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Full text of "Prentice Hall literature. timeless voices, timeless themes"



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SILVER LEVEL 

1 



MARTIN L KING, JR. 
ACADEMIC MIDDLE SCHOOL 




THIS BOOK IS THE PROPERTY OF: 



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COUNTY _ 
PARISH 



SCHOOL DISTRICT 
OTHER 



ISSUED TO 



Year 
Used 






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Book No. 



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Enter information 
in spaces 
to the left as 
instructed 



CONDITION 



ISSUED RETURNED 




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PUPILS to whom this textbook is issued must not write on any page 
or mark any part of it in any way, consumable textbooks excepted. 

1. Teachers should see that the pupil's name is clearly written in ink in 
the spaces above in every book issued. 

2. The following terms should be used in recording the condition of the 
book: New; Good; Fair; Poor; Bad. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/prenticehalllite01kins 



CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS 



The contributing authors guided the direction and philosophy of Prentice Hall Literature:Timeless 
Voices, Timeless Themes. Working with the development team, they helped to build the pedagogical 
integrity of the program and to ensure its relevance for today's teachers and students. 



Kate Kinsella 

Kate Kinsella, Ed.D., is a faculty member in the 
Department of Secondary Education at San Francisco 
State University. A specialist in second-language 
acquisition and adolescent reading and writing, she 
teaches coursework addressing language and literacy 
development across the secondary curricula. She has 
taught high-school ESL and directed SFSU's Intensive 
English Program for first-generation bilingual college 
students. She maintains secondary classroom involvement 
by teaching an academic literacy class for second-language 
learners through the University's Step to College 
partnership program. A former Fulbright lecturer and 
perennial institute leader forTESOL, the California 
Reading Association, and the California League of Middle 
Schools, Dr. Kinsella provides professional development 
nationally on topics ranging from learning-style 
enhancement to second-language reading. Her scholarship 
has been published in journals such as the TESOL Journal, 
the CATESOL Journal, and the Social Studies Review. 

Kevin Feldman 

Kevin Feldman, Ed.D, is the Director of Reading and Early 
Intervention with the Sonoma County Office of Education 
(SCOE). His career in education spans thirty-one years.As 
the Director of Reading and Early Intervention for SCOE, 
he develops, organizes, and monitors programs related to 
K— 1 2 literacy and prevention of reading difficulties. He 
also serves as a Leadership Team Consultant to the 
California Reading and Literature Project and assists in 
the development and implementation of K-12 programs 
throughout California. 

CONTENT REVIEWERS 

Linda Diamond is the Executive Vice President of 
CORE, the Consortium on Reading Excellence. Ms. 
Diamond was formerly the Director of Curriculum, Staff 
Development, and Evaluation for the Alameda City Unified 
School District. Ms. Diamond served on the California 
State Superintendent's Task Force on Reading and was co- 
author of Building a Powerful Reading Program, which helped 
lay the foundation for reading policy in California. Ms. 
Diamond is known nationally for her work on standard- 
setting and assessment. She is the co-author of CORE 
Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures and, most recently, the 
nationally acclaimed CORE Teaching Reading Sourcebook. 



Colleen Shea Stump 

Colleen Shea Stump, Ph.D., is a Special Education Super- 
visor in the area of Resource and Inclusion for Seattle 
Public Schools. She has served as a professor and as 
chairperson for the Department of Special Education at 
San Francisco State University. She continues as a lead 
consultant in the area of collaboration for the California 
State Improvement Grant and travels the state, providing 
professional development training in the areas of collabor- 
ation, content literacy instruction, and inclusive instruction. 

Joyce Armstrong Carroll 

In her forty-year career, Joyce Armstrong Carroll, 
Ed. D, has taught on every grade level from primary 
to graduate school. A nationally known consultant, she has 
served as president of TCTE and on NCTE's Commission 
on Composition. More than fifty of her articles have 
appeared in journals such as Curriculum Rew'evv, English 
Journal, Media & Methods, English in Texas, and the Florida 
English Journal. With Edward E.Wilson, Dr. Carroll co- 
authored Acts of Teaching: How to Teach Writing and co- 
edited Poetry After Lunch: Poetry to Read Aloud. She co- 
directs the New Jersey Writing Project in Texas. 

Edward E. Wilson 

A former editor of English in Texas, Edward E.Wilson has 
served as a high-school English teacher and a writing con- 
sultant in school districts nationwide. Wilson has served 
on both the Texas Teacher Professional Practices Commis- 
sion and NCTE's Commission on Composition. With Dr. 
Carroll, he co-wrote Acts of Teaching: How to Teach Writing 
and co-edited Poetry After Lunch: Poetry to Read Aloud. 
Wilson co-directs the New Jersey Writing Project in Texas. 



Terri Fields teaches language arts at Sunnyslope High 
School in Phoenix, Arizona. She has won both the Arizona 
Teacher of the Year and the U.S. West Outstanding 
Arizona Teacher awards. 

Rosemary A. Naab is the English Department 
Chair at Archbishop Ryan High School in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. She has been awarded the Curriculum Quill 
Award by the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Jennifer Watson is a Language Arts 
Coordinator at Putnam City Schools in Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma. She is a national trainer for writing evaluation. 



( Contributing Authors ♦ CAJ 



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UFUKL UA PKOGP, 



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The California program advisors provided ongoing input throughout the development of Prentice 
Hall Literature:Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes. Their valuable insights ensure that the perspectives 
of the teachers throughout California are represented within this literature series. 






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Dawn Akuna 

Teacher of Reading 
Harriet Eddy Middle 

School 
Elk Grove, CA 



Kathy Allen 

English Language Arts 

Teacher 
Palos Verdes 

Intermediate School 
Palos Verdes, CA 



Maxine K. Bigler 
Associate Director, 
Region II, Migrant 
Education, Butte 
County Office of 
Education 
Chico, CA 

Cathy Cirimele 

Teacher of English 
Bullard High School 
Fresno, CA 

Jesse L. Culbert 

English Teacher 
Willowbrook Middle 

School 
Compton, CA 



Terry Day 

English and Speech 

Teacher 
Downey High School 
Modesto, CA 







Yvonne Divans- 
Hutchinson 

Language Arts Teacher 
King/Drew Magnet High 

School of Medicine 

and Science 
Los Angeles, CA 

Diane Erickson 

Teacher of English 
Oxford Academy 
Cypress, CA 

Cynthia Hardy Gayle 

Assistant Principal 
Rancho del Rey Middle 

School 
Chula Vista, CA 

Joe Glover 

Language Arts/ELD 

Teacher 
Mesa Intermediate 

School 
Palmdale, CA 

Jeannette Hampton 

Literacy Coordinator 
for Sacramento City 
USD, Retired 

Fern Bacon Basic 
Middle School 

Sacramento, CA 

Carleen Hemric 

Language Arts Teacher 
Pershing Middle School 
San Diego, CA 









Kimberiy Wise 
Johnson, M.Ed. 

English Teacher 
Arcade Fundamental 

Middle School 
Sacramento, CA 

Keith R. Jones 

English/Social Studies 

Teacher 
Elmhurst Middle School 
Oakland, CA 

Karen Kessinger 

Teacher of English 
San Bernardino High 

School 
San Bernardino, CA 

Gail Catherine Kidd 

Language Arts Teacher 
Center Middle School 
Azusa, CA 



Alan J. Leonard 

English Instructor, 

Retired 
Anaheim, CA 



Catherine C. Linn, 
Ph.D. 

Teacher of Literature 

and Writing 
Palm Springs High 

School 
Palm Springs, CA 

Karen Lopez 

English Teacher 
William S. Hart High 

School 
Newhall, CA 



CA2 ♦ California Program Advisors 





Robert Lopez 

ELL Instructor 
Gage Middle School 
Huntington Park, CA 

Celia Monge Mana 

Language Arts Teacher 
Horace Mann Middle 

School 
San Francisco, CA 

Kathleen Marshall 

English Teacher 
Stagg High School 
Stockton, CA 



Peggy P. Moore 

Middle School Educator, 

Retired 
Bayshore School 

District 
Daly City, CA 

Akiko Morimoto 

Language Arts Teacher 
Washington Middle 

School 
Vista, CA 






Judy Plouff 

Language Arts/Social 
Studies Teacher 

Sherman Oaks Center 
for Enriched Studies 

Reseda, CA 

Jan Reed 

English Curriculum 
Specialist, Retired 
Garden Grove USD 
Garden Grove, CA 

Marian Reimann 

Assistant Principal, 
Curriculum and 
Instruction 

Sutter Middle School 

Winnetka, CA 

Lynne Richter 

Teacher of English 
Fulton Middle School 
Van Nuys, CA 



Maureen Rippee 

English Instructor 
Wilson High School 
Long Beach, CA 








Cheryl Spivak 

Language Arts/Reading 
Intervention Teacher 
Portola Middle School 
Tarzana, CA 

Peggy Todd Stover 

Teacher of English 
Independence High 

School 
San Jose, CA 

Michael C. Sullivan 

Language Arts Teacher 
Pacifica High School 
Garden Grove, CA 



Sandra Sullivan 

Language Arts Teacher 
Garden Grove High 

School 
Garden Grove, CA 

Vanna Turner 

Language Arts Teacher 
Albert Einstein Middle 

School 
Sacramento, CA 





Dewhanne Nyivih 

Former English Teacher 
Marshall Fundamental 

High School 
Pasadena, CA 

Judith L O'Brien 

Language Arts 

Instructor 
Walter Stiern Middle 

School 
Bakersfield, CA 

Ann Okamura 

Teacher of English 
Laguna Creek High 

School 
Elk Grove, CA 




Meredith Ritner 

Language Arts Teacher 
AliesoViejo Middle 

School 
AliesoViejo, CA 

Sharon Schiesl 

Language Arts Teacher 
Mendez Fundamental 
Intermediate School 
Santa Ana, CA 



Carol J. Schowalter 

Language Arts Teacher 
El Roble Middle School 
Claremont, CA 




Linda Valdez 

English Teacher 
Camarillo High School 
Camarillo, CA 



Sonia Wilson 

English Teacher 
Steve Garvey Junior 

High School 
Lindsay, CA 

Mary Jo Wynne 

Language Arts/Social 
Studies Teacher 

Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary 
School 

Pasadena, CA 



( '.alifomia Program Advisors ♦ ( 'A I 



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California Grade 8 
Language Arts Standards 



1.0 






Here is a complete list of the Standards so that you can know what you're 
expected to learn this year. 



READING 



Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development: In this 

strand of standards, you will use your prior knowledge of word origins, relationships, and context 
clues to learn new meanings of grade-level-appropriate words. 



Vocabulary and Concept Development 

1 . 1 Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings 
of phrases. 



1.2 



Example: Metaphor 

When Mr. Smith knocked over a lamp, Mrs. 
Smith said he was a hull in a china shop. 



In grade 8, you will learn that language has 
meanings that are hoth literal and figurative, 
that sometimes a word or a phrase can mean 
something other than its most common or 
predictahle meaning. Knowing these suhtle 
messages can add deeper significance to a piece 
of writing, like a story or poem. 



Understand the most important points in the history of English language and use common 
word origins to determine the historical influences on English word meanings. 



Much of the English language comes from Old 
English, or Anglo-Saxon, and the classical 
languages, Latin and Greek. The study of these 
surviving word parts teaches us ahout those 
cultures and ahout the changes in English. In 
grade 8, you will learn reading strategies that 
will increase your knowledge o( these word 
parts and how they contribute to the history 
of English language and literature. 



Example: 

The word lunar comes from the Latin word for 
moon, luna. Other words that use this word 
part are lunate, which means crescent-shaped, 
and lunatic, a crazy or deranged individual, 
hecause people once thought madness was a 
result of the moon's influence. 



4 ♦ CA 



■ tm wioY a mnmr m 



1.3 Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to verify those meanings 
by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast. 



Words can often be defined by their context, 
that is, through the relationship that a word 
has with those that surround it. In grade 8, you 
will be able to recognize words that fit into a 
correct context and show that you understand 
the meaning of that word by defining, restating, 
or contrasting its meaning in the sentences 
that surround it. 



Example: Restatement 

"To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells 
From the bells, bells, bells, bells, bells, bells, 

bells— 
From the jini'lins.' and the tinkling of the bells." 
— from "The Bells" by Edgar Allan 
Poe 



2.0 






Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials): In this strand 

of standards, you will study grade-level material with an eye for connecting essential ideas, 
evaluating structure and organization, and applying your knowledge of author's purpose to 
better understand challenging texts. 






Structural Features of Informational Materials 

2.1 Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from 
documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals). 



An author's choice of words and phrases, or 
where these words and phrases appear in a text 
often alerts a reader to expect a specific type of 
message. For example, an instructional manual 
uses facts to teach us a task, whereas product 
information uses facts to inform the reader about 
the object in question. In grade 8, you will learn 
reading strategies that will aid you in under- 
standing the purpose behind various types of 
consumer materials. 



2.2 Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns. 



Example: 

Product information: The A-Plus Satellite 1 10 
comes with a graphics processor and 40.0 
megabytes of RAM. 

Instruction manual: To save an existing docu- 
ment click on the floppy disk icon. 



When reading nonfiction — writing that has a basis in fact — it is important to grasp the writer's 
purpose, or reason for writing on a particular topic, and the type of information he or she uses 
to support this main idea. In grade 8, you will learn reading strategies that will help you identity 
and evaluate a writer's main ideas and key evidence. 



CA ♦ 5 






California Grade 8 Language Arts Standards 



2.3 



Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of 
ideas. 



2.4 



Learning to understand and evaluate the way 
ideas are presented and how an author elaborates 
on these ideas is an important part of becom- 
ing a critical reader. In grade 8, you will learn 
reading strategies that will aid you in compar- 
ing and contrasting the way an author's ideas 
are presented. 



Example: 

"The frequency used in microwave ovens 
(2,450,000,000 cycles per second or 2.45 GHz) 
is a sensible but not unique choice. Waves of 
that frequency penetrate well into foods of rea- 
sonable size so the heating is relatively uniform 
through the food." 

— from "How things Work: Microwave 
Ovens," Louis A Bloomfield 

"[Our microwave] can accomplish difficult 
tasks like tempering fine frozen deserts to just 
the right consistency or preparing seafood 
dishes that are evenly cooked, yet not over- 
done." 

— Advertisement from 
www.microwaveoven.com 

Both examples deal with cooking food in the 
microwave, but one example deals with the 
science of microwave cooking, and the other is 
information on a specific product. 



Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately 
captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning. 



Learning how to improve your study and refer- 
ence skills will make schoolwork, including 
writing compositions, easier and will prove a 
valuable tool throughout your education. In 
grade 8, you will learn how to use summaries — 
restatements of key ideas in your own words — 
as evaluating tools for reading comprehension. 



Example: 

"Now, 93 percent of Chinese households have 
a television set, and other goods such as wash- 
ing machines and refrigerators are becoming 
common as well. But not everyone is benefit- 
ing from the changes in China — an estimated 
100 million people are unemployed in China's 
cities and more than 80 million peasants in 
the country live in poverty, earning less than 
$100 a year." 

— from "Growing Pains in China," 
Cindy Lin 

Summary: Even though 93% of Chinese 
citizens own household goods — washing 
machines, refrigerators, and TVs, etc. — not 
everyone is benefiting from the economic 
changes. Around 100 million people are 
unemployed in the big cities, and over 80 
million peasants in the rural areas have an 
income of less that $100 annually. 



6 ♦ CA 



2.5 



2.6 



Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical 
directions. 



By the close of grade 8, you will demonstrate 
the ability to accurately follow technical 
directions and to explain these directions. 



Example: Word-processing directions 

1. To check spelling, click Preferences in the 
menu under Tools. 

2. Check the box next to Spelling and 
Grammar Check. 



Use information from a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents to explain a 
situation or decision and to solve a problem. 



Documents and other printed matter on 
governmental affairs, consumer concerns, and 
policies in the workplace are often needed to 
make an informed inquiry into areas of private 
and public concern. At this grade level, you 
will learn how to locate and use information 
like public documents, catalogs, contracts, 
ledgers, invoices, and manuals. 



Example: Explanation of voting demographics 

"Information on reported voting and registra- 
tion by various demographic and socioeco- 
nomic characteristics collected for the nation 
in November of congressional and presidential 
election years in the Current Population 
Survey (CPS)." 

— US Census Bureau Web site 



Expository Critique 

Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text. 



2.7 



Learning how to identify and assess the differ- 
ent parts of a composition is vital to becoming 
a critical reader. In grade 8, you will learn how 
to distinguish between various types of writing, 
and evaluate whether or not the ideas are 
clearly presented. 



Example: Paragraph inconsistency 

The drought of 1999 hit Texas very hard. 
Texas is called the Lone Star State. Many 
farmers lost their crops, and the cattle industry 
was devastated. Most cities and towns enacted 
emergency water conservation plans. 



3.0 LITERARY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS: In grade 8, you will read and respond to historically 
or culturally significant works of literature that will both reflect and enhance your studies of 
history and social science. 



Structural Features of Literature 

3.1 Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different 
forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet). 



Poetry is the most compact form of literature: 
it packs different ideas, feelings, sounds, and 
images into a few carefully chosen words. Like 
prose, poetry varies in form and purpose. In 
grade 8, you will learn reading strategies that 
will help you identify and understand the simi- 
larities and differences of and within the differ- 
ent forms of poetry. 



Example: Lyric poem: a short, musical poem 
that voices the observations and feelings of a 
speaker. 

"Come, 

Let us roam the night together 

Singing." 

— from "Harlem Night Song," 
Langston Hughes 



CA ♦ 7 




I 



Narrative Analysis of Qrade-Level' Appropriate Text 

3.2 Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the 
plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved. 

Plot is what happens and how it happens. Most plots contain a similar structure: exposition, rising 
action, climax, falling action, and resolution. In grade 8, you will learn about the different tech- 
niques writers use to structure their plots by using subplots or parallel episodes. 



3.3 Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical 
eras confronting similar situations or conflicts. 

As you read more and more literature, you will notice the characters experiencing very similar 
conflicts, often despite age, race, and historical period. In grade 8, you will learn reading strategies 
that will aid you in understanding when historical context determines the actions and reactions 
of characters in a literary work. 

3.4 Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., place, time, customs) to the mood, tone, and 
meaning of the text. 



The setting of a literary work is the time and 
place in which it occurs. In grade 8, you will 
learn how to connect the mood and tone of a 
piece to its setting. 



Example: 

"They were sitting on the front window. On 
a clear day there was really something to see: 
the sweep of the bay and the pattern of the 
inlets and, beyond it all, the dark blue of the 
Atlantic. Today there was nothing, not even a 
bird, if you didn't count the occasional yelp of 
a seagull off high overhead somewhere. 

'There's nothing to drink,' my sister said. 
'Not a single thing.' " 

— from "The Land and the Water," 
Shirley Ann Grau 

The mood is ominous. The lack of drinking 
water corresponds to the view from the win- 
dow with a sky unusually void of wildlife. 



8 ♦ CA 



3.5 



3.6 



Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contem- 
porary works. 



In grade 8, you will learn how to determine a 
narrative's underlying message and connect 
that same theme to works of a different time 
period. 



Example: Theme — courage and survival 

"You could not do this and you could not do 
that. They forced father to wear yellow stars. 
But somehow we children still managed to 
have fun. Yesterday father told me we were 
going into hiding. Where, he wouldn't say." 
— from The Diary of Anne Frank , 

Frances Goodrich and Alhert 

Hackett 
"They stumbled along behind her, half-dead 
for sleep, and she urged them on, though she 
was as tired and as discouraged as they were." 
— from "Harriet Tubman: Guide to 

Freedom," Ann Petry 



Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a 
writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work. 



An author's style is determined by how he or 
she uses figurative and literal language to 
compose a literary work. In grade 8, you will 
learn how to identify the various literary ele- 
ments in a particular piece of work, and use 
your knowledge to shed light both on the 
author's handling of these devices and on the 
underlying meaning of the work in question. 



Example: Dialect 

"Now," she said, "It's not the need o'elbow 
room, there's plenty o'that. It's I'm afraid 
o'carvin' up the pretty floor. " 

— from "The House Guest," Paul 
Darcy Boles 



Literary Criticism 

3.7 Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and 
beliefs of its author. (Biographical approach) 



An author's background often plays a key role 
in both what the author chooses to write 
about, and what form he or she chooses to 
write in. In grade 8, you will learn reading 
strategies that will help you determine how 
an author's background influences his or her 
creative choices. 



Example: 

"My kid sister Cheryl and I always bragged 
about our Sioux grandpa, Joe Iron Shell. Our 
friends, who had always lived in the city and 
only knew about Indians from movies and TV, 
were impressed by our stories." 

— from "The Medicine Bag," Virginia 
Driving Hawk Sneve 

The author's American Indian heritage shapes 
the themes and characters of her work. 



CA ♦ 9 



NIA URADE 8 LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS 



i 



WRITING 



1.0 WRITING STRATEGIES: In grade 8, you will write clear, coherent, and focused essays. Your 
writing will exhibit awareness of the audience and purpose, and will contain formal introduc- 
tions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. 



Organization and Focus 

1 . 1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end 
with a clear and well-supported conclusion. 



1.2 



1.3 



The beginning of a composition is important 
because it establishes the thesis, or main idea, 
of a composition. The end, or conclusion, of 
a composition is equally important because it 
drives home the point of the composition by 
restating the thesis. In grade 8, you will learn 
how to write strong compositions with clear and 
concise thesis statements and well-constructed 
concluding paragraphs. 



Example: Introduction and thesis 

"Susan B. Anthony was a stern and single- 
minded woman. Like most crusaders for causes, 
she had little time for fun and games. But I 
have a sneaky feeling that behind her severe 
manner and unremitting devotion to duty, she 
may actually have had a sense of humor." 

— from "The United States vs. Susan 
B. Anthony," Margaret Truman 



Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel 
structures, and similar writing techniques. 



For a paragraph to have coherence, ideas and 
details must be clearly connected. In grade 8, 
you will learn different writing techniques that 
will aid you in constructing effective paragraphs. 



Example: Transitions 

In eighth grade, I learned that it was easier to 
make friends if I participated in extracurricular 
activities. For instance, I joined the Spanish 
Club and wrote for the school newspaper. 
Moreover, I joined the football team. 



Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authori- 
ties, comparisons, and similar devices. 



Regardless of your subject, it is essential that 
you back up the points you make with examples, 
facts, and details. Providing thorough support 
for your main ideas makes it more likely that 
readers will both understand and accept your 
points. 



Example: Quotation 

Carbon dioxide has contributed to global 
warming trends throughout the last century. In 
his article "Life in the Greenhouse," Michael 
D. Lemonick states: "Already, humans have 
increased the concentration of carbon dioxide, 
the most abundant heat-trapping gas in the 
atmosphere ..." 



10 ♦ CA 



Research and Technology 



1.4 



Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer networks and 
modems. 



In grade 8, you will learn how to find informa- 
tion quickly and effectively by understanding 
the various options available in online and 
networked databases. 



Example: Keyword search using the Boolean 
principle 

Topic of inquiry: How does fine art affect 
intelligence? 



Art AND (intelligence OR learning) 

1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas. 

Critical reading is essential to critical writing. In grade 8, you will learn how to write effective 
papers that put forth your thoughts and inquiries on a particular subject while maintaining 
secondary support in the form of outside ideas and assertions from articles and books on the 
same subject. 

Evaluation and Revision 

1.6 Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and 
transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas. 



Revision is the stage in the writing when you 
rework your first draft to improve its content 
and structure. In grade 8, you will learn how to 
revise on a global level — sections of a text larger 
than a sentence that may include central ideas — 
and at the local level — working on word 
choice to achieve clarity. 



Example: Revision: word choice and clarifica- 
tion (underlined) 

The main character in "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" was 

a mongoose. 

In Rudyard Kipling's short story "Rikki-tikki- 

tavi," the main character is a courageous 

mongoose. 



2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics): In 8th grade, you 

will write various types of essays of 500 to 700 words using Standard American English. You will 
learn different research, organizational, and drafting strategies for composing effective essays. 



2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives: a) Relate a clear, coherent 
incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details; b) Reveal the significance of, or 
the writer's attitude about, the subject; c) Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., 
relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison 
or contrast of characters). 



In grade 8, you will master the writing of nar- 
ratives, including the fictional and the autobi- 
ographical, and you will add in such elements 
as a standard plot line, character development, 
and other details of story-writing. 



Example: Narrative 

"The girl curtseyed, and sat down. She was 
very young, and she looked as if she were 
frightened by the matter-of-fact prospect the 
world afforded." 

— from Hard Times, by Charles 
Dickens 



CA ♦ 11 



nia Grade 8 Language Arts Standards 






2.2 



2.3 



2.4 



Write responses to literature: a) Exhibit careful reading and insight in their interpretations; 
b) Connect the student's own responses to the writer's techniques and to specific textual 
references; c) Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience; 
d) Support judgments through references to the text, other works, other authors, or to 
personal knowledge. 



Writing what you think about a work of litera- 
ture is an important step to overall critical 
thinking. In grade 8, you will learn how to 
state clearly your thoughts and opinions on a 
literary work and back it with the best possible 
evidence — the text in question, other texts 
that deal with your thesis, and examples from 
personal experience. 



Example: 

In his short story "The Tell-Tale Heart," Edgar 
Allan Poe uses suspense to keep the reader 
interested in the story's plot. Near the begin- 
ning of the narrative, we are told of the horri- 
ble deed around which the story revolves: "1 
was never kinder to the old man than during 
the whole week before I killed him." Even 
though the reader knows who committed the 
murder, questions as to how the murder will 
occur and whether the criminal will be caught 
keep our interest. 



Write research reports: a) Define a thesis; b) Record important ideas, concepts, and direct 
quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives 
on the topic, as appropriate; c) Use a variety of primary and secondary sources and distinguish 
the nature and value of each; d) Organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs. 



Writing research papers is an integral part of 
scholarship. This process includes choosing a 
specific topic, researching the topic at large, 
and giving credit to the source material you 
find and use. 



Example: Defining a thesis 

Which major companies rely on demography 
as a part of their research and development? 
Demography: definition: the statistical science 
dealing with the distribution, density, vital sta- 
tistics, etc. of population. Webster's New World 
Dictionary. 



Write persuasive compositions: a) Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear 
and knowledgeable judgment); b) Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support 
arguments, differentiating between facts and opinion; c) Provide details, reasons, and examples, 
arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments. 



To get someone to take a particular action or to believe as you do — the art of persuasion — is part 
of your everyday life. Persuasive techniques may take verbal, visual, or written forms. In grade 8, 
you will learn how to best make your case to a reading audience by learning how to state clearly 
your opinion, back it up with the best possible evidence, and use memorable and vivid persuasive 
language. 



12 ♦ CA 



2.5 



2.6 



Write documents related to career development, including simple business letters and job 
applications: a) Present information purposefully and succinctly and meet the needs of the 
intended audience; b) Follow the conventional format for the type of document (e.g., letter of 
inquiry, memorandum). 



Clear and purposeful communication is key to 
most business transactions. In grade 8, you will 
learn how to write and correctly format busi- 
ness and career-related documents. 



Example: Job application cover letter 

68 Main Street 
Anywhere, USA 01000 

Mr. John Smith 

Personnel Manager, Rocket Associates 

336 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, New York 10036 

Dear Mr. Smith: 

I would like to be considered as a candidate 
for the assistant computer analyst position 
advertised in The Professional Analyst on 
March 5, 2001 . . . 



Write technical documents: a) Identify the sequence of activities needed to design a system, 
operate a tool, or explain the bylaws of an organization; b) Include all the factors and variables 
that need to be considered; c) Use formatting techniques (e.g., headings, differing fonts) to 
aid comprehension. 



Identifying and explaining a logical sequence, 
whether that of a system you create or that of 
technical instruments and tools, is an impor- 
tant form of composition. In grade 8, you will 
learn techniques that will aid you in writing 
and presenting technical compositions. 



Example: Formatting technique: bold capital 
letters 

To adjust the date and time on the answering 
machine, press and hold down the button that 
says CLOCK until you hear a long beep. Next, 
press the button that says SKIP or REPEAT 
until you hear the current day. Press CLOCK 
to set the hour. Press SKIP or REPEAT until 
you see the current hour displayed. 



CA ♦ n 



iia Grade 8 Language Arts Standard. 



» i. 



WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS 



1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions: In this strand of standards, 

you will learn written and oral English language conventions which are essential to mastering 
writing and listening and speaking skills. 



Sentence Structure 



1.1 



1.2 



1.3 



Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective 
personal style. 



One key to developing a strong writing style is 
varying your sentence length and structure. In 
grade 8, you will learn how to effectively use 
short simple sentences and long complex and 
compound sentences to strengthen your writ- 
ing and emphasize key points. 



Example: 

Simple: He went to his car. He realized that he 
forgot his keys. 

Varied: As he approached his car, he suddenly 
realized that he forgot his keys. 



Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to 
present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis. 



Parallelism — the use of patterns or repetitions 
in grammatical structures — is a way to make the 
main points of your compositions memorable. 
In grade 8, you will learn how to form parallel 
structures out of questions, phrases, and clauses. 



Example: 

Robert wants to find a new girlfriend, buy a 
car, and join the soccer team. 



Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the 
relationship between ideas. 



How an idea is placed in relation to another 
idea is important in organizing your thoughts 
into a unified and coherent composition. For 
instance, when you subordinate ideas, you list 
them in order of importance, and when you 
coordinate, you connect similar ideas. In grade 
8, you will learn how to present your ideas in 
the most effective way. 



Qrammar 
1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used. 



Example: Coordinating conjunction 

Our favorite baseball player hit a homerun, 
and we all cheered. 



Even if your content is excellent, grammatical 
errors may cause readers to respond negatively 
to your compositions. In grade 8, you will learn 
how to examine your work for errors in gram- 
mar and usage and make corrections as needed. 



Example: 

To test her hypothesis, the scientist need to 
conduct numerous experiments. 
To test her hypothesis, the scientist need[ed] 
to conduct numerous experiments. 



14 ♦ CA 



Punctuation and Capitalization 
1.5 Use correct punctuation and capitalization. 



Use capitals accurately, such as in the first 
word of a sentence, for proper nouns and 
adjectives, in titles of books, poems, stories, 
paintings, and so forth. 



Spelling 
1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. 



Example: 

Oak trees lined the road, (first word of a 

sentence) 

Jane Eyre "The Road Not Taken" 

(title of hook, title of poem) 



The English language contains numerous rules for spelling, such as using "i before e, except after c" 
for words like ceiling, field, and retrieve. By learning these spelling conventions, you will learn 
how to spell correctly. 



LISTENING AND SPEAKING 



1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies: In grade 8, you will learn how to give effective 

oral presentations: coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the back- 
ground and interests of the audience. You will also learn how to evaluate the content of oral 
communication. 

Comprehension 

1 . 1 Analyze oral interpretations of literature, including language choice and delivery, and the 
effect of the interpretations on the listener. 

Like an essay, a good oral interpretation will take into account, directly or indirectly, important 
aspects of a literary work — character, plot, theme, language, and so on — and be delivered in live- 
ly language. In grade 8, you will learn how to evaluate and make judgments on oral responses to 
literature. 

1.2 Paraphrase a speaker's purpose and point of view and ask relevant questions concerning the 
speaker's content, delivery, and purpose. 

Rephrasing important information, such as words and phrases that clue you in to a speaker's 
position and purpose, is key to interpreting information. Posing the right questions to a speaker 
will also aid you in clarifying a speaker's position. In grade 8, you will learn these and other tech- 
niques that will help you understand oral presentations. 



CA ♦ IS 



IA.V- 



;nia Grade 8 Language Arts Stand 



Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication 

1 .3 Organize information to achieve particular purposes by matching the message, vocabulary, 
voice modulation, expression, and tone to the audience and purpose. 

Speeches can be used for different purposes, such as to persuade an audience to back a particular 
issue or opinion or to explain to an audience an idea, a process, or an object. In grade 8, you will 
improve your public-speaking skills. You will learn how to use language — informal, standard, or 
technical — that suits your purpose and is appropriate for the audience. 

1 .4 Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally 

includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; 
and an effective conclusion. 



Key structural points that make up a good 
essay also make up a good speech: an attention- 
grabbing introduction, a clear main idea and 
good supporting points, and a strong conclu- 
sion. In grade 8, you will learn how to con- 
struct speech outlines that will aid in organiz- 
ing and presenting researched materials. 



Example: Problem-solution outline 

I. Problem: The school bathrooms are a mess 

A. Students litter 

B. Students hang out after the bell rings 

II. Solution: bathroom monitors 

A. Students will have to be accountable for 
their actions 

B. Monitors have worked in other schools 

III. Details of the plan 



1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate and colorful modifiers, and 
the active rather than the passive voice in ways that enliven oral presentations. 



As in writing, lively language is important to Example: Some say golf is boring. "How can 

keeping an audience interested in your oral chasing a tiny ball around for two to four hours 

presentation. In grade 8, you will learn how be fun. 7 " Well, I say they've never known the 

best to use words and phrases to write and pleasure of truly whacking a golf ball! There's 

deliver effective oral presentations. nothing like taking a driver to a golf hall, 

watching it soar through pure blue heaven, 
missing the trees, the water, the rough, and the 
sandtraps to fall smack in the middle of the 
fairway, just where you always wanted to be. 

1.6 Use appropriate grammar, word choice, enunciation, and pace during formal presentations. 



Standard English can he either formal or infor- 
mal. In grade 8, you will learn how to use 
formal standard English — without slang and 
contractions, serious in tone, and with a 
sophisticated vocabulary — to construct formal 
presentations. You will also learn how to use 
verbal strategies, such as the pitch of your 
voice and the rate at which you speak, to 
make your presentation more effective. 



Example: 

Informal: 

The company's going under! If we don't start 

selling, then we'll be looking at cutbacks. 

Formal: 

Gentleman, we are currently off target of our 

yearly profit estimations. If we do not pick up 

sales, the company may be forced to downsize. 



16 ♦ CA 












!■!■■■ .1 I 



1.7 Use audience feedback (e.g., verbal and nonverbal cues): a) Reconsider and modify the 
organizational structure, or plan; b) Rearrange words and sentences to clarify the meaning. 

In grade 8, you will learn how to assess an audience's reaction to your speech and change, 
accordingly, particular elements of your speech, such as word choice and emphasis, sentence 
structure, and content. 

1.8 Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material). 



1.9 



Listening for facts and details to evaluate a 
speaker's message is key to being an active 
member of a group or an audience. In grade 8, 
you will learn techniques that will aid you in 
deciding whether a speaker's claims are forth- 
coming and whether his or her supporting 
evidence is adequate. 



Example: 

This science-fiction movie, though filmed in 
2001 and supposedly using the latest technology, 
looks like a Stone Age reject. 

The speaker is being sarcastic in his or her 
assessment of the movie's visual impact. The 
word "supposedly" and the phrase "looks like a 
Stone Age reject" are keys to the speaker's tone. 



Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, 
illustrators, news photographers) communicate information and affect impressions and opinions. 

To be an informed consumer of information, it is important that you learn to evaluate critically what 
you see and hear in the media. In grade 8, you will learn how to apply critical viewing skills to the 
various forms of persuasive techniques used by media and advertising, such as symbols and soundbites, 
and, in turn, shape your own informed, unbiased opinions on cultural messages and current events. 



2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics): In grade 8, you 

will learn how to deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical 
strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description) in Standard American English. 



2.1 Deliver narrative presentations (e.g., biographical, autobiographical): a) Relate a clear, coher- 
ent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details; b) Reveal the significance of, 
and the subject's attitude about, the incident, event, or situation; c) Employ narrative and 
descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background 
description, comparison or contrast of characters). 



Oral literature existed long before written 
literature, and storytellers have existed in all 
cultures. In grade 8, you will learn how to use- 
description, dialogue, and point of view to create 
interesting characters interacting in a complex 
world, also of your making. 



Example: A character and situation 

"Long ago there was a rich man with a disease 
in his eyes. For many years, the pain was so 
great that he could nor sleep. He saw every 
doctor he could, but none of them could help." 
—from We Are All One, Chinese folk 
tale retold by Laurence Yep 



CA ♦ 17 



<NiA Grade 8 Language Arts Stand, 



2.2 



2.3 



Deliver oral responses to literature: a) Interpret a reading and provide insight; b) Connect 
the students' own responses to the writer's techniques and to specific textual references; 
c) Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience; d) Support 
judgments through references to the text, other works, other authors, or personal knowledge. 



A good oral response to literature is very much 
like a good essay: it has a beginning, middle, 
and end; draws on the text and other resources 
for support of a main idea; and uses lively lan- 
guage to elaborate upon the main point and 
key ideas connected to the thesis. In grade 8, 
you will learn how to use interpretive reading 
strategies, essay-writing techniques, and oral 
delivery skills to write and deliver effective 
oral responses to literature. 



Example: Literary interpretation 

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, 
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize 
we sought is won . . . 
But O heart! heart! heart! 
O the bleeding drops of red, 
Where on the deck my Captain lies, 
Fallen cold and dead. 

So begins the famous eulogy, "O Captain! My 
Captain!," that Walt Whitman wrote after 
the death of Abraham Lincoln. In his poem, 
Whitman uses the metaphor of the ship of 
state to talk about the "fearful trip," which was 
the Civil War, and its fallen leader, or Captain, 
who was shot just days after Robert E. Lee sur- 
rendered to Ulysses S. Grant, the general of 
the Northern Army. 



Deliver research presentations: a) Define a thesis; b) Record important ideas, concepts, and 
direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all 
relevant perspectives on the topic, as appropriate; c) Use a variety of primary and secondary 
sources and distinguish the nature and value of each; d) Organize and record information on 
charts, maps, and graphs. 



Informative speeches explain ideas, a process, or 
a particular object, and they answer questions 
that an audience may have about a process or 
product. Often a good amount of research is 
necessary to cover thoroughly any given topic. 
In grade 8, you will learn how to gather and 
present researched topics in the most effective 
way, distinguishing between your language and 
ideas and that of the author's. You will learn how 
to read and use technical language and how to 
present information in a clear and organized 
manner with the aid of visual representations, 
such as charts and graphs. 



Example: Source cited: magazine 

Antibiotics have been extremely beneficial to 
humanity. However, because they are so 
potent, antibiotics also have caused their share 
of damage. In her article in the March 26, 
2001, issue of Newsweek Magazine, Molly 
Caldwell Crosby states, "that treating every 
minor infection with a round of amoxicillin 
[an antibiotic] can harm your health — not by 
breeding superbugs but by killing friendly ones 
that live within you." 



18 ♦ CA 



2.4 



2.5 



Deliver persuasive presentations: a) Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear 
and knowledgeable judgment); b) Differentiate fact from opinion and support arguments with 
detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning; c) Anticipate and answer listener concerns and 
counterarguments effectively through the inclusion and arrangement of details, reasons, 
examples, and other elements; d) Maintain a reasonable tone. 



You will find that you'll have strong opinions 
on issues that arise both in school and at home. 
In grade 8, you will learn how to construct oral 
presentations that will help you convince an 
audience of your position. You will learn how 
to support your opinions with the best evidence, 
and how to use verbal and nonverbal strategies 
to emphasize your message. 



Example: Verbal strategies: parallel structures 
and repetition 

". . . and that government of the people, by 
the people, for the people, shall not perish 
from the earth." 

— from The Gettysburg Address, 
by Abraham Lincoln 



Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using 
voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning. 



Often what makes a speech, poem, or dramatic monologue compelling is how the speaker uses 
his or her voice and body language to add meaning to the words. In grade 8, you will learn verbal 
and nonverbal techniques that will aid you in delivering lively and memorable dramatic readings. 



CA ♦ 19 



Contents in Brief 



:<*. 



Learn About Literature 

Forms of Literature xxvi 

Short Stories IN2 

Nonfiction IN4 

Drama IN6 

Poetry IN8 

The American Folk Tradition IN10 

Themes in Literature 

Unit 1 Coming of Age 1 

Unit 2 Meeting Challenges 95 

Unit 3 Quest for Justice 225 

Unit 4 From Sea to Shining Sea 337 

Unit 5 Extraordinary Occurrences 419 

Literary Genres 

Unit 6 Short Stories 517 

Unit 7 Nonfiction 609 

Unit 8 Drama 695 

Unit 9 Poetry 805 

Unit 1 The American Folk Tradition 909 

Resources 

Suggestions for Sustained Reading 968 

Glossary R1 

Literary Terms Handbook R5 

Writing Handbook R1 2 

Citing Sources and Preparing Manuscript R14 

Internet Guide R1 7 

Spelling Handbook R1 8 

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics Handbook R22 

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics Exercises R28 

Indexes 

Index of Authors and Titles R36 

Index of Skills R37 

Index of Features R42 



£ it 



^v,. 






.""""* $, '-**• 




vi ♦ Contents 



UNIT 



THEME: Coming of Age 



Why Read Literature? 2 

How to Read Literature: Literal Comprehension Strategies. . . 3 

Ray Bradbury The Drummer Boy of Shiloh Short Story 6 



Stephen Crane 

Shirley Jackson 

Maya Angelou 

Robert Frost 

Walter de la Mare 

Dorothy Parker 



Connections Literature and Social Studies 

An Episode of War Short Story 1 6 

Charles Short Story 22 

from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings . . . Autobiography 32 

Comparing Literary Works 

The Road Not Taken Poem 44 

All But Blind Poem 46 

The Choice Poem 48 



John Seabrook from E-mail from Bill Gates Article 54 



Virginia Shea 

Amy Ling 

Ricardo Sanchez 

Leo Tolstoy 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson 

Langston Hughes 

Walt Whitman 

Washington Irving 



Reading Informational Materials 

How to Be Polite Online Magazine Article 62 

r Comparing Literary Works 

Grandma Ling Poem 68 

Old Man Poem 70 

The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson. . . Folk Tale 72 

Comparing Literary Works 

Ring Out, Wild Bells Poem 78 

Winter Moon Poem 79 

Poets to Come Poem 80 

Reading Informational Material 

A Tour on the Prairies Eyewitness Account 84 




Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Narration: Autobiographical Writing 88 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Organizing and Presenting a Narrative Presentation . . 92 
Assessment Workshop: Context Clues 93 



( Contents ♦ 




THEME: Meeting Challenges 



Why Read Literature? 96 

How to Read Literature: Literal Comprehension Strategies. 97 



Mark Twain Cub Pilot on the Mississippi Autobiography 100 

Reading Informational Materials 

Employment Contract Contract 1 1 2 

Arthur C. Clarke The Secret Short Story 1 1 8 

Ann Petry Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom . Social Studies Article 130 



Joaquin Miller 

Stephen Vincent Benet 

Roberto Felix Salazar 



Comparing Literary Works 

Columbus Poem 1 44 

Western Wagons Poem 1 46 

The Other Pioneers Poem 1 48 



Jack London Up the Slide Short Story 1 56 

Connections Literature Past and Present 

Gary Paulsen from Hatchet Contemporary Fiction 166 

Langston Hughes Thank You, M'am Short Story 1 72 

Daniel Keyes Flowers for Algernon Short Story 1 82 

Reading Informational Materials 

Robert W. Peterson The Underground Railroad Research Report 214 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Description: Descriptive Essay 218 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Critical Listening 222 

Assessment Workshop: Analyzing Information 223 







1/* m 



UNIT 



THEME: Quest for Justice 



Why Read Literature? 226 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Constructing Meaning . . 227 



Walter Dean Myers Brown vs. Board of Education Analytic Essay 230 

O. Henry A Retrieved Reformation Short Story 242 



Russell Freedman 
Walt Whitman 



Juan A. Sedillo 
Barbara A. Lewis 



Comparing Literary Works 

from Lincoln: A Photobiography Biography 256 

O Captain! My Captain! Poem 261 

r Comparing Literary Works 

Gentleman of Rfo en Medio Short Story 268 

Saving the Wetlands Article 272 



Reading Informational Materials 

Analysis of a Legislative Bill Public Document 282 

Toni Cade Bambara Raymond's Run Short Story 288 

Henry Wadsworth Paul Revere's Ride Poem 302 

Longfellow 

Connections Literature and History 
Paul Revere The Deposition: Draft Autobiographical Narrative 310 

Brent Ashabranner Always to Remember: 

The Vision of Maya Ying Lin Article 316 

Reading Informational Materials 

Accidental Entrepreneurs Documentary Transcript 326 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Business Letter 330 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Delivering an Informational Presentation 334 

Assessment Workshop: Identifying the Main Idea 335 




J 



■ ■■ h 



THEME: From Sea to Shining Sea 

Why Read Literature? 338 

How to Read Literature: Interactive Reading Strategies . . 339 



Carl Sandburg from The People, Yes Poem 342 

John Steinbeck from Travels with Charley Autobiography 350 



Alice Walker 

Joseph Bruchac 

Mario Cuomo 

Emma Lazarus 



Jesse Stuart 
Gish Jen 



Evelyn Tooley Hunt 
Richard Garcia 
Robert Hayden 



. Comparing Literary Works 

Choice: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Essay 364 

Ellis Island Poem 368 

Achieving the American Dream Essay 370 

The New Colossus Poem 372 

Connections Literature and Culture 

Ellis Island and Angel Island 376 

Comparing Literary Works 

A Ribbon for Baldy Short Story 380 

The White Umbrella Short Story 384 

Comparing Literary Works 

Taught Me Purple Poem 398 

The City Is So Big Poem 399 

Those Winter Sundays Poem 400 




Reading Informational Materials 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton Arguments in Favor of a 

Sixteenth Amendment Persuasive Speech 404 

Reading Informational Materials 

Harold Krents Darkness at Noon Persuasive Essay 408 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Persuasion: Persuasive Composition 412 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Delivering a Persuasive Speech 416 

Assessment Workshop: Identifying the Best Summary 417 






x ♦ Contents 



THEME: Extraordinary Occurrences 



Why Read Literature? 420 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Reading Critically . . 421 

Annie Dillard from An American Childhood Autobiography 424 

Connections Poetry and Fiction 

Stephen King Creating by Hand Essay 432 

Comparing Literary Works 

Mark Twain __ What Stumped the Blue Jays Short Story 438 

Why Leaves Turn Color in the Fall . . . Cause-and-Effect Essay 443 



Diane Ackerman 



Comparing Literary Works 

May Swenson __ Southbound on the Freeway Poem 452 

Los New Yorks Poem 454 

The Story-Teller Poem 456 



Victor Hernandez Cruz 
Mark Van Doren 




Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Adventure of the Speckled Band Short Story 462 

Reading Informational Materials 

Kristeen Rogers How to Use a Microscope Technical Directions 488 

Comparing Literary Works 

Gary Paulsen from Woodsong Autobiography 494 



Sylvia Plath 

Arna Bontemps 

Theodore Roethke 



Mushrooms Poem 498 

Southern Mansion Poem 500 

The Bat Poem 502 



Reading Informational Materials 

David Currell A Simple Shadow Puppet Instructions 506 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Exposition: Explanation of a Process 510 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Evaluating an Informational Presentation 514 

Assessment Workshop: Interpreting Visual Aids 515 





GENRE: Short Stories 



Why Read Literature? 518 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Reading Fiction . . 519 



Edgar Allan Poe The Tell-Tale Heart Plot 522 



Isaac Bashevis Singer 
Naomi Shihab Nye 



Paul Laurence Dunbar 
Yoshiko Uchida 



Saki (H. H. Munro) 

Virginia Driving 
Hawk Sneve 



r Comparing Literary Works 

The Day I Got Lost Character 534 

Hamadi Character 539 

Reading Informational Materials 

Map and Directions to the 

Monterey Bay Aquarium .... Internet Map and Directions 550 

r Comparing Literary Works 

The Finish of Patsy Barnes Setting 556 

Tears of Autumn Setting 564 

Comparing Literary Works 

The Story-Teller Theme 576 

The Medicine Bag Theme 582 




Connections Literature and Culture 
Pat Mora from My Own True Name Essay 594 

Reading Informational Materials 

Colin Powell from Sharing in the American Dream Speech 598 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Narration: Short Story 602 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Storytelling 606 

Assessment Workshop: Identifying Cause and Effect 607 



GENRE: Nonfiction 



Why Read Literature? 610 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Reading Nonfiction . . 611 



Bruce Brooks Animal Craftsmen Reflective Essay 614 



Lionel G. Garcia 
Eudora Welty 

Stephen Longstreet 
John Hersey 

AnaTs Nin 
James Herriot 



Robert MacNeil 



r Comparing Literary Works 

Baseball Autobiography 624 

from One Writer's Beginning Autobiography 628 

r Comparing Literary Works 

Hokusai: The Old Man Mad About Drawing . . Biography 636 
Not to Go With the Others Biography 639 

Comparing Literary Works 

Forest Fire Descriptive Essay 648 

Debbie Narrative Essay 652 

Reading Informational Material 

Fire Extinguisher Warranty and How to Operate 
Your Extinguisher in a Fire Emergency 

Warranty and Product Directions 662 

Comparing Literary Works 

The Trouble with Television Speech 668 



Martin Luther King, Jr. The American Dream Persuasive Essay 672 

Connections Literature and Culture 
John Grisham from A Painted House Contemporary Fiction 678 

Reading Informational Materials 

Denis Wallis Why Is the Sea Blue? Cause-and-Effect Essay 682 

Skills Workshops 

Writing Workshop: Research: Research Report 686 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Delivering a Research Presentation 692 

Assessment Workshop: Distinguishing Fact From Opinion 693 



Contents ♦ xiii 




■HHBF 



Genre: Drama 



Why Read Literature? 696 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Reading Drama . . 697 

Frances Goodrich The Diary of Anne Frank 

and Albert Hackett Act I Drama 700 

Act II Drama 749 

Reading Informational Materials 

Summary of The Diary of Anne Frank Summary 782 

Roberto Benigni Connections Literature and Film 
and Vincenzo Cerami from Life Is Beautiful Screenplay 786 

Reading Informational Materials 

May Lamberton Becker Introducing Natty Bumppo Response to Literature 794 

Skills Workshops 

Writing Workshop: Response to Literature: Critical Review 798 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Delivering an Oral Response to Literature 802 

Assessment Workshop: Sentence Construction 803 








. 






xiv Contents 




'Vlli-fMi'W ' . . \KJiiMi 



GENRE: Poetry 



Why Read Literature? 806 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for Reading Poetry . . 807 



Robert P. Tristram Coffin The Secret Heart Lyric Poem 810 



Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow 

May Swenson 



Langston Hughes 

William Shakespeare 

John Updike 

E. E. Cummings 

Pablo Neruda 

Basho and Moritake 

William Wordsworth 

Stephen Vincent Benet 

Paul Laurence Dunbar 

Maxine Kumin 



r Comparing Literary Works 

The Wreck of the Hesperus Ballad 818 

The Centaur Narrative Poem 824 

Comparing Literary Works 

Harlem Night Song Lyric Poem 834 

Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind Lyric Poem 836 

January Lyric Poem 838 

love is a place Lyric Poem 840 

r Comparing Literary Works 

Ode to Enchanted Light Ode 848 

Two Haiku Haiku 849 

She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways Elegy 850 

from John Brown's Body Epic 851 

Harriet Beecher Stowe Sonnet 853 

400-Meter Free Style Concrete Poem 854 

{continued) 



km u 




^fefefc 



Contents 




GENRE: Poetry (continued) 



Reading Informational Materials 

Stopwatch Operating Instructions 

and Warranty Instructions and Warranties 



860 



Connections Literature and Culture 
Haiku for the Olympics 



Haiku 864 



Walter de la Mare 

Shel Silverstein 

Wendy Rose 

Emily Dickinson 

N. Scott Momaday 

Jose Garcia Villa 

Alice Walker 



Edwin Arlington 
Robinson 



Comparing Literary Works 

Silver Sound Devices 868 

Forgotten Language Sound Devices 869 

Drum Song Sound Devices 870 

If I can stop one Heart from breaking Sound Devices 872 

Comparing Literary Works 

New World Imagery 878 

Lyric 17 Imagery 880 

For My Sister Molly Who in the Fifties Imagery 882 

Comparing Literary Works 

The Dark Hills Figurative Language 890 

Donald Justice Incident in a Rose Garden Figurative Language 892 



Bruce Brooks 

Skills Workshops 



Reading Informational Materials 

Are Animals Smart? Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 



898 



Writing Workshop: Exposition: Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
Listening and Speaking Workshop: Evaluating Media Messages 
Assessment Workshop: Appropriate Usage 



902 
906 
907 






Contents 



GENRE: The American Folk Tradition 

Why Read Literature? 910 

How to Read Literature: Strategies for 

Reading Folk Literature 911 



Jose Griego y Maestas 
and Rudolfo A. Anaya 

Jackie Torrence 

Richard Erdoes 
and Alfonso Ortiz 

Zora Neale Hurston 



Traditional 

Harold W. Felton 

Carl Sandburg 

Davy Crockett 

Tom Wolfe 



Comparing Literary Works 

Chicoria Mexican American Cuento 914 

Brer Possum's Dilemma African American Tale 917 

Coyote Steals the Sun and Moon . . . Native American Myth 920 

Why the Waves Have Whitecaps. . . African American Tale 923 

Reading Informational Materials 

Student Government Bylaws Technical Document 928 

Comparing Literary Works 

John Henry Ballad 934 

Pecos Bill: The Cyclone Tall Tale 938 

Paul Bunyan of the North Woods Tall Tale 945 

Davy Crockett's Dream Tall Tale 948 




Connections Literature and History 
from The Right Stuff 



Nonfiction 954 



Reading Informational Materials 

Crime-Solving Procedures for the 

Modern Detective Training Manual 



958 



Skills Workshops 



Writing Workshop: Exposition: Guidelines and Rules 

Listening and Speaking Workshop: Multimedia Presentation 
Assessment Workshop: Spelling, Capitalization, and Punctuation 





.^*~ 






Complete Contents by Genre 



Short Story 

Plot 

Up the Slide 

Jack London 1 56 

A Retrieved Reformation 

O. Henry 242 

Gentleman of Rio en Medio 

Juan A.A. Sedillo 268 

The Tell-Tale Heart 

Edgar Allan Poe 522 

Character 

Raymond's Run 

Toni Cade Bambara 288 

A Ribbon for Baldy 

Jesse Stuart 380 

The White Umbrella 

Gish Jen 384 

The Day I Got Lost 

Isaac Bashevis Singer 534 

Hamadi 

Naomi Shihab Nye 539 

Setting 

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh 

Ray Bradbury 6 

An Episode of War 

Stephen Crane 16 

The Finish of Patsy Barnes 

Paul Laurence Dunbar 556 

Tears of Autumn 

Yoshiko Uchida 564 

Theme 

Thank You, M'am 

Langston Hughes 1 72 

The Story-Teller 

Saki (H. H. Munro) 576 

The Medicine Bag 

Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve 582 



Point of View 

Charles 

Shirley Jackson 22 

Flowers for Algernon 

Daniel Keyes 1 82 

What Stumped the Blue Jays 

Mark Twain 438 

Other Fiction 

The Secret 

Arthur C. Clarke 118 

from Hatchet 

Gary Paulsen 1 66 

The Adventure of the Speckled Band 

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 462 

from A Painted House 

John Grisham 678 

NONFICTION 

Expository and Practical/Technical Writing 

from E-Mail from Bill Gates 

John Seabrook 54 

How to Be Polite Online 

Virginia Shea 62 

A Tour on the Prairies 

Washington Irving 84 

Employment Contract 112 

Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom 

Ann Petry 130 

The Underground Railroad 

Robert W. Peterson 214 

Brown vs. Board of Education 

Walter Dean Myers 230 

Saving the Wetlands 

Barbara A. Lewis 272 

Always to Remember: The Vision of Maya Ying Lin 

Brent Ashabranner 316 

Accidental Entrepreneurs 

Radio Documentary Transcript 326 



xviii ♦ Complete Contents by Genre 



Ellis Island and Angel Island 376 

Why Leaves Turn Color in the Fall 

Diane Ackerman 443 

Technical Directions 

Using a Microscope 488 

A Simple Shadow Puppet 

David Currell 506 

Map and Directions to the Monterey 

Bay Aquarium 550 

Fire Extinguisher Warranty and How to Operate 
Your Extinguisher in a Fire Emergency 662 

Why Is the Sea Blue? 

