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Revised and brought up to date in accordance 

with the most recent eminent American 

and English authorities 








V ',. 

Copyright, 1904, by 

Copyright, 1905. by 

Copyright, 1911, by 

Copyright, 1913, by 



Standard Breeds of Cattle 

Characteristic Forms and Markings of 
American Birds' Eggs 

North American Food and Game Fishes 

Flags of All Nations 

Tropical Fruits 

Principal Types of Mankind 

Map of the United States 

Map of the World 

Standard Breeds of Poultry 


Statistical Charts 

Areas of the Earth. Character of Land of the Earth. 
Principal Religions of the World. Principal Religious 
Sects of the United States. 

Precious Stones in their Natural State ** " 764- 

Army Uniforms of the Leading Nations 

of the World '* ' 83i 


The new United States Battleship 

"Delaware" Facing Pag& 344- 

Leading Types of Biplanes '* " 647 

Birds " " 376 

Modern Building Construction 

(New York Municipal Building) " " 725 


Z Page 170 











Butterflies and Moths Fac 

ing Page 202 

New Cannon for Attacking Airships 

'' 834 

Curious Costumes and Head-Dresses 

" 658 

A Cotton Picking Machine 

" 170 

New Grand Central Depot— New York 

" 361 

Leading Types of Dirigible Balloons 

" 765 

Familiar Types of Dogs 

" 203 

Wild Flowers 

" 801 

Domestic Fowl 

" 377 

Gasoline Harvesting Engine 

'' 171 

One of the Largest Locomotives in the 

" 615 

Leading Types of Monoplanes 

" 646 

New White Star Liner "Olympic" 

" 345 

At Work on the Panama Canal * 

" 614 

Double Octuple or Eight - Roll 

Newspaper Press * 

" 297 

United States Seals ' 

" 124 


" 800 

Athletic and Outdoor Sports * 

" 659 

The Woolworth Building — The 

Largest in the World ' 

. c. ^29 




I HIS work is specially designed to meet the popular demand 
for a convenient, complete, and reliable dictionary. The 
orthography and pronunciation in this work correspond with the 
rules laid down by Noah Webster. 

It contains all the words of the English language that are not 
peculiarly appropriate to a dictionary of technial terms. 

It gives the speUing and pronunciation of plurals, and indicates 
the use of capitals and small letters in writing every word in the 

The past tense and the participles of verbs are given wherever 
not regularly formed, as by the addition of -d, -ed, and -ing. 

The words in the vocabulary are arranged in strictly alphabeti- 
cal order, making quick reference easy, and the size of the type is 
sufficiently large to render close and tiresome scrutiny unnecessary. 

The pronunciation of each word is plainly indicated by phonetic 

The definitions, while concise, are sufficiently comprehensive to 
embrace all the recent distinctions and meanings, and are accurate 
and reliable in every respect. 

Believing that the demand for a convenient, complete, and 
reliable up-to-date American dictionary has been met by the con- 
struction of the present handy volume, it is confidently hoped by 
the publishers that the work will meet with a popular reception at 
the hands of the public. 


Afpkkbix, (Treasury of Facts) , . , 

Abbreviations of the Parts of Speedi, . • 

Christian Names of Men, . . • • 

Christian Names of Women, . • 

Constitution of the United States of America^ • 
Decisive Battles ..... 
Declaration of Independence, . • • 

Dictionary of the English Language, • • 

Dictionary of Commercial and Legal TeriBSy • 

Electoral Vote in 1908, . . . • 

Facts About the Earth, . . . • 

Familiar Allusions, . . » • 

Famous Characters in Poetry and Prose . • 

Foreign Words, Phrases, Proverbs, Quotations, etC^ 
Key to Pronunciation, . . . • . 

Language of the Flowers, • . • . 

Metric System of Weights and Measures, . 
Origia, Composition, and Derivation of the English 
Presidents of the United States, 
States, Names of, their Origin and Meanings • 
Synonyms and Antonyms, . . • • 

Time Difference, . . . . • 

U. S. Census, 1910, ..... 
Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money, . 
Weather Forecasts, ..... 

Abbreviations of the Parts of Speech 


The words that constitute our language are classified under 
eight different heads, called "parts of speech" ; and, independently 
of the articles a, an, and the, consist of the NOUN, the ADJEC- 
TIVE, the PRONOUN, the VERB, the ADVERB, the 
TION ; and each word in the Dictionary is referred to one or 
other of these categories according to the functions, thus : — 

n. representing noun or substantive. adv. representing adverb, 

adjo " adjective. prep. " preposition. 

pron. " pronoun. conj. " conjunction. 

Vc " verb. interj. " interjection. 

As the four first parts of speech vary in inflection or other 
wise, these changes are indicated thus : — 

V. t representing verb-transitive. 

V, i. ** verb-neuter or intransitive. 

p. adj. " participial-adjective. 

p. p. " past participle. 

p. pr. " . present participle. 

p. t ** past tense. 

To one or other of the above Parts of Speech each of the 
many thousand words of which our language is composed belongs, 
and the same word may belong to this or that division according 
to its function in a sentence. Thus, a word is a Noun or Sub- 
stantive when it names a thing, whether that be a substance or 
an abstraction, being called a noun as naming, and a substantive 
as capable of qualification. An Adjective (from the Latin ad- 
jectum) is a word "added to" a substantive to qualify it in some 
way, and in general at once amplify its meaning and limit its 
application. A Pronoun (from tte ^ ^tm pro nomine) is 2i v^ord 

Abbreviation of the Parts of Speech 

used "in place of a noun" to avoid its repitition, as well as to 
indicate certain rhetorical relations or logical connections. The 
Verb (from the Latin verbum) is ''the word" of a sentence, and 
that which makes the assertion, as well as asks a question or 
expresses a command, and is here called active when it is transi- 
tive, and neuter (i.e.y neither active nor passive) when it is not. 
An Adverb (from the Latin ad verbum) is a word properly append- 
ed "to a verb" to express some modifying circumstance of place, 
time, manner or cause regarding it, but is also used to qualify 
attributive words like adjectives as well as verbs. The Prepo- 
sition (from the Latin prcepositum) is a word ''placed before" a 
noun or pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the 
sentence, and was originally expressive, for most part, of place- 
relation. The Conjunction (from the Latin conjunctio) is a word 
used to "join together" sentences or clauses of sentences, and to 
indicate the relation in which these stand to each other. The 
Interjection (from the Latin interjectum) is an abrupt exclama- 
tion "thrown between" the words of a sentence to express some 
related emotion on the part of the speaker, On referring to the 
Dictionary, the student will find many words which are of differ- 
ent parts of speech, and verbs which are both active and neuter, 
according to the senses in which they are used ; but these are all 
clearly distinguished, and the definitions given accordingly. 


Origin^ Composition^ and Derivation 



The English Language, which is now spoken over a large 
section of the globe, and by upwards of two hundred millions erf 
its inhabitants, was originally formed from one imported into 
England by various small tribes from the north of Germany, who 
settled in it in the fifth and sixth centuries of the Christian era, 
the principal of which were the Jutes, the Saxons, and the Angles. 
These, on invading the country, gradually drove the greater 
number of the aboriginal inhabitants, who were of the Celtic race, 
westward, and into the mountainous parts of Wales, where their 
descendants are now located, and where their language is still 
spoken. Soon after these settlers arrived, the southern part of 
Britain was, after the chief tribe, called Angleland — i,e», land of 
the Angles — or England; and the language which they spoke, 
formed from the amalgamation of their several dialects, was 
called Anglo-Saxon. This is a branch of the Teutonic group, 
and claims kinship therefore with the Indo-European family of 
languages, of which the Teutonic is a member. 

At the present time we find four groups of languages spoken 
in Europe, viz., the Celtic, the Latin, the Sclavonic, and the Teu- 
tonic. The Celtic languages are Welsh, spoken in Wales, Gaelic 
in the Highlands of Scotland, Erse in Ireland, Manx in the Isle of 
Man, and Breton in Brittany. The Latin language is, with various 

Origin, Composition, and Derivation 

modifications, spoken by the Italians, the Spaniards, the French, 
and the Portuguese. The Sclavonic is spoken by the inhabitants 
of Russia, Poland, Croatia, and some parts of the Austrian Empire. 
The other inhabitants of Europe speak the Gothic languages, 
which are now generally called Teutonic. To the Teutonic belong 
the German, the Dutch, the Flemish, the Danish, Swedish, and 
Norwegian, and with these accordingly the English stands in 
close affinity. 

The majority of words in the English language, as now spoken, 
and all the properly English ones, are from the Anglo-Saxon, and 
include the more common, homely, and familiar words ; as, eome, 
go, can, will, good, see, hear, above, home, bad. The others are, 
directly or indirectly, mostly from the Latin or the language of 
the ancient Romans, while the rest are from the Celtic, French, 
German, and Scandinavian languages, along with the Greek, which 
supplies the language with nearly all its scientific terms. Latin 
words were introduced partly by the Romans themselves, but 
mainly by the clergy of the Romish Church after Christianity was 
established, and by learned men after the revival of the study of 
the ancient languages in the 15th and i6th centuries. French 
words were added by the Normans after the Conquest, and relate 
to feudalism, law, the church, the chase, and cuisine. The intro- 
duction of Greek words connects itself with the rise and extension 
of scientific discovery. About the beginning of the 17th century, 
in the reign of James L, our language had already begun to assume 
the form in which we now find it, and is from that date entitled 
to be called the English language. 

From the time when the Bible was translated into English, 
and, by being printed, s pread among the people ; when the Book 
of Common Prayer was compiled, and, along with the Bible, read to 

Origin, Composition, and Derivation 

the people in churches ; and when great writers, such as Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Bacon, and Milton, began to publish 
their immortal works in the every-day speech of the country, the 
language may be said to have become fixed ; for, although numerous 
Greek and Latin words have been introduced since then to supply 
new terms required by the rapid extension of the arts and sciences, 
the language itself has, in its genius and form, undergone no 
material change. It is, in all essential particulars, the same as 
when it first took shape in the days of Queen Elizabeth, and her 
successor, James. 

There are four periods in the history of the English language: 
(i.) The Anglo-Saxon, or old EngHsh, from 450 to iioo, when the 
vocabulary was Saxon and the words were largely inflected ; (2.) 
The Early English, from iioo to 1250, when French words began 
to appear and inflections to disappear or become confused ; (3.) 
The Middle English, from 1250 to 1485, when inflections in many 
cases disappear altogether, and French, which had been intro- 
duced, began to yield to it ; (4.) The Modem English, from 1485 
to the present time. 

Key to Pronunqation. 

a as in fade, aid, ate, sale, in<2de. 

a " f^i^ther, calm, half, farm., arm, 

a " ask, dance, gr^^sp, last, grant. 

a " hat, had, ran, sh(5^11, p<a^rrot. 

aw " awh fall, walk, war, aught, fought 

e " m^te, we, see, n^ar, f^^t, n^^d. 

e " h^r, saathor, hird, yerge, ermine. 

e " m^t, in^n, m^rry, kitchen, b^rrj. 

I " m^te, mine, light, time. 

i " fit, pm, division, hishoip, Kttle. 

5 " home, load, snow, grow, note. 

5 " form, cord, orh, abh<9r, cr6>ss. 

o " not, torrid, slot, odd, bodkin, 

oo " moon, fool, stool, school. 

00 " book, woman, wolf, wool, foot. 

U " m.'wte, -wnion, i^nit, P'^^ny, f'i^tile. 

II " hut, drum, dull, ci^rrent. 
oi " oil, join, oyster. 

ou " hoi^se, o'i^t, hownd. 

ch " chnrch, mucA, matoA. 

g " ^ood, ^ive, dig, d2.gger. 

kh " astraMan, Man, Medive. 

ng " '^ing, tongne, spring, hang, 

ih " thine, those, hresithe. 

th " thin, worth, sympa^^Ay. 

sh " .^Aall, pu^A, ^Aoot, fa^Aion. 

A a (a or a), indef. art. (contraction 
of an), one; any. used before words 
beginning with a consonant or the 
sound of h. 

abaca (ab'a-ka), n. manila hemp. 

abacist (ab'a-sist), n. a calculator; 

aback (a-bak'), adv. backward; 
pressed back against the mast : said 
of sails ; by surprise. 

abacus (ab'a-kus), n. a contrivance 
of beads or balls strung upon rods 
or wires : used for arithmetical com- 
putation ; the slab crowning a col- 
umn or pillar. 

abaft (a-baft'), adv. & prep, at, to- 
wards, or in the direction of the 
stern of a ship ; astern. 

abaiser (a-ba'ser), n. bone black. 

abaloue (ab-a-lo'ne), n. a gastropod 
having an ear-shaped shell. 

abandon, (a-ban'dun), v.t. to give 
up ; desert or forsake utterly ; give 
up all claim to ; yield one's self : n. 
unrestraint ; freedom of manner. 

abandoned (a-ban'dund), adj. given 
up entirely ; shamelessly profligate. 

abandonment (a-ban'dun-ment), n. 
the act of abandoning ; the state of 
being abandoned; freedom from re- 

a-bas (a-ba'), [French] down with. 

abase (a-bas'), v.t. to humble or de- 
grade ; debase morally ; dishonor. 

abasement (a-bas'ment), n. the act 
of abasing or humiliating. 

abash, (a-bash'), v.t. to put to con- 
fusion ; confound or make ashamed 
by consciousness of guilt or error. 

abatable ( a-ba'ta-bl ) , adj. that may 
be abated. 

abate (a-bat'), v.t. to lessen; sup- 
press : v. i. to decrease ; moderate i 

abatement (a-bat'ment), n. the act 
of abating ; the state of being abat- 
ed ; diminution ; the amount by 
which a sum or quantity is reduced, 

abatis, abattis (English ab'a-tis ; 
French (a-ba-te'), n. a barricade 
composed of felled trees with the 
branches pointing outward. 

abattoir (a-bat-twar'), n. a public 

abb ( ab ) , n. the yarn of the warp ic 

abba (ab'a & ab'a), n. father; a title 
of a bishop in the Syriac, CoptiCs, 
and Ethiopic churches. 

abbacy (ab'a-si), n. the office and 
jurisdiction of an abbot. 

abbe (a-ba'), n. an ecclesiastic de 
voted to literature. 

abbess (ab'es), n. the lady-superiot 
of a convent or nunnery. 

abbey (ab'i), n. [pi. abbeys (-iz)], 
an establishment for religious devo- 
tees of either sex, renounced to celib« 
acy and seclusion from the world. 

abbot (ab'ut), n. the superior oi- 
head of an abbey. 

abbreviate (ab-bre'vi-at), v.t. to 
shorten, as by contraction of a word, 
or the omission of words in a sen- 
tence ; reduce a quantity to its low- 
est terms. 

abbreviation (ab-bre'vi-a'shun), w, 
the act of shortening or abbreviat- 
ing ; the state of being abbreviated ; 
the word, phrase, or title so con- 
tracted, as M.D. for Doctor of Medi 
I cine. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booa- 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




abbreviator (ab-bre'vi-a-ter), n. one 
who shortens or abbreviates. 

abbreviatory (ab-bre'vi-a-to-ri), adj. 
abbreviating or contracting. 

abbreviature (ab-bre'vi-a-tur), n. 
the sign, letter, or character used 
for contraction ; a compendium or 

abdicant (ab'di-kant), adj. renounc- 
ing ; abdicating : n. one who re- 
nounces or abdicates. 

abdicate (ab'di-kat), v.t. renounce, 
give up, or withdraw from ; to re- 
linquish the crown in favor of a 

abdication (ab-di-ka'shun), n. the 
act of relinquishment or resignation. 

abdicator (ab'di-ka-ter), n. one who 
abdicates or resigns. 

abdomen (ab'do-men), n. the belly; 
the cavity containing the digestive 
apparatus or viscera ; the posterior 
segment or third division of the body 
of an insect. 

abdominal (ab-dom'i-nal), adj. per- 
taining to the abdomen. 

abdominous (ab-dom'i-nus), adj. re- 
lating to the abdomen ; large-bellied. 

abduce (ab-dtis'), 'V.t. to draw away 
by persuasion or argument ; draw 
aside by an abductor muscle. 

abducent (ab-dii'sent), n. that which 
abducts : adj. pulling away from a 
common center. 

abduct (ab-dukt'), v.t. to carry ofEby 
stealth or force ; kidnap. 

abduction (ab-duk'shun), n. the act 
of abducting or kidnapping. 

abductor ( ab-duk'ter ) , n. one who, 
or that which, abducts ; a muscle 
moving certain parts from the axis 
of a limb. 

abeam (a-bem'), adv. at right angles 
to the keel of a ship. 

abecedarian (a-be-se-da'ri-an), or 
abecedary, adj. belonging to the 
alphabet : n. one teaching or learn- 
ing the alpliabet. 

abed (a-bed'), adv. in bed; to bed. 

aberrant (ab-er'ant), adj. departing 
from the usual path, type, or stand- 

aberration (ab-er-ra'shun), n. the 
act of departing from the usual 
path, type, or standard ; mental de- 

rangement ; the unequal refraction 
of rays of light from a lens so that 
they do not converge to a single 

aberuncator (ab-e-rung'ka-ter), n. 
an instrument for weeding, and for 
pruning trees. 

abet (a-bef), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. abetted, abetting], to encourage; to aid 
or assist in the performance of an 
act, usually to a criminal nature ; 
to incite, or instigate. 

abetment (a-bet'ment), n. the act of 
abetting or instigating to action or 

abetter or abettor (a-bet'er), n. 
one who aids or abets in the com- 
mission of a crime ; one who pro- 
tects a criminal or assists him to 
escape from justice. 

abeyance (a-ba'ans), n. held or kept 
back ; held over ; a state of suspen- 

abbor (ab-hor'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. ab- 
horred, abhorring], to hate, 
loathe, execrate, abominate ; be 
strongly averse to ; shrink or recoil 
from with horror, dread, or disgust. 

abborrence (ab-hor'rens), n. detes- 
tation ; extreme hatred ; that which 
excites a feeling of strong repug- 

abhorrent (ab-hor 'rent), adj. detest- 
able, hateful, repulsive. 

abhorrer (al3-h6r'rer), n. one who 
abhors or detests. 

abhorring (ab-hor 'ring), n. the feel- 
ing of abhorrence ; the object of ab- 

abide (a-bid'), [p.t. & p.p. abode, abiding], v.t. to await, endure, 
withstand, tolerate : v.i. to dwell, re- 
side, continue, stand firm. 

abider (a-bid'er), n. one who con- 
tinues or resides ; a resident. 

abiding (a-bl'ding), p.adj. remain- 
ing ; staying ; steadfast, in faith or 
in purpose. 

abigail (ab'i-gal), n. a waiting-maid, 
so called from Abigail, "thine hand- 
maid" (I Sam. XXV. 2-41). 

ability (a-bil'i-ti), w. power to per- 
form ; skill to achieve ; capability 
for carrying out ; capacity to devise, 
receive, retain, or make use of; 

tte, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon- 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then, 




physical or moral strength ; talents 
or gifts, in a special or general de- 
gree ; wealth ; means. 

abintestate (ab-in-tes'tat), adj. suc- 
ceeding to the estate of a person 
dying without a wilL 

abiogenesis (ab-i-o-jen'e-sis), n. 
spontaneous generation. 

abiogenous (ab-i-oj'en-us)^ adj. re- 
suiting from spontaneous generation. 

abject (ab'jekt), adj. worthless; 
mean ; low ; despicable ; in a sunken 
or degraded condition. 

abjection (ab-jek'shun), n. the act 
of being cast down ; cast away ; deg- 

abjuration (ab-jH-ra'shun), n. an 
oath of renunciation, as of allegi- 
ance ; the act of renouncing. 

abjure (ab-jur'), v.t. to renounce 
upon oath ; forswear allegiance to ; 
repudiate or recant. 

ablactation (ab-lak-ta'shun), n. the 
act of weaning a child from the 

ablation (ab-la'shun), n. the act of 
removal or carrying away. 

ablatitious (ab-la-tish'us), adj. hav- 
ing the quality of carrying away. 

ablative (ab'la-tiv), n. one of the 
cases of Latin nouns, expressing 
chiefly separation and instrumental- 

ablaze (a-blaz'), adv. or adj. on fire; 
well alight ; in a blaze ; eager ; in- 
flamed with desire ; resplendent. 

able (a'bl), adj. possessed of power, 
means, or ability ; qualified, compe* 
tent ; bodily or mentally strong ; 
legally authorized or entitled. 

able-bodied (bod'id), adj. possessed 
of physical strength ; capable or effi- 
cient for duty. 

ablegate (ab'le-gat), n. the envoy 
sent by the Pope with insignia, &c., 
to newly-appointed cardinals. 

abloom (a-bloom'), adv. & adj. in 

abluent (ab'lu-ent), adj. cleansing: 
n. that which cleanses ; a substance 
which purifies the blood. 

ablution (ab-lti'shun), n. a washing 
or cleansing of the body by water ; 
moral purification. 

ablutionary (ab-lu'shun-a-ri), adj. 
pertaining to cleansing. 

abnegate (ab'ne-gat), v.t. to refuse 
or deny to one's self. 

abnormal (ab-nor'mal), adj. irregu- 
lar; deformed; unnatural; depart 
ing from a type, standard, or rule , 
exceptional ; out of tlie common. 

abnormality ( ab-nor-mal'i-ti ) , n 
[pi. abnormalities (-tiz)], the state 
or condition of being abnormal oi 
irregular ; difference or departure 
from a regular type or rule. 

abnormally (-li), adv. in an abnor- 
mal manner. 

abnormity (ab-n5r'mi-ti), n. [ph 
abnormities (-tiz)], deformity; ir- 

aboard (a-bord'), adv. on or within 
a vessel : prep, into a ship, 

abode (a-bod'), n. a place of contin- 
ued residence ; a dwelling ; a hab- 
itation ; residence generally. 

abolish, (a-bol'ish), v.t. to efface; d© 
away with ; put an end to. 

abolition (ab-o-lish'un), n. the act 
of abolishing ; the state of being 
abolished ; the annulment or abro- 
gation of decrees, rites, customs, &Cc 

abolitionism (ab-6-lish'un-izm), Wa 
the doctrine or principles of those 
advocating the abolition of certain 
laws or customs, as the traffic im 
drink, slaves, &c. 

abolitionist (ab-o-lish'un-ist), n. 
one who is in favor of the repeal or 
abolition of some existing law or 
custom, as the slave trade or drink 

aboma (a-bo'ma), n. the name of a 
large species of boa or anaconda of 
tropical America. 

abominable (a-bom'i-na-bl), adjo 
hateful ; odious ; offensive ; uncleaUo 

abominate (a-bom'i-nat), v.t. to ab- 
hor ; regard with feelings of disgust 
or hatred. 

abomination (a-bom-i-na'shun), tio 
excessive hatred ; the act of abomi- 
nating ; the thing abominated ; de- 
filement ; pollution. 

aboriginal (ab-o-rij'i-nal), adj. orig- 
inal ; primitive ; existing from the 
beginning : n. the species of animals 
or plants presumed to have orig- 
inated within a given area. 

aborigines (ab-o-rij'i-nez), the 
first or primitive inhabitants of a 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, rait ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut : think, then. 




country ; the native or indigenous 
animals or plants of any geograph- 
ical area. 

abort (a-b6rt'), v.i. to miscarry in 
birth ; to remain undeveloped. 

aborted (a-bor'ted), p. adj. prema- 
turely born ; checked or arrested in 
development ; functionally imper- 

.abortion (a-bor'shun), n. untimely 
birth ; miscarriage ; that which falls 
-short of maturity by arrest of de- 

abortionist (a-bor'shun-ist), n. one 
who is guilty of the crime of pro- 
curing a criminal abortion, or who 
ipduces abortion. 

abortive (a-bor'tiv), adj. born im- 
perfect ; arrested in development ; 
without issue or result. 

abound (a-bound'), v.i. to have in 
plenty or abundance ; to exist in 
great numbers or quantity (followed 
by in or with). 

about (a-bouf), adv. around; on 
every side ; circuitously ; near to ; 
intending ; prep, concerned in ; re- 
lating to. 

above (a-buv'), adv. in a higher 
place ; overhead ; in heaven ; before ; 
besides : prep, superior ; beyond ; in 
excess of. 

aboveboard (a-buv'bord) , adj. & adv. 
in open sight ; without trickery. 

abradant (ab-ra'dant), adj. having 
the property of rubbing away : n. 
substance employed for abrading or 

abrade (ab-rad'), v.t. to wear or rub 
away; to remove as by friction or 
abrasion ; to corrode, as by acids. 

abrasion (ab-ra'zhun), n. the act of 
wearing or rubbing away ; a chafe. 

$ibreast ( a-brest' ) , adv. side by side ; 
in line with ; opposite to ; at the 
same level. 

abridge (a-brij'), v.t. to curtail, 
shorten, condense, eptomize. 

abridgment (a-brij'ment), n. the 
state of being contracted or cur- 
tailed ; an epitome. 

abroacb (a-broch'), adv. & adj. let- 
ting out ; placed in position for 
yielding the contents. 

abroad (a-brawd'), adv. widely; ex- 

pansively; beyond the limits of 
house or country ; wide of the mark. 

abrogate (ab'ro-gat), v.t. to abolish, 
annul, or repeal by authority. 

abrogation (ab-ro-ga'shun), n. the 
act of abrogating ; the repeal or an- 
nulling of a law. 

abrogator (ab'ro-ga-ter), n. one who 
repeals by authority. 

abrupt (ab-rupf), adj. broken; ter- 
minating suddenly ; steep ; precip- 
itous ; rough ; unceremonious. 

abrupted (ab-rupt'ed), p.adj. broken 
off with suddenness ; torn off or 

abruption (ab-rup'shun), n. a sep- 
aration with violence ; a sudden or 
abrupt termination. 

abscess (ab'ses), n. [pi. abscesses 
(-ez)], a collection of morbid mat- 
ter or pus in the tissues of the body, 

abscission (ab-sizh'un), n. the act of 
severance ; the breaking off in a 
sentence, leaving the rest to be im- 

abscond (ab-skond'), v.i. to flee or 
retire in haste from the place of 
one's residence or post of duty ; quit 
the country in secret. 

absence (ab'sens), n. the state of 
being absent ; the period of being 

absent (ab'sent), adj. not present; 
away ; wanting ; regardless ; ab- 

absent (ab-sent'), v.t. to retire or 
keep away from. 

absentee (ab-sen-te'), n. one who is 
absent or absents himself purposely 
from home or duty. 

absenteeism (ab-sen-te'izm), n. the 
state or custom of living away from 
one's country or estate. 

absently (ab'sent-li), adv. in an ab- 
stracted manner. 

absintbe (English ab'sinth ; French 
ab-sangt'), n. wormwood; a bitter 
aromatic liqueur compounded of 
brandy and wormwood, largely drunk 
in France. 

absintbin (ab-sin'thin), n. the bitter 
principle of wormwood. 

absolute (ab'so-lut), adj. free as to 
condition ; perfect in itself ; unlim- 
ited in power ; fixed , irrevocable ; 

§te, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




despotic ; positive : n. the will or 
power of the Almighty. 

absolution (ab-so-lti'shun). n. the 
act of absolving from the conse- 
quences of sin. 

absolutism (ab'so-lti-tizm), n. the 
state of being absolute ; the principle 
or system of absolute government. 

absolutist (ab'so-ltit-ist), n. sl sup- 
porter or advocate of despotic or 
absolute government. 

absolutory (ab-soru-to-ri), adj. ab- 
solving ; capable of absolving. 

absolvatory (ab-sol'va-to-ri), adj. 
containing or conferring absolution ; 
having power to pardon or absolve. 

absolve (ab-solv'), v.t. to release or 
set free ; clear of crime or guilt ; to 
forgive or remit. 

absorb (ab-sorb'), v.t. to drink in; 
imbibe ; suck or swallow up ; en- 
gross or engage wholly. 

absorbability (ab-sSrb-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
the state or quality of being absorb- 

absorbable (ab-s6rb'a-bl), adj. capa- 
able of being absorbed. 

absorbency (ab-sorb'en-si), n. ca- 
pacity for absorbing. 

absorbent (ab-s6rb'ent), adj. ab- 
sorbing : n. the capacity for absorb- 
ing; anything which absorbs or 
takes in nutritive matter; a vessel 
in the body ; a substance capable of 
absorbing or withdrawing gases or 
moisture from the air. 

absorptiometer ( ab-s6rp-shi-om'e- 
ter), n. an instrument to show the 
amount of gas absorbed by a unit 
volume of a fluid. 

absorption (ab-s6rp'shun), n. the 
process or act of absorbing; the 
state of being absorbed ; entire oc- 
cupation of the mind. 

absorption-bands (-banz), 
the dark bands in the spectrum, 
more or less wide, and not usually 
sharply defined. 

absorption- lines (-lins), dark 
lines in the spectrum produced by 
the absorption of cool vapors 
through which the light has passed. 

absorptive (ab-s6rp'tiv), adj. having 
power or capacity for absorption. 

absorptivity (ab-s6rp-tiv'i-ti), w. the 
power of absorption. 

absquatulate (ab-skwot'u-lat), v.i. 
to abscond. 

abstain (ab-stan'), v.t. to forbear; 
refrain ; hold aloof ; keep away 

abstainer ( ab-stan'er ) , n. one who 
abstains, especially from intoxicants. 

abstemious (ab-ste'mi-us), adj, 
moderate and sparing in the use of 
food and drink ; non-indulgent. 

abstention (ab-sten'shun), n. the act 
of holding off or abstaining. 

abstentionist (ab-sten'shun-ist), n. 
one who favors or practices absten- 

abstentious (ab-sten'shus), adj, 
characterized by abstention. 

abstergent (ab-ster'jent), adj. pos- 
sessing cleansing or purging proper- 
ties : n. that which cleanses or 
purges ; a detergent. 

abstersion (ab-ster-shun), n. the act 
of wiping clean ; the act of cleans- 
ing by the use of abstergents. 

abstersive (ab-ster'siv), adj. cleans- 
ing; of the nature or quality of an 
abstergent : n. that which cleanses 
or purifies. 

abstinence (ab'sti-nens), n. the act 
or practice of abstaining ; self- 
denial ; partial or total forbearance 
from the use of food or drink. 

abstinent (ab'sti-nent), adj. refrain- 
ing from over-indulgence, especially 
with regard to food and drink ; n. 
an abstainer. 

abstract (ab-strakt'), v.t. to take or 
draw away ; separate ; purloin or 
steal ; epitomize ; separate from and 
consider apart. 

abstract ( ab-strakt'), n. an epitome; 
a summary or abstract comprising 
the essence or principal parts of a 
larger work : adj. considered or con- 
ceived apart from its concrete or 
material nature, abstract noun, 
n. the name of a state or quality 
considered apart from the object to 
which it belongs. 

abstracted (ab-strakt'ed), p.adj. 
separated ; disjoined ; refined ; ab- 
struse ; mentally absent. 

abstraction (ab-strak'shun), n. the 
act of separating or drawing away; 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



tJie state of being withdrawn or ab- 
stracted ; concentration of mind or 

abstractional ( ab-strak'shun-al ) , 
adj. pertaining to abstraction. 

albstractionist ( ab-strak'shun-ist ) , 
n. one who deals witli abstractions ; 
an idealist ; a dreamer, 

abstractive (ab-strak'tiv), adj. hav- 
ing the quality or power of abstrac- 

abstractly (ab'strakt-li) , adv. in an 
abstract manner. 

abstrabent (ab'stra-hent), adj. ab- 
stract ; eliminating from unessential 
or foreign elements. 

abstruse (ab-stroos'), adj. obscure; 
hidden ; difficult of comprehension ; 

absurd (ab-serd'), adj. contrary to 
reason or sense ; ridiculous. 

absurdity (ab-serd'i-ti), n. ipl. ab- 
surdities, (-tiz)] the state of being 
absurd ; that which is absurd. 

abundance (a-bun'dans), n. in great 
plenty ; an over-flowing quantity ; 

abundant (a-bun'dant), adj. plenti- 
ful ; fully sufficient ; abounding. 

abuse (a-buz'), v.t. to use ill; treat 
i-tidely or wrongfully ; to defile or 
violate ; use violent or abusive lan- 
guage towards ; vituperate. 

abuse (a-bus'), n. ill-treatment; the 
excessive or injudicious use of any- 
thing ; insult ; violation. 

abusive (a-bti'siv), adj. practicing 
or containing abuse. 

abut (a-buf), v.i. Ip.t. & p.p. abut- 
ted, abutting], to border upon; 
touch at one end; terminate, (tjsed 
with on, upon, against.) 

abutment ( a-but'ment ) , n. that 
which borders upon something else ; 
the solid structure which supports 
the extremity of a bridge or arch. 

abuzz (a-buz'), adv. filled with buzz- 
ing sounds. 

abysm (a-bizm'), n. an abyss, a gulf. 

abysmal (a-biz'mal), adj. pertaining 
to an abyss ; bottomless. 

abyss (a-bis'), n. a bottomless gulf; 
that which is unfathomable ; hell. 

acacia (a-ka-shi-a), n. a plant of the 
genus of same name. 

academic (ak-a-dem'ik), or aca- 
demical (-al), n. a college student 
or member of a university : adj. be- 
longing or appertaining to a college 
or university. 

academically (-li), adv. in an aca- 
demical manner ; after the fashion 
of an academy. 

academicals (ak-a-dem'i-kals), 
the costume worn by graduates and 
undergraduates at a university or a 

academician (ak-a-de-mish'an), n, 
a member of an academy or society 
for promoting the arts, sciences, and 

academy (a-kad'e-mi) , n. a private 
school or seminary for the teaching 
of the higher branches of education ; 
a school for instruction in special 
subjects ; an association or society 
of men eminent in literature, 
science, and art ; a building devoted 
to academic purposes. 

acanthus (a-kan'thus), n. a plant 
having sharp-toothed leaves ; orna- 
mentation adopted in the capitals of 
the Corinthian and Composite 
orders, and resembling the foliage of 
the acanthus. 

accede (ak-sed'), v.i. to come or at- 
tain to ; to agree or yield to. 

accelerate (ak-sel'er-at), v.t. to 
hasten ; to cause to move or pro- 
gress faster ; quicken the speed of ; 
bring nearer in time. 

acceleration (ak-sel-er-a'shun), n. 
the act of accelerating ; the state of 
being accelerated. 

accelerative (ak-sel'er-a-tiv), adj, 
hastening ; tending to increase ve- 

accelerator (ak-sel'er-a-ter), n. that 
which quickens or accelerates ; any 
method in photography by which a 
sensitized or chemical plate is ex- 
posed for a less time to the light. 

acceleratory ( ak-serer-a-to-ri ) , adj. 
accelerating or tending to accelerate. 

accent (ak'sent), n. the stress laid by 
the voice upon a particular syl- 
lable of a word, so as to ren- 
der it more prominent than the 
rest ; the mark or character used in 
writing and printing to express the 
manner of pronouncing of a word ; 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me. merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, but ; think, then. 


a peculiarity of utterance or ex- 
pression distinguishing the language 
of different parts or districts of the 
same or a foreign county ; the em- 
phasis placed upon certain notes of 
a bar of music : v.t. to express the 
accent, or denote the vocal division 
of a word by stress or modulation 
of the voice ; to pronounce ; mark or 
accent a word in writing by use of 
a sign ; dwell upon or emphasize, as 
a passage of music, 

accentual (ak-sen'tti-al), adj. be- 
longing to accent ; rhythmical. 

accentuate (ak-sen'tti-at), v.t. to 
speak ; pronounce or mark with an 
accent ; give prominence to in speak- 
ing or writing ; lay stress upon. 

accentuation (ak-sen-tu-a'shun), n. 
the act of accentuating by stress or 
accent; the act of speaking (or 
writing) with emphasis or distinc- 

accept (ak-sept'), v.t. to take or re- 
ceive with approbation ; entertain ; 
agree to, or acquiesce in ; under- 
stand or receive in a particular 
sense ; to agree or promise to pay. 

acceptable (ak-sep'ta-bl), adj. capa- 
able of giving pleasure or gratifica- 

acceptability (ak-sep'ta-bil'i-ti), or 
acceptableness (ak-sep'ta-bl-nes) , 
n. the quality of being acceptable 
or agreeable. 

acceptance (ak-sep'tans), n. the act 
of accepting ; the fact of being ac- 
cepted, or received with approba- 
tion ; the subscription to a bill of 
exchange ; the bill accepted or the 
sum contained in it. 

acceptation (ak-sep-ta'shun), n. the 
act of accepting, or state of being 
accepted or acceptable ; the meaning 
or sense of a word or statement in 
which it is to be understood. 

accepter or acceptor (ak-sep'ter), 
n. one who accepts ; the person who 
accepts a bill of exchange. 

access (ak'ses), n. admittance or ap- 
proach to a person or place ; means 
of approach or admission ; addition 
or increase ; the recurrence or fits 
of paroxysms in diseases. 

accessary. See accessory. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tliQU, 

accessibility ( ak-ses-i-bil'i-ti ) , «, 
the condition of being accessible. 

accessible (ak-ses'i-bl), adj. capable 
of being approached ; easy of access ; 

accession (ak-sesh'un), n. a coming 
to, as by succession or by right; 
entrance or attainment ; the act of 
acceding by assent or agreement ; in- 
crease or augmentation ; the acquire- 
ment of property by improvement, 
growth, or labor expended ; the at- 
tack or commencement of a disease. 

accessional ( ak-sesh'uh-al ) , adj. ad- 
ditional ; pertaining to an accession. 

accessorial (ak-ses-o'ri-al), adj. per- 
taining to an accessory, as acces- 
sorial guilt or agency. 

accessory (ak-ses'o-ri), [pi. acces- 
sories (-riz)], adj. aiding; contrib- 
uting to some result or effect : n. 
one who aids in the commission of 
a felony ; an accomplice ; that which 
is in the nature of an appendage. 

accidence (ak'si-dens), n. the por- 
tion of grammar which deals with 
the inflections of words ; a book 
containing the rudiments of gram- 
mar ; the rudiments themselves. 

accident (ak'si-dent), n. an event 
which is unexpected, or the cause of 
which was unforeseen ; a contingen- 
cy, casualty, or mishap ; a property 
of a thing which is not essential 
to it. 

accidental (ak-si-den'tal), adj. hap- 
pening by chance or unexpectedly ; 
fortuitous ; non-essential ; connected 
with, but not necessarily belonging 
to : n. that which happens unex- 
pectedly ; an adjunct, or non-essen- 
tial part or quality ; a sharp, flat, or 
natural introduced into a piece of 
music to lower or raise the note be- 
fore which it is placed. 

accidentally (-li), adv. in an acci- 
dental manner. 

acclaim (ak-klam'), v.i. to shout ap- 
plause : n. a shout of joy or praise : 

acclamation (ak-kla-ma'shun), n. a 
shout of applause, or other demon- 
stration of hearty approval ; an out- 
burst of joy, or praise ; the adop- 
tion of a resolution viva voce; a 
mode of papal election. 



gicciamatoi'y (ak-klam'a-to-ri), adj. 
exi»re3«ing joy or applause by ac- 

acclimate (ak-feirmat), ■t':v, to accus- 
tom a pc.rion to a foreign climate. 

acclimation (ak-kli-ma'shun), n. the 
process of acclimatizing, or the state 
of being inured to a foreign climate ; 

acclimatize (ak-kli'ma-tiz), v.t. & 
v.i. to accustom or become accus- 
tomed to a foreign climate ; said of 
plants or animals. 

acclivity (ak-kliv'i-ti), n, [pi. ac- 
clivities (-tiz)], an ascent or up- 
ward slope of the earth ; the talus 
of a rampart. 

acclivous (ak-kli'vus), adj. rising, as 
a slope ; uphill. 

accolated (ak'ko-la-ted), p.adj. con- 
taining two or more profile heads, 
so arranged that one partially over- 
laps the next, as in the shilling of 
William III. and Mary. 

accommodate (ak-kom'mo-dat), v.t. 
to adapt or make fit or suitable ; ad- 
just, settle ; supply or furnish ; do a 
favor to ; lend money for the con- 
venience of a borrower : v.i. to be 
conformable to. 

accomm.o dating (ak-kom'mo-da- 
ting), p.adj. obliging; of a yielding 
disposition ; adapting one's self to 
the desires of others. 

accommodation (ak-kom-mo-da'- 
shun) , n. the act of accommodating ; 
or the state of being accommodated ; 
that which supplies a want or de- 

accommodation-bill (-bil), n. a 
bill or note endorsed by one or more 
parties to enable the drawer to 
raise money upon it. 

accommodation-ladder (-lad'er), 
n. a ladder or stairway suspended at 
the gangway of a ship. 

accommodative (ak-kom'mo-da-tiv) , 
adj. disposed or tending to accom- 

accompaniment (ak-kum'pa-ni- 

ment), n. something which is added 
to, or attends the original or princi- 
pal thing by way of ornament, or 
for the sake of symmetry. 

accompanist (ak-kum'pa-nist), n. 
one who plays an accompaniment. 

accompany (ak-kum'pa-ni), v.t. to 
keep company with ; escort ; join in 
movement or action ; perform the 
accompaniment in a composition for 
voice and instrument. 

accomplice (ak-kom'plis), n. an as- 
sociate or companion in crime. 

accomplisli (ak-kom'plish), v.t. to 
bring to completion, or to an issue ; 
fulfill ; attain as the result of exer- 

accomplished (ak-kom'plisht), p. 
adj. finished ; perfected ; possessed 
of social qualifications. 

accomplishment (ak-kom'plish- 

ment), n. the completion of an act 
or undertaking ; fulfillment ; an ac- 
quirement or qualification in art or 

accomptant. See accountant. 

accord (ak-kord'), v.t. & v.i. to be in 
agreement with ; reconcile ; agree ; 
give ; grant ; concede ; to adjust or 
bring to agreement ; to be in corre- 
spondence or harmony ; agree in 
pitch and tone : n. agreement ; uni- 
son ; concurrence of will or opinion ; 

accordance (ak-kord'ans), n. the 
state of being in harmony or accord. 

accordant (ak-kord'ant ),«(?;. corre- 
sponding ; of the same mind. 

according (ak-kord'ing), p.adj. 
agreeing, harmonious : adv. in ac- 
cordance (with) or agreeably (to). 

accordion (ak-kord'i-un), n. a small 
wind instrument, having keys and 
metallic reeds, and worked by means 
of a bellows, after the fashion of a 

accost (ak-kosf), v.t. to draw near, 
or come face to face with ; speak 
to ; salute : n. the act of accosting ; 

accoucliement (ak-koosh'mong), n. 
delivery in child-bed ; parturition ; a 

accouclieur (ak-koosh-er'), n. a 
medical man who attends confine- 
ment cases. 

account (ak-kounf), v.t. to reckon 
or hold to be ; compute ; count : v.i. 
to assign an explanation [with for] ; 
take into consideration ; relate : n. 
a reckoning ; a financial statement 
or memorandum ; a narrative ; any- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; mg, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not;^ booDo 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



thing in the form of a statement, 
written or verbal ; reason or con- 
sideration ; profit ; advantage ; esti- 
mation ; consequence ; importance. " 

account- current (-kur'ent), n. the 
statement of account between two 
or more persons, drawn out in the 
form of debtor and creditor. 

accountability (ak-kount-a-bil'i-ti) , 
n. the state of being liable or ac- 

accountable ( ak-kount'a-bl ) , adj. 
answerable ; responsible ; liable to 
be called to account. 

accountably (-bli), adv. in an ac- 
countable manner. 

accountancy (ak-koun'tan-si), n. the 
art or practice of an accountant. 

accountant (ak-koun'tant), n. one 
skilled in the keeping or examina- 
tion of accounts : adj. giving ac- 
count ; responsible. 

accoutre (ak-koo'ter), v.t. to dress; 
equip ; to array in military dress ; 
furnish with accoutrements. 

accoutrements (ak-k5o'ter-ments) , equipage ; dress ; military 

accredit (ak-kred'it), v.t. to give 
credit to ; have confidence in ; 
authorize ; stamp with authority ; to 
believe and accept as true. 

accrescent (ak-kres'sent), adj. in- 
creasing ; growing. 

accrete (ak-kref), 'v.i. to adhere; be 
added: v.t. to cause to grow or 

accretion (ak-kre'shun), n. increase 
by natural growth ; the addition of 
external parts ; the growing together 
of parts or members naturally sepa- 

accretive (ak-kre'tiv), adj. adding 
to or increasing by growth. 

accroacbment (ak-kroch'ment),_ n. 
the act of accroaching ; usurpation. 

accrue (ak-kro6), v.i. to come to hap- 
pen or result to naturally as an 
increment, as of profit or loss. 

accruement (ak-kroo'ment), n. an 
addition or increment. 

accruer (ak-kroo'er), n. the act of 

accumbent (ak-kum'bent), adj. re- 
clining or recumbent. 

accumulate (ak-ku'mti-lat), v.t. to 
collect or bring together; amass; 
heap up : v.i. to increase in size, 
number, or quantity. 

accumulation ( ak-ku-mu-la'shun ) , 
n. the act of accumulating or amass- 
ing ; the addition of interest to. 
principal ; the mass accumulated. 

accumulative ( ak-ku'mu.-la-tiv) , 

adj. tending to accumulate. 

accumulative juagment (-juj'- 
ment), n. a second judgment which 
takes effect against a person after 
the first sentence has expired. 

accumulator (ak-kti'mu-la-ter), n. 
one who, or that which, accumu- 
lates ; an apparatus for equalizing 
pressure ; an electric storage bat- 

accuracy ( ak'kH-ra-si ) , n. the qual- 
ity of being accurate; exactness or 

accurate (ak'ku-rat), adj. in exact 
conformity with the truth; free 
from error ; precise. 

accursed (a-ker'sed), or accurst 
(a-kerst'), p.adj. under or subject to 
a curse ; doomed to destruction ; de- 
testable ; execrable. 

accusable ( ak-kuz'a-bl ) , adj. liable 
to be censured or accused. 

accusation (ak-kti-za'shun), n. a 
charge or imputation of wrong- 
doing ; the act of accusing or imput- 

accusatival (ak-ku-za-ti'val), adj. 
pertaining to the accusative case. 

accusative (ak-ku'za-tiv), adj. ac- 
cusing : n. the objective case, denot- 
ing the otject of the verb. 

accusatory (ak-ku'za-to-ri), or ac- 
cusatorial (ak-ku-za-to'ri-al), adj. 
accusing, or containing an accusa- 

accusatorially (-li), adv. in an ac- 
cusatorial manner. 

accuse (ak-kuz'), v.t. to charge with 
guilt or blame; make or bring an 
imputation against. 

accuser (ak-kuz'er), n. one who ac- 
cuses ; one who formally charges an 
offense against another. 

accustom (ak-kus'tum), v.t. to habit- 
ituate or familiarize by custom or 

te, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, them 


accustomed ( ak-kus'tumd ) , p. adj. 
frequent ; usual ; often practiced. 

ace (as), n. [pi. aces (-ez)], a unit; 
in playing cards and dice, a card 
or die marked with a single pip ; a 
very small quantity. 

ace-point (-'point), the single mark 
of the ace-card and of the die 
marked with one spot. 

acedia (a-se'di-a), n. an abnormal 
condition of the mind, characterized 
by lassitude, listlessness, and general 

acentric ( a-sen'trik ) , adj. away from 
the center ; having no center. 

Acephala (a-sef'a-la), a term 
applied to all ordinary bivalves, as 
the oyster, having no distinct head. 

acephalous (a-sef'a-lus), adj. head- 
less ; without a leader ; an ovary of 
a plant that has its style springing 
from the base instead of the apex. 

acerbity (a-ser'bi-ti), n. [pi. acerbi- 
ties (-tiz)], sourness; sharpness; 
harshness or severity of temper or 

acetanilide (as-et-an'i-lid), w. a pun- 
gent white powder, formed by the 
action of acetyl chloride on aniline : 
used in medicine as an antipyretic. 

acetate (as'e-tat), n. a salt of acetic 

acetated (as'e-ta-ted), p.adj. com- 
bined with acetic acid. 

acetation. See acetification. 

acetic acid (a-se'tik & a-set'ik as'id) , 
n. _ a clear liquid, with a strong 
acid taste and peculiar sharp smell. 
It is present in a dilute form in 

acetification (a-set-i-fi-ka'shun), n. 
the act or process of acetifying or 
becoming acetous ; the preparation 
of vinegar. 

acetify (a-set'i-fi), v. t, [p.t. & p.p. 
acetified,, acetifying], to turn 
into vinegar ; make acetous. 

acetimeter (as-e-tim'e-ter), n. an 
instrument for gauging the strength 
or purity of vinegar or acetic acid. 

acetin (as'e-tin), n. a combination of 
acetic acid with glycerine. 

acetone (as'e-ton), n. a clear volatile 
liquid, composed of carbon, hydro- 
gen, and oxygen. 

acetose (as'e-tos), or acetous (as'e 
tus ) , adj. of the nature of vinegar j 
' sour ; causing acetification. 

acetylene (a-set'i-len), n. a brilliant 
illuminating gas, produced by sub- 
jecting calcium-carbide to the action 
of water. 

aclie (ak), n. pain, more or less con- 
tinuous : v.i. to suffer, or be in pain. 

achievable (a-che'va-bl), adj. possi- 
ble to achieve ; capable of being per- 

achieve (a-chev), v.t. to perform, 
carry out, accomplish ; to gain or 
bring to a successful issue by an ef- 
fort : v.i. to bring about a desired 

achievement (a-chev'ment), n. the 
act of achieving ; accomplishment ; 
that which is achieved or accom- 
plished ; an escutcheon or armorial 
shield, also called a hatchment. 

achilles-tendon ( a-kil'ez-ten'dun) , 
the powerful tendon placed in, and 
moving, the heel. 

aching (a'king), p.adj. enduring or 
causing pain ; painful : adv. with 
aching ; painfully. 

achromatic (ak-ro-mat'ik), adj. free 
from coloration ; transmitting light 
without decomposition. 

achromatic-lens (-lenz), a lens free 
from chromatic aberration. 

achromatically (-al-li), adv. in an 
achromatic manner^ 

achromatize (ak-ro'ma-tiz), v.t. to 
deprive of the power of transmitting 
color : to render achromatic. 

achromatous (ak-ro'ma-tus), adj. 
without color. 

acid (as'id), adj. sour and sharp or 
biting to the taste, as vinegar : n. 
anything sour ; the name applied to 
a large number of compounds con- 
taining one or more atoms of hydro- 
gen which may be displaced by a 

acidic (a-sid'ik), adj. containing a 
large proportion of the acid element ; 
opposed to basic. 

acidiferous (as-i-dif'e-rus), at?;, pro- 
ducing or containing acids. 

acidific (as-i-dif'ik), adj. acidifying; 
producing acidity or an acid. 

acidification (a-sid-i-fi-ka'shun), n» 
the process of acidifying. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




acidifier (a-sid'i-fi-er), w. a sub- 
stance having the property of im- 
parting an acid quality. 

acidify (a-sid'i-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
acidified, acidifying], to make 
acid ; convert into an acid ; sour ; 

acidity (a-sid'i-ti), n. the quality of 
being acid or sour. 

acidulate (a-sid'ti-lat), v.t. to render 
slightly acid. 

acidulent (a-sid'u-lent), adj. some- 
what acid ; tart ; peevish. 

acidulous (a-sid'u-lus), adj. slightly 
sour ; subacid. 

acierage ( as'i-er-aj ) , n. the term 
given to the process of electrically 
depositing iron on an engraved cop- 
per plate. 

aciform (as'i-form), adj. needle- 

acinaceons (as-i-na'shus), adj. con- 
sisting of or full of kernels, as the 
grape, mulberry, &c. 

acknowledge (ak-nol'ej), v.t. [p.t. 
& p.p. acknovt^ledged, ac- 
knowledging], to admit or own to be 
true; recognize, confess; admit the 
receipt of. 

acknowledgment ( ak-nol'ej-ment ) , 
n. the act of acknowledging ; the ad- 
mission or recognition of a truth ; 
confession ; the expression of appre- 
ciation of' a favor or benefit con- 
ferred; a receipt. 

aclinic (a-klin'ik), adj. without in- 

aclinic-line (-lin), n. the imaginary 
point near the equator where the 
magnetic needle has no dip. 

acme (ak'me), n. the highest point; 
the utmost reach ; the crisis of a 

acne (ak'ne), n. a pustular eruption 
of the body, chiefly confined to the 
face, shoulders and chest. 

acock (a-kok'), adv. in a cocked or 
turned up manner. 

acock-bill (-bil), adv. with the ends 
directed upwards, as of an anchor 
or yards of a ship. 

acology (a-kol'o-ji), n. the science of 

acolyte (ak'6-lit), or acolytk (ak'o- 
lith & -lith), n. the highest of 
the minor orders in the Roman 

Catholic Church, ranking next be- 
low the subdeacon. 

aconite (ak'o-nit), n. the plant 
wolf's-bane or monk's-hood ; the 
drug prepared from the plant. 

aconitine (a-kon'i-tin & -tin), n. the 
narcotic drug prepared from the 
roots and leaves of several species of 
aconite, used as a remedy for neu- 

acorn (a'korn), n. the fruit of the 
oak ; a conical piece of wood affixed 
to the spindle above a vane, to 
keep the vane from being blown off. 

acotyledon (a-kot-i-le'dun), n. a 
plant whose seeds (spores) are not 
furnished with cotyledons (seed- 

acotyledonous ( a-kot-i-led''un-us ) , 
adj. having no cotyledons or seed- 

acoumeter (a-kou'- & a-koo'me-ter)» 
n. an instrument to test the power of 
hearing, or sensibility to sound. 

acoustic (a-kous'- & a-koos'tik), adj. 
belonging to the science of sound : n. 
a remedy for deafness. 

acoustics (a-kous'- & a-koos'tiks), 
the science of sound; the study of 
the effects of sound upon the organ 
of hearing. 

acquaint (ak-kwanf), v.t. to famil- 
iarize or make one's self conversant 
with ; furnish information. 

acquaintance (ak-kwant'ans), n. 
the state of being acquainted with a 
person or subject ; personal knowl- 
edge less than friendship ; a person 
with whom one is acquainted. 

acquainted (ak-kwan'ted), p.adj. 
having personal knowledge; famil- 
iar, known (of or with). 

acquiesce (ak-kwi-es'), v.i. to agree; 
comply passively ; assent [followed 
usually by in]. 

acquiescence (ak-kwi-es'ens), n. the 
act of submitting ; silent assent ; 
neglect to take legal proceedings, so 
as to imply consent. 

acquiescent (ak-kwi-es'ent), adj. 
disposed to submit or yield tacitly ; 
resting satisfied. 

acquirable ( ak-kwir'a-bl ) , adj. ca- 
pable of being acquired. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




acquire (ak-kwir'), v.t. to gain or ob- 
tain possession of by one's own 
physical or intellectual exertions. 

acquirement (ak-kwir'ment), n. the 
act of acquiring; that which is 

acquisition (ak-kwi-zish'un), n. the 
act of acquiring; the object ac- 

acquisitive (ak-kwiz'i-tiv), adj. hav- 
ing a propensity to acquire ; greedily 

acquisitiveness (-nes), n. the pro- 
pensity to acquire. 

acquit (ak-kwif), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
acquitted, acquitting], to re- 
lease ; set free ; discharge ; to pro- 
nounce not guilty. 

acquittaiL (ak-kwit'al), n. the act of 
releasing or acquitting ; the state 
of being acquitted ; the judicial pro- 
nouncement of "not guilty." 

acquittance (ak-kwit'ans), n. a dis- 
charge or release from debt or other 
liability ; a receipt barring a further 

acre (a'ker), n. a superficial measure 
of land containing, in Great 
Britain, the United States and the 
Colonies, 4,840 sq. yds. 

acreage (a'ker-aj), n. the number of 
acres in a tract of land. 

acred (a'kerd), adj. possessing acres 
or landed property. 

acrid (ak'rid), adj. sharp or biting to 
the taste ; pungent ; irritating ; 
stinging: n. an acrid or irritant 

acridity (ak-rid'i-ti), n. the quality 
of being acrid. 

acrimonious ( ak-ri-mo'ni-us ) , adj. 
bitter ; caustic ; stinging. 

acrimony ( ak'ri-mo-ni ) , n. sharp- 
ness of temper ; bitterness of ex- 

acrobat (ak'ro-bat), n.- a performer 
on the tight-rope ; one who practices 
tumbling, vaulting, trapezing, &c. 

acrobatism (ak'-ro-bat-izm), n. the 
performance of acrobatic feats; the 
profession of an acrobat. 

acrolitb (ak'ro-lith), n. a sculptured 
figure, the head and extremities of 
which are of stone and the rest of 

acropolis (a-krop'o-lis), n. the high- 
est part or citadel of a Grecian 
city, as that of Athens, hence a cit- 

across (a-kr6s'), adv. & prep, from 
side to side ; transversely ; adverse- 
ly ; athwart ; intersecting at an 

acrostic (a-kros'tik), n. a composi- 
tion, usually in verse, in which the 
first or last letters of the lines, or 
other letters, taken in order, form 
a motto, phrase, name, or word. 

act (akt),w. an action; process of do- 
ing ; a decree, edict, or enactment ; 
the judgment of a court ; a formal 
writing ; one of the principal divi- 
sions of a drama ; a thesis main- 
tained by a candidate for a degree 
at a university : v.t. to do ; perform ; 
play, as on the stage ; set in motion : 
v.i. to exert force or energy. 

acting (akt'ing), p. adj. performing 
services, as those of an official. 

actinic (ak-tin'ik), adj. having the 
property of actinism. 

actinism (ak'tin-izm), n. that prop- 
erty of the sun's rays which pro- 
duces chemical action. 

actinium (ak-tin'i-um), n. a recent- 
ly discovered radio-active element. 

actinograpb. (ak-tin'o-graf), n. an 
instrument for measuring the varia- 
tion of the chemical rays of light. 

actinoid (ak-tin'oid), adj. having 
the form of rays ; resembling a star- 

actinology (ak-ti-nol'o-ji), n. the 
science that treats of the chemical 
action of light. 

actinometer (ak-tin-om'et-er), n. 
an instrument for measuring the in- 
tensity of heat-rays. 

action (ak'shun), n. the state of be- 
ing active, as opposed to rest ; the 
effect of one body upon another 
(used in sing.) ; an act or thing done 
(used in pi.) ; a suit instituted by 
one party against another in a court 
of law; the gesture or deportment 
of a speaker; the performance of a 
function ; effective motion, as of ma- 
chinery ; the appearance of anima- 
tion, &c., given to figures; an en- 
gagement on sea or land, less 
important than a battle. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; booii| 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




actionable (ak'shun-a-bl), adj. giv- 
ing grounds for an action at law. 

active (ak'tiv), adj. endowed with 
or exercising the power or quality of 
action ; constantly active ; the per- 
formance and not the continuance 
of an action; lively, moving freely; 
acting quickly. 

activity (ak-tiv'i-ti), n. [pi. activi- 
ties (-tiz)], energy; the state of 

actor (ak'ter), n. one who acts or 
performs ; a stage-player ; a proctor 
or advocate in civil causes. 

actress (ak'tres), n. a female actor. 

actual ( ak'tti-al ) , adj. real ; existing ; 

actuality (ak-tu-al'i-ti), n. ]_pl. actu- 
alities (-tiz)], the state of being 
real or actual ; that which is in full 
existence. / 

actualization (ak'tti-al-i-za'shun) , 
n. making actual. 

actualize (ak'tti-al-iz), v.t. to make 

actually (ak'tti-al-li), adv. as an ex- 
isting fact. 

actuary (ak'tu-a-ri), n. [pZ. actuaries 
(-riz)], a registrar or clerk of a 
court ; one who is skilled in life as- 
surance and similar computations. 

actuate (ak'tti-at), v.t. to move or 
incite to action. 

actuation (ak-tu-a'shun), n. the 
state of being actuated or impelled. 

aculeate (a-kti'le-at), adj. equipped 
with a sting ; having aculei or sharp 
prickles : n. certain insects fur- 
nished with stings, as the bee. 

acumen (a-ku'men), n. quickness of 
perception ; penetration ; insight ; 

acuminate (a-ku'min-at), adj. end- 
ing in a sharp point. 

acupress (ak'u-pres), v.t. to check 
hemorrhage by acupressure. 

acupressure (ak'u-presh'er), n. a 
method of checking hemorrhage in 
arteries during amputations by nee- 
dles or wire. 

acute ( a-ktit' ) , adj. sharp-pointed ; 
intellectually sharp ; quick of per- 
ception; severe, as pain or symp- 
toms attending a disease ; high in 
pitch ; shrill. 

adage (ad'aj), n. an ancient proverb, 
or pithy saying. 

adaru's ale (ad'amz al), n. water. 

adam's apple (ap-1), n. a lofty spe- 
cies of the banana ; the prominence' 
in front of the throat, especially 
conspicuous in males. 

adamant (ad'a-mant) , n. a substance 
of extreme hardness ; the dia- 
mond : adj. formed of adamant ; 

adamantine (ad-a-man'tin), adj. 
made of adamant ; impenetrable. 

adapt (a-dapf), v.t. to make to cor- 
respond ; fit by alteration or adapta- 

adaptability (a-dap-ta-bil'i-ti), n, 
the quality of being adaptable. 

adaptation (ad-ap-ta'shun), n. the 
act of adjusting or adapting ; the 
state of being adapted ; that which 
is adapted. 

add (ad), v.t. to join, unite, sum up; 
increase ; affix. 

addendum (ad-den'dum), n. [pi. ad- 
denda (-da)], an appendix. 

adder (ad'er), n. the popular name 
for the viper. 

addict (ad-dikt'), v.t. to devote or 
give one's self up to ; to practice 
sedulously (usually in a bad sense). 

addition (ad-dish'un), n. the act or 
process of adding together ; increase ; 
the result of addition ; the thing 
added ; the adding or uniting of two 
or more numbers in one sum ; a title 
added to a name, denoting rank, as 
esquire ; a dot placed at the side of 
a note to indicate the lengthening of 
the sound by one-half. 

additional (ad-dish'un-al), adj. add- 
ed ; supplementary. 

additionally (-li), adv. in addition 

additive (ad'di-tiv), adj. that may 
be, or is to be, added. 

addle ( ad'l ) , w. & adj. rotten, as eggB 
that are barren or putrid : v.t. 
to make corrupt or putrid, as eggs : 
v.i. to become addled. 

addle-beaded (adl-hed'ed), or ad- 
dle-pated (ad-1-pa'ted), adj. stu- 
pid ; weak-brained ; muddled. 

address (ad-dres'), v.t. to straighten; 
to bring into line ; to arrange, 
redress, as wrongs, &c. ; to direct ; 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




speak or write to ; get ready ; con- 
sign : n. a speech delivered or writ- 
ten ; manners and bearing ; tact ; 
adroitness ; the attention of a lover. 

addressee ( ad-dres-e' ) , n. one who is 

adduce (ad-dtis'), v.t. to bring for- 
ward or cite in proof or substantia- 
tion of what is alleged. 

adducent (ad-du'sent), adj. bringing 
forward or together. 

adducible (ad-du'si-bl), adj. capable 
of being adduced. 

adductive (ad-duk'tiv), adj. bringing 

adductor (ad-duk'ter), n. one who 
draws to. 

adductor muscles (mus'lz), n. pi. 
muscles which draw certain parts to 
a common center. 

adept (a-depf), adj. well skilled: n. 
one who is fully proficient or skilled 
in an art. 

adequacy (ad'e-kwa-si), n. sufficiency 
for a particular purpose. 

adequate (ad'e-kwat), adj. equal to 
requirement or occasion ; fully suffi- 

adfected (ad-fek'ted), adj. com- 
pounded ; consisting of different 
powers of an unknown algebraic 

adhere (ad-her'), v.i. to stick fast; 
become firmly attached to. 

adherence (ad-her'ens), n. the actor 
state of adhering ; unwavering at- 

adherent (ad-her'ent), adj, adher- 
ing ; sticking : n. one who adheres ; 
a follower of a party or leader. 

adhesion (ad-he'zhun), n. the state 
or act of adhering. 

adhesive (ad-he'siv), adj. holding 
fast ; gummed for use ; sticky. 

adieu (a-dti'), n. [pi. adieus, adieux 
(a-duz')], a farewell; good wishes 
at parting : inter j. goodby ; fare- 

adit (ad'it), n. an entrance or pas- 
sage ; an entrance to a mine more 
or less horizontal. 

adjacency (ad-ja'sen-si), n. the 
state of being close or contiguous. 

adjacent (ad-ja'sent), adj, near; 
close to. 

adjectival (ad-jek-ti'val), atZ/. of the 
nature of an adjective. 

adjective (ad'jek-tiv), n. a word 
used with a substantive or noun to 
express the quality or attribute of 
the thing named, or to limit and de- 
fine a thing as distinct from some- 
thing else. 

adjoin (ad-join'), v.t. to unite or 
join : v.i. to lie next to. 

adjourn (ad-jern'), v.t. to put ofE to 
another day. 

adjournment (ad-jern'ment), n. the 
act of adjourning ; the postponement 
of a meeting. 

adjudge (ad-juj'), v.t. to determine 
in a controversy. 

adjudged (ad-jujd'), adj. determined 
by judicial decree. 

adjudgment ( ad-juj 'ment), n. the 
act of judging. 

adjudicate (ad-jti'di-kat), v.t. to try 
and determine a case as a court. 

adjudication (ad-ju'di-ka'shun), n. 
the act of determining judicially ; a 
judicial sentence._ 

adjudicator (a-ju'di-ka-ter), n. one 
who adjudicates. 

adjunct (ad'jungkt), n. something 
added to another thing, but not an 
essential part of it. 

adjunctive (ad-jungk'tiv), adj. hav- 
ing the quality of joining or uniting. 

adjunctly (ad-jungkt-li), adv. in 
connection with. 

adjuration (ad-ju-ra'shun), n. the 
solemn charging on oath ; the form 
of an oath. 

adjure (ad-jur'), v.t. to command on 
oath under pain of a penalty ; to 
charge solemnly. 

adjust ( ad-just'), v.t. to fit, or make 
exact ; to make correspondent ; to 
make accurate. 

adjuster (ad-jus'ter), n. one who 
regulates or adjusts. 

adjustment (ad-just'ment), n. the 
act of adjusting. 

adjutancy (ad'ju-tan-si), n. the of- 
fice of an adjutant. 

adjutant (ad'ju-tant), n. a regimen- 
tal staff-officer who assists the 
commanding officer. 

adjutant-general (-jen'er-al), [pi. 
adjutants-general], the chief staff- 
officer of an army, through whom 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book: hue, hut; think, then. 





all orders, &c., are received and is- 
sued by the general commanding. 

admeasure (ad-mezh'ur), v.t. to 
measure dimensions ; apportion. 

admeasurement ( ad-mezh'ur-ment ) , 
n. a measurement by a rule. 

administer (ad-min'is-ter), v.t. to 
manage as chief agent or minister, as 
a king, president, or judge ; direct 
the application of the laws ; dis- 
pense ; to cause to be taken, as med- 
icine ; to give, as an oath or a sacra- 

administerial ( ad-min-is-ter 'i-al ) , 
adj. pertaining to administration. 

administrable ( ad-min'is-tra-bl ) , 
adj. capable of being administered. 

administration (ad-min-is-tra'- 

shun), n. the act of administering, 
as government, justice, medicine, a 
sacrament, or an intestate's estate ; 
the ministry. 

administrative (ad-min'is-tra-tiv) , 
adj. pertaining to administration. 

administrator ( ad-min-is-tra'ter ) , 
n. one who administers affairs; one 
who settles the estate of an intestate. 

administratrix (-tra'triks), n. a 
female administrator. 

admirable (ad'mi-ra-bl), adj. wor- 
thy of admiration ; excellent. 

admiral (ad'mi-ral), n. the chief 
commander of a fleet ; a naval offi- 
cer of the highest rank. 

Admiralty (ad'mi-ral-ti), n. \_pl. 
Admiralties (-tiz)], the department 
of the English government having 
authority over naval affairs; the 
building in which British naval af- 
fairs are transacted ; the office of an 

admiration (ad-mi-ra'shun) , n. won- 
der excited by beauty or excellence. 

admire (ad-mir'), v.t. to regard with 
strong approval. 

admissible (ad-mis'i-bl), adj. wor- 
thy of being admitted. 

admission (ad-mish'un), n. the 
power or permission to enter ; the 
granting of an argument. (ad-mit'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. ad- 
mitted, admitting], to permit 
to enter; allow in argument; re- 

admittable (ad-mit'a-bl), adj. ad- 

admittance (ad-mit'ans), n. the 
power or permission to enter. 

admix (ad-miks'), v.t. to mix with 
something else. 

admixture (ad-miks'ttir), n. a com- 
pound of substances mixed together. 

admonish, (ad-mon'ish), v.t. to re- 
prove gently ; warn ; instruct. 

admonition (ad-mo-nish'un), n, 
friendly reproof or warning. 

admonitory (ad-mon'i-to-ri), adj. 
conveying reproof or warning. 

adnascent (ad-nas'ent), adj, grow* 
ing upon something else. 

adnate (ad'nat), adj. with organic 
cohesion of unlike parts. 

ado (a-do6'), n. bustle; trouble. 

adobe (a-do'ba), n. unburnt brick 
dried in the sun, used -for building 
in Central America and Mexico. 

adolescence (ad-o-les'ens), n. the 
period of life between puberty and 
maturity; youth. 

adolescent (ad-o-les'ent), adj. grow- 
ing to maturity. 

adopt (a-dopf), v.t. to choose or take 
to one's self, as a child, an opinion, 
or a course of action. 

adoption (a-dop'shun), n. the act of 
adopting; the state of being adopt- 
ed; voluntary acceptance; admis- 
sion into more intimate relations. 

adoptive (a-dop'tiv), adj. consti- 
tuted by adoption. 

adorable (a-dor'a-bl), adj. worthy of 

adoration (ad-o-ra'shun), n. the act 
of worship. 

adore (a-dor'), v.t. to pay divine 
honors to ; honor highly ; love in- 
tensely; admire greatly: v.i. to of- 
fer worship. 

adorn (a-d6rn'), v.t* to beautify; dig- 
nify ; ornament ; embellish. 

adornment (§.-d6rn'ment), n. orna- 
ment ; decoration. 

adown (a-doun'), adv. & prep, down- 
ward ; down. 

adrift (a-drift'), adj. & adv. floating 
at random. 

adroit (a-droif), adj. exhibiting 
skill ; dexterous. 

adulation (ad-u-la'shun), n. inter- 
ested praise; flattery. 

adulator (ad'ti-la-ter), n. a flatterer. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




adulatory (ad'ti-la-to-ri), adj. flat- 

adult (a-dulf), adj. grown up to mi 
age, size, and strength : n. :3, naan or 
a woman. 

adulterant (a-clBl'tGr-ant), at?/, 
adulterating : n. the person or thing 
that adulterates. 

adulterate (a-dul'ter-at), -y.t. to cor- 
rupt by baser admixture : g^dj. 
corrupted by baser admixture. 

adulteration (a-dul'ter-a'shun), n. 
the debasing or being debased by 
admixture ; deterioration. 

adulterator (a-dul'ter-a-ter), n. one 
who corrupts or adulterates. 

adulterer ( a-dul'ter-er ) , n. a man 
who commits adultery. 

adulteress (-es), n. a woman who 
commits adultery. 

adulterous (a-dul'ter-us), adj. guilty 
of adultery. 

adultery (a-dul'ter-i), n. [pi. adul- 
teries (-iz)], violation of the mar- 

adumbrant (ad-um'brant), adj. 
shadowing forth. 

adumbrate (ad-um'brat), v.t. to 
shadow forth; give a faint resem- 
blance of. 

adumbration (ad-um-bra'shun), n. 
something that shadows forth. 

adumbrative (ad-um'bra-tiv), adj. 
faintly representing ; typical. 

aduncous (ad-ung'kus), adj. hooked, 
as a parrot's bill. 

advance (ad-vans'), v.i. to go for- 
ward : v.t. to further ; to make a 
payment of beforehand : n. improve- 
ment; an addition to or rise in 
value ; an overture (usually used in 
pi.) ; a loan; payment beforehand. 

advancement "(ad-vans'ment), n. 
furtherance; progress; promotion. 

advantage ( ad-van'taj ) , n. a state 
of advance or forwardness ; a ben- 
efit ; the first point gained after 

advantageous (ad-van-ta'jus), adj. 
of advantage ; beneficial. 

advent (ad' vent), n. a coming or ar- 

Advent (ad'vent), n. the period in- 
cluding the four Sundays before 

adventitious (ad-ven-tish'us), adj. 
happening by chance ; casual ; for- 
tuitous ; accidental ; produced out of 
normal and regular order. 

adventual ( ad-ven'tti-al ) , adj. relat- 
ing to the season of Advent. 

adventure (ad-ven'tur), n. an event 
the issue of which is determined by 
chance : v.t. to hazard or risk. 

adventurer (ad-ven'ttir-er), n. one 
who undertakes adventures ; a spec- 
ulator ; one who seeks social dis- 
tinction by false or specious pre- 

adventuress ('tur-es), n. a female 
adventurer ; ( usually in a bad 

adventuresome (ad-ven'tur-sum), 
or adventurous ( ad-ven'tur-us ) , 
adj. inclined to incur risk; full of 
risk ; daring. 

adverb (ad'verb), n. a word used to 
modify the sense of a verb or adjec- 

adverbial (ad-ver'bi-al), adj. of the 
nature of an adverb. 

adverbially (-li), adv. with the force 
of an adverb. 

adversary (ad'ver-sar-i), n. [pL ad- 
versaries (-iz)], an opponent. 

adversative (ad-ver'sa-tiv), adj. ex- 
pressing opposition. 

adverse (ad'vers), adj. opposed to; 
contrary ; unfortunate ; inimical. 

adversity (ad-ver'si-ti), n. a state 
of things adverse ; the reverse of 
prosperity ; misery. 

advert ( ad-vert'), v.i. to turn one's 
attention to ; refer. 

advertence (ad-ver'tens), n, atten- 

advertency (ad-ver'ten-si), w. the 
habit of being attentive. 

advertent (ad-ver'tent), adj. atten^ 

advertently (-li), adv. in an inten- 
tional manner. 

advertise (ad'ver-tiz), v.t. to turn 
the attention of others to ; an- 
nounce ; publish. 

advertisement (ad-ver'tiz-ment), ». 
a notice in a public print; an an- 

advice (ad-vis'), n. an opinion given 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




for the practical direction of con- 
duct ; information given by letter ; 

advisable (ad-vi'za-bl), adj. fit to be 
advised ; prudent ; expedient. 

advisability (ad-viz-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being advisable ; de- 

advise (ad- viz'), v.t. to offer an opin- 
ion to; counsel; inform. 

advised (ad-viz'd), p.adj. acting 
with caution. 

advisedly (ad-vi'zed-Ii), adv. v^ith 
advice ; with intention ; deliberately. 

advisory (ad-vi'zo-ri), adj. having 
power to advise ; containing advice. 

advocacy (ad'vo-ka-si), n. the act of 
pleading for. 

advocate (ad'vo-kat), n. one called 
to the aid of another ; one who 
pleads the cause of another. 

advocator (ad'vo-ka-ter), n. an ad- 
vocate ; a supporter. 

advowee (ad-vou-e'), n. one who has 
an advowson ; the patron of a living. 

advoivson (ad-vou'zn), n. the right 
of presentation to a benefice. 

adynamia (a-din-a'mi-a), n. great 
debility ; physical weakness. 

adze or adz (adz), n. a cutting tool 
having a curved blade at right an- 
gles to the handle, used for dressing 
timber by ships' carpenters, coop- 
L ers, &c. adze-plane, a tool for 
p molding and rabbeting. 

sedile or edile (e'dil), n. a Roman 
magistrate who exercised supervi- 
sion over the temples, public and 
private buildings, the markets, pub- 
lic games, sanitation, &c., hence a 
municipal officer._ 

seolian barp (e-o'li-an harp), n. a 
stringed instrument, the wires of 
which are set in motion by air. 

aeon or eon (e'on), n. a period of im- 
mense duration ; an age. 

aerate (a'er-at), v.t. to combine or 
charge with carbonic-acid gas, or 
with air. 

aerated bread (bred), n. bread 
raised by charging the dough with 
^carbonic-acid gas. 

aeration (a-er-a'shun), n. the act of 
aerating ; oxygenation of the blood 
by exposure to the air in respira- 

aerial (a-e'ri-al), adj. belonging to 
the air. 

aerially (-11), adv. like the air. 

aerification (a-er-if-i-ka'shun), n, 
the state of being aeriform. 

aeriform (a'er-i-form), adj. having 
the form of air ; gaseous. 

aerify (a'er-i-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
aerified, aerifying], to combine 
with air. 

aerocyst (a'er-o-sist), n. one of the 
air-bladders of algae. 

aerodrome (a'er-6-drom), n. a place 
to exhibit flying machines. 

aero-dynamics ( a-er-o-di-nam'iks) , 
n. the science which treats of air in 

aerogram (a'er-o-gram), n. a wire- 
less telegraph message. 

aerolite (a'er-o-lit), n. a meteorite. 

aerometer (a-er-om'e-ter), n. an in- 
strument for weighing the air. 

aeronaut (a'er-o-nawt), n. an aerial 
navigator ; a balloonist. 

aeronautic (a-er-o-naw'tik), or 
aeronautical (-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to aeronautics. 

aeronautics (a-er-o-naw'tiks), n. 
aerial navigation. 

aeropbone (a'er-o-fon), n. an in- 
strument invented by Edison for 
increasing the intensity of sound. 

aeropbor (a'er-o-fer), n. an appara- 
tus used in spinning-factories to 
moisten the air, to counteract the 
electricity produced by the friction 
of the machinery. 

aeropbyte (a'er-o-fit), n. an air- 
plant ; a parasitical plant. 

aeroplane (a'er-o-plan), n. a flying 
machine, distinguished from an air- 
ship or balloon. 

aerostat (a'er-o-stat), n. a balloon; 
a flying machine. 

aerostatic (a-er-o-stat'ik), or aero- 
statical (-ai), adj. pertaining to 

aerostatics (a-er-6-stat'iks), n. the 
science which treats of the equilib- 
rium of bodies sustained in air. 

aery (er'i), n. en eagle's nest; a 
brood of eagles or hawks. 

sestbesiometer ( es-the-si-om'e-ter ) , 
n. an instrument for determining 
sensibility of touch. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book: hue, hut; think, then. 



sestlietic or esthetic (es-thet'ik), 
adj. pertaining to aesthetics. 

sestlietic school (-skool), a school 
of art composed of devotees of the 

sestheticisiu (es-thet'i-sizm), w, love 
for, or devotion to, the beautiful. 

sestlietics or esthetics (es-thet'iks), 
n. the science or theory of the beau- 

aether. See ether. 

sethrioscope (eth'ri-o-skop), n, an 
instrument for measuring char^ges 
of temperature of the sky, as when 
clear or clouded. 

aetiology. See etiology. 

afar (a-far'), adv. at, to, or from, a 

afPability (af-a-bil'i-ti), n. the qual- 
ity of being affable. 

affable (af'a-bl), adj. easy to be ad- 
dressed; courteous. 

affair ( af-ar' ) , n. that which is done, 
or is to be done ; business. 

affect (af-fekt'), v.t. to produce an 
effect upon ; seek by natural affin- 
ity ; assume the appearance of ; pre- 

affectation (af-ek-ta'shun), n. the 
assuming a manner which is not 
one's own. 

affecting (af-fek'ting), adj. having 
power to excite the emotions ; pa- 

affection (af-fek'shun), n. having 
the feelings affected ; inclination ; 
attachment ; fondness ; disease. 

affectional ( af-f ek'shun-al ) , adj. re- 
lating to the affections. 

affectionate ( af-f ek'shun-at ) , adj. 
having affection ; kind. 

afferent (af'fer-ent), adj. conveying 
inwards or to a part. 

affiance (af-fi'ans), n. trust; a mar- 
riage-contract : v.t. to betroth. 

affidavit (af-i-da'vit), n. a sworn 
statement in writing. 

affiliable ( af-fil'i-a-bl ) , adj. capable 
of being affiliated. 

affiliate (af-fil'i-at), v.t. to assign a 
child to its father ; connect with 
in origin ; ^ connect with a parent 
society : v.i. to be intimately con- 
nected or associated (followed by 

affiliation (af-fil-i-a'shun), n. as- 
signment of a child to its father ; 
connection by way of descent. 

affinity (af-fin'i-ti), n. \_pl. affinities 
(-tiz)], nearness of kin. [Affinity 
is relationship by marriage ; con- 
sanguinity, relationship by blood.] 
Physical or chemical attraction ; a 
relationship between species or 
groups depending on similarity of 

affirm (af-ferm'), v.t. to assert 
strongly : v.i. to confirm, as a judg- 
ment, decree, or order, in an appel- 
late court ; aver. 

affirmance (af-fer'mans), n. confir- 

affirmant (af-fer'mant), n. one who 
affirms ; one who affirms instead of 
taking an oath. 

affirmation (af-er-ma'shun), n. an 
averment ; the solemn declaration 
permitted to those who have con- 
scientious scruples about taking an 

affirmative (af-fer'ma-tiv), n. that 
which affirms : adj. relating to, or 
containing, an affirmation ; positive. 

affix (af-fix'), v.t. to fix to; attach: 
n. a letter or syllable added to the 
end of a word ; a suffix. 

afflatus (af-fla'tus), n. & breath or 
blast of wind ; inspiration. 

afflict (af-flikt'), v.t. to cau^e pro- 
longed pain to body or mind ; dis- 

affliction (af-flik'shun), n. pro- 
longed pain of body or mind ; dis- 

afflictive (af-fiik'tiv), adj. causing 

affluence (af'lu-ens), n. an abundant 
supply, as of thoughts, words, rich- 
es ; wealth. 

affluent (af'lu-ent), n. a tributary 
stream : adj. abundant. 

afflux (af'luks), n. an increase; an 

afford (af-ford'), v.t. to supply; pro- 
duce ; yield ; be capable of bearing 
the expense of. 

affranchise (af-fran'shiz), v.t. to 
make free ; enfranchise. 

affray (af-fra'), n. the fighting of 
two or more persons in a public 
place to the terror of others. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booiir 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




affright (af-frlf), v.t. to frighten; 
terrify ; alarm ; confuse. 

affront (af-frunt'), v.t. to confront, 
oppose face to face ; insult designedly. 

affusion (af-fu'zhun), n. the act of 
pouring upon. 

Afghan (af'gan), adj. pertaining to 
Afghanistan : n. sl native of Afghan- 

afghan (af'gan), n. sl crocheted or 
knitted soft wool blanket or car- 

afield (a-feld'), adv. to, in, or on, the 
field ; astray. 

aflame (a-flim'), adj. & adv. in 
flames ; ablaze. 

afloat (a-flot'), adj. & adv. floating; 
in circulation ; unfixed ; adrift. 

afoot (a-foof), adv. on foot; astir. 

afraid (a-frad'), adj. frightened. 

afresh, (a-fresh'), adv. again; anew. 

African (af'rik'an), adj. pertaining 
,to Africa ; also Afric : n. a native 
ef Africa. 

Africander (af-ri-kan'der), n. a na- 
tive of South Africa born of white 

aft (aft'), adj. & adv. towards the 

after (after), adj. next, subsequent, 
later : prep, behind in place ; in suc- 
cession to ; later in time ; in imita- 
tion of ; according to ; next in rank 
or excellence ; in proportion to ; in 
pursuit of : adv. behind ; subsequent 
in time or place : n. the future. 

after-clap (-klap), n. an untoward 
event happening after an affair is 
supposed to be at an end. 

after-damp (-damp), n. the car- 
bonic acid found in coal-mines after 
an explosion of fire-damp; choke- 

after-hold (-hold), n. that part of 
the hold which lies abaft the main- 

aftermath (-math), n. a second 
mowing in a season. 

afternoon (af-ter-noon'),»i. the part 
of the day between noon and even- 

after-ward (after- ward), or after- 
wards (-wardz), adv. at a later 
time; subsequently. 

after-ivit (-wit), n. wisdom that 
comes too late. 

again (a-gen'), adv. a second time; 
in return ; further ; anew. 

against (a-gensf), prep, opposite to; 
in opposition to ; contrary to one's 

agape (a-gap'), adj. & adv. gaping; 
with the tQouth wide open in a state 
of expectation or astonishment. 

agate (ag'at), n. a precious stone, a 
variety of chalcedony ; Scotch peb- 

agaty (ag'a-ti), adj. of the nature of 

age (aj), n. a particular period of 
time in life or in history ; time : v.i, 
to grow old. 

agency (a'jen-si), n. operation; ac- 
tion ; an establishment for the pur- 
pose of doing business for another. 

agent (a'jent), n. one who acts, espe« 
cially for another ; an active power 
or cause. 

agglomerate (ag-glom'er-at), v.t. 
to gather into a heap ; accumulate. 

agglomeration ( ag-glom-er-a'shun ) , 
n. a heap. 

agglomerative (ag-glom'er-a-tiv), 
adj. tending to gather together. 

agglutinant ( ag-glti'ti-nant ) , adj. 
uniting : n. any sticky substance 
which causes bodies to adhere to- 

agglutinate (ag-glti'ti-nat), v.t. to 
glue together : adj. glued together. 

agglutination ( ag-gl u-ti-na'shun ) , 
n. the act or condition of being 
united or joined together. 

aggrandize (ag'gran-diz), v.t. to 
make great or greater in power, 
rank, or riches ; augment. 

aggrandizement ( ag'gran-dlz- 
ment), n. exaltation; advancement. 

aggravate (ag'gra-vat), v.t. to add 
to a load ; be troublesome ; intensify. 

aggravating (ag'gra-va-ting), p. adj. 
making worse or more heinous. 

aggravation (ag-grd-va'shun), n. 
the act of making worse. 

aggregate (ag'-gre-gat), v.t. to col- 
lect or bring together ; gather into 
a mass or body ; accumulate : n. 
total ; mass ; a mass formed by the 
union of similar particles : adj. 
formed into a mass or total. 

aggregation (ag'gre-ga'shun), n. a 
collection of particulars. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




aggregative (ag'gre-ga-tiv), adj. 
collective ; social. 

aggress (ag-gres'), v.i. to attack; 
begin a quarrel or controversy. 

aggression (ag-gresh'un)^, n. unpro- 
voked attack. 

aggressive (ag-gres'iv), adj. un- 
justly attacking. 

aggressor (ag-gres'er), n. one who 

aggrieve (ag-grev'), v.t. to bear 
heavily upon ; oppress. 

agbast (a-gasf), adj. struck with 
sudden astonishment, or terror. 

agile (aj'il), adj. easily driven 
about ; active in body ; nimble. 

agility (a-jil'i-ti), n. nimbleness. 

agio (a'ji-o), n. [pi. agios (-oz)], 
the premium on money or foreign 
bills of exchange ; discount. 

agiotage (aj'i-o-taj), n. exchange 
business ; stock-jobbing. 

agitable (aj'i-ta-bl), adj. capable 
of being moved, or debated ; debata- 

agitate (aj'i-tat), v.t. to stir vio- 
lently ; discuss ; excite ; revolve in 
the mind ; disturb ; keep constantly 
before the public. 

agitation (aj-i-ta'shun), n. the act 
of agitating ; excitement ; discus- 

agitative (aj'i-ta-tiv), adj. tending 
to agitate. 

agitator (aj'i-ta-ter), n. one who 
starts or keeps up a political or 
other agitation ; an implement for 

aglow (a-glo'), adj. & adv. in a glow ; 

aglntition (ag-lti-tish'un), n. ina- 
bility to swallow. 

agnail (ag'nal), n. a sore under or 
near the nail ; a whitlow. 

agnomen (ag-no'men), n. an addi- 
tional name or epithet, as Milton, 
the poet. 

agnostic (ag-nos'tik), n. one who 
denies that man possesses any 
knowledge of the ultimate nature of 
things ; one who neither affirms nor 
denies the existence of a personal 
Deity : adj. pertaining to the agnos- 
tics or their teachings ; expressing 

agnosticism, (ag-nos'ti-sizm), n. the 
doctrines of the agnostics. 

ago (a-go'), adj. gone; past (used 
always after the noun) : adv. in 
past time (used only in the phrase 
long ago). 

agog (a-gog')> adj. & adv. in agita- 
tion or expectation ; eager. 

agoing (a-go'ing), adv. on the go- 
ing; in motion. 

agonistics (ag-o-nis'tiks), n. the 
science of athletic combats. 

agonize (ag'-o-niz), v.i. to suffer 
anguish, make convulsive efforts: 
v.t. to torture. 

agonizingly (ag'6-ni-zing-li), adv. 
with anguish or struggles. 

agony (ag'o-ni), n. [pi. agonies 
(-niz)], extreme pain; anguish. 

ago«ti (a-go6'ti), n. a rodent found 
in the West Indies and South 
America. » 

agrarian (a-gra'ri-S.n), adj. relating 
to land, or to land-tenure ; growing 
wild in the fields : n. one who is in 
favor of a redistribution of land. 

agrarianism (a-gra'ri-an-ism), n. 
the principle of a uniform division 
of land; agitation with respect to 

agree ( a-gre' ) , v.i. to harmonize phys- 
ically, mentally, or morally; to ac 

agreeability (a-gre-a-bil'i-ti), n. 

agreeable ( a-gre'a-bl ) , adj. pleasing 
to the mind or senses. 

agreement (a-gre'ment),«. harmony 
of opinions or feelings ; concord of 
one word with another in gender, 
number, case, or person ; a com- 
pact ; a contract ; mutual under- 

agricultural (ag-ri-kul'tur-al), adj. 
pertaining to tillage. 

agriculture (ag'ri-kul-tur), n. the 
science and art of cultivating fields 
by the plow, &c. ; tillage ; farming. 

agriculturist (ag-ri-kul'tur-ist), n. 
one engaged in tillage; a farmer. 

agr in (a-grin'), adj. & adv. in the 
act or state of grinning. 

aground (a-ground'), adj. & adv. on 
the ground; the situation of a ship 
whose bottom touches the ground; 

ate, arm, ^sk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 





ague (a'gti), intermittent fever; 
the cold fit of the intermittent fever. 

ague-cake (-kak), n. an enlargement 
of the spleen produced by ague. 

aguish (a'gu-ish), adj. having the 
qualities of an ague; producing 
ague ; intermittent. 

alia (a-ha')> inter j. an exclamation 
expressive of satisfaction or irony. 

ahead (a-hed'), adv. in the front; 

ahoy (a-hoi'), inter j. a term used in 
hailing a vessel. 

ahull (a-hul'), adv. with sails furled 
and helm lashed alee : said of a ship 
in a storm. 

ai (a'i), n. [pi. ais (a'ez)], the three- 
toed sloth of America. 

aid (ad), v.t. to assist; support: n. 
help ; assistance. 

aide-de-camp (ad'de-kong), n. [pi. 
aides-de-camp], an officer who as- 
sists a general. 

aigret (a'gret) or aigrette (a- 
gret'), n. the small white heron; a 
plume arranged in imitation of the 
feathers of the heron, worn on hel- 
mets, and as an article of women's 
head-attire; a feathery crown of 

ail (al), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, 
-ing], to give or cause pain: vA. to 
feel pain : be afflicted with pain. 

aileron (al'er-on), n. a small deflect- 
ing plane, placed at each end of the 
Curtiss biplane, between the upper 
and lower planes, to steady the ma- 

ailment (al'ment), n. a slight dis- 
order of the body ; sickness. 

aim (am), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, 
-ing] , to endeavor after ; direct at 
something ; seek : n. a purpose ; an 

air (ar), v.t. to expose to the air; 
dry, thoroughly, as clothes ; to ex- 
hibit ostentatiously : n. the fluid 
which we breathe ; the atmosphere ; 
external manner ; appearance ; bear- 
ing ; a melody. 

air-gas (-gas), n. an illuminating 
gas made from air charged with the 
vapor of petroleum, naphtha, &c. 

air-gun (-gun), n. a gun discharged 
by the elastic force of condensed 

airily (ar'i-li), adv. in an airy man- 
ner; gaily. 

airiness (ar'i-nes), n. the state of 
being airy ; gaiety. 

airing (ar'ing), n. a walk, ride, or 
drive in the open air ; exposure to 
the air or fire. 

air-line (-lin), n. a straight line. 
Also called a bee-line. 

air-plant (-plant), n. a plant which 
derives its nourishment from the air. 

air-pump (-pump), n. a machine 
for exhausting the air from a re- 
ceiver ; the pump used to exhaust 
the water and gases from the con- 
denser of a steam-engine. 

airship (ar'ship), n. a steerable bal- 

airy (ar'i), adj. exposed to or com- 
posed of air ; breezy ; unsubstan- 
tial ; gay. 

aisle (il), n. the wing of a church. 

ajar (a-jar'), adj. & adv. slightly 
turned or opened, as a door ; out of 

ajog (a-jog'), adv. on the jog; jog- 

akimbo (a-kim'bo), adv. with the 
hands on the hips and the elbows 
turned outwards. 

akin (a-kin'), adj. & adv. of kin; re- 
lated by blood ; allied by nature. 

alabaster (al'a-bas-ter), n. a white 
marble-like mineral ; a box made of 
alabaster, in which the ancients held 
ointments : adj. made of, or trans- 
parent like, alabaster. 

alack (a-lak'), inter j. an exclamation 
expressive of blame, sorrow, or sur- 

alacrity (a-lak'ri-ti), n. eager readi- 
ness ; joyous activity ; briskness. 

alalia (a-la'li-a), n. loss of speech 
by paralysis of the muscles. 

alalus (al'a-lus), w. the hypothetical 

alamode (a-la-mod'), adv. in the 
fashion : adj. fashionable : n. a thin, 
light, glossy black silk. 

alar (a'lar), adj. pertaining to or 
having wings ; wing-shaped. 

alarm (a-liirm'), v.t. arouse to a 
sense of danger ; strike with appre- 
hension of danger : n. a call to arms ; 
a warning of danger ; the apprehen- 
sion of danger. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




alarming (a-larm'ing), adj. exciting 
apprehension ; ominous. 

alary (a'la-ri), adj. of or pertaining 
to wings ; wing-shaped. 

alas ( a-las' ) , inter j. an exclamation 
expressive of nnhappiness. 

alate (a'lat) or alated (-ed), adj. 
having wings or wing-like side-ap- 

alb (alb), n. a white priestly vest- 
ment worn at the celebration of the 
Eucharist in the Roman Catholic 
Church and in some Anglican 

albata (al-ba'ta), n. an alloy imi- 
tating silver ; German silver. 

albatross (al'ba-tros), n. sl sea-bird 
allied to the petrel, inhabiting the 
Pacific and Southern Oceans. 

albeit (awl-be'it), conj. although; 
even though ; notwithstanding. 

albino (al-bi'no), n. a person with 
white skin and hair and pinkish 
eyes ; a man, animal, or plant ab- 
normally white in color. 

albugineous (al-bu-jin'e-us), adj. of 
the nature of white-of-egg ; albumi- 

album (al'bum), n. a blank book in 
which to insert autographs, photo- 
graphs, stamps, &c. 

albumen (al-bii'men), n. the white 
of an egg ; the nutritious farina- 
ceous matter stored up with the em- 
bryo of an animal or plant. 

albumenize (al-bu'men-iz), v.t. in 
photography, to coat paper with an 
albuminous solution. 

albumin (al-bti'min), n. a variant of 

albuminoid (al-bti'mi-noid), adj. 
like albumen : n. a class of organic 
compounds which form the chief 
part of the organs and tissues of 
animals and plants ; proteids. 

albuminous (al-bu'mi-nus) or al- 
buminose (-nos), adj. like, or con- 
taining albumen. 

albuminuria ( al-bu'mi-nu'ri-a ) , n. 
the presence of albumen in the kid- 
neys and the urine. 

alburnum (al-ber'num), n. the 
white and softer part of wood be- 
tween the bark and the heart-wood ; 

alcalde (al-kal'da), n. a magistrate 
or justice in Spain or Portugal. 

alchemist (al'ke-mist), n. one who 
studies or practices alchemy. 

alchemy (al'ke-mi), n. the chemistry 
of the Middle Ages ; the professed 
art of transmuting the baser metals 
into gold. 

alcohol (arko-hol), n. pure or recti- 
fied spirits of wine ; the spirituous 
or intoxicating element in ferment- 
ed liquors ; rectified spirits ; a class 
of compounds of the same type as 
spirits of wine. 

alcoholic (al-ko-hol'ik), adj. con- 
taining alcohol : -s, alcoholic 

alcoholism (al'ko-hol-izm), n. a 
diseased condition produced by alco- 

alcoholization ( al-ko-hol-i-za'shun ) 
n. subjection to the influence of al- 

alcoholize (al'ko-hol-iz), v.t. to sub- 
ject to the influence of alcohol ; to 
rectify (spirits of wine). 

Alcoran (al'ko-ran & al-ko-ran'), n. 
the Koran ; the Mohammedan Bible. 

alcove (al-kov'), n. a recess in a 
room or a garden ; a bower. 

alder (awl'der), n. a genus of plants 
growing in moist land and related 
to the birch. 

alderman (awl'der-man), n.; pi. 
aldermen (-men), in English and 
Irish cities and boroughs a magis- 
trate next in dignity to the mayor; 
certain members of county councils 
elected by those bodies. 

ale (al), n. a liquor made from an 
infusion of malt by fermentation. 

alee (a-le'), adv. & adj. on the lee or 
sheltered side of the ship ; opposite 
to aweather. 

alert (a-lert'), adj. on the watch; 
active : n. an alarm ; a sudden at- 

alexandrine (al-eks-an'drin), n. a 
kind of heroic verse of six iambic 
feet, or twelve syllables. 

algae (al'je), one of the great 
divisions of cryptogamic plants, 
including seaweeds and kindred 
fresh-water plants. 

algebra (al'je-bra), n. the science of 
calculation by general symbols. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




algebraic (al'je-bra-ik) or alge- 
braical ('ik-al), adj. occurring in 
or dealing with algebra. 

algebraically (-li), adv, by means 
of algebraic processes. 

algine (al'jin), n. a substance ob- 
tained from seaweed, and used in 
manufactures instead of horn. 

alias (a'li-as), adv. otherwise 
[named] : n. [pi. aliases (-ez)], an- 
other name ; an assumed name. 

alibi (al'i-bi), n. the plea of having 
been elsewhere when the alleged act 
was committed. 

alien (a'li-en), adj. belonging to an- 
other : n. a foreign-born resident of 
a country in which he is not nat- 

alienability (a-li-en-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being alienable ; sal- 

alienage (a'li-en-aj), n. the state or 
legal status of an alien. 

alienate (a'li-en-at), v.t. to estrange, 
as the affections ; transfer to an- 
other, as property. 

alienation (a-li-en-a'shun), n. es- 
trangement ; transference ; diver- 
sion to another purpose ; mental de- 

alienism (a'li-en-izm), n. the posi- 
tion of being an alien ; the study 
and treatment of mental diseases. 

aliform (al'i-form), adj. wing- 

alight (a-lif), v.i. to dismount; to 
descend and settle ; to come upon 
accidentally : adj. lighted ; lighted- 
up ; in a flame. 

align (a-lin'), same as aline. 

alignment (a-lin'ment), same as 

alike (a-lik'), adj. like one another: 
adv. in like manner ; similar. 

aliment (al'i-ment), n. food; the 
necessaries of life generally ; an al- 
lowance for support by decree of 
court : v.t. to make provision for 
the maintenance of ; make provision 
for the support of parents or chil- 
dren respectively. 

alimental (al-i-men'tal), adj. hav- 
ing the quality of, or supplying the 
materals for, nourishing. 

alimentary (al-i-men'ta-ri), adj. 
pertaining to food ; nutritious. 

alimentary canal (ka-nal'), n. the 
great duct which conveys food to 
the stomach and carries off solid 

alimentation (al-i-men-ta'shun), w. 
the act of giving nourishment ; the 
function of the alimentary canal. 

alimentiveness ( al-i-men'tiv-nes ) , 
n. the instinct for food. 

alimony (ari-mon-i), n. means of 
living ; an allowance made by decree 
of court to a wife out of her hus- 
band's estate on separation, or 
pending an action for the same. 

aline (a-lin'), v.t. to lay out or ad- 
just by a line : v.i. to form or fall 
into a line. 

alinement (a-lin'ment), n. the act 
of laying out or adjusting by a 
line ; the ground-plan of a railway 
or road. 

aliped (al'i-ped), adj. wing-footed, 
like the bat. 

aliquant (al'i-kwant), adj. being a 
part of a number which does not 
divide it without a remainder, as 8 
is an aliquant part of 25. 

aliquot (al'i-kwot), adj. being a part 
of a number or quantity which will 
divide it without a remainder, as 8 
is an aliquot part of 24. 

alive (a-liv'), adj. having life; in a 
state of action ; sprightly ; sensi- 
tive ; thronged. 

alkahest (al'ka-hest), n. the pre- 
tended universal solvent of the al- 

alkalescent (al-ka-les'sent), adj. 
tending to become alkaline. 

alkali (al'ka-li & -li), n. [pi. alkalis 
& -ies], one of a class of caustic 
bases, as soda, potash, having the 
common properties of being soluble 
in water and in alcohol, combining 
with fats to form soap, neutralizing 
acids and forming salts with them, 
and changing the tint of many vege- 
table coloring-matters. 

alkaline (al'ka-lin & -lin), adj. per- 
taining to, or having the properties 
of, an alkali. 

alkaloid (al'ka-loid), n. a body or 
substance containing alkaline prop- 
erties ; pi. nitrogenous compounds 
met with in plants in combination 

ate, arm. 

at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




with organic acids : adj. resembling 
an alkali in its properties. 

alkauet (al'ka-net), n. a plant the 
root of which yields the rich red dye 
of commerce. 

all (awl), adj. the whole quantity of, 
as substance, duration, extent, 
amount, or degree ; the whole num- 
ber of, collectively, as individuals, 
particulars, or parts ; every, as with 
kind ; any, used after a preposition 
or verb : pron. the whole ; the whole 
quantity or amount ; total ; aggre- 
gate : n. a whole ; an entirety ; one's 
entire possessions : adv. wholly ; en- 
tirely ; completely. 

all along (a'long), adv.phr. through- 

all but (but), adv.phr. everything 
but ; almost. 

all-fours (-forz), n. a game of cards 
which comprises four points or 
chances for scoring : adv. on hands 
and knees. 

all-hail ( hal ) , inter j. all health ! a 
phrase of salutation. 

All-liallo-ws (hal'oz), n. pi. All 
Saints' Day, celebrated on the first 
of November, in honor of all the 

all one (wun), adj. & n. in effect the 
same ; quite the same. 

all-round (round), adj. versatile; 
capable of doing anything ; many- 

all-sorts (sorts), n. remnants of 
various liquors blended together. 

All Souls' Day (solz da), the 
day, celebrated second of November 
by the Roman Catholic Church, in 
honor of the departed. 

all told (awl told), adv. all counted. 

Allah (al'la), n. the Arabic name 
for the Supreme Being, in use 
among the Mohammedans. 

allay (al-la'), v.t. to quiet or calm; 
assuage ; appease ; abate ; mitigate ; 
relieve ; as pain or grief. 

allegation (al-e-ga'shun), n. the act 
of alleging ; assertion ; declaration ; 
that which is asserted or alleged ; 
that which is offered as a plea, an 
excuse, or Justification ; the state- 
ment of a party to a suit of that 
which he is prepared to prove. 

allege (al-lej'), v.t. to produce or 

adduce as argument, plea, or ex- 
cuse ; affirm ; declare ; assert. 

allegeable ( al-lej 'a-bl), adj. that 
may be alleged or affirmed. 

allegiance (al-le'jans), n. the tie or 
obligation of a subject to his sover- 
eign or government ; fealty ; fidelity ' 

y to a cause or person. 

allegoric (al-e-gor'ik) or allegori- 
cal (al-e-gor'i-kal), adj. pertaining 
to, consisting of, or in the nature 
of allegory ; figurative. 

allegorically (-li), adv. figurative^ 
ly ; in an allegorical manner. 

allegorize (al'e-go-rlz), v.t. to turn 
into allegory ; to treat allegorically ; 
to interpret in an allegorical sense : 
v.t. to make use of, or indulge in, 

allegory (al'e-go-ri), n. [pi. allego- 
ries (-riz)], a figurative manner of 
treating a subject by the use of 
other terms analogous in properties 
or circumstances; a figurative rep- 
resentation in which the meaning is 
conveyed symbolically. 

alleviate (al-le'vi-at),!?.*. to lighten; 
lessen ; make easier ; mitigate. 

alleviation (al-le-vi-a'shun), n. the 
act of alleviating ; that which les- 
sens or lightens. 

alleviative (al-le'vi-a-tiv), adj. tend- 
ing to alleviate : n. that which alle- 

alleviator (al-le'vi-a-ter),7*. one who, 
or that which, alleviates. 

alley (al'i), n. [pi. alleys (-iz)], a 
passage; a way (generally narrow) ; 
a lane. 

alliaceous (al-i-a'shus), adj. of the 
nature or property of garlic or the 

alliance (al-ll'ans), n. the state of 
being allied ; relation or connection 
by birth or marriage; union be- 
tween nations. 

alligation (al-i-ga'shun), n. a rule 
for ascertaining the value or price 
of a compound by determining the 
relative proportions and prices of 
the ingredients. 

alligator (al'i-ga-ter), n. the Ameri- 
can crocodile. 

alliteration (al-lit-e-ra'shun),w. the 
repetition of the same initial letter 
in closely-succeeding words, or in 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; booii» 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 

bu < 

words directly following each other, 
as "apt alliteration's artful aid." 

alliterative (al-lit'e-ra-tiv), adj. 
pertaining to, or characterized by, 

allocate (al'o-kat), v.t. to assign or 
allot-; distribute, as in equal or pro- 
portionate parts or shares. 

allocation (al-o-ka'shun), n. the act 
of allotting, allocating, or assigning ; 
an allotment or assignment ; an al- 
lowance made on an account. 

allocntion (al-o-ku'shun), n. an ad- 
dress of a formal nature, as that 
delivered by the Pope to his clergy 
or to the Church generally. 

allodial ( a-lo'di-lil ) , adj. freehold; 
not feudal : n^ land thus held. 

allodium (a-l6'di-um), n. ipl. allo- 
dia (-a)], freehold estate. 

allograph, (al'o-graf), n. a signature 
by one person on behalf of another : 
opposed to autograph. 

allomorphisiu (al-o-m6r'fizm), n. 
the property in certain substances 
of assuming a different form while 
remaining the same in constitution. 

allopath (al'o-path), n. one who fa- 
vors or practices allopathy ; an al- 

allopathic (al-o-path'ik), adj. per- 
taining to allopathy. 

allopathically (-al-li), adv. in an 
' allopathic manner. 

allopathy (al-op'a-thi), n. a method 
of treating disease by inducing an 
action opposite to the disease it is 
sought to cure ; opposed to homoeop- 

alloquialism (§.-lo'kwi-al-izm), n. a 
phrase or manner of speech used in 

allot (a-lof), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. allotted allotting], to distribute or di- 
vide, as by lot ; apportion, as shares ; 
assign or grant for a specific pur- 

allotment (a-lot'ment), n. the act 
of allotting ; that which is allotted ; 
a portion of land assigned or al- 

allotropic (al-o-trop'ik), adj. per- 
taining to or characterized by al- 

allotropism (a-lot'ro-pizm), n. di- 
versity of molecular arrangement. 

i all 

allotropy (a-lot'ro-pi), n. the capa- 
bility shown by certain chemical 
elements to assume different forms, 
each characterized by peculiar 
qualities, as the occurrence of car- 
bon in the form of the diamond, 
charcoal, and plumbago respective- 

allotee (al-lot-te'), n. one to whom 
an allotment or share is granted or 

allow (a-lou'), v.t. to grant, yield; 
admit ; deduct ; permit ; approve : 
v.i. to make concession or provision 
(followed by for). 

allowable ( a-lou'a-bl ) , adj. that may 
be allowed ; permissible ; lawful ; 
praiseworthy ; acceptable. 

allowance (a-lou'ans), n. the act 
of allowing ; admission ; concession ; 
a definite sum granted ; sanction or 
approval ; abatement or deduction : 
'V.t. to put upon allowance ; limit to- 
a fixed expenditure or consumption 
of money or food. 

alloy (a-loi'), v.t. to combine; to 
form a compound, by fusion, of two 
or more metals ; reduce in standard 
or quality by mixture, as with a 
metal of baser value ; debase : n. a 
compound or fusion of two or more 
metals ; a mixture of two metals of 
differing nature and value ; an ad- 
mixture of evil with good. 

allspice (awl'spis), n. the fruit or 
berry of the pimento : so named in 
allusion to its taste being supposed 
to combine the flavors of other 

allude (a-lud'), v.t. to compare: v.i. 
refer or make an allusion indirectly 
(with to). 

allure (a-lur'), v.t. to tempt by the 
offer of something good, real or ap- 
parent ; entice ; attract. 

allurement (a-lur'ment), n. the act 
of alluring, or that which allures. 

allusion (a-lu'zhun), n. a casual ref- 
erence ; a comparison or reference 
by symbol or metaphor. 

allusive (a-lu'siv), adj. having ref- 
erence to something not definitely 

allusory (a-lu's6-ri), adj. allusive. 

alluvial ( a-lu'vi-al ) , adj. pertaining 
to or composed of alluvium. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon,, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




alluvion (a-lu'vi-un), n. land added 
to a shore or river-bank by the 
action of water. 

alluvium, (a-lti'vi-um), n. [pi. allu- 
via (-a)], a deposit of mingled sand 
and clay (mud), or of alternating 
layers of sand and clay, of river 

ally (a-li'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. allied, 

^ allying], to unite by marriage, 
treaty, league, or confederacy ; bind 
or connect by friendship or re- 
semblance : n. [pi. allies (a-liz')], 
one united, related, or associated by 
these means ; a confederate. 

aliuadia (al-ma-de'a), n. an Indian 
river-boat, shuttle-shaped, about 80 
ft. in length, with a narrow beam ; 
a small African bark-canoe. 

almagra (al-ma'gra), n. a fine deep- 
red ochre used in India for staining 
the skin ; used also as a paint and 
polish (Indian-red). 

almanac (awl'ma-nak), n. a year- 
book or calendar giving the order 
of the days of the week and month, 
astronomical data, tide-tables, ec- 
clesiastical festivals and fasts, and 
other varied information. 

almighty (awl-ml'ti), adj. possess- 
ing all power ; omnipotent. 

Almighty (awl-mi'ti), n. the om- 
nipotent God. 

almightiness (-nes), n. omnipo- 
tence ; infinite or boundless power. 

almond (a'mund & al'mund), n. the 
kernel of the fruit of the almond- 
tree; anything resembling the al- 
mond in shape. 

almoner (al'mun-er), n. one who 
dispenses or distributes alms or 
charity ; an alms-purse ; a pouch or 
purse which in early times was sus- 
pended from the girdle. 

almonry (al'mun-ri), n. [pi. almon- 
ries (-riz)], the residence of the 
almoner : the place where alms are 

almost (awl'most), adv.'^' neavlj ; 
very nearly ; well-nigh ; all but. 

alms (amz), n.sing. [used sometimes 
as] the act of relieving by 
charitable aid ; that which is be- 
stowed in or out of charity. 

alms-house (-hous), n. a house en- 
dowed by private or public charity 

and appropriated to the use of the 

aloe (al'o), n. [pi. aloes (-oz)], the 
common name for succulent plants, 
natives of the warm climates of the 
Old World, and especially of the 
southern part of Africa. 

aloes (al'oz), n. a drug, the inspis- 
sated juice of several species of 
aloe, and obtained from the leaves ; 
the fragrant resin or wood of the 

aloft (a-loft'), adv. on high; far 
above the earth ; at the mast-head, 
or on the higher yards or rigging. 

alone (a-lon'), adj. & adv. without or 
apart from another ; single or sin- 
gly ; only ; separately ; by itself. 

along (a-long'), prep. & adv. by the 
length ; lengthwise ; in a line parallel 
with the length ; onward. 

alongshoreman (-shor'man), n. [pi. 
-men], a laborer employed at docks 
in loading and unloading vessels, 

alongside (-sid), adv. by the side; 
side by side. 

aloof (a-loof), adv. at a moderate 
distance but within sight ; purposely 
keeping apart. 

alopecia (al-o-pe'si-a), or alopecy 
(al'o-pe-si), n. baldness; loss of 
hair through skin disease. 

alopecist (al'o-pes-ist), n. one who 
undertakes the cure or prevention of 

aloud (a-loud'), adv. with raised 
voice; loudly; with a great noise; 

alpaca (al-pak'a), n. a mammal, 
closely allied to the llama, a native 
of the Andes of Chili and Peru ; 
the fabric constructed from the 
long, soft, silky wool of the alpaca. 

alpen-glow (al'pen-glo), n. a pecul- 
iar purple glow on the snow on the 
Alps seen just before sunrise and 
after sunset. 

alp en-horn (-horn), n. a long and 
nearly straight horn used by the 
mountaineers of the Alps. 

alpen-stock (-stok), n. a stout staff, 
furnished with an iron spike, used 
by mountain-climbers. 

alphabet (al'fa-bet), n. the letters 
of a language arranged in the cus- 
tomary order ; the first rudiments of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, /7ien. 




any branch of knowledge : v.t. to 
arrange or classify in alphabetical 
sequence ; mark by the letters of the 

alpliabetic (al-fa-bet'ik), or alpha- 
betical ('i-kal), adj. pertaining 
to an alphabet; in the order of the 

alphabetically (-li), adv. in an al- 
phabetical order or manner. 

alphabetize ( al'f a-bet-iz, v.t. to ar- 
range in alphabetical order. 

already (awl-red'i), adj. quite 
ready ; fully prepared : adv. by, at, 
or before, a specified time. 

also (awl'so), adv. & conj. wholly so ; 
in like manner ; likewise ; further, 
or in addition to. 

altar (awl-tar), n. a raised place, 
structure, or elevation, whether of 
earth or stone, for the offering of 
sacrifices or burning of incense ; the 
Communion-table; a place of wor- 

altazimuth (alt-az'i-muth), n. an in- 
strument employed to determine the 
altitudes and azimuths of the heav- 
enly bodies, 

alter (awl-ter), v.t. to effect some 
change in ; modify or vary ; change 
entirely or materially. 

alterability (awl-ter-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being alterable or 
liable to change. 

alterant (awl'ter-ant), adj. produc- 
ing or effecting change : n. a sub- 
stance used in dyeing to change or 
modify a color. 

alteration (awl-ter-a'shun), n. the 
act of altering or changing ; the 
change or modificatioi^ effected. 

alterative (awl'ter-a-tiv), adj. pro- 
ducing change ; having the power to 
alter : n. a medicine which restores 
the healthy functions of the body. 

altercate (awl'ter-kat), v.i. to con- 
tend in words ; wrangle ; dispute 
with anger or heat. 

altercation (awl-ter-ka'shun), n. 
the act of wrangling ; warm conten- 
tion in words ; a dispute. 

alter ego (al'ter e'go), n. a second 
self ; one's double : frequently ap- 
plied to a person fully authorized to 
act for another. 

alternant (al-ter'nant), adj. com- 
posed of alternate layers. 

alternate (al'ter-nat), v.t. to per- 
form by turns ; cause to succeed by 
turns ; exchange reciprocally : v.i. 
to_ take place by turns (followed by 
with): adj. by turns; following 
each other in reciprocal succession; 
succeeding each other by turns on 
opposite sides of a stem. 

alternate angles (ang'glz), 
the internal angles made by two 
lines with a third on opposite sides 
of it. 

alternation (al-ter-na'shun), n. the 
act of alternating, or sta^e of being 
alternate ; reciprocal succession ; 
antiphonal singing or reading. 

alternative (al-ter'na-tiv), adj. giv- 
ing the choice of two things : n. the 
option or choice of two possibilities, 
so that if one be rejected the other 
must be accepted. 

alternator (al'ter-na-ter), n. an al- 
ternating current dynamo. 

alt-horn (alt'horn,) n. a musical in- 
strument of the sax-horn class, fre- 
quently used in military bands. 

although (awl-*7io'), conj. granting 
that ; though ; even if ; notwith- 

altimeter (al-tim'e-ter), n. an in- 
strument for measuring altitudes 

altimetry (al-tim'e-tri), n. the art 
of measuring altitudes by the use 
of the altimeter. 

altiscope (al'tis-kop), n. an instru- 
ment consisting of mirrors and 
lenses by means of which an object 
is brought to the view of the ob- 
server notwithstanding intervening 
obstacles ; used to guide submarine^ 

altisonant (al-tis'o-nant) , adj. high 
sounding ; pompous in language. 

altitude (al'ti-tud), n. space ex- 
tended upward ; laeight ; highest 
point or degree ; the elevation of a 
celestial body above the horizon ; 
the perpendicular distance from the 
base of a figure to the summit or to 
the side parallel to the base. 

altitudinal (al-ti-tu'di-nal), adj. of 
or pertaining to height. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




alto (al'to), adj. high: n. the con- 
tralto ; the tenor violin or viola. 

altogether awl-too-ge^/i'er ) , adv. 
wholly ; completely ; without excep- 
tion ; conjunctly ; entirely^ 

alto-relievo (al'to-re-le'vo), or 
alto-rilievo ( al'to-re-le-a'vo ) , n. 
[pi. alto-relievos (-voz)], high re- 
lief ; figures or other objects that 
stand out boldly from the backr 
ground, and having more than half 
their thickness projecting. 

altropathy (al-trop'a-thi), n. sym- 
pathy for others. 

altruism (al'troo-izm), n. the prin- 
ciples inculcated by Comte, and in- 
volving the sacrifice of self in the 
interests of others : opposed to 

altruist (al'troo-ist), 7i. one who ad- 
vocates or practices altruism. 

altruistic (al-troo-is'tik), adj. per- 
taining to altruism ; mindful of the 
wants and interests of others. 

altruistically (-al-li), adv. in an al- 
truistic manner. 

aluxa (al'um), n. a double sulphate 
formed of aluminum and some other 
element, usually an alkali metal. 
alum-root (-root), n. a popular 
name given to certain roots of an 
astringent nature belonging to the 

alumina (a-lu'mi-na), n. the single 
oxide of aluminum, the most abun- 
dant of the earths ; a notable consti- 
tuent of common clay. Alumina is 
largely used in dyeing and calico- 
printing as a mordant. 

alumiuite (a-lu'mi-nit), n. the 
hydrous sulphate of aluminum. 

aluminous ( a-lti'mi-nus ) , adj. per- 
taining to, or containing, alum or 

aluminum (a-lti'mi-num) or alu- 
minium (al-u-min'i-um), n. a blu- 
ish-white, light, sonorous, ductile, 
malleable metal. 

alumna (a-lum'na), n. [pi. alumnae 
(-ne)], a female graduate or pupil 
of a university or college. 

alumnus (a-lum'nus), n. [pi. alumni 
(-ni)], a pupil, more particularly 
the graduate of a university ; one 
educated at a school, college, or 

alveolated (al-ve'o-la-ted), adj. with 
deep pits or cells resembling the 

always (awl'waz), adv. constantly; 
ever ; regularly at intervals ; con- 

am (am), 1st pers. sing, indie, mood 
of the verb to be. See be. 

amain (a-man'), adv. with force or 
violence ; suddenly ; at once. 

amalgam (a-mal'gam), n. any me- 
tallic mixture or alloy of which 
mercury is the chief constituent ; a 
mixture or compound of different 

amalgamate (a-mal'ga-mat), v.t. to 
alloy mercury with another metal ; 
mix to form a compound: v.i. to 
blend, combine, as one race with 

amalgamation ( a-mal-ga-ma'shun ) , 
n. the act or process of compound- 
ing mercury with another metal ; 
the separation of precious metals 
from the mother-rock by means of 
quicksilver; the blending or mixing 
of different elements or things ; the 
union or consolidation of two or 
more companies or businesses into 
one concern. 

amalgamator (a-marga-ma-ter), n. 
one who or that which amalgamates ; 
a machine for purifying ore con:- 
taining precious metals by amalga- 
mation with mercury ; one who 
takes an active part in combining 
two or more businesses. 

amanuensis (a-man-ti-en'sis), w. [pi. 
amanuenses (-sez)], one who is 
employed to write at the dictation 
or direction of another ; a secre- 

amaranth (am'a-ranth), n. an im- 
aginary flower said by poets to be 
unfading; a plant of the genus am- 
arantus ; a color-mixture in which 
magenta is the chief ingredient. 

amaranthine (am-a-ran'thin), adj. 
pertaining to the amaranth ; never- 
fading, like amaranth ; purplish. 

amass (a-mas'), v.t. to collect into a 
heap ; gather together in great quan- 
tity or amount ; accumulate. 

ama'ssment (a-mas'ment), n. the act 
of amassing; a heap or accumula- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



tion ; a great quantity or number 
brought together. 

amateur (am'a-ttir & am-a-ter') n. 
one who cultivates an art or pur- 
sues a study from love or attach- 
ment, and without reference to gain 
or emolument : adj. applied to the 
work or productions of an amateur 
as opposed to professional. 

amative (am'a-tiv), adj. amorous; 
full of love. 

amativeness ( am'a-tiv-nes ) , n. the 
tendency to love ; the desire for 
sexual intercourse. 

amatorial (am-a-tor'i-al), adj. per- 
taining to love ; amatory ; pertain- 
ing to the oblique muscles of the eye 
used in ogling. 

amatorially (-li), adv. in an ama- 
torial manner. 

amatory (am'a-to-ri), adj. relating 
to or expressive of love. 

amaurosis (am-aw-ro'sis), n. loss or 
decay of sight due to partial, period- 
ic, or complete paralysis of the 
optic nerve. 

amaurotic (am-aw-rot'ik), adj. re- 
lating to, or affected with, amauro- 

amaze (a-maz'), v.t. to confound or 
stun with fear, surprise, or won- 
der ; astonish : n. astonishment ; 
confusion ; perplexity. 

amazement (a-maz'ment), n. the 
state of being amazed ; astonish- 
ment ; perplexity arising from sud- 
den surprise. 

ambassador (am-bas'a-der), n. an 
accredited representative of a sov- 
ereign or state at the court of an- 
other ; a diplomatic agent of high 
rank ; a representative or agent of 
another charged with a special mis- 

ambassador-extraordinary (-eks- 
tra-6r'din-a-ri), n. an ambassador 
sent on a special mission. 

ambassador-plenipo tentiary 
(-plen-i-po-ten'shi-a-ri), n. an am- 
bassador sent with full powers to 
make a treaty. 

ambassadorial ( am-bas-a-dor'i-al ) , 
adj. belonging to an ambassador, or 
to his office. 

ambassadress (am-bas'a-dres), n. 
the wife of an ambassador ; a fe- 
male ambassador. 

amber (am'ber), n. a yellowish fos- 
sil resin found on the shores of the 
Baltic : adj. made of amber ; amber- 

ambergris (am'ber-gres), n. a mor- 
bid secretion from the intestines of 
the sperm-whale, usually found 
floating in tropical seas : used in 

ambidexter (am-bi-deks'ter), adj. 
using both hands equally : n. a man 
of unusual dexterity. 

ambidextrous (am - bi-deks'trus) , 
adj. able to use both hands alike; 
unusually clever. 

ambient (am'bi-ent), adj. surround- 
ing ; investing. 

ambiguity (am-bi-gu'i-ti), n. [pi. 
ambiguities (-tiz)], double or du- 
bious signification ; vagueness. 

ambiguous (am-big'ti-us), adj. 
doubtful ; equivocal. 

ambit (am'bit), n. a circuit or com- 
pass ; the line or sum of the lines 
by which a figure is bounded; the 

ambition (am-bish'un), n. a seeking 
for preferment ; a consuming desire 
to achieve some object or purpose, 
as to gain distinction, influence, &c. 

ambitious (am-bish'us), adj. having 
ambition ; aspiring. 

amble (am'bl), v.i. to move with a 
peculiar pace, as a horse, by lifting 
the two feet on one side together : n. 
at an easy pace. 

amblyopia (am'bli-o-pi-a) or am- 
blyopy (-pi), n. dimness of vision. 

amboyna-wood (am-boi'na-wood), 
n. a beautifully mottled and curled 
wood used in cabinet-work. 

ambrosia (am-bro'-zhi-a), n. any- 
thing exquisitely pleasing to taste 
or smell ; a genus of weeds allied to 

ambrosial (am-bro'zhi-al), adj. di' 
vinely delicious ; fragrant. 

ambrosially (-li), adv. with ambro- 
sial fragrance. 

ambrotype (am'bro-tip), n. a pho- 
tographic process by which the light 
parts of a photograph are produced 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 



in silver, the dark parts showing as 
a background through the clear 

ambulance (am'bti-lans), n. a field 
hospital; an ambulance cart or 
wagon for the conveyance of the 
sick and wounded. 

ambulant (am'bu-lant), adj. walk- 
ing ; moving about. 

ambulation (am-bii-la'shun), n. the 
act of walking about. 

ambulator (am'bu-la-ter), n. a 
walker ; a pedometer. 

ambulatory (am'bu-la-to-ri), adj. of 
or pertaining to walking; movable; 
temporary : n. a place for walking 
in ; a covered way. 

ambuscade (am-bus-kad'), n. a 
strategic disposition of troops in 

ambush (am'boosh), n. a lying in 
wait to attack by surprise : v.t. to 
place in ambush to surprise an 
enemy ; waylay : v.i. to lie in wait 
for the purpose of attacking by 

ameer (a-mer'), n. a prince; govern- 
or ; the Mohammedan ruler of Af- 
ghanistan. Also written amir, emir. 

ameliorable (a-me'li-or-a-bl), adj. 
capable of improvement. 

ameliorate (a-me'li-or-at), v.t. to 
make better : v.i. to grow better ; 

amelioration (a-me-li-or-a'shun),^ n. 
the making or growing better ; im- 

ameliorative (a-me'li-or-a-tiv), ad}. 
producing amendment ;_ improving. 

ameliorator (a-me'li-or-a-ter), n. 
one who amends. 

amen (a-men' & a'men'), adv. verily: 
interj. so be it. 

amenability (a-me-na-bil'i-ti) or 

amenableness ( a-me'na-bl-nes ) , 

n. liability to answer (to a charge, 

' &c. ) ; tractableness ; responsibility. 

amenable (a-me'na-bl), adj. easy to 
lead ; submissive ; liable. 

amend (a-mend'), v.t. to free from 
fault ; improve ; correct. 

amendatory (a-men'da-tor-i), n.adj. 
tending to amend. 

amende-bonorable (a-mangd-on'or- 
a-bl), n. a public apology and repa- 
ration ; a punishment formerly in- 

flicted in France on traitors and the 

amendment (a-mend'ment), n. the 
removal of faults ; the alteration of 
a bill before Parliament ; a counter- 
motion at a public meeting. 

amends (a-mendz'), n. pi. compensa- 
tion for loss or injury ; reparation. 

amenity (a-men'i-ti) , n. [pi. amen- 
ities (-tiz)], pleasantness, as of 
climate or demeanor ; geniality. 

amenorrboea (a-men-or-re'a), n. en- 
tire or partial suppression of the 
' menses. 

amentia (a-men'shi-a), n. want of 
reason ; mental imbecility. 

amerce (a-mers'), v.t. to punish by 
an arbitrary fine. 

amerceable ( a-mer'sa-bl ), »(?;'. liable 
to be amerced. 

amercement (a-mers'ment), n. an 
arbitrary fine left to the discretion 
of a court. 

Amei'ican (a-mer'i-kan), adj. be- 
longing to, or characteristic of, 

Americanism (a-mer'i-kan-izm), n. 
a form of expression peculiar to the 
United States ; a custom peculiar 
to the United States or America ; 
attachment to the United States. 

