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Full text of "Preliminary report of the Factory Investigating Commission, 1912 .."

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 




STATE OF NEW YORK 



PRELIMINARY REPORT 



OF THE 



FACTORY INVESTIGATING COMMISSION 



1 912 



VOLUME I 



TRANSMITTED TO THE LEGISLATURE MARCH 1. 1912 



ALBANY 

THE ARGUS COMPANY. PRINTERS 
1912 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION. 

PAGE. 

I. Creation of Commission 13 

II. Organization of Commission. 14 

III. Scope of the Investigation 15 

IV. Importance of the Investigation. 16 

V. Limitation of the Commission's Work 20 

VI. Summary of Work Done by the Commission 22 

1 . Public Hearings 22 

2. Executive Sessions 23 

3. Inspections and Special Investigations Made by the Commission . 23 

a. General Sanitary Investigations 23 

b. Fire Hazard Investigations 24 

c. Bakery Investigations 24 

d. Women's Trades Investigations 25 

e. Volunteer Investigations 25 

(1) On Sanitary Conditions in Factories and Manufacturing 

Establishments in a Selected Area in New York City 25 

(2) Lead Poisoning in New York City 25 

(3) Child Labor in the Tenements 25 

4. Questionnaire Issued by the Commission and Digest of the Re- 

plies 26 

5. Briefs and Memoranda Submitted to the Commission 26 

THE FIRE HAZARD IN FACTORY BUILDINGS. 

I. The Existing Fire Problem in New York City 29 

1. The Converted Dwelling or Tenement 30 

2. The Loft Building , 30 

a. The Non-fireproof Loft 31 

6. The Fireproof Loft Less than 150 feet in Height 32 

c. The Fireproof Loft More than 150 feet in Height 32 

3. Danger to Life in Fireproof Buildings 33 

II. The Existing Fire Problem in Other Cities of the State 35 

III. Enforcement of Laws Relative to Fire 36 

1. In New York City 36 

2. In Other Cities of the State 37 

IV. Recommendations of the Commission 38 

Prevention of Fire 38 

Notification of Authorities in Case of Fire . . 40 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDICES 

GENERAL REPORTS 

PAGE. 

I. GENERAL SANITARY INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING CONDITIONS IN 
FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS IN NEW YORK STATE. 

Report Submitted by DR. George M. Price 117 

II. THE FIRE HAZARD. 

Report by H. F. J. Porter, Esq., Industrial Engineer 153 

SPECIAL REPORTS 

III. BAKERIES IN NEW YORK CITY 

Report on the Inspection of 497 Bakeries and the Physical 
examination of 800 Bakers in New York City, by George M. 
Price, M. D " 203 

IV. WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES IN NEW YORK STATE 

Notes on some trades in New York State employing a large 
proportion of women workers, by Violet Pike 271 

V. NOTES ON AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA IN- 
NEW YORK CITY WITH RESPECT TO SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 
By Pauline Goldmark, Associate Director, New York School of 
Philanthropy '. 303 

VI. OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 

A preliminary report on Lead Poisoning in the City of New York, 
with an Appendix on Arsenical Poisoning, by E. E. Pratt, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Economics and Statistics in the New York 
School of Philanthropy 367 

VII. HOME WORK IN THE TENEMENT HOUSES OF NEW YORK CITY. 

Memorandum submitted by Owen R. Lovejoy, General Secre- 
tary National Child Labor Committee 573 

Memorandum submitted by Elizabeth C. Watson of the 

National Child Labor Committee 581 

Photographs submitted by the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee, the Consumers' League of New York and Miss Lillian D. 
Wald of the Nurses Settlement 

VIII. QUESTIONNAIKK ISSUED BY COMMISSION AND DIGEST OF REPLIES 

RECEIVED 587 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



IX, BRIEFS AND MEMORANDA SUBMITTED TO THE COMMISSION: 

(/) Fire Prevention, Fire-Excape Facilities and Building Con- 
struction: 

Brief on Fire Prevention and Public Safety, by Rudolph P 
Miller, Superintendent of Buildings, Borough of Man- 
hattan, New York City 699 

Memorandum of Committee of New York Chapter Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects on Construction of Factory 
Buildings and the Fire Problem 728 

Memorandum on the necessity for a State Building Code, 
submitted by Robert D. Kohn, Esq., architect, New 
York City 740 

Comments on the scope and provisions of the Sullivan- 
Hoey Fire-Prevention Law, by Walter Lindner, Esq., of 
the New York Bar 744 

Statement of Thomas J. Ahearn, State Fire Marshal, New 
York 750 

() Factoiy Inspection, Accident Prevention and Sanitation: 

Memorandum submitted by Prof. Henry R. Seager, Presi- 
dent of the American Association for Labor Legislation. . 754 

Brief submitted by John Calder, General Manager Rem- 
ington Typewriter Works, on Accident Prevention 758 

Brief submitted by Prof. W. Oilman Thompson, Cornell 
Medical School, on Classification of Occupational Diseases 
and Poisoning 765 

(3) Seven Day Labor Legislation by John A. Fitch Esq., of " The 

Survey" 776 

(4) Communications 803 

X. BILLS SUBMITTED TO LEGISLATURE 815 



VOLUME II 

MINUTES OF PUBLIC HEARINGS: 

WITNESSESS EXAMINED. 
TESTIMONY. 



ACT CREATING COMMISSION 

CHAP. 561. LAWS OF 1911. 

AN ACT to create a commission to investigate the conditions under 
which manufacturing is carried on in cities of the first and 
second class in this state, and making an appropriation therefor. 
Became a law June 30, 1911, with the approval of the Governor. 
Passed, three-fifths being present. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate 
and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1. A commission of nine members is hereby created 
consisting of two senators to be appointed by the president of tha 
senate, three members of the assembly, and four other mem- 
bers to be appointed by the Governor. Such commission 
shall investigate as speedily as possible the existing conditions 
under which manufacture is carried on in so-ci?lled loft 
buildings and otherwise in the cities of the first and second 
class in the state, including in such investigation, matters affecting 
the health and safety of operatives as well as the security and 
best interests of the public, the character of the buildings and 
structures in which such manufacture or other business takes place 
and the laws and ordinances now regulating their erection, main- 
tenance and supervision, to the end, among other things, that such 
remedial legislation may be enacted as will eliminate existing 
peril to the life and health of operatives and other occupants in 
existing or new structures, and to promote the best interests of 
the community. Such commission shall also have the power to 
inquire into the conditions under which manufacture takes place 
in other cities of this state and country if it shall so determine. 

Sec. 2. The commission shall have power to elect its chairman 
and other officers, to compel the attendance of witnesses and the 
production of books and papers ; to employ counsel, a secretary, 
stenographers and all necessary clerical assistants ; and shall other- 
wise have all the powers of a legislative committee as provided 



12 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

by the legislative law, including the adoption of rules for the 
conduct of its proceedings. The members of such commission 
shall receive no compensation for their services, but shall be 
entitled to their actual and necessary expenses incurred in tli-j 
performance of their duties. 

Sec. 3. Such commission shall make a report of its proceedings, 
together with its recommendations, to the legislature on or before 
the fifteenth day of February, nineteen hundred and twelve. 

Sec. 4. The sum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or so much 
thereof as may be needed, is hereby appropriated for the actual and 
necessary expenses of the commission in carrying out the pro- 
visions of this act, payable by the treasurer on the warrant of 
the comptroller, on the order of the chairman of such commis- 
sion. The commission may also receive and expend for the pur- 
poses of this act any money contributed by voluntary subscription. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect immediately. 



REPORT 

to the 
LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

by the 

NEW YORK STATE FACTORY INVESTIGATING COflMISSlON 
(Chapter 561, Laws of 1911) 



To THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK: 

The Commission appointed under Chapter 561 of the Laws of 
1911, to inquire into the conditions under which manufacturing 
is carried on in the cities of the first and second class of the State, 
hereby submits the following PRELIMINARY REPORT : 

CREATION OF COMMISSION. 

On Saturday afternoon, March 25, 1911, a fire took place in 
the business establishment of the Triangle Waist Company, at 
No. 23-29 Washington Place, in the Borough of Manhattan, City 
of New York, in which 145 employees, mainly women and girls, 
lost their lives. 

This shocking loss of life aroused the community to a full sense 
of its responsibility. A superficial examination revealed conditions 
in factories and manufacturing establishments that constituted a 
daily menace to the lives of the thousands of working men. women 
and children. Lack of precautions to prevent fire, inadequate 
fire-escape facilities, insanitary conditions that were insidiously 
undermining the health of the workers were found existing every- 
where. The need of a thorough and extensive investigation into 
the general conditions of factory life was clearly recognized. 

Public-spirited citizens and representatives from the Fifth 
Avenue Association of the City of New York, the Committee on 
Safety of the City of New York and other organizations laid 
these facts before the Governor and Legislature of the State and 
asked for the appointment of a legislative commission to inquire 
into the conditions under which manufacturing was carried on in 
the cities of the first and second class of the State. As a result, 
the Act creating this Commission (Chapter 561 of the Laws of 
1911) was passed and became a law on June 30, 1911. 



14 KK.POKT OK ( 'OM.MISSION. 

Pursuant to the provisions of that Act, the following Commis- 
sion was appointed: 

SENATOR KOBEBT F. WAGNER, 
SENATOR CHARLES M. HAMILTON. 

By the President of the Senate. 
ASSEMBLYMAN ALFRED E. SMITH, 
ASSEMBLYMAN EDWARD D. JACKSON, 
ASSEMBLYMAN CYRUS W. PHILLIPS. 

By the Speaker of the Assembly. 
MR. SIMON BRENTANO, 
MR. ROBERT E. DOWLING, 
MR. SAMUEL GOMPERS, 
Miss MARY E. DREIER. 

By the Governor. 

The Commission was authorized by the Legislature to inquiie 
into the existing conditions under which manufacturing was car- 
ried on in so-called loft buildings and otherwise, including matters 
affecting the health and safety of the operatives as well as the 
security and best interests of the public, the character of the 
buildings and structures in which such manufacturing and busi- 
ness takes place, and the laws and ordinances regulating their 
erection, maintenance and supervision so that, among other things, 
remedial legislation might be enacted to eliminate existing peril 
to life and health of operatives and occupants in existing or n re- 
structures and to promote the best interests of the community. 

The Commission was required to report to the Legislature on 
or before the 15th day of February, 1912. 

The Commission was authorized to compel the attendance of 
witnesses, the production of books and papers, and to appoint 
counsel, a secretary, stenographers and necessary clerical assistants. 
and was otherwise to have all the power? of a legislative committee. 

The members of the Commission were to receive no compensa- 
tion for their services but were to be reimbursed for their actual 
and necessary expenses. The sum of $10.000 was appropriated 
t'>r the expenses of the Commission. 

ORGANIZATION OF COMMISSION. 

The Commission organized on the 17th day of August, 10 II. 
by electing Hon Robert F. Wagner, Chairman, and Hon. Alfred 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 15 

E. Smith, Vice-Chairman, and by selecting Mr. Frank A 
Tierney, as Secretary. The Commission appointed Mr. Abram I. 
Elkus, Chief Counsel, and Mr. Ik-nuinl L. Shientag as his 
assistant. 

Through the generosity of the Committee on Safety of the Citv 
of New York and Mr. Robert E. Bowling, a member of this Com- 
mission, offices were furnished to the Commission without charge. 
for which kindness the Commission expresses its thanks and 
appreciation. 

The Commission retained as its expert in general charge of 
the work of inspection and sanitation, Dr. George M. Price, a 
physician of standing, practising in the City of New York, who 
had made investigations of a similar nature, and who is the 
author of several well-known text-books on sanitation. 

Dr. Price, immediately upon being retained, on September 15, 
1911, organized a corps of inspectors for field work in the cities 
of the first and second class of the State 

The Commission selected as its advisory expert on the fire 
problem, Mr. H. F. J. Porter, a mechanical engineer of the City 
of New York, who had made a study of fire problems, had written 
many articles on the subject and was known to be conversant 
with the situation. Under his supervision, inspections were made 
of numerous manufacturing establishments with reference to the 
fire hazard. 

For the inspection work and fees of the advisory experts, tho 
sum of $5,500 was expended by the Commission. Both Mr. 
Porter and Dr. Price agreed to give their own services for prac- 
tically nominal sums, and both devoted themselves zealously to 
the work of the Commission. 

SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION 

The Commission was charged with the duty of inquiring into 
tlie following matters : 

1. Hazard to life because of fire: covering fire prevention, 
arrangement of machinery, fire drills, inadequate fire-scapes and 
exits, number of pereons employed in factories and lofts, etc. 

2. Danger to life and health because of insanitary conditions: 
fontilation, lighting and heating arrangement, hours of labor, etc. 



16 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

3. Occupational diseases: industrial consumption, lead poison- 
ing, bone disease, etc. 

4. Proper and adequate inspection of factories and manufac- 
turing establishments. 

5. Manufacturing in tenement houses. 

6. The present statutes and ordinances that deal with or relate 
to the foregoing matters, and the extent to which the present laws 
are enforced. 

The Commission was to recommend such new legislation as 
might be found necessary to remedy defects in existing legislation, 
ami to provide for conditions at present unregulated. 

The Act creating this Commission limited the scope of its 
inquiry to cities of the first and second class, although the Com- 
mission was authorized to inquire into the conditions surrounding 
manufacturing in other cities of the State and country if it 
should so determine. 

IMPORTANCE OF INVESTIGATION. 

New York is the first State in the Union to authorize a 
general investigation of the conditions in manufacturing estab- 
lishments within its borders. Several other States have appointed 
commissions which were limited in the scope of their investiga- 
tions, such as the Illinois Commission on the subject of occupa- 
tional diseases, the Massachusetts Commission on Factory Inspec- 
tion and the various Commissions on accident prevention and 
employers' liability. It remained for the State of New York to 
lead the way with an investigation of factory conditions general 
in its scope and character. 

According to the preliminary report of the Census of 1910 
there were 1,003,981 men, women and children employed in the 
factories and manufacturing establishments of New York State. 
This is the average of the number employed during the year. The 
Commissioner of Labor gives the number of such employees as 
"\-er 1,250,000. The following schedule from the United States 
Census Report of 1910 shows the number of establishments, the 
capital employed, cost of materials used, salaries paid, value of 
products and number of wage earners and clerks in the cities of 
the first and second cla^s in the State, together with their totals: 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 



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1 ^ IlKl'ORT OF COMMISSION. 

In addition to the actual wage earners concerned, the Commis- 
sion's inquiry bears indirectly upon the millions of women and 
children who compose the families of these workers and are 
dependent upon them for support. 

Health is the principal asset of the working man and the 
working woman. The State is bound to do everything in its 
power to preserve the health of the workers who contribute so 
materially to its economic wealth and its industrial prosperity. 

Aside from the humanitarian aspect of the situation, economic 
considerations demand from the State the careful supervision and 
protection of its woikers. Failure to perform this obligation 
will produce serious results in the worker? of tlio future. It will 
affect the working capacity of the future generation. 

The State not only possesses the power and the right, but 
it is charged with the sacred duty of seeing that the worker is 
properly safeguarded in case of fire; that he is protected from 
accidents caused by neglect or indifference; that proper precau- 
tions are taken to prevent poisoning by the materials and pro- 
cesses of his industry, and that he works under conditions 
conducive to good health, and not such as breed disease. 

Indifference to these matters reflects grossly upon the present 
day civilization, and it is regrettable that our State and national 
legislation on the subject of industrial hygiene compares so un- 
favorably with that of other countries. 

Factory workers particularly need protection and supervision. 
Among them disease more easily finds its victims than amonc 
other classes of workers. Every epidemic has drawn most of its 
victims from the working classes. Statistics show the greater 
mortality of those engaged in factory work, as compared with 
those in other occupations. 



death rates of males per 1,000, according to occupations for 
registration states (12th Census, U. S., Vol. Ill, p. cclxi). are ts 
follows : 

Mercantile and Trading ...................... 12.1 

Clerical and Official ......................... 13.5 

Professional ................................ 15.3 

Laboring and Servant ....................... 20.2 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 19 

York has already expended great sums of money to con- 
serve its natural resources. The conservation of human life, the 
ni<>st valuable of all things, has received but little attention. The 
appointment of this Commission was the first comprehensive 
attempt to investigate the waste of human life in our modern 
industrial sy-fem, and to endeavor to devise means to prevent such 
a sacrifice, >nrely a matter of equal importance to the preservation 
of forests am! >t reams. 

Fires and industrial accidents are fortunately only occasional 
ami extraordinary events. Their effects are visible and immediate 
so they are impressed forcibly upon our minds. But the common, 
everyday incidents of industrial life, the Lack of ventilation, the 
lonir hours of labor amid insanitary surroundings, the failure to 
liivc notice to employees of the dangers of their occupations and 
how to avoid them, these work unnoticed, but the toll of human 
life they exact is very great. 

The illness and diseases caused by these conditions can in large 
men-lire he prevented, and prevention is always better than cure 
and less co.-tly. In his report on National Vitality, Professor 
Irving Fisher shows that the economic gain to the nation that 
would result from proper precaution to prevent sickness and dis- 
ea-e, would amount to at least $500,000,000 per annum. 

A New York State manufacturer testified before the Commis- 
sion that he had installed a great many sanitary improvements 
and labor-saving devices tending to the comfort of his employees. 
He expressly disclaimed any philanthropical motives in so doing, 
but said it was a decided benefit to him in his business from a 
purely doHars-and'-cents standpoint. 

During the past few decades methods of protecting machinery 
in use have been vastly improved. Labor-saving de\ices have 
been introduced everywhere, but much remains to be done by the 
manufacturer to conserve the most valuable of all assets the 
working man and the working woman. It cannot be said that 
this waste is the result of intentional wrongdoing. It has simply 
been nobody's business, and therefore has been neglected and 
unheeded. 



20 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

The investigation has already produced results. In many cases 
the manufacturers themselves were unaware of the conditions 
under which they required their employees to work, or if indeed 
thev were aware of these conditions, did not realize their evil 

/ ' 

effects. Many did not know what could be done to improve them. 
They took these conditions as a matter of course. 

The authorities in many cities, because of the publicity of the 
Commission's inquiry, began special investigations, which resulted 
in many cases in improved conditions. The educational value of 
the Commission, therefore, has been very great. The manufac- 
turers who had not only complied with the provisions of the law, 
but had gone beyond ite requirements, should feel rewarded by the 
contrast which was shown. 

A general awakening has taken place throughout the State. A 
far larger number of inspections by authorities have been made 
than ever before. No great reliance, however, can be placed upon 
such a momentary or spasmodic awakening. When its cause is no 
longer present, conditions relapse into their former state, and there 
is little real improvement. 

To improve the industrial situation permanently, clear, concise 
and comprehensive legislation is needed. 

LIMITATIONS OF THE COMMISSION'S WORK. 

At the outset it became clear that to carry out the mandate 
of the Legislature would require far more time than was at the 
disposal of the Commission. 

Tt would have been impossible, even if the Commission had 
devoted every hour of time since the passage of the Act, to touch 
more than a portion of its work. Of the 248 industries in the 
State only 20 could be partially covered in its investigations. 

Governor Dix in his last annual message to the Legislature, 
said: 

" It is clear that it has been impossible for the Commis- 
sion, in the short time at its disposal, to complete its labors, 
although its members have worked most diligently and 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 21 

energetically, and I therefore suggest to the Legislature 
that the time of the Commission be extended at least one 
year, and that sufficient appropriation be made to meet its 
necessary expenditures. 

It appears that conditions in manufacturing similar to 
those which have been shown in the cities of the first and 
second class exist in other cities and localities of the State, 
and that in the interest of the citizens the scope of the inves- 
tigation should be broadened so as to cover the entire State, 
and all establishments where workingmen and working- 
women are employed." 

There is always a temp cation where conditions are disclosed 
which seem to need remedying to make recommendations for 
legislation, but the Commission has felt that hasty and ill- 
considered legislation is worse than none, and in many cases con- 
siders the remedy to be the proper and efficient enforcement of 
existing laws. The testimony given shows conclusively that the 
these laws are not adequately enforced. The authority responsi- 
ble for conditions should be given sufficient power to compel a 
speedy compliance with its orders, and that power should be exer- 
cised promptly and effectively. In the enactment of new laws, 
proper means should be provided for their complete enforcement. 

Mindful, however, of the obligation upon it to recommend 
remedial legislation, the Commission has made such recommenda- 
tions wherever it has felt itself competent to do so. 

The Commission considered it its duty to devote the larger part 
of its time to ascertaining all the facts with reference to the fire 
hazard problem so that it could make recommendations as com- 
prehensive as was permissible on that subject for existing factory 
buildings. With reference to buildings to 'be hereafter erected, the 
Commission limits itself to a few general recommendations. 

If its continuance in office is extended, the Commission hopes, 
among other things, to prepare and submit to the Legislature a 
Building Code for industrial establishments within the State of 
New York. The necessity for such a Building Code has been 
recognized by all who have considered the subject. There should 
be no great discrimination between the requirements for manu- 



2 '2 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

facturiug establishments ill the different cities and towns. Certain 
basic rules as to construction can readily be made which should 
govern throughout the entire State. 

The Commission devoted much of its time to an investiga- 
tion of cellar bakeries, in view of the conditions disclosed in the 
City of Xe\v York. The Commission has therefore been able to 
make recommendations for the improvement of existing bakeries,' 
and for the proper maintenance of those to be opened in the future. 

As to sanitation in factories, the Commission recognizes that 
it has only begun its labors, and therefore makes only a few 
recommendations under this heading. Likewise the Commission 
has made only a very general investigation of the adequacy of the 
present system of factory inspection. Because of lack of time, it 
has been able to give the Commissioner of Labor only a brief 
hearing, but it has examined a number of the inspectors employed 
in the department. 

The Commission has likewise been able to make but a brief in- 
vestigation into the subjects of child labor, manufacturing in tene- 
ment houses, and the employment of women. Far more time is 
needed for a thorough study of these subjects, and practically all 
of the witnesses who testified before the Commission recommended 
its continuance for tihat purpose. 

SUMMARY OF WORK DONE BY THE COMMISSION. 
1. PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

Owing to the fact that the sessions of the Legislature continued 
until the month of October, 1911, and that most of the Commis- 
sioners were members of the Legislature, it was not until October 
14, 1911, that, the first public hearing of the Commission could be 
held. 

There were fourteen public hearing in thr city of ~K&w York 
and eight public hearings in the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, 
Syracuse, Utica, Schenectady and Troy. The sessions in these 
cities began at 9 :30 in the morning and lasted until late &t night. 
222 witnesses testified, and 3,489 pages of testimony were taken. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 23 

The Commission endeavored to have before it as witnesses 
persons from all walks of life, including city and State officials, 
exports upon the different problems under consideration, manu- 
fa<-turers and working-men, women and children, able to testify 
concerning the conditions in the factories and manufacturing 
f-t;il>lis'lnnents of the State; officers of labor organizations and 
memlxTs of other associations, interested in the matters under 
investigation. 

A transcript of the testimony taken is submitted vvith this 
report. 

2. EXECUTIVE SESSIONS OF COMMISSION. 

The Commission as a whole held fifteen executive sessions, and 
its sub-committees appointed to consider various matters also held 
several meetings. The Commission in executive session discussed 
with Prof. John R. Commons, a member of the Wisconsin Indus- 
trial Commission, the formation, scope, and operation of the 
Wisconsin Commission, and to what extent the system of factory 
inspection and supervision now obtaining in that State could be 
applied here. Prof. Commons came to New York at the Com- 
mission's request, and the Commission desires to express its 
gratitude to him for his courtesy. 

3. INSPECTIONS AND SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS MADE BY THE 
COMMISSION. 

a. GENERAL SANITARY INVESTIGATIONS. 

One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six industrial establish- 
ments in the various cities of the State were inspected by a staff 
of from eight to ten inspectors engaged in field work for a period 
of five weeks. Twenty industries were covered. 

Of the total number of factories, 1,636 were located in the 
< iiy of New York and employed in all 41,891 men, women and 
children. One hundred and nine manufacturing establishments 
were investigated in the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, 
Utica, Schenectaidy and Troy, employing 12,977 persons. The fol- 
lowing industries were among those investigated: printing, tobacco, 



24 RKPORT OK COMMISSION. 

chemicals, bread, candy, ice cream, pickles, spices and drugs, sugar 
refineries, mineral waters, meat packing, artificial flowers, paper 
boxes, clothing, corks, rags, textiles, human hair, cleaning and 
dyeing. The investigations were made with reference to the ii'en- 
cral sanitary conditions in those manufacturing establishments; 
covering cleanliness, sanitary conveniences, ventilation, light, etc. 

The preliminary report of Dr. Price, setting forth in detail the 
work which was done under his supervision, and the results and 
statistics obtained, is annexed to and form- a part of this report, 
and is marked Appendix 1. 

6. FIRE HAZARD INVESTIGATIONS. 

A general inspection of factories and manufacturing establish- 
ments was made to ascertain existing conditions with reference 
to the fire hazard and the remedies to be suggested to improve 
the same. 

Several hundred inspections were made under the supervision 
of Mr. Porter, with the a--i-taiice of a corps of inspectors, in the 
cities of the first and second class. Mr. Porter's report is annexed 
to and forms a part of this report, and is marked Appendix 2. 

c. BAKERY INVESTIGATIONS. 

An investigation of 500 bakeries in the City of New York and 
elsewhere was made under the supervision of Dr. Price. A special 
feature of the investigation was the physical examination made 
by a medical staff in the employ of the Commission of 800 bakers 
in the bake-shops during working hours. This examination 
occupied four weeks, and was made with the assistance of officials 
of the Bakers' Union of New York City. 

A special report on the sanitary conditions in bakeries and 
the physical condition of those employed therein was submitted 
to tln> Commission by Dr. Price, is annexed hereto and forms a 
part of this report, and is marked Appendix 3. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 25 

d. WOMEN'S TRADES INVESTIGATIONS. 

It was found that in six of the trades inspected under Dr. 
Price's >npervision over sixty per cent, of those employed were 
AVI mien and girls. A report entitled " Notes on trades employing 
a large proportion of women workers in New York State " is 
annexed to and form? a part of this report, and is marked 
Appendix 4. 

e. VOLUNTEER INVESTIGATIONS. 

(1) ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORJKS AND MANTKAC- 
TfRiXG ESTABLISH MI: NTS IN A SELECTED AREA IN NEW YORK. 
This report was prepared by Miss Pauline Goldmark. Associate 
Director of the School of Philanthropy of the City of New York. 
Investigations were conducted in the district between 34th and 
53rd street, extending from 8th avenue to the Hudson 
River, in the Borough of Manhattan, New York city. Three 
hundred and twenty-three factories were investigated, giving 
employment to 10,750 men, women and children. Fifteen 
separate industries were carefully investigated. Miss Gold- 
mark's report entitled "Notes on an Industrial Suvrey 
in a Selected Area in New York City with respect to Sanitary 
Conditions in Factories " is annexed to and made a part of this 
report, and marked Appendix 5. 

(2) LEAD POISONING. A preliminary investigation of lead 
and arsenical poisoning was conducted by Dr. E. E. Pratt, 
Associate Professor of Economics in the School of Philanthropy, 
with the assistance of fellows and students of the school; 275 
cases of lead poisoning were traced. Dr. Pratt's report, illus- 
trating the different processes which may result in lead poisoning 
and detailing the histories of 78 cases, is annexed to and form? 
a part of this report, and is marked Appendix 6. 

( '. } , ) PRELIMINARY REPORT ON CHILD LABOR IN THE TENEMENTS. 

I'nder the auspices of the Commission, Mr. Owen R. Lovejoy 
and Miss Elizabeth C. Watson, of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee, conducted an investigation into the employment of children 



26 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

in home work in tenement houses in Xew York city. The report 
and photographs made, showing actual conditions under which 
children are employed in tenement houses, are annexed to and 
form a part of this report, and are marked Appendix 7. 

The Commission takes this opportunity to express its gratitude 
for the care and thoroughness with which these volunteer investi- 
gations were conducted. The results of the investigations are 
most valuable contributions to the work of the Commission. 

4. QUESTIONS AIKE ISSUED BY THE COMMISSION. 

The Commission issued a Questionnaire asking for suggestions 
for the improvement of the conditions under which manufactur- 
ing is carried on. A copy of the Questionnaire, together with a 
digest of the many replies received, is annexed to and form? a 
part of this report, and is marked Appendix 8. 

5. BBIEFS AND MEMORANDA SUBMITTED TO THE COMMIS- 
SION. The thanks of the Commission are due to public-spirited 
citizens and organizations who submitted important briefs and 
memoranda on the subjects under consideration. Copies of these 
briefs and memoranda are annexed to and form a part of this 
report, and are marked Appendix 9. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 27 



GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE REPORT 

1. The Fire Hazard. 

2. Factory Inspection. 

3. Sanitation of Factories and Manufacturing Establishments. 

4. Occupational Diseases. 

5. Bakeries. 

6. Manufacturing in Tenements. 

7. Employment of Women. 

8. Child Labor. 

9. Foundries. 



28 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 



THE FIRE HAZARD IN FACTORY BUILDINGS 

It has long been known that there are many more fires in the 
cities of the United States than in the cities of the same size in 
Europe. There the fires are not only lees frequent, but are also 
far less destructive. In this country fires occur almost hourly in 
which large amounts of property are destroyed and lives are lost. 

Testimony presented to the Commission shows that in the city 
of New York alone, there is an average lose of one life a day. by 
fire. Our public machinery for extinguishing fires, especially in 
the larger cities, is remarkably efficient, yet this loss of life und 
property continues to grow. 

According to Geological Survey Bulletin No. 418: 

" The actual fire losses due to the destruction of buildings 
and their contents amounted (in 1907, the latest year for 
which statistics are available) to $215,084,709, a per capita 
loss for the United States of $2.51. The per capita losses 
in the cities of the six leading European countries amounted 
to but 33 cents, or about one-eighth of the per capita loss 
sustained in the United States." 

The Hon. Walter L. Fisher, Secretary of the Interior, in an 
address before the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the National Fire 
Protection Association, states the situation admirably: 

" If the Government should suddenly lay an annual tax of 
$2.51 on every man, woman and child in the United States 
on a promise of spending the money for some useful pur- 
pose, that promise would not avail against the storm of 
protest which would be aroused. Nevertheless, a tax which 
in the aggregate amounts to that is being paid by the people 
of this country. It is the annual fire loss of the nation upon 
buildings and their contents alone. It is expended not in 
productive enterprise, but in death and destruction, and an 
even larger sum is annually expended upon fire protection 
and insurance premiums. Xot only is this property loss paid 
by our people, but, in addition, annually 1,500 persons give 
up their lives, and nearly 6,000 are injured in fires. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 29 

Possibly in no other direction is the national habit of waste 
more clearly exemplified than in the comparative indiffer- 
ence with which we permit such a sacrifice. In no other 
civilized countrv are conditions so bad as they are here. 

It seems ridiculous that a people so apt and so eager to 
seek out and destroy the mysterious and hidden enemies of 
mankind should be so slow and sluggish in fighting a foe so 
plainly in sight and so readily vanquished. We have led 
the world in seeking out the causes of pestilence and remov- 
ing them. We are in the very vanguard of the battle 
against tuberculosis, typhoid and yellow fever, and still we 
stand apart and let the older nations lead the fight against 
an enemy much more easily conquered." 

The consideration of the fire hazard problem is divided into two 
parts: 

1st. Investigation of conditions in existing factory buildings, and 
recommendations to render those premises safe. 

2nd. Requirements for future construction of factory buildings 
which will reduce the fire hazard. 

Factory buildings may be classified as special factories or build- 
ings especially constructed for manufacturing purposes, generally 
occupied by one or two establishments, loft buildings, which may 
b" fireproof or non-fireproof, and dwellings or tenements orig- 
inally erected for living purposes', 'but which have l>een converted 
into factories. 

I. THE EXISTING FIRE PROBLEM IN NEW YORK CITY. 

Five kinds of buildings are used for factory purposes in the 
Ciry of Xew York. 

I. The converted tenement or dwelling. 

II. The non-fireproof loft building. 

III. The fireproof loft building less than 150 feet in height. 

IV. The fireproof loft building over 150 feet in height. 



30 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

V. The factory building proper, constructed for factory pur- 
poses and occupied by one establishment, which may be fireproof or 
non-fireproof. 

Three of the above types are especially dangerous when used as 
factory buildings. These are (1st) the converted dwelling or tene- 
ment house which was never intended to be used for business pur- 
poses above the ground floor; (2nd) the non-fireproof loft building-, 
usually six or seven stories high; and (3rd) the fireproof loft 
building less than 150 feet in height. 

1. THE CONVERTED DWELLING OR TENEMENT. 

Owing to the increase in land values and change in the resi- 
dence localities, a number of buildings formerly used for living 
purposes have been made over into factories. The buildings are 
from four to six stories in height, usually 25 feet wide by about 
60 to 85 feet deep. The exterior walls are brick or stone, the floors, 
interior trim, stairways, beams and doors are of wood. The stair- 
ways are usually from two to three feet in width, the doors often 
open inward; there are no automatic sprinkler systems, no fire 
prevention or extinguishing appliances except fire pails, which are 
not always preserved for fire purposes; the workrooms are divided 
by wooden partitions and crowded with employees, while the ma- 
chines are placed as close together as space will permit, without 
regard to means of exit. There are exterior fire-escapes with bal- 
conies on each floor, connected by vertical ladders (those of later 
construction by inclined stairways), which usually lead to a yard 
in the rear of the premises, or to some blind alley from which 
there is no means of escape. There is ordinarily a ladder from the 
lowest balcony to the ground, but it is generally not in place, or 
very difficult to use in case of fire because of its weight. There is 
usually but one door leading from the street. 

Here we have a type of building constructed for dwelling pur- 
poses only, in which the number of occupants is multiplied any 
number of times without any change in the exit facilities provided, 

2. THE LOFT BUILDING. 

The lofr luiililing marks an evolution in the construction of fac- 
tory buildings in the City of NC\v York. The first lofts were built 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 31 

about twenty-rive \\-ars ago, for the storing and sale of merchan- 
dise, but the manufacturer soon found it desirable to have his goods 
manufactured in workrooms adjacent to his salesroom and directly 
under his supervision. 

Increase in land values, moreover, forced the manufacturer to 
extend upwards instead of spreading out horizontally. The avail- 
ability of the loft for manufacturing purposes was soon appre- 
ciated, and to-day this type of building i= generally used for fac- 
tory purposes. 

(a) The Non-Fireproof Loft Building. 

The non-fireproof loft building is usually six or seven stories in 
height, 25 feet wide by 80 feet in depth, with brick, stone or iron 
fronts and rears, brick side walls, wooden floors and wooden trim. 
There is usually one unenclosed wooden stairway, varying in width 
from two to three and one-half feet, and often winding around the 
elevator shaft. Wooden doors lead to the stairways; very often the 
doors open inwardly. These buildings, as a rule, possess exerior 
fire-escapes similar to those found on the converted tenement de- 
scribed above. Usually every floor in these buildings is occupied 
by a different tenant, in some cases tihere being two or more 
tenants on each floor. The tenant uses the floor, or his portion of 
it, as salesroom, office and factory, dividing one from the other by 
wooden partitions. In the manufacturing part there are usually 
a number of machines placed as close together as possible with 
little aisle space between. These buildings are to be found in 
numbers on the lower east and west side. The number of people 
permitted to work on a floor is restricted only by a provision of 
the Labor Law which provides a minimum of 250 cubic feet of 
air space per person and entirely disregards the floor area. As 
the distance between floor and ceiling is at least ten feet, and 
often more, this cubic air space is easily obtained without any 
appreciable prevention of overcrowding and congestion. The 
present law does not require the posting of the number of people 
allowed even by this standard, and so prosecutions for violations 
of this law are practically unknown. These buildings usually do 
not contain any automatic sprinklers. They have fire pails, which 
are rarely kept for the proper purpose. A few of them have stand- 
pipes, with hose which is often useless. 



32 REPORT OK COMMISSION. 

(b) The Fireproof Loft linilding Less than 150 Feet High. 

The fireproof loft building less than 150 feet in height, that is, 
about 12 stories or under, has brick, stone or metal exterior walk, 
wooden floors and trim, stairways of metal or stone and. elevators. 
Stairways are generally about three feet wide, enclosed by fireproof 
walls. These buildings are either 25, 50, 75 or 100 feet wide by 85 
to 200 feet in depth, the usual size being 50 by 80 or 90 feet. 
The conditions of occupancy as to tenants are similar to those in 
the non-fireproof loft buildings just described. The Triangle 
Waist Company occupied a building of this type at 23-29 Wash- 
ington place. That building, in its construction and interior, 
is typical of the so-called fireproof loft buildings, and indeed 
much better than hundreds of buildings used for similar pur- 
poses in New York city to-day. Some of these buildings have 
automatic sprinkler systems. They are usually provided with 
stand pipes, connected with the city water supply, and have 
on each floor a hose of required length, and some are provided 
with exterior fire-escapes. It is to 'be noted that in these 
buildings the elevators are used to go from the street to the upper 
floors not only by the employers but 'by the employees. In most 
cases the latter are absolutely unaware of the location of the stair- 
ways. Auxiliary fire appliances are present in most cases, but 
their existence is unknown to the workers and no care is given to 
their preservation. The interior arrangements are similar to 
those existing in the non-fireproof loft building, the same wooden 
partitions, the same congestion and doors opening inwardly. 

Testimony shows that the danger in these so-called fireproof 
buildings results from the uso of wood for floors, doors and trim. 
The buildings are usually of such a height that the Fire De- 
partment ladders and extensions, and even the water towers, do 
not reach the upper stories. Fire occurring in these places under 
conditions of manufacture which are hereafter described usually 
results in the destruction of the entire contents of the building, 
while walls and floors remain substantially intact. 

(c) The Fireproof Loft Building More than 150 Feet in Height. 

This building is more than twelve stories in height. The walls 
are of brick, stone or metal, the floors are of cement or stone, the 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 33 

trim and doors are of metal or fire-resisting material, the stairways 
are of stone or metal, and enclosed by fireproof walls. There are 
usually several stairways and elevators. The buildings are some- 
times supplied with automatic sprinkler systems and have stand- 
pipes to which hose is connected on each floor, and other appli- 
ances for extinguishing fires. In addition, these buildings some- 
times have exterior stairways leading either to the street or to the 
ground in the rear. The buildings are usually 50, 75 or 100 feet 
or more in width and are from 75 to 200 feet deep. They are 
occupied for manufacturing and other purposes, and sometimes one 
tenant is found to occupy more than one floor. In these buildings, 
if a fire occurs, it is usually confined to the floor on which it starts, 
since it cannot burn up or down except through the windows. 

Above the sixth floor these buildings are open to the same objec- 
tions as are fireproof buildings less than 150 feet high, namely 
the upper floors cannot be reached by the firemen. The exit 
facilities are usually well constructed, but the number of people 
who occupy these buildings is not determined by either exits, 
width of stairways, or floor space. The only restriction is, as in all 
other buildings, the 250 cubic feet of air space provision. The 
distance between the floors is usually 10 to 15 feet, so the cubic 
air space may fulfil the legal requirement while the floor presents 
a congested condition. 



Particular reference is made to the fireproof building which is 
believed on account of its construction to be safer for the occu- 
pants than the non-fireproof building and to require few if any 
precautions, either to prevent fire or to preserve the safety of the 
occupants in case of fire. The testimony discloses the weakness 
of these suppositions. While the fireproof building itself will not 
burn, the merchandise, wooden partitions and other imflammable 
material burn as readily in a fireproof building as in any other. 
It is assumed by all fire insurance experts that when a fire occurs 
on any one floor, the contents of that entire floor will be 
destroyed. It is like placing paper in a fireproof box it confines 
the fire to that locality, but the fire is just as hot and just as 



34 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

destructive within its bounds. Therefore, unless means are pro- 
vided for automatically extinguishing fires and for the rapid 
escape of the occupants, loss of life may occur even in fireproof 
buildings. 

The Triangle Waist Company fire is illustrative of this fact. 
There the building was practically left intact, yet the fire was 
severe enough to cause the death of a large number of the occu- 
pants. In a fireproof building the fire is confined to a limited 
area and is therefore more easily controlled. The occupants of 
floors over eighty feet from the ground cannot, however, be reached 
by the Fire Department's ladders, and must trust for escape to the 
stairways or exterior fire-escapes. 

In many of these buildings the occupants manufacture gar- 
ments and other inflammable articles. The floors are littered with 
a quantity of cuttings, waste material and rubbish, and are often 
soaked with oil or grease. No regular effort is made to clear the 
floors. No fireproof receptacles are provided for the accumulated 
waste, which in some cases is not removed from the floors for many 
days. Many of the workmen, foremen and employers smoke dur- 
ing business hours and at meal times. Lighted gas jets are un- 
protected by globes or wire netting, and are placed near to the 
inflammable material. Very often quantities of made-up garments 
and inflammable raw material are stored in those lofts. Fire 
drills are not held, save in rare instances, exits are unmarked, 
and the location of the stairways and exterior fire-escapes is often 
unknown. Access to the stairway and outside fire-escapes is ob- 
structed by machinery, wooden partitions and piled-up merchan- 
dise, while in some cases the fire-escape balcony is at such a dis- 
tance from the floor as to make it almost impossible for women 
employees to reach it without assistance. Wired glass is not used 
in the windows facing the balconies of the fire-escapes except in 
fireproof buildings over 150 feet high. In some cases the windows 
leading to fire-escapes are not large enough to permit the passage 
of grown persons readily. Automatic or manual fire-alarms are 
hardly ever provided, except in the larger fireproof buildings. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 35 

II. THE EXISTING FIRE PROBLEM IN OTHER CITIES OF THE 

STATE. 

In the cities of Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, there are some 
loft buildings in which manufacturing is carried on, but com- 
paratively few are of great height, so that this problem is not 
nearly so complicated or extensive there as in New York city. In 
these cities manufacturing is usually conducted in special factory 
buildings which vary from three to six stories in height. Such 
buildings, save those recently constructed, are almost always non- 
fireproof. The walls are of brick, stone or metal, the floors, trim, 
doors and stairways are wooden, the latter are in an open well or 
surrounded by wooden partitions. Sometimes there are exterior 
fire-escapes. These buildings do not have, as a rule, any auto- 
matic sprinklers, or appliances for extinguishing fire, except fire 
pails, which are frequently in a useless condition. 

A feature of some of these buildings is the " gas pipe " fire- 
escape. These fire-escapes consist of vertical iron or metal ladders 
affixed to the wall of the building, adjacent to the windows. The 
rungs of these ladders are circular probably one inch in 
diameter, and placed at a distance of a few inches from the wall. 
They usually run from the top floor of the buildings to the first 
floor, with no means of reaching the ground. Only an acrobat 
could safely descend them. The Chief of the Fire Department 
of one of these cities testified that he could not use these ladders, 
but that if it came to a question of being burned alive or using 
the fire-escape, he supposed he would try it. These so-called fire- 
escapes are a delusion and a snare and are useless in an emergency. 

The lack of precautions to prevent fire exists all through the 
State as well as in New York city. Smoking goes on in just the 
same way, rubbish is piled upon fire-escapes, over-crowding and 
congestion prevail, and no attempt is made to keep a clear and 
unobstructed passageway to exits. Access to exterior fire-escapes 
in many cases is impossible because of obstructions in front of 
doors and windows. Wooden partitions exist in most of the build- 
ings, doors open inward, inflammable material used in manu- 
facturing is kept on hand in quantities, gas jets are unprotected, 
and there is no means provided in the building of giving an alarm 
of fire either to the occupants or to Fire Headquarters. Little 
attempt is made at regular cleaning-up. Fire drills are practically 
unknown. 



36 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

III. ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS RELATIVE TO FIRE. 

1. IN NEW YORK CITY. Up to the date of the appointment 
of the Commission and for some months thereafter, responsibility 
for the safety of the occupants of factory buildings in case of fire 
was divided among six city Departments and the State Depart- 
ment of Labor. 

The Department of Buildings had jurisdiction over the con- 
struction of factory buildings and the fire-escape facilities in 
them. The Building Department, after the factory was con- 
structed, however, inspected only after specific complaint. 

The Fire Department had jurisdiction over the fire extinguish- 
ing apparatus in the building. 

The Police Department had jurisdiction over obstructions on 
the fire-escapes. 

The Department of Water Supply had jurisdiction over the 
proper installation of electric wiring and apparatus. 

The Tenement House Department had jurisdiction over exits 
and fire-escape facilities in all tenement houses, including those 
in which manufacturing is carried on. 

The Board of Health had summary jurisdiction over any con- 
dition that constituted a menace to public health and safety. The 
Board of Health, however, acts only on specific information and 
complaint and in most instances refers such complaints to the 
Building or Labor Departments. 

The State Department of Labor had jurisdiction after the build- 
ing was erected, as to doors opening outward, and over the en- 
forcement of the provision requiring 250 cubic feet of air space 
per person, and the maintaining of free access to fire-escapes and 
unobstructed exits. If a man had an obstruction on the fire-escape, 
the Police Department alone could compel him to remove it. He 
could then move it into the passageway leading to the fire- 
escape and then it would come under the jurisdiction of the Labor 
Department. It was possible in one factory to have a condition 
of affairs which called for the intervention of all six Departments 
in one day, and for which no one Department was responsible. 
Such a condition, of course, was intolerable. The Sullivan-Hoey 
Fire Prevention Law, enacted shortly after the appointment of 
this Commission, attempts to change this state of affairs for New 
York city. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 37 

The purpose of that law is to center the responsibility for the 
enforcement of all laws and ordinances relating to the safety of 
the occupants of factory buildings in case of fire in one Depart- 
ment, tihe Fire Department of the city which would have full 
jurisdiction and full responsibility. In addition, the Fire Com- 
missioner was given the power to require any building to be 
vacated in which conditions were such as, in his opinion, would 
imperil the lives of the occupants. The law has been in operation 
but a short time, and its success cannot at this time l>e determined. 
Undoubtedly, the principle upon which it is baeed is a sound one. 

Several defects in the law have been called to the attention of 
the Commission, but before the operation of the law has been 
tested the Commission does not desire to suggest any changes. 

2. Tx OTHER CITIES OF THE STATE. To an extent, the same 
confusion and duplication of responsibility existed in other cities 
of the State. Each of the cities has a local Fire Department 
which has more or less jurisdiction over the erection of fire-escapes 
on buildings. Some cities have a Fire Marshal who passes upon 
the plans for projected buildings, the title in other cities being 
changed to that of Superintendent of Buildings. There is in 
some of the cities a health officer who has power to deal with a 
number of the conditions arising in manufacturing establishments. 

The State Department of Labor, under the Labor Law, has 
complete jurisdiction over fire-escape facilities, and over matters 
relating to the safety of occupants of the factory buildings in case 
of fire. Its jurisdiction in this regard is not limited as it is in 
the city of New York. However, a confusion as to the respective 
duties of the different city officials and the State Department of 
Labor was found to exist on all sides. Except in a few notable 
in-tnn<*<v, it was found 1 that but little reliance could be placed on 
inspection and supervision of the local city officials. It was their 
contention that the responsibility for proper fire-escape facilities 
rested with the State Department of Labor. 

Since the appointment of this Commission, an act has been 
passed by the Legislature creating a State Fire Marshal, with 
the power to enforce all laws and regulations of the State and the 

60239 



38 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

cities thereof (except New York city) relating to the construction, 
maintenance and regulation of fire-escapes, the means and ade- 
quacy of exit, and the installation and maintenance of alarm sys- 
tems and fire extinguishing equipment. Under this act, Fire 
Marshals in the various cities were made deputies of the State Fire 
Marshal. The State Fire Marshal has been in office but a short 
time, and the results of his administration cannot at this time 
be foreseen. The act results, however, in bringing about a co-opera- 
tion between State and city officials which is of the utmost 
importance. 

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION. 
PREVENTION OF FIRE. 

Testimony was given that at least 50 per cent of the fires oc- 
curring to-day could be prevented by taking certain simple and 
inexpensive precautions. Some experts placed the percentage of 
preventable fires as high as 75 per cent. Fire extinguishment has 
received careful attention in the past, and to-day the means 
supplied for extinguishing fires are many. But little attention, 
until recently, has been given to the subject of fire prevention. 
An ounce of prevention in the case of fires, as in any other case, 
is worth a pound of cure. 

The principal causes of fires in the city of New York during 
the past few years have been rubbish heaps, lighted matches, 
cigars and cigarettes, and exposed gas jets. It is believed by the 
Commission that the prohibition of smoking in manufacturing 
establishments, and the cleaning up or removal of rubbish, cuttings 
and waste from the floors, and providing fireproof receptacles 
therefor, will be most effective in the prevention of fires. 

The fire in the Triangle Waist Company building was caused 
by a lighted cigarette thrown upon a pile of cutting. Smoking 
should be strictly prohibited to both employees and employers. 
The Commission in its investigation visited among other estab- 
lishments, a cigar factory in a converted tenement house where 
there were several hundred employees at work. The foreman 
was asked whether smoking was allowed. He stated that smoking 
was prohibited although at that moment he was busily en- 
gaged in smoking his own cigar. A number of witnesses testified 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 39 

that while smoking ought to be prohibited, its prevention was 
a hopeless task. Such an attitude surprises the Commission, as 
it believes from its investigation that a little education upon 
the subject will convince 'both employee and employer of the 
wisdom and necessity of this law. Smoking in a factory is a 
constant menace to all employed therein. 

Chiefs of the Fire Departments in nearly every city testified that 
fires in factory buildings would be reduced by 50% if provisions 
for the removal of rubbish, the protection of gas jets and the 
prohibition of smoking \vere enacted and were promptly and 
fully complied with. The requirement of these provisions will 
work no hardship upon anyone, and will entail no great expense. 
Their proper enforcement depends, however, upon adequate and 
systematic inspection and prompt and effective punishment for 
violation. Sufficient means should be given the department charged 
with the enforcement of this law for the strict punishment of 
those who fail to comply with its provisions, so that there may be 
no excuse for non-compliance. 

The Commission therefore recommends on the subject of pre- 
vention of fires the following: 

Fireproof receptacles. There shall be provided in 
every factory building or manufacturing establishment a 
sufficient number of properly covered fireproof recep- 
tacles, to be placed as may be directed by the Fira 
Commissioner of the City of New York, and else- 
where by the Commissioner of Labor, in which shall 
be placed all inflammable waste materials, cuttings and 
rubbish. Waste materials, rubbish and cuttings shall not be 
permitted to accumulate on the floors of any factory or man- 
ufacturing establishment, and the same shall be removed 
therefrom not less than twice during each day. All rubbish, 
cuttings and waste materials snail be entirely removed from 
a factory building at least once in each day. 

Oas Jets, All gas jets or lights in factories or man- 
ufacturing establishments shall be properly enclosed by 
globes, or wire cages, or shall be otherwise properly protected. 



40 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

Smoking. Smoking in all factories or manufacturing es- 
tablishments shall be prohibited. 

A notice to that effect setting forth the penalty for violation 
thereof shall be posted on every floor of such establishment 
in English and such other language or languages as the local 
Fire Commissioner or Fire Marshal shall direct. 

NOTICE TO AUTHORITIES IN CASE OF FIRE. 

No matter what care and what precautions may be taken, fires 
will occur, and attempts are frequently made by employees to 
extinguish them before calling upon the public authorities. In 
almost every case this is a serious mistake. In the Triangle 
Waist Company and Equitable Building fires, lives would have 
been saved and the fire would not have been nearly so severe, if 
the Fire Department had been promptly notified. In this regard 
the Commission can do no more than lay before the public the 
facts disclosed. It had been the intention of the Commission, 
after examining into the matter, to recommend the installation 
of automatic or manual fire alarms in certain factories. After 
conferring, however, with the Fire Commissioner and the Chief 
of the Fire Department in New York City, the Commission has 
decided to withold for the present, this recommendation, for the 
following reasons: 

1st. The present fire-alarm telegraph system at Fire Head- 
quarters is entirely inadequate to deal with the large number of 
alarm stations that would be created as a result of this provision. 

2nd. The business of installing automatic or manual fire 
alarms in the City of New York is in the hands of but three or 
four concerns, and there is danger, if any such mandatory legis- 
lation were enacted, that it might cause serious inconvenience to 
i h<>se affected thereby. 

3rd. The Fire Department at present has no control over the 
systems of automatic fire alarms, and their efficiency does not 
always prove equal to the test. 

The Commission emphatically states, however, its belief in noti- 
fication of Fire Headquarters by some automatic or manual means 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 41 

on the premises, in case of fire in a factory building where more 
than 250 persons are employed. The Commission expects to take 
lip this matter again during its continuance, and believes by that 
time there will be such changes in conditions that it will be able 
to mate some recommendations upon this subject. 

NOTICE TO OCCUPANTS IN CASE OF FIRE. 

The Commission gave much thought and attention, to meana 
of notifying the occupants of a building in case of fire. After 
consideration of the facts before it, the Commission is of the 
opinion that the dangers from panic and excitement caused by 
any alarm, such as the ringing of a bell indicating on which floor 
the fire had occurred, when the alarm might be false or the fire 
slight and readily controlled, outweighed the advantage to be 
gained. Therefore the Commission does not at this time recom- 
mend any automatic fire-alarm system, save as may become neces- 
sary in connection with the operation of a fire drill hereinafter 
provided for. 

FIRE DRILLS. 

The Commission personally witnessed fire drills in factory build- 
ings, and some testimony was taken upon this subject. The Com- 
mission believes that in factory buildings where more than twenty- 
five persons are regulaily employed above the second story, a 
fire drill should be conducted. One of the purposes of the fire 
drill should be to indicate to the occupants where the stair- 
ways are, and the means of reaching them. It has been found 
in many of the larger buildings where the occupants use the 
elevators to go to and from their work, that the location of the 
stairs or exterior fire-escapes is unknown. A fire drill at any 
drill should be to indicate to the occupants, where the stair- 
vision, and the Commission is therefore of the opinion that the 
drill should be supervised by the local Fire Departments. A fire 
drill is also extremely useful in preventing panic. While of course 
not so effective in the case of occupants of a loft or factory building 
as in the case of school children, it undoubtedly would go 
far in preventing a mad rush towards the exits. If the fire drilJ 



42 REPORT or COMMISSION. 

accomplishes nothing more than to acquaint the occupants of a 
building with the different exits, to compel them to use those exits 
at stated intervals, and to keep them clear and unobstructed, it will 
have served its purpose. The periodical fire drill will constantly 
bring to the minds of employee and employer alike the possibility 
of fire and the necessity for using every proper means to prevent 
the same. The Commission makes the following recommendation : 

Fire Drills. In every factory building or manufactur- 
ing establishment in which more than 25 persons are 
regularly employed above the ground or first floor, a fire 
drill of the occupants of such building shall be conducted at 
least once in every three months under the supervision 
of the local Fire Department or one of its officers. Every em- 
ployer and employee shall aid and assist such Fire Depart- 
ment and its officials in conducting such fire drill. In the City 
of New York the Fire Commissioner, and elsewhere the 
State Fire Marshal, is authorized and directed to prepare 
appropriate rules and regulations to make effective this pro- 
vision; said rules and regulations to be posted on each floor 
of every such factory building or establishment. 

PREVENTION OF SPREAD OF FIRE. 

Reference has already been made to the size of windows leading 
to balconies connected with exterior fire-escapes. In some cases 
these windows are too small in size to admit the free passage of 
a grown person. The windows are usually of ordinary glass, 
which does not resist fire at all. The flames break through these 
windows, and the result is that no protection whatever is afforded 
to those going down the fire-escapes. The use of wired glass 
instead of ordinary glass would serve as some means to check the 
flames and would give the employees on the upper stories who 
are compelled to resort to the exterior fire-escapes a much wider 
margin of safety. 

Fire Departments are unable to reach with their ladders any 
point above the seventh story of a building or more than ninety 
feet above the ground. Therefore ordinary precautions are in- 
sufficient to safeguard properly the workers above the seventh 
floor. Much testimony was taken upon the use and efficacy 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 43 

of automatic sprinkler systems. The Chiefs of various 
Fire Departments testified that one of the greatest means of 
preserving life, especially in high buildings and in those where 
wooden trim is used, is an automatic sprinkler system. This 
system, briefly, consists of a tank, usually upon the roof of the 
building, containing a large supply of water, communicating with 
pipes which run along the ceilings on the various floors. At 
regular intervals in these pipes are placed what is known a? 
" sprinkler heads," fastened with fusible nuts which automatically 
break and discharge a flow of water when exposed to a certain 
degree of heat. The automatic sprinkler confines the fire to a 
limited area and checks it in its incipiency. 

Testimony as to the efficacy of sprinkler systems varies, but 
the lowest estimate of their proper working is 75 per cent and the 
highest 95 per cent. Proof was given that in the New England 
mills where sprinkler systems have been in use for many years, 
there was only one loss of life where a sprinkler system was in- 
stalled, and in that case the water supply for the system was cut off 
just before the fire occurred. The installation of an automatic 
sprinkler eventually pays for itself in the form of a reduction 
of fire insurance premiums granted where the system is installed. 

Such reduction of premiums is allowed, however, only if the 
system is one approved by the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, consisting of representatives of all the fire insurance 
companies in the United States. This Board has approved of 
only a few systems, and the manufacturer who desires to obtain the 
benefit of a reduction of insurance must install one of these 
approved systems. Testimony was given indicating that there 
was some arrangement or understanding by which high prices 
were charged for these sprinkler systems. 

It was also testified that any competent plumber could install 
a sprinkler system which would be effective in case of fire. 

The installation of the automatic sprinkler system has been 
recommended by Fire Chiefs throughout the State, and by nearly 
all of the experts on the fire problem. The Commission does not 
desire to make any drastic recommendation on this subject, but 
it is convinced that in buildings over seven stories or 90 feet in 
height, in which wooden floors or wooden trim are used, and more 



44 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

than 200 people are employed above the seventh floor, the only 
safe means to prevent the spread of fire and the loss of life in- 
cidental thereto would be the installation of an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

Chief Kenlon of the New York Fire Department testified that 
had an automatic sprinkler system been installed in the Triangle 
Waist Company building, he believed that not a single life would 
have been lost. If manufacturing is carried on above the seventh 
story of a building, or 90 feet above the ground, the manufacturer 
should be required to furnish every possible device to safeguard 
the lives of his employees in case of fire. 

The Commission therefore makes the following recommenda- 
tions : 

Windows of Wired Glass. All windows and doors 
leading to outside fire-escapes shall be not less than nvo 
feet in width by five feet in height, and shall be constructed 
of wired glass. 

Automatic Sprinklers. In all factory buildings over 
seven stories or 90 feet in height in which wooden floors or 
wooden, trim are used, and more than 200 people are regularly 
employed above the seventh floor, the owner of the building 
shall install an automatic sprinkler system in the form and 
manner approved by the Bureau of Fire Prevention in the 
Oity of New York and in all other parts of the State by the 
State Fire Marshal. Such installation shall be made within 
one year of the passage of the law carrying this recommen- 
dation into effect, the Fire Commissioner of the City of New 
York, and the State Fire Marshal elsewhere, to have the dis- 
cretion to extend such time for good cause shown, for an 
additional year. 

ESCAPE FROM WORKROOMS. 

The Commission ascertained by investigation and testimony, 
that exits to outside fire-escapes and to interior stairways, 
especially when they lead through other portions of the loft, were 
often unknown to many of the operatives. It certainly is neces- 
sary to indicate clearly the location of these exits. 

A contributing cause to the loss of life in the Triangle Waist 
Company fire was the lack of clear passageways leading to the 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 45 

fire-escapes and stairways. The employees were so crowded to- 
gether, seated at tables containing machines, with chairs back to 
back, that when a great number of them attempted to leave at 
the same time there was panic and confusion. The following is 
a diagram showing the arrangement of the sewing machines, and 
the congestion prevailing on the ninth floor of this building, where 
most of the deaths occurred. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 



NINTH FLOOR PLAN OF ASCH BUILDING 

Showing Arrangement of Stairs, Elevators, Fire 
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REPORT OF COMMISSION. 47 

In the report made by the Superintendent of the New York 
Board of Fire Underwriters, it was stated that 20 dead bodies were 
found near the machines " apparently overcome before they could 
extricate themselves from the crowded aisles." The condition 
which prevailed in this building obtains in many similar build- 
ings. The necessity for clear and unobstructed passageways to 
exits should be absolutely insisted upon, otherwise with the 
slightest panic, even without a fire, severe injuries, if not loss 
of life, would occur. 

The Commission has already commented on the width of doors 
and windows leading to outside fire-escapes. It has also found 
tli at the doors leading to stairways are too narrow. This is 
especially so in the old converted tenements where these narrow 
doors are a source of danger in case of panic or fire. The first 
rush is always for the doors. The attempt upon the part of a 
number of persons to pass through at one time leads to a jam, 
and if the doors are dangerously narrow, many would lose their 
lives. When there are only a few persons employed upon a 
floor a narrow door is not a serious objection, bait where a 
number of persons are employed, regard for their safety requires 
that such dangerous conditions be remedied. 



DOORS TO OPEN OUTWARD. 

The present Labor Law provides (sec. 80), that doors lead- 
ing to exits should open outward wherever practicable. This 
elastic provision has been so construed that, until the Triangle 
Waist fire, there were probably very few orders made requiring 
changes in existing doors. The danger involved in a crowd push- 
ing against a door that opens inward is a most grave one. The 
trouble has been that in the old buildings some of the doors, if 
they opened outward, would obstruct the passageway up and 
down the stairways, but the suggestion has been made to the 
Commission that where it is impracticable to have doors open 
outward, doors which slide freely, could be provided. 



48 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

It appears in the testimony that in many cases access to 
the fire-escapes was obstructed. Partitions were erected in some 
cases, piles of merchandise, machinery and other articles placed 
before them in others. There can be no question that access 
from the floor to the outside fire-escapes should be kept free 
and clear. This applies with even greater force to obstructions 
upon the balconies of the fire-escapes themselves. Sometimes 
these balconies are used as a convenient storage place for waste 
and refuse material, and for discarded and unused machinery. 

In many of the older buildings, the distance from the floor to 
the window sills leading to the balcony of the exterior fire-escape 
is so high that, especially for women, it is difficult of access. 
The Commission recommends that where such distance from floor 
to sill is more than 2 1/2 feet, there should be sufficient steps lead- 
ing to the window sills to insure easy access to the fire-escape. 

On this subject of escape from workrooms the Commission there- 
fore makes the following recommendations: 

Exits from Workrooms. All exits leading from factory 
workrooms, including those leading to outside fire-escapes 
or interior stairways, shall be properly indicated by posting 
suitable signs at every exit. All doors and sashes of all 
windows leading to outside fire-escapes shall be painted with 
red paint 

Passageways. All operatives in any factory shall be 
so placed or seated, and all machines, machinery, merchandise 
and other articles shall be so spaced or arranged as to afford 
to each and every employee a continuous, safe and un- 
obstructed passageway to each and every exit. 

The Commissioner of Labor shall have power to make 
and enforce rules and regulations to carry this provision 
into effect. 

Width of Exits. In every manufacturing establish- 
ment where more than 25 persons are employed on a floor, 
all doors and door ways upon such floor or floors leading to 
exits aball be at least three feet wide. 

Doors to Open Outward. In every manufacturing 
establishment where more than 20 people are employed 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 49 

on one floor, all doors on such floor or floors leading to 
exits shall open outwardly, or shall be so constructed as to 
slide freely. 

Access to Fire-Escapes. Access to outside fire-escapes 
from the floor on which they are located and from the upper 
to the lower story, shall not be obstructed in any way. 

Access to Window-sills Leading to Fire-Escapes. 
There shall be free and easy access to all window-sills leading 
to outside fire-escapes. Where the distance from the floor 
to such window-sills is more than 2 l /2 feet, a step or steps 
leading thereto, sufficient to provide free passage, shall be 
provided. 

CHANGES IN EXISTING EXTERIOR FIRE-ESCAPES. 

Investigation has shown that existing outside fire-escapes, in 
order to be of use, need some changes and additions. Testimony 
was given that outside fire-escapes were of very little value. In 
fact, the Chiefs of the Eire Departments testified that their best 
use was for the firemen to ascend with the hose. In case of fire, 
however, attempts are always made to utilize them, and as they 
have been erected at great expense and can be made useful with 
some slight changes, the Commission, after consideration, makes 
some recommendations with reference thereto. 

Frequently there is no means of escape from the top balcony 
to the roof of the building. Therefore, the Commission believes 
that where there are exterior fire-escapes other than party wall 
fire-escapes, owners of buildings should be required to erect a 
goose-neck ladder or stairs to the roof. A similar provision is 
required in all tenement houses. The expense is trifling, and soich 
a ladder may ofton prove to be of great value in case of fire. 

Frequently no ladder is provided from the lowest balcony to 
the ground, and where a ladder is provided, it is of such weight 
and so placed that it is very difficult to use, especially in time of 
emergency. A balanced drop ladder should be provided from 



50 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

the lowest balcony, of sufficient length to reach the ground. The 
drop ladders at present in use could be utilized for this purpose 
by affixing a balancing apparatus. 

Where fire-escapes are erected on the rear of buildings, they 
often lead to narrow yards or alleyways from which there is no 
means of escape, and after a safe journey has been made to 
the landing place the person descending finds himself in a cul 
de sac. 

Testimony showed tihat there are whole blocks of buildings in 
New York city in which these conditions prevail, and the occu- 
pants who in case of a fire should descend the fire-escapes to these 
yards, would find their escape entirely cut off. 

The following recommendations with reference to existing out- 
side fire-escapes are therefore made: 

Existing Outside Fire-Escapes. On all existing out- 
side fire-escapes, except party wall fire-escapes, there shall 
be provided the following : 

(a) A goose neck ladder or stairs leading from the top 
floor balcony to and above the roof, and properly fastened 
thereto. 

(ft) A balanced drop ladder from the lowest balcony, of 
sufficient length to reach a safe landing place beneath. 

(c) Safe and unobstructed exit from such landing place 
either by means of an opening in the fence leading to ad- 
joining premises, or by means of a fireproof passageway lead- 
ing to the street. 

All of these are to be constructed in accordance with such 
regulations as may be adopted by the Fire Commissioner in 
the City of New York, and by the Commissioner of Labor 
elsewhere throughout the State. 

LIMITATION OF NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS. 

ACCORDING TO FLOOR SPACE. A serious question before the 
Commission with reference to the problem of fire hazard was howi 



REPOBT OF COMMISSION. 51 

to limit properly the number of persons engaged in work on any 
one particular floor of a factory building. 

The present law simply provides that 250 cubic feet of air spacs 
shall be allowed for each occupant. As the ceilings in most cases 
are high this does not prevent over-crowding. Posting of the 
number of occupants permitted is not required, and the law, even 
if enforced, is entirely inadequate. 

The Commission gave careful consideration to this subject, and 
a sub-committee discussed all its phases at great length, and con- 
sulted many experts whose opinions were of value. It is the con- 
clusion of the Commission that, irrespective of the number of 
exits, fireproof condition or means of extinguishing fire, the only 
safe method of preventing loss of life by panic or fire is to limit 
more adequately the number of persons on each floor. It was 
finally determined that the most effective method was to prescribe 
a minimum amount of floor space for each employee, making a 
difference in this amount between fireproof and non-fireproof 
buildings. The Commission is of the opinion that <a minimum of 
36 square feet of floor space for each person in a non-fireproof 
factory building, and of 32 square feet for every person in a fire- 
proof building, is a fair allowance. This limitation is to apply 
generally to all factory buildings, and to take the place of the 
provision requiring 250 cubic feet of air space, now in force. 
That the present provision is inadequate even for the purpose 
for which it was designed, namely, to furnish sufficient ventila- 
tion, is generally conceded. This recommendation of the Commis- 
sion will therefore not only prevent congestion and overcrowding, 
but it also guarantees better ventilation. 

A careful study was made of the practical effect of this pro- 
vision, so far as reducing the number of operatives allowed in 
factory buildings is concerned. While it will prevent over- 
crowding, it will not in the opinion of the Commission unreason- 
ably decrease the number of persons permitted to be employed. 
For example, a building 25 x 80, under the present provision of 
the Labor Law, would have a capacity of 80 employees per floor. 
Under the provisions recommended the number of employees per 
floor would be reduced to about 55 in a non-fireproof building, 
and to about 62 in a fireproof building. 



52 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

ACCORDING TO SIZE AND NUMBER OF EXITS. The Commission 
is of the opinion that while limiting the number of occu- 
pants according to the number of square feet of floor space would 
be a sufficient provision in the case of many buildings, yet where 
there are insufficient exits and inadequate means of extinguishing 
or preventing the spread of fire, some other restrictions should be 
made. Long consideration was given by the entire Commission 
and by sub-committees to this problem, and consultations were 
had with many experts and authorities, all of whom gave their 
services without compensation. 

The existing buildings have all been constructed without any re- 
gard to the number of persons who were to occupy them. In fact, 
when they were constructed, it was not supposed that many of 
them would be occupied for manufacturing purposes. Great sums 
of money have been expended by the owners for their erection 
and maintenance, and the problem which confronted the Commis-' 
sion was how to effect the safety of those employed therein and 
yet not deal too severely with the owner or occupant of the 
building. 

The temptation to be drastic in this matter is obvious. The 
Commission, however, believes that the recommendations which 
it makes in this regard will be found fair to the employer and 
employee, and if put into effect, will at the same time reasonably 
protect life. 

The Commission concluded to further gauge the number o 
occupants by the size and number of exits provided; the number 
to be increased proportionately if the owner or tenant provided 
additional exits or means of extinguishing and. preventing the 
spread of fire. 

The capacity of the stairway as a means of exit is limited by its 
height and width, and it is self-evident, therefore, that the number 
of persons occupying the building must bear some relation to the 
stairways in the building. After personally inspecting numerous 
buildings and stairways, and after mature consideration and con- 
ference the Commission decided to recommend that the number 
of persons permitted to occupy any floor of a factory building 
above the ground or first floor should be limited to 14 persons 
for every eighteen inches in width of stairways provided, and 
for every additional 16 inches over 10 feet in height of ceiling 
from floor, one additional person should be permitted. For ex- 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 53 

ample, if the stairway was 18 inches wide and the space between 
the floor and the ceiling was 16 inches over 10 feet, 15 persons 
would be permitted on each, floor of the building. If the stair- 
way was 3 feet wide, as is usual, and the ceiling was 11 feet 
and 6 inches above the floor, 30 persons would be permitted on 
each floor. 

If there is a landing place at the head of the stairs enclosed 
in fireproof walls, or partitions, with a fireproof door, this 
number will be increased by the number of persons who may be 
able to stand in this landing place, allowing three square feet for 
each person. 

This allowance is based upon the assumption that it is safe to 
permit on any floor such additional number of persons as can 
safely find lodgment in case of fire, in a place which is partitioned 
off by a fireproof wall or partition, from the loft itself, where the 
fire is likely to occur. 

The occupants in this way find at once a zone of safety, the 
partition wall resisting the fire long enough for the employees 
to escape. 

The number of persons allowed on the basis of the width of the 
stairways may be doubled if an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed. 

The sprinkler system is conceded to be the most efficient means 1 
of rapidly checking the spread of fire in its incipiency. While it 
does not in itself afford an additional means of escape, yet by 
keeping the fire in check and confining it to a small space, it 
is recognized as one of the best indirect means of permitting 
escape from fire. It is for this reason that the number of persons 
on a floor may be doubled if a sprinkler system is installed. 

Where there is a firewall with doors not less than thirty- 
six inches wide, with a stairway on each side thereof, the number 
may be increased by the number of persons who may be able 
to stand in the smaller of the two spaces divided by the firewall, 
allowing three square feet for each person. Firewalls are an 
effective means of preventing the spread of fire, and thus afford 
a ready means of escape. The firewall practically divides the 1 
building into two parts; one part in most cases would be unaffected 
by the fire for a period long enough to enable the occupants of the 
entire building to escape. 



54 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

The next alternative is what might be called the adoption of 
the firewall principle, but is much simpler and less expensive if 
it can be put into practice. That is for the occupant to obtain 
access to the adjoining building by fireproof doors in the party 
wall. If this be done, the number of occupants may be increased 
practically up to the limit allowed according to the amount of floor 
space for each person, because the only other restriction would be 
the capacity of the building with which connection was made to 
accommodate the employees in both buildings allowing three feet 
of unobstructed floor space for each person. This arrangement 
would, of course, have to be made by mutual consent, but as in 
many cases the buildings are in blocks, are of the same height 
and size, with party walls between, and have floors on a level, 
this change would be of equal benefit to the owners of both build- 
ings. Instead of breaking through the walls between adjoining 
buildings, an even simpler and still less expensive method can be 
adopted. A fireproof balcony may be built from the exterior of 
the building either to the adjoining or to the opposite building. 
This would cost very little, and would be of benefit to both build- 
ings, and as it would allow the increase of the number of em- 
ployees permitted according to the width of the stairways (viz., 
14 persons for every 18 inches in width of stairway), the Com- 
mission believes it will be adopted in many cases. 

The Commission on this subject makes the following recom- 
mendations : 

Posting. In every existing factory building which is 
regularly occupied by more than fifty persons above the 
ground or first floor, the Fire Commissioner of the City of 
New York and the Commissioner of Labor in the other cities 
of the State, shall cause to be posted notices or placards 
specifying the number of persons that may occupy each floor 
in said building. One such notice is to be posted in a con- 
spicuous place near the entrance door to each floor, and in 
conspicuous places on each floor in said building. 

If any floor is occupied by more than one tenant, two 
such notices are to be posted in the space occupied by each 
tenant. All such notices shall be dated as of the date when' 
posted. 

In case more persons occupy any floor or floors than are 
specified in the said notices, the Fire Commissioner of the 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 55 

City of New York, and the Commissioner of Labor in the 
other cities of the State, shall notify the tenant or tenants 
on such floor, and the owner of the said building, on a form 
regularly printed for this purpose. Said notice shall include 
an order to the tenants and owner that the number of occu- 
pants of said floor or floors must be reduced to the number 
specified. 

Number of Persons who may Occwpy any Floor. The 
number of persons who may occupy any floor in any factory 
building or manufacturing establishment above the ground 
or first floor shall be as follows: 

(a) General limitation applicable to all buildings, irre- 
spective of exit facilities. There shall be at least 36 square 
feet of floor space on each and every floor of a non-fireproof 
factory building for every person employed thereon. In 
every fireproof factory building there shall be not less than 
32 square feet of floor space for each person so employed 
thereon. A fireproof building within the meaning of any 
of these recommendations is any building that is constructed 
so that its walls; are of brick, stone or concrete; its floors 
and roofs are of brick, terra cotta, reinforced concrete, otf 
other approved incombustible material placed between steel 
or reinforced concrete beams ; all steel entering into its struc- 
tural parts is thoroughly incased in at least two inches of 
fire-resisting material; its interior partitions are entirely of 
incombustible material; its stairs and stair landings are en- 
tirely of brick, stone, concrete, iron or steel; and all stairs, 
elevators and other vertical communications between floors 
are solidly enclosed in shafts of fireproof construction. 

(&) Limitation based upon exit facilities. Fourteen per- 
sons for every eighteen inches in width, of stairways pro- 
vided, shall be allowed on a floor. For every additional 
sixteen inches over ten feet in height of any floor, there shall 
be allowed one additional person. 

(c) Where there are landing places enclosed in fireproof 
walls or partitions, and separated from the loft or manu j 
facturing establishment by fireproof doors of standard fire- 
proof construction, such additional persons may be employed 
on each floor as can be accommodated by the landing place 
or places aforesaid, allowing three square feet for each 
person. 



56 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

(d) Where a firewall or walls are constructed with a door 
or doors not less than thirty-six inches in width, such ad- 
ditional number of persons may be permitted on each floor 
as can be accommodated in the smaller of the two spaces 
formed by the firewall on the basis of at least 3 square feet 
of floor area per person; provided, however, that there shall 
be stairway facilities on each side of said firewall, and that 
the clear spaces on each side of the said firewall are of 
sufficient area to accommodate the occupants of the adjoining 
space in addition to its own occupants on the basis of at least 
three square feet of floor area per person. 

{e) When the firewall principle is adopted that is fire- 
proof connections made with an adjoining or near-by build- 
ing such additional number of persons may be permitted 
on each floor as can be accommodiated in the adjoining or 
near-by building, allowing 3 square feet of floor area per 
person. 

(/) Double the number of persons allowed under sub- 
division (6) of this section may be employed when there is 
constructed or installed on each and every floor of said build- 
ing an automatic sprinkler system in the form and manner 
approved in the City of New York by the Fire Commissioner, 
and elsewhere throughout the State by the State Fire 
Marshal; provided, however, that in no event shall there be 
more persons permitted on any floor than would allow not 
less than 36 square feet of floor space for every person on 
such floor in a non-fireproof building, and 32 square feet 
of floor space for every such person in a fireproof building, 
as hereinbefore provided. 

One year is to be allowed for compliance with these require- 
ments. This time may be extended by the Fire Commissioner in 
New York City, or the Commissioner of Labor elsewhere, for a 
further period not exceeding one year for good cause shown. 

Buildings with Unenclosed Wooden Stairways. 

Proof was given that many wooden stairways unenclosed or 
enclosed by non-fireproof partitions exist in factory buildings. In 
many cases they wind around hoist ways or elevator shafts. When 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 57 

a fire occurs, it spreads through these stairways like the flame 
through a chimney, and renders escape by means of the stairs 
impossible. The Commission believes it would be too great 
a hardship to order the wooden stairs removed and fireproof 
ones erected. It believes that a fair amount of safety will be 
obtained by requiring that these staircases be enclosed by fire- 1 
proof partitions or walls. This measure will, in most cases, 
permit the occupants to descend the stairs in safety, the fire being 
checked at the entrance to the stairs. Doors leading to these halls 
and stairways must, of course, be made fireproof. 

The Commission is of the opinion tihat where there are only a 
few people in the building this precaution would be unnecessary, 
and -therefore recommends that these fireproof partitions or walls 
should be required only in buildings where there are more than 
fifty people employed above the ground floor. 

The Commission is also of the opinion that in such factory 
buildings witih unprotected wooden stairways exterior fire-escapes 
of the required size and construction should be installed if not 
already on the building. The following recommendations are 
made: 

Unenclosed wooden stairways. In all factory buildings or 
manufacturing establishments in which more than fifty per- 
sons are regularly employed above the ground floor or first 
story, and in which there are unenclosed wooden stairways, 
the said stairways shall be properly enclosed by partitions of 
fireproof or fire-resisting material in the form and manner 
approved in the city of New York by the Bureau of Build- 
ings, and Fire Commissioner, and elsewhere throughout the 
State by the Commissioner of Labor and local Fire Marshals, 
and all doors leading from the work rooms of manufacturing 
establishments to said stairways shall be of standard fireproof 
construction. 

Exterior fire-escapes shall also be constructed on all such 
buildings save, however, that existing outside fire-escapes will 
be accepted where the balconies are not less than three feet 
in width, with stairways connecting the balconies placed at 
an angle of not more than sixty degrees, with a suitable goose- 
neck ladder or stairs leading to the roof, and a balanced drop 
ladder of sufficient length, reaching from the lowest balcony 



58 REPOKT OF COMMISSION. 

to a safe landing place beneath, provided that from the said 
landing place, there be a free and unobstructed exit, either 
by means of a door in the fence leading to the adjoining 
premises, or a fireproof passageway leading to the street. 
One year is to be allowed for compliance with these require- 
ments. This time may be extended by the Fire Commissioner 
in New York city, or the Commissioner of Labor elsewhere, for 
a further period not exceeding one year, for good cause shown. 

Buildings to be Erected in the Future : 

As to buildings to be erected in the future, the Commission 
is of the opinion that buildings over two stories in height and 
in which more than twenty-five persons are employed should be 
fireproof if used for factory purposes. That is to say, they 
should comply with the conditions now provided by the Building 
Code of the City of New York for buildings more than 150 feet 
in height. 

The entire interior finish of the factory building should be fire- 
proof. The floors, the doors, the trim, the partitions, all should 
be of fire-resisting material. In tihat case, if a fire occurs in a 
rubbish heap, it will burn itself out without spreading throughout 
the floor or from floor to floor. After investigation, the Com- 
mission is of tihe opinion that the added cost of making a building 
fireproof ia so small as to be negligible, and that at any rate the 
builder will be reimbursed to a large extent by the lessening of 
insurance premiums. All builders who were consulted were of the 
opinion that a provision of this kind would be of great benefit, 
and would not entail any serious hardship. 

The spread of fire in loft buildings is very often accelerated 
by the presence of wooden partitions dividing the lofts. The 
Commission at first felt that something should be done to remedy 
these conditions in existing buildings, but as these partitions have 
all been erected with the permission of the authorities, and as 
their removal would entail great hardship and expense and would, 
in the opinion of many experts, not confer any substantial benefit, 
the Commission finally decided not to make any recommendations 
upon this point at present. In buildings to be erected in the 
future, the Commission is of the opinion that no non-fireproof 
partitions should be permitted. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 59 

In conclusion, the Commission believes that a State Building 
Code should be enacted, and hopes to be able to present such a 
Code at some future time to the Legislature. This will provide* 
more careful regulations with regard to the erection of factory 
buildings. 



60 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

FACTORY INSPECTION 

LABOR LAW PROVISIONS. 

The Labor Law provides that there shall be a Bureau of 
Factory Inspection with a Chief and First Deputy Commissioner 
and 85 Inspectors (of whom not more than 15 shall be women). 
The Commissioner of Labor is directed to divide the State into 
districts, assigning one inspector to each district, with power to 
transfer inspectors from one district to another, and with power to 
direct special inspections. Power is given to the inspectors to 
enter any factory building, and to the Commissioner to enforce 
any municipal ordinance, by-law or regulation relating to factories, 
in addition to the provisions of the Labor Law. 

The law directs the Commissioner to visit all factories, li during 
reasonable hours as often as practicable," and to enforce the pro- 
visions of the Act. 

DUPLICATION OF WORK. 

In the cities of the second class where the supervision of fac- 
tories is under the charge of the Commissioner of Public Safety, 
tli ore is little or no co-operation between the various city officials. 
This is partly true in cities of the first class. 

In the City of New York the Building Department, Health 
Department, Tenement House Department and Fire Department 
have authority of some kind over buildings which are used for 
factory purposes, and at the same time the State Labor Depart- 
ment has partial authority for some purposes over the same build- 
ings. For instance, ths Health Department of the City of New 
York and the Labor Department have apparently concurrent 
jurisdiction over bakeries. The State Labor Department In some 
instances, when its inspectors find violations which exist under 
local ordinances or laws, notifies the proper local Department. 
The local Departments claim also that in some cases where they 
find violations of the State Labor Law, they notify the State Labor 
Department. But there is very little real co-operation. 

This duplication of authority is a great evil. The responsi- 
bility being divided, no one Department or official as a rule as- 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 61 

sumes it, and consequently often nothing is done to remedy patent 
violations of the law. There is a waste of effort by all concerned. 
The Commission is not able at this time to make any specific 
recommendation iu this connection. It considers it necessary to 
study the situation more carefully before it can present a prac- 
tical system in which departments are effectively co-related. 

PRESENT MF.TIIODS OF FACTORY INSPECTION. 

The last Legislature substantially increased the force of factory 
inspectors, and authorized the employment of supervising inspec- 
tors and a mechanical engineer. At this time the additional in- 
spectors have just been appointed, so it cannot be said what the 
results will be . In his annual report for the year 1911 the Com- 
missioner of Labor says : 

" No claim is herein set up that the Bureau has been able 
to compel the maintenance of proper supervision at all times 
in every place falling within its jurisdiction. I can only 
repeat what was said before, that one or two visits a year 
are not enough. We cannot by such insufficient observations 
find out infractions of the law and apply the remedies. The 
Legislature of 1911 provided for a substantial increase in the 
field and office staff of the Bureau, but even when fully 
equipped according to the improved plan of organization, its 

field force will remain inadequate to enforce the law." 
Each inspector under the present system is required to give 
four hours each day to field work, but apart from this, seems 
to pursue his work in his own way. With the exception of New 
York city, there is no sub-office where inspectors may be found. 
A number of the inspectors testified before the Commission and 
gave accounts of how they performed their work and the manner 
and substance of it. 

The Commissioner of Labor assigns one inspector to each 
district, usually to the city or locality in which he lives and where 
he has been, in many cases, a life-long resident. 

Each factory is usually inspected but once a year, the inspectors 
claiming they are unable to make more inspections because of 
the great number of factories. The inspectors keep their own 
records and lists of the factories in their districts. They testified 



62 REPORT or COMMISSION. 

that they had no way of locating new factories except by chance. 
It was stated that some factories have been in existence for years 
without ever having been inspected. 

It was claimed that in many cases the inspector's visit was 
known beforehand. The average inspector first visits the office, 
obtains some statistical information, and then, in company with 
the proprietor or his representative, goes through the manufac- 
turing department. Employees testified that this method of 
inspection prevented them from complaining to the factory in- 
spector of violations of law. Testimony was given to the effect 
that on some occasions while the inspector was in the 
office interviewing the employer, various immediate changes, in- 
volving certain violations, were effected, exits cleared, and general 
cleaning done, so that the place presented a decent aspect when 
the inspector finally appeared. A witness testified that children 
working illegally were removed from the building either before the 
inspector arrived or while he was in the office interviewing the 
proprietor, and that in some cases the children were put in the 
elevators, which were lowered so they were between the floors and 
could not be seen. 

In each case, the inspector fills out a form in duplicate showing 
the results of his inspection and sends it to the home office. The 
clerical work takes about one-half the working day of the average 
inspector. 

PROCEDURE IN CASE OF VIOLATION. 

1. VIOLATIONS FOUND BY AN INSPECTOR. 

The inspector reports a violation of law to the home office,, and 
if that office approves, a notice is sent to the offending manufac- 
turer calling his attention to such violation and directing him to 
remedy the same within a specified time, usually thirty days. A 
copy of this notice is sent to the inspector. 

In the course of time the inspector visits the offending man- 
ufacturer to ascertain if he has complied with the notice. If he 
finds he has not, he reports a second time, and the Department 
again notifies the manufacturer that he must comply. The in- 
spector again visits the offending manufacturer to ascertain if the 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 63 

notice has been complied with. If he finds that it has not, he 
notifies the Department once more, and the matter is then referred 
to counsel. 

Mr. Cunningham, counsel for the Labor Department, testified 
before the Commission. From October 1st, 1910, to September 
30th, 1911, there were 413 separate charges of violation of the 
law, in which there were 246 convictions. Fines were imposed 
in 95 cases; sentence suspended in 151. The procedure is this: 
If the manufacturer fails to comply with the notices to remedy 
the violations of law, the matter is then referred to counsel. 
The counsel, sometimes after conferring with the inspector in 
charge and sometimes simply on proof that the orders have not 
been complied with, sends a written communication to the manu- 
facturer informing him that unless he complies he will be sued 
or prosecuted criminally. When a certain number of days has 
expired, the counsel sends an inspector to ascertain if the orders 
have been complied with. If the notices have been disregarded it 
becomes the inspector's duty to find the owner, or his agent, confer 
with him personally and ascertain whether be will comply with the 
notice. The purpose of such personal interview with .the owner or 
his agent is to establish the responsibility of such person with re- 
spect to the Department's order. A warrant is then obtained and 
the offending party is brought to court. In the meantime a long 
delay frequently occurs, and the premises remain in their unlawful 
condition sometimes three or four months. Upon the return of 
the warrant, if the factory owner pleads not guilty, the case is 
held by the Magistrate for the Court of Special Sessions or corre- 
sponding court. This necessitates additional delay, and when the 
case comes up for hearing there are usually several postponements. 
When the case is finally reached for trial, several months may have 
elapsed since the first notice was served upon the manufacturer. 
The manufacturer appears on the final day of adjournment, in- 
forms the Court that he has performed the work, pleads guilty and 
is usually discharged or sentence suspended. 

It also appeared that after the warrant is obtained no inspection? 
are made by the Department until the case has come to trial, and 
then if the manufacturer states that the work has been done the 



64 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

case is dismissed or another adjournment is taken in order to 
permit an investigation to see if the statement is true. 

Mr. Cunningham testified to a typical case of delay. A manu- 
facturer was ordered on January 30th, 1911, to light the halls and 
place the toilets in a sanitary condition. The warrant for his 
arrest was issued on the 26th day of June, 1911, six months 
after the first notice was sent. During all this time the conditions 
complained of continued to exist. The defendant was arraigned 
on July 7th, 1911. Adjournment was had until August 2nd, 
when he was held for the Court of Special Sessions. On October 
2nd, 1911, the defendant pleaded guilty and was ordered to appear 
for sentence on the 9th day of October. Then the inspector of 
the Labor Department reported that the conditions had been 
remedied, and the Court suspended sentence. 

It was suggested that this condition could be remedied by simply 
obtaining- a summons for the owner when the Department reported 
that its notices had been disregarded by the manufacturer. The 
owner would then in all probability have the work done at once 
under notice that if he did not, a warrant would be issued. No 
reason was advanced why thii procedure should not be adopted. 

In the matter of doors opening inwardly, there was only one 
action during the fiscal year ending September 30th, 1911, only 
ten actions for locked doors during the same period, and only 
one prosecution for obstructed passageways leading to a fire-escape. 
In the one prosecution for doors not opening outwardly, the Court 
suspended sentence after several months 7 delay. The prosecutions 
for locked doors resulted in seven fines and three suspended sen- 
tences. The majority, of these prosecutions were after the Tri- 
angle Waist Company fire. 

With reference to prosecutions for child labor, when the defend- 
ant employs more than one child illegally, separate complaints are 
made against the manufacturer in each case. It is apparently the 
practice of some judges to convict upon one case and suspend 
sentence in others, and this, the Commission believes, accounts for 
the large number of suspended sentences. 

2. COMPLAINTS MADE TO THE DEPARTMENT. In many cases 
persons interested complain of specific violations of the law in vari- 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 65 

cms factories. These complaints are sometimes in writing and 
sometimes are made orally to different inspectors and authorities. 
Oral complaints receive no special attention, the Department 
only classifying written communications as complaints. Writ- 
ten complaints sent to the home office at Albany are referred to 
inspectors, who are directed to make special investigations to ascer- 
tain if the complaints are justified. If they are justified, the same 
course of action is taken as when the inspector finds the violation 
without complaint. ]\1 r. ( 'harles Yates, testifying before the Com- 
mission, gave a typical case. He complained on December 3rd, 
1!()9, to the factory inspector in Syracuse albout improper condi- 
ii"iis there. He made three specific complaints. When he called 
the attention of the inspectors to violations of the law they told 
him that he must first lodge his complaints at Albany. He testi- 
fied that he had objected to the needless exaction of a written com- 
plaint, to the Commissioner of the Labor Department, and pro- 
duced a letter from the Commissioner, which is in evidence, in 
which the Commissioner informs him that it is necessary for the 
proper supervision of the affairs of the Department that complaints 
be lodged directly with his office. The Commissioner of Labor 
states that he has not permitted oral complaints to be made because 
of the danger of such complaints not reaching him on account of 
f orgetf ulness or being overlooked 'by the inspectors, but he informs 
the Commission that the new supervising inspectors will be allowed 
to receive complaints directly. Oral complaints to the inspectors 
should be encouraged, in order that they may be informed of the 
facts. The Labor Department and the inspectors should welcome 
facts with reference to any violation, no matter how received. 

DIVISION OF MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

In addition to the other inspectors, a physician is appointed as 
medical inspector of factories in the Labor Department. He has no 
regular assistants, though a factory inspector is detailed to help 
him. 

He examines factories in order to ascertain the danger of 
poisoning or disease resulting from the various processes of manu- 
t'acture, makes special investigations, and also does some research 
work. The Department, however, has no authority to make a 



66 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

physical examination of the workers. Practically no educational 
work is done 'by the Department of Labor, either by issuing 
pamphlets of instructions to employers and employees on dangers 
in different industries and the means of avoiding them, or bv in- 

O v 

structing the inspectors so to inform the workers. Abstracts of the 
Labor Law are posted only in the English language, though in 
many cases the employees are not able to read English, even if 
they understand the spoken language. 

Dr. C. T. Graham-Rogers, the medical inspector, with the con- 
sent of the Commissioner of Labor, rendered valuable service to the 
Commission. 

MUSEUM OF SAFETY. 

Public-spirited citizens have maintained in the City of New 
York a Museum of Safety, wherein is exhibited safety devices of all 
kinds to be placed upon machinery, and to be worn and used by 
employees. 

In most of the European countries such a museum is maintained 
by the Government. The advisability of the establishment of such 
a museum as a branch of the State Department of Labor is a matter 
that should be carefully considered. 

Further, the Department of Labor should at any rate issue from 
time to time descriptive pamphlets to employers and employees, 
informing them fully of all newly discovered or invented safety 
devices, giving instructions in their use and application, calling 
attention to dangerous accidents and means of avoiding them, and 
impressing upon both employer and employee the importance of 
these safety devices. 

The attitude of the State of New York in dealing with these 
problems should be that of a teacher, conservator and guide, and 
not that of a police officer attempting either to detect or to arrest a 
criminal. 

FURTHER INVESTIGATION BY THIS COMMISSION AS TO FACTORY 

INSPECTION. 

It is substantially conceded that the present system of factory 
inspection is totally inadequate. No doubt this condition is partly 



EEPOET OF COMMISSION. 67 

clue to the lack of a sufficient number of inspectors and adequate 
means of determining what factories exist or where they are 
located. 

Duplication of inspections by State and local Departments should 
be avoided, and there should be more co-operation between the local 
Departments in the various cities and the State Department of 
Labor. There should be better and closer supervision of inspec- 
tors, and a higher grade of inspectors, with technical training, 
should be attracted to the service of the State. This would prob- 
ably involve an increase in salaries, and the establishment of a new 
grade of assistant supervising inspectors. There should, of course, 
be far more frequent inspections. These should be made at irregu- 
lar intervals, without previous knowledge by the manufacturer, and 
the factory proper should be inspected before the manufacturer 
is called upon for any information. Inspectors should spend 
more time in inspection and less in clerical work. 

Cities of the first class and the larger cities of the second class, 
should have sub-offices in the real sense of the word, with a super- 
vising inspector permanently established in charge. Records of the 
factories in those cities should be kept in these sub-offices. All vio- 
lation orders affecting that locality should come from the sub-office, 
and factory inspection in that locality should be directed from the 
sub-office. An educational campaign should at once be begun to 
instruct both employer and employee as to what should be done 
and what should be avoided to make the life of the employee health- 
ful and to avoid danger. 

As to the Labor Law itself, the Commission feels that more power 
should be given to the Commissioner to provide for specific cases 
by rules and regulations and that the law should not attempt to 
cover every detail. 

The law relating to safeguards upon machinery should be im- 
proved and extended so as to cover not only machinery, but danger- 
ous fumes and chemicals. A system for the more comprehensive 
safeguarding of elevators should be devised, particularly so-called 
"freight elevators." These, while ostensibly only to be used for 
carrying freight, are used for the carrying of great numbers of 
operatives in factory and loft buildings. 

A Board of Experts should be established, which, together with 
the Commissioner of Labor, should have the power to formulate 



68 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

and enforce rules and regulations upon the subjects of sanitation 
and accident prevention in all their phases and applying to all 
industries. 

Provision should be made for the appointment of trained in- 
spectors. It was quite apparent that many of the inspectors do 
wot possess the technical training necessary for competent treatment 
of the intricate problems of safeguarding machinery. 

The Division of Medical Inspection should be increased and 
strengthened. 

Above all, delay in enforcing the law should 'be avoided, and the 
wrongdoer promptly and speedily punished. 

These matters present very serious questions for consideration, 
and the Commission hopes that during its extension it will be able 
to make recommendations looking towards the improvement of the 
entire system. 

REGISTRATION OF FACTORIES. 

The Commission will make but few recommendations under this 
subject at this time, but after careful investigation, it believes that 
registration should be required of all factories in order that the 
Department of Labor may be informed as to the ownership and 
location of every factory in the State. This is done in almost all 
European countries. The following are the countries in Europe 
which require such registration: 

Germany: 138, 139b, par. 5 of the Industrial Code, the 
Police Orders relating to the giving of notice to the inspectors and 
the Imperial Order of 9th July, 1900, R. G., Bl, p. 565ff. 

Austria: 11 of the Industrial Code. 

Denmark: 2 of the Factory Act of 1901. 

Finland: 2 of the Industrial Code of 31st March, 1879, and 
17 of the Industrial Inspectors Instructions of 31st December, 
1889. 

United Kingdom: 127 of the Factory and Workshop Act of 
1901; factories and workshops only. 

Hungary: 4 of Act No. XVII of 1884. 

Russia: 69-74 of Industrial Code; factories to be licensed. 

Norway: 3 of the Act of 10th September, 1909. 

Sweden: 9 of the Act of 18th June, 1864. 

Switzerland: 3 of the Factory Act of 1877. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSION. 69 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Registration of existing factories. The owner of every 
factory shall be required to register with the Labor 
Department within six months from the date of the passage 
of this act, giving the name, home address of the owner, the 
address of the business, the name under which it is carried 
on, the number of employees and such other data as the 
Commissioner of Labor may require. Such registration shall 
be upon a form furnished by the said Commissioner. 

Registration of new factories. The owner of every fac- 
tory shall be required to register with the Labor Depart- 
ment within thirty days after he begins business, giving the 
name and home address of the owner, the address of the 
business, the name under which it is carried on, the number 
of employees and such other data as the Commissioner of 
Labor may require. Such registration shall be upon a form 
furnished by the said Commissioner. 

The Commission also recommends that abstracts of the Labor 
Law and the provisions thereof applicable to factories which are 
H'\V posted in the English language, should be posted in large type 
and simple words in such foreign languages as the Commissioner 
in his discretion may deem advisable. 

SUMMARY POWER OVER UNCLEAN FACTORIES. 

It is apparent that where a factory is found to be unclean and 
insanitary, there should be summary power conferred upon the 
( 'oimnissioner of Labor, the exercise of which will result in the 
speedy and effective remedying of the conditions complained of. 
This power is in part conferred by section 95 of the Labor Law, 
which authorizes the Commissioner of Labor to place the unclean 
tag on any of the articles specified in section 100 of the Labor 
Law (41 in number), exposed to contagious disease or in an unclean 
or insanitary workroom in any tenant factory. 

The Commission believes that this power to affix the unclean 
label should be extended to apply to any articles found exposed to 
contagion or in an unclean or insanitary workroom in any factory. 



70 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

There is no valid reason for limiting the exercise of the power to 
the case of tenant factories, or to the 41 specified articles. 

Testimony was given of foul and insanitary workrooms in which 
human hair goods were prepared, yet because those articles are not 
specified in. section 100, the Commissioner of Labor was powerless 
to force the immediate correction of the defective conditions and 
was obliged to resort to legal proceedings. 

The Commission, therefore, recommends the amendment of sec- 
tion 95 of the Labor Law so that it reads as follows: 

Sec. 95. Unclean (tenant} factories. If the Com- 
missioner of Labor finds evidence of contagious diseases 
present in any (tenant) factory (in which any of the articles 
enumerated in section 100 herewith are manufactured, 
altered, repaired or finished) he shall affix to any (such) 
articles therein exposed to such contagion a label containing 
the word " unclean," and shall notify the local board of 
health, who may disinfect such articles and thereupon remove 
such label. If the Commissioner of Labor finds (any of the 
articles specified in said section 100) in any workroom or 
factory (in a tenant factory) which is foul, unclean, or un- 
sanitary, he may, after first making and filing in the public 
records of his office a written order stating the reasons there- 
for, affix to (such) any articles therein found a label con- 
taining the word " unclean." No one but the Commissioner 
of Labor shall remove any label so affixed ; and he may 
refuse to remove it until such articles shall have been 
removed from such factory and cleaned, or until such room 
or rooms shall have been cleaned or made sanitary. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 71 



SANITATION OF FACTORIES AND MANUFAC- 
TURING ESTABLISHMENTS 

CLEANLINESS. 

Cleanliness is naturally the first necessity of a proper work- 
place, yet the great majority of factories examined by the Commis- 
sion were found to be in an uncleanly condition. Of the 10,000 
\vorkers employed in the establishments examined by Miss Gold- 
mark, 7 per cent were found working in clean and well-kept 
workrooms, 58 per cent in fairly clean and well-kept workrooms, 
31 per cent in dirty workrooms, and 4 per cent in very dirty 
workrooms. There seemed to be no difference in this regard be- 
tween establishments in the city of New York and elsewhere 
throughout the State. 

The Commission found that establishments manufacturing food- 
stuffs were the dirtiest of all. Forty-five per cent of all the estab- 
lishments inspected by the Commission were either in a dirty or 
very dirty condition. Only a very small number could be denom- 
inated as entirely clean shops. 

SANITARY NECESSITIES. 

The condition of the toilets in most of the factories was very 
bad. The flush was usually found to be inadequate. Very often 
the plumbing was out of order. The ventilation of these compart- 
ments was usually poor. Their position as regards the rest of the 
factory floor was improper, and very many of them were dark. Of 
those inspected by the Commission, 24 per cent were dirty and 16 
per cent were very dirty. These deplorable conditions apply not 
only to the small establishments. Some of the largest industrial 
establishments are at fault. Of the group of buildings examined 
by Miss Goldmark, 3.5 per cent of the toilets were found to be in 
back yards, 9 per cent in halls, and 87.5 per cent in compartments 
or rooms connected with the workrooms. 

The present law is general, and simply provides that there should 
be a sufficient number of toilets for the use of workmen. 



72 REPOBT OF COMMISSION. 

VENTILATION. 

The problem of securing proper ventilation in factory building? 
is one of the utmost importance. The necessity for furnishing 
fresh and pure air in our homes has long been appreciated. It is 
of still greater importance in factories, where a large number of 
persons are employed, and where the materials and processes often 
generate dust, noxious gases and fumes, which are permitted to 
mingle with and contaminate the air in the entire establishment. 

Of all the establishments inspected under the supervision of the 
Commission, only 14 per cent attempted to secure proper ventilation 
by means of mechanical devices for the removal of bad air, or for 
the introduction of a regular supply of fresh air. The remaining 
86 per cent relied solely on the windows for their ventilation. In 
cold weather the windows were, of course, closed and failed to 
serve their purpose as mediums of ventilation. 

The present provisions of the Labor Law on the subject of ven- 
tilation are, it is generally conceded, entirely inadequate. Section 
8:6 of the Labor Law simply requires that proper and adequate ven- 
tilation shall be furnished in all factories and manufacturing estab- 
lishments. No standards are set. No working test is provided in 
the law by which the amount of impurity existing in the air can 
be determined. 

A cubic space of 400 feet for each adult worker should be in- 
sisted upon in all factories, with the additional standard of a floor 
space of from 32 to 36 square feet per person, and the passageways 
already provided for. 

This, of course, while relieving the congestion and incidentally 
affecting the purity of the air in the workroom, does not solve the 
problem of ventilation. It is necessary that some means be pro- 
vided for a constant renewal of all the air in the workroom in 
which manufacturing is carried on, and that provision be made for 
the removal of dust, gases and fumes at their point of origin to 
prevent them from mixing with the air breathed by the workers. 
The importance of the latter provision can readily be appreciated 
when it is considered that the so-called " dusty trades " furnish over 
60 per cent of the victims of tuberculosis among factory workers. 

As to general ventilation in factory buildings, the Commission 
is not yet ready to set forth definite standards and requirements. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 73 

The preliminary investigation conducted by the Commission shows 
that there is at present no unanimity of opinion among experts as 
to what these standards should be. It is conceded that the present 
ventilation in factory buildings is entirely unsatisfactory. The 
methods to be adopted to remedy this condition will have to be 
determined as a result of further study and investigation. 

As to humidity, testimony was given by Prof. C. E. A. Winslow, 
an acknowledged expert on ventilation, that a dry bulb temperature 
above 75 F. and a wet bulb temperature above 70 are extremely 
injurious to health. Many places were found where (his tempera- 
ture was greatly exceeded, while in some instances a dry bulb tem- 
perature of 98 F. and a wet bulb temperature of 90 were found. 

Naturally, these conditions predispose to tuberculosis and other 
respiratory diseases. Pulmonary tuberculosis was found by the 
Commission to be especially prevalent among garment workers, 
printers and cigarmakers, because of the crowded workrooms and 
absence of ventilation. There should be a standard as to the degree 
of temperature permitted in the workroom. Power should be given 
to the Labor Department to enact and enforce rules in industries 
where extremes of temperature are likely to occur, and self- 
recording thermometers should be maintained. 

The entire subject of ventilation must be approached with a 
spirit of fairness to all concerned. Ill-considered standards would 
mean unnecessary and useless expense without accomplishing any- 
thing. In the case of the public schools, which present a com- 
paratively simple problem of ventilation, the use of mechanical 
means has caused much criticism. It is stated, however, that 
the reason for the failure of the system is that those in charge 
do not understand how to keep it in working order, and that it 
work? admirably if kept in perfect order. 

The experts consulted by the Commission recommend that forced 
ventilating systems should be adopted in all manufacturing 
establishments. The Commission desires to give the matter 
further study, in order to ascertain whether it is possible 
to lay down a standard in the law for all industries, or whether 
special rules and regulations should be fixed for the different indus- 
tries. If a standard can be set, the Commission desires to be in a 



74 REPOKT OF COMMISSION. 

position to inform the manufacturer just what means will have to 
be adopted to comply with that standard. 

LIGHT AND ILLUMINATION. 

There is no standard whatsoever as to light and illumination 
in factories. Defective light and illumination are known to be 
injurious to the eyes of the worker. Insufficient light causes 
eye-strain, and gradually undermines the general health. In- 
vestigation showed that 52 per cent of the factories inspected 
used artificial light during the daytime, and the light, even where 
sufficient, was improperly placed with relation to the workers. 
Often the lights were too near, and no protection was given 
from glare. This is true, not alone in the small shops, but in the 
larger ones. Mr. E. L. Elliott, an illuminating engineer, testified 
that the brilliancy and intensity of light could be measured by a 
recently invented machine, and that therefore it would be easy to 
fix proper standards of light. 

The Commission desires to give this matter study and thought, 
so as to be able to make appropriate recommendations. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Section 86 of the Labor Law contains a provision for the removal 
of dust, gases and fumes generated in the processes of manufacture. 
This provision, as it stands, is inadequate, and, according to the 
testimony of the Medical Inspector of Factories, is incapable of 
enforcement. 

