- 
tained to have been built, and in which it may be added 
Jamaica was settled by the Spaniards. 

Considering how definite is the date of the intercourse 
of Europe with the New World, and how clearly the 
line of demarcation is defined, which separates what we 
may thus call the ante-Columbian and post-Colmnbian 
eras of the world, it seems strange indeed that there 
should be room for a moment's doubt on the question 
we have been considering. Yet the authors already 
referred to are by no means the first who have mar- 
shalled classical authorities in proof of the antiquity of 
smoking. In the Anthologia Hihemica^ for example, 
a learned treatise aims at proving, on the authority of 
Herodotus, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, and Solinus, that 
the northern nations of Europe were acquainted with 
tobacco, or an herb of similar properties, long before the 
discovery of America^ and that they smoked it through 
small tubes. Pliny has also been produced to show that 
Coltsfoot {Tussilago Farfara^ a mucilaginous and bitter 
herbaceous plant, the leaves of which were once in great 

» Carruthers' Highlamt NoU-Book, p. 54. « VoL i p. 352. 


fkvoor for their supposed medicinal qualities), furnished 
a substitute for the American plant which superseded 
this and other fancied supplies of the ancients' pipes. 

There is no question, however, that many plants have 
been substituted for tobacco since the introduction of 
the practice of smoking, and it is curious to note that 
ccdtdfoot appears to have been employed to adulterate it 
almost as soon as it came into use in England^ Dame 
Ursula, in Ben Jonson's "Bartholomew Fair" (1614), 
adfbcBses her dull tapster : — " Look too 't, sirrah, you 
were best ; threepence a pipe full, I will ha' made of all 
my whole half pound of tobacco, and a quarter of a 
pound of colijf/oot mix't with it too, to itch it out.'' 

The libraries of Canada furnish very slender means 
for dallying with the bibliography of the nicotian art 
But some of those references bear on the subject, and 
the very terms in which the royal author of the Count er- 
hiiute assails it as a novelty of such recent origin *' as 
thin present age can very well rememlHT l)oth the first 
author and forms of its introduction," seem sufficiently 
clear evi<lence tliat smoking was unknown to Europe 
before the discovery of the American continent Spain 
doubtless first enjoyed the novel luxury ; probably not 
long after the commen<,'ement of the sixteenth century. 
The year 1559 is assigned for its introduction into 
France by Jain Nicot, French ambassador to the Court 
of LLc^tK>n, from whom its generic name of Nicot iana is 
derivcil ; ami most commonly that of 158C, — in which 
Admiral Drake s fleet returned from the attack on the 
West Indian Islands, — is reganled as the date of its 
rvai'hing England. But though in all prolxibility only 
lieginning at the«e dates to attract specuil attention, the 
ruHtom of smoking toliacco can scarcely be sup{K>sed to 
have remained unknown to the Spaniards long after the 
close of the fifteenth centur}', or to have failed to have 


come under the notice both of Frenchmen and English- 
men at an early period thereafter. When at length 
fairly introduced into England, it met with a ready 
welcome. So early as 1615, we find the popular poet, 
Joshua Sylvester, following in the wake of the royal 
counterblast, with his — " tobacco battered, and the pipes 
shattered about their ears that idly idolize so base and 
barbarous a weed, or at leastwise overlove so loathesome 
a vanity, by a volley of holy shot thundered fix)m Mount 
Helicon," — tolerable proof of the growing fiwour for the 
" weed." The plant itself was speedily brought over and 
cultivated in various districts, till prohibited by an Act 
of Parliament. 

The costly natui-e of the luxury hi^ been assumed as 
furnishing an ample explanation of the minute size of 
the original tobacco-pipe, which secured for it in later 
times its designation of " Elfin '' or " Faiiy Pipe." The 
circumstances, however, which render the rarer English 
literature of the sixteenth and sinenteenth centuries in- 
accessible in Canada, have furnLshed resources of another 
kind which account for this on other, and no less pro- 
bable grounds. During a visit to part of the Minnesota 
TeiTitor}% at the head of Lake Superior, in 1855, it was 
my good fortune t^) fall in with a pm-ty of Chippewa 
Indians, and to see them engage in their native dances, 
in footraces an<l other sports, and among the rest in the 
luxurj" of the pipe. But what struck me as most notice- 
able was, that they did not exhale the smoke from the 
mouth but from the nostrils ; and this, I have since 
learned from more than one trnveller and Hudson-Riy 
trader, is the univei'Sid custom of the IndiiUis of the 
North west, from the Red River settlement to the shores 
of the Pacific. By this means the narcotic effects of the 
to])a(^co arc* gi'catly increased, in so much so that a single 
jMpe of strong tobacco smoked by an Iii<lian in this 


mannor, will frctiucutly pitxluoe complete giddiness aud 
intoxication. The Indians accordingly make use of 
%'arious herbs t4) mix with and dilute the tobacco, such 
aM the leaf of the bearbeny or the cranberry, the inner 
bark of the re<l willow {Camus sericea)^ and of the dog- 
wood {(^omfui aUemifolia)^ to all of which the ludiiui 
word tittikinik is generally applied ; and the leaves of 
the winterberr}% which receives the name oi pahgezegun? 
The cranlieny and winterberry leaves are prejiared by 
IKMsing them through the top of the flame, or more 
Iv'isurely ilrying them over the fire, without allowing 
thi*m to bum. Among the Creeks, the Chocktaws, and 
other Indians in the soutli, the leaves of the sumach, 
|»n'{KUVil in a similar manner, answer the like purpose. 
The li^af «if the winterberry or teaberry {Colthona pro- 
c'imfM'M) has a pleasant aroma, which may have had 
Hiime influence on its selectioiL The Indians of the 
North-west ascril« to it the further pro|)erty of giving 
tlk'ni wind, and enabling them to hold out longer in 
running A similar pn^edure is foUowcil in the use of 
anli'Ut spirits ; and it is a fn^quent 8ubji*ct of remark by 
thu(«o who h:ive hail much intercourse with the Indians, 
h«»w V4T}* sniidl a cpumtity of whisky suflices to intoxi- 
i-Mv thi-in, although they dilute it largely in onler to 
proli>ng the pli*iisun? they derive from drinking. 

The custom of inen*jising the action of the tolwcco 
tuni«*s oil the ner\'ous system by ex|H.»lling them through 
th«* n«istriLs thtui^^h now chiefly confine^l to the Indians 
• •f this (*i»ntin<*nt, apiH»ars to have l)een universidly prac- 

' Jh'- hU-nl ■i^'nitioancv of kiHil'iH'Jt in "he mix«-»:" kitiihmfjMH is ** a 
tutrtur*-;" aa<l tb«* woniii an* a|i|»lif(l tiy th«* Iiidianfi n(»t to the <lilu<>nt 
ft) >ar. iHit t** the t<>t»ai*ii» an<l <lilu«*ntii whvii uiixwl aii«i |in'|ianil for iiim*. 
*^* al** j-<Aj^^.yuM i» ** anything miYiil." ami may Ik* imhIitiiI, miuivthiiig 
•-' Uiit *iilli U'^'-v**. Winn. howi\<r, tli-- lii'liAii'- i(U|>|il^ «»f t^ikv-i*** 
•• rt^Mitt^^l. h* fp-|H« ally -iii'»L- 1 th- Iimvo* nf th- lt*;irl»«-iT\ "t rran 


tised when the smoking of tobacco was introduced into 
the Old World. It has been perpetuated in Europe by 
those who had the earliest opportunities of acquiring the 
native custom. The Spaniard still expels the smoke 
through his nostrils, though using a light tobacco, and in 
such moderation as to render the influence of the nar- 
cotic sufficiently innocuous. The Greek sailors in the 
Levant very frequently retain the same practice, with 
less moderation in its use. Melville also describes the 
Sandwich Islanders, among whom tobacco is of such 
recent introduction, as having adopted the Indian cus- 
tom, whether from imitation or by a natural savage 
instinct towards excess ; and evidence is not wanting to 
prove that such was the original practice of the English 
smoker. Paul Hentzner, in his Journey into England^ in 
1598, among other novelties describes witnessing at the 
playhouse the practice, as then newly borrowed from the 
Indians of Virginia : " Here," he says, " and everywhere 
else, the English are constantly smoking of tobacco, and 
in this manner: they have pipes on purpose made of 
clay, into the further end of which they put the herb, so 
dry that it may be rubbed into powder, and putting fire 
to it, they draw the smoke into their mouths, which they 
puff* out again through their nostrils, like furmels, along 
with it plenty of phlegm and defluxion of the head." 

The minute size of the most ancient of the British 
tobacco-pipes, which has led to their designation as those 
of the elves or fairies, may therefore be more certainly 
as(5ribed to the mode of using the tobacco, which ren- 
dered the contents of the smallest of them a sufficient 
dose, than to economic habits in those who indulged in 
the novel and costly luxury. This opinion is further con- 
firmed by observing that the same miniature character- 
istics mark various specimens of antique native pipes of 
a peculiar class found in Canada, and which appear to be 


mch as in all probability were in use, and furnished the 
models of die English clay pipes of the sixteenth century. 
Bat if the date thus assigned for the earliest English 
clay pipes be the true one, it has an important bearing 
on a much wider question ; and as a test of the value to 
be attached to popular traditions, may suggest the re- 
viidon of more than one archaeological theory based on 
the trustworthiness of such evidence. A contributor to 
Kcie$ atul Queries ^ quotes some doggrel lines printed in 
the HarUian Miscellany in 1624, where, speaking of 
the good old times of King Harry the Eighth, smoking 
is thus ludicrously described as a recent novelty : — 

** Nor did tluit time know 
To puff mad to blow, 
In a piece of white cUy 
As yon do at this day. 
With fier and coale 
And a leafe in a hole ! " 

These lines are ascribed in the original to Skclton, 
who died in 1629 ; and by a course of reasoning which 
seems to run somewhat in a circle, it is assumed that 
they cannot be his, because tobacco was not introduced 
into England ''till 1565 or thereabouts." Brand, in his 
Popular AfUiquities, ascribes its introduction to Drake 
in 1586 ; while the old keep at Cawdor, already referred 
to, with its sculptured reynard and his pipe, would carry 
it back to 1510, and by implication still nearer the 
fiftet*uth century. So peculiar a custom as smoking 
m-ould no doubt at first be chiefly confined to such as 
ha«i acquired a taste for it in the countries from whence 
it was borrowed ; and until its more general diffusion 
had created a demand for toliacco, as well as for the \n\Hi 
rer|uire<l for its use, the smoker who bad not acquire<l an 
Indian pi[)e along with the "Indian weed" would have 
to clp|iend on chance, or his own ingenuity, for the mate- 

• XoUm nmH Qufrif*^ toI. vii. |». 2341. 


rials requisite for its enjoyment. Hence an old diarist, 
writing about 1680, tells us of the tobacco-smokers : — 
" They first had silver pipes, but the ordinary sort made 
use of a walnut shell and a straw. I have heard my 
gnmdfather say that one pipe was handed fix)m man to 
man round the table. Within these thirty-five years 
'twas scandalous for a divine to take tobacco. It was 
then sold for its weight in silver. I have heard some of 
our old yeoman neighbours say, that when they went to 
market they culled out their biggest shillings to lay in 
the scales against the tobacco ; now the customs of it 
arc the greatest \m majestic hath." In the interval 
between the primitive walnut-shell pipe, or the single 
clay pipe for a whole company to partake of the costly 
luxury, and this later era of its abundance, the supply 
of pipes had, no doubt, kept pace with that of the to 
bacco, and they had midergone such alterations in form 
as were requisite to adapt them to its later mode of use. 
Their material also had become so uniform, and so well 
recognised, that a clay pipe appears to have been re- 
garded, in the seventeenth centuiy, as the sole imple- 
ment applicable to the smoker s art. An old string of 
rhymed inteiTogatories, printed in Wit's RecreationSy a 
rare miscellany of 1640, thus quaintly sets forth this 
idea : — 

" If all the world were sancl, 

Ob, then, what should we lack'o ; 
If, as they say, there were no clay. 
How should we take tobacco ? " 

Towards the latter end of the sixteenth, and in the 
early years of the seventeenth century, under any view 
of the case, small clay pij.)es, such as Teniers and Ostade 
put into the mouths of their boors, must have l)een in 
<-onimon usc^ throughout the British Islands. They have 
been di'crlged in numbci-s from the l>cd of the Thames, 


fuuinl iu abuuduiure on viirious ^itcs in Eiiglaud luid 
Ireland, where the soldiern of the Parliameut and Revo- 
lution c*ucamped ; and in Scothind in divers localities, 
from the Bonier northward even to the Orkneys. They 
have lieen repeatedly met with in old churchyards^ and 
turned up in places of publi(! resort Occasionally, too, 
t«> the liewilderment of the antiquary, they are dis- 
r<»vered in strange propinquity to primitive, lloman, and 
me<lia;%'al relics ; but in a sufficient number of cases with 
Mirh {Kitters' Htiimi»s on them iis suffice to assign these 
al#> to the sixteenth luid seventeenth centuriea At a 
liate HO r4mi|mratively recent as that of the Revolution 
«»f 1688 they must have been nearly its familiar through- 
f>ut Itritain and Ireland as the larger clay pipe oi the 
pn«eut <lay : and yet towards the end of the eighteenth 
<-ft-ntuiy we find them described in Scottish statistical 
n«)M>rtssis "elfin \A\fCA ;" and when, at a later date, they 
attract a iiider attention, it is found that, in t4)tal inde 
jieiideiict* of caeh other, the j)casantry of England, S<»x)t- 
Liinl, and InOand, have concurred iu ascribing these 
m«Mh*ni antiques to the Danes, the dvcs, and the fairies! 
I must confess that a full consideration of all the 
U-aringH of this dis4losure of the sources of modem 
{■(•pular lielief luus greatly modified the faith I rmce at- 
tai'hrd to such forms of tradition as memorials of the 
\<^X. Tlie Siime {»eople who, by means of Welsh triads, 
2»*nfah>jn<'*d jMM^ms, like the Dmtn Albunuach and Eire- 
nnutuh, and hij*tori<al tniditions, like the mrnior}' of the 
tld«T home of the Siixons in the Gleenvtus Sowj, could 
tnin.-^mit, bv oral tradition alont*, the rhmnicles of many 
^r.-n,. rations, now d«*iH*ntl so eutin*ly on the printing- 
pn-?*-^, that they cannot Ik.* trustrd with thr most familiar 
tniditioiLS of a single cifntuiy. 

In «»n«* other iMiint of virw the pivsi^nt inquiiy Irads 
To n-sultii of Riauf signifiranrr in their bt'aring on the 

y^^L. II. i> 


fevourite idea of American ethnologists relative to the 
indigenous origin of the reel race. The principal varieties 
of the tobacco plant pertain to the flora of the New 
Worid, and it has been cultivated there from time im- 
memorial in every variety of climate, from the tropical 
regions of the Northern and Southern continents to the 
country around the shores of Georgian Bay. Through- 
out the tribes and nations scattered over the same wide 
area of varied regions and climates, this plant has been 
used by the indigenous races as though guided by an 
instinctive perception of its adaptation to their peculiar 
constitution. Yet when the European discovers the 
New World, he exhibits no such inaptitude as might 
be conceived for the novel usage, so foreign to all his 
tastes and habits; but^ on the contrary, he at once 
indulges in the intoxicating fumes with an impmiity 
altogether beyond the capacity of the native smoker of 
the indigenous plant. Transferred to Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, the strange narcotic is speedily naturalized in 
all ; and soon tlie pipe becomes as indissolubly associated 
in our minds with the dreamy luxuriousness of the 
oriental — with Egypt, India, Persia, and European 
Turkey, — as with the New WorLi from whence it came. 
But in all, the constitutional power of the human frame 
to resist the intoxicating effects of the narcotic vapour, 
proves to l)e greater than in the native habitats of the 
Nicotiana tahacum and the indigenous mces by whom 
its \irtues were revealed to the world. Here, at least, 
we look in vain for that relation between the peculiar 
fauna and flom of American " realms,'' which has l:)een 
supposed to constitute one of the strongest arguments 
for the indigenous origin of the Red Man on that western 
continent where alone his type now exists. 




The primitive architecture of the American continent 
pr^-ntjS in its gigiiutic earth-pynimicLs, hill-forts, and 
nv-r-ierrace enclortures, the fsimiliar forms of earliest 
c^iortructivc' skill, found wherever the footprints of in- 
fuinl*.' human pnigress remain uneffaced by the works 
•4 bi»-r intruders. Then*, however, such traces of the 
<f'm'(»iui-«i Lilxiur of man in the earUer stao^es of transi- 
ti.'n. fri»m the nomade hunter to the settled claimant of 
lir- *-»il. present themselves to our study on a scale, as to 
L.:iii'f^r and ma;;nitude, alike without a i»aralk*l among 
?u h • artli tj^M's of the walled cities of Nimrod, and the 
pyr.iniid-i of Cheops or tVi>hrenes. They are the cliar- 
a» T-ri.-tii- memorials of tlie partially d«*vel<»ped but long 
•-xrin't i-ivilisiitinn of that mysterinus [»ei»ple, known 
fr»ni -uih n-mains as the race of the Mound-l]uiltlei*s. 
T::- ir r-inictures eould nt»t gather richness fn»m the 
fnttiiiir tiioih of time. They were trulv luiihlei-s, but 
L-: .ir iiiii-'ts. Jjurietl In-neath their aneii*nt niMiiii<ls 
:> -• ulptun-s tit tn vie with the most grote^<[u«*, aiiil 
.i.-*» wirli >onie of the nn»r^t biaiitifiil adi»niinents of 
r::-i;; an-hiteeture : but on the edifiees th«ins»'lM*s, 

-• fir a^ now appears, tliey expended n<»iie <»f that ile 

r:'jv.' •i»>i;:n whi«-h i'levat«s th«* r.instnutive art of the 
'.i::'i»T ini'i onf of the tine arts, and blt-nds t«»gfth«r th-* 
•rn.iiii«'ntal anil thi- useful into the most ehMpient and 


enduring of all national chronicles. To study the true 
native architecture of the New World, we have to leave 
behind us those monuments of old forgotten generations 
of the Mississippi Valley, and, amid the tropical forests 
of Central America and Yucatan, explore the silent 
memorials of a no less mysterious but more eloquent 
past. There that lamp of memory was lit which still 
glows for us with the golden stains of time ; and its 
ruined reliquaries rise amid a tropical vegetation so 
luxurious, that the very air is oppressive from the fra- 
grance of the banana, pine-apple, orange, lemon, and 
plantain. There still tower above forests dense with 
the growth of ages, ruined temples which stood before 
the cocoa-nut, palm, and the gigantic ceiba encroached 
on their abandoned courts and terraced walls ; and into 
which the men of long-buried generations built their 
love of power, their wealth of thought and strength, and 
all their proudest aspirations of hope and faitL 

It was at C!opan that the enterprising explorer of the 
historical antiquities of Central America first beheld 
the forgotten memorials of its ancient civilisation ; and, 
as he says, with an interest perhaps stronger than he 
had ever felt in wandering among the ruins of Egypt, 
he explored, amid the dense forest in which they were 
buried, the remains of an ancient city, some of the 
monuments of which, to his experienced eye, presented, 
with more elegance of design, a workmanship equal to 
the finest monuments of Egyi)t. Here at length were 
not only traces of the obliterated history of an imknovoi 
race, but " works of art, proving, like newly-discovered 
liistorical records, that the people who once occupied 
the continent of America wei-e not savages." Toiling 
onwaixi through the tangled growth of tropical vegeta- 
tion, intermingled with friezes and fragments of statuaiy, 
and ascending the steps of a vast enclosure, terraced 


with aculptured tiers perfect as those of the Roman 
Amphitheatre, he looked down from a height of a 
huiulred feet on the silent evidence of ages once vital 
vith % native energy and intellect not less wonderful 
than that which America has since borrowed from the 
nations of another continent. The traveller had himself 
stood in the silent shadows of Petra, and wandered amid 
the ruins of Egypt a cities of the dead These have 
«rh their story, and awake the memories of a definite 
yux ; hut when he asked the native Indians who were 
the liuilders of those ruins ? they answered only *' Quien 
aabe ?" V^lio knows ? And he had no wiser answer to 
substitute for dieir stohd reply. '' There were no asso- 
dationa," he exclaims, "^ connected with the place ; 
none of those stirring recollections which hallow Bome, 
Athens, and 

'TW woiid*s gn«t miitnw on the Egyjitimn pUin ;* 

but architecture, sculpture, and painting, aU the arts 
which embellish life, had flourished in this overgrown 
forest : orators, warriors, and statesmen, l)eauty, ambi- 
tion, and glory, had lived and passed away ; and none 
knew that such things liad ))een, or could tell of their 
|nuit existence. Books, the records of knowledge, arc 
fdlfot on this theme. The city was desolate. No rem- 
nant of this race hangs round the ruins, with traditions 
handed down from father to son, and from generation 
to generation. It lay Ijcforc us like a shattonxl bark in 
the midst of the ocean, her masts gone, her name effaced, 
b*T cn-w perished, and none to tell whence she came, 
Xt\ whom she belonged, how long on her voyage, or what 
i-aur^ her destruction ; her lost people to l>e traced 
i«nJv bv some fanrieil resemblance in the (*onstruc*tion 
of the vessel, and, perhaps, never to lie known at all. 
The place where we sat, was it a citadel from which 
an unknown {leople ha<l sounded the trumpet of war, 


or a temple for the worship of the god of peace ? Or 
did the inhabitants worship the idols made with their 
own hands, and oflFer sacrifices on the stones before 
them ? All was mystery, dark, impenetrable mystery, 
and every circumstance increased it. In E^ypt, the 
colossal skeletons of gigantic temples stand in the nn- 
watered sands, in all the nakedness of desolation ; here, 
an inmiense forest shrouded the ruins, hiding them 
from sight, heightening the impression and moral effect, 
and giving an intensity and almost wildness to the 

Such were the impressions produced on the mind of 
an intelligent explorer when first he gazed on one of the 
ruined cities of Central America. The existence of such 
remains had long before awakened attention, though, 
amid the circulation of vague and exaggerated rumours 
(Jf their grandeur and extent, no very definite idea could 
be formed of the truth. So early as 1750, a party of 
Spaniards travelling in the province of Chiapas, suddenly 
found themselves in the midst of the ruins of a vast 
city, covering an area of some twenty miles in extent, 
and known to the Indians only by the descriptive desig- 
nation of Casas de Piedras. It was the first stray waif 
of the wreck of an extinct Southern empire, which, with 
every fresh discovery, acquires increasing interest and 
mystery, as the great insignia of the North American 
continent. The empire of Mexico had been a province 
of Spain for nearly two centuries and a half, yet the 
existence of such a city had remained utterly unknown. 
Its ruins cover an area of greater extent than most of the 
capitals of Europe, and include remains of palaces and 
temples on a scale of vast magnificence, without a parallel 
among the most boasted modern structures ; yet neither 
note of Spanish conquistador, nor vaguest native tradi- 

* Stephens' Travels in Central AmericOj vol. L chap. v. 

raiMJTiTii jscitiTScrvRS. mkgalithw. ss 

, tn^cates the kiiuwlodge that such had ever been. 
I thu aamu' of I*a]cn<|UP, by which it is Btill 
, from a rudu ladian v-iUoge ia its vicinity ; iind 
B then it hoR been explored by Royal Comtnissioncra 
; undrr the onlers of Charles xii. of Spain ; by a 
wcnnd Kijyil t'omtnission, of which Dupaix was the 
leader, ooder ihc authority of Chftrles rv. ; by M. Bara- 
Um, tlie eiiteqiiiKiiig and zealous iuvcstigator, to whom 
« e uwv the pobiioitiou of Dui>aix'a work ; and, fiuidiy, 
l.y the more niodort, but far more effective hboura of 
Urflsn, Slepheus aud Catlierwofxl. Tlie results of thowj 
cxpluntioiu have &uniUariz(»l ua with Ihc remarkable 
>^ulpturv9, the myntt'rious hien>glyphic tabluta, the jwiiut- 
tiga and boff-reliefH iu Btucco, aii<l tlie ceiled halls and 
' '>iTidon inrtMifc'd by the overlapping stones of an aruhi- 
ipcture whii'h wn>ught out ediB<'efl of magniBcent extent 
without the nxe of the arch ; but to this day no mon; is 
kuovn of th«^ nanwle*** city, or its builders, than of tJio 
dgniBoKDce of the hicniglypbics which mock its cxploren 
with their tuitaliztn}( rvcurds. 

[Bat if thi! hien)glyi>hi«: inscriptions still defy every 
EQpC at dcciphermiiut, the sculptures to which they 
] f<|Kak a language inu-Uigible to alL Tuke, 
!, one of the Palencjuu bas-n-liefs, engmvej by 
I from the careful tlrawing of Cather«'oo<l, made 
» original on one of tlie piets of thu vast terraced 
tfoilduig called the Palace. Its hierogly]>hics convey no 
roeMiing to u^ bat we can be at no loss iu deciphering 
thu nounl it preserves uf the pliyiueal (!haracl4^istic8, as 
wvfl u of the int«Uectniil and artistic capacity of the 
peQ|de by wb'jm the great nameless city was rviLred. It 
Mppties an unuiistukablc answer to the uft-n^newed 
qilf^tiiiii, — "Wen- they the same nu-u as tJie modem 
IndlMiaf" The bas-tvUef includes a group of three 
fignns, with the stnuigv costuine and decorKtione, toA 


the stranger physiognomy of the unknown people who 
once lorded it in the palaces of Palenque over the 
mighty city, and the regions whicli contributed the 
means whereby such proud structures were reared and 
maintained. The original, which had been modeUed in 
a composition hard as stone, was found in a nearly per- 
fect condition, and had been painted in elaborate colours, 
of which many traces remained. " The principal figure," 
Mr. Stephens notes, '' stands in an upright position, and 
in profile, exhibiting an extraordinary facial angle of 
about forty-five degrees. The upper part of the head 
seems to have been compressed and lengthened, perhaps 
by the same process employed upon the heads of the 
Choctaw and Flathead Indians. The head represents a 
difierent species from any now existing in that region of 
country; and supposing the statues to he images of 
li\ing personages, or the creations of artists according to 
their ideas of perfect figures, they indicate a people note 
lost and ufiknoton"^ Bearing in remembrance that the 
intelligent traveller ultimately favoured the idea that the 
race of the Builders was the same as the degenerat<3 
Indians still occupying the villages ai-ound their ruined 
cities, it is important to separate his actual observations 
from theories subsequently made to harmonize with Mor- 
ton's Typical American Race.' At Palenque he recog- 
nised the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar 
people, who had passed tlm)ugh all the stages incident to 
the rise and fall of nations, reached their golden age and 
perished, without even a tradition of their name sur- 
viving. Cortes, in his march fmm Mexico to Honduras, 
by the Lake of Peteii, must have passed within a few 
leagues of the city ; but its ruins were already desolate 
as now, or it cannot be doubted that the conqueror would 

' Stephens* Travel* in Central America^ vol ii. chap, xviii. 
' 7Vonrf« in Yuratan, vol. ii. chap. xxiv. 


havf made its name famous by a desolation like that 
which illmnines ^ the Venice of the Aztecs. " But the Ame- 
rican traveller saw in those regions, thus rich with the ruins 
of an extinct golden age, not only the degraded and servile 
Indian, liut the scarcely less degraded descendant of the 
Spanish conqueror ; and, therefore, he cherished the 
belief that, with restored freedom, and the influences of 
a native civilisation, uniting to cultivate the faculties of 
the Indian, he might be elevated to the capacity of the 
ancient builders ; and once more hew the rocks which he 
quairied, and carve the timber that he felled, into sculp- 
tures and devices, as full of intellect, and as replete with 
niitivc originality of thought, as the carvings and reliefs 
<in the ruins of Palenque. Nor do we doubt the possi- 
Inlity of such an elevation for even more degraded races 
than the Indians of Central America. But if once more 
a nice of native sculptors should hew out the representa 
tioQs of their civic and reUgious ceremonials in equally 
skilful lias-reliefs, it is contrary to aU past experience 
that they would sculpture forms and features totally 
•lifR-rent from their own. It is important, therefore, to 
n-call to mind an incidental and unheeded note of obser- 
vations recorded by Mr. Stephens when leaving the ruins 
of Palenque, with tht* rhanicter of its sculptim^s still 
fivj«h in his memor)\ " Among the Indians/' he ol>»cr\'e8, 
- who came out to i»8Cort us to the villajje, was one 
whom w»? hail not 8t*en l)efoR', and whose face lK)re a 
*trikinjr n-rt^^mblancf to those delineated on the walls of 
the buildinp«. In general, the fart's of the Indians were 
of an entirely tlifferent ehanieter, but he might have 
Ut-ii taken for a lineal descendant of the jH»rishe<l niee."* 
Sut'h a <*lian<*e n*appeamnce of the ancient tyjH' entin^Iy 
fi»rn-^pt*nds with the experienee of the ethnologist in the 
• M«| World. The ruine<l Alhanibni is not the work of 


the race' to whom it now pertams, but the blood of the 
old Moors of Granada can still be traced among the 
rural population of Christian Spain. The population of 
modem Italy includes the descendants of Gaul, Lom- 
bard, Ostrogoth, Arab, Norman, and Austrian intruders ; 
but among them all the observant traveller still detects^ 
at times, the old native Roman type, essentially the same 
as he sees sculptured on the tomb of Scipio, or the 
column of Trajan : the descendants of the race by whom 
the marble palaces of Rome were reared, while yet the 
ancestors of Gaul and Goth, Arab, Norseman, and Ger- 
man, were but the rude mound-builders of Europe, or 
the nomades of Asiatic deserts. 

It docs not come within the purpose of this work to 
attempt to review in detail the characteristics of aU 
the numerous monuments of ancient American art^ which 
would be a mere repetition of narratives already familiar 
to the reader. It is only necessary to indicate the cha- 
racter of the architectural remains brought to Ught by 
the zealous enterprise of Mr. Stephens, and illustrated 
by the accurate pencil of Mr. Catherwood; for few 
modem works of travel have been more diligently studied 
than the volumes which embody their joint labours. In 
their first journey of nearly three thousand miles in the 
interior of Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, they 
visited eight ruined cities, the very existence of which 
was unknown, in most cases, to the inhabitants of the 
country in which they lie ; and in the subsequent nar- 
rative of their journey in Yucatan, Mr. Stephens de- 
scribes the results of visits to forty-four ruined cities, or 
architectural sites, still pregnant with eloquent memorials 
of the arts and civilisation of the New World. The ma- 
teriiils thus contributed to the illumination of America's 
ancient native history, are rich and invaluable. Zealous 
antiquaries of the United States had been smr^eying the 


moonds of the Ohio and Missifisippi VaUeys, exploring 
the strange earthworks of Wisconsin, and diligently 
searching for Phoenician characters or Scandinavian 
runes on the Dighton rock, to give shape to their faith 
in the existence of nations that had preceded them, 
mnd substantiaUty to the dream of populous cities and 
mighty confederacies, that had not so utterly passed 
away from their ancient sites, but that some memorials 
of their history remained. While the great tide of emi- 
gration swept westward, exterminating the Indian with 
hirt forests, and effacing the feeble footprints on his trail, 
the enterprising pioneer still sent back word from time 
to time of ruincxl enclosures and fenced cities, which 
gathered new features at every fresh narration, and filled 
the imagination with vague and wondering faith in a 
mighty past. But meanwhile the inhabitants of Si)anish 
America had been dwelling for centuries in the very 
midist of ruins wonderful for their magnitude, rich va- 
rit-tv, an<l l)eautv, with a stolid indifference even more 
wonderful than the grand disclosures it so long withheld. 
\H the fortv-four sites of ancient edifices, some of them 
th«* ruins of mighty cities, examined by Mr. Stephens 
during his travels in Yucatan, few had ever been visited 
by white men ; and when it is considered how small a 
fiortion of the surface of Yucatan, or Central America, 
has been exploreil, it is difficult for fancy to exaggerate 
th»* wr>ndtTs of native art and civilisation which have yet 
to be D-'Vealetl. 

Among the various explorations by Mr. Stephens, a 
pw^ulisir charm attaches to his visit to the ancient 
{Kila4M*s of Utatlan, once the court of the native kings of 
Cliche, and the m<i«t sumptuous city discovered by the 
S|<ini;inls in that nrgion. Com was gi*owing among the 
ruins, and the site was in use by an Indian family claim- 
ing desrent from thf^ n>val line, while m*cupying a miser- 


able hut amid the cmmbling Quiche palaces. But the ruina^ 
as described by Stephens, appear to be of Mexican rather 
than of Yucatan or Central American character. The 
principal feature now remaining, called El Sacrificatorio, 
closely corresponds to the Mexican teocallis; and in 
entire accordance with this, a figure of baked day, found 
among the ruins, presents the modem Indian features^ 
executed in a style of art greatly inferior to the totally 
diverse sculptures of Palenque and other ruins of un- 
known dates.^ 

The intermixture of the traces of two very distinct 
eras of art within the ancient Aztec dominions, is as 
clearly recognisable as that of Hellenic and Byzantine 
art in the later empire of CJonstantina The general 
character of the terra-cottas and sculptured figures of 
Mexico is rude and barbarian ; yet in some of tlie ancient 
i-uins, as at Oaxaca, terra-cotta busts and figures have 
been foimd which justly admit of comparison with the 
corresponding remains of classic art.^ Such indications 
of two entirely distinct periods and styles accord with 
all the most ancient native tradirions, which concur in 
the idea of successive migrations, foreign intrusion, and 
the displacement of an ancient and highly civilized 
people. Of these, Ixtlilxochitl gives a coherent digest, 
which, apart from his dates, seems to find some confir- 
mation from the diverse characteristics of the predomi- 
nant remains of art in Mexico and Central America. 
According to the old Tezcucan chronicler, on the intru- 
sion of the Aztec conquerors, which he places in the 
middle of the tenth century, the Toltecs, who escaped 
their fury, spread themselves southward over Guatemala, 
Tecuantepec, Campeachy, Tecolotlan, and the neighbour- 

* I'lV/^ Engraving, "Figures found at Santa Cruz del Quiche/' Stephens* 
TrareU in Central America^ vol. ii. 

* VitU AntiquilAfi Afexicaittf$, toni. iii. i»L 3G. 


ing ooutB and ialaudfi.' The architectural chrouiclcB, 
however, would rather suggest that, in deserting Anahuac 
for the southern regions, where such abundant traces of 
ancient art have been found, the Toltecs migrated to a 
<t>untiy akvady in occupation by a branch of the same 
highly ci\41ized race. 

There are manifestly two entirely distinct classes of 
ruins in Mexico, Central America, and Yucatan ; and 
amid architectuml remains so extensive and so varied, it 
may well be believed that there may be included relics 
of widely different periods. The one class consists chiefly 
uf the relics of edifices reared as well as occupied by 
the races supplanted and enslaved by the conquering 
isfianiards ; the other class finds its illustrations in 
Palenque, Quirigua, Copan, and other voiceless relics of 
cities, already in ruins )x,'fore the intruding European 
mingled the descendants of native conquered and con- 
quering races in one indiscriminate de^^atiou. That 
theiM* remains should have been found only in a few im- 
perftTt and scanty traces on the Mexican soil, accords 
with the transitional characteristics of its latest native 
i-onquerors, who appear to have playeil the same part 
there as the Tartar intruders on the southern sites of 
ancient Ai«iatic arts and civilisation. But as we descend 
from the Mexican plateau along the south-eastern slope 
of the ( ordilleras, the remains of art, such as tradition 
aM*rilM» to the genius and refinement of the {K^aceful and 
induiStrious Toltecs, multiply on ever}' hand : and c»ven 
mini^le with tlif ruder arts of a rmiote anticjuity rr- 
rovrrt-^l from tliu graves of Chiriqui and the Isthmus of 

but a H|K*ciid interest attaches to the ruiniHl aipital 
4»f Qui«*he, thou};h of a difl\*ix»nt an<l acridental rhanicter: 
for it wjiM thfre that the indefatigable exiJonw first 

I I&UiUochitl Rdaciomrji, w^. No. •*», quule«l hy rrvscott. 


heard that, on the other side of the Great Sierra^ was a 
living city, large and populous, occupied by the de- 
scendants of the ancient race of Builders, as in the days 
before the Conquest or the discovery of America. In 
earlier years the Padre, their informant, had climbed to 
the lofty summit of the Sierra, and from thence, at a 
height of ten or twelve thousand feet, looked over an 
immense plain, extending to Yucatan and the Gulf of 
Mexico, and beheld at a great distance, as had been told 
him, a large city, with turrets white and glittering in 
the Sim. The Indian traditions teU that a native race, 
speaking the Maya language, guard there the marches 
of their land, and put to death every one of the race of 
strangers who approaches its borders. " That the region 
referred to," says Stephens, " does not acknowledge the 
government of Guatemala, has never been explored, and 
that no white man ever pretends to enter it, I am satis- 
fied ;" and — speculating on the possibility that there 
still live the Indian inhabitants of an Indian city, as 
Cortes found them, who can solve the mystery that 
hangs over the traces of native civilisation, and per- 
chance even read the hierogl}^hic inscriptions of Copan 
and Palenque, — he exclaims, " One look at that city was 
worth ten years of an everyday life !"^ In the sober 
thoughts of a later period, the enthusiastic traveller held 
to the belief that the Padre had not only looked down 
on the white towers and temples of a vast city, but that 
the city might still be the abode of a native race, the 
descendants of the civilized nations of ante-Columbian 
centuries. As he draws his interesting narrative to a 
close, he once more turns " to that vast and unknown 
region, untra versed by a single road, wherein fancy pic- 
tures that mysterious city, seen from the topmost range 
of the Cordilleras, of unconquered, unvisitcd, and un- 

* Stephens* TraoeU in Central America^ vol. ii. chap. xi. 


•ought aboriginal inhabitante.'' Its exploration presented 
to tlie traveller's mind a noble field for future enter- 
priiie ; as unquestionably it is^ even should the result 
only prove, as is most probable, another mjrsterious and 
magnificent pUe of ruins. He died in the belief that in 
the direction of that mjrsterious city lay discoveries for 
Bonic future explorer, which would constitute a triumph 
to look back upon with delight through life. Since 
then, numerous exploring exi>editions have gone forth 
frum the Unite<l States ; the mystery of a polar sea has 
been deemeil object enough for brave men to face perils 
as great as any that such an enteq>nse could involve ; 
but the romance of the New World, this living city 
enshrining the mysteries of its strangely obscure yet 
significant po-st, has lapsed into dim forgetfulness, as a 
mens traveller s dream. 

Referring, then, to the works of Stephens, Catherwood, 
and Waldeck for the details of native American archi- 
t^-tupe ; it may be noted, as a general characteristic of 
all the ruint^l cities of Centnd America, that they be- 
tray everywhere evidences of a barbaric pomp, wherein 
atilitv and convenience are alike sacrificed to architcc- 
tunil magnificvuce. Though constructed, moreover, for 
the most Yivri, of stones of moderate size, there is still 
that same lalxirious aim at vast and massive solidity 
which constitutes the essential characteristic of mega- 
lithir an-hitcoture. Huge p}Tamidal mouinls and terraces 
ar«* n*ari-<l as platforms for ponderous structures of 
massive grandeur, but only of a sin^de storey in height ; 
anil pn's^nting, in the interior, a narrow and inijMT- 
U-*'X\\ li^htiMl vault, nM»fed in by the converging walls, 
whi* h ^upi»li4*d to the unskilh»d builders the i)Oor sub- 
stitute* for the arclt It is the c(»mpanitively uninti^l- 
l*H:tual riviltHation of a nation only in the tnuisitional 
•tat#\ when* art and even wience luive l>een sufficiently 


developed to contribute to the seuijuous crAviiigs for 
pomp and magnificence, but are as yet of little avail 
for the mentid and moral progress of the people at large. 
Such ai'chitectural display is the work of despotic power, 
controlled by the predominating influences of a priest- 
hood, under whom pomp and oppressive magnificence 
take the place of the real power of the throne ; and the 
people ai'e subjected to a despotism the more dread, 
l)ecause of its subtle direction of national festivities, no 
less than of fasts and sacrifices. But while we witness 
everywhere, among the ruins of Ointral America, the 
same evidences which are seen in the architecture of 
Egypt, Hindustan, Assyria, and Babylon, of a people's 
strength and ingenuity expended at the will of some 
supreme despotic authority, and working out I'esults in 
which they could have no real interest or pleasure : it 
is vain to attempt to trace, to any such foreign sources, 
the models of those creations of native power and skill. 
They are in all respects essentially original and unique ; 
the pyramidal mound-structures are no more Egyptian 
than the earthworks of the Scioto Valley ; the hiero- 
gl}q)hics bear little more resemblance to those of the 
Nile than the rude car\'ings of the Indian on Dighton 
rock ; and the cornices, bas-reliefs, and architectural 
detiiils of eveiy kind, supply at most only some stray 
resemblances to ancient fonns : cheating the eye like 
the chance notes of a strange opera, in which the ear 
seems to catch from time to time the illusive promise 
of some familiar strain. While, moreover, the archi- 
tectui'C and sculpture are essentially native and original, 
they betray, amid their barbaric waste of magnificence, 
a wondrous power of invention, and frequent indications 
of a refined tiist^ capable of far higher development. 
The elaborate ornaments of the Casa del Enano, at 
Uxmal, are described by Stephens as strange and in- 


eomprehenBible in design, very elaborate, sometimes gro* 
tesqoe, but often simple, tasteful, and beautiful '* But/ 
he adds» ** the style and character of these ornaments 
were entirely different from those of any we had ever 
weea before, either in that country, or any other ; they 
bore no resemblance whatever to those of Copan or 
Palenque, and were quite as unique and peculiar." 
Again, the Casa del GotK'mador supplies a wonderful 
evidence of ancient power, taste, imd skilL It is the 
|Miuci{Kd building of the ruined city of UxmaL A 
terrace of cut stone, six hundred feet in length, forms 
the platform on which a second and third terrace of 
narrower bases are raised, to a height of thirty-five feet 
from the ground, and on this is reared the noble struc- 
ture of the (*asa del Gobemador, decorated, throughout 
ito whole fa^^ade of three hundred and twenty feet, with 
ridu strange, and elaborate sculpture. Of this magni- 
Scent ruin Mr. Stephens remarks : *' There is no rude- 
neaa or barbarity in the design or proportions ; on the 
contrary, the whobi wears an air of architectural sym- 
metry an<l grandeur ; and as the stranger ascends the 
itcprt anil casts a 1 bewildered eye along its oi>en and 
desolate doors, it is hard to )>elieve that he sees before 
him the work of a race in whose epitaph, as liVTitten by 
historians, they are ailled ignorant of art, and siiid to 
have perii<hed in the rudeness of savage life. If it stood 
in Hvdc Park or the GarcU^n of the Tuileries, it would 
f»rm a nt-w order, I do not say equalliiif?, but not un 
wi.fthy to stand side by side with the n»maiiis of i^'p- 
tiaii. Grecian, au«l Roman art." It is untrue to say of 
!*uch a ptriiplr, though they have piissed away leaving 
Um nami- liehind them, '*Thcy died, and made no signl"* 
May We not rather exclaim, with Kuskin, " How cold is 
ail hibtur}', how lifeless all imager}-, romjjared to that 

' IVetcott's CompuM of Mexiaf, b. v. vh. iv. 


which the living nation writes, and the uncorrupted 
marble bears ! How many pages of doubtful record 
might we not often spai'e, for a few stones left one 
upon another !"^ 

There is historical evidence that some of the ruined 
cities were in occupation by the native population at 
the era of the Conquest, but the proof is no less con- 
clusive that others were already ancient abandoned 
ruins ; and any inference therefore as to the modem 
date of the architecture already described is as falla- 
cious as that which would assign the Colosseum to the 
builders of St. Peter's, because the modem Roman still 
vegetates imder the shadow of both. The civilisation of 
Central America grew up on the soil where its memo- 
rials are still found, with as few traces of Asiatic as of 
European or African influences affecting it at any stage 
in its progress. It was, moreover, the growth of many 
generations, and is seen by us at a stage far removed 
from that in which it had its beginning. A national 
taste and style had been matured, so that we find a 
certain uniformity pervading the widely-scattered monu- 
ments of its intellectual development. But it had pre- 
vailed until the cultured artist had learned to work with 
freedom amid its prescriptive forms ; and it exhibits a 
rich exuberance of inventive fancy, akin to that of 
Europe's thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, rather than 
any archaic stiffness like that which marks the earliest 
Romanesque as it emerges from the slavish control of 
debased classic forms. 

It is not therefore amid the expansive and long ma- 
turing civilisation of Central America and Yucatan that 
we can hope to recover the germs fix)m whence it 
sprung ; nor, though we find the Aztec aixihitecture of 
the country bounding them on the noith <^f an inferior 

' i9«tr/« Lamps of ArtkUfcfurr, p. 164. 


; UP we tempted ou that aocouDt to tmce in 

I evidence of a leas inatunHl stage. Iia char- 

. nitht'r to confirm tho iiativc traditions of 

ing race by whom the refinod urta of the jKu\ce- 

r And indantrious Toltecs were arrestod in thi'ir pro- 
grewve expikiiHimi, or partially l)orrowed and debased 
in their oilnptatiou to the barbarous rites of the con- 
(jMRMi. But there is still another remarkable people 
of die weHtern hcinis]>hprc whose architectural remaiDs, 
•• weil «a uUivr traces of their art aud nkill, embody 
nootds of an indigenous civilisation as remarkable as 
that whidi we have ghinceil at in the southern regions 
of tlie North American continent. 

Hm uicii!nt unptn:s of Mexico and Peru ore indis- 
■alnUy BMOciatcd together on the page of history in the 
nebsKboly community of saffering and oxtinctioa Yet, 
vllife abke exhibiting extensive dominions under the 
'fvtrol of B matured f^tem of Hocial polity, and vital* 
; («1 by many indications of progress in the arts of civili- 
■■^ioD : Uiey prew-ut, in nearly every characteristic detail, 
<4eini!nlv of contnsl rather tluui of comparison. Be- 
(wwcn Uw fifteenth and ecventccnth d<^<.-e south, the 
oaiomtX moootAio range of the Andes riiH.-8 to u height 
TwryiD^ &W11 twenty four to upwards of twenty five 
UmmuuhI feet, from whence, as it swoops northward 
aooai the tmpical hue, it gradually suUtides into a 
lilia of hills as it entejs the Isthmus of Panama, while 
il> kif^ cbiiiD extends nearly unbroken to the Straits 
of UagcUan. 8heIt4Te'l amid the lofty regions of the 
jpti**T"* that riw Ht4-p by step on the steep sides of 
tib AmltM, a gentlu and industrious population found 
within tb>; tnpii-a all the effecta of varying latitude in - 
irUtive rl'-vution ; while iht* narrow strip of coast hmd,! 
rordy excueiling twenty leagues in ividtb, gave them 
'. of the Inuning regions of the palm and the 


cocoa-tree, fanned by the breezes of the Pacific ocean. 
Such a country, under the gradual development of a 
progressive civilisation, would have seemed fitted only 
for small, detached, and independent states, or a federa- 
tion resembling in some degree that of the cantons of 
the Swiss Alps. But the most remarkable and enduring 
monuments of the civilisation of the Incas are the great 
military roads, fortresses, post-stations, aqueducts, and 
other public works ; by means of which a coherent 
unity was maintained throughout dominions broken up 
by vast mountain ravines, narrow ocean-bounded low- 
lands, watered imder a tropical sun only by a few scanty 
streams, and pathless sierras elevated into the regions of 
eternal snow. The Spanish conquerors, with all their 
boasted superiority, have allowed the great highways of 
the Incas to fall into ruin ; yet, even after the lapse of 
three centuries, Humboldt recorded as his impression, 
on surveying one of them in its decay : " The great 
road of the Incas is one of the most useful, and at the 
same time one of the most gigantic works ever executed 
by man." ^ 

Peruvian architecture betrays abundant evidence of 
the same all-per\^ading centralization which gave form 
and law to the institutions and arts of that singular 
people. Its masonry was for the most part as solid and 
ponderous as it was simple, thougli enriched by the 
munificence of the sovereigns, and the revenues of the 
sacerdotal order. The great temple at Cuzco, and other 
favoured sanctuaries of the national deities, were re- 
splendent with gold and precious stones. In general, 
the walls were built of huge blocks of stone, or when 
of bricks, these were of large dimensions and an endur- 
ing composition which has well withstood the action of 
time. But the elevation was low, the doorways were 

> Vu(M de» CordilUrff, j). 294. 


the sole a{)erture8 for lights as well as for ingress and 
egress ; and instead of the substantial approximation to 
the arch, which confers durability as well as elevation 
on the ruined cities of Central America, the roof appears 
to have been of wood, with an imi)erfect concrete of 
earth and pebbles, or even a thatch of straw. " It is 
impoflsible,"* says Humboldt, "to examine attentively 
one edifice of the time of the Incas, without recognising 
the same type in all the others which cover the slopes 
of the Andes. It seems as if one single architect had 
eitostructed the greater number of the monuments."* 
Simplicity, symmetry, and solidity, he adds, are the 
three features which constitute the distinguishing char- 
acteristics of all the Peruvian edifices. The edges of 
the st^me are fitted to eac*h other with the nicest care, 
and the masonry is frequently polygonal, with the sur- 
fifroea unhewn, except where tlie stones have been care- 
fallr cut and fitted to each other. The Peruvian builder 
ap{iears to have wrought from choice with immense 
masM*s of 8ton<* ; and though lias-reliefs and other 
external ornaments are rare, there are not wanting 
examples of elaljoratt* sculpture in a style admitting 
€»f comparison with those of the northern continent. 
lyOrbigny gives an enpraving of one doorway hewn 
solidly out of a single mass of stone, and decorated with 
sculptures in low rehef, arranged in a series strikingly 
«ijrg«tive of iileographic H\TnlK>lisni. It forms the 
fotran^'e to a niiiinl temj>lt» at Tiagiianaco, in tlnj 
Aymara n»untr}% whi<'h surrounds Lake Titicaca, with 
itA mysterious arehite<*tural remainn, assio:ne<l by the 
Feni\TanM themsi'lves to an older date than the tradi- 
tional ailvent of the Incas.* Dr. Tschudi has illustrate<i 
and de«crilK?d sf»me of the most remarkable sj>ecimen8 

» Vut* th* C^aifr^M, i». 107. 


of cydopean remains still to be met with on many 
ancient Teruvian sites. In some of these, as in a por- 
tion of the wall of the House of the Virgins of die Sun, 
in the city of Cuzco, the huge masses of polygonal 
masonry are of so striking a character as to hare be - 
come objects of common wonder. One of these, promi- 
nent among the large blocks ingeniously dovetailed into 
each other, alike from its size and complicated figure, 
is popularly styled the stone of the twelve comers. The 
convent of the Dominican friars at Cuzco is built on the 
Cyclopean remains of the temple of the sun. The ancient 
Spanish authors describe a fiUet or cornice of gold, a 
span and a half in width, which ran roimd the exterior 
and was embedded in the masonry ; while, l)oth exter- 
nally and internally, it blazed with barbaric gems and 
gold, and was himg with costly hangings of brilliant 
hues. Now its remains only attract us by the solid 
masonry, constructed on a scale weU calculated to sug- 
gest anew the art of the fabled Cyclops, to account for 
its massive and enduring strength. 

Mr. J. H. Blake, to whose Pe^u^dan researches I have 
already been indebted for interesting illustrations of 
ancient arts and customs, has favoured me with his notes 
on this department, in which his training and skiU as an 
exi)erienced civil engineer, render him peculiarly quali- 
fied to judge. " On the desert of Atacama, near the base 
of the Andes, in lat. 23° 40' a, the walls of nearly all the 
buildings of an ancient town remain, remarkable for the 
[peculiarity of the situation, admirably adapting it for 
defence. It lies on the side of a hill. On the one side 
is a natural ravine, and on the other an artificial one, 
intersecting each other at the summit of the hill, thus 
rendering it impregnable on all sides but one. This side 
presents an inclined plane in the form of an acute tri- 
angle, across which, extending from side to side, from the 


Imjv In the* summit, otm tnwR of ImiMings, each succeed- 
tng row being nhortiT than the onr below it. till at the 
:<.pmfficimt spare in left only for a smgle building which 
'V<aioi)kH all the othi^ra. These buildings an- all small, 
mid Deariy »f unifomi nize, each coosisting of a single 
^Mrtmeiit. The walb are ixinntrurted of irrogulur bloclcR 
of gnuute remeQled together, and the front walk ore all 
pierced with ]i>n|> hotf,<i, Ixith near the floor and about 
fi»w f«?t abovf. The iloora are of cement, and are on a 
\ev<el with thi' top of the wall of the building in front. 
Each bnilding is provided with a large ejirthen jar, tnmk 
Icknr the flitor, capable of holding from thirty to forty 
giOooi. Theee were probably used for storing water. A 
t distlBce &oa) thus old town 'i» a tonall fertile nUley, 
I by BtTcams from the Andes, while the rest of the 
f for many leagues round is entirely destitute of 
vcgetatioiL'' Sadi, it '\» obvious, can only illwitrate to 
I the ruder art9 and domestic habits of uii outl^Hug 
mcut in un oxpo«eO situation remote from the cm- 
I f)f highest Peruvian civilisation. But the most co- 
l memorials of Inea sovereignty are thosi^ associated 
1 ti»e oonstruction and maintenance of the great put)- 
, poet-houscfl, and telegraphic coqifl, by means 
I a eobert-ut unity wa.<< prt?serv'ed thmughout the 
r divurafie«l regions of the v:iHt empirv. " Of 
^ ^ t»rtififial n)lad^" Mr. Bbik*- notes, "tliat which 
TCidi from Quito to C'uxco, and thence southwitrd over 
the TmllcT of the Di'aaguattero, is the most exteusive. It 
i* coiutnirtec) of enonnous maamM of por[>hyry, and is 
tfall perfect in many pnrts. Where rapid strt-ams wen.- 
riWTrtinteTrd, flL«petv.'*ion bridges were constructetl by 
* ' - li-rmod of Blmit of the maguey. Some 
- fxceedeil two hundnKl fevt in length, 
. •'. this kind of bridge answer the purjxtse 
iat whirb It was daugned, that it was adopted by the 

I • 


^,^ ^•-.^■is .tffvi to this dav ariF-.^nls the onlv means of 

ij'fK •»^'«*«'VV rivt-rs Ujth in P-en and ChilL The re- 

^-c^tTN ^ *'«^' ^*f these gr=:ar ro-iiis are still to be seen in 

^%, wi* Nitivn and uninhabiraoie p<in of the desert of 

^,^^..,.«,^ H.H aI«o the tohth^y-K or houses for rest, erected 

^ ,„% 5\ciU tiin>ughout the whole length for the accom- 

^^^^.«t«'li of the Inca and his suite. Numerous canals 

^„. ail»U^rranoan aquetiucrs were formed to conduct the 

u ^i^iH i>r lak(5« and rivers for irrigating the soil. Some 

• I »lirM4' have Wn preserved, and are still used by the 

S|suiianl.s. One in the «listricr of Condesuyer is of great 

i44,i;^iiihnh', more than four hun«lred milt-s in length; but 

\\w\\\\ ^rcjit worts, like the roads, were not confined to 

llii^ luonj fertile parts of the countn*. In the southern 

|iiirt of Peru, and in the midst of the desert, extensive 

Mild numerous tunneb were excavated horizontally in 

ryiiidHtone rock, through wliich the water still runs, and 

i^ ronducted into reservoirs from whence it is taken to 

tilt; various gardens of Pica ; producing in this arid and 

dt'W.'it hind one spot which, in the luxuriousness of its 

vegetation, is rarely found suqxissed in places the most 

favourably situated for eultivation." 

A diversity of construction is found in various of those 
a«|iH*ducts and other erections, indicating an intelligent 
hkill in adapting the resources of the locality to the 
rxlgen^'icM of the works. Some of the aqueducts, such 
aH lliat in th(5 valley of Nasea, are constructed of large 
blorks of masr>iiry, while othei-s, hkc the one which con- 
yfi\y{\i\ tin; waters of the spring of Amiloe to the city of 
Tenocliitlan, arc formed of earthen pipes. But such 
workH not only exhibit diverse adaptations of engineer- 
ing art to the special circumstances of the structure, they 
ilhiMtrate the skill of very diiFerent eras ; and while they 
Hurvive to shame the scepticism of modem critics as to 
111*' marvellous native civilisation of Peru, they also, as 


in Mime of the ruined works around Lake Titicaca, point 
to the menioriala of centuries to which the Peruvians 
tiiemselves looked back as an ancient and half-forgotten 
put in the days of the Incas. On the shores of Lake 
Titicaca, extensive ruins still remain, which are believed 
t4> have been in the same condition at the date of the 
CoDqut'ftt, and to have furnished the models of that 
architei-ture with which the Licas covered their wide 
dumiiius. N'alueless as much of the Mexican chronology 
L\ their mode of reconling events gave some definite 
hold un the chronicles of the nation ; whereas the system 
of Peruvian (juipus, under their quipucamayus, or keeper, 
could have transmitted accurate records, at the most, 
only to a few generations, and render valueless the pre- 
teoded history of the dynasty of Manco Capac. In the 
megalithic character of their architecture, however, the 
elements of a self-originated and primitive art are strik- 
ingly apparent It is one of the most characteristic 
featun» pertaining to the development of human thought 
in the earliest stages of constructive skilL There seems 
to lie an epoch in the early history of man, when what 
may be styled the megalithic era of art develops itself 
under the utmost variety of circumstiinces. In Egypt, 
It was carried out with peculiar refinement by a people 
whoee mastery of wulpture and the decorative arts, 
proved that it had its origin in a far <leeper source than 
lh#" m«-re )iar)i:irous love of vast and ini|xxsing nias«i»s. 
In Aas<yria, Iu«lia, Persia, and throughout the Asiiitic eon- 
tinrut, this tiist«* appeal's to have manifested itself among 
many au«l wiih*Iy severe<l races ; and in northern Eurojn* 
and the Britb^h IsK*.s its enduring memorials are seen in 
Mich nwlely massiv«' structures as Stennis and Stone- 
ht-ngf'. The same mental ron<lition finds expivssion in 
th#* pjTamitial ti-rrares and vast temple facades of Centnd 
Ajneri<-a and Yucatan, and is mon- fully jjresent in the 


lu*w^^l\ o soliility of Peravian masoniy. It is the uncon - 
M K»uri liim at the expression of abstract power, which 
iUioats its triumphs in such barbaric evidence of diflScuI- 
tiofii uveivome ; and although it fails even to strive after 
the beautiful, it not unfrequently impresses us w^th a 
sense of sublimity in the very embodiment of that power 
by which it was achieved. 

In this respect the most ancient architectural remains 
of the southern continent liave a higher ethnological 
value than those of Mexico, Central America, or Yuca- 
tan ; for they reveal to us the only truly primitive and 
apparently self-originating architecture of the New 
World : and, therefore, suggest a possible centre from 
whence that intellectual impulse went forth, pervading 
with its elevating and refining influences the nations 
who were first discovered, by the European adventurers 
of the sixteenth century, on the mainland of America ; 
although at that date the distinct centres of Mexican and 
Peruvian arts were in operation whoUy independent of 
each other, and had moved in opposite directions, uncon- 
scious of the rivalry thus earned on in the development 
of a native civilisation for the nations of the Western 




Amonc; the primitive arts, in which the first rude 
requirements of primeval man were supplemented by 
evidences of taste and skill, the plastic*, or ceramic art 
merits, on many accounts, a foremost place. The plas- 
ticity of the potter 8 clay, which furnishes so many beau 
tiful and striking metaphors of the Hebrew Scriptures, 
supplied a means wliereby the var}4ng phases of rudi- 
mentary national art, and the peculiar habits and tastes 
of diverse races, could perpetuate the minutest traits of 
intellectual development. The delicate shades of varia 
tion which give individuidity and locid character to tribes 
uhI national sulNlivisions, are s(*arcely more minute or 
expressive than th<»se wliich the plastic clay has received 
fn^m the |>otter's hand, to jx^qietuate local habits and 
tutes. On the plains of Shiiiar, the fathers of the uu 
deluged world wrought and burnt the clay where still 
tome of the most remarkable clironi<-le8 of early Asiatic 
civilisation ani recovered, including their cuneatic bricks 
and cylinders, eh)quent with a definite written history. 
Egyj»t, too, had her sun-dried brinks and pottery of 
divert? fonns ; in working which the Egyptian task 
masttTH made the lives of their Hebrew serfs bitter with 
hanl lx>ndag«', in mortar and in brick. These sun-ib'i(»d 
bricks which in the humid climates of tenii>erate zones 
vould fierish in a few seasons, sur\'ive amid the sculp 
tured granite and limestones of ancient li^^ypt, with the 


s^':!; oi^'ipherable stamps of their makers, or with the his- 
k>'k'a1 ivortouehe of a Eameses ot Thothmes unmistakably 
i'hninieling their antiquity. The Aral^iim conquerors 
who impressed new phases of art on the historical pro- 
ducts of the Nile valley, <*arrie'.l with them into Spain 
the Egyptian fashion of buililing with sim-dried clay ; 
and the Spanish term adobe, 1 >y which the Spanish Ame- 
rican now designates tht- «;lay-built structures of Mexico 
and other parts of the New World, is the Arabic cob 
introduced into Spiin by its African conquerors in the 
eighth century. But the simple iirt of building with 
sun-baked bricks wiis practised t-jth in Mexico and Peru 
long Ixjfore the Spaniard f:»lli?wed there the borrowed 
arts of the Saracen ; and in no region of the world has 
the ingenuity of the potter been more curiously tasked 
thmi on the sites of the ancient PeruWan ci\'ilisation. 

Few traces of antique iirt have pn>vet.l more sen'iceable 
to the historian and ethn«>l«>gist tlum th»>5e of the potter's 
himdiwork. The graceful contour of the rudest Hellenic 
vjisc reflects the national geniu-? that evoked the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon : an- 1 rt- veals also, at times, the 
sensuous retiuomeut that wD.niirht its overthrow. The 
coarser, but morv practical inttlloct of Rome gives chtir- 
m;ter to her fictile ware : and the jvrter}', both of ancient 
and modem nations, reflects, as in a mirror, their salient 
mental characteristi«*s. Yor it is an art, which, while it 
jirlmits of all the perfects »u nf form that a Phidias could 
imfiart, and all the exqiusire Wauty ot" adornment wliich a 
Itaphael could design, is nevertheless ;dlie«-l to the homely 
duties and necessities of dailv life. It does not therefore 
reflfjct the mere exceptional refinements of luxury-, but 
aim retains the impress of that prevailing standard of taste 
wliich suflices to siitisfv the common mini Hence the 


value i){ pottery as a material of history. Even its scat- 
teri.-d fragments chronicle decipherable n^-conls : while 


from the more perfectly treasurotl sepulchral pottery, we 
reriiver minute traces of the maimers and customs of 
long extinct nations, and trace the geographical limits of 
their ci»nquest8 or their commerce, within well-defined 
periods of their history. Numismatic evidence is scarcely 
more definite, and much less comprehensive. The pro- 
grwK of Egypt and the many changes it Iuia undergone 
thpmgh the long ages of its history, find striking illus- 
tntioDii in the j^otter}* and porcelain accumulated on its 
hi^ctoric sites. Grecian colonization, and its sesthetic 
inflaence, are traced along the shores of the Mediterra- 
nean and the Euxine, by its lieautiful fictile ware and its 
•ppulchrul pottery. Etrurias history is written to a 
giemt extent in the same fragile, yet enduring characters. 
Tlie foutprintA of the Roman conqueror are clearly de- 
fined to the utmost limits of imperial dominion by the 
■me evidence ; and sepulchral pottery is frequently the 
only conclusive evidence which enables the European 
ethnologist to discriminate between the grave of the 
intruding comjueror, and that of the aboriginal occupant 
of the suiL A{Kirt, therefore, from the exquisite l)eauty 
of manv ancient remains of fictile art, which confers on 
them a high intrinsic value, the works of the potter 
have lieen minutely studied by the arclucologist, and are 
eon^tantly referred to as historical evidence, in proof of 
the ge«>graphiral limits of the ancient empires of the Old 
Worl^L But nowhere hiis incipient rivilisation given 
more di^itinctive chamcteristies to fictile art than in the 
Xew World. Tried by this psychical test of aesthetic 
devflfipment, the unity of the American as a <li.stinct 
raor disap|iearH as unec|uivocally as when fairly subjected 
tf# the phviucal proofs of cranial formation, from which 
<arh 8Up|»rjr<ed homogeneous characteristics have l)een 
chiefly deduceiL The northern region i}'ing anmud and 
immediately to the south of the great lakes, has its pecu- 


iw nr.riJi vuK*: xhe Southern States, bounded by the 

K^H: n: Fjiiri^A. have their characteristic pottery and 

rfrnr-rtnr.rifr ; the ancient mounds of the Mississippi Valley 

,tT^».<av firi^T and diverse tj-pes of ceramic art ; while 

ll|f!X!iv*. iVjjiial America, Brazil, Chili, and Peru abound 

II riii: iiDii wondrously varied memorials of skill and 

I'.vuiicrftiiT fancy, wrought for many puqioses from the 

TinrKc's clay. The site of eveiy Indian town throughout 

rhr Nonh American continent, westwar<l of the Rocky 

Mi^niains^ is marked as definitely by the fragments of 

iviTon* scatteR»d around it, as that of any Greek or 

Koiuau city of the Old World ; and the cemeteries of the 

various tribes and nations abound with domestic and 

;k^pulchral vases, inurning the ashes of the dciid, or piously 

dejH)sitod with food and gifts for their use. 

The characteristics of those examples of American 
ceramic art, arc varied and expressive ; and to the 
ethnologist they are not less valualJc than the character- 
istic fassils by which the geologist dcteriuines the relative 
ages of the underlying strata. To one familiar with the 
specialities of native American potteiy there is as httle 
difficultv in discriminating: between the manufactures of 
the Northern Indian and Floridian, the Mound-Builder, 
the Mexican, Yucateco, and Peiiivian, as in noting the 
well-ilelined characteristics of Hellenic and Roman art. 
The p'^tteiy specially employed in Grecian funeral rites, 
poi^petuatod the national character long after indepen- 
dence and political power had been swept away. For 
probal'kly not less than twelve hun<lred yeai-s, beginning 
from the ninth century before tlie Christian era, the 
Greek 04>nunic artist ^vrought his sepulchral potter}^ and 
doeornt^i it with the most popular fmicies of his gifted 
'^c' • : M\h whei-ever the colonist wandered, or the con- 
• *«^^r«r ^nffved his way, this invariable accessoiy of hia 
*i»iKiraj rites chronicled the extent of his temtorial influ- 


enctf. So too the boundaries of Roman dominion are 
tnci^l out t»y Samian and other fictile ware ; and no 
eiriJenoe more conclusively establishes the traces of the 
Ruman stations and frontiers in Britain than the in- 
deiible fragmentar}' remains of Roman potten\ Beyond 
tlic Rkint% m*ross the Irish Channel, or wherever the 
frtintier lines of Roman dominion are defined, there 
alsr> the traces of the Roman potter disappear ; while 
the depth at whieh the fragments of fictile ware 
have Irvu discovered in the alluvium of the Nile has 
heen made the basis of profound speculations on the 
antiquity of civilisation, and even on the age of tlie 
human race. The value of pottery, then^fore, as an aid 
to hLfti.meal research cannot be questioned ; and it only 
ne<]uin*9« an equally minute study of that of the New 
WorM to define the limits of Aztec and Inca dominion, 
MxA trace out the wider influence over which their civili- 
sation extended. The great variety of design, and the 
artistic excellencies fre<juently tniceable in the higher 
claM of native American |)ottery and terra-cottas, have 
init hitherto received the attention tliev de8c^r\'o : and 
«ich results can only Ikj etfecteil by the lal)ours of many 
oh8er\-er8; but towards this the present chapter may 
famish one slight contribution. 

The rude ty[>e of native American jM>tteiy which 
aliounds on nearly ever}* site of an old Indian village is 
D«tt inferior to that of an<*ient Britain, and in its inciso<l 
omamentatiun frequently pres<*nts a curious com»sj)ond- 
cnce to the simple i)attenis wrought by the alloj>hylian 
{lolter of primeval Eun>[N*. The material is generally a 
comfwrnnd of clay and |M>unded stone (»r shells, nion^ or 
leas mollified accorrling to the prevalent character of the 
9m\ in the localities where (examples are found. The 
mart common fi»nn of such vessels approximates to that 
of the gourd, having a rounded bottom, and either with 


Be fariiutcmiu »ulwtance, probably bidtan meal, or 
I parebwl com. Other examplei* of Indinn poi- 
nd in various localities of the United StJttca niid 
^ auil t!Dgmvi.*d in rwcnt Amcricau publications, 
ntly iUuAtratj-- ilx u^ual form». It is gfuerally 
1 half In thnw-fjuarters uf an im^h thick, co;iri«', 
rfccUy tioked, and eiuuly lirukt;n ; ho that neither 
pj. workmanftliip, nor artiHtii; dcHign, dtn's it 
of comparison with the potteiy of the Mounds, 
■ utcieiit fictile ware of Central America, Yacatan, 
Mr. S<]nier describes fnignienta of vessels 
fin tl»e State of New York, which ecem to iiuiicatc 
% they were originally moulded in forma nearly sciuHn.-, 
with foumlwl angles. The omamcutalion of this 
potter^' rarely portakea of any att<;mpt at mi- 
I art ; and the rude implements of poiiite<1 hone 
1 which it« ehcvron, aaltire, and other [mttemH wen- 
;hi on the i»c>ft clay, wk of common occurrence 
Ide of the broken ware. Similar tools of tlic 
: Jfound-Huitders have been recovered, made of 
. of the deer and elk ; but tbey had been 
skilful art. t«> a symmetrical form, and 
their decay, retain traces of ha^'ing 
, highly poUafacd. Some of the minuter 
kTo round, cttrvod, and tai>erTiig points, 
I are flat and elii^-l-iihaijwl. indicating the 
D and dcliente prowaises of fictile onmmeiita- 
1 tool« amd {uittenis i\» the Indian ilepik»ilories 
pertained to tlie rude artit uf prinulive 
^« ; and only nerve to iJioW how eotistolitly 
ire instincts of man, when guiiled by the 
■ of iul^Ulecliul ezpresuon, ivvert to closely 
{ form.'L 

[>le art of the native potter Iuli obviously 
t practiflcil by the north-eosteni lodimi tribes, with 


tittle or no variation, during many generations, and 
unquestionably before the intrusion of European arts 
into the New World ; nor has it even now been entirely 
superseded by the more serviceable manufactures which 
the fur-trader places within the reach of surviving tribes. 
Catlin, in describing a feast given to him by Alahtotohpa, 
the second chief of the Mandans, describes one of the 
dishes as an earthen vessel of native manufacture, some- 
what in shape of a bread-tray, and filled with pemican 
and marrow fat He then adds^ '' I spoke of the earthen 
dishes or bowls in which these viands were served out 
They are a familiar part of the culinary furniture of 
every Mandan lodge, and are manufactured by the 
women of this tribe in great quantities, and modelled 
into a thousand forms and tastes. They are made by 
the hands of the women, from a tough black day, and 
baked in kilns which are made for the purpose, and are 
nearly equal in hardness to our own manufacture of 
pottery ; though they have not yet got the art of glazing, 
which would be to them a most valuable secret They 
make them so strong and serviceable, however, that they 
hang them over the fire as we do our iron pots> and boil 
tlieir meat in them with perfect success. I have seen 
some few specimens of such manufacture which have 
been dug up in Indian mounds and tombs in the south- 
cm and middle States, placed in our eastern museums, 
and looked upon as a great wonder, when here this 
novelty is at once done away with, and the whole 
mystery ; where women can be seen handling and using 
them by hundreds, and they can be seen every day in 
the summer also, moulding them into many fanciful 
forms, and passing them through the kiln where they 
are hjirdened."^ But 8U<;h proofe of the practice by 
living tribes, of the ancient arts foxmd in use by the 

Catlin's Manners ami Ctutam$ qfthe North American IndicMs, Letter 16. 


fim European explorers of the New World, by no means 
destroy either the interest or the mystery attached to 
the older relics of the art Man's capacity for progress 
under certain favourable circumstances is not less re- 
markable than his unprogressive vitality at many diverse 
ftages of advancement : as shown in the forest Indian, 
the Arab, the Chinese ; and in illustration of this we 
find Mr. S(][uier remarking of the pottery of southern 
arvas of the American continent : *' The ancient pottery 
of Nicaragua is always well burned, and often elaborately 
painted in brilliant and durable colour. The forms are 
generally very regular, but there is no evidence of the 
aae of the potter's wheel ; on the contrary, there is 
nsaaon to believe that the ancient processes have under- 
pme little or no modification since the Conquest The 
pottery now generally in use among all classes of Central 
America is of the Indian manufacture, and is fashioned 
cntinfly by hand''^ But while we thus find the native 
artA uninfluenced by contact with the matured civilisa- 
tvm alike of northern and southern Europe for upwards 
iA three centuries ; and discover the ancient processes 
ti the Indian potter still practised by his descendants 
no the Yellow Stone River, near the head waters of the 
Misanori : the evidence is no less distinct which proves 
that the art was limited to certain tribes. The transition 
in thiA respect is not a gradual one, like that which may 
he rappose^i to connect the whole fictile manufactures 
of the eastern trilies from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf 
of Floriila. To the west of the Rocky Mountains the 
pott*T8 art is superseded by manufactures and accom- 
{OAving customs of a totally difien:*nt kind. 

Amonp the Chiuoiiks, for example, inhabiting the tract 
of criuntry at the mouth of the Columbia river, their 
A^imic&VL%\ utea«*ils include carved bowls and spoons of 

* 8(|iiMr'a Siavruguti, toL ii. pp. 337t 338. 

i-m, nujar rf.-.uTrjLi- "•• "iivir jur^'iimr.' oni. ii^tyi-rariv.:- 

■.MiT-, lUiL n^r^hs "-.v'-:i -. t ■.=.1—':'' ia ". i -ifr^f' iJ. Til': pur- 
:'.i:^,'H ii' L ")in-iLvr .11 ^'..linu tn^.L •:aT"'m£ vir^rr. Simi- 
lar 'rr-S^ri.-; Ll'O "..lUL 11 Iv* illlPlUX ":!•' [^.i-liilZS '?t th'-/ 

u ■»i;iciv :ii'.L v*iiT«- ^^HLi-r— . n iiTiLtJU'iinu ':a:ni-:ni>* :in«l 

:n'MUi.-nilr v:.tiL ■fiip-viinini iis :/ m-ii laiL ■i r-n\ -vU^ in 

» ill I viir«- iT-r.iunL. Til'"'' ir- aiti''ji Ji nil-: form 

' ''HT»;s|)nu«iiuir •'■"-v.':-T. "T" iiii'iT "i' jh -fii::?? .: '.'ol'iiDcd 
i*iM.<i. vrc! niiii'i. Ji i.-!^* "»' "Ji' 7 m-V";:m In-i-iiins Cr^ar 
riu- "iiu"'^.'-'iiT"u ")arjii«'i. n > 'V ^l-. ::«'•:. "r- riitr Anir-ri 
•*au ''XT)inr.Miir -ill""' i: _i<iU~'i:LtJ." • i.'rl.i: ji l-^T-t. xii\ 
aiir 'ii's:r.'i)e'L is 'lULTi'iLiu: :vii>ni'-:n.:i«: ra.-^r.r ,».,> woU 

[u 'iii>* :\u"i:u^ irro'tri' i: i \ 7':i*j: 'ji::!: c 'il r v, wo 
liiiii -iii^ ')»n-r.'»fraar:i c. i jr*"-? "vi_.::i jrr:«-:Lr :o Livr; ?>;r?ii 
l»r:iciis*Mi mini. ":i«i 2:'"f"^ I'l—jn-v': r-^^-a:!--!;]. •■t rh»:* 
s^Aiiinri \.in:r«::i-::. -c'l::' ■:'. Arii-rj: "ii- virvtl ..i'iorr:^ 


'">taiiir«i '^^* ':ii^ ■.:."•■. '^^:^.^:'^ Nr^. A-rr-:i: rv-i al Ex 

w«>v« !i 'niMvvc '.;.:::'' '..v. .»i: .».:::•.: ::i: LV t'.ivv ■:: :,:■:!:!•. aL>nL: 
witu T^iJt: -rv iiL'i •j.-i.'iiL'.r' M- ::.i'v r'..i:s: m: :i-:s..ri;->i 
a> "Ms^Mi ^r '?«I'i::-: .: /.i" :-, .i:: : "::■ J :: w-mM still 
Tetaiii. '" ^Vr^y <\:.:2. in-L iiA,:: :■::- <"r^.«-^ :■> ^-iirinii, — 
w'uii ^Ih; 'i;[.^« *!::-» v^y ■■: :ii'v ^' ■::::::;:::. ..•::: 1 t!:io >irv> of 
Miuii^iu ';iv'>.r>;iri-:L: ■:!! rb.'^ F.i.::r.: vvr./\;V <^:-jZ\::\^i *y- 'i'y*.*yrK 
\\\\xi \\\M i.vr-.:':iio: ■■: s*/ri.iL ^r^vvsri in >lrxi'/i» aiul 
• ■ uiiai Vmi*.!.-. z;.*., if not als** in P/l-i, vXTr-ni'vi I'aitially 
lii'.ii*' tlio cri.'X5i :o rlio w^cf: .f rlie K«xkv ^[ouiitains, 

■v..>,.^.< /if'ti- i/ ■>■■ r-- ,■»■■■••••■••■.■', 'v l'^.*.; ."•*. V. !. 11. •■Kc.;<.rt ujH»n ilu- 
lo/ Stot"* • I '*■''• '• " ' '"^ *'■'■- AVr«" ::' 4 : ■ ; '4. vi ■ I . n. A :<{•*■ n 1 . K. | > 117 


<'%'ff'U into hi^ northern latitudes ; while it was inoper- 
ative thruughout the vast areas drained by the Missis- 
nt{»(»i and it8 tributaries, during any period of their 
iMTuiKitiuu by the aboriginal Red Indian tribes. 

The substitution of wicker or straw-work for potter}% 
hi^-ever, cannot be assumed as any e\'idence of progress ; 
though it might prove a highly convenient art for a 
D«>made i^Hiple to lM>rrow from a sedentary population, 
X* better suiteil to their wandering life than the fragile 
mare which ministers so largely to the convenience of 
»ettle«l citmmunities. The moile of using such seemingly 
inadequate substitutes for the earthenware cooking-vessel 
is^ '^ simple as it is ingenious. The salmon which con- 
8titute:» the ]>rincipal food of the Chinooks along the 
( uiuinbia River, is pbced in one of those straw-baskets 
filled with water. Into this red-hot stones are dropped 
until the water l>oiLs : and Mr. Paul Kane informs mc 
that he has seen fish dressed as ex[>editiously by this 
ni*:an.4 as if boileil in the ordinary way in a kettle over 
a tiiv. Such grass I baskets and cooking vessels i>ossess 
«4fviijus advantages to migrator}' tribes, over the more 
fra^e |K»tter}- : but we do not find any imlications of 
the u.'*- of the latter being in any degrt»e confined to the 
more M*ttle<l tril»es ; and the causes of a <litren*uce S4) 
Mbvitius must U* S4.)Ught for in other sources pointing to 
ntial distinctions in arts as well as in customs, Ik*- 
•u the flat -head triln.'S of California and the Columhia 
Eiver, and the jnitters to the east of the Rocky Moiui- 
tiixL'^ Tlie fn»ntispiece to volume ll., drawn frina 
Akftch**?^ taken by Mr. Kane, represents Caw-wi'-litcks, 
a tLit-ht.'ad wnman of the Cowlitz triln* cug-aged in mak- 
ing a wateq»nHif luisket, while her child lies lH*si<l«- 
h» r. undt-rgoing the pnK*ess of cranial defunnation. 

The ingenious arts of the pij)i'-s<*ulptor were als<» ex 
{•ndt'tl by the moileller in moulding his rlay pip<* : and 


some examples of the latter are not unworthy to be 
placed alongside of the ancient sculptures of the mounds. 
These, however, are rare and exceptional specimens; 
though, as will be seen, the Moxmd-Builder was by no 
means deficient in the skill of the potter, but on the 
contrary manifested as much superiority in this, as in his 
other arts, to the ancient and modem forest tribes. 

In later ages, alike in the Old World and the New, 
the seats of highest civilisation, and of most progressive 
enterprise, are foxmd within the temperate zones. But 
it was not so with either of them in ancient times. The 
civilisation of Northern Europe is chiefly of a very recent 
period ; and we look in vain along the region of the 
great lakes of the American continent, or in its wide 
North-west, for proofs of any ancient settled population 
practising arts of civilized life, unless we except from 
this the traces of the miners who first explored the 
mineral wealth of the copper regions of Lake Superior. 
It requires some considerable progress in civilisation to 
enable the hardy native of northern climates so to cope 
with their inclement seasons, as to command a residue of 
time for other than works of vital necessity ; while in 
the sunny south nature spontaneously supplies so many 
wants, that the leisure required for the development of 
ornamental art and ingenious refinements of taste pro- 
duces these, almost as luxuriantly as the endless variety 
of fruits and flowers with which the eye is gratified. 
When, however, the hardier sons of the north win for 
themselves by toil and self-denying perseverance the lei- 
sure which nature bestows freely on her more favoured 
childix3n of the south, they develop a capacity for higher 
social achievements than all the luxurious civilisation of 
tropical climates. But such was not the destined for- 
tune of the aljoriginal tribes of the New World. Whe- 
ther under more fiivourable circumstances the intelligent 


SI icmacs of New Branswick, or the sagacious and politic 
Intijuois along the southern shores of Ontario and the 
St. L:i^Tenee, would have won for the New World an 
enduring civiliisation of it8 own, can only now be subject 
f«>r ct>njecture. They had within them, unquestionably, 
the element» with which to contend against all the 
ol^tacles that climate or locality opposed to their na- 
tional progress; but they were too far behind in the 
march of civilisation to hold their ground in the critical 
transitional stage, when brought into direct contact with 
intruders armed with the accumulated momentum of 
Eun>{K'*d full maturity. 

We find, accordingly, as we turn towards the south, 
that the pottery wrought by the tribes along the Gulf 
of Roritla exhibits more art and a greater degree of 
»kill than can Ijc traced in the best products of native 
kik» on the up|)er waters of the Mississippi, or along 
the ahores of the Canadian lakes. Much greater care 
apfntirB to have l>een exercised l)y them in preparing 
the rlay to resist the action of fire, by miugling it with 
finrly p*mnded quartz and shells. Their shajnis are also 
m<»ro fanciful, and lx>th in the finer workmanship and 
th»- rt yk' of ornament, they manifest a decided advance- 
ment when com))ared with the simpler arts of the 
North west. Many of their vessels were made of a 
lar*rv size, and in constructing these a sort of mould 
of htt>*ki*t-W4irk appears to have been sometimes used, 
which |»erislu*d in the kiln, leaving the burnt clay im- 
|prtT*<-«l with the oniamentil patteriLS ^vrought in the 
•*ivr frame. Tlie smaller vessels were moulded over 
p»unls and other natural objects, and frequently deco- 
nit«.il with gra<eful pattenLS \^Tought in relief, or painted. 
\<-vertheleH*s l»etween such pnHlucts of southern and 
nt*rtht'ni kiln.s then» is not any more essential difl'er- 
• ncv than tluit whieh a blight progress in civilisation. 


^1c-i ':n:;;in. 

I.r laricii: 

•■*r?4i"ri ■«• 

ij^j^--^,-; iLi ""''^T* 

1 ~'.rr 

■•'--iVZr-T' 3J: ±^ [Chap. 

iu jrrarc-r at^sir- :• m:-r-im*nr :a j. more genial 
.-»:iii.i: -iiij- iTTi lui-'n'^- r il TMiai -im.^?;. Tlioagh dis- 

.. r :l -cur Tthi>-n:T- nt c-'**: irt and skill, 

Tii. ^TT-— T-^ -rrj. -Jiir j.i.r-tT^ t "jh^ nii-rtlieni auJ 

.--^-.-=L ri:»-^ IT* TiLiLjjrajiii.-u^ . liiL "^x^xz •^Iii^ef value 

I. - • iz^ii?^ Ji "J.r -ti.jjitM— :■ r ziiiiLiijAirariiig and 

.:>-i-: O'isCnr-rs T^iii-n "uiit ~ ir.^t 7: ^"t r-eira inherent 

ir*^ :£ -Jii: i'L)(ui«l-BaLlders 

r ^.'-fiv-i^ \& ~tr. I ^'V^ -T---*' £ii':^i*riLie. Unlike 

rr*". riiuiucii ■iV'^n j:.»a* -•TLsrtr. rn'r-Ltr ■.■■: cli^r acrion of fire, 

> -t^.-^jv'ir^*! vTL'ii Li^'^tiItt. 12.. i j:en«rriliv in fraoments, 

. vcu iri)ni ':iii^ ni'MUL'!-? in Vm ii i* mav luivn: I.t-in entire 

iu^jugii mmumberfti aii*f^f. -inril rlie invading axe or 

>l»adu wiiii.'li bcoii^hu it r.:- Li^ri: invMlve».l it.^ desmietion. 

But a .:julii«.4'rnt naniber '.'t exampltrs have been recovered 

ro prrjve alike ciiirir -iuperi^-irinr in w.>rkmanship, and 

their estsenrial liivivrsitv in «:han.ii:trr and stvle of oma- 

ment, (roui any bn^j^n pr'>iui;ts of Ia«lian manulacture. 

.Viuong the varied '.'bjeecs iii5.j«:»vr?red in the exploration 

ui the reniiirkable gamp i.-f siii:riti«.i:il m«>im».li? on the 

banks of the S.ioto river, oailed " Moiin».l CitA%" two 

of them were found to contain «:onsideraUe remains of 

|.»ottery, tiiough unf«>rtunately oidy a few nearly j)erfect 

vcisft^'l^i could U^ reconstnicte*.l out of the fracrments. In 

the larj^st o( the^t^ depx^its pieces enough to have com- 

[K*e<<\l aU>ut a dozen vessels wtiv found, from which 

two vasi'ji weiv ivstored : and alongside of these lay 

two rhisds or graving tools of rnpper, a number of 

tuU's of the siiinc metal, anow-heads of quartz, with 

Knw s|H*cimcu fi>rmed of obsidian, and a large numlH.'r 

K*( ^|K•H^-hcad^^ skilfully chipjXHl out of qmirtz and man- 

L^iiuc-ii' garnet. But the whole dejK>!sit was closely in- 


tfnnixeil with charcoal and ashes, and had been sub- 
jected to a strong heat, which had broken up or clianged 
f^'cry object liable to be affected by the action of fire. 
The ornamental devices on the specimens of mound 
pott^TV thus recovereil are wrought by the hand with 
m< Mk-Uing tools on the soft clay, the design being thrown 
into relief by sinking the surrounding surface and 
Working it into a different texture. The figures are 
exeeuteil in a free, lx)ld style ; and where the same 
device is repciited, sufficient variations are traceable to 
Ah«*w that the artist m<Klelled each design separately, 
(Tuidetl by the eye and the experienced hand. Their 
discoverers conceived that, from the delicacy of some of 
the :qiocimens recovereil, an<l the amount of labour ex- 
pi'ude<l on them, they were not used for ordinar}' })ur- 
priries ; and suggested their emplo^^ment in the sacred 
rite* of the ancient priesthood. Others of a coarser 
K'Xture have been designetl for uses speciidly requiring 
-tp-ngth, and [>rol»ably idso the cajwbility of withstand 
lui: tire. The n*ally im)>ort^mt featun*, however, is that 
iL^ y iliffer esst*ntially, alike in design and workmanship, 
fp»m any known ckiss of Indian potter}\ In liis latest 
publication on the subject, Mr. Scjuier remarks: ** In 
x\\*' nunufarture of jKjtter}% the Mound-Buildei's attained 
a •ounideniblr [»n)ficiency. !Many of the vases recovered 
fn>ni the mounds display, in resiK.M!t to mat<'rial, finish, 
uud niiMb'K a niarki*<l su|>erit»rity to anything of which 
:h»- txinlin;: Indian tribes are known to have betii 
i.i{<ibl«-. auil ronipan' favourably with tli<* best IVrii- 
\ ^iKtinn-ns. Thouj^h of gR»at syninietrv <»f prn- 
|-«r!i«»iLS th«re is no goinl n^ju^on to l>elieve that tiny 
u-rt' tuniitl on a lathe. Th«,-ir fine finish seems to have 
1. . II th*- n'sult of the Siime proeess with that adopted 
t.v ihf Piruvians in their manufartures. Sonn' of them 
an- ta;?t*'fully unianient^Ml with seri»lls, fi^^ant- of binU 

<^ FBMMiSWtBJIt MJLF.. [Chap. 

cudkI 'OC&R^r uikfTDiftftk m&i)i!& imt tnucDa^neil inn die snrfiice, 
iizifOtfuiLi u'C Wijur tfOLN^^isfietl upi^a Lu. ITAi^ BniKs appear 
Ts ' iiivi 'rii'.'a :m vinit ^:imf iiiiurpi. :£»*au?*-?ift£iij)«cd instni- 
miHu^ iriiiiiL mftiriiy rinmwiiL diii ijutcudBufti mateiial, 
Wx^imx: iif Tiu»pi*c tc :ni»itL ^100**. Xiotiijiiuff <ean exceed * 

TJu TciruiunTx ]iiiL imtiufliia. ^v^jzh. wiiiidiL tt&je «o<iiameiit8 

•*. ■• ■« 

ari t:x<Munj»i*. Tin iiuniinu. it wtiiiilL tditf ^raiscs aie com- 
{%njuui i> (« fiui vtiwx. jl tiiii mi^m lifiiaftflffe speci- 

^iiffiiT Tuhojmi^ ummii::aini. Simii •;£ nlitf- «fti}diK«r spe- 
iMimuif xu}^7i nu^vt»Toti=i (minz miniriiitl wiic&i tiiie day, . 
wiiih (^ti^i^Th HTi 'tiuiii«itm. Tihi iuimi«a-<{oL[:?iii:Tefi nuea in 
-ftnial: ii-^o. tviiia ^^^Wr ±taii i, raiulv jmi caaBwr bril- 
h;UK anrii-^'nm'-.v dra thss- 'j*irciap* nnffiimiftfii widk ^me 
vi^nv n rtmA37s«r »- vc^U sb^ itdir^r. X<:ni* jipptftir to 
l^>V( h^w ^iAj:«*« to't^i ttiii ir "•.vri, ■iiiriiifi! tnponi bokiiig 
rt: t*, -^Qihtsfiivnw ^jviU' j%<tr ai wiiiai niiifv w^aw- anb- 
^fi/.^H^ Atpfciu i; HJcsotiir -vrnihtu. -mciiutf..*"*^ 

i^^ithMv >i.fS«Y*i jiuamuyj* nyt .uiii j. ]hL^ inidijes in 

i^^iiwU I >w^ :tiUim. ijL iiitiiiriiiiti tfirigiiitriit^ :a jat* of 

,4^1, .■A.'iU'ii**;*jai\i^iioiJU wiiiii u. Rfw aiirll and j^fud. ■}i*ijiiisy 

viu^iA .li^jxii- di^^. umi II lax'ze drpi>rit of £z*i jisbes 

uiiiJiLXca witli uiiuirrtnii: ell**- -siolie rtli'Ss of [^rtck^cLs ofojnjirts 

odoi'cd ms ifclowjuc winii ch«f t«ea.atifiil vas^-, on the rri.j'win^ 

\ux «>i* the iiityx*. Boit besiries these, a more preeioos 

s;tciidcc luitl beea mj.tie : unless, contran- to all analo- 

i^ic^ iu tJio liioui^.b of this class, it be supposed to be 

SL-pulclual uu>ru'ad of saerificiaL Al.iove the deposit of 

.udicd iiJL whivrh the fragments of the broken vase ky 

cutoujlx\l> JAud covering the entire basin of the altar, 

wius u. Uyer of silvery or opaque mica in sheets^ over- 

lai»piu^ each other ; and immediately over the centre a 

• .inA:¥:%i .VimNNKn/^ •« tMt UmiUd States, Uarj^er's Magazme^ voL xxi 


> of Imrnt htinian Ixmoe, apparently sufficient to 
", m wngle skeleton, wm found. Repeating 
I which other eviilcnce supplitis, that the 
' the MounJ-BuUdi;™ may not have been 
J with the hiileoiw rites of human sarrificc. 
I been gL'UcraUy aaHumoil that the ancient and 
dj-diffuiiod lutho or wheel of tlie potter remained 
PtotMlIy unkimwu to the most civilized nations of the 
llJcw World : and Mr. S<iuier lias expressed \m opinion 
F dccide^Uy ngaiiiHt the supposed knowie<Igc of the 
by the ingenioiw Moiind-Bnildcre. It may be 
d. however, if we are yet in [wascssion of a Buffi- 
Pnnmlier of specimeiifl of their fictile ware to detcr- 
^"thts int<'fv«ting question. The example referred 
\ lugfaly p'llisherl, and finished botli witliin and 
; with a uniformity of thickness, not exceeding 
1 of as inch, and with a smootlmeiig of surface 
: the most perfect production*) of the modem 
" Its finish," Meaan. S«iuier and Davis remark, 
nbtes in all ros|ic<rt8 that of the finer Peruvian 
i)d whi-o hehl in ct-rtain jtonitionfl tf>wanlH the 
kexfaibitii the same peculiarities of surface aa if it 
rleeu carefully shaved ami smoothetl with a sliarp 
'' Wc miirt nott indee<l, confound with the idea 
! aacieut ftotter's use of s«>me simple process for 
; a revolving motion t<i tlie mass of clay, while 
it with hia simple tools, his imist4*ry of 
. iIm UUst refinemeiits of Uie wheel and the lathe. 
t cbanwteriatics of some of the few specimens of 
Aivry alrwiily found, if coufinuL'd by further 
1, wtwhl go fiir to prove that he luid dincoverwl 
M'lf M)me met-tuuiieal appliance involving the 
ri'htial eU'tuentM of the [NHtcr's wheel : and in- 
Bitt>twith»tnii(ling the opinion more tvccutly ex- 
^ bjr Mr. Sijuier in hi« Ancient Monuments of (he 


United StateSy something nearly equivalent to the view 
now suggested has abeady been admitted in the joint 
production of Dr. Davis and himself where it is re- 
marked : " It is not impossible, but on the contrary 
appears extremely probable fix)m a close inspection of 
the mound pottery, that the ancient people possessed 
the simple approximation towards the potters wheel, 
consisting of a stick of wood grasped in the hand by the 
middle, and turned round inside a wall of clay formed 
by the other hand, or by another workman.*' The uni- 
formity in the arrangement of the patterns wrought on 
the exterior of the vases, and the precision with which 
they are executed, alike accord with the idea of skilled 
workmanship, and the aid of such meclianical appliances 
as we know to have been among the earliest inventions 
of man in every civilized nation of the Old World. A 
few curious terra-cottas found in the mounds add further 
illustrations to the proof of the progress achieved by 
that singular people in diflferent branches of ceramic art. 
Jiut such examples have not yet been met with in suffi- 
c*ii*ut numbers to admit of any proper comparison vnX\\ 
the relics of the siimc class found in such quantities on 
the sites of ancient Mexican population. 

Thus far, then, we perceive that throughout the vast 
region of the New World, lying between the Atlantic 
sea-l>OiU'd and the Rocky Mount^iins, and bounded north 
and southwiird l)y the great lakes and the Gulf of 
Florida, certain common characteristics appear to have 
pertained to the fictile ware of the alx)riginal tribes 
< luring the period subsequent to European discovery, or 
embraced by the older centuries which sepulchi*al and 
other ancient Indian depositories reveal to us. Among 
the southern tribes, indeed, the potters art was brought 
to givater perfection, and an ingenious fimcy was em- 
j)l(>ye(l in di versify mg it« fonns imd multiplying its 


di'CorationB : so that curious specimens of southern pot- 
t«-iy are frequently found bearing little or no resem- 
liLince to the common fictile ware of the northern and 
w<?5tom Indiana. Adair says of the Choctaws and 
Natchez, that " they made a prodigious number of ves- 
fw-lii c»f potU'ry, of such variety of forms as would Ik* 
t4^1iouA to descrilK?, and impossible to name ;" and D(5 
Sito ruft-nj to the fine earthenware of the latter tribe in 
x\w seventeenth century as of considerable variety of 
r«»ni|inHitiou and much elegance of shape, so as to appear 
tn him little inferior to that of Portugal Nevertheless, 
the [prevailing forms of the Choctaw and Natchez pottery 
pressent unmirttakable afiinities to those of ruder northeiii 
triU'A. In the valley of Zuni in New Mexico, the Ame- 
ri«-an exploring party of 1854 had their attention drawn 
to a sacred spring near the table-land, on a branch of 
the river Zuiii, enclosed by a low circular stone wall, on 
which were vases or water-pots, deposited there as ofFer- 
inj»s t*) the spirit of the fountain. Specimens wore 
bniu^rht away in spite of the superstitions of the Zufiians 
and thfir lielief that whoever attempted to aljstnict one 
••f thf couiwerateil vessi'ls was instantly stnick dead 
with lightning. They are made of a lijifht coloured clay 
tiilt-mblv wrll burnt, and ornamented with devices 
[«iint<*<l «>n them with a dark brcmn or (*hocoIate colour ; 
but though thf dfronitions are novel, the form of the 
vi-.-tf^l.'* is tli«» s;im«^ as that so fnM|uently adopti^l by the 
Indi.ui |N>tt4T, and l^omiwnl no doul)t from the gounl, 
uhirh it most n<»arlv rt'-s^'mblcs. Other vases, n^stort'd 
fr«»ni fr.ijnnrnts found by th<' fXplon*i"s on th<» Little 
<'.>|iiniil«>. ri'{M*at th<* .sjin)«* familiar outline, and indicate 
altinitii*^ among the widely extended Indian triln^s, which 
-• much other evidence tends to confirm. 

FJut not HO is it with the fictile ware n»eovered fnna 
tb«- m^»uu«is of the Scioto Valh*y. In the very centn* of 


the vast area, which thus appears to have been occupied 
throughout all known centuries by homogeneous tribes, 
closely corresponding in many customs and simple arts, 
we find the traces of a people of unknown antiquity, 
essentially differing alike in arts, customs, sacred and 
^pulchral rites and ceremonies, from all the modem 
occupants of the Mississippi Valley. Though very par- 
tially advanced in civilisation, they have nevertheless 
left behind them evidences of skill and acquired know- 
ledge greatly in advance of any possessed by the forest 
tribes that succeeded them ; and we must turn to the 
seats of native American civilisation in search of any 
parallel to those strange, extinct communities, that reared 
their lofty memorial mounds on the river terraces of the 
Ohio, and wrought their mysterious geometric problems 
in the gigantic earthworks of High Bank and Newark. 

The materials for illustrating the intellectual charac- 
teristics of the civilized nations of America, have as yet 
been gathered only in the most partial and insuflScient 
manner. The celebrated Mexican collection of Mr. William 
Bullock, if permanently secured, would have gone far 
towards the completion of one important section of the 
requisite historical illustrations ; l)ut after being exhibited 
both in America and Europe, it was allowed to be dis- 
persed and lost. The valuable materials recovered by 
the joint labours of Stephens and Gather wood from the 
sites of a more matured civilisation in Central America, 
perished by a worse fate even than the auctioneer's 
hammer ; and no adequate collections exist to furnish 
fuUy the means of studying the mental development of 
the civilized or semi-civilized nations of the New World 
by means of their artistic productions. Yet, next to 
language, and its written evidences, what proof can equal, 
in trustworthiness or value, that which exhibits the in- 
tellectual capacity, and degree of refinement and taste of 


■tetiiurt gRDPxatitiiis, as cxprraHCfl in i<cu)|)tarcd, ploRtic, 
' or ptctofiaJ ut f But though the materials within our 
reaefa ate ituMkijUAte for fully mnstcriug the dctnils of 
ioqniries thus corapifhoiwive and inijKirtimt, they arc 
DevurtbelcsB rafficieut to funiiah souic oxeecdingly valu- 
able data. lo the Kriti^h &Iu»curu, u cuUecttua both of 
^Jfangn ami Peruvian ]>oltcry, 8tatuette», aud ivtivfs iu 
^^^^^KMb, supptieM Bome iiitert-stiiig exaniplut of tliu 
^^^^^HBm antc-Coiuinhinn art of Aiutirica ; and one of 
^^B^^D of tlic Ixravre onntains the naehms of a valuable 
c^uttrt of Arnvrican antiquities. The Society of Anti- 
qaahcs of Srothind hoa also a Rmoli collection, including 
ifieanietia of the miuiAturc tcrra-eottas of Mexico, so 
ioLeiecting from ibe illuatratioua they afford, both to the 
luHurian and the ethuologint, of the cusluuic and the 
(eatorea of the ani:i<;nt people by whom those ingenious 
«<vk> of art wcro modelled. Fn)m the latter coUcctiou 
th» Egyptian-Iooldiig head figaied here is selected ; and 

^^^^B^bc «■ an Qhutration of one of the most common 
bea^AvMOik a« well an of the peculiar featun^ |N'r{H.-tu- 
•ted in ibcac Icrrn-cottas, m little resembling those of 
' t modcni MuxJeans or the Ameritum IndiouH. In the 
I StoiM, ntii.' importmit collection, chieHy nf Mcxi- 
I antiqiulitsi, baft Imx-ii formed liy the zvul tuul Hber- 
I two iiulividniils, iind in itow pn^erved in the 
T the Amtoican Philosophical Society at Phila- 


delphia. It contains nearly two thousand objects, in- 
cluding numerous terra-cottas, specimens of pottery, and 
works wrought in stone and metaL These objects were 
collected by the Hon. J. Poinsett during a diplomatic 
residence of five years in Mexico, and by Mr. W. H. 
Keating ; and were variously obtained within the area 
of the ancient city of Mexico, on the plains near the 
pyramids of St. Juan Teotihuacan, Cholula, Tezciico, the 
Island of Sacrificios, and from the western side of the 
SieiTa Madre of the Cordilleras.^ It is impossible, indeed, 
to examine tliis interesting collection with any minute- 
ness, without being convinced that it includes the artistic 
productions of diverse races, and probably of widely 
different periods. A few specimens, indeed, are unques- 
tional>ly of Peruvian origin ; others correspond to the 
peculiar art of Central America, as distinguished from 
that of Mexico ; though it is probable that this distinc- 
tion is one of periods rather than of locality : the arts 
of Central America having also been common to the 
Mexican plateau in that period to which so many of its 
traditions seem to point, when a higher native civilisa- 
tion flourished there prior to the intrusion of the Aztecs. 
A Mexican skull of large and massive propoitions, with a 
full, broad, l)ut retreating forehead, and a predominance 
in the longitudinal diameter, conflicting with the assigned 
proportions of the t)q)ical American cranium, is engraved 
in Dr. Morton's Crania Americana, plate xvi. He re- 
marks of it : " This is a relic of the crenuine Toltecan 
stock, having been exhumed from an ancient cemeter}' 
at CeiTo de Quesilas, near the city of Mexico, by the 
Hon. J. R Poinsett, and by him presented to the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. It was 
accompanied by numerous antique vessels, weapons, etc., 
indicating a pei-son of distinction." This no doubt affords 

^ Tmnmctlom of the Amirican PhiloHophkal Socitty, X.S.., voL iii. |>. 570. 