Americanize (a-mer'i-kan-iz), v.t. to 
render American ; assimilate to the 
political institutions of the United 

amethyst (am'e-thist), n. a violet- 
purple variety of quartz or rock- 

amethystine (am-e-this'tin), adj. 
containing, composed of, or colored, 
like amethyst. 

amiability (a-mi-a-bil'i-ti), n. ami- 
ableness ; excellence of disposition ; 

amiable (a'mi-a-bl), adj. friendly; 
worthy of love ; lovable. 

amicable (am'i-ka-bl), adj. friend- 
ly ; peaceable. 

amice (am'is), n. a square of white 
linen formerly worn on the head, 
but now worn about the neck and 
shoulders, by celebrant priests while 
saying Mass. 

amid (a-mid') or amidst ('st), 
prep, in the middle of ; among. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon,^ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




amidships (a-mid'ships), adv. in the 
middle of a ship. 

amir. See ameer. 

amiss (a-mis'), adj. wrong; faulty: 
adv. wrongly ; that misses the mark. 

amity (am'i-ti), n. friendly rela- 
tions ; friendship. 

ammonia (a-mo'ni-§.), n. a trans- 
parent, pungent volatile gas, used in 
medicine and the arts ; spirits of 

amimoiiiac (a-mo'ni-ak), adj. per- 
taining to ammonia : n. sal am- 
moniac; chloride of ammonium, 
formerly called muriate of ammonia. 

ammonite (am'on-it), n. a fossil 
shell, twisted like a ram's horn ; 

ammunition (am-ti-nish'un), n. 
powder, balls, &c., used in charging 
firearms of all kinds ; military 
stores : adj. supplied to troops as 
equipment, &c. 

amnesia (am-ne'si-a), n. loss of 

amnesty (am'nes-ti), n. an act of ob- 
livion for political offenses ; a gen- 
eral pardon : v.t., p.t. & p.p. amnes- 
tied, amnestying, to grant par- 
don to. 

amnion (am'ni-on), n. the thin in- 
nermost membrane surrounding the 
foetus of mammals, birds, and rep- 

amoeba (a-me'ba), n. [pi. amoebas 
('baz) & -bee ('be)], a genus of mi- 
croscopic organisms, consisting of a 
mass of protoplasm which moves 
about in fresh-water ponds by 
means of finger-like processes with 
wkich it grasps its food. 

among ( a-mung' ) or amongst ( 'st ) , 
prep. & adv. mixed with ; sur- 
rounded by ; amidst. 

amorous (am'or-us), adj. fond of the 
opposite sex : loving. 

amorphism (a-m5r'fizm), n. want of 
regular form ; without crystalline 
structure ; the communistic system 
of Bakunin, the Russian anarchist ; 

amorphous (a-m5r'fus), adj. form- 
less ; irregularly shaped ; uncrystal- 
lized ; anomalous ; unorganized. 

amount (a-mount'), v.i. to mount up 
to ; be equivalent or equal to : n, 
the totality ; sum. 

amour (a-moor'), n. a love-intrigue. 

ampere (am-par'), n. the unit of 
measurement of the strength of an 
electrical current. 

ampere-meter (am-par'me-ter) or 
amperometer ( am-pe-rom'e-ter ) , 
n. an instrument for measuring in 
amperes the power of an electric 

Amphibia (am-fib'i-a), the 
fourth division of vertebrates, in- 
termediate between fishes and rej)- 
• tiles, which in their early state 
breathe by gills. 

amphibian (am-fib'i-an), n. cue of 
the Amphibia. 

amphibious (am-fib'i-us), adj. hav- 
ing the powei* of living both on land 
and in water. 

amphibrach (am'fi-brak), n. a foot 
of three syllables, the middle long, 
the first and last short. 

amphioxus (am-fi-ox'us), n. the 
name of the lancelet, a fish with a 
body tapering at both ends, the low- 
est in orgajTiization of the verte- 

amphitheater, -re (am-fi-the'a- 
ter), n. a double theater; a theater 
with seats all round the arena; a 

amphitype (am'fi-tip), n. sl photo- 
graphic process which simultaneous- 
ly produces negatives and positives. 

amphora (am'for-a), n. [pi. am- 
phorae (-re)], a two-handled vessel 
of oblong shape, used by the an- 
cients for holding wine, &c. ; a 
Greek and Roman liquid measure, 
the former = 9 gals., the latter 
= 6 gals. 

ample (am'pl), adj. full; large; 

ampliative (am'pli-a-tiv), adj. en- 
larging; synthetic. 

amplification (am-pli-fi-ka'shun), 
n. the act of amplifying or expand- 
ing ; enlargement. 

amplify (am'pli-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p» 
amplified, p.^r. amplifying], to make 
large : v.i. to speak or write diffuse- 
ly ; expand. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon^ 
book; hue, hut; think, ^7i-en. 




amplitude (am'pli-tud), n. the 
angular distance of a celestial body 
at rising or setting from the east- 
ern or western points of the hori- 
zon ; an angle on which the value 
of some mathematical function de- 
pends ; the distance which a particle 
moves in performing a complete vi- 

amply (-li), adv. in an ample man- 
ner ; liberally. 

ampulla (am-pul'la), n. \_pl. am- 
pullae (-le)], an ancient vessel 
which contained unguents for the 
bath ; a drinking vessel ; a vessel for 
consecrated oil or chrism used ^ in 
Church rites, and at the coronation 
of sovereigns. 

amputate (am'pu-tat), v.t. to lop off 
in pruning ; to cut off a limb ; dis- 
member. » 

amiputation ( am-pu-ta'shun ) , n. a 
cutting off ; the operation of cutting 
off a limb. 

am.t (amt), n. the largest territorial 
administrative division of Norway 
and Denmark. 

amt-man (-man), n. [pi. -men], the 
principal executive official of an 

amuck (a-muk'), adj. or adv. (used 
only in the phrase, to run amuck) 
running about armed, in a state of 
frenzy, attacking all that come in 
the way, or committing indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter. 

am.ulet (am'u-let), n. a charm worn 
to protect against evil ; a talisman. 

amuse (a-mtiz'), v.t. to occupy the 
attention pleasantly ; beguile ; en- 
tertain ; divert. 

amLUsement (a-muz'ment), n. that 
which amuses ; a pastime. 

amusively (a-mti'ziv-li), adv. in an 
amusive manner. 

amygdaliu (a-mig'da-lin), n. white 
crystalline substance obtained from 
the kernels of almonds. 

amyl (am'il), n. the hypothetical al- 
cohol radical of many chemical 

amylaceous (am-i-la'shus), adj. 

amiylene (am'i-len), n. a hydrocarbon 
obtained by the removal of water 
from amyl alcohol. 

amy lie (a-mil'ik), adj. of or per- 
taining to amyl. 

an (an), indef. art. any; each. [An 
is properly an adj., and is used be- 
fore nouns of the singular number 
only ; also before a word having an 
initial vowel and silent h (See H). 
An has a distributive force in such 
expressions as "once an hour" ; "a 
dime an ounce."] 

ana (a'na), ipl. anas ('naz)], a col- 
lection of notable sayings, literary 
gossip, anecdotes, &c., as Shakes- 
periana, boxiana. 

anachronism (an-ak'ron-izm), n. 
an error in the order of time, hence 
any error in the misplacement of 
persons or events in point of time. 

anachronistic (an-ak-ron-is'tik), 
adj. out of date. 

anaconda (an-a-kon'da), n. the spe- 
cific name of a large South Amer- 
ican boa, and loosely applied to any 
large snake which crushes its prey. 

anadromous (a-nad'ro-mus), adj. 
ascending from the sea to fresh- 
water rivers to deposit spawn, as 
the salmon, &c. ; tending upwards : 
said of ferns. 

ansemia, anemia (a-ne'mi-a), n. de- 
ficiency or low condition of the 

anaesthesia, anesthesia (an-es- 
the'si-a), n. a condition of insensi- 
bility to pain, combined with loss of 
the sense of touch, produced by 

anaesthetic. See anesthetic. 

anaglyph (an'a-glif), n. a work of 
art carved in relief, as distinguished 
from intaglio. 

anaglyphic ( an'a-glif 'ik) or ana- 
glyptic (-glip'tik), adj. relating 
to anaglyphs, or the art of decora- 
tion in relief. 

anaglyphy (an-ag'li-fi), n. the art of 
producing sculpture, or ornamenta- 
tion, in relief. 

anaglyptograph (an-a-glip'to-graf ) , 
n. an instrument by which a medal- 
lion-engraving of any object in relief 
can be made. 

anaglyptographic (an - a-glip'to- 
graf'ic), adj. relating to the produc- 
tion of engravings in relief. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




anaglyptography ( an-a-glip-tog'ra- 
fi), n. the art of reproducing relief- 
work on paper. 

anagram (an'a-gram), n. a word or 
a sentence constructed out of anoth- 
er by the transposition of the letters 
contained in the second ; a word ob- 
tained by reading the letters of an- 
other word backwards. 

anagrammatic (an-a-gram-mat'ik) 
or anagraminatical ('i-kal), adj. 
relating to, or forming an ana- 

anagraxnmatically (-11), adv. in 
the style of an anagram. 

anagr ammatize ( an-a-gram'ma-tiz ) , 
v.t. to make into an anagram : v.i. 
to construct anagrams. 

anal (a'nal), adj. relating to the 
anus ; situated near to the anal ori- 

analect (an'a-lekt), n. [pi. analects 
(-lekts) & analecta (-ta)], a pas- 
sage or extract from a published 
work : pi. B. collection of such ex- 
tracts from different authors. 

analectic (an-a-lek'tik), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or composed of, selections 
,from other works. 

analgesia (an-al-je'si-a), n. the in- 
sensibility to pain in any part of the 
body. Called also analgia. 

analgesic (an-al-jes'ik), adj. that al- 
lays pain : n. an anodyne. 

analgetic (an-al-jet'ik), adj. per- 
taining to analgesia ; insensible to 
pain ; painless. 

analogical (an-a-loj'i-kal ),«(?/. bear- 
ing reference ; having relation or re- 

analogically (-li), adv. by way of 

analogism (a-naro-jism), n. a rea- 
soning from the cause to the effect ; 
study and examination of matters 
and things by reference to their 

analogist (a-nal'o-jist), n. one who 
reasons from the standpoint of 

analogize (a-nal'o-jiz), v.t. to rea- 
son or expound by reference to anal- 
ogy : v.i. to treat or investigate by 
use of analogy. 

analogous (a-nal'o-gus), adj. pos- 

sessing points of analogy ; linked by 
resemblance ; similar. 

analogue (an'a-log), n. an object 
which bears analogy to something 
else ; a part which corresponds with 
another in structure, function, or 
other relations. 

analogy (a-nal'o-ji), n. [pi. analo- 
gies (-jiz) ], agreement, resemblance, 
or correspondence in relations be- 
tween different objects ; the infer- 
ence as to general agreement which 
is derived from similarity in certain 
essential particulars ; equality of 
mathematical ratios ; conformity of 
its parts to the general rules and 
structures of a language. 

analysis (a-nal'i-sis), n. [pi. analy- 
ses (-sez) ], the resolution of a com- 
pound into its constituent parts; the 
method of determining the nature 
of a compound by resolution into its 
constituent parts ; the resolving of 
problems by reducing the conditions 
that are in them to equations; a 

analyst (an'a-list), w. one who is 
skilled in analysis ; one skilled in 
the resolution of chemical com- 

analytic (an-a-lit'ik) or analytical 
(-i-kal), a (Zy. relating to, or charac- 
terized by, the method of analysis. 

analytically (-al-li), adv. in the 
manner or by means of analysis. 

analytics (an-a-lit*iks), n. pi. the 
science of analysis. 

analyzable (an'a-li-za-bl), adj. capa- 
ble of being resolved by, or that may 
be subjected to, analysis. 

analyze (an'a-liz), v.t. to separate or 
resolve ; determine the nature of a 
compound by resolution of its con- 
stituent parts. 

anapest or anapaest (an'a-pest), n. 
a foot comprising two short sylla- 
bles and one long syllable. 

anaplasty (an-a-plas'ti), n. the re- 
pairing of wounds by the trans- 
plantation of adjacent healthy tis- 

anarchic (an-ar'kik), or anarchic- 
al (-al), adj. of or pertaining to 
anarchy, or the theory of anarchism. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, th&n. 





anarcMsin (an'ar-kizm), n. lawless- 
ness ; confusion ; anarchy ; the doc- 
trines of the anarchists. 

anarchist (an'ar-kist), n. one who 
supports or promotes a scherae for 
anarchy, or upholds anarchy* as a 
social theory. 

anarchy (an'ar-ki), n. non-existence 
or incapability of governmental rule ; 
a lawless condition of society ; the 
theory of individual liberty. 

anarthrous (an-iir'thrus), adj. with- 
out the article ; destitute of joints ; 
without articulated limbs. 

anastrophe or anastrophy (a-nas'- 
tro-fe), n. an inversion of the se- 
quence of words in a sentence, as 
"echoed the hills," for "the hills 

anathema (a-nath'e-ma), n. [pi. 
anathemas (-maz)], the curse ac- 
companying excommunication pro- 
nounced by a religious assembly or 
convocation ; an imprecation or 
curse ; the thing or person held to 
be accursed. 

anathematize (a-nath'e-ma-tiz), v.t. 
to pronounce a decree of excommu- 
nication against : v.i. to curse. 

anatomical (an-a-tom'i-kal), adj. re- 
lating to, or according to, the laws 
of anatomy. 

anatomically (-li), adv. in an ana- 
tomical manner. 

anatomism (a-nat'o-mizm), n. ana- 
tomical analysis or structure ; anat- 
omy as the basis of life of organized 
bodies ; the explanation of vital phe- 
nomena by anatomical structure ; 
the application of the principles of 
anatomy, as in art. 

anatomist (a-nat'o-mist), n. one 
possessing a knowledge of anatomy 
derived from dissection. 

anatomize (a-nat'o-miz), v.t. to sep- 
arate by dissection and exhibit the 
relative position and structure of 
the parts of an animal or plant. 

anatomy (a-nat'o-mi), n. [pi. anato- 
mies (-miz)], separation by dissec- 
tion of the various parts of a body, 
with a view to the examination and 
determination of their structure and 
relations ; the art or science of dis- 

section ; a descriptive account of th© 
parts of an organic body ; a with- 
ered or emaciated person. 

anatripsis (an-a-trip'sis), n. mas- 

ancestor (an'ses-ter), n. a forefather 
or progenitor, on the side of father 
or mother, from whom one is de- 
scended in direct line ; one who held 
previous possession. 

ancestral ( an-ses'tral ) , adj. belong, 
ing to, or connected with, one's an- 
cestors ; derived from one's progeni- 
tors ; lineal. 

ancestress (an'ses-tres), n, a female 

ancestry (an'ses-tri), n. the line of 
one's descent traced from a period 
more or less remote ; the personages 
comprising such lineage ; lineage. 

anchor (ang'ker), n. an iron imple- 
ment of varying form, but generally 
having two curved and pointed arms 
terminating one end of a shank, to 
the other extremity of which is af- 
fixed a cable, used to secure a float- 
ing vessel to the bottom ; that on . 
which dependence is placed for se- 
curity or stability ; a metallic clamp 
securing a tie-rod connecting oppo- 
site walls : v.t. to afiix by an an- 
chor ; grapple ; hold fast. 

anchor-ice (ang'ker-is), n. ground- 

anchorage (ang'ker-aj), n. a suita- 
ble or customary place for the an- 
choring of vessels ; the hold attained 
by an anchor ; harbor-dues for an- 
chorage in a port. 

anchoret (ang'kor-et) or anchor- 
ite (-it), n. one who voluntarily 
secludes himself from society and 
lives a solitary life devoted to re- 
ligious or philosophic meditation ; a 
recluse ; a hermit. 

anchovy (an-cho'vi), n. [pi. ancho- 
vies (-viz)], a diminutive fish 
abounding in the Mediterranean, 
and especially esteemed for its pe- 
culiar flavor, used for pickling and 
as a sauce. 

ancient (an'shent), adj. of or per- 
taining to the early history of the 
world ; of past times or remote 
ages ; of great age or antiquity : n. 
one who lived in ancient times ; pi. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




the people of classic times ; the Jew- 
ish elders; the grrerning body of 
an Inn of Court : n. formerly a flag 
or ensign ; a ship's pennant. 

ancillary (an'sil-ar-i), adj. attend- 
ant upon ; accessory ; subservient. 

ancipital (an-sip'i-tal), adj. two- 
edged and sharp. 

ancon (ang'kon), n. [pi. ancones 
(-ez)], the upper extremity of the 
forearm or ulna;, the elbow; a 
bracket or project \)n for the sup- 
port of a cornice. 

and (and), conj. the copulative join- 
ing words and sentences. And is 
sometimes used emphatically by way 
of contrast, as "there are orators 
and orators," i.e. two very different 

andesite (an'de-sit), n. a silicate of 
alumina, soda, and lime. 

andirons (and'i-ernz), metal 
standards used for open fires, to 
support the logs ; fire-dogs. 

andr oceplialus ( an-dro-sef 'a-lus ) , 
adj. having a human head, as a 
sphinx, &c. 

androgynous (an-droj'i-nous), adj. 
combining both sexes, or bearing 
both male and female organs ; her- 

androsphinx (an'dro-sfingks), n. a 
sphinx with the body of a lion and 
the head of a man. 

anecdotal ( an'ek-do-tal ) , adj. relat- 
ing to, or consisting of, anecdotes. 

anecdote (an'ek-dot), n. a brief nar- 
rative of an entertaining character ; 
a terse and pithy account of some 
detached incident, chiefly personal 
or biographical. 

anecdotic (an-ek-dot'ik) or anec- 
dotical ('i-kal), adj. relating to 

anecdotically (-li), adv. by anec- 

anelectric (an-e-lek'trik), adj. with- 
out the properties of electricity; 
non-electric : n. a conductor in con- 
tradistinction to an insulator. 

anelectrode (an-e-lek'trod), n. the 
positive pole of a galvanic battery. 

anemia. See anaemia. 

anemograph (a-nem'o-graf), n. an 
instrument for registering the force 
or direction of the wind. 

anemometer (an-e-mom'e-ter), n. a 
wind-gauge ; an instrument which 
indicates the pressure of the wind. 

anemone (a-nem'o-ne), n. [pi. anem- 
ones (-nez)], the wind-flower or 
wood-anemone ; a sea-anemone, a 
marine zoophyte. 

anemoscope (a-nem'o-skop), n. an 
apparatus for exhibiting the direc- 
tion of the wind. 

aneroid (an'e-roid), adj. having no 
liquid, as quicksilver : n. a barome- 
ter shaped like a watch, the action 
depending on the varying pressure 
of the atmosphere on the top of an 
elastic metal box. 

anesthesia. See anaesthesia. 

anesthetic or anaesthetic (an-es- 
thet'ik), adj. pertaining to loss of 
the sense of feeling : n. a drug 
which produces insensibility. 

anaesthetize (an-es'the-tiz), v.t. to 
bring under the influence of an an- 
aesthetic ; render insensible to pain. 

aneurism (an'u-rizm), n. a local 
swelling or dilation of an artery at 
a point where the coat is thinned or 
weakened by disease. 

anew ( a-nti' ) , adv. afresh ; over 
again ; in a new manner or style. 

angel (an'jel), n. a messenger of 
God ; one of an order of spiritual 
attendants who form a connection 
between heaven and earth, as from 
God to mankind ; a spirit of evil, as 
a fallen angel ; the presbyter in the 
Early Christian Church residing in 
some particular city (Rev. ii. 8) ; 
an English gold coin, value about 
10s., struck in the reign of Edward 
IV., and impressed with the figure 
of the archangel Michael. 

angel-fish (-fish), n. a species of 
shark with large pectoral fins, which 
give to it a winged appearance. 

angelic (an-jel'ik) or angelical! 
('i-kal), adj. belonging to or re- 
sembling an angel in nature or func- 

angelus (an'je-lus), n. a devotional 
exercise in commemoration of the 
Incarnation, during which the Ave 
Maria is twice repeated : said morn- 
ing, noon, and night ; the bell which 
is rung to announce the time of 
such devotions. 

ate, arm, "<«k, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
L book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



anger (ang'ger), n. excessive emotion 
or passion aroused by a sense of 
injury or wrong ; wrath : v.t. to pro- 
voke to resentment ; excite to 
wrath ; enrage. 

angina (an-ji'na & an'ji-na), n. an 
inflamed condition of the throat, as 
in quinsy, &cc. 

angina pectoris (pek'to-ris), n. a 
muscular spasm of the chest, very 
often accompanied by an aifection 
of the heart, and frequently fatal. 

angiology (an-ji-ol'o-ji), n. that 
branch of anatomy which treats of 
the blood-vessels and lymphatics. 

angle (ang'gl), n. the inclosed space 
near the point where two lines 
meet ; a sharp or projecting corner ; 
the inclination of two lines which 
meet at a point (the vertex). 

angle (ang'gl), v.i. to fish with a 
hook and line : v.t. to fish for. 

angler (ang'gler), n. one who fishes 
with rod and line ; a piscator ; the 
name of a fish furnished with fila- 
mentary appendages, which by their 
movement attract smaller fish on 
which it feeds. Also called fishing- 
frog and sea-devil. 

anglican (ang'gli-kan), adj. pertain- 
ing to England as a nation ; per- 
taining to the Church of England 
and churches in other countries in 
accord with it, and (popularly) to 
the High or Ritualistic section of 
the Anglican Church : n. a member 
of the Anglican Church ; a Ritualist. 

anglicanism (ang'gli-kan-izm), n. 
the principles and ritual of the 
Anglican Church. 

anglice (ang'gli-se), adv. according 
to the English language or manner. 

anglicism (ang'gli-sizm), n. a form 
of speech ; a principle or mannerism 
peculiar to England. 

anglicize (ang'gli-siz), v.t. to make 
or to render into English ; accord 
with English manners and customs. 

angling (ang'gling), n. the piscato- 
rial art ; the act of fishing with rod 
and line. 

Anglo-American ( ang'glo-a-mer'i- 
kan), adj. pertaining to England 
and the United States conjointly, 
as to commerce or population : n. an 
American citizen of English descent. 

Anglomania (ang'glo-man'i-a), «. 
a predilection carried to excess for 
everything that is English, in the 
sense of being peculiar to England. 

Anglophobia (-fo'bi-a), n. an in- 
tense aversion for or fear of every- 
thing English. 

Anglo-Saxon (-saks'un), adj. per- 
taining to the Saxon settlers in 
England prior to the Conquest, or 
to their language : n. one of the 
Saxon settlers in England as dis- 
tinguished from those on the Conti- 
nent : pi. the English race. 

angora (ang-go'ra), n. cloth made 
from Angora-wool. 

angora-cat (-kat), n. a cat of the 
domestic kind with long handsome 

angora-'wool (-wool), n. the coat of 
the Angora goat, much esteemed for 
its long silky hair. 

angostura-bark (ang-gos-tu'ra 
bark), n. a bitter aromatic bark 
used for medicinal purposes. 

angry (ang'gri), adj. inflamed with 
anger ; provoked ; feeling resent- 
ment ; wrathful ; showing anger ; 
fierce ; inflamed. 

angrily ('gri-li), adv. in an angry 

angriness (-ness), n. the state of 
being angry. 

anguish ( ang'gwish ) , n. intense pain 
or grief ; acute suffering, bodily or 

angular (ang'gii-lar), adj. possess- 
ing an angle or angles ; sharp, bent, 
or cornered ; pointed, or full of 

angularity ( ang-gti-lar'i-ti ) , n. [pi. 
angularities (-tiz)], the quality of 
being angular in any sense. 

angulate (ang'gti-lat), adj. con- 
structed of angles; having the form 
of an angle. 

angustate (ang-gus'tat), adj. nar- 
row at the base and expanded at the 

ahydride (an-hi'drid), n. an oxygen 
compound formed by substituting an 
acid radical for the whole of the 
hydrogen in one or two molecules of 

anhydrite (an-hi'drit), n. anhydrous 
sulphate of lime. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




anliydrous (an-hi'drus), adj. with- 
out water : applied to minerals ^ in 
which the water of crystallization 
is not present. 

anil (an'il), n. the indigo plant. 

anile (an'il & 'il), adj. resembling 
an old woman ; aged ; old-womanish. 

aniline (an'i-lin), n. a base used in 
the formation of many rich dyes 
obtained from coal-tar, but more ex- 
tensively from benzole : adj. of or 
pertaining to aniline. 

anilism (an'il-izm), n. aniline poi- 
soning, caused by the inhalation of 
aniline vapors. 

anility (a-nil'i-ti), n. the state of 
being anile ; a condition of dotage. 

animadversion ( an-i-mad-ver'shun ) , 
n. the act of observing ; capacity for 
perception ; censure ; criticism ; 

animadversive ( an-i-mad-ver'si v ) , 
adj. possessing the faculty of obser- 

animadvert (an-i-mad-vert'), vA. to 
give the mind to ; pass comment or 
stricture upon ; criticise. 

animal (an'i-mal), n. an organized 
living body, sentient, mobile, and 
locomotive ; an inferior being ; a 
brute : adj. of or belonging to ani- 

animal-magnetism ( an'i-mal-mag'- 
net-izm), n. another name for mes- 

animalcular (an-i-mal'ku-lar) or 
animalculine ( -lin ) , adj. of or re- 
lating to animalcules. 

animalcule (an-i-mal'kul), n. one 
of a class of minute or microscopic 
organisms abounding in water and 
infusions ; an infusorian. 

animalculist (an-i-markti-list), n. 
a specialist of animalcules. 

animalculum (an-i-mal'ku-lum), n. 
[pi. animalcula (-la)], a minute 
organism ; an animalcule. 

animalia ( an'i-ma-li-a ) , the 
animal kingdom. 

animalism (an'i-mal-izm), n. the 
state of being animal, or actuated 
by animal instincts or appetites ; 
the theory w^aich regards mankind 
as merely animal ; sensuality. 

animalistic (an-i-mal-is'tik), adj. 

characterized by animal or sensual 

animality (an-i-mal'i-ti),**. the state 
or quality of being an animal, or 
possessing ^animal characteristics. 

animalization ( an-i-mal-i-za'shun ) , 
n. the act of making animal ; the 
process of becoming bestial. 

animalize (an'i-mal-iz), v.t. to make 
animal ; impart animal life, form, 
and attributes ; sensualize or bes- 
tialize ; convert into animal sub- 
stance by assimilation. 

animate (an'i-mat), v.t. to impart 
life to ; to inspire with energy or 
action ; enliven : adj. endowed with 
animal life ; full of spirit and vigor. 

animatingly (an'i-ma-ting-li), adv, 
so as to enliven or excite feeling. 

animation (an'i-ma'shun), n. the 
act of giving life or spirit ; the state 
of being animated ; vivacity. 

animative (an'i-ma-tiv), adj. that 
has power to impart life or spirit. 

animism (an'i-mizm), n. the theory 
of the existence of an immaterial 
principle or force inseparable from 
matter to which all life and action 
are attributable. 

animosity (an-i-mos'i-ti), n. [pL 
animosities (-tiz)], hostility; ha- 
tred ; active enmity. 

animus (an'i-mus), n. a hostile 
spirit, or purpose ; hostility. 

anion (an'i-on), n. the element in a 
body decomposed by voltaic action, 
which is evolved at the positive pole 
or anode. 

anise (an'is), n. the common name 
for a plant (indigenous in Egypt) 
yielding the aniseed of commerce. 

ankle (ang'kl), n. the joint or articu- 
lation connecting the foot with the 

anklet (ang'klet), n. a diminutive 
ankle; an ornament or support for 
the ankle ; a fetter or shackle. 

ankylose (ang'ki-los), v.t. to consoli* 
date or join by bony growth ; stifOen 
as a joint : v.i. to grow together ; . 
become stiff. 

ankylosis (ang'ki-lo-sis), n. the join- 
ing or consolidation of parts for- 
merly or normally separate or mova- 
ble by means of bony growth. 

site, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tliQU. 



ankylotic (ang-ki-lot'ik), adj. per- 
taining to, or of the nature of 

annalist (an'al-ist), n. a compiler of 

annals (an'alz), a description, 
history, or chronicle issued from 
time to time, and comprising the 
events of each year in order of se- 
quence ; chronicles. 

anneal (an-nel')? "i^-t- to heat or fix 
by heat ; temper and render mallea- 
ble ; bake or fuse. 

annealing (an-ne'ling), n. the proc- 
ess of tempering, baking, fusing, or 

annex (an-neks'), v.t. to add or affix 
at the end ; subjoin or connect ; pur- 
loin : n. (an-neks' & an'neks), that 
which is added ; an addition. 

annexation (an-eks-a'shun), n. the 
act of annexing ; that which is an- 

annexationist (an-eks-a'shun-ist) , 
n. an advocate for, or promoter of, 

anniMlable ( an-nl'hi-la-bl ) , adj. ca- 
pable of annihilation. 

annihilate (an-ni'hi-lat), v.t. to re- 
duce to nothing ; wipe out of exist- 
ence ; destroy. 

annihilation (an-ni-hi-la'shun), n. 
the act of annihilating ; non-exist- 

annikilationist ( an-m-hi-la'shun- 
ist), n. one who believes that eter- 
nal punishment consists of annihila- 

anniversary (an-i-ver'sa-ri), n. [pi. 
anniversaries (-riz)],the recurrence 
in each year of the date of an event ; 
the annual commemoration of an 
event : adj. recurring once in every 
twelve months ; yearly. 

annotate (an'o-tat), v.t. to mark or 
note by way of explanation or criti- 
cism, as a book. 

annotation (an-o-ta'shun), n. the 
act of noting or commenting upon ; 
a note, remark, or criticism made 
in a book. 

annotator (an'6-ta-ter), n. one who 
annotates or writes remarks by way 
of comment or criticism upon the 
works of authors. 

announce (an-nouns'), v.t, to pro- 
claim or make known, formally, or 
in a public manner ; pronounce by 
judicial sentence ; proclaim. 

announcement (an-nouns'ment), n. 
the act of announcing ; that which 
is announced ; a proclamation. 

annoy (an-noi'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, -ing], to vex or trouble by 
repeated acts ; harass or discompose 
by petty injury or opposition : v.i. 
to be troubled, vexed : n. the feeling 
of discomfort caused by an injury or 

annoyance (an-noi'ans), n. the act 
of annoying or causing vexation ; 
the state of being annoyed; the 
thing or act which annoys. 

annoyingly { sm-noV ing-li) , adv, in 
a vexatious manner. 

annual (an'ti-al), adj. once in twelve 
nionths ; yearly ; of or belonging to 
a year ; published once a year ; com- 
pleted in a year ; lasting or living 
only for a year or season, as an 
annual plant : n. an anniversary 
mass said for a deceased person; 
the fee paid for such a mass. 

annually (-li), adv. yearly; happen- 
ing, returning, or completed year by 

annuitant (an-nti'i-tant), n. one 
who is in receipt of, or is entitled to 
receive, an annuity. 

annuity (an-nu'i-ti), n. [pi. annui- 
ties (-tiz)], the payment of a sum 
of money by periodical or yearly 

annul (an-nul'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. an- 
nulled, annulling], to ,make 
void, abolish, or obliterate, as a law, 
decree, or compact. 

annular (an'u-lar), adj. ring-like; in 
the form of a ring or annulus : n. 
the ring -of light surrounding the 
moon's body in an annular eclipse 
of the sun. 

annulate (an'u-lat), adj. ringed; 
having ring-like bands or circles. 

annulation (an-u-la'shun), n. a 
ring-like formation. 

annulet (an'u-let), n. a little ring; 
a small fillet encircling a column. 

annulment (an-nul'ment), n. the 
act of reducing to nothing; aboli- 
tion ; invalidation. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



annulosa (an-u-lo'sa), n. the annu- 
lose animals, as crustaceans, insects, 

annulose (an'u-los), adj. composed 
of a succession of rings._ 

annunciate (an-nun'si-at), v.t. to 
make known officially or publicly ; 

annunciation (an-nun-si-a'shun), n. 
the act of annunciating. 

Annunciation ( an-nun-si-a'shun ) , 
n. the Church festival (Lady-day, 
Mar. 25) commemorating the inti- 
mation of the Incarnation made by 
the angel Gabriel to the Virgin 
Mary (Luke i. 28-33). 

annunciator (an-nun'shi-a-ter), n. 
a signaling apparatus ; an indicator 
used in hotels, and connected with 
the bells and telephones, to show in 
which room attendance is required. 

anode (an'od), n. the path of the 
electric current from the positive to 
the negative pole ; the positive pole. 

anodyne (an'5-din), adj. assuaging 
pain : n. a drug which relieves pain. 

anoint (a-noint'), v.t. to pour oil 
upon, in a religious ceremony ; con- 

anomalistic (a-nom-a-lis'tik), adj. 
pertaining to the anomaly or angu- 
lar distance of a planet from its 

anomalous (a-nom'a-lus), adj. de- 
viating from the common order ; ab- 

anomaly (a-nom'a-li), n. deviation 
from the natural order ; the angular 
distance of a planet from its peri- 

anon (a-non'), adv. soon; straight- 
way ; again._ 

anonym (an'o-nim), n. a person who 
remains nameless ; a pseudonym. 

anonymity (an-5-nim'i-ti), n. the 
state of being anonymous. 

anonymous (a-non'i-mus), adj. bear- 
ing no author's name ; nameless. 

another ( a-nuth'er ), ocZ;. & pron. one 
more ; not the same ; any other ; any 
or some one else_. 

anserine (an'ser-m), adj. relating to 
or resembling a goose ; stupid as a 

ansxrer (an'ser), v.t. to swear in op- 
position to ; to reply to a charge ; a 

counterstatement : n. a response or 
rejoinder ; a reply to a charge ; a 
solution, as of a mathematical prob- 

answerable (an'ser-a-bl), adj. liable 
to give answer ; responsible. 

ant (ant), n. a small social insect of 
the hymenopterous order. 

ant-bear ('bar), n. the name some- 
times given (from its likeness to a 
bear) to the great ant-eater of 
America ; the Cape ant-eater of 
South Africa. 

ant-eater ('e-ter), n. the name ap- 
plied to a group of quadrupeds 
which feed upon ants. 

ant-lion ('li-un), n. a neuropterous 
insect whose larva constructs a pit- 
fall for ants and other insects. 

antacid (ant-as'id), adj. counteract- 
ing acidity : n. a medicine which 
counteracts the formation of acids 
in the system. 

antagonism (an-tag'o-nizm), n. the 
active opposition of two opponents 
or opposing forces ; hostility. 

antagonist (an-tag'o-nist), n. a com- 
petitor in any sphere of action ; an 

antagonistic (an-tag-o-nis'tik), adj, 
acting in opposition ; opposed. 

antagonistically (-al-li), adv. in 
rivalry or opposition. 

antagonize (an-tag'o-niz), v.t. to op- 
pose ; hinder ; counteract ; _ contend 
against ; coApete with : v.i. to act 
in opposition ; neutralize. 

antarctic (ant-ark'tik), adj. opposite 
to arctic ; pertaining to the south- 
polar regions ; southern. 

antecede (an-te-sed'), v.t. to precede 
or go before in time or space. 

antecedence (an-te-se'dens) or an- 
tecedency ('den-si), n. preced- 
ence; the act or state of going be- 
fore ; priority. 

antecedent (an-te-se'dent), adj. pre- 
ceding : n. the substantive or noun 
to which a relative or other pro- 
noun refers ; the part of a condi- 
tional proposition upon which the 
other depends : pL the previous 
events of a person's life. 

antecedently (-li), adv. at a time 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




antecessor (an-te-ses'er), n. one 
who goes before (in office). 

antechamber (an'te-cham-ber), n. 
an apartment next the principal 
room, where persons wait for audi- 
ence ; an outer room. 

antedate (an'te-dat), v.t. to carry 
back to an earlier period ; antici- 
pate: n. a date earlier than the ac- 
tual date. 

antediluvian ( an-te-di-lti'vi-an ) , 

adj. of or pertaining to the world 
before the Flood; belonging to very 
ancient times ; antiquated : n. one 
who lived before the Flood. 

antelope (an'te-lop), n. the name 
given to numerous species of deer- 
like ruminants, intermediate be- 
tween the deer and the goat, with 
cylindrical ringed horns. 

antemeridian ( an-te-me-rid'i-an ) , 
adj. preceding noon. 

antemetic (ant-e-met'ik), adj. allay- 
ing vomiting : n. a medicine possess- 
ing this property. 

antemundane (an-te-mun'dan), adj. 
before the creation of the world. 

antenatal ( an-te-na'tal ) , adj. before 

antenna (an-ten'a), n. [pi. antennae 
('e)], the jointed horns or feelers 
upon the heads of insects and Crus- 

antenuptial ( an-te-nup'shal ) , adj. 
before marriage. 

antepaschal (an-te-pas'kal), adj. 
before Easter ; preceding the Jewish 

antepenult (an-te-pe-nulf) or an- 
tepenultima ( an-te-pe-nul'ti-ma ) , 
n. the last syllable but two of a 

antepenultimate ( an-te-pe-nul'ti- 
mat), adj. pertaining to the last but 
two : n. that which is last but two. 

anteprandial ( an-te-pran'di-al ) , adj. 
before dinner. 

anterior (an-ter'i-er), adj. more to 
the front ; former. 

anteriority (an-ter-i-or'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being anterior, especially 
in order of time; priority. 

anteroom (an'te-room), n. a room 
before^ or forming an entrance to, 
another ; an antechamber. 

antetemple (an'te-tem-pl), n. the 
portico of an ancient temple or 
church ; the narthex. 

anthelion (ant-he'- or an-the'li-on), 
n. [pi. anthelia (-a)], a halo or a 
colored ring or rings, opposite the 
sun, formed around the shadow of 
the head of the observer, as pro- 
jected on a cloud or moist surface. 

anthem (an'them), n. a composition 
from the Scriptures or liturgy set to 
sacred music. 

anther (an'ther), n, the summit of 
the stamen of a flower containing 
the pollen or fertilizing dust. 

antheroid (an'ther-oid), adj. having 
the form of an anther. 

anthocarpous (an-tho-kar'pus) ,adj, 
having a fruit formed from the 
ovaries of several flowers, as the 

anthography (an-thog'ra-fi), n. the 
scientific description of flowers. 

anthological (an-tho-loj'i-kal), adj. 
pertaining to an anthology ; consist- 
ing of beautiful extracts, more es- 
pecially of those from the poets. 

anthologist (an-thol'o-jist), n. one 
who compiles an anthology. 

anthology ( an-thol'o-ji ) , n. a collec- 
tion of choice poems, epigrams, and 
fugitive pieces by various authors; 
a hymnal. 

anthracene (an'thra-sen), n. a com- 
plex hydrocarbon obtained from coal- 
tar ; paranaphthalin. 

anthracite (an'thra-sit), n. a non- 
bituminous coal which burns with- 
out smoke ; blind-coal ; glance-coal ; 
stone-coal ; hard-coal. 

anthracitic (an-thra-sit'ik), adj. re- 
sembling, or of the nature of, an- 

anthras: (an'thraks), n. [pi. anthra- 
ces (-sez)], a carbuncle, or malig- 
nant boil ; the splenic fever of sheep 
and cattle, caused by the presence 
of a bacillus in the blood and tis- 
sues ; the carbuncular disease 
caused in man by inoculation from 
aifected sheep and cattle. 

anthropography (an-thro-pog'ra- 
6.) , n. that branch of anthropology 
which treats of the actual geograph- 
ical distribution of the human race, 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




and the local variations of its dif- 
ferent divisions. 

anthropoid (an'thro-poid), adj. re- 
sembling man : n. one of the higher 
apes resembling man. 

Anthropoidea (an-thro-poi'de-a), n. 
pi. a sub-order of primate mammals, 
including man, the apes, and 

anthropological (an-thro-po-loj'i- 
kal), adj. relating to an anthropolo- 

anthropologist (an-thro-pol'o-jist) , 
n. a student of anthropology. 

anthropology (an-thro-pol'o-ji), n. 
the science of man, considered zo- 
ologically or ethnographically. 

anthropometric ( an-thro-po-met'- 
rik), adj. relating to the measure- 
ment or proportions of the human 

anthropometrically (-al-li), adv. 
in an anthropological manner, or 
by means of anthropometry. 

anthropometry ( an-thro-pom'e-tri ) , 
n. the measurement of the human 
body ; the department of anthropol- 
ogy relating to such measurement 
of persons at various ages, and in 
different tribes, races, occupations, 

anthropomorphic ( an-tiiro-po-m6r'- 
fik), adj. characterized by anthro- 
pomorphism ; resembling man. 

anthropomorphism (an-thro-po- 
mor-fizm), n. the ascription of a 
human form and attributes to the 
Deity, or to supernatural beings. 

anthropophagi ( an-thro-pof 'a-ji ) , maneaters ; cannibals. 

anthropophagous ( an-thro-pof 'a- 
gus), adj. feeding on human flesh. 

antic (an'tik), adj. grotesque: n. a 
clown ; a trick ; a grotesque gesture. 

Antichrist (an'ti-krist), n. an op- 
ponent of Christ, especially the great 
personal opponent expected to ap- 
pear before the end of the world [I 
John ii. 221. 

antichristian (ae-ti-kris'chan), n. 
one _ who is an opponent of the 
Christian religion : adj. pertaining 
to Antichrist ; opposed to the Chris- 
tian religion. 

anticipant (an-tis'i-pant), adj. that 

which operates beforehand : n. one 
who looks forward. 

anticipate (an-tis'i-pat), v.t. to take 
beforehand ; use in advance ; look 
for as certain ; deal with before- 
hand : v.i. to treat of something be- 
fore the proper time. 

anticipation (an-tis-i-pa'shun), w. 
the act of taking beforehand ; ex- 
pectation ; hope ; preconception. 

anticipative (an-tis'i-pa-tiv), or 
anticipatory (-to-ri), adj. taking 
beforehand ; anticipating. 

anticlimax (an'ti-kli-maks), n. a 
ludicrous descent in thought and 
expression ; bathos. 

anticyclone (an'ti-sl-klon), n. a 
meteorological condition in which 
the ordinary features of a cyclone 
are reversed, i.e. the winds, which 
are light, flow from instead of to- 
wards the center. 

anticyclonic (an-ti-si-klon'ik), adj. 
pertaining to an anticyclone. 

antidotal (an'ti-do-tal), adj. of the 
nature or quality of an antidote. 

antidotally (-li), adv. in the man- 
ner of an antidote. 

antidote (an'ti-dot), n. a substance 
which acts medicinally as a coun- 
teractive to the effects of poison or 
disease ; that which annuls or tends 
to prevent the evil effects of any- 
thing else ; a remedy, 

antifat (an'ti-fat), adj. available for 
preventing or reducing fatness : n, 
a remedy against fatness. 

antifebrile ( an-ti-f eb'ril ) , adj. capa- 
ble of allaying fever : n. a fever med- 
icine or antipyretic. 

antifebrine ( an-ti-f eb'rin), n. acet- 
anilide, used in medicine as an 

antimask (an'ti-mask), n. a species 
of drollery introduced as interlude 
between acts of more serious nature. 
Written also antimasque. 

antimasonic (an-ti-ma-son'ik), adj. 
opposed to the principles of free- 

antimonarchical ( an-ti-mo-nar'ki- 
kal), adj. opposed to monarchy. 

antimonial (an-ti-mo'ni-al), adj. 
pertaining to antimony ; composed 
of, or possessing the qualities of, 

ate, arm, 

at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 





antimoniate (an-ti-mo'iii-at), n, a 
salt of antimonic acid. 

antimonic ( an-ti-mon'ik ) , or anti- 
monious ( an-ti-mo'ni-us ) , adj. re- 
lating to, composed of, or obtained 
from antimony. 

antimonite (an'ti-mo-nit), n. native 
sulphide of antimony. 

antimony (an'ti-mo-ni), n. a white 
lustrous metal, entering largely into 
medicinal preparations and various 
important alloys, such as pewter 
and Britannia-metal. 

antinomianism ( an - ti-no'mi-an- 
izm), n. the tenets of the Antino- 
mian sect. 

antinomy (an-tin'o-mi), n. [pi. an- 
tinomies (-miz)], the opposition of 
one law or part of a law to another. 

antiparallel ( an-ti-par'a-lel ) , adj. 
running parallel, but in an oppo- 
site direction : n. one of two or more 
lines making equal angles with two 
other lines, but in contrary order. 

antipathetic (an-ti-pa-thet'ik), or 
antipathetical ('i-kal), adj. pos- 
sessing a natural antipathy or 
aversion [with to]. 

antipathic (an-ti-path'ik), adj. per- 
taining to antipathy ; adverse ; op- 

antipathy (an-tip'a-thi), n. [pi. an- 
tipathies (-thiz)], natural aversion; 
an instinctive dislike ; the object of 
aversion (followed in composition 
by to, against, between, and for). 

antiperiodic (an-ti-pe-ri-od'ik), adj. 
preventive of return in periodic or 
intermittent diseases : n. a medicine 
for periodic diseases. 

antiphlogistic (an - ti-flo-jis'tik) , 
adj. eflacacious in counteracting 
fever or inflammation : n. any rem- 
edy which serves to check inflamma- 
tory symptoms. 

antiphon (an'ti-fon), or anti- 
phone (-fon), n. a chant or hymn 
rendered alternately by two choirs, 
as in English cathedral services. 

antiphonal (an-tif'6-nal), adj. char- 
acterized by antiphony or respon- 
sive singing : n. a collection of an- 

antiphonary (an-tif'o-nar-i), n. [pi. 
antiphonaries (-iz)], a book of re- 

sponses used in the services : adj. 
antiphonal, or responsive. 

antiphonetic (an-ti-fo-net'ik), adj. 
similar in sound ; applied to words 
which rhyme. 

antiphony (an-tif'o-ni), n. [pi, an- 
tiphonies (-niz)], the alternate or 
responsive rendering of psalms or 
chants by a dual choir ; a musical 
setting of sacred verses arranged 
for alternate singing. 

antiphrasis (an-tif'ra-sis), n. the 
employment of a word, or words, 
in a sense contrary to its, or their, 
true meaning. 

antipodal (an-tip'o-dal), adj. per- 
taining to the antipodes ; opposite 
or extreme. 

antipode (an'ti-pod), n. [pi. antip- 
odes (an-tip'o-dez) ], one who re- 
sides on the opposite side of the 
earth ; that which is directly oppo- 
site to another, 

antipodean (aa-tip-o-de'an), adj. 
belonging to the antipodes : n. one 
who resides on the opposite side of 
the earth. 

antipodes (an-tip'6-dez), n. pi. those 
who, residing at opposite sides of 
the globe, have their feet directly 
opposed ; the two portions of the 
earth's surface which are exactly 
opposite to each other ; the direct 
opposite of a person or thing. 

antipyretic (an-ti-pi-ret'ik), adj, 
preventive of, or remedial to, fever : 
n. a remedy of such nature. 

antipyrin (an-ti-pi'rin), w. a drug, 
obtained from coal-tar, employed 
for the relief of neuralgia, nervous 
headaches, and reduction of heat in 

antiquarian (an-ti-kwar'i-an), adj. 
pertaining to antiquaries or to an- 
tiquity : n. an antiquary. 

antiquarianism ( an-ti-kwar'i-an- 
izm), n. the attachment to what is 
old or antiquated which character- 
izes the antiquary ; the study or col- 
lecting of antiquities. 

antiquary (an'ti-kwar-i), n. one 
who is attached to ancient things, 
and is learned in their history ; one 
who collects antiquities for the pur- 
pose of study. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book : hue, hut ; think, then. 




antiquated (an'ti-kwa-ted), p.adj. 
grown old ; old-fashioned ; obsolete ; 

antique (an-tek'), adj. of or belong- 
ing to a former age; ancient: n, 
something of great age; a relic of 

antiqueness (-nes), n. the quality 
of being ancient, or having the ap- 
pearance of antiquity. 

antiquity (an-tik'wi-ti), n. Ipl. an- 
tiquities (-tiz)], great age; ancient- 
ness ; early ages ; the people or races 
of ancient times ; that which be- 
longed to, or survives from, ancient 
times ; a relic. 

antiscorbutic (an-ti-sk6r-bu'tik>, 
adj. & n. counteractant or remedial 
to scurvy. 

anti-Semite ( an-ti-sem'it ) , n. one 
who favors the social and political 
persecution of Jews. 

anti-Semitic (an-ti-sem-it'ik), adj. 
pertaining to, or characterized by, 

anti-Semitism (an-ti-sem'it-izm) , 
n. antagonism to the Jewish race. 

antisepsis (an-ti-sep'sis), n. the ex- 
clusion of bacteria from wounds, &c., 
by the use of antiseptics. 

antiseptic (an-ti-sep'tik), adj. de- 
structive to the germs of disease or 
putrefaction : n. a substance that 
acts as a preventive to putrefaction. 

antislavery ( an-ti-sla'ver-i ) , adj. 
opposed to slavery : n. opposition to 

antispasmodic (an-ti-spaz-mod'ik) , 
adj. counteractive to, or curative of, 
spasms : n. a medicine having such 
an effect. 

antisplenetic (an - ti-sple-net'ik) , 
adj. of use remedially in diseases of 
the spleen : n. a medicine for spleen 

antistrophe (an-tis'tro-fe), n. in the 
ancient Greek chorus, the alternat- 
ing part immediately following the 
strophe and sung in moving to the 
right, the strophe having been sung 
when moving to the left. 

antithesis (an-tith'e-sis), n. ]_pl. an- 
titheses (-sez)], opposition; con- 
trast ; expression by contrast or op- 
position of words or sentiments. 

antithetic (an-ti-thet'ik), or an- 

tithetical (-al), adj. pertaining to, 
of the nature of, or containing an- 

antitoxin ( an-ti-toks'^n7 , n. a se- 
rum used hypodermically as a pre- 
ventive of, or cure for, diphtheria. 

antitrade (an'ti-trad), n. a tropical 
wind blowing steadily in an oppo- 
site direction to the trade wind. 

antitype (an'ti-tip), n. that which 
preceded the type, and of which the 
type is the prefigurement or repre- 

antitypical (an-ti-tip'i-kal), adj. 
pertaining to, or of the nature of, 
an antitype. 

antizymotic (an-ti-zl-mot'ik), adj. 
preventing fermentation: n. the 
agent so used. 

antler (ant'ler), n. the individual 
branches of a stag's horns ; the 
horn in its complete condition. 

antonym (an'to-nym), n. a word 
meaning the opposite of some other 
word ; as unhappy is the antonym 
of happy. 

anurous (a-nu'rus), adj. having the 
character of the Anura, as the frogs 
and toads, which are tailless when 

anus (a'nus), n. the terminal portion 
of the rectum ; the excremental ori- 

anvil (an'vil), n. an iron block used 
for the hammering and shaping of 

anxiety (ang-zi'e-ti), n. {pi. anxie- 
ties (-tiz)], a condition of mental 
uneasiness arising from fear or solic- 

anxious (ang'shus), adj. deeply con- 
cerned ; very solicitous ; apprehen* 

any (en'i), adj. & pron. one, indeter- 
minately, unlimited ; some, an indef- 
inite number, quantity, or degree : 
adj. one indefinitely; {pi.) some: 
pron, one; anyone; {pi.) some: 
adv. to any extent ; at all ; in any 
degree (used with comparatives, as 
any better). 

anybody (-bod-i), n. any person; 
some one of importance. 

anyhow (-hou), adv. in any way or 
manner ; in any case ; at any rate. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon^ 
book; hue, hut; think, ^/*en. 




any tiling (-thing), n, any object as 
distinguished from apersonffi aught ; 
with as or like, as "It rains like 

anyway (-wa), adv. in any manner. 

anywhere (-hwar), adv. in any 

any- whither (-hwii^'er), adv. to or 
towards any place. 

any- wise (-wiz), adv. in any way or 
manner ; anyhow. 

aorta (a-6r'ta), n. [pi. aortse (-te)], 
the chief artery or main trunk of 
the arterial system, opening from 
the left ventricle of the heart and 
supplying all parts of the body, ex- 
cepting the lungs, with arterialized 

aortic (a-6r'tik), adj. pertaining to 
the aorta. 

aortitis (a-6r-ti'tis), n. inflamma- 
tion of the aorta. 

aoudad (a'ti-dad), n. a sheep-like 
animal of North Africa, somewhat 
resembling the chamois. 

apace (a-pas'), adv. quickly; at a 
quick pace ; speedily. 

apart (a-part'), adv. separately; 
aside ; asunder. 

apartment (a-part'ment), n. a room 
or part of a divided building : pi. 
a set or suite or two or more rooms 
of a house set apart as lodgings. 

apathetic (ap-a-thet'ik), or apa- 
thetical (-al), adj. devoid of, or 
insensible to, feeling or emotion. 

apathetically (-li), adv. in an apa- 
thetical manner. 

apathy (ap'a-thi), n. [pi. apathies 
(-thiz)], lack of feeling; want of 
passion or emotion; indifference. 

apatite (ap'a-tit), n. a crystalline 
phosphate of lime. 

Bpe (ap), n. a tailless monkey hav- 
ing teeth in number and appear- 
ance as man ; a silly mimic ; a fool. 
The family of the apes includes the 
gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, 
&c. : v.t. to imitate servilely ; mimic, 
as an ape. 

apeak (a-pek'), adv. nearly vertical 
in position. 

aperient (a-per'i-ent), adj. gently 
laxative ; opening the bowels : n. a 
mild laxative medicine. 

aperiodic (a-per-i-od'ik), adj. with- 
out periodicity. 

aperture (ap'er-ttir), n. an opening; 
a perforation or passage ; the spact 
between two intersecting right lines : 
the diameter of the exposed part of 
the object-glass of a telescope or 
other optical instrument. 

apetalous (a-pet'a-lus), adj. without 
petals or corolla. 

apex (a'peks), n. [pi. apices (ap'i- 
sez), & apexes (a'pekTsez) ], the 
point, tip, or summit of anything. 

aphagia (a-fa'ji-a), n. inability to 

aphasia (§.-fa'zi-a), n. loss of the 
power of speech, or the appropriate 
use of words, due to disease or in- 
jury of the brain. 

aphelion (a-fe'li-on), n. [pi. aphelia 
(-a)], that point in the orbit of a 
planet or a comet which is farthest 
from the sun. 

aphid (af'id), n. a plant-louse be- 
longing to the genus Aphis. 

aphides, pi. of Aphis. 

aphidian (a-fid'i-an), n. an aphid: 
adj. pertaining to the genus Aphis. 

Aphis (a'fis), n. [pi. Aphides (af'i- 
dez)], the genus of plant-suckers, 
to which the aphides belong; a 
member of the genus. 

aphorism (af'o-rizm), n, a concise 
and pithy statement of a rule or 
precept ; a maxim. 

aphthong (af 'thong), n. a letter or 
letters not sounded in a word. 

apiary (a'pi-a-ri), n. [pi. apiaries 
(-riz) ], a place where bees are kept ; 
a bee-house. 

apiece (a-pes'), adv. to or for each; 
each ; severally. 

apish (a'pish), adj. resembling an 
ape in manners ; foppish ; foolish. 

aplomb ( a-pl6ng' ) , n. self-possession ; 

Apocalypse (a-pok'a-lips), n. the 
last book of the New Testament. 

Apocalyptic (a-pok-a-lip'tik), or 
Apocalyptical ('ti-kal), adj. per- 
taining to or containing the Apoca- 

apocope (a-pok'e-pe), n. the cutting 
off or deletion of the last letter or 
syllable of a word. 

ftte, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




apocrypha (a-pok'ri-fa), used 
as a sing, with pi. apocryphas, 
(-faz), a writing, or something, of 
doubtful authorship ; certain writ- 
.ngs received by some Christians as 
an authentic part of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, but rejected by others, as 

apocryphal (a-pok'ri-fal), adj. of 
doubtful authority ; uncanonical ; of 
or pertaining to the apocrypha. 

apocryphally (-li), adv. in an 
apocryphal manner ; doubtfully. 

apod (ap'od), n. an animal without 

apodosis (a-pod'o-sis), n. the lat- 
ter portion, or consequent clause, of 
a conditional sentence. 

apogean (ap-o-je'an), or apogeic 
('ik), adj. pertaining to the apogee. 

apogee (ap'o-je), n. that point in the 
orbit of a planet which is most dis- 
tant from the earth. 

apologetic (a-pol-o-jet'ik), or apol- 
ogetical ('i-kal), adj. in the way 
of defense or apology. 

apologetically (-li), adv. in an 
apologetic manner. 

apologetics (a-pol-o-jet'iks), n. the 
defense and vindication of the prin- 
ciples and laws of the Christian be- 

apologist (a-pol'o-jist), or apolo- 
gizer (-ji-zer), n. one who apolo- 
gizes ; one who pleads in extenua- 
tion or defense of the actions or 
principles of another. 

apologize (a-poro-jiz), v.i. to make 
an apology or excuse ; to express re- 
gret or make amends for anything 
said or done, on one's own behalf or 
that of another : 'V.t. to write a de- 
fense of ; to defend. 

apologue (ap'o-log), n. a moral 
fable ; a fiction or allegory embody- 
ing a moral application, as ^sop's 

apology (a-pol'o-ji), n. [pi. apolo- 
gies (-jiz)], a vindication or ex- 
cuse ; something spoken, written, or 
offered in defense or extenuation ; 
an explanation by way of amends. 

apophthegm. See apothegm. 

apoplectic (ap-o-plek'tik), or apo- 
plectical ('ti-kal), adj. pertaining 

to, or of the nature of, apoplexy ; 
aflaicted with apoplexy. 

apoplexy (ap'o-plek-si), n. the sud- 
den loss of consciousness and mo- 
tive power, resulting from cere- 
bral rupture. 

aport (a-port'), adv. on or towards 
the port or left side of a ship. 

apostasy (a-pos'ta-si), n. [pi. apos- 
tasies (-siz)], the forsaking or 
abandonment of what one has hith- 
erto professed or adhered to, as 
faith, principles, or party. 

apostate (a-pos'tat), n. one who has 
forsaken or apostatized his faith or 
party ; one who renounces his pro- 
fession after having been in holy 
orders: adj. false; traitorous; rene- 

apostatical (ap-os-tat'i-kal), adj. re- 
bellious, in the manner of apostasy ; 

apostatize (a-pos'ta-tiz), v.i. to 
abandon one's faith, church, or 
party ; change one's religion for an- 

a posteriori (a-pos-te-ri-o'ri), rea- 
soning founded on observation of 
facts, effects, or consequences, by 
means of which the causes are 

apostle (a-pos'l), n. one charged 
with a high mission ; one of the 
twelve persons specially selected by 
Christ to propagate His gospel 
(Luke vi. 13) ; one who performed 
apostolic functions, as St. Paul (I 
Cor. i. 1) ; the first missionary who 
plants the Christian faith in any 
region ; one who labors with special 
success as a moral or social re- 

Apostles' Creed (kred), n. the 
shortest of the tkree creeds, so 
named as containing a summary of 
apostolical doctrine. 

apostle-spoon (-spoon), n. a spooo 
having a figure of one of the Apos- 
tles at the top of the handle. 

apostolate (a-pos'to-lat), n. apostle- 
ship (now restricted to the dignity 
or office of the Pope). 

apostolic (ap-os-tol'ik), or apos- 
tolical (-'i-kal), adj. & n. of or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


pertaining to an apostle or apostles, 
and their age, doctrine, or practice ; 

apostolical succession (suk-sesb'- 
un), n. the regular and uninter- 
rupted transmission of ministerial 
authority by bishops from the 

apostroplie (a-pos'tro-fe), n. a 
breaking olf in a speech to address 
directly a person or persons who 
may or may not be present ; the 
omission from a word of one or 
more letters, such omission being 
indicated by the sign (') ; the sign 
(') so employed in writing or print- 

apostropliic (ap-o-strof'ik), adj. 
pertaining to, or of the nature of, 
an apostrophe. 

apostrophize (a-pos'tro-fiz), v.t. to 
address by apostrophe ; omit a let- 
ter or letters ; mark an omission by 
the sign (') : v.i. to make an apos- 
trophe or short digressive address 
in speakingc 

apothecary (a-poth'e-ka-ri), n. [pi. 
apothecaries (-riz)], one who pre- 
pares and dispenses medicines and 
drugs for profit ; one who is licensed 
to prescribe ; a pharmacist. 

apothecaries' weight (wat), n. the 
weight used for dispensing drugs, 
and comprising the pound (12 oz. ), 
the ounce (8 drachms), the drachm 
(3 scruples), the scruple (20 grs.), 
and the grain. 

apothegm (ap'6-them), n. a pithy 
saying, embodying a wholesome 
truth or precept. Also spelt apoph- 

apotheosis (ap-o-the'o-sis), n. [pi. 
apotheoses (-sez) ] , deification ; the 
god-like personification bestowed 
upon deceased emperors under the 
Roman Empire ; excessive honor 
paid to a distinguished person ; 

apotheosize (ap-o-the-o'sTz), v.t. to 
exalt to the rank of a God ; deify. 

appal (ap-pawl'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. ap- 
palled, appalling], to fright: 
depress or discourage by fear ; dis- 
may ; terrify. 

appalling (ap-paw'ling), p.adj. in- 
spiring horror or dismay. 

54 app 

apparatus (ap-a-ra'tus), n. sing. & 
pi. an outfit of tools, utensils, or in- 
struments adapted to the accom- 
plishment of any branch of work, 
or for the performance of an ex- 
periment or operation ; a set of such 
appliances ; a group or set of organs 
concerned in the performance of a 
single function. 

apparel (a-par'el), n. clothing; ves- 
ture ; garb, or dress ; the equipment 
of a vessel : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. appar- 
eled, appareling], to clothe or 
adorn ; furnish or fit out. 

apparent (ap-par'ent), adj. open to 
view ; capable of being readily per- 
ceived or understood ; evident ; seem- 
ing, but not real. 

apparition (ap-a-rish'un), n. a vi.s- 
ible object ; an appearance of some- 
thing not real or tangible ; a ghost 
or specter ; the first appearance of 
a luminary after obscuration : op- 
posed to occultation. 

appeal (ap-pel'), v.t. to transfer or 
refer to a superior court or judge ; 
to refer to another person or tri- 
bunal ; entreat, call for, or invoke 
aid, sympathy, or mercy : n. a call 
or invocation for aid or sympathy ; 
the right of appeal ; a summons to 
answer a charge ; a call or reference 
to another ; recourse ; the removal 
of a cause from an inferior to a 
superior court, the latter having the 
power to revise the decision of the 
lower tribunal. 

appear (ap-per'), v.i. to be or be- 
come visible ; come before ; seem. 

appearance (ap-per'ans), n. the act 
of becoming visible ; the object seen ; 
a phenomenon ; an apparition ; sem- 
blance ; outward show ; the act of 
coming before the public ; coming 
into court ; look ; bearing or aspect. 

appeasable (ap-pe'za-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of being appeased. 

appease (ap-pez'), v.t. to allay; as- 
suage ; quiet ; satisfy ; pacify. 

appeasement (ap-pez'ment), n. the 
act of appeasing; the state of being 

appeasive (ap-pe'ziv), adj. of a na- 
ture to appease; that tends to quiet 
or assuage. 

ate, arm. 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




appellant (ap-perant), n. one who 
appeals to a higher court ; one who 
appeals to a judge, or to any tri- 

appellate (ap-pel'at), adj. pertain- 
ing to appeals ; having cognizance of 
appeals : n. the person appealed 
against or called upon to appear. 

appellation (ap-e-la'shun), n. the 
name, title, or designation by which 
a person or thing is called or 
known ; the act of appealing. 

appellative (ap-pel'a-tiv), adj. serv- 
ing to distinguish, as a name or de- 
nomination of a group or class ; 
common, as a noun : n. a common, 
as distinguished from a proper, 
name ; the designation of a class. 

appellator^ ( ap-pel'a-to-ri ) , adj. 
containing an appeal. 

appellee (ap-e-le'), n. the person ap- 
pealed against ; the defendant in an 

append (ap-pend'), v.t. to attach, 
hang, or suspend ; subjoin or add 
to, as an accessory part ; annex. 

appendage (ap-pen'daj), n. some- 
thing appended or attached as a part 
of ; something added as an adjunct. 

appendant (ap-pen'dant), or ap- 
pendent ('dent), adj. attached or 
annexed : n, that which is appended 
or added. 

appendicitis (ap-pen-di-si'tis), n. 
inflammation of the vermiform ap- 
pendix of the caecum. 

appendix (ap-pen'diks), n. [pi. ap- 
pendixes ('dik-sez) & appendices 
('di-sez)], that which is added as 

appertain ( ap-er-tan' ) , v.i. to be- 
long or pertain to, as by relation or 

appetite (ap'e-tit), n. tne desire for 
gratification of some want, craving, 
or passion that is natural or 
acquired ; the relish for food induced 
by keenness of stomach. 

appetizer ( ap'e-ti-zer ) , n. something 
that excites or whets the appetite. 

applaud (ap-plawd'), v.t. to praise; 
express approval or approbation by 
clapping of the hands or acclama- 

applause (ap-plawz'), n. the ex- 
pression of approval by clapping ; 

approbation openly shown by ac- 

applausive (ap-plaw'siv), adj. ap- 
plauding ; manifesting approval. 

apple (ap'l), n. the round fleshy fruit 
of the apple-tree, and its numerous 
cultivated varieties ; any fruit re- 
sembling an apple. 

appliance (ap-pli'ans), n. the act of 
applying ; that which is used with, 
or as a part of, something else. 

applicability (ap-li-ka-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being applicable. 

applicable ( ap'li-ka-bl ) , adj. capable 
of being, or fit to be, applied. 

applicant (ap'li-kant), n. one who 
applies, or prefers a request for 

. something ; a petitioner. 

application (ap-li-ka'shun), n. the 
act of applying, putting to, or on ; 
the thing applied ; the applying or 
reducing to practice ; the practical 
demonstration of a principle ; the 
act of requesting ; request ; mental 

applicative (ap'li-ka-tiv), adj. capa- 
ble of being applied. 

applicatory (ap'li-ka-to-ri), adj. fit- 
ness to be applied : n. that which 

applied (ap-plid'), p.adj. practical. 

applique (ap-li-ka'), n. a method of 
ornamentation in dress or uphol- 
stery in which portions or figures 
cut from other patterns are fixed or 
applied to a groundwork or founda- 
tion of any material. 

apply (ap-pli'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. ap- 
plied, applying], to place one 
to another ; lay on ; put into prac- 
tice ; devote to a particular purpose ; 
refer or ascribe as fitting to a per- 
son or thing ; address or direct ; fix 
the mind upon : v.i. to suit ; have 
connection with or reference to ; 
make application to. 

appoint (ap-poinf), v.t. to fix; set- 
tle ; found ; make fast ; establish by 
decree ; assign or ordain ; fix the 
time and order of ; furnish or equip ; 
v.i. to decree ; ordain ; determine. 

appointee (ap-poin-te'), n. one in 
whose favor an appointment is 

appointment (ap-point'ment), n, 
the act of appointing ; the assign- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




ing to an office or trust ; the state 
of being appointed ; the position or 
office assigned or held ; a stipula- 
tion ; an engagement ; an arrange- 
ment to meet by mutual agreement ; 
an ordinance or decree established 
by authority ; furniture or equip- 

apportion (ap-por'shun), v.t. to as- 
sign by equal or proportionate di- 
vision ; distribute or set out in just 

apportionment ( ap-por'shun-ment ) , 
n. the act of apportioning or divid- 
ing into just shares. 

apposite (ap'o-zit), adj. proper; fit; 
pertinent ; well-adapted. 

apposition (ap-o-zish'un), n. the act 
of adding ; addition by application, 
or placing together ; the placing of a 
second noun in the same case in 
juxtaposition to the first, which it 
characterizes or explains, as St. 
Mark, the EvangeHst. 

appositional (ap-o-zish'un-al), adj. 
belonging to apposition. 

appraisal (ap-pra'zal), n. the act of 
appraising, or putting a price upon 
with a view to sale. 

appraise (ap-praz'), v.t. to set a 
price upon ; value ; estimate the 
worth of, as by a licensed appraiser. 

appraisement (ap-praz'ment), n. 
the act of valuing ; an authorized 

appraiser (ap-pra'zer), n. one who 
appraises ; a person licensed and 
sworn to estimate the value of goods 
or estates. 

appreciable (ap-pre'shi-a-bl), adj. 
capable of being appreciated, per- 
ceived, or estimated. 

appreciate (ap-pre-shi-at), v.t. to 
value ; estimate the worth of ; es- 
teem highly ; prize ; be sensible of ; 
raise in value. 

appreciation (ap-pre-shi-a'shun), n. 
the just valuation, or proper esti- 
mate of worth or merit ; a rise in 

appreciative (ap-pre'shi-a-tiv), adj. 
exhibiting appreciation. 

appreciatory ( ap-pre'shi-a-to-ri ) , 
adj. expressive of admiration. 

apprehend (ap-re-hend'), t;.;t. to take 
or lay hold of ; seize ; arrest ; take 

a mental hold of ; anticipate or ex- 
pect : v.i. to incline to belief ; forip 
a conception. 

apprehensible ( ap-re-hen'si-bl ) , adj. 
capable of being apprehended or 

apprehension (ap-re-hen'shun), n. 
the act of seizure or laying hold of ; 
arrest ; the act of conceiving ; per- 
ception ; anticipation of evil ; fear 
or distrust of the future. 

apprehensive (ap-re-hen'siv), adj. 
capable of apprehending ; quick to 
learn, or grasp ; fearful of evil ; 
anxious for the future. 

apprentice (,a-pren'tis), n. one bound 
or articled bv indenture to serve a 
certain number of years to learn 
some trade or craft ; a novice or 
tyro : v.t. to put under the care of a 
master for instruction in some trade 
or craft. 

apprize (a-priz'), v.t. to give notice 
to ; inform. 

approach (ap-proch'), v.i. to draw 
or grow near ; approximate : v.t. to 
resemble, come near to. 

approach (ap-proch'), n. the act of 
drawing near ; access ; passage. 

approbate '^ap'ro-bat), v.t. to ex- 
press approval of ; license or sanc- 

approbation (ap-ro-ba'shun), n. the 
act of approving ; commendation. 

approbative (ap'ro-ba-tiv), adj. ap- 
proving ; expressing approbation. 

approbativeness (-nes), n. love of 
praise or fame ; ambition. 

approbatory (ap'ro-ba-to-ri), adj. 
containing or 'expressing approba- 

appropriable (ap-pro'pri-a-bl), adj. 
capable of appropriation. 

appropriate (ap-pro'pri-at), v.t. to 
take to one's self, in exclusion of 
others ; claim or use, as by an ex- 
clusive right ; set apart or assign to 
a particular use ; annex a benefice 
to a religious corporation : adj. pe- 
culiar ; fit ; apt. 

appropriation ( ap-pro-pri-a'shun ) , 
n. the act of assigning to one's self, 
or to a particular use or person ; 
application to a special use or pur° 
pose ; the annexation of a benefice 
to a religious corporation. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, t7?en. 




■appropriative (ap-pro'pri-a-tiv) , 
adj. appropriating ; making or tend- 
ing to appropriation. 

^ppropriator (ap-pro'pri-a-ter), n. 
one who appropriates ; one who 
holds an appropriated_ benefice. 

approvable (ap-proo'va-bl), adj. 
deserving of or meriting approval. 

approval (ap-proov'al), n. approba- 
tion ; sanction ; ratification ; consent. 

approve , (ap-proov'), v.t. to prove, 
test, or demonstrate ; ratify ; pro- 
nounce efficient or sufficient ; be 
pleased or satisfied with ; commend : 
v.i. to express approval (usually fol- 
lowed by of). 

approver (ap-proo'ver), n. one who 

approvingly (ap-proo'ving-li), adv. 
in a commendatory manner. 

approximate (ap-prok'si-mat), v.t. 
to bring or carry near ; cause to ap- 
proach : v.i. to draw near ; approach 
closely : adj. making approach to ; 
near in resemblance or position. 

.approximately ( ap-prok'si-mat'li ) , 
adv. very nearly but not absolutely. 

-approximation (ap-prok-si-ma'- 
shun), n. the act of approximating: 
approach to anything as a standard ; 
continual approach in exactness to 
the quantity sought, without actual- 
ly arriving at it ; a value nearly but 
not quite correct. 

approximative ( ap-prok'si-ma-tiv ) , 

adj. with a tendency to exactness. 
•approximatively ( ap-prok'si-ma-tiv- 
li), adv. in an approximative man- 

appnlse (ap-puls'), or appulsion 
(-pul'shun), n. sl coming towards; 
the near approach of a planet to a 
conjunction with the sun or any 
fixed star. 

appurtenance (ap-per'te-nans), n. 
that which belongs or relates to 
something else ; an adjunct or ap- 
pendage ; that which belongs to, or is 
accessory to, an estate or property. 

appurtenant (ap-per'te-nant), adj. 
belonging or pertaining to ; acces- 

■apricot (a'pri-kot & ap'ri-kot), w. the 
fruit of a tree, allied to the plum. 

-April fool (fool), n. one who is im- 
posed upon or deceived in a jocular 

manner on April 1st, or All Fools' 

a priori (a pri-o'ri), from something 
prior ; proceeding from antecedent 
to consequent. 

apron (a'prun), n. a portion of cloth, 
leather, or other material, worn as 
a protective or ornamental covering 
to the front of the person ; a leath- 
ern covering for the legs, used in 
driving ; the vent-cover of a cannon ; 
the curved timber placed above the 
foremost end of a ship's keel ; a plat- 
form at the entrance to a dock. 

apropos (a-pro-p6'), adv. to the pur- 
pose ; to the point ; opportunely ; in 
respect (followed by o/) : adj. season- 
able ; happy. Written also a propos. 

apse (aps), n. [pi. apses (-ez)], a 
polygonal or semicircular recess ter- 
minating the choir or other portion 
of a church. 

apsidal (ap'si-dal), adj. pertaining 
to the apsides. 

apsis (ap'sis), n. [pi. apsides ('si- 
dez) ], one of two points in the orbit 
of a planet situated at the furthest 
or the least distance from the central 
body or sun ; the imaginary line con- 
necting these points. 

apt (apt), adj. suitable; pertinent; 
appropriate ; liable ; inclined ; ready ; 
exj»ert ; quick of apprehension. 

apteral (ap'te-ral), adj. without 
wings ; without side-columns. 

apterous (ap'te-rus), adj. destitute 
of wings, or wing-like expansions. 

apteryx (ap'te-riks), n. a wingless 
and tailless bird peculiar to New 

aptitude (ap'ti-tud), n. capacity for 
anything ; fitness ; tendency ; readi- 
ness in learning. 

aqua (a'kwa), n. a term much used 
in pharmacy in the abbreviated form 
of Aq., and denoting the addition of 

aqua ammonise (am-mo'ni-e), water 
containing an infusion of ammonia- 

aqua fortis (for 'tis), n. (strong wa- 
ter), impure nitric acid. 

aqua regia (a'kwa re'ji-a), n. 
(royal-water), a mixture of nitric 
and hydrochloric acids, capable of 
dissolving gold. 

:ate, arm, 

c, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boonj 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




aqua vitse (a'kwa vi'te), n. (water 
of life ) unrectified alcohol ; brandy 
and other ardent spirits. _ 

aquamarine (a'kwa-ma-ren'), n. a 
pale bluish-green variety of beryl ; 
a color resembling the precious 

aquarium (a-kwar'i-um), n. [pi. 
aquaria (-a) & aquariums (-umz)], 
a tank or globe for the keeping and 
cultivation of aquatic plants and 
animals ; a series of such recepta- 

aquatic (a-kwat'ik), adj. pertaining 
to water ; growing or living in or 
upon water ; performed in or upon 
water, as sports : n. an animal or 
plant inhabiting water : pi. aquatic 

aquatiut (a'kwS.-tint), n. sl species 
of etching resembling a water-color 
drawing in India ink or in sepia ; 
an engraving produced by this proc- 
ess : v.f. to etch or engrave in aqua- 

aqueduct (ak'we-dukt), n. sl struc- 
ture in the form of a conduit or ar- 
tificial channel for conducting water 
from a source, as for the supply of 
a large city. 

aqueous (a'kwe-us), adj. of the na- 
ture of, or abounding in, water ; 
watery; formed in or by means of 

aquiform (a-kwi-f5rm), adj. having 
the form of water ; liquid. 

aquiline (ak'wi-lin & -lin), adj. be- 
longing to or resembling an eagle ; 
curved, as the beak of an eagle. 

Arab ( ar'ab ) , n. a native of Arabia ; 
a desert-dweller ; one of the Arabic 
races spread over the African and 
Syrian deserts ; a homeless street- 
urchin or outcast : adj. pertaining 
to Arabia or the Arabs. 

arabesque (ar-a-besk'), n. the style 
of Arabic decorative art, which con- 
sists of the painting, inlaying, or 
carving in low relief of figares of 
plants, fruits, flowers, and foliage, 
variously combined or fantastically 
grouped : adj. pertaining to or ex- 
hibiting the arabesque style of orna- 
mentation : v.t. enrich with orna- 
, ment in arabesque. 

Arabic numerals (-num'er-alz), the figares 0, 1, 2, 3, &c., of 
Indian origin, used by the Arab3 
and introduced into Europe in the 
12th cen<"ury. 

arable (ar'a-bl), adj. fit for the 
plow ; suited to the purposes of 

arbiter (ar'bi-ter), n. an umpire or 
judge ; an arbitrator. 

arbitrament (ar-bit'ra-ment), n. 
the decision of arbitrators ; an 

arbitrarily (-li), adv. in a capri- 
cious manner ; imperiously. 

arbitrary (ar'bi-trar-i), adj. de- 
pending on the will of the arbiter; 
discretionary ; capricious ; imperi- 

arbitrate (ar'bi-trat), v.i. to act as 
arbiter ; to settle a dispute, as an 
umpire ; mediate. 

arbitration (ar-bi-tra'shun), n. the 
settlement of a dispute by an um- 

arbitrator (ar'bi-tra-ter), n. one 
chosen by the parties in a dispute to 
settle it ; an umpire. 

arbor (ar'ber), n. a bower; a shaded 
nook or walk. 

Arbor Day (ar'ber da), a day legally 
set apart in certain States for plant- 
ing trees. 

arboraceous (ar-bo-ra'shus), adj, 
pertaining to, or of the nature of, a 
tree or trees ; living on or among 

arboreous (ar-bo're-us) or arboreal 
(-al), adj. pertaining to trees; 

arborescence (ar-bo-res'ens), m» 
something having the shape of a 
tree, as certain crystals. 

arborescent (ar-bo-res'ent), adj. 

arboretum (ar-bo-re'tum), n. [pi 
arboreta, (-ta) & arboretums 
(-tumz)], a place in which rare 
trees are cultivated and exhibited. 

arboriculture (ar-ber-i-kul'tur), n. 
the cultivation of trees. 

arborise (ar-ber-e-za'), adj. marked 
like the branching of trees, as 
agates, enamels, &c. 

arborisation or arborization (ar- 
ber-i-za'shun), n. a tree-like appear- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booiv 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




arborous (ar'ber-us), adj. having 
the appearance or nature of an ar- 

arbor-vitae (ar-ber-vl'te), n. an 
evergreen tree extensively culti- 
vated in gardens, &c, 

arc (ark), n. a curved line or any 
part of a curve forming the segment 
of a circle ; the portion of a circle 
described by the sun or any heav- 
enly body in its apparent passage 
through the heavens. 

arc-lamp (-lamp), n. a lamp having 
a luminous bridge or arc. 

arc-light (-lit), a light produced by 
a current of electricity passing be- 
tween two carbon points placed a 
short distance from each other. 

arcade (ar-kad'), n. a series of 
arches supported by pillars ; an 
arched gallery, or promenade, lined 
with shops. 

arcadian, (ar-ka'di-an), adj. rurally 

arcanum, (ar-ka'num), w. [pL arcana 
( 'na ) ] , a secret ; a mystery ; a val- 
uable elixir. 

arcb (arch), n. structure of brick or 
masonry, the component wedge- 
shaped parts of which follow a 
curved line ; any curvature having 
the form of an arch : v.t. to cover 
with an arch or arches ; to bend or 
curve into the form of an arch : v.i. 
to form an arch or arches ; curve : 
adj. chief ; of the first rank ; cun- 
ning ; crafty ; shrewd ; waggish ; 
mischievous ; roguish ; sportive ; coy. 

arch-board (arch'bord), n. the por- 
tion of the stern over the counter of 
a ship. 

arch-brick (arch'brik), n. a wedge- 
shaped brick used in the construc- 
tion of arches. 

archseologic ^ (iir-ke-o-loj'ik) . or 
archaeological ('i-kal), adj. per- 
taining to the study of antiquities. 

archseologically (-li), adv. in ac- 
accordance with the science of an- 

archaeologist or archeologist (ar- 
ke-ol'o-jist), n. one versed in the 
study of ancient things ; an anti- 

archaeology or archeology (ar-ke- 
ol'o-ji), n. the science of antiquities ; 

the study of prehistoric remains, or 
the relics of the early races of man- 

archaic (ar-ka'ik) or archaical 
('i-kal), adj. pertaining to a re- 
mote period ; characterized by an- 
tiquity ; old-fashioned ; antiquated. 

archaism (ar'ka-izm), n. antiquity 
of stj'le or use ; an antiquated, old- 
fashioned, or obsolete word, expres- 
sion, or idiom. 

archangel (ark-an'jel), n. an angel 
of the highest order. 

archangelic (ark-an-jel'ik), adj. per- 
taining to archangels. 

archbishop (arch-bish'up) , n. a 
chief bishop, one who supervises the 
bishops in his province, and also ex- 
ercises episcopal authority in his 
own diocese. 

archbishopric (arch-bish'up-rik), n. 
the jurisdiction, office, or see of an 

archdeacon (arch-de'kn), n. digni- 
tary ranking next below a bishop, 
and who acts as his vicar or vice- 

archdeaconate. See archidiaconate. 

archdeaconry ( arch-de'kn-ri ) , ^. the 
office, rank, jurisdiction, or residence 
of an archdeacon. 

archducal (arch-dti'kal), adj. per- 
taining to an archduke or an arch- 

archduchess (iirch-duch'es), n. the 
wife of an archduke ; a daughter of 
the Emperor of Austria. 

archduchy (arch-duch'i), n. Vph 
archduchies (-iz)], the territory or 
rank of an archduke or archduchess. 

archduke (arch-duk'), n. a prince of 
the imperial house of Austria. 

archdukedom (iirch-duk'dom), w. 
the dignity or territory of an arch- 

archebiosis (ar-ke-bi-o'sis), n. the 
origination of living from non-living 
matter ; abiogenesis. 

archegony (ar-keg'o-ni), n. the doc- 
trine of the origin of life. 

archenemy (arch-en'e-mi), n. a 
principal enemy ; Satan. 

archer (ar'cher), n. a bowman; one 
skilled in the use of the bow and 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


archer-fish (-fish), n. a scaly-finned 
fish of the Java seas, which catches 
insects by darting drops of water 
upon them. 

archery (ar'cher-i), n. the art, prac- 
tice, or skill of one who uses the 
bow and arrow. 

archetype ( ar'ke-tip ) , n. the original 
type or pattern upon or after which 
a thing is made ; a model ; the orig- 
inal or fundamental type-structure 
from which a natural group of 
plants or animals are assumed to 
have descended. 

archetypic (ar-ke-tip'ik), arche- 
typal (-ti'pal), or archetypical 
(-tip'i-kal), adj. of or pertaining to 
an archetype. 

archetypically (-li), adv. after the 
manner of an archetype. 

archiepiscopacy . ( ar-ki-e-pis'ko-pa- 
si), n. the rule or dignity of an 

archiepiscopal ( ar-ki-e-pis'ko-pal ) , 
adj. pertaining to an archbishop or 
to his office. 

archiepiscopate. See archiepisco- 

arching (ar'ching), adj. curving like 
an arch : n. arched work. 

archipelagic (ar-ki-pe-laj'ik), adj. 
pertaining to a collection of islands 
with the sea dividing them. 

archipelago (ar-ki-pel'a-go), n. [pi. 
archipelagoes & -gos (-goz)], any 
sea or body of salt water inter- 
spersed with numerous islands ; the 
island-group itself. 

architect (ar'ki-tekt), n. one versed 
in the art of building and the vari- 
ous styles of architecture ; one who 
plans or designs buildings and su- 
perintends their construction, hence 
one who forms or designs. 

architective (ar'ki-tek-tiv), adj. 
used in building; proper for build- 

architectonics ( ar-ki-tek-ton'iks ) , the science of architecture. 

architectural ( ar-ki-tek'tu-ral ) , adj. 
pertaining to the art of building ; in 
accordance with the rules of the 
building art. 

architecturally (-li), adv. with re- 
gard to the principles of the build- 

ing art; from the designer's point 
of view. 

architecture (ar'ki-tek-ttir), n. the 
science or art of building ; the meth- 
od or style of building ; construc- 
tion ; workmanship. 

architrave (ar'ki-trav), n. the low- 
est division of an entablature, or 
that part which rests immediately 
on the column. 

archival (ar-ki'val & ar'ki-val), adj. 
pertaining to, or included in state 

archive (ar'kiv), n. [pi. archives 
( -kivz ) ] , a record preserved as evi- 
dence : pi. the place where public or 
state records are kept ; state or pub- 
lic documents, or records of histori- 
cal value pertaining to a nation or 
to a family. 

archly (-li), adv. roguishly; wag' 
gishly; coyly. 

archness (-nes), n. shyness; coy- 

archon (ar'kon), n. a chief magis- 
trate of ancient Athens ; one of the 
nine chief magistrates chosen to su- 
perintend civil and religious matters. 

archpriest (arch'prest), n. a chief 
priest ; a rural dean. 

archway (arch'wa), n. an opening or 
passage beneath an arched or vaulted 

arcograph (ark'o-graf), n. an in- 
strument for drawing an arc with- 
out the use of a central point. 

arctic (ark'tik), adj. pertaining to 
the region of the north pole ; polar ; 
northern ; frigid. 

arctic circle (ser'kl), n. an imagin- 
ary circle parallel to the equator and 
distant 23° 28' from the north pole. 

ardent (ar'dent), adj. hot; burning; 
fiery ; warm ; glowing ; passionate ; 
eager ; zealous ; vehement. 

ardent spirits (spir'itz), alco- 
holic beverages, as brandy, whiskey, 

ardor (ar'der), n. heat in a physical 
sense; warmth of affection or pas- 
sion ; eager desire ; zeal. 

arduous (ar'du-us), adj. steep; hard 
to climb ; attended with great labor 
or exertion ; difficult. 

are (ar), pres. tense pi. of the verb 
to be. See be. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 

Photo, by American Press Assn 

1, Bleriot Monoplane. 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8, AVright Biplanes. 3, Curtis Biplane. 
5, Farnum Biplane. 9, Zeppelin Airship. 




are (ar), n. the unit of French super- 
ficial or square measure containing 
100 sq. meters or 1076.44 English 
sq. ft. 

area (ar'e-a), n. [pi. areas (-az)], 
any plane surface having bounds, 
Whether natural or artificial, as the 
floor of a hall, &c. ; any defined ex- 
tent of land-surface ; the sunken 
space situated at the base of a build- 
ing and separating it from the 
street; the superficial contents of 
any space or figure ; extent ; range ; 
scope ; a compass of ore allotted to 

arena (a-re'na), n.. [pi. arenas 
(-naz)], the central enclosed space 
(usually strewn with sand) of a 
Roman amphitheater, in which the 
gladiatorial combats took place; 
hence the scene or field for combat 
or exertion of any kind. 

arenaceous (ar-e-na'shus), adj. 
sandy ; abounding in, or having the 
properties of, sand. 

Areopagus (ar-e-op'a-gus), n. the 
tribunal, or highest court, of ancient 
Athens, so named from its situation 
on the hill of Ares (Mars) ; hence 
any high court or tribunal. 

Argand lamp (lamp), n. a lamp 
having a hollow circular wick to 
permit the passage of air inside and 
outside the flame. 

argent (ar'jent), n. the silver of a 
coat of arms, represented in drawing 
or engraving by a plain white sur- 
face, symbolical of purity, beauty, 
&c. : adj. made of, or resembling, 
silver ; silvery white ; bright like sil- 

argentite (ar'jen-tit), n. sulphide of 
silver of a lead-grey color. 

argentous (ar-jen'tus), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or containing, silver. 

argil (ar'jil), n. potters' clay or 

argillaceous (ar-ji-la'shus), adj. of 
the nature of, or containing, clay ; 

argillite (ar-'ji-lit), n. clay-slate. 

argol (ar'gol), n. crude tartar from 
which cream of tartar is prepared. 

argon (ar'gun), n. an element asso- 
ciated with nitrogen, and forming 
one of the constituents of the air. 

argonaut (ar'go-nawt), n. a cepha- 
lopod commonly known as the pa- 
per-nautilus, and paper-sailor of the 

argosy (ar'go-si), n. [pi. argosies 
( -siz ) ] , a large richly-freighted mer- 

arguable ( ar'gu-a-bl ) , adj. capable 
of being disputed or discussed. 

argue (ar'gti), v.i. to show or offer 
reasons in support of, or in opposi- 
tion to, a proposition, opinion, or 
measure ; to reason, dispute, dis- 
cuss ; contend in debate : v.t. to de- 
bate or discuss ; prove or evince. 

argufy (ar'gti-fi), v.i. [p.t. & p.p, 
argufied, argufying], to con- 
tend in argument ; to persist in dis- 

argument (ar'gti-ment), n. that 
which is advanced in support or 
proof with a view to persuade or 
convince the mind ; a discussion, 
controversy, or debate ; the subject 
of a discourse or writing ; an ab- 
stract or summary of a book. 

argumental ( ar-gti-men'tal ) , adj. 
pertaining to reasoning ; consisting 
of reasons. 

argumentation ( ar-gti-men-ta'- 
shun), n. the act of arguing ; discus- 

argumentative ( ar-gti-men'ta-tiv ) , 
adj. consisting of, or exhibiting a 
process of reasoning ; addicted to 
argument ; disputatious. 

argus-eyed (ar'gus-id), adj. watch- 
ful ; vigilant ; extremely observant. 

aria (ar'e-a & ar'i-a), n. an air; a 
melody or tune for single voice with 
accompaniment ; a solo part in a 
cantata or oratorio, &c. 

Arian (a'ri-an), adj. pertaining to 
the doctrines of the Arian sect. 

arid (ar'id), adj. dry; parched up; 

aridity (a-rid'i-ti) or aridness (ar'- 
id-nes), n. the state of being dry; 
dryness ; want of life or interest. 

arietta (ar-e-et'ta), -ti. a short song 
or air. 

aright (a-rit'), adv. rightly; in a 
right way or form ; without sin or 

arise (a-riz'), v.i. [p.t. arose, p.p. 
arisen, arising], to mount up 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




or ascend ; to come into view ; rise 
or get up ; spring up ; come into 
existence or action ; originate. 

aristocracy (ar-is-tok'ra-si), n. [pi. 
aristocracies (-siz)], government by- 
persons of the highest rank in a 
state ; the nobility or chief persons 
in a state. 

aristocrat (ar'is-to-krat & a-ris'to- 
krat), n. a personage of rank and 
noble birth ; one who upholds the 
aristocracy or favors government 
by the nobles ; a person who pos- 
sesses traits supposed to charac- 
terize the nobility. 

aristocratic (ar-is-to-krat'ik) or 
aristocratical (-i-kal), adj, per- 
taining to, or consisting in, a gov- 
ernment of the nobles ; pertaining 
to, or characteristic of, the higher 
class or nobility. 

aristocratically (-li), adv. in an 
aristocratic manner. 

aristocratisiu (ar'is-to-krat-izm & 
ar-is-tok'ra-tizm), n. the rank, con- 
dition, or privileges of one of noble 
birth ; the principles of aristocracy. 

arithmetic (a-rith'me-tik), n. the 
science of numbers ; the art of com- 
putation by figures. 

arithmetical (ar-ith-met'ikal), adj. 
of or pertaining to arithmetic. 

arithmetically (-li), adv. according 
to the rules or methods of arith- 

arithmetician ( §.-rith-me-tish'an ) , 
n. one skilled in the science of num- 

arithmometer (ar-ith-mom'e-ter), n. 
a calculating machine which per- 
forms multiplication and division. 

ai'k (ark), n. the repository of the 
Covenant, or tables of the Law, in 
the Jewish Tabernacle (Exod. xxv.), 
and subsequently'' placed in the Tem- 
ple of Solomon (I Kings viii.) ; the 
vessel in which Noah and his fam- 
ily were preserved during the 
Deluge, hence a place of safety or 
refuge ; a large boat used for trans- 
porting produce on American rivers. 

iu*m (arm), n. the limb of the human 
body which extends from the shoul- 
der to the hand ; the anterior or 
fore-limb of any vertebrate animal ; 
any projecting or diverging organ 

or part of a main body or trunk, as 
the tentacle of a star-fish, the branch 
of a tree, an inlet of the sea, :&c. ; 
might ; power ; support. 
arm (arm), n. a weapon; a branch 
of the military service : v.t. to fur- 
nish or equip with weapons of of- 
fense or defense ; fortify or provide 
against ; furnish with an armature : 
v.i. to fit one's self with arms, or 
take to ^one's self means of defense. 

arm-chair (arm'-char), n. a chair 
furnished with supports for the el- 

arm-pit (arm '-pit), n. the cavity be- 
neath the shoulder ; the axilla. 

armada (iir-ma'da), n. a fleet of 
armed vessels ; a squadron ; the 
Spanish fleet dispatched against En- 
gland in 1588, by Philip II. 

armadillo (ar-ma-dil'o), n. [pi. ar- 
madillos ('oz)], a South American 
quadruped, armed with a bony shell 
divided into belts consisting of nu- 
merous small plates, and resembling 
a coat of mail ; an electric battery 
so named, worn round the body as 
a cure for nervous and other affec- 

armament (ar'ma-ment), n. a body 
of forces equipped for war, either 
military or naval ; the cannon and 
small arms collectively of a warship 
or ^ fortification ; the number and 
weight of guns of a war-vessel. 

armature (ar'ma-tur), n. armor: 
that which serves as a means of de- 
fense ; a piece of soft iron connect- 
ing the poles of a magnet, or elec- 
tro-magnet, to preserve and increase 
the magnetic force ; iron bars or 
frame-work used to strengthen a 

armful ( arm'f ool ) , w. as much as can 
be compassed by the arms. 

armistice (iir'mis-tis), n. a tempo- 
rary cessation of hostilities agreed 
upon by opposing forces ; a truce. 

armlet (arm'let), n. a small arm of 
the sea ; a metal band for the arm 
used for ornament or for protection. 

armoire (ar-mwar'), n, a movable 
cupboard with doors. 

armor (ar'mer), n. defensive arms; 
protective covering for the body in 

ate, arm, ^sk, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, n5rth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




battle; the steel plating of a war- 

armor-clad (-klad), adj, ironclad: 
n. a war vessel protected by steel 

armor-grating (-gra'ting), n. deep 
iron gratings used to protect the 
boilers of ironclads from missiles 
during an engagement. 

armcr-plate (-plat), n. sl plate of 
iron or steel intended to be affixed 
to the side of a ship as part of a 
casing for protection against shell- 

arraiorer (ar'mor-er), n. formerly a 
maker of arms or armor, or one who 
had charge of the armor of another ; 
the custodian of the arms of a troop 
or battleship. 

armorial (ar-mo'ri-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to armor or to the arms or es- 
cutcheon of a family : n. a book or 
dictionary of heraldic devices and 
the names of persons entitled to use 

armory (ar'mer-i), ii. [pi. -ries, 
(-riz)], a place for arms or the as- 
sembly of soldiers ; a manufactory 
of arms. 

armozeeu or armozine (ar-mo- 
zen'),n. a thick plain silk, generally 
black, used for clerical robes. 

arms (armz), weapons of offense 
or defense ; the military service ; 
war as a profession ; armorial bear- 

army (ar'mi), n. [pi. armies (-miz)], 
a body of men trained and equipped 
for war, and organized in regiments, 
brigades, or similar divisions under 
proper officers ; a great number or 
multitude ; an organized body of 
persons engaged in moral warfare. 

army--worm (-werm), n. the larva of 
a moth which devastates grain and 
other crops. 

arnica (ar'ni-ka), n. a genus of per- 
ennial herbs ; the mountain tobac- 
co : from the roots or flov/ers of a 
species of this herb a valuable ex- 
ternal remedy for bruises is made. 

aroma (a-ro'ma), n. [pi. aromas 
('maz)], the odor exhaled by plants 
or other substances, generally of an 
agreeable or spicy nature ; perfume ; 

aromatic (ar-o-mat'ik) or aromat* 
ical ('i-kal), adj. giving out aro- 
ma ; fragrant ; spicy ; odoriferous : 
n. a plant, herb, or drug yielding a. 
fragrant smell. 

aromatically (-li), adv. with aoi 
aromatic taste or smell. 

aromatic- vinegar (-vin'e-gar), w. 
a powerful perfume composed of 
strong acetic acid, the essential oils.; 
of lavender, camphor, &c. 

aromatous (a-ro'ma-tus), adj. full of 
fragrance ; aromatic. 

arose (a-roz'), p.t. of arise. 

around (a-round'), adv. in a circle; 
on every side ; roundabout : prep,. 
about ; on all sides ; encircling ; en- 

arousal (a-rou'zal), n. the act of 
awakening ; the state of being awak- 

arouse (a-rouz'), v.t. to excite or stir 
to action ; put in motion that which i 
is at rest ; awaken from sleep or a 
state of inactivity ; stimulate ; ani- 

aro-w (a-ro'), adv. in a row; in or- 
der ; successively. 

arraign (a-rJin'), v.t. to summon or- 
set, as a prisoner at the bar of a 
court to answer to a charge ; cen- 
sure publicly ; impeach ; indict. 

arraignment (a-ran'ment), n. an- 
accusation ; an impeachment. 

arrange' (a-ranj'), v.t. to put in 
proper order or sequence ; classify ; 
adjust or settle ; adapt ; group. 

arrangement ( a-ranj 'ment), n. the- 
act of putting in proper form or or- 
der ; that which is ordered or ^ dis- 
posed ; the method or style of dispo- 
sition ; a preparatory measure ; 
preparation ; settlement ; classifica- 
tion ; adjustment ; adaptation. 

arrant (ar'ant), adj. notorious; un-i 
mitigated ; thorough or downright' 
(in a bad sense) ; shameless. 

arras (ar'as), n. tapestry; hangings 
made of rich figured fabric. 

arrasene or arasene (ar-as-sen'),w. 
a kind of mixed thread of wool and. 
silk used in raised embroidery. 

array (ar-ra'), n. order; the group- 
ing or arrangement of a body of mea^ 
as drawn up for battle ; an orderly 
collection or series of things impos-- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hUe, hut ; think, then. 



ingiy displayed; dress arranged on 
the person ; apparel : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
-ed, -ing], to place or dispose 
in order ; marshal ; deck or dress. 

arrayal (ar-ra'al), n. the process of 

arrear (ar-rer'), n. the state of being 
behind-hand ; that which is undone, 
outstanding, or unpaid. 

arrearage (ar-rer'aj), n. the state 
o)' condition of being in arrears ; 
that which remains unpaid and 
overdue after a previous payment. 

arrest (ar-resf), v.t. to stop or stay; 
check or hinder the action or motion 
of ; seize, take, or apprehend by le- 
gal authority ; seize and fix, as the 
eye or attention : n. the act of seiz- 
ing; stoppage or holding back by 
force or restraint ; the state of being 
seized or detained by legal authority. 

arris (ar'is), n. the line or edge in 
which two curved or straight sur- 
faces of a body, forming an exterior 
angle, meet each other. 

arris-wise (-wiz)', adv. diagonally 
laid, like tiles ; ridge-wise. 

arrival (ar-ri'val), n. the act of com- 
ing to a place, or reaching a destina- 
tion from a distance ; attainment of 
any object ; the person or thing ar- 
riving, or which has arrived. 

arrive (ar-riv'), v.i. to come to or 
reach, as a destination ; reach a 
point or stage ; gain or compass an 
object ; attain to a state or result 
[with at]. 

arrogance (ar'ro-gans), n. an undue 
degree of self-importance; an exor- 
bitant claim to dignity, rank, or 
estimation; a lordly contempt of 

arrogant (ar'ro-gant), ad^. making 
exorbitant claims to dignity or esti- 
mation, by presuming upon one's 
self-importance; overbearingly 

arrogate (ar'ro-gat), v.t. to assume 
or lay claim to unduly, or with pre- 
sumptuous pride. 

arrogation (ar-ro-ga'shun), n. the 
act of arrogating. 

arrow (ar'ro), n. a slender, pointed 
missile weapon, usually feathered 
and barbed, made to be shot from a 

arrow cliaracters (kar'ak-ters), n. 
pi. the arrow-headed (cuneiform or 
wedge-shaped) characters of the As- 
syrian inscriptions. 

arrow-head (-hed), n. the head or 
barb of an arrow ; an aquatic plant 
so named from its leaves. 

arrowroot ( ar'i'6-root ) , n. a starch 
obtained from the rootstocks of sev- 
eral species of West Indian plants. 

arrow- wood (-wood), n. a wood of 
which the arrows of the Red In- 
dians are made. 

arroyo (a-roi'5), n. [pi. arroyos 
(-oz)], a watercourse or rivulet; 
the dry bed of a small stream. 

arsenal (ar'se-nal), n. a magazine 
for the storage of arms and military 
stores for land or naval service, or 
their manufacture. 

arsenic (ar'se-nik), n. an element of 
steel-gray color and brilliant luster, 
and exceedingly brittle, occurring 
usually in combination. 

arsenic (ar-sen'ik) or arsenical 
('i-kal), adj. pertaining to or con- 
taining arsenic. 

arsenious (ar-se'ni-us), adj. pertain- 
ing to or containing arsenic. 

arsenite (ar'sen-it), n. a salt of ar- 
senious acid. 

arsis (ar'sis), n. that part of a foot 
where the metrical accent is placed. 

arson (ar'sn), n. the malicious firing 
of any building, agricultural prod- 
uce, ship, &c., belonging to anoth- 
er, or one's own property, with the 
intent to defraud an insurance office. 

art (art), 2nd pers. sing, indie, mood, 
pres. tense, of the verb to be. [Art 
is used only in solemn or poetic 
style.] See be. 

art (art), n. the employment of 
means to the accomplishment of 
some end; the skilful adaptation 
and application to some purpose or 
use of knowledge or power acquired 
from Nature ; a system of rules and 
established methods to facilitate the 
performance of certain actions ; fa- 
miliarity with such principles, and 
skill in applying them to an end or 
purpose, as of a practical, useful, or 
technical character : opposed to Sci- 
ence ; one of the fine arts ; the fine 

ate, arm, 

i, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 





arts collectively ; the power or qual- 
ity of perceiving and transcribing 
the beautiful or sesthetical in Na- 
ture, as in painting or sculpture ; 
practical skill ; dexterity ; knack ; 
cunning ; artifice : pi. the branches 
of learning included in the ordinary 
course of academic study. 

arterial (ar-ter'i-al), adj. pertaining 
to an artery or the arteries ; con- 
tained in an artery. 

arterialization (ar-ter-i-al-i-za'- 
shun), n. the process of converting 
venous blood into_ arterial blood. 

arterialize (ar-ter'i-al-iz), v.t. to 
convert as venous blood into arterial 
blood by exposure to oxygen in the 

arteriology (ar-te'ri-ol'o-ji), n. that 
branch of anatomy which treats of 
the arteries. 

arteriotomy (ar-ter-i-ot'o-mi), n. 
the opening of an artery ; the part 
of anatomy treating of the dissec- 
tion of the arteries. 

artery (ar'ter-i), n. [pi. arteries 
(-iz)], one of a system of tubes or 
vessels which convey the blood from 
the heart to all parts of the body. 

artesian well (ar-te'zhan wel), n. a 
well formed by boring, often to 
great depth, through strata the na- 
ture and arrangement of which per- 
mit of the permeation and accumu- 
lation of water ; on being freed from 
constraint, the water rises by pres- 
sure in the tube and overflows at the 

artful (art'fool), adj. cunning; 

artfully (-li), adv. in a cunning or 
crafty manner. 

arthritis (ar-thri'tis), n. any inflam- 
mation of the joints ; the gout. 

artichoke (ar'ti-chok), n. a plant 
with thistle-like foliage, and bearing 
large terminal flower-heads, the low- 
er portion of which, consisting of a 
fleshy receptacle covered with thick 
scales, is used as food ; the tuberous 
root of an American sunflower 
(Helianthus tulerosis), used as a 
substitute for potatoes. 

article (ar'ti-kl), n. sl distinct por- 
tion or member ; a single clause, 
item, or particular, as in a formal 

agreement or treaty ; a concise state- 
ment ; a prose composition, com- 
plete, in itself, in a newspaper, mag- 
azine, or work of reference ; a ma- 
terial thing, as one of a class ; an 
item ; a point of duty, faith, or doc- 
trine ; one of the words (an [a be- 
fore consonant-sounds], the indefi- 
nite article, and the, the definite ar- 
ticle [see a, an, & the] ) used before 
nouns or substantives to define or 
limit their application ; a jointed 
segment connecting two parts of a 
limb or body : v.t. to bind by articles 
of covenant or stipulation ; specify. 

articular ( ar-tik'ti-lar ) , adj. pertain- 
ing to the joints or to a joint. 

articulate (ar-tik'ti-lat), v.t. to 
joint ; unite by means of a joint ; 
to form words ; utter in distinct 
syllables ; speak as a human being : 
v.i. to unite or form an articulation 
(with); utter articulate sounds; 
speak with distinctness : adj. joint- 
ed ; formed with joints ; segmented ; 
characterized by syllabic division ^ 
uttered with distinctness. 

articulation (ar-tik-u-la'shun), n. 
the act of jointing ; the act of speak- 
ing distinctly ; a distinct utterance ; 
the state of being articulated ; a 
joint or juncture between bones ; the 
point of separation of organs or 
parts of a plant ; a node or joint of 
the stem, or the space between twO' 

articulator (ar-tik'u-la-ter), n. one 
who pronounces distinctly ; an in- 
strument to cure stammering ; an 
apparatus attached to a telephone to 
secure regularity of tone ; one who 
mounts skeletons. 

artifice (ar'ti-fis), n. an artful or 
crafty device ; an ingenious expedi- 
ent ; a trick or stratagem ; a ma- 

artificer (ar-tif'i-ser), n. a skilled or 
artistic worker ; a mechanic ; a 
maker or constructor ; an inventor. 

artificial ( ar-ti-fish'al ) , adj. made 
or contrived by art ; produced by hu- 
man skill or labor ; feigned ; unreal ; 
assumed; affected; not genuine or 

artificiality (-fish-i-al'l-ti) or ar- 
tificialnessss (-nes), n. the qual- 

,^te, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




ity of being unreal or unnatural ; 
that which is artificial. 

artificially (-li), adv. by human 
skill or contrivance. 

artillery (ar-til'ler-i), n. cannon; 
great guns ; ordnance of all kinds, 
with its equipment of carriages, 
men, and material ; the officers and 
men forming the artillery division 
of an army ; the science which 
treats of the use or management of 

artisan (ar'ti-zan), n. one skilled in 
any art or trade ; a mechanic ; a 

artist (ar'tist), n. one skilled in any 
branch of high art ; one professing 
or practicing one of the fine arts. 

artiste (ar-test'), n. one who is an 
expert in any branch of professional 
art other than the fine arts, as a 
public singer, cook, &c. 

artistic (ar-tis'tik) or artistical 
('ti-kal), adj. pertaining to art or 
to artists ; characterized by aesthetic 
feeling or conformity to the princi- 
ples of a school of art or design. 

^artistically (-al-li), adv. in a man- 
ner conformable to the rules and 
principles of art. 

artless (art'les), adj. lacking art; 
unskilful ; devoid of cunning ; sim- 
ple ; natural ; undesigning ; unaf- 
fected ; ingenuous. 

Aryan (ar'yan), adj. pertaining to' 
the Aryans, or to their language. j 

as (as), n. [pi. asses (as'sez)], a Ro- j 
man weight equivalent to the libra | 
or pound. j 

asafetida or asafoetida (as-a-fet'i- [ 
da), n. a fetid sap obtained from the 
roots of several large umbelliferous 
plants of Persia and Afghanistan. 

asbestine (as-bes'tin), adj. pertain- 
ing to or of the nature of, asbestos ; 

asbestos (as-bes'tos) or asbestus 
Ctus), n. a fibrous variety of horn- 
blende, separable into flexible fila- 
ments of flax-like appearance and 
silky luster, and possessing the 
property of being incombustible. 

ascend (as-send'), v.i. to take an up- 
ward direction ; mount ; go up ; rise ; 
to proceed from an inferior to a su- 
perior ; rise from a lower to a higher 

pitch or tone : v.t. to go or move up- 
ward upon ; climb ; go upward along. 

ascendable ( as-sen'da-bl ) or as- 
cendible ('di-bl), adj. capable of 
being climbed or navigated. 

ascendancy (as-sen'dan-si) or as- 
cendency ('den-si), n. a govern- 
ing or controlling power or influ- 
ence ; domination. 

ascendant (as-sen'dant) or ascend- 
ent ('dent), adj. rising; supe- 
rior ; predominant ; above the hori- 
zon : n. superiority or commanding 
influence ; predominance ; an ances- 
tor, or one who precedes in geneal- 
ogy or degrees of kindred : opposed 
to descendant : the particular zodia- 
cal sign appearing above the horizon 
at the time of one's birth. 

ascension (as-sen'shun), n. the act 
of moving upward ; a rising ; the 
ascent of our Lord to heaven ; the 
rising of a star or point above the 
celestial horizon. 

Ascension Day (da), n. a movable 
feast to commemorate Christ's as- 
cension into heaven, celebrated on 
the Thursday next but one before 
Whit-Sunday : also called Holy 

ascent (as-sent'), n. the act of ris- 
ing ; an upward movement ; the act 
of climbing ; the way or means of 
reaching a height ; an acclivity ; an 
upward slope. 

ascertain (as-ser-tan'), v.t. to make 
certain ; find out or determine defi- 
nitely by test or examination. 

ascertainment ( as-ser-tan'ment) , n. 
the act of ascertaining. 

ascetic (as-set'ik), adj. exceedingly 
rigid in the exercise of religious du- 
ties and mortification of worldly de- 
sires : n. one who renounces the 
world and devotes himself to re- 
ligious exercises ; one who subjects 
himself to severe disciplinary meth- 
ods of living ; a hermit ; a recluse. 

ascetically (-al-li), adv. in an ascet- 
ical manner. 

asceticism (as-set'i-sizm), n. the 
condition or mode of life adopted by 
one who renounces worldly matters ; 

ascribable ( a-skri'ba-bl ) , adj. capa- 
ble of being attributed or imputed. 

Ste, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




ascribe (a-skrib'), v.t. to attribute, 
impute, or refer ; assign ; attribute. 

ascription (a-skrip'shun), n. the act 
of attributing or imputing ; that 
which is assigned. 

aseptic (a-sep'tik), adj. free from 
the germs of disease or putrefaction ; 
not liable to putrefy : an aseptic sub- 

asexual ( a-seks'ii-al ) , adj. not sex- 
ual ; produced by other than sexual 

asexually (-li), adv. in a manner 
other than by conjunction of the 
sexes : applied to reproduction. 

ash (ash), n. the name popularly ap- 
plied to trees of the genus Fraxinus, 
many of which supply valuable tim- 
ber ; the wood of the ash-tree : adj. 
pertaining to, or like, the ash ; made 
of ash. 

ash (ash), n. [pi. ashes ('ez)], the 
residue of plant or animal substance 
remaining after subjection to red- 
heat : pi. the waste of burned coal ; 
the remains of a human body when 
cremated, hence a corpse. 

ashamed (a-shamd'), p.adj. affected 
or touched by shame ; cast down or 
dejected by conscious guilt ; abashed 
by a sense of indecorum ; reluctant 
through fear of shame (followed by 
an infinitive). 

ashen (ash'n), adj. pertaining to the 
ash-tree ; made of ash ; of the color 
of ashes ; pale. 

ashore (a-shor'), adv. on shore; to 
the shore ; on land. 

aside (a-sid'), adv. on or to one side; 
out of a given direction ; apart ; 
away from : n. a speech or utter- 
ance not intended for the present 
company ; a remark made by an ac- 
tor on the stage, and assumed to be 
heard only by the person for whom 
it is intended, 

asinine (as'i-nin), adj. pertaining to 
the ass ; having the nature or char- 
acteristics of an ass. 

asininity (as'i-nin'i-ti), n. the quali- 
ty of being asinine ; obstinate stu- 

ask (ask), v.t. to request; seek to 
obtain by words ; petition or beg for ; 
claim or demand ; expect or. require ; 

inquire respecting ; interrogate ; in- 
vite : v.i. to prefer by request ; in- 
quire after. 

askance (a-skans') or askant (a- 
skant'), adv. sideways; obliquely; 
awry ; from the corner of the eye ; 

aske-w ( a-sku'),ac?f. obliquely ; awry; 
out of position or arrangement. 

aslant (a-slant'), adv. not at right 
angles ; sloping ; oblique ; slanting ; 

asleep (a-slep'), adj. & adv. sleeping; 
in a state of slumber ; dormant. 

aslope (a-slop'), adv. in a sloping 

asoak (a-sok'), adv. in a state of 
saturation or soaked with moisture. 

asp (^sp), n. a small venomous snake 
of Egypt ; the common viper, or 
adder, of Europe ; a royal symbol 
of ancient Egypt. 

asparagus (as-par'a-gus), n. a plant 
having tender edible shoots. 

aspect (as'peckt), n. visual or mental 
appearance ; look ; mien ; air ; out- 
look or prospect ; the relative posi- 
tion of the planets as viewed from 
the earth ; appearance. 

aspen (as'pen), n. a species of poplar 
whose leaves have the property of 
trembling in the slightest breeze : 
adj. pertaining to the asp-tree ; 
quivering like an aspen-leaf. 

asper (as'per), adj. rugged; hard; 
warlike : n. the mark ( ' ) in Greek, 
to indicate the rough breathing, or 

asperity (as-per'i-ti) , n. [pi. asperi- 
ties (-tiz)], roughness of surface; 
roughness or harshness of sound ; 
sourness ; bitterness of taste or tem- 

aspermous (a-sper'mus), adj. with- 
out seed ; not producing seed. i 

asperse (as-pers'), v.t. to besprinkle;! 
injure in reputation by calumny ; 

aspersion (as-per'shun), n. a sprink- 
ling as of dust or water ; injury by 
false and calumnious charges or re* 
ports ; slander. 

asphalt (as'falt), n. a compact, brit- 
tle variety of native bitumen, em- 
ployed for the purpose of paving^ 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



roofing, and cementing : v.t. to lay 
down or cover with asphalt. 

^sphaltic (as-fal'tik), adj. of the na- 
ture of, composed of, or containing 

asphaltiiiu. Same as asphalt. 

a^spliodel (as'fo-del), n. the name of 
several plants of the liliaceous ge- 
nus Asphodelus ; the daffodil of the 
older English poets ; the unfading 
plant of the dead, which covered 
the meadows of Hades. 

asphyxia (as-fik'si-a) or asphyxy 
('si), n. the condition of lifelessness 
occasioned by suspension or inter- 
ruption of respiration. 

asphyxiate (as~fik'si-at), v.t. to suf- 
focate ; deprive of oxygen, and so 
cause death or dangerous symptoms. 

aspic (as'pik), n. a venomous asp: 
the great lavender ; a side-dish com- 
posed of game, fish, &c., encased in 
clear savory meat-jelly. 

aspirant (as-pi'rant), adj. aspiring; 
ambitious : n. one who seeks to at- 
tain, or aspires to, a high object or 

aspirate (as'pi-rat), v.t. to pro- 
nounce with a full breathing ; to 
prefix the sound of the letter h : n. 
the sound of the letter h, as in 
horse ; the mark or sign used to de- 
note the sound : adj. pronounced 
with the audible breath. 

aspiration (as-pi-ra'shun), n. the 
act of aspirating ; an aspirated 
sound ; a breath ; the yearning desire 
for something higher or better than 
that already possessed ; ambition. 

aspiratory (as-pi'ra-to-ri), adj. per- 
taining to breathing ; suited to the 
inhaling of air. 

aspire (as-pir'), v.i. to seek after or 
desire with longing ; yearn for that 
which is better or nobler ; rise or 
ascend ; to soar : v.t. to breathe to, 
or into ; breathe forth ; soar to ; at- 

asquint (a-skwinf), adv. with a 
squint ; to or out of the corner of 
the eye ; obliquely. 

ass (as'), n. a quadruped of the ge- 
nus Equus, allied to the horse, usu- 
ally employed in its domesticated 
State as a beast of burden ; a dull, 
stupid fellow. . 

assafoetida. See asafetida. 

assail (as-sal'), v.t. to fall upon or 
attack with vehemence ; attack with 
argument or abuse. 

assailant (as-sa'lant), adj. assault- 
ing ; attacking : n. one who, or that 
which, assails. 

assassin (as-sas'sin), n. one who 
slays treacherously or by covert as- 
sault ; one who kills, or attempts to 
kill, secretly as the agent of another 
or others, or for reward ; formerly 
one of a band of Syrian fanatics. 

assassinate (as-sas'si-nat), v.t. to 
kill, or attempt to kill, by secret or 
treacherous means ; slay suddenly or 
unawares ; murder. 

assassination ( as-sas-si-na'shun ) , n. 
the act of slaying in secret, or at 
the bidding or reward of others ; 

assault (as-sawlt'),w. an attack with 
violence by physical means ; an on- 
slaught ; an attack by military 
force ; a violent attack by moral 
force ; an attempt or threat to do 
bodily violence or injury to another ; 
the charge of an attacking party on 
a fortified position : v.t. to attack 
violently ; storm, as by armed force ; 
attack by moral force ; threaten or 
attempt by visible means bodily vio- 
lence or injury to another ; attack a 
fortified position by a sudden charge. 

assay (as-sa'), n. the act or process 
of determining by analysis the quan- 
tity or proportion of any one or 
more metals in a metallic compound, 
ore, or alloy, especially the standard 
purity of gold or silver coin or bul- 
lion ; the substance or metal to be 
assayed : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, 
-ing] , to subject to analysis ; to de- 
termine the quantity or proportion 
of one or more of the constituents 
of a metal. 

assay er (as-sa'er), n. one who as- 
says ; an officer of the Mint appoint- 
ed to test the purity of bullion and 

assemblage (as-sem'blaj), n. the act 
of assembling ; the state of being 
assembled ; a group or collection of 
persons or particular things. 

assemble (as-sem'bl), v.t. to collect 
or gather together in one place or 

ate^ arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 


body ; congregate : v.i. to meet or 
come together ; convene. 

assembly (as-sem'bli), n. [pi. assem- 
blies (-bliz)], a collection or com- 
pany of persons brought together in 
one place, and' for a common object ; 
a meeting ; a congregation. 

assembly-man. (-man), n. a mem- 
ber of a legislative assembly. 

assent (as-sent'), v.i. to admit as 
true ; concede ; agree to ; consent : n. 
the act of agreeing to ; consent ; ac- 
quiescence ; approval ; concurrence. 

assentation ( as-sen-ta'shun ) , n. com- 
pliance vs^ith the opinion of another, 
in flattery or obsequiousness. 

assentient (as-sen'shi-ent), adj. as- 
senting : n. one v^ho assents. 

assert (as-serf), v.t. to maintain; 
declare positively, or v^ith assur- 
ance ; aver ; aflfirm ; defend or vin- 
dicate ; declare. 

assertion (as-ser'shun), n. the act 
of asserting ; that v^hich is assert- 
ed ; positive declaration ; allegation ; 
maintenance or defense. 

assertive (as-ser'tiv), adj. positive; 
dogmatical ; confident in assertion. 

assert or (as-ser'ter), n. one who as- 
serts ; one who maintains or de- 

assertory (as-ser'to-ri), adj. affirm- 
ing ; supporting. 

assess (as-ses'), v.t. to fix or deter- 
mine, as damages; fix, rate, or set 
a certain charge upon, as a tax ; 
estimate or value officially for the 
purpose of taxation. 

assessed taxes (taks'ez), taxes 
levied on income, houses, and prop- 

assessment (as-ses'ment), n. the act 
of assessing or determining an 
amount to be paid ; an official valua- 
tion of property, or income, for the 
purpose of taxation ; the specific 
sum levied as tax, or assessed for 

assessor (as-ses'er), n. one appointed 
to assess property or persons for 

assessorial (as-ses-so'ri-al), adj. 
pertaining to an assessor. 

assets (as'sets), the property, 
whether real or personal, of a de- 
ceased person which is subject by 

law to the discharge of his debts and 
legacies ; the property or effects of 
an insolvent debtor which are avail- 
able for the satisfaction of his cred- 
itors ; the entire property of a 
trader or company of traders. 

asseverate (as-sev'er-at), v.t. to af- 
firm or aver positively, or with so- 

asseveration (as-sev-er-a'shun), n. 
a solemn affirmation or declaration, 
as upon oath. 

assibilate (as-sib'i-lat), v.t. to pro- 
nounce with a hissing sound; to 
alter to a sibilant. 

assibilation (as-sib-i-la'shun), n, 
pronunciation with a hissing sound ;, 
the change of a dental or guttural 
mute into a sibilant or a similar 

assiduity (as-si-dii'i-ti), n. [pi. assi- 
duities (-tiz)], close application or 
unremitting attention to ; diligence : 
pi. studied and persevering atten- 
tion to please. 

assiduous (as-sid'u-us), adj. con- 
stant in application ; devotedly at- 
tentive ; perseveringly diligent. 

assign (as-sin'), v.t. to appoint, mark 
out, apportion, make over ; fix ; des- 
ignate for a specific purpose ; point 
out exactly ; to transfer or make 
over to another, as for the benefit 
of creditors : n. an appurtenance ; 
one to whom property or interest 
is assigned by will or deed. 

assignat (as'ig-nat, French a-se- 
nya'), n. a money or currency bond 
issued by the French Revolutionary 
Government (1789-96). 

assignation (as-ig-na'shun), n. the 
act of assigning ; an appointment to 
meet [used chiefly of love-meetings 
and in a bad sense] ; the transfer 
of title, or the deed of transferment. 

assignee (as-si-ne'), n. one to whom 
an assignment of anything is made, 
either in trust or for his own use 
and enjoyment. 

assignment (as-sin'ment), n. a set- 
ting apart, allotment, or appoint- 
ment to some particular person or 
use; transfer of title or interest; 
the deed of writing effecting such a 

ate, arm, 

:, ai, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book : hue, hut : think, then. 




assignor (as-si-nor'), n. one who as- 
signs or transfers an interest. 

assimilable (as-sim'i-la-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of being assimilated. 

assimilate (as-sim'i-lat), v.i. to 
bring to conformity or agreement 
with something else ; convert or in- 
corporate into organic substance ; 
absorb or appropriate, as nourish- 
ment : v.i. to be converted into or 
become incorporated with the sub- 
,, stance of the animal body. 

assimilation (as-sim-i-la'shun), n. 
the act or process of assimilating ; 
the state of being assimilated. 

assimilative (as-sim'i-la-tiv), adj. 
having the power of assimilating, or 
causing assimilation. 

assist (as-sist'), v.t. to help; aid; 
give support to ; attend : v.i. to lend 
help or aid. 

assistance (as-sis'tans), n. help; 
furtherance ; aid ; succor ; support. 

assistant (as-sis'tant), adj. helping; 
lending aid ; auxiliary : n. one who, 
or that which, assists ; a helper ; an 

assistful (as-sist'fool), adj. helpful. 

assize (as-siz'), n. [pi. assizes ('ez)], 
a court or session of justice for the 
trial by jury of civil or criminal 
cases ; the sessions held periodically 
in each county of England by judges 
of the Supreme Court [usually in 
the pi.] ; the time or place of hold- 
ing the assize [usually in the pi.]. 

assizement (as-slz'ment), n. an in- 
spection of weights and measures, 
enacted by statute. 

assizer (as-si'zer) or assizor ('zer), 
n. a juror. 

associate (as-so'shi-at ),!?.*. to unite; 
join with ; connect ; accompany, as 

I a companion, friend, or confederate : 
v.i. to unite in company ; keep com- 
pany ; unite in action : adj. joined 
in interest, object, or purpose ; 
sharing office or employment, as a 
colleague or partner ; connected by 
habit, function, or sympathy : n. a 
companion ; a confederate ; an ally ; 
one belonging to a society or insti- 
tution, usually of a lower grade 
than a Member or Fellow. 

-association (as-so-shi-a'shun), n. 
the act of associating or state of 

being associated ; union ; conjunc- 
tion ; an associate body of persons 
formed for a common object ; a so' 

associative (as-so-shi-a'tiv), adj. 
tending to or characterized by asso- 

assonance (as'so-nans), n. resem- 
blance of sound ; a species of rhyme 
which consists in the use of the 
same vowel-sound in the last sylla- 
ble of words having different conso- 

assonant (as'so-nant), adj. having 
resemblance of sound; pertaining 
to, or possessing, assonance. 

assort (as-s6rt'), v.t. to divide or 
separate into lots according to ar- 
rangement ; to classify ; arrange : 
v.i. to agree ; suit ; be in accordance 

assortment (as-s6rt'ment), n. the 
act of assorting or placing out ; a 
classified collection of articles or 
goods of a varied character. 

assuade (as-swad'), v.t. to present, 
as advice ; urge persuasively. 

assuage (as-swaj'), v.t. to soften; 
mitigate, allay, lessen, satisfy, or ap- 

assuagement (as-swaj'ment), n. 
mitigation ; a lenitive application or 

assume (as-sum'), v.t. to take to; 
take in or into ; take upon one's 
self ; arrogate or appropriate ; take 
for granted ; take in appearance ; 
pretend to possess : v.i. to be arro- 
gant ; presume ; claim more than is 
one's due ; give a legal undertaking ; 
pretend ; usurp. 

assumpsit (as-sump'sit), n. a verbal 
or unsealed contract based on a con- 
sideration ; an action to enforce 
such a contract. 

assumption (as-sump'shun), n. the 
act of assuming or taking to or 
upon one's self ; taking for granted ; 
the thing supposed ; a postulate ; the 
taking up of a person to heaven ; 
a verbal or unsealed contract. 

assumptive (as-sump'tiv), adj. as- 
sumed, or capable of assumption. 

assurable ( a-shtir'a-bl ) , adj. capable 
of being assured or insured. 

^ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



assurance (a-shtir'ans), n, the act 
of assuring ; an earnest or testimony 
intended or tending to elicit or in- 
spire confidence ; certain expecta- 
tion ; confidence ; self-possession ; 
self-reliance ; impudence ; a deed 
or other legal evidence of the con- 
veyance of property ; a security or 
contract to make good a loss, or pay 
over a sum at death or at some de- 
terminate age. 

assure (a-shur'), v.f. to make sure 
or certain ; to inspire confidence by 
declaration or promise ; secure to 
another ; insure, or covenant for in- 
demnity in event of loss or death. 

assured (a-shurd'), p. adj. made cer- 
tain ; guaranteed ; self-possessed ; 
insured : n. a person insured. 

assuredly (-li), adv. certainly; ,with 

assuredness (-nes), n. certainty; 
full confidence. 

assurer (a-shtir'er), n. one who as- 

Assyrian (as-sir'i-an), adj. pertain- 
ing to Assyria or to its inhabitants. 

Assyriology (as-sir-i-oro-jij, n. the 
science or study of the language and 
antiquities of Assyria. 

astatic (a-stat'ik), adj. without po- 

astatically (-al-li), adv, in an 
astatic manner. 

astaticism ( a-stat'i-sizm ) , n. the 
state of being astatic. 

astay (a-sta'), adv. said of an anchor 
when on heaving it the cable makes 
an acute angle with the level of 
the water. 