The Commission, however, feels it can safely recommend the 
following amendment, so that the latter portion of section 86 shall 
read as follows: 

If excessive heat be created, or if steam, gases, vapors, 
dust or other impurities that may be injurious to health, 
be generated in the course of the manufacturing pro- 
cess carried on therein, proper hoods and pipes connected 
with an exhaust fan of sufficient capacity and power to 
remove such dust or impurities at their point of origin and 
prevent them from mingling with the air in the room, shall 
be provided. Such fan shall be kept running constantly while 
the dust, gases and fumes are being generated. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 75 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 

The subject of disease caused by the occupation of the workers 
presents a vast field for study and investigation. Morbidity statis- 
tics in this country are entirely inadequate. 

A large number of industries deal with harmful or poisonous 
materials which are liable to endanger the health and life of the 
workers. Some of these poisons could be entirely eliminated by 
the substitution of non-poisonous materials, as in the case of the 
phosphorous match industry and others. The means of preventing 
many of these diseases is apparently the education of both employer 
and employee in regard to the dangers involved, as many of them 
are at present absolutely ignorant of the effects of the various 
poisonous matters. 

The Commission has been able to give but brief attention to this 
important subject, and has investigated only one form of occupa- 
tional disease, that known as " lead poisoning." 

LEAD POISONING. 

The preliminary investigations conducted for the Commission 
by Prof. E. E. Pratt show that the methods by which these indus- 
trial poisons may enter the system are three: 

1. Through the mouth and digestive system. 

2. Through the respiratory system. 

3. Through the skin. 

In the lead factories, meals were eaten by the employees in the 
workrooms where the poisonous materials were used. No adequate 
washing facilities were provided, and no adequate provision made 
for the removal of the poisonous dusts, gases and fumes at their 
point of origin, so as to prevent their inhalation by the worker. 

The results of the investigation clearly indicate the necessity for 
the following provisions and safeguards: 



76 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

1. The prohibition of the eating of meals in any working room 
where any poisonous dust, gases or fumes are generated in process 
of manufacture. 

2. The mandatory requirement of ample washing facilities, in- 
cluding hot water, in all factories where such poisonous materials 
are used. 

3. An adequate system of forced ventilation to remove the dust, 
gases and fumes at their point of origin. 

The last requirement has already been included in the recom- 
mendations made by the Commission with regard to amending sec- 
tion 86 of the Labor Law. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The Commission at this time, therefore, recommends the follow- 
ing amendments to the Labor Law: 

Amend section 88 of the Labor Law by adding thereto the fol- 
lowing provision : 

In all establishments where lead, arsenic, or other poison- 
ous substances or injurious or noxious fumes, dust, or gases 
are present as the result of the business conducted by such 
factory, there shall be provided ample washing facilities, 
including hot water and individual towels. 

Amend the Labor Law by adding a new section, to be known as 
section 89a: 

Prohibition of Eating Meals in Certain Workrooms: 
No employee shall take or be allowed to take food into any 
room or apartment in any factory, mercantile establishment, 
mill or workshop, commercial institution, or other establish- 
ment or working place where lead, arsenic, or other poison- 
ous substance, or injurious or noxious fumes, dust or gases 
under harmful conditions are present, as a result of the busi- 
ness conducted by such factory, mercantile establishment, 
mill or workshop, commercial institution, or other establish- 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 77 

ment or working place, and notice to this effect shall be 
posted in each room or apartment. No employee, except 
where his presence is necessary for the proper conduct of the 
business, shall remain in any such room or apartment during 
the time allowed for meals, and suitable provisions shall be 
made and maintained by the employer to enable the em- 
ployees to take their meals elsewhere in such establishment. 

These recommendations are, however, only a preliminary step. 
The substitution of harmless substances for poisonous materials used 
in manufacture where practicable, the licensing of all dangerous 
trades and occupations, the compulsory physical examination of all 
workers in such trades, the necessity for special rules and regula- 
tions for the different industries affected are matters which re- 
quire careful consideration. 

There can be no doubt that many lives are annually lost and 
severe illnesses are caused by the failure to take ordinary precau- 
tions in using poisonous articles in manufacturing. The greatest 
cause of sickness and death is ignorance, and the Labor Depart- 
ment should see to it that the dangers, and the means of avoiding 
them are brought forcibly and unmistakably before both employer 
and employee. 



78 REPORT OF COMMISSION. \ 

BAKERIES 

NUMBER OF BAKERIES IN THE STATE. 

According to the Census of 1910, there were in 1909 in New 
York State 2,962 bakeries employing 13,676 workingmeu. The 
number of bakeries in the cities of the first and second class was 
as follows: 

New York 2,489 

Buffalo 190 

Rochester 106 

Syracuse 73 

Albany 64 

Troy 41 

Yonkers 35 

Utica 28 

JURISDICTION OVER BAKERIES. 

In the city of New York, the State Labor Department, the 
Board of Health and the Tenement House Department have each 
some jurisdiction over bakeries, and bakeries have been recently 
inspected not only by the officials of these Departments but also by 
the Commissioner of Accounts of the City of New York. 

The Labor Law contains special provisions for the inspection of 
bakeries. Local Health Departments are also authorized to in- 
vestigate and cause the removal of insanitary conditions in 
bakeries, but there is little or no co-operation between the local 
and State departments. Dr. Lederle, the Commissioner of Health 
of the City of New York, testified : 

" The trouble about this bakery situation, as I understand 
it, is that there is a duplication of authority which may or 
may not be exercised by both departments. Primarily 
bakeries are under the jurisdiction of the State Labor 
Department." 



KEPORT OF COMMISSION. Y9 

The State Labor Department makes inspections of bakeries 
about once a year. The criticism as to the inadequacy of factory 
inspection in general applies with still greater force to bakeries, 
and in fact to all places where food products are manufactured. 

To insure the maintenance of proper sanitary conditions in such 
establishments, frequent inspection is essential. The number of 
inspections should depend upon the location and general condition 
of the establishment, but in any event every bakery should be 
inspected at least once a month. The Commissioner of Labor 
should exercise promptly the power conferred upon him by the 
Labor Law to seal up a bakery found to be so unclean, improperly 
drained or ventilated as to be insanitary. 

LICENSING OF BAKERIES. 

The principle of State or municipal licensing has already been 
applied to industries which are dangerous to life because 
of the materials and processes, such as the manufacture of fire- 
works, or those which may become a nuisance, such as offensive 
trades, stables, etc., or others which bear an intimate relation to the 
public health, such as plumbing, dairy industries and slaughter- 
houses. 

No industry is more closely related to the public health than 
bread-making. Not one of those who appeared before the Com- 
mission, including bakers, objected to the licensing of bakeries. 
Many testified that it would be of great benefit to the industry. 
The licensing of bakeries would permit of accurate, periodical 
inspection, and would be the first step in remedial legislation. 

There has been some discussion as to what Department should 
be given jurisdiction of licensing bakeries, and after considerable 
thought the Commission is of the opinion that the best interests 
of all would be conserved by placing this power with the State 
Labor Department, with the provision, however, that a certificate 
as to the sanitary condition of the bakery should be obtained from 
the local Health Department before the State Department shall 
issue a license. This method will necessitate supervision by both 
Departments. 



80 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

CELLAR BAKERIES. 

Most city bakeries have been located in cellars. This condition 
prevails in Berlin, Paris, Chicago, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and 
prevailed in London up to five or six years ago, when the future 
use of cellars as bakeries was prohibited. Elsewhere in England 
new bakeries have been forbidden to locate in cellars since 1895. 
In the city of New York there are 2,489 bakeries, and according 
to the report of Commissioner of Accounts Fosdick and his testi- 
mony before the Commission, the great majority of these are 
located in cellars and basements. Of the 485 bakeries inspected 
and investigated by this Commission, 479 were located in cellars of 
tenement houses. The ceilings of cellars are rarely more than a 
foot or two above the ground. This condition results in defective 
drainage, inadequate light, poor ventilation, excessive humidity, 
proximity of plumbing, lack of washing facilities, lack of toilet 
accommodation, uncleanlines-s of workmen and utensils and the 
presence of domestic animals, vermin and insects. Testimony 
was given showing that frequently sewage pipes and water pipes 
leaked or sweated directly upon material of which bread was made ; 
that animals, such as chickens and dogs, were running loose in 
bakeries, and that employees sometimes slept there. 

Further and more detailed description of conditions in these 
establishments will be found in the testimony given by Miss 
Perkins, Commissioner Fosdick, Dr. Bensel and Dr. Lederle. 

It is evident that a cellar is an unfit place for the manufacture 
of foodstuffs or for the housing of workers. No place can be sani- 
tary which lacks sunlight. Ventilation is almost impossible unless 
mechanical ventilation be used, which, in the ordinary small bakery, 
is not practicable. 

Cellars can not be kept as clean as other parts of the house, 
because they are, as a rule, semi-dark. They contain most of the 
plumbing pipes and fixtures, and they are naturally the habitation 
of insects, rats and mice, and are in proximity to breeding places of 
flies. 

The Commission has very seriously discussed the question as to 
whether all existing cellar bakeries should 'be abolished, or 
whether only new cellar bakeries should ; be prohibited. The 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 81 

Commission took into consideration the fact that if the existing 
cellar bakeries were abolished a great many persons would suffer 
hardship. 

The Commission, therefore, is of the opinion that the use of cel- 
lars for bakeries and for the manufacture of other food products 
should not be permitted in the future either in Xew York city or 
in any other city of the State. 

MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF BAKERS. 

The Commission conducted the first medical examination of 
bakers ever made in the city of Xew York. Six physicians made 
the examination under the direction of Dr. Price, at the same time 
that inspections were made of the bake-shops. The greater num- 
ber of the examinations were made at night. Most of the bakers 
are men; few women are engaged in this occupation, and very few 
are young persons. The temperature in bakeries is high, wages 
are not large, hours of labor are unusually long, and there is much 
night work. 

Of the 800 bakers examined, 453, or 57 per cent, had some 
indication of a defective physical condition. The most important 
diseases discovered were pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchitis, 
177 cases; pleurisy, 2 cases; venereal diseases, 3 cases; diseases of 
the skin, 45 cases. A detailed account of the result of this medical 
examination will be found in the report of Dr. Price in Appen- 
dix III. 

RECOMMENDATIONS : 

The Commission makes the following recommendations with 
reference to bakeries: 

Licensing. Every factory or manufacturing establish- 
ment where food products are prepared for public consump- 
tion (except hotels, restaurants and boarding houses), shall 
be required to apply for a license from the State Labor 
Department ; the license to be granted after inspection ; fco 
be renewed annually; to be revocable for cause; and to be 
granted only on the certification of the local Health Depart- 
ment that the premises are in a sanitary condition. 

The Power of the Board of Health or Commissioner of 
Public Safety to make Rules and Regulations Prescrib- 



82 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

ing Standards of Sanitation for Places Where Food Prod- 
ucts are Manufactured. The Department of Health or 
Commissioner of Public Safety shall have the power to 
establish from time to time standards of sanitation for exist- 
ing and future factories and manufacturing establishments 
where food products of any kind are manufactured for 
public consumption (except restaurants, hotels and boarding 
houses) ; provision should be made for the public hearing 
of such proposed rules and regulations before they are 
adopted and their publication after adoption. No change 
in any such rules and regulations shall be made except after a 
public hearing on 30 days' public notice. 

Prohibition of Future Bakeries and Places Where Food 
Products are Manufactured for Public Consumption from 
Locating in Cellars On and after the date hereof, no new 
bakery or other establishment where food products are man- 
ufactured or prepared for public consumption (except res- 
taurants, hotels or boarding houses) shall be permitted in a 
cellar. The term cellar within the meaning of this a-.-t is 
hereby defined as follows: Any room in which the distance 
between the floor and the ceiling 4s more than one-half below 
the level of street or ground adjacent thereto. 

The Commission has considered the question of medical 
inspection of bakers, but in this preliminary report does 
not believe that it should make any recommendation upon 
the subject. It will again consider the matter, and hopes to 
be able in its final report to make recommendations with 
reference thereto. 

Proposed laws carrying out these recommendations will be here- 
after submitted. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 83 

MANUFACTURING IN TENEMENTS 

PRESENT LEGAL STATUS OF MANUFACTURING IN TENEMENTS. 

Manufacturing in tenement houses in the cities of the State 
presents a problem the importance of which can hardly be over- 
estimated. The problem is now practically limited to the Greater 
City of .New York, the Commission, in its preliminary investiga- 
tion having found little manufacturing carried on in tenement 
houses in other cities of the first and second class. Though this 
finding is supported by the records of the State Labor Department, 
such work is said to be increasing in all up-State cities. 

The subject of tenement-house manufacture has been considered 
by the Legislature on several occasions. In 188-i the Legislature 
passed an act prohibiting the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes 
in tenement houses in cities having over 500,000 inhabitants. 
This act was declared unconstitutional by our Court of Appeals 
in the case of In re Jacobs (reported in 98 New York, page 98). 
This decision, which has been construed in different ways, need 
not now be discussed. 

From 1885, when the Jacobs case was decided, down to 1892, 
practically nothing was done to regulate or control manufacturing 
in tenement houses, and then the conditions under which this man- 
ufacturing was conducted made some action imperative. In 1892 
an act was passed providing in substance that only immediate mem- 
bers of the family might be employed in dwelling rooms where 
articles of a specified kind were manufactured, and that no out- 
sider was to be employed in such workroom unless a permit were 
obtained from the factory inspector setting forth the maximum 
number to be so employed. This permit was granted after inspec- 
tion, and was revocable if required by " the health of the commu- 
nity or of those employed therein." 

Since then the Legislature has attempted to strengthen this 
Act, and to regulate rather than prohibit manufacturing in tene- 
ment houses. The inadequacy of the law, however, soon became 
apparent, and in 1899 an act was passed requiring a license for 
each family workroom, to be granted under the following 
conditions : 



84 REPOET OF COMMISSION. 

1. The premises must be in a sanitary condition. 

2. They must be free from any contagious, infectious or com- 
municable disease. 

3. There must be 500 cubic feet of air space per person. 

The license was revocable if any of these conditions were vio- 
lated. This system of licensing continued in operation until 1904, 
when the licensing of individual workrooms was succeeded by 
the requirement that the tenement house itself be licensed, the 
landlord instead of the worker making the application. This was 
to do away with the renewals of licenses necessitated by the fre- 
quent moving of the worker from one house to another. 

The present law relating to manufacturing in tenement houses 
is contained in sections 100-105 inclusive, of the Labor Law. 
In substance the law provides that a license shall be required for 
the manufacture, alteration or preparation in tenement workrooms 
of any of the forty-one articles specified in the act, and that licenses 
are not to be granted until the records of the Board of Health 
or other appropriate local authority shall agree with the result of 
an inspection by the Labor Department in showing the tenement 
house to be free from infectious, contagious or communicable 
disease, and from any defect in sanitation. There must be at least 
500 cubic feet of air space for each worker, and only members 
of the family may be employed, save in the case of dressmaking 
establishments conducted on the ground or first floor. These 
licensed tenements are to be inspected at least once in every six 
months and licenses may be revoked if the inspection discloses 
conditions deemed unhealthful. The manufacturer must keep 
ready for inspection a list of the names and addresses of all his 
home workers, and is not permitted to send for manufacture, arti- 
cles specified in the act, into an unlicensed house, or to any work- 
room in which there exists any infectious, contagious or commu- 
nicable disease. The owner of the tenement house is held responsi- 
ble for the manufacture of any articles mentioned in the act con- 
trary to its provisions. The violation of tihe law by the tenement- 
hoitse worker is sufficient ground for the institution of disposses 
proceeding's against him. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSION. 85 

JURISDICTION OVER MANUFACTURING IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

Jurisdiction over manufacturing in tenement houses in the city 
of New York is exercised by three departments; the State Depart- 
ment of Labor, the Department of Health, and to some extent the 
Tenement House Department. 

The State Department of Labor has general jurisdiction over 
the issuance of licenses as to the forty-one articles specified in the 
act, and is responsible for the maintenance of proper sanitary con- 
ditions in such licensed houses. 

The Tenement House Department has jurisdiction over the 
sanitary conditions in tenement houses. It exercises such juris- 
diction over the tenement-house workroom only in so far as such 
rooms are used for living purposes. It has no jurisdiction over 
conditions produced by the manufacturing conducted in them. 

The Board of Health has jurisdiction over all infectious, con- 
tagious and communicable diseases in the tenement houses. It 
also possesses general jurisdiction over the sanitary conditions in 
tenement houses. This jurisdiction is rarely, if ever, exercised, 
the Board of Health acting only on complaint, and in nearly every 
case referring complaints to the Tenement House Department. 

So far as manufacturing in the tenement houses is concerned, 
while other departments may have concurrent jurisdiction, the 
State Labor Department alone is responsible for sanitary condi- 
tions and for the enforcement of the law regulating such 
manufacturing. 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION BY THE COMMISSION. 

The Commission in its investigations has not been able to ob- 
tain more than a general survey of present conditions, and to pre- 
pare a plan for a further investigation. Various witnesses testified 
to the conditions under which manufacturing is carried on to-day 
in tenement homes, and a special investigation was made for the 
Commission by the National Child Labor Committee under the 
immediate supervision of Mr. Owen R. Lovejoy and Miss Elizabeth 
C. Watson. Assistance was also rendered by some members of 
the Women's Welfare Department of the National Civic Federa- 
tion who investigated tenement house manufacture in one East 
Side block. 



86 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

THE LICENSING SYSTEM AND ITS ENFORCEMENT. 

In 1904 there were 2,604 tenement houses in the city of New 
York licensed for manufacturing. In November, 1911, there v/ere 
13,268 licensed tenements in that city, and 451 in the remainder 
of the State. 

In considering the number of tenement houses in which manu- 
facturing is actually carried on in the city of New York the fol- 
lowing facts should be borne in mind: 

1. Each of the 13,268 licensed tenements contains anywhere 
from three to forty or fifty different apartments in which manu- 
facturing may be carried on. 

2. The 13,268 licensed tenements represent those only in which 
the manufacture or preparation of the forty-one articles specified 
in section 100 of the Labor Law is carried on. Testimony showed 
that at least one hundred different articles are in process of manu- 
facture in tenement houses in the city of New York. The prep- 
aration or manufacture of almost sixty articles requires no license 
and may, therefore, be carried on practically without any super- 
vision save that incidentally exercised by the Tenement House 
Department and the Board of Health. 

Tlje investigation showed that the provisions of the law requir- 
ing a license for the manufacturing of the articles specified are 
violated in many cases. Accurate lists of home workers are not. 
kept by the manufacturers as the law requires. 

The manufacture of brushes, for example, requires a license. 
Of 124 families given by brush manufacturers as out-workers, 10 
families were found to live in licensed houses, 114 families in 
unlicensed houses. 

Nut picking requires a license. Among the out-workers investi- 
gated, 22 families were found living in licensed houses, 19 fami- 
lies in unlicensed houses. 

Under the present system, with the force at the disposal of the 
State Department of Labor for this purpose, the enforcement of 
the law relating to home work is a hopeless task. Increase in the 
foumber of inspectors will help but little. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 87 

EVILS OF HOME WORK. 

1. SPREADING OF DISEASE Manufacturing in tenement homes 
is often conducted under very insanitary conditions. The photo- 
graphs reproduced in Appendix 7 are illustrative of the filth and 
personal unclean liriess which exist sometimes in the preparation 
of food products. Manufacturing and preparation of various arti- 
cles of wearing apparel and food products are in many cases car- 
ried on by diseased workers. The danger from this source, par- 
ticularly in the case of food products prepared in the tenement 
homes and distributed widely for consumption requires no emphasis. 
Cases of work done in tenement homes by children suffering from 
contagious scalp and skin diseases, chicken-pox and tonsilitis are 
numerous. 

Miss Watson of the Child Labor Committee testified to the fol- 
lowing case of a child suffering from scarlet fever engaged in 
home work: 

" I have seen a girl in the desquamating stage of scarlet 
fever (when her throat was so bad that she could not speak 
above a whisper) tying ostrich feathers in the Italian dis- 
trict. These feathers were being made for one of the biggest 
feather factories in the lower part of the city. She told me 
herself she had been sick with scarlet fever for ten days, 
but had been upstairs in a neighbor's room working for over 
a week. The condition of the skin on her hands was such 
as to attract my attention and be recognized at once as scarlet 
fever, although she further authenticated it by telling me 
the doctor stated she had scarlet fever." 

Unfortunately the law does not adequately guard against this, 
presumably because the diseases are not reported to the Board of 
Health or to the Labor Department as promptly as they should be, 
and in some cases are not reported at all. 

Men, women and children suffering with tuberculosis and at- 
tending tuberculosis clinics were found picking nuts and working 
on feathers and dolls' clothes. In one family three members were 
attending the dispensary for treatment, all suffering from tuber- 
culosis. All were working at picking nuts. In another case, a 
child eight years of age, sent home from school because of active 
tuberculosis, was later found working at willow plumes in a room 
lighted by gas in the daytime. 



88 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

2. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN. The employment of 
young children in such manufacturing constitutes a most serious 
menace to the entire community. Articles given out by a manu- 
facturer or contractor are either completely or partially manufac- 
tured in the dwelling rooms, and in that manufacture the labor of 
children of any age may be and is utilized. This situation pre- 
sents a child labor problem far-reaching in its importance, which 
as yet has received no legislative recognition. 

While the laws of this State prohibit, for example, a manu- 
facturer of willow plumes from employing in his factory children 
less than fourteen and in some cases, sixteen years of age, there 
is nothing in the law to prevent the manufacturer from sending 
his willow plumes to some family living in a tenement house in 
the same city, to be made up by the adult members of the family 
and by children anywhere from three to fourteen years of age. 
This is being done, and such facts were presented to the 
Commission. 

The numbers and ages of the children, some of them incredibly 
young, found picking nuts, making brushes, and dolls' clothes, 
together with photographs taken by the Consumers' League and 
the National Child Labor Comimttee, are set forth in Appendix 7. 

In the report of the Commissioner of Labor for the year 1911, 
which has just been issued, the Commissioner says: 

" It is said that the evils of child labor prevail in connec- 
tion with tenement house manufacture to an alarming de- 
gree. The number of children of school age found at work 
in their homes during school hours by our inspectors wa.s 
quite small, but this fact should not be regarded as proof 
that the alleged growth of child labor in tenements is un- 
founded. It is probably quite true that many small children 
under school age are required or permitted to perform cer- 
tain simple and easy tasks in connection with the various 
processes and operations incident to the work done in these 
homes. The work done by such small children cannot be very 
difficult nor can it be very heavy, but if the little ones are 
compelled to remain at work for long periods of time, an 
intolerable condition is brought about, and no effort should 
be spared to relieve their sufferings. As to the children of 
school age, it would be well if they were not permitted to 
engage in any manufacturing pursuit in their homes until 



KEPOET OF COMMISSION. 89 

they had reached twelve years of age. But in dealing with 
this phase of the subject, great care should be exercised so as 
not to foster wilfulness and disobedience to parents. The sacred 
right of parents to order the conduct of their offspring and 
to teach them habits of industry and thrift should not be 
lightly invaded. Indeed, it should not be thought of except 
where the welfare of society demands that such a course be 
pursued. No legislation based upon any theory of regulation 
or prohibition, however plausible, should be enacted until 
the subject has been very carefully considered and the true 
state of facts ascertained." 

This Commission agrees that no legislation should be enacted 
until the subject has been very carefully considered and the true 
state of facts ascertained. The Commission does not believe that 
the sacred right of parents to order the conduct of their offspring 
is such that it permits them to require of their very young children 
incessant toil for long hours to the injury of their health 
ami the prevention of their receiving sufficient education. Par- 
ents must support the child until it has strength and health enough 
to work for itself. The Legislature has said that no child may 
work before it is at. least fourteen years of age outside of the home. 
It is essential, therefore, that the home should not be utilized as 
an annex of the factory, and that the manufacturer should be pro- 
hibited from using the tenement home for that purpose. 

3. EFFECT ox SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. A study made in one 
-t ction of the city of Xew York of the average school attendance 
of a hundred children doing home work, disclosed an absence of 
twenty-nine and a half days per child out of an eighty-nine days' 
term. Children four years of age and upwards were found work- 
ing after school hours, during meal hours and on Saturdays. The 
school work suffers and is neglected, and the education of the child 
seriously interfered with. In one case, a child eight years of age 
was reported for the defective class because she slept in the class- 
room in the morning. Investigation showed that the child was 
obliged to sew buttons on knee pants, and had to do a certain 
amount of work at home, irrespective of the time it took, so that 
every morning the child came to school in an exhausted condition. 



90 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

"There was nothing wrong with the child; she was not defective, 
simply tired." 

Incidents were related of children from 7 to 14 years of age, 
some born in this country, others here for several years, who worked 
at home and had never attended school. In some cases their very 
existence was unknown to the rest of the children in the house, 
because they never came out to play. 

4. Low WAGES OF THE HOME WORKER. The tenement in- 
dustry is without standards of any kind, and is essentially parasitic 
in its nature. The wage received represents the total earning 
of the family group, the mother (in some cases, the father, also) 
and the children. In nut picking, for example, the average day's 
work will net about forty cents for the family, which means at 
least five hours work a day for from five to six people. The 
highest wage was $12.00 a week for operating on dolls' clothes 
earned by the combined labors of the father, mother and three chil- 
dren from eight to twelve years of age, the children working after 
school hours and on Saturday. 

The competition between the home workers themselves and be- 
tween the home workers and factory hands reduces wages to a 
minimum. In some industries when work in the factory is slack, 
employees are laid off and put on part time, yet large amounts 
of work are given out to the home workers. In the manufacture 
of brushes, practically the entire article is made up in the home, 
only a small group of workers being employed in the factory to 
put the materials in shape for the jobber. 

5. COST OF HOME WORK TO THE COMMUNITY. By home work 
or tenement work is meant any kind of manufacturing done for 
a manufacturer, contractor or agent by persons not working on 
the premises or under supervision, the wages and rates of payment 
for these workers being fixed by the persons giving out the work. 
In its essence home work as thus defined is beyond control by law. 
In this State we have a Labor Code, certain sections of which 
expressly regulate conditions under which manufacturing may be 
carried on, but by giving out home work a manufacturer is actu- 
ally able to evade his responsibility for complying with any of 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 91 

these provisions. His work may be done in unclean, unsanitary 
surroundings. It may be performed by little children or minors 
working long hours after 5 p. M. when the law frees the girl and 
boy workers in the factories, or by young girls working far into 
the night. Home work means unregulated manufacturing carried 
on beyond the possibility of control as to hours of women's work, 
child labor, night work of minors or cleanliness and sanitation of 
work places. From the point of view of the community, the 
greatest objection to home work is its essential lawlessness. 

The cost to the community under the present system, in life and 
health of the little army of young children and mothers employed 
in this branch of industry, is entirely too great to justify its ex- 
istence. In 1888 a special committee was appointed by the House 
of Lords to inquire into the sweating system at the East End of 
London. The disclosure of the Lord's Committee on the sweating 
system showed, among other things, that so far from being socially 
economic or useful, eiaoh industry carried on in the workers' mis- 
erable homes was really dragging back that industry as a whole. 
It was competing unfairly with those carrying on business under 
the factory law. We have failed to profit in any way by England's 
experience. 

NECESSITY FOR EXTENSIVE INVESTIGATION. 

The many witnesses who have appeared have urged the restric- 
tion of manufacturing in tenement houses, or its complete prohibi- 
tion. At the same time, as preliminary to any legislation on the 
subject, they without exception urged and set forth the necessity 
for a thorough and painstaking investigation so that all of the facts 
could be gathered. 

The difficulties of comprehensive remedial legislation on this 
subject, practical and legal, are very great. The Commission has 
found that a great deal of home work is due to the pressure of 
poverty, to the fact that the family budget is small, not because 
the father is lazy, but because his whole wage is not sufficient to 
carry him through the dull season of his industry. The consti- 
tutional difficulties are grave. The decision in the Jacobs case, 
.although it may perhaps be explained away or its effect overcome, 
shows the necessity for a complete and thorough investigation and 



92 REPORT or COMMISSION. 

presentation of the facts before any radical legislation is attempted. 
The Commission has set forth particularly the results of its in- 
vestigation in order to show the pressing necessity for a continu- 
ance of the investigation of this important subject, a necessity 
that is felt by all who have appeared before the Commission. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 93 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN MANUFACTURING 
ESTABLISHMENTS 

NUMBER AND IMPORTANCE OF W<n:x WORKERS IN THE STATE. 

The preliminary report of the United States Census for 1910 
showed that there were 293,637 women employed in manufac- 
turing establishments in the State of NeAV York, 30 per cent 
of all its wage earners. The Oeimi.s Report for 1905 showed the 
average earnings of women in all industries in this State was 
$6.54 per week. The only industries (except some minor indus- 
tries employing less than 1,000 workers) in which women are 
not employed, are in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, fertilizers 
and ice. The average time a woman remains in a factory is about 
seven years, the majority of women leaving after a few years 
to marry. The State is therefore interested not only in the wel- 
fare of women as workers, but has a deeper concern in seeing 
that while adding economic wealth to the State they work under 
such proper conditions as will not impair their health and vitality 
as mothers. 

In its investigation, the Commission has made a study of con- 
ditions in six of the trades in which over 60 per cent of the em- 
ployees are women, namely, artificial feathers and flowers, waists, 
paper boxes, textiles and men's clothing. Nine hundred and eleven 
different workshops employing 20,359 women were inspected. The 
results of this investigation are fully set forth in Appendix IV 
hereto annexed. In addition, the investigation's conducted for .the 
Commission by Miss Goldmark cover industries in which over 
2,000 women were employed. 

CHARACTER OF THE WORK DONE BY WOMEN. 

A great deal of hard and physically exhausting work is still 
done by women employed in factories. Reference is hereafter 
made to women working in the core rooms of foundries. In a 
meat packing plant in Buffalo a number of women were em- 
ployed in the trimming and sausage rooms, working side by side 
with men who set the pace for the work. The women stood all 



94 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

day at their work on floors covered with water and slime, most of 
them wearing heavy rubber boots. Women were found employed 
in industries where industrial poisons were used or generated 
in the process of manufacture. The entire subject of the pro- 
hibition, or at any rate, the close supervision of the employment of 
women in dangerous trades and occupations, or in those involving 
hard manual labor, requires most careful consideration. 

The continual standing of women in factories and manufac- 
turing establishments is one of the worst and most dangerous 
features of a large part of their work. Women are required to 
stand in candy factories, laundries, textile mills and printing 
shops for hours at a time, often for the entire day. 

The effects of continual standing upon women are very gra\< . 
Dr. George W. Goler, the health officer of the city of Rochester 
testified : 

" I think that if we could make a study of the varicose 
veins upon the legs and feet of women who stand, we would 
be perfectly surprised at the conditions we find. I have pho- 
tographs of the feet and legs of women who stand, and the 
great tortuous varicose veins upon those legs would make one 
expend as much pity on those women as upon a horse that 
we see whipped on the street. You know we expend a vast 
amount of pity on dumb animals that are treated as they 
ought not to be ; we have only recently waked up to the fact 
that we ought to expend some pity and sympathy upon OUT 
own kind." 

Much of this standing is quite unnecessary. Many more proc- 
esses could easily be adapted to a sitting posture. Sec. 17 of the 
Labor Law, hidden away between a provision relating to the illegal 
use of labels and one dealing with scaffolding for the use of em- 
ployees, regulates the use of seats for women in factories, and 
provides as follows: 

Sec. 17. " Every person employing females in a factory, 
or as waitresses in a hotel or restaurant, shall provide and 
maintain suitable seats for the use of such female employees 
and permit the use thereof by such employees to such an 
extent as may be reasonable for the preservation of their 
health." 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 95 

The law is vague and indefinite, and in actual practice is very 
unsatisfactory. In a great many of the establishments no seats 
whatsoever are provided. Where they are furnished, the work 
that the women have to perform does not permit of their use. 

The Commission therefore recommen'ds the amendment of sec. 
17 as follows: 

" Every person employing females in a factory or as wait- 
resses in a hotel or restaurant shall provide and maintain 
suitable seats with backs at an angle of not less than 100 de- 
grees for the use of such female employees, and permit the 
use thereof by such employees to such an extent as may be 
reasonable for the preservation of their health. Wherever 
practicable and where processes are adapted to a sitting 
posture, suitable seats with backs at an angle of not less than 
100 degrees shall be supplied for all female employees." 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

In structure and in function, women are differentiated from men. 
A woman's body is unable to withstand strain, fatigue and priva- 
tions as well as a man's. The nervous strain resulting from monot- 
onous work and speeding up, intensified by the piece-work system, 
when coupled with excessive length of working hours, can only 
result in undermining the whole physical structure of the woman, 
lowering her vitality and rendering her easily susceptible to the dis- 
eases that find their prey among factory workers. Newer and 
faster machines are being continually introduced. In the knitting 
mills of TJtica, some of the machines make as many as 3,500 
stitches a minute. In the paper-box trade, girls fill in 2,000 boxes 
a day, involving over 4,000 heavy pressures with the foot. The 
manufacturer's desire for speed takes no account of the strain 
upon the woman worker caused by the long hours and monotonous 
and nerve-racking work that results in destroying the health of 
the women and rendering them unfit to perform their functions 
as mothers. 

The first step, therefore, in the right direction, is to decrease 
the length of the working day for women. In his last message to 
the Legislature, Governor Dix recommended the reduction of the 
hours of labor for women. The necessity for a shorter working 



96 REPOET OF COMMISSION. 

day for the women factory workers has been upheld by all of the 
witnesses called, professional and laymen. The Commission is 
not prepared to maintain that at the outset full productivity will 
be as great in nine hours a day as in ten, but as has been admira- 
bly stated by Prof. Irving Fisher in his report on National 
Vitality: 

" The point to be insisted upon is not that it is profitable 
for an employer to make the working-day shorter, for often 
it is not, but to show that it is profitable for the nation and 
race. Continual fatigue is inimical to national vitality, and 
however it may affect the economic profits of the individual, 
it will in the end deplete the vital resources on which national 
efficiency depends." 

The Legislature has already given indication of its desire to 
properly regulate the hours of labor for its women workers. The 
Labor Law provides that no female less than 21 years of age, and 
no woman shall be employed or permitted to work in any factory 
before 6 A M. or after 9 p. M. nor for more than 6 days or 60 
hours in any one week, nor for more than 10 hours in any one 
day, except that in order to provide for either a Saturday half 
holiday or whole holiday, the 60 hours of work may be performed 
in 5 days. It also provides for irregular overtime not to exceed 
3 days a week, provided that no work is performed for more than 
12 hours in any one day or 60 hours a week. 

The Court of Appeals, however, in the case of People v. Wil- 
liams (reported in 189 New York, page 131), found that portion 
of the statute unconstitutional which provided for a closing time 
and which, as the Court stated, prevented a woman, however 
willing, " from engaging herself in a lawful employment during 
the specified periods of the 24 hours." Judge GRAY, writing the 
opinion says, however: 

" I find nothing in the language of the section which sug- 
gests the purpose of promoting health, except as it might be 
inferred that for a woman to work during the forbidden 
hours of night would be unhealthful. If the inhibition of 
the section in question had been framed to prevent the ten 
hours of work from being performed at night, or to prolong 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 97 

them beyond nine o'clock in the evening, it might more 
readily be appreciated that the health of women was a 
matter of legislative concern. That is not the effect, nor the 
sense, of the provision of the section with which alone we 
are dealing." 

OVERTIME. 

The evil effects of overtime can readily be appreciated by what 
has already been said. The human organism, particularly the 
organism of a woman, may normally be taxed to a certain point. 
That point is undoubtedly reached at the end of a regular day's 
work. Beyond that, any burden can result only in fatigue, over- 
exertion and consequent impairment of health. Alternating pe^ 
riods of intense overwork and then of idleness constitute a menace 
to the physical and moral life of women workers. 

THE DIFFICULTY OF ENFORCING THE LAW RELATING TO WOMES. 

The present 60-hour law is not enforced and cannot be enforced 
because of the complicated and indefinite provisions relating to 
overtime, and the absence of a specified closing hour. To enact 
legislation limiting the hours of work without including a provision 
for a closing time will simply add another unenforceable provision 
to the laws of this State. The Commission believes that a statute 
can be so drawn, and such facts presented to the Court of Appeals, 
as to provide legally that no woman may be employed in a factory 
building after a certain hour. Such provisions are contained in 
the laws of European countries, and experience shows that only 
in that way can any provision regulating the hours of employment 
be enforced. 

LAWS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

In European countries, the subject of the employment of 
women has received careful consideration. The hours of labjr 
are carefully regulated, and the closing time definitely stated. 
The laws of Great Britain, Germany, France and Holland relating 
to the employment of women in manufacturing establishments 
are typical. 

4 



98 REPOET OF COMMISSION. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Hours Textile Factories (Sec. 24, Laws of 1901, 1 Edv. 
VII, Chap. 22). 

The period of employment, except on Saturday, shall either 
begin at 6 A. M. and end at 6 P. M., or begin at 7 A. M. and end at 
7 P. M. 

There shall be allowed for meals during said period of employ- 
ment on every day except Saturday not less than two hours, of 
which one hour at the least shall be before 3 p. M. 

Special regulations for a shorter day on Saturday. 

FBANCE. 

The maximum length of the working day shall be ten hours, 
broken by at least one hour of rest. 

Overtime may be granted by departmental decrees for two 
hours in one day, during not more than sixty days in the year, 
for certain trades, chiefly season trades. By departmental decrees, 
employment of women may be prohibited or regulated in trade" 
considered dangerous to health or morals. 

HOLLAND. 

By royal decree employment of women may be prohibited or 
regulated in trades held dangerous to health. 

GERMANY. 

Working women may not be employed between 8 o'clock in 
the evening to 6 o'clock in the morning, and on Saturdays and 
the eve of holidays not after 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 

The employment of working women may not exceed the dura- 
tion of ten hours daily, and eight hours on the eve of Sundays 
and holidays. 

Between working hours at least one hour of noon rest muot 
be allowed to working women. 

After the end of the daily working time, a continuous rest of 
at least eleven hours must be allowed to working women. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 99 

Working women who have to attend to a household must, at 
their request, be dismissed half an hour before the noonday rest, 
unless this lasts at least one hour and a half. 

Overtime may be granted by the lower administrative authority 
for not more than twelve hours of labor in one day, during two 
weeks, not more than forty days in the year, but there must be 
an unbroken interval of ten hours between one day's work and 
the next. 

For a period exceeding two weeks, the same permission may 
be granted only by the higher administrative authority, but not 
to exceed fifty days in the year. 

This Commission is convinced that unless there is in the law 
some valid provision fixing a closing time, the law cannot be 
properly enforced. The difficulty is very apparent. The worker 
through fear of losing her employment, will rarely complain. It 
is useless, therefore, to look to her for active assistance. This 
principle has been applied successfully in this State in the case of 
children between the ages of 14 and 16. There is no valid reason 
why the same principle should not be extended to the women 
workers in the factory who play so important a part in the State's 
industrial prosperity. The interests of the State imperatively 
demand that its women workers be effectively protected. 

The Commission is of the opinion that the hours of labor for 
women should be shortened, but at the present time it refrains 
from making any specific recommendation upon the subject. 

THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN BEFORE AND AFTER CHILDBIRTH. 

The Commission heard testimony to the effect that women are 
employed in manufacturing establishments of the State, sometimes 
at hard manual labor, immediately before and after childbirth. 
That this condition is a source of danger not only to the women 
but to their offspring is not open to argument. It is a matter of 
common knowledge that women who have to deny themselves rest 
and care during the last few weeks of pregnancy, and the first 
few weeks after confinement, are very liable to suffer from 
hemorrhage and chronic uterine diseases. 

Premature births are not infrequent results of overwork. The 
relation of infant mortality to the employment of women immedi- 



100 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

ately before and after childbirth illustrates the importance of this 
matter. Investigation by Sir John Simon and his colleagues into 
sanitary conditions in England between 1859 and 1865, showed 
that in proportion as adult women were taking part in factory 
lalbor, the mortality of their infants rapidly increased. Over half a 
century has elapsed since Sir John Simon declared that infants 
perish under the neglect and mismanagement caused by their 
mother's occupation, yet we have taken no steps to remedy that 
evil which results so disastrously to the State. 

In European countries the matter is covered by statute, women 
being prohibited from working in factories within a certain period 
before and after they give birth to children. The English law 
prohibits the employment of women within four weeks after child- 
birth. In this country the Massachusetts law contains a similar 
prohibition. There may be difficulty in enforcing such provisions, 
but the State should in its statutes emphatically protest against 
this deplorable waste and neglect of infant life. 

RECOMMENDATION. 

The Commission at this time recommends the addition of the 
following section to the Labor Law of the State: 

Sec. 98 (a). Prohibition of employment of females after 
childbirth. No owner, proprietor, manager, foreman or other 
competent authority of any factory, mercantile establishment, 
mill, or workshop shall knowingly employ a female or allow 
a female to be employed therein within four weeks after- 
she has given birth to a child. 

Further consideration and study may result in the recommenda- 
tion of a provision that can be more readily enforced, but the 
Commission believes that this provision is a step in the right direc- 
tion, and should be taken at once. 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 101 

CHILD LABOR 

EXTENT OF CHILD LABOR IN NEW YORK STATE. 

In the State of New York, in 1911, there were 13,083 children 
under the age of sixteen found actually working in factories and 
manufacturing establishments. The last available statistics showed 
that the average weekly wage of all children in the Staite was $3.64 
(U. 8. Census Report, 1905}. At public hearings held in the 
different cities, a large amount of testimony was received concern- 
ing the conditions under which children are employed. Manu- 
facturers, representatives of organizations interested in the wel- 
fare of the children, and some of the children themselves were 
examined. 

Under the present la^, no child under the age of 14 is per- 
mitted to work in or in connection with any factory in this State. 
No child between the age of 14 and 16 years is permitted to be 
so employed unless an employment certificate is obtained and 
filed in the office of the employer at the place of employment o 
puch child. This certificate is granted, generally speaking, if 
the child satisfies three requirements as to age, physical condition 
and education. 

PHYSICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKING CHILDREN. 

Only in doubtful cases is the physical fitness of the child under 
16 years of age determined by a medical officer of the Board or 
Department of Health. [Sec. 71 (e) of the Labor Law.] 

There is no standard of physical fitness prescribed by the law 
The New York City Board of Health has adopted a standard of 
80 pounds in weight and 58 inches in height, yet local boards of 
health in other cities of the State may adopt any other standard. 
Health officers, physicians and representatives of child labor com- 
mittees who have appeared before the Commission stated em- 
phatically that the present system of physical examination before 
the issuance of an employment certificate is superficial and en- 
tirely inadequate. The following table shows the number of 
employment certificates issued by the Board of Health of the 
City of New York within the past five years, together with the 
number refused because of physical unfitness. 



102 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

Certificates 

Refused 

Certificates Because of Phys- 

Year Issiird. ical Unfitness. 

1906 21,220 5 

1907 23,013 4 

1908 23,932 111 

1909 29,343 291 

1910 56,351 501 

The improvement respecting the employment of the physically 
unfit is marked, but is not nearly what it should be. 

A thorough physical examination of every child should be 
made before the working certificate is issued, so as to prevent 
the employment of those physically unfit. In addition a periodi- 
cal physical examination of all minors in factories until they 
attain the age of at least 18 years should be required. Coupled 
with this supervision, either the local Health Department, or the 
Division of Medical Inspection of the State Department of Labor, 
or the one under the supervision of the other, should be 
given the power to dismiss any minor from an employment 
deemed injurious to the minor's health. This power is con- 
ferred on inspectors by the laws of England and Massachusetts. 
Our statute sets forth merely a number of occupations deemed 
injurious in which the employment of children is prohibited. 
This list is inadequate. It fails to cover a great many dangerous 
occupations, and overlooks the fact that there may be processes 
or methods of manufacturing in a given industry which are 30 
injurious to the health of minors as to justify their exclusion 
therefrom. It loses sight of the fact that an employment which 
may be carried on with impunity by a child of strong physique 
may mean death to many others. All of the numerous witnesses 
who have appeared before the Commission, professional and lay- 
men, have testified to the advisability of having such continued 
medical supervision. Some have said that while advisable, it 
was impracticable. Of course, it would be a financial cost, but the 
Commission cannot emphasize too strongly the fact that this cost 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 103 

would be insignificant compared with the benefits that would 
accrue. 

The child is supervised by the State in the public school until 
he attains the age of at least 14 years. Surely the need of medical 
supervision is greater during the next few years when these young 
boys and girls become workers and develop into manhood and 
womanhood. That efficiency means physical vigor unimpaired 
hardly requires demonstration. 

Specific recommendations for the regular physical examination 
of all children employed in manufacturing establishments cannot 
be made until the Labor Department is provided with a sufficient 
number of medical inspectors for that purpose. 

CONTINUATION SCHOOLS. 

The present law prescribes in substance that the child must be 
able to read and write simple sentences in the English language, 
must have received some instruction in reading, spelling, writing, 
English grammar and geography, and must be familiar with the 
elementary operations of arithmetic up to and including fractions. 

That means in the New York city schools that the child has 
reached the 5-B grade. The child entering school at the age of 
7 will reach that grade when about 12^ years old. We require, 
therefore, for 14-year old children the standard ordinarily attained 
at 12^/2 years of age. The question of the advisability of raising 
this educational requirement should receive careful consideration. 

Under our present economic system, children often begin their 
life of toil at an early age, but this evil certainly does not lessen the 
obligation of the State to provide for their education. Modern 
factory conditions undoubtedly deaden in the great majority of 
cases whatever intellectual interest the child may have. It is for 
these young workers that we must plan, and provide with even 
greater care than for those who are fortunate enough to continue 
at school. 

So far as child workers are concerned, the elementary evening 
schools are a failure. The child after a long day's toil is too tired 
for mental work in the evening, which should instead be devoted 
to exercise and recreation. W-m. H. Maxwell, the Superintendent 
of Schools of the City of New York, in his current report, states: 



104 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

"After observing and studying these schools for thirty 
years, I am now convinced that the attempt to give instruc- 
tion in the ordinary elementary branches in the evening to 
boys and girls from fourteen to sixteen years of age is a 
gigantic blunder." 

Yet for this most unsuccessful branch of public education over 
$400,000 is annually expended in the city of New York. 

That some further education of the child is necessary after he 
enters the factory can hardly be doubted. In Germany and other 
European countries the problem has been successfully solved by a 
system of continuation schools. All apprentices from 14 to 16 
years of age are compelled to attend such schools for a certain num- 
ber of hours a week during a portion of the year. Employers are 
obliged to allow their young employees a definite amount of time 
each week during which they may attend these schools. 

There seems to be no reason why this method of continuing the 
education of young workers cannot be successfully adopted in this 
State. In the report already referred to, the City Superintendent 
of Schools of the City of New York says: 

" I recommend, therefore, that in lieu of the evening ele- 
mentary schools, a system of continuation schools from 7 to 
9 A. M., and from 4 to 6 p. M. be organized ; that legislation be 
sought to require employers to give each employee under 
19 years of age four hours a week for forty weeks each year, 
and to constrain young people between these ages to attend 
such schools regularly. These schools would become true 
continuation schools; that is, they would continue under 
favorable conditions the education, t even while the boy or 
girl is at work, which was broken off at any year below the 
19th." 

Such continuation schools would, generally speaking, instruct 
the child, first, in a trade or vocation; second, in the language and 
literature of this country; third, in civics and history. These 
schools would improve the worker physically, mentally, morally 
and financially; would better the conditions of labor in the work- 
room, in the home and in civic life; and would raise the character 
of the industries. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSION. 105 

The present school buildings can readily be utilized for this 
purpose, and the increased expense would be very little compared 
with the results achieved. This subject is one which in the opinion 
of the Commission merits most careful consideration and 
investigation. 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

For children between 14 and 16 years of age employed in fac- 
tories and manufacturing establishments the State has a model law. 
Section 77, subdivision 1 of the Labor Law provides as follows: 

No child under the age of 16 years shall be employed or 
permitted to work in or in connection with any factory in 
this State before 8 o'clock in the morning, or after 5 o'clock 
in the evening of any day, or for more than 8 hours in any 
one day, or more than 6 days in any one week. 

The law is clear, definite, and what is of most importance, it is 
enforceable because of the closing hour therein prescribed. When 
we come to the law governing the employment of children over 
16 years of age, \ve are confronted by a very troublesome situation. 
The law governing their employment is set forth in Section 77, 
subdivisions 2 and 3, and Section 78, subdivision 1, of the Labor 
Law. 

These sections provide in substance that no male minor under 
18 shall be employed more than 6 days or 60 hours in any one 
week or for more than 10 hours in any one day, and that no female 
under 21 years shall be employed before 6 or after 9 o'clock in 
the evening, or more than 10 hours a day or 60 hours a week. 
But females over 16 and males between 16 and 18 may be em- 
ployed more than 10 hours a day either regularly in order to make 
a short day or holiday on one of the six working days, or irregu- 
larly not more than three days a week, as long as they do not work 
more than 12 hours a day or 60 hours a week. 

These laws are indefinite and inadequate. They are unenforce- 
able because they do not fix a definite closing time, they permit 
overtime that is destructive to health, and in the case of males 
between 16 and 18 years of age and female minors they should 
undoubtedly be changed. Just what changes in the law should 
be made can be determined only after a careful study of 
conditions. 



106 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

The decision in the case of People vs. Williams by the Court 
of Appeals to the effect that a closing time for adult women is 
unconstitutional does not, of course, apply to minors. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The Commission recommends the amendment of the Labor Law 
to provide for a thorough physical examination of the child by a 
medical officer of the Department or Board of Health before a 
certificate is issued, and for the transmission of duplicate records 
of the result of such physical examination to the Department of 
Labor. 

Sec. 71 (e) should be amended by omitting at the end thereof 
the following: 

In doubtful cases such physical fitness shall be determined 
by a medical officer of the Board or Department of Health. 
Every such employment certificate shall be signed in the 
presence of the officer issuing the same by the child in whose 
name it is issued. 

In place thereof, the following provision should be substituted: 

" In every case, before an employment certificate is issued, 
such physical fitness shall be determined by a medical officer 
of the Board or Department of Health who shall make a 
thorough physical examination of the child, and record the 
result of such examination on a blank furnished for that 
purpose by the State Department of Labor, and shall set 
forth thereon such facts concerning the physical condition 
and history of the child as the Commissioner of Labor may 
require." 

Section 75 of the Labor Law should be amended to read as 
follows: 

" The Board or Department of Health or Health Commis- 
sioner of a city, village or town, shall transmit between the 
first and tenth day of each month, to the office of the Com- 
missioner of Labor, a list of the names of the children to 
whom certificates have been issued together with a duplicate 
of the record of the physical examination of all such children 
made as hereinbefore provided" 



KEPOBT OF COMMISSION. 107 

FOUNDRIES 

GENEBAL CONDITIONS. 

The sanitary conditions in the brass, iron and steel foundries 
of the State were found to be very poor. The occupation is an 
arduous one, and the workers during the day are exposed to marked 
changes in temperature. The washing facilities are bad. The 
system of ventilation in many of the foundries is entirely inade- 
quate. The result is shown by the number of moulders suffering 
from rheumatism, pulmonary diseases and kidney trouble. In 
many of the foundries there is no system of forced ventilatiofn to 
remove the core gas. These fumes and the heavy dust from cast- 
ings cleaned in the workrooms are inhaled by the workers, and 
render them more or less susceptible to all forms of respiratory 
diseases. 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN FOUNDRIES. 

Women were found employed in foundries in Syracuse and 
Buffalo. They work under exactly the same condition and with 
the same surroundings as the men. They are subjected to the 
fumes of gas and to the smoke. This work means severe manual 
labor, and altogether the occupation seems to be a most danger- 
ous one for a woman in so far as her health is concerned. 

A majority of these women seem to be of foreign birth, although 
there are some who are natives of this country. The wages 
received by them are small, between $4 and $8 a week, while men 
doing similar work receive about $3 a day. 

The Commission is of the opinion that the employment of 
women in work of this kind in foundries in the State should be 
prohibited. Their employment in that industry is not only a great 
injury to themselves, but it is a menace to posterity, and should not. 
be tolerated by any civilized community. 

The Commission, however, at this time is not prepared to 
recommend any legislation upon this subject because, in the short 
time at its disposal, it has not had sufficient opportunity to gather 
all the necessary facts in connection with such employment. 



108 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

ACCIDENTS IN FOUNDRIES. 

Accidents in foundries are numerous. They are caused 
mainly by two conditions: 

1. By the narrow and often obstructed passageways or gang- 
ways which, during casting time, are an especial element of 
danger. 

2. By defective ladles, tongs, chains and other lifting devices. 

There is room for material improvement in the conditions in 
foundries from the point of view of both sanitation and safety. 
That many of the insanitary conditions in the foundries to-day 
are due to the unenforcement of the existing law, is clearly shown 
by a letter addressed to the Commission by a local secretary of 
the Moulders' Union, after a public hearing held by the Com- 
mission. In that letter the secretary of the Union says: 

" The factory inspector for this district has given the 
foundries thirty days' notice to clean up and put them in 
sanitary condition. This is being complied with by the foun- 
dries. The walls and ceilings are being whitewashed, new 
closets are being installed, glass is being put in the windows, 
and a general cleaning-up is going on. One foundry cleaned 
its roof beams of seventeen years' accumulation of dust. The 
brass foundries are placing hoods over the furnaces carrying 
off a large part of the fumes of coppers, etc. The local health 
authorities are also co-operating with us to a large extent 
in the general house cleaning." 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

It is quite clear, however, that the existing laws upon this 
subject are inadequate. An amendment to the Labor Law has 
been proposed by the Moulders' Union of the State of New York 
which seeks to remedy some of these evils. 

The Commission has carefully considered the provisions of 
this bill, and believes that its passage would be of great benefit 
to those employed in foundries. 

This bill requires the addition of a new section to the Labor 
Law, section 97, and provides that all entrances to foundries 



REPORT OF COMMISSION. 109 

shall be constructed so as to minimize drafts; windows shall be 
kept in repair, passageways in foundries shall be of such width 
as to make them reasonably safe, and shall not be obstructed 
during casting time. Smoke, steam and gases shall be removed, 
exhaust fans being supplied where necessary for this purpose. 

The cleaning of castings is not to be done in rooms where 
other work is going on. Foundries shall be properly and 
thoroughly lighted, and in cold weather sufficiently heated. All 
foundries employing more than five moulders shall provide suit- 
able washrooms and washing facilities and lockers for clothes. 
All apparatus for transporting molten metal, and all machines 
shall be maintained in proper condition and repair, and a suffi- 
cient supply of lime water, olive oil, vaseline, etc., shall be kept 
on hand in the event of accidents. 

The Commission recommends the passage of this amendment 
to the Labor Law. Its enactment would do much to improve the 
conditions and prevent accidents in the foundries of the State, 
and also will tend to lessen the diseases with which many of those 
working in foundries now suffer. 

The Commission recommends, therefore, the addition of a new 
section to the Labor Law, to be known as section 97, as follows : 

Sec. 97. Brass, Iron and Steel Foundries. - 1. All en- 
trances to foundries shall be so constructed and maintained 
as to minimize drafts, and all windows therein shall be main- 
tained in proper condition and repair. 

2. All passageways in foundries shall be constructed and 
maintained of sufficient width to make the use thereof by 
employees reasonably safe; during the progress of casting 
such passageways shall not be obstructed in any manner. 

3. Smoke, steam and gases generated in foundries shall be 
promptly and effectively removed therefrom, and whenever 
it is necessary, exhaust fans of sufficient capacity and power, 
properly equipped with piping and hoods, shall be provided 
and operated to remove such smoke, steam and gases. The 
milling and cleaning of castings shall be done in rooms not 
otherwise used during the progress of such milling or clean- 
ing, and provision shall be made for confining and collecting 
the dust arising during the process. 



110 REPORT OF COMMISSION. 

4. All foundries shall be properly and thoroughly lighted 
during working hours, and in cold weather proper and suffi- 
cient heat shall be provided and maintained therein. (The 
use of heaters discharging smoke or gas into workrooms is 
prohibited.) In every foundry employing five or more mould- 
ers there shall be provided and maintained for the use of 
employees therein, suitable and convenient washrooms ade- 
quately equipped with proper hot and cold water service ; 
such washrooms shall be kept clean and sanitary and shall be 
properly heated during cold weather. Lockers shall be pro- 
vided for the safe-keeping of employees' clothing, and proper 
facilities shall be provided for drying the working clothes 
of employees. Water-closets used by foundry employees shall 
be so arranged or located that such employees in passing 
thereto or therefrom shall not be exposed to outdoor atmos- 
phere, and such water-closets shall be properly heated during 
cold weather. 

5. The flasks, moulding machines, ladles, cranes and ap- 
paratus for transporting molten metal in foundries, shall be 
maintained in proper condition and repair, and any such 
tools or implements that are defective shall not be used until 
properly repaired. There shall be in every foundry, available 
for immediate use, an ample supply of lime-water, olive oil, 
vaseline, bandages and absorbent cotton, to meet the needs 
of workmen in case of burns or other accidents; any other 
equally efficacious remedy for burns may be substituted for 
those herein prescribed. 

CONCLUSION. 

Within the few months at the Commission's disposal, it has done 
as much as has been possible. Much longer time and greater re- 
sources are needed to do justice to the subjects under investigation. 

A comprehensive system of legislation should be devised, as has 
been indicated, and this will require not only careful thought and 
study, but the examination of existing systems in this and other 
countries. That there should be more adequate protection and 
supervision of the workingman and tbe conditions under which 
manufacturing is carried on is amply demonstrated. 

While the present laws should be enforced, and meajns should 
be provided for their proper enforcement, yet it is felt that many 



REPORT or COMMISSION. Ill 

of them are inadequate and should be carefully revised, to the 
end that life may be preserved and lengthened, that social con- 
ditions may be bettered, and that the State and the Nation may 
gain in economic wealth and industrial prosperity. 

Under the provision requiring the Commission to recommend 
legislation which will promote the best interests of the community, 
the Commission has bee/n urged by the Fifth Avenue Association, 
the League of American Architects and other associations and in- 
dividuals, to recommend legislation which will tend to beautify 
Fifth Avenue and the streets adjacent thereto, and to remedy 
conditions resulting from the large number of manufacturing 
establishments now being located in that vicinity. At this time the 
Commission is unable to make such recommendations. 

This report is respectfully submitted. 

ROBERT F. WAGNER, Chairman, 
ALFRED E. SMITH, 
SIMON BRENTANO, 
SAMUEL GOMPERS, 
CHARLES M. HAMILTON, 
EDWARD H. JACKSON, 
ROBERT E. DOWLING, 
MARY E. DREIER, 
CYRUS W. PHILLIPS, 

Commission. 

ABRAM I. ELKUS, 

BEENARD L. SHIENTAG, 

Counsel. 



APPENDIX I 



PRELIMINARY GENERAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION 



NEW YORK, Jan. 27th, 1912. 

Hex. ROBERT F. WAGNEB, Chairman 

New York State Factory Investigating Commission, 

New Yorlc City. 
DEAK Sifi: 

I herewith beg to submit the reports of the sanitary investiga- 
tion of " existing conditions under which manufacture is carried 
on in the cities of the first and second class in the State, as to 
matters affecting the health and safety of operatives." 

The investigations have been made under my direction, pur- 
suant to a resolution adopted by your Commission, September 
llth, 1911. 

The reports submitted herewith, are as follows: 

(1) A Preliminary General Report of the Investigation. 

(2) A Special Report on the Inspection of Five Hundred 

Bakeries and the Physical Examination of Eight Hun- 
dred Bakers in New York City. 

(3) Notes on Several Trades Employing a Large Proportion of 

Women. 

(4) A Preliminary Report on One Hundred Cases of Lead 

Poisoning in New York City, with an Appendix on 
Arsenical Poisoning. 

(5) Notes of an Industrial Survey of a Selected Area in New 

York City, with respect to Sanitary Conditions in the 
Factories. 

(6) A Memorandum on the Extent of Child and Home Labor. 

Several additional reports on the Chemical Trades, Printing 
Industry, Tobacco Trades, and several other trades, will be sub- 
mitted later. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. M. PRICE, M. D., 

Director of Investigation. 



REPORT OP DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 117 



PRELIMINARY GENERAL REPORT OF THE 
DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION 



THE SCOPE, ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF THE 
INVESTIGATION. 

1. THE FIRST OF ITS KIND IN THIS COUNTRY: 

The investigation into the " existing conditions under which 
manufacture is carried on as to matters affecting the health and 
safety of operatives, to the end that such remedial legislation be 
enacted as will eliminate existing peril to the life and health 
of operatives," is the first general investigation that has been 
made by any legislature in this country. There have been 
several legislative investigations of special industrial conditions, 
such as the Illinois investigation into " Occupational Diseases," the 
Massachusetts Commission on " Factory Inspection," the Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut investigations into " Minimum Wage," 
and a number of investigations of " Industrial Accidents and Com- 
pensation Insurance Laws." 

It is appropriate that the Empire State, with its forty-five 
thousand industrial establishments, and over one million em- 
ployees, containing nearly 20 per cent of all the industrial estab- 
lishments, and one-sixth of the industrial population in the United 
States, should be the pioneer in the great movement of industrial 
investigation and betterment. 

2. SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION: 

The scope of an investigation into " matters affecting the health 
and safety of operatives " is necessarily a very broad one, em- 
bracing, as it does, the whole range of the various factors and 
conditions affecting the health, life and welfare of the working 



118 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

people. Of these various factors of industrial life we need men- 
tion but the following: 

1. Age, Sex, Personal Habits, Education, etc., of the workers. 

2. The Work-place and Working Conditions, such as: Fire 
Protection, Light, Illumination, Ventilation, Temperature, 
Humidity, Sanitary Care, Comforts, Cleanliness, Hours of 
Labor, Wages, etc. 

3. Working Materials and Processes, such as: Dusts, Poison, 
Gases, Fumes, Machinery, Infective Material and other danger- 
ous elements. 

3. THE EXTENT OF THE FIELD OF INVESTIGATION: 

The extent of the field of industrial investigation in the State 
is as follows : 

There are two cities outside of Greater New York in the first 
class, and six cities in the second class. The number of separate 
industries tabulated in the United States Census is 168, with 80 
supplementary industries, which are embraced under the common 
heading " all other industries," a total of 248 separate industries. 
The total number of separate industrial establishments in this 
State is 44,935, with a total number of wage workers of 
1,003,981. 

In Greater New York alone there are 31,156 establishments, 
with a total of 677,885 workers. 

The number of separate workshops does not correspond with 
the number of establishments, for the reason that many estab- 
lishments have two to ten separate workshops. The number of 
separate workshops therefore in this State is probably over 
150,000. 

4. LIMITATION OF THE INVESTIGATION: 

The scope of the investigation being so broad and the extent 
of the field so vast, it is self-evident that there was no possibility 
of making either an extensive investigation of all the factors 
affecting industrial conditions, or of all the industries or industrial 
establishments in the State, or of making a very intensive inves- 
tigation into one or more of the conditions of industrial life. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 119 

5. RESOURCES AND DURATION OF INVESTIGATION : 

The budget allowed for the whole investigation was $5,500.00, 
including the salaries of the Director of the Investigation and of 
the Fire Expert, and of the expenses of the fire protection inves- 
tigation; leaving the sum of about $2,600.00 for the work of sani- 
tary investigation. 

The work of inspection was organized October 1st, 1911 ; the 
actual field work was begun October 9th, and stopped December 
1, 1911. Greater attention was paid to New York City, where 
the investigation was conducted from October 9th to November 
15th. The last two weeks in November were devoted to a brief 
investigation of a very limited number of establishments in the 
six remaining cities. 

6. WORK ACCOMPLISHED: 

The inquiry was divided into two main divisions: (1) a 
general sanitary investigation of various industries and industrial 
establishments, and (2) a special investigation of physical con- 
ditions of workers, child labor, lead poisoning, etc. 

I. GENERAL SANITARY INVESTIGATION: 

The general sanitary investigation was limited to the industries 
and establishments, as indicated in Table II, 20* industries, 1,836 
industrial establishments, and 3,001 individual shops having 
been inspected during the five weeks of work by a staff of eight 
to ten inspectors. 

The industries included in this general sanitary investigation, 
were as follows : 

1. The " Chemical Trades ": 

Ninety-three establishments have been inspected by Inspector 
Stuart Owens, a graduate chemist, and by Mr. John Vogt, a 
competent chemist, who was transferred to us by the courtesy of 
Commissioner John Williams. The branches of the chemical 



*This does not include industries inspected by the Bureau of Social 
Research. 



120 



KEPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



TABLE 

MANUFACTURES IN 
CITIES OF THE FIRST 





Greater 
New York 


Buffalo 


Rochester 


Syracuse 


No. of establishments 
Capital 


25,938 
$1,364,353,000 


1,752 
$192,871,000 


1,203 
$95,708 000 


739 
$51,744,000 


Cost of materials used . . . 
Salaries and wages 


1,092,155,000 
445,772,000 


136,120,000 
38,052,000 


50,674,000 
29,252 000 


21,781,000 
13,737,000 


Miscellaneous expenses 


266,034,000 


20,402 000 


14,432 000 


5,794 000 


Value of products 


2,029,693,000 


218,283,000 


112 676 000 


49,444,000 


Value added by manu- 
facture 


937,538,000 


82,163,000 


62,002,000 


27,663,000 


Employees: 
No. salaried officials and 
clerks 


97,453 


8,339 


6 467 


12,907 


Average no. of wage 
earners 


554,002 


51 ,393 


39,108 


18,151 













REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



121 



No. 1. 

NEW YORK STATE. 

AND SECOND CLASS. 



Utica 


Schenectady 


Troy 


Albany 


Yonkers 


Total 1st and 
2nd class cities 
in N. Y. state 


317 

$27.796,000 
16,646,000 
7,513,000 
3,173,000 
31,199,000 


134 

$51,816,000 
21,952,000 
13,088,000 
2,362,000 
38,165,000 


363 
$39,309,000 
15,626,000 
11,602,000 
4,861,000 
.37,980,000 


395 
$26,276,000 
10,521,000 
6,815,000 
3,332,000 
22,826,000 


158 
$58,769,000 
43,202,000 
8,024,000 
3,265,000 
59,334,000 


30,999 
$1, 912, 632, 000 
1,408,677,000 
837,123,000 
323,655,000 
2,599,600,000 


14,553,000 


16,213,000 


22,354,000 


12,325,000 


16,132,000 


190,943,000 


1,205 


2,677 


1,777 


1,336 


885 


123,046 


13,153 


14,931 


20,020 


9,681 


12,711 


733,150 



122 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

trades inspected, varied from the manufacture of commercial 
acids to the manufacture of drugs, poisons and paints. A special 
report of this investigation will be presented to the Commission 
later. 

2. Manufacture of Food-Stuffs: 

Six hundred and twenty-six establishments manufacturing 
various food-stuffs: bread, meat, pickles, ice-cream, sugar, etc., 
were investigated. A special report on the 'bakeries is herewith 
presented. 

3. Women's Trades: 

An investigation was made of the following industries, where 
a large percentage of the employees are women: Artificial 
flowers and feathers, Laundries, Paper-box Trade, Clothing 
(women's waists) and Textiles. 

A special report on this investigation is herewith presented. 

4. The Printing Trades: 

Our inspectors investigated three branches of the printing trades, 
viz. : Typesetting, Photo Engraving and Lithograph-work. Two 
hundred and ninety-three establishments, and four hundred and 
twenty-six separate shops have been inspected. A special report 
on The Printing Trades will be presented later. 

5. Tobacco Trades: 

One hundred and fifty-one inspections of cigar, cigarette and 
snuff tobacco factories were made, and a special report on this 
trade will be forthcoming. 

In addition to the above, the following miscellaneous industries 
have been inspected: Corks, Rag-sorting, Human-hair, Dyeing 
and Cleaning, etc. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



123 



TABLE No. 2. 
WORKERS IN SHOPS A.ND ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED. 



INDUSTRY 


NEW YORK 


OTHER CITIES 


No. 
Inspected 


No. 

Estab- 
lishments 
inspected 


No. 
Workers 


No. 
Inspected 


No. 

Estab- 
lishments 
inspected 


No. 
Workers 


Printing 


410 
157 
217 

497 
142 
5 
27 
35 
3 
63 
6 

120 
155 
104 
104 

22 
34 
1 
131 
69 
400 


285 
100 
93 

416 
50 
5 
6 
8 
3 
51 
4 

94 
90 
44 
70 

19 
9 
1 
67 
19 
200 


6,474 
2,677 
1,739 

3,002 
2 771 
50 
470 
341 
3,400 
443 
87 

1,891 
3,084 
2,142 
5,351 

611 

304 
23 
547 
929 
4,626 


16 


8 


175 


Tobacco 


Chemicals 








Food Stuffs. 
Bread 


2 
15 


1 
4 


19 
140 


Candy 




Pickles 


































8 


1 


900 


Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers 




48 
30 
95 


26 
9 
30 


2,873 
1,349 
3.000 




Clothing 


Miscellaneous. 
Corks . . 


Raga 


4 
21 


1 
7 


27 
640 


Textiles 




Cleaning and dyeing 
Other trades 








51 


22 


5,444 


Total 


3,001 


1,636 


41,891 


290 


109 


12.977 





II. SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS: 

1. Physical Examinations: A special feature of the investiga- 
tion was made in the physical examination by our medical staff 
of 800 bakers in their workshops and during their work. This 
investigation was accomplished within two weeks by a staff of 
physicians and with the assistance of the officials of the Baker's 
Union. This medical examination was made simultaneously with 
an inspection of the sanitary conditions of 500 bakeries. 

At the request of the Furrier's Union, a physical examination 
has been made of 85 furriers. A detailed account of the results 
of these examinations is made in a special report. 

2. The great interest that was created by the report of the 
Illinois Occupational Diseases Commission, and by the later 
federal reports on this subject, has induced us to begin a study 



124 KEPOET OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

of lead poison in New York State. The preliminary inquiry 
was conducted under the direction of the Commission by Dr. E. 
E. Pratt, Assistant Professor of Economics and Statistics in the 
New York School of Philanthropy. With the aid of a staff of 
students he has inspected over fifty establishments, and inves- 
tigated over 100 cases of lead poisoning, in addition to making a 
preliminary investigation of arsenical poisoning. Dr. Pratt's 
report is herewith presented to the Commission. 

3. The difficulty of regulating the conditions surrounding the 
employment of little children and all the members of the family 
in " home work " in the tenements ha led the National Child. 
Labor Committee to urge the Legislature during the last session 
to create a Special Commission to study this most important 
subject. 

In view of the fact that this matter legitimately enters into 
the scope of the work of this Commission, and in view of the 
earnestness which the Commission has shown in the pursuit of 
its investigation, the National Child Labor Committee has (in 
the person of its general secretary, Mr. Owen R. Lovejoy) , volun- 
teered to start under the auspices of this Commission a pre- 
liminary inquiry into the extent of home and child labor in this 
city. The memorandum is herewith presented. 

4. Industrial Survey of a District: A special industrial sur- 
vey of a district in New York City embracing the section 
between 34t'h and 53rd streets, West of Eighth avenue, in all 
containing 76 blocks, was made under the auspices of the Com- 
mission by a staff of inspectors under Miss Pauline Goldmark, 
in charge of the Bureau of Social Research of the New York 
School of Philanthropy. A special report by Miss Goldmark is 
presented to the Commission. 

5. Voluntary assistance in several investigations has also been 
rendered by several members of the Women's Welfare Depart- 
ment of the National Civic Federation, who investigated a tene- 
ment house block for the Commission, and by Mr. Stern of the 
East Side Neighborhood House. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



125 



TABLE No. 3. 

NUMBER OF MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS INSPECTED COMPARED WITH 

ACTUAL NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IN STATE (U. S. CENSUS, 

1910, PRELIMINARY REPORT.) 





No. INVESTIGATED 


No. IN STATE 


% Estab- 
lishments 
inspected 


% Work 
inspected 


Estab- 
lishments 


Workers 


Estab- 
lishments 


Workers 


Printing 


293 
100 
93 

417 
54 
5 

6 
8 
3 
51 
5 

94 

110 
55 
200 

19 
10 
7 
67 
19 
222 


6,659 
2,677 
1.739 

3,021 
1.810 
50 

470 
341 
3.400 
443 
987 

1,891 
7,082 
2,595 
11,582 

611 

331 
1,513 
547 
929 
14,696 


4,426 
3.371 
*293 

3,976 
**249 


94,893 
36,197 
*14,267 

29,059 
**10,116 


6 
3 
32 

11 

} 

9 
60 
21 
2 

30 
7 
17 
6 

59 


6 
7 
12 

9 

18 

5 
14 


Tobacco ... 


Chemicals 


Foodstuffs. 
Bread 


Candv . 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


790 
***86 
5 
x241 
238 

319 
x* 1.529 
315 
3,038 

32 

** 

64 
132 
81 
25,750 


8,818 
***2,504 


Spices and drugs 






xl,377 
7,583 

9,813 
X16.631 
12,702 
114,925 

928 
** 

9,907 
2,733 
5,782 
625,656 


30 
13 

19 
43 
20 
10 

66 




Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers and 






Clothing (waists) .... 


Miscellaneous. 




Textiles .... 


11 
51 
23 
1 


15 

20 
16 
2 




Dyeing and cleaning 


Total 


1,838 


63,374 


44,935 


1,003,891 


4 


6 





* Figures taken from report State Dept. Labor, 1910. 
x* Includes ice cream factories. 
"* Figures not given in census report. 
*** Includes coffee grinding establishments. 

PERSONNEL: 

The Commission was fortunate in having been able to secure 
the services of a very competent staff of inspectors, notwithstand- 
ing the temporary character of the work and the comparatively 
meager compensation. The following is a list of the names and 
qualifications of the inspectors : 

Violet Leonard Pike, A. B., Vassar College, 1907, Secretary 
and Special Investigator. 

Louise Carey, Bryn Mawr College. 

Archibald Oliver Wood, M. D., Long Island College Hospital, 
Kingston Avenue Hospital. 



126 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



Herbert S. Warren, B. S., Graduate College of the City of New 
York, practical printer. 

Harvey B. Matthews, M. I)., Columbia University. 

R. Stuart Owens, A. B., Cornell University. 

D. E. Roelkey, Graduate Fordham College. 

D. Cummings. 

Elizabeth Wettingfeld, Ph. B., Syracuse University. 

Marie Kasten. 

Joseph Ball, machinist. 

Ida Rovinsky, M. D. 

Clara Lemlich. 

Max Halpern, Ph.D., Columbia College. 



TABLE No. 4. 

NEW YORK STATE FACTORY COMMISSION INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE. 
SALARY Accoujrr, SEPTEMBER 25TH, 1911, THROUGH FEBRUARY 1, 1912. 



NAMB Position 

i 


Service 
begun 


Service 
ended 


Time served 


Total 
salary 


Dr. George M. Price 
H F J Porter . 


Director 






3 months 
2 months 
2 months 
51 days . . 
51} days . . 
1 month . 
1 month . 
1 month . 
1 month . 
6 weeks. 
1 month . 
1 month . 
1 month . 
2 weeks . 
11 days.. 
6 weeks . 
2 weeks. 
2 weeks. 
1 week. . 
13 days . . 
11} days.. 
9 days . . 
5 days . . 
9 weeks. 
17 weeks. 
12 weeks . 
3 weeks. 
3 weeks. 
2 days . . 
5 days . . 
i day . . . 
2 days . . 
1 day... 
2 days . . 


$1.600.00 
500.00 
200.00 
192.48 
194.24 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
160.00 
100.00 
102.00 
100.00 
36.00 
33.00 
145.00 
36.00 
55.00 
22.00 
52.00 
46.00 
36.00 
20.00 
135.00 
3S1.66 
136.00 
32.00 
21.00 
3.00 
20.00 
1.00 
4.00 
2.00 
10.00 


Fire Expert. . . . 






A. L. A. Himmelwright. . . 
David S. Ludens 


Fire Expert. . . . 






Inspector 
Insoector. . . 


Sept. 27th. Nov. 18th. 
Sept. 27th. Nov. 18th. 
Oct. 9th.;Nov. llth. 
Oct. 9th. Nov. llth. 
Oct. 9th. Nov. llth. 
Oct. 9th. i Nov. llth. 
Oct. 9th. Dec. 1st 
Oct. 17th.! Nov. 18th. 
Oct. 16th. Nov. 18th. 
Oct. 9th.lNov. llth. 
Dec. 4th. Dec. 16th. 
Dec. 5th. Dec. 16th. 
Oct. 23rd. Dec. 2nd. 
Oct. 30th. Nov. llth. 
Nov. 20th. ; Dec. 2nd. 


E B Gowin . . . 


R. Stuart Owens.. . . 'Inauector 


Archibald O. Wood 
Herbert S. Warren 


Inspector 
Inspect >r 
Inspector 
Inspector 
Inspector. 
Inspector. . . . 
Inspector 
Inspector 
Inspector 
Inspector 


Harvey B. Matthews 
Elisabeth Wettingfeld. . . . 
David Cummings 


D. E. Roelkey 
Max Halpern 


Dr. I. Rovinsky 
Clara Lemlich 




Marie Kasten 


Inspector 
Inspector 
Inspector 


.1. Ball 


J Davis .... 


Dr. Michael Barsky 
Dr. A. Riezer 
Dr. I. Workman 
Dr. H. Langworthy 
Clara Salem 


Physician 
Physician 
Physician 
Physician 
Stenographer. . . 
Secretary 
Asst. Sec'y 
Typist 


Oct. 30th. 
Oct. 30th. 
Oct. 30th. 
Oct. 30th. 
Sept. 25th. 
Sept. 26th. 
Oct. 30th. 
Jan. 16th. 
Jan. 15th. 
Jan. 5th. 
Oct. 31st. 
Nov. 1st. 
Nov. 1st. 
Nov. 1st. 
Nov. 8th. 


Nov. 25th. 
Jan. 20th. 
Jan. 20th. 
Jan. 27th. 
Jan. 27th. 
Jan. 6tb. 


Violet Pike 


Estelle Barsky 
Beatrice Rose 


Rebecca Kasovitch . 


Clerical Asst . . . 
Clerical Asst . . . 
Interpreter .... 
Interpreter .... 
Interpreter .... 
Interpreter .... 
Physician 


Mary Carnela . . . 


Arthui Caroti 


S Levin 


J . Rosenbach . . . 




Anton Luts. . . 




Dr. J. Radda 


Total salaries 










$4.675,38 













KEPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



127 



TABLE No. 5. 

NEW YORK STATE FACTORY COMMISSION. 
FINANCIAL REPORT JANUARY 27, 1912 



APPROPRIATION .... . . . 






$5,500 00 


DISBURSEMENTS 
Salaries: (For detailed statement see Table 4). . . 




$4,675 38 




Expenses of inspectors: 
Traveling expenses of Director and Mr. Porter 


$149 22 






Expenses of four inspectors up State 


160.55 






Expenses of fourteen inspectors in N. Y. City 


130.41 






Total expenses of inspectors 




440.18 




Equipment: 
Badges 


44.00 






Thermometers 


27.25 






Photographs 


55.75 






Rulers, Portfolio, lamps, book 


16.24 






Rent typewriter 


2.50 














Total expenses equipment 




145.74 




Office expenses: 


43 27 






Stamps 


10.79 






Express charges 


5.00 






Notary's fees 


2.36 






Extra typewriting 


35.21 














Total office expenses 




96.63 




Printing 




142.07 












Total disbursements 




$5,500 00 













128 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

RESULTS OF THE DATA OBTAINED BY THE 
INVESTIGATION 

1. NEGLECT OF THE HUMAN FACTOR. 

Brief as was the period devoted to the investigation, limited 
as was the number of industries and establishments inspected, and 
incomplete as was necessarily all our data, the conclusion that for- 
cibly impressed itself, after the completion of the preliminary 
investigation, was that the human factor is practically neglected in 
our industrial system. 

Many of our industries were found housed in palatial loft 
buildings, and employing the most improved machinery and 
mechanical processes, but at the same time greatly neglecting the 
care, health and safety of their employees. Our system of indus- 
trial production has taken gigantic strides in the progressive 
utilization of natural resources and the exploitation of the inven- 
tive genius of the human mind, but has at the same time shown 
terrible waste of human resources, of human health and life. 

It is because of this neglect of the human factor that we have 
found so many preventable defects in industrial establishments; 
such a large number of workshops with inadequate light and 
illumination, with no provision for ventilation, without proper 
care for cleanliness, and without ordinary indispensable comforts, 
such as washing facilities, water supply, toilet accommodations, 
dressing-rooms, etc. It is because of utter neglect on the part 
of many employers that so many dangerous elements are found 
in certain trades. These elements are not always necessary for 
the successful pursuit of the trade, and their elimination would 
mean a great improvement in the health of the workers, and 
would stop much of the misery caused by the occupational diseases 
incident to certain industries. 

It is true that many enlightened employers, especially those 
who control large establishments, show a commendable zeal for 
the health of their operatives, but such care not being supervised 
or organized under scientific direction, leaves much to be desired. 

In the matter of industrial production, we are still under the 
sway of the old " laissez faire " policy, and there is still very 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 129 

inadequate supervision of industries with a view to lessening 
dangers to the health and life of the working class. 

There is still no regulation whatever of factory construction, 
outside of the rules adopted by municipal building codes which 
regulate only the width of walls, the strength of foundations, etc. 
All matters of sanitation are without control during the times 
when such control could best serve the purpose of the buildings 
and the interests of those destined to inhabit them. 

The construction of tenement houses in New York City is 
under the strict supervision of the Tenement House Department. 
There is no reason why the interests of the greater number of per- 
sons inhabiting factory buildings should not 'be conserved as much 
as the interests of the tenement house dwellers. 

2. IGNORANCE OF THE NUMBER AND OF THE LOCATION OF 
INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. 

In the course of the investigation, much difficulty was found 
in locating all the establishments in an industry or a district. At 
present there is no method by which every manufacturing estab- 
lishment may be located, and its existence brought to the atten- 
tion of the authorities. At present, any person who has the neces- 
sary capital or credit may build, lease, or hire any ramshackle 
building, engage as many workers as he can crowd into his prem- 
ises, and work them under any conditions. The very existence of 
this establishment may not be known to the Labor Department, 
until it is discovered by accident. 

In the investigation of the Cloak and Suit Industry, made dur- 
ing the last year, by the Joint Board of Sanitary Control, about 
30 per cent of the shops were found unrecorded, and in our own 
investigation, our inspectors found the utmost difficulty in tracing 
many establishments which were never recorded by the Labor 
Department in the list sent by them to us. 



5 



130 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



TABLE No. 6 

TABLE SHOWING TTPES OF BUILDINGS OCCUPIED BY ESTABLISHMENTS INVESTIGATED. CLASS- 
IFIED ACCORDING TO INDUSTRIES. 

NOTE In this table the unit is the establishment, in other tables the floor or shop. 





TOTAL 
ESTAB- 
LISH- 
MENTS 


SPECIAL 
FACTORY 


LOFT 


TENE- 
MENT 


CON- 
VERTED 
TENE- 
MENT 


DWELL- 
ING 


MISCEL- 
LANEOUS 


1 


42 

1 


d 

fc 


1 



2 


* 


-w 

1 


1 


4> 

a 
S 

2 


6 
fc 


a 
S 

1 





t 


Printing 


293 
100 
93 


18 

8 

78 


6 
8 
84 


181 
61 
11 


62 
61 
12 


19 
20 



6 

20 



34 
1 



12 

1 



41 
10 
4 


14 

10 
4 












Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodttuflt. 


131 


41 


31 


23 


18 


39 


30 


9 


7 


18 


13 


1 


1 


Candy 


54 

6 

8 
51 

7 


26 
3 
6 
5 
1 


48 
50 
75 
10 
14 


11 
3 
2 
3 
2 


20 
50 
25 
6 

29 


3 


36 



6 


71 


9 


9 






16 






4 



7 

4 


8 


13 
57 


1 







2 





2 


8 




pickles 


Spices and drugs 


Meat packing 


Women's Trade* 
Artificial flowers and 
feathers 


457 


46 


10 


306 


67 


40 

11 
26 

3 


18 

2 

1 
15 


4 


38 


8 


9 


94 
110 
200 
53 


3 
34 
9 



3 
31 
17 



49 
34 
41 
182 


52 
31 
77 
91 


12 
24 

1 


2 

2 
8 


29 
7 
2 



31 
6 

4 




9 




Laundries 




Clothing (waists) 


131 


41 


31 


32 


24 


6 


5 


44 


34 


7 


5 


1 


1 


Corks 


14 

24 
7 
67 
19 


8 
14 
6 

13 


60 
58 
87 

69 


4 
6 
1 
20 
1 


30 
25 
13 
30 
5 





1 
5 





1 
26 


2 


42 



10 


63 




3 

4 




13 

6 




1 







4 







Textiles 




Dyeing and cleaning. . 
Total 


1,205 


232 


19 


614 


51 


124 


10 


106 


9 


118 


10 


11 


1 





495 bake shops are not included in this table. The miscellaneous trades inspected by the 
Bureau of Social Research are also not included. 

3. LACK OF STANDARDS : 

The worker spends the greater part of his waking hours in 
the workshop and factory. The proper sanitation of the work- 
place is therefore of paramount importance to the worker, both to 
his health and to the security of his life. 

It is only lately that intelligent employers have awakened to 
the fact that factory sanitation is very closely related to indus- 
trial efficiency, and that neglect of this subject by factory owners 
is detrimental to their own interests as well as extremely injuri- 
ous to their workers. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 131 

It is also but lately that the workers themselves have realized 
the value of proper sanitation of factories, and have added this to 
the economic demands of their labor organizations. 

Unfortunately, there is hardly a field of science where there 
is such a complete lack of standards as in industrial hygiene. 

It is on account of this deplorable lack of standardization that 
many provisions of the labor laws are so vague and indefinite, 
and that large employers, willing to introduce modern safety 
devices and sanitary conveniences in their factories, are unable to 
do so with complete success. It is also this lack of standards that 
makes the enforcement of the sanitary clauses of the labor laws so 
unsatisfactory, for it is a most difficult matter for the inspector to 
exactly determine what is meant by " sufficient " fire protection, 
" proper " light, " adequate " ventilation, " fit " toilet accommo- 
dations, etc. 

The standardization of factory sanitation is one of the most 
important matters which the Commission has considered during 
its brief preliminary investigation, and we intend to devote much 
attention to it if our activities are continued. 

4. LIGHT AND ILLUMINATION : 

The lack of standards is nowhere more acutely felt than in the 
lighting and illumination of workshops. 

According to the unanimous testimony of experts, defective 
light and illumination are most injurious to the eyes of the 
workers. Insufficient light causes eye-strain and the chain of- 
symptoms following it, and thus gradually undermines the health. 
Much of the work in factories needs close application ; the colors 
necessitating abundant light, and the work so minute that great 
strain is placed upon the eyes. Therefore abundant light is the 
first necessity in a factory. 

The investigation has shown that a large number of factories 
inspected are defective in light; that fifty-two per cent use arti- 
ficial light during the day time; that the light, even where suffi- 
cient, is not properly placed with relation to the operatives; that 
very often the illuminants are too near the workers ; that no pro- 
tection whatever from glare of artificial illuminants is given in a 
large proportion of the shops. 



132 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



The installation of artificial illumination is usually made with- 
out due regard to the location of the workroom, its size, the 
distance from the workers, the color of the materials, and the 
care of the eyes of the workers. It is, therefore, not at all 
strange that so many of the workers, especially the women, suffer 
from the effects of eye-strain and from other eye diseases due to 
defective light. 

It is not only the small shops on the East Side that suffer in 
this respect. Many of the large industrial establishments made a 
depressing effect on the writer with their sombre, semi-dark, 
prison-like aspect. 

TABLE No. 7. 
SHOPS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO LIGHT AND VENTILATION 





TOTAL 
No. 
SHOPS 


SHOPS 
USING 
ARTIFICIAL 
LIGHTS 
DURING 
DAT 


SHOPS 
HAVING 
LIGHTS 
WITHOUT 
PROTECTION 
FROM LARE 


SHOPS 
USING 
MECHANICAL 
VENTILATION 


SHOPS 
USING 

SPBCIAL 
DEVICES 


No. 


Per 

cent. 


No. 


Per 

cent. 


No. 


Per 
cent. 


No. 


Per 
cent. 


Printing 


426 
157 
217 

156 
5 
27 
34 
63 
19 

120 
244 
135 
228 

22 
38 
28 
131 
69 


244 
22 
214 

91 
4 

22 
18 
42 
15 

20 
102 
34 
141 

5 
3 
10 
25 
11 


57 
14 

98 

60 
80 
81 
53 
66 
79 

16 

42 
25 
62 

23 
8 
36 
19 
16 


234 
8 
108 

140 
5 
18 
3 
42 
16 

116 
113 
117 
132 

18 
20 
14 
119 
8 


57 
5 
50 

90 
100 
66 
9 
66 
84 

96 
46 
87 
60 

22 
53 
50 
90 
12 


26 
16 

28 

4 

5 

4 

3 

7 

109 
20 


2 


2 

13 


6 
10 
13 

3 

19 
12 

16 

6 

44 
15 


9 


7 

19 


58 
38 
71 

7 


4 

3 

4 

3 
96 
5 




7 

1 


13 

24 
32 

4 

15 

5 
21 

3 
40 

4 


.. j 



25 

2 


Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodstuffs. 
Candv . . 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


Spices and drugs 


M ineral waters 




Women's Trades. 
Artificial Sowers and 
feathers 




Paper boxes 


Clothing (waist) 


Miscellaneous. 
Corks 


Rag sorting 


Textiles 


Hurpftn hf\ir 


Dyeing and cleaning .... 
Total 


2,119 


1,023 


48 


1,231 


58 


239 


12 


297 


14 





5. AIE AND VENTILATION : 

Adequate ventilation of factories is perhaps even more import- 
ant than adequate light and illumination, but we find here the 
same lack of standards. 



REPORT or DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 133 

The removal of foul air from our houses and its replace- 
ment by fresh and pure air from the outside is most neces- 
sary to the health of the dwellers. It is of still greater 
importance in factories, where the number of persons employed is 
so large, and where many activities are commonly carried on 
causing a larger consumption of air, and where the materials aud 
processes are often such that much dust and many different 
noxious gases and fumes are constantly evolved. 

And yet only fourteen per cent of all the establishments inves- 
tigated have attempted, with more or less success, the introduction 
of proper ventilation by installing mechanical devices for the 
removal of bad air or the introduction of fresh air. The remain- 
ing eighty-six per cent rely solely upon the windows, which, being 
closed in the cold weather, fail to serve as ventilating media, 
while in summer they are practically useless, since the tempera- 
ture of the inside and outside is nearly equal and very little 
change of air takes place. 

Professor C. E. A. Winslow, an acknowledged expert on ven- 
tilation, testified that a temperature above 75 degrees Fahr. and a 
wet bulb temperature above 70 degrees Fahr. are extremely in- 
jurious to health, and yet, in our investigation, many places were 
found where this temperature was greatly exceeded, while in some, 
which were inspected by myself, a dry bulb temperature of 98 
degrees Fahr. and a wet bulb of 90 degrees were found recorded 
upon the thermometer. A superintendent of one of the sugar 
refineries testified that the temperature sometimes reached 110 
degrees Fahr. 

It has been accepted by most sanitarians that the greater 
incidence of tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases among 
workers, especially among those working in dusty trades, is due 
to the lack of ventilation, and a definite and compulsory minimum 
standard of ventilation for every establishment is most necessary 
for the proper enforcement of the labor laws. 

Closely allied to the question of ventilation is the subject of 
overcrowding in factories. 

The present law requiring 250 cu. feet air space for each oper- 
ative is very inadequate. In an ordinary loft, with a ceiling of 
the average height of ten feet, this provides a floor space for each 



134 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

worker approximately 5x5 feet. In calculating the cubic space, 
no deductions are made for bulky machinery, boxes, tables, etc. 

A cubic space of 400 feet for each adult worker, clear of all 
bulky machinery, goods, and tables, should be insisted upon in all 
factories, with the additional standard of a floor space of 40 square 
feet per person, and a passageway of three feet between working 
benches and machine-stands. 

A standard of ventilation based upon the amount of C O 2 should 
also be required. A bill creating such a standard was introduced 
in the last Legislature upon the recommendation of the New York 
Association for Labor Legislation. 

The fact that there are many industries and many industrial 
establishments where the temperatures are so high as to be dan- 
gerous to the health of the operatives, shows that there should 
also be some standard as to degree of temperature permitted in 
the workrooms. 

" The securing and maintaining of a reasonable temperature in 
workrooms " is one of the basic principles of factory sanitation, 
and power should be given to the Labor Department to make 
special rules regulating the temperatures of industries where 
extremes of temperatures are likely to occur, and also to compel 
the owner to install self-recording thermometers to be maintained 
and kept in working order. 

The subject of mechanical ventilation in the industries where 
excessive dust is produced, or where poisons, gases, and fumes 
are evolved, is covered in Section No. 86 of the Labor Law, and 
is very vague, indefinite, and unsatisfactory, as has been shown 
during the course of our investigation; only fourteen per cent, 
of the workshops kaving any ventilation plants. These plants 
were very seldom in good working order. In many industries 
where the danger of dust, poison, gases and fumes are obvious, 
there was a lamentable lack of ventilation. 

The installation of a good working ventilating plant with proper 
hoods to remove the dusts, gases and fumes from the working 
places should be insisted upon and made part of the Factory 
Law, as such plants are absolutely necessary for the prevention 
of many of the diseases to which the operatives in certain trades 
are subject. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 135 

6. SANITARY CARE AND COMFORTS: 

Nothing so well illustrates the habitual neglect of the sanitary 
care of workshop as the need of making laws to enforce ordinary 
cleanliness. Our investigations have shown that in the great 
majority of cases even these laws are disobeyed. 

It is of the utmost importance to the health of the workers to 
provide ample washing facilities in the shops, especially in estab- 
lishments where dust is evolved, or where various poisons are 
produced, and there is danger of their absorption through the 
hands and mouth. 

Our inspectors found very little attention paid to this most 
important matter. In fifty-four per cent of all establishments 
inspected, there were no, or insufficient, washing facilities. In 
some industries the percentage of places with inadequate facilities 
is much larger. For instance in the ice-cream, textile, dyeing and 
cleaning establishments not one shop had any washing-rooms 
or wash basins. In the chemical manufacturing establishments 
where washing facilities are of such importance and where their 
absence is fraught with actual danger to health, there were only 
forty-one establishments out of a total of ninety-three which did 
have some kind of wash-basins. 

Even the establishments where the washing facilities were 
otherwise adequate very seldom provided any hot water, which 
is absolutely necessary where considerable dust or special poisons 
are to be found. 

Lunch Rooms: 

The number of industrial establishments providing separate 
lunch rooms is very small. The percentage of such establish- 
ments ranges from zero to fourteen in the different industries. In 
almost all of the shops, therefore, lunch was eaten within the 
shop or at a bench-table, a procedure which is very dangerous 
to health in the shops where there is much dust or where dan- 
gerous chemicals or poisons are handled. 



136 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



TABLE No. 8. 

MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO 

SPECIAL CONVENIENCES. 





TOTAL No. 
ESTAB- 
LISHED. 


ADEQUATE 
WASHING FACILITIES 


SEPARATE 
LUNCHROOMS. 


No. 


No. 


Per cent. 


No. 


Per cent. 


Printing 


293 
100 
93 

54 
5 
6 
8 
7 
51 

94 
110 
53 
200 

14 
24 

7 
67 
19 


239 
79 
41 

27 

4 
3 
1 
13 

8 
13 
19 
126 

14 
10 

58 



82 
79 
44 

50 

66 
38 
14 
25 

8 
12 
36 
63 

14 
42 

86 



2 
9 
6 

7 


1 





6 
3 
5 



1 
3 



1 
9 
6 

13 


12 




5 
6 
3 




14 
5 



Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodstuffs. 
Candy 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


Spices and drugs 


Meat packing 


Mineral waters 


Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers and feathers . . 

T^viinHrie* . , , , , , ..... 


Paper boxes 


Clothing (waists) 


Miscellaneous. 
Corks 


Rags 


> Textiles 


It Human hair 


_ Dyeing and cleaning 


Total 


1.205 


555 


46 


43 


3 





Cleanliness: 

Ordinary cleanliness of walls, ceilings and floors was absent 
in a very large number of shops. We have classified the cleanli- 
ness of shops according to four grades : Grade "A," referring to 
perfectly clean shops ; Grade " B," to shops in a fair condition ; 
while Grades " O " and " D " refer respectively to dirty and 
very dirty shops. According to these grades we found 592 shops 
in Grade " C," and 364 in Grade " D," a total number of 45 
per cent of all the establishments being in the two lower grades. 
This grading of cleanliness of industrial establishments excludes 
the 500 bakeries inspected, which are reported upon separately. 

It is strange to note that establishments where food-stuffs are 
manufactured were found the dirtiest of all. Thirty-three per 
cent of the candy factories were in Grade " C," and twenty-four 
per cent in Grade " D ;" thirty-three per cent of the pickle fac- 
tories were in Grade " C," and twenty-three per cent in Grade 
" D ;" twenty-one per cent of all the meat packing shops in Grade 
" C," and fifty-eight per cent in Grade " D ;" and eighty per cent 
of the ice cream factories in Grade " D." 



REPORT OF DIEECTOK OF INVESTIGATION. 



137 



TABLE No. 9. 

MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES ACCORDING TO GRADES or 

CLEANLINESS. 





TOTAL 
No. 
SHOPS 


GRADE A 


GRADE B 


GRADE C 


GRADE D 


No. 


Per 

cent. 


No. 


Per 
cent. 


No. 


Per 

cent. 


No. 


Per 
cent. 


Printing 


426 
157 
217 

156 
5 
27 
34 
63 
19 

120 
244 
135 

228 

22 
38 
28 
131 
69 


72 
4 

28 

11 

6 
5 
1 
3 

2 
34 
25 
69 

7 
8 
2 
6 
17 


16 
3 
13 

7 

22 
15 
2 
16 

1 

14 
19 
31 

32 
22 
7 
5 
24 


227 
75 
123 

57 
1 
5 

23 
15 
1 

26 
81 
56 
46 

15 
3 
15 
52 
42 


53 
47 
57 

36 
20 
19 
67 
24 
5 

22 
33 
41 
20 

68 
8 
53 
39 
61 


102 
56 
62 

51 

9 
1 
21 
4 

42 
74 
42 
49 



17 
11 
42 
9 


24 
36 

28 

33 

33 
3 
33 
21 

35 

30 
31 
21 


45 
40 
32 
13 


27 
22 
4 

37 
4 

7 
5 
26 
11 

50 
55 
12 
64 


10 

31 
1 


7 
14 
2 

24 

80 
26 
15 
41 
68 

42 


28 


26 

24 
2 


Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodstuffs. 
Candy 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


Spices and drugs 


Mineral waters 


Meat packing 


Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers and 
feathers 


Laundries 


Paper boxes 


Clothing (waists) 


Miscellaneous. 
Corks 


Rag sorting 


Textiles 


Human hair 


Dyeing and cleaning .... 
Total 


2,119 


300 


14 


863 


41 


592 


28 


364 


17 





Toilet Accommodations: 

The investigation has shown a general neglect in making proper 
provision for toilet accommodations. There were none whatever 
in sixty-two shops, or three per cent of all the shops inspected. 
In ninety-five shops, or five per cent, the toilets were located in 
the yard, which is the worst place for them. In 146 shops, or 
twenty-one per cent, they were located in the halls, where they can- 
not be well taken care of. 

An insufficient number of toilets was supplied for the employees 
in a large number of cases. 

In regard to light and ventilation of toilet apartments there 
were three hundred and forty-two in Grade " D " and three 
hundred and fifty-eight in Grade " C," or thirty^two per cent.* 

In regard to cleanliness of toilets twenty-four per cent were in 
Grade " C " and sixteen per cent in Grade " D," showing that 
very little attention is paid to this very important feature. 

'Table TI, p. 139. 



138 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



These deplorable conditions are by no means a special feature 
of the small establishments; some of the largest industrial estab- 
lishments are, at times, the greatest sinners in this respect. For 
instance, in the two largest sugar refineries in the city, belonging 
to the largest manufacturers in the country, I found the toilets 
not only inadequate in number, and obsolete in type, but kept in a 
shockingly filthy condition. 

In spite of the fact that many accidents occur in factories, 
there are very few in which emergency rooms or first aid facilities 
were found. 

The investigation has clearly shown not only the need of defi- 
nite sanitary provisions in the labor code, but also the necessity 
of constant enforcement and supervision, without which such laws 
become dead letters. 



TABLE No. 10. 

SHOPS or MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES ACCORDING TO LOCA- 
TION or TOILETS. 





TOTAL 
No. 
SHOPS 


YARD 


HALL 


SHOP 


ELSE- 
WHERE 


No. 

W. C. 


No 
REPORT 


d 

55 


4 

1 


d 




*> 

I 


c 

X 


*i 

b 




6 
55 


1 



I 


6 
Z 


1 


d 

X 


4 
1 

t 


Printing 


446 
157 
217 

156 

e 

2; 

34 
63 
19 

120 
244 
135 

228 

22 

38 
28 
131 
69 


11 

4 
43 

3 




3 

2 

( 



( 
( 

i; 


2 
3 
20 

2 




=: 

11 

1 

2 






8 
11 


94 
28 
22 

93 

27 
9 
19 


31 

28 
16 
3 

1 
6 

1 
56 
12 


23 
18 
10 

60 

100 
27 
30 


25 
12 

12 

1 

5 

3 
42 

17 


308 
101 
112 

49 
2 

25 
26 
7 

83 
182 
114 
223 

21 
21 
25 
62 
38 


72 
64 
52 

31 
40 


41 
37 

69 

75 
84 
98 

95 

90 

48 
55 


8 
22 
37 

5 


73 
1 
9 


6 





2 

1 

4 


2 
14 
17 

3 




2 
47 


2 





3 

5 


5 
2 
3 

3 
3 


14 
1 

4 
4 
5 
2 


7 

2 
8 


1 

1 

1 

2 
60 


22 
5 

4 
2 
4 
1 




2 
11 






3 







18 






1 








2 







27 





3 




1 


Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodstuff*. 




Pickles 


Spices and drugs 
Mineral waters 




Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers and 




Paper boxes 


Clothing (waists) 

Miscellaneous. 
Corks 


Rag sorting 


Textiles 




Cleaning and dyeing. 
Total 


2.119 


95 


5 


446 


21 


U'J'J 


65 


95 


5 


62 


3 


22 





REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



139 



TABLE No. 11. 



SHOPS or MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES ACCORDING TO GRADES 
OF LIGHT AND VENTILATION or TOILET APARTMENTS. 





TOTAL 
No. 
SHOPS 


GRADE 
A 


GRADE 
B 


GRADE 
C 


GRADE 
D 


No 
TOILETS 


No 
REPORT 


6 
fe 


Per cent. 


6 

2 


Per cent. 


6 

fc 


Per cent. 


c 
Z 


*> 

k 

m 


o 
z 


Per cent. 


d 

S5 


Per cent. 


Pi in ting 


426 
157 
217 

156 

E 

27 
34 
63 
19 

120 
244 
135 

228 

22 
38 
28 
131 
69 


106 
24 
45 

24 

5 
13 
2 


5 
34 
76 
35 

20 
11 
16 


25 
15 
21 

15 

19 
38 
3 


4 
14 
56 
15 

91 

30 
56 


185 
46 
59 

81 
1 

12 
10 

7 
13 

56 
33 
25 
84 

2 
8 
8 


43 
30 
27 

52 

44 
30 
11 
69 

47 
13 
19 
36 

9 
21 
30 


90 
37 
24 

29 
20 
8 
9 
16 
4 

28 
35 
19 
41 



3 


21 
23 
11 

19 

30 
26 
26 
21 

23 
14 
14 

18 



11 


33 
33 
10 

16 
1 
2 
2 
21 
1 

27 
112 
10 
66 



7 



8 
21 
5 

10 
20 
7 
6 
33 
5 

22 
46 
7 
30 


18 



5 
2 
3 


3 


14 
1 

4 
4 
5 
2 



7 



1 
1 
1 





22 
5 

3 
2 
4 

1 



IS 



7 
15 
76 

6 
60 


3 



26 




5 
1 


2 

10 
35 

4 



5 



11 



O 
13 
3 


Tobacco 




Foodtlvffs. 
Candy 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


Spices and drugs 


Mineral wateis 


Meat packing 


Women's Trade*. 
Artificial flowers and 
feathers 


Laundries 


Paper boxes 


Clothiog (waists) 

Miscellaneout. 
Corks 


Rftg sorting . 


Textiles 


Human hair. 


Dyeing and cleaning. . 
Total. . 


14 




16 




15 




1 




8 




15 


12 


2,119 


430 | 20 


646 


34 


358 


16 


342 


16 


58 


2 


285 





140 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 



TABLE No. 12. 

SHOPS OF MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES ACCORDING TO GRADES 

OF CLEANLINESS or TOILETS 





TOTAL 
No. 
SHOPS 


GRADE 
A 


GRADE 
B 


GRADE 
C 


GRADE 
D 


No 
TOILETS 


No 

REPORT 


6 

25 


*i 
1 
1 


j 


* 
1 


d 

K 


1 


6 

25 


*> 

& 


A 


1 


d 

25 


JL 

i 

12 
19 

'6 


Printing , , , . , , 


426 
157 
217 

156 
5 
27 
34 
63 
19 

120 
244 
135 
228 

22 
38 
28 
131 
69 


94 
17 
42 

15 

5 
10 

2 

7 
45 
59 
30 

5 
1 

- 9 
20 


23 
11 
19 

10 

10 
30 

10 

6 
18 
44 
14 

23 
3 


7 
29 


212 
50 
86 

52 

14 
13 
9 
1 

58 
53 
20 
69 

10 
9 
13 
58 
15 


50 
31 
40 

33 

50 
38 
15 
5 

48 
22 
15 
30 

45 
24 
46 
44 
22 


83 
47 
31 

61 


7 
2 
19 
9 

28 
24 
29 
59 

7 
5 
11 
45 

7 


19 

30 
14 

40 

26 
6 
30 
49 

23 
10 
22 
25 

32 
13 
40 
34 
11 


25 
23 
12 

24 
2 
1 
9 
19 
2 

23 
96 
22 
68 


6 
15 
6 

15 
40 
4 
26 
30 
10 

20 
40 
16 
30 


5 
2 
3 

3 
3 


1 

1 

2 
60 


7 
18 
43 

1 



Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Foodstuffs. 
Candy 


Ice cream 


Pickles 


Spices and drugs 










Mineral waters 


14 

1 

4 
4 
5 
2 


22 
5 

3 
1 
3 

1 


2 

4 


22 




3 
21 


9 




Meat packing 


Women's Trades. 
Artificial flowers and 
feathers 


T*ftUn<1rV*, , . 