^etae to ooe of tbe localities from wbencu Uie Mexican 
% were rccorerMl ; anil proliahl y puinte to soma ■ 
B whidt from their convspoDdence to tJie higherJ 
Iff Oential Anierii'Ji, suggi-slod thi' idea of a Toltecan'^ 
To the same perirMl of an earlier aud purer art, 
Wkould pnilnUv I"-' oamlici a fragment of bright red 
poCterr (Rg. ;U), vrougfat wiih one of thi- most fami- 
far Tuietira nf the clumii- fn;llo ; nud wbii'h, if found on 

' Borufwui <tte among Irngmcnts of Sitmion ware, 
be tuhcritatingly assigned lu o Ruinnu origin. 
, huwurer, is do ettlituj* uxampli? of the n^peiilion 
: and other aui'-ivnt juttcntH, in the oriiamuula- 
npkn't-al )iy ibe native attiittH nf ante-(^)lum)iian 
Alike in tliu works of tbe I*cru\*uui iiiiNl(.-Uer 
I iciilptor. vo find evidences nf thtdr indL>|iendcnt 
a of omantuuta familiar to tbp artists of Etniria, 
and llinne, wbile the disciples of Plttto were 
J, un the \f»X Atlantis of the world's engirdling 
1 f(«r eighttiuu ceuturius more, it was to be a 
I of Eiuupvan faith that tlie cnstem xbores of the 
JUkotic coostitatod the uttcnnust limibi of tho world. 
To the ethnokigiiit. tlte itKle|>endent evolution by tbo 
ktuBMi minil of thu like fonrnt and devices among nations 
«|«lBte<l oi|uaUy by time and jqtoce, it n>plete with nn 
iot ae l and im|>ortaarc of a far higher kind than any 
ikaA ooiiM rcnult from tracing them to nomc luwumed \ 


ey aifl 
tant in ■■ ' 

intercourse between such diverse nations. They 
evidences of an intellectual unity, far more important in 
it8 comprehensive bearings than anything that could 
result fi'om assumed Phtenieiau, Hellenic, or Scandi- 
navian migrations to the New World. But while such 
is the conclusion forced on the mind when retjuired to 
account for these recurring coincidences, it is otherwise 
when we find the omameutation of Peruvian pottery 
reproduced as a prominent feature in the architectural 
decorations of Central America and Yucatan. The 
argument might indeed satisfy the mind in refcrct 

the frette ornament, wrought in its simplest ancient 
form, but on a gigantic scale, as the principal decoration 
of the beautifully proportioned gateway of I^abn^ or 
the Casa del Gol>emador at Uxmal ; but there is a varil 
of frette peculiar to the ceramic art of Peru, and 
scidptured decorations of Yucatan, the correapoudencc 
of which is at least worthy of note. It is shown on one 
. of the specimens of black Peruvian pottery brought 
} (Fig' 3S), with a monkey as the peculiar fc 



' tlie vcsavL It has a sU-p-Uki: form b the first linu 
r tiir> 6vttc ; anil tbu Ten- same i>ecultarity pkys » pro- 
nt port in the minx of Mitla,' aiu] nguiu appeal's in 
^ CWUktwchmI's drawingH r)f Uic 6no tluiirway at C'liun- 
bvherv it is introdurt-d an a scale titat Bpeciiilly 
1 the notice iif Mr. Sh^phenss fmin th« Iwltl and 
f upe>?t of the details. It is not there one aelected 
1 amiHi^^t luany oniatuent^ owing to its presenting 
I exct*piiutuU n.'j'i'ailjlttuce to Peruvian decorations, but 
litaUM th« diiff foaturu iu the design, giving ita 
r to the »idi*iK)Bt« of the main doorway. 
Tbe pliuftic art is poctitiarly vatuai>)c, alike on account 
7 the (ai'ility with whicrh it n-produccs the costly dcco- 
% of the nrulptor ; iiD<I tbo many iiiinuto and siitiple 
I of iitylc and mode of thought which it i>cqK3t 
: iwrh AS lie ontircly beyond the com|>a83 of archi- 
; in itA ambitious aims and special adaptations to 
titira of religion, or the sovereign majesty of the 
\ To tboHv who have watche^l a skilful artist at 
I htB mixlutling to«K tnu-iug hia ideas almost 
. m fspidly in the phutio i-lay as when Hketching with the 
pcocil, it is K-arcely necosAnrj' to recall with what seem- 
•■ thought tH directly traiiHlnteid into expressive 
1 the dillicattieH of iJt-rspective, cxdour, and light 
, which po^ilex tho incx{N*ripnrod dmughtM- 
t ancoQsciously Fudvcd in the Bmt pn>ccR» of the 
ler or »ini]pt<ir ; and it is no doubt dun ht tliis that 
rurt uf tbe aeiilptor appears, nnder very diverw- 
I, to have attained itit |>erfect development, 
wjbile the painter is still painfully htWtiring at mere de- 
ceptive imitation. ^Vinong the Mexicans, ino<letling in 
dijr ■pfM'ora to have been extensively praetiseil : and 
BoOMir'tits term eotta idols, statuettes, models of animaU 
ber objects, have been recoveretl from the debris 

' BkMti UcfM'* Mttkm llidarf oW Ardkaobtn. pbta ii. 

100 PBEUISTORIC MAN. , [Chap. 

of the aiicieut eaiuUs of Mexico ; aud may therefore be 
ascribed, with little hesitation, to the period of the Con- 
quest Considerable ixeedoni is manifest in the model- 
ling, but as works of art they claim no high rank ; and 
in the contrast they present in this respect to the best 
fictile art and sculpture, both of Central America and 
Peru, they may be accepted as the truest exponent of 
the ruder intellectual development assigned both by tra- 
dition and history to the Aztec conquerors of the older 
nations of the Mexican plateau. 

But the modeller's art becomes most interesting and 
valuable to the historian and ethnologist^ when it fur- 
nishes the representations of the human face and figure. 
In the vicinity of some of the ancient teocallis^ and on 
other sacred sites, small terra-cottas, chiefly representing 
the heads of men and animals, abound. Collections of 
such brought from Mexico, are preserved in the British 
Museum, the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, and in tlie cabinet of the Historical Society of 
New York ; while in that of the American Philosophical 
Society at Philadelphia they number about one thou- 
sand : illustrating the artificial malformations of the 
human head, the prevailing national features, and a 
great variety of head-dresses and ornaments for the hair. 
Dr. R H. Davis has in his collection a small Mexicim 
terra-cotta, exhibiting the head under the process of 
compression, precisely in the same manner as is stiU 
practised by the Chinooks and other tril)es of the North- 
west. But besides such small terra-cottas, which would 
require a volume devoted specially to them, fully to illus- 
trate their interesting details, the collections of the 
American Philosophical Society include a series of large 
(lay masks of the human face, twenty-eight in all, and 
vaning in dimensions from about half life-size to some- 
what larger than life. These are executed with great 


in>'*\*m\ and v<t}' (.-ODsiileniMi: artistic skill, aud are in 
a totally dilfvrvnt and voi^- Aupcrior fttyle to the terra- 
«t>lta Mcxiciin idols and other flgures already referred to. 
Tfaey f-xliiliit gr«it variety of exprc8nion, and manifest 
di-tatU of iadividual portraiture. Others' have the fea- 
x^itv* fx^ggemtud iutA caritrature with equal life and 
ft)>irit.' Fi'W objects of art could present features of 
bi^HT iutenst to the ethnologist. Mr. Francis Fulszky, 
m ki< li.itHoijntpltic ReAearcltes, when commenting on 
-u<-h i-xamplfH of the art of American nations as have 
niOK- under hi^t oltAervation, i 
tnarkj> on his t<t'lectetl Mexican it- 
lostnitions: "AD of them are cha- 
rai-tvrized liy the peculiar features ' 
of the CVntnd American grou]) ' 
c^ the Fte<) man in the formation 
of tbf* idnill, an well an liy their 
hiyh chwV liontrK."* But no such 
.iHK-lu^ioD is suggi'-ftt'il by the V \\ 
er»\i\% I'f nwjJcrt now reft-rrud to. H ft " 
Th." i-lnTk Utues an- moderately \ *m 
d>'V(-l<>|'L-<l. the nixK- is prominent 
and pviierally rtliarp, and a ttmall 
mouth is accompanied in most 
fait<-B by 11 narrow, projcetinji chin. The exampli- 
tii!un-<I al«ove (Fig. 3rt) illustnites the iluimrter nf 
thi>^- larrrt^ t-luy niiiiik.s, or niuddlingH of the human 
frutur.-, in whirh the ethnolo;rist will liH>k in viiin fur 
iht- rliaracteristic i)hyai. >gnoniy of the lUil Iiidiiin. Nor 
an- th'- rariratun-s h-K-* inti-ivsting or u.sefiil in tliis n-- 

I.-. •.!.. iiornf <r>- Kii.!.-.! m tli.-|.hi.'M S..'iH.v'- Trail* 
trX^'U*. U»}' ti*r ilraPhUil as "ri^lit>i-a iiLukii of in-lt-ry. ri']iri-.'.i'iitihi- tli'' 
ksHaa fMv, ij itotunl >■»■, Wt vi-ry ;:n>tf*i|ii>' titinn-a." In n'sllty, Ii<>h 
"•r. I ■-'.it.t"l tv<-nt) -i;;ht ric- itiii-iia, ■•{ whiili lit.' Urpr niiiiil.r :ii- 
ibb«ll- ' I iK'tr ••■■vi..ii*]y tnitlifiil |i-irtnttiir-. 
: Imlt^mmt k'fH'^lh. Knnk. y. ISA 

-yi*. fREBISTORIC St AH. [Chap, 

-.^ci., Whiett the English WeUington figured in the 
luuiic l«i^*» of the Paris Charivari, or the Emperor 
NiHwleuu »L receives the like honours from the carica- 
luiistt '.'t" ihe London Punch, the humour of the satiric 
(jvuvil tiuils vent in the exaggeration of the familiar 
uuLund features ; and such is the tendency of all cari- 
utituiv^ But^ as will be seen from the specimens 
figured here (Fig. 37), the ancient satirical modeller of 

the New Worid sported with features in no degree cor- 
responding to the familiar type of the North American 
Indian ; and indeed the illustrations which accomi»any 
the remarks already quoted fnmi ilr. Francis Pulszln" 
very imperfectly confirm the inferences dcilucod by him 
from the study of the origimda, as to their proof of the 
prevalence of a uniform t)'pe of features throughout the 
American continent, 

Tlie foiTus of ilexican potterj- are exceedingly varied, 
though more frequently exhibiting an uigenioiia fertilit}' 
of invention, and an exuberant fancy, tlwiu much resthctic 
lelinement. Indeed I cannot imagine the large human 
masks in the collection of the American Philosophical 


Suciety t4) be the work of the same people as the Mexi- 
can teiTm-<*ottaH Ijetside them, which correspond in style 
ti> the tirawings on the Mexican hieroglyi>hic manu- 
ai-riptiS ren^leivtl familiar by Liiml Kingsborough s great 
W4»rk. In this department of the subject, as in some 
otheiH, it would ret[uirc a special monograph of ample 
dimensi«>ns to illustrate all the varied details. 

Alike in Mexico, Central America, and Peru, it is ob- 
%iouA that the native art Lsts workeil with the utmost ease 
in the plastic clay ; and hence they employed it for a 
variety of [lurjtoses, one of the most singular of which 
that of making musical instruments. Several earthen- 
flute^ flageolets, and other wnml instruments are 
indudeil in the Mexican collection of Philadelphia ; and 
anifv curious npecimens of the same novel class have re- 
cently lieen brought to light, along with a great variety 
uf other interesting antiquities^ in exploring the ancient 
graves of the province of Chiri([ui, about fifty miles north 
«»f Panama. But l)etween the Biiy of Panama and the 
M>utbem shores of the Gulf of Mexico lie the marvellous 
n-pon-s of Yucatan and CVutnd Amt»rica, rich with colos- 
sal statUiT^ temples vast and gorgeous in their sculpture<I 
U^pAivA and their graven hien>glyphs as the ruins of the 
Nil«.* Valli'V ; and jdso with their characteri.stic cenimic 
art, highly im{Nirtant tis an element (»f coinparis(»n with 
that which Is found on other ancient sites, or {>eqx;tuated 
in th«-- arts i>f mo«lem tril>es. Here als<», as in other de- 
(<irtm«'nti4 of our subject, we are as yet only on the 
thrvshold of disclosures which are destined to add many 
chiipters to th«* detaiknl chroni«-les of a) m original Ameri- 
can hl-^tiir)'. Hut enough lias been noted to prove how 
t-ntin-lv we Icjive U*hind us tin* arts of the Rrtl Indian 
when we procee<l to exjJoi-e the Si^pulchral an<l other 
«lf{H««itori4's of Yucatiin, (^hiaiuis, t»r (Vntral America. 
Not only is the pottery of finer material, but alike in 


tenk «Ih1 ontaineDtatioD it ossentially differs 
I ito^ tulll«rto itiscovercd to the north of the 
vmU psveals the style of thought which presents such n - 
riftiitrkaUv and unique aspects iu tht> forms into which it 
haa wrought itself on the might}' ruins throughout tlie 
auuie r\^una Among the illustrations of Mr, Stephens' 
Tntwls in CentraJ- Avierica, one of the plates is devoted 
lo ttw representation of specimens of pottery dug up. 
turn in a mound among the ruins of Guezalienango, 
the ancient kingdom of Quich6. Of these tlie tri} 
illnstrates a form of vessel found under consideniMi 
variations of detii], as far south as the Gulf of Pajuuii;i. 
while its ornamentation presents considerable resemblance 
to patterns of constant occurrence on the more abundant 
ornamental pottery of Pci-u. But a far higher interest 
attaches to another vase, dug up amid the ruins of 
an alwriginal city of Yucatan. "The vase," says 
Stephens, " is four and a half inches high, and five ini 
in diameter. It is of admirable workmanship, and 


I tJie acconut given by Ucrrcm of the markets nt 
ixican city of Tlascalo. There were goldsmithts 
lermcn, l>arbers, baths, and as good earthenware us 


in SiKun.** The chief <levicc, it will l>c Been (Fig. 38), is 
a human bust, closely correspondiDg in features^ attitude, 
and mstume, to the sculptured and stuccoed figures 
o!«ti*rveil at Palenquc and elsewhere. But still more 
int«*n*sting, even than the reproduction of the sculptures 
••f Padenqut* in the potter's clay, is a border of hiero- 
(rlyphit^ running continuously with the feathered plumes 
••f the human figure round the top of the vase, and there- 
by imlubitably conni'<*ting it with the most advanced era 
« >f inti'lliH!tual pn)gre88 in the history of native American 

In Central America, and not in Mexico, lay the ancient 
m^A of highest aborigimU cinlisation on the northern 
rir>ntincnt ; and from thence the receding lines of its 
indufnce may lie traced, with diminishing force, towards 
thf northern bonlers of Mexico on the one hand, and 
tb«' Isthmus of Panama on the other. In the latter 
refrion, recent cliscoveries, already referred to in de- 
"tt'iibing the remarkable gold relics found in the ancient 
••••ni«'ieries of Chiricjui, have largely added to our know- 
Itnlfn^ fif the artA of its ancient popuLition. In a com 
muni«*ation on the subject, made by Dr. J. King Mcrrit 
t-» thr Am^'ric-an Ethnological Society, and emlnxlying 
ih»' ri«ults of |K.*rsonal olfc>i»rvation, he remarks that^ 
whil»' the golden ornaments were only met with occa 
M*»nally, |Kjtter}' was encountenMl more or less in every 
jn^vr ; and li«r thu.s pnK'cc^ls : "The specimens of |M>t- 
x»'T\ fr^und aswK'iated nith the gold figures are generally 
binrr and (»f a finer c[uality tlum in the oth(*r huacals. 
T«« thr :uiti(|uarian thetic possi^ss a great int4*n»st, ju* they 
arf«»nl sonif i<lea of the domi^stic habits an<l the degree 
i»f • ivillsiition attaimnl by tluit an«-icnt jK^ople, of whos<» 
lu>t<»r}' Wf as yet know nothing. The s|K»rimens wlii<*h 
I iiav*' si-tf-n, and a few that I have ])n>uglit from Chiritjui, 
i'xhibit a high degree of advancement in the most diHi- 


*^uh an '.d pun^^ hmm a^ f^rmmeizdcal azkd graceful 
Uife ^jjy '.i cia/>?Bi' «i: niffUtirL uuv.^ Tiie p-l«yiTig and 
paiiituii: 'jJ huiii^ aj>: iL li v(.»uar.'rrii^ fiLiLi^ •:•£ preserva- 
ti'jiL lii'j ':'»i(jurr !»eiiii: Mnxriii tud disnnco. and many 
ar*: «^tiri*y inihtie^a^L. T»y lii*: la^^K: cc laine,*^ Speci- 
ta^^uub 'j1 tii*: Ciiiriou: jiorr^iry iii tiit caLiiie? of the His- 
vjn*'^ ?yy:iyTT f.d' 2^ew Turk, loiu il liitt: piiTate coDection 
'J l>r. E. H- liaTii. fuHi isL tTiient* of skill in the 
\^AV;f*t 8tri v*frr far in aiTantf: of the woik of the 
Xiortheiu Lu'Iianh, ani exiii-'ir fornix and patterns esseu- 
thxUy 'liffyrent. Maiiv oi tiit: Teaaels are tripods^ and 
th<iV; have freqnenilv mc-Table clay peDets inserted in 
tJi<: hoJJow leg--. With them are als«j found sculptured 
hUiu*^ tal-^k^i, for grlniing and baking com. They are 
fg/ii}«inxliy in the form of an fiTiiTnal, with the legs and 
tail ini/jut/Jy r^arved, and resting <:»n a ]^iedestal cut out 
of o;j<: bjo^.k of Btone ; and in the same graves occur 
curious mwiif^l instruments, wrought from the potters 
chiy in a variety of forms, but chiefly in those of birds 
and aniinali*. A collection of these Chiriqui wind in- 
wlnjnj<inf-M, derived from various sources, has been re- 
\nnU'il on by a committee of the American Ethnological 
K<*ri<;ty a|i|>oint4;d for that puqiose. They were nearly 
'ill whiHtJ<:Hor flageolets, roundish, in the form of birds 
or Ix^iHlH, from one an<l a half to four and a half inches 
in di;iniel<!r. The most perfect instrument has three 
flnj^<;r 1io1(;h to jiroduce the notes A, G, F, E, down- 
wardH. A foiiilli finger-hole gives the semitones of 
tlMM«'. not <'H ; and by a particular process two or three 
low<i' lutirH ant obt^iined. In one of the smaller instru- 
iih'iiIh, a JooK<! hall of baked clay within the air-chtmiber 
•MvrM riiiiJH'r validly U) the notes. The most perfect 
of tlhmr liw Hiiuph* ; and, if they wei-c the sole musical 
iiihtriuih'iitH |miks<'hh«mI by their ingenious manufacturers, 

' /^7<iir/ rill Ih //t4ii«ii/« o/rhiriqui, hy J. King Merrit, M.D., p. 7. 


} du not rifCunarily imply nny great mnstery of the 
net uf muidr. Tbuy l»«ir, liowover, no nnumlilance 
to tlu! ruiic tlnnns oin) miHliniue^rattli-a which himiali 
Uw uuly miuic fur thu favourito ilaiict^n of the forcftt 
tiibw; bat. on the rontnuy, inilir-att^ in all ri!8|«,'ct8 a 
cuttsilerable advooce bvyoiid their higlirst attaimnciits. 

The cXAinple hepc given (Fig. 39) is drawn from the 
iirigiiui], in tlict poAso^ion of Dr. E. H. Davis, luitl fur- 
I a, fair UluHtratidD of thia ingenious yet primitive 
I of mttsir-ol iufltrumt-'UtH. It is {lainU^d in red and 
ft Cfeam-cohjured ground, nnd mi^^nsun's nearly 
1 in length. Otiiem, IkiUi of the Uthmufl and 
am simpler in fomi, and with a greater 
' of Dotos ; while »ome of thone found in the 
iqtii groves are litlie mtire ttmii whi»tlef«, and may 
pq«ibly have been mere children's toy». Thin, however, 
•TO euuot (oil to notii'e, that^ alike in the prevuiling 
f'CBM of th«Ae musical instrumeute, as in the pottery 
Lod works iu metal, the imitative tendency of the art 
"f the •otithern isthmuii ruveidu the some meuud chur- 
I IU am HCL-u iu so uuuiy diverse examples of 
kive Anierii-'au art. The vases, and eurtlu-nware vessels 
\ every kind, ii|>]iear to hjive In-en mtMleUcfl moHt fro- 
ntJy in imitation of the vt^relaUirs, fniitA, and t-iiells 
tbe locality, and to have been deconttetl witti devices 


copied from the native fiuma and oilier natural objects 
most fiumiliar to the ancioit potters of ChiriquL In 
this respect their works disclose to us some of the same 
mental characteristics which, in a peculiar manner, per- 
Tade all the phases of incipient civilisation in the New 
World ; but are nowhere more strikingly manifested than 
in that remarkable countiy, which still reveals so many 
traces of its arrested civilisation among the terraced 
steeps of the Cordilleras^ where they look fortli on the 
Pacific Ocean within the tropics^ and thence southward 
to the 37th d^ree of latitude. 

The want of any large public collection of native 
American pottery and terra-cottas, or of any woric ade- 
quately illustrating its peculiar characteristics, has led 
to an undue depreciation of the artistic skill of the 
Peruvian potter. Mr. Joseph Marryat, in his taste- 
ful and beautifully illustrated History of Pottery and 
Porcelain^ introduces a group from tiie British Museum, 
which conveys a most inadequate idea of the better class 
of Peruvian fictile ware, and abundantly accounts for 
his depreciatory remarks. " The pottery of Peru, Chili, 
and Columbia," he observes, " has a peculiar character, 
which distinguishes it from any European, and approxi- 
mates it to the Mexican, having the same clumsy and 
uncouth shapes." Such, however, is {ai from being a 
just estimata The clearly defined differences which 
distinguish Greek from Roman pottery are not more 
strongly pronounced than those which mark the distinc- 
tions between the fictile ware of Mexico and Peru. No 
one, indeed, who has had any adequate opportunities of 
comparing them, can possibly confound the two. Tet 
so little attention has hitherto been paid to the inge- 
nious and singularly varied productions of the Peruvian 
potter, that Prescott has omitted all reference to them in 
his highly attractive introductory " View of the Civilisa- 


tiuQ of tbe Incaa" Nevertheless, the historian of the 
Conquest has ivniarked, with acute discrimiDatioD, that 
** tbe character of the Peruvian mind led to imitation 
mtber than invention, to delicacy and minuteness of 
tinii&h rather tlian to boldness or beauty of design f^ and 
it may lie said as justly of his ceramic art, as of other 
pnHluctA of his mechanical skill and artistic design, 
thstt they were frequently maile on a whimsical pattern, 
evincing quite as much ingenuity as taste or inventive 

Hie intelle<-tual cliaracteristics which tbe peculiar 
pliases of Peruvian art illustnite, originated fully as 
much in the social and political aspects of the national 
Ufe, OS in any original bent of the native artista We 
discern in the arcliitecture and sculpture, as well as in 
much else that pertaineil to ancient Egypt, the indi- 
vi«lual mental action controlled, in its formative expres- 
nion.H of thought, by the prescrilxxl formulae of the 
natiunnl creed amd {xiliey ; while Hellenic art and 
U»-nius reflect the expansive freeilom of the emancipated 
human mind. In the arti8tic design of the Peruvian, 
t^»ei*ially aif( applied to architecture and its attendant 
.irti*, we iletect no lortrt clearly tht; influences of its sin- 
pihiT iK»lity, and the unctmscious restraints of national 
ftinnuke of thought ; and wo must give full value to 
•4ioh repn-srtivt? elements liefore attempting to gauge the 
mv»ntivi- oripnality of Peruvijui genius. CVmtnisti'd 
miih the n']ietitiou — unvarying as the in- 
•tin«t of liinLs —of a few simple fonns, in the pi>tter)' 
of the Indian trilxrs of North Aniericii, throughout all 
ihr peni-nitit»ns whirh luive come under Euro|»ean ob 
^r\':itinij, the ceramic art of Peru illustrates uuntal 
luira<teriiitics nf an eKsentially <litlerent kind. Some 
f tbe ^|N.■einlens «if its pottery arr pur|M»s*fly grulci^iue, 

* PrVAi.-ntt't V*tnqur*t rt/' Pflt*, •. I. oh. v 

• • 

• t 


tl:,;yptiuM ;' othcnt hare ilonble sjMiuts, vhicb also con* 
■iiulu a cbuartemtio. fculuro of the water-pitcher called 
■.!•■ " moakejr,'* still in uniruraal use in Brazil. A few 
"• nf ^pte ami gract-ftil forms ; and oIIkot arc mo- 
t'p>ni meloHB, gimnls, au<l other fruit, thottgb 

gDaeraUy irilh i muilliciui added as the 

'l of tbr v< I i ixler include imitationB 

; pami. j«iM7ui. iiirkvy, Innd'turtlo, monkey, 

ILuno, tttthl, ca^Tiuin, shark, vXc. smuigMl 

nioua and eU'UtTS divcnity, In miMlify the form 

B bnttlc, jar. or pihrhet whirih ihi-y flccomtc. Othurs 

aie adornnl with fifjuiu or omnmfntal gtatl^^ms in nUiuf; 

I. ndditioD til whirh the |iaiuti><l |M>ttLTy ia al»i grvatly 

1 both in shapu and umanientatiiin.' 
IHw ingenuity of the Peruvian pott*^ was fiullier 
. in mnUry coriuiu and whimncal appUcatioDS 
to the niore complicated specimens of his 

• fVh HMiTati Afatoy ^ PtMir^ 3d tdiL Bk. 190. ud «ko m Chnw 
|M^hH 4o»Mi lw Ml«. >«. IS*. 

■ Th* liittu»i»g iwU«1inM ban kOonM lo tlu> ambar oppaHMlHii al 
^■djrMg w««nl baadMl ^miiaim of lb* ram (aim of ptfaiian paHaqt, 
fw _ Tte BMaA UMraa ; Hm Nvwiy «( ADti.|<i>r)M of Saotlaad ; Oa 
T" flboatf <rf !)•« r<«k j U» Aawrirao nik«oii|>>~l SorMjr. Pim^ 

ijliaiii I Ik Mmibm trf BoatoH aad Nrw Yarii ; lb* Mfamrta at i. B. 
ikk*. 1K< >«"->>• !>' £■ "■ »""^ ^'^ V.*k. aMl J«p|4i A. tlaj. ■■«, 
naf T|'i Tki tripod b tba ptHir >^>X «K ia (n« hMOM i aB tb> 

1 1 2 PREHISTORIC MAN. [Chaf. 

skill. This has been minutely illustrated by Dr. Tschudi, 
from the abundant means within reach of an obeenrer 
resident in the country. ''All the moulded works of 
the ancient Peruvians^'' he observes^ ''have a peculiar 
character, which distinguishes them from those of the 
other American nations ; a character which, by those 
versed in antiquities, will be recognised at first sight'* 
Having then referred to some of those accidental corre- 
spondences among vessels of simpler form which appear 
to reproduce Egyptian, Etruscan, or other antique types, 
he thus proceeds : " The greater part of the sacred ves- 
sels buried Avith the mallquis, and destined to receive 
the chicha of sacrifice on feast-days, have an enlarged 
neck, placed ortlinarily near the handle, with a hole to 
pour out the liquid, and an opposite opening, for the air 
to esciipii when the vessel is filled. Many are double, 
and it seems that they made them thus frt)m preference; 
others are quadruple or sextuple, or even octuple ; that 
is, the priucijxd vessel is surroimded with regular ap- 
^Hjudugi^s, wliich communicate among themselves and 
with the princijxil vessel. The double ones were made 
in sui'h perfection, that when they were filled with a 
liquid, the air, escaping through the opening left for that 
pur|H).se, produced sounds at times very musical : these 
sounds sometimes imitated the voice of the animal which 
Wiis represented by the principal part of the vessel : as 
in a Wautiful specimen we have seen, which repi-esents 
a cat, and which, upon receiving water through the 
up|K»r opening, produces a sound similar to the mewing 
of that auiiiial. We have in our possession a vessel of 
black clay, which perfectly imitates the whistle of the 
thrush, the form of which is seen on the himdle. We 
also preserve two circular vases, wliich, being filled with 
water through a hole in the bottom, on being turned 
over, lose not a single drop, the water coming out, when 


it \» wiAhoi], by simply iiicliuiug the upper {>art of 
the vase." 

Mr. Bluke, whose personal ol>ser\'ation8, as well as his 
valuable collections, have furnished interesting materials 
for various chapters of this work, collected some curious 
8ptvimeus of the ancient potters' art from the Peru- 
vian graves explored by him. One exann)le, measuring 
twfuty-two inches long, is in the fonn of a fish, with its 
tail fiartially tunird round, like a sabnon in the act of 
k-apin^ ; and another in that of a deer s head carrying 
a vaiie lietweun its antlers. A thinl is modelled as a 
liinl, with long legs liki* a cmne ; an<l wIkmi fdled with 
water, and move<l gently backward and forward, it emits 
flouniU not unlike the notes of a binl, which most pro- 
iKibly were designeil to imitate the peculiar cry of the 
one n*presi»nte<l in the ftirm of the vessel Small sphe- 
rit-al vessels are ver}' common, and Mr. Blake, who 
pfK^rtesw^} sevenil of them, conceives that they were pro- 
Inbly dt'signed for holding tea made from the leaves of 
oH^jo, i>r stjuie other plant. Siniihu* vessels, he inftinns 
m«% are n<»w in us<' among the Indians ; and an infusion 
•if leaves of roctxi is freijuently pres<trib(Hl by their me- 
dical men. It is sip{>ed from the cup through a snudi 
lul** of nvd or silviT, eight or nine inches long. 

Tlie ap|mn*nt reprtnluetion of Etruwan and other 
aiiti4{Uc* fonns in tht» Peruvian vaises, hits been referreil 
t-», nor <bx*s the eurresjM»ndrn<*e lH»tw*»en such r«»li<!s of the 
art« of ant'ient nations of the <)M and New WorMs stop 
h»n*. Mr. J<»?H*ph Manyat, whil«» n'ft*rring with undue 
di.«{».'ir4i;;«*m<*nt t4) the pnMlu<-ts of art, ronse- 
<|U«ni on his limite<l means for its study, ivmarks, 
- -•* lliough this pottrr}- is generally vrry umouth in 
f««rm :ai«l ornammt, yet in some spr<iiiirns tin* patti*rns, 
i'*ir\ol «»r indi'uti'd, represi-nt those well known as thr 
• Vitruvian >croll ' and * CJrecian fret.' It is curious that a 

VOL.. II. H 

1 1 4 PREHISTORIC MAX. [Chap. 

people 80 apparently rude should have chosen ornaments 
similar to those adopted in the earliest Grecian age, and 
found on the Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens, 336 blc, 
but wliich, however, it appears the Greeks thonselves 
borrowed from the Assyrians. The ^honeysuckle pat- 
tern ' is found also upon the earliest known monuments 
of Buddhist art, and the Etruscan upon the earliest 
('liinese bronzes.''* But while such coincidences have 
hitherto been turned to little account in the support of 
favourite theories of ancient migration, a much simpler 
ornament has supplied materials for endless speculation. 
An example of Peruvian black pottery, brought from 
Otusco, and now in the collection of the Historical So- 
ciety of New York, measuring seven and a half inches 
high, is decorated with a row of well-defined ^laltese 
cro8s<;s. The same " Cross of the Order of Malta " had 
already Ixjen noted with wonder among the sculptures 
at Mitla ; * while the cross at Palenque, detached from 
numerous accessories which are no less indispensable 
parts of the elaborate sculptured Tablet, as figured by 
Cathei-wood, has been made the basis of the most extra- 
vagant dedu(;tions : from the assumed mission of the 
A|)0»tle Thoniiis to Anahuac, wliich solved all difliculties 
for the elder Sjxanish priests, to the Phoenician Hercules, 
and th(? Astarte of the Sidouians, which the equally 
fanciful speculations of later times have substituted for 
the ecclesiastical legend.^ If indeed we found any 
genenil correspondence in fonns and details between 
the c('nmiic arts of Greece and Peru, or the elaborate 
synilxjlism of medi«Teval Christian art was repixniuced 
even to a limited extent on the tablets of Mitla or 
Pal(*nque, the idt*a of ancient relations to a common 

' Marnat'M //iWoz-y of Pott*- nj and Porctlain, p. 398. 
- KingH)M»roi]gh*8 Mfjcicttn Antiquith^^ vdl. \\. p. 481. 
•* Wilbiin'a Couqntft of Jlcxiro, p. 158. 


fluun*e would Ih.* iiievitablt*. But while the V^itruviau 
0cn>ll is disivniihle on pottery in the Collection of the 
Hitit^iricul Society of New York, brought from Uuar- 
luai-hueo aiul (JtUAco, and the classic fret may be traced 
alike ou the |N>tter}' aud the 8culptUR\s of Ceutnd Ame- 
rii!si and IVru, they an? asscK-iated with a variety of 
«if>i^iw U^arin^ uo trace of fon»igii origin, or with cruci- 
fonii oniaments as little referrible to a Christian source 
a.<« the t-i»iL*«ti'llatii»n of the Southern Cixiss. 

Wliilst, Imwever, in their highest, no less thtui in 
ihf ir rudiT stages, tht* arts of the New World iU'e mani- 
ff?^tly t»f native gn>wth, and disphiy in their ornamenta- 
tion a styh* essi*ntialiy {>eculiar mul unique^ then* are 
tiut wanting s]»i*4'inu'ns that challenge a com{Kirison with 
*»me of the finer pnMluctions of classic art. They 
•*«»ml»ine a gnice and In'auty of design which amply 
ck-moaHtrate tlu* ca|>arity of their executors for higher 
attainments, as is the riise with two temi-cotta helmeted 
l»iists found at Oaxa<-a, and figured in the AutiquiteA 
Jdrjru^tiiH's. Uf thes«» Pn-siott remarks, — " Tht»y might 
m-t-Il |iiiss f«»r Gn*<»k, l>oth in the style of the heads and 
ihr ritsijui's that cover them."' The ssime might 1k» siiid 
with n«-arly npial truth of the ancient Vtus«* of the 
(^uirhu;Ls of ]t«»livi2i, figUHMl in the group, Fig. 42, and 
al-i i»f a gnurfuUy-nnKlelliHl |N*ndant vast*, In^autifully 
|«iint4-*l in |«itt«'ms executed in red, yellow, and ihirk 
bn»wn, whi«li is mgraved in D'Orbignys Lllomme 
Atn/ruoih^ al«»ng with othrr eurious and characteristic 
^•••ira**ns of the aiK'icnt jiotter}' of H<»livia and Peru.' 

Itut lh«* most int4*n'sting and vahiable examples of 
thf •t-mmic art n{ Siuthcrn America, an* thos«* whi<-h 
lilu^imtf thf physiognomy of its ancient civilizinl jM^pu- 

- L //«/*•'«' .1 ti'-'fic'iN. |tUt*-i» V XIV. 


irbicli fluppties fnidi vnluaUe Uluatratioiu tif tbc gem-- 
rion* of an oncivnt ad<1 uuknowii piist. Oue of tboac 
iin-i.ui ilriiilung-VL««*lrt, of imu;«iHl Wauly, from tlii- 
i-^Ki.-n] CoUt'Ctiim {Fig. -tl), U |<lttco<l by Mr. Marrj-at 
4langs(]«- of a bi-nutiful Ot\fk \i-fiwl uf similar dwign, 
fti^ the Mtisi-o BoriHiuico, Naples, nrithf>ut its p\>atlr 
wifii-nnc )iy die cnm{>amiiiL In Uiis IVnivian v(.'«!h>1, 
on iiuUviiluality uf chamrtcr in tlu* hesuk at 
j.-stivi' iif piirtrnituiv ; and of the iwrfecUoo to 
- .M. -.1 LjK- imitutifp ortrt li.-ul l>o«!n canitil tiy the ancient i 
wtirknieii, tQ the mudelling percbnoct' of some favoariWl 
men. prim-e, or nohlo A wlt'ctiou of portrait-vosee w n 
if •u["-fl to((PtLtT iu Flj;. 42, Herived from various wurctt^ 

^^■1 all iUnstialinft a divi!nity of plijnuugDomy in which 

^^K look in vain for tht^ fjuniliar chanictrristics of the 

Inlian tvanti-iuniv. witb itA high i!htfk-haDt^ its pucn- 

&ir iorta of nmalh, and Htnmgly-morki.'d fiolirnt noM. 

7W RKMi{i. ranging from b-ii Xa right, indudts a lonaU 

Myrintn raw of nnglaxeil red van-, in the ooUcction of 

I American PhikaophiaLl Society, at Philadelphia ; an 

; portrait voae uf the Quic-hoos uf Boli^i:!, from 

[Dj't L'Hmnme Amirici.ti» ; auothor of inferior 

. in the cahinvt of the }liirtoricaJ Society 

feA. Thi« wia hrought from Bcmp. and rr- 


presenta apparently a female with a close-fitting 
and the hair gathered up ander it behind. The 
from the collection of Dr. K H. Davis, ia a Pcrui 
drinking-vessel, with crested helmet or head-dress, 
ear-peudants such as are frequently iiitrodured in 
smfdl Mexican terra-cottaa. The vase on the right 
brought by Colonel Thorpe from Mexico, includes a ; 
of comic masks designed with great spirit Grotesqne 
and humorous designs are by no means rare. One sin- 
gular example figured by D'Orbigny, presenta a groteaqi 
pitcher, in wbit^h, though the face is human, the 
limbs appear rather to Wlong to the quadrum: 
monkey ; but the monkey is a fi^uent subject both o] 
the American sculptors' and potters' art. At Coiwui, 
Stephens was first rewarded with a glimpse of arohiteo 
tural remaimi, which clearly told of extinct arts and an 
obliterated civilisation of native growth, and awoke in 
his mind an interest stronger than he had felt when 
wandering amoug the mins of E^ypt, or exploring the 
strange architecture of the long-lost Petra. Following 
his Indian guide with hope rather than expectation nf 
fiiiiling remains of a higher character than the comlnncH 
labours of the forest-tril>es were capable of producing.', 
he suddenly found himself arrested amid the deii-. 
forest by a squared stone-c-olumn about fourteen {<■' -. 
high, sculptured in bold relief on even.- side. "Tln' 
front," he. says. " was the figure of a man curioualy and 
riehly dressed ; and the face, evidently a portrait, solemn, 
stem, and well fitted to excite terror." In this, iis in 
all the other portrait-sculptures, carefully drawn by 
Cathei-wood in Central America and Tueatan, we look 
in vain for the Indian features, which, according to the 
deductions of the native school of American ethnologista, 
, ought to be found as surely in .such ancient portraits, 
B the universal type of American cranium was affirmed 

r//ff CA'KAM/f AHT: POTTERY. lift 

f Slortoa to be (lU»Ji»wl liy every opcu gnn*u. Itat 
r whslcTer mce such aucicut sculpturcti were wrought, 
f place Cf'riain truths nf tho |«i«t beyond »loubt or 
"The s^ht of thix uucx]i04:totl monument put at 
'. oiK't-' anil fnr pver, in our mimlft, a\\ uncertainty 
1 to thv chamrtcr of Amurirau antiquities ; and 
i tbe af»UFDUii:f that thr objects wn were iu neorcb 
' iot^n.'Htiag, not only as the remains of an ud- 
^aown peo|»le, Imi as works of art, pro\ing. like newly 
'iiiooTetvJ historind reconls, that the f>ooplc who onue 
\*\ the eoutiiK'iit of America were not savagta." 
i» nmiJ the foft-nt-glades, other sculptuat] sljitueo 
ikidi or half buried iu the luxuriouit vegetjition ; 
"one standing, with its altar iMtfon: it, in a grove 
which grew around seemingly to shade and 
I it » a nrrrd thing. In the solemn sdllness of 
, it Ae^^med n di\*inity mourning over a fallen 
The only soiumU tliat disturbed the quiet of 
I bnrkd city, wen? tho uoi«e of monkeys moving 
; thv tops of the trees, and the cracking of diy 
I broken by tliuir weight. 'I'hcy moved over 
I in long and swift proccjuiionH, forty or fifty 
'„ tome with Uttlc ones wound iu their long 
I out to the end of boughs ; and, holdiuj 
^ their hiud<feet. or a curl of tlie tail, sprang t 
'hof tbe next tree, and. with a uoi»e like a cur- 1 
' wind, pnsfted on into the depths of the forent 
i tbe firxt time we luul seen thuse mockeries of 
; and, with the struuge monumeutit around u^ , 
I like wandering opiritB of tlic deported i 
X tbe niim of their former babitatioutL~' 
I ift a slight glimpM> of the teacliingM eiuliodied in 
tl^ oncit-nt 1'cr.imic art of the Now World. It revcuU a 
cing diversity among the art-pnxlucts of difiei^ 


ent localities and widdy-fieparated areas; disdoees to 
us some of the customs^ the personal characteristics^ 
and even the intellectual attributes of long- extinct 
generations ; and furnishes an important gauge of na- 
tive American civilisation. We have known of Mexican 
and Peruvian arts chiefly fix)m the glowing pages of 
Spanish chroniders ; and among these their pottery is 
frequently described as equal to the best of Spanish 
manufacture.^ But the finest examples of Spanish fic- 
tile wore of the date of the Conquest were of Moorish 
workmanship ; and though the lost ceramic art of 
Europe first reappeared in Spain under its Maho- 
metan conquerors^ it may be that the conquistadors 
were chiefly familiar with the commoner pottery of an 
inferior quality : even if we acquit them of all exagge- 
ration in their descriptions of Mexican or Peruvian 
manufacturea Whether among either people any ap- 
proximation to the potter's whed had been made is 
generally questioned. The more elaborate and compli- 
cated designs rather indeed illustrate the modeller's than 
the potter's dexterity and skill ; and scarcdy admitted 
of the useful application of the lathe or wheel But 
their ingenious devices, and endless varieties of form, 
were weU calculated to impress the conquerors with the 
evidence they aflForded of native culture and inventive 
power, while the quality of the ware would appear of 
secondary significance. In examining broken specimens 
of their pottery, it is seen that the more complicated 
designs were formed in pieces and wrought in moulds. 
In general it is imperfectly baked, and inferior in 
strength either to the andent or modem pottery of 
Europe. A semi-barljarous element is also apparent in 
the frequent sacrifice of convenience and utility to gro- 
tesqueness of form, or ingenious trifling with the simplest 

* It flat ion iStg, (ft Cortex ap, LortntanOt o. 08. 


bwtf of acoiisti(:s. Suck characteristics coufimi the 
liouhtfl already 8Uggc55teil by other evitleucc as to the 
litoftj accuMcy of early SixiuLsh writers in their glowing 
pirturts of native in<lustrial and ornate arts. Nevcr- 
th«-le£», the contntst between the rude pottery made ])y 
the ^landaus of the North-west, or turned up on the 
iiit«*fl of northern Indian villages, and that which is 
fi»uiitl in the an<-ient sepulchres of Mexico, Central 
Anu'ric*a, and Peru, tndy illustnites the wide difference 
liftwii*n the nomades of th(? northern forest and those 
Datitius which {uirtook of the influences of a native-lK)m 
civilLsation umler Azter and lucii rule, notwithstand- 
ing the partial development of that civilisation, which 
(ortoH and Pizarro ru<lely tnKl out under the heels 
uf ronquerors more barbarous than the barbarians they 




In comparing the very diverse characters of Mexican 
and Peruvian civiKsation, we are equally struck with the 
parallels and the contrasts which they illustrate in the 
progress of man from primeval darkness to inteUectual 
life and light But in one respect the civilisation of the 
southern continent, as illustrated by its quipus — with 
all the help of amautas, or chroniclers of history, annal- 
ists, ami quipucamayus, or accountants and registrars, 
— must be regarded as immeasurably inferior to that 
hieroglyphic system which tantalizes the student of 
American antiquities by its suggestive mysteries, amid 
the sculptured niins of the older civilisiition of the 
north. Compared even to the picture-writing of the 
Aztecs, the Peruvian system of mnemonics exhibits a 
method of preserving and communicating information 
singularly devoid of the intellectual characteristics which 
pertain to eveiy other device of civilisation for a nation's 
chronifl(\s. It was essentially arbitraiy ; dependent 
entirely on tlie memoiy of those who employed and 
transmitted the ideas and images, which of itself it was 
incapable of embodying ; and, above all, it had within 
itself no germ of higher development, like the picture- 
writing or sculpturing of the Eg}'ptians, out of which 
grew, by natural progression, first ideography, and then 
the symbols of the phonetic analysis of speech : the rudi- 


t of all higher knnwletigt, and tlw indispemable 

of ititellevtnal progrpsfl. 

It ia cocufistent with the very nature of a highly 

drvdojKtl writti'D Iaiij,Tiage.tli;it the origin of its firet 

^emu of utlervd exprL-ssiou »hotJi.l be lotft among the 

vtgne ■haidt>W(i of ptimeval hisUtry, or prvscr\-e<l in 

Bijrtbic (nnlMNlinit'Ot in an ideal Thoth, Cadmwi, or 

Uermr^'. Tin* dijwovef}* of k-ttere apimBichf-a, iudwKl, 

m> Dear to the divint' gift of itpccch that I'lutan'h tf Ik un 

ia bin Ai hid€ et Outride^ when Thoth, thi; god of lut- 

tmm, 6nt nppeaml jm the mrth, the inhabitants of Egypt 

had BO Ungnage, Imt only utteiv<l the pri4.-9 of animals. 

Tiiey bad, at Imtl, no language with which to speak to 

•btr gaienanDA : and hence Bneon, pawiiug in Iuk rca- 

■■■tung heyond "that wherein tnan exrellelh U-asIjii" to 

t'laC imnidrtality vben-unio man's nature dotJi aH[<ire, 

(chini* : — " If the invention of the lUiip v/an tlimight ao 

[.' >hle, whiiJi larrieti) rii-Jioit and commiMlitiea from place 

'• plkce, and consociatfth the motit remote regionn in 

kin of their fruits : how much more arc letters 

which as sliips paatt through the vast 

!, and make ages so dtstjint to |wirlia|«ite of 

, illuminations, and invontioiiK, the out- of the 

Ttier**' Bat it is not altogether to be aw-riUHl to the 

' -nEetfulnMB by hiter generations of the benefactor to 

MhocD SO great a gift aa letten was due, that the origin 

iif writing ia ohscuri'ly eymbotizcd in m}-thic eharnetera. 

Tbe Eg}'ptian TbotL was in nudity no dcifie«) mortal, 

hot Xh'' I'ml-oiliment of an intclluctual triumph idowly 

ackicvM liy ihr i-ombtneil lalmun of many genenitious, 

1^^ tbi? HUrc..«ii^T steps in the pmgrew of whieh am 

^^■1 be difcfmed. 1'he origin of llie hierogU'}4iie8 vf 

^^hrpt m clearly traceable to the simplest and rude«t form 

^^rpirtiir*-writing, tl»e literal figuring of the objects de- 

' jl J r u iMwi w t iff t'nrntnj 


alphabetB of Phcenicia, Gree<-e, Rome, England : whereby 
- have not the verses of Homer continueil t\vent}'-five 
hun(ln*tl years or more, without the loss of a syllable or 
IfttiT : iluring which time infinite pilaees, temples, 
t-astles, cities have In^en dtH'ayeil and demolished?"* 

Wht-n wf turn fn»m the consideration of all the won- 
ilrnns intelKvtual progress which is associated with the 
lftt«-n» i>f Cadmus, t4> that other hemisphere which no 
ihjlitar^' ray of Gn*cian intellect and culture hel|)ed to 
illuiuinate, there is a charm of singidar inten*st in the 
tliAa»vcry that there, too, the human mind had followed 
tm thf vcr\' sfune {^ath in its struggle to emerge from 
lUrknisM int4) the light of civilis^ition. Longfellow, in 
hL4 «'mb<Hlimrnt of the Algoncpiin k^gends, represents 
Hiawatha mourning that all things fade and perish, even 
thr* gn-at tra^litions and achievements, from the memory 
••f the old mm :- 

** OrMit men flie and aiv forgotten. 

Wist* men ipMUc ; their wordi of m*iwli»ni 

IVri/ih in tbv cart that hfar them, 

\h* Hilt n>ai*h tbf p>neratt<»ns 

That as yet uiiUim, arv waiting 

In the (ovat myitenuu!* ilarknoM 

iH the •iv'eehlt'M dayii that nhall Im>." 

.Vud }M\ the Indian Cadmus, with his j>aints of divers^' 
rrjlnur», depicts, on the smiMjth binh-ltark, su(*h simpl«* 
fi^n-^i and syml>ols, as are now to Ik.' f(»und engraven on 
bundn-tis of nK-ks throughout tlu* North American ron 
tui«*ut : :uid an* in consUmt usr bv the fon*st Indian in 
t*hn»ni<*linir his own dn^ls on his butfaiik rob<% <»r nronl- 
inir lh«*M' of the dcce;is^*d chief on his gnive jMist. This 
I- a .'^implf pnKM'ss of pi« tun* willing, ivadily translat 
al>l*-. with ntMily itjual farility, into thr language «»f «'VtTy 
triU*. His diH^ds of daring :igainst Indians or wbit«* 
m«-fi. are indiratcd in his primitive art by the most «'h:t' 

' ISamn*s A*lramcrmfht uf L*arHiHtj 


lacteristie costumes and weapons of each. Headless 
figures are the symbols of the dead, scalps represent his 
own special victims : and in like manner his feats against 
the buffalo, or grizzly bear, are recorded in graphic depic- 
tions, as intelligible to the Indians as any chronicle or 
monumental inscription of ancient or modem times. The 
totem of the tribe, and the name of each member of it, 
can in like manner be pictorially represented. An Indian 
signs his name in any written transaction with white 
men, by sketching his own adopted symbol, the eagle, 
bear, snake, or buffalo; the pine-tree, pumpkin, arrow, 
etc., sometimes adding thereto the totem of his tribe. 
Mr. Schoolcnift has engraved a census of a band of 
Chippewa Indians in the Minnesota Territory, number- 
ing in all one hundred and eight souls drawn up in an 
intelligible form, and rendered to the United States 
agent by Nagonabe, a Chippewa cliief Each family is 
denoted by a picture of the object expressive of their 
common or current name. Some of thei^^ are simple, 
such as a beaver-skin, an axe, a cat-fish ; but others re- 
quii-e the Indian intei'preters aid. An ovjU, coloured 
brown, with a crescent line drawn through it, represents 
a valley, the name of the nKister of the wigwam ; a 
yellow circle, with eyes, and radiating lines, is the sun ; 
and a human bust, \N4th the hair in loose locks, is de- 
scribed txs "easily recognised as the chief possessing 
sacerdotal authority." Added to each symbol, are a 
series of units, simple as those on the Kosetta stone, in- 
dicating the numl>er in the family ; and to the Indian 
agent, already familiar with the band and the names of 
its individual members, the whole formed a census-roll 
as intelligible as any regular return, in writing and 
Arabic numerals, could have been.* This system of 
writing includes well-recognised symbols for the Great 

1 m^tor'j of (hi Iniliun Trlb^^ of th*t United StatfM, vol. ii. p. 222. 


>[iinl mil mnuj tnfcrii>r objecte of worehip or suiwniti- 
■ ti". Rv. rvri' ■ . 'ITk* son, the moon, lightning, raiu, the 
;!i' -K.. life ami dent J), have all their upproprinlv 
' >.-t> iiuL'" . '>ii<i ihiiH tlie nvlf Iiidiau lias developed for 
htmn-lf thf v<-ry vAOiv oicaiis of idcogmphio inscription 
a* lit- At the nj«t of the whole hientglyphic uwl demotic 
vntiojg; of Eg>'pt, with it^ phouetie alphjdiet, uud ult the 
!.>:rr tniun{>h9 of h^ttvm lnii-u»l>U> lo that soun-(-. Morv- 
■ er, bis wht^e tnodv of thought is earrit.-d «iut under a 
[•nM«9M of iirinl»'>ti><in, nmlily tniDslataldu into pirture- 
vnting ; and wh<'n tjie Indian!) arc gathered in the 
D^agfahmriitKHl I >f white settlcnicnts or trading-|K»»ts, each 
• ■i the wliiii- men ftjK-L-<Uly Inwonies known hy an In<.iiun 
umii-tiniiM m-iri.- pi>int<-illy dialiurtive than tlat- 
, t(/^ cr\>i'k«ti-piui-, I'liuipkin-lhelly, or lame duck, 
i Bodc of duiL-nptive buniiiUR-^ irt cummou lu all 
! pvuple, ami uidti->i rsurvivi'^ in a much lati-r 
leD in our Mulciilm Caumun:, Willtam Rufus, 
i MwHid Longsbuiks. It appeaU to the Kanie ani- 

i afifSQciaCum of anociated idtMs, out of whicii grow 

*1k fiunily cn«t«, rcUuea, and canting bcraldry of uiedi- 
---«l Eimtpe. 

The picture- writing of Uut Axtuc*, tJiough grcatJy 

jspvoved iu executiun, and MmpU6cd by many aUvc- 

-I tataoua, was utill tbu «atuc iu {uinciplv m tJie rude art 

' ''-■ t' :u Indiana. When Cortw* held his finrt 

[ lif cmuffianw) of Mnnt^JEumn, he olwrreal 

I- i.'litnlB of TeuhtHle, the chief Axtcc ni>bte. 

bttulj aketching on canvaa the >Spanianbs their peculiar 

m^mwa and anna, their haraea and ahiiww The idtill 

vilJl vbich evMT objort vaa delineated excited the 

A-lmiimtaon of the SpaninrdB ; and by such meanK a vivid 

--pan of an that [>crtained In tbc fltrango invndtim nf 

-JM docniiiioiia vas tnauiniitted to tho Altec aovemgn. 

iku bmrwsr greatly Rapetkr tlu ezecatioii of thia Axfeoc 


report might be, it was manifestly no advance on the 
principle of Indian picture-writing; nor can we be in 
much doubt as to its style of execution, since Lord Kings- 
borough's elaborate work furnishes so many fEU^-similes 
of nearly contemporary Mexican drawings. In the ma- 
jority of these, the totemic symbols, and the representa- 
tions of individuals by means of their animal or other 
cognomens, are abundantly apparent. The figures are 
for the most part grotesque and monstrous, from the 
very necessity of giving predominance to the special 
feature in which the symbol is embodied. To the gene- 
ration for which such were produced, the connexion 
between the sign and tlie pej-son or thing signified would 
be abundantly manifest Each nation and every age 
have their recognisetl symbols and abbreviations, which 
need for them no interpretation ; but a very brief in- 
terval suffices to render them imintelligible, and within 
less than a century after the Conquest, Do Alva could 
not find more than two sui-viving Mexicans, both very 
aged, capable of interpreting this Aztec literature. It 
was, in truth, only a system of mnemonics, superior to 
the quipus of the Peruvians, but still mainly dependent 
on memory and an arbitrary association of ideas ; and 
thereby suggesting to the initiated what no literal inter- 
pretation could deduce from them. Such associated 
ideas when once lost are for the most part irrecoverable, 
and it does not seem probable that the art of deciphering 
the picture-writings of Mexico will ever be carried much 
further than it has been ; or indeed, that the majority of 
its records would be found to cmlH)dy any new or im- 
portant fact. Attempts have indeed been made to apply 
the Mexican language to its symbols in the same way 
that the Coptic has proved the key to the phonetic signs 
of the Eg}^tian writing. But the process is to a great 
extent one of self-deception. A writer in the Foreign 


[ffHy /fmnr, rpoMrkH : " Tho phonetic i^-stcm of the 

I is totcUigiblc at the first plmivc Tho sotmds 

[ to be conveyed I»y tho BvmboU ait conveywi 

~ r •nd herakliciUIy. Tbo djuik* c«mmon uwn 

I day unong the American aborigine, such aa wtttf, 
gnat bear* tattirtBiakev etc. aie rcpTustmttxl liy crcstJi 
radefy fiinhinniag tho Mine oniina] fonn, which surmount 
tfce hdmeti of their wnrrion and the diadems nf thi^ir 
The head uf a Toltocau king apinmnt otoug with 
s snilptaiv<l in the p^-nunidol tower uf I'aienque. 
Over it is (ho name tnaeriliod, in an oblong piionetic 
mctangle, cumwpaiidiDg lu the Eg^fitian caHouchv. The 
OBBu u Acatla-Potxin. It is composed of two wonb ; 
tbe fint imphes retd*, the other hand. The Hymbol of 
rtedM, therefuR, and the Bymbol of a hand, convey tho 
•owmI of the name Acatla- FotziD.'" 

Supfwsiiig this reading to be correct, what does the 
TtaAtx oooiretve ho ba^ gained by it, in the absence of 
oD kwnm hiirtory of any Toitocan or Axttx king Acatk- 
PoUm, that wouhl not he cijually plain if he calleil 
Um King Rced-hnnd : m we have 1£«1 Jacket, Bhick 
Hsvk. and other vo]|-kno«'n Indiin rhiefit? It ih abun- 
4Hitly manifest thnt neither in the northern Indinn, 
■v ID the Aatee pictiue^writio^ did the symbol or 
lettn poaeM any phtmetic valoe^ strictly speaking. A 
jTiv"*-' blaet havt was not the visual cqui%^ent of tho 
mmkI of the Indian words in the Sac or Pottawatomie 
iliilut of Bbck Hawk's tritie, but of the chief known 
h^ that nami.-, in any of itx trouslntions ; juMt as the 
pH<aic br>tu;'bt by Moutezunui'Et scout wiu meant u -a 
Rpnaeotatiim (if the SpaniiUi leadir, and not a pboDutic 
•^mbol of the wopIa Fernando CVirt^a. Whilst, there- 
for, ihm name of the fertile rvgion of TlnscaUt ih- T/cuv 

I, " the place of tiread," or of the Tea-ucoa chief 


Nezahualoajfotl, '' the hungiy fox,'' might be represented 
by objects^ which, united togedier according to the 
Mexican vocabulary, coniEttitated a rebus of the names : 
it is a confusion of terms to call such representations of 
familiar objects phonetic signs or symbols of sounds. 
As civilisation advanced, however, many signs were in- 
troduced as fifymbols of ideas ; and hence involved the 
germs of a word-alphabet, like the Chinese. Thus^ 
footprints denoted migration, or travelling ; a tongue, 
speaidng, or life ; and a bloody heart, sacrifice ; but 
in these the very tendency of such advancement was 
in an opposite direction from any phonetic system, 
such as the assumed interpretation of the Palenque 
sculpture points to. But if the Toltec and Aztec 
systems of writing bore any affinity to each other, 
it is quite as probable that Ae hieroglyphic first le- 
ferred to was a date instead of a name. A reed 
was one of the four signs of the Aztec year, and 
a bundle of reeds the symbol of a cycle of fifty-two 
years^ within which the calendar was rectified to 
true solar measurement by the addition of thirteen 
days. The latter symbol accordingly preceded each 
sign of a year relating to certain subdivisions of time 
in the calendai*. Humboldt does indeed supply a 
reading somewhat similar to that suggested by the re- 
viewer. After noting that in all Mexican paintings the 
objects tied to a head indicate the names of the persons 
drawn, he adds : ** ChimcUpopoca signifies a buckler 
that smokes ; Acamapitzin^ a hand that holds reeds. 
Thus, to indicate the names of these two kings^ prede- 
cessors of Montezuma, the Mexicans painted a buckler 
and a fist tied by a thread to two heads ornamented 
with a royal fillet. '' And he adds in illustration, that 
the native pictm-e- writers indicated in like manner the 
name of the valiant Pedro Alvarado by drawing two 


\, in alloiiion to thv Veyn of dt Fitter figured ou liia 
But thtM liniitccl to uumus whidi wur*.- thvm- 

ributive or syiulwlic, «uch jiicturc-w ritiug wuk 
phouetic writing tbiti the heraltlic jxtdlock 

' of the UfchhartA, or the dov and hell of thu 

It ifl in the figunw t-mpluyed in the rhronology of 
tbit AxtecD that wu lind the highest dt>velopmvnt uf 
llMir sytteui uf writing, uud tfat^re the symbolic char- 
ieta* of tkue aigUK \a niuuiHtAkuble. Ilieir foiir symltoln 
df iW year, n mbbii, rcrd, flint, uud howatr. were efjiiiva- 
IhiI Ui the ogiu of th(! fciur ek-ucotK : a eurrespoadcnce 
lo the syMrta itf ayialitjlM iu Uitc iu thtr i^udur of the 
f^"**', .lo|iaUi«c, and iithur Asiatic uutiuiu dwelt u[k>u 
fay Htunbtjldt, ua uue of the iiiuiiy tmet-K uf thu A^tk- 
Mi^in of Atavrican (ivilisatiuo u|i|iun-ut tu hiu lu the 
Aztec chnitHiIitg]'. Again, then- wrre tweuty sigiut tjf 
Ihe (Uy*. intJuding tt n-}>etitii>D of thuHc of the yciir, iu 
■ mmmuiT lliAt uhnittoil uf ua ingenious indication uf 
tho ubdivisioiw oi mouths into weeks of five dayn, hut 
vhieh leenis wholly iucumjKiliMe with luiy ide^i of plio- 
mtic wihing of the umutM of the duya. Hie |>n>ei-tt< 
«w oUher the revente, the uauie of thi- sigii lieiug 
mplajed ftir the day, as in our own uiuuett fur the day» 
opft^ week. 

The imjiortam evideuei* of the chsnicter nud extent 
«£ iIk civiliBution of thu Aztei-s, whether original ur 
korxDWcd from their Tult(« pn-decesaons which in fur-. 
uiic«l )iy tht'ir mcanurement of time, and the conKtruc- 
tkio of ihcir ■■alcodiir, hais Iki-u so largely dwdt upon 
\0j Hiuul><>l<lt iM to render a mere referpnee lo it tuillt- 
rimL. By ttw umwiud nxiilts of nntive w-ieti(!e, they 
hvl cflectnl so Bccunilc »n adjuiitnicnt nf <-ivil to twiUr 
t when the Euri>peauA fint laadnl in Mexino. 

MtrriM. UmL IBI4. vtd I f. Ml. 


their reckoniog, according to the unrefonned Julian 
calendar, was nearly eleven days in error, compared with 
that of the barbaiian nation whose civilisation they so 
speedily extinguished. In the construction of their 
calendar the four symbols of the year marked each 
of the four subdivisions of the great cycle of fifiy-two 
years : the annual portions of which were expressed by 
a series of dots^ from one to thirteen, and beyond tliMB 
first subdivision, by a change of the symbol, and a 
repetition of the dots associated with a second line of 
these simple arithmetical signs. A bundle of reeds, 
indicating a group of years^ was the sign of the com- 
pleted cycle, and in association with the year-sign, 
marked the half-centuries in the calendar. By such 
combinations a periodical series of conjunct signs ad- 
mitted of the construction of the whole chronological 
table with a very few symbols, and numerals, employed 
in a manner that seems to involve the germ of that value 
of position by which the modem European system of 
arithmetic is specially distinguished. 

The system of notation in the arithmetic of the Aztecs 
may also properly come under notice along with their 
writing. Like that of nearly all other nations^ it was 
essentially decimal, or more strictly, vigesimaL The 
first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding 
series of dots: There were separate names for the first 
five, and for ton, fifteen, and twenty, the last of which 
had its special sign of a Jloig. Intermediate numbers 
were written like the Roman numerals, five and one 
being six, five and two seven ; and in addition to those 
signs and combinations, four hundred, the square of 
twenty, was marked by a plumCy and eight thousand, 
the cube of twenty, by a purse. The latter signs, halved 
or quartered, were sometimes used to indicate corre- 
sponding fractions of the sums ; and by this means. 


lu it may seem, the Mcxtrjuu vrere aUe to 
9 Miy uumvriciii t[UBatit>*, and to work out nrith- 
I ciiIr-uUitioii!4 with ciisc. Wi* thun wc that the 
lDp(t>Ht of nil arhitnuy KJgnn KufBct^l fi>r th^ 
1 of miUilion lievimsl hy thy Aztt^rts witli only the 
J of the tiag, plume, and parse : symbols, and not 
I : thoiigli U80*] ill designation like our own 
Tbey may suffice to remind us that in 
rfuct fiystem of notation we still employ a 
*ef aiUtnry Hgos et^tentially imphonetic ; for 
' tbo Roman or Arabic nuuuTals are employed, 
t the idea of numlHTtt t>uly, and are tnuid- 
al propriety into the etjuivident sounds of 
; in wlw^h they are employed. 
a baa stilt, Iteyond this a higher system of 
, miii¥> eiirrvctly stylol hicrogl\']>hics, to which 
s ban bcvD olrauly madi^ iu alluding to the in- 
I of the wuIptunM of Paiuuquo. On the 
I tnliletn of C'a[ian, Quirigoa, Chichenitza, and 
, M well aa ou the cnliissiij statues nt Copan 
> tmA oUuT niK-ii'-at sites in Central America, gn>u{« of 
besvigK-jihi'- d-'viosa oucor, amnge^i in |»erjK>uiliculiir or 
otal n3W4 na (vgolarly na the letters of nny ani-'ii>nt 
fMwiiTn imwription. Ilie analogies to Egypliaa hicru- 
" \ »iK givat, fur all the figures cmU<dy more or 
riy defined rvjir^'i^'ntations of objects in nature 
But the diflltvnces are no 1cm etcu-uttal, and 
1 to doubt thut, iu those eolumn^ of srul|t- 
i ^mbok wu witness the liigbest developmvtil t<> 
pectiiiv>writitig attained, iu the prognMs of ihni 
I Antprican utilisation so singnUrly iUustra- 
the iutelkt-'tual unity which liimU ttigcther the 
tutxm of num. A [lortion of tbc hii-n>glyphic 
jtioti which aiTompauiea the remurkalile Palemiue 
•»f fi fiyun* ofit-riiifi what ha» l»-<>n asmimed to 

wxi THE /.vreiLBrrrAi /xst/.vct lettehs. isa 

thf meuiii^ of tlic prinuir)' monofiyUahles surviving 

• ill'ln*' {ragmentH in tlie vooubulpries of living lan- 

The principal figure, which might be descril>ed 

11. reappwim in combination with a human pro- 

:• fifth line ; ngaia, nlightly mo<:iifiod, in another 

Tii-n, at the emi of the same line ; and twice, if 

- ' [>■- timcA, in the lini- below, fti carefully com- 


{ kll th<' examples of pmeJi bu^roglypliie inAcnptioiui 
> puUinbcd, the like rr-combinationft of the neveiml 
■llMent* of tlctachc] figures are <let4>cte(l ; while, lUt 
MOB is the Lut lini- of ttm exiiinph> given alMA'e, imxii 
mtmaX vgni, ck«p|y correapomliDg lo European alpha- 
latoc fignm occur, in union with hieroglyphic grou|)fli,.J 
bit, while tb<! recurrence of the name idgiu), uid i ' 
of gmapH uQt of die detached membi 
^ deariy indicatfi a vrittca hingnage. luid not a 


MiiitH pictorial suggestion of associated ideas, like the 
M'rxican picture-writing, it is not alphabetic writing. 
In the m^^t complicated tablet of African hieroglyphics^ 
itni'Xi objec't ift distinct, and its representative significance 
j« rarely difficult to trace. But the majority of the 
hierogl}ijhic8 of Palenque or Copan appear as if con- 
structed on the same polysynthetic principle which gives 
the ]x^culiar and distinctive character to the languages 
of the New World. This is still more apparent when 
we timi to the highly elaborated inscriptions on the 
colossal figures of Copan, illustrated on a subsequent 
l>agc. In these all ideas of fdniplo phonetic signs utterly 
disiippear. Like the }m7uilr^wivrcls< as they have been 
called, of the Amcwwoi ^Ktuj!tiixs*i^ :i.-oy seem each to be 
compounded of a ?«w>xc d ;:«iu:*?> of the primary sym- 
bols used in jiii<»r*w-wj:idja^. wiiile the pictorial origin 
of the whole >*iv*vuw5> ckdriy apparent. In comparing 
these minutfty v;iaix»raced characters with those on the 
tiibles, it i^ v?o*ioiJis^ that a system of abbreviiUion is 
emplor<x3 "Si uii^ latter ; and thus each gn>up appears 
with tJ>^ j:riU5iej: prohabilitj' to partiike of that peculiar 
chamcuctiNiL': ol the whole grammatical structure of 
AmerkfAXt ii:tguage, as shown in its word-sontence& 
The pl-u^ ^>f thought of the .Vmerican languages is con- 
crete, while certain euphonic laws lead to the dropping 
of jiortions of the words compounded together, in a 
manner exceedingly puzzling to the grammarian. By 
the same compounding process, new words are formed, 
as in the -tVlgonquin s/wminatiho, wine, /.e., sho, a grape, 
miw, a berry, auho, liquor; ozhehief/unauhOy ink, t.t'., 
Cttheta, a prefix signifying to prepare to do, or act ; 
ntndozJieta, I prepare to do ; ozhebiegade, a writer ; 
whence ozJiehiegai, he writes; and aubOy liquor. The 
*^tter, like all abstract terms, is only used in compound 
^ords, as ishkodahcxiubo, fire-liquid, or whisky. The* 


I word for wnter is nebresh. 8n lUso mahihtlatv- 

I, a priest, orclcrpymnn, i.e., mnhhiluta, black ; 

nwAyo, lie w m drr'Srtud, thu person who dresses iu 

. el*:. fVn Aiiiiliigoua prtxe-ss tteeuis dimly dis- 

.' in UiL- atj)in;viai<.-d oouijtouDd cliaracters of ttiu 

iqne inscriptiua But if the inference be correct, 

' itacif Would serve to indicate that the CVutral 

1 biurogly^iUics are not used as phonetic, or pure 

igDS ; and Uiis idea receives more certain 

frum the extreme rarity with which thu 

> tvcara. 

plious inimot, however, be confounded 

\ the Ifi-xicau pirture-writingtt, by any one who at- 

\ an inteUigenl conipari«>n of the two. In the 

^aa in a pietun-, the eye w-arches for the most pro- 

iturett of tliu iileogmphie picturing, and LUt«r- 

B various (Kirtfl na independent niemlKTs of one 

Btution. But the l^alemjue inscriptions have all 

wrteristicd of a written hinguagc In a matured 

fc of development, Tliey ap|)ear to be read in hori- 

\, awl from left to right ; for the gniups on 

I Palemiue tablets begin with a large tiieroglvpliie 

I left-hand eorner; and tin- Ir'ft liand iigure for 

) tiiereafter occupies a doaUe space on the 

gh it were etjuivalent tn the use of capitaht in 

jiing of the lines in versa It is further notice- 

t in the frequent occunvoce of human and luumal 

t UBoog the sculptured choinctera they invariably 

It feuwatdii the left ; an indication, as it appears to mo, 

r of the lines being read horizontally from left to 

, but alao that they are the graven inseriptiomt of o 

|in>ple, who were accastonuxl to write with the 

: ciuunrtcn ou {Hiper or skine. Indeeil, the pictorial 

k ou the Copan Btatnes seem to bo the true hioro- 

eehametera ; while the Palo&iuc inscriptions show 



Be s m- 
be ^^H 

tJie abbreviated hieratir writing. To tlie sculptor liir 
directioQ of the rhamcteiu was a matter of no mom«.-n t : 
but if the scribe held his pen, or style, in his right haii-l, 
like the modem clerk, he woidd as naturally draw tii 
left profile as we slope our current hand to the righl. 

The enteq)ri3ing traveller, to whose researches we owe 
BO much of all the knowledge yet acquired of those sin- 
gularly interesting evidences of the intellectual progi 
of an ancient American people, dwells with fond i&v* 
on the idea he latterly adopted, that the ruins be i 
plored were of no very remote date ; because he felt 
the nearer he could bring the builders of those cities ti> 
our own times, the greater is our chance of recoverinL: 
the key to their huiguage and the inscriptions in whi< ' 
their history now lies entomlted. Palenque, it cannot i" 
doubted, was a desolate ruin at the date of the Conquest. 
Backward behind the em of Europe's first knowledge of 
the New World, we hitve to grope our way to that age 
in which living meu read its gmven tablets, and spoke 
the language in which they are inscribed ; yet other 
cities 8ur\'ive to share in the later desolation of the 
Conquest, and Stephens thus sanguinely records his 
latest cherished hopes : " Throughout tbe countrj- the 
convents are rich in manuscripts and documents wTit- 
ten by the early fathers, caciques, and Indians, who 
very soon acquired the knowledge of Spanish 
the art of writing. These have never been exam 
with the slightest reference to this subject ; and ] 
not help thinking that some pnvious memorial is i 
mouldering in the hbi-ary of a neighbouring cx>nvd 

which would determine the histoiy of some one of t' 

ruiuetl cities ; mnreover, I cannot help believing tliat the 
tablets of hierogljithics will yet !»■ read. No strong 
curiosity has hitherto lu^en <Urected to them : vigour a 
iiculeness of intellect, knowledge and learning, 1 

18, who 
ah ai^^ 

is n^H 



(•^-n expeti'Iitl upon Uicm. For centuries the hierogly- 
I>hiui of Egir7>t were inscrntAble, and thongh not perhapn 
m our tluy, I foel ])ersua(le(l tiiat a key surer titan thiU 
■ ■f the K<NK.'tm Stone, will lie discoventl. Ami if only 
ififii- 'vuturicB have eliifwed HiQoe any odc of (ho«c un- 
kri..uii citiea wtui iuhabilt'd, the mix' of (Im iiihiibitautM 
ii ri.'t i>xtin<'t. TVir di^ccmknte arv Ktill in the laud, 
waHteml perlinpft, and nrtin'd like our own Indians, into 
wiMenieNWM which havi' never yt-t been penetrutal by n 
vhitc tnim. Init not l<Mt : living a^ their futhorH did, 
ftrrtin^ the mine Imildiiigx of lime and Htone, witli or- 
tutmt-Tits of wulfiture and plaster, Lii^e cnurtx and lofty 
loverM with high rnngen of nte{m, and fltill carving on 
tftifti'tA of Rtnne the sjinie myati'rioiis hi(Togly])hica ; and 
if, ill conHtderation that I have not often indulged in 
tive mnjectare, the reader will allow one flight : 
1 tn Ihnt rsfit and nnknown region, untraversed by 
pit- poivl, wherein fancy picture* that myaterious 
, awn fnim the t^iptnoat ningo of the ('nrdilli'niH, of unvifiited, and unsought alKtriginal itdia- 
." It is iudewl a fnAciuating dreani, but lettered 
. do not ilwell a[»irt through long renturiei*, hidden 
I tile untrovi'lled wildeniinn of so narrow a conti- 
It may imlirol l»e that the tablets of Palen(|ue 
yet Iw nouJ, but it will l)e by no mysterious 
Bee of the lettere<i deseendauts of llieir xeulp 
I the ffhndowrt of that unexplored forest which 
I Iwtween the Coniillenw and the ('aribl«eau Sea. 
I the wnipler elenieutH of the graven diaraeterH 
* we hive seen, to admit of re-amingement into 
lup", like ihe ulplmlietie elements of our writt<'n 
ite<l wtinK I khon of the Bgurps are also simple, 
ntiug a human or animal profile^ a shiekl or errs- 
f but «»liieni are highly eomplicatwl, and defy any 
I At intclligil'h^ lnteq)retation of their repn-sent- 


ative or symbolic significance. They are no crude 
abbreviations, like the symbols either of Indian or Aztec 
picturc-wiiting ; but rather suggest the idea of a matured 
system of ideography in its last transitional stage, before 
becoming a word-alphabet like that of the Chinese at the 
present day. Such I conceive it in a less simple condi- 
tion actually to liave been : a holoplurastic or word- 
sentence alphabet ; and, as such, a uniformity of hiero- 
glyi)hics may have been compatible with the existence 
of diverse dialects throughout the extensive region in 
which they were used. If, however, any single li^dng 
language is calculated to aid in the attempt to solve this 
great riddle of the American sphinx, it is not to the 
Mexican, but to the Maya language that the imagination 
turns for expected aid : that language still believed to be 
spoken by the Candones, or unbaptized Indians^ of the 
ivgion of the mysterious city seen by the Cura of Quiche, 
from the lofty summit of the Sierra. 

The elabomtoly sculptured colossal figures already re- 
fonvd to, found on various sites, but chiefly at Copan, 
aiv oovoivd on the back, and in some cases also on the 
sidos, with rows of hierogl}'pliics executed with a minute- 
iioss of iletail, compared with wliicli those on the tablets 
of raK'iKpie appear as mere demotic characters. But 
the olal>oratoness of their execution only increases the 
mystery of their significance, and confirms the conviction 
that so far from their having auy phonetic value, either 
of primary radical sounds, or of simple words, each 
hieri>glyphic embraces the abbreviated depiction or sym- 
bolism of a complete sentence. Fig. 44 represents the 
back of one of the colossal idols at Copan, sculptmtxl 
with a succession of liierogl}iiliics in double columns. 
Kich compirtment contiiins human figures, sometimes 
curiously grouped together, and as grotesciue and dis- 
pro]>ortioned as those of the Mexican picture-writing. 

lia FREHI8T0EIC MAX. [Cbaf. 

They are marked also by great variety in dress and 
ornaments ; but the mythic significance only becomes 
the more obscure to us by the minuter details of its 
characters in this example. On the back of another of 
the Copan idols^ the hieroglyphic characters^ though more 
elaborate, closely resemble those of Palenque. 

In tracing the natural progress of a natire American 
system of writing through so many successive stages^ 
horn the primary and in&ntile condition of the rude 
Indian's birch-bark paintings to the most advanced 
stage of letters short of true alphabetic characters and 
phonetic signs, it is impossible to overlook the evidence 
thus afforded of the great lapse of time which is thereby 
implied. The Chinese, whose civilisation and arts pre- 
sent so many points of resemblance to those of the New 
World, had advanced little, if at all, beyond the same 
stage in their system of writing, with its two hundred 
and fourteen hieroglyphic characters^ when they paused, 
and left to more favoured races the simpler vehicles of 
written thought. But by this arresting of their intel- 
lectual development at the stage of symbolized ideas 
instead of radical soimds, they possess a series of written 
chai-acters which are employed "wiXh equal facility in 
Cochin-China, Japan, Loo-Choo, Chorea, and in China 
itself, for expressing the words of languages mutually 
imintelligible. In this there is no analogy to the com- 
mon use of the Roman alphabet among so many of the 
nations of Europe ; but in our simple Arabic, or even 
in the Roman numerals, we have an apt illustration of 
\>rritten characters representing ideas, entirely independ- 
ent of specific words or sounds. Thus 20 equally sig- 
nifies vigintiy ventiy vingt^ or twenty; and when we 
write Louis xiv., it may be read with equal correctness^ 
Louis the fourteenth, or Louis quatorze. In reaUty, 
however, the analogy is greater when we compare the 



IniUc writing of tlf^it with tiit; supposed graven Htgux 
1 the tablets of Palemjiie ; trnd tlip 
"l donbtleis* depeudfd for it» pr«- 
1, HUcL ua no mere pUUoloj;ical 
ootUd euable us to i-ccover. A singlo 
iUntnlioD of this will miflicu. On the wall of the 
natple of PhiJus »t the fir«t cataract of ih*: Nile, tlie 
nuM headed gud Kaeph is reprcseut^^d seutod, uud at 
wt)tk cm ■ potter's whce], with a group of liiiiruglyphiia 
■■v«t hill buul, whioh have \nmn thus trunalatotL Mr. 
' "'jrgc R Gliddou, adopting tho vumon of Dr. W. C 
.jylor. rwubi thus; " Kuuni the tVeator, on his wheel, 
■otUtlM the diviiiv luembvnt of Oiurl» (the tyjie of 
n) iu thi- aUiniug houM- of life, or the eioUr disk."' 
, Birch of the Britixli ]^Iu»uum furnishes ttiis very 
t nmdiug of thu aunic hivrogl^'phie inscription : 
1 Totonem, tlic father of lieginnings, is setting m 
I the egg of thu nun and moon, director of the 
■ of the up|>er world."* Without the jtictoria] symlx)! 
F th« diviuc mm-headcd potter, significiuit to nil eyes, 
~il may to dnuhlu] if the two readings would have even 
pwtn ltfd such Klight eom»iH>udeUCc (is they do. It ia 
■Dl, therofon-s witJiout renaou that PreHcott, after com- 
[ cm Uie PiUt;uiiue writing us exhibiting an a<l- 
1 stage of the art, with little indications of anything 
the common ulcnu'iits uf ttueh writing to 
it witli Egj'plian hieroglj'jduf.-a, addtt : " That 
ftaqF*teiioDS import will ever be deciphered ia senrccly 
The language of the race who employed 
B itaelf, IB unknown. And it is nut likely tluit 
tetta Stuue will be found wlUi lU trilingual 
. to supply tlie means of comparison, and to 
gaoAt tiie Americuji i'hiuii|N>lUon iu the patli of dlwovery." 




Among the examjJes of ancient picture-writing illns- 
tnitful in Lord Kiu(i:s}K»ronorh'6 elaborate work on Mexican 
iintiquitieffy the most curioas of all is the Dresden codex, 
to wliich Presc^tt directs special attention as bearing 
w^arcel y any traces of a common origin with the highly 
cijoure^l and fantastir- picturings of the Aztec manu- 
wripts. The figures of objects, though delicately drawn, 
fnMjueutly consist of arbitrary or nondescript designs^ 
and as Prescott says, "are possibly phonetic. Their 

Fin. 4i, Hit'n»-e:lyphic Writing. 

ri'^juhir iiiTang(»ment is quite equal to the Egyptian. 
Till' whole infers a much higher civilisation than the 
A/trf, iind oHi»rH abundant food for curious speculation/' 
Many of (luMn an», indood, pictorial representations ac- 
foni|Minu»d by lnero{j;lyphic charactei-s an'anged in lines, 
MH (liou^ii eons! i luting a written commentary or descrip- 
tion acMMMnpanied with numerical notation, and certainly 
Mii^Kt'st a reseniblanei* to the Palenque hieroglyphicij 
whieh is totally wanting in the Mexican paintings. Nor 
irt there any ini|>n>bability in the supposition that the 


I of a btgh(-r Tolteu civilisation sarvivod, and cxcr- 
ita amelioradag influences on tiie tierce Aztec 
In the occoiiipnnyiDg iUustratiou (Fig. 45), 
I froai Lord Kingslwrou^li's version of the Dreadt-n 
•odcz. it M-cnu in no degree invconeilablo with tltu 
tnos of a tiiglier antiquity in the ruuiod oitivs of 
_Ctiiti«l Ami^rico, that we bavu liuru an exiimplu of the 
Hen riuLRicUira wluch figiiru on thv sculptured tablets 
r PaJeo<|Utu 

iVim|«uv<i witb the bieroglypbic writing of ancient 
ntral Auii'riwi. or evun tbe ruder pictun;- writing of 
t AjUecs. tUe Peruvian »cienc« of the quipu« was a 
litive and borhnrous milistituto. Tbe word 
Ealgiiifiwi a knot : and tbe quipu ia use for re- 
\ fiKbv or committing ideas to 8ufe keeping for 
ion to future genenitina^. consi«Uil of a cunl of 
Ji flefcnt-colourwi istriAgH. to which a nuuiU-r of other 
atta<^*<l. dttttinguiahed by their culoura. 
• specific id«*a8 wetv asuociatoi!. Thus yvllme 
\ goU and nil tbe allieil idean ; vhiie, silver or 
r or iioldiers ; 71-1^11. maize or agrirulturc, 
I «u*fa quipu wofl in the care of ita own Quipn- 
0or keeper, by whom its reconU were interprettHl 
F'VIJ doubtful case. Upon tJie conls tbe requinilo 
r of kniibt wen> madu, and when used for arith- 
l |Nirpoflt!s, they could lio combined to ^'present 
I of numb<!nv ami were used in difiiinUt com- 
wilh great fiu;ility. In their arithmelical 
iyi*SB a iun^Ie kudt meant fca ; two nnglo knots 
togrthft, tuYutf : a knot doubleil and iutcrtwiiiL-d. mw. 
«/ ; inplfd after tbe same fa'Oiion, one thoumnd ; 
, by tbe uuion of two or mon,* of suiJi, two huintmi, 
antl, etc The colour, tbe mode of inturtwiuuig 
k tbe tviflt of the conl, the distance of the knut 
I cofd. or uf tbe several knots from each 


ol&er, had each a ^lecial ^uificanee, mduspeDsaUa i 
the proper interpretadoa of the qiiipu. By i 
flach reconls, weB-trained oflScials kept ivgUters of the 
oensas and military rolls, uc-counts uf the re^'enues, and 
macb other important statistical infomiatiut). Each 
province had its owu rt^gistrais, with varj-ing details 
suited to the speiuaiities of their district, its form of 
tribute, or the oatore of its miuera), pastoral, or agrical- 
tnral resources ; and the interpretation of the national 
quijius required the aid of registrars from many remote 
provint.'es. Annalists, chroniclers, genealogists, and poets 
were all itained to transmit by oral trudiciou the chain 
of facta or ideas associated witli the urbitniry siga-' • i 
the quipus, and hy the like means informatiou of evti 
kind was perpetuatol. Acosta mentions that he saw 
woumn with » handful of knotted strings of divtt 
colours, which she said contained a general coufee 
of her life. \Yith the fall of Monleziiuia'a empire, i 
picture-writings were abandoned to the same fate as the 
Arabic manuscripts of Granada, and only a few imperfect 
fragments or chance copies have siirFived to reflect the 
ingenuity and determine the progress of Aztec culture. 
Bnt the rude system of the Peni\'i;m quipu jterished with 
ita keepers ; and a fragment of pottery, or the masonry 
of a mined roadway station, is more eloquent for us 
than all the many-coloured and knotted registers of the 
Incas could l>e. But in another respect, the quipus of 
the Peruvians have a singular iutei-est for us, for it is 
impossible to overlook the remarkable correspoudcuce 
between them and the wampum in use by the Americuu 
Indians for a similar purpose. Boturiui, indeed, dis- 
covered a sperimeo of the quipu in TIascala, which ImhI 
nearly fallen to pieces with ago ; and both M'Cullm'h 
and Preficott only reject his inference that the oncieiUu 
Mcxicana were acquainted with the Peruvian mode i 

nirp. il»-" 


; ev«mbs by oMUtuing tbe Tlaacalaa quijm t^^ 
I Mt iDdian wampum t>e[L But altogoiher 
I thift Bttlimty specimen, the close fiorrespond- 
weeD the IVnivian qiiipUM and iha ludiaii wom- 
1 lirJu, And llifir une in abnost precisely rht.- same 
way fiir il>i- puqx** of i\^;i8teriug evuul^ pn'wnt mm- 
_dAtsuKi t<Ki n.*inatkalilo Ui be hastily luunmied u» mer? 
ntal n»eral>laii(t!a. Nor ix uur vouder diminished, 
i iMinu! ia n'meiuhrauce tliot llie wanipuiu belt 
I Kurti) Ameriran Indian aeem» to n-prodace the 
f mucioouic system of Peru, olongade of a uni- 
rRcuguWtl iiud totally independent uiitivc ifystem 
\ But bt^otv rompariug tlie olmcMt ideuLiad uieinoria 
of the ouutburn Feni^iuna uud northeni Indiann, 
I imporlaut to ancertain ptveiaely the nrtual acqulre- 
nt» and U-iage«i of tlie Peruvians in relation to {tainting 
ituniting. IVflcott. indeed, assumes their total 
I in tJu« ii-^spect. and derives from it at) addi- 

rimof of thi- entirely distinct origin of all the 

ihaiM li liiilii rlemeui.1 of Penivinu and Mexinui ri%-ili- 
ItuI it iii iiicuncei\'nble thut a jniuple nkUleil in 
lling in elay tU- copies of uver)' familiar object in 
!, and fi{Mirtiiig with an cxulwnmt fancy in endleas 
! atvi ingenitiuff ileviwa ; and who, moreover. 
tii>-ir [lotter}' and vove their |jarti-coloured 
pith ooBhiderabto taste and great varielj' of 
; flioald have made no att«m|>t at droving or 
; od agBve-pBper or canvas. Hamboldt, who 
1 tlie diMovery of bandln, or books of pieiuro- 
I amoug tlw Panoe Indians uf South America to 
tlw eort of the Andu,' puts thia Iwyond qaestiou. " It 
hH tvoenliy lioen doabted,* h« remarkii in a uipplo- 

^/ !•**%,%. i.<fc.iT p i;i 

I, Itl4, loL I. p i;4 

ue rHSUiSTORW mas. 

mentary note, " whether thu Peruvians were acqoi 
with symbolic paintings in aildition to Uieir iptiptts, 
passage taken from the Qrigen de los Ittdios del Nvn 
Mundo (Valencia, 1610, p. 91). leaves no uncertuin^ 
ou this point. After speaking of the ilexiran hicnv- 
glyphics. Father Garcia aJds : ' At the beginning of the 
Conquest, the Indiana of Pern made their eonfessii^ns by 
paintings and charactei-s, which inilicattHl the Ten Coni- 
mandments, and the sins committed against these eom- 
mandmenta.' Hence we may conclude tliat the Peruvians 
made use of symbolic paintings ; hut that these < 
more grotesque than the hieroglyphics of the Me: 
and that the people generally made use of knots * 
(jttipus."^ It was not, therefore, because of their igi 
ance of the rude picture-writing, equivaliJUt, probably, 1 
nil that was effected by the Aztec chronicler in the tt. - 
pictiou of sensible objects with their associated id(';!- 
that the Penivians adliered by preference to their quipu- 
The rudest picture- wii ting is, indeed, far befi>i'e the u»i»i 
perfect system of quipus as a germ of possible ilevelop- 
ment But if we look, for example, at the " Lawsuit in 
Hieroglyphical Writing," engraved by Uuinluldt, a docu- 
ment prepared for pleading and evidence before a legal 
tribimal, we find no series of word-s)'mbols setting fiTiii 
the case, but a mere ground-plan accompimied by piri- 
rial refercnces to the parties, and some leading poiul.-^ i: 
the suit, which must liave dependwl almost as cutin 1 
on memory and the ast^ociation of ideas for its practii-. ! 
use as tJic parti-roloiired and knotted quipus in the 
liands of well-trained Peruvian amautas. 

Bearing in remembrance, then, the perfection to which 
the use of the (juipii had been brought by a w 
atized training and division of labour, and 
reiHised in its accuracy in the most practical questji 

' Hnmlwlclt'a Rnrnrrhn, vnl. ii. n, 221. 


iiT Peruvian n-vkontng and KtatiHticA, It-t un iinw iiiqutiu 
what the [nili.-ui wampum wttH in its most perfert form 
irni -.i^.'. Til.' jj;rmi8 uf a poswihle native cmlisation 
»iu"fi^ ill'- IikIuiu tribes *if North America are uaturally 
B W Aou^bc for ill that romarkublu k-aguo of the Inxjuois, 
■ whu-h iIjc comjui^t* of Knuice wun; so cffoctually 
itnl to iho Hoittb of the St. I.iivvrun(U.' ; and umoug 
i memU-rB of that U-aj^o wo Hiid tho wampum belt iu 
! for atl tlw'ir most nacriHl and imporUint ri'cords. \ly 
I of th(f wampum tii« lawn of the League wore 
, aoil vvBxy contract or treaty was detined and 

Vwopmu coiuiMs of Itea^Im of rlifft^runt coloui-^^ strung 
and (fi'Uiimlly wovl'U into a bell. Hubbard 
tiIhw it att "of two sortH, white aud purple. The 
( ia wiwlcetl, out of the inside of tlie grujit ronnho, 
vtbrfwinofalM.'ful.Bnd p«'rfomte<i to string ui leatbur. 
I purplff \» worked out of the inside of the muscJc 
Tbcy an- woveu an broad as nuo's hand, and about 
I fiwt long. Thone tht'y call Ixilta, ami give and ro- 
! At tlii'ir irpatit-n as the Heals of their friendship."' 
■ eoloun of the wampum, however, and indee<l its 
! material, vurieil at ditferent periods and among 
i lribi«. One nngulnrly iuten^ting example of its 
I the evideoeo and sole Utle-Uet^ of au cxt^'muve 
rfer of himi, wa« preserved in Enghintl, uutU very 
. y«uii, by Mr. Gnin\'illt( John I'eiin, a desrenrknt 
y^lWi faiu Pt-nn, and iit now in the cabinet of the llis- 
nf rhilailnl]ihia. it ia i\w Ix-lt of wam- 
Bvijpwl by the fvcnni-Lcna[>e eachenut to the 
tqf FentiBj-lvania. at "the Great Treaty," under 
B at 81uw-kaniox in 1682. AfWr having )<cen 
, for gpnt'mliiww in the founder'* iamily, it 
iBt«(l to the HtAtorical 8r>ciety of Philadelphia 

150 rnEtnsTOJiic max. 

in 1857. It is composed of eighteen striugs of wami 
foi-med of white and violet beads worked upon leal 
thongs ; and the whole is woven into a l>clt twenty- 
inches long, and two aiid a half inches broad. On this 
patterns are worked in violet lieads on a white ground, 
and in the centre Penn is represented taking the hand of 
the Indian sachem : the former being the laiger figui-e of 
the two, and indicated by liis European liwid-di-esB.' ^ 
In IB?."* the famous war of the New England chi^f 
Metacomet, the sachem of the Wampannags, — bett^ 
kno^Ti as Kin g Philip, — broke out, and threatened for a 
time the extemiination of the colonists. Before its close, 
thirteen towns in Massachusetts, PljTUimth, and Rliode 
Island had benn destroyed, and scjircely a family in New 
England had escaped the loss of some of its members. 
When at length Phdip had fallen, and the hostile triin - 
were almost exterminated. Aiinawon, an aged chief, on 
of the last sm'viving sachems of the Wanipanoags, ny 
proached Captain Church, the leader of the colonists, nu 
thus addressetl liim : "Gre^it t'aptain, you have kiJl.>, 
Piiilip, and conquered his country. I and my company 
are the last that war against the English. You Iiave 
ende4 the war, and therefore these belong to you." He, 
then handed to him two broad belts elaborately woi 
in wampum, " edged witli i-ed liair from the Mohl 
country." One of them reached from the shouldi 
nearly to the ground. It was tlie Magna Charta of 
New England ti'ibes, who had ni>w fought tlicir last 
They were pitilessly exteriuinated. Old Annawon him- 
self was put to death, along witli Tispnquui, the last of 
PhiUp's great sachems, and aJl the jirisoners who had 
been active in the war. The remainder were sold 
slavas including a poor boy^ the son of Philip, yt\ 


in w.tnilKiiti Iwit IS aecnratr]; figured, the i 
• oflht Ui-lonml SorMy a/ p. NH^Imnin, v 

e nl the Drigioal. i 


Rly taiine WM bin iflatiouship to the great chief. After 
" I n« to Iii» fate in whicli Inorease Mather 
, iipiiiutt mercy, the lioy's life was npjirt-d. Tlic 
■ Englatiil divine urged iht- case of Hadad, of thu 
5« need iu RIdui, njwireil as « little rhild, whi-n J(»ab, 
! CAptAtn nf tilt; litmt, liml Hiuitten evt-ry male ainoitg 
' Edntnites, who Hurvivcil to riw iip as th« adveraary 
f SctltHnoQ, when he henn! in Kgypt that David slept 
Btfa hiA fatheni, and Joal>. the cajitain of the ho»(t, was 
' Th<' «on of the great Warapanoag sachum was 
I a alavr to b<Tmudit, iv»m whence he never 
I to diapnle tlie po«»c«si(iii of his father's wani- 
■B. Mid tht; rights of whinh it nas the aymbeL 
Thv itriginal Wiuupum of tliu Iroquoit), in whieh the 
I of the I^ea^e were rccoitled. b dewritied by Mr. 
I 11. Morgan, in hia hiRtor>- of the l<eagne, aa made 
fresh water Rhella, whirh were utrung on deer- 
it or uiiews, and the Ktrauda braided into bclta, 
|ruutt«d into Klriugf*. Hia narrative of the mmle 
; thnw northeni tfuijum will U-nt illnstrate the 
B imalogieM they prenent to those of the Houthem eon- 
Dmcribiiig the gn-at councils of the League, he 
"The UwM explained at different atogtM of the 
nonial were repeated! from atringtt uf wiunpuni, into 
xtktyhcul bteti talked al the tiuie of their enact- 
' in the Indian metliod of expre»(ing the idea, the 
' the belt ran tell, by moana of an inteqtreler, 
t luw tif transaction of which it was made, at the 
>, the sole evidence. It ojwrat^a upon the principle 
•octation, and ihuf* aeeka to give fideUty to the 
These ntringa and liella were the only visible 
fceardi of the Iroquoiia, and weiu of no Mm except by the 
Atd of thoie i^MKml peraoiiagea who eould draw forth the 
t recot^da locktNl up in their n>membrance." ' There 

' l^ttf/mt ly (A* Irv/mrit, y. I '2U. 


was, accordingly, a suchem specially constituted .1- 
" Keeper of tlie Wampum ;" and verlial promiaes, inttu- 
changed either amoug themselves or with foreign triliw^ 
were i-eganleil as of little moment if no strings txr Iwlts 
had l-een employeil to ratify them and «*curo their ri- 
membnince. Sir William Johnston n?cords, as the reitii ' " 
of his experience : " They regard no message or in^'iI-. 
tion, be it of what consequenre it will, unless attKudtil 
or confirmed by strings or belts of wampum, which tluy 
look upon as we our letters, or rather bontU.'"' A Iwii 
of wampum was also used at their festi^'al^ when 
coimtil of repentance preceded the rejoicings, and pui'ii- 
confession of faults, with the pledge of amendment, was 
put on record by its means. 

The reseml>lance between the two systems of the quipu 
and wampum, with their appoint«>d keepers, and the )> ! 
petuation of the national cbronicles and euaftments i ;. 
means of these as mnemonic guides, is so remarkably ■ 
to appear higlily suggestive of n common origin ; I 
evfr remotely we may l>e compelled to seek for I 
diviiling line on whieh the essentially distinct eloraei 
of picture-writing and reconiing by an arbitran' as 
tion of ideas met, as it were, and exchangt-d their diw 
moiles of giving form and pei-petuity to fle«'ting wonl- 
The picture-writing is of indigenous growth among t'-^ 
northern tribes, the quipu seems no less espentialfy natn 
to Peru; but we are not without some faint indii-ati*'!! 
of a source other than the northern fon-st Indiiin, from 
w^hence his mode of quipu-reglstering and nitificatioaJ 
contracts may have been derived ; or rather jwrhaps, i 
when<:e the Indian tribes of tbe northern continent e 
have borrowed this protluct of the immature dviliaj 
of the Peniviun Cordilleras, In the great sepuld 
mounds of the Mii<sissippi Vfdley, the rchca of art pre 

> Ak-umfliM nAUuD fo Colonial IlitDuy o/Srv Yori. x-cO. ii. p. $24. J 


n-mt imiformity of chnrncter ; and among tbMu, lieads 

I <Ji< !!, boDv:, and oUiit tuaturuilit, have bct'n found in 

■ I i|iuiiitilif« than nocms in \» n-adily iiccountcd for 

i.'p [.- jvTMuuU (imniDPnLH. In the flnive Cnrk Mound 

-r.- ll-ljeiuK »\k\\ 118 i-i>[istituted the wampum of tbr 

: n!N«, iuiKiiint<-il t<i W-lwtaii thrfi: iind four tlnm- 

.iiid it sw-nut «iiipilarly fiium(tt«.iit with thi- ]>artiid 

ktion of tin- ancivQt Mound-Huilders that, in such 

■ of aliell-htfadu, wv tiavu th» rclii-s of Bt-pult-hnd 

i^wkieh i-ouftituttt] llx- acn)lt nf fume of the Ulutitri- 

\, or eiiptt-s of th<^ nationaJ unrhivnH depoditetl with 

t ncho-tn to vrhuse witidoni or prnwem the saft-ty 

\ p«)plo liad IxM'n due. The wnaipum chronicle, 

..Qtftnit^ by Time's own dw-ayiiij;; fingort*. rw^euis no un- 

jifriptioii for the nnmelej<« deuil over whom the 

; caitb>pynimid was reared. The memories once 

with its many strings have inrcovcrahly 

rmy ; yet not more so than the auiiah) of the 

; rtored up in ibcir roany-colomr'd skeins 

I threads ; or c%'en, perhaps, than the s>;ulplureil 

\ of Copui or Palcnrjtie. which luoek us with 

\ mysteries. The PiTUviau qiiipu ser^-ed, 

', Ukiu on utmcuii, for iaeiUtating the most 

' ooiti]<utiitioiis of the cenHus, re^tinnpH, and 

ten of thf! Incoit ; and in ita northern form 

mpum it may hare equally suttieetl for the 

"-ale utd tnensnmtion of the i^reat earthworks. Itnt one 

iher i4rikhig plement of porallrliiuu in the rivilisaiion of 

■tie Minmd-Buildrn* and Penivijiuii is the A]»|.arenl po»- 

--!^i& Ky both of the IwiLmtx- and n-iroguiwd slandanls 

nuhu* cojtfN'r riii}^ found alike in 

moaniU and on the mouin 

^■Bpolchral I 

, prove 

t Mlly to •-•nvspond iu size Imt in weight. In dia- 
V Utcy niv>Muv 2'9 ineh*« : iu thicknem U*4 : and 
1 perfect weigli exactly four ^muees each. Ten cn|i- 

PREHlSTOniC MAX. [Cbap. 

!r rings thua uniform in weight and (limeoaious lay in 
two heaps of five each, on an altar under one of the 
sacriiicial mounds in the Scioto Valley, tempting us to 
recognise in their nnmhers. weight, and measurement*!, 
not only evidences of a long-extinct civilisation, but the 
memorials of a decimal system of numeration.' 




TifK war 1492 luarkH iii many iin|M>rtaiit n*s]H>cts tin? 
i-l..j*f of t|j«*i)M WorUls anrient, tin* lK*giiiiiing of its 
nKMlrni hi^tiin'. Hut for th<* native of tIk* Tran»jitlantin 
ht;nii^|>Iif IV it is tht* dawn of all (l(*fiiuti' aunals. It con 
«tit»t«-.s fur AiiH'rir.i what the i*ra (»f Julius C-esiir's lan«l 
MiVL \^ f*»r liritain : tht* lifting of the veil Ix'hiiid which 
l.iv u II riM'on It'll centuries of national story, and the ad- 
Uii^-'utu int4i the ^Nit family of nations of those who 
t!i«r*;, i*inlati'tl and ajKirt, had thr<»u^h unnumlterrd 
'J* n»Talions fuarted th«* dnnna nf hist«»rv. 

In [»n*vitius diaiktrix smnr att<*m|)t has lioen mad<; to 
|.«,k ii]Nin that past, which, though rrlatively s|N*akin(; su 
ni*«]fni. is nevi'rthrlfss rt-motrr from all our pn.'con- 
•^■:v**«l i«l«';is and sym|>athi«*s than thr old l^onian worhl. 
Tlif fiftiM-nth rrntu^^• is, in fart, a-* anrimt fc»r Ameriea 
a.* rh«' rir«it erntury is for Hritain, or n.i\ 2niio fur Kjn'pt. 
N.. wiinth-r, th«r«*f(i»n'. that rvfiy jrlimj»s<* of a fanricd 
i:;« m<*rial uf anti*-('i»luinl»ian n-Iations with the Old 
\\*<rM should |ir«'S4*nt a fa.^cinatiijf; cli.-irm to tin* Ame- 
r.' .in an.*h;e<»l«»j:ist : or that »'V»ii a ])ardonaM(' m-dulity 
►•.-•nid tMra.-ionallv Im- rjciTrisi'd in the rtM-rption of anv 
.ipliap-nt fviih-ni-r of surh intnisive anti<|uitii's disrln>iii<r 
tfi- m.'^lvfs anion«r ndi«-8 i»f alnm^rinal nativi* art**. *' He 
vho ralU what has vanished hark into lK*ing enjoys h 
hlL-« like that of rivating ; ' so says the great Nirlmhr, 


himself foremost among those who have revelled in this 
bliss of resuscitating the long-buried past But to the 
impulse which such a generous ambition awakens has 
been added the no less influential stimulus of national 
j)ride and emulation, both in the Old and the New 
World. To such combined motives we owe in an espe- 
cial manner, not only the AntiquitcUes AmericaruB^ aoid 
the Grankind's Ilistoriske Mindesmcerker of the Danish 
antiquaries ; but also a singular harvest reaped on Ame- 
rican soil, from the novel impetus to which the former 
of these publications has given rise. The idea of ancient 
intercourse I>etween America and Europe is not indeed 
of such recent growth. It mingles with the very eailiert 
study of Mexican antiquities, and was indeed inseparable 
from that recognition of the American race, as in the 
strictest meaning of the term of one blood with the 
whole human family, which has only been seriously chal- 
I<»nged within very recent years. One favourite idea, 
accordingly, long f>und acceptance, which traced the 
peoj)ling of the American continent to the long-sought 
ten tribes of Israel ; and discovered in the Indian lan- 
guages Hebrew words and idioms, and in native customs 
relics of tlie Jincient Jewish ceremonial rites. Still older 
tnictes liave l)een sought in the lost Island of Atlantis ; 
in the obscure allusions of Herodotus, Plato, Seneca, 
riiny, and other classical writers, to mythic islands or 
continents in that Atlantic Ocean wliich swept away in 
undefined vastness beyond the western verge of their 
world ; in the Ophir, to which the ships of Tyre, manned 
by servants of Hii'ani, " that had knowledge of the sea," 
Sidled for gold and algum trees, for Solomon's great 
works ; in the Antilla mentioned by Aristotle as a Car- 
thaginian discovery ; and in that other obscure island 
wliich Diodonis Siculus assigns to the same Cartliaginian 
voyagei-s, as a secret reserved for their own behoof. 