Aster (as'ter), n. a genus of flower- 
ing-plants with rosette-shaped flow- 
ers, to which the Michaelmas-daisy 

aster,^ n. any plant of the genus Aster. 

asterial (as-te'ri-al), adj,. connected 
with, or related to, the stars. 

asteriated (as-te'ri-a-ted), adj. ra- 
diated ; having the form of a star. 

asterisk (as'ter-isk), n. the mark 
(,*) used in printing as a reference 
to a marginal passage or footnote 
appended to the text, or to indicate 
letters or words omitted (***) : v.t. 
to mark with an asterisk. 

asterisxn (as'ter-izm), n. a group or 

cluster of stars ; three asterisks 
placed in the form of a triangle 
[ »** or *** ] to direct attention to 
a particular passage ; the star-like 
appearance in certain crystals. 

astern (a-stern'), adj. & adv. at or 
toward the hinder part of a ship; 
behind a ship. 

asternal (a-ster'nal), adj. not joined 
to the sternum or breastbone : said 
of ribs. 

asteroid (as'ter-oid), adj. star-like; 
star-shaped : n. one of the small 
planets whose orbits lie between 
those of Mars and Jupiter ; a minor 

asthenia (as-the-m'a), n. debility. 

asthenic (as-then'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or characterized by, asthe- 
nia ; feeble. 

asthma (ast'ma & as'mS^), n. a respi- 
ratory disease, chronically recurrent 
and attended by difficulty of breath- 
ing, with a wheezing cough and a 
sense of constriction in the chest. 

asthmatic (ast-mat'ik), or asth- 
matical ^ 'i-kal ) , adj. pertaining 
to asthma ; affected by asthma : n. 
a person suffering from the dis- 

asthmatically (-li), adv. in an 
asthmatical manner. 

astigmatic (as-tig-mat'ik), adj. per- 
taining to, affected with, or curing 

astigmatism (as-tig'ma-tizm), or 
astigmism ('mizm), n. a defect 
in the structure of the eye causing 
variation of the focus of the crys- 
talline lens. 

astir (a-ster'), adv. or adj. on the 
move ; active ; stirring. 

astomatous (as-tom'a-tus), or as- 
tomous (as'to-mus), adj. destitute 
of a mouth ; without breathing 

astonish (as-ton'ish), v.t. to strike 
with sudden wonder ; surprise ; 

astonishment (as-ston'ish-ment), n. 
the state of being astonished; 

astound (as-tound'), v.t. to strike 
with amazement ; shock ; alarm ; 

ate, arm, 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, ihen. 




astraddle (a-strad'l), adv. with one 
leg on each side of something ; 

astragal (as'tra-gal), n. a small 
molding or bead of semicircular 
form : called also a roundel ; the 
astragalus ; the circular molding 
near the mouth of a cannon. 

astragalus (as-trag'al-us), n. [pi. 
astragali (-li)], the ball of the 
ankle-joint ; the lower bone into 
which the tibia articulates. 

astrakhan (as'tra-kan), n. the skins 
of young lambs with curly wool, ob- 
tained from Astrakhan, a city in 
Russia ; an imitation with a pile 
resembling this wool or fur. 

astral (as'tral), adj. pertaining to 
the stars ; starry ; star-shaped ; per- 
taining to a super-sensible sub- 
stance presumed by occultists to 
pervade the regions of space and to 
enter into the composition of all 

astral body (bod'i), n. a kind of 
ethereal body said by the occultists 
to be capable of projection to a dis- 
tance, and to possess the power of 
occupying two places at the same 
instant ; a ghost or double. 

astral lamp (lamp), n. a lamp sim- 
ilar to an Argand lamp, giving an 
uninterrupted light. 

astral spirits (spir'itz), spirits 
formerly supposed to inhabit the 
stars, and represented as fallen an- 
gels or spirits of fire. 

astray (a-stra'), adv. out of the 
right way ; wandering. 

astride (a-strld'), adv. with the legs 
wide apart ; astraddle. 

astringency (as-trin'jen-si), n. the 
quality of being astringent; harsh- 
ness ; severity. 

astringent (as-trin'jent), adj. bind- 
ing ; contracting, opposed to laxa- 
tive : n. a substance or medicine 
that produces contraction of the 
tissues and checks discharges. 

astrolabe (as'tro-lab), n. an instru- 
ment formerly employed for taking 
the altitude of the sun or stars; a 
stereographie projection of the 
sphere on the plane of the equator 
or a meridian. 

astrologer (as-trol'o-jer), n. one 
who professes to forecast events by 
means of the stars. 

astrological (as-tro-loj'i-kal), adj, 
pertaining to astrology, or the prac- 
tice of astrology. 

astrologically (-li), adv. in an as- 
trological manner ; according to 

astrology ( as-trol'o- ji ) , n. predesti- 
nation by the stars ; the art ancient- 
ly pursued of foretelling or fore- 
casting the future of mankind, by 
reference to the influence supposed 
to be exerted by the stars in their 
various aspects and relative posi- 
tions upon the course of human 

astrometer (as-trom'e-ter), n. an 
instrument for ascertaining and 
comparing the relative magnitude 
and luster of the stars. 

astronomer (as-tron'o-mer), n. ona 
who studies, or is versed in, astron- 

astronomer royal (roi'al), n. the 
official title of the astronomer in 
charge of a royal observatory in 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

astronomic (as-tro-nom'ik) or as- 
tronomical ('i-kal), adj. pertain- 
ing to astronomy, or according to 
astronomical laws. 

astronomical clock (klok), n. a 
clock which keeps sidereal time. 

astronomical signs (sinz),w.pZ. the 
signs of the zodiac. 

astronomical year (yer), n. a year 
the length of which is determined 
by astronomical observations. 

astronomically (-li), adv. in an as- 
tronomical manner. 

astronomy (as-tron'o-mi), n. the 
study of the heavenly bodies ; the 
science "which treats of their mag- 
nitude, motions, relative positions, 
and all connective phenomena. 

astropbotograpky ( as-tro-f o-tog'- 
jra-fi ) , n. photography applied to the 
delineation of the heavenly bodies. 

astr ophot ometer ( as-tro-f o-tom'e- 
ter), h. an instrument for measur- 
ing the intensity of the light of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 





astrophysical (as-tro-fiz'i-kal), adj. 
pertaining to the physical structure 
of the stars. 

astute (as-tut'), adj. shrewd; keenly 
penetrating ; sagacious ; cunning ; 

asunder (a-sun'der), adv. apart; 
separately ; into parts. 

as wail (as'wal), n. the sloth-bear of 

asylum (a-si'lum), n. [pi. asylums 
('lumz)], a sanctuary or place of 
refuge wherein formerly criminals 
and debtors might find immunity 
from arrest ; an institution for the 
care or relief of the aged, destitute, 
or afflicted. 

asymmetrical (as-i-met'ri-kal), adj. 
not symmetrical ; disproportionate. 

asymmetrically (-li), adv. not 

asymmetry (a-sim'e-tri), n. lack of 
symmetry or proportion between ihe 
parts of a thing. 

asyndeton (a-sin'de-ton), n. a figure 
of speech which omits connectives, 
as "I came, I saw, I conquered. 

atavism (at'a-vizm), n. the rever- 
sion, or tendency to revert, to the 
ancestral type of a species ; resem- 
blance to a remote ancestor, ex- 
hibited by a certain organism ; the 
recurrence of any peculiarity or dis- 
ease from which an ancestor in re- 
mote generations has suffered. 

atavistic (at-a-vis'tik), adj. of, or 
pertaining to, atavism. 

ataxia (a-tak'si-a), or ataxy ('si), 
n. irregularities in the functions of 
the body or in the course of a dis- 

ataxic (a-tak'sik), adj. pertaining to, 
or characterized by, ataxy. 

ataxic fever (-fe'ver), n. typhus 
fever of a malignant type. 

ate (et & at), p.t. of eat. 

atelier (a'te-lya), n. a workshop; 
the studio of a painter or sculptor. 

atheism (a'the-izm), n. disbelief in 
the existence of a God. 

atheist (a'the-ist), n. one who dis- 
believes or denies the existence of a 

atheistic (a-the-is'tik), or atheis- 

tical ('ti-kal), adj. pertaining to, 
containing, or implying atheism. 

atheistically (-li), adv. in an athe- 
istic manner ; impiously. 

atheneum, athenseum ( ath-e-ne'- 
um), n. [pi. atheneums ('umz) & 
athensea ('a)], an institution, club, 
or building devoted to the purposes 
or study of literature, science and 

athermancy (a-ther'man-si), n. im- 
permeability to radiant heat. 

athermanous ('ma-nus), adj. im- 
pervious to radiant heat. 

athirst (a-thersf), adj. in want of 

athlete (ath'let), n. a competitor for 
a prize in public games ; one trained 
to contend in feats of physical 
prowess ; one possessed of great 
physical strength. 

athletic (ath-let'ik) , adj. pertaining 
to athletes, or their performances ; 
strong ; robust ; vigorous ; muscular, 

athletically ('i-kal-li), adv. in an 
athletic manner. 

athleticism (ath-let'i-sizm), n. the 
practice of athletic games or exer- 

athletics (ath-let'iks), n. any sys- 
tem of athletic training by gymnas- 
tic exercises or outdoor sports ; ath- 
letic exercises collectively. 

athwart ( a-thwawrt' ) , prep, across; 
from side to side : adv. crosswise ; 
obliquely ; across the course or di- 
rection of a ship. 

athwart-ships (-ships), adv. phr, 
across a ship from one side to the 

atilt (a-tilt')» d^v. & adj. in the posi- 
tion or with the action of a person 
making a thrust ; tilted. 

atlantes (at-lan'tez), figures or 
half-figures of men, used in place 
of columns or pilasters to support 
an entablature. 

atlas (at'las), n. [pi. atlases ('ez)], 
a collection of maps in a volume ; 
a work in tabulated form ; a large 
size of drawing-paper. 

atlas-powder (at'las-pou'der) , n. a 
powerful nitro-glycerine blasting 

atmidometer (at-mi-dom'e-ter), n. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




an instrument for measuring the 
evaporation from ice, snow, or 

atmology (at-mol'o-ji), n. the 
science of aqueous vapor, its laws 
and phenomena. 

atmometer (at-mom'e-ter), n. an 
instrument for measuring the rate 
and amount of evaporation from 
I a moist surface. 

atmospliere (at'mos-fer), n. the 
aeriform fluid surrounding the 
earth, composed of a mechanical 
mixture of 79 parts by volume of 
nitrogen with 21 parts of oxygen, 
and a trace of carbonic acid and 
argon, with a varying proportion 
of aqueous vapor, ammonia, ozone, 
and organic matter ; the gaseous 
envelope surrounding any of the 
heavenly bodies ; the influence, men- 
tal and moral, exerted on a person 
by his environments. 

atmospheric (at-mos-fer'ik), or at- 
mospherical ('i-kal), adj. pertain- 
ing to, resembling, or consisting of, 
existing in, or dependent upon, the 

atmospheric pressure (-presh'er), 
n. the pressure exerted in every di- 
rection upon a body by the atmos- 
phere ; equivalent to 14 2-3 lb. on the 
sq. in., or 1,033 grams on the sq. 

atoll (a-tol' & at'ol), n. a coral island 
having the form of an outer ring of 
coral surrounding a basin or lagoon. 

atom (at'um), n. an ultimate indi- 
visible particle of matter. 

atomic (a-tom'ik), or atomical 
(_'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, or con- 
sisting of, atoms ; extremely minute. 

atom.ic weight (a-tom'ik wat), n. 
the weight of the atom of any ele- 
ment as compared with another 
taken as a standard, usually hydro- 
gen, taken as 1. 

atomically (-li), adv. in an atomic 

atomicity (at-o-mis'i-ti), n. equiva- 
lence ; the combining capacity of an 

atomize (at'um-iz), v.t. to reduce to 
atoms or exceedingly fine particles. 

atomizer (at'um-izer), n. an instru- 
ment constructed to reduce a liquid 
to spray. 

atonable (a-ton'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being atoned for. 

atone (a-ton') , v.i. [p.t. &p.p. atoned atoning], to make reparation 
or amends, as for injury done or im- 
plied ; expiate ; make satisfaction 
for ; reconcile. 

atonement (a-ton'ment), n. repara- 
tion or satisfaction offered or made 
in return for injury ; expiation of 
wrong or sin by suffering; the 
recompense for sin typified by the 
sufferings and death of Christ ; 

atonic (a-ton'ik), adj. wanting tone, 
or vital energy ; unaccented : n. an 
unaccented word or syllable ; a medi- 
cine to allay excitement. 

atony (at'o-ni), n. want of tone; de- 
bility ; weakness of any organ. 

atrip (a-trip'), adv. just clear of the 

atrium (a'tri-um), n. [pi. atria 
(-a)], the square entrance-hall, 
lighted from above, constituting the 
chief apartment in an ancient Ro- 
man house ; a hall or entrance- 
court ; a portico ; the auricular por- 
tion of the heart ; a cavity. 

atrocious (a-tro'shus), adj. wicked 
in the highest degree ; extremely 
criminal or cruel ; outrageous ; ex- 
hibiting or characterized by great 
atrocity ; flagrant. 

atrocity (a-tros'i-ti), n. [pi. atroci- 
ties (-tiz)], enormous wickedness; 
abominable cruelty ; an atrocious 

atrophy (at'ro-fi), n. a wasting, or 
diminution in bulk, of the body, or 
any part of the body arising from 
lack of nourishment ; the degenera- 
tion of an organ or part : v.i. [p.t. 
& p.p. atrophied, atrophying], 
to waste away ; to dwindle. 

atropin (at'ro-pin), or atropine 
-pin), n. a crystalline alkaloid of 
very poisonous nature extracted 
from the deadly nightshade (bella- 
donna), having the singular proper- 
ty of producing dilatation of the 
pupil of the eye. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 

atr 75 

atropism (at'ro-pizm), n. poisoning 
by atropin or belladonna. 

attach (at-tach'), v.t. to fasten, or 
fix, to or on ; bind ; connect with or 
appoint to ; connect by ties of affec- 
tion ; to take, or seize, by legal 
authority : v.i. to adhere. 

attache (at-ta-sha'), n. one who is 
attached to another, or as part of a 
suite or staff, as of an embassy or 

attachment (at-tach'ment), n. the 
1^ act of attaching ; adherence ; fidel- 
ity ; affection or regard ; that which 
attaches, or the thing which is at- 
tached ; a taking into custody or 
seizure of the person, goods, or 
estate by virtue of a legal process. 

attack (at-tak'), v.t. to assault; fall 
upon with force ; assail with intent 
to overcome or to damage, discredit, 
or bring into ridicule ; begin to af- 
fect or act upon, as disease : v.i. to 
make an onset or attack : n. the act 
of attacking in any sense of the 

attain, (at-tan'), v.t. to achieve; 
gain ; compass ; accomplish : v.i. to 
reach ; come, or arrive at. 

attainability ( at-ta-na-biri-ti ) , n. 

attainable ( at-ta'na-bl ) , adj. ca- 
pable of being attained. 

attainableness (-nes), n. the qual- 
ity of being attainable. 

attainder (at-tan'der), n. the act of 
attainting, or the state of being at- 
tainted ; an act, formerly in opera- 
tion, for the deprivation of all civil 
rights and of power to inherit or 
transmit property : applied to per- 
sons under sentence of death or out- 
lawry for treason or felony. 

attainment (at-tan'ment), n. the act 
of attaining ; the act of arriving at 
or reaching, as the result of exer- 
tion or effort; that which is at- 
tained ; an acquisition. 

attaint (at-tant), v.t. to taint; cor- 
rupt ; sully or stain by disgrace. 

attar of roses (at'ar of roz'ez), n. 
an essential oil expressed from the 
petals of the rose. Written also 
atar, ottar, and otto. 

attemper ( at-tem'per ; , v.t. to re- 
duce, modify, or moderate by mix- 


ture ; regulate ; temper ; smooth, 
soften, or mollify ; mix in proper 
proportion ; fit or adapt. 

attempt (at-tempt'), v.t. to make an 
effort to accomplish ; try ; endeavor 
or essay to perform ; try to win or 
seduce ; attack, or invade : n. a trial, 
essay, or endeavor ; an effort to 
gain a point ; an attack or assault. 

attend (at-tend'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
-ed, -ing], to wait upon; ac- 
company or be present with ; serve 
or look after in any capacity ; be 
present at ; accompany or follow : 
v.i. to pay heed or regard to ; listen ; 
be in attendance upon. 

attendance (at-ten'dans), n. the act 
of attending ; waiting on ; presence ; 
the persons attending ; retinue. 

attendant (at-ten'dant), n. one who 
attends or accompanies in service or 
train of another ; one who is pres- 
ent ; that which attends or is conse- 
quent upon anything else : adj. ac- 
companying ; being present ; con- 
nected or consequent upon ; depend- 
ing on or owing duty or service to. 

attention (at-ten'shun), n. the act 
of applying the mind to anything ; 
consideration or regard for any per- 
son or thing ; a mark or act of civil- 
ity or courtesy ; care for the com- 
fort of others ; a military command 
to assume the attitude of atten- 

attentive (at-ten'tiv), adj. heedful; 
full of attention ; intent ; mindful ; 
regardful of the wishes of others. 

attenuant (at-ten'u-ant), adj. mak- 
ing thir, as fluids ; diluting ; dimin- 
ishing in denseuess : n. a medicine 
which thins the fluids of the body; 
a diluent. 

attenuate (at-ten'u-at) , v.t. to make 
thin or slender ; weaken or .reduce ; 
thin out by dilution ; rarefy : v.i. 
to become thin, slender, or fine : les- 
sen : adj. made thin ; dilute ; rare- 
fied ; tapering ; slender. 

attenuation (at-ten-ti-a'shun), n. 
the act or process of making slender, 
or thinning out by dilution; the 
state of being slender. 

attest (at-tesf), i:t. to bear witness 
to ; certify as being genuine or true, 

ate^ arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




especially in an official sense ; give 
proof of ; manifest. 

attestation (at-tes-ta'shun), n. the 
act of attesting ; testimony or evi- 
dence given on oath, or by official 
declaration ; swearing in. 

attestor (at-tes'ter), n. one who at- 

attic (at'tik), n, an uppermost room 
in a house immediately beneath the 
roof ; a garret. 

Attic (at'tik), ac?/./ pertaining to At- 
tica, in Greece ; classical ; elegant. 

Atticisiu (at'i-sizm), n. a peculiarity 
of style or idiom characterizing the 
Attic rendering of the Greek lan- 
guage ; elegant manner of expres- 

attire (at-tir'), v.t. to dress; clothe; 
array ; adorn : n. dress ; clothes ; 
habit ; garb ; the horns of a stag, 
employed as a heraldic bearing. 

attitude (at'ti-ttid), n. bodily posi- 
tion or posture ; the bearing as- 
sumed by a person or body of per- 
sons indicative of feeling, opinion, 

attitudinal ( at-ti-tu'di-nal ) , adj. 
pertaining to attitude. 

attitu dinar ian (at - ti-tti-di-na'ri- 
an), n. one who studies or affects 

attitudinize (at-ti-tu'di-niz), v.i, to 
pose for effect. 

attorney (at-ter'ni)," n. [pi. attor- 
neys (-nez)], one legally qualified 
to act for another in the transaction 
of private business, or in the man- 
agement, prosecution, or defense of 
actions at law. 

attorney-general (-jen'er-al), n. 
the chief law officer appointed to 
act for the government ; the chief 
law officer of a State. 

attorneyship (at-ter'ni-ship), n. 
agency for another. 

attract (at-trakf), v.t. to draw to 
or towards ; cause to approach ; 
draw by moral influence ; allure ; 

attract ability (at-trak'ta-bil'i-ti), 
n. the quality of being attractable ; 
the power of attraction. 

attractile (at-trak'til), adj. having 
the power to attract. 

attraction (at-trak'shun), n. the 
power or act of attracting; the 
force exerted by one body or mass 
upon or over the constituent par- 
ticles of another, by which it tends 
to overcome the resistance to mo- 
tion, and to draw them together ; 
tendency to coherence, i 

attractive (at-trak'tiv), adj. having 
the power or tendency to attract ; al- 
luring ; inviting : n. that which at- 
tracts, allures, or charms. 

attributable ( at-trib'u-ta-bl ) , adj. 
capable of being attributed. 

attribute (at-trib'ut), v.t. to as- 
cribe, impute, assign : n. (at'tri-but), 
that which is attributed, as quality ; 
trait ; property ; a characteristic ; 
an attributive adjunct or adjective ; 
that which may be predicated of any 

attribution (at-tri-bu'shun), n. the 
act of attributing ; designation. 

attributive (at-trib'ti-tiv), adj. per- 
taining to, of the nature of, or ex- 
pressing, an attribute : n. a word 
denoting an attribute ; a word joined 
to and describing a noun ; an adjec- 
tive or adjective p^irase. 

attrite (at-trif), adj. worn by fric- 
tion ; repentant through fear of pun- 

attrition (at-trish'un), n. the act of 
wearing by rubbing ; abrasion ; the 
state of being worn ; grief for sin 
arising only from fear of punish- 

attune ( at-tun' ) ,. v.f . to put in tune; 
bring into accordance or harmony, 

atypic (a-tip'ik), or atypical ('i- 
kal), adj. without definite typical 
character ; not comformable to the 

auburn (aw'burn), adj. reddish- 

auction (awk'shun), n. a public sale 
of property or effects conducted on 
the principle of the highest bidder 
becoming the purchaser of any par- 
ticular lot put up for sale ; the 
property or effects offered for sale 
by auction : v.t. to sell by auction. 

auctioneer (awk-shun-er'), n. one 
licensed to sell property or goods 
by public auction : v.i. to sell by 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




audacious (aw-da'shus), adj. bold; 
daring ; spirited ; insolent ; impu- 
dent ; characterized by shameless ef- 

audacity (aw-das'i-ti), n. [pi. audac- 
ities (-tiz)], boldness; daring; spir- 
it ; presumptuousness ; impudence ; 

audible (aw'di-bl), adj. capable of 
being heard, 

audibly 1-bli), adv. so as to be 

audience (aw'di-ens), n. the act of 
hearing ; admittance to a hearing or 
formal interview with one of high 
position ; an assembly of hearers. 

audient (aw'di-ent), adj. hearing; 

audiometer (aw-di-om'e-ter), n. an 
instrument for gauging the power of 
^ hearing. 

K audiphone ( aw'di-f on ), w. an instru- 
ment constructed to assist the deaf 
by collecting the sound-waves and 
conveying the vibrations to the 
auditory nerves through the medium 
of the teeth. 

audit (aw'dit), n. official examina- 
tion and verification of claims or ac- 
counts with vouchers and the at- 
tendance of witnesses to effect a set- 
tlement ; a receipt of rent at stated 
times : v.t. to examine and adjust,^ as 
accounts or claims : vA. to examine 
an account ; act as auditor. 

auditor (aw'di-ter), n. a hearer or 
listener ; a person appointed to ex- 
amine and verify accounts and 
claims ; one who hears judicially, as 
in an audience court. 

auditorium (aw-di-to'ri-um), n. [pi. 
auditoria (-a), & auditoriums 
(-umz)], the space in a theater or 
other public building assigned to the 

auditory (aw'di-t5-ri), adj. pertain- 
ing to hearing, or to the sense or 
organs of hearing : n. an audience ; 
a place or space allotted to hearers ; 
an auditorium. 

auger (aw'ger), n. a tool for boring 

aught (awt), n. anything; any part: 
adv. in any way ; at all. 

augment (awg-menf), v.t. to in- 
crease ; to enlarge in size or ex- 

tent ; to add an augment to : v.i. to 
grow larger ; increase in size and 
strength : n. increase ; enlargement ; 
a vowel prefixed, 6r a lengthening 
of the initial vowel. 

augmentation ( awg-men-ta'shun ) , 
71. increase ; the increase in time- 
value of the notes of a theme ; an 
additional charge to a coat of arms 
bestowed as a mark of honor ; the 
period of increase in a fever before 
the crisis is reached. 

augmentative ( awg - men'ta-ti v ) , 
adj. having the quality or power of 
augmenting : n. a word or affix 
which expresses with greater force 
the idea conveyed by the term from 
which it is derived : opposed to di- 

augur (aw'ger), n. one who officially 
predicted events by the observation 
and interpretation of natural signs 
or omens, the flight of birds, the in- 
spection of the entrails of slaugh- 
tered victims, the occurrence of me- 
teorological phenomena, &c. ; one 
who professes to foretell events by 
omens ; a soothsayer ; a prophet : 
v.i. to conjecture from signs or 
omens : v.t. to predict or prognosti- 
cate ; betoken_ or infer. 

augury (aw'gu-ri), n. [pi. auguries 
(-riz)], the art or practice of fore- 
telling events by reference to natural 
signs or omens ; an omen ; predic- 
tion ; presage. 

august ( aw-gust' ) , adj. grand ; in- 
vested with grandeur and dignity; 
majestic ; of a nature to inspire awe 
and reverence. 

August (aw'gust), n. the eighth 
month of the year. 

auk (awk), n. the name given to the 
members of a family of arctic diving 
birds. The Great Auk is now ex- 
tinct. Also spelled awk. 

aulic (aw'lik), adj. pertaining to a 
royal court. 

aunt (ant), n. the sister of one's 
father or mother. 

aura (aw'ra), n. a subtle, vaporous 
streaming, or exhalation, supposed 
to emanate from a living body or 
substance, as aroma, effluvium, or 
the subtle essence of its individual 
nature ; a sensation as of a stream 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



of air rising from a part of the body 
toward the head, and preceding an 
epileptic seizure or hysteria. 

aural (aw'ral), aclj, pertaining to the 
air or to an aura ; pertaining to the 
ear, or to the sense of hearing. 

aureate (aw're-at), adj. golden; 
gilded ; golden-yellow. 

aurelia (aw-re'lya), n. the pupa or 
chrysalis of an insect. 

aurelian (aw-re'lyan), adj. pertain- 
ing to the aurelia : n. one who makes 
a special study of butterflies and 

aureola (aw-re'o-la), or aureole 
(aw're-61), n. a halo, radiance, or 
luminous cloud encircling the figures 
of Christ, the Virgin, and the saints 
as represented by the painters ; any- 
thing resembling an aureola. 

auric (aw'rik), adj. pertaining to 

auricle (aw'ri-kl), n. the external 
ear ; that part of the ear which pro- 
jects from the head ; one of two 
chambers of the heart which receive 
the blood from the veins and trans- 
mit it to the ventricle or ventricles. 

auricular (aw-rik'u-lar), adj. per- 
taining to the ear or to the sense of 
hearing ; privately addressed, as to 
the priest in the confessional ; per- 
ceived by the ear ; known by report ; 
obtained by the ear ; ear-shaped ; 
pertaining to the auricles of the 

auriculate (aw-rik'u-lat), or auric- 
ulated (-ed), adj. ear-shaped; hav- 
ing ears or ear-like appendages. 

auriferous (aw-rif'er-us), adj. gold- 
bearing ; yielding or containing 

auriform (aw'ri-form), adj. ear- 
shaped ; having the form of the 
human ear. 

auriscope (aw'ri-skop), n. an in- 
strument for examining the ear. 

aurist (aw'rist), n. one skilled in the 
treatment of ear disorders. 

aurochs (aw'roks), n. the European 

aurora (aw-ro'ra), n. {pi. auroras 
('raz) & aurorfe ('re)], the rising 
light of the morning ; the dawn or 

aurora borealis (bo-re-a'lis), n. the 
northern lights, a luminous meteoric 
phenomenon manifesting itself by 
streams of light ascending from the 
northern horizon towards the zenith, 
or assuming the form of an arc 
having its ends on the horizon. 

aurora australis (aw-stra'lis), n. a 
phenomenon of corresponding nature 
in the southern hemisphere. 

aurous (aw'rus), adj. pertaining to 

auscultate (aws'kul-tat), v.t. to ex- 
amine by auscultation. 

auscultation (aws-kul-ta'shun), n. 
a method of detecting chest disease 
by observing the sounds arising in 
the part, either by applying the ear 
directly to the chest or thorax, or by 
means of a stethoscope. 

auscultator (aws'kul-ta-ter), n. one 
who practices auscultation ; a steth- 

auscultatory (aws-kul'ta-^o-ri), adj. 
pertaining to auscultation. 

auspice (aws'pis), n. {pi. auspices 
(-ez)], an omen drawn from birds; 
an omen ; a predication as to the 
future ; protection ; patronage ; fa- 
voring influence (generally In pi.). 

auspicious (aws-pish'us), adj. hav- 
ing promise of success or happiness ; 
propitious ; prosperous ; fortunate. 

austere (aws-ter'), adj. sour; harsh; 
rough to the taste ; severe ; rigid in 
character or mode of living ; severe- 
ly simple. 

austerity (aws-ter'i-ti), n. severity 
of manner or life ; harsh discipline ; 
rigorous simplicity. 

austral (aws'tral), adj. southern. 

authentic (aw-then'tik), or an- 
thentical ('ti-kal), adj. genuine; 
original ; duly authorized ; true ; 
trustworthy ; vested with all due 
formalities, and legally attested. 

authentically (-li), adv. in an au- 
thentic manner. 

authenticate (aw-then'ti-kat), v.t. 
to make authentic ; give authority to 
by accordance with legal formalities ; 
to establish as genuine. 

authentication ( aw - then - ti-ka - 
shun), n. the act of authenticating. 

ate, arm \sk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




authenticity ( aw-then-tis'i-ti ) , n. 
the quality of being authentic ; au- 

autlior (aw'ther), n. the beginner or 
prime mover of anything ; an ef- 
ficient cause; an originator; a 
creator ; one who composes or writes 
a book ; a composer. 

authoress (aw'ther-es), n. a female 
author. [The term author is now 
generally used without regard to 
I sex.] 

authoritative ( aw - thor 'i-ta-tiv ) , 
adj. having due authority, or the air 
of being duly authorized ; positive, 
dictatorial ; magisterial ; command- 

authority (aw-thor'i-ti), n. [pi. au- 
thorities (-tiz)], power or right to 
act or command ; dominion ; juris- 
diction ; power derived from opinion, 
respect, or reputation ; influence ; 
justification or support for state- 
ment or action; a person invested 
with power to act or command ; one 
deserving of credit, to whom ap- 
peal or reference can be made; in 
pi. the government ; the constituted 

authorization (aw-ther-i-za'shun) , 
n. the act of authorizing ; establish- 
ment by authority. 

authorize ( aw'ther-iz) , v.t. to vest 
with authority; give a right to act 
or command ; empower ; legalize ; 
establish or confirm by authority. 

auto (aw'to), n. an abbreviation in 
common use for automobile. 

auto, prefix meaning self; of one's 
self; of itself. 

autobiographic ( aw-to-bl-o-graf '- 
ik), or autobiographical ('i-kal), 
adj. pertaining to autobiography, 

autobiographically (-li), adv. in 
an autobiographic manner. 

autobiography ( aw-to-bi-og'ra-f i ) , 
n. \_pl. autobiographies (-fiz)], a 
biography, account, or character- 
sketch of a person written by him- 

autocar (aw'to-kar), n. a carriage 
containing within itself the machin- 
ery necessary for its own propulsion. 

autocracy (aw-tok'ra-si), n. [pi. au- 
tocracies (-siz)], absolute, uncon- 

trolled authority ; supremacy ; gov- 
ernment by one invested with 
absolute and uncontrolled authority ; 

autocrat (aw'to-krat), n. an abso- 
lute prince or sovereign ; one who 
rules without restriction. 

autocratic (aw-to-krat'ik or auto« 
cratical ( 'i-kal ) , adj. pertaining to 
autocracy ; absolute. 

autocratically (-li), adv. in an au- 
tocratic manner. 

autocycle (aw'to-si-kl), n. a motor 

autodynamic (aw-to-dl-nam'ik), 
adj. operating by its own force. 

autogenic (aw-toj'en-ik) or autog- 
enous (-us), adj. self-generated; 
produced independently. 

autograph (aw'to-graf), adj. self- 
written ; in one's own handwriting : 
n. a person's own handwriting ; an 
original manuscript or signature : 
v.t. to reproduce by autography; to 
sign or write one's_ autograph. 

autographic (aw-to-graf'ik) or au- 
tographical ('i-kal), adj. pertain- 
ing to an autograph or personal 
handwriting; relating to, or used 
in, the process of autography; self- 

autography (aw-tog'ra-fi), n. the 
science or study of autographs ; an 
original manuscript ; a process in 
lithography by which copies of 
writings or drawings are reproduced 
in facsimile. 

autogravure (aw-to-grav-ur'), n. a 
process of photo-engraving. 

autolatry (aw-tol'a-tri), n. self- 

autology (aw-tol'o-ji), n. the scien- 
tific study of one's self. 

automatic (aw-to-mat'ik), or auto- 
matical ('i-kal), adj. having the 
power of self-motion or self-action; 
of the nature of an automaton; in- 
dependent of the will. 

automatically (-li), adv. in an au- 
tomatic manner. 

automatism (aw-tom'a-tizm), n. au- 
tomatic action ; the doctrine which 
assigns all animal functions to the 
active operation of physical laws. 

automaton (aw-tom'a-ton), n. [pi. 
automata (-ta), & automatons 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




(-tonz)], that which possesses the 
power of spontaneous movement 
without consciousness ; a self-acting 

aiitoiaatous (aw-tom'a-tus), adj. 
spontaneous ; of the nature of an 

autometry (aw-tom'e-tri), n. the es- 
timation, or measurement, of one's 

automobile (aw-to-mo'bil), adj. self- 

automobile (aw-to-mo-bel' & aw-to- 
mo'bil), n. a self-moving vehicle; 

automobilist (aw-to-mo'bil-ist), n. 
one who rides in and manages an 
automobile ; a chauffeur. 

automorphism (aw-to-morf'ism) , n. 
the judgment of others by analogy 
from the knowledge of one's self. 

automotoT (aw'to-mo-ter), n. a self- 
acting machine. 

autonomic ( aw-to-nom'ik ) , or au- 
tonomous (-ton'o-mus), adj, per- 
taining to autonomy. 

autonomist (aw-ton'o-mist), n. a 
supportei^ of autonomy. 

autonomy (aw-ton'o-mi), n. \_pl. au- 
tonomies (-miz)], the power or 
right of self-government; the state 
of political independence. 

autonym (aw'to-nim), n. one's own 
name : opposed to pseudonym ; a 
work published under the author's 
real name. 

autopbon (aw'to-fon), n. a barrel- 
organ, the tunes of which are deter- 
mined by perforated mill-board. 

autoplasty (aw'to-plas-ti), n. the 
process of repairing lesions by ap- 
plication of tissue removed from an- 
other part. Called also rhinoplasty. 

autopsy ( aw'-top-si ) , n. personal ob- 
servation ; ocular demonstration ; a 
post-mortem examination. 

autotoxic (aw-to-toks'ik), adj. self- 

autotruck (aw'-to-truk), n. a self- 
moving truck ;_ motor-truck. 

autotype (aw'to-tip), n. a facsimile; 
a photo-gelatine process of produc- 
ing pictures. 

autotypograpby ( aw-to-tl-pog'ra-fi ) , 
n. a kind of nature printing, by 
the transference of gelatine draw- 

ings on to a plate of soft metal from 
which the design is printed. 

autumn (aw'tum), n. the season be- 
tween summer and winter, begin- 
ning astronomically at the autumnal 
equinox, about September 22nd, and 
ending at the winter solstice, about 
December 23rd ; the period of de- 
cline or decay. 

autumnal (aw-tum'nal), a(Z;. belong- 
ing or peculiar to autumn ; pro- 
duced or gathered in autumn ; per- 
taining to the period of life when 
middle age is past : n. a plant that' 
flowers in autumn. 

autumnal equinox (e'kwi-noks), 
n. the time of the sun's southward 
passage across the equator, about 
September 22nd. 

auxiliary (awg-ziri-a-ri), adj. help- 
ing ; aiding ; assisting ; subsidiary : 
n. [pi. auxiliaries (-riz)], a helper; 
an assistant ; a confederate or ally ; 
aid of any kind ; a verb which helps 
to form the moods and tenses of oth- 
er verbs : pi. foreign troops in the 
service of a nation at war. 

avail (a-val'), v.i. to be of use, value, 
or service ; give profit : v.t. to turn 
to profit or advantage : n. use ; 
means towards an end ; advantage to 
an object : pi. proceeds or profits. 

availability (a-va'la-bil-i-ti), n. the 
state or quality of being available^ 

avalancbe (av'a-lanch), n. the sud- 
den descent of a mass of compact 
snow or ice from the higher parts of 
a mountain ; a fall of rocks or earth 
from the heights of a mountain ; 
anything that overwhelms by sud- 
denness and irresistible force. 

avarice (av'a-ris), n. an inordinate 
or insatiable desire of gain ; covet- 
ousness ; cupidity ; greediness. 

avaricious (av-a-rish'us), adj. im- 
pelled by avarice ; greedy of gain ; 

avast (a-vast'), inter j. stop!, cease I 
hold ! 

avatar (av-a-tar') or avatara (-ta'- 
ra), n. the descent of a deity to 
earth in an incarnate form ; a man- 
ifestation or embodiment. 

avaunt (a-vawnf & a-vant'), inter j. 
begone ! depart ! an exclamation of 
contempt or abhorrence. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



ave (a've & a've), inter j. hail! fare- 
well ! n. an Ave Maria ; a salutation. 

avenaceous (av-e-na'shus), adj, be- 
longing to or resembling oats. 

avenge (a-venj'), v.t. to exact pun- 
ishment or satisfaction for wrong or 
injury done to one's self or another : 
v.i. to execute vengeance ; to receive 
satisfaction for injury by the pun- 
ishment of the offender. 

avenue (av'e-nu), n. a way or means 
of approach to a place, a passage- 
way, drive, or alley bordered by trees 
leading to a house ; a broad road- 
way o7 street planted with trees. 

aver (a-ver), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. averred, averring], to affirm positively; 
declare to be true; verify. 

average (av'er-aj), n. any charge ad- 
ditional to the cost of freightage • 
v.t. to find the mean, as of unequal 
sums or quantities ; reduce to a 
mean ; assign proportionately. 

averment ( a-ver 'ment), n. the act of 
affirming positively; verification; a 
statement or allegation as to facts. 

averse (a-vers'), adj. unwilling; un- 
favorable ; having a repugnance or 
disinclination to. 

aversion (a-ver'shun), n. opposition 
or repugnance of mind ; antipathy ; 
fixed dislike; hatred; the object or 
cause of dislike or repugnance. 

avert (a-verf), v.t. to turn aside or 
away; turn or ward off; prevent. 

avertible (a-vert'i-bl), adj. capable 
of being warded off, or averted. 

Avesta (a-ves'ta), n. the sacred writ- 
ings attributed to Zoroaster; the 

avian (a'vi-an), adj. pertaining to 

aviary (a'vi-a-ri), n. [pt. aviaries 
(-riz)], a house, large cage, or in- 
closure for the keeping and rearing 
of birds in confinement. 

aviation (a'vi-a-shun), n. the art of 

aviator (aVi-a-ter), n. one who op- 
erates a flying machine. 

avicularinm (a-vik-u-lar-i-um), n. 
[pi. avicularia (-a)], the small pre- 
hensile process, resembling the head 
of a bird with a movable mandible, 
which continually snaps 

aviculture (a'vi-kul-ttir), n. the 
breeding and rearing of birds. 

avidity (a-vid'i-ti), n. greediness; 
eagerness ; strong appetite. 

avocation (av-o-ka'shun), n. a sub- 
ordinate or occasional occupation, as 
contradistinguished from vocation. 

avoid (a-void'), v.t. to keep away 
shunning ; the state of being vacant, 
make void : v.i. to become vacant or 

avoidance (a-voi'dans), n. the act of 
annulling or making void ; the act of 
shunning ; the state of being vacant. 

avoirdupois ( av-er-du-poiz' ) , a sys- 
tem of weights in which one pound 
contains 16 ounces : used generally 
for all commodities except precious 
metals, gems and drugs. 

avouch (a-vouch'), v.t. to affirm 
openly ; maintain ; declare positive- 
ly ; vouch for ; admit or confess. 

avow (a-vou'), v.t. to declare openly; 
acknowledge frankly ; to admit a-nd 

avowal (a-vou'al), n. an open decla- 
ration ; a frank acknowledgment ; a 

awabi (a-wa'be), n. an edible shell- 
fish found on the coast of Japan ; 
the abalone. 

ax^ait ( a-wat' ) , v.t. to wait for ; look 
for or expect ; be ready for. 

awake (a-wak'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
awoke, awaked, awaking], to 
arouse from sleep, or from any state 
resembling sleep ; put into action ; 
infuse new life mto : v.i. to cease to 
sleep ; bestir one's self : adj. not 
sleeping ; roused from sleep or in- 
activity ; in a state of vigilance or 

awakening (a-wak'ning), n. the act 
of rousing from sleep ; a revival of 
religion, or activity of a particular 
religious sect : adj. rousing ; excit' 
ing ; alarming. 

award (a-wawrd'), v.t. to adjudge; 
assign by judicial sentence, or arbi- 
tration ; bestow in consideration of 
merit ; to determine or make an 
award : n. a judgment ; a decision ; a 
sentence ; the decision of arbitrators 
on points submitted to them ; ^ the 
document containing such decision ; 
that which is awarded or assigned. 

ate, arm, ^sk, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon» 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



aware (a-war'), adj. on guard; 
watchful ; apprised ; cognizant ; con- 
scious ; vigilant. 

awash (a-wosh'), adj. & adv. on a 
level with the waves. 

away (a-wa'), adv. absent; at a dis- 
tance ; out of ; off ; in another direc- 
tion ; continuously : inter j. begone ! 
depart ! 

awe (aw), n. reverential fear; the 
feeling or emotion inspired by the 
contemplation of something sub- 
lime ; a sense of profound admira- 
tion and respect ; reverence : v.t. to 
strike or inspire with feelings of rev- 
erential respect or fear ; restrain by 
fear or respect. 

aweather (a-weth'er), adv. on the 
weather side, or toward the wind : 
n. opposed to alee. 

awful (aw'ful), adj. inspiring or im- 
pressing with profound fear or rev- 
erence ; of a dreadful or appalling 
nature ; solemn. 

awfully (-li), adv. in an awful man- 
ner ; excessively. 

awhile (a-hwil'), adv. for a period of 

awk. See auk. 

awkward (awk'werd), adj. wanting 
dexterity ; unskilful ; ungraceful or 
ungainly in shape, movement, or 
manners ; clumsy. 

awl (awl), n. a pointed instrument 
for piercing. 

awn (awn), n. the beard or bristle- 
like appendage of the outer glume of 
wheat, barley, and numerous grasses. 

awning (awn'ing), n. a covering of 
canvas or other cloth stretched upon 
a frame and used as a shelter from 
wind or sun. 

awny (aw'ni), adj. having bristles; 

awoke, p.t. of awake. 

awry (a-ri'), adj. or adv. turned or 
twisted toward one side ; erroneous. 

axal. See axial. 

axe or ax (aks), n. a tool or instru- 
ment of steel, or iron with a steeled 
edge, attached to a handle, used for 
the hewing of timber and chopping 
of wood. 

axial ( aks'i-al ) , adj. pertaining to an 
axis in any sense of the word. 

axially (-li), adv. in the direction of 
an axis. 

axiferous ( ak-sif 'e-rus ) , adj. con- 
sisting of stem or axis alone without 

axiform ( ak'si-f orm ) , adj. in the 
form of an axis. 

axil (ak'sil), n. the angle formed by 
the upper side of an organ or branch 
with the stem or trunk to which it 
is attached. 

axile (ak'sil), adj. pertaining to the 
axis ; situated or lying in the axis. 

axilla (ak-sil'a), n. [pi. axillae ('e)], 
the armpit, or cavity in the junction 
of the arm and shoulder ; the axil of 
a leaf. 

axillar (ak'si-lar), or axillary (-la- 
ri), adj. pertaining to the armpit; 
pertaining to, springing from, or sit- 
uated in, the axil. 

axiom (ak'si-um), n. an indisputable 
self-evident truth ; a proposition em- 
bodying a truth at once obvious and 
incontrovertible ; an established 
principle in an art or science. 

axiomatic (ak-si-o-mat'ik) or axio- 
matical ('i-kal), adj. pertaining 
to, or of the nature of, an axiom. 

axiomatically (-li), adv. in the 
manner, or by use, of accepted truth. 

axis (ak'sis), n. [pi. axes ('sez)], the 
straight line, real or imaginary, 
passing through a body, upon or 
around which such body revolves, or 
is supposed to revolve; a straight 
line drawn through the center of a 
bilateral symmetrical figure, as the 
spinal column ; the central line of 
any symmetrical body ; the stem or 
central column of a plant, round 
which the organs or parts are dis- 
posed ; the central region of a moun- 
tain chain. 

axis (ak'sis), n. the hog-deer of India. 

axle (ak'sl), n. the spindle, or por- 
tion of the axle-tree, which is in- 
serted in the hub of the wheel, and 
on which the wheel revolves. 

axle-box (-boks), n. a bushing in 
the hub of a wheel through which 
the axle passes. 

axle-tree (-tre), n. a bar connecting 
the opposite wheels of a carriage, 
on the rounded ends of which the 
wheels revolve. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


ay or aye (a), adv. always; for ever; 

aye or ay (a or i), adv. or inter j. 
yes ; yea ; even so ; indeed : n. \_pl. 
ayes (iz)], the affirmative votes in 
a parliamentary division ; the mem- 
bers so voting. 

aye-aye (i'i), n. a singular nocturnal 
quadruped, native of Madagascar, 
and allied to the lemurs. 

Ayrshire (ar'shir), n. a fine breed of 
cattle from the county of Ayr, Scot- 
land, noted for their rich milk. 

Azalea (a-za'le-a), n. [pi. azaleas 
(-az)], a genus of plants, belonging 
to the rhododendron tribe, and re- 
markable for their showy flowers. 

azarine (az'a-rin), n. a bright red 
dye obtained from coal-tar. 

azimutli. (az'i-muth), n. an arc of 
the horizon j\itercepted between the 
meridian of a place and the vertical 


circle passing through the center of 
a celestial body. 

azote (az'ot), n. the old name for 

Aztec (az'tek), adj. pertaining to the 
Aztec race. Also written Aztecan. 

azure (azh'ur & a'zhtir), adj. like the 
blue of the sky ; cerulean : n. the 
clear blue of the sky ; any pigment 
of this color ; the blue tint expressed 
in heraldry by horizontal shading. 

azure-stone (azh'ur-ston), n. the 
lapis lazuli, from which genuine ul- 
tramarine is made. 

azurine (azh'tir-in), n. a greyish-blue 

azurite (azh'ti-rit), n. blue carbonate 
of copper ; blue malachite or ches- 
sylite ; lazulite. 

azziiuina (at-si-me'na), a mode of 
decoration by damaskeening in gold 
and silver, &c. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tJiQu. 

baa (ba), v.i. to cry, as a sheep; 
bleat : n. the cry or bleating of a 

Baalism (ba'al-izm), n. the worship 
of Baal ; gross idolatry. 

bab (bab), n. a fishing bob: v.i. [p.t. 
& p.p. babbed, babbing] , to fish 
with a bob. 

baba (ba'ba), n, an Eastern title of 

Babbitt-metal (bab'it-met-al), n. 
an anti-friction alloy of copper, tin, 
and zinc, used in crank and axle 
bearings, &c. 

babble (bab'bl), v.i. to utter indis- 
tinct or imperfect sounds ; prattle ; 
talk childishly ; murmur continu- 
ously : v.t. to utter ; prate ; repeat 
unintelligently ; tell secrets : n. un- 
meaning or foolish talk; a confused 

babbler (bab'ler), n. one who bab- 
bles ; a dog that gives tongue too 
frequently when on scent. 

babe (bab), n. [pi. babes (babz)], an 
infant or young child of either sex. 

babiroussa or babirussa (bab-i- 
roo'sa), n. the wild hog of Eastern 
Asia. Written also babyroussa, 

bablab (bab'la) or babul (ba-bool'), 
n. the rind of the legume of an East 
Indian species of the acacia, con- 
taining gallic acid and tannin. 

baboon (ba-boon'), n. the popular 
name of a large division of monkeys, 
which inhabit Africa and Arabia, 
and are characterized by a long dog- 
like snout, large canine teeth, great 
head, rudimentary tail, large callosi- 
. ties on the hips, and capacious cheek 
pouches ; an epithet of contempt. 

baboonery (ba-boon'er-i), n. [pi. 
babooneries, ( -iz ) ] , a collection of 
baboons ; behavior or conduct like 
that of a baboon. 

baboonisb. (ba-boon'ish), adj. like a 

baboosb or baboucbe (ba-boosh'), 
n. a kind of loose slipper worn in 
Oriental countries. Also written 

babuina (bab-u-i'na), n. a female 

babul. See bablah. 

baby (ba'bi), n. [pi. babies ('biz)], 
an infant of either sex ; a small 
child : adj. pertaining to an infant 
or young child : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
babied, babying], to' treat or 
fondle like a baby or young child; 
to keep dependent. 

baby-farm (ba'bi-farm), n. a place 
where young children are put out 
for nursing. 

babyish, (ba'bi-ish), adj. childish. 

babyism (ba'bi-izm), n. the charac- 
teristics of a baby; a childish man- 
ner of speech. 

Babylonian (bab-i-lo'ni-an), adj. 
pertaining to Babylonia; magnifi- 
cent ; luxurious. Also Babylonish. 

bacca (bak'a), n. a berry; any fleshy 
fruit ; a one-celled fruit with a soft 
outer envelope, and with naked 
seeds immersed in pulp. 

baccalaureate (bak-a-law're-at), n. 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, Sci- 
ence, &c. : adj. pertaining to the 
degree of Bachelor. 

baccarat (bak-a-ra'), w. a French 
card game played between a banker 
and an unlimited number of betters 
with one or more packs of cards. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 





baccate (bak'at) or baccated 
(-ted), adj. having many berries. 

bacchanal (bak'a-nal) or baccba- 
nalian (bak-a-na'li-an), adj. in- 
dulging in or characterized by 
drunken revelry ; drunken : w. a vo- 
tary of Bacchus ; a drunken rev- 
eler ; a drunken feast. 

baccbantic (ba-kan'tik), adj. of or 
resembling a bacchanal ; noisy ; jo- 

bacchic (bak'ik) or baccbical 
('i-kal), adj. pertaining to Bacchus 
or the feasts in his honor ; riotous, 
or mad with drink. 

bachelor (bach'el-er), n. one who 
has taken the lowest university de- 
gree in any faculty ; an unmarried 

bachelor's-buttons (bach'el-erz- 

but'unz), the name popularly 
given to several flowering plants 
whose blossoms somewhat resemble 

bacillaria (bas-i-la'ri-a), n. a genus 
of microscopic diatoms. 

bacillary (bas'i-la-ri), adj. consist- 
ing of bacilli. 

bacillian (ba-sil'i-an), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or of the nature of, a bacil- 

bacillicide (ba-siri-sid),w. an agent 
employed for destroying bacilli. 

bacilliculture ( ba-sil'i-kul-tiir ) , n. 
the culture of bacilli in animal or 
vegetable infusions for scientific re- 

bacillus (ba-sii'us), n. [pi. bacilli 
('i), a genus of microscopic vege- 
table organisms commonly known 
as bacteria, having slender rod-like 
jointed bodies or filaments, and pos- 
sessing the power of constant move- 
ment, present in many ferments, in 
' all stages of putrefaction, and asso- 
ciated with the earliest stages of ma- 
lignant or zymotic disease. 

back or bac (bak), n. a flat-bot- 
tomed ferry-boat, especially one 
adapted for carrying vehicles ; a 
large cistern or vat used by brew- 
ers, &c., for liquids. 

back (bak), n. the hinder part of the 
body in man, or in other animals 
the upper portion ; the whole region 
of the spine, extending from the 

base of the neck to the buttocks ; 
the dorsal region of a fish ; that 
which is opposed to the front ; the 
rear or hinder part of anything; 
the part of a tool or weapon op- 
posed to the edge : adj. lying or 
being behind or in the rear, as to 
^time, situation, or direction ; in a 
backward direction : adv. into or 
toward the rear ; to or toward a for- 
mer or original place, state, or con- 
dition ; to or toward times past ; 
not advancing ; in a state of hin- 
drance or restraint ; in -withdrawal 
or retirement ; away ; in return ; 
again : v.t. to furnish with a back 
or backing ; get upon the back of 
or mount ; second or support ; bet 
or wager ; sign or indorse ; put 
backward or cause to recede : v.L 
to move or go backward. 

back-rent (bak'rent), n. arrears of 
rent ; rent paid after reaping the 
first crop by a tenant entering on 
a lease. 

back-rest (bak'rest), n. a guide at- 
tached to the slide-rest of a lathe, 
and placed in contact with tke work 
to steady it. 

back-settlement (bak-set'1-ment) , outlying or partially reclaimed 
portion of a country beginning to 
be cultivated. 

back-settler (bak-set'ler), n. one 
living in the outlying districts of a 

backbite (bak'bit), v.i. [p.t. backbit, 
p.p. backbit & backbitten, 
backbiting], to slander or speak evil 
of in absence : v.i. to censure absent 

backboard (bak'bord), n. a board to 
support the back ; a thin wooden 
backing used for picture frames, 
mirrors, &c. 

backbone (bak'bon), n. the bone of 
the back ; the vertebral column of 
animals ; that which serves as a 
backbone ; hence, firmness or de- 
cision of character. 

backer (bak'er), n. one who sus- 
tains or abets another ; especially 
one who bets in favor of a person 
or ainmal in a contest. 

backgammon (bak-gam'un), n. a 
game played by two persons upon 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon> 
book; hue, hut; think, t1ien» 





a table or board made for the pur- 
pose, with fifteen pieces each, and 
dice-boxes and dice. 

background (bak'ground),w. ground 
in the rear ; tke distant portion of 
a landscape ; the portion of a pic- 
ture furthest from the spectator ; 
that which is dimly seen ; a subordi- 
nate position ; a place of retirement 
or reserve. 

backhand (bak'hand), n. writing 
which slopes backward or to the 

backkanded (bak'han-ded), adj. 
with the hand turned backward ; 
unfair ; indirect ; ambiguous ; slop- 
ing backward. 

backing (bak'ing), n. something 
placed behind to support or 
strengthen ; aid or support given to 
a person or cause. 

backskeesk or backskisk. See 

backside (bak'sid), n. the hind part 
of anything or that which is op- 
posed to the front ; the hind part of 
an animal. 

backslide (bak-slld'), v.i. [p.t. back- 
slid, backslided, p.p. backslid, back- 
slidden, backslided, backslid- 
ing], to slide back; fall off or away 
from ; apostatize. 

backstair (bak'star) or back- 
stairs ('starz), n. stairs in the 
back part of a house ; stairs for pri- 
vate use : ad), indirect ; underhand ; 
secret ; intriguing. 

backstays (bak'staz), long 
ropes extending from the masthead 
to the side of the ship, slanting a 
little aft, to assist the shrouds in 
supporting the mast. 

backs'ivord (bak'sord), n. a sword 
with one sharp edge ; a stick with 
a basket handle used in the game 
of singlestick. 

back-ward (bak'werd) or back- 
wards (-werdz), adv. with the 
back foremostj toward the back ; 
in a contrary or reverse manner, 
way, or direction ; toward past 
times or events ; from a better to a 
worse state. 

backward (bak'werd), adj. directed 
to the back or rear; unwilling; re- 
luctant ; hesitating ; slow ; behind 

in learning or progress ; behind in 

backwater ( bak'waw-ter ) , n. water 
caused to flow backwards by ob' 
struction of its course ; accumula- 
tion of water overflowing lowlands, 
caused by obstruction ; water held 
back by a dam or weir ; water 
thrown back by the turning of a 
water-wheel or the paddles of a 

backwoods (bak-woodz'), for- 
ests or partially cleared land situ- 
ated far from the centers of popula- 

bacon (ba'kn), n. hog's flesh salted 
or pickled and dried, usually in 

bacteria (bak-te'ri-a), of bac- 

bacteriological (bak-te-ri-6-loj'i- 
kal), adj. of or pertaining to bac- 

bacteriologist (bak-te-ri-ol'o-jist) , 
n. a student of bacteriology. 

bacteriology (bak-te-ri-ol'o-ji), n. 
the scientific investigation or study 
of bacteria. 

bacterioscopy ( bak-te-ri-os'ko-pi ) , 
n. the examination of bacteria by 
the microscope. 

bacterium (bak-te'ri-um), n. [pi. 
bacteria (-a)], a microscopic or- 
ganism of various forms and shapes ; 
a disease germ. 

bad (bad), adj. [compar. worse, su- 
perl, worst], the opposite of good; 
evil ; ill ; wicked ; depraved ; vicious ; 
pernicious ; corrupting ; hurtful ; 
offensive ; noxious, physically or 
morally ; defective ; worthless ; un- 
happy ; unfortunate. 

bad-form (bad'form), n. that which 
is bad ; not very refined ; somewhat 

badderlocks (bad'er-loks), n. a large 
dark green edible seaweed. 

badelaire (ba-de-lar'), n. a curved 
sword used as a heraldic bearing. 

badge (baj), n. a mark, sign, or 
token, or cognizance to denote the 
occupation, allegiance, association, 
or achievements of the person by 
whom it is displayed; the mark or 
token of anything ; a carved orna- 
ment on the stern of a vessel. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon- 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




badger (baj'er), n. a plantigrade car- 
nivorous mammal, of nocturnal hab- 
its ; an artist's brush of badger's 
hair : v.t. to worry or annoy, as a 
badger when baited ; pester ; per- 
sistently assail. 

badger-baiting (baj'er-ba'ting), n. 
a cruel sport formerly practiced of 
assailing a badger placed in a barrel 
with dogs. 

badger-dog (baj'er-dog), n. another 
name for the dachshund. 

badiaga (bad-i-a'ga), n. a seaweed, 
the powder of which is used for re- 
moving discoloration caused by 
. bruises. 

badinage (bad'i-naj & ba-de-nazh'), 
n. light or playful raillery or banter. 

badly (bad'li), adv. wickedly; griev- 
ously ; unskilfully ; defectively ; ill. 

badminton (bad'min-tun), n. an out- 
door game similar to tennis, but 
played with shuttlecocks ; a kind of 

badness (bad'nes), n. the state of 
being wicked or vicious ; depravity. 

baffle (baf'l), v.t. to elude or circum- 
vent by artifice or the interposition 
of obstacles ; foil or check ; defeat ; 
frustrate ; thwart ; subject to indig- 

bag (bag) , n. a sack ; a pouch ; a wal- 
let ; a receptacle for holding any- 
thing; that which is contained in a 
bag, or the result of a day's sport ; 
a sack or receptacle in animal bod- 
ies, containing a fluid or other sub- 
stance ; a definite quantity of cer- 
tain commodities : v.t. to enclose in 
a bag ; distend ; swell ; secure or 
capture, as game ; steal : v.i. to 
bulge ; hang down like a full bag. 

bagasse (ba-gas'), n. sugar-cane 
refuse as delivered from the crush- 
ing mill. 

bagatelle (bag-a-tel'), n. a trifle; a 
game played on a nine-holed board, 
baized and cushioned, with a cue and 
nine balls. 

baggage ( bag'a j ) , n. the tents, cloth- 
ing, utensils, &c., of an army or ex- 
peditionary force on the march ; the 
trunks, bags, and other impedimenta 
or baggage of a traveler : n. an im- 
moral woman ; a coquettish or frol- 
icsome girl. 

baggala (bag'a-la), n. Arab trading 
vessel with two masts. 

bagging (bag'ing), n. the act of put- 
ting into bags ; coarse cloth or other 
material used for bags ; filtration 
through canvas bags. 

baggy (bag'i), adj. having a loose or 
flabby appearance ; swelled or puffed 

bagnio (ban'yo), n. a bath-house; a 
brothel ; an oriental prison. 

bagpipe (bag'pip), n. a shrill-toned 
musical instrument, consisting of a 
leathern wind-bag from which air is 
forced by the performer's elbow into 
pipes, one (the chanter) giving the 
melody. [Commonly used in pi.} 

bah. (ba), inter j. an exclamation ex- 
pressing incredulous contempt or 

bail (bal), v.t. to set free or liberate 
from arrest on security for reappear- 
ance ; to deliver, as goods, in trust, 
on contract expressed or implied 
that the person entrusted shall re- 
turn or account for the same : n. the 
person or persons who provide se- 
curity for the release of a prisoner ; 
the security tendered, or accepted. 

bail (bal), v.t. to free from water by 
dipping; to lade out with a bucket 
or other utensil, as in a boat : n. 
a bent or arched handle of a pail or 
kettle ; a half-hoop supporting the 
cover or tilt of a wagon ; one of the 
two small sticks, 4 in. long, which 
are laid across the tops of cricket 

bailee (ba-le'), n. the person to whom 
goods are committed in trust. 

bailer. See bailor. 

bailiff (ba'lif), n. a sheriff's officer 
who serves processes, &c. ; any 
subordinate civil officer ; an overseer 
or under-steward on an estate. 

bailixcick (ba'li-wik), n. the district 
within which a bailiff has jurisdic- 

bailment (bal'ment), n. a delivery 
of goods in trust to another ; the 
action of becoming surety for one in 

bailor (ba'ler) or bailer (ba'ler), 
n. one who delivers goods to another 
in bailment. 

bairn (barn), n. a child [Scotch]. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




halt (bat), v.t. to harass or provoke, 
as by the setting on of dogs ; worry ; 
torment, for sport ; annoy persistent- 
ly ; prepare a hook, trap, or snare 
by covering it v^ith food or other 
substance ; give food and drink to 
upon a journey : v.i. to take food or 
drink upon a journey : n. any sub- 
stance used to entice or allure fish 
or other animals with a view to cap- 
ture ; an allurement ; temptation ; 
refreshment taken on a journey. 

baize (baz), n. a coarse woolen stuff, 
with a nap on one side. 

bake (bak), v.t. to cook or prepare 
food by subjection to dry heat in a 
closed place, as an oven ; to dry and 
harden by heat : v.i. to do the work 
of baking ; become hard by heat : n. 
the result of baking, as a clam bake. 

baker (ba'ker), n. one whose busi- 
ness is to make bread, biscuits, &c. 

bakery (ba'ker-i), n. [pi. bakeries 
-iz)], a place used for bread-mak- 
ing ; a baker's shop. 

baking (ba'king), n. the quantity of 
anything baked at the same time ; a 

bakshisk, bakkskisk, or bak- 
skeesk (bak'shesh), n. an Eastern 
term for a present or gratuity. 

balance (bal'ans), n. an instrument 
for determining the weight of 
bodies ; a pair of scales ; a steel- 
yard ; a spring balance ; the act of 
weighing mentally ; equilibrium ; 
equipoise ; equality ; an equality be- 
tween the two sides of an account ; 
the excess shown on either side ; the 
sum or weight necessary to make 
two unequal sums or weights equal : 
v.t. to weigh ; compare ; bring to a 
state of equipoise ; keep in equilib- 
rium ; poise ; equal or make equal ; 
counterbalance ; adjust or settle ; to 
examine and compare accounts : v.i. 
to have equal weight ; be in equi- 
poise ; be employed in the adjust- 
ment of accounts. 

balance of trade '(bal'ans of trad) , 
n. the difference between the imports 
and exports of a country. 

balanee-reef (bal'ans-ref), w. a reef- 
band crossing a sail diagonally. 

balance-skeet (bal'ans-shet), n. sl 

statement of the assets and liabili- 
ties of a business. 

balance- wkeel (bal'ans-hwel), w. a 
wheel in a watch chronometer) 
which regulates the beats. 

balancer (bal'an-ser), n. one who, 
or that which, keeps anything in 
equilibrium ; an acrobat : pi. the or- 
gans placed under the wings of cer- 
tain insects to balance the body. 

balata (ba-la'ta), n. the dried gum 
of the bully-tree, similar to india- 
rubber, and used for insulating elec- 
tric wires. 

balayeuse bal-a-yez'), n. plaited 
muslin or lace inserted at the bot- 
tom of a dress to protect it froEb 
the ground. 

balconet (bal-ko-nef), n. a slightly 
projecting low ornamental railing 
to a door or window. 

balconied (bal'ko-nid), adj. having a 
projecting exterior platform or in- 
terior gallery. 

balcony (bal'ko-ni), n. [pi. balco- 
nies (-niz)], a platform or gallery 
projecting from the wall of a build- 
ing, enclosed by a balustrade or 

bald (bawld), adj. without the natu- 
ral or usual covering to the head or 
summit ; unadorned ; bare ; literal ; 
undisguised ; having a white spot or 
patch on the head ; bald-faced. 

bald-kead (bawld'hed), n. a man 
bald on the head. 

balder dask (bawl'der-dash), n.^ a 
nonsensical jumble of words ; silly 
talk or writing; a worthless mix- 

baldric or baldrick (bawl'drik), n. 
a broad belt, often richly orna- 
mented, worn round the waist, or 
■ over one shoulder and across the 

bale (bal), n. a large bundle or pack- 
age of goods : v.t. to make up into 
a bale or bales ; to lade out as water. 

bale (bal), n. woe; calamityj mis- 

baleen (ba-len'), n. whalebone in its 
natural condition; the horny elastic 
material fringing the jaws of right 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; .mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon* 
book ; hue, hut ; think, ^Tien. 




liale-fire (bal'fir), n. a beacon or 
signal-fire ; a bonfire ; a funeral 

baleful (bal'fool), adj. replete with 
deadly oi* malign influence ; full of 
woe ; direful ; predicative of disas- 

balefully (-li), adv. calamitously; 

balise or balize (ba-lez'), n. a sea- 
mark or beacon, consisting of a 
pole or buoy surmounted by a flag 
or other object. 

balk or baulk (bawk), n. a strip 
or ridge of land left unplowed ; a 
thick heavy piece of timber ; a bar- 
rier or check ; frustration or disap- 
pointment : v.t. to thwart, check, or 
disappoint : v.i. to stop short, or 
swerve; to signify the position of 
herring or pilchard shoals from a 
height, and indicate their position 
to the fishermen. 

ball ( bawl ) , w. a round body ; any 
mass resembling a sphere ; a spheri- 
cal body used for play ; a bullet ; any 
roundish part of the body ; a game 
played with a ball ; the globe or 
earth : v.t. to make into a ball : v.i. 
to form or gather into a ball, ball- 
bearing (bawl'bar-ing), n. a bear- 
ing containing loose balls of metal 
to reduce friction. 

ball (bawl), n. a dance; a social as- 
sembly of persons of both sexes for 
the purpose of dancing. 

ballad (bal'ad), n. a short narrative 
poem, adapted for reciting or sing- 

ballast (barast), n. weighty mate- 
rial carried by a ship to ensure sta- 
bility ; sand carried in the car of a 
balloon to steady it ; gravel or rub- 
ble filling the space between the 
sleepers of a railway ; that which 
imparts stability to the character: 
v.t. to place ballast in or on ; im- 
part steadiness to. 

ballastag-e (bal'as-taj), n. a toll 
paid for leave to take ballast. 

ballet (bal'a), n. sl theatrical repre- 
sentation in which a story is told, 
and actions, characters, and pas- 
sions represented by gestures, ac- 
companied by music and dancing ; 

the company of persons who per- 
form the ballet. 

ballistic (bal-lis'tik), adj. pertain- 
ing to the scientific construction 
and use of projectiles. 

ballistics (bal-is'tiks), n. the science 
of the motion of projectiles. 

ballon d'essai (ba-long da-se'), a 
balloon used to test the direction of 
air currents ; hence a feeler to test 
public opinion. 

balloon (bal-loon'), n. a large bag 
of prepared silk or other material, 
which, when inflated by hydrogen 
gas or heated air, ascends and floats 
in the atmosphere ; a round vessel 
with a short neck used in distilla- 

balloon-jib (bal-loon'jib), n. a tri- 
angular sail used by yachts in a 
slight breeze. 

ballooning (bal-loon'ing), n. the art 
or practice of managing balloons or 
making balloon ascents. 

balloonist (bal-loo'nist), n. one who 
makes or ascends in a balloon ; an 

ballot (bal'ot), n. a ball, ticket, or 
paper by which a vote is registered ; 
the system of secret voting by the 
use of balls, tickets, or papers ; elec- 
tion by secret vote ; also the total 
number of votes cast or recorded : 
v.i. to vote or decide by secret vote. 

balm (bam), n. the oily aromatic 
exudation of certain trees or shrubs, 
used for healing or soothing ; bal- 
sam ; anything which heals, or that 
soothes pain ; an odoriferous tree or 
shrub yielding balm. 

balm of gilead (of gil'e-ad), n. the 
name of various kinds of fragrant 
resins, as that of the evergreen tere- 
binth tree of Arabia. 

balmily (bam'i-li), adv. in a sooth- 
ing manner ; fragrantly. 

balminess (-nes), n. the state or 
quality of being soothing or refresh- 
ingly fragrant. 

balmoral (bal-mor'al), adj. & n. the 
name given to various strong arti- 
cles of dress, as a petticoat, or lace 
up boots. 

balmy (bam'i), adj. having the quali- 
ties of balm ; soft ; fragrant ; re- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




balsam (bawl'sam), n. an oily, aro- 
matic, resinous substance obtained 
from certain trees or shrubs, and 
used medicinally or in perfumery ; 
balm ; the name applied to several 
trees, shrubs, or plants yielding bal- 
sam, as the balsam-tree ; anything 
soothing or healing. 

balsamic (bawl-sam'ik) or bal- 
samical (-al), adj. having the 
qualities of, or yielding, balsam ; 
soft; soothing; healing. 

baluster (bal'us-ter), n. a small col- 
umn or pilaster to support the rail 
of a parapet or balustrade. 

balustrade (bal-us-trad'), n. a series 
of small columns or pilasters, sur- 
mounted by a top-rail or coping, 
serving as a parapet or protective 
railing, staircase, &c. 

balzarine (bal'za-rin), n. a dress 
fabric of v^ool and cotton. 

bam (bam), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bammed, bamming], to bamboozle; 
cheat ; v^heedle : n. an imposition ; 
a cheat ; a hoax. 

bambino (bam-be'no), n. [pi. bam- 
bini ('ne)], a child or baby; a fig- 
ure of the infant Christ v^rapped in 
swaddling clothes : exhibited in 
many Roman Catholic churches 
from Christmas to Epiphany. 

bamboo (bam-boo'), n. the name of 
certain tropical grasses having thick- 
jointed stems of exceeding hardness, 
and attaining to a height of from 20 
to 120 ft. ; a stick or cane : v.t. to 
flog w^ith a bamboo rod. 

bamboozle (bam-boo'zl),'y.l to hoax ; 
deceive by trickery ; mystify ; hum- 
bug : v.i. to practice cheating. 

ban (ban), n. in feudal times a public 
proclamation, or summons to arms ; 
an edict of proscription or interdic- 
tion ; prohibition ; excommunica- 
tion ; curse; anathema: v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. banned; banning], to 
curse ; to interdict or prohibit ; to 
place under a ban. 

ban (ban), n. the title of the gov- 
ernor of Croatia and Slavonia as 
viceroy of the Austrian emperor. 

banana (ba-na'na), n. a tropical her- 
baceous plant, closely allied to the 
plantain ; its soft, luscious fruit, 
which furnishes a nutritious and 

important article of food in tropi- 
cal countries. 

banate (ban'at), n. the territory 
ruled by a ban : the office itself. 

band (band), n. that which binds to- 
gether ; that which connects ; that 
which encircles, supports, or re- 
strains ; a fillet ; strap ; tie ; shackle 
or fetter ; collar ; ligature ; a driving 
belt ; a company of persons united 
by a common object ; a body of sol- 
diers ; a company of musicians form- 
ing an orchestra, a military or other 
band : v.t. to unite in a troop, com- 
pany, or confederacy : v.i. to asso- 
ciate or unite for some common pur- 

bandage (ban'daj), n. a roller of 
cotton or other material used in 
dressing and binding up wounds, 
&c. ; a band or ligature : v.t. to dress 
or bind with a bandage. 

bandala (ban-da'la), n. manila white 

bandana or bandanna (ban-dan'a), 
n. a large silk or cotton handker- 
chief, dyed red, blue, or yellow, with 
white or yellow spots ; a style of 
calico printing in imitation of the 

bandbox (band'boks), n. a light box 
of pasteboard, &c., for holding bon- 

bandeau (ban-d5'), n. [pi. bandeaux 
(-doz')], a ribbon worn over the 

banded (ban'ded), p.adj. allied; 
confederated ; having bands ; marked 
by stripes of different color or ma- 
terial ; having a band differing in 
tincture from the garb. 

bandelet. Same as bandlet. 

banderilla (ban-de-rel'ya), n. a dart, 
with a banderole attached, used in 
bull fights to exasperate the bull. 

banderole (ban'de-rol) or bande- 
rol (-rol), n. a little flag or stream- 
er ; a small flag carried at the head 
of a lance or mast. 

bandicoot (ban'di-koot), n. a large 
rat, native of India and Ceylon, 
very destructive to rice fields and 
gardens ; the name given to rat-like 
marsupials of several species found 
in Australia and Tasmania. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booOf 
hook; hue, hut; think, th^n. 




bandit (ban'dit), n. [pi, bandits 
('dits) & banditti (-dit'i)], an out- 
law ; a brigand ; a robber ; a high- 

bandlet (band'let), n. a small band; 
a little band or flat molding encir- 
cling a column. 

bandog (ban'dog), n. a large fierce 
kind of dog usually kept chained ; a 

bandoleer (ban-do-ler'), n. a broad 
leather belt, worn over the shoulder 
and across the breast, for holding 

bandoline (ban'do-lin), n. a gummy 
perfumed substance used for im- 
parting a gloss to the hair or for 
fixing it in any position. 

bandore (ban-dor' & ban'dor), n. an 
ancient stringed instrument resem- 
bling a zither. 

bandsaw (band'saw), n. an endless 
steel saw running on pulleys. 

bandy (ban'di), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. ban- 
died, bandying], to throw 
or beat to and fro, as a ball in 
play ; toss from one to another ; 
give and take : v.i. to contend ; 
strive : n. a club bent at the end 
for striking a ball ; a hockey-stick ; 
a game played with such a club, 
commonly called hockey : adj. bent ; 
having a bend or crook outward. 

bandy (ban'di), n. a kind of cart or 
buggy used in India, drawn by oxen. 

bane (ban), oi. that which causes 
death, ruin, or destruction, hence a 
deadly poison, vice, or sin ; a dis- 
ease (rot) in sheep. 

baneful (ban'fool), adj. poisonous; 

banefully (-li), adv. in a pernicious 
manner ; destructively. 

bang (bang), v.t. to beat, as with a 
club or cudgel ; thump ; handle 
roughly ; produce a loud sound by 
or from (as, bang the door) ; sur- 
pass or excel : v.i. to make a loud 
noise ; thump violently : n. a heavy 
blow ; a loud, sudden noise : adv. 
with a sudden or violent blow ; ab- 

bang (bang), n. [pi. bangz], hair cut 
straight across the forehead so as 
to form a fringe ; false hair so worn : 

v.t. to cut the hair across the fore- 
head so as to form a fringe. 

bangle (bang'gl), n. an ornamental 
ring w^orn upon the wrists and 
ankles in India and Africa ; a ring- 

banian or banyan (ban-yan'), n. a 
Hindu trader or merchant ; a Ben- 
gali native who manages money af- 
fairs for Europeans ; a loose gown 
for men, like that worn by the Hin- 

banian-tree (-tre), n. the Indian 
fig-tree, which spreads over a large 
area by sending down shoots from 
its branches ; these take root and 
become new trunks. 

banish, (ban'ish), v.t. to condemn to 
exile ; expel from the country as a 
punishment ; drive away ; dispel from 
the mind. 

banishment (ban'ish-ment), n. the 
act of expelling or driving away ; 
the state of being expelled. 

banister or bannister (ban'is-ter), 
n. corrupt forms of baluster. 

banjo (ban 'jo), n. a musical instru- 
ment, of from five to nine strings, 
having a neck like a guitar, and a 
circular body covered in front with 
tightly-stretched parchment. 

banjoist (ban'jo-ist), n. a performer 
on the banjo. 

bank (bangk), n. a heap, mound, or 
ridge of earth ; any steep acclivity ; 
an elevation or rising ground be- 
neath the sea or at the mouth of a 
river, forming a shoal or shallow ; a 
bench for rowers ; a tier of oars : 
v.t. to enclose, defend, or fortify 
with a bank ; pile or heap up. 

bank (bangk), n. an establishment 
for the custody, loan, exchange, or 
issue of money ; the office of a bank- 
ing company ; in certain games of 
chance, the fund held against the 
table : v.t. to deposit money in a 
bank : v.i. to have an account with a 

bank-bill (bangk'bil), n. a note or a 
bill of exchange of a bank payable 
on demand or at a future specified 

bank-book (bangk-book), n. the 
pass-book kept by a depositor, in 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; htie, hut; think, then. 




which a cashier of the bank enters 
the debits and credits. 

bank-credit (bangk-kred'it), n. the 
amount a person, on giving proper 
security, is allowed to draw upon a 

bank-note (bangk'not), n. a promis- 
sory note issued by a legally author- 
ized bank, payable on demand, and 
forming part of the money currency. 

bankable ( bang'ka-bl ) , adj. receiv- 
able by a bank. 

banker (bang'ker), n. one who keeps 
a bank ; one who traffics in money, 
receives and remits money, nego- 
tiates bills of exchange, &c. ; a ves- 
sel employed in the cod-fishery on 
the banks of Newfoundland ; the 
stone bench on which masons cut 
and square their work ; a ditcher. 

banking (bang'king), n. the act of 
raising a mound or bank ; fishing on 
the banks of Newfoundland; the 
loading of coals at the pit's mouth. 

bankrupt (bangk'rupt), n. a person 
legally declared to be unable to dis- 
charge his liabilities ; an insolvent 
debtor : adj. unable to meet one's 
obligations ; insolvent : v.t. to make 
or render insolvent : v.i. to exhaust 
one's financial credit; become insol- 

bankruptcy fbangk'rupt-si), n. [pi. 
bankruptcies (-siz)], the state of 
being legally insolvent, or unable to 
pay all debts ; failure in trade. 

banner (ban'er), n. a piece of cloth 
or silk attached to a pole or staff, 
and usually worked with same device 
or motto, heraldic or emblematical ; 
an ensign, standard, or flag of a 
country, state, or order. 

bannock (ban'uk), n. a thick cake 
made of oatmeal, barley-meal, or 
pease-meal, and baked on an iron 
plate or griddle. 

banns (banz), n. pi. the proclama- 
tion in church of an intended mar- 

banquet (bang'kwet), n. a sumptu- 
ous entertainment or feast : v.t. to 
treat with a feast or rich entertain- 
ment : v.i. to regale one's self sump- 

banquet or banquette (bangrkef), 
n. a bank running along the inside 

of a parapet, on which soldiers 
stand to fire upon the enemy ; the 
footway of a bridge when raised 
above the carriage-way ; a side-walk. 

banskee (ban'she), benshie (ben'- 
she), or benshi ('she), n. a kind 
of female fairy who, according to 
the belief of the peasantry of Ire- 
land, and some parts of Scotland, 
attaches herself to a particular 
house, and foretells the death of any 
member of the family by an appear- 

bantam (ban'tam), n. a diminutive 
breed of domestic fowl : adj. pertain- 
ing to the bantam ; diminutive ; con- 

banter (ban'ter), v.t. to rail at good- 
humoredly ; attack jestingly ; make 
fun of : n. humorous raillery. 

bantling (bant'ling), n. a young 

Bantu (ban'tti), n. a term sometimes 
used to designate the languages of 
South Africa. 

banyan or banyan-tree. See ban- 

baobab (ba'o-bab & ba'o-bab), n. an 
African tree of huge size, called the 
sour-gourd, or the cream-of-tartar 
tree, largely used as an article of 
food by the natives. 

baptism (bap'tizm), n. the applica- 
tion of water by an authorized ad- 
ministrator, in the name of the Holy 
Trinity, to a person, by sprinkling, 
effusion, or immersion, constituting 
the sacrament or rite by which he 
is initiated into the visible church of 

baptismal (bap-tiz'mal), adj. per- 
taining to the ceremonial application 
of water or initiatory rite of the 
Christian Church. 

baptismally (-li), adv. in the man- 
ner of, or by means of, baptism. 

Baptist ( bap'tist ) , n. one of a Chris-, 
tian denomination who baptize adult 
believers only, and who maintain the 
necessity for immersion. 

baptistery (bap'tis-ter-i), or bap- 
tistry (-tri), n. [pi. baptisteries 
(-iz), -tries (-triz)], a building or 
portion of a building in which the 
rite of baptism is administered. 

baptize (bap-tiz'), v.t. to administer 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booii» 
book ; hue, hut ; think, ^^en. 



the rite of baptism to ; admit to the 
Christian Church by the ceremonial 
application of water ; christen. 

bar (bar), n. a piece of wood, metal, 
or other solid matter, long in pro- 
portion to its thickness ; anything 
which impedes or obstructs ; a bank 
of sand, gravel, &c., obstructing 
navigation at the entrance to a har- 
bor or mouth of a river ; the railing 
enclosing the space occupied by 
counsel in courts of justice ; the 
place in court where prisoners are 
stationed for trial, or sentence ; the 
members of the legal profession col- 
lectively, entitled to plead in court ; 
any tribunal ; the portion of a hotel, 
&c., where liquors are served out ; a 
band or stripe ; a line drawn ver- 
tically through the staff of a piece 
of music, dividing it into equal 
measures of time ; the space and 
notes enclosed by two such lines ; an 
ordinary, similar to, but narrower 
than, a fess, and filing one-fifth of 
the heraldic field : v.t. [pt. & p.p. 
barred: barring], to fasten 
with a bar ; to hinder ; obstruct ; ex- 

barb (barb), n. that which resembles 
a beard in lower animals ; a hair or 
bristle ending in a double hook ; the 
sharp point projecting backwards 
from the extremity of an arrow, fish- 
hook, &c. : v.t. to furnish with barbs. 

barb (barb), n. a horse of the Bar- 
bary breed, remarkable for speed, 
endurance, and docility ;' a short- 
beaked pigeon of a breed originally 
brought from Barbary. 

barbarian (bar'ba'ri-an), n. a for- 
eigner ; a man in a rude, savage 
state ; an uncivilized person ; a cruel, 
savage, brutal man : adj. pertaining 
to savages ; rude ; uncivilized ; inhu- 

barbaric (bar-bar'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to or characteristic of savage or 
uncivilized people ; rude ; savage. 

barbarism (bar'ba-rizm), n. an of- 
fense against purity of style or lan- 
guage ; an uncivilized state or condi- 
tion ; a cruel or barbarous action ; 
an outrage. 

barbarity (bar-bar'i-ti), n. [pi. bar- 
ate, arm. 

barities (-tiz)], the state of being 
uncivilized ; cruelty ; inhumanity ; an 
act of savage cruelty. 

barbarize (bar'ba-riz), v.i. to adopt 
a foreign or barbarous mode of 
speech : v.t. to make barbarous. 

barbarans (biir'ba-rus), adj. uncivil- 
ized ; rude and ignorant ; contrary 
to pure idiom ; savage ; cruel ; fero- 
cious ; inhuman ; wild. 

barbate (bar 'bat), or barbated 
Cba-ted), adj. bearded; furnished 
with long .^nd weak hairs. 

barbecue (bar'be-ku), n. a frame on 
which all kinds of meat or fish are 
roasted or smoke-dried ; the carcass 
of an ox, hog, &c., roasted whole ; 
a social or political entertainment 
at which animals are roasted whole, 
with appropriate surroundings; v.t, 
to dress and roast whole. 

barbel (bar'bel), n- a slender vermi- 
form process appended to the lips of 
certain fishes ; a European fresh- 
water fish, having its upper ja^ 
furnished with four barbels. 

barber (bar'ber), n. one whose occu- 
pation is to shave the beard and cut 
and dress the hair : v.t. to shave and 
dress the hair of. 

barbette (bar-bet'), n. the platform 
or breastwork of a fortification, 
from which cannon may be fired 
over a parapet instead of through 
the embrasures. 

barbican (bar'bi-kan), n. a tower or 
advanced work defending the en- 
trance to a castle or city. 

barbotine (bar'bo-tin), n. kaolin 
clay, thinly mixed, used for orna- 
menting pottery. 

barbule (bar'btil), n. a very minute 

barcarole or barcarolle (bar'ka- 
rol), n. a simple song or melody 
sung by Venetian gondoliers ; a piece 
of music in imitation of such a 

bard (bard), w. a poet and singer. 

bard or barde (bard), n. one of the 
ornaments and housings of a horse ; 
one of the pieces of defensive ar- 
mor of a mediaeval war-horse. 

bardic (bar'dik), adj. pertaining to 
bards or to their poetry. 

at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, ixCrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




bardisb. (bar'dish), adj. pertaining 
to, or characteristic of, bards. 

bardisxa (bar'dizm), n. the methods, 
maxims, and sentiments of bards. 

bare (bar), adj. naked ; with the head 
uncovered ; unconcealed ; simple ; 
unfurnished ; threadbare ; poor j 
mere : v.t. to divest of covering. 

barefaced (bar'fast), adj. with the 
face uncovered ; undisguised ; shame- 
less ; impudent. 

barege (ba-razh'), n. thin gauze- 
like fabric, usually of silk and wor- 

bargain (bar'gan), n. an agreement 
or contract between two or more 
parties with reference to the sale 
or transfer of property ; a compact 
or pledge mutually agreed upon ; the 
thing purchased or stipulated for ; 
that which is acquired or sold at a 
low price ; an advantageous pur- 
chase : vA. to make a contract or 
agreement : v.t. to sell or transfer 
for a consideration. 

bargainee ( bar-ga-ne' ) , n. the party 
to whom a bargain and sale is 

bargainer or bargainor (bar'ga- 
ner), n. one who stipulates or con- 
tracts to sell or transfer to another 
for a consideration. 

barge (barj), n. a flat-bottomed ves- 
sel employed in loading and unload- 
ing ships, and for the conveyance of 
goods on rivers and canals ; a vessel 
of ^ state. 

barilla (ba-ril'a), n. an impure car- 
bonate and sulphate of soda im- 
ported from Spain and the Levant, 
and obtained from the alkaline ashes 
of certain plants. 

barillet (bar'il-let), n. the cylindric- 
al case containing the mainspring 
of a watch. 

baritone. See barytone. 

baritiHi (ba'ri-um), n. one of the ele- 
mentary metals. 

bark (bark), v.i. to utter a sharp, 
short sound, as the cry of a dog ; to 
cough: n. the sound or cry emitted 
. by dogs. 

bark (bark), n. the exterior layer or 
rind of woody Bt&ms or trunks ; Pe- 
ruvian bark : v.t. to remove by strip- 

bark or barque (bark), w. a three- 
masted vessel having the fore- and 
main-mast square-rigged, ' and the 
mizzen-mast fore-and-aft rigged. 

bar kan tine or barkentine (bar'- 
kan-ten), n. a three-masted vessel 
having the fore-mast square-rigged, 
and the main- and mizzen-mast 
fore-and-aft or schooner-rigged. 
Also barquantine. 

barking (bar 'king), n. a sharp sound 
like that of a dog; coughing: n. the 
process of stripping bark from trees ; 
the process of tanning leather and of 
dyeing with bark. 

barky (bar'ki), adj. consisting of, or 
covered with, bark. 

barley (bar'li), n. the grain grown 
and used chiefly for malting; the 
plant which yields the grain. 

barley-corn (bar'li-korn), n. a grain 
of barley ; formerly a measure of 
length equal to the third part of 
an inch. 

barm (barm), n. the foam rising 
upon beer or other malt liquors 
when fermenting, and used as leaven 
in bread-making; yeast. 

barmy (barm'i), adj. containing or 
consisting of yeast ; frothy. 

barn (barn), n. a covered building for 
the storage of grain or other farm 

barn-owl (biirn'oul), n. the white 
or screech owl. 

barnacle (bar'na-kl), n. a species of 
wild goose, called barnacle or ber- 
nicle goose v a cirriped crustacean, 
found adhering in groups or clusters 
to rocks or to the bottoms of ships, 
&c. ; an ofiicial who holds tenacious- 
ly to his post : an instrument 
placed on a horse's nose to restrain 
him while being shod, bled, or 
dressed ; a pair of spectacles. 

barogram (bar'o-gram), n. the 
record traced by the barograph. 

barograph (bar'6-graf ), n. an in- 
strument recording automatically 
variations in atmospheric pressure. 

barology (ba-rol'o-gi), n. the science 
of weight or gravity. 

barometer (ba-rom'e-ter), n. an in- 
strument for measuring the weight 
or pressure of the atmosphere : used 
for indicating the various changes 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon^ 
book; htie, hut; think, th^n. 




of weather, or to determine the alti- 
tude of a particular place. 

barometric (bar-o-met'rik), or bar- 
ometrical ('ri-kal), adj. pertain- 
ing to, made with, or indicated by, 
a barometer. 

barometrically (-li), adv. by means 
of a barometer. 

baron (bar'un), n. the titJe of an 
English peer of the lowest rank, 
next below a viscount ; formerly the 
title of the judges of the Court of 

baronage (bar'un-aj), n. the whole 
body of barons ; the dignity or rank 
of a baron. 

baroness (bar'un-es), n. a baron's 
wife ; a lady holding a baronial title 
in her own right. 

baronet (bar'un-et), n. a title of 
hereditary rank or degree of honor 
next below a baron and above a 

baronetage (bar'un-et-aj), n. the 
collective body of baronets ; the dig- 
nity or rank of a baronet. 

baronetcy (bar'un-et-si), n. the title 
and dignity of a baronet. 

baronial (bar-o'ni-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to a baron or a barony. 

baronism (bar'un-izm), n. the feudal 
system of government by barons. 

barony (bar'un-i), n. [pi. baronies 
(-iz)], the rank or dignity of a 
baron ; the domain or lordship of a 
baron; a territorial division in Ire- 
land, corresponding nearly to the 
English hundred ; a large freehold 
estate in Scotland. 

baroque (ba-rok'), adj. grotesque; in 
bad taste. 

baroscope (bar'6-skop), n. an in- 
strument for indicating variations in 
the pressure of the atmosphere with- 
out aci:ual measurement of its 
weight; a storm- or weather-glass. 

barouche (ba-roosh'), n. a roomy, 
four-wheeled carriage with a folding 
or falling top. 

barquantine. See barkantine. 

barque. See bark. 

barracan (bar'a-kan), n. a thick 
strong stuff made of camel's hair. 

barrack (bar'ak), n. a large build- 
ing, or series of buildings, for the 
lodgment of soldiers and officers ; a 

building or collection of huts within 
an enclosure in which a body of 
men are lodged [generally in the 

barratry (bar'a-tri), n. the practice 
of vexatiously inciting and encourag- 
ing to law-suits or litigation ; the 
committal by a ship's master, officer, 
or mariner, of an act of fraud, or 
breach of duty, whereby the owners, 
freighters, or insurers of the vessel 
are defrauded or injured. 

barred (bard), p.adj. furnished with 
bars ; obstructed ; secured ; striped. 

barrel (bar'el), n. a vessel or cask, 
cylindrical in form, bulging in the 
middle, made of wooden staves bound 
with hoops, and having flat ends or 
heads; the quantity which a barrel 
should contain ; anything resembling 
a barrel in shape; a drum or cylin- 
der ; a metallic tube. 

barrel (bar'el), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bar- 
reled, barreling], to put or 
pack in a barrel. 

barren (bar'en), adj. incapable of 
producing its kind; unproductive; 
unfruitful; sterile; lacking; devoid; 
profitless; empty; n. an unproduc- 
tive tract of land. 

barricade (bar-ri-kad'), n. a fortifi- 
cation constructed in haste of such 
materials as are nearest to hand, 
and which will serve to obstruct the 
progress or attack of an enemy, or 
shield a besieged party; any bar or 
obstruction : v.t. to obstruct or stop 
up; fortify or enclose by a barri- 

barrier (bar'i-er), n. anything which 
hinders or obstructs ; an obstacle to 
progress, approach, or attack; an 
enclosing fence or boundary wall ; a 
limit or boundary. 

barrier-reef (-ref), n. a reef of 
coral encircling an island, or skirt- 
ing the mainland, and enclosing ar. 
open channel or lagoon. 

barring (bar'ing), as prep, ex- 
cepting ; leaving out of account. 

barrister (bar'is-ter), n. in England, 
a member of the legal profession 
qualified to plead at the bar ; in 
Scotland, an advocate; counselor at 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; bo6n> 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




barrow (bar'6), n. a frame covered 
with boards, and furnished with 
handles at both ends, or with a pair 
of wheels and handles or shafts at 
one end ; a hand-barrow ; a shal- 
low box, with a single wheel and 
handles and supports ; a wheel-bar- 
row ; a mound of earth or heap of 
stones forming an ancient or pre- 
historic grave, constructed in various 

bar-shot (bar'shot), n. double- 
headed shot. 

barter (bar'ter), v.i. to traffic or 
trade by exchanging one commodity 
for another : v.t. to give in ex- 
change : n. trafficking by exchange 
of commodities ; the thing given in 

bartizan, (bar'ti-zan), n. a small 
overhanging turret, with loopholes 
or embrasures, projecting from tLe 
top of a tower or wall. 

barwise (bar'wiz), adv. horizontally. 

barivood (bar'wood), n. a red dye- 

baryta (ba-ri'ta), n. the oxide of 

barytes (ba-ri'tez), n. the native sul- 
phate of barium. Also called heavy- 

barytic (ba-rit'ik), adj. pertaining 
to or containing baryta. 

barytone or baritone (bar'i-ton), 
adj. intermediate between bass and 
tenor, as a male voice or instru- 
ment : n. a person with a voice hav- 
ing this range : adj. having the last 
syllable unaccented : v.t. to leave the 
last syllable unaccented. 

barytone-clef (-kief), n. the F clef 
on the middle line of the bass staff. 

basal (bas'al), adj. pertaining to or 
forming the base ; fundamental : n. 
a basal part. 

basalt (ba-sawlt' & bas'awlt), n. an 
igneous rock of greenish black coloi, 
and composed of feldspar^ augite, 
titaniferous iron, and frequently 

basaltic (ba-sawl'tik), adj. pertain- 
ing to or formed of basalt. 

basanite (bas'a-nit), n. a black sili- 
ceous rock or jasper ; Lydian stone ; 

bas-bleu (ba-ble'), n. a blue-stock- 
ing ; a literary woman. 

bascule (bas'kul), n. a mechanical 
arrangement on the see-saw prin- 
ciple by which the lowering of one 
end raises the other. 

base (bas), adj. worthless; spurious; 
of mean spirit ; morally abject ; 
deep or grave in sound (commonly 

base (bas), n. the part of a thing on 
which it rests ; a foundation or 
groundwork ; that which combines 
with an acid to form a salt ; the line 
or surface forming that part of a 
figure OJH which it is supposed to 
stand ; a fortified line from which 
the operations of an army proceed; 
a starting place ; the lower part of a 
heraldic field: v.t. to lay a founda- 

baseball (bas'bawl), a game of ball 
played by nine on a side; ball used 
in playing baseball. 

base-born (bas'born), adj. born out 
of wedlock ; of low or mean paren- 
tage ; mean. 

baseman (bas'man), n. [pi. basemen 
('men)], a player placed at base- 
ball at the first, secbnd, and third 
bases respectively. 

basement (bas'ment), n. the lowest 
part of a structure ; the lowest story 
of a building. 

bash (bash), v.t. to strike heavily; to 
knock out of shape. 

bashaw (ba-shaw'), n. a pasha; a 
magnate or grandee ; a bigwig. 

bashful (bash'fool), adj. easily dis- 
concerted ; modest to excess ; diffi- 
dent ; shy. 

bashfully (-li), adv. in a bashful 

bahsi-bazouk (bash'i-ba-zook'), n. 
a volunteer or irregular in the Turk- 
ish army. 

bashlyk (bash'lik), n. a kind of hood 
with long ends, worn in Russia. 

basic (ba'sik), adj. pertaining to a 
base ; fundamental ; performing the 
office of a base in a salt. 

basil (baz'il), n. a sheepskin tanned 
with bark ; the name given to several 
aromatic herbs used in cookery. 

basil (baz'il), n. the angle to which 
the cutting edge of a tool is ground : 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, ;f7ien. 




v.t. to grind or form the edge of to 
an angle. 

basilar (bas'i-lar),. or basilary (-la- 
ri), adj. pertaining to, or situated 
at, the base. 

basilic (ba-zil'ik), or basilical ('i- 
kal ) , adj. kingly ; royal ; pertaining 
to a basilica : n. the middle vein of 
the arm. 

basilica (ba-ziri-ka), n. [pi. basilicas 
(-kaz)], in ancient Rome, a public 
hall of rectangular shape used for 
judicial assemblies ; a church built 
on such a plan. 

basilicon (ba-zil'i-kon), n. an oint- 
ment composed of yellow wax, black 
pitch, res:n, and olive oil. 

basilisk (bas'i-lisk), n. a fabulous 
creature, variously conceived as a 
kind of serpent, lizard, or dragon, 
and sometimes identified with the 
cockatrice ; the name of a lizard 
with an inflatable crest : adj. per- 
taining to the basilisk ; penetrating 
or malignant. 

basin (ba'sn), n. a circular vessel for 
holding water or other liquid ; a 
pond, or dock, or other reservoir for 
water ; the area drained by a river ; 
a set of strata or stratified forma- 
tions occupying a basin-shaped de- 
pression in older rocks. 

basis (ba'sis), n. [pi. bases ('sez)], a 
foundation ; the groundwork or fun- 
damental principle of anything. 

bask (bask), v.i. to lie in warmth; 
be exposed to genial heat ; be at ease 
and thriving under benign in- 
fluences : v.t. to warm by continued 
exposure to heat. 

basket (bas'ket), n. a vessel made of 
rushes, or other flexible material, 
plaited or interwoven ; as much as a 
basket will hold. 

basketful (bas'ket-fool), n. [pi. bas- 
ketfuls], as much as a basket will 

basking-skark (bas'king-shark), n. 
one of the largest of the sharks in- 
habiting the northern seas ; it is 
harmless, and has the habit of bask- 
ing at the surface in the sun. 

Basque (bask), adj. of, or pertain- 
ing to, the Basque race or language : 

basque (bask), n. a kind of a wom- 
an's jacket with a short skirt. 

bas-relief (ba-re-lef), n. low relief; 
a form of relief in which the figures 
stand out very slightly from the 
ground. Also spelled bass-relief, 
basso-relievo, & basso-rilievo. 

bass or basse (bas), n. the name of 
various edible fishes allied to the 

bass (bas), n. the American lime- 
tree ; matting made from its bark ; 
a hassock. 

bass (bas), adj. low; deep; grave: n, 
the lowest part in the harmony of a 
musical composition ; the lowest 
male voice, ranging from D below 
the bass staff to D oi: E above it; 
one who sings bass. 

bass-bar (bas'bar), n. a piece of 
wood placed lengthwise inside 
stringed instruments to resist the 
pressure of the bridge. 

bass clef (bas'klef), n. the character 
placed at the beginning of the bass 

baSs born (bas'horn), n. a modified 
form of a clarionet. 

bass staff (bas'staf), n. the staff on 
which the notes of the bass of a 
harmonized composition are written. 

bass viol (bas'vil), n. a large 
stringed instrument of the violin 
class for playing bass. 

basset (bas'et), v.i. to crop out at the 

basse t-korn (bas'et-horn), n. an in- 
strument resembling a clarionet, but 
of greater compass. 

bassinet (bas'i-net), n. a wicker bas- 
ket with a hood at one end. 

basso (bas'o), adj. Italian for bass: 
n. one who sings bass. 

basso-profondo (-pro-fon'do), n. 
the lowest bass voice ; a singer hav- 
ing such a voice. 

bassoon (bas-oon'), n. an instrument 
of the reed kind. 

bassoonist (bas-oon'ist), n. a per- 
former on the bassoon. 

basso-relievo. See bass-relief. 

bassorin (bas'o-rin), or bassorine 
(-rin), n. a substance extracted 
from gum tragacanth and some 
other gums. 

bast (bast), n. the tough inner fibrous 
bark of various trees, especially of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




the lime ; rope or matting made 
from this bark. 

bastard (bas'tard), n. sl child be- 
gotten and born out of wedlock ; 
an animal of inferior quality or 
breed; a kind of hawk formerly 
■ased in falconry ; a coarse brown 
^ugar made from syrup previously 
boiled : adj. begotten and born out 
of lawful matrimony; spurious; 

bastardize (bas'tar-diz), v.t. to 
make or prove to be a bastard; de- 
clare to be illegitimate. 

bastardy (bas'tar-di), n. the state 
of being illegitimate, or born out of 
lawful wedlock. 

baste (bast), v.t. to beat with a 
stick ; to drip or pour melted fat or 
butter on meat while roasting ; to 
sew slightly, or fasten with long 
stitches, as in dressmaking. 

bastile or bastille (bas-tel'), n. a 
tower 'or fortification used for the 
defense or siege of a fortified place ; 
an old castle in Paris used as a 
state prison, demolished by the 
populace in 1789. 

bastinado (bas-ti-na'do), n. an 
Oriental mode of punishment, con- 
sisting in beating an offender upon 
the soles of his feet with a stick or 
rod. Spelled also bastinade : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. bastinadoed ; bas- 
tinadoing], to beat the soles of the 
feet with a stick or cudgel. 

£»astion (bas'chun), n. an earth- 
work faced with brick or stone, 
projecting from the angles of a 
rampart, and having two flanks 
and two faces. 

basto (bas'to), n. the ace of clubs in 
the card games of quadrille and 

bat (bat), n. a heavy stick or club; 
the flattened club used in cricket or 
similar games ; a batsman ; a part 
of a brick with one end whole ; a 
plate of flexible gelatine used to 
print impressions on glaze ; bitumi- 
nous shale : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. batted ; batting] , to hit or strike : v.i. 
to use or wield a bat in cricket or 

bat (bat), n. an insectivorous mam- 
mal furnished with wings formed 

by a membrane stretched between 
the elongated fingers, legs, and tail. 

batch (bach), n. the quantity of 
bread baked at one time ; a quanti- 
ty of anything produced at one 
operation ; a group or collection of 
similar things. 

bate (bat), v.t. to lessen or reduce; 

bateau or battean (ba-to'), n. [pi. 
bateaux, batteaux (-toz)], a light 
boat used on Canadian rivers ; a 
pontoon of a floating bridge. 

bateau-bridge (-brij), n. a float- 
ing bridge constructed on boats. 

bath (bath), n. [pi. baths, (hsLthz)], 
the act of washing or immersing 
the body in water, or exposing it to 
any other fluid or vapor ; a vessel 
holding water for bathing ; a build- 
ing fitted up for bathing purposes; 
a medium through which heat is 
applied to a body ; a vessel contain- 
ing a solution for treatment of an 
object by immersion. 

bathe (hath), v.t. to subject to a 
bath ; immerse in water or other 
liquid ; to suffuse or moisten with a 
liquid ; immerse or surround with 
anything analogous to water, as 
vapor or light : v.i. to take a bath. 

bathometer (ba-thom'e-ter), n. an 
apparatus for measuring depths. 

bathos (ba'thos), n. a ludicrous 
descent from the elevated to the 
commonplace in writing or speech. 

bathymetric (bath-i-met'rik), or 
bathymetrical ('ri-kal), adj. per- 
taining to the measurement of 

bathymetry (ba-thim'e-tri), n. the 
art of sounding or of measuring sea 

batiste (ba-tesf), n. sl kind of cam- 

baton (bat'un, French ba-tong'), n. a 
staff or truncheon used as a weap- 
on, or as a mark or badge of of- 
fice ; the wand of an orchestral con- 
ductor ; a heraldic mark indicat- 
ing illegitimacy: v.t. to strike with 
a baton or truncheon. 

Batrachia (ba-tra'ki-a), the 
order of Amphibia which includes 
the frogs and toads. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n5rth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




batrachian (ba-tra'ki-an), adj. per- 
taining to the Batrachia : n. one of 
that order. 

batrachoid (bat'ra-koid), adj. hav-r 
ing the form of a frog. 

battalion (ba-taryun), n. a body of 
infantry usually forming a division 
of a regiment. 

batten (bat'n)^ v.t. to make fat by 
plenteous living ; fertilize or en- 
rich : v.i. to grow or become fat ; 
thrive at the expense of others. 

batten (bat'n), n. a narrow strip or 
scantling of wood used for various 
purposes ; a strip of wood used to 
fasten the edges of a tarpaulin to 
the deck of a ship : v.t. to fasten or 
form with battens. 

batter (bat'er), v.t. strike with 
heavy, repeated blows, so as to 
bruise, shatter, or demolish ; injure 
or impair : v.i. to make an attack 
by heavy blows. 

batter (bat'er), n. sl mixture of sev- 
eral ingredients, as flour, eggs, &c., 
beaten together, used in cookery. 

battering-ram ( bat'er-ing-ram ) , n. 
a military engine anciently used to 
beat down the walls of besieged 
places, and consisting of a large 
beam with a head of iron somewhat 
resembling the head of a ram. 

battery (bat'er-i), n. [pi. batteries 
(-iz)], the act of battering or beat- 
ing ; S, body of cannon, with its com- 
plement of officers, men, and equip- 
ments, for field operations ; any 
raised work or parapet where guns 
are mounted and gunners screened ; 
a number of Leyden jars connected 
for charging and discharging sim- 
ultaneously ; an apparatus for gen- 
erating voltaic electricity. 

battle (bat'l), n. a fight or en- 
counter between opposing forces ; a 
combat; a contest or struggle for 
mastery : vA. to contend in fight ; 
struggle (followed by against, 
loith). battle-piece (bat'1-pes), 
n. a painting, poem, or writing de- 
scriptive of a battle, battle-roy- 
al (bat'l-roi'al), n. a match in 
which more than two game-cocks 
are engaged ; a melee. 

battledore or battledoor (bat'l- 
dor), n. a kind of light racket used 

for playing battledore and shuttle- 

battlement (bat'1-ment), n. an in- 
dented parapet consisting of alter- 
nate solids and openings. 

battue (bat-tti'), n. in shooting over 
cover, the method pursued by the 
beaters who surround the preserve 
and drive the game by beats and 
cries towards the sportsmen. 

bauble (baw'bl), n. a trifling piece 
of finery ; anything showy or gay ; 
a child's cheap trinket : n. the club 
or staff formerly carried by a court 
jester, or king's fool. 

bavin (bav'in), n. wood easily kin- 

bawbee or baubee (baw-be'), w. 
originally a coin issued in 1542 by 
James V. of Scotland, of the value 
of l%d., Scotch ; now applied in 
Scotland to the halfpenny. 

bawble. Same as bauble. 

bawd (bawd), n. a person who keeps 
a house of prostitution ; one who 
procures women for lewd purposes, 
or acts as agent in illicit inter- 

bawdiness ('i-nes), n. obscenity; 

bawdry (bawd'ri), n. the business 
or practice of a procuress ; illicit 
intercourse ; obscenity ; filthy lan- 

bawdy (bawd'i), adj. obscene; un- 

bawl (bawl), v.i. to cry out with a 
loud, full, and sustained sound ; 
vociferate : v.t. to proclaim loudly : 
n. a loud prolonged cry. 

bay (ba), v.i. to bark as a dog, with 
a deep sound, as hounds in the 
chase : v.t. to bark at ; to pursue 
with barking so as to bring to bay : 
n. the deep-toned prolonged bark of 
a dog. 

bay (ba), adj. red or reddish, ap- 
proaching to chestnut [applied to 
horses] : n. a horse of such color. , 

bay (ba), n. a recess in the shore of 
a sea or lake ; the expanse of water 
between two capes or headlands ; a 
recess or opening in walls ; a place 
or receptacle for depositing or stor- 
ing coal ; the fore part of a ship 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tlien. 




between decks ; the laurel-tree, 
noble laurel, or sweet-bay ; an hon- 
orary garland or crown, composed 
of woven laurel leaves, bestowed as 
a prize upon successful poets and 
conquerors, hence [pi.] fame. 

bay-salt (ba'sawlt), n. salt result- 
ing from the evaporation of sea- 
water, and used for artificial sea- 

bay-ivindo-w (ba'win'do), n. the 
window or windows forming a bay 
or recess in a room, and extending 
outwards from the wall, usually of 
a rectangular, semicircular, or 
polygonal shape. 

baya (ba'ya), n. the weaver-bird of 
the East Indies, resembling the bull- 

bayadeer or bayadere (ba-ya-der'), 
n. a Hindu dancing girl. Also writ- 
ten bajadere. 

bayamo (ba-ya'mo), n. a violent 
tempest of wind with lightning. 

bayonet (ba'o-net), n. a short dag- 
ger-like instrument constructed to 
fix on to the barrel of a rifle : v.t. 
to stab or drive with a bayonet. 

bayou (bi'o6),w. [pi. bayous ('ooz)], 
in the southern United States, the 
outlet of a lake, or one of the delta 
streams of a river ; a sluggish water- 

bazaar or bazar (ba-zar'), n. in the 
East, a market-place or exchange ; 
a hall or series of rooms with stalls 
for the sale of goods ; a sale of 
fancy articles in aid of some char- 
ity ; a fancy fair. 

bdelliuiu (del'ynm), n. an aromatic 
gum-resin brought from Africa, In- 
dia and Persia, and used medici- 
nally and as a perfume. 

be (be), v.i. [p.t. was, p.p. been, 
being], to exist; have existence in 
fact, physical or mental ; include or 
involve as a result ; bring ; produce ; 
come about ; become ; remain ; sig- 
nify ; answer to. 

beach (bech), n. [pi. beaches ('ez)l, 
the portion of the shore of the sea 
or of a lake which is washed by the 
waves ; the strand ; shingle : v.t. to 
run or haul up (as a vessel or boat) 
upon the beach : v.i. to land on a 

beacb-comber (bech'kom-er), n. a 
long curling wave rolling in from 
the ocean ; one who hangs about the 
shore on the look-out for wreckage 
or plunder. 

beacliy (bech'i), adj. having a 
beach ; covered with shingle. 

beacon (be'kn), n. a signal of warn- 
ing or guidance, on sea or land ; for- 
merly a fire lighted on a hill or high. 
tower to signal danger or assemble 
troops, &c. : v.t. to light up, as a 
beacon ; furnish with beacons : v.i. 
to serve as a beacon. 

bead (bed), n. a little perforated ball 
of any suitable material, intended to 
be strung with others and worn as 
an ornament or used to form a 
rosary ; any small globular body ; a 
drop or bubble ; a small knob of 
metal at the end of a gun-barrel 
used as a sight ; a narrow rounded 
molding ; an astragal : v.t. to orna- 
ment with beads or beading. 

bead-roll (bed'rol), n. a list of per- 
sons for the repose of whose souls a 
certain number of prayers are as- 
signed to be repeated ; a rosary. 

beadle (be'dl), n. a messenger or 
crier of a court ; a parish ofiicer 
with various subordinate duties con- 
nected with a church or vestry, &c. 

beagle (be'gl), n. a small hound, for- 
merly used for hunting hares. 

beak (bek), n. the bill of a bird; the 
horny jaws or mandibles of other 
animals ; anything which is pointed 
or shaped like a beak ; the metal- 
sheathed prow of an ancient galley 
intended to pierce the vessels of an 
enemy ; the powerful appendage of 
steel forming part of the bow of 
modern war- vessels ; a magistrate. 

beaker (be'ker), n. a large drinking 
cup or vessel with a wide mouth ; an 
open-mouthed glass vessel with a 
projecting lip. 

beam (bem), n. a long piece of tim- 
ber or iron used horizontally or ver- 
tically to support the rafters of a 
building ; one of the principal hori- 
zontal timbers of a building or ship ; 
the extreme breadth of a ship; the 
shank of an anchor ; the oscillating 
lever which transmits motion in a 
steam-engine; a cylinder of wood 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




around which, before weaving, the 
warp is wound; the pole of a car- 
riage ; the main part of a plow to 
which the handles are secured ; the 
bar of a balahce which suspends the 
scales ; the principal stem of a 
deer's horns which bears the antlers ; 
a collection of parallel rays of light 
emitted from the sun or other lumi- 
nous body : v.t. to send forth, as 
rays of light : v.i. to shine. 

beam-compass (bem-kum'pas), w. 
an instrument used for describing 
large circles. 

beam-feather (bem'feiA.-er), n, one 
of the long feathers in the wing of 
a bird. 

beamy (be'mi), adj. emitting rays of 
light resembling a beam in size and 

bean (ben), n, the smooth, kidney- 
shaped seed of many leguminous 
plants ; the plant itself ; the popular 
name of other seeds or fruits re- 
sembling true beans. 

bear (bar), v.t. [p.t. bore, bare, p.p. 
borne, bearing], to support, 
hold up ; carry or convey ; sufEer 
or endure ; be answerable for ; pos- 
sess, wear, or use ; have in or on ; 
contain ; cherish ; v,arry in the mind ; 
admit or be capable of ; show 
or exhibit ; bring forth or produce : 
v.i. to be capable of supporting; be 
fruitful ; to bear, press, or weigh 
upon or against ; tend ; relate ; take 
effect; be situated. [N. B. — When 
used passively bear (to produce) 
has as its p.p. born, as an infant 
was dorii.] 

bear (bar), n. a plantigrade carniv- 
orous mammal, belonging to the 
genus TJrsus, the three best known 
species of which are : the brown or 
black bear of Europe, the grizzly 
bear of North America, and the po- 
lar bear of arctic regions ; the name 
of two constellations in the northern 
hemisphere, called the Great Bear 
and the Little Bear ; one who at- 
tempts to depreciate the value of 
stock in order to buy cheap ; opposed 
to a bull ; a rude, uncouth, or brutal 
person : v.t. to endeavor to lower the 
price of. 

bear-baiting (bar'bat-ing), n. the 
illegal sport of setting dogs to fight 
<vith captive bears. 

bear-garden (bar'gar-dn), n. a place 
where bears are kept for sport ; 
hence any scene or place of tumult 
or disorder. 

beard (herd), n. the hair that grows 
on the chin, lips, and adjacent parts 
of the human face ; anything which 
resembles a beard ; the awn of bar- 
ley and other grains ; the barb of an 
arrow, fish-hook, &c. : v.t. to take by 
the beard ; oppose to the face ; set 
at defiance. 

bearing (bar'ing), n. the act of en- 
during with patience ; carriage ; be- 
havior ; mutual relation of the parts 
of a whole ; meaning or application ; 
the act or power of producing ; the 
part of a machine that bears the 
friction ; the direction or point of 
the compass in which an object is 
seen ; the position of one object with 
respect to another ; the heraldic 
charges that fill the escutcheon. 

bearing-rein (-ran), n. a short rein 
for holding up the head of a horse. 

bearish (bar'ish), adj. resembling a 
bear in qualities ; rude ; surly. 

beast (best), n. any four-footed ani- 
mal, as distinguished from birds, 
insects, fishes, and man ; an irra- 
tional animal ; a person rude, coarse, 
or filthy, or whose actions degrade 
him below the level of a rational be- 
ing ; a brute. 

beat (bet), v.t. [p.t. beat, p.p. 
beaten, beat, beating], to strike 
with repeated blows ; thrash ; 
knock ; pound or break ; flatten or 
spread by blows ; scour and range 
with blows . and cries in order to 
rouse or drive game ; dash or strike 
against, as water or wind ; tread, as 
a path ; overcome or vanquish ; ex- 
cel ; baffle ; be too difficult for ; ex- 
haust ; flutter, as wings : v.i. to 
strike repeatedly ; throb ; dash or 
fall with force or violence ; signal 
or summon by beat of drum ; sound, 
as a drum, when struck : n. a re- 
curring stroke ; a pulsation ; a 
throb ; a footfall ; a round or course 
which is frequently gone over ; a 
place of habitual resort; the rise or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




fall of the hand or foot marking the 
divisions of time ; the divisions of 
the measure so marked. 

beat (bet), p.p. of beat, exhausted bv 
mental or bodily fatigue. 

"beaten (be'tn), p.adj. worn by use, 
as by the beat or tread of feetj con- 
quered ; exhausted ; baffled. 

beaten-Tirork (-werk), n. metal 
shaped by being beaten on an anvil. 

beatific (be-a-tif'ik), adj. having 
power to bless or render perfectly 
happy ; blissful. 

beatific-vision (-vizh'un), n. the 
direct vision of God, regarded as the 
bliss of the angels and saints. 

beatifically (-li), adv. in a blissful 

beatification (be-at-i-fi-ka'shun), n. 
the act of blessing or the state of 
being blessed ; the act of the Pope in 
declaring a deceased person to have 
attained the rank of "the blessed :" 
usually the second step towards 

beatify (be-at'i-fi), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 
beatified, beatifying], to make 
happy ; bless with the completion of 
celestial enjoyment ; to declare by 
public decree that a deceased person 
has attained the rank of "the 

beating (be'ting), n. the act of 
striking ; a flogging ; pulsation or 
throbbing ; a defeat ; tacking against 
the wind. 

beatitude (be-at'i-tud), n. felicity 
of the highest kind ; consummate 

beau (bo), n. [pi. beaus or beaux 
(boz)], one who dresses himself in 
strict accordance with the fashion ; 
a ladies' man or suitor. 

"beau-ideal (bo-i-de'al), n. ideal ex- 

beau monde (bo-mond'), n. the fash- 
ionable world. 

beauisla (bo'ish), adj. like a beau; 

laeauteous (bu'te-us), adj. possess- 
ing beauty. 

beautiful (bu'ti-ful), adj. possess- 
ing qualities which charm and de- 
light the senses ; lovely. 

beautifully (-li), adv. in a charm- 
ing or attractive manner. 

lieautify (bu'ti-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
beautified; beautifying], to 
make or render beautiful ; embel- 
lish : v.i. to grow beautiful. 

beauty (bti'ti), n. [pi. beauties 
('tiz)], an assemblage of graces or 
properties which command the ap- 
probation of the senses ; those qual- 
ities which are most pleasing to the 
eye ; a particular grace or charm ; a 
beautiful woman. 

beauty-sleep (-slep), n. sleep taken 
before midnight, popularly supposed 
to be more restorative than that 
taken later. 

beauty-spot (-spot), n. a patch or 
spot placed on the face with intent 
to heighten beauty by contrast. 

beauty-wash, (-wosh), n. a cosmetic. 

beaver (be'ver), n. a rodent quadru- 
ped of amphibious habits, and val- 
ued for its fur ; the fur of the 
beaver ; a hat formerly made of bea- 
ver fur. 

beaver (be'ver), n. the portion of ar- 
mor which served to protect the 
lower part of the face, and could be 
raised or depressed. 

beaver-rat (be'ver-rat), n. a water 
rodent of Australia and Tasmania, 
similar in habit to the European 
water vole. 

beaver-tree (be'ver-tre), n. the 
sweet-bay, common in United States. 

beaverteen (be'ver-ten), n, a species 
of fustian. 

becalm (be-kam'), v.t. to make calm 
or still. 

becbamel (besh'a-mel), n. a fine 
white sauce thickened with cream. 

beche-de-mer (bash'de-mar'), w. the 
trepang, a sea-slug dried and eaten 
by the Chinese. 

beck (bek), n. a nod, or other signifi- 
cant gesture. 

becket (bek'et), n. a contrivance in 
ships to confine small spars or loose 
ropes, &c. 

beckon (bek'n), v.i. to make a signal 
to another by a motion of the head 
or hand ; v.t. summon or signal by 

becloud. See cloud. 

become (be-kum'), v.i. [p.t. became, 
p.p. become, becoming], to pass 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, ndrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




from one state to another ; come or 
grow to be : v.t. to suit, or be suit- 
able to ; befit ; accord with ; grace or 

» becoming (be-kum'ing), p.adj. fit; 
suitable ; seemly ; proper ; appropri- 
ate ; befitting. 

becquerel rays (bek-rel' raz), 
radio-active energy manifested by 
t radium, polonium, and certain com- 

pounds of uranium. 

bed (bed), n. an article of domestic 
furniture upon or within which one 
rests or sleeps ; conjugal rights ; 
anything which serves as a resting- 
place, or in which something lies or 
is imbedded ; a portion of a garden 
prepared and set apart for bedding 
plants ; the bottom of a river or oth- 
er stream, or of any body of water ; 
a layer or stratum of rock ; a mass 
or heap of anything resembling a 
bed ; either of the horizontal sur- 
faces of a building stone : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. bedded; bedding], to fur- 
nish with a bed ; plant, as flowers ; 
lay in a stratum ; lay flat, or in or- 
der : v.i. to go to bed ; cohabit. 

bedbug (bed'bug), n. a flat-bodied, 
reddish-colored insect infesting fur- 
niture, &c. 

bedpan, (bed'pan), n. a warming- 
pan ; a utensil for the use of those 
confined to bed. 

bedstraw (bed'straw), n. straw for 
stuffing beds ; a popular name of 
plants used formerly in beds. 

bed-tick (bed'tik), n. a bag or case 
of strong linen or cotton for con- 
taining the feathers or other ma- 
terials of a bed. 

bedabble. See dabble. 

bedaub. See daub. 

bedazzle. See dazzle. 

bedding (bed'ing), n. a bed and its 
furniture ; the materials of a bed, 
whether for man or beast ; stratifi- 
cation ; occurrence in layers ; a foun- 
dation, or bottom layer. 

bedeck. See deck. 

bedevil (be-dev'l), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
(-ed), (-ing)], to throw into 
disorder or confusion ; spoil or cor- 
iupt, as by evil agency. 

bedevilment (be-dev'1-ment), n. the 

state of being vexatiously and be- 
wilderingly disordered or confused. 

bedew (be-dti'), v.t. to moisten with 

bedim. See dim. 

bedizen (be-diz'n & -di'zn), v.t. to 
deck or adorn ; trick out with vulgar 

bedlam (bed'lam), n. a madhouse; 
an asylum or hospital for lunatics : 
hence, any scene of uproar and con- 

bedlamite (bed'lam-it), n. a mad- 
man ; an inmate of Bethlehem Hos- 
pital or bedlam. 

Bedouin (bed'oo-in), n. a nomadic 
Arab or tent-dweller of Arabia, 
Syria, and northern Africa : adj, 

bedrabble. See drabble. 

bedraggle. See draggle. 

bedrencb. See drench. 

bedrid (bed'rid) or bedridden ('rid- 
n) , adj. confined to bed by age or 

bedrop (be-drop'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
bedropped, p.2yr. bedroppihg], to 
sprinkle as with drops ; bespatter. 

bee (be), n. p hymenopterous insect 
of the genus Apis ; the hive or hon- 
ey-bee kept in hives for the sake of 
its honey and wax ; an industrious 
person ; a social meeting for work on 
behalf of a neighbor or a charitable 
object ; strips of wood bolted each 
side of a bowsprit, through which 
the foretopmast stays are reeved. 

bee-bread (be'bred), n. a brown bit- 
ter substance consisting of the pol- 
len of flowers collected and stored 
by bees as food for their young. 

bee-eater (be'et-er), n. one of the 
numerous species of bee-eating birds. 

beebive (be'hiv), n. a bos or other 
covering for a swarm of bees, and 
serving for the storage of honey. 

bee-line (be'lin), n. the straight J 
course pursued by a bee returning ' 
laden to the hive : hence the most 
direct way from one point to an- 

bee-motb (be'mCth), n. a mothj 
which lays its eggs in beehives, and 
whose larvae feed upon the wax. 

beech (bech), n. [pi. beeches ('ez)], 
a tree of the genus Fagus, yielding 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon^ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




a hard timber and edible triangular 


beechen (be'chen), adj. pertaining 
to, or made of the wood or bark of, 
the beech. 

beef (bef), n. the flesh of an ox, 
bull, or cow, when killed. 

beefeater ('e-ter), n. a yeoman of 
the English royal guard, attending 
the sovereign on state occasions. 

beefy (be'fi), adj. resembling beef: 

been (bin), p.p. of be. 

beer (ber), n. a fermented liquor 
made from any farinaceous grain, 
but generally from malted barley, 
with hops or other substances added 
to impart a bitter flavor ; a ferment- 
ed extract of the roots and other 
parts of various plants, as ginger, 
spruce, &c. 

beery (ber'i), adj. pertaining to beer ; 
stained by beer ; affected by beer ; 

beestings (bes'tingz), n. the first 
milk given by a cow after calving. 

beeswing (bez'wing), n. a gauzy film 
occurring in port and some other 
wines, indicative of age. 

beet (bet), n. a biennial plant, culti- 
vated for its edible succulent root, 
and from which sugar is made. 

beetle (be'tl), n. a heavy wooden mal- 
let employed for driving wedges, 
consolidating earth, &c. ; a club for 
beating linen, &c., in washing : v.t. 
to use a beetle on ; beat with a 
heavy wooden mallet, as a substitute 
for mangling. 

beetle (be'tl), n. any insect belong- 
ing to the order of Coleoptera, hav- 
ing four wings, the anterior or outer 
pair being hardened and serving as 
a horny sheath to the inner pair. 

beetle (be'tl), v.i. to be prominent; 
jut out ; overhang, as a cliff. 

beetling (bet'ling), adj. standing 
out ; overhanging. 

befall or befal (be-fawl'), v.t. \_p.t. 
befell, p.p. befallen, befalling], 
to happen or occur to : v.i. come to 

bef ana (be-fa'na), n. a fairy sup- 
posed to reward children by presents 
of sweetmeats, &c., on Ephiphany- 
eve (Jan. 5th). 

befit (be-fit'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. be- 
fitted, befittting], befitting or 
suitable to ; become. 

befog. See fog. 

befool. See fool. 

before (be-for'), prep, in front of; 
preceding in space, time, or rank; 
in presence or sight of ; under juris- 
diction of ; rather than ; earlier 
than : adv. in front ; in advance ; 
previously ; formerly ; already. 

beforehand (be-for 'hand), adv. in 

befoul. See foul. 

befriend (be-frend'), v.i. to act as a 
friend to ; aid or shield ; assist. 

beg (beg), v.t. & v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 
begged ; begging] , to ask or 
supplicate in charity ; ask for ear- 
nestly ; beseech ; entreat with humil- 
ity ; ask as a favor ; to practice beg- 
ging. (The phrase "I beg to," in 
polite usage, is employed elliptically 
for ask, request, as I deg to state.) 

began, p.t. of begin. 

begem. See gem. 

beget (be-gef), v.t. [p.t. begot, be- 
gat, p.p. begotten, begot, be- 
getting], to procreate, as a father 
or sire ; generate ; produce i cause to 

begetter (be-get'ter), n. one who be- 

beggable (beg'a-bl), adj. capable of 
being solicited as gift or alms. 

beggar (beg'er), n. one who entreats 
or supplicates with humility ; one 
who makes it his business to beg or 
ask for alms ; one who is reduced to 
extreme poverty : v.t. to exhaust the 
resources of ; outdo. 

beggar liness (-nes), n. extreme pov- 
erty ; meanness. 

beggarly (beg'er-li), adj. like, or in 
the condition of, a beggar ; poor ; 
mean ; contemptible. 

beggary (beg'er-i), n. the state of a 
beggar ; extreme poverty ; beggars 

begin (be-gin'), v.i. [p.t. began, p.p. 
begun,, beginning], to com- 
mence existence ; originate ; arise : 
to take the initiatory step ; make a 

beginner (be-gin'er), n. one who be- 
gins or originates ; one who enters 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; mS, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon« 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




upon anything for the first time; a 

Iieginxiing; (be-gin'ing), n. the first 
cause; origin; the initial stage of 

begird. See gird. 

ibegirdle. See girdle. 

begone (be-gon'), inter j. go away! 
depart ! 

begonia (be-go'ni-a), n. a genus of 
tropical plants, cultivated for their 
ornamental leaves and showy flow- 

begot (be-gof), p.t. & p.p. of beget. 

begotten (be-got'n), p.p. of beget. 

begrease. See grease. 

begrime. See grime. 

begrudge. See grudge. 

beguile (be-gil'), v.t. to impose upon 
or delude by guile ; deceive ; cause 
to pass pleasantly ; divert or enter- 

beguilement (be-gll'ment), n, the 
act of beguiling ; the state of being 

begum (be'gum), n. in the East In- 
dies, a princess or lady of high rank. 

begun, p.p. of begin. 

bebalf (be-haf), n. advantage; fa- 
vor ; support ; defense ; stead ; inter- 
est [governed always by the prepo- 
sition in, on, or upon'\, 

bebave (be-hav')> 'V.t. to conduct, 
comport, demean, or acquit : v.i. to 
act; conduct one's self in a proper 

bebavior (be-hav'yer), n, manner of 
behaving, whether good or bad ; con- 
duct ; deportment ; manners. 

bebead (be-hed'), v.t. to cut off the 
head of. 

bebeld (be-held'), p.t. & p.p. of be- 

behemotb (be-he'moth), n. an ani- 
mal described in Job si. 15-24, and 
probably intended for the hippopota- 

bebest (be-hest') , n. a command ; pre- 

bebind (be-hind'), prep, at the back 
of ; in the rear of ; remaining after ; 
inferior to : adv. at the back ; in the 
rear ; toward the back ; out of sight ; 
past In point of time. 

bebindband (be-hind'hand), adv. or 

adj. in a state of backwardness; 
late ; in arrear. 

bebold (be-hold'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
beheld, beholding], to fix the 
eyes upon; have in sight; look at; 
observe with care : v.i. to look ; di- 
rect or fix the mind. 

bebolden (be-hol'dn), p.adj. indebt- 
ed ; obliged ; bound in gratitude. 

beboof (be-h6of')» n. advantage; in- 
terest ; profit ; use ; behalf. 

beboove or bebove (be-hoov')", v.t. 
to be meet, necessary, or fit for. 

beige (bazh), adj. having its natural 
color, as a fabric of undyed wool. 

being, of be. 

being (be'ing), n. existence, as op- 
posed to non-existence ; that which 
exists in any form, whether actual 
or ideal. 

be jewel (be-ju'el), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
-ed, ing], to ornament or fur- 
nish with jewels. 

bekko-ware (bek'o-war), n. an an- 
cient kind of Japanese pottery ia 
imitation of tortoise-shell. 

belabor (be-la'ber), v.t. to beat 

belate (be-laf), v.t. to make late, or 

belated (be-la'ted), p.adj. delayed; 
too late ; overtaken by darkness :, 

belay (be-la'), v.t. make fast, as a 
rope, by winding round a pin, cleat, 

belcb (belch), v.t. to eject with force 
or violence : v.i. to eject wind from 
the stomach : n. the act of ejecting 
wind forcibly. 

beldam (bel'dam) or beldame 
( 'dam ) , l^. a grandmother ; an ugly 
old woman. 

beleaguer (be-le'ger), v.t. to be- 
siege ; surround with an army so as 
to preclude escape ; blockade. 

belemnite (berem-nit), ii. the fossil 
internal bone, or shell, of an extinct 
family of cuttle-fishes. 

belfry (bel'fri), n. a bell tower; 
that part of a steeple or tower in 
which a bell is hung. 