Paper boxes 


Clothing (waists). . 


Miscellaneous. 
Corks 


Rag sorting 


11 
3 

17 

4 


M 

11 
13 
5 


7 

2 
8 


19 

2 
11 


5 
1 


13 
3 


Textiles 


Hu"fu hair. ........ 


Dyeing and cleaning. . 
Total 


15 


22 


2.119 


361 


16 


742 


35 


474 


24 


361 


16 


83 


3 


118 


5 





7. BAKERIES: 

The manufacture of food-stuffs is of the greatest importance 
to the health not only of the workers in the establishments where 
such manufacture is carried on, but also to the general consuming 
public. For some reason or other, there seems to be much less 
care taken in the sanitation of places where food is manufactured 
than in any other branch of industry. 

In New York City our investigation has shown that many food 
manufacturing trades such as candy, ice cream, smoked meats, 
and sausages, and especially bread, are almost exclusively carried 
on in low cellars of tenement houses under working conditions 
which defy all description. 

The full report of the bakery inspection presented to the Com- 
mission (with photographs and detailed descriptions) shows the 
horrible conditions under which the " staff of life " is manufac- 
tured in this city, and the necessity of seriously considering an 
effective remedy for this great eviL 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 141 

This thorough inspection of nearly 500 cellar bakeries and. the 
testimony which was given at the hearing by many disinterested 
and competent persons, have shown beyond a doubt that something 
radical must be done if we are to prevent " our daily bread " from 
becoming a menace to the health of the workers, a peril to the 
safety of the buildings, and a disgusting product to the consum- 
ing public. 

The time is ripe for a total abolition of cellar bakeries. There 
is no valid reason for, and all sanitary reasons against, such a loca- 
tion for the manufacture of this most important article of food. 

Wihile there may be some objections to a sudden total abo- 
lition of all existing cellar bakeries, there can be little objection 
to their control and strict supervision by the State and Muni- 
cipal authorities. Such a supervision and control are possible only 
with a system of certification or licensing, similar to that in the 
milk and dairy industry. 

8. THE HEALTH OF THE WORKERS : 

The normal pursuit of ordinary occupations under normal con- 
ditions is not fraught with danger to the health or the life of the 
workers ; indeed, it is rather conducive to better health and longer 
life. It is only when work is carried on under abnormal condi- 
tions with relation to duration, speed, tension, character of work- 
place, degree of light and illumination, purity of air, and ordi- 
nary sanitary care, that work begins to be harmful to the worker, 
and may seriously affect his health and shorten his life. 

A great many of our industries are at present carried on under 
such abnormal conditions that they unduly increase the morbidity 
and mortality rate of the workers. 

The unsanitary conditions under which the bakers are employed 
in the cellar bakeries in New York City has led us to make a 
physical examination of 800 bakers, to determine, if possible, 
the effect of the unsanitary conditions and occupation upon their 
health. This examination has been made by a staff of competent 
physicians during the bakers' working hours and at their place 
of work. The examination has been greatly assisted by the Bak- 
ers' Union, which sent representatives to each shop, advising their 



142 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

members to submit to such au examination. The result of this 
examination is described in full in the special report on bakers 
and bakeries. Here, it is sufficient to note the fact that we have 
found an abnormally large percentage of diseases among this class 
of workers, diseases which endanger the health and well-being of 
the workers themselves, and are also dangerous because of the pos- 
sible infection of the manufactured food-stuffs. 

At the request of the Furriers' Union, a preliminary physical 
examination of eighty-five furriers has also been made. 

There is undoubtedly a great desire among the members of 
organized Labor Unions to undergo such physical examinations, 
and the evidence given in the public hearings has also shown that 
many of the large employers favor such a physical examination. 

9. DANGEROUS TRADES: 

A large number of industries deal with harmful or poisonous 
materials, which are liable to endanger the health and lives of 
their workers. These dangerous elements may be roughly classi- 
fied into five groups, as follows : 

Dangerous Elements: 

1. Dusts: Mineral, Metal, Vegetable, Animal. 

2. Poisons: Lead, Arsenic, Phosphorous, Mercury, Brass, Zinc, 

etc. 

3. Gases and Fumes. 

4. Infected Materials ; Rags, Skins, etc. 

5. Dangerous and Unguarded Machinery. 

The number of trades in which one or more of the above-named 
dangerous elements are found is very large; lead poisoning alone 
being incident to about 138 distinct trades. The effect of these 
elements upon the health of the workers are sometimes immediate 
and more often insidious, but nearly always harmful, and at times 
deadly. 

There is as yet no sufficient data as to the exact number of per- 
sons suffering from diseases directly caused by each of these ele- 



REPORT OF DIEECTOE OF INVESTIGATION. 143 

merits, nor is there in this country sufficient proof of the exis- 
tence of the specific occupational diseases incident to certain 
trades. The only legislative commission that has ever studied this 
subject in this country is the Illinois Occupational Disease Com- 
mission of 1907-8, and there are some additional studies just com- 
pleted and printed by the United States Department of Commerce 
and Labor in Bulletin No. 95. 

Dangerous as are many of these industries, many of the risks 
are undoubtedly preventable and much of the misery caused by 
them is entirely avoidable. In many industries a non-toxic 
ingredient may be substituted for a poison as in the match and 
mirror industries. In others an efficient system of mechanical 
ventilation would eliminate most of the dangers ; while in others a 
proper education of the workers in the dangers of their trade is 
needed. 

The extent of mercury poisoning in New York City has been 
lately studied by Mrs. Lindon W. Bates of the National Civic 
Federation, who reported on over a hundred cases of mercurial 
poison occurring among hatters and felt-makers. 

In the United States Department of Labor and Commerce Bul- 
letin No. 95, just issued, Dr. John B. Andrews gives a short 
account of a study of lead poisoning cases in New York State. 
During 1909 and 1910 there were found sixty cases of death from 
lead poison. 

A beginning has been made under the auspices of this Commis- 
sion in investigating a number of cases of lead poisoning and 
inspecting a number of lead manufacturing establishments in this 
city. This investigation has been voluntarily conducted by Dr. 
E. E. Pratt of the New York School of Philanthropy, who with 
a staff of pupils has made a thorough inspection of fifty factories, 
and has traced from hospital records, etc., a large number of cases 
of lead poisoning. A special report on 100 cases of lead poison- 
ing by Dr. E. E. Pratt is herewith presented to the Commission. 

10. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE : 

The existence of many specific poisons and dangers to the health 
of workers in various industries, the incidence of occupational dis- 



144 REPOET OF DIBECTOB OF INVESTIGATION. 

eases in many trades, the effect of certain processes upon the 
physique of the workers, render it necessary to continue and pur- 
sue special investigations into industrial conditions. This must 
be done in order to study the effects of the occupation upon the 
health of the workers, to establish standards for each industry, to 
prepare rules and. regulations, and to recommend preventive meas- 
ures for their elimination. 

Such a continued and intensive study can best be carried on 
by a special bureau, attached to the Labor Department, with 
trained specialists on industrial hygiene, and with power to rec- 
ommend special rules for each particular trade and establishment. 

All these functions with the addition of the supervision of the 
technical details of industrial hygiene, such as the matter of 
proper safeguarding of dangerous machinery, the installation of 
special mechanical ventilation plants, the supervision of light and 
illumination, the chemical analysis of air, chemicals, dyes, etc., 
should be concentrated in a separate bureau in the Labor Depart- 
ment with a staff of specialists in' each branch and with 
ample provisions for laboratories, clinics, and research, as well 
as for educational activities among employers and workers alike. 

11. WOMEN'S WOBK: 

In the course of our investigation, certain trades where many 
women workers are employed have been investigated as to their 
sanitary conditions, and a special report on these trades is here- 
with presented to the Commission. The evidence presented in 
this report, as well as the testimony given in the public hearings, 
undoubtedly created a strong impression that there is not sufficient 
protection in our industries for women workers, and that they 
unquestionaibly suffer more from certain bad sanitary conditions 
than the male workers. 

The number of industries which are especially dangerous to 
women is large, and the subject of further restriction of the trades 
in which women may be employed deserves serious study and 
attention. 

There is also need of a further study for the purpose of further 
limiting the hours of labor of women in ati trades, and with a 



REPOKT OF DIKECTOE OF INVESTIGATION. 145 

possible establishment of a minimum wage for women workers, 
as the only means to preserve their health and prevent them from 
sinking down under the burdens of industrial life. 

12. CHILD LABOR: 

During our investigation, we have found many instances of 
the employment of extremely young children in factories. 
Our impression is that the extent of the employment of 
children under fourteen years of age is larger than it is thought 
to be, and that the present system of certification of child workers 
fourteen and sixteen years of age is inadequate and unsatisfac- 
tory. Many abuses have distinctly been observed in the methods 
of granting certificates, and the lack of a thorough medical 
physical examination of minor workers has been shown to be 
dangerous in fostering the employment of children too young to 
be given up to the risks and dangers of factory work. 

The absolute need of a system of physical examination of chil- 
dren, and indeed, of all workers, before and after entering employ- 
ment has been fully shown. 

13. HOME WORK: 

A special investigation has been made under the auspices of 
this Commission, by a volunteer staff under the direction of the 
National Child Labor Committee, upon the extent of child and 
home work, especially in the tenement houses. A special report 
on this subject is herewith presented to the Commission. Here 
it is sufficient to give a summary of their report : 

1. The present system of licensing tenement houses leads to 

many abuses and does not fulfill the expectations of the 
framers of the law. 

2. The extent of the work carried on in unlicensed tenement 

houses is very great. 

3. The number of industries which are carried on in homes 

and by small children is very large. 

4. It is hardly possible to entirely eliminate child labor without 

complete abolition of tenement house work. 



146 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

14. EDUCATION : 

Many of the evils discovered in our investigation may directly 
be traced to the lack of knowledge on the part of employers of the 
proper construction and arrangement of factories and workshops, 
and to their ignorance of the first principles of sanitation and 
proper care for the health and well-being of their workers. 

The government appropriates yearly vast sums for the instruc- 
tion of the farmers and other producing classes of the nation 
for the purpose of teaching them how disease of cattle can be cured 
and how the health of valuable animals can be preserved, and 
cholera among chickens prevented. There is, however, absolutely 
no provision made by the government for the similar instruction 
of employers to whose care hundreds of thousands of human 
beings are entrusted, nor for any supervision of the conditions 
which the employing classes impose upon their workmen. 

The ignorance which is so frequently found among the work- 
ing class itself is even more dangerous to their health. There is 
at present among the workers dense ignorance of the risks of their 
trades and the dangers of their occupations. Many of the diseases 
from which workmen suffer in certain trades are directly due to 
their lack of knowledge of means of preserving their health, and 
of their neglect in taking ordinary precautions to guard against 
certain dangers which are easily preventable, once they are known. 

The younger element among the workers is composed of chil- 
dren who leave school at the age of fourteen, who are entirely 
unprepared for the struggle for existence, who are entirely igno- 
rant of the first principles of self-preservation, and who, therefore, 
readily fall victims to the dangers lurking in so many industries. 

This lack of education in employers and employees is a serious 
menace in industrial life, and is one of the principal causes of 
suffering in almost all occupations. 



The preliminary report touches upon subjects which will be 
discussed more fully in the final report. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 147 

III. RECOMMENDATIONS : 

(1) Registration: 

The owner of every factory shall be required to register at 
the Labor Department within a specified time, giving such data 
as the Labor Commissioner may require. 

(2) Licensing: 

Every place where food products are manufactured for 
public consumption (except restaurants and hotels) shall be 
required to apply for a license from the Health Department of 
the city where such place is located; said license shall be issued 
only when all the requirements of said Health Department are 
fully complied with; said license shall be revocable for cause and 
be annually renewed upon inspection. 

(3) Standards to be established: 

The Department of Labor shall be empowered to establish from 
time to time standards of light, heat, and ventilation to be enforced 
in factories for the protection of the workers; every factory 
in which dusts, gases, poisons, or fumes are produced in excess of 
the minimum allowed, or where materials likely to convey infec- 
tion are used, shall be required to secure a permit from the 
Department of Labor, and shall be under the continuous super- 
vision of said Department; compliance with the standards estab- 
lished by the Department shall be required before a permit is 
issued to such factory. 

(4) Physical Examination of Workers: 

The owner of every place where food products are manu- 
factured for public consumption (except restaurants and hotels) 
shall demand and receive from each applicant for work before 
employing same, a certificate of good health signed by a regularly 
licensed physician, to the effect that said person is free from infec- 
tious disease and that he is in physical condition to do the work 
in said establishment. 



148 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 

(5) Medical Supervision in Dangerous Trades: 

The owner of every factory in which certain specified 
poisons, gases, fumes or dusts are produced, or in which materials 
likely to carry infection are used, shall be required to employ a 
physician or physicians to examine all workers before entering their 
employment, and to make a periodical examination at least once a 
month of all employees, in order to determine whether their health 
is affected by the dangerous elements in the trade. Such physicians 
shall keep an individual record of every employee in said estab- 
lishment. Such physicians shall be under the general supervision 
of the Labor Department and under the rules and regulations set 
by said Department for the medical supervision of the trade. 

(6) Ventilation: 

(a) Four hundred cubic feet of space, exclusive of furniture, 
machinery, or goods, shall be required in every factory for each 
adult worker. 

(b) Forty square feet of floor space, exclusive of bulky furni- 
ture, machinery, or goods, shall be required for every worker in 
every factory. 

(c) Nine parts of carbon dioxide, in ten thousand volumes 
of air, in excess of the number of parts of carbon dioxide in ten 
thousand volumes of the exterior air shall be the maximum per- 
missible amount in each and every workshop or factory, and fif- 
teen parts of CO 2 in ten thousand volumes of air, in excess of the 
exterior air shall be the maximum permissible in every workroom 
where artificial light is needed. 

(d) The lowest temperature allowed in a workroom of a factory 
shall be 55 degrees Fahr. and the maximum shall not exceed 
72 degrees Fahr. as determined by the wet bulb thermometer, 
unless the temperature of the exterior air exceeds 70 degrees Fahr. 
as determined by the same process, in which case the wet bulb 
temperature of the workroom shall not exceed that of the ex- 
terior air by more than 5 degrees. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF INVESTIGATION. 149 

(e) Several dry and wet bulb recording thermometers shall be 
installed and properly maintained in all factories, as may be 
required by the Department of Labor. 

(7) Dressing Rooms: 

(a) In all factories where more than 10 women are em- 
ployed, a separate dressing room, having a floor space of at least 
60 square feet, shall be provided on each floor where such women 
are employed. Said dressing room shall have at least one win- 
dow, at least 15 square feet in area, to the outer air, and shall 
be adequately lighted and ventilated, and shall be provided with 
suitable hangers for clothes, and shall be separate from any 
water-closet apartment. 

(b) In all establishments where food products are manu- 
factured for public consumption, and in all establishments 
where dusts, gases, poisons, fumes or material likely to convey 
infection are produced, special clothes, consisting of overalls, caps 
and gloves, shall be provided free for every employee; such 
clothes shall be washed at the expense of the owner at least twice 
every week; and every employee compelled to wear same at all 
times during such work. 

(8) Washing Facilities: 

(a) General. Section No. 88 of Labor Code prevails. 

(b) In all establishments where food products are manu- 
factured for public consumption, and in all establishments 
where dust, gases, poisons, fumes, or material likely to convey 
infection are produced, there shall be provided ample washing 
facilities, including hot water and individual towels. 

(9) Lunch: 

In all establishments where food products 1 are manufac- 
tured for public consumption, and in all establishments where 
diist, gases, poisons, fumes, or material likely to convey infection 
exist, separate places for eating lunch shall be provided, as may be 
required by the Labor Department. 



APPENDIX II 



THE FIRE HAZARD 

H. F. J. PORTER, M. E. 



THE FIRE HAZARD 

HON. ROBERT F. WAGNER, Chairman N. Y. State Factory Inves- 
tigating Commission, New York, N. Y.: 

DEAR SIR: 

The Origin of the Commission: 

Your Commission came into existence last summer, primarily 
owing to representations made to the Governor and the Legislature 
by a delegation of the Fifth Avenue Association, to the effect that 
the factory buildings of New York City are so defective in design 
with regard to exit facilities, that their occupants are continuously 
exposed to the danger of a repetition of the Asch building disaster. 
In fact it was stated at the hearing before the Governor that in 
case of fire these people would have only the alternatives of jump- 
ing or burning to death. It was also stated that they would not 
even have to wait for a fire to expose them to danger, due to the 
defects mentioned, for a panic, which might be brought about by 
other sources than fire, could also cause serious injury and even 
death, as was made evident in the loft building at 548 Broadway 
on May 5th last, when the occupants of one of the floors, becoming 
frightened by a cry of alarm, rushed to the narrow wooden stair- 
way and crowded it until it burst, and precipitated its contents 
upon the landing below, killing two girls and injuring many others 
so seriously as to necessitate their removal to the hospital. 

My Association with Its Origin: 

I have been engaged in work in the factory buildings of New 
York and other cities for many years, and at the time of the Asch 
building fire had been employed by the Fifth Avenue Association 
to solve certain problems in which the loft buildings in its sec- 
tion were involved. It was in connection with my efforts after 
the above-mentioned disaster, to institute fire drills in these loft 
buildings in order to facilitate the escape of their occupants in 
case of fire, that I discovered that it was impossible to develop a 
fire drill that would empty such buildings under emergency con- 



154 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

ditions, and that this was due, not to incapacity on my part, nor to 
weakness in the fire drill per se, but to inherent defects in the 
design of the buildings, due to the failure of architects and build- 
ers generally to realize that the capacity of a stairway is limited, 
and that a multi-storied building, intended to be occupied by large 
numbers of people on each floor, must be supplied with special 
means of meeting the exigencies of a rapid egress from it. 

Its Special Work: 

The Commission was appointed to investigate and recommend 
relief for the very serious and pressing situation which, as I have 
shown, was thus brought to light. This is its work, as I under- 
stand it, and if it will accomplish this result alone it will have 
performed a vitally effective service. In the working out of a 
recommendation in this direction, to the Legislature, you have 
asked me to act in an advisory capacity. 

Its Allied Work-- 
in establishing the Commission and endowing it with its func- 
tions, the Legislature thought it wise to authorize it, in addition 
to the above requirement, to investigate the sanitary conditions as 
they exist in the factory buildings of the State. There are many 
individuals, as well as the State and municipal organizations, at 
work in this latter field, and although it is thus fairly well covered, 
undoubtedly the Commission will find that it and they can be 
mutually helpful in recommending legislation which will alleviate 
the wretchedness that exists in factories of a certain type in every 
industry. This latter line of investigation you have assigned to 
Dr. Geo. M. Price, and although he and I have conferred and 
worked together in a mutual endeavor to facilitate the work of the 
Commission in every way possible, we shall keep our assignments 
distinct and separate in our respective reports, I confining 
myself to the building problems, Dr. Price to working conditions. 

Preliminary Experiences: 

In order that the Commission may have all the facts bearing 
upon the fire situation, it may be well to lay before it my experi- 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 155 

ences in the field, which enabled rne to interest the delegation 
above referred to sufficiently to cause it to go to Albany to ask for 
an investigation. These experiences, beginning several years ago 
and maintained up to the time of this investigation, are as import- 
ant as those which I have had since I have been connected with 
the Commission, for the latter have simply been in continuity with 
the former. 

A Typical Factory: 

When, in 1904, I took charge as Vice-President of the Nernst 
Lamp Company, a Westinghouse interest in Pittsburgh, Pa., I 
found its factory to be an old building of brick, with so-called 
interior mill construction. It possessed only one stairway and 
housed on its five floors somewhere between 200 and 300 people, 
mostly women. As the building in itself was full of inflam- 
mable material, and as it was surrounded by rolling mills and fur- 
niture storage warehouses, it was considered a very hazardous fire 
risk, and insurance rates upon it were proportionately high. Keal- 
izing my responsibility for the safety of the employees, T set about 
studying how they could escape from the building in case of fire. 

My Efforts to Effect Escape from Fire: 

Not being able to determine to my own satisfaction how escape 
under certain circumstances could be effected, 1 appealed to the 
Chief of the Fire Department, who, after studying the conditions, 
agreed with me that the building was a fire trap, that he could 
offer no recommendations except more and better fire-escapes, tke 
introduction of precautionary measures against fire, methods of 
prompt extinguishment in case of its occurrencce, and means of 
retarding its spread until the arrival of the Fire Department, in 
case it should get beyond the control of those in the building who 
were designated to fight it. 

The Province of the Fire Department is Primarily to Fight Fire, 
Not to Save Life: 

Not being satisfied, however, that even with the preventive 
measures introduced, the occupants of the building would be safe 
from the possibility of a fire gaining headway bevond the fighting 



156 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

ability of those assigned to its extinguishment, and realizing that 
there still existed the possibility of accident from panics, which 
often cause more injury than the fire itself, I appealed to the man- 
agers of the most representative and progressive manufacturing 
establishments about the country, to learn what methods they had 
adopted to meet the dangerous conditions which I realized existed 
in every factory where large numbers of people were housed on 
each floor. Much to my surprise and disappointment, I could not 
find a single concern which had developed a scheme of rapid dis- 
missal of its people from its building, similar to the fire drills of 
the public schools. I then sought the assistance of a drill master 
from the local Board of Education. 

The School Fire Drill Inapplicable: 

This man, although an old hand in the work of installing fire 
drills in school buildings, after several attempts to introduce a 
similar drill in our factory, was forced to concede that the build- 
ing was so different from those to which he was accustomed, and 
the people so much older and less subservient to discipline, that he 
was unable to develop a fire drill which he felt would operate in an 
emergency. 

The Crux of the Problem a Defective Building: 

Driven back upon my own resources, I proceeded to work out a 
solution of the problem myself. I then found that in order to 
effect a safe, rapid egress of the occupants from the building, what 
amounted to practically a separate stairway from each floor had 
to be developed. When this was accomplished, we installed a fire 
drill without difficulty, which emptied the building in three 
minutes. 

The First Factory Fire Drill: 

This fire drill, actually taking the employees out of the building, 
was the first, as far as I know, that had been introduced into a 
factory. Naturally it created considerable comment. News- 
paper and magazine articles described it, and many factory man- 
agers from all over the country wrote to me about it and visited me 
to see it. 




I 




A COUNTER-BALANCED DROP LADDER. 

There are thousands of fire escapes which depend upon a " drop ladder " for the 
connection between the lowest balcony of the fire escape and the ground. Many of 
these ladders are hung out of reach or are taken away altogether. Almost all are too 
heavy to be handled in an emergency. 

By counter-balancing them, using a chain, over a pulley on a brass shaft, to 
prevent rusting, the ladder can be kef)t in place and a child can lower it. 




A COMPARISON OF THE CAPACITY or '. 

A A straight ladder fire escape, capacity 2 per floor. C Straight i 

B Inclined ladder fire escape, capacity 4 per floor. D Mezzanii 

When more than these numbers try to crowd in they f 




'BRENT TYPES OF FIRE ESCAPES. 

w&y, 22 in. wide, capacity 12 per floor. 

atfonn stairs, 44 inches wide, with cantilever steps to ground, capacity 24 per floor. 

a jam and stop the flow downward altogether. 














a 






THE FIRE HAZARD. 157 

All Factories Deficient in Stairway Facilities: 

As all the people who tried to introduce similar fire drills into 
their factories experienced the same difficulties as I had, many 
of them invited me to assist tfoem in the installations. It was in 
this work that I began to realize that buildings occupied by many 
people on each floor are universally deficient in stairways. This 
condition has come about by the gradual growth of industry. 
Small factories had increased the number of their employees and 
added extensions to their buildings to accommodate tnem, but pro- 
vided no additional stairways. 

Architects and builders had blindly followed precedent, without 
taking cognizance of ample and frequent demonstrations of the 
weakness of their designs. Where fires had occurred and people 
had been burned up or had jumped from windows, the exit facili- 
ties had been augmented by the addition of outside fire-escapes, 
often merely ropes or ladders of the most elementary nature. The 
latter were simply crude make-shifts to supply a remedy for the 
deficiency in exit facilities which was felt to exist. 

Architects and Builders, Instead of Eliminating the Cause, 
Worked at the Effect: 

Architects and builders, however, instead of recognizing this 
defect in their building design, continued to blindly follow the 
lines which they saw developing. They still designed their build- 
ings with inadequate interior stairways and exit facilities, and 
then proceeded to develop this outside fire escape into a perma- 
nent feature. The contracted space in which many of these fire- 
escapes had to be installed, and the tendency to cut the latter off 
some distance from the ground to prevent their being used for 
entrance by burglars, made their value as an exit facility ex- 
tremely low ; and yet these things were done in the face of repeated 
instances of fires burning up the people on these so-called " fire 
escapes," as well as the fire escapes themselves. (See Sketch I.) 
So that it was evident that the name of the latter was a misnomer, 
and that they were, on the contrary, veritable fire traps. (See 
Sketch II.) 

Since these early experiences I have been engaged in the work 
of my profession of industrial engineering, developing the effi- 



158 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

ciency of working organizations, and in this work I have rarely 
found a factory building so designed as to provide for its occu- 
pants a safe means of escape in case of fire. 

An Actual Test is Necessary to Prove Efficacy: 

This condition of affairs has come about from the failure of 
architects to test out their designs to see if they actually will serve 
the purpose for which they were intended. Never having been 
required to design buildings which would be emptiable in a speci- 
fied time, their buildings are unemptiable under emergency 
demands. Had they tested their buildings to see if they would 
rapidly empty themselves in an emergency, they would have dis- 
covered, as I did when I applied such a test, that a stair-well has a 
definite and very limited capacity. It is simply a tube to which 
each floor is connected, and when these floors try to empty their 
contents simultaneously into it, it will accommodate only a definite 
number of people from each. Should any more try to crowd in, 
they jam it and the flow downward is arrested. (See Sketch III.) 
The reason for this jam is that the irregular shaped bodies of the 
people interlock and the friction of their clothing aids the wedging 
action so that there is an actual arch formed across the stairs, and 
the greater the pressure behind it the tighter it holds. ( See Sketch 
IV.) This jamming is preventable to some extent by having no 
influx of people to a stairwell except at its top. I have been able 
to make emptiable many factory buildings by using this principle, 
and giving each floor its own individual stair-well. To make 
such a building safe, however, each floor should have two stair- 
wells, and they should be as far apart as possible, and smokeproof , 
so that in case one should be cut off by a fire, the other would be 
available. 

The Limited Capacity of a Stair-Well: 

I have found, for instance, in the investigation which I have 
just made for your Commission, that the average loft building, 
with a height of story between floor and ceiling of from 10 to 12 
feet, has a stair-well which if it has the minimum width of 3 
feet allowed by the Building Code, will accommodate one person 
per foot of height per floor, and if it is 4 feet wide, just double. 





A stairway '. 
to 44 inches the 

If there are 
downward move: 







SKETCH E STAIRWAY CONGESTION 

A stairway 12 feet high between floor and ceiling, 3 feet wide, will accommodate 
to 44 inches the capacity is doubled, viz: 24 people per floor. 

If there are more people per floor than these numbers they will collide on the 
downward movement practically ceases. All the occupants of each floor beyond th 
dowu or bum up. The fire wall offers a middle road to safety by a horizontal esca 









>eople per floor. If the width is increased 

ings and congestion will occur so that the 
>acity of the stairways in case of fire, jump 





ch and the less the tendency to jan 
o great as to burst the rail , as in th< 



IV 







SKETCH F The wider the stairs the flatter the arch and the less the tendency to jam 
tightly. Frequently the pressure of the jam becomes so great as to burst the rail, as in the 
case referred to on page 153. 



THE FIRE HAZAED. 159 

that number. It will not be safe, then, to house more than 10 
to 12 persons per floor in one case, and 20 to 24 in the other, 
unless more stair-wells are installed, or unless a separate stair-well 
is installed for each floor. 

Fire Drills Improperly Operated Are Conducive to Inefficiency: 

In the prosecution of my professional work I have had occa- 
sion to introduce fire drills in a large number of factories, when- 
ever I found it necessary to safeguard the employees, and have 
naturally gained considerable experience in the best way to make 
such installations, so as not to cause waste of time and energy, 
both of which are expensive to employer and employee, and I 
have found that a fire drill which required the taking of people 
downstairs should be performed only at noon and quitting time at 
night, and that the factory should always be dismissed that way. 
In this way no time is wasted and the employees are not compelled 
to climb stairways to return to their work afterwards, 
which is very exhausting and tends to reduce their efficiency for 
a very appreciable time. Thus the people get to know the various 
exits and the avenues leading to them. But the essential value 
of the introduction of a fire drill lies in its function as a test of 
the adequacy of the exit facilities, and pointing out the obstruc- 
tions in the way of reaching the exits that do exist. 

First Attempt at Legislation: 

So impressed did I become with the necessity for such a test 
to be applied to all buildings, that I set about making the fire 
drill compulsory by legislation. The first attempt in this direc- 
tion was in 1905, through Mr. Jacob Erlich, a ladies' gown manu- 
facturer who became imbued with the idea, and introduced a bill 
in the Legislature at Albany, through Assemblyman James C. 
Sheldon. The necessity for an appropriation for additional fac- 
tory inspectors to secure its enforcement hampered its passage, 
and it never emerged from the committee to which it had been 
referred. The factory fire drill was not at that time recognized 
as a necessity, and the request for such legislation was not taken 
seriously. 



160 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

Second Attempt: 

As a result of an address which I gave on the subject before the 
annual convention of the New York City Federation of Women's 
Clubs, at the Hotel Astor, in 1908, an ordinance was introduced 
in the Board of Aldermen, by Alderman Mitchell, calling for a 
compulsory fire drill. This was referred to the Committee on 
Laws and Legislation and never was heard from afterwards. 

Third Attempt: 

After the Asch building fire a resolution to the same effect was 
made by Alderman Drescher, which was referred to the same com- 
mittee, and died there. 

Fourth Attempt: 

The Federation of Women's Clubs, discouraged by their failure 
to interest the Aldermen in the subject, proceeded shortly after the 
Newark fire in 1910 to introduce in the State Legislature, through 
Senator Thomas Cullen and Assemblyman Franklin Brooks, a 
bill which subsequently passed the Assembly, but after being re- 
ferred to the Committee on Labor in the Senate, and being re- 
ported favorably, it was not acted upon. 

Fifth Attempt: 

This lack of action was perhaps due in part to the introduction 
of the so-called Herrick-McManus bill, drafted after the Asch 
building fire in 1910, by a number of civic organizations, of some 
of which I am a member, which also called for fire drills. This bill 
was the result of the aroused sentiment of the community in favor 
of factory fire drills, due in part to the publication in the press 
the day after this fire of my letter, sent some time before to the 
Triangle Waist Company, urging that I be allowed to install a 
fire drill in their factory. Under the public sentiment, and 
pushed by the civic organizations referred to, the bill passed both 
houses of the Legislature. Although it was the only relief in 
sight, the Mayor vetoed it. 



SKETCH G A BISECTIONAL BUILDING. 

Floor plan of typical loft building showing fire wall with doorways. The fire wall 
restricts the fire to one-half the building, allowing the occupants to escape horizontally from 
the fire as if they were on the ground floor. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 161 

Sixth and Seventh Attempts Successful in Other States: 

Meanwhile compulsory fire drill bills were passed in both New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, the former through the initiative of 
the Commissioner of Labor, with whom I collaborated, and the 
second through the Pennsylvania Consumers' League, aided by 
the New York State branch, of which I am the adviser in such 
matters. 

A Fire Drill is a Rapid Egress Test of a Building: 

As I developed proficiency in installing fire drills in factories, 
however, I became more and more impressed with the fact that 
stair-wells, from the fact that they have only a limited capacity, 
making them liable to become congested and jammed, and thus 
in themselves a source of injury to their users, should not be con- 
sidered as a means of rapid egress such as would be necessary in 
case of a fire. We have evidence frequently presented from 
which this conclusion has been drawn, as for instance, the panic 
in the loft building, 548 Broadway, previously referred to, and 
another in a second story moving picture theatre at Cannonsburg, 
Pa., on May 5th last, where a flash in the film box started a rush 
for the short stairs, which, although they afforded a perfectly 
clear run to the street, became jammed, and 26 were killed, 25 
seriously injured, and 30 suffered from minor hurts. 

The Fire Wall a Safe Fire Escape: 

In casting about for some other method of escape from fire I 
have pressed into service the most natural and available means 
at my disposal, viz: a wall of substantial and fireproof construc- 
tion, extending from cellar to roof, with doorways in it on each 
floor. In case of a fire on one side of this wall, the people on that 
side simply pass through the doorways, close the fireproof doors 
and are perfectly safe from the flames whose progress in that di- 
rection would be thus arrested. The principle involved here is 
similar to that of the cyclone cellar of the western home, or the 
collision bulkhead of the ocean steamer. It develops a "bisec- 
tional building " offering a horizontal instead of a vertical escape, 
making the fire drill unnecessary. (See Sketch V.) 
6 



162 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

It is Not a New Device: 

There is nothing new about this device. It already exists in 
buildings everywhere, in one form or another, and its value as a 
fire stop to protect property has long been known. Its availabil- 
ity as a fire-escape has not, however, been recognized, and it is 
this feature which I have advanced as affording the only means 
of safe escape from fire to the occupants of crowded floors. This 
is a new feature in architecture, as applicable to department 
stores, schools, theatres and residences as to factories. 

A Campaign of Education Started: 

Since my discovery of the inadequacy of the stairwell as a safe 
means of emergency exit from a crowded building, and my ad- 
vocacy of the fire wall as a substitute, I have written and lectured 
much upon the subject in order to bring the situation to the at- 
tention of the public. This agitation resulted, among other 
things, in the appointment of your Commission as I have previ- 
ously stated, and you were specifically instructed to investigate 
the situation and report upon it promptly in order to effect relief 
from a very serious situation. 

Witnesses at the Hearings Have Already Become Educated to Its 
Necessity: 

There has been overwhelming evidence presented at the hear- 
ings in condemnation of the so-called " fire-escape," and in favor 
of the fire wall. I offered in evidence when I was on the stand, 
letters from such authorities as Mr. P. Tecumseh Sherman and 
Hon. John Williams, former and present Commissioners of Labor, 
respectively, and Mr. A. D. F. Hamlin, Professor of Architec- 
ture at Columbia University, stating that the fire wall is the only 
safe type of fire-escape for buildings of the type and occupancy 
under consideration. Your Commission has been shown fire 
drills carried out in buildings without fire walls, and with them, 
and is therefore able from actual observation to itself determine 
their relative merits. (See Sketch VI.) 




FIRE IN A TTPICAL NEW YORK LOFT BUILDING. 

Hundreds of people on each floor jam the narrow stairs and fire escapes in panic. 
The elevators become jammed and on account of the smoke and flames are quickly put out 
of commission. Those who are not caught on the stairs either jump from windows or from 
the fire escapes when the fire reaches them. 




Loft building with fire wall which confines the fire to one-half of the building. The 
occupants of that half merely pass through the doorways of the fire wall, close the doors 
after them, and are out of the reach of the fire. They do not have to go down stairs at all, 
but if they wish to do so the stairs and elevators will be found in normal condition without 
flames or smoke in them. The doors are fire proof and aelf-closing from the heat of the 
fire. 







"' .fiiuo'>id co tula h^imBa 






THE FIRE HAZARD. 163 

The Three Alternative Fire-Escapes: 

Now that the limited capacity of the stairwell is recognized, 
there are three alternative methods presented to make buildings 
safe of occupancy as regards emergency exit. 

1. Limit the number of people per floor to the capacity of ex- 

isting stairwells, and make the latter smoke proof. 

2. Increase the number of stairwells (making all smoke proof), 

to furnish exit facilities for the necessary or existing 
number of people per floor. 

3. Install a fire wall continuous from cellar to roof so arranged 

as to practically bisect the building, having ample stair- 
wells on each side. 

In the latter case only may elevators be considered as exit 
facilities. 

A Proper Fire Drill Bill: 

I have statements from real estate men, builders and manufac- 
turers that the fire wall is the best and cheapest of these alterna- 
tives. A proper fire drill bill should require that all buildings 
should be designed with one or other of the above alternative 
means of emptying them within a reasonable time. I have asked 
a great many people what they would consider a length of time 
beyond which they would consider it unreasonable to hold people 
inside of a burning building, and from their replies I have de- 
cided that the consensus of opinion would place 3 minutes as 
the limit. 

Strong Recommendations to the Legislature Should be Urged: 

Since the establishment of your Commission time has not stood 
still. The people of New York City have been restless for some 
action in the direction of improvement in fire-hazard conditions. 

The Fifth Avenue Association which asked for your appoint- 
ment naturally awaits the result of your investigation with much 
interest. 

The only legislation so far enacted for the purpose of reliev- 



164 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

ing the situation has been the Sullivan-Hoey Law developing a 
Fire Prevention Bureau in the Fire Department, and the evi- 
dences of its work as so far presented are not at all encouraging. 
Their efforts have so far been directed toward fire escape rather 
than fire prevention, and they show a decided disregard of modern 
methods by ordering what I have referred to in this report as 
" fire traps " on the fronts and backs of buildings all over the 
city. They have not been introducing fire-alarm signal systems 
in buildings, and yet these are absolutely necessary to advise 
their occupants of the existence of a fire in them. 

It is recommended that the Board of Survey provided for in 
the Sullivan-Hoey Law be changed, and that its personnel con- 
sist of one member from the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers and one member of the American Institute of Architects, 
each of these to be selected by the Chief of the Bureau of Fire 
Prevention from a list of ten names to be furnished by each of 
the organizations referred to. The third member of the Board of 
Survey to be either an architect, an engineer, or an attorney, to 
be selected by the owner of the premises to be surveyed. 

Various organizations, civic and other, have been moving ahead 
doing this, that, and the other thing pending the recommenda- 
tions of your Commission. Some of these actions are commend- 
able, others not. There is a lamentable amount of ignorance on 
this subject which needs enlightenment 

It will behoove the Commission to make its recommendations 
known promptly, to meet the expectation of the public and to 
serve the purpose for which it was appointed. 

Meanwhile, the dissemination of knowledge has gone on con- 
cerning my discovery of the limited capacity of a stairwell, as 
well as the remedy of the fire wall. The principle involved in 
the latter has been adopted in architecture. 

Building Codes, not only in this, but other cities, are now in- 
troducing it without waiting for the recommendations of your 
Commission. 

For the time and thought which they generously gave to the 
subject, I desire to express my obligations to the following 
gentlemen who were assigned by their respective organizations 
to act as a group of advisers in the formulating of this report : 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 165 

Mr. Edward F. Croker, Ex-Chief Fire Department, Edward F. 

Croker Fire Prevention Bureau. 

Mr. George B. Ford, McAneny Committee on Building Code. 
Mr. A. D. F. Hamlin, Professor of Architecture, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. Henry W. Hodge, Consulting Engineer. 
Mr. C. L. Holden, N. Y. Chapter Amer. Inst. of Architects. 
Mr. George T. Mortimer, V. P. United States Realty Co., Fifth 

Ave. Association. 

Mr. Theophilus Parsons, Attorney-at-Law, New York Associ- 
ation for Labor Legislation. 

Mr. C. B. J. Snyder, Sup't of Buildings, Board of Education. 
Mr. F. J. T. Stewart, Sup't of the Xew York Board of Fire 

Underwriters. 

I desire also to express my appreciation of the aid which 
has been given to me by my associate, Mr. A. L. A. Himmel- 
wright, and my inspectors, Mr. E. B. Gowin and Mr. D. Ludins, 
for their faithful and painstaking work in securing and compil- 
ing data for my report, which I herewith respectfully .-submit. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. F. J. PORTEB, 
Adviser on Fire Matters to the Commission. 



166 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

HON. ROBERT F. WAGNER, Chairman N. Y. State Factory Investi- 
gating Commission, New York City, N. Y.: 

MY DEAR SIR : 

I should like to supplement my report by a note which will be 
interesting as showing how recent experience has repeated that 
which I realized when I first became interested in the subject of 
the safe occupancy of buildings, some eight years ago. 

I stated that in 1904, in an effort to develop a rapid egress of 
its occupants from a factory building in Pittsburg, I solicited the 
assistance of the Ohief of the Fire Department, as well as of a 
public school principal, who was considered an expert in installing 
fire drills in that locality, and that both of these men acknowledged 
that they were utterly unable to devise a fire drill which would tako 
the employees out of the building by the facilities then existing 
in it. 

In the group of men which I recently invited to meet with me 
to consider means of effecting a rapid egress of their occupants from 
existing factory buildings here, were the ex-Chief of the Fire De- 
partment of this city, who has gone into the business of trying to 
introduce fire drills into these buildings to make them safe to their 
occupants, and the Superintendent of Buildings of the Board of 
Education, who designs the school buildings for fire drills, and 
both of these men stated at the meetings which they attended that 
they were totally unable to devise a fire drill which would empty 
the factory buildings which we had under consideration, as they are 
now designed. 

Just as at Pittsburgh, changes had to be made in the stairways 
and exit facilities to make the factory building there emptiable 
under emergency conditions, in the same way must changes be made 
in the factory buildings of this and other cities of this State, to 
accomplish the same result. 

It is squarely upon the shoulders of architects and builders that 
this situation has been allowed to develop, and they should be 
made to realize, by your recommendations for legislation calling 
for a rapid egress test with a three-minute limit, that their build- 
ings should hereafter be built emergency emptiable, and then we 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 167 

will not have to worry over the installation of either outside stairs 
of the fire-trap type, or of fire drills on stairs which are bound to 
he a source of accident from congestion in an emergency exit. 

Buildings from which people can be extracted only by guides 
and cork-screw evolutions on inadequate stairs, whether on the 
inside or on the outside, should eventually become obsolete. 
School buildings should be no exception to the rule. School arch- 
itects have been given carte blanche to design safe buildings and 
should be able to do so, and children, some of whom are cripples, 
others with heart and lung troubles, and many insufficiently 
nourished and clothed, should not be compelled to walk down sev- 
eral flights of stairs and go out into inclement weather and low 
temperatures without an opportunity to secure their wraps, and 
then have to climb the stairs again in these useless fire drills. 
The efficiency of these children at their studies may be impaired 
for the day, and their health may be permanently affected. 

The public money is appropriated for teaching, not to operate 
fire drills, and the present waste of time and money in this direc- 
tion alone, should be eliminated by the introduction of modern 
methods and the more efficient horizontal escape to safety through 
fire walls in case of fire. 

I have referred to school buildings to point out how the tendency 
has been to work in the direction of fire escape instead of fire pre- 
vention, and to go into extreme elaboration in attacking the effect 
instead of working at the cause. This shows the inertia of large 
bodies towards divesting themselves of precedent and custom. 
It seems almost incomprehensible that an intelligent body of men 
such as composes the Board of Education of New York City 
should complacently continue to accept designs of emergency- 
unemptiable buildings, and then authorize the promulgation of 
such an elaborate series of fire drill directions, explaining what 
is necessary to do in order to get out of these buildings in an 
emergency, as the Superintendent of the Public Schools, Dr. Max- 
well, has sent to you. 

These buildings should be constructed like the new parts of the 
Singer and Metropolitan and the Wool worth buildings, so that, 
should a fire occur in any room, its occupants need merely be moved 
into the next room, the door closed, and then either put the fire 



168 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

out or let it burn out. If a fire should occur in an adjoining 
building, all that should be necessary would be to pull down the 
asbestos curtains of the windows overlooking the blaze, to prevent 
the pupils' attention being distracted from their studies, and no 
attempt should be made to empty the whole building. 

I hope your Commission will seize the opportunity to brush 
away traditions, such as the necessity for fire drills in all public 
schools, and the necessity for fire-escapes on the outside of all 
buildings. These are both relics of the past, and buildings should 
be built hereafter which do not require them. If you can get the 
public to see this situation in its right light, perhaps the archi- 
tects may be made eventually to design their structures so that 
their occupants do not have to be dragged out of them by com- 
pulsory fire drills at unreasonable and inconvenient times. 

Respectfully yours, 

H. F. J. PORTER. 
NEW YORK, Jan. 31, 1912. 



KEPORT ON FIRE INSPECTION WORK, NEW YORK 
STATE FACTORY INVESTIGATION COMMISSION. 



In making a careful examination and study of the factory build- 
ings of this city, by actual inspection, a number of dangerous and 
undesirable features and conditions were found. 

Two Dangerous Types of Buildings: 

The investigations have resulted in the discovery of two types 
of buildings in which the conditions are particularly dangerous, 
and which constitute a most serious menace to the lives of the em- 
ployees and other occupants of these buildings in case of fire. 

Under the present building law, two classes of fireproof buildings 
are provided for: (1) When they exceed 150 feet in height, in 
which the law requires that the interior finish, such as the floor 
surfaces, trim, doors, and window frames and sash shall be of fire- 
proof material; that is, hollow metal, metal-covered wood, or wood 
treated by some process to render it fireproof. (2) When less than 
150 feet in height, in which the interior finish, trim, doors, window 
frames and sash, etc., may be of ordinary wood. 

It is the fireproof loft building less than 150 feet (or approxi- 
mately 12 stories) in height which is one of the two dangerous 
types of buildings above referred to. In all these so-called loft 
buildings light manufacturing is permitted, and in the case of a 
number of industries coming under this classification, great num- 
bers of employees are crowded into these buildings irrespective of 
the exit facilities. In the loft buildings less than 150 feet in 
height there is, therefore, in addition to the danger from inadequate 
exits sufficient inflammable material in the floor finish, partitions, 
trim, etc., to cause fire of great intensity and of sufficient duration 
to destroy not only the lives of the occupants but also the entire 
contents of the building above the story in which the fire originates. 

The extension ladders of the Fire Department are approximately 
85 to 90 feet in length, and can reach only to about the 7th story 
of the average building. In case of fire or panic there is, therefore, 
a zone of great danger to life in these buildings less than 150 feet 
in height and comprising the 8th to the 12th stories, inclusive. 



170 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

The Asch Building at Washington and Green streets was an 
example of this class of buildings, and that fire occurred in the 
danger zone herein indicated. Persons occupying these buildings 
above the seventh floor are in imminent danger, and prompt action 
for the immediate protection of persons in this danger zone is most 
urgent and necessary. It is strongly recommended that combustible 
trim, floor finish, window frames and sash, etc., be prohibited in 
new fire proof buildings over 85 feet in height. 

The other dangerous type of building referred to is the 
old style non-fireproof, converted residence or tenement house, 
usually five or six stories in height, and provided with a single 
wooden stairway for the exit of its occupants. A fire occurring in 
the stairway in any of the lower stories of these buildings would 
eeriously endanger the lives of many of the occupants, depending 
upon, the promptness of the Fire Department in reaching the build- 
ing in time to save their lives. Nearly all of these buildings have 
fire-escapes in the front or rear, but experience has shown that 
fire-escapes without the assistance of firemen have very little value 
as means of exit from buildings in case of fire, especially where the 
occupants consist largely of women and girls. (See Sketch II.) 
This type of building is exceedingly dangerous in case of fire, and 
material changes will be necessary to mako them safe and satis- 
factory from the standpoint of fire danger. It is suggested that 
another stairway be required or that these buildings be provided 
with fireproof stairways and fireproof stair halls enclosed by sub- 
stantial fireproof walls or partitions, or a fire tower be constructed 
in an adjacent court or the rear yard of these buildings, if their 
use for factory purposes is to be continued. 

Other Dangerous Features of Loft Buildings'- 

In addition to the two particularly dangerous types of buildings 
referred to above, a number of undesirable conditions were found 
to exist in the great majority of loft and factory buildings 
inspected, as follows: 

(1) Insufficient Exit Facilities. In nearly every building 
inspected, including the most recent and modern lofts, the exit 
facilities were found inadequate. Experience has shown that an 
average stairway, for each 22 inches in width, has a capacity limited 



THE FIEE HAZARD- 171 

to about 12 persons per story. The number of persons or occupants 
in the factory buildings in every case exceeded the capacity of 
the stairways in some of the stories, and in case of fire the lives 
of the excess number in these stories would be in jeopardy, as it 
would be impossible for them to make their escape in time to save 
their lives. Of 159 buildings inspected the exit facilities in 02 
were found to be faulty, in 2 obstructed and in 23 dangerous. 

(2) Exits Obstructed by Temporary Partitions. In nearly 
all the loft buildings temporary partitions 6 to 7 ft. high have 
generally been erected around the stairway and elevator doors on 
each floor, forming a passage or vestibule in front of the exits. 
In some cases the space between the stairway and elevator doors 
was as small as three feet, but in most cases the space was 4 ft. to 
6 ft. in width. Sliding doors in these temporary partitions admit 
the occupants to the vestibule and thence to the stairways and 
elevators. Very frequently cases and piles of stock and supplies 
are massed about these partitions, often restricting the size of the 
openings and impeding and preventing the sliding doors from 
operating easily. In many cases the total width of the openings of 
the sliding doors was very much less than the total width of the 
exit doors. It was claimed by the tenants that these partitions 
were necessary for business or economical reasons, as a barrier to 
sueak thieves, and in order to enable the inspectors to properly 
watch the employes as they came in and passed out from work 
each day. 

Temporary board partitions, or " shop partitions," as they are 
sometimes known, are put up indiscriminately by tenants to enclose 
stock and supply rooms, designing rooms, etc., and without any con- 
sideration as to the restriction of light and ventilation, etc. These 
partitions are often located in disadvantageous positions by inex- 
perienced foremen and superintendents, so that they not only 
hinder the business of the tenants but make conditions dangerous 
for the employees in case of fire. It is recommended that some 
regulations be enacted prohibiting the use of combustible materials 
for shop partitions in fireproof buildings, and that the location and 
the arrangement of the partition? be subject to th-r- approval of the 
Building Department or some bureau having jurisdiction before 



172 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

permission is given to erect them. Out of 109 buildings in which 
shop partitions were found, only in 42 were the partitions fairly 
well arranged, while in 48 the arrangement of the partitions was 
faulty, resulting in the obstruction of light or ventilation, or both, 
and in 19 the arrangement of the partitions was such as to delay 
employees in reaching the exits, favoring panic and thus endanger- 
ing life. 

(3) Congested Conditions. In numerous buildings the work 
tables, merchandise, stock, and even the workers were crowded to- 
gether so as to make it impossible for the employees to move about 
with freedom. Large piles of merchandise and stock also interfered 
with the light and air so that there is generally improper light and 
ventilation where these congested conditions exist. 

(4) Bad Arrangement. The arrangement of tables, merchan- 
dise, etc., was often such that the aisles between the tables had a 
direction at right angles to the exits, with no intermediate aisles. 
These aisles in most cases were too small or narrow to admit of 
easy passage. In time of fire or panic such conditions would prevent 
the occupants from reaching the exits promptly. 

(5) Neglected Fire Appliances. Only in a few cases, even 
in the most modern loft buildings, have chemical fire ex- 
tinguishers been installed. In most cases, jfire buckets or 
tanks were found, but these were generally in a bad con- 
dition. Instead of the fire buckets being in their regular racks 
and kept filled with water, they were usually found hanging 
underneath the cutting or pressing tables with varying quan- 
tities of water, but generally less than half full and being used by 
the workmen in connection with their regular work. Fire tanks 
of more than 15 gallons capacity are generally to be preferred in 
manufacturing establishments for the reason that they cannot so 
readily be adapted for other purposes. Of 159 buildings inspected, 
fire appliances were found in 149 buildings, and in 34 of these 
they were neglected and not in suitable condition for use. 

(6) Rubbish, Cuttings, etc. In many industries, notably in 
the manufacturing of clothing, there are large quantities of cut- 
tings, scraps, etc., which result from the routine work, and these 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 173 

are generally brushed off of the tables and scattered over the floors. 
In some of the larger establishments one or two persons are espe- 
cially detailed to gather such cuttings and rubbish and keep the 
shop clean. In smaller places the work of collecting the rubbish is 
performed in the morning and in the late afternoon. During the 
middle of the day such rubbish is, therefore, liable to accumulate 
in considerable quantities, and become a menace to safety. It is 
believed that much of the danger from this source could be elimin- 
ated by requiring metal fireproof receptacles for such rubbish, and 
that it be collected constantly during working hours by a sufficient 
number of persons to keep the premises clean, the waste, scrap, 
rubbish, etc., to be required to be removed from the building at 
the end of each working day. 

(7) Smoking. One of the most frequent causes of fire is 
smoking. In some places signs are posted prohibiting smoking, 
and in nearly all cases smoking is prohibited by verbal instructions. 
Nevertheless, the inspectors found considerable smoking going on 
in nearly all the buildings visited. Frequently the proprietor or 
superintendent, would be smoking while making the rounds of the 
establishment with the inspectors, and the smoking employees see- 
ing them approach, would sometimes throw a lighted cigarette un- 
derneath the tables and in corners where rubbish and scraps might 
easily have started a blaze. 

(8) Inflammable Materials and Supplies. The establishments 
manufacturing inflammable goods such as celluloid, etc., should be 
controlled by special regulations and should be prohibited from con- 
tinuing within the city limits unless special safeguards and regula- 
tions are provided. Such concerns should be required to provide 
fireproof supply rooms, and fireproof receptacles for rubbish, and 
should be permitted to take from the supply rooms only sufficient 
raw material to last for certain safe periods of time in the work- 
rooms. Such concerns should be permitted only in detached or 
separate buildings with incombustible floor finish and trim, metal 
work tables, furniture, etc. 

(9) Fire Drills. Of 159 buildings inspected, fire drills have 
been attempted in only 18, and in 4 of these the drills were ineffi- 



174 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

cient and unsatisfactory. Fire drills when installed by inexperi- 
enced persons frequently have little or no value. In some cases 
the occupants of a story are drilled simply to march to the exits, 
and no provision is made in case fire should occur at or near one 
of the exits, which would require an immediate modification of the 
drill. Such fire drills in buildings with inadequate exits are useless 
and a waste of time, as it would be impossible to get the occupants 
out of the building or to safety in case of a fire. 

On the other hand, when the drills are installed by competent 
persons and suitable exit facilities are provided, proper fire alarm 
signals introduced, fire-fighting brigades organized, and fire-extin- 
guishing appliances available, the fire drills have real value and 
will prove successful and satisfactory in case of an actual fire. 

In buildings with fire walls as defined in the recommendations 
submitted herewith, fire drills would become so simple that any 
intelligent person could install and supervise them, while the time 
required for their execution would be limited to only a few minutes. 

(10) Fire Escapes. In 159 buildings inspected all had fire- 
escapes but seven. Ninety were of the stairway type, 52 of the 
sloping ladder type, and 10 of the vertical ladder type. Of these, 
138 were faulty either in design or construction, and 49 had danger- 
ous and unsatisfactory ground connections or exits. In nearly every 
case the fire-escape was located in a position where it would be 
exposed to flames in case of fire. 

Experience has shown that the ordinary fire-escape furnishes a 
most unreliable and unsatisfactory means of escape. They have 
proved to be much more useful to the firemen in fighting fires 
than to persons seeking escape from fire. When the flames burst 
through windows underneath the fire-escape, as is often the case, 
escape is cut off and the fire-escape itself is destroyed and rendered 
useless by the heat. It is now generally conceded by experts and 
others who have studied the fire problem, that the outside fire-escape 
as now furnished has very little value for the purpose intended ; 
that a more reliable means of escape should be provided; and that 
the requirement and use of fire-escapes in the future should be 
discouraged. 

(11) Stand Pipes. These were found installed in 58 build- 
ings of those inspected. Stand pipes with proper water supply and 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 1Y5 

street connections for fire engines are a valuable adjunct of the 
fire-fighting equipment, and should be required in all factory build- 
ings over seven stories or 85 feet in height. 

(12) Automatic Sprinklers. Automatic sprinkler systems 
\vere installed in 45 buildings of those inspected. It is believed 
that the sprinkler -v-nm where properly installed will in many 
cases extinguish fire in its incipiency, and in most cases will retard 
its spread, affording more time for the escape of persons to safety 
ami preventing the fire from gaining material headway until the 
arrival of the firemen. They should be required in all non-fire- 
proof factory buildings occupied by more than 200 persons above 
the first story, and exceeding three stories or 40 feet in height. 
In fireproof buildings with window openings protected with ap- 
proved fireproof frames, sash and glass, sprinkler systems are 
more useful and valuable as a protection to property than to life. 

( 1 '! ) Fire Walls. The principle of the fire wall is rapidly 
being recognized by the fire experts and the insurance and under- 
writing interests as the most general and satisfactory solution of 
the danger to life in the factory buildings. It is applicable to all 
factory buildings, and can be adapted to department stores, thea- 
tres, and all other buildings where large numbers of persons as- 
semble. Besides being a safe and effective means of protecting 
life, it is equally desirable from the standpoint of preventing large 
property losses, and for the latter reason is advocated by the insur- 
ance and underwriting interests. 

In 159 buildings, fire walls were found in 35 and where used 
and understood, caused a feeling of security and safety to the em- 
ployees not found in other buildings. 

It is recommended that fire walls should be required in every 
future factory building over ?even stories or 85 feet in height, and 
which is occupied by more than 50 persons above the first story. 

Violations of the Lair: 

While engaged in the work of inspection which extended over a 
period of two months, the inspectors found the following violations 
of law: 



176 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

13 violations in respect to stairways. 

1 violation in respect to stairway enclosures. 

105 violations in respect to doors opening in. 

88 violations in respect to fire-escape?. 

34 violations in respect to fire appliances. 

1 violation in respect to passenger elevators. 

IN GENERAL,. 

The foregoing are but a few of the most important facts and 
conditions which should receive prompt consideration at the hands 
of the Commission. Numerous other undesirable conditions were 
also found, but the short time and the insufficient appropriation for 
this work has necessarily limited the amount, and scope of the in- 
spection work. 

From the standpoint of the fire problem, it is believed that the 
work of the Commission naturally divides itself into two parts : 

(1) Recommendations for the immediate correction of the danger- 
ous and undesirable conditions in existing buildings; (2) Recom- 
mendations with reference to the construction of new buildings 
which will eliminate the undesirable and dangerous conditions found 
in present buildings. 

It is believed that the most practical way in which the Commission 
can obtain the desired results with the least delay is (1) to secure 
legislation forthwith incorporating the recommendations of the 
Commission in respect to existing buildings and including the 
recommendations herewith submitted; and (2) that the Commis- 
sion recommend the appointment of a board of competent experts 
to draft a State Building Code, in which shall be incorporated the 
recommendations of the Commission, including the recommenda- 
tions herewith submitted with respect to new buildings, said code 
to govern the construction of all new buildings erected in the State 
of New York in the future. 

Treating the fire problem in the manner already referred to, 
herewith are submitted two sets of detailed recommendations, one 
referring to existing buildings, and the other to new buildings. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO ELIMINATE THE DANGER 

TO LIFE FROM FIRE IN FACTORY AND OTHER 

BUILDINGS. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE PROPOSED PLAN TO CORRECT THE DANGEROUS 
AND UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS IN EXISTING BUILDINGS. 



Assuming that immediate relief is sought from existing condi- 
tions, it is necessary that any proposed remedy or plan will not 
conflict with the administration and jurisdiction of the different 
municipal bureaus as now constituted, and in order that the pro- 
posed plan may be practical and feasible in its fulfillment, the 
various steps and actions necessary must be in conformance with 
the regular routine methods of the bureaus and departments hav- 
ing jurisdiction; 

A careful study has been made from the practical side of this 
problem as well as from the engineering and structural stand- 
points, while the owner's interest has also been kept constantly 
in mind. It is fully realized that the owners in many cases will 
be obliged to incur considerable expense in correcting the unsafe 
conditions, and in order that no unnecessary hardship may be 
imposed upon them, every proper and practicable alternative has 
been made optional, and in all these cases the expense has been 
kept at a minimum consistent with efficiency and good 
construction. 

In general, the proposed remedy for existing buildings is as 
follows : 

All buildings in which a large number of persons are employed, 
except theatres, tenement houses, hotels and office buildings, to be 
posted under the direction of the Municipal or State Bureaus, or 
officers having jurisdiction, the notices to specify the number of 
persons that may safely occupy each floor in every building. To 
guide the inspectors of the Municipal or State Bureaus, or other 



178 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

officers having jurisdiction, carefully prepared definite rules, 
applicable to both fireproof and non-fireproof buildings, have been 
developed and submitted. 

If any building is occupied on any story by more persons than 
is specified in the notice posted in said story, the owner and tho 
tenants are both notified by the Municipal or State Bureaus, or 
other officers having jurisdiction, and ninety days time is given 
to either change the number of occupants in the said story or 
provide the following optional alternatives: Additional stair- 
ways, fire towers, fire walls (or fire-wall principle; cutting 
through openings in party walls between adjoining buildings, pro- 
viding bridges to other buildings), or providing such other exits 
or making such other alterations, or introducing such safety 
devices as will enable all the occupants of any building to reach 
places of safety within three minutes after the fire-alarm signal 
sounds. 

Except in the very highest type and completely equipped fire- 
proof building, it is made compulsory that fire alarms and fire 
drills shall be installed. Fire drills to be installed as soon as the 
necessary exit facilities have been provided in each case. 

Now, as to the practical side of the plan: When an owner 
receives a notice that his building is occupied in any story by 
more than the number of persons specified, his first move will be to 
call in his architect or an engineer to devise a remedy. In most 
cases there would be only a few stories in which there are more 
than the permitted number of persons. In order that the owner 
may retain his tenants, some provision will have to be made to 
take care of the excess number of occupants in these stories. As 
soon as a plan is decided upon, drawings are made and submitted 
to Municipal or State Bureaus or other officers having jurisdic- 
tion. If the proposed remedy meets with the approval of that 
bureau, the plans are then filed in the Building Department, and, 
if approved, a building permit obtained and the work carried on 
to completion in the regular manner. 

In the case of the type of buildings occupied by more than 
fifty persons above the first story, with a single wooden stairway 
for the exit of its occupants, the proposed remedy requires a sec- 
ond stairway remote from the first, a fireproof stairway, or a fire 



THE FntE HAZABJX 179 

tower in a court or a rear yard of the building plot. Where this 
type of building is old and dilapidated, as is fraquently the case, 
the owner will hesitate to expend the amount necessary to install 
a fireproof stairway. By providing the alternate of a fire tower, 
the latter could be constructed without interfering with the normal 
and ordinary use of the building and could In utilized subse- 
quently as part of a plan for a new building, which it could serve 
as efficiently as the present building. The construction work 
would in all cases be under the jurisdiction of the Building De- 
partment, as already stated. 

By this proposed plan the regularly practicing architects, engi- 
neers and contractors will perform the work in the usual manner, 
without requiring any special appropriation for the work by the 
State or the city, and thus bring about the desired results in a 
natural, effective and expeditious manner. 

By the time that legislation embracing this subject can be real- 
ized, there will probably be sufficient inspectors available in the 
Municipal or State Bureaus' jurisdiction to inspect all the factory 
buildings in six weeks to two months time, and with three months 
time in which to make the alterations and comply with the provi- 
sions of the law, it is believed that four months approximately 
will be all the time necessary after the passage of the necessary 
law, to correct the existing conditions in factories and accomplish 
the work that the Commission was specially delegated to perform. 

The proposed plan in regard to all existing factory buildings 
contemplates the following requirements in the treatment of the 
buildings, summarizing and recapitulating: 

(1) All factory buildings to be posted, the notice giving the 
number of persons that may occupy each story. The number of 
persons to be determined according to the rules submitted. 

(2) Buildings in which the occupants of each story do not 
exceed the number specified in the notice posted will require no 
changes or alterations (except 3). 

(3) Non-fireproof buildings with a single stairway occupied by 
more than fifty persons above the first story will be required, after 



180 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

ninety days from the date of the notice posted, to have another 
stairway remote from the existing one, or a fireproof stairway, 
or fire tower, or the total number of occupants reduced to less 
than fifty. 

(4) In non-fireproof buildings with more than one stairway, 
and in all fireproof buildings which are occupied by more than 
fifty persons above the first floor, the following features will be 
required within ninety days from the date of the notice : 

(a) That the number of persons in each story be reduced to the 
number specified in the notice posted. 

(b) If more persons are to remain in any story than specified 
in the notice posted, additional stairways, fire walls, fireproof con- 
nections to adjacent or nearby structures or other exit facilities 
or safety appliances shall be provided, subject to the approval of 
the Municipal or State Bureau or officers having jurisdiction. 

(5) In all factory buildings occupied by more than fifty per- 
sons above the first story (excepting the very highest type of fire- 
proof buildings, with incombustible floor surfaces, trim, doors, 
window frames and sash with wire glass, closing automatically, 
and with fire walls and automatic sprinklers), there will be 
required : 

(a) A manual fire-alarm system. 

(b) A compulsory fire drill within ninety days, and after the 
occupancy has been reduced to the number of persons posted or 
suitable exits have been provided to enable all the occupants to 
make their exit to places of safety within three minutes. 

EXISTING BUILDINGS. 
Posting: 

In every existing building in the State of New York used 
as a factory, workshop, store, school, college, institution, etc., 
which is regularly occupied by more than fifty persons 
above the first floor, except public schools, office buildings, 
hotels, and tenement houses, the Fire Commissioner or the 
Bureau of Fire Prevention in New York city, or the 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 181 

Commissioner of Safety or other officer or bureau in 
other cities, or the proper state official outside of municipal limits 
having proper jurisdiction and hereinafter designated, the municipal 
or state bureaus or officers having jurisdiction shall cause to be 
posted, notices or placards specifying the number of persons that 
may occupy each floor in said building. One such notice is to be 
posted in a conspicuous place near the entrance door to each floor 
on the stairway side of each stairway enclosure, and at least two 
such notices in conspicuous places in each story in said building.' 
If any story is occupied by more than one tenant, two such notices 
shall be posted in the space occupied by each tenant. All such 
notices to bear the date of the day when posted. 

Notification: 

In case more persons occupy any floor or floors than is 
specified in the said notices, the municipal or state bureaus 
or officers having jurisdiction, shall notify the tenant or 
tenants of said floor and the owner of the said build- 
ing on a regular printed form for this purpose. The 
form shall include a further notice to the tenants and the 
owner that the number of occupants on said floor must be reduced 
to the number specified in the said notice posted ; or such changes, 
alterations or additions made in the building; or such additional 
stairways, preferably a separate stairway for each floor, fire walls 
or fire towers introduced; or such openings into, or fireproof con- 
nections made with, adjoining or nearby structures; or such other 
exit facilities or safety devices provided as may be necessary, 
subject to the approval of the municipal or state bureaus or 
officers having jurisdiction, to insure the reasonable safety of the 
persons occupying the premises by providing "ways and means of 
exit in the manner and within the time as hereinafter specified ; 
said notice to be complied with, or said additional exit facilities, 
etc., to be provided within 90 days after the date of the said notice. 

Buildings with a Single Stairway: 

In every existing building occupied by more than fifty 
persons above the first floor and in which only one stairway is 



182 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

provided for the exit of all its occupants, another stairway shall 
be provided remote from the existing one, or said stairway shall 
be made fireproof and shall be enclosed by fireproof walls or 
partitions; stair halls with fireproof floors, finish, doors, trim, etc., 
shall be also provided, all as elsewhere herein specified. Said 
stairway and enclosure shall extend to the roof, and in non- 
fireproof buildings, the enclosing walls of the stair halls shall 
extend at least three feet above the roof and be coped. Or a tower 
fire-escape or fire tower as herein recommended may be 
erected within the building or adjoining the building and ex- 
tending into a rear or side court or yard, provided the space 
occupied by said fire tower does not exceed 25% of the yard or 
court area of the building lot. 

Fire Alarm System. Fire Drills: 

In every building which is occupied regularly by more 
than fifty persons above the first floor (except fireproof build- 
ings, with approved fireproof window frames and sash (closing 
automatically) with wire glazing and equipped with fire walls 
and approved automatic sprinklers), there shall be installed, sub- 
ject to the approval of the municipal or state bureaus or officers 
having jurisdiction, a manual fire-alarm system by which all the 
occupants of a building or all the occupants between fire walls 
and exterior walls of a building shall be instantly notified in 
case of fire. Said fire-alarm on each floor shall indicate the floor 
on which the fire exists. 

In every such building there shall be installed a compulsory 
fire drill of all persons occupying the said building, to be operutc-1 
at least once in every month. The fire drill shall conduct all 
the occupants of the building to safety either into fire towers, 
stairwells or stair halls with fireproof enclosure walls as herein 
provided, or through fire walls, or to the outside of the building. 
Xo building shall be deemed safe or as furnishing adequate exit 
facilities that requires more than three minutes for the exit to 
safety of all its occupants, as herein prescribed. The fire drill* 
shall be installed as soon as the necessary exit facilities have been 
provided, and the said drill shall constitute the decisive test of 
the adequacy of the exit facilities of each buildinar. The fire 
drill shall be subject to tho approval <f tho municipal or state 
bureaus or officers having jurisdiction, and shall be witnessed, 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 183 

timed and certified to by a delegated representative of said juris- 
diction within one hundred days of the date of the original notice 
posted. 

Determination of the dumber of Persons that May Safely Occupy 
any Story in Existing Buildings : 

The number of persons that may occupy any floor in any exist- 
ing building is to be determined by the capacity of the stairways 
and exits, and the provisions of the State La'bor Law, as follows : 

Non-Fireproof Buildings : First floor or ground floor : One 
hundred persons for each 22 inches of clear width of openings 
of regular door exits; in case there is but a single exit, one-half 
the above number of persons. Second floor to and including the 
seventh floor, 12 persons per floor for every 18 inches of clear 
width of each stairway leading down from said floor, provided 
the height of the stories between finished floor levels is not less 
than ten feet; the clear width of the stairs to be measured from 
the wall to the center of the hand rail or from center to center 
of hand rails. Above the seventh floor one-half the number of 
persons per floor as in the floors below. If the story heights ex- 
ceed ten feet between finished floor levels, the capacity of the stairs 
may be increased by one person for each 16 inches of additional 
story height for each 18 inches of width of stairway. 

Fire towers or fireproof stairways enclosed in self-sustaining 
walls, eight inches or more in thickness, shall not be considered 
as having any greater capacity than other stairways of the same 
width. 

Non-fireproof buildings with approved fire walls as herein rec- 
ommended shall have a capacity per floor between fire walls of 
fifty persons for each 22 inches of width of clear openings in 
such walls. 

Fireproof Buildings: The number of persons that may oc- 
cupy the first or ground floor to be the same as in non-fireproof 
buildings. For all floors above the first, 12 persons for every 
18 inches of width of each stairway, leading down, when the 
story heights are not less than ten feet. If there are stair halls 
enclosed by fireproof partitions as herein recommended the num- 



184 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

her of occupants may be increased by one person for each 3 square 
feet of floor area of such halls on each floor. 

Fireproof buildings with fire walls as herein recommended 
shall have a capacity per floor between fire walls of 100 persons 
for each 22 inches of width of clear openings in such walls, plus 
12 persons for every 18 inches of width of stairs leading down, 
when the story heights are not less than 10 feet; provided, how- 
ever, that the clear spaces on each side of the said fire wall are 
of sufficient area to accommodate the occupants of an adjoining 
space in addition to its own occupants on the basis of at least 3 
square feet of floor area per person. 

In General: Outside fire-escapes and elevators are not to be 
considered in determining the number of persons that may occupy 
any floor in any building. In case there are winders in any 
stairs the capacity of the stairways stall be estimated at 10 per 
cent less for each winder, but the total deduction for winders 
shall in no case exceed 50 per cent of the capacity of the same 
width of stairs without winders. 

Stairways steeper than herein provided shall have their capac- 
ities reduced 10 per cent for each 5 degrees that the pitch exceeds 
45 degrees. 

No provision herein is to be construed to legalize more persons 
to occupy any floor in any building than is permitted under the 
State Labor Law, which requires 250 cubic feet of space for each 
person. 

Nothing in these recommendations is to be construed as apply- 
ing to theatres, motion picture theatres or opera houses, which 
are elsewhere especially provided for, or to tenement houses which 
are especially provided for in the Tenement House Act. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 185 

CODE FOR NEW BUILDINGS, ADDITIONS, ALTERA- 

TIONS, ETC. 

FIRE WALLS. 

A fire wall shall be construed to be a wall constructed of com- 
mon brick, porous terra cotta brick without cellular spaces, or 
reinforced Portland cement concrete, having at each floor level 
one or more openings closed or protected by fire doors as herein 
provided. 

Fire walls shall in all cases be located so that at least one 
continuous stairway or fire tower, with an exit to the street (and 
where practicable one or more elevators), shall be on each side 
of the fire wall. 

If a standard equipment of automatic sprinklers is installed 
throughout any building, the allowable floor area between fire 
walls may be greater by fifty per cent than those stated in this 
section. 

Xon-Firep ro of Buildings : 

In non-fireproof buildings, the said fire walls shall be at least 
twelve inches in thickness and shall extend continuously from 
the cellar floor through the entire building and to at least three 
feet from the roof, and be coped. If the fire wall is used as a 
bearing wall, the wood beams shall be beveled and shall not come 
nearer to each other or to the opposite sides of the fire wall than 
six inches in any case. No openings in said wall shall exceed 
66 inches in width or 60 square feet in area, and no two openings 
in the same wall and at the same floor level shall be nearer than 
40 feet center to center. Every opening in said fire wall shall 
be closed and protected by an approved standard fire door clos- 
ing automatically on each side of the wall. A cement, stone, 
iron, or other incombustible floor finish shall be provided at every 
opening in the fire wall for the full thickness of said wall, so 
as to completely separate the woodwork of the floors on each side 
of the fire wall. 

In every non-fireproof factory building hereafter erected, the 
floor area between fire walls shall not exceed the following: When 



186 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

fronting on one street, 5,000 square feet; when fronting on two 
streets, 7,500 square feet ; when fronting on three or more streets, 
10,000 square feet. 

Firepoof Buildings: 

In all fireproof buildings hereafter erected, the fire walls shall 
be not less than eight inches in thickness, and shall be superim- 
posed one above the other from the cellar floor to the underside 
of the fireproof roof. Said fire walls shall be built of the same 
material and in the same manner as specified in non-fireproof 
buildings, except that the openings may be protected by approved 
metal covered wood doors hung on each side of said wall. 

In the case of fireproof buildings with incombustible floor 
finish and with metal or metal covered window frames and sash 
(closing automatically, with wire glazing and metal or metal cov- 
ered doors, trim, casings, etc.), the fire walls shall be of the 
same materials as specified in this section, but may be reduced 
to four inches in thickness, exclusive of plaster, and the open- 
ings protected by two hollow metal doors hung on each side or by 
one metal-covered wood door hung on either side. In these build- 
ings, the fire walls need not necessarily be superimposed. 

The floor area between fire walls in every fireproof factory 
building hereafter erected shall not exceed the following: When 
fronting on one street, 7,000 square feet; when fronting on two 
streets, 10,000 square feet; when fronting on three or more 
street, 12,500 square feet. 

INTERIOK STAIRS TOWER FIRE ESCAPES. 
X on- fireproof Buildings: 

In all non-fireproof buildings hereafter erected, the number of 
stairs in each story shall be regulated by the area of each story 
measured on the outside of the walls, except as hereinafter men- 
tioned. All stairways shall be continuous from the roof to the 
ground floor leved. Where more than one stairway is required, 
the stairs shall be as remote from each other as possible. When 
the ground floor area exceeds that of the floors above it, the number 
of stairs required shall be determined by the area of a typical 
floor of those above the ground floor. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 187 

All stairs shall be enclosed by walls not less than four inches 
in thickness. 

The width of the stairs, landings, and platforms, shall in no 
case be less than forty-four inches from the wall to the center of 
the hand rail, or from center to center of parallel hand rails. 

All stairs shall have treads and risers of uniform width and 
height throughout each flight, and the rise shall be not more than 
eight inches, and the tread exclusive of nosings not less than 
nine inches. There shall be no winders in any public stairway. 

All stairs shall be provided with substantial banisters or rail- 
ings and hand rails, all of which shall be securely fastened. Each 
flight of stairs in every story which exceeds a height of twelve 
feet in the clear, shall have a proper intermediate landing. The 
landings of stairs which have a straight run shall be placed ap- 
proximately at the center portion thereof. 

The space beneath every staircase shall be left entirely open 
and be kept free from incumbrance, except that the space between 
any first story staircase, from the foot of same to a point on the 
soffit, which is not more than six feet above the floor, may be 
surrounded by an enclosure which shall be without any openings. 

A tower fire-escape or fire tower shall consist of a stairway 
completely enclosed from top to bottom by walls of brick, ma- 
sonry, or Portland cement concrete not less than twelve inches 
thick. The tower shall extend from the sidewalk, court, or yard 
level to the roof, and the walls of the tower shall extend high 
enough above the roof to form a bulkhead. Fire towers may be 
either inside or outside of the building, but there shall be no 
opening in any wall separating the tower fire escape from the 
building. There shall be access to every tower fire escape from 
every story of the building by means of outside balconies 
of steel, iron, or masonry. Every balcony shall be at least three 
feet eight inches wide in the clear, and shall be provided with a 
substantial, solid and fireproof floor, and fireproof wall railing 
not less than three feet or more than five feet in height. Ac- 
cess to the balcony from the building and to the fire tower from 
the balcony shall be by hollow metal or metal-covered wood doors, 
jambs and casings, with wired glass where glass is used. The 
sills of these doors shall be not more than four inches above the 



188 THE FIRE HAZAKD. 

floor of the building, the floor of the balcony, and the landing 
in the fire tower. The said doors shall be self-closing, at least 
three feet wide and swing outward on the balcony and inward 
from the balcony to the fire tower and shall be provided with locks 
or latches with visible fastenings requiring no keys to open them 
in passing from the building into the fire tower. At every door- 
way leading to a balcony, the words " Fire Tower Exit " shall 
be marked in legible letters not less than eight inches high, and 
at times when artificial lighting is necessary, a red light shall be 
provided to indicate each such exit. The landings in the fire 
tower shall be of such width that the doors opening into the 
tower shall not reduce the free passageway of the landings so as 
to be less than the width of the stairs. 

Stairways of the fire towers shall comply with the requirements 
of this section for stairways in fireproof buildings. There shall 
be a direct exit from every tower to the roof and to the sidewalk, 
or through a fireproof passage or tunnel to the sidewalk. Said 
passageway shall be not less than three feet eight inches wide and 
six feet six inches high and without steps, all changes in level 
being overcome by grades. 

At each story every tower fire escape shall be provided with 
natural light either by suitable self-closing windows of wired 
glass in metal frames or through wire glass panels in the doors. 
The area of glass shall be at least eight square feet at each story. 
There shall be, in addition, both in the tower fire-escape and in 
the passageway, if any, an electric lighting system, which shall 
furnish adequate light and be so arranged that the opening of 
any door into the tower shall cause all the electric lights to burn. 

All balconies, stairways, passageways or tunnels, and all doors 
leading to fire tower balconies shall at all times be kept free from 
incumbrances and obstructions as required by the provisions of 
the State Labor Law relating to fire-escapes. 

In every factory or workshop hereafter erected or altered, 
stairs and fire towers shall be provided as follows: (a) When 
the area does not exceed 2,500 square feet, there shall be at 
least one stairway; when the building is to be occupied by more 
than fifty persons above the first story, if only one stairway is 
provided it shall be of fireproof construction, with stair hall and 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 189 

fireproof inclosure walls as specified elsewhere herein under 
Stair Halls; (b) When the area exceeds 2,500 square feet and 
does not exceed 5,000 square feet, there shall be at least two 
stairways; (c) When the area exceeds 5,000 square feet, and does 
not exceed 10,000 square feet, there shall be at least three stair- 
ways, and when the building is occupied above the first story by 
more than 500 persons each stairway shall not be less than five 
feet six inches in width; (d) When the area exceeds 10,000 
square feet there shall be at least four stairways, and when the 
building is occupied above the first story by more than 1,000 
persons each stairway shall be not less than five feet six inches 
in width. In case any of the above-mentioned buildings are 
more than three stories or 40 feet high, tower fire-escape will 
be required as follows: When the floor area above the ground 
floor equals 2,500 square feet or less, and if occupied above the 
first story by 200 persons or more, there shall be at least one 
tower fire-escape. When the area is between 2,500 square feet 
and 10,000 square feet, there shall be at least one tower fire- 
escape, and for every additional 10,000 square feet or fraction 
thereof, there shall be one additional tower fire-escape. 

When the area of any floor exceeds the above requirements for 
four continuous lines of stairs, such additional stairways, tower 
fire-escapes, fire walls, or other means of exit and provisions for 
safety shall be provided as the Superintendent of Buildings, or 
other municipal or state bureaus or officers having jurisdiction 
shall direct. 

If three or more flights of stairs are required, one tower fire- 
escape, erected in accordance with this section, shall be considered 
the equivalent of one interior flight of stairs as herein provided, 
but no open fire-escapes shall be accepted in lieu of such stairs. 

Fireproof Buildings: 

In every fireproof building hereafter erected, the entire interior 
stairways, including all platforms and landings within the enclosure 
walls, except the hand rails, shall be iron, steel, brick, terra cotta 
or other approved and equally fire-resisting materials. The width 
of the stairs, landings, and platforms and the width and height of 



190 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

the treads and risers respectively shall be as provided in this section. 

In case the treads, landings or platforms of any metal stairs are 
of slate, marble, or other stone, there shall be placed directly under- 
neath of each tread, landing or platform for their entire length and 
width, a steel or wrought-iron plate solid, or with openings not 
exceeding four square inches in same, of adequate strength, but 
in no case less than one-eighth of an inch in thickness, and securely 
fastened to the stair strings with bolts or rivets, or to both the stair 
strings and the risers if the treads be more than three feet eight 
inches long. If the treads, landings and platforms are solidly sup- 
p.Tted for their entire length and width by masonry, concrete or 
other fireproof material?, steel supports shall not be required. 

In every fireproof building hereafter erected, the number of 
interior stairs 'shall be as provided in this section for non-fireproof 
buildings, except that fire towers shall not be required. In fireproof 
buildings with fire walls, as herein specified, only one continuous 
stairway with exits to the roof and the street will be required in 
each space or section of the building between vertical fire walls, 
and exterior walls; but said stairways, landings and platforms shall 
be at least five feet six inches in width and built in accordance with 
this section. 

STAIR HALLS; ENCLOSURES FOR STAIRWAYS AND ELEVATORS; 
DUMBWAITERS; LIGHT AND VENT SHAFTS. 

Stairways and Elevator Halls: 

In every factory building hereafter erected to be used or occu- 
pied by more than fifty persons above the first story, and which is 
exempted from tower fire-escapes or fire walls as herein elsewhere 
required, the stairways shall be of fireproof construction as pro- 
vided herein under Interior Stairs, and said building shall have 
enclosed stair and elevator halls around the stairways and ele- 
vators in each story, including the first and cellar stories. The 
total areas of such halls shall not be less than three times the 
total floor opening areas of the stairway and elevator shafts in 
each story. 

The enclosing walls of the stair and elevator halls and the door 
and window openings in the same shall be as provided under stair- 
way and elevator enclosures. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 191 

Said stair and elevator halls shall have finished floor surfaces of 
stone, tiling, cement, rock asphalt, or other approved incombustible 
material. 

Stairv:ays and Elevator Enclosures-' 

All fireproof stairways and every elevator hereafter erected shall 
be enclosed in fireproof shafts throughout their entire height. The 
enclosing partitions shall be of brick, terra cotta brick without cellu- 
lar spaces, or reinforced concrete, and supported by suitable founda- 
tions of masonry, concrete or steel. 

The bottom of every elevator shaft and the top of such shaft, 
if it does not extend through the roof, shall be fireproof. If any 
th-vator shaft in a non-fireproof building extends to the top floor, 
it shall be carried through the roof and three feet above it. 

If not used as bearing walls, the partitions enclosing stairways 
and elevator shafts shall be not less than eight inches in thickness 
for the uppermost forty feet, and shall increase four inches in thick- 
ness for each additional forty feet or part thereof ; or when wholly 
supported by suitable steel framing, at vertical intervals of not 
over twenty-four feet, they may be eight inches in thickness 
throughout their height, provided vertical steel structural mem- 
bers weighing not less than three pounds per lineal foot are framed 
at each corner of the shaft, and that in the case of elevator shafts 
containing more than one car, similar intermediate vertical mem- 
bers be framed opposite the divisions between the cars; the en- 
closing partitions in all cases to be thoroughly anchored to said 
vertical members; or in the case of fireproof buildings with in- 
combustible floor surfaces, trim and finish, with supporting and 
vertical steel framing, and when built of materials all as herein 
specified, the enclosing partitions of stairways and elevators may 
be four inches thick. 

The inside surfaces of all elevator shafts when finished shall be 
flush, smooth, and free from projecting sills, lintels, or off-sets. 

The door openings through stairways and elevator enclosures in 
each story shall be provided with approved self-closing fireproof 
doors. Window opening's in said enclosures shall open to the outer 
air, and shall be of approved hollow metal or metal-covered frames 
and automatically closing sash, with wired glass. Where elevator 



192 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

enclosures extend through the roof of a building, the roof of the 
enclosures shall be of approved fireproof material with a skylight 
of at least three-quarters of the area of the shaft, the glass to be 
not more than one-eighth of an inch thick and protected above and 
below with strong wire netting set in iron frames ; but wired glass 
shall not be used in skylights over elevator enclosures. 

When the compartment containing the machinery for operating 
the elevator communicates with the elevator shaft, said compartment 
shall also be enclosed in fireproof partitions as required for the 
elevator shaft, and shall have standard fire doors. 

Enclosures for Dumbwaiters: 

All dumbwaiter shafts hereafter placed in any building, except 
shafts which do not extend more than one story above the cellar 
or basement floor in dwelling, shall be enclosed by walls of brick, 
reinforced concrete, terra cotta or other equally fireproof material 
at least four inches thick. Such walls or partitions shall rest upon 
masonry or concrete foundations or upon suitable steel framing. 

Where the dumbwaiter shaft extends into the cellar or lowest 
story of a non-fireproof building, it shall be enclosed in that story 
with walls of masonry not less than eight inches thick. 

The bottom of all dumbwaiter shafts shall be fireproof, and 
where such shaft does not extend through the roof, the top of the 
shaft shall be fireproof. 

When dumbwaiter shafts extend through the roof, they shall 
extend at least three feet above the roof, and shall be covered with 
fireproof material, and have a metal frame skylight covering at 
least three-fourths the area of the shaft. 

All openings in shaft walls shall be provided with self-closing 
standard metal doors, with metal jambs and trim. 

Light and Vent Shafts: ^ 

In all buildings hereafter erected or altered, except frame build- 
ings, the walls or partitions forming interior light or vent shafts 
shall be not less than four inches in thickness, exclusive of plaster. 
The walls of all light and vent shafts whether exterior or interior, 
shall be carried up not less than three feet above the level of the 
roof and shall be coped. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 193 

STANDPIPES; AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS; FIRE SHUTTERS 
AND DOORS. 

Standpipes and Fire Applicances: 

In every existing factory building exceeding 85 and not over one 
hundred and twenty-five feet in height, which is not provided with 
a three-inch or larger standpipe, and in all factory buildings here- 
after erected exceeding 85 and not exceeding 125 feet in height, 
there shall be provided a vertical standpipe not less than four inches 
in diameter. 

In every existing factory building exceeding 125 feet in height 
which is not provided with a three-inch or larger standpipe, and in 
all buildings hereafter erected exceeding 125 feet in height, there 
shall be provided a vertical standpipe not less than six inches in 
diameter, or two vertical standpipes not less than four inches in 
diameter. 

All standpipes now erected or hereafter erected shall have on each 
floor in the stair hall, if practicable, a two and one-half inch hose 
connection, with hand valve, and upon an approved rack or reel, 
sufficient hose to reach any part of the floor. There shall be sufficient 
hose at the valve on the top floor to reach any part of the roof. 
Standpipes and fittings 1 shall be of galvanized wrought iron or steel, 
or of brass, shall have screwed joints, and shall be able to safely 
withstand a water pressure of 300 pounds per square inch when 
installed and ready for service. Standpipes shall be located, con- 
structed and arranged to the satisfaction of the municipal or state 
bureaus or officers having jurisdiction. 

In buildings over 100 feet deep and fronting one or more streets 
there shall be a standpipe at each end of the building; and in build- 
ings exceeding 5,000 square feet in area there shall be one stand- 
pipe for each stairway. Where two or more standpipes are re- 
quired, they shall be connected at the base by pipes the size of the 
largest standpipes, so that the water from any source will supply 
all standpipes. Hangers and supports shall be of ample strength, 
and be securely braced to avoid vibration. 

Hose shall be two and one-half inches in diameter and able to 
safely withstand a water pressure of 200 pounds per square inch. 
It shall be in fifty foot lengths, and have at each end a standard 
7 



194 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

coupling with the thread used by the Fire Department, and shall 
have at least a three-quarter inch standard nozzle. There shall be 
two hose spanners at each hose connection. 

Every standpipe shall have at the street level a Siamese connection 
with an outlet the same size as the standpipe. Each connection for 
hose shall have an area equal to one-half of the standpipes and the 
thread on the hose connections shall be that used by the Fire 
Department. 

In every building hereafter erected each standpipe shall be carried 
up with each floor after the structure has reached a height of 85 feet. 
Each standpipe shall be fitted with an outside Siamese connection in 
a proper and accessible place, and on each floor above the second 
floor regulation hose outfits shall be provided as the work pro- 
gresses. The upper end of each riser shall be securely capped at 
all times except when work on the standpipe is actually in progress. 

In each connecting pipe just inside the building, in a horizontal 
section, shall be placed a straightway check valve, but not a gate 
valve. A drip pipe and valve shall be placed between the check 
valve and the steamer connection. Besides the steamer connec- 
tions, the standpipes may be supplied with water from the street 
mains at points where the pressure therein is sufficient, and if 
required by the Fire Commissioner or other municipal or state 
officer having jurisdiction, they shall be connected with an ap- 
proved automatic fire pump with a capacity of not less than 500 
gallons per minute, a suitable elevated tank or an approved pres- 
sure tank equipment of not less than 5,000 gallons capacity. 

Where a standpipe is connected to a tank there shall be a 
straightway check valve in a horizontal section of pipe between 
the first hose outlet in the connecting pipe and tank. The tank 
shall be supplied by a separate pipe, and not through the stand- 
pipe. 

Pumps which supply standpipes shall be placed not less than 
two feet above the floor level, and boilers which supply steam for 
such pumps shall be protected against the flooding of their fires 
to a level at least one foot above the general floor level. All elec- 
tric wiring for fire pumps and elevators shall be so installed as 
to secure it against injury by fire. 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 195 

In every building exceeding 85 feet in height at least one 
elevator shall at all times be in readiness for immediate use by 
the Fire Department. 

All existing factory buildings, and those hereafter erected, 
which exceed 85 feet in height shall be provided with such 
wrenches, fire tanks and fire extinguishers, buckets, axes and pails 
as may be required by the Fire Department. 

All valves, hose, tools and other appliances provided for in this 
section as required by the Fire Commissioner or other munici- 
pal or state officer having jurisdiction, shall be kept in perfect 
working order, and at least once a month the person in charge 
of the building shall make an inspection to make sure that they 
are in good working order and ready for immediate use by the 
Fire Department. 

Plans showing location, size and connections, with duplicate 
descriptions of all standpipe installations, shall be furnished to 
the Fire Commissioner or other municipal or state officer having 
jurisdiction. These drawings must be to scale, and shall con- 
sist of such floor plans and sections as may be necessary, to show 
clearly all such work to be done, and must show all partitions, 
stairways, inclosures and elevator shafts. The work of installing 
a standpipe shall not be commenced or proceeded with until said 
drawings and descriptions, in detail, shall have been approved 
by the Fire Commissioner, or other municipal or state officer hav- 
ing jurisdiction. No modifications of the approved drawings and 
descriptions shall be made until after new plans and descriptions 
covering the proposed change or changes are similarly filed and 
approved. 

Automatic Sprinklers: 

In every non-fireproof factory huilding the height of which 
exceeds three stories or forty feet, which is to be occupied by more 
than 200 persons above the first story, and in every fireproof 
building which is to be occupied by more than 200 persons above 
the seventh story and which is not equipped with approved fire- 
proof window frames and sash (closing automatically) with wired 
glass, incombustible floor finish, trim, etc., there shall be provided 
a complete equipment of automatic sprinklers, which shall be 



196 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

satisfactory to the municipal or state bureaus or officers having 
jurisdiction, in each story and extending the full depth and breadth 
of the building. Said sprinkler pipes shall be connected with a 
pipe not less than four inches in diameter leading to the outside 
of building, and there provided with an approved Siamese 
steamer connection, the latter to be installed under the require- 
ments, and to be under the control of and for the use of the Fire 
Department. A suitable iron plate with raised letters shall be 
attached to the said steamer connection, or to the wall opposite it, 
reading "Automatic Sprinklers." 

In every building used or occupied for business or manufac- 
turing there shall be provided along the ceiling line of each story 
below the first story an equipment of automatic sprinklers which 
shall be satisfactory to the Fire Commissioner, or other muni- 
cipal or State officer having jurisdiction. The inlets of these 
supply pipes shall be placed near the Siamese connections for their 
standpipes. These supply pipes shall be fitted with a standard 
Fire Department connection. On the wall near each supply pipe 
or attached to said pipe shall be placed a suitable plate to read, 
" This pipe connects to automatic sprinklers in the cellar." 

Fire Shutters and Doors: 

Every factory with masonry walls, more than 25 feet in height 
shall have standard fire doors, blinds or shutters or their equiva- 
lent, as required in this section, on every exterior window and 
opening above the first floor, except on openings fronting on 
streets, which are more than thirty feet in width, or where no 
other building is within thirty feet of such opening. 

Where an approved fireproof window frame and automatically 
closing sash glazed with wired glass is installed, fire shutters may 
be omitted. 

At least one row of shutters vertically in every three vertical 
rows on the front window openings shall be so arranged that they 
can be readily opened from the outside. 

In every fireproof factory building hereafter erected and reg- 
ularly occupied by more than fifty persons above the first story, 
the window frames and sash shall be of metal or wood covered 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 19Y 

with metal, the sash closing automatically and glazed with wire 
glass. 

All windows or doors opening on fire escapes in all buildings 
hereafter erected shall be fireproof as provided in this section. 

Shutters and their hinges shall be kept free from rust and 
corrosion, and kept "well painted. 

Rolling iron or steel shutters shall be carefully counter-bal- 
anced, and so arranged that they can be readily opened from the 
outside. 

All buildings hereafter erected or altered, except those ex- 
empted in the first paragraph of this section, which have open- 
ings in interior walls, shall when required by the Superintendent 
of Buildings be provided with standard fire doors on both sides 
of the wall ; such fire doors to have approved self-closing devices. 
All occupants of buildings shall close all exterior and interior fire 
doors and shutters at the close of each business day. 

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS. 

It is recommended that all fireproof factory buildings exceed- 
ing 85 feet in height be required to have the floor surfaces of in- 
combustible finish, and all doors, trim and interior finish of fire- 
proof materials, all window frames and sash to be of metal or 
metal-covered wood, the sash to close automatically and be 
glazed with wire glass. 

It is recommended that all industries whose product or raw 
materials are highly inflammable, such as celluloid, etc., be pro- 
hibited from occupying ordinary factory buildings. Concerns 
manufacturing such goods should be required to occupy separate 
or detached buildings, in which the following special features are 
provided: (1) Fireproof stock and supply rooms with approved 
fireproof doors and ventilation to the outside. (2) Fireproof 
receptacles for all waste and rubbish. (3) Metal or fireproof 
work tables. (4) Artificial light without exposed flames. (5) 
Hot water heating system. (6) Requirements prescribed by the 
proper jurisdictions permitting only a designated, limited quantity 
of inflammable materials or goods in the work room. 



198 THE FIRE HAZARD. 

It is recommended that approved fire tanks of not less than 15 
gallons capacity, with included buckets, be provided to comply 
with the requirements of the insurance and underwriting rules, 
instead of the ordinary fire buckets. 

It is recommended that fireproof receptacles be required in 
every factory for all combustible scraps, cuttings, rubbish and 
other waste; and that it be made compulsory that a sufficient 
number of employees be detailed to collect such waste and keep 
the premises clean during the working hours, such waste and 
rubbish to be removed from the premises at the end of each work- 
ing day. 

It is recommended that firms and individuals be obliged to obtain 
a license from the proper bureau or jurisdiction, subject to such 
regulations as may be drafted by such bureau, before they are 
permitted to engage in business. Before such license shall be 
issued and before any premises can be occupied as a factory em- 
ploying more than ten persons exclusive of the office employees, 
a complete detailed plan shall be filed and be approved by the 
municipal or state bureaus or officers having jurisdiction. Such 
plan shall be on a scale not smaller than one-quarter of an inch 
to the foot, and shall show the exact location and correct dimen- 
sions of all exits, machinery or other equipment, light fixtures, 
electric switchboard, work tables, permanent and temporary par- 
titions, material and supply rooms, stock rooms, drying rooms, 
toilet rooms, hat and cloak rooms, shelving, fire appliances, desks 
and all other furniture except chairs or seats. 

It is recommended that all new factory buildings intended to 
be occupied by more than fifty persons above the first floor be of 
fireproof construction. 

It is recommended that smoking in factories in which the raw 
materials or products are of a combustible nature be made a crime 
punishable by law. 

It is recommended that the sale of all ordinary matches be pro- 
hibited, and that safety matches only be permitted on sale in the 
state. 

It is recommended that gasoline, naphtha, and other highly 
inflammable and volatile liquids be prohibited in factory build- 



THE FIRE HAZARD. 199 

ings. Where non-inflammable substitutes are not practicable, 
limited quantities to be fixed by the proper jurisdiction, to be 
permitted in approved safety cans and under conditions to be pre- 
scribed by the Bureau of Fire Prevention, or other municipal or 
state bureaus or officers having jurisdiction. 

Respectfully submited, 

H. F. J. PORTER, 
Adviser on Fire Matters to the Commission. 



APPENDIX III 



REPORT ON BAKERIES AND BAKERS 
IN NEW YORK CITY 

By GEOKGE M. PRICE, M. D. 



REPORT ON BAKERIES AND BAKERS 
IN NEW YORK CITY 



By GEORGE M. PRICE, M. D. 

PAET FIRST. 

THE SANITARY INSPECTION OF 497 BAKERIES. 

I. 

Man does not live by bread alone, but it is his chief food and 
" staff of life." Of all the arts, that of bread making is the most 
ancient. Of all of the industries indispensable to human econ- 
omy, not one is so important or so closely related to the health of 
the nation as that of making our " daily bread." 

In spite of all this there is no industry that has achieved 
so little progress, or which is conducted under such unsanitary 
conditions, with processes so elementary and archaic, as the trade 
of bread baking. 

The shocking revelations of " The Jungle " were necessary 
before belated reforms could be introduced in the meat packing 
trade. One hundred and forty-six victims perished in the Tri- 
angle fire before New York was aroused to the e very-day menace 
from fires in loft buildings. The unsavory details of the man- 
ufacture of our daily bread must perhaps be made public before 
the long needed reforms in the trade can be secured. 



On April 18th, 1911, the Commissioner of Accounts of New 
York City, Mr. Raymond Fosdick, issued a report entitled " On 
the Sanitary Conditions of Bakeries in New York," the result 
of an inspection of one hundred and forty-five bakeries made in 
conjunction with the Consumers' League. (1). 

Previous to the appearance of this report, a daily newspaper 
made an independent inspection of a number of bakeries in this 
city, and daily regaled the public with descriptions and photo- 
graphs of the findings of its reporters. 



Note. Numbers in parenthesis refer to the bibliography, page 238. 



204 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

As this subject was undoubtedly within the jurisdiction of the 
State Factory Commission appointed " to investigate existing con- 
ditions under which manufacture is carried on as to matters affect- 
ing the health and safety of operatives, and of the general public," 
an investigation was undertaken to determine existing conditions 
and to recommend remedial legislation. 

Accordingly, an inspection of 485 bakeries (497 individual 
shops) was made by our staff of inspectors. 

The inspections were made chiefly between the hours of 8 and 
12 P. M., although some visits were made during the earlier hours 
of the day. With the exception of six large factories, the bakeries 
inspected were all located in cellars. 

The inspection of bakeries was confined to the cities of New 
York and Yonkers, more especially to the Boroughs of Manhattan, 
Brooklyn and the Bronx. Practically all sections of these boroughs 
were covered. 

The International Bakers' Union and its locals in the city have 
closely co-operated with the Commission, and in a large num- 
ber of cases sent their representatives to accompany our inspectors. 

Besides the sanitary inspection of 497 bakeries, a staff of physi- 
cians engaged by the Commission made physical examinations 
of 800 bakers. These examinations were made during working 
hours, while our inspectors investigated the sanitary conditions 
of the shops. This report is therefore based on the results of the 
sanitary inspection of 497 bakeries, and upon 'the examination 
of 800 bakers. 



IT. 

BREAD MAKING A MUCH INVESTIGATED INDUSTRY. 

Bread making has been investigated both in this country and 
abroad, perhaps more than any other industry. 

In England, the agitation against unsanitary bakeries was 
begun by the Journeymen-bakers in the late fifties and early six- 
ties of the last century. In the " Reports of the Bakery Trades 
in Ireland," issued in 1861, and " Reports Relating to the Griev- 
ances of the Journeymen-bakers," in England, in 1862, 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 205 

these conditions are vividly described, and this report, 
says Marx, (2), '' roused not the heart of the public, 
but its stomach." " Englishmen, well up in the Bible, 
knew well enough that man is commanded to eat his bread in 
the ' sweat of his brow/ but they did not know that they had to 
eat daily in their bread a certain quantity of human perspiration, 
mixed with the discharge of abscesses, cobwebs, black beetles, with- 
out counting alum, sand, and other agreeable ingredients." 

While the two Commissions, the one in Ireland in 1861 and the 
other in England in 1862, were the first official bodies to investi- 
gate the bakery trades, attention was directed to this subject much 
earlier. W. A. Guy, in 1848, wrote a monograph on " The Evils 
of Night Work and Long Hours of Labor Among Bakers." (3). 

Since the time of the two Commissions in the early sixties, a 
number of investigations were made by several non-official bodies, 
and all of them commented upon the unsanitary state of the bak- 
eries and the abnormal conditions under which the bakers worked. 

The most notable of these investigations was that conducted by 
the so-called Lancet Special Commission in London in 1889, the 
report of which was published in the " Lancet " in 1889 and 
1890. (4). 

The results of these investigations were also published later by 
Drs. Waldo and Walsh in a book entitled " Bread, Bake-Houses 
and Bacteria," to which further reference will be made. (5). 

In 1894, the Medical Officer of Health, Shirly Murphy, issued 
a report on the " Sanitary Conditions of the Bakery Houses," 
which resulted in the " Factory Act " of 1895, prohibiting the 
location of bakeries in cellars, and providing strict regulations for 
the industry. (6). 

In Germany, the agitation for the improvement of bakeries was 
due mainly to the efforts of the Bakers' Labor Unions, whose 
activities began in the late eighties of the last century. 

In 1888, a voluntary investigation was made by a Committee 
of the Social Democratic Party. The results of this investigation 
are fully described by A. Bebel, in his book. (7). 

In 1898, the results of another investigation undertaken by the 
Union bakers of German} were published under the title of " Ein 
Nothschrei der Backerei-Arbeiter Deutschlands.'* (8.) 



206 BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 

This agitation has had for its practical result the law of March 
4th, 1896. 

In France, the miserable conditions of the bakers drew atten- 
tion much earlier, and we find references to this subject in 1715 ; 
(9); then, in 1834; (10); then later in 1862; (11). During 
the short-lived reign of the Commune in 1871, a decree was issued 
prohibiting all night work for bakers. Since that time numer- 
ous investigations have been made, and from time to time acts have 
been passed regulating the industry. 

There is no country where the subject of night work in 
bakeries received such early attention as in Norway, where an act 
prohibiting all night work in bakeries was passed as early as 1885, 
and has remained in force ever since. 

A similar law prohibiting night work in bakeries was passed in 
Italy in 1906, after numerous investigations and parliamentary 
battles. 

In the United States, the first agitation against unsanitary con- 
ditions was due to the efforts of the Bakers' Labor Unions. 

In New York State, the agitation dates back to 1894. A law 
limiting the hours of labor to sixty a week was passed by the Leg- 
islature in 1895, but was afterwards declared unconstitutional. 
In 1896 there appeared a pamphlet published by the Bakers' 
International Union, entitled " Bake House Sanitation. An 
Inquiry into Conditions Surrounding Bakeries and Journeymen- 
Bakers, and Their Relation to Public Health." (12). 

This report gives the results of certain investigations, and quotes 
also the results of investigations made by the Factory Commis- 
sioner of 1,058 bakeries throughout the State, of which 623 were 
found unhealthful. 

In the Legislative session of 1896, Assemblyman A. J. Audett 
introduced a bill (No. 203) in which there was the following 
provision : " No cellar or basement not now occupied for a bakery 
shall be hereafter used for such purposes." The bill failed to pass. 
Since that time clauses relating to bakeries have been embodied 
in the laws of 1906, 1907 and 1911. 

In Pennsylvania, an investigation of bakeries was made by the 
" Philadelphia Inquirer " in 1895; and in the same year in Pitts- 
burg by the "Leader." (13). 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 207 

In New Jersey an investigation of bakeries and a medical 
examination of 933 bakers was made in 1892. 

Numerous investigations have been lately carried on in more 
than a dozen other states, where various acts have been passed in 
reference to bakeries. 



111. 

THE INDUSTRY. 

According to the United States Census in 1900, there were in 
the United States 14,917 bakeries, employing 60,271 wage earn- 
ers. According to the Census of 1910, there were in New York 
State in 1909, 3,962 bakeries, employing 13,676 workers. The 
distribution of bakeries in the cities of the first and second class 
was as follows: New York, 2,489; Buffalo, 190; Rochester 
106; Syracuse, 73; Albany, 64; Troy, 41; Yonkers, 35, and 
Utica, 28. 

The art of bread making is as old as mankind, and dates back 
to the beginning of civilization. The mixing of ground grains 
with water, and the roasting of this mixture in fire is the first 
process of bread making, known to the most primitive tribes. 
Bread making is the first art mentioned in the Bible. From the 
Egyptians it is said that the art descended to the Greeks ; although 
according to an old myth this art was presented to the Greeks by 
the god Pan. 

From the earliest time to the present, bread making was essen- 
tially a home industry, an industry carried on by every woman 
in every household. Indeed, according to Plinius, there were no 
bakeries in Rome before the year 174 B. C., and only later were 
these introduced and flourished, as may be seen from the ruins of 
Pompeii. (14.) But, except in very large cities, bread making 
as a separate trade has always had to compete with bread making 
in the home. 