Denis Wallis, et al 682 

Summary of The Diary of Anne Frank 782 

Introducing Natty Bumppo 

May Lamberton Becker 794 

Stopwatch Operating Instructions 

and Warranty 860 

Haiku for the Olympics 864 

Are Animals Smart? 

Bruce Books 898 

Student Government Bylaws 928 

Crime-Solving Procedures for the Modern 
Detective 

California Commission on Peace Officer Standards 
and Training 958 

Persuasive and Reflective Writing 

Analysis of a Legislative Bill 282 

Choice: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Alice Walker 364 

Achieving the American Dream 

Mario Cuomo 370 

Arguments in Favor of a Sixteenth Amendment 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton 404 

Darkness at Noon 

Harold Krents 408 

Creating by Hand 

Stephen King 432 

from My Own True Name 

Pat Mora 594 



from Sharing in the American Dream 

Colin Powell 598 

Animal Craftsmen 

Bruce Brooks 614 

The Trouble with Television 

Robert MacNeil 668 

The American Dream 

Martin Luther King, Jr. 672 

Narrative Nonfiction 

from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 

Maya Angelou 32 

Cub Pilot on the Mississippi 

Mark Twain 1 00 

from Lincoln: A Photobiography 

Russell Freedman 256 

The Deposition: Draft 

Paul Revere 310 

from Travels with Charley 

John Steinbeck 350 

from An American Childhood 

Annie Dillard 424 

A Glow in the Dark from Woodsong 

Gary Paulsen 494 

Baseball 

Lionel G. Garcia 624 

from One Writer's Beginning 

Eudora Welty 628 

Hokusai: The Old Man Mad About Drawing 

Stephen Longstreet 636 

Not to Go With the Others 

John Hersey 639 

Forest Fire 

Anais Nin 648 

Debbie 

James Herriot 652 

from The Right Stuff 

Tom Wolfe 954 



Complete Contents by Genre ♦ wx 




I 



omplete Contents by Genre 



Poetry 

Narrative 

Paul Revere's Ride 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 302 

The Wreck of the Hesperus 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 818 

The Centaur 

May Swenson 824 

Lyric 

The Bat 

Theodore Roethke 502 

Harlem Night Song 

Langston Hughes 834 

Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind 

William Shakespeare 836 

love is a place 

E. E. Cummings 840 

Form 

Columbus 

Joaquin Miller 144 

Western Wagons 

Stephen Vincent Benet 146 

The Other Pioneers 

Roberto Felix Salazar 148 

Southbound on the Freeway 

May Swenson 452 

Los New Yorks 

Victor Hernandez Cruz 454 

The Story-Teller 

Mark Van Doren 456 

January 

John Updike 838 

Ode to Enchanted Light 

Pablo Neruda 848 

Two Haiku 

Basho and Moritake 849 

400-Meter Free Style 

Maxine Kumin 854 



She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways 

William Wordsworth 850 

from John Brown's Body 

Stephen Vincent Benet 851 

Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Paul Laurence Dunbar 853 

Sound Devices 

Ring Out, Wild Bells 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson 78 

Winter Moon 

Langston Hughes 79 

Poets to Come 

Walt Whitman 80 

Mushrooms 

Sylvia Plath 498 

Silver 

Walter de la Mare 868 

Forgotten Language 

Shel Silverstein 869 

Drum Song 

Wendy Rose 870 

If I can stop one Heart from breaking 

Emily Dickinson 872 

Imagery 

Grandma Ling 

Amy Ling 68 

Old Man 

Ricardo Sanchez 70 

from The People, Yes 

Carl Sandburg 342 

Taught Me Purple 

Evelyn Tooley Hunt 398 

The City Is So Big 

Richard Garcia 399 

Those Winter Sundays 

Robert Hayden 400 

Southern Mansion 

Arna Bontemps 500 



xx ♦ Complete Contents by Genre 






New World 

N. Scott Momaday 878 

Lyric 17 

Jose Garcia Villa 880 

For My Sister Molly Who in the Fifties 

Alice Walker 882 

Figurative Language 

O Captain! My Captain! 

Walt Whitman 261 

Ellis Island 

Joseph Bruchac 368 

The New Colossus 

Emma Lazarus 372 

The Secret Heart 

Robert P. Tristram Coffin 810 

The Dark Hills 

Edwin Arlington Robinson 890 

Incident in a Rose Garden 

Donald Justice 892 

Speaker 

The Road Not Taken 

Robert Frost 44 

All But Blind 

Walter de la Mare 46 

The Choice 

Dorothy Parker 48 



Tales 

The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson 

Leo Tolstoy 72 

Chicoria 

Jose Griego y Maestas and Rudolfo A. Anaya 914 

Brer Possum's Dilemma 

Jackie Torrence 917 

Why the Waves Have Whitecaps 

Zora Neale Hurston 923 

Pecos Bill: The Cyclone 

Harold W. Felton 938 

Paul Bunyan of the North Woods 

Carl Sandburg 945 

Davy Crockett's Dream 

Davy Crockett 948 

Legends 

John Henry 

Traditional 934 

Drama 

The Diary of Anne Frank 

Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett 700 

Act 1 700 

Act II 749 

Life Is Beautiful 

Roberto Benigni and Vincenzo Cerami 786 



Oral Tradition 



Myths 

Coyote Steals the Sun and Moon 

Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz. . . . 



920 



( Complete ( laments by ( rente ♦ xxi 




'.' 






.■ ' 




JOMF 



l>/\'p 



r 



'fT 



Ti'P A 



r, r 



ry Works 



Comparing Tone 
The Road Not Taken 

Robert Frost 44 

All But Blind 

Walter de la Mare 46 

The Choice 

Dorothy Parker 48 

Comparing Images 
Grandma Ling 

Amy Ling 68 

Old Man 

Ricardo Sanchez 70 

The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson 
Leo Tolstoy 72 

Comparing Speakers 
Ring Out, Wild Bells 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson 78 

Winter Moon 

Langston Hughes 79 

Poets to Come 

Walt Whitman 80 

Comparing Authors' Perspective 
Columbus 

Joaquin Miller 144 

Western Wagons 

Stephen Vincent Benet 1 46 

The Other Pioneers 

Roberto Felix Salazar 1 48 

Comparing Organization 

from Lincoln: A Photobiography 

Russell Freedman 256 

O Captain! My Captain! 

Walt Whitman 261 

Comparing Characters' Conflict 

Gentleman of Rio en Medio 

Juan A.A. Sedillo 268 

Saving the Wetlands 

Barbara A. Lewis 272 

Comparing Topics 

Choice: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Alice Walker 364 

Ellis Island 

Joseph Bruchac 368 

Achieving the American Dream 

Mario Cuomo 370 



The New Colossus 

Emma Lazarus 



372 



Comparing Characters 

A Ribbon for Baldy 

Jesse Stuart 380 

The White Umbrella 

Gish Jen 384 

Comparing Themes 

Taught Me Purple 

Evelyn Tooley Hunt 398 

The City Is So Big 

Richard Garcia 399 

Those Winter Sundays 

Robert Hayden 400 

Comparing Styles 

What Stumped the Blue Jays 

Mark Twain 438 

Why Leaves Turn Color in the Fall 

Diane Ackerman 443 

Comparing Structure 
Southbound on the Freeway 

May Swenson 452 

Los New Yorks 

Victor Hernandez Cruz 454 

The Story-Teller 

Mark Van Doren 456 

Comparing Tone 

A Glow in the Dark from Woodsong 

Gary Paulsen 494 

Mushrooms 

Sylvia Plath 498 

Southern Mansion 

Arna Bontemps 500 

The Bat 

Theodore Roethke 502 

Comparing Authors' Backgrounds 

The Day I Got Lost 

Isaac Bashevis Singer 534 

Hamadi 

Naomi Shihab Nye 539 

Comparing Mood and Tone 

The Finish of Patsy Barnes 

Paul Laurence Dunbar 556 

Tears of Autumn 

Yoshiko Uchida 564 



xxii ♦ Comparing Literary Works 



Comparing Themes 
Saki (H. H. Munro) 

The Story-Teller 576 

The Medicine Bag 

Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve 582 

Comparing Authors' Childhoods 

Baseball 

Lionel G. Garcia 624 

from One Writer's Beginnings 

Eudora Welty 628 

Comparing Biographical Narratives 

Hokusai: The Old Man Mad About Drawing 

Stephen Longstreet 636 

Not to Go With the Others 

John Hersey 639 

Comparing Authors' Views 

Forest Fire 

Anais Nin 648 

Debbie 

James Herriot 652 

Comparing Persuasive Techniques 

The Trouble with Television 

Robert MacNeil 668 

The American Dream 

Martin Luther King, Jr 672 

Comparing Mood and Tone 

The Wreck of the Hesperus 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 818 

The Centaur 

May Swenson 824 

Comparing Topics 

Harlem Night Song 

Langston Hughes 834 

Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind 

William Shakespeare 836 

January 

John Updike 838 

love is a place 

E. E. Cummings 840 

Comparing Author's Purpose 

Ode to Enchanted Light 

Pablo Neruda 848 

Two Haiku 

Basho and Moritake 849 

She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways 

William Wordsworth 850 



from John Brown's Body 

Stephen Vincent Benet 851 

Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Paul Laurence Dunbar 853 

400-Meter Freestyle 

Maxine Kumin 854 

Comparing Musical Effects 

Silver 

Walter de la Mare 868 

Forgotten Language 

Shel Silverstein 869 

Drum Song 

Wendy Rose 870 

If I can stop one Heart from breaking 

Emily Dickinson 872 

Comparing Imagery 

New World 

N. Scott Momaday 878 

Lyric 17 

Jose Garcia Villa 880 

For My Sister Molly Who in the Fifties 

Alice Walker 882 

Comparing Author's Approach 
The Dark Hills 

Edwin Arlington Robinson 890 

Incident in a Rose Garden 

Donald Justice 892 

Comparing Folk Tales 

Chicoria 

Jose Griego y Maestas and Rudolfo A. Anaya 914 
Brer Possum's Dilemma 

Jackie Torrence 917 

Coyote Steals the Sun and Moon 

Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz 920 

Why the Waves Have Whitecaps 

Zora Neale Hurston 923 

Comparing Tall Tales 

John Henry 

Traditional 934 

Pecos Bill: The Cyclone 

Harold W. Felton 938 

Paul Bunyan of the North Woods 

Carl Sandburg 945 

Davy Crockett's Dream 

Davy Crockett 948 



Comparing Literary Works ♦ xxiii 



Reading Informational Material! 



Virginia Shea 
Washington Irving 



How to Be Polite Online Magazine Article 62 

A Tour on the Prairies Eyewitness Account 84 

Employment Contract Contract 1 1 2 

The Underground Railroad Research Report 214 

Analysis of a Legislative Bill Public Document 282 

Accidental Entrepreneurs Documentary Transcript 326 

Arguments in Favor of a Sixteenth Amendment 

Persuasive Speech 404 

Darkness at Noon Persuasive Essay 408 

How to Use a Microscope Technical Directions 488 

A Simple Shadow Puppet Instructions 506 

Map and Directions to the Monterey Bay Aquarium 

Internet Map and Directions 550 

from Sharing in the American Dream Speech 598 

Fire Extinguisher Warranty and How to Operate 
Your Extinguisher in a Fire Emergency 

Warranty and Product Directions 662 

Why Is the Sea Blue? Cause-and-Effect Essay 682 

Summary of The Diary of Anne Frank Summary 782 

Introducing Natty Bumppo Response to Literature 794 

Stopwatch Operating Instructions and Warranty 

Instructions and Warranties 860 

Are Animals Smart? Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 898 

Student Government Bylaws Technical Document 928 

Crime-Solving Procedures for the 

Modern Detective Training Manual 958 



Connections 



Stephen Crane 

Gary Paulsen 

Paul Revere 

Stephen King 

Pat Mora 

John Grisham 

Roberto Benigni 
and Vincenzo Cerami 

Tom Wolfe 



An Episode of War Short Story 1 6 

from Hatchet Contemporary Fiction 166 

The Deposition: Draft Autobiographical Narrative 310 

Ellis Island and Angel Island 376 

Creating by Hand Essay 432 

from My Own True Name Essay 594 

from A Painted House Contemporary Fiction 678 

from Life Is Beautiful Screenplay 786 



Haiku for the Olympics 
from The Right Stuff 



Haiku 864 

Nonfiction 954 



xxiv ♦ Reading Informational Materials/Connections 



How to Read 'Litest uke 



Literal Comprehension Strategies 3 

Interactive Reading Strategies 97 

Strategies for Constructing Meaning 227 

Interactive Reading Strategies 339 

Strategies for Reading Critically 421 



Strategies for Reading Fiction 519 

Strategies for Reading Nonfiction 611 

Strategies for Reading Drama 697 

Strategies for Reading Poetry 807 

Strategies for Reading Folk Literature 91 1 



Writing Workshops 

Narration: Autobiographical Writing 88 

Description: Descriptive Essay 218 

Business Letter 330 

Persuasion: Persuasive Composition 412 

Exposition: Explanation of a Process 510 

Narration: Short Story 602 



Research: Research Report 686 

Response to Literature: Critical Review 798 

Exposition: Comparison-and-Contrast 

Essay 902 

Exposition: Guidelines and Rules 962 



Listening and Speaking Workshops 



Organizing and Presenting a 

Narrative Presentation 92 

Critical Listening 222 

Delivering an Informational Presentation . . . 334 

Delivering a Persuasive Speech 416 

Evaluating an Informational Presentation ... 514 



Storytelling 606 

Delivering a Research Presentation 692 

Delivering an Oral Response to Literature. . 802 

Evaluating Media Messages 906 

Multimedia Presentation 966 



Assessment Workshop 



ji j S 



Context Clues 93 

Analyzing Information 223 

Identifying the Main Idea 335 

Identifying the Best Summary 417 

Interpreting Visual Aids 515 



Identifying Cause and Effect 607 

Distinguishing Fact From Opinion 693 

Sentence Construction 803 

Appropriate Usage 907 

Spelling, Capitalization, and Punctuation . . . 967 



/ low to Read Literature/Writing Workshops/listening and Speaking Workshops/ Assessment Workshops ♦ xxv 



& 



■ 

earn About Literature 



Forms of Literature 



Novel and Novella • Short Story • Nonfiction • 
Poetry • Drama • The American Folk Tradition 

Just as various types of government and society have developed over the course 
of history, so have different forms of literature. Each of these forms, called a genre 
(zharf re), has its own characteristics. In this introduction, you can find explanations and 
examples of each genre. 



i— Novel and Novella 



Novels and novellas are long works 
of prose fiction that tell a story about 
imaginary people or animals called 
characters who live in a made-up 
world, or setting. A novella is briefer 
than a novel. However, each has a 
plot, a series of events linked by 
cause and effect that reveals a con- 
flict, or struggle, and usually shows 
its resolution. These works of longer 
fiction may also have subplots, smaller 
plots related to the main one. The plot 
and subplots explore a theme, or 
central idea or question about life. 

O What do you learn about the main 
character and setting of this novel 
from this passage? 



- Short Story 



A short story is a brief work of prose fic- 
tion. It tells a story about imaginary people or 
animals called characters. The plot of a short 
story is simple and focused, and the story 
explores an insight into life. 

O Which details show that the story is set 
during the Civil War? 



He saw a general on a black horse gazing 
over the lines of blue infantry at the 
green woods which veiled his problems. 
from "An Episode of War," Stephen Crane, page 16 



Buck did not read the newspapers, 
or he would have known that trou- 
ble was brewing, not alone for himself, 
but for every tide-water dog, strong of 
muscle and with warm, long hair, from 
Puget Sound to San Diego. . . . 
from Call of the Wild, Jack London 
Prentice Hall Literature Library 



- Nonfiction 



Nonfiction tells the story of a person's life, 
narrates a series of true events, describes a 
real scene, or presents information. 

O Who is the subject of this nonfiction piece? 



Of all the great artists of Japan, the one 
Westerners probably like and understand 
best is Katsushika Hokusai. . . . 
from "hokusai: the old man mad about 
Drawing," Stephen Longstreet, page 636 



I 




'One must be an inventor to read well. 



-Ralph Waldo Emerson 



Poetry 



Poetry is literature that appears in verse 
form. Many poems have a regular rhythm 
and possibly a rhyme scheme. Most poems 
use highly concise, musical, and powerful 
language to tell a story or to convey a single 
image or idea. 

O What qualities of the passage at right reveal 
that it is poetry? 



i— Drama 



Drama, which can be written in prose or 
poetry, tells a story through the words and 
actions of actors who impersonate the 
characters. The text of a drama contains the 
characters' spoken words, or dialogue, and 
bracketed information, called stage direc- 
tions, telling actors how to move and speak. 
Most dramas are meant to be performed, and 
you should imagine actors speaking the dia- 
logue as you read it. 

O Which part of this dramatic text is dialogue 
and which is stage directions? 



1 V -LlEP. Are you all right, Mr. Frank? 

MR. FRANK. [ Quickly controlling himself] Yes, 

Miep, yes. 
from The Diary of Anne Frank, Frances 
Goodrich and Albert Hackett, page 700 






Slowly, silently, now the moon 
Walks the night in her 
silver shoon; 
This way, and that, she peers, 

and sees 
Silver fruit upon silver trees . . . 
from "Silver," Walter de la Mare, 
page 868 





i— The American Folk Tradition 



The myths, tales, ballads, and tall 
tales that make up the American folk 
tradition are a kind of rugged, outdoor 
literature. They were shaped by singers 
and storytellers around campfires for 
generations before being brought to 
the "indoors" of a printed page. 

The literature of the American folk 
tradition expresses the insights, 
explanations, values, hopes, and fears 
of the groups and individuals that cre- 
ated them. It often explains natural 
phenomena like thunder and hurri- 
canes. It may also celebrate the 
heroes of the American frontier. To get 
the full flavor of these works, imagine 
them as being told or sung to you 
rather than lying quietly on a page. 

O What natural fact does this folk tale 
"explain" in the African American 
dialect, or regional speech, of the 
South? 



De wind is a woman, and de water 
is a woman too. . . .When you 
see a storm on de water, it's de wind 
and de water Fightin' over dem chillun. 

from "Why the Waves Have Whitecaps," 
Zora Neale Hurston, page 923 



Forms oj Literature ♦ INI 



Short Stories 

Plot and Conflict • Characters • 
Point of View • Setting • Theme 

Short stories can transport you to cities you have never 
seen or to historical events that occurred long ago. Generally, 
the ideas for short stories are inspired and developed in an 
author's imagination. These pages introduce the key elements 
of short stories. 




Plot and Conflict 



The plot of a story is a sequence of 
actions. A typical plot, diagrammed 
below, involves a conflict or problem. 
As the plot develops, the story builds 
to the point of greatest tension, the 
climax. The characters may or may 
not address and resolve the conflict 
as the story moves to its conclusion. 



Climax 



Plot 
Diagram 



Problem 
I 
Introduced 




Conclusion 



O What plot details does this passage 
from a short story reveal? 

One of his eyes resembled that of a 
vulture — a pale blue eye, with a 
film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, 
my blood ran cold; and so by degrees — 
very gradually — I made up my mind to 
take the life of the old man, and thus 
rid myself of the eye forever. 
from "The Tell-Tale Heart," Edgar 
Allan Poe, page 522 




r- Characters 



The characters in a story are the imaginary 
people, animals, or other beings that take 
part in the action. To bring them to life, 
authors use characterization, telling you 
directly what they are like or revealing their 
traits indirectly through their thoughts, 
words, actions, and reactions to situations. 

If an author does not tell you a character's 
motivations, or reasons for acting, you must 
use evidence from the story to determine 
them for yourself. As you read a variety of 
stories, compare and contrast the motiva- 
tions and reactions of characters from differ- 
ent historical eras as they encounter similar 
situations or conflicts. 



O In this passage, does the narrator tell you 
directly what a character is like or reveal the 
character through her words and actions? 
Explain. 






Susan didn't really feel interested in Saleh 
Hamadi until she was a freshman in high 
school carrying a thousand questions around. . 
from "Hamadi," Naomi Shihab Nye, page 539 



JN2 ♦ Learn About Literature 




Point of View 



A story's point of view is the vantage point 
from which a story is told. 

• In first person, the narrator, involved in the 
action, refers to himself or herself as "I." 

• In third person, the narrator, outside the 
action, refers to characters as "he" or "she." 

• In omniscient (am nish ant) third person, 
the narrator knows all characters' thoughts. 

O What clues to the point of view can you find 
in the opening of this story? 



The day my son Laurie started kindergarten 
he renounced corduroy overalls . . . 
from "Charles," Shirley Jackson, page 22 



— Setting 



When you think of the world that a short 
story evokes, you are thinking of its setting. 
This world includes not only the time and 
place of the story's action, but also the cus- 
toms and beliefs of that time and place. The 
setting can provide clues to the story's mean- 
ing, influence the story's conflict, or play a 
central role in that conflict. 



O What details in this passage help you iden- 
tify the setting of the story? 



Hana Omiya stood at the railing of the 
small ship that shuddered toward 
America in a turbulent November sea. She 
shivered as she pulled the folds of her silk 
kimono close to her throat. . . . 

from "Tears of Autumn," Yoshiko Uchida, 
pace 564 



I 



Theme 



The theme of a story is an insight 
into life that it offers directly or indi- 
rectly. Certain recurring themes 
appear in many stories because they 
have meaning for numbers of read- 
ers. One such theme involves the bat- 
tle between good and evil. 

Authors communicate themes in 
different ways, sometimes stating 
them directly. More often, however, 
they imply or suggest the theme. To 
determine an implied theme, consider 
clues like the meaning of a story's 
title, how a character solves a prob- 
lem, and a passage that conveys 
powerful emotions. In some cases, an 
author does not even imply a theme 
that you can summarize, but instead 
explores an important question with- 
out answering it. 

O What clues in the title and opening 
paragraph of this story suggest that 
its theme may relate to people's atti- 
tude toward their heritage? Explain. 

My kid sister Cheryl and I always 
bragged about our Sioux grand- 
pa, Joe Iron Shell. Our friends, who 
had always lived in the city and only 
knew about Indians from movies and 
TV, were impressed by our stories. . . . 
from "The Medicine Bag," Virginia 
Driving Hawk Sneve, page 582 



Short Stories ♦ IN.l 



Nonfiction 

Autobiography • Biography • Exposition • 
Essay • Informational Text 

Nonfiction is the mind's workshop. In this workshop, an 
author is hammering, carving, and shaping ideas about the 
real world. Readers explore this genre to learn about the lives 
of others, find valuable information, reflect on new ideas, 
and weigh arguments about important issues. These pages 
will help you discover the characteristics and varied purposes 
of nonfiction. 




Autobiography 



An autobiography is the story of 
part or all of a person's life, written by 
that person. As a story, a prose narra- 
tive of events, it shares certain charac- 
teristics with fiction, such as point of 
view, setting, and theme. 

Unlike fiction, however, autobiogra- 
phy presents a version of what actually 
happened to the author rather than a 
made-up world. The author's purposes 
for telling this life-story may be to 
explain his or her values, to teach 
lessons in life, to tell how he or she 
developed, to entertain, or any 
combination of these. 

O What does this passage from Eudora 
Welty's autobiography reveal about 
her purpose or purposes for writing? 



Learning stamps you with its 
moments. Childhoods learning is 
made up of moments. It isn't steady. 
It's a pulse. . . . 

from One Writer's Beginnings, 
Eudora Welty, page 628 




Biography 



In a biography, an author tells the story of 
someone else's life. Usually, the subject of a 
biography is a person, famous or not, whose 
life has special meaning or value. Like an 
autobiography, this literary form is a factual 
prose narrative with elements such as plot, 
setting, and theme. It can also share many of 
the purposes of autobiography, such as 
teaching and entertaining. With biography, 
however, there is often a special emphasis 
on explaining the causes and effects of a 
subject's actions. 

O According to this biographer of the artist 
Hokusai, which of Hokusai's traits explain 
many of his actions? 



He was a restless, unpredictable man who 
lived in as many as a hundred different 
houses and changed his name at least thirty 
times. For a very great artist, he acted at times 
like P.T. Barnum or a Hollywood producer 
with his curiosity and drive for novelty. 
from "hokusai: the old man mad about 
Drawing," Stephen Longstreet, page 636 



( 



/ 



JN4 ♦ Learn About Literature 



"The essayist . . . can ... be any sort of person, according to his 

mood or his subject matter — philosopher, scold, jester . . . — E.B. White 



Exposition 



The purpose of exposition is to present 
and explain information. This type of writing 
plays a valuable role when the exchange of 
accurate information is important. 

O Why is the definition of de facto useful in this 
passage from an expository essay? 



[Until] the early 1950s, many public schools in 
both the North and South were segregated. . . . 
In the North most of the schools were segre- 
gated de facto; that is, the law allowed blacks 
and whites to go to school together, but they 
did not actually always attend the same schools. 
from "Brown vs. Board of Education," Walter 
Dean Myers, page 230 



i— Essay 



Essays are brief prose works about a par- 
ticular subject. 

• Reflective essays explore an author's 
thoughts about ideas or experiences. 

« Narrative essays tell the story of actual events. 

• Descriptive essays present people, 
situations, or places. 

• Persuasive essays try to convince readers 
to think or act in a certain way. 

O Basing your answer on the first sentence of 
this essay, how would you classify it? Why? 

I first saw her one autumn day when I was 
called to see one of Mrs. Ainsworth's dogs, 
and I looked in some surprise at the furry 
black creature sitting before the fire. 
from "Debbie," |ames Herriot, page 652 



Informational Text 



Imagine a friendly guide who could 
help you buy the right clothes, dis- 
cover what is happening in the world, 
learn a subject, figure out how to 
work gadgets and machines, or mas- 
ter a sport. Informational texts are 
such a guide. Ranging from directions 
and warranties to maps and con- 
tracts, they are the real-world texts 
that you encounter as you manage 
your daily life. Informational texts 
help you perform necessary tasks or 
enjoy your recreation. 

O A warranty is a guarantee offered by a 
seller or manufacturer to the consumer 
purchasing a product. According to 
the passage shown here from a war- 
ranty, what does a company guarantee 
about its fire extinguisher? 



BRK Brands, Inc. warrants its 
enclosed Fire Extinguisher to be 
free from defects in materials and 
workmanship under normal use and 
service for a period of five years from 
date of purchase. . . . 
from "Warranty for a Fire 
Extinguisher," page 662 






Non/iiction ♦ IN5 



T vrama 

Staging • Historical Context • Plot and 
Subplot • Dialogue 

Drama is a form of literature that asks you, the reader, to 
play many roles. You are the director, guiding the actors; the 
set designer, creating the right environment; the lighting 
designer, making sure scenes are properly lit; the actors, por- 
traying the characters; and the audience, appreciating it all. 
Such active reading allows you to transform a page into a stage 
alive with action. This introduction will prepare you for your 
"performance" by explaining the characteristics of drama. 




Staging 



The term staging refers to all the 
elements that turn words on a page 
into a full-scale dramatic production: 
scenery, lighting, sound effects, and 
costumes, as well as instructions to 
the actors about how to speak their 
lines and move. The playwright sum- 
marizes this information in the itali- 
cized and bracketed stage directions. 
Directors use this information as a 
blueprint for "constructing" the 
drama. You can also use the direc- 
tions to picture the drama in your 
mind as you read it. 

O What information about the set do 
these stage directions provide? 






[. . . The three rooms of the top floor and 
a small attic space above are exposed to 
our view. The largest of the rooms is in 
the center, with two small rooms, slightly 
raised, on either side. On the right is a 
bathroom, out of sight. A narrow steep 
flight of stairs at the back leads up to the 
attic. . . .] 

from The Diary of Anne Frank, Frances 
Goodrich and Albert Hackett, page 700 



Historical Context 



Often a drama captures the atmosphere 
and conflicts of a past era. When this is the 
case, you must be alert to the drama's 
historical context, the political forces, beliefs, 
and events that influenced the characters in 
the play. For example, the context for The 
Diary of Anne Frank is the Holocaust, the 
systematic destruction of over six million 
European Jews by the Nazis before and 
during World War II. In 1942, the Frank family 
and other Jews living in Nazi-controlled 
Holland went into hiding to escape being 
imprisoned by the Nazis. 



O How does the historical context explain the 
mood of the scene below? 



1. V JLrs. VAN DAAN. [Rising, nervous, excited] 
Something's happened to them! 
I know it! 

MR. VAN DAAN. Now, Kerli! 

MRS. VAN DAAN. Mr. Frank said they'd be 
here at seven o'clock. He said . . . 

from The Diary of Anne Frank, Frances 
Goodrich and Albert Hackett, page 700 



) 



) 



/N6 ♦ Learn About Literature 




— Plot and Subplot 



As in a work of fiction, the plot in a drama 
is a linked sequence of events involving a 
conflict, a struggle between opposing forces. 
The problem or conflict is introduced, tension 
builds to its greatest point, the climax, and 
then the problem is solved. 

Like longer works of fiction, dramas also 
have subplots, smaller sequences of events 
related to the main plot and the themes, or 
insights, it explores. In The Diary of Anne 
Frank, for example, the plot concerns the 
attempt of the Franks, the Van Daans, and 
others to hide from the Nazis. However, a 
subplot concerns a blossoming relationship 
between Anne Frank and Peter Van Daan, 
both teenagers. 

O What does this first exchange between Anne 
and Peter suggest will happen in the subplot 
involving them? 

A 

jtJLNNE. What s your cats name? 

PETER. Mouschi. 

ANNE. Mouschi! Mouschi! Mouschi! [She picks 

up the cat, walking away with it. To 

Peter] I love cats. . . . 
PETER. He's a torn. He doesn't like strangers. 

[He takes the cat from her, putting it back 

in its carrier. ] 
from The Diary of Anne Frank, Frances 
Goodrich and Albert Hackett, page 700 



Dialogue 



Playwrights can use narrators, or 
characters who serve as narrators, 
only in a limited way. Much more 
than fiction writers, playwrights tell a 
story through dialogue, the words of 
the characters. Dialogue can express 
dramatic irony, when characters' 
words have a meaning known to the 
audience but not understood by the 
characters. Dialogue also serves to 
reveal the traits of the characters. As 
you read dialogue, use the stage 
directions to see and hear the charac- 
ters delivering their lines. Then, ana- 
lyze this "performance" to determine 
the characters' personalities. 

O What does this passage of dialogue 
reveal about Mr. Frank and his role 
among the people who are in hiding? 



M, 



.R. FRANK. . . . This is the way 

we must live until it is over, if we 

are to survive. 

[ There is silence for a second.] 
MRS. FRANK. Until it is over. 
MR. FRANK. [Reassuringly] After six we 

can move about . . . 
from The Diary of Anne Frank, Frances 
Goodrich and Albert Hackett, page 700 



Drama ♦ 1N7 



roetry 



Purpose and Form • Narratives and Ballads • 
Lyric Poetry • Symbols • Imagery • 
Figurative Language 

Arranged in lines and groups of lines called stanzas, rather 
than in sentences and paragraphs, poetry makes greater use 
of the sounds of words than prose does. Whether telling a 
story or expressing feelings, poetry presents surprising but 
accurate comparisons. This introduction will help you under- 
stand the special characteristics, purposes, and forms of poetry. 




Purpose and Form 



Different forms of poetry often 
have different purposes, as follows: 

• An elegy is a relatively long formal 
poem about death or another seri- 
ous topic. 

• An epic is a long narrative poem 
written in an elevated style. The epic 
conveys the adventures of heroic 
characters and the story is connected 
to the history of a nation, race, 
or religion. 

• An ode is a dignified uplifting lyric 
written to celebrate a person, place, 
thing or event. 

• A sonnet is a 14-line lyric poem 
with one of several rhyme schemes. 

O Which qualities in this passage sug- 
gest that it is the beginning of an ode? 



u 



'nder the trees light 
has dropped from the top of the sky 
light 

like a green latticework of branches, 
shining 

on every leaf . . . 

from "Ode to enchanted light," Pablo 
Neruda, page 848 




i— Narratives and Ballads 



Narrative poems are poems that tell a 
story. A special type of narrative poem is the 
ballad, a form of verse meant to be sung or 
recited. Ballads use simple language to tell 
stories with dramatic action. 



O What evidence suggests that this stanza is 
the beginning of a ballad? 

It was the schooner Hesperus, 
That sailed the wintry sea; 
And the skipper had taken his little daughter, 

To bear him company. . . . 
from "The Wreck of the Hesperus," Henry 
Wadsworth Longfellow, pace 818 






Lyric Poetry 



A lyric poem expresses thoughts and feel- 
ings. Once, lyric poems were actually sung to 
the accompaniment of a stringed instrument 
called a lyre. Today, they rely on their own 
rhythm and sound. 

O What emotion do these lines express? 



Blow, blow, thou winter wind. 
Thou art not so unkind 
As man's ingratitude. . . . 
from "Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind," 
William Shakespeare, pace 836 



INS ♦ Learn About Literature 




A symbol is an object, person, or place 
that stands for something beyond itself. 
Some symbols in a culture come ready- 
made— for example, an eagle stands for the 
United States. Often, however, poets and 
other writers create symbols in their work by 
writing about an object, person, or place in 
such a way that it suggests meanings beyond 
itself. 



O In these couplets, or pairs of rhyming lines, 
what feelings might the father's hands 
symbolize? 



. . . The man had struck a match to see 
If his son slept peacefully. 

He held his palms each side the spark 
His love had kindled in the dark. 

His two hands were curved apart 

In the semblance of a heart. . . . 

from "The Secret Heart," Robert P. Tristram 

Coffin, page 810 



I 



Imagery is the descriptive language 
that appeals to one or more senses. 
The images in a poem supply details 
of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or 
movement and help readers sense 
the experience the poet describes. 

OTo what senses do the images in 
these lines appeal? 



A, 



.t dusk / the gray / foxes / stiffen / 
in cold; / blackbirds / are fixed / 
in the / branches. . . . 



from "New World," N. Scott Momaday, 

PAGE 878 



— Figurative Language 



Poets use figurative language, 

words not meant in their exact diction- 
ary sense, to surprise you. These types 
of figurative language are based on a 
comparison of apparently unlike items: 

• Similes use like or as to compare 
items as in "sunset hovers like a 
sound/Of golden horns." 

• Metaphors describe one item as if it 
were another as in "turning/his feet 
to swift half-moons." 

• Personifications give human 
qualities to something nonhuman 
as in "Sir I encountered Death 
Just now among our roses." 

O Which type of figurative language is 
this poet using? 

Otars are great drops 

O Of golden dew. 

from "Harlem Night Song," Langston 

Hughes, page 834 





Poetry ♦ IN') 



The American Folk 
Tradition 

Folk Tale • Myth • Tall Tale 

Imagine that instead of reading literature, you heard it told 
to you around a flickering campfire. That way of telling, 
rather than writing down, stories is what shaped American 
folk literature. The word folk indicates that these stories were 
made up by the folk, or people, for the people. That is why 
folk tales are a welcoming kind of literature. Because they 
were eventually written down, you can pick up a book and 
join in the campfire circle of a particular culture or group to 
appreciate tales of talking animals and wondrous events. 
These pages will introduce you to different types of folk 
literature and their characteristics. 




i- Folk Tale 



A folk tale is a story passed on by 
word of mouth for the purpose of 
teaching the ideas and values of a 
culture. Folktales originated among 
groups of people who could not read 
or write. Instead, the people told the 
stories aloud, passing them from gen- 
eration to generation. In the modern 
era, folk tales were collected and written 
down by scholars so folk wisdom could 
be shared with a wider audience. 

As you read folk tales, notice the 
following elements of the culture that 
produced them: 

• A specific setting such as a desert 
or riverside landscape 

• The unique rituals and customs of a 
group 

• The values or beliefs the people 
hold 

• Specific dialect, or the patterns of 
speech that are characteristic of a 
cultural group or region 



O What values does the first paragraph of this 
African American folk tale teach? 



Back in the days when the animals could 
' talk, there lived ol' Brer Possum. He was a 
fine feller. Why, he never liked to see no critters 
in trouble. He was always helpin' out, a-doin' 
somethin' for others. 

from "Brer Possum's Dilemma," retold by Jackie 
torrence, page 917 




IN 10 ♦ Learn About Literature 



"... the folk tale or the fairy tale . . . come out of the 
most distant deeps of human experience ..." 



— John Buchan 



i- Myth 



How? Why? When? If you have ever spent 
time with a younger child, you have heard 
those questions a thousand times. To answer 
these questions, and satisfy a small child's 
curiosity, you have probably had to tell many 
true or made-up stories. That is exactly what 
some people did when humanity itself was 
younger. To answer questions like why are 
there seasons like winter and spring?, story- 
tellers created myths— tales of gods, heroes, 
and animals that explain natural occurrences 
or customs and beliefs. 

As a member of a scientifically-minded 
society, you may read these folk "explana- 
tions" with disbelief. However, a story that is 
not scientifically true can still contain other 
kinds of truth. For example, its explanation 
may truthfully reflect human or animal nature 
and be true to our wish for a memorable and 
satisfying story. 

O Which natural facts do you think this Native 
American myth will "explain"? 






At this time the world was still dark; the 
*L\. sun and moon had not yet been put in 
the sky. "Friend," Coyote said to Eagle, "no 
wonder I can't catch anything; I can't see. Do 
you know where we can get some light?" 
"You're right, friend, there should be 
some light," Eagle said. "I think there's a little 
toward the west. Let's try and find it." 
from "Coyote Steals the Sun and Moon," Zuni 
Myth retold by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso 
Ortiz, pace 920 



rJ 



i— Tall Tale 



A tall tale is a humorous story that 
recounts exaggerated events in a 
matter-of-fact way, using the everyday 
speech of the common people. Tall 
tales associated with the American 
frontier show how the imaginations 
of storytellers and listeners expanded 
in response to the vast geography of 
the United States. The Mississippi 
River, the Great Plains, and the Rocky 
Mountains seemed to call for heroes, 
heroines, and deeds that could match 
their geographical majesty. 

O Which exaggerations indicate that 
this passage comes from a tall tale? 

In one respect Bill even welcomed the 
cyclone, for it blew so hard it blew 
the earth away from his wells. The first 
time this happened, he thought the 
wells would be a total loss. There they 
were, sticking up several hundred feet 
out of the ground. As wells they were 
useless. But he found he could cut them 
up into lengths and sell them for post- 
holes to farmers in Iowa and Nebraska. 
It was very profitable, especially after 
he invented a special posthole saw to 
cut them with. He didn't use that type 
of posthole himself. He got the prairie 
dogs to dig his for him. He simply 
caught a few gross of prairie dogs and 
set them down at proper intervals. . . . 
from "Pecos Bill: The Cyclone," retold 
by Harold W. Felton, pace 938 



( 



J 



The American Folk Tradition ♦ INI I 






Coming of Age 





. « 




^■■^■■MHB 






Exploring the Theme 

JL>aughter, tears, failure, and triumph are part of 
growing up and of growing older. By reading 
about the experiences of fictional characters and 
real-life people in this unit, you may gain insights 
that apply to your own coming of age. 

As you read, you can think about characters' 
situations and writers' thoughts and discuss 
them with your classmates. 



< Critical Viewing What elements of this picture seem 
to be about the process of coming of age, or growing 
up? [Analyze] 



Exploring the Theme 



Uy 



Read Literature? 



Whenever you read, you have a purpose, or reason. Your purpose will vary, 
depending on the genre, content, and style of the work you plan to read. 
Preview the three purposes you might set before reading the works in this unit. 



<►„ 



Read for the love of literature. 

Leo Tolstoy is considered one of the great 
masters of Russian fiction. See what a pow- 
erful story he can tell in five 
paragraphs when you read 
the folk tale "The Old 
Grandfather and His Little 
Grandson," page 72. 




Maya Angelou read one of her poems at 
the inauguration of a president, but there 
was a time when she would not even read 
out loud in class. Share a moment in the 
early life of this shy child who grew up to be 
a best-selling author in the excerpt from 
/ Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, page 32. 




Read to appreciate an author's style. 

Poems about love are not always sweet and senti- 
mental. Laugh at the sarcastic sting of Dorothy 
Parker's love poem "The Choice," page 48. 

The poems of Robert Frost are known for their use 
of simple, everyday language. Discover what else 
makes his style memorable when you read "The 
Road Not Taken," page 44. 




Read for information. 



Can a computer giant like Bill 
Gates be reached through e-mail? 
Find out when you read the excerpt 
from John Seabrook's article, 
"E-Mail from Bill Gates," page 54. 

Like other forms of communica- 
tion, e-mail has its own rules of 
politeness. Learn what they are 
when you read Virginia Shea's article, 
"How to Be Polite Online," page 62. 



Take It to the Net 



Visit the Web site for online instruction and 
activities related to each selection in this unit. 

www.phschool.com 



2 ♦ Coming of Age 



rlO'LU to Read Literature 

Use Literal Comprehension Strategies 

The first step in understanding any communication is to achieve literal 
comprehension— the actual meaning of words and sentences. In this unit, 
you will learn and practice the following literal comprehension strategies. 

1. Use context to determine meaning. 

The context, or situation in which an unfamiliar word is used, can 
provide clues to a word's meaning. In the following example, the writer 
uses two words that are related in meaning. 

. . . forty thousand men ... lay crazily askew in their uniforms, 
—from "The Drummer Boy of Shiloh" 

The word askew may be unfamiliar, but the word crazily suggests 
something "out of order." Men lying askew must therefore be lying in 
some crazy, disordered way. 



2. Identify word origins. 

By learning the origins of words and different influences on the 
English language, you will understand how groups of words are related. 
In this unit, you will learn to identify words with 

• Latin Roots 

• Latin Prefixes 

• Latin Suffixes 

In later units, you will learn about other influences on the 
English Language. 

3. Distinguish between literal and figurative 

meaning. 

In this unit, you will learn to distinguish between 
words and sentences that are meant literally and words 
and sentences that are not. Recognizing the difference 
will help you avoid confusion. 



°*r, 



^6, 




/^ 






eo ne y«n ot 






% 



er e 



iv er 



4. Paraphrase. 

Pause occasionally in your reading to restate a 
sentence or passage in your own words. This para- 
phrasing will help you make sense of figurative 
language and difficult passages. The example 
shows one reader's paraphrase of the first lines 
of "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost. 



Qfa 






<v, 



9r Q 



to 



'eci 



Qo 



to 



( b e 







<*th. 




How to Read Literature ♦ 3 



Prepare to Read 



The Drummer Boy of Shiloh 














Background 



D^ 



4s you read 
this story and 
complete the 



related assignments, 
you will focus on these 
standards. The Student's Guide 
to the Standards contains an 
outline of how each standard is 
introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Ray Bradbury's story "The Drummer Boy of Shiloh" is about a Civil War 
drummer boy. Although drummer boys accompanied troops into battle, 
they carried no weapons. There was no age requirement, so some drummer 
boys were as young as ten. Because few parents were willing to send their 
young sons to battle, many drummer boys were mnaways or orphans. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading Standard 1.3 Use word meanings within appropriate context and show ability 

to verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast. 

( Introduced in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing Standard 1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information 

and original ideas. {Introduced in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Introduced in the 

Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 1.7 Use audience feedback (e.g., verbal and nonverbal clues). 

{Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



4 ♦ Coming of Age 



■ 



Literary Analysis 

Historical Setting 

A historical setting is a real time and place from history. The italicized 
words in the following example contain several historically accurate details. 

It was indeed a solemn time and a solemn night for a boy just 
turned fourteen in the peach field near the Owl Creek not far from 
the church at Shiloh. 

Shiloh is the location of a bloody Civil War battle. It is near Owl 
Creek. Look for the answers to the following focus questions. 

1. What details indicate where the story takes place? 

2. What details tell when the story takes place? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Often, the setting contributes to the mood — the feeling or atmosphere 
of the work. The details shown here in italics establish the mood. 

In the April night, . . . blossoms fell from the orchard trees and lit 
with rustling taps on the drumskin. At midnight a peach stone . . . 
fell swift and unseen, struck once, like panic, . . . 

These details of unexpected noises in an otherwise quiet night create a 
nervous, anxious mood. 

Reading Strategy 

Finding Word Meaning in Context 

The context of a word is the situation in which it is used, as indicated 
by the surrounding words and phrases. When you come across an unfamil- 
iar word, look for clues in the context to help you find the meaning. Here, 
the words crazily and helter' skelter give you clues to the meanings of askew 
and .strewn. 

. . . forty thousand men . . . lay crazily askew in their uniforms. 
A mile yet farther on, another army was strewn helter-skelter. . . 

The clues suggest that askew and strewn mean "crooked" and "scattered." 
As you read, jot down any unfamiliar words and the page number on a 
chart like the one shown. Then, go hack and use context to find the 
meaning of each word you wrote. 

Vocabulary Development 

benediction (ben a dik' shan) n. 
blessing (p. 8) 

riveted (riv' it ad) adj. fastened or 
made firm (p. 8) 



r 
Word 


Page Context 


ramrod 


8 gunpowder, 




ramrod, 




Minie ball 


lag 


11 The heart 




would beat 






slow in the 






men. They 




would lag by 


' 


the wayside. 
J 



compounded (kam pound' ad) ad). 
mixed or combined (p. 8) 

resolute (rez' a loot') adj. showing 
a firm purpose; determined (p. 1 1 ) 



The Drummer Boy of Shiloh ♦ 5 




6 Coming of Age 



THE 

Drummer 



Boy 



OF 



Shiloh 



RAY 



BRA 



BURY 



In the April night, more than once, blossoms fell from the orchard 
trees and lit with rustling taps on the drumskin. At midnight a peach 
stone left miraculously on a branch through winter, flicked by a bird, 
fell swift and unseen, struck once, like panic, which jerked the boy 
upright. In silence he listened to his own heart ruffle away, away — at 
last gone from his ears and back in his chest again. 

After that, he turned the drum on its side, where its great lunar 
face peered at him whenever he opened his eyes. 

His face, alert or at rest, was solemn. It was indeed a solemn 
time and a solemn night for a boy just turned fourteen in the 
peach field near the Owl Creek not far from the church at Shiloh. l 

"... thirty-one, thirty-two, thirty-three ..." 

Unable to see, he stopped counting. 

Beyond the thirty-three familiar shadows, forty thousand men, 
exhausted by nervous expectation, unable to sleep for romantic 
dreams of battles yet unfought, lay crazily askew in their uniforms. 
A mile yet farther on, another army was strewn helter-skelter, 
turning slow, basting themselves 2 with the thought of what they 

1. Shiloh (shi' 16) site of a Civil War battle in 1862; now a national military park in 
southwest Tennessee. 

2. basting themselves here, letting their thoughts pour over them as they turn 
in their sleep. 



Literary Analysis 

Historical Setting 

Find three details in the 
first three paragraphs 
that help establish the 
historical setting. 



^Reading Check 

How old is the 
drummer boy? 



The Drummer Boy oi Shiloh ♦ 7 



would do when the time came: a leap, a yell, a blind plunge their 
strategy, raw youth their protection and benediction . 

Now and again the boy heard a vast wind come up, that gently 
stirred the air. But he knew what it was — the army here, the army 
there, whispering to itself in the dark. Some men talking to others, 
others murmuring to themselves, and all so quiet it was like a nat- 
ural element arisen from South or North with the motion of the 
earth toward dawn. 

What the men whispered the boy could only guess, and he 
guessed that it was: "Me, I'm the one, I'm the one of all the rest 
who won't die. I'll live through it. I'll go home. The band will play. 
And I'll be there to hear it." 

Yes, thought the boy, that's all very well for them, they can give 
as good as they get! 

For with the careless bones of the young men harvested by night 
and bindled 3 around campfires were the similarly strewn steel 
bones of their rifles, with bayonets fixed like eternal lightning lost 
in the orchard grass. 

Me, thought the boy, I got only a drum, two sticks to beat it, 
and no shield. 

There wasn't a man-boy on this ground tonight who did not 
have a shield he cast, riveted or carved himself on his way to his 
first attack, compounded of remote but nonetheless firm and fiery 
family devotion, flag-blown patriotism and cocksure immortality 
strengthened by the touchstone of very real gunpowder, ramrod, 
Minie ball 4 and flint. But without these last, the boy felt his family 
move yet farther off away in the dark, as if one of those great 
prairie-burning trains had chanted them away never to return — 
leaving him with this drum which was worse than a toy in the 
game to be played tomorrow or some day much too soon. 

The boy turned on his side. A moth brushed his face, but it 
was a peach blossom. A peach blossom flicked him, but it was a 
moth. Nothing stayed put. Nothing had a name. Nothing was as 
it once was. 

If he lay very still, when the dawn came up and the soldiers put 
on their bravery with their caps, perhaps they might go away, the 
war with them, and not notice him lying small here, no more than 
a toy himself. 

"Well, now," said a voice. 

The boy shut up his eyes, to hide inside himself, but it was too 
late. Someone, walking by in the night, stood over him. 

"Well," said the voice quietly, "here's a soldier crying before the 
fight. Good. Get it over. Won't be time once it all starts." 



benediction 

(ben a dik' shon) n. blessing 

Reading Strategy 
Finding Word Meaning 
in Context What do you 
think murmuring means 
based on the context clues 
"whispering" and "quiet"? 



riveted (riv' it 9d) adj. 
fastened or made firm 

compounded 

(kam pound' ed) adj. 
mixed or combined 



3. bindled (bin' dald) adj. bedded. 

4. Minie (min' e) ball cone-shaped rifle bullet that expands when fired. 



<S ♦ ( turning of Age 




And the voice was about to move on when the boy, startled, 
touched the drum at his elbow. The man above, hearing this, stopped. 
The boy could feel his eyes, sense him slowly bending near. A hand 
must have come down out of the night, for there was a little rat-tat as 
the fingernails brushed and the man's breath fanned his face. 

"Why, it's the drummer boy, isn't it?" 

The boy nodded, not knowing if his nod was seen. "Sir, is that 
you?" he said. 

"I assume it is." The man's knees cracked as he bent still closer. 

He smelled as all fathers should smell, of salt sweat, ginger 
tobacco, horse and boot leather, and the earth he walked upon. He 
had many eyes. No, not eyes — brass buttons that watched the boy. 

He could only be, and was, the general. 

"What's your name, boy?" he asked. 

"Joby," whispered the boy, starting to sit up. 

"All right, Joby, don't stir." A hand pressed his chest gently, and 
the boy relaxed. "How long you been with us, Joby?" 

"Three weeks, sir." 



^ Critical Viewing 

Does the drummer boy 
in this photograph seem 
to want to "hide inside 
himself"? Explain. 
[Assess] 



tr Reading Check 

What is the boy thinking 
about as he lies in the 
orchard? 



The Drummei BoyofShiloh ♦ V 



98 



"Run off from home or joined legitimately, boy?" 

Silence. 

"Fool question," said the general. "Do you shave yet 
boy? Even more of a fool. There's your cheek, fell right off 
the tree overhead. And the others here not much older. 
Raw, raw, the lot of you. You ready for tomorrow or the 
next day, Joby?" 

"I think so, sir." 

"You want to cry some more, go on ahead. I did the same 
last night." 

"You, sir?" 

"It's the truth. Thinking of everything ahead. Both sides 
figuring the other side will just give up, and soon, and the 
war done in weeks, and us all home. Well, that's not how 
it's going to be. And maybe that's why I cried." 

"Yes, sir," said Joby. 

The general must have taken out a cigar 
now, for the dark was suddenly filled with 
the smell of tobacco unlit as yet, but 
chewed as the man thought what next 
to say. 

"It's going to be a crazy time," said the 
general. "Counting both sides, there's a 
hundred thousand men, give or take a few 
thousand out there tonight, not one as can 
spit a sparrow off a tree, or knows a horse 
clod from a Minie ball. Stand up, bare the 
breast, ask to be a target, thank them and 
sit down, that's us, that's them. We should 
turn tail and train four months, they 
should do the same. But here we are, 
taken with spring fever and thinking it 
blood lust, taking our sulfur with cannons 
instead of with molasses, as it should be, 

going to be a hero, going to live forever. And I can see all ^^^^ 
of them over there nodding agreement, save the other way 
around. It's wrong, boy, it's wrong as a head put on hindside front 
and a man marching backward through life. More innocents will 
get shot out of pure enthusiasm than ever got shot before. Owl 
Creek was full of boys splashing around in the noonday sun just a 
few hours ago. I fear it will be full of boys again, just floating, at 
sundown tomorrow, not caring where the tide takes them." 

The general stopped and made a little pile of winter leaves and 
twigs in the darkness, as if he might at any moment strike fire to 
them to see his way through the coming days when the sun might 
not show its face because of what was happening here and just 
beyond. 



iterature 



III COnteXt Social Studies Connection 



Battle of Shiloh 

The Battle of Shiloh took place 
when a southern Confederate army 
unexpectedly struck Union forces 
commanded by General Ulysses S. 
Grant on April 6, 1862, near Shiloh 
Church in Tennessee. The North won 
the battle on April 7. Of the nearly 
100,000 men involved, about 13,000 
Union soldiers and 10,000 Confederate 
soldiers were killed, wounded, or 
captured. It was the bloodiest single 
battle that had taken place in the 
United States up to that time. 




( 



V 



Choosing Sides in the Civil War 



_J Union slates 

| Confederate states 



stayed in the Union 
States that joined the 
Confederacy after April 1861 



10 ♦ Coming of Age 



The boy watched the hand stirring the leaves and opened his 
lips to say something, but did not say it. The general heard the 
boy's breath and spoke himself. 