Id Cite esvx compul tbpiu to abandon thdr AMcsn 

the probaliilitice of undei^igtied intnisiou of 
|)r coloDtfte oo lliv New World, from the custoru ahuivs 
Iw AthmtK-, iiiwl wulimiHtion fi-om vftrioua iudc[xm- 
, •uain-& Accordiug to Pliiiy, Himuo preceded 
» de Gamii by hoiul- two thuusimd yuunt in th<; pan- 
of the CujK-, rvai-liiiig the coast of Arabia through 
StzaitA of tjibraltnr. Again, in obedience to the 
of Phomob-Nccho, t-ir. ac. r)UO, Phceoictan 
vfft-ctcd the circumiuivigatiun of the African 
in ihtf opposite clirectioji : sailing from a port 
tk* Ri-d St-Ji, and rvachiug the Nile tliruugb the 
iz» of Hi-'iTuliw. Tbc account of thu latter voyage 
VCD by Hvrndotui) with circoniHtantial minutenes? ; 
Uk cautiotM Hundmldt hna hraked witli aulKcient 
■r oo mch namtivtw to indues bim to cnxlit the 
nasn uid Cutiuiginian circumnavigations of AfricA. 
\ gtmnted, it full'iu'K from gurh prulongtnl Atlantic 
i^CR. Dot only that Madeira, the Cauaiy, and <^^\^ 
le Inland-s imt ovou the \xotka, may bnve IxM'n 
Bc tb«< Canbaginiau diiMxtvcriis referred to by Arin- 
L Han)l»>ldt, iudcecl, luiMigns n-anons entin'ly witifl 
■y ta hifl own mind for Ix^lieving that the ( 'anary 
1^ at leut woe known, not only to the Phceniciaua 
OntbaginiAAit, but abio to llie Greeks and Romany 

iw hf ttd.lit, " pcrha|M even to die EtniBcana.*^ ' 
rtbwunl In the Tin I«iandM <if the KugliMh Channel, u 
a« wrathwonl In'youd ( V[m! Wnle, aeroxa the Htorujy 
of btM-jir and the (Julf t>f Guinea, the anrient 
i>f Tyn* awl Carthage railed into tin; wide waMtti 
Atiautii- : and froni our kmiwli-dge of the winds 
eummt* of that occiin, it is ntonifeMly nti incnn- 
'lluiig lluU aomc of ibose vcntQivus voyai;era 
beni dhven oat of their ronrxe, and lamlod 

IAS pnEHiarosic max, 

OD more Uuu one point of the American continent. To 
such an accidental landing America may be said to owe 
its name. Pedro Alvares de t'abral, sailing in command 
of a Portuguese fleet in the last year of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, on the ea.?tern route just redLscoviTod by Vaeco Av 
Gama, was carried by the e^juatorial current fto far to th<' 
west of his iutended course that he found himself uii 
eipectedly in sight of land, in 10° s. latitude, tliereby 
discovering Brazil The king of Portugal thoreupoti 
despatched the Florentine, Amerigo Vespuct-i, who ex- 
plored the coast, prepared a map of it, and tliereby 
achieved the honour, more justly clue to Columbus, of 
giving his name to the new coutiuent So recently :i 
1S33 the wreck of a Japanese juidc on the coast ■ 
Oregon showed how, in like manner, across the wid> i 
waste of the Paeilic, the narives of the Old World may 
have been bome to plant the germs of a new popula 
tion, or to leave the memorials of Asiatic civilisation 4 
American shores. 

It is not, therefore, altogether without reason that H 
obscure and vague references of classic writers to la] 
lying beyond the Pillars of Hercules have had an 1 
aggerated value assigned to them. The couvictioal 
some ancient iutei-coui-se between the Old World I 
the New h;is furnished a fniitful theme for speculati 
almost from the year in which the Genoese voyai 
achieved his long-cherished di-eam of discovery. It q 
only required the asserted recovery of Egy|itian, Pill 
nician, or Punic tmces of graphic or plfu*tic art, to revi 
the faith in an American commonwealth old as 1 
Atlantis which the Egyptian priesthood told of to E 
as even then among the tliings of an ancient past. 

Such speculatious have been discussed in all 
changing forms, aud iuvesligated with loving enthusi 
though ever proving intangible when pressed to 1 

(•ractical dedoctioa. In Hiimltoldt's ^cwurcAcy is ioi- 
gmvcd A fnif^eut uf ■ suppoeetl biscriptiou cojHcd by 
Banrnjii Bueno, n Fnui<.'i»iim uiouk, £h>m a block uf 
(inuute which ho ducuvcixil in ii mrern in thv mountaio 
doun Ijctvocn ihu (,>rin.M-o ami the Aroaxon. Unfintn- 
MUely. HumUililt vsa imablo to iiisj*ecl il for htnindC ] 
PoanhlT it WimM have }>ri>%-ed only the natural markinga J 
•<t a btuc^ of graphic granite. Ue remarks of the copy I 
fianuAhrd him by the monk : " Sumo ruM-mblanco to [ 

L alphaliL-t may bo diacoverud iu these oharae- 
, bat I mudi th>ubt whether the gt>od monk, who 
] to bt: Imt little inien^stcd aliout thin pn-ten<Ied 
iBBcnptiaii, ka<l cujiiL-d il very cuivfutly-' Not much 
cuoJd bu mode out of " Pliuaiit-iaii " charactent heralded 
m diis fksbion. But tJa- apiiearance in 1837 of the 
tiiquitate* A Htericamr, wire $cnptvrr« gejitentrionaies 
I aMte-C\»lumbiarnm lu Amrrien, issued by tiie 
I Society' of Northern Antiquaries at i'opeuhagun, 
■ler the L-amed editonthip of Prufettisor i'harW Chris- 
Bafh, produced an entire revolution, aJike in the 
I and th<^ reception of Uluotratiouit of aute-Columbiao 
am hbittirj-. While the i»ubh«ition of tliat work 
, frewh interest t*) the \-aguesl iiitimationn of a 
daliiauii pwu, it necmeil to mip^Tftedc tliem by tAUgibbi 
iHai bwiiri w. which, tbou^i "but of yeiiteplny" in com- 
paraon with nich tnyihir: nntiquitiM aa the £g}-pliau 
AUutu; Uirverthi.'k-»t addird ttome tive- ceuluri(« lo the 
f uf the New VN'orkl. Fnnn the up[M.-aniuce of tlie 
$ Amffii'aiur, ueeunliugly, may lie dated the 
IU aDtit|UaheM and historians 

B midrc of Americ 

of interoiuntv with the oueieut world 
that recent year of the tiftevulh ei-ntut^' in which 
I oecsn rx-vealdl itii pfTvat Beercl to (-'ulumbua. 

ItIIk Ittenuy memoriaUof the old Nunemen, thus 
ti'to Ugbt. we }t\eAa mlliciait eWdenee lo phiiv 


nssumptiou uf ihcir inu<I(.>J7i L*(1itor tltut to these wft | 

the earliest recoixU of tlii; discover}' of Ncwfoan^I 

Nova Scotia, Jlassachusctts, EIickIg Island, Long Islaii ' 

and Connectieut. In a subaetjuent brief risumi of ili 

subject, Professor Rafn remarks : " It is thp total rf.«'i 

of the iijiutical, gcographiciil, and astronomical e^idi-m ■ 

in the originut documents, which places the situatioL ■ 

the countriea discovered beyond all doubt. The nwu' ■ 

of days' sail Iwtween the several newly-found lands, \ : 

striking description of the coasts, especially the wh!' 

Band-banks of Nova Scotia, and the long beaclica ^ni 

downs of a peculiar appearance on Cape Cod (the A ; 

lariies and FitnluslnDuHr of the Northmen), are not * 

!« mistaken. In 

nomical remark l 

nine Lours long, ' 

or just that of I 

trances to Moui 

built, and in thJ 

men had their b<| 

them Hdj)." 

however, is far £ 

deductions iin[rf 

Greenland, oh 

there, and dIk 

rose about eighJ 

forty-ninth di; 

of Newfound y 

duta arc the i 

and it is iudd 

Siigaa that tli| 


dctaU. This 

Tliorfinu Kail 

gmniiig of tf 

jjou hereto we lutve tbo a.'*!' 
iliortest day in Vinland v* 
" ! latitude of 41" 24' 1 1 
Kc* which limit the i 
(there Uifs b-^-'i- " 
i which the . 
. whioh wfts 


bfid began to urge grcnUy that Vialoin) tlio OochI 
csplitntl' lif, Icio, visit*-'cl Utla lldliilami, 
QiUoiul, ami diBCJivcred C'apf Salile Islaii'l, as 
; giving to it the namu of Bjampy, or Bear 
I a l"-ftr (fc/OT7i) kille<l hy bi>iuc ui' his party 
Pomiiiig tiiL'ir oocutiiig vnynge, he aud his com- 
i tho aanic points w>cu Wforc hy Lcif ; gathered 
1 nlitu com in Vinhiud ; settled there for a 
-ail we fibuU find l»y aud by, — loft their mark 

\ voynginn from tho Old World may long before 
1 on the wiDiA Hborra which first delighted the 
the deek of the " Santa Maria," on the 
October 14!)'J, u by no means an improluible 
~ : imdcckfil "Pinia" nud "Nina," which, 
Stnria,' eouHtiluled the «|iiadron of 
I certainly not better fitted to dare the 
L ihc aliipH whidt tiorv lo Tyre and 
1 wealth of rhe Ka»)it4'rides, Much 


ite any reMonable doubt 

^^ic hnrrly 

who mode permanent j^ 

^^■sun the 

ndH of the Metiih^H 


the Orkneys »nd t]^^| 


glonixod IreLutd o^^H 


' thnir «'Xp)»mt']^^^H 



iRnd or the 


Pr^enliind, or 


^rilH imt more 

u>u(< j^^^^^^H 

. ti.-pU of th« 

'4)iut« iwA^^^^^^^^k 



^^.^ la.^ 

^Bd, could 

RBi^^^^K ^^1 

^^Hizatinn ; 


^pr ccwutta of 


Imh soeh nt- 

1S4 PUF.niSTORIC J/AA\ [Gun 

tractiong that they conferred on it the name of Green 
land, should have failed, not only to discover, but 
permanently to colonize the Atlantic shores of the Nw 
World with the same indomitable adventurers who 8 
planted the Franks of Gaul, and conquered tbe S 
of England. 

The question naturally suggests itself to the i _ 

after dwelling on earlier or later glim])?es of such ante- 
Columbian explorers : Has no memorial of ancient 
Phcenician or Ca^thJlgiuiar^ E^'ptian, Greek, or younger 
Norse voyager, survived aa a voice from the past, to tell 
of such early intercourse between the Old World and 
the Kew ? The presence of the pagan and Christian 
Norsemen is still attested in the British Islea by weapons, 
implements, sepulchral memorials, and above all by in- 
scriptions. Norse runic inscriptions have been found 
even beneath the foundation of ancient London, mingling 
with its Roman, Saxon, and mediaeval heirlooms. They 
have followed the Northmen to their Mediterranean 
homes ; and Professor Rafn has recently undertaken the 
interpretation of an inscription in the same northern 
runes, on the marble lion of the Pirseus, now at tJie 
Arsenal of Venice, which, among other Varangians in 
the service of the Greek Empire, commemorates, as he 
hehevea, the same Harold Hardrada, who fell at the 
battle of Stamford Bridge, A.D. 1066, to whom our 
Saxon Harold ofi'ered " seven feet of ground, or, Muce 
he was so tall, a few inches more !" Numerous similar 
inscriptions in the native land of the Northmen, pre- 
serve the memorials of their wanderings. These Norse 
adventurers are frequently designated Englandsjari, on 
account of their expeditious to England ; one Icelander 
is specially stj'led Rafn Hlymrehsfari, owing to his 
voyageji to Iceland ; nor was King Sigurd 
tile only Norseman who won for himself t 


or traveller to Jerosalem.' Northern in- 

I rcpoatcdly refer to adventures in " the western 

' meauing, however, Id gencrai the British Isles, 

Miudiog eviiieoce prtives iheir jireaence. 

?^*»wiU«n nmif. iuscriptious, more or less perfect, still 

main iu the l«te uf Mau, to utl4.-&t the prescnee of 

^^ume o»lotui!ts there, six ur »evcu ccDturies ago. On 

^Hpfy Iduwl, iu the Firth uf C'lytle,— where King Haco's 

^^■K btj for «ome >\ay» after hid defeat al Largs in 1263, 

— M Still legilily graven the runic memorial of Nichobs 

1 lIo-'De, a Xurwfginn, probaldy of Haeo's fleet. In 

1 frkney, ninif itiscriptinnfi, remarkable for their character 

and ejtt«nt, have recently Lieen iliscovered : pivserving, 

as elwvhoe, tlie literate memorials of the arlventurous 

ytntiuneo : and precisely the same kind of evidence 

-an totimuuy to the existence of Norse colouits on 

ii'? thotes of Greeuhind, iu the eleventh and twelfth 


a of importoDt-e to note the preci&ion and simplicity 
x mcmuriida uf ancient Scandinavian colonization ; 
1 inscriptions are rvfertvil to l>y some assertoiB 
r discovery- in America, with about as definite ft 
of what such really ate, as that of the 
b Indtao. who soeiog an Engliitli traveller busy 
f% newBpaper, pronounced it to be a medicine 
1 eyes. They are spoken of as though ninlo 
i were m^'sterious lucrog]y|>hica ; instead of 
> ^ing, as they ore, records inscribed in a ivgular alphabet, 
tad in a living language familiar to the student of Ice- 
landic lilcrature. Thi- Greeulan<l iiLscriptions, the woi' 
Ccuotemparariea of Ujami Uerjul&on and Leif Erieaon,./ 
I of this chamcter ; and therefore show us what we 
to look for. should any such reconU survivo to 

■M'n* J* *■ SadHt Sogmh ila Jaf^ioim Jn A'-W, IMS-ID, 



b ami eleveo^H 
overcd locaH^^I 

attest the viaits of Northmen in the tenth s 
centuries, to Vinlaud, or other early discovered 1 
of the American continent. To the modem Norwegian 
and Dane, such memoriiils of the hardihood and eutci- 
prise of their Norae ancestry are full of interest ; D't 
can we fail to sympathize in the gratification with which 
the Danish ajitiquaiy has recoveitd from the ice-ljound 
coasts of Griicnland, evidence of the presence of In 
Norse fathers there long prior to the era of Columliii 
The Scaiiiliiiavian characteriBtJcs of the Greenland tahki - 
are unmistakable; but their minute correspondence t" 
the graven memorials of the Norsemen, alike in their 
native land and in the later scenes of their wauderiii;^ 
in Europe, has not sufficed to prevent au ovcr-crodulm 
zeal from pei-suading itself into the belief that niK 
Indian tracings, if not also the cracks imd fissures <A 
the natural rock, are graven inscriptions of such antu- 
Coluuibion voyagers. 

The following is an accurate representation of the 

most remarkable among the Greenland inscriptionp, .-in: 
will suffice, better than any description, to couvfy : 
correct idea of a genuiiie Noi-se runic tablet. It ^v 
found in 1H24, on the Island of Kingikt^imjak, i.. 
liallin's Bay, 72 55' N. hit., 5(i° 5' w. long. ; and is now 

t] AJtTK-coLcnauy TJtdCKs. ctnosrzArro.v. i«r 

j'reacTTeil in the (linntiiuisliorg PaIacc at C(t[K'iibAgeu. 
' if Uk genuioti Noree rharactcrs and langiingu of tfaut 
uHoiptioD no doat>t am i-xist. Tiio only dubiuus poiuts 
ate tlie wi>nl ryJw, variously naidcruj " clearwl the 
gruand," " cxpUm.-d," and " tuijrravixl ; " and thu cou 
chiding gruu]! uf figun» whicli fullow it at tLe right 
kotid ndv of the lowest line, iDttiq>rute<l by Frofussoi- 
Rafti as tha.- ilatv 113.1. Tied Icttuni, or hinderauer, are 
out km fn-fjui'iit in Kunic than in Kimian inKTiptiumi. 
■ only tima i*pcn in any difference uf opinion here are 
(the 0)mm<>ni'<-nient of die fii^ and second Unea. Tbo 
ov or o**, \» of little moment as modiiying the 
■ nuin« GufUigr, mippneed hy Profe«8fir Riifn ^^ 
for Erling. Ttie puzzling compouod nine with 
I the M-oond Une hegiiis is {x)8sibly only tht* tormi- 
I r of thi' Tvrtamonr, as in the pre^ous Siijirtthmur, 
't familiar I<-«Undii' projier uamm. The whole forms 
liecord wi dinctiverv coiwietent with the spirit of tht; 


■lothv vabkate ok bvt-v. «i:xxxv. 

, EQigr SyfvathnoH an J tijnrni Tortanon, and Sn- 
Odamn, on the nerenOi day befort vidory day, 
f the»e Moms and explored, 1135.' The intcriMv- 
1 of th<* final «hite U dis|>nt«d, aii'l is certainly o|»eii 
I qtM9iti»t). If the corTx.«{ioudence of the two Hnit 
I with the htftt lie aUowlhI to l« suHiciently 
) admit of their W-in;; reginU-)] as rc-petitions of 
' t figure, it will lie oli*cr\'wl thai tlte iutenne^liatv 
It agroe. Ktindenxl un thiii lOTDciple inio Roman 
it would be VTKXXV, or 1035. Dr. Bryn 

» dagr ■! virtntjr iOag^t''^ lit. g/m-AAj}, m itMnl \ij t^ BJilar at 

rinin^. t" '■' an uincvt fobtal i-f Uir N<>rtlimr«. which I 



julfsou of Iceland, who concure m tbe interpretati 
otherwise, regards the supposed numerals as merely a 
omameDtal completion of the line. Still less room I 
any diversity of opinion exists in regiird to an insciibi 
sepulchral slab graven in the same familiaF runic chi 
actere, which was discovered by a Christiauized Greei 
lander at Igalikko, about nine miles from the '- 
colony of Julianeshaab, in 1829. The legend is inscribed 
without any alphabetic complexities or obscurities, on 
a thin slab of red sandstone ; and reads with simple 
pathos as follows : — 


may Gii^t} 


i.e., Uigdis, MagmiJ daughter, rests here ; may ( 
gladden her soul. The abbreviated proper name Mag- 
nus, is necesBarily conjectural now ; though when the 
simple memorial of aflfection was reared, there was : 
need of more than the initial to preserve among 1 
members of the little Greenland community the memorl 
both of Norse father and child. This simple monumei 
indicates the recognition of the Christian faith, and 1 
presence of Christian worshippers in Greenland, certainly" 
not Iat*;r than the twelfth century. A still simpler me- 
morial of the same kind is a wooden cross found in tha_ 
cemetprj- nf flerjulftnes, with the Rin 


1 in noiic Iett«i9 on one of il« limbs. Such andeut 
8 of (.'hiiBtian settlements ou the chores of Green- 
tu>d acquire an adililional intciv^t from the iissociutions 
winch gather an)un<l tlifi»e iln-ary Ari:tic regions, with 
the seal of the ilnm^'iau mi.<u>iunarics of n later era ; and 
the mins of more tliun one early Cbritttiau church have 
bea diKovered. in eontinnatiim of tliose pruoCt that 
nity was firat transplanted to the New World by 
r Scftodioavian voyagers from Norway and Iceland. 
! of thtsse primitive ecclesiastical ruiu3, — memorials 
B of tht-* piouit zeal and the architcctunil skill of the 
t NutBD colonistA,— is a phiin but tastefully constructed 
f squared hewn stune, which stands nearly entire^ 
nroofed, at Kakortok, in the same difitrii;t of 
, athl only a few niilca distant from Igalikku, 
I the sepulchral tablet of Vigdis was discovered, 
lus objectH of lesa importance, including iron 
IrmentR, pottery, fragments of church bells, ct«., 
KTe been found in the some locality ; throwing addi- 
tional light on the civiliratioQ of the ancient coIunistB of 
the iuhii^itahlu ^orc« of Davix Htruita, and indirating 
•nch tracts ob may be looked for in proof of their ttettle- 
^ JMut further sonth on the American &)a«t«. The latest 
1 datQ of all the literate nu-moiials of the ancient Arctic 
ay is prolnbly a tu-pulchra] ahib found in 1831, at 
ftigeit« lat. 60° n. It U in Roman character^ though 
in the old Norse tongue. The letters are ranged in two 
Itsm, on either itide of a plain cross cut on a slab of 
gnuiitev one end of whicli, witli a fragment of tlic inscrip- 
Ooo, ia broken off. It fumiAhcs tliis aimplc memento of 
B lon^foigotteu dead : — 

Wa tmXJM HIIO[AIJi] K K0tCB]N8S[01i] 
Ic, iltn rttU Httatd Ou mm of Kolffrim. 

eKonte rfijirnieA i>f Orecnland, alter being on-tiiHcd, 


according to Norwegian and Danish tradition, from the 
tenth to the fifteenth century, were as entirely lost sight 
of as the mysterious Vinland of the ancient Sagas ; and 
when at length an interest in their history revived, much 
fruitless labour was expended in the search for an East 
Greenland colony on the coast lying directly west from 
Iceland. Of the fabled charms of the new Hesperian 
region discovered within the Arctic Cird^ yet meriting 
by the luxuriant verdure of its fertile valleys its name 
of Greenland, many a Norse legend pictured the enviable 
delights ; and some of these, as well as the traditions of 
the lost Vinland, our English poet, James Montgomery, 
had embodied in the cantos of his Greenland^ long 
before the Antiquitates AmericancB issued from the 
Copenhagen press. 

Among older memorials of the colonies of Greenland 
and the mythic Vinland, it is recorded that towards the 
middle of the seventeenth century, an oar was drifted 
on the coast of Iceland bearing this inscription in runic 
characters : oft var ek dasa dur ek dro thick. Oft 
tvas I weary when I drew thee. To this the poet refers 
in his fourth canto when alluding to the then unre- 
covered traces of the old Greenland colonies, in following 
the later route of the Moravian Brethren in their gene- 
rous exile : — 

" Here, while in peace the weary pilgrims reat, 
Turn we our voyage from the new-found west^ 
Sail up the current of departed time. 
And seek along its banks that vanished clime. 
By ancient Scalds in Runic verse renowned. 
Now like old Babylon no longer found. 
* OJt was I weary when 1 toUed at thte ;' 
This on an oar alNuadoned to the sea 
Some hand had graven. From what foundered boat 
It feD ; how long on ocean *s waves afloat ; 
Wlio marked it with that melancholy line : 
No record tells. Greenland, such fate was thine ; 


■r tbiw vaM, i-f Ukw niBaiEi a\i Mum 

Kmi be ohop au^ wuaU >o« rnirc thjr tatiH^ 
GrMi« lint Uw Awtow of ■ uigklj luaw." 

t Since tht' poet peiinod tfie»^ lines, other and more 
! evidences, an we have wen, have rcvcnletl cun- 
rcronls. telling of the ancient Greenland 
the n.'|iuted tliacoverers of \'inIaQd. and the 
c^iloren of RhiHlv Island and Massachus^-lts. Tht-y aiv 
ako nffinutti to have i>urane<I thoir explorations far *ie- 
jood such ocrcmilile points of the Amuricuu ouutincnt, 
and to have acijuinil n luiowled^'e uf laud« alike in the 
Intituile of Wellington Channel, and on the 
t of Flori<ia.' "We have seen the charactcristica of 
r undoubted memoriahi on ihe W«itern Rhnres of the 
, and know what in look for on other sites. 
( prone to leave mirh graphic reronli* of their 
■f and have tranfonitte*! the haitit tn their col- 
i deacendantA. Rut the tniHlem EngliKhman and 
tlw ADglo-Ainericaii on.- uotoHotu fur the fumr which 
~ I its grattfiaition in inscribing alike on the walk of 
Dple or ruiDol tower, and on the remutt^t and roo«t 
ablt? i-liffs, tin- memorijds of their pri-souce. The 
, ti'niplHH, and ratoromlM of thti Nile Valley ; 
niti nf thf \\\i\ the jVndca, and the Himalajaa ; 
r remott-rt An-tic ami Antarctic rvgions ; and all 
■ familiar and favourite haunta of modern travel. 

• U Ik* AatA of ik> AwBnvy ol Awrm ly Ih* S« 
ffci U I*. l- Hi l ^M C C IUfBMU>:— -IVXonlMaMv 
«ilk A»MMM hwl iliB hrtbw to tb* mmlh. mUmI I17 tl 
fa^ (tte ta«l •< lh> White HmI. or IHaM4 it JTiUa {iitmX lnU»J). 1W 
OMl aitMM-* li iMi fMatry ta But ilaliit i H »M |>m)MUy Kcwth mhI 
ItoMlk Cteolte^ G«M|iB, aMi Pl«^& !■ ISMi. mmm fnt^ at Mw^t. i* 
Oi^i^^ Mt •■ (iMt • *a]n«* af •faEMHy to Ik Awtk rifiaM of AmviBK. 
Aa«*iWHdiy al— !■»■■ painra* tb«l U« laafe plaMlhn^ I wriil 1 
•mmI Mrf IkniHr^ Wrait to thr latiUta cT WaffiagtoM'a rhwad. Tba 


will teU to QtAixst ages of the wanderings of die yentoroiis 
Briton and his stordy American sons. But this crayii^ 
for such fame is acquired by neither as an An^o-Sazon 
heritage. Anglo-Saxon runes are of the rarest occurrence 
in Britain, and nearly unknown beyond its limits ; and 
Englishmen doubtless inherit this, as well as the spirit of 
maritime enterprise, and many other characteristic attrir 
butes of the modem stock, fix)m their hardy Danelagh 
ancestry. The Norseman was proud of his wanderingaii 
and delighted to record explorations of far-distant r^ons^ 
on his father's or his brother^s havAasle^ne. No wonder, 
therefore, when the antiquaries of Copenhagen were on 
the track of the long-lost Vinland, that they demanded 
of their American correspondents the production of 
monuments and inscriptions corroborative of the sup- 
posed ante -Columbian wanderings of Leif Ericson or 
Thorfinn Karlsefne, similar to those produced by them- 
Hclvea from Greenland. Nor were our modem Vinlanders 
less eager to respond ; for the Rhode Island Historical 
Society, replying through its learned secretary, did forth- 
witli produce the required inscriptions and memorials: 
evi»ii tc) the famous " Danish Round Tower'' at Newport, 
whitJi the vulgar had been profane enough to reckon 
uotliin^ more than an old windmill I 

Hut the most nieniorable, if not notorious of all the 
mweulUHl niDUUiuouts of the Massachusetts Northmen is 
the lanu>urt Assonotor Dighton Rock, on the east bank 
t»f the Taunton river : a relic of considerable value in 
rtJat ion to our pivsent inquiries. It might be assumed 
with gn^at jnH)l><ibility that investigations instituted fully 
\X\\\^^ eenturie« after the oj^ning up of a regular inter- 
eouwo lK>tween Euix>po and America should fail to dia- 
eovor, in tJio loug-8i^ttled New Enghmd States, any me- 
moriaU of oKlor colonists; though such evidence may 
ha\o Ihvu in existoueo at a time when the Pilgrim 


I bad other thingR to occupy their tlioiigbta tlutn 
I Tclirs of imaginary predecessors. Anglo-Roman in- 
» as we know, liave Wen built iiito the mnsonrj* 
■ wicivnt chuwlii.**!, meduevjil 8tn)nglioItln, and even 
idem fiirui-hoiws. The islimd^rH, who were thus in- 
nt to tho meinoriiils <if older liritish colonists, were 
i likely, wben transplanted to the wilds of the New 
Vorid, to give greatf-r heed to gniven rocks, or such 
' * " r inflcribetl runic slabs as Leif Erieson or Thorfinn 
t may have left Iiehind tliem. Surh seemed a 
1 orgxmicot ; but hapj.ily for us, the IHghton 

It BOppiics an unanawtralilc rejily to any Bueh assiunp- 

tiiiQft, tliough not pn-cisely in tlie fonn which some of 
• moih-ni iutorfin-lcrs have aasignod to it. 
Tbc history of thht inscription i« scarc^ttly Hurjiawicd in 
. it has excited, or the novel phases it has 
1 at BaccesBJve epoclis of theoretical speculation, 
r Pemsinian, Engiibine, or Nilotic riddle. ^VheIl 
ite of AmericAu antitiuariea inclined towards Phoo- 
relica, the Dightou inscription muformed to their 
sioM ; and with rhangirig ta^ti^ it \m» proved equally 
oliant In 1 783 tht Ht'v. Va.m Stih■^ D.D., Pr«ii<lent 
e College, when preaching Wfore tlie Governor and 
Connecticut, appealed to the Dighton Rock, 
I. an he believet], in the old Punic or I'hoenician 
r and language : in proof that the Indians were 
lined seed of Canaan, and were to be diftplaced 
1 out by the EuropL-JUi descendants of Japhet t 
tticiana," he affirms, " eliarged tlie I>ightoD and 
I in Kamganaet Bay with Punic ioeejiptions 
\ to this day. which hut 1 myself have repeatedly 
1 taken off al htrge, as diti Prufct«or SeweU. He 
ly tmnsmittetl a eo]^ of this inacriptinn to Ur. 
1 of the Parisian Acado-niy of Scienceu, who. com- j 
[ them with thf Piini'- pnl^ngnpliy, jadgra ilwiaa 


to be Punic, and has inteipreted them as denoting that 
the ancient Carthaginians once visited these distant re- 
gions."'^ To this^ accordingly, Humboldt refers^ when he 
remarks : ** The Anglo-American antiquaries have an 
inscription which thejr suppose to be PhoBnidan, and 
which is engraved on the Dighton rocks in Nairaganaet 
Bay, near the banks of Taunton River, twelve leagues 
south of Boston. From the end of the seventeenth cenr 
tury downward, drawings have been repeatedly made^ 
but so dissimilar, that it is difficult to recognise them as 
copies of the same original Count de Gebelin does not 
hesitate, with the learned Dr. Stiles, to regard these 
marks as a Carthaginian inscription. He .says, with that 
enthusiasm which is natural to him, but which is hi^y 
mischievous in discussions of this kind, that this inscrip- 
tion has arrived most opportunely from the New Wodd, 
to confirm his ideas on the origin of nations ; and that 
it is manifestly a Phoenician monument A picture in 
the foreground represents an alliance between the Ame- 
rican people and the foreign nation, who have arrived by 
the winds of the north from a rich and industrious 
rouiitry."^ Hero, then, we perceive the very materiids 
wo fttiind in nood of Change but this Punic into a Runic 
inHo.ri|)ti<)n, and the winds of the north will fit the Scan- 
dinavian loc^landcrs far better than voyagers from the 
Moditornuu^an Soa. Humboldt, indeed, throws out the 
hint in a HubsiMjuoiit paragraph, w^hieh was ultimately 
f\irnc»d to fjood aooouut. But meanwhile let us retrace 
tlui history of this famous inscription. 

So early as 1080, Dr. Danforth executed what he char- 
aeteriztnl as ** a faithful and accurate representation of 
the iliseription" on Dighton Rock. In 1712, the cele- 
brated Dr. C\)tton blather procured drawings of the 
siuue, and tninsmitted them to the Seci^etary of the 

* Jn-Ai«*/iij/;«i, vi»l. viii. p. 291. ' Vue* df* CtmimtreA, vol i j>. 180. 


aeXy of London, with a iloscriplioii, printed in 

\ical 7'ransactiotit for 1714, in which it is 

I u on iuxcriptioQ in wbicb are wvcn or eight 

. seven or eight fc-t-l loug, iind altout a foot 

I of thi^m vngniveu witli uuac^ouDtaMc cbai^ 

tuU like any known chitnicter." hi 1730, Dr. 

BQnseowooil, HoUistuu ProfuHHor at Cambridge, New 

, took up the subject, and commiuiicated to the 

f of Antiqunrieti of I»nflun a drawing of the some 

I, accompanied Kith a deHcription which proves 

tiie gn&t can.* with wbidi his copy was exeeiitod. In 

17(18, Mr. Sti'pht'D St^well, Professor of Oriental Lan- 

xnogcs at Cambridge, New England, took u careful copy, 

tbe sin.' of the urigimil, and dopostte<I it in the Aluseum 

^jtf Barmrd IJiiiveraity ; and a trausirript of this was for 

l^vded totbe Itnyai t:>c>cicty of-Ijondon, hix years Intei; I 

Hl^JUr. Jnniea Winthmpo, Hollisian Professor of Mathe- ' 

JBstic& In 178f>, the Rev. Michael Lort, O.D., cue of 

tbe Vicc-PreiideDta of ihe Society of Auliquarics of 

London, again bmugbt the Kubjeet. with uU itx oceumu- 

Uud !lluRtralii»iij«, I'efuro Uiut leame<l society;' and 

CoIiicH'l Valli-m-y uncb-rl'Mtk lo prove tliat the inscription 

^^BB neither PliLunician nor Punie but Siberian.* Subsc- 

^^Bntly, Jud)^ \Vinthro{« ejterutcd another drawing in 

^^B8 : and again we luive otbt^rs by Dr. Itaylies and Mr. 

^Wodwin in 17l)0, Viy Mr. Kendall in 1807. l«y Mr. Job 

Gardner in 181*.!: ond finally, in 1830, by a ComnuK- 

MO kppoiuti'd by the Rliode Island Historical Society, 

I communicated to tbe Andqaaries of Copenhogen 
(dnbunte dtMcriplious : which duly appear in their 
Wjifatoi Americana, iu proof of novel and very 
IjUi dedoctiona. 
Byno inacription ancient or modem, not even the 
nn cnneatiai, or thv trilingual Rowtta Stone, ever 

• AiHm t^'m. *i4 *Ui p IM • tiU. p. Ml. 


11 the linU-l of M(mkl>arut)' {>c«t«ni the mitre uf the 

iL.r,.l>l.- AbW of Trotcosey, " 5«? what it' is to have 

■ ■ ■!■ I- rtfft!" TliL- mscription, as has l>ocn iwiil, U 

■ 1 Iv the most tinleaniof) ; for, notwitl)staii<Iiiig 

1 the pa^cs of i\M AntiiiuiUttes Ameri- 

vMixw rhiirartcra, llio ItttcTH which had 

, ^ ; I tue out on thf oft-ropied DightonRock, 

in loifnihly plain Koniiiii rapitals ; : o B P I » 8. 

im^ting nf the American Association for the 

mt of Science, held at Albany in 1856, I hod 

aity of iiupecting n cast of the Dighton Rock. 

I confused and iudiatinct scrawl over trioU the 

ion 9LXT. Mine provixl wholly unable to 

I invaluable holograph of the amieut Norec 

Indeed, the rough natural surface of the 

1 ^C¥^lc on which the figutvs bivi; tieen aketched 

) ini[M;rfect |ik)1» t>f 8f>me Inrlian artist, and their 

I indistinctnesi, account for thu variationH in the tmc- 

B copter 08 well as for the fanciful additions wliich 

: copyists have succeeded in tracing amid the 

■ lineB. 

Mr. Schoolenft tested the ori^u and Bignificance off 
^Jhe Dighton Rock inscription, by submitting a copy nf 
^^■ito Chingvnuk, an intelligent Indian chief, familiar 
^^■h Uw! native system of picture-writing. The remilt 
^^k an interpTvtation of the whole as^ the record of an 
^^Uian tiiiimph over some rival native tribe ; and the 
^fbiviction on Mr. Schoolcmft'9 part llmt the graven 
•ode is limply an example of Indian rock-writing, or . 
mtmtinnnhik, attrilmtnbte lo the Wabcnakies of New \ 
Holland.' In the engraving of 17'JO an OE appear^ 
which expanded into Tborfinn, and his fifty-one foUow- 
cfB, in 1830. Theso Chingwank could make nothing 
oC and henoe Mr. Schoolcraft inferred that they wen ^ 

■ iin*ryyi4>/wttn fV«<^ n>L rr. p. im pbA* 14- 




genuine additions, made by the Noraemen to an Indian 
record. But subsequent inspection of the original satia- 
iied him that the runic or Boman characters are imagin- 
ary, and that the whole is of Indian origin, an o[nnioii 
which General Washington is said to have expreaaed at 
Cambridge so early as 1789. 

Such is the conviction reluctantly forced on the mind 
of the most enthusiastic believer in the ante-ColumUan 
discovery and colonization of New England by the 
Northmen, in reference to this famous Digfaton Bock, 
after all the fascinating glimpses of an American pre- 
historic era which the learning of Danish antiquaries had 
conjured up for his behoo£ The runic records of the 
Dighton Bock, it may be presumed, have lost credit with 
every honest inquirer; not so, however, the traditkms 
of the Northmen, or the faith in the discovery of some 
more credible memorial of their presence. 

One of the latest discoveries of these supposed records 
of the Northmen was produced before the Ethnological 
section at the Albany meeting of the American Associa- 
tion, ill 1856, by Dr. A. E. Hamlin, of Bangor, and is 
described in the printed Transactions.^ The accompany- 
ing woodcut (Fig. 48) is copied from the Ciist, then 

Flo. 4S.— Monbegan Inscription. 

t^xhibitoil, of this supposed runic inscription, which ap- 
jKNirs oil a liHlgo of hornblende, on the Island of Mon- 
hogaii, off the coast of Maine. Dr. Hamlin suggests that 
tho ins(*ription is the work of ''some illiterate Scan- 

\SM\. rhih^f*ifw fiNf/ AVANcVfWv. ]v 214. 


diztavuD, wboeo knovrjudge of tlte niiiic form wna veiy 

nnprrfwt ;" anJ he tlien proceuiis to adduce reasons for 

a«gDii)^ Muiihegnn, the Kennebec River, and Mcny 

Mh-'iIii^ Itay, as the true localities of Lcif's wintering 

[•lace in Vinland, instead of the previously assumed 

PacsML-t River and Mount Hope Bay, Dr. Hamlin, 

iiowtviT. duly forwardwi a copy of the in*«;ription to 

i-n, and a vctHiou of it nppuura in the Seance 

(Ih 14 itai 1859, lioaring a very remote re- 

■ to tli« sccomjMinyiiig engraving of it, and 

■\ great deaJ liker runea than the original can 

■In. The lAiniRh antiquaries on this oce««iou, 

, altsndoned the attempt at intcqiretalion ; 

there is sometliing amusitig in the r^mtnist 

1 1 the New Euglander'a tht-or)' of an illiterate 

><>rai-nuui Bcrnwling iucomprchensible natic clianictcra 

:i thu rock, and that of tlie Danish dueidutor, wbo 

-n.-.^ : "The Indiumt have, without doubt, pmiited 

. i: in ways by their intercourse with the Northmen, 

Horn they were pnjbably indebted for much know- 

I it is up[Miri-ntly to their instruction, acquired 

, that wc owe several of their sculpture* 

B which on- met with in these rufiioua."' Tho 

I insrriptton, thuK bandied aUml Itetween ilii- 

B Korthmcn and Indians, is in irregular lines al>out 

I long, an^I runs oblii]uely across the face of a 

! the general lines of stratificatioD are hori- 

_ \, md praeotod un iu][K-diment tu its characters 

htaag placed in the usuuJ upright poeitiun. It is just as 

tndj a record iii Seaudiuaviim mnc« an that of tho 

Dig:btnn Rock. Wlien pro|>criy chis»ed, it will more 

prv>)iaMy lake its pUcu wi(h the famima Kwcdinh 

Katiiimo iuHTiptioo, whidi, after iXa charactem bad 

bem interpTvted with wonderfid nunnlejie^w, turned 



out t(t 1)0 only tile natui'ul raarkings on a block of 

Of u SQxy diffiirent character is another iuscription to 
wliifh wc uow turn. If the "Grave Creek Stone" could 
lie rf^lieil ujton aa a gcuuinu relic, it would coustitate tlie 
niOHt remarkiil lie of nil disclosures which the exploratioiu 
of the ancient mounds and earthworks of the New "Worid 
have bi-ouglit to liglit, Mr. Schoolcraft has specially 
devoted himself to the elucidation of this maxvelloua 
inscription ; and after corresponding on the subject with 
Idirued societies both iu Europe and America, he has 
finally placed it iu his class of Intrusive Antiquities. 
In the year 1838, soon after the publitation of the AtOi- 
quitateK Americana, the famous Grave Creek mound, 
on the banks of the Ohio River, was excavated by ita 
proprietor, and converted into an exhibition. Tha 
mound, which is one of the largest on the contineni 
has already been described ; and its genuine charactw* 
istics arc such as stand in need of no adventitious aid 
to confer a legitimate interest. But along with 
shell-beads, copper bracelets, and other relics common to 
such sepulchral mounds, wliich were recovered in the 

course of the excavations, an inscribed oval disk of white 
todstone — engraved here the same size from a wax 
don of the original, — was produeeil as having] 

>JL] jyrs-coiUMBiAy nuvna. coiox/zATio.v. lai 

•Hm fnand near one of the skeletoiiR at the base of the 
uii'1. The &tone iu(^it8urc-» thn^e-fourths of an iotJi 
^'i kin-as, ami in engraved with three lines of un- 

'All iharactew, an shown in the woodt^ut (Fig. 49). 

It U unique unioug American graven or iK-pulclmd relics, 
and of its gvuuinenen Mr. S4;b(M)lcnift does not express 
til., -li.'litfst doubt ; nor can he Iw considered unreason- 
\ r^tpriouH u to the incHcations of its ancient 
After coTTesponding with Professor Rafn of 
I .[.. ijtmgen, M. Jomard of Paris, and other foreign and 
itntivi' .^rholan, he communicate^ an elaborate anal^'sis 
of ihi- iD:Muiption to the /Vmericau Ethnological Society.* 
In thiit be shows that the cosmopolitan little dUk of 
aantUtuiio contains twenty-two alphabetic clmractera, 
four tif which corrcsjxmd with thft ancient Greek, four 
with Lbu Etruscjm, five with tJie old Nortlicm runuH, six 
with tlie aneipnt Gaelic, seven with the old EIthc, ten 
r^lUi the Pha-nieiaa, fourteen with the Anglo-Saxon — or 
, Britiali sm it is somewhat oddly designated, — and 
with th^ C«ltiberic ; besides which, he adds, 
f equivalents for these charactent may be found 
I Hebrew," a suggestion deigned, no doubt, for 
) may still have faith in the dew^ent of Uie red 
1 from the lost tt^n tribes. It thus api>eani tlrnt this 
I little Ktone ia even more arromroodating than 
! Digliton Itock. in adapting itself to all conceivable 
' of ante - Columbian colonization ; and in fact 
ilten an epitome of the prehislorii: literature of 
t New World. Had Sir Henry Kawliasou dug up 
1 olio of all languages at one of the eomcni of the 
r of Babel it might ha^'e less suriirised us, than as 
iIk product of the great Virginian scpuluhnd mound. 

lilts curious aDalysis, to oontr&r^* to all pn^-vious phi- 
IniogicaJ expcricnet', iloca not seem to have staggered 

I TVMaMCiM* nfitU Awtrriam EamologSad Soii^. toL l p. IDS. 




the iaith uf its clucidator, io an inacription, which, if 
genuine, cortainly merita all the sttenrion it has r^' 
ceived, as without e^xception the most renmrkable am-'i _ 
the antiquities hitherto recovered from the anfitn 
mounds. That a scries of simple linear alplmlx-t i 
Bgures Bhould be found to present certain analogies \- 
runic and other alphaWta, even including the cuneai: 
characters on the Assyrian marbles, will surprise no un' 
who has made for himself the easy experiment of trjnii. 
to invent a new series of combinations of lines an i 
curves differing from such alphabets. But apart frcr; 
internal evidence, the fact was notorious that Dr. Jauii 
W. Clemens communicated to Dr. Morton all the details 
of the exploration of the Grave Creek mound, whicli 
appear in the Crania Americcnia, without any referenrr 
to the discovery of the inscribed stone. Nor was it till 
the excavated vault had beeu fitted up by its propricti->i 
for exhibition, to all who cared to pay for the privilege 
of admission, that the marvellous inscription opportundy 
came to light to add to the attractions of the show. 
Nevertheless, Mr. Schoolcraft retaius bis faith unchanged, 
and after raising the question of Phosnician, Iberian, 
Danish, or Celtic origin in his first paper on the subject, 
he thus sums up hia later and more matured views in 
his Jlistory of the Indian Tribes: — " An inscription in 
appni-ently some form of the Celtic character came to 
light in the Ohio Valley in 1838. This relic occurred 
in one of the principal tiunuli of Western Virginia (the 
oncicnt Hiiilramannaland). It purporta to be of an 
ftp[)an'titly uiirly period, viz., 1328. It is in the Celti- 
btTic cliaractiT, but has not been deciphered. Itsarehfe- 
nlngy npjMmrs corroborative of the Cimbrian and the 
IHiscarora traditions, representing a white race in the 
ante Columbian periods in this part of America."' 

' lliilmy ifflht Indian 7Vt6f«, vol. iv. ]>. 1I& 


_■ nio* of nn:ha3uli>^fy might well hvieh her favours more 
'ii-ially ou vi.tJkri*--* wbn make so mnch out of her 
[iialk-Mt wmLriliiitioM. The jjon-ulhetical introduction 
.! IVffiiswir Rjifu's Huilrftmnnnahtml ia a fine examplu 
r rfaflorirol allusiim. 'Vhe unhesitating determination 
[ ik iuarnptiiiD as in " M« CVltilx-ric character" won- 
[fuUy riniplifii'S the jirevioua alternativea : and it 
I never be saruiL'^ed fri)m his text, that the historian 
E iIm Induin trit«s assigns hiA precise date of 132S on 
y better authority tlian the statement of Mr. Tonilin^on, 
I pn>|irietur of the lU'iund, tliat the seetiou of u lai;ge 
kite uik which tttood on iu summit diaclused about 
bundrMl iiuuuul riugs ; which, suppotiiug the uak 
\ hu>e taktii ntot the verji' year of the mound's com- 
iwl llie nngn to Imvc b«;en exatrtly the product 
oturieti, wouhl indicatt; the said date. Dr. 
\ however, a much mon^ impartial and trunt- 
ritnem, etateR the annual layers of titc oak at 
■ hundred, and aayn nothing about the inscription. 
; its Blphjilx.-tic nuu-\'eb were hailwl with rapture by 
At wunduriug MU\tttM lu whom thuy wore submitted. 
TIm? nnliquariut u{ Coi>euhagi-n puliliahud a description 
(thia "Kunir in.<tcription found in America ;" hesibited 
I itm BUthois between " tribes from the Pyreneau 
and inhabitants of tliu British Isles ; but 
, f'lr qualifying with any potmsibility of doubt 
I certninty a» to its being " of European origin, and 
uleriur to the cl»«e of the teuili century," 
Ltbe European alphabets with which they hod 
1 H ore themaclvoii of k very unttient ^Vsiatie 
I Tb^ added, moreover, the wmewliat ilnngenjus 
* that tlie numerous amateura of antiquity in 
L nuy coDtinno to exert thems^Jves for tlte tli«- 
r of more OKmaments of such high value."' 

M A k K^UM Ih f uy 4— AmUftlf rfn .Varrl, t^UHt, p. I<7 


Ancient European, then, the Viiginian inacii^tioni i% 
unless it be still moie ancient Asiatic But Mdxm, too^ 
has its champions. M. Jomaid, President of the Geo- 
giaphical Socie^ of Paiia^ pronounced the nddle to be 
Libyan ; and his opinion has since met with independait 
confirmation. Mr. William B. Hodgson, fonnerly Ame- 
rican Consul at Tunis^ in his Notes <m Northern Africa^ 
after discussing the vestiges of the ancient Libyan hn- 
guage8» and noticing certain Numidian inscriptions foimd 
at the oasis of Ghiaat and elsewhere : proceeds to com- 
ment on the Grave Creek Stone as ''an inscription found 
in the United States^ and containing charact^s veiy 
similar to the Libyan;" and after detailing the dis- 
coveries in the mound, he thus exclaims : ** Whence was 
the ivoiy brought ? Who was the gorgeous chieftain 
whose engraved signet was found by his side ? Did he 
come from the Canary Islands, whero the Numidian 
language and characters prevailed ? or from the land <tf 
the Celto-Iberians^ whose writing was somevdiat similar ! 
Shall we recur to the lost Atlantis ? Coidd any of the 
Carthaginiau or Africiin vessels, which usually visited 
the Fortunate or Canary Islands, have been carried by 
ac-cidcnt to tlie New World ? The peopling of America 
is quite as likely to l)e due to Africa and Europe as 
to Asiiv." Without attempting to determine the true 
answer to his queries, Mr. Hodgson concludes that 
tliere is no apparent difficulty in supposing the inscribed 
stone to have been brouojht from Africa bv accident or 
design. Dr. Wills de Hass, an American archaeologist^ 
has recently communicated to the American Etlmological 
Society an elaborate i>aper, which he intimates his inten- 
tion of publishing, in proof of the authenticity of the 
Grave Creek Stone ; meanwhile we can only regret that 

' *Vote* OR SortMarn Jj'rka^ the Sahara and Samdan^ im rtlatkm to th^ 
EiMmfgrapkfi^ Language^, ^r., i*j thot»e C<mntrie*^ |v 44. 

I I I I III a ll .i»i«ii ^ li « ii t t n ii, 

i» «W Edaotogical Soditf , lie ThoBM Evliuk i» 
■Mil I. tha ' it »ea«ri Kni^ lUt tke ekuacm if 
mUbiIi 1 to sgnfy aajrtking. JmniM b* pW«d wImk* 
IfccT wvoU be moat «jcp«K<l to h^at^ vnmi vnvf \yf tJw 
OK cf the ujatiuuMi t.' Two of tfa« chalwlrn *i\' |iiimHl 
«■ oiH vdmt in tile graove fbr lLh» hatHUt\ Hyf «i4bt>«« 
■UMiently tons ■ ooatinnouft \u», lunniug ntuitd UtiK 

r ^ 

rMEBISrOMlC MAN. \Qata, 

i ofrtfae sn-Uide^ as extended here (Fig. 51). This 
m BOC. howero; an ahogtrcber uniqiie example of an ok' 
psTcd sie. The la el ^ee of deuocating implements of' 

y V 



the Miiiplcat forms vrith graTcn and hiert^iyphic eharac- 
teis has alreaily Ijvi-u itlusimtiHl iu a previous chapter, io 
one <-if the Oarib shell knives (Fig. 6) from Barbadoes.' 
Sack devti.-c$ pr\>h»lily indicate the dedication of the 
we^H>n or implement to some spceial and sacred pur- 
pose, such as the rites of Mexican sacrifice rendered bo 

UumbcJdt 6gures, in his Ynts des CktrdiUires, a 
hatchet made of a compact feldspar passing into true 
jade, obtained by him from the Professor of Mineralogy 
in the School of Mines at Mexico, with its surface 
covered with graven figxires or characters. In comment- 
ing on this interesting relic, M. Humboldt adds : " Not- 
withstanding our long and frequent journeys in the 
Cordilleras of the two Ameri&is, we were never able to 
discover the jade in situ ; and this rock being so rart^ 
we are the more astonished at the great quantity of 
hatchets of jade which are foxmd on turning up the soil 
in localities formerly inhabited, extending from the Ohio 
to the mountains of Chili."* Here also, therefore, we 
have a glimpse of wide-spread ancient trade and barter 
carried on throughout the American continent in ancient 

I Sw vii!. i. i-. -0)0. * rue* ifc» ConliUint, voL ii ji. 146, i>Ute xsriii 



i,maA of a vider intacomse, emhracing buth Nun! 
ioadx Aaamra, ibaa tW inTestigaton of the t^ac^.^ 

Lof fomko- crrifisitioD fakve been willing to recognLw. 

' Die accomponTiag vxwdcnt (Fig. 52) represents tiie 
"jMtc Hatcket," as Humboldt designates it It 
ertaia intCRSt in illustzating a pracdoe of whii h 
tbc PembatOD axe fnniishcs a new example. Dr. R H. 
DtRvi^vlM has euebilh' examined tfae latter, informs ii:' 
tfcat tbcN^ the gnven rbatsrteis have been retoucLi ' 
in the proeeeB of cieaning it, and apparently at tempt <! 
to be deepened h^ the or^nal dtaooTira^r, yet that th< :[ 
edges pteaent an Kp^eamtee of age perfectly consisti.!: 
-with the idea of their genntoeness. Mr. S. R. GuskeU, 
by whom this axe was found on his own farm, is dc- 
BCtibed as a highly re3pe«.-table and trustworthy man ; 
and no attempt to turn the reUc to account, either for 
notffliety or pecuniary gain, furnishes any tangible reason 
for questioning its autbenticitr. It may be worth while 
adding, that this discovery- of an inscribed stone axe is 
not without a parallel among the antiquities of the old 
country. A writer in the LvH<Ionderrf Sentinel of 
November 19, 1858, after noticing the exhumation of 
variotis ancieot cinerary urns at Clumber and KincuU, 
County Derrj", a^lds ; " Some time ago a corioos mallet, 
or hatchet of gigantic dimenaons, cMuposed of sohd flint, 
and apparently covered v>ith ancient characters, was dug 
up in the same district, but through the ignorance of the 
parties into whose hands it came, this invaluable relic 
was unfortunately destroyed. It weighed, we are in 
formed, twelve or thirteen pounds, having been broktii 
up to make a ten-pound weight for common uses 1 Hail 
this precious stone l»een preserved, it might have thrown 
light on a period of our national history which at present 
is involved iij nearly total obscurity. The urns refei 
to are now in the valuable antiquarian collections 


L. Br>wi]i', &h]., proprit-'tor of tliu Cumber 

Tbe report Js too vague to be of much ralac ; but no 
rvlioi are ao fiiaciii&tiug in their proiuisetl disclDeures of 
ttM put, or so justly vatitled to valuo, as thoe« graven 
witii inacripUoiu, even iu tuiknuwu cbaractent ; if their 
gamtneDcaB be only wet] attesti;<l antl free from all sus- 
picion, llie Omve Creek Stone and the Fembcrtun 
wedge iiwc-ription-s if onee authenticattHl, would alto- 
getlier coDtnuUct the idea that "no tmce of an alphabet 
<.xist«d at the time of tbe conqueat of the continent of 
Antericii.'' * The sole lit«nite remains of Pelaagic Italy. 
r<nuKl at iivgylla in St)uthoni Etnuia, do not greatly 
oxceed in amount these Kuppnwd relics of Auienca's for- 
gotten tongues. Dennia gives a liHt of nouie tlurty-«ix 
iir thirty -aeren words as the extreme limits of our know- 
ledge of tbe Etnacan languaga Even the preci&e value 
of it« alphaK't is undotermincd ; and tbe twtitary inscrip- 
tioo on tbe Peruoinian piUur haa suppUed the chief 
BBteriaJs for such linguistic iuductiona relative to ihe 
ancient iUaena, aa the £agubine tnliletii have done for 
tbe Umbrian. Tbe doubt and confusion intrmluced into 
L flthnographic iuquiriea by a single forger^' art? so 
t that the meekest coodave of schokus could 
i'be trust«l with the functions of the American 
against such tut offender. Mappily fur 
i knowledge of tbo eul|>rit is geneniUy on a 
\ his morality. 
ranotber oUaa of mound-diaclomrea, which gather 
Umot chief marvels under the light of modoni eyes, one 
1 and deaixibod by Mr. Schoolcraft, in the Ameri- 
b Mdknuiogical TratunctioH*, opens op, with tbe bdp 
[ jto ingeniotu intcrpivter, glimpses of ante-Columbian 
k«Bd of oompreheiudTO aignificoncc in ita graven 

> Tff^ c/tlintimd, Ik SS3. 



devices, not less nmn^oos than the polyglot chamctt - 
of the Grave Creek Stooe. Having un<lcrt;iken to trcA!. 
ly an exhaustive procesB, " the Grave Creek Mound, the 
antique inscription disrovered in tU ejccavatioo. and the 
connected evidences of the occupancy of the JUsasaippi 
Valley during the Mound period, and prior to the di-- 
covery of America liy Columbus," he intjoducea tin- 
Bubf'idiary Mound relic as a " figured stone &phen>, ad 
antique glol<e, the most important tiiscorery in the minor 
mounds in its bearing on the inscription," It is a spheri- 
cal stone, with no other characteristic of a globe about i" 
than pertains to any schoolboy s marble, but having sundi;. 
li" ■ ■::■■"■ t: - one side within a cirvle. As shou'n in 
the woodcut, these form a lozenge, 
triangle, etc, with no greater ap- 
pearance of art or mystery to th- 
uninitiated eye than an ordimu'. 
masonic mark. But here is wh 
can be made of such markings, | 
one whose fimcy has been a 
lated to tlie degree requisite 1 
interpreting their esoteric teach- 
ings ; — " The stone, which is a sphere, measures 4 A intduis 
in circumference. The inscription lines are encloaed i 
circle of Aths ; they are accompanied by a single t 
betic sign. It is tJie Greek Delta, which is also the lei 
T or D in several of the ancient fllpha!>ets. This x 
acter is also the letter Tyr, in tlie Icelandic Runic, rejH 
seating the god Tyr, or a buIL On the assumption I 
this inscription is geogmphical, it may be inqui 
whether it is a figure of the globe, denoting thcdivisidj 
of land and water, or a minor portion of it The anciei 
did not believe the world to have a spherical ; 
Either the stone, therefore, is of an astronomical t 
acter, or is of a date subsequent to Copernicus; orJ 


I that ho WHS aatidpatcd in the tbiroiy of cno- 

tiy the ani-iuil AmcricaiuL"' This inBcriliei) Btonu 

|ihera baa attnicle<l liulu attention compai\sl uitJi llie 

Qnve Cteek Stom* : " but if tlie above iLlt4.'ruatives 

ogioUy exhaust the clioio^.- of iiiforeDtial truths, it is 

nrdjr the raon- marvellous n\\c of the two! 

A like pnMtr:^ i-i puniuefl with inindry other Mound 

BcK. A iUooe onuunentctl with a fdinple patteru of 

ikenute cirdae and aqoares, biuM>raes a " hemldic record." 

It nuy be irgardnl, perltapM, as a»trol<^ral ornl geuea- 

ogical, ami as aucfa a mt- moriol or Kperius of arms of a 

liidnguiabiU jHTwiii or familv." Again, several per- 

Emted cyliutlurt of s<ift Rteatite, found in nnu of the 

incladi-d a tube twelve inch*?^ long. This forth- 

vikll beooDiM a " teleacopic de-Tioe." The Imre, which is 

bur^fiftlis uf an inch iu iliniiieter, diminishes at one end 

■hnptly l« one-fif^lL "By plating the eye at this 

dimiiuBhed [loint, tiM> extraneous tight is sliut fmui the 

pnpil, and distant ohjerts are more clearly dise.emed. 

11w efiect is tclescopir, and i» the lunic whii:h is known 

lo be produced by directing the sight to the heavens 

frcm tbfl bottom i>f a well, an object which we now 

to have ttpcn secured by the Axtrc and Main 

r astronomical ofaaorrationa, by oonstmcting 

and grnmne graven tablet, from the mounds 
witliin the limits of (.'ineinnati. lias alreaily 
vwl in a prewtiUH cliapter.' and a nt?w hypo- 
as to ita original significance and object, 
\y perhaps appear little lev extmvagaot and 
any that have U«u noted with tvference to 
the ancient monnda. But apart from the 
its preciso original um, its proprit*t«>r, Mr. 

^ ToL L |i. 4IIA. 

• Vij. L ^ 3M. rii. 10. 

192 PSEHISTOHIC MAy. [fH.v! 

Guest, remarked, in liia first account of it, with eciuaJ ']Xi~ 
tiec auil siiga(;ity: — "The beat evidence of its genniin 
ness ia this, that a person in our times could scan;'!' 
make so perfect an engraving as this, and uot maki- i 
more perfect. The engraving represents something, wli:it 
ever it is, the two sides of which are intended to !■ 
alike, and yet no two curves or lines are precisely aliki- , 
nor ia there the least evidence of the use of our 
ments to be discovered in the work. So difficult is 
imitate, with our cultivated hands and eyes, the peci 
imperfection of this cutting, that some excellent ji 
who at first doubted the genuineness of the relie, 
changed their opinion upon trying to imitate it." 
graven device has been characterized as a hieroglyphic 
inscription, and its graduated Unes have been interpreted 
to embody the record of a native calendar ; while the 
idea of its preserving a scale of measurement on which 
the great geometrical earthworks ef the Miseit 
Valley were constructed, is suggested on a previous 
Mr. Squier appears to attach no special significam 
the peculiar arrangement of lines ; although the m; 
in which they are inti^oduced, limited only to part of the 
border, does not seem consistent with any idea of mere 
ornament. As to tlie devices of the Cincinnati 
touche," he discovers in them more resemblance to 
stalk and flower of a plant, than to any astronomical 
chronological hieroglyphic ; and accordingly supposes it 
may have been a mere pattern cut in rehef for stamping 
cloth or prepared skins.' If so, it embodied the germ of 
wood-engraving, type-printing, and the press itself. But 
it is worthy of note, that a flower-pattern so extremi 
conventional as thi", is at variance with the minute 
accurate imitative faculty displayed in other 
works of the Mound -Builders. Possibly future discovi 

' Ataak'tii Elhaoliiyieal Tnintactioiu, vol. ii. p. 1S9. 




ibjeeto of the wuuo cliuut may help to a more certain 

niuutioD of iu |mri>o«f iiuJ moaiung. 
Sober aft*T-thouglit \\a& Kl tliu bistorii-al antiquaries 
of Bhoilu Ulaml »u thuruuglily i*> ivji-et ihoir older Ikith 
ia the nuU'-CoIumbian rt-lics of the district, attested by 
the 0>i>t!iihjifti'U HUthoritifs, that uot only the Dightou 
Bock is iu dangor of being under\'alued, but the famous 
Bound Towor i>f Ncw|K>rt ia unduly alighted, now that 
Boeptioi (lireatcn to ruU it of Rome six centuries of its 
reputed age. As a genuine Amcritviu ruin of former 
geoeratiouB, tho old Tower fomis an excurdingly uttrac- 
tire feature ou Xewfknrt ronimun, and the historical and 
poetical nBHodations whicli have lH>en ascribed to it by 
■« nteftDii diminish ita intereHt. When tin; Danish anti* 
qnaiint wrre in searrh of rcliea of the long-lost Viuland, 
dnvingH of the Tower were despatirhed to them, and ita 
uilbefltic:ntion as an architectural monument of th<-> Notvc 
eoloDUts of New England is thus unhesitatingly xet forth 
in the Mipplement to the Aiitiquitalrs Amei-icana : 
" Tbere ia no mistaking, in this instanre, the style in 
which the more ancient atone edifices of tlie North were 
constractcd. . . . From such characteristics as remain, wc 
caa Marcely foim any other Inference than one, in which 
I am pcnuadcd that all who are familiar with old 
Kartbern architoutunj will concur, that this huildiag was 
erect««l at a period decidedly not later than the twelfth 
e«a»tury."' The |Joet Longfellow, acc«>rdingly, assuming 
its Travrablc origin, has associated it with another dis- 
coTvry of B<>-caUeil Norse nJies, and mode it the scene of 
his baUad of Thf Shelrtan in Armour. But the modem 
Bkald is not the Ie» aalisfiwl, for all ]mrpoees of sober 
'f, with the dote of 167fl, furnished by the will of 
^rjDiOT Arnold fof his "stone-built windmill in ya 
( Newport." 



In the able and well-digested review of AmeriLv 
Atvftaohgy, prepared by Mr. Samuel F. Havcu for il 
Smithsonian Institution, reference is made to the " Km 
land Stone," an American counterpart to the fam" : 
Swedish Huuamo Inscription, in its graphie freaks ■ 
natural crystallization.' It was described to the authn 
of the Antiquitates Americiina as "a large stone, ■ 
which is a line of considerable length in unknown r:h;i[ 
actors, regularly placed, and the strokes are 611ed u 
with a bhiek composition nearly as har\l as the r.i 
itself." Ancient enough this inscription is for the m' 
ambitious stickler for the antiquity uf the New Worll 
ancient, indeed, as the oldest of those interpreted by ilj 
author of The Testimony of the Rocks, and inscribed l-; 
the same hand that formed its rockj- uuitrix. Oili. 
msi-riptions, not much more available for historical pvn 
poses, ai-e produced by the same author in his review ■' 
tlie spurious as well as the genuine ^n((<;Mi(rfs o/" f/ 
United Stales. Among these " The Alabama Stone"' 
a]i innocent piece of blundering, not without ita nignir: 
cauee. It was discovered near the Black Warrior riv. ] 
upwards of thirty years ago, when no rumours of !!i 
old Northmen's visits to Vinlaud or Huitraniannahii.' 
stimulated the dishonest zeal of relic-hunters; and n 
mystenous Roman uncials, and remote aute-Columbi:^ 
date, v/fiv only wondered at as an inexplicable l 
As copied by its original transcribers, this inscripti 
the thirteenth century ran thus :- — 



Had this Alabama stone turned up opportunely in 18 
when the antiquaries of New England were in posses 
of a roving commission on behoof of Finn MagQUl 

■ n* ArcAaotug]/ nflke Uoilad Slaiet, p. 134 

\S.| A.<fT£4y)lt'MB/AS TRACKS: COLO.VIZAT/OX. 19A 

aoJ oUier Duuuli bcin uu<l n^igiiovH of uld Ari Mantun. 

who knom what might luivc Inxu iiuule of m tempting 

a RKirael ? From ihu* AnnaUg Flalfiff:iisi:i, vcc icam of 

"Eric Grcenhuwliuga Iiinkup," who, iu a.d. lI2Uweut 

to Bwk out Viiilttntl ; au<l iu tht- foUnwin^ century, the 

A nnaUg HoU-mfn, rvcaytrvA liy Torfceus irom tlic epiB- 

cupol wat (if Ilolum in Icebnd, tnipply this tempting 

_lini|»(e : "JaunM ntfja land," ie., new land is found. 

>Vith mirh B hint, what might not learned ingenuity 

A^-e done to unriddle tho mystericit of the Xew Worid 

'. tbc year of grace 1332 T Unhappily, ita fate has 

--•-n to &U into the hands of Mr. Samuel F. Haven 

f r lit. mrv" clitiug, which he does in this unromantic 

I'.-i; -,; " Wu have befoi\- u8 the Alabanm Stone found 

thirty yi-are ago near the Black Warrior river. To 

■ eytm, it rewU bibpan - ET - INO • rex aa plainly as 

J inscription on a Spanish quartvr of a dollar 

. worn. Hio Bguros may be as above npre- 

, hot of conne they cannot be intended fur a 

_ liiidi-ed it be 1532. Earlier datee tlian that 

VinM in gentunc insmbed memoriab of the old Spanish 

Hidalgos' presence iu the Kew World, of which the Man- 

^JM Stone u perhaps the most interesting, m account 

^Hj^ locality where it was discovered. 

^^^nB inscriUxl Ktone was discovered alxmt the year 

^^■0, in the township of Manilas, Oaomlaga Count}', 

^^Kv York, by a {anner, when gathering the stones out 

^^^ft Add on first briuf^ng it into culture. It is an 

imgnlar qiheriad boulder about fourteen inches 

diiaMtcr, now deposited iu the museum of the Albanj I 

On one tude. which is smooth and nearly 

L ii tlw inscription : 

Leo . D«| L.- II 

k the device of a serpent twining round the branch 



of a tree. Like most other American relics of this daa^ 
it has beeu tortured into iuterpretations not very eaaily 
discernible by ordinary processes of rendering bh 
simple records. "By the figure of a serpent cUmbii _ 
a tree, a well-kno^iTi passage in the Pentateuch is clearly 
referred to. By the date, the sixth year of the reign of 
the Pontifi" Leo x, has lieen thought to be denoted. Tliis 
appears to be probable, less clearly fi-om the inscriptive 
phrase Leo de Lon vi., than from the plain date 1520, 
being six years after the Pontiff took the chair."' Again, 
it is assumed to be a memorial of Juau Ponce de Leon, 
the discoverer of Florida, and to "tally exactly with 
the sixth year after his landing," which, however, it 
does not, as that took place on Pasqtta Florid, or Palm 
Sunday, a.d. 1512. The attempt^ indeed, to identify 
the name thus rudely graven on a stray boulder eil 
with that of the sovereign Pontiff Leo x., or with 
Juan Ponce de Leon, is only less extrav.igant thaa 
persistent deciphering of that of the Icelandic Thorfinu 
on the Dighton Rock. Apart, however, from any such 
special identification of the object of the memorial on 
the Manhus Stone, it is a reUc of considerable interest. 
No reasonable grounds exist for questioning its genuine- 
ness ; and we are thus supplied with an inscription of 
a date within twenty-eight years of the first lauding 
of Ck)lumbus on the mainland. A discover)- of this 
nature, associated with the earliest known period of 
European exploration of the American continent, in a 
locality so far to the northward, and so remote from the 
sea-coaat, when taken into conaiderution along with the 
authentic traces of older Norse settlements still discover- 
able in Greenland, is calculated to confirm the doubts of 
any Scandinavian colonization of Vinland in the ages 

' Schoolcnft'a yoba on tkr Iroqvou, p. 32C. Bat 1620 
ye*i at the pontificate of Len x., wbo auccooded Joliui it. in 



e Cotambiw. That tlic old Northmen vUiled Bome 
* ~|tartiittu of Uifi AmtrifJin ooasts api>eans to b«! confirmed 
by iDiwt crwlihli- twitimony ; liut timt their prnnence 
WM tmtadent, omJ that thuy It-ft no rnduriu^ evidence 
, svenu littli; It-as certain. T<j the fSpanish 
I of American discoVL-ry and civUittation, iu the 
I Rbrnqucnt to the cm of ColumbuH, we must, 
tlwtcfon-, took for the etu-hc«t memorials of European 
advcnturv iu the New World. 

Sudi iit an altcinptt-d review of the evidence of intcr- 
oooran U-twct-n iho Old and the New World prior to the 
niyage of (i»lumliua in U92, and of the monumental or 
gnrrj) rebra which »ecm tn furnish any tracea of an 
antc-t'iilumbian civilimlion in America othcrwiiw than 
; native gntwtk The early traces of European pre- 
mbsequ^nt to that dal« are chietiy of value, aa 
J the probability of Homo correspond ing evidence 
ridU ohlur eolimizatidu ha\-ing been tvcovercd, if such 
1 erer exintwl. Tli*' resnlts, however, apjiear only to 
! to vague conji'<-ture and tlio doctrine of proba- 
I all ancient colonization or discover)- of the con- 
st of Amerii*a U'yond tlie Arctic Circle, except in so 
F as the Sagaa of tlie Northmen funti^i trustworthy 
indieatioDs that the old colonists iif Iceland and Grcen- 
laml cfBtHted the North American shorua, and gathered 
the gnpes of New England six hundred and twenty-idx 
fwmiB liefiire the Pilgrim Fatbt^rs effected their first 
MttltaueDt araid the primeval forests of the New M'orld. 
^Hpt if so, the glimfiAeH tht-y olitaincd W(;re pufticicntly 
^HjwieaL The hardy Northmen who dictated tomui to 
^M heir i>f I'harlemagne, planteil their fluuri«hing re- 
pnhbc OQ the iihorefl of Iceland, and colonizeil the wintiy 
Rslms of Grei-nland, seeniol equally fitted to secure for 
theatKlveB the triumphs of Columbus, Cabot, and Cortea. 
And bnw woiUd the whole course of the vorld '• hiatoiy 



eo changed bad Letf Eticaan aad Tborfiim yro\eA 
the J ;nm Fullie» of Nev Ei^^and ! Bat it was n - ; 
•0 to be ; aud tbc fruitkas searefa wliidi haa been - 
sealooaly pureued in the hope of recovcxii]^ aontp tr.^ ' 
d the pntteucf of Scandinavian c(d(mi<«t:!^ on the nt>^ i~-f 
the m3>sl4>ri(iuB Vinland ; or of stjll older Egrptiaa, 
PboBniGtuii, (ircek, or Piinic wanderers landed by choiee 
or cbanco oJong the American shores : baa served only | 
to place heyonfi doubt that if any such did precede . 
ColumbiiH in hiH great discovery, they turned their visit 
to no peminnont account, and have left no memorials of 
their prcniHture glin)|)«ie of the Western Hemisphere. 




The uiisucrossful st*arch after traooj^ of an ante 
r«i]iinihian intrrcoiirs*' with thv New WorUl, siifiice^ 
to riinfimi tlK» \mA\A that, ft»r iinmim)>oivd eenturies 
thr>iir;h«.»ut that anrifnt mi, tht* Wostorn Hemi8]»h(Mv 
wa.* tli«' tXiliHivo hrritap' of nations native* to the soil. 
It.-* sarnni and si'pulchral rites, its usajres ami mipersti- 
titins it.s arts, h-ttt-rs, metalluiyy, soulpturi», and archi- 
lt-«tun\ an* all iK-i-uliariy its own : and wr must now 
•lir-i-t i»iir attention to the |»hy<iiral eharaeteristics whii*h 
m:irk tin* Anit-riran type of man. and endeavour to 
;L*'trtain what tniths mav Im» n*enveral)le fR>m that 
•-••UP •'. n-iative t*i the ori^rin, mutual intluen<'es. or es- 
-niial •livi-rsities, |HTtainin^ to the eivili»'d nation.s 
.tn<I ti:irUiriiU< triU's and eunft^deracies of the eontinent. 

Ani'int: thf various (;n)unds on which (.*oluml»ut< 
loiiiidi-d his lit-Iiff in the i'.\ist<'nee of a eontinent l»e- 
V'iiid th»- Afl.iiitie. >|Mi'ial im|H»rtan(M» was attaehed to 
til' firt that tin* lNNli«> of two deatl men had Inm'U ea-<t 
.i*ii«iri- Mil thf i^-Iaml i»f Flon-s, ditlrrinjj fssi-ntially in 
f» mmip - antl iihvsiral ihara«'t«Tisties from anv known 

fa • 

n ' . Whiii at h'n«^th thf jrreat disi-ovm-r of the 
\V.-.-:.-ni WorM hail -ft his foot on tlie islan«ls tiivt 
\i-it»-«l l»v liim, th" jN.M-uliafities whii-h marki**! the 
J- litli' and fri<-nillv lact* of <inanahane wt*n- noted with 


ijn«»'.is minut'-ness : and their " tawny or io|»|Hr hui-/' 

M« gfmuufmmiL moL foma. 

UjJj KiilUIi. iiiwih, Iflwi 1m"ii. ^mli iwl ii. aaA 

WftiU^Ut^^f^ lEfiBflBfi, URBK dH BBmiBi as clgecte of 
ifit^fmrt f^ tfe %Hra0& «Qtai is weamm, tiie fitde 
^^Mivftl ^/f OJbimlbm wvt fwngfawii wt oalf widi gold 
milt rHti#rr er/retftd ftodouste «f z&t Sdev Worid, but with 
liifiii fff ito imthrcfl^ Im^ &«■ ^ iaknds of San 
Hi^lv^liir ftfid Hiqioinolai : ek^ «f vkm sundYed to 
^m* Ofi tho Htmnge cKrifiatiaB «f aaeieBit ^nuh, and to 
W tht^iiwlvon objects of aca i tj c l r leas aatauduneiit tibaa 
((f th^y tiiid come from anotlier phneL Six of ilieae 
Vis|&iH3iH)Ut44tivoft of the western ocmtmenl; who acoom- 
|jiHUiiHl Uolumbufl to Baicelona, where the Spanish court 
itUMi witM, were baptized with the ntmost state and 
iH^H^aii'iiy. ttH the fint-fraits offered to Heaven from the 
Uisw fuuiid world Ferdinand and the enthusiastic and 
MiUHH}|*tiUi» iMabella, with the Prince Juan, stood sponsoia 
tui- thorn Ht the font ; and when, soon after, one of them, 
whu hikd Ihh)U retained in the prince's household, died, 
uu vlc»ubt »9 to their common humanity marred the 
^i>u;i Mtcf thnt ho was the first of his nation to enter 

Jriiuli w«M tht^ earliest knowledge acquired by the Old 
SYvUvl pf tlu^ Hingular type of humanity generically de- 
MjksUfUpd tlu) lied Indian; and the attention which its 
j»iMMdiMrili(»H exrit4Ml, when thus displayed in their fresh 
uovolty, has not yet oxhaustoii itself, after an interval 
of upwards of throe centuries and a half. That certain 
HjMM'iul characteristics in complexion, hair, and features^ 
do pertain to the whole race or races of the American 
Continent^ is not to l>e disputed. IJlloa, who spent ten 
years in the i^nninco^s of Mexico, Colombia, and Peru, 
says, — ** K we have seen one American, we may be said 
to have sotni all, their colour and make are so nearly 
alike.''* Runark* involving the same idea have been 

» I l^mnirti *M /Wh, pftrtr i. c 19. 


rded, both befons and since the vi»t of UUoa to the 
I of ancient American civilisation, by Spanish and 
otiier writers ; and have been subsequently quoted, with 
a ooiuprchenBivc npphcntion iimlroAnit of when they 
wnn uttcretL In the acoae in which the remark of 
LlloA was made, relative to the living tribes now occu- 
[tying the tTU])icAl re^ous of the continent, of which 
alone liv iqwkc from personal observation, there is no- 
thing B[>ecially to challenge ; but that which was ori- 
^iooUy the mere loose generalization of a tniveller, has 
■-■CD quoted as though it involved an unquestionable 
i'cnna of science. Various causes, moreover, have 
' :. ■ ont-ouragc the development of scientific theory 
liiv«.-tiuu ; so that, with the ezceptiun of the 
■\ix. tiw-- uuivcraality of certmu physical charac- 
uii/iij. -^ [let-uliar t^i the trilHu and uutions of America, 
luut b> i-n a«sumed l>y American ethuolugiata as an ahao- 
ptditaUte for the utricteat purpcmea of scientific 
1 ; nnd is reaffirmed dogmatically, in the words 
\ UDoa : "lie icho hajs geen one tribe of Indian*, has 
I aU." 
1 idea which emhraees in a simple form the Bolution 
iny difficulties, is sure to meet with ready accept- 
; and this one, affirming the homogeneous physical 
Aics of the whole Ked race, has been adopted 
t without inquiry ; so that opinions, resulting &om 
tia oaay aeccptanre, have tteen quoted by later writers in 
ocofimuuioa of its truth. Authorities such as RobGrtM>n 
the bistocian, and Malle Brun. who advance mere gene* 
rafintioos f<mud(--d on no perxonal ol>sc^^■ation. may be 
dMaed even below SponiiUi travellont and i^otonists in 
earimating the ^-alue of kucIi fipiuions. "The Eaqui- 
mana," aajra the former, " arc manifestly a race of men 
dirtinct from all the natioas of the American continent, 
in language, in diapoaitioD, and in habits of life. Bat 


among all the other iiihaliitaat;^ of Amiirica there is s 
a dtrilcing mmilitudc in the form nf their iMtdiea a 
•jaalities nf their minds, that, notwithstanding the d 
sitics orcjisiontHl hy the influont'o of rlimnte^ or odm 
pn^ress of improvement, we must pronount-e I 
be desrended firom nnc sourfe."' Maltf Bniu. with t 
t'autiou, simply affirms, as lie result of a long com 
physirtlogii'al iil»<'r\'atinns, that " the Americnns, i 
ever their origin may l>e, constitute at the pi 
a race essentially different from the rest of mankind 
But greater importance is due to the maturely del 
views of the scientific traveller, who combined the i 
of varied knowledge and profound philosophical spec-a 
tion with i-oncJusions derived from his own personal 
oheervBtious. " There is no proof," says Humboldt, in 
the Introduction to his Resea/rkes, " that the esistcnce 
of man is much more recent in America than in the 
other hemisphere. . . . The nations of America, except 
those which border on the i>oIar circle, form a smgle 
ra(?c, charact«ri2cii by the formation of the skull, tlie 
■ colour of the skin, the extreme thinness of the beard, 
imd straight glossy hair." But this recognition of homo- 
geneous characteristira of the American aljoriginca ha» 
been quotcil to mjuntain xiews which the itc^ompnnying 
remarks of this scientitii- traveller entirely (Contradict ; 
for, as will be aftenvards noted, in the very next sen- 
tence Humboldt dwells on the striking resemblance 
whicli the American race l»cars to the Asiatic Mongols, 
and refers to the transitional cranial characteristics which 
constitute links l>etween the two. 

Very few and partial exceptions can be quoted to tlic 
general unanimity of American writere — some of them 
justly reganleil as authoriries in ethnology, — in referenco 
to this view nf the nations of the whole American con- 

' R.<)>i-H«>ii'>i Amn-ifa, n. iv ' Maltc Bnm. Orn-j. lib, luv 


Uiwut, north and iioutU. Witli tbe solitjirj- exception of 
tlw Bwiuimaax. thry are aifirmotl to rroUMtituti: nnt; nparly 
haay»geii(:otut mcc, viiryin^ within very narrow limits 
frocii tht' prevailing ty]H> ; jind itgrucing in so many 
ewcntinlly <li!rtin<'tiv«! fratures, a« to prove thora a well 
d^fiDril, (iisHmrt specica of the genus Homo. Lawrence. 
WiaemiU). Agaiwiz, Stjuicr, (jliddon, Nott, and Meigs, 
inig^t each Ik! quoted in a>nfirmalion of this opinion, 
aid MpecUlly of the prevailing uniformity of certain 
toon^y- marked cranial characteristics ; liut the source 
uf nil 8U>-h upinions is the justly distinguished author 
of the Crania Atnericamt, Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia. 
Hifl views underwent eonsidcrahle modifieiition on Home 
pointH n.'liiting to the singular conformation nliwrvalile 
in rertoin xkullfi found in uneifiit American gravea, citp*;- 
etally in rt-ft'n'nce bo tlie inHuencc of artificial meana in 
perpetonting »-hangeH of fonii i-sHcnlially different from 
tlw normal t}*]"*? ; but thp tendi'nciea of his matured 
opinions all wont tu coufirm his original idea of nni 
r vmnml approxiroutiou to one type throughout the New 
■■B^. In Home of hiii Ut«st nvonled views he remarlut, 
^^Hiie ninilt of hi« examiimtion of a grejttly extcndc<I 
^^^Eh of Pf^raviiin crania : "I at Brst found it difficult 
' in onnreive tliat tht- original nmnded hIcuII of the IndioJi 
mak) )>e cttangt^l into this fanta«tic form, and wait te<l to 
•appcae that the lattf^r wait on artificial elongation of a 
h/Bttd fRmat^ble for itn length and luurriwiiesH. I even 
toppoaed that the long-hca»ieil Peruvians were a more an- 
aoit people than the Inca triltes. and dintinguished from 
them l>y their rraninJ con figuration. In this opinion i 
wiL« mifttAkeu. Abun<Iant means of observation and 
cnmparison have iiince convinced me that all thetu? 
rariooKly • f< irmorl heiul^ were originally of the same 
an the btest views of I)r. Morton, as set fortli 

*0* PSSaiSTOmC UjLV. [Csa. 

ill the postbunmiis paper on " The Fhya'csl Type of die 
American Indians," coutributed hy him to tiie eecnid 
volume of Mr. Schoolcraft's History of the Indian TVAol 
la that same filial contribution to his &Toarite sdeoMV 
Dr. Morton's matured ^iews on the cnmial trpe erf ti«-' 
American coutiueut — Ijased on tht? additional erideoce 
accumulat4_'d by liim, in the interval of twelve 
which elapsed between the publication of the 
Ameruxttux aud the death of its author. — are 
fined: "The Indian skull is of a decidedly 
form. The occipital portion is flattened in the 
direction, and the transvci'se diameter, as measurod 
tween the parietal boues, is remarkably wide, and o/Im. 
ej:<:eeds the lurujiludinal line} The forehead is low and' 
receding, and rarely arched, as in the other races,- 
feature that is regarded by Humboldt, Lund, and other 
naturalists, as a characteristic of the American race, and 
serving to distinguish it from the Mongolian. Tfa* 
cheek-bones are high, but not much expanded ; the 
illaiy region is salient and ponderous, with teeth of * 
corresponding size, aud singularly fi-ee from decay. Th» 
orbits are large and squared, the nasal orifice n^ide, and 
the boues tliat protect it arched and expanded. Tho 
lower jaw is massive, and wide between the condyli 
but, uotwitfistanding the prominent position of the faoa, 
the teeth are for the moat part vertical"' The Wewa 
thus set forth by him who has been justly designated 

> In thia >UtetDEnt Dr. Morton woald Kem to have lud in view tua Uh 
retic&l type, rather than the resnlta of his own cikreful observktious, onli 
ho Mceiited u «vid»noe tho utificnoUy Bbbrevuted Add fl&Ctencd akolli ; «Bd 
•Tea of theie hii Crania Amtricaua furnishes only one exoe)>tiona[ eiamj^ 
from ■ mound on the Alahama river (plate liv.) "It a flattened on tka 
occiput and oi frontii in such manner ai to give thp whole head a mgar-loaf 
or ooniral fonn, wkmct alto it* gruU lateral diamtItT, laul it* narromieai^Voai 

* **Pbyncal IVl" <>' ^'■^ American Indiana." Sohuolcraft'i HitUiry 1/ tJU 
lu^an TVJIw. vol ii, p. 316. 


t foDiider of tlie Americau School of Ethnology."' 

I been nuiutained und strengthened by his suc- 

■ ; and scaru-'ly any point in relation to ctJinogni< 

3 typM bus bet-n more genemlly accepted as a rccog- 

iLvd pofftuUtv, than the approxiiuativti homogem 

ranial cbBTurtfristics of the whole American race. 

The compn-lieiutivc geuemlization of the Americi 

^^■uual ty[>i', tbuM set forth on such high authority, has 

^■Mrdactl an important influeuru on all subseqm-Dt in- 

■>e«*^tioiia ffhitivo to the alxiriginvs of the New World. 

It has, indee«l, Ixi-n afecpted with such ready faith bb a 

•ricnlific p<i«tulat<-, that Apisaiz, Nott, Meigs, and other 

distingui-ihcd physiologists and natunUiHtit, adopted it 

wilbont qurnlifiu ; and have reasoDtni from it as one of 

ihe few well-4it'termiiied data of ethijologiraj science. 

■■■l^ \i-M eHectually controlled the deductiouH of 
^i^ trarellern. Mr. Stephen;) liaving submitted to 
Hmton the boiiea rescued by him from an aneient 
gtmvu anx-ng the ruin* of Ticnl, " so crumbled and brokeji, 
that in a court df law their ancient pn)prietor would not 
l« able Iti iileniify than," he Huccveded in piecing to- 
gether, (lut iif ihv Imikou fnigmentii, the posterior and 
lateral porlioua of the skull ; and fnim these imperfect 
date prunoutkceil it to Iw that rif a frmide, presenting 
" tlw aamc ph}'»ica] coafonuation whii'h has been be- 
■towed with amaai n g auifomiity upon all the tribes ou 
tKe continent, from Canada to Patagonia, and from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean." * Some of Mr. Stephens' 
uwn personal obaervations pointed, as we have seen, to a 
very different eoDchtsion : but he refflgned lus judgment 
to this Kieotific dogma, and accepted it as conclusive 
prouf that the ancient ndiu he had been cxplorii^ ant 
tiM work of elder genefations of the aomc Indiana who 

■ am*»M' TVnxli •■ Tmtmliat, vol L p tM- 




now, misiTaltlt; and degraded, uling aruuud their I«ii<;- 
dcserted sites. 

Apart from its beariug on the question of the iodii? 
I10U8 origin of the American race, as an essentially di- 
tinct species iu the genus llovio, this idea of a Duarl\ 
absolute homogeneity pervading the tribes and nation - 
of the Western Hemisphere, through every variety ": 
climate and country, &om the Arctic to the Antantii 
cirele, is so entirely opposed to the ethnic phenomeiii 
witnessed in other quartere of the globe, that it is de 
serving of the minutest inveatigation. It is, tudeed, 
admitted by Morton that the agreement is not absolut. 
throughout all the American tribes ; and a distinction 
is drawn by liim, and to some extent recognised and 
adopted by his successors, between the " barbarous or 
American," and the " civilized or Toltecan," tribes. Ac- 
cordingly, one of the three propositions with which Dr. 
Morton sums up the residts deduced from the mass c 
evidence ect forth in liis Omnia Americana is, " 
the American nations, excepting the polar tribes, s 
cue race and one species, but of tvro great famili&s, whi 
rcsemlile each other in physical, but differ in intellecti 
character."' But the distincriou, when thus defined, J 
manifestly not mi ctlmulogical one at all, but i 
accompauimeut of civilisation with its wonted inte 
tuid development. An essential difference in physi 
tyjie is recogniseil as separating the Esquimaux, ■ 
tribes, from the true American autochthones, while j 
[iliysicfll difference between the remaining two | 
ianiilief* into wliich the Americjm nations are dividedj 
t'Xprt^ssly denied. Such a distinction is, for ethnoloL 
purposes lit least, arbitrarj-, indefinite, and valuelesa 

Other dillerenCL'S, or varieties, recognised among I 
triWa of Nortli and South America, have been admo; 

' Ci-aitia Arwri-Mna, p. 260. 


rae aukiuvas vkasial rrre. 

ledgvd, Imt ualj in sach n mitimur ii» to liarmouiw with 
ti'« postulate of tiue Amfhvuu physical type of 
1 U> confirm thv aasumptiun of his indigeDoiu 
1 UDOOg the fjiuna [iL-ciiliar to the \Vv»teni Uemi 
Agusiz. wlu'D alluding lo the MinHir-tiog opio- 
I mainuined by zoologisbt as to the number uf spc-cicit 
iBlo whirh the gcuas Cebtu is divisible, remarks ; *' Here 
«« havv. with referaia! to one genns of monkeys the 
> djvendty of opinion as exists among uatutalistn 
[ the races of man. But in this case the ques- 
I a pecnliar interest, from the circumstance 
frihe genus Gelnu is exclusively American ; for that 
^-^ flame indefinite limitation between its spa- 
arre also among the tribes of IndiaJ 
ne tendency to inputting into miuor gn>upi 
; really one into the other, nutwitlutaruling mm 
t marked diSercncee : in the same nutuuer an Moi 

I that all the Indtatui constilvUs but one ntcf, 
i end of the continent to the other. This dif 
I of our animals into an almost indefinite 
' of varieties, in species whicli have, as a whole, 
■ wide geographical distribution, is a feature which 
" 1 veiy exteiudvely upon the two continents of 
It may Ik- ol»crvL-d among our s^uiireLi, 
I and hoiui, uur tunlut, and oven among uur 
~ in the Old WorM, notwithfltandiag the 
B of similar pbenumenn, the nmge of variatiuD 
I au«3Ufi lew exleu»ivc, and the rouge of their 
1 diiftribatiun mure limited. In accordance 
t gisneral charsctiir «f the animal Idngdom, we 
9 that, among men, with the ex<xption of the 
taux, then; is only one single race of men 
' the whole range of North and Sooth 
; dividing into inuomctablu tribes : whilst, 
I Worid. theiv are a great many well dvfinwl 

208 PREUISTOHW 2fAS. [Cw^r 

and easily diatinguiahcd races, which are circumseribe<l 
within comparatively much narrower boundaries."' Suoli 
is the line of argument by which one distinguished Am*"- 
riean naturaliat seeks to luirmonize the theory of Morton 
with seemingly irreconcilable facts ; and thereby w 
confirm his idea of a complete correspondence between 
the circumscribed areas of the animal world and the 
natui-al range of distinct types of man. The tlifliculUes 
aiising from admitted physical tlifferencea in the oue 
American race, are solved by other writers who hold to 
thia indigenous unity, by such gratuitous hj'pothescs or 
assumptions as that advanced by Mr. Gliddon, that " in 
reality these races originated in nations, and not in a 
single pair ; thus forming proximate, but not identical 
species."" In 8[>ite of such theories, however, the irre- 
concilable variations from any a^umed normal 
could not be altogether ignored ; and the difficulty 
repeatedly glanced at, though it is not fairly grapd 
with by any of the writers of " the American Schcw 
Ethnolog}'." The closest approximation to a r 
of the legitimate deduction from such contrasting en 
characteristics, is made by Dr. Morton himself whj 
he remarks, in reference to the larger cerebral capj 
of the Indian in his savage state, than of the semi* I 
civiU2ed Penivi;m or ancient Mexican, — " Something 
may be attributed to a primitive difference of stock, 
but more, perhaps, to the contrasted activity of the two 

^V^ulst, however, this supposed unity in physical form 
is 80 strongly asserted throughout the wiitiugs of Dr. 
Morton, and has been accepted and made the baids of 
many comprehensive arguments dependent on its truth, 
its originator was not unaware that it was subject lo 

* IniligeMnit Bacrt of the fiirM, p. ih 



.riationA of a reiy marked kiml, nltJiougb be did cot 

..;•»» their just weight to tliese when detennining the 

"Qcltuioiu) which fteemod legitimately to result from Iub 

irefiiUy iu-cumulat«d data. He thu» remarks, in his 

ainui v4 iHcnVirina, on ccrtmn unmistakable diversities 

\ farm into which the awumed Americnn cranial type 

.V !"■ MiUlividud, when ciu«»iu^ the eo-ealled fcar- 

■■< /irj/foru.- — "After examiuing a great number of 

!■, I find that the naticiua oast of the Alleghany 

■ ■;•*, (r^'thor with the a^niite tribes, have the 

■u- elongiitfd than any other Amerieana. Thia 

[■|ilie« ejtpwially to the great L(.'nap<S Btock, the 

Liicl till' Chemlieea. To the west of the Miiuua- 

.ignin meet with llio elongatetl head in the 

IJii ;im.i, AxidnsboitiH, and some other tribes."' 

' 'ri>wis HIackfeet, and Ottoes, are named 

, in his latest reference to the subject, 

.ii7<>< iiiiig the Ottoes {torn the brachyrephalic 

li<'tKMx-[ihalic cUiKs, in which he hiul previously 

J in ; for, to \a» earlier statement, Dr. Morton 

i|]. lurther remark .—" Vet even in thcBO in- 

■ i. .nu-teriirtie truncature of the occiput is 

I- .- ■I.viotis, while many nationi* east of the 

: "ky MuuuuinH have the roiuded head so ciiaracter- 

*L<: of the raee, sa the Oeof^ Ottoes, Mimouris, Daco- 

-" ! numerouit others. The nudc conformation is 

m Floriila : but fv>me of thcite natjona are evi- 

1 the 't'liltcciui family, as lx»th their cfaaracter- 

1 iniditions teatily. llie beads of the Caribe» at 

'!!>' AntiUeaaaof terra firmci, are also DtUnrallj' j 

, and we tnue thii character, oa far as we have 

ui n|>fiiirtQQity for exunination, tbroagh the nations 

L-it of tbu Anden, the PotagmiaitB and the tribes of 

Is jMTlnuM, p U i ItifiintTrfn^tUAmrtiamlmHami: H^»trf 



Chili. In fact, the tiatness of the occipital portion 
the eraniom will probably be fouud to charactemu 
greater or less number of Lii(ii\'idual3 in every existiii;; 
tribe from Terra del Fuego to the Cauadas. If tluii' 
skulls be viewed from behind, we observe the occipii. ' 
outline to be moderately curved outward, wide at \ ■. 
occipital protubtjnmces, and full from those points 
the opening of the ear. From the parietal protuberaii' 
there is a slightly curved slope to the vertex, prodin i 
a conical, or rather a wedge-shaped outline." T)i 
opinions are still more strongly advanced in Dr. Morii" 
most matured views, where he affirms the Amciir 
race to be essentially separate and peculiar, and with im 
obvious links, such u& he could discern, Iwtweeu thi'ui 
and the people of the Old World, but a race distinct 
from all others. 

Following in the footatepa of the distinguished Bla- 
menbach. Dr. Morton has the rare merit of having 
laboured with patient zeal and uDtiriug energj', to ac- 
cumulate and publish to the world the accurately 
observed data which constitute the only true basis of 
science. Wis Crania Americana is a noble monument 
of well-directed industry in the cause of science ; and 
the high estimation in which it ia justly held, as an 
accurate and well-digested embodiment of facts, ha* 
naturally tended to give additional weight to his de- 
ductions. But it is obvious that hia mind dwelt too 
exclusively on one or two of the leading characteristics, 
more or less common, amid many equally important 
T&riations in American crania ; and the tendency of his 
views, as based on the results of hia extended obser^'a- 
tions, was to regard the most marked distinctions in 
American crania as mere variations within narrow limits, 
embraced by the conmion and peculiar type, which he 
recognised as characterifitic of the whole coDtinent, both 


^ortb •nd south. Id this opinion his succceaora have 
I^Bttty ooDcurred, but tkey even attAch less importance 
^^k Tuiationi! noted by his wireful eyo. Dr. Nott, 
^^kamjile, rrmartu on the petmliuritii's of tJie very 
^^Bnble bRvrhyct-'phalie skull tukeii frum u mound 
^^■ft Scioto VaUcv, and figui-cd tht- niilural &izc in 
HikB. 8qait!r and Daviii'it Ancient Monuments of' the 
Wtmuaippi Valley: "Identical rharuutere iwrvado all 
Ae American race, aocient and modem, over the whole 
coatinent. We have mmpared many hea<ls of living 
tlQm, Chfrokecfl, C'hoctaws, Mexicans, etc., ha well an 
cnnia from moundx of all ages, and the same general 
wgaoiam characterizes each one,"' 

SiaoH the death of Dr. Jlorton, his greatly augmented 
eoDaclian. now numbering upwards of eleven hundred 
ikoQav has Iwen depotnitud in the Cabinet of the Aeudcmy 
of NBtonJ Scii-nces of PhiWh-lphia, and IiU catalogue 
ka» been carefully editL-d and ext^'iided under the care 
at Dr. J. Aitken Meigs. The rearrangement and cla«ai- 
fieation has not leil to any change tu the infereueen 
liedorcyj from thi-i valuable accumulation of evident ; 
snd. in a later publication, Dr. Meigs remarks : "Tlm>ugh 
ifae Crania A mericanci, it has lung been known to the 
£e vorld tkit a remarkable sameness of osteolo- 
ictiii pervades all the American tribes, from 
r t« Terra del Fuegu."' 
I. is the opinion arrived at by Dr. Morton, 
; of exleoflive study and ubsor\'atiou, ac- 
I oonfirmcd by his BuocessorB, and now made 
j-pniot from whence to advance tn etill mure 
I oiul CarTeaching oonclusions. It is not 
rfbnv to pcove tJie recognition of this 
K elliDological postuhite by further references 

/mjlgmmu Rar-. |i. 3.13. 


to recent autlioritieaL Its infiaence is nufficiently a 
rent, from its adoption by one of the very forenl 
among American men of science in support of the p>' i 
liar views alreaiiy referred to, of the indigenous ;iii 
local origin of distinct types of man, as well as of (( 
inferior animals. But while sotae of the concluei<>i< 
of American ethnologists have been combated witJi tie 
most eanuBt leal. it bas not occurred to their oppotM 
to chaUeuge this pbyaolc^cal postulate, which He4 
the basis of the whole. 

1 my attention was first directed to the um 
a oS the cnmtal conformation of ancient races, itl 
with a view to the iUustrution of the physical chai 
istics of the primitive occupants of the British Islands. 
Nothing had then been attempted with this purpose in 
\'iew, so C»r as Sootlaud was concerned, and the contri- 
bution the-u offered as a Iteginning ton-ards the aceumu- 
latiou of the requisite data, has ainre been followed ii]' 
by the obsoni'alions of efficient labourers in this new fii! 
of research. At that time I had little anticipation ■ 
devoting attention to the physical coufoi-mation of rJi 
ancient or moilern races of the New World, with tli 
fnoititios arising from long residence on the Americ;i!. 
continent. Nevertheless, the special characteristics as- 
cribed to the American rai^e had already been noted, and 
certain points of corresiKindence traced between them 
and BUrh as pertain t-o the crania of ancient British 
tumuli, when producing a table of comparative measure- 
ments of Scottish crania, in tha Prehistoric Aunals of 
Seotland. It is there remarked : " There is no primitive 
race known to us which see-uis so {it to be selected aaj 
type or standard of comparison, in relation to eta 
development, as the iVzteea or Ancient Mexicans, 
were the last dominant race among numerous nalj 
tribes, wIjo, progressing from the nidimentary stone- 



I rid. were excluded from influences such as those vriiich 

' 8ui<«r»eJod the agea of stone and lironze by 
[-.Tfwt ftrts of civilisation." Atvordingly, two 
I I r!i' li.'.^t diarootcmtie cniuiu of the Mcxicjtn bracliy- 
1 • 1 li .. !.v|B', vic.Tv wIi't-lL-d from tJic Cnmin Americana, 
Hi ■ r .. r 1.. ;ttfonl a com|>amtive cAtiniatit of tlie cranial, 
.ui.i tit. r.>liy of the cerebral caiKicity of the primitive 
ntr«9 of thti Scotti^ tumuli. When in more recent years 
I fi>aii<l myself among living primitive mces, and enjoy- 
ng opportunities of judging for myielf of the physical 
ckaneteristict) of the nlx>riginal occupants uf the ^Vme- 
rieaa fatvuU and prairie^ I availed myself of ihusu b 
tlK full aoiicipatinn of meeting with such cvidcncui of 
a gmcral approximatiun to the a&signed normal Ameri- 
can cranial type, as would confirm the deductions of 
{■wioos obourveiK ily chief aim, when fimt explore 
tqg nau* of the Indian cemetmes in Canada, was to 
acs]Din.* Bitetdmcna of flkults appn>xinuiling to the pecu- 
bar brachycepliolic ty|ie founrl in one im]>ortant class of 
ouly British graves. It was, accj>rdii)gty, dimply with a 
wamo uf disu]>i<ointnieut, that I obaer\-e«l the n^ulta of 
repeated exploratioud ui difiercut localities fumiidi crania, 
which, though uudoubt^-tlly Indian, exhibited little or no 
s of the rounded form with short longitudinal dia^ 
} strikingly apjianuit in ccrlaui ancient Mexican 
and Pcmvion skuU-s an well as in tliu rare examples 
hitherto recovered from tlic moumU of the Misftifwippi 
VoUer. Slowly, however, the conviction forced itself 
^MNi mc, that to wluitever extent thLn aw(ignc<l ty^ucal 
^nll may be found in other parts of the continent, those 
■MM frequently met with along the north ahorvs of the 
gnat Uke^ are deficient in some of ita most essential 
us luiTc been recorded by 
: indicated I 

They a 

I by I 

the Esuuiinaux and American Indian 


forms of skull, us determined 1>j Dr. Moitoii;' and no 

less strongly affirmed by Dr. Rctzius, who states tbw it 
is scarcely poasibk to find a more distinct sepuatioQ ii' 
dolichocephalic and brachycephalic races than in Ai;. 
rica;' while Dr. Knox, in h^ Races of Men, not <uUt 
expresses his doubt of " the asserted identity of the Bed 
Imlian throughout the entire range of continental Ame- 
rica," but he ridicules the matured opinion of Dr. Morton 
that the lUfTerence between the extreme forms of Pen- 
\'ian and other American skulls is the result of artificial 
compression differently applied to the same primal^ 
crania] form.' It is indeed necessary to detcnnine what 
must be regarded as tJie essential requisites of Dr. M^r 
ton's American t^'pical cranium ; for neither he nor i. 
successors have overlooked the fact of some deviation iv > 
this supposed normal type, not only occurring occaain 
ally, but existing as a permanent characteristic of cerTa. 
tribes. As has tjeen already shown. Dr. Morton reco;. 
nised a more elongated Iieiid as pertaining to ccrtam 
tribes, but this he speaks of as a more slight variatiou 
from the more perfect form of the normal skull ; and ' 
adds : " Even in these instances the charactcristit; 
cation of the occiput is more or less olivious."* So 
Dr. Nott, after defining the typical characteristica of the 
American cranium, remarks : " Such are more univereai 
iu the Toltecan than the barbarous tribea Among the 
Iroquois, for instance, the heads were often of a some- 
what more elongated form ; but the Cherokees and 
Chocta^vs, who, of all barbarous tribes, display greater 
aptitude for civilisation, present the genuine type in a 
remarkable degree. My birth and long re^dence in 

I iVcluroJ //litory ttftke rarietif nf Ma^ p. 453. 

' An\. ik$ SciOKi* A'ddtreib*, lleoev*, I860. 

' Jlmf nfMm, ip. 127, 2T6. 

' Cfanin Amrricaiut, f^ 69; Hittory iif Ud.aii Triba. roL it p. 317 

and tan 



-oatlieni States bare pennitted the study of many of 
:itv*e Uring tritios, nud they exhibit this confonnation 
.ItnoBt wilhont i^xctption. I have aliuj Bcrutitiized muny 
Mfximiw, bt^idt-w Catawlias «f South CaroiiDa, and tribes 
' iinada Lakc8, and ran tioar tritnem that tbo liv- 
■* i'%'crj*wh«'rp coutimi Morton's ty]te."' 
'■•ting n skull, which (leemed to l>r. Jlorton in 
;t» to fultil the theoretical requirementa of his 
I crauinm. we are guidetl, under his directions, to 
nt people who, in centuries long prior to the 
' KuropeaiLs, origiuateil some remarkable traits 
ire civilisation in the valleys of the eastern 
• of tbe Mississippi. It will, therefore, coincide 
> choice of an example of the true Ameriean 
J from that ancient nice, we pursue our 
I downward to the nations and tribes fami- 
by direct intcreourse and personal 

t itigvuious and learned author of Iconoyrapliic 
ttrcAea on Human Racts and thtir A ri, deduces, as 
! alivady sw-n, from one of the portrait pipe- 
M of tbe ancient Moundis— or rather from the 
iBTing of it fumiiihed in the first volume of the Smiih- 
t Contriimtions to Knotdedi/e,- tlie comprehensive 
that tbe Mound- Builders were American 
I in type, and were pri>l)ab)y aequninted with no 
•(thcr men but themselves ; to which be adds, ** in eveiy 
way omfinniug tbe views of the author uf Crania Ame- 
rieana." Mr. Schoolcnft goes still further ; and, igiwr- 
log not only the ungneatiopahle proofs of the lapse of 
many centuricH sinco Uie construotiun of the great carth- 
I in tbu Ohio Valley, but also all tbe evidences of 
letrieal iikiU, a definite means of determining angles, 
L£xed standard of measurement, and tbe capacity. ■* 


well a& the practice of repeating geometrically coastnictod 
eartliworka of large and uniform dimenAioDs ; he thua 
sums up his account of the AllegbauB, the oldest kou^^ i 
occupants of the Ohio Valley: "The tribes lived iu fi-V' i 
towns, cultivated exteusive fields of the zea-maize, a!, i 
also, as denoted by recent discoveries, of some 8pe<j 
of beans, vines, and esculents. They were in truli di 
Mound-Builders." ' 

Reference has been made in a previous chapter to tti> 
discover}' of the " Scioto Mound cramum," the best i_ 

thenticnted and most characteristic of the cmnift of thft 
Mound-Bmlders. It lay emijedded in a compact mass 
of carbonaceous matter, intermingled with a few de- 
tached bones of the skeleton and some fresh-water shefls. 
Over this had been heaped a mound of rough stones, od 
the top of which, incovei-ed by the outer layer of clay, 
lay a large plate of mica, that favourite material of the 
ancient Mound-Builders. This is the skull which, accord- 
ing to the description of Dr. Morton, furnishes the best 
e^xample of the true typical American head. It is pro- 
duced as such i>y Dr. Nott, in the Types of Maiu 

I IIMonj<if/mliiia TriUi. vul. v, p. 13S. 