208 BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 

The domestic form of the industry is favored by the few in- 
gredients, the uncomplicated process, and the simple art of bread 
making. 

The few essential processes of bread making are: (1st) mix- 
ing of the flour, (2nd) kneading of the dough, (3rd) cutting and 
shaping into appropriate loaves, and (4th) baking in the oven. 
These four simple processes are practically all that are used in the 
home, as well as in large establishments ; the difference being only 
in the amount of the materials used and in the size of the output. 

Because of the simplicity of the processes and the essentially 
domestic character of bread making the industry is an unpro- 
gressive one. There is hardly another trade in which the methods 
are so archaic, and the conditions so primitive. The same com- 
ments on bakeries and bakers may be made now that were made 
over two hundred years ago by Rammazzini (15). 

Not only is this industry a non-progressive and domestic one, 
but it is in the hands of small employers; it is a petty produc- 
tion trade par excellance. It is carried on with very small capital, 
in very small establishments, and with very few workers in each. 

In France there is one bakery to every 874 persons ; in Belgium 
one to every 465 persons; in Italy one to every 930, and in the 
United States, one to every 4,657. (16). 

In Berlin there are on an average 2.81 bakers to each bakery; 
in Italy 1.3 bakers, and in New York State about 3 bakers to every 
bakery. There were 3,002 workers in 480 bakeries, which were 
examined, and deducting 562 workers of the six bakery factor- 
ies, there remain 2,440 workers in 475 bakeries, or about 5 to 
each shop. There has been, however, during the last ten years a 
noticeable tendency to centralize this industry, to put it in 
the hands of large capitalists, and to introduce a large number 
of machines. It is a very difficult matter to monopolize this 
trade, in view of the fact that the processes are so simple that it 
can be carried on in every household. Unless there is a com- 
plete monopoly of the grain production and flour milling, there 
cannot be an extensive monopoly of bread making; certainly not 
with an undue raising of the price of bread. For wherever that is 
the case, the competition of the housewife will keep all prices 
down to a certain level. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 209 

IV. 

THE WORKPLACE. 

We have seen that bread making is a domestic industry with 
which the bakeries compete with difficulty. We should note 
that the bulk of the trade is in the hands of petty trades- 
men ; that the capital invested by each is comparatively small ; 
that there are but a small number of workers in each bakery; 
that each bakery caters to the trade of the immediate neighbor- 
hood; that the processes of the industry are very simple; that the 
number of small establishments is very great and the competi- 
tion among them very keen. It follows, therefore, that the profit 
on every loaf baked is very small, and the smaller baker must 
economize as much as possible if he wishes to make a living from 
his trade. 

The cheap rent of cellars, their availability, ubiquity, the ease 
with which a brick oven can be fitted into every cellar, etc., are 
the principal reasons for the location of the industry in cellars. 

In Paris nearly all the bakeries are in cellars; in Berlin 34.4: 
per cent were in cellars. In London bakeries were mostly in cellars 
until 1895, when new bakeries were prohibited from occupying 
cellars, and all bakeries put under stringent sanitary regulation. 
(16). 

It is not different in the United States. In Chicago, accord- 
ing to Ball (17), there were in 1907, 582 cellar bakeries, or 43 
per cent of all the bakeries. In Philadelphia, four-fifths of the 
bakeries were in cellars; in Pittsburg 101 out of 125 were found 
in cellars. (13.) 

The latest figures show that there are nearly 2,500 (2,489) 
bakeries in New York City, and according to the report of Mr. 
Fosdick " excluding the so-called factory bakeries, of which there 
are less than 100 in X-ew York, the great majority of bakeries, if 
not all, are located in cellars and basements." (1). Even some of 
the factory bakeries do their baking in cellars. Of the 485 
bakery establishments visited by our inspectors, 479 were located 
in cellars. 



210 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 





TTPI 


TABLE I 
B or BUILDINC 


> 








Tenement 
(cellar) 


Loft 


Dwelling 
(cellar) 


Special 
Factory 


Total 


Number 


431 


4 


39 


11 


485 


Per cent 


87 


1 


9 


3 


100 















As is seen from the table, most of the bakeries inspected were 
located in cellars of tenement and dwelling houses. That these 
cellars are unfit for such purposes is of course not considered, as 
long as rent is low. Any cellar in a tenement can be converted 
into a bakery with the simple addition of a brick oven, which is 
sometimes built in the vault, very often near or at the privy vaults, 
school sinks or house drain. 

The depth of the cellar below the sidewalk or adjoining ground 
depends of course upon the situation of the house. Most of the 
cellars occupied for bakeries are quite low underground, the ceil- 
ings of such cellars rarely being more than a foot or two above 
the sidewalk, and in the majority of cases at or below the adjacent 
ground. 

The height of the cellar ceiling from its floor depends also upon 
the original construction of the house, the average height being 
about 7^ feet? although a large number may be much lower. In 
the investigation carried on by the Commissioner of Labor in 
1895, there were 1,049 cellar bakeries inspected, of which 
713 were 8 feet high; 258, 7 feet high; 172, 7y 2 
feet; 181, G 1 /^ feet; 69, 6 feet; and a number still lower; 
and there were three cellars five and a half feet high. (18). Our 
inspectors did not take exact measurements, although they give 
the approximate height, and their report shows that most of the 
cellars are about 7 to 8 feet high, showing considerable improve- 
ment since 1895. 

A cellar is defined in the Tenement House Law as a story 
more than one-half of which is below the curb, while a base- 
ment is a story partly but not more than half below the level 
of the curb. 



BAKETCTES AND BAKERS. 211 

Comparatively few basements are used for bakery purposes. 
This is partly because the rent of the basement is com- 
paratively high, and partly because of the difficulty of building an 
oven in a basement floor. Wherever basements are used by baker- 
ies, there is invariably a cellar below, which is used for the sale of 
the product and for living purposes by the master baker and his 
family. 

What are the results of this location of bakeries in cellars? 
They are many and serious. 

The following is an enumeration of the evils due to location 
in cellars : 

Peril from Fire. Dressing-rooms. 

Defective Drainage. Toilet Accommodations. 

Inadequate Light. Cleanliness of Utensils. 

Defective Ventilation. Handling of Product. 

High Temperatures. Cleanliness of Product. 

Excessive Humidity. Sleeping on Premises. 

Proximity of Plumbing. Presence of Domestic Animals. 

Condition of Surfaces. Presence of Vermin and Insects. 

Washing Facilities. Safety of Product. 

Peril from. Fire : 

It is well known that fires in tenement houses and other 
dwellings frequently start in the cellar. A bakery in a cellar 
is very often the source of such fires. Attention was directed to 
this danger in 1894 by Fire Chief Bonner in his reports to the 
Gilder Commission. (19). 

A great many of the cellars have ceilings consisting either of 
beams, or beams covered with boards. The flimsy cellar stairs 
which connect most of the cellars with the ground floor hallway- 
are also an aid in rapidly spreading a fire; added to this, there 
is commonly much rubbish, paper, etc., strewn all over the cellar. 

There is also a large element of danger to the employees of 
bakeries in case a fire starts in any part of the cellar near the 
entrance trap door or stairway. The ordinary cellar is provided 
with only one door, which serves as a means of entrance and exit. 



212 



BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 



This door is usually located either in front of the house, or at its 
extreme rear, so that there is a distance of from 50 to 70 feet 
between the exit and the place where the work is carried on. 

Defective Drainage: 

It is only within the last ten years that tenement houses have 
been built with compulsory damp-proof courses in the foundation 
and sides of the house. All houses previously constructed were 
built without any protection against dampness, so that many cel- 
lars are not only damp, but actually partly filled with water. 
Especially is this the case in the cellars of houses situated upon 
marshy ground, or upon filled-in ground, as in streets neariug the 
river front, where most of the cellars and bakeries therein are 
flooded during storms and high tide. 

The cellar floors are usually very damp. Although lately this 
has been lessened by the concreting of floors, our inspectors 
found 132 cellars where floors were damp. 



TABLE II 

FLOORS AND DRAINS or 497 BAKE^SHOPS* 
FLOORS 





MATERIAL 


Wood 
and 
con- 
crete 


Con- 
crete 


No 
re- 
port 


Dry 


CONDITION 


Earth 


Wood 


Stone 


Damp 


No 
re- 
port 


Number 


1 


168 
34 


2 


172 
34 


146 
30 


8 
2 


340 
68 


132 

27 


25 
5 













LOCATION 






2ONDITION 






Above 


Below 
floor 


No 
report 


Good 


Bad 


No 
report 




167 


279 


51 


235 


108 


154 




33 


57 


10 


47 


22 


31 

















*NoTE In this and following tables the unit is the Jt<ior or 




BAKERY ON HENRY STREET, NEW YORK CITY. In a dirty corner of this bakery, to the 
right of the moulding board, is an open window leading to a dirty court. 



BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 



213 



Inadequate Light: 

It is obvious that a cellar cannot have sufficient natural light. 
Most of the cellars get their light from small horizontal grated 
openings, and very few have any vertical windows to the outer 
light and air. Wherever such windows are found they are very 
small, and their usual condition is unfavorable to the admission 
of sufficient light. 

The result is that all cellar bakeries use artificial light at all 
times. Insufficient light also affects the dryness of the cellar, the 
walls, ceilings and floors, the air within, and the cleanliness and 
salubrity of the place, for natural light is the best disinfectant 
we have, especially for mould and other low forms of germ life. 
Artificial light raises the temperature of the cellar rooms and 
adds to the impurity of the air by the processes of combustion. 

Defective Ventilation-' 

It is hardly necessary to point out that the air in cellar 
rooms cannot be pure or abundant. 

Apart from the fact that cellars get all the underground air, 
which contains a large proportion of carbon dioxide, the air is 
affected by the dampness, by the lack of natural light, by the ex- 
tremes of temperatures and humidity, by the dust and dirt blown 
in through doors and openings, by the lack of windows or open- 
ings to the outer air, and by a great many other causes. Indeed, 
the air of bakeries is stifling and foul, and the workers constantly 
complain of this condition. 



TABLE III 
LIOHT AND VENTILATION OF 497 BAKE SHOPS 





WINDOWS IN BAKERIES 


Fans 


Special 
venti- 
lating 
devices 


Arti- 
ficial 
light 


Total 


No 
windows 


One 
window 


Two 

windows 


More 
than two 
windows 


Number 


171 
35 


W2 
20 


68 
14 


156 
31 


12 
2 


6 
1 


439 
88 


497 
100 


Per cent 



214 BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 

Temperature and Humidity: 

There are few cellar bakeries where the oven is separated from 
the rest of the bakeshop. The temperature near the oven is natu- 
rally very high, and there is also a need for high temperatures 
throughout the bakeshops in order that the dough may " rise." 
Add to this the low ceiling, the lack of ventilation, the artificial 
illumination, and some idea is gained of the temperature found 
in cellar bakeries. Our inspectors found temperatures in bakeries 
ranging from 75 to 90 degrees. 

The humidity is also high, caused partly by the baking pro- 
cesses, partly by the moisture produced by illumination and by 
the profuse perspiration of the workers themselves. The wet bulb 
thermometer showed in some places 85 degrees Fahrenheit and 
abova This is a very serious evil and of great importance to the 
health of the workers. 

Proximity of Plumbing Pipes and Fixtures: 

This is another evil which characterizes cellar bakeries. The 
house drain is located in cellars, sometimes below, and at times 
above ground. Not so long ago house drains were made of brick, 
clay, and earthenware, and there are still a number of houses 
where these earthenware housedrains have not been replaced by 
iron ones. Earthenware or brick drains are filth channels, because 
of the ease with which they break and make cellars extremely 
foul and full of sewage. Iron pipes are often defective, 
have numerous open hand-holes, are not properly covered, and 
drip with moisture. Such drains are often used as a place for 
unfinished or finished bread products. Sinks are enclosed by wood- 
work, are usually foul, saturated, and emit bad odors. The space 
within the enclosures is often filled with rubbish and dirt, and is 
a breeding place of vermin. 

Conditions of Cellar Surfaces: 

The worst floors are those made of wood or earth. Floors of 
wood on concrete are also very objectionable because the wood Is 
damp, saturated and foul. Only in 146 bakeries were the floors 
found to l)f of non-absorbent materials. The walls and ceilings 
are of plaster as a rule, although there are a number of cellars 




-r 

i 



II 



~ OS 



-i 

- S3 

S3 L 

aQ o3 



*^3 C 

<U _rt 



I 5 





ol 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



215 



where the lath is exposed and the plaster of walls broken off. 
The cleanliness of walls and ceilings and floors leaves much to 
be desired, as will be seen from the following table. 

TABLE IV 

497 BAKE SHOPS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO GRADES OF CLEANLINESS 
CLEANLINESS OF WALLS 





Grade "A" 


Grade "B" 


Grade "C" 


Grade "D" 


Number ... . 


32 


264 


135 


66 


Per cent . . 


7 


63 


27 


13 



CLEANLINESS OF CEILINGS ' 





Urade A ' 


Urade "B" 


Urade U " 


Urade L 


Number 


40 


214 


126 


110 


Per cent . . 


8 


43 


25 


22 



CLEANLINESS OF FLOORS t 





Grade "A" 


Grade "B" 


Grade "C" 


Grade "D" 


Number 




248 




235 


Per cent . . 




49 




47 



CUM 


N LIN ESS OF Ul 

Grade "A" 


[ENSILS J 

Grade "B" 


Grade "C" 


Grade "D" 


Number 


28 
6 


244 
49 


144 
29 


73 
15 


Per cent 





* 7 shops not reporting. 
t!4 shops not reporting, 
t 8 shops not reporting. 

Washing Facilities: 

The washing facilities commonly found in bakeries are the 
sinks. These sinks are often dirty and have no provision for hot 
water. Even those facilities were lacking in 65% of all the 
bakeries inspected. With the amount of dirt clinging to the hands 
of workers, with the profuse perspiration, dust, etc., in such shops, 
it would seem that ample washing facilities are absolutely indis- 
pensable for the cleanliness of both. 

D rcssing-Eooms: 

In none of the cellar bakeries was there any special place pro- 
vided for hanging and keeping the street clothes of the workers; 
these clothes being placed upon the tables and walls and in very 



216 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



close proximity to the bread and pastry products. Many bakers 
work in their ordinary clothes or underwear, and partly nude. 

Toilet Accommodations: 

In 109 or 22 per cent of the bakerie- inspected, toilets have been 
found in the bakery cellars, 101 of these being totally dark; 86 
very filthy; 114 very badly ventilated. The location of toilets in 
cellars is obviously very objectionable, but it still exists in spite 
of legal prohibition. The proximity of these fixtures, especially 
when they are in such an unsanitary condition, is very 
objectionable. 



TABLE v 

LOCATION AND CONDITION OF WATER-CLOSETS i.v 497 BAKERIES 





LOCATION* 


CLEANLINESS t 


On 
prem- 
ises 


Separate 


No 

water- 
closet 


Grade 
"A" 


Grade 
"B" 


Grade 
"C" 


Grade 
"D" 


Number 


109 
22 


323 
65 


29 
6 


19 

4 


107 
21 


114 

23 


86 

17 


Per cent 





* 36 shops not reporting. t 171 shops not reporting. 





LIGHT J 


VENTILATION 


Grade 
"A" 


Grade 
"B" 


Grade 
"C" 


Grade 
"D" 


Grade 
"A" 


Grade 
"B" 


Grade 
"C" 


Grade 
"D ' 


Number 


26 
6 


115 
23 


80 

16 


101 
20 


43 
9 


89 

18 


82 
16 


114 

23 


P0r wwit. . . . . 





t 175 shops not reporting. 169 shops not reporting. 

Utensils: 

The utensils found in bakeries, such as vats, pans, mixing 
boards, dough boards, moulding boards, etc., are kept in a very 
bad condition. They invariably look as if they were never cleaned, 
and it seems unlikely that they are thoroughly cleaned, because of 
the lack of hot water in such places, as it is hardly possible to clean 
them properly without the use of hot water. 




o 



-o 
a 

O 



be 



S.S 



BAKERIES AND BAKEBS. 217 

The Handling of the Product: 

There is hardly any industry where so little precaution is 
taken in the handling of the product. 

It is recorded that in ancient times the slaves who were baking 
bread for their Roman masters were compelled to wear cloths tied 
around their faces and necks, in order that their perspiration 
should not fall into the baked product. There seems to be less 
objection against eating our bread literally mixed with the sweat 
of the brow now. The profusely perspiring bakers have not the 
time or inclination to wipe off the beads of sweat, which as a 
result fall into the dough. It is not rare to see bakery workers 
place the dough on their nude bodies, or make it serve for a pillow 
to rest their heads upon. 

In only one bakery and that a model one have the workers 
been provided with gloves for handling the product. 

The Cleanliness of the Product: 

It is fortunate that much that occurs in bakeries is not observed 
by tlie consumers, otherwise the consumption of bread bought from 
bakeshops would surely be greatly reduced, and home baking be 
more the rule than it is now. Even were all possible precautions 
taken during the making of the bread, there is absolutely no possi- 
bility of preventing the contamination of the product by the abun- 
dant dirt and dust in the bakeries or by handling during and 
after its production. 

The Presence of Animals, Vermin, Flies, etc.: 

The cleanliness of the product is not improved by the presence 
of domestic animals and flies, insects and vermin, etc. 

Cats are almost a necessity in cellars where the bread and flour 
products attract many mice. Where there are cats there are often 
litters of kittens ; these sometimes are found upon the utensils, or 
retiring upon the dough. Their presence is a matter of course 
and does not excite any comment. Some of these animals may suf- 
fer from infectious diseases. 

Flies are numerous, as there are very few cellars effectively 
screened, and it is almost impossible to keep the ubiquitous fly 
out in warm weather. These flies, born in manure and filth, 
carry on a traffic in the nearby dung heaps, toilets, street sweep- 



218 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



ings, and then rest upon the unprepared and prepared bread pro- 
ducts. Still more frequent, indeed always present, are the numer- 
ous bugs, insects and vermin. Photo No. 11 shows the wall of 
a bakery full of ants. 

The practice of sleeping in cellars is very prevalent among 
workers. Our inspectors have found ten persons actually sleeping 
in the bakeries, but our inspections were made during the night 
when work was going on. Abundant evidence was found of sleep- 
ing during the earlier hours of the day and when the workers 
have to wait for the processes to be started. Among baker ap- 
prentices whose wages are very small, the standard of living is so 
low that they do not object to using the cellars as sleeping places. 

TABLE VI 





Number 


Per cent. 


Ample washing facilities 


314 


65 


Cuspidors provided 


31 


6 


Spitting prohibited 


94 


19 


Eridence of sleeping in bakery 


10 


2 


Preftenr* nf domestic animals 


275 


55 


Flies 


236 


57 


Cockroaches, etc 


204 


40 


Oth^r insecta (not npftc'fieH) . , , . , . . 


88 


18 









Safety of the Product: 

The question naturally arises what effect the conditions under 
which bread is made have upon the cleanliness of the bread and 
other bakery material, and whether the consumption of bakers' 
stuff is safe under these circumstances. 

It has been definitely determined that the baking process, which 
should sterilize the product, does not necessarily destroy all in- 
fectious agents in the bread. 

In the investigation made for the Lancet Commission (4) and 
afterwards published by Waldo and Walsh in their book, numer- 
ous experiments are mentioned which show that the temperature 
which reaches the center of the baked loaves does not exceed 180 
degrees Fahr., and that pathogenic bacteria may not be destroyed, 
certainly not the spore-bearing bacteria. " We see no reason," 
say Drs. Waldo and Walsh, " why the origin of many mysterious 
septic invasions of the human body may not eventually be traced to 




OS 





1 



O 



B 

00 




.O 00 

I 

*M 








JI 







BAKERIES AND BAKEKS. 219 

the agency of infected bread," and " baking does not necessarily 
destroy the vitality of the micro-organisms contained in the dough." 
(5) Experiments have demonstrated that tubercle germs may 
survive the baking process, and that cholera germs put into the 
flour may have the vitality to infect persons eating the baked 
product. 



PART SECOND 
THE HEALTH AND DISEASES OF THE BAKERS 

A Mi;m< AL EXAMIXATIOX OF EIGHT HUNDRED BAKERY WORKERS. 



It would be strange indeed if the unsanitary conditions of bake- 
houses described above should not affect the workers. 

Indeed, bakers are proverbially unhealthy and the trade 
of baking one which cannot be long carried en with complete 
impunity. 

Over two hundred years ago, Rammazzini, in speaking of bakers 
(15), said, " that the bakers in the course of their work are brought 
under the lash of various diseases," and in 1832 Thackrah (20), 
stated that " bakers are generally pale and unhealthy." The testi- 
mony of almost all those who have been investigating the subject of 
the health of the bakers since Rammazzini is unanimous that the 
bakers suffer from many diseases on account of the abnormal con- 
ditions existing in their trade. 

The character of the persons entering the trade has of course 
much to do with their suffering from the effects of the trade con- 
ditions. Until very lately, and even in the present day, the ranks 
of the bakery workers have been recruited from a class of people 
rather poor in physique, low in intelligence, and inclined to alco- 
holic and other excesses. Undoubtedly this is drne to the unsatis- 
factory conditions which are known to exist in the trade, and 
which deter a better class of artisans from entering it 



220 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

Sex: 

There are very few women in the trade. This is strange at first 
sight, in that bread-making is distinctly woman's work, and that 
practically every housewife is able and does follow the occupation 
of break-making and baking. 

Yet there have never been many women employed in this in- 
dustry, although women have crowded into other and more strenu- 
ous trades. In our investigation we found women, but they were 
employed in one or two large bakeries and were engaged in wrap- 
ping up the bread. 

The explanation probably lies in the fact that the notorious con- 
ditions of the cellar bakeries have always deterred women from 
entering into competition with men in the baking trade. 

Age: 

As to the age of bakers, it is known that there are few either 
very young or very old persons in the trade. 

There were in olden times a large number of apprentices, young 
boys, in the baking trade. Much attention was paid to the health 
of these boys, and many laws were passed limiting the age at 
which they might enter tho trade. There >are at present not many 
workers under 16 or 18 years of age. 

In our investigation sve found only three below 16 years in the 
500 shops. 

The number of persons over 45 years is not very large in the 
baking trade. This is partly explained by the fact that many of 
those who have been fifteen or twenty years in the trade become 
master bakers, a comparatively easy advance, as little capital is 
needed to start a small cellar bakery. The other reason for the 
scarcity of men over 45 years of age is that the mortality of the 
trade is very high. Twenty or thirty years after their entrance 
into the trade, many get into such a debilitated condition physi- 
cally that they are unfit for the trade and drift into some easier 
occupation. 




5 

o 
a> 

a 



a 

.c 



o3 
U Ol 



O 



o 



ffi 




BAKERY ON HENRY STREET, NEW YORK CITY. The dirty pants and coats of the bakers 
were hanging on top of, and resting upon, the new baked bread. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 221 

II. 

CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE HEALTH OF THE WORKERS. 

What are the conditions unfavorably affecting the health of the 
bakery workers ? 

Among the conditions which have been mentioned but not suffi- 
ciently emphasized is the high temperature to which the bakers are 
subjected, while other conditions, not yet discussed, are low wages, 
long hours of work, and night work. 

Temperature : 

That bakers are compelled to work in places where the tempera- 
ture is very high has already been noted. The high tempera- 
tures, in connection with the lack of clothes worn while at work, 
and the strenuous efforts required in kneading the dough, and 
the draughts in the cellar bakeries due to the doors and gratings, 
are bound to affect unfavorably the health of the workers and to 
cause various pulmonary disorders. 

Corlieu (21) ascribed to these causes the frequent respiratory 
diseases from which the bakers suffer, as well as the rheumatic 
troubles due to the high temperatures under which they work. 

'/<i<lcli (22) states that high temperatures and profuse perspira- 
tion cause the great thirst of bakers, which they seek to quench 
with cold drinks and alcoholic beverages, and they therefore suffer 
greatly from digestive disturbances, nervous diseases and from 
cardiac affections. 

According to Emmerich (23) the relatively high humidity of 
the air in bakeries, combined with the high temperatures, " lead to 
vasomotor disturbances, and undoubtedly influence the composition 
of the blood, as they cause a rise in the body temperature." With 
a high temperature in the bakeshop, and with an atmosphere 
humid almost to saturation, the natural evaporation and cooling 
of the body by perspiration is difficult." 

Low Wages: 

It is a characteristic trait of many industries conducted under 
unsanitary conditions that they are filled with a class of workers 
who are paid very low wages. 



222 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

The fierce competition of the bake shops with domestic bread- 
making, and with each other, the low standard of the workers. 
and the lack of organization, all contribute to the low wages of the 
bakere. 

In the investigation of the Commissioner of Labor in 1894 
already referred to above, it was shown that the large majority of 
workers in the bakeries in New York State have been getting less 
than $12.00 a week. Of the 1,940 bakers among whom inquiry 
was made, only 242 have received $12.00, and less than 300 above 
that figure, while 188 were getting $10,00 ; 195, $8.00 ; 150, $7.00 ; 
127, $6.00; 143, $5.00; 94, $4.00; 66, $3.00; and 24, $2.00 per 
week. 

The present wages paid to bakers are somewhat higher on the 
average, owing to the successful struggle of the Bakers' Unions, but 
they are still quite low and do not average more than $14.00 per 
week, according to the statement of leaders of the union. The 
are lower among the unorganized workers. 



Long Hours of Labor: 

The length of the working day is determined by many circum- 
stances, but it has also a natural limit. The worker needs a cer- 
tain number of hours out of a total of twenty-four to recuperate 
his bodily strength, a certain number of hours to satisfy his physi- 
cal wants, and certain time to satisfy intellectual needs and enjoy 
some recreation and social intercourse. 

Unfortunately the bakery industry is characterized not only by 
the extremely unfavorable conditions already discussed in detail, 
but also by unduly prolonged hours of work. 

In the investigation already referred to, made by the Commis- 
sioner of Labor of New York in 1893, the long hours of labor of 
bakers were described in detail. 

Some of the bakers examined had worked the following hours: 
85, 60 hours per week ; 89, 62 hours ; 48, 66 hours ; 83, 67 hours ; 
92, 68 hours; 91, 69 hours; 165, 72 hours; 203, 74 hours; 62, 
80 hours; 76, 88 hours; 16, 90 hours; 19, 100 hours; 11, 105 
hours; 112, 110 hours; 2, 111 hours; 3, 112 hours; 3, 126 hours. 
(18.) 



BAKERIES AND BAKEKS. 223 

At present the hours of work in New York bakeries are limited 
where union conditions prevail to 10 hours per day, and 60 hours 
per week, but wherever they are not organized they still work 
very long hours, not less than 12 daily, at times much longer. 

Indeed, it is no new thing for the bakery workers to complain 
of long hours of work. The Commissions which investigated the 
condition of bakers in Ireland and England in 1861 and 1862 
reported as follows : " The Committee believes that the hours of 
labor are limited by natural laws which cannot be violated with 
impunity. The Committees believe that they cannot work beyond 
12 hours a day without encroaching on the domestic and private 
life of the working man, and so leading to disastrous moral results, 
interfering with each man's home and the discharge of his family 
duties as a eon, a brother, a husband, or a father that work 
beyond 12 hours has a tendency to undermine the health of the 
working man, and so leads to premature old age and death." And 
yet, nearly half a century later, judges of the Supreme Court have 
in their superior wisdom decided that to limit the hours of labor of 
adult bakers to 60 hours per week would deprive them of " their 
freedom of contract," and declared the law unconstitutional. 

It seems obvious that even in trades where conditions are excep- 
tionally good and hygienic, extremely long hours of labor would act 
injuriously upon the health of the workers, and hence lower the 
vitality of the nation and the race. This is doubly true in an 
industry where, as we have seen, all other conditions of work are 
so unfavorable. 

( 'h ief Justice Parker declared, in the case of " People vs. Loch- 
ner," " it is to the interests of the State to have strong, robust, 
healthy citizens, capable of self-support, of bearing arms, and of 
adding to the resources of the nation. Laws to effect this pur- 
pose by protecting the citizen from overwork and requiring a gen- 
eral day of rest to restore his strength and preserve his health, have 
an obvious connection with the public welfare." (24.) As is 
well known, the case was finally decided against the State, as inter- 
fering with " freedom of contract," as the court could not be con- 
vinced that tfee long hours did interfere with the health of the 
operatives. 



224 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

Night Work: 

To all the conditions injuriously affecting the health of the 
bakers and endangering their lives, one more, and a very im- 
portant one, must be added, viz., night work. 

Night work in the baking industry is at present prevalent all 
ever the world, with the exception of those countries where it has 
been prohibited by legislative action. 

Notwithstanding the prevalence of night work in the baking 
industry, it was not always a characteristic of this industry. 

In England, night work dates, according to the report of the 
Commission of 1862, from 1824, when it gained a footing in 
London. 

The story of the beginning of night work in Paris is interesting, 
and is told thus: "It was under Louis XIV, a big baker on 
Ferroneri street, moved through his jealousy of an intelligent com- 
petitor, wanted to have fresh bread in the morning before his rival, 
and made his workmen begin an hour earlier, that is to say, at six 
in the morning, instead of seven. The rival, in his turn, being just 
as short-sighted, put his men at work at 5 A. M. ; then the first 
man made it 4 o'clock. The other baker followed the example. 
From 4 o'clock in the morning they went to three, and so forth, 
from baker to baker, until the day work was replaced by night 
work." (16.) 

From Paris the custom of night work spread to other cities, and 
then to foreign countries. According to the Secretary of the Ger- 
man bakers, night work in Germany was a Paris innovation, and 
dates back about 120 years. 

At present, in the United States and in other countries where 
night work is not prohibited, work in bakeries begins at any time 
between 8 and 12 p. m. 

The effects of night work upon the health of the workers is 
extremely bad. The following passage from " The Dawn," a 
daily paper of Lugano, Italy, December 1st, 1906, states the 
effects of night work very admirably : 

"All night work is harmful to the body, even if it is voluntary ; 
if it is compulsory, it is still more so; when it is habitual, it also 
becomes harmful morally, because it upsets the customs of life, 
which are founded on the laws of nature, and in this way, banishes 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 225 

the workmen far from the social life. If it were absolutely neces- 
sary, the night work of the bakers would be a sad necessity ; forced 
on them merely by a custom, it is an injustice for which we are all 
to blame. To wish that it be kept up, not for necessity's sake, but 
for our pleasure, shows the harsh egoism of a race not yet refined 
by the civilization of which it boasts." (16.) 

Dr. Epstein, in his book "Arbeiterkrankheiten," speaks of the 
effects of the long hours of labor and of night work as follows : 

" The long working hours, which would be sufficient cause to 
bring on grave effects on health, fall, in the bakery business, on 
that part of the day which nature has destined for sleep. Doctors 
and hygiene experts are unanimous in declaring that sleep at night 
can in no wise be replaced by sleep in the daytime, and that a 
prolonged scorn of the need of sleep must ruin a man's health. It 
is also clear that this degeneration in health is not shown by the 
specific diseases, but by a general weakening of the body, whose 
resistance to the normal or pathological excitations of existence 
(contagious diseases) is destroyed. The most recent inquiries on 
the cases of over work show that we are really in the presence of 
chemical intoxication." (28.) 



III. 
THE DISEASES OF THE BAKERS. 

In order to study the effects of the unsanitary conditions of the 
bakeries and the unhygienic circumstances under which the work 
is conducted, bakers have been from time to time examined and 
their mortality from certain diseases determined. 

Hoffman refers to a medical examination of 933 bakers, under- 
taken in New Jersey in 1892. 

The physical examination of 800 bakers, made under the aus- 
pices of the New York State Factory Commission during October, 
is the only medical examination of bakers ever made in this State. 

The examination was made during the four weeks beginning 
with October 25th and ending November 10th, 1911, and was con- 
8 



226 BAKERIES AND BAXERS. 

ducted under my immediate direction by a staff of six physicians, 
the majority of whom weru recent graduates from reputable medi- 
cal colleges, and who had had from one to three years' hospital prac- 
lirc after graduation. The examination was conducted in the 
bakeries, simultaneously with inspections of the shops, and in a 
number of cases with the aid of interpreters furnished by the 
Baker's Union, which assisted us in all possible ways. 

The majority of examinations were made during the hours 
between 8 p. m. and 12 m., although some were also made in the 
earlier hours of the day. In all cases the chest of the baker was 
bared and a stethoscopic examination made, each examination lu.-t- 
ing from fifteen minutes in negative cases, to a half hour or more 
in cases where there was a positive indication of some pathological 
condition. 

As already noted, all districts of the city have been covered, and 
examinations made in good and bad bakeries. A number of men 
of every nationality were examined, although Russian workers 
constituted the largest number of those examined. The exami- 
nation card shows the method of inquiry. All the bakeries in- 
spected were union shops and the bakers were union members, and 
these, it is probable, are in a better physical condition than non- 
union members, who usually work under less favorable conditions. 

No correlated tabulation has as yet been made on account of lack 
of time, and there are a number of points not yet brought out in 
our examination, such as the relation of the nationalities to the 
kind of bakeries and the sanitary conditions, the relations of the 
ages and the times of entering trade, the relation of age of work- 
ers to the diseases, etc., and many other points which will be taken 
up later in a supplementary report on all of the food-producing 
trades. 

The physicians in the first few days of the examinations took, 
as a matter of routine, the sputum of every man examined, but the 
120 specimens taken were all negative, and as it was extremely 
difficult to get any real sputum by this method, this test was omitted 
in the later examinations. The examination was made in the shop, 
in the presence of all other employees, the workers submitting with 
will and interest. No secondary examination was made even of 
cases where a positive indication of tuberculosis was found. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 227 

Table VII shows the results of the examination. The tabula- 
tion has not yet been made in detail and is not complete. 
Where anemia was put down by the physicians as a disease, they 
were instructed to describe only well-defined or extreme cases, 
not slight paleness. 

Of the 800 bakers examined, 347, or 43 per cent, were found 
free from any disease, while 453, or 57 per cent, had some indi- 
cation of defective physical condition. 

The diseases found were, as seen from the table : Tuberculosis, 
19: "Bronchitis, 177; Pleurisy, 2; Venereal Diseases, 3; Diseases 
of the Skin, 59. The percentages given refer to the whole number 
examined (800). Deducting the cases of anemia, rhinitis, all 
digestive diseases, all hernia cases and all of flat feet, there still 
remain 422 separate cases of diseased conditions. 

The data which is important in an effort to determine the effects 
of an industry upon the workers, is in regard to the average life, 
the general mortality rate, the mortality rate from special causes, 
the general morbidity rate, and the morbidity rate from special 
diseases. 

The Average Life: 

Bakers are, according to all authorities, a short-lived race. 

Arlidge says (25), " those who have read the reports on hygienic 
state of bakc-housos, and the circumstances of labor in them, will 
not be surprised that the mortality of bakers ranges high." 

The average life of bakers, according to older statisticians, is 
50.3, according to Neufvill (51) ; according to Hirt (26), 45.1; 
according to Spatz, 36.2 ; according to the English Commission of 
1862 (Marx), 42. According to Fox, few bakers last more than 
20 years in the trade (28). 

General Mortality, and Mortality from Special Diseases: 

According to the English, French and Swiss statistics, the 
average mortality of bakers does not range very high in compari- 
son with workers in other trades. A possible explanation of this 
fact is the known tendency of bakers to forsake their trade in 
their old age, or before they become old, so that the number of 



228 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



TABLE 
PRELIMINARY TABULATION OF THE RESULTS OF A PHYSICAL 





NUMBER 


NATIONALITY 


Number 


m 
1 


Russian 


German 


Austrian 


1 


Bohemian 


Hungarian 


I 


Total number of bakers examined 


800 


100 


249 


214 


106 


102 


42 


25 


22 


Number of bakers in normal condition, i. e 
free from any disease or deformity 
noted below 


347 
453 

19 
47 
183 
3 


43 
57 


82 
167 


138 
176 


23 

83 


33 
69 


28 
14 


13 
12 


8 
14 


Number of bakers with one or more dis- 
eases noted below 


General diseases: 
Tuberculosis 


2.4 
5.9 
22.9 
.4 


10 

71 

A 


4 
20 
13 


4 
5 
48 


2 
5 

38 

1 


j 


1 


3 


Rheumatism 


t Anaemia 


Venereal diseases 


Total general diseases 


252 

83 
2 
6 
1 
6 


31.6 
10.3 

>:: 


90 


37 


57 


46 


< 





3 


Diseases of the nervous system and organs 
of special sense : 
Diseases of the eye: 
Chronic conjunctivitis 


34 

7 
3 


3 


30 

1 


13 
1 


.... 


Keratitis 


Blepharitis 


Nyastagmus 


1 


1 


1 








Other nervous diseases 


Total nervous and special sense diseases . . 

Disease of the circulatory system: 
JCardiae diseases 








98 


11.9 

6.8 
5.1 


44 


4 
16 


32 


15 




2 


1 

1 


54 

41 


17 
17 


11 

13 


7 
8 


1 
1 




Phlebitis 


Total diseases of circulatory system 


95 

177 
2 
21 
6 


11.9 

22.1 
.3 
2.6 
.8 


34 

58 

"5 
3 


16 


24 


15 


2 




2 

7 


Diseases of the respiratory system: 
Bronchitis 


49 
1 
5 


30 

1 
5 


21 


4 


5 


Pleurisy 


Asthma and emphysema 


1 
3 


3 






Rhinitis 






Total diseases respiratory system 














206 

21 
14 
15 
26 


25.8 

\ 4 ' 4 

1.9 
3.3 


66 


55 


36 


25 


7 


5 


7 


Diseases of the digestive system: 
Tonsilitis 


M 
'! 


2 
2 
1 

s 




11 




Pharyngitis 


2 

4 
8 








1 


Gastritis 


1 
3 




1 


Hernia 


Total diseases digestive system 

Diseases of the genito-urinary system: 
Nephritis 






76 
2 

23 
16 
6 

4 


9.5 


29 


13 


14 


15 




1 


1 


.3 


1 


1 












Diseases of the skin: 




6 
6 

7 


7 
2 

6 


1 
5 


6 
3 

6 


2 






Ecsema 






Uloeration 


1 


1 




1 


Scabies 


Other skin diseases 


10 


) 


Total skin diseases 


59 

54 

842 


7.4 
6.8 


19 


15 


6 


14 
5 


3 

4 


1 


1 
3 

--_ ? -_^ 

17 


Disease* of the organs of locomotion: 
FUt foot 


25 


3 


13 


Total number of cases 


308 


144 


182 


135 


19 


16 







Includes tuberculosis suspects. t Facial evidence only. t Includes 5 cases palpitation, 
enlargement, 2 muffled action, 1 pericarditis. 1 atheroma of aorta. f Includes 104 bakers 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



229 



VII 

EXAMINATION OF 800 BAKERS IN NEW YORK CITY 





AGES 


NUMBER OFTEAR8 
IN TRADE 


AGE ON ENTERING 
TRADE 


MARITAL 
CONDITION 


American 


Other 
Nationalities 


Under 
16 years 


16-44 years 


45 years 
and over 


Under 1 year 


8 

s 

? 


10 

I 

O 


Under 
16 years 


16-20 years 


Over 20 years 


S 


o 

1 




10 


30 


3 


684 


113 


24 


53 


723 


H466 


195 


139 


612 


188 


4 
6 


18 
12 




292 
392 


55 
58 


19 
5 


22 
31 


306 
417 


220 
246 


70 
125 


48 
91 


263 
349 


84 
104 


3 


'3 


1 
3 
2 




16 
29 
163 
3 


3 

18 
18 


1 


3 


15 

47 
163 
2 


7 
28 
106 
1 


4 
7 
41 
1 


8 
12 
36 
1 


16 
39 
140 
2 


3 
8 
43 
1 




2 


5 


15 

1 












3 


6 
1 


2 


211 

77 
9 
5 


39 
6 


6 


19 


227 


142 


53 


57 

15 
3 
3 


197 

46 
8 
4 


55 

37 

1 
2 


3 
1 

1 


80 
8 
5 


49 
4 
1 


19 
2 
2 










1 














1 




91 


7 




5 


93 


54 


23 


21 


58 


40 

10 
3 


1 






47 
34 


7 
7 


1 


2 
1 


51 
40 


30 
29 


15 

7 


9 
5 


44 

38 


1 








1 
2 


1 




81 


14 


1 


3 


91 


59 


32 


4 


82 


13 


1 


2 


148 
2 
12 
6 


27 


3 


10 


164 
2 
21 
6 


100 
1 
14 
3 


36 

1 
2 
1 


41 


139 
2 
20 
4 


38 


1 


1 




9 






5 

2 


1 
2 




















3 


2 

1 


2 


168 


36 


3 


10 


193 


118 


40 


48 


165 


41 




19 
13 
14 
19 


2 
1 
1 

7 


1 


3 


17 
14 
14 
25 


14 
8 
9 
15 


4 
4 
4 
2 


3 

2 
2 

y 


15 
10 
13 
24 


6 

4 
2 
2 












1 




2 




1 






^ 


3 




65 
1 

23 
16 

16 


11 
1 


2 


4 


70 
2 


46 


14 

1 

9 
2 

7 


16 


62 
2 


14 










1 


1 








1 


4 
1 

4 


18 
15 

14 


13 
11 

9 


1 
3 

4 


9 
14 

12 


14 
2 

8 












2 


2 


2 






1 




2 


55 


2 
9 


3 


9 


47 


33 
39 


18 


8 


35 


24 










45 




1 


53 


10 


5 


48 


6 
193 


8 


13 


6 


717 119 


15 


51 776 


49S 


191 


160 


649 



15 rapid action, 15 murmur, 5 endocardita, 4 arteriosclerosis, 4 regurgitation, 2 cardiac 
who have been over 30 years in the trade. 5 In detail. 



230 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

bakers dying from all causes is not the true criterion of the gen- 
eral mortality rate of all the bakers. 

Leclerc de Pulligny notes u that the special death rate of bakers 
in the cities is affected by the fact that among these are also in- 
cluded the master bakers, who, as a rule, succeed in preserving 
their health in spite of the dangers of their trade." (29.) 

According to Tatham (27), the general mortality figure of bak- 
ers in England was 177, while that of agriculturists was 100. 
!I< re, too, as in many of the other statistics, bakers are grouped 
with confectioners, who ; as a rule, work under better conditions 
and are not so affected by their trade. 

The general mortality rate of bakers and confectioners, as well 
as the mortality rate from special causes has been discussed in 
detail in Frederick Hoffman's article, Bulletin No. 82, Depart- 
ment of Labor. (24.) The following are Hoffman's comments 
on the subject : 

" In 1900 the number of bakers and confectioners reported in 
the registration States was 39,181, among whom there occurred 483 
deaths from all causes, or 12.3 per 1,000. The death rates by 
divisional periods of life were slightly higher for bakers at all 
ages except 25 to 34. The differences were not marked, or, to be 
specific, at ages 25 to 44, the rates were 7.9 for bakers, against 8.4 
for males in the manufacturing and chemical industries. At ages 
45 to 64 the rates were 23.4 and 20.2, respectively; and at ages 
65 and over, 105.8 for bakers and confectioners, and 105.4 for 
males in the manufacturing and mechanical industries. The mor- 
tality from consumption among bakers was 2.5 per 1,000; from 
pneumonia, 1.2, and from other diseases of the respiratory sys- 
tem, 0.4. In commenting upon the mortality, it is stated in the 
census report that: 

" The highest death rates (per 100,000) of bakers and confec- 
tioners were due to consumption (250.1), diseases of the urinary 
organs (145.5), diseases of the nervous system (160.8), and pneu- 
monia (117.4), but the rates due to all of these diseases except dis- 
eases of the urinary organs were lower than the average rate? in 
this class. The rates from diseases of the liver (45.9) and other 
diseases of the digestive system (58.7) were much higher than the 
average rates from these diseases in this class." 



BAKERIES AND BAKEES. 231 

The Rhode Island vital statistics for bakers for the period 1852 
to 1900 include 221 deaths from all causes, and of this number 
44, or 19.9 per cent, were from consumption. During the decade 
ending with 1906 there occurred 86 deaths from all causes, of 
which 15, or 17.4 per cent, were from consumption. Of the mor- 
tality from other respiratory diseases, 2.3 per cent were deaths 
from asthma, and 9.3 per cent deaths from penumonia, a total of 
29 per cent of deaths from diseases of the lungs and air passages. 

The recorded industrial insurance mortality statistics of bakers 
include 1,357 deaths from all causes, of which 277, or 20.4 per 
cent, were from consumption. Of the mortality of bakers from 
respiratory diseases other than consumption, 124 were from pneu- 
monia, 23 from bronchitis, 17 from asthma, and 21 from less 
frequent respiratory diseases. If the deaths from consumption 
and from other respiratory diseases are combined, it is found that 
34 per cent of the mortality of bakers are from the diseases of the 
lungs and air passages. The number of deaths of bakers under con- 
sideration is exceptionally large and strictly representative of this 
important occupation. The excess in the consumption mortality 
of bakers is clearly brought out in the tabular presentation of the 
proportionate mortality from this disease by individual periods of 
life, it being excessive at all ages below 65, but most so at ages 
25 to 34, when, out of every 100 deaths from all causes, 42.8 were 
from consumption, against a normal expected proportion of 31.3. 

The preceding observations and mortality statistics, included in 
the insurance experience, are much at variance with each other, and 
do not entirely warrant definite conclusions. It is somewhat open 
to question how the general official statistics are impaired in value 
by the inclusion of confectioners, who are, probably, less exposed to 
flour and other organic dust than bakers. The most convincing 
(statistics are those for Switzerland, and the industrial insurance 
experience data, both of which indicate an excess in the degree of 
consumption frequency, although not at identical periods of life. 
Taking all the facts, however, into careful consideration, they 
would seem to warrant the conclusion that consumption is of more 
frequent occurrence among bakers than among occupied males gen- 
erally, and that the degree of excess in consumption frequency is 
partly the result of continuous and considerable inhalation of flour 



232 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

dust. The mortality rate is also affected by the general conditions 
under which the work of a baker is carried on, including excessive 
hours, unsanitary conditions of bake-shops, night work, etc. The 
occupation is exceedingly important, both as regards the baker him- 
self and the public at large, and a further and more thorough inves- 
tigation into the mortality of this occupation would be a most valu- 
able contribution to industrial hygiene." 

General Morbidity, and Morbidity Rate from Special Diseases: 

As already noted in Hoffman's statistics, the number of bakers 
dying from tuberculosis, respiratory and other diseases, is quite 
high. This is in conformity with the well-known prevalence of 
certain diseases among bakers. 

Our medical inspection of 800 bakers seems to confirm the fact 
that bakers are specially liable to some diseases more than to others. 

Respiratory Diseases-' 

Of the 800 bakers examined, 177 were suffering from acute or 
chronic bronchitis; 2 from sub-acute pleurisy, 21 from asthma and 
emphysema, and 6 from chronic rhinitis, in all 206, or 25 per cent 
of all the bakers suffered from some form of respiratory disease, 
22.1 per cent from bronchitis alone. This rate is very much 
higher than in any other trade, and is probably due to bad ven- 
tilation in bakeries, to the draughts, to the high temperatures and 
relatively high humidity in bakeries. 

The prevalence of bronchitis among bakers was commented upon 
over 200 years ago by Rammazzini. (15.) Of the 1,000 members 
of the Bakers' Union in Vienna in 1890-3, there was an average 
sickness from respiratory diseases yearly, 102, of which 58 suf- 
fered from acute and chronic bronchitis, with a general morbidity 
rate from respiratory diseases of 38.8 per cent. (28.) Epstein 
also remarks upon the occurrence of chronic rhinitis among bakers, 
and he also ascribes chronic bronchitis among bakers to the con- 
stant inhalation of bad air, flour, dust, etc. 

The mortality rate of bakers from consumption has already been 
referred to in the extract from Hoffman's article. In our exami- 
nation only a little less than 2.4 per cent were found to suffer from 
tuberculosis. This rate is probably not greater than among 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 233 

workers of other trades, although it is possible and highly probable 
that a number of those wo were stated by the physicians to be suf- 
fering from chronic bronchitis had either incipient or marked 
tuberculosis infection, a fact that could not be determined in a 
cursory examination. 

On the other hand, statistics from Italy, Rome, Berlin, Leipzig, 
do not show a high percentage of bakers suffering from tuber- 
culosis. 

Epstein, however, examined 98 bakers and found among them 
32 suffering from tuberculosis. (28.) 

The general morbidity rate of bakers is very high according to 
the results of our examination. Of the 800 bakers examined, 
206 were suffering from respiratory diseases, 50 from digestive dis- 
eases, 59 from skin diseases. In all there were only 347, or 43 per 
cent, of the men who were free from any pathological condition. 

Bakers are notoriously pale. 183 were strikingly anaemic, ac- 
cording to our physicians. This prevalence of anaemia among 
bakers confirm statements made by other observers. According to 
investigations made by Epstein of 183 bakers, one-sixth had a 
lower hemoglobin count than usual. Epstein thinks that the pale- 
ness of bakers does not depend so much upon the decreased per- 
centage of hemoglobin, as upon their infection with tuberculosis. 
(28.) 

Of the circulatory diseases found among the 800 examined, 
there were 54 or 6.8 per cent with distinct cardiac lesions. This is 
also in conformity with the finding of others. 

There are a comparatively large number of eye diseases (11.5 
per cent), which are chiefly due to work done in cellars, in front 
of ovens, with artificial light, and in dusty atmosphere. 

The large percentage of hernia, 9.5, is also noted in all other 
examinations of bakers, as well as the prevalence of flat feet. 
(6.8 per cent.) 

Of diseases of the skin, there were 59, or 7.4 per cent, suf- 
fering from scabies. A distinctly occupational disease is " baker's 
itch." Eczema is also very frequent among workers in bakeries. 

The prevalence of infectious skin diseases is an additional reason 
that workers who handle the bread products should be periodi- 
cally examined, and that workers suffering from these diseases 
should be isolated. 



234 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

Our physical examination of 800 bakers, incomplete as it was, 
and incomplete as is our tabulation, seems to confirm all pre- 
vious investigations made abroad and in this country, and also 
confirms the general statement as to the evil effects of unsanitary 
conditions of the bakeries upon the health of the workers in the 
trade, and the need of remedial measures to remove these evils. 



PART THIRD 
REMEDIES 

The sanitary inspection of bakeries and the physical examina- 
tion of bakers, as well as the opinions of the authorities and com- 
missions, all prove that very serious evils exist in this important 
industry, evils which are a menace to the lives of the workers as 
well as to the health of the great consuming public. What, then, 
are the remedies ? Are remedies possible ? Can bakeries be made 
sanitary? Can the industry be conducted under hygienic con- 
ditions? If remedies are imperative, shall they be applied from 
within by a reform of the industry' itself, or from without by con- 
certed public and 'legislative action? 

There cannot be any doubt that conditions are too grave to leave 
things alone until such a time as the industry reforms from 
witihin. Consideration of the health of the workers and of the 
community demands speedy and immediate action to at least 
ameliorate the worst evils existing in the trade. It is, therefore; 
imperative to apply legislative remedial measures in the interests 
of the public health. 

What direction should legislative action take? What restric- 
tions are needed, and what regulation is necessary to begin with ? 

A study of the subject will lead us to the deduction that 
remedial legislation in regard to bakeries must be in the following 
four directions. 

(1) Abolition of Cellar Bakeries. 

(2) Licensing of Industry. 

(3) Strict Supervision by the State. 

(4) Medical and Physical Examination. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 235 

Abolition of Cellar Bakeries: 

.Xo remedial legislation will be of any avail which does not 
prevent the location of this trade in underground cellars. This is 
the first principle upon which all efforts to lessen the evils of un- 
sanitary bakeries must be based. It may be put down without fear 
of contradiction, and this opinion is shared by all the health and 
factory officials interviewed, that no bakery can ever be sanitary 
as long as it is located in a cellar. 

A cellar is an unfit place for the manufacture of food stuffs, or 
for the habitation of workers. There cannot be any natural light 
in a cellar under the most favorable conditions, and no place can be 
sanitary that lacks sunlight. Cellars are the most difficult places 
to ventilate unless mechanical ventilation is installed, which is out 
of the question in the ordinary small bakery. Cellars in which 
bakeries are located cannot have a temperature which is healthy 
for workers ; they are too near the ground and the emanation from 
the ground, and the ovens and the heated atmosphere needed for 
dough raising, make it almost impossible for cellar bakeries to have 
ft moderate and equable temperature in the absence of proper venti- 
lation. Cellars cannot be kept clean as other parts of the house, 
for they are semi-dark, contain most of the plumbing pipes and fix- 
tures, and are, as a rule, the dumping ground of the whole house. 
Cellars are also the natural habitation of insects, rodents, etc., and 
are also in proximity to breeding places of flies, which are attracted 
to the food stuffs. 

The abolition of cellar bakeries is, therefore, the first remedial 
legislation which suggests itself in any scheme of bakery reform. 

Of course, there are rare exceptions, as already noted, where a 
celler may not be absolutely unsanitary, but they are so rare as to 
be negligible. 

The question which naturally comes up next is whether the use 
of cellars should be prohibited at once, or whether this reform 
should be carried out gradually ? 

In all propositions to abolish serious evils, the argument is 
brought up that a large class of persons will suffer great hardship 
if conditions are changed. But this hardship is inevitable, and has 
been urged against all progressive steps in civilization from the in- 
troduction of machinery and railroads to the introduction of motor 
cars. 



236 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

There is, however, the possibility of gradually abolishing cellar 
bakeries without inflicting too great hardships upon those engaged 
in the work, by prohibiting any further bakeries from locating in 
cellars and by raising the standards for existing bakeries so 
that the extensive alterations required will gradually drive the 
trade out of its subterranean habitations. 

Licensing of Industry: 

There are a number of industries to which the principle of state 
or municipal licensing has been already applied. These indus- 
tries have one or more features which make their control needed 
in the interest of public health. They are either dangerous to life 
because of the intrinsic perils of the materials and processes (ex- 
plosive fireworks), or they may become a nuisance to the neighbors 
(offensive trades, stables, keeping of animals, rendering of animal 
matters), or they are trades that bear an iatimate relation to the 
public health (plumbing, dairy industry, slaughter houses, etc.). 

The bread-making industry is surely one that is closely related 
to public health, and is one of the principal food industries to 
which the licensing principle should be applied. 

The licensing of the bakeries, as well as all other places where 
food products are manufactured, is a public health measure, as has 
practically been agreed by all employers and workers appearing 
before the Commission. 

The licensing of bakeries, etc., would imply a previous thorough 
sanitary inspection of the place before granting the license, and 
also the revocation of the license for infringement of the rules and 
regulations laid down as a minimum standard for this industry. 

The licensing of all bakeries in all cities is the immediate step 
in all remedial legislation, and the trade, the workers, and the 
whole public are not only ready for it, but are anxious to have it 
an accomplished fact. 

The question of the Department under whose jurisdiction this 
licensing of the bakeries should fall is a more difficult one. The 
subject, in view of the relation of the product to tho consumer's 
health, lies naturally within the scope of the work of the Health 
Department, but it also belongs to the Labor Department because 
of the necessity for regulation of the labor conditions. Some divi- 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 237 

siou of functions may be possible, such as putting of the licensing 
in the hands of the Labor Department, with the requirement of a 
sanitary certificate from the local health officials before the Depart- 
ment can issue the license. 

Regulation of Conditions: 

A licensing system is of no value unless definite standards are 
set for the trade, and a provision made for the revocation of the 
license. While the detail of such standards may be left to the dis- 
cretion of the Labor Commissioner, there are certain definite mini- 
mum sanitary standards which should be defined by law. Some 
tentative standards are suggested below. There is only one neces- 
sary comment to make in respect to night work. While the senti- 
ment of the public and of the workers is not as yet strong enough 
to abolish night work in this country, the question of night work 
and its effects upon the health of the > workers is very important 
from a hygienic standpoint, since healtfay products cannot very 
well be prepared by unhealthy workers. 

The regulation of the hours of labor is a most necessary function 
of the State, and I believe there has been accumulated during the 
last few years sufficient evidence to show that a regulation of the 
hours of bakers to sixty per week, or even less, will be no infringe- 
ment of the most sacred right, '' freedom of contract," for it will 
be in the interest of public health, and is, therefore, a just ex- 
ercise of the police power of the State. 

Simultaneously with a legal maximum of weekly and daily hours 
of labor, a law is needed to regulate night work, by making a 
shorter (eight hour) period for all night work. Such a legal regu- 
lation seems to be most desirable in the interests of the industry, 
the workers and the public health. 

Physical Examination-' 

A system of medical examination of employees entering the 
trade has already been introduced into many industries, and all 
civil service positions require a more or less rigid medical ex- 
amination. Many private corporations, such as railroads, tele- 
graph companies, stores and certain other industrial establish- 
ments require a previous physical examination. 



238 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. 

( 1 ) R. B. FOSDICK. A Report on the Sanitary Conditions of Bakeries in 
New York, April 18, 1911. 

(2) KABL MABX. Das Kapital. 

( 3 ) W. A. GUY. The Case of the Journeymen Bakers ; being a Lecture on 
the Evik of Night Work and Long Hours of Labor. 1848. 

(4) LANCET. Report of the Lancet Special Commission on Bakeries and 
Bread Making. London, 1889-1890, Lancet. 

(6) F. J. WALDO and D. WALSH. Bread, Bakehouses and Bacteria. Lon- 
don, 1895. 

(6) S. MUBPHY. Report of the Medical Officer on the Sanitary Conditions 

of Bakehouses, Feb. 1, 1894. 

(7) BEBEL. Zur Lage der Arbeiter in den Backereien, 1890. 

(8) BEBEL. Ein Nothschrei der Backerarbeiter Deutschlands. Ergebniss 

der vom Verbrand der Backer . s. w. aufgennomenen Erhebungen, 
1898. 

(9) REBEL. La Misfire des Garcons Boulaugers de la Ville et Faubourgs 

dc l';iri;s ('I roves, 1715). 

(10) BONABD. Noveau Jour Pour La Cuisson du Pain. Annal d'hygiene, 

1834. 

(11) RIGAU. Sur la Boulangerie au Point de Vue de 1'Hygiene Publique, 



(12) RIGAU. Bakehouse Sanitation. An Inquiry into the Conditions Sur- 

rounding Bakeries and Journeymen Bakers in Relation to Public 
Health, 96. Brooklyn. 

(13) "Inquirer," 1895. Philadelphia, Pa. Bakers and Bakehouses, Their 

Conditions, etc. 

(14) Dr. C. MOLLEB Gesundheitsbuch fiir das Backergewerbe, Berlin, 

1898. 

(15) RAMMAZZINI. Treatise on Diseases of Tradesmen, 1705. 

(16) M. BOUTELOUP. Le Travail de Nuit dans les Boulangeries, Paris, 

1909. 

(17) CHAS. B. BALL. Sanitation of Bakeries and Restaurant Kitchens. J. 

Am. Pub. H. '11. 

(18) .N. Y. STATE COMMISSIONER OF LABOR REPORTS, 1893-1896. 

(19) REPORT OF TIIK TEXKMENT HOUSE COMMISSION, 1894. 

(20) THACKBAH. Effects of Arts, Trades and Profession on Health and 

Longevity, 1832. 

(21) A. OOBLIEU. Le Sant6 de 1'Ouvrier Boulanger. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 239 

(22) ZADEK. Hygiene der Miiller. Backer und Conditoren. Veyl's Hand- 

buch der Hygiene, 189C. 

(23) EMMERICH. The Baking Industry from the Hygienic Standpoint. 

Deutsche Wierteljahrshrift fur Gesundheitspflege, 1903. 

(24) F. HOFFMAN. Mortality from Consumption in Certain Occupations. 

Bulletin 82, Dept. of Commerce and Labor. 

(25) ARLIDGE. The Diseases of Occupation. 

(26) HIBT Die Krankheiten der Arbeiter. 

(27) OLIVES. Dangerous Trades. 

(28) EPSTEIN. Die Krankheiten der Backer. Handbuch der Arbeiter- 

Krankheiten, 1908. 

( 29 ) LE CLERC DE PULLIGNY. Hygiene Industrielle. 

SUGGESTED MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR BAKERIES. 

(1) After a certain date no new bakeries shall be located in any 
cellar, nor shall any cellar, once vacated, be again occupied as a 
bakery. 

(-2) The owners of all existing bakeries shall be required to 
obtain a license from the State Labor Department. No bakery 
shall be conducted within the State without a proper license from 
the Labor Department. 

(3) The Commissioner of Labor shall upon application of 
an owner of a bakery for a license, cause an inspection to be made 
of the premises, to determine the compliance with all the rules of 
rlif 1 Department and of the Labor Law, and shall issue such license 
under additional certificate of tihe Local Department of Health or 
Health Officers, certifying that all sanitary conditions as to the 
manufacturing of food products have been complied with. 

(4) Said license shall be good for one year after date of issue, 
?nd shall be renewal annually only upon an inspection, and shall 
be revocable for cause at any time. 

(5) The hours of labor in all bakeries for all workers therein 
shall be limited to a maximum of ten hours in every 24 hours, 
and to 60 hours per week of seven days. 

(6) No female worker under 21 and no minor under 18 shall 
be permitted to work more than 8 hours per day, 48 hours per 



240 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

week, nor shall they be permitted to work between the hours of 
7 P. M. and 6 A. M. 

(7) Every employee in a bakery shall be required by the 
owner thereof to present a certificate from a reputable physician, 
said certificate to state that a physical examination has been made, 
and that he is free from any disease that would endanger the pub- 
lic health while working at his trade. 

Work falling wholly or in part between the hours of 8 P. M. 
and 6 A. M. shall be considered night work, and shall be limited 
to 8 hours in every 24 hours. 

(8) No room can be used as a bakery or work room in a 
bakery in which artificial light is needed during the whole day. 
One window shall be required, said window to be at least 15 
square feet in area. 

(9) A window space in a bake or work room shall not be 
less than one-fifth of the floor space of such rooms. 

(10) At least 450 cubic feet of area space, and 50 square feet 
of floor space shall be allowed for every person employed therein. 

(11) Every bakery shall be provided with ventilating fans, or 
in lieu of such fans, chimneys may be arranged so as to venti- 
late bakery properly. 

(12) All windows shall be so arranged that they can be easily 
opened for the purpose of ventilation. 

(13) In every bakery the space where the bake oven is 
located shall be partitioned off by a fire-proof partition dividing 
it from the rest of the work rooms. 

(14) The walls and ceilings of all rooms- in the bakery shall 
be plastered and cemented, and shall be painted in a light color or 
calsomined with lime, such surface to be cleaned as often as 
ordered by Commissioner of Labor. 

(15) No wooden floors shall be permitted in any part of the 
bakery. All floors must be level and smooth and be made of 
non-absorbent material and be cleaned daily and kept clean at all 
times. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 241 

(16) All posts, columns, beams, etc., exposed within any 
part of the bakery shall be covered with sheet metal and painted 
over with light-colored paint. 

(17) All windows and doors opening in any part of the bakery 
shall be screened with copper wire screens with meshes sufficiently 
close to prevent flies and other insects from entering through 
same. 

(18) Every bakery shall be equipped with a sufficient sup- 
ply of pure running water and shall be provided with at least one 
sink or wash-basin for every ten employees, and provision shall 
be made for a supply of hot water. 

(19) No sink or wash-basin or any fixture within the bakery 
shall be enclosed with wood work, said sink or wash-basin to be 
kept in a sanitary condition at all times. 

(20) Suitable dressing rooms, or places where workmen 
can change their clothes shall be provided in every bakery, and 
every employee in a bakery while at work shall be provided 
by the owners, free of cost, suitable caps, slippers, overalls or 
aprons, which shall be laundered at least twice a week, or oftener 
if necessary, free of cost to the employee. 

(21) No chewing tobacco or spitting on floors in bakeries shall 
be permitted, nor shall smoking be permitted to the employees 
while at work. 

(22) No person shall be permitted to sleep in any part of 
a bakery, or in rooms where flour or meal used in connection there- 
with, or where any food products are handled or stored. 

(23) Cuspidors of impervious material shall be provided, and 
cleansed daily. 

(24) No water-closets or urinals shall be permitted in any bake 
shop or bake rooms. All such fixtures shall be placed in separate 
departments provided with a window to the outer air, and pro- 
vided with artificial illumination wherever it is necessary. 

(25) All utensils used in a bakery, and all places upon which 
the unfinished or finished materials are placed or stored shall be 



242 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

made of such material as may readily be cleaned and shall be kept 
clean at all times. 

(26) All flour, starch, sugar and all other products used in the 
process of baking shall be stored either on platforms or shelves or 
shall be kept in covered metal barrels or receptacles so as to 
be clean and free from all dust and dirt. 

(27) No domestic animals shall be permitted in any part of 
a bakery. All rooms of the bakery shall be free of insects, ver- 
min, etc. 

(28) All persons working in a bakery who handle or touch 
the products therein shall wash their hands and arms in clean 
water before beginning work, and every time they change from 
one kind of work to another. 

(29) They shall have their finger nails cleaned, and shall be 
free from skin disease, or any infectious diseases. 



DEPAETMENT OF HEALTH 
BAKERY ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF CHICAGO, 1910 
Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. Any place used for any process of mixing, com- 
pounding, or baking, for sale or for purposes of a restaurant, 
bakery or hotel, any bread, biscuits, pretzels, crackers, buns, rolls, 
macaroni, cake, pies, or any food product of which flour or meal 
is a principal ingredient, shall be deemed a bakery for the purpose 
of this ordinance; provided that licensed restaurants in which 
any of the foregoing food products are mixed and baked for con- 
sumption in such restaurant only, on or in ordinary restaurant 
kitchen stoves or ranges, and kitchens or rooms in dwellings where 
any of the said food products are mixed and baked in an ordinary 
kitchen stove or range, shall not be considered bakeries. 

SEC. 2. No person, firm or corporation shall establish, main- 
tain or operate any bakery without first having been licensed so 
to do by the city. Every person or corporation establishing, main- 
taining or operating any such bakery shall annually, on the first 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 243 

day of May of each year, pay a license fee of five ($5.00) dollars 
for a license for each bakery so maintained, which license shall 
be issued for a period ending with the first day of May following; 
provided, however, that upon furnishing proof to the City Col- 
lector that the applicant was not liable for a license fee and did 
not maintain a bakery without a license prior to the date of his 
application and after the taking effect of this ordinance, a license 
may be issued for the unexpired license period, and in such case 
the license fee shall be five ($5.00) dollars for any such unex- 
pired period which is greater than six months, and two dollars 
and fifty cents ($2.50) for any such unexpired period which is 
equal to or less than six months. Provided, further, that no 
person, firm, or corporation now holding a license which by its 
terms will expire on May 1, 1910, shall be required to take out 
any other bakery license or pay any additional bakery license 
fee under this ordinance prior to May 1, 1910. 

SEC. 3 Any person or corporation desiring to establish, main- 
tain or operate a bakery, as defined in this ordinance, shall make 
application in writing to the Commissioner of Health for a license 
so to do. Such application shall set forth the name and residence 
of the applicant if an individual, and the names and residences 
of the principal officers of the applicant, if a corporation, together 
with the location of the place for which such license is desired. 

SEC. 4. Within ten days after the receipt of such application, 
it shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Health to make or 
cause to be made an examination of the place described in such 
application, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the location, 
lighting, ventilation, sanitary arrangements and equipment of 
such bakery conform to the provisions of this ordinance. If the 
porposed bakery conforms to the provisions of this ordinance, the 
Commissioner of Health shall transmit uch application to the 
Mayor with his approval thereof, whereupon the Mayor shall issue 
or cause to be issued to such applicant, upon payment to the City 
Collector of the license fee hereinbefore provided, a license 
authorizing such applicant to keep, conduct or maintain a bakery 
at the place described in such application for and during the 
period of such license. 



244 BAKEBIES AND BAKERS. 

SEC. 5. If at any time during the term of such license the 
Commissioner of Health shall certify to the Mayor that the pro- 
visions of the ordinance have not been or are not being complied 
with, or that the public health or the health of the persons em- 
ployed in any such bakery is endangered by its maintenance, 
the Mayor may revoke the license thereof. 

SEC. G. Every such license granted under the provisions of 
this ordinance shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the bakery 
for which such license is issued. 

SEC. 7. Every place used as a bakery shall be kept in a clean 
and sanitary condition as to its floors, side walls, ceilings, wood- 
work, fixtures, furniture, tools, machinery and utensils. All parts 
of 'the bakery shall be adequately lighted at all times, and shall 
be ventilated by means of windows or skylights or air shafts or 
air ducts or mechanical apparatus, if necessary, so as to insure a 
free circulation of fresh air at all times. Such ventilating con- 
truction and equipment shall be of such character that a com- 
plete change of air in all parts of the bakery may be made at 
least four times each hour. Provided, however, that it sha'll not 
be necessary to ventilate at such time or in such manner that 
the process of mixing or rising of dough shall of necessity be 
interfered with or prevented. 

SEC. 8. The floor of every place used as a bakery, if below the 
street level, shall be constructed of concrete, cement, asphalt or 
other impervious material, or of tile laid in cement, which floor may, 
if desired, be covered with a hardwood floor having tight joints; 
if above the street level the floor may be of hardwood with tight 
joints or may be of any impervious material, as above provided. 
The angles where the floor and walls join shall be made and main- 
tained so as to be rat-proof. 

SEC. 9. Every bakery shall be kept reasonably free from flies, 
and the doors, windows, and other openings of every such bakery 
shall, from April 1 to December 1, be fitted with self-closing wire 
screens doors and wire window screens. The side walls and ceil- 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 245 

ings shall be well and smoothly plastered, tiled or sheathed with 
metal or wood sheathing, and shall be kept in good repair. If 
made of mill construction with smooth surfaces such walls and' 
ceilings need not be sheathed or plastered. 

All walls and ceilings shall be kept well painted with oil paint, 
or lime washed or calcimined, and all woodwork shall be kept 
well painted with oil paint. 

SEC. 10. Every such bakery shall be provided with adequate 
plumbing and drainage facilities, including well ventilated water 
closets and impermeable wash sinks on iron supports. No wator 
closet compartment shall be in direct communication with a bakery. 

SEC. 11. No person shall sleep in any bakery or in the rooms 
where flour or meal used in conection therewith, or the food pro- 
ducts made therein, are handled or stored. If any sleeping places 
are located on the same floor as the bakery, they Shall be well 
ventilated, dry and sanitary. No domestic animals except cats 
shall be permitted in a bakery or place where flour or meal ia 
stored in connection therewith, and suitable provision shall be 
made to prevent nuisances from the presence of cats. 

SEC. 12. All workmen and employees while engaged in the 
manufacture or handling of bakery products in a bakery shall pro- 
vide themselves with slippers or shoes and a suit of washable 
material which shall be used for that purpose only. These gar- 
ments shall at all times be kept clean. 

SEC. 13. Cuspidors of impervious material shall be provided 
and shall be cleansed daily. No employe or other person shall 
spit on the floor or side walls of any bakery or place where food 
products of such bakery are stored. 

SEC. 14. The smoking, snuffing or chewing of tobacco in any 
bakery is prohibited. Plain notices shall be posted in every bakery 
forbidding any person to use tobacco therein or to spit on the floor 
of such bakery. 

SEC. 15. No person who has consumption, scrofula or venereal 
diseases or any communicable or loathsome skin disease shall work 



246 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

in any bakery, and no owner, manager or person in charge of any 
bakery shall knowingly require, permit or suffer such a person 
to be employed in such bakery. 

SEC. 16. All rooms for the storage of flour or meal for use 
in connection with any bakery shatt be dry and well ventilated, 
and every bakery and room used for the storage of materials and 
food products in connection therewith shall be so arranged that 
the shelves, cupboards, trays, troughs, bins, cases and all other 
appliances for handling and storing- the same can be easily removed 
and cleaned. If the floor of any such bakery or room is below 
the adjacent street level, no such materials or products shall be 
stored nearer to such floor than one foot. 

SEC 17. Every bakery shall be kept clean at all times and 
free from rats, mice and vermin and from all matter of an infec- 
tious or contagious nature. 

SEC. 18. No new bakery shall be established after the passage 
of this ordinance in any room, basement or cellar in which the 
clear height between the finished floor and ceiling is less than 
8 feet 6 inches or in any room or place the floor of which is more 
than 5 feet below the street, sidewalk or alley level adjacent to the 
building, or in any room or place which is not so naturally lighted 
by means of windows, doors or skylights that on clear days a book 
or paper printed with double long primer type can be read be- 
tween the hours of 10 a. m. and 2 p. m. in all parts of the bakery 
which are used in mixing or handling bakery products. 

If any new bakery hereafter established has its floor above, at, 
or not more than 3 feet below the adjacent street or alley level, 
no window opening by which it is ventilated shall be less than 
3 feet above such street or alley level; if the floor of any such 
bakery is more than 3 feet below the adjacent street or alley level, 
no such window opening shall be less than 18 inches above such 
street or alley level. 

In new bakeries hereafter established, no water closet compart- 
ment shall be connected with the bakery by a vestibule connection. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 247 

SEC. 19. If any bakery which is now being maintained an-1 
operated shall be vacated, discontinued or unused for a period of 
more than six consecutive months and shall thereafter be reopened 
and re-established as a bakery, such bakery shall be considered a 
new bakery for purposes of this ordinance. 

SEC 20. The Commissioner of Health and the authorized in- 
spectors and employees of the Department of Health shall have 
the right at all times to enter to make such inspection and such 
record of the condition of any bakery as they may deem necessary, 
and if such inspection shall disclose a lack of conformity with this 
ordinance, the Commissioner of Health may require such changes, 
alterations or renovations as may be necessary to make such bakery 
comply with the provisions of this ordinance. 

SEC. 21. Any person, firm or corporation who shall establish, 
maintain or operate any bakery after this ordinance shall take 
effect, without first procuring a license so to do, shall be fined not 
I* 98 than twenty-five ($25.00) dollars nor more than two hundred 
($200.00) dollars for each offense, and a separate offense shall be 
regarded as committed each day on which such person, firm or 
corporation shall maintain or operate any bakery without a license 
as aforesaid. 

Any person, firm or corporation who violates or fails to comply 
with any other provision of this ordinance shall be fined not less 
than five ($5.00) dollars nor more than one hundred ($100.00) 
dollars for each offense, and a separate offense shall be regarded 
as committed each day on which such person, firm or corporation 
shall continue any such violation or failure. 

SEC. 22. An ordinance entitled " Bakery Ordinance of the 
city of Chicago," passed by the City Council on the llth day of 
November, A. D. 1907, as amended June 22, A. D., 1908, is 
hereby repealed. 

SEC. 23. This ordinance shall take effect from and after its 
passage and due publication. 

Passed February 28, 1910. 



248 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 



STATE OF EHODE ISLAND AND PKOVIDENCE 
PLANTATIONS 

JANUAKY SESSION, A. D. 1910 

AN ACT IN AMENDMENT OF AND IN ADDITION TO CHAPTER 78 
OF THE GENERAL LAWS, 1909, ENTITLED " OF FACTORY IN- 
SPECTION." 

It is enacted by the General Assembly as follows: 

SECTION 1. Section 3 of Chapter 78 of the General Laws 1909, 
entitled " Of Factory Inspection," is hereby amended so as to 
read as follows: 

" SEC. 3. The governor shall, upon the passage of this act, 
and in the month of January of every third year hereafter, ap- 
point, with the advice and consent of the senate, one chief and 
three assistant factory inspectors, one of whom shall be a woman, 
whose term of office shall be three years or until their successors 
shall be so appointed and qualified: Provided, that the term of 
office of the present factory inspectors shall not be changed, and 
that the term of office of the additional factory inspector provided 
in this act shall expire in January, A. D. nineteen hundred and 
eleven, or upon the appointment and qualification of his successor. 
Any vacancy which may occur in said offices when the senate is 
not in session shall be filled by the governor until the next session 
thereof, when he shall, with the advice and consent of the senate, 
appoint some person to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the 
term. Said inspectors shall be empowered to visit and inspect, 
at all reasonable hours and as often as practicable, the factories, 
work-shops, and other establishments in this state subject to the 
provisions of this chapter, and shall report to the General Assem- 
bly of this state at its January session in each year, including in 
said reports the name of the factories, the number of such hands 
employed, and the number of hours of work performed in each 
week. It shall also be the duty of said inspectors to enforce the 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 249 

provisions of this chapter and prosecute all violations of the same 
before any court of competent jurisdiction in the state. 

" The name and residence of any child found working without 
the certificate provided for in section one of this chapter shall be 
reported by the chief inspector to the school committee in the city 
or town where such child resides. Said inspectors shall devote 
their whole time and attention to the duties of their respective of- 
fices, under the direction of the chief inspector. The annual sal- 
ary of the chief inspector shall be two thousand dollars ; and each 
of the assistant inspectors, fifteen hundred dollars." 

SEC. 2. Section 4 of said Chapter 78 of the General Laws is 
hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

" SEC. 4. All necessary expenses incurred by such inspectors 
in the discharge of their duty shall be paid from the funds of the 
state, upon the presentation of proper vouchers for the same ap- 
proved by the governor: Provided, tiiat not more than twenty- 
three hundred dollars in the aggregate shall be expended by the 
said inspectors in any one year." 

SEC. 3. Said Chapter 78 of the General Laws is hereby 
amended by adding the following sections : 

" SEC. 18. Said chief inspector, or any assistant factory in- 
spector required by him, shall have charge of the inspection of 
bakeries, confectioneries, and ice cream manufactories, and any 
premises upon which bread or other products of flour or meal are 
baked or mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, in this 
state; and any such inspector so acting, whether one or more of 
such inspectors, or whether acting at the same or different tunes, 
shall for such purposes be designated as a state inspector of bak- 
eries, confectioneries, and ice cream manufactories. Such ins- 
spector shall not be pecuniarily interested, directly or indirectly, 
in the manufacture or sale of any article or commodity used in 
any business included in the provisions of this act, and shall not 
give certificates or written opinions to a maker or vendor of any 
such article or commodity. 



250 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

" SEC. 19. No person, copartnership, or corporation shall 
carry on the business of a public bakery, confectionery, or ice 
cream manufactory, or place where bread or other products of 
flour or meal are baked or mixed or prepared for baking or for 
sale as food, until such premises are inspected by said state in- 
spector. If such premises be found to conform to the provisions 
of this act, said inspector shall issue a certificate to the owner or 
operator of such bakery, confectionery, or ice cream manufactory, 
or place where flour or meal food products are baked or mixed 
or prepared for baking or for sale as food. Every person, co- 
partnership, or corporation carrying on such business shall, upon 
the granting of such license, and annually on the first day of Jan- 
uary thereafter, pay to the general treasurer a license fee of ten 
dollars if conducting such a wholesale business, and a license fee 
of three dollars if conducting only such a retail business. 

" SEC. 20. All buildings or rooms used or occupied as biscuit, 
bread, macaroni, spaghetti, pie or cake bakeries, ice cream or con- 
fectionery manufactories, or where flour or meal food products 
are baked or mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, shall 
be drained and plumbed in a manner conducive to the proper and 
healthful sanitary condition thereof, and shall be constructed with 
air shafts, windows, or ventilating pipes sufficient to insure ade- 
quate and proper ventilation. No cellar, basement, or place which 
is below the street level shall hereafter be used or occupied for the 
purposes mentioned in this section: Provided, that the same may 
be so used or occupied by the present occupant only. 

" SEC. 21. Every room used for the purposes included in this 
act shall have, if deemed necessary by such inspector, an imperme- 
able floor constructed of cement, or of tiles laid in cement, or of 
wood or other suitable non-absorbent material which can be flushed 
and washed clean with water. The side walls and ceilings of such 
rooms shall be plastered or wainscoted ; such inspector shall re- 
quire said premises to be kept at all times in a sanitary condi- 
tion; he may also require the woodwork of such walls to be well 
oiled, varnished, or painted. The furniture and utensils shall be 
so arranged as to be readily cleansed and not prevent the proper 
cleaning of any part of the room. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 251 

" The manufactured flour or meal food products shall be kept in 
dry and airy rooms, so arranged that the floors, shelves, and all 
other facilities for storing the same can be properly cleaned. 

" Xo domestic animals except cats shall be allowed to remain 
in a room used as a biscuit, bread, pie, or cake bakery or any room 
in such bakery where flour or meal products are stored or kept. 

" SEC. 22. Every such bakery, confectionery, or ice cream manu- 
factory, or place where flour or meal food products are baked or 
mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, shall be pro- 
vided with a proper wash-room and water-closet, or water-closets, 
apart from the bake-rooms or rooms where the manufacture of 
such food products is conducted, and they shall be maintained in 
a sanitary condition ; no water-closet, earth-closet, privy, or recep- 
tacle for garbage shall be within or connect directly with the bake- 
room of any bakery or room where ice cream or confectionery is 
manufactured. Operatives, employees, clerks, and all persons 
who handle the material from which food is prepared, or the fin- 
ished product, before beginning work, or after visiting toilet or 
toilets, shall wash their hands and arms thoroughly in clean water. 

" No person shall sleep in a room occupied as a bake-room. 
Sleeping places for the persons employed in the bakery shall be 
separate from the rooms where flour or meal food products are 
manufactured or stored. If the sleeping places are on the same 
floor where such products are manufactured, stored, or sold, such 
inspector may inspect and order them put in a proper sanitary 
condition. 

" SEC. 23. No bakery, confectionery, or ice cream manufac- 
tory, or place where flour or meal food products are baked or 
mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, shall be con- 
ducted in a room adjoining a stable, unless separated from such 
stable by a wall or partition without any door or other opening 
between such stable and such bakery, confectionery, or manufac- 
tory, or place where flour or meal food products are baked or 
mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food ; and no material 
used therein shall be kept in a stable. 



252 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

" SEC. 24. Packages or receptacles containing butter, lard, 
cooking oils, molasses, sugar, spices, dried fruits, tartars, and sim- 
ilar articles, in such bakery, confectionery, or manufactory, or 
place where flour or meal food products are baked or mixed or 
prepared for baking or for sale as food, must be kept covered 
when not necessarily uncovered for use. 

" SEC. 25. Smoking, snuffing, or chewing of tobacco, or spit- 
ting on floor in working rooms in such bakery, confectionery, or 
manufactory, or place where flour or meal food products are baked 
or mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, is strictly 
forbidden. 

" SEC. 26. No employer in any bakery, confectionery, or ice 
cream manufactory, or place where flour or meal food products 
are baked or mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, 
shall require, permit, or suffer any 'person to work, nor shall any 
person work, in a building, room, basement, cellar, or vehicle oc- 
cupied or used for the production, preparation, manufacture, 
packing, storage, sale, distribution, and transportation of food, 
who is affected with any venereal disease, smallpox, diphtheria, 
scarlet fever, yellow fever, tuberculosis or consumption, bubonic 
plague, Asiatic cholera, leprosy, trachoma, typhoid fever, epidemic 
dysentery, measles, mumps, German measles, whooping-cough, 
chicken pox, or any other infectious or contagious disease. 

" SEC. 27. Bread or pastry must not be laid on the floor in 
such bakery, confectionery, or manufactory, or place where flour 
or meal food products are baked or mixed or prepared for baking 
or for sale as food. No label shall be stuck on bread or other 
bakery goods by means of gum, saliva, or any material other than 
the article baked. No baker shall use or cause to be used news- 
papers or other second-hand paper for the purpose of lining tins 
or wrapping up bread or other bakery goods. All bakers' wagons 
must be kept clean, both inside and out, and so arranged that no 
dust can blow on bread or pastry while in transit. 

" SEC. 28. Bakeries, confectioneries, and ice cream manufac- 
tories, or places where flour or meal food products are baked or 



BAKEBIES AND BAKERS. 253 

mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, shall be kept at 
all times in a clean and sanitary condition, and shall be inspected 
by said inspector at least twice each year. If on inspection said 
inspector finds any bakery, confectionery, or ice cream manufac- 
tory, or place where flour or meal food products are baked or 
mixed or prepared for baking or for sale as food, to be so unclean, 
ill-drained, or ill-ventilated as to be unsanitary, he may, after 
such reasonable time, to be fixed by said inspector, not less than 
five days, by notice in writing, to be served by affixing the notice 
on the inside of the main entrance door of said bakery, confection- 
ery, or ice cream manufactory, or place where flour or meal food 
products are baked or mixed or prepared for baking or for sale 
as food, order the person found in charge thereof immediately to 
cease operating it until it be properly cleaned drained, or 
ventilated. 

" SEC. 29. Any person who is aggrieved by any order or re- 
quirement of ?aid state inspector may appeal therefrom in the same 
manner in all respects, and with the same rights and liabilities, as 
provided in section 10 of said Chapter 78 of the General Laws. 

" SEC. 30. Any person who violates any of the provisions of 
said sections nineteen to twenty-eight, both inclusive, of said 
Chapter 78 of the General Laws, as herein amended, or refuses 
to comply with any lawful requirement of the authority vested 
with the enforcement of such sections, .as provided therein, shall 
be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be punished 
by a fine of not less than twenty or more than fifty dollars for 
a first offense, and for a second offense by a fine of not less than 
fifty or more than one hundred dollars or by imprisonment for 
not more than ten days, and for a third offense by a fine of not 
less than one hundred or more than two hundred and fifty 
dollars or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by 
both such fine and imprisonment. 

" SEC. 31. Such inspector shall be empowered to visit and 
inspect all parts of stores,, bakeries, confectioneries, and store-rooms 
and places where ice cream, flour and meal food products are 



254 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

manufactured, at any and all reasonable times. Such inspector 
shall promptly enforce the provisions of this act, and shall prose- 
cute all violations of the same before any court of competent juris- 
diction in the state. The attorney-general shall act as his legal 
adviser in all matters pertaining to his official duties. He shall 
cause copies of this act to be printed and kept posted in all bak- 
ries, confectioneries, and manufactories of ice cream, flour and 
meal food products, and all places where such business is carried 
on. Any mutilation of such printed matter shall be punished as 
provided in the preceding section. Such inspector shall not be 
required to give surety, nor furnish recognizance for costs, in any 
prosecution or proceeding under this act." 

SEC. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage: Provided, 
that any business included in the provisions of this act and now 
carried on may be carried on without the license required by the 
provisions of this act until August first, A. D. nineteen hundred 
and ten, and, in case application for such license be made prior to 
June first, A. D. nineteen hundred and ten and be not acted upon 
by such inspector prior to August first, A. D. nineteen hundred 
and ten, such business may be carried on without such license 
until said application is acted upon by such inspector. 



INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION OF WISCONSIN 
(Successor to Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics.) 

RULES RELATIVE TO BAKERIES AND CONFEC 

TIONERIES. 

The following is a list of tentative rules for the regulation 
of bakeries. These rules are proposed for adoption by the Indus- 
trial Commission. They may be modified by the Commission when- 
ever, in its judgment, general or special conditions make such 
action desirable in order to attain the sanitary standard sought 
to be established by their adoption. 

In submitting these rules to the bakers and confectioners of 
the state, the Industrial Commission invites criticisms and sug- 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 255 

gestions. At the meeting of the Wisconsin Association of Master 
Bakers in Milwaukee Oct. 11, 1911, it is proposed to review this 
compilation and to make such changes as are considered desirable. 
All rules or regulations adopted formally by the Industrial 
Commission have the full force of law, and violations are subject 
to the penalty provided. 



DRAINAGE AND PLUMBING. 

1. If there is a public drain in the village or city extending 
along any street or alley in which a bakery is located, the bakery 
must be connected with such drain. 

2. If there is no public sewer or drain, then a drain must be 
provided to a cesspool or other receptacle, located at least thirty 
feet away from the bakery; provided that if siida drain empties 
into a running stream or lake, the limitation as to distance shall 
not apply. 

3. All plumbing must meet the legal requirements of the city 
or village where the bakery is located; but in all cases water 
fixtures shall be back-vented or equipped with anti-syphon trap. 

4. Waste water shall not be drained directly on the ground 
below the floor nor on the surface of the ground adjacent to the 
bakery. 

5. If there is any public or other sewer running through any 
bakery, the same shall be so securely and completely bedded as 
to prevent the escape of water, sewage, or gas, and must be sub- 
ject to a test of at least two feet of water head or twenty-five 
pounds of air pressure. 

6. No drain is permitted nearer than eighteen inches to any 
water service pipe. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

7. No water from a fixture located in any water closet shall 
be used for baking purposes. 



266 BAKERIES AND BAXERS. 

8. Only clean, pure water shall be used, a sufficient supply of 
which shall be available at all times. 

CONSTRUCTION OF ROOMS. 

9. Side walls must be free from holes, ragged edges, cracks or 
crevices, and all joints must be tight and flush. 

10. Floors must be level and smooth, and free from cracks or 
openings. All new wooden floors must be made of hard wood 
and treated with oil varnish. 

11. Ceilings may be plastered or ceiled with metal or wood. 
In case ceilings are open [joists, the exposed surfaces shall be 
planed; in concrete construction, the ceiling shall be smooth and 
shall be painted or whitewashed. 

CARE OF ROOMS. 

12. All plastered surfaces may be whitewashed. Others should 
be painted. Whitewash must be renewed at least once in six 
months; paint at least once in two years. 

13. All floors in work and bakerooms must be swept clean 
every day and any adhering materials scraped off; sweepings must 
be deposited in an impermeable receptacle and removed or 
destroyed within twenty-four hours. All such floors must be 
scrubbed with soap and water at least once a week. 

14. Floors and side walls in storage rooms must be cleaned 
whenever they become empty, before new stock is put in. 

15. No cleanings, waste nor offal shall be deposited upon the 
floor of any bakery, but should be placed in proper receptacle 
which must be provided for that purpose. 

16. If it is necessary to remove live coal or ashes out of ovens, 
the same shall be placed at once in iron receptacles and tightly 
covered. This work shall always be done in such manner that no 
ashes or gases shall escape into bakery. 

17. Windows and window ledges must be washed and wiped 
whenever they become dirty. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 257 

17 b. Xo domestic animals shall be allowed in any room. 

18. All inside painted surfaces in bakeries must be scrubbed 
with soap and water at least once in six months. 

CONSTRUCTION OF UTENSILS. 

19. Bread boxes and roll and bread boards shall be made of 
sound lumber, planed on all sides, smoothly joined, and free from 
cracks and crevices. 

20. All work tables shall be made of sound, well-seasoned lum- 
ber, smoothly joined and free from indentations, cracks and 
crevices. Stone or metal-work tables may be used if desired. 

21. All dough-troughs and pan or bread-racks must be mounted 
on casters or rollers so that same may be easily moved. 

CARE OF UTENSILS. 

22. Doughnut kettles must be kept covered when not in use. 

23. Only clean, pure water shall be used, a sufficient supply 
of which shall be available at all times. 

24. Dough-mixing machines must be cleaned daily and the 
inside thereof greased. All flour should be brushed off carefully. 
Bearings and grease cups should be wiped, stuffing boxes well 
packed so as to prevent leakage, and machine should be kept 
screened or covered when not in use in such a way as to permit 
circulation of air therein. 

25. Metal dough-troughs must be well cleaned every time they 
are used and the inside thereof greased. 

26. Wooden dough-troughs must be scraped clean every time they 
are used. They must be washed with soap and water at least once 
a month and aired frequently. 

27. Trough covers must be scraped on both sides daily and 
washed with soap and water at least once a week. 

28. Wooden dough-troughs must be made of sound lumber, 
well joined and smoothly finished. Troughs and covers must be 
free from holes, cracks and crevices. 

9 



258 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

29. Bread boxes and roll and bread boards shall be brushed 
every time they have been used and scrubbed with soap and water 
at least once a month. 

30. All work tables must be cleaned daily and scrubbed at least 
once a week. 

31. All dbugh-dividing machines, beating, mixing or deposit- 
ing machines, brakes, rollers, cracker and cake machines, crumb- 
ing and grinding machines, must be cleaned daily when in use, 
and; no dust, sugar, grease, dough or paste shall be permitted to 
accumulate in or about such machines. 

32. Conveyers, driers and wires for icing machines must bs 
kept clean, and can be operated only in a room that is free from 
dust. 

33. Pie-making machines must be cleaned daily and all flour, 
fruit, filling and paste removed therefrom, 

34. Cake-filling machines must be emptied and cleaned after 
each day's work. 

35. All flour sieves and sifting machines shall be cleaned at least 
once a week. No moths or other insects shall be permitted to 
breed therein. 

36. All flour bins, hoppers, chutes and conveyers shall be exam- 
ined at least once a week and must be kept free from larvae, 
chrysalides and insects. 

37. Iron pans must be cleaned each time they are used, and 
wiped with fat. 

38. All racks and shelves must be cleaned once a month and 
scrubbed every six months. 

39. Tin pans should be cleaned each time they are used and 
wiped with fat. Any adhering material, grease, flour or sugar that 
cannot be removed by wiping, must be washed off. 

40. Cloths used for lining bread boxes, covering roll boards or 
cake pans, or for the purpose of covering dough or baked goods, 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 259 

shall be used for no other purpose, and shall be washed at least once 
in two weeks. 

41. Bake ovens must be well cleaned so no soot, ashes, or coal 
will adhere to baked goods. 

42. Swab pails must be cleaned daily and fresh water must be 
used every time an oven is cleaned. 

43. Steam or proofing boxes must be cleaned at least once a 
month and scrubbed at least once in six months. 

44. The holding of bakery utensils in the mouth is prohibited. 

45. All dishes, measures, strainers, dippers, cans, mugs, tubes, 
kettles, ornamenting and pastry bags, stamps, syringes, dough- 
nut machines, bowls, spoons, scoops, mortar knives, scrapers, 
paddles, rolling pins, chopping, cutting, slicing or grating machines, 
egg whips and brushes, shall be washed with soap and water or 
some material equally efficient, and wiped dry with a clean cloth 
every day such utensils have been used. 

46. All ice boxes and all places where food may be placed for 
cooling purposes, shall be kept clean and well ventilated. 

47. All baskets, boxes and other containers that are used for 
carting, storing or delivering bakery goods, shall be cleaned daily 
and scrubbed once a month. 

48. All wagons used for the delivery of baked goods shall be 
cleaned every day before loading and shall be scrubbed once a 
week. 

49. All show cases, shelves, boxes and cans in which bakery 
goods are kept, must be washed at least once a week. Crackers, 
cakes and similar goods need not be removed out of original pack- 
age or box for the purpose of cleaning such boxes or packages. 

50. ~No tool or utensil used in bakery shall be used for any other 
purpose. 

CARE OF RAW MATERIAL. 

51. All flour, starch, meal, sugar, salt, corn or rice flakes, nuts, 
and nut meats, dried fruit and other material contained in bags, 



260 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

must be stored on platforms or shelves at least eight inches from 
the floor and at least 2 inches from any side wall and be so 
stored that there is a free circulation of air on all sides. 

52. All barrels or kegs containing oil, molasses, syrup or any 
other fluid food product, shall be tapped whenever feasible with 
a pump or faucet; whenever such tapping is not feasible, heads 
may be removed and good metal covers provided with rims extend- 
ing downward over ends of barrels or kegs. 

53. All barrels that contain lard, sugar, starch, cocoanut, mince 
meat, salt or other dry food product, shall, when the same are 
opened, be provided with metal covers that extend downward over 
top edge of barrels. 

54. Metal covers shall be provided for all tubs, pails, drums, 
or other containers of jelly, jam or similar substances whenever 
they are opened and not entirely used at once. 

55. All dried and desiccated fruits in boxes shall be kept well 
covered and protected against dust and vermin. 

56. All prepared fruits, pie fillings and similar substances shall 
be kept in earthenware or wooden containers properly covered. 
Metal containers may only be used when the same are enameled 
or properly coated with block tin. 

57. All spices, nutmeats, seeds, and other similar goods shall be 
kept in suitable containers of tin, pasteboard, or other material and 
well covered. 

58. All prepared dough, other than dough containing yeast, 
shall be kept in earthenware or wooden containers properly cov- 
ered. Such containers must be thoroughly washed every time they 
have been used. 

59. All crumbs, struesel and other such goods must be covered 
in suitable containers so as to be protected against dust. 

60. Chocolate, nut-paste, citron, lemon, and orange peel must 
be kept in suitable boxes or cans well covered and protected against 
dust. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 201 

61. Acids, alum, baking powder, drugs and chemicals, as also 
all compounds and preparations that are to be mixed and eaten 
with bakery products, shall be kept in suitable containers, covered 
and clean. 

62. Dried egg and dried milk shall be stored in tight barrels, 
drums or cans, and not more shall be prepared in water than will be 
used within twenty-four hours. 

63. Goods that are being dried for future use shall be kept clean 
and free from dust. 

64. Fresh icings shall be prepared every day, and at no time 
shall icing be allowed to remain on sides or rims of vessels, but 
all vessels that contain icing must be kept clean and covered 
when not in actual use. 

65. All flour used in bakeries shall be passed through a close- 
meshed sieve shortly before it is used. 

CARE OF FINISHED PRODUCT. 

66. All bakered goods, whether in pans or other containers, 
must be kept at least twelve inches from the floor. 

67. Xo person is allowed to handle bakery goods in any store 
or other place where such goods may be exposed for sale, unless 
such person has actually purchased such bakery goods or is in 
charge of the sale of such goods. 

PERSONAL CLEANLINESS AND CONDUCT. 

68. All persons working in bakeries, who handle or touch goods 
that are to be eaten, shall wash their hands and arms in clean 
water before beginning work and every time they have made use 
of water closet, urinal or privy, and every time they change from 
one kind of work to another, and every time their work is inter- 
rupted for any cause, before again touching or handling bakery 
products. 

69. The outer garments to be worn by bakery workmen while 
at work shall consist of caps, shoes or slippers, and overalls or 



262 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

aprons, to which bibs must be attached. In no case shall bakery 
products come in contact with shirts or other garments that lie 
next the bare skin of workmen. 

70. External garments described in rule No. 69 must be washed 
at least once a week and under garments must also be kept clean. 

71. The outer garments of female employees shall consist of 
shoes or slippers and large aprons with bibs; hair must be com- 
pactly and neatly done up in caps or nets. Aprons and bibs must 
be washed at least once a week. 

72. All persons working in bakeries must keep their finger- 
nails clean. 

73. No person afflected with any skin disease or with any com- 
municable disease shall work in any bakery. 

74. No person delivering bakery goods shall handle the same 
with dirty hands, or piled against his body or clothes, but all deliv- 
eries must be made in clean baskets, boxes, trays, or other 
containers. 

75. No person shall spit or expectorate or deposit any sputum, 
mucus, tobacco juice, cigar or cigarette stumps or quids of to- 
bacco on the floor, walls or furnishings of any bakery. 

76. No person shall smoke or snuff tobacco while at work in 
any bakery. 

WATER CLOSETS AND PRIVIES. 

77. No pan, hopper or plunger water closet shall be put into 
any bakery hereafter established; and all such closets now in use 
must be replaced when worn out or filthy, with tank flushed syphon 
closets, properly trapped and ventilated. 

78. All water closets and urinals in bakeries must be fully en- 
closed and provided with self closing doors. All closets and 
urinals shall be provided with a window to the outer air if pos- 
sible; if such window cannot be constructed, closets and urinals 
must be connected with a ventilating flue providing a continuous 
current out of closet into the open air. Bowls and other fixtures 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 263 

in sanitary conveniences must be scrubbed and cleaned at least once 
a week and care must be taken that no offensive odor emanates 
from such conveniences. 

79. In places where it is not possible to have sanitary conve- 
niences in bakeries on account of local conditions, privies with 
vaults may be maintained. Such privies must be located at least 
thirty feet from bakery and kept clean at all times. Such privies 
must be kept screened. 

80. Privy vaults must be treated with lime or some equally 
good disinfectant once a week from April 15th to October 15th 
and once a month from October 15th to April 15th. 

81. Sanitary conveniences must be provided conveniently ac- 
cessible to all persons employed in bakeries. 

DRESSING ROOMS AND TOILET FACILITIES. 

82. Places where workmen change their clothing must be light 
and partitioned off by a wall or other substantial partition at least 
six feet high, and must be warmed during cold weather. 

83. Rubbish must be removed from dressing rooms daily, and 
the rooms well cleaned at least once a week. They must be kept 
free from vermin at all times, and must be disinfected at once 
after becoming contaminated or infected. 

84. Every bakery shall be equipped with running water, or in 
lieu thereof, sufficient wash basins, plenty of clean water and good 
soap shall be provided to enable persons working therein to keep 
clean. 

85. Every person employed in mixing or preparing ingredients, 
and every person engaged in handling, moulding, scaling, shap- 
ing or baking bakery products shall be provided with at least one 
clean towel each day. 

86. Where persons of both sexes are employed, separate dress- 
ing rooms shall be provided for each sex. 

87. In bakeries where it is necessary to maintain separate sani- 
tary conveniences for females, at least one such convenience shall 
be provided for every twenty-five females or fraction thereof. 



264 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

88. If persons of both sexes to the number of eight or more 
are employed or in attendance at any bakery, separate sanitary 
conveniences shall be provided for each sex. 

89. In bakeries where it is necessary to maintain separate sani- 
tary conveniences for males, there shall be one such convenience 
for every twenty-five males; provided that in bakeries where the 
number of males employed or in attendance exceeds one hundred, 
and sufficient urinal accommodation is also provided, it shall be 
sufficient if there is one sanitary convenience for every twenty-five 
males up to the first hundred, and one for every forty after. 

SCREENS. 

90. Window and door openings in basement or on first floor 
must be screened with copper wire screens with meshes sufficiently 
fine to filter out any dust which may be carried by air entering 
bakery. 

91. All other doors, windows or openings in bakeries must be 
screened from the 1st day of May to the 1st day of October in 
each year to prevent flies or other insects entering the bakery. 

LIGHT. 

92. Window space in bake or workrooms should not be less than 
one-fifth of the floor space of such rooms. 

93. Prism lights must be provided whenever necessary in order 
to light every part of rooms. 

94. No room can be used as bakeroom or workroom in which 
artificial light is needed all the time. 

VENTILATION. 

95. Rooms to be used as bakerooms or workrooms must be of 
sufficient size to allow each person employed therein at least 350 
cubic feet of air space. 

96. Each open fish-tail gas flame shall be considered to use 
air equal to six persons unless means are provided to carry off the 
waste products of such gas flames. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 265 

97. Each Bunsen burner shall be considered to consume as much 
air as two persons. 

98. Provisions must be made to change air in bake and work 
rooms completely at least four times each hour. 

99. At no time shall air in bakerooms or workrooms contain 
more than seven parts of carbon dioxide in ten thousand parts 
of air by volume. 

100. Every bakery shall be provided with ventilating flues or 
in lieu of such flues, chimneys may be arranged so as to ventilate 
the bakery properly. 

101. All outside windows shall be so arranged that they can be 
opened easily for the purpose of ventilation. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

102. All drugs, compounds and preparations used for the pur- 
poses of exterminating rats, mice, roaches or other vermin, shall 
be kept covered, and in a place not used for the storing of any 
food products. 

103. Cleanings from any machine or utensil, dustings from, 
flour sacks, sweepings from the floor, or articles of food which 
have come in direct contact with the floor, shall not be used as 
food for public consumption. 

104. All goods that have become spoiled or unfit for use must 
be removed from the bakery at once. 

105. The use of live coal in steam boxes is prohibited. 

106. Each workroom must be supplied with one or more cus- 
pidors which must be cleaned daily. 

107. No flour is to be received in any bakery unless it is in 
clean barrels or bags. All bags containing flour stored in bakery 
must be kept covered to prevent dust settling thereon and no 
empty flour sacks shall be used for the purpose of lining bread 
or roll boards, boxes, pans, or to place any dough upon, or to place 
baked goods thereon, or for a covering for bakery goods in process 
of preparation. 



266 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

108. All standards, rules and regulations adopted by the In- 
dustrial Commission referring to the proper safeguarding of 
machinery, shall apply to all machines used in bakeries. 



THE LAW ON BAKEKIES IN ENGLAND. 

BAKEHOUSES. 

BAKEHOUSES are defined as " places in which are baked bread, 
biscuits, or confectionery, from the baking of which a profit is 
derived." They rank as non-textile factories or as workshops, 
according as mechanical power is or is not used for the purpose 
of baking. Bakehouses, therefore, fall under the general law re- 
lating to factories and workshops, but they are not subject to cer- 
tain special regulations which are set out in this chapter. 

A place underground may not be used as a bakehouse unless 
it was so used before the end of 1901. Since the first of Jan- 
uary, 1904, it has not been legal to use an underground place as 
a bakehouse unless it is certified by the District Council to be suit- 
able as regards construction, light, ventilation, and in all other 
respects. If the District Council is not satisfied that the place 
is suitable in all these respects they may refuse a certificate. The 
occupier may, within 21 days of the refusal, appeal from the Dis- 
trict Council to a Court of Summary Jurisdiction, and if the 
court is satisfied of the suitability of the place it may grant a 
certificate. 

An underground bakehouse is a bakehouse in which the floor 
surface of any baking room is more than three feet below the sur- 
face of the footway of the adjoining street, or of the ground ad- 
joining or nearest to the room. 

Where a place has been let as a bakehouse for which the occu- 
pier cannot obtain a certificate of suitability unless structural 
alterations are made, he may apply to a court of Summary Juris- 
diction for relief, which may be given in one of two ways. The 
court may either make an order requiring the owner* to bear the 
whole or part of the expenses of the alterations, or it may, at the 
occupier's request, determine the lease. 



'An owner within the meaning of sec. 4 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 



BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 267 

A person may not occupy any room or place as a bakehouse, and 
may not let it or suffer it to be occupied as a bakehouse, unless 
the following regulations are complied with : 

(1) No water closet, earth closet, privy, or ash pit may be 

within the bakehouse or communicate directly with it. 

(2) Any cistern for supplying water to the bakehouse must 

be separate and distinct from any cistern for supplying 
a water closet. 

(3) No drain or pipe for carrying off foecal or sewage matter 

may have an opening within the bakehouse. 

In underground bakehouses 500 cubic feet of space must be al- 
lowed to every person; in other bakehouses where work is carried 
on at night by artificial light other than electric light, 400 cubic 
feet of space must be allowed to every person in respect of the 
period between 9 P. M. and 6 A. M.* 

In every bakehouse the inside walls and ceiling or top of every 
room, and the passages and staircases, must either be painted with 
oil, varnished or limewashed, or be partly painted or varnished 
and partly limewashed. Where there is paint or varnish, there 
most be three coats, renewed every seven years, and washed with 
hot water and soap every six months. Limewashing must be re- 
newed every six months. 

A place in the same building with a bakehouse, and on the same 
floor, must not be as a sleeping place, unless : 

(1) it is effectually separated from the bakehouse by a parti- 

tion from floor to ceiling; and 

(2) there is in the sleeping place an external window of not 

less than nine superficial feet in extent, of which four 
and a half superficial feet are made to open. 