"Why am I telling you this? That's what you wanted to ask, eh? 
Well, when you got a bunch of wild horses on a loose rein some- 
where, somehow you got to bring order, rein them in. These lads, 
fresh out of the milkshed, don't know what I know, and I can't tell 
them: men actually die, in war. So each is his own army. I got to 
make one army of them. And for that, boy, I need you." 

"Me!" The boy's lips barely twitched. 

"Now, boy," said the general quietly, "you are the heart of the 
army. Think of that. You're the heart of the army. Listen, now." 

And, lying there, Joby listened. And the general spoke on. 

If he, Joby, beat slow tomorrow, the heart would beat slow in 
the men. They would lag by the wayside. They would drowse in the 
fields on their muskets. They would sleep forever, after that, in 
those same fields — their hearts slowed by a drummer boy and 
stopped by enemy lead. 

But if he beat a sure, steady, ever faster rhythm, then, then 
their knees would come up in a long line down over that hill, one 
knee after the other, like a wave on the ocean shore! Had he seen 
the ocean ever? Seen the waves rolling in like a well-ordered cavalry 
charge to the sand? Well, that was it, that's what he wanted, that's 
what was needed! Joby was his right hand and his left. He gave 
the orders, but Joby set the pace! 

So bring the right knee up and the right foot out and the left 
knee up and the left foot out. One following the other in good time, 
in brisk time. Move the blood up the body and make the head 
proud and the spine stiff and the jaw resolute . Focus the eye and 
set the teeth, flare the nostrils and tighten the hands, put steel 
armor all over the men, for blood moving fast in them does indeed 
make men feel as if they'd put on steel. He must keep at it, at it! 
Long and steady, steady and long! Then, even though shot or torn, 
those wounds got in hot blood — in blood he'd helped stir — would 
feel less pain. If their blood was cold, it would be more than 
slaughter, it would be murderous nightmare and pain best not told 
and no one to guess. 

The general spoke and stopped, letting his breath slack off. 
Then, after a moment, he said, "So there you are, that's it. Will 
you do that, boy? Do you know now you're general of the army 
when the general's left behind?" 

The boy nodded mutely. 

"You'll run them through for me then, boy?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Good. And, maybe, many nights from tonight, many years from 
now, when you're as old or far much older than me, when they ask 
you what you did in this awful time, you will tell them — one part 



Literary Analysis 
Historical Setting and 
Mood Find two historical 
details that help create 
a positive mood. 



resolute (rez' a loot) adj. 
showing a firm purpose; 
determined 



^Reading Check 

What does the drummer 
boy promise to do? 



The Drummer Boy oj Shiloh ♦ 1 1 



humble and one part proud — 'I was the drummer boy at the battle 
of Owl Creek,' or the Tennessee River, or maybe they'll just name it 
after the church there. 'I was the drummer boy at Shiloh.' Good 
grief, that has a beat and sound to it fitting for Mr. Longfellow. 'I 
was the drummer boy at Shiloh.' Who will ever hear those words 
and not know you, boy, or what you thought this night, or what 
you'll think tomorrow or the next day when we must get up on our 
legs and move!" 

The general stood up. "Well, then. Bless you, boy. Good night." 

"Good night, sir." And tobacco, brass, boot polish, salt sweat 
and leather, the man moved away through the grass. 

Joby lay for a moment, staring but unable to see where the man 
had gone. He swallowed. He wiped his eyes. He cleared his throat. 
He settled himself. Then, at last, very slowly and firmly, he turned 
the drum so that it faced up toward the sky. 

He lay next to it, his arm around it, feeling the tremor, the 
touch, the muted thunder as, all the rest of the April night in the 
year 1862, near the Tennessee River, not far from the Owl 
Creek, very close to the church named Shiloh, the peach 
blossoms fell on the drum. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think Joby should have enlisted as a 
drummer boy? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: What frightens Joby about the upcoming battle? 
(b) Compare and Contrast: How are his fears like and unlike 
those of the other soldiers? (c) Compare and Contrast: In 
what other ways are Joby and the soldiers alike and not alike? 

3. (a) Recall: What is Joby doing when the general stops to 
talk to him? (b) Infer: Why do you think the general stops 
to talk to Joby? 

4. (a) Recall: Why does the general say he needs Joby? 
(b) Evaluate: Is the drummer boy's role as crucial as the 
general says? Explain. 

5. (a) Recall: What does Joby agree to do for the general at the 
end of the story? (b) Draw Conclusions: How do you think 
Joby feels after his talk with the general? Explain. 

6. (a) Speculate: Do you think the general has motivated Joby 
to keep his promise? Why or why not? (b) Make a Judgment: 
Is the general's request fair or unfair to Joby? Explain. 




Ray Bradbun 



(b. 1920) 

Ray Bradbury 
grew up in 
Waukegan, 
Illinois, and 
later moved 
with his family 
to California. 
As a teenager, he read 
science fiction stories and 
soon began writing his 
own. The young writer 
eventually became an 
award-winning science 
fiction author, known 
for such works as The 
Martian Chronicles. 

Bradbury wrote this story 
after reading the death 
notice of an actor whose 
grandfather had been "the 
drummer boy of Shiloh." 
This phrase inspired him 
to write his tale. To paint 
an accurate description of 
the setting, he went to the 
Los Angeles library before 
writing and did research 
on the weather conditions 
during the Battle of Shiloh. 



I 2 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Historical Setting 

1. Describe the historical setting of "The Drummer Boy of Shiloh." 

2. (a) What are three details from the story that tell where the story is 
set? (b) What are three details that tell when the story takes place? 
Record these details on a chart like the one below. 



Details that show time 



Details that show place 



3. In what way does the setting reveal what happens after the story ends? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Describe the mood of the story. 

5. What details of the setting help create the mood? 



Reading Strategy 



Finding Word Meaning in Context 

6. Write the following sentences. Circle the word or words in each 
sentence that give clues to the meaning of the italicized word. 



a. . . . You will tell them — one part humble and one part 
proud — "I was the drummer boy. . ." 

b. Make the head proud and the spine stiff and the jaw resolute. 







7. Explain how making a contrast between the italicized parts of the 
sentence helps you find the meaning of legitimately. 

Run off from home or joined legitimately, boy? 



Extend Understanding 



8. Social Studies Connection: What arc two additional details of 
clothing, transportation, or forms of communication that Bradbury 
might have used to reinforce the Civil War setting? 



Quick Review 

A historical setting is an 

actual time and place from 
history in which the events 
of a narrative occur. To 
review historical setting, 
see page 5. 



Mood is the overall feeling 
or atmosphere of a literary 
work. To review mood, see 
page 5. 



The context of a word is the 
situation in which it is used, 
including the surrounding 
words, sentences, and 
paragraphs. To review 
context, see page 5. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



The Drummer Boy oj Shiloh ♦ 13 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Root -bene- Concept Development: Synonyms 



The Latin word root -bene- means "well" or 
"good." It appears in each of these English words 
that name or describe something good: 

benediction beneficial 
benevolence benefit 

Write one word from the list to complete 
each sentence. Use a dictionary to check your 
answers. 

1. The general's visit to Joby was ? 
because it raised Joby's spirits. 

2. The young, inexperienced soldier appreci- 
ated the general's kindness and ? 

3. Before he left, the general gave a ? 
or blessing, to Joby. 

4. The general believes Joby's drumbeat can 

? the army. 



On your paper, write the word closest in 
meaning to the first word. 

1. riveted (a) fastened (b) drilled (c) split 

2. compounded (a) flattened (b) guarded 
(c) mixed 

3. resolute (a) determined (b) absolute 
(c) calm 

4. benediction (a) curse (b) wealth 
(c) blessing 

Spelling Strategy 

When you add -ed to a two-syllable word, do 
not double the final consonant if the stress is on 
the first syllable: 

riv'et + -ed = riveted 

On your paper, add -ed to the following verbs: 
1. travel 2. hinder 3. 



savor 



Grammar Lesson 

Nouns ► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise A. 

A noun names a person, animal, place, thing, Practice Copy the sentences. Underline each 
or idea. All sentences contain at least one noun. noun. 

1. Fear kept the young drummer boy awake. 

2. A moth gently brushed against his face. 

3. The anxious soldiers dreamed of battles. 

4. Raw youth was their protection. 

5. The fears kept Joby awake. 

Writing Application Write four sentences using 
nouns that 



Person 
Thing 


boy, general, Joby 


book, snow, branch, Liberty Bell 


Animal 


bird, macaw, Tweety 


Idea 


freedom, age, silence 


Place 


field, Shiloh, Owl Creek 



A noun can be singular (one individual thing), 
plural (more than one individual thing), or collec- 
tive (a group of things acting as a single unit). 




soldier, person 
soldiers, people 
army, assembly 



• give the specific name of a place. 

• name more than one animal. 

• name an idea. 

• name a group of people acting as a unit. 



y\A Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 14, Section 1 



J 4 ♦ Coming of Age 



Writing Lesson 

Letter Home from a Soldier 

Write a letter as Joby about the night before the battle. Include details 
about Joby's feelings as well as other facts you know about the Civil War. 

Prewriting Gather details about Joby's feelings and observations 
by completing a character wheel like the one shown 
here. Fill each section with details from the story that 
match the section label. 

Drafting Write your letter as Joby, using the first-person pronoun 

I to refer to yourself as Joby. Balance your original ideas about Joby's 
thoughts and feelings with details you gather from the story. 





Model: Balancing Details 

Details from Story 

Setting 
Fears 



Original Ideas 

Joby's reaction to setting 
Why he fears 



% 



Revising Reread your draft, eliminating repeated nouns by using 
synonyms — words that have almost the same meaning. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4, Section 3 

Extension Activities 



Research and Technology Prepare a Civil 
War "photo album" of scenes Joby could 
have witnessed. 

• Use a search engine to do an Internet 
key word search using Shiloh or another 
battle site. 

• Search the Library of Congress site using 
key words as well. 

Download any available photos of people, 
battles, or documents. Choose the ones that will 
bring Joby's experiences to life. Label each 
picture with captions that reflect what Joby 
might have thought or written about the picture. 



Listening and Speaking With a partner, debate 
this proposition: An age requirement should be 
established for joining the army as a drummer boy. 

• Prepare notes in favor of or against it. 

• Take notes on supporting facts and statistics. 

• As you listen to your opponent, make addi- 
tional notes about which points you want 
to stress in your answer. [Group Activity] 



JH 

Go o 

using the Internet. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 



The Drummer Boy of Shiloh ♦ /5 



CONNECTIONS 

Literature and Social Studies 



K. 



The Civil War in Literature 




Fiction writers Ray Bradbury and Stephen Crane each use an individual character 
to communicate the feelings and experiences shared by hundreds and thousands who 
fought in the Civil War. 

Bradbury includes realistic details in "The Drummer Boy of Shiloh," but his 
main focus is on creating sympathetic characters. Stephen Crane, who was born 
five years after the Civil War ended, is famous for the realism of his Civil War 
stories. He focuses on the war's effect on a character, more than on the character's 
thoughts and feelings. 



Afl Episode of War Stephen Crane 



The lieutenant's rubber blanket lay on the ground, and upon it he 
had poured the company's supply of coffee. Corporals and other rep- 
resentatives of the grimy and hot- throated men who lined the breast- 
work 1 had come for each squad's portion. 

The lieutenant was frowning and serious at this task of division. 
His lips pursed as he drew with his sword various crevices in the 
heap, until brown squares of coffee, astoundingly equal in size, 
appeared on the blanket. He was on the verge of a great triumph in 
mathematics, and the corporals were thronging forward, each to 
reap a little square, when suddenly the lieutenant cried out and 
looked quickly at a man near him as if he suspected it was a case 
of personal assault. The others cried out also when they saw 
blood upon the lieutenant's sleeve. 

He had winced like a man stung, swayed dangerously, and then 
straightened. The sound of his hoarse breathing was plainly audi- 
ble. He looked sadly, mystically, over the breast- work at the green 
face of a wood, where now were many little puffs of white smoke. 
During this moment the men about him gazed statuelike and 
silent, astonished and awed by this catastrophe which happened 
when catastrophes were not expected — when they had leisure to 
observe it. 

1. breast-work low wall put up quickly as a defense in battle. 

► Critical Viewing What does this picture indicate about medical care on the 
battlefield? [Analyze] 




! 6 ♦ Coming of Age 



As the lieutenant stared at the wood, they too swung their heads, 
so that for another instant all hands, still silent, contemplated the 
distant forest as if their minds were fixed upon the mystery of a bul- 
let's journey. 

The officer had, of course, been compelled to take his sword into 
his left hand. He did not hold it by the hilt. He gripped it at the mid- 
dle of the blade, awkwardly. Turning his eyes from the hostile wood, 
he looked at the sword as he held it there, and seemed puzzled as to 
what to do with it, where to put it. In short, this weapon had of a 
sudden become a strange thing to him. He looked at it in a kind of 
stupefaction, as if he had been endowed with a trident, a sceptre, or 
a spade. 2 

Finally he tried to sheathe it. To sheathe a sword held by the left 
hand, at the middle of the blade, in a scabbard hung at the left hip, 
is a feat worthy of a sawdust ring. 3 This wounded officer engaged in a 
desperate struggle with the sword and the wobbling scabbard, and 
during the time of it breathed like a wrestler. 

But at this instant the men, the spectators, awoke from their 
stone-like poses and crowded forward sympathetically. The 
orderly-sergeant took the sword and tenderly placed it in the scab- 
bard. At the time, he leaned nervously backward, and did not allow 
even his finger to brush the body of the lieutenant. A wound gives 
strange dignity to him who bears it. Well men shy from his new and 
terrible majesty. It is as if the wounded man's hand is upon the cur- 
tain which hangs before the revelations of all existence — the meaning 
of ants, potentates, 4 wars, cities, sunshine, snow, a feather dropped 
from a bird's wing; and the power of it sheds radiance upon a bloody 
form, and makes the other men understand sometimes that they are 
little. His comrades look at him with large eyes thoughtfully. 
Moreover, they fear vaguely that the weight of a finger upon him 
might send him headlong, precipitate the tragedy, hurl him at once 
into the dim, grey unknown. And so the orderly-sergeant, while 
sheathing the sword, leaned nervously backward. 

There were others who proffered assistance. One timidly presented 
his shoulder and asked the lieutenant if he cared to lean upon it, but 
the latter waved him away mournfully. He wore the look of one who 
knows he is the victim of a terrible disease and understands his 
helplessness. He again stared over the breast-work at the forest, and 
then, turning, went slowly rearward. He held his right wrist tenderly 
in his left hand as if the wounded arm was made of very brittle glass. 

And the men in silence stared at the wood, then at the departing 
lieutenant; then at the wood, then at the lieutenant. 

As the wounded officer passed from the line of battle, he was 



Thematic Connection 

How and why does the 
lieutenant's attitude 
toward his weapon 
change? 



precipitate (pre sip' a tat) 
v. cause to happen before 
expected or desired 



t/jReading Check 

What has happened to 
the lieutenant? 



2. a trident, a sceptre, or a spade (trid' ant; sep' tar) symbols of royal authority. 

3. sawdust ring ring in which circus acts are performed. 

4. potentates (pot' an tats) n. rulers; powerful people. 



An Episode of War ♦ 17 



tbled to see many things which as a participant in the fight were 
unknown to him. He saw a general on a black horse gazing over the 
lines of blue infantry at the green woods which veiled his problems. 
An aide galloped furiously, dragged his horse suddenly to a halt, 
saluted, and presented a paper. It was, for a wonder, precisely like a 
historical painting. 

To the rear of the general and his staff a group, composed of a 
bugler, two or three orderlies, and the bearer of the corps standard, 5 
all upon maniacal horses, were working like slaves to hold their 
ground, preserve their respectful interval, while the shells boomed in 
the air about them, and caused their chargers to make furious quiv- 
ering leaps. 

A battery, a tumultuous and shining mass, was swirling toward 
the right. The wild thud of hoofs, the cries of the riders shouting 
blame and praise, menace and encouragement, and, last, the roar 
of the wheels, the slant of the glistening guns, brought the lieutenant 
to an intent pause. The battery swept in curves that stirred the 
heart; it made halts as dramatic as the crash of a wave on the 
rocks, and when it fled onward this aggregation of wheels, levers, 
motors had a beautiful unity, as if it were a missile. The sound of it 
was a war-chorus that reached into the depths of man's emotion. 

The lieutenant, still holding his arm as if it were of glass, stood 
watching this battery until all detail of it was lost, save the figures of 
the riders, which rose and fell and waved lashes over the black mass. 

Later, he turned his eyes toward the battle, where the shooting 
sometimes crackled like bush-fires, sometimes sputtered with exas- 
perating irregularity, and sometimes reverberated like the thunder. 
He saw the smoke rolling upward and saw crowds of men who ran 
and cheered, or stood and blazed away at the inscrutable distance. 

He came upon some stragglers, and they told him how to find the 
field hospital. They described its exact location. In fact, these men, 
no longer having part in the battle, knew more of it than others. They 
told the performance of every corps, every division, the opinion of 
every general. The lieutenant, carrying his wounded arm rearward, 
looked upon them with wonder. 

At the roadside a brigade was making coffee and buzzing with talk 
like a girls' boarding-school. Several officers came out to him and 
inquired concerning things of which he knew nothing. One, seeing 
his arm, began to scold. "Why, man, that's no way to do. You want to 
fix that thing." He appropriated the lieutenant and the lieutenant's 
wound. He cut the sleeve and laid bare the arm, every nerve of which 
softly fluttered under his touch. He bound his handkerchief over the 
wound, scolding away in the meantime. His tone allowed one to think 
that he was in the habit of being wounded every day. The lieutenant 



Thematic Connection 

Why wouldn't the 
lieutenant normally notice 
these details? 



aggregation 

(ag' gra ga' shan) n. group 
or mass of distinct 
objects or individuals 



inscrutable (in skroot' a bsl) 
adj. impossible to see or 
understand 



Thematic Connection 

What does this incident 
suggest about the kind of 
medical care Civil War 
soldiers received? 



5. corps standard (kor) flag or banner representing a military unit. 



1 8 ♦ Coming of Age 



hung his head, feeling, in this presence, that he did not know how to 
be correctly wounded. 

The low white tents of the hospital were grouped around an old 
schoolhouse. There was here a singular commotion. In the fore- 
ground two ambulances interlocked wheels in the deep mud. The 
drivers were tossing the blame of it back and forth, gesticulating and 
berating, while from the ambulances, both crammed with wounded, 
there came an occasional groan. An interminable crowd of bandaged 
men were coming and going. Great numbers sat under the trees 
nursing heads or arms or legs. There was a dispute of some kind 
raging on the steps of the schoolhouse. Sitting with his back against 
a tree a man with a face as grey as a new army blanket was serenely 
smoking a corncob pipe. The lieutenant wished to rush forward and 
inform him that he was dying. 

A busy surgeon was passing near the lieutenant. "Good-morning," 
he said, with a friendly smile. Then he caught sight of the lieu- 
tenant's arm, and his face at once changed. "Well, let's have a look at 
it." He seemed possessed suddenly of a great contempt for the lieu- 
tenant. This wound evidently placed the latter on a very low social 
plane. The doctor cried out impatiently, "What mutton-head had tied 
it up that way anyhow?" The lieutenant answered, "Oh, a man." 

When the wound was disclosed the doctor fingered it disdainfully. 
"Humph," he said. "You come along with me and I'll 'tend to you." 
His voice contained the same scorn as if he were saying: "You will 
have to go to jail." 

The lieutenant had been very meek, but now his face flushed, 
and he looked into the doctor's eyes. "I guess I won't have it 
amputated," he said. 

"Nonsense, man! Nonsense! Nonsense!" cried the doctor. "Come 
along, now. I won't amputate it. Come along. Don't be a baby." 

"Let go of me," said the lieutenant, holding back wrathfully, his 
glance fixed upon the door of the old schoolhouse, as sinister to 
him as the portals of death. 

And this is the story of how the lieutenant lost his arm. When he 
reached home, his sisters, his mother, his wife, sobbed for a long 
time at the sight of the flat sleeve. "Oh, well," he said, standing 
shamefaced amid these tears, "I don't suppose it matters so much as 
all that." 



Connecting Literature and Social Studies 



1 . In what ways is this story similar to and different from "The 
Drummer Boy of Shiloh"? 

2. How do the two stories together give you a more complete pic- 
ture of the Civil War experience than either story can give alone? 




Stephen Crane 



(1871-1900) 

The son 
of a minis- 
ter, Crane 
grew up in 
New Jersey 
and 

attended 
Syracuse 
University. After playing 
baseball in college, Crane 
seriously considered 
becoming a shortstop in 
the newly formed National 
League. He decided instead 
that he wanted to be a 
writer. He became interna- 
tionally famous as a writer 
of stories so realistic that 
they seemed to be true. His 
novel The Red Badge of 
Courage is considered one 
of the best war novels ever 
written by an American. 



An Episode of War ♦ 19 



Prepare to Read 



Charles 





*v ^\ifo) As you read 
\d^ this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



Beginning school is often a time of difficult adjustment for children. 
In kindergarten, children learn social skills as well as academic lessons. 
For the characters in this story, the adjustment to a school situation is 
made interesting and exciting by a boy named Charles. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading Standard 1.2 Understand the most important points in the history of the 
English language and use common word origins to determine the historical influences 
on English word meanings. (Introduced In Reading Strategy and Vocabulary Lesson) 
Writing Standard 1.1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have 
a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion. (Introduced in 
the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Developed in the 
Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 1.3 Organize information to achieve particular purposes by 
matching the message, vocabulary, voice modulation, expression, and tone to the audi- 
ence and purpose. (Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



20 ♦ Coming of Age 



MHMMHK 



mnmm 



Literary Analysis 

Point of View 

The perspective from which a story is told is its point of view. A story 
can be told from one of two overall points of view. 

• First person: The narrator participates in the action of the story 
and can tell only what he or she sees, knows, thinks, or feels. 

• Third person: The narrator is not a character in the story but tells 
events from the "outside." 

"Charles" is told from the first-person point of view. Think about the 
following focus questions as you read "Charles." 

1. In what way does the first-person point of view increase your 
curiosity about the boy Charles? 

2. In what ways would the story be different if Laurie were the first- 
person narrator? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Dialogue is conversation between characters. In stories, novels, and 
poems, a speaker's exact words in dialogue are set off by quotation marks. 

"Why did Charles hit the teacher?" I asked quickly. 

As you read, notice what you learn about Charles from dialogue. On a 
graphic organizer like the one shown here, write words that each charac- 
ter uses and what you think the words mean. 

Reading Strategy 

Identifying Word Origins 

In the sixth century, Latin-speaking missionaries arrived in England. Their 
Latin words soon mixed with the Anglo-Saxon language of England. As a 
result, many current English words or word parts have Latin word origins. 

• sim ulate: sim- means "together with" 

• regain: re- means "back" or "again" 

• in cred ible: cred- means "believe" 

Knowing the origins of words can help you recognize that words with 
the same origins or parts often have related meanings. Look for the words 
in the story that have the parts explained above. 

Vocabulary Development 

renounced (ri nounsf) v. gave up (p. 22) simultaneously (si" mal ta' ne as le) 

insolently (in' sa lent le) adv. boldly CiAv - ;lt the same time (p. 24) 

disrespectful in speech or behavior incredulously (in krej' oo las le) adv. 

(p. 22) with doubt or disbelief (p. 25) 



r 
Character's 


Meaning 


Words 




"Throw him 


Laurie thinks 


out of school, 


students who 


1 guess." 


misbehave are 




kicked out of 




school. 


"This Charles 




boy sounds 




like a bad 




influence." 





Charles ♦ 21 



J^hirie 



u 




T 

-I- he day my son Laurie started 
kindergarten he renounced corduroy 
overalls with bibs and began wearing 
blue jeans with a belt; I watched him go 
off the first morning with the older girl next 
door, seeing clearly that an era of my life was 
ended, my sweet- voiced nursery- school tot 
replaced by a long- trousered, swaggering 1 character 
who forgot to stop at the corner and wave good-bye to me. 

He came home the same way, the front door slamming open, his 
cap on the floor, and the voice suddenly become raucous 2 shouting, 
"Isn't anybody here?" 

At lunch he spoke insolently to his father, spilled his baby sister's 
milk, and remarked that his teacher said we were not to take the 
name of the Lord in vain. 

"How was school today?" I asked, elaborately casual. 

"All right," he said. 

"Did you learn anything?" his father asked. 

Laurie regarded his father coldly. "I didn't learn nothing," he said. 

"Anything,'' I said. "Didn't learn anything." 

"The teacher spanked a boy, though," Laurie said, addressing his 
bread and butter. "For being fresh," he added, with his mouth full. 

"What did he do?" I asked. "Who was it?" 

Laurie thought. "It was Charles," he said. "He was fresh. The 
teacher spanked him and made him stand in a corner. He was 
awfully fresh." 

"What did he do?" I asked again, but Laurie slid off his chair, 

1. swaggering (swag' er irj) v. strutting; walking with a bold step. 

2. raucous (ro' kes) adj. harsh, rough-sounding. 



renounced (ri nounsf) v. 
gave up 

insolently (in' se lent le) 
adv. boldly disrespectful 
in speech or behavior 



22 ♦ Coming of Age 



took a cookie, and left, while his father was still saying, "See here, 
young man." 

The next day Laurie remarked at lunch, as soon as he sat down, 
"Well, Charles was bad again today." He grinned enormously and 
said, "Today Charles hit the teacher." 

"Good heavens," I said, mindful of the Lord's name, "I suppose 
he got spanked again?" 

"He sure did," Laurie said. "Look up," he said to his father. 

"What?" his father said, looking up. 

"Look down," Laurie said. "Look at my thumb. Gee, you're 
dumb." He began to laugh insanely. 

"Why did Charles hit the teacher?" I asked quickly. 

"Because she tried to make him color with red crayons," Laurie 
said. "Charles wanted to color with green crayons so he hit the 
teacher and she spanked him and said nobody play with Charles 
but everybody did." 

The third day — it was Wednesday of the first week — Charles 
bounced a see-saw on to the head of a little girl and made her 
bleed, and the teacher made him stay inside all during recess. 
Thursday Charles had to stand in a corner during story-time 
because he kept pounding his feet on the floor. Friday Charles was 
deprived of blackboard privileges because he threw chalk. 

On Saturday I remarked to my husband, "Do you think kinder- 
garten is too unsettling for Laurie? All this toughness, and bad 
grammar, and this Charles boy sounds like such a bad influence." 

"It'll be all right," my husband said reassuringly. "Bound to be peo- 
ple like Charles in the world. Might as well meet them now as later." 

On Monday Laurie came home late, full of news. "Charles," he 
shouted as he came up the hill; I was waiting anxiously on the 
front steps. "Charles," Laurie yelled all the way up the hill, 
"Charles was bad again." 

"Come right in," I said, as soon as he came close enough. 
"Lunch is waiting." 

"You know what Charles did?" he demanded, following me 
through the door. "Charles yelled so in school they sent a boy in 
from first grade to tell the teacher she had to make Charles keep 
quiet, and so Charles had to stay after school. And so all the chil- 
dren stayed to watch him." 

"What did he do?" I asked. 

"He just sat there," Laurie said, climbing into his chair at the table. 
"Hi, Pop, y'old dust mop." 

"Charles had to stay after school today," I told my husband. 
"Everyone stayed with him." 

What does this Charles look like?" my husband asked Laurie. 
"What's his other name?" 

"He's bigger than me," Laurie said. "And he doesn't have any 



Reading Strategy 
Identify Word Origins 

What Latin word part is 
used at the beginning of 
reassuringly? 



^Reading Check 

What does Laurie tell his 
parents about Charles? 



Charles ♦ 2.1 



rubbers and he doesn't ever wear a jacket." 

Monday night was the first Parent -Teachers meeting, and only the 
fact that the baby had a cold kept me from going; I wanted passion- 
ately to meet Charles's mother. On Tuesday Laurie remarked sud- 
denly, "Our teacher had a friend come to see her in school today." 

"Charles's mother?" my husband and I asked simultaneously . 

"Naaah," Laurie said scornfully. "It was a man who came and 
made us do exercises, we had to touch our toes. Look." He climbed 
down from his chair and squatted down and touched his toes. "Like 
this," he said. He got solemnly back into his chair and said, picking 
up his fork, "Charles didn't even do exercises." 

"That's fine," I said heartily. "Didn't Charles want to do exercises?" 

"Naaah," Laurie said. "Charles was so fresh to the teacher's friend 
he wasn't let do exercises." 

"Fresh again?" I said. 

"He kicked the teacher's friend," Laurie said. "The teacher's 
friend told Charles to touch his toes like I just did and Charles 
kicked him." 

"What are they going to do about Charles, do you suppose?" 
Laurie's father asked him. 

Laurie shrugged elaborately. 'Throw him out of school, I guess," 
he said. 

Wednesday and Thursday were routine; Charles yelled during story 
hour and hit a boy in the stomach and made him cry. On Friday 
Charles stayed after school again and so did all the other children. 

With the third week of kindergarten Charles was an institution 
in our family; the baby was being a Charles when she cried all 
afternoon; Laurie did a Charles when he filled his wagon full of 
mud and pulled it through the kitchen; even my husband, when 
he caught his elbow in the telephone cord and pulled the tele- 
phone, ashtray, and a bowl of flowers off the table, said, after the 
first minute, "Looks like Charles." 



> Critical Viewing 

Examine the expression 
on these children's faces 
Which of them might 
have a personality like 
that of Charles? 
[Connect] 



simultaneously 

(sr mal ta ne as le) adv. 
at the same time 



24 ♦ Coming of Age 




During the third and fourth weeks it looked like a reformation in 
Charles; Laurie reported grimly at lunch on Thursday of the third 
week, "Charles was so good today the teacher gave him an apple." 

"What?" I said, and my husband added- warily, "You mean 
Charles?" 

"Charles," Laurie said. "He gave the crayons around and he picked 
up the books afterward and the teacher, said he was her helper." 

"What happened?" I asked incredulously . 

"He was her helper, that's all," Laurie said, and shrugged. 

"Can this be true, about Charles?" I asked my husband that 
night. "Can something like this happen?" 

"Wait and see," my husband said cynically. 3 "When you've got a 
Charles to deal with, this may mean he's only plotting." He seemed 
to be wrong. For over a week Charles was the teacher's helper; 
each day he handed things out and he picked things up; no one 
had to stay after school. 

"The PTA meeting's next week again," I told my husband one 
evening. "I'm going to find Charles's mother there." 

"Ask her what happened to Charles," my husband said. "I'd like 
to know." 

"I'd like to know myself," I said. 

On Friday of that week things were back to normal. "You know 
what Charles did today?" Laurie demanded at the lunch table, in 
a voice slightly awed. "He told a little girl to say a word and she 
said it and the teacher washed her mouth out with soap and 
Charles laughed." 

"What word?" his father asked unwisely, and Laurie said, "I'll 
have to whisper it to you, it's so bad." He got down off his chair 
and went around to his father. His father bent his head down and 
Laurie whispered joyfully. His father's eyes widened. 

"Did Charles tell the little girl to say that?" he asked respectfully. 

"She said it twice" Laurie said. "Charles told her to say it twice." 

"What happened to Charles?" my husband asked. 

"Nothing," Laurie said. "He was passing out the crayons." 

Monday morning Charles abandoned the little girl and said the evil 
word himself three or four times, getting his mouth washed out with 
soap each time. He also threw chalk. 

My husband came to the door with me that evening as I set out 
for the PTA meeting. "Invite her over for a cup of tea after the 
meeting," he said. "I want to get a look at her." 

"If only she's there," I said prayerfully. 

"She'll be there," my husband said. "I don't see how they could 
hold a PTA meeting without Charles's mother." 

At the meeting I sat restlessly, scanning each comfortable 
matronly face, trying to determine which one hid the secret of 

3. cynically (sin' i kle) adv. with disbelief as to the sincerity of people's intentions or actions. 



Reading Strategy 
Identify Word Origins 

If the word root -form- 
means "shape" or "form," 
what do you think the 
word reformation means? 



incredulously 

(in krej' oo las le) adv. with 
doubt or disbelief 



^Reading Check 

How does Laurie's family 
respond to his stories 
about Charles? 



Charles ♦ 25 



Charles. None of them looked to me haggard enough. No one stood 
up in the meeting and apologized for the way her son had been 
acting. No one mentioned Charles. 

After the meeting I identified and sought out Laurie's kindergarten 
teacher. She had a plate with a cup of tea and a piece of chocolate 
cake; I had a plate with a cup of tea and a piece of marshmallow 
cake. We maneuvered 4 up to one another cautiously, and smiled. 

"I've been so anxious to meet you," I said. "I'm Laurie's mother." 

"We're all so interested in Laurie," she said. 

"Well, he certainly likes kindergarten," I said. "He talks about 
it all the time." 

"We had a little trouble adjusting, the first week or so," she said 

primly, "but now he's a fine little helper. With occasional lapses, 

of course." 

* 
"Laurie usually adjusts very quickly," I said. "I suppose this time 

it's Charles's influence." 

"Charles?" 

"Yes," I said, laughing, "you must have your hands full in that 
kindergarten, with Charles." 

"Charles?" she said. "We don't have any Charles in the 
kindergarten." 

4. maneuvered (ma noo' vard) v. moved in a planned way. 



Review and Assess 

Think About the Selection 

1. Respond: Were you surprised to learn that Charles and Laurie 
were the same person? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Describe the change in Laurie's clothing on the day 
he starts school, (b) Infer: Why does he make this change? 

3. (a) Recall: Give three examples of Charles's behavior at 
school, (b) Recall: Give three examples of Laurie's behavior at 
home, (c) Compare and Contrast: How is Charles's behavior at 
school similar to and different from Laurie's behavior at home? 

4. (a) Recall: Who is Charles? (b) Infer: Why do you think 
Laurie invented Charles? (c) Speculate: How do you think 
Laurie will react after his parents learn his secret? 

5. (a) Recall: What does Laurie suggest will happen to Charles? 
(b) Infer: Why does Laurie misbehave in school? (c) Draw 
Conclusions: Why does Laurie begin to cooperate at school? 

6. Evaluate: What should Laurie's mother say to him after she 
meets his teacher and learns the truth? 




Shirley Jackson 



(1919-1965) 

As the mother 
of four energetic 
children, 
Shirley Jackson 
once said that she 
wrote because 
"It's the only 
chance I get to sit down." 
As a writer, she produced 
mainly two types of 
stories — spine-tingling 
tales of supernatural events 
and hilarious stories about 
daily life. 

Like many other writers, 
Jackson borrowed real 
characters and events from 
her own life and enlarged 
them in her fictional sto- 
ries. The main character in 
"Charles," for example, is 
modeled on Jackson's son 
Laurie. Among her family- 
inspired books are the fic- 
tionalized memoirs Life 
Among the Savages (1953) 
and Raising Demons (1957). 



26 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Point of View 

1. In what way does the first-person point of view increase your 
curiosity about the boy Charles? Explore the question by filling out 
a graphic organizer like the one below. 




2. In what ways would the story be different if Laurie were the first- 
person narrator? 

3. How does the first-person point of view help make the ending a surprise? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Whose words reveal that Charles is Laurie? 

5. Identify two examples of dialogue in which Laurie gives a hint that 
he is Charles. 

Reading Strategy 

Identify Word Origins 

6. Complete a chart like the one shown here to identify the origins of 
words found in the story. 



r i 
Word From Other Words with Shared Origin and Meaning 

Story Same Origin Word Part of Shared Word Part 


renounce 


announce, pronounce, 
denounce 


nounce 


Latin nuntius, 
"messenger" 


simultaneously 


simulate, similar 






influence 


fluctuate, fluent 




^ 



Extend Understanding 



7. Career Connection: What techniques can a teacher use to get 
children like Laurie to behave in class? 



Quick Review 

Point of view is the 

perspective from which a 
story is told. 

A narrative in the 
first-person point of view 

is told by a character who 
participates in the action. 

To review point of view, 
see page 21 . 



Dialogue is the 

conversation between 
characters. To review 
dialogue, see page 21 



Identify word origins to 

recognize relationships 
between words. To review 
word origins, see page 21 . 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



( :harles ♦ 27 



integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Root 'Cred' 

In incredulous, the Latin word root -cred- 
means "believe." Write a definition of each word 
below, using the meaning of the Latin root -cred-. 
Use a dictionary to check your definitions. 

1. incredible 2. credible 3. credence 

Spelling Strategy 

When you add the word ending -ed or -ing 
to a word that ends with -e, drop the e before 
adding the ending. 

Example: renounce + ed = renounced 
renounce + ing = renouncing 

Correct any misspellings in the following passage. 

Laurie's mother considered invitieng Laurie's 
teacher home for a cup of tea. Laurie elaborat- 
ed on Charles's behavior. She thought that he 
might be influenceing Laurie's behavior. 

Grammar Lesson 

Common and Proper Nouns 



Fluency: Words in Context 

On your paper, complete the following pas- 
sage so that it makes sense, using the vocabulary 
words from "Charles." 

Zita's teacher, Mr. Acevedo, stared at her 
paper ? 



L nave ? language in favor of Art," 
Zita declared. 

Mr. Acevedo laughed but would not accept 
the paper. Zita stamped her foot ? 

? she started to pout. 

For each numbered item, use both words 
correctly in a single sentence. 

1. renounced/enjoyed 

2. insolently/politely 
3.^simultaneously/separately 
4. incredulously/trustingly 



Common nouns name any person, place, 
thing, or idea. Proper nouns name a particular 
person, place, thing, or idea. Always capitalize 
proper nouns. Capitalize common nouns only 
when they begin a sentence. 



% 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise A. 
Practice Write each of these sentences, under- 
lining the nouns. Then, write C or P above each 
noun to tell whether it is common or proper. 

1. Laurie regarded his father coldly. 

2. "What does this Charles look like?" my 
husband asked Laurie. 

3. On Friday things were back to normal. 

4. Our teacher had a friend, Mr. Simmons. 

5. Jackson is a good writer. 

Writing Application Rewrite the following items, 
replacing bracketed proper nouns with common 
nouns and common nouns with proper nouns. 

1. We have music class on [a day]. 

2. We are taught by [Mr. Rando]. 

3. [A girl] is very musical. 
Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 14, Section 1 



Common Nouns 


Proper Nouns 


boy 


Charles 


day 


Thursday 


school 


Primrose School 



28 ♦ Cuming of Age 



Writing Lesson 

Humorous Anecdote 

Write a humorous anecdote — a funny, brief story — about another of Laurie's school 
experiences. In your anecdote, include details that form a single, main impression of Laurie. 

Prewriting Choose one word that gives the overall impression. On a graphic 
organizer like the one shown here, write actions that demonstrate 
how Laurie shows that quality. In the outer sections jot down ideas 
for events that result from Laurie's actions. 



Model: Showing a Quality 

( Makes us > 




^^Laurie is^^V C j 


f^ ^*\ laugh S 


Gets in 
strouble 


^mischievous.^ S^, ' 

' / Plays ^\— — ( j 




V^pranks / > ^/ 


- ■,», - t , i . . * -i 1.1 ■jimwn.il ii li _,,.jj,ii.,j,iij. .,.ijjnn.„..- , _.. . . , „. .U..-L j j ii „,,._ IW pi 1 1 mi. ..i.i. . .mi i^^mmnm 



Drafting Incorporate the events and actions from your graphic organizer. Use 

specific words to name actions and strengthen your overall impression. 

Revising Eliminate any details that do not directly contribute to the main 
impression. Strengthen your main impression by replacing vague 
action words with more specific ones. 

v\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Section 2 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Imagine that you are 
Laurie in the eighth grade. Perform a retelling of 
the story of "Charles" as you now see it. Use your 
voice and expression to add to the humor of your 
retelling. 

1. Use a childish voice when you are speak- 
ing as the kindergarten Laurie. 

2. Show an exaggerated innocent expression 
when kindergarten Laurie tells about 
Charles's actions. 

Practice your story, and deliver it to a small group 
of classmates. Ask them to comment on how 
effectively you used your voice and expression. 



Research and Technology With a small group 
of classmates, conduct an interview with a kinder- 
garten teacher to discuss the challenges of teaching 
children Laurie's age. Prepare a list of questions that 
your group would like to ask the teacher. During the 
interview, ask follow-up questions — questions for 
clarifying an answer. Present the results to the rest 
of your class in a written or an oral report. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

C jo online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Charles ♦ 29 



IMnHMNMHMWMMMMMPHP 






OTBMMM 



repare to Read 



from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 





^ >4s you read 
^!5dp^ f/7/s sfo/y and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



C3 



Background 



When Maya Angelou, the author of this excerpt from "I Know Why 
the Caged Bird Sings," was growing up in the 1930s and 1940s, blacks 
and whites attended separate schools. Blacks were excluded from many 
public facilities. As an African American woman, Angelou experienced 
both racial and gender discrimination. With the help of a family friend, 
she learned to rise above it. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading Standard 1.1 Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer literal 
and figurative meanings of phrases. {Introduced in the Reading Strategy) 
Writing Standard 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, and narratives. 
(Introduced in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. {Introduced in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.1 Analyze oral interpretations of literature, including lan- 
guage choice and delivery, and the effect of the interpretations on the listener. 
(Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



30 ♦ Coming of Age 




Literary Analysis 

Memoir 

A memoir is autobiographical writing — true writing from a person's 
own life — in which a writer shares a memory of a significant person or 
event. Angelou writes about her memories of working in the family store 
and learning "lessons in living" from a remarkable woman. 

As you read the excerpt from J Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , use 
these focus questions to explore the significance of the events. 

1. Why is the store Angelou's favorite place? 

2. What change occurs in Angelou after her visit with Mrs. Flowers? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

In a memoir, writers use descriptive details — details that appeal to the 
senses — to bring their memories to life. In the following example, the 
italicized words provide details of the sights, feelings, and scents that 
Angelou associates with her memories of pineapples. 

Although the syrupy golden rings sat in their exotic cans on our 
shelves year round, we only tasted them during Christmas. . . . 
Bailey and I received one slice each, and I carried mine around 
for hours, shredding off the fruit until nothing was left except the 
perfume on my fingers. 

Reading Strategy 

Analyze Figurative Language 

In the excerpt from 1 Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Angelou uses 
several types of figurative language — words, phrases, and expressions not 
meant to be interpreted literally. The chart shows different types of figura- 
tive language. When you encounter examples in the text, think about 
what the author really means, not just what the words say. 



Vocabulary Development 

fiscal (fis' kel) adj. having to do with 
finances (p. 33) 

taut (tot) adj. tightly stretched 

(p. 34) 

benign (bi nin') adj. kindly (p. 34) 



infuse (in fyooz') v. put into (p. 36) 

intolerant (in taT ar ant) adj. unable 
or unwilling to accept (p. 37) 

couched (koucht) v. put into words; 
expressed (p. 37) 



Idiom 



Expression that has a meaning 
particular to a language or 
region 



Analogy 



Comparison of the particular 
resemblances of things that 
are otherwise not like each 
other 



Metaphor 



Figure of speech in which one 
thing is referred to as if it were 
another 



Simile 



Figure of speech in which two 
unlike things are compared 
using the word like or as 



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W 



e lived with our grandmother and uncle in the rear of the 
Store (it was always spoken of with a capital s), which she had 
owned some twenty-five years. 

Early in the century, Momma (we soon stopped calling her 
Grandmother) sold lunches to the sawmen in the lumberyard (east 
Stamps) and the seedmen at the cotton gin (west Stamps). Her 
crisp meat pies and cool lemonade, when joined to her miraculous 
ability to be in two places at the same time, assured her business 
success. From being a mobile lunch counter, she set up a stand 



A Critical Viewing 

Why might the narrator 
enjoy spending time in a 
place like this? [Connect] 



32 ♦ Coming of Age 



between the two points of fiscal interest and supplied the workers' 
needs for a few years. Then she had the Store built in the heart of 
the Negro area. Over the years it became the lay center of activities 
in town. On Saturdays, barbers sat their customers in the shade 
on the porch of the Store, and troubadours 1 on their ceaseless 
crawlings through the South leaned across its benches and sang 
their sad songs of The Brazos 2 while they played juice harps 3 and 
cigar -box guitars. 

The formal name of the Store was the Wm. Johnson General 
Merchandise Store. Customers could find food staples, a good variety 
of colored thread, mash for hogs, corn for chickens, coal oil for 
lamps, light bulbs for the wealthy, shoestrings, hair dressing, bal- 
loons, and flower seeds. Anything not visible had only to be ordered. 

Until we became familiar enough to belong to the Store and it to 
us, we were locked up in a Fun House of Things where the attendant 
had gone home for life. . . . 

Weighing the half-pounds of flour, excluding the scoop, and 
depositing them dust-free into the thin paper sacks held a simple 
kind of adventure for me. I developed an eye for measuring how full a 
silver -looking ladle of flour, mash, meal, sugar or corn had to be to 
push the scale indicator over to eight ounces or one pound. When 
I was absolutely accurate our appreciative customers used to admire: 
"Sister Henderson sure got some smart grandchildrens." If I was off 
in the Store's favor, the eagle-eyed women would say, "Put some 
more in that sack, child. Don't you try to make your profit offa me." 

Then I would quietly but persistently punish myself. For every bad 
judgment, the fine was no silver -wrapped kisses, the sweet chocolate 
drops that I loved more than anything in the world, except Bailey. 
And maybe canned pineapples. My obsession with pineapples nearly 
drove me mad. I dreamt of the days when I would be grown and able 
to buy a whole carton for myself alone. 

Although the syrupy golden rings sat in their exotic cans on our 
shelves year round, we only tasted them during Christmas. Momma 
used the juice to make almost-black fruit cakes. Then she lined 
heavy soot-encrusted iron skillets with the pineapple rings for rich 
upside-down cakes. Bailey and I received one slice each, and I 
carried mine around for hours, shredding off the fruit until nothing 
was left except the perfume on my fingers. I'd like to think that my 
desire for pineapples was so sacred that I wouldn't allow myself to 
steal a can (which was possible) and eat it alone out in the garden, 
but I'm certain that I must have weighed the possibility of the scent 
exposing me and didn't have the nerve to attempt it. 



fiscal (fis' kal) adj. having 
to do with finances 



Literary Analysis 
Memoir What does this 
paragraph tell about 
Marguerite? 



^Reading Check 

What does the narrator 
do in the store? 



1. troubadours (troo' ba dorz) n. traveling singers. 

2. The Brazos (braz' as) area in central Texas near the Brazos River. 

3. juice (joos) harps small musical instruments held between the teeth and played 
by plucking. 









from / Know Why the C '.ui^cd Bird Sings ♦ 53 



Until I was thirteen and left Arkansas for good, the Store was 
my favorite place to be. Alone and empty in the mornings, it 
looked like an unopened present from a stranger. Opening the 
front doors was pulling the ribbon off the unexpected gift. The 
light would come in softly (we faced north), easing itself over the 
shelves of mackerel, salmon, tobacco, thread. It fell flat on the big 
vat of lard and by noontime during the summer the grease had 
softened to a thick soup. Whenever I walked into the Store in the 
afternoon, I sensed that it was tired. I alone could hear the slow 
pulse of its job half done. But just before bedtime, after numerous 
people had walked in and out, had argued over their bills, or joked 
about their neighbors, or just dropped in "to give Sister Henderson 
a 'Hi y'all,'" the promise of magic mornings returned to the Store 
and spread itself over the family in washed life waves. . . . 



When Maya was about ten years old. she returned to Stamps 
from a visit to St. Louis with her mother. She had become depressed 
and withdrawn. 

For nearly a year, I sopped around the house, the Store, the 
school and the church, like an old biscuit, dirty and inedible. Then 
I met, or rather got to know, the lady who threw me my first lifeline. 

Mrs. Bertha Flowers was the aristocrat 4 of Black Stamps. She 
had the grace of control to appear warm in the coldest weather, 
and on the Arkansas summer days it seemed she had a private 
breeze which swirled around, cooling her. She was thin without 
the taut look of wiry people, and her printed voile 5 dresses and 
flowered hats were as right for her as denim overalls for a farmer. 
She was our side's answer to the richest white woman in town. 

Her skin was a rich black that would have peeled like a plum if 
snagged, but then no one would have thought of getting close 
enough to Mrs. Flowers to ruffle her dress, let alone snag her skin. 
She didn't encourage familiarity. She wore gloves too. 

I don't think I ever saw Mrs. Flowers laugh, but she smiled 
often. A slow widening of her thin black lips to show even, small 
white teeth, then the slow effortless closing. When she chose to 
smile on me, I always wanted to thank her. The action was so 
graceful and inclusively benign . 

She was one of the few gentlewomen I have ever known, and has 
remained throughout my life the measure of what a human being 
can be. . . . 



Reading Strategy 
Analyze Figurative 
Language Marguerite 
says that Mrs. Bertha 
Flowers threw her a 
"lifeline." What does she 
mean to communicate 
with this expression? 

taut (tot) adj. tightly 
stretched 



benign (bi nin') adj. kindly 



One summer afternoon, sweet-milk fresh in my memory, she 
stopped at the Store to buy provisions. Another Negro woman of 



4. aristocrat (a ris' ta krat) n. person belonging to the upper class. 

5. voile (voil) n. light cotton fabric. 



34 ♦ Coming of Age 




-7 



A Critical Viewing Read the description of Mrs. Flowers on page 34. 
Does this portrait resemble her? Explain. [Assess] 



her health and age would have been expected to carry the paper 
sacks home in one hand, but Momma said, "Sister Flowers, I'll 
send Bailey up to your house with these things." 

She smiled that slow dragging smile, 'Thank you, Mrs. 
Henderson. I'd prefer Marguerite, though." My name was beautiful 
when she said it. "I've been meaning to talk to her, anyway." They 
gave each other age-group looks. 

Momma said, "Well, that's all right then. Sister, go and change 
your dress. You going to Sister Flowers's. . . ." 

There was a little path beside the rocky road, and Mrs. Flowers 
walked in front swinging her arms and picking her way over 
the stones. 

She said, without turning her head, to me, "I hear you're doing 
very good school work, Marguerite, but that it's all written. The 
teachers report that they have trouble getting you to talk in class." 
We passed the triangular farm on our left and the path widened to 



«Q Reading Check 

What details about Mrs. 
Flowers are still vivid in 
Angelou's memory? 



from / Know Why the ( 'aged Bird Sings ♦ 15 



allow us to walk together. I hung back in the separate unasked 
and unanswerable questions. 

"Come and walk along with me, Marguerite." I couldn't have 
refused even if I wanted to. She pronounced my name so nicely. 
Or more correctly, she spoke each word with such clarity that I 
was certain a foreigner who didn't understand English could have 
understood her. 

"Now no one is going to make you talk — possibly no one can. 
But bear in mind, language is man's way of communicating with 
his fellow man and it is language alone which separates him from 
the lower animals." That was a totally new idea to me, and I would 
need time to think about it. 

"Your grandmother says you read a lot. Every chance you get. 
That's good, but not good enough. Words mean more than what is 
set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with 
the shades of deeper meaning." 

I memorized the part about the human voice infusing words. 
It seemed so valid and poetic. 

She said she was going to give me some books and that I not only 
must read them, I must read them aloud. She suggested that I try 
to make a sentence sound in as many different ways as possible. 

"I'll accept no excuse if you return a book to me that has been 
badly handled." My imagination boggled at the punishment I 
would deserve if in fact I did abuse a book of Mrs. Flowers'. Death 
would be too kind and brief. 

The odors in the house surprised me. Somehow I had never con- 
nected Mrs. Flowers with food or eating or any other common 
experience of common people. There must have been an outhouse, 
too, but my mind never recorded it. 

The sweet scent of vanilla had met us as she opened the door. 

"I made tea cookies this morning. You see, I had planned to 
invite you for cookies and lemonade so we could have this little 
chat. The lemonade is in the icebox." 

It followed that Mrs. Flowers would have ice on an ordinary day, 
when most families in our town bought ice late on Saturdays only 
a few times during the summer to be used in the wooden ice 
cream freezers. 

She took the bags from me and disappeared through the kitchen 
door. I looked around the room that I had never in my wildest 
fantasies imagined I would see. Browned photographs leered or 
threatened from the walls and the white, freshly done curtains 
pushed against themselves and against the wind. I wanted to 
gobble up the room entire and take it to Bailey, who would help 
me analyze and enjoy it. 

"Have a seat, Marguerite. Over there by the table." She carried 
a platter covered with a tea towel. Although she warned that she 



Literary Analysis 

Memoir What does this 
paragraph reveal about 
Marguerite's personality? 



infuse (in fyooz') v. put into 



36 ♦ Coming of Age 



hadn't tried her hand at baking sweets for some time, I was certain 
that like everything else about her the cookies would be perfect. 

They were flat round wafers, slightly browned on the edges and 
butter -yellow in the center. With the cold lemonade they were 
sufficient for childhood's lifelong diet. Remembering my manners, I 
took nice little ladylike bites off the edges. She said she had made 
them expressly for me and that she had a few in the kitchen that I 
could take home to my brother. So I jammed one whole cake in my 
mouth and the rough crumbs scratched the insides of my jaws, and 
if I hadn't had to swallow, it would have been a dream come true. 

As I ate she began the first of what we later called "my lessons in 
living." She said that I must always be intolerant of ignorance but 
understanding of illiteracy. That some people, unable to go to school, 
were more educated and even more intelligent than college profes- 
sors. She encouraged me to listen carefully to what country people 
called mother wit. That in those homely sayings was couched the 
collective wisdom of generations. 

When I finished the cookies she brushed off the table and brought 
a thick, small book from the bookcase. I had read A Tale of Two Cities 
and found it up to my standards as a romantic novel. She opened the 
first page and I heard poetry for the first time in my life. 

"It was the best of times and the worst of times ..." Her voice slid 
in and curved down through and over the words. She was nearly 
singing. I wanted to look at the pages. Were they the same that I had 
read? Or were there notes, music, lined on the pages, as in a hymn 
book? Her sounds began cascading gently. I knew from listening to a 
thousand preachers that she was nearing the end of her reading, and 
I hadn't really heard, heard to understand, a single word. 

"How do you like that?" 

It occurred to me that she expected a response. The sweet vanilla 
flavor was still on my tongue and her reading was a wonder in my 
ears. I had to speak. 

I said, "Yes, ma'am." It was the least I could do, but it was the 
most also. 

"There's one more thing. Take this book of poems and memorize 
one for me. Next time you pay me a visit, I want you to recite." 

I have tried often to search behind the sophistication of years 
for the enchantment I so easily found in those gifts. The essence 
escapes but its aura 6 remains. To be allowed, no, invited, into the 
private lives of strangers, and to share their joys and fears, was a 
chance to exchange the Southern bitter wormwood 7 for a cup of 
mead with Beowulf 8 or a hot cup of tea and milk with Oliver Twist. 

6. aura (or' a) n. atmosphere or quality. 

7. wormwood (worm' wood') n. plant that produces a bitter oil. 