Belgr avian (bel-gra'vi-an), adj. be- 
longing to Belgravia, a fashionable 
quarter of London : hence aristo- 

fite, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, u6rth, not; boon,, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




cratic ; fashionable : n. an inhabi- 
tant of Belgravia; a member of the 
upper classes. 

belie (be-li'), v.t, to calumniate; 
slander by lies ; give the lie to ; show 
to be false. 

belief (be-lef), n. assent to anything 
proposed or declared, and its accept- 
ance as fact, by reason of the au- 

. thority whence it proceeds, apart 
from personal knowledge ; faith ; the 
thing believed; the whole body of 
tenets held by the professors of any 
faith ; a creed ; a conviction. 

believable (be-le'va-bl), adj. capable 
of being accepted as truth ; credible. 

believability ('i-ti), n. credibility; 
credence ; believableness. 

believe (be-lev'), v.t. to place cre- 
dence in and accept as true, upon the 
ground of authority, testimony, or 
logical inference apart from per- 
sonal knowledge; place ^confidence 
in ; expect or hope : v.i. to have 
faith ; be more or less firmly per- 
suaded of the truth of (anything; 
think or suppose. 

believer (be-le'ver), n, one who ac- 
cepts as truth something not actu- 
ally demonstrated ; one who adheres 
to a religious faith; a professor of 

belike (be-lik'), adv. probably. 

belittle (be-lit'l), v.t. to lower or de- 
preciate; run down by speaking 
slightingly of. 

bell (bel), -yi. to bellow, as deer in 
rutting time ; to be in flower : said 
of the hop. 

bell (bel), n. a hollow metallic ves- 
sel, usually cup-shaped, and giving 
forth a clear, ringing sound when 
struck ; anything in the form of a 
bell : pi. the divisions of daily time 
marked each half-hour by strokes on 
a bell : v.t. to put a bell on. 

bell-bird (bel'berd), n. an American 
bird whose note resembles a bell ; an 
Australian bird whose note is sim- 

bellman (bel'm&n), n.; pi. bellmen, 
one who uses a bell for public an- 
nouncement ; a town-crier. 

bell-metal (bel-met'al), n. an alloy 
of copper and tin, used for the man- 
ufacture of bells. 

bell-pnncli (bel 'punch), n, a punch 
with a signal bell used on tramcars 
for puncturing the tickets and 
checking the number of fares issued. 

bell-telegraph (bertel'e-graf), n. a 
telegraphic instrument in which bells 
are employed instead of needles. 

bell-ivether (bel'we^Ti'er), w. a weth- 
er or sheep which leads the flock 
with a bell on his neck. 

belladonna (bel-a-don'a), n. the 
deadly nightshade, a poisonous plant 
used as medicine. 

belle (bel), n. a young and handsome 
lady ; a reigning beauty. 

belles-lettres (bel-let'r), w.pZ. polite 
or elegant literature; light litera- 

bellicose (bel'i-kos), adj. pugna- 
cious ; contentious ; warlike. 

bellied (bel'id), adj. having a belly; 
swelled out in the middle. 

belligerence (bel-ij'er-ens), or bel- 
ligerency (-en-si), n, the act or 
state of warfare. 

belligerent (bel-ij'er-ent), adj. wag- 
ing war ; pertaining to war or war- 
fare : warlike : n. a power recog- 
nized as carrying on warj a person 
engaged in fighting. 

bellite (bel'it), n. an explosive com- 
pound formed of ammonium nitrate 
and other substances. 

bellow (bel'o), v.i. to utter a full 
resonant sound, as a bull ; bawl or 
vociferate; roar, as the sea in a 
tempest, or as the wind when vio- 
lent : v.t, to utter with a loud, full 
voice : n. the roar of a bull ; a loud, 
resounding outcry. 

bellows (bel'oz), n. sing. & pl.Sin in- 
strument for producing a current of 
air, and used for various purposes, 
as blowing fires, or filling the pipes 
of an organ. 

belly (bel'li), n. [pi. bellies ('liz)], 
that part of the human body which 
extends from the breast to the 
thighs, and contains the bowels ; the 
abdomen ; the corresponding part in 
the lower animals ; the part of any- 
thing that swells out into a larger 
capacity: v.i. [p.t. & p.p. bellied: bellying], to swell and become 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




protuberant; bulge out: v.t. to 
cause to swell out, as sails. 

belly-band (bel'i-band), n. a band 
that encircles the belly of a horse ; 
a saddle-girth. 

belong (be-long'), v.i. to be the prop- 
erty (of) ; go along with ; be a part 
(of) ; be appendant (to), or con- 
nected (with) ; be the concern or 
business (of) ; appertain (to) ; be 
suitable ; be due ; have a settled or 
legal residence (in) ; be native (to). 

belonging (be-l6ng'ing), n. that 
which belongs to one [generally used 
in the pi.} ; qualities; endowments; 
property ; possessions ; appendages. 

beloved (be-luvd' & luv'ed), p.adj. 
greatly loved ; dear to the heart : n. 
one who is greatly loved. 

belo^v (be-lo'), prep, under in place; 
beneath ; not so high ; inferior to in 
rank or excellence ; lower in value, 
price, &c. : adv. in a lower place ; 
on the earth ; in hell, or the regions 
of the dead; in a lower rank or 
grade ; off duty ; under. 

belt (belt), n. a girdle or band used 
to encircle the waist ; anything re- 
sembling a belt, or which- encircles, 
restrains, or supports, as a belt ; a 

. strip ; a band ; a heraldic badge de- 
noting knightly rank ; one of the 
rings surrounding the planet Jupi- 
ter ; a band connecting two wheels 
and transmitting motion from one 
to the other : v.t. to encircle, as with 
a belt ; surround. 

belted-cruiser (-kroo'zer), n. a 
quick-sailing ship, having a broad 
band of armor-plating. 

belting (bel'ting), n. belts collective- 
ly; the material of which belts are 

beluga (be-lu'ga), n. the large white 
sturgeon from the roe of which 
caviare is made ; the white whale of 
the Northern Seas. 

belvedere (bel-ve-der'), n. a pavilion 
or open structure raised upon the 
top of a house ; a summerhouse built 
on an eminence. 

bemire (be-mir'), v.t. to soil by pass- 
ing through mire ; to fix in the mire. 

bemoan (be-Taon') ,. v.t. to lament; 
bewail ; pity ; sympathize with. 

bencb (bench), n. [pi. benches 
('ez)l, a long seat; a strong table 
on which mechanics do their work; 
the seat where judges sit in court ; 
the persons who sit as judges ; the 
court : v.t. to furnish with benches. 

bench-ivarrant (bench-wor'ant), n. 
a warrant issued by a court ^ or 
judge, as distinguished from a }.^s~ 
tice's warrant issued by a magis- 

bend (bend), v.t. to curve or make 
crooked; move or deflect out of a 
straight line ; direct to p certain 
point ; incline ; cause to yield ; 
fasten : v.i. to be or become curved 
or crooked ; be turned towards ; bow 
or be submissive : n. a curve ; a turn 
or deflection ; a crook ; a knot by 
which one rope is fastened to an- 
other, or to anything else : n. one of 
the nine heraldic ordinaries crossing 
the field from the dexter chief to the 
sinister base point of the escutcheon. 

bender (ben'der), n. one who, or 
that which, bends. 

beneatb (be-neth'), prep, lower in 
place, with reference to something 
above ; under the pressure of ; lower 
in rank, dignity, or excellence than; 
unworthy of : adv. in a lower place ; 

benedict (ben'e-dikt), n. a newly 
married man, especially one who 
has previously ridiculed the idea of 
matrimony. From Benedick in 
Shakespeare's • play "Much Ado 
about Nothing." 

benediction (ben-e-dik'shun), w. the 
act of blessing ; a blessing or ex- 
pression of kind wishes solemnly or 
affectionately invoked ; the short 
blessing pronounced at the close of 
public worship. 

benedictive (ben-e-dik'tiv) or ben- 
edictory ('to-ri), adj. tending to 
bless ; conveying or expressing good 

benefaction (ben-e-fak'shun), n. the 
act of conferring a benefit ; a benefit 
conferred ; a charitable donation. 

benefactor (ben-e-fak'ter), n. one 
who confers a benefit. Benefac- 
tress, the feminine form of the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hiie, hut ; think, then. 




"benefice (ben'e-fis), n. a fief, or es- 
tate in lands ; an ecclesiastical liv- 
ing ; a church endowed with reve- 
nue ; the revenue itself. 

besieficence ( be-nef 'i-sens ),n. active 
goodness ; a benefaction. 

beneficent ( be-nef 'i-sent ) , adj. char- 
acterized by benevolence. 

beneficial (ben-e-fish'al), adj. con- 
tributing to a valuable end ; help- 
ful ; profitable ; conferring or hav- 
ing the right to benefit or user. 

beneficially (-li), adv. in an advan- 
tageous manner. 

beneficiary (ben-e-fish'i-a'ri), adj. 
holding office under another ; con- 
nected with the receipt of benefits 
or profits ; freely bestowed : n. one 
who holds a benefice ; in feudal 
times a vassal ; one who receives 
anything as a gift. 

benefit (ben'e-fit), n. an act of kind- 
ness ; a favor conferred ; whatever 
promotes the happiness and well- 
being of a person or thing, or adds 
to the value of property ; a theatri- 
cal performance, the proceeds of 
which go to one of the actors, &c. : 
v.t. to do good to ; be of service to : 
v.i. to gain advantage ; make im- 

benevolence (be-nev'o-lens), n. the 
disposition to do good ; philanthro- 
py ; good-will ; an act of kindness ; 
a royal tax formerly levied under 
the guise of a gratuity to the sov- 

benevolent (be-nev'6-lent), adj. 
kind ; charitable ; philanthropic. 

bengal (ben-gawl'), n. a thin stuff 
made of silk and hair. 

bengal light (lit), n. a firework, 
used also for signaling at sea, giv- 
ing a steady bright blue light. 
Called also blue light. 

bengal-stripes (-strips), n. a kind 
of cotton cloth or gingham with 
colored stripes. 

bengal tiger (ti'ger), w. the royal 

benight (be-nlf), v.t. enshroud in 
darkness ; overtake with night [usu- 
ally in jj.p.]. 

benign (be-nln'), adj. of a kind or 
gentle disposition ; favorable ; salu- 
tary ; genial. 

benignant (be-nig'nant), adj. kind; 
gracious ; favorable. 

benignity (be-nig'ni-ti), n. [pi. be- 
nignities (-tiz)], kindness of na- 
ture ; graciousness ; gentleness ; 

benison (ben'i-zn), n. a blessing. 

benitier (ba-ne'tia), n. sl font for 
holy water. 

benne (ben'e), n. the Sesame, an 
East Indian annual, cultivated for 
its seeds, out of which a valuable 
oil is obtained. 

bent (bent), adj. curved; crooked; 
strongly inclined ; determined : n. a 
turn ; an inclination ; a leaning or 
bias ; disposition ; propensity ; a 
stiff or wiry grass. 

benumb. See numb. 

benumbment (be-num'ment), n. the 
act of stupefying ; torpidity. 

benzene (ben'zen), n. a volatile 
highly inflammable liquid, obtained 
commercially by distillation from 
coal-tar. Also called benzole and 

benzine ^(ben-zen'), n. a liquid com- 
pounded of the volatile hydrocar- 
bons of petroleum, and obtained by 
distillation ; used as a solvent and 
for the removal of grease, &c. 

benzoic (ben-zo'ik), adj. pertaining 
to or obtained from benzoin. 

benzoic acid (as'id), n. (flowers of 
benzoin), a peculiar vegetable acid 
obtained from benzoin and other 
balsams by sublimation or decoc- 

benzoin (ben-zo'in) or benzoine 
Czoin), n. the resinous juice of 
Gum Benjamin, a tree of Sumatra, 
&c., used chiefly in cosmetics, per- 
fumes, and incense. 

bequeath (he-kweth'), v.t. to give or 
leave by will ; hand down ; transmit. 

bequeathment (he-kweth' ment) , n. 
the act of leaving by will ; a be- 

bequest (be-kwest'), n. the act of 
leaving by will ; something left by 
will ; a legacy. 

berate. See rate. 

berberine (ber'ber-in), n. an alka- 
loid obtained, as a bitter, yellow 
substance, from the barberry and 
other plants ; used in dyeing. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



berberry. Same as barl^erry. 

berceuse (bar-sez') , n. a cradle song ; 
a tender or soothing musical com- 

bereave (be-rev'), 'v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
bereaved, bereft, bereaving], 
to deprive ; make destitute ; strip ; 
rob [with of before the thing taken 

bereavement (be-rev'ment), n. the 
act of bereaving ; the state of being 
bereaved; the loss of a relative or 
friend by death. 

bereft (be-reft'), P-t. & p.p. of be- 

berg (berg), n. a large floating mass 
of ice ; an iceberg ; a sharp pointed 
rock projecting from the sea. 

bergamot (ber'ga-mot), n. variety 
of lemon, the rind of which yields 
the volatile oil of bergamot, much 
used in perfumery ; a variety of 
pear ; a variety of mint ; a coarse 
kind of tapestry. 

bergmehl (berg'mal), n. mountain- 
meal, a powdery substance com- 
posed of the siliceous skeletons of 

Bermuda grass (ber-mu'da gras'), 
n. SL valuable variety of pasture 

Berm.udian (ber-mii'di-an), adj. of 
or pertaining to the island of Ber- 

Bernese (ber-nez'), adj. pertaining 
to Berne in Switzerland, or its in- 

bernicle (ber'ni-kal), n. the bernicle 

beroon (be-roon'), n. the principal 
court of a Persian house. 

berry (ber'i), n. [pi. berries ('iz)], 
any small pulpy or succulent fruit, 
as the strawberry, &c. ; anything re- 
sembling a berry in shape : v.i. [p.t. 
& p.p. berried, berrying], to 
bear, produce, or gather berries. 

berth (berth), n. ample or adequate 
sea room; a station which a ship 
occupies at anchorage or port ; a 
room in a vessel set apart for oSi- 
cers or seamen ; a sleeping place for 
a passenger in a ship or railway 
carriage ; a situation or appoint- 
ment : v.t. to allot an anchorage to ; 

give space to lie in ; allot a sleeping 
place to. 

bertha (ber'tha), n. a kind of lady's 

berthage (ber'thaj), n. dues levied 
upon vessels using anchorage in 
harbor or dock ; the space for moor- 
ing vessels in harbor or dock. 

beryl (ber'il), n. a mineral of vary- 
ing colors, commonly green or 

berylline ber'i-lin), adj. like a beryl 
in color. 

beseech (be-sech'), v.t. [p.t, & p.p. 
besought, beseeching], to en- 
treat; supplicate; implore; beg 
eagerly for ; solicit. 

beseem (be-sem'), v.i. & v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. -ed, -ing], to be suitable or 
seemly ; to become ; to seem. 

beset (be-sef), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. be- 
set, besetting], to set or stud; 
distribute over ; surround ; besiege ; 
press upon on all sides ; press hard 

besetment (be-set'ment), n. the 
condition of being surrounded. 

besetting (be-set'ing), adj. habitual- 
ly attacking or coming upon. 

beshrew (be-shroo'), v.t. to wish a 
curse to ; execrate. 

beside (be-sid'), prep, at the side of; 
near ; apart from ; not connected 

besides (be-sidz'), adv. more than 
that ; in addition ; as well : prep. 
over and above ; separate or dis- 
tinct from. 

besiege (be-sej'), v.t. to encompass 
with armed forces, in order to com- 
pel a foe to surrender ; lay siege to ; 
beset or harass. 

besiegement (be-^sej'ment), n. the 
act of besetting ; the state of being 

beslaver (be-slav'er), v.t. to besmear 
with spittle ; cover with fulsome 

beslobber (be-slob'er) , v.t. to smear 
with anything running from the 
mouth, as spittle ; kiss effusively all 
over the mouth ; to flatter ful- 

besmear. See smear. 

besmirch (be-smerch'), v.t. to soil; 
discolor ; sully or dishonor. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




besom (be'zum), n. a brush of twigs 
for sweeping ; a broom. 

besot (be-sof), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. be- 
sotted, besotting], to bestial- 
ize, as with drink ; stupefy ; infatu- 

besotment (be-sot'ment), n. the act 
or state of being besotted or infatu- 

besottedly (-li), adv. in a foolish or 
infatuated manner. 

besougbt, p.t. & p.p. of beseech. 

bespangle (be-spang'gl), v.t. to 
adorn with spangles ; dot or 
sprinkle with something that glit- 

bespatter (be-spat'er), v.t. to soil 
by spattering; spot with mud; as- 
perse with calumny. 

bespeak (be-spek'), v.t. [p.t. be- 
spoke, bespeaking], to speak 
for beforehand ; order or arrange 
in advance ; betoken ; indicate, as 
by signs or marks : w. among actors, 
a benefit. 

bespread. See spread. 

besprinkle. See sprinkle^ 

bessemer steel (bes'em-er-stel), n. 
steel made by forcing atmospheric 
air into cast iron while in a molten 

best (best), adj. having the highest 
degree of goodness or excellence ; 
of the first quality or standing; 
most desirable, suitable, advan- 
tageous, &c. ; largest : n. the high- 
est state of excellence; the utmost 
endeavor ; all one can do or show : 
adv. (superl. of well) in the high- 
est degree ; with most advantage or 
success : v.t. to get the better of ; 
surpass ; outwit. 

best-man (best'man), n. the grooms- 
man or principal attendant on a 

bested or bestead _(be-sted'), p.adj. 
situated ; placed ; circumstanced. 

bestial (bes'tial), adj. belonging to 
a beast ; animal ; having the quali- 
ties of a beast ; brutal ; sensual ; ob- 

bestialize' (bes'tial-iz), v.t. to make 
like a beast ; degrade to the level 
of a brute. 

bestiality (bes-tial'i-ti), w. the qual- 
ities or nature of a beast. 

bestially ( bes'tial-li ) , adv. in a 
beast-like manner. 

bestir (be-ster'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. be- 
stirred, bestirring], to put into 
brisk or vigorous action. 

bestow (be-sto')j v.t. to lay up in 
store ; deposit in safe keeping ; use 
or apply ; give or confer [followed 
by on or upon}. 

bestowment (be-sto'ment) or be- 
stowal ('al), n. the act of giving 
or conferring ; that which is given. 

bestraddle (be-strad'l), v.t. to be 

bestrew (be-stroo') or bestrow 
(-stro'), v.t. to strew or scatter 

bestride (be-strid'), v.t. [p.t. be- 
strode & bestrid, p.p.* bestridden, 
bestrid, bestriding], to stand 
or sit on with the legs astride ; em- 
brace with the legs, as a horse. 

bet (bet), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bet and 
betted, betting], to stake or 
pledge on the event of a future 
contingency : v.i. to lay a wager : n. 
the act of wagering; that which is 
laid, staked, or pledged on any event 
or contest the issue of which is un- 
certain ; the terms on which a bet 
is arranged. 

betake (be-tak'), v.t. [p.t. betook, 
p.p. betaken, betaking], to 
have recourse to ; repair ; resort ; 
take one's self (to). 

betel (be'tl), n. a species of pepper, 
native of the East Indies, the leaves 
of which are chewed with the betel- 
nut and a little lime. 

betel-nut (-nut), n. the nut-seed of 
the East Indian areca-palm. 

bethel (beth'el), n. a hallowed spot; 
a dissenting chapel ; a seaman's 

bethink (be-think'), v.t. & v.i. [p.t. 
& p.p. bethought, bethinking], 
to call to mind ; consider ; remind 
one's self ; to reflect. 

betide (be-tid'), v.t. to happen to; 
befall : v.i. to come to pass. 

betimes (be-tlmz'), adv. in good sea- 
son or time ; before it is too late ; 
early ; soon. 

betoken (be-to'kn), v.t. to indicate 
by signs ; serve as a sign or token 

atSf arm, 

I, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booni 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




of; foreshadow by what is visibly 

tieton (bet'un, French ba-t6ng'), n. 
a concrete composed of lime, sand, 
and gravel, used for submarine 

Tietony (bet'o-ni), n. a common name 
for a woodland plant, with purple 
flowers, formerly used in medicine 
and as a dye. 
t lietook, p.t. of betake. 
I betray (be-tra'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
•betrayed, betraying], to de- 
liver into the hands of an enemy 
by treachery ; violate by fraud or 
unfaithfulness ; reveal in breach of 
confidence ; disclose inadvertently ; 
deceive; indicate or show. 

betrayal (be-tra'al), n. the act of 

betroth, (be-troth'), v.t. to contract 
to give any one in marriage ; af- 
fiance ; plight or pledge one's troth 

betrotbal (be-troth'al) or betrotb- 
ment ('ment), n. the act of en- 
gaging to marry ; the state of being 
engaged ; a mutual promise for fu- 
ture marriage made between a man 
and a woman. 

better (bet'er), adj. [used as the 
compar. of good], having good qual- 
ities in a greater degree than an- 
other ; preferable or more suitable ; 
improved in health ; more perfect ; 
larger ; greater : adv. [used as com- 
par. of well], in a superior or more 
excellent manner ; more correctly or 
thoroughly ; . in a higher degree ; 
more in extent : v.t. to improve or 
ameliorate ; increase the good quali- 
ties of ; surpass ; excel ; outdo : v.i. 
to become better : n. a superior ; 
one who has a claim to precedence 
[usually in the pi.] ; superiority, 
or advantage over [usually with 

better or bettor (bet'er), n. one 
who wagers or lays bets. 

betterment (bet'er-ment), n. a mak- 
ing better ; the improvement of land 
or houses. 

betting (bet'ing), n. the act of mak- 
ing bets. 

between (be-twen'), prep, in the 
space or interval which separates ; 

in intermediate relation to ; from 
one to another of; shared in com- 

betweenwbiles ('hwilz), adv. at in- 

betwixt (be-twikst'), prep, between; 
in the space which separates. 

bevel (bev'el), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, -ing], to cut to a bevel- 
angle : v.i. to slant or incline off to 
a bevel-angle : n. an angle other- 
wise than a right angle (90°) ; the 
inclination which one surface makes 
with another when not at right 
angles ; an instrument used for 
drawing angles : adj. having the 
form of a bevel ; aslant. 

bevel-gear (ger), n. a species of 
wheel-work in which the axis or 
shaft of the driving-wheel forms an 
angle with the shaft of the wheel 

bevel- wbeel (hwel), n. a cog-wheel 
with its working face oblique to 
the axis. 

bevelment (bev'el-ment), n. the act 
or process of beveling. 

beverage (bev'er-aj), n. drink of 
any description; liquor for drink- 

bevy (bev'i), a company or assembly 
of persons, especially of ladies ; a 
flock of quails or larks. 

bewail (be-wal'), v.t. to mourn or 
weep aloud for ; lament : v.i. to ex- 
press grief. 

bewailment (be-wal'ment), n. the 
act of lamenting ; a lamentation. 

beware (be- war'), v.i. to be on one's 
guard ; be wary or cautious ; take 

bewilder (be-wil'der), v.t. to lead 
into perplexity or confusion ; puz- 

bewilderment (be-wil'der-ment), n. 
the state of being greatly puzzled 
or perplexed; a tangled or con- 
fused mass. 

bewitch, (be-wich'), v.t. to cast a 
spell over ; subject to witchcraft ; 
charm beyond the power of resist- 
ance ; fascinate. 

bewitchery (be-wich'er-i), n. witch* 
ery ; fascination ; charm. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, n^t* boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tTien. 



"be-witcliing (be-wich'ing), adj. hav- 
ing power to fascinate; captivat- 
ing; alluring. 

be-w-itcliment (be-wich'ment), n. 
fascination ; charm ; power of be- 

"bewray (be-ra'), v.t. ]_p.t. & p.p. 
bewrayed, bewraying], to ex- 
pose, reveal. 

bey (ba), n. a governor of a province 
or district in the Turkish domin- 
ions ; a Turkish title of respect ; a 

beylik (ba'lik), n. the territory ruled 
by a bey. 

beyond (be-yond'), prep, on the fur- 
ther side of ; before ; past ; out of 
reach of ; later than ; above ; in a 
degree or amount exceeding or sur- 
passing : adv. further away ; yon- 
der : n. that state of existence which 
is beyond our present experience. 

bezan (bez'an), n. a Bengal cotton 

bez-antler (bez-ant'ler), n. the sec- 
ond branch of a stag's horn next 
to the antler proper. 

bezel (bez'el), n. the slope at the 
edge of a cutting tool ; the rim 
which encompasses and fastens a 
gem in its setting ; the groove in 
which the glass of a watch is fitted. 

bezetta (be-zet'ta), n. a dye obtained 
by immersing coarse rags in a col- 
ored solution. 

"bezique (be-zek'), n. a modern game 
of cards. 

bezoar (be'zor), n. a calcareous con- 
cretion found in the intestines of 
certain animals. 

bbang or bang (bang), n. an East- 
ern drug prepared from the dried 
leaves of the hemp plant, having 
strong narcotic and astringent tiual- 
ities ; hashish. 

biannual ( bi-an'u-al ) , adj. occur- 
ring twice in a year. 

biannually (-li), adv. twice a year. 

biarticulate (bi-ar-tik'u-lat), adj. 
having two joints. 

bias (bi'as), n. [pi. biases (-ez)], a 
seam formed by uniting the edges 
of two pieces of cloth cut obliquely 
to the texture ; a weight on the side 
of a bowl which causes it to turn 
from a straight line ; prepossession 

or undue propensity for; prejudice: 
v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, -ing], to 
give a bias or particular direction 
to ; incline to one side ; influence ; 
prejudice ; prepossess : adv. in a 
slanting manner ; obliquely. 

biauricnlate (bi-aw-rik'u-lat), adj. 
having two auricles, as the heart of 
the higher vertebrates ; having two 
ear-like projections at the base, as 
a leaf. 

biaxial (bi-aks'i-al) or biaxal ('al), 
adj. having two axes. 

biaxially (-li), adv. with two axes. 

bib (bib), n. a piece of cloth placed 
under an infant's chin to protect its 

bibasic (bi-bas'ik), adj. a term ap- 
plied to acids which combine with 
two equivalents of a base. 

bibber (bib'er), n. a tippler. 

Bible (bi'bl), n. the Book (or the 
Books) by pre-eminence; the writ- 
ings of the Old and New Testament, 
whether in the original tongue or 

Biblical (bib'li-kal), adj. of or per- 
taining to the Bible ; scriptural. 

Biblically (-li), adv. according to 
the Bible. 

Biblicist (bib'li-sist), n. one who 
adheres to the strict letter of the 

bibliograpber (bib-li-og'ra-fer), ii. 
one who is versed in the making of 
books, or writes a history of their 

bibliograpbic (bib-li-o-graf'ik) or 
bibliograpliical (-al), adj. per- 
taining to the history of books. 

bibliograpbically (-li), adv. in a 
bibliographical manner. 

bibliography (bib-li-og'ra-fi), n. the 
science or description of books ; a 
list of authorities on any subject. 

biblioklept (bib'li-o-klept) , n.a. book 

bibliolater (bib-li-ol'a-ter) or bib- 
liolatrist (-trist), n. a book wor- 
shiper ; one addicted to bibliolatry. 

bibliolatry (bib-li-ol'a-tri), n. book 
worship ; excessive reverence for the 
letter of the Scriptures. 

bibliological (bib-li-o-loj'ik-al) ,«<?/. 
pertaining to bibliology. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booDf 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




bibliology (bib-li-ol'o-ji), n. an ac- 
count of books; Biblical literature 
or doctrine. 
bibliomania (bib-li-6-ma'ni-a), n. a 
mania for acquiring rare and curi- 
ous books. 
bibliomaniac (bib-li-o-ma'ni-ak), n. 
one who has a mania for acquiring 

bibliopbile (bib'li-o-fil), n. a lover 
of books. 

bibliopbilism (bib-li-of'i-lizm), n. 
\o\Q of books. 

bibliopole (bib'li-o-p61), n. a book- 
seller, especially one who deals in 
rare works. 

bibliotbeca (bib-li-o-the'ka), n. a 

biblus (bib'lus), n. another name 
^for the papyrus. 

bibulous (bib'u-lus), adj. readily ab- 
sorbing or imbibing fluids ; spongy ; 
addicted to drink. 

bicallose (bi-kal'os) or bicallous 
^('us), adj. having two callosities. 

bicameral ( bi-kam'e-ral ) , adj. per- 
taining to or consisting of two 
legislative chambers. 

bicarbonate (bi-kar'bon-at), n. a 
carbonate or salt containing two 
equivalents of carbonic acid to one 
of a base. 

bicarinate (bi-kar'i-nat), adj. hav- 
ing two keel-like projections. 

bicaudate (bi-kaw'dat), adj. fur- 
^nished with or ending in two tails. 

bice or bise (bis), n. name given to 
two pigments used in painting, one 
blue and the other green, called blue 
^bice and green _bice respectively. 

bicentenary (bi-sen'te-na-ri), n. the 
two hundredth anniversary of any 
event, or its celebration : adj. per- 
taining to a bicentenary. 

bicentennial ( bi-sen-ten'i-al ) , adj. 
comprising two hundred years : n. 
the two hundredth anniversary of 
an event, or its celebration. 

bicephalous (bi-sef'a-lus), adj. hav- 
ing two heads. 

biceps (bi'seps), n. a muscle having 
two heads ; the large flexor muscle 
of the arm and thigh. 

bichloride (bi-klo'rid or ('rid), n. a 
compound of two or more atoms of 
chlorine combined with a base. 

bicbord (bi'kSrd), adj. having two 

bichromate (bi-kro'mat), n. a salt 
having two parts of chromic acid to 
one of the base. 

bicipital ( bi-sip'it-al ) or bicipi- 
tons (-us), adj. having two heads; 
pertaining to a biceps muscle; di- 
viding into two parts at either ex- 

bicker (bik'er), v.i. to engage in 
petty altercation ; move rapidly 
with a noise ; quiver ; flicker : n. a 
^noisy wrangle. 

biconcave (bi-kon'kav), adj. hollow 
on both sides. 

bicon jugate (bi-kon'ju-gat), adj, 
^twice paired. 

biconvex (bi-kon'veks), adj. rounded 
on both sides. 

bicorn (bi'korn) or bicornus ('us), 
adj. having two horns. 

bicorporal (bi-kor'po-ral) or bi- 
eorporate (-rat), adj. having two 

bicuspid (bi-kus'pid) or bicuspi- 
date (-at), adj. having two points 
or prominences : n. one of the 
double-pointed teeth forming the 
first pair of molars on either side 
^of the jaw, above and below. 

bicycle (bi'si-kl), n. a vehicular ma- 
chine of various forms, but consist- 
ing primarily of two wheels placed 
in line, connected -hj a fork and 
backbone, and supporting a saddle 
for the rider, the machine being 
propelled by means of treadles at- 
tached to cranks or levers : v.i. to 
ride on a bicycle. 

bicycling (bi'si-kling) , or bicy- 
clism (-klizm), n. the practice or 
art of riding a bicycle. (The abbre- 
viation cycling is now more gener- 
ally though less accurately used.) 

bicyclist (bi'sik-list), n. one who 
rides a bicycle ; a cyclist. 

bid (bid), v.t. [p.t. bade (bad) or 
bid, p.p. bidden, bid, bidding], 
to make an offer of ; propose as a 
price ; offer for ; invite ; request ; 
ask ; offer or express by words ; 
command ; order or direct ; enjoin ; 
to proclaim : v.i. to make an offer ; 
offer a price : n. an offer of a price ; 
a price offered at auction. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, Wien. 




biddable (bid'a-bl), adj. docile, 

bidder (bid'er), n. one who bids or 
offers a price, as at a sale or auc- 

biddery-ware (bid'er-i-war), n. in- 
laid work made from a metallic 
alloy. Called also bidhri-ware. 

bidding (bid'ing), n. an order; com- 
mand ; proclamation ; the act of 
offering a price at auction. 

biddy (bid'i), n. a fowl or chicken. 

bide (bid), vA. [p.t. & p.p. bode, 
bided, biding] , inhabit ; reside : 
v.t. to endure ; suffer ; wait for. 

bident (bi'dent), n. a two-pronged 

bidental (bi-den'tal) or bidentate 
('tat), adj. having two teeth, or 
two tooth-like processes. 

bidet (bi-def, French be-da'), n. a 
form of night commode ; a portable 
bath ; a sitz bath. 

bidh.ri-'ware. See biddery-ware. 

biennial ( bi-en'ni-al ) , adj. happen- 
ing once in two years ; continuing 
or existing for two years, as plants : 
n. SL plant which produces roots and 
leaves in the first year, and in the 
second flowers, fruit, and seed, aft- 
erwards perishing; something which 
is held once in two years. 

biennially (-li), adv. once in two 

bier (ber), n. a frame or carriage on 
which a corpse is placed, or con- 
veyed to the grave; a tomb. 

bifacial (bi-fa'-shi-al), adj. having 
two similar faces or the opposite 
surfaces alike. 

bifarious (bi-fa'ri-us), adj. two- 
fold; two-rowed; pointing in two 

biferous (bif'er-us), adj. bearing 
flowers or fruit twice a year. 

bifid (bi'fid), adj. partially divided 
into two. 

bifilar (bl-firar), adj. two-threaded; 
fitted with two threads. 

bifocal (bi-fo'kal), adj. having two 

bifold (bi'fold), adj. two-fold; dou- 

bifoliate (bi-fo'li-at), adj. having 
two leaves. 

ate, arm, Ssk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, *7ien. 

bifurcate (bi-fer'kat), v.i. to divide 
in two directions or branches. 

bifurcate (bi-fer'kat) or bifur* 
cated (-ed), adj. divided into two 

bifurcation (bi-fer-ka'shun), n. a 
forking or division into two 

big (big), adj, compar. bigger, su- 
perl, biggest], of great bulk or mag- 
nitude ; grown up ; pregnant ; full 
of something important ; full ; in- 
flated ; pompous. 

big game (big' gam), n. a hunter's 
name for large animals. 

bighorn (big'horn), n. the wild sheep 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

big-wig (big'wig), n. an important 
person ; great official importance. 

biga (bi'ga), n. a two-horse chariot. 

bigamist (big'a-mist), n. one guilty 
of bigamy. 

bigamous (big'a-mus), adj. pertain- 
ing to and involving bigamy. 

bigamy (big'a-mi), n. the offense of 
contracting a second marriage dur* 
ing the existence of a former mar- 

bigbt (bit), n. a loop or bend of a 
rope, in distinction from the ends ; 
a bend in a coast-line forming an 
open bay; a small bay between two 

Bignonia (big-no'ni-a), n. a large 
genus of American tropical climb- 
ing plants, to which the trumpet- 
creeper belongs. 

bigot (big'ot), n. one who is unrea- 
sonably and blindly attached to a 
particular creed, church, or party; 
one who is intolerant of opinions 
which differ from his own. 

bigoted (big'ot-ed), adj. character- 
ized by bigotry. 

bigotry (big'ot-ri), n, [pi. bigotries 
(-riz)], the state or condition of a I 
narrow-minded, intolerant person ; 
blind and obstinate attachment to a 
particular creed, party, or opinion; 
intolerance ; fanaticism. 

bijou (be-zho6'), n. [pi. bijoux 
(-zhooz)], a jewel; any small and 
elegantly finished article. 

bijouterie (be-zhoo'tre), n. jewelry 
or other small articles of vertu. 




hike (bik), n, a bicycle: v.i. to ride 
a bicycle. 

bilabiate (bi-la'bi-at), adj. having 
two lips. 

bilander (bil'an- & bi'lan-der), n. a 
small two-masted Dutch vessel of 
the hoy class. 

bilateral (bi-lat'er-al), adj. per- 
taining to, or having two sides. 
.bilaterally (-li), adv. in a two- 
sided manner ; on both sides. 

bilberry (bil'ber-ri), n. [pi. bilber- 
ries (-riz)], the whortleberry. 

bilbo (bil'bo), n. [pi. bilboes ('boz)], 
a rapier or sword ; pi. a long bar of 
iron with sliding shackles for the 
feet, and a lock at the end, for- 
merly used as fetters. 

bile (bil), n. a yellow bitter fluid 
secreted by the liver from venous 
blood ; ill-humor. 

bile-stone (-ston), n. a gall-stone. 

bilge (bilj), n. the bulging part of a 
cask ; the broadest part of a ship's 
bottom, on which the vessel rests 
when aground : v.i. to spring a leak 
by a fracture in the bilge : v.t. to 
stave, or break in, the bottom or 
bilge of a ship. 

bilge-board (-bord), n. one of the 
boards covering the timbers where 
the bilge-water accumulates. 

bilge-keel (-kel), n. a piece of tim- 
ber secured edgewise under the bot- 
tom of a vessel to prevent heavy 

bilge-water (-waw-ter), n. water 
which accumulates in the bilge of 
a ship. 

bilge-ways (-waz), the timber 
supporting the cradle of a vessel, 
which upholds it while being built, 
and in launching. 

biliary (bil'i-a-ri), adj. pertaining to 
the bile ; conveying the bile. 

bilin (bi'lin), n. a yellow gummy 
substance precipitated from bile. 

bilingual (bi'ling'gwal), adj. writ- 
ten or expressed in two languages. 

bilingually (-li), adv. in two lan- 

bilious (bil'yus), adj. pertaining to 
the bile ; having the system disor- 
dered by derangement of the biliary 
function ; choleric. 

biliousness (-nes), n. the state of 
being bilious. 

biliteral (bi-lit'er-al), adj. consist- 
ing of two letters : n. a word, root, 
or syllable consisting of two letters. 

bilk (bilk), v.t. to spoil the score ot 
an opponent at cribbage; deceive 
or defraud, as by evading a pay- 
ment ; leave in the lurch : n. the 
act of spoiling the score of an oppo- 
nent at cribbage ; a swindler. 

bill (bil), n. the beak of a bird; v.i. 
to join bills, as doves ; caress in 
fondness ; to issue bills or posters. 

bill (bil), n. a kind of hatchet with 
a blade hook-shaped toward the 
point, used in pruning, &c. ; a bat- 
tle-axe, attached to a long staff, 
formerly used by infantry ; the ex- 
tremity of the fluke of an anchor. 

bill (bil), n. an account for goods 
sold, services rendered, or work 
done; a document binding the 
signer or signers to pay a specified 
sum at a certain date or on de- 
mand ; a draft of a proposed statute 
presented to a legislature ; a printed 
advertisement ; any written paper 
containing a statement of particu- 
lars ; a written declaration of wrong 
or injury sustained or committed. 

bill-broker (bil'bro-ker), n. one 
who negotiates the discount of bills 
of exchange. 

bill of entry (en'tri), n. a written 
account of goods entered at the cus- 
tom house. 

bill of exchange (eks-chanj'), n. a 
written order from one person or 
house (the drawer) to another (the 
acceptor) to pay to the person des- 
ignated a certain sum at a fixed 
time, in consideration of value re- 

bill of health (-helth), n. a certifi- 
cate given to the master of a vessel, 
under the signature -of a ©onsul or 
other authority, specifying the state 
of the health of a ship's company 
or passengers at the time of her 
clearing a port. 

bill of lading (la'ding), n. a docu- 
ment specifying the goods shipped 
on board a vessel, and signed by the 
master of such ship, acknowledging 
the receipt of the goods, and under- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 





taking their safe conveyal to the 
consignee, unforeseen perils being 
only excepted. 

bill of mortality (m6r-tari-ti), n. 
the official return of the deaths 
(also births) occurring in a par- 
ticular district within a certain 

till of sale (sal), n. a formal in- 
strument for the transfer of goods 
and chattels. 

billet (bil'et), n. a small paper in 
writing ; a note or short letter ; 
ticket directing soldiers at what 
house to lodge ; a soldier's lodging : 
v.t. to quarter or lodge, as soldiers : 
v.i. to be quartered or lodged. 

billet (bil'et), n. a small stick or log 
of wood, as for fuel ; an ornament 
in Norman work, resembling a bil- 
let of wood. 

billet-doux (bil-le-doo'), n» [pi. 
billets-doux (bil-le-doo')], a love- 

bill-liook (bil'hook), w. a small kind 
of hatchet with a hooked point. 

billiards (bil'yerdz), n. a game 
plaved on a rectangular, cloth-cov- 
ered slate table, 12 ft. x 6 ft. in 
size, with ivory balls and a cue. 
(The sing, form IjilUard is used 
always in composition.) 

billingsgate (bil'ingz-gat), n. coarse 
or profane language ; virulent abuse. 

billion (bil'yun), n. in the United 
States one thousand millions (1,- 
000,000,000) ; in England a million 
millions (1,000,000,000,000). 

billon (bil'on), n. an alloy of gold 
and silver, with a large proportion 
of copper or other base metal, used 
in coinage of low value. 

billot (bil'ot), n. bullion in the mass 
or bar. 

billow (bil'o), n. a great wave of 
the sea swelled by the wind : v.i. 
to rise and roll in large waves or 

billy-goat (bil'i-got), n. a male goat. 

bilobate (bi-lo'bat), or bil«bed 
('lobd), adj. divided into two lobes 
or segments. 

bimanons (bi'ma-nus), adj. having 
two hands. 

Iiimetallic (bi-me-tal'ik), adj. per- 

taining to two metals ; pertaining to 

bimetallism (bi-met'al-izm), n. the 
legalized adoption of two metals (as 
gold and silver) in the currency of 
a country, at a fixed ratio. 

bimetallist (bi-met'al-ist), n, an ad- 
vocate for the use of a double 
metallic standard. 

bimonthly (bl-munth'li), adj. oc- 
curring once in two months. [Some- 
times incorrectly employed to desig- 
nate semi-montlily periodicals.] 

bin (bin), n a receptacle for any 
commodity, as corn, coal, &c. ; a 
frame for bottles in a wine-cellar. 

binary (bi'na-ri), adj. consisting of 
two things or parts ; twofold. 

binary star (star), n. a double star 
or sun whose members revolve round 
their common center of gravity. 

binate (bi'nat), adj. growing in 

bind (bind), v.t. ]_p.t. & p.p. bound; binding], to confine or make 
fast with a cord or band ; confine 
or restrain by physical force ; unite 
by bonds of affection, loyalty, or 
duty ; hold by any moral tie ; hinder 
or restrain ; protect or strengthen 
by a band, border or cover ; fasten 
together ; cause to cohere ; place 
under legal obligation : v.i. to tie 
up ; confine by ligature or band ; 
be obligatory ; grow hard or stiff ; 
stick together : n. anything which 
binds or ties ; a twining stem ; a 
stalk of hops ; indurated clay or 
shale forming the roof of a coal- 
seam ; a musical sign or brace 
grouping notes together. 

bind- weed (-wed), n. a common 
name for plants belonging to the 
genus Convolvulus. 

binding (bind'ing), n. the act of 
making fast ; a bandage ; the cover 
of a book; something that secures 
the edges of cloth. 

bine (bin), n. the slender stem of a 
twining plant. 

bing (bing), n. a heap or pile of any- 

binnacle (bin'a-kl), n. a turret- 
shaped box containing a ship's corn- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; bodOi 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 

1. Most beautiful type. — 2. Six-threaded or Golden. — 3. King 




l>inocle (bin'o-kl or bi'no-kl), w. a 
field or opera glass with two eye- 
tubes for the use of both eyes at 

binocular (bi-nok- or bin-ok'u-ler), 
adj. having two eyes ; pertaining to, 
or suited to, the use of both eyes. 
^Also binoculate. 

binomial (bi-no'mi-al), n. an expres- 
sion or quantity consisting of two 
terms connected by the sign plus 
( + ) or minus ( — ) : adj. consist- 
ing of two terms ; pertaining to bi- 
nomials ; having two names. 

binomial theorem (the'6-rem), n. 
the celebrated theorem of Sir Isaac 
Newton, which expresses the law of 
formation of any power of a bino- 

liinoxide. Same as dioxide. 

bioblast. Another name for bio- 

biodynamics (bI-6-di-nam'iks), n. 
the doctrine of vital force or energy. 

biogenesis (bi-o-jen'e-sis), or biog- 
eny (-oj'e-ni), n. the doctrine that 
living organisms can proceed only 
from, or be generated by, living 
parents or germs ; the science of 
life development. 

biograph. (bi'o-graf), n. a device for 
projecting animated pictures onto a 

biographer (bi-og'ra-fer), n. one 
who writes the history of a particu- 
lar person's life. 

biograpbically ( bi-o-graf 'i-kal-li ) , 
adv. in the manner of a life history. 

biography (bl-og'ra-fi), n. [pi. biog- 
raphies (-fiz)], the history of the 
life of a particular person ; bio- 
graphical writings in general. 

biologic (bi-o-loj'ik), or biological 
(-al), adj. pertaining to the science 
of life. 

biologically (-li), adv. in accord- 
^ance with the principles of biology. 

biologist (bi-ol'o-jist), n. one who 
studies, or is skilled in, the science 
of living forms. 

biology (bl-ol'-o-ji), n. the science 
which deals with the origin and life- 
history of plants and animals. 

bioplasm (bi'6-plazm), n. living 
germinal matter or protoplasm. j 

bioplast (bi'o-plast), n. a minute 

mass of protoplasm possessing 
formative powers. 
biotaxy (bi'o-tak-si), n. the classifi- 
cation of living organisms according 
to their structural characters. 
biparous (bip'a-rus), adj. bringing 

forth two at a birth. 
bipartite (bl-par'tit), adj. divided 
into two similar parts ; having two 
correspondent parts. 
bipartition (bi-piir-tish'un), n. the 
act of dividing into two parts ; the 
state of being so divided. 
biped (bi'ped), adj. having two feet: 

n. a two-footed animal, 
bipedal (bi'ped-al), adj. pertaining 

to a biped ; two-footed. 

bipennate (bi-pen'nat), or bipen- 

nated (-ed), adj. having two wings. 

biplane (bi'plan), n. an aeropltuie 

with two planes or sustaining t ur- 

faces, as in the Wright or Farman 


biplicate (bi'pli-kat), adj. doubly 

biq[uadrate (bi-kwod'rat), or bi- 
quadratic (-rat'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to the fourth power : n. the 
fourth power, arising from the mul- 
tiplication of a square number or 
quantity by itself. 
birch (berch), n. [pi. birches ('ez)], 
a tree or shrub belonging to the 
genus Betula ; a rod formed of birch 
twigs used for punishment ; a birch- 
bark canoe : adj. birchen : v.t. to 
chastise with a birch rod ; flog. 
bird (berd), n. a warm-blooded 
feathered vertebrate, furnished with 
wings, and belonging to the class 
Aves ; small feathered game, as dis- 
tinguished from water-fowl : v.i. to 
shoot or catch birds. 
birdlime (berd'llm), n. a viscous 
substance prepared from holly-bark, 
and used for entangling small birds 
in bird-snaring : v.t. to smear with 
bird's-eye (berdz'i), adj. seen from 
above, or at a glance, as by a flying 
bird; hence, general, not minute or 
biretta (be-ret'ta), n. a square ec- 
clesiastical cap. Also birretta, be- 
retta, berretta. 

ate, arm, 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




birn (bern), n. that part of a clario- 
net or a similar instrument into 
which the mouthpiece fits. 

"birostrate (bi-ros'trat), adj. having 
a double beak, or beak-like process. 

birth (berth), n. the act of coming 
into life ; the fact of being born ; 
the act of bringing forth ; lineage ; 
extraction ; descent ; origin ; begin- 

birth-rate ('rat), n. the increase of 
population as shown by the percent- 
age of registered births to the num- 
ber of inhabitants in a district 
within a specified period. 

birth-right ('rit), n. any right or 
privilege to which a person is en- 
titled by birth ; the right of the first 

biscuit (bis'kit), n. sl kind of un- 
raised bread, baked hard and drj', 
and shaped in flat cakes ; pottery 
after the first baking and previous 
to glazing and burning. 

bisect^ (bi-sekt'), v.t. to cut or di- 
vide into two equal parts. 

bisection (bi-sek'shun), n. division 
into two equal parts. 

bisector (bi-sek'ter), n. one who, or 
that which, bisects ; a straight line 
which bisects an angle. 

bisexual (bi-seks'u-al), adj. combin- 
ing the organs of both sexes in one 
individual ; hermaphrodite. 

b'shop (bish'up), n. one of the high- 
est orders of an Episcopal Church ; 
below in rank to an archbishop, but 
above a priest ; a spiritual overseer ; 
the spiritual head or ruler of a \ 
diocese, having the power of ordina- 
tion, confirmation, and consecra- 
tion ; the name of one of the pieces 
used in playing chess, having _ the 
top cleft in resemblance to a miter, 
originally called archer; a beverage 
composed of wine, oranges, lemons, 
and sugar ; a woman's dress-im- 
prover ; a kind of pinafore : v.t. [p.t. 
& p.p. -ed, -ing], to make a 
horse appear younger by manipulat- 
ing its teeth, and hence to deceive 
by improving the appearance of any- 

bishop's sleeve (bish'ups-slev), n. 
a wide sleeve worn by women, so 

j called from its resemblance to that 
worn by Anglican bishops. 

bishop's staff (bish'ups-staf), n. a 

bishopric (bish'up-rik), n. the of- 
fice, dignity or jurisdiction of a 
bishop ; a diocese. 

bisk or bisque (bisk), n. soup or 
broth composed of several kinds of 
meat or fish boiled together ; craw- 
fish soup ; a stroke allowed to an 
inferior player or side at lawn- 

bismuth (bis'- or biz'muth), n. one 
of the elements, a light reddish- 
^colored metal of brittle texture. 

bison (bi'son), n. the aurochs, or 
European bison, still preserved in 
Lithuania ; the American bison, in- 
accurately termed the buffalo, which 
is now practically extinct. 

bisque (bisk), n. an unglazed white 
porcelain, used for statuettes, &c. 

bissextile ^ (bis-seks'til), n. leap- 
-year : adj. pertaining to leap-year. 

bister (bis'ter), n. a dark brown 
pigment extracted from wood-soot. 

bisulphate (bi-sul'fat), n. a salt of 
sulphuric acid in which half of its 
hydrogen is replaced by a positive 

bisulphite (bi-sul'fit), n. a salt of 
sulphurous acid, half the hydrogen 
of which is replaced by the base. 

bisymmetry (bi-sim'e-tri), n. corre- 
spondence of the right and left parts 
of anything. 

bit (bit), p.t. & p.p. of bite. 

bit (bit), ii. a tool for boring; the 
metal mouthpiece of a bridle ; the 
part of a, key which enters the lock 
and acts on the bolts and tumblers ; 
the cutting blade of a plane ; a 
small piece or fragment of any- 
thing ; any small coin : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. bitted; bitting], to put a 
bridle upon ; put the bit in the 
mouth of. 

bitch (bich), n. the female of the 
dog, or of other canine animals. 

bite (bit), v.t. [p.t. bit, p.p. bitten, 
bit, biting], to seize, grip, cut, 
or crush with the teeth ; sting, as an 
insect ; cause smarting pain to ; cut ; 
pinch, as with intense cold ; blight 
or blast ; take fast hold on ; to cor- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




rode or eat into ; to cheat, trick, take 
in [now only in p.p.] : v.i. to have 
the habit or exercise the power of 
biting ; inflict injury with the teeth ; 
cause to sting or smart ; take a bait ; 
take a firm hold : n. the act of 
seizing with the teeth ; a wound 
made by the teeth, or by a sting ; 
a mouthful ; a hold or grip ; in print- 
ing, a blank on a page due to some 
intervening substance between the 
paper and the type. 

bi-telephoxLe (bi-tere-fon), n. a pair 
of telephones arranged so that they 
can be applied simultaneously to 
both ears. 

bitingly (-li), adv. in a sarcastic 

bitt (bit), n. a post of wood or iron 
to which cables are made fast [gen- 
erally used in the pi.} : v.t. to put 
round the bitts. 

bitten, p.p. of bite. 

bitter (hit'er) , adj. having a sharp 
or harsh taste ; acrid ; piercing ; 
painful ; grievous ; poignant ; severe ; 
reproachful ; caustic ; sarcastic ; 
cruel : n. any substance that is bit- 

bitter- cup (-kup), n. a cup made of 

. quassia wood, which imparts a bit- 
ter taste to liquids poured into it. 

bitter-sweet (bit'er-swet), n. the 
woody nightshade, the roots and 
leaves of which when chewed pro- 
duce first a bitter, then a sweet 

bitterisb (-ish), adj. somewhat bit- 

bittern (bit'ern), n. a wading bird 
of the heron family ; the residual 
brine in salt works from which 
Epsom salt is prepared. 

bitters (bit'ers), liquor in 
which herbs or roots are steeped. 

bitumen (bi-tii'men), n. mineral 

bituminous (bi-tu'min-us), adj. hav- 
ing the qualities of, or containing, 

bivalent (bi'va- or biv'a-lent), n. slji 
element, one of the atoms of which 
can replace two atoms of hydrogen. 

bivalve (bi'valv), adj. having two 
valves or shells united by a liga- 

ment : n. a mollusk whose shell is 
composed of two parts or valves, 
connected by a ligament or hinge, 
which are opened or closed by 
muscles, as the oyster or mussel. 

bivouac (biv'oo-ak), n. an encamp- 
ment of soldiers in the open air, 
without tents : hence, any open air 
encampment : v.i. to encamp with- 
out tents in the open. 

biwa (be'wa), n. a Japanese musical 
instrument similar to the mandolin. 

biweekly _(bi-wek'li), adj. occurring 
or appearing every two weeks ; fort- 
nightly [frequently confused with 
semi-weekly = twice in a week]. 

bizarre (bi-zar',) adj. odd in manner 
or appearance ; fanciful ; grotesque. 

blab (blab), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. blabbed, blabbing], to tell thoughtless- 
ly : v.i. to talk indiscreetly ; tell 
tales : n. one who lets out secrets, 
or tells tales. 

black (blak), adj. destitute of light; 
of the darkest hue ; opposed to 
white ; enveloped in darkness ; dis- 
mal ; gloomy or forbidding ; desti- 
tute of moral light or goodness ; 
atrocious ; evil ; calamitous ; threat- 
ening ; clouded with anger ; sullen : 
n. the darkest color ; the opposite of 
white ; a black pigment or dye ; a 
negro ; mourning : v.t. to make 
black ; blacken . apply blacking to. 

blackamoor (biak'a-moor), n. a. 

black antimony (an'-ti-mo-ni), n. 
the black sulphide of antimony. 

black art, necromancy, magic. 

blackball (blak'bawl), v.t. to reject 
or exclude (as a candidate) by 
placing black balls in the ballot 

blackberry (blak'ber-ri), n. the 
fruit of several species of bramble. 

blackbird (blak'berd), n. an English 
song bird, a species of thrush. 
Called also merle, ousel, or black 
thrush ; a crow-like bird of North 
America ; a name given to a kid- 
napped negro or Polynesian. 

blackbirding (-ing), n. the kidnap- 
ping of such negroes or Polyne- 

black-canker (blak'-kangk-er), n. 
a disease in root crops. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




black-cap (blak'-kap), n. the popu- 
lar name of several black-crested 
birds ; the cap worn by a judge 
when pronouncing sentence of 
death ; the black raspberry. 

black-cattle (blak'-kat'l), cat- 
tle raised for slaughter, irrespective 
of color. 

black-cock (blak'-kok), n. the male 
of the European black grouse or 
black game ; the heath-cock. 

black-currant (blak'kur-ent), n. 
the well-known garden bush, and 
its fruit. 

blacken (blak'n), v.i. to grow black 
or dark : v.t. to make black ; de- 
fame ; asperse. 

black-fisk (blak'-fish), n. a female 
salmon immediately after spawn- 
ing ; a common name for several 
species of English and American 

black-flag (blak'-flag), n. the flag 
of a pirate with a skull and cross- 
bones emblazoned upon it. 

black-fly (blak'-fll), n. a black 
plant-louse ; a minute beetle inju- 
rious to turnips. 

black-friar (blak'-fri-ar), n, a friar 
of the Dominican order ; so called 
from the black gown adopted by 
members of the order. 

blackguard (blag'ard), n. a man of 
low character, and addicted to the 
use of foul or abusive language ; a 
scoundrel : adj. vicious ; low ; vile ; 
scurrilous ; abusive : v.t. to revile in 
scurrilous language. 

blackguardism (blag'ard-izm), n. 
the conduct or language of a black- 

black-bole (blak'-hol), n. a dun- 
geon or dark cell in a prison ; a 
place of confinement for soldiers. 

blacking (blak'ing), n. a prepara- 
tion for imparting a shining black 
polish to boots. 

blackisb (blak'ish), adj. somewhat 

black-jack (blak'-jak), n. a large 
leathern vessel or drinking-cup of 
old times ; the ensign of a pirate ; 
a Cornish mining term for blende. 

blacklead (blak'led), v.t.. to cover 
with blacklead or plumbago: n. 

black-leg (blak'-leg), n. one who 
endeavors to obtain money by cheat- 
ing at races or cards ; a rook ; an 
opprobrious term for a workman 
who is not a member of any trade 
union ; a disease affecting sheep and 

black-letter (blak'-let-er), n, the 
old English or Gothic letter em- 
ployed in the early manuscripts and 
the first printed books : adj. writ- 
ten or printed in black-letter. 

black-list (blak'list), n. a list of 
persons who are deemed to be de- 
serving of punishment, or whom it 
is desirable to exclude from busi- 
ness transactions : v.t. to put in a 

blackmail (blak'mal), w. a tax an- 
ciently paid in money, corn, or cat- 
tle, in the north of England, and in 
Scotland, to the agents of robbers, 
to secure protection from pillage ; 
hence extortion by means of intimi- 
dation : v.t. to extort money or 
goods from by intimidation of any 

blacksmitb (blak'smith), n. a smith 
who works in iron and makes iron 
utensils, horse-shoes, &c. 

blackthorn (blak'thorn), n. the 
sloe ; a stick cut from the stem of 
the sloe. 

bladder (blad'er), n. a thin elastic 
membranous bag in animals, in 
which a fluid is collected ; any ves- 
icle, blister, or pustule containing 
fluid or air ; a hollow membranous 
appendage to some plants : v.t. put 
up in a bladder, as lard. 

bladdery (blad'er-i), adj. resembling 
or containing bladders. 

blade (blad), n. the leaf of a grass; 
the young stalk or spire of a grass ; 
the broad expanded part of a leaf ; 
the cutting part of an instrument; 
the broad part of an oar ; anything 
resembling a blade ; a dashing, reck- 
less, rollicking fellow: v.t. to fur- 
nish with a blade: v.i. put forth 

blade-bone (blad'bon), n. the scap- 
ula or shoulder-blade. 

blain (blan), n. a pustule or blister. 

blamable or blameable (blam'a- 
bl ) , adj. deserving of censure. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 





blamably (-bli), adv. in aculpable 

blame (blam), v.t. to censure; re- 
proach : n. an imputation of a fault ; 
censure; responsibility for anything 

blameful (blam'fool), adj. meriting 

blamefully (-li), adv. in a censur- 
able manner. 

blanch (blanch), v.t. to take the 
color out ; make lustrous ; to remove 
the covering of : v.i. become white ; 
turn pale; n. lead ore found sepa- 
rate in the rock. 

blanc-mange (bla-monzh'), n. a 
white jelly, composed of isinglass, &c. 

bland (bland), adj. mild: soft; gen- 
tle ; affable ; soothing. 

blandishment (blan'dish-ment), n. 
winning expressions or actions ; art- 
ful caresses. 

blank (blangk), adj. confounded; 
confused ; dejected ; empty ; free 
from writing or printing ; without 
result ; absolute ; complete : n. any 
void space ; an unfilled space in a 
written or printed document ; a lot- 
tery ticket to which no prize is at- 
tached; a disk of metal prior to 
stamping ; the white spot in the 
center of a target : v.t. a euphemis- 
tic form of the oath damn. 

blank verse (vers), n. unrhymed 

blanket (blang'ket), n. a soft, loose- 
ly woven woolen cloth for a bed or 
as a covering : v.t, to toss in a 
blanket by way of punishment or 
joke ; pass to windward to take the 
wind out of the sails of. 

blanketing (blang'ket-ing), n. 
coarse cloth for blankets ; the act of 
tossing in a blanket. 

blare (blar), v.i. to bellow; to give 
forth a loud sound like a trumpet : 
v.t. to sound loudly ; trumpet forth : 
n. a noise like the blast of a trum- 

blarney (blar'ni), n. soft, wheedling 
speech ; flattery : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
blarneyed; blarneying], to in- 
fluence or talk over by soft whee- 
dling speeches ; humbug with flat- 

blarney-stone, a stone in the wall 
of Blarney Castle, Cork, on kissing 
which a person is said to become an 
adept in flattery. 

blase (bla-za'), adj. exhausted by 
excess of pleasure. 

blaspheme (blas-fem'), v.t. to speak 
irreverently of ; mock ; revile : v.i. to 
utter blasphemy ; use profane lan- 

blasphemous (blas'fe-mus), adj. 
uttering, containing, or exhibiting 
blasphemy ; profane. 

blasphemy (blas'fe-mi), n. [pi. blas- 
phemies (-miz)], impious, profane, 
or mocking speech concerning God 
or sacred things ; expressed con- 
tempt or contumely for the person- 
ality or authority of God. 

blast (blast), n. a violent or sudden 
gust of wind ; a forcible stream of 
air from an orifice ; the sound pro- 
duced by blowing a wind instru- 
ment ; any sudden pernicious in- 
fluence upon plants or animals; a 
blight ; the explosion of gunpowder, 
dynamite, &c., in i-ending or remov- 
ing rocks, or the charge so used ; a 
flatulent disease in sheep : v.t. to in- 
jure ; cause to fade or wither by 
some pernicious influence ; blight ; 
ruin or destroy ; to rend or shatter 
by any explosive agent. 

blastema (blas-te'ma), n. [pi. bias- 
temata (-ma-ta)], the point of 
growth of an organ as yet unformed, 
from which it is developed. 

blastoderm (blas'to-derm), n. the 
germinal spot in an ovum, from 
which the embryo is developed. 

blastogenesis (blas-to-jeu'e-sis), n. 
reproduction by gemmation or bud- 

blatant (bla'tant), adj. bawling; 

blather (bla^/i'er), n. foolish chatter. 

blaze (blaz), n. a body of flame ; bril- 
liant sunlight ; a sudden bursting 
out ; active display ; a white spot on 
the face of a horse or other quad- 
ruped : a white mark cut on a tree, 
to serve as a guide : v.t. to mark, as 
trees, by removing a portion of the 
bark ; to indicate, as a path or 
boundary, by blazing trees ; publish 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




widely : v.i. to flame ; send forth a 
brilliant light ; be conspicuous. 

"blazer (blaz'er), n. that which 
shines; a bright colored striped 

blazon (bla'zn), n. a coat of arms; 
a description of armorial bearings ; 
ostentatious display : v.t. to ex- 
plain technically, according to 
heraldic rules ; embellish ; display ; 
proclaim boastingly. 

blazonment (bla'zn-ment), n. the 
act of blazoning. 

blazonry (bla'zn-ri), n. a heraldic 
device ; the art of describing and 
explaining coats of arms; decora- 
tion, as with heraldic devices. 

bleacb. (blech), v.t. to make white 
by removing color or dirt by the 
action of the sun's rays, or by a 
chemical process : v.i. to grow or 
become white. 

lleachery (blech'er-i) , n. [pi. bleach- 
eries (-iz) ], a place where bleaching 
is carried on. 

bleacliing-pow^dei? (-poud'er), n. 
chloride of lime. ^ 

bleak (blek), adj. exposed to wind 
and cold ; desolate ; unsheltered ; 
cheerless ; piercing. 

bleak (blek), n. a small river fish, 
remarkable for its brilliant silvery 

blear (bier), adj. sore or dim from 
a watery discharge : said of the 
eyes : v.t. to make sore or watery, 
as the eyes ; to dim or obscure. 

bleat (blet), v.i. to cry as, or like, a 
sheep : n. a cry, as of a sheep. 

bleb (bleb), n. a blister; a pustule; 
a bubble._ 

bleed (bled), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. bled, bleeding], to emit, or lose 
blood ; to shed one's blood ; to lose 
sap or juice ; to pay or lose money 
freely : v.t. to take blood from ; take 
money, &c., from. 

blemisk (blem'ish), v.t. to injure; 
stain ; mar ; tarnish ; defame : n. 
any defect or deformity, physical or 
moral ; a blemish. 

blench (blench), v.i. to start back; 
flinch ; quail. 

blend (blend), v.t. to mix together, 
so that the things mixed cannot be 
separated or individually distin- 

guished : v.i. to mingle ; shade im- 
perceptibly into each other : n. a 
mixture, as of colors, liquids, tobac- 
cos, teas, &c. ; a shading of one 
color, &c., into another. 

blende (blend), n. native sulphide of 

bless (bles), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. -ed & 
blest, -ing], to consecrate: in- 
voke a blessing upon ; bestow happi- 
ness upon ; praise or extol ; esteem 

blessedness (bles'ed-nes), n. the 
state of being blessed; happiness; 
heavenly joys. 

blessing (bles'ing), n. an invocation 
of happiness on another ; a benedic- 
tion ; that which promotes prosper- 
ity ; a divine benefit or gift ; a mercy 
or boon ; grateful adoration. 

blest p.t., p.p. & p.adj. sl contracted 
form of blessed. 

blet (blet), n. a decayed spot in 
fruit: v.i. [p.t. & p.p. bletted, 
bletting], to become internally de- 

blew, p.t. of blow. 

blewits (bloo'its), n. the edible pur- 
ple mushroom. 

blight (blit), n. a disease in plants, 
which causes them to wither partly 
or^ wholly ; smut ; mildew ; any- 
thing which serves to check, nip, or 
destroy : v.t. to affect with blight ; 
to check, nip, destroy, or frustrate. 

blind (blind), adj. destitute of the 
sense of sight ; without light, moral- 
ly or ^ intellectually ; undiscriminat- 
ing ; inconsiderate ; hidden ; essen- 
tially incomplete ; closed at one end ; 
without understanding : n. anything 
which serves to hinder or obstruct 
vision, or intercept the passage of 
light ; a window-screen ; a blinker ; 
something to mislead the eye or the 
understanding : v.t. to deprive of 
sight ; make blind, intellectually or 
morally ; obscure ; conceal. 

blind-coal (kol), n. a flameless an- 

blind-fish (blind'fish), n. a diminu- 
tive fish of pale color, with rudi- 
mentary eyes, inhabiting the waters 
of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. 

ate, arm, §.sk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, *7ien. 




blind sliell (blind'shel), n. a shell 
which falls without exploding, or 
contains no charge. 

blind spot (blind'spot), n. that 
point in the retina where the optic 
nerve enters the eye, but is not sen- 
sitive to the light. 

blindness (-nes), n. want of sight; 
want of discernment ; ignorance ; 

I blindfold (bllnd'fold), adj. having 
the eyes covered so as to be unable 
to see ; having the mental eye or 
understanding darkened : v.t. to 
cover the eyes of, as with a bandage ; 
hinder from seeing. 

blindman (blind'man), n. [pi. blind- 
men (-men)], a man who is blind. 

blind worxa ( blind' werm), n. a small 
slender, limbness lizard, so named 
from the popular but erroneous sup- 
position that it was blind. Also 
called slow-worm. 

blink (blink), v.i. to wink with or 
as with the eye ; twinkle ; to get a 
glimpse ; glimmer : v.t. to evade or 
shut one's eyes to ; shirk : n. a 
glimpse or glance ; a gleam ; a glim- 
mer ; a twinkle ; the gleam reflected 
from an ice-field or -berg at sea : pi. 
boughs cast in the path of deer to 
check their course. 

blinker (bling'ker), n. one who 
blinks ; a leather flap placed one on 
each side of a horse's bridle to pre- 
vent him from seeing any object ex- 
cept in front ; that which obscures 
the sight or mental perception : pi. 
colored spectacles to shield the eyes 
from excess of light. 

1}liss (blis), n. the highest degree of 
happiness ; blessedness ; the perfect 
joy of heaven. 

blissfully (-li), adv. in a blissful 

blister (blis'ter), n. a vesicle or pus- 
tule on the skin containing watery 
matter or serum ; an elevation made 
by the raising of an external film 
or skin ; an application to the skin 
to produce a blister : v.t. to raise 
a blister or blisters on : v.i. to rise 
in blisters, or become covered with 

blitke (bli*^), adj. gay; joyous; 
glad ; mirthful ; sprightly. 

blitbesome (blK^'sum), adj. gay; 

blizzard (bliz'^rd), n. a furious hur- 
ricane of wind with fine blinding 
snow, and characterized by intense 
cold ; a poser. 

bloat (blot), v.t. to cure or dry in 

bloat (blot), v.t. to cause to swell; 
make turgid or swollen, as with 
water or air ; inflate ; make vain : 
v.i. to grow turgid. 

bloater (blot'er), n. a herring 
smoked and partially dried, but not 
split open. 

blob (blob), n. a blister; a bubble. 

block (blok), n. any unshaped solid 
mass of matter, as of wood, stone, 
&c. ; a piece of wood for supporting 
the neck of a person condemned 
to be decapitated ; a piece of hard 
wood prepared for the tool of the 
engraver ; the piece of hard wood 
to which an electrotype, &c., is se- 
cured ; a wooden mold for shapir.g 
hats; the piece of wood in which. 
the wheels of one or more grooved 
pvilleys run; a row of buildings; a 
square or portion of a city enclosed 
by streets; an obstruction; hin- 
drance ; shares bought or sold in the 
mass : v.i. to obstruct so as to hin- 
der the passage of persons or things ; 
stop up ; obstruct ; to secure or sup- 
port by blocks ; to mold or shape on 
a block ; to stop a train by signal ; 
to give notice of opposition to a bill, 
which cannot then be proceeded with 
after a specified time. 

block-kead (blok'hed), n. a stupid 

block-kouse (blok'hous), n. an edi 
fice constructed of heavy timber, 
and furnished with loopholes for 

block system (blok'sis-tem), n. a 
system of working railway trafiic 
by which the line is divided into 
short sections, nc train being al- 
lowed to leave a section until the 
next section is signaled clear. 

blockade (blok-ad'), n. the shutting 
up of a place, as a port, by hostile 
ships or troops, with a view to com- 
pelling a surrender by preventing 
ingress or egress, or the reception of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nCrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




supplies : v.t. to surround and shut 
up ; obstruct ; block. 

blockage (blok'aj), n. an obstruc- 

blond or blonde (blond), adj. of a 
fair color ; light colored : n. a per- 
son of very fair complexion and 
light hair (usually fem. blonde). 

bl«nde-Iace ('las), n. a silk lace. 

bl*ed (blud), n. the fluid which cir- 
culates in the arteries and veins of 
an animal ; the juice of anything, 
especially if red ; kinship ; consan- 
guinity ; lineage ; extraction ; high 
birth ; temper ; a man of high spirit ; 
fleshy nature ; blood shed in sacri- 
fice ; the atonement : v.t. to give a 
taste of blood ; inure to the sight of 

blood-beat (blud'het), n. the nor- 
mal heat of the human blood in 
health (98° F.). 

blood-borse (blud'hSrs), n. a. horse 
of pure breed or pedigree. 

bloodhound (blud'hound), n. a 
breed of large dogs remarkable for 
their acuteness of smell, and em- 
ployed to track vi^ounded game, or, 
as formerly, fugitive slaves and es- 
caped criminals ; a blood-hunter. 

blood-money (blud'mun-i), n. mon- 
ey obtained at the cost of another's 
life ; the reward paid for discovery 
or capture of a murderer ; compen- 
sation paid to the next of kin of a 
person slain by another. 

bloodstone (blud'ston), n. a dark 
green variety of quartz spotted with 
red jasper ; heliotrope ; red hematite 
iron ore. 

blooded, adj. of the best stock or 

bloodily (blud'i-li), adv. in a bloody 
manner ; relentlessly ; cruelly. 

bloodiness (-nes), n. the state of 
being bloody ; disposition to shed 

bloody (blud'i), adj. pertaining to, 
containing, or resembling blood ; 
blood-stained ; cruel ; murderous ; at- 
tended with bloodshed ; a coarse in- 
tensive expletive. 

bloody-flux (blud'i-fluks'), n. dys- 

bloom (bloom), n. a blossom; the 
flower of a plant ; the blossoming of 

flowers ; a state or period of health 
and growth, promising higher per- 
fection, or exhibiting freshness and 
beauty ; the blue color upon certain 
newly-gathered fruits; a flush; a 
glow; the powdery appearance on 
new coins, &c. ; a rough mass of 
iron from the puddling furnace, in- 
tended to be drawn out under the 
hammer or rolled into bars: v.i. to 
produce blossoms ; flower ; exhibit 
the freshness and beauty of youth; 

bloomer (bloom'er), n. a costume 
for women sought to be introduced 
by a Mrs. Bloomer, of New York, 
in 1849-50, and consisting of a short 
skirt, loose trowsers, fastened round 
the ankle, and a broad-brimmed hat. 
[Also used as adj.]. 

bloomery (bloom'er-i), or bloom- 
ary ('a-ri), n. a forge in which 
wrought iron is made directly from 
the ore. 

blossom (blos'um), n. the flower of 
a plant ; the state of flowering ; 
bloom : v.i. to put forth blossoms ; 
flower ; flourish. 

blot (blot), n. a spot or stain; an ob- 
literation or erasure ; a blemish ; 
disgrace : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. blotted, blotting], to spot or stain; 
mar ; stain with infamy ; cancel or 
efface [usually with out] ; dry with 
blotting-paper ; eclipse ; obscure. 

blotch (bloch), n. a large irregular 
spot ; a clumsy daub ; an eruption, 
or pustule : v.t. to mark or disfigure 
with irregular blots or spots. 

blotchy (bloeh'i), adj. having 

blottesque (blot-esk'), adj. coarsely 
delineated, or marred by a heavy 
touch or blots, 

blotty (blot'i), adj. full of blots. 

blouse (blouz), n. a light, loose over- 
garment ; a French workman : such 
artisans usually wearing a blue 

bloxr (bio), n. a mass of blossoms; 
the state or condition of flowering: 
v.i. [p.t. blew, p.p. blown, 
blowing], to blossom; flower. 

blo-w (bio), n. a stroke with the hand 
or with a weapon; a knock; an act 

ate, arm, 

at, awl; me, merge, met; nlte, mit; note, nSrth, not; booD. 
book; hue, hut; think, ^Tien. 







of hostility; a sudden shock or ca- 

blow (bio), v.i. [p J. blew, p.p. blown, blowing], to form or make a 
current of air ; pant ; breathe quick- 
ly ; sound by being blown ; spout ' 
water ; boast : v.t. to drive a current 
of air upon ; impel by a current of 
air ; sound a wind instrument by 
forcing air through it ; clear by 
forcing air through ; form by infla- 
tion ; put out of breath by fatigue ; 
scatter or shatter by explosives ; 
spread by report ; deposit eggs in or 
upon : n. a blowing ; a blast ; a gale 
of wind ; an egg deposited by a fly ; 
the spouting of a whale. 

blow- fly (blo'fli), n. any species of 
fly which deposits its eggs upon 
flesh. ^ 

blow-pipe (bl6'plp),w. a long tube of 
cane or reed used by South Amer- 
ican Indians and the Dyaks of Bor- 
neo to discharge arrows by the force 
of the breath ; a tube through which 
a current of air or gas is driven 
upon a flame so as to concentrate its 
heat upon a substance to fuse it. 

blo-wy (blo'i), adj. windy; breezy. 

blowzed (blouzd') or blowzy (blou'- 
zi), adj. ruddy- f aced ; high-colored; 
coarse-complexioned, as by exposure 
to the weather. 

blubber (blub'er), v.i. to weep vio- 
lently, or so as to disfigure the face : 
v.t. to disfigure with weeping : n. the 
fat of whales and other cetaceans, 
from which train-oil is prepared ; a 
jelly-fish or medusa. 

blucber (blooch'er), n. a strong half- 

bludgeon (bluj'un), n. a short heavy 
stick, sometimes loaded, used as a 

blue (blti), adj. of the color of the 
clear sky ; azure ; low-spirited ; dis- 
mal ; severe ; pedantic : n. color of 
the clear sky ; one of the primary 
colors ; azure ; a dye or pigment of 
this color ; pale without glare, as a 
flame : v.t'. to make, or dye, blue. 

blue-bell ('bel), n. the wild hya- 
cinth ; the harebell of Scotland. 

blue-book ('book), n. a governmen- 
tal official report, &c. : so called 
from the blue paper covers. 

blue blood ('blud), n. aristocratic 

bluebottle ('bot-1), n. a common 
field flower ; a species of fly. 

bluebonnet ('bon-et), n. a Scotch 
cap of blue cloth ; a name given to 
the Scottish troops before the 
Union ; a Scotchman. 

bluebuck ('buk), n. a name given to 
a small antelope, and the blauwbok 
of South America. 

blue-devils ('dev-ilz), w.pL low spir- 
its ; mental depression ; delirium tre- 

blue-grass ('gras), n. a rich pasture 

blue-gum ('gum), n. a lofty tree of 
Australia, valuable for its timber, 
and for its essential oil : used as a 
preventive against influenza. 

bluejacket (blii'jak-et), n. a sailor. 

bluelight (blu'lit), n. a light of that 
hue used as a signal ; a pyrotechnic 

blue-mold (blu'mold), n. a minute 
fungus which attacks Ijread and oth- 
er food-stuffs. 

blue-peter (blu'pe-ter), n. sl small 
blue flag with a white square in the 
center used as a signal for sailing, 

blue-ribbon (blti'rib-un), n. a prized 
distinction ; mark of success. 

blue-spar (blu'spar), n. lazulite. 

blue-stocking (blu'stok-ing), n. a 
wotnan of literary tastes or occupa^ 

blue-stone (blti'ston), n, sulphate of 

bluing (blti'ing), n. the process of 
imparting a blue tint ; the indigo, 
&c., used by washerwomen. 

bluff (bluf), adj. having a broad, 
flattened front ; rising steeply or 
boldly ; broad and full ; rough and 
hearty ; surly ; gruff : n. a high 
steep bank : a cliff or headland with 
a broad steep face : v.t. to deceive, or 
gain an advantage over, an oppo- 
nent in the game of poker, by in- 
ducing the other players to suppose 
one's hand is more valuable than it 
is in reality : hence to frighten by 
an assumed possession of strength 
or knowledge. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me. merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




bluffly (-li), adv. in a blunt, out- 
spoken, or off-hand manner. 

bluffy (bluf'i), adj. having bold steep 
banks, or headlands. 

bluisli (blu'ish), adj. somewhat blue. 

blunder (blun'der), v.i. to make a 
gross mistake ; err stupidly ; to move 
or act clumsily : n. a gross or stupid 

blunderbuss (blun'der-bus), n. a 
short gun or firearm with a large 
bore, now obsolete. 

blunderingly (blun'der-ing-li) , adv. 
in a blundering manner. 

blunt (blunt), adj. having a thick or 
rounded edge or point ; not sharp ; 
dull in understanding ; abrupt in 
address ; plain-spoken : n. money, 
especially silver money : v.t. to dull 
the edge or point of, by making it 
thicker ; impair the force, keenness, 
or susceptibility of. 

bluntish. (blunt'ish), adj. some'^hat 

blur (bier), v.t. [p.#. & p.p. blurred, blurring], to dim ; sully ; stain ; 
blemish : n. a smudge ; a moral stain 
or blemish ; a dim confused appear- 

blurt (blert), v.t. to speak inadver- 
tently ; divulge unadvisedly [usually 
with out]. 

blush, (blush), v.i. to become red in 
the face, as from shame or confus- 
ion ; bloom; feel shame (for) : n. 
the suffusion of the cheeks or face 
with a red color, through shame, 
confusion, modesty, &c. ; a red or 
reddish color ; a rosy tint. 

blushful (blush'fool), adj. full of 

blushfuUy (-li), adv. in a modest, 
blushing, manner. 

bluster (blus'ter), v.i. to be windy 
and boisterous, as the weather ; talk 
in a noisy, swaggering style ; bully ; 
use empty threats : v.t. to utter with 
noisy violence [with forth or out] : 
n. the noise and violence of a storm, 
or of the wind in impotent gusts; 
noisy talk ; empty menace ; swagger. 

blusterous (blus'ter-us), blustrous 
('trus), or blustery ('ter-i), adj. 
noisy ; tumultuous ; rough. 

boa (bo'a), n. [pi. boas ('az)], a 

huge serpent of South America ; a 
long fur tippet. 

boa-constrictor (bo'a-kon-strik- 
ter), n. a reptile remarkable for its 
length and power of destroying its 
prey by constriction. 

boar (bor), n. the male of swine; the 
wild hog, or wild boar. 

board (bord), n. a piece of timber 
sawed thin, and of considerable 
length and breadth compared with 
the thickness ; a table for food ; pro- 
vision ; entertainment ; a council or 
court ; a number of persons elected 
to the management of some public 
or private ofiice or trust ; a table op 
frame on which games are played ; 
a thick stiti kind of paper ; one of 
the two stiff covers of a book : pi. 
the stage of a theater ; the side, deck, 
or interior part of a ship or boat; 
the line over which a ship runs be- 
tween tack and tack ; v.t. to cover 
with boards ; place at a board ; fur- 
nish with food, or food and lodging, 
for a compensation ; go on board of ; 
enter a ship by force : v.i. to be sup- 
plied with meals, or obtain food and 
lodging, at a fixed charge. 

boarding (bord'ing), n. light timber 
collectively ; a covering of boards ; 
the act of supplying, or state of be- 
ing supplied with, food and lodging 
for a stipulated sum ; the act of en- 
tering a ship. 

bearish (bor'ish), adj. swinish; bru- 
tal ; cruel. 

boast (host), v.i. to brag; to speak 
of one's self or belongings in asser- 
tive and bombastic terms ; vaunt ; 
exult : v.t. to brag of : n. proud, 
vainglorious speech ; a cause of 
boasting ; occasion of pride, vanity, 
or laudable exultation ; a i=;troke, in 
tennis, driving the ball at an acutt 
angle against the court wall. 

boast (host), v.t. to dress (stone) 
with a broad chisel and mallet ; to 
dress (a block) in outline for a 
statue, &c., prior to more detailed 
or delicate work. 

boastful (bost'fool), adj. given t^ 

boastfully (-li), adv. in a boastfa' 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



lioat (bot), n. a small open vessel 
usually moved by oars but often by 
a sail ; a ship ; an open dish resem- 
bling a boat in shape : v.t. to trans- 
port in a boat : v.i. to go in a boat ; 
row ; sail. 

boatswain (bot'swan, usually bo'- 
sn), n. a petty officer of a ship who 
has charge of the rigging, anchors, 
cables, and cordage, and who sum- 
mons the crew to their duty. 

"bob (bob), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bobbed, bobbing], to impart a short 
jerking motion to ; to cut short : v.i. 
to have a short jerking motion ; 
move or play to and fro, or up and 
down ; to angle with a bob : n. any 
small round object playing loosely 
at the end of a cord, chain, &c. ; a 
pendant ; an ear-drop ; the weight at 
the end of a pendulum, plumb-line, 
&c. ; a knot of worms or rags on a 
spring, used in angling for eels ; a 
f .at ; a short jerking action or mo- 
tion ; a bobwig ; a shilling. 

bobbin (bob'in), n. one of the pins 
or small cylinders of wood used to 
carry and steady the threads in pil- 
low-lace making ; a spool or reel 
with a head at one or both ends, 
used to hold yarn or thread for 
spinning, weaving, or sewing ; a ma- 
chine-made cotton netting or lace, in 
imitation of pillow-lace ; bobbinet. 

bobolink (bob'o-lingk), n. an Amer- 
ican song-bird. Called also ricebird, 
reedbird, boblincoln. 

bob-stay (bob'sta), n. one of two or 
more ropes or chains to hold" the 
bowsprit down towards the stem or 

bobtail (bob'tal), n. a short tail or a 
tail cut short; the rabble (rag-tag 
and bobtail). 

bobtailed (bob'tald), at?;, having the 
tail cut short. 

bock-beer (bok'ber), n. a variety of 
lager beer of double strength. 

boco--wood ( bo'ko- wood ), w. the hard 
dark-colored wood of a tree of Gui- 
ana, extensively used for furniture, 
turnery^ &c. 

bode (bod), v.t. to portend; be an 
omen of : v.i. to augur ; presage. 

bodice (bod'is), n. the close-fitting 
waist or body of a woman's dress. 

bodily (bod'i-li), adj. not mental; 
corporeal : adv. corporeally ; entire- 

boding (bod'ing), n. an omen; pre- 
sentiment ; adj. foreboding ; ominous. 

bodkin (bod'kin), n. a pointed in- 
strument for piercing holes ; a blunt 
needle for drawing tape, ribbon, &c., 
through a hem or loop ; a long pin 
or stiletto to fasten up the hair ; an 
awl-like printer's tool. 

body (bod'i), n. [pi. bodies ('iz)], 
the material organized substance of 
an animal, as distinguished from the 
soul, spirit, or vital principle ; the 
trunk, or main portion, of an ani- 
mal or tree ; the main or principal 
part of anything ; a person ; a num- 
ber of individuals united by some 
common tie ; a corporation ; a united 
mass ; a general collection ; any 
solid geometrical figure ; a material 
thing; a certain consistency or dens- 
ity ; substance ; strength, as wine, 
&c. : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bodied ;, 
bodying], to furnish with a body; 
embody ; produce in definite shape. 

body-color (bod'i-kuler), n. a pig- 
ment possessing body or consistence, 
as distinguished from a transparent 

body politic (bod'i pol'i-tik), n. the 
collective body of people living un- 
der an organized political govern- 

body-snatcber (bod'i-snatch-er), n, 
one who removes bodies from graves 
to sell them for dissection ; resur- 

Boeotian (be-o'shan), adj. pertaining 
to Boeotia in central Greece, noted 
for its moist and heavy atmosphere ; 
dull ; stupid. 

Boer (boor), n. a Dutch colonist of 
South Africa engaged in farming or 
cattle breeding. 

bog (bog), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bogged, p, 

■ pr. bogging], to sink or submerge \n 
a bog or quagmire : v.i. to sink or 
stick in a bog : n. a tract of wet, 
spongy ground, composed of decayed 
and decaying vegetable matter ; a 
quagmire ; marsh ; morass. 

bogey or bogy (bo'gi), n. [pi. bo- 
geys, bogies Cgiz)], a hobgoblin; a 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




boggle (bo^'gl), v.i. to hesitate; wa- 
ver ; eqaivocate ; act clumsily ; bun- 
gle : v.t. to make a bungle of ; em- 
barrass : n, the act of hesitating or 
taking alarm ; a bungle ; botch. 

boggy (bog'i), adj. full of bogs; 

bogie or bogey (bo'gi), n. a four- 
wheeled truck supporting the front 
of a locomotive, or each end of a 
carriage, and turning beneath it Ly 
a central pivot. 

bogus (bo'gus), adj. counterfeit; 

bobea (bo-he'), n. a kind of black 

Sobemian (bo-he'mi-an), n. a per- 
son who disregards social conven- 
tionalities, or evinces a wild or rov- 
ing disposition ; a gipsy. 

Sobemianism (bo-he'mi-an-izm), n. 
the life or habits of a person who by 
natural inclination leads a free and 
easy unconventional existence. 

boil (boil), vA. to be in a state of 
ebullition through the action of 
heat ; seethe ; be agitated or excited 
by passion or anger ; be subjected to 
the action of boiling water : v.t. to 
heat to the boiling point ; cause to 
bubble by heat ; collect froin, or 
separate, by boiling ; subject to the 
action of heat in a boiling liquid. 

boil (boil), n. an inflamed and pain- 
ful suppurating tumor. 

boiler (boil'er), n. one who boils; a 
vessel in which anything is boiled ; 
a strong metallic vessel, in which 
steam is generated for driving en- 
gines or for other purposes. 

boisterous (bois'ter-us), adj. vio- 
lent ; rough ; stormy ; turbulent ; 

bolas (bo'las), n. sing, or pi. a hunt- 
ing implement consisting of two or 
more balls of iron or stone attached 
to the ends of a leather cord, used 
by the Gauchos and Indians of 
Southern and Western America. 

bold (bold), adj. courageous; ven- 
turesome ; planned or executed with 
courage and spirit ; forward ; rude ; 
impudent ; over-stepping conven- 
tional rules ; striking to the eye ; 
steep ; abrupt ; prominent. 

bole (bol), n. the trunk or stem of a 
tree ; a general term for friable 
clayey shale or clay, usually colored 
by oxide of iron. 

bolero (bo-ler'o), n. a lively Spanish 
dance ; the music accompanying such 
a dance. 

bolide (bo'lld), n. a large meteor 
which explodes on coming into con- 
tact with the air. 

boll (bol), n. the pod or capsule of a 
plant, as of flax : v.i. to form into a 
boll or seed-vessel ; go to seed (Ex. 
ix. 31). 

bollard (bol'ard), n. a strong post of 
wood or iron for securing hawsers. 

bolo (bo'lo), n. a large knife, used in 
the Philippines as a war weapon.^ 

bolometer (bo-lom'e-ter), n. an in- 
strument for measuring minute 
quantities_ of radiant heat. 

bolster (bol'ster), n. sl long pillow or 
cushion used to support the head; a 
pad to ease pressure ; a compress ; a 
cushioned or padded part of a sad- 
dle : v.t. to support with a pillow or 
cushion ; prop ; maintain ; or sup- 
port [usually with up]. 

bolt (bolt), n. a short, thick arrow 
with a blunt head ; a thunderbolt ; a 
discharge of lightning ; a stout me- 
tallic pin or rod used for holding 
objects together ; a sliding catch for 
securing a door, gate, &c. ; the por- 
tion of a lock shot or withdrawn by 
the key ; an elongated bullet for use 
in a rifled cannon ; a roll or length 
of certain textile fabrics ; a refusal 
to support a nomination made by 
one's party, or withdrawal from 
one's party : adv. like a bolt : 
straight; suddenly: v.t. to shoot; 
discharge; start or spring; fasten 
or secure with a bolt ; blurt out ; 
swallow hurriedly or without chew- 
ing; secede from (a party) or de- 
cline to support (a party nomina- 
tion) : v.i. to shoot forth suddenly; 
depart with suddenness ; start and 
run off. 

bolt-rope (bolt'rop), n. a rope to 
which the edges of sails are sewed. 

bolt (bolt), v.t. to sift or separate the 
coarser from the finer particles; 
hence to examine with care; sep- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon^ 
book; hue, hut; think, if /ten. 




bolns (bo'lus), n. [pi. boluses (-ez)], 
a medicine in the form of a soft 
rounded mass, larger than an ordi- 
nary pill, to be swallowed at once ; 
hence anything disagreeable which 
must be accepted. 

Iioiub (bom or bum), n. a hollow iron 
ball or shell filled with an explosive 
material, fired from a mortar and 
usually exploded by a fuse ; any mis- 
sile similarly constructed and thrown 
by the hand. 

bonib-ketcli (bom'ketch), n. a 
strongly-built vessel, on which one 
or more mortars are mounted for 
use in a naval bombardment. 

boiii-bard (bom-bard'), v.t. to attack 
with cannon ; fire shot or shell at or 
into ; assail hotly ; fire questions at. 

bombardier (bom-bard-er'), n, a 
non-commissioned officer of the 
Royal Artillery. 

boanbardment (bom-biird'ment), n. 
a continuous attack with shot and 
shell ; the act of shelling a town or 

bombardon (bom-bar'dun), or bom- 
bar done (-do'ne), n. a large-sized 
musical instrument of the trumpet 

bombast (bom'bast), n. originally 
cotton or other soft material used 
for stufiing gawnents : hence, high- 
sounding words ; inflated language 
or style ; fustian. 

bombastically (-li), adv. in an in- 
flated manner or stjie. 

bombazet or bombazette (bom-ba- 
zet'), n. a sort of thin woolen cloth, 
either plain or twilled. 

bombazine (bom- or bum-ba-zen), 
n. a twilled fabric, of which the 
warp is silk and the weft worsted. 
Written also bombasine, bombasin, 
and bombazeen. 

bombsbell. Same as bomb. 

bona fid^ (bo'na fi'de), genuine. 

bona fides (bon'a fid'ez), good faith ; 
honorable dealing. 

bonanza (bo-nan'za), n. a rich vein 
of ore : hence, anything which is a 
mine of wealth. 

bonbon (bong'bong), n. a sugar- 
plum ; any confection of sugar ; a 
Christmas cracker. 

bond (bond), n. anything that binds, 
fastens, or confines ; a ligament : pL 
fetters ; imprisonment ; captivity : 
hence, a cause of union ; duty ; obli- 
gation ; an instrument under seal by 
which a person binds himself, hi? 
heirs, &c., to do, or abstain from 
doing, a certain act ; a promise to 
pay a certain sum on or before a 
specified date ; a certificate, bearing 
interest, issued by a government, a 
corporation, or company, for the 
purpose of borrowing money ; a unit 
of combining power equivalent to 
one atom of hydrogen : v.t. to put in 
bond or into a bonded warehouse, as 
dutiable goods, the duties remaining 
unpaid till the goods are taken out, 
but bonds being given for their pay- 
ment : adf. in a state of servitude or 
slavery; captive. 

bone (bon), n. the ossified tissue 
forming the skeleton of most verte- 
brate animals ; one of the parts or 
pieces of an animal skeleton ; some- 
thing made of bone ; pieces of bone 
held between the fingers and rattled 
together as an accompaniment to 
music : v.t. to remove the bones 
from ; put whalebone into ; steal ; 

bone-black (bon'blak), n. animal 

bonfire^ (bon'fir), n. any large fire 
made in the open air to celebrate an 
event, or consume rubbish. 

bonhomie (bon-o-me' ) , n. good- 
heartedness ; a frank good-natured 

boniface (bon'i-fas), n. an inn- 

bon-marcbe (bong-mar-sha'), good 

bonne (bon), n. a French nurse. 

bonnet (bon'et), n. a soft woolen 
cap worn by men in Scotland ; a 
woman's head-covering, varying ac- 
cording to fashion, but distinguished 
from a hat by having no brim ; any- 
thing resembling a bonnet in shape 
or use : v.t. to crush the bonnet or 
hat over the eyes of. 

bonny (bon'ni), adj. handsome; 
beautiful ; pretty ; gay ; blithe. Writ- 
ten also bonnie. 

ate, arm, Ssk, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




bonspiel (bon'spel), n. in Scotland, 
a curling match between players of 
different clubs. 

bou-ton (bong-tong'), n. the style of 
persons in high life ; good breeding ; 
fashionable society ; height of fash- 

lionus (bo'nus), n. [pi. bonuses 
(-ez)], a sum given, or paid, over 
and above what is required, or actu- 
ally payable ; an additional dividend 
out of accumulated profits ; a sum 
paid in addition to regular pay or 

boo (boo), inter j. an expression of 
aversion or contempt : n, hooting : 
v.i. to low like an ox ; groan : v.t. to 
hoot at. 

booby (boo'bi), n. a dunce; a stupid 
fellow ; a species of gannet, a West 
Indian bird. 

boobyisb (-ish), adj. stupid; silly. 

boodle (bood'l), n. money paid for 
votes, or undue political influence ; 
bribe money. 

boodler (bood'ler), n. one who gives 
or accepts a bribe. 

book (book), n. a collection of sheets 
of paper and other material, blank, 
written, or printed, bound together ; 
a volume ; a treatise ; a division, sec- 
tion, or part of a literary composi- 
tion ; a register or record : v.t. to 
enter or register in a book ; record ; 
to secure or engage beforehand by 
registry or payment. 

book-keeping (book'kep-ing), w. the 
art of recording pecuniary or busi- 
ness transactions in a regular and 
systematic manner. 

book-maker (book'mak-er), n. one 
who writes and publishes books; a 
compiler ; one who bets against the 
success of a horse in a race, and en- 
ters his transactions in a book ; a 
professional betting man. 

book-man (book'man), n. a studious 
man ; a scholar. 

book-muslin (book'muz-lin), n. a 
fine kind of transparent muslin. 

bools-name (book'nam), n. the name 
of a plant or animal in use only in 

book- worm (book'werm), n. the 
Jarva or grub of various species of 
insects which infest and injure 

books ; a person closely addicted to 

booking-o£&ce (book'ing-of fis), n. 
in England, an oflSce where tickets 
are sold for railway or steamship 
traveling, or for seats in a theater. 

bookish (book'ish), adj. given to 
reading ; fond of study ; better ac- 
quainted with books than with men ; 

booklet (book'Iet), n. a little book. 

boom (boom), n. a long pole or spar 
run out to extend the foot of certain 
sails ; a strong chain, cable, or line 
of spars bound together, extended 
across a river or harbor to exclude 
an enemy's ships ; a deep, hollow 
sound ; a sudden demand for a com- 
modity ; a rapid rise in price ; a 
sudden burst of popular favor : v.i. 
to make a deep, hollow, reverberat- 
ing sound ; to go off with a rush : 
v.t. to push with energy. 

boomer (boom'er), n. one who starts 
or promotes a boom ; the Australian 
name for the male of the great kan- 

boomerang (boom'e-rang), n. a mis- 
sile weapon used by the Australian 
aborigines, consisting of a piece of 
flat curved hard wood, which, when 
thrown by the hand in a certain 
manner, describes a series of curves, 
and finally returns to the thrower, 
striking the ground behind him; 
hence any action which may recoil 
on its projector. 

boon (boon), n. prayer or petition; a 
benefit ; a gift ; a privilege ; a favor : 
adj. gay ; kind ; jovial ; merry, con- 

boon (boon), n. the refuse woody 
matter of flax from which the fiber 
has been dressed. 

boor (boor), n. a rustic; a peasant; 
a South African colonist of Dutch 
descent ; a rude, ill-mannered, 
clownish person. 

boorisb (boor'ish), adj. like a boor; 
clownish ; awkward in manner ; il- 

boose. See booze. 

boost (boost), v.t. to lift by pushing 
from behind : n. a lift from behind. 

boot (boot), n. profit; that which is 
thrown in as an inducement to a 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, theiic 




bargain, or to make an exchange 

boot (boot), v.t. to profit; advan- 
tage; avail [usually with ifi. 

boot (boot), n. a leather covering for 
the feet and the lower part of the 
leg ; an old instrument of torture ; 
a receptacle for luggage at either 
end of a coach ; a driving apron of 
leather or rubber-cloth : v.t. to put 
boots on ; kick with the boot. 
.boots (boots), n. the servant in a 
short boot, for women; a child's 
knitted boot. 

booth, (booth), n. a temporary struc- 
ture made of boards, canvas, &c. 

bootless ('les), adv. without advan- 

boots (boots), n. the servant in a 
hotel who cleans the boots of the 

booty (boo'ti), n. Ipl. booties ('tiz)], 
spoil taken in war ; plunder ; pillage. 

booze or boose (booz), v.t. to_ drink 
immoderately ; tipple : n. liquor ; 
drink ; a carouse ; spree. 

bora (bo'ra), n. a fierce, dry N.E, 
wind which blows on the coasts of 
the Adriatic Sea. 

boracic (bo-ras'ik), adj. pertaining 
to, or produced from, borax. 

boracic acid (as'id), n. a compound 
of boron with oxygen and hydrogen. 

borax (bo'raks), n. a salt compound- 
ed of boracic acid and soda, used as 
a flux in soldering metals, and in 
the manufacture of glass, enamel, 
artificial gems, &c. 

bord (bord), n. the face of coal paral- 
lel to the natural fissures. 

bordage (bord'aj), w.. planking of a 
ship's side; the servile tenure by 
which a villein of the lowest rank 
held his cottage. 

bordeaux (bor-do')j n. red and white 
wines produced in the district of 
Bordeaux, France. 

border (bSr'der), n. the outer part 
or edge of anything ; a margin ; 
brink ; boundary ; frontier ; a nar- 
row flower bed : v.t. to make a bor- 
der about, or to adorn with a bor- 
der : adjoin : v.i. to touch at the edge 
or boundary [with on or upon']. 

border-land (bor'der-land), n. land 

forming a border or frontier ; ao 
uncertain or debatable district. 

bore (bor), v.t. to pierce or drill a 
hole in ; form by piercing or drill- 
ing ; to force (as a passage) with 
effort ; weary by tedious repetition, 
or by dullness ; annoy : v.i. to pierce 
or penetrate by boring, &c. ; push 
forward toward a certain point : n. 
a hole made by boring ; the caliber 
or internal diameter of a hole; a 
person or thing that wearies by pro- 
lixity or dullness ; anything which 
causes ennui. 

bore (bor), n. a tidal wave which 
breaks in the estuaries of some riv- 
ers, and, being impeded by the nar- 
rowing channel, rises in a watery 
ridge and courses along with great 
force and noise. 

bore, p.t. of bear. 

borean (bo're-an) or boreal (-al), 
adj. northern ; pertaining to the 
North, or to the North wind. 

borecole (bor'kol), n. a variety of 

boredom (bdr'dum), n. ennui; the 
realm of bores ; bores collectively. 

boride (bo'rid), n. a compound of 
boron with a metallic base. 

born (born), p. adj. innate; inherited. 

born, p.p. of bear, to bring forth. 

borne, p.p. of bear, to carry. 

bornite (bSrn'it), n. a valuable ore 
of copper. 

boroglyceride (bo-ro-glis'e-rid), n, 
an antiseptic containing boric acid, 
glycerine, &c. 

boron (bo'ron), n. a non-metallic ele- 
ment occurring abundantly in borax. 

borough (bur'o), n. a corporate 

borough. English (ing'lish), n. a 
custom existent in some parts of 
England, by which an estate de- 
scends to the youngest son instead 
of the eldest, or, if there is no son, 
to the youngest brother. 

box'ro-w (bor'o), v.t. to obtain (a 
thing) on loan ; adopt ; appropriate ; 

bort (bort), n. imperfect or inferior 
diamonds used for polishing other 

boscage or boskage (bos'kaj), n. 
ground covered with trees and 

ute, arm. 

at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, th&a.. 




shrubs ; woods ; thickets ; a wooded 

bosli (bosh), n. absurd or empty 
talk ; utter nonsense ; inter j. hum- 
bug ! 

bosket (bos'ket), n. a grove; a 

bosky (bos'ki), adj. woody; bushy. 

bosom, (boo'zum), n. the breast; 
clothing covering the breast ; the af- 
fections or passions ; something lik- 
ened to a bosom, as a sustaining 
surface, inmost recess, &c. : adj. per- 
taining to the bosom ; intimate ; ! 
cherished ; beloved ; worn on the , 
bosom : v.t. to place or harbor in the - 
bosom ; cherish ; conceal. 

boss (bos), n. [pi. bosses ('ez)], a 
protuberant part ; a stud or knob ; , 
&n ornamental projection of a ceil- I 
ing : v.t. to ornament with studs or 

boss (bos), n. a master, superintend- 
ent ; foreman ; loader : adj. chief ; 
most highly esteemed : v.t. to direct ; 

botanic (bo-tan'ik), or botanical 
Ci-kal), adj. pertaining to botany. 

botanically (-li), adv. from a bota- 
nist's point of view ; according to a 
system of botany. 

botanist (bot'a-nist), n. one who 
studies or is skilled in a knowledge 
of plants. 

botanize (bot'a-niz), v.i. to seek af- 
ter plants for the purpose of study- 
ing them : v.t. to explore botanically. 

botany (bot'a-ni), n. the science 
which treats of plants. 

botck (boch), n. a swelling on the 
skin ; a large ulcerous affection. 

botch (boch), v.t. to mend or patch 
in a clumsy manner ; put together 

^ unskilfully : n. sl clumsy patch ; bad 

^botchy (boeh'i), adj. marked with 

both (both), adj. & pron. the one and 
the other ; the two ; the pair, with- 
out excepting either : adv. & conj. as. 

bother (bof/i'er), v.t. to annoy; 
tease ; worry ; give trouble : v.i. to 
trouble one's self ; be troublesome : 
n. worry ; annoyance ; one who, or 
that which, bothers. 

botheration (bo#/i-er-a'shun), n. the 

act of bothering, or state of being 

bothersome (bo;f^'er-sum), adj. trou- 

bots (bots), the larvae of several 
specie* of gadfly, which infest horses, 
oxen, sheep, &c. 

bottle (bot'l), n. a hollow vessel, 
usually with a narrow neck, made 
of glass or earthenware, for holding 
liquids ; the contents of a bottle : 
v.t. to put into bottles ; a quantity 
of bay or grass bundled up. 

bottle-holder (bot'l-hold'er), n. one 
who waits upon a pugilist in a prize- 
fight, administering refreshment, 
&c. ; a backer ; a second. 

bottle-nose (bot'1-noz), n. a name 
given to several species of cetaceans 
having bottle-shaped noses. 

bottom (bot'um), n. the deepest part 
of anything ; the base ; foundation ; 
root ; the ground under any body of 
water ; the buttocks ; the seat of a 
chair ; low land formed by alluvial 
deposits ; a river ; a valley ; a dale ; 
a ship ; stamina : adj. lowest ; un- 
dermost : v.t. to found or build 
upon ; furnish with a bottom ; 
fathom ; get to the bottom of : v.i. 
to rest ; be based or grounded. 

bottom-lands (bot'um-lanz), 
rich flat alluvial soil on the river 
banks of the Western States. 

bottomry (bot'um-ri), n. the act of 
borrowing money on the security of 
a ship. 

bouche or bonch (boosh), v.t. to 
drill a new mouth or vent in. 

boudoir (boo'dwiir), n. a small room, 
elegantly furnished for a lady's pri- 
vate use. 

bouffe (boof), n. opera-bouffe ; comic 

bough (bou), n. an arm or branch of 
a tree. 

bought, p.t. & p.p. of buy. 

bougie (boo-zhe'), n. a wax taper Or 
candle ; a slender flexible tube for 
insertion in the urethra, rectum, 
&c., in cases of stricture. 

bouilli (b5o'lye, French boo-ye'), n, 
ment boiled or stewed with vege« 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; bSeOf 
book ; hue, hut ; think, t^en. 



bouillon (boo'lyon, French bo5- 
yong'), n. sl clear soup produced 
from boiled meat. 

boulder (bol'der), n. a large stone 
worn or rounded by the action of 
water; a portion of rock which has 
been transported to some distance 
from its native bed. 

bpule (boo'le), n. the higher popular 
assembly of ancient Athens; the 
modern Greek legislative assembly. 

boulevard (boo'le-vard), n. a broad 
street, planted with trees. 

bounce (bouns), v.t. to cause to 
bound ; to eject summarily ; to bully : 
V.i. to strike against anything so as 
to rebound ; leap or spring suddenly 
or unceremoniously ; boast or blus- 
ter : n. a sudden bound or spring ; a 
heavy sudden thrust or thump ; a 
boast ; brag ; an impudent lie : adv. 
with a spring ; suddenly. 

bound (bound), n. a limit; confine; 
extent ; boundary : pi. territory 
within certain boundaries : v.t. to 
serve as a limit to ; circumscribe. 

bound (bound), -yi. to jump or spring 
suddenly or in succession ; leap ; re- 
bound : n. a leap; spring; jump; 

bound, p.t. & p.p. of bind. 

bound (bound), adj, ready to go; 

boundary ( bound'a-ri ) , n. [pi. boun- 
daries (-riz)], the extent or limit of 

bounteous (boun'te-us), adj. giving 
freely ; liberal in gifts ; munificent. 

bountiful (boun'ti-fool), adj. liberal 
in bestowing gifts or favors ; gener- 
ous ; ample. 

bountifully (-li), adv. in a liberal 

bounty (boun'ti), n. [pi. bounties 
('tiz)], liberality in bestowing gifts 
or favors ; generosity ; munificence ; 
a premium offered by a government 
to induce men to enlist in the army 
or navy, or to encourage some 
branch of industry. 

bouquet (boo-ka'), n. a nosegay; a 
perfume or aroma characteristic of 
some wines. 

bouquetier (boo-ke-ter'), n. a bou- 

bourdon (boor'-don), n. the bass 

drone of the bagpipe ; a bass stop of 
an organ. 

bourgeois (boor-zhwa'), n. a French 
citizen of the mercantile class ; a 
shopkeeper ; a size of type between 
long primer and brevier (ber-jois') 
(see type) : adj. of or pertaining to 
the mercantile or middle class. 

bourgeoisie (bo6r-zhwa-ze'), n. the 
French middle classes ; the middle 
class connected with the trade of 
any country. 

bourn (boorn), n. a stream; a rivu- 
let ; a bound ; destination ; goal. 

bourree (boor-ra'), a composition of 
a lively character, allied to the 
gavotte. . 

bourse (boors), n. a stock exchange 
for the transaction of business, es- 
pecially the Bourse or Stock Ex- 
change of Paris. 

bout (bout), n. a turn or bend; a 
going and returning ; as much as is 
performed at one time ; a trial 5 
essay ; round ; contest. 

boutonniere (boo-ton-nyar'), n. a 
bouquet worn in the button-hole. 

bovine (bo'vin), adj. of, or pertain- 
ing to, oxen • '^esembling or possess- 
ing the characteristics of an ox or 
cow; stolid, dull. 

boTsr (bou), n. the forepart or prow, 
of a ship. 

bow (bou), v.t. to bend; make curved 
or crooked ; bend or incline, as the 
head or body in token of respect ; 
subdue : v.i. to make a bow : n. an 
inclination of the head or bending 
of the body, as a salute, or in token 
of reverence, respect, assent, or sub- 

bow (bo), n. a weapon for discharg- 
ing arrows ; anything curved ; an 
implement with which instruments 
of the violin kind are played ; an 
elastic stick with its ends connected 
by string, used for turning a drill, 
&c. ; a looped ornamental knot of 
ribbon or other material : v.t. to 
bend or curve like a bow ; play with 
a bow : v.i. become bent or curved. 

bow-net (bo'net), n. a conical bas- 
ket for trapping lobsters and cray- 

bow-saw (bo'saw), n. a saw for 
cutting curves. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




Bowdlerize (bod'ler-iz), v.t. to ex- 
purgate, as an editor, everything 
deemed ofEensive or indelicate. 

bowel (bou'el), n. one of the intes- 
tines of an animal ; a gut [generally 
in the pi.] : pi. the interior part of 
anything; tenderness; pity (II Cor. 
vi. 12). 

bower (bou'er), n. a shelter con- 
structed of boughs or twining 
plants; an arbor. 

bower (bou'er), n. an anchor carried 
at the bow of a ship ; one of the 
two highest cards in euchre, or the 
second and third highest (when the 
joker is used). 

bwwery (bou'er-i), adj. like a bower; 

bowery (bou'er-i), n. [pi. boweries 
(-iz)], a country retreat; farm. 

bowie-knife (bo'e-nif), n. a sheath- 
knife formerly used in the United 
States as a weapon. 

bowl (bol), n. a circular hollow ves- 
sel for holding liquids ; a large 
drinking cup ; the hollow or concave 
part of anything. 

bowl (bol), n. a ball of wood used 
in the games of bowls, and skittles : 
pi. a game played with bowls : v.i. 
to play with bowls ; roll a bowl or 
a cricket ball ; move rapidly and 
smoothly like a ball : v.t. to roll, as 
a bowl or ball. 

bowline (bo'lin), n. a rope fastened 
near the middle of a square-sail, to 
keep the ship near the wind. 

bowse (bouz), v.i. to pull or haul 

bowsprit (bo'sprit), n. a large boom 
or spar running out from the stem 
of a ship or other vessel to carry 
its sails forward. 

bowstring (bo'string), n. string of 
a bow ; string used by the Turks for 
strangling offenders : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. bowstrung, bowstringing] , 
to strangle with a bowstring. 

box (boks), n. an evergreen shrub or 
small tree, yielding a hard close- 
grained wood : adj. of box, or re- 
sembling a box-tree. 

box (boks), n. [pi. boxes ('ez)], a 
case or receptacle for holding any- 
thing ; the quantity a box contains ; 
the driver's seat on a carriage ; a 

compartment in a theater or other 
public place ; a Christmas present ; 
a place of shelter for a man on 
duty ; a small country house used 
by sportsmen ; a cylindrical hollow 
iron in a wheel, in which the axle 
runs ; a case to protect mechanism 
from injury : v.t. to enclose in a 
box ; confine ; boxhaul. 

box (boks), n. a blow on the head 
with the fist, or on the ear with 
the open hand : v.t. to strike with 
the fist or hand: v.i. to fight with 
the fists. 

boxhaul (boks'hawl), v.t. to veer a 
ship round instead of tacking. 

boxiana (bok-si-an'a or -a'na), 
the literature of prize-fighting. 

boxing-glove (boks'ing-gluv), n. a 
padded glove. 

box-metal (boks'met-al), n. an an- 
tifriction alloy used for journal- 
boxes,, shafting, &c, 

boy (boi), n. a male child; a young 
lad ; sometimes used for a man. 

boy (boi), n. a palanquin bearer. 

boyar (boi'ar), n. a Russian landed 
proprietor ; the name of the Con- 
servative party in Roumania. 

boycott (boi'kot), v.t. to combine 
against a person so as to ostracize 
socially, and prevent or hinder the 
conduct of his business or profes- 
sion, as a means of punishment or 
intimidation : n. the act or state of 
boycotting; a combination for such 
a purpose. 

boycottee (boi-kot-e'), n. a boycot- 
ted person. 

boyer (boi'er), n. a Flemish sloop 
with a raised structure at each end. 

boyhood (boi'hood), n. the state of 
being a boy. 

boyish (boi'ish), adj. pertaining to a 
boy or boyhood ; childish ; puerile. 

brace (bras), n. that which holds 
anything tightly or supports it firm- 
ly ; a prop ; a bandage ; a pair ; a 
curve connecting two or more lines : 

thus Bits} ' ^ curved instrument 
for holding and turning boring tools ', 
a rope reeved through a block at the 
end of a yard, by which the yard is 
swung from the deck: a timber or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




scantling to strengthen the frame- 
work of a building : pi. the leathern 
bands clasping the cords at the side 
of a drum ; shoulder-straps to sup- 
port the trowsers : v.t. to bind or 
tie closely ; strain up ; strengthen ; 
furnish with supports. 

brace-drill (bras'dril), n. a drill for 
boring metals. 

bracelet (bras'let), n. an ornamental 
band or ring for the wrist. 

brachial (bra'ki- or brak'i-al), adj. 
pertaining to, or connected with, 
the arm. 

braebiate (bra'ki- or brak'i-at), adj. 
having branches in pairs, nearly 
horizontal, and each pair at right 
angles with the next. 

bracken (brak'en), n. the brake 

bracket (brak'et), n. a supporting 
piece projecting from" a wall ; a 
single or jointed gas-pipe, burner. 
&c. ; one of two marks [ ] , used to 
enclose a word or note, or to indi- 
cate an interpolation ; a brace : v.t. 
to furnish with or enclose within 
brackets ; connect by brackets ; 
couple together. 

brackish (brak'ish), adj. saltish. 

bract (brackt), n. a modified leaf 
growing from the flower stem, or 
enveloping a head of flowers. 

bracteate (brak'te-at), adj. fur- 
nished with bracts ; made of thin 
beaten metal. 

bracteolate (brak'te-o-lat), adj. 
furnished with bracteoles. 

bracteole (brak'te-ol), n. a small 

brad (brad), n. a slender flat nail, 
having a projection on one side : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. bradded, bradding], 
to nail or secure with brads. 

brae (bra), n. a hillside; sloping 

brag (brag), v.t. [pJ. & p.p. bragged, bragging], to boast; speak 
vaingloriously : n. a boast ; a thing 
to boast of ; ostentatious pretense ; 
a game of cards. 

braggadocio (brag-a-do'shio), n. a 
boaster ; a braggart ; empty boast- 

braggart (brag'art), n. a boaster; a 
vain fellow : adj. boastful. 

br agger (brag'er), n. one who brags. 

brabma (bra'ma), n. a useful varie- 
ty of large domestic fowl. 

Brahmin, (bra'min) n.[pl. Brahmins 
(-minz)], a member of the Hindu 
priestly caste. 

Brahminee (bra'min-e), n. a female 

Brahminism (bra'min-izm), n. the 
religion or doctrines of the Brah- 

Brahminist (bra'min-ist), n. an ad* 
herent of Brahminism. 

braid (brad), v.t. to weave or inter- 
twine ; plait : n. a plaited band or 

Braidism (bra'dizm), n. hypnotism. 

brail (bral), certain ropes used 
to gather up the foot and leeches of 
a sail prior to furling : v.t. to haul 
in by the brails [usually with up]. 

brain (bran), n. the soft whitish con- 
voluted mass occupying the cranium 
of a vertebrate, constituting the cen- 
ter of the nervous system, and the 
seat of consciousness and volition ; 
the understanding ; intellectual pow- 
er : v.t. dash out the brains of. 

brain- wave (bran'wav), n. a tele- 
pathic vibration by which it is sup- 
posed a thought is conveyed from 
one mind to another. 

brainy (bran'i), adj. possessed of 
brains ; acute ; sharp witted. 

braise (braz), v.t. to stew (as meat) 
in a covered vessel : n. braised meat, 

brait (brat), n. a rough diamond. 

brake (brak), n. an instrument or 
machine to break flax ; the handle of 
a pump ; a baker's kneading trough ; 
a sharp bit or snaffle ; a frame for 
confining refractory horses while 
shoeing ; a heavy vehicle without a 
body, for breaking in young horses 
to harness ; a kind of wagonette ; 
a heavy harrow for breaking clods; 
a mechanical device for checking the 
motion of a vehicle or machine ; a 
brake van. 

brake (brak), n. a place overgrown 
with bracken, brushwood, &c. : the 
common fern. 

brake-shoe (brak'shoo), n. that part 
of a brake which presses against the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




braky (brak'i), adj. full of bracken, 
brushwood, &c. ; rough ; thorny. 

bramble (bram'bl), n. the English 
blackberry ; any prickly bush or 

brambly (bram'bli), adj. full of 

bran (bran), n. the husks of wheat, 
rye, &c., separated from the flour 
by bolting. 

branch, (branch), n. [pZ. branches 
Cez)], a shoot or limb from a main 
bough ; an off-shoot ; any member or 
part of a body or system ; a depart- 
ment ; a section or subdivision ; any 
part of a family descending in a 
collateral line : adj. deviating from 
the trunk or main body : v.i. to 
ramify ; diverge ; spread diffusely 
[with out'\ : v.t. to divide. 

branchiae (brang'ki-e), the re- 
spiratory organs of fishes and some 
amphibia ; gills. 

branchial (brang'ki-al), adj. per- 
taining to the branchiae or gills. 

branchiate (brang'ki-at), adj. hav- 
ing permanent gills. 

branchlet (branch'let), n. a little 

branchy (bran'chi), adj. full of 

brand (brand), n. a burning piece of 
wood, any form of trade-mark : 
hence, quality or kind ; a stigma or 
mark of infamy ; a fungoid disease 
of plants : v.t. to mark by burning 
with a hot iron, or by other means ; 

brandish (bran'dish), v.t. to move, 
wave, or shake, as a raised weapon. 

brandling (brandling), n. a salmon 
of the first year ; a small red worm 
used for bait by fresh-water anglers. 

brandy (bran'di), n. [pi. brandies 
Cdiz)], an ardent alcoholic liquor 
distilled from wine or the husks of 

bran-new (bran'nti), adj. quite new. 

branny (bran'i), adj. having the ap- 
pearance of bran ; consisting chiefly 
of bran. 

brant. Same as brant-goose. 

brant-fox (brant'foks), n. a variety 
of fox found in Sweden. Called 
also brent-fox. 

brant-goose (brant'goos), n. the 
smallest species of the wild goose. 

brash (brash), adj. brittle, as wood. 

brash (brash), n. a rash or eruption. 

brash (brash), n. broken, loose, and 
angular fragments of rock under- 
lying alluvial deposits ; small bro- 
ken pieces of ice. 

brasque (brask), n. a paste used for 
lining crucibles, &c. : v.t. to line 
with brasque. 

brass (bras), n. [pi. brasses ('ez)], 
an alloy of copper and zinc ; a uten- 
sil, ornament, or other article made 
of brass ; a monumental tablet of 
brass ; money ; impudence : pi. the 
brass instruments of a band : v.t. to 
cover with brass. 

brassy (bras'i), adj. pertaining to, or 
resembling, brass ; impudent, brazen. 

brat (brat); n. a child [used con- 

brattice (brat'is), n. a partition or 
separation-wall in a level or shaft 
to form an air passage : v.t. to di- 
vide by a brattice. 

bratticing (brat'is-ing), n. orna- 
mental open-work cresting ; rich 
open work in metal ; a brattice ; a 
boarded protection against machin- 

bravado (bra-va'do), n. [pi. brava- 
dos & -does ('doz)], arrogant men- 
ace ; defiance. 

brave (brav), adj. bold; courageous; 
intrepid ; making a fine show : n. an 
Indian warrior ; one indiscreetly 
bold : v.t. to encounter with courage 
and f orti tude ; defy. 

bravery (bra'yer-i), n. the quality 
of being brave ; fearlessness ; mag- 

bravo (bra'vo), inter j. well done! 
good ! n. a cheer. 

bravo (bra'vo), n. [pi. bravos or -voes 
Cvoz)], a daring villain; a bandit; 
an assassin. 

bravura (bra-voo'ra), n. an air of 
florid, brilliant style, adapted to dis- 
play the skill of the performer, or 
the range and flexibility of a sing- 
er's voice : adj. brilliant ; florid ; per- 
taining to a bravura. 

brawl (brawl), v.i. to quarrel noisi- 
ly and outrageously ; make a noise 
as of water rushing over a rocky or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; Jitie, hut; think, th&n.. 




pebbly bed : n. a noisy quarrel ; an 
uproar ; a row. 

bra^srn (brawn), n. boar's flesh, espe- 
cially when prepared by collaring, 
boiling, and pickling; muscular 

brawuiness (-nes), n. hardness; 

brawny (braw'ni), adj. muscular; 

braxy (brak'si), n. a name given to 
a variety of diseases of sheep ; a 
diseased sheep, or its mutton : adj. 
affected with braxy. 

bray (bra), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. brayed, braying], to pound or beat fine 
or small : v.L to utter a loud, harsh 
cry, as the ass : n. the harsh cry of 
an ass. 

braze (hraz) ,v.t. to solder with brass ; 
cover or ornament with brass; 

brazen (bra'zn), adj. made of brass; 
pertaining to brass ; impenetrable ; 
impudent ; shameless : v.t. to carry 
off or behave with insolence or ef- 

Brazen Age (aj), n. the age that 
succeeded to the Silver Age, charac- 
terized by violence. 

brazier (bra'zher), n. an open pan 
for burning charcoal. 

brazil--w-ood (bra-zil'wood), n. a 
very heavy wood of a red color from 
Brazil, used for dyeing red. 

braziletto (braz-i-let'o), n. an in- 
ferior sort of brazil-wood brought 
from Jamaica. 

Brazilian pebbles (peb'lz), 
lenses made from rock crystal from 

brazilin (braz'i-lin), n. the coloring 
substance extracted from brazil- 

brazil-nut (bra-zirnut), n. the seed 
of a palm of tropical America. 

breacb (brech), n. the act of break- 
ing ; the violation of a law, contract, 
or any other engagement ; a gap ; a 
difference ; quarrel ; injury ; surf : 
v.t. to make an opening in. 

bread (bred), n. food made from 
ground corn ; food in general. 

bread-fruit (-froot), n. the fruit of 
a tree growing in the Pacific islands, 
which, when roasted, is eaten as 

bread-stuff (-stuf), n. bread-corn: 
flour ; meal from which bread is 

breadth (bredth), n. the measure of 
any surface from side to side; free- 
dom from narrowness ; broad effect. 

break (brak), v.t. [p.t. broke, p.p. 
broken, breaking], to sep- 
arate with violence ; interrupt ; frac- 
ture ; weaken or destroy ; disperse ; 
violate ; make bankrupt ; make a 
first disclosure of ; dismiss, cashier, 
or reduce to the ranks ; tame or 
subdue : n. a breach ; rupture ; aE 
interruption ; change of direction ; 
a first appearance ; a pause ; ae 
opening in the circuit causing m- 
terruption to an electric current ; a 
twist of the ball in cricket ; a play- 
er's turn in billiards ; the number of 
points scored successively ; altera- 
tion of the male voice at puberty ; a 
sudden fall in prices. 

breakage (bra'kaj), n. the act of 
breaking ; allowance for accidental 

breakdown (brak'doun), n. a col- 
lapse ; failure ; downfall, as of a 
carriage ; a lively, noisy dance. 

breaker (bra'ker), n. one who, or 
that which, breaks ; a machine to 
crush roqfes, &c. ; a wave broken 
against the shore, or a rock [usual- 
ly in the _pl.] ; a small water cask; 
a trainer of horses, &c. 

breakfast (brek'fast), n. the first 
meal in the day : v.t. to provide with 
or entertain at breakfast : v.i. to 
eat breakfast. 

breakwater ('waw-ter), n. any 
structure to break the force of the 

bream (brem), n. a broad-shaped 
fresh-water fish of the carp family : 
v.t. to clear of shells, seaweed, &c., 
by fire. 

breast (brest), n. the fore part of the 
body between the neck and the ab- 
domen ; one of the organs in wom- 
en, and some other mammalia, for 
the secretion of milk ; the affec- 
tions ; the conscience ; the front of 
anything: v.t. to present the front 
to ; meet or oppose manfully or 
openly; stem. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; n5te, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




breastfast ('fast), n. a large rope 
or chain to secure the midship part 
of a ship to a dock, wharf, or to 
another vessel. 

breastplate ('plat), n. a portion of 
armor covering the front of the 
body ; a part of the vestment of the 
Jewish high priest. 

breast-work ('werk), n, a hastily 
constructed work thrown up breast- 
high for defense; the parapet of a 

breath (breth), n. the air inhaled 
and exhaled in respiration ; life ; the 
^ower or capacity to breathe freely ; 
respite ; a pause ; a respiration ; an 
instant ; air in gentle motion ; a 
mere word ; a trifle ; an odorous ex- 
halation ; fragrance ; an aspirate. 

breathe (bre/7i), v.i. to inhale air 
and expel it from the lungs ; live ; 
take breath ; rest from action ; pass, 
as air ; blow softly ; insinuate : v.t. 
to inhale and exhale ; inspire ; whis- 
per ; exercise ; blow into. 

breathing (bre'if/iing), n. respira- 
tion ; air in gentle motion ; a gentle 
influence ; a pause ; ardent desire ; 
an accent [']. 

breccia (brech'ia), n. angular rock 
fragments united by a matrix. 

bree (bre), n. broth; sauce; mois- 

breech (brech), n. the buttocks; the 
hinder part of anything ; the part 
of a cannon or other firearm behind 
the bore or chamber : v.t. to put into 
breeches ; furnish with a breech ; 
fasten by a breeching. 

breeches (brich'ez), a garment 
worn by men, covering the legs from 
the knees to the hips ; trowsers or 

breeching (brich'ing), n. the harness 
which passes round a horse's breech ; 
a strong rope to check the recoil of 
a gun. 

breed (bred), 'G.t. [p.t. & p.p. bred, breeding] , to procreate ; hatch ; 
produce ; train ; rear : v.i. to bear 
young ; be fruitful ; be produced : n. 
a race or progeny from the same 
parents or stock. 

breeze (brez), n. a gadfly or horsefly. 

breeze (brez), n. a gentle gale; a 

fresh soft wind; an excited quarreJ 
or wrangle. 

breeze (brez), n. house sweepings; 
sifted ashes and cinders used in 
burning bricks. 

brethren (brei/i'ren), n. plural of 

breve (brev), n. a note of time equal 
to two semibreves or four minims ; 
a mark (v.) used to indicate a short 

brevet (bre-vet'), n. a commission 
to an oflicer in the army conferring 
a higher rank, but without increase 
of pay ; a patent ; a warrant ; a li- 
cense : adj. conferred by brevet : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. brevetted, brevet- 
ting], to confer brevet rank upon. 

breviary (bre'vi-a-ri, or brev'i-a-ri), 
n. [pi. breviaries (-riz)], a book 
containing the daily offices and 

brevier (bre-ver'), n. a size of type 
between bourgeois and minon. 
(See type.) 

brevity (brev'i-ti), n. [pL brevities 
(-tiz)], shortness; conciseness. 

brew (broo), v.t. to make liquors 

i from malt or other materials ; plot : 

v.i. be in preparation : n. the action, 

! process, or product of brewing. 

i brewery (broo'er-i), n. a brew-house. 