There is also a general provision that, where a Court of Sum- 
mary Jurisdiction is satisfied that a place used as a bakehouse 
is unfit on sanitary grounds to be so used, the court, in addition to 

'These requirements are embodied in an order of the Secretary of State, 
dated December 30, 1903 (gazetted January 1, 1904: F. and W. O., 1908, p. 9). 



268 BAKERIES AND BAKERS. 

or instead of imposing a fine on the occupier, may order him to 
remove the ground of complaint within a given time, under pen- 
alty of a fine not exceeding 1 pound ($5) per day during non- 
compliance. 

All bakehouses which are factories (i. e., those in which me- 
chanical power is used in aid of the process of baking) are in all 
respects subject to the control of factory inspectors in the same 
manner as other factories. But as far as concerns a " retail bake- 
house " (that is a bakehouse or place, not being a factory, the 
bread, biscuits, or confectionery baked in which are not sold whole- 
sale but by retail in some shop or place occupied together with 
such bakehouse), the special sanitary provisions mentioned in this 
chapter are administered by the District Council and their officers, 
and not by the factory inspector, but the regulations as to educa- 
tion, hours of work, and meal times are administered by the fac- 
tory inspector. 

The provisions of the principal Act which apply to men's work- 
shops, and the special sanitary provisions for bakehouses, apply 
to a bakehouse which is a workshop in which no child, young per- 
son or woman is employed. 

Three of the special exceptions, by virtue of which exceptional 
employment is allowed in factories and workshops, apply to bake- 
houses. These exceptions relate to : 

(1) special employment of male young persons over 16; 

(2) overtime of women in biscuit making; and 

(3) overtime of children, young persons, and women for half 

an hour at the end of the day. (Incomplete process.) 

The provisions of the principal Act which require (1) that the 
meals of all children, young persons, and women shall be simul- 
taneous, and (2) that no child, young person, or woman shall, dur- 
ing meal times, be employed, or allowed to remain, in a room in 
which work is being done, do not apply to bakehouses which are 
factories, and in which bread and biscuits are made by means 
of traveling ovens. 



APPENDIX IV 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES 
IN NEW YORK STATE 

NOTES ON SOME TRADES IN NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYING A 

LARGE PROPORTION OF WOMEN WORKERS 

BY VIOLET PIKE 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES 
IN NEW YORK STATE 

I Extent and Importance of Women's Work in Factories in 
New York State. 

II Sources of Information. 
Ill Extent of Investigation. 
IV Notes on Some Trades in Which Women are Employed. 

1. Artificial Flower and Feather Industry in New 

York. 

2. Women's Waist Trade in New York. 

3. Steam Laundries in New York. 

4. Paper Box Factories. 

5. Textile Mills at Utica. 

6. Men's Clothing Trade in Rochester. 

V Character of the Work Done by Women in Factories. 
VI Hours of Labor of Women in Factories. 

I. IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN'S WORK IN FACTORIES 
IN NEW YORK STATE. 

Trades in which large numbers of women are employed are 
sometimes called women's trades. This is only true in a com- 
parative sense. Women workers in New York State are found in 
all the trades in varying proportions. Even electrical works, iron 
foundries and automobile shops have their quota of women work- 
ers. The only industries in this State (except for some very 



272 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 



minor industries employing less than one thousand workers) 
which do not employ women, are the manufacture of bricks, tiles, 
fertilizers and ice. According to the preliminary report of the 
United States census, 1910, 293,637 women are at work in fac- 
tories in New York State, 30 per cent of the total number of 
wage-earners employed. 

The following table shows the number and proportion of 
women workers in the industries investigated by the Commission, 
and the numbers and proportion of women in the same industries 
in the State. 

TABLE No. 1. 

NUMBERS AND PHOPOHTION OF WOMEN WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS 

IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES, COMPARED WITH NUMBERS AND PROPORTION OF 

WOMEN WORKERS IN THE STATE AT LARGE. 





WAGE EARNERS IN ESTAB- 
LISHMENTS INVESTIGATED 


WAGE EARNERS IN ESTABIJSH- 
MENTS IN NEW YORK STATE 




All 
workers 


Women 


Per cent 
Women 


All 
workers 


Women 


Per cent 
Women 


Artificial flowers and feathers. . 
Clothing (waiste) 


1,891 
11,896 
3,491 
5,523 
557 
1,513 
2,911 
611 
929 
341 
331 
547 
2,677 
1,739 
6,657 
987 
3,021 
50 
443 
11,957 


1,493 
9.186 
2,596 
4,148 
406 
976 
1,722 
364 
514 
188 
178 
256 
919 
536 
872 
87 
1 


79 
77 
74 
75 
72 
64 
60 
60 
55 
55 
53 
47 
34 
31 
13 
9 


8,301 
97,656 
11,203 

* 


7,152 
56,185 
7.253 


86 
57 
65 


Paper boxes 


Laundries 


Pickles 


7,003 
9,268 
8,399 
890 
5,224 
1,517 


3,901 
4,010 
4,967 
394 
1,551 
465 


56 
43 
59 
45 
29 
31 


Textiles 


Candy 


Corks 


Dyeing and cleaning 


Spices and drugs 


Rags 


Human hair 


2,303 
29,757 
5,733 
62,505 
6,104 
21,250 
* 


1,305 
15,191 
166 
13,997 
168 
2,837 


56 
54 
3 
22 
2 
13 


Tobacco 


Chemicals 


Printing 


Meat packing 


Bread 


Ice cream 




Mineral waters 






* 






Other trades 


989 


9 


776,868 


173,983 


22 


Total 


58,072 


25.431 


44 


1,003,981 


293,525 


30 





*Not listed in preliminary report U. S. Census, 1910. 

The importance of the women workers' part in manufacture 
is evident from this table. They have become a permanent fac- 
tor in the industrial life of the State. Yet the individual work- 
ers are constantly shifting and changing. It has been said that 
seven years is the average length of time a woman remains at 
factory work, for the mass of women workers after a term of 
years leave the factory to become wives and mothers. The con- 
cern of the State in its women workers is therefore two-fold. It 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. -!7o 

is interested in their welfare as workers, but it is far more deeply 
concerned that they do not, while adding to its economic wealth, 
work under such conditions as to impair their health and vitality 
as mothers of the next generation. 

II. SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

Owing to limitation of time and resources, no investigation 
was made into special conditions affecting women workers, al- 
though six of the twenty industries considered by the Commission 
employed large numbers of women. This report, therefore, deals 
chiefly with results obtained through the general sanitary in- 
vestigation, which was limited for the most part to observation 
of actual conditions prevailing in the work-places. In general 
(these conditions do not differ materially in shops employing 
men or women, or both), establishments in standardized indus- 
tries, conducted in districts where rents are normal, are not so 
apt to offend in regard to general sanitary conditions as are estab- 
lishments in unstandardized trades, in localities where there is 
much speculation in land values. Dirt, dust and disorder, 
overcrowding, bad lighting and ventilation are no respecters of 
sex. They are found in all industries, in shops employing both 
men and women. Their prevention is not so much a matter for 
legislation, as for rigid enforcement of simple and well-defined 
sanitary standards. Information in regard to these factors which 
most affect the health of women workers, namely, duration, inten- 
sity and character of employment, sweating, seasonal work and 
.wages, was gained only incidentally. Except for the question of 
duration this report does not attempt to deal with them. 

The following table gives the number of inspections made, 
establishments inspected and numbers and proportion of women 
workers in the six trades employing the largest number of women 
workers, and their ratio to the total number of women workers in 
these industries. 



274 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 



TABLE Xo. 2. 

ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES EMPLOYING OVER SITTT PER CENT 

or WOMEN WORKERS. 



INDUSTRY 


No. 

Estab- 
lish- 

meats 


No. 
inspec- 
tions 


WORKERS 


Per cent 
of workers 
in State 
covered by 
investigation 


Men 


Women 


Minors 


Artificial flowers and 
feathers 


94 
200 
110 
53 

7 


120 
228 
244 
135 
28 


341 

2,016 
1.339 
832 
492 


1.493 
9,425 
4,148 
2,595 
976 


57 
141 
36 
203 
32 


19 
10 
*43 
20 
15 


Clothing (waists) 


Laundries 


Paper boxes 


Textiles 


Total 


518 


911 


6.004 


20.359 


534 


16 





Percentage based on figures given by State Dept. Labor. 

in. EXTENT OF THE INVESTIGATION. 

The 94 artificial flower and feather firms, and the 200 estab- 
lishments in the women's waist trade were located in New York 
city. Inspections of the textile mills were made at Utica, and the 
report on the men's clothing trade was the result of a brief investi- 
gation at Rochester. Laundries were visited in New York, Buffalo 
and Troy; paper-box factories in New York and Buffalo. The 
reports on laundries and the knitting mills at Utica and the men's 
clothing trade in Rochester were prepared by Miss Louise Carey. 

IV. NOTES ON SOME TRADES IN WHICH WOMEN 
ARE EMPLOYED. 

1. ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS AND FEATHERS. 

New York city is the great center of this trade. Three-fourths 
of the artificial flowers manufactured in the United States are 
made in New York city, and particularly on Manhattan Island. 
This, too, is a trade that employs a very large proportion of 
women. In the shops investigated by the Commission, 1,493, or 
79 per cent of the workers employed, were women. The propor- 
tion of women workers in the trade in New York State is as much 
as 86 per cent. 

Processes in the Trade: 

Flower and feather making, though quite different processes, 
are frequently carried on in the same factory and by the same 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 275 

workers. This is due to the shortness of the flower season. When 
the flower season is over, the workers begin making up feathers 
for the winter trade. A number of establishments make only 
feathers, as the demand for these is steadier. Of the 94 estab- 
lishments investigated, 22 made only flowers, 47 only feathers, 
and 25 both flowers and feathers. 

The processes in flower and feather-making are nearly all car- 
ried on by hand, with the aid of simple tools. A few men are 
usually employed in each shop for dyeing the materials and 
cutting and stamping the leaves and petals, but all the rest of the 
work that goes to make the finished flower is done by the women. 
They crimp the petals with heated irons, wrap the stems and 
" slip up " the petals of the cheaper flowers. In the better grades 
of roses, each petal has its place and is attached separately, the 
operation requiring not a little skill. After the flowers are made 
they are " branched " and arranged in wreaths and in combina- 
tions with foliage. 

In making artificial flowers a possible danger in the trade 
comes from the use of aniline dyes. The workers complain of 
irritation to the skin and to the membranes of the nose and throat. 
The colors rub off on the hands and are apt to be transferred to 
,the face and mouth of the worker in the course of the day's work. 

In the artificial feather trade there is some danger to the work- 
ers from the constant inhaling of tiny bits of feather fluff that are 
detached during the processes. Sore throat, asthma, bronchitis 
and diseases of the eyes often occur among feather workers. For 
this reason it is considered a rather unwholesome trade. 

Condition of Work Places: 

Of the 94 establishments inspected, 45 per cent were situated in 
tenements, converted tenements, or dwellings. This is very char- 
acteristic of the trade, as it needs no machinery ; the tools are sim- 
ple, the materials cheap and not bulky. Tenements and private 
houses were never intended for manufacture; their light and ven- 
tilation are bound to be deficient. Seventeen per cent of the 
establishments inspected used artificial light in the daytime. A 
basement shop on Broadway employing 30 workers had no win- 
dows at all and only one small electric fan. 



276 WOMEX WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

About one-quarter of the shops inspected were really clean; 
while almost half were in a really filthy condition, a larger propor- 
tion than that found in any other of the six trades. Xo lunch 
rooms for the workers were found in any of the establishments, 
and only Jn eight were the washing arrangements ample. 

Home Work: 

The artificial flower and feather trade is one of the largest 
home-work trades in the city. The trade is concentrated in dis- 
tricts near the congested tenement sections, such as lower Broad- 
way from Spring to Eighth streets. In a detailed and careful 
study of the artificial flower trade made by the Committee on 
Women's Work of the Russell Sage Foundation, in the spring of 
1910, out of 114 firms investigated, 76 firms gave out home work 
to between 2,227 and 2,385 families. Two was the smallest 
number of workers found in any one family. The evils of tene- 
ment work have been fully explained and described year after 
year, so that it is hard to believe that anyone can still be ignorant 
of its danger to the purchasing public and to the workers 
themselves. 

Considered by its effect on the trade, home work is even more 
disastrous. These thousands of workers outside the factory are 
not only a temptation to progressive exploitation themselves, but 
unconsciously assist in reducing the wages of the workers inside 
the factory, and in shortening the already too short season. These 
effects are clearly shown in the study mentioned above. 

By home-work or tenement-work is meant any kind of manu- 
facturing done for a manufacturer, contractor or agent by persons 
not working on the premises or under the supervision of such a 
manufacturer, contractor or agent, the wages and rates of pay- 
ment for these workers being fixed by the persons giving out the 
work. In its essence home-work, as thus defined, is unlawful, 
or at least beyond control by law. In New York State we have a 
Labor Code, certain sections of which exist for the express purpose 
of regulating conditions under which manufacturing may be car- 
ried on in the State, but by giving out home-work a manufacturer 
is literally able to break every law on the statute books. His 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 277 

work may be done in unclean, unsanitary surroundings, it may be 
performed by little children or minors working long hours after 
5 p. m., when the law frees the girl and boy workers in the fac- 
tories, or by young girls working far into the night. Home- 
work means unregulated manufacturing, carried on beyond the 
possibility of control as to hours of women's work, child labor, 
night-work of minors, or cleanliness and sanitation of work-places. 
In its efforts to inspect the 13,000 licensed tenements in New 
York city, the Department of Labor is attempting the impossible. 
From the point of view of the community, the greatest objection 
to home-work is its lawlessness. 

2. CLOTHING (WOMEN'S WAISTS). 
Location of Buildings: 

New York city is the greatest center of the women's waist trace 
in the United States. The 228 shops inspected were on Manhat- 
tan Island, south of 35th street, in the most congested portion of 
the city. Ninety-one per cent of the establishments irspected were 
located in loft buildings, and of the 11,000 odd workers in these 
shops, one-half were employed above the sixth floor. This over- 
whelming proportion of loft shops is characteristic of all branches 
of the clothing trade in New York city. The Asch fire disaster 
of last March threw a lurid light on the fearful risks to tha 
workers involved in such a situation. 

Condition of Work Places: 

It is remarkable that a very large percentage (62 per cent) of 
the waist shops inspected used artificial light in the daytime, while 
60 per cent had no protection from glare this, too, in a trade 
where proper lighting would seem to be a prime necessity for effi- 
cient, accurate work, to say nothing of the effect of such inade- 
quate illumination on the eyes and health of the workers. 

A larger percentage (28 per cent) of extremely dirty shops were 
found than in any other trade employing over 50 per cent of 
women workers, with the exception of the artificial flower and 
feather industry. Thirty per cent of the water closets were in a 
filthy condition and had no light or ventilation whatever. 



278 WOMEN WOKKEKS ix FACTORIES. 

Processes of Manufacture: 

The waist trade has had many vicissitudes of late years, owing 
Jo changes in the market, and many shops that formerly made only 
.waists now make waists and dresses, either together or as supple- 
mentary trades. The processes do not differ greatly from the other 
branches of the clothing trade. Men are always employed to do 
the cutting of the materials, and a small proportion of men oper- 
ators is found in some of the shops, particularly those making the 
cheaper grades of waists and dresses. Women are employed at 
the different branches of operating ; such as lace running, tucking, 
and machine button-holing, and also as finishers and hand button- 
hole makers. In making the cheaper grades of waists, the subdi- 
vision of processes is carried very far, and a waist may pass 
through the hands of a dozen workers before it is finished. This 
" section work " is nearly always piece-work and requires very 
little skill, speed being the prime necessity. The better grade of 
waists and dresses, however, cannot be made in this way ; and one 
girl will make the whole garment, or a large part of it. Such 
workers are usually paid by the week, since greater skill and care- 
fulness are required. 

Dangerous and Unhealthy Elements in the Trade: 

In common with the other branches of the clothing trade, the 
dangers to the women workers are not inherent in the industry 
itself, but are due to the conditions under which manufacture is 
conducted. The hazards of death or injury from fire that must 
be daily assumed by the women worker in loft factories on Man- 
hattan Island are terrific. But the overcrowding of work rooms, 
long periods of overtime, with irregular daily schedules, running 
from ten to fourteen hours, with consequent over-fatigue and 
exhaustion, the speeding up of both workers and machines, which 
.keeps nerves and muscles in continued tension, are factors that 
from day to day seriously impair the health and vitality of the 
women workers. No amount of cleanliness and convenience in 
.the work rooms can offset the injurious effects resulting from long, 
irregular working hours and nervous strain. 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 27D 

3. STEAM LAUNDRIES IN NEW YORK CITY.* 
Character of the Work: 

The character of work done in New York laundries varies with 
the type of laundry. There are, roughly speaking, seven types: 
hand, custom, manufacturers', wholesale, flat work, hotel and weft- 
wash laundries. Hand laundries do hand ironing only; custom 
laundries do general family work, dealing directly with the cus- 
tomer ; manufacturers' laundries, which are generally run in con- 
junction with a factory, do up new work only, the process depend- 
ing on the character of the goods. 

Wholesale laundries are institutions peculiar to New York 
city. These laundries receive their work from the four or five 
thousand so-called hand laundries in large nets about a yard 
square and return it to them rough dried, with the exception of 
collars and cuffs, which are ironed by machine. In some cases 
they do flat work, sheets, towels, napkins and pillow-cases; but 
more often flat work is sent to factories that make a specialty of 
mangling and are patronized by hand-laundries, hotels, restaur- 
ants, steamships and railroad companies. Hotel laundries as a 
general rule do flat work only, but some of them have a custom 
laundry department run in conjunction with the hotel. Wet wash 
laundries constitute still another class. These do washing for 
families at fifty cents a basket, returning the clothes rough dried 
to their customers. 

Description of Process: 

The several processes in the laundry trade are washing, extract- 
ing, starching, drying and ironing. The principal operations are 
listing, marking, assorting, washing by hand and by machine, 
tending extractors, shaking, feeding and folding, starching by 
hand and by machine, collar finishing, mending and tying up. 
The same girls are generally employed as checkers, markers and 
assorters. The checkers or listers and the markers have the 
unpleasant and dangerous task of examining and marking the 
soiled clothes as they come in, and while their work is mainly 



Thia report is based on an examination of 110 laundries in the State, 84 
of which were in New York city. 



280 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

clerical, both they and the assorters, who go over the clean clothes, 
are obliged to stand all day. 

The operating of washing machines is in New York almost 
invariably done by men. These machines are large, cylindrical 
receptacles, approximately 5x2^ feet in size, in which, by a 
reversing motion, the dirty clothes are shaken up with hot water, 
soap and chemicals. In the same room with the washing machines 
are the extractors. The dripping clothes are packed into a per- 
forated metal basket, which is enclosed in a heavy iron shell con- 
necting with a drain; the basket is then whirled round at an 
extraordinary speed, and the water is forced out at the perfora- 
tions by centrifugal force. The proper guard for an extractor is 
a metal covering, but laundrymen find that heavy canvas is more 
efficient protection for the clothes. The objection to the canvas 
covering is that in case of a light load it is impossible to adjust, 
and the machine is allowed to run unguarded. 

The mangle room is generally situated above the wash room, 
but is also frequently a part of it. The shakers, generally young 
girls, take the twisted clothes as they come out of the extractors 
and slap or shake them violently, an operation which must be 
performed standing, and is fatiguing in the extreme. The feed- 
ers or manglers also have to stand at their work. They take the 
sheets, pillow-cases, napkins, etc., from the shakers, and so place 
them on the apron of the mangle that they are carried under 
and over revolving padded rolls which receive their heat from a 
large steam-heated cylinder. The folders on the other side receive 
the freshly ironed work, fold it and place it aside. When the 
articles are small, the latter are sometimes allowed to sit at their 
work. 

After the process of mangling, flat work is finished, and as soon 
as it has passed through the hand of the assorters, is ready for 
delivering. All other work as it comes from the shakers goes through 
a starching process, the starching room being generally situated 
above the mangle room. Collar and cuff starching machines, built 
somewhat like small mangles, are in use in most of the laundries 
in New York, but the greater part of the starching is still done 
by hand. It is one of the duties of the starchers to attend to the 
drying of the clothes. Making part of the starch room, or con- 



WOMEN WORKERS ix FACTORIES. 281 

necting with it, is the dry room, a wooden chamber in which the 
air is heated up to 300 degrees F. The clothes are generally 
hung on sliding racks, but a system of endless chains is coming 
into use. The collar and shirt dampening machines are also found 
in the dry rooms. These machines are built like mangles and 
are partially enclosed by wooden shields. The operators feed 
between the rolls. 

The ironing department is generally found on the top floor. 
The process of hand ironing is the same in the steam laundry as 
in the home, except that the work is done at a much greater speed, 
and the irons are gas-heated. Owing to the great amount of 
strength required, a large percentage of the hand ironers are men. 
On the other hand, women are employed almost exclusivly to oper- 
ate the ironing machines, of which there are many types. Collars 
and cuffs are ironed by means of what is known as the collar iron- 
ing machine, but, properly speaking, it should be called a collar 
mangle. The collars and cuffs are fed over a wooden board 
between a series of gas or steam-heated rolls, and received on the 
other side. Both operators and receivers may sometimes be seated, 
though more usually they stand. 

Another type is the body ironer, which consists of two large 
rolls, the lower generally padded and the upper heated by a row 
of gas jets. The article is slipped over the lower roll and the 
operator, by foot pressure, releases a spring, which lifts this into 
contact with the heated surface. The pressure must be continu- 
ous and steady, and in most cases a reversing motion requires 
double treadle action. Machines of this type vary greatly. Some 
require almost the whole weight of the operator, others only a 
slight pressure, but the lower part of the operator's body is in a 
constant state of contortion. Shirt, bosom, cuff, collar and neck 
band presses are also operated by means of treadles, but with this 
difference the motion of only one foot is required and that 
motion is not continuous but spasmodic. As in the case of the 
body ironers, the more recent makes of machine demand far less 
actual physical effort. 

Five or six types of collar-finishing machines are in use seam 
dampeners, collar tipping machines, collar shapers, etc. The 
operation in each case involves merely the feeding of the machine, 



282 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

except for the wing point tipper, which requires a very violent 
double treadle action. The girls at the collar-finishing machines 
usually sit at their work, with the exception of the operators on 
the wing-point tipper. 

Workers: 

There seem to be more German women than of any other 
nationality in the laundry trade; Italians come next, then Poles, 
and, lastly, Americans. A number of Jewish men are em- 
ployed as shirt ironers, but very few Jewish women. There are 
not many very young girls. The majority of women look over 
thirty, many of them over fifty; and the men look, for the 
most part, over thirty-five. About 80 per cent of the workers 
are women, men being employed only as washers and shirt ironers. 
Women are employed in all departments with the exception of 
the wash room. The great fatigue of both men and ^omen 
laundry work is very evident. 

Condition of the Work Places: 

Most of the New York laundries were found to be dirty, only 
three of them being in really good condition in regard to cleanli- 
ness of walls, floors and ceilings. The floors of the starch rooms 
are particularly neglected. The washing facilities consist in almost 
every case of a sink, generally dirty, and a cold water spigot. The 
toilet rooms are rarely clean, and there is generally no ventilation 
except from the shop. Special lunch rooms are not provided, 
and employees eat their lunch in the shop. 

Artificial light is needed and used in the majority of the laun- 
dries. Welsbach burners are most frequently found. 

The problem of ventilation is partially met by fans and exhaust 
pipes; but the air of almost every steam laundry is oppres- 
sive. One reason for poor ventilation in the winter is that the 
laundries have, as a rule, no special system of heating, and so turn 
off the exhaust fans and shut all windows as soon as the cold 
weather sets in. 

Dangerous Elements in the Trade: 

There are dangerous elements connected with every operation 
in laundry work. They may be classed as dangers from over- 



WOMEJST WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 283 

heating, from steam, from gas, from water, from unguarded 
machinery and from undue physical strain. 

It is a significant fact that so much heat is generated by the 
processes of the trade that it is rare to find in a steam laundry 
any other system of heating. The air is most oppressive in the 
starching department, owing to the proximity of the drying room, 
but the ironing room and the wash room are almost equally uncom- 
fortable. Laundresses frequently complain of the floors being hot, 
and it is quite usual to see them standing with their swollen feet 
tied up in rags. It is a well known fact that excessive heat has a 
debilitating effect on the whole system. 

Steam is visibly present in every department of the laundry 
except in the ironing room, which thereby escapes having an 
exhaust fan. The washing machines and mangles generate the 
greater part of the steam, but the starching machines and the dry 
rooms are responsible to some extent for the humidity of the air. 
Laundresses complain of pains in the chest as the result of in- 
haling steam, and they are particularly liable to colds, coughs 
and bronchitis. The mortality from consumption among laundry 
workers, noted by Sir Thomas Oliver and Professor Landouzy, 
is said to be due to the inhalation of steam. 

Mention has been made of the use of gas in laundry work. It 
is generally admitted that the use of gas vitiates the atmosphere 
and so affects the workers. In the case of laundry machinery, the 
leakage is so noticeable that workers frequently suffer from car- 
bon monoxide poison. Laundresses complain of headaches, sore 
eyes, nausea and dizziness, caused by escaping gas, as well as 
of a general run-down condition. 

The problem of water on the floor relates only to the washing 
room. Many of the washers suffer from rheumatism from this 
cause. 

With regard to dangerous machinery, mention has been made 
of devices for covering extractors. It has frequently happened 
that men have had their arms torn off for lack of proper guards. 
In this connection, the case of Beckstein vs. the Central Star 
Laundry Company (140 App. Division 8), is interesting. Plain- 
tiff had his arm torn off and could not recover on the ground that 
it was not customary to provide covers for such machines, and that, 



284 WOMEN WORKERS ix FACTORIES. 

when provided, their purpose was the protection of the clothes 
from dirt rather than of the men from injury. Another case 
brought by the Bureau of Factory Inspection against a laundry 
for not providing covers for extractors, was dismissed on the 
ground that extractors are not dangerous machines. It is also 
usual to find unguarded or insufficiently guarded belting and pul- 
leys in steam laundries. This constitutes considerable danger to 
women, on account of the possibility of their skirts and hair catch- 
ing in these pulleys. Cases are known of girls being scalped in 
this way. 

There has been so much discussion of the dangers of mangle 
work that it is impossible now to find a totally unguarded mangle, 
but while improvements are constantly being made in the ma- 
chines, no guard in use seems to cover the case. The older types 
of guard are stationary rolls and upright bars, the former being 
more generally used in New York city. It has, however, been 
the experience of many laundry workers that the small roll acts 
as a warning rather than as a guard. If it is placed near the 
large roll there is danger of the hand being drawn in, and if at 
some distance, a space is left unguarded. With regard to the 
upright bar, there is a chance of the hand being injured and burnt, 
though it is improbable that it could be absolutely crushed. The 
rolls and upright guards on the latest makes are so constructed that 
they move forward and the machinery stops as soon as there is any 
pressure on them, but in case of the roll, it would still be possible 
for the operator to get a hand on the further side, and an em- 
ployer told tihe investigator that he had found girls trying to 
straighten material between a movable upright guard and the 
large roll. While the operation of feeding the mangle is obviously 
more dangerous than that of folding, the feeder has been compar- 
atively so well protected that it is now the folder who is in great 
danger. It is, of course, unlikely that a girl would reach forward 
and so get her hands between the rolls at the back of the mangle, 
but such cases do occur, and in a very recent one, a girl lost both 
her hands. 

Starching machines, roll-ironing machines, steam presses and 
shirt and collar dampeners are all open to the same objection, that 
the hand is likely to be caught and crushed, although there is not 



WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 285 

the danger of very serious accidents, such as occur in mangling. 
With the exception of the shirt and collar dampeners, all the ma- 
chines mentioned have unprotected hot surfaces, and daily injuries 
from burns occur in all steam laundries. 

It has already been noted that the majority of the operations 
.are performed standing, and the specific effects from long stand- 
ing upon women are well known. Women who stand all day are 
subject to numerous pelvic disorders, and this is particularly the 
case among workers in the laundry trade. The women also suffer 
from varicose veins, swollen feet and flat foot and a large propor- 
tion wear rubber stockings and bind their feet with plaster. 
Diseases resulting from undue physical exertion appear to be 
confined to hand starchers, hand ironers and operators of treadle 
machines. The effects on the workers of starching and ironing 
are much the same, although ironing is the more difficult opera- 
tion pains in the back and side and paraesthesia of the finger 
tips. Hand ironers in addition suffer from synovitis of the exten- 
sor muscles of the forearm, and diseases of the stomach. Body 
ironers suffer from displacement of the left kidney, in addition 
to the pelvic disorders to which workers on all treadle machines 
are subject. This information is corroborated by evidence in the 
United States Government Report on Condition of Woman and 
Child Wage Earners in the United States. (Volume XII.) 

What is Being Done in the Best Establishments to Remedy the 
Evils: 

Hoods over mangles connecting with exhaust pipes are occasion- 
ally found, but there are no provisions for the removal of steam, 
other than fans in the windows. 

An effort is made in most establishments so to mix the gas with 
air that no leakage will be possible, but employers and employees 
agree that perfect combustion cannot be attained in the case of 
roll-ironing machines. In one laundry the body ironer was pro- 
vided with a hood and vent pipe, a device required by the 
English law, which seemed very effective. The newer 
makes of collar-ironing machines are heated by steam. 
Gas heated machines should be prohibited unless provided witlh 
hoods and vents. Irons should be heated by electricity. All 
machinery should be guarded, as indicated in the paragraph on 



WOMEN WORKERS ix FACTORIES. 

dangerous elements in the trade. Hours of labor should be lim- 
ited to eight No women should be allowed to stand more than six 
hours. Seats should be adjusted to machines wherever possible. 

4. PAPER Box TRADE. 

New York and Buffalo are the two centers for the paper box 
trade in the State. The largest establishments investigated were 
in Buffalo, where one firm has three different factories, employ- 
ing over 2,000 workers. Most of the boxes of well-known brands 
of cigarettes, such as the Schinasi, Mogul, Pall Mall, etc., are 
made in these factories. 

Condition of Work Places: 

Seventeen per cent of the establishments inspected were located 
in special factories. A few of the up-State factories were model 
establishments, with efficient ventilating systems, ample washing 
and dressing rooms, and special lunch and rest rooms. Nineteen 
per cent of the shops, a comparatively large proportion, were 
extremely clean, and only nine per cent very dirty. 

Processes of Manufacture: 

The principle operations in the trade are cutting (grinding or 
scoring), folding, pasting, corner-cutting and corner staying, 
" filling in " and " collaring." Not all these operations are 
necessary for making every kind of box in making cartons, for 
example, cutting, scoring and folding are the only needful oper- 
ations, and in making pill-boxes, the paper, cardboard and glue go 
into an automatic machine which turns out boxes and covers 
complete. 

While there is a good deal of hand work in the trade, and 
while the finest grades of fancy candy and flower boxes are made 
by hand, machine work is increasing. There are a great many 
different types of machines in use now; die-presses for printing 
cartons, cutting, scoring and grinding machines; the Knowlton- 
Beach corner-stayers and corner-cutters ; " collaring machines " 
for lining cigarette boxes, automatic machines and many other 
types some of foreign and some of domestic manufacture. Men 



WOME.N WORKERS IK FACTORIES. 287 

are employed sometimes to do the corner-staying and cutting, 
out women and igirls frequently operate these, as well as the 
collaring and automatic machines. 

Dangerous Elements in the Trade: 

A real danger to the workers comes from the use of these 
machines. The Knowlton-Beach corner-stayer is responsible for 
many crushed and broken fingers, and no really safe guard seems 
yet to have been devised. The workers complain that the present 
type of guard is apt to catch the fingers when working quickly. 
.Some firms provide iron thimbles, but these are clumsy and do 
not always prevent accidents. 

, The corner-cutting, filling-in and collaring machines also have 
their quota of accidents. In one shop employing about 800 work- 
ers, the inspector counted seven girls with bandaged hands; one 
girl had lost three weeks' work through crushed fingers caught 
jn a corner-staying machine. In another smaller shop the foreman 
.showed his own hand, with the two joints of his two first fingers 
.missing, saying, " You aren't a boxmaker until you get that trade 
mark." 

The collaring machines are similar in operation to the familiar 
punch-press, but are not so heavy, and consequently the accidents 
are not so serious. They are set in motion by a lever controlled 
by the foot, and as the work is paid by the piece, the operators, 
usually the youngest girls, ofter attaan a high rate of speed. 
Every now and then the machine sticks, the worker quickly slips 
in her hand, forgets that her foot is on the lever and down comes 
the press. One Buffalo manufacturer said that he had had so 
many accidents that he had installed clutches on a level with 
the press instead of the foot lever, so that the workers' hands 
were perforce occupied while the press was in motion. He said 
that the output per day was not quite so great, but that the clutch 
completely did away with the possibility of accident. The die- 
presses used in some large factories are also dangerous. The girl 
operators stand at their \vork, removing and inserting the cartons 
every two seconds as the presses automatically open and shut. 
An instant's hesitation may result in a serious accident. No guards 
were found on any of the presses inspected. In one shop girls 



288 WU.MKN WORKERS ix FACTORIES. 

were at work feeding glued cartons between high-speed rollers; 
three of these machines were " guarded " with bars so high above 
the rollers that they were practically useless. The fourth machine 
had not even this " guard ; " the superintendent said he intended 
to provide one, but had been too busy since the firm had moved. 
This moving proved to have taken place several months previous, 
during which time the machine had been running completely 
unguarded. 

In very few shops was the belting sufficiently guarded. In a 
trade employing such a large number of women and young girls 
this ought to be mandatory. A factory may be " lucky," but 
the possibility of an apron string, the edge of a skirt or a hair 
ribbon catching in the pulleys is always present. It is significant 
that in the two factories where the guarding was most thorough, 
there had been bad accidents. But why wait for the accident? 

5. TEXTILE MILLS IN UTICA. 

Utica is the knit goods center of the United States. According 
to a statement issued by the Utica Chamber of Commerce, twenty- 
one mills, employing a total of six thousand people, do a business 
of over $20,000,000 a year. Underwear, sweaters, caps, hosiery 
and infants' furnishings are produced. Seven establishments were 
visited, employing nearly 1,500 workers altogether. 

Description of Process: 

The several processes are winding, knitting, napping, washing 
and dyeing, cutting and making-up. Both men and women are 
employed in the process of winding. The winder stands all day 
watching from sixteen to twenty-five bobbins, ready to tie up a 
broken thread, and on the lookout for any hitch in the mechanism. 
Men are more generally employed as knitters, although women 
seem able to do the work as well. The duty of a knitter is to watch 
an allotted number of cylinders, as the knitting machines are 
called, and like the winder, be continually on the lookout for 
broken threads. In one factory the cylinders extend from the first 
to the third floor, while in another the cylinders, about four feet 
in height, are placed on long tables. Each knitter tends six cyl- 



WOMEJN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 289 

inders, and connected with each cylinder are six bobbins which 
makes a total of thirty-six threads to be accounted for. In this 
factory seats are provided for the knitters, but it is 
rarely possible for them to sit down. The operation of 
napping is invariably performed by men. The material is put 
through a machine built somewhat like a laundry mangle which 
has the effect of raising the nap on the right side. It is usual to 
send the goods out to be washed and dyed, but one of the fac- 
tories visited has a special department for washing and dyeing. 
The operation of cutting, for which men are employed, is per- 
formed by means of a cutting machine similar to that used in the 
garment trades. For making-up, women are almost invariably 
employed, the processes being practically the same as in the gar- 
ment trades except that less skill is required and the machines 
are consequently geared up to make from thirty to forty thou- 
sand stitches a minute. A foreman told the investigator that the 
average is thirty-five thousand stitches a minute. Women are 
also employed as folders and inspectors, and at this work they 
stand all day. 

Dangerous Elements in the Trade: 

The specific danger in knitting mills is the presence of cotton 
and woolen dust in the air, which is particularly objectionable 
in the napping room. Knitting is classed among the dusty trades, 
and consumption is common among employees of knitting mills. 
(Bulletin No. 79, United States Bureau of Labor.) The fact that 
the women and child operators, all on piece-work, are compelled to 
work eight and ten hours a day, according to age, on machines 
geared up to make as many as forty thousand stitches a minute 
would seem to constitute an even greater danger. Moreover, the 
continuous standing necessary for women winders, knitters, in- 
spectors and folders is in the highest degree destructive of health. 

Workers : 

The majority of the workers in the knitting mills are Ameri- 
can-born. There are, however, a number of Poles, Italians and 
Syrians. The sex of workers employed in the various depart- 
10 



290 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

ments has been noted in the previous paragraph. About seventy- 
five per cent of the workers are women and young girls, and the 
extreme youth of a number of the operators is very evident. 

Conditions of the Work-Places: 

The establishments visited were light, clean and well-ventilated. 
Other factories presented the same modern appearance, and were 
obviously so built as to make for good natural light and 
ventilation. 

As usual a sink and a cold-water spigot constitute the washing 
facilities. The toilets are far above the average in cleanliness, 
and nearly all of them have windows to the outer air. The em- 
ployees generally eat their lunch in the shop, and no special lunch 
rooms are provided. 

Electricity is used in all establishments. In two finishing 
rooms mercury light is used in addition to electricity. In the 
latter case there seems to be no necessity for protection from 
glare, but the operators in two factories work by unshaded 
electric lights. The proportion of workers wearing glasses is 
very large. 

As already stated, the natural ventilation is good, though only 
one work-room was provided with an exhaust fan or any form of 
forced ventilation. 

Hours and Wages: 

The hours throughout the trade are from seven to six, making 
a total of sixty hours a week. When the factories close at five 
on Saturday, they make up the lost hour by taking ten minutes 
from the lunch hour. As to the extent of overtime, in one factory, 
the foreman said that the workers sometimes stayed until eight 
o'clock. As work is paid almost entirely by the piece, it is fair 
to assume that the full fifty minutes for lunch is not taken. 

What is Being Done in the Best Establishments to Remedy the 
Evils: 

In one of the establishments inspected suction pipes are placed 
underneath the napping machines. In another exhaust fans are 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 291 

provided in the main knitting room, and humidifiers in the knit- 
ting and winding room. With regard to the other evils, nothing is 
being done to remedy them. 

If the factories inspected are typical, the workers do 
not suffer greatly on the whole from bad sanitary conditions. 
They do suffer from the difficult and exacting character of the 
work, from speeding up, from the length of the working week, and 
from the lowness of the wages paid. 

6. MEN'S CLOTHING TRADE IN ROCHESTER. 
General Character of Trade: 

Rochester is one of the four great centers for men's ready-made 
clothing, approximately 3,504 men and 2,528 women being em- 
ployed in the industry, according to the census of 1905. The 
goods manufactured are all of a high grade, i. e., no suits are made 
which sell at retail for less than $15.00. The " inside " shop 
system is more highly developed than in other clothing centers, 
although it is generally estimated that two-thirds of the work is 
done in contract shops. The relation of the " inside shop " to the 
" outside shop," or contract shop, is peculiar to Rochester, the 
contractor doing work for one firm only year-in and year-out. 
As is usual in this industry, there is a great deal of home work 
done, principally felling and finishing. Most of the " outside " 
shops give out their finishing and some of the " inside " shops, as 
well. 

The Workers: 

The majority of the workers are American-born and of for- 
eign extraction. Of the foreign-born women, 41.6 per cent are 
Italians, 28.5 per cent are Germans. (Vol. 2, Report on Con- 
dition of Women and Child Wage Earners in the U. S.) Of the 
men, the cutters are for the most part of German extraction. 
Women constitute nearly two-fifths of the workers. The average 
age of both men and women would be between thirty and thirty- 
five. With regard to the general appearance, their paleness and 



292 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

nervousness is very noticeable. A large portion of them wear 
glasses. 

Condition of the Workers: 

The floors were very dirty in twenty of the thirty factories 
inspected, although the cutting room was generally in good condi- 
tion. The toilets in general were neglected, nine establishments 
having very dirty water closet apartments, and 1 fourteen or more 
no windows to outer air. 

With ten exceptions, all the factories were using artificial light 
generally electricity when inspected. The inspection, how- 
ever, was made on very dark days. All operators worked by 
completely shaded electric lights, except in outside shops, where 
unshaded gas burners were in use. The natural lighting is so 
good in these shops that the workmen do not need artificial 
light except in the early morning and at night. The bad lighting 
in the case of " fellers " has already been noted. 

The air is not noticceably bad except in the outside shops, but 
in only two cases was there forced ventilation, in one factory a 
system of forcing in hot air. 

Processes in the Trade: 

The principal processes are cutting, machine operating, fell- 
ing and pressing. The cutters arc invariably men, and the opera- 
tion is performed by means of a heavy knife, which is worked by 
power, a number of thicknesses of material being cut at once. 
The sewing machines are also worked by power, which the operator 
regulates by foot pressure. The machine most generally in use, 
No. 31-15, makes twenty-two hundred stitches a minute; another 
machine in general use, No. 31-35, makes eighteen hundred 
stitches a minute, and No. 122-W.-1, a double-needle machine 
and the most difficult of operation, makes seventeen hundred stitches 
a minute. These figures are of course approximations. Many 
factors affect the number of stitches averaged by an operator, 
such as the size of tlhe stitch, the length of the seam, the grade of 
work, etc., so that it is impossible to lay down any hard and fast 
rule. Foremen and employees invariably say that absolute 



WOMEJST WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 293 

concentration of the eyes on the point of the needle is 
necessary on the part of the operator. The fellers and 
finishers sew by hand and at a very great speed. These 
perform whatever hand work may be required on the gar- 
ments. The pressers do their work by means of a gas-heated 
iron. Their equipment differs in the various shops. It is usual 
for the garment to be forced against the hot surface by the iron 
from below, the presser bearing down on a treadle with all the 
weight of his body. The gas used to heat the irons of the pressers 
is liable to escape by leakage or noncombustion, and to vitiate 
the air of the room. Carbon monoxide poisoning causes head- 
ache, sore eyes, dizziness and nausea, as well as a general con- 
dition of anaemia. Fellers or finishers appear to suffer from 
eyestrain, judging from the great number who wear eyeglasses. 
Almost all of them were placed away from the windows and had 
to depend for light on unshaded, or partially shaded electric lights. 
A great deal of felling is done in the homes. (See Vol. IT, Report 
on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United 
States.) 
Dangerous Elements: 

Operators suffer from the system of speeding up. The rate 
at which machines are run has already been noted, as well as the 
concentration required. Headache, eyestrain and neurasthenia 
are the results of these conditions. Garment workers are, as a 
rule, anaemic. In all the factories visited with two or three 
exceptions fuzzy dust was found on the floors in all operating 
rooms, and in most cases piled up under the machines. The hours 
are from seven to six, with an hour for lunch, and four to five 
hours on Saturday, and it is probable that at certain times of the 
yoar the majority of the factories work overtime. Vol. 2 of the 
United States government investigation of conditions of women 
and child wage-earners in the United States shows that sixteen 
out of twenty-five Rochester clothing factories were found work- 
ing overtime. 

v. THE WORK DONE BY WOMEN IN FACTORIES. 

A great deal of hard, laborious and physically exhausting work 
is still done by women. The work done by women in laundries 
is typical of such trades. In trades where women work more or 



294 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

less in competition with men, their work is apt to be heavy and 
hard, and to be performed under the most difficult conditions. 
Two foundries where women coremakers are employed were in- 
spected. The work is dirty and disagreeable, and is done standing 
in excessively hot atmosphere. The traya of cores, which must 
be lifted by the women, weigh sometimes as much as 80 pounds. 
These two foundries work a ten-hour day. No provision is made 
for the comfort or convenience of the women. 

In a large meat-packing plant employing at times over one 
hundred women, the women in the trimming and sausage rooms 
work side by side with the men who set the pace for the work. 
They stand at their work all day on floors covered with water 
and slime. Most of them wear heavy rubber boots, which they 
had to provide themseves to keep their feet dry. Only Polish and 
German girls were employed, as American women could not stand 
the hard work and long hours on their feet. 

This continual standing is one of the worst features of a large 
part of the work done by women in factories. Much of it is quite 
unnecessary and may be due to the fact that both the manage- 
ment and inspection of factories are usually in the hands of men 
who are apt to be ignorant or careless of the effect on women of 
prolonged standing. Many processes which now require the worker 
to stand could be easily adapted to a sitting posture. The practice 
varies in different establishments in the same industry. One man- 
ufacturer will state emphatically that such and such a process 
cannot be carried on if the workers sit, and perhaps in a shop a 
few blocks away the workers will be found comfortably seated at 
the same process. Even in branches of industry where constant 
sitting is not possible, such as loom-tending, carding and winding 
in textile mills, seats can be provided near at hand where the 
woman worker can take occasional moments' rest while work is 
running smoothly. The law requires the provision of seats for 
women in factories, but compliance with the law is unusual. 

Most of the work done by women in factories, however, is in- 
jurious to health, not so much on its physical side, but on account 
of the nervous strain involved in the extreme monotony of the 
processes and the speed with which they are carried on. Modern 



WOMELN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 295 

industry has been developed chiefly by men for men. Newer and 
faster machines are continually being introduced. In the clothing 
industry women operate machines that take from 1,500 to 2,000 
stitches a minute. In the paper box trade girls will " stay " or 
'* fill-in " upwards of 2,000 boxes a day, involving over 4,000 
pressures with the foot. Automatic die-presses open and close 
every two seconds, and within this time the woman worker must 
remove the printed sheet and insert a fresh one. In the knitting 
mills of Utica, machines take 3,500 stitches a minute. Unlimited 
,-pred and unlimited production is the manufacturer's dream, but 
modern machine production is taking no account of the strain 
upon women workers of long hours at such monotonous and nerve- 
wracking work in destroying their health, and thus lowering the 
efficiency of future generations of workers. 

VI. HOURS OF LABOE. 

Although for the reasons noted above a detailed study was not 
made of the most important of all factors affecting the health of 
women workers, the daily and weekly hours of labor the in- 
vest igators were able to gain much incidental information from 
both workers and employers in factories in Xew York city and 
elsewhere. 

The regular hours of labor of women in factories up-State are 
undoubtedly longer than in factories in New York city. The 
sixty-hour week and ten-hour day are the rule. Only two fac- 
tories were noted where the regular working hours were as low 
as fifty-four per week. The working-day usually begins at seven 
or seven-thirty, and ends at five-thirty or six, with from half an 
hour to an hour for luncheon. In one large textile mill the work- 
ing day began at 6 :30 A. M. and continued until 6 :15 P. M. with 
forty-five minutes for lunch. This meant for the worker almost 
twelve hours inside the factory, daily, and a working time of 
eleven hours. The owners of this establishment kept within the 
eixty hours legal limit by stopping work at noon on Saturdays. 
In this mill the inspector found a pale young girl leaning against 
the wall for a moment's rest, and inquired whether she did not 
find it a rather long day. "It's an awful long day," she sighed, 
and when told that many legislators in the State were trying to 



296 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

shorten the daily hours of work, she said, emphatically, " Well, 
they just can't do it quick enough for me." 

In the districts where the workers live, the streets are empty 
and the houses dark by nine at nigjht; " help wash the dishes 
and go to bed ;" " go to bed right after supper, too tired to go out ;" 
." tried going to night school, but was too tired to study ;" 
u sometimes go out Saturday nights, but would rather go to bed; 
these are some of the answers given by the girls when asked 
what they did in the evenings. On Sundays a working woman 
must wash and mend her clothes and frequently those of the men 
folk of the family. To keep her health that she may continue 
just to labor sixty hours a week, at unremitting monotonous toil, 
the girl worker must ,give up that social life and recreation so 
eagerly desired and so necessary for youth, must put aside the 
yearning to read and know, which is often just as keen as a desire 
for pleasure. If by these means the woman worker keeps her 
health, what preparation is such a life for the varied duties of 
wifehood or motherhood, and what wonder that most workers re- 
fuse to make this choice. 

Ten hours a day is of course exclusive of time for meals. Where 
one hour for lunch is allowed, 'the worker spends eleven hours- a 
day inside the factory. Many women workers are unable to live 
near their work, and must allow from half an hour to an hour to 
go to and from the factory. A ten-hour day means for most 
women workers 12 or 13 hours away from home. 

In New York city, while the regular hours of labor are ap- 
parently shorter, long periods of overtime eat up the seeming 
gain. Shops that have posted 58, 56, 54, or 51 hours a week may 
have overtime which brings them up to and beyond the sixty- 
hour mark from four to six months a year. In shops in which 
overtime is permitted, too, it is extremely easy for employers to 
violate the law, and, as inspectors of the Department of Labor have 
testified, almost impossible to get convictions. Girls who have 
kept account of their hours in the busy season at rush time in the 
laundry, clothing, artificial flower and printing trades find that 
they have frequently worked sixty-two to eighty-one hours per 
week, and ten to fifteen hours a day. In the artificial flower in- 
dustry, according to the study made by the Committee on Women's 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 297 

Work of the Russell Sage Foundation, while only 7 per cent of 
the 74 firms investigated had regular working hours of more than 
fifty-four, 63 per cent had overtime, ranging from 55 to 72 hours 
per week. Women who work in trades where there is much over- 
time agree that no amount of slack time later on makes up for 
the exhaustion consequent to the long day of 12 to 14 hours. 
Miss Josephine Goldmark, who has made a splendid study of the 
effect of long hours on women's physique, testified before the 
Commission on December 20, 1911, " Overtime work is in- 
jurious to health because it means work after the physical organ- 
ism is overtired. No money can repair the wasted energy that 
the organism suffers from overtime." 

Many employers seriously object to overtime and state that it 
does not pay in the end. If a girl works till nine or ten one night 
her output the next day falls off correspondingly. These employ- 
ers would welcome a limitation of the daily hours of work which 
would bear upon all manufacturers alike. The New York State 
law, permitting overtime regularly and irregularly, is the only 
law of its kind in the United States without a flat limit to the 
daily hours of work. Most serious of all, it is practically impos- 
sible to prove violations or. the sixty-hour law, which for this reason 
is not enforced in the very trades where women most need its 
protection. The limitation of daily hours of work is the only 
logical corollary of the limitation of the hours of the working week. 

That regular working hours of ten per day, six days in the 
week, and the irregular working hours ranging from nine to four- 
teen per day, are bound under the best condtions to injure the 
health, lower the vitality, and eventually shorten the life of the 
average woman worker, even though her weekly hours do not ex- 
ceed sixty, does not require elaborate proof. At every hearing of 
the Commission physicians, health officers, trade-union members 
and others testified from practical experience to the injuries to 
women's physique and nervous system of long hours and overtime. 

Dr. Delancey Rochester, a physician with twenty-seven 
years' experience both in private practice and in connection 
with the Buffalo General Hospital and County Hospital, 
stated at the hearing of the Commission held in Buffalo: 
" I am firmly in favor of the eight-hour labor law myself 



298 WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 

(for the working women). I think it ought to be enforced 
very firmly. The eight-hour law is proper and ought to be 
compulsory." 

Dr. George Goler, a practising physician for twenty-two 
years, and health officer of the city of Buffalo, testified be- 
fore the Commission : " Speeding up is very detrimental to 
the health of the worker. The faster you speed 1 up the organ- 
ism the sooner you wear it out. No woman should be em- 
ployed more than six hours in any one day." 

Dr. Wood Hutchinson, of New York, testified that " One 
of the most important measures to prevent tuberculosis among 
factory workers would be the reduction of hours of labor. 
If the worker only worked eight hours a day, he or she would 
be able to keep in good, vigorous condition to resist the 
attack of the disease. The weekly hours of labor of women 
in factories should not be in excess of forty-eight." 

Louise Stritt, Secretary of the Garment-Makers' Union 
of Utica, and a garment worker herself, testified at the 
Utica hearing of the Commission : "We are in favor of forty 
eight hours a week, eight hours a day, for women workers." 

Dr. Angeline M'artine, practicing physician of Utica, with 
a large practice among the working women, stated before 
the Commission that " Many diseases of working women are 
attributable to long hours. I would favor forty-eight hours 
a week for women." 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, Secretary of the National Con- 
sumers' League, said, in her testimony before the Commis- 
sion : " The present New York law for women is not en- 
forcible and is illusory, and therefore demoralizing to all 
concerned. The working-day for women and minors should 
not exceed ten hours in any case; the working week should 
be limited to fifty-four hours with the option of nine hours 
on six days, or ten hours on five days and four hours on 
Saturday. This, however, is an immediate step merely, on 
the way towards a working week of forty-eight hours and a 
working-day of eight hours for women and minors." 

MisaMelinda Scott, President of the United Hat Trimmers 
of New York and Newark, representing the Legislative Com- 
mittee of the Women's Trade Union League, said : " We 
recommend a bill limiting the working hours of women to 
forty-eight per week. The bill should also shorten the period 



WOMEN WORKERS IN FACTORIES. 299 

during which the factory may remain open, otherwise the 
law is a dead letter and cannot be enforced." 

From these statements, taken in connection with the facts, it 
is evident that the reduction of the hours of labor of working 
women is a very practical and immediate necessity, and one that 
becomes more urgent every day, with the continued introduction 
of new and speedier machines, increasing intensity of modern pro- 
duction, and the correspondingly greater strain which is put upon 
the worker. It will be useless to investigate the effect of special 
processes or unsanitary shops on the health of women workers 
as long as such hours prevail in all industries alike. With long 
hours and overtime, work can be injurious though carried on in 
an industrial palace, provided with special wash rooms and lunch 
rooms and adorned with Perry prints. With shorter weekly hours 
and a normal working-day, the present unhealthfulness of many 
trades will diminish. We shall then be in a better way to deter- 
mine, apart from questions of duration, what trades or processes 
are specially injurious to the woman worker, and to act accord- 
ingly with intelligence and promptitude. 



APPENDIX V 



NOTES ON AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A 

SELECTED AREA IN NEW YORK CITY 

WITH RESPECT TO SANITARY 

CONDITIONS IN THE 

FACTORIES 

By PAULINE GOL.DMARK, Associate Director, New York School 

of Philanthropy. 



INDUSTRIES INVESTIGATED 

PAGE 

Pianos 314 

Printing, Binding and Paper Goods 322 

Metals 325 

Furs, etc 331 

Wood Manufactures 337 

Laundries 338 

( 'andy and Food Products 345 

Bakeries 349 

Garments and Textiles 355 

Stone, Clay and Glass 355 

Mineral and Soda Water 356 

Dyeing and Cleaning 358 

Toilet Preparations and Chemicals 361 

Breweries 361 

Rags 362 



NOTES ON AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A 

SELECTED AREA IN NEW YORK CITY WITH 

RESPECT TO SANITARY CONDITIONS IN 

THE FACTORIES 

Prepared by PAULINE GOLDMARK, Associate Director of 
of the School of Philanthropy, in charge of the 
Bureau of Social Research, with the co-operation of 
KATHARINE S. ANTHONY, MARIE S. ORENSTEIN, DOR- 
OTHY B. KIECHWEY, CLINTON S. GUILDS and W. 
SCOTT BOYCE, Fellows of the Bureau of Social Re- 
search; two volunteers, LAWRENCE K. FRANK, a stu- 
dent in Columbia College, and HARRY M. BREMER, a 
student in the New York School of Philanthropy, 
gave substantial assistance. 



This report deals with conditions affecting 10,000 factory work- 
ers in a selected area. Such a comprehensive district study has 
this advantage over an examination of selected industries that 
it includes all the factories whatever the trade or processes. The 
conditions found may be considered fairly representative of those 
prevailing throughout the city, since neither good nor bad points 
have been especially sought out. 

The inspections for this survey were made with a view of de- 
termining the sanitary conditions as they exist in the factories. 
In making such a study it is important to bear in mind that all 
the factors must be noted which affect the health and working 
capacity of the individual employee. In other words, the cleanli- 
ness, sanitary conveniences and comforts, heat, light, and venti- 
lation of the premises are first to be examined ; and further the 
effect of this environment upon the workers that is, the factory 
hygiene, must be considered. For this purpose such factors as 
exposure to heat and cold, sudden changes in temperatures, hu- 
midity of the atmosphere, eye strain, speeding, standing and all 
special muscular exertion should be carefully estimated. In this 



DISTRIBUTION OF IO&3S 
WORKERS I riFIFTEETI 
lfHXJ5TRIE5 irtTHE 

WE5T5IDE DISTRICT 
ACCORDinGTOAGCAPIDSEX. 




93 



INDUSTRIAL SUKVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 



305 



particular survey, however, it has not been possible to give ade- 
quate consideration to all these subjects. Only in regard to clean- 
liness and sanitary conveniences and comforts has it been possible 
to make a full statistical statement. 

The inquiry covers the district in the Middle West Side of New 
York city which lies between Thirty-fourth and Fifty-third streets 
and extends from. Eighth avenue to the Hudson River. All in- 
dustrial establishments employing five or more persons were in- 
spected, block by block, excepting packing houses, coal yards and 
gas houses. In some cases smaller shops were visited in order 
to study more completely the processes of the industry. 

Fifteen industries were found located in 323 establishments, 
employing 10,698 workers, roughly divided as follows: 78 per 
cent men, 21 per cent women, .9 per cent children. The following 
table gives the figures for each industry: 

TABLE I. 
TOTAL NUMBER AND PER CENT or MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO 

iNDTJSTRIEa 



INDUSTRY 


Number of 
Establish- 
ments 


Number 
of 
Men 


Number 
of 
Women 


Number 
of 
Children 


Total 


Per 

cent 




24 


2,727 


146 


49 


2 922 


27 3 


'2 Printing 


25 


1,355 


858 


32 


2 245 


21 


3 Metals 


82 


1,845 


104 


1 


1 950 


18 2 




9 


479 


147 





626 


5 9 




42 


594 


16 


o 


610 


5 7 




14 


133 


465 


3 


601 


5 6 


7 Candies and food products . . . 
8 Bakeries 
9 (iarments and textiles 


12 
60 
11 


256 
264 
92 


258 
2 
154 


3 


8 


517 
266 
254 


4.8 
2.5 
2 4 




7 


212 





1 


213 


2 


11 Mineral and soda waters 


12 
10 


157 
100 


1 

39 



1 


158 
140 


1.5 
1 3 


13 Toilet preparations and chem- 
icals 


10 


47 


46 


1 


94 


.9 




4 


86 








86 


8 


15 Rags 


1 


8 


8 


o 


16 


1 
















Totals 


323 


8,355 


2,244 


99 


10 698 


100 
















Per cent 




78 09 


20 98 


93 


100 



















Classifying these 10,000 workers according to the chief occu- 
pations of the two sexes, it will be seen that piano factories, print- 
ing shops and metal works giving employment to 71 per cent of 
the men, while printing shops, laundries and candy makers are 
the largest employers of women, engaging 70 per cent of the total 
number. 



306 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

Bearing in mind that this inquiry is to determine the physical 
welfare of the individual workers, we have sought to ascertain 
in each case the number of employees subjected to given condi- 
tions, distinguishing by sex whenever practicable. It was found 
that the grade of facilities often varied greatly in different parts 
of the same establishment. A consistent effort was therefore made 
to determine in each case the respective number of persons af- 
fected. This detailed method of recording takes more time and 
effort than a general grading for the entire factory, but it gives 
a far more accurate picture of actual conditions. 

CLEANLINESS. 

Conditions were graded according to rough working tests, which 
will be explained under separate heads. Thus degrees of cleanli- 
ness are indicated by four grades: "A," meaning "clean and 
well-kept;" "B," "fairly clean;" " C," "dirty;" and " D," 
" very dirty." The extremes could be determined without diffi- 
culty, but the distinction between " fairly clean " and " dirty " had 
to be carefully weighed. Between these two grades lies the line 
dividing the legal from the illegal condition, judged by the re- 
quirements of the labor law. 

In estimating the grade of cleanliness of shop rooms, the state 
of floors, walls and ceilings has been considered in relation to the 
apparent amount of cleaning done and the efforts to remove ac- 
cumulated dirt. This grading has not been determined by the 
presence of waste and other products of special processes unless 
it appeared that the efforts to remove them were entirely inade- 
quate. In general the work shops are dingy and mean and sadly 
in need of thorough scrubbing, new paint or whitewash. Of the 
10,000 workers, 

7% work in clean and well-kept workrooms. 

58 % work in fairly clean workrooms. 

31% work in dirty workrooms. 

4% work in very dirty workrooms. 

The full table follows: 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 



307 



TABLE II. 

TOTAL NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO 
GRADE OF CLEANLINESS IN WORKROOM. 



CLEANLINESS 


Number of 
Men 


Number of. 
Women 


Number'ofi 
Children 


Total 
Number 


Per 
Cent 


A. . 


* >.246~ 


445 


31 


722 


6.8 


B. . 


4 751 


1 359 


63 


6,173 


67.7 


C.... 


2 892 


423 


5 


3,320 


31.0 


D 


466 


17 





483 


4.5 














Total ... . 


8 355 


2 244 


99 


10,698 


100.0 


1 













SANITAKY CONVENIENCES AND COMFORTS. 
The condition of the toilets is less satisfactory. In grading 
them for cleanliness, the condition of floor, seat and bowl was 
noted ; also the adequacy of the flush. The light and ventilation of 
the compartment could not be determined by any strictly scien- 
tific tests. k * Well ventilated " indicates that the air is odorless 
and that the compartment is supplied with air from some other 
source than the workroom proper. " Well lighted " means that 
the illumination is sufficient to enable one to see all parts of the 
toilet and determine its cleanliness. In a great many cases the 
inspector had to strike a match or use an electric flash-light. 

Summarizing conditions that affect the men, it appears that 

4.5% use A grade toilets. 
37.6% use B grade toilets. 
48.1% use grade toilets. 

9.8% use D grade toilets. 



100. % Total. 

In other words, 58 per cent have accommodations that are 

dirty or very dirty. In addition 34 per cent have toilets that are 
dark or semi-dark. 

The women fare better: 

18.7% use A grade toilets. 

63.8% use B grade toilets. 

15.8% use C grade toilets. 

1.7% use D grade toilets. 



100. % Total. 



308 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

Only 17 per cent of the women have accommodations that are 
dirty or very dirty and 16 per cent have toilets that are dark or 
semi-dark. The plumbing on the whole is in good condition. The 
flush is insufficient in only a few cases. 

It was found that 76 per cent of the toilets have outside 
windows. This in itself is no indication of sufficient ventila- 
tion, as the windows are sometimes nailed up and are often mere 
slits opening on a shaft. Careful inspection of actual conditions 
shows that 65 per cent of the men and 85 per cent of the women 
use toilets that are well ventilated. 

As to the location of the toilets, 

3.5% are in back yards. 
9.0% are in halls. 

87.5% are in compartments or rooms connected with the 
workrooms. 



100.0% total. 

The yard toilets belong principally to the bakeries. 

Five per cent of the toilets are separated from the workrooms 
by dwarf petitions, that is to say, the partitions do not reach to the 
ceiling. In all these cases, only men are employed. 

As to the separation of toilets for the two sexes, decency is pre- 
served to some extent by placing the apartments for men and 
women on different sides of the workroom, or, perhaps, on separate 
floors of the establishment. Ninety per cent of the toilets are thus 
separated. 

The arrangement is far less satisfactory if the closets for the two 
sexes adjoin, for the partitions are not always complete and suffi- 
cient. Even if such toilets are separated by solid partitions, their 
entrances are so close together that they can not be effectively 
screened. 

The number of toilets is not always adequate. According to a 
standard accepted in many States, one toilet should be provided 
for 25 workers. Yet 15 per cent of the women and 3.9 per cent 
of the men are working under conditions that fall below this stand- 
ard. In 4 establishments, employing 17 men and 9 women, both 
sexes use the same toilet. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. . 309 

Shops are counted as having inadequate washing facilities when 
no water at all is supplied or only a faucet with odd pails or tubs, 
when more than 20 workers use one basin, or when there is no 
towel supply. Judged by this standard, washing facilities are 
inadequate for 67 per cent of all employees (bakeries are not in- 
cluded). Hot water is supplied for only 24 per cent of the work- 
ers. These figures will be more significant when considered under 
the separate trades which vary in respect to the dirtiness of the 
work. 

The provision of some private room for the women is one of the 
essentials of decency in all occupations where the women change 
their clothes, beside being a real necessity in case of sudden illness. 
Separate dressing rooms are rarely supplied. Including in the 
number all rooms however small and insufficient for the purpose, 
we find that 36 per cent of the women do not have this accommoda- 
tion. But even if a dressing room is supplied, we can not be sure 
that all the workers are allowed to use the room. When immi- 
grants are employed it is not unusual to reserve the room for the 
use of the American girls and prohibit the others from entering it. 

A separate lunch room is set apart in only one factory. 

HEAT, LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

Methods of heating were noted in all establishments. Bakeries 
and breweries, however, are not included in the following table, 
because the temperatures in bakeries will later be treated in detail, 
and because in breweries refrigeration is essential to the process 
and calls for special comment. 

91.1% of the employees work in rooms heated by central 

heating plant (steam or hot air). 

3.3% of the employees work in rooms heated by stoves. 
4.4% of the employees work in rooms heated by process of 

manufacture. 
1.2% of the employees work in unheated rooms. 



100. % total. 

Heating by means of the process of manufacture occurs chiefly 
in the metal trades, and in the laundries. It is obviously unsatis- 



310 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

factory, inasmuch as it creates an uneven temperature excessive 
in some parts of the room and deficient in others. Near the drying 
chambers of the laundries, for instance, it may be so extreme as to 
require special ventilation to reduce it. 

Figures on the illumination of workrooms are lacking because 
of the difficulty of applying tests. In the absence of exact and 
practical standards, we have considered lighting inadequate only 
when artificial light is used in the daytime. We have thus con- 
fined ourselves to the most elementary tests of eye strain, and 
applied it only in the allied trades of printing and binding that 
require the use of the eyes for close work. 

Fresh air is not considered a requisite in factory workrooms; 
systems of ventilation are almost entirely wanting, and even de- 
vices for admitting fresh air are seldom used. The following 
figures show the relatively small proportion of workers benefited 
either by complete ventilating systems or by even such simple 
devices as fans, wheels in windows, etc. 

Of the total number of employees, 

3.9% work in rooms with ventilating systems. 
11.5% work in rooms with ventilating devices. 
84.6% work in rooms without ventilating systems or 
devices. 



100. % total. 

Ventilation is incapable of exact measurement without chemical 
analysis of air samples. As we were not equipped for such work, 
we were unable to test the adequacy of such ventilation as was pro- 
vided. We shall discuss the lack of ventilation only when it is 
grossly deficient, as, for instance, when dust and harmful vapors 
imperil the health of the workers. 

We are, however, not primarily concerned with the dangerous 
occupations which may subject the workers to contact with poisons, 
inhalation of noxious gases, etc. The defects as to sanitation and 
lack of physical care which we point out are found in such trades as 
candy making, book binding and laundries none of which can 
be regarded as dangerous in themselves. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 311 

The separate industries, following in the main the classification 
of the Labor Department, will be treated in detail. We shall de- 
scribe the processes of manufacture only in so far as they are 
immediately connected with questions of sanitation and health. 
We shall explain, as far as possible, whether there is anything 
inherent in the trade which may account for the varying conditions 
found. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

It will be seen that, both as to cleanliness and sanitary con- 
veniences and comforts, many changes are to be desired before the 
work places will be fit habitations wherein 10,000 wage-earners 
must spend the longest span of their waking hours. 

The law as to cleanliness and sanitary conveniences is defined in 
sections 84 and 88 of the Labor Law, namely: 

Sec. 84. " The walls and ceilings of each workroom in a factory 
shall be lime washed or painted, when in the opinion of the Com- 
missioner of Labor, it will be conducive to the health or cleanliness 
of the persons working therein. Floors shall be maintained in a 
safe condition and shall be kept clean and sanitary at all times." 

Sec. 88. " In every factory there shall be provided suitable and 
convenient water-closets for each sex, in such number as the Com- 
missioner of Labor may determine. Such water-closets shall be 
properly screened, lighted, ventilated and kept clean and sanitary." 

The facts revealed in our investigations show clearly that many 
premises workrooms, hallways and toilets are neglected to a 
scandalous degree. They need repairs, repainting, scouring and 
scrubbing. Many employers apparently do not realize that they 
aro violating the law when their premises are filthy. Many make 
no sufficient provision in their running expenses. It is customary in 
most factories to have the work people sweep up every evening, but 
this cleaning is hurried and superficial, and should not be allowed 
to take the place of thorough housecleaning at regular intervals. 
There is the greatest diversity in practice. For instance, one excel- 
lent laundry employs a cleaning woman, who is a regular member 
of the force and works full hours. And the best candy factory 
keeps two men steadily on the job. Such ample provision is rare. 



312 NOTES OTX SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

Another instance is probably more characteristic. The shop occu- 
pies two floors, the processes create dust, and yet the entire clean- 
ing for 150 workers is done by one woman, who comes in for one 
day a week, and is paid $1.25. She cleans the work rooms, but 
says that, as far as she knows, no one ever washes the toilets. 
Needless to add, these workrooms and toilets were found to be 
graded C. 

Many of the toilets, especially, are indescribably dirty, dark and 
unventilated. If new fixtures are not installed, the seats and 
bowls need to be thoroughly scoured, disinfected and repaired. If 
the floors were built of concrete or some non-absorbent material, 
they could be kept clean and dry. Moreover, lighting of the toilets 
is essential if cleanliness and decency are to be habitually main- 
tained. For that purpose, they must be painted a light color, and 
if daylight does not suffice, artificial illumination must be ample. 

Employers are wont to shift the blame on their employees, as- 
serting that the latter will not keep the accommodations clean. 
There is no doubt that both sides are to blame. But all the work- 
ers are not indifferent. Many women complain about the lack of 
cleanliness and regard it as a distinct grievance. Moreover, if the 
employees are so untaught as to leave these places unfit for human 
use, they must be compelled, in the interest of their fellow workers, 
at least, to observe elementary decencies. Inasmuch as the workers 
are on the employer's premises, the obligation is clearly laid upon 
him to keep his factory in proper condition and to provide reason- 
able comforts for all of his employees. Neglect, dilapidation and 
filth should not be suffered in any factory. 

In the matter of ventilation our inquiry brings out a deplorable 
failure to provide for the workers. For lack of data, as already 
indicated, we omit discussion of general room ventilation. We 
have examined, however, with some care the means of local or 
forced ventilation used to remove dust, poisons and vapors created 
in the processes of manufacture. Of the factories using such venti- 
lation there is scarcely a single one which has installed satisfactory 
apparatus at every point where it is needed. Even when the equip- 
ment is supplied, it is not always in use. Moreover, the forced 
draft often is not strong enough to draw off the waste products 
thoroughly. 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 313 

The provisions of the Labor Law, such as they are, are stated in 
sections 81 and 86 : 

Sec. 81. "All machinery creating dust or impurities shall be 
equipped with proper hoods and pipes and such pipes shall be con- 
nected to an exhaust fan of sufficient capacity and power to remove 
such dust or impurities ; such fan shall be kept running constantly 
while such machinery is in use; except where, in case of wood- 
working machinery, the Commissioner of Labor, after first making 
and filing in the public records of his office a written statement of 
the reasons therefor, shall decide that it is unnecessary for the 
health and welfare of the operatives. . . ." 

Sec. 86. " The owner, agent or lessee of a factory shall provide 
in each workroom thereof, proper and sufficient means of ventila- 
tion, and shall maintain proper and sufficient ventilation ; if exces- 
sive heat be created or if steam, gases, vapors, dust or other im- 
purities that may be injurious to health be generated in the course 
of the manufacturing process carried on therein the room must be 
ventilated in such a manner as to render them harmless, so far as 
is practicable. . . ." 

These general requirements, obviously, give no workable tests 
by which, for instance, one can determine the point at which' 
impurity, temperature or humidity of the air becomes excessive 
and needs to be corrected by ventilation. 

Furthermore, the provisions of these sections for ventilation in 
special processes are apparently nullified to a large extent by the 
phrase " as far as is practicable," in section 86. This modification 
makes it well-nigh impossible to enforce the law, as is gives the 
employer an easy loop-hole of escape from the orders of the Depart- 
ment. In consequence the workers are very imperfectly or not at 
all protected from one of the greatest perils of industrial life. 

Section 17 in the Labor Law regulates the use of seats for 
women : 

" Every person employing females in a factory or as waitresses 
in a hotel or restaurant shall provide and maintain suitable seats 
for the use of such female employees, and permit the use thereof 



314 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

by such employees to such an extent as may be reasonable for the 
preservation of their health." 

This provision of the law is vague and, in practice, is of little 
value in securing relief. As we shall note in the following reports, 
women are required to stand in candy factories, laundries and 
printing shops for hours at a time, often for the whole day. There 
can be no doubt that long hours of standing are injurious, and prin- 
cipally so to young girls. Medical testimony bears out this point. 
It is important that a further intensive study should be made of all 
the occupations in which women stand all day, in order that some 
system of reliefs or alternation of work may be instituted at least 
in occupations in which it has been conclusively proved that seats 
are impracticable. 

It is abundantly evident from the following reports that manu- 
facturers provide most inadequately for the daily comfort of their 
employees. Since human efficiency depends upon physical wel- 
fare, it is strange that it should not be more seriously considered 
and provided for. There can be no doubt that the health of the 
workers suffers from the hardships and discomforts which they en- 
counter in their daily work. Women are particularly affected by 
this lack of care. It adds materially to the strain and fatigue 
caused by long hours of work. Many of these evils are not inher- 
ent in the processes of manufacture and are caused almost entirely 
by the ignorance or indifference of the employer. 

PIANOS. 

Piano-making is the largest and most characteristic industry of 
the district. It employs 2,922 persons, or more than one-third of 
all the workers considered in this survey. Ninety-three per cent 
are men, while only 5 per cent are women. This trade leads in 
the employment of boys. The total number of employees repre- 
sents something less than one-half of all piano-workers in the city. 

The various branches of the highly specialized piano industry 
are represented by factories manufacturing and " assembling " or 
putting together the parts of (1) upright and grand pianos, (2) 
player pianos, (3) ordinary actions, and (4) pneumatic actions. 

There are altogether about 115 piano and action factories in 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 



315 



New York City, and 24 are located in the district; these include 
some of the largest factories in the city, viz., the largest player 
piano factory, the largest ordinary action, and largest pneumatic 
action factory. The distribution of the factories according to size 
may be seen from the following listing: 





Less 


6 


16 


25 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 




Number of Workers 


than 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


and 


Total 




5 


15 


24 


49 


99 


149 


199 


249 


299 


over 




Number of Factories . . 


1 




7 


1 


7 


2 




2 


1 


3 


24 



























The factories manufacture for the most part middle-grade 
pianos, although two turn out instruments of superior quality. 

The factories are mostly housed in old buildings, some of them 
dating back 40 or 50 year?. A few have been constructed within 
the last seven to ten years, but even these can hardly be spoken 
of as modern factories. Some of the buildings originally had 
no lighting system installed and some are still without lighting 
equipment of any kind or have had the gas pipes or wires put in 
across the ceiling of the room. Seventeen are housed in special 
factory buildings; five are in loft buildings; two are in converted 
tenements. 

In spite of the age of most of the buildings, the general state 
of the work rooms is better than might be expected. The floors, 
walls, and ceilings are fairly clean, because, as a rule, there is 
no material used in the work which accumulates as waste on the 
floor. Exceptional is the condition of things around the benches 
of the men who prepare the wood for the varnish where the 
filling and staining materials collect on the floor, and, when left 
for years (in some cases for ten or fifteen years), form a mound 
around the bench. There is nothing injurious in this, however, 
as if becomgfl hard and can be swept clean, presenting a surface 
like asphalt. Varnish and oils also adhere to the floors and walls, 
but neither can these be said to be insanitary. Of the total num- 
ber of employees, 67 per cent work in clean or fairly clean work- 
rooms; 33 per cent in dirty or very dirty rooms. 



316 



NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



Conditions in regard to toilets are much more open to criticism. 
In some cases where there has been no original provision for them, 
toilets have been built into the shop room. The partitioning which 
separates them from the shop is only a partial protection for the 
air of the room. 

The following table shows the number of males subject to cer- 
tain specific conditions. It shows, for instance, that out of the 
total of 2,776 males, 114 are using toilets of D grade which are 
also semi-dark; that 757 males are using toilets of C grade in 
which ventilation is inadequate. 

TABLE in. 

NUMBEB OF MALES AFFECTED BY CONDITIONS or WATER CLOSETS. 



GRADE OF CLEANLINESS 


ILLUMINATION 


VENTILATION 


TOTAL 


PER 

CENT 


Light 


Semi- 
dark 


Dark 


Good 


Poor 


A.. 


208 
777 
934 
30 


24 
80 
462 
114 




196 
723 
729 
24 


36 

174 
757 
137 


232 
897 
1,486 
161 


8.3 

32.3 
53.6 
5.8 


B.. 


40 
90 

17 


C... 


D.. 


Total 


1,949 


680 


147 


1.672 


1,104 


2.776 


100.0 


Per cent 


70.2 


24.5 


5.3 


60.2 


39.8 


100.0 







Out of a total of 255 toilets, 248 were within the shop, 4 were 
in halls, and 3 were in yards. Of those inside the shop, 247 
were separated from the room by full partitions; 58 had no out- 
side windows. 

The relatively small number of women in the trade are sup- 
plied with fairly clean toilets, which are well lighted and well 
ventilated. But |in one factory employing eight women their 
toilet is alongside that for men, the doors are separated by only 
a few inches, no screening is provided for the approach, and the 
doors open to the full view of the shop. 

Adequate washing facilities are practically unknown in this 
trade. Hot water is supplied for only 8 per cent of the workers, 
a gross deficiency in a trade where turpentine, varnish, and 
stains are constantly handled. Towels are supplied to .3 per cent 
of the workers. In only one factory is a special wash room pro- 
vided for men. In four factories, employing 144 women, a 
dressing room is provided, but in no case are lockers supplied. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 317 

Only a very small percentage of the women are subject to the 
worst conditions cited,, "because most of them, about 120, in 
fact, are employed by two large factories which have paid par- 
ticular attention to their needs. Their work rooms are separated 
from those of the men ; dressing rooms and toilets of the two 
sexes are divided not only by partitions, but by location in sepa- 
rate parts of the factory. 

The women are employed at light glue work connected with 
the making of pneumatic actions, such as gluing together and 
slipping into place little leather washers, and gluing rubberized 
cloth into the bellows parts. They also glue on felt and cut apart 
and trim the various little parts of the action which have been 
glued in common to a piece of felt or leather. Stools are sup- 
plied everywhere, but in no place have they been provided with 
backs. 

Because of the nature of this investigation, we shall give no 
description of any processes except those which involve discom- 
fort or danger to the health of the workers. The varnishing 
department prepares the wood for the varnish, puts on the color- 
ing matter suited to the various kinds of wood, and applies the 
varnish. The preparation of the wood is known as "filling" and 
" staining." Coloring is known as " coloring." There are gen- 
erally two groups of varnishers: the men who apply the first 
coats and those who apply the last or " flow " coat. This must be 
exceedingly smooth and even, and present a good lustre. Its 
application naturally demands more skill and knowledge than the 
first varnishing. 

To determine the number of persons affected by irritating dust 
and vapors is important. The following table presents the facts 
in this connection: 



318 



NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



TABLE IV. 

NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND ROOMS IN WHICH VENTILATION is NEEDED AND NUMBER or 

PERSOVS AFFECTED. 



ODORS OR PARTICLES PRESENT IN THE AIR 


Number of 
factories 
affected 


Number of 
rooms 
affected 


Number of 
persona affected 


Male 


Female 




18 
3 
1 
2 


45 
7 
1 
2 
2 


324 
28 
5 
27 
68 




Glue . . 


61 


Potash 


Saw dust .... 




None 


80 


Total 




19(a) 


57 


452 


141 





(a) Shows total number of factories affected. Some factories are entered in more that 
on classification. 

Nearly all the piano factories are poorly or not at all ventilated. 
The larger number receive fresh air only through the cracks of 
the building and occasionally through an open door. This is due 
to the fact that the varnish work as well as the delicate actions 
must be protected from dust and weather. Usually the varnish 
rooms are not ventilated at all, and the windows are kept tightly 
shut so that as little dust as possible will get into the varnish 
while it is being applied. 

The danger to the varnishers arises from the fumes of the 
turpentine, which when confined in an ill-ventilated room cause 
discomfort or sickness. The men as a rule do not seem to bo 
impressed with the dangers of disease from turpentine fumes, .su- 
ing that they are sick for a little while when they first start in, 
but they get used to the odors, and that is the end of it. 

According to the investigation of the Illinois Commission on 
Occupational Diseases, the effects are especially serious from long 
continued inhalation of the vapors; nausea, faintness and often 
diseases of the kidneys, such as Bright's disease, may result. 
Better ventilation is the remedy. Bad air conditions are found 
especially where the last, or "flow," coat of varnish is put on. 
" Flowing " is always done in a small room, either partitioned 
off or built for the purpose, where the temperature is kept up 
to about 80 or 85 degrees in winter time and runs much higher 
in summer. In one factory where thermometer readings were 
taken, the following results were obtained : in the " flow " coat 
room the temperature was found to be 88 degrees, and the fore- 
man stated that it was frequently 90 degrees; there was no ven- 




o 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 319 

tilation except through cracks. In the varnishing room the first 
dry bulb reading was 77 degrees, and the wet bulb was 73 degrees; 
at the second reading the dry bulb showed 78 degrees, and the 
Nvt-t bulb 6D degrees. These were taken at 15-minute periods. 
The rooms are kept particularly hot so that the varnish will work 
more easily. 

For the reasons just given, practically no efforts are made to 
secure better ventilation. It would probably be possible to im- 
prove the air of the rooms and at the same time keep the dust 
out by tacking cheese cloth over the window openings. . If enough 
heat were provided, the air could then be kept at the right 
temperature for the varnish work. 

In the tone-regulating department, where the hammers are 
filed, a fine woolen dust is created. The hammers are made of 
felt and the process of filing them down to a satisfactory size 
releases a quantity of woolen dust into the air to be inhaled by 
the workmen. This danger is not very serious except in very large 
factories where one person may devote all his time to the work. 
Sometimes boys are put at this job. 

Special elements of danger are found also in the milling depart- 
ment. In a great many cases no blower system is provided to 
carry off the sawdust from the machines and the workmen in con- 
sequence are covered with it and must inhale some of the dust 
into their lungs. The men who operate the sand-papering 
machines are particularly liable to be injured, as this dust is 
especially fine and insidious. In some places blower systems are 
provided, but those seen are not adequate. 

Practically no protection from dangerous machines exists. 
The saws, either circular or band saws, jointers, planers, and 
f razing machines are as a rule without guards. The gearing and 
belting are almost always left exposed and in many cases, because 
of their location, they are even dangerous to passers-by. In one 
instance foot-holds, in the shape of rubber pads, had been placed 
before the jointers, planers, and saws to prevent the men from 
slipping on the floor and falling into the machines. In one or two 
instances it was found that guards had been provided for saws, 
but according to the foreman's statements, they were never used 
by the men, as the factory inspectors agreed that they were not 
practical and did not enforce their use. 



320 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

There are approximately 145 men and boys who are liable to 
accidents from dangerous and unprotected machinery. About 50 
of them are subject to the more serious dangers of unprotected 
saws, jointers, planers, and other mill work machinery. In all 
these cases, obviously, there is absolute disregard of the safety of 
employees. 

In the pneumatic action factories the danger arises from three 
distinct sources: from unprotected machinery, from varnish 
fumes, and from acids which are used for cleaning metal work, 
and in the nickel-plating process. An acid sometimes employed 
for cleaning off the metal is cyanide of potassium. This is an 
exceedingly dangerous poison. A year ago a small boy was killed 
by falling into a vat of it. He absorbed so much of the poison 
through his skin that he died within a few hours. 

There are especial risks in the pneumatic action factories in 
connection with the metal-working machinery, namely, the stamp- 
ing machines, the screw machines, and the lathes. As in the case 
of the wood-working machines, the gearing and belting are com- 
monly exposed and unprotected. In this department also there is 
metallic dust in the air from improperly hooded buffing machine?. 

Both gas and electricity are used in the West Side factories. 
In all cases, except at some of the mill machines, there has been 
no effort to protect the eyes of the workmen from either glare 
or reflection. Unprotected flickering gas flames, almost level with 
the head, are used, or the ordinary unshaded electric bulb. The 
light is not diffused throughout the workroom, but single lights 
are suspended above the individual workers. It is true that not 
much night work is done, and except for the late afternoon work 
in winter, artificial light is not needed. Nevertheless, there is 
enough of such work to make the question of proper illumination 
an important one. In the large number of instances where 
artificial light has to be used all day there is also no protection 
from glare. The constant use of artificial light during the day is 
necessary for 362 men and 18 women. Every one of these persons 
was found to be using individual concentrated lights, and, there- 
fore, was subjected to considerable eye-strain. 

The piano industry has long been regarded as one of the strong- 
holds of the old German mechanic. But we find that although 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 



321 



the Germans originally were the largest racial element in the trade, 
they constitute at present probably the second race and possibly 
the third in number. This is true even if we group together both 
Germans and Germ an- Americans. The Italians greatly outnumber 
all other races. 

From the following Table (V), it will be seen that out of 818 
males who gave information as to their nativity, by far the largest 
group were Italians, or of Italian parentage, while the next in 
order were of Germans, or of German parentage. 

These figures include both native-born persons and foreign- 
born who reported as to their nativity. 

TABLE v 

DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES REPORTING AS TO NATIVITY, NATIVITY OF^PARENTS AND 

NATIONALITY 



NATIVITY AND NATIONALITY 


Number of 
employees 


Native born: 
Native-born parents 
American 


64 


Foreign-born parents 
Italian- American 


29 


German -American . . . . . 


149 


Rnhfimian- American ...... , . . . ....... 


18 


Irish-American 


31 


Scandinavian -American 


2 


Hebrew- American 




Others 


10 


Not known 


23 . 






Total. 


333 






Foreign born: 
Foreign-born parents 
Italian 


334 


German 


49 


Bohemian 


32 


Irish 


5 


Scandinavian 


23 


Austrian 


5 


Hebrew 


14 


Others 


22 


Not known 








f Total 


485 






Grand'total 


818 







The figures in the following Table (VI) also do not include all 
the workers in the industry. They represent only those who 
reported the number of years they have been in the piano indus- 
try and the number of years they have lived in the United States. 
Among these, 429 are foreign born, 318 are Italians, 36 are 
Germans. The full racial distribution of these workers can be 
seen from the table: 
11 



322 KOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



TABLE VI. 

NUMBER or MALE EMPLOYEES REPORTING THE NUMBER or YEARS THEY HAVE BEEN IN THE 
UNITED STATES, DISTRIBUTED ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY 



NATIONALITY 


N UMBER OF EMPLOYEES WHO HAVE BEEN IN THE UNITED STATES 
SPECIFIED NUMBER or YEARS 


Less 
than 
1 

yr. 


1 

yr. 


2 
yrs. 


3 

yrs. 


4 

yrs. 


5 

yrs. 


6-9 
yjs. 


10-14 
yrs. 


15-19 
yrs. 


20-29 

yrs. 


30-39 
yrs. 


40 
yrs 
and 
over 


Total 


Italian 


17 


15 


22 

1 


15 

2 
3 


18 

2 
3 


39 


94 
4 


50 
6 


19 


29 
12 


"8 


' '5 


318 
36 
4 
31 
4 
1 
6 
7 
22 

429 


fl^rmnn .... 


Hungarian 






Bohemian 


1 


2 


3 


5 


5 


5 


3 
1 


1 

1 


"2 




Scandinavian . . . 


Polish 












1 






Hebrew 


2 












1 
1 

4 


2 
1 
4 


1 

3 


"3 
5 


"i 

1 


' 'i 

1 


Irish 


Others 


1 






1 




2 


Total 


21 


17 


26 


21 


23 


47 


109 


68 


27 


51 


12 


7 





Of the foreign born, 114, or approximately one-quarter of the 
workers, have been in the industry less than half the time that 
they have been in the United States; another quarter has been in 
the industry ever since they arrived here. It is, therefore, appar- 
ent that the newer immigrants are more and more finding employ- 
ment in the piano factories. The manufacurers on the West Side 
have a particularly large proportion of Italians, because these fac- 
tories, as a rule, turn out an inferior grade of pianos and can 
therefore employ cheaper and less skilled labor. . 

The race and nationality of the women we have not treated here, 
because the number employed is so small. They are employed 
only in the pneumatic action factories. Practically all the women 
employed are Irish or Irish-American, and live close to the factory. 

PRINTING, BINDING AND PAPER GOODS. 

The second largest group of workers in the district are those 
engaged in printing, binding, and the manufacture of paper goods. 
In the 25 establishments inspected, 2,245 workers are employed. 
Of these, 60 per cent are men; 39 per cent women, and 1 per cent 
children under 16. It leads as an employment for women, with 
858, or 38 per cent of the total number of women workers. 

Poor sanitary conditions in this industry cannot be charged to 
the existence of small, mean shops or to primitive buildings. The 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 323 

number of small establishments is relatively few. There are only 
10 places with a force under 25. They represent 106 workers, 
or but 4.7 per cent of the working force. Eight establishments 
employ more than 100 persons. Also, some of the most modern 
buildings in the district are those in which the printing establish- 
ments are found. Of the 25 firms, 17 are located in lofts, 6 in 
special factories, 1 in a converted tenement, and 1 in a dwelling. 

The cleanliness of the work-rooms is rather above the local 
average. None of them fall into the "D" grade. Only 14 per 
cent of the employees work in dirty shops, and 86 per cent work 
in fairly clean or clean quarters. 

Conditions in the water closets are reported as clean or fairly 
clean for 67 per cent of the men and 90 per cent of the women; 
as dirty for 33 per cent of the men and 10 per cent of the women, 
Of the men, 21 per cent have semi-dark water-closet apartments, 
and of the women, 6 per cent. Three per cent of the women 
have totally dark apartments. The provision of washing facilities 
is inadequate for 38 per cent of the workers. Cold water only 
for washing is supplied for 1,407 workers, or 63 per cent of them; 
hot water for 37 per cent; towels for 56 per cent. 

The inadequacy of the washing facilities is serious on account 
of the handling of types and colors, and contact with poisonous 
lead oxides. While folding,, binding, and collating are compara- 
tively clean jobs, the putting on of gold leaf and handling of ink 
is at best a dirty job, covering the hands and smutting the faces 
of the workers. Only 59 women have lockers for their clothes, 
and but 316, or 36 per cent, have any sort of dressing room or 
washroom. 

Of the 25 shops visited, 18 do printing, or printing and binding; 
1 does binding only ; 6 are miscellaneous. The most important in 
the miscellaneous group is a pattern-making company, the second 
largest establishment of the district. This place employs 407 per- 
sons, of whom 246 are women. 

Although linotype and monotype machines have largely taken 
the place of hand composition, type-setting by hand is still used for 
the best grades of printing. We found 31 men operating machines 
and 188 hand compositors. Printers have improved in health and 
have suffered less from lead poisoning since the handling of type 



324 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

and inhaling of dust from the cases have so largely been super- 
seded by the newer processes. But there are still evils to remedy. 
Each linotype machine has a lead pot, which is heated by a Bunsen 
burner. The air of the room is vitiated by this burning gas and 
is very unwholesome to breathe all day long. The monotype 
machines, which give work to 11 men, are usually located in sepa- 
rate rooms, in order to keep the white vapors which rise from the 
melting pot from poisoning the air of the entire loft. The fumes 
are merely carried up a few feet towards the ceiling by a short 
exhaust pipe, instead of being completely drawn away into the 
outer air by means of continuous piping, hoods or exhausts. The 
danger in the monotype machines comes from the oxide of lead 
which forms on molten metal and is easily scattered about the 
workroom by currents of air. Seven shops where gas or lead 
fumes are found need better ventilation. There are difficulties in 
the press room, as well. A large number of pressmen and paper 
handlers are subjected to a high degree of heat and humidity, owing 
to the need for quick drying and smooth flow of the ink. 

Proper daylight illumination is scarcely to be found in the print- 
ing trades. The extra strain on eyesight is particularly serious 
in an industry which in itself fatigues the eyes. Typographical 
work, in fact almost every process connected with the making of 
books, is a continual tax on the eyes. Typesetting, proof reading, 
engraving plates and several of the binding operations such as sew- 
ing, requires the workman to gaze intently at his work. For this 
reason the best system of illumination is none too good. In 16 
establishments an actual count of employees working by artificial 
light in the daytime was made, as follows : 

662 men, or 65 per cent of the men employed. 

241 women, or 49 per cent of the women employed. 

The best printing establishments have adapted the diffused sys- 
tem of lighting, which commends itself as most closely approxi- 
mating daylight. Only about half of our workers use diffused or 
ceiling light, and the other half use the more trying individual or 
concentrated light approximately at eye-level. On press work the 
electric light bulbs are located below eye-level. The workers' eyes 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A. SELECTED ABBA. 325 

are exposed to the unshaded light whenever the presses are being 
fed. 

The employment of so large a number of women in the binderies 
makes it important to know to what extent their work requires 
standing. Of the women who are seated, scarcely any have chairs 
with backs, which would give relief by permitting relaxation when 
lulls occur in the work. The women at the binding machines or 
sewing machines, and those who fold would not find chair backs an 
interference with their work. Most of the women, however, are 
employed as collators or gatherers. They walk to and fro in the 
aisle between a double row of stacked " signatures " or sections of 
a book, usually 16, which they gather together in sequence, ready 
for binding. We find by actual count that of tho 858 women em- 
ployed in 25 establishments, 215 stand all day, that is, 25 per cent 
of all the women employees. In most places no stools are pro- 
vided, and there is no alternation of occupation to relieve fatigue. 
Stools should be provided in all such occupations for occasional 
use. Our investigators noticed that the women sat on the corners 
of tables or on the window-ledges whenever an opportunity offered. 
Xo study has been made of these occupations to ascertain whether 
some modification of processes might not be devised to allow women 
to be seated. In this trade, as in all others later to be mentioned, 
in which women are required to stand, there is urgent need of 
better supervision. 

METALS. 

The metal trades have long been characteristic of the district. 
There are 82 establishments engaged in some branch of this indus- 
try. They employ 1,950 workers, or 4 A per cent of the whole 
number of workers in corresponding branches of the industry in 
the city. Among the district industries, the combined metal trades 
rank third in importance, employing 18.2 per cent of the total num- 
ber of factory workers. 

Of the 1,950 workers, 104 are women. Only one child undei 
sixteen was reported as employed. A single establishment a 
sheet metal factory gives work to 84 of the women. The re- 



326 



NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



maining 20 are distributed among several small establishments, no 
one shop having more than three. 

The metal trad is represented by the following groups : 



9 


No. Estab. 


No. Workers 




28 


781 




6 


406 




5 


140 




15 


168 




28 


455 


O' 






Total 


82 


1,950 









The metal workers are distributed among a great number of 
small shops. Half of the establishments employ not more than 10 
men. Three-fourths employ not more than 25. Thirty per cent 
are employed in shops where the force is less than 25. Many of 
the smaller places are remnants of thriving businesses which have 
fallen off greatly during recent years. Shops which formerly built 
wagons now only do repair work; the majority engage in the as- 
sembling, grinding and polishing of metal parts ; there is, on the 
whole, less foundry work than formerly, when building styles in 
the city made greater use of ornamental and architectural iron 
than is done at present. 

The firms are housed in all sorts and conditions of buildings. 
Some of the trades are by nature partly out-door occupations. In 
a number of cases the establishments make use of a rear yard or 
court or an open driveway for storage of material, and part of the 
work is done in the open air. One scrap iron place occupies an 
open lot with surrounding sheds. This establishment was formerly 
a rolling mill, which discontinued as such a few years ago, and has 
since been occupied only in baling scrap iron for shipment to mills 
outside the city. This rolling mill was one of the last to give up 
business in Manhattan. Many of the establishments inspected 
represent a similar stage of industrial decline, a fact which 



INDUSTRIAL. SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 327 

largely accounts for their primitive quarters and poor sanitary con- 
ditions. Some of the buildings survive from a period when the 
West Side was but a village and door-yard space was plentiful. 
One manufactory of electrical goods occupies a two-story wooden 
structure which was formerly a dwelling. The front porch has 
been closed in with windows to make office space, and the walls 
which once separated the living rooms have been knocked out to 
form a loft. 

As to kind of building occupied, the establishments are divided 
as follows: 50^c in lofts, 42% in special factories, 3% in tene- 
ments, 3% in converted tenements, and 2% in dwellings. 

The illumination of the metal shops is usually deficient. Arti- 
ficial light is generally needed and used during daytime in some 
part of the shop. Much of the poor lighting is due to the fact that 
the same loft serves as both warehouse and workshop. Stores of 
raw material and finished goods are often disposed in such a way 
as to obstruct the light. Windows on three or four sides, or, at 
least, on opposite sides, are the rule. The small pocket-shop, with 
windows on one side, is unusual in the district. Defective light- 
ing is seldom due to actual lack of window space, but a neighbor- 
ing wall may render a row of windows ineffective, or the mere 
depth or breadth of the workroom, combined with a low ceiling, 
may result in a general dimness throughout. 

In the wagon shops and iron works the lighting is especially bad. 
As a rule they occupy the ground floor ; several are in cellars. The 
windows of the metal shops are often so dirty as to transmit very 
little light; forge dust and smoke hang in the air, making the 
atmosphere dingy as well as unhealthful. The men are so used 
to their dark, grimy quarters that they expect nothing better. A 
German wagon-maker even insisted that he preferred to work in 
the dark, saying he could " see " his work better. 

Ventilation and temperature are both uneven in the metal works. 
Frequently open doors and windows are depended on for the 
former and the heat of the forge or furnace for the latter. There 
is little even distribution of fresh air, and workers moving about 
the shop are subject to sudden changes in temperature and strong 
drafts. 



328 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

The character of the work is regarded as an excuse for dirt 
and disorder. The general cleanliness of the metal shops is of a 
low grade. The presence of heaps of metal and the accumulation 
of oxides and filings make it difficult to keep such places clean. 
Many of the establishments are small shops, which are especially 
liable to neglect in this respect. 

Only 32% of all the metal workers are employed in clean or 
fairly clean workrooms. Over half, or 53%, work in dirty work- 
rooms, and 15% in very dirty workrooms. These conditions are 
all the more serious in the absence of any provision for lunch- 
rooms. The workshop is used for this purpose, the dust-covered 
machines or benches serving as tables, so that the possibility of tak- 
ing in toxic particles with the food is always present. In one 
shop the men were observed eating their lunch in the midst of suf- 
focating acid and lacquer fumes. 

These dangers are increased by the poverty of washing facili- 
ties. It is unusual for the men to have adequate arrangements for 
washing up. In no case is a separate washroom provided. As to 
washing facilities, 1% of the workers are reported as having none 
at all; 80% as having cold water only provided, and 19% as hav- 
ing hot water; and 53% as having no towels. Measuring the shops 
by our standards, which are rather low than high, it was found 
that 766 metal workers, or 39.3%, had adequate washing facilities, 
and 1,182, or 60.7%, inadequate. 

Many of the buildings are old structures, in which the water 
closet apartments are additions. Usually these apartments are 
dark, ill-ventilated and dirty. Often they were found to be abso- 
lutely dark, so that the inspector had to light a match to observe 
their condition. The closet of one small shop was located in the 
cellar. The entrance was a drop door, flush with the court level, 
which, when lifted, disclosed dark, winding stairs. The cellar floor 
was of dirt, uncemented, and the wood in the floor of the closet 
broken through. Rubbish littered the floor, the stool was broken, 
and the boards were soggy and evil-smelling. This place was the 
worst found among the metal shops, but the average of cleanliness, 
light and ventilation generally was low. 

The condition of the water-closets for men is extremely bad. Of 
the men, 1,473, or 80%, are subjected to conditions which are 





No. 3. POLISHING AND BUFFING ROOM. The blower system has been out of order 
for a month or more, and the brass dust and fluff cover the machinery, floors, and 
windows. It is doubtful whether the blower system is adequate when in use. 



INDUSTBIAX, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 329 

either dirty, or very dirty; 366 men, or 20%, to conditions that 
are clean or fairly clean. While the workers themselves are largely 
responsible for the shocking uncleanliness which prevails, the dark- 
ness of the water-closet apartments and the failure to clean up are 
the chief reasons for their evil state. In regard to illumination, 
39 per cent of workers are supplied with water-closet apartments 
which are either dark, or semi-dark. For 38% the closets are 
poorly ventilated. Comparatively few instances of neglected 
plumbing were found. One establishment provides only three 
water closets for 137 workmen, while, according to recognized 
standards, one water closet should be supplied for every 25 persons. 

The accommodations for the 104 females engaged in this trade 
are slightly better as regards cleanliness, light and ventilation. 
Thirty per cent of them are affected by fairly clean, and 70% by 
dirty conditions. Sixty per cent of them have fairly ventilated 
apartments and 95% have well-lighted ones. 

With reference to location, 181 water closets are located in the 
workrooms, 9 in the hall, 2 in the yard, and 2 in the cellar. Of 
those opening directly into the workrooms, 26% have no outside 
windows. 

A large sheet-metal factory provides a dressing room for its 84 
women employees. Three automobile concerns also have dressing 
rooms for their women workers, who number but 14 in all. This 
makes 98 women, or 94% of the total number, who have dressing 
room accommodations. But in no case are lockers for clothes pro- 
vided, an especial need in these uncleanly trades. 

The firms inspected are engaged in one or more of the follow- 
ing groups of processes: foundry work, tool and machine work, 
polishing and buffing, plating, lacquering and soldering. 

The question of special ventilation in connection with all of these 
processes is a very important one, as the removal of gases and 
fumes from the brass and iron foundries is imperative if the health 
of the workers is to be preserved. Similarly, the irritating metal 
dust, lint and rouge, or red oxide of iron, that fill the air from 
buffing and polishing, should not be permitted, especially as an 
adequate remedy for this evil has been found in the installation of 
a good blower system. The control of the lacquer fumes, the acid 
fumes from the plating, and the lead fumes from soldering is also 



330 NOTES ON SANITABY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

possible and should be required. One of the largest concerns in 
the district maintains a boiling potash vat without a hood. 
Another firm, working in brass, uses a drying box within the work- 
room, with no outside vents. The lacquer fumes from this process 
pervade two lofts. These are instances of neglect to employ sim- 
ple and obvious remedies, and are typical of the general careless- 
ness existing with respect to sanitary conditions. 

The tin-can factory is the largest establishment in the industry 
in fact, it is one of the most important in the district, as well, being 
sixth in numbers and employing 227 men and 8-i women. 

It illustrates practically all the poor conditions of work above 
described. The premises are old and dingy. They consist of three 
buildings, formerly separate, now thrown into one large factory. 
They are all old buildings, of brick and wood construction. The 
mezzanine floor is particularly ill adapted for a packing room. 
The ceiling is but 6 l /o feet high, and heavy beams project almost 
a foot lower, so that the workers can not walk through the room 
without bending their heads at every beam. As to cleanliness, the 
whole factory is marked " C " grade, that is to say, it is dirty and 
in need of repainting. 

Tin cans of every sort are made, the process varying according 
to the size and shape. Some are made by cutting the tin, bending 
it into shape and soldering; others are stamped out by die presses. 
Both men and women handle the tin in some stage of manufacture, 
but only a few wear gloves to protect their hands from the rough 
edges of the metal. Cuts from the tin and burns from the spat- 
tering of acid used to clean the metal are not infrequent. 

Men and women operate the die presses to stamp out covers, han- 
dles, spouts and seamless cans. Besides enduring the constant 
noise and heavy jarring of the press, they are subjected to unneces- 
sary eye strain from the unshaded lights placed just behind the die 
plate, directly in line with their vision. These lights could easily 
be shielded. Some of the presses are admirably guarded to prevent 
the crushing of hands and fingers. But a number of the guards 
can be removed at will by the workers, so that the protection can 
not be regarded as complete and effective. There are elements of 
danger in the soldering processes from both heat and fumes. The 
special ventilation of the soldering machines is far from satisfac- 




No. 4. SHELL CUTTING MACHINE. The air is full of the shell dust, which covers 
the floors and machines. There are no exhausts to carry off the dust. 

The men eat their lunch in this work room. The washing facilities are entirely 
inadequate. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 331 

tory. The men are frequently shifted from department to depart- 
ment in order to avoid constant exposure to the vitiated air. 

A large number of the women stand all day. Their work at the 
die presses, at 1ihe threading machines, in assembling parts, etc., 
is speeded up to the limit of endurance. 

FURS, ETC. 

Nine establishments are engaged in making fur, leather, rubber 
*nd pearl goods. The number of workers employed is 020, of 
whom 76% are men and 24 % women. 

We found 75% of the men and 09% of the women working in 
fairly clean shops; 25% of the men and 31% of the women, in 
dirty or very dirty ones. 

Illumination in the water closets is rated as dark or semi-dark 
for 25% of the men. On the other hand, the women's accommoda- 
tions are all reported as well lighted. Ventilation is poor for 15% 
of the men and 17% of the women. Conditions are reported as 
dirty for 62% of the men and 50% of the women. One firm has a 
water closet in use by both sexes. 

Washing facilities are especially poor. They are inadequate for 
86% of the workers. Hot water is not supplied in any of these 
factories, and towels are provided for but 17% of the workers. 

One of the largest establishments in this group is a factory which 
manufactures buttons of mother of pearl. The shop occupies the 
fifth floor lofts of two buildings, front and rear. There are plenty 
of windows, but many partitions interfere seriously with both light 
and ventilation. Each loft is divided into five or six rooms. 
Artificial light is needed much of the time. Unprotected gas jets 
are the only illumination. 

The main room has rows of machines close together for cutting, 
planing, drilling and polishing the shell. There are two other 
rooms where polishing goes on, in one of which hand-turning is 
done. This process consists in cutting the patterns into the but- 
tons with a chisel, while they are held in a revolving matrix. There 
is also a drilling room, a small room where the buttons are sorted 
by colors, two carding rooms, where the buttons are attached to 
cards, and a small packing and shipping room. 



332 NOTBS ON SANITABY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

In one department, known as the Novelty Room, fancy articles 
are made. The edges of the shells are first cut off to make them 
even. Then they are sawed into square or oblong sections of the 
desired size. If a paper knife, for instance, is then to be made, the 
outline is drawn with a pencil, and the paper knife is then " shaped 
up " by means of an emery wheel. This process creates more dust 
than any other in the shop. 