8. Beowulf (ba' a waolf) hero of an old Anglo-Saxon epic. People in this poem drink 
mead, (med), a drink made with honey and water. 



Literary Analysis 
Memoir and Descriptive 
Details Which descriptive 
details in this paragraph 
help bring to life 
Angelou's memory of her 
visit with Mrs. Flowers? 



intolerant (in taT ar ant) 
adj. not able or willing 
to accept 

couched (koucht) v. 
expressed in softer or 
more flowery terms 



•^Reading Check 

What does Marguerite 
learn from Mrs. Flowers? 



hi mi / Know Why the ( '.aged Bird Sings ♦ M 



When I said aloud, "It is a far far better thing that I do, than I 
have ever done . . ." 9 tears of love filled my eyes at my selflessness. 

On that first day, I ran down the hill and into the road (few cars 
ever came along it) and had the good sense to stop running before 
I reached the Store. 

I was liked, and what a difference it made. I was respected not 
as Mrs. Henderson's grandchild or Bailey's sister but for just being 
Marguerite Johnson. 

Childhood's logic never asks to be proved (all conclusions are 
absolute). I didn't question why Mrs. Flowers had singled me out 
for attention, nor did it occur to me that Momma might have 
asked her to give me a little talking to. All I cared about was that 
she had made tea cookies for me and read to me from her favorite 
book. It was enough to prove that she liked me. 



9. "It is . . . than I have ever done" speech from A Tale of Two Cities by 
Charles Dickens. 



Mava Anqelou 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1 . Respond: Does Mrs. Flowers remind you of anyone you 
know? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: What does Marguerite do in the store? 

(b) Infer: What can you tell about Marguerite's character from 
her actions at the Store? 

3. (a) Recall: According to Mrs. Flowers, for what two reasons 
is language important? (b) Interpret: Why does Mrs. Flowers 
tell Marguerite to read aloud and in as many different ways 

as possible? 

4. (a) Recall: What does Mrs. Flowers tell Marguerite in the first of 
her "lessons in living"? (b) Compare and Contrast: Describe the 
change in Marguerite after her first meeting with Mrs. Flowers. 

(c) Draw Conclusions: In what ways do you think Marguerite 
will change as a result other meetings with Mrs. Flowers? 

5. (a) Recall: What does Mrs. Flowers do when Marguerite 
visits? (b) Infer: What do Mrs. Flowers' actions prove to 
Marguerite? (c) Interpret: Why has Mrs. Flowers remained for 
Angelou "the measure of what a human being can be"? 

6. Apply: Mrs. Flowers helped build a sense of self-worth for 
young Maya Angelou. What social conditions of the time may 
have contributed to her low self-esteem before her meetings 
with Mrs. Flowers? 




(b. 1928) 

Born Marguerite 
Johnson in St. 
Louis, Missouri, 
Maya Angelou 
received her 
unusual first name 
from her brother, 
Bailey, who referred to her 
as "mya sister." Maya and 
Bailey were raised by their 
grandmother, who owned 
a country store in rural 
Arkansas. 

Growing up in the segre- 
gated South did not prevent 
Angelou from breaking 
through the barriers of 
racism and poverty. She has 
been a streetcar conductor 
in San Francisco, a journal- 
ist, an actress, a civil rights 
worker, a teacher, and a 
poet. In January 1993, 
she read "On the Pulse of 
Morning" at President-elect 
Bill Clinton's inauguration, 
a poem that she had been 
asked to write for the 
occasion. 



38 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Memoir 

1. In a chart like the one below, list two details that we learn about 
Marguerite from her memoir. In the second column, explain how 
we know about each detail. 



What we know about Marguerite How we know it 










k- 


J 



2. Why is the store Angelou's favorite place? 

3. What change occurs in Angelou after her visit with Mrs. Flowers? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Complete a sensory details chart like the one shown here. 



r 

Sights 


Sounds Touch Tastes Smells 1 


The Store 












Mrs. Flowers's 
house 










i 



5. Explain why sensory details are important in the memoir. 



Reading Strategy 



Analyze Figurative Language 

6. Explain the difference between the literal and figurative meanings 
of the idiom "I developed an eye for measuring." 

7. Explain what Angelou means by the following analogy: "Opening 
the front doors was pulling the ribbon off the unexpected gift." 

8. What simile does Marguerite use to communicate her low 
self-esteem before she goes to Mrs. Flowers's house? 



Extend Understanding 



9. Social Studies Connection: Angelou's memoir takes place during 
a time when segregation laws governed most of the South. How do 
Mrs. Flowers's life lessons prepare Marguerite to challenge unjust 



laws: 



Quick Review 

A memoir is a form of 
autobiography that focuses 
on a writer's memory of a 
significant person or 
event. To review memoir, 
see page 3 1 . 



Descriptive details are 

words that appeal to the 
five senses — sight, smell, 
taste, touch, and hearing. 



Figurative language is 

speech or writing that is 
not meant to be taken 
literally. To review figurative 
language, see page 3 1 . 



B 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding ol 

the selection. 



from / Know Why the ( 'aged Bird Sings ♦ 39 



integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Forms of tolerate 

The verb tolerate means "to accept." Other 
forms of tolerate include the following: 

tolerance tolerable intolerant tolerant 



Knowing the meaning of tolerate, you can 
determine the meanings of its related forms. On 
your paper, complete the following sentences with 
the correct related word from the list above. 



1. 



Mrs. Flowers suggested that Marguerite show 
. 7 toward people who are illiterate but 



Fluency: Sentence Completions 

On your paper, write the vocabulary word that 
best completes each sentence. 

1. The rope was pulled ? for security. 

2. Although stern, Mrs. Flowers 's actions 
were ? 
She used lemons to her tea. 

Her advice was L 

For 



3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 



in stories and sayings. 



_? reasons, the Store was open late. 



Marguerite learned not to be 



if oth 



ers. 



to always be 



of ignorance. 



2. Marguerite's working at Momma's store 



was 



3. Mrs. Bertha Flowers was 



>f 



Marguerite's shyness but wanted her to 
overcome it. 



Spelling Strategy 

In siime words, like benign, the In sound is spelled 
ign — with a silent g. Complete the following with an 
ign word. 

1. A pattern or arrangement of parts: ? 

2. A publicly displayed billboard: ? 

3. To leave a job: ? 



Grammar Lesson 

Plural and Possessive Nouns ► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 

Plural and possessive nouns are sometimes Practice On your paper, copy the following sen- 
confused. A plural noun indicates more than one fences. Correct errors of plural and possessive 
person, place, thing, or idea. Most plural nouns nouns as needed. 



end with the letter s. 

Plural Nouns: "On Saturdays, barkers sat 
their customers in the shade on the porch. . . ." 

A possessive noun shows ownership, belong- 
ing, or some other close relationship. A posses- 
sive noun can be singular, ending in -'s, or plu- 
ral, usually ending in -.s'. 

Singular Possessive: "If I was off in the Store's 
favor, the eagle-eyed women would . . ." 

Plural Possessive: "[S]he . . . supplied the 
workers' needs for a few years." 



1. Mrs. Flowers 's home smelled like vanilla. 

2. There are many picture's in the book. All 
the picture's colors are fading. 

3. The book's Mrs. Flowers' allowed 
Marguerite to borrow were her favorite's. 

4. Take this book of poems. 

5. Read each poems words carefully. 

Writing Application Write a paragraph that 
includes the following nouns: .store, owner, and 
customer. Use two of the nouns as plurals and one 
as a possessive. 



y]A Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 26, Section 5 



40 ♦ Coming of Age 



tmrn 



Writing Lesson 

Memoir About a Turning Point 

Marguerite's visit with Mrs. Flowers was a turning point that changed her out- 
look. Think of a time when you experienced a turning point. Write a memoir about 
the event. 

Prewriting List specific details that describe your turning point. Include expla- 
nations of how events and people made you feel and why. Then, 
organize the details into a sequence. 

Drafting Use your organized list as the basis for drafting your memoir. Add 
descriptive details that will make the event or experience vivid in 
your readers' minds. 






Model: Add Descriptive Details 



I clutched the trophy proudly. 
+ silver 



+ heavy 



I clutched the heavy, silver trophy proudly. 



Descriptive details like 
heavy and silver appeal to 
sight, sound, taste, smell, 
or touch and help paint a 
more memorable picture 
of what happened. 



Revising Reread your memoir and underline the descriptive details you have 
used. Add details to appeal to senses you have not included. 

v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking Angelou describes the 
effect of Mrs. Flowers 's reading aloud as "a won- 
der in my ears." Prepare a reading of a portion of 
Angelou's memoir. 

With a group, discuss delivery techniques 
that can enhance a listener's appreciation for 
what is being read. Techniques include 

• volume (the loudness or softness of your 
voice). 

• tone of voice (the feelings expressed 
through your voice). 

• enunciation (the clear, precise pronunciation 
of words). 



Research and Technology Photographers Walker 
Evans and Dorothea Lange recorded the lives of 
Americans during the Great Depression. Use muse- 
ums, museum Web sites, or the Library of Congress 
Web page to locate historical photographs. Print 
copies of the photos. Identify the photographer and 
where and when the photo was taken. Display your 
photo collection in the classroom. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
usin^ the Internet. 



In mi / Know Why the ( laged Bird Sings ♦ -II 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



The Road Not Taken ♦ All But Blind ♦ The Choice 





wfg As you read these 
^niDP&P poems and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



The speaker of "All But Blind" compares himself to three creatures. 
Moles are small, nearly blind rodents that live underground. Bats rely 
more on their sense of hearing than on their sight. Because owls have 
keen night vision and often appear disoriented during the day, they are 
thought to be "blinded" by sunlight. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.1 Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and 
figurative meanings of phrases. {Developed in the Reading Strategy) 
Writing 1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, 
and opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices. (Introduced in the 
Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Developed in the 
Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 2.5 Recite poems, sections of speeches, or dramatic solilo- 
quies, using voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance meaning. 
(Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



42 ♦ Coming of Age 






. » *#*+ ■ 



■ 



^H 



Literary Analysis 

Identify the Speaker in a Poem 

The speaker in a poem is the character or voice assumed by the writer. 
In some poems, the speaker may be the poet, but do not be fooled by the 
pronoun "I." The speaker may be a character who is not even human — 
perhaps a tree or an old rocking chair. As you read each poem, notice 
clues that reveal the personality of the speaker. 

Comparing Literary Works 

Each of these works gives a view of decisions and choices in life. As 
you read, think about the tone of each work — the writer's attitude toward 
the subject and the reader. Compare and contrast the tones of the works 
by focusing on the following questions: 

1 . What examples and images does each writer use to show how 
choices are made? 

2. What is the attitude expressed in the last line of each poem? 

Reading Strategy 

Paraphrasing 

Poetry often expresses ideas in language that does not sound like 
everyday speech. Paraphrasing, or restating the lines in your own words, 
can help you make sense of the ideas. Some words may be arranged in an 
unusual order. 

• Original lines: All but blind / In his chambered hole / Gropes for 
worms / The four-clawed Mole. 

• Paraphrase: Almost blind in his underground tunnel, the mole 
digs for worms. 

Idioms and analogies may use familiar words in new ways. 

• Idioms: expressions that are unique to a region or language. 

• Analogies: comparisons of similarities between unlike things. 

For each poem, prepare a chart like the one shown. Record your 
paraphrase of passages from the poems. 

Vocabulary Development 

diverged (dl vurjd') v. branched off smoldering (smol' der in) adj. burning 

(p. 44) or smoking without flame (p. 48) 

blunders (blurt' darz) v. moves lilting (lilt' irj) adj. singing or speaking 

clumsily or carelessly (p. 47) with a light, graceful rhythm (p. 48) 



r 

Original 


Paraphrase 1 


Phrase 




And sorry 1 


and wishing 


could not 


that even 


travel both / 


though I'm 


And be one 


only one 


traveler 


person 1 could 




try both roads 


as just as fair 


because it 




looked just as 


' 


good 



The Road N<n Taken/All But BlindJThe ( )hoice ♦ 43 







• 



• 



-^ rt 



-^•-' 



Bre 









**• 






jr. 


1 










. .- • 










■mje. 




gffe 


< 






i ( - * 


• :-/-?";/ 


r '' fr*C% 




* .- ' 




• 










:f • 


. -^ 


«. 


••- 


. - • 


. 


n 


- • 


" 


• 








'-- -; 



.... ' . # y«*flM*»*Ri. >•'■'.. 



W -..!^*- 



Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, 
And sorry I could not travel both 
And be one traveler, long I stood 
And looked down one as far as I could 
5 To where it bent in the undergrowth; 

Then took the other, as just as fair. 
And having perhaps the better claim, 
Because it was grassy and wanted wear; 
Though as for that, the passing there 
10 Had worn them really about the same, 

And both that morning equally lay 
In leaves no step had trodden black. 
Oh, I kept the first for another day! 
Yet knowing how way leads on to way, 
15 I doubted if I should ever come back. 

I shall be telling this with a sigh 
Somewhere ages and ages hence: 
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I — 
I took the one less traveled by, 
20 And that has made all the difference. 



diverged (di vurjd) 
branched off 



Reading Strategy 
Paraphrasing Restate the 
first two lines of the 
second stanza, or group of 
lines, in your own words. 



44 ♦ Coming of Age 



Robert Frost 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think the speaker in "The Road Not 
Taken" made a wise choice? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: In the first five lines of the poem, where does the 
speaker remember being? (b) Infer: What can you tell about 
the speaker's character and attitude toward life from these lines? 

3. (a) Compare and Contrast: How are the two roads alike and 
different? (b) Interpret: What kind of choice might these two 
roads represent? 

4. (a) Recall: Which road does the speaker finally choose? 

(b) Deduce: Why docs the speaker choose one road over the 
other? (c) Analyze: Find two statements suggesting that the 
speaker believes he has made a significant choice. 

5. (a) Speculate: Why does the speaker predict that he will 
remember this decision? (b) Generalize: What message does 
the poem communicate about decisions in general? 




(1874-1963) 

One memo- 
rable moment 
for poetry in 
the twentieth 
century was 
Robert Frost's 
reading of his 
poem "The Gift Outright" 
at the 1961 inauguration of 
President John F. Kennedy. 
One of the best-known and 
best-loved American poets, 
Frost was a four-time win- 
ner of the Pulitzer Prize. 
Although he was born in 
San Francisco, his family 
moved to New England 
when he was eleven, and 
he later settled on a farm 
in New Hampshire. Many 
of Frost's poems are set in 
or are about some aspect oi 
life in rural New England. 



The Rnad Not Taken ♦ 45 



WaLter dE La Mare 







46 ♦ Coming of Age 



All but blind 

In his chambered hole 
Gropes for worms 

The four -clawed Mole. 

5 All but blind 

In the evening sky 
The hooded Bat 

Twirls softly by. 

All but blind 
10 In the burning day 

The Barn-Owl blunders 
On her way. 

And blind as are 

These three to me, 
15 So, blind to Some-One 
I must be. 



Reading Strategy 

Paraphrasing In your own 
words, explain the 
analogy the speaker 
makes between animals 
being unaware of him and 
his own unawareness of 
"Some-One." 



blunders (blun' darz) v. 
moves clumsily or 
carelessly 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Does the life of one of these three animals seem 
more appealing to you than the lives of the others? Explain 
your answer. 

2. (a) Recall: What three words does the speaker use to 
describe the ways the three animals move? (b) Analyze: 
How do these words reinforce the idea that the animals 
do not see well? (c) Support: Which of these words 
describes negative aspects of the animals' lives? 

3. (a) Recall: What do all three creatures in this poem have 
in common? (b) Interpret: In what way does the speaker 
assume that he is like them? (c) Infer: Why is the comparison 
between the animals and the speaker a surprise? 

4. (a) Deduce: Who might be the "Some-One" the speaker 
mentions? (b) Interpret: What does the reference reveal 
about the speaker's world view? 




Walter de la Mare 



(1873-1956) 

British poet and 
novelist Walter 
de la Mare has 
been called the 
"last poet of the 
Romantic tradi- 
tion." De la Mare 
helieved that the world 
beyond human experience 
could best be understood 
through the imagination. 
His poetry often deals with 
childhood, nature, dreams, 
and the uncanny. 



Ml Hut Mind ♦ 47 



10 



15 



He'd have given me rolling lands, 

Houses of marble, and billowing farms, 
Pearls, to trickle between my hands, 

Smoldering rubies, to circle my arms. 
You — you'd only a lilting song. 

Only a melody, happy and high, 
You were sudden and swift and strong, — 

Never a thought for another had I. 

He'd have given me laces rare, 

Dresses that glimmered with frosty sheen, 
Shining ribbons to wrap my hair. 

Horses to draw me, as fine as a queen. 
You — you'd only to whistle low, 

Gaily I followed wherever you led. 
I took you, and I let him go, — 

Somebody ought to examine my head! 



smoldering (smol' dar in.) 
adj. burning or smoking 
without flame 

lilting (lilt' irj) adj. singing 
or speaking with a light, 
graceful rhythm 



Dorothv Parker 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you enjoy the company of the speaker in 
"The Choice"? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: What choice does the speaker make? (b) Analyze: 
Why does she choose as she does? 

3. (a) Recall: What would the rejected suitor have given the 
speaker? (b) Infer: Does the speaker regret the decision she 
made? (c) Support: What in the poem makes you think so? 

4. (a) Analyze: In what way is the last line of "The Choice" 
different from what the poem leads you to predict? 

(b) Make a Judgment: Do you think the speaker's attitude is 
appropriate? Explain. 

5. Take a Stand: Would you advise the speaker to make a 
practical choice or a romantic one? Why? 




(1893-1967) 

Dorothy 
Parker is 
known for 
her poetry, 
short sto- 
ries, and 
biting com- 
ments on the subject of 
love. In New York literary 
circles of the 1920s, Parker 
was a member of the 
Algonquin Round Table. 
This group of writers 
lunched regularly at the 
Algonquin Hotel, trading 
brilliant insults and witty 
observations. 



48 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Identify the Speaker in a Poem 

1. What is the main concern of the speaker in "The Road Not Taken"? 

2. How does the speaker in "All But Blind" view his or her place in 
the world? 

3. What do the details in "The Choice" reveal about the speaker's 
personality? 

Comparing Literary Works 

4. Complete a comparison and contrast diagram like the one shown 
here to examine the similarities and differences among the tones 
of the three poems. Where the circles overlap, use words and 
phrases to describe attitudes the poems' speakers share. 



All But Blind'' 



"The Road Not Taken" 




The Choice' 



5. What examples and images does each writer use to show how 
choices are made? 

6. What is the attitude expressed in the last line of each poem? 



Reading Strategy 



Paraphrasing 

7. Paraphrase lines 14-1 5 of "The Road Not Taken." 

8. Explain the similarity between the three animals and the speaker 
in "All But Blind." What is the point of this analogy? 

9. Explain the meaning of the idiom "Somebody ought to 
examine my head" in line 16 of "The Choice." 



Extend Understanding 



10. Evaluate: Which of these poems do you think offers the most 
useful message or lesson? Explain your choi( e 



Quick Review 

The speaker in a poem is 
the character or voice that 
the writer of the poem 
assumes. To review the 
speaker in a poem, see 
page 43. 



Tone is the writer's attitude 
toward the subject and 
toward the audience. To 
review tone, see page 43. 



Paraphrasing is the 

restatement of phrases or 
lines in your own words. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



The Rood N,n Taken/All But HlimllTlu- ( )hoice ♦ 4 l > 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Root -verg- 

The Latin root -verg- means "to bend or turn." 
In the word diverged, which Robert Frost uses in 
"The Road Not Taken," the prefix di-, meaning 
"apart," is added to -verg-. Combining the root 
and prefix, you can figure out that diverge means 
"to go or move in different directions." The pre- 
fix con- means "together." What does converge 
mean? Complete the following sentences using a 
form of either diverge or converge. 



1. 



Because of that large boulder, the stream 

? 



2. All the groups will ? at noon for a 
combined lunch meeting. 

3. Since he and I have different points of 
view, our opinions ? on that issue. 

4. The Missouri River ? with the 
Mississippi River in St. Louis. 

Grammar Lesson 

General and Specific Nouns 

Nouns name people, places, things, or ideas. 
General nouns, like tree and flower, convey 
broad information. Specific nouns, like maple 
and rose, give more precise information. 
Although it is not necessary to use only specific 
nouns in your writing, you should recognize that 
they give writing clarity. 

For example, the writer of "The Choice" 
could have written that one suitor offered her 
many jewels. Instead, she created this vivid image: 

He'd have given me . . . 

Pearls, to trickle between my hands, 

Smoldering rubies . . . 



Fluency: Word Choice 

Rewrite by replacing each italicized phrase 
with a word from the vocabulary list. 

1. Late at night, the campfire was still burning 
without a flame . 

2. The path to the farm went in a different 
direction from the main road. 

3. During the audition, the soprano showed 
off her gracefully rhythmic voice. 

4. The puppy stumbles clumsily into everything. 

Spelling Strategy 

When adding -ing to a verb that has more 
than one syllable, ends in a consonant, and is not 
accented on the last syllable, do not change the 
spelling of the original word. Just add -ing. On 
your paper, add Ang to the following verbs. 

1. travel 2. blunder 3. billow 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise A. 
Practice Copy these sentences, and underline 
each general noun. 

1. The traveler in "The Road Not Taken" 
once walked on a path through trees. 

2. The speaker in "All But Blind" compares 
himself to several small animals. 

3. In "The Choice," one suitor offered the 
speaker many items. 

4. Robert Frost and Dorothy Parker are people 
known to have written many memorable 
lines. 

Writing Application Make sentences 1-4 clearer 
by substituting a specific noun for each general 
noun you have underlined. 



v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4, Section 4 



50 ♦ Coming of Age 



Writing Lesson 



Memo 

Decisions are based on information. One of the most common methods of 
communicating information is in a memo — a brief business message. Write a memo 
recommending that one of these poems be read at graduation. Briefly explain your 
proposal, include a reference to expert advice that supports your position, and request 
that action be taken or a response be given. 



Prewriting 

Drafting 
Revising 



Choose the poem you think would be most appropriate for a gradu- 
ation. Interview an expert — such as an English teacher — to get 
expert support for your suggestion. 

Use a standard memo format. In the body of your memo, include 
the expert's opinion and give the expert's credentials. 

Edit your paragraphs to make them short and clear. Check the 
accuracy of your facts and the spellings of names. 



Model: Support from an Authority 

TO: Student Government Officers Sue Sullivan and Dave Bell 

FROM: Joe Anderson 

DATE: February 1 0, 2002 

RE: Graduation Poem 

Mrs. Allen, who has taught American literature for ten years, says 

that Frost is one of the most important American poets of the 

twentieth century. 



v\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 2, Section 4 

Extension Activities 



Research and Technology Work with a small 
group to research and compare the animals that 
the poet describes in "All But Blind." 

Present your group's findings in an oral report. 
Point out any features of the animals that rein- 
force the analogy in the poem. IGroup Activity] 



Listening and Speaking "The Road Not Taken" 
is a poem that many people love and know by 
heart. Memorize Frost's poem and give an oral 
recitation to a group. Adjust your voice and your 
body language to indicate your hesitation and 
determination in the appropriate places. 



Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



The Road Not Taken/ All But Blind/The ( :hoice ♦ 51 



Prepare to Read 



from E-Mail from Bill Gates 





As you read 
this story and 
*$Z~-t$P complete the 

related assignments, 
you will focus on these 
standards. The Student's Guide 
to the Standards contains an 
outline of how each standard is 
introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



While preparing an article on Bill Gates, John Seabrook sent an e-mail 
to the famous computer whiz. To Seahrook's surprise, Gates responded, and 
the interview was conducted almost entirely through e-mail. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.3 Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to ver- 
ify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast. 
(Developed in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 1.2 Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective tran- 
sitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques. {Introduced In the Writing 
Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, 
appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice in ways 
that enliven oral presentations. (Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



52 ♦ Coming of Age 



Bmmmmmmmmmm 



nni 



Literary Analysis 



Magazine Article 

A magazine article is a short nonfiction text written in prose. It may 
present or explore ideas, insights, explanations, or facts. 

John Seabrook's magazine article explains a technical subject of cur- 
rent interest. It also gives insight into one of the key figures involved in 
the topic. As you read, notice how Seabrook alternates explanations and 
insights. Use the following focus questions to guide your reading: 

1. What information and insights does this article give about Bill Gates? 

2. What was the author's purpose for writing this article? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

A magazine article is a form of journalism — the gathering, writing, and 
editing of current information to be presented in the media. Media include: 

• magazines and newspapers 

• radio and television 

• Web sites and other internet resources 

Media text is quickly outdated. When gathering information from 
media sources, check the date and consider whether it is recent. 

Reading Strategy 

Using Context Clues 

Use context clues — the words in the surrounding text — to make an 
informed guess about the meaning of unfamiliar words and terms. 

At the moment, the best way to communicate with another per- 
son on the information highway is to exchange electronic mail : 
to write a message on a computer and send it through the telephone 
lines into someone else's computer. 

Here, the context (in italics) gives a definition of "electronic mail." As 
you read, look for the types of context clues shown on the chart. Record 
unfamiliar words and technical terms on a similar chart. 

Vocabulary Development 

interaction (in' tar ak' shan) n. actions etiquette (ef i kit) n. rules for 
that affect each other (p. 55) 

misinterpret (mis' in tor' prit) v. to 
understand or explain incorrectly 
(p. 55) 

intimate (in' ta met) culj. private or 
personal (p. 56) 



behavior (p. 56) 

spontaneously (span ta' ne as le) 
adv. naturally, without planning 

(p. 56) 



Example 



composition book standards 
like "It may have come to 
your attention. " 



Comparison 



there was a pause after each 
response to think; it was like 
football players huddling up 
after each play. 



Contrast 



I give out my home phone 
numberto almost no one but 
my e-mail address is known 
very broadly. 



Restatement 



How about immortality — 
being remembered for a 
thousand years after you're 
dead . . . 



n E-Mail from Hill Gates ♦ 53 



FRDM 





John Seabrook 



from 

E-MAIL 

Bl 

A 

^%t the moment, the best way to communicate with another 
person on the information highway 1 is to exchange electronic mail: 
to write a message on a computer and send it through the tele- 
phone lines into someone else's computer. In the future, people 
will send each other sound and pictures as well as text, and do it 
in real time, 2 and improved technology will make it possible to 
have rich, human electronic exchanges, but at present E-mail is 
the closest thing we have to that. Even now, E-mail allows you to 
meet and communicate with people in a way that would be impos- 
sible on the phone, through the regular mail, or face to face, as I 
discovered while I was working on this story. Sitting at my computer 
one day, I realized that I could try to communicate with Bill Gates, 
the chairman and co-founder of the software giant Microsoft, on the 
information highway. At least, I could send E-mail to his electronic 
address, which is widely available, not tell anyone at Microsoft I was 
doing it, and see what happened. I wrote: 

Dear Bill, 

I am the guy who is writing the article about you for The 
New Yorker. It occurs to me that we ought to be able to do 
some of the work through e-mail. Which raises this fascinat- 
ing question — What kind of understanding of another person 
can e-mail give you? . . . 

You could begin by telling me what you think is unique 
about e-mail as a form of communication. 

John 

I hit "return," and the computer said, "mail sent." I walked out 
to the kitchen to get a drink of water and played with the cat for 
a while, then came back and sat at my computer. Thinking that 
I was probably wasting money, I nevertheless logged on again and 
entered my password. "You have mail," the computer said. 

I typed "get mail," and the computer got the following: 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context Clues 

What clues could help 
someone unfamiliar with 
computers figure out the 
meaning of "logged on"? 



1. information highway network of computers and file servers that allows for the 
rapid exchange of electronic information. 

2. in real time in actual time (with little delay between the moment of sending and 
the moment of receiving the sound, picture, and text). 



54 ♦ Coming of Age 




From: Bill Gates <billg@microsoft.com> 
Ok, let me know if you get this email. 

According to my computer, eighteen minutes had passed 
between the time I E-mailed Bill and he E-mailed me back. His 
message said: 

E-mail is a unique communication vehicle for a lot of reasons. 
However email is not a substitute for direct interaction . . . . 

There are people who I have corresponded with on email for 
months before actually meeting them — people at work and 
otherwise. If someone isn't saying something of interest its 
easier to not respond to their mail than it is not to answer the 
phone. In fact I give out my home phone number to almost no 
one but my email address is known very broadly. I am the 
only person who reads my email so no one has to worry about 
embarrassing themselves or going around people when they 
send a message. Our email is completely secure. . . . 

Email helps out with other types of communication. It 
allows you to exchange a lot of information in advance of a 
meeting and make the meeting far far more valuable. . . . 

Email is not a good way to get mad at someone since you 
can't interact. You can send friendly messages very easily 
since those are harder to misinterpret . 

We began to E-mail each other three or four times a week. I would 
have a question about something and say to myself, "I'm going lo 



A Critical Viewing 

What does the picture 
suggest about 
communication and 
technology? [Interpret] 



interaction 

(in' tar ak' shan ) 

n. actions that affect 

each other 



misinterpret 

(mis' in tur' prit) v. to 
understand or explain 
incorrectly 

^Reading Check 

What happened after the 
author e-mailed Bill Gates? 



from E-Mail from Bill Gates ♦ 55 



E-mail Bill about that," and I'd write him a message and get a one- 
or two-page message back within twenty-four hours, sometimes much 
sooner. At the beginning of our electronic relationship, I would wake 
up in the middle of the night and lie in bed wondering if I had E-mail 
from Bill. Generally, he seemed to write messages at night, sleep 
(maybe), then send them the next morning. We were intimate in a 
curious way, in the sense of being wired into each other's minds, but 
our contact was elaborately stylized, like ballroom dancing. 

In some ways, my E-mail relationship with Bill was like an ongo- 
ing, monthlong conversation, except that there was a pause after 
each response to think; it was like football players huddling up after 
each play. There was no beginning or end to Gates' messages — no 
time wasted on stuff like "Dear" and "Yours" — and I quickly corrected 
this etiquette breach in my own messages. Nor were there any fifth- 
grade-composition-book standards like "It may have come to your 
attention that" and "Looking forward to hearing from you." Social 
niceties are not what Bill Gates is about. Good spelling is not what 
Bill Gates is about, either. He never signed his messages to me, but 
sometimes he put an "&" at the end, which, I learned, means "Write 
back" in E-mail language. After a while, he stopped putting the "&," 
but I wrote back anyway. He never addressed me by name. Instead of 
a letterhead, there was this: 

Sender: billg@microsoft.com 

Received: from netmail.microsoft.com by dub-img- 
2. CompuServe. com (5.67/5.9301 29sam) id AA03768; 
Wed, 6 Oct 93 14:00:51-0400 

Received: by netmail.microsoft.com (5.65/25 — eef) 
id AA27745; Fri, 8 Oct 93 10:56:01-0700 

M e s s a g e - 1 d : 

<931 0081 756.AA27745@netmail.microsoft.com> 

X-Msmail-Message-ld: 15305A55 

X-Msmail-Convers at ion-Id: 15305A55 

From: Bill Gates <billg@microsoft.com> 

To: 73124.1524@CompuServe.COM 



intimate (in' te mat) adj. 
private or personal 



etiquette (ef i kit) n. rules 
for behavior 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context Clues 

What context clues help 
you guess the meaning of 
the term letterhead? 



I sometimes felt that this correspondence was a game I was play- 
ing with Gates through the computer, or maybe a game I was play- 
ing against a computer. What is the right move? What question will 
get me past the dragon and into the wizard's star chamber, where 
the rich information is stored? I had no idea where Gates was when 
he wrote to me, except that once he told me he was on a "think 
week" at his family's summer place on Hood Canal. I could not tell 
whether he was impatient or bored with my questions and was 
merely answering them because it served his interest. Because we 
couldn't talk at the same time, there was little chance for the con- 
versation to move spontaneously . On the other hand, his answers 
meant more, in a certain way, being written, than answers I would 
have received on the phone. I worried that he might think I was 



spontaneously 

(span ta' ne as le ) adv. 
naturally, without 
planning 



56 ♦ Commg of Age 



being "random" (a big putdown at Microsoft) because I jumped from 
topic to topic. I sometimes wondered if I was actually communicating 
with Bill Gates. How hard would it be for an assistant to write these 
messages? Or for an intelligent agent to do it? 

I wrote a message titled "What motivates you?": 

You love to compete, right? Is that where your energy comes 
from — love of the game? I wonder how it feels to win on your 
level. How much do you fear losing? How about immortality — 
being remembered for a thousand years after you're dead — does 
that excite you? How strong is your desire to improve people's 
lives (by providing them with better tools for thinking and com- 
municating)? Some driven people are trying to heal a wound or to 
recover a loss. Is that the case with you? 

Gates wrote back: 

Its easy to understand why I think I have the best job around 
because of day to day enjoyment rather than some grand long 
term deep psychological explanation. It's a lot of fun to work with 
very smart people in a competitive environment. . . . We get to 
hire the best people coming out of school and give them challeng- 
ing jobs. We get to try and figure out how to sell software in every 
part of the world. Sometimes our ideas work very well and some- 
times they work very poorly. As long as we stay in the feedback 
loop and keep trying it's a lot of fun. 

It is pretty cool that the products we work on empower individ- 
uals and make their jobs more interesting. It helps a lot in 
inventing new software ideas that I will be one of the users of the 
software so I can model what's important. . . . 

Just thinking of things as winning is a terrible approach. 
Success comes from focusing in on what you really like and are 
good at — not challenging every random thing. My original vision 
of a personal computer on every desk and every home will take 
more than 1 5 years to achieve so there will have been more than 
30 years since I first got excited about that goal. My work is not 
like sports where you actually win a game and its over after a 
short period of time. 

Besides a lot of luck, a high energy level and perhaps some IQ 
I think having an ability to deal with things at a very detailed 
level and a very broad level and synthesize 3 between them is 
probably the thing that helps me the most. This allows someone 
to take deep technical understanding and figure out a business 
strategy that fits together with it. 

It's ridiculous to consider how things will be remembered after 
you are dead. The pioneers of personal computers including 
Jobs, Kapor, Lampson, Roberts, Kaye, 4 are all great people but 



Reading Strategy 

Using Context Clues 

What words restate the 
meaning of immortality? 



«/j Reading Check 

Why does Bill Gates 
think he has "the best 
job around"? 



3. synthesize to form by bringing together separate parts. 

4. Jobs, . . . Kaye important developers of the computer and software industries. 



from E'Mail from Bill Gates ♦ 57 



I don't think any of us will merit an entry in a history book. 

I don't remember being wounded or losing something big 
so I don't think that is driving me. I have wonderful parents 
and great siblings. I live in the same neighborhood I grew up 
in (although I will be moving across the lake when my new 
house is done). I can't remember any major disappointments. 
I did figure out at one point that if I pursued pure mathe- 
matics it would be hard to make a major contribution and 
there were a few girls who turned me down when I asked 
them out. 

At the end of one message, I wrote: 

This reporting via e-mail is really fascinating and I think you 
are going to come across in an attractive way, in case 
you weren't sure of that. 

Gates wrote: 

I comb my hair everytime before I send email hoping to 
appear attractive. I try and use punctuation in a friendly 
way also. I send :) and never :(. 



Review and Assess 

Think about the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you like to meet Bill Gates? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Why does Seabrook first send e-mail to Bill Gates? 
(b) Analyze: What does Seabrook accomplish by letting 
Gates speak for himself? 

3. (a) Recall: What does Seabrook learn about the etiquette 
of sending and receiving e-mail? (b) Compare and 
Contrast: How is Seabrook's first e-mail to Gates similar 
to and different from later e-mails? (c) Infer: What does 
Gates's e-mail style reveal about him? 

4. (a) Speculate: Do you think Seabrook would use this 
method of communication to conduct other interviews? 
(b) Support: Why or why not? 

5. (a) Apply: Why is Bill Gates of current interest? (b) Evaluate: 
Based on the topic of the article, how important is the date of 
the article? Explain, (c) Extend: What media sources could 
you use to find information about Bill Gates's most recent 
activities and accomplishments? 

6. Take a Stand: Do you think that "basic computer skills" 
should be a required class? Why or why not? 





John Seabrook 



(b. 1959) 

John Seabrook 
grew up in a toma- 
to-farming commu- 
nity in New Jersey. 
Years later, when 
writing about 
biotechnology and 
a new kind of tomato, he 
mentioned this boyhood 
experience. Readers' reac- 
tions made him realize that 
science writers need to add 
a personal touch. 



Bill Gates 



(b. 1955) 

As co-founder 
of Microsoft, 
Bill Gates 
helped launch 
the computer 
revolution. His 
phenomenal 
success and 
astounding wealth have 
made him a legend in the 
business world. In 2000 
Gates stepped down as chief 
executive officer of 
Microsoft to become chair- 
man and chief software 
architect of the company. 



58 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Magazine Article 

1. List facts about e-mail and details about Bill Gates that you learned 
from this magazine article. Record them on a chart like this. 



r 


Facts About E-Mail 




Details About Bill Gates 


1 


D 


D 


P 


a 




m 



2. What do you think was Seabrook's purpose for writing this article? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

3. Identify two topics related to this article that a journalist might 
investigate. 

4. Complete a chart like the one below to compare the strengths and 
weaknesses of different media. 



Television Newspaper Internet 


Speed 








Problems 








Use of visuals 








How easy to deliver to 
many people at once 






■i 



Reading Strategy 

Using Context Clues 

For each of the following sentences, give the meaning of the italicized 
words. Explain the context clues that help you determine the meaning. 

5. "Our contact was elaborately stylized, like ballroom dancing." 

6. "I have wonderful parents and great siblings." 

Extend Understanding 

7. Career Connection: (a) What personal qualities do you think are 
useful for people who work in the computer field? (b) What academic 
subjects should a person study to prepare for a career in computers? 



Quick Review 

A magazine article is a 

short, informational work 
of nonfiction published in 
a periodical. To review a 
magazine article, see 
page 53. 



Journalism is informational 
writing about real people, 
places, events, and ideas 
of current interest. 

Media forms include 

magazines, newspapers, 

television, radio, and the 

Internet. 

To review journalism and 

media, see page 53. 



Context clues are words 
and phrases from the 
surrounding text that help 
you figure out the meaning 
of unfamiliar words and 
phrases. To review context 
clues, see page 53. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



E-Mail from Bill Gates ♦ 59 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Prefix inter' 

The Latin prefix inter- in interaction means 
"between" or "among." On your paper, write the 
correct word in each blank by adding inter- to 
one of these words: 



national 



state 



active 



1 . An ? highway system runs from 
California to Maine. 

2. Many people play ? video games. 

3. E-mail speeds up ? communications. 

Spelling Strategy 

Before adding the suffix -tion, you will prob- 
ably have to drop the final letter or letters of the 
base word: 

interact + -tion = interaction. 

On your paper, add -tion to the following verbs. 
1. connect 2. relate 3. reflect 

Grammar Lesson 

Pronouns and Antecedents 

Pronouns are words that take the place of a 
noun or nouns. Some common pronouns include 
we, he, they, I, each other, it, and us. 

The noun to which a pronoun refers is the 
pronoun's antecedent. Many pronouns must have 
an antecedent in order for their meaning to be 
clear. In the following example, the pronoun 
those refers to the antecedent messages. 

Example: You can send friendly messages easily 
since those are harder to misinterpret. 



Concept Development: Antonyms 

Antonyms are words with opposite meanings, 
such as happy and sad or light and dark. Copy each 
sentence. Underline the antonym of the italicized 
word. 

1. Use symbols and words that are easy to 
understand so that the receiver does not 
misinterpret your message. 

2. It is strange to have such intimate corre- 
spondence with such a public figure. 

3. I had hoped we could communicate spon- 
taneously, but I had to settle for planned 
exchanges. 

4. His messages followed e-mail etiquette, but 
mine contained examples of bad form. 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 
Practice Copy each of the following sentences. 
Circle the pronoun. Underline the antecedent. 

1. Seabrook e-mailed Gates to ask him questions. 

2. Seabrook and Gates corresponded because 
they were working on an interview. 

3. The ability to recognize problems and find 
solutions for them is important. 

Writing Application Revise the following pas- 
sage so that it is clear to which noun he refers. 
Replace some uses of he with a name. 

Seabrook wrote to Gates and he wrote back to 
him. He told him that he was writing his article 
about him. He wrote back to him. 



v\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 14, Section 2 



60 ♦ Coming of Age 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I 



Writing Lesson 

Comparison of Forms of Communication 

Choose two forms of communication, such as e-mail and conventional letter- 
writing, and write a short essay comparing and contrasting them. 

Prewriting Choose the two forms of communication you will compare. List 
ways in which these forms are alike and different. 

Drafting Organize your comparison point by point. Describe a feature of 

e-mail, then describe the same or related feature of your other form 
of communication. When you compare or contrast ideas or 
features of equal weight, use parallel structure — similar or repeated 
grammatical forms and structures. 

Revising Look for passages where the similarities or differences would 

be shown more sharply if you used parallel structure. Revise to 
produce parallel structure. 



Model: Parallel Structure 

Not Parallel: E-mail transmits in moments; someone 

receiving conventional mail might wait days. 

Parallel: E-mail takes moments; conventional mail takes days. 



Each part of the revised 
sentence has the same 
structure. This makes the 
difference between the 
two types of mail stand 
out. 



y\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 8, Section 3 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking Do an oral presentation 

on the history of forms of communication, such 
as the telephone, facsimile machine, or e-mail. 



Research and Technology Work with a group to 
produce a manual explaining how to use e-mail. 
Each group member can research and explain 



First, tell about early versions. Then, describe the one function, such as how to develop an e-mail 



development. Conclude by explaining how the 
system functions today and what experts predict 

for the future. Follow these tips: 

1. Use strong action verbs such as transmit, 
communicate , and deliver. 

2. Use active voice rather than passive voice. 
Passive: The file is stored on the drive. 
Active: The drive stores the file. 



address hook or how to save a message. Organize 
the topics of your manual in a logical sequence 
and prepare a table of contents. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschooLcom 

C io online for an additional research activity 
nsiii)4 the Internet. 



from E-Mail from BUI Gates ♦ ft I 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 



Magazine Articles 



About Magazine Articles 

Magazines are a form of print media. Although most are published 
monthly or weekly, some appear quarterly, or four times a year. Magazines 
either appeal to certain special interest groups (such as gardeners, skiers, 
or opera lovers), or they offer feature stories on current topics to a general 
audience with more detail than newspapers can give. Magazines often 
contain opinions as well as facts. 

Reading Strategy 

Headings 

Informational text in magazines, newspapers, and textbooks is often 
divided into sections. Headings, or heads, usually stand out from the reg- 
ular text in one of the following ways: 

• color 

• boldface 

• larger print 

• placement on page 

Heads organize the material in an easy-to-follow pattern, which helps 
readers find information quickly. They also visually break up the type on a 
page so that the article is easy to read. Look, for instance, at the heads in 
"How to Be Polite Online." The first three paragraphs of the article intro- 
duce the article. Then, the first head, "Tone of voice online," tells the 
reader what information will be covered in the first section. Use headings 
to help you organize notes and summaries as outlined on the chart below. 



Section 


Summary 


Title 




Introductory Text 




Tone of Voice Online 




Table 1 




Table 2 




Flame On/Flame Off 




Looking Good Online 





' • *» ' ■»"*"" ■ • > 






^"" ■*-'' * -" 1 



' LJ ' l, - l " J "-"" li , ,,yl 



rTW » r " 



62 ♦ Coming of Age 



How to Be Polite Online 



from Netiquette 



VIRGINIA SHEA 



The truth is that computer network- 
ing is still in its infancy. Probably 
nothing illustrates this more clearly 
than the "ASCII 1 jail": 90% of net- 
work communications are still limit- 
ed to plain old ASCII text— that is, 
the characters of the alphabet, the 
numerals through 9, and the most 
basic punctuation marks. It's bad 
enough that multimedia communi- 
cations have not been implemented 
in most of cyberspace. 2 Most of the 
time you can't even put a word in 
bold or italics! 

Because people cannot see or 
hear you in cyberspace, you need to 
pay close attention to the style of 
your electronic communications if 
you hope to make a good impression 
there. The style of electronic commu- 
nications encompasses everything 



Table 1 : Emoticons 


:-) 


Smile; laugh; "I'm joking" 


:-( 


Frown; sadness; "Bummer" 


:) 


Variant of :-) or "Have a 
nice day" 


;-) 


Wink; denotes a pun or 

sly joke 


:-0 


Yelling or screaming; or 
completely shocked 


:-() 


Can't (or won't) stop talking 


:-D 


Big, delighted grin 


:-P 


Sticking out your tongue 


:-]or:-) 


Sarcastic smile 


%-) 


Confused but happy 


%-( 


Confused and unhappy 


>l 


Can't decide how to feel; 
no feelings either way 


# 


Kiss 


Oor[] 


Hug 


V 


Hugs and kisses 



about your correspondence except 
its content, from your use of network 
conventions like "smileys" and 
"sigs" to the number of characters 
per line in your email messages. 

Style considerations are influ- 
enced by several of the rules of 
Netiquette, especially Rule 4, 
Respect other people's time, and 
Rule 5, Make yourself look good 
online. It doesn't matter how bril- 
liant your messages are if they're 
formatted in such a way that no one 
can read them. 

Tone of voice online The fact that most 
network interactions are limited to 
written words can be the source of 
misunderstandings. Fortunately, 
clever network users have had 
years to deal with this. They've cre- 
ated a shorthand to help communi- 
cate the tone that you'd otherwise 
get from the other person's voice, 
facial expressions, and gestures. 
These shorthand expressions are 
known as smileys or emoticons. 
They're easy to figure out once you 
get the hang of it. Just remember 
that they're all sideways faces. 

See Table 1 for a list of the most 
commonly used emoticons. There 
are whole books about smileys for 
those who are interested, including 
the enjoyable Smiley Dictionary by 
Seth Godin. 



1. ASCII acronym for American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange, a stan- 
dard computer code used to assist the 
interchange of information among various 
types of data-processing equipment. 

2. cyberspace popular term for the border- 
less world of computers and telecommuni- 
cation on the Internet. 



mm 



Reading Informational Material: Magazine Articles ♦ 63 






Table 2: Abbreviations 


BTW 


By the way 


IMHO 


In my humble opinion 


IMNSHO 


In my not so humble 
opinion 


I0W 


In other words 


IRL 


in real life 


ITRW 


In the real world 


LOL 


Laughing out loud 


OTF 


On the floor (laughing) 


ROTFL 


Rolling on the floor 

laughing 


WRT 


With regard to 


YMMV 


Your mileage may vary 


<g>or<G> 


Grin 


<bg> 


Big grin 



People also use abbreviations to 
express emotional states or to qualify 
what they're saying. See Table 2 for a 
list of common abbreviations. 

The "FLAME ON/FLAME OFF" notifier 

When you really want to run off at the 
keyboard — but you want your read- 
ers to know that you know that you're 
not expressing yourself in your usual 
measured, reasoned manner— you 
need to let them know that you know 
that you're flaming. 3 So before you 
begin your rant, simply enter the 
words FLAME ON. Then rant away. 
When you're done, write FLAME OFF 
and resume normal discourse. 

Looking good online One of the neat 
things about computers is that they 
let us use all kinds of special effects in 
our documents that we didn't even 
dream of back in the days of typewrit- 
ers (if you're old enough to remember 
those days). But when you're commu- 
nicating online, in most cases it's back 
to the typewriter as far as effects go. 
Even if your mail system lets you use 
boldface, italics, and tabs, there's no 
guarantee that your correspondent's 
system will understand them. At 
worst, your communication will turn 
into unreadable gibberish. 



What to do? 

• Forget about boldface, italics, 
tabs, and font changes. Never r 
use any effect you couldn't get 
on an old-fashioned typewriter. 
In fact, you can't even use all of 
those. Underlining won't work, 
for example. Nor can you use the 
old "required backspace" trick to 
put a diacritical mark 4 (a tilde or 
an accent mark, for example) 
over another character. 

• Most systems won't read the 
diacritical marks anyway, so just 
leave them out. If you feel an 
accent mark is absolutely neces- 
sary, type an apostrophe after 
the letter the accent would have 
gone over. 

• Use only ASCII characters. This 
includes all 26 letters of the 
alphabet (upper and lower 
case), the numerals through 9, 
and most commonly used punc- 
tuation marks. For any publish- 
ing mavens out there, however, 
it excludes em dashes (" — "), en 
dashes ("-"), and bullets. 

•Limit your line length to 80 
characters, or better yet, 60 
characters. 

Otherwise, your lines may break in 

weird places and your readers 

will have to wade through notes 

that look like this. 

Believe me, 

it gets annoying after a very short 

while. 

• NEVER TYPE YOUR NOTES IN 
ALL CAPS, LIKETHIS. It's rude- 
like shouting constantly. And, 
like constant shouting, it makes 
people stop listening. All caps 
may be used, IN MODERATION, 
for emphasis. 

•To indicate italics, you may 
*surround the material to be 
italicized with asterisks.* 

3. flaming slang for "ranting." 

4. diacritical (di' a krif ik el) mark mark 
added to a letter or symbol to show its 
pronunciation. 



_ 



Text is organized 
into chunks using 
bullets and tables. 



64 ♦ Coming of Age 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. What elements contribute to the style of electronic communication? 

2. What are some possible online substitutes for voice, facial expreS' 
sions, and gestures? 

3. Why is it suggested that you not type in all capitals or write lines 
longer than sixty characters? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Headings 

4. What are three main ideas identified by the headings in this article? 

5. What information do you learn from Table 1 ? 

6. What is the abbreviation for "In other words"? How do you know? 

Activity 

Use Online Etiquette 

Many products now carry e-mail addresses so that customers can give 
feedback online. Find the e-mail addresses for two companies that produce 
products you use. Send an e-mail to each company, expressing your satis- 
faction or dissatisfaction with the product. Follow the etiquette outlined in 
"How to Be Polite Online." Tell the class when and if you receive a reply. 

Comparing Informational Materials 

Compare Articles 

This article, and the article from "E-Mail from Bill Gates," both discuss 
the way people communicate through e-mail. Each writer, however, has a 
unique purpose that affects the scope, or range, of ideas that are covered 
and the way those ideas are organized. In "E-Mail from Bill Gates," the 
author's purpose is to give you a glimpse through e-mail at a famous com- 
puter whiz. The author of 
"How to Be Polite Online" 
wants to inform readers 
about the do's and don'ts of 
e-mailing. Fill out a chart 
like the one shown here to 
find similarities and differ- 
ences between the two texts. 



E-mail from How to Be 
Bill Gates Polite Online 


Main subject of article 






Three main ideas 






Types of details included 




- 






Reading Informational Material: Magazine Articles ♦ 65 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



Grandma Ling ♦ Old Man ♦ 
The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson 





As you read 
these selections 
and complete the 
related assignments, you will 
focus on these standards. The 
Student's Guide to the Standards 
contains an outline of how each 
standard is introduced, 
developed, and concluded. 



Background 



In "Grandma Ling," poet Amy Ling tells about meeting her grand- 
mother in Taiwan, a group of islands near China. Many people living in 
Taiwan moved there from China when communist forces won control of 
the Chinese government. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 1.3 Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to 
verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast. 
{Developed in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 1.6 Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point 
of view; and transitions. (Introduced in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. {Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.3 Organize information to achieve particular purposes by 
matching the message, vocabulary, voice modulation, expression, and tone to the audi- 
ence and purpose. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



66 ♦ Coming of Age 



Literary Analysis 



Sensory Language 

Writers use sensory language to describe sights, sounds, smells, tastes, 
and sensations of touch. The italicized words in this excerpt from 
"Grandma Ling" give details that appeal to the sense of hearing. 

Before she came to view, I heard 
her slippered feet softly measure 
the tatami floor with even step; 

As you read each selection, look for the sensory language. 

Comparing Literary Works 

Through sensory language, writers create images — specific pictures in 
the reader's mind. In addition to visual details, these "pictures" may 
include details of sound, smell, taste, or touch. Compare and contrast the 
imagery in "Grandma Ling," "Old Man," and "The Old Grandfather and 
His Little Grandson." Use these focus questions to guide your comparison: 

1. To what senses does the imagery in each work appeal? 

2. What is the strongest, most memorable image in each work? 

Prepare a graphic organizer like the one shown here to record the 
sensory details of the images in each work. 



Reading Strategy 



Using Words in Context 

Many English words have more than one meaning or can be used as 
different parts of speech in different situations. When you read, make sure 
you understand the meaning of a word in context — the situation in which 
it is used. For instance, in the following example, the word blood means 
heritage or ancestry, not the liquid that pumps through your heart. 

". . . before the coming of coronado, 
other of our blood 

came with los espanoles," 

Vocabulary Development 

sturdy (star' de) adj. firm; strong supple (sup' al) adj. flexible and pliant 

(p. 69) (p. 71) 

rivulets (riv' yoo lits) n. little streams stoic (sto' ik) adj. calm and unboth- 
(p. 70) ered in spire of suffering (p. 71 ) 

furrows (fur' 6z) n. deep wrinkles scolded (skold' ad) i 1 . criticized barsbly 

(p. 70) ( P . 72) 



Grandfather 



I 



sensory detail: 
sensory detail: 



Grandma Ling 



I 



sensory detail 
sensory detail 



Old Man 



I 



sensory detail: 
sensory detail: 



( irandma LingA )ld Man/1 he ( '/</ ( handfather and I lis Utile ( Wandson ♦ 67 



Amy Ling 



£^\4?UAx£wU?i< JSu^t 




A Critical Viewing Compare and contrast the woman in this painting with 
Grandma Ling, as she is described in the poem. [Compare and Contrast] 



♦ Coming of Age 



If you dig that hole deep enough 
you'll reach China, they used to tell me, 
a child in a backyard in Pennsylvania. 
Not strong enough to dig that hole, 
5 I waited twenty years, 

then sailed back, half way around the world. 

In Taiwan I first met Grandma. 

Before she came to view, I heard 

her slippered feet softly measure 
10 the tatami 1 floor with even step; 

the aqua paper-covered door slid open 

and there I faced 

my five foot height, sturdy legs and feet, 

square forehead, high cheeks, and wide- set eyes; 
15 my image stood before me, 

acted on by fifty years. 

She smiled, stretched her arms 
to take to heart the eldest daughter 
of her youngest son a quarter century away. 
20 She spoke a tongue I knew no word of, 
and I was sad I could not understand, 
but I could hug her. 



Literary Analysis 

Sensory Language What 
words in lines 9-11 appeal 
to one or more of the five 
senses? 

sturdy (star' de) adj. firm; 
strong 



1. tatami (ta ta me) adj. woven of rice straw. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What is the most surprising or unusual feature of 
the speaker's meeting with her grandmother? 

2. (a) Recall: What was the speaker told as a child about China? 
(b) Analyze: How might what she was told affect her ideas 
and feelings about China? 