J briar-root (bri'er-root), n. the root 

of the white heath, used in the 

manufacture of tobacco-pipes. Also 


bribe (brib), n. a gift or considera- 
tion in money given or promised 
with the object of corrupting or un- 
duly ilnfluencing the judgment or 
conduct of the recipient : v.t. to 
gain over or influence by a bribe: 
v.i. to practice or attempt bribery, 

bribery (brib'er-i), n. [pi. briberies 
(-iz)], the act or practice of brib- 

bric-a-brac (brik'a-brak), w. an- 
tique articles of vertu ; fancy ware. 

brick (brik), n. an oblong block of 
kneaded clay dried in the sun or 
burned in a kiln ; a jolly, good-na- 
tured fellow : adj. made of, or re- 
sembling, brick : v.t. to lay or build , 
with bricks : make like brickwork. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




brick-kiln (-kil), n. a kiln or fur- 
nace in which bricks are baked or 

bricole (bri-kol'), n. harness worn 
by men for dragging guns or loads. 

bridal (brid'al), n. a marriage; nup- 
tials : adj. pertaining to a bride, or 

bride (brid), n. a woman newly mar- 
ried, or about to be married. 

bridegroom ( 'groom ) , »i. a man new- 
ly married, or about to be married. 

bridesmaid (-z'mad), n, a young 
unmarried woman who attends on 
a bride. 

bridewell (brid'wel), n. a house of 
correction for the confinement of 
disorderly persons. 

bridge (brij), n. a structure of iron, 
stone, or wood, spanning a river, 
road, valley, &c. ; anything resem- , 
bling a bridge in form or use ; an j 
apparatus for measuring the resist- } 
ance of a conductor, called Wheat- 
stone's bridge ; a game of cards : v.t. i 
to build a bridge ; make a passage ; 
find a way of overcoming. 

bridge-board ('bord), n, a notched' 
board into which the ends of the 
steps of wooden stairs are fastened. ^ 

bridge-deck ('dek), n. a partial 
deck extending from side to side of 
a vessel amidships. 

bridge-head ('hed), n. a covering 
work to protect the end of a bridge 
nearest the enemy; a tete-de-pont. 

bridge-rail ('ral), n. a railroad rail 
with an arched tread and lateral 

bridge-train ('tran), n. a pontoon 

bridging (brij'ing), n. a piece of 
wood between two beams to keep 
them apart. 

bridle (bri'dl), n. the headstall, bit, 
and reins by which a horse is con- 
trolled ; a restraint : v.t. to put a 
bridle on ; control ; guide : v.i. to 
hold the head up, as an indication 
of pride, scorn, or anger [with up']. 

bridoon (bri-doon'), n. the light 
snaflSe and rein of a military bridle. 

brief (bref), adj. short; concise; 
contracted ; narrow : n. an epitome ; 
an abridged statement of a case for 

the instruction of counsel ; a writ ; 
a papal letter : v.t. to shorten ; make 
an abstract of. 

brier (bri'er), n. a thorny plant or 

brig (brig), n. a two-masted, square- 
rigged vessel. 

brigade (bri-gad'), n. a subdivision 
of an army, consisting of several 
regiments, squadrons, or battalions 
(cavalry, infantry, militia, or volun* 
teers), under the command of a 
brigadier-general ; an organized 
body acting under authority : v.t. to 
form into a. brigade or brigades. 

brigadier (brig-a-der'), n. a general 
officer commanding a brigade, and 
ranking next below a major-gen- 
eral. Also brigadier-general. 

brigand (brig'and), n. a robber; a 
member of a gang of freebooters 
infesting mountainous districts; a 
highwayman ; a bandit. 

brigandage (brig'and-aj), n. the life 
and practices of a brigand; organ 
ized robbery. 

brigantine (brig'an-tin or -tin), n 
a small two-masted vessel, square 
rigged like a brig, but with fore 
and-aft mainsail and raking masts 

brigkt (brit), adj. [comp. brighter, 
superl, brightest], luminous; bril 
liant ; shining ; sparkling ; illustri 
ous ; glorious ; witty ; clever ; lively ,- 
auspicious ; alert ; glowing. 

brighten (brifn),-?;.*. to grow bright f 
clear up : v.t. to make bright or 
luminous ; make gay or cheerful ; 
make acute. 

Bright's disease (brit's-diz-ez'), n 
a form of kidney disease character 
ized by the presence of albumin in 
the urine. 

brill (bril), n. a flat fish resembling 
the turbot. Also prill. 

brilliancy (bril'yan-si), n. splendor^ 

brilliant (bril'yant), adj. sparkling f 
lustrous ; glittering ; distinguished t 
n. a diamond, cut to exhibit its re 
fracting qualities to the best ad 
vantage ; the smallest size of type 
(See type.) 

brilliantine (bril'yan-tin), n. a cos 
metic preparation for imparting s 
gloss to the hair. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




brilliantly (-li), adv. in a brilliant 

brim (brim), n. the edge of any- 
thing : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. brimmed, p. 
pr. brimming], to fill to the brim: 
v.i. to be full to the brim. 

Brimful (brim'fool), adj. overflow- 

brimstone (brim'ston), n. sulphur: 
adj. made of brimstone ; of the color 
of sulphur. 

brine (brin), n. salt water; pickle; 
the ocean ; tears : v.t. to steep in 

bring (bring), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
brought, bringing], to fetch or 
convey from another place ; fetch ; 
cause to come ; produce ; procure ; 
conduct ; persuade ; lead. 

brink (bringk), n. the edge; verge. 

briny (bri'ni), adj. very salt. 

briquette ( bri-ket', French bre-ka' ) , 
n. coal-dust molded into the shape of 

brisk (brisk), adj. lively; active; 
swift ; vivacious ; effervescing vigor- 
ously ; sparkKng ; burning freely : 
v.i. to become brisk [generally with 

brisket (bris'ket), n. that part of 
an animal's breast where the ribs 
join the breast-bone. 

bristle (bris'l), n. a short stiff, coarse 
hair, especially upon the back and 
sides of swine ; any stiff, sharp 
hair : v.t. to erect like bristles ; fix 
a bristle to. 

bristly (bris'li), adj. covered with 

bristol board (bris'tol bord), n. a 
thick, smooth, white pasteboard. 

bristol paper (pa'per), n. a kind of 
stout drawing paper. 

bristol stone (ston), n. a transpar- 
ent rock-crystal. Called, when pol- 
ished, bristol diamond. 

brit (brit), n. the young of the her- 
ring and sprat ; small animals upon 
w^hich whales feed. 

britannia metal (bri-tan'i-a-met'- 
al), n. a white metal alloy of tin, 
copper, antimony, and bismuth. 

brite (brit), v.i. to be over-ripe. 

British (brit'ish), adj. of, or per- 
taining to, Great Britain or its in- 

habitants ; pertaining to the ancient 

Britisher (brit'ish-er), n. a British 
subject, especially one belonging to 
the British army or navy. 

Briton (brit'un), n. a native of Great 

brittle (brit'l), adj. apt to break; 
not tough. 

britzska (brits'ka), n. an open car- 
riage used in Russia. 

broach (broch), n. an awl; spike; 
skewer ; any boring bit or drill ; a 
stonecutter's chisel ; a spire rising 
directly from a tower without a 
parapet : v.t. to tap or pierce ; be- 
gin a discussion about. 

broad (brawd), adj. [comp. broader, 
superl. broadest], wide; ample; 
vast ; liberal ; comprehensive ; wide- 
ly diffused ; open ; unrestrained ; 
evident ; characterized by breadth 
of treatment ; bold ; indelicate : n. a 
flooded fen ; an expansion of a river 
over low-lying land. 

broad-arrow (-ar'o), n. a British 
government mark to distinguish its 

broad-cloth ('klawth), n. a fine 
woolen cloth with a smooth finished 

broad-seal ('Sel), n. the great seal 
of England. 

broadside ('sid), n. the entire side 
of a ship above the water-line ; a 
simultaneous volley from one side 
of a warship ; a sheet printed on one 
side, and containing information of 
a popular character, or an attack 
on some public person. 

broadsword ('sord), n. a cutting 
sword with a broad blade. 

broaden (brawd'n), v.i. to grow 
broad : v.t. to make broad or com- 

Brobdingnagian (brob'ding-nag'i- 
an), adj. resembling an inhabitant 
of the fabled country of Brobding- 
nag in Swift's "Gulliver's Travels," 
hence, gigantic : n. a giant. 

brocade (bro-kad'), n. a silk stuff 
variegated with gold and silver flow- 
ers, &c. 

brocatelle (brok'a-tel), n. a beauti- 
fully variegated marble obtained 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; m6, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




from Italy and Spain ; a figured fab- 
ric of silky texture. 

broccoli (brok'o-li), n. a variety of 

brocb. (brok), n. a prehistoric roof- 
less round tower, with massive walls 
of unhewn stone: found chiefly in 

brochure (bro-shoor'), n. a pamphlet 
dealing with a subject of passing 

brock (brok), n. a badger. 

brogue (brog), n. a coarse, rough 
shoe ; a dialectic pronunciation. 

broil (broil), v.t. to cook upon a 
gridiron : v.i- to be subjected to 
. great heat ; to be heated with pas- 
sion: n. a noisy quarrel. 

brokage (bro'kaj), n. the premium 
or commission of a broker; broker- 

broke, p.t. & p.p. of break. 

broken (bro'kn), p.adj. not entire; 
in pieces ; rough ; hilly ; trans- 
gressed ; bankrupt ; crushed ; infirm ; 
imperfect ; interrupted. 

broker (bro'ker), n. one who acts as 
agent or middleman for another ; a 
dealer in second-hand furniture. 

brokerage (bro'ker-aj), n. the busi- 
ness of a broker; his fee or com- 

broma (bro'ma), n. aliment; a light 
preparation of cocoa or chocolate. 

bromal (bro'mal), n. a colorless, oily 
fluid obtained by the action of 
bromine on alcohol. 

bromate (bro'mat), n. a salt of 
bromic acid. 

broiue-grass (brom'gras), n. a name 
for the oat-like grasses of the genus 

bromic acid (bro'mik as'id), n. a 
compound of bromine and oxygen. 

bromide (bro'mid or 'mid), n. a com- 
pound of bromine. 

bromide of potassium (of po-tas'- 
i-um), n. a compound of bromine, 
used largely in medicine as a seda- 

bromine (bro'min or 'mm), n. a non- 
metallic element related to chlorine 
and iodine. 

bromize (bro'miz), v.t. to prepare or 
trent with a bromide. 

bromocbloralum (bro-mo-klo'ri- 

lum), n. a disinfectant fluid, com- 
posed of the bromide and chloride of 

bromogelatin (bro - mo-jel'a-tin) , 
adj. prepared from certain bromides, 
nitrate of silver, and gelatine, and 
used for the sensitive emulsions em- 
ployed for dry photographic plates, 

bronchi, n.; pi. of bronchus. 

bronchia (brong'ki-a), the 
bronchial tubes. 

bronchitic (brong-kit'ik), adj. of or 
pertaining- to bronchitis. 

bronchitis (brong-ki'tis), n. an in- 
flammation, acute or chronic, of the 
mucous lining of the bronchial tubes. 

broncho (brong'ko), n. an unbroken 
Mexican or Californian horse. 

bronchopneumonia (brong-ko-nti- 
mo'ni-a), n. inflammation of the 
lungs and bronchi. 

bronchotomy (brong-kot'o-mi), n. 
the operation of making an incision 
into the windpipe or larynx to af= 
ford a passage for air to the lungs, 

bronchus (brong'kus), n. [pL 
bronchi ('ki) 1, one of the two prin= 
cipal branches of the windpipe or 

bronze (bronz), .n. an alloy of copper 
and tin, to which other metallic sub- 
stances are sometimes added ; a work 
of art cast or wrought in bronze ; a 
pigment used to imitate bronze; im- 
pudence : adj. made of or resembling 
bronze : v.t. to make of the color of 
bronze ; tan by exposure to the sun ; 
apply bronze pigment oir leaf to. 

Bronze Age (aj), n. the age succeed- 
ing the Stone Age, the ornaments 
and weapons of that period being 
made of bronze. 

bronzine (bronz'in), n. a metal re- 
sembling bronze. 

brooch (broch), n. an ornamental 

brood (brood), n. offspring; a hatch; 
the young birds hatched at one time ? 
v.i. to sit on eggs, as a hen; linger 
over sorrowfully [with on or over} i 
v.t. to sit over, cover, and cherish ° 
ponder over. 

broody (brood'i), adj. inclined to sit 5' 
adapted for breeding. 

brook (brook), n. a small stream. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boo% 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




1>rook (brook), v,t, to bear; put up 

brooklet (brook'let), n, a small 

broom (bro5m), n. a shrub, bearing 
large yellow flowers ; a besom or 

brose (broz), n. a kind of porridge, 
made by pouring boiling water, or 
milk, or meat liquor, on oatmeal. 

broth, (broth), n. a kind of thin soup. 

brotbel (broth'el), n. a bouse of ill- 

brother (bru;f^'er), n. [pi. brothers 
(-erz), & brethren (bre^Vren)], a 
male born of the same father and 
mother ; one closely united by a com- 
mon interest ; a member of a re- 
ligious order ; a fellow creature ; one 
who resembles another. 

brotber-german (-jer'man), n. a 
brother on both the father's and the 
mother's side. 

brotber-im-law (-in-law), n. the 
brother of one's husband or wife ; 
sister's husband. 

Brother JoxLatban (jon'a-then), n. 
a humorous personification of the 
United States. 

brother-uterine (-u'ter-in), n. one 
born of the same mother, but of a 
different father. 

brotherhood (bruf^'er-hood), n. the 
state or quality of being a brother ; 
a fraternity. 

brotherly (bruf^'er-Ii), adj. as be- 
comes a brother ; affectionate. 

brougham (broo'am or broom), n. a 
close four-wheeled carriage for one 
or two horses. 

brought, p.t. & p.p. of bring. 

broxtr (brou), n. the arch of hair over 
the eye ; the forehead ; the general 
aspect of the countenance ; the edge 
of a steep place; the upper portion 
of a hill. 

l>rowbeat (brou'bet) , v.t. [p.t. brow- 
beat, p.p. browbeaten, brow- 
beating], to depress or bear down 
arrogantly ; bully. 

bro-wn (broun), adj. of a dusky or 
dark color : n. a dark color, inclined 
to red or yellow ; a halfpenny : v.i. 
to become brown : v.t. to make 

brownie (brou'ni), n. a beneficent 

spirit supposed to haunt old farm- 
houses [Scotch], 

browse (brouz), n. the tender shoots J 
or twigs of shrubs and trees : v.t. 
to feed on ; pasture on ; graze : said 
of cattle, deer, &c. 

bruin (broo'in), n. the brown bear. 

bruise (brooz), n. an injury to the 
flesh of an animal or to a plant or 
other body, caused by a blow: v.t. 
to injure, crush, or indent by a blow 
or pressure without laceration ; con- 
tuse ; bray, as drugs, &c. : v.i. to 
fight with the fists ; box, 

bruit (broot), n. report; rumor; 
fame : v.t. to report ; noise abroad. 

brumal (broo'mal), adj. pertaining 
to winter ; foggy ; misty. 

brummagem (brum'ma-jem), adj. 
sham; counterfeit; showy, but 

brunette (broo-nef), n. a woman 
with a brown or dark complexion, 
usually with dark hair and eyes: 
adj. having such a color, 

brunt (brunt), n. a violent shock; a 
furious onslaught; a brief and sud- 
den effort. 

brusb (brush), n. a thicket of small 
trees; the small trees and shrubs of 
a wood ; an instrument composed of 
bristles, &c., used for cleaning, ap- 
plying paint, &c, ; the brushy tail 
of a fox ; a slight encounter ; a 
brushing; thin metallic plates or 
flexible wires bound together, em- 
ployed to conduct a current to or 
from an electric motor, &c. ; a brief 
trial of speed : v.t. to sweep, cleanse, 
or rub with a brush ; touch lightly in 
passing; renovate; ruffle [with upl : 
v.i. to move with haste; skim over 
with a light touch. 

brush-xrheel ('hwel), n. a tooth- 
less wheel used to turn a similar 
wheel by means of bristles, leather. 
Cloth, &c., attached to the circum- 
ference ; a circular wheel for polish- 
ing, used on a lathe, , 

brushwood (brush'wood), n. rough, 
close bushes ; a thicket ; a coppice ; 
small wood, suitable for the fire, 

brusque (brusk), adj. abrupt in man- 

Brussels-carpet (brus'elz-kar'pet) , 
n. a strong kind of woolen carpet. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




Brussels-lace (-las), n. various 
kinds of expensive lace made origi- 
nally at Brussels. 

Brussels-sprouts (-sproutz), a 
variety of the common cabbage. 

brutal (broo'tal), adj. pertaining to 
or resembling a brute ; savage ; 

brutality (broo-tal'i-ti), n. the qual- 
ity of being brutal ; pitiless cruelty. 

brutalize (broo'tal-iz), v.t, to make 
brutal ; sensualize. 

brutally (broo'tal-i), adv. in a cruel 
or brutal manner ; inhumanly. 

brute (broot), adj. without reason 
or intelligence ; rough ; brutal ; un- 
civilized : n. a beast ; an irrational, 
irresponsible animal [ a brutal per- 

brutify (broo'ti-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
brutified, brutifying], to make 
like a brute; degrade morally or 

brutish (broot'ish), adj. pertaining 
to, or resembling, a brute ; savage ; 

bub (bub), n. a boy. Also bubby. 

bubble (bub'l), n. a small bladder of 
water or other fluid filled with air 
or gas; anything unreal or unsub- 
stantial ; a swindling speculation : 
v.i. to rise in bubbles ; run with a 
gurgling sound ; v.t. to cause to bub- 
ble; cheat. 

bubo (bu'bo), n. [pi. buboes ('boz)], 
an inflammatory swelling in the 
groin or armpit. 

bubonocele (bti-bon'o-sel), n. rup- 
ture or hernia in the groin. 

buccal (buk'al), adj. pertaining to 
the cheek. 

buccaneer (buk-a-ner'), n. a pirate; 
a sea-robber ; one of the piratical ad- 
venturers who, during a part of the 
17th century, made depredations on 
the Spaniards in America : v.i. act 
the part of a buccaneer. 

buccinator (buk'si-na-ter), n. a 
muscle of the cheek called the trum- 
peter's muscle from its use in blow- 
ing wind-instruments. 

bnccinum (buk'sin-um), n. the genus 
of mollusks to which the whelk be- 

bucentaur (bti-sen'tawr) , n. a fabu- 
lous monster, half man and half 

bull ; the state barge of Venice used 
by the doge in the annual ceremony 
of espousing the Adriatic. 

bucbu (bti'ku), n. the name of cer- 
tain species of Barosma, employed 
as a medicine. 

buck (buk), v.t. to break or pulver- 
ize, as ore. 

buck (buk), n. the male of the fal- 
low-deer, goat, rabbit, hare, &c. ; a 
gay fellow; a fop; a male Indiaa 
or negro. 

buck-eye ('i), n. a name of the 
American horse-chestnut. 

buck-bound ('hound), n. a stag- 

buck- jumper ('jump'er), n. a vi- 
cious untrained horse that en« 
deavors to throw the rider by arch«> 
ing its back and drawing its feet 

buck-sbot ('shot), shot of a large 

buck-wbeat ('hwet), n. a plant cul« 
tivated for its triangular seeds, 
which are ground into meal and 
used for food. 

bucket (buk'et), n. a vessel for draw- 
ing or holding water ; the scoop of 
a dredging-machine or of a grain 
elevator ; a receptacle on a water- 
wheel which receives the force of the 

bucket-sbop (-shop), n. an office for 
gambling in stocks, grain, &c. in 
small amounts. 

buckle (buk'l), n. a metal clasp con- 
sisting of a frame with movable 
tongue or catch, used for securing 
straps, bands, &c. : v.t. to fasten 
with a buckle; twist, bend; confine, 
join ; to prepare for action : v.i, to 
curl ; apply one's self with vigor 
[with to]. 

buckle (buk'l), n. a bend, or kink, 
as in a blade ; a curl of hair ; the 
condition of being curled, as hair. 

buckler (buk'ler), n. a kind of an 
cient shield. 

buckra (buk'ra), n. Negro term for 
a white man. 

buckram (buk'ram), n. coarse linen 
cloth stiffened with dressing : adj. 
made of, or resembling, buckram 
hence, stiff; precise. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




bucolic (bu-kol'ik), adj. pastoral: n. 
a pastoral poem ; a rustic. 

bud (bud), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. hndded, budding], to graft: v.t. to put 
forth or produce buds ; begin to 
grow : n. the rudimentary, unde- 
veloped stage of a branch, leaf, or 
flower ; a gemmule. 

Buddhist (bood'ist), ii. one who ac- 
cepts the doctrines of Buddhism : 
adj. pertaining to Buddha or Bud- 

'^udge (buj), v.i. to move from one's 
position : v.t. change the position of. 

budge (buj), qi. lambskin dressed 
with the wool outwards. 

budget (buj'et), n. sl bag with its 
contents : hence a stock or store ; 
the annual financial statement of the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

budlet (bud'let), n. a small bud. 

buff (buf), n. a thick leather pre- 
pared from the skin of the buffalo, 
ox, &c., dressed with oil ; a light 
yellow ; the bare skin : adj. made of 
buff-leather ; buff-colored. 

buffalo (buf'a-lo), n. [pi. buffaloes 
(-loz)], a ruminant mammal of the 
ox family; a name given to various 
wild oxen, especially to the North 
American bison. 

'Buffalo-bird (-herd), n. bird which 
perches on the buffalo to catch 

buffer (buf'er), n. any contrivance 
which serves to deaden the concus- 
sion caused by the impact of two 
bodies ; a good-tempered, somewhat 
foolish person. 

ibuffet (buf'et), n. a blow with the 
hand : v.t. to strike with the hand ; 
box ; beat ; contend against : v.i. to 
exercise or contend with blows ; 

buffet (buf'et & boo-fa'), n. a cup- 
board or sideboard ; a counter for 

Iduffe (boof'o), n. the comic actor in 
an opera : adj. comic ; burlesque. 

liiuffoon (buf-oon'), n. one who 
amuses others by low jests, ancles, 
odd gestures, &c. 

buffoonery (buf-oon'er-i) , n. [pi. 
buffooneries (-iz)], the arts and 
practices of a buffoon ; vulgar tricks 
and postures. 

buffy (buf'i), adj. buff-colored. 

bug (bug), n. name in England for 
the bedbug; an insect. 

bugaboo (bug'a-boo), n. sl bugbear. 

bugbear (bug'bar), n. a frightful ob- 
ject ; a vain terror. 

buggy (bug'i), n. a light four-wheeled 
carriage drawn by one horse. 

bugle (bti'gl), n. a hunting horn; a 
military wind-instrument. 

bugle (bu'gl), n. an elongated glass 

bubl (btil), n. decorative inlaying for 
cabinet-work, consisting of brass or 
other metal, tortoise-shell, &c., 
worked into scrolls or other pat- 
terns ; the articles so ornamented. 

build (bild), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. built, 
builded, building], to con- 
struct ; erect, as a house ; form by 
art ; raise anything on a support or 
foundation ; establish : v.i. to con- 
struct an edifice ; depend, base, or 
reckon [with on or tipon] : n. mode 
or style of construction. 

building (bild'ing), n. the act of con- 
structing, raising, or establishing ; 
an edifice. 

bulb (bulb), n. an onion-shaped root; 
a kind of leaf bud ; any protuberance 
or expansion on a stem or tube : v.i. 
to project as a bulb [with out]. 

bulbiferous (bul-bif'er-us) , adj. pro- 
ducing bulbs. 

bulbous (bul'bus), adj. pertaining to 
or resembling a bulb. 

bulbul (bool'bool), n. the Persian 

bulbule (bulb'ul), n. a little bulb; 
a bulbler. 

bulge (bulj), n. the bilge or widest 
part of a cask ; a bending outwards ; 
the bilge of a ship : v.i. to jut out ; 
be protuberant. 

bulk (bulk), n. magnitude or size; 
complete dimensions ; the main mass 
or body ; the cargo of a ship when 
stowed ; volume : v.i. to increase in 
size ; swell out. 

bulk-bead (-hed), n. a partition in 
a vessel which separates one part of 
it from another. 

bulky (bul'ki), adj. of great size or 

bulkiuess (-nes), «. greatness in 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




bull (bool), n. the male of any bovine 
mammal ; the male of various large 
animals, as the whale, elephant, &c. ; 
one who endeavors to raise the price 
of stock in order that he may sell 
dear : the opposite of a bear : adj. 
male, or of large size [in composi- 
tion] : v.t. to endeavor to raise the 
market value of. 

bull (bool), n. a papal letter, edict, 
or rescript, having a leaden seal 
(bulla) affixed to it. 

bull (bool), n. a ludicrous inconsis- 
tency in language. 

bull-baiting (bool'bat-ing), n. the 
sport of baiting or attacking bulls 
with dogs. 

bull-calf (bool'kaf), n. a male calf. 

bulldog (bool'dog), n. a variety of 
dog of strong muscular build, and 
remarkable for its courage and feroc- 
ity, formerly used for baiting bulls : 
pL a pair of pistols ; a proctor's at- 
tendant : adj. characterized by the 
courage of a bulldog, as bulldog 

bullet (bool'et), n. a small ball or 

bulletin (bool'e-tin), n. an official 
report regarding some matter or 
event of public interest ;• a periodic- 
al publication : v.t. to publish or an- 
nounce by bulletin. 

bull-figbt (bool'flt), n. a combat be- 
tween armed men and a bull. 

bull-lincli (boorfinch), n. a common 
British song bird. 

bull-frog (boorfrog), n. a large 
North American species of frog 
abounding in marshy places, re- 
markable for its loud, bellowing 

bullbead (bool'hed), n. a broad- 
headed scaleless fish of North Amer- 
ica ; catfish. 

bullion (bool'yun), n. uncoined gold 
or silver ; foreign coin ; a heavy 
twisted fringe covered with fine 
gold- or silver-wire. 

bullionist (bool'yun-ist), n. an ad- 
vocate for an exclusive metallic cur- 
rency, or a metallic currency com- 
bined with convertible paper. 

bullock (bool'ok), n. an ox or cas- 
trated bull ; a full-grown steer. 

bull's-eye (boolz'i), n. a boss of 

glass ; a sweet-meat ; any circular . 
opening for light or air ; a small ob- 
scure cloud, with a ruddy center ; a 
lantern with a convex lens ; a plano- 
convex lens for concentrating the 
light, attached to a microscope ; the 
center of a target ; a shot that hits 
the bull's-eye. 

bull-terrier (boorter'i-er), n. a 
cross-breed between the bulldog and 
the terrier. 

bully (bool'i), n. [pi. bullies ('iz)]j 
one who domineers by insolence or 
threats : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bullied, p, 
pr. bullying], to overbear with 
bluster and menaces : v.i. to be in- 
solently noisy and quarrelsome. 

bulrush (bool'rush), n. sl rush-like 
aquatic plant. 

bulse (buls), n. a bag or purse used 
in the East Indies to carry or meas- 
ure valuables ; a packet of diamonds 
or gold dust. 

bulwark (bool'werk), n. a rampart; 
a fortification; the boarding round 
the sides of a ship, above the level 
of the deck ; any means of protec- 
tion or defense. 

bumble-bee (bum'bl-be), n. a large 

bumboat (bum'bot), n. sl boat u«pd 
for the conveyance of provisioiis, 
fruit, &c., for sale to vessels lying 
off the shore. 

bummer (bum'er), n. a loafing fel- 
low who sponges on others ; a low 

bump (bump), n. a shock from a 
blow ; a swelling protuberance ; the 
striking of a boat by the prow of 
another following it in college boat- 
races : v.t. to bring in violent con- 
tact ; thump: v.i. to com© in colli- 
sion ; strike heavily. 

bumper (bump'er), n. an overflowing 

bumpkin (bump'kin), n. an awk- 
ward, clumsy, rustic ; a country lout. 

bumptious (bump'shus), adj. self- 

bun (bun), n. a small light cake. 

bunck (bunch), n. a cluster; a col- 
lection of things of the same kind 
growing or fastened together ; a 
tuft ; a small mass of ore : v.i. to 
swell out ; cluster : v.t. to form inte 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; nOte, nOrth, not; b55n, 
book; hue, hat; think, tbea. 




a bunch; to present (a lady) with a 

bunchiness (-nes), the state of being 

bunchy (bunch'i), adj. gathered into 
a bunch. 

bunco (bung'ko), n, a confidence 

buncombe or bunkum (bung'kum), 
n. idle or showy speech, especially 
if intended to secure votes or satisfy 
one's constituents. 

bund (bund), n. an embankment to 
protect the land against inundation. 

bundesrath (boon'des-rat), n. the 
federal council of the German Em- 
pire ; bund. 

bundle (bun'dl), n. a number of 
things bound together ; a roll or 
package ; two reams of printing or 
brown paper : v.t. to tie or bind in a 
bundle or roll ; to dismiss uncere- 
moniously [with off or ouf] : v.i. to 
depart without ceremony [with off]. 

bung (bung), n. a large cork for stop- 
ping the hole in a cask ; a publican : 
v.t. to stop with a bung ; close or 
shut up. 

bungalow (bung'ga-lo), n. a single- 
storied house, lightly built, and gen- 
erally surrounded by a veranda. 

bungle ( bung'gl ) , v.i. to botch ; man- 
age awkwardly : v.t. to perform 
clumsily : n. a clumsy performance ; 
a botch. 

bunion (bun'yun), n. a swelling on 
the foot, usually over the joint of 
the great toe. 

bunk (bungk), n. a box or recess 
serving for a sleeping-berth in a ves- 
sel, sleeping-car, &c. : v.i. to sleep in 
a bunk. 

bunker (bung'ker), n. a large bin or 
receptacle ; a sandhole on golf links. 

bunt (bunt), n. the middle part or 
belly of a square sail : v.i. to swell 
out : v.t. to haul up, as the middle 
part of a sail in furling. 

bunt (bunt), n. a species of fungus 
which produces the smut disease in 

bunting (bunt'ing), n. a bird allied 
to the finches and the sparrows ; a 
thin woolen stuff used for making 
flags ; flags collectively. 

buntline (bunt'lln), n„ one of the 

ropes attached to the foot-rope of a 
square sail to draw the sail up to 
the yard. 

buoy (boi), n. a floating body moored 
at a certain place to indicate the 
position of something beneath the 
water; a life-buoy: v.t. to keep 
afloat in a fluid [with up]; to mark 
with a buoy ; support. 

buoyage (boi'aj), n. buoys collec- 

buoyancy (boi'an-si), n. relative 
lightness ; elasticity of spirits. w^ 

buoyant (boi'ant), adj. having the 
quality of floating in a fluid; not 
easily depressed. 

bur (ber), n. the rough prickly seed- 
case of certain plants; a partially 
burnt brick ; the guttural pronuncia- 
tion of the rough r; the rough 
ridges of metal left by the graver 
in cutting metal. 

burbot (ber'bot), n. the eel-pout. 

burden (ber'dn), n. that which is 
borne or carried ; a load ; something 
grievous, wearisome or oppressive; 
a ship's capacity for carrying a 
cargo; a chorus or refrain; a topic 
on which one dwells: v.t. to load; 
lay a weight upon. 

burdock (ber'dok), n. a large way- 
side weed with rough broad leaves. 

bureau (bu ro)_, n. [pi. bureaus 
or bureaux ('roz)], a desk or writ- 
ing-table furnished with drawers: 
an ofiice ; a governmental depart- 
ment for the transaction of public 

bureaucracy (bti-ro'kra-si), n. the 
system of centralized government by 
means of bureaus or departments ; 
the officials administering such bu- 
reaus, as a body. 

bureaucrat (bu'ro-krat), n. an ad- 
vocate or supporter of bureaucracy, 

burg (berg), n. a borough. 

burgess (ber'jes), n. a citizen or free- 
man of a borough. 

burgher (ber'ger), n. a citizen or 
freeman of a burg or borough. 

burglar (berg'lar), n. one who 
breaks into a house at night with 
intent to commit a felony. 

burglarious (berg-la'ri-us), adj. per- 
taining to, or constituting, burglary. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon^ 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




burglary (bgi^'la-ri), w. the act or 
crime of breaking into a house at 
night with intent to commit a fel- 

burgomaster (ber'go-mas-ter), n. 
the chief magistrate of a municipal 
town in Holland, Flanders, and Ger- 

burgundy (ber'gun-di), n. a wine, 
red and white, made in Burgundy in 

fourfi:&...ndy-pitcL. (-'pitch), «. spruce- 
1 fir resin. 

burial (ber'i-al), w. the act of bury- 

burin (bu'rin), w. a cutting tool. 

burl (berl), n. a small knot or lump 
in thread or cloth ; a knot in wood : 
v.t. to pick knots, &c., from, as in 
finishing cloth. 

burlap (ber'lap), n. a coarse fabric 
made of jute, hemp, &c., used for 
bagging or in upholstery [commonly 
in the pl.^. 

burlesque (ber-lesk'), adj. tending to 
excite laughter by extravagant con- 
trast or caricature : n. a ludicrous, 
grotesque representation ; a literary 
composition or dramatic piece com- 
posed in burlesque style : v.t. to ridi- 
cule or make ridiculous by carica- 
tured representation; travesty; par- 

burletta (ber-let'a), w. a comic 
opera ; a musical farce. 

burliness (-nes), n. the quality of 
being burly. 

burly (ber'li), adj, bulky; large; cor- 

Burmese (ber'mez), adj, pertaining 
to Burma. 

burn(bern), v.t. Ip.t. burnt & burned, burning], to consume or in- 
yare with fire; reduce to ashes; 
scorch ; expose to the action of fire ; 
produce by means of fire ; affect with 
a burning sensation ; cauterize : v.i. 
to be on fire ; suffer from or be in- 
jured by excess of heat ; glow ; 
shine ; be inflamed with passion or 
desire : n. an injury to the flesh 
caused by fire. 

burn (bern), n, a rivnlet; a brook. 

burner (ber'ner), n. one who burns 
or sets fire to anything; the part of 

a lamp or gas fixture from whicli 
the flame issues. 

burning-glass (-gl^s), n, a double- 
convex lens used to focus the rays 
of the sun upon combustible sub- 
stances to ignite them. 

burnish, (ber'nish), v.t. polish by 
friction ; make smooth and lustrous J 
n. polish ; gloss ; brightness. 

burnt offering (of'er-ing), n. some- 
thing offered and burnt upon an 
altar as a sacrifice or an atonement 
for sin. 

burro-w (bur'o), n. a bole in the 
ground excavated by a rabbit or 
other animal, as a refuge and habita- 
tion : v.i. to excavate ; work a way 
into or under something; lodge in 
a deep or concealed place; hide. 

burry (bur'i), adj. full of burs; 

bursa (ber'sa), n. a sac or sac-like 

bursar (ber'ser), n. the treasurer of 
a college ; a university- student who 
receives an allowance for his sup- 

bursary (ber'ser-i), n. the treasury 
of a college or monastery; the al- 
lowance paid to a student in a Scot- 
tish university. 

burst (berst), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. burst, bursting], to rend or break 
open with violence ; yield to internal 
force or pressure ; explode ; give way 
under excess of grief or pain ; ap- 
pear or disappear suddenly : v.t. to 
rend or break by violence ; open sud- 
denly : n. a violent or sudden break- 
ing forth ; a sudden explosion ; a 
rush ; a strenuous effort ; a spurt. 

bury (ber'i), n. a manor-house; a 

bury (ber'i), iP.t. [p.t. & p.p. buried, burying], to deposit and cover 
in a grave or tomb, or in any final 
resting-place ; entomb ; keep secret ; 

burying (ber'i-ing), n. burial (John 
xii. 7). 

bus (bus), n. sl shortened form of 

bush (boosh), n. a thick shrub; st 
forest region; wild, uncleared coun- 
try ; the tail or brush of a fox ; a 
branch of a tree formerly hung out 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boo% 
book; hue, hut; think, then» 




as a tavern sign : vA. to grow thick 
or bushj : v.t. to set bushes about ; 
use a bush-harrow on. 

t}ti.sli (boosh), n. a lining or tube of 
hard metal inserted in an orifice, to 
reduce wear by friction : v.t» to fur- 
nish with a bush. 

Businnan (boosh'man), n. [pi. bush- 
men ('men)], one of a tribe of ab- 
originals near the Cape of Good 
Hope ; a Bosjesman. 

Iiusliraiiger (boosh'ranj-er), n. one 
who leads a predatory life in the 
bush country ; originally a criminal 
who escaped and lived a lawless 
life in the bush. 

busli-wliacker (boosh'hwak-er), n. 
a back-woodsman ; an implement 
for cutting brushwood. 

busliel (boosh'el), n. a dry measure 
containing eight gallons or four 
pecks ; a vessel of such a capacity ; a 
large quantity. 

Iiushiness (-nes), n. the quality of 
being bushy. 

bushy (boosh'i), adj. thick and 
spreading like a bush; overgrown 
with shrubs. 

busily (biz'i-li), adv. in a busy man- 

business (biz'nes), n. employment; 
trade ; profession ; something to be 
transacted or required to be done ; 
right of action ; affair ; matter : adj. 
pertaining to business ; practical. 

busk (busk), n. a strip of flexible ma- 
terial worn in the front of corsets. 

buskin (bus'kin), n. kind of half -boot 
or high shoe reaching to the middle 
of the calf; a high shoe (cothurnus) 
worn by ancient actors in tragedy to 
increase their height. 

buss (bus), n. a small two-masted 
vessel used in herring fishing. 

bust (bust), n. the chest or thorax; 
the head, shoulders, and breast of a 
person represented in sculpture. 

bustard (bus'terd), n. a bird of the 
genus Otis, of which there are many 
species, as the great bustard of 
Europe and Africa. 

bustle (bus'l), v.i. to be busy, with a 
certain amount of noise ; move 
quickly : n. tumult ; noisy activity ; 
a pad or cushion worn by women 
beneath the skirt. 

busy (biz'i), adj. earnestly or closely 
employed ; bustling ; diligent ; of- 
ficious ; meddlesome : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. busied, busying], to keep 
constantly engaged; occupy one's 
self actively. 

busybody (biz'i-bod-i), n. [pi. busy- 
bodies (-iz)], a meddling, officious 

butcher (booch'er), n. one who 
slaughters animals for food ; one 
who delights in slaughter : v.t. to 
slaughter for food ; to murder in a 
barbarous manner. 

butcker-bird (herd), n. a name 
given to various shrikes, from their 
habit of suspending their slaughtered 
prey upon thorns. 

butchery (booch'er-i), n. the busi- 
ness of slaughtering cattle; bar- 
barous murder. 

butler (but'ler), n. a manservant in 
a household who has the care of the 
plate, wines, &c. ; the chief servant 
in a large household. 

butt (but), n. a push or thrust de- 
livered by the head of an animal ; a 
thrust in fencing : v.t. to strike by 
thrusting the head against. 

butt (but), n. the extremity of a 
thing ; the thicker end of anything ; 
a target ; a rifle or gunnery range ; 
a goal ; a limit ; the thickest part of 
tanned ox-hides; an object of ridi- 

butt (but), n. a large cask of 117 
gals, of Lisbon wine, or 108 gals, 
of beer. 

butte (but), n. an abrupt isolated hill 
or ridge. 

butter (but'er), n. an oily, unctuous 
substance obtained from cream or 
milk by churning ; any substance of 
butter-like consistence ; gross flat- 
tery : v.t. to spread or smear with 
butter ; to flatter grossly. ^ 

butter-bird (-herd), n. the rice-bunt-' 

buttercup (-kup), n. a plant bearing 
yellow cup-shaped flowers. 

butter-fingers (-fing'gerz),, 
one who lets a ball slip through his 

butterfly (but'er-fli), n. [pi. butter- 
flies (-fliz) ], a general name for any 
species of diurnal lepidopterous in- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




sects; a gay, showily-dressed, tri- 
fling person. 

bntterine (-in), h. an imitation but- 

buttermilk (but'er-milk), n. whey 
separated from the cream in butter- 

butternut (but'er-nut), n. the fruit 
of a North American tree allied to 
the walnut. 

buttery (but'er-i), n, [pi. butteries 
(-iz)], an apartment in which pro- 
visions, wines, &c., are kept ; a room 
in some colleges where liquors and 
provisions are kept for sale. 

butting (but'ing), n. an abuttal; a 

buttock (but'ok), n. the rump or pro- 
tuberant hinder part of a man or 
animal [used usually in the pi.'] ; 
the convex part of a ship under the 

button (but'n), n. any small rounded 
object used to secure different parts 
of a garment, or attached for orna- 
ment ; something resembling a but- 
ton ; the knob at the end of a foil ; 
a ball of gold, «&c., worn on the hats 
of Chinese officials to indicate their 
rank : pi. young mushrooms ; a page 
boy : v.t. to fasten or furnish with 

buttonliole (but'n-hol), n. a small 
bouquet worn in the coat : v.t. to de- 
tain in conversation against the 
will ; bore. 

buttonwood (-wood), n. the plane- 

buttress (but'res), n. masonry or 
brickwork built on to an outside 
wall to afford support ; a support : 
v.t. to support by a buttress; prop. 

butyrate (bti'ti-rat), n. a salt of 
butyric acid. 

butyric (bu-tir'ik), 0(f/. pertaining 
to or derived from butter. 

butyric acid (as'id), n, a colorless 
liquid obtained from butter : it is 
present also in cod-liver oil and in 
sweat glands. 

buxom (buk'sum), adj. cheerful; jol- 
ly ; robust ; plump and comely. 

buy (bi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. bought, buying], to acquire by paying 
an agreed price ; purchase ; bribe. 

buyer's option (bi'erz op'shun), n. a 
purchaser's privilege of taking an 
agreed amount of stock within a cer- 
tain period. 

buzz (buz), n. a continuous humming 
noise, as of bees ; a confused or 
blended murmur, as of many voices ; 
a whispered report or rumor : v.i. to 
make a low humming sound ; speak 
with a low humming voice : v.t, 
spread secretly. 

buzz-sa-w (-saw), n. a circular saw. 

buzzard (buz'erd), n. the name of 
several species of hawks; a stupid, 
dull fellow. 

buzzingly (-li), adv. with a hum- 
ming sound. 

bye (bi), n. a run scored at cricket 
when the ball passes the wicket 
keeper and long-stop, and has not 
been struck by the batsman ; a goal 
at football. 

by-lavr (-law), n. a private law or 
statute framed by a corporate body. 

by-word (bi'werd), n. a proverb; 
nickname; an object of derision. 

Byzantine (biz-an'tin), adj. of, or 
pertaining to, Byzantium (Constan- 
tinople), the ancient capital of the 
Eastern Roman Empire. 

"^ ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
^ book; hiie, hut; think, it/ien. 

8ab (kab), n. a public carriage with 
four or two wheels, drawn by one 
horse ; the shelter for the driver of 
a locomotive : v.t. ip.t. & p.p. cabbed, cabbing], to pass over in a 
cab : as, to cab the distance. 

cabal (ka-bal'), n. a secret combina- 
tion of a few persons for carrying 
out some specific design ; an in- 
trigue : v.i. [p.t. & p.p. caballed, caballing], to unite in secret 
with others to effect some design. 

cabala (kab'a-la), n. a secret science 
of the Jewish rabbins to interpret 
the hidden meaning of the Penta- 
teuch ; esoteric doctrine. 

cabalism (kab-al'izm), n. occult doc- 

cabalist (kab'al-ist), n. one versed 
in the Jewish cabala ; an occultist. 

caballero (ka-ba-la'ro), n. a Spanish 
knight or gentleman; a stately 
Spanish dance. 

cabaret (kab'a-ret), n. originally an 
ale house or tavern; now, a place of 
refreshment where dancing and sing- 
ing are provided. 

cabbage (kab'aj), n, a well-known 
vegetable; v. t. to appropriate to 
one's own use. 

cabega (ka-ba'sa), n. the finest qual- 
ity of Indian silk. 

cabin (kab'in), n. a small hut, cot- 
tage, or room ; a room in a ship for 
officers or passengers : v.t. to confine 
in a cabin : v.i. to live in a cabin, 

cabinet (kab'in-et), n. a small apart- 
ment ; a private room ; a piece of 
furniture to hold objects of vertu, 
&c. ; a cabinet photograph ; a delib- 
erative committee of the principal 
members of the Ministry. 

cabinet picture (pik'tur\, n. a val- 
uable picture of small dimensions. 

cable (ka'bl), n. a large strong rope 
or chain ; a submarine telegraph 
line ; a molding resembling a cable ; 
a measure of distance = 100 to 140 
fathoms : v.t. to fasten with a cable ; 
transmit by telegraph cable. 

cablegram (ka'bl-gram), n. a mes- 
sage sent by a submarine cable. 

cabocbon (kab'oo-shon), n. a pre- 
cious stone polished but not faceted. 

caboose (ka-bo6s'), n. a ship's galley 
or kitchen ; the trainmen's car at- 
tached to a freight-train. 

cabriolet ( kab-ri-o-la' ) , n. a covered 
carriage with two or four wheels 
drawn by one horse. 

cacaine (ka-ka'in), n. the essential 
principle of cario. 

cacao (ka-ka'o), n. a small evergreen 
tree of tropical America and West 
Indies, from the seeds of which 
cocoa and chocolate are prepared. 

cacbe (kash), n. a place of conceal- 
ment for food for future use : v.t. to 
hide (piOvisions) in the ground. 

cacbelot (kash'a-lot & -15'), n. the 
sperm whale, which yields sperma- 

cacbet (ka-sha'), n. a seal. 

cacbinnation (kak-i-na'shun), n, 
loud or unrestrained laughter. 

cacbolong (kash'o-long), n. a milk 
or greyish-white variety of opal ; 
pearl opal. 

cacbou (ka-shoo'), w. a pill for sweet- 
ening the breath. 

caciqne (ka-sek'), n. the name or 
title of the aboriginal chiefs of the 
West Indies and some parts of 
South America. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 





cackle (kak'l), v.i. to cry like a hen 
or goose : specifically used of the cry 
made by a hen which has laid an 
egg ; giggle ; prattle : n. the cry of 
a hen or goose ; silly talk. 

cacophonous (ka-kof'o-nus), adj. 

cactus (kak'tus), n. [pi. cacti ('ti) & 
cactuses (-eL,)], a spiny fleshy plant 
with showy flowers. 

cad (kad), n. a vulgar, ill-bred fel- 
low ; an omnibus conductor. 

cadaver (ka-da'ver), n. a dead body; 
a corpse. 

cadaverous (ka-dav'er-us), adj. r(i- 
sembling a corpse ; pale ; ghastly. 

caddie (kad'i), n, a lad who carries 
golf clubs. 

caddis (kad'is), n. the larva of the 

caddy (kad'i), n. Ipl. caddies ('iz)], 
a small box for keeping tea. 

cade (kad), n. a barrel or cask of 500 
herrings, or 1,000 sprats. 

cadence (ka'dens), n. the full modu- 
lation of the voice in reading or 
speaking ; rhythm ; a musical run 
or trill. 

cadenza (ka-den'za), n. a vocal or 
instrumental flourish. 

cadet (ka-det'), n. a younger son; 
student in a naval or military acad- 

cadi (ka'di), n. a Mahommedan judge. 

Cadmean (kad-me'an), adj. of or be- 
longing to Cadmus ; Theban. 

cadmium (kad'mi-um), n. a bluish- 
white ductile metal, resembling tin. 

caducean (ka-du'se-an), a<i;. pertain- 
ing to the caduceus, the winged state 
of Mercury, entwined with serpents. 

caecum (se'kum), n. [pi. caeca ('ka)], 
the blind gut ; a pouch-like appen- 
dage of the large intestine, having 
one end closed. 

Csesarian (se-za're-an), adj. pertain- 
ing to Caesar. 

Caesarian operation (op-er-a'shun) , 
n. a delivery of a foetus by cutting 
through the walls of the abdomen. 

Caesarism (se'zar-izm), n. imperial- 
ism ; absolute rule or government. 

caesium (ses'i-um), n. a rare metal 
associated with rubidium. 

cafe (kaf-a'), n. a restaurant. 

cafPeine (kaf'e-in), w. a bitter alka- 

loid extracted from coffee; theine. 

cage (kaj), n. a box or inclosure fur- 
nished with metal bars for confining 
birds, or other animals ; a contriv- 
ance for raising and lowering men 
in a mine shaft : v.t. to confine in a 
cage ; shut up. 

caique (ka-ek'), n. a skiff or light 
rowing boat used on the Bosphorus. 

cairn (karii), n. a conical heap of 
stones erected as a monument. 

cairngorm (karn'gorm), n. a yellow 
or brown variety of quartz or rock- 

caisson (ka'sun), n. an ammunition- 
wagon or chest; a box filled with 
explosives for firing a mine ; a 
water-tight box or casing used for 
building structures in water ; a 
sunken panel in a ceiling ; a struc- 
ture for raising and floating sunken 

caitiff (ka'tif), n, a despicable or 
cowardly wretch : adj. despicable ; 
vile ; cowardly. 

cajole (ka-jol'), v.t. to coax or de- 
ceive by flattery ; wheedle ; cheat. 

cake (kak), n. a small mass of 
dough, sweetened and baked ; a com- 
pressed or solidified mass of any 
substance, especially if thin or flat ; 
a simpleton : v.t. to form into a 
cake : v.i. to consolidate into a hard 

calabash (kal'a-bash), n. the fruit 
of the calabash tree of tropical 
America, used when dried as a ves- 
sel for liquids, &e. 

calaboose (kal-a-boos'), n. a jail; a 

calamitous (ka-lam'i-tus), adj. pro- 
ducing, or resulting from, calamity. 

calamity (ka-lam'i-ti), n. [pi. car 
lamities (-tiz) ], any cause that pro- 
duces evil, disaster, or extreme mis- 
fortune ; distress ; affliction. 

calamus (kal'a-mus), n. [pi. calami 
(-mi)], a genus of palms producing 
the rattan canes ; the sweet flag. 

calash (ka-lash'), n. a light carriage 
with low wheels and a folding re- 
movable top ; a hood formerly worn 
by women. 

calcareous (kal-kar'e-us), adj. of thd 
nature of, or containing, lime. 

calcify (karsi-fi). v.t, [p.t. & p.p, 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boo# 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tAen. 




calcified, calcifying], to con- 
vert into lime : v.i. to become strong 
by conversion into lime. 

calcimine (kal'si-min), n. white or 
tinted wash for walls or ceilings. 

calcination (kal-si-na'shun), n. the 
act or process of reducing to powder 
by heat. 

calcine (kal-sin'), v.t. to reduce a 
substance to powder by heat ; oxi- 
dize : v.i. to undergo calcination. 

calcite (kal'sit), n. crystallized car- 
bonate of lime. 

calcium (kal'si-um), n. the metallic 
base of lime. 

calcium carbide (kar'bid), n. a 
compound of quicklime and carbon, 
from which acetylene is generated 
by subjecting it to the action of 

calcograpliy (kal-kog'ra-fi), n. the 
art of drawing with colored chalks 
or pastels. 

calc-spar (kalk-spar), n. a crystal- 
line carbonate of lime or calcite. 

calculary ( kal'ku-ler-i ) , acZ;. pertain- 
ing to, or of the nature of, calculi. 

calculate (kal'ku-lat), v.t. to com- 
pute ; ascertain or determine by any 
process of reasoning ; estimate : v.i. 
to make a computation ; suppose or 

calculation (kal-ku-la'shun), n. the 
art of reckoning by numbers; com- 
putation ; something deduced by rea- 
soning or inference ; estimate ; opin- 

calculative (kal'kii-la-tiv), adj. tend- 
ing to calculate. 

calculator (karkti-la-ter), n. one 
who, or a machine that, computes or 

calculous (kal'ku-lus), adj. stony; 

calculus (karku-lus), n. [pi. calculi 
(-11)], a stony concretion in the 
body ; one of the higher branches of 
mathematics ; the differential calcu- 

caldera (kal-da'ra), n. a deep cal- 
dron-like cavity on the summits of 
extinct volcanoes. 

caldron. See cauldron. 

calendar (kal'en-der), n. a register 
of the days, weeks, and months of 
the year, &c. ; a register or list ; a 

list of criminal causes arranged for 
trial : v.t. to register or place on a 

calendar month, (munth), n. a solar 
month reckoned according to the 
calendar, as distinguished from the 
lunar month. 

calender (kal'en-der), n. a machine 
consisting of heated rollers, used for 
smoothing and glazing paper or 
cloth : v.t. to press in a calender. 

calends (kal'endz), in the Ro- 
man calendar, the first day of each 
month. Also kalends. 

calenture (kal'en-ttir), a violent 
fever affecting sailors in hot lati- 

calf (kaf), Qi. Ipl. calves (kavz)], a 
young bovine quadruped, especially 
of the cow ; the young of certain 
marine mammalia, as the whale ; 
leather made from the skin of a 
calf ; a small island, or iceberg near 
a larger one ; a stupid or silly per- 
son ; the thick fleshy part of the leg 

caliber (kal'i-ber), n. the diameter 
of a cylindrical body ; mental ca- 

calibrate (kal'i-brat), v.t. to deter- 
mine the caliber of ; graduate, 

calibration (kal-i-bra'shun), n. the 
act of calibrating. 

calicle (kal'i-kl), n. a small cup- 
shaped cell. 

calico (kal'i-ko), n. [pi. calicoes & 
OS (-koz)], white or unprinted cot- 
ton cloth. 

caligraph. (kal'i-graf), n. a form of 

caligraphy (ka-lig'ra-fi), n. callig- 

calipash (kal'i-pash), n. the part of 
a turtle belonging to the u,pper shell, 
inclosing a dull greenish gelatinous 
substance. , ^ 

calipee (kal'i-pe), n. the part of a 
turtle belonging to the lower shell, 
inclosing a light yellow gelatinous 

calipers (kal'i-perz), compasses 
for measuring the diameters of cylin- 
drical bodies. 

caliph (kar or ka'lif), n. a title of 
the successors of Mohammed. Also 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, *7ien. 




ealipliate (kal'i-fat), n. the office, 
dignity or government of a caliph. 

ealisthenic (kal-is-then'ik), adj. per- 
taining to calisthenics. 

calisthenics (kal-is-then'iks), 
the art of promoting health by phys- 
ical exercise ; simple gymnastics. 

calk or caulk (kawk), v.t. to drive 
oakum into the seams of (a ship). 

calk (kawk), v.t. to copy (a drav^- 
ing) by covering the back with 
J chalk or lead, and trace over the 
lines with a style for transfer. 

calk (kawk), n. that part of a horse- 
shoe which projects downward to 
prevent slipping ; a semi-circular 
piece of iron nailed to the heel of a 
boot : v.t. to furnish with a calk. 

call (kawl), v.t. to summon from, or 
invite to, any place ; convoke judi- 
cially or officially ; designate for an 
office ; name ; characterize as ; ex- 
hort ; utter in a loud voice ; rouse 
from sleep : n. a summons or invi- 
tation ; a request or command ; a 
short visit ; the cry or note uttered 
by certain animals ; a demand for 
payment due on shares ; the option 
of claiming stock at a certain time 
at a stipulated price. 

calligraph (kal'i-graf), n. a speci- 
men of elegant penmanship. 

calligrapker (kal-lig'ra-fer), or 
calligrapkist (-fist), n. one skilled 
in hand-writing. 

caliigrapliy (kal-lig'ra-fi), n. ele- 
gant or beautiful writing. 

calling (kawl'ing), n. the act of 
summoning ; a summons or invita- 
tion ; a vocation, trade or profes- 
sion; the state of being divinely 
called (II Pet. i. 10). 

callityping (kal'i-tl-ping), n. the 
process of producing plates for 
printing purposes by means of type- 
writing and photo-engraving. 

callosity (kal-os'i-ti), 11. [pi. callosi- 
ties (-tiz)], the state or quality of 
being hardened ; a callus. 

callous (kal'us), adj. hardened; in- 

callo-w (kal'o), adj. unfledged. 

iQallus (kal'us), n. \_pl. calli (-1)], the 
hardening of the skin from pres- 
sure; bony matter which unites the 
ends of fractured bones. 

calm (kam), adj. tranquil; still; un- 
disturbed : n. stillness ; serenity : v.t, 
to quiet ; still ; pacify : v.i. to be- 
come calm (with down). 

calomel (kal'o-mel), n. mercurous 
chloride: used as a purgative medi- 

caloric (ka-lor'ik), adj. pertaining 
to heat. 

caloricity (kal-6-ris'i-ti), ti. the pow- 
er in animals of developing and 
maintaining heat. 

calorie (kal'o-re), n. the unit of heat 
(metric system) to express the 
amount of heat required to raise one 
kilogramme of water from 0° to 1° 
centigrade. Also calory. 

calorif acient (ka-lor-i-fa'shi-ent) , 
adj. heat-producing : said of food- 

calorific (kal-o-rif'ik), adj. heating. 

calorification ( ka-lor-i-fi-ka'shun ) , 
n. the production of heat. 

calorific rays (raz), the invisi- 
ble heating rays emanating from 
tl e sun and heated bodies. 
j calorimeter (kal-o-rim'i-ter), n. an 
I apparatus for measuring heat pro- 
I duced or given off by a body. 
; calorimetry (kal-o-rim'i-tri), n. 
art or process of determining 
amount of heat contained in 
given off by, bodies. 

calorimotor (kal-o-ri-mo'ter), n. a 
galvanic apparatus for producing 
heat in a short external circuit. 

calotte (ka-lof), n. a plain skull-cap 
of satin, &c. ; a cap or hood on the 
heads of certain birds. 

calotype (kal'o-tip), n. a photo- 
graphic process in which the image 
is received on paper prepared with 
iodide of silver. Also called talbo- 
type, from the name of the inventor. 

caltrop (kal'trop), n. an iron in- 
strument with four spikes, placed in 
ditches, &c., to hinder the advance 
of troops ; a name for various plants 
with prickly fruit. 

calu3net (kal'u-met), n. the tobacco- 
pipe of the North American Indians, 
smoked as a symbol of peace, or to 
ratify treaties. 

calumniate (ka-lum'ni-at), v.t. to 
accuse falsely and maliciously : v.L 
to utter calumnies. 




ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, ndrth, not; boon, 
boc^; hue, hut; think, tliQiu 



calumniation ^ka-lum-ni-a'shun), n. 
the act of calumniating. 

calumnious (ka-lum'ni-us), adj. 
slanderous ; defamatory. 

calumny (karum-ni), n. [pZ. calum- 
nies (-niz)3, a false accusation ;' a 

Calvary (kal'va-ri), n. the place 
where Christ was crucified ; in Ro- 
man Catholic countries a representa- 
tion of the crucifixion erected in the 
open air. 

calve (kav), v.i. to bring forth a 
calf ', become detached from : said of 
glaciers when icebergs break off 
from them. 

Calvinism ( kal'vin-izm ) , n. the doc- 
trines of John Calvin [1509-64], the 
French theologian and reformer, es- 
pecially those relating to predestina- 
tion and election. 

Calvinist (kal'vin-ist), n. one who 
holds the doctrines of Calvin. 

Calvinistic (kal-vin-is'tik), adj. per- 
taining to Calvin or his doctrines. 

calx (kalks), n. [pi. calxes (kalk'- 
sez), or calces (kal'sez)], lime or 
chalk ; the residuum of a metal left 
after calcination. 

calyx (ka'liks), n. \_pl. calyxes (ka'- 
lik-sez), calices (kal'i-sez)], the 
whorl of a flower. 

cam (kam), n. a projecting part of a 
wheel or other moving piece of ma- 
chinery for imparting an eccentric 
or alternating motion. 

camber (kam'ber), n. a convexity on 
an upper surface ; a piece of timber 
thus bent ; a small dock for unload- 
ing timber : v.t. to curve or bend ; 

camljer-window (-win'do), n. a 
window arched at the top. 

cambist (kam'bist), n. one who deals 
in notes or bills of exchange ; a 

cambium (kam'bi-um), n. the forma- 
tive layer of cellular tissue which 
lies between the young wood and the 
bark of exogenous trees. 

cambrasine (kam'bra-zen), n. a fine 
kind of cambric; batiste. 

cambric (kam'brik), n. a very fine 
thin linen : adj. pertaining to, or 
made of, cambric. 

cambric-muslin (-muz'lin), n. a 
fine cotton imitation of cambric. 

came, p.t. of come. 

camel (kam'el), n. a large ruminant 
quadruped, of which there are two 
species, the Arabian came! or drome- 
dary, with a single hump, and the 
Bactrian camel, with two humps ; a 
water-tight structure placed beneath 
a vessel to raise and float it over a 
shoal or bar. 

Camellia (ka-mel'i-a), n. a genus of 
Asiatic evergreen shrubs, cultivated 
for their beautiful rose-like flowers 
and shining foliage. 

camelopard (ka-mel'o-pard & kam'- 
el-o-pard), n. the giraffe. 

camelry (kam'el-ri), n. Vpl. camel- 
ries (-riz)], troops mounted on 
camels ; a camel corps ; a place for 
loading or unloading camels. 

cameo (kam'e-o), n. a precious stone 
^i* shell on which figures are en- 
graved in relief. 

camera (kam'er-a), n. \_pl. cameras 
(-az)], a camera obscura, especially 
that employed in photography. 

camera lucida (loo'si-da), n. an 
optical instrument for reflecting dis- 
tant objects on paper by means of a 
solid glass prism. 

camera obscura (ob-skii'r§.), n. a 
darkened chamber or box in which, 
by means of lenses, external objects 
are exhibited on paper, glass, &c. 

camomile (kam'6-mil), n. a plant of 
the genus Anthemis, whose flowers 
have a bitter aroma,tic taste, and 
are largely used as a medicine. 

camp (kamp), n. the ground occupied 
by an army at rest, with tents, huts, 
&c. ; an encampment : v.i. to live in 
a camp ; encamp. 

camp-meeting (-met'ing), n. an 
outdoor religious gathering. 

camp-stool (-stool), n. a. folding 
stool or seat. 

campaign (kam-pan'), n. an open 
tract of land ; the period during 
which an army carries on active 
operations in the field : v.i. to serve 
in a campaign. 

campanile (kam-pa-ne'le), n. [pk 
campaniles ('lez)], a bell-tower de- 
tached from the body of a church. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon^ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 

Copyright, Underwood & Underwood. 

1 Grain field, Manitoba. 2. Timber, Saskatchewan. 3. Fishing Village, New- 
foundland. 4. Coal Mines, Nova Scotia. 5. Parliament Building, Ottawa. 



campanology (kam-pa-noro-ji), n. 
the principles or art of bell-ringing, 
bell-founding, &c. 

caxnpanulate (kam-pan'yu-Iat), adj. 

campeacliy -wood (kam-pech'i 
wood), n. another name for logwood. 

campliene (kam-fen'), n. rectified oil 
of turpentine. Also camphine. 

caxnplior (kam'fer), n. a volatile aro- 
matic whitish substance, obtained 
from various trees and plants of 
Eastern Asia. 

camplior-tree (-tre), n. a species of 
laurel yielding the camphor of com- 

campliorate (kam'fer-at), v.t. to 
saturate or treat with camphor. 

camwood (kam'wood), n. a red dye- 

can (kan), v.i. [p.t. could], to be 
able ; possess power physically, mor- 
ally, or mentally (used as an auxil- 
iary verb). 

can (kan), n. a metal vessel of small 
size, for holding liquids or preserv- 
ing solids : v.t, [p.t. & p.p. canned : canning], to put up in cans for 

Canadian balsam (bawl-sum), n. a 
resin obtained from a species of fir. 

canaille (ka-nal'), n. the lowest or- 
ders of the populace. 

canal (ka-nal'), n. an artificial navi- 
gable waterway ; a duct or tube for 
the passage of fluids ; a channel or 

canard (ka-nard', French ka-nar'), n. 
an absurd story or report ; a hoax. 

canary (ka-na'ri), n. a light wine; a 
pale or bright yellow color ; a small 
singing bird with yellow plumage, a 
aative of the Canary Islands : adj. 
bright yellow. 

«;ancan (kan'kan), n. a vivacious and 
indelicate French dance. 

cancel (kan'sel), v.t. [p.t.&c p.p. can- 
celed, canceling], to deface 
writing by drawing lines across it ; 
annul ; strike out common factors : 
n. the part of a book deleted and re- 
printed before publication. 

cancer (kan'ser), n. a genus of crus- 
taceans, including the crabs ; one 
of the twelve zodiacal signs, the 

sign of the summer solstice ; a ma- 
lignant tumor or growth. 

cancerate (kan'ser-at), v.i. to grow 
into a cancer. 

cancerous (kan'ser-us), adj. like a 
cancer ; affected with cancer. 

cancrine (kang'krin), adj. having 
the form or qualities of a crab. 

cancroid (kang'kroid), adj. resem- 
bling a cancer. 

candelabrum (kan-de-la'brum), n, 
[pi. candelabra ('bra)], a lamp- 
stand ; an ornamented branched can- 

candent (kan'dent), adj. glowing 
with a white heat. 

candescence (kan-des'ens) , n. a state 
of glowing. 

candid (kan'did), adj. honest; out- 
spoken ; sincere ; free from undue 
bias ; open ; fair. 

candidate (kan'di-dat), n. one who 
offers himself, or is proposed by oth- 
ers, to fill some office : v.i. to become 
a candidate. 

candidature (kan'di-dat-ttir), n. the 
state of being a candidate. 

candied (kan'did), p. adj. preserved 
or incrusted with sugar. 

candle (kan'dl), n. a cylindrical body 
of tallow, wax, or other fatty ma- 
terial, inclosing a wick of cotton, 
and used to furnish light. 

candle-po"wer (-pou'er), n. the il- 
luminating power of a candle taken 
as a unit in determining the lumi- 
nosity of any flame. 

Candlemas (kan'dl-mas), n. the 
feast of the Purification of the Vir- 
gin Mary (Feb. 2nd). 

candor (kan'der) , n. openness ; 

candy (kan'di), n. a solid confection 
of sugar, combined with flavoring or 
coloring substances : v.t. Vp.t. & p.p. 
candied, candying], to conserve 
with sugar ; incrust with crystals : 
v.i. to become candied. 

candytuft (kan'di-tuft), n. a plant 
bearing tufted flowers, originally 
from Candia. 

cane (kan), n. the stem of certain 
palms, grasses, and other plants, as 
the bamboo, sugar-cane, rattan, &c. ; 
a walking-stick : v.t. to beat with a 
cane; furnish with cane. 

ate, arm, ask. at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



cane-brake ('brak), n. a thicket of 

canella (ka-nel'la), an aromatic and 
tonic bark of a West Indian tree. 

canine (ka-nin'), adj. pertaining to 
dogs ; having the nature or qualities 
of a dog. 

canine teeth (teth), two sharp- 
pointed teeth on each side of the 
upper and lower jaws of most mam- 
mals. Also canines. 

canister ( kan'is-ter ) , n. a metal bos 
or case for tea, coffee, &c. ; a cese 
containing shot which explodes when 
fired from a gun. 

canker (kang'ker), n. a cancerous or 
ulcerous disease ; an eating or cor- 
roding agency which causes decay or 
rot ; anything that insidiously cor- 
rodes, corrupts, or destroys : v.t. to 
corrode or corrupt ; infect with poi- 
sonous influence : v.i. to grow cor- 
rupt ; be infected with, or become 

canker-ivorm (werm), n, a cater- 
pillar destructive to trees or plants ; 
something, as sorrow, evil, &c., that 
insidiously destroys one's happiness. 

cankerous (kang'ker-us), adj. cor- 

cannabin (kan'a-bin), n. a narcotic 
resin extracted from hemp. 

cannabis (kan'a-bis), n. Indian 

canned (kand), adj. preserved in 

cannel-coal (kan'el-kol), n. a hard 
bituminous coal burning with a 
clear bright flame; candle-coal. 

cannery (kan'e-ri), n. [pi. canneries 
(-riz)], an establishment for pre- 
serving meat, fish, &c., in cans her- 
metically sealed. 

cannibal (kan'i-bal), n. a human be- 
ing who eats human flesh ; any ani- 
mal that eats the flesh of its own 
kind : adj. pertaining to, or charac- 
teristic of, cannibalism. 

cannibalism (kan'i-bal-izm) ^ n. the 
act or practice of eating human 
flesh by human beings, or of animals 
by those of like kind. 

cannibalistic "(kan-i-ba-lis'tik), adj. 
characterized by cannibalism. 

cannon (kan'un), n. [pi. cannons 
('unz), or cannon (collectively)], a 

large gun; a piece of ordnance. 

cannonade ( kan-un-ad' ) , n. the act 
of discharging cannon against a 
town, fort, &c. : v.t. to attack with 
cannon or ordnance : v.i. to dis- 
charge cannon. 

cannoneer (kan-un-er'), n. an artil- 

cannoneering (kan-un-er'ing), n. 
the act or art of using the cannon. 

cannot (kan'ot), {can and not), to 
be unable. 

cannnla (kan'u-la), n. a small tube 
for injecting or withdrawing fluids. 

cannular (kan'ti-lar), adj. tubular. 

canny or cannie (kan'i), adj. 
shrewd ; knowing ; cautious ;^ wary ; 
artful ; reasonable ; quiet ; ' easy ; 
safe : adv. in a canny manner. 

canoe (ka-noo'), n. [pi. canoes 
(-nooz')], a light boat of bark, 
hide, or the hollow trunk of a tree; 
any light boat propelled by paddles : 
v.i. [p.t. & p.p. canoed, canoe- 
ing], to sail or paddle a canoe. 

canoeist (ka-noo'ist), n. one who 
paddles a canoe. 

canon (kan'un), n. a law or rule in 
general ; a law or rule regarding 
doctrine or discipline enacted by a 
council and confirmed ; the books of 
the Holy Scriptures received as au- 
thoritative by the Christian Church 
(called the Sacred Canon; a cata- 
logue of saints ; one of the largest 
kinds of type ; the part by which a 
bell is hung ; a cathedral dignitary ; 
a bone in a horse's fore leg. 

canon laiv (law), n. rules or laws 
relating to faith, morals, and disci- 
pline that regulate Church govern- 
ment, as laid down by popes and 

canon (ka-nyon'), or canyon (kan'« 
yun) , n. a narrow deep gorge having 
more or less perpendicular sides. 

canonic (ka-non'ik), or canonical 
(-al), adj. pertaining to a rule or 
canon ; according to, or established 
by, ecclesiastical laws; belonging to 
the canon of Scripture. 

canonically (-li), adv. in conformity 
with a canon or rule. 

canonicals (ka-non'ik-alz),, the 
dress prescribed by the canons to be 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




worn by a clergyman when officiat- 
i caxLonicity (kan-o-nis'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being canonical. 

canonization (kan-on-iz-a'shun), n. 
the act of canonizing. 

canonize (kan'on-iz), v.t. to enrol in 
the catalogue or canon of the saints. 

canonist (kan'on-ist), n. one skilled 
in the study and practice of eccle- 
siastical law. 

canonry (kan'on-ri), n. [pi. canon- 
ries (-riz)], the benefice filled by a 

canopy (kan'o-pi), n. {pi. canopies 
(-piz)], a covering fixed above a 
bed, or suspended over a throne or 
dais ; any similar covering ; a decora- 
tive cover above an altar, pulpit, 
niche, &c. : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. canopied, canopying], to cover with a 

cant (kant), v.i. to speak in a whin- 
ing voice, or with an affected or 
hypocritical tone ; make whining 
pretensions to goodness ; to use the 
conventional phraseology of a par- 
ticular sect, party, &c. : n. a whin- 
ing manner of speech ; the speech af- 
fected by those soliciting alms ; the 
jargon or slang spoken by thieves, 
gipsies, beggars, &c. ; the words and 
phrases characteristic of a certain 
party, sect, &c. ; the employment of 
certain phrases and form3 of speech 
without sincerity, especially the as- 
sumption of a religious character or 
the hypocritical use of sacred words : 
adj. of the nature of cant. 

cant (kant), n. an external angle; 
an inclination from the level ; a sud- 
den jerk producing a change in di- 
rection : v.t. to incline ; tilt ; give a 
fresh direction to ; cut off an angle 

can't (kant),»a colloquial contraction 
of can not. 

cantaliver (kan'ta-liv-er). Same as 

cantaloupe (kan'ta-loop), n. a va- 
riety of musk-melon of delicate 

cantankerous (kan-tang'ker-us), 
adj. ill-tempered ; cross-grained ; con- 

cantata (kan-ta'ta), n. a short choral 

composition in the manner of ais 
oratorio ; a poem or story set to 

cantatrice (kan'ta-tres, Italian kan- 
ta-tre'cha), n. a female singer, es- 
pecially one who sings in operas. 

canteen (kan-ten'), n. a kind of shop 
in barracks or camp where liquor& 
and provisions are sold ; a vesse; 
used by soldiers for carrying water 
or liquor when on the march ; a bos 
containing mess utensils, &q.^ for 
officers when on foreign service. 

canter (kan'ter), n. an easy gallop; 
a Canterbury gallop : v.i. to move iii 
an easy gallop : v.t. to cause to can- 

canterbury (kan'ter-ber-i), n. ?, 
stand with divisions for holding 
music, &c. 

cantharides (kan-thar'i-dez), & 
preparation of Spanish flies used 
for blistering. 

canthus (kan'thus), n. [pi. canthi 
('thi) ], the angle made by the meet- 
ing of the eyelids. 

canticle (kan'ti-kal), n. a song; one 
of the non-metrical hymns of the 
Bible arranged for chanting in 
church service : pi. the Song of 
Songs, or Song of Solomon. 

cantilever (kan'ti-lev-er) , n. a 
bracket or block projecting from the 
wall of a house, to support a bal- 
cony, cornice, &c. ; one of two arms 
projecting from opposite banks serv- 
ing to form a bridge : adj. construct- 
ed on the principal of a cantilever. 

cantillation (kan-ti-la'shun), n. in- 
toning, especially in Jewish syna- 
gogue worship. 

canting (kan'ting), p.adj. affectedly 
pious ; whining. 

canto ( kan'to ), w. [^Z. cantos ('toz)], 
a part of a poem of some length ; the 
highest vocal part in concerted 
music ; soprano. 

canto-fermo (-fer'mo), n. plain 

canton (kan'ton), n. a district or 
division of a territory ; one of the 
Swiss federal states ; in France, a 
subdivision of an arrondissement ; a 
division of a painting or flag : v.t. to 
divide into districts or parts; to al- 
lot separate quarters to troops. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, ndrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then» 




cantonment (kan-'^on'ment), n. a 
part of a town or ^nf.age allotted to 
a body of troops : in India, a perma- 
nent military station. 

cantoon (kan-toon'), n. a cotton 
stuff having one side satiny, and the 
other corded. 

Canuck (ka-nuk')> n. a Canadian. 
Also Kanuck. 

canvas (kan'vas), n. a coarse heavy 
cloth of hemp or flax, used for tents, 
sails, &c., and also for painting on ; 
sails in general ; a painting : adj. 
made of canvas. 

canvas-back (-bak), n. a North 
American duck, esteemed for the 
delicacy of its flesh. 

cazivass (kan'vas), v.t. to examine; 
sift ; discuss ; solicit ^^otes or opin- 
ions : v.i. to traverse a district for 
the purpose of soliciting votes, in- 
terest> orders, &c. : n. a close inspec- 
tion or scrutiny ; discussion ; a so- 
licitation of votes, interest, orders, 

©any (ka'ni), adj. consisting of cane; 
full of canes. 

canyon (kan'yun). Same as caSon. 

canzona (kan-tzo'na) or canzone 
('ne), n. a song or air somewhat 
resembling the madrigal ; an instru- 
mental piece in the style of a mad- 

canzonet (kan-tso-net')* w. a short 

caontckin or caoutckine (koo'- 
chin), n. an inflammable volatile oil 
distilled from caoutchouc. 

caoutckonc (koo'chook), n. an elas- 
tic gummy substance obtained from 
the milky juice of several tropical 
trees, and much used in the indus- 
trial arts; india-rubber. 

cap (kap), n. a covering for the head, 
usually without a brim; anything 
resembling a cap ; a percussion cap ; 
the top or summit ; a particular 
size of writing-paper : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. capped, capping], to put 
a cap on ; cover with, or as with, a 
cap ; cover the top end of ; com- 
plete; crown; place a cap on the 
head when conferring a university 

capability (ka-pa-bil'i-ti), n. the 

quality of being capable : pi. intel« 
lectual attainments. 

capable (ka'pa-bl), adj. receptive; 
susceptible ; having power, skill, or 
capacity ; competent ; legally quali- 

capacious (ka-pa'shus), adj. roomy; 

capacitate (ka-pas'i-tat), v.t. to 
make capable ; enablej qualify. 

capacity (ka-pas'i-ti), n. [pi. ca- 
pacities (-tiz)], the power of re- 
ceiving or containing ; the power of 
containing a certain quantity ex- 
actly ; cubic contents ; intellectual 
ability ; legal qualification ; profes- 
sion ; function ; position. 

cap-a-pie (kap-a-pe'), adv. from 
head to foot. 

caparison (ka-par'i-son), n. an or- 
namental covering for a horse ; gay 
or rich clothing : v.t. to cover with 
rich clothing, as a horse ; adorn 
with rich dress. 

cape (kap), n. a covering for the 
shoulders, worn separately or at- 
tached ; a headland. 

caper (ka'per), v.i. to ^kip ; jump r 
n. a frolicsome leap oi spring ; a 
skip ; a prank. 

caper (ka'per), n. a plant, the flower- 
buds of which are pickled and used 
as a condiment under the name of 

capful (kap'fool), n. as much as fllls 
a cap ; a small quantity ; a passing 

capias (ka'pi-as), n. a writ author- 
izing the arrest of the person named 
in it. 

capillarity (kap-i-lar'i-ti), n. the 
state of being capillary ; capillary 

capillary (kap'il-a-ri & ka-pil'a-ri), 
adj. resembling a hair ; minute ; 
slender ; possessing ta very small 
bore ; pertaining to the capillary 
vessels of the body : n. a tube with 
a small bore : pi. one of the minute 
blood-vessels connecting the arteries 
with the veins. 

capillary attraction (a-trak'shun ) , 
n. the power possessed by porous 
bodies of drawing up a fluid. 

capilliform ( ka-pil'i-f orm ) , adj. 
having the form of a hair. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boonr 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




capital (kap'i-tal), adj. affecting the 
head or life ; punishable with death ; 
first in importance ; chief ; princi- 
pal, good, excellent ; first-rate : n. 
the chief city or town in a kingdom 
or state; a capital letter. 

capital (kap'i-tal), n. the sum in- 
vested in any particular business ; 
stock in trade ; stock or resources 
of any kind, moral or physical ; that 
part of wealth which is saved and 
is available for, or employed in, 
future production ; the head or top 
of a column, pilaster, or pillar. 

capitalism (kap'it-al-izm), n. the 
possession of capital, especially its 
concentration in the hands of a 
few ; the power of combined capital. 

capitalist (kap'i-tal-ist), n, one who 
possesses capital. 

capitalization ( kap-i-tal-iz-ii'shun ) , 
n. the act of capitalizing. 

capitalize (kap'i-tal-iz), v.t. to con- 
vert into capital ; compute or real- 
ize the present value of in money, 
as a periodical payment ; print with 
a capital. 

capitally (-li), adv. in a manner in- 
volving the forfeiture of life ; in an 
excellent manner. 

capitate (kap'i-tat), adj. growing in 
a head. 

capitation (kap-i-ta'shun), n. a tax, 
fee, or grant per head. 

Capitol (kap'i-tul), n. the temple of 
Jupiter at Rome, situated on the 
S.W. summit of the Capitoline 
Hill ; the building occupied by the 
United States Congress at Wash- 
ington ; the Senate-house of a State. 

capitular (ka-pit'ti-lar) or capitu- 
lary (-lar-i), adj. pertaining to a 
chapter ; growing in a head : n. a 
statute passed in a chapter, as of 
knights or canons : pi. the body of 
statutes of a chapter or of an ec- 
clesiastical council ; a member of a 

capitulate (ka-pit'u-lat), v.i. to sur- 
render to an enemy on conditions 
agreed upon. 

capitulation (ka-pit-ti-la'shun), n. 
the act of capitulating; the instru- 
ment containing the terms of sur- 

capitulator (ka-pit'u-la-ter), w. one 
who capitulates. 

caplin (kap'lin), n. a small fish of 
the smelt family, largely used as 
bait forcod. 

capon (ka'pon), n. a castrated cock; 
a cock-chicken castrated for the 
purpose of improving the flesh for 

caponiere or caponniere (kap-o- 
ner'), n. a covered lodgment; a pas- 
sage from one part of a defensive 
work to another, protected by a par- 

capote (ka-pot'), n. a kind of long 
coarse cloak ; a long mantle for 

caponch (ka-poosh'), n. a monk's 
hood or cowl ; the hood of a cloak. 

capric (kap'rik), adj. pertaining to 
a goat. 

capric acid (as'id*), n. an acid found 
in the butter of cow's and goat's 
milk, cocoanut-oil, &c., united with 
glycerine, and having a smell like 
that of a goat. 

caprice (ka-pres'), n. a sudden im- 
pulse of the mind ; a whim ; a freak. 

capricious (ka-prish'us), adj. char- 
acterized by caprice ; unsteady ; 

capriform (kap'ri-f6rm), adj. hav- 
ing the form of a goat. 

caprin (kap'rin), n. a substance in 
butter giving to it its characteristic 
taste and smell. 

caprine (kap'rin), adj. pertaining to, 
or resembling, a goat. 

capriole (kap'ri-ol), n. a leap of a 
horse made without advancing : v.i. 
to execute a capriole. 

capsicin or capsicine (kap'si-sin), 
n. an alkaloid extracted from sev- 
eral species of Capsicum. 

Capsicum (kap'si-kum), n. a genus 
of South American plants, the pods 
of several species of which are used 
as a condiment (chillies), and when 
dried and ground form cayenne pep- 

capsize (kap'siz), v.i. to be over- 
turned ; upset : v.t. to turn over or 
upset : n. an lapset or overturn. 

capstan (kap'stan), n. an upright 
drum or cylinder revolving upon a. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon,, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



spindle, and worked by bars or 

capsular (kap'su-lar), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or of the nature of, a cap- 

•capsulated (kap'su-lat-ed), adj. fur- 
nished with, or enclosed in, a cap- 

capsule (kap'siil), w. a metallic seal 
or cover for a bottle ; a small en- 
velope of gelatine inclosing a nau- 
seous drug ; a seed-vessel or pod 
which at maturity opens by valves ; 
a small shallow vessel ; a membran- 
ous sac inclosing some part or or- 

•captain, (kap'tan, or 'tin), n. one 
who has command of, or authority 
over, others ; a chief ; a commander ; 
in the army, the commander of a 
company ; in the navy, an officer 
commanding a ship of war ; the 
master of a merchant vessel ; the 
head of a team or side ; the chief 
boy in a school. 

•captaincy (kap'tan-si or 'tin-si), n. 
the rankj post, or commission of a 

caption (kap'shun), n. a certificate 
of arrest. 

captious (kap'shus), adj. ready to 
catch at faults or take offense ; 
quibbling ; sophistical ; fitted to 
harass or perplex ; carping. 

captivate (kap'ti-vat), v.t. to en- 
slave or hold captive by beauty or 
excellence ; charm or lure ; fasci- 

captivation (kap-ti-va'shun), n. the 
act of charming; the state of being 

captive (kap'tiv), adj. made pris- 
oner ; held in bondage ; fascinated ; 
of or pertaining to bondage : n. one 
who is taken prisoner, especially 
one so taken in war ; one held in 
bondage or fascinated. 

captivity (kap-tiv'i-ti), n. the state 
of being held in bondage or con- 
finement ; servitude ; imprisonment. 

captor (kap'ter), n. one who cap- 
tures or takes any person or thing 
by force or stratagem. 

capture (kap'tur), n. the act of seiz- 
ing or taking, as a prisoner or a 
prize ; arrest ; the thing taken : v.t. 

to take or seize by force, surprise, 
or stratagem ; make a prisoner or 
prize of. 

capuchin (kap'ti-shen or -oo-shen'), 
n. a Franciscan monk of the men- 
dicant order : so named from the 
long pointed cowl or capouch worn 
by the members ; a woman's cloak 
and hood. 

caput (kap'ut), n. [pi. capita ('i- 
ta)], the head. 

car (kar), n. a wheeled vehicle, espe- 
cially one having only two wheels ; 
a coach running upon rails ; the bas- 
ket suspended beneath a baljoon to 
contain the aeronaut ; a chariot of 
war or state. 

carack or carrack (kar'ak), n. a 
large round-built vessel formerly 
used by the Portuguese and Span- 
iards in the East Indian and Ameri- 
can trade. 

caracole (kar'a-kol), n. a half turn 
which a horseman makes, either to 
the right or left ; a spiral staircase. 
Also caracol : v.i. to move in a cara- 
cole ; wheel. 

caramel (kar'a-mel),n. burnt sugar, 
used for coloring spirits, gravies, 
soups, &c. ; a kind of sweetmeat. 

carapace (kar'a-pas), n. the upper 
shell of the tortoise, turtle, &c. ; 
the upper covering of the Crustacea. 

carat (kar'at), n. the weight of 3.17 
grains, used for weighing precious 
stones and pearls ; a twenty-fourth 
part, a term used to express the 
fineness of gold used in jewelry; 
thus, gold 22 carats fine contains 22 
parts of pure gold and 2 of alloy 
(copper or silver). Also spelled 

caravan (kar'a-van or kar-a-van'), 
n. a company of travelers, mer- 
chants, or pilgrims, associated to- 
gether for mutual security, especial- 
ly when traveling through deserts or 
regions infested by robbers ; a large 
covered wagon or carriage for _ the 
conveyance of traveling exhibitions 
or passengers ; a van. 

caravaneer (kar-a-van-er'), n. one 
who leads the camels, &c., of a 

caravansary (kar-a-van'sa ri), n. 
[pi. caravansaries (-riz)], in the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



East, a kind of inn consisting of a 
large unfurnished building sur- 
rounding a spacious court, where 
caravans rest at night. Also cara- 

caravel (kar'a-vel) or carvel (kar'- 
vel), n. a name given to several 
kinds of ships, as a small 16th cen- 
tury vessel, used by the Spaniards 
and Portuguese, with broad bows, 
narrow high poop, four masts, and 
lateen sails. 

caraway (kar'a-wa), n. a biennial 
plant with aromatic and pungent 
seeds, used medicinally and as a 

carbazotic (kar-ba-zot'ik), adj. per- 
taining to or composed of carbon 
and nitrogen. 

carbazotic acid (as'id), n. an acid 
obtained by the action of nitric acid 
on^ indigo and other vegetable and 
animal substances : used in dyeing. 

carbide (kar'bid), n. a compound 
of carbon with a metal : formerly 
called a carburet. 

carbide of calcium^ n. calcium 

carbine (kar'bin), n. a short rifle 
adapted to the use of cavalry. Also 

carbineer (kar-bi-ner'), n. a soldier 
armed with a carbine. Also cara- 

carbohydrate (kar-bo-hi'drat), n. 
one of a group of organic com- 
pounds of carbon, hydrogen, and 

carbobydrous (kar-bo-hi'drus), adj. 
pertaining to, or of the nature of, a 

carbolated (kar'bo-la-ted), adj. im- 
pregnated or treated with carbolic 

carbolic (kar-bol'ik), adj. pertaining 
to, or derived from, carbon or coal- 

carbolic acid (as'id), n. an acid ob- 
tained from coal-tar by distillation : 
largely used as an antiseptic in sur- 
gery, and as a disinfectant. Also 
called phenic acid. 

carbolize (kar'bol-Tz), v.t. to treat 
or impregnate with carbolic acid. 

carbon (kar'bon), n. an elementary 
substance present in all organic 

compounds, and occurring in nature 
in two distinct forms, as the dia- 
mond and graphite. The action of 
heat on vegetable and animal tis- 
sues produces carbon in the form of 
charcoal, lampblack, coke, &c. : v.t^ 
to place carbons in (an arc-lamp). 

carbon-dioxide (-di'oks-id), n. car- 
bonic acid gas. 

carbon-light (-lit), n. a brilliant 
light produced by passing an elec- 
tric current through carbon-points. 

carbon-point (-point), n. the rod 
of an arc-lamp, moved forward by 
clockwork to maintain its position 
to another opposing rod as it is 
burned away. 

carbonaceous (kar-bo-na'shus), adj^ 
pertaining to, consisting of, or con- 
taining carbon. 

carbonate (kar'bon-at), n. a com- 
pound of carbonic acid with a base^ 

carbonated (kar'bon-a-ted), adj, 
combined, or impregnated, witb 
carbonic acid. 

carbonic (kar-bon'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or obtained from, carbon. 

carbonic acid (-as'id), n. (carbon- 
dioxide) a gaseous colorless com- 
pound of carbon and oxygen in th© 
proportion of 12 parts of carbon to 
32 of oxygen. It is a heavy irre- 
spirable gas, and, acts as a narcotic 

carbonif erons (kar-bo-nif 'er-us) ^ 
adj. containing or yielding carbon 
or coal. 

carbonization (kar-bo-ni-za'shun) ,. 
n. the process of carbonizing or- 
ganic substances. 

carbonize (kar'bo-niz), v.t. to con- 
vert into carbon by combustion, by 
the action of fire, or an acid. 

carboy (kar'boi), n. a large globular 
bottle of glass, protected by a bas- 
ket-work, used to contain or con-= 
vey corrosive acids. 

carbuncle (kar'bung-kl), n. a beau- 
tiful gem of a deep red color ; an in- 
flammatory tumor, boil, or ulcer. 

carbuncular (kar-bung'kti-ler), adj^ 
pertaining to, or resembling, a car- 
buncle ; red; inflamed. 

carburet, an old form of carbide. 

carburetted (kar'bu-ret-ed), p.adj„ 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon> 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



combined with carbon in the man- 
ner of a carbide. 

carbureter (kar-bu-ret'er), n. a. de- 
vice which mixes vaporized oil with 
air and feeds it to the cylinder of 
a gasoline engine. 

carcase or carcass (kar'kas), 
carcases (-ez)], the dead body of an 
animal ; a corpse ; the decaying re- 
mains of a bulky thing ; the frame- 
work or skeleton of a building, ship, 
&c. ; a perforated shell filled with 
combustibles, used to set fire to 
buildings, ships, &c. 

«arcel-laittp (kar'sel-lamp), n. a 
lamp, the oil in which is raised m^^- 
chanically : used in lighthouses, and 
as a table-lamp. 

carcimology (kar-si-noro-ji), n. that 
department of zoology which treats 
of the Crustacea, as crabs, shrimps, 

card (kard), n. a printed piece of 
pasteboard used for various social 
or business purposes ; such a piece 
printed bearing certain devices or 
figures, used for playing games ; a 
short business advertisement in a 
newspaper ; the dial of a mariner's 
compass ; an . instrument for comb- 
ing the fibers of wool, flax, or cot- 
ton, preparatory to spinning . 

card-sliarper (•-shar'per), n. one 
who cheats at cards, and fleeces 
those he traps into playing with 

Cardaxnine (kar'da-min), n. a genus 
of herbs, which includes the cuckoo- 
flower, &c. 

cardamom (kar'da-mum), n. the 
capsule of several species of plants 
of the ginger family with its aro- 
matic seeds, used medicinally and 
as a condiment. 

cardia (kar'di-a), w. the heart; the 
upper or cardiac end of the stomach 
where the oesophagus or gullet en- 
ters it. 

cardiac (kar'di-ak), adj. pertaining 
to the heart ; stimulating the heart's 
action : n. a medicine which excites 
action in the heart through the me- 
dium of the stomach, and stimu- 
lates the spirits ; a cordial ; stimu- 

cardialgia (kar-di-al'ji-a), n. heart- 

cardigan (kar'di-gan), n. a knitted 
woolen jacket or waistcoat. 

cardinal (kar'di-nal), adj. chief; 
pre-eminent ; fundamental. 

cardinal (kar'di-nal), n. an ecclesi- 
astical prince ranking in dignity 
next to the Pope; a woraan's short 
cloak with a hood. 

cardinal numbers (num'berz)', n, 
pi. the numbers one, two, three^ 
&c., in distinction from first, sec- 
ond, third, &c., which are called 
ordinal numhers 

cardinal points (pointz), N., 
S., E., W. 

cardinal signs (sinz), Aries, 
Libra, Cancer, and Capricorn. 

cardinal virtues (ver'tuz), 
justice, prudence, temperance, and 

cardinal- winds (windz), ti.pZ. winds 
which blow due N., S., E., and W. 

carditis (kar-di'tis), n. inflamma- 
tion of the muscular tissue of the 

cardol (kar'dol), n. an oily liquid ex- 
tracted from the pericarp of the 
cashew-nut, and used for blistering. 

care_(kar), n. concern; solicitude; 
anxiety ; a burdensome responsibil- 
ity ; caution ; charge or oversight ; 
attention, watchfulness ; an object 
of watchful attention and regard: 
v.i. to be anxious or solicitous ; be 
concerned, troubled, or interested. 

careen (ka-ren'), v.t. to bring (a 
ship) on one side for the purpose 
of calking, cleansing, or repairing : 
v.i. to incline on one side, as a ship 
under press of sail. 

career (ka-rer'), n. a run at full 
speed ; general course of action ; an 
occupation or calling : v.i. to move 
or run rapidly. 

careful (kar'fool), adj. full of care; 
anxious ; attentive ; watchful ; cau- 
tious ; provident, thoughtful. 

carefully (-li), adv. in a careful 

caress (ka-res'), n. any act or ex- 
pression of affection ; an embrace : 
v.t. to treat with tokens of affec- 
tion ; bestow caresses upon. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booiif 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


caret (ka'ret or kar'et), n. a mark 
C A ) used in writing, or in correcting 
proofs, to indicate the place where 
something is omitted or is to be 

cargo (kar'go), n. [pi. cargoes 
Cgoz)], the lading or freight of a 

Carib (kar'ib) or Caribbee ('i-be), 
n. a native of the Caribbee Islands, 
or one of a tribe inhabiting certain 
regions of Central America and the 
north of South America. 

caribou or cariboo (kar'i-boo), n. 
the North American reindeer. 

caricature (kar'i-ka-tur), n. a pic- 
torial or descriptive representation 
of a person or thing, in which the 
defects or peculiarities are exag- 
gerated so as to produce a ludicrous 
effect ; parody : v.t. to represent in 
a ridiculous or exaggerated style; 
parody; burlesque. 

caricaturist (kar'i-ka-tur-ist), n. 
one who represents others in carica- 
ture, f 

caries (ka'ri-ez), n. decay of bones, 
teeth, or vegetable tissue. 

carillon (kar'i-lon), n. a chime of 
bells diatonically tuned and played 
by hand or machinery ; a simple air 
adapted for playing on a set of 

cariole (kar'i-ol), n. a small open 
carriage ; a light covered cart. 

cariosity (ka-ri-os'i-ti), n. the state 
of being carious. 

carious (ka'ri-us), adj. affected with 

cark (kark), v.i. to be anxious or 
concerned : v.t. to vex ; load with 
care or grief. 

carl or carle (karl), n. a strong, 
sturdy fellow ; a rustic ; a churl. 

carliue (kar'lin), n. a ship's timber 
running fore and aft from one 
transverse deck-beam to another, 
serving as a foundation for the 
planks of the deck. 

carlock (kar'lok), n. a kind of isin- 
glass made of the sturgeon's blad- 
der, and used in clarifying wine. 

carminative (kar-min'a-tiv), n. a 
medicine, which expels wind and re- 
lieves colic and flatulence : adj. ex- 
pelling wind. 

carmine (kar'mln or 'min), n. the 
essential coloring principle of coch- 
ineal ; a rich crimson pigment. 

carnage (kar'naj), n. slaughter; 
great destruction of life by vio- 
lence ; massacre. 

carnal (kar'nal), adj. pertaining to 
the body, its passions and its ap- 
petites ; animal ; fleshly ; sensual, im- 
pure ; not spiritual, but essentially 
human ; secular. 

carnalism (kar'nal-izm) or car- 
nality (kar-nal'i-ti), n. the state 
of being carnal ; sensuality. 

carnalist (kar'nal-ist), n. a sen- 

carnally (-li), adv. in an animal or 
fleshly manner, 

carnation (kar-na'shun), n. a light 
rose-pink ; flesh color ; the parts of 
a picture in which flesh is repre- 
sented ; a pink. 

carnationed (kar-na'shund), adj. 
having a pink color like that of 

Carney (kar'ni), n. a disease of 
horses, in which the furred condi- 
tion of the mouth prevents eating. 

carnification ( kar-ni-fi-ka'shun ) , n. 
tissue so altered as to resemble 

carnival (kar'ni-val), n. the season 
of rejoicing before Lent : observed 
in Roman Catholic countries ; feast- 
ing or revelry. 

carnivoTous (kar-niv'o-rus), adj, 
eating or feeding on flesh. 

carob (kar'ob), n. an evergreen tree 
which yields a nutritious pod 
known as St. John's-bread. 

carol (kar'ul), n. a song of joy or 
praise, especially one in honor of the 
Nativity : v.i. [p.t. & p.p. -ed,, 
-ing], to sing in joy; warble: v.t. 
to praise or celebrate in song. 

carotid (ka-rot'id), n. one of the 
two principal arteries, one on either 
side of the neck, which convey the 
blood from the aorta to the head : 
adj. pertaining to the two great 
arteries of the neck. 

carouse (ka-rouz'), n. a feast or fes- 
tival ; a noisy drinking bout or 
revel. Also carousal : v.i. to drink 
heartily and with jollity ; revel. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



carp (karp), v.i. to cavil or find 

carp (karp), n. sl fresh-water fish. 

carpal (kar'pal), adj. pertaining to 
the carpus or wrist. 

carpel (kar'pel), n. a simple pistil. 
or one of the parts of a compound 
pistil or ovary of a flower. 

carpenter ( kar'pen-ter ) , n. an artif- 
icer who works in timber and pre- 
pares the woodwork of houses, 
ships, &c. : v.i. to perform car- 
penter's work. 

carpentry (kar'pen-tri), n. the art 
of cutting, framing, and joining 
timber ; work done by a carpenter. 

carpet (kar'pet), n. sl thick woven 
or felted fabric, with a pattern, used 
for covering floors or stairs ; a soft 
covering, resembling carpet : v.t. to 
cover with a carpet ; bring under 
consideration ; reprimand. 

carpet-bag (-bag), n. traveling bag. 

carpet-bagger (-bag'er), n. a politi- 
cal adventurer. 

carpet-knigbt (-nit), n. one upon 
whom the honor of knighthood or 
other distinction has been conferred 
for other than active service. 

carpeting (kar'pet-ing), n. cloth for 
carpets ; carpets in general. 

carriage (kar'ij), n. the act of car- 
rying or transporting ; cost of con- 
veyance ; behavior ; deportment ; a 
wheeled vehicle ; the wheeled stand 
or support of a gun ; the frame- 
work of a wooden staircase. 

carrier (kar'i-er), n. one who, or 
that which, carries or conveys ; one 
whose business is to carry goods 
for hire ; a portion of various ma- 
chines ; a frame for holding photo- 
graphic plates or magic-lantern 

carrier-pigeon (-pij'un), n. a va- 
' riety of pigeon trained to convey 
letters, &c. 

carrion (kar'i-on), n. dead or putre- 
fying flesh ; filth ; garbage : adj. per- 
taining to, or feeding on, carrion. 

carrion-croiv (-kro), n. the com- 
mon crow of Europe : also the 
American crow. 

carronade (kar-on-ad'), n. a short 
cannon of large bore for close range, 
formerly used in the navy. 

earron-oil (kar'on-oil), n. linseed- 
oil and lime-water : used as a lini" 
ment for burns. 

carrot (kar'ot), n. the well-known 
plant with an edible root; the root 

carry (kar'i), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. car- 
ried, carrying], to convey from 
one point to another ; bear ; have on 
one's person ; convey by force ; lead ; 
transfer ; accomplish ; gain posses- 
sion of ; extend or continue in time 
or space [with up or back'\ ; ex- 
hibit ; imply ; have in charge or 
conduct ; to take by assault : v.i. to 
act as a bearer ; propel a projectile 
to a distance ; hold the head in a 
particular manner. 

cart (kiirt), n. a carriage for the con- 
veyance of heavy goods ; a light 
two-wheeled vehicle used by trades- 
men, &c. : v.t. to carry or convey in 
a cart. 

cartage (kart'aj), n. the charge 
made for conveyance by a cart; 
the act of caj-ting. 

carte (kart), n. a bill of fare. 

carte blancbe (kart blangsh), a 
blank paper ; a signed sheet of 
paper given to another to be filled 
up as he pleases : hence, uncondi- 
tional terms or authority. 

carte-de- visite ( kart'-de-vi-zet' ) , 
[pi. car tes-de- visite], a photograph 
of a person mounted on a card of a 
size formerly used as a visiting card, 

cartel (kar'tel), n. an agreement be- 
tv^^een hostile states regarding the 
exchange of prisoners ; a challenge 
to single combat. 

cartilage (kar'ti-laj), n. elastic ani- 
mal tissue, forming bone ; gristle. 

cartilaginous (kar - ti-laj'i-nus) , 

adj. pertaining to, or in the form of, 
cartilage; gristly. 

cartograpber, cartographic, car- 
tography, &c. See chartographer, 

cartoon (kar-toon'), n. a study or 
design executed on strong paper, 
and of the size to be reproduced in 
fresco or tapestry ; a pictorial 
sketch dealing with a political or 
social subject. 

cartoucb (kar-toosh'), n. a car- 
tridge ; a cartridge-box ; an orna- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



ment in the form of an unrolled 
scroll ; on Egyptian monuments, 
&c., an oval figure containing tbe 
name or title of a sovereign or 

cartridge (kar'trij), n. a case of 
cardboard, metal, or other material, 
containing the charge of a firearm. 

caruncle (kar'ung-kl), n. a small 
fleshy excrescence ; the comb or 
wattle of a fowl ; an appendage 
surrounding the hilum of a seed. 

carve (karv), v.t. to form a design; 
shape by cutting ; cut into slices : 
v.i. to exercise the trade of a sculp- 
tor or carver ; cut up meat. 

caryatid (kar-i-at'id), n. a figure of 
a woman in long robes, serving to 
support an entablature. 

cascarilla (kas-ka-ril'a), n. the bark 
of a West Indian shrub, possessing 
aromatic and bitter properties ; the 
shrub itself, from which is obtained 
a white bitter crystalline substance, 

case ( kas ) , n. Si covering or recep- 
tacle ; a sheath ; a box with its con- 
tents ; a frame or casing ; a di- 
vided tray for types : 225 sq. ft. of 
crown glass : v.t. to cover with, or 
enclose in, a case. 

case (kas), n. that which happens or 
befalls ; the matters involved in a 
question under discussion or inves- 
tigation; a certain form or instance 
of disease ; a suit or action at law ; 
one of the forms or inflections in 
the declension of a noun, pronoun, 
or adjective, which indicates its 
relation to other words. 

case-harden (kas-hiir'dn), v.t. to 
harden the surface of (as iron) by 
conversion into steel. 

caseic (ka'se-ik), adj. pertaining to, 
or derived from cheese. 

casein (ka'se-in), n. the curd-matter 
of milk, forming the main part of 

casemate (kas'mat), n. a shell-proof 
vault or battery, having embrasures 
for cannon ; a hollow molding. 

casement (kas'ment), n. a hinged 
window-frame made to open out- 
ward ; a compartment between the 
mullions of a window. 

caseous (ka'se-us), adj. cheesy. 

cash (kash), n. money; ready mon- 
ey : v.t. to turn into, or exchange 
for, money. 

cash-book, a book in which a regis- 
ter is kept of money received or 
paid out. 

cashew (ka-shoo'), n. a tree native 
of tropical America which produces 
the cashew-nut, a kidney-shaped 
fruit containing an edible kernel 
from which a caustic oil is obtained. 

cashier (kash-er'), n. one who has 
charge of the money, and superin- 
tends the payments and receipts of 
a bank or trading establishments 
v.t. to dismiss from service or place 
of trust ; discharge. 

cashmere (kash'mer), n. a soft 
woolen fabric for shawls, &c., orig- 
inally made in Cashmere, from the 
downy hair of the wild goat of 
Thibet and the Himalayas ; a soft 
woolen dress fabric made^ in imita- 
tion of real cashmere : adj. made of 

casing (kas'ing), n. the act of cov- 
ering with or placing in a case ; a 

casino (ka-se'no), n. [pi. English 
casinos ('noz), Italian casini ('ne) ], 
a small country house ; a public 
room or building used for social 
meetings, dancing, gaming, &c. 

cask (kask), n. a vessel composed of 
wooden staves, bound by iron hoops, 
for holding liquors ; the quantity, 
contained in a cask. 

casket (kas'ket), n. a small chest or 
box for jewels, &c. ; a costly coffin : 
v.t. to place or preserve in a casket. 

casque (kask), n. a helmet. 

cassation (kas-a'shun), n. abroga- 

cassava (kas'a-va), n. a plant of 
tropical America and Africa, culti- 
vated for its tuberous roots, which 
yield a nutritious starch, from 
which cassava-bread and tapioca 
are made. 

cassia (kash'ia), w. 'a genus of legu-: 
minous plants, the leaves of several 
species of which constitute the drug 

cassia-oil (-oil), n: oil extracted) 
from cassia-bark and cassia-buds.i 
•Called also oil of cinnamon. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note,, north,^ not ; boonj 
book; hue, hut; think, then.^ 




cassimere (kas'i-mer), n. a thin 
twilled woolen cloth, used for men's 
garments. Also casimire, and ker- 

cassinette (kas-i-nef), n. a cloth 
with a cotton warp and a woof of 
very fine wool, or wool and silk. 
Also kerseynette. 

cassiterite (ka-sit'er-it), n. native 
tin dioxide ; the principal ore of tin. 

cassock (kas'uk), n. a long, close- 
fitting vestment worn by clergymen, 
choristers, &c. 

cassowary (kas'o-wa-ri), n. Vpl. 
cassowaries (-riz)], a large bird 
resembling the ostrich, inhabiting 
Australia and the Papuan Islands. 

cast (kast), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cast, casting], to throw ; hurl ; shed ; 
direct or turn ; thrown down ; cal- 
culate ; defeat at law ; condemn ; 
form into a certain shape ; assign to 
various actors : v.i. to throw the 
line in angling ; ponder ; to warp or 
twist ; receive form or shape in a 
mold : n. the act of casting ; the dis- 
tance to which a thing may be 
thrown; motion or turn (of the 
eye) ; direction, glance; the form or 
shape ; manner ; appearance ; a 
tinge ; the company of actors to 
whom the parts of a play are as- 

cast-iron, or -steel (-irn, or -stel), 
n. iron or steel melted and run into 

castanets (kas'ta-nets), small 
spooix-shaped shells of hard wood or 
ivory, fastened loosely at the top, a 
pair of which is fastened to each 
thumb and shaken with the fingers 
to beat time. 

castaway (kast'a-wa), n. one who is 
cast away or lost ; a person or ves- 
sel wrecked on an unfrequented 
coast; an outcast; reprobate (I 
Cor. ix. 27) : adj. shipwrecked; re- 

caste (kast), one of the artificial or 
hereditary divisions into which 
Hindus are restricted by Brahmin 
religious law. 

castellated (kas'te-la-ted), adj. fur- 
nished with turrets and battle- 
ments, as a castle. 

caster (kas'ter), n. one who, or that 

which casts ; a computor ; a cruet or 
small vessel for holding condiments 
at table ; a small swiveled wheel. 
Also castor. 

castigate (kas'ti-gat), -y.*. to cor- 
rect ; chastise ; punish ; subject to 
severe criticism. _ 

castigation (kas-ti-ga'shun), n. the 

. act of castigating. 

castigator (kas'ti-ga-ter), n. one 
who castigates. 

castigatory (kas'ti-ga-to-ri), adj. 

Castile-soap, a superior kind of 
refined soap, originally made at 
Castile, Spain. 

Gastilian (kas-tiFian), adj. of, or 
pertaining to, Castile. 

casting (kast'ing), n. the action of 
the verb to cast ; the act or process 
of founding or molding ; the process 
of taking impressions of statues, 
medals, «S:c. ; a worm-cast. 

casting-vote (-vot), n. the deciding 
vote of a chairman when the votes 
are equal. 

castle (kas'l, or kas'l), n. a fortified 
residence ; a fortress ; a strong and 
imposing mansion of a noble or 
wealthy person ; one of the pieces at 
chess, called also rook : v.i. to move 
the king two squares to the right or 
left, and bring the castle to the 
square the king has passed over. 

castrate (kas'trat), v.t. emasculate; 
geld ; expurgate ; deprive a flower 
of its anthers: adj. emasculated; 
gelded : n. one who has been 
emasculated ; a eunuch. 

castration (kas-tra'shun), n. the act 
of castrating. 

casual (kazh'u-al), adj. happening 
by chance ; accidental ; occasional ; 
fortuitous : n. one who receives re- 
lief for a night in a parish to which 
he does not belong. 

casualty (kazh'ti-al-ti), n. [pi. casu- 
alties (-tiz)], an accident, especially 
if resulting in bodily injury or death. 

casuist (kazh'ti-ist), n. one skilled in 
casuistry ; one who studies or re- 
solves cases of conscience. 

casuistic (kazh-u-is'tik), or casuis- 
tical (-al), adj. of or pertaining to 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



casuistry (kazh'u-ist-ri), n. [pi. 
casuistries (-riz)], the science or 
doctrine which deals with cases of 
conscience as determined by theolog- 
ical dogmas or ethical rules ; sophis- 
tical or equivocal reasoning. 

cat (kat), n. a carnivorous animal of 
the family Felidse, especially the 
domesticated quadruped, Felis do- 
mestica ; a cat-fish ; a cat-o'-nine- 
tails ; the game of tip-cat ; a strong 
tackle ; to raise an anchor to the 
cat-head ; a stoutly-built vessel with 
a narrow stern, projecting quarters, 
and a deep waist ; a double tripod 
- which always lands on its feet : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. catted, catting], to 
draw up (an anchor) to the cat- 

cat-block (-blok), n. a two- or three- 
fold block used to cat the anchor. 

cat-boat (-bot), n. a small boat with 
one sail on a mast near the bows. 

cat-harpings (-har'pings), 
short ropes or iron clamps used for 
tightening the shrouds. 

cat-o'-nine-tails, n. a whip with 
nine lashes of knotted cord, former- 
ly used as a punishment in the 
English army and navy. 

cat's-eye (-1), n. a hard semi-trans- 
parent variety of quartz. 

cat's-paw (-paw), n. a dupe, from 
the fable of the monkey who used 
the cat's paw to get the roasted 
chestnuts from the fire ; a light air 
that slightly ripples the surface of 
the water. 

catabolism (ka-tab'o-lizm), n. a 
downward series of changes by 
which complex bodies are broken 
down into simpler forms. Also 

cataclysm (kat'a-klizm), n. a del- 
uge ; flood ; a violent or sudden 
physical change of the earth's sur- 

catacomb (kat'a-kom), n. a subter- 
raneous burial place with niches 
hollowed out for the dead. 

catacoustics (kat-a-kous'tiks), n. 
that part of the science of acoustics 
which treats of reflected sounds. 

catadioptric (kat-a-di-op'trik), adj. 
refracting and reflecting light. 

catafalque (kat'a-falk), n. a tem- 
porary structure erected, usually in 
a church, to support the coffin of a 
distinguished person on the occasion 
of a ceremonious funeral. 

Catalan (kat'a-lan), adj. of, or per- 
taining to, Catalonia, a former prov- 
ince of Spain, or to its inhabitants 
or language. 

catalepsy (kat'a-lep-si), n. a sud- 
den suspense of voluntary sensa- 
tion. Also catalepsis. 

cataleptic (kat-a-lep'tik), adj. of, 
or pertaining to, catalepsy. 

catalogue (kat'a-log), n. an ar- 
ranged list : v.t. to enter in, or 
make, a catalogue of. 

catalysis (ka-tal'i-sis), n. [pi. ca- 
talyses (-sez)], a decomposition 
and new combination supposed to 
be effected by one substance acting 
upon a compound body, itself re- 
maining unchanged. 

catamaran (kat-a-ma-ran'), n. a 
raft or float propelled by paddles, 
consisting usually of three or more 
logs lashed together, the third or 
middle one being longer than the 
rest : any vessel with twin hulls ; a 
flat-bottomed boat ; a vixen. 

catamount (kat'a-mount), n. the 
wild cat ; the puma, cougar, or 
mountain lion. 

catapbonics (kat-a-fon'iks), n. that 
branch of acoustics which treats of 
the theory of reflected sounds ; cata- 

cataphoric (kat-a-for'ik), adj. pos- 
sessing the power of producing mo- 
tion through a diaphragm : said of 
a liquid, or electric current. 

cataplasm (kat'a-plazm), n. a poul- 

cataplexy (kat'a-plek-si) , n. a sud- 
den shock to the nerves causing 

catapult (kat'a-pult), n. an ancient 
military engine for hurling darts 
and stones ; a forked stick with an 
elastic band by which small mis- 
siles are propelled. 

cataract (kat'a-rakt), n. a large 
w^aterfall ; a furious rush or down- 
pour of water ; a disease of the 
eye in which the crystalline lens 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




becomes opaque, and the vision be- 
comes impaired or is lost. 

catarrh ( ka-tar' ) , n. an inflamma- 
tory affection of any mucous mem- 
brane accompanied by increase of 
the mucus, especialy from the nose ; 
a violent cold in the head. 

catarrhal (ka-tar'al), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or produced by, catarrh. 

catastrophe (ka-tas'tro-fe), n. a 
great calamity or disaster ; an 
event subversive of the order of 
things ; the unfolding and winding 
up of a plot ; a cataclysm. 

Catawba (ka-taw'ba), n. a light-red 
variety of American grape ; a light 
v^ine made from this grape. 

catcall (kat'kawl), n. a squeaking 
instrument used in theaters to ex- 
press disapproval : v.t. to express 
disapproval of by a catcall. 

catch (kach), v.t. {p.t. & p.p. caught, catching], to seize or grasp; 
lay hold of suddenly ; intercept ; 
take captive ; apprehend by the in- 
tellect or senses ; take, by conta- 
gion, infection, or sympathy ; at- 
tack, or communicate to, as a fire ; 
come upon unexpectedly ; come up 
to ; reach in time : n. the act of seiz- 
ing or grasping ; that which is 
caught or taken ; gain ; something 
desirable to be caught; anything 
that seizes or checks motion ; a 
song, the parts of which are caught 
up by different voices. 

catchpenny (kach'pen-i), n. {pi. 
catchpennies (-iz)], an article of 
little value got up attractively to 
effect a quick sale. 

catchup (kach'up), n. a sauce made 
from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, 
&c. Also catsup, ketchup. 

catechetical (kat-e-ket'ik-al), adj. 
consisting of questions and answers. 

catechetically (-li), adv. by way of 
question and answer. 

catechetics (kat-e-ket'iks), n. the 
art or practice of instructing by 
means of question and answer. 

catechin (kat'e-kin), n. a tannic 
acid extracted from catechu. 

catechism (kat'e-kizm), n. an ele- 
mentary manual of instruction in 
the form of question and answer, 

especially in the principles of the 
Christian religion. 

catechist (kat'e-kist), n. one who 
instructs by question and answer ; 
a catechizer. 

catechize (kat'e-kiz), v.t. to instruct 
by means of questions and answers, 
and offering explanations, especially 
to instruct on points of Christian 
dogma ; interrogate or examine. 

catechu (kat'e-ku), n. a brown 
astringent extract used in the arts 
and as a medicine. Called also 
terra japonica and cutch. 

catechumen (kat-e-ku'men), n. one 
who is under religious instruction 
prior to receiving baptism ; a begin- 
ner in the first principles of knowl- 

categorical (kat-e-gor'i-kal), adj. 
pertaining to a category; absolute; 

categorically (-li), adv. in a cate- 
gorical manner ; absolutely. 

category (kat'e-go-ri), n. Ipl. cate- 
gories (-riz)], one of the highest 
classes to which the objects of 
knowledge or thought can be re- 
duced, and by which they may be 
arranged into a system. 

cater (ka'ter), v.i. to supply food, 
amusement, &c. [with for and ^o]. 

caterpillar (kat'er-pil'er), n. the 
hairy worm-like larva of a butter- 
fly or lepidopterous insect. 

caterwaul ( kat'er-wawl ) , v.i. to 
cry, as cats at night; to utter harsh 
discordant sounds. 

catfish (kat'fish), n. a fish remark- 
able for its voracity ; bullhead ; pout. 

catgut (kat'gut), n. a kind of cord 
made from the intestines of animals, 
usually sheep, and used as strings 
for musical instruments and some 
other purposes ; a string of this 
kind ; a kind of open canvas. 

cathartic (ka-thar'tik), adj. purga- 
tive : n. a purgative medicine. 

cat-head (kat'hed), n. a beam pro- 
jecting from a ship's bows to which 
the anchor is secured. 

cathedral (ka-the'dral), n. the chief 
church in a diocese in which is the 
throne of a bishop : adj. pertaining 
to a cathedral. 

ate, arnij dsk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, tJi&n., 



catheter (kath'e-ter), a tubular in- 
strument to withdraw urine from 
the bladder. 

cathiou (kath'i-on), n. the electro- 
positive ion evolved at the cathode 
in electrolysis. 

cathode (kath'od), n. the negative 
pole of a current : opposed to anode. 
^Vritten also kathode. 

catholic (kath'6-lik), adj. universal; 
general ; embracing all ; liberal ; 
large-hearted ; free from prejudice ; 
including all mankind. 

Catholic (kath'o-lik), adj. pertain- 
ing to the Church of Rome : n. a 
member of the Universal or Cath- 
olic Church, or of the Roman 

Catholicisni (ka-thol'i-sizm), n. the 
belief of, or adherence to, the Cath- 
olic Church or faith, especially to 
that of the Roman Catholic Church. 

catholicity (kath-ol-is'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being catholic. 

Catholicize (ka-thori-siz), v.f. to 
convert to the Roman Catholic 

catkin (kat'kin)., n. the pendulous 
inflorescence of the willow, birch, &c. 

catling (kat'ling), n. a little cat; 
kitten ; the down or moss resem- 
bling cat's hair which grows on cer- 
tain trees. 

catmint (kat'mint), catnip (kat'- 
nip), n. a strong-scented perennial 
herb, much liked by cats. 

catopsis (ka-top'sis), w. morbidly 
keen vision. 

catoptric (ka-top'trik), adj. relating 
to catoptrics. 

catoptric light (lit), n. form of 
light, used in lighthouses, in which 
reflectors are used in the place of 
prisms and lenses. 

catoptrically (-li), adv. by reflec- 

catoptrics (ka-top'triks), n. that 
branch of optics which treats of 
the principles of reflected light. 

cattle (kat'l), n. sing. & pi. live 
stock, especially oxen, bulls and 

cattle-plague (-plag), n. a popular 
name for the rinderpest. 

Caucasian (kaw-ka'shi-an or kaw- 
kash'i-an), adj. of or pertaining to 

the Caucasus, a mountainous range 
between the Black and the Caspian 
Seas ; of or pertaining to the Euro- 
pean Aryans. 

caucus (kaw'kus), n. a preliminary 
meeting of representatives of a po- 
litical party, to decide upon a line 
of policy to be submitted to a con- 
vention or larger meeting ; a party 
combination for influencing elec- 
tions : v.i. to hold, or meet in, a 

caudal (kaw'dal), adj. pertaining to 
a tail. 

caudate (kaw'dat), adj. having a 
tail ; having a tail-like appendage. 

caudle (kaw'dl), n. a warm drink 
made of wine or ale, spiced or sug- 
ared, and mixed with bread, eggs, 
&c., for sick persons, or for women 
in childbed. 

caught, p.t. & p.p. of catch. 

caul (kawl), n. a net or covering for 
the head ; a small net ; i mem- 
brane covering the lower intes- 
tines ; a part of the amnion or mem- 
brane of the fetus, sometimes inclos- 
ing a child's head at birth. 

cauldron (kawl'dron), n. a large 
kettle or boiler. 

cauliflower (kaw'li-flou-er), n. a 
garden variety of cabbage with an 
edible flowering head. 

caulk. See calk. 

causal (kaw'zal), adj. relating to or 
expressing cause ; creative : n. a. 
word that expresses a cause, or in- 
troduces a reason. 

causally (-li), adv. as a cause. 

causality (kaw-zal'i-ti), n. [pi. caus- 
alities (-tiz)], the relation of cause 
to effect ; the supposed faculty of 
tracing effects to causes. 

causation (kaw-za'shun), n. the act 
of causing or producing ; relation 
between cause and effect. 

causative (kaw'za-tiv), adj. tha 
causes ; effective as a cause ; ex- 
pressing causation. 

cause (kawz), n. that which pro- 
duces or contributes to a result ; a 
reason ; motive ; principle ; subject 
in debate; a side or party; a suit 
or action ; a case for judicial de- 
cision : v.t. to act as an agent in 
producing an effect ; produce. 


ate, arm, Ssk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; b5on, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



causeway (kawz'wa), or causey 
('zi), n. a pathway raised and 
paved with stone ; a highway. 

caustic (kaws'tik), adj. burning; 
hot ; corrosive ; sarcastic ; cutting ; 
pungent : n. a substance which 

caustic-potasli (pot'ash), n. potas- 
sium hydrate, a white substance act- 
ing as a powerful cautery, much 
used in medicine, the arts, and 

. manufactures. 

'caustic-soda (so'da), n. sodium hy- 
drate, a white solid substance, 
largely used in soap-making. 

caustically (-li), adv. in a caustic 

causticity (kaws-tis'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being caustic. 

cauteraut (kaw'ter-ant), n. a cau- 
terizing substance. 

cauterizatiois. ( kaw-ter-i-za'shun ) , 
n. the act of cauterizing. 

cauterize (kaw'ter-iz), v.t. to burn 
or sear with a hot iron, or with 

cautery (kaw'ter-i), n. {pi. cauteries 
(-iz)], a burning or searing; an in- 
strument or drug used for such a 

caution (kaw'shun), n. heedf ulness ; 
prudence in regard to danger ; 
watchfulness ; an admonition ; some- 
thing to occasion amazement or 
fear : v.t. to warn. 

cautionary (kaw'shun-a-ri), adj. 
containing a caution ; given as a 
pledge or security. 

cautious (kaw'shus), adj. exercising 
caution ; heedful ; wary ; vigilant ; 

cavalcade (kav-al-kad'), n. a train 
or procession of persons, chiefly on 

cavalier (kav-a-ler'), n. an armed 
horseman, especially a knight or 
gentleman soldier ; a gallant ; a gay 
military man ; a beau or attendant 
upon a lady ; a partisan of Charles 
I. in his struggle with the Parlia- 
ment ; an elevation for cannon with- 
in a bastion : adj. gay ; sprightly ; 
frank ; careless ; haughty ; supercili- 

cavalierly (kav-a-ler'li), adv. in a 
haughty or supercilious manner. 

cavallard (kav-al-yard'), a drove of 
horses or mules. 

cavalry (kav'al-ri), n. horse soldiers. 

cavatiua (kav-a-te'na), n, a short 
simple melody. 

cave (kav), n. a hollow place in the 
earth ; a large natural cavity ; a 
den ; cavern : v.t. to hollow out. 

cave-bear (-bar), n. a fossil bear 
belonging to the Quarternary epsch. 

cave-man (-man), n. a man belong- 
ing to the prehistoric race who 
inhabited caves. 

caveat (ka've-at), n. a notice filed 
to stop procedure, except after 
warning to the caveator ; notice of 
intention to apply for a patent. 

cavern (kav'ern), n. a large natural 
hollow under the earth ; a den ; 

cavernous (kav'er-nus), adj. hollow 
like a cavern ; filled with small 

caviare (kav-i-ar'), or caviar (-i- 
ar' ) , n. the roes of certain large 
fish, especially the sturgeon, salted 
and dried. 

cavil (kav'il), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cav- 
iled, caviling], to raise cap- 
tious or frivolous objections ; carp 
[followed by at] : n. a captious or 
frivolous objection. 

cavity (kav'i-ti), n. [pi. cavities 
(-tiz)], a hollow place or part. 

cavo-rilievo (ka'vo-re-lia-v6), n. a 
relief in which the highest surface 
only is level with the plane of the 
original stone. Also cavo-relievo. 

cavort (ka-vort'), v.i. to prance 
about, as a horse ; to bustle around 
briskly or eagerly. 

caw (kaw), v.i. to cry like a crow, 
rook, or raven : n. the cry of the 
crow, &c. 

cayenne (ki-en' or ka-en'), n. a kind 
of pepper made from the seeds and 
fruit of various species of the genus 

cease (ses), v.i. to come to an end; 
stop ; desist [followed by from be- 
fore a noun] : v.t. to put a stop to ; 

cedar (se'dar), n. the name of sev- 
eral evergreen trees, having wood 
of great durability and fragrance : 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; bo5n. 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




adj. pertaining to, or made of, 

cede (sed), v.t. give up or surrender. 

cedilla (se-dil'a), n. a mark placed 
under c to indicate the sound of s, 
as in French legon. 

ceil (sel), v.t. to overlay or cover the 
inner surface of a roof ; furnish 
with a ceiling, 

ceiling (se'ling), n. the inner roof 
of an apartment. 

celandine (sel'an-din), n. the name 
of two perennial plants of the pop- 
py family, the greater celandine and 
lesser celandine. 

celebrant (sel'e-brant), n. one who 
celebrates, especially the principal 
officiating priest in offering mass or 
celebrating the Eucharist. 

celebrate (sel'e-brat), v.t. to praise, 
extol, or honor ; commemorate ; dis- 
tinguish by solemn ceremonies. 

celebration (sel-e-bra'shun), n. the 
act of celebrating ; an observance or 
ceremony to celebrate anything. 

celebrity (se-leb'ri-ti), n. [pi. cele- 
brities (-tiz)], fame; renown; dis- 
tinction ; a renowned person. 

celerity (se-ler'i-ti), n. rapidity; 

celery (sel'e-ri), n. a plant cultivated 
for a salad and vegetable. 

celeste (se-lesf), n. sky-blue. 

celestial (se-les'tial), adj. of or per- 
taining to the sky or heavens ; 
heavenly ; supremely excellent. 