The chief danger in this establishment is one common to the 
industry as a whole from the shell dust which fills the air and 
piles up everywhere on the machines and the floor. The dust cov- 
ers even the windows. A few of the machines in the Novelty 
Room have hoods and exhaust pipes, with a vacuum fan draught, 
but these are hopelessly inadequate. Most of the machines kave 
no exhaust at all. Perhaps half a dozen have pasteboard hoods 
tied on with string to protect the workers' eyes from the flying 
dust. Only men work in this room, but about 20 women operate 
drilling machines in other rooms where the dust is very bad. 

Although the inspector stayed in this shop only an hour and a 
half, the result of the visit was extreme hoarseness and sore throat. 

In the Novelty Room (the only place where there are hoods or 
exhausts) the air is so heavy as to seem almost suffocating. Ten 
hours a day of work in this atmosphere can not fail to be injurious. 
In fact, Dr. Charles D. Graham-Rogers recently testified before the 
State Factory Investigating Commission that in pearl button fac- 
tories the particles of shell fly into the eyes of employees or are 
inhaled by them. The silica invades the lungs and cuts the mu- 
cous membrane of the nose and throat, causing catarrh and some- 
times tuberculosis. " Every pearl button worker I examined," 
he said, " was found suffering from bronchitis and laryngitis." 

The ventilation of the entire shop is very poor. Only a thor- 
ough ventilating system, as well as powerful dust exhausts, could 
relieve the situation, for the air is not only filled with dust but 
is also heavy with the organic odor peculiar to the material used. 
The main work room, moreover, is greatly overcrowded. 

A few of the saws in the Novelty Room are not properly 
guarded. Some of the emery wheels used for polishing rub the hands 
of the men who operate them, so that they are forced to wrap tkeir 
fingers with rags to keep them from "burning." All tke ma- 




No. 5. BUTTON POLISHING. The exhausts to carry off the heavy shell dust are 
inadequate. The air i^- thick with dust which has an irritating effect upon the throat. 
Note^the unprotected gas jet burning at full force scarcely a foot from the worker's 
eye. 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A. SELECTED AREA. 333 

chines are excessively noisy, and in the cutting and grinding rooms 
the din is terrific. 

The lighting is defective. In the carding rooms there is a gas 
jet at only one end of a long sewing table, so that the girls at the 
other end are subject to constant eye-strain, except during the mid- 
dle of the day when no artificial light is needed. The gas jets 
which are used for lighting the cutting and drilling machines are 
on a level with the eyes of the workers, entirely unprotected, and 
often less than a foot in front of the face. 

The washing facilities are extremely inadequate. There are 
two small sinks for about 150 workers. There is no hot water. 
Towels are supplied for only about 25 carders, who for the sake 
of the cards '" must be careful of their hands." This is particu- 
larly bad, because practically all the workers eat their lunch in the 
work-rooms, at machines that are thick with dust, and with hands 
that are covered with it. 

The building is a veritable fire trap. It has wooden floors and 
stairs, narrow halls, many partitions and doors, and badly blocked 
fire escapes. The main room where about 80 people work has no 
tin- escapes directly connected with it, and the way to the two on 
the rear of the building lies through crowded work-rooms. The 
fire escapes themselves are of the old straight ladder type. 

One of the largest and most important establishments in the 
district is a hatters' fur cutting shop, employing 365 hands. It 
prepares fur for felt hat manufacturers, that is, it performs the in- 
itial processes in the making of hats. The shop is located in a 
new building and is rated high for sanitation, fire protection, etc., 
but the nature of the processes call for careful consideration, as 
there are two distinct elements of danger to the workers: (1) 
The flying fluff, particles of fur, and loose hair which are inhaled 
into the workers' lungs. (2) Contact with mercury salts used 
in the " carotting " process and the possible mercury poisoning 
resulting therefrom. 

The skins of Russian and Austrian hares and Australian rabbits 
are imported by the manufacturers and worked up into a high- 
grade product. The skins are first scraped and trimmed by a 
large force of Italian and Greek men. They work with curries 



334 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

and knives and liberate a large quantity of dust, hair and fluff 
from the skins which floats in the air and settles on tables, window 
ledges, il oors in fact, it seems to permeate the whole atmos- 
phere. The employers have tried to guard against this condition. 
The work room is large and well lighted, and the plenum venti- 
lator system supplies fresh air. Unfortunately, however, the in- 
troduction of the air serves to keep the floating particles in con- 
stant agitation. They are further stirred by currents of air when- 
ever the windows are open. These well meant and costly efforts 
to improve conditions are therefore not effective. The workers 
must unavoidably inhale the floating particles of fur, and thereby 
become predisposed to troubles of the throat and lungs trade 
diseases which have long since been recognized both here and in 
Europe as characteristic of the furriers. 

In the clipping room, the next in order, this danger has been 
recognized and more effectively guarded against. The hair is cut 
to a uniform length by a rotary knife machine. Each machine 
is practically closed in and so completely connected with an ex- 
haust pipe that the loose hair is drawn away as soon as the blade 
of the knife severs it from the pelt. The arrangement is so per- 
fect that very little hair or fur finds its way into the workroom. 
The chief danger to the worker is due to his carelessness in mov- 
ing the knife guards out of place. His fingers are consequently 
in danger of being cut as he presses the pelt against the swiftly 
revolving blades. These guards were attached to the machines a 
few years ago, at considerable expense. As often happens, the 
foreman does not enforce their constant use in face of the opposi- 
tion of the men, who wantonly disregard their own safety for the 
sake of greater speed. 

Following the clipping of the long hairs, the pelts are subjected 
to chemical treatment, or " carotting," which washes out the ani- 
mal oil from the fur and makes it " mat " or " felt " more easily. 
It is here that the chief element of danger is found; an ll 1 /^ per 
cent solution of mercury nitrate is used. It is evident that care 
and forethought have been given to the arrangements. The "Acid 
Room" is admirably equipped. The floor is asphalt, the tables 
are supported on brick piers, and drain towards the center. The 
whole place is washed down every Saturday. There are skylights 






-S 



1 

' 



I _ 

a a 

tn be 



*& 

0) _ 

^^ 






o 

sc 



INDUSTRIAL SUBVEY OF A SELECTED ABEA. 335 

overhead which are open in summer. The room is evidently kept 
as cool as possible, in order to minimize the danger due to the 
volatilizing of the mercury solution which occurs at ordinary 
room temperature. About 50 men are employed who stand at 
their work and wear rubber gloves, which are provided by the firm. 
The process consists of brushing the solution on the skins with a 
stiff brush. 

The foreman refused to admit there was any ill-health among 
the men; in fact, he pointed out individuals who had worked in 
the Acid Room for a period of years ; some of them having been 
there six or seven years. The men are all foreigners, and could 
not be interviewed apart. The statements of the foreman can not 
be regarded as conclusive evidence that there are no cases of poi- 
soning known, for mercury is a slow- working poison ; it may take 
years to accumulate in the system before it produces acute symp- 
toms, such as " shakes," that is, partial paralysis. Often the men do 
not recognize the earlier symptoms themselves, or refuse to speak 
of them, as they do not wish to lose their jobs. Unless they are 
sick enough to need medical treatment, it is therefore well-nigh 
impossible to locate cases of poisoning. We were unable to fol- 
low up this investigation intensively, and to trace possible clues 
that might have led us to the discovery of individual cases. 

To continue our description of the processes: After the acid 
treatment comes the drying of the skins. They are spread on 
trays and run into the drying ovens. Whether wet or dry, the 
skins now carry the mercury salts and may cast their injurious 
influence on the men who handle them. After the drying they 
proceed to the brushing room. The greatest care is exercised to 
exclude the brushings (nitrates, hair, etc.) from the work room 
by a system of exhausts, for, as the foreman ingenuously re- 
marked, " If they weren't carried off, your mouth and nose would 
soon be bleeding." Such, it is true, is the effect of the sharp ni- 
trate-laden particles or fibres. Being brushed free from dust, the 
pelts are finally ready for cutting. A high speed rotary knife 
machine removes the skin and leaves the fur lying in one piece. 
This fur placed on metal sheets now reaches the women, some 
80 or 100 sitting at tables. They sort the fur and pick out bits of 



336 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

skin, imperfections, etc., and pack the loose fur in paper bags, 
finally ready to be sent to the hat makers. 

Authorities do not agree as to whether the wet or dry processes 
are more conducive to poisoning, but there is little doubt that in- 
sidious dangers menace the workers in this industry. Even under 
the best conditions, all the elements of danger are not eliminated. 
Admirable as this shop is in many ways, there are a few addi- 
tional safeguards for the workmen which may be suggested. Every 
recognition should be given to the sincere effort of the owners to 
make conditions of work as wholesome as possible. They do not, 
however, observe one precaution which is strictly required in the 
English Factory Act, namely, that they should make known to 
the workers the dangers of the trade and warn them to take every 
precaution to avoid contact with the mercury solution and the mer- 
cury salts. Instead of a policy of concealment, notices printed in 
the languages of the workers ought to be posted in the work rooms. 
The need for some such warning was particularly evident in the 
acid room. The pelts after treatment are stacked in large piles 
and immediately carried to the drying room. One of the photo- 
graphs taken in the course of this investigation shows a man carry- 
ing such a pile of furs on his shoulder with the wet pelts actually 
touching his face. As both inhalation of the vapors and contact 
with the lips may introduce the poison into the system, it is abun- 
dantly evident that the method of transferring the pelts should 
be radically changed. As has already been said, the workers are 
supplied with rubber gloves, but they should also be given rubber 
aprons. They should be warned that the salts may be absorbed 
tkrough the skin, and discouraged from spattering the solution 
upon themselves and the workmen who stand nearest them. It 
may be impossible to devise any system of ventilation to remove 
the mercury fumes when " carotting " is done by hand, but there 
is no doubt that the greatest care should be exercised throughout 
this process. 

Moreover, washing facilities should be readily accessible and 
adequate. In this shop neither hot water, soap, nor towels are sup- 
plied, so that improvements are to be recommended in this particu- 
lar too. Toilet facilities are supplied on all the floors, but the 
wash room for all employees is located on the first floor. This 




II 



O 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 337 

is not a fortunate arrangement. The wash room, it is true, is 
easily accessible to the men in the " carotting " and drying rooms. 
But it hardly seems likely that men and women at work upon 
the skins and fur in the upper stories of the building will walk 
downstairs to wash their hands before eating lunch. No lunch 
room is provided, and although the majority of the workers may 
live nearby and go home for their noon day meal, yet many re- 
main in the shop and should have a place kept apart for meals. 
This is equally true of other departments, especially in the brush- 
ing and cutting rooms where 110 food should be kept or eaten on 
account of the mercury salts. It is also true of the scraping and 
cleaning department where the flying fluff and the odor of the 
skins renders the rooms unfit to be used at luncheon time. 

On the whole, therefore, this shop illustrates the need of con- 
tinued careful study of factory hygiene, besides proving that such 
matters can not safely be left to. the care even of employers who 
are far above the average in their desire to do well by their 
employees. 

WOOD MANUFACTURES. 

Like the metal trades and the textile trades, the wood-working 
industry may be said to be indigenous to the district studied. 
Under this head are considered all wood-working shops except 
those engaged in the manufacture of pianos. It includes a large 
number of small places. The 610 workers are divided among 42 
establishments, and 45 per cent of the employees are engaged in 
shops which employ a force of less than 25 persons. The largest 
firm has 77 workers. 

The establishments are housed in 14 special factories, 17 loft 
buildings, 2 tenements, 1 converted tenement, 2 dwellings, and 1 
converted dwelling. 

Of the workers, 65 per cent are engaged in fairly clean shops 
and 35 per cent in dirty or very dirty. 

A low grade of cleanliness is found in the water closet apart- 
ments. Twenty-three per cent of the workers are affected by fair, 
77 per cent by dirty, or very dirty, conditions. Accommodations 
for the men are poor, 56 per cent having toilets badly lighted and 
ventilated. Fourteen per cent of the water closet apartments ven- 



338 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

tilate into the work-rooms, from which they are separated by 
dwarf partitions only. Forty-nine per cent of them have no out- 
side windows. One shop violates the standard set that there must 
be at least 1 water closet to 25 persons. 

Inadequate washing facilities are reported for 67 per cent of 
the employees. Hot water is supplied for 17 per cent and towels 
for 35 per cent. 

The fumes arising from the use of turpentine in the finishing 
processes of this trade are extremely unhealthful. As this danger 
has been already described in connection with the piano trade, no 
further discussion will be given here. 

In the wood-working shops, machinery as a rule was found 
without guards or safety appliances. Unprotected saws and belt- 
ing were noted in the great majority of the shops. Only one cir- 
cular saw was found which was self-feeding and amply protected. 

Less than half the shops had installed the blower-system for 
removing saw dust, and the majority of these were not really effi- 
cient. One factory making shoe lasts has blowers at all the ma- 
chines, but saw dust and chips fly in the air. The dust in this 
factory, being made from hard wood, is particularly harmful. 
One man works constantly in the small room where the dust from 
the blowers is emptied into bags. Although the air of the cham- 
ber is thick, this man wears no respirator. He depends on chew- 
ing tobacco to keep his throat moist. 

LAUNDRIES. 

The laundry industry ranks sixth in the total number of work- 
ers employed, and is the second largest employer of women. The 
only trade employing a greater number of women is that of print- 
ing. Since 77.4 per cent of the workers in laundries are females, 
it may be said that this trade is still a woman's job. 

All motor or steam laundries, that is laundries which use 
power-driven machines for washing, starching, or ironing were 
visited. There are 14 of these establishments, representing a 
large proportion of the motor laundries in New York City. Ac- 
cording to the Federal Laundry Report of 1911, <: 20 motor power 
laundries may be said to do practically the bulk of the washing 
in New York City. The largest number of women employed in 
one laundry was 200, in several others the number reached 150, 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED ABEA. 339 

and elsewhere it ranged from 9 to 50." The largest establishment 
inspected usually employs 177, but during the summer rush has 
as many as 225 workers. Three employ more than 75 workers, 
and the smallest establishment has 7 workers. 

Practically every branch and grade of laundry work is repre- 
sented. One of the largest establishments does Pullman car, steam- 
ship, hotel and restaurant work. Two are waiters' and barbers' 
supply laundries. One does rough dry work for the small hand- 
laundry trade, and one specializes in flat work. Still another 
launders shirts and collars for high-class custom shirt-makers who 
have shops along Fifth Avenue. Five of the total 1-t cater to 
family trade. 

Only a few of the buildings in which the laundries are housed 
are modern in construction. There are none loss than five nor 
more than twenty years old. Only two were designed for laundry 
purposes. The others have been remodelled very slightly or rad- 
ically in accordance with the desire of the occupant. For instance, 
one excellent plant occupies a building originally intended for 
a bakery but now well adapted for a laundry. Another is housed 
on the ground floor of an old stable, very slightly remodeled and 
still a miserable place. In other words, one finds every type from 
a model two-story plant having light on all sides, movable sky- 
lights, high, metal-covered ceilings, lunch room, a filter tank, ven- 
tilating system with exhaust fans, hoods and pipes, down the scale 
to a converted tenement or old, unsuitable factory building. There 
are in all 3 special factories, 9 loft buildings, 1 tenement house, 
and 1 dwelling house used for laundries. 

All the establishments have windows to the outer air on at least 
two sides, most of them have windows on more exposures. This 
arrangement secures cross ventilation an indispensable feature 
in connection with the heat-producing processes of the laundries. 
Although adequate window space is the rule, artificial light is 
needed and used in ten buildings a condition to be accounted 
for in part by the location of the laundries in basements or lower 
floors, and the obstruction of daylight by machinery, drying cham- 
bers, shelves and bins. 



1 Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United States. Vol. XII. Employ- 
ment of Women in Laundries p. 13. 



340 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

On the whole, the general cleanliness of the 14 laundries is fair, 
a circumstance not especially due to the good management of em- 
ployers, but rather to the nature of the industry which allows no 
accumulation of rubbish or dirt. Neglect is more often found 
in the washroom which is not kept properly dry. Seventy-six per 
cent of the force work in clean or fairly clean workrooms, 24 per 
cent in dirty workrooms. 

The toilets are, on the whole, above the average found in other 
industries. In two instances, they are located in the yards, but 
in the other establishments, they are separated from the workrooms 
by full-height, wooden partitions. "A" grade conditions prevail 
for 2 per cent of the men and 43 per cent of the women ; " B " 
grade, for 71 per cent of the men and 40 per cent of the women. 
Twenty-seven per cent of the males and 17 per cent of the females 
are affected by dirty or very dirty conditions. 

Accommodations for the men are inferior to those for the 
women. Fifty-seven per cent of the males and 72 per cent of the 
females have adequately lighted toilets; 16 per cent of the 
males and no females are affected by dark toilets. Twenty-eight 
per cent of the males and 20 per cent of the females are subjected 
to poorly ventilated toilets. In one laundry the flush cisterns 
were broken and their action impaired. Two establishments vio- 
lated the standard set that there must be at least one water closet 
to 25 workers. 

It seems an irony of circumstance that 46 per cent of laundry 
workers have inadequate washing facilities. Fifty-four per cent 
are provided for adequately. Cold water is supplied for 57 per 
cent, hot and cold to 43 per cent. Towels were furnished to 84 
per cent of the employees; there was none or an inadequate sup- 
ply for 16 per cent. " They can use anything they find about," 
one employer took the trouble to explain. 

Since this industry is one of the largest employers of women, 
the provision of dressing rooms is important. Laundry workers, 
more than any other set of employees, change their clothes on en- 
tering the factory. Many take off their shoes both for comfort 
and from motives of economy. Of the 14 establishments only 10 
have dressing rooms for women. These have been improvised at 
little expense, in one case simply by curtaining off the space under 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 341 

the stairs. For the most part they are separated from the work- 
rooms by dwarf partitions of rough wood. Very few have win- 
dows to the outer air. Shelves, hooks, and an occasional chair are 
the furnishings. One place supplies sanitary lockers. Four fac- 
tories have no dressing rooms. In one large laundry a few nails 
have been driven into the walls of the toilets and are supposed 
to afford dressing-room facilities. Clothes were found hanging 
up on the hooks and shoes were standing outside the doors. Ex- 
pressed in numbers, 81 per cent of the women have dressing-room 
facilities, and 19 per cent are without any. The situation, there- 
fore, is most unsatisfactory. If at all intended for rest or emer- 
gency purposes, these rooms are hopelessly inadequate. They 
afford little, if any, privacy or comfort. 

The importance of pure drinking water cannot be over-estimated. 
Excessive heat and steam of the workrooms and strenuous mus- 
cular exertion create abnormal thirst and lead to an increase in 
beer drinking if cold water cannot be obtained. Complaint was 
made to the inspector in one laundry that the water was so bad 
it could not be drunk. One employer has filtered water and pro- 
vides ice in the summer time. Two insist upon individual drink- 
ing cups, another provides a bubbling fountain on each floor. 

One plant has a lunch room, for women. Gas stoves for warm- 
ing lunches, etc., were found in a few instances. 

In considering the sanitary condition of laundries a description 
of some of the equipment and processes is essential, as they directly 
affect the health and comfort of the workers. The preliminary 
processes of listing, marking and sorting are in the majority of 
cases performed by women. The work of handling the soiled gar- 
ments is dirty and unpleasant and involves the possibility of con- 
tagion. 

The washrooms call for especial notice since, under the most 
favorable sanitary conditions found, they are not healthful places 
for work. Wetness under foot, heat, steam and vapor or height- 
ened atmospheric humidity are always present, although in vary- 
ing degrees. To be sure, good drainage, effective ventilation, and 
proper provision for escaping steam ameliorate these conditions, 
but they do not remove them entirely. It is particularly import- 



342 NOTES ON SANITABY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

ant that the washrooms should be completely separated from other 
departments in order that other workers may not unnecessarily 
be subjected to these hardships. Only 5 washrooms are wholly 
separate from other departments. One of the worst is located in 
a basement together with the engines and boilers. The best wash- 
room was found on the top floor of a factory an ideal location 
since neither heat nor vapor travel downward. In another build- 
ing complaint was made by a sign painter that steam came into 
his shop through the floor and that the heat in the summer time 
was unbearable. 

All of the washroom floors are made of concrete raised six inches 
or a foot above the general flooring. In regard to the drainage, 
there is the greatest diversity of construction and equipment. In 
7 washrooms drainage is good; the floors slope toward the gutters 
and in some instances each machine and extractor has its individ- 
ual drain. Yet even here dampness and occasional pools of waste 
water are found under foot. Six have flat or sunken floors with 
streams of water escaping from the washing machines. One has 
a badly cracked and broken floor upon which pools of water re- 
main until swept away with a broom into the drain. The floors 
in half the washrooms seen were wet. 

Wooden shoes are worn by the men in some of the better estab- 
lishments. A number wiho wore heavy leather shoes complained 
that the wooden ones hurt their feet. In the very worst establish- 
ments the washers took no precaution whatever to keep their feet 
dry. 

The importance of ventilation in this department can not be 
overrated. Heat and humidity may not be as keenly felt in winter 
as in summer, yet the risk to the workers' health is as great dur- 
ing the cold weather on account of exposure to low temperatures 
on leaving the laundry. Mechanical devices or systems of venti- 
lation are necessary for the control of humidity and temperature. 
Yet nine of the washrooms depend solely upon windows for venti- 
lation. In four of the washrooms there are exhaust fans placed 
in the windows. Some of the rooms are small and low-ceiled. 
These rooms are described as veritable infernos in summer by 
employees who have worked the year round in them. 




.2 



I 1 



v . 
J3 oo .* _, 
-fj u C 



o o 
w c e 
^ as g 

.- 03 



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O 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AKEA. 343 

In two plants where the machinery is modern, well maintained, 
and tended by skillful men, little waste water is poured on the 
floor, and practically no escape of steam occurs. In 12 washrooms 
inadequate provision or none at all is made for escaping steam. 
Clouds of vapor were noted in some places so thick as to obscure 
the features of the men. 

The washers are compelled to handle heavy bundles of clothes. 
One of the demands of tihe recent laundry strike was that no 
worker be required to handle a bundle of clothes weighing over 25 
pounds when dry. At present there is rarely any attempt to regu- 
late this weight, and prevent injury to the men from lifting bags 
of clothes which saturation with water has rendered dangerously 
heavy. 

At least 75 per cent of the workers are employed on the mangle 
floor. Hence, the sanitary and hygienic provis ; ons on this floor 
are of the utmost importance. In this room the women stand all 
lay to shake out the wet clothes. Here also are the girls who tend 
the mangles, which constantly send up heat and clouds of steam. 
Exhaust hoods are practically indispensable if temperature and 
humidity are to be regulated. Yet only one plant has an equip- 
ment of mangle hoods, with an exhaust to draw off the steam as 
it rises directly from the machine. In this room, 125 women are 
working. In another plant, skylights or exhaust fans are fairly 
effective. Even here temperature varies from 70 to 75 degrees 
in winter. Exhaust fans are installed in three other mangle rooms, 
but they are ineffective and scatter the rising steam and do not 
successfully remove the moisture and heat. In nine of the laun- 
dries no provision is made for mechanical ventilation. Drying 
chambers in some places aggravate conditions. Only one plant 
equips its dryers with suction hoods. In one mangle room there 
is a constant draft from large doors opening on the street. In 
two of the plants the rooms are fairly misty with steam and yet 
so cold that women have to wear wraps. Under these conditions 
can the predisposition to pulmonary trouble and rheumatism be 
doubted ? 

In four laundries which handle waiters' and barbers' supplies 
the body ironer is used. The other dangerous elements in the 
laundries appear of minor significance in comparison with the 



344: NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

wreckage wrought by these machines. The majority of the opera- 
tors are women. The body-ironing machine has sometimes a sin- 
gle, and sometimes a double, treadle. In using the latter, the oper- 
ator presses with the left foot on one treadle heavily enough to 
lift the lower roll into close contact with the upper. To reverse 
the motion of the upper roll the second treadle must be pressed by 
the right foot. These two motions must be repeated until the gar- 
ment is ironed. It was found by actual count that one woman 
at the reversible machine made 63 foot motions a minute ; another 
was speeded up to 81 motions a minute; a girl at the single-lever 
machine made 60 motions. To relieve her feet one woman wore 
soft bedroom slippers ; another had taken her shoes off. The man- 
ager said that in summer time practically all work in stocking 
feet. 

The reversible body-ironer is obviously harmful to the operator 
for it involves a constant pelvic jerk. An improvised platform 
is placed in front of each machine enabling the operator to step 
down upon the treadles. This plan, although it facilitates the 
process, relieves the operator but slightly. She is required to ex- 
ert a great and constant muscular force besides? the pelvic jerk 
which is so dangerous. Few of the operators can control them- 
selves to such an extent that they bring into play only the muscles 
absolutely needed. Most of them work with set, tense faces, using 
their whole bodies swinging and jerking their heads and trunks. 
One young Irish girl who has done this work for six years has 
pelvic trouble, looks extremely anaemic and complains of having 
no appetite. She told the inspector that she had lost 50 pounds 
since she began. The majority of these operators look haggard, 
worn-out, and exhausted. To add to its dangers, body-ironing is 
usually piece-work and associated with all the evils of speeding. 

The risk of accident is ever-present. The operator must be 
alert not to have her fingers crushed between the rolls. Another 
element of danger lies in the fumes of the gas which heats the 
rolls. Only one plant has equipped its body-ironer with exhaust 
hoods. The inspector was told, as a particularly significant and 
gratifying fact, that there was not a single case of heat prostration 
at the body-ironer during the past summer. 








No. 10. A body ironing machine without hood and forced ventilation. 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 345 

In one laundry, so-called " scientific management " is main- 
tained throughout the departments. The following is an example 
of problems which have been worked out by experts in the office. 
"If 10 women shake 6,925 towels in five hours, how many towels 
can one woman shake in one hour ? " In this way an average of 
capacity is obtained and standards are set for different processes. 
The workers are probably unconscious of how it is done, but 
they feel that some power is speeding them ahead. There is no 
evidence that the experts are studying the fatigue of the workers 
and apportioning rest periods so as to prevent over-exertion. 

Standing is a constant evil in laundries. Seats are provided 
in all of these establishments but are seldom used. A feeder on 
being questioned said she could not work as well sitting down. 
This is probably quite true where three to six women are crowded 
together at the feeding apron of the mangle as was the fact in 
this case. Sitting, at least part of the time, should be compulsory. 
By the exercise of a little thought and ingenuity, occupations could 
be alternated and the capacity of operators need not be lessened. 

In a word, machine washing and ironing, as it is carried on 
in the motor laundries visited, retains all the worst features of 
domestic drudgery and adds the further evils of long hours, speed- 
ing and dangerously unhealthful conditions. 

CANDY AND FOOD PRODUCTS. 

This industry ranks seventh in the district, and third in number 
of women employed. It includes seven candy factories and five 
plants making other foods such as artificial ice, or packing dry 
groceries. The 12 establishments employ 517 workers, of whom 
49.5% are men,49.9% women, and .6% children. As 83% of all 
the workers in the food industry are in the candy trade, the condi- 
tions in the candy factories are especially considered and emphasized 
in the following report 

No establishment in this district occupies a plant which in any 
way approaches the standard set by the largest candy factories in 
the city. 

Of the 12 establishments inspected, 7 are housed in special fac- 
tories, 3 are in lofts, 1 is in a dwelling, and 1 in a tenement. The 



346 



NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



floors occupied range from 1 to 7. In the workrooms, conditions 
are reported as fairly clean for 78% of the employees, and dirty or 
very dirty for 22%. 

There are 42 water closets in the 12 food preparation establish- 
ments. Two are in the yard. Of the others, 37, or 92%, are com- 
pletely separated from the shop; 3, or 7.5%, are shut off by a 
dwarf partition only. Seventy per cent have outside windows, 
which does not necessarily mean good ventilation, and 
30% have no outside windows. In two places the separation 
of men's from women's water closets is inadequate: in one they 
open off a common vestibule; in the other, off tihe same dressing 
room. 

The water closet accommodations are generally poor, but those 
for men are markedly inferior to those for women in respect to 
light and ventilation. Dark or semi-dark closets are in use by 47% 
of the males and 15% of the females. Poor ventilation of closets 
is reported for 31% of the males and 17% of the females. 

The grade of cleanliness of the men's closets is far below that 
of the women's. Dirty conditions are reported for 4-3% of the 
males and for only 16% of the females. The men are naturally 
more careless than the women as regards cleanliness and the 
poorer accommodations provided for them in this trade do not en- 
courage tidiness. 

The washing facilities are very poor. The following table shows 
the number and percentage of workers affected by the inadequacy 
of the water and towel supply: 

TABLE VII. 



FACILITIES 


Number of 
Workers 
Affected 


Per cent of 
Workers 
Affected 


TU ( Hot provided .. 


201 


38 9 


* 1 Cold only provided 


316 


61.1 










517 
106 


100 
20 5 


VELS^ Inadequate number or none supplied 


411 


79 5 










517 


100.0 



The lack of hot water and towels is insanitary not only from 
the point of view of the employee's welfare, but also from that of 
the consuming public. The inspector has seen a candy maker in 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 347 

a large factory dry his hands on a burlap bag which was the only 
available substitute for a towel and then go back to his candy mak- 
ing. In this factory other conditions correspond. The workers 
have no standard of cleanliness. The inspector has seen a man 
flatten out a large ball of candy by sitting on it and bouncing 
up and down, dressed in overalls that were none too clean; an- 
other worker was seen to pick up lumps that bad dropped upon 
a dirty floor and knead them in with the rest of the oandy. 

In only one factory is there any attempt to make all the workers 
wear white ca.ps and aprons. In this shop fresh ones are pro- 
vided every day, and they are worn regularly. But this candy 
department employs only 39 workers out of our 430 in the candy 
factories. In the other places caps and aprons are worn by some 
of the workers, but they are in all stages of cleanliness and of dirt. 

Dressing rooms are generally provided, but they are usually very 
small .scarcely more than coat closets. Of the women, 238, or 
92%, have the use of these, 8% have no dressing rooms to use at 
all. 

In the local candy factories there are many sources of fatigue 
and of actual danger which could be removed by better management. 

The ordinary ventilation is inadequate, as the air is stuffy and 
stale, and even in mild weather windows are seldom opened. No 
simple devices such as window boards or boxes were found. 

There are a number of processes in the packing departments of 
the groceries which call for special ventilating systems or exhausts, 
such as the packing of pepper and bottling of ammonia. On 13 
out of 35 floors where there are workers, such systems or exhausts 
are needed. But the chief danger to health is exposure to heat 
and cold or to abrupt changes in temperature. 

In the candy factories the steam from the cooking kettles is usu- 
ally carried away by hoods and exhaust pipes. But this has little 
eifect upon the heat, which is intense in the cooking rooms. In only 
one factory is there a satisfactory system for regulating the tempera- 
ture. In one or two of the others there are vacuum fans, but the 
thermometer in one of these rooms ranged from 83 degrees to 86 
degrees. "Where a chocolate room adjoins the cooking room and the 
workers are obliged to pass frequently from chilled to highly heated 
temperatures, the risk is serious. The chocolate rooms are generally 



348 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

cooled by refrigerating pipes, and their temperature is sometimes as 
low as 60 degrees. This is unnecessarily cold; from 65 degrees to 
fi8 degrees is said by experts in the trade to be perfectly satisfactory. 
The lower temperature may seem comfortable for a short time, bur 
it is found to be chilling when the worker sits from ten to twelve 
hours without exercise. Many of the girls complain of this hardship. 
They wear shawls or sweaters. When they rest their feet on 
asphalt floors they feel the cold particularly. One girl was made 
ill by this kind of work, and was in a hospital under treatment 
for rheumatism of the heart and general nervous breakdown. The 
doctors say that her illness was caused by long hours of work under 
these adverse conditions. When evening work is required till 
9 p. m., which is often the case, or night work, the risk to health 
is obvious. All such special exposures to extremes of temperature 
need to be carefully studied, and while they may not be injurious 
to some workers, the girls who would suffer from such employment 
ought to be weeded out by a physical examination. 

In the candy factories much of the women's work is done stand- 
ing. In one factory 27 bonbon dippers (45% of the women) stand 
continuously. Here the proprietor told the inspector that the girls 
refuse to sit down when seats are provided, as the dipping requires 
a particular swaying motion of the body which is only possible in 
a standing position. A more plausible explanation is found in the 
fact that his dipping tables were much too high. In all the other 
factories inspected, ,the dippers sit at their work. 

Packing candy, moreover, usually requires constant standing or 
moving about. In packing the higher grades of candy, each girl 
has a long table on which are spread out several rows of empty 
boxes, with one filled box at the end to serve as a model. She 
then takes a handful of candies from a large box, containing only 
one kind, and moves along the line, putting one in the same relative 
place in each box. The same thing is repeated with each kind that 
goes in, till the box is filled. The " spread " is then completed, 
the boxes are closed and carried to the wrapping table; and a new 
" spread " of empty boxes is arranged on the packing table. Occa- 
sionally the packers also wrap the boxes, and so can sit down at 
intervals at the wrapping tables, but this is rare. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 



349 



One machine was found which enables the packer to sit. It is a 
kind of Ferris wheel on which the " spread " of empty boxes is ar- 
ranged ; and the packer sits before this wheel except when the filled 
boxes are removed and replaced by empty ones. As only one such 
wheel was found, and that was in a large packing room where the 
girls had to take turns in using it, the help it gave was slight. One 
way of relieving the packer would be to make the " spread " smaller 
so that it would be within reach of the person who is seated; or 
possibly some sort of revolving table or a carrier or a sliding seat 
could be devised. 

One factory in this district is exceptional in that practically all 
the women sit. They wrap the individual pieces of candy in oiled 
paper and place them directly in large boxes. Omitting this special 
factory there are 172 women employed in the local trade, of whom 
118, or 68.6%, stand constantly. When the day's work extends 
to 12 hours on three days a week, as is often the case in the rush 
season, the strain is altogether too great. 

Nationality statistics were collected from all the women in the 
seven candy establishments and from practically all the men. The 
following table shows the nationalities represented by number and 
proportion. 

TABLE VIII. 
NUMBEII EMPLOYEES IN CANDY FACTORIES ACCORDING TO SEX AND NATIONALITY 





Italian 
and 
Italian 
American 


American 


Irish 
and 
Irish 
American 


German 
and 
German 
American 


All other 
National- 
ities 


Total 


Men 


169 


1 


2 


6 


24 


202 


Women 


120 


46 


34 


25 


20 


245 
















Total number 


289 


47 


36 


31 


44 


447 


Total per cent 


64.65 


10.52 


8.05 


6.94 


9.84 


100 



This shows how far the Italians have invaded this industry, as 
they constitute 64.65 of all the workers. These figures are the 
more significant in that the Italians do not form a large percentage 
of the population of the neighborhood. 

BAKERIES. 

In making the bakery inspections, two things were kept in 
mind: conditions as they affect the workers and conditions as 



350 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

they affect the consumers of the bake-shop products. The bakeries 
are unique among the industries studied, inasmuch as 85% of 
them sell all their product right on the premises. 

Sixty bakeries were inspected employing 266 workers. In all 
but two shops, the working force numbered less than eight. Of 
the two larger bakeries, one employed 18 and the other 32 men. 

With but three exceptions, all the shops are located in cellars 
of tenements. Concrete floors, the most desirable floor for bak- 
eries, were found in 33% of the shops, and wood on concrete in 
40% ; the remaining 27% consisted of varying combinations of 
wood and concrete. Many of them were worn and broken so 
that it is impossible to keep them clean. But even where the 
floors were intact, a clean one was a rare find. In two shops, 
water was seeping through the walls. In one of these, a small 
drain had been cut across the cement floor leading into an unused 
cellar where a cess-pool received the waste. The stench arising 
from this pool was as bad as any noted in the worst-conditioned 
water closets. 

The walls and ceilings are badly neglected. The walls, of brick 
or stone, roughly plastered or simply white-washed, form a rough 
surface difficult to keep clean. Dirt and cob-webs cling to it, and 
in some places, even spatterings of dough were found. 

The white-wash on the walls and ceilings in many cases had not 
been properly renewed and was peeling off above the kneading 
troughs. 

Fair conditions of cleanliness are reported only for the three 
shops not in cellars. These employ 40 workers, or 15%. Of the 
others, 134, or 50%, work in dirty stoops, and 92, or 35%, in very 
dirty ones. 

The windows are small and dirty. Twenty-two per cent of the 
shops have nothing that may even serve as a window. Artificial 
light by day is necessary in all but two of the shops. An open gas 
flame is found in every shop and helps to consume the all too- 
limited oxygen supply in the cellar rooms. Even where electric 
lights are used, gas lights are found near the ovens. 

If lighting is poor in the cellar bake-shops, ventilation is even 
poorer. The only special means of ventilation found was in a 
shop where an electric fan was used to freshen the air. The low 



INDUSTRIAL, SURVEY OF A SELECTED AHEA. 



351 



ceilings contribute a great deal to the bad air conditions. The 
shops were divided as to height of ceilings as follows: 

HEIGHT OF CEILINGS 





Less 
than 
7 ft. 


7 and 
8ft. 


8 and 
Oft. 


9 and 
10ft. 


10ft. 
and 
over 


Un- 
known 


Total 




1 


5 


28 


21 


4 


1 


60 



















Ten per cent are less than 8 feet and 57 % less than 9 feet. 

The temperature was also recorded. The highest reported was 
88 F. Ten per cent of the shops were above 80 F. and 33 c /o were 
below 70 F., ranging down to 59 F. The most serious feature of 
the temperature conditions is not excessive heat or cold, but sud- 
den changes from one to the other. The shop gets too hot for 
comfort and the door is thrown open, allowing the cold air to rush 
in upon the men who are always scantily clothed. 

The air is also vitiated by the cooking done. Pastry is made 
in 87% of the shops. This means that the odor of frying oil 
hangs always in the air. Many of the ovens have poor drafts 
and fill the shop with coal-gas at each firing-up. With five excep- 
tions, all the shops fire their ovens inside. One has gas ovens and 
four fire underneath. The bad air conditions arising from the 
several causes given can not be removed by ventilation from the 
street. The bakery is underground and any attempt to introduce 
air from the ground-level in front simply results in admitting to 
the shop sweepings from the pavements. 

The majority of the water closet apartments are completely 
separate from the shop. Even where they are contiguous the 
separation is adequate. However, two were found in store-rooms 
with no enclosure whatever. Taken as a whole, ventilation is 
good and light fair conditions which are due to the fact that 
most of the closets are located in the yard. But 26% are dark 
or semi-dark; 15% are insufficiently ventilated; 35% are dirty, 
or very dirty. 



352 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

In all the shops but one, the men have only the sink for wask- 
ing. One place has two shower baths, which, evidently, are not 
used, as the inspector noted that they were covered with cobwebs. 
Only two places were found with really clean sinks; tihe others 
were repulsively dirty. In a few, towels were noted, but they 
were extremely dirty. 

The provision of special dressing-rooms is as follows: in 7% 
of the shops the bakers live upstairs and change in their rooms 
before going down; in 5%, dressing-rooms are provided; in 35% 
lockers only, but no dressing-rooms are provided; in 48% neither 
lockers nor dressing-rooms; and 5% are unreported. Thus about 
half the shops are without dressing-rooms of any sort. This means 
that clothes and shoes were left standing about the room. 

About 44% of the shops provided cuspidors, but in only 8% 
were they found to be in use. When the inspector inquired 
about them, they were usually dragged out from the corners, or 
from under boxes or barrels. 

Power-driven machinery was found in but 22% of the shops. 
By actual count, 21 pieces of such machinery were found in 60 
bakeries. 

Cats were seen in practically every shop. In two shops litters 
of kittens were being raised. No windows are screened for flies, 
but as the inspections were made in winter, few flies were dis- 
covered. In seven shops cock-roaches were conspicuous. The so- 
called " Baker's Souls " or " silver bugs " were seen in every shop 
except the one using gas ovens. 

In 90% of the places the materials for baking are stored right 
in the shops. In 47%, flour is kept in burlap sacks with no other 
protection, and cats were found sleeping on them. In 45% of the 
shops the material was found flat on the floor and in about the 
same number tihe barrels and boxes had no cover whatever. From 
the time a barrel of cooking oil is broached until it is used up, 
it stands an open trap for unwary flies and cock-roaches. In one 
place an old coat, hung upon a nail, trailed actually into the 
cocoanut supply. 

All the workers are male except two women who are employed 
as demonstrators of special gas ovens. No boys under 16 are em- 
ployed. Ten per cent of the men are 45 years and over. They 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AUEA. 353 

are divided as to nationality u> follows: German, 67% ; Austrian, 
9%; Italian, 8%; other nationalities, 16%. 

Of the 60 shops. 47. representing 71% of the workers, employ 
non-union men only; 4, representing 11%, both non-union and 
union; 15, representing 18%, only union men. 

Most of the bakers claimed to work only 10 hours a day and 
6 days a week. As a matter of fact, they generally have no regu- 
lar time to quit. Ordinarily they begin at the scheduled time, 
and quit when they finish be it 10 hours or 14 hours later. Two 
or three of the largest shops work Sundays, but they claim that 
they have enough men to allow each one day off in seven. 

As the majority of the shops have two shifts and ordinarily only 
one shift was inspected, the reports on the physical appearance 
of workers is based on the number actually seen and information 
obtained from the workers regarding those absent. 

Smoking was reported in but 25% of the shops and chewing 
in 8%. The use of tobacco was reported only where it was actu- 
ally seen or the men admitted the habit. Some of them tried to 
conceal the fact that they used it in the shop; others seemed not 
to know that it is illegal. However, as the majority of the work- 
ers in question are Germans and they are little given to the habit, 
the low percentage reported is probably correct. 

Beer drinking seemed commoner. Only five shops were met 
with where it was said that none of the men drank beer. Lunch 
is eaten in the shops and beer is almost invariably an accompani- 
ment. The lunch hour is irregular; the men eat when they feel 
hungry and can leave their work for a few minutes. 

All the workers change their clothes on going into the shop, 
though few make a complete change. The men seemed to consider 
this necessary not from sanitary reasons or consideration for the 
consumer, but from a desire not to carry the strong bakery odor 
on their clothes when they leave the shop. The working clothes 
seen were, on the whole, extremely dirty. 

The danger to consumers, needless to say, arises from the ap- 
palling lack of sanitary conditions under which bread stuff is pro- 
duced. Not only are the quarters dirty and insanitary, but the 
habits of the men are careless, at their best, and revolting, at their 
worst. They wash their hands but rarely. After firing the oven, 
12 



354 NOTES ON SANITAEY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

even after handling coal and floor sweepings, they were seen to 
return to the kneading trough without so much as wiping their 
hands, except possibly on their dirty trousers. One man took 
great pride in showing a litter of kittens he was raising in the 
shop. After handling the kittens, he returned to the kneading 
trough without washing his hands. Another man, who was suf- 
fering from a cold in the head, went about his work absolutely 
unprovided with a pocket handkerchief. 

In one of the shops, a pastry worker who was decorating a cake 
with jelly, was observed to pour out the jelly on a sheet of dirty 
paste-board, hastily snatched from the floor for the purpose, and 
afterwards to scrape the jelly from this paper into the original 
supply. 

In transferring the dough from the troughs to the kneading 
boards, the men often rest the mass against their bodies, or rather, 
against their clothing, which, as has been remarked, looks as if 
it were seldom washed. In one rather pretentious shop, catering 
to a high-class trade, all the men were stripped to the waist, and 
in carrying the dough they rested it against their naked bodies. 

One of the crudest things witnessed occurred in the preparation 
of the so-called " Vienna " loaf for the oven. From nine to t \velve 
loaves are placed on a large paddle ; the slits are then made with 
a thin-bladed knife, and the loaves slipped into the oven. In not 
less than three shops the men were observed to keep the blades 
of their slitting knives in their mouths while they were slipping 
one paddle of loaves into the oven and filling it up again. The 
men claimed that it made the knife cut better. 

From the standpoint of the workers, the chief danger is the 
gradual undermining of health which naturally follows under con- 
ditions of the sort described. Lack of proper light and ventila- 
tion, long hours, night work, and uncertain temperature caused 
by the method of ventilation these things can only result in 
lowering the vitality of those subjected to them. 

Owing to the fact that the local bakeries do not possess power- 
driven machinery to any extent, the very serious danger of acci- 
dent from this source will not be considered in this report. On 
the other hand, it must be pointed out that the insidious dangers 
to health which result from doing this kind of work in cramped, 




03 QJ 




ffi *> 

-20 



-Si 



I 






INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 3,55 

airless, underground quarters are especially characteristic of the 
bakeries in the district. 

GARMENTS AM> TEXTILES. 

The textile trades, which formed the chief occupation of women 
on the West Side twenty years ago, have greatly declined in im- 
portance. Only 2 weaving mills were found. These, together 
with the embroidery, garment and costume-making shops in- 
spected, make up the 11 establishments included in this group. 
Although women predominate, constituting 60% of the 254 work- 
ers employed, they are numerically fourth in importance, com- 
pared with printing, laundries, and candy-making respectively. 

Fairly clean work-rooms are reported for 138, or 55%, of the 
employees, and dirty work-rooms for 116, or 45%. Water closets 
are reported as dirty for 17% of the men and the same percentage 
of the women. The proportion of workers, male and female, that 
have badly lighted water closet apartments is also 17%. This 
correspondence in percentages indicates the connection between 
darkness and dirt in these places already mentioned in this report. 

One establishment has only 1 water closet for 54 female em- 
ployees. 

The provision of washing facilities is inadequate for 38% of 
the employees. Towels are supplied for 97% of the workers. 

Ninety per cent of the women have the use of a separate dress- 
ing room or wash room; only 5% have clothes lockers. 

In all the weaving factories, artificial light by day is necessary. 
The electric lights above the warping mills, or frames, are usually 
above eye-level, but the lights over the looms are so arranged as to 
shine directly into the weaver's eyes, unless of his own initiative 
he protects them by a close-fitting shade. 

STONE, CLAY AND GLASS. 

The stone, clay and glass-making trades, which have the com- 
mon element of being dust-producing occupations are represented 
by 7 establishments. They give employment to 213 male work- 
ers, one of them being a boy under sixteen. 



356 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

Of these, 72, or 34%, work in fairly clean places. In estimat- 
ing the cleanliness of the shop-rooms, allowance was made for the 
presence of an unavoidable amount of waste. Places were only 
classed as dirty when waste had been allowed to accumulate and 
neglected conditions prevailed. Of the workers, 118, or 56%, are 
engaged in shops of this character, and 22, or 10%, work in 
rooms where the floors are in a state of filth. Forty-four per cent 
of the workers have fairly clean water closets and 56%, dirty 
ones. The lighting of the water closets in these trades is espe- 
cially poor, 72% of the men being subjected to semi-dark water 
closet apartments. Sixty-five workers, or 35%, have inadequate 
washing facilities. Fourteen per cent have cold water only for 
washing, and 37% have no towels. 

One factory produces fire-proof tiles. Apparently no effort is 
made here to remove the gritty dust which accumulates indefi- 
nitely on the earthen floor. The installation of a concrete floor 
which could be cleaned up would be a great improvement. The 
air is permeated with coal-gas from the kilns. 

It has no system for ventilating and cooling the ovens, although 
in many other factories of this kind there is a blower which forces 
air through a pipe from the outside into the ovens. Manifestly 
a factory of this kind is out of place in a crowded city. This par- 
ticular factory is a survival from an earlier, less populous period 
in the district, and continues in the city although it must bring 
its raw material by canal boats from New Jersey. 

In another factory where mirrors are made, the dust present is 
due to red rouge, an oxide of iron used for polishing, which though 
not inherently poisonous, is exceedingly irritating to the respira- 
tory tracts. 

MINERAL AND SODA WATERS. 

Twelve establishments, of which 9 are engaged in the bottling of 
aerated or mineral waters and 3 are miscellaneous bottling works, 
compose this group. 

As to the kind of building occupied, 4 are in special factories, 4 
in lofts, 2 in converted dwellings, 1 in a dwelling, and 1 in a 
tenement. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED ARK A. 357 

The number of workers employed is 158. Of these, but 3% 
work in shops that are below " B " grade in cleanliness. In this 
grading, wet floors are not rated as dirty, but as insanitary from 
the point of view of health. 

Conditions in the water closets provided are not above the aver- 
age for the district. For 56 /& of the workers, these apartments 
are reported as dirty, as dark or semi-dark for 48%, as poorly ven- 
tilated for 28/6. Of the total number of water-closet apartments, 
25% have no outside windows and 13% are separated from the 
shop by dwarf partitions only. 

Washing facilities are inadequate for all employees, inasmuch as 
towels are not supplied in a single instance. On the other hand, 
all factories have hot water. 

The dangers in this trade result from constant dampness and 
broken glass. 

\Yhere the washing and tilling are going on, the floors are always 
more or less wet. The men who do the washing have their hands 
and arms continuously in the water. This condition of things can 
be improved by the use of a proper washing machine. The wet 
floors also result from the breaking of bottles in the filling process. 
To prevent this, an adequate waste-pan should be built around this 
machine. 

Accidents from broken glass occur in washing and filling the 
bottles and from the bursting of bottles already filled. A washing 
machine removes most of the dangers connected with hand-washing. 
Bottles that have been filled and labeled should be instantly re- 
moved from among the workmen and placed in a store-room. 

In one establishment employing 10 men, 2 were at home 
through accidents at the time of the inspection. One man had 
been laid off for 10 days with a cut received while washing bottles. 
Another had been out a week for the same reason. Another had 
just returned from a 4 days' absence, caused by ft cut in the palm 
of his hand. One of the men had suffered the loss of an eye. In 
response to the question, " Do you ever get cut ? " one workman 
replied, " I get cut every day." 

The great majority of cuts and wounds, however, occur in con- 
nection with the filling process. All the carbonated waters are bot- 



358 NOTES ON SANITAEY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

tied under pressure, and the siphons under much greater pressure 
than the sodas. In all the shops the siphons are placed in iron 
cages while being filled. The cage imprisons a part of the flying 
glass, but splinters and particles escape. As a further protection, 
masks and gloves should be worn. Masks are furnished by all the 
shops, but only one place was found in which the wearing was made 
compulsory by the management. In another shop, it was explained 
that the masks were furnished, but, as one workman jovially 
remarked, "only the married men wore them." Gloves are even 
less worn as a protection than masks, as their use is rather awkward 
in operating the machines. Except in one shop, the machines for 
crowning the soda bottles are of the hand-fed variety and difficult 
to feed when the operator wears gloves. 

An Italian foreman, whose face and hands were covered with 
scars, showed a particularly ugly one on the hand and wrist from 
a cut in which blood poison had developed. This wound, which 
had disabled his arm for two months, had been received while sim- 
ply passing by the machine where another man was at work. 
Another workman had been laid up seven weeks with a cut which 
had nearly severed the tendons of his fingers. His face and hands 
were covered with scars, but in spite of all these accidents he had 
only lately taken to wearing a glove, with the finger-ends cut off, as 
a partial protection. 

One firm was found which had reduced all these dangers to a 
minimum by the installation of a washing machine, a self-feeding 
crown machine, and the compulsory use of gloves and masks. 

DYEING AND CLEANING. 

The 10 establishments representing the dyeing and cleaning 
industry are divided as follow- : 

Textile dyeing and printing 1 

Carpet cleaning 2 

Skein-silk dyeing 3 

Custom dyeing and cleaning 4 

Total , 10 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF A SELECTED AREA. 359 

The buildings occupied are of all grades, varying from a ram- 
shackle rear tenement, now used for silk-dyeing, to a modern and 
well-equipped carpet-cleaning factory. The average cleanliness is 
fair. Of the 140 workers, 119, or 85%, work in fairly clean 
shops; 21, or 15%, in dirty shops. 

Dark or semi-dark water closets are supplied for 45% of the 
men and 16% of the women. Poor ventilation of these apartments 
is reported for 35% of the men and 16% of the women. Not only 
are light and ventilation both worse for the men than for the 
women, but men's apartments are also more neglected. Not quite 
16% of the women use water closets that are not clean, whereas 
70% of the men use closets that are actually dirty. 

Washing facilities are inadequate for 87% of the employees. 
Hot water is provided for 49%, and 59% have cold water only. 

No shops have enough towels: 38% have an insufficient supply, 
and about 62% have no towels at all. 

As the workmen keep their hands in the dyeing and rinsing tubs 
most of the time, they are inclined to think that they do not need 
to wash up. But the dye should not be allowed to remain on the 
hands, and water, soap and towels should always be supplied to 
remove it. 

Five of these establishments employ from 1 to 27 women. Only 
1 of them, with 4 women workers, has a separate dressing room 
for their use. 

In the custom dye works and the skein-silk dyeing the method is 
much the same. The dye room has a cement or flagstone floor, 
graded for drainage. Dyeing and scouring with soap are some- 
times done in separate rooms, but generally the same room is used 
for both. In 6 of the 8 establishments the drainage is inadequate 
and the floors are very wet. The men generally wear shoes with 
thick wooden soles. In only one OF two rooms is the drainage 
effective. In most places the scouring tables drain only to the 
floor. But in one carpet-cleaning establishment the tables shed 
the dirty water into troughs, which conduct it to waste-pipes. 

Articles are taken from the dye tubs by hand, or with a stick. 
Where aniline dyes are used, it is evident that adequate washing 
facilities should be insisted upon. Other unpleasant features of a 
dvr room are the steam and odors that fill the air. In no establish- 



360 NOTES ON SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 

ment are the separate tubs or vats provided with hoods and exhaust 
pipes. In one room there are four ventilating stacks rising from 
the four corners of the room, which carry off the vapor in part. 
In another shop, where ribbon and textile dyeing is done, a large 
tube runs the length of the ceiling, with openings at intervals. A 
powerful vacuum fan is placed near the vent to the outer air. 
This was the only satisfactory ventilator found. In the others, 
windows and doors are the only means of ventilation, and to open 
these is usually to expose the overheated workers to drafts and 
sudden changes in temperature. 

In the dry-cleaning industry the dangers are from fire and ben- 
zine or naphtha fumes. Four of the factories do dry cleaning, and 
in all of them the fire risk is considerable. The room in which the 
clothes are washed in gasolene or naphtha is fairly well protected 
by metal floor coverings and ceilings. In these rooms there is no 
lighting and heating apparatus. In one case the dry-cleaning room 
is a small separate house built in a back yard. But the drying 
rooms and " spotting " rooms (where the left-over spots are taken 
out by hand with chloroform or alcohol) are often entirely finished 
with wood. The buildings in which these shops are located all have 
wooden stairs and are by no means fireproof. The danger seems 
to be less from explosion of the fluid itself than from the inflam- 
mability of the articles that have just been cleaned and the 
fumes which come from them. Exposure to intoxication by ben- 
zine or naphtha fumes results in nausea, loss of appetite and 
anaemia. Young people, especially girls, are most sensitive to 
these effects. In one or two cases ventilating pipes were found in 
the cleaning rooms, but in no case is there a thorough ventilation 
system for drying and sorting rooms or for the entire factory. One 
drying machine was found which consisted of a revolving cylinder, 
perforated like an extractor and enclosed in a case into which a 
current of hot air is forced and from which it is withdrawn by 
a vacuum fan. In this way the fumes were partially prevented 
from escaping into the room. 

In the carpet-cleaning factories the beating is entirely done by 
machines. One type was a " non-labor " machine, into which the 
rug or carpet could be completely inserted and left alone until 
thoroughly beaten. Unfortunately, this machine is hard on the 




~ 
3 

JB 



g-a 






INDUSTRIAL SURVEY ur A SELECTED AREA. 361 

texture of the rug. The ordinary cleaner, however, has to be 
tended. It consists of a long revolving drum to the surface of which 
leather straps are attached by one end. The carpet passes beneath 
this drum and is beaten constantly and violently by the leather 
thongs. The whole is enclosed in a box equipped with an exhaust 
system, by which the dust is carried away. The men who pull the 
rugs back and forth are thus effectively guarded from the dust as 
long as the machine is in good working order. 

TOILET PREPARATIONS AND CHEMICALS. 

The making and packing of soap, toilet powder, hair tonics, 
patent medicines, gum and mica employs 94 workers, divided 
among 10 establishments. 

The work is done in shop rooms which in no case are kept in 
really good condition. Of the workers, 84 c /o are in fairly clean 
rooms and 16% in dirty ones. 

Dark or semi-dark water closets are reported for 27% of the 
women and 41% of the men. For 25% of the women and 73% 
of the men the ventilation of these apartments is poor. The condi- 
tion of the water closets is seen from the fact that 22% of the men 
and 98% of the women use closets of " B " grade. Seventy-eight 
per cent of the men and 2% of the women use toilets that are 
actually dirty. Forty-two per cent of the water-closet apartments 
have no outside windows. 

Only 74% of the workers are reported as having adequate wash- 
ing facilities. Eighty-one per cent have only cold water to wash 
with, and 76% have either an insufficient towel supply or none at 
all. This low standard in washing facilities supplied and per- 
sonal cleanliness among the employees is strikingly out of place 
in factories whose product must bear a government guarantee of 
chemical purity. 

The packing of talcum and other powders is done by hand and 
the room is filled with the white, irritating dust. The girls pro- 
tect their hair with paper caps, but there is no protection for their 
lungs. No respirators were seen. 

BREWERIES. 

The brewing industry gives employment to 86 men. There are 
4 establishments, all housed in special factories. Of these 86 



u-N SANITARY CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES. 



worker.-, ^onic are engaged ill bottling and a few are coopers. One 
firm, which furnishes fixtures to saloons handling its product, has 
4 men employed to keep the fixtures in repair. But 53 men are 
employed in the brewing industry proper. 

The cleanliness of the workrooms is fair; only 8 men, or 9%, 
work where conditions are bad. The water closets, however, are 
poor. Eight out of 13, or G'2 ( /c } are separated fiorn the shop by 
dwarf partitions only. Forty per cent have no outside ventilation. 
Of the workers, 70% must use water closets that are semi-dark. 
For 35% of the men the ventilation of the water closets is poor, 
and for 11% the flush is inadequate; (55% use toilets which are 
fairly clean; 35% use closets that are really dirty. 

Hot water is provided for washing for 72% of the workers; cold 
water only for 28%. None of the workers are furnished with 
towels. 

The workers are divided into: (1) the brew-house men, (2) the 
wash-house men, (3) the racking men, (4) the ice-house men. 

The brew-house men are subjected to no special dangers. The 
dust in the milling room, due to cleaning and grinding the malt, 
would be a real menace to any one who worked in it continuously ; 
but in these establishments the work requires only a small part of 
one man's time. The wash-house is where the barrels are washed 
and inspected. Here the floors are always wet and the men more 
or less so. 

The racking, that is, transferring the liquors from the storage 
casks to kegs and barrels, preparatory to shipping, is largely done 
in cold, damp cellars, and not infrequently in the ice-house, where 
the beer is stored in vats to ripen. The air is chilled by ammonia 
pipes, and the temperature is from 36 to 38 degrees Fahrenheit. 
The floors are always wet. 

Of the 53 workers, 18, or 34%, work in the ice-house most of the 
time. Twenty-one, or 40%, are employed at washing and racking. 
Thus nearly three-fourths of the brewery men work where it is 
always wet, and one-third where it is both wet and cold. 

RAGS. 

One establishment, employing 16 persons, handles cotton and 
woolen rags. The sorters are women. They sit on the floor and 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY or A SELECTED AREA. 363 

separate the woolen rags according to colors. These rags have beer 
collected from households and shaken out by the collectors, but 
have not been cleaned or disinfected. They give off dust at each 
handling. The cotton rags are sorted in the adjoining room, where 
the light and ventilation are fairly good. They are even more 
unpleasant to handle and more likely to convey infection. 



APPENDIX VI 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON LEAD POISONING IN THE CITY OF 
YORK, WITH AN APPENDIX ON ARSENICAL, POISONING. 

BY 

EDWARD EWING PRATT, Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Economics and Statistics in the 
New York School of Philanthropy. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Prefatory Note 368 

Chapter I. Introduction 369 

Chapter II. Lead Poisoning in European Legislation 373 

Chapter III. Industries in which Lead is Used : 392 

A. Manufacturing Industries: 

I. Manufacture of White Lead and Lead Oxide 395 

II. Manufacture of Paints and Colors 417 

III. Smelting, Melting, Refining and Casting of Lead 426 

IV. Use of Lead as a Hardening and Tempering Agent 428 

V. Use of Lead Solders 432 

VI. Miscellaneous Industries 433 

1. Manufacture of Coaches, Carriages and Automobile 

Bodies 433 

2. Manufacture of Lead Pipe, Lead Tubing and Solder 

Wire 433 

3. Manufacture of Sheet Lead 434 

4. Manufacture of Tinfoil 434 

5. Manufacture of Linoleum 436 

6. Manufacture of Cut (Glass 437 

B. Non-manufacturing Industries > 438 

Painting and Decorating 438 

Chapter IV. Stories of Cases of Lead Poisoning 441 

I. Industrial Workers 441 

II. Painters 496 

Chapter V. Analysis of Lead Poisoning Cases 532 

Chapter VI. Recommendations 548 

Appendices : 

A. Manufacture of Paris Green and Arsenical Poisoning 556 

B. Method of the Inquiry 565 



PREFATORY NOTE 



The investigation, the results of which are herein presented, 
has been made in large part by a group of thirteen students in 
the New York School of Philanthropy, in connection with my 
course on Methods of Research and Statistics. This work has 
occupied but a very small portion of their time, not exceeding 
an average of six hours each per week, over a period of ten weeks. 
The majority of the individual cases of lead poisoning were in- 
vestigated by the students and their descriptions are used through- 
out. They have also compiled the tables analyzing these cases. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my indebtedness to the 
members of this group for their assistance in collecting this in- 
formation and for their loyal support. The group was composed 
of the following persons: 

Miss Elizabeth Botsford Mr. H. H. Jones 

Miss Marie L. Chase .Miss Mildred Plumb 

Miss Grace W. Cottrell Miss Anne M. Sloan 

Miss Euphemia G. Cowan Miss Mary C. Snyder 

Mr. Solon DeLeon Miss Helen F. Veasey 

Miss Evelyn H. Ellis Miss Mary V. Walker 
Miss Blanche W. Hull 

The writer wishes also to express his appreciation of the serv- 
ices of Miss Alice Keyes, Assistant in the Statistical Labora- 
tory, who has attended to a large amount of the detail and clerical 
work. 

E. E. PRATT. 



CHAPTER I 

INTEODDCTIOK 

Doubtless we in America often think that we are not aiflicted 
with the deadly diseases which are found in Europe. We are 
often tempted to congratulate ourselves that conditions here are 
not like those abroad, that our workers are stronger, healthier 
and more intelligent, that our standard of living is higher, and 
hence our resistance to disease greater. Statements like these 
are often made in connection with industrial diseases. The 
small number of cases of lead poisoning is attributed to better 
conditions in the lead industries in this country and to a stronger, 
healthier, labor supply. It may be that this is true. I hope it 
is, but recent investigations throw some doubt upon such con- 
clusions. During the years 1908, 1909, 1910, the Illinois Com- 
mission on Occupational Diseases 1 discovered 578 cases, and 6 
suspected cases, of lead poisoning in that state alone. In Eng- 
land during the same years, there were only 1,704 cases of lead 
poisoning. 2 In 1910 there were but 505 cases of lead poisoning 
reported to the authorities. 3 During 1911, the very cursory in- 
vestigation which I have been making reveals 121 cases in Xew 
York city alone. A total of 376 cases were found, mainly in 
1909, 1910, 1911. This number includes only cases which were 
relatively serious, consisting largely of hospital cases. The vast 
number of dispensary cases and persons treated by private phy- 
sicians is not included. 

In most of the European countries, the subject of lead poison- 
ing has been thoroughly studied. The governmental authori- 
ties are alive to its gravity and to its importance. It is reason- 
able to believe that we know how much lead poisoning there is 



1 Report of Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases, p. 44. (The 
Commission does not clearly state that the cases occurred exclusively in 
these years.) 

1 Report of Factory Inspector Great Britain, 1910, p. 170. 
Ibid. p. 170. 



370 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

in Germany, France and England. The same cannot be said 
of the United States. We do not know, even approximately, 
how much lead poisoning there is in the United States, or in 
any one state. This ignorance is due to certain causes which 
are now coming to be recognized. Our physicians are unedu- 
cated along these lines, they fail to recognize occupational, or 
industrial diseases because they have been interested merely in 
treatment and not in the elimination of disease. There has been 
no method of recording or publishing the number or extent of 
cases of industrial disease, and inadequate hospital records fur- 
nish but vague clews to the industrial causes. Many of the in- 
dustries which are the most prolific of industrial diseases this is 
especially true of lead poisoning are those whose ranks are 
filled with the unskilled, non-English speaking workers, who 
find it difficult to make known their ills, and who pass rapidly 
from one industry to another. 

Very much greater progress has been made in European coun- 
tries, both in the study and elimination of lead poisoning, than 
we in the United States have even thought of making. In the 
German cities, for example, Berlin, Munich and Frankfurt-on- 
Main, there are permanent Museums of Safety that give no 
small part of their space to illustrations of lead poisoning and 
lead industries, to samples of the materials and to models show- 
ing the best methods of prevention. Last summer in Dresden 
there was a great Hygienic Exposition, dealing with every phase 
of ancient and modern methods of hygiene. The subject of lead 
poisoning played a very important part. Many of the European 
countries such as Germany, France, Belgium, Holland and Great 
Britain have passed stringent regulations for safeguarding the 
workers in various industries using or manufacturing lead in 
its many forms. In England, notable progress in cutting down 
the amount of lead poisoning has been made. In 1900, there 
were 1,058 cases of lead poisoning reported by the Medical In- 
spector of Factories; in 1910, this number largely by means 
of special regulations had been reduced to 505 cases. 1 



*See report of Factory Inspector 1910, p. 170. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. :> >7L 

In this country, there are only three studies of lead poisoning 
which are worthy of any note. These are : the study made by 
the Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases, conducted 
under the direction of Dr. Alice Hamilton and published in 
the Report of the Commission in January, 1911; second, the 
report of the Federal Investigation of the White Lead In- 
dustry, carried on under the direction of the Commis- 
sioner of Labor, by Dr. Hamilton; and third, a study 
by Dr. John B. Andrews, of sixty fatal cases of lead poi- 
soning occurring in New York State in the years 1909 and 1910. 
These studies furnish but meagre data on which legislation may 
be based. The study, the results of which are presented here- 
with, is but a preliminary survey of the field. The further the 
investigation was carried the more serious has the problem be- 
come. In the time at the disposal of the people who have made 
this study, it was impossible to study and inspect even repre- 
sentative establishments of all linos of industries, much less all 
the establishments in these industries. Nor has time permitted 
the close personal investigation of all the cases which have been 
found. The most valuable results of the entire investigation 
are doubtless to be found in a close study of these individual 
cases. They are presented here in considerable detail, in order 
that the whole story may be given, and not a mere frame 
work devoid of interest or supplementary information. 

The pictures which are presented in this report, which have 
been taken through the courtesy of the factory owners, do not 
aim to show bad conditions, or good conditions. They have been 
taken with a view to clearly setting forth the nature of the pro- 
cesses of the various industries. Some of them do show that 
conditions need to be improved and greatly improved; others 
furnish a basis for suggesting such necessary improvements. 

The writer and his assistants regret that the amount of in- 
formation is not larger, that more factories were not inspected, 
that more cases were not subjected to a detailed and searching 
investigation. The results attained are merely preliminary and 
it is sincerely hoped that the investigation may bo enlarged and 



372 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

carried on throughout the State, more thoroughly and more 
extensively. 

The recommendations which we have been bold enough to 
offer are the most elementary and elemental in their nature. 
The data herewith presented form, we believe, an adequate basis 
for these recommendations. More detailed recommendations 
covering each industry can be made only after a more detailed 
and more comprehensive study. 



CHAPTER II 

LEAD POISONING IN T EUKOPEAN LEGISLATION. 1 
ENGLAND, GERMANY, FEANCE AND BELGIUM. 

Among all the countries of the world, Germany is beyond 
doubt to-day the one with the greatest mass of legislation bear- 
ing on the question of lead poisoning. Not only was it one of 
the first in the field regulating the employment of women in 
lead mines in 1892, and not only do its statutes cover the great- 
est number of industries, but it stands out as remarkable in 
the characteristic Teutonic thoroughness and minuteness with 
which it lays down the conditions under which each particular 
lead trade shall be carried on. 

While Germany sets the pace, England and France are close 
at its heels. In all three of these countries the workers in the 
more dangerous trades are forbidden to eat or to leave the 
premises where they are employed without first thoroughly wash- 
ing their hands and faces and in some instances their mouths 
and noses also. !N"o food, no beverage, no tobacco whether for 
smoking, chewing or snuffing, is allowed to be used or even car- 
ried into the workroom. In the dusty trades such as white lead 
making, lead oxidizing and storage battery manufacture, the 
men must take warm baths regularly, sometimes weekly, some- 
times daily. In England in the white lead industry, a register 
is kept of these baths. 

Practically everywhere the emphasis is thrown on ventila- 
tion; lighting is mentioned; a thorough cleaning must be given 
to the plant at regular intervals; the employer must furnish 
clothing, lockers, washrooms and dressing rooms supplied with 
hot and cold water, soap, towels and nailbrushes; and he must 
set aside a dust-free room for a lunch room, warmed in cold 
weather, and frequently provided with means for warming the 
workmen's food. In some of the more trying trades, the hours 



l The writer is indebted to Mr. Solon DeLeon for the summary of legis- 
lation presented in this chapter. 



374 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

are made short and broken by frequent pauses. Belgium for- 
bids women from working in the china and earthenware trade 
for four weeks after confinement. 

Germany in the lead smelting, white lead, lead oxide, storage 
battery and painting trades, and England in all but the last of 
these with earthenware and yarn " heading " thrown in, require 
a " control book " or health register. The German book is a 
very elaborate affair, requiring entries of the name of the per- 
son keeping it, first and last name, address, age of each work- 
man, date of entering and leaving the employ of the factory, 
date and nature of his illness, date of his recovery, name of 
the factory physician, and dates and results of the medical ex- 
amination. The employer is responsible for the correctness of 
this record and must show it to the factory or medical inspector 
on demand. 

Before a workman in Germany, France or England can leg- 
ally get work at one of the dangerous lead trades, he must pro- 
vide himself with a medical certificate showing that he is of 
sound physique and constitution and fairly capable of with- 
standing the poisons he will have to work with. Medical super- 
vision is very strict according to the letter of the law, ranging 
from one examination per week in the white lead industry in 
England to one in six months among the German painters. When 
a worker is discovered Avith symptoms of plumbism, the laws 
almost universally require that he be " suspended ; " that is, 
given employment that keeps him out of contact with lead until he 
has fully recovered. Belgium requires that a leaded man be 
kept out of that sort of work permanently. 

A decisive clause found only in the German law, but there 
repeatedly, is that workers continually violating the hygienic 
rules set up, shall, after repeated warning, be summarily and 
permanently discharged. A similar but much weaker clause is 
the occasional English provision that a reckless worker lays him- 
self open, upon conviction, to a fine. In Belgium no workman 
addicted to alcohol may legally be employed in white lead, lead 
oxide, or lead paint making. 

Three of the countries considered Germany, France and 
Belgium have turned their attention to house painting, a pro- 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 375 

lific source of painful and annoying, but less often fatal variety 
of lead poisoning. Among other regulations all three of 
these countries forbid the removal of lead paint by any dry 
rubbing or scraping process. On August 20, 1909, Belgium 
decided that after the expiration of one year white lead for paint- 
ing purposes could only be transported, sold, or used in the form 
of a paste or liquid mixed with oil, and the ministry was given 
power to extend the same prohibition to white lead for any other 
purpose. By an act of 1909, however, France has put itself 
far beyond this, having decreed that after July 20, 1914, the 
use of "white lead, of linseed oil mixed with white lead, and 
of all specialized products containing white lead, will be for- 
bidden in all painting, no matter of what nature, carried on by 
working painters either on the outside or in the inside of 
buildings." 

Of the industries considered which include all the more im- 
portant ones using lead, those in which the health of workers 
has been made a matter of legislative treatment in Germany are: 
casting, zinc smelting, type founding and stereotyping, type set- 
ting, white lead manufacturing, other lead oxides, paints and 
dyes, electric accumulators, painting and file, cutting. England 
has taken up lead smelting and casting, type founding, white 
lead, lead oxides and paints, electric accumulators, file cutting, 
heading yarn dyed with a lead compound, earthenware and china, 
and the painting of same, and turning and enamelling. France 
has dealt with the mining, smelting, white lead, lead oxides and 
paints, electric accumulators, painting, the pottery processes and 
enamelling. Belgium's attention has been given to lead smelt- 
ing, white lead and oxides, electric accumulators, painting, and 
particularly to china, porcelain and faience. 




37G 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



THE PRINCIPAL, LEAD INDUSTRIES AND DATES OF PRESENT 

LEGISLATION THEREON IN FOUR LEADING EUROPEAN 

COUNTRIES. 



INDUSTRT 


England 


Germany 


France 


Belgium 


Lead mining ; 




1892 


1893 




Lead smelting and casting 
7>inc smelting 


1898 
1901, 1911 


1893 
1905 

1900 


1893, 1904 
1905, 1908 


1810, 1892, 1894 
1898, 1901, 1905 


Typefounding and stereotyp- 
ing 


1901 


1897 






Typesetting 




1907, 1908 
1897, 1907 






White lead. . . . 


1898 


1908 
1903 


1908, 1909 


1892, 1894, 1898 


Other lead oxides, paints and 
dyes 


1898, 1907 


1903 


1893, 1908 


1899, 1902, 1905 
1892, 1894, 1898 


Electric accumulators . . 


1911 
1903 


1908 


1909 
1908, 1909 


1899, 1902, 1905 
1894, 1898 


Industries using paint contain- 
ing lead 




1905 


1902, 1904 


1905, 1909 


File cutting . . . . 


1903 


1908 


1909 




Heading yarn dyed with lead 


1907 








Earthenware and China 


1901, 1903 




1909 


1899, 1905, 1908 


Color transfers on earthenware 


1898 




1902, 1908 
1908, 1909 


1889, 1892, 1898 
1889, 1892, 1898 




1894 




1908, 1909 


1899, 1905, 1908 













OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



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GERMANY 


Applies only to women ( 
No more than 8 hours per 
Not earlier than 5 A. M. 
Not later than 10 P. M. 
One-half hour pause he 
2d and 6th hour. 
Women between 16 and 1 
on medical certificate 
ness. 
Posted notice of law. 


4-8-10 hours, depending 
cupation. 


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378 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



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harmful debris 
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Men with lead sym 
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Health register. 
Posted notice of law. 


Employer to instruct 
Lead substances to 
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Hoods on dust prodi 
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Sufficient height and 
Sufficient ventilation 
Dust removing mech: 


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type cases. 
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Soap. 
Towels. 
Must wash before 1 
tory. 


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OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



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RELATING TO LEAD 
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BELGIUM 


Suitable ventilation. 
Sufficient lighting. 
All harmful debris cleared a 


daily. 
Sweeping in such a way a 
prevent dust, and if posi 
out of working hours. 
Soap, towels, nailbrushes, s 
Must wash and take off w 
clothes before eating. 
Mask, respirators or hi 
kerchiefs with moist spo 


Medical inspection monthl; 




Men with lead symptome 
moved permanently ; 
others ill removed unti' 
co very. 


Men addicted to alcohol nc 
be employed. 
Health register. 
Lead dust to be kept mois 


Hoods on dust producing 
chinery. 


Walla and woodwork was 
weekly. 




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41 


GERMANY 








Medical inspection 
monthly. 


1 


Discharge of men v 
rules after warning. 


Health register. 


Posted notice of law. 
Employers to instruct r 
Lead material to be kep 


"S 

1 

R 

< 

1 

^ 

> - 

fr 


Rooms guarded again* 
of dust or vapor. 

















1 


















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OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



PH 



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GERMANY 


Rooms spacious and high. 


j: &> i s ^ 
a in &! 

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a I ^ 5l s ^-^- 

1 4 

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3^13 

2 - 

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1 hour free after 2 hours' woi 
No young person under 18. 
Women, if not exposed to dv 
or vapors. 
Clothes closets. 
Lunch room. 




5g "? 


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384 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



- 
- 

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d 

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g W 

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GERMANY 


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if -sis -j-UlsI 

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5 










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o 
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|iffi =! i! . 1 P 
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35 






u 





OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



385 



g 




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3 




1 


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1 




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2 


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M 






a 


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1 & 


2 ""S3 









o S 






f-i Z 


RELATING TO LEAD I 
> BELGIUM (Contin 


GERMANY 


2 .3 S J 8 p I" 8 

M It ! i 4 ?s If 1! 

IP a Sf 1 ^ JE -.1 a ? 

S S rt S fe 3-^ "O * u T3 S- 13 fl hJi ^ fe 

M J ! II ! Jll > 1 

i Hitil i, 15 fPi IIPP, 

^HisllI li g-i ill11iJ1ll&l 

iBjBiltl 8-S f JjjragjFim 

S Q M Pk W>-5 ffl W K 33 oo? ^S W 


8 hours per day, with break of 
li hours, or 
6 hours per day uninterrupted 


> M 








fc ^ 




E 


S (? 


O 







o'm a 


H 




05- 


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B 




JJ 


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18 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



I 
K 



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5 S 

J H 

3 m 



O 

O 



a 




p 


S 


m 




i 
1 


1 

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a 


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fi 


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g S-J <s 

? - 1 - O, w C 


> fe -T3 d oJ 

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3% -i 
%% -si 






o O 2 03 c3 g el 


5 o o o s 


?s g 6 






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S S !z;!2;c 


OCLl iJ 






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g 


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J.2 g 




T3 






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t-< & 


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C T3 


GERMANY 


In departments where le 
used, no young personi 
women. 
Clothes closets. 
Wash and dressing room. 
Wash water. 
Vessels for rinsing mouth. 
Soap. 
Towels. 
Handbrushes. 


Warm bath. 

Must wash before meals. 
Wash before leaving facto 
No food in work rooms. 
No alcoholic drink in 


room. 
No smoking, chewing or s 
ing in work rooms. 
Overalls. 
Caps. 

Medical inspection month] 

Men with lead symptom 
moved from lead. 


Men acting contrary to 
after warning to be 
charged. 

Health register. 
Posted notice of law. 
Rooms 3 meteis high. 
Sufficient number of win 
for ventilation. 






^ 


11 


t S 




i 


S 9 


liS 


D. "*- 




o 


Jd . 


^ -*J w 


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.3 


"I* 2 SB 8 

S M S u 

S d S2J4 


|sS 


* .2 


ENGLAND 


pel j 

5*3 g as -S 

gjl* --il 


Warm bath. 
Must wash before 
Wash before leavi 

No food in work r< 
No drink in work i 
No tobacco in wor 


J e s 
F-S s 

l| i 

a - c Q cfl 

jlli 

"3 * SB'S ^ 
S3-5 g >> S 

lip 1 a 


500 cubic feet a 
worker. 

Windows made 1 
thorough ventili 




i 








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i 








a 


B 










|i 










K B 









OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



387 



d- 

o a 

J3.5 



5 



ii n 

a - 



5 1 



S 



. 

g| 

3 S 






1 -S 



111 






o 
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j=3 
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s: a as 



II 



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1! 



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ffi a 



3 i 



8 ^ 

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o 

Sn 






x .2 

-^ -^ 



if 

u a 

S8 



o=> 

II 
II 



388 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



O 

ft 

fc 

a 

o 
fc 
W 



8 i 





1 1 i | |j jti 




X 


^^ o -S 'f.2 Ijf^.S c" t'ia' 2 ' 2 -'?-! a 




i 


a d '5 jj 9 ji a -3.2 ^'E'^ g~n~sJ* j 'o'S 




s 



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; l^lis is g'g 






fl "S*rt ^ -** t fl 






fli8f=|l|| 




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^0^0 






1 -8 g.H | . s s l 2 - 2 ^ 


S t3 


RMANY 


.9 -2 1 5| || IfSjllfi 

a * ^'^ ""=s "3oP> 
a o o o 5^ ^"o* &,^ o,^ 


1 Q i 

ft V k 

ti ja o 

Illil 
1:1*! 




O 




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-g^^ll 

JpfJ 

S9HH 

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J5 ZOOS S KH K : 


S roZ 






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= a .-"1 j 






a c8 * .^ > _ ^ 


tag 




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3 




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1 






i 


III 









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i 


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| 




of 


a 




III 


s 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



880 



-a a 

a - 

* C 

to 3 

"""* s 

I _s ^* 

?-sl *^1 




i^iWofllllri 






a; - 



Ma 

a; 



. . . 

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!= 

fe-a 



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= -= 



SS MJ 



i 

o 

en 

*l 

f! 









uspens 
worker 
toms. 
Health 
Efficient 



~:r. 















g 

^5 



390 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



g 

w 
O 



j 






$ JS 

sg s 

'a-a <e 

. oS u J< 

ttJ3 o] 9 

c fc (S 

18*i? 









CPmJ 53 ^ tnQCK H 



^ - : KW ta 



! 







m 

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^H^S^i2;ooiOij M t- dSO 



a 
g i' 




, 

E^ feM.- s 1^ 

^^I^ZZZ' 3: tS 



515 



OCCUPATIONAL DISK ASKS. 



391 



w 
O 



a 

o 
H 
fe 



3 
i 

H 



H I 

SI 



D 






S 






i 








i 1 
s | 


s & i i 1 1 

* ,- o! 3 

8 ri J--I 1 1! " 


FRANCE 


oors inclined toward 
ti;ht reservoir, 
ibles, walls and floors 
weekly. 


2 I 2p i 5 1 -g j"P I 

Jiili ill! i il |j lifll . 




E H 


Ss?lESfefc5Soi2iS K t- eQS H 


1 

















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2-s 1 li 
; | S* 


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3 




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o 




5 . 2 o B"S^'S D '| 


1 




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' 






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fH 


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1 


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C C < 


Pfl 



CHAPTER III 

INDUSTRIES IN WHICH LEAD IS USED. 
The results of a special inspection of factories in these industries. 

The fact which above all others makes the subject of lead in 
industry and lead poisoning so important is its very wide dif- 
fusion through the industrial field. Dr. Thomas Oliver states 
that no less than 138 industries use lead in some form. While 
the writer, in the short time at his disposal, has been unable to 
find the evidence of lead in so many industries, and much less to 
inspect so many lines of industry there are certain industries 
in New York State which employ lead in their manufacturing 
processes. For the purpose of this study, these industries may 
be grouped under certain main heads. 

A. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

I. (a) Manufacture of hydrated carbonate of lead, or white 

lead. 1 

(1) Old Dutch process. 

(2) Quick, or Carter process. 

(3) Matheson process. 

(b) Manufacture of lead oxide. 

(1) Red lead. 

(2) Lead litharge. 

(c) Manufacture of lead acetate, or sugar of lead. 

II. Manufacture of paint and colors. 

(a) Oil colors. 

(b) Dry colors. 

(c) Dyes and chrome colors, especially chrome 

dyes. 

(d) Enamels. 



1 The term " carbonate of lead " or "lead carbonate" will be used for sake 
of abbreviation. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 398 

III. Smelting, melting, refining and casting of lead. 

(a) Refining of lead junk. 

(b) Manufacture of lead alloys, type metal, Bab- 

bitt metal, etc. 

(c) Manufacture of solder. 

(d) Manufacture of calin (lead tin.) 

IV. Use of lead as a hardening agent. 

V. Use of lead solders. 

(a) Manufacture of tin cans. 

VI. Manufacture of pottery. 

(a) Glazing of pottery and earthenware. 

(b) Manufacture of litho-transfers. 

VII. Manufacture of coaches, carriages and automobile bodies. 

(a) Painting and varnishing departments. 

VIII. Enamelling. 

(a) Iron plates. 

(b) Hollow ware. 

(c) Signs. 

IX. Tinning of metals with lead or lead and tin. 

X. Printing. 

(a) Stereotyping. 

(b) Linotyping. 

(c) Electrotyping. 

XI. Miscellaneous. 

(1) Manufacture of plumbing fixtures and sup- 

plies. 

(2) Manufacture of lead pipe and lead tubing. 

(3) Manufacture of lead wire. 



394 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

XI. Miscellaneous (Continued). 

(4) Manufacture of sheet lead. 

(5) Manufacture of tinfoil. 

(6) Manufacture of lead foil. 

(7) Manufacture of lead picture frames. 

(8) Manufacture of car seals. 

(9) Manufacture of coffins and coffin hardware. 

(10) Manufacture of storage batteries and stor- 

age battery plates. 

(11) Manufacture of sanitary ware. 

(12) Manufacture of tiles. 

(13) Manufacture of glazed bricks. 

(14) Manufacture of metal caps for bottles. 

(15) Manufacture of lead chromate. 

(16) Manufacture of electric accumlators. 

(17) Manufacture of linoleum and oilcloth. 

(18) Manufacture of embroidery. 

(19) Manufacture of putty. 

(20) Manufacture of white rubber. 

(21) Manufacture of shot. 

(22) Painting of cars and agricultural implements. 

(23) Brass founding and polishing. 

(24) Glass cutting. 

(25) Type foundries. 

(26) File cutting. 

(27) Diamond polishing. 

(28) Calico printing. 

(29) Shoe finishing and staining by lead com- 

pounds. 

(30) Chromo-lithographic works. 

(31) Lead mining. 

(32) Harnessmaking. 




No. 1. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Melting pig lead and casting into buckles. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 305 

B. NON-MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 
I. Painting and decorating, especially interior work. 

II. Plumbing. 

III. Gas fitting. 

IV. Commercial and mechanical artists and retouchers. 

This list, imposing and varied as it is, doubtless falls far short 
of being exhaustive. Almost every day of the investigation 
revealed some new industry where one would never have ex- 
pected to find the use of lead. 

It is impossible to state either in how many factories lead 
is used in one of its many forms, or how many persons in the 
course of their daily work come in contact with this poisonous 
metal. In preparation for this report 50 special inspections were 
made. The object of these inspections was not so much to 
determine conditions of ventilation, sanitation, cleanliness, 
safety, etc., primarily (this was being done by another division 
of the Commission's staff), but to study the processes of manu- 
facture with a view to finding out and determining the dan- 
gers of poisoning to which the workers are exposed, and also 
with a view to making such recommendations as may eliminate 
or minimize the dangers. 

I. MANUFACTURE OF LEAD CARBONATE (WHITE LEAD), LEAD 
OXIDE (RED OR YELLOW LEAD), ETC. : 

There a.re but four factories manufacturing white, red and 
yellow lead, and lead acetate in New York city. Each of these 
has been inspected, and the reports on each are here given in full. 
Of all the varied forms in which lead is found in manufacturing 
industries, these are the sources of greatest danger. Three of 
these factories manufacture the white lead, and one red and yel- 
low lead and lead acetate, one of the white lead factories makes 
small quantities of red and yellow lead. In none of these fac- 
tories are conditions bad. In fact, on the contrary, the condi- 



396 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

tions are very good. Efforts are being made, sometimes in the 
face of difficulties, to safeguard and protect the workers. In spite 
of good conditions, however, the rate of lead poisoning is high. 

Factory A. 
Manufacture of White and Red Lead, and Lead Litharge. 

This factory is a collection of several buildings, most of them 
recently built and in good repair. About 100 men are employed, 
who are mostly foreigners, Italians, Slavs, Poles and Hun- 
garians, speaking English only slightly and with considerable 
difficulty. The work is almost entirely unskilled and the workers 
form our lowest industrial strata. The employer and his superin- 
tendent were courteous and placed every facility at the command 
of the inspector. The firm prides itself on the conditions in the 
plant, and does many things that it thinks will protect and safe- 
guard an industry which is known to be a dangerous one. 

I. Manufacture of white lead: 

1. The casting of the buckles. The lead arrives at the plant 
in the form of lead pigs. It is then melted and mechanically run 
into molds, making small, thin, circular, disks perforated in such 
a way as to resemble buckles, and this is the name by which they 
are known. The furnace (see photo No. 1) is set in a large, very 
well ventilated shed, in fact its sides are almost entirely open. 
The furnace itself is well hooded and a chimney carries off the 
fumes. The molten metal runs onto an endless chain of molds, 
where it quickly solidifies and is dumped into an awaiting car 
to be taken to the corroding beds. 

2. The corroding beds. The old Dutch process. It is in the 
corroding beds that the principal chemical process of transforming 
metallic lead into white lead takes place. In spite of the fact that 
chemists have been working for years to find a short process, the 
old Dutch process still produces, according to the manufacturers, 
the best, and some say, the only white lead. In this factory the 
corroding beds are housed in an immense structure, tightly en- 
closed on all sides, with only a few small windows near the roof, 




Xo. 2. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Stripping the corroding beds. 




No. 2-b. FACTORY A WHITE LEAR. Stripping the corroding beds. 




No. 3. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Feeding corroded buckles into the separators. 




No. 4. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Drying room open drying pans. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 397 

and with little ventilation. The process, mechanically, is a simple 
one. The floor of a given bed (about 20 by 20) is covered with 
a layer of tan bark (oak bark being generally used), to a thick- 
ness of about 14 inches. On this are placed, as closely as possible, 
earthenware jars containing about one pint of acetic acid, 2i/> 
per cent solution. Into this jar are stuffed the lead buckles; they 
do not enter the acid, for the jar, which is narrowed at the bot- 
tom, prevents this. A layer of boards is laid over the jars and 
another thickness of tan bark is added, more jars, and so on up 
to a height of 15 to 20 feet. 

The stack remains thus for about 100 days. It reaches a tem- 
perature, from the heat generated entirely within the corroding 
bed, of from 120 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. 

At the end of that time, corrosion is supposed to have taken 
place, and the " stripping of the beds " then takes place. This 
process is accompanied by considerable risks, and in England the 
most serious lead poisoning cases have occurred in this work. The 
upper layer of boards is removed, exposing the pots full of a brittle, 
white material, in the shape of the original buckles, but having 
lost the ordinary appearance of metallic lead. This is lead car- 
bonate. A corrosion, of from 40 to 80 per cent takes place; 70 
per cent is considered good. Men enter the bed, take up the jars 
and dump the contents into a small car which stands nearby. 
(See photos No. 2 and No. 2b.) More or less pure white lead 
dust always rises in this process. The men are provided with 
bandana handkerchiefs which they tie about their noses and 
mouths. The firm provides cheesecloth and sponges for this pur- 
pose. Respirators which were provided were refused by the men, 
who said that these irritated their faces. A traveling crane car- 
ries off the car, when full, to a track where it is sent on its way 
to the separating machines. 

3. The car containing the corroded buckles is delivered to the 
separating machines, and there a worker shovels the white lead 
from the car into the machine. Although the mouth of the sep- 
arating machine is protected by a hood, this is one of the most 
dangerous processes in the factory. (See photo No. 3.) The 
worker stands constantly over a rising cloud of white lead dust 



398 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

He is protected by the usual device, a bandana hankerchief. This 
work is carried on in a poorly ventilated, dark basement. 

The separating of the lead carbonate from the original lead is 
done by machinery which is enclosed throughout, and hence not 
especially dangerous in itself to the workers. This process removes 
the corroded portions of the lead and rejects the uncorroded parts. 
The rooms in which this work was done were fairly clean, al- 
though there was a considerable deposit of white lead on the 
floors and walls. 

The next form in which the lead appears is in solution of white 
lead and water. In this form it is not especially dangerous. Thr 
solution of lead is run into basins where it is stirred gently, and 
the lighter ani finer lead particles are run off over a sort of dam 
and then through a very fine mesh screen, which eliminates any 
gross particles. 

4. The drying room The solution of lead and water is pumped 
to the drying room, where it is deposited in long shallow vats 
which are arranged in two tiers, one above the other. The tem- 
perature of these vats is raised and the solution gives off constant 
vapors. The ventilating system here is excellent Two large fans 
in one end of the room, carry out the air, changing it every three 
min,utes, according to contract with the ventilating firm, and win- 
dows and doors are numerous. When the lead has well dried out 
it is shoveled out into an automatic conveyor which carries it out 
to the grinding and mixing machines. 

The workers in this department (see photo No. 4) are provided 
with bandana handkerchiefs, and the man seen in the picture 
claimed that he was in the best of health. The room, however, 
is a source of danger on account of more or less dust in shoveling, 
and the temperature taken at the time of inspection was 72 de- 
grees, although several windows were open. The tendency in a 
superheated room such as this is, of course, to keep the windows 
tightly closed. 

5. Grinding and mixing. The grinding and mixing work is 
done entirely by machinery, but the feeding is done by hand, and 
is especially dangerous. (See photo No. 6.) A car of dry white 





T3'S 




Xo. 7. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Filling barrels with dry white lead by machinery. 




Xo. S. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Filling cans with white lead mixed with oil. 




No. 9. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Litharge ovens. 




No. 10. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Exhaust fans from litharge furnaces. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 399 

lead is brought to the open mouth of the grinding machine. The 
worker then shovels it from the car into the machine. The white 
lead dust is constantly rising about him, and although protected 
in the ordinary way, his position is a very dangerous one. (See 
photo No. 6.) 

<i. Packing. The lead from this point is ground by machinery 
and mixed with oil, and comes out of a tube below, the finished 
product, ready to be put in cans. The only danger in filling the 
cans (see photo No. 8) is that the white lead, now in a sticky, 
mushy state, will be conveyed to the mouth by way of the mous- 
tache or beard, and hence to the stomach. The workers here per- 
mit the lead to run slowly into the cans, which are standing on 
scales, until it reaches a given weight. The supply is then cut off 
and the can sealed up and is ready for shipment. 

7. Barrel filling. A certain amount of dry white lead is sent 
out in barrels. These barrels are filled mechanically, are protected 
by exhausts, and are covered about by burlap to prevent the es- 
cape of dust. (See photo No. 7.) The only danger is from the 
escape of the lead dust when the barrel is headed up. 

II. Manufacture of lead oxide red lead and lead litharge: 

1. The furnaces. The pig lead is placed in large furnaces, 
which resemble those uij a large bakeshop. The lead is heated to 
a high temperature and gradually disintegrates and becomes a 
powder which covers the floor of the oven to a thickness of three 
or four inches. The worker then rakes this mass backward and 
forward with a long-handled hoe, called a " ravel," exposing as 
great a portion of the lead to the air as possible. The heat here is 
as high as 1800 degrees. The workers do not work continuously, 
since there is on.e man to a furnace and a considerable part of the 
time the furnace is not open. The fumes given off here are dan- 
gerous, and are likely to be highly charged with lead oxide, and 
there is also likelihood of the distribution of red lead dust through 
the air of the room. The furnaces themselves are provided with 
powerful exhausts. The hoods connecting with the exhausts extencl 



400 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

for about four feet in front of the worker, protecting him from 
fumes and dust. (See photos No. 9 and No. 10.) 

2. The packing of red lead. One of the most dangerous jobs 
in the entire factory was the filling of small kegs with red lead. 
(See photo No. 11.) The worker stood near a window with an open 
barrel of red lead powder on his right hand and a scales in front 
of him, on which was placed a small keg which was to be filled 
with red lead powder. This he scooped from the barrel with an 
open scoop and placed slowly in the small keg, until the weight 
was right. He then headed the keg and repeated the operation. 
Small clouds of dust could be seen rising on each repetition of 
the process. The little Italian worker, upon being questioned, 
stated that he had worked on that job for eight months and " never 
felt better." He disclaimed any symptoms of lead poisoning. 

III. Provisions for Hygiene: 

The superintendent declared that the firm stood ready and wished 
to do everything in its power to safeguard the worker against 
disease. Their works are, as a whole, very well ventilated and 
well lighted. Conditions are much better on the whole than those 
in ordinary factories. 

Whenever an employee shows signs of being leaded he is at 
once asked to leave and find employment elsewhere. This may 
seem hard on the individual worker, but there is no doubt that it 
accomplishes at least one very desirable end, namely, it removes 
the individual from what is now an exceptionally dangerous posi- 
tion for him. No physical examinations are made of the men, 
nor is any track kept of them after they leave the employ of the 
concern. There is no doctor connected with the establishment. 

Throughout the works there are signs calling for "No Smok- 
ing." These signs are printed in three languages, English, Ital- 
ian and Polish. One set of instructions concerning the dangers 
of the work, and precautions to be taken to guard against poison- 
ing, was found. These instructions were, however, printed in 
English and it may be doubted whether more than ten per cent of 
the employees could read them. 




No. 11. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Very small buckets being filled with 

powdered red lead. 




No. 12. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Washroom and toilets. The partition at 
the back conceals a shower bath. 




No. 13. FACTORY A WHITE LEAD. Bath and locker rooms. Eight shower 
baths, tables where lunch may be eaten. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 401 

Respirators are furnished the men but they refuse to wear them, 
saying that they irritate their faces. They do, however, most of 
them, wear bandana handkerchiefs over their nostrils and mouths. 
The firm also provides cheesecloth and sponges for the same pur- 
pose, but the latter also are not worn by the men. 

Each worker is provided with one clean suit of white overalls 
each week. He is also provided with three clean, coarse, heavy 
towels per week. 

There are several wash rooms throughout the plant and one small 
building houses a locker room, about a dozen shower baths and a 
small, rather inadequate lunch room. (See photo No. 13.) The 
men are compelled to change their clothing and to wash up at the 
end of the day's work. They are not permitted to eat their 
lunches in the factory, except in the lunch room provided by the 
Company. Most of them, as a matter of fact, go to nearby saloons. 

Ventilation is good throughout the plant. In the dry room the 
fans are kept constantly in motion changing the air every three 
minutes. In other places where there is special need, there are 
exhausts, as for example, over the red lead ovens. Here the fans 
on the floor above (see photo No. 10) are powerful and carry 
away all traces of the fumes, as far as could be detected. 

IV. Suggestions for Improvement: 

There are, in addition to the things already being done, certain 
improvements which would materially lessen the dangers which 
are still great. 

Instructions in the various languages known to the -workers, 
should be distributed throughout the factory and posted in con- 
spicuous places. These instructions should not only warn the 
workers, but should point out definite things to do in order to 
safeguard themselves. In addition to, and supplementing this, 
if some person acquainted with the languages of the various 
nationalities would personally interview each man and instruct 
him, much could be accomplished. 

Additional lunch-room facilities should be provided, and some 
kind of hot lunch should be sold. This would tend to keep the 
men from the nearby saloons, where a large portion of their lunch 
must be the beer which they buy for the privileges of the saloon. 



402 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

In the case of the worker filling small kegs with red lead, a 
slight exhaust would measurably decrease the amount of lead in 
the atmosphere. This exhaust should be placed facing the worker, 
and not above him, so that the dust would be drawn away from 
him and not up in his face. 

A similar device could be installed in the case of workers sup- 
plying the separators and the grinding and mixing machines. 

No doubt a much larger part of the work could be done by 
machinery, if the plant were a little better arranged and the proc- 
esses more automatic and continuous. 

FACTORY B. 
I. Manufacture of White Lead: 

This factory is composed of a number of very old buildings 
which have been adapted from other purposes to their present 
uses. It is quite an extensive plant and has a large number 
of corroding beds where the old Dutch process is used. There 
are about 330 employees, 3 of whom are women employed in the 
office. The workers are mainly Italians, Poles, Slavs and 
Lithuanians. 

1. The casting of lead buckles. The room in which this 
is done is very dark, so dark, in fact, that gas had to be lighted 
in order to show the nature of the work done there. The place is 
ventilated by means of a shaft extending to the roof of the build- 
ing. The process includes the melting of the pig lead and an end- 
less chain of molds which passes under a stream of the molten 
metal. The lead hardens before it reaches the end of the chain and 
is thrown off into an awaiting cart. 

2. The corroding beds. The corroding beds are housed in large 
barnlike structures which are very dark and almost without ven- 
tilation. The lead buckles are placed in earthenware jars, the 
bottoms of which have been glazed on the inside to prevent the 
absorption of the acetic acid which is placed within them. About 
a pint of the acid is placed in the bottom of each jar, the acid is 
from 2 to 21/2 per cent solution. The floors of the corroding beds, 




No. 14. FACTORY B WHITE LEAD. Stripping the corroding beds. 




No. 15.- FACTORY B- WHITE LEAD. Stripping the corroding beds; showin- ap- 
pearance of corroded buckles in earthen jars. 





S E 




- jium"^ 



2 g 

< o 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 403 

which are about 20 by 20 feet square and enclosed on all 
sides by heavy, wooden partitions to the height of about 20 ci 
25 feet, are first covered with about 12 inches of tan bark. The 
earthenware pots containing the buckles and acetic acid are then 
placed on the tan bark as close together as possible. Boards are 
then laid over the jars, another layer of tan bark is added and 
another layer of jars and so on to a height of from 18 to 20 feet. 
The whole mass is left in this condition for about 100 days, dur- 
ing which time it reaches a temperature, through the action of the 
acetic acid and the tan bark on the lead, of from 140 to 170 de- 
grees. With the " stripping," so-called, or taking down of these 
beds, the danger of working with white lead first appears. The 
removal of the boards reveals the buckles encrusted with a white 
frostlike material, which is the corroded lead known as white lead, 
or lead carbonate. These buckles are then emptied from the jars 
into wheelbarrows. (See photos Nos. 14 and 15.) More or less 
dust is occasioned during this process as the men must stand 
directly over the wheelbarrow and knock out the contents with 
their hands. The men working here were not protected in any 
way a few wore gloves, but respirators and nose guards, which 
had been provided free by the factory authorities, had been re- 
fused by the men. Some of them wore bandana handkerchiefs 
about the noses and mouths. From this point on in the process 
there is practically no handling of the lead by hand. Therefore 
danger is greatly minimized. 

3. Feeding corroded buckles into the separating system. The 
corroded lead buckles are wheeled from the corroding bed to the 
entrance of the separating system, sometimes a considerable dis- 
tance, in wheelbarrows. The wheelbarrow is wheeled to a chute 
where it is turned on its side and the contents dumped into the 
separating system. This chute is well covered by a hood Which 
has a strong exhaust draft acting not only from a single central 
chimney, but also from the edges of the hood, thereby preventing 
the escape of dust from around the immediate periphery of the 
hood. (See photo No. 16.) Several wheelbarrows were emptied 
into the chute while the inspector was watching the process and on 
each occasion, although there was considerable dust raised, it was 



404 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

carried off immediately and almost completely by the powerful 
exhaust. 

4. The separating and refining of white lead. From the time 
the corroded buckles are dumped into the chute described above, 
the lead is not handled in the dry state. It is carried on an 
automatic elevator from the bin under the chute to the separators. 
Here it is shaken about through several screens which gradually 
eliminate all the metallic lead and reduce the carbonate to a very 
fine state. A plethora of water is then added to the dry white 
lead and it is carried through a succession of tanks in each of 
which the coarser particles are drained off until it reaches a final 
screen which is in constant motion and permits only the finest 
particles to go through and rejects any that may still be too coarse. 
(See photo No. 20.) The white lead is then in solution with water 
and is pumped into tanks where oil is added. The lead having 
greater affinity for the oil unites with it and rejects the water 
which consequently rises to the top of the tank and is pumped off. 
The white lead mixed with oil is then, forced through tubes to the 
packing tables. 

5. Packing the lead. The white lead mixed with oil is now in 
the commercial state. It is run into metallic cans which are 
set on scales. When the package has attained a certain weight 
the worker cuts off the supply and clamps on the top of the can. 
The only danger in this process is that the worker will smear 
the lead on his clothing or convey it in some way to his mouth. 
With ordinary precaution this process need not be an especially 
dangerous one. 

6. The dump. The non-corroded lead which is rejected by the 
separating system is thrown out of a chute into a car. The chute 
is provided with a back draft exhaust and the car stands in a 
tightly-built house. (See photo No. 17.) When the car is full it 
is taken out, wheeled under an exhaust and covered around with 
a huge canvas and the contents dumped out on the floor. A 
worker then shovels the lead into wheelbarrows and wheels it off 
to be remelted. (See photo No. 18.) This process is a dangerous 
one and seems to be needlessly lengthened and involved. 




s a 





03 '~ 



bC 

03 e 

C -S 



Q -^ 

3 8 
s> 

HTJ 





H -, 




OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 405 

II. Provisions for Hygiene: 

1. The dust removal system. Perhaps the most notable 
feature in this plant is the system for the removal of dust from 
all parts of the establishment. This is not done in a perfunctory 
manner, but there has been installed a very complete and efficient 
dust removal system. It is so efficient that there is very little 
dust to be seen about the factory or collected on the machinery. 
Even machines such as the revolving screens are enclosed in double 
jackets. The whole system culminates in a dust room which has 
recently been built on the top floor. This dust house contains 
two large bins into which the air is forced ; above these bins are 
suspended bags about 1 foot in diameter and 24 feet in 
height. These bags are made of cloth which permits the air to pass 
through, but retains any dust particles. As long as the air pres- 
sure continues the bags are inflated, but with the reduction of the 
pressure the bags collapse and dust which is collected drops into 
the bins below. Some of this lead dust, however, remains ad- 
hering to the sides of the bags. The system is so arranged that 
no one need even go into the dust house to shake down bags ; this 
is done by a mechanical contrivance operated from the outside 
of the house. This is really an exfremely good system and is 
nowhere in the country, so far as the writer knows, in use on such 
a large scale as it is in this plant. 

2. The blower system. In some parts of the factory fresh air 
is forced into the plant; for example, in the engine room 40,000 
cubic feet of air is withdrawn every minute and 30,000 cubic feet 
of fresh air is forced into the room. The atmosphere in the engine 
room was not super-heated but was at a very comfortable 
temperature. 

3. A new welfare building. At present this factory is not 
doing very much along sanitary lines, but there is at present under 
construction a large building which will cost about $25,000 and 
which is going to be devoted almost entirely to improving 
hygienic and sanitary conditions among the workers. This new 
building, which is to be on the immediate factory premises, is to 
contain toilets, shower baths, washrooms, locker rooms, lunch 



406 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

rooms and kitchen. The arrangement of the locker room is par- 
ticularly interesting. As the plans are now drawn, a man, will 
enter the building from the factory and go into the locker room 
for work clothes. Here he leaves the clothing which he has used 
during the day. He must then go through the bathroom in order 
to reach the locker room where his street clothes are kept. Every 
man, therefore, is provided with two lockers, one for work clothes 
and one for street clothes. The exact policies which are to be 
pursued in dealing with workers in order to induce them to use 
facilities of the bathroom have not been fully determined. The 
superintendent will try to require the men to take a bath each 
week and in the more dangerous parts more than one a week. 

The welfare house, as it is called, is to be open in the evening 
for those who wish to come. It is to be provided with checkers, 
dominoes an,d other small games. When this building has been 
finished and is in operation, a considerable difference will probably 
be observed in the conditions. The present washing facilities are 
very inadequate. 