3. (a) Recall: Where did the speaker first meet her grandmother? 
(b) Infer: Why didn't she wait for the grandmother to visit 
her? (c) Interpret: What does the expression "my image stood 
before me, /acted on by fifty years" mean? 

4. (a) Recall: What prevents the grandmother and granddaughter 
from communicating in their first meeting? (b) Speculate: 
What mighl they want to tell or ask each other? (c) Analyze: 
How do they finally cominiinu ate, and what are they saying? 





(1939-1999) 

Amy Ling 
was bom in 
China and 
lived there 
with her 
family for 
six years 

before moving to the 

United States. 

In the 1960s, Ling visited 

her grandmother in Taiwan. 

The writer described this 

first meeting in her poem 

"Grandma Ling." 



( handma Ling ♦ W 



Old Man 



Ricardo Sanchez 



remembrance 
(smiles / hurts sweetly) 
October 8, 1972 

old man 

with brown skin 

talking of past 

when being shepherd 
5 in utah, nevada, Colorado and 

new mexico 
was life lived freely; 

old man, 

grandfather, 
wise with time 
io running rivulets on face, 
deep, rich furrows , 

each one a legacy, 
deep, rich memories of life . . . 
15 "you are indio, 1 

among other things," 
he would tell me 

during nights spent 
so long ago 
20 amidst familial gatherings 

in albuquerque . . . 

old man, loved and respected, 
he would speak sometimes 
of pueblos, 2 
25 san juan, santa clara, 

and even santo domingo, 
and his family, he would say, 

came from there: 

some of our blood was here, 



1. indio (en' dyd) n. Indian; Native American. 

2. pueblos (pweb' loz) n. here, Native American 
towns in central and northern New Mexico. 




A Critical Viewing Does this painting convey an old 
man "wise with time"? Explain. [Make a Judgment] 



rivulets (riv' yoo lits) n. 
little streams 



furrows (for' oz) n. deep 
wrinkles 



70 ♦ Coming of Age 



30 he would say, 

before the coming of coronado, 3 
other of our blood 

came with los espanoles, 4 
and the mixture 
35 was rich, 

though often painful . . . 
old man, 
who knew earth 

by its awesome aromas 
40 and who felt 

the heated sweetness 

of chile verde 5 
by his supple touch, 
gone into dust is your body 
45 with its stoic look and resolution, 

but your reality, old man, lives on 
in a mindsoul touched by you . . . 

Old Man . . . 



3. coronado (ko ro na' do) Coronado explored what is today the American Southwest. 

4. los espanoles (16s es pa nyol' es) n. the Spaniards. 

5. chile verde (cine' le vehr' de) n. green pepper. 



Review and Assess 

Think About the Selection 

1. Respond: How does Sanchez make you feel about his 
grandfather? 

2. (a) Recall: What groups of ancestors did the grandfather 
teach the poet about. 7 (b) Analyze: What feelings about their 
heritage did the grandfather pass on to the poet? 

3. (a) Recall: How do you know that the grandfather is no longer 
living? (b) Interpret: Explain the meaning of the lines "but your 
reality, old man, lives on / in a mindsoul touched by you . . ." 

(c) Generalize: Explain how those lines could apply to older 
people of any culture or family. 



Literary Analysis 
Sensory Language and 
Imagery How does the 
image in lines 9-12 appeal 
to one of the five senses? 



supple (sup' el) adj. 
flexible and pliant 

stoic (sto' ik) adj. calm and 
unbothered in spite of 
suffering 



Ricardo Sanchez 



(1941-1995) 

The poet 
Ricardo 
Sanchez 
was born 
in El Paso, 
Texas. His 
family had 
roots in Spanish, Mexican, 
North American, and 
Native American cultures. 
Most of Sanchez's work is 
an exploration and cele- 
bration of his rich cultural 
heritage. His writing often 
includes both Spanish and 
English words. In the poem 
"Old Man," Sanchez offers 
a portrait of a grandfather 
who is remembered with 
love. 




Old Man ♦ 71 



Ih& (JU (hmcwithe/l/ md frit Attm UAtmcwyrv 



Leo Tolstoy 



The grandfather had become very old. His legs would not carry 
him, his eyes could not see, his ears could not hear, and he was 
toothless. When he ate, bits of food sometimes dropped out of his 
mouth. His son and his son's wife no longer allowed him to eat 
with them at the table. He had to eat his meals in the corner near 
the stove. 

One day they gave him his food in a bowl. He tried to move the 
bowl closer; it fell to the floor and broke. His daughter-in-law scolded 
him. She told him that he spoiled everything in the house and broke 
their dishes, and she said that from now on he would get his food in 
a wooden dish. The old man sighed and said nothing. 

A few days later, the old man's son and his wife were sitting in 
their hut, resting and watching their little boy playing on the floor. 
They saw him putting together something out of small pieces of 
wood. His father asked him, "What are you making, Misha?" 

The little grandson said, "I'm making a wooden bucket. When 
you and Mamma get old, I'll feed you out of this wooden dish." 

The young peasant and his wife looked at each other, and tears 
filled their eyes. They were ashamed because they had treated the 
old grandfather so meanly, and from that day they again let the 
old man eat with them at the table and took better care of him. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What would you like to say to the old grand- 
father's son and his wife ? 

2. (a) Recall: What are the grandfather's physical problems? 

(b) Evaluate: Is this tale a positive view of aging? Explain. 

3. (a) Recall: How do the son and his wife react to the grand- 
father's problems? (b) Infer: Why do they react as they do? 

(c) Contrast: How is the boy's reaction different from his 
parents' reaction? 

4. (a) Recall: What happens at the end of the story? (b) Analyze: 

Why do the son and his wife change their behavior? 

5. (a) Recall: What did the grandson do that helped make his 
parents change their treatment of the grandfather? (b) Evaluate: 
How valuable is the lesson the parents learn? Explain. 



scolded (skold' ad) v. 
criticized harshly 




Leo Tolstcr 



^ (1828-1910) 
Many experts 
have called 
Russian author 
Leo Tolstoy 
one of the best 
novelists who 
ever lived. 
Tolstoy's mother 
and father both died when 
he was young. As a boy, 
Tolstoy discovered the joy 
of reading books. He read 
Russian folk tales, stories 
from the Bible, and poems. 

In bis short story "The 
Old Grandfather and His 
Little Grandson," Tolstoy 
shows the importance of 
caring for the elderly. 



72 ♦ Coming of Age 



■HHMBNHHHBnHMHMHMVHMMVHHNHHHHHHMIWOTlHK 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Sensory Language 

1 . Prepare a sensory language chart like the one below. Fill in as 
many sensory details as you can find in each work. 



sound touch sight smell taste 1 


"Grandma Ling" 












"Old Man" 












"Grandfather" 










*i 



2. In "Grandma Ling," the speaker hears the grandmother before she 
sees her. What is the effect of highlighting these sounds? 

3. What scents are included in "Old Man" to reflect the closeness the 
speaker feels to the land ? 

Comparing Literary Works 

4. To what senses does the imagery in each work appeal? 

5. What is the strongest, most memorable image in each work? Use 
note cards like the one below to jot them down. 



"Grandma 


Una" 




-» 


Strongest an 


i most memorable 


imaqe: 




Explanation: 







Reading Strategy 



Using Words in Context 

6. Copy the sentence that uses tongue in the same context as it is used 
in "Grandma Ling." 

a. A cat's tongue is rough. 

b. In the midst of familiar voices, 1 heard a foreign tongue. 

7. How does context affect your understanding of the word "old" 
when you read "Old Man" and "The Old Grandfather . . . "? 



Extend Understanding 



8. Social Studies Connection: What do these works suggest about 
the bond between a grandparent and a grandchild? 



Quick Review 

Sensory language 

describes sights, sounds, 
smells, tastes, and 
sensations of touch. To 
review sensory language, 
see page 67. 



Imagery is the combination 
of sensory details that 
create specific images, or 
pictures, in the reader's 
mind. To review imagery, 
see page 67. 



The context of a word is 
the situation in which it is 
used — the surrounding 
words, phrases, and 
sentences. To review con- 
text, see page 67. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to cheek 
your understanding ot 
these selections. 



( handma Ling/< )ld Mim/'l'he ( )ld ( rrandfather and I lis Little t irandson ♦ 73 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Forms of supple 

The word supple, which means "flexible," 
comes from the Latin word supplicare, meaning 
"humble," "not resisting," or "easily bent." 

Use supplication, supple, and supplicate to com- 
plete these sentences. 

1. The athlete's legs were long and ? 

2. The little boy's 1 for more food was 
heart-rending. 

3. The hungry dog seems to . 7 for food. 

Spelling Strategy 

When spelling most two-syllable words with a 
consonant sound in the middle that follows a 
short vowel sound, double the middle consonant. 
On your paper, correct any misspelled words. 

1. britle 2. battle 3. ridle 

Grammar Lesson 

Personal Pronouns 

Personal pronouns refer to the person speak- 
ing, the person spoken to, or the person spoken 
about. Personal pronouns are singular or plural. 



Singular Plural 


First Person 


1, me, my, mine 


we, us, our, ours 


Second Person you, your, yours 


you, your, yours 


Third Person \ he, him, his, she, 
i hers, it, its 


their, theirs 

J 



Fluency: Sentence Completions 

Choose the word or words in parentheses that 
would best replace the italicized word. 

1. The girl kept a stoic look on her face, 
showing no emotion, (calm, still) 

2. The wooden bench was sturdy enough for 
two people to sit on it. (firm, strong) 

3. The sprinkler had made a rivulet in the 
garden, (river, small stream) 

4. The furrows in his face made him look 
older, (deep wrinkles, rows) 

5. The woman scolded the slow clerk, 
(punished, spoke sharply to) 



A personal pronoun must refer clearly to its 
antecedent — the noun that the pronoun replaces. 
First- and second-person pronouns often have 
understood antecedents. It is understood that the 
pronouns refer to the person speaking or the 
person being spoken to. 

v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 14, Section 2 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 
Practice Write the pronoun(s) in each sentence. 
After each pronoun, write the antecedent. If it is 
understood, write understood. 

1. I heard Grandma before she came into view. 

2. Old man, you look tired. 

3. The man and his wife knew they were 
wrong. 

Writing Application Revise the passage. Change 
or rearrange words to avoid repeating nouns and 
to make each pronoun's antecedent clear. 

Two poets write about the poets' grandparents. 
Amy Ling writes about Ling's grandmother. 
Ricardo Sanchez writes about Sanchez's grand- 
father. He told many stories. 



74 ♦ Coming of Age 



Writing Lesson 

Description of an Older Person 

Each of the three selections in this group paints a portrait of an older person. 
Follow their lead by writing your own description of a senior citizen. 

Prewriting Choose an older person you know well. Make a two-column list. In 
one column, list personal qualities. In the other, list actions that 
illustrate those qualities. 

Drafting Use sensory language to create powerful images that show the per- 
son's qualities, rather than just telling about them. If the person is 
adventurous, describe him or her in an adventurous situation. 

Revising Identify several descriptive words you have used. Evaluate whether 
they appeal to one or more of the senses. Change words as needed 
to convey a powerful image. 



Model: Revise Word Choice 

Draft: She has a nice smile and her laugh is fun to hear. 

Revision: Her smile lights up her whole face, and the music of her 
laugh bubbles around you until you're laughing, too. 



v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking With a small group, 
prepare a Public Service Announcement on the 
benefits of hiring senior citizens. 

1. Interview managers or owners of several 
local businesses. 

2. Organize your information to call attention 
to the qualities of senior citizens that will 
interest potential employers. Repeat your 
most important information near the end 
of the announcement. [Group Activityl 



Research and Technology Search for information 
on changes in life expectancy in the United 
States from 1900 to the present. Use the key 
words "life expectancies" with quotation marks 
to avoid Web sites containing only one of the 
words. Prepare a presentation with visual aids 
such as diagrams or flowcharts to show the 
process you followed to locate the information. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

( Jo online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



( hondma LingA H<1 Man/The < >/</ ( Wandfather and I Us Little ( irandson ♦ 75 



v_umpdimy i_nt?rciry vvuiivs 



Prepare to Read 



Ring Out, Wild Bells ♦ Winter Moon ♦ Poets to Come 



.. 





Background 



•^Jdp^ these poems and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



In "Ring Out, Wild Bells," Alfred, Lord Tennyson, calls on bells to 
"ring out" the negatives of the past and "ring in" hope for the future. 
The ringing of hells, clanking of pans, shouting, and generally "wild" 
noise-making at midnight are traditional New Year's customs in many 
countries. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading Standard 2.7 Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and 

structural patterns of text. {Introduced in the Literary Analysis) 

Writing Standard 1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information 

and original ideas. (Developed in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. {Developed in the 

Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking Standard 2.5 Recite poems, sections of speeches, or dramatic 

soliloquies, using voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the 

meaning. (Developed in the Reading Strategy and the Listening and Speaking activity) 



76 ♦ Coming of Age 



Literary Analysis 

Repetition in Poetry 

Repetition in poetry is the use, more than once, of certain sounds, 
words, and phrases within a poem. Repetition is used 

• to emphasize an important idea. 

• to produce unity by tying the lines to the repeated word or phrase. 

• to create a musical sound. 

As you read these poems, pay attention to repeated words and phrases. 
Notice their sounds and rhythms as well as their meanings. Think about 
the purpose the poet may have had for using repetition. 

Comparing Literary Works 

These poems are very different from one another in structure and style, 
yet each poet is dealing with a similar moment: a moment of change, of 
beginning. Compare and contrast the way the poems show change and 
the speakers' thoughts and feelings about change. Use the following focus 
questions to guide your comparison. 

1. What is the specific topic of each poem? 

2. How does the speaker of each poem feel about the change being 
observed or described? 

Reading Strategy 

Reading Poetry According to Punctuation 

Every poem comes equipped with a set of instructions on how to read 
it. Those instructions are its punctuation marks. Commas, periods, excla- 
mation points, semicolons, and colons tell you when to pause or stop. 
They also indicate relationships between groups of words; when you rec- 
ognize these relationships you will read with greater understanding and 
expression. 

As you read, make sure you are clear about the poet's reading instruc- 
tions. Use a chart like the one shown to remember when to pause and 
when to stop. 



Vocabulary Development 

strife (strif) n. conflict (p. 78) 
orators (or' at arz) n. public speakers 

(p. 80) 



indicative (in dik' etiv) adj. giving 
a suggestion; showing (p. 80) 

sauntering (san' ter irj) v. walking 
slowly and confidently (p. 80) 



Punctuation Instructions 1 
mark 


Comma 

f 


Brief pause 


Period 

■ 


Pause at the 
end of a 
thought 


Exclamation 
Point 

1 

■ 


Speak with 
force and 
pause 


Semicolon 

■ 

f 


Pause 
between 
related but 
distinct 
thoughts 


Colon 

■ 

■ 


Pause before 
giving 

explanations 
or examples 



Ring ( )ut, Wild Bells/Winter Moon/Poets to ( tome ♦ 77 



RiNq Out, Wild BeIIs 



Alfred, Lord Tennyson 



Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky. 
The flying cloud, the frosty light: 
The year is dying in the night; 

Ring out, wild bells, and let him die. 

5 Ring out the old, ring in the new. 

Ring, happy bells, across the snow: 
The year is going, let him go; 
Ring out the false, ring in the true. 

Ring out the grief that saps 1 the mind, 
10 For those that here we see no more; 

Ring out the feud of rich and poor, 
Ring in redress 2 to all mankind. 

Ring out a slowly dying cause, 

And ancient forms of party strife ; 
15 Ring in the nobler modes 3 of life, 

With sweeter manners, purer laws. 

Ring out the want, the care, the sin, 

The faithless coldness of the times; 
Ring out, ring out thy mournful rhymes, 
20 But ring the fuller minstrel 4 in. 

Ring out false pride in place and blood. 
The civic 5 slander and the spite; 
Ring in the love of truth and right, 

Ring in the common love of good. 

25 Ring out old shapes of foul disease; 

Ring out the narrowing lust of gold; 

Ring out the thousand wars of old, 
Ring in the thousand years of peace. 



1. saps (saps) v. drains; exhausts. 

2. redress (ri dres') n. the righting of wrongs. 

3. modes (modz) n. ways; forms. 

4. fuller minstrel (min' stral) n. singer of the highest rank. 

5. civic (siv' ik) adj. of a city. 




strife (strif) n. conflict 



Alfred, Lord Tennyson 



(1809-1892) 

Born in rural 
England, 
Tennyson left 
home as a 
teenager to 
attend Cambridge 
University. While at 
Cambridge, Tennyson 
won a university prize for 
poetry, his first step on the 
way to becoming a famous 
poet. In 1850, Queen 
Victoria appointed him 
Poet Laureate of England. 

"Ring Out, Wild Bells" is 
part of the long poem "In 
Memoriam A.H.H." This 
poem's title means "In 
Memory," and Tennyson 
wrote it in memory of his 
close friend, Arthur Henry 
Hallam, who died in 1833. 
The section "Ring Out, 
Wild Bells" marks a New 
Year's holiday after his 
friend's death. 



78 ♦ Coming of Age 




Langston Hughes 



How thin and sharp is the moon tonight! 

How thin and sharp and ghostly white 

Is the slim curved crook of the moon tonight! 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selections 

1. Respond: What is a New Year's hope that you have expressed? 

2. (a) Recall: List three phrases that describe what Tennyson 
wants to "ring out." (b) Infer: How does the poet seem 

to feel about the past? (c) Draw Conclusions: In what 
way is this poem about more than the passing of the 
old year? 

3. (a) Recall: List three phrases that describe what 
Tennyson wants to "ring in." (b) Infer: Explain what 
the poet hopes the future will bring. 

4. (a) Recall: Which phrases are repeated in "Winter 



oon 



(b) Interpret: What qualities of the moon 



6. 



M 

appeal to Hughes? 

(a) Apply: How does Hughes's poem make you feel about the 
moon? (b) Interpret: In your own words, describe the moon 
the speaker sees. 

Make a Judgment: What, if anything, is the value of making 
New Year's resolutions? 




Langston Hughes 



(1902-1967) 

Langston Hughes 
incorporated the 
rhythms of blues, 
jazz, and African 
American speech 
in his poetry. He 
came of age during 
the Harlem Renaissance of 
the 1920s. This renaissance, 
or rebirth, was a flowering 
of African American writ- 
ers, musicians, and painters 
in New York City's neigh- 
borhood of Harlem. 



Winter Moon ♦ 79 



Poets to Come 

Walt Whitman 



Poets to come! orators , singers, musicians to come! 
Not to-day is to justify me and answer what I am for, 
But you, a new brood, native, athletic, continental, 

greater than before known, 
Arouse! for you must justify me. 

I myself but write one or two indicative words for 

the future, 
I but advance a moment only to wheel and hurry 

back in the darkness. 

I am a man who, sauntering along without fully 

stopping, turns a casual look upon you and then 
averts his face, 

Leaving it to you to prove and define it. 

Expecting the main things from you. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you feel that Whitman is speaking 
directly to you in "Poets to Come"? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Whom docs Whitman call on to justify 
himself? (b) Infer: On what topic is Whitman asking to 
he justified? 

3. (a) Recall: In the second stanza, how does Whitman describe 
what he is writing? (b) Connect: How does this description 
relate to the future poets? 

4. (a) Recall: What does Whitman say he does after 
"advancing] a moment"? (b) Interpret: How does Whitman 
present himself and his influence on the world of poetry? 

(c) Evaluate: How accurate or inaccurate is his summary of 
his influence? 



orators (or' at arz) 
public speakers 



n. 



indicative (in dik' a tiv) adj. 
giving a suggestion; 
showing 



sauntering (son' tar in.) v. 
walking slowly and 
confidently 




Walt Whitman 



(1819-1892) 

The course of 
American poetry 
was influenced by 
Walt Whitman's 
Leaves of Grass, 
first published in 
1855. Whitman, a 
New Yorker who 
worked at a variety of jobs, 
created bold new poems to 
suit a new country. He dis- 
carded the regular rhythms 
and rhymes of traditional 
poetry in favor of his own 
invented rhythms and 
unrhymed lines. 



80 ♦ Coming of Age 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Repetition in Poetry 

1. In "Poets to Come," how does the repetition of the pronouns I and 
you emphasize the poem's meaning? 

2. What words are repeated in "Winter Moon"? Based on the descrip- 
tion, to what could you compare the moon? 

3. Complete a chart like the one below to examine the use of 
repetition of "ring out" and "ring in" in Tennyson's poem. Explain 
the change in emphasis you discover. 



Line 
number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 


Ring out x XX 






























Ring in 


3EI.I J 


X 

































Comparing Literary Works 

4. What is the specific topic of each poem? 

5. How does the speaker of each poem feel about the change being 
observed or described? 

6. Make a chart like the one below to note similarities among the 
three poems. Place checkmarks in the appropriate boxes. 



"Ring Out, "Winter "Poets 
Wild Bells" Moon" to Come" 


use of repetition 
use of rhyme 


V 












moment of change 







Reading Strategy 

Reading Poetry According to Punctuation 

7. Explain where you would pause and where you would stop in lines 
21-24 of "Ring Out, Wild Bells." 

8. Whicb of these poems calls for no pauses and just two stops? Explain. 

Extend Understanding 

9. Social Studies Connection: Explain how the words of "Ring Out, 
Wild Bells" could be applied to specific events and social conditions 
in the United States m the first ball of the nineteenth century. 



Quick Review 

Repetition in poetry is the 
use, more than once, of 
certain sounds, words, 
and phrases in a poem. 
To review repetition in 
poetry, see page 77. 



Punctuation marks are 
instructions for reading 
a poem. They tell you 
when to pause and when 
to stop. To review 
punctuation marks, see 
page 77. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding ot 
these selections. 



Rinc < )ut, Wild BeUs/Winter M<«m//Vfs to ( *.ome ♦ HI 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Suffix -or 

The Latin suffix -or signals that a word means 
"a person or thing that does something." In "Poets 
to Come," Whitman addresses future orators, 
"people who give public speeches." The word 
orator combines orate, "to give a speech," and -or. 

Use your knowledge of the Latin suffix -or to 
explain the meaning of the italicized words in 
the following paragraph. Write the definitions on 
your paper. 

A new movie featured a fight among 
the Terminator, the Eliminator, and the 
Hesitator. While the Hesitator was waiting, 
the first two guys destroyed each other. 
Then, the movie projector caught on fire. I 
had to stop applauding to dial the emer- 
gency operator. 

Grammar Lesson 

Intensive Pronouns 

Intensive pronouns are formed by combining a 
personal pronoun and the suffix -self or -selves . 

myself; ourselves; yourself, yourselves; herself, 
himself, itself; themselves 

Intensive pronouns emphasize the person's 
role or indicate that a person performs an action 
alone. In a sentence, an intensive pronoun stress- 
es the importance of the noun or other pronoun 
that comes before it. 

Emphasizes Person: "I myself but write one or 
two indicative words for / the future, . . ." 

Indicates Person Acts Alone: I'll do it 
myself, thanks. 



Fluency: True or False? 

On your paper, answer these true-or-false 
questions. Then, explain your answers. 

1. The best orators usually win debates. 

2. A jogger is accustomed to sauntering. 

3. The color red may be indicative of danger. 

4. Strife is what ends when a war begins. 

Spelling Strategy 

When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel 
to words ending in e, drop the e. 

indicate + Ave = indicative 

advise + -or = advisor 
On your paper, spell the word that results from 
combining these words and suffixes. 

1. create + -or 3. senate + -or 

2. face + -ial 4. machine + -ist 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise A. 
Practice On your paper, identify the intensive 
pronoun in each sentence. Tell whether it 
emphasizes the person or indicates that the 
person acts alone. 

1. I myself read "Poets to Come" aloud. 

2. Did you yourself see the winter moon? 

3. Whitman himself addresses future poets, 
without a backup chorus of voices. 

4. We ourselves can ring the bells. 

Writing Application On your paper, fill in each 
blank with a suitable intensive pronoun. 

1. I ? was born on January fifth. 

2. Have you ? seen a crescent moon? 

3. They made the poetry book ? 



v\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 14 



82 ♦ Coming of Age 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 



Writing Lesson 

Literary Response 

Choose one of the poets, read an article or essay about him or his work, and then 
write a composition in which you agree or disagree with the writer of the article. 

Prewriting As you read your article, take notes on words used to describe the 
poet's work and the examples used to illustrate the descriptions. 

Drafting Give an overview of what you have read and state whether or not 
you agree with the writer. Include details from your reading and 
quotations from the poem. When you include someone else's ideas, 
either word for word or paraphrased, you must credit the source. 



Model: Citing Sources 

Although Whitman seemed larger-than-life in his poetry, 
people who met him were surprised at how "conventional" 
he seemed. (Townsend 12) The following lines from "Poets 
to Come" create the impression of a forceful man: "But you, 
a new brood, native, athletic, continental, greater than 
before known. /Arouse! for you must justify me" (3-5). 



Townsend's reaction is 
paraphrased but must be 
credited as his original 
thought. Whitman's lines 
are quoted exactly and 
are also cited. 



Revising Check the accuracy of your citations and the spellings of all names. 
y\A Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 77, Section 5 



Extension Activities 

Speaking and Listening Choose one of the 
poems to deliver as a recitation — a performance 
of a memorized poem. Before reading, prepare a 
rehearsal copy of the poem. 

1. Use a red pen to emphasize punctuation 
that indicates where to pause or stop. 

2. Use a yellow highlighter to mark words 
and phrases that you want to emphasize by 
speaking more slowly or loudly than you 
do in the rest of the poem. 

Memorize the poem from your rehearsal eopy. 
After your recitation, ask listeners to suggest 
improvements. 



Research and Technology Work with a group to 
prepare a presentation on the phases oi the 
moon. Make a chart showing all the phases and 
how long each one lasts. Research in online 
encyclopedias, astronomy Web sites, and the 
NASA Web site for facts and photographs. 
Identify the phase Hughes is probably describing 
in his poem. Discuss words he might have used in 
a poem about the other phases. 



B 

( Jo o 

usin^ the Internet. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 



Ring ( )ut. Wild Bells/Winter Mom/Poets to ( )ome ♦ 83 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 




IH—li.,; —■ I ■ ————HI ■■■ill ill ■■■■■■ ■■—■■■ , N . 

Eyewitness Accounts j 



About Eyewitness Accounts 

In your everyday life, each time you observe and report on something 
you have seen, you are making an eyewitness account. Eyewitness 
accounts are used for a number of different reasons: police investigations, 
lawsuits, news stories, and historical reference, to name just a few. The 
following selection, from A Tour on the Prairies, is an eyewitness account 
written by Washington Irving after his journey to the western frontier of 
the United States in the mid 1800s. At the time this account was written, 
its purpose was to give people information about a region that was still 
largely unknown to them. Today, this account serves a different purpose; 
it is now a historical account of the West as it was before it was settled. 

When reading eyewitness accounts, it is important to remember that 
they may not always be reliable. For example, a number of people may 
witness the same event, but their accounts will always be different because 
they each have a different perspective. Nonetheless, as historical primary 
sources — documents written during the time period being studied — eye- 
witness accounts can offer readers an unromantic view of the past. 

Reading Strategy 

Evaluating a Text 

When reading informational texts critically, it is important to evaluate 
the texts for internal consistency and logic. Internal consistency includes 
coherent ideas that build upon one another as well as a solid logical develop- 
ment. A text that develops logically has 

• ideas that build toward an overall theme or purpose. 

• sentences and paragraphs that flow in a logical sequence. 

• reliable facts, statistics, or quotations that support main points. 

When writing is not consistent or logical, it often loses its credibility with 
readers. Use a chart like the one below to help you evaluate the text of 
the beginning of A Tour on the Prairies. 



Logical Technique Examples 


Sentences and paragraphs 
flow logically 


• Irving tells how people wanted to know about his journey 
west, thereby explaining his reason for writing his book. 


• 


Ideas fit together toward a 
main goal 


• 


• 
/ 



"■""""^" 



pr 



♦ Coming of Age 







laving, since my return to the United States, made a wide 
and varied tour, for the gratification of my curiosity, it has been 
supposed that I did it for the purpose of writing a book; and it 
has more than once been intimated in the papers, that such a 
work was actually in the press, containing scenes and sketches 
of the Far West. 

These announcements, gratuitously made for me, before I had 
put pen to paper, or even contemplated anything of the kind, 
have embarrassed me exceedingly. I have been like a poor actor, 
who finds himself announced for a part he had no thought of 
playing, and his appearance expected on the stage before he 
has committed a line to memory. 



Reading Informational Material: Eyewitness Am units ♦ <ss 



* 



I have always had a repugnance, amounting almost to disabil- 
ity, to write in the face of expectation; and, in the present instance, 
I was expected to write about a region fruitful of wonders and 
adventures, and which had already been made the theme of 
spirit-stirring narratives from able pens; yet about which I had 
nothing wonderful or adventurous to offer. 

Since such, however, seems to be the desire of the public, and 
that they take sufficient interest in my wanderings to deem them 
worthy of recital, I have hastened, as promptly as possible, to 
meet, in some degree, the expectation which others have excited. 
For this purpose, I have, as it were, plucked a few leaves out of 
my memorandum book, containing a month's foray beyond the 
outposts of human habitation, into the wilderness of the Far 
West. It forms, indeed, but a small portion of an extensive tour; 
but it is an episode, complete as far as it goes. As such, I offer 
it to the public, with great diffidence. It is a simple narrative of 
every-day occurrences; such as happen to every one who travels 
the prairies. I have no wonders to describe, nor any moving 
accidents by flood or field to narrate; and as to those who look 
for a marvellous or adventurous story at my hands, I can only 
reply, in the words of the weary knife-grinder: "Story! God bless 
you, I have none to tell, sir." 

In the often vaunted regions of the Far West, several hundred 
miles beyond the Mississippi, extends a vast tract of uninhabited 
country, where there is neither to be seen the log-house of the 
white man, nor the wigwam of the Indian. It consists of great 
grassy plains, interspersed with forests and groves, and clumps 

of trees, and watered by the Arkansas, the grand Canadian, the 
Red River, and their tributary streams. Over these fertile and ver- 
dant wastes still roam the elk, the buffalo, and the wild horse, in 

all their native freedom. These, in fact, are the hunting grounds 
of the various tribes of the Far West. Hither repair the Osage, 
the Creek, the Delaware and other tribes that have linked them- 
selves with civilization, and live within the vicinity of the white 
settlements. Here resort also, the Pawnees, the Comanches, and 
other fierce, and as yet independent tribes, the nomads of the 
prairies, or the inhabitants of the skirts of the Rocky Mountains. 
The regions I have mentioned form a debatable ground of these 
warring and vindictive tribes; none of them presume to erect a 
permanent habitation within its borders. 



Irving reveals 
that he has read 
other writers' 
descriptions of his 
topic. 



Irving identifies 
his purpose. 



Here Irving gives 
an indication of 
what readers will 
find in his 
account. 



This section gives 
readers a picture 
of the region as it 
once was. 



86 ♦ Coming of Age 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. Why did Irving make a journey west? 

2. What did people believe was Irving's reason for traveling west? 

3. Give three details Irving uses to describe the prairie. 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Evaluating the Text 

4. Does this text build toward a main idea or an overall purpose? 

5. What was Irving's original writing purpose? 

6. How has that purpose affected the organization of the writing? 

7. What words or phrases does Irving use to connect sentences and 
paragraphs? 

Activity 

Comparing Works by Washington Irving 

Washington Irving was a well-known American writer during the 
1800s. He wrote numerous works of both fiction and nonfiction. Find and 
read a fictional work by Irving. Then, compare it with A Tour on the 
Prairies. How are the writing styles different? In a brief essay, explain 
which work you prefer and why. 

Contrasting Informational Materials 

Eyewitness Accounts and Biographies 

A biography is an account of a person's life written by another individ- 
ual. The biographer gathers information from primary sources, such as 
letters, diaries, and interviews with the subject or people who knew the 
subject, and then weaves together and interprets the information. 

Autobiographical writing, which includes eyewitness accounts, is less 
objective. The writer is the subject of the writing and presents events and 
observations from a personal viewpoint. Look at the Venn diagram for an 
overview of the differences between biography and autobiography. 



Eyewitness Accounts 





•written 



from author's 

perspective 

•may not be 

objective 



Biographies 



•writer does not 
participate in action 
• uses letters, journals, 
and interviews of 

subject 




Reading Informational Material: Eyewitness Accounts ♦ 87 



Writing workshop 



Narration: Autobiographical Writing 



Narrative writing is writing that tells a story. An autobiographical 
narrative tells the story of a memorable event, person, period, or 
situation in the writer's life. In this workshop, you will write about an 
interesting incident that happened to you. 

Assignment Criteria. Your autobiographical narrative should have 
the following characteristics: 

• a consistent first-person point of view 

• a clear sequence of true events from your life, presented in a logical 
order 

• a central conflict, problem, or shift in perspective 

• your thoughts and feelings about the experience 

• vivid details that describe people, setting, and actions 

• dialogue that helps reveal your characters' personalities 

See the Rubric on page 91 for the criteria on which your autobiographi- 
cal narrative may be assessed. 



Prewriting 



Choose a topic. Draw and label 
a blueprint of a familiar place — a 
friend's house, your school, or a 
park. List the people, things, and 
incidents you associate with each 
spot on the blueprint. Pick one as 
your topic. The blueprint at right 
shows the events and experiences 
one writer associates with the town 
baseball field. 

Consider your audience and 
purpose. Knowing who your read- 
ers will be and why you want to 
tell them your story can help you 
decide how and what to tell. If 
your purpose is to entertain your 
audience, focus on the funny, mov- 
ing, or exciting parts of your story. 
If your purpose is to share a lesson 
you learned, focus on the events 
that illustrate the lesson and the 
conclusions you draw from them. 



Model: Blueprint 




♦ Coming of Age 







Student Model 

Before you begin drafting your autobiographical narrative, read this student 
model and review the characteristics of a successful autobiographical narrative. 



r 



Chris Kleinhen 

Palos Verdes, California 



Baseball, a Sport I Love 

I remember the day my dad placed a glove in one of my hands and a 
bat in the other and told me the combination was an eight-letter word 
called baseball. Ever since then, most of my memories have been related to 



the sport. When I was eleven, I played in a game I'll remember forever. 

We were facing the West Torrance Bull Dogs. We had a great team 
that year. Our pitcher, Frank (The Smasher) was tough to hit. The nick- 
names of other players — "Hot Glove," "Fireball," and "Maguire, Jr." were 
earned with outstanding play during the season. We had a team of stars. 
The only one who had not earned a "star" nickname was Matt. 

The nine starters took the field at five o'clock on a warm afternoon. 
The small crowd of parents and friends made enough noise for a major 
league game. For most of the game the two teams were evenly matched. 
Then, in the last inning, Pat "The Runstopper" at third base was injured as 
one of the Bull Dogs accidentally rammed his ankle while sliding into third 
base. We had two choices: forfeit the game or play Matt. 

"You can do it, Matt!" the coach said as he sent Matt out to take Pat's 
place on third base. 

"All right, Matt!" we encouraged from our places in the field as he 
trotted out nervously. 

The score was tied with two outs. Unfortunately, the next ball took a 
sharp bounce toward third — and toward Matt. Matt ran forward and made 
an awkward catch, followed by an even more awkward lob toward first. 
Amazingly it made it there in time! 

As we jogged back in the players called out "Way to go, Matt!" "You 
came through in the clutch!" 

That's when I realized the truth of something the coach is always 
telling us. When you play as a team, everyone is a star. And that's exactly 
what I told Matt, whose new nickname is "Clutch." 



The writer begins 
by identifying when 
the action of the 
narrative begins. 



Details about the 
warmth and the 
noise help bring 
the scene to life. 



The injury increases 
the tension of the 
conflict between the 
two teams. 



Dialogue helps 
readers feel as if 
they are witnessing 
this important 
conversation. 



I 



Here, the writer 
reveals how his 
experience has 
helped him look at 
his favorite sport in 
a new way. 



Writing Workshop ♦ 89 



Writing workshop continued 



Drafting 

Order events. Identify the conflict, or problem, that makes your narra- 
tive worth reading. Organize events that are related to the conflict in 
chronological (time) order. As you introduce people, places, and things 
into your narrative, add details that bring these elements of your narra- 
tive to life. In your first draft, you can use sticky notes to jot down details 
that you would like to add when you revise. 



West Torrance 
Bull Dogs 






Model 

We were facing(our rivaK)in a game that put the pride of 
both teams at stake. Neither team wanted to lose, and 
neither team planned to lose. We had a great team that year. 
We had alteam of stars)— except maybe the benchwarmer, Matt. 



Use a consistent point of view. Stick to first-person point of view, 
using the pronoun / to refer to yourself. Avoid telling what other people 
in your narrative are thinking or feeling. As a first-person narrator, you 
can only know and tell your own thoughts and feelings. 

Revising 

Revise sentence patterns. Look over your sentences to see how sen- 
tence variety can make your story more interesting. Color-code the first 
word of each sentence in your draft. For example, use green to highlight 
or circle articles; orange for pronouns; blue for adjectives; red for 
adverbs; and yellow for prepositions. When writing in the first person, 
you may find that many of the sentences begin with /. Revise to make 
some of them begin with another kind of word. 






Model 

Draft: I remember the first time I held a baseball. I knew then I would 

love the game. I remember one game especially. 

Revision: I remember the first time I held a baseball. Even then, I 

knew I would love the game. One game, especially, stands out in my 

memory. 



Add examples — 
great pitching, 
nicknames earned 



90 ♦ Coming of Age 



Revise for word choice. Look for vague nouns that might leave read- 
ers asking What kind? Replace them with precise nouns. 

Example: Weeds filled the place. 

Weeds filled the playground. 

Identify vague verbs, and replace them with vivid, precise verbs. 

Example: Weeds filled the playground. 

Weeds overran the playground. 

Compare the model and the nonmodel. Why is the model more effec- 
tive than the nonmodel? 



r 

Nonmodel 


Model 


People cheered as we headed out. 


Fans cheered as we headed out. 


Usually, 1 feel comfortable as 1 go out 


Usually, 1 feel comfortable as 1 jog out 


to my spot. On this day, though, 1 was so 


to third base. On this day, though, 1 was 


nervous, 1 barely felt my shoes hitting 


so nervous, 1 barely felt my cleats hitting 


the ground. 


i the ground. 



Publishing and Presenting 

Choose one of the following ways to share your writing with class- 
mates or a wider audience. 

Present an autobiographical storytelling or a speech. Use your 
autobiographical narrative as the basis for a narrative presentation. 

Make a comic strip. Create a comic strip based on your narrative. 
Draw pictures to show important scenes. Exaggerate actions or facial 
expressions for effect, and use speech bubbles to show what people say. 
Post your comic strip in the classroom. 



% 



i 



Speaking Connection 

To learn more about pre- 
senting an autobiographical 
narrative, see the Listening 
and Speaking Workshop: 
Organizing and Presenting 
a Narrative Presentation, 
page 92. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4. 



Rubric for Self-Assessment 



Evaluate your autobiographical narrative using the following criteria and rating scale: 



Rating Scale 
Criteria Not very Very 


How consistently does the writer use first-person point of view? 


12 3 4 5 


Is the central conflict, problem, or shift in perspective clearly explained? 


12 3 4 5 


How often does the writer include thoughts, feelings, and reactions? 


12 3 4 5 


How vivid are the details of people, setting, and action? 


12 3 4 5 


How well does the writer use dialogue to reveal characters' personalities? 

V . , 


12 3 4 5 

d 



Writing Workshop ♦ '>/ 



Listening and Speaking workshop 



Organizing and Presenting a Narrative Presentation 



Narratives tell a story. Narratives can be written stories or stories told aloud 
by a narrator. In this workshop, you will present a true narrative account— a 
story from your life or the life of someone else. (To review the characteristics 
of autobiographical narratives, see the writing workshop, pp. 88-91. )The 
following strategies will help you to deliver an effective account. 



Organize and Rehearse 



Like a written narrative, an oral narrative should spin out a story, telling 
the events in chronological order and focusing on the central conflict, or 
struggle, in the story. Follow these guidelines to plan your presentation. 

Plot the story. Write each event in your narrative on one 
note card. Label the card that contains the first event with a B 
for beginning; the card that describes the high point of the 
story with a Cfor climax; and the card that describes the last 
event with an Efor ending. Check to see that each event is 
related to the story's central conflict. Then, put the cards in 
the correct sequence and discard any that are not related. 

Add details. On each note card, add details that you will tell 

about the people and setting of your story. Jot down lines of 

dialogue to bring the incident to life. Include on your cards 

notes about how you or the subject of the narrative felt about the events 

as they occurred. 

Rehearse. Practice in front of a mirror. Use note cards to jog your 
memory, but put them aside when you no longer need them. Think 
about word choice and grammar. 

• For your dialogue, choose words that the people would actually use. 

• Think about your audience and setting. While you might use casual 
language to deliver your narrative at a campfire, you will want to 
choose your words carefully for a classroom presentation. 

Deliver Your Account. Remember these points as you present your 
narrative. 

• Stand confidently, balancing your weight on both feet. 

• Pronounce each word carefully so your audience will hear it. 

• Do not rush. Take breaths as you need them. 

• Slow down to build suspense. Speed up for exciting action. 

• Look at different people. Do not stare at the floor or the ceiling. 



Model: Plot Card 

B 



I went outside one late night with 
my little sister when she discovered 
that her cat Samantha was missing. 



—bA ctjvity^}— With a partner, take turns rehearsing your 

IjimillfMinifflffliHiTFriP narratives. Provide feedback for each other on 
the flow of the story, enunciation, pacing, and word choice. Mention the 
strengths of each presentation, and brainstorm ideas for improvement. 



92 ♦ Coming of Age 






Assessment workshop 



Context Clues 



The reading sections of some tests ask you to read a passage and 
answer questions about word meanings. Some questions require you 
to determine the meanings of words by using context clues— words 
or phrases near an unfamiliar word that can help you figure out the 
word's meaning. The following strategies will help you answer such 
test questions: 

• A context clue may be a synonym (word with the same meaning) 
or an antonym (word with the opposite meaning) of the unfamil- 
iar word. 

• Sometimes the passage contains a definition or an explanation 
of the unfamiliar word or a description with details or examples 
that can help you figure out the word's meaning. 



Test-Taking Strategies 



• Skim the questions before 
reading the passage. 
Knowing the question 
will help you locate infor- 
mation more efficiently. 



Sample Test Item 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the item that follows. 

The town's first Amateur Scientists 
Night was a huge success. The most pop- 
ular participant was a local ornithologist, 
who showed slides of birds he had stud- 
ied all over the world. 

1. The word ornithologist in this passage 
means — 

A worldwide traveler 

B person who studies birds 

C photographer 

D endangered species 



Answer and Explanation 



The context tells you that the correct 
answer has to be an amateur scientist, so 
A and C are incorrect. D does not make 
sense since humans are not an endan- 
gered species. Sis correct. 



Practice 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the items that follow. 

On her way home from work, Janice 
saw the sign in the storefront: Cooking 
Classes Start Tonight at 8 RM. She imag- 
ined herself surprising her family with 
one culinary treat after another. Promptly 
at eight, she returned to the store, only 
to discover that preregistration was 
required. 

1. In this passage, the word culinary 
means — 

A related to school 

B related to money 

C related to cooking 

D related to dessert 

2. The word preregistration in this pas- 
sage means — 

A wearing specialized clothing 

B bringing supplies 

C paying cash 

D signing up ahead of time 



Assessment Workshop ♦ 93 



UNIT 



Meeting Challenge 




7.* Jl v * ?*. . <fw* 



■■■■HHHHBHaBanH 




Exploring the Theme 



JL rom taking your first steps, to learning to ride 
a two-wheeled bicycle, to graduating with honors, 
to making a scientific breakthrough or winning a 
writing prize — challenges occur throughout life. 
Some challenges make headlines; others are 
personal. 



< Critical Viewing What message about meeting 
challenges might this painting express? [Interpret] 



Exploring the Theme ♦ 95 



V 



Read Literature? 



The literature in this unit explores the theme of meeting challenges— the 
exciting, dangerous, or unfamiliar opportunities that people face. Depending on 
the content, genre, and style of the works you plan to read, you will set various 
purposes for reading. Preview three of the purposes you might set before read- 
ing the works in this unit. 



<► 



Read for the love of literature. 

A person who weighs 120 pounds on 
Earth would weigh only 20 pounds on the 
moon ! The reason for this is that 

gravity on the moon is only 
one-sixth as strong as it is 
on Earth. Imagine living 
on such a world when 
you read "The Secret," 
page 118. 




The state name 7exas comes from the 
way Spanish adventurers pronounced the 
Native American word Tejas, meaning 
"friends" or "allies." Explore the early days of 
the American West by reading the poems 
"Western Wagons" and "The Other 
Pioneers," page 146. 






V j 






Read to be entertained. 

The average winter temper- 
ature in the Yukon is twenty 
degrees below zero. Frostbite 
can damage unprotected skin 
in moments. Experience the 
danger and suspense of a 
Yukon adventure when you 
read about a character who 
battles the Yukon winter in "Up 
the Slide," page 156. 



Read for information. 



During the 1800s, rewards 
offered for the capture of Harriet 
Tubman, the African American 
woman who led many enslaved 
Africans to freedom, were as 
high as $40,000.That amount is 
eight times as much as the 
$5,000 reward offered by the 
Governor of Missouri for the capture of outlaw Jesse 
James. Find out why slave owners were willing to pay such 
a high sum to stop this daring rescuer. Read "Harriet 
Tubman: Guide to Freedom" on page 130. 

Learn the ins and outs of reading and understanding con- 
tracts by reading the Employment Contract on page 113. 




Take It to the Net 



Visit the Web site for online instruction and 
activities related to each selection in this unit. 

www.phschool.com 



96 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Mi 



mmm 






rlULU to Read Literature 

Use Literal Comprehension Strategies 

Reading is like any challenging process: When you know the basics, it 
becomes easier. In reading, knowing the basics means understanding the 
literal meaning of the text. Once you know that you understand the mean- 
ings of the words and phrases, you can begin interpreting and analyzing. 
Preview the literal comprehension strategies that you will use in this unit to 
understand what you are reading. 



1. Interpret idioms. 

An idiom is a word or phrase whose literal meaning is different from 
its intended meaning. The idiom in the following example is italicized. 

Now came this shriek: "Here! You going to set there all day?" 

I lit in the middle of the floor, shot there by the electric sudden- 
ness of surprise. 

You can figure out from the surrounding text that Twain does not 
mean he did something to brighten the floor. After reading the whole 
passage, you interpret "lit" to mean that he "moved in a hurry" or that 
he fell back on the floor. Recognizing when writers are using figures of 
speech will help you understand what writers mean. 

2. Paraphrase. 

Restating unfamiliar phrases and sentences in your own words can 



[**** 



help you understand them. To paraphrase, ask yourself these questions: O/./ 

t0 9o, «* 



• What is the main point? 

• What additional details are provided? 

• Which words would I use to express the main point and details? 
Organize details of a passage in your mind by paraphrasing 



^Or 






c/e 



**Qt 



/ 



fc*5fc 



In 



'9h t 



of th 
9o dn . th *nn 0i 



3. Recognize word roots. 

A word root is the most basic part of a word. For example, 
the word microbe, meaning "small form of life," contains 
the Greek word roots micro, meaning "small," and bio (be), 
meaning "life." 

micro + be = microbe 

small + life = small form of life 

In this unit, you will learn to use word roots and origins to 
determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. 

As you read the selections in this unit, review the reading strategies and 
look at the notes in the side column. Use the suggestions to apply the 
strategies and comprehend the text. 













of 



fray 



"n 



Uc)l 



rn , 



'o Se 



M 



*nt, 



In 



°Pe 



<3/>7 



I low in Read Literature ♦ ')/ 



Prepare to Read 



Cub Pilot on the Mississippi 





Vff As you read 
^v/da^ this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



In the 1800s, steamboats carried goods and people on the nation's 
waterways. On the wide, long Mississippi River, people could travel 
quickly and sometimes luxuriously on steamboats. However, there were 
also dangers. Fires broke out, boilers burst, hidden rocks and sandbars 
could damage ships, and steamboat crews had to negotiate ever-changing 
currents. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 3.3 Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters 

from different historical eras confronting similar situations and conflicts. {Introduced in 

the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives. 

(Developed in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Developed in the 

Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 1.8 Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, 

slanted or biased material). (Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



98 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




Literary Analysis 



Conflict Between Characters 

"Cub Pilot on the Mississippi" tells of a conflict between characters — a 
struggle between two characters with opposite needs or wants. In this story, 
the conflict is between young Twain and the steamboat pilot for whom he 
works. 

As you read, look for details that contribute to this conflict. Use the fol- 
lowing focus questions to guide you. 

1. What are the two sides of the conflict between Twain and Pilot 
Brown ? 

2. How is the conflict between them finally worked out? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Often, the way characters or people react to a conflict is guided by the 
historical context — the customs, laws, and expectations of the time 
period. In the historical context of "Cub Pilot on the Mississippi," a young 
man like Twain would not challenge authority. Decide how a character 
today would respond to a similar conflict. Use a graphic organizer like the 
one shown to help you make your comparison. 

Reading Strategy 

Identifying Idioms 

An idiom is an expression that has a certain understood meaning in a 
particular language or region. The italicized idioms in the example are 
understood by most English speakers. These expressions would not have the 
same meaning if they were translated word for word into another language. 

I lit in the middle of the floor, shot there by the electric sudden- 
ness of the surprise. 

As you read the story, notice how idioms give a feeling of reality to 
each speaker's words. 

Vocabulary Development 

furtive (fur' tiv) adj. sly or done in 
secret (p. 101) 

pretext (pre' tekst) n. false reason or 
motive used to hide a real intention 
(p. 103) 

intimation (in' ta ma shan) n. hint or 
suggestion (p. 105) 



judicious (jcro dish' as) adj. wise and 
careful (p. 105) 

indulgent (in dul' jant) adj. very mild 
and tolerant; not strict or critical 
(p. 107) 

emancipated (i man' sa pa' tad) v. 
deed from the control or power of 
another (p. 108) 



Today 



Laws protect 
employees 

Conflict 

with bullying 

authority 

Apprentices 

(young employees) 

have no rights 



Twain's Time 



( id 



//hi mi 



i/ie Mississibbi ♦ 99 



Cub Pilot 
onjhe Mississippi 

Mark Twain 



During the two or two and a half years of my apprenticeship 1 
I served under many pilots, and had experience of many kinds of 
steamboatmen and many varieties of steamboats. I am to this day 
profiting somewhat by that experience; for in that brief, sharp 
schooling, I got personally and familiarly acquainted with about all 
the different types of human nature that are to be found in fiction, 
biography, or history. 



1. apprenticeship (a pren' tis ship) n. time a person spends working for a master 
craftsperson in a craft or trade in return for instruction. 



▼ Critical Viewing 

Imagine the activity that 
might be happening in 
this scene. Why were 
riverboats important to 
the life of Mississippi 
towns like this? [Analyze] 




100 ♦ Meeting Challenges «/'■>., ;\'.-' '""'■' ■— 

HVttto* 3J0Q1W 'jWiCJOA 






The fact is daily borne in upon me that the average shore- 
employment requires as much as forty years to equip a man with 
this sort of an education. When I say I am still profiting by this 
thing, I do not mean that it has constituted me a judge of men — 
no, it has not done that, forjudges of men are born, not made. 
My profit is various in kind and degree, but the feature of it which 
I value most is the zest which that early experience has given to 
my later reading. When I find a well-drawn character in fiction or 
biography I generally take a warm personal interest in him, for the 
reason that I have known him before — met him on the river. 

The figure that comes before me oftenest, out of the shadows of 
that vanished time, is that of Brown, of the steamer Pennsylvania. 
He was a middle-aged, long, slim, bony, smooth-shaven, horse- 
faced, ignorant, stingy, malicious, snarling, fault-hunting, mote 2 
magnifying tyrant. I early got the habit of coming on watch with 
dread at my heart. No matter how good a time I might have been 
having with the off-watch below, and no matter how high my spir- 
its might be when I started aloft, my soul became lead in my body 
the moment I approached the pilothouse. 

I still remember the first time I ever entered the presence of that 
man. The boat had backed out from St. Louis and was "straightening 
down." I ascended to the pilothouse in high feather, and very proud 
to be semiofficially a member of the executive family of so fast and 
famous a boat. Brown was at the wheel. I paused in the middle of the 
room, all fixed to make my bow, but Brown did not 
look around. I thought he took a furtive glance at me 
out of the corner of his eye, but as not even this 
notice was repeated, I judged I had been mistaken. 
By this time he was picking his way among some 
dangerous "breaks" abreast the woodyards; therefore 
it would not be proper to interrupt him; so I stepped 
softly to the high bench and took a seat. 

There was silence for ten minutes: then my new 
boss turned and inspected me deliberately and 
painstakingly from head to heel for about — as it 
seemed to me — a quarter of an hour. After which 
he removed his countenance 3 and I saw it no more 
for some seconds; then it came around once more, 
and this question greeted me: "Are you Horace 
Bigsby's cub?" 4 
"Yes, sir." 

After Ihis there was a pause and another 
inspection. Then: "What's your name?" 




2. mote (mot) n. speck of dust. 

3. countenance (koun' ta nans) n. face. 

4. cub (kub) n. beginner. 



3<\ 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict Between 
Characters What clues 
here indicate that the 
conflict is between Twain 
and Brown? 



furtive (fur' tiv) adj. 
sly or done in secret 



%r Reading Check 

Why does Twain not like 
going to the pilothouse? 



MARTIN L KING, JR, 
ACADEMIC MIDDLE SCHOOL 



ib I'llft <>n the Mississippi ♦ 101 



I told him. He repeated it after me. It was probably the only 
thing he ever forgot; for although I was with him many months he 
never addressed himself to me in any other way than "Here!" and 
then his command followed. 

"Where was you born?" 

"In Florida, Missouri." 

A pause. Then: "Dern sight better stayed there!" 

By means of a dozen or so of pretty direct questions, he pumped 
my family history out of me. 

The leads 5 were going now in the first crossing. This interrupted 
the inquest. 6 When the leads had been laid in he resumed: 

"How long you been on the river?" 

I told him. After a pause: 

"Where'd you get them shoes?" 

I gave him the information. 

"Hold up your foot!" 

I did so. He stepped back, examined the shoe minutely and con- 
temptuously, scratching his head thoughtfully, tilting his high sugar- 
loaf hat well forward to facilitate the operation, then ejaculated, "Well, 
I'll be dod derned!" and returned to his wheel. 

What occasion there was to be dod derned about it is a thing 
which is still as much of a mystery to me now as it was then. It 
must have been all of fifteen minutes — fifteen minutes of dull, 
homesick silence — before that long horse-face swung round upon 
me again — and then what a change! It was as red as fire, and 
every muscle in it was working. Now came this shriek: "Here! You 
going to set there all day?" 