Celestial (se-les'tial), n. an inhabi- 
tant of heaven ; a native of China. 

Celestial Empire (em'pir), n. 

celestially (-li), adv. in a celestial 
or heavenly manner. 

celibacy (sel'i-ba-si), n. the state of 
being unmarried ; single life, espe- 
cially that of a bachelor, or one 
bound by vows to an unmarried 

celibate (sel'i-bat), n. one who is 
unmarried or practices celibacy : adj. 

cell (sel), n. a small room in a mon- 
astery, convent, or prison ; a small 
or mean place of residence ; a small 
cavity ; a minute mass of contractile 
protoplasm forming the structural 
unit of every organized body ; a sin- 

gle element or jar of a galvanic bat- 
tery ; a small religious house at- 
tached to a monastery or convent; 
the interval between the ribs of a 
vaulted roof. 

cellar (sel'ar), n. a vault for storing 
provisions, wine, fuel, &c. 

cellarage (sel'er-aj), n. cellars; the 
space occupied by cellars ; cellars 
collectively ; charge for storage in 

cello (chel'o), n. [pi. cellos ('6z), 
Italian celli ('le)], a violoncello. 

cellular (sel'ti-lar), adj. formed of 

celluloid (seru-loid), n. a compound 
of camphor and gun-cotton, resem- 
bling ivory. 

cellulose (sel'ti-los), or celluline 
(-lin), n. the substance resembling 
and allied to starch which forms cel- 
lular plant tissue : adj. containing 
or composed of cells. 

celt (selt), n. an instrument or 
weapon of stone or metal, resem- 
bling a chisel or blade of an axe, 
found in ancient tumuli. 

Celtic (sel'tik), or Keltic (kel'-), 
adj. pertaining to the Kelts. 

celticism (sel'ti-sizm), or kelticism 
(kel'-), n. a Keltic custom or idiom. 

Celtist (sel'tist),or Keltist (kel'-), 
a student of Keltic antiquities, lan- 
guages, &c. 

cement (se-ment' or sem'ent), n. any 
adhesive substance which makes two 
bodies cohere ; mortar ; a bond of • 
union ; the bony layer which forms 
the outer substance of the fang of a 
tooth : v.t. to unite with cement ; 
unite firmly or closely : v.i. become 

cementation (sem-en-ta'shun), n. 
the act of cementing ; a process for 
converting iron into steel, glass into 
porcelain, &c. 

cemetery (sem'e-ter-i), n. [pi. ceme- 
teries (-iz) ], a public burial ground. 

cenobite (sen'o-bit), n. one of a re- 
ligious order living in a convent or 
in community. 

cenotaph, (sen'5-taf), n. an empty 
tomb, or a monument erected in 
honor of a person buried elsewhere. 

censer (sen'ser), n. a covered cup- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



shaped vessel pierced with holes, in 
which incense is burned ; a thurible. 

censor (sen'ser), n. one of two mag- 
istrates of ancient Rome who im- 
posed taxes and regulated the mor- 
als and manners of the community ; 
an official appointed to examine 
books, manuscripts, plays, &c., prior 
to publication or performance to as- 
certain there is nothing immoral or 
offensive in them ; one who censures 
or blames ; a critic ; at Cambridge 
University, a collegiate official sim- 
ilar to a dean. 

censorial (sen-s6'ri-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to a censor ; censorious. 

censorious (sen-so'ri-us), adj. ad- 
dicted to, or expressing, censure ; 
carping ; critical. 

censurable (sen'shur-a-bl), adj. 

censure (sen'shur), n. blame; re- 
proof ; the act of finding fault ; a 
sentence or penalty of an ecclesias- 
tical court : v.t. to find fault with or 
condemn ; criticise adversely. 

census (sen'sus), n. a quinquennial 
registration of the numbers and 
property of Roman citizens for the 
purpose of taxation ; in modern us- 
age, an official enumeration of the in- 
habitants of a country, with details 
of sex, age, occupation, &c., taken 
in the United States decennially. 

cent (sent), n. the 1-lOOth part of a 

cental (sen'tal), adj. pertaining to or 
consisting of a hundred : n. a weight 
for corn =: 100 lb. avoirdupois. 

centare (sang-tar'), n. in the metric 
system, one hundredth part of an 
are ; one square meter. 

centaur (sen'tawr), n. a fabulous 
being, half man and half horse. 

centenarian _( sen-te-na'ri-an ) , adj. 
of, or pertaining to, a centenary or 
of a person a hundred years old : n. 
a person of such an age or older. 

centenary (sen'te-na-ri), n. [pi. cen- 
tenaries (-riz)], the space of a hun- 
dred years ; the commemoration of 
the hundredth anniversary of an 
event : adj. relating to, or consisting 
of, a hundred ; recurring once in a 

centennial (sen-ten'i-al), ad], con- 

sisting of, or enduring, a hundred 
years ; taking place once in a hun- 
dred years : n. the commemoration 
of a 100th anniversary. 

centennially (-li), adv. once in a 
100 years. 

center (sen'ter), n. the middle point 
of anything ; the nucleus around 
which things are collected ; a title of 
the leaders of certain organizations ; 
the name of certain members of a 
legislative assembly who hold mod- 
erate views and occupy a place be- 
tween the Conservative party on the 
right, and the Radicals on the left; 
the circle or square next to the 
bull's-eye ; a shot which hits such 
a division ; a conical pin, by which 
the work is secured and around 
which it revolves ; troops in a line 
between the wings ; in a fleet, the 
column or division between the van 
and the rear, or between the weath- 
er division and the lee : v.t. to place 
on a center ; collect to a point ; to 
form a recess for the reception of a 
center : v.i. to be placed in the cen- 
ter ; meet in one point or focus. 

center-bit (-bit), n. a carpenter's 
tool turning upon a center for bor- 
ing holes. 

center-board (bord), n. a keel so 
constructed that it may be raised 
within the vessel or lowered at 
pleasure : it is extensively used by 
racing craft. 

center of gravity (of grav'i-ti), n. 
that point of a body through which 
the resultant of all the forces acting' 
upon it in consequence of the earth's 
attraction will pass. 

centering (sen'ter-ing), n. the wood- 
work or timber framing by which 
vaulted work is supported during- 

centesimal (sen-tes'i-mal), adj. hun- 
dredth : n. a hundredth part. 

centiare (sen'ti-ar, French sang-ti- 
ar'), n. a centare. 

centigrade (sen'ti-grad), adj. gradu- 
ated or divided into a hundred de- 

centigram or centigramme ( sen'- 
ti-gram ) , n. a. measure of weight = 
100th of a gramme (.15432 of a 
grain troy). 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booUy 
book ; hue, hat ; think, then. 





■centiliter (sen'ti-le-tr, French 
sang'-), n. a measure of capacity =: 
the hundredth part of a liter (.6102 
of an inch). 

centime (sang-tem'), n. a small 
French coin == the hundredth part 
of a franc. 

centimeter (sen'ti-me-tr, French 
sang'-), n. a measure of length =: 
100th of a meter (.3937 inch). 

centiped (sen'ti-ped), or centipede 
(-ped), n. the term applied to an 
articulated animal with numerous 
feet belonging to the class Myriap- 
oda, popularly supposed to have a 
hundred feet, whence the name. 

•cento (sen'to), n. [pi. centos ('toz)], 
a literary or musical composition 
formed by selections from various 
authors or composers, and arranged 
in a new order. 

central ( sen'tral ) , adj. relating to, or 
situated in, the center. 

centrally (-li), ddv. in a central 

centralism (sen'tral-izm),) n. the 
state or quality of being central ; 

centrality (sen-tral'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being central. 

centralization ( sen-tral-i-za'shun ) , 
n. the act of bringing all local ad- 
ministrations under one central gov- 

centralize (sen'tral-iz), v.t. to draw 
or bring to a center ; bring all ad- 
ministrations under one central gov- 

centre (sen'ter), n. same as center. 

centric (sen'trik), or centrical 
( -al ) , adj. placed in the center ; 

centricity (sen-tris'i-ti), n. the state 
of being centric. 

centrifugal (sen-trif'ti-gal), adj. 
tending or causing to fly off from 
the center ; radiating from a central 
focus ; expanding first at the sum- 
mit and later at the base. 

centrifugally (-li), adv. from the 

centrifugence (sen-trif'u-jens), w. a 
tendency to fly off from the center. 

centripetal (sen-trip'e-tal), adj. 
tending or causing to approach the 
center : opposed to centrifugal ; ex- 

panding first at the base and then 
at the summit. 

centripetal rail^^ay (ral'wa), n. a 
railway constructed with a single 
rail to support the carriage, and two 
side^rails to steady it. 

centripetally (-li), adv. in a cen- 
tripetal manner. 

centumvir (sen-tum'ver), n. [pi. 
centumvirs (-verz) ; Latin centum- 
viri ('vi-ri)], one of a body of 105 
Roman judges, appointed annually 
to try civil causes. 

centumvirate (sen-tum'vi-rat), n. 
the office of a centumvir, or the cen- 
tum viri ; a body composed of a hun- 
dred men. 

centuple (sen'tu-pl), adj. hundred- 
fold : v.t. to multiply or increase a 

centurion (sen-tti'ri-un), n. a mili- 
tary officer commanding a hundred 

century (-sen'tti-ri), n. [pi. centuries 
(-riz) ], a hundred ; a hundred years, 
especially of the Christian era ; a 
division of the Roman people ; a 
sub-division of a legion. 

century-plant (-plant), n. a name 
of the American aloe, from the sup- 
position that it flowered once only 
in a hundred years. 

cephalalgia (sef-a-larji-a), n. head- 

cephalic (sef'a-lik or se-fal'ik), adj, 
pertaining to the head ; forming the 
front or forepart of a body or organ. 

cephalitis (sef-a-li'tis), n. inflamma- 
tion of the brain or its membranes, 

cephalopod (sef'a-lo-pod), adj. of or 
pertaining to the Cephalopoda : n.- a 
member of the Cephalopoda. 

Cephalopoda (sef-a-lop'o-da), 
the highest class of the Mollusca, 
having a distinct head with tenta- 
cles attached. The nautilus and oc- 
topus belong to this class. 

ceraceous (se-ra'shus), adj. having 
the texture and color of new wax. 

ceramic (se-ram'ik), or keramic 
(ke-), adj. of or pertaining to pot- 
tery or the fictile arts : work 
executed wholly or partly in clay 
and baked ; the fictile arts. 

cerate (se'rat), n. a thick ointment 
of wax, &c. 

ate, arm, 

at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




ceratin (ser'a-tin), n. horny tissue. 

ceratcid (ser'a-toid) , adj. horny. 

ceratdplasty (ser'a-to-plas-ti), w. the 
replacement of the cornea by one 
taken from an animal. 

cere (ser), n. the naked skin at the 
base of the bill of many birds, as the 

cere (ser), v.t. to cover or close with 

cereal (se're-al), adj. pertaining to, 
or producing, wheat or edible grain : 
n. edible grain. 

cerebellum ( ser-e-bel'um ) , n. [pi. 
cerebella ('a)], the hinder and low- 
er part of the brain in vertebrate 
animals ; the little brain. 

cerebral (ser'e-bral), adj. of or per- 
taining to the brain. 

cerebral bemispliere (hem'is-fer), 
n. one of the two lateral halves of 
the cerebrum. 

cerebralism (ser'e-bral-izm), n. the 
theory that mental operations arise 
from activity of the brain or cere- 

cerebrate (ser'e-brat), v.i. to have 
the brain in action. Also cerebrize. 

cerebration (ser-e-bra'shun), n. the 
conscious or unconscious action of 
the brain. 

cerebric (ser'e-brik), adj. pertaining 
to, or derived from, the brain. 

cerebrin (ser'e-brin), n. a name 
for several nitrogenous substances 
obtained from brain- and nerve-mat- 

cerebritis (ser-e-bri'tis), n. inflam- 
mation of cerebrum or brain. 

cerebrum (ser'e-brum), n. [pi. Cere- 
bra (-bra)], the superior and larger 
part of the brain : the seat of the 
mind and will. 

cerecloth (ser'kloth), n. a cloth sat- 
urated with wax or some gummy 
substance, used for wrapping em- 
balmed bodies in. 

cerement (ser'ment), n. a grave-cloth 
or shroud : pi. grave-clothes. 

ceremonial (ser-e-mo'ni-al), adj. re- 
.lating to, or performed with, exter- 
nal rites or ceremonies : n. the pre- 
scribed order for a ceremony or 

ceremonialism (ser-e-mo'ni-al-izm) , 

n. adherence to, or fondness for, 
ceremonial observance ; ritualism. 

ceremonially (-li), adv. according 
to rites and ceremonies. 

ceremonious (ser-e-mo'ni-us), adj. 
full of ceremony ; punctilious of pre- 
scribed formalities ; according to 
prescribed form or usage ; fond of 
using ceremony ; precise. 

ceremony (ser'e-mo-ni), n. [pi. cere- 
monies (-niz)], a sacred rite or ob- 
servance ; a prescribed rite or f or= 
mality ; behavior regulated by the 
laws of. strict etiquette. 

ceripb (ser'if), n. one of the fine 
lines of a printing type, especially a 
stroke at the bottom or top of a 
letter. Also serif. 

cerium (se'ri-um), n. a rare metallic 

cerograpby (se-rog'ra-fi), n. the art 
of writing or engraving on wax ; 
wax painting ; encaustic painting. 

certain (ser'tin), adj. sure; beyond 
a doubt ; fixed or stated ; indefinite. 

certainty (ser'tin-ti), w. [pL certain- 
ties (-tiz)], full assurance. 

certes (ser'tez), adv. certainly; as- 

certificate (ser-tif'i-kat), ii. a writ- 
ten testimony to the truth of any 
fact : a testimonial as to character 
or ability ; a statement written and 
signed and legally authenticated : 
v.t. to give a certificate to ; to at- 
test or vouch for by certificate. 

certification (ser-ti-fi-ka'shun), n, 
the act of certifying. 

certify (ser'ti-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
certified, certifying], to testify 
to or to make known in writing ; as- 

certiorari (ser-shi-o-ra'ri), n. a writ 
issuing from a superior court call- 
ing for the records of an inferior 
court, or to remove a case from a 
court below. 

certitude (ser'ti-tud) , adj. certainty ; 
freedom from doubt ; assurance. 

certosina-TiT-ork (cher-to-se'na- 
werk), n. a kind of inlaid work of 
light and dark woods, or ivory and 

cerulean (se-roo^e-an), adj. sky-col- 

ate, arm, ask, at awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




cerulin (se'roo-lin), n. an olive-green 

cerunten (se-roo'men), ear-wax. 

ceruse (se'roos), n. white-lead, used 
as a pigment, and from which a cos- 
metic is prepared. 

cervical (ser'vi-kal), adj. of or per- 
taining to the neck. 

cervine (ser'vin),) adj. of, or per- 
taining to, the deer family ; of a 
tawny or fawn color. 

cess (ses), v.t. to impose a tax; as- 
sess : n. a rate or tax, especially 
the land tax. 

cessation (ses-sa'shun), n. the act of 

cession (sesh'un), n. a yielding up, 
as of territory, property, or rights ; 
the surrender of a benefice by an 
incumbent who has accepted another 

cessionary (sesh'un-a-ri), adj. a giv- 
ing or yielding up. 

cesspool (ses'pool), n. a deep hole in 
the ground, or the well of a drain, 
for the reception of filth ; any foul 

cestus (ses'tus), n. [pi. cestus (ses'- 
tus)], a kind of glove used by an- 
cient boxers, frequently loaded with 
lead or iron, and secured by leathern 
thongs to the hands and arms. 

cetacean (se-ta'shun), adj. pertain- 
ing to the Cetacea, formerly a group 
of marine mammalia which in- 
cluded the whales : n. sl whale ; an 
animal -belonging to the order Cete. 

Cete (se'te), an order of the 
mammalia, containing the true 
whales, dolphins, &c. 

cetic acid (se'tik as'id), n. an acid 
obtained from spermaceti. 

cetin (se'tin), n. a white waxy sub- 
stance forming the essential part of 

cliafe (chaf), v.t. to make warm by 
friction ; to wear away or make sore 
by rubbing ; irritate ; annoy : n. 
mental irritation caused by contin- 
ued annoyance ; vexation : v.i. to be 
worn by friction ; be irritated or an- 
noyed ; fret. 

chafer (cha'fer), n. the cockchafer. 

chaff (chaf), n. the husk of grain, 
especially when separated by thresh- 

ing, &c. ; straw or hay cut fine for 
cattle ; anything worthless. 

cliaff (chaf), v.t. to banter; make 
game of : v.i. to use bantering lan- 
guage : n. banter. 

chaffer (chafer), n. the act of bar- 
gaining : v.i. to haggle about a pur- 

chaffinch (chaf 'inch), n. a bird, so 
named from its feeding on grain. 

chaff weed (chaf 'wed), n. a plant al- 
lied to the pimpernel. 

chaffy (chaf'i), adj. resembling, or 
full of, chaff; anythiog light or 

chafing-dish (-dish), n. a small 
portable grate for coals ; a vessel to 
hold live coal to keep meat, &c., hot. 

chagrin (sha-grin' or -gren'), vexa- 
tion due to disappointment ; ill- 
humor ; mortification : v.t. to excite 
vexation in ; mortify. 

chain (chan), n. a connected series 
of links or rings fitted into one an- 
other ; a bond ; a measure of 100 
links = 66 ft. ; the warp threads of 
a web : v.t. to fasten, secure, or con- 
nect with a chain ; enslave ; to unite 
firmly ; fasten. 

chain-gang (-gang), n. a gang of 
convicts working together in chains. 

chain-mail (-mal), n. flexible armor 
formed of metal links interwoven. 

chain-stitch (-stich,) n. an orna- 
mental stitch resembling a chain ; a 
loop-stitch made by a sewing ma- 

chair (char), n. a movable seat with 
a back for one person ; an official 
seat ; a professorship ; the presiding 
officer of an assembly ; an iron 
socket fastened to the sleeper which 
receives and secures railroad metals : 
v.t. to carry publicly in a chair in 
triumph ; to install. 

chairman (char'man), n. [pi. chair- 
men ('men)], the president of an 
assembly, meeting, public company, 

chaise (shaz), n. a light two- wheeled 
carriage ; a carriage in general. 

chalcedony (kal'se-do-ni or kal-sed'- 
o-ni), a cryptocrystalline variety of 
quartz, resembling diluted milk. 
Also calcedony. 

ate, arm, aj 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




chaldron ( chawl'dron ) , n. a meas- 
ure for coke = 36 bush. (25% cwt.). 

chalet (sha-la'), n. a Swiss cottage 
or herdsman's dwelling ; a small 
country house built in such style. 

chalice (chal'is), n. a cup ; a Euchar- 
ist cup. 

chalk (chawk), n. a soft limestone 
rock composed of carbonate of lime ; 
■prepared chalk for drawing : v.t. to 
mark, rub, or manure with chalk. 

chalkstone (-ston), n. a chalky con- 
cretion in the joints. 

chalkiness (chawk'i-nes), n. the 
state of being chalky. 

chalky (chawk'i), adj. containing, or 
resembling, chalk. 

challenge (chal'enj), n. an invitation 
to a contest ; a summons to fight ; a 
duel ; an objection taken to a voter 
or juror ; the demand of a soldier on 
sentry : v.t. to summons to a con- 
test ; invite to a duel ; defy ; take 
exception to. 

challengeable (chal'enj-a-bl), adj. 
that may be challenged. 

challis (shal'e), n. a light all-wool 

chalybeate (ka-lib'e-at), adj. im- 
pregnated with iron. 

chalybite (kal'i-bit), n. native car- 
bonate of iron ; siderite. 

chamber (cham'ber), n. an apart- 
ment ; especially a bedroom ; a pri- 
vate room ; a political or commercial 
body ; a cavity ; that part of a gun, 
&c., which contains the charge : pi. 
a suite of rooms ; a judge's private 
room : v.t. to inclose ; furnish with 
a chamber. 

chamberlain (cham'ber'lan), n. an 
officer who has charge of the private 
apartments of a sovereign or noble- 
man ; a male servant who has charge 
of a suite of rooms ; the treasurer of 
a city or corporation. 

chameleon (ka-me'le-un), n. an in- 
sectivorous lizard-like reptile, pos- 
sessing the power of changing its 

chamfer (cham'fer), n. a small fur- 
row cut in wood or metal ; a bevel : 
v.t. to groove, channel or flute. 

champ (champ), v.t. to bite with the 
teeth repeatedly and impatiently : 
n. the act of champing. 

champagne (sham-pan'), n. a light 
sparkling effervescent wine. 

champaign (sham-pan'), n. flat open 
country : adj. level, open. 

champerty (cham'per-ti), n. the 
maintenance of a party in a suit on 
condition that, if successful, the 
property is to be shared. 

champion (cham'pi-un), n. one who 
defends the cause of another, by 
combat or other means ; a hero ; 
valiant warrior ; a successful com- 
petitor against all rivals : v.t. to de- 
fend or support a cause. 

chance (chans), n. an unforeseen, 
event ; an accident ; a possibility ; 
opportunity ; risk : v.i. to happen ; 
occur without design or expectation ; 
v.t. to risk (with it). 

chancel (chan'sel), n. that part in a 
church where the altar stands ; the 

chancellor (chan'sel-er), n. a judge 
of a court of equity or chancery ; the 
president or highest ofiicial of a uni- 
versity ; a vicar-general ; the presi- 
dent of the German Federal Coun- 

chance-medley (-med'li), n. justi- 
fiable homicide in self-defense. 

chancery (chan'ser-i), n. originally 
in England, next to Parliament, the 
highest Court of Justice, since 1873 
a division of the High Court of Jus- 
tice ; a court of Equity. 

chandelier (shan-de-ler'), n. a hang- 
ing frame with branches for lights. 

chandler (chand'ler), n. a maker or 
vendor of candles ; a dealer or mer- 

change (chanj), v.t. to alter; sub- 
stitute ; exchange or give an 
equivalent for ; render acid or 
tainted : v.i. undergo change ; suffer 
alteration ; pass from one place to 
another ; deteriorate : n. an altera- 
tion or variation ; a passing from 
one state or form to another ; vicissi- 
tude ; small coin ; balance returned 
after deduction of amount paid. 

changeability (chanj-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
liability to change. 

changeable (chanj'a-bl), adj. fickle. 

changeling (chanj'ling), .n. a child 
left in place of another ; an idiot ; a 

ate, arm, 

at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book : hue, hut ; think, then. 




channel (chan'el), n. the bed of a 
stream ; a watercourse ; the deepest 
part of a strait, bay, harbor, &c. ; a 
wide arm of the sea extending in- 
land ; a groove ; a medium of con- 
veyance : pi. planks bolted to the 
outside of a ship to extend the rig- 
ging : v.t. to cut into a channel ; 

chant (chant), v.t. to sing; intone: 
v.i. make melody with the voice ; go 
in full cry, as hounds : n. a song ; a 
solemn or monotonous song. 

chanter (chan'ter), n. one who 
chants; the drone of a bagpipe; a 

chanticleer (chan'ti-kler), w. a cock. 

chaos (ka'os), n. the confused matter 
out of which the universe was 
formed ; confusion. 

chaotic (ka-ot'ik), adj. resembling 

chaotically (-al-li), adv. in a chaotic 

chap (chap), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. chapped : chapping], to cause to crack or 
open longitudinally : v.i. to have the 
skin crack : n. a longitudinal crack 
or slit. 

chap (chap), n. a fellow. 

chap (chap, or chop), n. one of the 
jaws or its fleshy covering (usually 
pi.) ; the mouth of a channel. 

chaparral (chap-a-ral'), n. a dense 

chap-book (chap'book), n. a small 
book, usually of fairy tales, ro- 
mances, &c., formerly hawked about 
by chapmen. 

chapeau (sha'po), n. [pi. chapeaux 
-poz ) ] , a hat or head covering. 

chapel (chap'el), n. a subordinate 
place of public worship ; a place of 
worship in a palace, institution, &c. ; 
a nonconformist place of worship ; 
an association of journeymen in a 
printing house. 

chapelry (chap'el-ri), n. [pi. chapel- 
I ries (-riz)], the district legally as- 

I signed to a chapel dependent upon 

the mother church. 

chaperon (shap'er-on), n. a married 
lady who accompanies young ladies 
in public : v.t. to act as a chaperon 

chapf alien (chap'faw-Ien), adj. de- 

chapiter ( chap'i-ter ) , n. the upper 
part or capital of a pillar. 

chaplain (chap'lin), n. a clergyman 
who performs service in the army, 
navy, a public institution, a royal or 
private household. 

chaplaincy (chap'lin-si), n. the of- 
fice or status of a chaplain. 

chaplet (chap'let), n. a wreath or 
garland encircling the head ; a 
rosary ; a round molding carved 
into beads, olives, &c. 

chapman (chap'man), n. [pi. chap- 
men ('men)], formerly a merchant 
or trader ; a hawker. 

chappie (chap'i), n. familiar for 

chapter (chap'ter), n. a division of a 
book ; the clergy of a cathedral or 
collegiate church ; a meeting of cer- 
tain organized societies or orders. 

char (char), n. work by the day; a 
single job ; a chore : v.i. to work in 
the house of another by the day ; do 
odd jobs ; do chores. 

char (char), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. charred, charring], burn or reduce to 
charcoal ; burn partially. 

character (kar'ak-ter), n. a letter, 
sign, or figure ; distinctive qualities 
or traits ; moral excellence ; a cer- 
tificate as to conduct or ability. 

characteristic ( kar-ak-ter-is'tik ) , 
adj. pertaining to or indicating the 

characteristically (-al-li), adv. in a 
characteristic manner. 

characterization ( kar-ak-ter-i-za'- 
shun), n. the act of characterizing. 

characterize (kar'ak-ter-iz), v.t. de- 
scribe by peculiar qualities ; mark 
or distinguish. 

charade (sha-rad'), n. an acted 

charcoal (char'kol), n. wood par- 
tially burnt ; impure carbon. 

charge (charj), v.t. to rush on or at- 
tack ; load ; fill up ; impose ; com- 
mand or enjoin ; instruct ; accuse ; 
place on the debit side : v.i. to make 
an attack ; demand a price : n. an 
onset ; quantity with which a fire- 
arm or apparatus is charged ; an of- 
fice or obligation ; an order or com- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; booD« 
book ; hiie, hut ; think, then. 




. mand ; authoritative instruction or 
direction ; an entry on the debit side. 

chargeability (char-ja-bil'i-ti), oi. 
the quality of being chargeable. 

chargeable (char'ja-bl), adj. liable 
to be charged ; ratable ; burdensome. 

charge d'affaires (shar-zha'da-far') , 
n. [pi. charges (-shar-zha-) ], a 
government official v^ho acts for an 
ambassador in his absence, or at a 
court to which no ambassador is ac- 

charger (charj'er), n. a cavalry 
horse ; a large dish. 

chariot (char'i-ot), n. an ancient 
two-wheeled car for war, state pro- 
cessions, racing, &c. ; a four-wheeled 
pleasure carriage, 

chariotee (char-i-o-te'), n. a light 
four-wheeled covered pleasure car- 
riage with two seats. 

charitable (char'i-ta-bl), adj. benev- 
olent in disposition ; kind and lib- 

charity (char'i-ti), n. [pi. charities 
(-tiia)], the disposition to think well 
of others ; liberality ; alms ; univer- 
sal love ; an institution for the 
poor ; a gift in trust for a benevo- 
lent object. 

charivari (shar-i-va'ri), n. a mock 
serenade of discordant music. 

charlatan (shar'la-tan), n. a quack. 

charlatanism (-izm), n. quackery. 

charlotte rnsse (shar'lut rus), n. 
whipped cream enclosed in sponge- 

charm (charm), n. a spell or en- 
chantment ; an allurement ; a trin- 
ket : v.t. influence by magic ; sub- 
due or fascinate; give exquisite de- 
light to : v.i. to work by magic 
powers ; act as a spell. 

charnel (char'nel), adj. containing 
flesh or dead bodies. 

chart (chart), n. a map of any part 
of the' sea, river, &c., for the use of 
mariners ; the representation of a 
ship's course ; a mariner's compass ; 
a sheet giving information in tabu- 
lt:r form : v.t. to lay down, or de- 
lineate on a chart ; map out : v.i. to 
make a chart or map. 

charter (char'ter), n. a document be- 
stowing certain rights and privi- 
leges : v.t. to charter-party. 

charter-party (-par'ti), n. a writ- 
ten agreement relating to the hire of 
a vessel and its cargo : v.t. to let 
or hire by charter-party. 

chart ographer (kar-tog'ra-fer), n. 
one who prepares charts and maps. 

chartography (kar-tog'ra-fi), n. the 
art or business of drawing charts or 

Chartreuse (shar-trez'), n. a cele- 
brated liqueur made by the monks of 
La Grand Chartreuse, France. 

chary (char'i), adj. cautious ; sparing. 

chase (chas), v.t. to pursue; capture 
or kill ; hunt ; drive away : v.i. to 
ride or hunt rapidly : n. eager or 
vehement pursuit ; hunting ; opeo 
ground for preserving deer. 

chase (chas), n. a groove; an iron 
frame for securing types ; that part 
of a cannon in front of the trun- 
nions : v.t. to work or emboss (pre- 
cious metals) ; cut, as the thread of 
a screw. 

chasm (kazm), n. a deep gap or open- 
ing in the earth ; a void space. 

chassepot (shas'po), n, a French 
breech-loading rifle. 

chasseur^ (sha-ser'), n. a domestic 
dressed in military or hunting cos- 
tume ; a French light-armed foot or 
cavalry soldier. 

chaste (chast), adj. morally pure; 
modest; pure in style; refined. 

chasten (chas'n), v.t. to punish for 
the purpose of reformation ; purify ; 

chastise (chas-tiz'), v.t. to correct by 
punishment ; reduce to order or obe- 

chastisement (chas'tiz-ment), n, 

chastity (chas'ti-ti), n. moral and 
sexual purity. 

chasuble (chas'ti-bl), n. a rich vest- 
ment worn over the alb by a cele- 
brating priest. 

chat (chat), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. chatted, chatting], to talk in an easy 
familiar manner : n. familiar or in- 
formal speech. 

chateau (sha-to'), w. [pi. chateaux, 
(-toz')], a castle; a manor house or 
country seat ; the name of various 
French wines. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 

I. Large Gobet. — 2. Hedelfinger Giant. — 3- Spanish Sour.— 4. Royal Amarelle.— 5. Coburg Mayheart. 

6. Euttner's Late Red, hard. — 7. Winkler's White Heart. — 8. Ostheimer Common. — 9. Red May. — 

10. Kruger's Heart. — ii.Lucien. — 12. Sweet Early Common. — 13. Duchess of Angouleme. — 14. Queen 
Hortense. — 15. Late Amarelle. — 16. Red Muscatel. — 17. Large Long Dark Red. — 18. Large Princess. 
— 19. Donissen's Golden, hard. — 20. Large Black, hard. 




chatelaine (shat'e-lan), n. a bunch 
of chains to which are attached trin- 
kets, &c., worn at the waist by la- 

chattel (chat'el), n. personal prop- 
erty except freehold (usually in pi.) . 

chatter (chat'er), v.i. to utter 
sounds rapidly, as a monkey ; rattle 
the teeth, as in shivering or from 
fright ; talk idly or carelessly ; jab- 
ber : v.t. to utter rapidly, idly, or 
indistinctly : n. sounds like those of 
the magpie, &c. ; idle, rapid talk. 

chatterbox (chat'er-boks), n. an in- 
cessant talker. 

chattiness (chat'i-nes), n. the qual- 
ity of being chatty. 

chatty (chat'i), adj. talkative, uncon- 

chauffeur (sho-fer'), n. an operator 
of an automobile ; an automobilist : 
fern, chauffeuse (sho-fez'). 

chauvinism, (sho'vin-izm), n. blind 
and unreasoning attachment to a 
fallen cause ; exaggerated political 
or i)arty fanaticism. 

cheap (chep), adj. purchasable for a 
low price ; common ; of small value. 

cheapen (chep'en), v.t. to lessen the 
price of. 

cheat (chet), n. a fraud or decep- 
tion ; one who cheats : v.t. to deceive 
or defraud ; impose upon : v.i. to act 
as a cheat. 

check (chek), n. a restraint; a re- 
proof ; a pass, ticket, or token ; a 
term in chess ; cloth woven in 
squares of alternate patterns ; an 
order or draft on a bank or banker 
for money : v.t. to restrain ; stop ; 
reprove ; examine by comparison ; 
mark as having been examined ; to 
place an opponent's king in danger 
at chess ; mark in small squares. 

checker (chek'er), n. checker-board; 
one of the squares of a checkered 
pattern ; piece with which to play 
checkers : pi. game played on a 
checker-board ; draughts : v.t. to 
mark or decorate with checkers ; 

checker-board, n. board on which 
the game of checkers is played. 

checkmate (chek'mat), n. the win- 
ning move at chess when the oppo- 
nent's king cannot move out of 

check ; a complete defeat from 
which there is no escape : v.t. to 
give checkmate to ; defeat utterly ; 

cheek (chek), n^ the side of the face 
beneath either eye ; one of two cor- 
responding sides ; cool impudence : 
v.t. face in an impudent manner. 

cheep (chep), n. a shrill noise, as 
that of a young chicken, or a 
mouse :v.i. to make such a noise. 

cheeper (chep'er), n. a young game 

cheer (cher), n. temper or state of 
mind ; a state of gladness or joy ; a' 
shout of applause ; tidings ; luck : 
v.t. to gladden ; encourage ; applaud. 

cheerful (cher'fool), adj. full* of good 

cheerfully (-li), adv. in a cheerful 

cheerily (cher'i-li), adv. heartily. 

cheeriness (cher'i-nes), n. the state 
of being cheery. 

cherry (cher'i), adj. cheerful; gay. 

cheese (ches), n. the curd or casein 
of milk coagulated, pressed and al- 
lowed to dry in a mold ; anything 
resembling cheese. 

cheese-cake ('kak), n. a confection 
of soft curds, butter, and sugar. 

cheese-paring (-par'ing), adj. nig- 

cheetah (che'ta), n. the hunting 
leopard of India. Also chetah. 

cheetal (che'tal), n. the Indian spot- 
ted deer. 

chef (shef), n. a head or professional 

chef-d'oeuvre (sha-de'fr), n. [pi. 
chefs-d'oeuvre (sha-de'vr) ], a mas- 

Gheiranthus (ki-ran'thus), n. a ge- 
nus of plants, which includes the 

chemical (kem'i-kal), adj. pertain- 
ing to chemistry : n. a chemical sub- 

chemically (-li), adv. according to 
chemical principles or operations. 

chemico-electric ( kem-i-ko-e-lek'- 
trik ) , adj. depending upon electric 
activity produced by chemical 

chemise (she-mez'), n. a woman's 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




undergarment ; a wall lining an 

chemisette ( shem-i-zet' ) , n. a short 
chemise worn over the breast. 

chemist (kem'ist), n. one skilled in 
chemistry ; a dealer in drugs and 
medicines ; an analyst. 

chemistry (kem'is-tri), n. the sci- 
ence which treats of the properties 
of elementary and compound sub- 
stances and the laws which govern 
their molecular and atomic rela- 

chenille (she-nel')* n. silk or worsted 

cheque (chek), n. an order or draft 
on a banker or bank, payable to 
the bearer ; check. 

cherish (cher'ish), v.t. to hold or 
esteem dear ; treat with tenderness ; 
protect and aid ; encourage ; harbor 
in the mind. 

cheroot (she-root'), n. a kind of 

cherry (cher'i), n. [pi. cherries 
Ciz)], the fruit of a tree allied to 
the plum ; a cordial made from cher- 
ries : adj. of a cherry color ; ruddy. 

cherub (cher'ub), n. [_pl. cherubs 
Cubz), cherubim ('oo-bim)], an 
angel next to a seraphim in rank ; a 
beautiful child ipl. cherubs]. 

cherubic (che-roo'bik), adj. angelic. 

chess (ches), n. a game played by 
two persons with 16 pieces each on 
a checkered board divided into G4 

chest (chest), n. a large box; the 
quantity such a box contains ; the 
breast or thorax ; a certain quantity 
of goods. • 

chested (ches'ted), adj. having a 

chestnut (ches'nut), n. the nut or 
seed of trees of the genus Castanea ; 
the chestnut-tree with its edible 
fruit ; a reddish-brown color ; a 
horse of such color ; an old or stale 
joke : adj. reddish-brown. 

cheval-glass (she-val'glas), n. a 
large swing looking-glass. 

chevalier (shev-a-ler'), n. a knight: 
a horseman ; a member or knight of 
an honorable order ; the lowest title 
of rank of the old French nobility ; 
a gallant. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 

chevaux-de-f rise ( shev-o6-de-f rez' ) , a fence constructed of a bar 
armed with long spikes. 

Cheviot (chev'i-ot), n. a sheep bred 
on the Cheviot Hills ; a rough cloth 
made from its wool. 

chevron (shev'ron), n. a term in 
heraldry; the badge on the coat 
sleeve of a non-commissioned offi- 
cer, indicative of his rank ; a va- 
riety of fret ornament. 

chew (choo), v.t. to crush and grind 
with the teeth ; masticate ; meditate 
upon : v.i. grind tobacco between the 
teeth : n. that which is chewed ; a 
quid of tobacco. 

chiaroscuro (ki-ar-os-koo'ro), n. the 
treatment of light and shade in 
painting, drawing, or engraving : 
adj. pertaining to such treatment. 

chic (shek), adj. stylish: n. Parisian 
elegance in dress ; manual dexterity. 

chicane (shi-kan'), n. mean or un- 
fair artifices to obscure the truth ; 
sophistry.^ Also chicanery : v.t. to 
cheat : v.i. use artifices. 

chick (chik), n. the young of a bird, 
especially of the domestic hen : hence 
a child. 

chickadee (chik'a-de), n. the Ameri- 
can black-cap titmouse. 

chicken (chik'en), n. the young of a 
fowl, especially the domestic fowl. 

chicken-hearted (-hart'ed), adj. 

chicken-pox (-poks), n. a mild erup- 
tive disease of children ; varicella. 

chick-pea (chik'pe), n. a plant the 
roasted seed of which forms the 
pulse of the East. 

chickweed (chik'wed), n. a common 
wild plant with white blossoms. 

chicory (chik'6-ri), n. a perennial 
plant with bright blue flowers and 
a tapering root, which, when roast- 
ed and ground, is used to mix with 

chide (chid), v.t. [p.f. & p.p. chid, 
chode, p.p. chidden, chid, chid- 
ing], to find fault with; scold: v.i. 
to clamor. 

chidingly (chid'ing-li), adv. in a 
chiding manner. I 

chief (chef), n. a commander or 
leader ; a head or principal person ; 
the principal or most important 




part : adj. principal ; most eminent ; 
of the first order, rank, or estima- 
tion ; leading ; main. 

chieftain (chef tan), n. a captain, 
leader, or commander ; the head of 
a class or tribe. _ , 

chiffon (shif'un, French she-fong'), 
n. a kind of thin gauze fabric. 

chiffonier ( shif -o-ner' ) , n. a piece of 
furniture fitted with drawers and 
shelves used as a sideboard; a rag 

chignon ( she-ny6ng' ) , n. a roll of 
natural or artificial hair worn by 
women over a pad at the back of 
the head. 

chig-oe (chig'o), n. a species of West 
Indian and South American flea 
which burrows beneath the skin of 
the feet, and breeding there pro- 
duces ulcers. Also jigger. 

chikara (chi-ka'ra), n. the four- 
horned antelope of Bengal. 

chilblain (chil'blan), n. a sore or 
inflammation caused by frost or 
cold : v.t. to afflict with chilblains. 

child (child), n. {pi. children (chil'- 
dren)], a son or daughter; a very 
young person ; a descendant ; one 
immature in judgment. 

childbirth < 'berth), n. the act or 
time of bringing forth a child. 

ehilde (child), n. a term formerly 
applied to the scions of knightly 
houses before their admission into 

childhood (child'hood), n. the period 
from infancy to puberty. 

childish ('ish), adj. like a child; 

children, pi. of child. 

chiliad (kil'i-ad), n. 1,000; a thou- 
sand years. 

chill (chil), n. a sudden coldness; 
the absence of heat in a substance ; 
the hardened part of a casting : adj. 
having the sensation of cold ; de- 
pressing ; discourteous : v.t. to make 
cold ; blast with cold ; deject ; 
harden cast iron by sudden cooling. 

chilli (chil'i), n. [pi. chillies (-iz)], 
the dried pod of a capsicum. Also 
chile, chili. 

chiloplasty (ki'lo-plas-ti), n. the 
transplantation of healthy skin to a 
diseased lip. 

chimera (ki-me'ra), w. an incon- 
gruous conception of the fancy ; a 
cartilaginous fish of remarkable ap- 

chime (chim), n. the musical har- 
mony produced by striking a set of 
bells with hammers ; a set of bells 
tuned to the musical scale and 
struck with hammers : v.i. to sound 
in consonance or harmony ; be in 
harmony or agree with ; join in • 
v.t. to cause to sound in harmony. 

chimerical (ki-mer'ik-al), adj. mere- 
ly imaginary ; fantastic ; unreal. 

chimerically (-li), adv. in a chimer- 
ical manner. 

chimney (chim'ni), n. [pi. chimneys 
('niz)], the flue, vent, or passage 
through which smoke or heated air, 
&c., escapes ; a glass tube for a 
lamp to intensify combustion. 

chimpanzee (chim-pan'ze), a large 
West Indian anthropoid ape allied 
to the gorilla. 

chin (chin), n. the part of the face 
below the under lip. 

china (chi'na), n. a fine kind of 
porcelain : adj. of, or from, China ; 
of, or made of, china. 

chinch (chinch), n. a fetid insect 
destructive to corn crops; the bed- 

chinchilla (chin-chil'a), n. a small 
South American rodent with a soft 
fine fur. 

chine (chin), n. the backbone or 
spine of an animal ; a piece of the 
backbone of an animal with adja- 
cent parts cut for cooking; a rocky 
ravine or large fissure in a cliff. 

Chinese (chi-nez'), adj. of, or per- 
taining to, China. 

chink (chingk), n. a small fissure 
opening lengthwise ; a narrow aper- 
ture : v.i. to crack ; to form into or 
close up cracks. 

chink (chingk), n. a sharp metallic 
or jingling sound ; money : v.t. to 
cause to make a sharp metallic 
sound ; jingle. 

chinkapin (ching'ka-pin), n. the 
dwarf chestnut of the United States, 
or its nut. 

chinse (chins), v.t. to force oakum 
or tow in (the chinks or seams be- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue hut ; think, then. 




tween the planking of a ship) ; calk 

chintz (chints), n. cotton cloth, 
usually glazed, printed in various 

cMp (chip), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. chipped,, chipping], to cut into small 
pieces ; bet at cards : v.i. break or 
fly off into small pieces : n. a small 
piece of stone, wood, &c. cut or 
broken off ; a bonnet, &c., made of 
thin split wood or 'Cuban palm leaf. 

chipmunk (chip'mungk), n. a small 
squirrel of North America, having 
dark and light stripes on its back. 

cMpper (chip'er), adj. active; pert. 

chirograpliy (ki-rog'ra-fi), n. the 
art of writing or engrossing ; judg- 
ment of character by the hand- 

cMromancy (ki'ro-man-si), n. palm- 

chiropodist (ki-rop'o-dist), n. one 
who removes corns, bunions, &c., 
and is skilled in diseases of the feet 
and hands. 

chirp (cherp), n. a short shrill cheer- 
ful note : v.i. to utter such a note. 

chisel (chiz'el), n. an edged instru- 
ment of iron or steel for cutting 
wood, stone, or metal : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. chiseled, chiseling], to cut, 
pare, gouge, or engrave with a chis- 
el ; to take an unfair advantage of 
in a transaction. 

chit (chit), n. a child; a pert for- 
ward girl. 

chit-chat (-chat), n. familiar talk. 

chivalresque (shiv-al-resk'), adj. of, 
or pertaining to, chivalry; chival- 

chivalrous (shiv'al-rus), adj. relat- 
ing to chivalry ; warlike ; high- 
spirited ; gallant. 

chivalry (shiv'al-ri), n. the mediae- 
val system of knighthood ; knights 
collectively : the qualifications of a 
knight, as bravery, nobleness, 
courtesy, respect for womanly dig- 
nity and chastity, &c. ; tenure of 
land by knight's service. 

chloral (klo'ral), n. a strong nar- 

chloralism (klo'^ral-izm), n. the habit 
of using chloral ; a diseased condi- 
tion caused by the use of chloral. 

chloralize (klo'ral-iz), v.t. to bring 
under the influence of chloral. 

chloralum (klo'ral-um), n. an anti- 

chlorate (klo'rat), n. a salt of chlo- 
ric acid. 

chloric (klo-rik), adj. pertaining to, 
or containing, chlorine. 

chloric acid (as'id), n. an acid con- 
taining hydrogen, oxygen, and chlo- 

chloride (klo'rid), n. a compound of 
chlorine with another element. 

chloride of lime (of lim), n. a com- 
pound of chloride with lime, used 
in bleaching. 

chlorine (klo'rin), n. a greenish- 
yellow gas possessing great bleach- 
ing powers. 

chlorodyne (klo'ro-din), n. a popu- 
lar anodyne. 

chloroform (klo'ro-form), n. a vola- 
tile liquid used for producing in- 
sensibility to pain : v.t. to adminis- 
ter chloroform to. 

chlorophyll (klo'r5-fil), n. the green 
coloring matter in plants. 

chlorosis (klo-ro'sis), n. a disease 
affecting young women, character- 
ized by anemia. 

chocolate (chok'o-lat), n. a paste 
made from the roasted kernels of 
the cacao-nut, used in making the 
beverage so called : adj. having the 
color of, or made of, chocolate. 

choice (chois), n. the act of choos- 
ing ; option ; the thing chosen ; the 
best or preferable part : adj. select ; 
carefully chosen. 

choir (kwir), n. a band of singers in 
a church ; the place where they 

choke (chok), v.t. to suffocate by 
obstructing the windpipe; block up. 

choke-damp (-damp), n. carbonic 
acid generated in mines. 

choker (chd'ker), n. one who, or 
that which, chokes ; a necktie. 

choler (ko'ler), n. bile; irascibility. 

cholera (kol'er-a), n. a disease with 
violent vomiting and purging. 

choose (chooz), v.t. [p.t. chose, p.p. 
chosen, choosing], to take by 
preference ; select : v.i. to make a 
choice ; prefer. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




chop (chop), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. chopped, chopping], to cut with re- 
peated blows ; hew ; mince ; to ex- 
change : v.i. to do anything with a 
quick motion ; turn or vary sud- 
denly : n. the act of chopping ; a 
piece chopped off. 

chop (chop), n. a mark or brand de- 
noting quality. 

chops (chops), the sides of the 
mouth of a river, channel, &c. 

chopsticks (chop'stiks), two 
small sticks used in China for eat- 

choral (ko'ral), adj. of, or pertain- 
ing to, a choir ; chanted or sung by 
a choir. 

chorale (ko'ral), n. a simple sacred 
melody or hymn sung in unison, 

chorally (-li), adv. in the manner of 
a chorus. 

chord (k6rd), n. the string of a 
musical instrument ; notes in har- 
mony ; harmony of color ; a straight 
line joining the ends of the arc of a 
circle : v.t. to string, as a musical 

chores (chorz), the daily light 
work of a farmyard or household. 

chorister (kor'is-ter), n. a member 
of a choir. 

chorus (ko'rus), n. a number singing 
in concert ; that part of a musical 
composition in which the company 
join the singer ; a concerted piece 
of music ; a band of singers and 
dancers in a Greek tragedy. 

chosen (cho'zen), adj. selected; 

chough (chuf), n. a bird like a jack- 

chouse (chous), v.t. to cheat; 

chow-cho-w (chou'chou), adj. an 
East Indian mixed pickle. 

chowder (chovi'der), n. a dish of 
fresh fish ; clams stewed together 
with pork and biscuits, &c. 

chrism (krizm), n. consecrated oil. 

christen (kris'n), v.t. to baptize in 
the name of the Holy Trinity ; give 
a Christian name to. 

Christendom (kris'n-dum), n. coun- 
tries whose inhabitants profess the 
Christian faith ; Christians collec- 

Christian (kris'chan), n. a profes- 
sor of the religion of Christ : adj. 
professing the religion of Christ. 

Christian era (e'ra), n. the present 
era reckoned from the birth of 

Christianity (kris-chi-an'i-ti), n. 
the precepts and doctrines taught 
by Christ. 

Christianization (kris-chan-iz - a '- 
shun), n. the act or process of con- 
verting to Christianity. 

Christianize (kris'chan-iz), v.t. to 
convert to Christianity. 

Christmas (kris'mas), n. the festival 
(Dec. 25) celebrating the birth of 

Christmastide (-tid), n. Christmas 
Eve (Dec. 24) to Epiphany (Jan. 

chromascope (kro'ma-skop), n. an 
instrument to show the optical ef- 
fects of color. _ 

chromate (kro'mat), n. a salt of 
chromic acid. 

chromatic (kro-mat'ik) , adj. relat- 
ing to colors ; including notes not 
belonging to the diatonic scale : n. 
a note affected by an accidental ; p/. 
that branch of optics which treats 
of colors. 

chromatically (-al-li), adv. in a 
chromatic manner. 

chr omatometer ( kro-ma-tom'e-ter ) , 
n. SL scale for measuring colors. 

chromatrope (kro'ma-trop), n. a 
revolving magic-lantern slide. 

chromatype (kro'ma-tip), n. a proc- 
ess for obtaining a colored photo- 
graphic picture. 

chrome (krom), n. chromium: v.t. 
to dye in a bath of bichromate of 

chromium (kro'mi-um), n. a steel- 
gray metal, one of the elements. 

chromo (krO'mo), n. [pi. chromos 
('moz)], a chromo-lithograph or pic- 
ture produced by chromo-lithog- 

chromogen (kr5'mo-jen), n. the col- 
oring matter of plants. 

chromograph (kro'mo-graf), n. an 
apparatus for duplicating circulars, 
oil-paintings, &c. ; a hectograph. 

chromolithic (kro-mo-lith'ik), adj. 
executed in chromo-lithography. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




diromo-litliography (kro-mo-lith- 
og'ra-fl), n. the art of printing in 
colors from stone. 

chromospliere (kro'mo-sfer), n. the 
rose-colored outer envelope of the 

clironic (kron'ik), adj. continuing a 
long time, or recurring : said of a 

chronically (-al-li), adv. in a chron- 
ic manner. 

clironograia (kron'o-gram), n. an 
inscription which includes in it the 
date of some event. 

clironograpli (kron'6-graf), n. an 
instrument for recording minute in- 
tervals of time. 

chronological ( kron - o-loj'i-kal ) , 
adj. relating to, or containing an ac- 
count of, past events in the order 
of time. 

chronologically (-li), adv. in a 
chronological manner. 

chronologist (kro-nol'o-jist) , n. one 
versed in chronology. Also chronol- 

chronologize (kro-nol'o-jiz), v.t. to 
arrange in historical sequence. 

chronology ('o-ji), n. [pi. chronol- 
ogies (-jiz)], the science that treats 
of events and arranges their dates 
in proper sequence. 

chronometer (kro-nom'e-ter), n. an 
instrument for measuring time with 
extreme accuracy. 

chronopher (kron'o-fer), n. an in- 
strument for signaling by electricity 
the exact time to distant stations. 

chronoscope (kron'o-skop), n. an 
instrument for measuring by elec- 
tricity the velocity of a projectile. 

chrysalis (kris'a-lis), n. the final 
stage through which a lepidopterous 
insect, or a butterfly, passes prior 
to its winged state. 

chrysanthemum (kris-an'the-mum), 
n. - a composite plant with large 
heads of showy flowers ; a flower of 
this plant. 

chrysolite (kris'6-lit), n. 2l green- 
colored and sometimes transparent 

chrysoprase (kris'o-praz), n. a va- 
riety of chalcedony of apple-green 

chub (chub), n. a fresh- water fish. 

chubbiness (chub'i-nes), n. plump- 

chubby (chub'i), adj. plump; fat 
and round. 

chuck (chuk), v.t. to make a noise 
like a hen calling to her chickens : n. 
a hen's call. 

chuck (chuk), v.t. to pat in a play- 
ful manner ; throw smartly to a 
short distance; hold in a chuck t n. 
a light blow under the chin '; a short 
toss ; an appendage to a lathe to 
secure the work to be turned. 

chuckle (chuk'l), n. a quiet, sup- 
pressed laugh : v.i. to laugh in such 
a manner. 

chum (chum), n. one who lodges in 
the same apartment ; a college stu- 
dent ; an old or intimate friend : v.i. 
[p.t. & p.p. chummed ; chum- 
ming], to occupy the same room. 

chump (chump), n. a short, thick, 
heavy piece of wood. 

chunk (chungk), n. a short, thick 
piece ; a thick-set strong person or 

chunky (chung'ki), adj. short and 

church (cherch), n. a building set 
apart or consecrated for divine wor- 

Church (cherch), n. the collective 
body of Christians ; a particular 
body of Christians ; the clergy. 

Churchman (-man), n. an adherent 
of the Established Church ; an Epis- 

church-warden ('wawr-dn), n. in 
the Anglican Church, one of two 
ofiicers chosen at Easter in every 
parish to attend to the secular af- 
fairs of the church, and to act as 
the legal representatives of the 
parish ; a long clay pipe. 

churl (cherl), n. formerly one of the 
lowest orders of freemen ; a peasant ; 
a surly ill-bred person ; a niggard. 

churlish ('ish), adj. ill-bred; nig- 

churn (chern), n. a vessel in which 
milk or cream is agitated to form 
butter : v.t. to make (butter) by agi- 
tating milk or cream ; agitate by 
violent motion. 

chute (shoot), w. an inclined trough 
for sending articles down ; an aquat- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




ic switch-back; a river-fall over 
which timber is floated; a stam- 
pede ; a_ bayou. 
chyle (kll), n. a milk-like fluid sepa- 
rated from digested matter in the 
stomach, absorbed by the lacteal 
vessels, and assimilated into blood. 

diyme (kim), n. the pulpy mass of 
digested food prior to the separa- 
tion of the chyle. 

cicada (si-ka'dA), n. [pi. cicadse 
('de)], a genuM of insects having 
the power of producing a shrill 

cicatria: (sik'a-ti'iks), n. [pi. cica- 
trices (-tri-sez)j, the scar remain- 
ing after a wour.di has healed. 

cicatrize (sik'a-ti^!iz), v.t. to heal (a 
M^ound) by iadvicing the skin to 
form a cicatrix. 

cicerone ( sis-e-ro'ne ; Italian che-cha- 
ro'ne), n. [pi. cicorones (-nez), cice- 
roni ('ne)], a guide who explains 
the antiquities and chief features 
of a place. 

Cid (sid), n. a chief or commander, 
especially in Sparash literature ; the 
hero, Ruy Diaz, the Christian cham- 
pion against the Moors ; the name 
of a Spanish epic. 

cider (si'der), n. the juice of apples 
expressed and fermented. 

ci devant ( se-de-vang' ) , adj. former : 
used with reference to an office pre- 
viously held. 

cierge (serg), n. a wax candle used 
in religious processions. 

cigar (si-gar'), n. a small roll of to- 
bacco-leaf used for smoking. 

cigarette (sig-a-ret'), n. a small ci- 
gar made of tobacco rolled in thin 

cilia (sil'i-a), the hair of the 
eyelids ; long minute hair-like ap- 
pendages on the margins of vege- 
table bodies ; the very minute vibra- 
tile filaments lining or covering 
certain organs. 

ciliated (sil'i-a-ted), adj. covered 
with cilia. 

Cimmerian, (kim- or sim-e'ri-an), 
adj. pertaining to the Cimmerii, a 
fabulous people mentioned by Homer 
as living in perpetual darkness : 
hence intensely dark ; gloomy. 

cinch (sinch), n. a saddle girth firm- 

ly fastened in place by loop and 
knots ; a sure grip or hold. 
cinchona (sin-ko'na), n. a South 
American tree which yields quinine. 

cinchonism (sin'ko-niam), n. a con- 
dition of the system characterized 
by buzzing in the ears, deafness, 
&c., caused by the excessive use of 

cincture (singk'ttir), n. a belt or 
girdle worn round the waist ; a 
raised or carved ring at the bottom 
and top of a pillar. 

cinder (sin'der), n. any piece of a 
body thoroughly burnt but not re- 
duced to ashes : pi. volcanic scoriae ; 
^ slag. 

cinematograph ( sin-e-mat'o-graf ) , 
n. a French device similar to the 

cinerary (sin'e-ra-ri), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or containing, ashes : applied 
to sepulchral urns. 

cinnabar (sin'a-bar), n. red sulphide 
of mercury. 

cinnamon (sin'a-mun), n. the inner 
aromatic bark of an East Indian 
tree : adj. light-reddish brown. 

cinque (singk), n. a five. 

cinque-foil (-foil), n. a plant of the 
genus Potentilla ; five fingers ; an 
architectural ornamentation resem- 
bling five leaves. 

cipher (si'fer), n. the symbol 0: 
hence a person or anything without 
value or power ; a monogram ; a 
secret manner of writing, or the key 
to it ; a code : v.i. to practice arith- 
metic ; to sound independently of the 
player : v.t. to express in cipher. 

circle (ser'kl), n. a round body; a 
plane figure bounded by a single 
curved line called its circumference, 
every part of which is equally dis- 
tant from a point within it, called 
the center ; an orb ; an enclosure ; a 
sphere or position in society ; a 
number of persons or things united 
by a common bond ; a coterie ; an 
administrative division of a coun- 
try ; an inconclusive form of argu- 
ment : v.t. to encompass : v.i. move 
in a circle ; to revolve. 

circlet (serk'let), n. a small circle. 

circuit (ser'ket), n. the act of going 
round anything ; the space enclosed 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



, in a circle ; the journey of a judge 
from one place to another to hold 
assizes ; a district assigned to an 
itinerant preacher ; the arrange- 
ment by which an electrical current 
is kept up between the two poles of 
a battery or machine ; the path of 
the electric current. 

circuitous (ser-kti'i-tus), adj. round- 

circular (ser'kti-lar), adj. round like 
a circle ; ending in itself ; intended 
for circulation : n. a printed or 
written letter or notice. 

circularize (ser'ku-lar-iz), v.t. to 
make circular ; send circulars to. 

circulate (ser'ku-lat), v.t. to cause 
to pass from point to point or from 
one person to another : vA. move 
round and return to the same point ; 
pass from hand to hand ; be diffused 
or distributed ; travel. 

circulation (ser-ku-la'shun), n. the 
act of moving round ; passing or 
transmitting from place to place ; 
the extent to which a thing is cir- 
culated ; currencv of money. 

circulator ( ser'ku-la-ter ) , n. a cir- 
culating decimal. 

circulatory (ser'kti-la-to-ri), adj. 

eircum (ser'kum), a prefix = 
around, forming compounds the 
meaning of many of which is ob- 
vious, as ctrcwmpolar, around the 
pole, &c. 

circumamljient (ser - kum - am'bi- 
ent), adj. inclosing, or being sur- 
rounded, on all sides. 

circumcise (ser'kum-siz), v.t. to cut 
off the foreskin or prepuce ; purify 
the heart. 

circumcisioB, (ser'kum-sizh-un), n. 
the act of circumcising ; spiritual 

circumference (ser-kum'fer-ens), n. 
the line that bounds a circle ; a pe- 

circumferential ( ser-kum-f er-en'- 
shal ) , adj. pertaining to the circum- 

circumferentially (-li), adj. in a 
circumferential manner. 

circumflect (ser-kum-flekt'), v.t. to 
bend around. 

circumflection, n. Same as circum- 

circumflex (ser'kum-fleks) , n. a mark 
C^ ^ '^) Qygj, g^ vowel or syllable 
to denote accent or contraction : 
adj. marked with such an accent ; 
curved or winding : v.t. to pro- 
nounce or mark with the circum- 

cir cumflexion ( ser-kum-flek'shun ) , 
n. the act of marking with a cir- 

circumfuse ( ser-kum-fuz' ) , v.t. to 
pour or spread around. 

circumjacent (ser-kum-ja'sent) ,a(f/. 
lying around ; bordering on every 

circumlocution ( ser - kum - lo-ku'- 
shun), n. a roundabout way of 
speaking ; an indirect mode of state- 

circumlocutionary (-a-ri), adj. 

circumlocutory ( ser-kum-lok'u-to- 
ri ) , adj. expressing few words in 

cir cumnavigable ( ser-kum-nav'i- 
ga-bl), adj. capable of being circum- 

circumnavigate (ser - kum - nav'i- 
gat), v.t. to sail round: usually the 

circumnavigator ( ser-kum-nav'i- 
ga-ter), n. one who circumnavigates. 

circumscribe (ser-kum-skrib'), v.t. 
to inclose within certain lines or 
boundaries ; restrict. 

circumscriptive (-skrip'tiv), adj, 

circumspect (ser'kum-spekt), adj. 
cautious ; prudent ; watchful on all 

circumspection (ser - kum - spek'- 
shun), n. caution; watchfulness on 
every side ; prudence. 

circumstance (ser'kum-stans), n. 
something relative or appendent to 
a fact ; an incident : pi. state of af- 
fairs : v.t. to place in a particular 
situation [only in p.p.]. 

circumstantial ( ser-kum-stan'shal ) , 
n. something incidental and sub- 
ordinate to the main subject : pi. 
incidentals : adj. accidental ; de- 
tailed ; proving indirectly. 

ate, arm, 

at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tlien. 




circumstantiality (-shi-al'i-ti), n. 
the state of being circumstantial ; 
fullness of detail. 

circumstantially (-li), adv. in- 
cidentally ; not essentially ; minute- 
ly ; exactly. 

circumstantiate ( ser-kum-stan'shi- 
at), v.t, to verify in every particu- 

circumvallation (ser-kum-val-a'- 
shun), n. the act of throwing up 
walls or fortifications. 

circumvent (ser-kum-vent'), n. to 
gain an advantage over by strata- 
gem or deception. 

circumvention (-ven'shun), n. the 
act of circumventing; a stratagem. 

circumventive ('tiv), adj. deceiv- 
ing by artifice. 

circumvolution ( ser - kum - vo-lii'- 
shun), n. the act of rolling round; 
^the state of being rolled round. 

circus (ser'kus), n. [pi. circuses 

(-ez)], a large level oblong space 

for £eats of horsemanship, &c., with 

seats for the spectators arranged 

^ in tiers ; a semi-circular space. 

cisalpine (sis-al'pin), adj. this side 
of the Alps with regard to Rome ; 
south of the Alps. 

cisatlantic (sis-at-lan'tik), adj. on 
this side of the Atlantic Ocean. 

cistern (sis'tern), n. a natural or ar- 
tificial receptacle for storing water ; 
a reservoir. 

citadel (sit'a-del), n. a fortress; a 
being cited. 

citadel (sit'a-del), n. a fortress, a 

citation (sl-ta'shun), n. an official 
summons to appear before a court, 
especially an ecclesiastical court ; a 

citatory ( si'ta-to-ri ) , adj. having the 
^ form or nature of a citation ; citing. 

cite (sit), v.t. to summon officially to 
appear in court ; quote. 

cithara (sith'a-ra), n. an ancient 

citizen (sit'i-zen), n. a native or in- 
habitant of a town or city ; a free- 
man ; a member of a state or na- 
tion who enjoys political rights and 
privileges ; a tradesman. 

citrate (sit'rat), n. a salt of citric 

citric acid (sit'rik as'id), n. an acid 
found in the lemon and orange. 

citron (sit'run), n. a tree with a 
fruit like the lemon. 

city (sit'i), n. [pi. cities ('iz)], a 
large and important town ; a corpo- 
rate town. 

civet (siv'et), n. a musky secretiori 
of the- anal glands of the civet cat. 

civic (siv'ik), adj. pertaining to a 

civil (siv'il), adj. relating to the af- 
fairs of a city or government ; in- 
testine ; non-international ; not mili- 
tary or criminal ; complaisant ; well- 

civil service (ser'vis), n. the paid 
service of the State not exclusively 
naval or military. 

civil \ffSLV (wawr), n. war between 
two factions of the same country. 

civilian (si-vil'yan), n. one engaged 
in the pursuits of civil life : adj, oc- 
cupied in civil pursuits. 

civility (si-vil'i-ti), n. [pi. civilities 
(-tiz)], good breeding; courtesy. 

civilization (siv-i-li-za'shun), n, 
the act or state of being civilized; 
culture ; refinement. 

civilize (siv'i-llz), v.t. to reclaim 
from a savage state ; instruct in the 
arts and refinements of civilized 

civilly ( siv'il-li ) , adv. in a civil man- 

clack (klak), v.i. to make a sudden, 
sharp sound ; chatter rapidly and 
continuously : n. a sudden, sharp 
sound ; continual prattle ; a variety 
of ball-valve ; a mechanical contri- 
vance in a corn-mill. 

clad, p.t. of clothe. 

claim (klam), v.t. to demand as a 
right, or by authority : v.i. to be 
entitled to anything ; assert or put 
forward a claim : w. a demand ; a 
right or title to anything ; the thing 
claimed ; a piece of land which a 
miner marks out in accordance with 
mining law. 

claimant (kla'mant), n. one who 
demands anything as his right. 

clairaudience (klar-aw'di-ens) , n. 
the supposed power of hearing in a 
trance sounds otherwise inaudible. 

clairvoyance (klar-voi'ans), n. the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




power attributed to persons in a 
mesmeric state of seeing objects not 
usually perceptible. 

clairvoyant ('ant), adj. pertaining 
to, or characterized by, clairvoy- 
ance : n. one who professes to have 
the power of clairvoyance : fcm. 

dam. (klam), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. clam- 
med, clamming], to clog with 
any glutinous matter : v.i. 'to be 
moist and cold. 

clam (klam), n. an edible bivalve 

clam-bake (-bak), n. clams baked 
with sea-weed ; a picnic at which 
baked clams form the chief dish. 

clamber (klam'ber), v.t. to ascend 
or climb with difficulty. 

clamLmiily (-li), adv. in a clammy 

clamminess (klam'i-nes), n. the 
state of being clammy. 

clammy (klam'i), adj. soft and 

clamor (klam'er), n. a loud and con- 
tinued noise ; popular outcry : v.t. 
shout with a loud voice : v.i. make 
importunate demands. 

clamorous (klam'er-us), adj. vocif- 

clamp (klamp), n. anything that 
fastens or binds ; a piece of wood, 
metal, &c., used to bring two things 
together : v.t. to fasten or bind with 

clan (klan), n. sl tribe or association 
of families united under one chief- 
tain, having one common ancestor, 
and the same surname. 

clandestine (-des'tin), adj. secret; 

clandestinely (-li), adv. in a secret 

clang (klang), n. a loud, sharp, ring- 
ing metallic sound : v.t. to cause to 
resound with a clang : v.i. give out a 

clangor ('ger), n. a sharp clang. 

clank (klangk), n. a sharp, hard 
, metallic sound : v.t. & v.i. to rattle 
and sound, as chains. 

clannish (klan'ish), adj. pertaining 
to a clan ; closely adherent. 

clap (klap), v.t. & v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 
clapped, clapping], to strike 

one thing against another with a 
quick, sharp noise ; indicate approv- 
al by striking the hands together ; 
put on quickly : n. a loud noise 
made by a sudden collision ; applause 
expressed by clapping ; a sudden act 
or movement. 

clapboard (klab'ord), n. a thin, 
narrow board, used for the covering 
of the sides of frame houses. 

clapper ('er), n. one who, or that 
which, claps ; the tongue of a bell ; 
the clack of a mill-hopper. 

claque (klak), n. an organized body 
of men who applaud or express dis- 
approval at theaters : hence inter- 
ested admirers. 

claquer (kla-ker'), n. a member of a 

claret (klar'et), n. a light bodied 
wine of a dark-red color ; blood : adj. 

clarification (klar-i-fi-ka'shun), n. 
the act of clarifying. 

clarify (klar'i-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
clarified, clarifying], to make 
clear from impurities : v.i. to be- 
come bright. 

clarinet (klar'i-net), n. a keyed reed 
instrument of the oboe class. Also 

clarion (klar'ri-un), n. a kind of 

clask (klash), v.i. to make a loud 
harsh noise by mutual collision : v.t. 
to strike violently together : n. the 
noise so produced. 

clasp (klasp), v.t. to shut or fasten 
together with, or as with, a clasp : 
n. a hook to hold anything close ; a 
close embrace. 

clasper ('er), n. one who, or that 
which, clasps; a tendril. 

class (clas), n. a rank or order of 
persons or things ; a number of 
students of the same status ; a group 
of animals or plants next in rank 
above an order : v.t. to classify. 

class meeting (met'ing), n. a class, 
under a class-leader, for religious 

classic (klas'ik), adj. of, or relating 
to, the highest class or rank in lit- 
erature or art ; pertaining to, or 
having the characteristics of, the 
Greek or Roman authors ; relating 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




to localities associated with great 
authors or events ; pure ; refined ; 
clear-cut. Also classical : n. an 
author of the first rank whose 
works serve as a standard ; one 
versed in Greek and Latin litera- 
ture : pi. ancient Greek and Latin 

classically (-al-li), adv. in the style 
or manner of a classic. 

classification (klas-i-fi-ka'shun), n. 
the art of forming or dividing into 

classificatory (klas'i - fi-ka-to-ri) , 
adj. relating to, or forming the basis 
of, classification. 

classifier (klas'i-fi-er), n. one who 

classify (klas'i-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
classified; classifying], to ar- 
range in classes ; systematize. 

classman (klas'man), n. [pi. class- 
men ('men)], a student who has 
gained honors at an examination : 
opposed to passman. 

clatter (klat'er), v.i. to make a noise 
by knocking two sonorous bodies 
frequently together ; talk idly and 
noisily : v.t. to strike anything to 
make a clatter : n. a continuous or 
confused noise ; idle gossip. 

clause (klawz), n. a separate part of 
a written composition, or a sentence ; 
a special proviso in a document. 

claustral (klaws'tral), adj. pertain- 
ing to a cloister. 

clavate (kla'vat), adj. club-shaped. 

clavichord (klav'i-k6rd), n. a medi- 
aeval stringed instrument. Also clari- 

clavicle (klav'i-kal), n. the collar- 

clavier (kla-ver'), n. the key-board 
of an organ, pianoforte, or harmo- 

claw (klaw), n. a sharp hooked nail 
in the foot of an animal, as the cat ; 
the whole foot of a bird ; anything 
resembling a claw ; the narrow part 
at the base of a leaf or foot-stalk of 
a petal : v.t. to tear or scratch with, 
or as if with, claws. 

clay (kla), n. anything easily mold- 
ed ; soft plastic earth ; the bodily or 
earthly nature of man : adj. made of 

or like clay : v.t. to purify, cover, or 
manure with clay. 

claymore (kla'mor), n. a Highland 

clean (klen), adj. free from dirt oi^ 
extraneous matter ; morally or cere- 
monially pure : adv. in a clean man- 
ner ; entirely ; cleverly ; v.t. to ren- 
der clean. 

clean-cut (-kut), adj. clear-cut; 

cleanlily (klen'li-li), adv. in a clean- 
ly manner ; adroitly. 

cleanliness (-nes), n. the state of 
being clean. 

cleanly (klen'li), adj. neat; pure: 
adv. wholly clean. 

cleanness (klen'nes), n. moral or 
physical purity ; neatness. 

cleanse (klenz), v.t. to make clean; 
purify from moral impurity or guilt. 

clear (kler), adj. bright; pure; un- 
dimmed ; translucent ; manifest to= 
the understanding ; unobstructed ; 
audible; unadulterated: v.t. to make 
bright ; render evident ; free from 
obstructions ; render more acute or 
quick ; prove or declare innocent ; 
free from legal detention, as im- 
ported goods : v.i. leave a port ; ex- 
change ch;eques, bills, &c., at a bank» 

clear-cut (kut), adj. having a sharp, 
clearly-defined outline, as if chisejed. 

clearance (kler'ans), n. the act of 

clearing (kler'ing), n. the act of 
making clear ; land cleared of tim- 

clearstarch (kler'starch), v.t. to- 
stiffen or dress with starch. 

cleat (klet), n. a thin piece of iron 
worn on boots to make them more 
durable ; a piece of wood or iron on 
the yard-arm of a ship to keep the 
ropes from slipping ; a strip of wood 
nailed across a board : v.t. to secure 
or strengthen with a cleat. 

cleavable (kle-va-bl), adj. divisible. 

cleavage (kle'vaj), n. the act of 
splitting ; the property of some min- 
erals and rocks of being broken in 
one or more directions. 

cleave (klev), v.i. [p.t. clave, cleaved, 
p.p. cleaved, cleaving], to ad- 
here to ; be attached strongly to. 

ate, arm, 

at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




cleave (klev), v.t, [p.t, cleft, clove, 
p.p. cleft, cloven, cleaved, 
cleaving], to divide with violence; 
part naturally. 

cleaver (kle'ver), n. a butcher's 
heavy hatchet for dividing carcasses. 

cleavers (kle'verz), n. goose-grass. 

clef (kief), n. s. figure at the begin- 
ning of each staff in music to indi- 
cate the pitch of all the notes on 
one particular line or space. 

cleft, p.t. & p.p. of cleave, to split. 

cleft (kleft), n. a crack; crevice. 

clematis (klem'a-tis), n. a perennial 
plant of the crowfoot family. 

clemency (klem'en-si), n. [pi. clem- 
encies (-siz)], compassion; remis- 

clement (klem'ent), adj. compassion- 
ate ; forgiving ; gentle ; forbearing. 

clergy (kler'ji), n. a body of men set 
apart by ordination for the service 
of the Church. 

clergyman (-man), n. [pi. clergy- 
men (-men)], a minister. 

clerical (kler'i-kal), adj. pertaining 
to the clergy ; pertaining to a clerk, 
^ ,, . writer, or copyist. 
■^-■^r- clerical-error (er'er), n. an error 
in copying. 

clerk (klerk), n. a parish clerk; a 
scholar ; one engaged in an office to 
conduct correspondence, keep books, 
or transact business generally ; an 
assistant salesman in a store or 
shop : v.i. to act as clerk or sales- 

clever (klev'er), adj. possessing skill 
or ability ; dexterous ; expert ; good 
naturedand obliging. 

clew (kloo), 11. a ball of thread; one 
of the corners of a sail : v.t. to truss 
up (sails) to the yard of a ship. 

click (klik), v.i. to make a short 
sharp successive noise : v.t. to move 
with a clicking sound : n. a slight 
sharp sound ; a catch for retaining 
a bolt. 

client (kli'ent), n. one who employs 
a lawyer ; one dependent upon an- 
other's patronage. 

clientage ( kli'en-ti j ) , n. the condi- 
tion of being a client; clients col- 

cliff (klif ) , n. high steep rock or bank. 

climacteric ( kli-mak'ter-ik ) , n. one 

of the critical periods in human life 
when some great change is supposed 
to take place in the constitution. 

climate (kll'mat), n. the temperature 
and meteorological conditions of a 
country, &c. 

climatic (kli-mat'ik), adj. relating 
to, or connected with, climate. 

climatize (kli'ma-tiz), v.t. to accus- 
tom to a new climate. 

climatography (kli-ma-tog'ra-fi), n. 
a description of climates. 

climatology (-tol'o-ji), n. meteor- 

climatometer (kli-ma-tom'e-ter), n. 
an instrument for recording varia- 
tions of temperature in any given 

climax (kll'maks), n. the summit; 

climb (klim), v.i. to mount or as- 
cend, as by the hands and feet : v.t. 
ascend laboriously : n. an ascent by 

clime (klim), n. a country, region, or 

clinch (klinch), v.t. to rivet; fix 
firmly by folding over ; double up 
tightly, as the fingers ; to hold fast : 
n. anything that holds both ways ; a 
mode of fastening large ropes. 

cling (kling), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. clung, clinging], to adhere closely; 
hold fast by embracing or entwin- 

clinic (klin'ik), n. a medical lecture 
at the bedside or in the presence of 

clinical (klin'ik-al), adj. pertaining 
to a clinic. 

clinically (-li), adv. in a clinical 

clink (klingk), v.t. to strike so as to 
make a slight sharp sound : v.i: to 
make a clinking noise : n. a slight 
sharp successive vibrating noise. 

cli-nker ('er), n. a mass of partly 
vitrified brick ; slag. 

clip (klip), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. clipped, 
dipt: clipping], to cut with 
shears or scissors ; cut off ; former- 
ly to debase coin by cutting off the 
edges : v.i. mOve quickly : n. the wool 
of a season's shearing ; a spring 
holder for holding papers; a slight 
blow with the hand. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, ndrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




clipper (/er), one who, or that 
which, clips ; an instrument for cut- 
ting the hair of horses ; a sailing 
vessel with very sharp lines and 
great sprsr>d of canvas ; a person or 
animal that runs swiftly ; a first- 
rate person or thing. 

clique (klek), n. a group of persons 
united for some common purpose 
(usually sinister) ; a coterie; a ring. 

cloak (klok), n. sl sleeveless, loose 
outer garment worn by both sexes : 
hence, a pretext ; disguise : v.t. to 
cover with, or as with, a cloak ; 
cover up or conceal. 

clock (klok), n. a machine for meas- 
uring and indicating the divisions of 
time by means of hands moving over 
a dial-plate. 

clock (klok),w. a woven or embroid- 
ered ornament upon a stocking. 

clockwise ('wiz), adv. in the direc- 
tion of the rotation of the hands of 
a clock. 

clod (klod), n. a lump of earth, turf, 
or clay ; a bait used in eel-fishing ; 
the shoulder part of the neck-piece 
in beef. 

clog (klog), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. clogged: clogging], to load with any- 
thing that may impede motion ; em- 
barrass : v.i. to stick or cluster to- 
gether : n. a load or weight ; a hin- 
drance ; a kind of wooden shoe. 

clogginess ('i-nes), n. the state of 
being clogged. 

cloggy (klog'i), adj. clogging; ad- 

cloister (klois'ter), n. a place of re- 
ligious retirement ; a monastery or 
nunnery : pi. an arched way or cov- 
ered walk running round an ecclesi- 
astical building or college : v.t. to 
confine in, or as in, a cloister or 
convent ; seclude from the world. 

cloistral (klois'tral), adj. pertaining 
to, or confined in, a cloister ; se- 

close (kloz), v.t. to shut; surround 
closely ; unite together ; consolidate ; 
end : v.i. to come together ; shut in ; 
coalesce ; engage in hand-to-hand 
conflict ; grapple : n. an inclosed 
space ; the precincts of a cathedral 
or abbey; an alley: adj. (klos) hav- 
ing no outlet ; confined ; without ven- 

tilation ; oppressive ; minute ; con- 
cise ; reticent ; niggardly : adv. near. 

close corporation (klos kor-po-ra'- 
shun), n. a corporation in which 
vacancies are filled by its members. 

close-hauled (-hawld), adj. kept as 
near to the wind as possible. 

close port (port), n. a river port. 

close-reef (-ref), n. the last reef in 
a sail. 

close season (se'zun), n. certain 
months in the year in which it is il- 
legal to kill game, protected wild 
birds, fish, &c. 

closet (kloz'et), n. a small room for 
privacy or retirement ; a place for 
storing valuable things or household 
requisites : adj. private ; secluded : 
v.t. to receive in a private room for 
confidential consultation. 

closure (klo'zhtir), n. the act of shut- 
ting up ; that which closes ; the end ; 
the closing of a debate by the vote 
of the majority (the cloture) : v.t. 
to end (a debate) by closure. 

clot (klot), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. clotted, clotting], to coagulate: v.t. to 
make, form into, or cover with, 
clots : n. a concrete or coagTilate 
mass of soft or fluid matter. 

cloth (kl6th).w, [p?. cloths (klo^/iz)], 
a woven fabric of some fibrous ma- 
terial, especially wool ; a table cover- 
ing ; the distinctive dress of any 
profession, especially the clerical. 

clothe (kloth), v.t. to put raiment 
on ; cover with, or as with, a gar- 

clothes (klo^Tiz), covering for 
the body ; dress ; bedclothes. 

clothier (kloth'jer) , n. one who 
manufactures or sells clothes. 

clothing (klo^/i'ing), n. garments in 

cloture. See closure. 

cloud (kloud), n. a mass of visible 
vapor floating in the atmosphere ; a 
volume of smoke or dust ; the dark 
markings in marble or precious, 
stones ; a diffused body of anything ; 
a multitude ; a light woolen shawl : 
v.t. to overspread with, or as with, 
a cloud ; render gloomy ; blacken or 
sully : v.i. to grow cloudy. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



cloud-burst ('berst), n. a violent 
downpour of rain over a very lim- 
ited area. 

clougb. (kluf), n. a ravine in a rock 
or hillside ; a gorge ; a kind of 

•clout (klout), n. a piece of cloth or 
leather for patching ; a cloth for any 
mean use ; the center mark of an 
archery target ; an arrow that has 
hit the center ; a blow on the head 
with the hand : v.t. to patch or mend 
coarsely ; strike with the hand. 

clove, p.t.ot cleave. 

clove (klov), n. a pungent aromatic 

cloven (klo'ven), p.adj. divided into 
twc parts 

clover (klo'ver), n. a species of grass. 

cIotth (Moun), n. a rustic; an ill- 
bred fellow ; a professional jester or 

clownish, ('ish), adj. like a clown. 

cloy (kloi)j v.t. \_p.t. & p.p. cloyed, cloying], to fill to repletion; 

club ( klub ), n. Si heavy stick ; one of 
the suits of cards marked with tre- 
foils ; a number of persons associ- 
ated for a common purpose or mu- 
tual benefit ; a joint expense : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. clubbed, clubbing], 
to beat with a club ; unite in a solid 
mass : v.i. contribute to a common 

clubbable ('a-bl), adj. having the 
qualities which fit a man to associ- 
ate in a club. 

club-foot ('foot), n. a deformed 

club-haul ('hawl), v.t. to tack (a 
ship) by dropping the lee anchor as 
soon as the wind is out of the sails, 
bringing the ship's head to the wind. 

club-moss Cmos) , n. the lycopodium. 

cluck (kluk), v.i. to cry or call like 
a hen to her chickens : n. a hen's 
call ; the peculiar click uttered by 
some South African tribes. 

clue (kloo), n. a hint; a clew. 

dumber (klum'ber) , n. a field spaniel. 

clump (klump), n. a cluster of trees, 
&c. ; a thick sole : pi. a social game : 
v.t. arrange in a clump : v.i. tread 

clumsily (klum'zi-li), adv. awkward- 
ly ; heavily. 

clumsy (klum'zi), adj. awkward; 

clung, p.f. of cling. 

cluster (klus'ter), n. a number of 
things of the same kind growing or 
collected together ; a bunch : v.i. to 
grow or gather into bunches ; con- 

clutch (kluch), v.t. to grasp, seize, or 
grip strongly : v.i. to snatch or seize 
[with at} : n. sl grasp ; seizure : pi. 
hands ; claws. 

clyster (klis'ter), n. a liquid injected 
into the lower intestines by a syr- 
inge ; an enema. 

CO- (ko), a prefix, meaning with, to- 
gether, entering into the composi- 
tion of many words, the sense of 
which is generally self-evident, as 
co-trustee, a joint trustee. 

coach (koch), n. a large covered four- 
wheeled public or private carriage ; 
a tutor who especially prepares an- 
other for an examination or an ath- 
letic contest : v.t. to instruct or 
train for an examination, &c. 

coagulant (ko-ag'ti-lant), n. a sub- 
stance that produces coagulation. 

coagulate (ko-ag'ti-lat), v.t. to clot 
or curdle. 

coagulation (-u-la'shun), n. the act 
of coagulating ; the state of being 

coagulative (-tiv), adj. causing co- 

coagulator (-ter), n. that which 
causes coagulation. 

coagulum ('u-lum), n. [pi. coagula 
(-la)], a clot of lalood; a curdled 

coal (kol), n. mineralized vegetable 
matter, used in its hardened form 
as fuel : v.t. to furnish with coals : 
v.i. take in coal. 

coal-oil ('oil), n. petroleum. 

coal-tar ('tar), n. a thick opaque 
liquid distilled from bituminous coal, 
and from which many rich dye col- 
ors are obtained. 

coalesce (ko-a-les'), v.t. to grow to- 
gether ; combine ; unite. 

coalescence ('ens), n. the act of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


coalescent ('ent), adj. growing to- 

coalition, (ko-a-lish'un), n. union in 
a body or mass ; a combination of 

coamings (kom'ings), w.???. the raised 
wood or iron borders of the hatches 
of a vessel. 

coaptation (ko-ap-ta'shun), n. the 
adjustment or adaptation of parts to 
one another. 

coarse (kors), adj. large in texture 
or size ; not refined ; rough ; rude ; 

coarse-grained ('grand), adj. hav- 
ing a coarse grain ; ill-tempered. 

coarsely (kors'li), adv. in a coarse 

coarseness ('nes), n. the quality of 
being coarse. 

coast (kost), n. the margin of the 
land next the sea ; a frontier ; a 
slide in a sledge down an incline : 
v.i. to sail near or along the coast ; 
descend an incline in a sledge, or on 
a bicycle without working the ped- 
als : v.t. to sail close or near to. 

coaster ('er), n. a home-trading ves- 
sel ; one who coasts on a sled. 

coastguard ('gard), n. a member of 
the service for watching the sea, 
originally to check smuggling. 

coasting-trade ('ing-trad), the 
trade carried on from port to port 
of the same country. 

coastwise ('wiz), adv. by, or along, 
the coast. 

coat (kot), n. an outer garment cov- 
ering the upper part of the body ; an 
external covering, as fur, &c. ; a 
thin layer ; an integument : v.t. to 
cover or spread over. 

coat-car d_ (-kard), n. a court-card. 

coatee (ko-te'), n. a close-fitting coat 
with short tails. 

coat of arms (of armz), n. the em- 
blazonment of armorial bearings on 
an escutcheon. 

coat of mail (mal), n. chain-mail. 

coax (koks), v.t. to wheedle; cajole. 

coaxial (ko-ak'si-al), adj. having a 
common axis. 

cob (kob), n. a roundish piece of any- 
thing ; the spike of Indian corn ; a 
strong thickset pony ; a young her- 
ring ; a spider ; a pellet for feeding 

fowls ; the bull-head or miller's 
thumb ; a sea-gull ; a kind of wicker 
basket ; a kind of breakwater : v.t, 
[p.t. & p.p. cobbed, cobbing], 
to punish with a strap ; break (ore). 

cobalt (ko'bawlt), n. a steel-grey 

cobble (kob'l), n. a pebble; a round 
medium-sized stone ; clumsy work : 
v.t. to mend or patch up coarsely : 
v.i. work clumsily. 

cobbler ('ler), n. one who mends 
boots and shoes ; a clumsy work- 
man ; a cooling summer drink of ice, 
wine, &c. 

cobra-de-capello ( ko'bra-de-ka-pel'- 
o), n. a large and most venomous 
hooded snake. 

cobweb (kob'web), n. a spider's web : 
hence, a net or snare ; old musty 
rubbish : adj. made of, or like, a 
cobweb ; flimsy. 

coca (ko'ka), n. the dried leaf of a 
small South American shrub : a pow- 
erful tonic. 

cocaine (-in), n. a powerful alkaloid 
extracted from coca leaves. 

cocainism (-izm), n. the morbid hab- 
it of using cocaine to excess. 

cocainize (-iz), v.t. to subject to, or 
render insensible by cocaine. 

cocculus indicus (kok'ii-lus in-di'- 
kus), n. an East Indian climbing 
shrub possessing acrid narcotic 

cochineal (koch'i-nel), n. a scarlet 
dye obtained from the dried body 
of an insect. 

cochlea (kok'le-a), n. [pi. cochleae 
(-e)], the spiral-shaped cavity of 
the inner ear. 

cochleate (kok'le-at), ad!/, screw-like. 

cock (kok), n. the male of birds, es- 
pecially the domestic fowl ; the male 
of certain animals other than birds ; 
a vane in the shape of a cock ; a 
leader or chief ; a turn-valve for reg- 
ulating the flow of a liquid or gas ; 
a small conical heap of hay. 

cock (kok), v.t. to turn up or set (the 
hat or head) jauntily on one side; 
erect : n. the action of the verb to 

cock-eyed ('id), adj. having squint- 
ing eyes. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



cockade (-ad'), n. a badge or ribbon 
worn on the hat. 

cockatoo (-a-too'), n. a crested bird 
of the parrot family. 

cockatrice ('a-tris, or-tris), n. a fab- 
ulous serpent said to have been 
hatched in a cock's egg, and possess- 
ing the power of killing by a glance 
of its eye. 

cockboat ('bot), n. a small boat. 

cockchafer ('cha-fer), n. the May- 

cocker oxtr ('kro), n. early morning. 

cockee (-e'), n. the spot where a curl- 
ing player stands to hurl. 

cockerel ('er-el), n. a young cock. 

cockle ('1), v.t. to contract into 

eockle ( '1 ) , w. an edible shell-fish with 
two heart-shaped wrinkled shells; 
the plant corncockle or darnel ; a 
kiln for drying hops ; a stove for 
drying biscuit-ware. 

cockney (kok'ni), n. a Londoner: 
traditionally one born within sound 
of the bells of Bow Church, Cheap- 

cockney dom (-dum), n. London and 
its suburbs. 

cockpit (kok'pit), n. an enclosed 
space for cockfighting. 

cockroach ('roch), n. a black beetle. 

cocoa (ko'ko), n. a palm which pro- 
duces the cocoanut. Also coco. 

cocoa (ko'ko), n. the ground seeds of 
the cacao or chocolate tree ; the bev- 
erage made from it. 

cocoanut (-nut), n. the fruit of the 
cocoa palm. __ 

2ocoon (ko-koon'), n. the silky ob- 
long case covering the larvae of 
many spinning insects while in the 
chrysalis state. 

cocoonery ('er-i) , n. a building where 
silk-worms are fed when forming 

cocotte (ko-kof), n. a Parisian cour- 

cod (kod), n. the husk or pod of a 
seed ; the scrotum ; the narrow part 
of a trawl-net. 

cod (kod), n. a large edible fish found 
in the northern seas, and especially 
on the banks of Newfoundland, 

coddle (kod'l), v.t. to make effemi- 
nate by pampering; treat tenderly; 

to stew gently : n. an over-indulged 
pampered person. 

code (kod), n. a body of classified 
laws or regulations ; a system of 

codeine (ko-de'in), n, an active me- 
dicinal principle extracted from the 
poppy. ■ 

cod.ex (ko'deks), n. [pi. codices ('di- 
sez ) ] , a volume of statutes ; a man- 
uscript volume, especially of the sa- 
cred Scriptures. 

codger (koj'er), n. a miser; an old 

codicil (kod'i-sil), n. an appendix to 
a will. 

codify (ko'di- or kod'i-fi), v.t. [p.t. 
& p.p. codified, codifying], to 
reduce to a code or digest. 

codling (kod'ling), n. a young cod; 
a kind of stewing apple. 

coeffcient (ko-e-fish'ent), adj. coop- 
erating: n. that which cooperates 
with another; a number or known 
quantity prefixed in algebra as a 
multiplier to a variable or an un- 
known quantity. 

coerce (ko-ers'), v.t. to restrain or 
constrain by force, especially legal- 
ly or morally ; compel. 

coercible ('i-bl), adj. able to be co- 

coercion ('shun), n. the act of coerc- 

coercive ('siv), adj. having power to 

coeval (ko-e'val), adj. contempora- 

coextensive (ko-eks-ten'siv), adj. 
equally extensive. 

coffee (kof'e), n. the seeds of a plant 
which, roasted and ground, form the 
well-known beverage. 

coffer (kof'er), n. a chest; a kind of 
caisson or floating dock ; a sunken 
panel : pi. a treasury : v.t. to inclose 
in a coffer. 

coffin ('in), n. a case for the dead; 
the hollow part of a horse's hoof : 
v.t. inclose in a cofiin. 

cog (kog), n. the tooth of a wheel; a 
trick : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cogged, 
cogging], to furnish with cogs; 
weedle ; to load (dice) in order to 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, n5rth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



cogitate (koj'i-tat), t.L to meditate: 
v.t. to devise or plan. 

cogitation (-ta'shun), n. the act of 

cogitative (-ta-tiv), adj. meditative. 

cognac (ko'nyak), n. a French 

cognate (kog'nat), adj. allied by 
blood ; of the same stock, nature, or 

cognition (kog-nish'un), n. knowl- 

cognitive (kog'ni-tiv), adj. having 
power of mental apprehension. 

cognizable ( kon'iz-a-bl ) , adj. that 
may be known. 

cognizance (kon'i-zans), n. judicial 
knowledge or notice ; perception. 

cognizant (kon'i-zant), adj. having 
knowledge of anything. 

cognomen (kog-no'men), n. a sur- 

cohabit (ko-hab'it), v.i. to dwell to- 
gether as husband and wife. 

cohere (ko-her'), v.i. to stick to- 

coherence ('ens), n. the state or 
quality of cohering. Also coher- 

coherent ('ent), adj. cohering togeth- 
er ; consistent ; logical. 

coherer (ko-her'er), n. a device for 
detecting electro-magnetic waves, 
used in wireless telegraphy. 

cohesion (ko-he'zhun), n. the force 
that unites together molecules of the 
same material ; coherence. 

cohesive ('siv), n. causing to cohere. 

cohort (ko'hSrt), n. a body of an- 
cient Roman soldiers, the tenth part 
of a legion. 

coiffeur (koi'fer), n. a hairdresser. 

coiffure (koif'iir, French kwo-fer'), 
n. a head dress ; manner of arrang- 
ing the'hair. 

coil (koil), n. a rope gathered into a 
ring ; anything resembling it : v.t. to 
gather or wind into a circular heap : 
v.i. to wind. 

coin (koin), n. woney stamped with 
a legal impression ; a corner or 
angle : v.t. to convert into money ; 

coinage ('aj), n. the process of coin- 
ing ; the thing coined ; invention. 

coincide (ko-in-sid'), v.i. correspond 

exactly; occur at the same time^ 
fall upon, or meet, in the same point. 

coincidence (ko-in'si-dens), n. the 
act of coinciding. 

coincident (ko-in'si-dent), adj. coin- 

coiner (koin'er), n. one who stamps 
coins, especially one who makes 
counterfeit money. 

coir (koir), n. the prepared fiber of 
the husks of cocoanuts. 

coition (ko-ish'un), n. copulation; 
conjunction : said of the moon. 

coke (kok), the residue of coal after 
the gas, &c., has been expelled : v.t, 
to convert into coke. 

colander (kul'an-der), n. a vessel 
with a perforated bottom. 

cola-nut (ko'la-nut), n. the large 
bitter seed of an African tree. 

colchicum (kol'chi-kum), n. the 
meadow-saffron, the seeds and bulbs 
of which are used in medicine. 

cold (kold), adj. without heat or 
warmth ; frigid ; without passion or 
zeal ; indifferent ; insensible ; blue in. 
tone : n. the opposite of heat ; the 
sensation produced by the loss of 
heat ; a catarrh. 

cold-blooded (-blud'ed), adj. having 
the blood below 90° Fahr. in tem- 

coldish (kold'ish), adj. somewhat 

cole (kol), n. cabbage plants in gen- 

cole-slaw ('slaw), n. cabbage salad. 

Coleoptera ( kol-e-op-ter-a ) , an. 
order of insects having the wings 
covered with a sheath ; the beetles. 

colewort (kol'wert), n. young cab- 

colic (kol'ik), n. acute spasmodic 
pain in the abdomen or bowels : adj. 
pertaining to, or affecting, the bow- 

colicky (-1), adj. pertaining to colic. 

coliseum. See colosseum. 

collaborate (ko-lab'o-rat), v.i. to 
work jointly, especially in literary 
or scientific work. 

collaboration (-o-ra'shun) , n. unitedi 

collaborator (-lab'6-ra-ter), n. one 
who assists another, especially in lit- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; n'ote, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, *7ien. 




erary or scientific work : [more usu- 
ally collaborateur (-ter'),the French 
form of the word], 

collapse (kol-aps'), n. a falling in or 
together ; sudden and complete fail- 
ure ; general prostration of the vital 
powers : v.i. to fall in or together ; 
shrink up ; break down. 

'Collapsible (-ap'si-bl), adj. collaps- 

collar (kol'er), n. anything encircling 
the neck, worn for use, restraint, or 
ornament ; a round ring or flange : 
v.t. to seize by the collar ; put a col- 
lar on ; roll up. 

collarette (-et) , w. a fichu of lace, &c. 

collate (kol'at), v.t, compare crit- 
ically one thing with another of the 
same kind, as manuscripts or text of 
l)ooks ; place in an ecclesiastical 

collateral (kol-at'er-al), adj. side by 
side ; auxiliary ; concurrent ; de- 
scended from the same stock, but in 
a different line. 

collaterally (-li), adv. in a collat- 
eral manner. 

collation (kol-a'shun), n. compari- 
son ; a light repast ; the presentation 
to a benefice by a bishop, who is the 

collator ('ter), n. one who collates 
manuscripts or books ; the bishop 
who collates. 

•colleague (kol'eg), n. an associate in 
the same office, employment, or com- 

collect (kol'ekt), n. a short compre- 
hensive prayer. 

collect (kol-ekt'), v.t. gather togeth- 
er ; assemble ; demand and obtain 
payment of : v.i. to meet together ; 

collected (kol-ekt'ed), adj. self-pos- 

collection ('shun), n. the act of 
gathering together ; a mass ; a 
crowd ; an assemblage of works of 
art, natural objects, &c. ; a contribu- 
tion to a special object ; a private 
college examination. 

•collective (kol-ek'tiv), adj. accumu- 

collectivism (-izm), n. the socialis- 
tic theory that land and capital 

should be owned by society collec- 

collectivist (-ist), n. an advocate of 
collectivism : adj. pertaining to col- 

collector (kol-ek'ter), n. one who 

college (kol'ej), n. a society of men 
possessing certain powers and rights, 
and engaged in some common pur- 
suit, especially literary studies ; the 
house founded for such a society. 

collegian (kol-e'ji-an), n. a member 
of a college. _ 

collegiate (-at), adj. pertaining to, 
or containing, a college ; instituted 
like a college. 

collet (kol'et), n. the part of a ring 
in which the stone is set. 

collide (kol-id'), v.i. to come into col- 

collie (kol'i), n. a Scotch sheep-dog. 

collier (kol'yer), n. a digger of coal; 
a coal-digger ; a vessel in the coal 

colliery (-i), n. [pi. collieries (-iz)], 
a coal mine. 

collision (kol-izh'un), n. the act of 
striking two bodies violently togeth- 
er ; concussion. 

collocation (kol-o-ka'shun), n. the 
act of placing -^ arrangement. 

collodion ( kol-o'di-un ) , n. a prepara- 
tion of soluble gun-cotton with 

colloquial (kol-o'kwi-al), adj. used 
in ordinary conversation. 

colloquialism (-izm), n. a colloquial 
form of speech ; slang. 

colloquy ('o-kwi), n. [pi. colloquies 
(-kwiz)], a conversation; a dia- 

collusion (kol-u'zhun), n. a secret 
agreement for a fraudulent or evil 

collusive ('siv), adj. fraudulently 

collusory ('so-ri), adj. carrying on 
fraud by secret agreement. 

cologne -water (waw'ter), n. eau-de- 

colon (ko'lon), n. a mark of punctua- 
tion [ :] ; the largest of the intes- 

colonel (ker'nel), n. the chief officer 
of a resriment. 

■Me, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




colonelcy (-si), n. the rank of a 

colonial (ko-lo'ni-al), adj. pertaining 
to a colony. 

colonialism (-izm), n. the character- 
istics of colonial life ; a colonial 
habit or phrase. 

colonialize (-iz), v.t. to render colo- 
nial in character. 

colonist (kol'o-nist), n. an inhabitant 
of a colony, 

colonization (kol'o-ni-za'shun), n. 
the act of colonizing, or state of 
being colonized ; the temporary set- 
tlement of men in a voting district 
to qualify them as electors. 

colonize (kol'o-niz), v.t. to settle or 
establish a colony in. 

colonnade (kol-on-ad'), n. a series of 

colony (kol'o-ni), n. [pi. colonies 
(-niz)], a body of people from their 
native country who settle in another 
land, but are under the jurisdiction 
of, or connected with, the parent 
country ; the country thus settled ; 
a number of animals or plants liv- 
ing or growing together. 

color (kul'er), n. the hue or appear- 
ance that a body presents to the 
eye ; a pigment or paint ; complex- 
ion ; redness ; an apparent right or 
reason ; pretense ; false show : pi. a, 
military or naval flag : v.t. to im- 
part a color to ; tint ; dye ; give a 
specious appearance to ; make plaus- 

Colorado-beetle ( kol-o-ra'do-bet'l ) , 
n. a yellowish beetle, having its 
back marked with ten longitudinal 
black stripes : it is very destructive 
to potato crops. 

coloring (kul'er-ing), n. the act or 
art of giving a color to ; the color so 

colorist (-ist), n. an artist whose 
works are characterized by beauty 
of color. 

colossal (ko-los'al), adj. like a colos- 
sus ; gigantic. 

Colosseum (kol-o-se'um), n. the Fla- 
vian amphitheater at ancient Rome. 
Also coliseum, 

colossus (ko-los*us), n. [pi. colossi 
(-i)], a statue of gigantic size. 

colportage (kol'por-taj), n. the sys- 
tem of distributing Bibles, religious 
books, &c., by colporteurs. 

colporteur (-ter), n. one engaged in 

colt (kolt), n. a young male horse; a 
3"0ung foolish fellow ; one who plays 
cricket for the first time for his 
county ; a knotted rope's-end : v.t. 
punish with a rope's-end. 

coltish ('ish), adj. like a colt; 

colts-foot (-s'foot), 11. a medicinal 

Columbian (ko-lum'bi-an), n. a size 
of printing-type. (See type.) 

columbine (korum-bin), adj. per- 
taining to, or like, a dove or pigeon : 
n. a plant with flowers of five petals. 

column (kol'um), n. a round pillar 
to support or adorn a building ; any 
body of certain dimensions pressing 
vertically on its base ; a division of 
the page of a book, &c. ; a formation 
of troops in deep files. 

columnar (ko-lum'nar), adj. having 
the form or shape of a column. 

coma (ko'ma), n. insensibility; stu- 

coma (ko'ma), n. [pi. comse ('me)],, 
the nebulous hair-like envelope sur- 
rounding the nucleus of a comet ; 
the aggregate of branches forming 
the leafy head of a tree. ^ 

comatose (ko'ma-tos), adj. torpid; 

comb (kom), n. a toothed instrument 
to separate and adjust the hair ; the 
crest of a cock ; the crest of a wave 
or hill ; a honeycomb : v.t. to dress 
the hair with a comb ; grain : v.i. to 
roll over, as the crest of a wave. 

combat (kom'bat), v.i. to fight; act 
in opposition : v.t. to fight with ; 
oppose by force : n. a conitest by 
force ; a struggle. 

combatant (-ant), n. one who com- 
bats : adj. disposed to fight ; bearing 

combative (-iv), adj. pugnacious. 

combination (kom-bi-na'shun), n. 
the union of bodies or qualities ; an 
association of persons for a com- 
mon object : pi. underclothing woven 
in one piece. 

combine (kom-bln'), v.t. to unite or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




join ; link closely together : v.i. to 
unite, agree, or coalesce : n. a secret 
combination, generally for fraudu- 
lent purposes. 

combustiiiility ( kom-bus-ti-bil'l-ti ) , 
n. the property of being combustible. 

combustible (kom-bus'ti-bl), adj. 
inflammable : n. an inflammable 

combustion (-bust'yun), n. the act 
of burning ; the state of being 
burnt ; the union of an inflammable 
substance with oxygen, &c., produc- 
ing light and heat. 

come (kum), v.i. [p.t. came, p.p. 
come, coming], to move to- 
wards ; draw near ; reach ; happen ; 
arrive at some state or condition : 
v.t. to act or play the part of. 

comedian (ko-me'di-an), n. an actor 
or player in comedy : fern, comedi- 
enne (ko-ma-di-en'), 

comedy (kom'e-di), n. [pi. comedies 
(-diz)], dramatic representation of 
the humorous or ridiculous side of 
human life. 

comeliness (kum'li-nes), n. grace; 

comely (kum'li), adj. graceful; 

comet (kom'et), n. a luminous celes- 
tial body, with an eccentric orbit, 
consisting, when perfect, of a nu- 
cleus, coma, and a tail. 

cometary ('e-ta-ri), adj. pertaining 
to a comet. 

comfit (kum'fit), n. a dry sweetmeat. 

comfort (kum'fert), v.t. to console; 
strengthen ; inspirit : n. a state of 
quiet enjoyment ; consolation ; en- 
couragement ; a quilted bed-cover. 

comfortable ( 'f er-ta-bl ) , adj. im- 
parting or enjoying comfort. 

comforter (kum'fer-ter), n. one who 
comforts ; a long woolen scarf. 

comfrey (kum'fri), n. a rough hairy 

comic (kom'ik) or comical (-al), 
adj. exciting mirth. 

comicality ('i-ti), n. the state of 
being comical. 

comically (-li), adv. in a comical 

coming (kum'ing), n. an arrival; 
adj. expected ; future. 

comique (ko-mek'), n. a comic actor 
or singer. 

comity (kom'i-ti), n. civility; polite- 
ness ; acts of international courtesy. 

comma (kom'a), n. a punctuation 
point [,]. 

command (kom-and', or -and'), v.t. 
to order or charge with authority ; 
control ; exercise supreme authority 
over ; lead : v.i. act as a commander ; 
exercise power or authority : n. au- 
thority ; an order or mandate ; a 
dominating situation ; a naval or 
military force under the command 
of a particular officer. 

commandant (-anf), n. an officer 
in command of a fortified place or a 
body of troops. 

commander ('er), n. one who com- 
mands ; a naval officer next below a 

commandment (kom-and'ment), n. 
a command ; a precept ; a law, es- 
pecially any one of the Decalogue. 

commando ('do), n. a military expe- 
dition by private individuals ; the 
quasi-military expeditions of the 
English farmers and Boers of South 
Africa against the natives. 

commemorate (kom-em'o-rat), v.t. 
to call to remembrance by a solemn 
act ; celebrate with honor. 

commemoration (-ra'shun), n. the 
act of commemorating. 

commemorative (-em'o-ra-tiv), adj. 
preserving the memory of. 

commemorator ('o-ra-ter), n. one 
who commemorates. 

commence (kom-ens'), v.i. to come 
into existence ; begin : v.t. to enter 
upon ; perform the first act of. 

commencement ('ment), n. begin- 
ning ; origin ; the annual festival 
when degrees, &c., are conferred at 

commend (kom-end'), v.t. recom- 
mend as worthy of notice ; praise ; 
bring to mind. 

commendation (-en-da'shun), w. the 
act of commending ; approval. 

commendatory ('a-to-ri), adj. serv- 
ing to commend ; containing praise, 

commensurability (kom-en-su-ra- 
bil'i-ti), n. the state of being com- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



commensurable ( kom-en'su-ra-bl ) , 
adj. having, or reducible to, a com- 
mon measure. 

commtensurate ('su-rat), adj. re- 
ducible to a common measure ; 

comment (kom'ent), n. a spoken or 
written remark, especially a written 
note by way of explanation, «&;c. ; 
criticism: v.i. (kom'- or kom-ent'), 
to write notes or explanations on 
the text of an author. 

commentary ('en-ta-ri), w. [pi. com- 
mentaries (-riz)], a series of ex- 
planatory notes or annotations. 

commentative (-tiv), adj. making 

commentator (-ter), n. one who 
writes notes to explain an author. 

commerce (kom'ers), n. interchange 
of merchandise on a large scale be- 
tween nations or individuals ; inter- 

commercial (-er'shal), adj. pertain- 
ing to trade or commerce ; mercan- 

commercialism (-izm), n. commer- 
cial habits, methods, or principles. 

commercially (-li), adv. in a com- 
mercial manner. 

commingle (ko-ming'gl), v.t. & v.i. 
to mix ; blend. 

comminute (kom'i-ntit), v.t. to 
make small or fine by grinding : adj. 
iSivided into small parts. 

commiserate (kom-iz'er-at), v.t. feel 
pity for ; sympathize with in dis- 

commiseration (-er-a'shun), n. pity. 

commiserator ('er-a-ter), n. one 
who pities. 

commissariat (kom-is-a'ri-at), n. 
the department of an army con- 
cerned with the supply of trans- 
ports, provisions, &c. 

commissary ('is-a-ri), n. [pi. com- 
missaries (-riz)], one to whom 
some charge is committed by a su- 
perior ; a delegate ; an oflBcial in the 
commissariat department. 

commission (kom-ish'un), n. a dele- 
gation of business to anyone ; the 

- act of doing or committing ; a trust ; 
a charge ; the warrant by which any- 
thing is done ; one or more persons 
appointed to perform certain speci- 

fied duties ; brokerage or allowance : 
v.t. empower ; send with authority. 

commissioner (-ish'un-er), n. a per- 
son empowered by a commission or 
warrant ; an officer in charge of 
some department of the public serv- 

commissure ('ish-tir), n. a joint or 
seam ; the point of union between 
two bodies. 

commit (kom-it'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
committed, committing], to 
give in charge or trust ; surrender ; 
consign ; perpetrate ; learn by heart ; 
send for trial, or to prison. 

commitment (-it'ment), n. the act 
of committing. Also committal. 

committee (-it'e), n. persons ap- 
pointed to consider or manage any 

commode (kom-od'), n. a high head- 
dress formerly in vogue; a chest of 
drawers or bureau ; a night-stool. 

commodious (-6'di-us), adj. useful; 
convenient ; roomy. 

commodity (-od'i-ti), n. [pi. com- 
modities (-tiz)], that which is use- 
ful ; an article of commerce : pi. 
goods ; merchandise. 

commodore ('o-dor), n. a captain 
commanding a squadron ; the lead- 
ing ship in a fleet of merchantmen. 

common (kom'un), adj. belonging 
equally to more than one ; public ; 
usual ; frequent ; inferior ; of low 
birth or origin ; applied to nouns 
that are both masculine and femi- 
nine : n. a tract of open public land. 

common council (koun'sil), n. the 
representative body of a city or mu- 
nicipal corporation. 

common law (law), n. the unwrit- 
ten law of England based on imme- 
morial usage. 

commonage (-aj), n. the right of 
pasturing on common land. 

commonalty (-al-ti), n. the common 

commoner (-er), n. one not a peer; 
a member of the House of Com- 
mons ; one who has a joint right in 
common land ; at Oxford, a student 
not on the foundation. 

commonly (-li), adv. usually; mean- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



commonplace (-plas), n. a memo- 
randum for ready reference ; an ob- 
vious remark ; anything ordinary : 
adj. uninteresting ; trite ; common ; 
neither new nor striliing. 

common-sense (-sens), adj. charac- 
terized by sound practical judgment, 

fcommonweal (-wel), n. the public 

commonweal til (-welth), n. the 
whole body of people in a state ; a 

commotion (-o'shun), n. violent 

communal {'u-nkl), adj. pertaining 
to a commune. 

Gommunalism (-izm), n. govern- 
ment by communes or corporations 
of towns and districts. 

commune (-un'), v.t. to converse to- 
gether ; impart ; take counsel ; par- 
take of the Eucharist, or Holy Com- 

communicability (-u-ni-ka-bil'i-ti) , 
n. the quality of being communica- 

communicable (ii'ni-ka-bl), adj. im- 

communicant (-u'ni-kant), adj. 
communicating : n. a partaker, es- 
pecially of the Eucharist. 

communicate (-kat), v.t. to impart; 
reveal : v.i. to share ; partake of the 

communication (-ka'shun), n. the 
act of communicating ; means of 
passing from one place to another ; 
news ; intercourse. 

communicative (-ka-tiv), adj. un- 

communicator (-ka-ter), n. one 
who, or anything which, communi- 

communicatory (-to-ri), adj. im- 
parting knowledge. 

communion (-un'yun), n. inter- 
course ; fellowship ; common posses- 
sion ; a religious body ; the partak- 
ing of the Eucharist. 

communism (kom'u-nizm), n. the 
doctrine of having property in com- 
mon ; socialism. 

communist ('ti-nist), n. a supporter 
of communism ; a socialist ; a mem- 
ber of the Commune of Paris 

communistic (-is'tik), adj. relating 
to communism. 

conxmunity (-ti'ni-ti), n. \_pl. com- 
munities (-tiz)], a body of persons 
having common rights, interests, 
and privileges ; a corporation ; so- 
ciety generally ; common character. 

commutability (ii-ta-biri-ti), n. the 
quality of being commutable. 

commutable (-u'ta-bl), adj. inter- 

commutation ( -u-ta'shun ) , n. the 
act of commuting ; change or ex- 

commutative ('ta-tiv), adj. pertain- 
ing to exchange. 

commute (kom-tit') , v.i. to exchange ; 
substitute ; reduce the severity of ; 
regulate the direction of an electric 
current : v.i. to pay in gross amount. 

compact (kom'pakt), n. an agree- 
ment or covenant: v.i. (kom-pakf), 
to press or pack closely ; consoli- 

companion (kom-pan'yun), n. a 
comrade ; an associate or partner : 
the hut over a ship's ladder : adj. 

companionsbip (-ship), n. fellow- 

company (kum'pa-ni), n. [pi. com- 
panies (-niz)], an assemblage of 
people ; a body of persons associated 
together ; society ; fellowship ; a 
firm ; a ship's crew ; a subdivision 
of a regiment : v.i. associate with. 

comparable (kom'pa-ra-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of being compared ; of equal 

comparative (-par'a-tiv), adj. esti- 
mated by comparison ; not positive : 
n. the comparative degree of gram- 

compare (-par'), v.t. to make one 
thing the measure of another ; in- 
flect so as to form the degrees of 
comparison : v.i. to bear a compari- 

comparison (-par'i-sun), n. the act 
of comparing ; an illustration or 

compartment (-part'ment), n. a 
division by a' partition, as of a car' 
riage, &,c. ; a panel. 

compass (kum'pcis), v.t. to encircle; 
walk around ; besiege : n. a circular 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tTien. 



course ; a circumference ; extent ; 
grasp ; an instrument indicating the 
magnetic meridian : pi. a. mathemati- 
cal instrument for dividing and 
drawing circles. 

compassion (kom-pash'un), n. sor- 
row for the sufferings of others ; 
sympathy; pity. 

compassionate (-at), v.t. to have 
compassion for : adj. sympathetic ; 

compatibility (kom-pat-i-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being compatible ; 

compatible ('i-bl), adj. congruous; 

compatriot (-pa'tri-ot), n. a fellow 

compeer (kom-per'), n. an equal. 

compel (kom-pel'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
compelled, compelling], to 
urge irresistibly ; force. 

compend (kom'pend), n. an abridg- 

compendious (^-pen'di-us), adj. suc- 

compendium ('di-um), n. an abridg- 

compensate (kom'pen- or kom-pen'- 
sat), v.t. to recompense; make 
amends for : v.i. to make compensa- 

compensation (-sa'shun), n. 
amends ; recompense ; a set-off. 

compensation-balance ( -bal'ans ) , 
n. a watch balance-wheel, construct- 
ed to counteract variations in tem- 

compensative ('sa-tiv), adj. making 
compensation. Also compensatory. 

compensator ('pen-sa-ter), n. one 
who compensates. 

compete (kom-pet'), v.i. enter into 
competition with another ; rival. 

competence (kom'pe-tens), n. the 
state of being competent; suffi- 
ciency. Also competency. 

competent (-tent), adj. fit; able; 
suitable ; qualified ; moderate. 

competition (-tish'un), n. rivalry. 

competitive (kom-pet'i-tiv), adj. 
pertaining to competition ; emulous. 

competitor ('i-ter), n. a rival. 

compilation (-i-la'shun), n. the act 
of compiling ; the thing compiled, 

compile (kom-pil'), v.t. to put to- 

gether in fresh form existing mate- 

complacence (kom-pla'sens), n. in- 
ward satisfaction. Also compla- 

complacent ('sent), adj. affable. 

complain (kom-plan'), v.i. to express 
grief, pain, or resentment ; charge 

complainant ('ant), n. a plaintiff. 

complaint (-plant'), n. an accusa- 
tion ; an expression of grief or pain ; 

complaisance (-pla-sans'), n. cour- 

complaisant (-sant'), adj. courte- 

complected (-plek'ted), adj. inter- 
woven ; complexioned. 

complement ('ple-ment), n. full 
number or quantity ; a complete set : 
v.t. to supply a deficiency. 

complemental ('al), adj. complet- 
ing. Also complementary. 

complete (kom-plef), adj. free from 
deficiency ; entire ; absolute ; fin- 
ished : v.t. to supply what is lack- 
ing; finish. 

completely- ('li), adv. in a complete 

completion (-ple'shun), n. accom- 

complex (kom'pleks), adj. composed 
of various parts of things; compos- 
ite ; intricate. 

complexion (-plek'shun), n. the 
color of the skin, especially the face ; 

complexional (-al), adj. pertaining 
to the complexion. 

complexioned ('shund), adj. having 
a complexion. 

complexity ('i-ti), n. the state of 
being complex. Also complexness. 

complexly ('li), adv. in a complex 

compilable (kom-pli'a-bl), adj. com- 

compliance ('ans), n. acquiescence. 

compliant ('ant), adj. yielding. 

complicacy ('pli-ka-si), n. the state 
of being complicate. 

complicate ('pli-kat), v.t. to make 
intricate ; involve : adj. intricate ; 
folded together. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



complication (-ka'shun), n. the act 
of complicating ; the state of being 

complicity (-plis'i-ti), n. partner- 
ship in crime. 

compiler (-pli'er), n. one who com- 

compliment ('pli-ment), n. a formal 
act or expvession of courtesy ; deli- 
cate flattery : v.t. to flatter ; con- 
gratulate ; praise. 

complimentary ('ta-ri), adj. con- 
veying a compliment. Also com- 

comply (kom-pli'), v.i. \_p.t. & p.p. 
complied, complying], to yield 
assent ; agree to. 

compo (kom'po), n. a kind of con- 
crete; a material for printing-roll- 

component (kom-po'nent), adj. con- 
stituent : n. an elementary part of a 

comport (-port'), v.i. to agree; har- 
monize : v.t. to behave. 

compose (-poz'), v.t. to form by 
comliination ; write as an author ; 
calm ; adjust ; arrange in proper 
order ; put together. 

composed (-p5zd'), adj. tranquil; 

composer (-poz'er), n. one who com- 
poses ; one who calms ; a musical 

composing (-poz'ing), adj. tending 
to calm ; pertaining to, or used in, 

composite (-poz'it), adj. compound. 

composition (-po-zish'un), n. the 
act of composing ; the thing com- 
posed ; a mass formed by mingling 
various ingredients ; mutual settle- 
ment or agreement; a musical or 
literary work ; the art of forming 

compositor (-poz'i-ter), n. one who 
sets types. 

compost ('post), n. a mixture of 
various substances for fertilizing 
the ground ; builders' compost : v.t. 
to manure with compost ; plaster or 

composure (-po'zhur), n. tranquil- 

compote ('pot), n. stewed fruit. 

compound (-pound'), v.t. to mix or 
combine together ; settle by mutual 
agreement ; discharge a debt by pay- 
ing a part: adj. (kom'pound), com- 
posed of two or more elements or 
ingredients or words : n. a mixture 
of two or more elements or ingredi- 

compounder ('er), n. one who com- 
pounds medicines, &c. ; one who 
compounds a debt or felony ; one 
who pays for certain charges by a 
fixed sum. 

comprehend (kom-pre-hend'), v.t. to 
include or comprise ; grasp with the 
mind ; conceive. 

comprehensibility (-hen-si-bil'i-ti) , 
n. the quality or state of being com- 

comprehensible ('si-bl), adj. intel- 

comprehension (-hen'shun), n. the 
act of comprehending ; extent, un- 

comprehensive (-hen'siv), adj. in- 
cluding much ; full. 

compress (kom-pres'), v.t. to press 
together; condense: n. (kom'pres), 
a soft pad used in surgery to main- 
tain pressure. 

compressibility (-pres-i-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of yielding to pressure. 

compressible (-pres'i-bl), adj. con- 

compression (-presh'un), n. con- 

compressive (-pres'iv), adj. that 

compressor (-pres'er), n. one who, 
or that which, compresses. 

comprisal (kom-pri'zal), n. the act 
of comprising. 

comprise (-priz'), v.t. to compre* 

compromise (kom'pro-miz), n. a set- 
tlement by mutual concessions : v.t, 
to settle by compromise ; expose to 

comptroller (kon-trol'er). See con- 

compulsion (kom-pul'shun), n. the 
act of compelling ; force ; constraint. 

compulsive (-pul'siv), adj. forcible. 

compulsorily (-pul'so-ri-li), adv, 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon» 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


1, Apollo butterfly; 2, leopard -moth; 3, wood-leopard moth; 4, Emperor-moth; 5, copper butter- 
fly; 6, small tortoise-shell butterfly; 7, comma butterfly; S, large white butterfly; 9, marbled-white 
butterfly; 10, silkworm-moth; 11, cabbage butterfly; 12, hawk-moth; 13, white butterfly; 14, 
tortoise-shell butterfly; 15, swallow-tailed butterfly; 16, peach-blossom moth; 17. meadow-t>rowa 


1, Pointer; 2, turnspit; 3, Newfoundland; 4, wolfhound; 5, deerhound; 6, bulldog; 7, poodle; 
8, Eskimo; 9, bloodhound; 10, greyhound; 11, St. Bernard. 





compulsory (-pal'so-ri), adj. exer- 
cising compulsion ; obligatory. 
compunction (-pungk'shun), n. con- 
compurgation (-per-ga'shun), n. the 
practice of justifying one man's ve- 
racity by the testimony of another. 

computable (kom-put'a-bl), adj. 
that may be computed. 

computation (-pu-ta'shun), n. the 
act or process of computing; esti- 

I mate. 

compute (-put'), v.t. to number; 

comrade (kom'rad), n. a companion. 

con (kon), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. conned, p. 
pr. conning], to peruse carefully; 
fix in the mind by constant repeti- 
tion; to direct (a helmsman) how 
to steer. 

conation (ko-na'shun), n. the fac- 
ulty of voluntary agency, including 
volition and desire. 

conative (ko'na- or kon'a-tiv), adj. 
pertaining to the faculty of cona- 
tion ; expressing endeavor or effort. 

concatenation ( kon-kat-e-na'shun ) , 
n. a series of things united like 

concave (kon'kav), adj. hollow and 

concave lens (lenz), n. a lens one 
side of which is flat and ;he other 
slightly concave. 

concavity (-kav'i-ti), n. [pi. eon- 
cavities (-tiz)], the state of being 
concave ; the inner surface of a 
rounded hollow body. 

concavo-concave ( kon-ka'vo-kon'- 
kav), adj. hollow on both surfaces, 
as a lens. 

concavo-convex (-kon'veks), adj. 
concave on one side, convex on the 

conceal (kon-sel'), 'V.t. to hide; keep 
secret ; disguise. 

concealment ('ment), n. the act of 
hiding or keeping secret ; a place of 
hiding ; shelter. 

concede (-sed'), v.t. to yield; admit. 

conceit (-set'), n. an idea; an over- 
estimate of one's own abilities ; a 
quaint fancy. 

conceivability (-sev-a-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being conceivable. 

conceivable (-sev'a-bl), adj. imag- 

conceive (-sev'), v.t. imagine; un- 
derstand ; develop in the womb ; v.i, 
to think ; become pregnant. 

concentrate (kon-sen'trat), v.t. to 
bring to one point or common cen- 
ter ; intensify the action of ; con- 
dense : adj. reduced to a pure or 
dense state. 

concentration (-sen-tra'shun), n, 
the state of being concentrated; 

concentrativeness ('tra-tiv-nes), n, 
the power of fixing the mind on a 
particular subject. 

concentrator (-tra-ter), n. a pneu- 
matic apparatus for separating dry 
ores when comminuted. 

concentric (-sen'trik), adj. having a 
common center. 

concentricity (-sen-tris'i-ti), n. the 
state of being concentric. 

concept (kon'sept), n. an abstract 
general notion or conception. 

conceptacle (-sep'ta-kl), n. that 
which contains anything; a follicle. 

conception (-sep'shun), n. the im- 
pregnation of the ovum ; the act or 
power of conceiving in the mind; 
an idea or notion. 

conceptive (-sep'tiv), adj. capable 
of conceiving mentally or physically. 

conceptualist ('tii-al-ist), n. one 
who holds the theory (conceptual- 
ism) that the mind can form for 
itself general conceptions. 

concern (kon-sern'), v.t. to relate or 
belong to ; interest or engage ; make 
uneasy : n. business ; affair ; inter- 
est ; anxiety ; a firm. 

concerning ('ing), prep, relating to. 

concernment ('ment), n. solicitude; 

concert (kon-serf), v.t. to contrive 
or devise together ; adjust or ar- 
range mutually: n. (kon'sert) a 
musical entertainment ; co-opera- 
tion ; harmony, or mutual agree- 

concerted ('ed), adj. mutually 
planned or agreed upon ; arranged 
in parts. 

concertina (-ser-te'na), n. a musical 
instrument of the accordion class. 

ate, arm, ask, at;, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon; 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




concertino (-te'no), n. a small con- 

concerto (-ser'to, Italian -char'to), n. 
[pi. concertos ('toz)]. a musical 
composition for a solo instrument, 
with an orchestral accompaniment. 

concession (kon-sesh'un), n. the act 
of conceding ; the thing conceded ; 
land, privileges, &c., granted by a 
government to a company, &c., for 
some specific purpose. 

concessionaire (-un-ar'), n. a per- 
son holding a concession. 

concessive (-ses'iv), adj. implying 

concessory (-ses'o-ri), adj. conced- 

conch, (kongk), n. a marine shell. 

concha (kong'ka), n. [pi. couchse 
(-ke)], the outer ear; auricle; the 
dome of an apse. 

concho-grass ('ko-gras), n. a valua- 
ble forage grass of the southern 
United States. 

conchoid ('koid), n. a shell-like 

conchology ('kol-o-ji), n. the branch 
of zoology which treats of mollusks 
and their shells. 

concierge ( kong-si-arzh' ) , n. in 
France, a door-keeper or janitor. 

conciliate (kon-sil'i-at), v.t. to rec- 
oncile ; win or gain the affections of. 

conciliator (-a-ter), n. one who 

conciliatory (-to-ri), adj. tending 
to conciriate or reconcile. Also con- 

concise (kon-sis'), adj. condensed, 

concisely ('li), adv. tersely; briefly. 

conciseness ('nes), n. brevity. 

conclave (kon'klav), n. a private 
meeting, as of cardinals for the 
election of a Pope. 

conclude (kon-kltid'), v.t. to infer; 
determine ; settle ; end : v.i. draw 
an inference. 

conclusion ('■klii'zhun), n. a final 
determination ; result ; end. 

conclusive (-klti'siv), adj. decisive; 

concoct (kon-kokt'), v.t. to digest; 
cook ; assimilate mentally ; plot. 

concoction (-kok'shun), n. the act 

of concocting ; a plan or plot ; a 
compound of various ingredients. 

concomitance (-kom'i-tans), n. the 
state of being concomitant. Also 

concomitant ('i-tant), n. accom- 
panying ; conjoined with : n. an at- 

concord (kong' or kon'kSrd), n. har- 
mony ; union ; agreement. 

concordance (kon-kor'dans), n. 
agreement ; a diccionary of words or 
passages, with references to the 
places where they occur, especially 
in the Bible. 

concordant ('dant), adj. harmoni- 

concordat ('dat), n. a compact or 
agreement, especially between 
Church and State. 

concourse (kong'kors), n. arriving 
together ; an assembly or crowd. 

concrete (kon'kret), adj. united in 
growth ; coalesced ; not abstract : n. 
a mass formed by concretion ; a 
compact mass of lime, sand, gravel, 
mortar, _&c., used for building : v.i. 
(kon-kref), to coalesce : v.t. to form 
by the union of particles. 

concretion (kon-kre'shun), n. the 
act of concreting ; a mass formed 
by the union of separate particles. 

concretionary (-a-ri), adj. charac- 
terized by concretions. 

concretive ('tiv), adj. producing con- 

concubinage (kong-kii'bi-naj), n. 
the act of living as man and wife 
without being legally married. 

concubine (kong'kti-bin), n. a wom- 
an who lives with a man without 
being legally married. 

concupiscence (kon-kii'pi-sens), n. 
illicit sexual desire ; unlawful de- 

concupiscent (-sent), adj. lustful. 

concur (kon-ker'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 
concurred, concurring], to 
agree or unite in action or opinion ; 

concurrence (-kur'ens), n. the act 
of concurring ; agreement ; consent. 

concurrent (-kur'ent), adj. acting 
in union or conjunction ; joint and 
equal in authority ; meeting at one 

ate, arm, §.sk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



point : n. that which concurs ; a con- 
tributory cause. 

concussion (-kush'un), n. the shock 
caused by two bodies coming violent- 
ly together ; injury by a fall. 

condemn (kon-dem'), v.i. to pro- 
nounce or judge guilty ; blame ; cen- 
sure ; declare to be forfeited. 

condemnation (-dem-na'shun), n. 
the act of condemning. 

condemnatory (-dem'na-to-ri), adj. 
implying condemnation. 

condensability ( kon-den-sa-bil'i-ti ) , 
n. the quality of being condensable. 

condensable (-den'sa-bl ),«(?/. capa- 
ble of condensation. 

condensation (-den-sa'shun), n. 

condense (-dens'), v.t. to compress; 
make close or thick : v.i. grow dense. 

condenser ('er), n. an apparatus for 
reducing gases or vapors to a liquid 
or solid form ; a device for storing 
electricity ; a lens for concentrat- 
ing light. 

condescend (kon-de-send'), v.i. to 
stoop ; descend ; yield ; deign. 

condescension (-de-sen'shun), n. the 
act of condescending; voluntary 

condign (-din'), adj. well-deserved; 

condiment (kon'di-ment), n. a sea- 

condition (kon-dish'un), n. state; 
quality ; external circumstances ; 
stipulation or terms of a contract : 
v.i. to contract or stipulate ; bring 
into and keep in bodily health ; ex- 

conditionally (-al-li), adv. with cer- 
tain limitations. 

condolatory (-do'la-to-ri), adj. ex- 
pressing condolence. 

condole (kon-dol'), v.t. to lament: 
v.i. to express sympathy for an- 
other [with tvith], 

condolence ('ens), n. sympathy. 

condonation ( -do-na'shun ) , n. the 
act of pardoning a wrong act. 

condone (kon-don'), v.t. to pardon, 
especially a violation of marital duty. 

condor (kon'der), n. a very large 
South American vulture. 

conduce (-dtis'), v.i. to tend to; con- 

conducible (-du'si-bl), adj. tending; 
contributing ; promoting. 

conducive (-siv), adj. having the 
quality or power of conducing [with 

conduct (kon-dukf), v.t. to guide; 
direct; manage; behave: n. (kon'- 
dukt) personal behavior or prac- 
tice; management. 

conductance (kon-duk'tans), n. 
power or capacity for conducting 

conductibility (kon-duk-ti-bil'i-ti) , 
n. the capability of being conducted. 

conductible (-duk'ti-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of being conducted. 

conduction (-duk'shun), n. trans- 
mission by a conductor. 

conductive (-duk'tiv), adj. having 
the quality or power of conducting. 

conductivity (-duk-tiv'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being conductive. 

conductor (duk'ter), n. one who, or 
that which, conducts ; a leader or 
guide ; one who has charge of a 
car or train ; a substance which con- 
ducts or transmits certain forces. 

conduit (kon' or kun'dit), n. sl canal 
or pipe for the conveyance of water, 

cone (kon), n. a geometrical figure 
broad, round, and broad at the bot- 
tom, and lessening the circumference 
towards the top ; the fruit of the 
fir, pine, &c. ; a storm-cone : v.t. to 
shape like the segment of a cone. 

coney (ko'ni), another form of cony. 

confab (kon'fab), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 
confabbed, confabbing], to 

confabulation (-fab-ti-la'shun), n. 
a chat. 

confection (-fek'shun), n. anything 
conserved or compounded with 
sugar ; a sweetmeat. 

confectioner (-er), n. one who pre- 
pares and sells sweetmeats, &c. 

confectionery (-i), n. [pi. confec- 
tioneries (-iz)], sweetmeats, cakes, 
preserves, &c. 

confederacy (-fed'er-a-si), n. [pi. 
confederacies (-siz)], persons, 
states, or nations united in a 
league ; unlawful combination. 

confederate ('er-at), v.i. to unite in 
a league : adj. united by a league : 

ate, arm, ksk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



n. a member of a confederation ; an 
ally ; an accomplice._ 

confederation (-er-a'shun), n. the 
act of confederating ; an alliance ; 
an alliance of states previously in- 

confederative (-fed'er-a-tiv), adj. 
of, or belonging to, a confederation. 

confer (kon-fer'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
conferred, conferring], to give 
or bestow : v.i. to consult together ; 

conference ('fer-ens), n. the act of 
consulting together formally ; an 
appointed meeting for discussing 
some topic or business ; an ecclesias- 
tical assembly. 

confess (kon-fes'), v.t. to admit or 
acknowledge ; avow ; grant ; prove ; 
hear (as a priest) a confession: v.i. 
disclose the state of one's conscience 
to a priest and receive absolution. 

confession (-fesh'un). n. act of con- 
fessing ; anything ' disclosed or 

confessional (-al), n. an inclosed 
cabinet, in which a priest sits to 
hear confessions ; the practice of 
auricular confessicrv. 

confessor (kon' or kon-fes'er), n. 
one who makes a profession of his 
faith and suffers persecution ; a 
priest who hears confessions and 
grants absolution. 

confetto (-fet'to), n. [pi. confetti 
('ti)], a sweetmeat; a plaster pel- 
let used for pelting at carnivals. 

confidant ('fi-dant), n. a confiden- 
tial or bosom friend : fern, confi- 

confide (kon-fid'), v.i. have confi- 
dence in : v.t. to trust fully [with 

confidence (kon'fi-dens), n. trust; 

confident (-dent), adj. full of con- 
fidence ; positive : bold ; dogmatical. 

confidential (-den'shal), adj. spoken 
or ^T-itten in confidence ; trust- 

confidentially (-li), adv. in a con- 
fidential manner. 

configuration (-fig-u-ra'shun), n. ex- 
ternal form ; relative position of the 

confine (kon'fin), n, a boundary, 




border, or limit ; a frontier [usually 
pi.} : v.t. (kon-fin'), to restrict 
within limits ; imprison. 

confinement (kon-fin'ment), n. 
act of confining ; childbirth. 

confirm (kon-ferm'), v.t. 
strengthen ; ratify ; administer 
rite of confirmation. 

confirmation (-fer-ma'shun), n. 
act of confirming ; verification ; 
dence ; admission to full communion 
after Ijaptism. 

confirmatory ('a-to-ri), adj. serving 
to confirm. 

confiscate (kon-fis' or kon'fis-kat), 
v.t. to adjudge to be forfeited to the 
public treasury ; seize, as thus for- 

confiscation (-ka'shun), n. the act 
of confiscating. 

confiscator ('fis-ka-ter), n. one who 

confiscatory (-fis'ka-to-ri), adj. char- 
acterized by, or attended with, con- 

conflagration (-fla-gra'shun), n. a 
great fire. 

conflict (kon-flikt'), v.i. to strike or 
dash together ; contend ; fight : n. 
(kon'flikt), a fight or struggle for 
the mastery ; a battle ; antagonism ; 
a violent collision. 

conflicting ('ting), adj. opposing. 

confluence (kon'flu-ens), n. th^ junc- 
tion of two or more streams; an 

confluent (-ent), adj. flowing or run- 
ning together : n. a tributary river 
or stream. 

conflus ('fluks), n. the meeting to- 
gether of two or more streams ; a 

conform (kon-form'), v.t. to make 
like; bring into harmony [usually 
with to] : v.i. to be in harmony 
with ; comply with. 

conf ormability (-form-a-bil'i-ti) , 
n. the quality or state of being 

conformable ('a-bl). adj. like; cor- 
responding ; compliant ; in parallel 

conformation (-for-ma'shun), n. 
structure ; arrangement ; shape. 

conformist ('ist), n. a member of 
the Established Church of England. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



eonformity ('i-ti), n. compliance 
with established forms ; resemblance. 

confound (kon-found'), v.t. to min- 
gle ; perplex ; astonish ; confuse ; 

confraternity (-fra-ter'ni-ti), n. 
[pi. confraternities (-tiz)], a broth- 
erhood or society of men associated 
for a common purpose. 

confrere (k6n-frar'), n. an asso- 

confront (kon-frunt'), v.t. to stand 
face to face [with with] ; oppose ; 

confuse (kon-ftiz'), v.t. to mingle; 
jumble up ; render indistinct ; dis- 
concert ; perplex. 

confusion (-fu'zhun), n. the act of 
confusing ; perplexity ; loss of self- 
possession ; disorder ; tumult. 

confutation (-fii-ta'shun), n. dis- 
^ confute (kon-fuf), v.t. to prove to be 
false or invalid ; convict of error. 

congenial (-je'nial), adj. kindred; 
from a liquid to a solid state by 
cold : v.i. to concrete by cold. 

congelation (-je-la'shun), n. the act 
of congealing. 

congenial ( -je'nial ) , adj. kindred ; 
pleasant and sympathetic ; cognate. 

congeniality (-ni-al'i-ti), n. the state 
or quality of being congenial. 

congenital (-jen'i-tal), adj. existing, 
or produced, at birth ; constitutional. 

conger (kong'ger)_, n. a large sea-eel. 

congeries (kon-je'ri-ez), n. sing. & 
pi. a collection of particles into one 

congest (kon-jest'), v.t. to accumu- 

congested ('ed), p.adj. unduly 
crowded ; containing an unnatural 
accumulation of blood. 

congestion (-jest'yun), n. an over- 
crowded condition, especially of the 

congestive ('tiv), adj. implying con- 

conglomerate (-glom'er-at), v.t. to 
gather into a ball or round mass : 
adj. collected or clustered together : 
n. a rock composed of rounded or 
water-worn fragments of pre-exis- 
tent rocks. 

conglomeration (-er-a'shun), w. the 

act of conglomerating; a miscella- 
neous collection. 

conglutinate ('ti-nat), v.t. to glue 
together : adj. glued together ; united 
by an adhesive substance. 

conglutination (-na'shun), n. the 
act of gluing or joining together ; 

conglutinative ('ti-na-tiv), adj. 
having power to unite or heal 

congratulate ( kon-grat'ti-lat ) , v.t. 
to felicitate on account of some 
happy event [with on or upon]. 

congratulation (-grat-u-la'shun), n. 
the act of congratulating. 

congratulator ('u-la-ter), n. one 
who congratulates. 

congratulatory (-to-ri), adj. ex- 
pressing congratulations. 

congregate (kong'gre-gat), v.t. to 
assemble ; gather together : v.i. to 
come together. 

congregation (-ga'shun), n. an as- 
sembly, especially of persons for 
religious worship. 

congregational (-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to a congregation. 