I deBcnbed in the words of Dr. Morton, in Dr. 
" Catalogue of Human Cninia in the Collection of 
Acmdemy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," it 
I B definition of the features deemed essential to 
i normal type. It is designated "nu abori- 
1 American ; a ver^- remorkalile head. This in, per- 
) the most uduiirahly-formetl head of Oic American 
B hitltctto duKOVenxL It poeMoases the national char- 
I in JMirfection, as seen in the elevated vertex, 
netl occiput, gn^at interparietal iliameler, p<intIeroU8 
my Btnictnre, Balient now, hirge jaws and broad face. 

\ is tbe perfect t}'iH.' of Indian confonuution, to which 

B iJnills of all the tribes from Cape Horn to Canada 

s or leas appniximate." 

\ Of tluB akuU the niea«urenivuL» which involve the most 

1 typical etementa, and ao fumiah preciae niat^ 

I fbr comparison, are : — 

6-a inchoi. 

st » 

t that, in lact> the craninui vefy doaely coiresponds in 
I leogtb, brefldth, and hdght Still 


further it may be noted, on exAmining tlie skull, as 
figored Lere bova tie ftiU-sized view in the Ancient 
Monumenls of tiie Mississippi Valley, that the singular 
longitudinal abbreviation of this skidl is nearly all pcw- 
teriorly. A line drawn through the meatus auditoriua 
eitemua in profile, parallel to the elevated forehead, 
divides it into two unequal parta, of which the anterior 
and posterior parts are nearly in the ratio of throe r- 
two. If, however, we turn from the definition na ]■ 
corded in ivlation to this particular skull, and reduet i i 
to the general formulae derived by its originator from the 
examinarion of numerous examples, it amounts to this : 
A small receding forehead, somewhat broad at the hzt^' . 
but with a greatly depressed frontal bone ;^ a flatteji 
or nearly vertical occiput ; viewed from behind, an o^i i 
pital outline which curves moderately outwards, wide at 
the occipital protuberances, and full from these points 
to the opening of the ear; from the parietal protuber- 
ances a slightly curved slope to the vertex, producing a 
wedge-shaped outline ; a great vertical diameter ; and 
the predominant relative interparietal diameter of the 
brachycephalic cranium. If to these are added the latge 
quodraugular orbits, the cheek-lwnes high and masuT^ 
the maxiUnry region salient and ponderous, and the node 
pnjmiiiont, we have, nearly in Dr. Morton's own words, 
the eliaraeteristie features of that American cranium 
whieli prevails among both the ancient and modem 
tribes of the brachycephalic type, and has been assumed 
by him as universal. 

It is with great diffidence that I venture to challenge 
conclusions, adopted after mature consideration by the 
distinguished author of the Crania Americana^ But in 

I "There u no nm cm Iho globe in wLich the fnnUl bone a m miicli 
wed b«ckwftnU, Mill in which the forehewliaMiunftll."— ^uinMrff. "All 
MM alike the Id» recoiling toreheail." — 3loiioa. 


Tits JMXMICAS CRAXUL rrp£. 119 

to apply die evidence of phyacal confomu- 
of comparisou bctweca tltc imcicat and 
I of the New World, a rvrision alike of 
•videDue and tlic dcductiuns tlicrofn>m bcoomcs in- 
Tried by liix own defuuiioDB and iliustnt- 
the Scioto Valley skuU c«».>utialty diflTers from the 
typical cranium in some o{ ita must cliararter- 
Inflt«ttd of the low, ivceding, unarched 
■■igDed independently by Uambnldt and 
we hare bere s finely arched frontal bone, with 
ing breadth of forehead. Tlie conical or 
vertex is. in like manner, ruplacc'd by a 

roanded anh, curving equally diroughoiit ; and the 
lium is allogetbur a wcO and uniformly proportioned 
fie of an extreme btachyccpbaUc aknlL It has been 
in the Type* of J/ankiitd,' for the purpoBe of 
iting a comparison with Uit.< well-developed and 
head of a modem Indian, a Cherokt^ ctiie^ 
bile n prisoner at Mobile, in 1837, and the 
ue there engraved side by ^de, with other 
" to show through faithful copies, that the 
ilmtad to the American races is found among 
) moat scattered ; among the semi-civiliKed and 
mlliaroini ; among living lu well as among extinct 
; and that no foreign rare luu intnided itself into 
midsl, even in the smallest appreciable degree."* 
judging merely by the reduced profile drawings, 
in juxta[>osition, without reference to precise 
lentA, the [loints of agreement are very partiaL 
occiput of the ancient skuU rounds eome- 

TIm WNt (Wldai MulMfad d 

-r)ifm ^MtmUmJ, j>. Ml. 



what abrnptly into a flat horizontal vertex, and with ll 
well-developud forehead, and short longitudinal diamei 
gives a pecuUarly sciuare form to it, in profile. In 
modem skull, on the contrary, the occipital fiatteni 
not BO mueh that of the oct iput proper, as of the pos- 
terior part of the parietal, together with the upper angle 
of the occipital bone ; thereby uniting with the receding 
forehead of the latter, to produce a conoid outline, in 
striking contrast to the square form of the other. Still 
further, s vertical line drawn through the meatus audi- 
torius, shows a remarkable preponderance of posterior 
cerebral development in the ancient skull, constituting 
indeed its most striking peculiarity. But a comparison 
of the measurements of the two skulls, serves no leaa 
effectually to refute the supposed correspondence, ad- 
duced in proof of a typical unity traceable throughout 
tribes and nations of the Western Hemisphere the most 
widely separated alike by time and epace.^ 

ADfleDl ItoiiEm. 

Longitudinul iliumeter, . . . GS 6'9 

Parietal, 6-0 S'T 



Inter-muatoid arcli, 
Inter-inastaid line, 
Ooctpito-frontAl arch, 
IIoTuontal circumfi-Tcncc^ 



It is not to be supposed that any single skidl can be 
Hclected as the embodiment of all the essential typical 
characteristics either of the ancient or the modem c 
conformation ; nor can we deduce general coucluaiaj 

' Tbe mcunrcmenta of the modem bIiiiII >n! given, u above, il 
aniiif/ii tl/thr BonUm A'alural HuUirn Sodttg, vol. v. jp, 7T. I owi 
fnuk Ubcrolitjr of Dr. Nott, Uut I wm >ble to iilenttfy this m the skull re- 
ferrwl l». My own meMureroento, taken in 1860, give a still gretteT longi- 
tndiiiKl diametor It will b« laen b^ eomporing the two coIuhidb, that tl 
inoden akull ia in exce» in longitndinal diameter, while both in breadth a 
beigbt it ii daddedl/ lewu 


I to the physical charactemticR of Uio ancient Mound- 
• from tbo remarkable oxiunple above referred to. 
; indeed, sufficient data 8h yet for any absolute 
ntioD of the i-ranial t^^e of the mounds ; but 
B Scioto Valley skull cannot nHth propriety bo desig- 
nated u " the only skull incontestjibly belouginf; to an 
diTidual of that race." The Grave Creek Mound 
litun, fibred by Dr. Morton, belongs no leas indis- 
ably to the aamc race, and pre^nts in its arched 
prominent superciliary ridgca, and compact, 
r rounded profile, a general correspondence to 
FfnvioUB example.' In 185a, Dr. J. C. Warren 
"^ted to the Ikwton Natural History Society the 
: of a aerond and more inrfL-et skull from the same 
' which I have since examined and me.a8ured in 
I eoUDCtioD of Dr. i. Mason Warren. It b also worthy 
Mlc that several inferior maxillary boncD of the 
iid skeletons have l>ecn recovered nearly entire. 
ley arc remarkable for ihuir masaivene*w, and are de- 
libed a» lean pmjeciing th:m those [>«:rtaining to the 
letoos of a later chite.' Anuthnr skull given by Dr. 
on, from n mound on the I'ppcr AlisRiasippi, was 
oed firoui an elcvatei.1 site Itc^ring consiilerablc ro- 
I to that where the Scioto Valley cranium was 
1 ; but the evidence is insufficient to removu the 
itilitii whit^h its pn>[M)rtioas suggest, that in this, as in 
m noAny other canes, we have only one of those later 
intennentA liabitually made by the modem Indiana in 
tbe Miperfietal toil of the mounds. It i» l><>tter mean- 
widk to reject all doubtfid evidence tlian t<i incur the 
rvk of cumbering such future vell-anthcnttcated eri- 
deao! AS we may confidently anticipate, with uncertainty 

VMr Mii^mtffi roAy, p. SM. 


^^■Of the sencs embraced in this table, tliou^i all are 
^^hfdeiit, oaly the first four can be relied u[)on as un- 
l-mltted examples of the crania of the Mounds. lu 
.imitariiig them with others, there ore iiulinatioiiH of 
■ peculiar cnuiial type partially Mppn»xiiiiating to the 
brachycepbalic Peruvian cnuiiura ; but this awrtimecl cor- 
lespnudcDCc has lieeu exaggerated, and some important 
diflereue^'D havti bueu nlightcd or ignored, in ttie zeal to 
CKtablish the afliuities which iiu<.-h an agreement would 
•WMD to imply. In vertical elevation the Peruvian 
mutum is detide<lly inferior ; and another point of 
iutinetion Ixime out by the few well-authenticated 
Mound crania, is tlie great prominence of the super- 
ciliaiT ridgeji in the latter. These were overlooked by 
, J. C Warren, who pronounce*! the Mound and 
^<nniA to be identical. A greater eorTes]K>nd- 
I to me to lie traceable between the moat 
jiin of the Mexican valley and thoao of the 
But, templing as are tlie i!onduMona whieh 
1 analogies BuggetU, any BnaJ decision oti the oubjcct 
; he reMtr^'ed until furlber dittcovurii'fl place within 
uar reach a .luQieient nundwr of nkuIU of the ancient 
Mo and-BoiUtera as well authenticated aa tho»e of the 
> Valley and Grave Creek Moundn. Thii*, there ia 
I hope of a<:bieTiug, until a systematic exploration 
' nted under the direction of a carefully aJUHti- 
I adcBtific Conuuieaion, the orgauiKatton of which 
'i reflect credit on the Govenimeut of the United 
The cave cnuiia, Nos. 9-21, ore a remarkable 
I of undoubted anti«|tuty, and prcaent a nearer 
approximation to those of the mounds than any otber 
•IoMl. ThfiT moat notable divergence fn>m the mound 
vjje, in the [tanctol diameter, diiutp]K-iu« if the doubc- 
upU-fl of the Litter, N'oa. 5-S, are exchidcd, u 
Table XV. 



Tanuog from tbia review of tlte meagre data hiUion > 
re<x>vervd fmm llio ancient Bepulchral monnds, let i: 
next consiiicr the two great civilized nations of tii' 
New World, tlie Ptruviiujs imd Mexicans. Their dvi;;- 
satioti huti au iudepcndcnt origin and growth. 
scenes of its devi'lopmeiit were distinct ; and < 
hibit«d special cJiaract<?ristic8 of intellectual 
NeverthelefiS, they hat.1 so much in common, that I 
deteiminadon of the physical tvpe pectdiar to i 
will bo best aecured by ascertaiuiug what is \ 

When Dr. Morton first oudertAok the unj 
of the cranial characteristics of the American I 
admittotl the fon-e of the evidence preseuted to 1 
the examination of a utiml>er of ancient Peruvian e 
and has reeonlitl in hia Ci-ama Americatia a, \ 
recognition of tlie traces of well-defined hrarhycephi 
and dolichocepliahc races among the ancient Penivi 
But tlio stnluctivc charms of hia comprehensive theory' ' 
of an American ethnic unity idtimately prevailed over 
the oariier opinion ; which, even in the Crania Ameri- 
cana, was staled as tht- legitimate detiuctioD irom the 
evidence in question, n*ithout being incorporated into 
the autlior'R concluding propositions. Aceonlingly, in 
his latest nn-ordwi opinions, when commenting on the 
artificial modilicjitioiis of the Peru\-ian skull. Dr. Morton 
remarks : " I at firet found it difficult to conceive that 
the original roundetl HkuU of the Indian could be clmuged 
into this fantastic form ; and was led to supjwse tihat 
the latter was an artificial elougatioa of a bend rL-mark- 
able for its natm-al ieugth nml narrowuess. I even sap- 
posed that the long beudcd Peruvians wcri' a more imcient 
|H!oph- than the Inca tribes, and distinguished from them 
by their cnuiial cuufiguration. In this opinion I vm*^ 


AlMimUtit means of ob^rvatiou and com- 
, hare since convinced mc thai ull ihvxe variously 
1 beads were originally of the »arat! roundt-d sbiipc, 
1 in cbnntcti'ristic of the alionginid race, frt)m f 'iijio 
norn hi CudiuIa, and that art alone bus ciiused the 
divtdvitit-H aiutmg them."' 

A ri-\*wiim fif ibe uvidencc in n'lation to tliiii import^ 

ani jihy4iiad ch:iroi-teri«tic of the Ancit-nt I*eni\'ianB 

sppcsLTM tn (iUf^i-Ht ooQclusiomt at variance with thin idea 

-f a univunudly [irvvalent rounded, or brachycepholic 

I '< nivian htsul. Uu a recent vtirit to Boston, I had an 

:i[«firtunity of tniiiutcly exiunining and measuring an 

:■ r- -:in;f oilKt^liiiti nf <;miiia ami mumnucd bodies in 

[.:.-.^-..>wi(in of John If. Hhiko, Es<|., which were 

"iL. it liy him from anricnt iVruviim Cemeteries, on 

-ii >iv (if the Hay of Ctuicota. near Ariea, in latitude 

s. ; and idnee then I have l>een favoured with 

.^,r.,ii.. ..i,.i.,,r.,i,.j Qotcs on the subject. The 

■ M the ci(i^l<*nUi and twenty- 
< iiudo, has Ix-'en the situ uf sepul- 

.tni'Mit IVniviiUi races through a period of 
I dumtiou, and numerous cemeteries have boea.1 
.1 I !>_'»{ Hilled. The mode of sepulture, and the i 
■\ with the dead, prvMcut so uuifonu a 
I III. excepting in one point, Mr. Bhdce 
•■ "f one may sulfice for the whol 

■ s from the viityiug soil Thai 
.. .1- . rnMl in the dry sand, whidk" 

t^ci.v.r,-! 111.- -iiirfiiee to a Rufficient depth ; liut 

laneut the excax-iilions have l)ecu made in a 

B (g>'psum) whieh here and there appruach»i tho 

In tliifl arid distrirt, such is the nature of the 

1 clinuitc, tliat urticJe.4 wbi*^ speedily periuli iu a 

pfloi) aiul n huniid atnuMphen-, are found iu pcrfeot 

■ FkfmM Vfp* <^ll^ JawHmn ImiiomM. |>. »a 

226 I'liKUISTOniC MAX, 

preservation after the lapse of centuries. Added to tlie I 
facilities which nature haa thus provided for perpetu- 
ating the buried tracua of the ancient Peniviane, th«-_i 
themselves pracrised the art of embalming their dead 
One of the largest eemetcriea referred to is situated on a 
plain at the briao of a range of low hilla in lat. 18° 30' S- 
ivnd lung. 70° 13' w. It is on the shore of the Bay of 
Chacoti, a little stiuthwanl of Arica, and about 18.^ 
leagufH Bouth-east nf Lima, This plain is formed of sli- 
t'iou« sand and marl, slightly impregnated mth common 
salt, and nitnit* and sulphate of soda. It ia exceed- 
ingly light, fine, and dry ; and such is its preservaliTe 
uatui'o, tiiat oven bodies interred in it without any 
jiruvious preiKiratiou have not entirely lost the flMiby 
covering from thfir remains. In the cemeteries of this 
vast arid plain, the objects which, in all probaliility, 
were most highly prized by their owners, were depo- 
wted beside them, and every article required in pre- 
paring the body for interment appears to have InMrn 
presui'vod with it Thus the nce^iUes used for sewing the 
garments iiud wnippings uf the dcafl, the comb cmplovf^ 
in di\!8aing tlio hidi-, and even the loose hair removed in 
tliis last i>rocess of tlu- toilet, are all found deposited io 
the gnive. 

The follomng is Mr. Blake's description of the cem 
tcrics explored by him on the Bay of Chacota : — " 
tombs or graves are near to each other, and cover a lai 
extent of ground in two phiccs distant the one i 
the other about an eighth of a mile. A few of 1 
are marked by circles of stones, while others are r 
diacoveit?d by alight conca\'ities in the soil above t 
Tliey ai-e all circular, from three to five feet in diametti 
and from four to five feet deep. Some of them 
widlc*! with atone, and all are lined with a coarse i 
ting' of (higs. Th'' Imdies in them aiv idw-ij-s fmm 



' fliUtoK {MMtun*, witli iho knocs olcvntod toward ttic 

ml tbtf urtQs (;ro«8C(l ujmhi tJio tuvswt. They are 

-tL-alM ii|ioii fiiit Rtoiua, uudor wliii^h arn the 

■ f food, nnJ part of the iinph-mtmtfi found with 

lii-'j- are dosulj- wmppt?(l in wixfllrn gamienta, 

; Aowwl nlmtit th«!ra ; and the iifcdlca of tliom 

; [■ tbin purjxww am found thnist into the outer 

■ 'vrnnR, often with tbroad remaining in them. These 

..nn*-nt*» nre of vnriouH degrees of finenpsa, colour, and 

-" 'f fignriH ID which they nro woven. Many are 

■nil ltn<wn colour, while in othcm tlie coloars 

-itli'^l, and have retained in a rcmarluible manner 

hrue^ : particularly the red and scarlet, show- 

(Ik* art of dyeing wa.s well nndemtood. S<">me 

idii'8 Havc )>oeu carefully eml):Llme<I, the Hi-j^h 

united with a gum nwin ; others appear to have 

i <;L>et«.-il to careful ilesiecatiou nithout ttic em- 

'■ of liny pn-servati^-e ; while those of which 

) piirt« bat the skeJetons rpmaio won- prolialOy 

'i to no process for their preHc^rvaliou. There i« 

X nxurd or tmditioM oooceming this and similar ojeme- 

, of the period when they were ninile iwo of; and 

I BO uuuu ccrtoiu tliac they cootaiu tlie ivmains 

r of the Indians who now oocopjr tlie 

FebOoction of Peroviiin aotiqoitiw fonnoil by Mr. 
nd nuw in bui |Hn««t'ssion. im-UideH enrioUB K{i«ci- 
I «( nativo |w>ttm", impk'uieut* \n-»ught in otonc, 
1 wotcl, and uumennis interestiiiK m-pulchral 
ive of native urt« and cii«tom«. Hut tko 
e <lcimrtroent of his culh-etion embnu-t« tlio 
ntii of a IVniviiin tomb, including tJie mum- 
; mod woman, and llw partijilly dcMccat«l 
' a ehihl Brmio of the oonteulR of thin grave 
bavr airpudv \wen refemHl to in iUufitmtinn of PiTUvbio 

228 PltEUISTORIC MAX. (Ciur 

civilisation iu a previous chapter ; but a mhiate notjrc 
of the humau remains, with tlie special accompanlmeut' 
of their iutermtint, will furnish information on variiws 
obac-ure poinU iu the social history of this remarkable 
people. It was obviously a family tomb. The maJe 
mummy ia that of a man in the maturity of life, iu the 
URUal sitting position with the knees drawii up to the 
chin. With the exception of a part of the integuments of 
the lower jaw, the iKxly is in a good state of preservation. 
On its ti-ausfercnce to the humid atmosphere of New Eng- 
land, the flesh became somewhat softeuwl, but it exhibitd 
no symptoms of decay. It is dark brown, and possesses 
a peculiar penetrating odour, somewhat similar to that of 
an Egyptian mummy. The head is of the commnn 
njimded Peruvian form, with retreating forebcail, 1 
cheek bones, and prominent nose ; but some of the oUl 
measurements are worthy of note : — 

Lengtli or ulna. 

1L>-U inchra. 


ISS „ 


7-5 „ 

„ intddlo-fingor, . 

* 5 ., m 

Breadth »f ImnJ, 

25 A 

The breadth of hand, as noted here, is measure 
the extremity of the mebicarpal bones ; and, with every 
allowance for the contraction produced iu the process of 
mummification, it is rcmiu-kably small. The hair has 
undergone little or no change, and differs essentially 
from that most characteristic feature of the Indian of the 
uorthem continent. It is brown in colour, and aa fiuc 
in texture as the most delitiate Anglo-Saxon's hair. It 
is neatly bniided and arranged, the front locks Iwiug 
formed each into a roll on the side of the head, wliile the 
hair behind is plaitctl into a triangular knot of six braids. 
The garraeuta and wrappings of this mummy were of 
fine texture, woven in woollen materials of diverse 


; and the biwl-ilreffi was fint on oUong hood 

1 puti-culouail stri|K.-K, niul over thtit a cnp formeil of 

, thiviuU of variims colourn, uigtinioutOy woven, 

I aunuuuuttHl by fi--atli(Ta uii'I au ornatneot foroied of 

ill'- quiUn of the coutlijr. A ({uivcr miide of the ekiii of 

. lox routaiuixl livo arrows, the shuft of each consistiDg 

;" tw.i piLTt-fs of rcwl, tipi>c«l with ttliarp-jioiiited and 

■■] ilint hixiils, n-guhirly formed, and attafiied by b 

. . .inn rvnii-ril. Also BURj>pnd(.'d to one side, by a 

.;r Lorvl jioflning over the shoulder, was a wooDen ba^ ■ 

Mit-Jy wuven in otriiK-s of Mark, white, and brown, andJ 

iriuualy wtTL-d at tlie sides with threads of Tarioos'^ 

■ -laun. Thiti oontaiuMl leavefl of the eoea, and a thin 

iK-er disk or medal, surrounded by a series of one hun- 

<iml anuUl indentatiutu near the eilgi-, and iu the ctintro 

iif thiw fourths uf au ituih aHinleniunk and per- 

\ with a Hmoll nmad htile. Tu this a hair i-ord uf 

; two &et ill length is secured, |>roliali]y to suxpciid 

1 the neck. When the bood was removed frum 

[ tbere waa fouDd depcieiteil unih>r (lie idiiti a 

1 Mitben vessel, with rounded boee^ meflmritig about 

' kielMa in greatest diameter, llie top hail been 

1 by a meiubcanc, part of wiiich remainn attached 

I rim by tJio cord with which it was originally 

c body of tiie female from the same tomb presenta 
i genetml aimilur clumtctciistica. The hair \» shorler, 1 
hat coaiaer, but fine when (•umpare'l with that * 
'. tfae northern Iiidianit. It is of a tight brown eohjur, 
aoMOth, and neatly bruidixl aam» the up[>er [>art of the 
lareliead, (ben earrie<l baekwanl and ticvuretl ou eaeh nide 
of the bnwL llie fletdi 4jf the legs, fn>m the ankles tu the ■ 
kuflis. is covcivd with nil paint, auil uuirku of the same f 
;>t]«muut are atwi tmeeiilflv on the hair and on the outar 
<-)oUen wra|>ping\ prew'Dliog the Lmpren of a hand. 

pMsarsrvKK' ifj.r 


tiiivii mnrkii uk o( r;t>nun«>D ocearrau'e uo the PenirKm 
inuiiimi(«, and, tokcu into coiiadeia.tioti along with tbi 
Ktiuill ttize of the bund abeatfy noticed, they fnrdlily 
rwJiU ibi! printa of the red hand which Steph^^a'^ observ.-.! 
Kiiiid tlM> ruins <■£ Uxmall : the impress of a Hving has'l, 
hut Ml iiniall tluit it was c-ompletely bid Quder that of th> 
(mvfllur or bia ctini)uuiiun. It afterwards si^tared them 
ill Ibi^ fnn; ua be eayn, un all the ruiucd buildiugs of 
t\w tMiiiitr}' ; and on visiting a nameless ruin, beyond 
8ttl«wbt«ebo, in Yucatan, Mr. Stephens remarks : ' 
l\w walls of the deiiotnte edifice were prints of the i 
wlorwlo, or red hand. Often as I saw this print it nei 
failed to interest me. It was the atamp of the Hvi 
baud. It always brought me nearer to the btulderafl 
tlieste cities ; and at times, amid stilhieasi, desoladon, i 
ratii, it seemed 3« if from Whiud the curtain that c 
eealed them from view was extended the hjind of ( 
ing. The luilians said it was the hand of the master J 
the building." Such indications of any community i 
customs <jr u.-iage between the Penirians and the a 
builders of Yucatan or Central America arc fail of iff 
turest, however slight : nor does it detract from their 
value (hat the same praerice pertains to the uorthcm 
iribefi, ami is coriously interwoven with their symbi 

The symbol of the expanded hand apjieara among t 
devices on the engraved Aztee Hatchet, Fig. 52 ; t 
constantly occurs in j^iainted or graven ideography. 
example 6g«red herr, copied by Lieut J. H. 1 
U.S.A-, from a remarkable series of ancient native I 
glypliics and Europi-an iuscriptiuus, on the Moro 1 
in the valley of the Rio de Zuni, exhibits the oppu 
hand in a gnjup of Indian charucters, or <leviceir, along- 
siile of which i^ u Sjnaniah iuseriptiuu of the c 
century. Another oxaniple; np|Kuently u{ eiu 


oQ the same Horn Rock, diowa the open baud, 
the siuguLir addition of a doultlu UmmK enclosed 
cartuacbe alongaidti of ihc sacred mouognua i. a. s.. 

I tboiigh it were tbo reo^iiised native coiintc-rpiirt of 
~ ' 1 fljmilxtL On the Bame snlijcct Mr. School- 
craft observes: "The tigure of the 
homan baud u used by the North 
Aineri(!an Indiiinn to denote sappli- 
cAtion to the Deity or Great Spirit ; 
and it standsiD the eyRtemof picture- 
vriting afl the sjiulwl for strength, 
f thofi derived. "* It admits, however, of 
are application, vitb vniying significaQcix 
; remarks in ias Astoria: "The Arickareu vear- 
I painted in the most savage s^lc. Some li 
the stamp of a iwl hand across their mouths, a sign t 
Ukey ha<l drunk the Ufi.'-blood of a foe." Catliu fot 
th« aaniu symbol in nu for decotatiou, and aa the a 
dgn-manual •mnHg the Omah&ws and the Mim dp ng ; a 

1 repeatedly ubsorvvd the red hand impressed in * J 
' both on the Iiuflalo rube and on the 
t of the Chtp[wwaa of Lake BapenOT. 
lowing an' the {iriucipol muasuRnientB of the 
I fVniTiiin mommy, on which the impreas of the 

„ foot, 
Graritnt Inmixh of fuU, 

Upon rcmoving tlie ontcr wTapper of this mummy, & 
wooileii ct>mh, a i<air of jiamteil saud»ls of uudreaeed 
akin, a lockage of nitile, or oxide of titanium, and otl 
articles, were fonmi beneath. In addition to these, tbi 
tomb contained many other objects, such as ears of c 
leaves of twa. a roll of cotton cord, etc., enclosed in bag 
of fine textuiv, ingeniously woven of woollen thrcada, u 
patterns and devices of varioua colours, and evidentlj 
anch as bad Uvn in use by their owner. The contenfi 
of one of these have a double agnificance for us. Wovel 
of a peculiar pattern differing from all the others, and c 
an unusually fiue texture : it was found, on being ojiened 
to contain a small bead of malachite, the only one dis 
coverwl in the tomb, and locks of human hair, 
secured by a string tietl with a peculiar knot. AH tlia 
hair is of fine texture, of various shades, from fine light 
brown to black, and to all appearance lias undergone c 
change. The colour and texture of the hair are fJacta a 
great importance to the ethnologist^ as indicating i 
lial ilifierences from the modem Indiana in one imporb 
ant respect ; and therefore confirming the jirobability a 
iflUy imixirtant ethnic difFt-'i-cnces, suggested by othel 
idencp. Rut llio discovery has also another a.spect c 
In thirt fnmily tomb, iu which lay the {>areut 
1 tlii'ir infant eliild, we may assume with little hcsH 



1 dut wc have thv IcickH of hair of the mirvivuig 

■ : in nil pn>lNibiltty of elder luemlwra of the 

! ^UDiljr an the infant intcirtMl here in its mother'a 

It 18 a touch of genuine human tendenieas and 

{ such flit " iDoktii the whole world kin," luid gives 

I to that I'lnK-foi^ultcu [twtt to wliieh the kimltieflt 

B of tmr common nature n!x[>ond. Alongside 

iA^malc there also tny an unfitiiflhed piece of weaving 

}kA upon itA frame, and with itfl yam of various 

I atiU hrigfaL The needle of thorn wait in it, and 

tit •BvenJ balls of ynm. There pan ha little doubt 

B the worif of the deceased, and the Iiutt labour 

vtad ADgagnl her hiuuht ; nor need we RSKume that 

I Ind beride her under the belief tJiat she would 

the tack in another life. It apitean; ralJier 

r of tfatwe tmitB of a gi*ntle loving tuituro of which 

■ Tniecfl from tbu oneient Peruvian grave neem to 

~; and whirh deri%i? further illuBtrattuu from other 

nts of the Ataeanui cemeterieH. 

k tke Kuue gmve hiy the renuinx of the young infant, 

inpt in a tmft bUek wiKilten elotii, and then 

I the skin of a {x-ngiiin with the fejiihere<l eide 

ttmeil to the woollen wnipiwr was a |iBiir of 

laUKtak, two and u hidf iaehes long. I'he head was 

' ~ T covered with a loose cap lined with a wadding 

hair, and outtuu Btaineil with a retl pigment. 

» cap waa a large VvV. of hair reMemhlitig that 

" , which, aa already (leiM-Tilxxl, liad l»e«-n cut 

\, probaMy ax a nign of mourning, am ii* ntill practined 

I women of many Indian trilica. IWde it there 

■iaj, in B eloth envelo])e, ruxured with <'kilH)rate care, 

I curd with seven knots, and at the end what is 

to l>e the umbtlicuH. Thif) 15, no doubt, thu 

I, or sepuMiral ruconi, wbieh to the eye of the. bo> 

Mithor ivcallwl every fondly cherwhoil incident ] 



her loved child's brief cazeer. Around its neck vas & ] 
^^reea cord attached to a small shell ; and uitlun the | 
wTap|iiaga were several others of the same Littora Pent' | 
viaua, already referred to, and also snmll rolls of hair ct J 
the vicuDa, and of cotton, the former euclosing leavetlf 
coca. Similar littU- rolls were found wrapped in 1 
manner in the winding shrouds of other infimts, and B 
gcftted to their explorer a correspondence with the c 
descriljcd by Catlin, among the toys suspended to i 
cradles of the Sioax papooses. " They wen; very ^ 
to Btll them," C'atUn aaya, " but in every instance I 
cut them open, and removed from within a bunch il 
cotton or mocvs the little sacred medicine, which to [ 
with would be to endanger the health of the child," 

The process of embalming does not seem to have \ 
applied to the bodies of young children. In the exai 
described above little more than the skeleton i 
excepting the scalp, which is thickly covered witii i 
fine dark lirowTi hair. Yet it is obvious that all the i 
which the fondest tendemesa of unavailing sorrow c 
bestow, had l>een expended on the little lost one, whidG 
lay cRulled iu its last resting-place, like a young bird in 
ita downy nest under its mothers wing. In another 
Penivi:iti I'l'ini'lery, siivuml hundred luili'ft to the south 
of the Bay of <,*liacota, Mr. ijlake noted the discovery of 
many IkkUcs of infants, found each enclosed in an oval 
sarcophagus cut out of a single block of wood. But 
another singular feature in the Peruvian cemeteries is 
the frequent discovery of the foetus in all stages of de- 
velopment, and depoaitc<l in the grave with the same 
elaborate evidences of care as was expended on the de- 
ceased infant. The practice is remarkable, if not indeed 

Such are some of the illustrations of ancient customs 
and scpuli'hral rites, as disclosed by explorationa in the 


•UTii> ••1 IVni- ji'>!iL: wicfl e^^* va«:iT -Jt :iliL."!A»::.:r>ult::? 

P {•■at-ily .:•:,:::-': ^^^m'jzl'ts^ iz- eu Iji'i^i.r. jr-iv-rs. 

'Ttl •■! Vk ...■ ^ ..-»ir . t-.- :.;.^i-;. ■ i^>-^^ -i^*- 2-*«* ^••: ■ - -i-'- 

« w««» -■. 

■ * •■•-■. 

I • ■ % c ' • » " 'I ■ I 

:v;..:.-. 1':. il r:- i^ ■ " -;rvr-. " iir ;r l:::L-v iii :«:>4:'L. 

* « ■ • ■ « - 

... ....f -. 

• • 

Y ' \- '..-.■'., *«,-.r ; *— -.r Z- •^T:^' J."*-: ~ni.--^.. *.-'-■ I-l' 

• • ■ 

• - • . ■ 

» ■ .• 

, ■ » " .-^- •■ • I »» 


• »- 


:M:. i.: .; 

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I ■ - I I f • V 

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. .- . ■ -.1'. . . ." * • . lii.: . « ■ '^ll.* 4 * , . ..*. 



^H the fonncr, or bnichycepKiilic type ; but the coUofltiou uf 

^^M cmiiia fuiiucd by Mr, Blake was selected l*y him Crom a 

^H very large iiiim1>er, as fair average specimena i>f each of 

^^K the two distiuL-t types which presented themselves to bis 

^^m obser\'ation duiing his esitlonition of the ancient eeme- 

^^H tcries of tlic desert of Atacnma ; and, with tboee de- 

^^m scribed by Dr. JItlortou, and otbera which I have had 

^^f opportUDities of examining in various collections, iunuah 

^1 materials from whence tlie followiag conclusioiis aie 

^H derived. The skulls are generally small ; a chaiactciiitic 

^H in part, at len^^t, probably ascrilxiblu to tliu average sl..- 

.n llw]i;rr|>haUc Skull. 

ture of the people. Of the brachycephalic type, Mr. 
Blake has noted : " The occipital bone is flat, and ihc 
forehead retreating, but elevated and broad when com- 
pared with the elongated skulL The temporal fossa is 
not remaikably hirge. Wheu the eye is directed down 
ward ujjon skulls, the oe^iput being towanU si. 
ol>serv-cr, the zygomatic arch is nearly in most, imd cu 
timly in some of them hidden from the aiglit Viewed 
in the same position, the face is complett-Iy hidden by 
the up|iei- and front part of the cranium. The orbits are 
deep, auil their margins quadranguW. The bones of the 




noRc are pmmiuent, and the orifices large. The cheek 
lH»Ui*s are high. The alveohir Ciljjes of the jaws are 
olitusi'ly an;heil in front, and the cliin projeets on a line 
with the tei-th. Comparetl with the elongated rIcuUs, the 
faro is small, and its outlines more rounded. The cheek- 
U»nrs de:«cend in nearly a straight line fmm the external 
au^rular prinrss of the fn^ntal iMUie." Figure 58 illus- 
tmti-s the chararteristirs of this form of the ancient 
I%*ruviau head, :is seen in on** of the examples bi'ought 
fn»m thr ri'met4*ries of Atacama ; and the following: 
talfh- of nu'a.surem«*ntrt includes those «)f four selected by 
Mr. Illake, fmm a hirge numlxT, as fair average speei- 
meu?« of the prevailing t}'j)C (Nos. 1-4) : — 


Li4 Aiin 

I- 1- 

r !• 


r |. 

1 1! 

W 1' 


1 % 


; 1 1. i> 

» A. 

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19 III 


t oounttumiici! Ui tliu theory of tliuir fonti Iwing aii 
cikI one ; whilu {>ecultariti(!H in tht^ fiu-ifil propor- 
i confirm the idea tliat thfy aiT of fthiiic origin, 
Loot the jirociurt of tlefnmiatioii. Mr. Hlalco derived 
from oWrvationfl made upon niimerouH 
llwought under hia notice among the extensive 
, of the great Peruvian deaert of Atacama ; 
t having tiujoyed the advantage of liia co-operation 
omnuing iJie i*eIcctiHl examples brought home by 
with Dther«i includi;<l iu the cxtousivc collection 
by the luiL- Dr. .1. C Wam-u of Boston, I havt! 
I mnrc ciiniiilfnif in stating thi.> following coucluKious 
tivtat at by Hurli nieaiia. 
^Tbi* dolii-Jjiiri-phalic Pt^ruviun skull in Hmull, luirrow, 
1 greatly t-longatcd. In H<-venil whi(!li were measured, 
^ averagv distanre from a vu'rtical line drawn from tbu 
VA auditorius cxti-mtis to the roont prfitnim-nt part 
[ the frontal Ik>uc wae only 2'7 inrbcs, while from the 
I Uuu to the most prouiiuoQt part of the occipital 
I it was 4".'l inches. Full}' two-tbird* of the cavity 
npietl by th4j brain lien behind the ociipitfll foramen, 
", the skull, when 8U[»{»orted on the condyles, falls 
WKid. C'om|ian'd with bni<.-hye<'pha]ic skulls, the 
(brebflad U low and retreating; the tem]M>ral ridges 
■{ipnttcb near each other at the top of the head : a 
nncfa Urger R{>ar« being ocj:upie<l by the temi>oral 
mtueles, IxTtween which the skull neeniH to be eoiu- 
pfuaeil. Th*' zygoma is larg«-r. rtrongtir, and more 
ci]Mrioai«, and the whole bonm of the face nn> more 
devdojwd. Tlie miperior maxillary' )>one in pmlongeil 
m front, and the incisrtr teeth are it) an obliqiH- jxMition. 
The hont* of the now are prominetit, the orificea liuger. 
«ad the cribrifurm lameJht more extenxive. Hie ttouy 
i of the fikull iJi thicker, and tbu weight greater. 
» (if thme charaictertstica wooM require tn be det4T- 


In>n rameil t<i a great extent, it is accompanied not 

t«U_r by a cfuresjwndiug cajliu^meut of the |)08tcrior 

{■irtiiiD of tbi.* cnuiiuin, but also by a lateral exparmioD 

"f tbi- [mrii-lal bones, Avhich almost invariably exhibit 

-"•■it'iibnible imtiunlity and uusym metrical variatiou be- 

•*n-ii the two Hides. But of HeveVid buudrt'd skulls of 

ii- .'k.iigatod lyi»c cxmuined by Mr. lilake, a large pro- 

i • Ttiou eiliibiic*! no ci-rtaiu »igu« of distortion ; while 

111 cxamiu-ition of bmcliycophalic Peruvian crania, with 

' ■; • Ily drprvMcd frontal lH>n««,^of wliich I hnve had 

!i;iic« of studying a coiiaidoridttc number iu dif- 

■li'-etions, — hna diwdoscd no indication of their 

_ ri'by «)nvorted into tlioAC of tbe normal bnu;hy- 


\ ; n;^ the nnmerous intprcflting illuatrations of Peru- 

' ..lit chunctvristica obt;iincd by Mr. Blake from ancient 

mcterieti on the Pacific c-oast, the most valuable for the 

:-|-,..!.^ now in view, are the skullfi of two chiWrpn, 

1 •■[ the doUehoccphaUc or elongaunl type ; but the 

":i ' v-vi-Ii:ntly iu a norau)] comlition, while the other 

Riy« manifest traciM of artificiid defonuation. It is 

■able to examine the former witliout feeling con- 

1 that it illustrates a type of head entirt4y distinct 

1 tfae more oommou hraehyeepludie crania, while 

• s1m)w« the rhiingus uTiiught by compreaaion. 

R 60, 61, exhibil the unallenil skulL It is that 

I child, which, judging ehii'tly from the stute of the 

, may tie prououncLtl to Lave been about seven 

i of age. It ia an exceedingly weU-pn»p>jrtion«l 

letrical nkiill, unakennl by any artificial uppliancea, 

I will be ol>«Tvi>d to pn-st^nt liie most si rikiug typical 

if ctimjiarvd with an unidtL'nxl juvenile skull 

I hnM:iiyrepluUic type fr^im the Pcru\Tau reme- 

of Sonta, PDgmvcd in tiie Ctyiitia Americana, 




The other elongated skull, exhilnted in Figures S2,( 
is of the sanic type as the previous one, but consider 
alterod by compressioi]. The forehead is depressBd, ■ 
tlie frontal suture remains open. It is that of a o 

of about five years of age, and is proportionally If-*-' 
but as all the process of cranial compression is tm\ 
pleted in infancy, those two juveuilu skulls illustrate tb' 

changes wrought hy its means even more effectually 

tJian ndult oroniit. The comparative measui-ements are 

I follows. The first colimm exhibits the relative pro- 

I portions of the normal doUchocephaUc Peruvian child's 




'-\. Fig. ttO ; the nniatlcr meastirctnents in the second 
iiin imiicalc th<«w of tho compi-essed skull. Fig. 62; 
x\w llilnl column prcHcntit those of nnother skull 

[i rhild. also alwut Bve years old, and of the same 

[ ptocoml fnjm that part of the sautly tract of 

vhich is nuarust Arica, and tlierefore from 

U^ explore*! l>y Mr. Blake. It is \m- 

I in ihp ('rauia AmericatM, Plate ii. It oontmrt* 
^3f with the Smuta juvenile cranium fllremiy rt- 
I to. the roewtureiufiitu of whirh oeeupy the ftnirth 





Parietal diameter, . 




Frontal diameter, . 




Vertical ilianietcr, . 


4-3 1 


iDttT-maatuid areli. 



Int^r-mastuid line, 





From otiscrvations cairitid on in tl»^ cemcl 
Peru, Mr. Bliike was led to the conclusion that the •!"- 
tingulshing traits, thus far noted, betwL-tn two dassc- 
the ancient Peruviana, are not limited to the crania, ' . 
may be discerned in other traces of their phjrsical oiy..: 
ization. lu describing those of the rounded or bnuL 
cephalic tj'pe of cranium, he adds : " The bones of : 
latter struck me as larger, heavier, and leas rounded iIj 
those of the former (the elongated crania), and in :'. 
lai^r size of the hands and feet they also preseu; 
noticeable difTereuce. The remarkable narrowni'ss ai. 
delicacy of the hands, and the long and regularly-foru: 
finger-nails of the former, are strong evidence that ili' 
were unaccustomed to severe manual lalrour, siieli 
must have been required for the construction of t: 
gi-eat works of which the ruins remain. In oil ' 
cemeteries examined, where skulls of the rounded f.>ii 
have been found, those which are elongated hare i.J- 
been obtjuned." Rtimembering, however, that tlic - 
pulehral rites of the royal and noble Inca race via 
commonly accompanied by the same human i 
traceable among so many semi-civilized as well j 
baroua nations, it is in no degree surprising that! 
crania of the two distinct classes, noble and serf, ( 
be found deposited togethi-r in the same grave, 
a minute comparison of all the brachyeephalic Pen 
crania in the Morton collection, I have found that t 
also admit of subdivision into two classes disti, 
by marked physiognomical diversity. The bonts of J 


I in tbe one nre small and delicate, while the other 
fchita the clianirt«ri.itic Slongoi majcillary deveJop- 
iit und imimincnt chcrk-I>onea. In the following 
!••, N<« 1-4 nrp liie carefully selected cxfimplcs pm- 
.'1 I>y Mr. lUake during his journey in Peru ; Nos. 
', Krcr ahm in Mr. Bkke's collection; Koa. 7, 8, in 
<.'oll<Ttinn of Dr. J. Jloson Worrei] of lloeton ; and 
■> 9>H, in tbe cabinet of the Academy of Sciences of 
liidflphiii, including the exnmple» figured by Dr. 
I, plates IT. V. 

Ltabls hl— pehuman douchocephalic csania. 

^. ..l...l,. 

.. ..|... 



Lii.. . . 

',1 M M 


... 1 ... 

7-3 4fl .ra '4-t 

Tfl 47 S!! 01 

T 1 .v.' laa Jio 

14') U'-O 



. Ill Aria. 

(1« ,.V3 1311 Ai 

U-« '4 1 



T • s;i :15 8« 

HH i 411 


T .1 JO :iD 5 3 

14-0 |4-1 


7 -J :. 1 '3-. n-3 

1S9 4-0 



: ;i .-. ;i » i .la 




7^! a.i .VI jft-i 

14-9 41 



tfM*< . . 





14-8 |4-S 







14 1 44 





14-7 U* 



Mm . . 








B nuc oMeH not only are crania of diverse foniui 

I ift the 8UIK gniTe. bat tbe bend appears to have 

Mfaafaned, uul deporited separately in the tomb 

'vof bodi4« iQti?rrc<l in thn more Ufm»l way. In 

|Lflf ibe CVnnki Am^riciiua, Dr. ^lorton han intm- 

1 a Tiew of an embalmed bend from tbe PcniTian 

r at the Biiy of Chooota, but without giving any 

1 dorriptioQ of it, (hoogfa in Be\'enil rcspeeta it i« 

\ mnarkablf. It via bmugbt by Mr. Rbike from 

I lotalit) Bn the i-niniu already dc«cril)ed, and ijt 

»•-• •* 


in hk Mlfectini atBiMfw; iv Ae 
of ttiis intidli^ait timveller wen m 
to the puMieadoD of Dr. MortoBTB gnat 
ooDcirakMis were adopfced fiom enfier sad 
obeerratioiia. The head wasfiDund 
faDjr preeerved withoat the bodjr. It a fnifni to haii 
been jmyaied by deaioeatuHi, withoat tlie wae of »■* 
or other antiaepties^ and was envdoped in n tUdJL cotton 
bag. From the manner in which the neck ia dnvn 
together, the presenrative process to which it waa aah- 
jected must have Ijeen applied veiy Booa after death. It 
is unique, so fiaj* a8 the observations of its finder exta^ 
and presents some striking points of dissunQazity to any 
of the crania already described. It is remarkable fiv its 
great height compared with its diameter. Measond 
from the most prominent part of the os frontis to the 
extreme projection of the occiput^ it is 6*4 inches ; fima 
the most prominent protuberances of the parietal bonflB 
the diameter is 5 '8 inches, and vertically, from a hori- 
zontal line drawn across the orifice of the ear to the 
liiglu^st part of the head, is 5*2 inches. The forehead is 
hroad and high, the nose prominent, the cheek-lx>ne8 
Ktroiigly developed, the alveolar edges of the jaws ob- 
turtfly aiehed in front, and the incisor teeth stand in a 
vt*rtical ptwition. The liair, which is brown, and slightly 
gn*y. is remarkably fine, waved in short undulations, 
with a tendency to curl. It has been neatly braided, 
and Heveral of the plaited braids are piissed across the 
forehead, for which puii>ose they have been lengthened 
by tlic addition of false hair, so ingeniously joined as 
nearly to escapes detection. The orifices of the ears are 
tilled with tufts of cotton, and the siune are pa^ssed 
throiioh slits in the lobuli. Mr. Klake suggests that 
this niav have been the head of some noted cumca or 
chief of a luvstile cinuitry taken in Kittle, and preserved 


i ft touphy ; but Dr. Mtfftou refers to the pmutice of 

I mtivts at Port Mulgrave on the Dorth-west coaat, 

1 hh lIhml' (if other trilK-a, of decftpitatiug their dead 

tmd pruserving ■ tlicir heads apart. The same 

■ tastom pfEvaiU iu the Liulrone jiud Society 

u» in otImrH (»f the South Sen Islands, 

I which it may tie infernal that it was not the head 

1 unetuy, Imt of a pc^rson of distinctiou. The form 

hutuX hii» pniltulily l>een niotlified by ortificiid 

The abrupt prumincQee of the sujiercihary 

I iodiciileH the effect produced by compruKaion on 

I forehtiad, vhich hns deprL^sed the us fnmtis, and 

> greater lateral width to the head. 

B tcctti in thii« head, and in all the adult Peruvian 

ftcJuuniiK-d, luv much worn. Tlio iuci^irs are ground 

'•iwn fnmi their ruttiug edge to a broail flat 8urfai:e. and 

r.- rUf'pHlnti linve aaauuied a similar appwirauce. It is 

L'<.inditiiin vvry ivimmou in the cruuia of prirailive races 

■ IfP* nimple diet prew^rvcii the teeth, milijecting them 

• «ttritioii without exposing them to demy. A tiearly 

* appcamnce is preiu-ntcd iu the rnmia found in 

nt llritiith Ikutuws and cromlechs : though vario- 

1 the character of tlie food are sometimes traceable 

I of ojrroHponding changes ou the leeth. The 

" I Indian^ on the (\tlumbia river occupy a 

, where they suffer grejitJy from the drifting 

Tbey nuliHiHt almost entirely u|M)n wilmon, wluelt 

1 in the sun. During this prm-e**, it iH.-comeM filled 

irh an extent that it wirarw away the t<«th 

I gmt rapidity. It U rare, imlccd, to meet usith 8 

'i-walln Indian much beyond maturity wlitine teeth 

are Dot worn down u> tbe guma Tlie attrition of the 

Trnn-iiUM' teeth >Ir. Khike awrittes to n habit, BtiJI pre- 

1 ainoog the ludijLua, of cbewiog the leaf of tbe 

^ mtxrd with a Rulwtjuiee they fiUI lltUe, raodc by 

ratEBjanojc MAX. 

[Cue I 

*— T'"'^**'g <^ *^ fMSato -with eakiiKcl abdls I'l 
aAn obtomad innii jdantBncli lu alkalL 

BmA an tbe preniliBg ckumeCensdcs of Ferui. 
<xun, aptrt £min ibe mi^ail UHifaniuitioti which nri. 
of tfaem eirhflnl, b ommiton vith others both of iuicii!ii: 
Bod) the bnchjcephalic and tbu 
I bsve been sobjected to coiu[in;h- 
il^ttB meuu into a variety of raiiUi.>^n 
and diitanod fixms ; but there is no trace of tLu trui 
IbcmiSiaii hy tatk meue of the one fonu into tbe odi' : 
Ibgr lamm CBweiitijJIy distiDd, whether in th^ir uoni i 
oonditioii, or under aU the vaiiations liegottcn * 
the stnnge costom of flattening and compres^iup :i 
eknll in eatlr in&ncy ; and fhniish data altogeth«r iri 
coaaiaitle with the theon' of one unifonn and undevi r 
ing cranial type, ehared by the Peruvians in comm 
with all other tribes and nations of the New World. 

In an inqniry into the physical characteristics of t: 
Peruvian nation, we are by uo means limited to v.. 
cranial or the mere osteological remains rccovemMe tV ■ 
itn ancient cemeteries. Like the Egyptians, the I'li 
vinntt employed their ingenious skill in rendering i! 
bodicK of their dead Invulnerable to the assaults ■: 
"dociiy'B eifticing fingerB;" and like the inhabitants nt" 
the Nile Viilley, they were able to do 8o under peculiarly 
iBVoumble eircumBtances of Boil and climate. The 
I'liliHii-rt on Egyptian puiutiugs, and the texture of their 
Ihliir Imndiwiirk, which have shown no trace of decay 
through all ihe centuriBH during which they have I 
I'litiiuilnul ill their iiiilivc soil or catacombs, fade I 
jHirioti aliiiimt ill a single genei'ation when transferredi 
tho hiiiiiid oltitiBte«4 of Paria or I^ndon. The nati 
itki|H>diuu>iit« til diH-ay pn>bably contributed, alike I 
KttJ'pt «ihI Trni, li> tJiu origination of the ppicti 
miiUhitiiig. Thi' oomvteriw nlrondy referred 



titoKtetl m n region where ruiu seldom or oever fkllti ; 

uiU tliv di^-ncM alikt-' of the soil and atuoapliurc, u-hen 
■ddul ti) tlto untund iuiprt'^iiutioti of tlic tuiud witli 
tittrxtH n\\i», almost prccludi'it tliu d<.>cay of animiU or 
V. '.- '.I!.- toiittcT, and prest-ncH to us tfio tincwt woollen 
I'll textun'is with \\wiv brilliant dyea umlimmed 
By thfl flaiiic means vrv. are enabled to judge 
a tiilour and texture of the hair, the pro{>oTtio[is and 
r of \\ui luLD^liiaiid feet, and the com{>arative phy- 
1 tluvvkipmL-nl of two seemingly different rac«s at 
( Magi-a, from infancy to mature age. When we 
B irum the ttuuthuni continent of Amerim to the scut^t 
•nl nniivt i-ivilimitiun lying to the north of thi- 
UBS, a ditferent l-1ji»m of widL^nee, iii tik« manner, 
s our ninpe of ol)6er\'iition. The artistic ingenuity 
! ancit^t I'cruvian jxilti'r Iiah left for as valuable 
of nntivq porlniiture, luid the Mexican picture 
, willi tlie sculptures and terra-cottas, the pro 
I of Toltec aud Aztec eenimie art, in like manner 
tribute important evidence illustrative of the pliysio- 
ny uhI phywcal cUuracterintiesof the ancient races of 
Still more, the elalwnite sculptures and Htuc- 
\ bait-rvliefH of Central America, {H'qM'tuat(> in unmis 
B ebani(-u>ni the rtH^orls of an ancient mce, differ 
ntially from the miMlem Indian : and the study 
Idwtr cranial charartenRtics Ben,-e8 to confirm the de 
R derivmi from thof<e other indopendont ^mreea. 
I tnulitionH of the Mexican plateau pointed lo the 
Miwly recent intrusion of the fii-rce Mexiean on 
f more civilized races ; and varioua inde])endeni 
i^iuivo al different linuat been tempted t^i trace 
I ttotweun the ancient Mound -Huildera of the 
I dder civilized roee of Alexiitt, and the Peru 
I pi^cutiar runaius are recoviotiil from the 
I arrmnd Ijiko Titiatca. That the predominant 

I IMK, .11 dib' «n 'Of lUii' Ctii 

I fiw» rif ■ i i frym i flii M ^mmC mum; hS wlotfc harv 

> J« u »» f ^h«jM; DozllT'iiimcmMBaslkHlli- 

ymlililwii ■ilfeMrMM»|iii«lirii|ui. Hg fa l Mm faiv 

an ilMn^if lafii% Kidk gfac n^ oufOM af ik 

wiiilrJ* D mAb C*^.«*BiL«Bii>» iwniij.iL. 

nfiifa aT fhhaiiK; and i 

I wrtno lae ton 

' hat, bom tfe 

nAecboD uf 

.Vnti'jOSIMB of 

- :..-£, will U- 

ItLttiatc the aune etiinic drrer- 
nty. Tbb example wa» taaai 
in a tamolas on tbe Bay of 
Ifomiunis, and as sthkingly 
conrspontla to smne of tlit- 
Mexican paintings as toe tiu- 
lurlty tif till' Mfxiwiti t^rra-cottaa differ from tbcm. Tbt 
M<nlM "'(' iiiH'ii'iH I'iviliHation, Iwth in Aflii and " 
Wi>ri< ruiilliitxl, tliinii^h nil their carlieet historic agec^l 
lhi< l'i<rlllo mill ^'(<ttiiil i-liiu»tuH iind worm latitudes of 
i»iiilli. The mnlh rnutiiljutwl the hardy liarbariana t^ 
"Imiii, 111 tlimr il<'Kfiuinu;y, they l»ecamc a spoil and a 
licny. It U Diilv ill Vi-ry niodi-ni times tlmt Traufydpintf 
lijiir<i|ii« hiin givi'ii liirlh to a ii:itiv<! norllifm ci\'ili8iition, 
wltll>> III AnIh llM iiiii'lhoni tulitmU-8 ntill n'lnain in thi- 
i>t>i'ii|Wlli>ii ol' wtindcviiin hotxlvt* descended from 
l»t||ii« wliii iiiviijp'd llic elder niipln's of Asia, 


with UiR barbariaQH of Europe in Utu dismem- 

b of decuying Rome. It is not from a mere acci- 

w:i<lvDce that we tire hIiIg to recover trac<« of 

f rimilar successiou of events in the New World. 

tiuu t(M»k root for ii time in the Mts«ii»8ip{)i VuJIuy, 

r ikilf-orifjiiuited, or ii» lui oflBboot from the moru 

rwl nerueM of itn nmture development ; liut th« 

atcaus of Mexico and Peru were like Well pro- 

I Hnd giirrisuned pultice^ mid ntninghoIdH, where 

jiueoua fertility of tropical climatut relieveil 

^IcTpm who settled there from the all-ah»orhing 

Iglv which eliH-whens couHtituteK the battle with 

nature for life ; ami the phyiieal cluiracter uf the conn- 

IV |>n>teet«^ them idike from tlx- temputiontt to wan- 

' r. Olid the iuHUdiility of wtth^l rummunitica in it 

•iiuule coantrj'. Yet they could not u»c!ape the rtcisM- 

ii-ien which liave Ix'fallen every nation, whose weultli 

lid luxury have ko far HurjHiwtHl the acqnittitions uf iu 

. -ighlxture n>t to tempt the cupidity uf the iHirtiarian 

ixiiler ; and the lieanlifnl vulleya of Mexico, the ancient 

iiuae, &p|H.-ar to have experienced auceeasive revoln- 

■ akin to tiione wliieh render the ethnol(»gy uf Itjdy s 

lly smiling noil and delightful rliumte ho eonipliuatod 

I difiiuulL Tlu-'rv are vague traiUtions of Olmiica, 

I, and Zttpoteca, all highly-ci^ilixed precurnow of 

B aDcitmt Toilers, who«w entry on the plateau hm Ixten 

by ta*jfA authorities about a.d. 000, and whose 

lendeot rale is ituj>posed to liave endured for nearly 

four uikl a htdf ci'nturies. Then came the migration 

fn>m the mythic iVztjditn of tli« north, and the fonnding 

of Uu; Aztuc monarchy. Tho details t>f sucli traditions, 

btflli Uieir dat«fl and whole (Jux>uolog)-, arc valnelcw. 

Hht the gcnvrul iaieX of the nure^Hiive iutnution of roo- 

ijnnit^ nati«n^ and tlie connequent lulniixtun' uf tribcM 

ltd race*, cannot lie doubtt>d. The civilize*! cnuittrtc« 



b^Mid the Bonthem iadimiis may hare coatribatBd —h ^ 
of them, and the diaperaed Momid-Bailden of Ohio nuf 
have been the intrnders of other oentnzies ; while IIm 
re^QDS immediately aarronnding the hi^ TaDeya mon 
frequently fhrniflhed the invading spoUeta. Bat ono 
result is to throw considerable imceTtainty on any in- 
ferences drawn &om cranial obaerratioDS, Tudeas deduced 
fmm numerooa instances, accompanied with accnnta 
data as to the circumstances and probable age of tin 
exhumed remains. Of the crania obtained by Dr. Mor- 
ton, only eight were of older date than the Conqneat; 
and the names of Toltec, Aztec, and other national dia- 
linctions are frequently attached to such on no satiafiw- 
tory gn>uml& A general uniformity is traceable in a 
rouHiiU'rahle number of Mexican crania, but not witjumt 
Muvli uobiblu exceptions as to admit of their division abo 
ititi) liiittiuvt dulichocephalic and brachycephalic gronpe^ 
m ill the following tables : — 








1 Mi'ik'o, . 





... 4-2 : ... 


-> (ItimilMl,. 




15-5 41 1 ISO 


:t IVmxIo QnoRilns. 




159 40 , 140 


111' l-W 



I4'S [4-1 


19-2 1 

B 1 TiH^ulm, . ' . 

T'l ."'-e 



15-2 4-3 

14 2 


TO ,v;i 



14-5 l41 


20 1 

7 1 Mi'iV'o, . 

.T'O :■••*, 



160 141 


l'J-8 1 

8 „ . . 
Mi-nn, . 





15-8 1 41 






15-20 4- 12 


19 99 

Of Talili' IV,, No. 1 is iu the collection of Dr. J. 
Mhhoii Warren, of Boston, wIktc it ia simply marked 
" Mrxirmi. iiiirifiit." No. 2, from an ancient tomb at 
4HuiiiImi. in Mi'xii'i>, ia noted ))y Dr. Morton (plate L.ti.) 
n» " appmacliinj; lu-anT to the Caucasian model, both in 
Iiii>|mrtionn and in facial angle." No. 3, on the same 


iriQr, ia duunctorized as " a relic of tbe genuioe 
I stock, haviiig bf4>a cxhameil from sn ancient 
[cry at C'*!rr« tie QucsUas, near tlie city of Mexico." 
L 4 t« alou frum an ancient tomb near tluit cit>', wtiere 
irna exbumixl aluog with aouc of tbo rcmoHialilo teim- 
tta^ iM>tt('n-. tnajtkn. etc., now ])rL*Mor\'{--d willi it in 
) colloction of the American PbiloiMj])hi'Uil Society at 
Hlc][ihia. Tlie rcinainiler an- in the collection of 
^ AcsJemy I'f Natural Sciences. 


■ 1" 



br ^^ 


ar.A B.e. 

■lllnim . 






... «0i> 

■ '• 



us 2»tf 

■ <>V..I^ 




13-a 19-2 

H - 






14-0 19-3 







14-B ' 19-9 





MB ,4 5 : 13 « 30'J 





14-6 !4 1 1 13-6 l!)-U 

■ - 



« 30, 0-45 

I44S, iu| 13^1^ 19 H 

' tiko btachyccplialic group (Table v.). Not. 1, S, 
\ in the coUectiiio nf tlie Natuml Hlj<tor)' >Societ)' of 
Na 3 is cliarairteri7A<«l aa an A;!ti-c skull, but 
1 to ID the Ppx-eviiingfi nf the Socii-ty (voL iiu 
ilTS). "D the authority of Dr. KneeUnd, aa buhmgiuji 
|llw Tnllecon family. Koa. 3, 4, are from ancitjit 
■ of Otumba; and Dr. Morton remark!*, in reference 
No. 8, that its striking rvwmblanc^ to Peruviim itkalla 
; be overiooked ; while of Na 6. with ita remark- 
t fertieal diameter, be uotea ita do lees striking pre- 
iou of "all the prominent cliaracteriatics of the 
I ruee." No. 6 is figured by Morton, pL XWL 
, 7 i» B pure breenl native Mexican of the modern 
A cumpariimn of thorn tal>le:4, along with the 
1 tioouDcntn of Dr. Alort^m on acme of the moH 
i otiuiia. inifiirea to show how little drpi 

•Jin fKZBfSTUMK MAS. [0 

■'lilt 1h* jiloiTt^d on 007 tbeorj of boniogvDooiis crani 
rlincru'tf rinticji pertaining to the nees of ^VnaJioar, Fro 
•lucli cvtilriiceH of the divennty of craniaJ type, wliii 
till' ruiitid iiliktj wilhiu the Mexican and Peruvian limits 
W(> limy lulmit, with the leas h«»itation, that a eettaift 
I'onfuniiity iimy Iw traced between eorao of the ancioil 
Mt'xioiui iiikI I'oniviaii skulls and those of northern hap 
Iwiwiw trilH* NotwithsUiadiug the greater apparen 
fuxMtmiiy of Mexico than Peru, raucli more aecuiaJ 
v»wi»I *UtA hjivo hilluTtii In-en t)i)t.aiued from the Uttfl 
litut ihff fiMrrovr ixHiutry ; mid wliilt' the great collcctioil 
^'4' ifctti* A\'wk'Uiy *>f Natural Sciencra of Pliiladelphia i 
I|IM4mi4m<U wuh aiu(Ui(.< ntatcriaU for tJie study of Pemvii 
'MlWWfri^iyr.. Mt^1 W*s IvtHi largely augmented in thia d 
^<JI<|IWIHN> 4ttK« IV. Morton's deatli : it is still ve 
iMKiW^K^ii g uyylia^t vilW iUwsntMns of ibe more coi 
IflMWUl-fc 'tlifciwftr < i lu a i iHmrtk » «f Ac Mextean plateai 
Miii W Mwt Mtttvaab derirnd froa dk; ancient ceme 
. ■ iVutrxl America. Until iueUigent nativi 
>, V . ■, vvlistTxiin* (Jiall carry on «xt«oscTc obeerratioi 
'.>u t.Lw f^iot, and i-trtKuly \\w ancient cruoi^ hf x 
4iv^(wo]ogicul itml iMbt^r tmslwortfay evitlenoe, 80 I 
tVinu»h 8umi> moniw of di^tennining what is tlw t 
Olmec, Tnlliv, nod \Uw cmniuui. no satisfKtniy ( 
iwiriBoris am 1h' dmwii U'lwvcu nncient Mexieao e 
ftud the corre8[Hmdiiig ty(x\s of the barbarous nor 
tribes. Uufortuniili-ly the S]vuiish-Amcrican colonisi 
of Mexico, Yucatan, imd Ceutml America, have hitheit 
with a few honourable exceptions, rather impeded I 
rooperatcd in any invcsligiitions calculated to thiol 
light on tlie history and ctlmulogy of those remarkahli 
Beats of a native American fi\'iliRation. 

The Peruvians aud Mexicjins, irith the ancient popi>- 
liitiuns of Central America and Yucatan, constitute thft 
Toltecan family of the two great divisions into which Dr. 


n Jivi(l<}<l his one ^Vmorican " mc* tir «pecio«." The 

icHU lying to tbo nortli of \hovie aiaitji of a imtivu civi- 

tinn, wetv all cliu«!uj<l by hini into iidk family of the 

uiu triliuM, rvsemliliDg the othtr in ph^'sicji], but 

ffeniig from it iu iutellectuiil churacterif^c8. Yet, as 

\ hovu seen, even Dr. Mnrt<>n recugnised some diffcr- 

aniimjt iht'tn ; nml Professor Agasaiz speaks of 

lluur t*-iiUt-ncy \o aplit into minor groups, though nin- 

Dtofj n-ally oni' into the other. The following tables, 

hMWu^er, will show lluit the differences are of a for more 





<^r.| «c j 

ft itiiiii 




5-B 1 lS-0 







8-8 . is-g 







A'4 18-0 

4 1 

14 7 





6(1 1.V2 




7i) ;«-B 

4-A '3'8 l|4-T 




4-krnAi«, r 

7-S ia-2 

4 2 !s-8 '14 3 





7-0 IB3 

41 1.14 M'.l 




7« 83 

4 3 »S 14'l 




1 >..-Uw, 

7-2 611 

4-2 S.I , 14r. 




.s..,k. r. 

7 4 flii 

4-6 S-5 IS J 

4 7 





7-n flO 

4 7 sa 1 l3-n 






7-3 «a 

48 AS ISI 





Ti na 

4 3 Sfi '148 




7 8 a-; 

14 1 5.1 ISO 




7i> n-a 


0^ 13-8 





.■i'4 [4-6 

ftl ' 14 4 

4 '2 






fl-i Iflfi 







S'fi lS-0 







ft 3 ,' 14-n 







AD 18'n 






S3 14 .1 






4« 'SI 1 14 9 






4-4 A'3 14-7 







4-3 'ft 1 14-3 

3 8 



■h r. . 



41 ft a 


4 3 


19-8 , 



41 ftl 

13 4 






4'A 8-2 



14 8 

20-3 1 



41 IftA 







3« 18^ 







4-0 S-S 

14 8 



^^P '' ' 



M 18 1 





^m^ ' 









. and in reubt}' BOilir&ot "Ait m 
< mttBoS btudiyuipkulli. iiul iJ<rii^:li«>-'' i>Lii>: 

iSM ; wi ' tlHwe, tlu- iattur BLtiri, 

edotniiiiutt. rht cxamjiW are iiiii " 
ladtiljitua t ilbctiiiu, tlunisii wiUi .. luii^.u^.^ ^u^^fa 
iDB &um tlu-- liaefcuti calniusb* olnuiflT lefecred 1^ ■ 
well OB iitnu ^Tunadiiui cuQccdDiiB. Tiiis- tstiiti, viid 
sixaL(»> tbt ftiTDj df itsftd most 'viifjlr drvBc^ag it 
fpoporutriui {iiim till' tbt'ocetica] trpe, shows m naSSf 
Ae pn-vuUiijg uliuiuct^^^^ ' ^be ucrdt-eastem liA a^ 
Hw) oould tiUHiJhr lie si tended. Ute o^i^eHlK 

or liiuchye(^4mH<- era ilajon is ilfaistated m 



uauc vn^-Aiasia 






u^|.. ;......! I 

IMup% . . 


£■8 4-* 



4-1 'li« 9M 


ST 1«» 



At ; I4-* 9M 

C(*^ . 


»< 14 J 



4^ 14-k »l 

Hiiul. . 


>« U-s 



41 llJ« IM 

K.ii.k. . 


S-* 4-1 



4 1 143 !*• 


S-S *S 5 J lU-S 

3-9 14 1 19-1 

D«<.«, : 


5-7 4-2 

3 4 14-7 44 13* IM 


S-7 48 

55 151 44 U4 a»-l 

fa^ F. .' . 


S-4 '4 4 

4« 13-7 .4-3 I3« l|*-l 


*S 4-1 

5-4 ' 15-0 44 I4« ; IH 


• 9 

C-S 4-0 

5^ 14* ,4-4 |1«-| IIH 



5-« \*3 

5-5 15 1 ' 4-4 I4-S IM 


ciiotuut^uw, , ; 


S-7 4-3 5* 15-5 41 U-« ' IM 


l.l.iUMjyM, . 


5-4 42!5-2|UJ 3-8 13^1 IH| 


0«4C. ■ . . 




5^ US 4-7 Ufl , IW 





5-3 ' 15 1 4-1 13-4 llM 


Cr^k, '. 




5-4 1«-S 4-7 14-4 l«M 




4 7 I; 12 5 4 1 I3i» 'iM 




fi 1 !' 14-0 4fl ... IM 


■*UhioM«iiuI,"F. ; 




6-0 i: 142 4-0 ... 19* 





n-2 13-4 IM 


■ - 



4^ 13-0 IS-S 



5-43' 4-24 

5-»)< 14-63' 4-2.V 13-85 19-44 

But I now turn to the region around the aorthem 
lakes, where opportunities of personal observation first 
suggestcfl to me the obvious discrepancies between the 



cridcnco dtscloMKl l>y exliutuation on the utes of 
MPpultun'-, uiil the theory of a ty])ical unity mam- 
in tbi> phyKJcnl and jieculiar tnuiial charauteristit's 
moKt «-i<idy separated tribes and nations of the 
3U1 continent. The .Scioto Mound skull, char- 
ed by I>r. Morton m " the ]»erfect type of Indian 
nadon to which the skuIU of all the tribes from 
lam to Canada more or less approximate," pre- 
be remarkable anterior dcvelopnient of a cranium 
if two-thirds of the cerebral mass was in fi-ont of 
Babu auditorius extenius ; whereas in the elon- 
ivian alculL, unaltered by artificial means, this 
ly rcveraeil, showing by tlie proportions 
cavity tliat fully twu-tliinU of the brain 
mealQs auditorius. These may be con- 
as rcproMUiting the two extremes ; but both of 
groat stocks between whom the northern region 
tlw great lakm has been chiefly rliviclul floce 
I iBtmnoo of Europeans, belong to the doUcbo- 
: dhrinoD. These are the Algonquin? and the 
I; including in the hitter the Iluronis who. with 
Neuters, and Eries, all lK'longe<] to the same 
though involved in deadly enmity writh each 
In the supposed typical Scioto Mouud skull the 
parietal, and vertical diameters vary very 
r ; and as the Mexican and Peruvian crania 
attracted Dr. Murtoo'a attention, uiid arc illuK> 
iiunut«dy, as a series, in his great work, it only 
" the further theory, which txJenwl all the elon- 
■kulU to an artificially miHlified chum, to confirm 
mind that idea of a {icculiariy formed <;n)uium 
uniformly nud exclusively to the Kow World. 
thenrrtical type of a head very neatly comapond- 
length ami breadth, thfmgh not in height, tbu 
eluas of Peru\-ian and Mexinui braehv- 

fT^*^^ ei>mE maeptaamMj affmnmate. Of oar 
the fionna; fioa die Tanfie ot ife Son (Iltte xl), I ' 
Hoctoo renuxks: 'Aatt&ii^ljr dHneteriatie Penivi-Li 
head. As ie oomioon in ths series of aknll^ the pAni-'' 
sntl los^ixadinal diemrtrr ie needy tfae aune,~ m 
loi^lttiidiiial, 6*1 ; perietal, 6*0 ; anai tested hy li: 
BtBZkdanI, be wee «Ten more justified in recognL>u:. 
mufced points of cam«poDdenoe l)etw*.-ea ifae Tklotiij 
flintUl^ and vbat be calls " the Toltenm ttrtuii--l) of t 
American race;'' than mi^t seem reasoaaUe frum i' 
miaMfianeouB character of the crmia refefred to br Lu: 
ae "Mound dcnns." But the moment we test In- act'i. 
mcaeurement. and not by the eye, a Tery wide ttiffertn 
in apparent between the brachycephalic crania of -.:. 
class refem^ to, and the prevailiDg fonn of the ht'iii 
in many of the northern tribes, as among the Algon- 
quins, Horons, and Iroquois. The Algonquin stock are 
represented by Ottawas, Mississagas, Chippewas, and 
other tri!»e«, within the area of Upper Canada and along 
the shores of Lake Superior. Of Indians belonging to 
Iioquois and Algonquin tribes I have exaniine«l, anil 
compared by the eye, many at widely-scattered places : 
on the Thames and Grand Rivers, Rico I^ake, Lake 
Siracoe and the Georgian Bay ; at Mackinaw in Lake 
Huron, and at Snult Ste. Marie ; at Ontonagon, La 
Point, th<! Apostlo IslimdSi and the St Louia River, on 
Lake Sui)i'Jior ; and on the Saguenay, St. Charles, St, 
Maurice, and Ottawa rivera, in Lower Canada ; as well as 
on audi cliancc c)i»iK)rtnnitie3 as occui- iu the neighlmur- 
hood of our C'anadian towns and villages. Physiogno- 
mically I hey present the large and prominent mouth, 
high cheek-bones, and broad face, so universally char- 
acttsriHtic of the American Indian ; but tliey by no means 
possess in iv remarkable degree tlie wide and massive 
lower jaw, which has been noted as of universal occur- 


:->-oae aisiiag the Red Itidiatw. StilJ more iiotic«able^ 
u the kbeeocc of tLe squilioe Dose, so charactetistie 
getwnlly of the tra<> lodtan in a>Dtnuli5tmrtioQ to tbe 
Etgrnmim. The eyu may Im fuUy depeo'led on for 
phjMognunucaJ chancterUtics ; though of little service 
in tesdog ininat«r variations of cruoial proportioiis, 
flipeeiaily when depeudcut tm obtK-rvatiuus made od the 
bead, coverwl with the thickly-matted and long 
9 hair of the Indian. Kor an.- actual incanuvments 
TCiy naulily ohtoiiicd ; for othiT oljstades-— cvcu mure 
dtficuk to tiurmount than sut-h mttural impedimcnlB to 
olaurvatiua, — interfere, and enlist lK>th the supemtitiona 
■ad the foam of the Indian in antagonism to the inqui- 
■tioni of flcieDce. I have been baffled repeatedly in nt- 
iM^ita to induce an Indian to Aubmit his heai.1 to the 
dnMded appliance of the callipen ; and have fooud him 
■at only resst eveiy attempt that could be ventured 
flti, backed hf arguments of the moat pCMtical kind, 
bat on tbe wilicitatioo bong prcased too urgently, Iibto 
■MB htm tiemble, and manifest the ttToageit aigna of 
Cmt, nnc UBDeoonipanied with anger, nich as made retreat J 
fasdcnt. In other oaaea where tho Indian has been in^ I 
imeaA to aabmit bis bead to examination, his aqoaw hm I 
iBtafcred and Tebemently protested against the danger- 1 
MM oftentioiL The chief c^ject of dtvad seems to be -I 
kit tboeby the Mvrvts of tho owner shoidd be revealed 1 
la tbe manipulaiDr ; but tlm rather morkii tho move \ 
dofimte fonn of appndipusiim in the mind of the Ch 
tiaaised Indiiiu. With others it it simply a vagn* I 
dread of yovfT beiiig thereby acquin.-«l ovnr them, mob f 
■a Mr. PanJ Kiuie infbraH me ftvqacnlJy interfered te 
fwerent hia taking portraita of tbe Indians of tbe Nortb- 
waH, nnlea by stealth. 

ble (vnL) embodies tbe resalta of 
I of twelve living representatives of AJgon- 

JBcliidii^ Eix Oiipiwwaa at thu Indian I 
m hiice Cooddciiinoi three Ottawas from I 
mad duee Abenakis from the iSt. Maoiicc^ 






««L , ..» 











1 « 







1 3 

p^ia^bM^ . . 












\ ^ 

ShiUiiig, Jamb, 







», Willuun, 






! 7 

KJ.go«6^ . . 






1 8 





21 -S 

1 9 

























Hew. . . 






Some of the me^suivmcnts in the liniig bead :ii' 
necessarily affected by the hair, aln-ays coarse and abim 
dant witJi the Indian. Others again, such as the vert : 
cal diameter, cannot be taken ; but the mastoid proc*s- • 
are Butticieutly prominent to leave httle room for en 
' in tlie measurement of the inter-mastoid arch ; and tli: 
^ suliices to show the very exceptional approximation ■ 
the modem ^Ugonquin head to the ancient tjpe, in tl. 
proportional elevation of the vertex : in so far, at le^i^: 
88 it is illustrated by these examples. In the horizontal 
circuniforcnce some deduction must be made for the hair, 
to bring it to the true cranial measurement in all liie 
six living examples. 

From the above measiu-ements, along with other ol>- 
servations, the Abeniikis and Chipi>ewa.s appear to indi- 
cate a less marked deviation from some of the as.sum<-<i 
characteristics of the jVmerican cranial t}'pe, in iIji 
witlely-spread branch of the Indian stoek, than is i. 
servabie in other unrthern races; and especially 


t on an exnmumtioD of skuUs Mouging to the 
lal Hunm oecuitants of the greater piirt of the 
)• ttmuud Lukes Simcoe and Couchifhiiig, where 
liip[M;wa8 more e8|)uciaUy referrtd to are now 

pmjMtrtinnH thua given as chiiract«rifitic of the 

eiy-diff»scd Algontiuin stock, indicate tliat they 

~ 1 to the (lolichocei)halic diviiiiot), of which Ttiblea 

Xllt. fiirniKh evidence su^estive of a gener- 

f pnrailing divergence fn)m the more common Peru- 

d the nippoBed Mouml tj-jie among the northern 

The extent of this divergeuce will be no less 

1 by referring to some of the most chfiractcr- 

H fumlihiHl in the Crania Aviericantt. The 

I from the ftHsumtHl typical proportions is 

, for example, in the Miami cranium : the head 

&tcd chief, eloquent, of great bniver)*, und 

nmising hostility to the whites ; and in ctjually 

; in ihoao of the Potowatomii-s, the BW^kfeet, 

, autl the Delawan.-d. In mottt of thotte 

-emunta an* given by Dr. -Morton, the 

I diameter ia ncariy, and in Home more than 

n ezcesB both of the pariebd and vertical 

jid in other respects they differ little less 

the characteristics of the brachycephalic 

' indieations of data — derived from a source 
• unexceptionable in the present argument, — ■ 
t to reu<UT it imiHMwible to uphold the vitWB 
dly aftinui-d, of the phyiuognoniica!, jdiysiolo- 
1, above all, the cruuiuj unity ehiinicteriziug the 
i ancient ami modern aborigines uf the New W'urUL 
Algomiuiua, IrDquoia, and Hurons of the Sl 
) valley and the Lake regiona, which have been 
1 by many writers as specially typical of the 


prfdominant eliaracteristica of tlie uorthera Re<l Indian, 
furnish evidence equally confirmatory of the divcraifit^d 
physical characteristics of American nations. Of \h<v. 
Dr. Latham remarks : " The Iroquois and AlgontiuiL 
exhibit in the moat typical form the chaitict*?ristics ■ 
the North American Indians, as exhibited in the e-arh.- 
descriptions, and nre the two familiea upon which lii 
current notions respecting the physiognomy, habits, ;iri ' 
moral and intellectual powers of the so-called Reti r.n 
are chiefly fomided."^ In many respects, however, tin ; 
presented a striking contrast. The Algonquin stock, 
chiefly represented by the modem Chippcwas, is only 
known to us as embracing rude hunter tribes ; or win:: 
found under the protection of the government of ll. 
province, and settled on the Indian reserv-es of Uff : 
Canada, they illustrate in a remarkable manner the ui 
stable condition of savage life prior to the introtluction ■ 
any foreign disturbing elements : for they are, \vilh von 
partial exceptions, more recent intruders within the Cam- 
dian clearings than the Europeans; and the extirpation I'l' 
the aboriginal occupants of Canada is wholly ascribabl' 
to native wars. In the brief interval between Carti* i - 
first discovery of Canada, and its exploration and settiL 
mcnt by Champlain, the whole country between the 
Ottawa and Lsdfe Simcoc ap|»ear8 to have been depopu- 
lated ; and the Wyandots and allied tribes, di-iven westr 
ward by their implaciible Iroquois foes, were settled in 
palisaded villages in the country around Lake Simcoe 
and the Georgian Bay. The Huron nation embraced four 
tribes among whom agriculture was systematically pur- 
sued : probably with all the more assiduity that the 
i-estriction of their hunting-grounds by the encroach- 
ments of the Iroquois must have made them more de- 
pendent on its resources. To the south-west of 1 

' rarifiit' i^ MaH, |i. 33.1, 



atiy, in the h^h ground between the Georgian Bay 

I Lake Erie, tbe allied nation of the TiuahiooneB was 

The Niagara tlistrirt wna in like manner filled 

e AttiweodaronJcA or Neutt^rs, of the some stock; 

II abiDg tiic liver banks and amaller lake shore§t taam 

1 villages and cemetencs prove that at an earlier 

b Um vbole ctMintry was fiUt-d up with a correapoud- 

\ pfjpolation. Tbi: Wyanilnta, at. tbey styled 

K-jres, only lierjunc known to Euro{)eans in their 

^ and immediately before their eitirpatiou. They 

1 in alliance with the Adirondacks against their 

I Iroqaoia foe, and probably a certain portion oi 

" I fouuil iu U{i]>er Canadian cemeteries belong 

\ latter. But tliu Algonquin cranium, though less 

Uy dolichocephalic than the Huron or Iroquois 

k belougs to tbe same claas ; and to one or other of 

I nearly all the Canadian crania may with little hes- 

■ be aaHigaed. 

: Indian skulls chiefly dug up within the district 
I peitaining tn the Huron or Wyandot branch of the 
s stork. I had observed and cursorily examined a 
• number, l)e£>re my attention was ««pedally 
to the peculiar characteristics now under eoi^ 
^ owing to repeated rejection of those \ 
» fiuling to foniiah speciniens of the a 
I American bead. Since then I have carcfti 
I and measured sci'cuty-oue lu'itan skullit be- 
longing, as I U-lieve, to the Wyandot or the Algunquin 
stock, witii the following results ; — 

1. Only 6ve exhibit imch an agreement with the a**! 
■un>*^ Ameriran type, aa, jodged by tbe eye^ to justtfy ] 
- lieir dsMiificatiun aa true bracfayoephalic crania. One of 
' l>e«e (Table ix. >'o. 23). a very remariuble and massive 
■koU, was turned up at Barrie, on Lake Simcoe, with, it 
ia aaid, upwards of two hundred others. It differs from 

iderable t 

^ctiikiiigt}'. 'fab;tt vriuii xaainp* mrtt^iit ^tlHuBw upbbb fcwif 
tkdi iii any otbei jramiiau. TIliiBiB^vin&iiittiflBdhitdtt 
nmih oi artiiimJ €QnqiFeBHaiL;.aiuliiD -aD^anamimMm 
n^oiicii^ii tii< TdTTiii^ iomiK riixah sHpsmifliiiBfl «k Ai 
umunil cnmial canianiiatixiii, it iib ^nijjipwrti'Mi i tiff jb b- 
^rutl^n' inmj iiii- cnmitn' iyiiip utwuEik dhp mumfli tif Ai 
iAi«»tijMi}r}ii, ^vaov iia- ancient .pm^rsB -ilF iflie 
-triW di«6ciuKi' niauT ^kulih jnanldBcl iintD dOis 


rluriu. jSi' uiiti: Jiuf^ i*eeij jjnsiservifid of T&e j^G^emflnl 
jtrufOuf 111' tlii^^ cruuiii dwt^nvfnniil iit "tin* name H 

-tUi^ uuv ui> ihiuln i>wed ife <e.ltictian to Ate jwnriKg 
^j!iiv v'liulv ttulijfict of iM!Gi}mul auQ "vaiificl 'OCHimi 
Ipu^wikui i^ clt^Hurrinr uf TurmTtflT- canflideratiuiii rAam 
4i<luiM»t)Uiii: iu j'tdtsrciK^e til tlu' iQnron anima, ^vcftodk i 
jUil*>i:t iii |r»Ui«^rul no trucefi of on lihnamml ic 
;K<^^ .i«^ J>j:. McuacoiV uHBi^nmieair of xlie -^eniiGiiIl 

A.fAi(rJl<'^:jj i.u'a.ui.iuu Ijume cnn Ivv un esammnutaon <!if dMW 

l^i-si .-irt;/i< wjrij tilt ei'Jd^'D^'.e idBorat^ci I-t thr mflKchr 

y^h'fttt t j^j/*'^ ^':i;;;juia wa* or.L'"uj»ie!'i yn-.-T to its- Euiv»j'«ean 
t-» i«)< i/i« /jf. M.'un- of i}j*rJXL iiidt-e^-l i-xL:":*:: 2 loial al*- 
i'^h'^ 'ft any :ij/|yro;jiiijiitiv*Li T-.» iLe fl:in-enrd c»ooipuL 
'Iw^nfy </l i)<< <r/aiji;i ivfi-rrcd !-.♦ i^L'.'W a more or less 
tU ' itlii\ \t'f>,Uivft' liti/y-A'Aum of the Lvcipm : irightoen of 
I|m^« l^jnt/ iii.iilii'lly ;ro, and t^n uf ihem piv^^onting 
&ih li <i pioloiij/alioii of it, as constituted one of the most 
0in|i|i){/ Iriiiiiii'.vi in iiuit c;la«H of ancient Scottish cnmia, 
ulii' li « liM lly l«'«l to tin; HUggestion of the term Kumbe- 
ii(iImiIh, 11:1 M ilp^linrtivi* tiTni for them. But since my 
iiIkm iviifhinn «»ii tInH Muhjtrct werc first published/ the 

* " i^tt|i|iH«iit |t|p\iil«'iiii« of oni< Cranial Tyjie throughout the American 




>i:ial i|aestinii trf the prevailing form of the occiput faiut 

- 1-0 toktm op in a valuable loouograph rontrihuted by 

: 'r. J. Aitlccn Meip8 to the Trausactioiwi of tbfi Academy 

■ Nntnm] Scieuct-j* of Philadtlpbia." The ronclitsiona 

iri i vi ,^ ut un* : that tht- form of tht- human ocriput is 

■t^mt, but varieM cvl-u auimig imlivitlualH of the 

■ ■ i<t trilR*. He dividt's thf diffureril fomiB into 

Avy .li-M-s : 1 St, The pnitubcrant ix;ci put, which 

1 ..iiii'ii;.' tli. iiiitions of the New World by the 

.\, ( lii|>|H'u;iis Jluroitft, and more or le«8 amoDg 

■ iiffervut Americiin tril)es or nations. 2d, The 

. flattened occipnt he assigns aa more or k«B 

: among sixteen tribes, and characteristic of the 

of the Mound-Builders. 3d, The full and 

. ..r globolar occiput characterizes nine American 

Udti-t.iT ijr lril»e», and occurs occaaionally in a givater 

niiinl-T. But the Bnol summary of Dr. Mciga goes even 

iL-r than this ; &n<l, treating as it doc«, not 8c»lely of 

I Amerie^m, l>ut of the human occipital formation, it 

f vlfwtually ileab with alt theories of radical diver- 

) of human varieties or distinct species^ in so fiu- 

I this iui{>(>rt;mt subdivinon of 09t«ok)gica] evidenee 

Icunccrucd, l>y ottinuiug, M tbo reault of obflervatioiu 

DHdt.- ou dtivcn hundn-d uud twcuty-Bvc human ctaiiia, ■ 

" that therv is n marked tcndeuey of these forms to gi^ i 

' <~>ther, more or !«« iusetuubly. Koue of 

'■ said to belong exclusively to any race 

■ ■i them, therefore, can be n^atdcd as 

vpii .il : for a character or form to be typical 

. be exclusive and constant" In his eUborate 

; Dr. Meigs has still left untouched the pecu- 

'•■rsa^ Konnber IU7 j /MinhrnfA .Vnr />tjb. 
tfti /Ww ^ U« Orc>«l M U< I'srlMM Mmam ^ Mm. 
ly J. AMkM lMp^ M.D. PW«.l»l|J»fc ISW. 


In thirtvea uf the Canadiau skuILi catvfuDy noted 
* me, tii« aume feature U purticiitarly manifest. In 
nujtirity of tJiesc the oa fniutia slopes nHttiout 
r inHeDtation to the et!g»r« of the orbits ; and when 
into consideration along with the pyramidal 
c aud pri^tioniinant Iongitu<liual diameter, suggests 
, hithi-Tio overlooked, with the Esquimaux form 

e n also worthy of not« that, whereas Dr. Morton 

I the result of his experienee, that the most di»- 

; potDts of the parietal hijut^ are for the most part 

puictal protuberances, out of fifty-one Canadian 

~~ k I have only found 8Ueh to be the t-an- in three, 

f irineb were female. The widest imrletal measure- 

1 il generally a little alNtve the squamous suture, 

Mine examples a still wider diameter is given 

the temporal bones. Somewhat minute ub- 

, accompanied in part nith measurements, of 

I examples in the unrivalled collt-ction of the 

' of Sciences of Philatlelphia, inetine mo to 

hit is a common characteristic of American 

; tables {Tables ix., xi.) exhibit the rel*- 
"rre proportions of the crania found in Upper Cauad% J 
n so far as they can be shown by such a series ofa 
menta. Embracing, as they do, the indices of ' 
\ oonparativc length, breadth, bei^t, and cireum- 
\ at seventy skulls, procurad without any special 
1 Indian cemeteries lying, with only four 
k to the north of LakeR &ic and Ontario, they 
B derived from a sufficient numbi-r to indi- 
constant proportions, and to mark certain 
ntB of euntrut instead of comparison, wbe-n pbeetl 
I of the eorrefl{>ouding relative proportioDft in 
ft of brachyccphalic crnuia. 














OriUU, . 




5 6 1 15-6 








5-4 14-7 









4 3 
















5 '3 






"„ r. '. 










Owen Sound. . 


















































14 6 





Oeorglln Bky,' 










F. . 




5 '2 






F. . 





13 3 




On>, . . . 



4 4 


15 6 





7 '4 













14-8 4-6 








1,V2 4-5 








15-4 4-2 





6 '3 



14-2 41 




PenctangnisbcDe, . 





15-3 '4-5 




Bame. . . . 





lB-0 14-6 








140 41 







5 2 

14 '5 4-4 







14-6 41 




Tcciimaeth, . 

7 3 




14 -r. '4'9 









141 :3-6 




7 9 



5 7 

160 34 




". F.' ; 




5 '6 

HO 4-1 









134 4-2 








l.i-O 4-4 





5 4 



151 4-4 




Whitchurch, ; 


5 3 



151 4-2 




NHwmnrket. . 

7-2 50 



15-7 4-2 





7-6 |5-a 



14-7 4-0 




OakriilgM, . 

7-6 ,5-5 


6-0 15-7 4-6 




P. . 

6-8 |4-S 


5-0 |l3-6 4-0 



Mi-ali, . 

7-37 5-46'434 5-43 14 TO 4 23' 14-65 


Of the CnniA in Tftble tx., Noa. 3, 13-16, 18. 37, 38, are in the 
Miisoum of the University of Toronto ; Nos. 4-10, in the Mnseuin 
of Triuity OoUpge, Toronto ; Nob. 22, 23, in the Museum of the 
C&niuliui Institute; N(«. 11. 12, 24-26, 35, 36, in the Collection of 
l'roffi«orBoveil,M.D., Toronto; No. 17. Bev. J. Gray, Orillis; Xo^ 
19. 20, Mr. R W. Gossagc, C.E. ; Koa. 27-33, Dr. Hodder ; No. 34, 
Mr. Cawthra, Toronto ; and Noa. 1, 2, 21, in the Author's 


Till* niiUAircmrnls in Tal>le ix. are derived from 

■ty-cight cnuiia oliUiined fi-om Indian graves in the 

i!itii« U* t!ie north of the water -shed, lietween 

'pj^ian Bay mid Likkcs Erie and Ontario ; and the 

' \Xk'T naiiiber of tJiem from ossuariia opened within 

an.*a IjTiig l>etween Luke Siiucoe and Lake Huron. 

■ gruve.'S therefore, were situated in the ancient 

miry of the Hurona, and may be assigned without 

■nation to the tribes found in occupation of that 

^iiitr^' when fiwt visited by the French Jesuit mission- 

■■i iu the Bcveuteeuth ct-utury". Tlie materials thun 

'.lined embrace a Hulticient uumlx.T of examples to 

i-iratt' the nviTiijfi! proportions and n'littive measiire- 

iittf of tht! Hunm cmniuni, and to fundsli tuitisfactory 

data for rompnriflon with thttse of other Indian nations. 

; tts the Hiirous did, to tlic name ethnie group 

; lailiAim of the Inxjuois league, though at deadiy 

r with them, their skulls exhibit the same remark- 

■ ■■ deviation from thu aasumi-il typical AnuTiuau head. 

Tho izn-al pn''|>oiidiT3uce of the longitudinal diameter. 

I "ft, indeed, they exwc*! the rcktivc propor- 

'ii- Algonquin crania^ though thew aLto de- 

o^ : ■ long to tlie ihjIiehoaiphiUic clasn. 

^H^Uu X. which follow^ xvMn on a very different autho 

^^■Ennn tlu- pa-ceding one. No. 1 supplies the propor 

^^B iff the itkull of the celebrated Mohawk eliief, Joseph 

^^■t (lyeudunaga), from » east taken on the opening 

^^P* gnve., at the interment of hiit son, John Brant, in 

I'(.-.2, No* 2 7 lire from tlic Crania Anu'ru'aua, and 

ude all the Iroquoinmid Huron examidea given there. 

^ D-tO are ancient iikullft fnim the Uhuid of Moutn^l. 

I the MtiDL-uiu of M'Gill College, and corrcspoiul 

r to the other crania of the ln>qnoiH Ktoek. Aa a 

I it will Ije »eeft that thcAe rcdultii 


in the 

; with tbostf arriv<M| at liy my own jndepcnilent 


observations ; while a coiuporiaon of the tables will be I 
satisfactory to those who may still hesitate to adopt I 
connluaioiis adverse to opinions reaflinned under viuiom 
forms t>y Dr. Morton, and adopted and made the luas 
of such comprehensive inductions by his succeaaors. 









... |.. 



Mohawk, Bmiit. . 




iB-ari ... 



OneiiU. 33, . 





14-4 J4-3 






5-4 14-2 |4-5 



Hiifwn, 607, F. 




6-3 14-6 1 3'« 


.. 15. . 




5-5 IfiO '4-4 



Iroquob, 16. . 




57 1 15 2 




A.N.8. . 


5-4 42 






troqnet, F. 


52 4-11 




5-8 4-0 





i,.6 |4-; 





Mew, . 


S'SO 4-41 




I4-4<>| 20 44 

The intimate relations in language, maiinere, and ihi 
traditions of a common descent, between those northti ! 
and southern branches of the Iroquois stock, rejider tin 
two tables, in so far aa tbey present concurrent resuit- 
appUcable as a common test of the sup}ii>sed homog^'in 
ous cranial characteristics of the aboriginal American, in 
relation to the area of the great lakes. Thirty-eight 
skulla, such as the fiist table supplies, the Larger number 
of which belong without doubt to the Huron stocJc, or 
forty-eight as the result of both, may, perhaps, appear 
too small a number on which to base conclusions adverse 
to those promulgated by an observer so distinguished and 
BO persevering as Dr. Morton, and accepted by writem 
no less worthy of esteem and deference. But, in addi- 
tion to the fact that the measurements now supplied, are 
only the more carefully noted data which have tended tn 
confirm conclusions suggested by previous examination 
ill a leas detailed manner, of a much larger numlx 


Dplcfl, in addition to nuDute obtKrvataons of the 
: representatives of tbc Indian trit>cs ; an investi- 
ioD of the niat«riali* which 8U])]»liL'ii the elements of 
r inductioDH, wtl! ahuw tliat imly in the case of the 
'Toltfcan" triln-a did Dr. Morton examine nearly 
luy eianipiea ; while, in relation to what he desig- 
the " llarltaroiis Rnre^" to which the northern 
I belong, even in Dr. Meigs' greatly enlarged cata- 
I of the Morton Collection, as augmented since his 
, the Seminole cmmu preaent tbe greatest number 
_" ? to one Irilw, and these otdy amount to sixteen. 
I the following Tublo XL, the measurements of tbirtj- 
■ Canadian akulbi are given, tbe whole of which have 
I obtained from gnives lying to tbe »outh and east of 
Itroe Huron country, towanis the shores of Lakes 
^ Bud Ontario, or on the north bank of the St. Law- 
Some portions of Western Canada, including 
B referreil to, were occupied in tbe early part of 
tvcntecnih ccntnr}' by tribes allied to tbe Hurons ; 
|oa tbcir deserted areas the Aig»mquin ti-ibes from 
loith and WL-st have ever\'wht*re jireeeded the Eng- 
•ttJerH, an<i ihe greater uumU-r of the cnmia intro- 
1 io this Table may be assigned wilbout benilation 
iqain tribes. No. 24 is designated by Dr. 
lissagai sknll, and probably moat, if not all, 
I numbered consecutively from 16 to 28 Iielong 
tribe. Nob. 29 to 32 are from Abeuakis 
I on the St. Manriee. As a whole, the examples 
k grouped together jm-sent a Bufficient number to 
1 wme Bd<-<|uatc approximation to the prevailing 
1 i^ievialiticK of the Algonquin head. They exhibit, 
1 bo ob9erve<l, a gnrater prei>onderanec in the char- 
btic excess of longitudinal diameter than is shown 
I oogtute Chippewa heads in Table viii., though all 
bptrUin tn the wimr> dohr.hncephalic class, and emen- 



■ txmtrast with the familiar braehycephalic type nf 
;nt, aud of the Mississippi Valley mounds. 










S-7 14-7 




14-5 S'l 



8-7 U-5 




14-4 an 



61 4-9 




'£14 1 





















Q»lBi««^ . 



















BBrim^B^. ! 



















Sdaon/V. . 




























", V- . 










.. F. . 










„ P. . 










River Hoiuber, 



















7 5 









Ba™ii ; 






























4 2 


13 8 











13 7 
















6-3 14-5 





B.y of Quiot*. 




























St. Mumc«, . 


5-3 4-1 







7 5 

5T 5-0 







55 47 







Three fiivers, . 

7-4 l6-5 ;5-0 






Hion, . 

:-25 55S 4-43 

5-37! 14-42 4-35 

14-42J 90-44 

Of tbe Crania referred to in Table si., Koa. 1-4, 8, 9, 16-18, 
are in tlie Museum of the Vniversity of Toronto ; Soe, 22, 23, 2S, 
in the !kliiaeum of Trinity CoUpgp. Toronto ; No. 20, Knox's Col- 
lege, Toronto ; No. 24, Morton Collection (27) ; Nos. 6, 10-15, 19, 
Professor Bovell, M.D.; Ko3. 26-28, Mr. T. C. WaUbridge. Toronto ; 
and Nob. 5, 7, 29-32, in the .Author"? 

But tilt' term AJgonquin, though apparently specially 
omployed originally in reference to Canadian tribes, is now 


' iiion of a veiy comprvhonsiTc 

i. „..-.,.. V- ii III and modern trilx-ii extending 

frpm the Labnulnr ond Now England coasta to far beyond 
Ibrbead of Luke Suin'rior. In this eomiirvheuftivi" um of 
the tarn, iU n]tpUcation is chiefly basctl ou pliilological 
vridenre ; and it points theivby to affinities of lan- 
gmage conneeting numerous and vidcly-sevcrcd nationa 
(hrtmgboat the whole area lying between the Rocky 
Moantaiiu und tho Ailimtic. 

TiMf following Table xil. includes the measurements 
of twenty cmnui c)f New England tribes, partly derived 
tRum dnta funuHbcd in the Crania Americaua, and the 
p :ii ill. li r obtained directly from olisen'ations made on 
;1, ■ L bIcuUs presen'M in American collections. At 
I'r ; iiiv, Rliodc Ishind, where, from tlie zeal maui- 
'■V the Historical Society of that Stjite, I had 
■ •' i-)>ljiin acceSH to \'aluable materials in tJuw and 
■irTm'-iitR of American ethnography and archie- 
I- Liif.-nued that a considerable collection of 
... > r.iiiia, furmeriy preserved there, had been 
m ceiitly et-ut to Paris. There they will doulitleaa be 
iciated ofl tiukit in a comprehensive craniological 
t ; but it in ditKi-iilt to conceive of their possessing 
value ax on the locality where they consti- 
'. intcreslinfi memorials of au extinct nation and a 
T obliterated history. 1 examinetj and measured 
(be ipecimciia preserved tn the collections of the Natural 
Hklary Society, and of Dr. J. Mason Warren, at Boston; 
bat wbf-n at I'hiUdetphia, my attvutiun was chiefly occu- 
pied with tlie mound and cave skulls, and those of 
Mexico. C'«ntTal and Southern America, m that I un- 
fectnutely negle<:tal to secure measuremonta of the . 
■i[4w of NarragaiL^-t and Natick Indians preserred 
ntiug to ten of the former, and five of l' 
In tbe following Table, tbe measaroDfa 


at dH. akolb i£ Tail! FlriMB J 

fSinmflAiui WTZh. dmaft mviiLl^ 

•letptiia. 1 and. oa isctniL i» giEBtweiE <tf At 

cbeir frnHJI"* pmp «irri<tim. in is girua&ift ifari 

rai DsiaitR iMilaw die Siic jem 

The [Ti'^Ti pmpozriaiiB >i£ dut obl ^anfli* 

Tthit*., jiiio^ ^rixfa. liie taim£ meat u^ 

T ITi iiPiw if nil 

















4>1.«. )^«. 









1 X 









Kiluo. Km. 


















































































4 ) 



(^. iU.-, *..,.-. 


5 7 




4 I 

14 1 a« 1 

U-l M-3 ' 

6-» 5 1 4-' i« 
74 CI 4-* 4> 

7-5 S-fl 3-7 5-9 
7-2 5S 4< 5-2 

140 4-ii 14-4 19-0 1 
143 *-2 ... 213 
15 3 4-2 ... 20-7 
14-3 41 ... |19-; 

6i)I 5-34 4-23 3 .-M 

13-91 4-16 14 16 19-64J 

jTCH .V37.4-23 537 

14-26 413 1418l9-79j 

(If UiM Crnriin nfiTri'l t<> in Table xil., Xoa. 1, IS, 19, 20 u« in 
(li(> i'<i|li'>'l]iiti iif tlir IhwVm Nut. Hiat Sue. ; No6. 4, S, ia that at 
Ih A. M. Wnrr-'ii, lloxton ; mid Nun. 2, H, G-IT. are from the Tsbles 
rirthi- Mi>K<iii('..llm'tJ<i<i. 