4. In November, 1910, a doctor was established in this plant. 
He comes every day at eleven o'clock and gives attention to any 
who need it. He states that the amount of lead poisoning has 
materially decreased since his coming to the plant. He makes no 
regular physical examination but goes through tne plant at fre- 
quent intervals and looks over the men; any that seem to be anemia 
are sent to his office for examination. Most of the cases are, how- 
ever, medical cases other than lead poisoning, and accident cases. 
r The doctor reports 24 cases of lead poisoning from November, 
1910, to November, 1911. 

III. Suggestions for Improvement: 

There are two or three things that might very well be done in 
this factory which the writer believes would considerably improve 
the conditions and decrease the amount of lead poisoning. 

1. Suits of overalls should be furnished the men at stated 
intervals perhaps a clean suit each week. 




No. 24. FACTORY C WHITE LEAD. Casting room. 




No. 25. FACTORY C WHITE LEAD. Stripping the corroding beds. 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 407 

2. Instructions somewhat more explicit as to the care of the 
body and the prevention of poisoning should be distributed 
throughout the plant, or perhaps handed to the individual work- 
men. A better method of giving the men instructions would be 
to have some person, fluent in the languages of the workers, give 
them individual instruction. 

3. Regular physical examinations of all workers would be 
advisable. 

4. With the facilities to be provided in. the new welfare house, 
the men in the most dangerous processes might very well be 
required to take two, or even more, baths per week and be exam- 
ined by their foreman as to whether or not they had taken 
precautions such as cleaning of teeth and fingernails. 

It is quite evident that conditions in this plant have greatly 
improved. There was a time when the ambulance was a frequent 
visitor at the gates of the factory. There was also a time when 
the work of separating the white lead from the metallic lead was 
done by hand, the corroded buckles being beaten or pounded on 
large tables. Some of the older employees give vivid descriptions 
of the conditions in the plant at that time. The present system 
of dust removal and the organization of a continuous system of 
separating and refining the lead without hand manipulation has 
produced vast changes for the better. Among the interesting 
facts given by the head of the factory, was that the chief engineer 
had at one time suffered from lead colic. Lead poisoning does 
not seem to be a respecter of persons. 

FACTORY C. 
I. Manufacture of White Lead: 

This factory which manufactures white lead only by the old 
system, occupies several very old buildings. Some of the cor- 
roding sheds are so dilapidated as to be quite out of plumb, and 
already the contents are being removed in order that they may 
be rebuilt. The factory employs at present 140 men. The table 
shown herewith shows the length of time the workers have been 
in the employ of this factory. It will be noted that almost half 



408 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



have been employed less than one year. About half of the men 
are native Americans, while there are large numbers of Ger- 
mans, Italians, Slavs, Poles and Lithuanians. During the 
past summer, as the season was somewhat dull, very few men 
were employed, usually not more than 15. The notices and 
warnings about the plant are in four languages: English, Ger- 
man, Italian and Polish. 

1. The casting of lead buckles. The casting room is similar 
to. those in other factories. The furnaces were protected by hoods 
and fumes are carried off by an ordinary hood. The room, how- 
ever, is much cleaner than that in the other factories, and one 
or two devices have been added which considerably improve 
conditions; for example, the endless chain on which the buckles 
are cast is placed in a pit on either side of the furnace (see photo 
No. 24) and the entire surroundings of the furnace and casting 
work are made of concrete. The buckles are cast by allowing a 
stream of molten lead to run over the moulds, which when they 
reach the end of the chain are dumped into a car. An old Ger- 
man is in charge of this work, who admitted having been em- 
ployed in the lead factory for about 28 years, and at this par- 
ticular job for 15 years. 

EMPLOYEES IN FACTORY C: CLASSIFIED BY OCCUPATIONS AND 
LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED.* 





| 

o 


"3 















EXACT OCCUPATION or WORKER 


a 
8 

0> 


a 

V 


ij 


J3 

11 


Is 


IP 


gS 
II 

3 


TJ 
^ 




o 


0.0 


IB 


Q.~, 


Q,-* 1 ' 


Q. *"** 


aS 


u 




i 


&i 


!'? 


87 

wA 


1! 


U 




I* 


Stack dep't, building and discharg- 




















28 


3 


3 


4 


11 


6 


1 




Laborere in yard, dock and store- 
house, shipping and receiving 


















lead 


13 


2 


2 


1 


4 


3 


1 




Night watchman, night engineer. . 
Mill hands grinding, mixing and 


3 










1 


1 


1 










packing lead 


24 


4 


2 


2 


6 


3 


6 


1 


Engineers dep't, machinist, pipe 
fitter, blacksmith, carpenter, 




10 


1 


1 


3 


4 






1 


Total 


















68 


10 


8 


10 


25 


13 


9 


3 





Information furnished by superintendent. 




No. 26. FACTORY C WHITE LEAD. Emptying corroded bucklea into conveyors, in 
the corroding stock house. 




No. 27. FACTORY C WHITE LEAD. A portion of the separating machinery. 




No. 28. FACTORY C WHITE LEAD. Drying room. 




No. 29. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Lead oxidizing furnaces, hand type. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 409 

2. The corroding sheds. The corroding is done in the usual 
way by the old Dutch process. The floor of the bed is strewn 
with tan bark, on which are placed the earthenware jars, in the 
bottom of each of which is about a pint of acetic acid (2 to 2^% 
solution). The buckles are then placed in the jars above, but 
not in the acid; a layer of boards is placed over the jars con- 
taining the buckles; another layer of tan bark is placed on the 
boards, more earthen jars and so on. In the building up of 
these beds there is comparatively little danger. In the strip- 
ping of the beds, however, there is great danger. The jars are 
first dumped into small boxes about 1^ by 2 feet by 12 inches 

'deep. (See photo No. 25.) These boxes filled with corroded 
buckles are then lowered from the beds to a car into which they 
are dumped. This car is covered; the cover is in three sections 
and only one of them is opened at any one time. During the 
process of removing the tan bark from the corroding beds, there 
is a considerable amount of dust raised in the corroding sheds. 
(See photo No. 26.) Doubtless the tan bark dust is thoroughly 
impregnated with lead. 

3. Removing lead and separating system. Cars filled with 
corroded lead buckles are taken from the corroding sheds through 
a tunnel under the street surface to the beginning of the grind- 
ing process. The car is then hauled to a chute, opened at the 
bottom, and the corroded buckles fall into bins below, which are 
connected with the grinding system above by means of an auto- 
matic elevator. In this chute is a very powerful exhaust which 
effectively retains the dust. The white condition of the wood- 
work in the immediate vicinity of which the cars are dumped, tests 
the presence of considerable quantities of white lead. 

4. Separating and grinding. From the time the corroded 
lead buckles are dumped into the chute and enter the grinding 
system until the white lead is finally packed in oil, it is not 
again exposed to the air in a dusty state. The first machine sepa- 
rates the corroded white lead from that portion of the buckle which 
still remains uncorroded. The metallic lead is rejected and is 



410 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

thrown into a bin which stands in the open air under a shed. 
The white lead is then ground up and passed through a series of 
screens of smaller and smaller mesh. It is then carried to the 
floor above where it is mixed with a large quantity of water. 
This solution of water and white lead is run into large vats 
where it is gently stirred a process calculated to send heavier 
particles to the bottom and to drain off, over a sort of dam, the 
lighter and finer particles. This process is repeated until the 
lead is sent through a very fine screen with a mesh measuring 
one one-hundred and sixtieth of an inch. From here the lead 
calculated to be mixed with oil is run into a large tank into 
which oil is introduced. The lead having a greater affinity for 
the oil than for water and being somewhat heavier is forced to 
the bottom. The water which remains on top is drained off. 
The lead, after being thoroughly ground between revolving stones, 
is forced through small tubes to the packers who weigh it into 
barrels and cans. These are headed up and the white lead is 
then ready for the market. This latter process is not dangerous 
except as the workers get white lead into their mouths. 

5. The drying room. The lead which is calculated to be 
packed dry is piped in solution to the drying pans which occupy 
two very large rooms. (See photo No. 28.) These rooms have 
many good sized windows; in one of them the inspector counted 
thirty. There is also a large 60-inch fan conveying the air from 
the drying room. There are two men employed in this depart- 
ment. The only special danger comes when the lead is dried 
and is ready to be packed in barrels. It is then carried to the 
chute and put into packing machines. This causes considerable 
dust and exposes the workers to danger. 

6. Packing of dry white lead. The machine used for this 
purpose is similar to that used for packing red lead in Factory 
P. There is a large cylinder which descends into the barrel and 
fills it with dry white lead and causes little or no duet. The 
barrel is then taken from the machine and headed up. In this 
last process there is mors or less dust 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 411 

II. Provisions for Hygiene. 

There are notices posted at various points throughout the build- 
ing in English, German, Italian and Polish, instructing the 
workers as to the dangers of the business and calling for clean- 
liness and care on their part. These instructions are not printed 
as fully as they might be, but they are placed in several parts 
of the factory. A wash room is provided for the men which is 
in a small building on the premises. This is of the ordinary 
sink type, but with hot and cold water. Soap, towels, brushes 
and work clothes are not provided. The superintendent de- 
clares that the men would carry them off. There is no dust 
removal system similar to that in Factories B and D. A doctor 
is employed by the factory management and any workers who 
are affected in any way are sent to him for treatment. Since 
the first of January, 1911, he has treated the following classes 
of cases: traumatic (accident) 8; sickness other than lead poi- 
soning 6, plumbism (lead poisoning) 8, total 22. Of these cases 
of plumbism, the following types are noted: two case of intes- 
tinal type (mild), one case intestinal type (severe), four cases of 
chronic type (arterio sclerosis, anemia, etc.), 1 case of sub-acute. 
The doctor visits the plant regularly each week and examines the 
men in a casual way; that is, he goes through the factory and 
picks out any man whom he thinks looks anemic or affected in any 
other way. 

III. Suggestions for Improvement: 

The factory on the whole is a good one and precautions have 
been taken. There is, however, no dust removal system simi- 
lar to Factories B or D, which would be the first and primary 
improvement to be made. Suggestions for other improvements 
would include the following: better ventilation of the corroding 
sheds, and the wetting down of the tan bark with sufficient 
thoroughness to prevent the raising of large quantities of dust; 
the enclosing of the chutes which are used for drying the white 
lead, especially in the drying room; the provision of more ade- 
quate washing facilities for the workmen; shower baths, which 
the workmen should be required to use; provision of a place for 



412 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

eating lunch ; provision of clean working clothes each week. The 
superintendent is skeptical about providing overalls, but it is 
quite evident that this provision has worked out successfully 
in at least one other plant. 

FACTORY D. 

Manufacture of (1) Red Lead, Lead Litharge, (2) White Lead 
by Quick Process, (3) Sugar of lead. 

The manufacture of red lead is, according to the doctor who 
attends both Factories B and D, more dangerous to the worker 
jthan that of white lead. There are about 300 men employed 
^n the white lead works in Factory B, and about 80 in the red 
lead works, and yet he declares that he has more cases of plumb- 
jsm in the red lead works and that they are more serious. In 
Jhe case of white lead a simple treatment is the administration 
of a mild sulphuric acid lemonade, or the administering of some 
drug like potassium iodide or magnesium sulphide which will 
render the lead into lead sulphate, which is insoluble, and hence, 
with a good physic will be eliminated from the alimentary canal. 
,A. little rest and change of employment will effectually relieve 
he case. This, however, cannot be done in the case of lead 
pxide, red lead or lead litharge, and hence the lead is absorbed 
fry the body tissues and when a sufficient amount is present the 
Individual gives way to one or another of the forms of lead 
poisoning. 

. The factory now under consideration is making four products: 
red lead, lead litharge, white lead (by quick process) and sugar 
of lead (lead acetate). Precautions of an exceptional nature 
Jiave been taken and the cases of poisoning have decreased dur- 
jng the last few years. At one time the factory enjoyed a very 
bad reputation workers would accept jobs there only when no 
pther employment was open to them. The work is almost all 
unskilled, the men seldom earn over $17.00 per week. They 
are mostly Poles, Slavs, Lithuanians and a few Barbadoes negroes. 
The table attached herewith throws interesting light on the 
length of time that the men employed here have held their 
positions. 




No. 30. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Lead oxidizing furnaces hand type. 




No. 31. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Lead oxidizing furnace. Mechanical type; 
discharging the furnace. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 



418 



EMPLOYEES IN FACTORY D : CLASSIFIED BY OCCUPATIONS AND 
LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED. 





















k 




















> 




>> 


m > 














o 







s^s 

















EXACT OCCUPATION or 
WORKER 


a 
m 


- a 

_, 

11 

on 




sS 
11 


ja 
"S3 
IP 


"SB 

>>S3 
o a> 




>.s! 

O <D 


a d 

4? o 

if 


lS 

41 

if 


li 







ae 


a E 


a-. 


gK 


&>> 


"B.2 


aS 


"ag, 




6 
Z 


II 


|f 

HM 


IS 


SY 

w^ 


S? 
W-o 


I* 


1^ 


e * 

Is 


Office staff 


6 


1 






2 


1 


1 


1 




Engineering staff 


6 






1 


4 


1 








Mechanics 


2 




1 








i 






Mill foreman 


3 












i 


2 




Grinding and milling 


10 


4 




1 


2 


1 


i 


1 




Packers 


3 












i 


2 




Furnace foreman 


3 












i 


2 




Furnace men . . . 


37 


5 


2 


3 


10 


13 


2 


2 




Coopers 


4 


1 




1 


1 








1 






















Total . 


84 


11 


3 


6 


19 


16 


g 


10 


J 























J. The Manufacture of Lead Oxide, Red Lead, Lead Litharge: 

1. Oxidizing furnaces. The first process in the making of 
lead oxide, red lead and lead litharge is the burning or oxidizing 
of the metallic lead. The lead pigs are introduced into the fur- 
naces which are kept at temperatures of from 800 degrees to 
1,700 degrees. The metallic lead quickly melts. The worker 
who attends the furnace is armed with a long-handled hoe, called 
a " ravel," with which he rakes backward and forward the molten 
metal. (See photos No. 29 and 30.) There is a powerful 
firaft through the furnace, which continually passes over the lead. 
,The oxygen of the air gradually unites with the lead to form 
Jead oxide (Pb 0). The molten mass gradually changes form 
and becomes a powder of a light yellowish hue. This is lead 
litharge. The furnacemen work only about one-half the time; 
jthat is, they rake over the lead for about fifteen or twenty min- 
utes, and then close their furnaces and wait during an interval 
pf about the same length, and then repeat the process. One man 
only is employed to each furnace. The furnaces are not pro- 
vided with any special exhausts. It is a question as to whether 
they are needed. There is a powerful draft through the furnace 
pulling any fumes away from the open door and up the chimney. 
Any fumes which escape, however, when the doors are closed are 
not drawn off, and any dust raised in the process of drawing is 
not removed. 



414 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

2. Drawing the furnaces. When the lead is sufficiently oxi- 
dized, the furnaces are emptied the lead is raked out through 
the oven door into cars which are backed up against the ovens. 
The lead piled high in these cars then stands in the furnace room 
until cooled. Here is a possible source of danger. (See photos 
Nos. 29, 30.) Much of the finely powdered lead escapes into the 
atmosphere, as the material is raked from the ovens or from the 
uncovered cars as they stand in the workroom. The only differ- 
ence between the manufacture of red lead and lead litharge is 
{hat the red lead must remain in the ovens, subject to the oxidizing 
jprocess, considerably longer than the yellow lead or lead litharge. 
Otherwise the processes are almost indentical. 

3. Delivery of lead to the milling machines. The lead oxide 
carried in the open cars described above, is pushed to an open 
chute where it is tipped out and dumped. Considerable dust is 
raised by this process and the worker at this particular job is 
exposed to more or less dust of red lead and lead litharge. (See 
photo No. 32.) 

, 4. Grinding and refining of the red lead and lead litharge. 
From this chute the lead oxide is carried automatically 
to the upper floors of the building. Here the process 
of grinding and refining begins. The lead which is fine 
enough is drawn off by an endless screw and the heavier 
particles are rejected. This process is repeated over and 
over until a certain degree of fineness is attained. In 
the various rooms where the grinding and sifting is carried on 
there is an almost complete absence of dust. The machines are 
very carefully and completely enclosed. The separating machines 
are enclosed in double wooden jackets. There is seldom neces- 
sity for opening the machines and then only for repairs, as they 
are self-cleaning. Whenever it is necessary to repair any part of 
of them the whole system is immediately shut down. So complete 
is this dust removal system, that there was scarcely a film of dust 
on the walls or on the machinery. (See photos Nos. 33, 34.) 

5. Packing red lead and lead litharge. The packing of lead 
litharge is done dry and is largely done by machinery. The 




No. 32. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Drawing the lead rejected from the screens 

into a car. 




No. 33. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Separating and conveying machinery. 




No. 34. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. High speed grinding mills. The large 
pipes and inverted pyramids are part of the dust removal system. 




Xo. 35. FACTORY D LEAD OXIDE. Filling barrels with lead litharge (oxide 

of lead). 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 415 

barrel is placed under a machine (see photos No. 35, 36) and the 
lead is then slowly emptied into the barrel. This part of the pro- 
,cess is done without dust. The filling part of the machine, a 
,large round cylinder, is then raised and the supply of lead is cut 
off. There is little dust in this process. The barrel, which is on 
Boilers, is then rolled away from the machine and a head is put 
pn, which again causes considerable dust. The negro who appears 
in photograph No. 35 has worked in this particular work for 
five years and has been absent only one week; this absence was 
pccasioned by a severe fall. In this department the workers are, 
most of them, using bandana handkerchiefs about mouths and 
nostrils. This is the last process in the manufacture of lead 
litharge. 

II. Hygienic Provisions-' 

1. The dust system. As indicated above in describing the vari- 
ous rooms where lead oxide is ground, the system of dust removal 
js excellent. As will be seen in the photograph showing rooms 
filled with machinery, there are long pipes leading in every direc- 
tion; these pipes convey dust from the various machines to the 
dust room. These machines are provided with very powerful 
|Bxhausts and the suction is so great that even when one of the 
great bins into which the dry lead dust is constantly pouring 
was opened for the writer's inspection, there was no dust emitted 
.into the room. This dust taken from all parts of the factory is 
conveyed to the dust room. Here there are two methods of dust 
disposal. The one which will be seen at the left in photograph 
No. 37 is the older and is rather difficult to manage because the 
bags are placed so close together that whenever a bag breaks 
especially those in the center, it is very difficult to make repairs. 
The newer system of bags is seen in photograph No. 37. These 
,may be easily removed and adjusted. All the dust is conveyed 
jnto the large receiving bins which are seen above and below the 
jbags. As long as the air pressure remains on, these bags are 
plistended, but when the pressure is released they flatten out and 
pollapse and the dust which is adhering to their sides is precipi- 
tated into the bin below. It is not necessary to clean out this 



416 OCCUPATION AX DISEASES. 

Jbin more than once in a year and a half; when this is done the 
entire system is shut down. It is to be noted that even in the 
dust room there is very little dust to be seen clinging to the walls 
or on the floor. 

( 2. Miscellaneous provisions. The workmen are provided with 
a washroom and a room where they can put their street clothing. 
,This room is in the cellar and is lighted by one small window 
only, necessitating the use of gas. At one end of the room, which 
Js screened off by an iron lattice partition, there is a series of 
Jiooks where the men can put their street clothing. This part of 
jthe room may be locked. There are benches in the room but no 
Cockers. The superintendent, however, finds this system more 
satisfactory than lockers which, he contends, quickly fill with refuse 
and various odds and ends and are difficult to keep clean. There 
are about ten washbowls provided with hot and cold water. Origi- 
nally, three shower-baths were installed in this room but the men 
( did not use them; in fact, the superintendent tells me that the 
pnly man he knows of who took a bath, never came back to work. 
J3o towels, soap or brushes are provided. No overalls or work 
clothing are provided. Doubtless one of the reasons why the 
men did not care to take baths is that the place set aside for this 
purpose is so dark and dingy. On the whole, the provisions 
,for washing and personal hygiene may be said to be inadequate 
in this plant. There has been a great diminution in the number 
pf cases of lead poisoning since the introduction of the dust re- 
moval system. 

,111. The Manufacture of White Lead by the Quick Process: 

, The manufacturers of white lead have for many years been 
^searching for a quick process for making white lead. One of the 
processes, the so-called " Carter '' process, is used in one depart- 
ment of this factory for manufacturing white lead. The product 
which results is white lead; in fact, it is much whiter lead than 
was made by the old " Dutch " process. Many painters find it con- 
venient to put a little of the quick process white lead into a 
quantity of old Dutch white lead in order to give a whiter color. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 417 

The quick process white lead, however, has not the hiding power 
of that made by the old " Dutch " process. Its grain, or texture, 
js so fine that it can not be used as a coverer. The process, which 
presents very litle danger aside from handling of the lead, is a 
comparatively quick one since it may be made in about 24 hours. 
,It is, however, on the whole, more expensive because with a given 
area a smaller quantity in the long run can be made. The molten 
metallic lead is run through water which brings it out in com- 
paratively small pieces in a rough, ragged condition. This lead 
,is placed in a large vat to which acetic acid is added; a lead 
carbonate is then formed by the combination of the lead with the 
acetic acid. It then runs through several processes which are 
entirely enclosed and from which there escapes neither fumes nor 
dust. The finished product is white lead and oil. The lead 
throughout this process is never in a dry state and, therefore, the 
danger is minimized. 

JV. Manufacture of Sugar of Lead: 

The manufacture of sugar of lead is also carried on in this 
plant, and is one of the most dangerous processes. Lead 
litharge is mixed in large vats with acetic acid; it is 
then boiled and run into vats where it is allowed to crystallize. 
One boiling, however, is not sufficient to purify it or to reduce it to 
jthe necessary fineness of texture. It is then reboiled and again 
Allowed to run into vats where it crystallizes. This is the final 
process and lead sugar or lead acetate results. The sugar of lead 
jtself is poisonous. It is very sweet to the taste and is very 
soluble, which make it especially dangerous. It is constantly 
exposed in a dry state and several men come closely in contact 
with it. They handle it with their bare hands and hence fre- 
quently get it into their mouths. 

II. MANUFACTURE OF PAINT AND COLORS 

The industry, which is second only to the manufacture of car- 
bonate of lead and lead oxide as a source of lead poisoning, is the 
manufacture of colors, both oil colors and dry colors. In this 
group of industries, two factories have been inspected. On the 
14 



418 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

whole, the sanitary and hygienic conditions were much worse than 
in the factories manufacturing the red and white lead. The reasons 
for such conditions are not far to seek. In the first place, many of 
the factories manufacturing paints and colors are much smaller 
than those manufacturing red and white lead. The latter products 
can only be successfully made in comparatively large plants - 
plants large enough to keep a force of men continuously building 
and stripping the corroding beds, each of which remains undis- 
turbed for 100 days. In the manufacture of paints and colors, 
however, a small grinding mill and a little dry room suffice. This 
may appear to be uneconomical production, but many concerns, not 
paint manufacturers, grind and mix their own paints. A second 
reason for the relatively bad conditions in this group of factories 
is that lead poisoning is less prominent the danger has not been 
brought home to the manufacturer as closely and convincingly as 
it has in the case of the white lead works. The inspectors in 
their examinations of those factories have found employers who 
did not recognize the seriousness of lead poisoning in the least. 
Jn fact, in none of the factories making paints and dry colors 
were printed instructions concerning the dangers of the work 
posted in the factories. Very often superintendents claimed that 
they or their foremen instructed the workers personally, but the 
very fact that a small proportion of those employed spok ; English 
and that orders were habitually given in pantomime establishes 
the futility of such instructions even if conscientiously carried 
out. 

Conditions in some of these factories were really deplorable. 
Dressing and locker rooms, when provided at all, were of the 
most primitive sort. Photograph No. 75 shows a typical dressing 
room small, dirty, unventilated, a leaky shower bath in the 
center of the room. On the other hand, conditions are very differ- 
ent in comparatively modern factories where considerable care 
is taken of the workers. Systems of ventilation, if present at all, 
were often not such as to be of value. One large dry color fac- 
tory had installed a very complete dust removal system. But 








No.^38. FACTORY A PAINTS. Mixing white lead with oil. 




No. 39. FACTORY A PAINTS. White lead department. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 4-19 

unfortunately, the exhausts on the grinding machines for example, 
were far above the machine and above the heads of the operatives. 
If, then, they worked with any effectiveness their sole result was 
to pull the dust up into the faces of the workers. Only a system 
of localized exhausts exhausts immediately over and if possible 
enclosing the machinery will be effective in protecting the 
workers. 

Many of the plants which manufacture dry colors also manu- 
facture Paris green. A full description of some of the processes 
in these factories will be found in Appendix A to this report. 

From the paint manufacturers it was learned that pure white 
carbonate of lead is passing out of use and that it is being re- 
placed by zinc white, or a new white lead called " sublimed " lead, 
which is not as poisonous or as injurious as the carbonate of lead. 
Xhis new paint, the manufactureres contend, has not as great 
"' hiding " power as the old " Dutch " process lead but has greater 
" covering " power. The distinction is this the carbonate of 
lead will cover up and completely hide dark figures, a thing 
which would perhaps require two or more coats of the zinc white 
or the " sublimed " lead. The latter, however, in merely covering 
surface will go much further on account of a greater capacity 
to absorb oil. The exact facts concerning these substitutes for 
white carbonate of lead produced by the old " Dutch " process 
could be determined only after an exhaustive investigation. It 
is sufficient to state here that there are now substitutes for pure 
white lead which are less injurious on the market, for which the 
makers claim superior advantages and which seem to be competing 
Successfully with the original product. Much of the so-called 
" white lead " which is sold on the market as " pure white lead " 
js not carbonate of lead produced by the old " Dutch " process 
at all, but is composed largely of zinc white and " sublimed " lead. 

In the descriptions of the factories which follow, no attempt 
will bo made to divide the manufacturers of paints mixed with oil 
and those making dry colors. Many plants make both kinds of 
colors. 



420 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

FACTORY A 
I. Manufacture of Paints and Chrome Colors: 

This factory employs about 150 people, of whom about 25 are 
women. They are of many nationalities, the majority, perhaps, 
are Americans, but there are also large numbers of Poles, Russians, 
Italians and other recent immigrants. The plant occupies a new 
and rather well arranged, well ventilated and well equipped 
building. The processes are complicated and much of it is of 
a mechanical nature ; the actual handling of the products by hand 
is not usually necessary. Precautions have been taken 
throughout the factory to prevent poisoning. Every roan employed 
is required to sign a release, exonerating the company in case of 
accident or disease. In consideration of this release a few of 
the employees who are most endangered are given somewhat 
higher wages. 

1. Mixing solutions and drying colors. The various colors for 
making paints are mixed in large vats. In some of these pro- 
cesses there is danger, arising from fumes or from dirty hands 
#nd clothing, but ordinarily the wet processes of mixing paints 
are non-injurious. The solutions in the smaller vats are drained off 
into other larger vats and water is added which is designed to wash 
,the colors thoroughly. The heavier portions gradually settle to 
the bottom and the water is drained off. The residue, which is 
.pure color slightly moist, is taken out and put on racks and 
ponveyed to the drying room where all moisture is finally elimin- 
ated. The color is then ready to be ground. There is more or 
less danger in handling these colors which increases as they be- 
come more concentrated and drier. 

2. Grinding and mixing oil colors. The process begins with 
,the arrival of the white lead which is in a dry powdered form. 
This lead is thrown into chutes which lead to grinding machines 
on the floor below. (See photo No. 38.) The foreman in this 
Department declared that the white lead was usually mixed with 
oil before being put into the chutes and a couple of small hand 
cars nearby were filled with an oil mixture of white lead. How- 




No. 40. FACTORY A PAINTS. Grinding red colors 




No. 41. FACTORY A PAINTS. Grinding green colors. 




No. 42. FACTORY A PAINTS. Dust house. The dust is brought here by_meana 

of a suction fan. 




No. 43. FACTORY A PAINTS. Arrangement of vats in red color room, 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 421 

ever, while the inspector was in the room a workman began to fill 
pne of the cars, taking the dry white lead powder from a barrel 
,and dumping it into one of the cars. There was no oil in the 
par before the lead was put in, the workman, however, immediately 
.rectified the mistake by dashing for a can of oil which he dumped 
into the car. (See photo No. 39.) The grinding and mixing of the 
white lead and oil is done largely by machines and furnishes 
very little opportunity for dangerous contact with the lead com- 
pounds. 

3. The mixing and grinding of colors. Dry colors after leav- 
ing the drying room are taken to the grinding and mixing 
machines. These occupy an entire floor of the building, but the 
room was so dark when the inspector arrived at 4:00 p. M., that 
photographs could not be taken by natural light. The room was 
also filled with dust. Machines which are set about the room 
.are of different colors indicating the color mixed in each. Chunks 
of color material are thrown in at the top of the machine and 
ground between two revolving stones (isee photos Nos. 40, 41) with 
a circular motion. There is more or less dust accompanying this 
process, which, in case of the chrome colors, is dangerous. In 
fact, almost all of these colors have some lead in them which varies 
.from 5 to 80 %. The worker stands in front of the machine and 
with a wooden hoe pulls backward and forward the finely 
powdered colors which are within. More or less dust was con- 
stantly escaping. At one of these machines a worker was observed 
cleaning out the wooden bin into which the colors had boon put. 
He was on his hands and knees in front of the low opening and 
was brushing out the color with a fine brush. Clouds of dust 
were coming from the wooden bin and rising about his face and 
head. All the men that worked in this department v/ere very 
.dirty, their faces were covered with many hues of the rainbow. 
The foreman of this work declared there had been no cases of 
lead poisoning for forty years. One of the workers there who 
was approached in the absence of the superintendent and foreman 
said several of the men l>ad had attacks of lead colic and that 
at that moment two men were home on that account. 




422 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

4. Making of water colors. In a small, light, well ventilated 
workroom there were two or three men and four girls packing 
various shades of color which were put up in little packages for 
use of water color painters and for use in schools. The foreman 
4n charge declared that there was no lead used in paints made in 
this department because school authorities would not permit 
poisonous paints to be used in schools. 

5. Labeling cans. There were a number of young women 
working in the labeling department, but none of these come in 
contact with the lead. 

6. The making of tin cans. This firm makes its own tin 
cans which is done in a large well lighted and well ventilated room. 
The only danger in this process is the soldering, but so little work 
is done and the conditions are so good that it is very doubtful 
whether there is any danger. 

II. Provisions for Hygiene. 

On the whole, this establishment can be said to be relatively 
a good one. There are a number of precautions taken which 
deserve mention. There are washrooms and lockers for both men 
and women scattered at various points throughout the factory. 
There is a ventilation system which connects with all parts of 
the plant. It is, however, a general system and not localized. 
.This would be a very good system for a clothing factory, but in 
.a dusty trade it does not meet the needs of the situation. All 
the dust is conveyed from the various machines to the roof where 
it is caught in dust houses. (See photo No. 42.) These dust 
.houses are of various colors due to the kind of color used in the 
.machines. They are about eight feet by eight feet by six feet 
and screened on three sides, which permits the air to pass through 
and out but retains all the color materials. These houses also 
.contain the exhaust fans. The workers are furnished with various 
safeguards, such as respirators. They are instructed to some 
extent as to the dangerous character of the business. They are 
given towels, soap, overalls, clean linen cloths and various other 



J 




No. 44. FACTORY B PAINTS. Steam pressing blue colors. 




Xo. 4o. FACTORY B PAINTS. Emptying lake colors from drying room into barrels. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 423 

.sanitary conveniences. There are no printed instructions posted 
throughout the shop. The men who are at work at the dangerous 
occupations are paid somewhat higher wages, but the occupations 
which are considered dangerous are absurdly few. 

JII. Suggestions for Improvements: 

The principal suggestion to be made is that there be a system 
of local ventilation with powerful exhausts placed immediately in 
.front of the dusty processes to take the dust away from the 
workmen. 

A useful improvement would be the enclosing of the machinery 
,in dust jackets. This is especially true of the parts connected 
.with the grinding of colors. This process could thereby be ren- 
.dered almost dust tight. Compulsory washing and bathing would 
doubtless reduce danger and the installation of a lunch room apart 
from the place of work would be an improvement, as at present 
men are permitted to eat in the workrooms. 

FACTORY B 

Man u f (tcf tire of Dry Colors: 

This is one of the largest plants in this line of business and 
employs 70 men. The hours are ten per day, nine on Saturday, 
59 hours a week. The manufacture of any dry color is essentially 
a simple process, although it takes considerable time and a large 
amount of space with a small labor supply. The processes may 
be divided into the main stages: 

1. The boiling and preparing of the solution. 

2. Washing out of the acids. 

3. Filtering and pressing of the solid residue. 

4. Drying of the pigments. 

5. Disintegration and bolting process. 

6. Packing. 



424 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

In this particular establishment there are four dry color depart- 
ments. These are: 

a. Manufacture of lake colors. 

b. Manufacture of blue prussian blue, purple, etc. 

c. Manufacture of yellow ochre, sienna, etc. 

d. Manufacture of green color. 

(a.) The manufacture of lake colors. The original pigments 
are first boiled in large vats which are near the top of a large 
barn-like room (see photo No. 43). These vats are placed one 
above the other. The top vat is where the boiling in done ; from 
this vat the solution is conveyed to the lower tank where the 
oxidizing agents are added; in a still lower and larger vat the 
colors are thoroughly washed and then drained off into the filter. 
This filter may be of two kinds; first, the old hand press which 
has come down from the time of the Pharaohs. It consists of 
filling bags with the wet color mixture and piling them one above 
the other. A man squeezes out the moisture with a, long wooden 
lever which he leaves with a weight attached to hold down the bags 
of color. The process is used where the material is wanted for 
shipment in a wet state. The other and more modern process is to 
force the diluted mixture into a series of filters. Here it is pressed 
by hydraulic machinery. When it comes from this filtering pro- 
cess it is sometimes shipped immediately, but a large part of the 
product goes to the drying room. The contents of each individual 
filter is put on a pan or tray which is carried into the drying 
room. There it remains at a temperature of from 130-180 de- 
gress until the moisture is entirely taken out of the pigments and 
is left in a dry, hardened form. The pigment is then taken 
to the grinding machines, where disintegration takes place. 
Jt is made into a powder by being ground between revolving 
stones. The packing department is immediately under the mills, 
where it is run into barrels by a process which is not very dusty. 
In the making of lake colors about 5% only of the pigment is 
lead. Whenever a color with a large per cent of lead is ground 




& .5 
~~ > 
M)"~ 

00 

^~ 




as 




Xo. 48. FACTORY B PAINTS. Filling barrels with chrome yellow. 




No. 49. FACTORY A LEAD REFINING. Pot of lead drawn from the " sweater," 
from which the caster is ladling molten lead. 




No. 50. FACTORY A LEAD REFINING. Lead pot, same as 49. Pouring lead into moulds. 




Xo. 51. FACTORY A LEAD REFINING. Kettles for melting and refining lead. 




No. 52. FACTORY A LEAD REFINING. Lead kettles. Stirring lead, and adding rosin, etc. 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 425 

there is a special room set aside for this purpose. The pigment 
is then ground within the specially enclosed room and no employee 
enters this room until the dust has well settled. 

(b.) Manufacture of blue color. The processes in the manu- 
facture of blue color are practically the same as those in the lake 
color department It has so far, however, been found to be im- 
practical to use the dustless mill in connection with the blues, on 
account of some differences in the texture of the materials. The 
manufacturing departments in which the blue colors are made 
are somewhat darker than the others, on account of the walla 
being colored with pigment. 

(c.) Manufacture of yellow color. In the yellow, and the 
following green colors, we find the highest percentage of lead that 
is found in any of the colors. It varies from 75-80%. Special 
precautions are taken against poisoning by lead. The elementary 
processes are similar to those in the other colors, with one pos- 
sible addition. At one stage in the process, when the color is still 
in solution, a worker sprinkles the solution with lead litharge. 
He does this by scattering the lead from a shovel over the mixture. 
(See photo No. 48.) Although he wore a respirator, doubtless 
considerable of the very fine lead oxide was distributed through 
the air. 

In packing the dry yellow colors, particular precautions are 
taken. A very large dust collector is attached to the filling ma- 
chine, and when the filling is going on this bag is distended and 
collects the dust, which would otherwise scatter itself through the 
air. (See photo No. 50.) 

(d.) Manufacture of green color. Like the yellow color, the 
green color has a very large proportion of lead content, varying 
in different qualities from 75-80%. The processes in the manu- 
facture are exactly similar to those already described. 

II. Provisions for Hygiene: 

Although, as already stated, this is a comparatively old plant, 
it has many very excellent precautions. There is notable care 



426 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

exercised in providing and requiring the men to wear respirators. 
There are many devices which prevent dust, like the dustless mill, 
the special room for grinding, the special dust removal apparatus 
in connection with the mills. A large room has been set aside 
and equipped with chairs and tables as a lunch room. The men 
don't take care of it, however, and if it is allowed to become dirty 
it will itself become a source of danger. 

III. Suggestions for Improvements: 

, The suggestions for improvements which might be made are 
.numerous. Of course the entire plant should be remodeled, and 
perhaps a new one put up. Aside from this, however, minor 
improvements could be made which would vastly improve con- 
ditions: for example, the provision of some hot drinks and milk 
at lunch, adequate care of the lunch room, the making of 
washing obligatory, the provision of more adequate toilet facili- 
ties and others of a similar character. 

III. SMELTING, MELTING, REFINING AND CASTING OF LEAD. 

A large number of cases of lead poisoning were found in com- 
paratively small factories where lead junk is collected, refined 
and made into type metal, solder, Babbitt metal and other forms 
of lead solder. The lead junk is collected from all over the city, 
and the factories which deal in it are usually about as dirty and 
ill-kept as any factories that have been found to be using lead in 
any form. The lead, when it is brought to the lead factory, is 
stored usually in the immediate proximity of the workers until 
it is ready to be smelted up. The lead junk is then put into a 
/smelter, where the dross is separated from the pure lead, which is 
run off from the side of the smelter. (See photo No. 49.) The 
Jead is run into an open tank, usually at the side of the smelter. 
The worker then ladels it out and runs it into moulds, where it is 
allowed to harden, and then is piled up near-by. (See photo No. 
50.) 

In the making of solder usually the lead is melted up in pots 
or kettles about three (3) feet in diameter. (For example, see 
photos N"os. 51 and 53.) These kettles, or lead pots, as they are 




No. 53. FACTORY B LEAD REFINING. Lead pot, showing exhaust and chimney. 




No. 54. FACTORY C LEAD REFINING. Lead pots. Flashlight picture. 




No. 55. FACTORY D LEAD REFINING. Lead pots. Ladling molten lead into 
moulds for solder, etc. 




No. 56. FACTORY D LEAD REFINING. Victim of lead poisoning with wrist 
drop, now employed in sorting scrap metal. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 4;.' 7 

called, are sometimes hooded over and connected with chimneys 
which are supposed to draw off the fumes, but often they are not 
.hooded at all. In none of the factories inspected were exhaust 
.fans found to be attached to the hoods. The value of the hood is, 
.therefore, probably small. The worker ladels the molten lead 
from the lead pots and runs it into molds for solder. These molds 
,are shaped so that the lead, when cold, is in long, narrow strips. 
.The solder usually made by these factories contains from 40 to 60 
per cent of lead, the remainder being tin. 

Other lead alloys, such as type metal and Babbitt metal, are 
niade in practically the same way. Type metal and Babbitt metal 
.have a proportion of lead varying from 25 to 70 per cent, accord- 
ing to the quality of the metal and the work which it is expected 
.to perform. Of all of the factories inspected, only one can be 
said to have even fair conditions. In the others the sanitary con- 
.veniences were of the most primitive sort and sometimes disgust- 
ingly dirty. The rooms in which the work is done are usually 
.filled with dust and dirt of every description. In one factory 
(see photo Xo. 54) the air was so thick with smoke and dust at 
.the time tin- investigator visited the plant, about 4 p. m., that 
.the gas had to be lighted, and in order to take flashlight pictures 
a fl;i>li of about twice the ordinary strength had to be used. 

The danger of rhis work comes probably from three sources: 
.First, there is a possibility of the lead poisoning being occasioned 
J)\ the lead fumes generated from the molten lead. This the 
writer believes to be negligible. Second, possibility of the 
contraction of lead poisoning from the hands, which are usually 
covered with dirt from the lead which the worker is constantly 
handling. This is no doubt an important source of lead poison- 
ing. Third, and perhaps the most important, is the possibility of 
lead poisoning through the inhalation of lead oxide. A scum 
/if lead oxide is constantly forming on the surface of the molten 
Jead. The worker is continually drawing aside this scum of lead 
/ixi.le, and very often takes it from the top of the kettle and 
throws it on the floor. This scum is usually covered over by a 
very fine powdery substance, which is pure oxide of lead. No 
doubt a considerable amount of this oxide is floating about in the 



428 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

.air iii the immediate vicinity of the worker and that he must inhale 
large quantities of it. 

, In none of the factories in which lead junk was melted up and 
in which lead alloys, solder, etc., were made, were instructions 
pf any kind ever given the men, or were instructions posted on 
walls of the factories. Eating was universally permitted in the 
work-rooms. The superintendents usually permit beer to be 
brought in at almost any time during the day. Smoking was quite 
universal among the men. Instances of this sort are shown in 
photographs Nos. 50 and 56. In none of the factories were towels 
or soap furnished the men, and the only hot water, and in some 
cases the only water, furnished for washing purposes was that in 
the troughs in which the molds are placed in order to cool the lead. 
Jn some of the factories there were exhaust fans for changing the 
air in the room. Such a system of ventilation, however, is almost 
hopeless in meeting the demands of the situation. In none of 
.these factories was a doctor employed or doctors' services at the 
.disposal of the workers. With the exception of the manufacture 
pf white and red lead these factories are, perhaps, the most dan- 
gerous in which lead in any form is used. 

IV. USE OF LEAD AS A HARDENING AND TEMPERING AGENT. 

FACTOKY A. 

Manufacture of Magnetos. The department in which the 
lead is used is at the back of the building in a sort of 
shed " lean-to." It is slightly below the level of the ground, 
About 60 by 10 feet, about 12 feet ceiling. Ventilation is pro- 
vided for by a fan near the ceiling at one end, and an opening 
At the other. There are four windows, about three feet by five, 
along one side. In this room there are five lead pots, the tempera- 
ture of which varies from 1,400-1,800 degrees. Above these pots 
Are hoods connecting with a 16-inch pipe, which is supposed to 
lead off all fumes from the pots. This room was hot and dirty; 
the floor was littered with junk and dirt of various kinds. 

The process is hardening the steel magnets after they have been 
bent in an adjoining room. The magnets, which are horse-shoe 
in shape, are plunged into a bath of molten lead in one of the 




No. 57. FACTORY E LEAD REFINING. Brothers who have had lead poisoning 
melting and refining lead junk. 




No. 58. FACTORY E LEAD REFINING. Same as 57, showing different position. 




No. 59. FACTORY E LEAD REFINING. Lead pot, with hood, but no exhausts; 
running molten lead into moulds. 




No. GO. FACTORY E LEAD REFINING. Drawing solder wire. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 429 

pots. Here they remain until red hot. They are then removed 
by one of the workers and handed to another (see photo No. 61), 
,who plunges them into a barrel of water near-by. They are then 
pooled and stacked about an upright bar and rubbed with sand- 
paper, in order to remove adhering bits of lead. There is a pos- 
sibility here, therefore, of the inhalation of lead fumes, which, 
.however, the writer believes to be slight; the possibility of small 
particles of lead congealing on the steel magnets as they are taken 
from the lead bath, and of these flying oft' into the air is great. 
.This is also true of the rubbing process. A more probable method 
pf infection is by means of the lead oxide, which is constantly 
forming on the surface of the molten lead. This oxide, which is 
An the shape of a powder, is easily disseminated through the air 
.and is one of the most dangerous forms of lead. There is no 
.washroom on this floor. The foreman, when asked where the men 
washed, replied: "At home, I guess." The toilets consist of 
,two dirty, unenclosed seats, totally insufficient. The firm gives 
no advice on the danger of the occupation, and the foreman, ad- 
mitting men occasionally got sick, claimed that he didn't know 
.whether it was lead poisoning or not, and " anyway it was only the 
hard drinkers that got it." (See cases Nos. 20, 21, 22, 23.) No 
physician or medical advice is provided, and no precautions of 
.any kind are taken. The paymaster stated, on being questioned, 
.that he could give me the addresses of men who had left on 
Account of illness, if the foreman remembered their names. The 
foreman mentioned the names I) and W . (See cases Nos. 21 
and 22.) Nothing was said of B (case No. 20), whom the in- 
spector had already visited. The two names were taken to the 
paymaster, who gave the addresses, which in case of D prove 
correct, and in case of W proved to be wrong. No mention was 
made of any other cases, although the inspector specifically asked 
for all cases. The paymaster asked, in some surprise, " Why ! 
Is lead dangerous ? " The superintendent admitted that nothing- 
was done for these cases of sickness, although in case of accident 
a small sum of money is occasionally given. 

, Subsequent to this visit the investigators have proved and in- 
terviewed five cases of men who have worked in this plant who have 
had lead poisoning. One man had died of lead poisoning and a 



430 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

/complication of other causes. In addition the investigators have 
Jbeen given reliable information (which they have not had time 
Jo verify) of four other cases. This process has been in opera- 
tion here just one year. About nine men are required to do the 
.work. Here, therefore, is a department, employing a regular 
force of nine men and where there have been nine cases of lead 
.poisoning in one year. 

FACTORY B. 
Lead Used for Tempering Wire: 

In one large establishment where piano wire and springs are 
made lead is used in several departments as a tempering or har- 
dening agent. 

, Most of the men coming in contact with the lead are employed 
An the tempering department. Here the wires are drawn through 
A furnace, where they are heated to a very high temperature, and 
then after passing out of the furnace, are passed through a bath 
of molted lead. This bath of lead is exposed to the air and is about 
three feet long and one foot wide. The wires are wound off of 
one set of reels and passed through the lead to another set. The 
lead oxide, which is constantly forming on the surface of the lead, is 
^craped away occasionally and allowed to pile up on the machinery 
pr fall to the ground. One man only tends each machine, and it 
is not necessary for him to remain near the lead for any great 
.length of time. Some of the machines in this room have hoods 
and exhaust chimneys, and some have not. Where these hoods 
have not been provided the engineer claimed that the wires which 
passed just above prevented the construction of hoods. It ap- 
peared to the inspector, however, that a very efficient hood could 
easily be constructed to fit this particular place. The room was 
.ventilated by means of open windows at either side and by means 
of several overhead skylights. In spite of the large number of 
windows and skylights, the room was hazy and filled with smoke 
and fumes. 

The superintendent stated that lead poisoning was on the de- 
crease here since the installation of the hoods and skylights. In 




No. 61. FACTORY A LEAD AS HARDENING AGENT. 
passing red hot steel from lead pot to water barrel. 



The hardening room 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 431 

spite of this fact, one ease, evidently unknown to the superin- 
tendent, has come to our attention, and he admitted that he had 
.known of 12 cases in the last five years. There are 60 men 
employed in this department, in two shifts. The day shift works 
ten hours for six days a week and the night shift 12 hours for 
.five days a week. Xeither shift is given a specific time for meals 
and they eat as they work. 

In another department lead is also used. This is called the 
patenting furnace. There the wire is run very slowly through a 
high temperature furnace, and then through a bath of molten 
Jead. In this case the lead is covered by charcoal to a depth of 
#bout four to six inches. After passing through the lead the wire 
passes through water and through pads, which effectually cool 
and cleanse it of any fine lead particles. The foreman stated that 
while they once had lead poisoning among the workers in this 
department, it had almost entirely disappeared since the introduc- 
tion of the cleaning process. Eighteen men are employed here in 
two shifts, with hours the same as those in the tempering 
department. 

Another department in which there may be some danger, but in 
whi oli there is very little, if any, lead used, is that containing the 
so-called galvanizing furnaces. Here the wire is passed through an 
acid bath, which prepares it for a coating of spelter. This spelter 
is confined in a long, narrow basin, exposed to the air. The wire 
passes through it and comes out coated with spelter, or zinc (prin- 
cipally). It is cleansed of any surplus coating and reeled onto 
reels. Over most of these basins of molten zinc there were hoods, 
although some of these hoods were very high above the molten 
metal. 

There is no hot water in the wash rooms throughout the plant 
and, while the toilets are adequate, they are not well kept. There 
are no adequate washing facilities and no lockers in which the 
men can keep their clothing. The hoods which are put over the 
various lead pots, are not provided with exhaust fans and are 
therefore, almost useless. The generalized method of ventilation 
merely adds to the danger. 



432 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

V. USE OF LEAD SOLDERS. 

The only use of lead solders that has been investigated is in 
connection with the manufacture of tin cans. The use of solder 
is being displaced in large part by the pressing of the cans and 
the accurate fitting of one part of the can into another and the 
pressing of the parts together. The use of solder, however, is 
still considerable and demands attention. Although no cases of 
lead poisoning were traced to the can factories, the fact that lead 
is used, and in a comparatively dangerous form, makes this indus- 
try a possible source of infection. 

The most prevalent method of soldering tin cans is by the use 
of a hot iron, heated in a gas furnace, and thus, by means of it, 
spreading the solder from a small bar along the edge that is re- 
quired to be soldered. The molten lead is free, therefore, only for 
a moment, and hardens along the edge of the tin almost imme- 
diately. The worker handles the bar of lead continuously and 
usually his fingers are blackened by the constant contact. How- 
ever, there is comparatively little danger in this form of soldering. 

There is another method of soldering, which, however, seems to 
need attention. In one factory the inspector found a boy stand- 
ing continuously over a shallow pool of molten lead. The boy's 
job was to dip the can, a rather large one, in the solderene (an acid 
for preparing the surface of the tin for its solder), and then dip- 
ping the edge of the can into this bath of molten solder ; he then 
passes it on to another worker, who puts on the bottom of the can. 
The boy is constantly removing from the surface of the lead bath 
the collecting skum of lead oxide, which piles up on the bench 
before him and fall off onto the floor, to be scattered and breathed. 
The lad could speak no English, and therefore the inspector could 
not get the desired information as to whether or not he had been 
affected. Such an open lead bath, small and shallow as it is, is, 
however, a source of constant danger. In this same factory pro- 
visions were made for several other similar pots, which were not 
going on account of a dull season. 




I 

Is 

H 03 

P a 




C 

c 
S, 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 433 

VI. MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES. 

1. Manufacture of Coaches, Carriages and Automobile Bodies: 

Only a beginning has been made in the study of this industry 
which will doubtless reveal evidences of lead poisoning when 
more thoroughly examined. Lead is used in the paints, several 
coats of which are usually applied in the high grade v/ork, re- 
quired for coaches and automobiles. These coats are successively 
rubbed down, in order to give a perfectly even flat surface which 
is capable of taking a very high polish. 

In one of the factories inspected, where a very high grade 
of work is done, the first coats are put on with a material called 
" rough stuff," which is composed of 60 parts lead to 80 parts 
of rotten stone. Several coats of this mixture are applied, and 
then rubbed down with pumice stone. This is a wet process 
and no dust whatever is raised. The manager claimed that sand- 
paper would not give by any means as high a polish or as fine 
a finish, and that it was used only on second grade work. 

In one part of this work the sand papering process was used, 
namely, on the spokes of the wheels, as shown in photograph 
number 63. This is not a continuous process, however, as there 
is not enough of the work to keep a man at it all the time. 
In fact the man in this picture was posed specially for the picture. 

In other carriage factories, especially where repair work is 
done, the old paint is very often removed by a sandpaper process, 
in the course of which considerable dust is raised, which is, of 
course, fatally harmful to the workers. 

A very much more detailed study is necessary before more 
definite conclusion* can be reached concerning this industry. 

2. Manufacture of Lead Pipe, Lead Tubing and Solder Wire: 

The processes used in making lead pipe, varying in size from 
a fraction of an inch to a foot, lead tubing and solder wire, 
are all similar. The work is done almost entirely by machinery 
and the workers only handle the metallic lead. 
, The molten lead is run into a receptacle at the bottom of a 
hydraulic press. An aperture and mould is left at the top, which 



434 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

gives the size of the tube which is to be made. The press is then set 
in operation and the lead is pressed upward through the aperture 
forming the tube the desired size. In the case of very large 
tubing, it is sawed off in ten-foot lengths. (See photo Xo. 21.) 
In the case of smaller tubes, it is carried high up over a bar and 
then brought down and coiled around a large drum. (See photo 
No. 22.) 

No cases of lead poisoning were found in this work, although 
the probability is that a more searching investigation would re- 
veal them. 

!. Manufacture of Sheet Lead: 

One factory where sheet lead is manufactured was inspected. 
The process is a comparatively simple one, and not necessarily 
dangerous. The lead is first run into considerable sheets, sev- 
eral inches in thickness. These sheets are run between two re- 
volving rollers, until the desired thickness is attained. The sheets 
are then cut to size by hand, and the remnants chopped to pieces 
with an axe and returned to the melting pot. No cases of poison- 
ing were found in this work. 

4. Manufacture of Lead-Foil and Tin-Foil: 

Two large factories making tin-foil and lead-foil employing 
300 and 200 people, about half of whom were women, and many 
of whom were children, were inspected. Lead is the largest ele- 
ment in the manufacture of ordinary tin-foil and lead-foil. In 
some foils pure tin is used, but this is very rare, usually there 
are large proportions of lead, varying from 5-80%. 
. The pig lead is melted up and cast into slabs about 21/2 feet 
square and one inch in thickness. In one of the factories where 
the casting is done, there are four lead pots. None of these lead 
pots are protected by hoods. The room in which the process is 
carried on is in the basement of the factory and in spite of a 
large suction fan of probably 42 inches in diameter, the room 
is badly ventilated and very hot. Most of the men working here 
fceemed to be healthy enough and denied having ever experienced 
any attacks of lead poisoning. The superintendent, however, was 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 435 

with the inspector all the time. In the second plant the casting 
room, although located somewhat below ground, and containing 
unhooded lead pots, was very light and the air seemed fresh 
and wholesome. The room was much cleaner than the other and 
was provided with two exhaust fans. The men here also dis- 
claimed any knowledge of lead poisoning, and also disclaimed 
any of the symptoms. 

From this point in the process, the lead is always in metallic 
form. The slabs of lead after having been cast are sent to the 
rolling machines where they are rolled between the large rollers 
set one above the other until they have been reduced to very thin 
long sheets. The whole process of making the tin-foil becomes 
from this time forward a process of rollings, each successive oper- 
ation reducing the thickness of the material. 

In the making of bottle tops, a heavy thickness of very plia- 
ble lead-foil is used. The lead is drawn into the desired shapes 
for bottle caps by automatic machines which are tended by young^ 
girls. The girls, however, merely handle the sheets of foil as it 
pomes before them, and we are told, occasionlly get their fingers 
under the machinery and cut off. 

, The tin-foil is colored by machine, and some of it is painted 
by hand. The colors used are aniline colors, and are less harm- 
ful than lead colors, although the aniline has an intoxicating 
effect. Much of this work is done by young girls. 

In one of the factories toilet and washing facilities are pro- 
vided on every floor of the building. Ventilation throughout 
the building is merely the ordinary window sort. No lunch 
room is provided for the employees, and they are permitted to 
eat wherever they wish. Instructions as to the dangers of the 
work are neither given personally nor posted. A doctor is em- 
ployed by the firm who comes to the plant every other day. 
His work is largely traumatic and he has nothing to do with 
sickness. Lockers are provided for both men and women. No 
towels, soap or overalls are provided. No cases of lead poisoning 
were known to the superintendent. 

The second factory has excellent toilet and washing facilities 
on every floor. Towels and soap are provided, but not overalls. 
Special attention is given to cleanliness throughout the plant. 



436 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

The firm has hired a woman whose job is to cook hot things, 
which the girls themselves provide. This enables them to have 
a warm lunch. A woman also is hired who has charge of the 
girls' toilets. In this plant also the superintendent denied any 
knowledge of any cases of lead poisoning. 

A certain chemical compound, the formula for which is a 
/secret, is added to the lead and tin mixture in the molten slabs 
.which tends to give the tin-foil its brilliant appearance. To this 
chemical may be due the absence of poisoning, for it doubtless 
prevents in a large measure the oxidation of the lead which 
.would otherwise occur. 

5. Manufacture of Linoleum and Oilcloth' 

. At two points in the manufacture of linoleum is lead used, 
first, in the first process where the linseed oil is boiled, red lead 
is used as a drying agent. The inspector did not see the worker 
who regularly did the work, but the superintendent illustrated. 
The lead oxide dust was scooped out of a barrel and sprinkled 
over the mixture as it boiled. Doubtless much of this lead got 
out into the atmosphere. 

The second point at which lead was used is in the making of 
various colored linoleums. The coloring matter is largely made 
of lead colors, and is ground up with the linseed oil mixture, and 
comes out and is rolled into sheets, from which various portions 
are cut and are fitted together, or inlaid, to make the designs 
which are usually seen in linoleums. A large number of girls 
and young women work with these materials but there is almost 
no dust. 

The superintendent denied ever having had knowledge of lead 
poisoning in the factory. However, this factory is almost the 
sole support of the little and very isolated village in which it 
is located. No fewer than six cases of lead poisoning from this 
little town were known at a local hospital men who, it is almost 
certain, worked in this factory. Unfortunately no defi- 
nite information could be obtained concerning them, as they 
were foreigners who moved rapidly, and only one or two were 
known at the post-oifice, and they had not been resident in the 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 437 

town for many months. Where the cause of lead poisoning is 
in this factory, it is difficult to say. The most likely place seems 
,to be the sprinkling of the red oxide of lead into the boiling lin- 
seed oil. However, so little of this is probably done that there 
must be some other source of the poisoning which has not been 
.discovered. 

.6. Manufacture of Cut Glass: 

, The largest factory in the State manufacturing cut glass was 
.inspected with special reference to lead. At one time lead was 
Jargely used in the cut glass industry, but it has since very largely 
.disappeared, and while lead poisoning was then very prevalent 
among glass cutters, it is to-day a great rarity. 

After the design has been cut into the glass, a considerable 
amount of sand remains adhering to the cuts. The glass is 
,then turned over to another set of workers who are usually ap- 
prentices, whose work consists of cleaning out thoroughly the 
cuts originally made. This is done by holding the' glass against 
.disks of pumice stone. Under the old process of manufacture 
,the glass then went to a worker seated in front of a revolving 
.brush. On this brush was placed powdered lead and zinc, the 
purpose of which was to clean thoroughly the cuts made in the 
glass. During the performance of this process the worker be- 
comes covered with the lead powder. The glass was then further 
cleaned and polished by being rubbed with a putty which was 
composed of a large proportion of lead. These processes were 
used up to about eight years ago when they were superseded 
Jby a very much cheaper one. It was discovered at that time that 
this work of cleaning and polishing could be better accomplished 
by dipping the pieces of cut glass in solutions of hydrochloric 
and sulphuric acid. Work which had previously taken a work- 
man half a day could then be done in a few moments. This 
new process, replacing as it has in almost every shop the older 
methods, has almost eliminated lead poisoning from the glass 
industry. 

In the large factory employing almost 400 people, which was 
inspected, the amount of lead formerly used was about 150 



438 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

pounds monthly; to-day they do not use 150 pounds of lead in 
.three years. Only one man in the entire number now uses lead 
at all and he is not continuously employed, his work being of a 
repair nature. 

B. NON-MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

1. Painting and Interior Decorating: 

, Almost half of the special cases of lead poisoning collected, 
and more than were found in any other industry, were those of 
painters. The number of cases of painters, as shown by the hos- 
pital records, which usually record the painter's trade as such, 
is very large indeed; a small number of painters' unions, which 
,have been visited for information, report an astonishingly high 
rate of lead poisoning. 

The painter's trade is very thoroughly organized. The painters 
themselves have a very strong organization, which includes the 
great majority of men in the city who follow that trade. At 
best, the average painter, and the very good painter, too, has 
to look forward to two or three months' idleness during every 
year. The work of the painter, like that of the bricklayer and 
.stone mason, is very casual in character. This is due both to 
,the character of the work done, the hundred and one small jobs, 
and also to the organization of the industry where a single work- 
man very seldom finds himself steadily attached to one con- 
tractor or boss painter. 

The kinds of work that a painter is called upon to do may 
,be divided roughly into two classes, (a) exterior and (b) in- 
ferior work. The interior work again may be repair or reno- 
vating work, the reworking of old surfaces, and new work. The 
exterior work, done as it is in the open air, presents in itself 
very little danger. The interior work is dangerous. On old 
work the painter must sandpaper or burn off the old paint. 
In the first case, he is liable to inhale the dust, which is the dust 
.of lead paint, and therefore carries a high percentage of lead, 
and in the second case, in burning off the old paint considerable 
quantities of lead fumes and dust due to scraping are developed. 
These processes are therefore, perhaps, the most dangerous lead 
processes. On new work the danger is two-fold; the first is due 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 439 

to the inhalation of lead fumes from the wet paint. This is not 
especially dangerous except in a very close and very poorly ven- 
tilated room. The second and greatest danger is that on a high 
grade of work, two or more coats of paint are usually put on 
and successively sandpapered, in order to give a smooth finish. 
These sandpapering processes are extremely dangerous. Many 
of the painters who were interviewed for this study had worked 
at this grade of work immediately preceding their most serious 
attacks of lead poisoning. 

. It is a curious fact that lead poisoning is most prevalent among 
the highest grade of \vorkmen and that the cheap or low grade 
painter almost wholly escapes. This is due, in the first place, 
to the fact that he uses a cheap paint which contains little lead, 
and in the second, that he simply slaps it on and does not at- 
tempt to put on a high-grade finish. The best interior decora- 
tors, who do the highest grade of work, are usually most liable 
.to lead poisoning. Many of our cases were traced to the great 
hotels, club houses and Fifth avenue homes. 

The new building, in course of construction, presents some 
serious problems. Many new buildings, almost all new build- 
ings in a great city like Xew York, have scores of workmen in 
them, many more, perhaps, than the average factory. And so far 
as labor conditions are concerned, they are entirely outside the 
pale of the law. Except for certain regulations concerning scaf- 
folding and temporary flooring, etc., 1 there are no laws govern- 
ing the working conditions in buildings in course of construction. 
Then- arc probably not less than 75,000 men in New York city 
working under conditions which are entirely unsupervised by 
the State and which are usually neglected and un thought of by 
employers. 

The conditions in a building in course of construction are dif- 
ficult to manage. The very fact that it is in course of construc- 
tion means that conditions are temporary; that it is a mere 
shell without conveniences of any sort. Sanitary conveniences 
are almost impossible; it is difficult to supply water to the dif- 
ferent floors; there is also the newness of materials, and the 
dampness and moisture of a building half open and half closed. 



1 Labor Law, sections 18, 19. 20 and 21. 



440 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Worst of all, everything and everybody is temporary. One group 
,of workmen after another succeed each other, each with its own 
.equipment, which is carried away when it leaves. The very or- 
ganization of the building industry is a handicap the builder 
and owner usually sublets all the different parts of the work, 
pften to contractors who gather a special force of men for this 
particular job and who have nothing permanent in their busi- 
ness arrangements. Here, therefore, is an industry which is 
ponstantly making its conditions, which are continually changing, 
and to which a constantly shifting group of men are subjected. 

The chief difficulties are these: the painters are constantly 
working with a dangerous poison; they are ignorant of the dan- 
ger of the poison with which they are working; they are care- 
Jess in observing the precautions which would lessen the dangers 
from lead poisoning; most of the precautionary measures are 
denied the painter because he hasn't warm water in which to 
wash, he is not provided with washing facilities, nor is there 
time, especially during the winter months when he gets only 
a half hour for lunch, to use what facilities there are. 
, No doubt a large part of the danger could be avoided. If 
inc paint instead of lead were used, the danger would be al- 
most eliminated. In France, this will be decreed by law after 
4-914. The writer has been told that as a matter of fact the 
2inc paint is no more expensive than white lead, that is, when 
considered from all points of view. The sandpaper process 
could be replaced with a wet process using sandpaper and either 
oil or water. This process is slightly more costly than the dry 
process. Rooms could easily be fitted up in almost every large 
Jbuilding where the painters could keep a change of clothing and 
Jiave a clean place in which to eat their lunches. Washing facil- 
ities could at least be provided on the ground floor. The lunch 
period is in nearly all cases half an hour. In half an hour it is 
impossible for a man, with the usual primitive methods at his 
disposal, to go down several flights of stairs, wash thoroughly, eat 
a lunch and return to his place of work. At least an hour should 
be provided for lunch. 

The painting trade should be carefully and fully studied as 
a basis for detailed recommendations. 



CHAPTER IV 

CASES OF LEAD POISONING. 

. The real gravity of lead poisoning its effect upon the work- 
ers, upon their families, upon the community cannot be ade- 
quately estimated by a description of the disease or "fey a descrip- 
tion of the dangerous processes, or even by a statistical sum- 
paary of the cases. The following stories, which are the results 
pf a personal conference with the victims of the poison, or in 
the case of death, with their relatives and friends, give inti- 
mate pictures of misery, want and destitution which becomes 
all the more harrowing when we know that most of it could be 
prevented. Many of these workers are young men, most of them 
.have families to provide for, many of them have been compelled 
to remain out of work for weeks and months, some have been 
permanently incapacitated. The mere loss of efficiency, the mere 
^oss of earning power, should appeal not only to employers, but 
to the State and to the public at large, as wasteful and unwise, 
ps an extravagent expenditure of human energy and human 
vitality. 

It has not been our aim, in presenting these cases, to draw 
.forth all the harrowing and pathetic details which were all aboufc 
us, in our visits to almost unfurnished, ragged, poverty-stricken 
tomes. We have sought rather to present in story form the plain 
.bare facts and to allow the reader to draw the picture of the 
.home and the inmates and to draw for himself the conclusions 
which inevitably follow. 

I. 

INDUSTEIAL WOKKEBS. 
Case No. IPaul B 

Fifty-eight years of age, a Slav, from Austria, where he had 
,been a farmer, came to this country in 1889. It is not clear 
exactly what he did upon his arrival in America, but before long lie 
found employment in a wire mill where he remained five years. 



442 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Jn 1897 he got a job at a white lead works. He worked there 
.for 14 years and left about Christmas, 1910, because he was 
,110 longer able to work. His particular job in the lead works 
was the stripping of the corroding beds. (See photos Nos. 25 
and 28.) This job compelled him to empty the pots of corroded 
lead. He earned $12 per week and worked nine hours per day. 
Nine months" after he went to work in the white lead works he had 
his first attack of lead poisoning, and was out of work a month; 
at the end of that time he went back to work and worked for five 
months when he had another attack and was out of work for 
three weeks. From this time until he left the work he states that 
he worked only about half the time, and the other half he was 
disabled on account of lead poisoning. 

B spoke only a few words of English, but an intelligent 
lad interpreted. As far as could be learned the man had never 
been instructed, in any way, how to properly care for himself 
in order to prevent disease. He was accustomed, he said, to wear 
a handkerchief about his face. He was never given soap or 
towels. His breakfast usually consisted merely of coffee. So 
great is his ignorance, even after consulting physicians, that 
he ascribes the paralysis of his hands to the cold water in which 
he was accustomed to wash them at the end of his day's work. 

The old man old before his time, is a pitiable figure. He 
is a physical wreck, his gait is slow and uncertain, his cheeks 
are sunken and his face pallid. His hands are partially par- 
alyzed. He can lift weights and can move his fingers somewhat, 
but he cannot put on his coat. He has not, however, the char- 
acteristic wrist drop. 

He is practically a pauper. He gathers wood from nearby 
scrap heaps, chops and saws it, A Slav family who have taken 
pity on him permit him to sleep in a damp cellar and give him 
the scraps from the table "Not much," he says. The white 
lead company has given him nothing. A pensioner of our 
industrial G. A. R. 
Case No 2. Stephen H : 

A young Pole who had been working in the white lead mills 
for three years, 1908 to 1911. He had had several attacks of 
Jead poisoning and had left the mills a few days before he was 
seen by the investigator. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 443 

Case No. 3. George H : 

He was born in Germany, 1878. He worked in 1901 as watch- 
man for an express company. Since 1902 has worked at a ma- 
chine factory in the rope department, as a rope mender and jan- 
itor. This factory does special work for ships. Last year, 1910, 
he filled in the mast of one of the ships with white lead, he worked 
only two days on the job; soon after his left hand became weak 
and shrunken and he went to the hospital where the doctors told 
Jrim that he had lead poisoning of the nerves of the hand and 
arm. He staid in the hospital two weeks, and has used electricity 
for nearly a year with very little benefit, the arm is slightly bet- 
ter, but the hand does not improve. 

Case No. 4- Thomas S : 

Was born in America, 1859, died October 22, 1910. He had 
worked in the white lead mills for twenty-five years steadily 
and until within three days of his death he had never been ill 
enough from the lead poisoning to lose a day's work. Occasion- 
ally he had had slight stomach attacks for which he doctored him- 
self with salts. He worked in the cooperage department heading 
up barrels filled with dry white lead. He was very careful about 
.washing himself before eating and very particular about himself 
in every way. He drank beer with his meals as he thought that 
would counteract the lead poison ; he smoked a great deal. 

The only illnesses Mrs. S remembered her husband to have 
.had were smallpox in 1901 and pneumonia in 1906. His last 
illness lasted only three days, and the doctor at first thought 
it appendicitis, but decided later that it was lead colic, and death 
.was due to internal hemorrhage. 

Case No. 5. Peter P-: 

Three months, August, September and October, 1910, were 
enough to give Peter P , a " mixer " for a white lead 
.company, a dose of lead poisoning severe enough to make him 
.leave the industry. He is now picking up a precarious living 
as a longshoreman on the Brooklyn docks. His total weekly in- 
come averages about $7.50, but his health is safe, and at any rate 
he received only $8.85 from the lead company. 



444 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

Coming fresh from the farms of his native Lithuania, P 
landed here in 1909. He is a well-built, bright-eyed, intelli- 
gent man. Only the bar of language prevents his making his 
.mark in America. For a few months after landing he worked 
,as a longshoreman, his present occupation. His pay was then 
,$5 or $6 per week, according to the way work ran some days 
,he put in twelve hours, some only two ; about forty hours a week 
was the average. He had only half an hour for dinner, and was 
.almost certain of being unemployed a day or two of every week ; 
]but at any rate he never was ill. 

From sometime in the fall of 1909, until August, 1910, P 
was on the payroll of a large sugar company. 

P's third American joib was a bad one. For some- 
time in August, 1910, to the end of October, he stood for ten 
hours a day, nine hours on Saturday, over a great iron mixing 
bowl, in which water, oil and white lead were being kneaded 
,to make the white lead to be used for ship-building and paint- 
ing. The workers have to pour in the ingredients, supervise 
the mixing process, and take out the finished product. Before 
the three months were up, P was incapacitated. Severe 
cramps and colic and a slight headache fastened on him and 
.kept him from work. This and the consequent weakness lasted 
.two full months, at the end of which time, being again able to 
work, he became a farm hand on the outskirts of Brooklyn. 
Here, in a little place on K Street, he did chores and 
tended live-stock from December, 1910, until the following 
May, for $18 per month and his keep. In May he returned to 
the docks, where he now is, as described above. 

The effect of the lead poisoning, which was so diagnosed by 
the company's doctor, seems now to be gone, except that P 
complains that he is not as strong as before the attack. He 
looks, however, perfectly well. 

P says no instructions for care or cleanliness were 
ever given him in the lead shop, and that he never saw any 
instructions posted. His customary breakfast is meat, potatoes, 
bread and coffee. He uses no tobacco at all, and only 
one glass of beer daily with meals. While in the lead factory, 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 445 

Jie regularly came home to dinner at noon, living only a block 
or two from the shop, and did not eat in the workroom. At home 
he found a plentiful supply of hot water, which he used for 
washing his hands. He changed all his clothing except under- 
wear at the factory; wears a mustache but no beard. The com- 
pany provided a hot and cold water supply, and a doctor, but 
took no other precautions for their men, he says. 

Case No, 6 Julius S : 

Living in the same apartment with Peter P , previously 
described, we found Julius S , a young man of 21, whose experi- 
ence was at all points almost similar. 

S also was born in Lithuania, in the same village as 
P . He came here in 1909, and has spent the two years 
in Brooklyn. His first job in this country was with a white 
lead company. He was a stripper; that is, he stacked the steel 
" buckles " in jars, in tiers in the corroding room, and then at 
the end of the allotted 100 days went around and " stripped " 
or emptied the pots into little cars, to be hauled away to the 
next process. (See photos Nos. 14, 15 and 16.) This is one 
of the most dangerous jobs in the plant, and S held it about 
nineteen months, January, 1910, to July 1, 1911. Toward the 
end of this period he used to lose about three days every month 
due to colic, nausea and vomiting, and when his wrists began 
to show signs of paralysis he left the lead company and is now 
employed on the docks at casual labor. 

While in the lead company's employ, S's pay was $9.60 
weekly, for 59 hours' work. He had only half an hour for din- 
ner. Now his pay varies from $2 to $5 per week, and his daily 
hours vary from 1 to 6 ; but he has a full hour for dinner, is in 
the open air, and is gradually recovering from the chronic stom- 
ach trouble which his lead experience gave him. In Europe he 
was a farmer and a herdsman, and was never sick. 

S is unmarried. He says no one gave him any informa- 
tion or showed him any notice about the care of his person in 
the lead plant. Meat, bread and coffee formed his breakfast, 
and he consumed daily five cigarettes and two or three glasses 



446 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

of beer. He also came home to dinner from the shop, and washed 
his hands at home in hot water. His clothing he changed at the 
shop. He wears a mustache and no beard. 

All the precautions he knew of at the plant were hot and cold 
water and a doctor. He did not venture to suggest what might 
be added. The diagnosis of lead poisoning was made by the 
company's physician, and chronic stomach trouble still clings 
to this man. 

Case No. 7. Franz S : 

Is the father of Julius S , just described. He was not 
een because he has now returned to Europe, realizing that Amer- 
ica was " no good " for him, but his son furnished full 
information. 

Franz was the first of the two to come to this country. He 
arrived from Lithuania, where he had been a cattle herder and 
horseman, in 1908; he at once secured work with a white lead 
company, and the following year sent for his son. 

The father was no more fortunate than the son. He also was 
a stripper, in the corroding beds of the lead plant. His pay was 
$9.60, his hours ten a day, nine on Saturday, with half an hour 
for dinner. At this job. the only one he ever held in America, 
he stayed about three years. He lost from two to four days 
every month from lead colic, headache and vomiting spells; 
his wrists also began to grow weak and numb. Finally, in Oc- 
tober, 1911, three months after his son left the lead works for 
the docks, the older man sailed back to his family and his native 
land. He is now reported to be doing well. 

According to the son, no warnings or instructions were given 
to his father in the shop any more than to himself. The older 
man wore a mustache, but no beard, never touched either alcohol 
pr tobacco, always washed in hot water before eating, and made 
a regular breakfast on coffee and rolls. He came home for din- 
ner, and there is no indication of any non-industrial cause for 
his illness. In his case, also, it was the factory physician who 
made the diagnosis of the lead poisoning. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 447 

Case No. 8. Samuel B : 

, The neighborhood, about two of the plants which are located 
.near together, is filled with lead poisoning cases. One can hardly 
,walk without stumbling into them. A map dotted with a red 
pin for every case would look like the tuberculosis map of the 
New York " Lung Block." Thus the three cases just recounted 
were all found at the same address, and in the same apartment. 
, While searching another house, only a block away from the 
.place where the last three cases were found, for a man whose 
.record we had, but who seemed to have moved and left no trace, 
the present case was located. Samuel B is a huge, pallid- 
laced youth, with only a few words of English at his command. 
,His wife, smaller, bright-eyed and vivacious, acted as interpre- 
ter, and when she had done this service, piloted the investigator 
two doors further up the street, to the home of a fellow workman 
of her husband's, who had been down with the colic just the 
week previous. 

B was born in Poland, 1885, his parents being Polish 
Catholics, of the town of Prasnis. There at the age of fourteen 
Samuel started to learn the trade of carriage making. He con- 
fined himself entirely to the wood-working part of this industry, 
turning out parts for the vehicles, and assembling them, but never 
doing any painting on them. He kept at this work for eight 
years, earning $2 (4 rubles) a week, for twelve hours a day, 
seventy-two per week, with one hour off for dinner. He lost no 
time, either through illness or slack work. 

In July, 1907, B came to America, and at once went into 
the employ of the white lead company, where he became a stripper. 
A' stripper's duties are to stack the lead buckles in jars over 
weak acetic acid, and stack these jars in tiers in long rooms, the 
.floors of which are spread with tan-bark. When the corrosion 
has suitably advanced, after 100 days or so, the stripper takes 
.down the stacks and empties out the white lead which has formed 
in crumbly cakes and powder. B 's pay for this work was 
$9.60 per week, for 59 hours. He was given only the inade- 
quate time of half an hour for dinner. He lost no time through 
.slack work, but every year was incapacitated from one to two 
weeks. 



448 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

The nature of the incapacity was the usual one with lead 
workers; severe cramps, colic, constipation, vomiting and loss 
of appetite. B has been in this place now for four years, 
and has had four separate attacks, all with the identical symp- 
,toms. These attacks came from eight to sixteen months apart, 
pnd lasted each from five to fourteen days. 

This workman married in 1908, while working at lead. He 
.has since had two children, a boy and a girl, who look pale and 
.ill-nourished, as would be expected when the pettiness of his 
pay is considered, but show no specific signs of lead poisoning. 
His wife, 22 years old, is plump and wholesome. 

" No ! " was the answer of both B and his wife when 
asked about warnings or signs in the factory. He does not eat 
.there, coming home to dinner. At meals he drinks two glasses 
,of beer per day; he chews almost continuously, and every day 
smokes from five to ten cigarettes. Two cups of coffee make up 
.his breakfast. He " sometimes " washes before eating, in cold 
water, and does not change his clothes either in the factory or 
at home. He is clean-shaven. 

The factory doctor made the lead poisoning diagnosis. He 
knows of no permanent effect from his many attacks, but his face 
is pale almost to lividness, marking probable an extreme anemia. 

Case No. 9. Paulus M : 

This is the man to whom the wife of B led the investi- 
gator when she had completed her husband's record. 

He is a much different type of a man, smaller, more energetic, 
and also more nervous. He also works in the plant of a whife 
Jead company, where he is a furnace hand. His duties, as near as 
they could be made out from his gesticulating description, are to 
put the lead pigs into a melting pot, stir them up, skim off the 
dross, and run the lead out into the flat " buckles," of which the 
white lead is made. He works alternate weeks on the day and 
night shift. On the day shift he puts in ten hours daily, nine 
on Saturday, and gets $12 per week. On the night shift he gets 
$13.20, but has to put in thirteen hours a night to get it. On 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 4-49 

both shifts his lunch time is one-half hour. About two weeks a 
year are lost through slack time. 

M has held his present job ever since coming' to the 
country, in October, 1903. For five years he withstood the dan- 
gers of his occupation. Suddenly, in 1909, he was taken with 
terrible headaches, cramps, weight on chest, constipation and stiff- 
ness of the legs. This lasted a week. He took medical treat- 
ment and worked about a year before he had another attack. In 

1910, however, he lost another week in the same way. In the 
present year he has lost four weeks at various times, and to the 
foregoing symptoms has been added a doubling up of the fingers, 
which he cannot straighten. When interviewed on December 18, 

1911, he had just lost from Monday to Saturday of the preceding 
week through an attack. He showed the investigator a bottle of 
medicine bearing the name of the company doctor, and told of his 
conversation with the latter about staying out of work for the 
week. Yet this man's name was not on a list furnished by the 
physician, and said by him to contain all the cases he had had 
during the year. 

M was born in Poland in 1872. From 1889 to August, 
,1903, he worked on his father's farm, the usual " stint " being 
from ten to sixteen hours. He reports no illness during this 
.period. He married in 1900. His wife was born in 1872, and 
(has had four children. The third of these, a girl, was born in 
1905, and died the same year of summer complaint. The other 
three are alive and fairly healthy. 

No instructions were given him, he says, on going to work in 
the plant, and he knows of no warning notices. Bread, butter and 
coffee are his breakfast; he uses no tobacco, but takes a glass or 
two of beer daily. He comes home to dinner, and washes in hot 
water before sitting down to the table. He also is careful to 
change his clothes in the factory. He has a mustache and no 
freard. The doctor and hot and cold water are the only factory 
precautions he knows to be in use; wash rooms, lunch rooms, 
soap and towels he thinks would be good things. 

The company physician diagnosed this man's case as lead poi- 
soning. Weakne&s and anemia are the results of his repeated 
attacks. 

15 



450 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Case No. 10. Nathan G-: 

On February 27, 1910, the hospital ambulance clattered up to 
a houee on W street^ Brooklyn. The ambulance surgeou 
found Nathan G suffering from acute lead poisoning, but, 
after treating him, advised the victim to wait a day and then walk 
to the hospital himself if he was still in pain. 

This program was followed; on February 28th G was 
.admitted to the hospital, remained there until March 7th, and 
was discharged " recovered but anemic." The attack had in 
fact begun in a mild form two weeks before; then came an inter- 
val of quiescence, and finally the crucial pain that led to the ambu- 
Jance call. No lead line was found on the patient's gums by the 
.hospital staff, but his case was definitely set down as lead 
poisoning. 

G seems to be a sort of rolling stone in industry, having 
had innumerable jobs, keeping each but a short while. Tailoring, 
shoemaking and harnessmaking are his main lines; the cobbler's 
.trade he learned in Poland, between 1895 and 1903, and has now 
for a time resumed it. On these casual jobs he earns from 
$6 to $9 or $10 per week. 

It was in December, 1909, that he became a white lead worker. 
At his job he was called a " mixer," i. e., he mixed the lead car- 
bonate with oil and water to make the commercial white lead. In 
the three months or less that followed he got his " leading." He 
Jeft the white lead works for the hospital, and has never gone 
back. At present he is cobbling shoes on 42d street, New York. 

While in the white lead works G got $9.60 per week for 
,59 hours, with a half hour for dinner. His symptoms when 
taken ill were cramps, colic, vomiting and loss of appetite. He is 
unmarried. He says he was instructed in the factory to be care- 
ful to wash his hands and keep out of the dust all he could. He 
remembers no notices on the walls. His breakfast consisted of 
coffee and rolls; two or three glasses of beer a day is his allow- 
ance, with a finger of whisky occasionally, and he smokes about 
ten cigarettes daily. He disregarded, it seems, the warning to 
wash, and very seldom cleaned his hands before dinner, for which 
jhe used to come home from the shop. He wears a mustache, but 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 451 

no beard. II<- speak- of lockers for the men's clothing in the 
plant. 

He was born in Poland in 1883, came to America in 1903, and 
has lived all eight years in New York and Brooklyn. 

Cane No. 11. Alex P : 

This man was found at his home, two blocks away from this 
lead factory where he was poisoned, while the investigator was 
looking for another victim of lead in the same house. 

P , while of middle age, is pale, sallow and hollow- 
chested, almost a wreck ; but the most interesting thing about his 
case is that of his eight children, the four born in 1903, 1904, 
1905 and 1906, respectively, were either born dead or died of 
inanition in the first half week of their lives. The mother, an 
over-fleshy person below middle height, does not seem to have any 
of the symptoms of lead poisoning, but the four successive infant 
fatalities are very significant. All four deaths occurred while the 
father was working as a stripper in the white lead works. 

The father has had two distinct and emphatic attacks of plumb- 
issin. The first, in November, 1910, kept him in bed for two 
weeks. He recovered under treatment, returned to stripping, 
and four months later, in March, 1911, was brought down with a 
more malignant attack. This time he again spent two weeks in 
bed, but was compelled to remain out of work, convalescing, for 
six weeks longer, so slowly did his strength return. His weight 
fell from 1GO to 140 pounds. 

This worker is a Catholic, born in Poland in 1871. At the 
"age of 12 he began working on his father's farm, in the village of 
Braznis. He stayed there for eight years, and in November, 
1891, came to America. Oil this side he first found work in the 
cooperage plant at Bayonne, N. J. 

Moving in 1897, to Brooklyn, this man worked fourteen years, 
until March, 1911, as a stacker and stripper for a white lead 
company. This is the most dangerous part of the white lead 
process, but P seem> to have withstood it a long time. 
Finally, in November, 1910, he came down with a terrible case of 
colic, semi-paralysis of hands and feet, terribly swollen legs and 



452 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

.hands, and excruciating pains all over the body. Not taking 
warning by the experience, he returned to the corroding beds after 
two weeks' illness, and in March was seized with the attack which 
finally made him realize that that shop was no place for him. 
The seizure was identical with the first, except that it weakened 
him more, and he was full two months getting on his feet again. 

While at this poisonous work P 's pay was $12 per week for 
59 hours' work, with a half hour for lunch. 

From May till August, 1911, the convalescent was unable to 
find employment. In the latter month he was taken on as a por- 
ter in an office building, on lower Broadway. Here lie sweeps 
and washes floor, polishes brass fixtures and other coarse work. 
His hours are twelve a day, seventy-two a week, with one hour 
for lunch; pay, $10. 

P 's wife was born in 1878. Besides the four children 
who have been mentioned as dying within four days after birth, 
and who were all boys, she has had four more, all of whom are 
alive and of fair physique, perhaps somewhat inclined to over- 
fleshiness, like their mother, with the exception of the one boy, 
who is small and " old " looking. The girls are 16, 12, 10, re- 
spectively, the boy 13. 

Instructions were given to the man for taking care of himself 
in the shop, but he says he saw no signs. His regular breakfast 
was coffee, bread and butter. He does not drink at all, and 
smokes only one paper of tobacco a week, in corn-cob pipe. He 
always came home to dinner, and washed his hands in hot water. 
He changed his clothes in the factory, and wears a mustache but no 
beard. 

In the factory were hot and cold water, respirators for some of 
the men, and a doctor. He would have liked to have added lunch 
rooms, wash rooms, decent toilets and lockers. 

Case No. 12.Thaddeus K-: 

Living in the same miserable cellar single-room apartment, sleep- 
ing in the same bed with his friend Milkas, Thaddeus K was 
discovered, as ex-employee of a lead company. 

K is now lugging sugar barrels on the Brooklyn docks for 
from $10 to $12 per week of about 63 hours on the average. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 453 

His statement that he gets only one-half hour for dinner is at vari- 
ance with that of other lead victims now working on the 
docks. Perhaps he cuts his meal hour down in order to put in 
over-time. Before going on the docks this man worked for five 
years, from August, 1906, to October, 1911, with several short 
interruptions, as a stacker and stripper in the corroding beds of 
the white lead plant. His pay during this time was $9.60 for 59 
hours per week, one-half hour for dinner. From the time of his 
immigration, May 1905, until becoming a lead worker later in 
the same year, K worked on the sugar docks, 60 hours weekly, 
for about $9.50. 

During his lead factory life this man had two acute attacks of 
lead illness, one in 1910, costing him two weeks' work, and one 
in 1911, costing him three weeks' work. The symptoms both 
times were the same: arms and fingers partly paralyzed, pains 
in head and stomach, muscular and articular pains in the legs and 
especially in the knees. 

While married six years, this man has no children, having left 
Jhis wife behind when he came over, the very year of his marriage. 
No instructions as to personal care were given him or posted in 
the lead factory that he knows of. Coffee, bread and sometimes 
meat made his breakfast, and the same, with two or three glasses 
of beer, made his supper. He never uses tobacco. Lunch was 
taken in the work-room, and was always preceded by a thorough 
washing in cold water, the only kind the factory provided. He 
always changed his outer clothing before leaving the factory. No 
other than an industrial cause can be held responsible for this 
man's illness. 

Case No. 13. Frank W-: 

Coming from St. Philips' Parish, Barbadoes, where he had been 
a school teacher, to New York in 1906, Frank W , a negro, 
found work at a factory where red lead or lead oxide is made, and 
stayed there nearly five years, until he was so thoroughly leaded 
that he could not stand it any longer. Then he left it and has 
been unemployed ever since. 

W was a porter at the lead works; he carried bundles of 
dry lead from the shop to the delivery trucks outside. Once in a 



4f>4 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

while he did some packing and wrapping, but this was not his 
work. At the beginning of his employment there he got $9 per 
week, later $12, the time remained 59 hours per week, 10 per 
day, one-half hour for dinner. 

W 's lead poisoning showed itself by cramps in the stom- 
ach, weakness of the wrists and fingers, also of the ankles and 
legs, and vomiting. He had three acute attacks, losing thereby 
one week in 1908, two years after beginning the work, two weeks 
in 1910, and two weeks more in May, 1911, when he decided to 
leave the industry. 

He has one child, a girl, born this year, who, he says, is sound 
and well. 

W is a very well-read and intelligent man, a West Indian 
negro of culture. How he comes to be working in a lead factory 
is quite inexplicable. He conversed freely in excellent English 
about the plant and its conditions. According to him, he was 
carefully warned how to care for and clean himself from the lead, 
and he says the whole factory is placarded with warning notices. 
Before going to work this man used always to breakfast on coffee, 
eggs and bread ; once in a while, very rarely, he smokes a cigar or 
takes a little beer. Most of the time he ate in the work-room, 
washing his hands with warm water and soap powder, and changed 
his clothes before leaving the shop. He is clean shaven. 

According to W , the lead factory is fitted with vend 
lation hoods, exhaust fans, wash-rooms, soap, towels, hot and cold 
water, lockers and respirators, besides a doctor; perhaps the fact 
that he wns not in the actual manufacturing part of the plant 
gave him superior accommodations to those of the majority of the 
employees. 

His case was diagnosed as lead poisoning by the company'- 
physician. The only after-effect is a long-continued weakness. 

Case No 1 . Thomas 0: 

He is a young man of 22, a Polish Catholic, round-faced and 
rather ruddy. He has been in this country only since August, 
1911, and all that time has worked at the docks of a lead com- 
pany. He became badly frightened as the investigation pro- 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 455 

gressed, and seemed like a man who has told something he was 
ordered to keep secret. Some other men employed by this same 
company, and visited the same day as he, refused to talk at all, 
and even tried to conceal their identity when they found out what 
was wanted. 

In Poland O was a farmer. Here, since August, his 
work has been to unload lead pigs from the barges tied up at the 
company's docks, and load them into wagons, which cart them to 
one or the other of the company's plants. He works ten hours 
a day, 59 hours per week, one-half hour for dinner, and receives 
$9.00. He has lost no time on account of illness, but has com- 
plained of pains in stomach and loss of appetite. These symptoms 
were strongest early last November, and he has at present a 
bottle of medicine bearing the name of the company's physician, 
who, he says, minimized his ailment and said that it would 
'' soon go away." 

The young man is unmarried. He says he was not instructed 
in care of the person at the shop, and never saw any notices doing 
so. His ordinary breakfast consists of meat and potatoes; he 
touches neither tobacco nor alcohol in any form. He comes home 
from the shop to dinner, and washes in cold water before eating. 
He changes his clothes at home at night, after work, and is clean 
shaven. Cold water and a doctor are all the precautions the fac- 
tory takes, he says. 

In his case lead must have been taken into the system, if at all, 
by putting the hands to the mouth after handling the lead pigs, 
with their fine coatings of oxide. 

Case No. 15. Antonio M : 

M wa- born in Italy in 1878; came to America in 1897. 
In 1907 he married an Italian girl who came to America when 
she was two years old. The couple have had two children, one of 
whom is dead; the baby, a boy of two, is well and strong. A 
worked in the white lead mills in 1902, and later came back to 
the mills three years ago, 1908. He has worked there, off and on, 
during the last three years. Three months ago he went to the 
hospital with wrist-drop in both hands and general weakness ; he 



456 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

.stayed there two months and then came home stronger, but the 
hands were unimproved. He is thin but has a good color and 
eems strong; his teeth are good and he has a slight blue line on 
the gums ; his hands, however, make him quite helpless. / 

Mrs. M isi working in a handkerchief factory, where she 
earns $5 per week, on which the family live. 

Case No 16. John 8 : 

This man came to this country in the month of October, 1902. 
He is a Pole, from Russia-Poland, and is 35 years of age. He 
has been married seven years and has three children, bright 
youngsters they are, too, two boys and a girl. 
, The investigator found him one sharp, cold Sunday, huddled 
pver the oven of a cook stove, which was one of the few articles 
pf furniture in a single room where he lived. His face was white 
and drawn, he was bent over like an old man, but despite the 
.deadening disease, a man of considerable aggressiveness, intelli- 
gence and vigor could be distinguished. When he first came to 
this country he worked for the S Co., and he stayed 
.there over five and one-half years. He then, probably for the 
higher wages which this work offered, went to a white lead factory, 
where he went to work in the drying room (see photo No. 4), and 
he received $13.50 per week. His work consisted of raking over 
.the white lead, as it stood in solution in the drying pans (see photo 
No. 4) and shoveling it into the automatic conveyor, when it was 
dry. S worked here for eight months, when he was 
taken sick with lead poisoning and was out of work on that account 
,for three months. He went back to the dry room, and in three 
months he again had a severe attack. This time he was out for 
,two months, and spent about 15 days at Bellevue Hospital. Again 
,he went back to the lead works, this time he was given a handy 
job about the yard, which he held for 11 months, without any bad 
effects, when he was transferred to the lead presser. He was only 
on this job for two months when he was again stricken and out of 
work for four months. 

It seems strange to us, perhaps, that a man will continue at a 
work which has caused him much misery, but we find this man 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 457 

going back to it even another time. This time he took a job as 
furnaceman, on the oxidizing furnaces. Here his job was to rake 
.over the lead in the furnace. He was subjected to both the dust 
and the fumes of the burning lead. After nine months at this 
work, he was again leaded, and has not been able to work since, 
wnich, at the time of writing, is three weeks. 
, This man's loss of wages since he started to work for the lead 
.company, in May, 1908, has amounted to almost $500, out of a 
yearly wage of, at best, slightly over $600. 

The superintendent of this factory told the inspector that when 
a man showed the first sign of being leaded he was told to seek 
work elsewhere, and yet this man has been allowed to return time 
and time again. In fact, he has been invited to return, and in 
the last week two messengers have been sent to ask him to come 
back to work. 

('axe No. 17 John K : 

This man, in the factory, goes under the name of" " John 
]\I ," because they can't #pell his name, is a Russian-Pole, 
who has been in this country since 1904. Evidently he was 
prosperous at first and got married almost at once. He has one 
little girl, six years old, and a baby, born only two months ago, 
died within two weeks of the birth. John was at that time in 
the lead works. He is only 25 years of age. 
, Before working as a lead worker he had held a large number 
of jobs, the oil works, box factory, etc., but had never been sick. 
Jn August, 1911, however, he went to the lead company, where he 
was employed in the presser. Here he earned a little more than 
he had ever earned before, $12 per week. The S Co. 
.thought he was only worth $10.50. In November, after working 
in the lead three months, he had a severe attack of lead colic and 
was out a week, but went back to the job. A month later he had 
another attack, and then, as he said, he "chucked the job." A 
month later, however (January 7) he had still marked evidences 
of his leaded condition. His hands were still weak, his appear- 
ance anemic and he was still unemployed. 



458 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

At the factory he was never instructed as to the dangers. He 
ays he saw placards in the plant, which he thinks were instruc- 
tions, but he could not read them. He drinks moderately. He 
was permitted to eat where he worked and did not always get a 
.chance to wash, and then only with cold water. 

John says he is not going back to that job again. 

Case No. 18. Frank P-: 

He came to America from Russia-Poland in 1901. He married 
in 1906. He has four stepchildren and a daughter of his own. 
He is 30 years of age. 

After having had a number of jobs, in various places, mostly in 
Long Island City, he went to work for a white lead company. His 
job was at the press. Here he worked for six months, when he 
was seized with his first attack of lead poisoning, and was out 
for two months. Again he went back to the same job, and he was 
again taken down with the poison. This time he lost about two 
weeks' work. He is back on the job working at the press, where 
Jie has now been for about four months. He has a lead line on 
,the gums which is very marked and his wife says he has con- 
stantly recurring attacks of a serious character. 

Like the other workmen in this plant, P has not been in- 
structed or warned. He smokes little, drinks a little, eats almost 
no breakfast, and is doing nothing of a definite character to pre- 
vent a recurrence of the attacks. He can't speak much English, 
but is bright and intelligent, and would doubtless be able to com- 
prehend the dangers and properly safeguard himself if he was 
properly instructed in his own language. 

Case No. 19. Aleck P : 

Aleck is a brother of Frank of the same name, whose case is 
given as No. 18. He has not yet been in this country a year, 
is a fine young fellow, age 21 years, but \vith almost no knowl- 
edge of English. 

The first job he got when he came to this country was as a 
stripper of the corroding beds of a white lead factory. (See 
photos, 2 and 2b.) He got $10.50 at this work, a considerable 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 459 

wage for him, and he held his job for two months. He was then 
taken with a slight attack of lead colic, which kept him out of 
work for about a week. Aleck then got a job on a farm, where 
he only earned $15 a month, but where he regained his health, as 
js evident from his healthy color. He came back from the farm 
and found work at a terra cotta works, where he says he did every- 
thing around the place, and was healthy at it, but he only got $9, 
and that $10.50 at the lead works worried him, and so he is back 
.there again now, has been working there one week. He is not 
working on the corroding beds, but is packing red lead in barrels. 
(See photo No. 11.) He shows no signs of being leaded. He has 
a perfectly healthy, even ruddy, complexion, but in view of his 
previous slight attack of colic, it is only a question of time at this 
job until he will again be leaded and will be as sick a man as his 
.brother. 

He has been given no instructions, drinks a little, smokes a 
little. His breakfast consists of cakes and coffee. He eats his 
lunch where he works, sometimes after washing, sometimes not: 
all he has to wash with is cold water. 

>c No. 20. Leonard V> : 

He is at present experiencing a bad attack of lead poisoning, 
which he contracted while under the employ of a company manu- 
facturing magnetos. Mr. B is a married man, 46 years 
of age, and has five children. These children are all in school 
except one. Mr. and Mrs. B have been married 19 years. 
They are of German parentage. Mr. B came to the United 
States 29 years ago; 'Mrs. B. 25 years ago. Mr. B left the 
factory on June 24th last (1911), when he was so leaded that it 
was impossible for him to work. He was with the company for 
seventeen months. His work during most of this time was " har- 
dening magnetos," a process which consists of plunging the piece 
of steel into molten lead, heated to a very high temperature (he 
says over 1,400 degrees), holding the magneto in the hot lead for 
a few seconds, and then taking it out and plunging it into a barrel 
of water. While standing over the fumes one inhales them, both 
through the mouth and nose. Mr. B 's teeth are spoiled 
and his gums are in a bad condition. During the first 12 months 



460 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

of this work he was in a large upstairs room, where there were 
many windows, and these were all kept open, and where the work 
was done with gas, not lead. At that time he said he had no 
trouble, but later when this work was moved downstairs into a 
.smaller room, where there was practically no ventilation, several 
of the workers experienced severe attacks of lead poisoning one 
of the victims, he thinks, is dying. When he felt the effects of the 
lead he asked for other work he then tried matching magnetos 
together, but this kept him in the same room, and his arms were 
soon in such a condition that it was impossible for him to use 
them. 

His attack commenced with vomiting now his wrists and 
hands are almost useless. After he left, some exhaust pipes were 
put in, but he thinks they are not giving satisfaction. He has 
Improved much, so that he now holds a position as night watch- 
man. He is on duty from 5 p. m. to 7 a. m., but says he can sit 
quietly most of the time. For this he receives $2 per night ; 
,when employed by the magneto company he received $2.50 per 
.day, a nine hour day, working six days a week, with the exception 
of the hottest weather, when the plant was closed on Saturday 
afternoons. Twice he has been back to the company since he 
left, to see if they would do anything for him. He hoped they 
would make him a loan, and that he could work it out later. They 
,told him there was no use in his coming there if he could not 
work. He showed them his condition they told him he ought 
not to have come there to work at all if he could not stand it. 
He says he was in good health before this that he weighed 194 
pounds when he went to work in the factory; now he weighs 154 
pounds. He smokes a pipe after his meals, but uses tobacco in 
no other form. He drank some beer occasionally with his lunch, 
but has no money for beer now. While he was employed in the 
factory they allowed him one-half hour for lunch ; this was brought 
to him from home, and was sometimes hot. He ate outside, sit- 
ting on the ground against the fence. He has no trade, and has 
never been employed in connection with lead at any other time 
in his life. For three months previous to the period of his em- 
ployment with the magneto company he was employed in driving 
a coal truck. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 461 

Case No. 21. William D: 

I) was born in 1875, and his wife in 1876. They have 
six children, from three weeks to ten years of age. Mrs. D 
has had no miscarriages. During the time that he was employed 
at the lead works he earned $15 per week. Previous to his em- 
ployment at the magneto factory he was for almost two years in 
positions where.he came more or less in contact with lead. For a 
couple of weeks before getting this job he was a sealer on a 
railroad where he used lead solder. However, the conditions were 
sanitary, ventilation ample when working indoors. He had no 
effects from the lead whatever. Previous to this he was em- 
ployed as a foreman in a metal working factory, where he had 
about 18 men under him. 

He smokes and drinks occasionally and uses whiskey when he 
feels like it. He is not a hard drinker. He wore a mustache at 
the time of the interview. He was evidently in a weakened con- 
dition and showed a trace of the lead line ; his complexion was sal- 
low and his face and fingers thin. 

D went to work in the magneto factory early in March, 
1911. He was put to work in the hardening room, where his 
work consisted of putting bent bars of steel into a bath of molten 
lead. There were five lead pots in the room, which were heated 
to different temperatures according to the temper desired. 
After having been heated a sufficient length of time, he would 
remove the red hot bars from the bath of molten lead, pass them 
over to another man, who immersed them in a barrel of water, 
which stood nearby. They were then passed on to a third man, 
who tested them by knocking sharply on them with a steel rod. 
Another man rubbed them vigorously after they had been piled 
one upon another about a wooden tree, in order to remove any 
remaining particles. When D first went to work here there 
were no hoods over the lead pots, such as are to be seen in photo- 
graph aSTo. 61. In fact, lie helped to put up these hoodis. The 
room in which the work was done is a long, low room, a sort of a 
shed, slightly below the surface of the ground. It is about sixty 
feet long and about eight feet wide. There are four windows, 
about five feet by three, along one side. There is a fan near the 



462 OCCUPATIONAL, DISKASKS. 

ceiling at one end, and an opening at the other. The roof is 
raised about one foot to let out the air. On the whole, however, 
on account of the intense heat, the furnaces, oil-fed under 1 1 
pounds pressure, varying from 1,400-1,800 degress, the room wa= 
poorly ventilated. 

D was not warned of any dangers in connection with the 
work. In fact, when other men became ill, he was told that their 
illness was caused by the heat. 

. Although he shortly began to feel ill, he declared that he had 
never let a job get the best of him before, and he decided to stick 
to it. This he did. He also states that he hoped for promotion, 
.which was held out to him. Early in June he was taken sick and 
.remained at home for a day and a half. He could keep nothing 
in his stomach and had severe cramps. He returned to work and 
was put on a different job for a couple of days, but when he was 
slightly better he was again sent to the lead pots. He tried an- 
other week, and then he was laid up with another very severe attack 
which lasted a week. The symptoms were the same. The ordi- 
nary remedies which he secured at the druggists were of no avail. 
He had not consulted a doctor. At the end of this week he 
returned to work, but stayed at it only a day and a half, when he 
was forced to leave on account of his condition (July 6, 1911). 
Meanwhile he had informed himself of the nature of his disease 
and decided to leave before getting any worse. He then con- 
sulted a doctor, who confirmed his belief that he had lead poison- 
ing. When D entered the job he weighed about 180 pounds; 
when he left, scarcely four months later, he weighed 128 pounds. He 
had a distinct and heavy lead line on the gums; was weak and 
unable to do any effective work. Until September 29th he was 
unemployed, largely because his physical condition made it im- 
possible. He then went to work in some brick work, which he 
found so difficult that he had to give it up. He is now doing odd 
jobs, such as insurance collector; because of this illness he has 
failed to get a job as a waiter, because his appearance led peoplo 
to believe he had consumption. 

Mr. D is a man of evidently more than usual mental 
calibre, and knows what he is talking about. His testimony was 
straight and concise. 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 463 

Case No. 22. Willis W: 

An American, of native parentage, he was born in 1863. Dur- 
ing his young manhood he followed the sea. Later he gave up 
climbing masts and halyards and climbed the frames of great steel 
buildings. He began as a structural iron worker in those days 
when structural iron workers made only $2.75 per day. In the 
spring of 1910 he became mate on a little tug boat plying the 
Harlem river, and from this job, early in April, he went to work 
for the magneto factory. His work there was in the hardening 
room, where he put the steel magnetos into a bath of molten lead, 
and when they were white-hot, withdrew them and plunged them 
into a barrel of water. From the first he recognized the dangers 
and guarded against them. He took epsom salts every other day. 
In spite of his precautions he lost weight, falling from 212 pounds 
to 174; he also lost his appetite. Early in July he was taken 
with severe pains in the lower part of the abdomen and went home 
for half a day. After two or three weeks he had another attack, 
this time very much more severe, and he remained at home and in 
bed for 3^ days. He then went back to work for only a few 
days. He was not entirely incapacitated, but was considerably 
weakened. In fact when the investigator saw him some six 
months later he had only partially recovered his weight and vigor. 

Before his attacks W helped to erect hoods which now pro- 
tect these pots, and also to put in the exhaust ventilating fan 
and to raise the roof. These changes bettered conditions but did 
not by any means eliminate the danger. 

W received no pay for this time he was ill and was later 
refused a job at anything other than the lead pots. 

Case No. 28. James C : 

A young Irishman, 33 years of age, was out with his eight- 
months-old daughter and his four-year-old son when the inspector 
came upon him. He still showed marked effects of lead poison- 
ing, and his fairly big frame looked gaunt and thin, and he was 
slightly stooped. His wife, an enthusiastic, bright and jolly per- 
son, joined us and helped out with accurate dates and figures. 



464 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

C- - was formerly employed as an inspector of meat in one 
of the big packing houses, but left that job after a severe attack 
of blood poisoning, caused by a scratch from a rotten ham bone. 
He then found employment, in the spring of 1909, in the magneto 
factory. He was employed as a hardener ; the process used was a 
gas one, and although there was one small lead pot, it was only 
used occasionally, and^then only for warming the metal. In 
December, however, the process was changed, and five lead pots 
,were installed, in which the magnetos were heated to a white heat 
and then dashed into a barrel of water. The place selected was a 
low half-basement shed, with few windows and no ventilators. 
C 's job was to put the magnetos in the lead and then remove 
.them. The pots at that time were unhooded. He worked on this 
job from December 13th to April 15th. During this time he lost 
weight steadily ; pains in the abdomen were constant, his face took 
on a yellowish hue, and his gums exhibited a marked blue line. 
Finally he was forced to go to bed, and his physician at once pro- 
nounced it lead poisoning. He was out of work for H 1 /^ weeks, 
and his doctor's bills, medicines and special expenses amounted 
to about $75. He received no compensation, nor were his bills or 
lost wages paid. His wages at this job had been $15 per week 
and he had worked 54 hours per week. During that time he had 
also put in considerable overtime. After his illness he went back 
to the magneto company, where he was given a job at the same 
wages he had been earning before that time. 