C ongr egationalism ( 'shun-al-izm ) , 
n. a democratic form of church gov- 
ernment, each congregation being 

Congregationalist (-al-ist), n. an 
adherent to Congregationalism : adj. 
pertaining to Congregationalism. 

congress (kong'gres), n. a confer- 
ence ; an assembly of ambassadors, 
&c., for the settlement of interna- 
tional affairs. 

Congress (kong'gres), n. the na- 
tional legislature of the United 

Congressional ( kon-gresh'un-al ) , 
adj. pertaining to Congress. 

Congressman (-man), n. a member 
of Congress, especially of the House 
of Representatives. 

congruence ('groo-ens), n. suitabil- 
ity ; agreement ; consistency. Also 

congruent Cent), adj. suitable; 

congruity ('i-ti), n. agreement; fit- 

congruous ('groo-us), adj. accord- 
ant; fit. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. * 



conic (kon'ik), adj. pertaining to, or 
shaped like, a cone. Also conical : the branch of geometry which 
treats of the parabola, ellipse, and 
hyperbola ; conic sections. 

coniferous (ko-nif'er-us), adj. bear- 
ing cones. 

coniform (ko-ni-form), adj. cone- 

Conine (ko'nin), n. a very poisonous 
alkaloid existing in the hemlock. 

conjectural (kon-jek'ttir-al), adj. 

conjecturally _(-li), adv. doubtfully. 

conjecture ('tur), n. a probable in- 
ference ; a guess : v.t. to imagine ; 
surmise : v.i. to form conjectures. 

conjoin (kon-join'), v.t. to join to- 
gether ; connect or associate : v.i. to 

conjoint (-joint')* o,dj. united; co- 

conjugal Cjoo-gal), adj. of, or per- 
taining to, marriage ; connubial. 

conjugality ('i-ti), n. the married 

conjugally (-li), adv. connubially. 

conjugate (kon'ju-gat), v.t. to in- 
flect (verbs) : v.i. to unite in conju- 
gation : adj. combined in pairs ; kin- 
dred in meaning and origin : n. a 
word agreeing in derivation with 
another word. 

conjugation (-ga'shun), n. the act 
of conjugating ; the inflection of a 
verb ; a kind of sexual union. 

conjunct (kon-jungkt'), adj. con- 

conjunction (-jungk'shun), n. un- 
ion ; association ; connection ; the ap- 
parent meeting of two or more stars 
or planets ; a word used to connect 
sentences or words. 

conjunctive (-jungk'tiv), adj. serv- 
ing to unite ; closely connected : n. 
the conjunctive mood. 

conjunctive mood (mood), n. the 
mood which expresses contingency 
or condition. 

conjunctively (-li), adv. in union. 

conjuncture ('tur), n. a combina- 
tion of many circumstances or 
causes ; a critical time. 

conjuration (kon-ju-ra'shun), n. the 
act of conjuring or invoking ; an in- 

cantation ; an enchantment ; solemn 

conjure (kon-jur'), v.t. to summon 
in a sacred name ; enjoin with the 
highest solemnity: (kun'jer), in- 
fluence by, or as if by, magic : v.i, 
to practice the arts of a conjurer. 

conjurer (kun'jer-er), n. one who 
performs tricks by sleight of hand ; 
an enchanter: (kon-jur'er), n. one 
who solemnly enjoins. 

conjuror (kon-jti'rer), n. one bound 
by an oath with others. 

connate (kon'nat), adj. united at the 

connauglit (kon'awt), a kind of 
cotton cloth used for embroidery. 

connect (kon-nekt'), v.t. to bind or 
fasten together ; unite ; associate 
with : v.i. to be joined ; cohere. 

connected ('ed), adj. linked together. 

connection or connexion (-nek'- 
shun), n. the state of being con- 
nected ; relation by marriage or 
blood ; sexual intercourse ; surround- 
ings ; acquaintance ; a religious 
body ; one's customers, &c. 

connective (-nek'tiv), adj. able to 
connect : n. that which connects. 

connectively (-li), adv. by connec- 

connector ('ter), n. one who or that 
which connects, 

conning (kon'ing), n. the act of di- 
recting the helmsman of a vessel. 

conning-tower (-tou'er), n. the low 
shot-proof pilot-house of an armored 

connivance (-ni'vans), n. the act of 
conniving : passive cooperation in a 
crime or fault ; collusion. 

connive (kon-niv'), v.i. to close the 
eyes upon a fault ; be in secret com- 
plicity [with at}. 

connoisseur (kon-i-ser'), n. a criti- 
cal judge. 

connotation (-ta'shun), n. inference. 

connotative (kon-no'ta-tiv), adj. 

connote (kon-not'), v.t. to designate 
by implication; imply as an attri- 

connubial (kon-ti'bi-al), adj. of, or 
pertaining to the marriage state ; 

conoid (kon'oid), adj. cone-like. 

ate, arm, dsk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, ndrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



conoidal ('al), adj. almost conical. 

conquer (kong'ker), v.t. gain by con- 
quest ; overcome ; subdue : v.i. to 
get the victory. 

conqueror (-er), n. a victor. 

conquest ('kwest), n. the act of con- 
quering ; subjugation ; victory. 

consanguineous (kon-sang-gwin'e- 
us), adj. related by blood or birth. 

consanguinity ('i-ti), n. blood rela- 

conscience (kon'shens), n. the moral 
sense which determines right and 

conscientious (-shi-en'shus), adj. 
influenced or regulated by con- 
science ; scrupulous. 

conscious ('shus), adj. aware of 
one's thoughts and actions ; sen- 

consciousness (-nes), n. the knowl- 
edge of that which passes in one's 
own mind. 

conscript (kon-skript'), v.t. to en- 
roll for compulsory military or naval 
service: (kon'skript) adj. registered; 
enrolled : n. one thus compulsorily 

conscription (-skrip'shun), n. com- 
pulsory military or naval service ; 
the persons enrolled. 

consecrate (kon'se-krat),. u.if. to set 
apart as sacred ; dedicate to the 
service of God ; set apart to a 
sacred office ; devote : adj. conse- 
crated ; made sacred. 

consecration (-kra'shun), n. the act 
of consecrating ; a setting apart or 
devoting to a sacred use or office. 

consecrator (-ter), n. one who con- 

consecutive (-sek'u-tiv), adj. succes- 

consecutively (-\i),adj. successively. 

consensus (-sen'sus), n. general 

consent (kon-senf), n. a yielding of 
the mind or will ; acquiescence ; 
sympathy : v.i. to comply ; yield ; 
accede ; concur. 

consentaneous (-ta'ne-us), adj. ac- 

consentient (-sen'shent), adj. agree- 

consequence (kon'se-kwens), n. that 
which naturally follows an effect; 

inference; result; importance; sig- 

consequent (-kwent), adj. following 
as a result or natural effect [with 
to] : n. a result or effect. 

consequential (-kwen'shal), adj. 
following as the effect ; self-im- 

conservable (-serv'a-bl), adj. that 
may be preserved from decay or in- 

conservancy ('an-si), n. preserva- 

conservant ('ant), adj. preserving. 

conservation (-va'shun), n. the act 
of preserving from decay, loss, or in- 

conservational (-al), adj. tending 
to conservation. 

conservative ('va-tiv), adj. having 
the tendency or power to preserve : 
n. that which preserves ; one op- 
posed to hasty changes in the politi- 
cal, religious, or civil institutions 
of the country. 

conservatoire (-va-twar'), n. a pub- 
lic institution for instruction, es- 
pecially singing, music, &c. 

conservator (kon'ser-va-ter), one 
who preserves. 

conservatory (ser'va-to-ri), adj. 
tending ' to preserve : n. a green- 

conserve (kon-serv'), v.t. to pre- 
serve from injury or destruction; 
preserve with sugar : ( kon'serv ) n. 
preserved or candied fruit. 

consider (kon-sid'er), v.t. to fix the 
mind upon ; contemplate : v.i. to de- 
liberate ; reflect. 

considerable (-a-bl), adj. worthy of 
notice ; important ; valuable ; more 
than a little. 

considerably (-bli), adv. in a con- 
siderable manner. 

considerate ( -at ) , adj. having re- 
gard for others ; prudent ; thought- 
ful ; careful. 

consideration (-a'shun), n. the act 
of considering ; claim to notice ; 
mature thought ; an equivalent ; re- 
gard for others. 

considering ('er-ing), jjrep. taking 
into consideration : allowing for : n. 
doubt ; consideration. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



consign (kon-sin'), v.t. to deliver in 
a formal manner to another ; yield 
in trust ; to send goods. 

consignee (-sin-e'), n. the person to 
whom goods are sent ; an agent or 

consignment ('ment), n. the act of 
consigning ; the thing consigned. 

consignor ('er), n. the person who 
consigns goods to another. Also 

consist (kon-sist')> v.i. to be com- 
posed of ; co-exist ; subsist [with 

consistence (-sis'tens), n. degree of 
density or firmness ; harmony. Also 

consistent ('tent), adj. solid; not 

consolable (kon-sol'a-bl), n. admit- 
ting of consolation or comfort. 

consolation (-so-la'shun), n. allevia- 
tion of mental or physical distress ; 

consolatory (-sol'a-tor-i), adj. tend- 
ing to console ; comforting ; sooth- 

console (kon-sol'), v.t. to give com- 
fort to ; cheer in sorrow ; solace. 

console (kon'sol), n. an ornamental 
bracket supporting a cornice. 

consolidate (-sol'i-dat), v.t. to make 
solid ; harden ; condense : v.i. to be- 
come solid. 

consolidation (-da'shun), n. the ?«ct 
of consolidating ; solidification. 

consols (kon'solz or kon-solz'), n. 
the principal British funded secur- 
ity : abbreviation for consolidated 

consomme (kon-so-ma'), n. a strong 
clear soup or bouillon. 

consonance (kon'so-nans), n. agree- 
ment of sounds ; harmony ; concord. 

consonant (-nant), adj. harmonious; 
accordant : n. a letter other than a 

consort (kon's6rt), n. a companion; 
a partner ; a husband or wife ; a 
ship accompanying another : v.t. 
& v.i. (kon-sort') to associate; keep 
company [with with]. 

conspectus (-spek'tus), n. a general 
sketch or digest of some subject ; a 

conspicuous (-spik'ti-us), adj. men- 
tally or physically visible ; mani- 
fest ; distinguished. 

conspiracy (-spir'a-si), n. [pi. con* 
spiracles (-siz)], a plot; two or 
more persons engaged together for 
an unlawful or evil purpose. 

conspirator ('a-ter), n. one who 

conspire (kon-spir'), v.i. to concert 
a crime ; combine for an unlawful 

constable (kun'sta-bl), n. a high of- 
ficer of state in mediaeval courts ; a 

constabulary (-stab'ti-ler-i), adj. 
pertaining to constables : n. consta- 
bles collectively. 

constancy (kon'stan-si), n. firm- 
ness ; stability ; fidelity. 

constant ( 'stant ) , adj. steadfast ; 
firm ; continuous : n. in physics, 
that which is not subject to change, 
as gravity. 

constellation (-stel-a'shun), n. a 
group or cluster of fixed stars de- 
signated by some name ; an assem- 
blage of splendors, &c. 

consternation (-ster-na'shun), n, 
excessive terror, wonder, or sur- 
prise ; perturbation. 

constipate ('sti-pat), v.t. to make 

constipation (-pa'shun), n. costive- 

constituency (-stit'ti-en-si), n. [pi. 
constituencies (-siz)], the body of 
electors voting for a Member of 
Congress, &c. 

constituent ('u-ent), adj. necessary 
or essential : n. an essential or com- 
ponent part ; an elector. 

constitute ('sti-ttit), v.t. to compose 
or make up ; appoint ; elect ; enact ; 

constituted authorities (aw-thor'- 
i-tiz), government officers col- 

constitution (-tti'shun), n. the act 
of constituting ; the thing consti- 
tuted ; bodily strength ; mental or 
physical temperament; the system 
of fundamental laws of a nation, 
state or society. 

constitutional (-al), adj. inherent 
in the constitution ; fundamental : 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; bo5% 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


n. a walk taken for the benefit of 
the health. 

constitutionalist (-ist), n. an ad- 
herent to constitutional government. 
constitutive ('sti-tu-tiv), adj. ele- 
mental ; essential ; productive. 

constrain (kon-stran'), v.t. to hold 
dow^n or keep back by force ; re- 

constraint (-strant'), n. compul- 
constrict (-strikt'), 'V.t. to bind; 

constriction ('shun), n. compres- 
sion ; contraction. 

constrictive ('tiv), adj. that con- 

constrictor (-strik'ter), n. that 
which contracts or compresses ; a 
muscle which contracts, closes, or 
compresses ; a large serpent, the boa- 

constringent (-strin'jent), adj. con- 
tracting or binding. 

construct (kon-strukt'), v.t. to 
build ; form ; put together ; compose. 

construction (-struk'shun), n. the 
act of building ; that which is con- 
structed ; an edifice ; interpretation ; 
the syntactical arrangement of 
words in a sentence. 

constructive ('tiv), adj. having the 
character of construction ; inferred. 

constructively (-li), adv. by con- 

constructiveness (-nes), n. the fac- 
ulty to construct. 

constructor ('ter), n. one who con- 

construe (kon'stroo), v.t. to put into 
proper order by syntactical rules ; 
translate ; interpret. 

consubstantial ( -sub - stan'shal ) , 
adj. having the same substance, es- 
sence, or nature. 

consubstantiality (-shi-al'i-ti), n. 
participation in the same nature or 
essence : said of the Holy Trinity. 

consubstantiation (-shi-a'shun), n. 
the doctrine that the body and 
blood of Christ are in a mysterious 
manner substantially present in the 
Eucharistic elements after consecra- 

consul (kon'sul), n. the chief magis- 

trate of the Roman Republic, and of 
the French Republic (1799-1804) ; 
an officer commissioned by a gov- 
ernment to reside in a foreign 
country to promote the interests of 
its trade, and protect its subjects. 

consul-general (-jen'er-al), n.' sl 
chief consul. 

consular (-ar), adj. pertaining to a 

consulate ('su-lat), n. the office and 
residence of a consul. 

consult (kon-sulf), v.t. to ask advice 
of ; regard : v.i. to take counsel to- 

consultation (-sul-ta'shun), n. the 
act of consulting ; a conference or 
deliberation on some special matter. 

consultative ('ta-tiv), adj. delibera- 

consume (kon-stim'), v.t. to destroy; 
waste ; spend : v.i. waste away ; be 

consummate (kon'sum-at), v.t. to 
complete; finish: adj. (kon-sum'at), 

consummately (-sum'at-li), adv. 

consummation (-a'shun), n. com- 

consumption (-sump'shun) , n. the 
act of consuming ; a gradual wast- 
ing away ; pulmonary • disease ; 

consumptive ('tiv), adj. pertaining 
to consumption; affected with 

contact (kon'takt), n. touch; close 

contagion (kon-ta'jun), n. transL'.mis- 
sion of disease by direct or indirect 

contagious ('jus), adj. transmitted 
by contact. 

contain (kon-tan'), v.t. to hold, as a 
vessel ; keep within bounds ; inclose : 
v.i. to live in continence. 

contaminate (-tam'i-nat), v.t. to 

contamination (-na'shun), n. pol- 

contaminative ('i-na-tiv), adj. tend- 
ing to contaminate. 

contemn (kon-tem'), v.t. to despise. 

contemplate ('plat), v.t. to con- 

L ate, arm, 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; bOon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



sider with continued attention ; 
meditate on ; study. 

contemplation (-pla'shun), n. the 
act of contemplating ; pious medita- 
tion ; intention. 

contemplative ('pla-tiv), adj. 

contemplatively (-li), adv. thought- 

contemplator (kon'tem-pla-ter), n. 
one who contemplates. 

contemporaneous (-po-ra'ne-us), 
adj. contemporary. 

contemporary ('po-ra-ri), adj. ex- 
isting Or occurring at the same time : 
n. one living at the same time as 

contempt (kon-tempt'), n. disdain; 
scorn ; disobedience to the orders, 
&c., of a court. 

contemptible ('i-bl), adj. meriting 

contemptibly (-bli), adv. in a con- 
temptible manner. 

contemptuous ('u-us), adj. disdain- 

contend (kon-tend'), v.i. to strive m 
opposition ; vie [with with or 
against] ; dispute or debate ; assert. 

content (kon-tenf), adj. satisfied; 
willing : v.t. to satisfy ; gratify ; ap- 
pease : n. (con'tent), generally plu- 
ral, that which is comprised in any- 

contented ('ed), p.adj. gratified; 

contention (-ten'shun), n. contest; 

contentious (-ten'shnis), adj. caus- 
ing contention ; quarrelsome ; liti- 
contentment (-tent'ment), n. satis- 
conterminous (-ter'mi-nus), adj. 

contest (kon-test'), v.t. to dispute; 
oppose ; litigate : v.i. to strive ; con- 
tend ; vie: n. (kon'test) a struggle 
for superiority; dispute. 
contestant (-tes'tant), n. one who 
contests, especially an election, or a 
will. , ^ . 

context (kon'tekst), n. the parts in 
a book or discourse immediately ad- 
joining the sentence quoted. 
contexture (-teks'tur), n. structure. 

contiguity (-ti-gti'i-ti), n. contact. 

contiguous ( -tig'ti-us ) , adj. adjacent. 

continence (kon'ti-nens), n. chasti- 
ty ; self-restraint ; moderation. Alsa 

continent ('ti-nent), adj. chaste; 
exercising self-restraint : n. a large 
extent of land forming a geograph- 
ical division. 

continental ('al), adj. pertaining to 
a continent. 

contingence (kon-tin'jens), n. [pi. 
contingencies ('jen-siz)], a chance 
or possible occurrence. Also con- 

contingent ('jent), adj. accidental; 
conditional : n. a possibility ; quota 
of troops. 

continual ('ti-al), adj. proceeding 
without interruption ; incessant ; 

continually (-li), adv. without in-' 

continuance ('u-ans), n. perma- 
nence ; uninterrupted succession ; 

continuation (-u-a'shun), n. the act 
of continuing. 

continue (kon-tin'ii), v.t. to carry on 
without interruption ; persist in : v.i.. 
to remain ; abide ; endure ; perse- 

continuity (-ti-nu'i-ti), n. [pi. con- 
tinuities (-tiz)], uninterrupted suc- 
cession or connection ; cohesion. 

continuous (-tin'u-us), adj. uninter- 

contort (kon-tort'), v.t. to twist. 

contortion (-tor'shun), n. a twist; 

contortionist (-ist), n. an acrobat 
who contorts his body in perform- 
ing gymnastics. 

contour (kon-toor'), n. an outline; 
profile : v.t. to make an outline of. 

contraband, (kon'tra-band), adj.. 
prohibited from importation ; illegal. 

contraband o£ war (wawr), n. cer- 
tain commodities used in warfare, 
and the traffic in them with belliger- 
ent states. 

contrabandist (-ist), n. a smuggler. 

contrabass© (-tra-bas'so) , adj. 
sounding an octave lower than an- 
other instrument of the same class: 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl 

me, merge, met ; mite, 
book; hue. hut; think, 

mit ; 

note, nCrth, not ; boon,. 


n. the largest instrument of the vio- 
lin class, the double-bass. 

•contract (kon-trakt'),i;.;f. draw closer 
together ; shorten ; condense : v.i. to 
shrink up ; bargain ; agree upon : n. 
(kon'trakt) a compact; a written 

iContractibility (trak-ti-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality or capability of being 

-contractile (-trak'til), adj. having 
the power of shortening itself. Also 

contractility (-trak-til'i-ti), n. the 
power of contracting. 

contraction (-trak'shun), n. the act 
of contracting ; the state of being 
contracted ; the reduction of two 
vowels or syllables into one ; abbre- 

contractor (-trak'ter), n. one of the 
parties to a contract ; one who con- 
tracts to supply or construct for a 
stipulated sum. 

contra-dance (kon'tra-dans), n. a 
dance in which the partners are ar- 
ranged in opposite lines ; a country- 
dance. Also contre-dance. 

contradict (kon-tra-dikt'), v.t. to as- 
sert the contrary or opposite of ; 
gainsay ; deny. 

contradiction (-dik'shun), n. the 
act of contradicting ; denial ; incon- 

contradictorily (-dik'to-ri-li), adj. 

contradictory (-dik'to-ri), adj. con- 

contradistinction ( - dis - tingk ' - 
shun), n. a distinction by opposite 

contradistinctive ('tiv), adj. char- 
acterized by contradistinction. 

contradistinguish (-ting'gwish) ,v.#. 
to distinguish by opposite qualities. 

contralto (kon-tral'to), n. the part 
sung by the highest male {counter- 
tenor) or the lowest female voice 

contrariety (-tra-ri'i-ti), n. [pi. con- 
trarieties (-tiz)], opposition; in- 

contrarily ('tra-ri-li), adv. in a con- 
trary manner. 

contrariness ('tra-ri-nes), n. con- 

contrari^vise ( 'tra-ri-wiz ) , adv. con- 

contrary ('tra-ri), adj. opposite; in 
an opposite direction ; perverse ; 
wayward : n. a thing of opposite 

contrast (kon-trast') , v.t. to place in 
contrast; compare: n. (kon'trast) 
opposition or difference of qualitiea 
made manifest by comparison ; dis- 

contravallation (-val-a'shun), n. ^ 
fortification thrown up round a city 
by a besieging force for security 
against the enemy's sallies. 

contravene ( kon-tra-ven' ) , 'y.^. to ob- 
struct ; violate. 

contravention (-ven'shun), n. oppo- 
sition ; violation. 

contre-dance, same as contra-dance. 

contretemps (kong-tr-tang'), n. an 
unexpected event causing confusion ; 
a hitch. 

contribute (kon-trib'ut), v.t. to give 
to some common stock ; furnish as a 
share : v.i. to use one's influence. 

contribution (-tri-bu'shun), n. the 
act of contributing ; a subscription ; 
tax ; a writing furnished to a period- 

contributive (-trib-u'tiv), adj. con- 

contributor ('ti-ter), n, one who 

contributory ('ti-to-ri), adj. pro- 
moting the same end. 

contrite (kon'trit), adj. penitent. 

contritely (-li), adv. penitently. 

contriteness (-nes), n. penitence; 

contrition (-trish'un), n. sorrow for 

contrivance (-tri'vans), n. Si device; 
apparatus ; scheme ; plan. 

contrive (kon-triv'), v.t. to devisej 
invent ; plan ; scheme. 

control (kon-trol'), n. a check; re- 
straint ; superintendence ; authority : 
v.t. [p.t.. & p.p. controlled: 
controlling], to restrain; govern; 

controllable ('a-bl), adj. subject to 

controller ('er), n. one who con- 
trols ; a public ofiBcer who oversees 
and verifies the accounts of subor- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, ndrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 


dinate officials. Less correctly comp- 

CGUitroversial (-tro-ver'shal), adj. 

controversialist (-ist), n. a dispu- 

controversially (-li), adv. in a con- 
troversial manner. 

controversy ('tro-ver-si), n. [pi. 
controversies (-siz)], agitation of 
contrary opinions ; debate ; disputa- 

controvert (-tro-vert'), v.t. to con- 
tend against ; refute ; disprove. 

controvertible (-ver'ti-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of being disputed. 

controvertibly (-bli), adv. in a con- 
trovertible manner. 

controvertist (-ver'tist), n. a dis- 

contumacious (-tii-ma'shus), adj. 
perverse ; obstinate. 

contumacy ('tu-ma-si), n. [pi. con- 
tumacies (-siz)], obstinate or per- 
verse opposition to lawful authority. 

contumelious (-tii-me'li-us) , adj. 
haughtily contemptuous or offensive ; 

contumely ('tu-me-li), n. [pi. con- 
tumelies (-liz)], haughty and con- 
temptuous rudeness ; scornful and 
insolent abuse. 

contuse (kon-tuz'), v.t. to wound or 
bruise without breaking the skin. 

contusion (-tu'zhun), n. the act of 
contusing ; the state of being con- 

conundrum (ko-nun'drum), n. a rid- 

convalesce - (kon-va-les'), v.i. to re- 
cover strength and health after ill- 

convalescence ('ens), n. gradual re- 
covery after illness. Also convales- 

convalescent ('ent), adj. recovering 

convene (kon-ven'), v.i. to meet to- 
gether : v.t. cause to assemble ; sum- 
mon judicially. 

convenience (-ve'niens), n. fitness; 
freedom from discomfort ; accommo- 

convenient ('nient), adj. suitable; 
appropriate ; affording accommoda- 
tion ; handy. 

convent (kon'vent), n. a community 
of religious recluses ; a nunnery ; 

conventicle (-ven'ti-kl), n. an as- 
sembly for worship [usually imply- 
ing schism]. 

convention (-ven'shun), n. a polit- 
ical or ecclesiastical assembly; a 
diplomatic agreement. 

conventional (-al), adj. sanctioned 
by, or growing out of, custom or 
tacit agreement ; based on accepted 
models or artistic rules. 

conventionalism (-al-izm), n. that 
which, is received as established by 
usage, &c. 

conventionality (-al'i-ti), n. [pi. 
conventionalities (-tiz)], adherence 
to conventional rules or precedents; 

conventionally (-li), adv. in a con* 
ventional manner. 

converge (kon-verj'), v.i. tend to 
one point. 

convergence ('ens), n. [pi. conver- 
gencies ('en-siz)], tendency to one 

convergent ('ent), adj. tending to 
one point. 

conversable (kon-vers'a-bl), social; 
inclined to converse. Also conversi- 

conversant (kon'ver-sant), adj. ac- 
quainted or familiar with; profi- 

conversation (-sa'shun), n. infor- 
mal or familiar talk. 

conversational (-al), adj. pertaining 
to conversation. 

conversationist (-ist), oi. one who 
excels in conversation. Also con- 

conversazione (-ver-sat-ze-o'ne), n. 
[pi. conversazioni ('ne)], a meeting 
for conversation, especially on lit- 
erary or scientific topics. 

converse (kon-vers'), v.i. to inter- 
change thoughts ; talk familiarly : 
adj. & 11. (kon-vers) reversed in 
order or relation ; opposite ; ac- 
quaintance ; familiar talk. 

conversely (-li), adv. reciprocally. 

conversion (-ver'shun), n. change 
from one state, or from one religion, 
to another. 

convert (kon-vert'), v.t. to trans- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, ;t7ien. 




mute ; change from one religion to 
another ; cause to undergo a moral 
change ; apply to any use : n. ( kon'- 
vert) one who changes from one 
religion to another ; one who has un- 
dergone a moral change. 

converter ('er), n. one who con- 
verts ; an iron retort used for con- 
verting pig iron into steel in the 
Bessemer process ; a kind of electri- 
cal induction coil. 

convertibility ('i-ti), n. the qual- 
ity of being convertible. 

convertible ( kon-ver'ti-bl ) , adj. 
transmutable ; interchangeable. 

convex (kon'veks), adj. curved on the 
exterior surface: opposed to con- 
cave : n. a convex body. 

convexity ('i-ti), n. roundness. 

convexo-concave ('o-kon'kav), adj. 
convex on one side, concave on the 

convey (kon-va'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
conveyed, conveying], to carry 
or transport ; transmit ; impart ; 
communicate; transfer the title to 

conveyance ('ans), n. the act or 
means of conveying; a vehicle; the 
transference of property from one 
owner to another. 

conveyancer ('ans-er), w. a lawyer 
who draws up deeds, &c., transfer- 
ring property. 

conveyancing ('ans-ing), w. the busi- 
ness of drawing deeds, leases, &c., 
and investigating titles to property. 

convict (kon-vikt'), v.t. to prove or 
pronounce guilty of a crime charged : 
n. (kon'vikt) a criminal sentenced 
to penal servitude. 

conviction (-vik'shun), n, the act of 
convicting ; the state of being con- 
victed ; strong belief. 

convince (kon-vins'), v.t. to satisfy 
by evidence or argument ; persuade ; 
cause to believe. 

convivial ( kon-viv'i-al ) , adj. festive ; 

conviviality ('i-ti), n. good fellow- 

convivially (-li), adv. festively. 

convocation (kon-vo-ka'shun), ^. the 
act of convoking an assembly, es- 
pecially of bishops and beneficed 

clergy, or heads of a university ; an 
assembly of clergy. 

convocational (-al), adj. pertaining 
to a convocation. 

convoke (kon-vok'), v.t. to call or 
summon together ; convene. 

convolute (kon'vo-lut), adj. rolled 
upon itself; twisted. Also convo- 

convolution (-Iti'shun), n. a rolling 

convolve (-volv'), v.t. to roll to- 

convoy (kon-voi'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
convoyed, convoying], to ac- 
company on the way for protection, 
by sea or land: n. (kon'voi) a pro- 
tecting force accompanying ships, 
goods, persons, &c. ; an escort. 

convulse (kon-vuls'), v.t. to agitate 
violently ; shake ; affect with convul- 

convulsion (-vul'shun), n. an agita- 
tion ; tumult ; a violent and unnat- 
ural contraction of the muscles. 

convulsive (-vuls'iv), adj. producing 

cony or coney (ko'ni), n. \_pl. conies 
('niz)], a rabbit. 

coo (koo), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cooed, 
cooing], to cry like a dove or pi- 
geon ; to act or converse in a loving 
manner : n. the sound uttered by 
doves and pigeons. 

cook (kook), v.t. to prepare for eat- 
ing by boiling, baking, or roasting: 
v.i. to act as a cook : n. one who 
prepares food for the table. 

cookery ('er-i) , n. [pi. cookeries 
( -iz ) ] , the art or practice of cook- 

cooky ('i), n. [pi. cookies ('iz)], a 
small flat sweet cake. Also cookie. 

cool (kool), adj. [compar. cooler, 
superl. coolest], slightly or moderate- 
ly cold ; calm ; deliberate : v.t. to 
make cool : v.i. to become cool. 

cooler ('er), n. that which cools; a 
vessel for cooling liquids, &c. 

coolie (koo'li), n. an East Indian 
porter : adj. pertaining to coolies. 

coolly ('li), adv. in a cool manner. 

coolness ('nes), n. the state of being 

coom (koom), n. matter which col- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



lects at the naves of wheels, &c. ; 
soot ; coal-dust. 

coon (koon), n. abbreviation of rac- 
coon ; a sly knowing person ; slang 
name for a negro : v.i. to creep along 
the branch of a tree like a racoon. 

coop (koop), n. a cage; pen: v.t, to 
confine in, or as in, a coop ; inclose. 

cooper ('er), n. a maker of barrels, 
casks, &c. ; a beverage, half stout 
and half porter ; vessel that sells 
spirits, tobacco, &c., to fishermen, 
especially on the North Sea. 

cooperage ('er-aj), n. the business or 
workshop of a cooper ; price for 
cooper's work. 

cooperant (ko-op'er-ant), adj. coop- 

cooperate ('er-at), xi.i. to act or 
work jointly ; concur to produce the 
same effect. 

cooperation (-a'shun), n. the act of 
working jointly together ; concur- 

cooperative ('er-a-tiv), adj. promot- 
ing jointly the same end. 

cobperator ('er-a-ter), n. one who 
acts or labors conjointly with oth- 

coordinate (-or'di-nat), v.t. to place 
in the same order, class, &c. ; har- 
monize : adj. of the same rank or 
authority as another : lines or 
other elements by which the position 
of any point is determined by a fixed 
figure or lines. 

coordinately (-li), adv. in the same 
rank, &c. 

coordination (-na'shun), n. state of 
being coordinate. 

coot (koot), n. a short-tailed water- 

cop (kop), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. copped, copping], to seize as a prison- 
er ; throw underhand : n. a police- 

copaiba (ko-pa'ba), n. a resinous 
balsam from various South Ameri- 
can and West Indian trees : used as 
a medicine. Also copaiva. 

copal (ko-pal), n. a gum-resin: used 
in varnishes. 

cope (kop), n. a large semi-circular 
ecclesiastical vestment, worn by 
bishops and priests over the surplice. 

cope (kop), v.i. to strive or contend 
(followed by with). 

copeck (ko'pek), n. a Russian coin, 
— 1-lOOth rouble. Also kopeck. 

Copernican (ko-per'ni-kan), adj» 
pertaining to the astronomical sys- 
tem of Copernicus, which conceived 
the sun to be its center. 

copier (kop'i-er), n. a transcriber; 

coping (ko'ping), n. the top masonry 
of a wall. 

copiotis ('pi-us), adj. abundant; dif- 

copper (kop'er), n. a red, ducjtile, 
malleable, tenacious metal ; a boiler : 
v.t. to cover with copper. Also cop- 

copper (kop'er), n. a policeman. 

copperhead (-hed), n. a venomous 
American serpent. 

copperplate (-plat), n. a polished 
copper plate on which something is 
engraved for printing : adj. pertain- 
ing to the art of engraving on cop- 

coppice (kop'is), n. same as copse. 

copse (kops), n. a thicket of brush- 
wood : v.t. to cut and trim as brush- 
wood : v.i. to preserve or plant 

copula Cu-la), n. [pi. copulas, or .^e 
(az, -e)], a word which joins the 
subject and predicate in a sentence 
or proposition. 

copulate ('u-lat), v.i. to have sexual 

copulation (-la'shun), n. sexual in- 

copulative (-la'tiv), adj. uniting: w. 
a copulative conjunction. 

copy (kop'i), n. [pi. copies ('iz)], an 
imitation ; a transcript ; a writing 
exercise ; an original work : v.t. to 
transcribe ; reproduce : v.i. imitate. 

copyist (-ist), n. one who copies. 

copyright (-rit), n. the exclusive 
right of an author in his literary or 
artistic work for a prescribed num- 
ber of years. 

coquet (ko-ket'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. co- 
quetted, coquetting], to flirt; 
seek to attract attention or admj. 
ration ; trifle. 

coquetry (ko'ket-ri), n. [pi. coquet 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not : boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, ttiQn. 



ries (-riz)], the act of coquetting; 

coquette (ko-ket')» w- a vain woman 
who seeks to gain men's attention 
and admiration. 

coral (kor'al), t., the hard calcareous 
skeleton of certain marine polyps ; 
the unimpregnated roe of the lob- 
ster : adj. pertaining to coral. 

coralline ('al-in), adj. consisting of, 
or like, coral ; of a color like coral : 
n. an orange-red dye stuff. 

corbeil (kor'bel), n. a little basket 
filled with earth, used in sieges to 
shelter troops. 

corbel ('bel), n. a projection of stone, 
wood, or iron to support some mass, 
often ornamented with grotesque fig- 
ures ; a sculptured basket of flowers, 
fruit, &c. 

cord (kord), n. a twisted string; a 
measure of wood — 128 cub. ft. (8 
ft. long 4 ft. high, 4 ft. broad) ; a 
moral influence : v.t. to fasten or 
connect with cord. 

cordage ('aj), n. a quantity of cords 
or ropes ; ropes and rigging collec- 

cordate (kor'dat), adj. heart-shaped. 

cordelle ('del), n. a twisted rope or 
tassel ; a tow-rope. 

cordial (kor'jal), adj. hearty; sin- 
cere ; cheering : n. a medicine that 
increases the strength and restores 
the spirits ; an aromatic and sweet- 
ened spirit. 

cordiality ('i-ti), n. sincere sympa- 
thetic geniality ; sincerity ; hearti- 

cordiform ('di-f6rm), adj. heart- 

cordilla (-dil'a), n. coarse German 

Cordillera (-dil-ya'ra), n. a continu- 
ous ridge or chain of mountains. 

cording (kord'ing), n. the ribbed sur- 
face of a twilled fabric. 

cordon (kor'don), n. a ribbon worn 
as the badge of an order ; a band ; a 
course of projecting stones forming 
the coping of a scarf wall ; a line of 
military posts. 

cordon bleu (bioo), n. the highest 
distinction in any profession ; a first- 
class cook. 

oordonnet (-do-na'), n. the slightly- 

raised border of a point-lace pat- 
tern ; edging made of piping. 

cordovan ('do-van), n. a Spanish 
leather made of goatskin, or split 
horsehide tanned and dressed. Also 

corduroy ('dti-roi), n. a stout ribbed 
or corded cotton ; piled fustian : v.t. 
to construct (a corduroy road). 

corduroy road (rod), n. a roadway 
formed of logs laid side by side 
across swampy ground, &c. 

cordivainer (kord'wa-ner), n. a 
worker in leather ; a shoemaker. 

core (kor), n, the heart or innermost 
part of anything, especially of fruit : 
v.t. to remove the core from ; to 
mold or cast on a core. 

co-respondent (ko-re-spond'ent), n. 
a joint respondent in a divorce suit. 

coriaceous (ko-ri-a'shus), adj. like 

coriander (kor-i-an'der), n. an um- 
belliferous plant, the seeds of which 
are used as a carminative. 

Corintbian (ko-rin'thi-an), adj. of, 
or pertaining to, Corinth, a cele- 
brated city of Greece, noted for its 
luxury and licentiousness ; luxuri- 
ous ; conducted by amateurs ; noting 
the Corinthian order of architecture : 
n. a man about town ; a gentleman 
yachtsman, or sportsman. 

corintbian bronze (bronz), n. an 
alloy of fine quality originally pro- 
duced at Corinth. 

corintbian order (Or'der), n. the 
lightest and most ornate of the clas- 
sic orders of architecture, with a 
bell-shaped capital, and ornamented 
with acanthus leaves. 

corium (ko'ri-um), n. the innermost 
layer of skin of the cuticle. 

cork (kork), n. the outer layer of the 
bark of the cork tree, a species of 
oak ; a stopper for a bottle : adj. 
made of cork. 

corky ('i), adj. made of, or like, cork. 

cormorant (kor'mo-rant), n. a div- 
ing bird that preys voraciously on 
fish; a glutton. 

corn (korn), n. grain, as wheat, bar- 
ley, &c. ; maize, or Indian corn ; 
plants that yield grain ; breadstuff. 

corn (korn), n. a horny excrescence 
as with salt in grains. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl 

me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



corn (korn), n. a horny excrescence 
on the toe, or foot.' 

corn-cob ('kob), n. the spike of an 
ear of Indian corn. 

cornea, (kor'ne-a), n. the horny circu- 
lar transparent membrane which 
forms the anterior portion of the 

cornelian (-ne'lian), n. a semi-trans- 
parent variety of chalcedony. Also 

corner (kor'ner), n. an angle; a re- 
tired place ; a mercantile ring to mo- 
nopolize some product : v.t. to drive 
or force into some position of diffi- 
culty from which there is no escape. 
corner the market, to buy up a 
commodity so as to monopolize it. 

corner-stone (-ston), n. the princi- 
pal stone. 

cornet ('net), a kind of trumpet. 

cornflo-wer ('flour), H. any wild 
plant growing in the cornfields, espe- 
cially the bluebottle. 

cornice ('dIs), n. the highest projec- 
tion or border on a wall or column. 

cornstarch ( 'starch ) , n. starch made 
from meal of Indian corn ; used for 
puddings, &c. 

cornucopia (kor-nu-ko'pi-a), n. [pi. 
cornucopise (-e), or -as (-az)], the 
horn of plenty represented in sculp- 
ture, as overflowing with fruit, flow- 
ers, &c. 

cornuted (-tit'ed), adj. horned. 

corolla (ko-rol'a), n. the inner envel- 
ope of a flower composed of two or 
more petals. 

corollaceous (kor-ol-la'shus), adj. 
pertaining to, or resembling, a co- 

corollary (kor'ol- or ko-rol'a-ri), n. 
an additional deduction or inference 
drawn from a demonstrated propo- 

corona (ko-ro'na), n. [pi. coronse 
• ('ne)], a crown; the flat projecting 
part of a cornice ; the upper surface 
of a molar tooth ; a halo surround- 
ing heavenly bodies ; any crown-like 
appendage at the top of an organ of 
a plant. 

coronal (kor'o- or ko-ro'nal), adj. 
pertaining to the corona : n. a crown, 
or garland. 

coronation (kor-o-na'shun), n. the 
act or ceremony of crowning a sov- 

coroner (kor'o-ner), n. an officer who 
inquires into cases of sudden or ac- 
cidental death. 

coronet ('o-net) , n. an inferior 
crown ; an ornamental head-dress ; 
the bone immediately beneath a 
horse's hoof. 

coronium (ko-ro'ni-um), n. sl recent- 
ly discovered element, lighter than 

corporal (kor'po-ral), adj. relating 
to the body ; opposed to the mind : n. 
a communion cloth ; a corporale ; a 
non-commissioned officer of the low- 
est grade. 

corporally (-li), adv. bodily; phys- 

corporate (-rat), adj. united in a 
body or community by legal enact- 

corporation (-ra'shun), n. a body 
politic having a common seal, and 
legally authorized to act as one indi- 
vidual ; a protuberant stomach. 

corporator (-ra-ter), n. a member of 
a corporation, especially an original 

corporeal (-po're-al), adj. having a 
material body ; physical. 

corporeality ('i-ti), n. the state of 
being corporal. 

corps (kor), n. [pi. corps (korz)], a 
body of troops ; a body of persons 
associated in a common work. 

corps diplomatique (dip-lo-ma- 
tek'), n. the ministers accredited to 
a government. 

corpse (korps), n. a dead body. 

corpulence (k6r'pu-lens), n. exces- 
sive fatness of body. Also corpu- 

corpulent (-lent), adj. bulky; fat; 
having a large, fleshy body. 

corpus ('pus), n. [pi. corpora ('po- 
ra)], a body; collection; the chief 
part of an organ. 

Corpus Christi (kris'ti), (Latin the 
body of Christ), a Roman Catholic 
festival (the first Thursday after 
Trinity Sunday) in honor of the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


corpuscle ('pus-1), n. a minute par- 

corpuscular (-pus'kti-lar), adj. per- 
taining to, or composed of, corpus- 

corral (kor-ral'), n. a pen for live 
stock ; an inclosure with wagons ; a 
strong stockade for capturing wild 
elephants: v.t. [p.t. & p.p. corralled, corralling], to drive into, or 
secure in, a corral ; to take posses- 
sion of, or capture ; corner. 

correct (ko-rekf) , v.t. to set straight ; 
rectify ; punish faults ; amend : adj. 
exact ; accurate ; free from error ; 
conforming to a fixed rule or stand- 

correction ('shun), n. the act of cor- 
recting ; chastisement. 

correctional (-al), adj. tending to 

corrective ('tiv), adj. able to cor- 
rect : n. that which corrects ; an an- 

corrector ('ter), n. one who corrects. 

correlate (kor-e-laf), v.i. to be re- 
ciprocally related : adj. reciprocally 

correlation (-la'shun), n. recipro- 
cal relation ; similarity or parallel- 
ism of relation or law ; the interde- 
pendence of functions, organs, nat- 
ural forces, or phenomena. 

correlative (-el'a-tiv), adj. having 
reciprocal or mutual relation : n. the 
antecedent of a pronoun. 

correlatively (-li), adv. in a correl- 
ative relation. 

correspond (kor-e-spond'), v.i. to be 
adequate to ; agree ; suit ; answer ; 
communicate by letters. 

correspondence ('ens), n. communi- 
cation by letters ; mutual adapta- 
tion ; congruity. 

correspondent Cent), adj. agreeing 
with ; similar : n. one with whom in- 
tercourse is maintained by letters ; 
one who sends news to a journal. 

corridor (kor'i-dor), n. a gallery or 
open passage in a building. 

corrigible (kor'ij-i-bl), adj. capable 
of being amended, corrected, or re- 

corroborate (kor-rob'or-at), i;.f. con- 
firm ; strengthen ; establish verify. 

corroboration (-ra'shvm), n. verifi- 

corroborative ('6-ra-tiv), adj. veri- 
fying ; confirmative. 

corroboratory ('o-ra-to-ri), adj. 
tending to corroborate. 

corrode (kor-od'), v.t. to eat away 
gradually ; consume ; disintegrate. 

corrodible (-o'di-bl), adj. capable of 
being corroded. Also corrosible. 

corrosion (kor-o'zhun), n. the act of 
corroding ; a corroded condition. 

corrugate ('oo-gat), v.t. to draw, or 
shape, into wrinkles or folds. 

corrugated iron (irn), w. sheet-iron 
pressed into alternate parallel ridges 
and grooves and galvanized. 

corrugation (-ga'shun), n. the act 
of corrugating ; a fold or wrinkle. 

corrupt (kor-upf), v.t. to turn from 
a sound to an unsound and putres- 
cent state ; make impure ; vitiate or 
deprave ; seduce ; bribe : v.i. to be- 
come putrid : adj. depraved ; putrid : 
spoiled ; abounding in errors ; open 
to bribery. 

corruptibility (-up-ti-bil'i-ti), w. the 
state or possibility of being cor- 

corruptible (-up'ti-bl), adj. capable 
of being corrupted ; subject to decay ; 
susceptible of being bribed. 

corruption (-up'shun), n. the act of 
corrupting ; the state of being cor- 
rupted ; physical dissolution. 

corsage (kOr'sazh) , n. a bodice ; 

corsair ('sar), n. a pirate. 

corse (k6rs), n. poetic for corpse. 

corset ('set), n. a bodice: pi. a pair 
of stays : v.t. to inclose in corsets. 

corslet ('let), n. light body armor, 

cortege (kor-tazh'), n. a train of at- 
tendants ; retinue ; procession. 

Cortes (kor'tez), n.jjl. the national 
and legislative assembly of Spain 
and Portugal. 

cortex (kor'teks), n. [pi. cortices 
('ti-sez)], outer bark or covering. 

cortical ('ti-kal), adj. consisting of, 
or like, bark ; external. 

corundum (ko-run'di^m), n. a min- 
eral of extreme hardness. 

coruscate (ko-rus' or kor'us-kat), v.i. 
to sparkle ; flash. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


coruscation (kor-us-ka'shun), n. a 
sudden liash or play of light. 

corvette (kor-vef ) , n. a. sloop of war. 

corvine ('vin), adj. pertaining to a 

cosey, cosy (ko'zi), adj. & n. same 
as cozy. 

cosily (ko'zi-li), adv. snugly. 

cosmetic (koz-met'ik), ad;, imparting 
or improving beauty : n. a wash or 
preparation for such a purpose. 

cosmic (koz'mik), adj. pertaining to 
the universe and the laws which gov- 
ern it ; rising or setting with the 
sun. Also cosmical. 

cosmism ('mizm), n. Herbert Spen- 
cer's evolutionary philosophy. 

cogmogony (-mog'o-ni), n. a. treatise 
on the world's origin. 

cosmography (-mog'ra-fi), n. the 
science which treats of the constitu- 
tion of the whole system of worlds, 
or the earth as part of the universe : 
it includes geography, astronomy, 
and geology. 

cosmology (-mol'o-ji), n. the science 
which investigates the origin of the 

cosmopolitan (-mo-pol'i-tan), n. a 
citizen of the world. Also cosmopo- 
lite : adj. at home in any part of the 

cosmorama (-mo-rii'ma), n. an exhi- 
bition of views, &c., of various parts 
of the world realistically produced. 

cosmos (koz'mos), n. the world or 
universe as an orderly system : op- 
posed to chaos. 

Cossack (kos'ak), n. one of a war- 
like tribe of Southern Russia, skilled 
as horsemen : adj. pertaining to Cos- 

cost (kost), v.t. to be bought for, or 
had at, a price ; cause to bear or 
suffer : n. charge ; expense ; labor : 
pi. law charges. 

3osta (kos'ta), n. [pZ. costse ('te)], a 

costal Ctfil), adj. pertaining to a rib. 

costate ('tat), adj. ribbed. 

costermonger ('ter-mung-ger) , n. a 
hawker of fruit, vegetables, fish, &c. 

costive Ctiv), adj. constipated. 

costume (kos'tum), n. dress in gen- 
eral ; style of dress ; a walking or 
tailor-made dress: v.t. (kos-tum'), 

to dress in, or provide with, appro- 
priate costumes. 

cosy, another form of cozy. 

cot (kot), n. a cottage; small bed. 

cotangent (ko-tan'jeut) , n. the tan- 
gent of the complement of an arc or 

cote (kot), n. a hut; a sheepfold. 

cotemporary, cotemporaneous, &c., 
same as contemporary, &c. 

coterie (ko-te-re'), n. an association 
or set of persons united together for 
social or other intercourse ; a clique. 

coterminous. Same as contermi- 

cotillion (-til'yun), n. a brisk, lively 
dance for eight or more persons ; 
music for such a dance ; a black and 
white woolen skirt material. Also 

cottage (kot'aj), n. a small dwelling. 

cotter, cottier, cottar, abbreviations 
for cottager : n. one who dwells in a 
cottage ; one who lives rent free on 
a common ; a wedge for tightening 

cotton (kot'n) , n. a white, soft, 
downy substance resemblkig wool 
enveloping the seeds of the cotton- 
plant ; cotton thread or cloth : adj. 
pertaining to, or made of, cotton : 
v.i. to fit or go well together ; be very 
intimate (with). 

cotton-gin (-jin), n. a machine for 
separating the seeds from cotton 

couch (kouch), v.t. to place on a 
bed or other resting-place ; hide ; de- 
posit in a bed or layer ; express in 
words ; include : v.i. to lie down ; 
stoop ; depress or remove a cata- 
ract : n. a bed ; sofa ; a layer or 
stratum ; a preliminary coat of size, 
paint, &c. ; a layer of barley spread 
out for malting. 

couchant ('ant), adj. in heraldry, 
crouching or lying down. 

cougar (koo'gar), n. the puma. 

cougk (kof), v.i. to expel air from 
the lungs by a violent effort : v.t. to 
expel from the lungs (followed by 
wp) : n. an effort of the lungs, at- 
tended with noise, to expel irritating 
or foreign matter. 

could (kood), p.t. of can. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 


coulomb (koo-lom'), n. the electrical 
standard unit of quantity = a cur- 
rent of one ampere per second. 

coulter (kol'ter), n. a ploughshare. 

council (coun'sil,) n. an assembly of 
persons met in consultation, or to 
give advice ; a convocation ; a mu- 
nicipal body. 

councillor (-er), n. a member of a 
common council. 

councilman (-man), n. [pi. council- 
men (-men)], a member of a mu- 
nicipal council. 

counsel ( 'sel ) , n. interchange of opin- 
ion ; advice ; consultation ; deliberate 
purpose or design ; a barrister : v.t. 
ip.t. & p.p. counseled, coun- 
seling], to give advice to; advise. 

counselor (-er), n. one v^ho gives ad- 
vice, especially legal advice ; a mem- 
ber of a council. 

count (kount), n. a title of nobility. 

count (kount), v.t. to reckon or sum 
up ; enumerate ; place to an ac- 
count ; esteem : v.i. to tell off ; mark 
time : n. the act of numbering or 
reckoning ; the total ascertained ; a 
separate and distinct charge in an 
indictment ; rhythm. 

countenance (koun'te-nans), n. the 
whole form of the face ; appearance ; 
support : v.t. to support ; encour- 
age ; favor. 

counter ('ter), n. one who, or that 
which, counts ; a shop table ; imita- 
tion money ; a counter-tenor : a 
horse's breast between the shoulders 
and under the neck ; a ship's stern 
between the water-line and the 
knuckle of the stern ; a blow given 
in parrying : v.i. to give a blow while 
receiving or parrying one. 

counter ('ter), adv. contrary; ad- 
verse ; in an opposite direction ; the 
wrong way : used in composition, as 
counter-eYidence, evidence opposing 
other evidence ; cown^er-balance, to 
weigh or act against with equal force. 

counteract (-akt'), v.t. to act in op- 
position to so as to defeat or hinder ; 

counterfeit (koun'ter-fit), v.t. to 
make a copy of without authority 
for fraudulent purposes ; forge ; imi- 
tate : v.i. to carry on deception : adj. 

feigned ; spurious ; forged : n. an 
imitation ; a forgery. 

counterfeiting (-ing), n. the crime 
of making or uttering false coins 
or bank-notes. 

counterfoil (-foil), n. that part of a 
document, as a cheque, &c., retained 
by the drawer. 

counterfort (-fort), n. a buttress 
built at right angles to a wall or 
terrace ; a spur of a mountain. 

counter-light (-lit), n. a light op- 
posite any object, causing it to ap- 
pear to disadvantage. 

countermand (-mand), v.t. to re- 
voke or annul, as an order or com- 
mand ; contradict the orders of : w. a 
revocation of a former order or com- 

countermark (-mark), n. an addi- 
tional mark placed on goods for 
greater security ; the mark of the 
Goldsmiths' Company to indicate 
the standard quality of gold or sil- 
ver : v.t. to place a countermark 

counterpane (-pan), n. a bed cover- 

counter-parole (-pa-rol'), w. a word 
given in addition to the password. 

counterpart (-part), n. a duplicate. 

counterpoint (-point), n. the science 
of harmony. 

counterscarp (-skarp), n. the ex- 
terior slope of a ditch opposite the 

counter-sea (-se), n. a sea running: 
in an opposite direction to the wind. 

counterseal (-sel), v.t. to seal with 
others : n. the reverse side of a pen- 
dent seal attached to a document. 

countersign (-sin'), v.t. to authenti- 
cate by an additional signature : n. 
(koun'ter-sin) an additional signa- 
ture to a document to attest it ; a 
military watchword. 

countersink (-singk), v.t. to drill (a 
conical depression) in timber or 
metal to receive a screw or bolt so- 
that the head is flush with the sur- 

countervail (~val), v.t. to compen- 
sate ; counteract ; counterbalance. 

countess (koun'tes), n. the wife of 
an earl or count. 

counting (kount'ing), n. reckoning. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon^ 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 


counting-liouse (-hous), n. the 
room where accounts or mercantile 
transactions are carried on. 

country (kun'tri), n. [pi. countries 
(-triz)], a tract of land; region; 
rural parts ; one's native land : adj. 
rural ; rustic ; unpolished. 

county (koun'ti), n. [pi. counties 
Ctiz) ], a definite district of a coun- 
try separated from the rest for po- 
litical or judicial administrative pur- 
poses : adj. pertaining to a county. 

coup (koo), n. a sudden telling blow, 
a master-stroke. 

coupe (koo- pa'), n. the front com- 
partment of a French stage-coach ; 
the end of a first-class carriage. 

couple (kup'l), n. two of the same 
kind connected together ; a pair ; 
man and wife ; a pair of equal and 
parallel forces ; two dissimilar metal 
plates in contact forming a voltaic 
battery : v.t. to link or join together ; 
unite in marriage : v.i. to copulate ; 

couplet (kup'let), n. two successive 
lines of verse which rhyme togethei*. 

coupon (koo'pon), n. sl certificate at- 
tached to transferable bonds, which 
is intended to be cut off and pre- 
sented for the payment of dividends 
when due ; a section of a ticket en- 
tilting the holder to some specified 
accommodation, &c., over a line or 
route to be traveled, or to a seat in 
a theater, &c. 

courage (kur'aj), n. fortitude; valor. 

courageous (-a'jus), adj. brave; 

courier (koo'ri-er), n. an express 
messenger ; a traveling attendant 
who makes preliminary arrange- 

course (kors), n. a race; a path or 
track ; career ; direction or line of 
motion ; regular sequence ; the por- 
tion of a meal served at one time ; 
conduct ; behavior ; the direction a 
ship is steered ; a continuous level 
range of brick or masonry of the 
same height ; the chase of a hare by 
greyhounds : pt. catamenia ; the sails 
set on the lower yards of a ship : 
v.t. to hunt : v.i. move swiftly ; en- 
gage in coursing. 

courser ('er), n. a swift and spirited 

horse; a war-horse; one who 
courses ; a running bird of the os- 
trich family. 

coursing ('ing), n. the sport of pur- 
suing hares with greyhounds. 

court (kort), n. an enclosed space; a 
small paved space surrounded by 
houses ; a royal palace ; the retinue 
of a sovereign ; a hall of justice ; 
the judges, &c., engaged there ; ad- 
dress ; civility ; flattery : v.t. to pay 
court to ; woo i flatter ; solicit. 

courteous (ker'te-us), adj. polite; 

courtesan ('te-zan), n. a prostitute. 

courtesy ('te-si), n. [pi. courtesies 
(-siz)], politeness combined with 
kindness ; civility. 

courtesy (kert'si), n. [pi. courtesies 
(-siz)], a salutation made by bend- 
ing the knees : v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cour- 
tesied, courtesying], to make 
a courtesy. 

courtier (kort'yer), n. one who fre- 
quents or attends court ; one who 
solicits the favor of another ; one 
having courtly manners. 

courtliness ('li-nes), n. elegance of 

courtly ('li), adj. refined; elegant. 

court-martial (miir'shal), n. [pi. 
courts-martial], a court of justice 
composed of naval or military offi- 
cers for the trial of disciplinary 

court-plaster ('plas-ter), n. a supe- 
rior kind of sticking-plaster, origi- 
nally used by ladies at court for or- 
namental patches on the face. 

courtsliip ('ship), n. the act of woo- 

courtyard ('yard), n. an inclosed 
space adjoining a house. 

cousin (kuz'in), n. the son or daugh- 
ter of an uncle or aunt ; a kinsman ; 
a title of address used by a sover- 
eign to noblemen. 

cousin-german (-jer'man), n. a 
first cousin. 

cove (kov), n. a small sheltered in- 
let or creek ; a retired nook ; a hol- 
low molding ; a fellow : v.i. to arch 

covenant (kuv'e-nant), n. a written 
agreement ; deed ; bargain ; a free 
promise of God's blessing ; a solemn 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hiie, hut ; think, then. 



agreement of fellowship and faith 
between members of a church : v.i. 
to enter into a formal agreement ; 
bind one's self by contract. 

covenanter (-er), n. one who enters 
into a covenant. 

cover (knv'er), v.t, to overspread, as 
the top of anything, with ssomething 
else : hide : save from punishment : 
shelter ; clothe : v.i. put on a head 
covering : n. that which is laid on 
something else ; a shelter ; a covert ; 
table furniture for one person : p). 
thickets, underwood, &c., concealiug 

covering (-ing), n. that which covers 
or protects ; dress. 

coverlet (-let), n. a bed quilt. 

covert (kuv'ert), adj. concealed; cov- 
ered ; disguised ; insidious ; under 
authority or protection ; said of a 
married woman : n. a place that pro- 
tects or shelters ; a thicket ; shelter 
for game. 

coverture ('er-ttir), n. a cover; shel- 
ter ; the status of a married woman. 

covet (kuv'et), v.t. to desire earnest- 
ly ; lust after : v.i. to indulge in in- 
ordinate desire. 

covetiveness ('et-iv-nes), n. ac- 

covetous (-us), adj. inordinately de- 
sirous, especially of money ; avari- 

covey (kuv'i)j n. a hatch or brood 
of birds, especially partridges. 

coving (kov'ing), n. the projection 
of the upper stories of a house over 
the lower. 

co-w (kou), n. [pi. cows (kouz)], the 
mature female of the genus Dos, or 
ox ; the female of various other ani- 
mals, as the whale, elephant, &c. : 
n. a wedge placed behind a crab or 
windlass to check its motion : v.t, to 
depress with fear. 

coward Curd), n. one without cour- 
age ; a dastard ; poltroon. 

cowardice (-is), n. dishonorable 

cow-bird ('herd), n. an American 
blackbird, so called from its accom- 
panying cattle. 

cowboy ('boi), n. a boy who looks 
after cows ; a mounted employee of 

a stockman or ranchman who looks 
after the cattle while grazing. 

cow-catcber ('kacii-er), n. a wedge- 
shaped iron frame in the front of a 
locomotive to remove obstructions 
on the rails. 

cower (kou'er), v.i. to crouch or sink 
down through fear ; tremble. • 

eowberd ('herd), n. a tender of cat- 

cowhide ('hid), n. the tanned and 
dressed skins of cows ; a stout flexi- 
ble whip made of raw hide : adj. 
made of cowhide leather : v.t. to 
chastise with a cowhide. 

cowl (koul), n. a monk's hood; a re- 
volving cover for a chimney pot. 

cowlick ('lik), n. a tuft of hair 
turned up or awry on the forehead. 

cowpox ('poks), n. a disease which 
affects the teats of cows, producing 
vesicles : from these the vaccine 
matter is obtained for inoculation 
against smallpox. 

cowrie ('ri), n. [pi. cowries (-riz)], 
a small glossy shell, used as money 
by some African tribes, and in Siam. 
Also cowry. 

cowslip ('slip), n. a species of prim- 

coxcomb ('kom), n. something re- 
sembling a cock's comb formerly 
worn by licensed jesters ; a vain^ 
pretentious, conceited fellow ; a fop. 

coxswain (,kok'sun), n. the steers- 
man of a boat, especially in a race- 

coy (koi), adj. modest: bashful; de- 

coyisb ('ish), adj. somewhat coy. 

coyly ('li). adv. in a coy manner. 

coyness ('nes), n. reserve; demure- 

coyote (koi-ot'. or ko-yo'ta), n. the 
prairie-wolf: v.i. (koi-ot') to search 
for gold single-handed, and as by 

cozen (kuz'n), v.t. to cheat. 

cozy (ko'zi), adj. warm and comforta- 
ble; snng : n. a woolen cover to keep 
a teapot warm. 

crab (krab), n. a short-tailed, stalk- 
eyed, ten-footed crustacean ; a crab- 
apple ; a sign (Cancer) in the Zo- 
diac ; a name of various mechanical 
devices or machines : ^l. the lowest 
cast at hazard : v.i. [p.t. & p.p. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boony 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 


crabbed, crabbing], to fish for 
crabs ; to back out. 

crabbed ('ed), adj. morose; hard to 

crabby ('i), ddj, crabbed. 

«rack (krak), n. a chink or fissure; 
a narrow fracture ; a sharp sound ; 
a sharp resonant blow ; an altered 
tone of voice : v.t. & v.L to burst, 
break, or sever ; utter a sharp, ab- 
rupt cry ; extol ; injure ; damage 
mentally ; open a bottle : adj. of su- 
perior excellence. 

cracked (krakt), adj. split; blem- 
ished ; broken ; insane ; legally im- 

cracker (krak'er), n. a hard biscuit; 
a firework ; a kind of bonbon ; a lie : 
pi. an instrument for cracking nuts. 

crackle (krak'l), v.i. to make a 
slight, sharp explosive noise : v.t. 
cover with a delicate network of 
minute cracks : n. a noise of fre- 
quent and slight cracks and re- 
ports ; a surface glaze on glass or 
porcelain ; the noise made by dis- 
eased lungs in breathing. 

crackling (krak'ling), n. small ab- 
rupt cracks or reports made fre- 
quently ; the browned crisp rind of 
roast pig. 

cracknel ('nel), n. a hard fancy 

cracksman ('s-man), n. [pi. cracks- 
men ('men)], a burglar. 

cradle (kra'dl), n. a baby's crib or 
little bed ; infancy ; birthplace or 
origin ; a case for a broken limb ; a 
device for rescuing shipwrecked per- 
sons ; a frame of timbers placed 
under a ship for launching it ; a 
steel tool used in engraving; a gold- 
washing machine ; a frame of wood, 
with long teeth, fastened to a 
scythe : v.t. to rock or place in a 
cradle ; nurse or train in infancy ; 
wash in a miner's cradle : v.i. to 
lie in a cradle. 
cradling ('dling), n. the open tim- 
bers or ribs of a vaulted ceiling. 
craft (kraft), n. manual skill; a 
trade ; cunning ; fraud ; a small 
trading vessel. 
craftily ('i-li), adv. cunningly. 
craftiness ('i-nes), n. cunning. 
craftsman (krafts'man), n. [pi. 

craftsmen ('men) ], a skilled artisan ; 
a member of a particular trade. 

crafty (craf'ti), adj. cunning; artful. 

crag (krag), n. a steep, rugged rock; 
shelly deposits in Pliocene strata. 

cram, (kram), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
crammed, cramming], to stuff; 
fill beyond satiety ; tell lies to : v.i. 
qualify speedily for an examination : 
to eat greedily : n. the act of cram- 
ming physically or mentally ; has- 
tily acquired knowledge ; a lie. 

cramp (kramp), n. a rectangular 
piece of iron with a tightening 
screw at one end ; a spasmodic mus- 
cular contraction of the limbs ; a 
piece of iron bent at both ends for 
holding : v.t. to affect with muscular 
spasms ; confine ; secure with a 

crampit (kram'pit), n. the metal tip 
of a scabbard, or staff. 

crampoons ('poonz), an ap- 
paratus like double calipers for rais- 
ing heavy weights. 

cranberry ('ber-ri), n. [pi. cranber- 
ries (-riz)], the marsh whortleber- 
ry, with red acid berries. 

crane (kran), n. a large wading bird 
with very long legs and neck, and a 
long straight bill ; a machine for 
raising heavy weights: v.t. to stretch 
or bend (the neck) like a crane : v.i. 
hesitate at a dangerous jump. 

cranial (kra'ni-al), adj. pertaining 
to the skull. 

craniology (-ni-ol'o-ji), n. the scien- 
tific study of skulls and their char- 

cranium ('ni-um), n. [pi. crania], 
the skull. 

crank (krangk), n. a device for caus- 
ing the rotation of an axis, or for 
converting rotary into reciprocal mo- 
tion, or the contrary ; an instru- 
ment of prison discipline like a 
paddle-wheel ; an iron brace ; a 
twist or turn ; a fantastic form of 
speech ; whim ; fancy ; a crotchety 
or impracticable person, especially 
one who has a monomania : adj. lia- 
ble to lurch or capsize; opposed to 
stiff : hence shaky. 

crankiness ('i-nes), n. the state or 
quality of being cranky. 

cranky ('i), adj. full of crotchets or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; booDi 
book; hue, hut; think, tMn. 




cranks ; liable to be upset ; in a 
shaky or loose condition. 

crannied (kran'id), adj. full of 

cranny ('ni), n. [p?. crannies ('niz)], 
a chink. 

crape (krap), n. a thin black gauze 
made of raw silk and gummed : v.t. 
to cover or drape with crape. 

crash (krash), v.t. to clash together 
with violence : v.i. to make a loud 
clattering noise : n. a loud, sudden, 
confused noise ; a coarse, heavy 
linen fabric. 

crass (kras), adj. gross; dense; ob- 

crate (krat), n. a wicker hamper. 

crater (kra'ter), n. the cup-shaped 
cavity of a volcano ; an ancient 

crannch. See crunch. 

cravat (kra-vaf), n. a neckcloth. 

crave (krav), v.t. to ask for with 
humility ; beg earnestly ; long for 

craven (kra'vn), adj. cowardly; 
base : n. a coward ; recreant. 

craving ('ving), n. a strong desire. 

craiv (kraw), n. a bird's crop. 

crawfish, (kraw'fish) or crayfish 
(kra') n. the common name of a 
fresh-water lobster-like crustacean ; 
the spiny lobster. 

crawl (krawl), v.i. move slowly and 
with difficulty ; creep : n. the act of 
crawling ; a pen on the sea-coast for 
fish, turtles, &c. 

crayon (kra'un), n. a kind of chalk 
pencil ; a drawing done with cray- 
ons ; one of the carbon points of an 
arc-light : adj. drawn with crayons : 
v.t. to^ sketch out, as with a crayon. 

crayonist (-ist), n. one who draws 
or sketches with crayons. 

craze (kraz), v.i. to become dement- 
ed ; open in slight cracks : v.t. to 
produce cracks ; render insane : n. 
a passing fashion or infatuation ; 
a crack in pottery glaze. 

crazily (-li), adv. in a crazy manner. 

craziness (-nes), n. the state of be- 
ing crazy. 

crazy (kra'zi), adj. insane; dilapi- 
dated ; foolishly eager. 

crazy- work (-werk), n. patchwork 
of irregular sized pieces of silk, &c. 

creak (krek), v.i. to make a sharp, 
harsh, grating sound : n. such a 

creaky ('i), adj. apt to creak. 

cream (krem), n. the rich, oily part 
of milk : hence the choicest part of 
anything ; a soft unctuous cosmetic : 
v.t. to skim cream from ; remove 
the best part of. 

cream of tartar (of tar'tar), n, 
purified tartar or argol. 

creamery ('er-i), n. [x)l. creameries 
(-iz)], a place where butter and 
cheese are made, or where cream, 
&c., are sold. 

cream-laid, adj. noting a paper of 
a creamy-white color, showing the 
lines of the mold impressed on it : 
opposed to cream-wove, which has 
no such lines. 

crease (kres), n. a mark made by 
folding or doubling anything ; a line 
drawn to define the limits of bowler 
and batsman : v.t. make a crease in. 

creasote. Another form of creosote. 

creatable (kre-at'a-bl), adj. that 
may be created. 

create (kre-af), v.t. to cause to come 
into existence ; form out of nothing ; 
invest with a new rank, office, or 
function : v.i. to originate. 

creatine ('a-tin), n. a white crystal- 
line substance in muscular tissue. 
Also kreatine. 

creation (-a'shun), n. the act of 
creating; the thing created; the 

creative ('tiv), adj. constructive. 

creator ('ter), n. one who creates. 

Creator, n. the Supreme Being. 

creature (kre'ttir), n. anything cre- 
ated, especially a living being ; one 
dependent on the influence^tof anoth- 
er : adj. of, or belonging to, the body. 

crSche (krash), n. a public nursery. 

credence (kre'dens), n. belief ; trust. 

credenda (-den'da), articles of 

credential (-den'shal), adj. giving a 
claim or title to credit : letters 
or certificates given to a person to 
show he has a right to confidence or 
the exercise of authority. 

credibility (kred-i-bil'i-ti), n. the 
quality of being credible. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, but; think, then. 




credible i'i-hl) , adj. worthy of cred- 
it ; probable. 

credibly (-bli), adv. in a credible 

credit (kred'it), v.t. to believe; 
trust ; have confidence in ; enter on 
the credit side of an account : n. 
belief ; honor ; trust reposed ; sale 
on trust ; time allowed for payment 
of goods sold. 

creditor (-er), n. one to whom an- 
other is indebted for money or 

credulity (-du'li-ti), n. ready belief. 

credulous (kred'u-lus), adj. easily 
imposed upon. 

creed (kred), n. a brief statement of 

creek (krek), n. a small bay; cove. 

creel (krel), n. a wicker fishing bas- 
ket ; a wickerwork cage : v.t. to put 
in a creel ; catch. 

creep (krep), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. crept, creeping], to move slowly 
along the ground, as a worm or rep- 
tile ; grow along the ground, as a 
plant ; move secretly or insidiously ; 

creeper ('er), n. one who, or that 
which, creeps ; a plant which clings 
by rootlets or tendrils to some sup- 
port ; the name of certain birds ; a 
wingless insect ; a kind of grapnel. 

creepy ('i), adj. shivering; chilled. 

cremate (kre'mat), v.t. to reduce to 
ashes by heat, especially dead bodies. 

cremation (-ma'shun), n. the act of 

cremator (-ma'ter), n. a furnace for 
consuming dead bodies, refuse, &c. 

crematory ('ma-to-ri), adj. pertain- 
ing to cremation : n. [pi. crematories 
(-riz)], a place for burning the 

crenate ('nat), adj. notched. 

crenellated (kren'el-a-ted), adj. dec- 
orated with indented moldings (cre- 

Creole (kre'ol), n. a native of Span- 
ish America or the West Indies, de- 
scended from European (originally 
Spanish) ancestors: adj. pertaining 
to a Creole. 

creosol ('o-sol), n. an oily liquid re- 
sembling phenol. 

creosote ('o-sot), n. a heavy oily 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl 

liquid with a smoky smell, prepared 
from wood-tar : used as an antisep- 
tic : v.t. to impregnate with creosote. 

crepitate (krep'i-tat), v.i. to make a 
slight, sharp, crackling noise. 

crepitation (-i-ta'shun), n. a low 
crackling noise. 

crepon (kre'pon), n. a thin crape- 
like material of wool, silk, or cotton. 

crept, p.t. & p.p. of creep. 

crescent (kres'ent), adj. growing: n. 
an increasing or new moon ; a figure 
like a new moon ; the Moslem pow- 
er : v.t. to form into a crescent. 

cresol (kre'sol), n. a phenol obtained 
from coal- and wood-tar. 

cress (kres), n. a name for various 
cruciferous plants, as the water- 

cresset ('et), n. a light set on a 
beacon ; an open frame of iron con- 
taining fire, used as a torch ; a 
cooper's implement. 

crest (krest), n. a plume of feathers 
on the head of a bird, helmet, &c. ; 
the ridge of a wave ; summit of a 
hill ; courage ; pride ; spirit : v.t. to 
furnish or adorn with a crest ; mark 
with lines or streaks : v.i. to take 
the form of a crest or ridge. 

crestfallen ('fawl-n), adj. dejected. 

cretaceous (kre-ta'shus), adj. com- 
posed of, or like, chalk ; chalky. 

cretonne (kre-ton'), n. an unglazed 
cotton fabric printed on one side. 

crevasse (krev-as'), n. a deep fissure 
in a glacier ice ; a breach in a levee 
or embankment of a river. 

crevice (krev'is), n. a crack; fissure. 

crew, p.t. of crow. 

crew (kroo), n. a ship or boat's com- 
pany ; a crowd or company of peo- 

crewel ('el), n. fine twisted worsted, 
&c., used in fancy work. 

crib (krib), n. a rack or manger; a 
stall for horses or cattle; a child's 
bed; a small lodging; a situation; 
a petty theft; a plagiarism; a lit- 
eral translation : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
cribbed, cribbing], to confine; 
steal ; plagiarize : v.i. make notes 
for dishonest use in an examination. 

cribbage ('aj), n. a card game. 

crick (krik), n. a painful stiffness of 

me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



the muscles of the neck, or local 

cricket ('et), n. the well-known game 
played with wickets, bats, and a 
ball, by eleven players on each side ; 
a chirping insect. 

cricketings (-ingz), a kind of 
fine twilled flannel. 

crier (kri'er), n. one' who makes a 
public proclamation. 

crime (krim), n. a violation of the 
law ; an offense against morality or 
the public welfare ; wrong-doing. 

criminal ('i-nal), adj. pertaining to 
crime : n. one guilty of a crime. 

criminality ('i-ti), n. guilt. 

criminate ('i-nat), v.t. to accuse, 
or declare guilty, of crime ; involve 
in a crime. 

crimination (-i-na'shun), n. accusa- 

criminology (-i-nol'o-ji), w. the sci- 
entific investigation of crimes and 

crimp (krimp), v.t. to bend or twist 
in regular undulations ; to cause to 
contract, as the flesh of live fish ; 
decoy for enlistment : n. formerly 
one who entrapped men for the En- 
glish navy or army, or the merchant 
service ; one who keeps a low lodg- 
ing-house for seamen. 

crimson (krim'zn), n. a deep red 
color inclining to purple : adj. crim- 
son-colored : v.t. to dye with crim- 
son : v.i. to blush. 

cringe (krinj), v.i. to bend or crouch 
from, fear or with servility : n. a 
servile bow. 

crinkle (kring'kl), v.t. to wrinkle; 
corrugate : v.i. to be corrugated or 
crimped : n. a wrinkle ; bend. 

crinoline (krin'o-lin), n. a hoop- 
skirt ; a stiff fabric for stiffening a 

cripple (krip'l), v.t. to deprive of the 
use of a limb ; disable : n. one who 
is lame. 

crippling ('ling), n. spars or tim- 
bers used to support the sides of a 

crisis (kri'sis), n. [pi. crises (-sez)], 
a turning point ; a critical turn in 
a disease ; emergency ; conjuncture. 

crisp (krisp), adj. wavy; curled; 
brittle ; cheerful ; terse ; sparkling : 

v.t. to curl ; ripple : v.i. to form 
little curls ; become friable. 

crispate ('at), adj. curled. 

Crispin ('in), n. a shoemaker: in 
allusion to St. Crispin, the patron 
saint of shoemakers. 

criss-cross ('kros), n. an intersec- 
tion ; a child's game played with 
O's and X's : adj. going backwards 
and forwards. 

criterion (kri-te'ri-on), n. [pi. cri- 
teria (-a)], a standard, law, or 
rule by which a correct judgment 
can be formed. 

crith (krith), n. a unit of mass, 
used for gases = 1 liter of hydro- 
gen. . 

critic (krit'ik), n. one skilled in criti- 
cism ; one who judges captiously. 

critical (-al), adj. nicely exact; 
skilled in criticism ; censorious ; 
pertaining to the turning point of a 

critically (-li), adv. in a critical 

criticise ('i-siz), v.t. to examine or 
judge as a critic ; censure : v i. to 

criticism ('i-sizm), n. the art of 
jvidging and defining the merits of a 
literary or artistic work ; censure. 

critique (kri-tek'), n. a careful an- 
alysis of a literary or artistic pro- 

croak (kr5k), v.i. to make a sound 
like a raven, &c. ; grumble : n. the 
low, hoarse sound of the raven or 

crochet (kro-sha'), n. a kind of knit- 
ting with a hooked needle, in cot- 
ton, wool, &c. : v.t. to work in cro- 

crock (krok), n. soot on a kettle, 
&c. ; an earthenware pot or vessel : 
v.t. to blacken with soot ; smudge. 

crockery ('er-i), n. earthenware. 

crocket ('et), n. an ornament era- 
ployed to decorate the angles of 
spires, canopies, &c. ; one of the 
ends of a stag's horn. 

crocodile ('o-dil, or -dll), n. a large 
lizard-like amphibian reptile, with 
hard square scales on its back and 

crocus (kro'kus), n, a genus of irida- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




ceous plants, from one species of 
which saffron is obtained. 

croft (kroft), n. a small farm, or in- 
closed field. 

crofter ('er), n. a small farmer of 
Western Scotland, who rents and 
tills a small farm. 

cromlech (krom'lek), n. an ancient 
monument of rough stones with one 
hue:e flat stone resting horizontally 
upon others. 

crone (kron), n. an old woman. 

crony ('ni), n. [pi. cronies ('niz)], 
a familiar friend. 

crook (krook), n. a bend; a shep- 
herd's hooked staff ; a bishop's staff ; 
a swindler : v.t. to bend : v.i. to be 

croon (kroon), v.i. to utter a hollow 
continued moan ; sing in a soft, 
plaintive tone. 

crop (krop), n. the produce of the 
ground, as corn, &c. ; a bird's craw ; 
a stout hunting whip ; hair cut 
close or short : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
cropped, cropt, cropping], to 
cut off the tops or ends of anything ; 
reap ; mow ; cause to bear a crop : 
v.i. appear unexpectedly ; to sprout. 

cropping-out (-out), n. the appear- 
ance at the surface of a lode of 
metal, or seam of coal. 

croquet (kro-ka'), n. a lawn game 
played with mallets, balls, and 
hoops : v.t. to drive away, as an op- 
ponent's ball after placing one's own 
in contact with it. 

croquette (-kef), n. ball of mince- 
meat, fish, or fowl, seasoned and 
fried brown. 

crosier (kro'zher), n. a bishop's staff. 

cross (kros), n. a gibbet of wood 
formed of an upright and a cross 
piece, used in the punishment of 
crucifixion : now the emblem of the 
Christian faith ; a device resembling 
a cross ; a mark made on a docu- 
ment by those who cannot write ; a 
trial of patience ; an animal of a 
cross-breed : v.t. to put, or draw, 
across ; cancel ; pass ; thwart ; ob- 
struct ; make the sign of a cross 
upon ; to cause to interbreed : v.i. to 
be athwart ; be inconsistent ; inter- 
breed : adj. falling athwart ; not 

parallel ; fretful ; perverse ; untrac- 

cross-bill ('bil), n. a bill brought by 
a defendant against a plaintiff pray- 
ing for relief ; a bird with a cross- 
shaped bill. 

crossbow ('bo), n. a shooting weap- 
on, having a bow across the stock. 

cross-breed ' ('bred), n. an animal 
produced by a male and female of 
different varieties. 

cross-examination ( -eg-zam-i-na'- 
shun), n. the questioning of a wit- 
ness by his own, or the opposing, 

cross-grained ('grand), adj. with 
an irregular grain or fiber ; con- 
trary or awkward in temper. 

crossing ('ing), n. the action of the 
verb to cross ; a path across ; inter- 
section ; opposition. 

cross-jack (kro'jak), n. the lower 
yard on the mizzen-mast. 

crossly ('li), adj. athwart; peevish- 

cross-purpose ('per-pus), n. a con- 
trary purpose : pi. a game of ques- 
tions and answers. 

cross-question (-kwes'chun), v.t. 
to cross-examine. 

cross-sea ('se), n. a chopping sea, 
in which the water runs in different 

cross-stitck ('stich), n. a stitch 
formed of two stitches of the same 
length, the one crossing the other. 

cross-tie ('tl), n. a railroad sleeper. 

cross-trees ('trez), short pieces 
of timber at the upper ends of the 
lower and top masts, to support the 

cross-wind ('wind), n. a side, or un- 
favorable, wind. 

cross-wise ('wiz), adv. across; cross- 

crotch (kroch), n. a hook or fork. 

crotchet ('et), n. a musical note = 
l-4th a semibreve ; a bracket ; a 
whim or fancy. 

crotchety ('et-i), adj. whimsical; 

croton-bug (kro'tun-bug), w. a small 
active winged cockroach. 

croton-oil (-oil), n. a viscid vege- 
table oil expressed from the seeds 
of a tropical plant. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



croucli (krouch), v.i. to stoop low: 

croup (kroop), n. the rump or but- 
tocks of certain animals ; the place 
behind the saddle ; inflammation of 
the trachea and larynx, with a 
hoarse cough and difficult breath- 

croupier ('pi-er), n. one who pre- 
sides at a gaming table and collects 
or pays out the money won or lost ; 
a vice-chairman. 

croupy Cj), adj. affected with croup. 

crow (kro), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. crowed, 
crew, crowing], to make a 
shrill sound like a cock ; boast in 
triumph ; utter a cry of pleasure : 
n. the cry of a cock ; a general name 
for birds of the genus Corvus, us- 
ually black, and with a strong con- 
ical bill. 

crowbar ('bar), n. an iron lever. 

crowd (kroud), n. sl number of per- 
sons or things collected closely to- 
gether ; the populace : v.t. to press 
closely together ; fill to excess ; im- 
portune, as for a debt : v.i. to press 
in numbers. 

crown (kroun), n. a royal head-dress 
worn as the insignia of sovereignty ; 
regal power ; a wreath ; the top ; an 
English silver coin (5s) ; the cor- 
ona of a flower ; the upper part of a 
tooth ; a size of printing paper ( 15 
X 20 in.) : v.t. to invest with a 
crown ; adorn or dignify ; complete ; 

crown-glass ('glas), n. finest win- 

crow's-foot (kroz'foot), n. the ra- 
nunculus ; a caltrop ; an arrange- 
ment of cords to suspend an awning : 
pi. wrinkles under the eyes. 

crow's-nest ('z-nest), n. sl look-out, 
or watch-tower, on the main-top- 
mast crosstrees of a whaling vessel. 

croy (kroi), n. marsh land; an in- 
closure for taking fish. 

crucial ( kroo'shial ) , adj. cruciform ; 
intersecting ; severe ; searching. 

crucible ('si-bl), n. sl melting-pot. 

crucifier ('si-fi-er), n. one who cru- 

crucifix ("si-fiks), n. [pi. crucifixes 
(-ez)], a cross with the sculptured 
figure of Christ. 

crucifixion (-si-fik'shun), n. the act 
of crucifying, especially the cruci- 
fixion of Christ upon the cross ; 
great mental trial, or suffering. 
cruciform ('si-form), n. cross- 
crucify ('si-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cru- 
cified, crucifying], to put to 
death by nailing the hands and feet 
to a cross ; torture ; destroy the 
power of (Gal. v. 24). 
crude (krood), adj. in a natural 
state ; unripe ; raw ; immature ; un- 
cultured ; harsh in color. 
crudely ('li), adv. in a crude man- 
crudeness ('nes), n. the quality of 

being crude. 
crudity ('i-ti), n. [pi. crudities 
(-tiz)], the state or condition of 
being crude. 
cruel (kroo'el), adj. disposed to give 
pain to others ; merciless ; hard- 
hearted ; fierce ; painful ; unrelent- 
ing : adv. very. 
cruelly (-li), adv. in a cruel manner. 
cruelty ('ei-ti), n. [pi. cruelties 

(-tiz)], inhumanity; savageness. 
cruet ('et), n. a small glass vial. 
cruise. Same as cruse. 
cruise (krooz), v.t. to sail to and fro; 
wander about : n. a voyage from 
place to place for warlike purposes, 
or for pleasure. 
cruiser ('er), n. a person, or ship, 

that cruises ; fast warship. 
crumb ( krum ) , n. the soft inner part 
of bread ; a fragment of bread ; a 
little piece : v.t. to dress with 
crumble ('bl), v.t. to break into 
crumbs ; cause to fall into pieces : 
v.i. to disappear gradually. 
crummy ('i), adj. having crumbs; 

crumpet ('pet), n. a soft tea-cake. 
crumple ('pi), v.t. to press into 
wrinkles ; rumple : v.i. to become 
crunch (krunch), v.t. to crush with 
the teeth : grind violently : v.i. to 
chew audibly : n. the act of crunch- 
crupper (krup'er), n. the buttocks of 
a horse ; the looped leather band 

ate, arm, a: 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



passing round a horse's tail : v.t. 
to put a crupper on. 

©rural (kroo'ral), adj. pertaining to 
the leg or thigh ; leg-shaped. 

crusade (kroo-sad'), n. sl mediaeval 
military expedition under the ban- 
ner of the cross by any one of the 
Christian powers to recover the 
Holy Land ; vigorous concerted ac- 
tion for the defense of some cause, 
or the advancement of some idea: 
v.i. to engage in a crusade. 

cruse (kroos), n. an earthen pot or 
dish; a small vessel for holding 

cruset (kroo'set), n. a goldsmith's 

crush (krush), v.t. to press between 
two opposite bodies ; squeeze ; break 
by pressure ; bruise ; ruin ; quell : 
v.i. to be pressed out of shape or 
into smaller compass : n. a violent 
compression or collision. 

crush-hat ('hat), n. a collapsible 

crust (krust), n. a hard external 
coating or rind ; the exterior solid 
part of the earth's surface ; a shell 
or hard covering : v.t. to cover over 
with crust : v.i. to contract into a 
hard covering. 

Crustacea (krus'ta'shi-a), a 
prime division of the Orthropoda, 
comprising crabs and lobsters. 

crustacean ('shi-an), adj. pertaining 
to the Crustacea : n. one of the Crus- 

crustaceous (-ta'shi-us), adj. shelly. 

crusty (krus'ti), adj. like a crust; 
rough in manner ; surly ; snappish. 

crutch (kruch), n. a support for 
cripples ; any mechanical device like 
a crutch ; the forked rest on a 
woman's saddle. 

cry (kri), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cried, 
crying)], to call aloud; proclaim; 
exclaim vehemently ; implore ; re- 
quire redress ; shed tears : v.t, to 
utter loudly and publicly in giving 
notice : n. loud or passionate utter- 
ance, especially of weeping or lam- 
entation ; an exclamation of won- 
der or triumph ; outcry ; clamor ; 
acclamation ; proclamation ; common 
report ; a pack of hounds ; a battle 
cry ; a party catchword or phrase. 

crying ('ing), p. adj. specially de- 
manding notice ; notorious ; urgent. 

cryolite ('o-lit), n. a fluoride of so- 
dium and aluminium: the source of 

crypt (kript), n. a subterranean cell 
or vault, usually under a church: 
sometimes used as a chapel or 

cryptic ('ik), adj. hidden; secret. 

Cryptogamia (krip-to-ga'mi-a), n. 
pi. in the Linnean system, a class 
of flowerless plants, as mosses, 
ferns, &c. 

cryptogram ('to-gram), n. a writ- 
ing, or a system of writing, in 

cryptography (-tog'ra-fi), n. the 
art of writing in cipher or secret 

crypton (krip'ton), n. an element of 
the atmosphere^ recently discovered. 

cryptonym ('to-nim), n. a secret 

crystal (kris'tal), n. an inorganic 
body having a definite geometrical 
form ; a glass of superior clearness ; 
anything transparent and clear : adj. 
consisting of crystal ; clear ; trans- 

crystalline ('ta-lin), adj. pertaining 
to, or having the form of, a crystal ; 
clear ; transparent. 

crystallization (-li-za'shun), n. the 
act of crystallizing. 

crystallize ('tal-iz), v.t. to cause to 
form crystals or a crystalline struc- 
ture : v.i. to be converted into crys- 
tals ; assume a definite shape. 

crystallography (-log'ra-fi), n. the 
science of the forms and structure 
of crystals. 

cub (kub), n. the young of certain 
animals, as the fox. 

cubage (ku'baj), n. the act of de- 
termining the contents of a solid ; 
the contents so measured. 

cubby-hole (kub'i-hol), n. a snug 

cube (kub), n. a regular solid body 
with six equal square sides or faces ; 
the product obtained by multiplying 
the square of a quantity by the 
quantity itself, as 5 X 5 X 5 = 
125, cube of 5: v.t. to raise to the 
third power, or cube. 

ate, arm, 

:, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




cube root ('root), n. the first power 
of a cube, as 5 of 125. 

cubeb (ku'beb), n. the small spicy- 
berry of a species of pepper ; Java 

cubic ('bik), adj. having the form 
or properties of a cube. Also cubic- 

cubically (-al-li), adv. in a cubic 

cubit ('bit), n. an ancient measure 
of about 18 inches ; the forearm 
from the elbow to the wrist. 

cubo-cube ('bo-kub), n. the square 
of the cube, or the sixth power of a 
number, as 729 = 3^ 

cucking-stool (kuk'ing-stool), n. a 
kind of chair in which disorderly 
females, scolds, &c., were placed and 

cuckold (kuk'old), n. the husband of 
an adulteress ; the burdock. 

cuckoo (kook'oo), n. a passerine 
bird with a dark plumage and 
curved bill : so named from its char- 
acteristic note. 

S5ucuiixber ( ku'kum-ber ) , n. sl creep- 
ing plant, the elongated fruit of 
which is used as a salad, and as a 

cud (kud), n. food brought from the 
first stomach of a ruminating ani- 
mal back into the mouth and chewed 

cuddle (kud'l), v.t. to embrace close- 
ly : v.i. to lie close or snug : n. a 
close embrace. 

cudgel (kuj'el), n. a short thick 
stick : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cudgeled, cudgeling], to beat with a 

cue (kti), n. the tail or end of a 
thing_^ a queue ; a hint ; the last 
word of an actor's speech ; the part 
one has to play ; a number of per- 
sons waiting ranged in a line ; the 
tapering rod used in billiards. 

cuff (kuf), n. a blow; the ornamental 
fold of the sleeve of a garment at 
the wrist : v.t. to strike with the 

cuirass (kwe-ras'), n. a breastplate. 

cuirassier (-er'), n. a cavalry soldier 
armed with a cuirass. 

cuisine (kwe-zen'), n. the kitchen of 

a hotel, &c. ; style or quality of 

cul-de-sac (koo'de-sak), n. [pi. culs- 
de-sac], a passage open only at one 
end ; a position in which an army 
finds itself when hemmed in and no 
exit but in front. 

culinary (kti'li-na-ri), adj. pertain- 
ing to the kitchen, or the art or pro- 
cess of cooking. 

cull (kul), v.t. to pick out; select; 

culminate ('mi-nat), v.i. to reach 
the highest point of altitude, rank, 
power, &c. ; come to the meridian. 

culmination (-na'shun), n. the at- 
tainment of the highest point ; the 
transit of a planet through the me- 

culpability (-pa-bil'i-ti), n. liability 
to blame. 

culpable ('pa-bl), adj. deserving cen- 
sure ; criminal ; blameworthy. 

culpatory ('pa-to-ri), adj. censuring, 

culprit Cprit), n. one arraigned he- 
tore a judge ; one accused of a crime' 
or fault. 

cult (kult), n. a particular ritual oi^ 
system of worship ; a subject of 
special sljudy ; devoted or extrava- 
gant homage or adoration. 

cultcb (kulch), n. materials forming: 
a spawning bed for oysters ; oyster- 

cultivate (kul'ti-vat), v.t. to till? 
improve by care, labor, or study ; 
seek the society of. 

cultivation (-va'shun), n. the act of 
cultivating ; tillage ; culture. 

cultivator ('ti-va-ter), n. one who, 
or that which, cultivates ; a farmer ; 
an agricultural implement. 

cultural ('tur-al), adj. pertaining to 

culture ('tur), n. tillage; the train-' 
ing or refining of the moral or in- 
tellectual faculties ; care given to , 
the growth and development of ani- 
mals and plants ; the propagation 
of bacteria for scientific study. 

culverin ('ver-in), n. a long cannon 
of the 16th century with serpent- 
shaped handles. 

culvert ('vert), n. a drain or water- 
way of masonry or brickwork under 
a road, &c. 

ate, arm, ask. 

awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut: think, then. 


cumber (kum'ber), v.t. to hinder; 
embarrass ; oppress ; perplex. 

Gumbersome (-sum), adj. burden- 
some ; unwieldy. 

cumbrous ('brus), adj. troublesome; 
vexatious ; heavy ; obstructing. 

cumin (kum'in), n, a plant, with 
warm aromatic bitterish seeds. Also 

cumulative (kti'mu-la-tiv), adj, 
augmenting or giving force ; in- 
creasing by successive additions. 

cumulative vote (vot), n. a system 
of voting by which a voter votes for 
each candidate, or gives all his votes 
to one. 

^cumulus (kum'u-lus), n. [pi. cumuli 
(-li)], a cloud in round woolly 

cuneate (kti'ne-at), adj. wedge- 

cuneiform (-i-f6rm), adj. having the 
form of a wedge : said of the wedge- 
shaped characters of the Assyrian 
and ancient Persian inscriptions. 
Also arrowhead. 

cunning (kun'ing), adj. crafty; sly; 
designing ; subtle : n. deceit ; crafti- 
ness ; the natural instinct of an 

cup (kup), n. a small drinking ves- 
sel ; something shaped like a cup ; a 
chalice ; a piece of plate offered as 
a prize ; a vessel for drawing blood : 
pi. repeated potations : v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. cupped, cupping], to bleed 
by means of a cupping-glass : v.i. to 
strike or indent the ground with 
a golf-club when striking the ball, 

cupboard (kub'erd), n. a closet fit- 
ted with shelves for holding cups, 
plates, &c. 

cupel (kti'pel), n. a shallow porous 
vessel in whirh gold and silver are 
refined : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cupeled, cupeling], to refine (precious 
metals) from lead in a cupel. 

cupellation (-pel-a'shun), n. the act 
of refining in a cupel. 

cupful (kup'fool), n. [pi. cupfuls 
Cfoolz)], as much as a cup will 

cupidity (ku-pid'i-ti), n. covetous- 

cupola Cpo-la), n. [pi. cupolas 

(-laz) ], a spherical cup-shaped roof ; 
a revolving shot-proof turret. 

cupreous ('pre-us), adj. coppery. 

cupric Cprik), adj. pertaining to cop- 

cupriferous (-prif'er-us), adj. yield- 
ing copper. 

cuprite ('prit), n. red oxide of cop- 

cupule ('pill), n. a little cup, as of 
the acorn ; a small cup-shaped 

cur (ker), n. a mongrel dog; a surly, 
ill-bred person. 

curable (kur'a-bl), adj. remediable. 

curacy (ku'ra-si), n. the office or dis- 
trict ^of a curate. 

curari (-ra'ri), n. a black resinoua 
substance prepared from the bark 
of a South American tree, used by 
the natives for poisoning their ar- 
rows : it is a powerful anaesthetic. 

curarine ('rin), n. an alkaloid ex- 
tract of curari of a more deadly 

curarize ('riz), v.t. to poison by cu- 

curassoiv (-ras'o), n. a large galli- 
naceous South American bird. 

curate (ku'rat), n. a clergyman who 
assists a vicar or incumbent. 

curative ('ra-tiv), adj. pertaining to 
the cure of diseases ; promoting 
cure : n. that which cures or serves 
to cure. 

curator (-ra'ter), n. the superintend- 
ent of a museum, art gallery, &c. 

curb (kerb), v.t. restrain; keep in 
subjection ; furnish with, or as 
with, a curb : n. that which checks, 
restrains, or subdues ; a part of a 
horse's bridle ; a curbstone. 

curbing (kerb'ing), n. curbstones 
collectively ; material for curbstones. 

curbstone ('ston), n, the stone-edge 
of a path. 

curd (kerd), n. the coagulated part 
of milk, containing casein : v.t. to 
cause to curdle. 

curdiness ('i-nes), n. the state of 
being curdy. 

curdle (ker'dl), v.t. to thicken into 
curd : v.i. to coagulate. 

curdy ( 'di ) , adj. like, or full of, curd. 

cure (ktir), n. restoration to health; 
the act, or art, of healing ; spiritual 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not; booHj 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 


charge ; the office of a parish priest 
or curate : v.t. to heal ; restore to 
health ; set free from ; preserve by 
cure (ku-ra'), n. in France, a Roman 

Catholic parish priest. 
curfe-w (ker'fti), n. a bell originally 
rung at 8 p. m. as an intimation 
that fires and lights were to be ex- 
curio Cri-o), n. [pi. curios (-oz)], 

bric-a-brac; a curiosity. 
curiosity (-os'i-ti), n,. [pi. curiosities' 
(-tiz) ], the quality of being curious ; 
inquisitiveness ; something strange 
or rare. 
curioso (-o'so), w. [pZ. curiosi ('si)], 

a ^virtuoso. 
curious ('ri-us), adj. desirous to see 
or know something new or strange ; 
inquisitive ; scrutinizing ; exact ; ex- 
curl (kerl), n. a ringlet of hair; an 
undulation or bend ; a disease in 
fruit trees and potatoes : v.t^ to 
twist into ringlets ; crisp ; coil ; raise 
in undulations ; curve : v.i. to con- 
tract or bend into ringlets ; move 
in spirals or undulations ; become 
curled ; play at the game of curling. 
curler ('er), n. one who curls; one 

who plays at the game of curling. 
curle-w ('lu), n. migratory short- 
tailed wading bird with a long 
curved bill. • 

curling ('ling), n. a popular Scottish 
game played on the ice T^th smooth, 
flat, cheese-shaped stones, fitted with 
curly ('li), adj. having curls; wavy. 
curmudgeon (-mud'jun), n. a grasp- 
ing, churlish fellow; a niggard. 
currant ('ant), n. a small variety of 
dried grape ; the well-known shrub 
and its berry. 
currency ('en-si), n. a continual 
passing from hand to hand ; unin- 
terrupted course ; the circulating 
monetary medium of a nation used 
by authority. 
current ('ent), adj. widely circu- 
lated ; passing from hand to hand ; 
now passing, as time ; generally ac- 
cepted or credited ; prevalent ; com- 
mon : n. a flow or passing : said of 
fluids ; body of air or water flowing 

in a certain direction ; general tend- 
curricle ('i-kl), n. a two- wheeled 
chaise drawn by two horses abreast. 
curriculum (-ik'u-lum), n. [pi. cur- 
ricula (-la)], a course; a prescribed 
course of study in a university, 
school, &c. 
currier ('i-er), n. a leather dresser. 
currish ('ish), adj. snappish; quar- 

curry (kur'i), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. curried, currying], to dress (leather) 
after tanning; beat; flatter; dress 
or clean (a horse). 

curry (kur'i), n. [pi. curries ('iz)], 
a highly-spiced East Indian sauce ; a 
stew of rice, fowl, &c., flavored with 
curry : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. curried, 
currying], to cook or flavor with 

curry-comb (-kom), n. a metallic 
comb, used in grooming horses. 

curse (kers), n. an imprecation of 
evil ; that which brings or causes 
evil or trouble ; a profane oath : 
v.t. to imprecate evil upon ; cause 
evil to ; anathematize : v.i. to swear. 

cursed (ker'sed), p.adj. under a 
curse ; hateful ; unsanctified. 

cursorial (-s6'ri-al), adj. adapted 
for running or walking. 

cursorily ('so-ri-li), adv. hastily. 

cursory ('so-ri), adj. hasty; superfi- 

curst, p.p. of curse. 

curt ( kert ) , adj. abrupt ; short. 

curtail (ker-tal'), v.t. to cut short; 

curtailment ('ment), n. the act of 

curtain ('tin), n. a textile hanging 
screen which can be drawn up or 
set aside at pleasure ; the part of 
the rampart and parapet between 
two bastions or grates : v.t. to in- 
close in, or as with, curtains. 

curtsy (kert'si), n. [pi. curtsies 
('siz)], a salutation made by bend- 
ing the knees. Also curtsey : v.i. 
[p.t. & p.p. curtsied, curtsy- 
ing], to make a curtsy. 

curvate (ker'vat), adj. bent; curved. 

curvation (-va'shun), n. the act of 

curvature ('va-ttir), n. a bending. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 



curve (kerv), adj. bent without 
angles : n. sl bending without angles ; 
a draughtsman's instrument for 
forming curves : v.t. to bend. 
curvet (ker' or ker-vet'), n. a partic- 
ular leap of a horse; a frisk or 
bound : v.L to leap as a horse ; frisk 
or bound. 
curvilineal (-vi-lin'e-al), or curvi- 
linear (-ar), adj. consisting of, or 
bounded by, curved lines. 
curving ('ving), n. a curve; bend. 
cusliiou (koosh'un), n. a pillow or' 
soft pad for sitting or reclining upon ; 
a pillow used in lace-making ; the 
elastic rim of a billiard-table : v.t. 
to seat upon a cushion ; furnish with 
a cushion : v.i. make the cue-ball 
strike against the cushion. 
cusp (kusp), n. the horn of a cres- 
cent ; a sharp rigid point ; a spear- 
shaped architectural ornament. 
cuspidal (kus'pi-dal), adj. ending in 

a point. 
cuspidate ('pi-dat), adj. furnished 

with a sharp, spear-like point. 
cuspidor ('pi-dor), n. a spittoon. 
custard ('terd), n. a composition of 
eggs and milk, &c., baked or boiled. 
custodian (-to'di-an), n. one who 

has the care of anything. 
custody ('to-di), n. guardianship; 

imprisonment ; security. 
custom ('tum), n. frequent or habit- 
ual repetition of the same act ; es- 
tablished usage ; business support ; 
unwritten law ; duties on imported 
or exported goods : v.i. to be ac- 
custom house (hous), n. a building 
where duties are paid on exported 
or imported goods, and vessels are 
entered and cl_eared. 
customary (-a-ri), adj. habitual; 

conventional ; common. 
customer (-er), n. a purchaser. 
cut (kut), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. cut, 
cutting], to cleave or separate with 
a sharp instrument ; make an in- 
cision in ; divide ; trim ; castrate ; 
excavate ; intersect ; abridge ; di- 
minish ; pass deliberately without 
recognition; wound deeply; divide (a 
pack of cards) at random; strike (a 
ball ) so as to send it at right angles 
to the batsman : v.i. to make an in- 

cision ; perform the work of an 
edged instrument ; grow through the 
gums : n. an incision or wound made 
by a sharp instrument ; gash ; a 
sharp stroke ; a sarcastic remark ; 
a trench, channel, «&;c., made by dig- 
ging ; a slice ; a near passage ; a 
block on which an engraving is 
cut ; the fashion of a garment ; 
shape ; deliberate ignoring of an ac- 
quaintance ; the division of a pack 
of cards ; a particular stroke in 
cricket, and lawn tennis ; a diminu- 
tion in price below another mer- 
chant : adj. divided or separated ; 
gashed ; having the surface orna- 
mented or fashioned ; not wrought 
or hand-made. 

cut-glass (kut'glas), n. flint glass 
cut into facets or figures. 

cut-off ('of), n. a short or straight 
road ; a new shorter channel cut by 
a river across a bend ; a device for 
stopping steam from entering a cyl- 

cut-out ('out), n. a switch-like con- 
trivance to cut off an electric light 
from the circuit. 

cut-throat ('tkrot), n. a murderer; 

cutaneous (ku-ta'ne-us), adj. per- 
taining to the skin. 

cuta-way (kut'a-wa), adj. cut back 
from the waist : n. a coat, the skirts 
of which slope from the waist. 

cuteh (kuch), n. oyster-spawn; 
couch- or quick-grass ; cultch. 

cute (ktit), adj. sharp; clever. 

cuticle (kut'i-kl), n. the scarf-skin; 
the thin exterior bark of a plant. 

cutify X'i-fi), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cuti- 
fied, cutifying], to form, or be- 
come covered with, skin. 

cutlass ('las), n. a broad cutting 

cutler ('ler), n. one who makes or 
sells knives or other cutting instru- 

cutlery (-ri), n. edged or cutting in- 

cutlet ('let), n. a slice of meat. 

cutter ('er), n. one who cuts or 
hews ; one who cuts out and shapes 
garments ; a light sledge for two 
persons ; a small fast-sailing vessel? 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boonr 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 





with one mast sloop-rigged ; a man- 
of-war's boat, 

cutting^ ('ing), p.adj. dividing by an 
edged instrument ; deeply wounding 
the feelings ; sarcastic ; chilling ; 
sharp : n. a, piece cut off or from ; a 
slip ; an incision. 

cuttle (kut'l), n. the cuttle-fish, a 
cephalopod with an internal shell, the 
arms furnished with suckers, two 
large eyes, and an ink-bag contain- 

^ ing a dark fluid. 

cutivater ('waw-ter), n. the fore 
part of a ship's prow; the angular 
edge of the pier of a bridge. 

cutweed ('wed), n. a coarse marine 

cutworm (Verm), n. a destructive 
larval moth. 

cyanate (si'an-at), n. a compound of 
cyanic acid with a base. 

cyaneous (-a'ne-us), adj. azure blue. 

cyanic (-an'ik), adj. pertaining to 

cyanic acid (as'id), n. a strong acid 
composed of cyanogen and oxygen. 

cyanide ('a-nid), n. a compound of 
cyanic acid with a metal. 

cyanogen (-an'o-jen), n. a colorless 
poisonous gas burning with a purple 
flame, with the odor of peach blos- 

cyanosis (-a-no'sis), n. a condition 
of the body in which its surface be- 
comes blue, due to the insufficient 
aeration of the blood. 

cyanotype (-an'o-tip), n. a photo- 
graphic process in which the picture 
is taken in Prussian blue. 

cycle (si'kl), n. a revolution of a cer- 
tain period of time, which recurs 
again in the same order ; an imagin- 
ary circle in the heavens ; the ag- 
gregate of traditional or legendary 
matter connected with a mytholog- 
ical personage or event ; a bicycle 
or tricycle: v.i. [p.t. & p.p. cycled, cycling], to occur, or recur, in 
cycles ; ride a bicycle or tricycle. 

cyclic (sik' or sik'lik), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or moving in, a cycle ; belong- 
ing to the literary cycle of Greek 
poets who wrote on the Trojan war 
and its heroes. Also cyclical. 

cyclist (sik'list), n. a bicyclist. 

cycloid (si'kloid), n. a geometrical 

curve traced out by any point of a 
circle rolling along a straight line 
until it has completed a revolution. 

cyclometer (si-klom'e-ter), n. an in- 
strument for registering the revolu- 
tions of a wheel. 

cyclonal ('klo-nal), adj. pertaining 
to, or of the nature of, a cyclone. 
Also cyclonic. 

cyclone ('klon), n. a violent storm; 
an atmospheric movement in which 
the wind blows spirally round to- 
wards a center. 

cyclonoscope (-klo'no-skop), n. an 
apparatus for recording the mo- 
tions of atmospheric currents which 
produce cyclones. 

cyclopaedia or cyclopedia (sT-klo- 
pe'di-a), abbreviation of encyclopae- 

Cyclopean (-klo-pe'an), adj. pertain- 
ing to the Cyclops : hence huge and 
rough ; terrific ; vast ; massive. 

cyclorama (-klo-ra'ma), n, a series 
of moving pictures extended cir- 
cularly so as to appear in natural 
perspective to the spectator standing 
in the center. 

cyclostyle ('klo-stil), n. an appara- 
tus for producing manifold copies 
by means of a small toothed wheel. 

cygnet (sig'net), n. a young swan. 

cylinder (sil'in-der), n. a long cir- 
cular body, solid or hollow, of uni- 
form diameter ; a chamber in which 
force is exerted on the piston of a 
steam engine ; the barrel of a pump ; 
a hollow roller for printing ; a roller- 
shaped stone with cuneiform in- 

cylindric ('drik), adj. having the 
form, or properties, of a cylinder. 
Also cylindrical. 

cylindricity (-dris'i-ti), n. the state 
or character of being cylindrical. 

cylindroid ('in-droid), n. a solid 
body resembling a cylinder, but with 
the ends elliptical :_ adj. having the 
form of a cylindroid. 

cym"bal (sim'bal), n. one of a pair 
of circular dish-shaped brass plates, 
which when struck produce a clash- 
ing sound. 

cyme (sim), n. a convex or flattened 
flower cluster. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



cynic (sin'ik), n. a morose, surly, or 
sarcastic person ; one of a sect of 
ancient Greek philosophers. 

cynical ('i-kal), adj. like a cynic. 

cynicism ('i-sizm), n. the temper 
and practice of a cynic. 

cynosure (si'no- or sin'o-shtir), n. 
an object of general attraction. 

cypress (si'pres), n. a coniferous 
tree, the emblem of mourning : adj. 
belonging to, or made of, cypress. 

Cyprian (sip'ri-an), adj. pertaining 
to Venus : hence wanton ; lascivious. 

cyst (sist), n. a bladder; pouch, us- 
ually membranous, containing mor- 
bid matter. 

cystic (sis'tik), adj. pertaining to, or 
contained in, a cyst ; vesicular. 

cystocele ('to-sel), n. hernia oc- 
casioned by protrusion of the blad- 

cystoscopy (-to-skop'i), n. the ex- 
amination of the human bladder by 
an incandescent electric lamp. 

cystose ('tos), adj. full of cysts. 

cystotomy (-tot'6-mi), n. the open- 

ing of the human bladder for the 
extraction of stone. 

cytoblastema ( si-to-blas-te'ma ) , n. 
the protoplasm in which animal and 
vegetable cells are produced. 

cytococcus (-kok'us), n. the nucleus 
of a parent cell. 

cytode (si'tod), n. a cell. 

cytogenesis (-to-jen'e-sis), n. cell 

Czar (zar), or Tzar (tsar), n. the 
title of the Russian Emperor. 

Czarevitch (ziir'e-vich), or Tsare- 
vitch (tzar'-), n. the eldest son of 
the Czar. Also Czarewitch, Csesare- 

Czarevna (za-rev'na), or Tzarevna 
(tza-), n. a Russian princess (im- 
perial) : applied to the wife of the 

Czarina (za-re'na), or Tsarina 
(tsa-), n. an empress of Russia; 
the wife of the Czar. 

CzecL. (chek), n. a member of the 
most westerly branches of the Sla 
vonic family, including Bohemians, 
Moravians, and Slovaks. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 

dab (dab), v.t. \_p.t. & p.p. dabbed, dabbing], to strike or touch 
lightly : n. a small soft lump ; a 
gentle blow ; a salt-water flounder ; 
an expert : pi. refuse foots : adj. 
clever ; handy. 

dabber (dab'er), n. an inking-ball 
used by printers and engravers. 

dabbing ('ing), n. the process of in- 
denting the surface of a stone by a 
pick-shaped tool, 

dabble (dab'l) , v.t. to dip slightly and 
often ; moisten ; spatter : v.i. to play 
in water ; do anything in a superfi- 
cial manner. 

dabchick ('chik), n. an unfledged 
bird ; a small grebe. 

dabster ('ster), n. an expert. 

dace (das), n. a small fresh- water fish 
resembling the roach. 

dacbsbniid (daks'hoont), n. the Ger- 
man badger-dog. 

dactyl (dak'til), n. a poetical foot 
of three syllables, one long and two 
short (" " "). 

dactylic (-til'ik), adj. pertaining to 
the dactyl. 

dactyliography (-i-og'ra-fi), the art 
of engraving on gems. 

dactylology (-ol'o-ji), n. the art of 
communicating ideas with the fin- 

dad (dad), n. a child name for father. 
Also daddy. 

daddle (dad'l), v.t. to walk unstead- 
ily like a child ; waddle ; trifle. 

daddy-long-legs ('i-long-legs), -n. 
a name for various kinds of crane- 


dado (da'do), n. the solid block form- 
ing the body of a pedestal ; an 
ornamental border around the lower 

part of the wall of a room, &c. : v.% 
to ornament with a dado. 

daifodil (daf'o-dil), n. the narcissus. 

daft (daft), adj. simple; silly. 

dagger (dag'er), n. a short edged 
and pointed weapon, used for stab- 
bing ; a reference mark in printing 

dago (da'go), n. [pi. dagos ('goz)], 
a nickname for a dark-complexioned 
person, especially of Spanish, Portu- 
guese, or Italian descent ; a sailor's 
name for a person speaking Portu- 
guese or Spanish. 

daguerreotype (da-ger'o-tip), n. a 
picture produced on a silvered plate. 

dahlia (dal'ya), n. [pi. dahlias 
Cyaz)], a composite plant, with 
large bright-colored flowers. 

daily (da'li), n. [pi. dailies ('liz)], 
a newspaper or periodical published 
each week-day : adj. occurring or 
recurring each successive day ; diur- 
nal : adv. day by day. 

daintiness (-nes), n. the quality of 
being dainty. 

dainty (dan'ti), n. [pi. dainties 
Ctiz)], something choice or deli- 
cious : adj. refined as regards taste ; 
fastidious ; delicious ; elegant ; sen- 
sitive ; choice. 

dairy (da'ri), n. [pi. dairies ('riz)], 
a place where milk is kept and con- 
verted into butter and cheese, &c. ; 
the shop where dairy produce is 

dairy-produce ('pro'dus), n. milk, 
cream, butter, cheese, eggs. 

dairying (-ing), n. the business or 
occupation of a dairy farmer. 

dais (da'is), n. a raised platform. 

daisied (da'zid), adj. full of, or 
adorned with, daisies. 


ate. arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, thQn. 





daisy (da'zi), n. [pL daisies ('ziz)], 
a low composite herb witli a yellow 
disk, and white or rose-colored rays. 

dale (dal), n. a vale; glen. 

dalliance (dal'i-ans), n. the act of 

dally (dal'i), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. dallied, dallying], to trifle away time; 
loiter; procrastinate; exchange ca- 

daltonism ( dawl'tun-izm ) , n. color- 

dam (dam), n. a barrier across a 
watercourse ; any artificial contri- 
vance to stop the flow of water or a 
gas ; a female parent : said of 
beasts : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dammed, damming], to confine, or raise 
the level of, by a dam ; restrain 
(usual with in or up). 

damage ('aj), n. injury or harm; 
harm willfully done to a person's 
character, person, or estate : pi. 
money recovered for loss suffered : 
v.t. to injure : v.i. to receive injury. 

damask ('ask), n. a rich silk fabric 
woven with elaborate patterns ; a 
fine twilled table-linen ; a fabric of 
silk aad wool, silk and cotton, &c., 
with a flowered or variegated de- 
sign ; Damascus steel or work ; deep 
pink : adj. pertaining to, or made of, 
damask : v.t. to work flowers upon ; 
ornament (metals) with wavy, sil- 
very devices. 

damaskeen (-as-ken'), v.t. to apply 
decorative metallic designs to (a sur- 
face of steel, &c,). 

damasse ( da-ma-sa' ) , adj. woven 
with a rich pattern to imitate dam- 
ask ; decorated with white on a 
white ground : said of porcelain. 

dame (dam), n. a title formerly used 
instead of mistress, written Mrs. ; 
the mistress of an elementary school ; 
an elderly woman. 

damn (dam), v.t. to sentence to pun- 
ishment judicially ; consign to a cer- 
tain fate ; condemn as bad or as a 
failure ; ^ to invoke a malediction 
upon : v.i. curse inwardly : n. a curse. 

damnation (-na'shun), n. the state 
of being damned ; ruination by ad- 
verse criticism ; punishment in a 
future state. 

damnatory ('na-to-ri), adj. assign- 

ing to, or containing a threat of, 

damned (damd), p.adj. condemned 
to perdition ; execrably bad ; used 
sometimes adverbially as an inten- 
sive [printed d — d]. 

damnify (dann'm-ti) , v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
damnified, damnifying], to 
cause loss or damage to. 

damnum ('num), n. loss or damage 
capable of assessment by a jury. 

damosel ('o-zel), n. formerly a dam- 
sel, or the wife of a squire. 

damp ( damp ) , n. moisture ; fog ; 
humid exhalation : adj. moist ; fog- 
gy ; humid ; dejected : v.t. to mois- 
ten ; discourage ; depress ; diminish 
the vibrations of. 

damper ('er), n. something which 
depresses or discourages ; a contri- 
vance for deadening the vibrations 
of a musical instrument. 

dampness ('nes), n. humidity; 

damsel ('zel), n. a maiden. 

damson (dam'zn), n. a small purple 
oval-shaped plum. 

dance (dans), v.i. to move with 
measured steps or to a musical ac- 
companiment ; perform the figures 
of a dance ; move nimbly, or merri- 
ly ; exult : v>.t. to give a dancing 
motion to ; perform as a dancer : n. 
a regulated movement of the feet to 
a rhythmical musical accompani- 
ment ; a dancing party, less formal 
than a ball. 

dandelion (dan'de-li-un), n. a bien- 
nial composite plant with large yel- 
low flowers and deeply notched 

dander ('der), n. dandruff; anger. 

dandle (dan'dl), v.t. to move up and 
down on the knee or in the arms in 
affectionate play ; fondle. 

dandru£P ('druf), n. scurf on the 

dandy ('di), n. [pi. dandies ('diz)], 
a fop ; coxcomb ; something very 
neat and trim. 

dandyism (-izm), n. foppishness. 

danger ('jer), n. hazard; peril. 

dangerous (-us), adj. involving, or 
beset with, danger ; ready to do 
harm or injury ; perilous ; hazard* 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




dangle (clang'gl), v.i. to hang or 
swing loosely ; follow : v.t. to cause 
to dangle. 

dank (dangk), adj. humid; damp. 

danseuse (dang-sez'), n. sl female 
professional dancer ; a ballet-dancer. 

dapper (dap'er), adj. small and ac- 
tive ; trim and neat in appearance. 

dapple (dap'l), adj. spotted; varie- 
gated : v.t. to variegate with spots. 

dare (dar), v.i. [p.t. dared, durst, p.p. 
dared, daring], to have cour- 
age ; attempt ; venture : v.t. to defy ; 

dare-devil ('dev-1), acZ/. characteris- 
tic of a reckless man : n. a reckless 

daring (dar'ing), n. intrepidity: adj. 
fearless ; bold ; intrepid. 

dark (dark), adj. destitute of light; 
not reflecting light ; wholly black or 
grey ; producing gloom ; unenlight- 
ened, mentally or physically ; ob- 
scure ; untried ; of a brunette com- 
plexion : n. darkness. 

dark ages (a'jez), the mediaeval 

darken ('en), v.t. to make dark; ob- 
scure ; render unintelligible : v.i. to 
become dark. 

darkening (-ing) , n. twilight ; gloam- 

darkish ('ish), adj. somewhat dark. 

darkling ('ling), adj. dimly seen. 

darkly ('li), adv. with imperfect 
light ; not clearly ; mysteriously. 

darkness ('nes), n. absence of light, 
partial or total ", physical or moral 
blindness ; obscurity ; gloom ; wick- 

darksome ('sum), adj. gloomy. 

darky ('i), n. [pi. darkies ('iz)], a 

darling (dilr'ling), n. a favorite; 
pet : adj. tenderly beloved ; very 

darn (darn), v.t. to mend (a rent) 
by filling in the hole with yarn or 
thre0,d by means of a needle : n. a 
patch made by darning. 

darnel ('nel), the popular name of a 
grass, Lolium tremulentum, formerly 
supposed to be poisonous. 

dart (dart), n. a small lance or 
spear ; a kind of eel-spear ; the ar- 
row of a blow-gun ; a swift, sudden 

movement; the dace: v.t. throw; 
give out or send forth : v.i. move 
swiftly ; start suddenly and run 

Darwinian (dar-win'i-an), adj. per- 
taining to Chas. Darwin, the natu- 
ralist (1809-1882), or Darwinism: 
n. an evolutionist. 