I lit in the middle of the floor, shot there by the electric suddenness 
of the surprise. As soon as I could get my voice I said apologetically: 
"I have had no orders, sir." 

"You've had no orders] My, what a fine bird we are! We must have 
orders\ Our father was a gentleman — and we've been to school. 
Yes, we are a gentleman, too, and got to have orders] Orders, is it? 
Orders is what you want! Dod dern my skin, I'll learn you to swell 
yourself up and blow around here about your dod-derned orders] 
G'way from the wheel!" (I had approached it without knowing it.) 

I moved back a step or two and stood as in a dream, all my 
senses stupefied by this frantic assault. 

"What you standing there for? Take that ice-pitcher down to the 
texas-tender! 7 Come, move along, and don't you be all day about it!" 

The moment I got back to the pilothouse Brown said: "Here! 
What was you doing down there all this time?" 



Reading Strategy 

Identifying Idioms What 
are two idioms Brown uses 
in his speech? 



5. leads (ledz) n. weights that were lowered to test the depth of the river. 

6. inquest (in' kwest) n. investigation. 

7. texas-tender the waiter in the officers' quarters (On Mississippi steamboats, rooms 
were named after the states. The officers' area, which was the largest, was named after 
what was then the largest state, Texas.) 



102 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



literature 



"I couldn't find the texas-tender; I had to go 
all the way to the pantry." 

"Derned likely story! Fill up the stove." 

I proceeded to do so. He watched me like a cat. 
Presently he shouted: "Fait down that shovel! 
Derndest numskull I ever saw — ain't even got sense 
enough to load up a stove." 

All through the watch this sort of thing went on. 
Yes. and the subsequent watches were much like it 
during a stretch of months. As I have said. I soon 
got the habit of coming on duty with dread. The 
moment I was in the presence, even in the darkest 
night, I could feel those yellow eyes upon me, and 
knew their owner was watching for a pretext to spit 
out some venom on me. Preliminarily he would 
say: "Here! Take the wheel." 

Two minutes later: "Where in the nation you 
going to? Pull her down! pull her down!" 

After another moment: "Say! You going to hold 
her all day? Let her go — meet her! meet her!" 

Then he would jump from the bench, snatch 
the wheel from me, and meet her himself, pouring 
out wrath upon me all the time. 

George Ritchie was the other pilot's cub. He 
was having good times now; for his boss, George 
Ealer, was as kind-hearted as Brown wasn't. 
Ritchie had steered for Brown the season before; 
consequently, he knew exactly how to entertain 
himself and plague me, all by the one operation. 
Whenever I took the wheel for a moment on 
Ealer's watch, Ritchie would sit back on the bench 
and play Brown, with continual ejaculations of 
"Snatch her! Snatch her! Derndest mudcat I ever 
saw!" "Here! Where are you going now? Going to ^^^^^^™ i 

run over that snag?"* "Pull her down] Don't you hear me? Pull her 
down]" 'There she goes! Jnst as I expected! I told you not to cramp 
that reef. G'way from the wheel!" 

So I always had a rough time of it, no matter whose watch il was: 
and sometimes it seemed to me that Ritchie's good-natured badgering 
was pretty nearly as aggravating as Brown's dead-earnest nagging. 

I often wanted to kill Brown, but this would not answer. A cub 
had to take everything his boss gave, in the way of vigorous com- 
ment and criticism; and we all believed that there was a United 
States law making it a penitentiary offense* to strike or threaten a 
pilot who was on duty. 

However, I could imagine myself killing Brown; there was no 
law against that; and that was the thing I used always lo do the 



ill COIltBXt Science Connection 



♦ River Navigation 

Snags are submerged trees 
that may not be visible from the 
surface. In the 1820s, riverboat 
builder Henry Shreve invented a 
boat to pull up and remove 
snags. This boat rammed a heavy 
iron wedge into a snag. Then 
lifting machinery hoisted the 
large, sodden trunks. By 1830, 
the snag boats, called "Uncle 
Sam's Tooth Pullers," had cleared 
most of the snags. Sometimes, a 
pilot would still have to steer 
around one that the snag boats 
had missed. 




This snag puller clears a tree 
from the river. 



pretext (pre' tekst) n. false 
reason or motive used to 
hide a real intention 

Literary Analysis 
Conflict and Historical 
Context In what ways 
does the historical context 
prevent the conflict from 
being settled? 

«/jReadinq Check 

How does Twain feel 
about Brown? Explain. 



( .H/) I'tloi on the Mississippi ♦ 10^ 



moment I was abed. Instead of going over my river in my mind, 
as was my duty, I threw business aside for pleasure, and killed 
Brown. I killed Brown every night for months; not in old, stale, 
commonplace ways, but in new and picturesque ones — ways that 
were sometimes surprising for freshness of design and ghastliness 
of situation and environment. 

Brown was always watching for a pretext to find fault; and if he 
could find no plausible pretext, he would invent one. He would scold 
you for shaving a shore, and for not shaving it; for hugging a bar, 
and for not hugging it; for "pulling down" when not invited, and for 
not pulling down when not invited; for firing up without orders, and 
for waiting for orders. In a word, it was his invariable rule to find 
fault with everything you did and another invariable rule of his was 
to throw all his remarks (to you) into the form of an insult. 

One day we were approaching New Madrid, bound down and 
heavily laden. Brown was at one side of the wheel, steering; I was at 
the other, standing by to "pull down" or "shove up." He cast a furtive 
glance at me every now and then. I had long ago learned what that 
meant; viz., he was trying to invent a trap for me. I wondered what 
shape it was going to take. By and by he stepped back from the 
wheel and said in his usual snarly way: 

"Here! See if you've got gumption enough to round her to." 

This was simply bound to be a success; nothing could prevent 
it; for he had never allowed me to round the boat to before; 
consequently, no matter how I might do the thing, he could find 
free fault with it. He stood back there with his greedy eye on me, 
and the result was what might have been foreseen: I lost my head 
in a quarter of a minute, and didn't know what I was about; I 
started too early to bring the boat around, but detected a green 
gleam of joy in Brown's eye, and corrected my mistake. I started 
around once more while too high up, but corrected myself again in 
time. I made other false moves, and still managed to save myself; 
but at last I grew so confused and anxious that I tumbled into the 
very worst blunder of all — I got too far down before beginning to 
fetch the boat around. Brown's chance was come. 

His face turned red with passion; he made one bound, hurled 
me across the house with a sweep of his arm, spun the wheel 
down, and began to pour out a stream of vituperation 8 upon me 
which lasted till he was out of breath. In the course of this speech 
he called me all the different kinds of hard names he could think 
of, and once or twice I thought he was even going to swear — but he 
had never done that, and he didn't this time. "Dod dern" was the 
nearest he ventured to the luxury of swearing. 

Two trips later I got into serious trouble. Brown was steering; 
I was "pulling down." My younger brother Henry appeared on the hur- 



Reading Strategy 
Identifying Idioms What 
is the figurative meaning 
of "I lost my head"? 



8. vituperation (vi too' pa ra' shan) n. abusive language. 
104 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




ricane deck, and shouted to Brown to stop at some landing or other, 
a mile or so below. Brown gave no intimation that he had heard any- 
thing. But that was his way: he never condescended to take notice of 
an underclerk. The wind was blowing; Brown was deaf (although he 
always pretended he wasn't), and I very much doubted if he had 
heard the order. If I had had two heads, I would have spoken; but as 
I had only one, it seemed judicious to take care of it; so I kept still. 

Presently, sure enough, we went sailing by that plantation. 
Captain Klinefelter appeared on the deck, and said: "Let her come 
around, sir, let her come around. Didn't Henry tell you to land here?" 

"No, sir!" 

"I sent him up to do it." 

"He did come up; and that's all the good it done, the dod-derned 
fool. He never said anything." 

"Didn't you hear him?" asked the captain of me. 

Of course I didn't want to be mixed up in this business, but there 
was no way to avoid it; so I said: "Yes, sir." 

I knew what Brown's next remark would be, before he uttered it. 
It was: "Shut your mouth! You never heard anything of the kind." 

I closed my mouth, according to instructions. An hour later Henry 
entered the pilothouse, unaware of what had been going on. He was 
a thoroughly inoffensive boy, and I was sorry to sec him come, for I 



intimation (in ta ma' shan) 
n. hint or suggestion 



judicious (joo dish' as) adj. 
showing sound judgment; 
wise and careful 



^Reading Check 

Describe Brown's 
treatment of Twain and 
Henry. 



( Hh Pilot on the Mississippi ♦ 105 



knew Brown would have no pity on him. Brown began, straightway: 
"Here! Why didn't you tell me we'd got to land at that plantation?" 

"I did tell you, Mr. Brown." 

"It's a lie!" 

I said: "You lie, yourself. He did tell you." 

Brown glared at me in unaffected surprise; and for as much as a 
moment he was entirely speechless; then he shouted to me: "I'll 
attend to your case in a half a minute!" then to Henry, "And you 
leave the pilothouse; out with you!" 

It was pilot law, and must be obeyed. The boy started out, and 
even had his foot on the upper step outside the door, when Brown, 
with a sudden access of fury, picked up a ten-pound lump of coal 
and sprang after him; but I was between, with a heavy stool, and 
I hit Brown a good honest blow which stretched him out. 

I had committed the crime of crimes — I had lifted my hand 
against a pilot on duty! I supposed I was booked for the peniten- 
tiary sure, and couldn't be booked any surer if I went on and 
squared my long account with this person while I had the chance; 
consequently I stuck to him and pounded him with my fists a con- 
siderable time. I do not know how long, the pleasure of it probably 
made it seem longer than it really was; but in the end he struggled 
free and jumped up and sprang to the wheel: a very natural solici- 
tude, for, all this time, here was this steamboat tearing down the 
river at the rate of fifteen miles an hour and nobody at the helm! 
However, Eagle Bend was two miles wide at this bank-full stage, 
and correspondingly long and deep: and the boat was steering her- 
self straight down the middle and taking no chances. Still, that was 
only luck — a body might have found her charging into the woods. 

Perceiving at a glance that the Pennsylvania was in no danger, 
Brown gathered up the big spyglass, war-club fashion, and 
ordered me out of the pilothouse with more than ordinary bluster. 
But I was not afraid of him now; so, instead of going, I tarried, 
and criticized his grammar. I reformed his ferocious 
speeches for him, and put them into good English, 
calling his attention to the advan- 
tage of pure English over the 
dialect of the collieries 9 whence he 
was extracted. He could have 
done his part to admiration in a 
crossfire of mere vituperation, of 
course; but he was not equipped 
for this species of controversy; so 
he presently laid aside his glass 
and took the wheel, muttering 
and shaking his head; and I 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict Between 
Characters Why does 
Twain stand up to Brown 
at this point in the story? 



▼ Critical Viewing 

Put yourself in the place of 
this pilot. What challenges 
does the river pose? 
[Assess] 



9. collieries (kal' yar ez) n. coal mines. 
106 ♦ Meeting ( challenges 




//////: 



retired to the bench. The racket had brought everybody to the hur- 
ricane deck, and I trembled when I saw the old captain looking up 
from amid the crowd. I said to myself, "Now I am done for!" for 
although, as a rule, he was so fatherly and indulgent toward the 
boat's family, and so patient of minor shortcomings, he could be 
stern enough when the fault was worth it. 

I tried to imagine what he would do to a cub pilot who had been 
guilty of such a crime as mine, committed on a boat guard-deep 10 
with costly freight and alive with passengers. Our watch was near- 
ly ended. I thought I would go and hide somewhere till I got a 
chance to slide ashore. So I slipped out of the pilothouse, and 
down the steps, and around to the texas-door, and was in the act 
of gliding within, when the captain confronted me! I dropped my 
head, and he stood over me in silence a moment or two, then said 
impressively: "Follow me." 

I dropped into his wake; he led the way to his parlor in the for- 
ward end of the texas. We were alone now. He closed the afterdoor, 
then moved slowly to the forward one and closed that. He sat 
down; I stood before him. He looked at me some little time, then 
said: "So you have been fighting Mr. Brown?" 

I answered meekly: "Yes, sir." 

"Do you know that that is a very serious matter?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Are you aware that this boat was plowing down the river fully five 
minutes with no one at the wheel?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Did you strike him first?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"What with?" 

"A stool, sir." 

"Hard?" 

"Middling, sir." 

"Did it knock him down?" 

"He — he fell, sir." 

"Did you follow it up? Did you do anything further?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"What did you do?" 

"Pounded him, sir." 

"Pounded him?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Did you pound him much? that is, severely?" 

"One might call it that, sir, maybe." 

"I'm deuced glad of it! Hark ye, never mention thai I said thai. You 
have been guilty of a great crime; and don't you ever be guilty of it 
again, on this boat. But — lay for him ashore! Give him a good sound 



indulgent (in dul' jent) adj. 
very mild and tolerant; 
not strict or critical 



^Reading Check 

What does Twain do to 
Brown? 



10. guard-deep here, a wooden frame protecting the paddle wheel. 



( )ub Pilot on the Mississippi ♦ 10/ 



thrashing, do you hear? I'll pay the expenses. Now go — and mind 
you, not a word of this to anybody. Clear out with you! You've been 
guilty of a great crime, you whelp!" 11 

I slid out. happy with the sense of a close shave and a mighty 
deliverance; and I heard him laughing to himself and slapping his fat 
thighs after I had closed his door. 

When Brown came off watch he went straight to the captain, who 
was talking with some passengers on the boiler deck, and demanded 
that I be put ashore in New Orleans — and added: "I'll never turn a 
wheel on this boat again while that cub stays." 

The captain said: "But he needn't come round when you are on 
watch, Mr. Brown." 

"I won't even stay on the same boat with him. One of us has got 
to go ashore." "Very well," said the captain, "let it be yourself," and 
resumed his talk with the passengers. 

During the brief remainder of the trip I knew how an emancipated 
slave feels, for I was an emancipated slave myself. While we lay 
at landings I listened to George Ealer's flute, or to his readings 
from his two Bibles, that is to say, Goldsmith and Shakespeare, 
or I played chess with him — and would have beaten him some- 
times, only he always took back his last move and ran the game 
out differently. 

11. whelp (hwelp) n. here, a disrespectful young man. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you want to be an apprentice pilot? Why or 
why not? 

2. (a) Recall: For about how long did Twain serve as a pilot's 
apprentice? (b) Infer: Why are cub pilots assigned to work with 
experienced pilots? (c) Interpret: Why is Brown's treatment of 
Twain unfair? 

3. (a) Recall: How does George Ritchie tease Twain? (b) Deduce: 
How do you know that Brown treated other cub pilots the same 
way he treated Twain? (c) Analyze Cause-and-Effect: Is 
Brown's treatment of Twain the result of a personal dislike or an 
overall attitude? Explain. 

4. (a) Recall: How does the captain react to Twain's beating of 
Brown? (b) Draw Conclusions: What are the captain's feelings 
about Brown? How do you know? 

5. (a) Take a stand: Do you think Twain should have hit Brown? 
Explain, (b) Apply: Under what circumstances, if any, should 
physical force be used to solve a problem? 

J 08 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




emancipated 

(ie man' se pa' ted) v. 
freed from the control 
or power of another 



Mark Twain 



(1835-1910) 

Growing up 
in Hannibal, 
Missouri, 
Mark Twain 
was enchanted 
by the nearby 
Mississippi River. 
Born Samuel 
Langhorne Clemens, Twain 
took his pen name from a 
riverman's call, "By the 
mark — twain," which 
means "the river is two 
fathoms (twelve feet) deep." 
Although Twain traveled 
all over the United States 
and worked as a printer, 
a prospector, a reporter, 
and an editor, his boyhood 
experiences on the 
Mississippi were the 
strongest influences on his 
most memorable writing. 
The Adventures of Tom 
Sawyer is a coming-of-age 
story about a boy in a 
small Missouri town. 
In The Adventures of 
Huckleberry Finn, Twain 
tells about a boy and a 
runaway slave who travel 
on the river together. 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict Between Characters 

1 . List three occasions in the narrative in which Twain and Brown are 
involved in a conflict. 

2. What are the two sides of the conflict between Twain and Pilot 
Brown? Fill out a graphic organizer like this one to show details 
that contribute to the conflict. 



Twain is inexperienced. 




Brown is demanding. 



3. How is the conflict between Twain and Mr. Brown finally worked out? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Explain how Twain's reactions are influenced by the laws, customs, 
and expectations of his time. 

5. What unexpected action does Twain do, given the historical context? 

Reading Strategy 

Identifying Idioms 

6. Complete a chart like the one below to show the difference between 
the literal and figurative meanings of idioms. 



r " 

Idiom Literal Meaning Figurative Meaning 


He would scold you for 
shaving a shore . . . 


cutting hair close to the 
face with a razor 


steering very close to a 
shore 


1 ascended to the pilot- 
house in fine feather. . . 






1 lostmyhead\r\ a quarter 

of a minute . . . 

> 







Extend Understanding 



7. Social Studies Connection: What other forms oi transportation 

would people have used when Twain was a cub pilot? (Use Twain's 
birth year to figure out the year Twain's story takes place.) 

8. Extend: Do you think "apprenticeship" is an effective way to learn 
a job? Why or why not ? 



Quick Review 

Conflict between 
characters is the struggle 
between two or more 
characters with opposing 
needs or wants. To review 
conflict between characters, 
see page 99. 



The historical context is 

the customs, laws, and 
expectations of the time 
period. To review historical 
context, see page 99. 



An idiom is an expression 
that has a certain meaning 
understood in a particular 
language or region. 
To review idioms, see 
page 99. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to C heck 
your understanding of 

the select ion. 



( uh Pifoi on the Mississippi ♦ 109 




age 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 




Word Analysis: Forms of judge 

The verb judge means "to decide [in a court of 
law]." On your paper, complete each sentence 
using judicious or judgment. 

1 . I do not make a ? about his behavior. 

2. My gym teacher is a ? referee. 

Spelling Strategy 

• When a word ends with e and the suffix 
begins with a consonant, do not drop the e 
spelling: severe + ly = severely. 

• When a word ends with e and the suffix 
begins with a vowel, drop the e: close + ing -closing. 

Add the suffixes to these words. 



1. offensive + ly 


3. time + ly 


2. emancipate + ed 


4. false + hood 



Grammar Lesson 

Verbs and Verb Phrases 

A verb is a word that expresses an action or 
the fact that something exists. 

I closed my mouth, according to instructions. 
My profit is various in kind and degree. 

A verb phrase consists of a main verb and its 
helping verbs. In the following sentence, closed is 
the main verb; had is the helping verb. 

I had closed my mouth. 

Common Helping Verbs: 

be, been, am, are, is, was, were; do, does, did; 
have, has, had; can, could, will, would, may, 
might, shall, should, must 



Fluency: Matching Words and 

Definitions 

On your paper, match each vocabulary word 
with the word or phrase closest in meaning. 



1. 


furtive 


a. 


wise and careful 


2. 


indulgent 


b. 


false motive used to 
hide a real intention 


3. 


pretext 


c. 


freed from the control 
of another 


4. 


judicious 


d. 


done in secret, hidden 
from view 


5. 


intimation 


e. 


mild and tolerant 


6. 


emancipated 


f. 


hint or suggestion 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 
Practice Copy the following passages from the 
story. Underline the verb phrase once and the 
main verb twice. Then, circle each helping verb. 

1. Then he would jump from the bench . . . 

2. The racket had brought everybody to the 
hurricane deck . . . 

3. He would scold you for shaving a shore . . 

4. I had long ago learned what that meant . . 

5. I could feel those yellow eyes upon me . . . 

Writing Application Write a paragraph about 
what it might have been like to be a riverboat 
pilot. Use the verbs concentrate and steer along 
with the helping verbs would and have. 



! 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 15, Section 3 



1 10 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Writing Lesson 

Autobiographical Anecdote 

"Cub Pilot on the Mississippi" is an example of autobiographical writing. Choose 
a memorable experience you have had, and write an autobiographical anecdote — a 
brief, true narrative of something that has happened to you. 

Prewriting Choose an experience that has a conflict that changed the way you 
look at things or taught you a lesson. Conflicts can be related to 
decisions, misunderstandings, or personality differences. 

Drafting Begin your story by setting up the conflict. Identify the situation. 
Then, tell the events that lead up to the conflict being settled. 
Include your observations and comments on events. Tell why the 
experience is important to you. 



Model: Show the Significance 



Topic: My First Dive 

Conflict: Fear of diving vs. wanting to be a big kid 

Events: Cot laughed at, asked brother for help, finally did it 

What I learned: It's better to try something new than to always be afraid. 



The words in italics show 
the events leading up to 
the resolution of the 
conflict. 



Revising Revise your draft by adding details and comments that make clear 
the importance of characters and events. Proofread for spelling and 
punctuation. 

v\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4, Section 3 

Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking With a group, produce an Research and Technology Create a transporta- 



interview show with Twain and Pilot Brown as the 
guests. Have several classmates watch the show. 

1. Assign roles for Twain, Brown, the inter- 
viewer, Henry, and the captain. 

2. Have the interviewer ask each "guest" 
about the fighting incident. 

3. Each guest should tell the story from his or 
her point of view. 

4. After the show, evaluate the credibility of 



tion brochure on Mississippi River steamboat 
travel in the 1800s. Use keywords such as .steam- 
boat, Mississippi, and river travel to find informa- 
tion on the Internet. Provide details of the 
accommodations on board and information about 
the towns and cities along the route. Post your 
brochure on a class bulletin board. 



Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 



each guest. I )iscuss reasons why ea< h guest's ( Jo online for an addil ional research a< I ivity 
account may or may not be accurate. using the Internet. 



( i//> Piloi on the Mississippi +111 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 



^ M i n i m i mm ■■ ■ - 

Contracts 






About Contracts 

A contract is an agreement between two or more people, organizations, 
or companies. Most contracts are written documents that are legally bind- 
ing: Once the contract is signed, the signers are required by law to stick to 
the agreement. 

Contracts are used in a variety of business situations. The details of a 
contract are very specific so that no possibility is left in question. For 
some complicated contracts, such as contracts for the sale of property or 
the joining of two businesses, lawyers are hired to give advice to the sign- 
ers. Other contracts, such as a contract for a specific home repair or an 
employment contract, are straightforward enough for the average person 
to understand. It is important to read all contracts carefully and question 
any detail with which you do not agree or that you do not understand. 
Signing a contract is like saying "I understand everything that is written 
here and will do exactly what it says." 

Reading Strategies 

Use Information to Make a Decision 

Before a contract is signed, it is not a binding agreement. You can 
choose to sign or not sign. Read contracts carefully and use the informa- 
tion in the contract to make a decision. 

• Check dates: Do you agree to the dates and times that are stated in 
the contract? 

• Check amounts: Are the amounts of money stated in the contract 
what you are willing to pay or accept as payment? Are any sizes, 
weights, and numbers what you are willing to give or take? 

• Check the fine print: Are there any spe- 
cial events, conditions, or situa- 
tions in the contract? Are you 
willing to do what the contract 
says if one of those events or sit- 
uations occurs? 

In order to understand the infor- 
mation in a contract, you need to 
know some legal terms that are com- 
monly used in contracts. Preview the 
list at right. 



Words in Contracts 


execute 


make complete, final, and legal 


hereinafter 


after this moment 


party/parties 


person or people referred to in the contract 


terminate 


put an end to 


appendix 


additional material, usually attached to the end 


limited 


restricted, going no further than, confined 



<*m**v* 



inm iii m ii jm ■■ii — i. i n 



J J 2 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Omicron Corporation, Inc. 
Employment Contract 

1 THIS CONTRACT executed as of this 5th day of May, 

2 2003 by the Omicron Corporation, Inc. (hereinafter called 

3 Omicron), a New Jersey corporation, with its principal place 

4 of business in Newark, New Jersey, and Leslie Johnson 

5 (hereinafter called the Candidate), a citizen of the United States 

6 of America. 

7 The parties hereto mutually agree as follows: 

8 1. Omicron has need for the Candidate's services and the 

9 Candidate wishes to work for Omicron. 

10 2. The Candidate shall report to 100 Front Steet, Newark, New 

1 1 Jersey, not later than July 7, 2003 at 8:30 am for processing, which 

1 2 shall consist of photographing, fingerprinting, and signing Omicron 

1 3 standard secrecy and patent agreements. 

14 3. The Candidate shall prepare and sign all documents necessary 

15 to apply for clearance of the Candidate to have access to classified 

1 6 material in accordance with the Department of Defense regulations. 

17 In the event such clearance is denied, this agreement of employ- 

1 8 ment shall be immediately terminated. 

19 4. The Candidate's base monthly salary is to be Dollars ($4,833) 

20 based upon a normal work week schedule of five days per week, 

21 eight hours per day. 

22 5. Upon execution of this contract by both parties, Omicron 

23 shall pay to the Candidate the reasonable costs of transporting the 

24 Candidate (and dependent(s), if applicable), from origin to 

25 destination, paying per diem to Candidate and dependents while in 

26 travel status, and paying per diem for a period not to exceed seven 

27 days from date of Candidate's arrival at destination, or until settled, 

28 whichever is less. Omicron shall arrange for shipment and pay for 

29 actual cost of moving the Candidate's household goods and personal 

30 property, storing them for a period not to exceed sixty (60) days and 

31 then moving them to his permanent quarters. Payments will be 

32 made based upon the conditions and limitations noted above and as 

33 set forth in Appendix A attached hereto and by this reference made 

34 a part hereof. This sum or sums will be reported ro the appropriate 

35 federal, state, and local taxing authorities, and taxes will he withheld 

36 on that portion which Omicron is required to withhold. 



Lines are 
numbered so 
signers can easily 
refer to specific 
details. 






The conditions 
under which the 
company can end 
the agreement are 
specified in lines 
17-18 and 41-51. 



This section tells 
what Omicron wil 
pay for. 



Reading Informational Material: Contract ♦ N3 



37 6. In consideration of the sums to be paid to the Candidate 

38 pursuant to paragraph 5 hereof, the Candidate shall work for 

39 Omicron for a period of not less than twelve (12) months from the date 

40 upon which he reports for work. 

41 7. (a) In the event Omicron should terminate this contract prior to 

42 the Candidate's completion of twelve (12) months employment 

43 with Omicron, on account of either ( 1 ) the Candidate's failure to 

44 report by the date specified in paragraph 2 hereof or (2) the 

45 discharge of the Candidate for cause, then in either such event, the 

46 Candidate shall forthwith refund to Omicron the full amount of 

47 the sums paid to paragraph 5 hereof, provided, however, that if the 

48 Candidate is discharged for cause said refund shall be applicable 

49 only if the cause is one of the following: sabotage, espionage, 

50 subversive activity, commission of a crime or violation of the 

51 secrecy agreement referred to in paragraph 2 hereof. 

52 (b) In the event Omicron should terminate this contract for any 

53 other reason including, without limitation, (1) denial of clearance 

54 specified in paragraph 3 hereof or (2) lack of work suitable for the 

55 Candidate, then in either such event, the Candidate shall retain all 

56 sums paid to him pursuant to paragraph 5 hereof. 

57 (c) In the event the Candidate voluntarily terminates his employment 

58 with Omicron prior to the expiration of twelve (12) months employ- 

59 ment, the Candidate shall forthwith refund to Omicron the full amount 

60 of the sums advanced to him pursuant to paragraph 5 hereof. 

61 In the event the contract is not signed by the Candidate and 

62 returned to Omicron within thirty (30) days from the date first 

63 above written, this contract shall be null and void. IN WITNESS 

64 WHEREOF, the parties hereto have executed this contract as of the day 

65 and year first above written. 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 



OMICRON CORPORATION, INC. 

By By. 

OC 



the Candidate 



Date 



Date 




These lines 
outline the 
various situations 
in which the 
contract might be 
terminated. 



This tells how 
long the 

candidate has to 
decide whether or 
not to sign the 
contract. 



114 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. Who is "the Candidate"? 

2. If you sign this contract, on what day do you have to report for work? 

3. How many hours will you work each week? 

4. What is one reason the company can legally end your employment? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Use Information to Make a Decision 

Use the information in the contract to make a decision about each situ- 
ation. Explain the reasons for your answer using details from the contract. 

5. Tyrell is twenty-two years old and has just graduated from college. 
His family lives in Michigan. Should he take this job? Explain. 

6. Mary has always lived in California and has two children in middle 
school. Her husband is a freelance writer. Their combined incomes 
equal $55,000 per year. Should Mary take this job? Explain. 

7. Cleo is single and lives in Maryland. Most of her family live in New 
Jersey. She works approximately fifty hours each week at a job she 
loves that pays $60,000 per year. Should she take this job? Explain. 

Activity 

Be a Cautious Consumer 

Prepare a chart like the one shown here. Identify one question you 
would expect the contract to answer before you would sign it. Questions 
for the other two contracts will differ. If possible, get samples of the type 
of contracts shown on the chart. Look for the answers to yo,ur questions. 



Contract between you Contract between Contract between 

and a plumber who will you and a CD of you and a cell phone 

fix your kitchen sink the month club service provider 


Dates On what day will the repair 
be done? 




f 


Amounts How much will it cost? 




f 


Other Does the cost include parts? 







Comparing Informational Materials 

Contracts and Warranties 

A warranty is similar to a contract because ir outlines an agreement 
between two parties (people, businesses, or groups). In a brief essay, com- 
pare and contrast the amount of detail and types of information found in 
this contract and the warranty on page 860. 



Reading Informational Material: ( Contract ♦ 1 15 



Prepare to Read 



The Secret 



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« 









ji, As you read 
^fto%&? this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



"The Secret," by Arthur C. Clarke, takes place in a colony on the 
moon. For years, astronauts have conducted experiments to learn what it 
would be like to live in space. For example, they evaluate how the 
human body adapts to extreme changes in atmosphere and gravity. The 
results help scientists develop new strategies for survival in space. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.2 Understand the most important points in the history of the English language 

and use common word origins to determine the historical influences on English word 

meanings. {Developed in the Reading Strategy and Vocabulary Development Lesson) 

Writing 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives. 

(Developed in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. {Developed in the 

Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, 

appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active voice rather than the passive voice in 

ways that enliven oral presentations. {Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



116 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



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Literary Analysis 

Science Fiction 

Science fiction combines elements of fiction and fantasy with scientific 
fact. Science fiction writers balance realistic details with fantasy details. In 
the following example, fantasy details are italicized. 

So here he was, doing the lunar circuit . . . and beaming back two 
thousand words of copy a day. 

In the example, the reporter's "two thousand words a day" is a detail that 
gives a sense of realism in a world where a reporter does a "lunar circuit" and 
"beams" assignments in to the office. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

The setting of a story is the time and place of the action. In science 
fiction, the setting is often the future and a place other than Earth such as 
another planet or an imaginary universe. This story takes place on the 
moon, a good indication that it happens in the future. Use these focus 
questions to guide you as you read. 

1. How does the setting affect the meaning of the story? 

2. What details of the setting are only possible at a time in the future? 

Reading Strategy 

Using Word Origins 

You will encounter many words related to science in a science fiction story. 
Many science words come from Latin and Greek. Use the origins of words to 
help you see the relationships between words and remember their meanings. 
Look at the chart on this page for examples of the origins of some groups of 
words. Copy the chart. As you read, notice the word or words in the story that 
fit into each of these groups. Add any appropriate words to the first column. 

Vocabulary Development 

receding (ri sed' in) n. mewing back; 
fading (p. 119) 

competent (kam' pa tent) adj. well 
qualified and capable (p. 120) 

microbes (mi' krobes') n. extremely 
small organisms (p. 121) 

hemisphere (hem' i stir') n. half or a 
sphere; dome (p. 121) 



radial (ra' de el) adj. branching out in 
all directions from a common center 
(P- 121) 

heedless (hed' lis) adj. unmindfully 
careless (p. 123) 

implications (im' pli ka shens) n. 
possible conclusions (p. 123) 

looming (loom' in,) adj. ominous and 
awe-inspiring (p. 1 24) 



Science 
words 



microscope, 

microchip, 

microbiology 



transparent, 
translucent, 
transform 



technical, 

technician, 

technique 



Origin 



i micro- from 
Greek mikro 
meaning 
"small" 

from Latin 
trans meaning 
"over, across, 
beyond, or 
through" 

tech-, from 
Greek tekton 
meaning "to 
build" 



The Secret + 117 



Arthur C. Clarke 




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Henry Cooper had been on the Moon for almost two 
weeks before he discovered that something was wrong. 
At first it was only an ill-defined suspicion, the sort of 
hunch that a hard-headed science reporter would not 
take too seriously. He had come here, after all, at the 
United Nations Space Administration's own request. 
UNSA had always been hot on public relations— espe- 
cially just before budget time, when an overcrowded 
world was screaming for more roads and schools and 
sea farms, and complaining about the billions being 
poured into space. 

So here he was, doing the lunar circuit for the sec- 
ond time, and beaming back two thousand words of 
copy a day. Although the novelty had worn off, there 
still remained the wonder and mystery of a world as 



jftjfl| g ^ ■■• 



Literary Analysis 

Science Fiction What 
elements in this paragraph 
seem scientifically 
possible? Which ones 
seem impossible? 



1/8 Meeting Challenges 



big as Africa, thoroughly mapped, yet almost completely unexplored. 
A stone's throw away from the pressure domes, the labs, the space- 
ports, was a yawning emptiness that would challenge humankind for 
centuries to come. 

Some parts of the Moon were almost too familiar, of course. Who 
had not seen that dusty scar on the Mare Imbrium, with its gleaming 
metal pylon and the plaque that announced in the three official 
languages of Earth: 

ON THIS SPOT 

AT 200 1 UT 

13 SEPTEMBER 1959 

THE FIRST MAN-MADE OBJECT 

REACHED ANOTHER WORLD 

Cooper had visited the grave of Lunik II — and the more famous 
tomb of the men who had come after it. But these things belonged 
to the past; already, like Columbus and the Wright brothers, 1 they 
were receding into history. What concerned him now was the future. 

When he had landed at Archimedes Spaceport, the Chief 
Administrator had been obviously glad to see him, and had shown 
a personal interest in his tour. Transportation, accommodation, 
and official guide were all arranged. He could go anywhere he liked, 
ask any questions he pleased. UNSA trusted him, for his stories 
had always been accurate, his attitudes friendly. Yet the tour had 
gone sour; he did not know why, but he was going to find out. 

He reached for the phone and said: "Operator? . . . Please get me 
the Police Department. I want to speak to the Inspector General." 

Presumably Chandra Coomaraswamy possessed a uniform, but 
Cooper had never seen him wearing it. They met, as arranged, at the 
entrance to the little park that was Plato City's chief pride and joy. 
At this time in the morning of the artificial twenty-four-hour "day" 
it was almost deserted, and they could talk without interruption. 

As they walked along the narrow gravel paths, they chatted 
about old times, the friends they had known at college together, 
the latest developments in interplanetary politics. They had 
reached the middle of the park, under the exact center of the great 
blue-painted dome, when Cooper came to the point. 

"You know everything that's happening on the Moon, Chandra," 
he said. "And you know that I'm here to do a series for UNSA — 
hope to make a book out of it when I get back to Earth. So why 
should people be trying to hide things from me?" 

It was impossible to hurry Chandra. He always took his time to 



receding (ri sed' in) v. 
moving back, fading 



Literary Analysis 

Science Fiction and 
Setting In this paragraph, 
which details of the 
setting indicate that the 
story is science fiction? 
Which do not? 



«/jReading Check 

Who is Henry Cooper? 



1. Columbus . . . Wright brothers Christopher Columbus (15th-century Italian navigator) 
and Orville and Wilbur Wright (20th-century American inventors of the airplane) were 
great explorers. 



I he Vi iv( ♦ 



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answer questions, and his few words escaped with difficulty around 
the stem of his hand-carved Bavarian 2 pipe. 
"What people?" he asked at length. 
"You've really no idea?" 
The Inspector General shook his head. 

"Not the faintest," he answered; and Cooper knew that he was 
telling the truth. Chandra might be silent, but he would not lie. 
"I was afraid you'd say that. Well, if you don't know any more 
than I do, here's the only clue I have — and it frightens me. Medical 
Research is trying to keep me at arm's length." 

"Hmmm," replied Chandra, taking his pipe from his mouth and 
looking at it thoughtfully. 
"Is that all you have to say?" 

"You haven't given me much to work on. Remember, I'm only a 
cop; I lack your vivid journalistic imagination." 

"All I can tell you is that the higher I get in Medical Research, 
the colder the atmosphere becomes. Last time I was here, everyone 
was very friendly, and gave me some fine stories. But now, I can't 
even meet the Director. He's always too busy, or on the other side 
of the Moon. Anyway, what sort of man is he?" 

"Dr. Hastings? Prickly little character. Very competent, but not 
easy to work with." 

"What could he be trying to hide?" 

"Knowing you, I'm sure you have some interesting theories." 
Oh, I thought of narcotics, and fraud, and political 
conspiracies — but they don't make sense, in these 
days. So what's left scares the heck out of me." 
Chandra's eyebrows signaled a silent 
question mark. 

"Interplanetary plague," said Cooper 
bluntly. 






2. Bavarian (be ver' e en) adj. of or related to 
Bavaria, a region in Germany. 



Reading Strategy 
Using Word Origins Find 
the root of journalistic. 
Explain how the affixes 
change the meaning of 
the word. 

competent (kam' pa tent) 
adj. well qualified and 
capable 







i 



"I thought that was impossible." 

"Yes — I've written articles myself proving that the life forms of 
other planets have such alien chemistries that they can't react with 
us, and that all our microbes and bugs took millions of years to 
adapt to our bodies. But I've always wondered if it was true. 
Suppose a ship has come back from Mars, say, with something 
really vicious — and the doctors can't cope with it?" 

There was a long silence. Then Chandra said: "I'll start investi- 
gating. I don't like it, either, for here's an item you probably don't 
know. There were three nervous breakdowns in the Medical 
Division last month — and that's very, very unusual." 

He glanced at his watch, then at the false sky, which seemed so 
distant, yet was only two hundred feet above their heads. 

"We'd better get moving," he said. 'The morning shower's due 
in five minutes." 

The call came two weeks later in the middle of the night — the 
real lunar night. By Plato City time, it was Sunday morning. 

"Henry? . . . Chandra here. Can you meet me in half an hour at 
air lock five? . . . Good. I'll see you." 

This was it, Cooper knew. Air lock five meant they were going 
outside the dome. Chandra had found something. 

The presence of the police driver restricted conversation as the 
tractor moved away from the city along the road roughly bulldozed 
across the ash and pumice. Low in the south, Earth was almost 
full, casting a brilliant blue-green light over the infernal landscape. 
However hard one tried. Cooper told himself, it was difficult to 
make the Moon appear glamorous. But nature guards her greatest 
secrets well; to such places men must come to find them. 

The multiple domes of the city dropped below the sharply curved 
horizon Presently, the tractor turned aside from the main road to 
follow a scarcely visible trail. Ten minutes later, Cooper saw a sin- 
gle glittering hemisphere ahead of them, standing on an isolated 
ridge of rock. Another vehicle, bearing a red cross, was parked 
beside the entrance. It seemed that they were not the only visitors. 

Nor were they unexpected. As they drew up to the dome, the 
flexible tube of the air-lock coupling groped out toward them and 
snapped into place against their tractor's outer hull. There was a 
brief hissing as pressures equalized. Then Cooper followed 
Chandra into the building. 

The air-lock operator led them along curving corridors and radial 
passageways toward the center of the dome. Sometimes they caught 
glimpses of laboratories, scientific instruments, computers — all per- 
fectly ordinary, and all deserted on this Sunday morning. They must 
have reached the heart of the building, Cooper told himself, when 
their guide ushered them into a large circular chamber and shut the 
door softly behind them. 

It was a small zoo. All around them were cages, tanks, jars 



microbes (mr krobes") n. 
extremely small 
organisms 



Literary Analysis 
Science Fiction and 
Setting What details of 
the setting combine the 
possible and the less 
possible? 



hemisphere (hem' i stir") n 
half of a sphere; dome 



radial (ra de al) adj. 
branching out in all 
directions from a 
common center 



♦^Reading Check 

What does Cooper ask 
Chandra to investigate? 



The Secret ♦ \ } \ 



I 









containing a wide selection of the fauna and flora of Earth. Waiting 
at its center was a short, gray-haired man, looking very worried, 
and very unhappy. 

"Dr. Hastings," said Coomaraswamy, "meet Mr. Cooper." The 
Inspector General turned to his companion and added, "I've con- 
vinced the Doctor that there's only one way to keep you quiet — 
and that's to tell you everything." 

"Frankly," said Hastings, "I'm not sure if I care anymore." His 
voice was unsteady, barely under control, and Cooper thought, 
Hello! There's another breakdown on the way. 

The scientist wasted no time on such formalities as shaking 
hands. He walked to one of the cages, took out a small bundle of 
fur, and held it toward Cooper. 

"Do you know what this is?" he asked abruptly. 

"Of course. A hamster — the commonest lab animal." 

"Yes," said Hastings. "A perfectly ordinary golden hamster. Except 
that this one is five years old — like all the others in this cage." 

"Well? What's odd about that?" 

"Oh, nothing, nothing at all . . . except for the fact that hamsters 



▲ Critical Viewing 

How does this picture 
illustrate Hastings's 
explanation? [Connect] 



I 22 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




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live for only two years. And we have some here that are getting 
on for ten." 

For a moment no one spoke; but the room was not silent. It was 
full of rustlings and slitherings and scratchings, of faint whimpers 
and tiny animal cries. Then Cooper whispered. "My God — you've 
found a way of prolonging life!" 

"No," retorted Hastings. "We've not found it. The Moon has given 
it to us . . . as we might have expected, if we'd looked in front of 
our noses." He seemed to have gained control over his emotions— 
as if he was once more the pure scientist, fascinated by a discovery 
for its own sake and heedless of its implications . 

"On Earth," he said, "we spend our whole lives fighting gravity. 
It wears down our muscles, pulls our stomachs out of shape. In 
seventy years, how many tons of blood does the heart lift through 
how many miles? And all that work, all that strain is reduced to a 
sixth here on the Moon, where a one-hundred-and-eighty-pound 
human weighs only thirty pounds?" 

"I see," said Cooper slowly. 'Ten years for a hamster — and how 
long for a man?" 



heedless (hed' lis) adj. 
unmindfully careless 

implications 

(im pli ka shans) n. 
possible conclusions 

^Reading Check 

What have the doctors in 
the Medical Division 
discovered? 



The Secret ♦ 123 



"It's not a simple law," answered Hastings. "It varies with the sex 
and the species. Even a month ago, we weren't certain. But now 
we're quite sure of this: on the Moon, the span of human life will be 
at least two hundred years." 

"And you've been trying to keep this a secret!" 

"You fool! Don't you understand?" 

'Take it easy, Doctor — take it easy," said Chandra softly. 

With an obvious effort of will, Hastings got control of himself 
again. He began to speak with such icy calm that his words sank 
like freezing raindrops into Cooper's mind. 

'Think of them up there," he said, pointing to the roof, to the 
invisible Earth, whose looming presence no one on the Moon could 
forget. "Six billion of them, packing all the continents to the edges — 
and now crowding over into the sea beds. And here — " he pointed 
to the ground— "only a hundred thousand of us, on an almost 
empty world. But a world where we need miracles of technology 
and engineering merely to exist, where a man with an IQ of only a 
hundred and fifty can't even get a job. 

"And now we find that we can live for two hundred years. 
Imagine how they're going to react to that news! This is your prob- 
lem now, Mister Journalist; you've asked for it, and 
you've got it. Tell me this, please — I'd really be interested 
to know— -just how are you going to break it to them?" 

He waited, and waited. Cooper opened his mouth, then 
closed it again, unable to think of anything to say. 

In the far corner of the room, a baby monkey started to cry. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think Cooper should write about the secret or 
hide this information from people on Earth? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: What is Cooper's profession? (b) Connect: How is 
this information important to the action of the story? 

3. (a) Recall: What is the secret? (b) Analyze Causes and 
Effects: What is the scientific reason for this phenomenon? 

(c) Predict: What would be the effect of sharing the information 
with the people on Earth? 

4. (a) Recall: What is Cooper's first reaction upon learning the 
secret? (b) Interpret: How does Dr. Hastings' interpretation 
cause Cooper to change his mind? 

5. (a) Generalize: Do you think this story supports or discourages 
the idea of human colonies in space? (b) Support: Give 
examples from the story to support your answer. 



looming (loom' in) adj. 
ominous and awe- 
inspiring 



Arthur C. Clarke 



(b. 1917) 

As a youth, 
Arthur C. Clarke 
built his own 
telescope and 
used it to create 
a map of the 
moon. This 
English writer 
has always been ahead of 
his time. In 1945, when he 
was a radar technician for 
the Royal Air Force, Clarke 
outlined ideas for a world- 
wide satellite system. Today, 
we rely on satellites to 
transmit radio, television, 
and telephone communica- 
tions. One common satel- 
lite orbit is named in 
Clarke's honor. 

The author of more than 
eighty books, Clarke has 
presented many versions 
of what our future might 
hold. One of his works 
inspired the movie 200 J : 
A Space Odyssey. 



124 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



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Literary Analysis 

Science Fiction 

1. On a chart like the one shown, list three elements in "The Secret" 
that are based on scientific fact and three that are not. 



Elements based on Elements not based 
scientific fact on scientific fact 
















™ 







2. How does Clarke contrast life on the moon with life on Earth. 7 



Connecting Literary Elements 



3. How does the setting affect the meaning of the story? 

4. What details of the setting are only possible at a time in the future. 7 

5. Identify details from the story that describe the setting. Record 
them on a chart like the one shown here. 




Reading Strategy 



Using Word Origins 

6. What is the common part of the words atmosphere and hemisphere! 
In a dictionary, find the origin of the shared word parr. 

7. Find the origin of the word gravity. From what language does it 
come 7 What is the meaning of the word from which it comes. 7 



Extend Understanding 



8. Science Connection: Why do you think many words used in 
science and math come from Latin and Creek.' 

9. Take a Position: Are there circumstances in which the media 
should not report tin- truth? Explain. 



Quick Review 

Science fiction combines 
elements of fiction and 
fantasy with scientific fact. 
To review science fiction, 
see page 1 1 7. 



The setting of a story is 
the time and place of the 
action. To review setting, 
see page 1 1 7. 



Word origins are the 

languages and parts from 
which words come. 



. Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Mi, Secret ♦ 125 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Greek Word Part micro Concept Development: Synonyms 



The Greek word part micro means "small." 
The word microbe means "small form of life" or 
"tiny organism." It combines micro and the word 
part bio, meaning "life." 

Determine the meanings of the following 
words by analyzing the word parts. 

1. microscopic 2. microwave 3. microfilm 

Spelling Strategy 

When adding -ing to words that end with 
-cede , drop the e and then add the ending, 
recede + -ing - receding 
On your paper, add -ing to the following words. 

1. precede 2. accede 3. concede 



Grammar Lesson 

Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 

An action verb expresses action. 

Example: Cooper followed Chandra. 

A linking verb expresses a state of being. It 
connects the subject to a noun, pronoun, or 
adjective that identifies or describes it later in 
the sentence. Linking verbs include forms of the 
verb to be as well as seem, appear, look, feel, 
become, sound, stay, remain, and grow. 

Example: That sounds impossible. 
That is impossible. 



To determine whether a verb is an action or a 
linking verb, replace it with a form of to be. If the 
sentence still makes sense, it is a linking verb. 

v\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 15, Section 2 



Write the word or phrase that is a synonym — 
a word with a similar meaning — for the vocabu- 
lary word. 

1. competent: (a) simple, (b) good, (c) able 

2. receding: (a) vanishing, (b) surging, 
(c) preceding 

3. heedless: (a) unmindful, (b) cautious, 
(c) sly 

4. implications: (a) possible effects, (b) facts, 
(c) styles 

5. hemisphere: (a) pyramid, (b) cube, (c) dome 

6. radial: (a) from outside, (b) from outer 
space, (c) from a central point 

7. microbes: (a) scientists, (b) tiny forms of 
life, (c) substances 

8. looming: (a) inspiring, (b) failing, 
(c) appearing 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 
Practice On your paper, copy the following sen- 
tences. Underline each verb. Above each verb, 
write AV if it is an action verb and LV if it is a 
linking verb. 

1. The space colony orbits Mars. 

2. Last year was the settlement's first 
anniversary. 

3. Radiation shields protect the inhabitants. 

4. Life became routine for the colonists. 

5. They remain optimistic about their future. 

Writing Application Write a paragraph describ- 
ing Cooper's search for the truth. Use action 
verbs and linking verbs to express the characters' 
actions and state of being. 



J 26 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Writing Lesson 

Story Continuation 

What might happen after "the secret" is revealed? What if the secret is never 
revealed? Write a continuation of the story based on one of these two possibilities. 

Prewriting Use a timeline to help you plan the sequence of events. 



Event 1 



Event 2 



Event 3 



Event 4 



Drafting Use your timeline to describe what happens as the story continues. 
Refer to "The Secret" to help you with characters and details. To 
make the sequence of events clear, use transitions. 



Model: Support Ideas 

Presently, the tractor turned aside from the main road to 
follow a scarcely visible trail. Ten minutes later, Cooper saw 
a single glittering hemisphere ahead of them. . . . 



The words in italics are 
transitional words or 
phrases that help put the 
sequence of events in 
order. 



% 



Revising Underline transitional words and phrases you have used. Add 

transitions where meaning is unclear. Place a check mark where 
science fiction details will make the setting more vivid. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4, Section 3 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking Give a two-minute 
speech on whether or not "The Secret" would 
make a good television movie. 

1. Begin by stating your position. 

2. Use action verbs as you give reasons for 
your opinion. Action verbs will make your 
speaking more powerful and convincing. 
Strong: The secret shocks rlu- reporter. 
Weak: The secret is shocking to the reporter. 

3. Adapt your speaking voice and lac ial 
expression to the meaning oi the at t ion 
verbs you use. 



Research and Technology Work with a partner 
to research other science fiction works that are 
set in space in the future. Do a subject search 
through a library online catalog. Use science fiction 
as your keyword. Review the results oi your search 
and make a list of ten recommendations based 
on the information provided in the catalog. 
Display your lists with illustrations. 



— 1 Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

( io online for an additional research ac I ivity 
using the Internet . 



The Secret ♦ 127 



Prepare to Read 



Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom 





ye, As you read 
^bp$P this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



Harriet Tubman was born into slavery but escaped to freedom. She 
became one of the leading forces behind the Underground Railroad, a 
network of people who helped African American slaves escape from the 
South in the mid- 1800s. Members of the Underground Railroad hid and 
fed runaway slaves. 

Focus on the Standard 

Reading 2.3 Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or 
organization of ideas. {Introduced in the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coher- 
ent thesis and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion. (Developed in the 
Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other 
devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. {Introduced in the Grammar 
Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.4 Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of 
organization. (Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



I 28 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Literary Analysis 

Third'Person Narrative 

All narratives (stories) have narrators who describe the action. In a 
third-person narrative, the narrator tells the story from outside the 
action. As you read, focus on these questions: 

1 . How do you know that the narrator does not take part in the 
events being narrated? 

2. How would the story be different if it were told by one of the 
escaping African Americans in Harriet's group? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

The perspective of the narrator affects the amount, type, and treat- 
ment of information readers learn. 

• A third-person limited narrator tells readers only what one char- 
acter knows, thinks, and feels. 

• A third-person omniscient narrator tells readers what several or 
all characters know as well as some information that the characters 
themselves do not know. 

"Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom" is told by a third-person omni- 
scient narrator. The narrator knows and tells more than any single charac- 
ter in the narrative knows. 

Reading Strategy 

Setting a Purpose for Reading 

Just as you have reasons for seeing a movie — for example, to be enter- 
tained or to be scared — you should have a reason, or purpose, for reading. 
Your purpose in reading this narrative might be to learn about Harriet 
Tubman. Ask yourself who, what, when, where, why, and how questions like 
those in the chart. On your own chart, answer the questions as you read. 



Vocabulary Development 

fugitives (fydo' ji tivs) n. people flee- 
in- ( P . 131) 

incentive (in sent' iv) n. something 
that stimulates one to action; 
encouragement (p. 132) 

disheveled (di shev' aid) adj. untidy; 
messy (p. 132) 

guttural (gut' ar al) adj. made in back 
of the throat (p. 1 34) 



mutinous (myoot' an as) adj. rebel- 
lious (p. 1 34) 

cajoling (ka jol' in) v. coaxing or per- 
suading gently (p. 1 36) 

indomitable (in dam' it a bal) adj. not 
easily discouraged (p. I 36) 
fastidious (fas tid' e as) adj. refined 
in an oversensitive way, so as to be 
easily disgusted or displeased (p. 1 37) 



Questions Harriet 
Tubman 


Who was . . .? 




What did she 

do? 




When did she 

live 7 




Where did she 
work and live? 




Why is she 
important? 




How did she 
help slaves 
escape? 





Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ 129 



Harriet 

Tubman 



Guide to Freedom 



ANN 
PETRY 



A 



long the Eastern Shore of Maryland, in 
Dorchester County, in Caroline County, the masters 
kept hearing whispers about the man named 
Moses, who was running off slaves. At first they did 
not believe in his existence. The stories about him 
were fantastic, unbelievable. Yet they watched for 
him. They offered rewards for his capture. 

They never saw him. Now and then they heard 
whispered rumors to the effect that he was in the 
neighborhood. The woods were searched. The roads 
were watched. There was never anything to indicate 
his whereabouts. But a few days afterward, a goodly 
number of slaves would be gone from the plantation. Neither 
the master nor the overseer had heard or seen anything unusual 
in the quarter. Sometimes one or the other would vaguely remember 
having heard a whippoorwill call somewhere in the woods, close 
by, late at night. Though it was the wrong season for whippoorwills. 

Sometimes the masters thought they had heard the cry of a hoot 
owl, repeated, and would remember having thought that the inter- 
vals between the low moaning cry were wrong, that it had been 
repeated four times in succession instead of three. There was 
never anything more than that to suggest that all was not well in 
the quarter. Yet when morning came, they invariably discovered 
that a group of the finest slaves had taken to their heels. 

130 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




▲ Critical Viewing 

What is the artist's opinion 
of Harriet Tubman? How 
can you tell? 



Literary Analysis 
Third-Person Narrative 

What details indicate that 
this story is a third-person 
narrative? 



Unfortunately, the discovery was almost always made on 
a Sunday. Thus a whole day was lost before the machinery 
of pursuit could be set in motion. The posters offering 
rewards for the fugitives could not be printed until 
Monday. The men who made a living hunting for runaway 
slaves were out of reach, off in the woods with their dogs 
and their guns, in pursuit of four-footed game, or they 
were in camp meetings 1 saying their prayers with their 
wives and families beside them. 