Tln» N<'W KiikIiihiI trilM'H iiru described as liavixig all 
'MfBWItl.iMl a ViM-y imirorm roiTcspoudencp in their pre- 
IHllllliilii I'ltiinu'tci-itttii'H. Dwight, in his Travels in 


:■ SnyUtnd. unyn of them, " Tbcy were tall, straigbt, 
r M red coin|ik>xioii, with black eyes, and of a vacant 
't when animiwasioucd ;" but he aacribta to them a 
1 nataml uuderstaudiDg;, and eou^dvrablc Hogncity 
t wit They arc not, even now, entirely extinct, but, 
I others of the Eastern tribes that have I)een long in 
; with the whit<^ it U dillirult to find a pure- 
Indian among the remuiuit^ tlint still linger on 
■a (^ their ancient sites. Judging, however, &om the 
ODpJcs I have eeeu, it in probable that the red com- 
which Dwigbt assigns to tht- Nl-w England 
t, may have maeb more accurately jufitifivt] tlie ap- 
' I of the tcnn Red Indian to the al»origini» first 
[ Iff Enropeau vo^-agcrs along tli(> northern shores 
~ B American c>»ntinunt, than is now apponuit whi^n 
I the olive-complexioni-«d Chipjjcwas, C'reea, and 
r tribea of the West. (Jallatin has groupwl the New 
nd Indiana along with the Delau'ares, the Ponhat- 
, tbo Pumlicoes. and other tril>es of the Atlantic 
. ezteuding at far south as Xortli Carolina, 
S,ihe oomprehen.'iive tide of Algontjuin-LenainS. 
9 doubt tliat im[)ortaot pliilologii'^U relations 
■ indieate affinities nmniug through the whole, 
»ct them with the great Algonquin stock ; 
» tih> — ePtiuily diverge Iroquois and Huron nations 
vinfaBpuaed Iwtwcvm thcui. 
|)|Jiiihsr the doul)lu title of Algonquin Lenap^ have 
1 inelodcd all the ludiau nations originally oceup^iiig 
I tmct of the North American continent, extend- 
ing bom hcyoud (he Gulf of the St. I^wrvn<:e to the 
area of the Florida trilica, and [-laimiog the whole ter- 
ritofy fielwm'ii the MimiaHipp) and the sea : excepting 
where the Hurona ind the aggreasivc Iroquois held the 
cMratiy anmitd the lower lakes, and the Five Nations 
vcfe alrauly extending thoir hunttng-gtoundi at the cflst 



of Algonqoin and Lenape tribea. But however vnlujl 
comprehensive groupings may prove to the phiIol> ,; 
the physical characteriatics of the tribes are best enii 
in smaller groups; ami by this means we are oI'L 
trace the prevalence of dialects of a eummon langi. _ 
among tribes widely scattered, and frequently mariio. 
important diversities of physical character. For ' 
reason the New England Indians have been groui 
apart i while another tabic of cranial measurement - 
added here, chiefly derived from the observation.- 
corded by Dr. iforton, and including ezamplfis of v:ir. 
tribes embraced by the comprehensive cIassifiL-ati'>L 
Algonquin -Lenapes, but omitting the tribes both 
Canada and New England, which hare already i' 
^ven iu the previous tables. Such a grouping of alli 
tribes is not without its value, as a means for comptuiiifj 
general results ; though much greater confidence is felt 
in dealing with those results where the essentially dis- 
tinctive features of each trilje or nation are mode W 
appear, as in the case of the Huroos. I have accordingly 
added, in the following table, the mean results of the 
Menominee crania, nine in number, in addition to those 
of the whole. The Jlenominees originally occupied the 
country around Green Bay, on Dike Michigan, where 
they early attracted the attention of the Jesuit mi»- 
donaries, from whom they received the ap]>eliatioin 
of FoUes Ai-oines, from their hoarding up the wild 
rice for their winter's store. Tlie imuaual fairaees 
of the Menominee complexion has been repeatedly codi- 
meuted on by travellers, and presents so remarkable a 
contrast to the colour of other Indian tril^es in th^ 
, wcinity, that Keating, after noring, in his Expedition to 
^1h« St. Peier's River, the resemblance of the Menominee 
s he met with to the white mulattoea of the United 
, adds, — "They are naturally so much fairer than 



I Dcif^bouring tribuK. that they ar» flomctiraes called 

I White loiiijiiw." How fur this is a purely aboriginal 

III, may U: subject to doubt Gruat variety unqu(«- 

illy i'ximn in the mIuuIcs of colour of the Amerit-an 

:■« ; but besidL-ft thin, tbf prtist'iKrcf of the white 

1 atntmi; thum ver)* t-arly W'gan to affect tin; raCR, and 

mgps havi! bofU wrought by auch infcrrcoursc on trilies, 

sly bcyund the moHt remote cIcoriiigB of western 





», ft 


. . |1 . . 1 . . 



«»»k. . 









3 Fm, . . 



4 7 


15 3 




* « . - 















4 L-b.).p«M, . 








« r 













14 5 

















19 3 







19 5 














li . .. 




14 5 

4 2 


19 5 

'*] ^ 















i« y 





























Z r 






4 '5 











i ft-S ' 5-4 














ft-DC AS« 4SI S^! U'M 

4-19 14-M 


IbM— .. . 




X« IK'tS wa i« lfc« Hottoo OoOoellaa. Ko. 23 ii m that ol 
I. J. Ua«m Wanva ol BoMoii. 

lot this Rubjoct will Iw treated of more in detail in 
quont chapter. No tracea of physical 
bowercr, am unted by tbe latiMt oliaerva 


jiMsfe^ t^itt iufinaMSfc under 

"^ KVair htfigimg*:,^ Gailkiaii 

Alj^ic^jtuju «t«idk;kkaEflniiilarii&iiittcf de 

Um; tow^ ^M^" ZxcstfiDQg in die pwiftil 
Um; M^ii^/ixuxi^ meflaQ iaJk bc^ow die total aneaB; Ink 
tim twky }^ yHrUx nf^nsauA for l)^ die ptoportim if 
MfuJJ fetital^ iJailk to dke wbole: Nine i^ under oj 
dr';uiii>$tanc^^ too anal] a mnnlier ibr anyliiing bat a 
v<;ry jxfitial appfozimatioii to tbe aretage prapntioni 
r/f inlxd or tiational crania. So £u; liowevci; aa an 
o|/j II ion ^'^ri fj^ fonoied on anch data^ the reladre paneld 
i',%\fiiun\ipn of tbe Menominee cranium is lemariEabfy in 
i'X^'A^m of tfiat obn^rrved in any other of the Ajlgonqmn 
or Alfrouquiij-Iyrnajje triljes. 

f ij r.o/jtni:-:t U> the form of head of the true American 
Viu't% \)r. Morton apjieuds to his Crania Americana 
<lr;tsviijg^j and nj^^aHurerncrits of four RsquimaiLx skulLs^ 
faiiiiliiir to ni(;, if I mistake not, in the collection of the 
Milinliiirgh Phrenologi<;al »Society. In commenting on 
IJh* vi<'WH aiHJ ni(iaHur(*ment8 of these, he remarks: "The 
jirrat iiimI unifonn differences between these heads and 
ihoHi*. of llin Anifriciin Indians will be obvious to every 
iMM^ iH'riiHtonH'd to make comparisons of this kind, and 
Hf.rvr iiH (!iirrol)oraliv(' evidence of the opinion that the 
|i)H(|uiiiinux iin^ the only people possessing Asiatic cha- 
nnlorirtlirrt on th«^ American continent." In some re- 
h|inr.trt th'iM in undoubtedly true ; the prognathous form 
ol iho hUpt^rii»r mnxiUa, and the very small development 
nl ihr \u\m\ I M »nt'H, rspeciidly contrast with well-known 



Uiruitics uf the Americ-AU abnrigiDeti. But haviug 
Cuniliahty in making cnniparinnns of Uiis kind, 
lie, notwithstanding thvfn: distinctive 
its, tlut an impartial observer might be quite as 
\y tfi nimign oven tome of the ''xamples of IroquoU 
ullier uortIit:'ni tribc-s figured lu tlie Crania Ameri- 
W ftn Bstiiiimaux, ob to a Penivinn, Mexicou, or 
.od-Buildcr type. CVirapiire, for example, the verti- 
id occipiud diugmms, furuislied by Pr. Morton, of 
SHioiioaux tmiiia (p. 248) with those of the Iroquois 
Hunrn* (p]). 192-194). Both are elongated, pyra- 
uid »itii a teudency towards a conoid rather than 
led or verticid oceipilal form ; and when placed 
of the aioBt miirkediy typietd Mexioiui or Peru- 
heads, the oue differ)* little less widely from these 
the other. The elenieuts of eoutniat between the 
au<l Esquimaux are mainly traeeable in the 
of the face : physiognomicjil, but uot ccrebrah 
■U tlic urgunieutfi baMcd oii the atwumt'd predomiuanco 
Ultifomi enmittl tyixi throughout the whole Wf»t- 
Hemwphere, the An'tie Am^ricvui, or I'^ijuimaux, haa 
ily twtii oxeluded ; and he has Item reganled 
as tlte exu'ptioiial cjcnrnple of an Asiatic intruder 
the Amcrieuu cuutim-nt, or an the hy|HTlH>renn nutxtch- 
of the Arctic ri'alm, as esw^ntially indigenous 
the rein-deer or the polar Iwar. An examinatioa 
crauia, and a compariHon of them with those of 
North American Iiidiims in tlie Morton Collcrtion, 
ly no meaua tended to confirm my faith in the ex- 
of any such uuifomi and Ktn>ngly marked line of 
M Dr. Morton wnn led to aiwumc from the 
of t'xamplcti which came under his obaciv 


iSEm ' 































































14 9-3 134 

44> !S3 
• J 51 

5AS 4 31 54« 

41 I4-tS 4 IS 14-: 

* \in ttAAitva^ ivStam-^i. t ». i„ llbt iitirm/atiiH anrA. it added m Ok 
T«Vl)ft. mMtomwi f^im gW aKalii iBn«^ ti iW nHtobl p xufta . ovJBg to 
<W 4W«*v4<i-' -n-n.!:;?/* -M iW tutor ia »ab« <ui ik (tub. K««. 1-19 ara m 

■*rt,5» W Mr <;vv. (\vttiy, N.ft. iL Mr, P, S. Fo-ltr. X*» T«t Nin. 
ti IlK IV,'.4<««.ir Vu IV« Hwra* « t')attI<¥iM. Xio. ±SJT. OJlfrtMa of Aa 

tab .-Ji a^JS xcn nkea fer Ik aatkir t>j Dr. J. Aitkaa 


^In Table xtv. Ui« mcamireniciits of thirty-right well 

inttcoted An:tic crania an; given, furni&hing the 

I for iDHtitutiug cxjmjiariiwna between the Indian 

L EM^uiuuiax cmnium ; uiul iJho supplying additional 

. for testing th*.' cluuncterLstics of the Esquimaux 

This Dr. Mwgs deflcrilx» as " large, long, narrow, 

grent«Ht breaHth near the base ; sagittal 

I prominoDt and keel-like, in consequence of the 

1 uf the jurietal and two halv&s of the frontal 

; proportion hetwccu length of head and height 

I Bicvou to five ; . . . forehead flat and receding; 

t full and salient ; face broad and lozeuge-shaped, 

■ gEMiteBt breadth being just below the orbits ; malar 

broad, high, and proniiucnt, zygomatic arches 

1 and widely separated ; nasal bones flat, nnirow, 

I united at au obtuae angle, aometimex ty'^g ''i ^^^ 

I pLuut mi the uawj-maxillarj- proeeswsi,"' 'I*he rc- 

R of Mr. J. Barnard Davi» on the la»t-uamcd [lecu- 

\, an* Worthy of note. In the lilMiuiinaux of the 

id]orefl of Uiil!in'ii liay, lie oliBer\'eK, the nasal 

t SIC M-arrely bruaih'r, though fn-4|ueDtly longer than 

! Chinese skulU, wlu-re lluy ore xo narn)W as to 

Bndueot to two short linear UnieH. " In those of the 

ntu, or American alioreH of KiHin'n Bay, they are 

r differcut, presc-nting a length, Im^dth, and angle 

E pOMtion, almcnt equal to those of KumpeaQ racea, 

; aquiline nowM."' This slight yet striking ana- 

1 difference »eetns to supply a link of eontndentblc 

9 as iudicalive of a trait of pbyniognomical rharact«r 

I mora nnuthem EM|uimaux, tending, if eontimied 

riiirUuir oliservation, like other jJiysieal characteristics 

2»2 i-IiEllISTORIC il-iy. 

already noticed, to modify tli« abrupt tranatioa i 
heretofore as clearly defining the line of separatioo \ 
tn-cen tbe cootrastiog Arctic and Red Indian races of 1 
the New World. 

From the relative measurements of the Eeqainuui 
crania, the great length and narrowness of the skull at' 
apparent, though in estimating tlie viJue of the pamui 
diameter in instituting comparisons with tbe other tabl-^ 
it must be Ix>nie in remembrance that the parietal <Iu- 
meter in fourteen of the examples (21-34) is measoP' 
from the parietal protuberances, which are not m^cessari!;. 
the points of greatest diameter. In the Esquimaux, :■■ 
in the Huron, and generally in the Indian skull, th. 
greatest dLimeter appears to be towards tlic squamous 
suture. The elevation of the vertex is also in no d^m; 
remarkably divergent fivm the proportions of nort 
Indian crania, and, with the other puints of cch 
ence or approximation, tends to confirm the idea that I 
supposed uniformity traceable throughout tlie contilU 
is no more than might fairly be looked for among e 
pLiced to 80 great an extent imder the openttioi 
similar conditions of social life, and affected by so i 
corresponding extraneous influences. 

Dr. Latham, after commenting on the manifest i 
tinctiona which sei)arate the Esquimaux of the AU 
from the tribes of the American aborigines lying to i 
south and west of them, as elements of contrast wbich 
have not failed to receive full justicCj adds : " It is not 
BO with the Eskimos of Russian America, and the ports 
that look upon the Pacific. These are so far from beii^ 
separated by any broad and trenchant line of demarca- 
tion from the proper Indians or the so-called Red Roc^ 
tliat tliey pass gradually into it ; and that in respect to 
their habits, manner, and appearance, equally. So far is 
" ? ease that ho woiilti be a Iwld man who should 


, in ipcaking uf tbo Bouthern tribes of Ruaaian 
, to Bay : here the Bstimo area entls, attd here a 
t area beyins."^ Tbc dltTcreucu tlius pointed out 
r be accountnl for, to a coiuudcrablc extent, by the 
-nphit^al ixiiifonuatiou of the uotititMsnt, on 
1 wectt-ni Kidoj;, wbioh admits in the latter 
i(.'ut and iiitiuuitc intercourse as is not un- 
t to Ml intermixture of blood, and a blending 
iMfwever iiriraarily distinct and diverse. 
! prcacntvil here, howuvtr, n-fcw to tribes 
I BUcb intercourse with the £fi([uim8ux, and 
fhiin them by iu)|K>rtnut cllaracteristic^ 
nodal habiu, and exlenial phyuognomy. 
I if the concluaiona submitted here, deduced 
fexamination of several hundred Indian rxania, 
le out by the premist^-M, this much ut Icaat may 
aol : that u marked difll-rewM^ distiiiguislies tlie 
1 tribe*, now or ft>nnerly ooeupyiug the eountry 
n great lakcn, and ranging through the ancient 
unila between the MiiwiBsippi and the At- 
nnl, from some of those tt> tlie wwtward of 
leky MoontAinii an trell as in the southern valley 
I Uiflmssiiipi ; while, notwitliKtanding the progna- 
AoiM maxilUry deveiopmcnt of the KHijuimaux, ititer- 
me^ate fonnn nupply neaHy all the linkfl of a graduated 
tximution. from tbc extreme brachycephidic skull 
TCTtiaU occiput, to that of tlie dolichocephalic 
with protuberant occiput, inclining in it« 
i obliquely towards the vertex. This is best 
^ in m fans cranial measurementB are avoil- 
f tlw purpose of comparison, by the following 
TMb (XV.), where tbo eye will catch at a glance the 
lutinetivu elemenU of approximation or oontrut which 
1 to the dificrcot groups. 


llie Peruvian crania of Ixitb class«ti urc small. .' 
eating a people of inferior size and staturp, aad 
Benting essentiiJ differences, even in the brachye*')': 
class, from those of the mounds. Their small vtr: 
diameter is specially noticeable. In this, a.s well «.■? lu 
other reapectB, the greater correspondence between the 
Mexican brachycephali and the mound crania is sug- 
gestive, and calculated to increase oar desire for tlie 
acquisition of a aufficient number of examples of both, 
whereby to teat the evidence of physical corres(K>ndetia! 
between the elder races of Anahuac and the people wbo 
have left such remarkable evidences of a partially de- 
veloped civilisation in the Mississippi Valley, The two 
extremes eire the Peruvian brachycephali and the Esqui- 
maux : — 

LcngUi- BreadllL HvLghk O. F. A.~>- 

Penivian, . . 632 fi-62 618 1327 

Esquitoaiuc, . , 7-28 S-22 5-46 Ht>l 

But between these the range of variations sufficiM' 
illustrates the fallacy of the supposed uniform cnuiiil 
type affirmed to prevail throughout the whole Weston 
Hemisphere, from the Arctic Circle to Cape Honu 


u. ,..|_^.. 



(. r J N 

Mound Cnuita, 

6-57 bW 4-201 6-65 



U-(iii : 


Cftve Crania, . 

6-02 5-78 4-51 5-47 





Peruvian R C. 

e-32 5-62 4-06 518 




Perurian D. C, 

706 5-18: 3-80 5-21 


U-4.-i . 


MeiicftQ B. C. 

G'Oe 5-51 

4-30 6-55. 




Mexioan D. C, 

7-06 541 

4-3 1' 5-35 

1 520 



AmeriwiQ B. C. 

ti-62 5 45 

4-24, 5-30 




AmBriian D. C. . 

7-24 847 

4-38' 542 


U-llL- . 



7 35 fi-47 

4'3S 5-44 


UT!--' . 


Algonquin. . . 

7-25 5C8 

443 6-37 


14-4 ■-' . 


712 S-S3 

4-37 5-42 


14.40 _, 


7 '28 5-22 

4'31 5-46 


4-18] 14-8;; -.. .. 

Ko. 1 U the mean of the foiir nnduubted Muund Cnuii«, ui 
No. fl U thnt of tho oombinod Tables ix., \., both of which ixmuu 
the comionn IruquoU stock. In No. 12, the pknetal diameter is ll 
mean of (hu eitrcme [uuietol, ae indicated in the note, Tkble xiv. 


ras AiisRiCAX craxial type. 


) dabt tliiut iK>]uct<Kl aa rxaniplcs of the (iifibrcnt 
I, fitmisb any approximation to their relative eronial 
rcuiciits it seems warcely possible to evade the 
I timt the ideal Araericjiii tj'pical head has uo 
! in nature ; and that if a line of separation bc- 
j Peniviiin, or so-called Toltecan head, and other 
lan forms \s Xn l>e drawn, it cannot t>e iutrodueeil 
retofnre to cat otT the Esquimaux, and nmk the 
wler under varieties of one type ; but must rather 
) ht'perhoretin American eranium in the same 
1 olhent derived ^m widely sejiaratvd regions, 
liog into the Tropics and l>eyond the E(]UUtor. In 
, however, the results of such atti^mpts at a corn- 
tire analysis of the cranial chanict4;risLi<-» of the 
rican races go for l)eyond this, and prove lliat the 
I of the human rinill is just as litlJe constant among 
I different triln« or races of the New World an of the 
; antl that, so far frrtm any simple subdivision into 
r three gntujM BufHcing for Ameriejm craniology, 
B are abundant trju-*;*! of a t*'ndpney of development 
|ijBxtreme» of brwhycephaJie and dolichocephalic 
lephalie forms, and ag;iin of the intermediate 
■ by wiiidi the one passo into the other. The 
tents of two hundreii and eighty-nine crania ore 
I the previous tables. A much larger number 
B nquired to illustrate all the iut«rmediate forms, 
" ml data have been furnished to point in no 
ble ntaoner to the conclusion iDdicat<^'d nl>ove. 
rciunin measuring upwards of two inches in exc^tis iu 
tin- l'iri;;iiU4liuid over the parietal and vertical dioinctere, 
or u'-arly nppmximating to such rehitive measuremcnta — 
without further reference here to other varialioiis of occi- 
[liuU c(»n formation, — may he affirmed, without elmUeuge, 
to be uf the same *.}i>c ob othen where the longitudiiuil, 
parietal, aud vertinl diamet«ni vary only by minote 

S8fl i'aSHISTO&IC MAS. [Cbr 

fractionnl difTcrcncoB, then the distinction bcCwctru iL 
brachyrfphalic and the dolichoct:]>halic type of head b, 
for all purposes of soience, at an end ; and the labour^ ■ : 
Blumenbjich. Retzius, Mil&'wn, and all vrho hare tzod :'. 
tboir footstcjM have bt'en wasted in paisutt of an v:. 
fancy. If differences of cranial conformation of ^' 
strongly defined a charaoter, as are thus shown to kum 
hotwi;eu various ancient and modem pe.iple of Ann 
imuiunt to no more than viiriations within the 
mUjgu of the common type, then all the important 
tiuutioDB hetwtten the crania of ancient European ha: 
row8 and those of living races amount to Uttle ; and lb- 
mom delicate details, such aa tJiose, for example, wlui'h 
have I>Gen BU|)poscd to distinguish the Celde from the 
Gcnnanii; ciimium ; the ancient Roman from the Etnu- 
con or Greek ; the Slave from the Magyar or Tnik ; 
tho Gothic Spaniard from the Btisque or Slorisco, nil 
be utterly valuulfss. But the legitimate deduction 
such a recognition, alike of extreme diveisities of 
fonu, luid of many intermediate gradariona, characterij 
the nations of the New World, as well as of the Oil 
not that cranial formation h;is no ethnic vidue ; but 
tiic ti'utlis embodied iu such physiological data are 
little to he oliminatetl by ignoring or slighring all dii 
sitiea from the predominant form, and assigning it as 
Hole normal typo, as by neglecting the many iiit«nn< 
gradations, and dweUing exclusively on the exampl 
extreme divergence from any prevailing t}-pe. Hi 
iMildt has been quoted as favouring the idea of Am' 
ethnic unity. It must be borne in i%membnmce that 
ol>servattciua were limited to tropical Americji ; and 

I is therefore no ]>reaumption to assume that |ie] 
Tntioii in njfcn'ure to the northern triliea vi 

iive moiJiBed views thus expressed: "The uatioog. 
Htwica, except tli^w which Iranlcr on the polar 


1 a single race, churactcrized hy tliu fi>nnatiou of Uia 
, Uie cukmr of tbi> ttkin, the extreme tliiimesH of 
^ md Btrai^bt glosny hair." The formatiou of 
hu been uljtmdautJy diacuwMl here ; a» to the 
: cf (be sldn, cxtvnilv<l ot»H.>r\'atioii tt-nda io like 
r to dilcloec L-onwilvnilile vu^iatioll^ from tlic fair 
1 olive-vompifxionwl Chippewas, to the 
k FaWBeea, and tbe Kaws of KaoiutH almost as Llack 
Ify own earlier olK^ervatiuOH led me to 
ft that tbe name of Red Indian hod been applied to 
otoured natives of the Mow World, in con- 
e of tbeir free appliciitian of red pigtaeuts, such 
B in oooBtaut oae among tbe Indians on Lake Supe- 
; mtil 1 fell in witb an encampment of Miomaca, in 
: turcb-lnrk wigwanw, on the Lower St. Luwrcucc, 
tben saw for the firet time a c-omplvxiuu to whi<;h 
Mine of red or n-ddish>bp>wn may very fitly Apply. 
1 to the hair, thu oidtnce of the ancient Puru- 
K pnvca funii«b«M Rome proof of hair diSuring caaea- 
' f both in coluor and texture from that uf the modem 
\ and Mexican tenu-cottaa and sculpluri'ji of t'en- 
1 America indicate that tbe buatd was not uuivt-ntally 
But it ill not nt-ccarury thua to diM:UHs iu detail 
ed ranurk of Uuuilioldt, in order to jin^vi^nt hia 
on fn^m bearing out the iufereuct^ it has been 
to nipport ; fur he !uui lunuclf furnished the 
most c<iuclui!ive evidence of the totally diflerent inferences 
drawn by him from thoau n^coguiitc-d chantcteristici) of 
the American race. I>r. Mott, when commenting on tba 
Bsqahnaux nkullii engraved in tlie Cnitiia Americana^\ 
rtonarks : " Nothing ran be more obnous than the con- 
tnmt In-twecn tbcne Eaquimaux beada and tboae of aQ 
itthi-r triliea of this continent Tbey are tbe only poople 
I wbo present tbe chancteriatics of an Anaiao 
; and being bouwlod closely on tbe south by genuine 


of all the Amcrtcim nations." Bn br U this 
I^Hii iM'in)^ the rast\ that nciirly every ancit-nt and wpiilvhral rili- has had it* ootintcrjMirt in the 
■ WorhL Mummification, rjcmatiop, um-liuriiil, and 
, wtrc all in nut- iiniong ditfi'irnt triliefl and 
f of South Aniori(!ii, and have left tltcir tmc«a no 
^ly on the northern continent Figure 65 

Lifc-" ■ 

common form of Iner. sketched from a 

I fcrave on the Saskatchewan. The body is 

\e*\ im tlic miHaiH-, pnitcctod by wood or slonci, 

ivd over with bin^b-haric. In the ncig^lKiur- 

tUn deanngn, aa at R0I River, tho grave is 

F ■UTUUlided by n high fence. Among the 

\, tlie Honttis, the Slondans, tlie Sioux, and 

^ tho bcly wik>«, ond nith the sonrirors itiU 

I'AvqDently hud ont at fall length on an elevated 

■ acaffold, or otherwise di^puRal above groaod. 

i it WHH left tti d«»y ; and then after a time the 


aborigines, they seem plaood here as if to give a pnetieil 
iUntttrRtion of the irrefragable disdnctne&s of taoes.'* Dt 
Pickering, as we hnve seen, with no pn^ndice sgunst tikft 
theory of an " irre&agnble distinctnes of ncca," never- 
theless came to tlie conclusion that the Asiatic and Ame- 
rican nations of the Alongolian tj-pe are one race ; 
Hamboldt, who enjoyed such preeminent optportonitia 
of studying the jSiongolian characterisrics ou the Asiatic 
contint^nt, remarks in his introduction to his Amrriam 
Researches : " The American race bears a very striking , 
resemblance to that of the Mongol nations, which inchite 
die descendants of the Hiong-Nie, known heretofore hj 
the name of Huns, the Kalkas, the Ealmaks, and tiiK 
Burats. It has been ascertained by late oliservntioiu^ 
that not only the inhabitants of Uualashka, but sevenl 
tribes of South America, indicate by the osteologioal 
characters of the head a passage from the American 
the Mongol race. When we shall have more completdy 
studied the brown men of Africa, and that swarm 
nations who inhabit the interior and notth-east of Afiii| 
and who are vagui^ly described by systematic tl&TeHeis 
under the name of Tartai-s and Tschoudes : tbe Ont* 
caaian, Mongol, American, Malay, and Negro racea, 
appear leas insulated, and we shall acknowledge in tliis 
great family of tlie human race one single organic tyfe, 
modified by circumstances which perhaps will ever 
main unknown." It is indeed an important and hig^y 
Buggeative fact, in the present stage of ethnological 
research, that authorities the most diverse in their gene- 
ral views and favourite theories as to the uaity or mul- 
tiplicity of human speeies can nevertheless be quoted in 
cotifirmation of opinions which trace to one ethnic centre, 
the Fin and Esquimaux, the Chinese, the European Turk 
and Magyar, and the American ludiatL 

1 CompanUirr A taltrm^ o/ Raer*. Tgpr/ >/ MaaiiHtl, p. 447, 




Tbe evideneea of an aasamed cranial and ph)-^!!:^! 
Diiity pemdiag the aborigines of tbe Amcrit'uii conti- 
nent diMppear upon a careful scrutiny, and the like 
ranlta fuUow wbeu the same critituil invvstigation tit 
•ppliiNl to other j>roof;« adduced in support of tliin 
attni'-nve Init inmibstautiul thcor)'. Dr. Morton, after 
computing his chibonitu and valuable illuDtnitinns of 
Amerieaa ctanidlog^*, iutroduccH an engraving of a 
mammy of a Muyaca Indian of New Granada, and 
■dda : " Aa an additional evidence ot the unity of race 
and apediM in tbe American nations, I «baU now adduce 
tha sngnlar fact, that from PatAgonia to Canada, and 
&um ocean to ocean, and equally in the civilized and 
UDcivilizod triltea, a peculiar mode ot plat^ing the body i 
to H*jtultare has Wn practised from unmemonal tima I 
This iw-Tuliarity consiata in thf sittinj^ ]»o8lun'.''' Tbe 
author acomlingly proccixln u> miirehol his oidenoe in 
proof of the practice of such a m^Mle of iutennent among 
many separate and in(k>[>endeat tribee ; uor ix it diiKcult 
to do BO, for it woit a usage of greatly more extended 
neognitioa than his tlieory of " unity of raee and 
ppedn" imptiiffl. It wan a prevailing, though by no 
RHMM oniverwil mode of se[Hdtatv among tbi> tribea of 

t Mew World, OS it waa among many of those nf the 


aflUUlion of all the Atneriran uations^" So far is this 
''r<im Itping the coAe, that nearly every oncieot and 
..xlt'm i^epuirhnil xiie has had its coimterpitrt in llio 
N-w Wnrltl. Mummitication, cremation, iim IturuU, and 
inhumation, wprc all in ui^e among difiV^reut trilKS i 
natiacki of South Atnericn, and have \vh liiuir tnioea B 
len anmwtfakftbly on tbo northoii contini>nt. Fignre fl 

^^PUcntoi a canunon form of bier, sketriied fnnn a 
^^l^yaw a grave on the Saskatchewan. The body ii 
depoBtfd on tbci mufncr, protected by wood or «toae% 
And oovered over with birch-bark. In the nei^bonr- 
hood of the dearinga, aa at Bed River, the grave it _ 
gtmnHy samnmdod by a high fence. Among tiw | 
~ \ Hnrows the Mandana, tJ 
r tritjut, the tiotly vraN and with the BUrvivon stiQ 
t &v<]a>'ntly li^d out at ftdl length on an elevated 
' or ar-iiff'i>ld, or i>therwtBe disposed above gronnd, 
B it wofl left to decay ; and then after a time the 



■ f€ the dead, villt all the offerings deposited be- 
dr tka, msR oooaigned to ouc common grave. 
II I ■Mini of gntt extent, forming tlie general rece^ 
tade of bt^ cnaiiuuuties, have been repeatally 
fc w^g ht. tt» ^^ bodi in Caiunla and the uortheni 
atatea. Cawam qooCes &um Le Jeune an account 
•f «M cf the gnst gmeral burials of the Hunois 
-vlwh he ■ J t MagwJ . A grand celebration was solemnly 
«OBT«bnL Kot oafy the mnaius of thoee whose bodies 
had hc«s imfeHH. b of all who had died on a 
ymutx or «B iht nrf utd been temporarily buried 
««« Bov jE»chcKil t tUtf and interred in one eom- 
B wiA «)wdal marks of regard. The pit 
B ; aJl the relics and offerings to the 
Ivside the bones, and the whole 
'WR rowm) with fills bofiwe the earth was thrown 
<Hvr thnu. WVq tiie Mandans bnrietl the renuuns 
<£ ihetr dcadoUed A«mi, they left the skull oninterred ; 
auKl Oktlin de^vribn their skulls as lying on the prairies 
aiirMvsm] in (-irvfe? of a hun<irvd or more, with their facea 
tk^waivis ii>e oenire, when? a httle mound is erected, 
sunu<Hmu\l by a male and female bufialo skolL 

W'bi'U we pas? tn» the westward of the Rocky Moun> 
taiu^ new m^ytiriearion^ vary the Indian sepulchral rites. 
Along the Cowhtz and Columlaa rivers, and among 
\'ariotis iK>nh-west tril>es on the Pacific, the canoe of 
the deceased is i-ouverteil into his bier. In this he is 
bud at fidl length, adorned in his gayest atdre, and 
siUToimdetl with his weapons and fiivoorite property, 
as well fis with the offerings of his friends ; and after 
Wing towed in solemn funeral ptttcession to the bnrial- 
placo of the tril>e, the canoe is elevated on poles, and 
proiot'tetl by a covering of birch hark. Among the 
C'liimpseyau or Babeen Indians the female dead ate 
s«^-affolded, but the male are invariably burned ; and 


: evklent'es of the practice of cremation and 
1 baTO been foand iu Oeorgin and South C'ato- 
I well as in the Bmzils an<l other ports of the 
oontineDt. Again, tlie Mammoth Cave of 
y, and tlie caves at Golconda, i>tcul^u\'il]e, and 
r localit.ius, filled with the boiics and dosiccat^xl re- 
of Uie dead, or with their cArefully jtn.'«en"ed 
«, iUiutniti! other and varying cuatoma wliich 
ircouat<:rpart in the practiees of the Old Worid ; 
s Ohio and Scioto mounds furuish unmiatakabla i 

that both cremation and incumbent ] 
B were practi^ by the race whose works ] 
I hb m many traces of ancient arts and 1 

■ obviotta, from sach lefereDceSt that thvre 'i& little 

ffjpeuoi of the univcntal pn?%'a]cnno of any single 

Ht'Of sepalturv among the American iil)origineB than 

t tFUcd in the practices of primitive nations of 

ibe Old World ; while the enstom of iutcnukg the dead 
M aUiiig pustuR!, in SO br as it proraik among them, 
> soggeetiTe of borrowed Asiatic, or prinuttre 
1 ritai, than of anything peculiar to the westem 
Of the latter, indetd, the eiposorR of the 

294 PHSmSTOSIC MAS. [C*«. 

corpse ou its scafToMm^ or elevated in its canoe^iier 

(Fig. 06), conatitutea a far more characteristic pecuUan^ 
in the rites and cuatoma of the New Worid ; and if 
versal, might have seemed to jiLstify the inference vhieh 
Dr. Morton has attempted to maiatain by assuming Dot 
only the universahty of a different practice, but also its 
restriction to the continent of America. 

But there is another remarkable characteristic of manr 
American tribes and natious that is much more suggea- 
tive of widely diffused afliiiities throughout the Wea 
Hemisphere, as well as of an aboriginal isolation, thuk 
anything else ilisclosed by prevalent customs or peculiar^ 
rites of sepulture. Much attention has naturally beei,- 
attracted to the evideuccs of the singular practice of 
moulding the hunum head into artlficitd forma, which. 
have been brought to light, alike in the cemeteries of 
ancient Peruvian seats of civilisatiou, and in tboae of 
the hunt*ir tribes of the north. But this also, thou^ 
unusually prevalent in the New World, proves to be 
exclusive American characteristic, but one which had it* 
counterpart among the customs of the ancient world, 
and ao is rather suggestive of a borrowed ua'ige, and of 
aftinities with the nations of the eastern hemisphere. It 
seems, the further it is in^'estigated, to suggest an Asiatio 
origin for tliis as for so much else which the European 
regunled with strange wonder when first noted by hin 
among the peculiarities of that New World, unless 
deed it lie an ancient gift from America to ^Vsia. BefcT' 
eoces to tlie singular crjinial conformation of ccrtoilk 
tribes, and to the strange practice of artificmlly mould-' 
ing the human head, were familiar to Europe not uniji 
prior to the first voyage of Columbus, but centmieB 
before the ChiTstiim era. The earliest notice t«:cara in 
Uiu writings of Hippocrates, who, in his treatise Bv^ 
AUris, Aifiiin, it Locis, gives mi account of a people in- 






• •i tUo Euxine, whose utauid con- 

.irmii l".r<> iii< n Tifiuhliinc)? to that of any i>tber 

n. lit) furthcT sUth-a, that they cotuddureil those 

ii<t|>lu whi> hail thu lungeat heatls, auJ ascribes this 

r f<inu to itu urtificiol clongatioit uf thu htsul by 

■ion liurtoft iufancy. To this peophr, accord- 

. k^avc tho uaiue of the l^facrocephalt, and both 

t>l nuliKe((uent writers awrilke certain peculiar mental 

iowtDcntA to thiH l<>nc-hfatli>d race. 8trabi>, I'liuy, 

^otDi>»nias .Mela nil allude to the mibjcirt at later 

igh aiiidpiing ilifR-rent localili4.>s to the natioos 

> they ref<-r to, and also indicatinf; lUvcisitiea 

their peculiar cranial charnctemtica. This 

further to RUggem that the tuime of Atacro- 

I not properiy belong to a diHtinct race or 

» OB the aborea of the Eiuuue Sea ; but that, 

Fbtboulfl, 18 used at the |ireseut day 

1 lodion trihea of the Korth-wt-st, it was ap- 

I to sU who practiitud thu IttHmnmit art of cranial 

8tnibo. in the eleventh book of his geo- 

n deacribes the westi^m portion of Asia, of which 

I appoors to have hod any accuntte ideas : and 

» tiiat the tvmarkalile poaRage occurs in which 

I of an Asiatic tn\x as ttaviug anxioiuOy striven 

l\'es a l[)Qg-beade<) appeanuH'e, and to 

pnijectiiig ov^ their lieords. Pom- 

r MeU also describes the Macivcepbali be relets 

I hideous than other tribes in the same vicinity, 

; whom it may tv inferred that ennial dcfoma^ j 

WM auried to u greater extent, as asM 

Chinook Indians, who depKM the fimfaoail^ 
, the skull iu«umua the form of that of « brute. 
■koUs of vanoua ancient and modem Ameriaui 
Ih.' <liM>-rimillBt(^t by means of the peculiar 
of bea<l ni<>f>t ill fiudiiou with the tribe ; and all 

ftftw 'tf wuten ILm. Be adcn to m ]»ffe ni the 

emj^jii ti.lf.<in lldnut OcBtaBBs xtnnpds ike Ck^nn Sea, 

uk u'^JJ ttc Vji un'-Tlitii' in "dif TtJkr of like Ikumbe at tlie 
r)Yft ']'U<!T, V.>Uj '.^ vij'.vii ufjdJ&A like nataial fcnn (d 

It iiju<! ^n^fTXiTh tLai tldie IjairieroDs practioe is neither 
t/f lufA'itu otiinu ujr )j>wuliar lo the Xew Wodd ; and 
ktiif.*: H.iu-iitii'M liauE Ij-ueo <ltawn to the subject in recent 
yi^rs, varioiM '.-xamplt^ of compressed and distorted 
cnifjU liavi: Ur'jD di»y»v<;rod in ancient European ceme- 
Uzrif.A, firiipiy (ymfirmiug the notices of the Macrocepbah 
ill tliu pug'.-K of chiHnical writers. Captain Jesse, in his 
Nott^n 'if a Half-Pay Officer, describes in his travels in 
CirciitMiit mill tbc Crimea an ancient example of an arti- 
liiriiilly r.(im|.r(;H»e<l rnmiuin which he saw in the Museum 
lit Ktu'lili. TliiH WAH miid to have l)uen found in the 

t\ ASriFiadL CHASUL DlSTOHTlOy. 53 J 

jhbourbood of tbe Don ; and he remarks in reference 
i it : " A<'<«nliDg to the opinions of Hippocmtee, Pom- 
nun Moln, Pliny, and others, the Macri>cephaU appear 
^havo inhal)iu-d thnt part of iho shores of the Enxine, 
iro«n iho Phaata and Tropesus, — iJie motlem Trebi- 
The ItuiBiAn occuiMitiou of tbe Crinifa dates 
ply from a lute period iu the eightwnth century, but 
! thtfn on intelligent attention hoB l>cen paid to the 
B of ilB aiirieiit mx-upuuta Bomo of the finest worlu 
t fvcuven^i on tlu' niteit of Hellenic eolonization have 
tnmspc<rted to St. Petersburg, but others are pre 
] in the vieinity of the liw-alities where tliey have 
K finmd ; ami for this purpo.^ a museum was estab- 
i (Jie towTi of Kerteii, in whi<'h were preserved 
' hiitoricftl anli<)uities of the Crimean Bosponu ; 
I eapemlly sepulchral relics recovered from the tu- 
lli which fttxiuuti on the site of the ancient Milesian 

I dhanoed, aa ia now well known, that, in the fortam^ 
; Uie town of Kertch fell into the hands of the 
in\Tider« ; and some few of its ancient 
I yrnsttt pn-JM-n'cd and transmitted to thn British 
u P'V fur til.' greater portion of the Museum 
r>- barbarously spoiled by the 
111^ the rest doubtless perished 
,-,„■. M-'i rtni i.i iheMacrocephali of the Crimea, 
t dewTribed by Hippficniles, 6ve eenturiea before uur 
Blamenlnch has figured in hla fintt Dec^ulu, an 
t compresflod skull, Tvceiveil by him from Kuaaio, 
I ba dnugnAteti as that nf an Asiatic Maenx-ephalus ; 
lis 1843, Kathku i-ommunirated to Miiller's ^rrAtV 
■ AtMtomie, the figure of another artifieially ooni- 
1 skull, ahu) very impcrfetrt, but apeeially mark»l 
I tile same ileprvodon of tbe frontal Ikiuc. This vx- 
I u dvwribed as pmcunKl from an imeieut burial- 

wmroMic MAjr. 


B near Kcftc^ in the Oimca ; and no dwulrt otli* - 
B of (Ik [wt-uliar pbrsical chonctcristit-s of iL 
at iUenxTphafi of the Bn«p(irus will rewarJ fuiu: 
IdplomrSk whea tbe attcntioo tif those cngagvil iu ^u. : 
i^ or even in ordiiuuy agrictihural labours on ;! 
Ipti^ a ^tecafijr directed to tbe inteKst now sttachin. 

Man noMtt diaonreries of artificially' compress- < 
nuia h»Te duefy been madf on European fiites, tbtni^'i 

I jgcacraQy xaider atamtstaiicf^ wbirli tuud t*i justify tb> :i 
nee to Asiatic tribes. One of tbe first exam]<l< 

I v^iiefa attracted tb« atteotioo of scientific ohservers. si1 - 
sequent tu tbe poblicatian of Blmnenlts^-h's aouievh < 
impeifuot engraving, wsa skoU found, in tbo year 1^-" 
at Fuersltnum. iiear Grnfenegg, iu Aosiria. Count ^\i. 
gnst Tou BreuDt-r, the piuprielor of the land, awjuiri 
piw3cs9uD of the iuien-sting rtlic, and at onc« assigin. 
it to the Avarian Huiia, who occupied that region ftm 

f tbe middle of the sixth untii the eighth century. < 

I this artificially coniprvssed Avar skuU, Pnifessor Bctzii 
gave a description in the prix-eedings of the Royal Ai .1 
demy of ^nences of Stockhohu, in 1844, nhicli has siii' > 
been trausfi-rred to various scientific journals. In tii- 
be shows thai the skull, which bad been rt^ardcHl as 1- 
mxirkable for its great eloogatiou. is in ivality a tr;, 
bracbycephalic skull, such as the Mongi»! affinities of i1j 
Avars would suggi-at, hut that by artificial comprcssn'i 
it had been elongated vertically, or rather t)bliqutl' 
At this stage of tlie int|uiry, however, attention w . 
diverted from ihij true eleracuta of interest pertainiu;: i 
tJio inquiry, by Dr. Tscbudi communicatiug to ililU-i - 
Archiv fur Anatomie a memoir, in which bo iustituteii 
a careiiil eomparison l)etween the Grafencgg skull and 
the artificially cqmpres.sed crania of ancient Peruvian 
femeterie-s fi'""u wlicurr he <lei.luciHl the concluaon that 


IKiRntific men irf Kumpe had been deceived in 
ailiing to rd Avar or f>ther Aniatic or European 
•V:, ft *kull n-hirb must have \m!n originally derivoi! 
, Ptni. In confiimatiiin <if tltis the Peruvian tni- 
rvmiuilit ihr-m ttuit widely aa Auittria and Peru 
•evi-ivd, in the aovi*nt«vuth ccntuiy iJic Em|KTi»r 
i'iulinict.-d ln'th within his wide dominion ; and 
I Moiinlingly cimcfivcK it no impndmlile conjw-tun: tliat 
) eumpniKwil skull wim Irroa^^ht at that period, oh an 
■ct of curiiwly, from Amerii-a, anil lioing afti-rwards 
I nndt% it waa mi^^tidtenly aflsuna-d tn |R-rtuin to 
tire (k-pulture, whi'ii n-roverpd at Grafenegg in 182'). 
I The tetlimouy thus unduti^nuilly rendered to the m 
uiU(? <i)m-«]M^<udi'nce Ix'twocn the artifieiolly funui'd 
nu of th«-> did and the New World, is full of iutereat 
I now tbiit further di>u:ovtini»( have placed lieyoud 
thi* f^'nuiuu native origin of the (Jrafencgg 

It id prvser^ed in tlie Imperial Anatoni 
I at VitJinn, along with an»thi-r of precisely t 
ne durneUT i>iu))MH]nently dug up nt AtJtgermlorf^l 
' immedintt- %ii:imly of Vienna. Olhert) have been 
I at the village of St. liouiaiu, in ^^nvoy, nnd in the 
f of the DouLa. near .MandeuKe ; and Dr. Filzinger 
V tliat a done Fesenihhiueo la traeeahlu lietwoun 
1 tiiu (Vimenu marntceptuiUt: cninin ileflrrilied 
^llike iiuil Meyer. They an.- further illuBtralvtl )iy 
e^nd'-n'-'' nf :i ruriimA and inde]>endenl djaraeter. 

I>r. Fii^iiiL.tT, who lioM pulilifthed his views (Oi thia 
tul'j'i't. in tliL' Tnuuuietiona of ttiu lm|ierial Academy of 
Wiina. hati pLirwl Iwyonil all duultt the authunlidty of 
t!i.' .Ii*f(iverif^ of maenKrepIialic Rkulla in Austria, in 
J-' wimlehral ilnpawtA, one uf whidi waa dug up in 
,x':ftKv uf L>r. MUller, tlu* reaidcnt phyaidan of 
\ljtg<'rTMlurf. He hui* inveitignteil IIh- whole Mihjret 
aith luiiiute n'M-.ip'h and aci-urute M-liulnnJiip ; ami 


lifter tracing anciuit 3facrovephali, by mimis of 
tdlusions of classic writers, to tbe Scythian r^ioo in 
vicinity of the Mcetian moor, to the Caucasos, and ' 
furtlicr regions extending towards the Caspian Sea, 
to thoir various sites around the Euxine, ;uid on tlie 
poms, ho mentions an interesting independent illi 
tion of tlic subject An ancient medal struck, apj 
to commemorate tlie destruction of the tott-n of Aquilri? 
by AttUa the Hun, in 452, came under Lis notice. lH: 
one side is represented the ruined city, and on the otli-. '■ 
the bust of the Hunnish leader in profile, with the aani' 
form of head as that shown in the supposed Avar Bkull-. 
Professor Retzius subsequently confirmed this opinion 
from an examination of the same medal in gold, tu th« 
Royal Cabinet at Stockholm, Attention having now 
l)Oen called to the subject, confirmatory illi 
multiply. M. F. Troyon, of Bel-Air, near Lau£ 
who has carried on an elaborate series of exploratii 
the ancient cemeteries of (hat locality, has recov< 
what we may style a Hun or Avar skull, precisely 
rcsjKinding to those foimd in Austria, from a tomb 
couaidorable de[)th ; and has noted the discovery of 
several others at the village of St. Romain, in Savoy, 
though they were so fragile that they fell in pieces soon 
after their exposure to the air. One of the same class, 
however, recovered in an imperfect condition has been 
preserved sufficiently to exhibit the calvarium in profile 
with tlie singular vertical elongation which appears to 
have constituted the ideal type of masculine beauty 
among the Asiatic followers of Attila, as among the 
Natchez, the Peruviana, and other tribes and nations of 
the New World. It was found by M. Hippolytc Gossf^ 
ut Villyj near Ecignicr, in Savoy, and has been engraved 
Ity FrofeaKor Retzius, from a drawing furnished to him 
by the discoverer. 


s hideous oitpect nscrilxKl hy ancient chroniclcK to 
HmuUMh iavailera no doubt derived its justiiicatioa, 
t at least, &ora the stnuige distortions which cus- 
I thus ojniguud with the sanie iin|>frative obligation 
hiun wliich still pequjluatt-s the deformity of the 
[ol (.'hiiieac, in ihtir baibiU"oU8 ctTurta at the attain- 
f other prfarrit>i!d ]m)]HirLiun8 of an ideal feniiJe 
Thierry, in hi» Altila, rcferH to the artiHdal 
Vieil by the Hunn for giving Mongoliiui [ihyuio- 
r to their children. The followers of Attila wen; a 
jieous horde, dependent for their success on the 
jjce of his jwrsonol eharacter. The true wandering 
8 of ScythiiLii nomadeM, who constilnt^'d the C'liunui, 
I of L'griiiu ntee, and kindred to the Hungariajw 
Mount Ural ; but tho Huua partook more of the 
blo<K], while the Magyars apjHMir to have intcr- 
1 that of th« true l^irk, agiunnt whose Euro]>can 
«tii they ultimately preaentetl so impenetrable a 
Attiht, however, waa in reality aa ninth a 
Wti Goths tm Iluita; though the black Humt from 
UT Siltman iitep]K« eoustilnted the arixtoei-aey of 
I wild folluwcns whose Mongrdian phyRiugnumy formed 
1 of ethnic l>eautj-, at which Uie fiothic mother 
r boodngiug the not*e, conipresaing the rhei'k- 
) giving an artifieial form to tlie cranium of her 
i raVHgcs of such a furious horde of nomadic 
I spread univer«al terror throughout the ener- 
1 tottoiug Roman cuipia', and fear ailded frt«h 
t to the wiltl vUagcs of die Hunniuli tlvvtutatorBu 
•fly and dolefully," nayH Palgrave, " <)o tlie eltroni- 
CFmiice, liemiany, and Italy dcHcribc and lament 
r of thR Hungarian ravaget<i. Tradition and 
t life and colour to the«e meagre nAtrativcfl. 
I boor still points at the haunted raim u 
[ thf nnmsy U-d or the lrf»uble<l grave of ibo 


nstlcss Htins, whoMi swonU are bi-anl to cluA 1 
the 9*n\. Throughout fair France the gnnmi^ hoar 
tunkcd, ensangained, child-^lcyourino ogT<» appaUed t 
tltrttbtingly iiicn?ilulons ddighteil trpinbl^m rntmd t 
l)laziup lieartli." They are ioileed descrihed by the tee 
rifieil survivors of their dfsolating inroadi* aa the c 
hideous raco of moust«r3 the world ever sav; and th 
old Diouk Jomaudes says that their horribh! IdStul dl 
formity gjunod for them more battles than their an 
iVft^r tUu discomfited Huns retreated tmiler Imae, t 
younge«t soa of Attila, to the Volga, and cooqwn 
nearly the whole Tauric, Chersonese, they wen.* sob 
in Uieir turn l»y the Avars under Zaiier-Cban, in U 
lutliiT liidf of the sixth century, and thereafter they «l 
called indiscriminately Avars or Huns by all the Euro 
pean ehroniclers of the time of Charlemagne. Thi 
intermingled, they constituted onee more a poweifi 
nggressivc ufition, wlio daring the seventh and cighl 
cc-nturiea kejit Europe in continual dread. Their miT 
tjiry capital was in I'annouia ; but they extended the 
ravages wherever the spoils of more civilized naticu 
t«mptcd their cupidity, and doubtless the bones of nuu 
a fiei-ce Avar lie mouldering in the soil that onee trrai 
bled UHiler their savage tread. Their name became ) 
synonym for inliumau monster, under its various formal 
German Iluue, Russinn Ohn, French Bidz/ar or Bougr 
and English Ofjre. Such were tlie people whoeo rnncR 
rcphiilie, or rather obliquely depressed skulls, arc boUevfl 
to have been recovered in recent years, in Switzerlaol 
Germany, and on the shoi-ea of the Euxine, preseotiq 
strange abnonnal pmiwrtions, so singularly rorresptmc 
ing to those of the New World, that the experien 
tmveller and physieian. Dr. Tschudi, liaa claimed OB 
of tliR most eharacteristie of them as no true Eon 
pean discovery, but a lost relic from some ancient Pern 



Uitnlk Nut to Earc^', however, do tbc^* roully 
IfUt Mct'tuiiigly to the uurando Mongnbi and 
I of the (fiviit «tci>pt'*i of Northern Asia, in the 
ldj» of whicli we U>»f th(>m iw tliey spre-ad away 
I tttwnnU the Okhobik Sea, the Aleutian Islands, 
I .StraitB. 

B ood iinex{H>ct4Kl confirmation of the Asiatic 

le compresfied crania of Enropc is furnislK-d by 

rmade at Jcrunaletn in lSfi6, by Mr. J. Juditon 

5", an Amfrriiyui tniveller. The eircumstiinei-s arts 

ieatly rvnijirkiiMe to mi'iit detail. Mr. Riirciiiy 

; rvceivqii infonnutiuti of lui exletwivf r!ave m-ar 

maficiin Oiili-, i-ulirvly unknown lo Franks, hi- 

t lo rxi>biru it iu eonjuurtiuu with hii^ fatlier and 

er. The requiHite ]H!nuiHHii>n waa cil>taiiit»l without 

Uty from tlw) Nazir EflV'udi, and tliey irpnired to 

re, the month of which is nituated directly below 

ty wall and the hoiineft on IVriwtha, Through a 

', BcqK-ntmc pa««age wiiich tniver»ea it, tht-y jpiined 

■ttance into the eareru, the rw)f vi wliieh ia svip- 

l bjr nutncrouH re^uhir pillant hewn out of the Nt>lt<l 

• rock. Many rrosHM on the wall indicated that 

at pilgrim or cruBiider had Iwen thew ; and a 

r Ar^ie and Meltrew iuw-riptionA, too mnch cfTactMl 

dAciphen?*!, jtroved that the place waa not unknown 

I Jew nn>t the Saracen. Almut one humlred feet 

\ the mtnini-c n deep and preeipilouH pit wax diit- 

1 ixmtainiu^ a hummi Kkeletnu. The boDi-K werv 

Jly kuxL' pnl|lorlion^ and gavi- eviili-ni-c from 

■ difsyed «Xa\u, uf having long reumiuLxl in ibi*ir 

<: wpuh^in-. But the flkuU, though imperfect, was 

pnvtcrvatirm, anrl thin iJiu explorers limaght 

ii-a, and pn»ent*il to tire Aeadimiy of Nalurnl 

ure* of I^iiladtilphin, where it attra<:te<] the ntteittiuo 

)r. J. Ailkcn Meigs, and wait made the Hubjvrt of 


bilit^% a 

coDununicatioo, printe<l in the Acadcn; 

i ia the same cabiuct with the AmericoD cra&t 
I bv Dr. Morton, this skull, rocoverud from l» 
kt^ rocky foundntiuu5 uf Jcrusulom, prusi-uls •moo.-: 
most striking chanicteriatica uf thu ;irtificiall\ 
1 crania of thu New World. Seen liy Dr. Monoc 
vkkmt any clue to the circumstances of its di^-oviicy, 
n ifvuld biive bei!n pronounced, in all jipobabilitj*, 
Kfetchex skull ; shown to Dr. Tschudi, evou in a 
pMo collectiou, it would bo assigned unhcsitatiDglyi 
die spoil of A Peruvian grave ; but the widely-exl 
ompuv of the grandson of Ferdiuand and Isibella 
lo account for the discovery of such a skull, with uU the 
ivauuns of the skeleton, in an ancient quany-cavem of 
Jerusidcm. The most remarkable featun- \& that the 
occipital bone rises vertically from the posterior morgiii 
of the foramen magnum to meet the parietal boi 
wluch bend abruptly downward between their lal 
protuberances. After minutely describing the apj 
ance which the several bouea present. Dr. Meigs 
presses his convit^tion that the head has been artificii 
defonned by pressure apphed to the occipital 
iluring early youth ; and thus recognises in it an ini 
putablo jn-oof of the practice in ancient Asia of the 
cufttiini uf distorting the human head which wtjs li 
regardfd m [X'culiar to America. 

The arjiunieiitH by which he aims at assigning to 
(.kull its tru" '■'li'iical relations rest on less certain ft 
dttli'-ns, AfttT niiirahiUling all the probable claimai 
rttiil -■'«i£rnilin: reasons for rejecting each. Dr. Meigs ahi 

■•«i||i>n ol a Dftormci Fragmentuy Skull round in »n andunt 

.I'v •iJvniwJimi; witli bd ftttenijit to delcnuiiie, b; ito conHgnnOicW 

. tli» ••tlii.l.'nl tyi«' t" wliuh it belongs." By J. Aitki'u M,-ip. 1 "^ 



tJut it DttilvA Romc of tlic most chamctcmtjc cltanentti 

' f the MoDgoUan iind the Slavonian head, while lUffcring 

1 *t«ne nwpc'cts fmin liolli ; oiitl he (iutilly concludi* 

uuit it nuy I* nifcrrvtl — uot iis a ]»(»sitivi: ami iudiii- 

■ coucluiiion, Imt as an appmxiination to the truth, 

tlic ]M!<>{>Iu ami the n-^<m »lH)ut J^itki; llaikal. 

the Klavi« iiud HumtA nf tluit ivgion tho 

iiImI rncm of Kast^ni Eumpo graduate appa- 

r into the KalmucIcH and Mongtdn proper of Ana ; 

probably ia a rcmarkalilc example nf an arti- 

r modified crnniom of that tranttitional people of 

I BaikftL If these deductiotis ate hereafter con- 

. we are tbiu guideil by a procem of purdy 

iiulurtioD far beyond the UmitH assigned by 

I, Strsbo, Pliny, or Mela, to the Asiatic Ma- 

; and recover traces of the strange practiec 

a Ammcan Fkthcada fiur to the north-east of the 

> ehaiti. in the ^'alloys that aldrt tho Yalilonoi moun- 

i, as they trend costwanl towanU tht- OkhutjJc Si'a. 

it i^ in the vaxt anktiown n-giooH uf ^Witie 

that we may hope to recover eWdence whidi 

I confirm the ^Vittatic n-lutions of the AmcricAD raca 

I. Attention ia tUrectcd to the proofs of artificial 

( of the funa of the human head practised 

^tribes and nations of the Old World, new and 

I diackiRiuvti tend Htill further to etdargo the 

I of raeh ofwmtiuus. Dr. Kuville. a di^tingtiiabed 

at tht' Iliad of th« jVsylura for tlw 

vtfte department Seiuu-Iuferieure and Cliaientflo, 

^t to light the rvruurknblo fact that tiie prao< 

J the nkull in iufiuioy still prevails in 

B of a peculiar head-dnsas and banda|{» : 

_ ) work on the Anatomy of the Nervoas 

^\i liH engraveil cuunplca of such oMnprened 

t ooe of which miglit Ijc roifttaktm fur a Peruvian 


sepoldual relic, Thx practice is pmbably one uthenldd 
from tini«s of n^mute antiquity, and is fouad chkfij' 
to characterize ct?rtain ilistricts. Normautly, Gsscnny, 
Lioiousin, and Brittany •ire specially not^-d for its ]■«> 
valence, with some local vatiationa as to its method 
results. Like othtT ancient customs, it is firoljsbly pur- 
sued with the unreasoning aiUierence to tinie-immemoniit 
usage by which many equally useless practices bave 
perpetuated, and with no definite aim at '•hanging tbi 
form of the head. 

In a eection devoted to Distortions of the Skull, lo th 
Crania Britaunica, two remarkable examples are ew 
graved, derivetl from Anglo-Saxon graves, and otliefl 
are Teferr»l to, found in Biitish b»now^ ; but thus<% Dr. 
Thurnam and Mr. Davis concur in ascribing to cottsei 
opentting subsequently to interment The iuHucUtie tdl 
which such posthumous change of cranial form is chiedj 
ascribed, is the pressure of the superincumbent earth upon 
the skulls of bodies interred in barro^-s, uni)rotected by 
rttffins, and exposed to an unusual amount of moisture 

The geologist has long been familiar with the occur 
rence of skulls distorted, or completely Hattenod. and 
even with soUd bones, and n-ilb shells, which havfl 
undergone remarkable transformations, by compreaaioa 
or distension operating on tlieir rocky matrix befoiv 
assumed its final consolidation. In some of those can 
however, the paheontologiat looks ui reality only on I 
cast of the imcient bone or shell, compresseti along 
its once plastic matrix, proL«ibly at a date long sd 
quent to its original depositioiL But the distortion 
which the humtin skulls referred to have acquired tbeil 
nbnormid shape, must have taken place while the 
matter still remained in sufficient abundance to i 
the original flexibility of the bones. lu an intei 
paper " On Aboriginal Antiquities recently discovered 



I Uand of Muntrual," curomtmicattKl by Dr. Dawson 

hs Canadian KaluntUiit, he hiw pivi-n a dfscriptioa 

Iddi* fruialo anil Iwn mule ikulK fount], aluDg with 

ny Mtii'-r liumaii Umctt, :it tliu hast; of the Montreal 

nUin, on a t*iU' wliii-h \ic identities with much pixi- 

■Uity as tliiit uf the ancient IJtx-helaga, un Indian 

■ visitwi liy ('artier in irjS.'i. 8incu tlie publication 

I]a|>er, 1 hnvti examined two other ekulls re* 

I from tbe same eemet4;ry, l>otli of which ore now 

li the Museum of M'Gill College, Montreal. Thvy ore 

I of 11 man and woman, wlioiic reraiiins were found 

as they had been buried, in tlie sitting or 

■ iKwition common iu Indian sepulture, in tbe 

^ land which overlies the clay on the site referred to, 

\ bed valuing from about two to six feet iu depth. 

I female skull ban tbe supereiliory ridge very promi- 

, with a groove aljove it, while n prolongittion of the 

>Dt, fn.H|uejitIy seen in the female cranium, gives 

" irly marked pnHlomiuanee to the longitudinal 

From thia the mide skull eaBcntinlly diflera. 

I that of a man atxiut forty years of age, uppruxi- 

' to the common proportiou» of the Algonquin 

but presenting uinniKtakablu iudioitiitUM of 

undergone tillerution in Khtt|H? i(ulvK:({Ucut to 

It iit uuirked by great but unetjual depres- 

I of tile ffoutul 1>unc, with considerable lateral di»- 

, nccumjunied with bulging out on the right aide, 

1 abnormal contiguration of the occijmt, suggestiru 

kfint flight of the ctfectM of tlic farailiitr native proceaoei 

I Vtiticiul malformation during infaiiey. Such an ido^ 

revvr, disap[iean) on minute inRi>ection, and it aeaut 

nble to doubt that, in tliin Indian skull, we have a 

' otrikiug example of ]>0Hthurooui) distortiotL Tbe 

t wk> of the fotvltesd it depreascd, and recedoi to lor 

the left, that the right ext«nuil angular proooaa 

ifce grokt dishxtioti 
tokeD pbMv alAfl*^ Ae ntores remuii 
r utUM^tdf aod nma bm ^^vn w»j under any 
I preHaK. Tlie only exoqidans to this are in 
^ left temporaJ bunc, which is bo Car di^Uaced as to 
ffela^ the upper (^Ige of tJie aqoamoos suturi>, and in 
poitiuri of the occipital bouo, part of which 
in wanting. On examining the base of this sktdl, tlio 
l**lhunious oripin of its distortion La most readily pri 
w,'iv\-d : and thifl ia proved beyond doubt on replaciy- 
adylw of the lower jaw in apposition with tli..> 
I cavities, when it is seen that instead of the first 


1 meeting thy com-Rponding ones of the upper jaw, 

I lowiir front right aiu) ]eft iocisora both impinge on 

t right canine tooth of the up{>cr umxlUaiy, and the 

[ teeth are thereby so pliu'ed as to preclude the 

■ibility of their use iu masticiitiou, hud such been 

• relative powition of the jaws during lifL-. The wime 

»n which has thua displaced tlu; glenoid cavitica, 

I produced a corre)s)ioudiug change on tlic {MHution of 

I austoitl pnKLisscti, which uru twist^-il obUcjucly, m 

\ tin li:ft one is Riort! tlian an inch in ailvuucc of 

I light. 

I-Tbe circumAtances under whicli the Hocbclaga ntniU 

I found, tend to throw some light on the probable 

I which niiiy cfTect such postliumous malformation. 

I covered by little more than two feet of itoil, the 

D of which was iu itself insuffieieut to Imvo occa- 

1 tbu change of form. The iutemol cavity, moro- 

B cotin-ly filled u-ith tlio same fine mind in whtch 

I was imlifddeil. If, therefore, we conceive of 

I body lying iiiterre^l under this slight covering of soil 

] mil the tissuej* and the brain had disappeared^ and 

I tnfiltntioD of the fine sniid luul tilleil tlie hoUow 

e ; and then, while the bones were still replet« 

1 matter, and sufteucd by ln.<ing imbedded iu 

jid, Bud fUIud with the siuno, if som6 considcmhle 

iitwtuU ]in-fMurt.'. fludi a* ttic erection of a heavy Htrue- 

I, tir the ituddeu uceumulatiun of luiy weighty maaa, 

s over llit> grave, the ititcrnul Baud would pre- 

~ tit n-fiUt;iuoe to the BU]K-riiicuuii>eut weight; 

1 nearly e<|Hal prRWtun- on all mde^ to pn>veut 

Ung of the bIcuII, or the diflpW-emeni of tlw 

1^ while they would reailUy yieid conformably to the 

1 compn^sution of the niBHa. The nkull would tliua 

|;RibJQCted to ■ procen cloHcly aonlogouii to that bjr 

'" ~i die abnonnnl doveloptnenta of the Flatlieatl cniua 


ue pfiscted linrii^ infiuieT', •eeaiii{mued b^ gmt rr! . 
tivc dispbocment of the tuaebnl num. bat bf littk- ' . 
no dimtoDtion of the iAtennl capacity. 

In the remarkable example in Dr. 'nnmwni'a i»ll-- 
ti'iD, of a (lintortui Aiigto-Soxoa skoll. {rom Stooe, :. 
Bu<:kin^hunutliire,' tbere are indieatioGa, eqieeiaQy in tl 
duta<rli<;i) nnd gnping sattnes on the base, that it has U' : 
milijt-L-tod to an extraotdinaiy amount of oblique p^--. 
buiiiciUH conipreainon. Amoi^ primitive nationji, u 
Ui*ttd are iJiuoitt invariably committed to the earth eu- 
tin'ly mipmtfictfd by any covering of stone or wood; 
Hitil \\w mom recent practice of iobamation in a ooffin 
vi wihhI siibjfct to rapid decay, presents a protecting 
uu^tiuni of little mon; a%'ail against the distorting eom- 
}u\^iiu of the moint aoil ; yet of the many crania that 
1 lirtvi' fxaniine<i, both in tlie Old World and the Nfv 
|h*' trtMtit' distortion liave been in no degree xn'.r 
untii'v'ttl'lt' tttan a close observer tvtII perceive to be ui'ii 
tuvu K>ii ttto Hvitig head, when Im attention is direr':< 
(m ft* I''o mthin certain limitations; while d. 
{'.'Iwi-r^iitiou have been snfficient to siili-: 
I ■>,-.>v»'n'd from British stone cists, cntin I . 

\'\ my ct>iitael with the soil, frequently ti: 
itoi*R*l"K' im^darity of form, arising from i 
tlWwatttUi iiuring life, of which correiipotu 
t'Xt*iu|ilt.'M tm.' le^ rare than is supposed. 
im( «kuU may t>e assumed to present n [<erfect c 

' vm its two Mdi-8, but ver}' few examples 1 

tliMt the n>iuir»>iiiont!> of sm-h a standard. Not only 
hly in the l«*o sides of frequent occurrenai, 
\tt to th*' extent of deformity ezhibited i 
u SUuh\ in Ituekinghumshitv. or thai 
uwler>' of HtM-heh^iia ; but a jwrfcctly i 
'tVlil <4utl to th«« cxeeplvut rather tluiu the rule. 



t of the bones of tho faeiad during infuuc-y, 

I to readily wlmits of purpo-ied deviation fnitn ils 

" lunn, aim) remlcra it liable to mnny undesigiiod 

; nor has this Iieen overlook t;>.! by Morton and 

r Aroorican cnuiioscopist^, who concur in uRsigiiing 

lomiiiAnt verticaJ occiput to the form of the 

cnuUe acting upon a naturally brarhyrephnlic 

)r. Morton remark* of the Peruvian skulln ex- 

r him, "These heads are rvniarkiible not only 

iFmalllicss, but nlso for their irregularity, for, in 

MJoe in my poraesKion, there is but one thiit 

1 qmunetxiuaL This irregularity chiefly con- 

t greater pntjection of the occiput to one side 

lothcr, showing, in some instances, a 8iiq>risiug 

deformity. As thin condition is sh ufU'U 

1 on one side us the ulJjcr, it \a not to In- attri- 

I the intL-ntiomd application of mfchauical force ; 

Xitrary, it is to a certain degree eommun Xo the 

rican race, and ia sometimcH no doubt iu> 

he manner in which the eliilil Is placed in 

I am in fact convinced, that among the col- 

\ Peruvian skiUls oUudetl to, there is not one 

1 designedly raouldod by art"' 

; concurring in the latter untenable opinion, 

r attention hiis been repeatedly drawn to examples of 

letrieui heads, the forms uf which muxt Ihi ancribed 

) o]ienition of external causes uudesigncUy niodi- 

[ them duriu}{ infancy. Here, for example, are notes 

1 pewoiwU olificrvation :— An Englishwoman : 

Jiedly unHymmetrical. This she accounted for 

Kt that her mother was only able to suckle al 

AW famul. All her brothers and sijitent, six in uumlxtr, 

arm; )'hamet(-rlM;d by the aime irreguliu* conformation 

i the tkuad, I'xcept the yi>uugeBt, a girl 1'lui< tendency 


^ MAM. [( 

niaA muatmm h the cider membera ol tibe 
^^va» oS bnq^ Band to il» tiae cause, and was pte- 
«^tMiBgr«rtdUUcnftiftAB}iaBgnt child. Another 
«HBBAMtif lbB^Ai«f aSeoctiA vaman, tbe wife of 
* finnr ak SnAaa^Bp^ K C^ffs Ckiada. The boy 
VOB aktt fei» }^iB«ll aa ifcc BHe these observaticHU 
— a MOifc. B>hMdiBfttt^ Aedaeakkv and grcady 
«iaM«K «K. Its «iftiE. Hb «■• a vcfy aiddr ehild ; his 
tank Wi^ AtagiJ; aa^ a> fae vbb opwardB of two 
» «U hdht fe Mail «■ " he was sabjected to an 
ffis Bocber was, in like 
mm hveast, and to this elu! 
i abr fccdbv isiB «f the heed of hex son, who is 
MHV « hiiilhhj h^ TIh whJFirt is tetfer iltustrdted 
If s moats vt faffar afaq|^ of the hTiiieilil oatlju^ of 
kneA^ ffaiiiiiii to hk %^ a hrtte^ «hkh exhibit some 
WRf «U aal ■HBdolk fciiitiwM from tbe uonnal 
l^—illljl «r the hwH* flBOtoto. Examples of both 
«fanto«f 9HlntiMt eff Aii «lgeetaf inqnitT' mas£ be 
Mlf«9aM^ to ■naff, askl an* vnd vorthr of funbor atten- , 
tayyiL. Is i^ oJ^?vii.>a» cftai: dW s&Dlli during infemcy is in 
Stt'-'O. i ri.":^iz.: ■.■'.■cvUui'.'ii i> Ko.-i'eir^ is ptculiarij suscep- 
cftl-: 'ci AOC'.'CEiiil .-ii:T.n.y?i O'f t'.iTQi. wEuch mav be carried 
to i i^r-j.: cXtcE.: «£:h.>tri: miCeriiHr affecting the func- 
tioc* v.if :i-: :-nin_ M>ipe^>vier. i: i< apixirvnt, &om the 
ilIu.*tr*;L'^> alrvAiv firai?he»,L that many undesigned 
cKiiiir* miiv b^ I'^i'vT^E ,in ibe f.>rni of the head duiing 
infancy, ty >|»t:T,iii:i;Ei.* |-iMtaining to m(*l«s of numng, or 
the j^rvvailia; tneamiini to which childrvn are subjected. 
The orantd ii>Tm diT>iiniati>l bv M. Foville the Tete 
aiiik'if'iin-. may have j-rvs.iomin;it»-.I for m^iny centuries 
through eonain ninii Ji5m*-ts -^f Fnunx*. soK-ly from the 
unreasoning confomiitv with whioh the rustic nurse ad- 
Vered to traiiitional and preeeripti%'e usige-s such as all 
perience asauits us are among the most Ukely customs 



■aunive tlic shock of revolutions. The mmlc of namng 

1 ourying the infant, as among certaui Afrioin tribes, 

it i« boruc ou the back, ami Bucklfil ovisr the 

ler; or with tlit: AiUL-riwiu Indians, where it is 

invarin)>ly Rtmjiped tightly on a cnwlW-lward : 

t bavr liail honit' ftR-i-t on tht^ fonn of tho skull, and 

, in tliv former, may Iwvy iiff«tctt;il tho lM>nf« of the 

; wfailflt the oi>[H)fut<! practice of suckling the child 

btlia liresiit, and Inyiiig it to sleep from earliest infancy 

, tis lidi', ejipeciftUy if accompanied with a jiersistcnt 

itre to one side, must tend to modify the cranial 

I Id an inverae din^tion. 

pDr. Mort<m recoguinfd thi« dement, as one tending 

tnuggvrati*, though not, oa he iK-lievwl, wholly to 

duoQ the tlntttuied occiput, which he lUMigutvl as one 

) Um mont chanictcriHtic cnuiial featurt>» of tlie Ame- 

1 abori^niw. Nor did h« fail to note the frequent 

rities olwcrvable in the cla^ts of skutla to wliictt 

attention wan B|»eeially devoted. Of the S«rioto 

jr cranium, he remarkd, in rufercncu to \\» jKKruliarly 

* vertical ocriput : " Similar forma are cora- 

lliie Peruvian tomlin, and lutvc the occiput, as in 

. no flattened and vertiral. aa to give the 

I'Htifieial comprrssion ; yet this is only an ex* 

1 of the natural form caused by the pressure of 

nl in common ase among the Amcricou 

WbcD commeuting on this, in diaeussing tho 

i provalimce of oik- enuuAl ty]ie thn»ughout the 

1 aboripinM, I fXpn»!W«! a Mi*-f that further in- 

[Ation would tiroi) tu thi- c<mc]u>iion timt tlie vcrtirjil 

tfisXtcnud iici-iput, in»tuad of liuiiig a t}'{iiral charac- 

; pertains (o the clasB tif artificial modifications of 

I Batumi cranium familiar to tlie American ethnolo- 

I in the diw:tui>un.-8 of ancient gmveiv and inj 

I of widely Ki-panitetl living tribes. Vei 

|UotMi, in the Crauim 
\ (lonuatu of hif iaj, tbe 
OMiiiin'. hfld a broad head wilh hi- ntlnbutod to the tamam «f 
mulliw ii|x>ii iticir badtB. !■ 
mupTion tlint uiuymmeCnod 
ktir of Antericjui ciatiii, I 
nfemxl lo, putiluliLHl io 1857,' "I hw* 
thd lihi^ unA}'ni metrical cbancfaensdcs ■■ Ae 
m|ihjJir I'.nuiin of the Scottuh faatniwB ; and it ^um ee- 
cttiTt^l Ui my miud oa motv tbaa one oocaaon, whethff 
Midi nmy not funiub an indicstioa of Bome partial oan- 
prttmliti), (lc|irn<lont, it may be, an the mode of Dintaie 
in irtfiiiiny having tunfU'dt in tbvir ^3^ also, if mK tt 
proiliiris tf> t^xi^tgvratti tiic abort lungitudinal duznete', 
wbii'h rnnMituU-H tmo of their most remaritable chaise- 
twirlHticA." T» thin idoji Mr. J. Baman] Davis bos ednec 
glvt^ll (iiu Win^bt of bia conrurrcot testdmoDj, and adds, 
"Thi' lidimn nf till' head are very pliant in in&ncy, and 
im> I'UHily inouMi'il to im nrtiticial form. Among tbc 
KiiiiakiLs of ihc Siindwicli Idands, the mother's halut of 
aii|i|)ortiu^' llic licnd of her nursling in the palm of her 
Ict'i hiiiid, irt i-i>nsid(>re<l to proiluce the fiatneas in the 
iii-oiiiiijil ri-j-ion so commonly observed in Kanaka. Here, 
nginii, iiiitiiral roii formation affords the basis of that 
liriirliyft|>lialic form whicli is increased by art."* But, 
Hi'i'oiHliii;,' Id Or. PifkiTing, the flattened occiput is fomid 
iimoiiff llio irtliiiidt'i-rt of the S<mthem Ocean, directly 
tnu'ivililo to artiticial pressure. Mr. Davis states that, 
in a lar^To rtt-riett of skulls of the Kanakas of the Sand- 
wirh ItJiiiida, priK-iirod for him by Mr, W. L. Green, and 
by OoHfiiil \V. Miller, British Consul-general at Honolulu, 
tlie tliitiitwfl in the ocoipiuU region is often remarkably 


In oommetiuug on the chiuTkctehsticx of Uw 
', Dr. Hckeriug rvuiarks : " A more nurked 
rity, will ont very gfiit--nUly olw-rvalile, ia the 
1 ucct|>ut. Mill iUiUiglit pntjectiun Itcyoud the Une 
I Mck. The face, iu consctjueitcc, when seen in ' 
; ■pp«nn broader than among Europeann, aA i» the J 
1 the Uoogolian, though for a cliffereot reason. 
B Moognlian the front is di^iirLfinei), or the craoiam 
I faackwairlB, while in the MaLiy it is elevated or 
t fbnranLi. The Mongolian tmitA are heightened 
bjr the Chinookn ; bat it is leaa generoUj 
. that a alight pressure is often applied to the 
t by the PolyneetaDB, in conformity with the Mabj J 

r Betzinci, after commenting on the unnntunl 1 
which mediieval chroniclerH porticulariy 
B as the characteristics of the Hnna, adds : " Tbos 
I more and more tracts showing that this abrnml 
1 formerly has been common in the ancient world, 
, after the authority of Tluerr^', we may imppoec that 
t {nacipaJty, and jH>rhiij)s originally, bi!longvd to the 
pjn."* But it i« among tliese vpry Mongols that 
Pickering claB»?3 the Chinook -Flatheadis and all 
I of the American contJoent ; and thus, by 
I help of ancient historians and gcognphera, and the 
nt diflecnreriea and obaervotionB of oeieatific : 
we neover traces of this stnnge eostooi cf i 
diotortion uf the skull in ancient Eanipe«n i 
aiDoiig tbe \-tdleys uf the Alps, on the huika of the 
Danube and the Don, and on tho shores of the Eojdne 
Sea. Beyond this wo trace the sudd practice^ in oneiont 
' :rnea, to the volleys of the Caaeosus and the sboces of 

Ft<4M1-«'* JIWm ./ JVm (BaU). f. 4r. 
' -•"•■ IlilliiMll] film it tttalli hnM tbr kmaoA WotM.' PnntA Ami 



the Caspian Sea ; and as we follow bock the ixack nf tl-. 
Huns !iinl Avars, by whom it seems to have been intnv 
duced into Europe, we lose the tratea of it amnng tie 
unfamiliar Siberian steppes of Nortltem Asia ; and unly 
Kxower them once more after crojisiug Behriog Stt 
and investigating the strange customs whicL [)«ftaia 1 
the American tribes on the Pacific Coast, and in 1 
regions which lie to the west of the Roclqr Moout^ 

The artificial forms given to the humim head by ti 
various tribes among whom the custom has been [ 
tised in ancient and modem times, though diridcd I 
Dr. Goase of Greneva into sixteen classes, raiigo tietvq 
two extremes. One of these is a combined occipital a 
frontal compression, reducing the head as nearly as p 
sible to a disk, having its mere edge laterally, as in \ 
very remarkable Natchez skull, engraved in the Cram 
Amenvana (plates xx. xxi.), or in the portrait of Call 
wachan, a woman of the Cowlitz tribe of the Flathci 
Indians, taken from the life by Mr. Paul Kane, timing 
his wanderings among the tribes on the Cowlitz riva-. 
She is painted in profile, with her head tapering wcdgl 
Uke, from the forehead and occiput, to a blunt point i 
the vertex, and she holds in her arms her child strann 
to the cradle-lxKU-d, with its head padded and bandag 
under the process of flattening ;' as shown iu the &oati 
piece to this volume. The other form, which is mni 
common among the flathead tribes on the CoInmW 
river and its tributaries, depresses the forehead, i 
throws back the whole skull, so as to give it a l 
apju-oximatioD to that of a dog. Under such a pre 
the brain must be subjected to great compression ; j 
in a skull of the latter type, brought from a Flatbed 
cemetery on the Columbia river, I observe distinct t 
of hyperostosis at the sutm^ evidently a result i 

> WandfTittgi o/an Arltat mtoiig Ihr ItuUiai* ^fNartk Atntrica, p. SOS. \ 


'm.' pnwcsH of cnmprcssion. Accarate Flathead etads- 

•■■■i wouM probaUy xbow an increufKxl mortality in in- 

tioy lunitting fniin tliis barkiroiu process; although 

■. -n this V6 dcuiwl by comfK-ti-nt ubsen-ers ; and tho 

r-' -.- having In^-n ctiin[ilL'lL-il duriHfj the fimt year, all 

funli. : .-in-<'tH ap[K-ar to !«■ limiu-d to tho external con- 

fi'nuitiMri iif th«' h«ui, without siHectiDg t'itlKT the health 

«• tht.^ intdlort. Fashion regulates t<» mnue extvut the 

^MMnal form given to the hea*l atnong various tribcji, hut 

ttuH ia miMlifiod by individual caprice, and a considerable 

bB(y b oli(K!rva1>lc in the tttnuigc Bhnp«« which it ia 

ally forred to mwnime. The Ncwatocs. an cx- 

f warlike tribe on the nortJi end of Vancoavcr'ii 

3 a oonieal ehajK* to the head by means of a 

Fdeer'»«kin j>added with tho inner bark of the 

r>tnu, frayL-d imtil it naflumcs the consistency of veiy 

This forms a coni ab«jut the thickncm of a 

tllaimb, which is wotind round llie infant's beai^ 

[ it gmduAlly into a uniformly taj>ering c 


The procesB seems neither to affect the intellect vrw tbi 
courage of this people, who are remarkable for tbar 
cunning as well as their fierce daring, and are the temt 
of all the aarrounding trilxH. The effect of this ginguiar 
form of liead is still further iuc-reased by tlie EaaluoB oC 
gathering the hair into a knot on the crown of the bra^ 
as ahown in the aci^ompjim'ing portrait of a Ncwiiw 
chief (Fig. 08), from a sketch taken by Mr. Paul Km 
during his visit to Viincouver'a Island. 

ITie Flatheada extend over a wide range of coontlj 
from 130 mile« up the Columbia river to its moutJ), aM 
along the Pacific coast wid the Straits of De Fuel 
Puget's Sound, and Canal Diaro to near the mouth o 
Fraser's river ; as well as on Vancouver's Island. Tht^ 
include fully twenty different tribes, among which ap 
liie Cowlitz Indians on the river of that name ; tb 
Chinooks, KJatsaps, KUckatats, and Kalponets on tJi 
Columbia river ; the Chastays south of the Colomlu 
near the River Umqua ; the Klackamuss on the river c 
the siune name in Oregon ; the Nasquallies, Siuahomai 
and Cumsenahos on Puget's Sound ; the Songas am 
Eusaniches on the southern shores of the Straits of D 
Fuca ; the Towanachuns on Whitby's Island ; the Cowit 
ehius on the Gulf of Geoi^a ; and the Clnlams ao< 
Newatees on Vancouver's Ishuid. Greatly vaiyiug dia 
lects are spoken among these Flathead tribes, and as th 
lingua Franca of Oregon is the usual means of comma 
nication between them and the whites, the Uttle know 
ledge of their languages hitherto obtained has been to 
vague to be of much value. During Mr, Paul Kane' 
travels among those tiibes he saw hundreds of childre: 
undergoing the process of flattening the head, and thu 
describes the mode of procedure. The infant is strappe. 
to the cradle-board, which is carefully covered with mos 
of finely firayed fibres of cedar-bark, and is fitted with 


1 vrhich pmjectn bcyouU the face, so as tu pro- 
i it from iujuTj' ; aa abuim in the froDti^pivcc to tliia 
lu tinli-r tu flatten the head, u p;td, made tif a 
» of akin atuffnl with iu>ft cciW-tKirk, ia laid on the 
<*■ Ibreitead, tuul on the top of this a l^Ub of bard 
t the HDooth aide under. Thia is covered with 
r of pliant deer-akin, and ia boond tightly hy 
I of a leathern Imnd pttwing tbrongh boks in ike 
B-boanl, mbilti the head ia snpported and ki^t in an 
puBliou by a pillow of gntas or frayed OGda»- ■ 
1 under the back of the t»s:k. Tbia pre 
■ immcdialcly aftvr the birth of the child, and^ 
iCinaetl fur a periiid of from ci^ht to twelve monthn, 
^ which time the beail baH {KTmJini-nt ly a»;ume<l the 
1 m wedge-shape^i form, which cotuttitales tho 
|t«C QiiiKiok or f 'owtitz grace. Another process is bgr J 
B of a aqnare pivce of leather with thongs atta 
b four oonKca, placed over a pail on the forehead, ' 

1 tightly to tbe board. Other pods are placed 

r dw head, and at its sdca, according to the special 

I which it is desintl to give iL Mr. Kane rcaurka : 

t night U' siij'iHMed, from the extent to which ttus is 

\ that the o))enitiou would be attended with great 

;, but I have never heartl tbe infants ci^'ing or 

Ag, although I have seen the eyua oeemiugly start- 

frof the Buckets from tbe groat preasure. Hut, on 

J. when the tboDgn were hxtnetied, and the 

, I have ntrfioeil tliem cr^- until they were 

From the apparent dolneagi of tlie children 

r the pmaure, I abotUd imagine that a state 

tMthility IB indooefl, and that the reiom 

\ oocanoood by ita removal, moat I 

/JiaUowed fay the aenae uf pain." Tbe i 

%^ from a careful sketch t«f a Chinook child, made ' 

pott AaLom nn the Columbia river, and iUustistea 


tho cxtTBordloary appeazance of cbe Flatheada at on oiK 
agu. The bmin in its process towanlii mamrity wti- 
partially to ivcover a Ifiaa abnormal form, uspeciali. 
wh«re the prc^ure has been applitrd 8.1 as to pniilBre iii. 
elLTated wwlge ghape, with the hrcadlli of tjio wini 
mam prest-Dtoil in front nmJ rear, as in tfae arcnmpaii\ 
ing example In this the head seemetl to be rMiw 
ahmoet to a disk, exhibiting the resuha of the tia 
practice to an extent that is rarely if uver obserrodl 
adults who have undergone the same pincess in i 

Mr. Kane was led to the conclusion that this violent j 
cess in no doprce injures the health, as from inqu: 
made liy him it did not ajipear that the mortality among 
the Flathead rhil<lren is greater thao Jimongst other 
Indian tribes. The evidence that it leaves the intclli 
unimiMiii-cd i-csta on more absolute proof. The I 
triln^s arc in the constant habit of making slaves of 1 
neighlwuring roundhcaded Indians, whom they 
with great liarbarity ; nnd though hving among t 
these arc not all<»we<l to flatten or modify the fonal 
thoir iufiuita' heJuK tliat being a distinguished marki 


Ukd tbo badge of aristocratic dmcoot. Tboy 
oontecDpt on tbe wUit<^« us a people who Uuir 
of their btaitU ibt- lifPixlitar}- mark of Blavoa. 
mover, acute sud 111(1:111^1011, Kave nicgulat 
of minuet}', and have been noted for very rcttji- 
EtmoriM : iKiog capable of repeating paasagoi of 
length, with ciiundotable accuracy, vhen recited in 
hearing. It would, indeut, nppeiir, that alike in 
time* of HippocrotuH and in our own rlay, an idea 
iled among thow) who practised tlic ntrmge 
usagv of remodt^lliog tho human tiead, tbat 
iby not only conferred and added grace to its 
bat tbat they i-ontribuU^l no less to tbe mental 
irity of thitne anujug wh'>m tbls boa ever l>ccu tbe 
tymbol of ariatociacy, and the mark of the 
mca. If it did, in rcahty, produce an oppo 
and tend cither to mental inferiority or obso- 
ity, it would lead to Bpeedy and inevitable 
olatioUii among tbone tribeti wbt-re the belots aiv 
gotoiuly excluded from the pracli<x\ But neither 
lOg the I'cruviaiiB, nor tlu' aniut-ut or moilem North 
con trilieii, is there any evidenee of tlic uunnal 
frrpim having thuA practically demuiuttniteil it« su|xy 
' tity over th<! deformed or fluttentnl itkulL 

It MBU im[>ortant fuet that, excepting on the Gulf uf 
lorida, when; tb'- nortb-wcKt tnbei«, »> they extended 
pttlhwanl, ovcrlnpp(»i the moantain range wlucb divider 
! Pacific from tl«? Atlantic regi«nfl of the New World, 
i then' only to ihe west of the Mlshisnippi, tbt? iraix« 
artificial moiildnig of tbe bead ore sligbt and ({uite 
wbiliit along tbe regions that Iwpler on the 
reach be)'und the moot eoutbcm bmita •>f 
Dr. Morton quott^s varioua early S)uuiisb 
and bifltoiiojiH who generally concur in deeciib- 
Feniviou flattening or moulding of tbe fikull an 


having been t-ifected by means of boorde u-tappeA a 
head, and thereafter by means of ligatures. Gai 
la Vega produces proof to ehow that the dutom is B 
ancient than the Inca dynasty ; and it was so i 
sally favoured, that a decree of the EccIeaastiwU Cot 
Lima, published in 1585, threatens with severe j 
all pai-ents who are found to persist in the practice. ; 
perhaps the most interesting pass^e is rme frnm | 
writings of Torquemada, where, referring to the 1 
vians, he remarks : " As to the custom of ap] 
fierce in war, it was in some provinces ordered t 
mothers or their attendants should moke the 
their children long and rough, and the foreheads i 
as Hippocrates and Galeii relate of the !Maci 
who had them moulded by art into the elevated i 
conical form. This custom is more prevalent in tL 
province of Chieuito, than in any other part of Peru. 
In spite of ecclesiastical censures and penalties, the »u- 
tom is not extinct even now in Peru ; and as onr kin ^> 
ledge of the tribes of Northern Asia, and minuh'r oIks..; 
vations on those of the Polynesian Islands, are extendeil, 
further tnwrcs may be found of the same practice whicli 
seems to furnish another curious link between the races 
of the Old World and the New, and to confirm the idea 
of a common origin for nations now separated by tlw 
broad wabjrs of the Pacific Ocean. 

Some years since I instituted a series of observations 
on two ditfercut classes of the laliouring population in 
Edinburgh and its vicinity, whose avocations enbjt< ! 
tlicm to a process specially calcidated to test the sn- 
ccplibility of the adult cranium to compression aii'l 
change of form. Owing to the peculiar arrangement of 
the middle-class dwellings in Edinburgh, in flats, ap- 
proached by flights of staii-s leatling to their various 
elevations, a special class of coal-porters is licensed by 




tSltf ontboritics, cliictly for conveying fuel to i 
mtcd tiepoaitoricA ITii* Lhey do l»y means of i 

rxvcV, ftuji|Kirlc<J hy ii bnwui k-jttburn strap pnsned'l 
r tin- bead. i)n first proeooding to examine the | 

of lliitBe pnrtiTH, I was struck with tht; g^^neral 

volciiL'L' of poorly di'voloptfl, and even remarkably 

fi>n*lic>adH ; but mon* carnful obftcrvation sbowed 

the Icattic-m band of the creel is placed by tbem, 

i ncrow tilt; fort'liead, but directly over the coronal 

) ; and here I could detect no prevailing indie** j 

of depression, although some of those cxamiueda 

I beco subjwted for periods extending over mom 

■ ((Uarter of a century to the almost daily prcfttl 

e of the broiid leathern simp supporting u heavy loai' 

cools, and this generally mrried up Bleep flight* of' 

in, whi-iv the weight would be letw H|aidly divided 

n the Ixu-k and the heuiL Ah to the \kwv frontal 

Pdopmejil, it may I>e iUKirilxrd with little hesitation to 

fiKt that, AH a general rule, oidy those whose capa- 

■ unfitted them for anytliing but the coarsest manual 

, vprc likely to resort to what constitutes one of the 

t attractive and most poorly remunerated brunches 

mkilled labour. It is otherwise, howevLr, with the 

UoHnni cLuH of Scottisli fiidiwivce. The intnKlue- 

of nihri^ bss somewhat m<xlified the habits of 

■8 of so many other cbmHcu of the lalMturing i>opu- 

n; but until recetit yean*, tho fiaherwomen of 

irfaavfm, Fijthem>w, Muwh.-! burgh, itnd I'n-stotipan* 

K in the liabit of daily bringing to tlie Edinburgh 

Ert a hfflvy bxid of fiah, in nn oaiia" en^el, supported, 

that (tf the e(xd-|H)rterH, by a leatliem strap 

head. This they carried a dif^tiinco of from two ttf J 

I or six miks; ami although by their stooping | 

ik is made to l>ear n nonsiderable share of t 

, nerertfadeoB the presnirf on the head must be 



grejit One of its results is that the fbherwomen aoinin 
a peculiar walk, consequent on the position thfy bavr 
to assume in order to regulate the i-entre of graviTT, 
when ranying their load to market. Unlike ihe I'.n. 
porters, they are a sagacious, intelligent v\af*s of wotil 
accustomed to look upon their husltau<U' sphere of lai ■ 
as limited to the sea ; and to consider the whole chii-. 
of the household, and the sale of the produce rf i- 
fishing expedition, as well as the judicioiis expenihii:- 
of the proceeds, to devolve upon them, Nu »|urstio!, 
to women's rights troubles the amphiltioas commuar 
of the Scottish fishing-villages ; where the labour- 
the men are limited on land to the repair of \\y 
fiahing-boate, and the getting ready again for sea ; ■ 
the fisherman in the city market woidd be as iir^ 
out of his element as one of his own finny prey. H- 
therefore, we have a teat of the intellectual iuduei:< 
wrought by continuous external pressure on theemui' 
and the result of ray o^vn observations was to sir- 
me that the form of the head was as little atFeetci i 
it In this I am confirmed by other obser\-ers of 1 ■ 
exi^erienee. Dr. Scott of Musselburgh thus wrii- - 
" With the co-operation of a professional friend, wbc 1. 
devoted much attention to phrenology, I made au ■ 
tensive survey of the heads of our fisherwomen. I li : ■ 
been miable to detect any marked change in the flhoju- 
of the skulls from carr)'ing the creel The leather bmd 
of the creel is placed, not across the forehead, l«t 
directly over the coronal RUture ; and though in ooe w 
two instances there seemed to l>e a slight depression in 
that region, in all the others, including several instaiK-^s 
where the women had carried fish to Edinbui'^ i 
Upwards of forty years, there was no trace of chiii;^ 
of form in the skull, " Tlie fisliiug- village here rcferrc"! 
to is distant upwards of five milea from Ediuliurgfa, 


\ ooiue<]uvady prcaonta cxamplve of tujads subjectud 

I mcMt pnitnicUKl ojnimtion of a pressure which, 

hoA in iufoiiL'y, woulil have completely diskirtol 

L Tlu> ptipuloos txahing-village of Newhaveo 

' more tluin iwu and a hidf miles Uistaut from 

ty nuriiet, and tliere my own iuve»tigutiuus were 

pumietL To the^ a meJiciil friend add» th« 

iring rcKults wf hia own indeiwudeut observalioui^ 

from I'Hig rejydeuet-' and pwftaaioual pnictiee 

I luivo not obacTvcd any pLtuliar con- 

V of tb« eniulum in tliu finhermtui and fixhur- 

thia ne^hbourhuod. In jMiint of Bbajie I 

\ very mtu-h rcwunlilea that of other rias»es of 

The prcasuie of the cre<d-ban<,i, of 

y doiss Dot affect the males, as they devolve the 

b of cmTUlg it ontinily on the females, ami even iu 

Hft the bead is fdlly formed before they go rega- 

I mnritct Iu aize the crania of the Newhavoneni 

letsiainly livJow thv avexiige. Thia cauuut fail ta 

B joo in tht] village church, if you sit uu the south 

of the pews occujtie^l by the fiithcnL There 

leKccptidns ; inileed. thure ore lamilicfl in the 

. by g'KHl hnads, and among whom 

'. other qualities appear t« be hereditary ; but, 

f speokiog, I believe actual measurement would 

(he sise of the cranium among the fiahing 

is under the avemge.' How far actual 

utA Would bear out the latter assertion, my 

9WM»val from Scotland prevoDtM tne from testing ; but 
the lestimociy otberwuw concurs with my own obecrva- 
h and indicntee that the head of the atlult — b^inr 
I with the fuiherwonian at sixteen or acveute«u yean 
IB; — may be subjected to a cotutidcrablo prcwure, 
1 daily fm the name n^on, for hours together, 
a long seriei of yean, without affectiiig the 




The theory of hh aborigiiml unity pf rvodiug ou« iodi- 
gvnuiu AoK^can race fn>iit tin: Arctic Circle tu Term- 
<lcl-Fuego baa Imx-u sliowu to Im.* liable tu cluUIc-nge uu 
UMlis{>utablc vTiilt-nct,*. Aloniovt-r, the proof tluit tlie 
AoMTimn mnn is in any !<c-iuie !ie]Kinitv<I l>y tKwnttnl 
diflt-n-Jifes from all other nations or raa» of the 
1 family, in like manner fails on minute cxamina- 
The t^iiical while, red, and tiluck man, i>la/?cd Bide 
, di> inik^ol |)tu»cut vciy Klrikiugly contrasting 
and tlic author still rvcalla with vivid 
! tike qnc«tiim futxMxl oo bia mind wbon, flcat<Ml fur 
t time at a large pablio table in a soutbcni Amo- 
D dty, be found himself Baixonnded by the proKcribwl 
li nux of Afiita. A aenrile people, uwlate*! from all 
lanity of interests^ tad from all share in the won- 
> biam|^ of the dominant nee, presented itself 
e onderaBpectB scarcely conceivable to the &iropean, 
R a aUanger oi Africmu blood mingle occasionally, 
r other forvigncr, in public assembUes or Bocial 
^ wiihuat being tempted to ask : Gsn he be ixidecd 
* blood, and duHrended of the same primeval parent 
k with oonelvva '. but the bf^tation of the red uuui is 
I gtvaier, fur it is voluntaiy and wlf-iniix^ed. Nu 
B of caate prvdudi-s him from a perfect c«]uality of 
B with the white supplanter. In!4!nnnmjigc of 



tlio niccs ciiinvM with it no sense of di^nidatioi], aud 
ilit<»rniitigling of blood involves no forfeiture of riglitBor 
liriviiiigm. Yet with all the advantages from which tlio 
Afrir^i race ia utt-erly excluded, he yields liis ground 
cwn more rapidly than thu encroachments of the intra- 
WW suppliintcrs demand ; and disajipears scarcely lew 
swiftly uudor the giianliauahip of friendly superinten- 
,,4tttl» iUid mbsionary civilizcrs, than when cxpc^ed to 
^Mk <'\t»"n«inating violence of Spanish cupidity. 

l'p'ft"»nls of three centuries and a half have elapsed 
MBW tbo landing of the Spanish discoverurs on the fiist- 
wvo ^Inod of the Wost^ni Ilomispbere ; and it may )« 
(Kiubti>d if a single year has passed since that meiDorable' 
ovful, in which some historical memorial kis not per- 
t»bol, without the preservation of any note of its records, 
Ihit ihe most valuable and irreeovemble of all those re- 
er«ds arc the nations that have died and left no sign. 
The native nices of the islands of the American archi- 
[telago have lieen estenninat«<l ; and of many of them 
scarcely a relic of their language, or a memoriid of their 
arts, their social habits, or rfUgious rites, surrivus. Bo, 
in like manner, throughout the older American States, in 
Canada, and over the vast area which spreads westward 
from tlie Atlantic seaboard to the Rocky Alountiuna^ 
whole triljes and natinna have disappeared, without evea 
a memorial-mound or pictured grave-post to tell where 
the last of the race is returning to the earth from wIwDOd 
he sprung. But such being the case, it is imposaiblcv 
while regardiug the claims of the Araericun as a strictly 
imligenoiw race, to overlook the significant fact, that tie 
HOgro, a foreign race, the most diverse of all from the 
oborigiuca of the New World, was introduced there solely-' 
Ixiwiuse of his capacity of endurance and perpetuity, 
is wanting in the children of the miil. This 
.'itV of eiiduRitice experience ha« proved him to 


TUH li£i> HI.OO0 or TUB WEST. 


poMtt-.'n : And the Tact is ungutariy at variance with the 
ftupposud appli<!AtioD of the same laws to the rauea of 
mau whii:h control the i!irc:urascrii>tHiD of the natural 
|trrivini-*« of tbti auimol kiugdoui. Th« alwrigines of 
.Ann-rii-n aiv iudoed a peopto l>y thfrnwlven. For iin- 
LiiMwii jiiriw they have duvvlnjitMl all thn rt'snlta of phy- 
-i.jil inttuonrcfi, haUbt of life, and whatever p'^culiaritwa 
I" rtaiiiird to their gengrapbiral position, or their prim- 
■. d American amwBtry. Yet when we go beyond that 
i-'jutinf])t which ha» isolated tlieiu through all the uu- 
meaauniHi ccuturios of their iiido]>cndeut existCQCO, it IH 
on tht' neighbouring one of EftBtern Asia thai wo find an 
ttJiiii- iy|>u »o nearly rL'sembliug them, tliat Dr. (Charles 
ri'kt;H>;. the ethnologist of the American Exploring 
\\\y-'\ II..I1, groups tht- Amerieau with the Asiatir. Mon-, XI prt^enting tlio ma-st characteriHtic phyidca] 
Ti;- xiiinion to iMtth. And a« the American thus pre- 
^uia it ncrikiug ethnieal aitinity Ui the Asiatic Mongol ; 
n aLwi tlie same phyui^ diversities have been noted 
among ihc ditfwn'ot triltea and iiatioos u{ the New World, 
by wliirli the utlwr gn-at ftlmographie groujis am broken 
uji iiii'i minor su I nU virions and m grwlually converge 
from nppoaiv giointit towanU Uie ideal ty{K) of n eommon 
Bui while ihofte who mniutaitt the extatcnce 
priuiary distinrtions among a plurality of 
ft^wcies, exphiin each eonvergenee t^wonU one 
I ^rpe by the further thiHtry of remote, allied, 
late Bpeeies, they accompany thia with the 
I even the (^^>iiuoingliug of proximate Hficeies 
1 to natutnl kwB, and iuvolvce the ultimate 
s of all ; while the rapid extinction of the in- 
r types of man when " n^mote tqiecics," »ueh aa the 
1 and the Red Indian, are brought into contoei 
linglo, ix produced in cvideuce uf thu esBeutial 
difttinetion in their origin. " Bixtevn mil- 


lions of abtjrigines iu North ^Vmerica," exclaims Dc i. C. 

Nott, " lia^-e dvrindled down to two millioos siooe tbe 
' Miiyfiower' Uischaiged on Plymoutb Rock ; and tbeir 
congeners, the Cariba, have long been estioct in liu 
West Indian Islands. The mortal destiny of the wlwle 
iVmerican group is already perceived to be running out, 
like the stind in Time's hour-glass."' By whataoerei 
means we may attempt to account for this, the fact is 
undoubted. Nor is this disphicement and cxtinctian <if 
races of the New World, thus prominently brought under 
our notice as in part the result of our own reqwudUs 
acts, by any means an isolated fact in the histoty tt 
nations. The revelations of geology diaclose to as di*" 
jilacement and replacement as the economy of ore 
life through all the vast periods which its ivcorJs em- 
l)race ; and among the many diiiicidt problems which the 
thoughtful obsen^er has to encounter, in an attempt t« 
harmonize the actual with his ideiU of the worhl as the 
great tlieatre of the humiin family, none is more intricatd 
and perplexing than the displacement and eJCtinctiou of 
races, such as has been witnessed on the American con- 
tinent since first the European gained a footing on it» 
shores. But the very existence of a science of etlmology 
results from the recognition of essential physical and 
moral differences characteristic of the subdivisions of the 
human family. To some these resolve themselves into 
the mdical distinctions of diverse species ; to others the 
well-ascertained development of varieties, within single 
recognised groups of a common descent, suificiently 
accounts for the mast marked diversities from a noimul 
type of the one humjin species; and the New World 
presents all the requisites for such a development t>t 
Tariatiou from the primary tj-pe of man. 

' " Hyhridity o( AniimUi^ viewol id annexion with Ihe NUnnl (littorr 


Tbe whole history of civUtsutioii limits its Astatic 
origin to tbo fthorcs of tbe lodian Octum aiitl the Medi- 
temmum Ben, autl to the great [iliun wateretl by the 
"Hgra and thi> Euplinitra. From tlirnce its path has 
been undeviiitingly we»twanl, and the New World hnu 
been nsirhwi hy tlie dariniii enU'qirisc thiit made of thf 
otxan a highway to the West which lay beyond it. But 
it iit in the great Bteppes of Northern Asia, where civili- 
wtjon liaa never dawned, that tlic e^utteru Mongol p»- 
fxsut* the uuuiiiitakahle approxiuiutiuu to the Amenean 
tj-pe of inaiL Through all the i:enturie.s during which 
the hiBtoric nations liave figured in the drania of the 
vv..r]-i'v liiatorj-, aiuee Atudiur aiid Ninirod founded the 
ii: -: A-utii! kingiloma, the unhifltnric nationn have also 
lu\..! their unheeded |>art8. Westwanl, in the [tath of 
D min, went the ruling iiations, nhaping out t)te worUra 
in the northern hemwpbere ; but eastwanl, 
, wandered the nomadc tribes, tilled up tlio 
steppes, occupied tlie unclaimed wastes 
\ the Arctic circle, and found an easy passage by 
I route t<i the Westeni Hemisphert-. That 
^BOt tho only, uor prolmbly the earliest mute from 
B America, will Im iwen liereafU-T ; but it suffices 
: present argument (Jiat acecHS wits thufi ]>oi«ible. 
! ecttle<l, they took jio«M('HHion of a continent an 
', in every phymcal ehanicteri«tic from tJat of 
I As it is i>oss)bIe for countries within the same 
I of latitude to be. In vain we search through all 
» worid's oueicnt and mediieval history fnr a defiuit*; 
ttace of intereourse Itctwecu the two heniis]>her\^s ; and 
in 1492, Colunibua opi-iie*! for us the 
I of tho West, it was the meeting of tho^> who, by 
lite eouraes, bad Hitl fmm eaoh other until the race 
the glolta Aflsuming their descent from a 
I pvotofliist : if rlimate, social habits, r-ivilisation. 


ami the perpetuation rf apeciai pecnCaritics, 
ruptCLlly in a single directiou, are capable of pnidndng-i 
pemmncut variety, the continent of America, and il 
human occupants, presented all the requifiites for Ui 
devplopiuent of a peculiar tjqie, without tlie 
of any primary diatiuction of species. 