Case No. 24 William C : 

A "furnace man," making red and yellow oxides of lead, is 
William C . Since the beginning of last March he has had 
three separate attacks of lead poisoning. 

, The first of these attacks was in March, and lasted one week; 
the second began in April, and lasted five weeks ; and the third in 
November, cost him two weeks eight weeks in all lost in less 
than a year, due to an almost wholly, if not quite, preventible 
industrial disease. The symptoms each time were about the same. 
They included cramps in the abdomen, weight on chest, vomiting 
and partial paralysis of the wrist. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 465 

C was born in Lithuania in 1877. His parents were 
.Lithuanian Catholics. He worked there for some years as a farm 
,hand and later as a railroad section laborer, and in February, 
1904, migrated to America. For four years and a month from 
that date he worked for the A S and C Co. on J street, 
Brooklyn, lugging sugar and coffee on the company's docks. 
He received $10 for from 60 to 72 hours work per week, the 
day varying from 10 to 12 hours, with 1 hour for lunch. From 
5 to 10 weeks were lost yearly through slack time, and once he was 
,out 11 weeks with a foot crushed by dropping a heavy plank on 
it but had no other disability resulting from his work. 

Between March, 1908, and October, 1910, C was a dock 
worker for the W S Co. in Brooklyn, and sometimes in New 
York. Here his time was much more irregular, so that, counting 
up the days and half days, he lost about 20 weeks per year. While 
the day's work was supposed to be set at 10 hours, sometimes he 
could put in no more than that in a whole week other weeks, 
again, he put in 60. His pay thus ran from $3 to $18 per week. 
Xo illness was reported for this period. 

Finally, being laid off on the docks, he was taken on at the red lead 
or lead oxide works, where he now is. His work is to place the lead 
pigs, weighing from 105 to 150 pounds, in the furnace and rake 
them over at regular intervals until the proper degree of oxidation 
,has been reached, when he removes the red and yellow powder. 
(See photos 29, 30 and 31.) This is a very dusty part of the 
work, and it did not take the worker long to get " leaded " at it. 
.There are two shifts on this work, which alternate weekly. On 
the day shift the men do 10 hours daily, or 58 in the week. The 
night shift is 13 hours, making 78 in the week. On the day shift 
the pay comes out to $12 a week ; at night to $19.60. One hour is 
given, C says, for dinner. He has lost no time through slack 
work, but the above-mentioned eight weeks through illness. 

C- - is single. Instructions were given him, he says, when 
he went into the lead works. He was told to wash carefully, keep 
out of the dust all he could, and keep his finger nails clean. There 
were no warnings posted in the plant, according to him. In the 
jnorning he usually had no appetite and made a meagre breakfast 
on a cup or two of coffee. He doesn't smoke or chew, but takes 



466 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

three or four glasses of beer every day ; rarely a glass of whiskey. 
He is in the habit of eating in the work-room, first washing his 
hands in cold water. He changes all his outer clothing in the 
shop. He recommends hot and cold water in the factory, wash- 
rooms, lockers, and a doctor ; beyond these he has no suggestions for 
protective measures. 

Case No. 25. Michael K : 

K has been in this country five years and practically all 
this time has been employed as a furnace man at the lead oxide 
works. In that time he has had no less than ten attacks of lead 
poisoning, the first one in 1908, two years after taking up the 
work, and the last only a week or two ago, in December, 1911. 
This last attack kept him seven days from work ; the others kept 
him out from two days to two weeks. 

K is a Lithuanian Catholic, born in 1885. From 1899 
until 1906 he worked on his father's land, tending the crops and 
taking care of the livestock. In November of 1906 he thought to 
better his fortunes and set sail for America. 

, T.he first job he took was that of furnace man, raking hot pigs 
of lead over and over until they were properly oxidized for lead 
litharge and red lead. He works one week by night and one week 
by day, doing thirteen hours daily on the former, ten on the lat- 
ter. On night work his pay is $17.16, on the day shift only 
,$11.60. One hour is allowed for lunch. 

, For the first year and a half the work was uninterrupted. Then 
came a lull, and, to fill in, K took work as a dock laborer with 
the A S and C Co., which has a large plant on the Brooklyn 
water front at Jay street. His time here was very irregular, 
varying from 8 to 16 hours per day, and his pay only averaged 
about $10 per week. Work at the lead factory picking up again, 
he left the docks before the month was over, returned to his 
furnaces in July, 1907, and has been there ever since except 
for his ten attacks of plumbism. 

His symptoms he describes as pains and weight on the stomach, 
headaches and cramps in the knees. Four years ago he weighed 
185, now 165. He is a tall, fine-looking young fellow, however, 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 407 

and does nut show any visible signs of illness. He married in 
,3910 and has one child, a boy, who is plump but pallid. His wife 
^kides him for staying in the lead works, saying " he's sick all 
the time," but he replies that is all he knows how to do. and must 
stick at it if they are not all to suffer. 

He says the foreman at the works warned him of the dangers 
and gave him careful instructions for self -protection. He also 
,Niys that there were signs tacked up in the factory, but none in 
.Lithuanian, which is the only language he can read. His break- 
fast usually consists of coffee and bread. He smokes about four 
cigarettes daily and drinks from two to five glasses of beer. He 
frequently eats in the work-room, but sometimes comes home to 
dinner. He washes his hands in cold water before meals. All 
Jiis outer clothes, even to the shoes, are changed before he starts 
.work in the factory ; he wears a mustache, but no beard. 

Wash-rooms, hot and cold water, lockers, and a doctor aie the 
extent of the precautions in the shops as he described them. 

Case No. 26. Walter C: 

Another European farm, laborer, attracted to America by dreams 
pf wealth, only to take up work in a lead factory and come near 
finishing his career through plumbism, is Walter C . 

C was found living with friends on the top floor of a house 
only two blocks away from the work which nearly finished him. 
, He was born of Catholic parents in Poland in 1886, worked a 
few years there as a farm hand, and in 1910 emigrated to America. 
At once, in April of that year, he became an employee of the lead 
company and worked there until June, 1910, as a furnaceman's 
helper. After the lead pigs had been oxidized to the chrome 
yellow stage by the furnaceman, the latter would draw or rake out 
of the furnace the oxidized mass (see photo No. 31) and C 
would assist in this process and then wheel the stuff away on a 
wheelbarrow to the next process, that of crushing and grinding. 
His pay at this dangerous and dusty job was $9 per week of 59 
hours, with only one-half hour for dinner. From April to June 
this work was steady, but on the 24th of the latter month C 
fell violently ill and wa? taken to the Brooklyn General Hospital. 



468 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

, The diagnosis was promptly one of chronic lead poisoning. The 
worker's symptoms were violent cramps, weight on the chest, in- 
cipient wrist drop, partial paralysis of the ankles and legs, loss of 
appetite, with blue line on the gums prominent. For a week and 
a half he remained in the hospital under treatment, and on July 
4th, 1910, was discharged, " condition improved." The extent of 
the improvement was that he was able to go home, where for six 
months longer, or until January, 1911, he lay in bed or about the 
house, too debilitated to work a stroke. In this period his weight 
fell from 150 to 120 pounds. He has now recovered flesh to about 
140 pounds. 

, To this recovery the nature of his present work has largely con- 
tributed. Like many other men poisoned in this same plant, upon 
recovery he became a longshoreman on the Brooklyn docks. This 
strenuous out-door occupation helps to eliminate the lead by toning 
up the condition of the body. His work is very unsteady, one day 
Jie may work 12 hours, the next none at all. His hours per week 
run from 40 down to 8, and his pay slides in proportion from $10 
to $2. One slight compensation is that he now has a full hour 
for dinner. 

C is unmarried. He says no instructions were given him 
concerning the dangers of the work in the lead works nor were any 
notices to a similar effect displayed. Coffee and bread made his 
customary breakfast. He used no tobacco whatsoever and drinks 
pnly one glass of beer daily, with a meal. He used to eat in the 
work-room, first washing in cold water. His clothes he changed 
at home; he wears a mustache, but no beard. Cold water and the 
doctor are the only precautions he knows of the factory taking for 
its men ; he thinks respirators are sadly needed. 

Case No. 27. James P : 

Native American, born about 1865, has been a glass cutter all 
his working life, about 28 years. Had his attack of lead poisoning 
.while working for a cut glass concern in Brooklyn, a firm now 
out of business. There his job consisted of cleaning the cut glass 
with a putty and with a finely powdered mixture of lead and zinc, 
probably lead litharge and zinc carbonate or zinc oxide. This 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 469 

process is exceedingly dangerous 'and has since been replaced by 
an acid bath. In all he worked for this concern about 
22 years. Twenty years ago he had his first attack of 
lead poisoning, and was out of work three weeks. Two years later 
he had another attack, and was again out of work for three weeks. 
Three years later he had the third attack, and the last one. This 
was eight years ago. He was sick at this time eight weeks. On 
this last occasion, however, he was operated on for appendicitis. 
Whether or not he actually had appendicitis is something that can- 
not be definitely decided, although the doctor who operated states 
that such was the case. Before the last attack he decreased in 
weight from 150 to 95 pounds. He is still employed in the same 
line of industry and is engaged in the ordinary glass cutting. 
In this establishment there is little putty used and the old polish- 
ing process is not used at all. He is now in good health and has 
experienced no permanent effects. 

Case No. 28. Frank 8 : 

, Was born in Naples in 1871, of Italian parents, and came to 
.this country at the age of twenty-four. He has worked at several 
.different trades but never at any where lead was used until he 
entered a dry color factory in Brooklyn. There he remained for a 
year, leaving to work on the docks in Jersey City for two years. 
He then returned to the same color factory, where he contracted 
lead poisoning after working there three months. The exact pro- 
cess he performed he described as grinding chunks of red color, 
somewhat as one would grind coffee, which, of course, is the grind- 
ing of dry colors. The men, he says, were aware of the danger 
,and held wet sponges to their faces ; but they were never told of 
the dangers by the employer, neither were any instructions posted. 
.They were required to work 10 hours per day, with only a half 
tour for luncheon, which had to be eaten in the work-room. That 
the same dangers were common to all may be judged by the fact 
,that he says that as many as one man a week was attacked, whita 
the foreman, after working there for 20 years, finally died of the 
disease. 

, The owner and manager of this factory stated to the Commission 
,that no case of lead poisoning had occurred in this place during 
the last ten years. 



470 OcrrpATioNAi. DISEASES. 



Mr. S is smooth shaven, of medium height and though he 
seems to feel no permanent ill effects from his attack of lead poi- 
soning, however he has not returned to the factory. He smokes a 
pipe a great deal and drinks moderately. Very often he went to 
the factory with only a glass of wine for his breakfast. 

Case No. 29. William H: 

Is a native of Ireland born there in 1860. He emigrated to 
the United States in 1874. For 35 years he has been more or less 
in contact with lead usually employed as a smelter, melter or 
caster of lead and other metals. He has been employed for 24 
years with one concern and worked with G and C (cases 
Nbs. 32 and 37) at the same factory when it was located in 
another part of the city. Both of these men died of lead poi- 
soning. H , however, claims that he was not affected at that 
time. He continued at this work as a melter and caster of solder 
(mostly lead) until he lost the use of his hands, with double wrist 
drop. H has been to a number of doctors, who do not seem to 
agree as to what is the matter with him, nor have they succeeded 
in improving him very much. His wrists have been in this con- 
dition for about eight years, and have improved slightly, although 
he is greatly handicapped. The factory people have given him a 
job as night watchman, and that job he has held for eight years. 

He smokes a pipe, drinks considerably, and wears a rather 
heavy moustache. 

Case No. 30. Joe B : 

Came to the United States in 1907. He is a Lithuanian, about 
28 years of age. Before coming he was a farmer. He first found 
employment in a machine shop in Newark, and later in a dye fac- 
tory at Worcester, Mass., where he received from $9 to $14 per 
week, and worked 10 hours per day. He came to work for a dry 
color concern on January 21, 1911. He worked steadily until 
the middle of August, when he had an attack of lead poisoning. 
The attack was not very severe, but he was out of work on that 
account for three weeks. Since that time he has worked at the 
same place and the same job with the exception of slight attacks 



OCCUPATIONAL DISI:ASI->. 471 

which have kept him out of work on two occasions for two days 
each. Severe abdominal pains seem to be practically the only 
effects of lead poisoning in his case. 

In spite of the statement made by the superintendent that they 
had had no cases of lead poisoning in the last 40 years, B 
has had lead poisoning perhaps without the knowledge of the 
concern. His work has been of a rather dangerous character. 
He has been employed in the color-mixing and grinding room. 
His work consists of shoveling the various paint pigments into 
the grinding machine and then mixing and stirring the ground 
pigments. (See photos 40 and 41.) The room in which he 
works is very poorly ventilated, having only small windows, and 
not. many of those, and the system of ventilation is not a localized 
one and therefore does not convey dust from the immediate 
vicinity of the workmen. Very often workers are required to 
clean out the bins in which the colors have been put. This is 
an extremely dusty process, as it necessarily means stooping over 
the low bins, and clouds of dust rise in their faces as they brush 
out the contents. 

For this work B receives $1.85 per day, working 10 hours. 

As far as the writer could learn he had been given no instruc- 
tions whatever as to proper precautions to take. He was not pro- 
vided with any respirator or other protection against dust and 
lead. Half an hour is allowed for lunch, which in many cases is 
eaten in the work-room. B uses tobacco a little, drinks some 
beer and usually has a glass of whiskey each morning. When 
the inspector called, on Sunday, he was eating his lunch. His 
hands were covered with the paint in which the inspector had seen 
him working a few days before. He works about two Sundays in 
each month. His brother, who lives in the same house with him, is 
a worker at the same factory and is also affected by lead poisoning 
and is out of work often. 

B related that very often the room in which he works be- 
comes so dusty, as he expressed it, " You can't see a man an inch 
away." He does not talk English very well, although he grasped 
most of the questions put him. He is intelligent and knows that 
others of the men have had similar attacks and mentioned a man 
who was at the moment dying. He did not know the name and 
address. 



472 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Case No. 31. Mitchell C : 

, A solder caster, now employed in a smelting and refining place, 
is subject to attacks of lead colic, accompanied by pains in his 
arms. He left his native England and came to New York in 
,1886. His parents were natives of Ireland. He was married in 
.1900. 

In 1891 C commenced working with the Blank Smelting 
and Kefining Co., where he remained for ten years. His work 
was tending the furnace, shoveling dross, tending lead kettles and 
casting solder. He considers tending the furnace the work which 
affords the greatest chance for becoming poisoned. Yet he often 
ifinds, when tending the lead kettle and casting solder, the draft 
forces the particles of lead all through the air he is breathing. He 
,had attacks of lead colic while in the employ of this company. He 
went from the Blank Smelting Co. to J B , smelters and re- 
finers, for about four months then to T & Co., smelters and 
refiners. After one year at this place he went to the W Smelt- 
ing Co., then back to J B for one year returned to the W 
Works for about one year to J B for six months, and then 
to his present position with W B . In nearly all of these 
places he has done the three kinds of work previously mentioned, 
though solder-casting is his usual work. 

He has suffered from attacks of lead colic while under the 
employ of each company with the exception of T & Co., 
where he thinks the factory is in good condition. At W 
B , the drafts are bad, on account of doors being open for ship- 
pers. There are hoods over the lead kettles, but many times these 
avail nothing, since the back draft brings the oxidized particles of 
lead back into his face. He would have some means of ventilating 
the work-room and of hindering the improper drafts. He thinks, 
,also, that lunch-rooms are necessary for all such shops. No in- 
structions concerning dangers of work are given, or posted. Tnere 
are clothes-rooms, which are used. He always removes his work 
clothes before leaving the shop. He is careful about washing, 
using hot water and soap. He has food brought in which he 
cooks and eats there in the work-room. He usually wears a mus- 
tache, but had it removed at one time, to see if attacks of lead 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 473 

colic would be less frequent. He thinks there was no difference. 
,He eats no breakfast before leaving home, but drinks a cup of 
.coffee. He has no appetite for food at that time. He uses about 
,ten cigars in a day and a half, but practically no alcoholic drink. 
JrTe has never lost time from being unemployed. From illness he 
loses two or three days each time. At W - B he receives 
,$18 per week of 57 hours. He works 9^4 hours each day ex- 
cept Saturday, which is an eight-hour day. He is allowed three- 
fourths of an hour for lunch. At all other places his usual wage 
.has been $14 per week of 58 hours a ten-hour day with one-half 
jbour for lunch, and eight hours of work on Saturday. 

Case No. 32. Patrick C : 

A brother of Mitchell and John C , Patrick is also a solder- 
caster. He came to New York city from England in 1886 with 
the brother Mitchell. 

, He was married in 1908. There are no children. His and 
,his wife's ages are respectively thirty-four, and twenty-one years. 
He is now working beside his brother Mitchell as solder caster 
for W B , and has been there for the last six years. Before 
he came to W B he was employed by J N J for six 
months; W S and R Co. for two years; M S and 
R Co. for a short time ; T and Co. for two years ; J B 
for two years; X Smelting and Refining Company for about 
two years; and for D B eight years. While with D B 
he lost one week from an attack of lead colic, with J B he 
lost two weeks from an attack, and since he has been with W 
B he has lost a few days each time during several different 
attacks. Pains through his arms and elbows accompany the 
lead colic. He had nothing to add to what his brothers had said 
^n regard to hours or wages, conditions in the shop or chances 
for improvements. He is careful about his clothing and washing 
his hands. He keeps tobacco in his mouth while he is working 
Jie thinks it better for him to do this. He smokes cigarettes most 
.of the time when he is away from his work, and uses about three 
pints of beer a day. He seems to realize the dangers of poison 
from the lead yet he wears no respirator and he says his ex- 
pectoration is often as black as ink. 



474 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Case No. S3. John C : 

Solder caster, brother of Mitchell C , left England for New 
York city two years earlier than his brother, in 18S4.. He has 
followed his trade continuously, employed at different times by 
all the firms which have employed his brother. 
, He is a single man forty-eight years of age. About the year 
1887 he commenced working for D B , where he remained 
for fourteen years. 

In 1902 he commenced with the W S and R Company 
where he remained seven years. The rest of the time between 
1901 and 1911 he had been employed for more or less short periods 
by the following companies: J B , D B , W S Co.. 
W B , and T & Co. In June, 1911, he was employed by 
W S and R Co., but was obliged to give up just be- 
fore Labor Day because his wrists were in such a bad condition. 
(The superintendent of this factory says he hasn't heard of a 
case for six or seven years.) He felt the effect of lead when 
he was with W B in 1910, also when with T A: Co., 1910 
and 1911. He returned to the W Works several times and 
tried to work, but found it impossible. Since September, 1911, 
he has been totally incapacitated for work with his hand, and has 
been unable to secure work. 

For improving conditions in these shops, he seems to be able 
to offer no suggestions in addition to those offered by his brother. 
He said he had always been careful, and used every precaution 
of which he had knowledge. However he is in the habit of us- 
ing two or three packages of tobacco a week "in the form of 
a pipe " and occasionally drinks two or three glasses of beer a 
day. At present he wears a mustache. His wage and hours were 
practically the same as those of his brother the only modifi- 
cation of hours being a seven-hour day on Saturday with D 
B . His wage was $2.50 a day. 

Case No. SJt. Patrick C: 

Died BO many years ago that it may seem like ancient history 
to narrate his case. 

He came to the United States about 1876, and married shortly 
after, and was the father of three children. He found employ- 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 475 

ment almost immediately with T , smelters and refiners of 
metal Here he worked for thirteen years over the pots where 
lead was melted and later poured into molds. During this time 
he was subject to constant attacks" of lead poisoning and was 
home sick about half the time. Especially during the last 
two years of this time he was almost incapacitated, he had a 
severe case of wrist drop and had serious swellings in the legs. 
After it became impossible for him to work longer at the melting 
pots, he was given a job as watchman at the factory, which he 
held until his death, three years later. 

The factory where he worked has been torn down and the firm 
haa removed to Jersey. 

C at his death left a widow and three children. Mrs. C 
went out to work to support the little family. The men of the 
T shop made up a purse of $100 which came in very handily. 
The firm, however, did nothing but express sympathy. 

C was not a hard drinker smoked some, but did not chew. 
He earned good wages and was careful in his habits. 

Case No. 35. Timothy G-: 

Born in 1865, a native of Ireland, came to the United States 
in 1886. He had been twice married. Since the death of his second 
wife he lived until the time of his death with Mrs. B , who 
gave the necessary information; his aunt, Mrs. C , added to it 
and it was finally corroborated by William H , who worked 
with him. 

He worked as a smelter for 17 years prior to his death, at 
several places which have now gone out of business and of which 
Mrs. B could give no definite information. He worked for 
meny years at T 's, where C and H also worked. Here 
he showed definite signs of lead poisoning and was ill a consider- 
able portion of the time. Later he was employed with W . His 
last job was with J . Here he worked five years and became 
totally incapacitated. From Mrs. B 's description of him it was 
clear that he had had a very bad case of double wrist drop and 
that his arms and legs had become partially paralyzed. After 
leaving J he tried to run a little coal and ice shop; his con- 
dition became worse and he was taken to the Metropolitan Hospi- 



476 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

tal, where he died. An autopsy was per formed at Bellevue 
Hospital. 

For a considerable time prior to his leaving the employ of J , 
he had been in very poor health and had had attacks of lead colic, 
which kept him from working for considerable periods. He was 
also at St. Vincent's Hospital and two or three convalescent homes. 

G is reported to have been a considerable drinker, but not 
to excess. He wore a mustache. He was very cleanly and his 
aunt narrated with some wonder how, during the hot weather, he 
took a bath in a tub every evening. He smoked, but did not 
chew. He earned very good wages, when his health permitted, 
as much as $21.00 per week. 

His first attack came suddenly and another victim of industrial 
poison scarcely beyond his prime passed over the line. 

Case No. 36. James McP : 

Is employed with the N Company. He is an interesting man, 
intelligent, and his employer gave him a record of being a steady, 
reliable and sober worker. He had his first attack of lead colic 
in February, 1911, when he was ill two days. He has had several 
minor attacks since then, and is now out of work about one day 
every two weeks. 

McP had worked at his present occupation, smelting and 
casting, for 21 years, and last February was the first time he 
noted ill effects therefrom. In early life he did odd jobs ind 
chores around the farm of the man he lived with. His first really 
continuous work was when, in 1890, he got employment with 
the C Lead Company, as a " mixer " in the type and solder 
metal room. Here his duties were to measure out the ingredients 
for the various sorts of composites required, attend to the melting 
of them, skim, when necessary, stir, and finally >pour them out into 
pigs. 

Four different sorts of metal are thus prepared, each with a 
great, and almost overwhelming proportion of lead. That con- 
taining the least of this dangerous metal is the ordinary plumbers' 
" half-and-half " solder, which is composed of 50 per cent tin and 
50 per cent lead, by weight. As tin is much more expensive than 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 477 

lead, there is a constant temptation to substitute, and other solders, 
also called " half-and-half," are made for the coarser and cheaper 
work, in which the tin sinks as low as 38 per cent, and the re- 
maining 62 per cent is all lead. The name " half-and-half " thus 
becomes a meaningless " trade custom," and it becomes necessary 
to specify, when buying solder, just how much tin you insist 
upon having. Various grades are made and guaranteed by the 
companies. A blend of 43 1-3 per cent tin to 56 2-3 per cent lead 
is the common standard for roofing. 

Stereotyping metal comes next in lead content, having only 
4 per cent tin, 14 per cent antimony and 82 per cent lead. Slightly 
softer than this through its additional 1 per cent of lead, is the 
metal used in the melting pots of linotype machines: tin 4 per 
cent, antimony 13 per cent, lead 83 per cent. Nearest to pure 
lead is electrotyping metal, which is wanted very soft, and is 
composed of tin 2 per cent, antimony 4 per cent, lead 94 per cent. 

In the smelting of these ingredients together, the stirring, the 
skimming and pouring, there is bound to be some oxidation, and 
that is largely the source of danger. McP worked with the 
C people fifteen years (June, 1890 to February, 1905), dur- 
ing which time he lost regularly from 4 to 6 weeks per year 
through unemployment. He was never ill in this plant. There 
was running water, which the men would heat on a stove in cold 
weather for washing purposes, the hours were 10 a day with 9 
on Saturday, making a 59-hour week, only half an hour was given 
for meals, and the pay received by this man was but $13.50 per 
week. 

Mainly to better himself in this respect, he took up work in 
February, 1905, with the N Company, then a new firm, with 
whom he has stayed ever since. His work was practically the 
same as in the other place, the only difference being that he now 
makes more solder and less of the type metals. Here his pay is 
$15 per week, work is much steadier, only 3 or 4 days per year 
being lost as a rule; the long hours and the short one-half-hour 
lunch time remain unchanged. 

When seized last winter with the colic, McP suffered from 
cramps, constipation, headache, loss of appetite, loss of weight, 
and a dull and heavy pain in the abdomen. He called in a doctor 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

who treated him, but only admitted that the trouble was lead 
poisoning upon a direct question. After two days out of the shop 
McP went back to work. Ever since the cramps in the stomach 
have been bothering him at intervals of two or three weeks, mean- 
ing the loss of a day's time at each recurrence. 

As a workman he is strong, vigorous and active-minded. 
He was born in Tipperary, Ireland, in 1872, but was brought 
to this country at the age of two. In 1897 he married a splendid 
young countrywoman of his, who was born in 1878. Five chil- 
dren have been born to them. Four are now alive, all bright and 
intelligent, and ranging from 11 to 1 year in age. The third 
child, a boy, died in 1905, at 10 months. He had thrived as long 
as his mother had been able to nurse him. When he went on the 
bofltle he began to fail, and the summer after his birth succumbed 
to summer complaint. There is no history of miscarriage or pre- 
mature birth. 

In the C works where McP worked first, verbal in- 
structions were given the men as to how to avoid the dangers 
of the trade. They were warned to keep out of the dust all 
they could, to keep the floor wet down, and to sweep as often as 
they could. No printed notices were put up. He regularly eats 
a solid breakfast of meat or eggs, and potatoes. He chews to- 
bacco nearly constantly, believing that it helps clear the throat 
and stomach of lead dust, and rarely smokes a pipe. As to alco- 
hol, he is almost a total abstainer, taking a glass or two of beer 
only at very great intervals on some special occasion. In the first 
place he worked he used to eat lunch right in the shop, or sitting 
outside in warm weather. Now he lives so near to his work that 
he is able to to come home every day. He always washes before 
meals, in either hot or cold weather. He wears a moustache, but- 
never had a beard. A novel feature of his case is that in some 
of the departments of the factory the men wear " muzzles," or 
respirators with cheese cloth. Most of the men, himself included, 
change clothing completely when they go to work, and put on 
overalls. 

Case No. 37. Tonio M : 

In a rear room, dark as pitch, in a basement 8 feet below the 
street, Tonio M was found, caster for a white lead company. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISKASKS. 47'.* 

He is a splendid looking man, with a kindly face and a martial 
bearing. Due, perhaps, to the system he has worked out of alter- 
nate lead and non-lead employments, he shows superficially no 
traces of the chronic plumbism with which he is now afflicted. 

M is a Pole by birth, and a Catholic. He was born in 
1870, and in youth learned carpentry in his native land. In 
1906 he thought he saw a wider field across the water and came 
to America, going at once to some place " in Connecticut," where 
from June until November he plied his chosen calling for $6 a 
v?eek and keep, 60 hours per week. 

Building operations then being slack, M drifted to New York, 
where, with a few breaks, he has been ever since. His first work 
here was as a porter on the A S Company's docks in Brook- 
lyn. His pay here was $9.30 a week, 10 hours daily, with an 
hour for dinner. 

After a little more than a month at this M got work in 
.December, 1906, at a white lead company. He was made a '"'cas- 
ter," that is, he operates the kettle in which lead pigs are placed 
and melted and from which they are poured out in the form of 
" buckles " for the corroding rooms. The danger here is from 
hanging the pigs, and from breathing fine particles of oxide 
when the molten lead is skimmed or stirred. His pay was then, 
and is now, on this job, $12 weekly, his hours 10 per day, 59 
per week, and his dinner time one-half hour daily. In these first 
four years in the lead shop he lost no time through slack work, 
but about a week in days here and there during which he was 
incapacitated 1 ' through lead colic. He cannot remember the exact 
dates of these attacks, but there were more than one per year. 

Finally, taking warning from his condition, M decided to 
'' cut " the lead works and the city for a time, and went to North 
II , Conn., where again he worked at building and carpenter- 
ing, from June to October, 1910. His pay was only $10 for 60 
hours a week, but he was in the open air, and by fall he had recov- 
ered, to his own satisfaction, from the lead. 

So back to his casting furnace in the latter month he camo. 
His work, hours and pay remained the same as before, but not 
so the length of his employment. In March, 1911, after only 
six months over the furnace, he was laid up with an attack of 
paralysis of tho finger*, pains in flic stomach, and complete bodily 



480 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

weakness. For six weeks he lay at home in this condition, hardly- 
stirring from bed, dosing himself with a prescription written by 
the company physician. When the six weeks had passed and he 
again felt able to work, he returned to North Haven. 

This was in May, 1911. From then until the middle of July 
he worked in a brickyard, shaping bricks by machine, and getting 
$12 for a 60-hour week, with one hour for dinner. Then slack 
work drove him back to the lead work. 

Here he has worked ever since, losing no days because of ill- 
ness, but never feeling quite well. As soon as he begins to feel 
" colicky " he takes a dose of salts and a sip of the physician's 
medicine and so managed to worry along. The symptoms of par- 
alysis are not at the present evident, but his demonstration of how 
he couldn't hold a spoon when he had the attack was most pitiful. 

M married in 1893, his wife was born in, 1874. The 
couple have had five children, of whom four were boys, bu't all 
five were born in Poland before their father came here, and have 
never come to America. The father wears no beard, but a mous- 
tache, eats meat, bread and coffee regularly for breakfast, takes 
10 cigarettes daily, but rarely touches either beer or whiskey. He 
used to eat dinner in the workroom, washing in cold water before 
ea'ting. He says the company once had respirators for the men; 
it also furnishes cold water and a doctor. 

Stomach trouble seems to be a permanent effect of lead in this 
case. 

Case No. 38. Abraham F : 

Eoissian Jew, born at Warsaw, Kussia, came to this country 
in 1899. He is now 33 years of age and is much above the average 
in intelligence. 

He learned his trade, as a diamond worker, in the famous dia- 
mond market, Amsterdam. Ever since coming to the United States 
he has worked at his trade. At the first place where he was em- 
ployed he remained eight years, and it was while working there 
that he began to feel the first symptoms of what his doctor later 
diagnosed as lead poisoning. 

His particular job has been diamond polishing. The diamond 
is placed in a chunk of lead, which is held by the worker on a 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 481 

short stick. This chunk of lead is shaped very much like a small 
pear, and the diamond is at the apex. The diamond is held against 
a rapidly revolving disc, which polishes off the surfaces of the 
stone. The man's hands become grimy from the use of the lead 
and a certain amount of lead dust is ground off. 

F began to feel the first symptoms of lead in 1900. The 
doctors to whom he went did not seem to be able to diagnose 
his case and gave him sleeping potions. He did not improve. He 
was troubled with sleepiness, constipation, impaired vision, weak- 
ness and a slight palsy in the arms, hands, legs and feet. He has 
had no attack of lead colic and has not lost weight, apparently, 
and except for a slight pallor of countenance he did not look ill 
at all. 

He has just given up his job, at the advice of his physician, 
and is about to go abroad to visit his parents. He intends to re- 
main away from work about four months, to enable him to get 
the lead out of his system. He also expects to consult foreign 
specialists. 

He was never given any instructions regarding the dangers of 
the work. He is accustomed to smoking usually about three cigars 
daily, even while working. He drinks, perhaps, a glass of whisky 
once in three months. He has been accustomed to eating in the 
workroom, usually without washing, no hot water being provided. 
He stated that the men usually left their finger nails very short 
in order to prevent them from getting very black. He believed 
that the workers should be told concerning the dangers of lead 
poisoning and they would then take the necessary precautions. 

Case No. 39. Franklin K : 

A young printer, only 22 years old, a native and lifelong res- 
ident of Brooklyn, died suddenly of lead poisoning on October 
14, 1910. He ihad never been ill before in his life. He was 
brought home suffering terribly on a Monday afternoon; Friday, 
he died. 

K 's industrial career was varied, changing from printing to 
shoemaking and back again. Some time in 1895 he first began 
work as an errand boy and job-press "kicker" in a little print- 
16 



482 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

ing shop in Brooklyn. His presswork was limited to printing by 
foot power small jobs, such as envelopes and visiting cards. His 
wages were not high $2.50 to $3 per week he worked eight 
hours a day, 48 a week, and got a whole hour for lunch. 

In that same year, 1895, he ftried shoemaking, becoming a 
"stitcher," or one who sews soles and uppers together, in a large 
shoe plant. Here, by doing piecework, he was able to grind out 
$10 or $12 per week, working 54 hours in winter and 49 in sum- 
mer, with an hour for lunch. Neither on this nor the previous 
job did he lose any time through illness or unemployment; but 
in 1905 he was permanently laid off, and it was a year and a 
quarter before he found work again. 

When he did, it was to return to the types, where he had been 
formerly. He became a hand compositor and make-up man, worked 
steadily for the nine ytears from 1901 to 1910, lost no time 
through slack or illness, and earned on the average $10 to $12 
weekly for 48 hours. One hour was again given him for lunch. 

What happened at this job his family do not know, but he left 
or lost his place, and again, for a week, was unemployed. Then he 
found work at the same occupation with a large printing firm in 
New York city. He went there in August, worked steadily until 
October 10, and then suddenly was taken violently ill. 

He was rushed home to Brooklyn and a doctor called. So ter- 
rible were the young man's agony and contortions that the prac- 
titioner at first thought, he had taken poison. His stomach was 
pumped, and the physician decided it was lead. For three days, 
at home, the young printer suffered, crying aloud in his pain, 
his body doubled up, his appetite gone, and racked with spas- 
modic vomiting. Two days more he lingered at the German Hos- 
pital in New York and on the fifth day after his seizure was taken 
home dead. 

K 's pictures show him to have been a stalwart, wide-awake 
young chap. He never married. It is not known whether warnings 
or notices of the dangers from lead were ever presented to him. 
His customary breakfast was coffee, with a roll or a piece of cake. 
Once in a while he smoked a cigar, but consumed about, four 
cigarettes daily. Once in a great while he took a glass or two 
of beer. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 483 

He always washed in cold water before eating and never took 
lunch in the shop. He was in the habit of changing his trousers 
before getting to work, and was clean shaven. His family phy- 
sician diagnosed his case as lead poisoning. 

Case No. 40. Alexander G : 

On October 10, 1910, Alexander G died of chronic lead 
poisoning contracted while employed as a printer. 

G was an old man 64 when he died but rugged 
American stock of Scotch extraction. " He had an iron consti- 
tution and a nerve that never let go," said his wife. He was 
,tall and at his prime weighed 1C 9 pounds. At death, after ten 
years' suffering, he weighed 89 pounds. 

, He was born in Brooklyn in 1846, the family having come 
pver from Scotland in the previous century. Early in life he 
learned the printer's trade. He was an expert compositor, job 
hand, make up man and " stone man." He also was a press 
.expert, and was the mechanical mainstay of the plants in which 
Jie worked. When anything went wrong with machines or presses, 
the word was always " Send for Sandy." 

, When he first came into his wife's life, in the early '60's, he 
was working for a printing concern in New York. He then 
received $18 for a 60-hour week, with one hour allowed for din- 
ner. In 1868 they were married, and two years later he took 
work with the Blank and Blank Company, New York. His 
tours were still 60 a week with one off for dinner each day. 
His wages at first were $18 a week, the same as at his previous 
place, but later were raised to $21, where they remained. In 
pre-election rush times, by working several days and nights 
steadily and drawing the double pay required by the Typograph- 
,ical Union for overtime, he was occasionally able to make $40 
pr $50 for the week. The inhuman strain he thus put himself 
( under, however, may have contributed in no slight degree to his 
final " leading " and death. 

He remained with the Blank and Blank firm from January, 
1870, until the summer of 1906. In 1904 he lost four week? 
because of rheumatism, but apart from that work was steady 



484 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

find his lead poisoning had not yet grown severe enough to keep 
him at home. About 1888, however, he began to complain of 
terrible cramps in the stomach. He contracted a deep cough 
and expectorated heavily. These two circumstances led him to 
believe he had catarrh of the stomach, a theory he held to his 
dying day, always indignantly scouting the physicians' diag- 
nosis of plumbism. He consumed vast quantities of sal hepatica, 
stomach tablets, seidlitz powders and the like, but all the time 
Jris cramps were getting worse, his appetite failing, and his pow- 
erful strength waning. He lost his color and became almost as 
white as a sheet pernicious anemia had set in. Vomiting, 
Inability to retain any solid food, came as the culminating blow. 
In 1889 he had moved his family to H , N. J., and com- 
muted to work, but even the change of air did not help him, 
and in the summer of 1906, as stated above he was finally forced 
to quit work. For three or four weeks he tried to work as a 
gateman at a grade crossing, for a railroad at the wage of $7 
a week, for 12 hours a day, Sundays included. But although 
the gates were " automatic," the work was too much for him in 
his weakened condition, and before the end. of the month he left. 
, The following four years he spent at home, moving back to 
^Brooklyn in 1907 to be near his boyhood haunts. A $16 a 
week benefit from the Union and his children's earnings sup- 
ported the home. But his condition became more and more 
alarming, and in the middle of August, 1910, he was removed 
,to the Presbyterian hospital for treatment. He was kept there 
,for seven weeks under the closest supervision, being frequently 
seized with convulsions, and most of the time delirious with pain. 
On October 1 he was brought home as hopeless, and on the 10th 
he died. 

G and his wife had twelve children, six of whom are 
,to-day alive and grown up. The oldest, a boy, born in 1868, 
died of concussion of the brain, due to a fall, at the age of ten 
,months. The fourth, a girl, died at two months, from pneu- 
.monia, in 1873, The ninth, a girl, was accidentally killed the 
,day of her birth in 1887 by her mother's falling with her. The 
,eleventh, a girl, born in 1890, succumbed at ten months to 
bronchitis. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 485 

The other two who died require special consideration. They 
are the tenth and twelfth in order, both boys, one born in 1888 
and the otker in 1891, the little girl who died of bronchitis com- 
,ing between them. 1888 is two years before, and 1891 is one 
year after, the date somewhat roughly set by Mrs. G as 
the beginning of her husband's lead symptoms. He may well have 
been suffering before 1888; her memory on that point is not 
clear. Both these infants were born dead, the first at full term, 
the second at seven months. This, especially when coupled with the 
fact that the intervening child did not have stamina enough to 
withstand at ten months an attack of bronchitis, apparently be- 
trays a progressive impregnation of the infants corresponding 
to the growing intensity of their father's leading. This seven 
months' miscarriage was the wife's last attempt to have children. 

Mrs. G does not know whether her husband was ever 
warned of the dangers of lead in his trade or not. She thinks 
he may have absorbed the poison through holding type in his 
mouth, by handling the type, and by inhaling the dust. He 
always ate a light breakfast of coffee and only a part of one 
roll, ate the noon meal in the shop, and always washed in hot 
and cold water. He wore a mustache but no beard. He wore 
an apron while at work, but was accustomed to no other change 
of clothing on ordinary work days. He is described as an almost 
constant chewer of tobacco, believing it was good for him, and 
a frequent smoker. His wife, who was a strict teetotaler, told 
with sorrow that he was a rather heavy drinker, Scotch whiskey be- 
ing his favorite. 

Both the staff of the Presbyterian hospital and the coroner's 
physician, of the Coroner's office, Brooklyn, diagnosed G 's 
ailment as chronic lead poisoning, and there can be no doubt 
that this is a case of a powerful, able man succumbing to that 
industrial poison. 

Case No. 41- Adolph H : 

H , a Catholic German, was born in Germany in 1853. In 
1888 with his wife and children he came to American and estab- 
lished his home in Brooklyn where he has lived ever since. He 



486 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

now has eight children, four married and four at home. H is 
a carpenter by trade, although for nine years he has worked 
intermittently in a blacksmith's shop. In 1906 he began work- 
ing in the same car repair shops in Brooklyn, where up to six 
weeks ago he has worked, with the exception of a couple of 
months each summer when he worked in a blacksmith shop. He 
is at present employed in a blacksmith shop in Brooklyn, earn- 
ing $17 a week and working nine hours a day. 

H evidently contracted lead poisoning while -working on 
the freshly painted cars in these repair shops. The conditions 
under which he worked are no doubt largely responsible for his 
attacks, two in number. The hours in these shops are from 
seven to five-thirty with half an hour for luncheon. H had to 
leave home at 5.30 every morning and consequently often ate 
p. scanty breakfast. The luncheon hour was so short that he 
never had time to wash before eating. He always ate at a 
nearby saloon and it was all he could do to get there and back 
in half an hour. Like most Germans, H had his beer, but 
is not a heavy drinker. His attacks of lead poisoning were due 
without a doubt to the long hours, short time given to luncheon 
and lack of washing facilities. He has left the shops for good 
as he is now earning $2 a week more than he earned there, and 
is working under more favorable conditions. 

H 's children are normal and healthy. Their mother 
says that they have always been well, with the exception of one 
daughter who has recently undergone an operation for tumor. 
The H 's last two children are dead one from diphtheria and 
the other from measles. H seems to have escaped any perma- 
nent effects from his attacks of lead poisoning, but Mrs. H 
says that nothing could induce him to return to the car shops. 

Case No. J+2 Herman S : 

His regular occupation is that of a plumber. He is now suffer- 
ing from chronic plumbism. S , who was seen at his home, 
is very weak and ignorant as to the nature of his trouble. 
He claimed to be suffering from constipation, and daily gastric 
fli&turbances. For a year and a half or two years back he has 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 487 

had severe attacks of cramps, a week or two apart, lasting for 
about an hour. He has had no cramps since returning from tha 
hospital, October 31. Has good appetite, but is afraid to eat 
heartily on account of the gastric disturbances. Samuels has been 
a plumber and tinsmith for 17 years. He has done job work, but 
has worked for no particular firm. He was first incapacitated for 
work last March (1911). Since then he has kept a small hard- 
ware store with wife's assistance. The man claims not to have 
used alcohol for many years, although he smokes both pipe and 
cigarettes. He wears a moustache. The S have five chil- 
dren, all boys but one, and all well and strong. They have lost a 
boy and girl by death. Mrs. S has had no miscarriages or still 
born children. 

Case No. 43. Michael R : 

R is a Pole, who came to this country, leaving a wife and 
two children in the " old country." He found employment in 
the brass foundry of W , in New York city. Here he handled 
lead constantly and soon was affected by a disease which the doctor 
diagnosed as chronic lead poisoning. He went to the New York 
Hospital and was ill about three months. He has now returned 
to the old job at the foundry where brass beds are made. 

Case No. 44. Harry B : 

B is a Russian Jew and has been in this country eight years. 
He is a tinsmith and has worked in a shop on the lower East Side 
for several years. B had been well until the spring of 1909, 
when he had an attack of painter's colic, was sick for three months 
and was treated at home by a private physician. 

He suffered with abdominal pains and severe pains in his head. 
Later he had an operation for mastoiditis. 

He returned to his work after three months, and now works 
every day but has never been really well. He goes home to his 
lunch each day and is careful to wash before eating. 

The family is extremely neat and clean in the home, and it is 
likely, therefore, that he is careful about his clothing. Mr. and 
Mrs. B were married in 1907 and have no family. 



488 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Case No. 45. Sadie G-: 

Sadie is an intelligent, neat, clean girl, who has worked from 
the time she got her working papers in embroidery 
factories. She was a stamper and for several years be- 
fore she was poisoned, earned $10 a week. In her 
work she was accustomed to use a white powder (chalk 
or talcum was usual) which was brushed over the perforated de- 
signs and thus transferred to the cloth. The design was easily 
brushed off when made of chalk or of talcum, if the embroiderers 
were not careful. Her last employer therefore commenced using 
white lead powder, mixed with rosin, which cheapened the work 
as the powder could not be rubbed off and necessitate restamping. 

None of the girls knew of the change in powder, nor of the 
danger in its use. The workroom was crowded and hot, the stamp- 
ers' tables were farthest from the windows and the constant use 
of the powder caused them to breathe it continually and their 
hands were always covered with it. 

Sadie had been a very strong, healthy girl, good appetitie and 
color; she began to be unable to eat, had terrible colic, but con- 
tinued to go to work in spite of the fact that she felt miserable. 
Her hands and feet swelled > she lost the use of one hand, her 
teeth and gums were blue. When she finally had to stop work, 
after being treated for months, for stomach trouble, her phy- 
sician advised her to go to a hospital. There the examination re- 
vealed the fact that she had lead poisoning which was unac- 
countable as no one knew that her work had involved the use of 
lead until some one who had been on the job also recalled hearing 
the manager send a messenger out with money several times to 
buy a white lead powder. 

Sadie was sick in the hospital for six months (losing $10 per 
week). She said her employer bought off several of her witnesses, 
but before the case came to trial two years later several of them 
also became ill and consequently decided to testify for her. The 
employer appealed to the girl's feelings and induced her, on the 
day of the trial, to accept $150. He said that he had had busi- 
ness reverses and consequently would be unable to pay in case 
she won. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 489 

Her lawyer was suing for $10,000. At the present time the 
girl is 23 years old and though she has apparently good health, 
she is no longer strong and is very susceptible to disease. 

Case No. 1+6. Thomas J : 

Is a big Barbadoes negro, in the prime of his strength, 28 years 
of age. He came from the Barbadoes in May, 1911, and went to 
work almost immediately for the contractor on the new Fourth 
Avenue subway. About the middle of August his gang was laid 
off and he went to work in a factory making red and yellow oxide 
of lead. Here he worked in the sugar of lead, or lead acetate, de- 
partment. His job was to shovel the crystalized lead acetate from 
the vats to conveyors and later to pack it into barrels. His work 
involved chopping out the lead in which process a considerable 
quantity of dust was raised, and which also involved considerable 
handling of the lead which he usually did with his bare hands. 
He worked here about a month and a half when he was taken with 
severe colic and weakness in arms and wrists. His doctor advised 
him to go to a hospital, which he did; he remained there a week 
and at home a week. He then returned to work, but could only 
stand it about three days and had another attack which kept him 
out of work two weeks. J then changed his job, and, with 
the exception of slight pains in the abdomen, he is now feeling 
all right. 

He says he always took especial care in washing and eating. 

Case No. 47. Aleck S-: 

S is a Russian Pole, 31 years of age, who came to this 
country with the opening of the new year, 1911. Before he had 
been here a year he had contracted a serious case of lead poison- 
ing which kept him out of work for seven weeks. 

He found employment with a white lead company in Brook- 
lyn, where his job consisted of packing dry white lead in barrels. 
.This subjected him to the dangers of dust and for this dangerous 
.work he received $9.60 per week. About the first of November, 
pfter about ten months' steady work, he was taken ill with severe 
polic and cramps, weakness in his wrists and arms. He was 



490 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

put of work for seven weeks. He has returned to the factory 
pnd is again working at his old job. He has a heavy lead line 
and will doubtless be incapacitated in a short time. 

He claims that he was never instructed as to how to care 
for himself or that the work was dangerous. He saw no in- 
structions. He is evidently careful in his habits, and his land- 
lord told how he actually refused to accept drinks even as treats. 
,He was accustomed to eat in the work room, but had little oppor- 
tunity to wash, and then only in cold water. His hands were still 
(dirty from the day's work when the inspector saw him. The 
company where this man is employed has a doctor. S claims 
although the doctor did treat him at first, he didn't pay any 
attention to him later on. He wears a respirator and doubtless 
this accounts for the length of time previous to the poisoning. 

Case No. 48. Greogora T : 

, A Russian Pole. He came to this country just a year ago 
.(January, 1911), and went to work almost at once for a white 
lead concern. He worked as a packer of dry white lead. Here 
te worked until October, or about nine months, when he was 
,taken with a severe attack of lead poisoning. He was in Gou- 
verneur hospital for five weeks and remained at home another 
.week. He then returned to work, but after a week at it he was 
again incapacitated. Since that time he has been off and on, 
.working not more than half the time. 

He had severe colic and cramps and his arms became stiff 
and useless. 

T was never instructed concerning the danger of the work, 
although his foreman is a Russian. He is temperate, drinks very 
little and does not smoke. He washed in cold water ordinarily, 
but says he didn't have time to do it thoroughly. He is at present 
ill, and a heavy lead line is evident. 

Case No. 49. Vladimir P : 

A Russian Pole, thirty years of age came to this country in 
January, 1910. He found work at once in the works of a whin 
Jead company. Here he worked as a stripper of the corroding 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 491 

.beds, which brought him directly in contact with the dry white 
.lead. For this work he received $9.60 per week a week of 
.sixty hours, ten hours a day. Early in March of the same year 
he had a severe attack of lead colic. From that time until the 
end of the year he worked only irregularly on account of the 
more or less regular recurrence of the poisoning. He probably 
,did not work more than half the time. Since January, 1911, 
However, he has been much better and has worked steadily. 
, He says he was never instructed and that he saw no signs. 
He reads only Russian. He is very temperate; he does not 
.smoke and only drinks one glass of beer daily. He had severe 
,colic and his arms became almost useless, later his knees and 
ankles swelled considerably. 

He seems to have recovered from his illness and although 
still working at the same job is now healthy. He is treated 
by the factory physician and takes medicine regularly. 

Case No. 50. John D : 

, A Hungarian, who works in the tempering room of a big wire 
works, says that he worked in the same place and at the same 
job for five years without having an attack of lead poisoning. 
About three 'months ago, however, he had his first attack. He 
was taken with severe colic and was incapacitated for a week. 
Since losing that week he has had slight attacks off and on which 
Jiave not necessitated his giving up work for any length of time. 
His wife says, however, that he has no appetite now and that 
she cannot persuade him to eat much. He does not eat a hearty 
meal before going to work. 

D tends the pots of molten lead, through which the wire 
is drawn. He works one week on day shift and the next week on 
night shift They do not give the men who work at these furnaces 
any time at all for lunch because the furnace cannot be left. The 
men eat a bite whenever they can get a chance, but do not have even 
half an hour in which to eat. There is no wash room, the man 
says, but provisions for washing are made in the workroom. 
When they wash, they wash there. He says all the men on that 
floor have had lead poisoning (doubtful). No instructions or 
warnings are ever given them. 



492 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

D is a young man of 22 years. His wife is three years 
younger, and they have been married less than a year. He is 
smooth-faced, dark complexioned, tall and strong looking, but 
listless in appearance. He uses no alcohol and very little 
tobacco only once in a while a cigar at home. For all the 
risk he takes, with the constant danger of lead poisoning, he is 
paid $12 per week. 

Case No. 51. Charles G : 

A young Scotchman, 31 years of age, gave up the sea some 
eight years ago and settled down to life as a caster in a tinfoil 
factory. Here his job consisted of melting up lead pigs together 
with tin and some other ingredients which make up tinfoil; then 
ran the molten composition into a mould, forming a slab of the 
metal about two feet square and one inch in thickness. This slab 
was then taken to the rollers where it was rolled thinner and 
. thinner as desired. After working here for eight years he was 
taken with a sort of paralysis of the hand, the fingers, especially 
of the right hand closed tightly and he found it impossible to 
open them without assistance. When seen at the hospital he had 
been there only a week, but showed decided improvement. 

At the time of the attack he was earning $15.00 per week. He 
described the room where he worked as well ventilated by two 
large exhaust fans and as clean and well lighted. He was instructed 
as to the dangers of the work, and was told to. wash thoroughly 
and to rinse out his mouth before eating. G chews a good 
deal and smokes a pipe and, like most men, drinks beer and occa- 
sionally whiskey. 

The place where G worked was inspected and is doubtless 
the cleanest, best equipped (with the exception of hoods) of any 
casting room seen by the inspector. It is also evident that the 
man took precautions. It is evident, therefore, how very careful 
employers and employees must be to avoid lead poisoning. 

Case No. 52. Alexander C : 

Is a young Russian Pole, 26 yenrs ol age, who came to this 
contry in 1906. Like many young laborers he found employment 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 493 

at various unskilled work until he found a position with a white 
lead company in the spring of 1911. Here he worked in the cor- 
roding beds, putting the blue buckles (uncorroded lead) into the 
jars and after the corrosion had taken place emptying the con- 
tents into a large car which carries the lead off to the separators. 
Here he was, of course, subjected to considerable lead dusfo, and 
after a few months began to feel distinct symptoms of lead poison- 
ing. He had a severe attack of nausea, vomiting and cramps. 
This was just eight months after he commenced work. At the 
time of investigation he had been idle on account of lead poison- 
ing for three weeks and his debilitated condition indicated that 
he would remain so for a somewhat longer period. 

While at this job he worked two hours per day, had one-half 
hour for lunch, and earned $12.00 per week. He was never given 
any instructions concerning the danger of his work and he couldn't 
read those posted in the factory. He ate regularly in the room 
where he worked, occasionally he washed before eating. He drinks 
moderately, one or two glasses of beer per day. He smokes cigar- 
ettes. If he gets out of this work at once and stays out, he will 
probably get over the effects. If, however, he goes back to work 
it will be merely a matter of time before he becomes thoroughly 
leaded and totally incapacitated. 

Case No. 53. Raymond F : 

A Barbadoes negro, came to this country in May, 1908. He 
found employment in a paris green, factory where, he says, most 
of the men contracted a rash, or pimples, which ate deeply into 
the skin (ulcers). He staid there only a month and then went 
to work for a lead company, in the lead acetate, or sugar of lead 
department. At present he is sort of a subforeman, and earns, 
more than the other men. He handles much of the lead with his 
hands. He directs its removal from the vats, the carrying and 
moving of it from the vat rooms to the packing department. 

He has had only one attack, which occurred about Thanksgiv- 
ing, 1911, after he had been working at this work for about 
three and a half years. He claims to have been careful in his 
personal habits and not to indulge too freely in alcoholic beverages. 
He says the superintendent instructed him to keep his hands clean, 
but nothing more. 



494 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

The most interesting part of this case is the effect upon the 
offspring. He had one child born in Barbadoes. It is living and 
physically strong and healthy. Since working in lead his wife has 
had two conceptions; the first ended with a birth before the nor- 
mal term, at the end of seven months. The attending physician 
stated that this was really a miscarriage. A second child born a 
year later lived six months and died in convulsions. Dr. Thomas 
Oliver states that this result may be expected from lead workers 1 . 
In view, however, of the absence of attacks on the part of the 
worker himself, the case is exceptionally interesting. 

(NOTE. Cases 54, 55, 57, 58 and 59 are those of employees in 
a Federal Navy Yard, reported to liave contracted lead poisoning. 
They are omitted from this report because the Commission its with- 
out jurisdiction to inquire into conditions there.) 

Case No. 56. Mrs. Myra W : 

While in the employ of B and W , who were engaged 
in the embroidery business, Mrs. W who was then un- 
married suffered from a very serious attack of lead 
poisoning. She entered their employ in the year 1901 
and had worked two years before she had this attack. She was 
an embroidery stamper, and she learned when her case was diag- 
nosed by a physician at the hospital that she had been using 
powdered white lead for transferring the design to the cloth. 

She was taken with very severe pains and vomiting. She 
suffered intensely and could get no relief for some time. She 
lost three months of work and never returned to B and 
W . She afterward did the same sort of work for four years, 
from 1903 to 1907, under the employ of another embroidery 
shop. In 1907, Mrs. W - was married and she now has a 
little girl, Hannah, who was born January 31, 1909. The child 
has always been healthy. Mrs. W thinks her nervous system 
is still deranged from the effects of the attack. 
. She is a native of New York city, born in January, 1881, of 
Jewish parentage. Previous to 1901 she was living in her home 
with her parents. At the last place where she worked she re- 
ceived $12.00 for the work of a week which consisted of fifty- 
four hours, nine hours each day, with one-half hour for lunch. 



l See Oliver, Bulletin of Labor, 95, pp. 107-111. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 495 

These conditions were practically the same at the first place 
where she worked. 

Case No. 60. John W : 

. Now 75 years of age, came to this country from Birming- 
ham, England, in 1874. Immediately after his arrival he en- 
tered the employ of the New York as a compositor; he 

had learned the trade in his old home in England and had 
worked at it since his youth. He remained with the - 
until 1879, when he went to another of the great New York 
.dailies. Here he remained until 1894, when he was pensioned 
by the Typographical Union. For a time he was an inmate of 
the Union's Sanitarium and Home for the Aged, at Cold Springs, 
Col., but did not care to stay there, although the care was excel- 
lent. He returned to New York city. 

Like most printers, he smoked considerably and has since ten 
years of age, and also drank a good deal, especially after his 
wife's death, which occurred before he came to the United 
States. He was first sick in 1876, shortly after he had come 
to this country. From 1879 to 1894, while working for the 
newspaper, he had constant attacks of lead poisoning which 
.finally resulted in wrist drop. This he thinks that he cured by 
wearing a bandage which he says is made of eel skin, about his 
wrist. It is probable, however, that after ceasing his employ- 
ment the lead was gradually eliminated from his system. He 
is now permanently crippled, due to paralysis and contraction 
pf the toes, which makes it very difficult for him to walk. 

Case No. 61. Elmer M : 

A native of Belgium, where he learned diamond polishing. 
Jn 1895 he emigrated to the United States and has followed kis 
trade as a diamond polisher in New York city ever since. This 
business requires expert workers and the wages paid are con- 
sequently high. The disadvantage in the trade arises from the 
fact that the worker is idle perhaps twenty weeks in a year. 
M earns about $56.00 a week, working eight and three quarter 
hours a day and 48 hours 1 a week; one-half hour is allowed for 
lunch. 



496 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

M had his first attack of lead poisoning in 1908. This was 
the first illness he had had in his life. At present the man looks 
healthy and is quite stout. 

IL 

PAINTERS. 

Case No. 62. Moe S-: 

A Russian Jew, has been in this country five years. He has 
been a painter for 10 years. He is married and has three chil- 
dren living and two dead. Before coming to America, Simp- 
son worked in Germany at K , but experienced no signs of ill 
health. 

, He has suffered from chronic lead poisoning and was recently 
.sick in bed for three months. He has been obliged to change his 
occupation since his illness, and now takes orders for enlarging 
portraits, at which he has now been working for two months, at 
$7.00 per week. He has trouble with his head and eyes, also 
dyspepsia and arthritis. His appearance indicates anemia. 

In Germany, he says, the men were warned about the danger 
of the work and many firms used zinc white instead of white 
lead, though this is more expensive. Long projecting gowns were 
furnished the men to cover their clothing while at work and 
also a particular kind of soap with which to wash their hand* 
Here they wash their hands with benzine which causes unpleas- 
ant effects. When he talked to the men with whom he worked 
here about being careful the employers objected. He seemed 
rather intelligent and recognized the necessity of something be- 
ing done to protect the workmen. 

When he worked as a painter he earned $3.50 per day. He 
usually took very little breakfast before going to work. He did 
inside work almost exclusively. He did not drink nor smoke. 

Case No. 62. David L : 

A Russian Jew, twenty-three years old, came to the United 
States in 1903 and has been in New York city five years. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 497 

He is a painter and has worked at the trade five years. Last 
year he had an acute attack of lead poisoning. He was taken 
,sick on the streets with cramps and suffered with vertigo. He 
was taken to the hospital, where he remained three months. 
Although at present he says he is well, he still looks badly and 
is anemic and suffers with his head when in a closed room. 

L drinks tea and wine, does not use tobacco and eats 
no breakfast. He is careful to wash his hands in hot water and 
,cleans his nails before eating, and always goes outside to eat. 
He does not wear a mustache or beard. He changes his clothes 
,at home. His employer is an old gentleman of 85 years and 
is good to his men. " The boss always tells the boys how to 
take care of themselves when working with paint. He tells them 
to wash their hands carefully and not to eat where they work." 

L earns $3.00 per day when working. He has worked at the 
P Hotel and Hotel - , on inside work. He also does out- 
side painting. 

Case No. 64. Pincus W : 

The parents of Pincus W- are Austrians and cannot speak 
English. Pincus was a painter and was admitted to the hospital 
July 21, 1910. His case was diagnosed as lead colic. He was 
discharged on August 6, 1910. On August 4th the blue line was 
still present. 

He suffered from weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pains, 
with vomiting and diarrhoea. He still has stomach trouble. Ho 
usually ate no breakfast before going to work. By order of his 
physicians, he changed his occupation after the illness. 

He had an opportunity of marrying a young lady with money, 
which he seized at once, married and bought a candy shop. Since 
that time they have had cne son. 

Case No. 65. Harry W- : 

Was born in the outskirts of Wilna, Russia, in 1878, his parents 
being Russian Jews. In 1891, at the age of 13, he began to 
learn the trade of bricklaying which he carried on until September, 
1899. His pay was five rubles ($2.50) per week when he worked, 



498 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

which was only about half the year, building operations being- 
stopped the rest of the time by the weather. To make up for 
this long period of slack, work, when it came, was piled on heavy. 
From 13 to 16 hours daily were put in, or about 90 per week. 

To escape this life, W came to this country in 1899. Prac- 
tically all of the twelve years since then have been spent in New 
York city and at the occupation of painting and paperhanging. 
At the beginning the wages were only $3.00 per week, but as 
he learned the trade, rose to $15.00 and later to $18.00 at which 
figure they have been for the last nine years. The hours are 
now only 9 per day but the period of unemployment is not greatly 
shortened. It now amounts on the average to 16 weeks, yearly. 

Sometime in the three years between 1899 and 1902, while he 
was learning the trade, White got his first attack of what looks 
like lead poisoning. It was a two-day seizure of severe pains in 
the left kidney. The physicians of the Sick and Death Benefit 
Fund, to whom W - went, strongly advised him to give up 
painting. This would indicate that the trouble was a result of 
lead. The advice, however, could not be heeded and the 
third day after his seizure found the man back at his job. 
From then until 1910 nothing of an acute nature occurred, but 
in that year the kidney pains returned in aggravated form, accom- 
panied by loss of appetite. Four weeks were lost from work by 
this illness and during the present year an exactly similar seizure 
caused an equal loss. At present the man is ghastly pale and 
anemic and complains of pains in the back after any spell of 
hard, continuous labor. 

W has worked for several bosses in his painting career, 
only three of whom kept him long enough to fix their names 
in his mind. All of them allowed one (1) hour for dinner, but 
none gave him or posted up any instructions for personal care to 
avoid the lead. He eats a breakfast of oatmeal, bread and tea 
regularly, smokes ten cigarettes daily, but touches no alcohol in 
any form, partly from natural antipathy, partly from the physi- 
cian's orders. He nearly always leaves the job at noon to eat, 
wears overalls while at work, but goes through no further change 
of clothing. He washes before meals with cold water and soap- 
powder, wears a moustache, but no beard. He has found hot and 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 499 

cold water in the places he worked at, but would like to have 
these supplemented by towels, soap and a supply of washing soda 
which he considers very efficacious for the hands. 

W 's wife, born in 1883, married him in 1901. The couple 
have had two children, a boy (6) and a girl (9) who look plump 
but pale. 

Case No. 66. Sam A : 

, Unmarried, is a Jew from Ilussia. Of Russian parentage, 
,he came to .New York in 1904, and has remained here until 
the present time. He is by trade a paper-hanger, but resorts 
occasionally to painting as a means of a livelihood. As a paper- 
ganger he is likely to come in contact with atmosphere filled 
with particles of paint caused by the sandpapering of painted 
wood work, as painters are often working at the same time that 
,he is hanging the paper. 

From August to October, 1911, he did piece work here, 
.working from 10 to 11 hours a day, with one-half hour off for 
luncheon, making a total of 55 to GO hours a week. He earned 
from $40 to $60 a week. From April to August, 1911, he 
worked as a paper hanger and painter at the P hotel. He 
/did time work here, working eight hours a day, with an hour 
pff for lunch, totaling 48 hours a week. He earned $17 a week. 
^Because of the lack of work during the dull season he is obliged 
to lay off about five months in a year. Since stopping work at 
the P hotel, two months ago, he had been feeling wretchedly 
and has done no work. He suffers from pains in the shoulder 
And cramps, and complains that his hands are weak. Six weeks 
,ago he consulted a physician, who told him that he thought he 
had been poisoned with lead. A says that several of the 
men who were working at that time at the P hotel were 
.taken sick and he thought that one reason was because the paint 
used was ready mixed. A does not wear a mustache or 
beard; he does not eat in the room he works in and he is care- 
ful to wash his hands before eating. He smokes only in small 
quantities and drinks a moderate amount, chiefly at meal time. 
.When he is working, he has a very poor appetite and conse- 
quently eats a small breakfast. 



500 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Case No. 67. EliN: 

. Is a Jew, born in Russia in 1880, of Russian parentage. He 
came to New York in 1903 and has remained here until the 
present time. 

, He is by trade a painter. For the last three years he has 
jbeen working for himself, hoping in this way to make his work 
lighter and so raise his general state of health which was not 
good. He makes from $13 to $14 per week; his hours are not 
regular and he takes from one to two hours for lunch. 
, In 1906 he worked for a regular contractor. Then he did 
time work, earned $18 a week, worked eight hours a day, and 
from 45 to 50 hours a week and took one-half to one hour for 
lunch. Because of lack of work during the dull season, he is 
pbliged to lay off each year from three to four months. 
, About two years ago he had an attack of painter's colic with 
cramps, pains over the body, swelling of the body and dry mouth 
and throat. He was at the hospital for ten days, but was 
.unable to work for three months. The poisoning has left no 
permanent effects but he is troubled often with intense pains 
and the blue line is still on the gums. He wears a mustache 
Jbut no beard; he is careful about washing before eating and 
does not eat in the room in which he works. He smokes from 
eight to ten small cigars a day and drinks moderately at meal 
time; He seldom has an appetite when he is working and in 
consequence eats small breakfasts. 

He has a wife, born in 1882, and two children D , a boy 
born August 18, 1906, and E , a girl, born September, 1908. 

Case No. 68. Max W-: 

, Unmarried, is a Jew, born in Russia in 1882, of Russian 
parents. He came to New York in 1889 and has remained 
here until the present time. 

He is by trade a painter. His work has been time work; 
.working eight hours a day, 44 hours a week, and with a half 
to one hour for lunch, depending upon the season; during the 
busy months the shorter time only being allowed. He earns 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 501 

from $15 to $22 per week and counts in three months as the 
amount of time during the year that he will have to be idle 
.because of lack of employment. 

Winter has had three attacks of lead poisoning, the attacks 
(being just seven months apart. He has been obliged to be idle 
because of this illness eleven days. When sick he suffered with 
.cramps and pain in the right side; there are, however, no perma- 
nent effects. 

, He does not wear a beard or a mustache. He does not eat 
jn the room in which he works and is fairly careful to hold 
.the food in a napkin so that his fingers will not come in direct 
contact with it. He does not smoke and drinks only a moderate 
amount of beer, chiefly at meal time. He does not always eat 
a good breakfast, because of lack of time. 

Case No. 69. Nathan B : 

, Was born in Saxony, Germany, and came to America in 
August, 1888. He did frescoing but did not find the work very 
profitable in this country. He worked for himself for a time, then 
for his landlord. It was while working for the latter that he had 
,an attack (acute attack) of painter's colic in July, 1909. 
Suffered sever abdominal pains and distension. The lead line was 
very marked. He was crippled for a while and was first treated 
at home by a physician and then followed the advice of an .old 
.German druggist, to whom he believes he owes his life. A short 
time after this attack, he had typhoid fever and was treated at 
3ellevue. At last when convalescent he was sent to the country 
jay his priest and after six weeks' work there he returned to the 
city much improved and has since been working steadily. He 
till suffers with rheumatic pains in his feet and ankles; uses 
some tobacco and eats but little breakfast. He drank beer and 
whiskey but was told to stop it when he had lead colic. After 
.abstaining for 6 weeks he had fever and says, " When I had 
lead colic they said I drank too much beer, when I had fever 
they said it was too much water. Now what can I do? " He was 
.married in Saxony in 1888, then came to this country. They 
.have had 12 children two girls and ten boys, four of whom 



502 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

.are dead. The oldest child is a son, now 22 years old. He 
.received much better treatment and had more work in the old 
.country, but is ashamed to return until he makes good here. They 
.are an intelligent and thrifty German family. 

Case No. 70. Andrew F : 

, Was born in Germany, of German parents, in 1877, and came 
,to this country in 1896, living in Brooklyn until the time of his 
death, Oct. 13th, 1909. His wife does not speak English, so the 
only information we could get was from a young nephew. F 
had no children. He was a painter and paper-hanger all his life. 
, The nature of his attack was acute, and after suffering for 
,four months he lost the use of his right arm the doctor then 
pronounced it rheumatism. This illness lasted 15 months and 
,was so severe that he looked like an old man, altho' only 32 years 
,of age. 

All that we could find out as to working conditions was that he 
.always washed before eating and usually ate in a nearby saloon. 
His hours were not regular, and at the time of his attack he 
,had been working on an interior where they used some peculiar 
Jand of red wallpaper. 

Case No. 71. Joseph B : 

, Was born in Ireland, of Irish parents, in 1863, was married 
4n 1897 and came to this country in 1900, since then he has 
Jived in Brooklyn. His wife is also Irish, born in 1865 and has 
.three children, thirteen, six and three years. 

B developed lead poisoning while working for himself as 
a painter and was treated at a hospital, where he remained for 
about one and a half months and left improved. He is a thin and 
anemic looking man, altho' he says his appearance is not 
altogether due to his recent illness. He has always had a strong 
constitution and an unusually strong heart, but tires very easily 
.since his attack and is very apt to take cold. He attributes 
his case of lead poisoning to his own carelessness, due to rolling 
cigarettes and eating with fresh paint on his hands. He nl-<, 
says that he frequently went without any lunch when very bu-\. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 503 

His former occupations could not be recorded as he has been all 
over the world and worked at all kinds of trades. For many 
years he lived aboard ship and did odd jobs of painting without 
any ill effects. He traveled in South America, did farming in 
Australia and suffered from various tropical diseases, including 
smallpox. His early life was one of dissipation, but since his 
marriage he has not drunk to any great extent, altho' he is 
still an inveterate smoker. On returning for additional informa- 
tion we found that B is again in the hospital with kidney 
trouble and a general breakdown ; it is not, however, attributed to 
lead poisoning. 

Case No. 72. Henry H : 

. Is a Russian Jew, living with his sister and brother-in-law 
in Brooklyn. He is 22 years old and has always worked as a 
painter; eight years in Russia and three years in America. He 
is of medium height, dark, and smooth shaven. When 20 years 
of age, while painting the outside of a house, he was seized with 
very severe cramps and was in such a serious condition that 
it was necessary to remove him to the hospital, where after two 
weeks he was discharged as cured. This was the first attack 
that he has ever had and he has not been very strong since, altho' 
he still continues to paint, working five days a week at $3.50 
a day. He smokes cigars, but is always careful to wash before 
eating, although his boss has never warned him of any dangers. 
He was unable to tell me, at the time, for whom he worked at the 
time of his attack or any job since ; he is working at present. 

Case No. 73. Francis F : 

A man of 28 years. Is a semi-chronic invalid, due to lead poi- 
soning contracted at his trade, painting, which he has followed 
since the age of 13. Every year he loses an average of eight weeks, 
due to recurrences of his symptoms. These include headaches, 
dizziness, colic and constipation, which are acute ; arthritis of the 
knee, which is practically chronic and the blue line on the gums, 
which was detected at Gouvorneur hospital in 1909, and may reap- 
pear at any time. F is another one of those who first and last 



504 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

work at painting. He was born in 1883 in Czernowitz, Austria, of 
Jewish parents, and started to earn his own living at thirteen. 
He does general inside and outside work, including much sand- 
papering, which is the worst of all jobs from the hygienic side. 
Jn summer he gets an hour for lunch, but in winter due to the 
early darkness, only a half hour is taken, the men quitting earlier 
to make up for it. The customary union scale ($22) was stated 
as his weekly income when on full time. 

Last year F married; his wife was born in 1883. One 
child has been born, a boy, who is hale and sound. None of 
F 's employers ever cautioned the young man about his work 
or posted up any notices to any similar effect. He eats a light 
breakfast regularly; smokes about ten cigarettes a day and drinks 
as a rule, about two glasses of beer. He eats in the workroom, 
but always washes firsfl, using cold water most frequently, but 
hot in the few cases when it is available. His change of clothing 
is confined to pulling on a pair of overalls in the morning. Ho 
wears a moustache but no beard; can attribute his illness to nothing 
but his occupation, which he recognizes as very dangerous. 

As against a meagre cold water supply, which is the extent of 
the precautions he has met with in his work, he suggests plentiful 
water, especially in new buildings where it is extremely difficult 
to get a drop even to drink, and the allowance of ten minutes 
before the noon-hour to allow a thorough cleansing of the hands. 

Case No. 74- Morris R : 

A man who makes a point of good air and solid food for himself 
and his family, who knows all about the danger of his painter's 
trade and takes extraordinary precautions against them and who 
yet has had several severe attacks of lead colic, is Morris R a 
man well on in life, residing in Harlem. 

R was born in 1864. He looks older than 47, but explains 
this as due to the incessant worry due to uncertainty of employ- 
ment. Due to his aging, R has of late years refused to work 
on a scaffold, for fear of falling. Being now kept at inside work, 
he is in just the worst situation for contracting plumbism. He 
always get ill after working with paint steadily for several weeks 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 505 

and so takes great care to vary by varnishing, kalsoniining or the 
like. 

This man has had several bad attacks of colic, keeping him 
in bed each time from one to four weeks. Coming to America 
from Russia in 1888, and to New York city in 1890, he has been 
a painter ever since the latter date. Naturally the names of 
his earlier employers are lost in obscurity. The first one he could 
readily recall was I G , for whom he worked from June, 1908, 
to March, 1910. In these 20 months, two were lost thro' unem- 
ployment, but no period of illness was remembered. During 
March and April, 1910, he worked for S & S , losing one 
week out of the eight with a frightful colic attack. From May 
to November, 1910, he was employed by M S , here he lost 
three weeks due to unemployment and one on account of another 
seizure of painter's colic. J J was the next employer. Here 
the work was very confining and combined with the anxiety and 
short rations, consequent on eight weeks employment, brought on 
the worst series of colic' yet, lasting, in all, four weeks. From 
last May down to date, R has been working for I G , mainly 
in the capacity of an overseer and general manager. In this way 
he has been largely out of direct contact with lead, and while 
owing to another eight weeks slack time in this period has had 
no recurrence of the colic. Under all these various employers 
R received $22.00 per week as his wages for 44 hours' work 
in summer and one hour for dinner, while in winter one-half 
hour for dinner. 

R 's wife was born in 1867 and married him in 1892. All 
their seven children, four boys and three girls, were born at regu- 
lar term, and are alive and in average health to-day, except one, 
a boy born in 1906, who died within three months of infantile 
debility. All possible care was lavished on this infant ; he was sent 
to an institution to be under expert care, but in vain. Whether the 
child's poor physique and early death are not due in some way 
to the father's plumbism is at least a fair question. The father 
himself says he doesn't know. 

Instructions, either verbal or on signs, were a minus quantity 
everywhere R worked. He usually eats a heavy breakfast, 
but an interesting point is that every morning immediately on 



506 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

arising he drinks a glass of boiled water, as hot as he can take it. 
This, he says, keeps his stomach in tone and helps wash out any 
traces of lead. Two packages of cigarettes and one or two glasses 
of beer form his daily allowance. He eats in the workroom, 
washes before eating, in cold water, and wears overalls while at 
work. Other change of clothing there is none. lie wears a 
heavy moustache but no beard. Fellow workmen who knew him 
ascribed a certain droop of the eye lids to his lead poisoning, but 
he himself does not think there is any connection between the two. 
He has, however, undergone an operation for the eyes for some- 
thing which, as he describes it, seems to be a sort of opacity of the 
lenses. There may be a more direct connection here than he 
suspects. 

, Neither canned goods, water pipes or any other non-industrial 
cause seem to apply to this case of plumbism. Cold water is the 
only precaution R has found on the job. Hot water, soap, 
towels, lunch rooms, are all called for in his estimation ; but above 
all some way to compel the contractors 'to get the water supply 
into their new buildings as fast as the structure progresses. Often 
the men are at work on the tenth or twentieth story and the only 
water in the building is a little tap down in the sub-cellar. If 
a painter goes after this he loses most of his lunch time traveling 
.up and down. What many of them have to do is to stay up aloft 
and hold their food between pieces of paper, to keep their dirty 
hands from touching it. How comfortable a meal taken under 
such conditions is, needs no telling. 

Along with the severe colic which periodically attacks R , 
goes equally severe constipation. The growing weakness and stiff- 
ness of which R , although only 47 years old, already com- 
plains is manifestly due in greater or less degree, to the recurrent 
plumbism with which he is afflicted. 

Case No. 75. Walter L : 

One spring morning in 1860, L , then a 16-year-old appren- 
tice press boy in M 's Printery, left the cards which he was 
dusting with bronz and gold powder, to go and watch his 
uncle and a friend paint a nearby house. From that time 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 507 

the types and rollers saw him no more, and attracted by the free- 
dom and the outdoor life, he became a wielder of the brush. 
After various vicissitudes in his native country he arrived in 
America, still as a painter. He does not remember many of 
his early employers, but 1908 found him at work doing fine 
interior work and finishing in a private residence, up on the 
Hudson. In this place he was kept steadily sandpapering 
for five weeks. This is the process which yields the firm ivory- 
like finish so dear to the eye of those who can afford it in this 
case pure white is applied and allowed to dry. Then it is sand- 
papered and smoothed and a second coat put on. The sand-paper- 
ing process is repeated, then another painting, and so on until the 
surface is like glass. But what about the painter meanwhile? He 
is living in a cloud of dust lead, dust white lead dust, one 
of the worst of industrial poisons. As L describes it " you 
might as well eat the lead." Before the five weeks were over he 
had contracted violent arthritis of the left heel, so painful that 
he could not touch the affected member to the floor. Still he kept 
hopping about, working as best he could. Finally he was forced 
to stop, returned to the city and went to the hospital. There they 
tested the nervous reactions of his left leg, examined the afflicted 
heel, advised him that he had been " leaded " and told him to give 
up painting if he wanted to save himself. 

He did leave it, temporarily at least, for twelve weeks he was 
unable to do any work, and used his time going to the hospital 
for treatment and nursing himself at home. 

Quite a change, this, from the peaceful times in the English 
printing shop, at five shillings a week, for 60 hours^ work. At 
the end of the twelve weeks, however, L was back at his 
brush: losing, on an average, eight weeks yearly through unem- 
ployment and always suffering more or less with his leg. He 
went along till the summer of 1911. Then a violent and painful 
swelling of the knee on the affected side came upon him, necessi- 
tating another twelve weeks' loss, due to lead illness. 

Of recent years L has been a member of the Brotherhhood of 
Painters, and claims to have been getting the required $22.00 per 
week for 44 hour*, working eight hours par day with one hour 
for dinner. 



508 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

L 's parents, like himself, were English. He married in 1861. 
In all, he has had eighteen children, but has kept no record of the 
.dates of their birth. Fourteen of the eighteen are now alive, as 
far as he kn DWS, one of them being in New York and the rest in 
England. Among the eighteen there were two miscarriages, but 
these seem due to other causes rather than lead. 
, No instructions, verbal or posted, were ever given this man 
concerning the dangers of painting or how to guard against them. 
In England, due to the custom of stopping work at eight o'clock 
for a meal, he used to go to work breakfastless. Over here he 
eats a light meal before starting for the job. Once in a great 
while he smokes a cigar and occasionally, on a physician's orders, 
takes a little whiskey in milk. Wherever possible he washes be- 
fore eating, using hot water in the few cases it offered. When he 
can't wash he holds his lunch in a piece of paper while eating 
to keep the paint off it. He wears a moustache, but no beard. 
Living in a furnished room house and eating maimv in restaurant^ 
he can never tell whether he is getting canned food or not, but 
does not believe he got his lead poisoning that way. The con- 
nection between the sandpapering job at the G mansion and 
his sore heel is too close to be ignored. As to safe-guards, he has 
found hot and cold water, and that is all. He suggests the 
abolition in some way, of the dry sandpapering process, and re- 
quiring contractors to get a water supply early into the new 
buildings. 

. The knee at present is quiescent, but his left wrist is troubling 
him with intervals of weakness a posible forecast of eventual 
.wrist drop. 

Case No. 76. William K-: 

. Was born in Germany in 1860, where in 1876 he began to learn 
the painter's trade, and working at it for several years in France, 
much of the time in Paris. K had to come to America 
before he got his first attack of lead poisoning; then it got him 
in 1901. For eight weeks or more his left shoulder, arm and 
wrist were paralyzed; colic, cramps and constipation tortured 
him and acute kidney trouble added its complication to the others. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 509 

. Rest and treatment restored him to his former strength and 
.again things went well until 1905, when another attack, the same 
as the first, incapacitated him for a period of ten weeks. Since 
then he has had no acute paralysis or cramp attacks, but the 
kidney trouble is constant. When interviewed, he had just been 
discharged after having helped put through a rush job of four 
weeks' duration. From ten to twelve weeks are thus lost yearly 
by this painter, who says those are the common conditions in the 
trade. He gave his wages, as customary, as $22.00 for a 44-hour 
week, eight hours per day, one hour for lunch. 

K 's wife was born in 1866 and died in 1908, of tuberculosis. 
They had three children, the eldest of which was killed in infancy 
by loose milk. The other two are stocky and strong. 
. The father himself is a powerful, distinguished looking man, 
with a face showing much refinement and education. He speaks 
German, French and Kng-lish fluently. He wears a mustache 
but no beard, and is a splendid type. He says no warning of the 
.dangers of the work were ever given him or posted up. He eats 
a light breakfast of rolls and coffee and smokes about five small 
cigars daily. Beer and whiskey he takes in small quantities and 
rarely, other liquors not at all. He eats in the workroom, using 
cold water most usually. Cold water, and little of that, has been 
the utmost precaution he has found for the safe-guarding of the 
painters. No cause other than industrial can be found for his 
attacks. 

Case No. 77. Richard W-: 

" Frightful pains in both arms and wrists, especially the right ; 
severe cramps in fingers and right calf ; throbbing headaches three 
or four nights in succession, making sleep impossible; pains in 
.the legs from the knees down, especially in the ankles, which often 
swell painfully; a swollen joint on the little finger of the right 
hand which is over a year old and still growing." This is W 's 
own description of the chronic effects of the leading he has under- 
gone in his long career as a painter. 

W 's parents were Scotch. They migrated to America and 
at L , Mo., Richard was born in 1850. In 1868 he began 



510 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

to learn his trade. As a young journeyman he received $18.00 
for GO hours' work a week, having one hour daily for dinner. 
He moved a great deal about the country and eventually settled 
in New York, where he has worked for numerous boss-painters 
in the last 20 years, doing general painting and paperhanging. 
His hours are eight per day, 44 per week, with one hour (usually) 
for dinner. He loses from eight to ten weeks yearly through un- 
employment and occasionally a day or half day because of his 
lead illness. In 1908 he lost six weeks in succession on account 
of a violent attack of arthritis. 

, In 1910 he went to a hospital with a severe ulceration of the 
lower jaw. From there he was sent to Bellevue, where he was 
kept two weeks and a section of the diseased bone excised. All 
his teeth are loose and when one becomes too unsteady and uncom- 
fortable he simply picks it out with his fingers. The lump on 
his little finger did not look inflamed and is not painful to the 
touch, but is round and hard like an oakball and keeps on grow- 
ing. It interferes somewhat with his work, but otherwise his 
fingers are not affected. He is a fine-looking earnest old man, 
and it is pitiable to hear his description of his constant pain. 

W has one child, a daughter six years old, who has never 
had any unusual trouble. His wife was born in 1864 and married 
Jiim in 1887. No instructions were ever given him to aid in 
caring for himself about paint, no notices were posted up and the 
only precaution he has ever found taken was a cold water supply. 
He knows the value of a meal before coming in contact with 
lead, but finds it impossible to force himself to eat anything in 
the morning. He never touches either alcohol or tobacco in any 
form, always washes before the noon meal, but nearly always 
has to eat it right where he is working. He wears overalls while 
at work, but makes no other changes of clothing. He wears no 
beard, only a mustache. His poisoning can be traced to nothing 
else but his occupation. 

i " Put water in new buildings, when and where painters can 
get it," was his emphatic reply when asked what improvements 
would help matters. 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 511 

Case No. 78. Carsten K : 

Has for the past eleven years been employed as a painter at 
at a hotel in New York city, and several smaller establishments 
in cities up-state. His work has been the general renovating and 
caretaking of a large hotel, which means, of course, mainly indoor 
work in confined spaces. As a result he is a chronic sufferer from 
colic and severe headaches ; his disposition has been made irritable 
and moody, and while of powerful build, he always has the ap- 
pearance of great illness. In the winter of 1909 he was confined 
to bed half a week by an attack, but ordinarily the disturbances 
are not severe enough to necessitate loss of time. Due to the 
nature of his job, he has lost only eight weeks on slack time in 
eleven years. His wages have been $12.50 per week at first, now 
$15.00; hours, 48 per week (eight per day with a full day Satur- 
day), and he gets one hour regularly for lunch. 

K was born in Germany in 1859, coming to America in 
1881 and New York city in 1882. His parents were Germans 
of Gentile stock. His wife was born in 1864. They have had two 
children ; one died of rheumatism. Instructions or warning 
notices were unknown things on every job where K worked, 
and he has been a painter all his life. Since working in the hotel 
he leaves home without breakfast, but has a meal before starting 
in; this meal usually consists of eggs, milk, bread, sometimes 
.chops or other meat. He smokes about two packages of pipe- 
tobacco a week and is a heavy drinker. He is also fond of sit- 
ting up late nights, thus, no doubt, weakening his resistance to 
lead or other poison. He does not eat in the workroom and always 
washes in hot water before the noon meal. Due to the steam 
heat in the hotels, he takes off all his outer clothes before donning 
his overalls and wears the same clothes around home that he 
does to and from work. In his case, part of his ill-appearance, 
unstable temper and headaches may be traceable to his irregular 
habits of living, but the chronic or almost chronic colic seems to 
necessitate lead as cause. It was, in fact, so diagnosed by the 
family physician. 

K has been singularly fortunate in the character of the 
place where he works, in the matter of safeguards, as hot and cold 



512 OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 

.water, soap, towels and washrooms are part of the hotel equipment 
,and freely used by him. Similar provisions on all painting jobs 
would no doubt be of great benefit to the men there employed. 

Case No. 79. Walter B-: 

, Has had lead poisoning six times in the course of 28 years' 
.painting. The symptoms each time are about the same lead 
,colic confining him to bed from 8 to 14 days, severe constipation 
and, at least on one occasion, the blue line on the gums. After 
each attack it takes about two weeks for him to recuperate his 
/strength so as to return to work, making an illness of four weeks 
each time seized. Besides that he has been left with chronic 
affects, namely: distorted, stiff, weak fingers on both hands, a 
weak right wrist and liability to sudden and severe attacks of 
cramps in the hands and calves. 

B was born in Germany in 1859, of German parents. At 
the age of 14 he took up painting, and has kept at it ever since, 
doing all-around inside and outside work. In 1883 he came to 
America, and has been in New York city for 24 years. He loses 
16 weeks out of every year, on the average, due to unemploy- 
ment. When employed, he states that his wages are $22 per 
week, of 44 hours, eight hours daily and four on Saturday. In 
summer he has an hour for lunch, but in winter only half an 
hour. The first two years in America he had three attacks ; since 
then they have come less frequently, the last one having been two 
or three years ago. 

~No instructions were ever given B as to how to protect him- 
self against lead poisoning, as to what the dangers were. No 
such notices were ever posted. He makes a breakfast of eggs, rolls 
and coffee before setting out to work. Chews tobacco a little, 
smokes three or four pipes a day and drinks two or three glasses 
of beer. He hardly ever eats in the workroom, always being par- 
ticular to get out of the vicinity of the paint at noon-time. Cold 
water is the usual kind used for washing. He doesn't change his 
clothes at home, but wears overalls while at work. He wears a 
mustache, but no beard. Industrial causes are the only ones lead- 
ing to lead poisoning in his case. B is eloquent as to the pre- 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 513 

cautionary devices which should be installed on paint jobs. He 
says, put in hot water, substitute zinc for white lead, prohibit 
the dry sandpapering process, and get a supply of water in new 
buildings; these, he states, would go far toward keeping the 
painter and lead colic apart. 

Case No. 80. Antonio V : 

, While engaged in renovating the offices and wards of a large 
New York hospital in this city, Antonio V was suddenly 
seized with what one of the medical staff characterized as the 
worst case of lead colic he had ever known. The painter was 
first doubled up, unable to do a thing. Prompt treatment relieved 
Jrim, he went to his home, returning to the dispensary for five 
days for treatment, then resumed his work. When seen at his 
home some weeks later, he was very polite, but evidently became 
frightened and inclined to minimize the whole affair. He said 
he had worked through the attack, going to another job, where he 
did plastering for a while. This, however, is very doubtful. 
V was born in Italy in 1860. He was a small business man, 
but losing all his money, he came to America in 1901. He seems 
to have traveled around a good deal for two years, doing nothing 
in particular, but in 1903 settled in New York and took up paint- 
ing. He set his weekly wage at $16. The hours, however, were 
8 per day and -M per week, with an hour's lunch time in summer 
and half an hour in winter. 

According to V his employer, while teaching him the trade, 
also instructed him in the matter of personal care. This 
may be due to the more advanced scientific attitude toward mat- 
ters of this kind in Europe, the employer being himself an 
Italian. The man eats a breakfast of coffee and bread, very 
rarely smokes a small cigar, and occasionally takes a few glasses 
of wine. He leaves the workroom to eat most of the time, and 
washes usually in hot water, before beginning the meal. He 
wears overalls, but does not otherwise change his clothes. He 
wears a mustache, but no beard. 

Water and soap powder to wash with and cheap canvas gloves to 
work in are the suggestions this man makes as to what precaution- 
17 



514 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

ary devices he feels might be beneficial. He says he retains no 
ill effects of his attack. 

Case No. 81. Frank B-: 

A very peculiar case is that of Frank B , a young painter 
living on the lower East Side. Apart from one severe attack of 
lead colic in 1903, he has had no apparent disturbances. But for 
the past ten years, beginning six years after he took up the trade 
in his boyhood, all the finger nails of both hands have been in a 
pitiful condition. They are blackened, corroded, and in many 
cases eaten away half way to the quick. He has several times 
tad them treated, but their condition remains unimproved. One 
physician told him plainly they would never improve until he 
stopped painting. " What shall I do ? " he said, " painting is all 
,the trade I know." In addition to the corroded nails, his fingers 
frequently have spells of numbness or paralysis, during which it 
is impossible for him to hold or wield a brush. 
, He gave the union scale of wages ($22) for 44 hours' work. 
The time lost by B , due to his plumbism, is slight, being 
pnly a day or a half day at long intervals, but he reports from 
3 to 12 weeks lost yearly, due to slack time. " They rush us to 
death on the job," he declared, " and then worry us to death by 
making us hunt for a new one." 

B is unmarried. He was born in Roumania in 1879, 
coming to this country before his tenth year. No instructions 
were ever given him as to the insidious and far-reaching poison he 
,was working with, or how to guard against it, nor were any such 
instructions posted in any place he worked. He is accustomed 
,to eating a light breakfast, smokes a package of tobacco per day, 
in a pipe, and drinks daily two glasses of beer. He is wise 
enough never to eat in the place he is working in if he can help 
it, and always washes his hands carefully in cold water before a 
meal. He wears overalls over his clothes while working and 
keeps the same clothes on after quitting work. He uses little 
/canned goods and there is no adequate non-industrial cause for his 
being " leaded." The precautionary devices his employers have 
favored him with are limited to cold water for washing purposes, 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 515 

.which he thinks might well be supplemented with a hot water 
installation, giving a full hour for lunch, and providing adequate 
ventilation. " Closet work," as he calls it the painting in a 
close, shut-in room, with pure white lead, in bathroom and clothes 
closets, he looks upon as the most dangerous. 

Case No. 82. Joseph M : 

oTorty years old, has worked for the same painting firm since 
he was nineteen. Thirteen years ago he had a slight attack of 
lead poisoning. Since then he has had three very serious attacks, 
and to-day is so badly leaded the doctors say he will never be a 
well man. He is not able to work more than four and a half 
days weekly, because of wrist drop. His left foot is partially 
paralyzed, no feeling in it at all. He suffers so from dizziness that 
he can do no outside painting where it is necessary to use scaffold- 
ing. Lameness in the muscles of the right hand has caused the 
hand to become twisted and distorted. His appetite is poor 
rarely eats but the lightest breakfast. Claims he is fond of alco- 
holics and never drinks less than three pints of beer daily. In 
appearance he is white and anemic. Both children and their 
mother are healthy. The man claims that having but one-half 
hour for lunch, and only cold water with which to wash, it was 
impossible for the men to properly clean their hands, and that he 
was certain his own poisoning was the direct result of eating with 
hands covered with lead. 

Case No. 83. Fritz H: 

Was born in Basel, Switzerland, in the year 1842. His father 
had followed the trade of painter before him and the son naturally 
enough entered the same trade. Mrs. H remembers very well 
when they were married, that his father warned her of the dangers 
of the painting business and asked her to see to it that he always 
took proper care of himself. They came to this country about 
1871, and H - pursued his trade in this country. Like all 
painters, ke worked here and tkere for one painter and then an- 
other. During his entire life lie enjoyed tke beat of kealth until 
he was suddenly stricken, about nine days before his death, with 



516 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

acute plumbism. He had never, up to this time, had any of the 
symptoms of lead poisoning. Even then he did not go to bed, but 
remained at home and walked around. His hands and fingers 
became paralyzed and he had intense pains in his ankles and 
instep, and his big toe turned black and blue. During the last 
few days he was mentally unbalanced. 

Mr. H took excellent care of himself, washing carefully and 
changing his clothing frequently. He always recognized the dan- 
ger of his profession and for this reason took extraordinary pre- 
cautions. The last job he was in before his attack was the paint- 
ing and enameling of some small rooms and closets in a big apart- 
ment house. Here he had to put on a coat of white paint and 
then sandpaper it, later putting on one other coat and sand- 
papering it down. "Still later he put on the enamel. 

He was a union man, worked the regulation 44 hours a week, 
eight hours per day. One hour for lunch in summer and one- 
half hour in winter. For this he received $4 per day. He was 
abstemious in his habits, smoked some and drank a pint of beer 
now and then. 

Case No. 84- George K : 

In 1899 K was occupied in a painting job in New York 
city which involved the scraping off of large quantities of 
old paint. His knuckles became cut and chafed, and it was 
not long before his hands had swelled to twice their natural size. 
The knuckles festered and ulcerated, and his hands had to be 
carried in slings for six weeks. The physician who treated him 
said that undoubtedly the lead had worked in through the cuts in 
the knuckles, poisoning the tissue. Although K is an old 
man, this is the only trouble he has had which he can definitely 
trace to lead. 

He was born in Kinselan, Germany, in 1844. He was married 
twice. The first wife had one child still born while K was 
painting, and four of the children of the second wife died be- 
tween the ages of two and five. 

K experimented with several occupations in Germany, but 
when he came to America apprenticed himself to a painter. This 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 517 

he completed in 1870, but did not enter the trade immediately, 
driving a truck for the fire department some time. He has 
worked at the painter's trade thirty-one years. In this time hs 
remembered losing only 24 weeks altogether due to unemployment, 
a remarkable record if correctly recalled. In this period came the 
six weeks attack of poisoned hands already mentioned! The pay 
during the latter part of this period is given as $22 per week, 
44 hours work, with one hour daily for lunch. Since 1909 K 
has been custodian of the union headquarters. 

K used to wear a full beard. He looks old and bent, but 
was apparently once stalwart and strong. For breakfast every 
day he consumes meat, potatoes and coffee, uses no alcohol, but 
smokes a pipe. Xo instructions as to the danger of the trade 
were ever given him, or posted up where he works, and hot or 
cold water is all the protection he has ever found extended to 
him or his brother painters. He eats in the workroom after a 
wash in the water, either cold or hot, which is furnished. Wears 
overalls, leaving the rest of his clothing unchanged. The most 
needed improvement seems to him to have the employers put 
water in the buildings early in the construction. 

The only permanent effect in Kruger's case is a stiffness of the 
hands. 

Case No. 85. Paul T: 

Is a native of Wurtemburg, Germany, and has been a painter 
since he was ten years of age. He, like many another young 
German, has had the " wanderlust," and has wandered in Ger- 
many, Switzerland, France and Africa (Tunis.) In the latter 
place he met his wife, and they were married in 1892. One year 
later he came to the United States. (1893.) 

He had his first attack of lead poisoning in Paris, where he 
was doing some fine interior decorating, which he described as 
Louis XTV style. He had been working long hours, from 6:00 
a. m. to 11:00 p. m. It was after this time that he went to 
Tunis, and later to Paris, and finding no work there came to the 
United States. He immediately found work in a large apartment 
house that gave him employment until the following spring. He 
then got employment as a house painter and decorator at the 
Hotel V , where he remained twelve and one-half years. Here 



518 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

lie did painting and decorating work of the finer sort and had 
charge of a large gang of men who were under his direction. 
When the hotel went out of business, he did several jobs for 
small houses in Jersey. His first attack in this country came 
when he was working at the Hotel P . A strike had delayed 
the work and when the men came back they were pushed to the 
limit. While working on. the decorations in one of the large 
banquet halls he was stricken with lead colic and was disabled for 
four weeks. His work from that time forth became rather 
irregular, although he worked for one or two firms. Most of his 
work was of a fine grade and he did considerable work in private 
houses where it was necessary to use white lead, to sandpaper 
and to stripple the work. Last March be got a job at the new 
F Theatre, where he was employed on the interior decorations. 
He held this for a couple of months, and then got a job doing some 
exterior painting. After a short illness, he found work at the 
G Club House. Here he was engaged on the big banquet 
hall and was working steadily and very hard. The work was of 
the very finest quality, and he had just about completed it and 
was ready to varnish when he " keeled over." He says he does 
not know how he got home, the attack was so sudden and so 
complete. Since that time (July 1) he has been out of work, almost 
wholly incapacitated. His left hand is almost wholly useless (he 
uses both hands in painting and is left handed), and his right is 
partially affected. His knees and ankles are also swollen and 
give him considerable pain. He says that after he had his last 
attack his whole body seemed to be stuck with pins and needles. 
He has always been scrupulously clean and has worked carefully 
and taken good care of himself. He described how, when work- 
ing at the F Theatre, he had to eat in the same room where 
he worked, >and how he would only partially unwrap his sand- 
wich and eat it out of the paper to prevent his hands from 
touching it. Very few facilities are ever provided for workmen 
and the short lunch hour, especially in summer time, makes clean- 
liness more impossible than godliness. He wears a thin mustache, 
smokes a pipe, drinks a pint of beer every evening. 

He is very intelligent about his work, and .he brought out 
clearly the dangerous substances, laying special stress on th 



OCCUPATIONAL, DISEASES. 519 

qualities of white lead which were the worst. He also decried 
the use of cheap turpentine which aided the poisonous lead. He 
belongs to the union and has worked to regulate hours, and has 
received union wages. He declares, however, that the bosses 
overwork the men whom they pay $4.00 per day, and they get 
little time for rest or to wash. 

Case No. 86. Marcus R : 

A stocky, swarthy man, with a heavy black mustache, is Marcus 
R , who started in life as a shoemaker in Warsaw, but, not 
sticking to his last, has embraced the painter's trade and with it 
its ills colic,, cramps, paralysis of the wrist and arm, and mad- 
dening inflammatory pains in the knee. 

R was born in Warsaw (Russia) in 1873. He married 
in this country in 1898, his wife now being 44 years old and 
having borne him seven children. One of these died in its first 
year, in 1902, of summer complaint, and another almost as soon 
as born, in 1907, being deprived of its mother through her own 
illness. Xothing was found to indicate that either of these two 
deaths was due to lead poisoning. The other five children, aged 
11 to 1, are all alive and well. 

To return to R 's industrial history, he started his career as 
a wage earner at the age of nine, in M J 's shoe-making en- 
porium in Warsaw. After serving his apprenticeship, he received 
4 to 5 rubles($2 $2.50) a week as a laster, working 69 hours a 
week. He says he lost no time while thus employed, but in 1902 
threw up the whole job and came to America. 

Here he somehow fell into the painting trade. For four years 
he worked at this, receiving on the average $9 for a week of 48 
hours. Then a period of slack time sent him back to shoemaking; 
but the $4 to $5 procurable in this way for a 58 hour week failed 
to appeal to him, and within a month he had hunted up new em- 
ployment at the less ill-paid but more dangerous trade of painting. 
From January, 1907, to the present he has stuck to this, his present 
employer being J L . 

R has now been ailing with colic, wrist paralysis and pains 
in the knee, on and off for five years. No warning of the dangers 



520 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

of the trade was ever given him, nor instruction for self- 
protection. No safety devices have ever been known to be applied 
on the jobs he was sent to. He eats breakfast regularly, smokes 
a package of cigarettes a day and imbibes perhaps a pint of beer. 
As a rule he cannot help eating right " on the job," washing his 
hands first with hot or cold water when either is available, change 
of clothing is limited to the use of overalls. No new water pipes 
have been installed in his residence, and he very seldom eats 
canned goods. No other cause can be descried for his " leaded " 
condition than the occupation at which he earns his bread. 

Case No. 87. Martin W-: 

Is an intelligent and progressive young man, was born in Kal- 
vary, Russia, in 1872, of Jewish parents. He never married, 
finding his hands full earning a living for himself. He lives on 
the lower East Side of New York city, and is an influential mem- 
ber of his local of the Brotherhood of Painters, Paperhangers and 
Decorators. Painting, his only occupation, he took up 22 years 
ago, in this country, working for nine years steadily for the same 
employer. In February, 1898, slack time caused him and this 
"boss" to part company, and since that time W has shared 
the common lot of the painters, hardly ever having the same em- 
ployer for more than a month or two at a time. He is at present 
working as a general painter. 

W 's first siege of lead poisoning came seven years ago, when, 
after 15 years at the trade, he was suddenly seized with general 
paralysis. After a week flat in bed, accompanied by vigorous 
treatment with epsom salts, he was able to crawl about, and made 
his way to the New York Post-Graduate Hospital, where three 
months' electrical treatment as an out-patient fairly restored him 
to vigor. The debility resulting from his seizure, however, has 
lasted down to the present date. He is drawn and bent, his face 
weazened before its time. Added to his chronic afflictions is also 
arthritis in nearly every joint in his body, manifesting itself in 
severe pains and stiffness. 

The second poisoning climax in W 's life was three years ago, 
when he lost two full months, due to wrist drop. All through 



OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 521 

April and May, 1910, he could not raise his right hand and was 
utterly unable to manipulate a brush. A repetition of the epsom 
salts and electricity eventually gave him back the use of his wage- 
earning hand, and since then he has had no acute attacks, although 
the chronic debility and arthritis are still with him. 

In common with all other painters, W 's face was a study 
when asked what precautionary measures had been taken to pro- 
tect the workmen on the jobs he had worked on, and whether the 
employer had given any warning as to the dangers of the trade. 
When he could speak, a vociferous and expressive " ]S"o ! " was 
the answer. When it came to protective devices, however, he had 
many to offer, namely, in the line of affording adequate facilities 
for personal cleanliness. " Let the employer put in hot water, 
soap and towels for us," he said, " and give us time to use them, 
and we'll be all right. When a man's only got half an hour for 
dinner, he can't very well spend the 15 minutes necessary properly 
to get the paint off his hands and out from under his nails. If 
the painters got a chance to wash at noon, then by careful brushing 
of the teeth and keeping the bowels free, there would be little 
chance of their getting poisoned." 

Aware of the added susceptibility to lead-poisoning that comes 
with an empty stomach, W made it a practice almost invariably 
to have a meal before going to work in the morning. He con- 
fessed to smoking 15 cigarettes daily, but was little addicted to 
spirits, a glass of beer or whiskey once or twice a week being his 
limit. As a rule he ate in a lunch room, leaving the job if at all 
possible, and always washing with hot water in the few cases it 
was available, otherwise with cold. His change of clothing con- 
sisted of pulling on a pair of overalls, or in hot weather substitut- 
ing these for his trousers. Canned goods were rarely used in his 
home, no new water pipes had been installed there, and there 
was no reason to believe he got " leaded " in any other way than 
through his occupation. He wears a mustache, but no beard. 
He gave the regulation statement, $22 a week and 44 hours. 

Case No. 88 TuUl B : 

Weight, 180 pounds at 17, 130 pounds at 36 such is the 
progress backward of Tubal B , for 26 years a painter. 



522 OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. 

Thirteen years ago, after 13 years at the trade, B had his 
first plumbism attack. Suddenly one night he was seized with 
cramps, nausea and vomiting. His appetite was gone, he became 
subject to spells of having everything go dark before his eyes. 
This state of affairs lasted eight months, when he was able to 
resume work. Since then, regularly at the return of cold weather, 
he begins to undergo a similar, although not always so keen an 
experience. This lasts for several months, and wears away with 
the coming of spring. Seven years ago paralysis caught him in 
the arm. Eight and four, and again at three years ago, he had 
the characteristic blue line on the gums, but no traces of it can 
be made out at present. So many and long-recurrent seizures 
have now left him with chronic anemia and neuritis; of the latter 
he had a particularly excruciating attack last May. 

B was born of Jewish parents in Russia, in 1874. In 
1899 he married, his wife being then 18. His three children 
enjoy average health and apparently have inherited no weakness 
from their father. He never saw any precautionary de- 
vices employed to save painters from lead, but suggested 
plenty of water, soap, towels, and above all, time to 
use them. In the customary meal time of half an 
hour the painter has little chance to protect his health. 
No instructions or warnings for self-protection were ever 
given him by his employer; he eats breakfast, as a rule; 
smokes 15 to 20 cigarettes daily; takes a glass of beer perhaps 
once a week; washes in cold water before lunch; wears overalls 
on the job; uses very little c