Harriet Tubman could have told them that there was 
far more involved in this matter of running off slaves than 
signaling the would-be runaways by imitating the call of 
a whippoorwill, or a hoot owl, far more involved than a 

matter of waiting for a clear night when the North Star 

^^^^H was visible. 

I In December 1851, when she started out with the band 

I I of fugitives that she planned to take to Canada, she had 

I o been in the vicinity of the plantation for days, planning 
^^^Efcr the trip, carefully selecting the slaves that she would take 

^vStf She had announced her arrival in the quarter by 

I I singing the forbidden spiritual 2 — "Go down, Moses, 'way 
Yf 1 down to Egypt Land" — singing it softly outside the door of 
' a slave cabin, late at night. The husky voice was beautiful 

| even when it was barely more than a murmur borne on 
o the wind. 
^^M if Once she had made her presence known, word of her 

1^ ^^ t coming spread from cabin to cabin. The slaves whispered 

^^^ S t to each other, ear to mouth, mouth to ear, "Moses is here." 
^ " "Moses has come." "Get ready. Moses is back again." The 

ones who had agreed to go North with her put ashcake 
and salt herring in an old bandanna, hastily tied it into 
a bundle, and then waited patiently for the signal that 
meant it was time to start. 

There were eleven in this party, including one of her 
brothers and his wife. It was the largest group that she had ever 
conducted, but she was determined that more and more slaves 
should know what freedom was like. 

She had to take them all the way to Canada. The Fugitive Slave 
Law 3 was no longer a great many incomprehensible words written 



W 



* 1 

o 

c 

-a i 



I C i] 
(fl o 



fugitives (fycro' ji tivs - ) n. 
people fleeing 



Reading Strategy 
Setting a Purpose for 
Reading What purpose 
for reading does this 
paragraph suggest? 



•^Reading Check 

Who is Harriet Tubman? 



1. camp meetings religious meetings held outdoors or in a tent. 

2. forbidden spiritual In 1831, a slave named Nat Turner encouraged an unsuccessful 
slave uprising in Virginia by talking about the biblical story of the Israelites' escape 
from Egypt. Afterwards, the singing of certain spirituals was forbidden for fear of 
encouraging more uprisings. 

3. Fugitive Slave Law This part of the Compromise of 1850 held that escaped slaves, 
even if found in free states, could be returned to their masters. As a result, fugitives 
were not safe until they reached Canada. 



Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ 111 



down on the country's lawbooks. The new law had become a reali- 
ty. It was Thomas Sims, a boy, picked up on the streets of Boston 
at night and shipped back to Georgia. It was Jerry and Shadrach, 
arrested and jailed with no warning. 

She had never been in Canada. The route beyond Philadelphia 
was strange to her. But she could not let the runaways who 
accompanied her know this. As they walked along she told them 
stories of her own first flight, she kept painting vivid word pictures 
of what it would be like to be free. 

But there were so many of them this time. She knew moments of 
doubt when she was half-afraid, and kept looking back over her 
shoulder, imagining that she heard the sound of pursuit. They 
would certainly be pursued. Eleven of them. Eleven thousand dol- 
lars' worth of flesh and bone and muscle that belonged to Maryland 
planters. If they were caught, the eleven runaways would be 
whipped and sold South, but she — she would probably be hanged. 

They tried to sleep during the day but they never could wholly 
relax into sleep. She could tell by the positions they assumed, by 
their restless movements. And they walked at night. Their progress 
was slow. It took them three nights of walking to reach the first 
stop. She had told them about the place where they would stay, 
promising warmth and good food, holding these things out to them 
as an incentive to keep going. 

When she knocked on the door of a farmhouse, a place where 
she and her parties of runaways had always been welcome, always 
been given shelter and plenty to eat, there was no answer. She 
knocked again, softly. A voice from within said, "Who is it?" There 
was fear in the voice. 

She knew instantly from the sound of the voice that there was 
something wrong. She said, "A friend with friends," the password 
on the Underground Railroad. 

The door opened, slowly. The man who stood in the doorway 
looked at her coldly, looked with unconcealed astonishment and 
fear at the eleven disheveled runaways who were standing near her. 
Then he shouted, "Too many, too many. It's not safe. My place was 
searched last week. It's not safe!" and slammed the door in her face. 

She turned away from the house, frowning. She had promised 
her passengers food and rest and warmth, and instead of that, 
there would be hunger and cold and more walking over the frozen 
ground. Somehow she would have to instill courage into these 
eleven people, most of them strangers, would have to feed them on 
hope and bright dreams of freedom instead of the fried pork and 
corn bread and milk she had promised them. 

They stumbled along behind her, half-dead for sleep, and she 
urged them on, though she was as tired and as discouraged as 
they were. She had never been in Canada but she kept painting 



Literary Analysis 
Third-Person Narrative 

What insights into 
Tubman's thoughts does 
the narrator provide in 
this paragraph? 



incentive (in sent' iv) n. 
something that stimulates 
one to action; encourage- 
ment 



disheveled (di shev' aid) 
adj. untidy; messy 



132 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



wondrous word pictures of what it would be like. She managed 
to dispel their fear of pursuit, so that they would not become 
hysterical, panic-stricken. Then she had to bring some of the fear 
back, so that they would stay awake and keep walking though 
they drooped with sleep. 

Yet during the day, when they lay down deep in a thicket, they 
never really slept, because if a twig snapped or the wind sighed in 
the branches of a pine tree, they jumped to their feet, afraid of 
their own shadows, shivering and shaking. It was very cold, but 
they dared not make fires because someone would see the smoke 
and wonder about it. 

She kept thinking, eleven of them. Eleven thousand dollars' 
worth of slaves. And she had to take them all the way to Canada. 
Sometimes she told them about Thomas Garrett, in Wilmington. 
She said he was their friend even though he did not know them. 
He was the friend of all fugitives. He called them God's poor. He 
was a Quaker and his speech was a little different from that of 
other people. His clothing was different, too. He wore the wide- 
brimmed hat that the Quakers wear. 

She said that he had thick white hair, soft, almost like a baby's, 
and the kindest eyes she had ever seen. He was a big man and 
strong, but he had never used his strength to harm anyone, 
always to help people. He would give all of them a new pair of 
shoes. Everybody. He always did. Once they reached his house in 
Wilmington, they would be safe. He would see to it that they were. 

She described the house where he lived, told them about the 
store where he sold shoes. She said he kept a pail of milk and a 
loaf of bread in the drawer of his desk so that he would have food 
ready at hand for any of God's poor who should suddenly appear 
before him, fainting with hunger. There was a hidden room in the 
store. A whole wall swung open, and behind it was a room where 
he could hide fugitives. On the wall there were shelves filled with 
small boxes — boxes of shoes — so that you would never guess that 
the wall actually opened. 

While she talked, she kept watching them. They did not believe 
her. She could tell by their expressions. They were thinking. New 
shoes, Thomas Garrett, Quaker, Wilmington — what foolishness 
was this? Who knew if she told the truth? Where was she taking 
them anyway? 

That night they reached the next stop — a farm that belonged to a 
German. She made the runaways take shelter behind trees at the 
edge of the fields before she knocked at the door. She hesitated 
before she approached the door, thinking, suppose that he, too, 
should refuse shelter, suppose — Then she thought. Lord, I'm going to 
hold steady on to You and You've got to see me through — and 
knocked softly. 



^Reading Check 

What is the overall mood 
among the runaways? 



lliimci Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ 133 



She heard the familiar guttural voice say, "Who's there?" 

She answered quickly, "A friend with friends." 

He opened the door and greeted her warmly. "How many this 
time?" he asked. 

"Eleven," she said and waited, doubting, wondering. 

He said. "Good. Bring them in." 

He and his wife fed them in the 
lamplit kitchen, their faces glowing, 
as they offered food and more food, 
urging them to eat, saying there was 
plenty for everybody, have more milk, 
have more bread, have more meat. 

They spent the night in the warm 
kitchen. They really slept, all that 
night and until dusk the next day. 
When they left, it was with reluc- 
tance. They had all been warm and 
safe and well-fed. It was hard to 
exchange the security offered by that 
clean, warm kitchen for the darkness 
and the cold of a December night. 

Harriet had found it hard to leave the warmth and friendliness, 
too. But she urged them on. For a while, as they walked, they 
seemed to carry in them a measure of contentment; some of the 
serenity and the cleanliness of that big warm kitchen lingered on 
inside them. But as they walked farther and farther away from the 
warmth and the light, the cold and the darkness entered into them 
They fell silent, sullen, suspicious. She waited for the moment 
when some one of them would turn mutinous . It did not happen 
that night. 

Two nights later she was aware that the feet behind her were mov- 
ing slower and slower. She heard the irritability in their voices, knew 
that soon someone would refuse to go on. 

She started talking about William Still and the Philadelphia 
Vigilance Committee. 4 No one commented. No one asked any 
questions. She told them the story of William and Ellen Craft and 
how they escaped from Georgia. Ellen was so fair that she looked 
as though she were white, and so she dressed up in a man's 
clothing and she looked like a wealthy young planter. Her hus- 
band, William, who was dark, played the role of her slave. Thus 
they traveled from Macon, Georgia, to Philadelphia, riding on the 
trains, staying at the finest hotels. Ellen pretended to be very ill— 
her right arm was in a sling, and her right hand was bandaged, 



guttural (gut' er el) adj. 
made in back of the 
throat 




▲ Critical Viewing 

This painting depicts 
fugitive slaves fleeing 
north. Why might the 
artist have chosen not to 
include details showing 
faces and clothing? 
[Draw Conclusions] 

mutinous (myoof an as) 
adj. rebellious 



Literary Analysis 
Third-Person Narrative 

How can you tell that the 
narrator does not take 
part in these events? 



4. Philadelphia Vigilance Committee group of citizens who helped escaped slaves. 
Its secretary was a free black man named William Still. 



134 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



because she was supposed to have rheumatism. 
Thus she avoided having to sign the register at 
the hotels for she could not read or write. They 
finally arrived safely in Philadelphia, and then 
went on to Boston. 

No one said anything. Not one of them seemed to 
have heard her. 

She told them about Frederick Douglass, the 
most famous of the escaped slaves, of his eloquence, 
of his magnificent appearance. Then she told them 
of her own first vain effort at running away, evoking 
the memory of that miserable life she had led as a 
child, reliving it for a moment in the telling. 

But they had been tired too long, hungry too long, 
afraid too long, footsore too long. One of them 
suddenly cried out in despair, "Let me go back. 
It is better to be a slave than to suffer like this 
in order to be free." 

She carried a gun with her on these trips. 
She had never used it — except as a threat. Now as 
she aimed it, she experienced a feeling of guilt, 
remembering that time, years ago, when she had 
prayed for the death of Edward Brodas, the Master, 
and then not too long afterward had heard that great wailing cry that 
came from the throats of the field hands, and knew from the sound 
that the Master was dead. 

One of the runaways said, again, "Let me go back. Let me go 
back," and stood still, and then turned around and said, over his 
shoulder, "I am going back." 

She lifted the gun, aimed it at the despairing slave. She said, "Go 
on with us or die." The husky low-pitched voice was grim. 

He hesitated for a moment and then he joined the others. They 
started walking again. She tried to explain to them why none of 
them could go back to the plantation. If a runaway returned, he 
would turn traitor, the master and the overseer would force him 
to turn traitor. The returned slave would disclose the stopping 
places, the hiding places, the cornstacks they had used with the 
full knowledge of the owner of the farm, the name of the German 
farmer who had fed them and sheltered them. These people who 
had risked their own security to help runaways would be ruined, 
fined, imprisoned. She said, "We got to go free or die. And freedom's 
not bought with dust." 

This time she told them about the long agony of the Middle 
Passage on the old slave ships, about the black horror of the 
holds, about the chains and the whips. They too knew these 
stories. But she wanted to remind them of the long hard way 




▲ Critical Viewing 

What conclusions about 
the underground railroad 
and its routes can you 
draw from this map? 
[Draw Conclusions] 



Vj Reading Check 

Why do some of the 
runaways want to return? 



Harriei Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ 135 



they had come, about the long hard way they had yet to go. She 
told them about Thomas Sims, the boy picked up on the streets 
of Boston and sent back to Georgia. She said when they got him 
back to Savannah, got him in prison there, they whipped him until 
a doctor who was standing by watching said, "You will kill him if 
you strike him again!" His master said, "Let him die!" 

Thus she forced them to go on. Sometimes she thought she 
had become nothing but a voice speaking in the darkness, 
cajoling , urging, threatening. Sometimes she told them things to 
make them laugh, sometimes she sang to them, and heard the 
eleven voices behind her blending softly with hers, and then she 
knew that for the moment all was well with them. 

She gave the impression of being a short, muscular, indomitable 
woman who could never be defeated. Yet at any moment she was 
liable to be seized by one of those curious fits of sleep, which 
might last for a few minutes or for hours. 5 

Even on this trip, she suddenly fell asleep in the woods. The 
runaways, ragged, dirty, hungry, cold, did not steal the gun as 
they might have, and set off by themselves, or turn back. They 
sat on the ground near her and waited patiently until she awak- 
ened. They had come to trust her implicitly, totally. They, too, had 
come to believe her repeated statement, "We got to go free or die." 
She was leading them into freedom, and so they waited until she 
was ready to go on. 

Finally, they reached Thomas Garrett's house in Wilmington, 
Delaware. Just as Harriet had promised, Garrett gave them 
all new shoes, and provided carriages to take them on to the 
next stop. 

By slow stages they reached Philadelphia, where William Still 
hastily recorded their names, and the plantations whence they 
had come, and something of the life they had led in slavery. Then 
he carefully hid what he had written, for fear it might be discov- 
ered. In 1872 he published this record in book form and called it 
The Underground Railroad. In the foreword to his book he said: 
"While I knew the danger of keeping strict records, and while I did 
not then dream that in my day slavery would be blotted out, or 
that the time would come when I could publish these records, it 
used to afford me great satisfaction to take them down, fresh from 
the lips of fugitives on the way to freedom, and to preserve them 
as they had given them." 

William Still, who was familiar with all the station stops on the 
Underground Railroad, supplied Harriet with money and sent her 
and her eleven fugitives on to Burlington, New Jersey. 



cajoling (ko jof in) 
v. coaxing or 
persuading gently 



indomitable 

(in dam' it a bel) adj. 
not easily discouraged 



Literary Analysis 
Third-person Narrative 

What do you learn about 
William Still in this 
paragraph that you would 
not have known if this 
were not a third-person 
narrative? 



5. sleep . . . hours when she was about 13, Harriet accidentally received a severe blow 
on the head. Afterwards, she often lost consciousness and could not be awakened until 
the episode was over. 



J 36 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Harriet felt safer now, though there were danger spots ahead. 
But the biggest part of her job was over. As they went farther 
and farther north, it grew colder; she was aware of the wind on 
the Jersey ferry and aware of the cold damp in New York. From 
New York they went on to Syracuse, where the temperature was 
even lower. 

In Syracuse she met the Reverend J.W. Loguen, known as 
"Jarm" Loguen. This was the beginning of a lifelong friendship. 
Both Harriet and Jarm Loguen were to become friends and 
supporters of Old John Brown. 6 

From Syracuse they went north again, into a colder, snowier 
city — Rochester. Here they almost certainly stayed with Frederick 
Douglass, for he wrote in his autobiography: 

"On one occasion I had eleven fugitives at the same time 
under my roof, and it was necessary for them to remain with 
me until I could collect sufficient money to get them to Canada. 
It was the largest number I ever had at any one time, and I had 
some difficulty in providing so many with food and shelter, but, 
as may well be imagined, they were not very fastidious in either 
direction, and were well content with very plain food, and a strip 
of carpet on the floor for a bed, or a place on the straw in the 
barnloft." 

Late in December 1851, Harriet arrived in St. Catharines, 
Canada West (now Ontario), with the eleven fugitives. It had 
taken almost a month to complete this journey; most of the time 
had been spent getting out of Maryland. 

That first winter in St. Catharines was a terrible one. Canada 
was a strange frozen land, snow everywhere, ice everywhere, 
and a bone-biting cold the like of which none of them had ever 
experienced before. Harriet rented a small frame house in the 
town and set to work to make a home. The fugitives boarded 
with her. They worked in the forests, felling trees, and so did she. 
Sometimes she took other jobs, cooking or cleaning house for 
people in the town. She cheered on these newly arrived fugitives, 
working herself, finding work for them, finding food for them, 
praying for them, sometimes begging for them. 

Often she found herself thinking of the beauty of Maryland, the 
mellowness of the soil, the richness of the plant life there. The 
climate itself made for an ease of living that could never be 
duplicated in this bleak, barren countryside. 

In spite of the severe cold, the hard work, she came to love 
St. Catharines, and the other towns and cities in Canada where 
black men lived. She discovered that freedom meant more than 



fastidious (fas tid' e as) 
adj. refined in an over- 
sensitive way, so as to 
be easily disgusted or 
displeased 



^Reading Check 

What jobs do the 
fugitives take? 



6. John Brown white abolitionist (1800-1859) who was hanged for leading a raid on 
the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, as part of a slave uprising. 



//iin/i'i Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ 137 



black men lived. She discovered that freedom meant more than 
the right to change jobs at will, more than the right to keep the 
money that one earned. It was the right to vote and to sit on 
juries. It was the right to be elected to office. In Canada there 
were black men who were county officials and members of school 
boards. St. Catharines had a large colony of ex-slaves, and they 
owned their own homes, kept them neat and clean and in good 
repair. They lived in whatever part of town they chose and sent 
their children to the schools. 

When spring came she decided that she would make this small 
Canadian city her home — as much as any place could be said to 
be home to a woman who traveled from Canada to the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland as often as she did. 

In the spring of 1852, she went back to Cape May, New Jersey. 
She spent the summer there, cooking in a hotel. That fall she 
returned, as usual, to Dorchester County, and brought out nine 
more slaves, conducting them all the way to St. Catharines, in 
Canada West, to the bone-biting cold, the snow-covered forests — 
and freedom. 

She continued to live in this fashion, spending the winter in 
Canada, and the spring and summer working in Cape May, 
New Jersey, or in Philadelphia. She made two trips a year 
into slave territory, one in the fall and another in the spring. 
She now had a definite crystallized purpose, and in carrying 
it out, her life fell into a pattern which remained 
unchanged for the next six years. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you have trusted Haniet Tubman to take you 
on a long, difficult journey? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: What kinds of stories does Tubman tell the fugitives? 

(b) Analyze: Why does she tell them these stories? 

(c) Evaluate: How effective are the stories? 

3. (a) Recall: What does Tubman do when one of the fugitives 
insists he is going back? (b) Analyze Causes and Effects: 
Explain why Tubman feels she cannot let anyone go back. 

4. (a) Interpret: Explain one of the several possible meanings of 
Tubman's statement "We live free or die." (b) Make a Judgment: 
Do you think the results of Tubman's trips are worth the danger 
she puts herself in? 

5. (a) Synthesize: Describe Harriet Tubman's character. 

(b) Connect: What modem leaders have qualities similar to 
Haniet Tubman's? 




(1908-1997) 

Growing up in 
Old Saybrook, 
Connecticut, in 
a predominantly 
white commun- 
ity, Ann Petry 
sometimes 
encountered racism. 
However, she was inspired 
by her mother's tales about 
the strength and courage of 
her ancestors. 

Although Petry began 
writing in high school, she 
earned her degree as a phar- 
macist. She later returned 
to writing, becoming a fic- 
tion writer and a newspaper 
reporter in New York City. 

Petry greatly admired 
Harriet Tubman. She 
pays tribute to her in her 
biography, Harriet Tubman, 
Conductor of the Underground 
Railroad, from which this 
selection is taken. 



J 38 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Third-Person Narrative 

1 . How do you know that the narrator does not take part in the 
events being narrated? 

2. How would the story be different if it were told by one of the 
escaping African Americans in Harriet's group? 

3. Fill out a graphic organizer like the one shown to analyze details 
that only a contemporary third-person narrator could know. 



What history 
has revealed 



1 . About how Harriet worked 



2. About the outcome of her work 



3. About the outcome of her life 



Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Explain how two details from the story would be presented differ- 
ently for each type of narrator on the chart. An example is done 
for you. 



r 

Third-person omniscient Third-person limited 


They had come to trust her implicitly, totally. 


The narrator would only tell how one of 
the characters in the story felt. 






- 


.. _•< 



Reading Strategy 



Setting a Purpose for Reading 

5. What was your purpose for reading "Harriet Tubman"? 

6. How did having a purpose help you focus your reading of this story? 

7. What are three details that helped you achieve your purpose? 



Extend Understanding 



8. Social Studies Connection: What historical event caused Tubman 
to stop making the journeys she made in the 1850s? Explain why. 



Quick Review 

A third-person narrative is 

a story fold by a narrator 
who is outside the story. 
To review third-person 
narrative, see page 1 29. 



Setting a purpose for 

reading is defining your 
reason for reading a work 
of literature. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding ol 

the select ion. 



Harriei Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ IM) 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Concept Development: 

Synonyms are words with 
such as courageous and brave. 
match each vocabulary word 

1. guttural a. 

2. disheveled b. 

3. incentive c. 

4. fugitives d. 

5. mutinous e. 

6. cajoling f. 

7. indomitable g. 

8. fastidious h. 



Word Analysis: Latin Root 'fug' 

The word fugitives, meaning "persons running 
from the law," is built on the Latin root -fug-, 
meaning "to flee." Using the dictionary, define the 
words listed below. Then, write a sentence explain- 
ing how the root -fug- contributes to the meaning 
of each word. Use a dictionary to help you. 

1. subterfuge 2. refuge 3. centrifugal 

Spelling Strategy 

In the word incentive, the s sound is spelled 
with a c. When c is followed by e, i, or y, it usu- 
ally has an s sound. Identify the words below that 
have an s sound spelled with a c. 

1. existence 2. cajoling 3. magnificent 

Grammar Lesson 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 

A verb is transitive when it expresses an 
action directed toward a person or thing. The 
action passes from the doer to the receiver of the 
action. The person or thing receiving the action 
is the object of the verb. 

V. OBj. 
Transitive: They never saw him. 

V. OBI. 

Harriet believed her friends. 

A verb is intransitive when it expresses action 
(or tells something about the subject) without 
passing the action to the receiver. 

V. V. 

Intransitive: They did not believe in his existence. 
V. 
She hoped for a quick escape. 

Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive, 
depending on the way they are used in a sentence. 

v\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 15, Section 1 



Synonyms 

similar meanings, 
On your paper, 
with a synonym. 

escapees 

harsh 

unconquerable 

picky 

encouragement 

rebellious 

messy 

coaxing 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise B. 
Practice On your paper, identify each verb as 
transitive or intransitive. If the verb is transitive, 
write its object. 

1. At night she guided the fugitives. 

2. She knocked on the farmhouse door. 

3. One fugitive pleaded to go back. 

4. They arrived safely in Philadelphia. 

5. The abolitionist gave them food and money. 

Writing Application Write a summary of 
Tubman's journey. When you revise, look for 
places where using an object and a transitive verb 
would be more effective than using an intransi- 
tive verb. In at least one sentence, use hide as a 
transitive verb. In another, use run as an intransi- 
tive verb. 



140 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Writing Lesson 

Introduction 

Heroes like Harriet Tubman deserve to be honored. Imagine you are to give a 
speech at the opening of a museum display on Tubman. In your speech, tell why she 
is an inspiration to you. 

Prewriting Gather biographical details about Tubman. Organize the details 
into groups. 

Drafting Begin with an attention-grabbing statement or an anecdote about 
Tubman. Then, from the details you have gathered, give specific 
examples to support statements you make about her. 



Model: Give Specific Examples 

General: She was an extraordinary person. 
Specific: Harriet Tubman's extraordinary efforts to help 
enslaved people find freedom and a new life in Canada 
deserve admiration. 



The words in italics are 
specific examples of 
Tubman's efforts. 



% 



Revising Underline each claim you make about Harriet Tubman. For each 
claim, circle one example. If you cannot find an example, revise to 
add an example or remove the claim from your introduction. 

Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 5, Section 2 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Using an outline you 
prepare in advance, give a brief speech in which 
you persuade people to contribute money to a 
memorial for Harriet Tubman. 

1. In the introduction of your outline, state 
your purpose and preview the reasons you 
will give. 

2. In the body of your outline, list details and 
facts that will help you develop and sup- 
port your reasons. 

3. In the conclusion of your outline, jot down 
a quotation or question with which you 
can end your speech. 



Research and Technology Work with a group to 
create a map of the Underground Railroad. 
Include the following: 

• routes 

• approximate location of safe houses 

• final destinations 

Research by using encyclopedias, library books, 
and Web sites. Display your map in the classroom. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go (inline lor an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom ♦ HI 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



Columbus ♦ Western Wagons ♦ The Other Pioneers 




PACIFIC 
OCEAN 



300 km 

ATLANTIC 

. t . OCEAN 
Augustine 

San Salvador Island 

Columbus landed (1492) 

/ 



Trails to the West 
Around 1840 



H Hi 



'A/O/ 



ES 



Background 




As you read 
^^J^p these poems and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



The map shows trails to the West, used by pioneers described in 
Stephen Vincent Benet's "Western Wagons," and the Republic of Texas, 
where the Mexican pioneers of Roberto Felix Salazar's poem settled. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading Standard 3.7 Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the her- 
itage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author. (Introduced in the Literary Analysis 
and the Reading Strategy) 

Writing Standard 1.4 Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using 
computer networks and modems. (Introduced in the Research and Technology activity) 
Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other 
devices to indicate the relationship between ideas. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 
Listening and Speaking Standard 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory 
details, appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice in 
ways that enliven oral presentations. (Developed in the Speaking and Listening activity) 



142 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Literary Analysis 

Author's Perspective 

An author's perspective is the unique viewpoint from which he or she 
writes. This perspective is a combination of the following factors: 

• the author's heritage and traditions 

• the author's attitudes and beliefs 

• the culture of the time during which the author lived. 

Stephen Vincent Benet and Roberto Felix Salazar both write about 
pioneers. Their perspectives, however, are very different. As you read the 
three poems, notice details that reflect each author's perspective. 

Comparing Literary Works 

Compare and contrast the authors' perspectives in these works. To focus 
your comparison, look for answers to the following focus questions: 

1. What topic or subject do the works share? 

2. What is the poet's attitude toward the topic? 

3. What details from the poet's background may have helped shape 
the poet's attitude? 

Reading Strategy 

Relating to What You Know 

One way to understand a poem is by relating it to what you know. 
For example, you know that Columbus landed on American shores in the 
late 1400s and that sea voyages were dangerous at that time. This infor- 
mation helps you appreciate the depth of Columbus's determination and 
the extent of the crew's fear in Joaquin Miller's poem "Columbus." 

As you read and respond to these poems, think about how the details 
fit in with what you already know. Use a KWL chart to take notes. Before 
reading, write what you know in the "K" column. Write what you want to 
know under "W." After reading, write what you have learned under "L." 
Add any additional questions you want to investigate under "W." 



Vocabulary Development 

mutinous (mycrot' an as) adj. rebel- 
lious (p. 144) 

wan (wan) adj. pale (p. 144) 

swarthy (swor' the) adj. having a 
dark complexion (p. 144) 



unfurled (un furld') adj. unfolded 
(p. HS) 

stalwart (stol' wart) adj. resolute; 
firm; unyielding (p. 150) 



K W 



Columbus/Western Wagons/The Othei Pioneers ♦ I4. 1 ) 



10 



15 



ColUTT)6U8 



Joaquin Miller 




Behind him lay the gray Azores, 1 

Behind the Gates of Hercules; 2 

Before him not the ghost of shores; 

Before him only shoreless seas. 

The good mate said: "Now must we pray, 

For lo! the very stars are gone. 

Brave Adm'r'l, speak; what shall I say?" 

"Why, say: 'Sail on! sail on! and on!'" 

"My men grow mutinous day by day; 
My men grow ghastly wan and weak." 
The stout mate thought of home; a spray 
Of salt wave washed his swarthy cheek. 
"What shall I say, brave Adm'r'l, say, 
If we sight naught 3 but seas at dawn?" 
"Why, you shall say at break of day: 
'Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!'" 



1. Azores (a' zorz) group of Portuguese islands in the North Atlantic west of Portugal. 

2. Gates of Hercules (gats uv hur' kye lez) entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar between 
Spain and Africa. 

3. naught (not) n. nothing. 



^ Critical Viewing 

What qualities of Columbus 
depicted in the poem are 
revealed or suggested by 
the figure of Columbus 
standing at the front of the 
boat in this painting? 
[Compare and Contrast] 



mutinous (myoof en es) 
adj. rebellious 

wan (wan) adj. pale 

swarthy (swor' the) adj. 
having a dark complexion 



144 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow, 
Until at last the blanched mate said: 
"Why, now not even God would know 
20 Should I and all my men fall dead. 
These very winds forget their way, 
For God from these dread seas is gone. 
Now speak, brave Adm'r'l; speak and say — " 
He said: "Sail on! sail on! and on!" 

25 They sailed. They sailed. Then spake 4 the mate: 

"This mad sea shows his teeth to-night. 

He curls his lip, he lies in wait. 

With lifted teeth, as if to bite! 

Brave Adm'r'l, say but one good word: 
30 What shall we do when hope is gone?" 

The words leapt like a leaping sword: 

"Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!" 

Then, pale and worn, he kept his deck, 

And peered through darkness. Ah, that night 
35 Of all dark nights! And then a speck — 

A light! A light! A light! A light! 

It grew, a starlit flag unfurled ! 

It grew to be Time's burst of dawn. 

He gained a world; he gave that world 
40 Its grandest lesson: "On! sail on!" 

4. spake (spak) v. old-fashioned word for "spoke." 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you like to have been on Columbus's voyage? 
Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Who are the two characters speaking in the poem? 
(b) Compare and Contrast: Compare and contrast these two 
speakers' reactions to the voyage. 

3. (a) Recall: To what does the mate compare the sea in lines 26-28? 
(b) Interpret: What do you think he means hy this comparison? 

4. (a) Recall: In the last stanza, what does Columbus sic during the 
night? (b) Draw Conclusions: What is its importance? 

5. (a) Recall: What words does ( blumbus repeat throughout the 
poem? (b) Evaluate: How do these words provide the "grandest 
lesson" to the world? 




unfurled (un farld) adj. 
unfolded 



Joaquin Miller 



(1837-1913) 

Joaquin Miller was 
born near Liberty, 
Indiana, though he 
once claimed that 
his cradle was "a 
covered wagon pointed 
West." Miller later set- 
tled in Oregon, where he 
owned a newspaper, 
worked as a county judge, 
and helped establish a 
pony express route. As a 
tribute to the Mexican 
bandit Joaquin Murieta, 
Miller changed his given 
name, Cincinnati^ Hiner 
Miller, to Joaquin Miller. 

Miller wrote several 
books of poetry, often 
depicting the beauty and 
excitement of the frontier. 
In 1870 he visited England, 
where bis book Songs oj the 
Sierras was well received. 
"Columbus" is bis best 
known poem. 



( 'olumbus ♦ 145 




TVbAons 



Stephen Vincent Benet 




▲ Critical Viewing What do the expressions on the faces of the couple in the painting 
reveal about their emotions? [Infer] 



146 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



They went with axe and rifle, when the trail was still to blaze, 
They went with wife and children, in the prairie-schooner days, 
With banjo and with frying pan — Susanna, don't you cry! 
For I'm off to California to get rich out there or die! 

5 We've broken land and cleared it, but we're tired of where we are. 
They say that wild Nebraska is a better place by far. 
There's gold in far Wyoming, there's black earth in Ioway, 
So pack up the kids and blankets, for we're moving out today! 

The cowards never started and the weak died on the road, 
10 And all across the continent the endless campfires glowed. 
We'd taken land and settled — but a traveler passed by — 
And we're going West tomorrow — Lordy, never ask us why! 

We're going West tomorrow, where the promises can't fail. 
O'er the hills in legions, boys, and crowd the dusty trail! 
15 We shall starve and freeze and suffer. We shall die, 
and tame the lands. 
But we're going West tomorrow, with our fortune in our hands. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Does the life of a westward pioneer appeal 
to you? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: With what items do the pioneers travel? 

(b) Analyze: Why are these items important to the 
pioneers? (c) Interpret: How do these details help you 
understand the meaning of the phrase "the trail was still to 
blaze"? 

3. (a) Recall: To what places do the people in "Western Wagons" 
want to go? (b) Infer: Why do they want to go to these places? 

(c) Apply: What qualities characterized the age of westward 
expansion? 

4. (a) Recall: In line five, what do you learn about the life of the 
pioneers? (b) Interpret: What do you think drives the pioneers 
to keep moving? 

5. (a) Make a Judgment: What do you think is the most 
compelling reason most of the pioneers had for moving on? 

(b) Evaluate: Do you think the rewards of their move are worth 
the risks they face? Explain. 



Reading Strategy 
Relating to What You 
Know Why does the poet 
insert "Susanna, don't you 
cry!" in this stanza? 




Stephen Vincent Benet 



(1898-1943) 

A poet, short-story 
writer, and dramatist, 
Stephen Vincent 
Benet had his first 
collection of poetry 
published when he 
was only seventeen 
years old. Benet grew up in 
a literary family. His father 
read poetry to the children, 
and Benet's brother, 
William Rose, and sister, 
Laura, also were writers. 
Benet often wrote on 
historical themes. A Book <>/ 
Americans, which he wrote 
with his wife Rosemary 
Carr, consists of poems on 
historical characters. Mis 
epi« poem on the C )ivil 
War, John Brown's Body, won 
the Pulitzer Prize in 1 929. 



Western \V iagi <ns ♦ 147 



^m 



F-f I 



rl ^ 





r r ) r H' r J 



loneers 



Roberto Felix Salazar 



Now I must write 

Of those of mine who rode these plains 

Long years before the Saxon 1 and the Irish came. 

Of those who plowed the land and built the towns 

5 And gave the towns soft- woven Spanish names. 
Of those who moved across the Rio Grande 
Toward the hiss of Texas snake and Indian yell. 
Of men who from the earth made thick-walled homes 
And from the earth raised churches to their God. 

10 And of the wives who bore them sons 
And smiled with knowing joy. 

1. Saxon (sak' san) n. English. 



Literary Analysis 
Author's Perspective 

What historical event does 
this poem describe? 



•c 



V 

* <hl L 



* 



148 Meeting Challenges 




§ 










They saw the Texas sun rise golden-red with promised wealth 
And saw the Texas sun sink golden yet, with wealth unspent. 
"Here," they said. "Here to live and here to love." 
15 "Here is the land for our sons and the sons of our sons." 
And they sang the songs of ancient Spain 
And they made new songs to fit new needs. 
They cleared the brush and /pQamed th§ 
And saw green staiRslurn slack irom/ 
They roamed the plair^s behind-fcne here 
And stood the Indian's cruel attacks. 
There was dust and there was sweat. 
And there were tears and the women prayed. 



20 




«/jReading Check 

Where are the people in 
this poem going? 



\ 



.*.# <,*. 

> 



8 



• 



~p 



^ 



The ( )r/wv Pioneers 



%j 




^ Critical Viewing This 
painting depicts San Antonio, 
Texas, in the mid-1 800s. What 
does the painting reveal about 
the landscape of the area? [Infer] 



And the years moved on. 

25 Those who were first placed in graves 

Beside the broad mesquite 2 and the tall nopal. 3 
Gentle mothers left their graces and their arts 
And stalwart fathers pride and manly strength. 
Salinas, de la Garza, Sanchez, Garcia, 

30 Uribe, Gonzalez, Martinez, de Leon: 4 
Such were the names of the fathers. 
Salinas, de la Garza, Sanchez, Garcia, 
Uribe, Gonzalez, Martinez, de Leon: 
Such are the names of the sons. 



2. mesquite (mes kef) n. thorny tree or shrub common in the southwestern United 
States and Mexico 

3. nopal (no' pal) n. cactus with red flowers 

4. Salinas (sa' le nas), de la Garza (da la gar'sa), Sanchez (san' chas), Garcia 
(Gar se a), Uribe (oo re ba) Gonzales (gon sa' las), Martinez (mar te nas), 
de Leon (da la on') 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you have liked to have been a part of the life 
described in this poem? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Who are the "other pioneers" referred to in the title? 

(b) Infer: Why does Salazar refer to them as "other"? 

(c) Contrast: Identify the diffferences between these two groups. 

3. (a) Recall: What did these pioneers do in their new land? 

(b) Apply: Identify evidence of their actions in modern times. 

4. (a) Synthesize: Describe the life of these pioneers, (b) Evaluate: 

Were the rewards of their efforts worth the risks they faced? 

5. (a) Connect: Who are today's pioneers? (b) Analyze: What do 
they risk? (c) Assess: Is it worth the risk? 



stalwart (stol' wart) adj. 
resolute; firm; unyielding 




Roberto Felix Salazar 



(b. 1913) 

In his writing, 
Roberto Felix 
Salazar aims 
to dramatize 
his Mexican 
American her- 
itage as well as 
challenge his 
readers' assumptions about 
the beginnings of the 
United States. According to 
Philip Ortego, a professor 
of Chicano Studies, "The 
Other Pioneers" was written 
to remind Hispanic 
Americans and others that 
the first pioneers to settle 
the Southwest had 
Spanish names — and that 
their descendants still do, 
although they are 
American citizens. 



150 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Author's Perspective 

1. Complete a chart like the one shown to indicate details that con- 
tribute to each author's perspective. 



Author Heritage An experience that shaped 

attitudes or beliefs 


Joaquin Miller 




Helped establish pony express routes 


Stephen Vincent Benet 






Roberto Felix Salazar 




. 



2. What are two different details of early American culture that are 
included in Benet's "Western Wagons"? 

3. How does Salazar honor his heritage in "The Other Pioneers"? 

Comparing Literary Works 

4. What topic or subject do the works share? 

5. What is each poet's attitude toward the topic? 

6. What details from each poem are shaped by the poet's background? 

Reading Strategy 

Relating to What You Know 

7. Complete an organizer like this one for "Western Wagons" and 
"The Other Pioneers" to illustrate prior knowledge you brought to 
each poem. 



Poem Subject of Details in What I already How it fits 
poem poem know together 



'Columbus" Columbus's The men are Sea voyages were They are fright- 
voyage mutinous. unpredictable and ened and want 

dangerous then. to turn back. 



8. Based on what you know about pioneer life, explain why the pio- 
neers in "Western Wagons" travel with axes and rifles. 

Extend Understanding 

9. Social Studies Connection: What legacy do the characters in the 
poems leave to people living today? 



Quick Review 

An author's perspective is 

the unique viewpoint from 
which he or she writes 
based on heritage, 
traditions, beliefs, attitudes, 
and the culture of the times 
in which the author lives. 
To review author's 
perspective, see page 143. 



To fully appreciate a work 
of literature, relate to what 
you know. That is, see 
how details in the work fit 
together with your prior 
knowledge of the subject. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
\i hi! understanding ot 
these selections. 



( olumbus/Westem Wagons/Thei )thei Pii 



♦ 151 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Concept Development: Antonyms 
wan and swarthy 

Antonyms are words with opposite meanings, 
such as light and dark. Joaquin Miller uses the 
antonyms wan and swarthy in "Columbus." If you 
know that wan means "pale," you can guess that 
swarthy means "having a dark complexion." 

A. Copy the following sentences on your paper. 
Fill in each blank with wan or swarthy. 



The sick child looked 



and tired. 



2. The rancher, who had worked outside for 
years, had a ? complexion. 

3. Hours after the accident, the driver still 
looked ? and startled. 

B. Write a sentence describing the mate in 
"Columbus." Tell when he is swarthy and 
when he looks wan. 

Grammar Lesson 

Active and Passive Voice 

A verb is in the active voice when the subject 
o{ the sentence performs the action. It is in the 
passive voice when the subject receives the 
action. The passive voice uses a form of the 
helping verb be. 

Active Voice: The settlers crossed the prairie. 

Passive Voice: The prairie was crossed by settlers. 

Although you should aim to use the active 
voice in your writing, sometimes you need to use 
the passive voice. Use the passive voice when 
you do not know who or what performed the 
action or when you want to place emphasis on 
the result of the action rather than on the per- 
former of the action. 



Spelling Strategy 

When adding the suffix -ous to a word that 
ends in y, drop the y if the sound it represents 
disappears: mutiny + -ous = mutinous. 

Keep the y or change it to e or i if the sound it 
represents remains: harmony + -ous = harmonious. 

On your paper, add -ous to these words. 

1. larceny 2. glory 3. beauty 

Fluency: Matching Words and 

Definitions 

Match the vocabulary words with their 
definitions. 

1. unfurled a. rebellious 

2. wan b. having a dark complexion 

3. stalwart c. unfolded 

4. mutinous d. pale 

5. swarthy e. resolute or unyielding 



Practice On your paper, write whether each verb 
is in active or passive voice. 

1. Pioneers crossed the empty land. 

2. The trail was marked by wagon tracks. 

3. The plains echoed with coyote howls. 

4. Benet was impressed by the pioneers. 

Writing Application Rewrite this passage, 
changing any use of the passive voice to the 
active voice. 

The voyage was made by Columbus. The ships 
sailed for days without direction. After a time, 
threats were muttered by the crew. The crew was 
relieved, however, when land was sighted by 
Columbus. 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 22, Section 2 



152 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



■■■■■■■Kb 



Writing Lesson 

Written Proposal 

These poems honor courageous trailblazers. Write a persuasive speech in which 
you propose naming a public area or building after a historical figure you admire. 

Prewriting Choose a historical figure you would like to honor. Write down what 
you already know about the person. Then, make a list of questions 
you have about the person. Do research to answer the questions. 

Drafting Use your research notes to identify qualities or achievements you 
admire in your subject. Use these to support your proposal. 



Model: Supporting Ideas With Reasons 

We should name the new science lab Carver Memorial 
Science Facility. George Washington Carver performed 
research that benefits many people today. His determin - 
ation and curiosity are an example to all science students. 



The writer gives two 
specific reasons why the 
science lab should be 
named after George 
Washington Carver. 



% 



Revising Read your speech, underlining each reason you use to support your 
main idea. Revise any underlined reasons that are not specific. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 7, Section 7 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking In an oral presentation, 

compare and contrast the pictures of the 
American West shown in "Western Wagons" 
and "The Other Pioneers." 

1. Use the active voice rather than the pas- 
sive voice. 

Passive: Settlers are described in both 

poems. 

Active: Both poems describe settlers. 

2. Use action verbs to show the emphasis of 
each poem. For example, explored and 
roamed are two verbs that identify impor- 
tant action in "Western Wagons." Settled 
and built identify important actions in 
"The Other Pioneers." 



Research and Technology With a group, 
develop historical markers for an area mentioned 
in one of the poems. 

1 . Use place names and names of people as 
keywords in an Internet search. 

2. Use search conventions to get only the 
hits that apply to your specific search. 
For example, "Texas + settlers" will give 
hits related to the combination of Texas 
and settlers rather than many hits about 
Texas or many hits about settlers. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



< olumbus/Westem Wagons/The Other Pioneers * 153 



■■■MM 



■ 



Prepare to Read 



Up the Slide 





Background 



The Yukon Territory, where this story takes place, is of the subarctic 
zone where temperatures have been known to plunge to -80°F! In tem- 
peratures as low as these, getting lost or stranded can be a matter of life 
and death. 

Focus on the Standards 



^aTdp^ this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Reading 3.3 Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters 
from different historical eras confronting similar situations and conflicts. (Developed in 
the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a 
coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion. {Developed in 
the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.1 Analyze oral interpretations of literature, including lan- 
guage choice and delivery, and the effect of the interpretation on the listener. 
(Developed in the the Listening and Speaking activity) 



154 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



wmwmm 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict 

A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. In literature, the conflict 
may be between characters, within a character's mind, or between a charac- 
ter and nature. In "Up the Slide," the conflict is between Clay Dilham and 
the cold and snowy rock face of a mountain. 

He clawed desperately with his hands, but there was little to 
cling to, and he sped downward faster and faster. 

As you read, notice how natural elements are in conflict with Clay's plans. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

The way characters in a story deal with a conflict often depends on the 
historical context — the laws, beliefs, and expectations of the time period. 
In the late 1800s, people in the Yukon expected to live without the com- 
forts of civilization, so Clay is not surprised that he must struggle to sur- 
vive. A character from a modern city might have a very different reaction. 

As you read, think about the following focus questions: 

1. In what ways is Clay different from modern teenagers? 

2. In what ways does the time period of the story affect the way Clay 
deals with the conflict? 



Reading Strategy 



Predicting 

When you read an adventure story, you can sometimes predict, or 
make educated guesses about, story events. Predictions are usually based 
on one or both of the following factors: 

• clues in the story that suggest a certain outcome 

• your own experience in a similar situation 

Use a chart like the one shown to record and check the accuracy of 
your predictions about events in the story. 

Vocabulary Development 

exhausted (eg zosf ad) v. used up; maneuver (ma ndo' var) n. series of 

expended completely (p. 1 57) planned steps (p. 161 ) 

thoroughly (trior' 6 le) adv. accurately ascent (a sent') n. the act of climbing 
and with regard to detail (p. 157) or rising (p. 162) 

manifestly (man' a test' le) adv. clearly descent (de sent') n. the ;ict of climb- 
(p. 1 58) ing down (p. 162) 

exertion (eg zur' shan) n. energetic 
activity; effort (p. 160) 



Clue or Event 



Clay is expected 
to be back in half 
an hour. 



Prediction 



Something will 
happen to delay 
him. 



Actual Outcome 




Ut> the Slide ♦ 155 



; -JVto/ 





JACK LONDON 



When Clay Dilham left the tent to get a sled-load of firewood, he 
expected to be back in half an hour. So he told Swanson, who was 
cooking the dinner. Swanson and he belonged to different outfits, 
located about twenty miles apart on the Stewart River, but they had 
become traveling partners on a trip down the Yukon to Dawson ' to 
get the mail. 

Swanson had laughed when Clay said he would be back in half 
an hour. It stood to reason, Swanson said, that good, dry firewood 
could not be found so close to Dawson; that whatever firewood there 
was originally had long since been gathered in; that firewood would 
not be selling at forty dollars a cord if any man could go out and get 
a sled-load and be back in the time Clay expected to make it. 



1. Yukon (yoo' kan) . . . Dawson (do' sen) The Yukon River is in the Yukon Territory of 
northwestern Canada, and Dawson is a town nearby. 







!5( ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Then it was Clay's turn to laugh, as he sprang on the sled and 
mushed the dogs on the river -trail. For, coming up from the 
Siwash village the previous day, he had noticed a small dead pine 
in an out-of-the-way place, which had defied discovery by eyes less 
sharp than his. And his eyes were both young and sharp, for his 
seventeenth birthday was just cleared. 

A swift ten minutes over the ice brought him to the place, and 
figuring ten minutes to get the tree and ten minutes to return 
made him certain that Swanson's dinner would not wait. 

Just below Dawson, and rising out of the Yukon itself, towered 
the great Moosehide Mountain, so named by Lieutenant Schwatka 
long ere 2 the Yukon became famous. On the river side the moun- 
tain was scarred and gullied and gored; and it was up one of these 
gores or gullies that Clay had seen the tree. 

Halting his dogs beneath, on the river ice, he looked up, and after 
some searching, rediscovered it. Being dead, its weatherbeaten gray 
so blended with the gray wall of rock that a thousand men could 
pass by and never notice it. Taking root in a cranny, it had grown 
up, exhausted its bit of soil, and perished. Beneath it the wall fell 
sheer for a hundred feet to the river. All one had to do was to sink an 
ax into the dry trunk a dozen times and it would fall to the ice, and 
most probably smash conveniently to pieces. This Clay had figured 
on when confidently limiting the trip to half an hour. 

He studied the cliff thoroughly before attempting it. So far as he 
was concerned, the longest way round was the shortest way to the 
tree. Twenty feet of nearly perpendicular climbing would bring him to 
where a slide sloped more gently in. By making a long zigzag across 
the face of this slide and back again, he would arrive at the pine. 

Fastening his ax across his shoulders so that it would not interfere 
with his movements, he clawed up the broken rock, hand and foot, 
like a cat, till the twenty feet were cleared and he could draw breath 
on the edge of the slide. 

The slide was steep and its snow-covered surface slippery. Further, 
the heelless, walrus-hide shoes of his muclucs were polished by 
much ice travel, and by his second step he realized how little he 
could depend upon them for clinging purposes. A slip at that point 
meant a plunge over the edge and a twenty-foot fall to the ice. A hun- 
dred feet farther along, and a slip would mean a fifty-foot fall. 

He thrust his mittened hand through the snow to the earth to 
steady himself, and went on. But he was forced to exercise such care 
that the first zigzag consumed five minutes. Then, returning across 
the face of the slide toward the pine, he met with a new difficulty. 
The slope steepened considerably, so that little snow collected, while 
bent flat beneath this thin covering were long, dry last-year's grasses. 

The surface they presented was as glassy as that of his muclucs. 



exhausted (eg zosf ed) v. 
used up; expended 
completely 



thoroughly (thur' 6 le) adv. 
accurately and with regard 
to detail 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict and Historical 
Context Do you think a 
character from modern 
times would take on the 
challenge of climbing "The 
Slide"? 



VTReading Check 

What is the slide? 



2. ere (er) prep, archaic for before. 



^ Critical Viewing What does this picture of the Yukon tell you about the 
difficulties of making contact with the outside world? [Connect] 



( ■'/> the Slide ♦ 157 



and when both surfaces came together his feet shot out, and he fell 
on his face, sliding downward and convulsively clutching for some- 
thing to stay himself. 

This he succeeded in doing, although he lay quiet for a couple 
of minutes to get back his nerve. He would have taken off his 
muclucs and gone at it in his socks, only the cold was thirty below 
zero, and at such temperature his feet would quickly freeze. So he 
went on, and after ten minutes of risky work made the safe and 
solid rock where stood the pine. 

A few strokes of the ax felled it into the chasm, and peeping over 
the edge, he indulged a laugh at the startled dogs. They were on the 
verge of bolting when he called aloud to them, soothingly, and they 
were reassured. 

Then he turned about for the trip back. Going down, he knew, 
was even more dangerous than coming up, but how dangerous he 
did not realize till he had slipped half a dozen times, and each 
time saved himself by what appeared to him a miracle. Time and 
again he ventured upon the slide, and time and again he was 
balked when he came to the grasses. 

He sat down and looked at the treacherous snow-covered slope. It 
was manifestly impossible for him to make it with a whole body, and 
he did not wish to arrive at the bottom shattered like the pine tree. 

He must be doing something to keep his blood circulating. If he 
could not get down by going down, there only remained to him to 
get down by going up. It was a herculean task, but it was the only 
way out of the predicament. 

From where he was he could not see the top of the cliff, but he 
reasoned that the gully in which lay the slide must give inward 
more and more as it approached the top. From what little he 
could see, the gully displayed this tendency; and he noticed, also, 
that the slide extended for many hundreds of feet upward, and 
that where it ended the rock was well broken up and favorable for 
climbing. . . . 

So instead of taking the zigzag which led downward, he made a 
new one leading upward and crossing the slide at an angle of thirty 
degrees. The grasses gave him much trouble, and made him long 
for soft-tanned moosehide moccasins, which could make his feet 
cling like a second pair of hands. 

He soon found that thrusting his mittened hands through the 
snow and clutching the grass roots was uncertain and unsafe. His 
mittens were too thick for him to be sure of his grip, so he took 
them off. But this brought with it new trouble. When he held on to 
a bunch of roots the snow, coming in contact with his bare warm 
hand, was melted, so that his hands and the wristbands of his 
woolen shirt were dripping with water. This the frost was quick to 
attack, and his fingers were numbed and made worthless. 






Literary Analysis 

Conflict How is the slide 
an opposing force to Clay? 



manifestly (man' e test' le) 
adv. clearly 



Reading Strategy 

Predicting Clay encounters 
problem after problem. 
What do you predict will 
happen? 



158 ♦ Meeting Challenges 







m 







Then he was forced to seek good footing, where he could 
stand erect unsupported, to put on his mittens, and to 
thrash his hands against his sides until the heat came 
back into them. 

This constant numbing of his fingers made his 
progress very slow; but the zigzag came to an end final- 
ly, where the side of the slide was buttressed by a per- 
pendicular rock, and he turned back and upward 
again. As he climbed higher and higher, he found that 
the slide was wedge-shaped, its rocky buttresses 
pinching it away as it reared its upper end. Each 
step increased the depth which seemed to yawn for 
him. 

While beating his hands against his sides he 
turned and looked down the long slippery slope, 
and figured, in case he slipped, that he would 
be flying with the speed of an express train 
ere he took the final plunge into the icy bed of 
the Yukon. 

He passed the first outcropping rock, 
and the second, and at the end of an 
hour found himself above the third, 
and fully five hundred feet above 
the river. And here, with the end 
nearly two hundred feet above 
him, the pitch of the slide was 
increasing. 






iQReading Check 

What is the challenge 
Clay faces? 




a* 




Each step became more difficult and perilous, and 
he was faint from exertion and from lack of Swanson's 
dinner. Three or four times he slipped slightly and 
recovered himself; but, growing careless from 
exhaustion and the long tension on his nerves, he 
tried to continue with too great haste, and was 
rewarded by a double slip of each foot, which tore 
him loose and started him down the slope. 

On account of the steepness there was little snow; 
but what little there was was displaced by his body, so 
that he became the nucleus of a young avalanche. He 



exertion (eg zar' shan) n. 
energetic activity; effort 




▼ Critical Viewing 

What does this 
photograph reveal 
about the hardships 
endured by gold 
prospectors in the 
Yukon? [Connect] 



J> 



?* IS? V H 



/ 60 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




clawed desperately with his hands, but there was little to cling to, 
and he sped downward faster and faster. 

The first and second outcroppings were below him, but he 
knew that the first was almost out of line, and pinned his hope on 
the second. Yet the first was just enough in line to catch one of 
his feet and to whirl him over and head downward on his back. 

The shock of this was severe in itself, and the fine snow 
enveloped him in a blinding, maddening cloud; but he was thinking 
quickly and clearly of what would happen if he brought up head first 
against the outcropping. He twisted himself over on his stomach, 
thrust both hands out to one side, and pressed them heavily against 
the flying surface. 

This had the effect of a brake, drawing his head and shoulders 
to the side, in this position he rolled over and over a couple of 
times, and then, with a quick jerk at the right moment, he got his 
body the rest of the way round. 

And none too soon, for the next moment his feet drove into the 
outcropping, his legs doubled up, and the wind was driven from 
his stomach with the abruptness of the stop. 

There was much snow down his neck and up his sleeves. At 
once and with unconcern he shook this out, only to discover, when 
he looked up to where he must climb again, that he had lost his 
nerve. He was shaking as if with a palsy, and sick and faint from 
a frightful nausea. 

Fully ten minutes passed ere he could master these sensations 
and summon sufficient strength for the weary climb. His legs hurt 
him and he was limping, and he was conscious of a sore place in 
his back, where he had fallen on the ax. 