But the circumatances in which man was placed on tl 
American continent were not the most favooraWe for Ii 
L'thnic aud intellectual maturity. In single familiw^ 
great diversity of physical and intellectual capaeity i 
apparent ; and among the family of nations the j' 
Mongol, who presents tlie closest affinity to the Amcrii 
Indian, occupies a very inferior place. Brought from 
wild Bteppea. directly in contact with the advanced ciTiK 
sation of Europe, he is utterly incapable of standing 
ground ; yet when placed under favourable circumstaui 
of training and pupilage, as seen in the older Hun, I 
Magyar, and the Turk, he is fully able to assert i 
claims of a common luimanity. But no such oppoittt 
nities were accorded to the American MongoL We 
Iiim in the fiftcentli and subsequent centuries bronghl 
into conbict and collision ■n'ith the most civilized nation* 
of the world, in periods of their matured eneigy. It 
the meeting of the two extremes : of the most higli^ 
favoured among the nations triumphing in their onwt 
progress not less by constitutional superiority than l^ 
ncquireil civilisation ; and of the savage, or the semi- 
civilizeil barbarian, in the stages of national iid"aiicy and 
childhood. Their fate was inevitable. It doi's not dimi- 
nish our liifliculty in dciding with the complex problcni, 
to know that such h;id l>een the fate of many races and 
even of great nations before theca. But if we ore trouble^ 
with the perplexities of this dark riddle, whereby 
(lulouista of the New World only advance by the retro- 
j»it'8sioii of its aborigines, and in their western pn^reaA 


' tread OQ tbo jjiirovtB uf iintionK, the ronmderatiou 

p-tiS tho pbonmni'tia ttttcndunt cm tiiut snnit? pro- 

idwplm't'nifnt iiiiil L>xIillI^Iil>II. accoDipunying the 

; from Uie \vT>j »lawu uf it« historj-, may help 

I tin? niyptery. 

lOoe. aud only iini! rin-Dnl supplivs any «!redible Btate- 
1 a suliject coiu-t-'niiug whi<:h the mytlmlijgii'a of 
I hnvu pmftatiud X» funiiuh somv iiiformation. 
{ uf Gunesis. or tlit! IVjriniiinjf, is dindetl iuto 
\ wpanit<? an<l pcrfwtly ilialiuft liistwriit* : the firet, 
\ account of the Creation, uiul tho general history of 
' .ud till the dini)ersi(>n, uxtt-nding over a period of 
demlily more than two lh(>u»iuiil yean*, and con- 
1 in the first ten i-haptem, and nine vernt-s of the 
intli ; while the remaining ehnptera, and iudevd 
riy the whole of Uie historieal Books of the Old Tcota- 
nt, WK cxelu«vely devoted to the one sclvetc'd race, 
t of Atiroham aiid hiM detteeuduutK. 
L Jiooking then to the firitt of Uiom>, and to ita oarmtirt! 
j^nJKtinn to the imm<Mliate dtiK-endantfl of Noah, the 
I pP)toi)hwt« of the jirimnrj- HulKiiviHionB of the 
fiuiiily, we p«'n-t-ive that ci'rtain verj' marited 
inent diHcrenrnn an.^ amigned to each. linm, 
I bthcr of Caiman, if left without a blessing, while 
1 is marked as the progenitor of a race destined 
I degradation as the 8cr\'ant of ser\'auta. The hleraiug 
7 Sbem is jteculiar, as if it were designed r-hieHy u» 
' U> the one branch of his dcacendanta, " to whom 
i the adoption, and the glory, and the covenautit, 
I giving of tho law, and the service of God ;" but 
il TBliou^ de8oeudant« a njieeial nmk ia assigned in 
• iroriiVfl future : s[>ecial, predominant in rdalion to 
I bninebi-H of the human family ; but yet inferior 
of temporary dumtion when comporcil with the 
<leatinicn nf th>' Japhetir natioiu, who, enUuging their 

mi», Mkl cBcnMcluitg oD the birtluiglit of Uie elilet 
■H^ an doliBsi to " dwell in the tents of Shem,' n^ 

■ft ve jaf xiv e that one important sulxliviaoD of 
A* kHMB&uilT is stamped, ab initio, with the niariis 
uf iiytillliiill vhile another, the Shemiti<^ though pn- 
itti^lJ to Ite the first partner of the blessing, to be the 
aiMJimi of tlbe vorid's diriiiisatiim, and to furnish the 
«lwM l—^Nticfi' of its most valued inheritance, throng 
tike ctiBtnnw vbit'h antiripated the fulness of time : yrt 
tfae oattvios t^f this stock ure destined to dispkccmeiit, 
fcr "'Jafi^ !>hall be ouUiged, and shall dwell in the 

TImk^ sImk fxf'Bi the very first we perceive a atron^j 
mmYi A aad «karty defined difitinction between diverse 
limBeikefr of the homim fiunily ; and this, coupled with 
ihu afftxtiaaaxK^t of the sev-end regions of the earth to 
distinel type's v>i man, distinguished from each other not 
l«B definit«^y than are the varied yljMnff of these region^ 
:*<vn\s to exprvss vfrv dearly the suKlivisioo of tie 
gt-nus Homo into diverse varieties, with a certain rela- 
ti*>n to ihcir primar\- ge^^^aphical distribution. 

Theiv huve U-eu ingenious attempts made to assign to 
each jit'uoratiou of the Xoachie family its national de- 
sceudiiuts ; but the majority of such results commend 
thenisflves to our accoptjuice at best as only clever 
guess*^-* at truth. Of the most remarkable of the 
Hamitic descvut, hinvever, we can be at no loss as to 
their gtvgi-!>i'hic;d ;ire;is. The Canajiuites occupied the 
important ivgion of Syria and Palestine ; and Nimrod, 
the son of Cusli, moving to the ejistward, settled his 
descendiiiits on tlie banks of the Euphrates : so that of 
the distinctly recognisable generations of Hiun, it is in 
Asia, and not in Africa, that we must look for them, 
for centuries after the dispersion of the family of Noah ; 

raS BSD 8L0OD OF T//K W£Sr. 

B among tlKwe, whom, on bucU nn assutuptiun of 
KDt, we may reckon with the oSspriug of tlie aune 
of oatious, are the Moijyul waiuk-rL-ra ou the great 
(let of Asiii, toAtward towimls the jMissage to the 

Wortd of the AVi»t. 
lut the Sbcmitic ruc(« w<ire also to share the EiiHtem 
it Iwfore they ctilargfHl their area, aud aascrted 
right to the inheritance <»f thw deacendants of Uam. 
ibiiTDd, tbe gTHiulflOii of tlam, the settlements along 
valley of the Euphrates were fminded, "and the 
of his kinyinm was Halx>l, and Erech, and 
lod Calncb, in the land of Shinar," all aitt^'S of 
otim which re^-cnt exploration and discovery 
I to indiemte a» etUl traceable amid the graves of the 
'ity empires. But the eponymus of the rival 
the honks of the Tigris was Asahur, tJie uon 
and in that region aLw) it would appear that 
ik for tliu lo(?ality of others of the gencnitifins 
iavounil 8hem ; while nearly the whole 
Ions lietwe^n thfir western Imnlera nnd the 
occupied from this very ilawii nf history, 
numcroaft Shemilir defwenilants of .loktan, of 
doKended Mohammed and tlic Shemilic propa- 
vi the moDothi-istic eret^d of the Koran ; as came 
HcfacewB^ luwonling to Jewish 1>eJief, and through 
IIh great prophet of our faith, from Eber, the 
epoii3rmii» nf those whom we must look apon, 
important above lUl otlicr Shemitic 

[ cpot aothority still from the sacFcd record, 
B the result of the moltiplicatioa and di»> 
■if tme mtontely detailed generation of tbe sods 
, through Canaan, that for eight hundred ycma 
Btfaey tncreaaed and moltiplieil in the favonnd 
1 tiy tbe Jordao, and stn'tehing to the • 


aite, the dcaceiulant of Jacob's bruUiur, and the 
,'are not to be abhorred, bat the chUdrtiD that 

begotten of them art- to I>u aJinitted to tht- full 
I of the favuuivd SL-ed uf .Iiicoli in tilt- third 

i cxcfption in favour of Lhc Egyptiau i« a rtniork- 
> one. The oftlensible reaaon, viz., that thti lamelitts 
I been Ktmugera in the hmd of Eg>'pt, uppeont iuade- 
: fnllj to account for it, when tiie nature of thst 
I eikI tiie incidcutM of chv Exodus ore borne m 
would tempt UH to look U'yond it to Uwl 
r tnces of Shcmitic character whitrh the hinguag^" 
1 civiliffltiou of E{:\-j)t (Uscloat-. But it« monu- 
dU reveal iho tnu!*» of many iutnidL-ni ; and Wyond 
[hout ihu northern regions of the sutnu uoutincut, 
I and Gruvk, Berber, Homiui, Arab, aud Fnmk 
^-d the blood of the ancient world. Aroimd 
■ of that fxpreaivcly designated JUe^litemtntuH 
I bow striking are the v.-vried mcmoiiaU of the ]>aaL 
e area may be iuarke<l otT on the uuip, environing 
I CMtotii fthore^ and couiitituLiug a mere spot on the 
B of thi- i;lobc ; yet itA history m tin- whole ancient 
r of ct\-iliiiation, and a record of it« ethuoli^ical 
» would ronstilute on epitome of the natural his- 
r ct nun. AU the great empires of the IJld Wurid 
1 an>iui<l ifaat Centre, und a» Dr. JuIidmu re- 
" XU our religion, almottt all our law, almmtl 
' mrt^ almust all that wrtM an above savages, ha»l 
lo ui from the shores of the Mediterrauealt" There 
race has &uroet.-de>l race ; the sce]ttre haa poeticd from 
nation lo nation, tlinmgb the lustorica] rcptvsentatives 
■i all the gri-at primary suMiviHiona of the 
.ooilj, and " their decay lius driiil up realnu to i 
liy of ciuuddcraLiun, however, in refer 
t UiqairiM, bow 6u- the jmlitical c 


of nations in that primeval historic are& was 
panicd by a correspondiiig ethnologieal displacdnuait inS 

It ia in this respect chat the sacred narrative, in in 
bearings on the primitive 8ubcU\'isious of the 
family, and their appointed destinies, seeios E>pecufly 
calciilat«d to supply the initiatory stepe in nUatiun 
some conclusions of general application. However m] 
terioua it be to read of the curse of Ginaaai on the 
same page which records the ble^ings of 2soah and hi 
BODS, and the first covenant of mercy to the hotnan 
yet the record of both rests on the same authority. Stfl 
more, the curse was what may strictly be tenned M 
ethnological one. Whether wc regard it as a punitni 
visitation on Uam in one of the lines of generatioa o 
his descendants, or simply as a prophetic foretelling a 
the destiny of a branch of the human family, we see tb 
Cauaanite separated at the very first from all the o\ 
generations of Noachic descent as a race doomed to 
gradation and slavery. Nevertheless, to all appcaiane^ 
many generations passed away, in the abundant onjojf^ 
ment, by tlie ofi"spring of Canaan, of all the nuxterai 
blessings of the " green undeluged earth," while they 
accomplished, as fully as any other descendants of NoaK 
the appointed repeopling, and were fruitful and incrcaBod, 
and brought forth abundantly in the earth, and maltt 
pUed therein, even as did the most favoure*! among tka- 
sons of Shem or Japhet. \Vhen, some five cen«iri« 
after the Canaanite had entered on his strangely bur- 
dened herit,ige, the progenitor of its later and more 
favoured inheritors was giiai'anteed, by a divinely-exe- 
cuted covenant, the gift to his seed of tiiat wliole land, 
from the river of Egj-pt to the great river, the river 
EupIuTitea, the covenant was not even then to take plaee 
until the fourth generation. When that appointed period 


, and ooly tlic narrow waters of tbe JonUD 
tbe uoaa of Israel and Uie land of tbu 
, Uieir leader and lawgivn-, wbo had guided 
> the Tciy Uucahold of that iaheritaocc on which 
Ina «yes wt^rv permitted to rest, foretold them in hia 
al Ueaaizig : ** The eternal God shall thrust out tho 
r ftam before thee, aud shall destroy, and IsniJ 
1 in safety alone." No commandment can be 
MXpliett than tliAt which rcquirod of tho landitos 
' extirpation of the elder occupants of their 
"When the Lord thy God aball bring thee 
R land, and Iiath cast out bdurc tbt-v wrtai natioiw 
r and miifbtiLT than thou, tbuu shalt imite them and 
r ficAtroy tbom ; tbou shalt make no covenant with 
L Dor Bliew m><rcy unto them." NevertbeleM we find 
i Israeiiten put the C'-anaanitea to tribute, aud did 
i them out ; tluit tbe children of Benjamin did 
D out the JrbositcH ; but acmrding to tbe author 
i book of Judg«>i. they still ilwelt there in his 
1 so with varioua others of tbe aboriginal tribes 
~ ' obtained by cnfk a league of smity 
1 they also mnsined : bondmen, faeweis 
I drawera of water, yet bo guarded by the 
■ of the oath they had extorted from their dis* 
y that at a long subsequent date we find seven 
T their suppUnten^ the sons and grandaons 
. king, saerifieed to their demand 
I on him who had attempted their eztir* 

nore runarfcably significant than all those 

a huge remnant uf tho ancieiit H M niti i* 

riving in the midst of the btter Sbemitic 

and intermingling with them, is 

t of tbe names uf Rahab, tho harlot of 

, and Ruth the M««bitna8, in the gcocalitgy of 

34X rJil'l/ISTO£IC JiA.y. 

tiling from various points both of the Ajneiieaa •-■■■ 
tho Hudson's Bay territories, on one of the large idAD>U 
in tlu' ]{ivvr Stc. Marie ; and while waiting at the Sault 
n con^ideniMu body of them returned, parsing up xn 
tlicir nin(x'8. Having entered into conversiiiinQ w.n-. 
ftn int^'Jli'H'nt Amt:ricau ML-thodist miaaionao-, .vL' -,. 
oompjuiied them, i iiucstioiied him as to the atujatit ■'! 
intermornA^! or intercourse- that took phu.*«! liL-ivtiii 
the Indiana and the whites, and its probable effects ia 
prudncing a permanent new type resulting &wn the 
mixture of the two very dissimikr races. His n.-plj' 
waa : " Look about you at this moment ; comp^initifel| 
fow of these onlookers have not Indlin Mood in t 
veins ;" and such I discovered to Ije the «;ase, as myl 
j^w mon.> fnmiliiir with the traces of Indian bluod. . 
all the white i«ttlemeuts near those of the Indiso^ j 
evidence of admixture was abuudout, from the ] 
hslf-biwd t»^ the slightly marked remoter dra 
of IihIihii matiTuity, discovenible only by the i 
bliii'k hair, and a singular wateiy glaze in the eye,! 
unlike that of the English gipsy. There they were t" 
1h' «.H>ti, not only as fishers, trappers, and lumber r 
Imt eiigaginl on v*\\ii\l terras with the whites in the tni 
and btuiuess of the jilaee. In this condition the poj u 
Ittlion of uU ibu frontier settlements exists ; and vrhn' 
M new xeltlors come in, and the unmilized Indians r 
tii\> into ihv fon.-»t, the mixed element disappears, : 
iioi'« so purely by alworption. The traces of Indiiu. 
maternity nn> grailualiy eBacet.1 by the numerical ; 
[tonderance of the European ; but nevertheless the t 
elpmcnt la tliere, even when the faint traces of I 
ph)-meal manifestations clnde all but the obaenrant if 
well practised eye. 

Nor nw such traces confined t« the frontier i 
meats. I have recognised the semi-Iodijui featorasi 


I at a Canadian Qovcrnor-Qciienila 

Y IB the balU of the Li^gisbitxire, among the 

idoatOB of Canadian umvursitics, and mingling 

(. ibe Bi^oclest aociol circles. And tlm is what has 

I going cm in every new Amcriam st^ttlement for 

ni» oi l\avK CAintOTU*, under cvury divureity of 

In New Eiiglund, fur example, after the 

lating War nf lfi37, which resulted in tho extinction 

I tbu FequoL tribe, Wiuthnip thua Hiimmarily rcconj^ 

I policy i>f ihv. vititoFH : " We sent tlie mole eiuldreik ~ 

iBennada, hy Mr. WilHiun Pierce, and the women and 

'. childivn ara di<ijHT»>d aliout in tlie towns." Two 

ItntnswH are a])piirent in such intermixture. 

I the holf-hreod ehildn>u ii'muin with their Indian 

ST, they grow uj. in the hahita of the aborigiuet^ 

, iDtermingling witli tli« pure UimhI Indians, arc re- 

nrtwd into the native Ktock, where tho tribo ant- 

But when. *m the contrary, they win the r^ard 

r white fiithcr, the opposite a the case ; and this 

tDoi« frequently with the Spanish and French 

with British rolonLstA. In I»wor Cunadii, hol^ ■ 

\, and men iin'I women of purtiid Indian blood, I 

jitly met with in all ranks of life ; and the t 

1 blood may be detected, in the luiir, tho ey^ 

X cheek-bone, and the peciiliar mouth, as well as 

I tnits of Indian ehameter, where the physical 

I are too slight to Im discerued by a eaintal 

Dr. Tuchudi, after describing the minute 

1 of lialf<€a«t«fl in Peru, adds : " The white 

of Lima have a |K-(mliar ([uickncas in 

J a petBOtt of lialf-cofltc at the vci^' Brat glance, 

I to the tuM practised oUii'r^'trr they communicate 

r discoveriea in this way with an air of triumjth ; 

; they have the very panlonable weaknew of priding 

I on the purity of their European descent. " 


There, however, as well as in Mexico, the pride of cast ■ 
interferes in no degree with the equality of the dvilufi 
half-breed ; and while many of the varieties of niu--' 
blood are regarded as inferior to their ])rog«*nitoTs, :-. 
Mestizo, or offspring of a white father and In<ii.i 
mother, is I>elieved to inherit many of die best qualin- 
of both. Like the Canaciian half-breed, however, he !- 
mild and irresolute, capalile of considerable eDdaraii> 
but httle adapted for an independent course of «cti< ti 
Nevertlieless, among Canadian half-breeds there are ni ■; 
at the bar and in the legislature; in the Church; r 
the medical profession ; holding rank in the annv 
and engaged in active trade and commerce. No liis- 
tincrive traits separate them, to the ordinary obeenrer, 
from the general community of which they form « 
part ; and they will disappear after a generation or 
two, simply by the numerical superiority of those of 
European descent. 

With the civilized and Christianized Indians : 
otherwise. Kept apart on their Indian reserves, i 
guarded, in n state of pupilage, from the eiipiditj 
well as the intimidating comperirion of the white 
the benevolent intenrions of their guardians are dcfea 
by tJie very process desired for their protection. 
Indian, under such a system, can only step forth to an 
equality with the White hy forfeiting his claims to the 
Indian reserves, which he may rill, but cannot selJ ; aud 
it is imquestionablp that> congregated together iu such 
settlements, under the most careful superintendence, the 
Indian, robl>ed of the wild virtues of the savage hunter, 
acquires only the vices and the diseases of the white 
mail ; and as Sir Francis Bond Head remarks, in one of 
the strangest official documents ever penned by a eolouial 
governor : " Aa regards their women, it is impossible for 
any accurate obser^-er to refrain from remarking that 

3006 01 



riviliratioii, in spite of the pure* honest, and unremitting 
seal of our missionaries, liy siime accursed process, has 
blancheil their babies' faces/ ' 

The following statistics, from an "(K'casional Paper 
on the Columbia Mission," issued, under the authority 
€»f the Bishop of Kritish (Vilumbia, in 18G0, sutticiently 
illustrate the circumstanc*es under which a modem 
British colony fnM]uently originates. The Indians in 
Vancituvers Island an<I British Columbia are stated to 
amount to TrsOOO, an<l the missionar}' at Port-Douglas 
makes the following n*tum of s<»ttl«»rs in his district :— 

Citixous of Unit^l Statas . 

Rritinh mibjerU, .... 
MexicniiH and Spaniania, 
Frrnch and Italia&m .... 
Coloureil men, ..... 
Central Eiin>pe, .... 
Northern Euntpe, .... 





[hese, the sc^xes are thus : — 


Fenude^ ..... 


The admixture of blixxi with the native population, 
consequent on su<.'h a dispro}X)rtion of the sexes, is in- 
evitable ; and yet, long U-fore the colony of Columbia 
ifl as old as New England, the des4*endants of this varied 
admixture of nationalities will doubtless talk as freely 
of " Anglo-Saxim" rights an«l duties as any of the older 
AngloAmerican settlements. 

Such is the pn»cess that has bt*en going on, from 
generation to generation, since ever the European coIo 
nirt U»g;m his encnxichments on the territory of the 

" VlnDiirmniluiii od the AlHihgintrt t>f North .\iiieni-a." ft«i«l 
r F B Hc*l to Uni (iUnelg. 2(»tli Nov 18.16. 



ilii -niw of the Company. The original nettlera were 
fJMiii i!ii' iVkney Islands, but tii«y have been milise- 
qnciitly iti.Tfiiseil by Englisli, Scott-li, and French Cana- 
duui.-% riKr.'. however, as well as at the remoter forts 
uul tr.iiliiit'i-wts of the Hiuison's Itay Compftny, the 
white iiiinii;:nition ha« eotieistcd chiefly of young men. 
Iti If^-t", lii' T'- were 137 more males than females, in- 
• ' mixed blood, in the ^ttk-mentti ; and 

I ■ 11, not ouly the growth of a hulf-breed 

I ily outnumbering the whites, but the 

t tribe of Half-brcedn, a race who keep 

t :iii-t in manners, habit^ and allegiance, 

lUt th(7 Imliaimaiid tlie Whit«& 

of an indrjM'udciit luUf-breed trilKj is one of 

■ remarkable phennmrna eonue(;ted with the 

Aological experiment whirh \m» lieen in pro- 

B NortJi American continent for the last three 

The number of the settled pcjpuktion, cither 

or more or less of Indian blood, in Ued 

[ tfau surrounding settlement, is now, accord- 

I have uiftuini-d,' alxiut 7200, of whom 

t in the Bed Biver settlement A noticeable 

I M observable aeeonliiig X*i their white patvr- 

Vlie Freni'h half breedH are more hvely and fnnk 

rbeuing, bat aliio \txa prone to settle down to the 

f of farming, or other routine duties of eivilized 

1 tbose cliieily of Seottiiih desf^!nt But in a 

r 1011100601, wht;re the principal traile is still in 

I the hunter life presents many attrai-tious even 

lutu colonist ; and the half-breeds are exposed 

ions uuknon'u in older HettlcmentA. Tbcy 

I sod robust fhcc, vitJi greater powera of eiH 

pfet*r)r to |>HBt><l<|iwtwa*L«attlie LhBm and talf-timJ fofN 
~ wl I7 IW MiUi»r in Bnl VHin ■rtUmtrDl ■ ' ' ' 


themselTee among tbeir Canadian competitoia, bave n- 
tnrned to bear their part in advancing the progress >'t 
the eettlement. The result of this is already a{^«nii! 
iu an incn?asiug refinement, and a groving deore f<-^ 
the removal of every trace of their relatitm to the wild 
Indian tribes, or the half-breeds who rival thuu in the 
arts of savage life. Pre»fes*or Hind accordingly remaib. 
in his " Report on the Exfiloration of the Comitiy be- 
tween Lake Superior and the Red River setllcmtnt,'— 
"The term natiiv, distinguishing the half-breeds bwo, 
the European aud Canadian element, on the one hand, 
and the Indian on the other, appears to be dcm«d by 
many of the lietter class, who naturally look upon ihc 
term half-breed, aa applied to a race of Christian mcu. 
scarcely appropriate." ' 

The veuerable Arfhdejicon Hunter, of Red Ri^-cr, in 
the replies to queries, with whieh lie has favoured me. 
says, — in answer to the inquiry, " In what respects ( 
the half-breed Indians differ from the pure Indians I 
habits of life, courage, strength, increase of niimbi 
etc. f — " They are superior in every respect, both t 
tally and physically." Again, when my inquiries ' 
thus defined : " State any facts tending to jHOve i 
disprove that the offspring descended from mixed \ 
and Indian blood fails in a few generations," 
deacon Hunter gives this decided reply, as the resultl 
experience acquired by long residence and intimate | 
tercourse among them as a clergjinan of the 
Catholic Cliurch : — " It does not fail, but, gcnei 
speaking by intermarriages it ix'comes very dilficultl 
determine whether they are pure whites or balf-hi 
Mr. 8. J. Ddwson, of the Red Eivcr Exploring 1 
tion, also describes the half-breeds as a hardy and vigi 
ous race of men, nud frequently with large and hoaltl 

1 RtfMrt. I»4S, ^ 3(K>. 



" 1 IcDow," be wrius, " from my own obeerva- 
, that tbo French half'hree<l8 at Itcd River an * | 
tie race as ocuanparod with the Firnrh CanadiauB a 
r Canada.' 

F'Tbe tribe of biilf brt-ed bufraJu-huutors ia not to be 

!1l*<J as at all appniximutiQir to tht; notnatle Indians. 

r belong tu the Hftlkmetit, possuw land, and i;uld- 

! fiuTON though liit-ir ugricuUuml operations are only 

I a« might bo cxpvctfd, where tlu- induferaent« to a 

I lifu oro iipurly as great an anumg the pure- 

I Indiann, who altondon such work to tlieir jujiuiwb 

laUves. TJicy aw, hdWfver, distiDct from the half- 

. membera of tlie ttetth^ conimtinity, who have 

] in dl the domcHtic training and culture of their 

fkthera. and have entirely adopt<><I European 

The huDtem arv now diviiled into two dia- 

; Latidd, known by their separate hunting-grourida. 

F tbew, the White Horse Plain Half-breeds furaiithcd 

I following retunts, according to u ccuauH taken in 

49, near thu Strayuiiue River, I>iii--otaJi Icrritory : — 

hundretl and thn.-o carta, hovcii hundred hnlf- 

, two huudrvd Indiana, six hundn-d honun, two 

1 oxvo, four hundred <logs, ami one eat." Ac- 

l to Mr. Paul Kane, who joincil their butfaliwlumt 

i tbe mumtifr of 184.>, tho lialf-brred hunteni of Red 

r then uumtH-rctl fioon. 

f Few aabjectn of greater interest to the ethnologist caa I 

I eatteeired of than this remarkable origination of a ' 

I nnd indfju-ndcnt trilve of half breed*, par- 

' of rhftnu-toriatics derived alike fn^m their whit* 

I and tlw'ir Indian mothers. They are a honiy 

B of men, «i{Mtblc of eiidnriiig the greatest himUiipa. 

r all adheni to the Rumaii (^tholio faith ; and ocgo- 

iDy n priest oceompanies them on thuir bunting 

iditiani^ in whirl) raw mant v» r-t>]el)rat4'<l on the 

am- m mfim temi with the Sioux ud 
A^ m^ *'i'7 **i di^r wai&re mock 
B tf Ae bfiiB Inties tliat have aoqutred 
^ d»cy ghre proof of ihdr 
W" *»^'—g no Bcalp-tropbieB 
fiHi tfe tBllli iiH FiM aboot dw 15th of June 
M tfae taad. «f 1%jhii. dbiy an afatuad on the pnurie 
■t. A anbaeqaent ttotam- 
Mialh'i portion of ihm 
■Mt <iq»end on wiDtei- 
■■ttia^ aM At fn apping the far-bearing 

^n^al^ irtMm to tke scmanent. It is iKimpIained 
Ikat tkey Make fotr hrmtaa, nii^eeting their kiul for 
Ae exdtiap p ie — lui td the diaae. Bat this is inerit- 
abK when the product of their baSdo-faants supplies 
Ae dMcf neana of eanyii^ oa a profitable ti^e with 
Ae Hndaow'a Bay Cooipanr s agents and the American 
tiaden frain Sc Paul's. The distant hunt nut uolj 
eonsonus the time required for agiicoltuial labour, but 
it b«^<^ta haUts altogether iuconipatible with settled 
induftrj- : an.i w<«ild produce the ver^- same results on 
anv lf"iy of white settk-rs as on this remarkable native 
populatiou of Red River. But in the field, whether pre- 
parinir for bunting or war, the superiority of the Half" 
breeds U strikingly manifested They then display a. 
dbicipliue, courage, ;md self-control, of which the wild 
triljes of Sioux or Blackfeei are altogether incapable; 
and they aceonliugly look n*ith undisguised contempt 
on their Indian foes. The organization displayed in 
their hunting expeditious shows a remarkable aptitude 
for Hclf-govenimeut. When fairly stiirted on the hunt^ 
a guneral council is held, which proceeds to elect a preai- 
de.nt or lender. A nUiiiber of captains are theu uomi- 
nuted jointly by the leader and council, and each of 
tlii'He itppoints a ceitain number of constables or deputy- 


Boni, «'bo«e duty it is to set> that the laws of Uie 
■t arc carritxl out, and tbut the nightly encampment 
idc with Ktrii't attt-ution to the general nafety. 
I are also cluwcn by popular dectioii. who cany 
I tbeir hgulgva of ofhcc, mid control nil ammge- 
rtbe camping. The hunt being thus organized, 
have joined it are under luititjtry kw. No 
' can return home without permi^siou : no gun 
r bo fired when the buffalo country iit reached, until 
Fleader has given the word, which lots loose the wild 

■ of liunii-Tv on the bewildered herd. The cnptaina | 
I tludr deputies bUo superintend the nightly arrange- ' 
i of the cartA in a rirele, witliin which the horses 
) are pirketed ; and, in coao of any property 
J mianng, they can pmbibit any member of the 
1 from stirring till it is found. Every breach ol ■ 
laws is atoned for by hnen. A man who pa»teB / 
leatop-guide of the day, while on duty, subjects him- 
t toa fine of five sliilliags ; and he who %-eutarcs to 
I ■ buffalo, befiiru tlie leader has given the signal for 
I bunt to Im^u, has to forfeit a penalty of twenty 

1 RTR tlu> moHt n»ti(X-able rtiaracteristies of tliis 

riy intererting rare, eall<-d into l)eing by the ron- 

t of the Kumpenn with the native trilws of the pmirte 

\ foeet. With m> much of the civilination which no 

Indian trilw has derived from interrounw «-ith 

'U, antl i<ucb nilrninibic organization and prompt 

t of the obligations of law nnd onler, there 

d msoQ for believing in Their capacity for all 

• duties of a settled, iudustrioufi community. 

f tlfvady kuiiw tlie uite and value of money ; nor are 

nl 1*1 the labours of agriculture, though hitherto 

I offered no profits to tvmpt them to grain or 

ining on any a/lequatc scale. In the preeeoC 


condition of tiie Red Kiver settlement, with its t 
ful element of fur-tradiug posts, Imfialo prairies^ i 
remote and nearly inacccesible nuiriceta for 
produce, the Half-ltrceds are retained in that dnog^m 
tranaitiouid stage from which all attempts at ( " ~ 
tion among tho Indiim tribes have derived the sources I 
failure. But they have within themselves elcmente i 
n»U8taQcu to the destructive influenees iittcntlunt oa i 
tmnaitiou from the hunter state to the settled life of tl 
iiuiner and trader, and no race has ever offered fltr 
c-laima on the attention of the philanthropist or the s 
man. But, under any circumstances the Half-bn»da( 
the Red River cannot permanently remain na a d 
race. Already the Bettlera of mixed blood 
fively with the white population, and share with j 
wjuality in all tlie rights and privUeges of tho commu] 
As emigration inci-eases the same results will I 
there, as have already happened in all the older i 
mi^uta, frum tlie New England shores, or the St. L*l 
n-iiee (Julf, westwaixl to the remotest elearings of ) 
<'ivili8ation. The kst traces of the red blood wUl di 
ftplKmr, not by tlie extinction of the Indian tribes, Imt 1 
the altaorption of the half-breed minority into the uei 
jieuemtions of the predominant race ; yet, along with ■ 
tbo changes wrought by eUraate, institutions, and biibil 
wi the now people thus formed to be the inheritors U 
iH-i-u]Ktntfi of tlie deserted Indian hunting-grounds in t 
Western Henusphen\ this element will exercise i 
itillueuoe, nml help to make them diverse from i 
Kun^jvan nncestTy. On tins account, therefore, i 
v» on olliers. we want some such term as Euroamei 
\k\ indicale I he new race,' 

Itnt there is another aspect in the history of the i 
lii'^n Indian trilH'S, in which their extinction is Been 

r//JC liSU BLOOD OF TllK WKST. 345 , 

ight oat by meuDs which we can look bw^k npoaW 
TV differeaC fwUDgs from those with which we- 
tlicir extenniuatiou liy the mere process of cod* 
tsi:t v^iih the whit« settler, or their eztirpAtion by the 

EbuiMl itiJlu<.-Dt« of hi< violence and criminal cupidity. 
oonditiuQ of the Amurican tribes and nations to thv 
fa of tlu? Mextnin ceutro uf a native nvilisntion, ma.y 
K» (t.-. nl>ed ftt the peri<Hl of European diacovcr)' as one 
of '.iii-.tiilo equilibrium. We trace the intlueticc of one 
--'' ' 'iominant tribea from tht- 8t. I^wreuce to the 
Mexico ; and the rival nations were expoiied ta I 
I lAQt and aimle^ extcrnunating warfaie, that' 

than diriibtful if the natural increoae of poptH 

1^ ihfo wjual lo the wnate of war. We are 

.i-J Ut n-pinl the Wcatem Hemisphere as th« 

OAtUHii ttaltitAt of it» alHirigtnal c-lilKlnai ; whoreio, as il 

m. wufid ajKul, thiry ^-w and multiplied, in the enjoys | 

DHst uf all tliat tbi'ir Kimplc natrn'tti were cApa}>te oC 

nncil the intruition of the white uuio brought misery and 

denlatioQ into their midat, and that exterminating pro- 

■ •• was beguu which thn-aten*, ere many more geoe- 

' aiooa iJiall have paMted away, to leave only their gnve- 

. -unila to tell of the paAt existence of the red mao 

•■ «■ WorUL A brief glanc* at aomc of the inci ■ 

: lie bJKtory of extinct tnlics, will tend to modify 


riy notices of the tintt cxplorrni, and the tradi- 

■• gnlhert'd from aurxiving nations, tcU of many 

utt^'riy paaned away, witfaoot the malign intcr- 

r Enropean inflaenoe. "But laogua^ adlicrea 

! wl» n the npi which Hpoke it are resolved into 

- n?peat, anil rivera mormur the voii-en of 

i!iM<l or extirpiil^NJ in tbi-ir own land."' 

X. -.u' .1 y^-^ii-^,-^ ttxtinct naliona aanert their rbiimji tn an 

trmfadf, vol. ). !•- 7W. 

TU£ reh blood of toe wsst. 


Mirpticai, b}' which they rcjiaired the liMsea in Ittltlo 

[opting priMinpnt rewtied fntm dentb, nod arlmitdng 

into th» trilira nf the <f>tu]ucrin^ natinn. All this 

> thf wnrk nf the Imlian. As tho curfciin riwa on the 

II'' (if the forest luid the prairie, we find J^ 

I I thi.s extenuioAtiug warfare ; and K* 

fihip of Bueee*'!ive centuries, or a recon?- T 

■ tf the imdiliouftrj' histon- of the oldest tribes 

ramn talc of nituloBn Mrifo, expatriation, and 

■'■': history of th« Imlian nations found Id 

■•\ iilc mnpe of couiitrj- on the northern 

iK'res of the great Inke^, including the 

Ipl-T Canada ami Western New York, «t11 

rly suffice to illustrate this phase of Ra%-age life. 

' iriicr first explored the St Lawrence, in 1535, 

. I.irgo Ittdian Settlements at Quebec and on the 

■ I of MoDtn»J, whi^re Chumplaiu, little more than 

■ 'iturr afliT, met with few or none to oppose his 

.1. We can only surmise who the Indians at 

■1 of Cartier's arrival were ; hat it is most pro- 

t'll !■ rliiit they lielongi-U to the same Wyandot stoi 

wh'i w.'n? then withdrawing into tlie we*teni part 

l'pl"*-r d'nn&da to est-Ajie the furj' of the Inj^^uoia, x 

':»*ing nearly de*oUte<l the Island of Montreal At the 

ra of Cliaiuplaiu's visit, nud throughout the entire period 

'■ Ii (KTUpation. the countrj- to the south of the 

'lice, and along the whole soutltcru sIkitcs of 

.n... wn» (R-eupieil by the nations of the Iro- 

V, whow uncompromising hostility to the 

. . iftntrilmted to contine their colonies to 

I. '.■■r('ana«Li. The couutn,' immediately to 

A ;ird of the River Ottawa, and along the norihem 

l^ke Ontario, was found Dnoccu|iie<t wheu firat 

u(>i<-rt'd by (.lianiplain ; bat it was nuirkcd with i 

dant tnoea of cuttivation, and of recent octnipation I 


33 who had retreated westward from the Tiolew 
. the Iroquois. The region to the north of the Wraodot 
ar Hurou territory, and the islands and northern atom 
of Lake Huron, were iu the occupation of the Mtssiaam 
the"Ottawas, the Nippiaings, and other Algonquin ok- 
tious, who, though belonging to an entirely distind 
stock, are repeatctUy found iu alliance with the Harana 
agaiust their common Iroquois foe, and to some eztwt 
ahanxl their fate. The Hurons on the contrary, and al 
the nations lying betweei a and the Iroquois coimtiy, 

appear to have belonged to e same stock with the con- 
federate nations to the souih of the great lakes ; by 
whom they were pursued with such uucompi-omtaing 
hostility till their once populous regions were abandoned 
to the wild beasts of the forest. At the period wbea 
the Huron tribes became the special objects of missioiiarr 
zeal by the Jcauit Fathers, in the seventeenth centoiy, 
they were established along the great bay, once popoloua l 
on all its shorca mth that extinct nation whose name ' 
alone survives in the Lake of the Hurons. The region 
lying around Lake Simcoe, and Georgian Bay, is marked 
on every favourable site with the traces of their agri- 
cultural industry, and crowded with their graves. They 
jin-seuted tniita of superiority to the more northern 
nations of the Algonquin stock ; and equalled in fierce 
daring, and all the wild virtues of the savage warrior, 
the Iroquois by whom they were unrelentingly exter- 
minated. Father Sagard estimated the population of 
the limited region occupied by the four Huron tribes at 
the close of their national history, at between thirty and 
forty thousand souls. But to the south-west lay the 
villages of the Tiontononea, or Petuns, another nation 
of the same stock, also a populous and industrious agri- 
cultural community ; and beyond this, in the territory 
embracing the beautiful valley and the great falls of the 


pn RiTcr, vhcre are nov the sites of the finest 
fd^ uf CanniU, ntid sonic uf tho most fmitful 
of the BLite nf New York, a nation Iwlouging 
une Huron-! m<|UoiH fniuily was found l>y iho 
Prend) miiQiionary cxplorunt, in 1C26. By tho 
they were tleeigiiated tlie AttiweudaronW, ex- 
ke of the Divre diiilectic difference between the 
i^es of th« two ;' but from tlie French they re- 
tlie name of tla* Neutral Nation, from the friendJy 
us thoy maintained with both parlies during the 
Strafe Iwtwptin the InxjUuisaiid the alUcd Huron 
Ugon<|uin nationit. At the etuse of their history 
popuUtiuu wiw (wtimate*! at twelve thousand souls; 
poKJtion of neutrality l>(^twtx:n hostile rivals wu 
Ved all the more difficult by tJio ties of consan- 
f : th^iugb thin appears to lutve liectu also shored 
Erica who oceupied tlie broatt fertile a-gions along 
Mthern shores of the great hiko which Ixtars their 

&to of tbo Attiwemlarouks and the Eriea ia 
fant the histur)' of Utth is oljseure, for thoy lay 
I the muii of tht! French truderH and misniouaries. 
itlier half of tho neventoonth century the Jesuit 
phinted their stations tliroughout tho Huron 
ty, amid pojtulons walled villages and cultivated 
md Twkonecl the warriors of the tribes by thou- 
yife 1626. Father Joseph de la Bix-ho d'Allyou 
kfeS into the country of the Neuttnl Notion, and 
to dinoTDr tho Kiagam at ita junction with Lake 
L After a journey of five days through the 
■n fonat which lay between the Tumtononea, and 
ttiwendarouks, he reached the fint aettlemeat of 

1^ MMP^ •CTsmliBf In Bn-hmil, tlv nnroo* tilwUM that Ikqr wn« 
wmmm aT mUum ■fmkiag laagw^M aJunWUcil4* 1a Hum 


1 sis towtiR before uming 

tfe dnef BulMm. TweDty-two athf? Uvm 

i ^ ses irere embniced wiihin his jurisdictii>D ; ud 

IHteco was lar^lr culn^~nte<l along with maize and 

ttosL rV? wunny of the Eiies was greatly mM 

ctuuiTv. aail pcohably not les populous. But vitfail 

» ibm thirtr yeus frnm this miasioD of Father de k ' 

ek^ dw vbole Rgwo occupieil by th(»e natioDS. fna . 

■» Geotpaa Bnr to the aoBtbem limits of the Erics^ br I 

which perpetuates tlidl 

Tradition points to the 

peace among the fotaKt 

of the Iroquois confeiief* 

nf the Eries are asftibed 

f alMiigiual art, among 

, OQ Cuoingham's Ulanil 

M Utk» Ens » dnrcifced as by £u- the most clabnnte 

Mil wAmK^fsmKk vodc of its class hitherto found on 

1^ tMrtMBMl' BM tk«y penslted by the violence of 

kM»Wi wuttfo* bt^ve th^* Fivoch or English could 

xWaWeA iKv cv. ■ -* ■^■:1- In iLo French maps 

tft" c^v* utyklLtf ot' th-; sewatetnth wntury the veiyei- 

tjCtfaof <.'£* It.iibf Eci^ if> ti£ikiK>TQ ; and the first of tiw 

Ji,'«t^5 rjjj»siti,'ti,ixt<;* Eu*.E sk-areiely peuenated to its shtne^ 

w<>j.-a ciJ".' j£i-.wn.i; odEk'n wtwtje mmie it preserves wis 

*K(v(;'K AWjtv \^ ctiiui 1 TVttT oc cwv oJf their destractioii 

8ij^- >\'«srw NiCL'-'tt k'X|T«;rwOf,'tfvl tbe same fate at the 

^tt]t.,u*- v'£ sbtf Voiitwfcs^ ttadyc cW tedkiei$hip of Shuir 

tv«vuj.i^ Ji ifuM.>.<t£> '.-Iiiu't' 01 okbt Daci<^<a : and the Atti> 

»v'T;.w;^.'«ji.-* tttnvciy Ji<up(MiiJWiil fiuai the Vallev rf 

J^i(!ii4i«>k. ^'ijwurti-'tvtx *?si^Hi5 tiliw- ywur |i»>55 as the date 

vi" !jili,-r,t: ■.■v'^vcwttoiiinif.'aL. TWcr ■fi.tintfdil-lire was extia- 

^'*;r«).;..v tiii'.'t.'; OjWW-' wji> Ki-'Cttf'-t offic : and the few 

•w^jivxvr*- w^-^^' *«;!ft^ttttfaji;K tx-ttDfi W cme oJf the French 

'- l$^,u,^ 4t,-:ikt, t}i,aiK». V^^Dhk wt. « f. ISL ^HMm xK. sS. 


niisiioD.irie^, living in degniiling serfdom in the villages 
of their i'«>isijufnins All this was the rwult of coutliot 
amoni; luitivt* triU*s, an<l so entirt-lv uniudut-uceil l»v the 
whit<^ man that it is with <iitiicultv we can recover some 
tra^twonhy glimp-"!* of the Eries or the Neuters from 
the notes uf one or two liauntless missii>uaries, whose 
seal for the propagatinn of the faith carried them into 
the ciiuutrv of th'^s*^ exiiu»:t nations, lonjr lx*fi»re the 
enteqms*^ of the ojunurs iltfs Uns had K*d them witliiu 
the hearintr of Niairara's vuii-e i»f nianv waters. It re- 
veals ti» u< ^limps^'s of what had been transpiring in 
unrvconiftl centuries through«»ut the vast forest ranges 
and prairies of the American continent ; and may help 
to reconi-ile us to the fate of the ct»nquering Inxjuois 
by whom sui'h wide spread desolation was wrought. 
Their rvmarkaMe eoufeiieracy w;l»* broken up by the ad- 
herence of the Mi*iiawks to the British side, when the 
ct>lonL<ts nise in arms a<;ainst the mother countrw The 
beautiful Mohawk Vallev wliirh was once their home, 
is now crowded with towns and villacT,.s and interhiced 
bv r.iilwavs antl canals ; but the riMunant of tlie once 
powerful Mohawk trilK\ with a small luui'l of the Sene- 
cas, amounting ingeiiicr to alniut seventeen hundreil 
souhs have fi»und a home in the I'ountrv they tle{v»|iu- 
latt.-d twi» ei*nturiis befnp*. " I have bi*<Mi t^Jd," .sivs 


C'olden, " by old men in New England, wh*» rememlx»reil 
the time whi-n the Mohawks made war on tliiir Indians, 
that as siH.n as a >ingle Mohawk was ilisi-oven-il in their 
ciuntrw thi'ir lu'lians raised a erv fmni hill to hill. A 
Mohawk! a Mohawk! uiNin wliirh l\uy tk*il lik«* siieep 
lM-ft»re Wolves, without attini]»ting to make the l»*ast 
n.-s^i.-^tan^-e." The traiiitional t»-rri»r of tln-ir name still 
aur\ivts thouirh tlii*y have lH.»en x-ttled for g«*nf-rations 
pea<'eali|y on the (.anadian n*serves, gnuit«Hl by the 
British (iovenmient to them, along with other loyalist 

com tbtf revolted colonies. The aj of a Ib- 

j L fiUs with ilread the lodges of the A^twpn 
PIB» LD thv Cukadtan soitlemcnta ; aud thej hsve 
tk Kpeatvdhr knoU'D tu doseit their villages on l^fe 
icttc^Ul^ and QiemoDg aud Kit-*.- Lakes, and to am^ 
t •& Um^ ift ^ lakes, horn the mere nunoitr o( • 
JMnrk httviB^ faeea tieen in the vicinity. 
I pQre~blaod Mohawks still exhibit traces of ihe 
ttpf noritr which oaee pertained to all the memben of 
w IroqauiB lM^t;ue ; i same traits are discemifak 

aMmTtMS of ^ c t • lerate natioD^L The Odob- 

fM\ who dbimcd Go be autochthones, alone ci afl 

I aix ■atiWM inliin their l Id on their native spot of 
«Hrtk ml still dtweU in the beautiltil and secluded rallejr 
tf Oaooda^K. with suSirient territor}- for the maiotcn- 
4ttc« of the surviving rvmnaut. But I^Iohawka aad 
i>tti>UtUi$>i alike betray, in the assemblies of the tribes 
IMN^ taWM of mixed blood as well as of dimiuBhing 
OIHIiAhs, Mht thv same ^t id manifest vtth the repre- 
«<eatatavw of th^- (>thor untiiius. Of tho Oneida^, a por- 
tion hti'^-rs on their ancient site, but the main body a 
the siirvivurs are seattereii : one band in Canada, and 
anothor ;uid larger one in Wisconsin. The Senecaa and 
'IWi-iiroms havi- thoir few living representatives near the 
Jiiitiptni river, i>» a [vrtion of the land which their fore- 
fathers wrcsttHl from the denationalized Eiies; and even 
tlu- t.\iyng:us, the least fortunate luuong those unfortunate 
inlu'ritoi-s of a great name, have found shelter for a httle 
hamlful of tlu'ir survivors on the Seneca reserves in 
western Ni'W York. 

Such is tho history of the aboriginal population which, 
ill the seventeenth century, occupied the valley of the 
i:?t. l^iwiviK-e, and stretehed away on either bank and 
along the shores of the great lakes westward to Lake 
Uuivii and St, Clair. La Houtan estimated the Iroquois, 

vxm.] Tas HEU BiwJj or n/a W£st. ses 

-V lif^ tint known to Enmpe&ns, ot scwnty thoufond ; 

- ■' pn-MDt QDic tbcy nuniWr ollogt'tber, in Catuula 

-^tatL-M, about suveQ tJiousond. lliry bnve pnened 

' i-ritical stiigt- iu the rnllUion In'twren savage 

liz^ mau ; atid, st^ttietl nn tliuir little famij 

III tbc pojiuloiui cttiln-s of trrwli" awl comuicro^l 

improving Ujth socially aD<l morally, Nevei^ I 

111' !•--<. k<-pt apart io ilutachi'U little roiumunities in s 

>i.-ii'- "f pupilace, nncl forcvd into confltAUt intcTmarmge, 

i! - ' ■ ■ ■■:-:*•'!■ Itetter far would it be for tbm 

t ''f the citiiized half-bret-d, and 

i\. "iili ftpttlera, Eoaiiy of whom have 

yiel<b-<l up a ii,iti>iniility not len prood thuu tbdrH, and 

Ibnakm tho homee and tbo gniTM of their fathent to 

I thip foKunes of tbo New World's bi-in. It ui as 

nble for the civilized Indian to live la a commu- 

: not of it, as for any other of the nationalitim 

I members mei^ge into the nation with whom tJieir 

By mch a proccn the hist risible remnants 

1 Iioqnoia league would iixleed disappear 

, like all otber foreign nationalitieR, into the new 

ft which growii^ empires an* fonning in the Wert. 

I Bur\-ivrir of the old Indian oonfedenuy wuokl 

M gainer by ihc abanflonment vi what is worse than 

npty name ; while the Eurosmaican race would take 

e into its vviuB the red blood of the ancient and 

^ly arHtocney of the forest. 

t At seoood Tohune of the ArdimJogia Americana, 

I U giTen of the Indian tribes of the continent 

Mt of the Bocky UonntainB, and of tboee in tbc 

■nd Russian possessions in North Amerir», from 

I of Mr. Albert Gallatin, which may be said to 

nte the tmc boats of all nati\*e American cthno- 

ita vaine baa been fully recuguiaed by subscqurut 

I on the snl^eet, and reference baa alnady been 

e to 11 io previous pages. To him we owe the deter- 
tation of the elements of philoiogical affioity by which 
e classify the great families or stocks of the AigoDqaio- 
Lenape and the Iroquois aa occupying tlie whole rvgioB 
to the east of the Mississippi, from the fiftv-aecond to 
the thirly-sistb degree of north latitude. Hut to the 
BOQth of this lies a country in which Gallatin rcooguiaed 
! existence of at least three essentially distinct lan- 
miagea of extensive use : the Catawba, the Cheiok«i 
id that which he assumed to include in a common 
igin both the Muakhogee and the Choctaw, But be- 
ides those, six well-ascertained languages of smaller 
tribes, including those of the Uoheea and the Natchez 
appear to demand separate recognition. Their region 
differs essentially from those over which the Algonquin 
and Iroquois war-parties ranged at wilL It is broken up 
by broad river-channels, and intersected by impenetntUe 
iwamps ; and has thus afforded refuge for the remnant* 
of conquered tribes, and for the presenation of es^en- 
tially distinct languages among comparatively small 
bands of refugees. There also the Cherokees were the 
first to settle, as a comparatively civilized agricultural 
nation, under very peculiar circumstances. In their 
predator}' inroads they carried off slaves from Carolina ; 
and speedily recognising the advantages derived from 
enforced ser\"ice, they have gi-adually settled down in 
the remarkable condition of a civiHzcd nation of Ked 
Indian 8laveholdei"s. In 1825, they numbered 13,783, 
and lield 12T7 slaves of African descent. But the fact 
that at the same time tliey possessed 2923 ploughs, suf- 
fices to j)rovc that agricultural labour must be carried on 
to a great extent by other than the slave population. 
Mcanwiiile the admixture of white blood has largely 
affected the dominant race. The true test of equality of 
races is when the civilized Indian marries a white \ 

jixxti] ran &Kt) bsjood of tuk wjsst. »«« 

and UuB has oln-ody Uikcn place to some extent nmong 
9 Ciua«k«t«. Tbr Lvnatu of Id'ia included, among the 
t of tbut nntiuu, tuxty-i'igbt Cburukt'c mu-n mnr- 
1 to white wi^mt'ii, and one bundtvd und forty-seven 
men married to Cbeniki-e women. Tbia alone. 
eltuive of nil prpriiHi» hyltrid elemt-uts, nm^t rapidly 
1 to efface the preduminaul ebanicterislicii vi Indian 
When the laitl ren.-«u:i wa.i taken, to 1852, tbo 
I numbered 17,530 ; and the o^mftiiaRioner re- 
I in n-fvrem-'t' to their flawing numbers : " A visible 
• ia discernible ciipei'ially among the half-breeds." 
I ibey view with extreme jealuusy the inqaittitoiial 
[ the Btatiiit, and yield all such information very 
, BO tbut the latest returmt do not admit of 
I witli the older eeuitua 
I oo far an tlie employment of the Afriran rare as 
I is to be reganied a» an evidence of the civilisation 
' the Rei) Intlian, it in by no meann contined to the 
)lr. Li>wis 11. Morgan wriles me thus: "I 
B TMted all the emigrant Indian nutioux in KonuM 
ika, with two or ihn-e exceptiuna. 1 saw in- 
aong the iSbawneefl and Delawait-«, and the 
I in Kamra5, when; white men who had married 
1 Indian wnmeti were living genteelly among 
i bad slaved to caltivale their land ; and also 
where half-breed Indians had married white 
sand live*! in gtHid fttyle." Moreover, among recent 
at* uf the revolutionary struggle between the 
1 wid soutlicm States, the Tej^an AVtr* of April 
\ 1861» reports the contents of a letter from the IniUan 
urances of the friendly rceeption of the 
men of the 8tat« Convention by tlie Clioctaws, 
. C1ien>kees, Bcminolcs, and Creeks. " All 
" it is addeil, " are to hold a general council on 
I 0tli of May. These tribes are slaveholden, and arr 


for secession and the SouUieru Confederate. Tbo Chickt- 
nvs wished to secede at ooee ; but the Clicn>kvca dcsre 
to wait until tJie n-tiun of a delt^tiun tfaey have sent 
to Washington to see about their funics held in trust by 
the United States Treasury," But meann-hile the editor 
of the Katisas Xews adds, in proof of the soundoessof 
tlie worldly-wise Cherokees, notwithstanding their pni- 
dcnt desire to ascertain the safety of their funds befoie 
committing ' themselves to secession : " The Cberokees 
have cleared out the abolition emissaries among them. 
Parson Jones, the secretary of Ross their ehief, ottd an 
abolition agent, has been in danger of his liftf. He will 
have to leave the country," The evidences of progres' 
sive civilisation are very various ; and as tlie wandenr 
who, on landing on an uukuomi shore, discovered a 
gallows set up tliore, blessed God that he was once man 
in a civilized country : so we may unhesitatingly auoepC 
the revolutionary convention of the Chickasaws, CSioe- 
taws, and the other slaveholding tribes, and the sununary 
clearing out of Parson Jones and other abolitionists by 
the more cautious Cherokees, as very couelusive evidcuoe 
that the southern liuUan nations uru not greatly b^ind 
their whiU) neighboui's in the march of civilisation. 

In the fii-st volume of the History of the Indian TrUieM 
of the Untied States, a complete census is given frooi 
data furnished by the Indian department at WiLshington, 
but no statistical information appears to have l>een col- 
lected relative to the extent of mixed blood. In 1789, 
the total number of Indians within the territory of the 
United States was estimated to amount to V6,000 ; hot 
since then, wliile many semi-civilized and frontier tribes 
have diminished in numbers, or even become extinct, tfat 
acquisition of new territories has brought large ; 
sioas to the United States Indiana. In 1825, 

of the Clierokeea already referred to was ] 


the og^'gato of the whole uumber of Indians within the 
fl^*<>gni)>hical bouuilaric^ of the Union was stated at 
l^lM^CG ; and in 1850, owing to the acquisition of 
Cahfoniia, Texius New Mexico, etc., it had risen to 

Mr. Lewis II. Morgan, the historian of the Innjuois, 

who h:is dt'voted much attention to the history and 

o»nditit>n <if the Indian triln's, and has t^njoyed many 

oiifMirt unities of fK'rs4inal o})servation, thus writes in 

n*|ily to my (queries rehitive tt) the amount of mixed 

Moml traoeahle among the Imliaiis of the United States: 

•• I doubt whether then.' Ls any statistical information 

up<»n the suhjiM-t in the iK)sscssii»n of tht» CJoycrnment. 

1 know of none. Actual olisr-rvation wi»uld throw some 

light U}Min th«* question ; but eyen this would l»e met 

with the ditliculty that some of tmr natiye races of pun* 

lihunl an? darker than others, Th«- Kaws of Kanssis are 

unmixt.*tl. They an* also prairie Indians, and yery dark 

skinned, nearly iis much so ius the ni><rro. Tht* Siiuks or 

Fi»xes an* adultcnited som«*wliat, y«*t I haye seen some 

of them as dark as the Kaws. The Pawnees of the 

uj»|MT Miss4»uri an* also pniirie Indians, and the pun*- 

Ii1<mmIs an* nearly as dark->kiniied as the Kaws. 1 haye 

st-vn their bare Uicks many times, antl examinc*<l them 

r|ii>«-ly. It is slightly mottled, with a l»n»nze colour, 

and LS a tnily splendid skin. On the other hand the 

Sioux, or I >akotas, an* nnich light«*r. So are th«*('hij>- 

|Nwas and Pot<»wattomirs when pure, liut all of thes** 

hayi* taken up white IiIinmI in piust genenitions, ainl the 

rapidity of its diss4*mination aft«*r a fi*w gcuenitions 

nee«ls no pnMif. 1 think th«*y haye taken up eUiHigh, 

thn»u;rli tlj«* tnulers and fnuitiir men, since IToo, t«i 

lighten their colour from on«*-sixth to one-fourth. The 

pun* bltMMl InNjuois an* light. I have seen them mide 

to the waist in the dan«*e yery many timi*s. Tht*ir skin 

eaaid, of a rich cuSee and cream colour. But b 

»■. be remembered that all of these are forest tnbes 

cept the Dakotas, auJ even they have been forced 

mck oil the prairies, from Lake Superior and the east 

lidc of the Mississippi, since the period of colonizatioo. 

Indi;Lii3 of the same stock grow much darker on the 

intirie if far s'liith. I tried, when id Nebraska, to ascer- 
in the number of half-breeds and quarter-breeds around 
our forts in the Indian territory. The number is large, 
rat I could giiin no 8itti:3factory informatioQ." The ob- 
jer%'ations thus noted have a very comprehensive beai- 

Dg on the general question of hybridity ; for so far 
lioin implying any tendency to deterioi-ation or ex- 
tinction as the result of an intermixture of the white 
and red races, they point to such admixture of blood 
already aft'ecting whole tribes of wild Indians still roam- 
ing the forests and the prairies ; in so much that the 
term " pure-breed " is perhaps only partially applicable 
to any of them, and it may even be a question how fiur 
the physicid form, as in the features and the shape of 
the head, may have been modified by such infiuences. 

Through the aid of the officers of the Indian Depart- 
ment of Canada, I have succeeded in obtaining statis- 
tical information of a more precise and definite kind 
relative to some at least of the settled tribes. In Lower 
Canada, uo detailed system of superintendence has been 
organized, so that information relative to the Indians of 
that portion of the province is much less accessible. The 
Indian Department affonls aid to them upon the repre- 
seutation of the priests or other white residents in their 
neighl)ourliood ; but, in 1856, his Excellency, Sir Ed- 
mund Head, appointed a Commission to inquire into the 
best means of securing the future progress and civilisa- 
tion of the Indian tribes in Canada, and, from their 
Report rendered in 1858, the following facts relative to 


TUX HKn aiooti of tuk wkst. 


■u- Intlians »tf Loirur t'onmlji aro chiefly derived. The 
numlxtrB uf the wttlml trih^s at thf ilatB of tJie llrpnrt, 
wwn- OS ftJIiiWH : — 

Iiufoofa of Ibe S>ult St. LuuU, - 1.143 

Iroqwiia flf St Regis, .... CAS 

ladlam at tli« htiut of tbn Two UntiDtain* : — 
Irnquoia, .... 375 \ 

AliooqaiDM, .... 338 J 
Ab^kb nf 8L FnnoU, .... 387 

AtiMaUa of Befwuiour, 
RanHH of L« Jcunr I^ntto, 

MkiMftaKif ibp Rn>ti£DU>-lw!, 


Hiorv a^^ thun upwanb) of four thouNam) IndiJins of 

- .moUH tribiit Heltk-tl on htnthi secured to them by the 

r-.vinriiil govenimnnt, and all more or leas hrougfat 

iider the mme iuHut>ure» a» the white Bettlcrn aroand 

■tn. Itut in fl»me of tho^e hundit not a ungle pure- 

■ofl Indian now remains. They have all abnndonod 

;. and the greater numlwr adhere to the Roman 

' Imn-h ; hut their condition varies considerahly 

int locnlitifw. The Iroquois of St. Regis are 

-iijdly noticeable an having blended some of the health- 

•A ch'menta of Kumprjin civilisation with the setf- 

'■ ■ Tiid vig«mr which once renderwi them the mort 

:■■ enemies of the colonists of I^uis xiv, Tliey 

< oniipicuous among the settled native tribes for 

tin ir t.'m[>erate and onieriy hvea, and the grejit progresi 

they have matle M a Hcttled community. Th«'y nuiw 

, Indian cum, potntoea, and other agricultural 

I to n coUMderalite extent ; and wheji the laat 

I taken, they poMHcaBed 126 cowh, 17 oxen, 

\, and 250 Rwino. A considerable numbur of 

I an of mixed Itlood. Imt tbey utitl mnnifoNt a prr. 


dUcction for cmplopaente more in accordAnoe wUh tl 
hereditary uistincts of foreat life. The able-bodied nn-ti 
relucUuitly expend the summer months on their £uin.-<. 
They prefer outering on engageraente as raft8mi;Q aoii 
pilots for the river, or engaging in the service of iht 
Huilsou's litiy Company, They appear, however, !»< have 
aiMjuinil pmndent hiibits, along with other virtues of 
taviUsatiou. Their numbers have increased more rapidly 
than any other tribe in Canada of lat« years. Dotinth- 
standing u severe mortality in 1832, when 336 ptfrsoDS 
died of cholera. 

In their industrious and provident habits, the Inx|tKu 
of St. Regis present a striking contrast to other tribes, 
sucli na the Abenakis of Bccancour, whose whole hve 
stock in 1857 consisted of a single horse. Tlie band 
of Abenakis settled on the river St Francis, has, how- 
ever, attained to a condition of higher advancement ; 
though some of tlio evidences of its progress in civiliai- 
tiou tire not productive of the most beneficial ru^ta 
Its further improvement is reported to have been greatly 
ivtaiiled by the divisions and je^douaies consequent od 
tlio adoption of the Protestant faith by a portion of the 
tril>e, while iho remainder hold fast to that of the Roman 
Oitliolie Chuivh, They include among their nmubcn 
a few of the descendants of the once famous MohegaiUt 
and their warlike aUies, the Sokokia, but the report of 
1858 states that there was not then a single pure-blood 
Indian sui-viving. The Rev. J, Mauranlt, Roman Catholic 
missionary at St. Francis, remarks ; — " Our Indians 
with but very few excepriona, M6ti», or half-bi 
Here, I do not know one Abenakis of pure blotxL 
are nearly all Canadian, Genuan, English, or Scotdl 
half-bi-eeds. The greater part of them are as white as 
the CanatUans, and the dark complexions wo 
many are owing, in most cases, to their long voj 



they fiw|Uontly an-, for two and throe 
ntlu nt H tinj<', to tin; Imniing rays of the nun. 
ny Hup[»at>c! that (lur ImliniiH ari' inlcllrctiially weiik 
I iliiH|uiLliti(it for Iiusinc.'w. Thia is a gn-at uiistjike 
; (w far nfl tlic Aljenakis art! concenit-d, they are 
I kei'D, fiuUtiL', and very intplligi'iit. Iict them 
inpKft*- fnxtl.mi, and thin imprwwion will soon 
Intt-rcourse with th» whites wiU develo{> 
kir talents for (Munmcrce. No doubt some of them 
Ttld make an impn)]K!r uho of thuir HKirty, but they 
wotiI<l Ih.' but few in nunil>er. Evcrj'whero, and in all 
countrii's, men axv- to Ih; foutid weak, purpoaelesR, and 
Qtiwillin^to undemtaiid their own intereaf> ; but I run 
■ ■ rtifs tliiit the Al>cnakiri generally are superior in intel- 
liLT'-ii'""' to the ('aniu)iann. I have roniarke<), that nearly 
I! thoiH- who have left their native village to go and live 
Ist-whi-re fn-e, have profite<l by the change. 1 know of 
■ vcnil who have l>ought farms in our neighbourhotnl, 
i!»d an* now living in comfort. Others have emigrated 
ut the United KtAt«fl, where they have almost all pnwi- 
, and where oeveml of them liave raised thcm- 
to honourable positions. I know one who is 
■ing with fmcccKs the profession of a doctor. Others 
eaettled in our towns uith a view tu li.'-am the dif- 
: tnidcs. There is one at Moutrt-al who u mi 
ot rarpenler ; but here wc soi^ nothing of the I 
Nt}Tenhel<!«^ 1 obaerA'c a Urge nomber of yoong | 
devRT, intelligent, and gifted with remuikalile ' 
This experienci-d observer a<;conlingly urgm 
the onancipation of all at lea^t of the more ctvilixod 
\ from the condition of minon in thu eye of the 
\ feeing antm.'d tiiat if they wtv plseod in eomiH.<- 
I with tho whites, and allowetl to hold anrl diaptiM 
pmpurty, they would be finiod fully aMo (■> 
I thirir place in the commtinity. 


_- - m<tt- 

,. -~., - y f^-BjTt «iT7.«ei. joii >wil for At 

•-Si iin-Bst JDfcbai c^raai TaieT vwald ki^ 
:r-^'mi-ac«i'C aihi it;acw>e«re»a udo^ the 
t- ?-7:ij.-i ie**;^:. jfT -rbfaa liey are 

i-~ . :&■;- £i s^ ;Uia.r* !.'« tie aiiiairtiie 
.. •:>.-. 'Sra.-SL-c. :ai7-.«K^ a pi.-r>,iii cs ii.p»:£nis o€ two 

^lier'flp.v ■< B-rireMHT formijiBiqr mit prmf of 


I mppoeod infertility aod inevitablG extcnninatioii 

I ito result, tbe numlx^rs of the Huroiu of 

were fountl to have eouaiderahly increasMl id 

I iDIvtval K'tweeu 1844, whtsu the Indian ceiusiw was 

, and the date of the CVimmissioner s RejwrL Fur 

, Duw aplHyUis iAi ibe cimtrarj', tJiey ewem likely 

ivc uiiliJ, as a Bettlfmcnt of Fn'nfJi-H[ioiiktng 

on the l)auk8 of the St. C'harlc**, they shall 

to prove liy baptiwnid n'giMtera, or geuculogi<»l 

uf tbe tribe, the Indiuii dtasccnt, of which all 

1 tn(^« idiall ha\'e disii[jpeared. 

B Micjnai-?) of Rejttigouche, numbering teas than five 

~ in all, iiieludiug many of mixed blood, arc a 

I though hi<;ldy-i.-ivilized band of the Miemac natioo, ] 

hod fmui tbe main stuck owiag to tbe intemectiua 

r lanils l»y the UmndorioA of tbe Bntisli ]»nrtince«. 

• of the ftnme Indian nation occupy various reAerves 

r lirunswick, and throughout Nova 8cotia ; and 

1 encampmentA nf them may Im- met witli along tlio 

I of the lower St I^wrenns indastrioUKly engaged 

I monuCiirturc of litavea, ban-e! lioopA, axe-hundlc^ 

. burets of varii>uft kindft. They generally speak I 

\, and iuiiuif<!8t an unusual shrewdness and saga- 

r in making a bargain. AttrHctetl on one occasioD 

k picturesijue group of birch-bark wigwams on the 

I fliiorv of the 8t. I<iiwnriieei below the Ijb1« of 

I lauded for the purpose of .sketching ; and, 

into tymventatinn with the group of UicnuK 

miiuwhI to timl myself [Hveently involved 

- to tliG price {if staves and boope, tbe 

'<>' market, and the hard bargains driven 

, thii ov-'tufMUits of the nigwamtt by ttv; tmlets of 

c ; and all conduetol with on acut^-neta that might 

a cnxlit Ut a di«ciplu of Adam Smith or Bicanla 

whoD at parting I vontnrud on the im- 

ruatsTOHic mas. 

I to Indian ideas, of % 
»«f lA»Wld««f tlM puty, n-ith wbom tbee 

"loo,allhJ8 Indian preji 
» «w «Ke mure the native of die \ 
1 1 Wgms plainly to understand 1 

aes of friendly inte 
I Ift tiftR aiinBtage of him. A a 

, to restore amity betvM 
il»W»fidMiio»l Indian. Hia f 

. and his skin pre 
i cufeor, which has repi 
I ^ |>aze-blood Uicmacs. i 
SnAfeli^iiilftiiiiB <ff Aeaettled tribes and I 
gf laifiank wwrigyJUji liwfa m Lower Canada. 
VittbM tiww MJiw^ «HMented. various 
iMiftitt aa» to W aMi vilh «■ ^k Lower St. LawioiM^ 
aantt kMHfe nf wAkK. M^Kttag a eousidciable mimber 
trf fcott l te w dkfcw* »i>d«A ii» JSJeient statiooa, and beea ^ 
IMRiBiifltr beav^ iiaJkr ^ nflsKiioe of civilisati(l^ 
<;lliutfy W ^ SlLMnua Ouibkib; misskuuirics. A mud) 
^nuftjc aamAw^ Wwnwr, ai» vild forest and hunter 
QciJSi^ -^ wlbmt MOW' hwwfeii^ was formerly gained 
iB 1^.* .uuwul ic»ahKBia^ for Sbe distribution of pre- 
x.'a»s . l>it.c >»'.>.' '-i-Mki \>ei^i>:^\ u-w> uUuidunod, they 
caivN <K^m^: »t.i,i)jjx cbe oji^ i.'it" any civilized obaerveis, 
>,'.\.;v[.'Cijjfi cbv-w.' LX'tuuecCtikt with tbe Uddson's Bay Clom- 
I.\ui>. L*uivi\'uc ccao-'K «*■ tuKl have been set apart l<x 
Qtiv- W'.'JiCii^ ctibifu om she FVribouka river, on the 
\li.i;a,l\cvh,t.n;iuj:» iflK'tu: eEw Lake St. John, and on the St 
tav» tvuct.'. tev'ut sW Ki>-vr de Va^is to the Des Outardea. 
I^c » Urv;!^ (>r.>t>i.vtiv>£t of the Mikutaguars Indians are 
sCitL u«.«iii«t.Uc : aiU'.t itt-Wl of the vrild tribes lying to 
the' ttv>rth aiKt n'i^ of the Lower Canadian clearings, 
i-ooipttrattveh' Utile t» known. Among these may be 
elass%.\l the Tettt* de lx»«le. the AlgoDt]uins of Three 


, nod the Nipiscnngs, Algonqaina, and Ottawas, 
> muder iinconlroUed near the coufiooa of the Hud- 
n B»y territory, towards the Iiwwl- waters of tJio 
nver. The Mlstftssins aud Naukapoes, on the 
• St. IjHBTetice, nm mostly iu th« Bamc uomade 
The latter belong to the Moutaguare stock, 
I ^re twcu esdiiuited at 2uOO, of whom fully loOO 
Ifltill wild {MgaDs. They wonhip the »tun oud moon, 
» who UK supposed to have their abode there. 
/ devote to boUi of these deities parts of eveiy ani- . 
1 •lain, aud annually offer up the sacrifi<% of the whittl 
In thuir mythology and Buptirstitious ritos, tbo* 
1 NoflkapccA roTcol traces of the aamc Sabiaii worship 
, ondcr mnny vaiying and degradcxi fonus, con- 
> a link Nccming to connect the savage trilHat of 
I Ammcn with the aneit-ut native wntrcs of dvili- 
l>i>th in Mexico and Peru. It is not a little 
to find mieh iiagau riteM ]>er{x;tunted among 
i Ktill w-andering around the outskirts of setHfr-'J 
> occupied by tlie dodcondanta of coloniats, whi 

of threv centurica ago, tnuis})lant4^ to the 

I of the St. Lawronec the arts and ]awa of the 

. civilized nation of Euru|)e. Thu forest-regiona 

tupied by thorns savage trilies are annually <yKiBteil by 

: richly-laden merchant Hevta of Itritnin ; and the 

ray Rtcunient, which have now brought them within 

I tfaan six dajii' nil of £un>|)o, bear weekly jHUt them 

' i of luxurious Atlantic voyagurs : few indeed 

:ting on tho eontnst between tliu modem Anglo- 

1 ftupptanter and those ontcast descendants of 

• aboriginal owners of the acoL The Mifttatiinn and 

exhibit all the chotacterixtics, and aome 

HMt forbidding traits, of the Indian asTago^ 

etotbed altogether in futs and deer-elans, 

only weatKius are the Ikow lutil amiw. antl thny 


MUmbera of tlu! vil<l tribes. Altogether there caniiot be 
- '•' -Fi 8000 ludiaiis still left in the 1«)Wit |iro\ince ; 

■ t« it t» obvious tliat, im fiwt us thc-y aiv lirought 
uto coDtact with the dvilisntiou uiiJ th*; rvli- 

■ liiuj; of ihcir Euroi»i'aii supphmtcn*, they grar 
-,ij)pc'ar by a variety of pruecast-a : of which the 

■ It Im [KM^siUe to (hveil u(k)u without many pain- 
ful, ijiuu^li uniLvaitiug regretM, lit thut by which, iis in the 
«iHf of the Huroua of Lorotte, we see the dcBceudantR of 
lb« ohior triU-s grnUually absorbed iiito the predominant 
rar^, an the wut^-ra of the St. Lhwtcuco merge into those 
of th4> Atliintic Ocean. 

in Vpi>er Cuimdu H weU-orgumzod syKtem of 8iii>er- 

itit>-ii>i' ii'v hiiM l>ecu long maiutiiimil ox-pj* tlic nettled 

tnl" ~ :nid a KUpcriutcudeiit in iduti appointed to tnlce 

: ,ilike of tlie bandit in orcuiwtion of resen'es on 

t Aliimtoiiliu Ishinil, and of tlio wild Indians 

'.•- taken rrfugu on the numerouR ifllanda of Lake 

i i uron or idong ita northern Hhore.s. Untd the reeent 

"irft'-iiment of the practice of distributing prcM*nta 

Iii'Iion tribej), the Great Aluuitoulin iKhiud was 

:lK'»>-ene of on a.>Ktcmbtagc, not only nf ImUans 

li: to neariy nil the tribes of Britwh Nonh Amo 

ruiik, but oLw) of many from the United States. It was 

fuuDil, however, that no Wncficial results accrued from 

■ >iii« pmctico. and, after niiflicient notice had bwn given, 

"- Lfti distributiou took place in 1855. At this ammol 

.ihfnn<|; tbir while tnwlent latterly Hoekeil, like vulttires 

• UiL' bntth-field, and the presents, for tbc must {MUt, 

i-«e<l into lh<-ir ttandH in oxchan^ for gnudy trifles, or 

<r tli> driotenouil tin' water. It was wist-ly judged, 

ihat the money roidd )r- mueh more judiciously 

I on U'balf of the seltlwl triU-s. NevurtheleM, 

;_;. ,:i^Ul» has not been obanilontMl without stToag 

I of dimotisfiivtioD on the part of nuuiy ; 





By returns made to me by Mr. Frome Talfourd, 
Indian Superintendent of their district, they nomi 
present sixtj'-ais, and of these sixty arc half-lin.'eds, orj 
mixe<l blood. In their religious belief they are ni 
equally divided between the Boman Catholic and 
Methodist creeds. They have no re.sident missii 
either church among them, but attend the churches, 
mingle witJi the other worshippers of the neighbouring 
town of Amherstburg, distant alwut three miles &om 
their settlement. Here, therefore, is a remnaiit of 
Canadian aborigines fully able to enter, on tcnna 
equality, into competition is-itli the wliite settlers 
are acquiring possession of the hunting-grounds of thetr 
Huron ancestry ; and were it not for the artificial re- 
straints of the protective system of the Indian Depart- 
ment, they would inevitably mei-ge into the 
population, and disappear and be lost, only in so fan 
they ceased to be distinguished from other membei 
the civilized community. 

The representatives of the once famous eonfedcrat 
the Iroquois, and the faithful allies of the English, 
as the Six Nations, whose ancient teiTitories lay enti 
.within the State of New York, migrated to Canada 
the close of tlio American War of Independence ; and 
1784, they were settled on a tract of land on the bank 
of the Grand River, purchased from its Mississaga claii 
ants, and confirmed to them by letters-patent under 
Great Seal. At the same time, one of the tribes of 
Mohawk nation settled on the Bay of Quinte under 
circumstances ; and so recently as 1 840 a band of 
Oneidas crossed from the United States into Caoi 
and purchased with their own money a tract of 5400 
acres of land on the River Thames, where thej' are now 
settled. The Mohawks on the Grand River retain among 
their prized lieirl'X)nis. brought witli them from the 


ValW of the Mftbawlc, tlio idlvcr Ctimmuniiin-pUle pre- 
-*nh'j to tbeir nnccators by Qucvn Aiinc, and bt-aring the 
[iMTiptton: "A.R 1711. The Gut ok her Majkstt, 


America, Queen : to ber Ijoiian Chappki. op the 
UoBAWKa." TliiH nation, therefore, had sbAndoiiod 
PkguuBm long before its migratioo ; and nace the sct- 
Ueneut of the [roquou tribes in UpiMV Canada eon- 
ndomble seal hm been nuinifcstcd by Christian iiua- , 
AonuieB and trselura iu difionag idigionB and a 
incttDctioD among tlicni. NcvertbeleBi, even now a L 
majority of the Cayi^aa, and also part of the C 
and Seoecas, have not naovneed beatheni 
llmigfa the Indian nacrvea on the Orand Rivet han 
bem aaiToanded and eneraacbed upon liy white settjcn ; 
and the town of Rrantfoid — named after the celebratt-d 
Mohawk chiuf,— now numben npwards of 8000 inbiUii- 
lantB, the paf;an Iroquois MiU amount to between fivtt 
and nx handled. 

The tudians of the Six Nations have now been hnmi^j 
.iit'i intimate intereotme with the whites for upwards « 
two cfotnriei^ and for the hist seventy yean have beot'^ 
placed in soch eloee contact with them that intermixtufe 
of the lacca has be«i inevitable ; though the vaiiatiacia 
~ I this reelect are very remarical4e, and the Mohawks 
) been di^tiuipiiBhed &om oU the others for the roadi- 
I with wbieb, from the earliest date of their inter- 
i with the whitei^ they have aUied themselves with 
], and adopted them into their tribes. FWm returns 
1 to me from the Mohawks of the Bay of Qaintc. 
I that they number in oU 603, but of those 601 
1 to be of mixed bloud. Xu specific notice 
I danges thus wrought on the Indian tribca had 
' f been taken ; and the novel inquiry for t 


r of paze-Uood Uohawks left in tbe 
I to kcie altitlr d its enrvivuig membaB. 

wen aeoordii^tT accompanied by Uw 
: kno- addRmed to Mr. AV. R Baitlett, Uie 
na; snd signed with the names or 
9 of I^nrin QsBs, uid fiMir other Hdiawk chie& : 
e a^id herewith the ceBsas of our band, as ri.H|(ured 
ftiy the letter from Tcrooto. All of our people, with tbe 
Lcieeption of tvo^ are of mixed blood. It may iq^iear 
■tno^ to tbe D^nrtment that the Six Nations ehoold 
be 80 entiielr mingled with prople of other conntzies: 
bat it may be a4Xoanted for by the fact that our anoe^ 
lois were allies of the British in the Freni-h and Rh-Vm- 
hrtioDaiy wais. It has always been a custom among t]i 
Six Nations to supply the pLtce of n-artiors killed tu 
battle by persons taken from the enemy, in the wan 
wbicfa we wese engaged. Many of our people were 
wboee places were filled by priaoners. TTieae priBOlun 
settled in the bond, and were always acknowledged as 
Mohawks. Tbe gOTemment of that time, knowing our 
old customs, received them as such, distributing presents 
to all alike. This happened 90 long since that tbe blood 
of the whites has almost become extinct. But since we 
have been asked the question, we felt it to be our duty 
to stat« the pLiin fact. No white man has, since tlie 
period above named, been recognised as a Mohawk^ 
though a few of our women have married foreignera, tiMj 
children of whom we rec<^ise." One interesting «d1 
ample of a different class of adopted Indians is to be Be«3i' 
in the lodges of the Bay of Quinte, in an aged squaw, 
reputed to be one hundred and seven yeais of age. The 
child of white parents, she was carried off by the Indian? 
in one of their marauding excursions, while they atill 
dwelt in their native Valley of the Mohawk, 
survives, the mother of a chi 

n-iiig uo language I 



Uiitt of the tribe, as thorough lui lii<Uau tu every scii- 
' meat nnd feeling as If the pure blood of tho forest 
i in hor veins. 
The Mohawks, among vhom the experiment of 
dity has thus been carried bo far as almost lo 
tbe last traces of pure Indian blood, betray no 
I of inevitable <lecay and extcmiiuation. Tboy 
{ the most civilized Indians of Wetttem Canada, 
manifesting highly characteristic traits of 
ire instinct unonulicated by all the admixture 
' wtiitc blo<Hi in their veins. Tlie superintendent de- 
I tbem as bcftet nith an ungovernable pmpensity 
t they term "speculation;" "swopping" horses, 
5gie8 ; and for " trade," i.e., barter : in oil 
r tbe whites invariably oven-each them. " The 
Mohawks are excellent labourers for short periods. 
Tbero are in this tribe sevend native car}>cDter8 and 
Aoemakers, one tailor, and one black^nmith. They have 
at fea«t ono hundnxl and forty children of an age fit io 
go lo school ; but though loud in the ap[iarent desire 
to have their childn^n educated, like other trilies, the 
most tritliiig excuse serves to keep a large portion of 
tbem idling about the streets or fields with their bows 
mad arrows. These people, unlike the Chippcwas, are 
not oaaly removed by threat or arguments from resolu- 
tjooa they may have forme<t ; and they have been so 
mneh mixed up in trilling lawsuits, that they consider 
tbtttiaulvcs quite competent to express an opinion. In 
iborts they have arrived at that state nf semi -civilisation 
from which 1 believe nothing but their own future ex- 
perieDDO and eon\'ictions can disentangle them, and leave 
tbem open to the reception of friendly advice." There 
is •ometliing piijuaul in this phase of progressive cjvili- 
withoQt its parallel in many a Europuui 
; whinh thus exhihiu the Mobawk growing 


The Oncitlu, auothcr of tbu Six Nationa nettled on 
he River ThamcB, have alrrwly been rffeired to ob 
eoapying lour) iiurfluiiwii for th«m with the money 
rhich ihcy lirwuj^ht with tliciii on uiigmting from the 
Jnttctl StAt<». Tliu comiMimtivfly infl«'peii(l<'-nl position 
rbirh th<?y oi-pupy is aocompanicil by vi^ry ffivimrablo 
liuircs of cap!u:ity for stilf-govvrumi-nt. They are 
" in ibi) imnnKlintc vicinity of thn ChippewiiH and 
} Ddawan-fl or Muusera on the 'I'huuicK ; bat the con- 
I of the Oneidn» jtrvxcntfl a favourable contrast to 
■ of thrfid iribea. In 18r>8, the C'ominiwianers re- 
of thi-m : " Thia ttancl, without any annnity or 
DCu' frmn the (iovfmmeut, uru better fjirment than 
Diaf^h(>niini thn Cbiiipcwus, Thfir i-Iearings are 
r and better worki-^l, many of tliem ore able nnnu- 
Uy t(i ftiflpoAP of conf«idcrabh: i|Qantitir.i of ^i^TLin after 
■Dviding for the comfortable sujiport of their families. 
' tiuQs<tt ore g<>nendly of a lietler dnw-ription, and 
iny are well fnniihhe*! and neatly kept. A portioa 
the baud are very iille anil di»Aipat«d, and eipeiid 
lof their lime in the ticighbouriiiK villages of the 
_bs bat taken as a whole, the Otieidas will compare 
EfiTvonibly nitli any Indians in \Vetsleni Canwb. 
I there liaa been a grsdunl iucrea»e." They 
* to have kept themmdves apart ftr>m the whites 
1 way that presents a striking contrast to the statia- 
1 (IiKlosurvs in reference to some othere of the Six 
Th» returns furnished to me daring tlie pre- 
. year include uu iUe;fitimatc children, and speeify 
»ly nix half-brwd* among tlie whole 509 repreflcntatiTes 
r tint oucicMt {Mfiple. wbi.«c traditions embcKly a legend 
b the Onund.igas and the Oneida.^ sprang bigether out 
B gntund on the bonks of tlie Oswego River. At 
sr (bte. tliough long prior to the iiitmsion of the 
Irhite man, they sepeuBted &om ttto Onoodagaa, and 
TOL. II. '^ B 


actical stroke of financial policy, which might sup] 
isefiil hint to the chancellor of lai^er exchequers : ' 
schoolmaster, Solomon James, has been absent, then 
no school lias been kept ; and the band have resold 
council, that they will not pay any salaries to chiefs ~ 
others, except the doctor, as it is so much money tak. ; 
from the general funds without any correspomiiu^ 
l)enefit." Such sagacious political economists might be i 
safely assumed no longer to stand in need of any depait' ] 
mentid superintendence. From minute returns furnished 
to me from eight of the largest Chippewa reserves, il 
appears that out of 1839 Indians, 312 are of miscd 
blood ; of tie Misaissagas, out of 530 Indians, 141 an- 
of mixed blood ; of 246 Potowattomies, only 20 are 
returned of mixed blood; and of 390 Dela wares, only 
sixteen : though it can scarcely be doubted by any one 
familiar with the habits of frontier life, that all of those 
bands have taken up some considerable amount of white 
blood at an earlier date. In some of them the numlten 
are mpidly diminishing, under circumstances which could 
not fail to produce the same results on an equal number 
of white settlers ; but in other cases increasing numbere 
are the healthful concomitant of industrious habits and 
accumulating property ; and the Commissioners, in the 
Report of 1858, when urging the claims of the Tu diana 
to the permanent protection of the Imperial Govern- 
ment, add : " We cannot coincide in the opinion that the 
Indian ser^-ice is an expiring one. The statistics in this 
Ecport miUtate strongly against the theory of a steady 
dccbne in the numbers of the Indians," 

Sueli, then, are the iUufltrations which Canada affords 
of the transitional process which precedes the inevitable 
disappearance of the last remnants of its aborigines, in- 
cluding refugees from the vast tracts of extinct nations, 
now occupied by the restless in<tustry of the United 


Sutc-flL The system of protection and pupilage under 
vhieU fnini the most generous motives, the Indian has 
hitherto I teen placed, has unquestionably been protracted 
niitil, in some eases at lea^st, it has lieen prejudicial in 
its influcnci*. It Ikls precluded him from acquiring ])ra- 
perty, marrj-ing on ecjual terais with tlie intiiiding race, 
and Sii tran.<f(*rring his ofispriug to the <'ommon ranks. 
\Vhih\ ln>wcvrr, wc thus see that, in this transitional 
»tag«\ a larjri* prr»|>f»rtion of the degenerate descendants 
Iff tht- aiN>ri^incs ahsniutely jktIsIi in their j>remature 
contact with Euni|H.'an civilisation, the half-1»n*ed of the 
fmiiticr occupies a mon* favourable jMisition. He mingles, 
in numv eases, cm a common footing;; with the settlers of 
the Western clearings ; his children grow u[> asniembei*s 
of tlj«' new community : and tliat inevitable ]>n)cess <»f 
amalgamatii>n pDnluces the sanu* results there, wliich, it 
i^ manifest, an* etiacing every trait i»f Indian bluod from 
tin- lonirest settleil and most eivilized «if the surviv«»rs i»f 


the Indi;in nations i»f Canada. 

Till- liiusi's whirii have been referred to, as o[»erating 
lf» prevent either th«' half-bived Indians or their i»o.sterity 
fmni lieing transfen'eil in a cnutlition of s(»ciid equality 
!•» the ennnnoii ranks uf tlie New Worlds settlers, are 
n*'ithi r irrem(*«liable n«»r uf universal ap]ilieatinn. Tlie 
hi»n«>urs of tiie (i«»verninent House at Vaneouvers 
I-^land an* at ]»reS4;nt done by the dau;:iiters of an Indian 
mother; tii** hos]iitalities <if more than one (':inadian 
|Mr--inaL:e iiave U-.n eiijoyril by the author, where the 
h*i«ti'^.-* haij th«- r«'d bliuuj of the Xtw World in her veins ; 
;in<I Mr. L«\\is H. Mi»r;:an, in replyin;^' to inqtiiriis on 
th«- •xti lit iif hvbriditv in thf I'liitf-d States, thus ci»n- 
'■lud«> : " Whrii the Inili:in ae<piires projKTty, and with 
it ifluiatiitii. and iMToiues |N-nnanentIy si.'ltied, then 
htin<inndil<- niarria;:e will coninii-net*, and with it a traiiSf- 
f.-r '»f till' |Ni«.tirity ti» iiur nmks. I hojKJ to sec that dny 


-ire ; for I think we can absorb a large portion of this 
Indian blood, with an increase of physical health and 
strength, and no intellectual deti-imeut." \Vhether it a 
calculated to prove benefieiiil or not, this process has Dot 
now to begin ; though a change in the relative positioB 
of the civilized Indian with the occupants of the o\dia I 
settiementa may tend greatly to increase it. The same 
process by which the world's old historic and unhistoric 
races were blended into elements out of which ncx 
nations sprung, is here once more at work. Already on 
the Red River, the Saskatchewan, the Columbia, aai 
Eraser's River, on Vancouver's Island, and along die 
whole Indian frontiers both of the United States and 
British North America, the red and the white man meet 
on terms of greater equality ; and the result of their 
intercourse is to create a half-breed population on the 
site of every new w&stem dealing, totally ajmrt {nan 
those of mixed blood who are reabsorbed into the natira 
tribes. The statisrics of the more civilized and eetl^ 
bands of Indians in Upper and Lower Canada do not 
indicate that the intermixture of red and white blood, 
though there carried out under unfavourable circnin- 
stanees, leads to degeneracy, Btcrilitj% or extinction ; and 
the residt of their intermingling in the inartificial habits 
of border life, is the transfer of a larger amount of red 
blood to the common stock than has hitherto, I believe, 
received any adequate recognition by those who have 
devoted attention to the comprehensive bearings of the 
inquiries which such phenomena of hybriditj- as have 
ijeeu discussed in this chapter involve. 




IK> rai-t> vver amal<ramat«.' ' I>'n> h mix'-d nKX- exist ? 
a.*ks I^r. Kuux :^ liim>';lf iIk- Lunivr i.f iLat liiT]*- i^Liud- 
vurM wlurr, favi.iuivJ bv h> vt-n^ iusuLiti* 'ii. Urit-'ii \xiA 

m w 

if;ftt*L R'liiiaii, Pict, au*l .S;«'t. .S:iX"n au«J An^]*-. I>aji*% 
Nt*nnaii. aU'l Frank, Lav*.* f.»r nvo ib"U-s;iiJ'i v.;irs U-. u 
miiiirliiJL: tLrir IJi^.n], au«l l»l»/ii«]iij;! ih'ir iij-TiTii:i"ji- iui^j 
a li. »iui ••^vii*-! tus uiiitv. Ill -M.-kii]:: :iii au-w. r t'.» th.j 
*ri>';it j»nililiin «»f iii««I«'ni s-ivu- •■ iijv..l\i-«l in ^wAi iu- 
•|uirk->, til'- iiisuliir rhar.iiT' r "f iJntaiii J'^-mu!- -miih*- 
ini{"*rTanT t l.-iii'-iit-* Trii'liiiLT !•• -iiii]'!*!/ ih. iu'^uin- : l.ut 
ilk*- .ir- li.i'«»l'»*^M«Ml aii'l lii-T'-ri-al 'S.iT.i illu-tmivi- lif ilitr 
pn-'.'v liv whirh tlr- i-l.iii'i r.p •' ■•!" Uriiaiu. 

iia.- attailii'*! t«» its |in-.-ii! 'I'-VflMjiiiiiii:. lH-i-«i]ii^' of 
••••■• »ii«lary iiiijH.rtaii'«\ wiji-n •■iinj|i; witli tlj»- <jii:aiitii: 
*«*.i!'- "ii wiii'li uri'li-.-ii:ii» •!^iiMl ixj* riin^'iits 
L.i\'- 1» •!! wr.«u::lit •»u: iin ihi- •■••ntiiit.-nt i^f Aiii'ri«;u 
A'i!i:::*iiiL'. I ^r tli*- >,ik«' itf arL^uiii'iit. all that is iiiijilii-i.l, 
ii'v ••lily !n ;:• kii"wli-.l:^'.-il A^iiti-- al!iiiiti«s iif tin- K-^jui- 
riiuix. i'u: til- u-iii'i-t that can If a-^-iiiDi**] in fav.nir 
mi" .::* iii:iu*i\»- j-'j«ul.iii.'n I'V npan-* I'f Phii-nitian, r«lii- 
"•-:: III. ah' !• lit l»riti.-*h. i»r Sau«linavian iMlnniz-ili'^ns, 
!;• \' rtii* !• *- it r* niain> in<lis|»uta1ik- that thi- \Vi.>t*ni 

/-. /. .. •' 1/ «. I^Ht I * XirkanI II Ait ii Si- i 


riea of an older intercourse ^ith the race ''f aii- 
hemUphere, when Egyj'tiiin «»r PLoriiieiun, ^ir"*'k. 
or Northman, mav havt- «lwf-h am^»iii' tii* £r*L* j" 
nice of the phiteau. K-fore iixr • ra '•! Az:-' ':**h' 
pMBt, anil taught tht-ni ihosi* an- wL»-r* in ij- m*- 'rrn*-!.- 
ial germs of civili^atiiin. If s^^. Ijmv- vr. t:i-- ra':* 
cmaiDCcl physirally unaff-et«-*l I'V t:j- T»ii-ji»nvr}' J*.'*- 
cncc of iti* f«in-i<ni ti-a<li»*r-. aij'l f^riTii-u-: t.- m-'*. •l^': 
U the >|K-ri:il rhani«*t«ri>ti'> ••! tij- Aifj*:n'i;r; ?;•"> '•? 
, until Ciihnuliu^, ('alHit. \ ^ n^ZYJiiU* > . \.u * ii^j'-r 
e»*, I'izan-ii. l>t- Loi»n, iLil-ij-L .Mj-: ''tn-r ':.-:'/*. -v-r* 
ind exj»lun*rs, |»n-|»;4n*«l tL»* w.iv f'»r tij'' ::':•■-■./ ***.:iU'*y* 
peal i'X{N.Tinicnt «if the List iLr- '-:-•...":•-. • : ^'isii^i*"- 
ing the {H»{>iihiti>>n.s nf *iij»' • iiiii.i% Ji:;- ;j ::---:*:i*'- •/ 
ither ami ti»tallv <liv«'r'^- '•••n-lri :.- -f ^r. ••:.':• .:. '-j 
ffew Cnutin*-iiT. 

Hut n<»\v wi" witn*"<* f*u tIj- A:i.* r.'-:.:. ■ '••:-.-•.• 'v 
:wo ess4-nti;illv «lM»Kt fi^nii- r*{ u./jryr /-:.. • . ::*-::.:.' '/ 
vliii'h the rajKuity nl'th*- iij'ii:."-ii''J- i-*-'. ? ■'■ ' v^.r** r 
>f lh«' i:l«»l»- til !»'■ a'''lini.itiz«- I ;::. . > rr:.-.':- : ■ 
<tallt'*l a-^ tilt* iHiujfaiit "f iiux:.*:. .• ' '^ f.. '--^v ' 
First wi- h;iv.- th«- ahrup! Tr.i;,-}r.r •:' •:- -;■...•. v, 
thi» Aiii«-ri«aij ar«'hijH-!;ii.'". :<. \\r '•* /^" ""«/ '• f •:,' 
Liulf iiM.-t. ali'l lij'- f^rni fr"f :' ::, : ■' 
ijiially al»nijil tran-l'Mi- ■ 'A *i. L:.;.- .- r.v. ;. ••/ •:.. 
ftanij lalitU'l'- I'f Nil;.']]:;-: aii-i •:.*• ' • *: .'.• K:.;*. ij.'J 
••w.-l ; aii'l ill'- atT'ihjfT ^A Mr- '■'■.■:..''- -f W- :,'\ j". 
uiil i,"iii' Mil. t'» f'Uii'i /•/ .V /•/. i //- I''t"..*» i»''.'"n 
raiii'ii-^K* ah'i <^>u«iH-. wii»r« Aiiit-r j* ,jU' -..:'.-.;•;. ;, uf 
:h«- .iii'l thr tlitnii-iii* '••r r.ii;:/' • 2;''iivr.'.. ffiu 
;ti t«» 4" U-I-.-.v z* p». A::«iii. %•• ii»'»'" tii*- f<rriijiij]-/,r\" 
ntLTarioii if a I i'l'ijlatiiifj •i»'n\«'i f.'-iii tii*- jfjT« ri<ir aii'i 
h«- Atl.iiilii: rii;i.-l- nf th'' Affiran «*ontin«-nt, to the 
.-'hiiiU .-tii«l iivtr^' r^iutheni Ht;it«-rf of Anit-rir^i, whi'n- 
■.\|«M«iii-< in«hrai*'> that th«' iniluHtnal occupation of 


miefdlere ha.'^ been practically isolated from the 01<i 
norid and all its generations for unnnmbered ces- 
turies. The traditions of the Aztecs told of an ancient 
era when Quetzaleoatl, the divine instructor of their an- 
cestors in the use of the metids, in agriculture, and the 
arts of government, dwelt in their niidsL Fancy pic- 
tured in brightest colours that golden age of Anahuar, 
thus associated with the mythic traditioDs of some wise 
benefactor and civilizer of the Aztec nation. But amid 
all the glowing fancies *-ith which tradition delighted 
to clothe the transmitted memories of the age of Quet- 
xalcoatl, a curious definiteness pertains to the physical 
characteristics of this ancient benefactor of the race. 
He was said to have been tall of stature, with a £sir 
complexion, long dark hair, and a flowing beard. This 
remarkable tradition of a wise teacher, superior to all 
the race among whom he dwelt, and marked by char- 
acteristl(-.-t so unlike the native physiognomy, was accom 
ponied witb tbe belief that, after completing his missiou 
among the Aztecs, he embarked on the Atlantic Ocean 
for the mysterious shores of Ttapallan, with the promise 
to return. How fiir the nmiours of Spanish invasion 
preceded the actual lantling of Cortes, and helped to give 
shape to more ancient traditions, it must be difficult 
to determine. Nearly thirty years eLipsed between the 
first insular discoveries of Columbus and the landing of 
Cortes on the ilexioan shores ; and many a tale of tbe 
strange visitors who had come from out tbe ocean's 
eastern hoiizon, armed with the thunder and the ligjit- 
ning, and ^nth a skill in metallurgy' such as the divins 
teacher of the art; could alone be supposed to posseaa, 
may have shaped itself into the vague tradition of the 
good Quetzaleoatl, as it passed from one to anodur 
eager li.-stenor, ere it reached the Mexican plateaiL ftrt 
thi' ti-alition seems like the embodiment of tbe £ 

THE rxTJerjsit'/': races. 

I of nn oltler intercourse with the race of an- 

phere, when I^yprian or Phoenician, Greek, 

, or Northman, may have tU-elt among the gentle 

r nice of th« platenu, before the era of Aztfc con- 

1 taught them those arts wherein lie the essen- 

of civiltHation. If bo, however, the race 

iJij-ftirailly unaffecte*! hy the u-mj>orary pre- 

» of its foreign teachers, and continued to develop 

! 8pet:ial rliaraett^ristica of the jVmerican tj-pc of 

, until (.'olumlms, Caliot, Vcrmzzano, and Cartier. 

rtvc, Pizttrm, Uc Leon, Raleigb. and olJier discoverers 

] explorers, prepared the way for the great cthnolo 

' neot of the last tbree centuries of tnmafer- 

i populations of one riinate and bemiqtbete to 

_ 1 totally divenn randitioiM of exialcnee on the 


I now we witneas on the Amoicsn gootiBcnt the 

■EDtuUy distmet fomu of nigixtina. bjr means of 

I the capacity d the ind^jenoua man of one quarter 

> globe to be acchmatittd and permanmtir in- 

i M the oeeaiiutt of aiMitber, it to far fidly leatmL 

t wa hare the abnq« tanflpott of the SfHUuaid to 

I awtfpe i ag^ to the tUrra calieaie *d the 

iIm f utto /ria of the platow ; the 

naMfiiinii «f the ffiigKihaia to the 

I of Viif^ba wl the bk^ Sww E^hwl 

the alt«mpc of tW cdamisis <^ Hnurj rr. 


soil is incoiupatible with the healthful developmeDt 
the i-aces of northern Europe. Bat on the same con- 
unent we also witness another and totally distinct pro- 
cess of migration, analogous to that by which the ancient 
earth must first have been peopled, whether fi\>m one 
or many centres of human origin. Unnumbered ages 
may have elapsed after the creation of man before, on 
tie theory of Lis passage from Asia to America, the 
fii&t progenitors of those whom we call its alwrigines 
acquired a footing on the soil of the New World. Its 
ancient forests and praiiies, its lakes, river valleys, and 
mountain chains, lay all before them, to be subdued, 
triumphed over, and, with their wild fauna, to be made 
subservient to the wants and the will of man. From 
one or many points the ever-widening circle of migra- 
tion enlarged itself, until, throughout the broad terri- 
tories of the Western Hemisphere, from the Pacific to 
the Atlantic, every region liad passed to its first rightful 
claimants. Thus secured in full possession of the soil, 
the American Mongol made of it what he willed through 
all the centuries of his race's destiny, till that memor- 
able year when, according to the traditions of the Mexi- 
can plateau, the race of Quetzalcoatl came to fulfil the 
doom of Montezuma's line, and to accomplish the pro- 
phe<-ies of the Aztec seers. Then followed the second 
migration to the New World, which is still in progress, 
and only differs from the primary migration in this, that 
the forest and the prairie are already in occupation ; 
and, with their wild fauna, the scarcely less wild abo- 
rigines have to be subdued, supplanted, or embraced 
within the conquests of nature to the uses of civilized 
miiu. Once more, from many single points, as from the 
Pilgrim Rock of Plymouth Bjiy in 1620, the new popu- 
lation liiis diifused itself continuously in ever-widening 
einlc,';. It has been estimated that, under the combined 


of natural increane and cc^istant au^m^ntanc'D 
by immigration, the outer eir»Jrr of tb-r great we$t*rm 
f*it^ring8 encniaf'lied on th^ uni>:«l:iimr?i W-*t at iL^ 
rate of aliout nine mi]«?a annualiv ixir«-PT::iL'>T:t tii-r wh«il»f 
extent <if its va-jt Ijunler. Wr kiioT liiii: tiir N-tt Eag- 
lander, abruptly tninrff»Iante«l to S->u:ii Cjt« -linu or Aia- 
l<iinn, is as incapalile of witL-tJii'iinir tli- • liiniin^- cfL-iiiije 
as the OM Eiifrlandtfr. But if w-- -'jjipi«>*- tLr jiir?ft 
st-ttltTs of XfW Enfflantl to LaV'- li..r-D Irft :•.' tii»-ni-«*r]v*r-, 
with tlu'ir inilnmitaMt* indu-trj* jind ♦rani-?^: vutrq^riritr, 
to liuiM up a w»*ll-<-oii.'^«li.iit*-i r"rMii'in:Ty, t^ fniin«r 
laws fiir the >r«ivemm».'nt of th»- ^jr^y^'iii'j. -•■■i'-ty, au*] v* 
^•iv\ out hiinly younjr pi»'ii«.-*:r.- t*» win f-r iL<.-m>^]v*« 
the niMflful widrniuL' art-a, w.- r^n -y-*: Low, iu tli«r 
laii4M» iif cM'Hturit's, vnuntr«T {r»-ii';niti'>ri^ would Mt ]*'rj;rth 
n-arh tliL* Gulf i*f Fl«irida and lh»-' K^-M-ky .Mountaiiiff, 
without anv on*.* of th^^m hivinir tniv<:lJ*:d U-vond th's 
i-in-unifi'n*nfT of itd pn-vioudy a'oliinaTfd \^*/\*»ii ; un 
h-s-* indt.'<*<l Wf U'lii'Vr, with th*.- ♦•xtr»:iij»- rti';kJ*-i*H for 
thi- WfllHlftiiifil haiiitat-ii of in-ii-j'-iiou-: rai;«- of iij<*n, 
that .-urii an intnL<iv«* ox^iir ran-, lii^wi-vi-r uiwAi it 
niav s4-i-ni ft»r a tinn* a.-< tlioiKr|| it Wi-n- iH-^/i'ttin;/ 
nativi- inheritors of tli** t» a«#juii^ition, i-* in 
rt'alilv onlv 

" Lik»- a «'in !• in th»- wati-r. 
Whi'-h nevfF ciMx-lh t*" *n\uf^*' iXm-M, 

Thi«4 is th<* actual ijUcstion wlii«-li haH to In- solv^-d l»y 
nit.'an<» of the dual nii<:rition of th«' fair and tli«' dark 
nu;i-s of til'* an«-i«nt world, wlm hav«' li«-#onH' tli«* suj>- 
plantii-s of tlif indi^rmous iriU's of Anuria. And l>y 
nn-an-. of surli nii^nition many <|Ui-stion-' li«-sidrs this 
havf alrt'adv lnM-n at Irast pri»vi.<-ionally answiTrd. An* 
fculnliviMons nf ilu' human family indijjriious in rertain 

I llrnrti Vl. VxxX I. Art i. Stviir ii. 


geographical habitats, and incapable of permanent t 
lation to otber rcgioiw ? Are the indigeuoUB types ^ 
such distinct habitats capable of innocuous aiualgjima- 
tion ? In other words, do the snbdivisiouB which t-thuo- 
graphy clearly recognises in the human family, partaku' 
80 essentially of the ohanicteristica of distiuct niL-i..- 
among the inferior orders of creation, as to be incttpobU- 
of permanently perpetuating an exotic life, or t 
ting fertility to a mixed bi-ced ? To the different cjia 
tions involved in this inquiry, one school of Ameri 
and British ethnologists has repUed with a distinct a 
strongly asserted negative ; and the strength of the C 
victions of ."Vmerican ethnologists ia shown by 
adoption of a view ao inimiua] to the theory of pen 
ent tritimph as the destiny of the jVnglo-Amci 
rolonista of the New World. 