Darwinism ('izm), n. the theory of 
natural selection advocated by Dar- 

dash (dash), v.t. to throw violently 
or hastily ; break by collision ; hurl ; 
shatter ; suffuse ; depress ; confuse ; 
mingle ; sketch rapidly : v.i. to rush 
with violence; fly off the surface 
with a violent noisy motion : n. a 
collision ; a slight addition ; ostenta- 
tious parade ; a mark ( — ) in writ- 
ing or printing. 

dash-board (-bord), n. a splash- 
board ; a pdddle-wheel float. 

dastard (das'tard), n. a coward: 
adj. meanly shrinking from danger ; 

dastardliness (-li-nes), n. mean ti- 

dastardly (-li), adv. cowardly. 

data, pi. of datum (q.v.). 

date (dat), n. the time of an epoch 
or transaction ; the inscription which 
specifies when a writing or inscrip- 
tion was executed ; duration ; the 
edible oval fruit of the date-palm : 
v.t. to mark with a date : v.i. to have 
a date ; reckon. 

date-tree (-tre), n. a species of 

dative (da'tiv), adj. denoting the case 
of a noun, pronoun, or adjective 
which expresses the remoter object : 
usually indicated in English by to or 
for with the objective case : n. the 
dative case. 

datum ('tum), n. [pi. data ('ta)], 
something assumed, known, or con- 
ceded for the basis of an argument 
or inference [usually in pi.]. 

daub (dawb), v.t. to cover or smear 
with adhesive matter ; paint coarse- 
ly or unskilfully ; plaster ; flatter 
grossly : n. a coarse or rudely-exe- 
cuted painting ; a smear ; a cheap 
kind of mortar. 

daubing ('ing), n. a coarse painting; 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




the application of rough mortar to 
a wall to imitate stone. 

dauby ('i), adj. viscous, sticky; like 
a daub. 

daughter (daw'ter), n. the female 
offspring of a man or woman ; a fe- 
male in a childlike relation ; some- 
thing conceived as feminine. 

daughter-in-laxir (-in-law), n. a 
son's wife. 

daunt (dant), v.t. to intimidate; dis- 

dauntless ('les)j adj. fearless. 

dauphin (daw'fin), n. the title of the 
eldest son of the King of France 
from 1349 to 1830. 

davenport (dav'en-p5rt), n. a kind 
of small writing-desk or -table. 

davit (dav'it), n. one of a pair of 
f-shaped uprights projecting over 
the side of a vessel for suspending 
or lowering a boat. 

davy (da'vi), n. [pi. davies ('viz)], a 
miner's safety-lamp surrounded by 
fine gauze wire, invented by Sir H. 
Davy, as a protection against fire- 

Davy Jones (jonz), n. a humorous 
name for the spirit of the sea ; a sea- 

daiv (daw), n. a bird of the crow 
family ; a jackdaw. 

daivdle (daw'dl), v.i. to waste time 
in a trifling manner ; loiter : n. a 

dawn (dawn), v.i. to begin to grow 
light ; glimmer ; break as the day : n. 
the first appearance of light in the 
morning ; beginning. 

dawning ('ing), n. daybreak; begin- 

day (da), n. the period of light be- 
tween sunrise and sunset ; daylight ; 
sunshine ; the space of twenty-four 
hours, reckoning from midnight to 
midnight (the civil day), or from 
noon to noon (the astronomical 
day) ; in the East, a distance that 
can be traveled in 24 hours ; a spec- 
ified time or period. 

daybook ('book), n. a book in which 
the transactions of the day are en- 
tered in the order of their occur- 

daybreak ('brak), n. the dawn. 

daydream ('drem), n. a visionary 

days of grace (gras), the cus- 
tomary period (three days) allowed, 
for the payment of a bill of ex- 
change after it becomes due. 

daysman (daz'man), n. [pi. daysmen 
('men)], an umpire; a mediator. 

dayspring ('spring), n. the dawn 
(Luke i. 78). 

daze (daz), v.t. to dazzle: n. the state 
of being dazed. 

dazzle (daz'l), v.t. to overpower by a 
glare of light ; dim by excess of 
light ; overpower by splendor : v.i. tO' 
be overpowered by light : n. excess, 
of light. 

deacon (de'kn), n. the lowest order 
of the clergy in the Anglican 
Church ; in non-episcopal churches^ 
a layman appointed to assist the 
minister and manage the temporal 
affairs of a church. 

dead (ded), adj. destitute of life; in- 
animate ; resembling death ; inac- 
tive ; unprofitable ; monotonous ; 
tasteless ; unerring ; without reli- 
gious vitality ; flat ; not transmitting 
a current ; deprived of civil rights ; 
out of the game or play : n. dead! 
persons individually or collectively; 
the point or degree of greatest life- 
lessness : adv. absolutely ; exactly. 

dead-beat ('bet), adj. making suc- 
cessive movements with intervals of 
rest and no recoil ; thoroughly ex- 
hausted : n. a dead-beat escapement. 

dead-center (-sen'ter), n. that posi- 
tion of a crank in which the crank- 
axle, crank-pin, and the connecting 
rod are all in a straight line. 

dead-coloring (-kul'er-ing), n. the 
first broad outlines of a picture. 

deaden (ded'n), v.t. to diminish the 
acuteness, intensity, or vigor of ; re- 
tard ; blunt ; render non-conductive ; 
make insipid or stale ; deprive of 
gloss or brilliancy; kill (trees) by 

deadeye (ded'i), t*. a round, flat block 
of wood encircled with an iron band 
and pierced with three holes to re- 
ceive lanyards : used for setting up 

deadhead ('hed), n. a person who 
has a free pass on railways or to 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 

1 — 19. Examples of Modification (1 — 4: by animals of same breed and habitat, 5 — 7: Climatic M 
20 — 27. Examples of Adaptation (20 — 25, by Marine Life, 26 and 27, by Parasites.) { 

and 9: Seasonal Dimorphisn,.. 10-16: Generic Dimorphism, -17-19: Development of Hybrids). 




places of amusement, &c. ; a wooden 
buoy : v.t. to furnish free admission 
to : v.i. to travel or gain admission 
without payment. 

dead letter (let'er), n. an unclaimed 
letter, the owner for which cannot 
be found ; that which has lost its 

dead-lift ('lift), n. a heavy weight; 
the last extremity. 

dead-liglits ('lits), strong 
wooden shutters placed over the 
cabin windows in stormy weather. 

deadliness ('li-nes), n. the state of 
being deadly. 

dead-load ('lod), n. a constant mo- 
tionless load. 

deadlock ('lok), n. a lock worked on 
one side by a handle, and on the 
other side by a key ; a situation in 
which progress is impossible. 

deadly ('li), adj. causing death; de- 
structive ; fatal ; implacable : adv, 

dead-neap ('nep),w. the lowest stage 
of the tide. 

deadness ('nes), n, absence of life; 

dead-reckoning (-rek'un-ing) , w.the 
calculation of a ship's place at sea 
by the log and the compass courses, 
allowing for drift, leeway, &c. 

dead-set ('set), n. the fixed position 
of a dog in pointing game; a deter- 
mined effort or attack: adj. deter- 
mined to do something. 

dead-water (-waw'ter), n.the water 
that closes in under the stern of a 
ship; eddy- water. 

dead- weight ('wat), n. the weight 
of the vehicle in addition to the load 
to be carried ; freight charged for by 
weight instead of by bulk ; the heav- 
iest part of a ship's cargo. 

dead-wind ('wind), n. a wind blow- 
ing directly opposite to a ship's 

dead- work ('werk), n. work at first 
unprofitable, but which leads the 
way to profitable production, as in 
opening a mine. 

deaf (def), adj. deprived of hearing; 
unwilling to hear or pay regard to. 

deafen (def'n), v.t. to make deaf; 
render impervious to sound. 

deafening (-ing), p.adj. making im- 
pervious to sound : n. material em- 
ployed to deaden a floor or wall. 
deafness ('nes), n. the state of being 

deal (del), n. an indefinite quantity, 
degree, or extent ; a division of cards 
to the players ; a mercantile com- 
bination ; the wood of the fir or pine 
tree cut into boards or planks : v.t. 
[p.t. & p.p. dealt; dealing], to 
distribute, apportion, or divide ; 
throw about : scatter : v.i. to have 
business; make a private arrange- 

dealer ('er), n. one who deals; a 

dealing ('ing), n. conduct towards 
others ; business intercourse ; traffic 
[frequently ^Z.]. 

dealt, p.t. of deal. 

dean (den), n. the presiding ecclesias- 
tical dignitary in cathedral and col- 
legiate churches ; the president of a 
faculty in a college ; the oldest mem- 
ber, by reason of service, in a consti- 
tuted body of which he acts as pres- 

dean and chapter (chap'ter), the 
governing body of a cathedral, com- 
prising the dean, canons, or preben- 

deanery (den'er-i), n. \_pl. deaneries 
(-iz) ], the office, jurisdiction, or res- 
idence of a dean. 

dear (der), adj. expensive; costly; 
marked by scarcity or dearth ; be- 
loved ; highly esteemed ; precious : n. 
a darling; favorite: adv. at a high 
price or rate : inter j. expressing sur- 
prise, pity, or emotion. 

dearly ('li), adv. with great affec- 
tion ; at a high price or rate. 

dearness ('nes), n. affection; high 
price ; dearth. 

dearth (derth), n. want; scarcity; 

deary (der'i), n. a darling. Also 

death (deth), n. extinction of life or 
feeling ; the state of the dead ; a 
general mortality ; decay ; destruc- 
tion ; spiritual ruin after physical 
death (Rom. viii. 6). 

death-bell ('bel), n. a passing bell. 

death-point ('point), n. the degree 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, tlien. 




of heat or cold which destroys an 
animal organism^ 

death-rate ('rat), n. the percentage 
of deaths, usually reckoned at per 
thousand, among the population of 
a country, city, &c., for a given 

death's-head (s'hed), n. a skull, or 
representation of a skull, emblematic 
of death. 

death-watch ('woch), n. a vigil be- 
side the dying person ; a guard set 
over a criminal prior to his execu- 
tion ; a small beetle which makes a 
ticking sound, superstitiously sup- 
posed to forebode death. 

deathless ('les), adj. immortal. 

deathly ('li), adj. mortal; fatal. 

debacle (de-bak'l), n. the breaking 
up of ice on a river ; a stampede ; a 
violent flood carrying with it debris 
in great masses. 

debar (de-bar'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
barred, debarring], to shut 
out ; exclude ; hinder from approach, 
enjoyment, or action ; preclude [with 

debark (de-bllrk'), v.i. to disembark. 

debarkation (-bar-ka'shun), n. the 
act of disembarking. 

debase (de-bas'), v.t. to reduce from 
a higher to a lower state ; lower in 
character, virtue, purity, or quality. 

debasement ('ment), n. act of de- 

debatable (de-ba'ta-bl), adj. admit- 
ting of question or debate. 

debate ( de-bat'), v.t. to contend for 
in words or arguments ; meditate 
upon ; deliberate together : v.i. to ar- 
gue or discuss a point ; reflect : n. 
contention in words or argument ; 
controversy ; discussion. 

debauch (de-bawch'), v.t. to cor- 
rupt in morals or principles ; se- 
duce ; pollute ; vitiate : v.i. to engage 
in debauchery or riot : n. excess in 
eating and drinking ; lewdness. 

debanchee (deb'o-she), n. a drunk- 

debauchery (de-baw'cher-i), n. [pi. 
debaucheries, (-iz) ], excessive intem- 
perance ; seduction from purity or 
virtue ; corruption of fidelity. 

debenture (de-ben'tur, n. a written 
acknowledgment of a debt. 

debilitant (de-bil'i-tant), adj. weak- 

debilitate ('i-tat), v.t. to enfeeble: 

debilitation (-i-ta'shun), n. enerva- 

debility (-bil'i-ti), n. [pi. debilities 
(-tiz)], abnormal functional weak- 
ness ; languor. 

debit (deb'it), n. that which is ow- 
ing, entered on the debtor side of a 
ledger : opposed to credit : adj. re- 
lating to debts : v.t. to charge with 
debt ; enter on the debtor's side of 
an account. 

debonair (deb-o-nar'), adj. of gentle 
manners or breeding ; elegant. 

debouch (de-boosh'), v.i. to march 
out of a confined space into open 

debouche (da-boo-sha'), an opening; 
a market for goods ; an opening in 
military works for troops. 

debris (da-bre'), n. fragments; bro- 
ken rubbish ; loose pieces of rock, 
&c., at the base of a mountain. 

debt (det) n. that which is due from 
one person to another ; obligation ; 

debtor ('er), n, one who owes some- 
thing to another ; one who is in debt. 

debut (da-boo'), n. a first appearance 
in society, or before the public. 

debutant (-boo-tang'), n. one who 
makes a debut : fern, debutante. 

decade (dek'ad), n. a group of ten; 
ten consecutive years. Also decad. 

decadence (de-ka'dens), n. a state of 
decay. Also decadency. 

decadent ('dent), adj. deteriorating. 

decagon (dek'a-gon), n. plain figure 
having ten sides and ten angles. 

decagonal (-ag'o-nal), adj. pertain- 
ing to a decagon. 

decagramme ('a-gram), n. sl weight 
of ten grammes. Also decagram. 

decahedron (-he'dron), n. [pi. deca- 
hedra ('dra)], a solid bounded by 
ten plane faces. 

decaliter ('a-le-tr), n. a measure of 
capacity containing 10 liters := 2 
1-5 imperial gallons. 

decalogue ('a-log), n. the ten com* 
mandments (Ex. xx.) ; the moral 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




decameter ('a-me-tr), n. a measure 
of length of 10 meters = 32.8 feet. 

decamp (de-kamp'), v.i. to depart 
speedily ; go away secretly or un- 

decant (de-kanf), v.t. to pour off 

decanter ('er), n. an ornamental 
glass bottle for holding wines, &c. 

decapitate (de-kap'i-tat), v.t. to be- 

decapitation (-i-ta'shun), n. behead- 

decapod (dek'a-pod), adj. having ten 
feet or ten arms : n. a ten-footed 
crustacean, or ten-armed cephalopod. 

Decapoda (de-kap'o-da), the or- 
der of Crustacea which includes 
those having ten feet, as lobsters, 
crabs, shrimps, &c., and cephalopods 
with ten arms. 

decarbonate (de-kar'bon-at), v.t. to 
deprive of carbon. Also decarbon- 
ize (-ize). 

decare (dek-ar'), a superficial meas- 
ure of 1,000 sq. meters = % acre 

decastere ('a-ster), n. a solid meas- 
ure, ten times a cubic meter = 13 
cubic yards (nearly). 

decay (de-ka'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
cayed, decaying], to become 
impaired ; rot ; decline or fall : n. 
deterioration ; decline ; rottenness ; 

decease (de-ses'), v.i. to die: n. 

deceit ( de-set'), n. deception; false- 

deceitful ('fool), adj. full of deceit. 

deceitfully (-li), adv. in a deceitful 

deceitfulness (-nes), n. the state or 
quality of being deceitful. 

deceivable (-sev'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being, or liable to be, deceived. 

deceive (-sev'). v.t. to mislead or 
cause to err ; delude ; impose upon ; 

December (de-sem'ber) ,w.the twelfth 
month of the year. 

decemvir ('ver), n. [pi. decemvjri 
('vi-ri)], one of ten Roman magis- 
trates, especially one of those who 
possessed absolute authority in an- 

cient Rome (451-449 b. c), and ed- 
ited the laws known as the Twelve 

decemviral ('vi-ral), adj. pertaining 
to the decemviri_. 

decemvirate (-rat), n. a body of ten 
men in authority ; their office, or 
term of office. 

decency (de'sen-si), n. [pi. decencies 
(-siz) ], the state of being decent, or 

decennial ('i-al), adj. lasting for or 
occurring every ten years. 

decent ('sent), adj. decorous; becom- 
ing ; respectable ; modest ; passable. 

deception (-sep'shun), n. the act of 
deceiving ; the state of being de- 
ceived ; fraud. 

deceptive ('tiv), adj. tending to de- 

deciare (des-i-ar'), n. a unit of super- 
ficial measurement, the tenth part 
of an are, = 107.6 square feet. 

decidable (de-sid'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being decided. 

decide (de-sid'), v.t. to bring to an 
issue or conclusion ; fix the end of ; 
resolve : v.i. to give a judgment or 
decision ; arbitrate. 

decided ('ed), adj. free from ambi- 
guity ; determined ; unquestionable ; 

deciduous (-sid'ti-us), adj. falling off 
at maturity, or in season ; shed peri- 

decigramme (des'i-gram), n. a met- 
ric weight, 1-lOth of a gramme — 
1.54 grains troy (nearly). Also 

deciliter ('i-le-tr), n. a measure of 
capacity, 1-lOth of a liter = 3.52 
fluid ounces. 

decillion (de-sil'yun), n. in France 
and the United States a unit fol- 
lowed by 33 ciphers ; in England a 
unit followed by 60 ciphers. 

decilux (des'i-luks), n. 1-lOth of a 

decimal ('i-mjil), adj. pertaining to, 
or based upon, the number 10 : n. a 
decimal fraction. 

decimal place (plas), n. the place of 
a figure after the decimal point. 

decimal point (point), n. a dot sep- 
arating a decimal fraction from a 
whole number, also indicating when 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




standing alone its fractional charac- 

decimal system (sis'tem), n. a sys- 
tem of reckoning or measuring by 
10, or powers of 10. 

decimally (-li), adv. by tens. 

decimate (des'i-mat), v.t. to select 
by lot and put to death, or punish, 
every tenth man ; destroy a large 
proportion of. 

decimation (-ma'shun), n. the act 
of decimating ; destruction on a large 

decimeter ('i-me-tr), n. a measure 
of length, 1-lOth of a meter = 3.937 

decipher (de-sl'fer), -y.^. to read (se- 
cret writing) ; discover or make out 
the meaning of ; solve ; unravel. 

decision (-sizh'un), n. the act of de- 
ciding ; determination ; judgment ; 

decisive (-si'siv), adj. final; conclu- 

decistere (des-i-star'). n. a cubic 
measure, 1-lOth of a stere = 3.532 
cubic feet. 

deck (dek), v.t. to array in finery or 
ornaments ; adorn ; to furnish with 
a deck : n. the plank flooring of a 

decker ('er), n. one who, or that 
which, decks ; a ship having decks. 

deckle-edged (dek'1-ejd), adj. hav- 
ing the edges rough and uncut ; said 
of books. 

declaim (de-klam'), v.t. to speak in 
a^ rhetorical style ; speak as an exer- 
cise in elocution ; harangue. 

declamation (dek-la-ma'shun) , n. the 
art of declaiming according to rhe- 
torical rules ; impassioned oratory ; 
distinct and correct enunciation of 
words in vocal music. 

declamatory (de-klam'a-to-ri), adj. 
pertaining to, or characterized by, 
reclamation ; noisy in style ; appeal- 
ing to the passions. 

declaration (dek-la-ra'shun), n. the 
act of declaring or proclaiming ; that 
which is declared ; an assertion : 
publication; a statement reduced to 

declarative (de-klar'a-tiv), adj. ex- 

declaratory ('a-to-ri), adj. affirma- 

declare (de-klar'), v.t. to make 
known ; tell openly or publicly ; pro- 
claim formally ; publish ; make a sol- 
emn affirmation before witnesses ; 
make a full statement as to goods, 
&c. : v.i. to make a declaration ; 
avow [with for or against]. 

declension (-klen'shun), n. decline; 
a falling off, or away ; deterioration ; 
the inflection of nouns, pronouns, 
and adjectives. 

declinable (-klin'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being declined. 

declinal ('al), adj. sloping down- 

declinate (dek'li-nat), adj. curved 

declination (dek-li-na'shun), n. the 
act or state of bending, or moving, 
downwards ; oblique variation from 
some definite direction ; deteriora- 
tion ; decay ; the angular distance of 
a heavenly body N. or S. of the 
equator ; non-acceptance. 

declinator ('li-na-ter), n. an instru- 
ment for determinating the declina- 
tion and inclination of a plane. 

decline (de-klin'), v.i. to incline from 
a right line ; bend or lean down- 
wards ; droop ; draw to a close ; be- 
come weak ; deviate from rectitude : 
v.t. to refuse ; bend downwards ; de- 
press ; inflect : n. diminution ; de- 
cay ; deterioration ; consumption. 

declinograph ('o-graf), n. an auto- 
matic registering instrument for re- 
cording astronomical declinations. 

declinometer (dek-li-nom'e-ter), n. 
an instrument for measuring the 
declination of the magnetic needle. 

declivitous (de-kliv'i-tus), adj. mod- 
erately steep. 

declivity (-kliv'i-ti), n. [pi. declivi-j[ 
ties (-tiz)], a gradual descent; de-'j 
viation from a horizontal line : op- 
posed to acclivity. 

decoct (de-kokf), v.t. the act of boil- 
ing anything to extract its essence. 

decoction (-kok'shun), n. an extract 
obtained by boiling or digesting in 
hot water. 

decollate (-kol'at), i^.t. to behead. 

decollation (-a'shun), n. the act of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




decollete (da-kol-e-ta'), adj. cut low 
in the neck so as to expose the neck 
and shoulders : said of a dress. De- 
colletee, fern, wearing a low-necked 

decoxaposable ( de-com-poz'a-bl ) , adj. 
capable of being decomposed. 

decompose (de-kom-poz'), v.t. to re- 
solve into constituent elements ; 
cause to decay or rot : v.i. to become 

(decomposed ; putrefy. 
decomposite (-poz'it), adj. com- 
pounded a second time. 
decomposition (-po-zish'un), n. the 
act of resolving into constituent ele- 
ments ; analysis ; disintegration. 
decom.pouiid (-pound'), v.t. to com- 
pound things already compounded : 
adj. compounded more than once. 
decorate (dek'o-rat), v.t. to orna- 
ment, embellish, adorn, or beautify ; 
confer a badge of honor upon ; grace. 
decoration (-ra'shun), n. the art of 
decorating ; an ornament or embel- 
lishment ; a badge of honor. 
Decoration Day (da), n. the day 

I (May 30) on which the graves of 
those who fell in the Civil War 
(1861-65) are decorated. Also Me- 
morial Day. 

decorative ('o-ra-tiv), adj. tending 
to decoration. 

decorator (-ter), n. one who deco- 
rates ; an artist or artisan who deco- 
rates rooms, &c. 

decorous (de-ko' or dek'er-us), adj. 
marked by propriety ; decent ; fit ; 

decorticate (de-kor'ti-kat), v.t. to 
remove the bark, husk, or peel from. 

decorum (de-ko'rum), n. propriety 
and decency of words, dress, and 

decostate (-kos'tat), adj. without 

decoy (de-koi'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
coyed, decoying], to lead or al- 
lure into danger by artifice : v.i. to 
be allured by means of a decoy : n. 
a deceptive stratagem ; a lure ; a 
piece of enclosed water into which 
wild fowl are decoyed. 

decoy-duck (-duk), n. a tame, or 
imitation, duck used to allure wild 
fowl : hence a person who entraps 

decrease (de-kres'), v.i. to become 
less ; diminish ; abate ; wane ; fail : 
v.t. to cause to grow less ; reduce 
gradually in size or extent ; dwindle : 
n. gradual diminution, or decay ; the 
amount or degree of lessening ; the 
wane of the moon. 

decree (de-kre'), n. an ordinance, 
law, or edict ; a judicial decision ; 
the award of an umpire or arbitra- 
tor ; the predetermined purpose of 
God : v.t. to determine by a decree ; 
ordain ; constit^ite by edict ; assign : 
v.i. to make a decree ; determine. 

decrement (dek're-ment), n. diminu- 

decrepit (de-krep'it), adj. enfeebled 
by age, or infirmity ; wasted ; worn 

decrepitate ('i-tat), v.t. to calcine 
(as salt) in a strong heat, causing a 
crackling sound. _ 

decrepitude ('i-tud), n. physical in- 
firmity caused by old age. 

decrescent (-kres'ent), adj. growing 

decretal (-kre'tal), n. a papal de- 
cree ; a book of edicts. 

decretive ('tiv), adj. having the au- 
thority of a decree. 

decretory (dek're-to-ri), adj. judi- 
cial ; settled. 

decrial (de-kri'al), n. clamorous cen- 

decrier ('er), n. one who censures. 

decry (de-kri'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de« 
cried, decrying], to blame clam- 
orously ; cry down ; censure ; dispar- 

decumbent (-kum'bent), adj. lying 
down ; prostrate ; reclining. 

decuple (dek'u-pl), adj. tenfold: n. a 
number repeated 10 times : v.t. in- 
- crease tenfold. 

decurrent (-kur'ent), adj. running, 
or extending, downw^ard : said of a 

decursive ('siv), adj. running down. 

decussate (-kus'at), v.i. to intersect 
or cross at an acute angle : adj. in- 

dedicate (ded'i-kat), v.t. to set apart 
by a solemn act or religious cere- 
mony ; devote or set apart to some 
work or duty ; inscribe, as a literary 

ate, iirm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book; hue. but: think, ///en. 




dedication (-i-ka'shun), n. the act 
of dedicating; an inscription or ad- 

dedicator ('i-ka-ter), n. one who 

dedicatory (-to-ri), adj. pertaining 
to composing, or constituting, a ded- 

deduce (de-dus'), v.t. to gather by 
reasoning ; infer ; derive [with from 
or out of]. 

deduct (de-dukt'), v.t. to take away. 

deduction (-duk'shun), n. the act or 
process of deducting ; subtraction. 

deductive ('tiv), adj. pertaining to 

deductively (-li), adv. by deduction. 

deed (ded), n. that which is done by 
a responsible agent ; an act ; an ^il- 
lustrious achievement ; a written in- 
strument for the transfer of real es- 
tate : v.t. convey by deed. 

deem (dem), v.t. to think ; determine : 
v.i. to have, or be of, an opinion ; 

deemster (dem'ster), n. a judge or 
umpire : the title of either of the 
two chief judges of the Isle of Man. 
Also dempster. 

deep (dep), adj. extending far below 
the surface ; low in situation ; pen- 
etrating ; sagacious ; profound ; dif- 
ficult to understand ; absorbed ; 
grave in tone, or low in pitch ; 
strongly colored : n. that which is of 
great depth ; a great body of water. 

deepen ('en), v.t. to make deep or 
deeper ; make darker ; make sad ; 
cloud : v.i. to become deep or deeper. 

deep-laid ('lad), adj. well-concerted. 

deepness ('nes), n. depth; profun- 

deep-sea ('se), adj. pertaining to the 
open sea, or deeper parts of the 

deer (der), n. sing. 8c pi. b. general 
name for solid-horned ruminants of 
the genus Cervus. 

deerliound ('hound), n. a staghound. 

deer-lick ('lik), a spot of salt 
ground, resorted to by deer to lick 
the earth. 

deer-stalking ('stawk-ing), n. the 
hunting of deer by stealing upon 
them unawares. 

deface (de-fas'), v.t. to mar or de- 

stroy the surface of ; disfigure ; im- 
pair the legibility of ; injure ; spoil. 

defacement ('ment), n. the act of 
defacing ; the condition of being de- 
faced ; injury. 

defalcation (-fal-ka'shun), n. a def- 
icit of funds through a breach of 
trust ; embezzlement ; diminution. 

defalcator (def'al-ka-ter), n. an em- 

defamation (def-a-ma'shun), n. the 
act of injuring one's good name or 
reputation without justification, 
either orally, or by a written com-, 

defamatory (de-fam'a-to-ri), adj, 
containing that which is injurious to 
the character or reputation. 

defame (de-fam'), v.t. to injure or 
destroy the good reputation of ; ac- 
cuse falsely ; asperse ; vilify. 

default (de-fawlf), n. failure or 
omission to do any act ; failure to 
satisfy the acts required in a law- 
suit : v.t. to make a default in ; neg- 
lect : v.i. to make a default. 

defaulter ('er), n. one who makes a 
default ; one who fails to make a 
proper account of money or prop- 
erty intrusted to his charge. 

defeasance (de-fez'ans), n. the an- 
nulment of a contract or deed. 

defeat (de-fef), v.t. to overcome or 
vanquish ; frustrate ; baffle : n. the 
act of defeating ; frustration ; over- 

defecate (def'e-kat), v.t. to clarify: 
v.i. to become clear ; discharge es- 
crementous matter from the bowels. 

defecation (-ka'shun), n. clarifica- 
tion ; evacuation from the bowels. 

defecator (def'e-ka-ter), n. one who, 
or that which, purifies or cleanses; 
an apparatus for removing feculent 
matter from juices, &c. 

defect (de-fekf), n. an imperfection, 
moral or physical ; insufficiency ; 
fault ; error. 

defection (-fek'shun), n. a falling 
away from duty or allegiance ; de- 

defective ('tiv), adj. having a defect 
or flaw of any kind ; incomplete ; 
faulty ; wanting some of the usual 
grammatical forms. 

defend (de-fend'), v.t. to guard or 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




protect ; maintain ; vindicate one's 
legal rights by force of argument or 
evidence : v.i. to formally enter a de- 
fense to an action. 

defendant ('ant), n. a person who is 
sued or accused in a civil or crim- 
inal court. 

defense (de-fens'), n. the act or state 
of defending or being defended ; pro- 
tection ; vindication by force or ar- 
gument ; a defendant's plea or an- 

defensibility (-fen-si-bil'i-ti), adj. 
the quality of being defensible. 

defensible ('si-bl), adj. capable of 
being defended. 

defensive (-fen'siv), adj. serving to 
defend or protect; carried on in de- 

defer (de-fer'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
ferred, deferring], to put off to 
a future time; delay; v.i. to pro- 

deference (def'er-ens), n. a yielding 
to the opinions or wishes of anoth- 
er ; regard. 

deferent ('er-ent), adj. conveying: 
n. that which conveys or carries ; a 
duct or vessel in the body which con- 
veys fluids. 

deferential (-er-en'shal), adj. char- 
acterized by, or expressing, defer- 

deferentially (-li), adv. respect- 

deferment (de-fer'ment), n. delay. 

defiance (-fi'ans), n. contemptuous 
disregard ; a challenge. 

defiant ('ant), adj. characterized by 

deficiency (-fish'en-si), n. [pi. defi- 
ciencies (-siz)], the state of being 
deficient : incompleteness ; insuflS- 
ciency ; scarcity. 

deficient ('ent), adj. wanting; in- 

deficit (def'i-sit), n. a falling off, or 
deficiency, in amount or quantity, 
especially of receipts. 

defier (de-fi'er), n. one who defies. 

defilade (def-i-lad'), v.t. to raise, as 
a rampart, so as to protect the lines 
of the defending parts from guns 
placed in a high position. 

defile (de-fil'), v.t. to make foul or 
impure ; tarnish ; corrupt the chas- 

tity of : v.i. to march off in a file : n. 
a long narrow mountainous pass ; a 
marching in file. 

defilement ('ment), n. moral or 
physical pollution. 

definable (-fln'a-bl), adj. capable of 
being defined. 

define ( de-fin' ) , v.t. to determini i %^ 
limits of; describe the nature Vy 
properties of. 

definite Cdefi-nit). «(?;. having fixed, 
or distincr limits ; certain ; pointing 

definitely (-li), adv. certainly; di& 

definition (-nish'un), n. a brief de- 
scription or explanation of the pre- 
cise meaning of a term, phrase, &c. ; 
a concise statement. 

definitive (de-fin'i-tiv), adj. deter- 
mining ; conclusive : n. a word used 
in grammar to define the significa- 
tion of a noun. 

deflagrate ^ (def'la-grat), v.t. to set 
fire to : v.i. to burn with sudden and 
sparkling combustion. 

deflagrator ('la-gra-ter), n. an in- 
strument for producing combustion 
of metallic substances by electricity. 

deflect (de-flekf), v.t. to bend from 
a straight line: v.i. to swerve; bend 
or turn aside. 

deflection (-fiek'shun), n. a bending. 

deflective ('tiv), adj. causing deflec- 

deflector ('ter), n. a plate or cone in 
a furnace or lamp to bring flames 
or gases into close contact, and thus 
increase combustion. 

deflexure (-flek'shur), n. a bending 

deflower (-de-flour') , v.t. to deprive of 
flowers or bloom ; despoil of pristine 
grace or beauty ; deprive of virginity. 

defluent (def'lu-ent), adj. running 
downward : n. a river rising in a 

deforest (de-for'est), v.t. to clear of 
forest ; cut down, clear away, or de- 
stroy the trees of. 

deform (-form'), v.t. to render ugly 
or unshapely ; disfigure ; mar. 

deformity ('i-ti), n. [pi. deformi- 
ties (-tiz )], physical malformation; 
disfigurement; want of beauty or 

ate, arm, ask, at., awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




defraud (-frawd'), v.t. to deprive of 
some right or interest by deception ; 
cheat; withhold wrongfully. 

defray (de-fra'), v.t. \_p.t. & p.p. de- 
frayed, p. pr. defraying], to discharge 
(the expenses of anything) ; pay ; 

defrayal ('al), n. the act of defray- 

deft (deft), adj. dexterous; handy; 

defunct (de-fungkf), adj. dead; ex- 
tinct : n. a dead person ; the dead 

defy (-fi')j v.t. [p.t. & p.p. defied, p. 
pr. defying], to challenge or pro- 
voke to strife; set at defiance; re- 
sist openly. 

degeneracy (de-jen'er-a-si), n. the 
state of being degenerate. 

degenerate ('er-at), v.i. to become 
inferior in goodness or quality; be- 
come of a lower type; pass to an 
inferior or worse state ; deteriorate : 
adj. deteriorated ; degraded : n. a 
degenerate person or organism. 

degenerately (-li), adv. in a degen- 
erate manner. 

degeneration (-a'shun), n. the act, 
state, or process of growing worse ; 
degeneracy ; decline ; the morbid 
impairment of any structural tis- 
sue or organ. 

deglutition (deg-loo-tish'un), n. 

degote (de-got'), n. oil distilled from 
the white birch : used for Russian 

degradation (deg-ra-da'shun), n. the 
act of degrading. 

degrade (de-grad'), v.t. to reduce in 
grade or rank ; deprive of honors, 
office, or dignity; lower physically 
or morally ; tone down ; diminish ; 
wear away. 

degree (de-gre'), n, a step or grade; 
rank or station ; relationship be- 
tween a person and the next in line 
of descent ; rank conferred by a 
diploma after examination ; one of 
three degrees in the comparison of 
an adjective or adverb ; a certain 
amount or interval ; the 360th part 
of the circumference of a circle ; 
60 geographical miles. 

dehisce (de-his'), v.i. to gape open. 

dehiscence ('ens), n. the opening of 
a capsule for the discharge of seeds, 
or of anthers for the discharge of 

dehiscent Cent), adj. opening. 

dehorn (-horn'), v.t. to deprive of 

dehypnotize (-hip'no-tiz), v.t. to 
awaken from hypnotism. 

deification (de-i-fi-ka'shun), n. the 
act of defying ; apotheosis. 

deify ('i-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. deified, deifying], to make, or exalt 
to the rank of, a deity ; idolize. 

deign (dan), v.i. to condescend; 
vouchsafe : v.t. to permit. 

deism (de'izm), n. the creed of a 

deist ('ist), n. one who believes in 
the existence of a personal God, 
but not in revealed religion. 

deistic ('ik), adj. pertaining to deism, 
or deists. 

deity ('i-ti), n. [pi. deities (-tiz)], 
a god, goddess, or person worshipped 
as a divine being. 

Deity, n. God ; Jehovah ; the charac- 
ter, nature, or attributes of God; 
the Godhead. 

deject (de-jekt'), v.t. to depress the 
spirits of; dishearten; sadden. 

dejection (-jek'shun) n. lowness of 
spirits ; melancholy ; depression ; 

dejeuner (da-zhu-na'), n. the first 
formal meal of the day. 

delaine (de-lan'), n. a light textile 
fabric of wool and cotton. 

delay (de-la'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
layed, delaying], to postpone; 
hinder for a time : v.i. to act or pro- 
ceed slowly : n. postponement ; pro- 

dele (de'le), v.t. to take out (a letter. 
&c.) in proof reading : n. a mark (d) 
that a letter, &c., is to be deleted. 

delectability (de-lek-ta-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being delectable. 

delectable ('ta-bl), adj. pleasing; 

delectably (-li), adv. delightfully. 

delectation (-ta'shun), n. delight; 

delegate (del'e-gat), v.t. to send as 
a representative with authority to 

fite, firm, ^sk, at, awl ; mS, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nOrth, not ; bOon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




act ; entrust ; commit : n. one sent 
to represent and act for others. 

delegation (-ga'shun), n. the act of 
delegating ; a person or body of per- 
sons chosen to act for others. 

delete ( de-let'), v.t. to blot out; 

deleterious (-ter'i-us), adj. harm- 
ful, morally or physically; poison- 

deletion (-le'shun), n. the act of de- 

delf (delf), n. glazed earthenware. 

deliberate (de-lib'er-at), v.t. to think 
upon or consider ; weigh in the mind ; 
ponder : v.i. to take counsel with 
one's self or others : adj. circum- 
spect; slow in determining or in 
action ; well-considered. 

deliberately (-li), adv. with care- 
ful consideration. 

deliberateness (-nes), n. circum- 

deliberation (-er-a'shun), n. calm 
and careful consideration ; slowness 
in action. 

deliberative (-tiv), adj. character- 
ized by, or acting with, deliberation. 

delicacy (del'i-ka-si), n. [pi. delica- 
cies (-siz)], the state or quality of 
being delicate; agreeableness to the 
taste or other senses ; grace ; sensi- 
tiveness ; refinement ; sensibility ; 
consideration for the feelings of 
others ; susceptibility to disease. 

delicatessen (-ka-tes'en), table 

delicious (de-lish'us), adj. highly 
pleasing to the senses, taste, or 
mind ; exquisite. 

deligbt ( de-lit'), v.t. to gratify or 
please greatly ; charm : v.i. be high- 
ly gratified or pleased (with in) : n. 
an extreme degree of pleasure; high 
satisfaction ; joy. 

delightful ('fool), adj. affording 

delimit (-lim'it), v.t. to mark out or 
fix the limits of, as territory ; bound. 

delineate (-lin'e-at), v.t. to mark 
out with lines ; sketch ; portray ; 
describe minutely and accurately in 

delineation (-e-a'shun), n. the act 
or art of delineating; a sketch, de- 
scription, &c. 

delineator ('e-a-ter), n. one who de- 

delineatory (-to-ri), adj. delineat- 

delinquency (-ling'k wen-si), n. [pi, 
delinquencies (-siz)], neglect of, or 
failure in, duty ; a misdeed ; fault. 

delinquent ('kwent), adj. falling 
short of duty : ti. one who neglects, 
or fails to perform, a duty; an of- 

deliquesce (del-i-kwes'), v.i. to melt 
and become liquid by absorbing 
moisture from the atmosphere. 

deliquescence ('ens), n. the . act, 
property, or state of deliquescing. 

deliquescent ('ent), adj. liquefying 
or melting on exposure to the at- 

delirious (de-lir'i-us), adj. light- 
headed ; insane ; frantic with delight. 

delirium ('i-um), n. excitement and 
aberration of the mind, caused by 
fever, &c. 

delirium tremens (tre'mens), n. a 
disease of the brain caused by the 
excessive and prolonged use of in- 
toxicating liquors. 

deliver (de-liv'er), v.t. to set free; 
save ; yield possession or control of ; 
send forth vigorously; discharge; 
communicate ; speak ; disburden of 
a child. 

deliverance ('er-ans), n. the act of 
delivering ; rescue ; an authoritative 
utterance by an official or judge on 
some technical point. 

delivery ('er-i), n. [pi. deliveries 
(-riz)], the act of delivering; a set- 
ting free ; a surrender ; transfer ; 
manner of utterance ; a distribution 
of letters, &c. ; the act or manner of 
delivering a ball ; parturition. 

dell (del), n. a small secluded valley. 

Delpbic (del'fik), adj. pertaining to 
Delphi, or to the famous sanctuary \ 
of Apollo with its priestess, or the ' 
games celebrated there in honor of 
Apollo. Also Delphian. 

delta (del'ta), n. [pi. deltas ('taz)], 
an alluvial deposit, shaped like the 
Greek letter A formed at the mouth 
of a river ; any triangular surface. 

deltaic (-ta'ik), adj. pertaining to a 

deltoid ('toid), adj. shaped like a 

ate, arm, &sk, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon. 

book; hiie, hut; think, *Aen. 




delta (J) ; pertaining to the deltoid 
muscle of the shoulder. 

delude (de-lud'), v.t. to impose upon 
the mind or judgment of ; beguile ; 

deluge (del'uj), n. an inundation; a 
great overflowing of the land by 
water, especially that of the time of 
Noah (Genesis vii.) ; a sudden and 
resistless calamity : v.t, to over- 
^ whelm. 

delul (de-lool'), n. a female drome- 

delusion (-lii'zhun), n. the act of 
deluding ; deceit ; imposition ; illu- 

delusive (-lu'siv), adj. tending to 
delude or deceive ; deceptive. Also 

delve (delv), v.t. to open with a 
spade ; fathom ; penetrate. 

demagnetize (de-mag'net-iz), v.t. to 
deprive of magnetic properties. 

demagogic (dem-a-gog'ik), adj. char- 
acteristic of a demagogue. Also 

demagogism ('a-gog-izm), n. the 
principles or practice of a dema- 

demagogue ('a-gog), n. a popular 
and factious orator, especially one 
who inveighs against constituted au- 

demand (de-mand'), v.t. to claim as 
by right or authority ; ask in a per- 
emptory manner ; summon : n. an 
authoritative claim ; a peremptory 
request ; the state of being much 
sought after. 

demandant ('ant), n. a plaintiff. 

demantoid (-man'toid), n. an em- 
erald green garnet : used as a gem. 

demarcation (-mar-ka'shun), n. the 
act of defining, or marking, the 
bounds of. 

demarcL. (de'mark), n. the ruler of 
a deme or district in Greece. 

demean (de-men'), v.t. to behave 
(with self). 

demeanor ('er), n. behavior; de- 

dement (-menf), v.t. to make in- 

dementia (-men'shi-a), n. insanity. 

deniesne (de-men'), n. landed estate 

attached to a manor : adj. pertaining 
to a demesne. 

demi (dem'i), a prefix signifying 
half, used in composition, as demi- 
quaver, a note equal in duration to 
half a quaver. 

demi. Same as demy. 

demigod (dem'i-god), n. an inferior 
deity ; one wdiose nature is partly 
divine ; the offspring of a god and 
a human being ; a deified hero. 

demijolin (-jon), n. a. large glass 
bottle with a small neck and large 
body, usually incased in wickerwork. 

demisable (-miz'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being demised. 

demise (-miz'), n. the transfer of a 
right to, or of a title in, an estate 
through death or forfeiture ; death, 
especially of a royal personage ; the 
conveyance or transfer of an estate 
by will or lease for a term of years 
or in fee simple : v.t. to give or grant 
by will : v.i. to pass by bequest or 

demobilize (-mo'bi-liz), v.t. to dis- 
band or dismiss (troops that have 
been mobilized) ; change from a war 
to a peace footing. 

democracy (-mok'ra-si), n. [pi. de- 
mocracies (-siz)], government by 
the people collectively by elected 
representatives ; political or social 

Democracy, n. the Democratic party 
or its principles. 

democrat (dem'o-krat), n. one who 
advocates and upholds the principles 
of democracy. 

Democrat, n. sl member of the Demo- 
cratic pa.rty. 

democratic (-krat'ik), or demo- 
cratical (-al), adj. pertaining to 

democratically (-li), adv. in a dem- 
ocratic manner. 

demoiselle (dem-wa-zel'), w. a young 
lady, or unmarried woman ; the Nu- 
midian crane ; a handsome small 

demolish (de-mol'ish), v.t. to thro^ 
down ; reduce to ruins ; destroy ; 

demolition (dem-o-lish'un), n. the 
act or process of demolishing ; de- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




demon (de'mon), n. an evil spirit; 
devil ; a guardian spirit or genius. 

demonetize (-mon'e-tiz), v.t. to de- 
prive of standard value, as currency ; 
withdraw from use as money. 

demoniac (-mo'ni-ak), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or influenced by, demons ; 
characteristic of a demon or evil 
spirit. Also demoniacal : n. a luna- 

demonism ('mon-izm), n. belief in 
demons ; the nature of a demon. 

demonolatry (-ol'a-tri), n. devil 

demonology (-ol'o-ji), n. a treatise 
on demons or evil spirits, as con- 
nected with the science of religion, 
or popular superstitions. 

demonstrable ( de-mon'stra-bl ) , adj. 
capable of being demonstrated. 

demonstrate (de-mon' or dem'on- 
strat), v.t. to prove beyond the pos- 
sibility of a doubt ; teach by exam- 
ples : v.i. to organize, or take part 
in, a party demonstration. 

demonstration ( dem-on-stra'shun ) , 
n. the act of demonstrating ; a proof 
beyond the possibility of a doubt ; 
jaanifestation ; a public exhibition 
of sympathy with some political or 
social movement ; the exhibition and 
description of examples in art and 
science teaching, especially anatomy. 

demonstrative ('stra-tiv), adj. hav- 
ing the power of demonstration ; 
conclusive ; manifesting the feelings 
openly and strongly : n. a demon- 
strative pronoun. 

demonstrator ('on-stra-ter), n. one 
who demonstrates ; a teacher of 
practical anatomy, or physical sci- 

demoralize ('al-iz), v.t. to corrupt, 
or undermine, the morals of ; de- 
prive of spirit or energy; throw 
into confusion. 

demulcent (-mul'sent), adj. soften- 
ing ; lenitive : n. a medicine which 
allays irritation. 

demur (de-mur'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
murred, demurring], to hesi- 
tate ; raise objections ; to interpose 
a demurrer : n. an objection or ex- 

demure (-mur'), adj. grave; sober; 

decorous in bearing* affectedly 
modest or grave. 

demurely (-li), adv. in a demure 

demureness ('nes), n. quality of 
being demure. 

demurrage (-mur'aj), n. the com- 
pensation paid by the freighter for 
the detention of a vessel in port 
beyond the stipulated time. 

demurrer ('er), n. an issue on a 
point of law. 

demy (de-mi), w. [^L demies (-miz')], 
a particular size of writing and 
printing paper, 15 x 20 inches, and 
17% X 22 inches respectively. 

den (den), n. the hollow cave of a 
wild beast ; lair ; subterraneous re- 
treat ; a squalid place of residence ; 
a small or secluded apartment, used 
as a retreat for work and leisure. 

denationalize (de-nash'un-al-iz), v.t. 
to deprive of national rights or 
character ; render local. 

denaturalize (-nat'u-ral-Iz), v.t. to 
make unnatural ; divest of the ac- 
quired rights of citizenship in a 
foreign country. 

dendrite (den'drit), n. a stone or 
mineral with tree-like markings. 

dendroid ('droid), adj. resembling a 
tree in appearance ; arborescent. 

dendrology (-drol'o-ji), n. the nat- 
ural history of trees; a treatise on 

dendrometer (-drom'e-ter), n. an 
apparatus for taking the heights 
and diameters of trees to ascertain 
their contents. 

dengue (deng'ga), n. the West In- 
dian name for the dandy fever, an 
acute febrile epidemic disease with 
pain in the bones, and skin eruption. 

denial (de-nl'al), n. the act of deny- 
ing ; refusal ; contradiction ; non- 

denizen (den'i-zen) , n. an inhabitant ; 
citizen ; an alien who has received 
letters patent admitting him to the 
rights of citizenship. 

denominate (de-nom'i-nat), v.t. to 
designate ; characterized by an epi- 
thet ; name : adj. made up of units 
of a specified kind. 

denomination (-i-na'shun), n. the 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nCrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




act of designating ; a sect, class, or 

denominational (-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or carried on by, a sect. 

denominationalism (-al-izm), '•^^ a 
denominational or class spirit, _ or 
policy ; the opinion that education 
should be carried out through reli- 
gious bodies. 

denominationally (-li), adv. by 

denominative ('i-na-tiv), adj. giv- 
ing a name ; formed from a sub- 
stantive or adjectival stem ; conno- 
tative : n. a verb formed from a sub- 
stantive or adjectival stem. 

denominator ('i-na-ter), n. one who, 
or that which, denominates ; the ex- 
pression of a fraction which, when 
placed below the line, gives the 
name or value to the unit. 

denotable (de-not'a-bl), adj. that 
may be denoted. 

denotative (-no'ta-tiv), adj. having 
the power to denote or point out ; 

denote (de-nof), v.t. to signify or 
identify by a visible sign ; indicate ; 

denouement (da-noo-mang'), n. the 
act of unraveling or solving a plot ; 

denounce (de-nouns'), v.t. to threat- 
en or accuse publicly ; censure ; 
stigmatize; lay claim to (a new, or 
an abandoned, mine). 

dense (dens), adj. thick; compact; 

density (den'si-ti), n. compactness; 
mass of matter per unit of volume ; 
depth of shade. 

dent (dent), n. a slight depression 
caused by a blow or pressure ; the 
tooth of a wheel ; a cog, card, comb, 
or metallic brush : v.t. to make a 
dent in. 

dental (den'tal), adj. pertaining to 
the teeth ; pronounced by the aid of 
the teeth : n. a letter pronounced by 
the aid of the teeth. 

dentary ('ta-ri), adj. pertaining to 

dentate ('tat), adj. toothed. Also 

denticulate (-tik'u-lat) , adj. fur- 

nished with small teeth. Also den- 

dentiform ('ti-form), adj. tooth- 

dentifrice ('ti-fris), n. tooth-powder. 

dentil ('til), n. one of the^ small 
square blocks or projections in cor- 
nices. Also dentel. 

dentilabial (-ti-la'bi-al), adj. artic- 
ulated between the teeth and the 

dentilingual (-ling'gwal), adj. 
formed between the teeth and the 
tongue. Dentolingual. 

dentine (den'tin), n. the hard, dense, 
calcified tissue which forms the 
body of a tooth. 

dentipbone ('ti-fon), n. an audi- 

dentist ('tist), n. a dental surgeon. 

dentistry ('tis-tri), n. dental sur- 

dentition (-tish'un), n. the process, 
or period, of cutting the teeth ; ar- 
rangement of the teeth. 

dentoid ('toid), adj. tooth-shaped. 

denudation (de-nu- or den-ii-da'" 
shun ) , n. the act of stripping or 
making bare. 

denude (de-nCid'), v.t. to make bare 
or naked; lay bare (rocks) by ero- 
sive action. 

denunciation (-nun-si-a'shun), n. 
the act of denouncing ; a threat ; 

denunciator (-nun'si-a-ter), n. a de- 

denunciatory (-to-ri), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or containing", a denunciation. 

deny (de-ni'), v.t. to refuse to be- 
lieve or admit ; contradict ; refuse 
to grant ; abjure. 

deodand (de'o-dand), n. any per- 
sonal chattel which has caused 
death, and for that reason has been 
given to God (forfeited to the 
Crown) for pious uses. 

deodorant (-o'der-ant), n. a deodor- 

deodorize ('der-iz), v.t. to disinfect. 

depart ( de-part'), v.i. to go or move 
away ; leave ; die ; desist. 

department ('ment), n. a separate 
room or office for business ; a branch 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




of business, study, or science ; a 
territorial administrative division. 
departmental ('al), adj. pertaining 
to a department ; governed by de- 

■ departure (par'chur), n, the act of 

■ departing ; a going away ; deviation ; 

■ death. 

■ depend (de-pend'), v.i. to rely for 

support ; trust ; hang down. 

dependence ('ens), n. the state of 
being dependent ; connection ; reli- 
ance ; trust. Also dependency (-si), 
\_pl. dependencies (-siz)], a colony. 

dependent ('ent), adj. hanging 
down ; contingent ; conditional ; su- 
bordinate : n. one dependent upon 
another ; a retainer ; consequence. 

depict (de-pikt'), v.t. to paint or 

» portray ; describe or represent vivid- 

depilatory (de-pil'a-to-ri), adj. hav- 
ing the power of removing hair : n. 
an application for removing super- 
fluous hairs. 

depletion (-ple'shun), n. the act of 
emptying or exhausting ; blood-let- 

deplorable (-plor'a-bl), adj. worthy 
to be deplored ; sad ; calamitous ; 

deplore (-plor'), v.t. to lament; 
grieve for. 

deploy (-ploi'), v.t. & vi. [p.t. & p.p. 
deployed, deploying], to open 
out ; extend in line so as to present 
a wider front : n. the act of deploy- 
i ing. Also deployment. 

I depolarize (-p5'lar-iz), v.t. to de- 
prive of polarity. 

deponent (-pon'ent), adj. denoting a 
Latin verb with a passive form 
and an active meaning : n. a witness 
who makes an affidavit to a state- 
ment of fact. 

depopulate (-pop'ti-lat), v.i. to de- 
prive of inhabitants ; devastate ; lay 

deport (-port'), v.t. to carry from 
one country to another ; banish ; be- 
have (one's self). 

deportment ('ment), n. conduct; 

depose (-poz'), v.t. to remove from a 
throne, or other high station ; de- 
prive of office : v.i. testify on oath. 

deposit (-poz'it), v.t. to put or set 
down ; place ; intrust to another for 
security : n. anything deposited ; 
something committed to the care of 
another ; a pledge ; rocks produced 
by denudation or by the laying down 
of other formations. 

depositary ('i-ta-ri), n. one with 
whom something is intrusted ; a 

deposition (dep-o-zish'un), n. the act 
of depositing or deposing ; that 
which is deposited or deposed ; an 

depositor (de-poz'i-ter), n. one who 

depository ('i-to-ri), n. [pi. deposi- 
tories (-riz)], the place where any- 
thing is deposited for security ; a 
depot for the sale of publications. 

depot (de'po, or dep'o), n. a ware- 
house ; a magazine for military 
stores, &c. ; the headquarters of a 
regiment ; a railway station. 

depravation (dep-ra-va'shun), n. 
the act of depraving ; deterioration. 

deprave (de-prav'), v.t. to make bad. 

depraved (-pravd') , p. adj. morally de- 
based ; corrupt ; made bad or worse. 

depi'avity ( -prav'i-ti ) , n. the state of 
being depraved or corrupt ; wicked- 

deprecable (dep're-ka-bl), adj. that 
which is, or should be, deprecated. 

deprecate ('re-kat), v.t. to pray 
against ; disapprove strongly ; ex- 
press regret for. 

deprecation (-ka'shun), n. the act 
of deprecating ; in litanies, a peti- 
tion to be delivered from some spir- 
itual or temporal evil. 

deprecatory (dep're-ka-to-ri), adj. 

depreciate (de-pre'shi-at), v.t. to 
lower the value, or rate, of ; dis- 
parage : v.i. to fall in value. 

depreciation (-a'shun), n. the act 
of lessening the value or worth of ; 
fall in value. 

depredate (dep're-dat), v.t. to pil- 
lage ; rob ; lay waste ; prey upon. 

depredation (-da'shun), n. the act 
of depredating. 

depredator (dep're-da-ter), n. a 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrtb^ not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




depredatory (-to-ri), adj. plunder- 

depress (de-pres'), v.t. to press or 
thrust down ; humble ; dispirit ; 
lower or cheapen. 

depressed (-presf), p.adj. cast down 
in spirits ; lowered in position ; flat- 
tened from above, or vertically. 

depression (-presh'un), n. the act 
of depressing; the sinking or fall- 
ing in of a surface ; abasement ; de- 
jection of spirits ; debility ; diminu- 
tion or dullness of trade. 

depressor (-pres'er), n. one who, or 
that which, depresses ; a muscle 
that draws down an organ or part. 

deprivation (dep-ri-va'shun), n. the 
act of taking away ; destitution ; 
loss ; the deposition of a cleric from 
his office or functions. 

deprive (de-priv'), v.t. to take from; 
dispossess ; debar ; depose from of- 

depth, (depth), n. the state or de- 
gree of being deep ; profoundness ; 
extent of penetration ; richness of 
tone or color. 

deputation (dep-ti-ta'shun), n. the 
act of deputing ; the persons de- 

depute (de-put'), v.t. to appoint as 
an agent or deputy ; send with au- 
thority to act on behalf of the prin- 

deputize (dep'ti-tiz), v.t. to appoint 
as a deputy. 

deputy ('u-ti), n. [pi. deputies 
(-tiz)], one appointed to act for 
another ; a delegate. 

derail (de-ral'),' v.i. to run off the 
rails : v.t. to cause to leave the rails. 

derange (-ranj'), v.t. to throw into 
confusion ; disturb the normal func- 
tions of ; displace. 

derangement ('ment), n. the act of 
deranging ; insanity. 

Derby {der'bi),n. [p?. derbies ('biz)], 
a race, founded, 1780, for three-year- 
old horses, run annually at Epsom, 

derby (der'bi), n. a kind of stiff felt 
hat, with convex crown and curved 

derelict (der'e-likt), adj. abandoned; 
adrift : n. anything left, forsaken, 

or cast away intentionally, as at 
sea : pi. abandoned goods found at 

dereliction (-lik'shun), n. omission, 
as of obligation or duty ; the gain- 
ing of land by the permanent retire- 
ment of the sea. 

deride (-rid'), v.t. to mock; laugh 
at : v.i. to indulge in mockery, scorn, 
or ridicule. 

deridingly ('ing-li), adv. with de- 

derisible (-riz'i-bl), adj. open to de- 

derision (-rizh'un), n. the act of de- 
riding ; ridicule ; scorn ; contempt. 

derisive (-ris'iv), adj. expressing de- 

derivable (-riv'a-bl), adj. capable 
of being derived ; deducible. 

derivation (der-i-va'shun), n. the 
act of deriving, or the condition of 
being derived ; the process of trac- 
ing a word from its original source ; 
evolution ; deduction. 

derivative (de-riv'a-tiv) , adj. derived 
or taken from another ; deducible ; 
secondary : n. a word obtained from 
some other by a prefix or suffix, or 
other modification. 

derive (-riv'), v.t. to draw from an 
original source ; obtain by trans- 
mission or descent; trace (a word) 
to its original rpot or stem ; deduce ; 

derma (der'ma), n. the true skin. 

dermal ('mal), adj. pertaining to the, 
or consisting of, skin. Also dermic. 

dermatoid ('ma-toid), adj. like 

dermatology (-tol'o-ji), n. the sci- 
ence which treats of the skin and its 

dermic, another form of dermal. 

dernier ressort (der'ni-er re-zor'), 
n. the last resort or expedient. 

derogate ('o-gat), v.t. to take away; 
annual partially: v.i. detract (with 

derogation (-ga'shun), n. the act 
of derogating ; detraction ; deprecia- 

derogatory (de-rog'k-to-ri) , adj. tend- 
ing to derogate from honor, char- 
acter, or value (with to, from). 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




derrick ('ik), n. an apparatus for 
hoisting heavy weights. 

derringer ('in-jer), n. a pocket pis- 
tol with a short barrel of very large 

dervish ('vish), n. a Mohammedan 
monk who professes extreme pov- 
erty, chastity, and humility, and 
leads a very austere life ; a Sou- 
danese adherent of the Madhi. 

descant (des'kant), n. a varied song 
or melody ; a disquisition or com- 
ment : (des-kant') vA. to comment 
freely ; discourse at length. 

descend (de-send'), vA. to pass from 
a higher to a lower position ; fall 
upon or invade ; be derived from ; 
fall in order of inheritance, or from 
one generation to another ; move to- 
ward the south : said of a star : 'v.i. 
to move or pass along downwards. 

descendant ('ant), n. one who is 
lineally descended from an ancestor ; 

descendent ('ent), adj. descending; 

descendible ('i-bl), adj. that may be 
descended ; transmissible. 

descension ('shun), n. the act of 
descending ; a falling ; declension ; 
sinking downwards. 

descent (-sent'), n. change from a 
higher to a lower place ; a sudden 
hostile invasion or attack ; moral or 
social declension ; transmission of an 
estate ; derivation from a common 
ancestor ; birth ; a passage from a 
higher to a lower pitch. 

describable (de-skrib'a-bl), adj. ca- 
pable of description. 

describe (-skrib'), i;.#. to delineate or 
trace out ; narrate ; set forth. 

description (-skrip'shun), n. the act 
of describing ; delineation by marks 
or signs ; an account of anything in 
words or writing. 

descriptive ('tiv), adj. tending to, 
or serving to, describe ; containing 

desecrate (des'e-kr^t), v.t. to divert 
from a sacred to a secular use ; pro- 

desecration (-kra'shun), n. profana- 

desert (de-zerf), v.t. to forsake; 
abandon : v.i. abscond from duty. 

desert (dez'ert), n. a barren tract 
incapable of supporting life or vege- 
tation ; a solitude : adj. pertaining to 
a desert. 

desert (de-zert'), n. a reward or pun- 
ishment deserved ; merit. 

deserve (-zerv'), v.t. to earn by serv- 
ice ; be justly entitled to, or worthy 
of ; merit : vA. to be worthy or de- 
serving (usual with well or ill). 

deser\'edly ('ed-li), adv. justly. 

deshabille, same as dishabille. 

desiccate (des'i-kat)^ v.t. to dry 
thoroughly ; dry up ; preserve by- 
exhausting the moisture from : v.i. 
to become dry. 

desiccation (-ka'shun), n. the act 
of drying. 

desiccative (des'i-ka-tiv), adj. tend- 
ing to dry. 

desiccator (-ter), n. an apparatus 
for drying foods and other sub- 

desiderate (de-sid'er-at), v.t. to be 
in want or need of ; desire to have. 

desiderative (-iv), adj. having de- 

desideratum (-ra'tum), n. {pi. de- 
siderata ( 'ta ) ] , anything desired ; a 
want or desire generally felt and 

design (-zin'), v.t. to draw, mark, or 
plan out ; project ; set apart mental- 
ly : v.i. to formulate designs or exe- 
cute original work : n. an outline, 
plan, or drawing ; project ; inten- 

designate (des'ig-nat), v.t. to indi- 
cate by marks, lines, or a descrip- 
tion the limits of ; point out ; dis- 
tinguish ; name : adj. designated ; 

designation (-na'shun), n. the act 
of designating ; nomination ; ap- 

designedly (de-zin'ed-li), adv. inten- 

designing (-zln'ing), adj. scheming; 
artful : cunning ; insidious ; wily. 

desirability (-zir-a-bil'i-ti), n. the 
state or quality of being desirable. 

desirable ('a-bl), adj. pleasing; 

desire (-zir'), v.t. to wish earnestly 
for ; crave : v.i. be in the state of 
desire : n. a longing for the posses- 

ate, arm, 

i, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nCrth, not; boon, 
book; hue. hut: think. #7)en. 




sion of some object ; a petition or 
prayer ; natural or sensual tenden- 
cy ; the object longed for. 

desirous ('us), adj. full of desire. 

desist Csist), v.i. to cease from. 

desk (desk), n. a sloping frame or 
table for reading or writing upon ; a 
clerk's position. 

desolate (des'o-lat) , v.t. to lay waste ; 
deprive of inhabitants ; overwhelm 
with sorrow : adj. deprived of in- 
habitants ; solitary ; laid waste ; 
abandoned ; miserable. 

desolately (-li), adv. in a desolate 

desolation (-la'shun), n. the act of 
desolating ; the state of being deso- 
lated ; a solitude ; ruin ; destruction ; 
affliction ; misery. 

despair (-par'), v.i. to abandon all 
hope, or expectation ; become hope- 
less : v.t. to lose hope or confidence 
in : n. loss of hope or confidence ; 
hopelessness ; desperation. 

despatch (des-pach'), or dispatch 
(dis-), v.t. to send off; expedite; 
put to death ; finish quickly : n. 
speedy performance ; celerity ; an ex- 
press ; an ofiicial document sent to a 
minister abroad. 

desperado (-per-a'do), n. a man 
reckless of danger; a wild ruffian. 

desperate ('per-at), adj. regardless 
of danger or consequences ; reckless ; 

desperately (-li), adv. recklessly; 

despicable ('pi-ka-bl), adj. con- 

despise (-spiz'), v.t. to look down 
upon with scorn or contempt; dis- 

despite (-spit'), n. extreme con- 
tempt ; malicious anger ; scorn ; ha- 
tred : prep, notwithstanding. 

despitefuUy (-fool-li), adv. mali- 

despoil (-spoil'), v.t. to rob; deprive. 

despond (-spond'), v.i. to be cast 
down in spirits ; give way to de- 

despondency ('en-si), n. absence of 
hope or courage; deep mental de- 

despot (des'pot), n. an absolute ir- 

responsible ruler ; an autocrat ; 

despotic (-pot'ik), adj. absolute in 
power ; autocratic ; irresponsible ; 
arbitrary ; tyrannical. Also despot- 

despotically (-al-li), adv. in a des- 
potic manner. 

despotism ('pot-izm), n. absolute 
power or government; tyranny. 

dessert (dez-erf), n. a course of 
fruits, sweets, &c., usually served 
last at dinner. 

destination (des-ti-na'shun), n. pur- 
pose or end for which anything is 
appointed ; ultimate design ; goal ; 

destine (des'tin), v.t. to appoint to 
any use or purpose ; fix unalterably ; 

destiny ('ti-ni), n. [pi. destinies 
(-niz)], premeditated lot; fate; in- 
evitable necessity. 

destitute ('ti-tut), adj. without 
means of existence ; forsaken ; poor ; 

destitution (-tti'shun), n. poverty; 

destroy (de-stroi'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
destroyed, destroying], to pull 
down ; overturn ; lay waste ; render 
desolate ; kill ; put an end to ; dis- 

destructibility (-struk-ti-bil'i-ti), n. 
the quality of being destructible. 

destructible ('ti-bl), adj. that may 
be destroyed. 

destruction (-struk'shun), n. the 
act or process of destroying ; sub- 
version ; overthrow ; ruin ; death. 

destructive ('tiv), adj. tending to, 
or causing, destruction ; ruinous ; 

destructively (-li), adj. in a destruc- 
tive manner. 

destructiveness (-nes), n. the qual- 
ity of being destructive ; a propen- 
sity to destroy. 

desudation (des-u-da'shun), n. pro- 
fuse sweating. 

desuetude (des'we-ttid), n. disuse. 

desultory (des'ul-to-ri), adj. passing 
from one thing to another without 
order or method ; cursory ; erratic. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon^ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




desultorily (-ri-li), adv. in a desul- 
tory manner. 

desultoriness (-ri-nes), n. the qual- 
ity of being desultory ; discursive- 

detach (de-tach'), v.t. to disconnect; 
detail for a specific purpose ; send 
away from. 

detachment ('ment), n. the act of 
detaching ; the thing detached ; a 
body of troops, or certain ships, de- 
tached from the main body and sent 
on special service. 

detail (de-tal'), v.i. to relate minute- 
ly ; enumerate ; tell off for a given 
duty : v.i. to give details of : n. an 
item ; a particular or minute ac- 
count ; a small detachment for spe- 
cial service : pi. minute parts of a 
picture, statue, &c. 

detain, (de-tan'), v.t. to hold back; 
restrain from departure ; retain in 

detainer ('er), n. one who detains; 
a writ for holding a person in cus- 

detainment ('ment), n. detention. 

detect (de-tekf), v.t. to discover; 
bring to light ; expose ; find out ; as- 
certain the character of. 

detectable (-tek'ta-bl), at?/, that may 
be detected. Also detectible. 

detection ('shun), n. the act of de- 
tecting or its result ; discovery. 

detective ('tiv), adj. employed in de- 
tecting ; pertaining to detectives, or 
detection : n. one whose business it is 
to trace wrong-doers. 

detector ('ter), n. one who, or that 
which, detects ; an apparatus or de- 
vice for indicating the presence of 

I detent (de-tent'), n. a pin, lever, or 
■ stud forming a stop in a clock, lock, 


detention (-ten'shun), n. the act of 
detaining or withholding ; restraint ; 

detentive ('tiv), adj. employed in 

deter (de-ter'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. de- 
terred, deterring], to dis- 
courage, or hinder, by fear ; re- 
strain ; dishearten. 

deterge (-terj'), v.t. to cleanse, as a 

deteriorate (-te'ri-6-rat), v.t. to re- 
duce to an inferior quality or value; 
impair : v.i. to grow worse. 

deterioration (-ra'shun), n. degen- 

determinable (-ter'mi-na-bl), adj. 
capable of being definitely ascer- 
tained ; defined with clearness ; ter- 

determinant ('mi-nant), adj. caus- 
ing determination : n. that which 
determines, decides, or establishes 

determinate ('mi-nat), adj. having 
definite or fixed limits; clearly de-' 
fined; ^specific. 

determination (-na'shun), n. the 
act of determining; purpose; reso- 

determinative ('min-a-tiv), adj. de- 
termining, limiting, or defining; 
tending to define the genus or 
species : n. that which serves to de- 
termine the quality or character of 
something else ; a demonstrative 
pronoun ; an ideograph. 

determine (de-ter'min), v.i. to de- 
cide ; end : v.t. to fix or settle the 
bounds of ; put an end to ; restrict. 

determined ('mind), p. adj. reso- 
lute; inflexible; fixed; circum- 
scribed ; limited. 

determinedly (-li), adv. resolutely. 

deterrent (-ter'ent), adj. serving, or 
tending, to deter: n. that which 

detest (-test'), v.t. to hate intense- 

detestation (de-tes- or det-es-ta'- 
shun), n. extreme dislike or abhor- 
rence ; loathing. 

dethrone (-thron'), v.t. to remove 
from a throne ; deprive of authority. 

detinue (det'i-nu), n. a writ for the 
recovery of chattels unlawfully de- 

detonate (det'o-nat), v.t. to cause 
to explode with a loud and sudden 
report : v.i. to explode loudly and 

detonation (-o-na'shun), n. a sud- 
den explosion with a loud report. 

detonator ('o-na-ter), n. a sub- 
stance that detonates ; a percussion- 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, th&n. 




detour (de-toor'), n. a circuitous 

detract (-trakt'), v.t. to draw or 
take away (with from) : v.i. take 
away the reputation. 

detraction (-trak'shun), n. depre- 
ciation ; defamation ; slander. 

detractor ('ter), n. one who de- 
tracts ; a muscle that draws away 
some part. 

detrain (de-tran'), v.t. to remove 
from a train, as troops : v.i. alight 
from a train. 

detriment (det'ri-ment), n. that 
' which injures, reduces in value, or 
causes damage. 

detrimental ('al), adj. injurious. 

detrimentally ('al-li), adv. inju- 

detrital (de-tri'tal), adj. pertaining 
to, or consisting of, detritus. 

detritus ('tus), n. accumulations 
arising from fragments of rocks 
broken off or worn away ; debris ; 

de trop (de tro'), too much; out of 
place ; not wanted : said of a per- 
son whose presence is not desired. 

deuce (dus), n. the devil ! ; a card or 
dice with two spots ; a term used in 
scoring at lawn tennis. 

deuce-ace ('as), n. the one and two 
thrown at dice. 

deutoplasm (du'to-plazm), n. the 
secondary or nutritive plasm or albu- 
minous part of the yolk, which pro- 
vides food for the embryo. 

Deutzia (dut'zi-a), n. a small genus 
of handsome Chinese and Japanese 

dev (dav), n. one of the high powers 
or gods in nature. Also deva. 

devachan (da'va-kan), n. in occult- 
ism, a state into which the higher 
spiritual life of man passes after 

devaclianee (-e'), n. one who is in 
the enjoyment of the devachan. 

devaporation (de-vap-o-ra'shun), n. 
the change of vapor into water. 

devastate (dev'as-tat), v.t. to lay 
waste ; desolate ; ravage ; plunder. 

devastation (-ta'shun), n. the act 
of devastating ; desolation ; waste ; 

devastator ('as-ta-tgr), n. one who 

develop (de-vel'op), v.t. to unfold 
gradually ; make known in detail ; 
complete ; to cause to go from a 
lower to a higher state ; bring to 
view by inducing changes on a sen- 
sitized plate : v.i. to advance from 
one stage to another : become grad- 
ually apparent. 

development (-ment), n. the act of 

developmental {-Sil),adj. pertaining 
to development. 

devest (de-vesf), v.t. to alienate or 
annul, as right or title : v.i. to be 
lost or alienated. 

deviate (de'vi-at), v.i. to turn aside 
from a certain course ; diverge ; err : 
v.t. to change the direction or posi- 
tion of. 

deviation (-a'shun), n. the act of 
deviating ; digression ; wandering ; 
variation from established rule ; er- 

de viator (-ter), n. one who deviates. 

device (de-vis'), n. a contrivance; 
invention ; a stratagem ; a. fanciful 
design or pattern; a heraldic em- 

devil (dev'l), n. the Evil Spirit, Sa- 
tan ; a fallen angel ; a false god or 
demon ; a very wicked person ; a 
bold dashing fellow; a malicious 
spirit in a person ; a printer's ap- 
prentice ; a machine for dividing 
rags or cotton in paper-making : v.t. 
to season highly with cayenne pep- 
per cold cooked meat and then to 
fry it ; prepare work for another ; 
tear up in a machine. 

devil-fish (-fish), n. a large species 
of octopus. 

devilish (-ish), adj. diabolical; ex- 
tremely wicked ; infernal ; excessive, 

devilishly (-li), adv. diabolically; 

devilkin (-kin), n. a little devil. 

devilment (-ment), oi. roguishness. 

devilry (-ri), malicious mischief; dia- 
bolical wickedness. 

devious (de'vi-us), adj. rambling; 

devisable (-vis'a-bl), adj. capable of 
being imagined or bequeathed. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; nDte, north, not; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




devise (-viz'), v.t. to imagine; 
scheme ; contrive ; concoct ; bequeath 
by will : n. a gift of real property 
by will ; a will._ 

devisee (dev-i-ze'), n. the person to 
whom a bequest has been made. 

deviser (de-viz'er), n. one who de- 
vises or invents. 

devisor ('er), n. one who bequeaths 
by will. 

devoid (-void'), adj. destitute of. 

devoir (dev- war'), n. a service or 
duty owed ; an act of courtesy or 
respect (usual pi.). 

devolve (de-volv'), v.t. to transfer 
from one to another ; transmit : v.i. 
to be transferred or transmitted. 

devote (de-vof). v.t. to dedicate or 
consecrate ; consign to evil ; give up 
wholly to; apply (one's self, &c.) to 
some object. 

devotee (dev-o-te'), n. a votary; en- 

devotion (de-vo'shun), n. the act of 
devoting or consecrating ; the state 
of being devoted ; strong affection ; 
ardent love ; religious worship ; 
prayer (usually pi.). 

devotional (-al), adj. devout. 

devour (de-vour'), v.t. to swallow 
greedily or ravenously ; consume or 
destroy rapidly ; annihilate ; enjoy 
with avidity. 

devout (-vout'), adj. devoted to re- 
ligious thoughts and exercises ; 

dew (du), n. aqueous vapor con- 
densed from the atmosphere and de- 
posited in small drops at evening ; 
that which falls lightly and in a re- 
freshing manner. 

dew-claw ('claw), n. the little claw 
behind a dog's foot ; the false hoof 
of a deer. 

dewiness (dti'i-nes), n. state of being 

dewlap ('lap), n. the loose skin that 
hangs from the neck of an ox or 

dewy (du'i), adj. moist with dew. 

dexter (deks'ter), adj. right: opposed 
to left. 

dexterity ('i-ti), n. manual skill; 
mental or physical adroitness ; clev- 

dexterous (-us), adj. possessing 

manual skill ; quick, mentally or 
physically ; adroit ; clever. Also 

dextrine ('trin), n. a white gummy 
substance found in plant sap, &c. : 
used as gum. 

dextrose ('tros), n. a white crystal- 
line variety of sugar found in sweet 
fruits : as the grape, cherry, &c., and 
in diabetic urine. 

dey (da), n. the former title of the 
governor of Algiers, and of the chief 
of the Janissaries. 

diabase (di'a-bas), n. a dark colored 
igneous rock ; composed of augite, 
feldspar, and iron ; greenstone. 

diabetes (-a-be'tez), n. a disease 
characterized by a morbid and ex- 
cessive discharge of urine. 

diabetic (-bet'ik), adj. pertaining to 

diabolic (di-a-bol'ik), or diabolic* 
al (-al), adj. devilish; outrageously 
wicked ; impious. 

diabolically (-li), adv. in a diabol- 
ical manner. 

diacaustic (-a-kaws'tik), adj. denot- 
ing a caustic curve formed by re- 
fracted rays : n. a diacaustic curve. 

diaconal (-ak'o-nal), adj. pertaining 
to a deacon. 

diaconate (-ak'o-nat), n. the office 
or dignity of a deacon ; deacons col- 

diacoustics dl-a-kous' or -koos'- 
tiks), the science of refracted 
sounds ; diaphonics. 

diacritical (-krit'i-kal), adj. serving 
to separate or distinguish ; sufficient 
to magnetize an iron core to one- 
half its saturation. Also diacritic. 

diacritical mark (mark), n. a mark 
employed to distinguish letters or 
sounds which resemble each other, 
and to indicate their true pronun- 
ciation, as a, o. 

diadem ('a-dem), n. a crown; tiara, 

diaeresis, same as dieresis. 

diaglypbic (-glif'ik), adj. pertaining 
to, or like, an intaglio : sunk into the 
general surface. 

diagnose (-ag-nos'), v.t. to ascer- 
tain, as a disease, by its general 

diagnosis (-no'sis), n. [pi. diagnoses 
('sez)], scientific discrimination; 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nCrth, not; boonj 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




the recognition of a disease by its 

diagnostic (-nos'tik), adj. char- 
acteristic : n. a symptom distinguish- 
ing a disease. 

diagometer (-gom'e-ter), n. a kind 
of electroscope for measuring and 
determining relative conductivity. 

diagonal (-ag'o-nal), adj. extending 
from one angle to another : n. a 
straight oblique line dividing a rec- 
tangular figure into equal parts. 

diagonally (-li), adv. in a diagonal 

diagrasu ('i.-gram), n. a geometrical 
figure ; a mechanical plan ; an out- 
line, drawing, or figure. 

diagrammatic (-at'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to, or illustrated by, a diagram. 

diagrammatically (-al-li), adv. by 
a diagram. 

diagraph ('a-graf), n. an instrument 
for drawing figures or objects me- 

dial (di'al), n. an instrument for 
showing the time by the sun's shad- 
ow ; the face of a timepiece ; any 
plate on which an index finger 
marks revolutions, pressure, &c. ; 
an insulated fixe'd wheel used in 
telegraphy : v.t. to measure or in- 
dicate by a dial ; survey with a 
miner's compass. 

dialect ('a-lekt), n. the peculiar 
manner in which a language is 
spoken in a province or district of 
a country ; idiom ; a sub-division of 
a language. 

dialectic ('ik), adj. pertaining to a 
dialect, or to logic. Also dialectical. 

dialectics ('iks), the art of rea- 

dialectician (-tish'an), n. a logician. 

dialectology (-toro-ji), n. that 
branch of philology which treats of 

dialing ('ul-ing), n. the art of con- 
structing dials. 

dialogue ('a-log), n. a conversation 
between two or more persons ; a 
literary composition in which per- 
sons are represented as reasoning 
on, or discussing, a subject. 

dialysis (-al'i-sis), n. the breaking 
up, or division, of one syllable into 
two ; in Latin grammar, the change 

of j and V into i and u; the separa- 
tion of different substances in solu- 
tion by diffusion through a moist 
membrane or septum. 

diamagnetism (-mag'net-izm), n. 
the property possessed by certain 
bodies when under the influence of 
magnetism, and freely suspended, of 
taking a position at right angles to 
the magnetic meridian. 

diameter (di-am'e-ter), n. the length 
of a line passing through the center 
of any object from one side to the 
other ; the distance through the 
low^er part of the shaft of a column. 

diametrical (-a-met'ri-kal), adj. 
pertaining to a diameter ; directly 
adverse or opposite. 

diametrically (-li), adv. in a dia- 
metrical manner. 

diamond (di'a-mund), n. a gem of 
extreme hardness and refractive 
power : a rhomboidal figure ; a play- 
ing card with one or more lozenge- 
shaped figures ; a glass cutter's tool ; 
the smallest kind of type generally 
used (see type) : adj. resembling a 

diamond-drill (-dril), n. a rod or 
tube furnished at the end with dia- 
monds for boring very hard rock. _ 

diapason (-a-pa'zon), n. the entire 
compass of a voice or instrument ; 
a recognized musical standard of 
pitch ; the foundation stops of an 

diaper ('a-per), n. linen cloth woven 
in geometric patterns ; a napkin ; 
surface decoration of one or more 
simple figures repeated : v.t. to varie- 
^gate or embroidery work in diaper. 

diapliane (-af'a-ne), n. the art of 
imitating stained glass by trans- 
parencies on plain glass. 

diaphanous (-af'a-nus), adj. tranS' 

diaplnantograpli (-fan'to-graf), n. 
an instrument for drawing objects 
from their reflection on a sheet of 

diaphonic, same as diacoustic. 

diaphoretic (-fo-ret'ik), adj. pro- 
ducing perspiration : n. a sudorific 
I diaphragm ('a-fram), n. the mid- 
1 riff, which divides the chest from 

*Ue, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; boon, 
book: hue. hnt : fl^i^ik. f^"^^. 




the abdomen ; any substance that in- 
tercepts or divides. 
diapliy lactic (-fi-lak'tik), n. a pre- 
ventive against disease. 
diarist ('a-rist), n. one who keeps a 

diarrhoea (di-a-re'a), n. a morbidly 
persistent purging or looseness of 
the bowels. 

diary ('a-ri), n. [pi. diaries (-riz)], 
a register of daily occurrences or 
duties ; a book for daily memoranda. 

diastase ('a-stas) , n. a soluble nitrog- 
enous ferment formed in germinat- 
ing grain and animal fluids, and 
having the property of converting 
starch and dextrine into sugar. 

diastole (-as'to-le), n. the rhythmical 
expansion and dilatation of the 
heart and arteries in beating ; the 
lengthening of a syllable naturally 

dlastyle ('a-stil), n. an arrangement 
of columns in which the interspace 
between each measures 3 or 4 diam- 
eters of the shaft. 

diatonic (-a-ton'ik), adj. designat- 
ing the regular tones of a key or 

diatribe ('a-trib), n. a continued dis- 
course or disputation ; a strain of 
violent abuse ; bitter criticism. 

dibber (dib'er), n. an instrument 
with a sharp steel point : used by 
gardeners, miners, &c. 

dibble (dib'l), n. a gardening tool 
for making holes in the earth : v.t. 
plant with a dibble; v.i. dip bait 
gently into the water. 

dice (dis), small cubes marked 
on the sides with one to six spots : 
used in games of chance : v.i. to 
play with dice : v.t. to decorate with 
woven patterns to resemble cubes ; 
cut into cubes. 

dichroism ('kro-izm), n. the proper- 
ty by which a crystallized body ex- 
hibits different colors according to 
the direction of light transmitted 
through it. 

dicbromism (-mizm), n. color blind- 
ness characterized by inability to see 
more than one of the three primary 

dicing (di'sing) , n. gaming with dice ; 

stamped leather ornamented with 
dicker ('er), v.i. to barter or trade 
on a small scale. 

dicky (dik'i), n, [pi. dickies ('iz)], 
a small separate shirt front ; a seat 
at the back of a coach ; a child's bib 
or pinafore ; a donkey. 

dicrotic (di-krot'ik), adj. having a 
double or secondary pulse-beat. 

dictate (dik'tat), v.t. declare with 
authority ; express orally so that an- 
other may take words down in writ- 
ing : v.i. to speak with final author- 
ity ; prescribe : n. an injunction ; 
command ; a controlling principle. 

dictation (-ta'shun), n. the act of 
dictating ; the thing dictated ; au- 
thoritative utterance. 

dictator ('ter), n. one who dictates; 
one invested with absolute powers of 
government ; an ancient Roman 
magistrate with supreme authority, 
appointed in times of emergency. 

dictatorial (-to'ri-al), adj. pertain- 
ing to a dictator ; absolute ; imper- 

dictatorially (-li), adv. in a dicta- 
torial manner. 

diction (dik'shun), n. manner of 
speaking or expression ; choice of 
words ; style. 

dictionary (-a-ri), n. [pi. diction- 
aries (-riz)], a book containing all, 
or the principal, words in a lan- 
guage, arranged alphabetically, with 
their meanings, derivations, &c. ; a 
lexicon ; vocabulary ; wordbook. 

dictum ('tum), n. [pi. dicta ('ta)ly 
a dogmatic or authoritative asser- 
tion ; aphorism. 

did, p.t. of do. 

didactic (di-dak'tik), adj. teaching; 
instructing ; explanatory. Also di- 

didactically (-al-li), adv. in a 'di- 
dactic manner. 

didactics ('tiks), the art of 

didactyl (-dak'til), adj. having two 
digits, as fingers or toes : n. an ani- 
mal with only two toes on each foot. 

diddle (did'l), v.t. to overreach or 
cheat : v.i. to totter like a child ; 

^te, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit ; note, n6rth, not; boon„ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, t/ien. 




didecahedral ( di-dek-a-he'dral ) , adj. 
having the form of a ten-sided prism 
with a five-sided base. 

dido (di'do), n. a caper. 

didodecahedral ( -do-dek-a-he'dral ) , 
adj. having the form of a prism w^ith 
12 sides and a 6-sided base. 

didymous (did'i-mus), adj. growing 
in pairs ; paired or double. 

die (di), v.i. \_p.t. & p.p. died, 
dying], to cease to live; expire; 
perish ; wither ; become extinct 
gradually ; faint ; sink, languish 
with pleasure. 

die (di), n. [pi. dies (diz)], a small 
cube {pi. dice, see dice) ; a piece of 
engraved metal with a device used 
for coining money, medals, &c. ; a 
tool used in cutting the threads of 
screws or bolts, &c. ; a kind of 
knife used by envelope makers, and 
in shoe factories : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
died, dying], to mold, stamp, 
cut with a die. 

dielectric (di-e-lek'trik), adj. non- 
conducting : n. any medium, as glass, 
&c., that transmits electric force by 

dieresis (-er'e-sis), n. a sign ( • •) 
placed over the second of two sepa- 
rate vowels to show that each has a 
separate sound in pronunciation, as 
aerated ; a division in a line or 
verse ; cell-division. Also diaeresis. 

diesis (di'e-sis), n. the double dagger 

(t) used in printing; the difference 

^between a greater and less semitone. 

diet (di'et), n. solid or liquid food; 
manner of living, with special refer- 
ence to food ; a deliberative conven- 
tion ; a national or legislative assem- 

dietary (di'e-ta-ri), adj. pertaining 
to the rules of diet : dietaries 
(-riz)], a certain fixed allowance of 
food ; system of diet. 

dietetic (di-e-tet'ik), adj. regulating 
food or diet. Also dietetical : 
that branch of hygiene which relates 
to rules of diet. 

dieting (di'et-ing), n. the act of eat- 
ing according to regimen. 

differ (dif'er), v.i. to be dissimilar; 
be distinguished from, or have dif- 
ferent properties or qualities ; dis- 
agree ; contend. 

difference ('er-ens), n. the act or 
state of being unlike; disparity; 
distinction ; controversy ; quarrel ; 
on the Stock Exchange, the margin 
payable on settlement : v.t. to distin- 
guish between ; discriminate ; take 
the difference of. 

different ('er-ent), adj. unlike; dis- 

differentia (-en'shi-a), n. [pi. dif- 
ferentiae (-e)], that which distin- 
guishes one species from another of 
the same genus. 

differential ('shal), adj. indicating 
a difference ; having different veloci- 

differential calculus (kal'ku-lus), 
n. the method of finding an infinite- 
ly small quantity which shall equal 
a given quantity when taken in- 
finite times. 

differential duties (dti'tiz), w.pi 
duties levied unequally on similat 
produce from foreign countries. 

differentially (-11), adv. in a differ- 
ential manner. 

differentiate (-en'shi-at), v.t. to 
constitute a difference between ; 
specialize in structure or functions : 
v.i. to acquire a distinctive and sepa- 
rate character. 

differentiation (-a'shun), n. the act 
^of differentiating ; specialization. 

difficult ('i-kult), adj. not easy; 
arduous ; perplexing ; not easily 

difficulty (-kul-ti), n. [pi. difliculties 
(-tiz)], something that requires la- 
bor or skill to overcome ; scruple ; 
objection ; controversy : pi. compli- 
cation of affairs ; embarrassment ; 

diffidence ('i-dens), n. lack of self- 
reliance ; modest reserve. 

diffident ('i-dent), adj. lacking self- 
reliance ; shy ; modest. 

diffraction (dif-rak' or di-frak'shun) , 
n. the act of turning aside a ray of 
light when passing the edge of an 
opaque body. 

diffractive ('tiv), adj. pertaining to 

diffuse (dif-uz'), v.t. to pour out and 
spread all around ; scatter ; circwi- 
late: adj. (dif-us') widely spread; 
verbose ; redundant. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




diffusibility (-i-bil'i-ti). n. the ca- 
pability of being diffused. 

diffusible ('i-bl), adj. capable of be- 
ing diffused. 

diffusion ( dif -u'zhun ) , n. the act of 
diffusing ; a spreading abroad ; the 
passing by osmosis through animal 

diffusive (-us'iv), adj. capable of dif- 
fusing ; spreading every way ; wide- 
ly reaching. 

dig (dig), v.i. Ip.t. & p.p. dug, or 
digged; digging], to work with 
a spade ; cast up earth ; study hard : 
-?;.#. to excavate ; break up (ground) ; 
search; thrust or force in (with 
into) : n. a poke or thrust; a plod- 
ding student. 

digest (di'jest), n. any compilation, 
abridgment, or summary of laws ar- 
ranged methodically under proper 
heads, or titles ; the Pandects of the 
Emperor Justinian ; a synopsis : v.t. 
(di-jest') to arrange methodically un- 
der proper heads or titles ; classify ; 
dissolve in the stomach by the action 
of digestive juices ; think over and 
arrange in the mind ; soften and pre- 
pare by heat : v.i. to be digested, or 
prepared by heat. 

digester ('er), n. an apparatus for 
extracting the essence of a substance 
by heat. 

digestibility (-jes-ti-biri-ti), n. the 
quality of being digestible. 

digestible ('ti-bl), adj. capable of 
being digested. 

digestion (-jes'chun), n. the act of 
digesting ; the conversion of food by 
the action of the gastric juices into 
soluble products ; mental or physical 

digestive ('tiv), adj. pertaining to 

digger (dig'er), n. one who digs. 

Digger, n. a name of a class of Cali- 
fornian Indians who subsist chiefly 
on roots. 

digging ('ing), n. the act of excavat- 
ing : pi. a locality where mining op- 
erations, especially for gold, are car- 
ried on ; residence. 

digit (dij'it), n. a finger or toe; a 
measure (% inch) ; l-12th of the di- 

. ameter of the sun or moon ; any one 
of the Arabic numerals. 

digital ('Hal), adj. pertaining to a 
^digit. ^ 

digitalin ('i-tal-in), n. a poisonous 
crystalline alkaloid obtained from 
the leaves of the foxglove. 

Digitalis (-i-ta'lis), n. a genus of tall 
plants, the figworts, including the 

digitate ('i-tat), adj. finger-shaped. 

digitigrade ('i-ti-grad), adj. walk- 
ing on the toes, as cats, dogs, &c. 

dignified (dig'ni-fid) , adj. invested, 
or marked, with dignity; noble; 

dignify ('ni-fi), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dig- 
nified, dignifying], to invest 
with, or exalt in, dignity or rank ; 
confer honor upon ; elevate ; ennoble. 

dignitary (-ta-ri), n. [pi. dignitaries 
(-riz)], one who holds a position of 
dignity or honor ; an ecclesiastic who 
holds rank above a priest or canon. 

dignity ('ni-ti), it. [pi. dignities 
(-tiz)], elevation of rank; degree of 
excellence ; ^ moral worth ; qualities 
suited to inspire or command re- 
spect and reverence. 

digraph (dl'graf), n. combination of 
two sounds or characters to repre- 
sent one simple sound, as read. Also 

digress (di- or di-gres'), v.i. to turn 
aside; deviate from the main sub- 
ject or line of argument ; wander. 

digression (-gresh'un), n. the act of 
digressing; the angular distance of 
the planets Mercury and Venus from 
the sun. 

digressive (-gres'iv), adj. character- 
ized by digression. 

digressively (-li), adv. in a digres- 
sive manner. 

dihedral (-he'dral), adj. having two 
plane faces or sides. 

dike (dik), n. an embankment or cut- 
ting of earth, especially one thrown 
up as a protection against the sea, 
floods, &c. ; a mass of igneous intru- 
sive rock. Also dyke : v.t. to sur- 
round, protect, or inclose with a 
dike ; drain by ditching. 

dilapidate (di-lap'i-dat), -y.f. to bring 
into partial ruin by neglect or mis- 
use : v.i. to become dilapidated. 

dilapidation ('i-da'shun), n. a state 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 



of partial ruin, especially through 
neglect or misuse. 

dilatability (di- or dl-la-ta-biri-ti ) , 
n. the quality of being dilatable. 

dilatable (-lat'a-bl), adj. expansive. 

dilatation (-ta'shun), n. expansion. 

dilate (-laf), v.t. to enlarge or ex- 
pand in all directions ; distend : vA. 
to be extended or enlarged ; speak 
fully and copiously. 

dilator ('er), n. one who, or that 
which, dilates ; a surgical instrument 
for opening or expanding an orifice, 
&c. ; a muscle that dilates the parts 
on which it acts. 

dilatory (dil'a-to-ri), adj. causing, or 
tending to cause, delay ; slow ; inac- 

dilemma (di- or di-lem'a), n. an 
awkward or vexatious situation ; an 
argument which presents an antag- 
onist with alternatives, each of which 
is fatal to his cause. 

dilettante (-e-tan'te), n. [pi. dilet- 
tanti (-ti)], one who pursues the 
fine arts, literature, or science, only 
for amusement ; an amateur : op- 
posed to connoisseur : adj. pertain- 
ing to dilettanti, or dilettantism. 

dilettantism ('tizm), n. the charac- 
teristics of dilettanti ; amateurish 
pursuit of art, literature, &c. (used 
in a disparaging sense). 

diligence ('i-jens), n. carefal atten- 
tion ; assiduity ; industry ; a French 
stage-coach ( de-la-zhans' ) . 

dill (dil), n. an herb belonging to the 
parsley family, with an aromatic 

dilly-dally (dil'i-dal'i), v.i. [p.t. & 
p.p. -dallied, -dallying], to loi- 
ter ; trifle. 

dilute (di- or di-lut'), v.t. to thin or 
weaken by the admixture of another 
fluid, especially water : weaken : v.i. 
^to become thinner. 

dilution (-lu'shun), n. the act of di- 
luting ; a weak liquid. 

diluvial (-lu'vi-al), adj. pertaining 
to, produced by, or resulting from, a 
^deluge or flood. 

dim (dim), adj. [comp. dimmer, su- 
perl. dimmest], somewhat dark; 
hazy ; obscure ; faint ; tarnished ; ill- 
defined : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dimmed, dimming], to render obscure or 

less distinct ; cloud ; tarnish ; dull t 
v.i. to become dim ; fade. 

dime (dim), n. a silver coin = 1-lOth 
of a dollar, or ten cents : adj. of the 
value of a dime. 

dime novel (nov'el), n. a term ap- 
plied to cheap sensational literature. 

dimension (di-men'shun), n. the size 
or measured extent of a body; cubic 
capacity ; the literal factor of an 
algebraic product or term : pi. mag- 
nitude or importance. 

dimensional (-al), pertaining to di- 

diminish (di-min'ish), v.t. to make 
less; reduce in bulk or amount; 
weaken ; impair ; detract from ; re- 
duce by a semitone : v.i. to lessen ; 

diminution ( dim-i-nti'shun ) , n. the 
act of making less ; reduction ; les- 

diminutive (di-min'ti-tiv), adj. be- 
low the average size ; little ; cou' 
tracted ; narrow ; n. a word formed 
from another to express the sense of 

dimissory (dim'is-o-ri), adj. sending 
to the jurisdiction of another ; giv- 
ing leave to depart. 

dimity ('i-ti), n. [pL dimities (-tiz)], 
a cotton cloth of thick texture with 
a ridged surface. 

dimorpliism (di-m6r'fizm), n. the 
quality of assuming, crystallizing, or 
existing in, two forms. 

dimorphous ('fus), adj. existing in 
two forms. Also dimorphic. 

dimple (dim'pl), n. a small depres- 
sion or hollow in the cheek or chin ; 
an indentation : v.i. to form dim- 
ples ; sink in slight depressions : v.t. 
to mark with dimples. 

dimply Cpli), adj. full of, or marked 
with, dimples. Also dimpled. 

din (din), n. a continued and violent 
noise: v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dinned, 
dinning], to stun with noise; press 
with clamor or persistent repetition : 
v.i. make a clamor. 

dine (din), v.i. to take dinner: v.t. to 
give or provide a dinner for ; feed. 

ding (ding), v.i. to sound, as a bell, 
with a continuous monotonous tone : 
v.t. to impress by noisy repetition. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, but ; think, then. riiL;lisli greyhound 
- 3 Coarse-haired Scotch greyhoun 
6. Short-haired dachshund 

Black field-spaniel 


— 2. Long-haired Russian greyhound. 

d 4. English fox-hound. — 5. box 

7. Long-haired daclishund. — 8. 




ding-dong ('dong), n. the sound of 
a metallic body produced by blows, 
as a bell. 

dinghy (ding'ji), n. the smallest boat 
of a man-of-war ; an East Indian 
ferry-boat ; a small boat without 
outriggers. Dinghey, dingy. 

dingily (-li), adv. in a dingy manner. 

dingle (ding'gl), n. a narrow hollow 
between hills ; the enclosed weather- 
porch of a house. 

dingle-dangle (-dang'gl),^^?^. swing- 
ing backwards and forwards ; loose- 
ly pendent. 

dingo (ding'go), n. the Australian 
wild dog. 

dingy (din'ji), adj. dark-colored; 

^nner ('er), n. the chief meal of the 
day ; a dinner party. 

dint (dint), n. a mark left by a blow 
or pressure; force or power (with 
of) : v.t. to make a mark on or in. 

diocesan (di-os'e-san, or di'o-se-san), 
adj. of, or pertaining to, a diocese : 
n. a bishop._ 

diocese ('o-ses), n. [pi. dioceses (-se- 
sez ) ] , a bishop's see ; a bishopric. 

dioptase (-op'tas), n. a vitreous em- 
erald green ore of copper. 

dioptric ('trik), adj. assisting vision 
by means of the refraction of light 
in viewing distant objects. Also 

diorama (-ra'ma), n. an exhibition 
of pictures on movable screens, 
viewed through a large opening in a 
darkened room. 

diorite (-rit), n. a granite-like rock 
consisting of triclinic feldspar and 

diosmose (-os'mos), n. the mingling 
of fluids through a permeable mem- 
brane. Also diosmosis. 

dioxide (-oks'id), n. an oxide con- 
sisting of 2 atoms of oxygen and 1 
atom of a metal. 

dip (dip),.i;.*. [p.t. & p.p. dipped, 
dipt, dipping], to plunge for a 
short time into a fluid ; baptize by 
immersion ; lower and raise quickly : 
v.i. to immerse one's self ; enter 
slightly into anything ; incline down- 
wards ; sink : n. the act of dipping ; 
the inclination of the magnetic nee- 
dle, or the angle made by it ; the 

angle of inclination of strata to the 

diphtheria (dif- or dip-the'ri-a), n. 
a contagious throat-disease charac- 
terized by the formation of a false 
membrane in the air-passages. Also 

diphthong ('thong), n. the union of 
two vowel sounds pronounced in one 

diploma (di-plo'ma), n. a writing on 
parchment or paper under sign and 
seal, conferring some honor, author- 
ity, &c. 

diplomacy ('ma-si, or -plom'a-si), n. 
[pi. diplomacies (-siz)], the art of 
conducting negotiations between two 
states or nations, or of transacting 
international business ; skill in con- 
ducting negotiations. 

diplomat (dip'lo-mat), n. a diplo- 

diplomatic (-mat'ik), adj. pertain- 
ing to diplomacy ; characterized by 
special tact in the management of 

diplomatically (-al-li), adv. with 
diplomatic skill ; with tact. 

diplomatist ('ma-tist), n. one who 
is skilled in diplomacy. 

dipper (dip'er), n. one who, or that 
which, dips ; a water-fowl. 

dipsomania (-so-ma'ni-a), n. a mor- 
bid and uncontrollable craving for 
alcoholic drinks. 

dipsomaniac ('ni-ak), n. one who 
suffers from dipsomania : adj. pert, 
to dipsomania. 

dipteral ('te-ral) , adj. furnished with 
a double row of columns, as in tem- 
ples ; dipterous. 

dipterous ('te-rus), adj. two- winged. 

dire (dir), adj. dreadful; mournful. 

direct (di-rekf), adj. straight; not 
circuitous ; open ; plain ; straightfor- 
ward ; not of collateral descent; not 
retrograde : v.t. to aim or drive in a 
straight line ; guide or show ; point 
out or determine with authority : v.i. 
to act as a guide. 

direction (-rek'shun), n. relative po- 
sition ; a command ; order ; guid- 
ance ; the address of a person on a 
package, &c. 

directly ('li), adv. in a direct or 
straight line; immediately; openly. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nSrth, not; booiif 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




directness ('nes), n. the quality of 
being direct; freedom from ambigu- 

director ('ter), n. one who directs 
or superintends ; one appointed to 
transact the affairs of a company, 
&c. ; a spiritual guide or adviser ; a 
surgical instrument. 

directorate ('to-rat), n. the office of 
a director ; a body or board of direc- 

directory ('to-ri), n. [pi. directories 
(-riz)], a book containing the 
names, addresses, and occupations 
of the residents of a place ; a body 
of directors ; a book of ecclesiastical 
rules or directions for divine wor- 
ship : adj. guiding ; commanding. 

direful (dir'fool), adj. dreadful; dis- 

direfully (-li), adv. in a dire man- 

dirge (derj), n. a funeral hymn. 

dirigible (dir'i-ji-ble), adj. that may 
be guided or steered : as, a dirigiMe 

dirk (derk), n. a dagger. 

dirt (dert), n. any foul or filthy sub- 
stance ; garden earth. 

dirtily ('ti-li), adv. filthily; meanly. 

dirtiness (-nes), n. the state or qual- 
ity of being dirty. 

dirty ('i), adj. impure; soiled; mor* 
ally unclean ; disgusting ; muddy ; 
sleety ; rainy : v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dir- 
tied, dirtying], to soil; sully; 

dis-, prefix, signifies separation, pri- 
vation or negation, 

disability (dis-a-bil'i-ti), n. [pZ. dis- 
abilities (-tiz)], lack of physical, 
intellectual, or social fitness ; legal 

disable (-a'bl), v.t. to deprive of 
power ; disqualify ; impoverish ; in- 

disabuse (-buz'), v.t. to clear from 
mistakes or false conceptions ; set 

disafPect (-a-fekt'), v.t. to fill with 
discontent ; alienate the affections 
^from ; disturb the functions of, 

disaffection (-fek'shun), n. aliona- 

^tion of affection ; disloyalty ; ill-will, 

disagreeable ('a-bl), adj. exciting 

repugnance or displeasure : n. that 

which is displeasing or unsatisfac- 

disagreeableness (-bl-nes), n. un- 

disagreeably (-bli), adv. in a disa- 
greeable manner. 

disappear (-a-per'), v.i. to pass 
away ; vanish. 

disappearance ('ans), n. removal 
from sight. 

disappoint (-point'), v.t. to thwart 
or frustrate the hopes of ; fail to 
keep an appointment with. 

disappointment ('ment), n. defeat 
or failure of expectation ; state of 
depression caused by failure, &c, 

disarm (-arm'), v.t. to deprive of 
arms ; reduce to a peace footing ; 
render harmless ; subdue, 

disarmament (-arm'a-ment), n. the 
act of disarming; reduction to a 
peace footing. 

disarray (-ra'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dis- 
arrayed, disarraying], throw 
iUto disorder ; rout : n. negligent or 
insufiicient dress ; confusion, 

disaster (-as'ter), n. sl sudden or un- 
expected misfortune ; a serious acci- 

disastrous ('trus), adj. occasioning 
loss or misfortune ; unfortunate ; ca- 

disband (-band') , v.t. to dismiss from 
military service ; break up : v.i. to 
be dismissed. 

disbar (-bar'), -y.*. [p.t. & p.p. dis- 
barred, disbarring], to deprive 
a lawyer of his right to practice. 

disburden (-ber'dn), v.t. to remove 
a burden from ; relieve of anything 
annoying or oppressive : v.i. to ease 
one's mind. 

disburse (-bers'), v.t. to expend, 

disbursement ('ment), n. money ex- 

disc, another form of disk. 

discard (-kard'), v.t. to cast off as 
useless ; dismiss from service ; reject 
as useless : v.i. in card-playing, to 
throw out cards not required. 

discern (diz-ern'), v.t. to distinguish 
mentally, or with the eye ; judge or 
decide between : v.i. to make distinc- 

discernible ('i-bl), adj. perceptible. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; boon^ 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




discernment ('ment), n. acuteness 
in judgment ; penetration ; discrim- 
discharge (-charj'), v.t. unload; dis- 
embark ; free from any burden, im- 
pediment, or obligation ; exonerate 
or acquit ; free from restraint or 
custody ; let fly ; explode ; perform 
(a trust or duty) : v.i. to send out 
liquid matter : n. the act of discharg- 
ing ; that which is discharged ; an 
explosion ; a flowing or issuing out ; 
dismission from office or employ- 
ment ; liberation. 
disciple (di-si'pl), n. one who re- 
ceives the teaching of another ; a 
scholar ; a follower. 
disciplinable (dis'i-plin-a-bl), adj. 
capable of instruction, or liable to 
disciplinary punishment. 
disciplinarian (-pli-na'ri-an), adj. 
pertaining to discipline : n. one who 
advocates, or enforces, strict disci- 
disciplinary ('i-plin-a-ri), adj. per- 
taining to discipline. 
I discipline ('i-plin), n. mental or 
moral training ; education ; subjec- 
tion to control ; military regulation ; 
chastisement ; an instrument of pun- 
ishment : iKt. to train to obedience 
or efficiency ; regulate ; chastise. 
disclaim (-klam'), v.t. to disown; re- 
j pudiate. 

' disclaimer ('er), n. disavowal; de- 

■ nial. 
disclose (-kioz'), v.t. to uncover; re- 

disclosure ('iir), the act of revealing 
anything secret ; discovery ; uncov- 

discoid ('koid), adj. disk-shaped. 

discolor (-kul'er), v.t. to change from 
the natural color ; give a false com- 
plexion to ; stain. 

discomfit (-kum'fit), v.t. to defeat; 
J rout ; frustrate ; thwart. 

■ discomfiture ('fi-ttir), w. defeat ; dis- 
T appointment. 

discommode (-kom-od'), v.t. to in- 

discompose (-kom-poz'), v.t. disar- 
range ; vex ; ruflie. 

discomposure ('ur), n. agitation; 

disconcert (-kon-sert'), v.t. to dis- 

turb the composure or self-posses- 
sion of ; frustrate. 

disconsolate ('so-lat), adj. hope- 
less ; sad. 

disconsolately (-li), adv. hopeless- 
ly; sadly. 

discord ('kord), n. disagreement; a 
confused noise ; a combination of 
discordant sounds ; disagreement in 
coloring or parts. 

discordant ('ant), adj. at variance; 
inharmonious ; jarring ; incongruous. 

discount (dis'kount), n. a sum de- 
ducted or allowed for prompt pay- 
ment of an account ; a deduction 
made according to the current rate 
of interest: v.t. (dis-kount') to al- 
low a discount on ; advance money, 
deducting a certain rate per cent. ; 
make a deduction from ; anticipate. 

discourage (-kur'aj), v.t. to deprive 
or lessen the courage of ; dishearten ; 

discouragement ('ment), n. the act 
of depriving of confidence ; that 
which destroys courage. 

discourse (-kors'), n. speech or lan- 
guage ; conversation ; a treatise or 
dissertation ; sermon : v.t. & v.i. to 
talk or converse ; utter ; communi- 
cate ideas orally. 

discover (dis-kuv'er), v.t. to bring to 
light; reveal; find (something previ- 
ously unknown). 

discovery (-i), n. [pi. discoveries 
(-iz)], a bringing to light or mak- 
ing known, especially for the first 
time ; disclosure. 

discreet (-kref), adj. prudent; cir- 

discrepancy (-krep'an-si), n. incon- 
sistency ; difference. Also discrep- 

discrepant ('ant), adj. disagreeing; 

discrete (-kref), adj. separate from 
others ; distinct ; not continuous. 

discretion (-kresh'un), ci. prudence; 
judgment ; sagacity ; skill. 

discriminate (-krim'i-nat), v.t. to 
observe or mark the differences be- 
tween ; select : v.i. to make a differ- 
ence or distinction. 

discrimination (-i-na'shun) , n. pow- 
er of penetration ; faculty of nice 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nSrth, not ; booHp 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then. 




discriminative ('i-na-tiv), acZy. char- 

discriminator ('i-na-ter), n. one 
who discriminates. 

discursive (-ker'siv), adj. desultory. 

discursively (-li), adv. in a discur- 
sive manner. 

discursiveness (-nes), n. digression. 

discuss (dis-kus'), v.t. to debate; agi- 
tate; reason upon; test (viands). 

discussion (-kush'un), n. argument; 
debate ; ventilation of a Question. 

disdain (-dan'), v.t. to think unvror- 
thy ; deem unsuitable ; look upon 
with contempt or scorn : n. con- 
tempt ; haughty, or indignant scorn. 

disdainful ('fool), adj. contemptu- 

disdainfully (-11), adv. in a disdain- 
ful manner. 

disease (di-zez'), n. any mental, 
moral, or physical disorder ; mal- 
ady ; illness : v.t. to cause disease in ; 

disembogue _(dis-em-bog'), v.t. to 
pour out or discharge at the mouth : 
said of a river : v.i. to find a vent, 
pass across, or out, at the mouth of 
a river. 

disemboAvel (-bou'el), v.t. [p.t. & 
p.p. disembovv^eled, disembowel- 
ing], to deprive of bowels ; wound in 
the abdomen, so that the bowels pro- 

disfiguration (-fig-ti-ra'shun), 7i. de- 

disfigure ('•fig'tir), v.t. to injure the 
shape, form, or beauty of ; deform. 

disfranchise (-fran'chiz), v.t. to de- 
prive of electoral or municipal priv- 
ileges, especially to withdraw the 
power of voting in elections. 

disgorge (-gorj'), v.t. to force out of 
the mouth or stomach with violence ; 
surrender what has been unlawfully 
obtained ; make restitution of. 

disgrace (-gras'), n. the state of be- 
ing out of favor ; ignominy ; shame ; 
dishonor : v.t. to bring shame, re- 
proval, or dishonor upon ; dismiss 
with dishonor. 

disgraceful ('fool), adj. character- 
ized by, or occasioning, disgrace. 

disgracefully (-li), adv. in a dis- 
graceful manner. 

disguise (-giz'), v.t. to change the 

appearance of, as by an unusuai 
dress ; counterfeit ; conceal : n. a 
dress designed to conceal the iden- 
tity of the wearer ; counterfeit ap- 
pearance ; false pretense. 

disgust (-gust'), v.t. to cause aver- 
sion in, or repugnance to ; ofEend the 
moral sense of : n. strong aversion 
or repugnance. 

dish (dish), n. a broad hollow vessel 
with a rimmed edge ; food served in 
a dish : v.t. to put into a dish for 
serving at table (often with up) ; 

dishabille (dis-a-bil'), n. undress or 
negligent attire. Also deshabille. 

dishearten (-har'tn), v.t. to discour- 

dishevel (-shev'el), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. 
disheveled, disheveling], to dis- 
order (the hair 7 or cause it to hang 
negligently : v.i. to be spread in dis- 

dishonor (-on'er), v.t. to deprive of 
honor ; bring shame upon the char- 
acter of ; lessen the reputation of ; 
violate the chastity of ; refuse, or_ 
fail, to pay (a bill or note when due 
and presented) : n. disgrace; igno- 
miny ; shame ; violation of dignity. 

dishonorable (-a-bl), adj. discredit- 
able ; shameful ; ignominious. 

dishonorably (-li), adv. in a dishon- 
orable manner. 

disintegrate (-in'te-grat), v.t. to 
break up into component parts by 
mechanical or atmospheric agency ; 
v.i. separate. 

disintegration (-gra'shun), n. the 
act of disintegrating ; wearing down 
of rocks by atmospheric influences ; 

disjunctive (-jungk'tiv), adj. serv- 
ing, or tending, to disjoin or sepa- 
rate : n. a disjunctive conjunction 
which connects grammatically two 
words or clauses disjoined in mean- 

disk (disk), n. an ancient quoit; a 
flat circular plate, or anything re- 
sembling it; the whole surface of a 
leaf. Also disc. 

dislike (dis-lik'), n. a strong feeling 
of repugnance or aversion ; disrel- 
ish ; antipathy : v.t. to regard with 
aversion ; be displeased with. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not : boon< 
book; hue, hut; think, then. 




dislocate ('lo-kat), v.t. to put out of 
^ joint ; interrupt the continuity of. 

'dislocation (-ka'shun), n. the act of 
dislocating ; a joint put out of its 
socket ; a displacement of stratified 

dislodge (-loj'), v.t. to remove or 
drive out from a place of lodgment ; 
drive from a hiding place or chosen 

dismal (diz'mal), adj. gloomy; de- 
pressing ; dark ; horrid ; sorrov^ful. 

dismally (-li), adv. in a dismal man- 

dismantle (dis-mant'l), v.t. to strip 
or divest of furniture, equipment, or 
means of defense ; raze ; demolish. 

dismay (-ma'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dis- 
mayed, dismaying] , to terrify ; 
dispirit ; discourage ; intimidate : n. 
loss of courage through fear ; a con- 
dition of terror. 

dismember (-mem'ber), v.t. to cut 
or tear limb from limb ; sever into 
parts and distribute ; dislocate ; sev- 
er ; divide. 

dismiss (-mis'), v.t. to send away; 
permit to depart ; discharge from of- 
fice or employment ; efface from 

dismissal ('al), n. the act of dis- 
missing ; removal from office, &c. 

disorder (-or'der), n. want of order 
or arrangement ; lack of system ; ir- 
regularity ; breach of public order ; 
riot ; mental or physical disease : v.t. 
to throw into confusion ; disturb the 
regular mental or physical func- 
tions ; derange ; ruffle. 

disordered ('derd), p.adj. disorder- 
ly ; irregular ; loose ; unruly ; dis- 

disorderly (-li), adj. confused; un- 
methodical ; turbulent ; unruly. 

disparage (-par'aj), v.t. treat with 
contempt ; criticise unjustly ; depre- 
ciate ; belittle. 

disparagement (-ment), n. the act 
of disparaging ; depreciation ; re- 
proach ; disgrace ( often with to ) . 

disparity (-par'i-ti), n. \_pl. dispari- 
ties (-tiz)], inequality of rank, sta- 
tion, degree, or excellence ; dispro- 

dispart (-part'), n. the difference be- 
tween the thickness of the muzzle of 

2i piece of ordnance and its breech. 

dispassionate (-pash'un-at), adj. 
free from passion ; calm ; unpreju- 
diced ; impartial. 

dispassionately (-li), adv. in a dis- 
passionate manner. 

dispatch, same as despatch. 

dispel (dis-pel'), v.t. \_p.t. & p.p. dis- 
pelled, dispelling], to drive 
away by, or as by, scattering; dis- 
perse ; dissipate. 

dispensable (-pen'sa-bl), adj. that 
for which a dispensation may be 

dispensary ('sa-ri), n. [pi. dis- 
pensaries (-riz)], a place where 
medicines are kept and made up ; a 
charitable institution for providing 
the poor with medical advice and 

dispensation (-sa'shun), n. the act 
of dispensing ; distribution ; that 
which is appointed or bestowed by a 
higher power ; the particular way by 
which, at different periods, God has 
made known His dealings with man- 
kind ; the suspending of a rule or 
law in some particular case ; a li- 
cense granted from the pope, or by 
a bishop. 

dispense (dis-pens'), v.t. to deal out 
in portions ; distribute ; give forth 
effusively ; excuse : v.i. to give dis- 
^pensation ; distribute medicines. 

dispermous (di-sper'mus), adj. two- 

disperse (dis-pers'), v.t. to scatter 
in different directions or parts ; dif- 
fuse ; spread ; cause to vanish : v.i. 
to separate ; go to different parts ; 
vanish out of sight. 

dispersion (-per'shun), n. the act of 
dispersing ; the separation of light 
into different colored rays in passing 
through a prism. 

dispersive ('siv), adj. tending to dis- 

dispirit (-pir'it), v.t. to depress the 
spirits of ; dishearten ; render cheer- 

displace (-plas'), v.t. to put out of 
place ; disorder ; depose from office 
or dignity. 

displacement ('ment), n. the act of 
displacing ; substitution ; apparent 
change of position; the weight of 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, nQrth, not ; boon, 
book ; hue. hut ; think, then. 




water displaced by a solid body im- 
mersed in it. 

display (-pla'), v.t. [p.t. & p.p. dis- 
played, displaying], to spread 
out ; unfold ; exhibit ; force into no- 
tice ; manifest mentally or physical- 
ly : v.i. to make a display. 

displeasure (dis-plezh'tir), n. annoy- 
ance ; vexation ; distaste ; pique. 

disport (-port'), v.t. to amuse or di- 
vert (with self) ; to display gaily: 
v.i. to play. 

disposable (-poz'a-bl), adj. free to 
^be employed ; subject to disposal. 

disposal ('al), n. arrangement; or- 
der ; control ; right of bestowing. 

dispose (-poz'), v.t. to place; ar- 
range ; order ; distribute ; adapt ; in- 

disposition (-izh'un), n. the act of 
disposing ; order ; method ; arrange- 
ment ; tendency ; natural tempera- 

disputable ('pti-ta-bl), adj. liable to 
be disputed ; called in question. 

disputation (-ta'shun), n. a verbal 
controversy ; an altercation. 

disputatious ('shus), adj. conten- 

dispute (dis-put'), v.i. to debate; 
argue : v.t. contend for by words or 
actions ; express doubt of ; contro- 
vert : n. a controversy ; altercation ; 
quarrel ; contest. 

disquisition (-kwi-zish'un), n. a sys- 
tematic investigation or discussion 
of some subject ; an elaborate essay. 

disrate (-rat'), v.t. to degrade or 
lower in rank, as a petty officer. 

disruption (-rup'shun), w. forcible 
separation ; breach. 

disruptive ('tiv), adj. causing dis- 

diss (dis), n. a reedy Algerian grass. 

dissatisfaction (-sat-is-f ak'shun ) , 
ti. state of being discontented ; dis- 

dissatisfy ^'is-fi), v.t. To render 
discontented ; to displease. 

dissect (-sekf), v.t. to cut in pieces; 
anatomize ; divide and examine mi- 

dissection (-sek'shun), n. the act of 
dissecting for critical examination. 

disseize (-sez'), v.t. to deprive of 

seizin or possession ; dispossess un- 

disseizin ('in), n. the act of unlaw- 
fully dispossessing a person of an 

dissemble (-sem'bl), v.t.. to hide un- 
der a false appearance ; give the 
semblance of something else to : v.i. 
to act the hypocrite. 

dissembling (sem'bling), n. dissimu- 

disseminate (-sem'i-nat), v.t. to 
scatter abroad, like seed ; propagate ; 

disseminator ('ter), ii. one who, or 
that which, disseminates. 

dissension (dis-sen'shun), n. strife; 
disagreement ; breach of union ; va- 

dissent (-sent'), v.i. to disagree in 
opinion (with from) ; refuse adher- 
ence to an Established Church : n. 
difference of opinion ; refusal to ac- 
knowledge or conform to an Estab- 
lished Church. 

dissenter ('er), n. a nonconformist. 

dissentient ('shent), adj. dissenting: 
n. one who disagrees. 

dissenting (-sent'ing), p.adj. per- 
taining to, or characterized by, dis- 
sent ; separating from an Established 
Church ; pertaining to dissenters. 

dissertation (-er-ta'shun), n. a for- 
mal argumentative discourse ; trea- 

dissever (-sev'er), v.t. to cut in two; 
disjoin ; divide ; separate. 

dissidence ('i-dens), n. disagree- 

dissident ('i-dent), adj. not agree- 
ing, or conforming : n. one who dis- 
agrees, or dissents. 

dissilient (-sil'i-ent) , adj. springing 
asunder, or bursting open with force. 

dissimulate (-sim'ti-lat) , v.i. & v.t. 
to dissemble ; feign ; disguise. 

dissimulation (-la'shun), n. hypoc- 
risy ; false pretense ; fallacious ap- 

dissipate ('i-pat), v.t. to scatter com- 
pletely ; drive in different directions ; 
squander: v.i. to engage in dissipa- 

dissipated (-ed), p.adj. scattered; 
dispersed ; characterized by dissipa- 

ate, arm, Ssk, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mite, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, ' 
book : hue. hut ; thin!:, then. 




dissipation (-pa'shun), n. the act or 
state of being dissipated ; mental dis- 
traction ; excessive indulgence in 
luxury, especially drink or vicious 

dissociate (-so'shi-at), v.t. to sepa- 

dissolubility (-sol-u-bil'i-ti), n. the 
capacity of being dissolved. 

dissoluble ('ol-u-bl), adj. capable of 
being dissolved or converted into a 

dissolute ('o-lut), adj. given to vice 
or dissipation ; loose in morals or 

dissolution (-lu'shun), n. the act of 
dissolving or liquefying ; separation 
y'^t component parts ; separation of 
tiie soul from the body ; death ; a 
breaking up of a union of persons, 
as a society, &c. 

dissolutionism (-izm), n. the social 
theory of anarchism or nihilism. 

dissolvable (diz-ol'va-bl), adj. that 
may be dissolved. Also dissolvible. 

dissolve (-olv'), 'v.t. to liquefy; melt; 
terminate ; annul : i^i. to become 
liquefied ; waste away ; separate. 

dissonance ('6-nans), n. discord. 

dissonant (-nant), adj. discordant. 

dissuade (-wad'), v.t. to advise or 
counsel against ; divert by argument 
or persuasion. 

dissuasion (-swa'zhun), n. the act 
of dissuading ; advice or persuasion 
against a purpose or action. 

dissuasive ('siv), adj. tending to dis- 
suade : n. an argument employed to 

dissyllable (-sil'jVbl), n. a word of 
two syllables. 

distaff (dis'taf), n. [pi. distaffs 
('tafs)], the staff from which flax 
is drawn in spinning. 

distance ('tans), n. the space or in- 
terval between two objects or 
points ; remoteness of time, rank, re- 
lationship or place ; interval be- 
tween two notes ; reserve of man- 
ner ; alienation : v.t. to place re- 
motely ; leave behind in a race. 

distant ('tant), adj. remote; re- 

distaste (-tast'), n. aversion of the 
palate ; dislike ; disinclination. 

distasteful ( 'fool ) , adj. unpleasant 

to the taste ; expressive of dislike. 

distastefully (-li), adv. in a dis- 
tasteful manner. 

distemper (-tem'per), v.t. to disor- 
der or disease ; derange the func- 
tions of; compound (colors) for use 
in distemper painting : n. a disease ; 
a catarrhal disease affecting young 
dogs ; a method of painting in spe- 
cially prepared opaque colors mixed 
with a binding medium soluble in 
water : used for mural decoration, 

distend (-tend'), v.t. to stretch out 
in all directions ; expand : v.i. to 

distention (-ten'shun), n. a swelling 

distich, ('tik), n. a couplet. 

distil (-til'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. dis- 
tilled, distilling], to fall in 
drops ; flow gently ; trickle forth ; 
practice the art of distillation : v.t. 
to let fall in drops ; obtain by dis- 
tillation ; rectify. 

distillate ('at), n. the product of 
distillation found in the receiver of 
a distilling apparatus. 

distillation (-a'shun), n. the proc- 
ess of distilling ; the substance 
drawn by the still. 

distinct (-tingkt'), adj. separate; 
different ; clear ; plain ; unconf used. 

distinction (-tingk'shun), n. mark 
of difference or superiority ; emi- 
nence of rank or conduct ; fame ; 

distinctive ('tiv), adj. marking a 
difference or distinction ; character- 
istic ; discriminating ; plain. 

distingue (dis-stan-ga'), adj. dis- 

distinguisb (-ting'gwish), v.t. ta 
separate from others by some mark 
of honor or preference ; designate 
by special characteristics ; discrim- 
inate ; make known : v.i. to make a 
distinction (with hetioeen) . 

distinguished ('gwisht), p.adj. emi- 
nent ; celebrated ; conspicuous ; 

distort (-tort'), v.t. to twist or turn 
from the natural shape or figure; 
twist ; pervert from the true mean- 
ing ; misrepresent. 

ate, arm, ask, at, awl ; me, merge, met ; mi te, mit ; note, north, not ; boon, 
book ; hue, hut ; think, then.