The African, as has been already remarked, owed I 
involuntary migration to the Western Hemisphere to t 
belief, which the experience of centuries has con] 
that this distinct type of man, transported to an entin 
diflerent geographical area, and to a diverae i 
would nevertheless prove more enduring than the i 
genons Red Man of the soil. The whole instincts of ^ 
essentially immaritime race were outinged by the 1 
]H>rtation of the African to the New World. The < 
van, and the patient assiduity of overland commerce 4 
interchange of the commodities of countries scparafcodj 
burning tropical regions and waterless deaei-ta, liav]| 
the characteristics of Africa in every age. ~" 
her ship of the desert, and maritime ent< 
there only to the era of her Punic coloiiioe 
Could therefore seem more corn; 
(juircments, relative to Agussiz's ^ 
relations inherent in the different; ijf 
animals and plants inhabiting I 

3UUV.] TUR fNTkVSirS RACES. 39? 

riivuBoa of the daman family mont strongly marked ilt 
^rpe, in opposition to all its oat ural or acquirml inntinrita, 
forciKly trausportftl to anothi-r continent, inhnlntecl 
hy indigenous triI»t-» owcnlially divt'rw: in all their pliy- 
nl chamrtfmtii'*, Ethnolo^fiKts art- not quit* agrwci ah 

nil tlio rti!ult8 ; for it i« lUtBcult for the American writer 

1 ■eimmto the oom«MpR*nt« of this great, though nmle- 
6)1 mtrntifu: ox|M.Timeut, from its incidental political 

[ Boriftl iK'nringa. This, however, is Iwyond diflpnlf, 
iBt tlio African, luulcr ult the disa<lvantRgfM of trans- 
B to a new gi?ographica] region and diverse rlimntie 
Haeuccs, haj« hehl his groand where the indigenoiw Red 
[ biM pcriitlied. The ditKeiilt question of hybridity 
lientef* the further lH>arings of the experiment ; for 
I hybrid mrc like the "coloured people" of the Unitwl 
ntm, intermingling with a diverse white race, espo 
illy umler relndonn which pivcludc tlteni ^tn a fit^> 
igmry and \i>luntary iwilalion, such aa pertain to tho 
Hilf'breefl In<linns of British Ameriui, is npeessarily in 
B nufttiilile condition. 
TTioro arr- upwnnU of four millions of pifiple of African 
IdooH in the I'liitM Stiit^ei, nnd certainly not U-re titan 
miUi'>nx thn'Ughout the continent and iitlauds of 
ifarth and South America ;* hut of thc«o the \tiT\gcx pm- 
conuftts of hyl>ri<lii. Their numlient an still 
1 to a snudl extent by dim-t, though illicit tratu- 
n of the pim? flt»»ck from Africa ; Bttll mon? they 
jely augmentol hy (he iut«nnixturc of white anti 
; Itlood, under circuinstancvs least aoconlant with 

R aaHlsn ^<tm bnit vMiMatwl m high m (awtam miUiKiw. TLal 
L tbi tErt m ImhiI oa th« tntbxrinjt Mtimttr i Ihn t*nilcd Mktoi, 
«i flfMO, CmiO,OWIj Hajrii aSIVmWi Himlh uhI Cektnl Awenea. 
I Onh*, SnN.OO0 i Ontiife PrTirima, TimoO; tnaAV«mmmam. 
I Dwloh. Uamlk uJ M«una. mMM Tk. .UU ta *m» M tk 
• vrrjr iM^«vl«T*, h«l tn *mh omm I Ul«n« lb* aWBlNn a 


grapliical habitats, and incapable of pcnuanciit tnuB- 
ion to other regions? Ai-e the indigenous tjrpes of 
;h distinct habitats capable of innocuous ajualgama- 
n ? In other words, do the subdivisions which cthno- 
iphy (Nearly recognises in the human family, partake 
essentially of the charaeteristica of distinct races 
among the inferior orders of creation, as to be incapable 
f permanently perpetuating an exotic life, or transmitr 
ting fertility to a mixed breed \ To the different ques- 
tions involved in this inquiry, one school of American 
md British ethnologists hiia replied with a distinct and 
itrongly asserted negative ; and the strength of the con- 
victions of American ethnologists is shown by their 
adoption of a view so inimical to the theory of perman- 
ent triumph as the destiny of the Anglo-American 
colonists of the New World. 

The African, as has been already remarked, owed bis 
involuntary migration to the Western Hemisphere to the 
belief, which the exjierience of centuries has confinned. 
that this distinct type of man, transported to an entirely 
different geograpliical area, and to a diverse climate, 
would nevertlielcss prove more enduring than the indi- 
genous Red Man of the soil. The whole instincts of an 
essentially unmaritime race were outrnged by the trans- 
portation of the African to the New World. The cara- 
van, and the patient assiduity of overland commerce and 
interchange of the commodities of countries separated by 
ljuniing tropical regions and waterless deserts, have been 
the characteristics of Africa in every age. The camel is 
her ship of the desert, and mai'itimc enterprise jiertained 
thcie only to the era of her Punic colonies. No test 
could therefore seem more completely to satisfy all re- 
quirements, ivlativc to Agassiz's postulate of the natural 
n'hitions inherent in the different tj-pes of man, and the 
aiiiniiils and plants inhabiting the same regions. A sab- 


I of the Immnii family most strougly marked iii 

I, inoppositioii to all it* natural or acquired instinct*. 

foreihiy tmnsiMtrtotl to nnotlu-r continent, inh.ilntod 

f itidigvnouK trit>»( caacntially ilivcrse in all their pliy- 

I dl«actcriKti»«. Etlinolopirttx arc not qnite npreW oh 

H'tiw n»ulta ; for it iH iliHicuIl for tlie American writer 

i»tfl tlic ronHoqncntJt of tliis great, tliongli undc 

[ned ncientific exjK'riincnt, from its incidental political 

I mcial bearinga Tliiw, iiowev«r, is lieyond dispute, 

. the African, undrr nit tlie diHadvantagitt of trana- 

f to a new gitographical region and divtTsw climatic 

Jlncncvs, hoH hold his ground where the indigcnouti Rnl 

has [X'Hslied. The ditlicult question of hybridilv 

iliratCK the fiirtLer boaring» of the experiment : for 

nybrid mcc like the "coloured people" of the United 

tBten, iDli'rmingliug with n <lJver8c wliite xw\\ npft- 

Uy luuler relntioni which preclude them from a free 

•nry and voluntary inolntion, such a« pertain to the 

Indinn» of Britiiih America, is nece«BarUy in 

t ooHtiilile condition. 

t Tbere an? npwanU of four millions of [leople of Afncsn 
in tli« Unit«Hl Stiitt'j-, and certainly not le»*» than 
millions throughout th« continent and islands of 
1 and South America ;* tmt of thca» the latter |iro 
tion consists nf hyliridii. Tlifir numlwrs arc etiU 
I to a small extent Ity diny-t, though illicit traiwt 
■nlion of the pure ntock fn>m Africa ; Ntill mon? they 
B largely angmenle*! hy the intemiixtnrc of white and 
Mock Mood, under cin-umntanccH Icnrt nccontant witb 

fl*«a Is Um text u tMnI OB Ik diUinHax minut'- C)>. l'ii>i>.I SuIm. 

•oaoM< i^ii^giHkDnii Bntfaib roMM^aM, ;mM)oii ; rnt.<i. i- * \ \ ■» 

t»fiOO 1 Diitak. UMMh. mmi Mvsmu. IKMIOO. Hw da* r«r — w W «l» 

■tal*«»to an vrj mvnim:i. Ut w Mob iwb I W 



ys and plains, nnd is considered to be the most fay 
as tpII as one of the most healthy island ctf t 
Lntillea It has a coast Hue of about twelve huodifd 
miles in extent, indented with bays, and with many 
hartwurs, some of which are spacious, well sheltered, and 
oflfering :u'conuQodation for a numerous fleet. The 
climate l~i peculiar, with a rainy season occurring at dif- 
fiarent periods on its northern and southern coasts, and 
a temperature modified by the prevalence of northern 
irinds, land breezes, and the varying elevations of the 
Bur&ca The winter is equable and cool, and the heat of 
the sumauT is moderated by the prevailing winds^ so as 
to present bttle climatic correspondence to any ro^on of 
the A&iciui continent, and even to contrast strikingly in 
this lespeL-t with the other Antilles. 

The history of this beautiful island is full of interest 
for us. When Columbus, during his first voyage among 
the earliest iliscovered islands of the New World, was 
perplexed amid the varied and deceptive allurements 
which hope and fimcy conjured up for him on eveiy 
side, the lofty mountains of Hayti rose on his view 
above the clear horizon, and gave evidence of a region 
of wide extent. The mountains were higher and bolder 
in tlieir rocky outlines than any he had yet seen, and 
swept down, amid rich tropical forests, into luxuriant 
aivannahs ; while the cultivated fields, the canoes along 
the shon', the (Columns of smoke by day, and the fires 
tliat lighted up the island coast at night, all gave pro- 
mise of a numerous population. Wandering amid the 
shades of its tropical vegetation, in the month of De- 
cember, under trees laden with fruit, and listening to 
the melody of birds, among the notes of which tiiey 
f;ineied they Recognised the sweet voices of the night- 
ioLiide anil other songsters familiar to them in the far 
distant groves of Andalusia, the voyagera gave to the 


I islaod the name of Espafiola, or Little Spain. 
] the tteautiful ialantU of the newly-discovered 
[0, noue impressed the firet voyagers so strongly 
tlBfttural ohamiis or ftith the virtues of the gentle 
I bwd amid the luxuriance of their favouring 
e in ■ state of primitive i^iraplici^. None, among 
who welci>nieil the strangers as heavenly viait^ 
inta, yrwK doomed to look back with more mournful 
bittenicM on that fatal hour when the white sails of the 
"Snnta Maria" first rose on their horizon. Tliey are 
■I'-scrilxsi l>y Las Caaua m n well-fomied racf. fairer and 
(ii.-rc perfect in figure tlum the mitivoa of other iskuda ; 
Init grntio, carclow, and altogether iudii^iio&ed to toil. 
Eipi*rii-noe, in<ieeti, soon revealed to the Spanianla the 
of the fien;t* Carili, as well as of the docUo 
native on the islan<]. Itut he was an intruder 
t the Spanianl ; and Cnrib and Uaytian shared alike 
■ nttcnninating violence of the Spanish lust for 
ley ])ori!^od. toiling in the mines, in vain rc- 
(" to iipprwssitin, or despairingly, by their own 
I that, nocordiug to tbt> veni'nible Las Oiitaa, 
g iritnuBBG*! many of the hom)T» he deiu^rilies, In.>fiire 
! yeara had i;Ia])ried from tbeir fimt friendly W(d 
■ >aie of the S{KUiinnU hm celestial bping», sevond hundred 
:}ioiuands of the Indians had l>cen exterminated. The 
! poptdotion of UtK)iaiuohi can only be a subject 
I oonje<-turv ; but in 1507 it had been reduced to 
' ihuuMUid : in 153S only five huudrvd remained, 
t Mirvivori of the aboriginal rasx died out iu 
■put of the eighteenth ceutur}'. Uut it wwt nt 
t Btego of this exlenuiiinting pn)ceiw lluit tho 
I «H Kiggcstud, of Hututtitutiug for the weak uml 
~ mt iakuMler the robiut ntui {Nitivnl iVfriean. The 
1 wsgroeM were Imiwpnrtvd t<> tlio AutUleA. in U><i:t, 
r eleven years nflcr thu diacovny uf Hisiuniobi hy 



after tbe natioiii 

lumbu.t ; and for three centuries thereafter t 
of Eiiropo mado mei-chandiae of the Afiican race, i 
tniiispknted tliom yearly by thousands to the islands i 
and the mainland of the Westera World. By soch 
nwaus were the aborigines displaced and supplanted hy 
a totally difl'erent race ; though they have not even now 
so totally disappeared, but that the traces of Indian 
blood, intermingled with that of Ixith intruding races, 
are discernible. Their characteristic features and luxu- 
riant hair contrast strikingly with those of the pre- 
<l(>uiitiaut Afiican type, and such mixed descendants of 
the native stuck are still called Indies. The modem 
name of Hayti is a revival of a native term signi^ii^ 
" the mountainous countrj-," and implying in its adoptinn 
the rejection of all foreign interference with its lattr 
native race. 

The French acqmsition of the Haytian territory, vhidi 
contributed so largely to its ultimate emancipation and 
independence, dates from the reijjn of Louis xrv. To- 
wards the close of the eighteenth century, it was le- 
giuxli'd as the most valuable of all the foreign settlements 
of France, But the Revolution, in wliich the descendants 
of tlie Grand Monarque perished on the scaffold, ex- 
tonded its induence to the remotest French possessions. 
In 171*4. the negro slaves of Hispaniola were, by a vote 
of the National Convention, declared equal participattns 
in the liV'crty and equality which France had proclaimed 
to all hor t-itizens, and they hastened to imitate the ex- 
ample of Paris. A general insurrection of the coloured 
population ensued. All the white inhabitants who 
c.-«'!q)ed massacre were compelled to emigrate, and Toua- 
Kiiiit L'OintTture, a blai'k chief, established the fiist 
Hjiytiaii Itciuililic in 1801, The subsequent histoiy of 
Hayti, if comiKU'ctl with the neighbouring contineatal 
ripublii.', is nut very favourable to the capacity of the 

•7-7 ""T.vr-v L^i :: t. 

(•. -i .-.^i*:. nvi ill* •••t— i'iV, --Til!:. ■::. '*''-i.v!;s :..;:.:.r' 
iL.:j..: ir?. •ain»'!TiiT\ ;u.i •:.:■* .-i:_'::_ ^ ...:• - ■: -^i 
}*r;j-. TL!'. !»;■•• niaziv-L l. -ji:;:. .;-:;•■.:: .1 .1 

;>. :i;;iL ifMiJiii". i.'i* :..■ \'..- :-.i:i : ..* ■- 1 
u:^:-- :■ r 1 zaii*. v d'".:i-i. -■: ::.■:"•• ::.■• .a -.iu'-.p-j 

' *1 ^ *■• •* II "ill* ^ :• '"^i ■-' tl' •■.. .:» I '11 .•■ ^ V'MI-I 

I» •^•^■■•»-.' 'l.r. JL--I.1 V hif. If 1.11;. -'• «• > li.' 'l'. ll: UU^ 

\*"- L ^■-■•1 .: ■ •::.«• i..- 11;:. >•:.:. :- . i.i — .;/ H;- :.!»:. 

I. :* . .■ :.■•:- 'w'r j-;« •' ; • ii ' •■lijirTii'-*: ' •. .!•: 

I -r - J". *-...:."• ' :»;-:_:•::'• •' ^-: ■". "i:!- :i.i-' .•^-^l;.■^ .■: ::i: 

• :.» r." . .1* :■• V ij'..» : •• ;••■•• i;;^- . ?...::.•'• ?*:::•'-:•:. 
Tl- ^.-: . '._.:. i L ^- ■»•":.:.■■;: : ■..:•"• •: ...-...:•:■• :■ -:. 
.1! 1 r* • -' ■■ ll .- !_• "'L" ' ■' 'i '■' ■ * ■ -.'^ - ■ ":'•■ 

• A • ■ * * ^ > « »^ ^a^ - ■ ^^^^ A* ■ ■ ^ * ■ ^^ «■ ■■■. ■■■ 

H.\" •» •••- - *.'■■ -•..... 

■.»,"'.- — " I- "* ." ■ ' ' 1 I' i ■ '• I .*"•■■ 

ill H A v.. ^. .- ;. T "•■■ - ?■*.. ..• ' ..*!.!» .."..v ".;• 

■ • • • 

» » r . ^M Tfc* f'^ftft ^* 1 ^ ■ ■ ■ % I I 

■••• k ^ *• ■*■■•• •.• •• • ^ " ■■•••■^ ft •*■■.•• •• «- I •• •■•■ ' a ••■' 

_ • W 11 ■ . . , .-.."•• 1 • .. .' "v" » i ,," « . ,.'■ I. .liSii . . \ *■ "l 

-:l' 'J' 'V- ::*::;■ :.: ■ :' ::.• *. ^■•:.>> ••: ^m.-;:::;- ::i K'.in^j-^.iii 
l'l«"-i. Ill ::;'. H.ivii.i!! 1! j.;!'.!: i.«nij'!t:r rtlii;i.ii> 

th" • iii:ji.i:;"ii ••!' "llii- M.n k^ iu« u of* rnliiur. aiiil In- 
liiftiii^ ill ;i;i- riiit' >I Siatis aiiil xlw liiiii'^h Nurih Ann** 
HmM p:"\ ill- ' >,' i-* iii\it«Ml liy ilir nlfrr nf Ini* f^nuiti of 

I.ili'l. ;tlpl ;ill riirlit^ nf « iti/i'lishi|».' IIuililn*i|rt uf UlO 
i.>!<«ui>-<l |H..|.|.' Iff r^iiaila ;tiiil llu* rniliHl 8tilUl% it^ 
I IiiiIiiil: iiflii.-triniH t'.n'iiu'rst IriMlfHiiirUt AllU V 
h.ivi- ;i!i>.i«ly inilii';i« i'«I ihc* iiilvaiitjigni UlQf 


sm, and added to the strength and vigour of ^ 
young i^uhlic. Meanwhile, a concordat between the 
Pope and President Geffnird has been published at 
Port-au-Piiiice, creating an archbishop and four lashops; 
and by a special article, his Holiuess is not limit«d in 
the choice of these Haytian ecclesiastics, to the dark 
lace. Time, therefore, must be allowed the Haytian 
before we infer from the history of this black RepuUit'. 
that the men of luixe^l African blood are incapaUc of 
self-govemment, or of permanent independent existence. 

In truth, this \'iew of the great ethnological experi- 
ment forces us back on the question of inherited pro- 
gress, and the ph)'sical and intellectual development of 
whole nwos by the protracted influences of civilisation. 
In the eighth and ninth centuries the insidar Au^o- 
Saxon Was amiJug tlie least civilized of all the nations 
of Christendom. He was far inferior to the Irish Celt 
in arts and learning, though even then di3[>layiug a 
greater capacity for self-govcrmncut Danish eonqut*l 
and rule did something for him ; Norman conquest 
accomplished a great deal more. Slowly, through suc- 
cessive generations, the Saxon helot of the Conquest 
grew into the stuniy Ilnghsh freeman of the Reformation 
era ; and then in the marvellous Elizabethan age that 
followed, while the principles of free government were 
still very partially defined or understood, but when the 
intellect of the nation was at its ripest, the Anglo-Saxon 
colonization of the New World began. The Roman 
Catholic sought freedom there from Anghean intoler- 
ance ; the Purittm found a refuge from ecclesiastical and 
jwlitical tyranny ; and the schoohug of England's Com- 
niouwealth, the Covenanters' struggle in Scotland, and 
the crowumg Revolution settlement, all guided the little 
detached communities of exiled Englishmen scattered 
ailing the clearings from Cape Cod to the Gulf erf 


Floriila, and trained them, tliP:«n£rh a protiactod nilnonr}'^ 
fur iud(.'[)endent ai-lf-govenunent. 

fan a grosser injustice l<* ei:inoeiv^.-d i.^i, than to phiec 
a ^'^ivcrunicut thus liuilt on the firondations of a thuu- 
.siiiid v«ir», l»v frtt; a<»n5 uf the (r^x^l uati*.>u in the worlil, 
in «'iiiu|iarL&4jn with the hiL-^ty inipn i\isation of a uati<.»n 
ipf slaves ? In 17l«"s thr whuk- trtlucatod, civiliziMl, suid 
jri'Vi-niing rlass dLsii|ii)t'are<.l fr«:»m Hajti : and a jK.'i»ple 
far Ulow the ^taudin<r uf th« Saxon helot of the Con- 
tjUf>t, jr.ill*"'! with the recent chains of ^laver^■ which so 
|N-«-uli:irly untit man for moderation as a ruler, without 
i-'lui ;iti<.«n iuiil without exjH:rifnre, were suddenly sum- 
ni"n«'il t«i jrnvern themselves. It is something to siiy of 
sui-h a jit-iijile tliat their government has not proveil loss 
>iaKlf, nnr It-.v* c(»mpatil»le with the progress of the 
«-i»iuniunity, than the repuhlies estal»lisiied 1>y the ile- 
•^ tiflant.s uf the Spanish discoverers and deiK>pulatoi>* 
i»f Hi<|iunii>hi. 

Th»- >tatistiis of the Haytian RopuMir furnish sonic 
iniiH»rt;uit •••»niriWutii»ns towan.lsthe desid»ratrd aiiswci-s 
to et hiiolt ij^ncal inquiries. So far as tin* material returns 
I'f the pplitiral economist an* concerneil, the rcsponsi* is 
anvthiuL' hut sati>faetor\". Sevi'iitv veal's am» llispaninhi 
wa* iiiiti'l fi»r its rich plantations of sugar, ciitl'ee, and 
e«'tt«»iL Thn-e veal's iK'fure the nieiuorahle di'chiratiun 
i»f thi* National Convention of Paris, the agricultural 
ppHliirr iif that portion of the island which then iN'lon^ed 
li» Kran<«' w:l-* valur'd at eight millituis sterling. Sugar 
iiM l..nL"T n-cktins aini»ng the llaytian exjioits ; tin' 
ciittoit plantations yirld litth* mi»rc than one million 
|Miiin<I>' wei;:ht {kt annum ; the cotiee plantatii»ns haV4* 
Ui II gnatlv n-iluced ; and the whole annual expi>i'lK 
htih' i'Xi-«td tine million |N)unds sterling. The prineipal 
• ••inmi-riial wealth of the itdand is now derivinl from the 
magniticent foresUs uf mahogany uud fine dyo-wooditf with 


h it» mountains are clothed, and the hides and 
rked bouf of uiimerous herds of cattle pastured aa its 
Terdant plains. The island aristocracy disappeared in 
the insurrt'ction and emigrations of 1795, and with than 
the luxurious demands which the artificial warns of a 
highly ci^Hlized community create. The gardens and 
forests pri'duce almost spontaneously cocoa-nute, gine- 
l^plee, aiid the fruits introduced by the Spaniards from 
southern Europe, such us figs, oranges, pomegranatee. 
and almonds. Maize, millet, cassava, plantains, and 
sweet pritutoes ore raised with little labour ; and the 
Haytian nice of A&ican blood have to a great extent 
resumed thu life of case and careless indolent enjoj-ment 
in which the aborigines passed their days under the rule 
of their native cjiciques. The Spaniards, who broke in 
upon thiit enviable scene, described the verj- social ex- 
istence ■fthii-h they so ruthlessly destroyed, as seemingly 
realizing tlie golden age of poets' dreams. Doubtle^ it 
had its full share of the evils inseparable from the most 
fuvouri'd savage life ; but the worst of these were of 
little moment when compared with the pandemonium 
wliioh the presence of Europeans created ; and perhaps 
the unpnxluctive life of the modem Haj-tian, while sup- 
plying all Iiirt miKlorate wants, contrasts as favourably 
with the i)roductive era prior to the declaration of inde- 
IH'ndouce, as did that of the gentle indigenous race before 
tlif Sii;niiai\ls exploi-ed their mines for gold, and made 
till' i.sljiiid priHluetive alike to the colonist and the crown 
bv tlie fatal .'system of rfpartimieiito. The present popu- 
lalioii is fyiid to employ only about two hours a day in 
pnuluclive labour, and to seek its enjoyment in the 
pii'asiint to whii'h the perpetual summer of the 
island I'iimate invites. But conflicting parties and poli- 
liial i-f volutions, no less than the frequent hurricanes 
aiiil Oi-ciisional earthquakes of Hajtian latitudes, distoifa 

XDv I THE lyrsffsriB eaces. u>r 

the R;T»trxM9 •!£ ioidi Liuiiiienr • iicaizLer?. ind .t«::u1 ~iit:m 
^J si>mie '}t oil* i&'jrxi cnaiinei ii iie. riitr Jionu "nue »i 

i-num* Lpu:>tfi 2r»ni liuv^-r^ lua "iiiLr .r ii"»pe:ir* ::iar 
Dr-irhrr ditt [aiiiun Ajr-aiiiu Jiur .cs .iinriia sur-jt'S^^-jr, 
ani:-! oil :iie 'uiimiiuu1i*«l urMuratC"? >i T^iii uiti ■.•limaco. 
ci'Ui'i •r*<3ir»r rill* Tiuium 'irait-ans )v \"ii*\i oiiui :uars 

liut 'iif::^ u^- .ni':«ii-!ira inar" T'Di "in.* r-iii lu^.'sc:**!! . 
^\xi»ii In Qi-r viii-riiirr m lum.-r'* -x o- r.ii-j oc pun.* or 
mix'il .\irj::ui "'►un^iL xdl iTUiS** mv x'V'.-u ';uauc:iy ot* 
.*u:rir. '.»'lfrt^. ia«: '.«»rr.»ii : .^iir "viit-rutT :: ■.■lui n.-:ir >iu-h 
y..uiij 2*-ii»-r:ir»i Ori /t .ts Avn rurt- i^ siiiiil [vr^vtuato 
tli»- inrriii^r*. uiii >*^'-n i aunv- ri-ii o;? riio iH-niiauotit 
iiihr-h:« r* -f ";i»- ^.L Tjiii* ^ r-'.jiir'.'i tT tullv tvsim*; 
tiiL- «.u»-ri. c. :ii»- "irar^-ri'S -.t ciio Haviiaii I'mpiu* 
aii'i K^-{»u ■..'• -t:i-ni -4, :■> r ti'li;r a v^fi-y .-"siti^i'iu-U'iA 
n-piv. I>:.r-: :7'I ^.ur [i -i-^ilari* -n Is lvluvf*l to li.ur 
Iw-fi .ir.;r " . -H-iiL-i. ^Lii«'i.' rlu'ii rlir i-i»uiiiu*i\**- *»t 

tlj»- >l.ii.-i -..L- ■Jr^-:Ltiy -i-i n.-a-^^l, luu it-* populaU.^u 
nit-aiiwi;.!'- :*.L<» i^-'L^ «.u -Ci-aililv a«lvaiii'ini:. Aiv**^!!^^ 

Sir l;..'r-.r H. Sii-rul.uruk .-tiinat^d it. iiu luilmv? tlio 

• inj.ip- ;ii*'i«: into \vli:.-li {\w '\>\m\A \\^^ »•»»•* 
uivi.i..i. .it .a?*.'"...!; an. I with llu* ailililiiMi-* l»y irn ut 
iiiiii.i;.T:-i''ii, Ih-i-Us ihi* fnlinary iii» naM*. il * iiiii«»t 
ii.iw !- 1.-.- than •.».:iM,iHiii siHiN. Tln^ |inii:.u' .:a\«* »»» 
.P 1- in til.- iH.|»uliti..n ..f Ilayti lias lakni plan- un.l. i 

• ir. -.iiu-tan..-^ far tnmi U-in;^' ta\«nnal»lr to mi. Ii i. nil i 
l;.\..i:-, .xjialriatMns. wars and riVLluti.*!!-* l».»\» '»!• 
...htriliUt.-.l ti» r.taiil its i.r.M:iv>s ; an*! in ISI ' a I. i 
riM- .arili.iui.k.' .ivi-rtlnvw sr\. ral Inwn-.. anM .l.»Ho\«»l* livrs. Novrrllirlr.<siluiinK its l.ii.l liiiu 
of in.lriM.n.lrnl ixisleui:o, whal.vrr ollior rUnimls haxr 


Led u> arrest its advanccmeiit, do indtcaticHis hitbertD 
8t any proof of that iuhercDt tendency towardi 

generacy and sterility which have been aflinned to in- 
toItb the inevitable extinction of such a hybrid race. 

The evidence derivable from the four miUions of 
coloured people in the United States, in reference to the 
sobjects under consideration, is comphcated, and detc- 
rioruted by various elements of uncertainty inseparable 
from the peculiar social condition in which they are 
placed, especially in the Southern States. NevertheJes, 
the Amerieau coloured race offers to the ethnologist a 
highly interesting subject for investigation ; and present 
mateiials from which to gather data for future deduc- 
tions of a more determinate character. Among Ame- 
rican writers, Dr. J, C. Nott has given this subject the 
mofit systematic attention, and has enjoyed peculiariy 
fevoumble opportimities for its study, during a readenee 
of half a century among the mingled white and black 
races of South Carolina and Alabama, and twentj"-five 
years' professional intercouTBe with both. The conclu- 
sions he arrives at, it cannot be doubted, have been 
affected in some degree by opinions and prejudices in- 
separable from obsciTations made on the two races placed 
on so unequal a footing as they are in the States referred 
to ; and his deductions from the evidence he reviews, 
must be considered along with the fundamental theory 
he entertains, that the genus homo includes many primi- 
tive species, and that these species are amenable to the 
s!ime laws which govern species in many other genera. 
He regards such species of men as all proximate, t.e, 
[nodueiug with each other a fertile offspring, in contra- 
diction to remote species, which are barren, and allied 
species, which produce inter se an infertile offspring. 
But idoiig with this, he nuiintains that while some are 
perfectly prolific, others are imperfectly so, pose 



■ nivncy to become extinct when their hybrids are bred 
[' ■l^t?th<T,' Mure t-xtvudvd opjwrtumtics of obiiervatJon 
havi- nUu led Dr. Nott to tlic ccmclusion that cert^iin 
<i/pf.(^rs and rrptdsiotui exist amoug various races of 
Qii'ii, wbicli cuu»o tbi-ir blood to mingle more or less 
Ijerfw.-tly. Contrar)' .to dt'dm-tions published before bis 
<>pportuiiitivA of ol»ervation were extended to Mobile, 
New Orlc^otus and Fensacola : he acknowledges having 
witncMsctl there many examples of great longevity among 
'uobittaee, and sumby instances where their iutennar- 

:.tge% rontrory to his anteceilent experience in South 
' .irolmft, were attended with manifest prulifieacy. He 
BOcordingly recognises an essential distinction between 
mahttoes of the Atluitic and Gulf States. The former 
be regards as the oSBpring of intennixttiru between the 

■ ••jn aad /air-skinned European races, Teutonic and 
' I tic, between whom no natural affinity exists, and who 

;>■ cunx-qaently destined to speedy extinction. The 
;u*-r owe their white blooil to French, Itidion, Spanish, 
i'>rtugue»e, and other tlark-gkinued European niccB, 
^ uh whora be Fonceive* certain atlinilies to the dark 
'■■e* of Africa exist The ela>iaifieatiuu of France in 
liim tatter group is manifestly suggtste*! mure by the 
nctuaJ history of the white oolonists of the Gulf States^ 
than by any precono-jved ethnic cbamcteristics ; and it 
can only lie detarhe<l from the ('cltic nations of Europe 
by on exaggerated estimate of the very limited Basque 
element of it« south-western provinces. But to thia 
dark-i>kinnod, blaek-eytil, hlap\i haired Basque race of . 
wialhtni Europe, an approximation to the African Ber^ 1 
l<er, bith in physical and muml traits, is suggcBtcd ; and 
tfaos Miffirient ethnic afKuities between the essentially 
dLtstinct Eoropeon und African "species" of nuio ore 

■ HftridUf »/ J»lmmU witmtd im (sMkoriai miti ifrntteJ, |>. S7V. TVfM 

pttsmaroajc jcjjt. p:b»k 

^M^Hf» ■Bcsanfi fin Chi! pbunumeua rE^sultnng froa 
Ht^Sttm^BbmB^ "^Soch. rauis, Iiii;mieil in Ani»triirti 
cEl t&e anparteKl ■i^D^pneciJly' give bimdi Co a hai£B( 
A thftntfiuv naH- fnOs sCook dioii whitv rai:e^ aiiik 

la punaing tiua inqoirv. Dr. Nuct has SoUiJw&i the 
example o( Jacquinoc, Hamilttja Sniidi, luui oclier «tkH>^ 
Logista, in. apmnniiic CbaC ' zoolugtcall;^ dptsdditg; m^ 
kind and eamdm otexfj pnM:iHHly cbe aune fotiam^ 

and Tihiil;, in r^ frw iMMi t»1dltt htffn'^ ^'*^ '^f glfmatf^ dow^ ' 
tii-^tioa, and hjrbri^ty; M i—ikmi » governed by the aamt i 
zooIi>pi!ikL lAuva wliieik 1 1 fliiW 1 1 *"""■'« geoerdly.* Btrt 
tbeae are propestiBnA 1 mb ky no ■oas ptpved to 

admit. Apart aHegiAer bam tbe <|a e aftKBi af maitym 
moltiplieity ol' flfieeaes^ ^m Stet is entaiely aiq l oato^ 
that msia'a nonnal ewadmoD ia tiut of domestieaBaB, 

while for all other imiinaLfi it i'^ an ee»enttally aiti&dd 
coihlitioD. Take num in what is p>pal»rlj calkd a 
fltate i^f QiiOire, SMch aa tbe R>_h1 Ia<lijn of the Ame- 
rican forests or prairies. Be lives in a dHnmonity con- 
trolled by many binding, though unwritten laws ; be 
seiecta hia footl, and moiiifies it by arti£oial means, with 
the aid i>f fire, and various prepanitorj' and conservative 
prfifitirtfltirs ; be clothes himself with varjTiig coverings 
according to the changing climate, and also according to 
fa-(hion, tiiste, and prescriptive usage. His marriage, the 
trt:atmt;iit of his wife or wives, the phj-sical ntirture and 
tniiniiig of his offspring, and the choice of the locahty 
for thi-ir permanent residence, are all regulated in a very 
arbitnirj- manner, by motives and influences resulting 
from his soclid condition. Tbe very shape of the bead, 
tli(' «<:;irifiiution and deformation of the body, and the 
lii.s ;iiid iiractices accompanjing birth, puberty, mar- 
ri;iL^i', Hiikiifrts, ami death, are all determined by complex 

I J/ffl.ri,IU^ of A-imiU,]: 3-74. ' /6W. pp. 376, 394. 

XXIV."; TH2 iXTLrjrr: i^cl 

infiueucef : i* wine: UbPr • iviiiiizi:»r..t ar> .x^ 
tbc- lower ^Trrritiii. nm. luii. £i:':»ar::..;:— u o. 7:1 
artiii(!i£i. fondiiiUD c- hi t::.._. :i? 1.,. ::::■. ? ;,::. 
TTm uuiit»i Bavai'-. cir?-**:.. 3.^»n. iii- lu t... .^r— s -:1 

miiUlK^lr Xil« ' UiKUl^cl i ti'Jli:-.^:. a'.i i.'Tir .J. ■• 
Ht:, UIK. ll« aiOU-. 1 . UJ^lliliL --jilUl. T Ti.^ri!;^ 

fiifCimnii-ii't iron i^ < US'* -^^ -t;;;:. •. ••«•■:;,; .-uf.^t.- 
l*.TL<rit> v.iii .: iN-in" t :■--.:-:.*.". ;t in ip nn;. '■•■ 
•iiri'tl.. A*"«»r«i::i.i-. in- -i^-^iz'- !;:._ • :•: :: -s. r.. » 

ban:*!! uiii inipi-." w*-.-: Kznia-s-r :j: i: .]..: -v : .: :s. 
fikil: mil- •'U'lurai-*- -' :.Tr= ^:- T:: ^..;:7.«. r..:*! 
fii'.iur'f III'**" v^iif -"li':-.!-:: ■ :*.;:c^ • :::i..iT ar^i x.-irh- 

Ft2llla^ HUll'v-" 111* l»T^V.lll«.li- !< t::,. ; !i"»- •-..;> ri-tnnM;^ 

Wtiuj : ^-••xi. ?'ar'UiiiT-i !• r.-ii-i •• um iif^^" vir^i:-*, 

Tii- v-n 'iTn"*;!.!!* <r ;J lUi- i- tm' '»' Th noTP v^n i.v.,. 

aiimiii... I'liii— ;ti'-ai«i •.■ariiv iMiU— ■ . a^^iTi -xuV ♦.'■. ni>.. 
I*ij'i'v*. ij-* -uihtiht 1' :ir vii ■■ii*:t' n '\m u-iiv ih, ^ 

Fj»- :;.^;'»-- '*'. :»r—-:. 3 »t :iif •• up : rjin- ;».«v; *•;..;,:.».. •.,, 
liif- u*^- T vjLi-L iiii^L lias .\:-r::'. ;*«.-Tri 81.; il'.-.i 
liiimr.i- \ii<'Ji}''\r liJ.V' .i-;;.Ti^i- ;.?!• . Tif. X u\\ '.'vv »*.,,.., 

1. • . 
•••J» T T T l.*j' liiv* :% t>^ Aim •!!> ••l^1Ul■^l ii i^< \\\% 

iXil-.n-'r iM!:: ii^ i^ ••lli nf jIji- aitJlii 1 h ini-i ■- u nm il 1.^ 

miiij. axi'i !'• .t]«iiii-. Thr •> nu i^l n n <• . n m du 

sa\:;L'- 'V\itll Iiis \h**i aliil lii.s litM*«i' |l iKUtiinii • fin 
fiJ»-« rlKir:irti'ri>tii' of llir lir\! -if. mm- «iI -linl I'l. !,♦. ■ 

til*' i>a>t«»ral >U\W \ x\\\\\ 111 il-i lull i|i \ 1 lit|iiiii mi »m>oi t. 

(iiiiits ill a |N riiliar Hi-iiNr n niuililit 1 nf \\^^^ n "*il . 1 

«liiiat«' rriMtiir. Ah tin* m^hiiIi ni ihlu |ii»»l«4|it|i »M>| llu. 
iiiftrinr animal wi* mt ||m> Imum', IIm* m#| M|h i»ltK»'lh lilM 
hiig, till* :iM^, ami till* f|ii|{ ttlMKt^ lto lit^^ 


ropean race and the Negro is hardier, more prolific 
and therefore more likely to be permanent than that of 
Attglo-American paternity. 

3. JIuIattoes are lesa capable of undergoing fatigue 
and hardship than either the htacks or whiter aud m 
the shortest'livetl of any clai» of the human race. 

4. Mulatto women are i>eeuliarly delicate, and subject 
to a variety of c-lirouie diseases. They are bad breedo^ 
bad nurses, liable to abortions, and their children geoe- 
nlly dib' young. 

5. Mulattoes, Uke Negroes, although unacclimatisd, 
enjoy extraordinary exemption from yellow fever wben 
biought to Charleston, Savimnah, Mobile, or New Orieaaa 

6. When Mulattoes intermarry they are leas proMe 
than when connected either with the white or Negro 
Btock ; and all Mulatto oUapring, if still prolific, are bat 
partially so, and acquire an inherent tendency to mn 
out, and become eventually extinct when kept apuk 
from the parent stocks. 

Assuming, for the sake of argument, that these c(mh 
elusions are indisputable, they reve;d a very remarkable 
series of results, when brought into comparison with the 
data which the cenaus suppbes. The Superintendent of 
the Census of the United States for 1850 appears to in- 
cline towjuds very different conclusions when estimating 
the pmgressivc of the slave and coloured popu- 
lation. Deriving his information from various sources, 
he sets down the whole number of Africans imported at 
all times into the United States prior to 1850 at from 
375,000 to 400,000.^ At present the number of their 
doscendauts, including those of mixed blood, exceeds 
4,(ti.Ki,000. With every deduction for the influence of the 
pure stocks on such increase, in a country where inter- 
mnrriiige between the white and coloured races is almost 

' Compaidium <iflhf Serrnth Ctutut of the UnUtd SlaUa, ^ 13. 


»wn, it seems scarcely possiY^Ie to reconcile snch 
\ M^ith the idea of a race having within it the ele- 

of dideasi', sterility, and inevitable extinction, 
^vcr, in estimating the full value of the previous 
arv of conclusions deduce^l from observed facts, 
iniMirtant admission mast \>: taken into account, 
ive found it im|)o«8il »lc," oliserves Dr. Nott, "to 
t su<-h statistics as would Ikl- satisfactory to other?, 
lie dirtit'ulty arisi-s solely fn>m the want of chastity 
i mulatto womt.'U, which is so notorious as to be 
rbiid." This, and further remarks illustrative of 
une statem«*nt, go far to neutralize the value of 
U, 4, and ; and to suggest tritally ditierent causes 
le liability Xo disease, physical weakness, and steri- 
if a nu-e {)lace<l under such unfavourable circum- 
I'S either for mr^ral or physical development. Sir 
1*8 Ly«'ll, in c^mimenting on the affirmed relative 
i-elual caparity of the coloured race according to the 
niinanrr of white or bhick blo^nl, ad<ls : " It is a 
••riiil t'iut, ]»sych<»l<igieally crinsiden-d, that we should 
le to irar*' the iihcuoniena of hvbritlitv even into 
t»rM <»f intellect and reason." Yet it is not more 
rrful than th«' familiar examples of transmitted in- 
tual rliara«-t<-risli<*.s from one or other parent of the 

rn'«\ tir llie sup|k>s4m1 infiuenre of a su[H.*rior 
mal intellect on the ejirrL-SfM aiding mental faeulties 
*tin;:ui-lied sons. Hut it may l»e presumed that no 
-« pp-parcd to maintain the monstrous doetrine that 
n»rii'M«v of th«.' southern nmlattous is the inevital»Ie 

nf li\ luidity. Y«'t, unlt'Hs sueli ran be proved, the 
ii»>-. di-i-iL-r, and sterility of the mixed niee is pro- 
1 Itv tin- vrry siiiie raust-s which have «h*g«*nenited 
•piiiL'lit !•» an ii;nnl»li* eml some of the rf»yal lines 
till* niii.-^t aiirii-nt blomi of Euro]»e. Again, Dr. 
di-'U.-^ne*) the |H>ssibility of gradual amalgamation 


' the coloured mto the predondnant wfaite 
It is admitted tiiat, aceordiog to the aanoCHia <if 
VnaA aod ^laobK vriteR, vhai the gmde of 
room is reached the Negro tvpe has di a^yf eA. 
thommghlj has this be^D rem:)giiiseii that, by the kl 
some ol th«^ West India Islands, this graile of deaceni 
free. Bat, in (onuDeDting on this. Dr. Xott add^i 
moA be remembeTed that the Spaniards aod a 
pottioD of the population of France are them^lws 
as daifc as any qointeroon, or even a qoadxooti, 
thus h may readily happen that wrj few croeeea wodd 
loerge the dark into the tighter race." Sir Charies Lyefl 
q>eak^of ba^-ing met in South Carolina some " mnlat 
toes" whom he could not distinguish from whites. B&l 
against this Dr. Nott aets his experience of half a ctsi- 
toxy, and adds : " I am not sure that I ever saw at the 
South one of such adult mixed-Uoods so fair that liquid 
not instantaneoualy trace the Negro type in complexion 
and feature." He accordingly affirms as the only ratiooal 
explanation, that " the mulattoes, or mixed breeds, dii 
off iK'fore the dark stain can 1x- wai^betl out by amalga- 
mation." But opinions founded on such loug 
experience, it may still be permissible to 8s\y that, sup- 
po-fing the descendant of mixed blood, quinteroon, sexte- 
roon, or octoroon, to have reached that condition whi''^ 
in the West India Islands at least, is no abstract theoi_ 
of being no longer distinguishable from the white laee 
liow irt HUch descent to be detected ? The freed man 
thus (;manci[iatcd from a degraded caste is not likely to 
blazon ttic bend-sinister on his escutcheon. In my own 
cxpcrii'nce I have seen in Canada several descendants of 
surli nii.\ed blwd, who, still perhaps retaining such 
niimiti- traces iis the e.xpcrienced eye of the author re- 
r<-n-.d \'> would di'twt, yet could mingle without obser- 
vittioii in any white assembly. In one case I have 

THE 7jrrj-r*rrf l^'l. 

in whom ii"- 'j^i^^u:- ■.••r^^-i' • 'ux. -•''— r ":i** 

surh ill & '■■.»ii:»i-.Ij •! li * -u-l-* "i-i.: z-^.i" r 

»tlv ail ••iiiHT'j-: ■! i-iiu-.-iTi-iiiLr , ii. ■:"' ui ...vr.ri. 
tlj».* }»r'-i'n*-iii^ •• r "-li- •" _".L.i- :■■.:-• ■"»•.* «ir 


f^ ^ 

xi'Ti. f'u: • T!j- r.-^ v • .1 - • r i.. "" ".u- -rrr-xx 

N* V. r:!.-j— ;- :i^- v: > :^-— -ir.i.:* r i: :.-' 

i:iv:::j ij;:;rr -- l v :. •- v^- liu* >:*..:*.:• "•::»-:.- 

Ill' Ii • T.'-- : A:- TLL 'ii*.. .-.:i r-.i-!- ti^ iii i-* 

I i* tiiliT 'f a V .Vlj;: V i:i.UL :i--:**!i .-r. r V I;".* 


ri I-V' ii w.i- jrjf'.njj*-: ::, J>^-' :. •:.:.• •■■• ' -I'iV'i-.'J 

•■ ;iii .i'i:ii:\tur»- "f wiiit*- lilr>*M]. jt r«i-ri.xii.-. ju ififi>l 

'■- •xTii'iii'lv «iiili'ult lo rxivry ili'-ui f'^rwanl. Jiul 

liiiiiit' -iiv :i iji« n* «va.-inii of ili^tiu'lioii- lra''e:il»l»' 

-j»ir:: Mt* I .i^ti-. whii'li lixs h- i to .-M-parat^' fnlour<:«l 

> in r;iii;i,i;i ;ls Wfll a« 111 Ncw £iiglan«l. If the 

1 <'i.,ir.-.l chililn*n ailvaneed with average iuullec- 

aparitv np t«i iho age of fourtceu, they miiat have 



ipjeted their common school education ; and only 
ise who aimed at the Central High School, or Harraid 
llegc, could remain to compete with their whit# rivals. 
;re need be no liesitation, however, in allowing d priori 
probahiUtiea in favour of the intellectual inferioriQ^ of 
the coloured people of America as a class, notwithstand- 
ing striking exceptional examples of the reverse. So far 
as their blood ia African, they are the descendants of an 
unintellectual and uncultured nice ; and in so far as they 
are the offspring of southern coloured blood, they are 
sprung from a people excluded from every source of in- 
tellectual or moral development ; so that to expect the 
coloured American to stand up at once on a par with the 
Anglo- American — 

" The heir of all the ages in the foremoat files of titnu," 

is simply to expect grapes of thonis, and figs of thistles 
Before passing on to another subject, it may not be 
8uper0uou3 to notice the use made here of the conve- 
nient term, race. It will be apparent to all who are 
familiar with such inquiiies, that it is employed tJirou^^ 
out this work in its popular sense : not as equivalent 
to species, though that also has become a term of vague 
and variable import ; but as a convenient designation 
for existing varieties of the human family, of which the 
origin of some, and the permanency of others are still 
undetermined. The langus^e and the science are indeed 
both imperfect, in this respect ; and it is more &om 
necessity than choice that the same term ia used in 
speaking of the coloured race, the half-breed race, the 
Indian race, and the human race. It Ls perceived that 
the word is employed in such collocations, as the symbol 
of diflFerent values ; and an attempt is made in the 
Appendix to supply some of the most familiar deficien- 
cies of ethnographic terminology.' But looking to the 

' I'W< Ap]«Ddix B. 


well-anderstood significance of the distinctions of mce, 
whatever be the theory of their origin, the whole history 
of the last two centuries seems to affirm the strongly 
as»*rteJ concliksion of Dr. Knox,— however much it may 
ronflii't with Iiis other deductions, — that race is cvery- 
ihing : Uterature, science, art, in a word, ciWlisation 
dt'{M*nds on it. As to the origin of new varieties, the 
Anjrl<»-Saxnn himself is one of the most striking ilius- 
tnitiuns of Kuch. however many elements we recognise 
a* Compounded into the so-called race; and, to tho^! 
who still Sii- no necessity fur abandoning their belief \\\ 
th».- de.^cnt of all the varieties of mankind from one 
e*»nininn origin, the development of a new and j)ernm 
ntiit typ»% either from the half-bivetls of the Ked Kiver, 

• •r the «-ol«iuix'd |H'ople of Hayti or the States, is an alto 
grther eonceivable thing, and would be no more than is 
as-uiin**! to havi» aln-ady oecurred in the Mjigyars of 
HunLnin*, the Kun»iH.»an Turks, the Lombards of Northern 
Italv, or evfn the minffknl rare desi^rnated in no strietiv 
srit-ntiti"* sense Anglo-Saxons. The hitter, however, 
WfD* the results of the admixture of proxiniat*^ if not. 
lif eo^iiate pares ; while the UKxlern hybrids of the New 
World liavt* spning fn»ni an extreme nnd ai»rupt union 
lif sj»m»* i»f the most tliverse varieties. Time aloiic* ean 

• i«-t«-rmine whether, plaeeil under tin* peeuliar eiri-uni- 
stanifs th»y ni»w oeeupy, in contact with a pn-domi- 
nant an«l nunii*ri<'ally superior witite rare, either of tin in 
will iltvrlop a |K*nnanent variety : or whetlirr tiny an- 
d«'stin> d to rxtiuetion liy absorption into tin* pn^donii- 
naiit stM«k. c»r from inherent 4'li*nifiits i»f drrav "ud 
■-i* rillTv. 

i»ut the (-thiiologifal phenonii'ua of the Anieriraii ('i»m- 
tintiit invite to the eonsidemtion of oth«*r an<l totally 
ili-tiuirt (pii'stii»ns from that of the mixed rnees wliiili 
liivf rt'^ulted from the pciliry cif the Eumpcan coIoniHtH 


ihe Suxou and the CVlt seem to thrive bovoml all thai 
Ls reciirJed in hi.stor}\ But are we ijuile siin* that this 
!»urees« Ls fated to Ik? j»eriiiaiieut { Aimiiallv from 
EupifM: i.H ]N»urfd a hundred thousiiiid men and women 
nf th«* U'st MoikI uf the Si-audinavian, ami twi(*<* that 
numlier of the ])ure ( Vlt ; and .<t» lun*^ a'< this eoutimu's 
h«" is .sun* to thrivr. lint ehrck it, arifst it sinUh'iily, 
.V in ih- vAx^v of Mrxii'o and Peru: thi*»\v the onus ttf 
r |>riNlu<-tiMii u|N)n the ]H»iiulation, n(» longer Kur4»]ii-:iii, 
hut n.itivi*, i»r l»orn on the >\h}{ ; then tht-n* will ('oni«* 
xlir filr\i*s*slr )N>tween the European alien and his ado]it«*d 
f.ithtTland. Thr ehmate, th«* foiTsts, the irmains of th«* 
al«»ri;:ints not y*'t extiiiet ; hist, not It-ast, that nuknown 
and niy>irrious de<rrathition of life and en<-i-jry wlji«lj in 
:tui-i«'nt tinifS seems to have derided tlif fate of all the 
riia*nii'ian, (in'rian, an*! OijJtii- eoh»nies. (.'ut off li'*:n 
thi-ir ori^dnal stoek, they in^adually witht-ri-d and fad«'d, 
and tinallv ilifil awav. Peru an«l M«'xi<'o an- farf n- 

m m 

iP'i.'Tadin*; to their ](rimitive eondition : may not flji- 
N««rtlj«'ni .Slatt-s, under similar «ireuin-taij''« -. »l*« iIh 
AUiie ;"* Sueh are the i'lt'is furiU'-d ou iJjj- -ulij* « » \ty 
an £n;:lish anatomist and |»hv-i"lMji'i.T ; u*»i ao ilny 
without support amouf: iho-i- \vh'»- ji.itj-ij.ij j»»i'i.ji' 
ti'iiis nii«;ht liavr hei-n jir»->uin«-d t" l**- -ntfi* n /<?'•. . m»*ii;.» 
ti> pn'«-Iude tht-m fruni reaiiijv '^viy." i -j*'**..* \ ♦■• . m- li 
opinions Hr. Nott, aft'-r af}ini.:.'-j Tfj-j^ f,i;o'ii. •.;! ••■-1 

and Would iMM-iiine extiurt in N* ^^ J^r;'.'-. ■ '' 

fpim immi;n"»itiun, adds : •*]: u^-uv • .' •. •" . • 

^hetht-r the .-trietly white race- of Lv »'•;*« . f •.■ .^ < , 
aiLipt'il to anv one climate in Awr.'^ Vi« ... # .. 
gen»r.dly find in the Tnite'l .Stat^::* ^ j^- pv^tt.M, ...i.,!. 
tuti..iuilly tijual to that of Gr-sat liniM^u -^ ^tM#-wiy 
axul wir niroUect once heariiig tint ^mmili MlMNldf a p, 
doneJ by Ueniy Clay, althMWJk i^ 



! best agiicQltural {topulatiou in the oonatiy. 
ch an opinion must be the result of deep conYictioa 
rfbre it could I)e thus published by an American writer, 
'en though a neceasaiy corollary from the general pro- 
position he asserts relative to the origin and geographical 
distribution of animals and man. The English anato- 
mist, freed from all nationiU sympathies or prejndices^ 
deals with this idea of the degeneracy of the TraiB- 
atlautic European, or the Euromerican as it may be 
lonvenient to call him, in still more uncompromisiiig 
Hsliion : " Already," he exclaims, " the United States 
lan differs in appearance from the European. The 
Kidics early lose their teeth ; in both sexes the adipose 
cellular cushion interposed between the skin and the 
aponeuroses aud muscles disappears, or at least lose* its 
adipose portion ; the muscles become stringy, and show 
themselvo ; the tendons appear on the surface ; 8)Tnp- 
tovas of premature decay manifest themselves ;"* and 
the conclusion he deduces is that these indicate " not 
the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon into the Red Indian, 
but warnings that the climate has not been made for 
Imu, nor he for the climate." The latter remark is the 
more noticeable from the singular though undesigned 
contradiction offered to it by another distinguished phy- 
siologist. Dr. Carpenter remarks, in his Essay on the 
Varieties of Mankind,' " It has not been pointed out, so 
far iis the author is aware, by any ethnoli^at, that the 
conformation of the cranium seems to have undergone 
a ccrt;iin amount of alteration, even in the Anglo-Saxon 
race of the United States, which assimilates It, in some 
degree, to tliat of the aboriginal inhabitant ;" and after 
noting the peculiarities of New England physiognomy, 

' 0!,l>-Slmli-ja uf A uinuils >.„4 Hit R<icet i^ Moi, Typfi o/ Maai-ind, p. ftS. 

T,.,i.l"8 C;idop-rili<t ,;/' A»<itomi' and Ph-fiol^yy. vol. iv. |i. 1330. 


he thus proceeds : ** There is especially to be noticed an 
excess of breadth between the rami of the lower jaw, 
gi\'uig to the lower part of the fiice a peculiar square- 
ntfsf(ss that l< in striking contrast with the tendency to 
an oval narrowing which is mi»st common among the 
iiihaliitants of the old couutr}*. And it is not a little 
sitniiticaut, tluit the well-marked rhange which lias thus 
shown '\iM.'lf in the course of a xcvy few generations, 
.-«hi»uld tend to assimilate the Anglo-American race to 
the aborigines of the countn': the peculiar physiognomy 
hire ailviTlv*! to, most iissurcdly presenting a transition, 
howtVLT slight, toward that of the North American 
Indian." Were the opinions thus confidently affirmed, 
l«»nie nut l»y my own ol»scrvations, I shouM Ikj tempted 
t> a>si<rii lo some admixture of red blood, as already 
advi'Htit to in a former chapter, a share at least in so 
ninarkaMe a transition from the Eun)pean to the Ame- 
riciin type of man. iJut 1 can seanu-Iy imajiine any 
c»iit' whn Ikls had abumlant opiK)rt unities of familiar- 
Lzin<r hiuisflf with the features of the lndi:iu and the 
Ni-w Hnjriander, traring any approximation in the one 
in xhr otlnT. Nevertheless the pliysinrrnomieal and 
pliy.-^i^id eliaracteristies of the. New Eii^flander are 
MibjiMis of study of the highest im]K>rt:iMee to tli«* 

Tip- evidenee supplii.'d by aiieinit monuments, uw\ 
••-jH-cially by the S4;ulptures and paintings of K^rypt. of 
tii<- constant and undeviatin^ eliaraeter of K4Mne of tlj<' 
ni".-t rt*markabl«* existing typ«s of nj:in, bem fre- 
ijii»-iitly eniploveil as an argument in favour of the |Mr- 
nian'-my «»f typ<-<, and eon.-<-«|Uintly of tli«' essi'nti.'il 
divtr.<*ity and niiiltiplit:ity of human s|>i>(i('s ; ami it lias 
|..-.ii ii.ntid«nily asked, "If all the diHfTfiit ra««'s of 
mall are imleed only varieties of ttw H|M-eirs, how is it ni» Well aseertuineil variety has originat^'d within 



mes T It \a, therefore, r £act (tf tiw 
hK, that in the Xew EnglaDder or Tanke^ we Inve 
ich a variety onmistakablj- presented to vm. Hi» 
toTT U well knoniL Two hundred and ftvty rean 
>, the little " Mayflower" Ltuded on the bleak shores 
I New England the pioneers of civilisation. They 
uoe of a noble old etock, and lHY>nght with them the 
irdj endurance of the Saxon, and the lofty 3|Nri£ <^ 
oe Christian patriot ; and the self-denial, the daii:^ 
nd the stem eodaiance of the Pilgrim Fathers were 
eeded on that bleak November day of the year 1620, 
hen the little band were landed on Plymouth rock, to 
ake for themselves a home and a country in the forest 
*Tldemesa. Now, after an interval of nearly two and 
I half centuriea, it is acknowledged on all bands that tbe 
Sew Engtander differs in many respects very unmistak- 
■ably from the Old Englander, Dr. Kuox, whilst admit- 
ting it, solves the difficulty by classing biin with the 
degenerate Spaniard of Mexico and Ptrm, already hasten- 
ing, as he conceives, to speedy extinction. But the 
Mexican of Spanish descent scarcely differs more widely, 
in his degeneracy, from the conquistador of Cortes, than 
does the modem Spaniard from the proud subject of 
Charles v. The causes of the degeneracy of both are 
patent to all, and lie to a great extent apart from ques- 
tions of chmate or geographical distribution ; but, as we 
liave seen, Dr. Knox further aflirms that the New Eng- 
lander Jtlready manifests symptoms of premature decay; 
and Dr. Nott, a native American, admits that his country- 
men are constitutionally inferior to those of Germany or 
Great Britain. The latter statement is consistent with 
every probal>ility, on a continent which, in the Northern 
States, combines the extremes of temperature of Rome 
and St. Petersburg. But even in this respect the New 
I'jiiglander is unusually favoured with the cooling breezes 

xxiv : to: .stetsitk .liL'z^s. 

i.7«:r^ :.inui;- •• r*i*-^ c ii.- .1. ii-i- • i:u.:r' i 'n •»' 
.-•i-a.. .i-fLi-rf rrnnT.uUa nil '■ u.\- '.i*.' •m-^iml: 

>■■ •■ ••■ :. "^ i-^-^.' i .1' :i'- T"-- r -^laLfi .'.u {"■»■- 

t>r j-:*i:in:ir:t»ii i-r ji iinvi":-::: - j.'iJf ', .-. »*tv:i» n-m 
•L»- •:»::»r.ii ■* iir "•■..:*- -r J;>su '.:■.>• •::-. ^.I'l. \;iiu 
:•■ .*• M>L- iUi'^T-i -n ut- t!t:..-- ''.it:' 'Jl-;-''^. :iv ^- »\ 

Eil:ril-1'' '•'.iTi-:' r.i-.-u ■■-..i— v--!"!' liv v«,,, m* i ti- 

.-. d-"!- •!- >r -" -!T;ur •. '•: ^nu im'i.*-:*" tiKi '•*" 

:l^" ." :• -:l-'* ■'. r 1:1- fi«' ■'i:!' m* ■* ' ? '•- ^ •* 

::.- :_■•" : k: " i.-^ r.^,- ". ::■, '^m:-.-.*.-- ,i. .■ ■ 
:..•.- ■-*::■ .' .-r»:".i .. ■!*.:■ '. ■ .' .<• *.'. « ^ •■ ■ -^ -'^ 

T!.- ■*:*.- '.ir'ii. It' niii'MuiMuir »•! M.'*-.! lit- ..».»n 
l*':*'"! riiiV •»hiir«" in tin' «li*\rK»|iiiii m i-i .it». ii .1 |ii» > »* 

I ••l<>iii/.;i(ii*ii nf |iri'viMii*«l\ |Hii|»|iil i.i.i.'ii h It t 
further axTilnil to rluiiui'-i «•! • hmi»t» «l'' * *•■•* '* 

iUJi;iTi»»n, ainl iiiti'll<M-liliil lli»iii»iifj, all »l»'» !"•*' * ** 

111 ip|Nralioii wlirn'Vrr imwm !•«•■ ^aii»l»:»Ml !»»*••» •*' •"**' 



w and distant home in the wildeniess. And if tvo 
uies in New England have irrought soeh a ehan^ 
the Englishman of the sevente^jnth century, wbai 
y not twenty centuries eflfect ? or, what may be the 
imate climatic influences of Ciuiado, the A^sinaboine 
rritory, or Fraacr's River ; of Utah, C;iUfomia, or the 
tes on the Gulf ? It is only some twelve centniies 
ac the Angle and Saxon migrated as foreign intruden 
England, where the remnant of the elder native noe 
speak, in a language itelligihle to him, of the 
jionack as strangers. i transDiigration, though 

>m a nearer coast than lat of his New Englaad 
sceudant, was a maritime one, and the climatic cbangB 
involved in the transfer to the peculiar insular climate 
of England was not inconsiderable. The Englishman of 
the present day is distinguishable from all his can|i' 
nental Germanic congeners, and is himself a, type of 
comparatively recent origin. Moreover, the Englishman 
of the genuine Angle and Sasou districts, to the south 
of the Humber, is a markedly distinct type from tiie 
northern race, from the Humber to the Moray Firth ; 
while again, in tlie Orkney Islands, the descendants of 
its Norse colonists of the ninth and tenth centuries, not 
only retain distinctive physical characteristics, but their 
inherited maritime instincts and enterprise are so imi- 
versally recognised, that the English aa well as Scottish 
Greenland fleets annually strive to complete tieir crews 
at Kirkwall, before proceeding to the whale fishery in 
the northern seas. The Orkney mariner and fisherman 
is surrounded in his island home by seaa peculiarly ex- 
posed, and in navigating the Pentland Firth, has to croaa 
nn arm of the sea swept by the currents and subject to 
the tempests of the Atlantic and German oceans. But 
that this alone would not make a seaman of him, ia proved 
by the proverbial disinclimition to all maritime daring 

7M -JT2 . ?j~J JLtf -L- . --1. 

cif the hirir C-tsa' i»«i:iiiaCLH 'C "Uc Etr-'rr-.:^ -Hi. -Zjt 
vest i^f Inj&iil 

It I* lit «n'-^ iLJiiir;- ^r^iix i\ 'r* iii-" "i^ T-n^ r "iisr 

a.* thai <i Firmrl ru :!. V-Tll 11.- Z" - ' ' -• -T— :_-:* Z 

St- Viij'-»-L"L v-m :_• ~.— c. •^--:. - ■ ..-.^ ^ ~ i--^ 
who i-ih .T-r.'/irij-: l1 Ljiri-i-~-^ r .^ v-. -r _--li.'" 

KtLi«'{':.iL. ; jj : A— -r. :Lr_ m- -:-. ■_ _r *';-:; -.•* i:'- 
f4rik:ri2 Mi - -j— -'.■.i •- •.' v i- •. v- n- - -_:,- 

Ll* it- ::*:r L^. .".- Tt: -ti-i -. ru • ' '..- — j- .r.;*-.!: 

i»f lirTi:;; :-:.- ."• '-•-- : .; • --■ ..-- •. - '-:• - iii. 

I - 


It .-•« lu- 

in<iij*«'» ••*• X •-..••!- ■ -» r^ — .- » - .. ...-■. ■ .^ - — i • r 

j-n*-! : ;j* 1 :2 ]. ::.- .L'-r... . -"• ..;.».• '-'^-l l- 
iiii'i iiii'Tfi'r • ! :.'-• IT- *: -- '.."..-. :.- : •:.• j-:,u- '■■'/■i'^ 

|i}j\-i«;il <iili- !■ li'f- l"tw. .-li tii«- <].irfv, w-h.-jv hairt^l 

iji't LT'-at^r tli:iii tlj»»?-- othi-r^ whii-L <ii.-tiiiL^isli tin* lii»lo 

aii'i* lit hiM'irir sit*.-.-* al«»iiu tin* >hi»rfS i»f tlio siiiiu- Imliaii 
t ••■t-.iii, liavr l>irii nrovonul ihr hi«:liIy-iiilliH-tiHl Saiisi-rii, 
with its wtiiiiU'ifnl richiicw of gniiiiiiuitiiul forul^ itM 

PRSmSTORW MAN. [ftuf. 

eight ciaes, its six moods, and its nom^YHiB suffixes; 
and the mouosyllahic Chinese, entirely devoid of in- 
flexions, or even what seem to us grammatical forma. 
But in the history of the Romance languages, we see 
how curiously, first by a process of degradation, and 
then of reconstiTiction, a whole group of new lan- 
guages has sprung from the dead parent stock, present- [ 
ing diversities so great as those which distinguish the i 
ancient Latin from the modem French. Moreover, we | 
witness, on the native area of the monosyllabic Chincae, 
our own vernacular tongue actually passing through the 
first transforming stages, in the " Pigeon English " of 
Hong-Kong and Canton. Its name pigeon, which may 
serve as an apt illustration of its vocabulary, is the 
Chinaman's pronunciation of the word btmness. ilr. 
James H. Morris, a recent Canadian visitor to China, 
remarks : " Tliis language has become a regular dialect; 
and, when first heard, it would appear as though the 
speaker was parading indiscriminately a few English 
woids before his hearer, whose duty it was to make a 
meaning out of them. A foreign resident will introduce 
a fi-iend to a Chinese merchant, as follows : Mi chin- 
chin you, this one velly good flin belong mi; mi 
wantchie you do phpel pigeon along he all same 
fashion along mi; spose no do phpel pigeon, mi jiin 
ctivi dowii side mi hotme, talke mi so fashion mt kick 
up hohbery alojig you. To which the Chinaman wiD 
reply : — -Mi savey no casion makery fiaid ; can secure 
do plopel pigeon long youjlin all same fashion long 
you." This language is as simple as it seems absurd ; 
but the words must be arranged as the Chinaman has 
been accustomed to hear them, or he will not understand 
what is said. It is spoken in all the ports of China open 
to foreign trade, and there is no disposition to adopt a 


XUY. i TEE IST2:rsrri I^ri.^ 



*ittX'U5-.^i ir.T' \ ■iiil*ei:': «*'ur':^L'r nv-X"- s--^ "- a Fir-s- 

... a a ••• 

ihi?. I: ■-» :i?if:f.-i; -f T^-rri-.i^ ••: :Lv Srlj-rurv-s wrirri'ii 
l»r a rjiV.vr An-l'\ii. -liv-. in Nrcr»' i-i/'U* an«l in Anibw 
ckira*:' r?. T>;- wririi,;: w^* ex-ri utoi with trrrat lu'ar 

vi*-i :■• t.iX :i- :icrLu::v ..f t:>;- >hfnurir s^'liMhir. In 
L'W.r *. .ir^j-ii, al?--, Frn»h is aln-ailv wrirti-n aii<I 
•j»i»-:i w:::i th.-ilv En:il::rh i«ii«jius, ah»l wirli luiHlitinl 
t-^ni> '-f Eliz.:-:* «-r t .tti^'iian ••riinn. l»ur ir i.-* I'li tlir- 
N'-nii l\i. :r.'* •■-•*;.-: iLit thr m«"^r ninarkaMi- i\.iin|ilr* 
• 'f :!.•• •:•••.■•■;• M^.-ri: «»l an '-nrin-lv ni-w Liul'''' "Ut i»f 
tir- • ' :..r;.i:-:.\:iJi; Kiii]rli'^h an^l uativi- v.Halnilari*". i- ni«\\ 
ill jp-jT'S-. Mr. Paul Kani\ «lurins; hi- triN' N in fhi- 
N"rt:i w..-t. r>->i«lf«l fur s«»mf tinif at Ki»rt \ .inii'uv* r. i^ii 
th'- • ••lunj-:*! hvi.T. anil ari|uin-il th*- -m/ ynir.r^ 
wfr. .'i 1- tii'Tf i:r«»wini; int»» a n«v\'u.i!/*' 1 1«'' 
j»ni.' ij'.il tn!"- in th*- vii-iuity is thf ihiii«H.k. .1 I'l.ihih 
«f :i:v Filth* a«l Inilian*^, wh«i -jw^tk a Lmjini/'* w Im h 
?^' • ntin ly lmtfl»-- all attt-nipts :it it-^ ni.i.-!ti\. lli«J 
ir J- }-Ii- V11I n'»n»' havf ivrr atTainr«l ni«'r«' thin lli*- 
ni •-! •uj»« rti'ial knnwhflfje nf it^ minnK'n uit»T:in« ••-* 
I'Ut t!iM>.- wh«i havr In-on nand anit^ni: tlniii. ri'k»'nnL' 
n-niarks. mi his* appnnich to tho straits «if I*** tn«a. 


• the soft langoages and mpd * 
Desians, the ChinookB presented % nt^abr c 
the slow, deliberate miumer in vfaich tbey i 
ike oat their words, gmng utterance to f 
which could scarcely be represented by c 

Down tetteis." Having heard its attetances a 
■ my behoof by more than one traveller, I i 
□pare them to the inarticulate noises made i 
roat, with the tongue against the teeth or j 
icouraging a horse in driving. Ifr. Kajie ; 
erence to it, " I would willingly give a sperimen of 
3 barbarous language were it possible to represent by 
any combination of our alphabet the horrible, haish, 
spluttering sounds which proceed from the throat, ap- 
pareutly unguided either by the tongue or lip." Fort 
Vancouver is the krgcst of all the posts in the Hadson'b 
Bay Company's Territory, and has frequently npwarfs 
of two hundred voyagcurs with their Indian wives aod 
funiilie« rfftiiliug there, besides the factors and clerks. 
A perfect Babel of languages is to be heard unoogst 
them, as they include a mixture of English, Canadian- 
French, Chinese, Iroquois, Sandwich Islanders, Crees, 
and Chinooka Besides these the Fort is visited for 
trading purposes by Walla-wallas, Klickatata, Kala- 
purgiw, Klackamuss, Cowlitz, and other Indian tribes ; 
and licnrc the growth of a patois by which all can hold 
ititcrcoHi'sc together. The English, as it shapes itself on 
the lips of the natives, forms the substratum ; but the 
Frt;ncli of tlie voyngeurs has also contributed its quota, 
and the remainder is made up of Nootka, Chinook, Cree, 
Hawaiian, and miscellaneous words, contributed by all 
to tlic general stock. The common salutation is Clak- 
lioh-ah-ijuh, which is beheved to have originated from 
tlu'ir hearing one of the residents at the Fort^ named 
(');uk. fi-equoutly addressed by his friends : "Clark, bow 

xnT ] rrz ofrRCsrr^ jjces. 

on tb<j —":»• '.v.. ir*. >•?'*£ iiil '//* v- :• :•, 'vr// 
Id ilk-- zl^-zsj'.c :l iii-i'—iiif r-- ini-- '/.,.. -r n. jl jj:'---?*-. 

utT*.r-i/"-T •:".:•- j-ii*-: v i-. n lu^- u ■ •-- :' u- ::iiiriiii:'-. 
A- !•• :o- j^Lii-iiii.' mm. ■►-r i^i*: ■:>•• l.l'* ■ ii5t.r;i-^:Lr":. 
aii'i V--^ -• - I'Tr-rr*"! '" lit-. Or r ii:--i-.«. V. iin- 
:in«i v-r'^* IS', u-* •• •!.'•' uir." 'rnrii ■'••: i> u: .•.■-:■-— i* 

»rv-.».**'L L ■ C- " ' • ••? 'Vii'i -/ 01 LlI i"u-,;. M- .. i;: . 

i*//t. t" -n. •:■ . j'' . "• ••'. • •* ■ . 'L - - - .. * ■;.*- • 
«ini.k : "'i- 1'-. :•• •• .« N : .• *.„• :...: .- - l..:-. . • • 


• •t xii*- tr.'-- iir- u:. ; r r: \ .-.:.. :v-.: .» :.. : ■ :*.■ 
TJ.»- •■•»iijiii"ii i|'i.-st:-.ii w.u-: 'V.' - . •'. ■- - • . ■. \*:. 
tii'l v«iu *^ -ni»' iV-'Xu : ^tiA i* !;.> ::.• iii-^^-r \\ :- 
»/''''*. fp'iii a ili-'taiii I- ; liiii ill tiii- pi-Iv tin- lir-! -"xinl'.-- 
i- !• iiirtli'iit.'l iuiMi-.iinir t.i till- lii-t.iii- 1- nui'ln -i, -" ili 'i 
ill til'- i-.i>'.' of till* Tail. liiaii tr;i\ill«i hi Ii.hI i.iilwill 
up'iu it with a |iriiliiiii:i*il utti-iMinr, \n iihliali- lli*- 
r«iin'i«' jMiiiit fmin wlit-mc In* had •••»iii«'. .UtLliti i?^ ihi* 
{•r>*noiiii ynii ; U4*iki\ I ; iw : ui'ik'i imd-t'-moi tMlnnk, 1 


has planned the route of overland travel, and even mjn 
the railways are stretching westward towiirds the Rocky 
Mouutaina Explorers are surveying their defiles tor 
the fittest passage, through which to guide the snorting 
steam-horse, and all the wonderful appliances by whici 
the triumphs of modem civiUsation are achieved. If 
such \'ictories were only to be obtained, like these uf 
the first Spanish colonists of the New World, by ibe 
merciless extermination of the Indian occupants of the 
soil, it would be vain to hofie for the endurance of 
states or empires thus founded in iniquity ; but if^ by 
the intrusion of the vigorous races of Europe, smiling 
farms and busy marts are to take the place of the 
tangled trail of the hunter and the wigwam of tie 
savage ; and the milUons of a populous continent, with 
the arts and letters, the matured policy, and the eB- 
nobling impulses of free states, are to replace the few 
thousands of the scattered tribes living on in aimlofls. 
unprogressive strife : even the most sensitive philan- 
thropist may learn to look with resignation, if not with 
complacency, on the peaceful absor{.>tion and extinctinu 
of races who accompHsh so imperfectly every object of 
man's being. If the survivors can be protected against 
personal wrong ; and, so far as wiae policy and a gene- 
rous statesmanship can accomplish it, the Indian he 
admitted to an equal share with the intruding colonizer, 
in all the advantages of progressive civilisation : then 
we may look with satisfaction on the close of that long 
night of the Western World, in which it has given birth 
to no science, no philosophy, no moral teaching that has 
endured ; and hail the dawn of centuries in which the 
states and empires of the West are to claim their place 
in the world's commonwealth of nations, and bear thtai 
]>art in the accelerated progress of the human race. 





The etliuolog}^ of the New World is umiuostiouably 
Dpler than that of Europe or Asia, in its freedom 
»m complicated elementa which retxird our study of 
3 Litter alike in their ancient and moileni sis^K^cts. 
nrertht'li'ss, this may be more apparent than real Our 
owIe<lfre of history prevents our under- estimating 
hwgian or Etruscan, Basque, Mag}'ar, or Celtic ele- 
»nts of diversity. Ignorance may Ixj the cause of 
r ov«Tlooking or under-estimating diversities among 
ueri«'an languages as great as the German and £us- 
ra, or the Saixscrit and the Chinese. America, intlccd, 
pears to have its monosyllaliic Otomi and Mazahui, 
th thi'ir analogies to the Chinese*, and their S(*«*mingly 
lical contrast to tluit {>olys}iitlictic structure which 
p<'ars to U* as predr>minant throughout the New World 
Indi»*Euroi>ean atiinities arc characteristic of the Ian- 
ap-s of EurojK*. But we scarcely know yet how 
itlv to estimate th«' amount of ditfen^nct* ; for Mr. 
hiNilcraft athnns, as a conclusion to whit^ti his intimate 
uiliarity with the Algon«|uiii dial<*cts had led him, 
It th*-y In-tray evidence of liaving In^en built up fnmi 
in<»svllaliic riMits. If this Ih* inde<*d demonntrable in 
y 4»thi'r than tht* vague S4'n.*«4.* in whifth it nniy In* stilted 
evt-ry tongue, the s«ime conclusion will apply to oilier 
iiiricaii languagis. Nearly all the Chip|N'Wu rwH 



bUo: mil 

dc^ be obeerves, are of one ox two s)^llsUfa ; 
ilatiD htu shown that the sune may he affinoed to a 
reitt fxtcut of the Mexican, if the pronomioal adjunrti 
and the constantly recurring terminations are deacbed 
from the radix. But the polysyUabic characieristk* 
f the iUgonquin exceed even those of the Estjuimaox 
ilopbraams are common in aU its dialects, compounded 
of a nuni1>er of articulations, each of which is one of tbe 
ayllables of a distinct word ; and the whole oodeigocB 
[immatical changes as a verbal unit. This, therefore, 
It fjondition widely diverse from that of the moDo^ 
bic languiigca, even where, as in the Otomi, many 
comi)ouuUwl words occur in the vocabulary. But aSia 
making everj- allowance for unknown nations au>I 
tongues, and misinterpreted or xinappreciated elements 
of dilTerence among tlie varieties of man in the New 
World, the range of variation appears to extend over a 
smaller scale than that of Europe or Ama, or even of 
Africa ; while he ia everywhere found there under 
much leas divci-silied modifications of civilized or savage 
life than on the old historic cuutiueuts. The original 
centres of population may have been manifold ; for tie 
evidence of the lengthened period of man's presence in 
America furnishes abundant time for such operations of 
climatic influences, direct or indirect intercouise, or even 
positive intermixture, to break down strongly-marked 
elements of ethnic diversity. Nevertheless, after care- 
fully weighing the various kinds of evidence which have 
been glanced at in previous chapters, they all seem to 
resolve themselves into three great centres of propaga- 
tion, of which the oldest and most influential belongs to 
the southern and not to the northern continent. The 
n>iitos originally pursued in such immigiatioaa may 
have been various, and it is far &om impossible that 
I)oth southern and northern immigrants entered the cos- 


tinent by die same access. Such, however, is not the 
eoQcluaion to which the previous investigations appear 
to me to point If we adopt the most favf)uretl theory, 
that the New World has been entirely peopled from 
Asia, through Behring Strair.s, then the Patagonian 
ahookl be among the oldest, and the Esquimaux the 
most recent of its immigrant occupants. But that which 
aeems theureticaily the esisiest is by no means net^essarily 
the mr«t probable course of migration : and nuiny slight 
imlif-ations <.'ombine to suggest the hypothesis of a 
peopling rif Si">uth America from Asia, thmujrh the islands 
of the Paciiit'. 

The tendency of philological inquiry, as directed to 
th<» p»»i;uliar grammatical strurturti and extreme glos- 
sarial diversities of the Ameriitan lanjruaffes, was at tirst 
to Uiilatt' them entirely, ami to exaggerate their special 
I»h**uomrna into widely prevjUent linguLitic features, 
cr»mmon t«i the N»*w World anil utterly unknown eLse- 
wht-n*. In this the philidogwt only pursued the Siime 
counw; as th«* physiol«>gist, the attentii»u of eaeh U.-ing 
naturullv attrai:t**«l chieflv bv what was di>isimilar t«> all 
that had U-rn oljs«?rved rWwh»-n'. But as physii»l«»giral 
inv«*stigatiuiis have extended, their ilisidosurt'S pn>vr less 
ri»uolui*ivc in the supp«»rt th«*y yield to the favourite. 
th«Nir}-ofan i-si^ential isolation and ethnie divei-sity l«»r 
the Amrriran man. Increasing knowknlge of his hiii 
piap-s t«-ntls rather to diminish the i»roofs i»f that raili- 
lal ditTmuee from aU other forms of human K|H.rrh 
whi.'h wa.H at first too hastily assuiunl. 'rin •^>•Mtll«•^l'' 
.Knu-nt of structuiv, thoiinh v»ry niiiarkaMr in tin- i\- 
t.-iit (.f its a.-vrlopnH'nt, has many analonirs in ann.nt 
Lu»;.ii:ips. ana i* t'lnl.iwea in iIm- K»"«inuiHii<»l |.r.'.r»M 
of all tongues. Uut iH-ynn.l thi- i«j|....i«ut 
t.U:in.nt8 of ri-lationship apFHrar t.. U. iH-tu.;. ii 
lanpiaji... of America an.l th.-^' of Uu- l'ulyu.«n.n hu.nly. 

^^ PREHISTORIC MA jr. [Cmi^ 

early drew atteotioD to certain analogies in the 
jcture of FotyDesiaa and American languages is de- 
rviug of further investigation ; and ptunted oat the 
^culior iQodt: of expressing the tense, mood, and Toioe 
the verb, hy atKxed partides, and the valae given to 
ce over time, as indicated in the predominant locatiw 
irbal form. The peculiar substitution of affixed por- 
leii for inflections, especially in ex|M*esaing the dire<:tki*i 
' the action in relation to the speaker, is common totbe 
ilyneaian and the Oregon languages, and alao Ims aaa- 
^es in the Cherokee.' t squent obser\-ations, though 
jry partially prosecuted, have tended to omfirm thU 
'ea, especially in relation to the languages of South Anit- 
rica, as nh'jwu in their mode of expressing the lease U 
the verb ; in the formation of causative, reciprocal, poten- 
tial, and locative verba by affixes ; and the general system 
of compounded word structure. The incorporation of 
tlie particle with the verbal root appears to embody the 
germ of the more comprehensive Amencan holophrasms. 
liut liLTC again, while seeming to recover links between 
Polynesia and South America, we come on the track of 
affinities no less clearly Asiatic. Striking analogies have 
been recognised between the languages of the Deccan 
ami lhi>se of tlie Polynesian gi'oup, iu which the deter- 
niiiuite significance of the formative particles on the 
virlml root equally admita of comparison with pecu- 
liurities of tlie American languages. Ou this subject 
the Itev. Richard Ganiett remarks that vaasX of the 
laiigunges of the American continent respecting which 
ilefiuite information has been acquired, bear a general 
aiiJiJugy alike to the Polynesian family and the languages 
<if tlie Deecjua, m their methods of distinguishing the 
various modifications of time ; and he adds ; " We may 
venture to assert in general terms that a South American 

' j4uj»ruviii Ellmolor/iral TmnfrKliomn, voL iL p. cliv. 


verb is coD5Srectt«i pwii^iy •>& die same prinriptrr i-- 
tlmse in the T^m^l azui ocher Lmcru^e:^ <t' S a:iim 
India; conascin^. Hke uienu of j. verbal d>.>c. l -^'t q«: 
element drfining 12^ nine or riie dirnt.a. m*: j. :i::r 1 
clenotin£ the sabj-^cc •:* f^r=«:cL"^ Sat:ii i:i»ii«';ir:- o:- c 
pbilolrtgical nblick-n of the iiLui'L- -jf :ii*: P ■iyTir-s'iaii 
anrhipflago and tne Aiiieri>:aii i.^r-cnnen: :•:■ Su:iiTm 
Ariia. ao^oiiv an a»i'iin' 'lULi Lnrrrr^c ^\lkxi tAk-n m ■" c- 
nexi^n with nrmartibie :ni»:e:* •:! me^rilitlii'- -i^^il; r^ir-- 
an<l i.if an'i^nc ston-- smi^rmrr* in :h«-''. r c^ i^'* 
nut^-^i by Captain Beetrher ••!: ?«:'me ••f the Ljinri'L- a-arriyt 
to the ri.(i^tff «.if Chili an«i Prra. in*: ni«>re t^TectLV 'jc^- 
ht-n'r^l **n Bonalar and nth^^r iiLm-L- h"iii:; '-a the Ai^Liri*.* 
^hort73u S»mtr of ih»:^e have alr>^aiiv ••-t^n r*:f«rrreii to in 
tln-ir grDr-ril bearinip ••n •>?eaLi': niic^^ti' -n, an-i 'jn tii*^* 
probaliility uf an era of insular i.-iviiLsii:!. »q, •inrin.i wL: ri 
mariiimtr vnt^rrfiri-!*.* may Livc ^•.i-n «:arrirti i'u: • 11 :'- 
flcalt' unknown 10 the m«.»*t advcrntur-u- «'t ui-irru 
MaLiV iia\"iL::itor&. 

Thf attinili'-n rei:ixrni.^4i'Ie U.-tween ?• -lynvsidn and 
Anirri' iirt.'* in:inif*-»tly U.-LiHl: t«» a r^-m^to i»a>t : and 
the i:h;ira*;ri.*r of sut-h phil»»lf£ri'al nliri'-ns :u< havt* Wtw 
\u^\'wi\X%A fiillv arronl with this. Th'.- dii>';t nlali'»n- 
shi[» of fxisting Pulynt-ian hinmiair»-i is n«»t M«»nL;«'l 
liui M;day : and thi.s is f<ir thi* must {uirt >«> will 
drtin»-d as to iniliratc mi<:mitinns frmn thi- A>iaiii' mn 
tin*'iit tt) tin* Islands uf thf I'ai'iti*' at )H'niN|s ri>ni|Mi.i 
tivi'lv nii-nt : whrnas tht* divii>i!v i»t' tln'M* m{ Annih .1. 
an>l tli«-ir ••.-xiiiially nativ«* viMaliularii-^, |iii»vi* lliai lln* 
latt»'r hav»- In'i'Ii in ]ir<H'«*ss uf iii'Vi*lii|inii'ni li«>ni a h - 
rn»it»' |NTi«Ml fr»i- fri»in all inntai-t wiih t«in«.Mi<--« \\\\u \\. .1^ 
«•• >••#-. Will- still niiHli'lliii^ tlii'm-M'lvt •<> ai-niiilinv '•• *'•• 

S;ini«' Jilall iif tlli»ll;r||t ill ihi' •lu^ti'lUl'i Ir-l.lhti- "I 'I*'' 

I'.uitir. liut llif Ain«*ri(-an liinpua^'i-.^ jin.-tiii •• ^^I'l'lv 

agB^ hammrngi, «c^ to amfee ifiecaBl •tocfy, in ad£- 
m 1* Aii; af 3fa^». ~he Msj^ vkadi |nnrii 
Aaag tuitMtt^ to ik in Its soft, vocalic £xiii^ hta 
itonif ka^liABedto«tk>t towhidiwe areattncted 
Ay aHBc affmt nlitmw to the rwrinible aaiiqD- 
to^ aad tks pa^Ue w u f i t iig cm&Mtaon, of Centtil 
ABmea; «UelfceQBdhB» vas tiie rlmriril langwp 
•f Sootk Ai^'**^*! tks ntHy-vmed and comprebensiTe 
iDBgn^ w^Bcxn, aecoKdi^ to its okler histt^iians, tbe 
poetB of Pern incatponted the naticHial l^endst and 
wliidi tbe Ineas mainly strore to make not only tbe Court 
bngnage, bat the medinm of all <rfBcial intenxmia^ and 
tb^ '--ommon ^>eech of tbor extended empire. 

From some one of the eariy centres of Sontb Ameri- 
can population, planted on tbe Pacific coasts by Poly- 
ne;5ian or other migrati<Hi, and nuiaed in tbe neighbour- 
ing vall>.-}~5 of tbe Andes in remote prdiistoric times, the 
prt^iominant southern race difiosed itael^ or extended 
itri iufiuenc-e through many ramificationa It spread 
northward beyond the Isthmus, expanded tiiroughont 
the peninsalar region of Central America, and after 
occupying for a time tbe Mexican plateau, it overflowed 
along either side of the great mountain chain, reaching 
towanla the northern latitudes of the Pacific, and ei- 
temliug inland to the east of the Kooky Mountains, 
through the great valley watered by the Miamssippi and 
it.'s tributaries. It must not, however, be suppoeed that 

•■» '• 

A. xmicKB£E: : 2nc 

IskUili'- r^f'Ul' liT'J-:.'' :"^'_ Llr 

xnixisitT' t c*'-: oisiiL ^. •-" - .:- 

ll« iiUi*.': lii -UiUxir u:* rr:::: i^ :* -.^^ 

c-axiT** •;■ -ivtr- *.TUuj"i'»i';:.. --jii.-::* •. . . -- ^ 

rTfi'T'-. » ^n ;ill ?:uFi:r»jii c ^l- v -^:-.— . •■• »«-•.• .-t. 

i-'n ten: 111:5''' aiiii- u nt^xiia oxii '.:' «*» -» .k-.-^i .• »-,, 

ti':-. ir >u "li* ra-r;. •; 'iiirr.* :iii: /• V/i-.» y •'» 

iiA^ ^tii- Ui r» i*i iron tiim* y-) \'»»-.Tf 1.^ ,«'.r . --'» 

j.r ••:-••- V i:j. s.jt rr;.4;rii> far :;•,.■ 1v:^,1^^.^n .« -i v.hK 
Ani-n'-iiii ..rl^oii l\.r iho lattrv . Hu^inlt in .i.h'i.l . ., 
f..nnat^'ii their analocii»s jnv \\\\\\ ilt. m.^hIi. m. .1 I; I 
rrj.hjiiir iiatiiins. (in^atlv iu.-M' mh. i. • lii,,, ; ii 1 . 

thiit, wliilo thfir mnii inl IimIii..! |.i ,„ « .» 

Hiiiitli«-ni ami imt tn llu imrili*!,, I,. ,, . 1 1 , .1 ' 

ili.-iilirsf PfilyrifHian iilliintift. ,,. 1..,,,.. ., • 

Dr. I^tliiiUi p'lii.'iiku III lfi» \tnuii. i (If ' 


languages; and separate adjectives are employed to 
ezpresB qualities^ such as size, fomi, proportion, etc., 
fiom those which define the same attributes of inani- 
mate objects, and even of the lower animals. In closing 
his analysis of the Huasteca langUtige, iilong with others 
qwken in Central America, Gidhitin remarks on an 
ilibreviated mode of speech noted by Father Tapia 
Zenteno sis in use by the women, and adils, '' Here, as 
mmongst all the other Indian natii»ns, the names by 
whit-h they express the various degrees of kindred diiler 
from tli<K^' used bv men/' 

Tlie cranial affinities of the Caribs have ahvady been 
referred to. They are essentially dolichoi'ephalic ; and 
the preilominaiice of such configuration throughout the 
American ArchiiH*lago bis been made the basis of im- 
|iortant ethnological deductions. Ketzius especially has 
recordei^I the tipiuion that, while he conceives the Tou- 
gu.*«ian skull to funn a clearly recognised link between 
thoese of the i*hinese and the Escjuimaux ; the other 
primitive doiiehi»cephal:v of America are nearly relateil 
to the (iuanrhes of the Canary Islands, and to the 
|N»pulations of Africa, comprised by Dr. I^itham under 
sulitiivisions of his Atlantidie. The migrati(»ns whieh 
suf.'li attiuities would indicate have alreadv Ix'eu re- 
fcrri'tl ti» as altogether consistent with the prokdiili- 
ti«-s su;rm'ste<l bv the course of ancient navij^ation : and 
if «;ulv Metlitcrran«'an vova«:ers found the AntiUes 
uninhaliited, the g<*nial climate and abundant natural 
resiiun-cs (if thiis<* islands ]KTuliarIy adaptetl them as 
nurs«Tics of MH-h genns of cnloni/iUion for the iieigli- 
iHturinu I'ltiitini'iit. 

Itut inile|N*iMlent of all real or h^iNithetical ramitica- 
\v^\\^ fmiu southern iir insular oiisets of oceanic migni- 
lii'ii, many anali»gies confirm the pn»bability of snnie 
|Mirtiuii fif the North American stm-k having entered the 


tanent from Asia by Beluiiig Straits or the AletrtiaD 
ads; and more probat^y by the latter than tJic for- 
*r, for it 15 the climate that constitutes the real barrier. 
'. interrening sea is no impediment In a southern 
itude, such a narrow passage as Behring Straits would 
re been litUe more interruption to migration than the 
^ras between Aaa and Europe ; and in its own 
itude it is aimually bridgetl by the %-ery power that 
uds it from common use as a highway of the nations, 
■i is thus placed within easy command of any 
noyed or Kamtchatkan sleighing party. It is, in- 
id, a well-authenticated £ict, that the Russians had 
aied from natiTc Siberians of a great continent IjHng 
the east of Kamtchatka, long before Vitus Behring 
nonstrated that the western and eastern hemispheres 
nearly approached, that the grand triumph of Colum- 
B cotdd be performed by the rudest NamoUo in his 
bul canoe. 

By such a route, then, a North American germ of popu- 
lation may have entered the continent from Aaa, difliised 
itaelf over the North-west, and ultimately reached the 
valleys of the Mississippi, and penetrated to southern 
latitudes by a route to the east of the Rocky Mountains. 
Many centuries may have intervened between their 
first immigration, and their coming in contact with the 
races of the southern continent ; and philological and 
other evidence indicates that if such a north-western 
immigration be reaUy demonstrable, it is also one of 
very ancient date. But so far as I have been able to 
study such evidence, much of that hitherto adduced 
appears to point the other way ; and while, theoretically, 
the northern passage seems so easy, yet so far as any 
direct proof goes, the Polynesian entrance into the south, 
across the wide biurier of the Pacific, is the one most 
readily sustained. 


Mr. Lewis K. Daa. a learned Norwegian, has traced 

at certain tnirioUH affinities between the Samoycd lan- 

ft of northern Asia and some of those of jVuierioa ; 

1 through the other dialecbs of Siberia, and the rula 

I of t>oth to those of the Finnic und Altaic et^Kik, 

ioiu|)letc8, as he conceives, a chain of couucxion, east- 

l firom Nurth Cape to Behring Strait*, and thence to 

American utocka beyond the Pacific. Bat 

npBiiaon is chiefly ttaavd ou a pandlcli^m of voca- 

, and not ou any n'upiM>anuice of the peculiar 

rooDBiructive elements of the American languages. It docs 

I'ttit, therefore, lead us very far ; for the deteruuDation of 

I ^U) true form of the radical, fur the purpose of useful com- 

L puisoD, in the nowritten laugunges of nomaile tribes, is 

! exceedingly difticult. But it does furnish some guidance, 

tlwogh Dot, as I conceive, in the direction its author 

naagines. He has dcn]on»trate<]. as he believes, certain 

■triking Asiatic atKnities in the Atliahaskan and Dakota 

tougUM ; and has shown a series of very ttuggvativc 

nlieit ht'twvcu words in the Aitiatic; and North 

riean lauguagca, ruhitiug to primitive art«, custumn, 

the nulimeutaiy t«rms of religious liehef. These 

dude God, prieii, slave, dog.Jtrr, vietal, cvpf>er, knife, 

awl, Inxtt, hvuw, tent, x'ilUige, door, iqtin, hag: 

I fur the most part relating to art^i, institutions, 

nd opinions, common to the rudest tril>eii of Asia 

America. Following out the i<lea foundetl on 

nch endcnce, Air. Uaa is disposed to trace the entire 

; of the wcsteni hemisphere to successive, wav^ 
I migntioa flowing on in a continuous stream i 

J Stnits, and he pushes bis theory far beyi 
I kgitimute bearings by aflirming : " That the low 
Iftvige^ unacquainted with hnuaueaudganDcntB,arefi 
t South America only, in Itnucil and Ouyaua, fm 
T from Asia ; uid that the fishing tribes that Iwnler 

PREBlSTUklC MAX. [tlut 

» Arctic and Pacific Oceans, from Labtador to Otvgoa 
the Esquimaux, the Athabaskan^, and their kindied,— 
^ing in the closest contact with A^, are also the most 
Droved, if we take into account their baid ctimatc^^ 
)es not this," he aaks, " point out the b^inning and 
! end of the immigration i" But, in so Car as any 
tch difference really exists, it is altogether the product 
climate, and furnishes no gauge of the relative age of 
tioDs. Whatever may have been the original diree- 
1 of the current of migration, such eWdencc aa philo- 
icaJ comparisona with Northern Asia reveal, when 
Fred along with the more comprehensive analogies 
:ated to Southera Asia, appears to point rather to the 
lb than the flow of such a tide, and di^eloges elements 
ntributed by America to the older world of Asia. It 
worthy of notice, in connexion with this view of the 
subject, that Charlevoix, in hia essay on the Origin of 
the Indians, states that P^re Grellon, one of the French 
JeHuit Fiithers, met a Huron woman on the pl^ns of 
Tartary, who had been sold from tribe to tribe, until ^e 
had passed from Behring Straits into Central Asia. By 
such intercourse as this incident illustrates, it is not 
difficult to conceive of some intermixture of vocabula- 
ries ; !tnd that such transmigration has taken place to a 
considerable extent is proved by the intimate affinities 
between the tribes on both sides of Behring Straits. 

The Esquimaux occupy a very remarkable position as 
a double link between America and Asia, Extending 
as they do in their detached and wandering tribes across 
the whole continent, from Greenland to Behring Straits, 
they appear, nevertheless, as the occupants of a diminish- 
ing ratlier than an expanding area. When the first 
authenticated immigration from Europe to America took 
jdacc in the eleventh century, it was with the Esquimaux 

1 Traatactiom of the FMl-jiogkal Soadij, 1856, |i. 293. 


that the Scandinavians of Greenland, and apparently even 
the diacovcrerB of Vinland, were brought in contact. If 
the ScraelingB of New England at that comparatively 
recent date, were indeed Esquimaux, it is the clearest 
evidence we have of the recent intrusion of the Red 
Indians there. When the sites of the ancient Norse 
colonies of Greenland were rediscovered and visited by 
the Danes, they imagined they could recognise in the 
physiognomy of some of the Escjuimaux who still people 
the inhospitable shores of Davis Straits, traces of 
admixture between the old native and Scandinavian or 
Icelandic blood. Of the Greenland colonies the Esqui- 
maux had perpetuated many traditions, refemug to the 
colonists under the native name of Kablunet, But of 
the old European language that had been spoken among 
them for centuries, the fact is a higlily significant one 
that the word Kona^ used by them as a synonym 
for woman. Is the only clearly recognised tnice. But 
tht* Esquimaux, who thus took so sjxiringly from the 
languages of the old world, have contributeil in a re 
markable manner to them. The Tsf.*hukt8chi, on the 
Asiatic side of Behring Straits, speak dialects of the 
An^tic American language. The Alaskan and the 
Tshugazzi [keninsulas an^ peopleil by Esquimaux ; the 
K«»nc*«nm of Kudjak island belong to the s;ime stock ; 
and all the dicalects 8})oken in the Aleutian Islands, tht; 
supiKx^'d highway from Asia to AnuTica, la'tray in like 
manner the closest affinities to the Arctic Mougolidiv 
of the N<*w World. Their languages are not only un- 
doubted contributions from America to Asia, but thry 
an* of recent origin, as compartMl with tin* traces of ri*la- 
tioiLship lietwe^'n those of the wt»stern heniisi»hrre and 
th<' languages of Asia to whirh thest* bear any analogy. 
ThLs is shown by the close affinities between thi* 
Esi|uin)aux dialects of Inith continents, when contrasted 

m fftfimf €ar wmj^ Mhet 
remnta dbnie and fttUagieal gcnealogia, it mar be 

wtrtb mailing AmX, aloog witli the old^r and more 
nliwrurr! traces of linguistic affimties idiieh He beyond 
itli'l within the diacontinnons Ugrian area, analogies 
willi tho [lolyxTnthetic element of the American lan- 
fpiiifffn have been long eoogfat in the peculiar ag^utinate 
i-hnnurt^riHtics of the Eoskara or Basque. It would be 
n rrtnnrkablc and most nnlooked for result of the in- 
^rrii<iii»t hypothesiB of Amdt and Rask, if it were found 
t«i reHolvc itaelf mto ancient tide-maiks of two great 
WRVcf) of population : the one the broad stream of Indo- 
Kim)[>onn migration setting north-westward towards tiie 
ithoreH of the Atlantic, and the other an overflow from 
liii; western hemisphere, also setting westward, but 
within those higher latitudes of which history has taken 
111) lu-roiint, and only coming «-ithin the range of obser- 
viilioii im it breaks and disperses in the shock of colli- 



the world'a later historic stock. Yet such is 
not utteriy improbable. The shores of the Imlian Ocean 
were doubtless reached by an early wave of aboriginal 
population. Pru£ H. U. Wilson points out in his edition 
of the Rig Vetla Sanhiia^ as specially worthy of notice, 
that at the remote epoch of the earliest of the Vedaa» 
the Indo-European Asiatics were already a maritime 
and mercantile pei>ple. With the development of skill 
and enterprise, maritime wanderers must have speedily 
paaaed over into the ne«u*er island groups. From thence 
to the remoter islands was as easy at an early as at any 
later date ; and a glance at a hydrographic cbirt of the 
Pacific will show that a boat, driven a few degrees to 
the south of Pitcaim, Easter, or the Austral Islands, 
would come within the range of the Antarctic drift cur- 
rent, whirh sets directly towanls the Cliili and Peni\4an 
oouta It is, moreover, among the easternmost of those 
Polynesian islands that Captain Beechey noted the occur- 
rence of colossal statues on platforms of hewn stone, or 
frequently fallen and mutilated : objects of neglectful 
wonder only, and not of worship, to the present in- 
habitants, who appear to be incapable of such workman- 
ship. Similar sculptures, indeed, were obser\'ed on other 
islands, now uninhabited, and many traces indicate an 
ancient history altogether distinct from that of the later 
island races. Wanderers by the oceanic route to the 
New World may therefore have l)egun the peopling of 
South Americii long before the north-eastern latitudes of 
Asia receivetl the first nomades into their inhospitable 
steppes, auil ojK'neil up a way to the narrow passage of 
the N«»rth Pacific. At any rate, the north-eiistera move- 
ment of the tide of migration, iiud its (»vertlow into 
America, have U'en too abs4>lutelv assmue^l as the chief 
or wjle means l>y which the New World could 1k^ j>eopled 
fn»m an Asiatic centre. 

vou II. 2 K 



1b oKhtr rasfiects »Uo the tendency has been to void 
Ae nooni bttckwanls. Among the Atnahs. Chinmhl^ 
Kuqaiffiaw a&^ other rude tribes on tlic Oregon coM^ 
llw naco rth clickiDg sounds equally harsh and imdefiud ] 
to BarofMaa taxs, resolve themselves, when reduced to 
vritiB^ into tbc tli, txl, atl, iztii, and t/otl^ of the moet 
Mexk-uu ternimations. But looking at 
IS uulogous to one of Uic old Mexican 
{MCtUKS. (he important questiou is, "What is 

i Aivctiaa of the footprints ? Do they reveal the tni) 
of the aJ^-inoiu^ Mt'xicaus, as tracks left behind them 
OB their way tovards tho plateau of Anahuac, or an 
tfaey the BMve kAcs traces of liter and indirect SIcxicaD 
nfliMMM ! tUs bmer I coucvive to be most probable 
%f aU just estiiute of thx very partial nnturc of the 
tnces; AaA x'^t they arc curiously suggestive, and fiiU 
of intcKst. «lfe<cting as they do Itoth the loDgttagcs 
and arts of the North-west. In this direction, hoirevcr, 
while fiioilitio^ for intercourse between Amoriea imd 
Asia are obWous aiou|^ the only well-defined indica- 
tions of their use arw by those hyperborean nomades 
who h;ivo s«>ught a new hiHue iu old Asia. 

But fontiuiug our view to the American continent, 
tho north and s^mth tropics were the centres of two very 
distinct and seemingly independent manifestations <rf 
native development ; and many points of contrast be- 
twrt'u them tend to confirm the idea of intimate rela- 
tions K'twceu the immatiire north and such matured 
prv>gress as Mexican civilisation had achieved. But also 
this ide;t receives confirmation from equally clear indica- 
tions of an overlapping of two or more distinct migra- 
tor)' trails leading from opposite points. The ebb and 
flow of the northern and southern waves of migration 
within the area of the northern continent have left 
many tidal marks, with evidence of some interchange 

\ETn.\0G8APHic tirporuasES. miqratjoxs. mx 

f urtK, nod u cousidenibk- ttdiuixture of blood. These 
fcave alitauly Ix-vn sufficiently R-forred to iu coiurider- 
lim physiwtl aud inU'Uectual chanu'turistiKB of the 
Mouitd-Hmld(.'rK. Hut thU further may t>c admirudhle 
ill tho forui of flugK'^^tivt; hyiK)thL'«is. Tht- doli- 
eboc-cpludif fonu of cruuiuiu pn-doniiiiiittM uniong t!i<i 
ntiltbcni trilxai, an Wull im th(- EMjuuiiaux. Tlial of the 
Moaml'BaUdcn apivcum to hu\'u liueii very markedly 
hrachyci'phnli<^ Thu trilics lyiug t)utwtieu ihc countiy 
f the Mouud-BuUdt-ni aud Mi-xico pre»t;ut^;d nii iutvr- 
mediate ly(x.-, luid wen: HU[>tirior tii artistic Hkill to thv 
nurtbcni mitiouH. May it not \n: that wt; havu here 
I of nu imiptioti of iiorthvni liarbariatiH on the 
tanu-civilizcd MotiiiH-Buildct^. an cxt4>nniiiation of the 
^ an pxtenaivi! ititerniamage witli the femalen, and 
the aauAJ results, of which the history' of European 
i fumishvs niiuiy illustratioiiB ? 
Thu Cviitnt] Auieritau civiliaatiou, the most nutured 
of all ihjit thf New World gave birth to, wiw, I couceivo, 
mainly of aouthum ori|Tiu. Much that pi^rtaincd to 
-Meziiau) arts and poUty wan Htill mom i-li<nrly derived 
from the iiorlli. But thcTt- aix- alno eviduitcfH of mutual 
JntuTufaatigt.-. It muHt lie iKinie in rcmumlinuiiru tliut 
Vfl faavt' iu reidity no Huch thing a» u puru nice among 
tbe historic; nation^ of tlii' old world. Atlmixtun-, not 
•parity. »eKmn tin- (tvKiitint olemtitit of jtnignMfi. 
Greeks were no |iunj race, still less were the Routa 
1 neither are th>.< >^panianl8, the Fn.'nch, tlie Eu^ 
' the Angto-AmencaniL If we want pure, that is. 
bluo<], we must suek it in the hut of the Kiu, 
J teni of the Awb, or for the Xew World iu ttw Indian 
Then.- U abuiidjiut t>videucL* that the nuxa of 
, Yucutmi, and Auidiiuif wen: tUc jirotluvtii of great 
iotennuclim- : it way have Ut-ii of cJow-ly aUlcJ niee^ 
wt alio, au<i mon- [irotmblr, of wididy divcrou ooea. In 


tempted to ooneen* 


America eqwcial^ we are 1 
«f Ike pmeaUe — ■"^^g of muoatan.' Soutli Axnencan 
wilii tfaat vliidi an essentially distioct 
had borne acroes tiie AtLiuDo, it mny bt^ 
in accordance with the fooifiy-cbeiigbed dream of the 
modem Ammcas, while ret th^ fleets of Tyre and Cbi^ 
ifaage swept fearieeshr berond the Pillats of Hereoks 
iuto ^K gnat engirdling oc«au of their ancient wodd. 
Heie, at any rate, are such indications of intenniztuie ud 
interchange as iuTeeti^tifni helps as to recover. Sooth 
America had her immatore picture-writing her scnlp- 
ttired chronicles or hasso-relievoe^ her mimetic pottery, 
her de&ned symbolism and aseocutted ideas of cohmrs, 
and h» qoipus. North America had her astronomical 
science, her more developed though crude picture-wiii- 
in^ her totems, pipe-sculpture;, and wampum ; and her 
older Mound-Builders, with their uniform standards uf 
weight and mensoratiou. Each had a nearly equally 
developed metallmgy. In Central America we seem to 
look on the niirt of intellectual interclLinge, and the 
centre towards which all elements of progress converge 
into the grand product of that civilisation still so wonder- 
ful in its ruins. The idea may be intelligibly presented 
to the eye thus ; — 


South AitsBiCA. 

Picture Writing. 
Bas-relief ChroniclingB. 
Mimetic Pottery. 
Metallur^c Art. 
The Balaaw. 
Agricultural Scieocc 
Be«t8 of Burden. 
Peruviui Aamutli!!. 

North Aherica. 

The Wampam. 
The Totem. 
Picture Writing. 
Mimetic Pipe-eculptnre. 
Metallui^c Art. 
Standard Weights. 
Geometrical Mensuixtion. 
Metallic Currency. 
The AstronomiaJ Calendar. 


Cbhtral America. 

Fictile Art 
PtMtnut 8cul(»tuiv. 

To the characteristics thus ilistributed among the more 
civDizetl nations of the New World, have to be added 
that strange custom of craniiU deformation, ancient 
Asiatic as well as American, and not unknown to the 
islanders of the Pacific It is common to nations north 
and south of the Isthmus of Panama, yet seemingly 
more truly indigenous to the southern than the northern 
continent ; and it is fully more probable that it was 
derived by the Asiatic macrocephali, than originaUy con- 
tributed from their Eiistem steppes to the prairies and 
forests of what we style the New World. 

The idea which tk*ems best to harmonize with the 
varii'il though still imperfect evidence thus glanced at» 
when viewed in connexion with a supposed Asiatic 
CRuUe-Iantl, con^^eives the earliest current of population 
destined for the New World to have spread through the 
Uhintls of the Paritic, and to have reached the South 
Amt*rican continent long Ix'fore an excess of Asiatic 
papulation had diffused itself into its own inhospitable 
northeni st^^ppt^ ; that by an Atlantic oceanic migration, 
another wave of pojmlation passed by the Canaries^ 
Mtiileira, luid the Azores, io the Antilles, Centnd Ame- 
rit-a, antl pn»lwibly by the Cajn* Venles, or, guided by 
tht* mt>n' M»utheni etjuatorial current, to Bnizil; and that, 
latetst of all, the IVhring Straits and the North Pacific 
Islands may have become the highway for a northern 
migration by which certain striking diversities of nations 


■(■It mdiuUug th*; coiiqucn)ni nf 

>e Bost eatsily accounted for. Bot 

^ rriicDcc is chicily inferential ; 

ares imtbcr indicate the same 

Sovtbern Asia to the Pacific 

atoving «nwanl tiU it oyer- 

mi die Aleutian Island^ iuto 

it w*s originally derived. 

at truth, suggestive it may 

pemiiseiMe in gathering up the 

Mwnmitiigd. though still very 

■ok to be eonfounded with its 






In previoas chapters are emlxKlied the impressionn 
prcKluoed hy {>ersunal oliserwitioii and direct intercourse 
with a {>eoplc in the primitive condition of the RihI 
Indians of the* American forests, after years devoted to 
the study of the traces of an alMjriginal population in the 
British IshuKls. 80 much that is natural to the habits 
and simple arts of savage life, as seen among the Indiana 
of the New World, has pres4'nted itself to my eye and 
mintl as the realization in a living present of wluit I ha^l 
ain*ady concoivi*<l of amid the n»lics of Britain's allophy- 
lian triUfs, that I am led to In^lieve such archax>logicid 
n-searchea may Ik» foun<l to have constituted a useful 
pn*|nirative for the study of American ethnology, and 
tin* s<»lution of some of the deeply interesting problems 
which are suggested hy the phcn«>mena it dischmes ; nor 
i*an 1 now doubt tlmt the ol>servation of man in such 
priniitivi* stages of sociid ilevelopment furnishes im|xir- 
tant aid towanis the true inteq>retation of some of the 
first tnici-s of human history which S4> curiously underlie 
the Iat4?r reconls of his presence in EurojH?. The prchis- 
t4»ric glimpses recorded in pn»vious chapters refer, ac- 
conlingly, fully as murh to the Old World as the New. 
The latter has furnished not only a novel field of study, 
but an entirely new |)oint of view, even for those re- 
searches into the histor}' of the primevid muu of Britain 



viach kad already been mitiutcly punooi 
8hm «U 'vims hsn been modifiod, while othos at ] 
^mitmrnmA mak sewknd even more clear. But cool 
■■ ay finKT veHHC^fS were to an area so limiud, a 
AniMgivitik tearita vliicl) claimed some of their peculiir 
fatbenet feantkevcflT insnlaiioD of the microcosm within 
«1m^ iteey wo* emlinoed : t feel the more at libettf, 
^iha» vMMlftilg to dekl with similar traecx pertaining 
•• * oaaltMH^ t» **"S" ^^^^^ beyond its confine^ and to 
le»dings of the younger scicnoe 
affecting the whcde compass of etb- 

1b thM) rmnring the evidence elicited by the di»- 
<f ^LMeriniM aidueology aud cttmology, I hart 
ihk ywT tB MJy reconied researches with do 
ttewato theoiy to vantoin, l*ut have anxiously striven 
to «mv* ak IK iayrtiri decisiou as to what are the 
llfdiimto JeA«crioiM frm the evidence The detenni- 
«MlM« «f the Tefattioxis which the man of America bean 
to the fi«Kif«nui or Asiatic man is felt to involve sach 
umptvraxit rt>eiults, tiuit this veiy fact has helped to im- 
p«\io ihi-' jwx-^^ss of truth. The assailant has, perhaps, 
Wt oniKiJiit'-noil at timos by the veiy gravity of the 
issiu's ini]x^rilk\1 by his attack ; while the adherents to a 
^ih in jhc all-<\»mjwvhensive hrotheriiood of man, have 
r*ihor cntivni'lHvl themseh'es in their own stroQ^<^ds 
th»n fairly ni.^l iheir opponents on the open fidd of 
sciontitio intinir\\ Scientific truths, whatever be the 
intej\>st# ilh-y involve, can only be determined on scien- 
titio ^nnids : and on such only has any attempt been 
nvido t<> Ktse tliom in this work. But if an inqimy 
thus honostly anil imp.\rtially pursued — like a problem 
wmught out by algel«aical notation,— brings out a resolt 
pnviiscly con\'s|X)UiUng to conclusions already deter- 
niiin*<l bv wholly independent proof, it cannot be onac- 


ceptalile even to those who stand in no need of its 
coofinnatioD. Such has been my experience in the 
pnsent inquiry. The subject presented itself in novel 
: the results, whatever they should prove to be, 
welcome, since I had no preconceived theory at 
; but, as the subject has expanded before me, I 
have more and more been convinced how needless a 
thing it is to supplant ancient belief, from too ready a 
yielding to the seductive temptations of novel and seem- 
ingly simple hypothese^s which commend themselves to 
the judgment by their apparent solution of difficulties. 
It is little more than three and a half centuries since the 
men of the Old and the New World met face to face. 
For unknown ages before that Amerii'a had been a world 
within herself, with nations, languages, arts» and civilisa- 
tioD aU her own ; and the whole tendencv of that later 
American science, which also claims to lie native, though 
the product of a race of European descent, has been to 
make of the red man a distinct race and 8(>ccie8. I have 
appmached the inquir}' pursued in the previous chapters 
with an earnest desire Uy avoid prejudging this question, 
*«• testing it on other than puri'ly scientitie evidence. 
But the ivsult has U^^n to siitisfv me that then* is no 
ground for si^piarating the Ameriean fn>m the As<iatie 
man ; but that, on the contrary', gn^ater difficulties 
ex\^ in reconciling our l»i*li(*f in the de^scent (»f all 
men fn»m a common st^vk, when we pn^eed t4> 4-om 
port? some of the diverse triUvs mul nations of the 
Asiatic continent, than anv tliat interfere with our 
ai;«-tptance of the dogma that the Mongols of Asia and 
Ameri«*a an^ one. 

In the iiigi*nious speculations on the origin of s|)e<*ie8 
bv which (/haries Dsini^'in hiis startled the (scientific 


world, he remarks, as he draws his first alMtraet \o a 
e|<jse : " The whoh* history of the wi»rld, as at present 


Uk, win iuneaha- Ik leoagmaed as a mere fragnieat of 
lime. >«aqaMd «alii tike a^ iducli have elapaed BBce 
Aefan- tiMtlPe, Ae pwgeadtor cJ innnmerBhIe eitinrt 
^■d Gnog •4awaBBMtf^ was <Tekt«d. In the dtstut 
fataae I we ^s fitAdi fa- fau- mon; impoitAnt k 
«S W tnaed on a Dew fiian<b- 
ii of each onaitaJ 
L^t vill he thnnn 
Ae «a^^ 'rf BMi wmA in IdsbnT.'' Alivadj the 
^lennilBtSniis of Danrixi hare dfiDc good service lo ibe 
etdmoltigisl, dumgii oal in tbe way be intended or 
imn^ned ^tj lAiaaid. Iliejr vill not peremnde him 
tint tiie g am^sae s a podact of measured and )>eaiiliiul 
nnb^ viAni «Uc& das cartk-plaDet has gtine cjding 
IB acoordiBg ta fixed laws, until, from tbe simplest 
■icmad (V life-gem, ^"^t^a fcnns r^ wnnder and beaut)' 
liara been enilved. *^'™^ at lenc;th with the evolntioa 
«f man, as rW latest and crmnung work of sach de- 
»«D(nI : liol ll>fT may give a ofw foree tn the 
persnaaon 'if many, tJiat time and external inflaences 
^Tipj'ly aD ihe raqiiist^ elements for the evolution of 
varviiig tribes of mankind from a common stock. Mr. 
Danrin ha.'; not succeeded, in the whole cotirse of his 
ingenious ai^ument, thoo^ retnming to it again and 
again, in tracing the slightest indications of that favourite 
illustration of tbe instability of species, the pigeon, 
being developed out of any essentially distinct fonn. 
But he has shown that pigeons have been subjected to 
the influences of domestication and of civilisation for 
thousands of years ; that one of the most favourable 
circumstances for their production of distinct breeds is 
to Ije trace<I to the fact, that male and female pigeons 
call Im! easily mat^d fur life ; and that they have been 
I'otiiid capjible of domestication alike in Northern Europe, 


in Egypt^ and in Southern India. Selecting some of 
the greatest of known extremes within the natural 
fiunily of Colutnbidof subjected to such influence, he 
remarks : " Although an English carrier or short-faireil 
tanihler diflers immensely in certain characters from the 
rock-pigeon, yet, by comj)aring the several sulnbree^ls 
of these bretnls, nion» e8jH?cially those brought from 
distant countries, we can make an almost perfect series 
between the extremes of structure/' In so far as these 
are well -accredited fact8, entirely independent of the 
theory they are advanced to maintain, they furnish in- 
teresting analogies readily applicable to the so-called 
races of men. It is easy to Rulnlividt* the human family, 
as Hlumenliach has done, into C^auciisian, Mongolian, 
Ethiopian, Malay, and American ; nor is it diflicult to 
select a t)i)ical «*xample of each, presenting ver}' striking 
elements o( contrast to all tho otheix But, meanwhile, 
refleanh tends only to the nudtiplif*ation of species. 
Pickering makes eleven, and lV»rey de St. Vincent, 
fifteen. Gliddon and Nott, follo^^ing out the sugges 
tive itlea of Agassiz as to tlu» correspondence of <liverse 
species of man with the natunil geographical areas <»f 
the animal cn*ation, liavt* dividi^l the gloln; into eight 
zoological realms. Through tlnHc tlu*y «listribute their 
human fauna under forty throe different heails ; and it 
is by no means apparent that this is a suflicientiy lil>eral 
appirtionmunt to t^xhaust tin* riHjuin^ments for such 
primar)' human s|>ecii\s as this th<»ory <b*man<ls. Hut, 
meanwhile, as the sjiecies multiply, the elements of 
diversity diminish. The int4»r\'als l^otween st»emingly 
primar}' tyi»i<!al forms, surh as thon* of Hlumenluu*h, 
are nipidly fille<l up. Inst4*ad nf isiilatt^j and diverse 
forms, we have a nearly continuous chain, jKianing by 
slightly var}'ing links from one to the other fonn ; and 
here once more we realiz«.* what Dana'in h«is oliser\'ed of 


Ips Gthgmlbid<e^ that we can ntaice an ahooa 
•erics betvreen the extremes of strar.ttire. 

It may, perhaps, )w Ic^tunately objoetod 
of the problems most strenuously forced od the nstitt 
of the ethnologiiit, at the present tune, Uc tm^rAj W 
yond the province of scieoca It cannot, eatuiAf, 
cstaljlisli the unity of the hmnan race, the socme <£ 
its origin, or the tenn of its existence, "frrirlhrhni 
it may contribute important confinnatoir evidenee fcr 
those who have alrcady accepted, on higher satfaodh^ 
than scientific induction, the stoiy of Kdenic 
and of the division of the earth among the 
of a common stock. Some of the grounds cm which «« 
may hope to establish, with reasonable probabilitv, saA 
scientific guesses at the origin and age of the btuaia 
race, in so far as they are suggested by the urmiI 
intjuir}', liave already been noticed, and mav ben be 
recapitulated, in conclosion, under their different hadL 
And first of LANGtJAOB. To those who can aoo^it of a 
iJieory which would make man the mere latest develop- 
ment of the wime lif<'-g<;Tm out of which iill organic 
being hiiH l>fi;u evolved by a proueas uf imtund selectioa, 
it is as difficult to place limits to his possible exiateDCc; 
as to determine where the ape or the faun ended and 
man began. But to those who still believe that (jod 
made man in his own imi^e, the limits which most 
Ix' a.s.sigiK'd to the existence of the race lie within mo- 
derate, if undefined bounds. We are as yet only on the 
threshold of philological disclosures ; but the tendency 
of all investigation into the analogies discenuble in the 
structure of ancient and modem, of living and dead 
languiiges, poiuts towards the discovery of relations, 
licivtofore undreamt of, even l)etween languages aeem- 
iiigly most dissimUar. Iceland, we know, was ccdonized 
by Nortlmioi in the ninth centur)'-, and has ever ainee 


in the occupation of a people of Scandinavian de* 
it» and speaking and writing a language which in 

ninth century was common to them and to the 
oecapanta of the European fathcrlaniL But during the 
mtenrening centuries the Icelander has been isolated, 
and to a great extent excluded from intercourse with 
aiijr other race ; while the Dane lias bordered on Ger- 
many, and been carr}'iug on intimate commercial and 
diplomatic n^lations with the other nations of Europe. 
Hence the slight change of the Icelandic tongue, com- 
pared with that wrought on the Danish in the same 
period, during which the dialects of the Scandinavian 
eolonifs, provinces, and kingdoms have been developed 
into separate and mutually unintelligible languages. 
Here, then, we have some clue to the causes and the 
rate of development of the diale<rt8 of a common lan- 
guage into separate tongues. But in the same ninth 
oentur}' the Northmen acquinxl and colonizeil the region 
of Northern France, ever siuce known as Normandy, 
and there, instead of creating a new offshoot from the 
common mot her > tongue, they adopted the Romance 
dialect of the district, and made of it the vehicle of the 
moat remarkable and influential literature of mediaeval 
Europe. Tliere were then already in independent though 
immature existence the six Romance dialects : the Ita- 
lian, WalW:hian, Provencal, Spanish, Portuguese, and 
French, all acknowledging their descent {rr>m the com- 
mon I^tin mother-tongue, within an era so recent as 
the decline of the Roman Empire. But the Latin itself 
is no primary root-language, but Ix^ars within its vocabu- 
]ary and grammatical structure as unmistakable evidences 
of a <l«*rive<l and com{>osite chara<:ter, ivs any mass <if con- 
glomerate does to the geologist ; and as the pliilologii>t 
pursues his investigations, it becomes apf>arent to him 
that not only the Lsitin and Greek, the Germanic, Sam- 



^itemiUK, but okk) the Zeud, E 
aii fBibwiy modificatioiiii of i 
«gduit puenc i&ogaagt!. So sIao thu st^ittennl i 
•ff 1^ SbamiBt: fpMf ba^'(• been gathered up towudi I 
tke influeitce of HiohomiiMdil ' 
M. wliB. iBifWtively modem times, w t 
liuBB fee tifa« Anlik what tlii! ombitiua of Im* 
bn» diii &)c the Littiu. Th« affinities of tbc 
o£ Asia ukl Afrios. of the Austzaksaaa 
ami of Anwtim, are as yet very partiallj' \ 
t but muaT giimptivs of aDulogous tratfaa | 
act alMM^ tlbmnubW ; uod in iht& din>cHoD be» tlie 
of uuportiuit n.'N'eJatioDs as to 
4f tfe tnt^A :uid iitttious nf maiikind l<i 
aaiMik ai»l ti^ tWeurmiuatiou of tlu.' pro- 
kibllt ki|ttt of IM» w uBMite fbr such a snbdivision sod 
W^BiftBakoC liftWHOHhrtiKk as mcet$ the eye of the 
Jtoybwrat tlH p— * ^f. Tht: Dumber of langu^M 
^Nifeea tllivatekms Ae wurU at the present time bat 
\>MU c\A\ipa!SKd tu «xi.-e<^ fiMu tlious:ui<i The number 
oi ■iviid ;md (.'xtincc languag^es is an unknown qoantity 
w iui-ii ui.iy Iv sli^liced or ex-.^:gvrAted aecowling to the 
ivinktn.-ti's ol" tile tliei.>rust and iuvt«tigator. But the 
l,•n.•f^'sl^lou wb!i.h such £iets a;* have already been indi- 
iii!v>i iuy^-st to thtf iuiu<.L assumeti a shape which may 
!v si:^l'.^l ill tills 6.>rm : If six iudependeut and mutually 
uintj;ri.limil*li.' l;uii;ua^s. such a* the Romance tongues, 
bavc l*ccu i.kvy]o[,vd out of the cotmuon mother Latin 
tx>tij;uc ui tivv cvuturiee^ how many centuries are re- 
i^uuvit tiT ouo c».>mm.ou Lmguagv to have begotten four 
tliousauil .' The i.U-.enje circumstances tending to ac- 
■.•ckratf vr tvtarvl the rate of progress, dependent on 
tuliun.'. isi'latioo, and scttleil or migratory haiats, no 
Jviul't vompUtate the »[uestiou ; aud the possible, and 
iut.l>.'i.'t.l ^iscci'taiucl >.lt3ap^>earance of languages, witliout 


leaviug any trace of their vocabukry or graniniar, tie- 
tracts from the absolute value of couclusious thus deter- 
mined But with every allowance for the elements of 
doubt or error, we perceive in this <lirection one means 
whereby we may gauge the probable dunition of the 
human race, and determine for it an existence commen- 
surate with the date of man s origin as the latest of all 
cn*ated beings over which he has been placed with so 
ample a d(»miuion. 

Full value has already been attacheil by the philologist 
to the fatrt that the remarkable relations sul>sisting l)e- 
tween the mo<lem languages of £uro{K' and the ancient 
dead language of the Indian W'diis, carry us l>ack by 
the radiations of the ditlVrent memlK^rs of the Indo- 
£uro|)ean group to some prolKd>le Asiatic centre, accord- 
ing in 8i> far with the hist«*ry of the disjK^rsion of the 
human race. But other elements contributing to the 
same source of approximate determination of the origin 
and age of man, point even still mon* unmistakably to 
a common Asiatic centre : as is the case with the next 
to which 1 ri'fer, the Domestication of Animaus. 
Geotina St. ililaire estimated the animals reduci*d to a 
state of domestication at forty sj>e<'ies, of which thirty 
five, sut'h as the horse, ox, dog, shcH'p, goat, and pig, 
may Ik* rharacterixed as cosmo[>olitan. (Jut of these 
thirty-tivt; donu?stir*ated spccii« |)Ossesse<l by Euro|>e, 
thirty-one apinmr to originate in (Vntnd Asin, or in 
Northmi Afrit'a, in the vicinity of the Me^literranean 
Sfa, when*, im in Southern Europe, the trilies of thtj 
dis{ierHion were saittereil at the earliest dates. Almost 
thr wholr tirv tlcriviKl from wann climatrs, and thus 
indicate that civiliwition {K?rtained to the primeval 
Asiatic man ; that he bnmght with him to Europe* the 
animals he had alreaily domesticated ; and intnMluceii 
there the [>2istoral life which is associated with tho 

r^: ^MK shr facmo- is the state tii*t 
Ji»T?G \hn 3^ 'aasasK w xaxa. his nE^iectsil powcxs to 
»m.icLL aoc adiafw i^iae vimnes of ciTilisatkMi which 
ksT^ ».^ aiA-essrr. Ms prvieTeaE aad a higber otaHty 

Ic rt-kran 70 Aperies, t^ hiscocy of its dcHoesticated 
■ i$ inumdieir cottfleeCed vith the next phase in 
UK prestc: irsmo.'ecit. the Omgls or Civiusation. 
The T^4c evideiii-ia of hiscoiv pJoices beyond doabt 
cbai tltt s^ts of earir ciriliaatioa lay in waim^ cli- 
maxe^ oa the banks of the Xile, the Euphrates, the 
Tigris, the Indus, and the Ganges. The shores of the 
ilediierrarwan succeeded in later centuries to their in- 
beritanoe. and were the seats of long-enduring empires, 
whose intellectual bequests are the life of later civilisa- 
tion. But transalpine Europe is entirely of modem 


growth, and much of it even now is but in its infancy. 
Here, then, we trace our way back to the beginnings 
of our race. Tliere is no endless cycle in which the 
nations could revolve. Man primeval in a state of 
nature, and in the midst of the abundance of a tmpieal 
region, employing his intellectual leisure, ]>egins that 
pmgressive elevation which is as <*onsisteut with his 
natural endowments as it is foreign to the instincts of 
all other animids. He increases and multiplies, spreads 
abroad over the faee of the earth : and slowly, in the 
wake of the wandering nations, follow the brightening 
rav» of that civilisation which wiis kindkMl at the central 
cradle LukI, and could burn brinrhtiv t>nlv amid the 
fofiterincr influences of settled h»isure. 

America has no domesticated animals common to the 
other ipifirters of the gloln.*, excepting such as have l)een 
introduced by her modem Euro|K*an colonists. The 
llama anil the al)>aca remain in their native n*gions, on 
the tropical plateaus of liolivia and Pern ; and these, 
with the dog, constitute the domesticated animals of 
the New Worhl. They iutlicate that man, if, as we 
Wicve, In* migrated from Asia to America, brought 
with him no t^videijccs of progn*ss such as the domes- 
ticated animals of Asiatic t»rigin prove to have |h.t- 
taine^l to the early colonists of Europe. The parrot, 
the toucan, and other native binls are tamed bv some 
of the trilK'.s of Siuth America, thniigh, like the siicrt^l 
ibis tif KgA'pt, nither fnr annisemcnt than utility ; and 
all the domesticattHl animals nf the New World are of 
native origin, and, with the exception of the dog, of 
tnipical character. But hc»nMn we once nuni» see n'pm- 
duciil in the New \Vt)rld the simie phen(»mena which 
ap|H'ar to have attendeil the birth of civilisjition in 
the (Md WorM. The short^s of the Western Heniisphcn^ 
were n*ache<l at one or more j>oints, by wanden»rs fn»ni 

vou II. 2 o 

the UrtMnd of Ike 

|wiTii% its wpnstTJBtjB 

pied ; md tliai n A( 

laMkredgaual bf Ae dsvalion cC Ab Ande^ 

minded by the Immkinfaft of a petpetnal aanu 

foimd kiBiiie to devdop vta^ letfan^ 
etart aa the cceer of hmnMi jmg am. Had Ihe mil 
of indigenoM AiMTJom dviliHtiaii been fiNind oatib 
coast (rf New England, or on die ahoBea of die Chnfc 
Lakei^ it would ha^e been proof enough that it wm 
bonowed ; and we nug^ dien hare tamed with pnh 
priety to Phoenician, ISgyptian, or Scandinavian theotiBi 
of eahnnimtion. But die Yale of Anahnac^ and tib 
pbteans of die aondiem Coidillerafl^ aie the very eenim 
piOTided hj nature for die birth of a aelf-originadiig 
▲meriean dviliaation. That when thus devolved it 
ia found to preeent ao many points of coneqiondence 
widi the primidye dviliBataon of the Old Worid, oofy 
proves that both aie alike die work of man, endowed 
with the same instinctsi, capacities, aad faculties; and 
the amount of development in both cases is, I believe, 
no less surely a true gauge of the lapse of time, the 
8ignitioan(*o of which we are in the fair way of deter- 

AiJUiovLTrRE, which is another branch of early civi- 
lisation, following closely in the wake of the domestica- 
tion of animals by pastoral man, points to the same 
conclusions .as the preWous evidence. We have made 
very slight and unimportant additions to our domesti- 
cated animals since the eras of human civilisation re- 
corded on the moniunents of Assyria and Egypt. It is 
otherwise with our domesticated plants ; though even 
of these the most important cereals date beyond all 
definite chronicles, and belong in all probability to the 
Asiatic birth-land of the race. Less importance is 


perimps due to the tropical origin of domesticated 
plants than of aniinala ; since in warm climates the 
mo6t useful vegetable pivxlucts were most likely to be 
found. But taken in conjunction with the previous 
aiguments it has considerable weight ; and when we 
turn to the New Worid we see there clearly that the 
maixe, the l^ean, cocoa, tobacco and such other plants, 
including the potato, as have K^en brought imder cul- 
tivation and disseminated among the northern tribes, 
are all traceable to the tropiciU seats of a native civilisa- 
tion. Their genend diffusion adik another proof of the 
prutnu*ted occu^Kition of America by its al)original tribes ; 
the fewness of their numlx^r, and the uniformity of their 
diffusion reduces the length of that period within limits 
readily compatible with all other evidence of the dura> 
tion of the race. 

So also is it uith Letters. They lie at the founda- 
tion of all high and enduring civilisation. Yet we r-an 
trace them Ixick to a rude origin, consistent with the 
most niilimentar}' elements of human intelligence ; and 
even in the Lite Ptolemaic em of that stnmge Eg}'i>tian 
craAUe-land of the world s civilisiition, we find its written 
and graven n^conls l)etr.iying unmistakable traces of the 
iuiuncy of letters, vla the offsj)ring of the siune primitive 
pictorial art, which we recover an(»w in the pictun'-^Tit- 
ing of Mexico and the 8ymlM)lic totems of the American 
Indian. The visible pnigrcss is so slow that we stand 
in no need of vague geologicid {H-rifNls to embrace the 
histor\' of man. Within the interval Utween th** rudest 
archaic monument of Kg}'pt and her trilingual l^>setta 
St4>ne c»f the cm of Pt4>leniy Ej>ij»luines, we s«^e man 
laboriously work out for himself a crude and ver}' iiniHT- 
fect alphaljet, the {>arent of all later an<l Utter (»nes ; 
and can trace each progressive st^'p. We witness the 
whole process, from its ver}' Ix-ginning in a picture- 



■ ^ Aflt vi& vkick the Indian sange 
«f Kai ^ &B Weblo robe, or mgam% 

■^■r aetk Sk «Uer periods than bjr 

■utjr be alrea^ 

a»«K; «Bdlf ^k^«fiK&indicadoiuu 

>«f jsii^9^{]K.«ea^ttaec'bMdklu3 inteDcfr 

^ «p tf vhI. Ami wkai w pan fran 
» ^ jMagv w&M tf tfe West, its rerela- 
pir «■- ^K amA wAH/m mBooiiig. There 
M «fe an^ri 4e M^ of ■» abhrEviaud 
■M^ fM^^ WiiiiMiiiii, •» ■ wiw(!-alpitt- 
Ak af A»Ombk. hit vidi m> tnce of pare 
«va. Ik ai^HHM VIS peapkd from Am, 
■f^waa^^- MMMi. It» cnifimko WM 
hat rf— i«» yii « ik »J*fcgrfnwwM 
Am Art if %jcfB ; iBii >■ iidl aencdum 
■ta Av w fail v^HR fiai m Ae Hoil infiioTilo ^agf 
or rwie iadmn jmrsmaaf : aexl n Ae p fogre aa ve st^ 
of '^-xiv^-sE TW5TS!T-Tnoia:. ■<riii »btre™tioii. srmbols 
(V ro >iirix. ao-i acifc- rc-iatini: to the details of the 
;-ij-."2.iij- aj;i in r:? hurbest sta^r in tbe hi«ogIyphic 
fru ■nr-» ^;< ,if eIk' CeBcal Amcii'^aii inscrip-tkais and 
m&ri^^Tr:Tiv irEji-i oiibr rwjuired tane to have produced 
a Eir.i- >>.riLi.tK- Tnrmi:. «" aJpbabet pregnant for the 
Ne « \V .ri:: ^^ thii ,■<" PhasnicJa has pivved for tbe Old, 
aj;-. s i;Ttrs,nirt embi^iyiiar the reflei of the native 

S-. ais.' ir-.rii XrMOLAi.s. We can trace hack AralHc 
iK-'tin,i'r w:rhh*ai qiK^xka to tbe bieratk" forto? ctf jwimi- 
rve EiiypnAn nniaeraR irliicli had Do vah>e of position, 
rf 2 it rt>d lite numivr? l.y a meiv maltip4e ci tbe simplest 
j^i^r:* lor uniis. It'll*, and hundreds ; and oaihr by ablve- 
viaring tbt'>ir fx'<mbinattocis into a disdnct set c^ numeri- 


c*al syml)ols for the days of the month, made the first 
approach to tht)sc arlntrary sigiuj which wen^ adopted by 
thi* Arabian mathematiciaiLs, and have liecome the uni- 
versal arithmetical language of civilized nations. The 
idea of numtxT is one of the earliest presi.»nte<l to the 
human mind, and may indeed t)e regarded as coexistent 
with the intelligent exercise of the human faculties. 
But, except when d(*aling with very small numbers, it 
is only the educat^^l mind that is able to realize any 
dt*tinite c<ince})tions associated with computation ; and so 
soon SIS this was called into general use, for purposes of 
commerce, tribute, or the calculations of science, written 
ftigns liecame indispensable. The appreciation of num- 
bers Is acconlingly frequently made a test of intellectual 
development, as in the case of a (Vylonese, referred to by 
Mr. Lushington, who was accuseil of murder, but was 
acquitted by the English judge, from his l)eing found 
inrafkible i>f comiting thn*e. S> also ilr. Fnmcis Galton, 
in an amusing account <»f the Damaras, in his Narratiir 
ojan Exjtloration in Ti^piad South Africa, remarks of 
them : ** In practice, whatever they may possess in their 
language, they certainly use no numeral gn^ater than 
three. When they wish to express four they take to 
their tingrrs, which are to them as formidable instru- 
ments of cah-uhition a.s a sliding rule is to an English 
schoolU^y. Tliry puzzle ver}- much after five, iKM^ause 
no sjKire hanil n^mains to gnusp and S4'cun» the fingiTs 
that an* n^quin^l fnr units." Such is no uncommon con- 
dition of the s;ivage mind : and I sus]M.*ct the dual forms 
existing m certain languages iis in the most cultured of 
all, th<* (jin*ek, pn»s<»r\'e to us the memoriid of that stage 
of thought when all U-yond two was an idea of vague 
numlnT. We t.*an discrern the various stages which have, 
in certain nations, marked the passage from the vague 
idea of multitude to the definite one of number. This 


U Hcen, for example, in repeated passages of the Old 
Testament, as in that of Jeremiah : " Aa Uie bort of 
heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea 
measured ; bo will I multiply the seed of David my 
BCirant, and the Levites that minister nnto me," As- 
suming the Hebrew prophet to refer to the visihk 
heavens as seen by the naked eye, the stars are twj 
for short of innumerable ; though to a pastoral people:; 
dealing in no elaborate computations, the similu vis aa 
expressive of multitude as the numberless sand-grains as 
the seashore. The same idea is illustrated by thu man- 
ner in which the term fiMpla is always used by Homer in 
iu primary sense of an indefinite number. 

Many of the languages of America are fotmd to pre- 
Bent the singular feature of a complet*j decimal Tocabo- 
lary of numcnds, with the power of combination in swne 
ti. them sufficient to adapt them to elaborate oompata- 
lions. This is remarkable among rude hunter tnbes 
standing as little in need of a system of arithmetical 
notation as the African Daraaras ; and it is desen'ing of 
consideration, whether there may not be iu this some 
lingering trace of the civilisation which has left its 
memorials in the elaborate geometrical structures of the 
Ohio Valley. Practically, however, on entering into 
conTeisation with the Indian, it becomes speedily ap- 
parent that he is unable to comprehend the idea oS 
abstract numbem. They exist in his mind only as asso- 
ciated ideas. He has a distinct conception of five dogs 
or five deer ; but he is so unaccustomed to the idea of 
number as a thing apart from specific objects, that I 
have tried in vain to get an Indian to admit that the 
idea of the number five, as associated in his mind 
with five dogs, is identical, so far as number is cod- 
oerueil, with that of five fingers. Abstract terms and 

izxiv. 22: nAatwOfK. it. 5: xiii. IC-IS. 



ideas are equally absent from the language and thought 
of the Indian ; and indeed, as we see in our own English 
q>eech, are of very late growth in any language. But 
the concrete form of thought controls the whole Ame- 
rican vocabularies. The diflferent dire^'tions in which 
they have expanded to embrace the novel ideas conse- 
quent on European intercouFHc, illustrate its influence 
on the multi[>lication of mutually unintelligible dialects 
among unlettered tribes ; luid this is specially noticeable 
in the singular contrast in the names of numerals in Ame- 
rican languages, otherwise disclosing striking affinities, 
as compared with the uniformity of numerical nomen- 
clature ])ervadiug the whole Indo-Eurc)|)ean tongues. 
But no c<»rrespondiug variety of symbols meets the eye. 
In the most perfect of the native systems of notation 
the signs have advanced little biyond that primitive 
repetition of units which betrays itself as the natural 
form of numeration, even in the matured hieroglyphics 
of the Rosetta Stone. 

Thus once more wc appear to reach an infantile stage 
of human thought in this direction also, tracing l)ack the 
associated ideas and signs of number so nearly to their 
beginning, that we seem to stand in need of no great 
lapse of centuries Ix^tween that and the Wgimiing of 
man himself. And so is it with his Arts : his arcliitec- 
tuie, scidpture, weaving, pottery, metallurgy ; and his 
Science : his astrology, astronomy, and geometry ; the 
beginnings of all of them tie within our reach. Eg}i)t 
has her vague year, the evidence of the l^t^ginning of the 
recognition of solar time in a year of 365 days, but 
which could only remain in use unmodified for a few 
generations ; and in the g^^ater and lesser cycles of 
Egypt, Mexico, and Peru, we ccjually recognise divisions 
of time which could not have lxM?n p-rpetuatiii through 
many centuries without a manifest discc»nlance with 


•ctoal mtnmouiical plicjiomeua, autl the ff hanging M 
to which thvy always bore au intimate relation. T 
and harvest are inevitaUy bound up with all uitiaiul 
Mvl religiuus fi-stivaU. We can trace back man's pro- 
)et««i ill the history of lus calendars : in the - New Sr^ " 
<i England, with ber lost eleven days, still reh^ouaiy 
prrserved in the uiireformed caltmdar of Russia ; in tbr 
pKUch calendar of the Great Year, anno 14, when tlie 
Eepulihc, with (iu>eceing forethought, enacted that A.B. 
S6di\ A.B. 7200, and AJt. 10,800 shall not be leap yean; 
while the ver}' first year of this comprehensive system 
did not liw nut half iu days! Backwanl we trace oor 
vay amid (he <-ondicting dates consequent on the iode- 
paadent odoptictn of the Gregorian Colentlar at variou 
aacceeeivv periods, from its first enHCtment by the Coon- 
oU of TvftxK in 1582, to ita tardy adoption by Prot^taol 
Swvden iu 1T53- As we ivttace our steps, we find the 
Chuivh divided fnun the second to the fourth centuty. 
mtil another Couin-i!, that of Nice, determined for ha 
th«- true peiiud of keeping Easter. Then behind this, 
«nv1 before the Christian era, we come to the determina- 
tion of the Julian Year, and the correction of the accu- 
muUti.\l errors of pre\'iou3 divisions of time, in the year 
».c. +T. The names of Ptolemy, Hipparchus, Meton, and 
Kuctemou, cam" us back by further steps ; until in the 
Nile \ alloy wv seem to reitch the l>eginnings of calendars, 
and rx\\^iise, iu the sacred Vague Year of the Egyp- 
tians, the tirst definite determination of solar time, with 
itj# uumistakable rt'lations to a beginning of time for man 

AstiMUouiy hiis had its rise, alike in the Old World 
auil the New, in ele\-ate<i tropical table-lands, and fruitful 
\;vlIo\s Aiul plains, such as those through which the 
KuithiHti-s and the Tigris roll their ample floods, or that 
slmii^^' river-valley which the Nile fertilizes with its 


annual overflow. In those favoureil n^gions agriculture 
involves little toil, and the harvest ripens uliuost spon- 
tancoualy for the reaj>er's sickle. There, also, flocks au<l 
herds were tended aud trained for the use of man ; and, 
in the pastoral life of their earliest communities, the 
herdsmen watched their flocks under the mild beaming 
stars, and acquired an intelligent familiarity with .the 
constellations, and the planets that wander through the 
spangletl dome of night. In the infancy of our race, 
men studied the stars, I wringing to the aid of their human 
sympathies the fancies of the astrologer, to fill the void 
which their imperfect science failed to satisfy. The 
Chaldean shephenls, who had never travelled beyond the 
central plain of Asia, where in fancy we recognise the 
cradle of the human race, began the work of solving the 
mystery of the heavens ; and what the Si-ottish sliepherd- 
astrouomer of the eighteenth centur}% James Ferguson, 
accomplished, proves what lay in their ]H>wer. 

** O honoured shepherd of our Uter dAjs* 
The« from the flfK*ks» while thy untutorwl aoul. 
Mature in childho<Ml, tnu.*e<l the starry coume. 
Astronomy, enainourvil, gently le<l 
Through all the splenditl labyrinths of hearen. 
And taught thee her stu|»entious laws."' 

It was impossible that int4*lligent man could hH>k forth, 
night after night, on the (*(>nstellati4»n.s its they varied 
their phice with the change from twilight t4) the dawn, 
and from minni to m<K)n, and <»n the pianists that move<l 
in timely courses amid the twinkling stars, without dis- 
covering some of their relations \o th«* sca.sons <»f the re- 
volving year. But amid the siune si^^i^nt^s of mild psistoral 
life, empires and |N»pulous cities first arose ; f«>rms of 
worship, and {)eri(>dic^d festivals and sac ritices, marketl 
the annual return of the seasons, when the firstlings of 
the flock, and the first fruits of the harvest-home, were 

' KuHomn^ n Poem on lA« l\irer»e, by i'apel IxtSi. 


parchusy Eratofithciies^ Autolycus, and Meton ; Manetho, 
and the elder astronomers of Egypt ; Berosus, and the 
CSialdean astrologists : each mark successively one or 
more steps of progress, from the dawn of astronomical 
science on the Ass}Tian plains, where the first shepherds 
were abiding in the fields, keeping watch over their flocks 
by night Here it is obvious we are dealing with no 
incomprehensible series of cycles of time. There are, 
indeed, difficult questions still requiring the illumination 
which further observation and discovery may be ex- 
pected to supply ; nor have such l)een evaded in those 
researches ; but the present tendency is greatly to ex- 
aggerate such difficulties. The first few steps in the 
progress thus indicated cannot lx» reduced to a precise 
chronology. The needful compass of their duration may 
be subject of dispute, and the precise immljer of cen- 
turies that sliall be allowed for their evolution may vary 
acconling to the estimated rate of jirogress of infantile 
human reas^m ; but I venture to l)elieve that to many 
reflecting minds it ^411 api>car that, by such a process of 
inquiry, we do in reaUty make so near an ai)proach to a 
begiiming in relation to man's intellectual progress, that 
we can form no uncertain guess ils to the duration of the 
race, and find, in this respect, a wektome evidence of 
harmony between the disclosures of science and the die - 
tates of Revelation. 


APPENDIX A.^VoL ii. p. 347. 



1. What is the nunilxT of tlie half Im-ed Indians ? and from 
what trilie. or tribes, an* tht-y chiefly or wholly derived hy 
their Indian pai\*nta[;e ? 

2. In wliat i\*spect8 do the half-hrei'd Indians differ fmni the 
jiure Indians, as to habits of life, courage, stn*ngth, increase of 
niiriilM*rs, etc. ? 

3. I>r» niarriap*s ever take place lH*tween an Indian hu.<tbnnd 
anil white wife ? If S4), does the offspring differ in any noti«*(* 
abb* degree from that of a white husband and Iinlian wife ? 

4. Is anv diffen'iice di.sceniible in lialf breeds descended on 
xho one side from Fn*nch, and those on one side from British 
{tfirvutage ? If so, what is the difference ? 


I What is the numlM*r of the settb^l ]K)pulation. either half 
breed, or more or b*ss of Indian libMNi f 

3. Wliat Indian characteristics. i»hysiral and mental, an* 
iongeAt traceable in successive descendants of Indian and white 

rMXBlSmtlC MAX. 

U_lJI -ij.fcMi.hf nf hnri. nf mnnth. nf rlirrV haaes, txkfa 
^^Jti^M$mii€V^>mAmny other features ? 

X Mtt iftan «f yiftkl Indian blood liable to any distiMi 
iB^pifc ^ mm. iflM ^ vliitae or the pare lodiuia ? Or, 
e to sDch diseases ! 
4, *^ 1^ ftldMi Aeao^idMl from mixed pareatagu ootke- 
iHll liq^ar^HBvtkMi liMK itf whites or of Indiiuu I 

; to prove or disprove, that the 
I MBtad white and Iitdiao blood Cub 

Afnisfyix a~voLa ppLssi, 41S. ^| 


B «f dkoology, the wiuit of a generally 
jT » ft setiass impedimeDt Such wcifja 
B exehtded, because their use in 
I the afGrmation of opinions 
MM! k<M«lT tiisfatfvij: and iwarly the s-uiie objection lies 
a^^uneq iW a>ik>|<4Mn «t svch scientific terms of natural history 
«$ /'-w.'. liiA^ ^iMH-i^ eit\ In relation to hybridity, however 
^■fun *; hib» Kva jdivadv done by means of popular designa- 
<i-ii* ^•^ ibr- ux'iT^ nilii-wibV ^Tiirieties of mixed blood. Dr. 
Tj4.i,'u.i;, juVi »»>!Jciuj; the iliverse characteristics of the pure- 
H^wt E'v^j'iU^^iiikU tif Kutvipeau, A^atic, African, and American 
<W.vus t<L> V uit'i with iu Pern, gives a list of the very varied 
»W^\'* >'Jf mixed blix>l. wiih the names by which they are 
thftv tie*ij:uat«L Of the term CrttJe-, he observes, " The de- 
$ij;uatit^u pi\k)>erly Wlou^ to all the niUives of America bom 
of i«reiiis wh\> have eiuij;rated from the Old World." The 
thiKlr»'ii of pure-bkxxl African parents are accordingly Creoles, 
as mufli as those of unmixe«l European blood. The Spaniards 
do uol t'\ t'U limit the term CVt«//u to the human race, but apply 
ii to nil animals propagated in America of pure European 
^'n^eu^i^^•. Tlu-y Imve, acoonJiugly, Creole horses, bullocks. 
asses, jMiultn", etc. 



The following is Dr. Tachudi's list of half- castes, with a few 
mklitidiis from other sources : — 


















Cm>le, only distin^oii'thctl froui the 
white by u palt: brown cttmiilcxioii. 


Chi none. 








Nef^ro, N.A., 


Zambo, or CariUKO. 

Nrgru, S.A., 





Zamlio-Xcgm, or Cubra. 









Zaiubo-Negro (perfectly black). 



Muhitto (rather dark). 









Mestizo-cLiro (frequently very beau- 








China -cholo, 

Indian (with short friudy hair). 



Mentizo (rather brown). 









Chino (of rather clear complexion). 



Chino (rather (hirk). 

The above deals with the n^sults of hyhridity with consi- 
derable minuteness. Nevertheless, it makes no distinction 
between SiMUiish, Portuji^ese, and English bhxMl, and only once 
discriminates among the ec^ually stron<{Iy marked diversities 
of red and black blood. But we want a no less comprehensive 
of distinctive names to indicate the uflspring of intrusive 
of pure blood. Lieber suj^jests the term Enr<9jndinn for 
the American of pure Eun)})ean descent ; but something much 
more minute is required to su]>ply the want of dcKuite terms 
constantly felt The following suggests a series of terms. 


wae, which admiU of ind^nite «- 

ifigin, bum to anj 
orijpn born in Anicriuib 



Wa n AoMricK of EnglUi d 
ChaadaoT En^Uah 


r«i^M^ 1 1| l i il lll ^|M l* ty l^igacw to the people of the 
r«dto) StaAift. |««V«^ ajpBn « Xev Englaiider; but its 
l^iilli «9v M%JMlw itt ^ (HiftaMB rmted liy their ^tpro- 
ytmlMk «f tt» tMM JiMrMs. whidi h«s a totally distinct 
«t&n>.'lM^ikt 4qcaiJk'ui».'v nrhiU- ihf rtjuallv vaytie Dame of 
iSbMisnujen » i&bvwJiT pffweviqiiet) : u»l those of Federal and 

li,'lril.f:iiX-t-r£is UK *S vvC mfr*" l'«tA- tUUUt^ 

Vi-ic: i* sttLl wjmje'.t a tmrtKr iK*m<?noUtmv for the descend- 
ji;;:s ^'t tu.i\tf».t ^i^1.'^l cveuitiit: Irvm this t^xiloDizslion of the 
»vrid I') ttw Kun.'^tiiK #ti.vk ; Init iis it is intimately blended 
well cEvt tx'cti^uti^, is cuaiy b«^ b«?s{ lui-t l»y a less amalgamate 

tti.'.\UB.',-*!iv'ti >.'];■ (tiv s«uf ttfrtws, ^■^. 


tlucv'-^uucnou) : 

■■•( Rittwi Eiuw|>««ii 







Ktirv' vhiort*-. 







APPENDIX C.-VoL \l p. 399. 


1. Wlint is the iiuinWr of coloured ]K)]>ulatioii in the (lis 
triit ? 

1*. What i»n»iK)rtioii of the ct)lourcd iKjople are of pure 
Afriraii )>1(nm1 I 

3. Is then* any difrerenoe in the liability to dist^isi*, or in 
thr sjH-rial diseasi's, ln'tween the cnlnured and white iN»]»ulation, 
4'ithi'r in infancy or thnaitrhout life ? 

4. An* there any dis4MLses the rolnuri'd |KH>ple are liable to 
fnmi wliith the whites an* exempt ; or exempt which the 
whiti's an* lia)»le t4» ? Or, 

An* then* anv iliseiu«.*8 niori* or less fatal to them than to 
till- white's ? 

5. An* tlu» Himilies of colon n*d pan'nts noticealily hii^er or 
smaller than tlioM* of whites ? 

Ti. Stat<' any farts tendin*; to pn»vt» or disj»n»ve that the 
iifNpriii;: tlrscH-ndeil fn>m cohmn'd ]Kin*nt.s fails in a few«,'eneni- 

7. IKk's the climatic of (*anada efT«*ct any chan<;e (»n coloun*d 
enii;:nint^ from the States ? If jh*, in what n'sjKrcts ? 

APPENDIX D. -Vol. ii. p. 403. 


7'" //*'■ ///'"'/■<, Mt'ii of Cf 'if ft*/', tnitf ItuUttii.^ in thf l^nifni Sftittn 
iiiitt (he liritifJi Sorth Ann run n Pmrintrs: - 

Fi:iKNi»s, I am anthnriziMl imd in.strurtril ]»y tli«* (loviTn 

u\*'\\\ iif tilt* lieiiuMic t«i otler v<»u. imliviiluallv and hv lom 

I • > • 

miniitirs. a wtlrome, a Imme, and a/'/v* |iomt*.st*'ad in llayti. 

Surh of ynu as an* nnahle to jiay for y«»ur i«l<.si;:i- will U* 
pi-i»vide«l with the means of defniyin;; it. 

Vul.. II. 2 II 

' U bah »d b> 
; am «> ante ari tfqdei of tb 

HKsu -veil m p^t^^m^' fKav ^ Ae safe tw^wM titt 
9 ad. aOb >K % aaC ••£»» ^iri Adm tbeif it 
■ftarf t ^ai i ^ t ii ilM iiMi gg MwpA 1» ■■■■■ iul »ai, m 

«vdE bribofle 

Sil> fimkaaaB af lAab ami difdi nO te AaaUj 

Had ami la4pm am.titmt,\ 

tht • 

I W iaaniahed to the 

( »tntH;Gum dnii aitH mrbla tfaii* th^ la«¥ cire to 


The fiUIirst i>^f:ipi>u» iibcrtv wrll !)i? a?t'itre*i to them. They 
will m:v<tr ')■: cullci oa iw rapport tke Ruaum Catholic Church. 

N"'j aii:itary *i-rv-j;i; will be ik'niumitii them, esceptinf! 
tJiuc dii;v .bull fijnu "I'lTritt ctjnipiini*;s, ami drill iheiust'lves 
.jui-.- ;i i^i.'iirb. 

AH zh<i a'ir.iinanTy pi!r«oiial effects, outctinerv. and ^nicul- 
tnrril in^jtnnnidaci uitr'j<im:ed bj the emigrant; shail be eutered 
tTTie i)t' ■incy. 

Thi; ■;iiiiu-rmt5 chilli be at lilwrtj" to leave the country at any 
m'".ni.^iit; tli-iv pka^ ; bat thotje whoije passage shall be [wid by 
(.rjvemment, if they wish to return bet'i>re the esj'iration of 
three y>;ar?i. will be required to rvftmd the money exi^ended on 
their aci^iont. A contrict, fixiny tbe amount, will be made 
with each emigrant before leaving the continent. 

1 ha\'- l"'n eomnussioned to superintend the interests of 

r* fUij' Tint-, and chaiged with the entire control of the move- 
ment io iVui-jriea, and all persona, therefore, desiring to avail 

Jill thrre anil n thinl mis. 


themselves of the invitation and bountv of the Havtian Govern- 
luent, are re(|uesti*«l to eom'siM)nd with nie. 

I shall at once, as directetl by the Government, establish a 
Bureau of Enii«^tion in IV>ston, and ]>ul>lish a Guide Iktok 
for the n^e of those persons of African or Indian descent who 
may wish to make themselves ac<piainti*tl with the n.*s(>urces of 
the countiT and the disiKisition of its authorities. I shall also 
appoint a^iMits to visit surh conimunitii'S as may seriously 
f nt«*rtain the jtrnjci't of enii^'mtinn. 

Imniir^liaU.* arran^^cnients, kioth here and in Hayti, can be 
ma&le for the enibarkment and settlciuent of one hundred thou- 
sand ]M*n«*»nsw 

By authority of the Government of the Republic of Hayti, 

Gtnn\tl A*j^iU (^ EmUjraiiou. 

Di«T«>v. Sorrmher 3, 1SG0- 


I N D E X. 

Abbktili.r flint ini|iK'nieiitfi, i. r»4\ luV 
AUiiii;.. ii. •.V.M. -JTl, .V.«.», ;iT|. 
.\lwq»*i«'ii .if nii-rs, ii. 34M, ;it;3. 
.\<'<>llii:BM«. ri<// rr/ciiiMlin, 
A(-«)iiMtic«. riT:i>iiii, ii. 111. 
AiUir. ii IM. 

A.I..U-. I ;;:W. 43«» ; ii. 7 k 
Ail/t, < 'la' «t>'iH*. i. I."!**. 
A-^*-*\f., i. 7.V 7>* : ii. 2a\ 2«»7, SoT*. 
A^ii.-altun*. reni\i«n, i. 4:U». 
Apii iiUnrr. I'riiuitive, i. 3*>*i, 4<.>0 ; 
r. 4»y». 

AUIi*ui.t !«ti>no. ii. 194. 
AI'j<<iM|iiin-I^-iiU|*i'- InilirtiiH, ii. 37.'i. 
A!.;4»t»|uiii«. i. Ii>'.« : ii 15, l.Vi, 2**7. 

•.♦.>«. •.'♦>i. •.»«;.', 27J. 2yi. 3C2. 3t;i», 

• •f *• 

AlV^'hiiii*. i M^ ; ii. .TVi. 

Allicatfir. the, i. 342. 4nl. 

A'l"v», i. 2«^». 

All<<u*-«. K.i!hiT <'Un«l»', i. 2«»7. 

Altnrv. i. ."i.!. :{7li. 4"1. 

A'.fA, H>n IVniAit 111 ill*, nii!r lilli!- 

A»r.\Ii.ili** of Vi^tr. iL 3»*i'.». 
Aiuiuta* ii. 122. 
Aiu> ri a. • i*t»%i'Ty of. i. »''2: ii. X\\ 

Tt« |M.|>i:Utiiin •'( .\ Mi^kil, :i'.'7- 
AniTiL-a, l4ncn.if;i*« uf, i. 11 : ii \:'.*\ 

V7«*. I2'.», 4i7. 
Ami* ;it Hint ini|iK-nirntii. i. .*M>, Ii'.'!. 

::•»•■. li. i2. 
Ai*liin". i 4«r». 4J'.». ii. .'.M. 4.'il. 
A r..%U ••■* . if tr .11 /.* ! . 2V2, 3 H », :'. 1 2 . 
An.tiiM-a III r- |t|--r, i. 2*il. 
\:iU\ nani'- of, i. I.L"i, 2W 
.\br^aJA, i«V.i..l of, i. 21:<. 

A III III a1 noQiid!*, i. 334>, 342, 3^0, 390, 

Aninialn, n.inicii of, i. i>), G3 ; UoUK-sti- 

ration of. ii. {G3. 
Aiin.iWdn, th*- ('liiif^ ii. I'A). 
Aiiin», Qiifi-n, ii. 3>*1. 
.Viit.i, iVriivinn cnppvr, i. IIki, 21*0. 
AiitilU-vi. 2i1*, 213: ii. 4in),44I. 
AHtijuit'ih* Anurinihir^ ii. l.iO* 159, 

17»;. ll»:i. 
A«|iitilii(.t«. IVm«ian, ii. OS, 72. 
Arn«.ik<t. ii. 442. 
AT\hiu»<tir»', Dati%T AiDfrionn, i. 412; 

11. 51. * i*. 
Art-til- .\nt<-ri>-:in, riiir K^inimnm. 
Ari.M. i. 2'.i2 ; ii. 225. 22t*., 2l.r 
.Xrii k.irri'H. ii. 2 t1. 
.VritliiiMiii-. .\iaiTicaii. ii. 132, 154. 
An>>lt, ii. 44*<. 

.\n<, r<>lvn> nian anil AnH'rir.iD, ii. 439. 
.\iililfv Ui«i-r, f<Miiu!« f*f. i. UH). 
.\«!iinitNiin«. ii 1 4, 2(f*J. 42 1. 
Avi'-nt-t nxk. ri*lf lti;;litt>ii It«Kk. 
AvIi.riA f< rt, ii. 319. 
A«ln«iionii.-:ii im ifiic-r. Mi-iicBn, L 12.\ 

!!'.•. 42.;; ii llM. 
.\!itn'n<>niic.ii ikit-iio',, i- 127, 

.\>>tr iH'iiii- .4I «t iriiot*. iti ri*e in tli«* 

• »I i \V..rl.! ai.l ih.- Ni-w, ii. 172. 
At.i. aiun. ili-Mit uf, i 411 ; ii. 7i>. 22.\ 

2 It. 
.Vt!.!!.:!", ii I.'tV 1;.-. 
.\Mi!*. ii ::« n. 

Alliwi Ii l%f'iril«. riilf Nrutt r«. 
At/.. rr.^l.rf, II. 2vr» 
.\u-l' •••«. i 122 . ii. i'."» 

t, A— riHM, i MS, in. 

I, IUtiJk.L IM, I8I,SI.> 





CurinfTi rnck, i. tit. 

r«riU, L HW. 112. 4H7; n.2(>0. Ill, 

CariAnUr. l>r., ii. 4->2. 
Caaa del Knano, ii. r>4. 
('aii4 del (ioU^niAilor, ii. (»J, 1»H. 
C'luui tic MouteziitiiH, i. 43.'*. 
CAMatflSttlrtt, 1.421. 
(*«wn..T. the i'hiiiouk chiof. i IW. 
( *«Miit«riile«, thf", i. *iH5. 
(*jita»Uui. ii. 2i:i. .V4. 
r.tlienruo.1, ii. 55, 5H, m, ».♦. 11 R 
r«tHn, ii. 5, Kl, 231. 21«. 
(*«%!•, Ur^l. i. U, 114. 
( '»vi» rreniA, ii 223. 
<Uvr, Kfiit- llule, i. 19. HH). 
TATtf, Kirkilalc. i. lo<». 
( «vp. Mamni'itb. ii. 293. 
CaTc, ri»iunn«-r, i. 211. 
C«Te ivmiiiuf, i. 19. 1<N>, 114 ; ii. 222. 
Tavr, St. l>uDiin|(<>. i. 210. 
CawdtH' i*«iitii>, Kulpture at. ii. 42. 
rav.wacliaii, ii. 3I«S. 
('AW-«t>.litckii, ii. H5. 
CV"*?**. «• -27 : ii. 3«;2. .*W1. 
(VltiU-rii- chAnctrrt, ii. 1x2. 
C «ltii* trarva, ii. 1M2. 
CVnipi*!. i. 41ti. 
CrnMiB. (*hfnike«*. ii. 3**»l. 
r*>it«ti«. (^Iii|ip«'wa. ii. r.Mi. 
<Vit«aji. liaif-ltret-il. ii. 3,'il. 
(*« imim, Iixliaa. ii. 3<VC. 
i\'U\TA\ Anierim. i. 412 : ii. 52. 5H. r».l. 

i>;. N3, 8(1, {\\\ llrt. \X\, 151. 
<Viitriil Anit-rii-a, uiuiciit rM'9 uf, ii. 

55. .'»7, 
<Vnuiiic art, ii. 75. rule Pittterjr. 
Cbocuta. IUt Iff. ii. 225, 2I.*>. 
( 'liaiu plain, ii. 357. 
( 'Im |ii.tiu«'p»fi, i. 2ri7. 
f li.irli-% T , i. 417. 
4'liAilrvrnx. ii. ^*'A%, 4l**i. 
iL.rok.^^^^, ii. 2«Hj, 211,211, 219, 301, 

i Iti.ip.i*. ii. .M. .'i'^. 

< Si< )iiiif-t-.i4. i. tlM, 125. 

< \. lit iiitxo, ii. i:* {. 
i'Li k.i't.ttt'i, ii. 3<i.'». 
( l.iilt'Klli". i. :M1. 

( 'tiil;i|t^-. .Ill* t itlt li;iU*4*iiH. 
( liiiu, t'lliou.** iit, ii. 3X 


riiinc^r HkalKii. 281. 

< 1iint'M> lonKUAfre, ii. 428. 
Chinf^wntik, ii. 177. 
Chitiiqui, i. 4H4k 

CbiiHxikii, i. 191, 195, 197; ii. 20, 8.1, 

85, 319. 
Chippewaa, i. 207, 480; ii. 15, 30. 44, 

120, 231. 2.'i8, 200, 348, 34i7. ;W7. 
(*hi])|M*wn fjnive, ii. 291. 
diirifiui, i. 480: ii. 01. 10.3, 105. 
ChocUwA, ii. 45, 93, 211, 214, 304. 

('holulo, i. 418, 428. 4.33 ; ii. 90. 
ChriKtiiiaai, i. 273, 2H7, 291 ; ii. 341 
rhiinhuhii, ii. 99. 
Ciiiciiinati tablet, i. 'A\\ ; ii. 191. 
ritjr, the Itiit, ii. 02. 139. 
CivilioAtiiin, iti origin, i. 3, 143 ; ii. Ht. 

80, 119. 4(VI. 
CIoIaiu Indiini. i. 157 ; ii. 17. 
(MuUm iitt»nc ndzc, i. I5«*. 
nark*. Work. i. 333. 

< 'laKHlfiraf iun of rocea. i. 453. 
i'Uvijcero, i. 42.3. 

rUv. Heiirr. ii. 421. 

riav |iiiK-a,'ii. 24. 28. 46. 48, K5. 

nrmpim, Dr. J. W., ii. 182. 

(lifrniiiie. i. 242. 

roci«i, ii. 10, 113. 

rufliii rwk. i. 19**. 

('oldvii. ii. 301. 

rolfarhi, uf Kliiri'U. ii. 441. 

(*oli>rad«>. Ki'H i. 434. 

('<iluur. Indian, ii. 277. 2M7. 307 nwof, ii. 42. 43. 

< *ti|uiiih.i, St., i. 173. 
<'i>lunil>ia, Uritifih, ii. 433. 
roliinibia river, i. 157 ; ii 8.3. 85, 217 
(*i>lnmliuii. i. 119. 1:H. 140. MM, 1.52. 

170, 2»*H; ii HkJ, |«h.i, 393, 4«i«» 
('<>im-i>uily, Kin^, i. 199. 
f*4intic niajik*. Mi-xicun. ii. I«k2. 
(*oniiilo\i>iD. lni], ii. 277, 247. 307. 
< ' in Imuver, ii 72. 
<'..pan. ii .Vi, 01, »V». IIH, 133, Mo, 

< 'n|-|ilT. an.-ilTMM of, i 2>'i1. 

<*« |'|*.T I'roc* let*, i. 30.1. Wt"*. 

<'i»p|N r niinefi. ain ii-nt WeUh. i. 2(**3, 

< '••|i|i«>r mi I It'll of I.iktf Siij^-rior, i. 243, 


fiipiier, native, i. 2«**H. 27(» 

Oiela. S\* r.i^ii 1 i. ITS. 

CrsaU. SnUiA. >. ISO ; ii. fix »!«• 
Cnaw. T«M»«. 1117. 
CnsioM. tirai it g r . iL S?!^ 

CnauM. IlwcWl^a. ik 307. 
CiM dudUa ppa, ii. IS. 
Cmrb. i. 3M ; £. U, S6S. 
CnH.i6; ti. U. ST, M». 
OvBalido. L Ml, 367. 

F>llwr. E. ». 3«. 
CnA, Prof, X. M(i. y>J. 313. 

<NaMtL>SI.41T; (U 68, 1«, 7);^^^ 

DaUM, r«(lMir, >. MS. ^^H 

Hi 11*1. L 1» ; 5. «, KK>, Sn, rifr 

DmIb CMotjr animal a»a(uul< i. S>t- 


Cwvia, Chathflk >■- *3t. 

Dni*. Dr. K. H, r. *U,*M; S. HA 

VtA, J. BoMiO, S. tit, SM, III. 
EtM*^ Dc, IL SOT. 

[^k fepch* d'ABTM, B. SS*. 

k »« ; n. 3U, 3H, M6, 38&. 
I^Um. 3.399. 
IMie^ MAida* tf Ifce, ». 1 1. 
P^atalM. L t»l. 

hmeBAFTD. nHej of Um. u. II. 
tUKM^Benal. i «I9, 410, 416. 
Di^KUm E«k, S. U. 17^, 177. 



It, £.471. 

i. 49,96. 104 

DtM^r. 5. 69^115. 

Prtft, «wkt <^ art in Ike 

110, ll\ 141. 
Da^BccM, L li. 

E.-unas. AiIk kiMnrlalgc of. L 430. 
E^ptian hk:r>]^l7i.bici. li. 123. 143. 
Ef^ptHD nanica o( aniswl*, L GO. 

EgTptian. s 
Elfin pipn, 

pposnl tncM to America, 
. 14, SS, 44, 46. 48. 



El Dorailo, i. 4\(i. 

Elk. luMii, i. 9B, \M. 

ElkMtnva, L 1.13. 

Ellet, rtiarlcfi, i. 310. 

El Hacrifiratorio, ii. GO. 

Emlmlibinf;, IVntrian, ii. 22(1, 248. 

Encloaiirvfi, i. 324. 

Enclnaurm, uncred, i. 3.'(5. 

Eric the Red, ii. 160. 

Erira, ii. 2:i7. 3.09. 

Enquiniaui. i. 14K, 173 ; ii. 201, 20r>, 

278. 2«7. S7ft, 440. 
Kvana, Dr. J. (\, ii. \f^. 
Kvbatik, T., i. 485 ; ii. 1ft5. 
Kitir|MitioD of ncea, ii. r,:<9, 300. 

Fairy nrt»^ vide Eltin |>ipef. 
Fr4*j<Tanm i. 201. 
FrniifuitK!, King. ii. 2(N). 
F«*rpititn, .Tamem ii. 473. 
Fr^livaU, i. ]2r>, 128, *M\A\ ii. 167. 
Ilrr ttiaking. moile nf, i. 123, 125, 127, 

Firr, QMcf, i. 119. 135. UA, 
Fir*^ wiiT»lii|i, i. 1?4, 126. 
Fishvivr*. Scottitth, ii. 323. 
Fitxinprr. I»r., ii. 21»9. 
Fi%e Nitiiins. i. 224; ii. 275; ridt Six 

Natiocia, Iroqaoin. 
FlAtheaii«. ii. 5<**, h5, 100, 3<)5, 316, 31A, 

Flint inpIemenU, i. 214,372, 433. 
Flint inplonii*nta in the driO, i. 49, 9fi. 

|i»4. 115, 141. 
Flint in>|ilcni«-nta, Iltinflnnui. i. 214. 
dint clcr^l tviwil, i. 225. 
F4Ktu«. ]Vni«inn. ii. 234 
Flirt .\ficient, i. 326. 329. 
F*rt Hill, i. 326, .327. 
F'«mI man, i. 13. 
F»^illc, I»r.ii. 3415. 
Fi'ic*. or S.iuks. the. ii. 367. 
FiTti^, Mi-iican, ii. 97. 
Fntt'-. iVriifinn, ii. 113. 
FnrinAn*. i. 13:J. 

<>a<.K, Krlir T.. i. 427. 
fialUliii. .\Il«rt ii. 36:^ 43H. 44:(. 
flahfltn, Franria. ii. 4(}9. 



(tiircil.i§«o do U Vega, i. 295, 43«». 
(lardon-U-dii, ancient, i. 31KJ. 
(tardner, J«b, ii. 175. 
(lamett, Hcv. Kichard, ii. 438. 
Gaakfll, S. R.ii. 188. 
(irbeliri, C'-ount de, ii. 173, 174. 
(lila, the river, i. 4;J5. 
Gliddon. G. R., i. 181 ; ii. 208, 459. 
Gold rvlica, Chiriqui, ii. 105. 
Gold ruIicB, Mexican, i. 302. 
(Sold relica, Peruvian, i. 295, 3«»3. 
GoKUniitlii, Mexican, i. 302; ii. 104, 

(food win, Mr., ii. n.V 
(Jo«M«, Dr. llippoljte, ii. 3lK), 316. 
(■radiHl way. I*iketon, i. 347. 
Grafi'ne^T^ ukull, ii. 298. 
(imng<>mouth akull, ii. 160. 
Grave (Vck Monnd, i. 319, 358, 363. 

ii. 15.3. 
Grave (Vttk Mound inBcriplion, i.84H ; 

iL 180. 
Grave Creek Monnd akull, ii. 221. 
(ireenland, ii. l.'V*;, 163, ]r»5. 
(m*enwoo<l. Prof., ii. 175, 176. 
Gn'lhm, Pen', ii 446. 
Guadah>u|M) Toniiil man. i. 13. 
(luana^a iaUnda, i. 2SS. 
(iuanuhan^, nativei of, i. 146 ; ii. 199. 
Guano, i. 439. 
Guatemala, ii. TiO, 62. 
(lueHt, Mr., ii. 192. 
(turxaltenango, ii. 104. 
Guiana, nativen of, i. 212. 

Haik. ii. 228, 232, 235, 246, 287. 

llaleii, Mr., ii. 4.32. 

Hnirbm-d*. ii. 340, 347, 3«*i7, 368, 

IIain>ree«lii. River, ii. 347. 
HalfbrredK, While Ilurae llain, ii. 

Ilaudin. Dr., ii. 178. ^ 
Hunno. ii. ].')7. 
Hanlrada, Han>ld, ii. 164. 
IIar|)fNin, primitive .Sirttiah. i. Vi 
lUnint, i. 488; ii. 9. 
liaMnoanda, i. 224. 
Ilavrn, H. F., i. 481 ; ii. 23. 194. 
Ilavrn. tl>e Intliatin*. i. 7. 



IKU!«.. il la 



lilwMi. £ 1S4. 


UoDtbrcmD. K ITS. 
V.m. fi«.-t. ii S3a 

Ptu-niciui. i. 407 ; ir 



rtaiit. a. 16*. 1711. 


■L Hmub i.71 

1«01» .ittlk. i. 1^1. 

iTwi ioBTTi 

wi nt u Itr^ 



l.V. «.* 

SK. =711, affi. 3.-=. 


U-n-lU. URPO&. h. 3>;<:. 

Kb n.vv«k 

■Bduw minct (rt. i. £4 


i S^ MM), 4tH>. «£4 

. iL 




JlMAM %, i. 2I.V 

Jcni«ftk'iii,o4&pneiiar«l ukult fntiu, ii. 3<.i3. 
Jomanl, M., v. ISI. 181. 
JoftB, iVinoo, ii. 2tH>. 

KtBAii. •(Milptiire St, i. 2*2i>. 

KAiak, K«ijuim«nx. i. IT,**. ri</< lUyiLir. 

Kaktrt. k. ii. 16*). 

K«n»kaii. ii rtM. .Vk'i. 3«;7. 

Kanr, l>r.« ii. Stl. 

Kan-. iVuS. ii. 1 1. 17, 'JT. h.'s 3ltV 3li». 

Kah*^*. ii ■>7. 

K.«rU-:'nf. 'Hiorfinn. ii. IGi, 17t>. 

K*««, ii. 2**7, 3»M. 

Kr«>wA».thfi.'n'o(*bit'f. ii.*i7. 

Krttlinp. \V. II., i. 1m;. ii. •J7G. 

K«-o<UU. Mr., ii. I7.'>. 

KrnrirUi- Hi%rr, ii. 179. 

Krr.t\ lltcratr, i. ll». ]i>M. 

Kfrt'li crauiiim. ii. 'I'M*, 

KfVc«oaw pi-riin«iil.i, i. 241, *JI7. 

Kininkt>>r^'ak runic ins ripiinii. ii. lt*i<i. 

Kin J I*ki!lp. ri'f//- Mi Uctnni't. 

KiniVinik. fi. 4.'>. 

KlrkLtle < 'avt* . L 1(n>. 

Ktit^tt nc-Aii«, ii. 11. 

Kn.i*.k Mat.j if. I ri.fuKrh. i. Ii«3. I^n}. 

K«.iptihw, ii. 11. 

Kit't, Pr.. ii. 411*. 4'.M 

LftBVA. i'. *•*< 

l^ri'iK*. W.A'A !• r^ of, i. \'1\ . ii. 247. 

Lft Iliatui. ii. .Vi'i. 

La J«iinc L nttf, ii. 372. 37'.>. 

I--vk.* Skugr>^ III IJAh*. ii. 3^7. 

L»np:af;r, Air*»*i/ on, i. 7.'». 7h. 

IjftM.'uap*. uT:f. i. 'i%*-, orijTD I'f, i. «"H». 4»X»-4t'.'l. 

l.juijoa^. Wiu. IIiimY^Mt ('U. i. hi. 

LAn.:;:i.*i-a. Antcman. i. 1 1 ; ii. 13»* 

■1'^, 429. 4 ;7. 
I^ r< tutr, i. 2t*7. 
U:K*jii, I»r., i. 2*^1 ; ii. 2i:;. 2'»2, 111 

LatrU. i. M»\. 
Ijtmjrw* • f the Ipy}aoiii, i. 223, 227 ; ii. 

151. .Vi7. 
Iir«f4ttg Uuck, ii. **i. 

lA*p*nil, Australian, i. 122. 

I4*;:i-nil, Tabitian, i. 1C2. 

lA%'rn«ls ln<liaD. i. G, 113, 211, TM\ 

2r.i». ,S«'l. 42l», 4:W. 4S8 ; ii. 4, P, 11. 
Ix» <iranil rort.iil, i. 2:W. 
f ^if Kn\'»»n, ii, 1»H», 179. 
Lvniii-Iii»na|i«' Imii.intt, i. 12; ii 149, 

2<»t». Xu, ruU Klawari-a. 
I-. H r..rt.uN, i. 23;i. 
I^^tti r*. •iiM'ii\erv t»f. iu 123. 407. 
Ijl<\an iiiH.'ri|iUi>n. ii. 1*^1. 
I.i'Ur, ii. 179. 
I.?:iiii. ii. '^\'^, 
I.i n. iiaiiii-H o'*, i. r.7, r.9. 
I.iith U'V.K- lank. i. 3ui. 
I.i£.ir i uhHin Ii*. i. 4ol. \\y\\.!na tho, i. 4 41. 
I.Ltiiii.fln'i. aniiiiit cop|ML'r miuca nf, i. 

I.^»fft, <*api I, i'. 473. 
I^>ifl<<!i, ant i^-ni, i. 32. 
1.^'nirftll-w, ii. 4. 12;i, 193. 
l^-i.nj«f.-*tt, till* ibi»f. i. 2tHi. 
I^«rl. Im-v. l>r., ii. 17.'>. 
Luni. I»r.. i II. lit: ii.2<»l. 
l.i>Mn.;t<>n. Mr., ii 4*i'.». 
I.v. !l. Sir Lharkit, ii. 41»'., 117. 

Mai »i«.-i.riiALi. ii. 2'.«5. 

M .tti A .: .t*! At. 1.1 n ^lucv t*t, i 1 5< K 

.Ma 1.^', Princr, i. 2tV4, 3IH. 

M.ibpiahuitl. ri*h Swi-nl. Hint f«l::i-<l. 

Maliti t<»hpa. tb«* M.inilan «bi*t'. ii. f<2. 

MaU>«. i. 1 l»s i:.l, 102. 202 . ii. 3i:». 

Mah< r*rnn, iu 2<>2. 

Man:a < ^*l^> ]In.«.-o. i. 71, 43ij. 

M.inatir, tbr. i. 47'*». 

Maf..ii i'ajvn , i. I:;»;, 439: ii 73. 

M in. en ati'*n «>f, i. 93. 

M.ih. ff««il, i. IX 

Man. Ji* t ttf. i. 12iK*. iJ. •*., N2, 1»V., 2«»9, 231. 291. 

Manituulin InlaiiiK ii. l.'i, 34'.i. .'^77 
M.iiilin* iitiM ril*'l ^t- •■. ii. !'.•'•. 
M:uuui>>th ('ate. Kiiitu< kji. it. 222. 293. 
Man>i <*i>Ii*ni'Ii. riiU li*-<I baud. \\* \. .!.. ii. 370. 
Marklan.l, ill. \*\\. 
MAn|uet^■, i. 2. 19. 

nn> VaO^. L Itft. 

Hknon^ B. MS. 


^ iaaoiptnn, K. Its, 

' ihmI, B. W. 111. 
a, u. 1191 so:. 

' r . D. >7«. 376. 

^ L SB. 4U, 417 ; n 

H. le, iro. 

am. tVrvTna. L 4{^ 

«. D*_ E. na. »i9. SI I. su. 


1,1.36;: n.n&,ni.»X 

Il(B»a BaUcn. &e. i ITC, 31^ Bib 

K. laS, t&S, K,x 4&1. 
Ummal CUf, L 2:4, au. MI, 4M; 



Moamb, nymUilical, i. 3r«0. 

Moant Hope IVaj, ii. Itil. 

Iloqui*, i. 4:U. 

Malf.'rmT.', l*ort. ii. 247. 

Mnlkr. Dr., ii. VXK 

Munmirt, Anurican, ii. *2K), 293. 

MniDiiiit ft, iVruviAii, ii. 227. 

MammiHi Atiuii, L 'M,»\ : ii. T2(i, 2'.ia. 

MiuicaI inilnitueiitii, Aiiiirricali, ii. iKt, 

MiuLliiVV* I*, ii. :*(it. 
MuyiiLM«, i. 4/7 : ii. 1*811. 
MuxxioiJHlik, ii. 177. 

NAo«)!iAiir, the ChipiMTva ihivf, ii. 

N«n<*iii^,:;u)M tit, i. 4rt<*. 

Nanticiikrii. i. *J*.'m ; ii. [iot*. 

NaDtutkrt, ii. 274. 

NarT.if:aii'i«-tA, ii. 273. 

_ ur«, II. 1 2. 

Na«k*|M:f II, ii. 37.5w 

N»lilirs, ii. 93, 2t>4. 3«>4. 

N AlicLi, ii. 273. 

NAvif'.itt'r I^Unilii, i. liV.i. 

NfUoskj. ii. 3<'».'», 3»*^«. 

NVj:rin..«, i. 2<'2. 

Ni-.nx>, ai.cit:nt {M>r1raiture of, i. 4«W. 

N*-pn» nic*', ii. :*'J'*. 

Nriitc-n>, ii •j:.7. 2t'.3, :r»9. .3i>». 

Newark W<>rL9. i. :U.\ 312, 40(). 

Nrw.iti'r*. ii. It 17. 

NrwUTTT, rn»f., i 13.'i. 

Nrv Kiil-Unl. ii. i;i(», 101. 11*3, 21?.. 

N««' Ku.'laii'lrr, tbi*. i. I. 

Nrvpoft lkuuii<I Turner, i. 29(i ; ii 

N«« \Vi»rM, the, i. 17. 21. 
New Yitfk. t-arthwi.rki i<f, i. 32i>. .130. 
Nevahiulc'Toil, i. 42*;; ii. 13i>. 
Nicani^nLi, ii. Kt. 
Nii'*>tt Ji'^n, ii. 43. 

N* ■ • ■■ ••"-J »••«» *i^» 

_ i|iiMihfS4, II. *>•***. .{**:*. Jio. 

N** h** I fi^tr, 1. 4 i 7. 

N »nn%ii»' lati^u:!;.-!*, i. 77. 

N-rMfiicri. ii. \uX 171, 1V«7. 117. l»i J.r.ii 211.214. 21»;, 210. 

22'». 2-7 ..;••, •••^411.. 421. 121. 

NuTiirr.iU, .\iii< ri«'jri, ii. 1^(2, 1 1.'-. 

NuBerala Kf:r|>iian, ii. 4t>S. 

Oaxaca, ii. Till, 115. 

(K'ci|>iit, fi>mi i'f. ii. 2t»4. 

Ohiolluljr 8ti>no, i. 33H. 

OlnnvH, ii. 2.')1. 

thnahawn. i. li'A : ii. 231. 

OiKi.lan, i. 227 ; 3';2. 38^ 

Oiioiimto|Mi.*ia, i. *'<5, 73. 

OuouJa^iui, i. 227; ii. 3i;2 381. 

Oiitoiia(;t>n, i. 241.. 2'>3, 255, 370. 

On.*pui, ii. I'lH, 4.V». 

Orinoco, i. 47t): ii. I.V.*. 

Orinooii, nK.k ciu^iiii;* on the, i. 211 ; 

ii. 15t». 
Oiuip-1, ii 20:i. 

< UtAwa.1, ii. 2.">s, .Ii**, 375, 379. 
Ottoiit, ii. 2«»*.». 

< )tiiiuUi, ii. 252, 253. 
(>tuBco. ii. II 5. 

Ox, fwtoil, i. Wt I8f>. 

pAnAllMKHAIi, ii. l.*!. 

r«cu»-et IU\er, ii. l«il. 

Pah-l'tah liitliaiia, ii M. 

I'alenqti.-, i. 421 : ii. 55. (il. (V.'), 114, 

I2'.«, i;i;j. 

ruU-iit{u« CruM, ii. 114, 431. 
l*ali'ni|ue IIii-ri>v;l>[*hicii, ii. 134. 
PiilgrnVf, Sir F., i. 47 : ii. 34*1. 
runnnio, lutliuui of, i. 3U3; ii* 01, 


Panin* liiiliani, ii. 1 17. 

ratAjiioiaii*, iL 209. 

rauniritu KlunJii, i. 2<i*i. 

rAwni.'fii, ii. 287, 3»i7. 

iViice I'ij'*', the, ii. 4, H. 

iVarvii, \h. «t., i. ;t<H. 

Iviul-vrton inKriU'ii axe. ii. 1K5. 

reiii-tari;^ui!*h<-ue. in^Teii at, i. 22* ». 

I'liin. Wiilitkiu, ii. 149. 

ritiuoth, ii. 341. 

ViT\jL, \htu JuiUi rii>, L 422. 

Ivruviiin agritulturv, i. 4.(9. 

lVru\iAO a<{ne«liKtii, ii. tVn, 72. 

IVruvijin An-hiteitiire, ii. t>«. 

r>Tu\ uri, ii. 1«H. 

I*«-tuuan ii">tri>iiuniv, {. 127. 4.(7. 

lVruvi.ui». i. 2v.». -.M. jii.',. 312. 

lVru\ian (.iviiisatioh, i. 4.t5 ii. t\1, 451. 

Peruvian cr.mi.i, ii. 221. 235, 257, 25k, 

2«;«;, 314. 

W 1 I 

. us. 38»;' 
SB. XT. 

i,,ti. iw. 

>T.t.«3«;«S>; ii.31.T9.lU- 

».B. 1«- 

IV« MM*, g. 3, n. u. 

PS|>fc CUr, tL ;t. £% W. 1^ ^ 
PSfC- (^^v^T ii- 15^ 

iL 12, ;?' ; ndi TobKco flpcs. 
PSxmo, u. S»3. 
naia Creei. iL U?. 
PoiHett. Boo. J. i=. 96. 
PoiDi felf InJiaM. ii. 3S«- 
roljaLriiM Art. 
Pol vijntbctiG wriling, li. 1 36. 
Pommier. caTemi of, i. S 10. 
PodUu countj. ii. 8U. 
PupiK.Tttepell. i. 41.1. 
Putt Donglu, ii. Ha. 
Ponralt mulplure, !. 463, 484 


Pudriul Tucs, il. 1 111. 


C.«a:&. riH. Ab lUbj, i. US. 

r^Jj. Fmot. i. Ut, 470: E 101. 
^nk fBTvmK i. 319. YTt. 

I 19; £.3^7. 

L Ml, U» ; S. 39S. 
I Qm^M Ccn« 4e, D. V6. =53. 

I -TTiiihiM. 1 111. 117. IIIT 
w,n. in, 143. 
-til; ii. 125, 145, 15S, 


Qoingna, a. £1, 134. 


tl C«a(n] Aiuericaii. i' 

n>l«igh, i. 390 : ii. S93. 
R»k, ii. US. 
Balhtr, ii. 291. 
Rathi. Iiisli, i. 339- 
HdjiDi, fcsliral of; i. 1S7. 
ReJ Hanil, i]h% ii. 230. 
Rt?l pipeatime qaanj, ii. 5, 11. 
RcJ Rivtr, ii. 340. 
RcUiuB, Prof., ii. 214. S98. 300, 443. 

I» ^] XofW. i. 4H. «t1. 

Bb M«c>. l 4:.;. 

BiadaZoiii, a. Ua 

RhM, Riipuu, L 114, ir, iia aid, 

JJO ; ii. H. 
Biua, Mirtikhnl, L 300: ii. SH. 

BobMtano, Praf, iL SOI. 

Rm-k earring. ■■ 111. 

UuckwribDc ii. 17;. 

ILiU, irtUnil nf. i. I>>4. 

KMikJ Ti.wtr, AuMnoB, i. Z3l>: u. 

I!J. 1V3. 
Kail. UvlboLiM*. i 17«. 
Bbdic iBKriptku, ii. I^ IT**. 

UBa, ridt Sa, *«nUp oL 

li\ 1)7, !«, 19S, 

Jog, i- 119. 

SHU {mIvOuT, rid* liaaatiM^. 

:»nta, u. -ill. 

Suiki. iL KT. 

SulT.'Ming iLr Ic*). L 364; ii. SM. 

Scalpili):. >- t-VI. 

&kj.4nA. II. lU I 481 ; ii. 1»!, 177, 

IV. l->. 43.-. 
Sciotu Bi->uri.i. L 3U. 
SdMOBnonJ cnaiaB, i. 3Ci; >L llii, 

«1, v'-W. 
ScMiaod. {•rinxTal. i. 97. 
HcntliDC* ■•( S-w Kn^luJ. ii. 447. 
S«Dic<^>, ii. '.'71, 3(U. 
S>D*ra Inllu*, i. 334, »7 : ii 361, | 

113, lU. 

ShU bMa*, L 193, >i;, 3W, 363 : ii. 

SbeU knJTM, L 908. 
SkcU ncvkUn, J. IM. 
SIwU omuLeaU, i. itfJ, 303. 
Sbelli, primitin OM e( i. 199, Suti. 

ShelLi, tropical. L ;t6, !I9. 

Sbinte, L 107. 
i Shonko*ani. tk* Mokask cUaC JL 

SIiuTria, aBcieat uiian'. i. US. 
I Skiqi. i. 133 : ii. T, 3»1, 3il, 367 
I SUT«r Duoo, Mi^ucao, i. 3"!. 

Six Satkaa, the, 1. 337 ; iL 379. 3ai. 
I SfciiKaDan. ridt Conde, Cvnack. 

l!.T>Ur. ^Aiik 
I KknUi. r^ Craoia, Head. 
' Snith, C. r^. i. 33. 
I Sxirl; [ilanj caneea, i. ^lS&. 

Sicictj Iilamli. i. 168 ; ii. 147 

.'i-k.>ki>. ii. 370. 
I Sitlcrio^-. an o( L 303. 

Spbtn.jrrBfniatnu, ti. 190. 

Siater, 11. C, iL », ^i, 193. 

SlamUrdrfTpfwuniiiii. IBcicDt Amc- 
.S<J. 347. 

5l. I'-'miiiGi-. i 



St. Vinoat, Hon; dc. ii. 459; 
SuptkCDf, U. U,'d7, 63. »l, UA. lit), 

131. 13f«. 310. 
Stiln, R«*. tixn. ii. 173. 
Stone ioiplriLi'nt*, i. l.S*. IK. 134, 

Ston« ducllingi. aacicDt Scotli>h. i. It<3. 
Stom- m... •, -.-*',, ;f7, 253. 
Bioat pcri-1, prinwial, i 4«, 86. 1»3. 

j Slant uphrre, G(;arrJ, ii. H"'. 

>''j .1-1. i^aa. >rDnbipof, L 1:24, ISO. 119, M6. 

iMpa.. tii.,; oivun'l*, i. Uv, 353. v ., , .„. ,l. .'-.'^ ; ii. 3M. 

ScpukLn] ril. ., i. y/> -. iL Jd'j. | Supnior t'ilr, i. 38 

.■wpoltut*. niulra uf, L 364 . ii. 336, i .<u)>riifr. I.^. (xppn ntci-a*. > 3Xt 

l^-A Sbttrc. i. 444. twfa tWrificr 

.■^'^t, the ).-nai. i. 103. 
Sn.»ll,l-irf.ii. 173, 175, 176. 
.Shawnm,i.3-i", ii. 356,365. 

vdi. ir. 

Swampir^ ii. 349. 

Snml, HiDt-olpd, i. 136, S9U. 

SfmbDlic ma«Dd>, i. 3M. 

•2 I 

EWnwL Sr^li. Mh 

is™. 4 »«* SIS. 

TWb ««m -Jv 3K. 

Bwr* aa-noi, ■. Kk 

0»r-.» fiK . 4iA 

Tb. .. MB.. JUTl 

V L B3, *a. «ST. «8: i ». cSj^i. w'.' «6. 



Vaixcmv, Colonel, ii. 175. 

VaiicfiUTcr, Kort, i. IW. 

Vaocoarer*! IsUnd, ii. 345, 389. 

Vftfiikoru, canoe of, i. 167. 

VMcode (faniA, ii. 113, 115. 

Vega, Garcilauo de la, i. 436 ; ii. S22. 

Veapncci, Amerigo, ii. 159. 

VilcAbamU. i. 291. 

Vinlan.1. ii. Ica 

VitruTian icnill, ii. 113, 115. 

WAKEXAKIEit, ii. 177. 
Walla wiUlai, ii. 247. 
Waiiipiuioa^, ii. 15(>. 
Wampum, i. 21H, 443 ; ii. 147. 
Warren, Dr. J. C, ii 221. 223, 239. 
Wanru. I>r.J. M., ii. 221. 
Washington, General, ii. 178. 
Wateqimof baakeU, vide Uaaketa. 
Wftukesha, tnrtle mound at, i. 387. 
Weaving, Peril vian, i. 441. 
White .log. Mcrifice of, i. 12ft. 
WilU de Haaa. Dr., u. 184. 

Wilaon. Dr.G., i. 95, 282. 
Wiliton, lV>f. H. IL. u. 449. 
Wilton, R.A., 1.431. 
Winnipeg, Lake, ii. 346. 
Winthrope, Profeaaor, ii 175, 17(i. 
Winthro}w, Judge, ii. 175. 
Wiaconaio, autiquitiea of, i. 386. 
World bcforo the Flood, the, i. 95. 96. 
Writing, origin of, ii. 123. 
Writing, hierogljphic, ii. 144. 
Wrandota, ii. 365, ride Hunwu. 

Yauli. i. 293. 
Year, Meiican, i. 422. 
Yellow Stone river, ii. 83. 
Yucatan, i. 422 ; ii. 52, 58, 62, 98. 104. 

Zacotolla>, L 802. 
Zaiioteca, ii. 251. 
Zentcno, Father Tapia, ii. 443. 
Znni, Riu de, ii. 230. 
Zunianf, ii. 93. 






I. p. 46, line 31, /or application! rtad application. 

231, Title of Chapter, for Arta ruul Instinct. 

277, line 7, /or have elapaed rtad muft have elapied. 

II. p. 127, line 20, /or grov rtad grev. 
138, line 21,ybp ttinriTe rtad anrTiTcd. 
171, line 19,/t But the modem rtad Both the oiodem. 
245, Table III. No. 10, Atacama, F.D.,/or 5*1 rtad 4 4. 
260, line 7 from foot, dele fcix. 
270, Table X. No. 9, Iroquet, F.D., /or 4 rtad 5*0. 
299, line 6, /or MTeoteenth rtad liiteenth. 
318. line 35,ybr of finely rtad or finelj. 
321, line 12, /or and rtad an. 
348, line 9, /or deaoend rtad detcemlcd. 


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** Wr wpffMitnr this vulunif aa a KTV^>1 tritiut^ tn tbr rnrni'ir) nf m» iclfted. trli*lcr, grtwfiiua a 
•iiiil an ^-irnrr haa rnr n-arwl, ami iirvnmiuivly |ii4t " — l.'Untry *i%t:»tu. 

•• It !• l"iiK mim-e a l^-lliT m-iniiir than thlr a^ r»,-\nS rith-r •ufijis't or hanilKuff. ha« r»imr I 

un■^ r I'Ur hi>lir<*. . . Tli*- nr«t ninr Th.-iptt-n rrtam all tli*' rtuinnin.- icrmrr <>f fttylp whu-h luarkml 
r%*n'thiii*; "f Wilkin'*, uii'l \W au!h>>r «>f td'- ! tU'-r t*<> t]iir<l« • f l'.< iii<ni".r «lrvn-i^ «rn hik'h 

{.•i,.f f.if titi- «kiil li«- Ik-tk i.««-«l, nii't iif kiri-llv i>|>irit In luu ^itii«ii I'p-iii tbr tint l«|^' t>> tlia ] 

ant, th*- U">k rtaini^ lan-fnl r>-a<liii«: an t'lDit a full !*iit ti>>t ••vrr> n>i»>|f«I r-brar«ali*f a nii«t ' 

iu>traitirr \\l»\ 9xA tli<* tnir pu tunr of a miuil ttiat « u rtrv in pitn-ii«{th a;.'i l*niuty ** — Kt**min»r, 

T. T-irj'T"LZ. 3.D. 1 X.i. 

■ tu>*> H^rru, 

.£i3«miw» — ?m 3IBBUE. mk. ^m '*— ■•°~ 

*•*"»■'»»> lb.*! 




PmLll nRAToR lit THK rjCIVKimiTr op rAMPIllDOt 

With Portrait. Cruwn Sra cloth, 5» 






WoRlMWfkRTirri I1»F.MS 













*'fhH*«if thr ni'iHt (IHI«rtitftil still prr«'liiTUiT«>luinr«nrnittrlmn tlut hu ap|ic«r«d bi thrardayv. 

Ti» rvfrjr rultivatni rrmWr tliry will ilisi-kw thr iinniforfiil rUmrmrm* ot fH>iT«|itliia, tto 

fl'luAi-jr of ff^liti^;. ttir |Hirr lAJit^. aii'l tlir ri-markatily flrni uvl «lerlsJir# JOi|«ni#ot vhtrb «iv tto 

rhararuristliit t»f «ll Mr. Ilrlnilr)'** wntttv« <»n ■ut^)«rt« that mUlj pmcCralM aad taUj^ia 

hi* iiatuff." — .VoA'-'-n/f/rmiif. 





rmoratiiiiii m kmoi.inn utkrati'iik tn nfivKamrr c^ollkoe, lovdov. 

V«>1. I. 8va With PortniU. IS$. 

" Mr Mmvni'k IJfi* of Milt4in has nuuiv iitrrlinff nwnU . . . hU liHluntrjr U ImDiraaa; hl« 
f .il tiiillii«;^'ii4{; hit i>|MM ml kiinwlnltff ut WtlUiu'ii lift* aikil tinvrn rxtratmlliury . . . With a anU 
111 I iti<liMr> whi« h «•• raiiiiiit ■lifArlfiitly ittninirTMl, hf luu iii»t nuly availiNl hltii^rlf of Um 
II. ^-rti-liii .il *tt'in-« ■-••Urrtitl hv hi4 )in^l4'i>niMini, iKit iuii«rU-«l !•> th* lu au aa|«^-t «if Duvvlty hf 
lii<i <kilful n-ArrmjiiCfiiirnt." — Ktltnfrtirgh Rrrine. 


By DAVID MAS80N. Crown 8vi>. doth. 7f. M. 

*' A work Ptnififntly rali'iiUtnt t4) «Id ltii|iuliuity, Nith liy tiir autaiMlnraa uf lU il'N-trlnc ami 
lh*- -kill iif iU art.'*-n«' rna*. 



By DAVID MASSON. Sm cloth, 12i. 6d. i 

atSTKSTS: ! 


V |)KAN swipt 

"Mr Ma4iM>n haH ^ni-rrrtlfl in pr* MlurinK a writ ■• i>f rritlrtvnm In rplattnn tn rrnatlT' lltrrmtinv, 
• Imh an< «itiiifwt<ir> .14 ««>|| m miMllr— whn'h an* ii'it mily inici'hkiua. bQt whirh |M«a«ai 
i-kr* r n-i ••iuiiirii<Utiiiii «•( lo-iiix tiituall) jtuit ' — The T*mu*. 





COMTE'M r<iiHITlVK Pnil^HfiPHT. 



Two ToU. f(aii>. 8to. cloth, \2t. 

"Til* -t>U IN «i raay ami iiAtunl. . . . Thi* •t«iry ^ *''**ll ^*l*l ^n* Wtsiunin^ tii I'SiL"— rrat. 

" A k** iiTiiiir luliaii tai<- — A tnit' jiirtuiv tiftlii' TtiM-an jinuuint ]">iiuliith»ii, with all thi-ir virtura, 
riull*. «• .-ikii'KMti, ritllic^. aiKl r\rn %iifii. . . . Hh' In-iit Italian tali* that \iMn U^'ii |iuMialin| 
•ii.'i ttif Bi'iii-iintHr ff th>> 'l*niiiuiwl Ii|>Mi' iif Mati»>nL . . . Thv ' ltr\ikru Trutli ' u una of 
Ui—v Uiat 4>anii«>t 1^.* n-ail Imt with iilraaurvL"— /."HtK-a AVririr 




41 TH«in or "i.iriLX lhtilij^, mvi* firiir.M faimt talci ion the imi-jiii.* 

Crown i^To. cloth, !<>«. tid, 

" Tlii« • haniiiiti: talr m t«>l«l «iUi auch vkn-Iknt art, that it r\aiU likt- an tjiiMMlc fn.iui n-al bfe.** 
— .I!:<u. 


CrowD 6vo. cloth, li'«. 6c/. 

*' It* |«<wir i» uiii|ii<'«ti<>ti.i!ilr. itji fi 111 it> 'if f ti<n-4»iiiii ,rna!, it« ]>I<>t fh-^h. an^l ita rKanrt'r* 
\*-r} naturml. . . . Wben-ivr rvail, it «tU bv cnthuaiaaticalljr adiuinnl anil ibrrlabcd."— Jfvrafff 



Crown Svo. cloth, U^ 6J, 

"hifnc *Th<* Mill iin thi* FliMi «■!■ n«ti'ri|. wi- hi%r na«I im wurk t't A t.i>n wh:< h •!- <-an mi 

tif-artilf rvi«<iiiititn<l !•• niir naili n a« *A I^-ly in 1m r i>«ii f{i«;ht ' Ih*- |-l-t. i:i< .•!■ n!*. ami 

•*ham tt r<* nrr all i;i-fl . thi !>t}li iv iiiiti|'lf aii'l ,:rari ful ; it aUuii'lii lu ib< ti^-M* juiIh louiily 

ntpi*lui-i«l atnl »iU iipnaM-vl. ao<l thriiii4{li<iat a kibil, librnl, asit gvntlr »|>tnl "— ( AarcA ^ 

# ajfi'ilittf J/xa/Aiy h*r\f»\ 



(-HArij^iy IV oRniKAftT n> the gfun, 

ftici*nm OP cvEkHUv. 

AMb nuircMHiii or modkrii hivturt ix tub rKiTKaamr op cammudok. 


New and CuiArBB Editioh. Crown 8to. doth, tfiL 

** Mr Kin^Iry Ium ai-lcctc*! ft B(nm1 wl^ect, uhI hu written a ffood novel In mil escrltoni 
IMiriMMM*." — T\me». 


New and CHBArKB Eomox. Crown Sra doth, (It. 

** In *Twii Tran* \ip\' Mr. Kingaley fai. m Alwayii, mUAl, knce-brmrtnl, ami bmnorow ; villi 
1 i|iii«k •■>!• aiHl ■ Vwn n'liMli alikr fur what to bc«ntihil In nalniv and fur what to fcnalnc, atfoni, 
^t¥\ rAni* •! In mau."— f«ManlMii»9 





" I havr Tv-wTitt^n all that rvUtea to Cainltri'lKr ; vliilr I havr altered hardljr onr vord in Ika 

*,* Tbirt Edition will be printed in Crr)wn 8yo. uniform with "WMlwnrd 

H<i I' * ftc. and will contain a New Preface. [Jmuudiateig, 


SiooiTD EDmoif, with Illuatratiuna Royal I6mo. cloth, fit. 


Cmwn 8to. doth, fit. 


CtOWB 8to. S(. 

P II A E T n O N : 


Till no Eoinosf. Cruwn 8vo. 2t. 







Oblong rojal 8vo. half-bouiid, 7<. <kl. 





liMong ri>)*al 8vm. balf-bouiMl. 7i. CJ. 



With lUimtntioni. 7& M. 

"If thu mnArkAMj aforralilc vork liort nnt nvml In ii<>palaiitj thf rrlrbtmtril 'Wbllc'a 
HrllKrnr/ It vUl Di*t be brcanw tt *\tf% not drsriTe It . . . tb« ouimI \m aimuit utiated vltk a 
rr|tl0tk« of atmigv tu^M «im1 Rnud thiiiiv.*— Fklil 








Fcap, Sio. St. <M. inii inf- 




Tb« Publubeni h*Te niudi pleuure tu aDuounciog UuU in 
the great aiicceu wliicli attended the pnblicatioa of " Vaca 
FOR I8d0," they bate maiiB amngeiueiila fur publlsbitig a Volume i>f Toara 
ia 1861. This vDhima will be edited, like tha former cue, by FliANClS 
GALTON, M.A. F.RS. The Volmce will be ready in the Spring. Kid will 
cont.iin, nmcmg otharn, tbe fLilIowing : — 

I, 8T, PiTTERSBURG AND MOSCOW "I'.r thr Rvv. .Irchibiu. Whk 
It. THE COUNTRY OF SCHAIIYL. By Wiiuui Mjhisuilu. 
111. TSE MONKS OF HOUN-T ATHoa By tbi! Rev. 11 IVuie. 
V. SIX WEEKS IN CANADA. By Cai>I. R CcLLtHsoN. ilii. c d. 
TI. A NATURALIST'3 IMFRE88ION OP SPAIN. By P. L. Scum. See. k> JSuulwusl 


(ambiiiigc : 







taken from the Building