In an hour he had regained the point of his tumble, and was con- 
templating the slide, which so suddenly steepened. It was plain to 
him that he could not go up with his hands and feet alone, and he 
was beginning to lose his nerve again when he remembered the ax. 

Reaching upward the distance of a step, he brushed away the 
snow, and in the frozen gravel and crumbled rock of the slide 
chopped a shallow resting place for his foot. Then he came up a 
step, reached forward, and repeated the maneuver . And so, step by 
step, foothole by foothole, a tiny speck of toiling life poised like a fly 
on the face of Moosehide Mountain, he fought his upward way. 

Twilight was beginning to fall when he gained the head of the slide 
and drew himself into the rocky bottom of the gully. At this point the 
shoulder of the mountain began to bend back toward the crest, and 
in addition to its being less steep, the rocks afforded better handhold 
and foothold. The worst was over, and the best yet to come! 

The gully opened out into a miniature basin, in which a floor of 
soil had been deposited, out of which. In turn, a tiny grove ol pines 
had sprung. The trees were all dead, dry and seasoned, having long 
since exhausted the thin skin of earth. 



Literary Analysis 

Conflict Which force 
appears to be winning the 
conflict? 



maneuver (ma noo' var) n. 
series of planned steps 



^Reading Check 

How does Clay "brake" 
himself? 



( <b the Slide ♦ 16 



Clay ran his experienced eye over the timber, and estimated that 
it would chop up into fifty cords at least. Beyond, the gully closed 
in and became barren rock again. On every hand was barren rock, 
so the wonder was small that the trees had escaped the eyes of 
men. They were only to be discovered as he had discovered them — 
by climbing after them. 

He continued the ascent , and the white moon greeted him when 
he came out upon the crest of Moosehide Mountain. At his feet, a 
thousand feet below, sparkled the lights of Dawson. 

But the descent was precipitate and dangerous in the uncertain 
moonlight, and he elected to go down the mountain by its gentler 
northern flank. In a couple of hours he reached the Yukon at the 
Siwash village, and took the river -trail back to where he had left 
the dogs. There he found Swanson, with a fire going, waiting 
for him to come down. 

And although Swanson had a hearty laugh at his expense, 
nevertheless, a week or so later, in Dawson, there were fifty cords 
of wood sold at forty dollars a cord, and it was he and Swanson 
who sold them. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think the risks that Clay takes are 
reasonable or foolish? Why? 

2. (a) Recall: How long does Clay say he will be gone collecting 

firewood? (b) Recall: What is Swanson's reaction to Clay's 
estimate? (c) Apply: Why do you think London begins his 
story with the description of the two men's disagreement? 

3. (a) Recall: How old is Clay? (b) Deduce: How is Clay's age 

reflected in his actions? 

4. (a) Infer: Identify three specific skills Clay possesses that aid 

his survival, (b) Deduce: How do these skills save his life? 
(c) Contrast: Which of his actions endanger his life? Explain. 

5. (a) Recall: What does Clay find after reaching the top of the 
slide? (b) Draw Conclusions: How does this discovery reward 
him for his dangerous climb? (c) Make Judgments: Is the 
discovery worth the risks Clay takes? 

6. (a)Infer: What lesson does Clay learn from his experiences? 

(b) Generalize: What lesson does the story hold for readers who 
will never visit the Yukon? 

7. Connect: What risks today are not worth taking in spite of 
potential millions? 



ascent (a sent') n. the act 
of climbing or rising 

descent (de sent) n. the 
act of climbing down 




Jack London 



(1876-1916) 

Jack London 
was the most 
popular novelist 
and short-story 
writer of his day. 
His exciting tales 
of adventure and 
courage were inspired by 
his own experiences. 
At age seventeen, 
London sailed with a seal- 
hunting ship to Japan and 
Siberia. After two years, 
London returned to high 
school, vowing to become 
a writer. 

In 1897, London jour- 
neyed to the Yukon 
Territory in search of gold. 
Although he did not find 
it, he did find inspiration 
for his writing. 

London's best-known 
works depict strong charac- 
ters facing the powerful ele- 
ments of nature — from 
Buck, the dog in The Call of 
the Wild, to the ruthless 
Wolf Larson in The Sea-Wolf. 



1 62 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Conflict 



1. In a diagram like the one shown, show three instances of nature in 
conflict with Clay. 



Nature 




Clay 



2. Explain how elements of nature oppose Clay's efforts to find firewood. 

3. How is the conflict between Clay and forces of nature resolved? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. In what ways is Clay different from modern teenagers? 

5. In what ways does the time period of the story affect the way Clay 
deals with the conflict? 

6. Complete an organizer like the one shown to compare and con- 
trast the way Clay deals with the conflict to the way a contempo- 
rary character might deal with it. 



Clay Contemporary Teenager 




Usual daily activities 






How food is obtained 






Kinds of transportation used 






Other 





Reading Strategy 

Predicting 

7. What clues at the beginning of the story could lead you to predict 
that Clay's task may take him longer than he expects? 

8. What clues might lead you to predict that Clay will survive? 

Extend Understanding 

9. Career Connection: Based on his actions in the story, for what 
kinds of jobs do you think ( 'lay is suited ' Why? 



Quick Review 

Conflict in a story means a 
struggle between the main 
character and either 
another character or some 
force of nature. To review 
conflict, see page 155. 



The historical context of a 

story includes the laws, 
beliefs, and expectations 
of the time period. To 
review historical context, 
see page 1 55. 



Predicting means making 
educated guesses about 
story events based on 
clues that suggest a 
certain outcome. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self-test on 1 1 in' to check 
your understanding oi 

the selection. 



I b.the Slide ♦ 163 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Concept Development: Forms of 

exhaust 

Exhausted is a form of the verb exhaust, mean- 
ing "to use up" or "expend completely." Other 
forms of exhaust include exhaustion, exhaustive, 
exhausting, and exhaust. 

Copy these sentences and fill in the blanks 
with the correct form of the word exhaust. Use the 
suffixes -ion, -ing, and Ave where necessary. 



1. It 



was 



to climb the mountain. 



2. The hiker collapsed from ? when 
he reached the top. 

3. They had made an ? study of the 
trail map. 

4. She fell asleep from sheer ? 

5. The ? from the car choked us. 



Grammar Lesson 

Principal Parts of Regular Verbs 

Every verb has four principal parts. A regular 
verb forms its past and past participle by adding 
-d or -ed to the base form. The following chart 
explains the principal parts of regular verbs. 



Principal Part Description Examples 


Base Form: [ basic form 


listen, care 


Past: i adds -ecfor -d 


listened, cared 


Present Participle: adds -ing 


listening, caring 


Past Participle: adds -edor -d 


listened, cared 



Fluency: Definitions 

Match the vocabulary words in the left column 
with their definitions in the right column. 

1. manifestly a. energetic activity 

b. expended completely 

c. with regard to detail 

d. act of climbing up 



2. descent 

3. maneuver 

4. exhausted 

5. exertion 

6. thoroughly 

7. ascent 



e. act of climbing down 

f. clearly 

g. series of planned steps 



Spelling Strategy 

The long o sound is occasionally spelled ough, 
as in thoroughly and although. Correctly complete 
these senteces with thoroughly or although. 

1 . We were ? exhausted by the journey. 

2. _ .__? it was still light, we went to bed. 



► For more practice, see page R32, Exercise A. 
Practice On your paper, write the principal parts 
of each verb. 



1. look 

2. trap 



3. invite 

4. compel 



5. subtract 



% 



Writing Application On your paper, write sen- 
tences about the story, using each verb in the 
principal part indicated. Add helping verbs 
where necessary. 

stare (past) 

listen (base) 

long (present participle) 

end (past participle) 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 22, Section 7 



J 64 ♦ Meetmg Challenges 



■■■■■MMMMHi 



■■■■HSHMH 



■■■■■■iVNMHH 



Writing Lesson 

Yukon Description 

Write a description of the Yukon Territory based on the details you learned in 
the story. 

Prewriting Decide on the main impression you want to convey. Think about 
the kind of words and phrases that could contribute to that impres- 
sion. Then, write a statement conveying this main impression. The 
model shows two different main impressions of the Yukon. 



Model: Creating a Main Impression 






mean and heartless: The brutal beautiful but cruel: The crystal 

force of the Yukon can break a person's mountains of ice and snow can sweep 
neck in a sudden, thundering avalanche, away the life of anyone standing in 

the way. 



Drafting Begin by stating a main impression in your introduction. Supply 
specific examples and details that contribute to your main impres- 
sion. Organize related details about weather, landscape, or size. 

Revising Use a thesaurus to consider alternatives to words you have used 
more than once. Replace overused words such as good and great. 

v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Sections 2, 3, and 4 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking With a group, analyze 
the effects of language choice and delivery on 
listeners. 

1. Chouse a passage from the story. 

2. Take turns reading it aloud. Each reader 
should try something different with the 
speed, loudness, or tone of voice. 

3. After each reader, discuss how the delivery 
affected listeners. Discuss also London's 
word choices and how they influenced the 
effect of the reading. 



Research and Technology Write a resume for 
Jack London that shows why he is qualified to 
write an adventure column for a magazine. 



1. 



Use derails from his author biography and 
other sources as details of his experience. 
Find sample resumes and resume guidelines 
online. Use a word-processing program to 
develop a standard resume format. 
Include details about London's life experi- 
ences as well as his writing experiences. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

( io online lor an additional research activity 
usin^ the Internet . 



Up the Slide ♦ 165 



CONNECTIONS 

Literature Past and Present 






Conflicts with Nature 



^s 




Look at the literature of almost any time period, and you will find writers who 
specialize in adventure stories in which a character struggles to survive in a harsh nat- 
ural setting. Classic writers like Jack London and contemporary authors like Gary 
Paulsen and Jean Craighead George are known for their novels and stories, that take 
ace outside of civilization, far from cities and towns. These authors show nature in 
^ a realistic way: They love nature's beauty, but they also respect nature's power. 

How a character reacts to a conflict with nature depends on the character's per- 
sonality and background and the historical period in which the conflict takes place. The 
character of Clay in Jack London's "Up the Slide" lives in the late 1800s-before televi- 
sion, air travel, computers, and microwaves. To Clay, going out to collect firewood, 
hiking from one place to another, and cooking food over a fire are just part of everyday 
ife. In Gary Paulsen's contemporary novel Hatchet, Brian, a young man about Clay's age, 
ives in the late twentieth century. He is used to telephones, automobiles, and air condi- 
tioning. Yet, through an accident, Brian finds himself alone in a natural setting, needing 
to collect firewood, hike from one place to another, and cook his food over a fire. As you 
read the excerpt from Hatchet, compare and contrast the way Brian and Clay 
confront their conflicts with nature. Think about how the circumstances of 
their individual time periods affect the way they react. 



fim Hakkd 



Gary Paulsen 



What had he read or seen that told him about food in 
the wilderness? Hadn't there been something? A 
show, yes, a show on television about air force pilots 
and some kind of course they took. A survival course. All right, 
he had the show coming into his thoughts now. The pilots had 
to live in the desert. They put them in the desert down in 
Arizona or someplace and they had to live for a week. They had 
to find food and water for a week. 



For water they had made a sheet of plastic into a dew- 
gathering device and for food they ate lizards. 

That was it. Of course Brian had lots of water and there 
weren't too many lizards in the Canadian woods, that he knew 
One of the pilots had used a watch crystal as a magnifying 
glass to focus the sun and start a fire so they didn't have to 
eat the lizards raw. But Brian had a digital watch, without a 
crystal, broken at that. So the show didn't help him much. 

Wait, there was one thing. One of the pilots, a woman, had 
found some kind of beans on a bush and she had used them 
with her lizard meat to make a little stew in a tin can she had 
found. Bean lizard stew. There weren't any beans here, but 
there must be berries. There had to be berry bushes around. 
Sure, the woods were full of berry bushes. 
That's what everybody always said. Well, 
he'd actually never heard anybody say 
it. But he felt that it should be true. 

There must be berry bushes. 

He stood and moved out into the 
sand and looked up at the sun. It 
was still high. He didn't know what 
time it must be. At home it would 
be one or two if the sun were that 
high. At home at one or two his 
mother would be putting away the 
lunch dishes and getting ready for 
her exercise class. 

He shook his head. Had to stop 
that kind of thinking. The sun was 
still high and that meant that he 
had some time before darkness to 
find berries. He didn't want to be 
away from his — he almost thought 
of it as home — shelter when it 
came to be dark. 

He didn't want to be anywhere 
in the woods when it came to be 
dark. And he didn't want to get 
lost — which was a real problem. All 
he knew in the world was the lake 
in front of him and the hill at his 
back and the ridge — if he lost sight 
of them there was a really good 
chance that he would get turned 
around and not find his way back. 



▼ Critical Viewing 

What is the danger in 
eating unidentified 
berries such as these? 
[Speculate] 




So he had to look for berry bushes, but keep the lake 
or the rock ridge in sight at all times. 

He looked up the lake shore, to the north. For a good 
distance, perhaps two hundred yards, it was fairly clear. 
There were tall pines, the kind with no limbs until very 
close to the top, with a gentle breeze sighing in them, but 
not too much low brush. Two hundred yards up there 
seemed to be a belt of thick, lower brush starting — about 
ten or twelve feet high — and that formed a wall he could 
not see through. It seemed to go on around the lake, 
thick and lushly green, but he could not be sure. 

If there were berries they would be in that brush, he 
felt, and as long as he stayed close to the lake, so he 
could keep the water on his right and know it was there, 
he wouldn't get lost. When he was done or found berries, 
he thought, he would just turn around so the water was 
on his left and walk back until he came to the ridge and 
his shelter. 



▼ Critical Viewing 

What difficulties might 
Brian face in a natural 
setting such as this one? 
[Connect] 




J 68 ♦ Meetmg Challenges 



Simple. Keep it simple. I am Brian Robeson. I have 
been in a plane crash. I am going to find some food. I 
am going to find berries. 

He walked slowly — still a bit pained in his joints and 
weak from hunger — up along the side of the lake. The 
trees were full of birds singing ahead of him in the 
sun. Some he knew, some he didn't. He saw a robin, 
and some kind of sparrows, and a flock of reddish 
orange birds with thick beaks. Twenty or thirty of 
them were sitting in one of the pines. They made 
much noise and flew away ahead of him when he 
walked under the tree. He watched them fly, their 
color a bright slash in solid green, and in this way he 
found the berries. The birds landed in some taller wil- 
low type of undergrowth with wide leaves and started 
jumping and making noise. At first he was too far 
away to see what they were doing, but their color drew 
him and he moved toward them, keeping the lake in 
sight on his right, and when he got closer he saw they 
were eating berries. 

He could not believe it was that easy. It was as if the 
birds had taken him right to the berries. The slender 
branches went up about twenty feet and were heavy, 
drooping with clusters of bright red berries. They were 
half as big as grapes but hung in bunches much like 
grapes and when Brian saw them, glistening red in the 
sunlight, he almost yelled. 

His pace quickened and he was in them in 
moments, scattering the birds, grabbing branches, 
stripping them to fill his mouth with berries. 



Connecting Literature Past and Present 



1 . Where does Brian get his knowledge of the wilderness? 

2. Brian and Clay each study the place they are going to travel 
through before beginning their journeys. What does each charac- 
ter notice? What do the details that each one notices tell him? 

3. What is each character thinking about as he makes his journey? 

4. How confident is each character that he will survive his conflict 
with nature? 

5. What is each character's greatest concern, worry, or fear during 
his conflict with nature? 

6. How does the time period in which each character lives affect 
the way he deals with his conflict with nature? 




Gary Paulsen 



(b. 1939) 

Painfully 
shy as a child, 
Gary Paulsen 
ran away and 
joined a trav- 
eling carnival 
at the age of 
fourteen. He 
has since worked as a 
teacher, an electronics 
field engineer, an army ser- 
geant, an actor, a farmer, a 
truck driver, a singer, and a 
sailor. However, as he says, 
writing remains his pas- 
sion: "I write because it's 
all 1 can do. Every time 
I've tried to do something 
else, I cannot." Paulsen's 
love of reading began one 
cold day when he went 
into the library to get 
warm. To his surprise, the 
librarian handed him a 
library card. "When she 
handed me the card, she 
handed me the world," 
Paulsen says. 

Paulsen has written more 
than 1 75 books and has 
won three Newbery Honor 
Awards — for his books 
I latchet, I )ogsong, and The 
Winter Room. 



( Mimo tions: ' ''Hi hex ♦ 169 



Prepare to Read 



Thank You, M'am 





'ft, As you read 
^ftopf? this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



"Thank You, M'am," by Langston Hughes, is set in Harlem, New 
York. Harlem experienced rapid population growth early in the twentieth 
century. Many single-family buildings, like Mrs. Jones's, were converted 
into small apartments. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 3.5 Identify and analyze recurring themes across traditional and contempo- 
rary works. {Introduced in the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, 
opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices. (Developed in the Writing 
Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Developed in the 
Spelling Strategy) 

Listening and Speaking 1.4 Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of 
organization, which generally includes an introduction, transitions, previews, and sum- 
maries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion. (Developed in the 
Speaking and Listening activity) 



1 70 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Literary Analysis 

Implied Theme 

The theme of a literary work is the major idea or underlying message 
that it communicates. 

• A stated theme is directly expressed by the narrator or a character. 

• An implied theme is suggested by story events as well as the char- 
acters' actions and reactions. 

"Thank You, M'am" has an implied theme about the effects of kind- 
ness and trust. Themes of kindness and trust appear in literature of all 
time periods. As you read "Thank You, M'am," identify what message this 
contemporary short story communicates. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

The theme or message that is suggested by characters' actions often 
depends on a character's motives — the reasons for his or her actions. In 
this story, a boy snatches a purse because he wants money to buy shoes. By 
the end of the story, he discovers he wants something much more valuable. 
When his motives change, so do his actions. Use these focus questions to 
help you recognize characters' motives in "Thank You, M'am": 

1. How do Roger's actions change during the story? 

2. Why do they change? 

Reading Strategy 

Responding to Characters' Actions 

Reading a story is more enjoyable if you become involved with the 
people in it. One way to do this is to respond to the characters' actions. 
Ask yourself, 

• "Would I do that?" 

• "Do I think the character should do that?" 

• "How would I feel if that happened to me?" 

As you read the story, record your responses to the characters' actions 
in a chart like the one .shown. 



Vocabulary Development 

presentable (pre zent' a bal) adj. in 
proper order for being seen, met, et< . 

by others (p. 1 74) 

mistrusted (mis' trust' ad) v. doubted 

( P . 175) 



latching (lach' iq) v. grasping or 

attaching oneself to (p. 176) 

barren (bar' an) adj. sterile; empty 
(p. 176) 



Story Event 




If I were Mrs. Jones, 
I would be furious. 



Thank You, M'am ♦ 171 




("Thank 




Langston Hughes 



>he was a large woman with a large purse that had everything in 
it but hammer and nails. It had a long strap and she carried it slung 
across her shoulder. It was about eleven o'clock at night, and she 
was walking alone, when a boy ran up behind her and tried to 
snatch her purse. The strap broke with the single tug the boy gave it 
from behind. But the boy's weight, and the weight of the purse com- 
bined caused him to lose his balance. Instead of taking off full blast 
as he had hoped, the boy fell on his back on the sidewalk, and his 
legs flew up. The large woman simply turned around and kicked him 



Reading Strategy 
Responding to Characters' 
Actions How did you 
respond when the woman 
resists the purse-snatching? 



J 72 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



right square in his blue-jeaned sitter. Then she reached down, picked 
the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled. 

After that the woman said, "Pick up my pocketbook, boy, and 
give it here." 

She still held him. But she bent down enough to permit him to 
stoop and pick up her purse. Then she said, "Now ain't you 
ashamed of yourself?" 

Firmly gripped by his shirt front, the boy said, "Yes'm." 

The woman said, "What did you want to do it for?" 

The boy said, "I didn't aim to." 

She said, "You a lie!" 

By that time two or three people passed, stopped, turned to 
look, and some stood watching. 

"If I turn you loose, will you run?" asked the woman. 

"Yes'm," said the boy. 

'Then I won't turn you loose," said the woman. She did not 
release him. 

"Lady, I'm sorry," whispered the boy. 

"Um-hum! Your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face 
for you. Ain't you got nobody home to tell you to wash your face?" 

"No'm," said the boy. 

"Then it will get washed this evening," said the large woman 
starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her. 

He looked as if he were fourteen or fifteen, frail and willow- wild, 
in tennis shoes and blue jeans. 

The woman said, "You ought to be my son. I would teach you 
right from wrong. Least I can do right now is to wash your face. 
Are you hungry?" 

"No'm," said the being-dragged boy. "I just want you to turn 
me loose." 

"Was I bothering you when I turned that corner?" asked 
the woman. 

"No'm." 

"But you put yourself in contact with me," said the woman. 
"If you think that that contact is not going to last awhile, you got 
another thought coming. When I get through with you, sir, you are 
going to remember Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones." 

Sweat popped out on the boy's face and he began to struggle. Mrs. 
Jones stopped, jerked him around in front of her, put a half nelson 1 
about his neck, and continued to drag him up the street. When she 
got to her door, she dragged the boy inside, down a hall, and into a 
large kitchenette-furnished room at the rear of the house. She 
switched on the light and left the door open. The boy could hear 
other roomers laughing and talking in the large house. Some of their 



< Critical Viewing 

In what ways does the 
picture at left show that it 
would be easy to 
"disappear" in the scene? 
[Analyze] 



Literary Analysis 

Theme How does this 
dialogue point to the 
author's message? 



^Reading Check 

How do Roger and Mrs. 
Jones meet? 



1. half nelson wrestling hold using one arm. 



/ /iiDi/< You, M'dtn ♦ /73 



doors were open, too, so he knew he and the woman were not alone. 
The woman still had him by the neck in the middle of her room. 

She said, "What is your name?" 

"Roger," answered the boy. 

"Then, Roger, you go to that sink and wash your face," said the 
woman, whereupon she turned him loose — at last. Roger looked at 
the door — looked at the woman — looked at the door — and went to 
the sink. 

"Let the water run until it gets warm," she said. "Here's a clean 
towel." 

"You gonna take me to jail?" asked the boy, bending over the sink. 

"Not with that face, I would not take you nowhere," said the 
woman. "Here I am trying to get home to cook me a bite to eat and 
you snatch my pocketbook! Maybe you ain't been to your supper 
either, late as it be. Have you?" 

'There's nobody home at my house," said the boy. 

'Then we'll eat," said the woman. "I believe you're hungry — or 
been hungry — to try to snatch my pocketbook." 

"I wanted a pair of blue suede shoes," said the boy. 

"Well, you didn't have to snatch my pocketbook to get some 
suede shoes," said Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones. "You 
could of asked me." 

"M'am?" 

The water dripping from his face, the boy looked at her. There 
was a long pause. A very long pause. After he had dried his face 
and not knowing what else to do dried it again, the boy turned 
around, wondering what next. The door was open. He could make 
a dash for it down the hall. He could run, run, run, run, run! 

The woman was sitting on the day bed. After awhile she said, 
"I were young once and I wanted things I could not get." 

There was another long pause. The boy's mouth opened. Then 
he frowned, but not knowing he frowned. 

The woman said, "Um-hum! You thought I was going to say but, 
didn't you? You thought I was going to say, but I didn't snatch peo- 
ple's pocketbooks. Well, I wasn't going to say that." Pause. Silence. 
"I have done things, too, which I would not tell you, son — neither 
tell God, if He didn't already know. So you set down while I fix us 
something to eat. You might run that comb through your hair so 
you will look presentable ." 

In another corner of the room behind a screen was a gas plate 
and an icebox. Mrs. Jones got up and went behind the screen. 
The woman did not watch the boy to see if he was going to run 
now, nor did she watch her purse which she left behind her on 
the day bed. But the boy took care to sit on the far side of the 
room where he thought she could easily see him out of the corner 
of her eye, if she wanted to. He did not trust the woman not to 



Literary Analysis 

Theme and Characters' 
Motives What does this 
speech tell you about 
Mrs. Jones's reasons for 
helping Roger? 

presentable (pre zenf a bal) 
adj. in proper order for 
being seen, met, etc., by 
others 



I 74 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




A Critical Viewing Does the woman in the painting resemble 
Mrs. Jones as described in the story? Explain. [Make a Judgment] 



trust him. And he did not want to be mistrusted now. 

"Do you need somebody to go to the store," asked the boy, 
"maybe to get some milk or something?" 

"Don't believe I do," said the woman, "unless you just want 
sweet milk yourself. I was going to make cocoa out of this canned 
milk I got here." 

'That will be fine," said the boy. 



mistrusted (mis trust' sd) 
v. doubted 



^Reading Check 

What does the woman do 
with Roger? 



Thank You, M'am ♦ 175 



She heated some lima beans and ham she had in the icebox, made 
the cocoa, and set the table. The woman did not ask the boy any- 
thing about where he lived, or his folks, or anything else that would 
embarrass him. Instead, as they ate, she told him about her job in a 
hotel beauty shop that stayed open late, what the work was like, and 
how all kinds of women came in and out, blondes, redheads, and 
brunettes. Then she cut him a half of her ten-cent cake. 

"Eat some more, son," she said. 

When they were finished eating she got up and said, "Now, here, 
take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes. And 
next time, do not make the mistake of latching onto my pocket- 
book nor nobody else's — because shoes come by devilish like that 
will burn your feet. I got to get my rest now. But from here on in, 
son, I hope you will behave yourself." 

She led him down the hall to the front door and opened it. "Good- 
night! Behave yourself, boy!" she said, looking out into the street. 

The boy wanted to say something other than, "Thank you, 
m'am," to Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones, but although his 
lips moved, he couldn't even say that as he turned at the foot of 
the barren stoop and looked up at the large woman in the door. 
Then she shut the door. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking about the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think Mrs. Jones is wise or foolish to trust 
Roger? Why? 

2. (a) Recall: What does Mrs. Jones do when Roger tries to steal 
her purse? (b) Interpret: What can you tell about her character 
from this action? (c) Connect: How are her actions connected 
to her past experiences? 

3. (a) Recall: What does Roger do when Mrs. Jones leaves him 
alone with her purse? (b) Infer: Why does he do this? 

(c) Compare and Contrast: How have Roger's behavior 
and attitude changed? 

4. (a) Recall: What do Mrs. Jones and Roger talk about during 
their meal? (b) Draw Conclusions: Why doesn't Mrs. Jones ask 
Roger any personal questions? 

5. (a) Recall: What does Roger say when he leaves the apartment? 
(b) Infer: What more does he wants to say? (c) Interpret: Why 
can't he say more? 

6. (a) Predict: What effect will Mrs. Jones's actions have on 

Roger's future? (b) Make a Judgment: Does Mrs. Jones make 
good choices about how to treat Roger? 




latching (lach' in.) v. 
grasping or attaching 
oneself to 



barren (bar' en) adj. 
sterile; empty 



Langston Hughes 



(1902-1967) 

Born in 

Joplin, Missouri, 
Langston Hughes 
moved often as 
a young boy. He 
turned to writing 
as a way of deal- 
ing with his ever-changing 
home address and with the 
difficulties of being a young 
African American in the 
early 1900s. People first 
noticed Hughes in 1921 
when his poem "The Negro 
Speaks of Rivers" was 
published shortly after he 
graduated from high school. 
He soon won other prizes 
and opportunities, including 
a college scholarship. His 
first book of poetry, The 
Weary Blues, was published 
in 1926. Hughes wrote 
fiction, plays, and essays; 
translated other poets; and 
collected African American 
folklore. 



J 76 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Implied Theme 



1. What theme about kindness and trust is communicated in the 



story: 

2. Why do you think the theme is implied rather than stated? 

3. In a chart like the one shown, give three examples of clues that 
reveal the story's theme. 



Type of Clue Example from Story 


Words 




Character's actions 




Ideas 





4. How does the title "Thank you, M'am" relate to the theme? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

5. What is Roger's motivation for stealing the purse? On your paper, 
fill in a diagram to show this cause-and-effect relationship. 



Motive 



6. How do Roger's motives and actions change during the story? 

Reading Strategy 

Responding to Characters' Actions 

7. How did you respond when Mrs. Jones physically dragged Roger to 
the apartment? 

8. Were you surprised by any of Mrs. Jones's actions? Why or why not? 

9. Describe your responses to both characters at the end of the story. 

Extend Understanding 

10. Social Studies Connection: Compare Mrs. Jones's treatment of 
Roger to the punishment for stealing in the American West in the 
1 800s. 

1 1. Take a Position: What do you think is the most effective treat- 
ment for criminals? Explain. 



Quick Review 

The implied theme of a 

literary work is the mes- 
sage suggested by the 
work. A stated theme is 
directly expressed by the 
narrator or a character. 
To review theme, see 
page 1 71 . 



The motives of characters 
are their reasons for taking 
certain actions. To review 
characters' motivations, 
see page 171. 



Responding to the 
characters' actions helps 
you understand the 
characters and get 
involved in the story. 



Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



/ honk You, M'am ♦ 177 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Suffix -able Concept Development: Synonyms 



You can add the Latin suffix -able to some 
verbs to form adjectives that show an ability or 
quality. For example: wash + -able = washable. 

Add -able to the verbs disagree and present. 
Use one of the new words in each sentence. 

1 . "You might run that comb through your 
hair so you will look ? 

2. The first encounter between Roger and 
Mrs. Jones was ? 

Spelling Strategy 

When you add the prefix mis- to a word, do 
not change the original spelling: mis- + spell = 
misspell. 

Add mis- to the following words. 

1. take 2. trust 3. step 

Grammar Lesson 

Principal Parts of Verbs 

Every verb has four principal parts: the base 
form (present tense), past tense, present partici- 
ple, and past participle. Regular verbs form the 
past and past participle by adding -ed or -d to the 
base, but irregular verbs follow different patterns. 
You need to memorize them. 

Here are some common irregular verbs and 
their irregular principal parts: 



Participle 

eaten 

had 

sung 

drunk 

grown 



Base (Present) 


Past 


eat 


ate 


have 


had 


sing 


sang 


drink 


drank 



Synonyms are words with the same or similar 
meanings, such as big and large. Sometimes a syn- 
onym is a phrase, not a single word. On your 
paper, rewrite these sentences substituting a 
vocabulary word as a synonym for the word or 
phrase in italics. 

1. There was little furniture in the cold, 
empty apartment. 

2. Roger was suspicious of kindness from 
adults. 

3. After putting on a clean sweater, she felt 
neat enough to meet her new neighbors. 

4. My little sister was always clinging onto us 
when we wanted to go to the mall. 



grow 



grew 



► For more practice, see page R32, Exercise A. 
Practice On your paper, replace each verb in 
parentheses with the form of that verb that is 
correct in the sentence. Use the past participle 
after a helping verb such as had or have. 

1. When Roger grabbed her purse, the strap 
(break). 

2. He had (steal) the purse to get money. 

3. With the money, Roger (buy) a pair of 
blue suede shoes. 

4. Mrs. Jones (speak) to him calmly. 

Writing Application Go through some of your 
previous writing. Circle any incorrect use of the 
past tense and past participles o{ irregular verbs 



and then write the verb correctly. 
y]/^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 22, Section 1 



1 78 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Writing Lesson 

Letter of Guidance 

Imagine that you are Roger twenty years later. Write a short letter to a young 
relative who needs guidance. Explain how meeting Mrs. Jones changed your life. 

Prewriting Picture what Roger is like and what he has done with his life in 
the past twenty years. Then, brainstorm as many points of advice 
as you can think of. Circle three or four that seem the most impor- 
tant, and build your letter around them. 



Drafting 



To support your ideas, use quotations from the story, opinions from 
experts, or an analogy — a specific likeness between things that are 
quite different. 

Model: Support Ideas 



The feeling that Mrs. Jones was giving me a chance to be 
trustworthy was both exciting and scary — like getting ready to 
jump off a diving board. I was jumping into a new kind of life. 



The words in italics show 
an analogy, one way of 
supporting ideas. 



% 



Revising Reread your letter, underlining any analogies, opinions, and 
quotations you have used. Add them if they are missing. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 7, Sections 3 and 4 

Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Prepare a speech outline Research and Technology Write the copy for a 
for a talk in which you persuade your audience 
that Mrs. Jones did — or did not — do the right 
thing in dealing with Roger. In your outline, 
include the following: 

• an introduction in which you state your 
position 

• several reasons for your position 

• a conclusion in which you leave your lis- 
teners with a memorable idea or quotation. 

Then, deliver a speech following the outline. 
Ask for feedback from your audience to deter- 
mine whether you have convinced them of your 
position. 



book jacket for a new collection of poems and 
stories by Langston Hughes. Research the Harlem 
Renaissance and Hughes's role in it, as well as his 
influence on later writers. Use this information 
to write three paragraphs that point out the 
importance of Hughes's career and make readers 
want to buy the book. Include quotations. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Thank You, M'cnn ♦ I7 n 



Prepare to Read 



Flowers for Algernon 





mfy As you read 
■^Vdp^ this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



The- scientists in Flowers foi Algt rnon" focus on the main character's 
"IQ," which is short for intelligence quotient. Although IQ has traditional- 
ly been the most common measure of "intelligence," contemporary 
researchers have come to recognize that one test cannot accurately meas- 
ure the wide range of abilities and learning potential that people have. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.3 Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to ver- 
ify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast. 
[Developed in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original 
ideas. (Developed in the Writing Lesson and ihe Rt: search and Technology activity) 
Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.2 Paraphrase a speaker's purpose and point of view and ask 
relevant questions concerning the speaker's content, delivery, and purpose. 
[Introduced in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



180 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




Mi nHMMHml 



Literary Analysis 

First'Person Point of View 

Point of view is the perspective from which a story is told. In a story 
told from the first-person point of view, the narrator participates in the 
action and events are seen from the narrator's perspective. "Flowers for 
Algernon" is told in the first person. As you read, notice that the details 
of the story are seen through Charlie's eyes. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

As the story develops, Charlie changes in the way he writes, thinks, 
and reacts to other people. He is a dynamic character, a character that 
grows and changes. Characters that do not change are static characters. 

Use these focus questions to help you identify why Charlie is a dynam- 
ic character: 

1. How do Charlie's relationships with other people change, before 
and after the operation? 

2. How does Charlie's view of himself change? 

Reading Strategy 

Using Context to Verify Meaning 

When you encounter an unfamiliar word, use the context (the surround- 
ing words and sentences) to help you verify or determine the word's mean- 
ing. You may find clues such as restatements, comparisons, contrasts, 
definitions, and examples. The graphic organizer shows how context can be 
used to determine the meaning of the word ignorance in the example below. 

Before they laughed at me and despised me for my ignorance and 
dullness; now they hate me for my knowledge and understanding. 

Use context clues as you read "Flowers for Algernon." 



Vocabulary Development 

psychology (si kal' a je) n. science 
dealing with the mind and with men- 
tal and emotional processes (p. 194) 

tangible (tan' ja bal) adj. that which 
can be understood; definite; objective 
(p. 199) 

specter (spek' tar) n. a ghost; fright- 
ening image (p. 199) 

refute (ri fyoot') v. give evidence to 
prove (an argument or statement) 
false (p. 200) 



illiteracy (il lit' ar a se) n. inability to 
read or write (p. 202) 

obscure (ab skyoor') v. conceal or 
hide (p. 204) 

syndromes (sin' dromz') n. a number 
of symptoms occurring together and 
characterizing a specific disease or 
condition (p. 204) 

introspective (in' tro spekf iv) adj. 
inward looking; thoughtful (p. 205) 



Restatement I I Contrast 



knowledge 



Ignorance 



understanding 



Foolishness 
Stupidity 



Meaning 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 1^1 



Ftwe>* (v> 



Daniel Keyes 



progris riport i— maricln 5 1^5 

Dr. Strauss says I shud rite down what 
I think and evrey thing that happins to me 
from now on. I dont know why but he says 
its importint so they will see if they will use 
me. I hope they use me. Miss Kinnian says 
maybe they can make me smart. I want to be 
smart. My name is Charlie Gordon. I am 37 
years old and 2 weeks ago was my brithday. 
I have nuthing more to rite now so I will 
close for today. 

progris riport 1— marttln 0> 

I had a test today. I think I faled it. and I think that maybe now 
they wont use me. What happind is a nice young man was in the 
room and he had some white cards with ink spillled all over them. 
He sed Charlie what do you see on this card. I was very skared 
even tho I had my rabits foot in my pockit because when I was a 
kid I always faled tests in school and I spillled ink to. 

I told him I saw a inkblot. He said yes and it made me feel good 
I thot that was all but when I got up to go he stopped me. He said 
now sit down Charlie we are not thru yet. Then I dont remember 
so good but he wantid me to say what was in the ink. I dint see 
nuthing in the ink but he said there was picturs there other pepul 
saw some picturs. I coudnt see any picturs. I reely tryed to see. I 
held the card close up and then far away. Then I said if I had my 




4 Critical Viewing 

What impression of 
Charlie Gordon do you 
get from this scene from 
the movie? [Infer] 



182 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




glases I coud see better I usally only 
ware my glases in the movies or TV but 
I said they are in the closit in the hall. 
I got them. Then I said let me see that 
card agen I bet 111 find it now. 

I tryed hard but I still coudnt find 

the picturs I only saw the ink. I told 
him maybe I need new glases. He rote 
somthing down on a paper and I got 
skared of faling the test. I told him it 
was a very nice inkblot with littel points 
all around the eges. He looked very sad 
so that wasnt it. I said please let me try 
agen. Ill get it in a few minits becaus 
Im not so fast somtimes. Im a slow 
reeder too in Miss Kinnians class for 
slow adults but I'm trying very hard. 

He gave me a chance with another 
card that had 2 kinds of ink spilled on it 
red and blue. 

He was very nice and talked slow like 
Miss Kinnian does and he explaned it to 
me that it was a raw shok. l He said 
pepul see things in the ink. I said show 
me where. He said think. I told him I 
think a inkblot but that wasnt rite 
eather. He said what does it remind 
you — pretend somthing. I closd my eyes 
for a long time to pretend. I told him I 
pretned a fowntan pen with ink leeking 
all over a table cloth. Then he got up and 
went out. 

I dont think I passd the raw shok test. 



progris report 3— martcln 1 

Dr Strauss and Dr Nemur say it dont matter about the inkblots. I 
told them I dint spill the ink on the cards and I coudnt see anything 
in the ink. They said that maybe they will still use me. I said Miss 
Kinnian never gave me tests like that one only spelling and reading. 
They said Miss Kinnian told that I was her bestist pupil in the adult 
nite scool becaus I tryed the hardist and I reely wantid to lern. They 
said how come you went to the adult nite scool all by yourself 
Charlie. How did you find it. I said I askd pepul and sumbody told 
me where I shud go to lern to read and spell good. They said why 

1. raw shok misspelling of Rorschach (ror' shak) test, a psychological test involving 
inkblots that the subject describes. 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of View 

What elements in this 
paragraph indicate that 
this story is told from the 
first-person point of view? 



i/jReading Check 

Who is Charlie? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 183 



did you want to. I told them becaus all my life I wantid 
to be smart and not dumb. But its very hard to be 
smart. They said you know it will probly be tempirery. 
I said yes. Miss Kinnian told me. I dont care if it herts. 

Later I had more crazy tests today. The nice lady who 
gave it me told me the name and I asked her how do you 
spellit so I can rite it in my progris riport. THEMATIC 
APPERCEPTION TEST 2 I dont know the frist 2 words but 
I know what test means. You got to pass it or you get 
bad marks. This test lookd easy becaus I coud see the 
picturs. Only this time she dint want me to tell her the 
picturs. That mixd me up. I said the man yesterday said 
I shoud tell him what I saw in the ink she said that dont 
make no difrence. She said make up storys about the 
pepul in the picturs. 

I told her how can you tell storys about pepul you 
never met. I said why shud I make up lies. I never tell 
lies any more becaus I always get caut. 

She told me this test and the other one the raw-shok* 
was for getting personalty. I laffed so hard. I said how 
can you get that thing from inkblots and fotos. She 
got sore and put her picturs away. I dont care. It 
was sily. I gess I faled that test too. 

Later some men in white coats took me to a difernt 
part of the hospitil and gave me a game to play. It 
was like a race with a white mouse. They called the 
mouse Algernon. Algernon was in a box with a lot of 
twists and turns like all kinds of walls and they gave 
me a pencil and a paper with lines and lots of boxes. 
On one side it said START and on the other end it 
said FINISH. They said it was amazed 3 and that 
Algernon and me had the same amazed to do. I dint 
see how we could have the same amazed if Algernon 
had a box and I had a paper but I dint say nothing. 
Anyway there wasnt time because the race started. ■■■ 

One of the men had a watch he was trying to hide so 
I woudnt see it so I tryed not to look and that made me nervus. 

Anyway that test made me feel worser than all the others 
because they did it over 10 times with difernt amazeds and 
Algernon won every time. I dint know that mice were so smart 
Maybe thats because Algernon is a white mouse. Maybe white 
mice are smarter than other mice. 



iterature 



III COIltBXt Science Connection 



♦ Intelligence and Psychological Testing 

At the time this story was written, 
the usual measure of intelligence was 
the IQ, or "intelligence quotient." A 
Stanford University psychologist, Lewis 
Terman, established the standard IQ test 
in about 1916, based on earlier work by 
psychologists in France. While IQ tests 
are still given, people have recognized 
that there are many kinds of intelligence 
and that one test cannot accurately 
measure all of them. 

A Rorschach test does not measure 
intelligence. The subject identifies what 
an inkblot looks like. Psychologists make 
interpretations about personality and 
mental condition. Charlie is unable to 
understand that there is no right or 
wrong answer to the question about 
what he sees in the inkblot. 



^J^n^ks. 



A Rorschach inkblot 



2. THEMATIC (the mat' ik) APPERCEPTION (ap er sep' shan) TEST personality test in 
which the subject makes up stories about a series of pictures. 

3. amazed Charlie means a maze, or confusing series of paths. Often, the intelligence 
of animals is assessed by how fast they go through a maze. 



184 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



progris riport 4— Mar ft 

Their going to use me! Im so exited I can hardly write. Dr Nemur 
and Dr Strauss had a argament about it first. Dr Nemur was in the 
office when Dr Strauss brot me in. Dr Nemur was worryed about 
using me but Dr Strauss told him Miss Kinnian rekemmended me 
the best from all the pepul who she was teaching. I like Miss 
Kinnian becaus shes a very smart teacher. And she said Charlie 
your going to have a second chance. If you volenteer for this 
experament you mite get smart. They dont know if it will be per- 
minint but theirs a chance. Thats why I said ok even when I was 
scared because she said it was an operashun. She said dont be 
scared Charlie you done so much with so little I think you deserv it 
most of all. 

So I got scaird when Dr Nemur and Dr Strauss argud about it. 
Dr Strauss said I had something that was very good. He said I had 
a good motor-vation. 4 I never even knew I had that. I felt proud 
when he said that not every body with an eye-q 5 of 68 had that 
thing. I dont know what it is or where I got it but he said Algernon 
had it too. Algernons motor-vation is the cheese they put in his box. 
But it cant be that because I didnt eat any cheese this week. 

Then he told Dr Nemur something I dint understand so while 
they were talking I wrote down some of the words. 

He said Dr Nemur I know Charlie is not what you had in mind as 
the first of your new brede of intelek** (coudnt get the word) super- 
man. But most people of his low ment** are host** and uncoop** 
they are usualy dull apath** and hard to reach. He has a good 
natcher hes intristed and eager to please. 

Dr Nemur said remember he will be the first human beeng ever 
to have his intelijence trippled by surgicle meens. 

Dr Strauss said exakly. Look at how well hes lerned to read and 
write for his low mentel age its as grate an acheve** as you and I 
lerning einstines therey of **vity without help. That shows the 
intenss motorvation. Its comparat** a tremen** achev** I say we 
use Charlie. 

I dint get all the words and they were talking to fast but it 
sounded like Dr Strauss was on my side and like the other one 
wasnt. 

Then Dr Nemur nodded he said all right maybe your right. We 
will use Charlie. When he said that I got so exited I jumped up and 
shook his hand for being so good to me. I told him thank you doc 
you wont be sorry for giving me a second chance. And I mean it 
like I told him. After the operashun Im gonna try to be smart. Im 
gonna try awful hard. 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View How does Charlie's 
reaction to being chosen 
for the operation show 
his motivation? 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context 

What context clues help 
you know what the partial 
words intelek, ment-, host-, 
uncoop-, and apath- mean? 



^Reading Check 

What will happen to 
Charlie's intellect after 
the operation? 



4. motor-vation motivation, or desire to work hard and achieve a goal. 

5. eye-q IQ, or intelligence quotient. A way of measuring human intelligence. 



Flowers for Algernon * /S5 



progris ript 5— Mar 10 

Im skared. Lots of people who work here and the nurses and the 
people who gave me the tests came to bring me candy and wish 
me luck. I hope I have luck. I got my rabits foot and my lucky 
penny and my horse shoe. Only a black cat crossed me when I 
was comming to the hospitil. Dr Strauss says dont be supersitis 
Charlie this is sience. Anyway Im keeping my rabits foot with me. 

I asked Dr Strauss if 111 beat Algernon in the race after the 
operashun and he said maybe. If the operashun works 111 show that 
mouse I can be as smart as he is. Maybe smarter. Then 111 be abel to 
read better and spell the words good and know lots of things and be 
like other people. I want to be smart like other people. If it works per- 
minint they will make everybody smart all over the wurld. 

They dint give me anything to eat this morning. I dont know 
what that eating has to do with getting smart. Im very hungry and 
Dr Nemur took away my box of candy. That Dr Nemur is a grouch. 
Dr Strauss says I can have it back after the operashun. You cant 
eat befor a operashun . . . 

Vroqms P-eport (*— Mar 15 

The operashun dint hurt. He did it while I was sleeping. They 
took off the bandijis from my eyes and my head today so I can 
make a PROGRESS REPORT. Dr Nemur who looked at some of my 
other ones says I spell PROGRESS wrong and he told me how to 
spell it and REPORT too. I got to try and remember that. 

I have a very bad memary for spelling. Dr Strauss says its ok to 
tell about all the things that happin to me but he says I shoud tell 
more about what I feel and what I think. When I told him I dont 
know how to think he said try. All the time when the bandijis were 
on my eyes I tryed to think. Nothing happened. I dont know what to 
think about. Maybe if I ask him he will tell me how I can think now 
that Im suppose to get smart. What do smart people think about. 
Fancy things I suppose. I wish I knew some fancy things alredy. 

Progress import 1— Mar if 

Nothing is happining. I had lots of tests and different kinds of 
races with Algernon. I hate that mouse. He always beats me. Dr 
Strauss said I got to play those games. And he said some time I 
got to take those tests over again. Thse inkblots are stupid. And 
those pictures are stupid too. I like to draw a picture of a man and 
a woman but I wont make up lies about people. 

I got a headache from trying to think so much. I thot Dr Strauss 
was my trend but he dont help me. He dont tell me what to think 
or when 111 get smart. Miss Kinnian dint come to see me. I think 
writing these progress reports are stupid too. 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context 

What context clues help 
you know what Charlie 
means by the word 
bandijis? 



m 



1 86 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



i 



M ^ 






WZ%^ 



**. S- 



'"k* , s» 



Is^v 



A Critical Viewing In what ways are Charlie and Algernon alike? 
[Compare and Contrast] 



Progress P-e-port 6— Mar 23 

Im going back to work at the factery. They said it was better I shud 
go back to work but I cant tell anyone what the operashun was for 
and I have to come to the hospitil for an hour evry night after work. 
They are gonna pay me mony every month for lerning to be smart. 

Im glad Im going back to work because I miss my job and all my 
trends and all the fun we have there. 

Dr Strauss says I shud keep writing things down but I dont 
have to do it every day just when I think of something or some- 
thing speshul happins. He says dont get discoridged because 
it takes time and it happins slow. He says it took a long time 
with Algernon before he got 3 times smarter then he was before. 
Thats why Algernon beats me all the time because he had that 



f- 



irjReading Check 

Why does Charlie hate 
Algernon? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 187 






operashun too. That makes me feel better. I coud probly do that 
amazed faster than a reglar mouse. Maybe some day 111 beat 
Algernon. Boy that would be something. So far Algernon looks like 
he mite be smart perminent. 

Mar 25 (I dont have to write PROGRESS REPORT on top any 
more just when I hand it in once a week for Dr Nemur to read. 
I just have to put the date on. That saves time) 

We had a lot of fun at the factery today. Joe Carp said hey 
look where Charlie had his operashun what did they do Charlie 
put some brains in. I was going to tell him but I remembered Dr 
Strauss said no. Then Frank Reilly said what did you do Charlie 
forget your key and open your door the hard way. That made me 
laff. Their really my friends and they like me. 

Sometimes somebody will say hey look at Joe or Frank or 
George he really pulled a Charlie Gordon. I dont know why they 
say that but they always laff. This morning Amos Borg 
who is the 4 man at Donnegans used my name when 
he shouted at Ernie the office boy. Ernie lost a pack- 
ige. He said Ernie what are you trying to be a Charlie 
Gordon. I dont understand why he said that. I never 
lost any packiges. 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context 

What is the amazed 
Charlie talks about? How 
do you know? 



▼ Critical Viewing 

Compare and contrast 
your vision of Charlie as 
described in the story 
with this photograph 
showing the actor's 
portrayal of the character. 
[Compare and Contrast] 




Mar 73 Dr Straus came to my room tonight to see why I dint 
come in like I was suppose to. I told him I dont like to race with 
Algernon any more. He said I dont have to for a while but I shud 
come in. He had a present for me only it wasnt a present but just 
for lend. I thot it was a little television but it wasnt. He said I got 
to turn it on when I go to sleep. I said your kidding why shud I 
turn it on when Im going to sleep. Who ever herd of a thing like 
that. But he said if I want to get smart I got to do what he says. I 
told him I dint think I was going to get smart and he put his hand 
on my sholder and said Charlie you dont know it yet but your 
getting smarter all the time. You wont notice for a while. I think 
he was just being nice to make me feel good because I dont look 
any smarter. 

Oh yes I almost forgot. I asked him when I can go back to the 
class at Miss Kinnians school. He said I wont go their. He said that 
soon Miss Kinnian will come to the hospitil to start and teach me 
speshul. I was mad at her for not comming to see me when I got 
the operashun but I like her so maybe we will be frends again. 



Mar V\ That crazy TV kept me up all night. How can I sleep with 
something yelling crazy things all night in my ears. And the nutty 
pictures. Wow. I dont know what it says when Im up so how am I 
going to know when Im sleeping. 

Dr Strauss says its ok. He says my brains are lerning when I 
sleep and that will help me when Miss Kinnian starts my lessons in 
the hospitl only I found out it isnt a hospitil its a labatory. I think 
its all crazy. If you can get smart when your sleeping why do people 
go to school. That thing I dont think will work. I use to watch the 
late show and the late late show on TV all the time and it never 
made me smart. Maybe you have to sleep while you watch it. 



Literary Analysis 
Point of View and 
Dynamic Character What 
changes can you see in 
Charlie so far? 



?WC*£&tf> iz.6?0{2-T 1- April 3 

Dr Strauss showed me how to keep the TV turned low so now I 
can sleep. I don't hear a thing. And I still dont understand what it 
says. A few times I play it over in the morning to find out what I 
lerned when I was sleeping and I dont think so. Miss Kinnian says 
Maybe its another langwidge or something. But most times it 
sounds american. It talks so fast faster then even Miss Gold who 
was my teacher in 6 grade and I remember she talked so fast I 
coudnt understand her. 

I told Dr Strauss what good is it to get smart in my sleep. I want 
to be smart when Im awake. He says its the same thing and I have 
two minds. Theres the subconscious and the conscious (thats how 
you spell it). And one dont tell the other one what its doing. They 
dont even talk to each other. Thats why I dream. And boy have I 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context 

Based on what Charlie 
says, what do the words 
subconscious and 
conscious mean? 

^Reading Check 

What do Charlie's friends 
mean when they say 
someone "pulled a 
Charlie Gordon"? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 189 



been having crazy dreams. Wow. Ever since that night TV. The late 
late late late late show. 

I forgot to ask him if it was only me or if everybody had those 
two minds. 

(I just looked up the word in the dictionary Dr Strauss gave me. 
The word is subconscious, adj. Of the nature of mental operations 
yet not present in consciousness: as, subconscious conflict of 
desires.) There's more but I still dont know what it means. This 
isnt a very good dictionary for dumb people like me. 

Anyway the headache is from the party. My frends from the fac- 
tery Joe Carp and Frank Reilly invited me to go with them to 
Muggsys Saloon for some drinks. I dont like to drink but they said 
we will have lots of fun. I had a good time. 

Joe Carp said I shoud show the girls how I mop out the toilet in 
the factory and he got me a mop. I showed them and everyone 
laffed when I told that Mr Donnegan said I was the best janiter he 
ever had because I like my job and do it good and never come late 
or miss a day except for my operashun. 

I said Miss Kinnian always said Charlie be proud of your job 
because you do it good. 

Everybody laffed and we had a good time and they gave me lots of 
drinks and Joe said Charlie is a card when hes potted. I dont know 
what that means but everybody likes me and we have fun. I cant 
wait to be smart like my best frends Joe Carp and Frank Reilly. 

I dont remember how the party was over but I think I went out to 
buy a newspaper and coffe for Joe and Frank and when I came back 
there was no one their. I looked for them all over till late. Then I 
dont remember so good but I think I got sleepy or sick. A nice cop 
brot me back home. Thats what my landlady Mrs Flynn says. 

But I got a headache and a big lump on my head and black and 
blue all over. I think maybe I fell. Anyway I got a bad headache 
and Im sick and hurt all over. I dont think 111 drink anymore. 



April (* 1 beat Algernon! I dint even know I beat him until Burt the 
tester told me. Then the second time I lost because I got so exited I 
fell off the chair before I finished. But after that I beat him 8 more 
times. I must be getting smart to beat a smart mouse like 
Algernon. But I dont feel smarter. 

I wanted to race Algernon some more but Burt said thats 
enough for one day. They let me hold him for a minit. Hes not so 
bad. Hes soft like a ball of cotton. He blinks and when he opens 
his eyes their black and pink on the eges. 

I said can I feed him because I felt bad to beat him and I wanted 
to be nice and make frends. Burt said no Algernon is a very spec- 
shul mouse with an operashun like mine, and he was the first of 
all the animals to stay smart so long. He told me Algernon is so 
smart that every day he has to solve a test to get his food. Its a 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of View 

What do you learn about 
Charlie in this paragraph 
that you would not know 
if it were in third person? 



1 90 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



thing like a lock on a door that changes every time Algernon goes 
in to eat so he has to lern something new to get his food. That 
made me sad because if he coudnt lern he woud be hungry. 

I dont think its right to make you pass a test to eat. How woud 
Dr Nemur like it to have to pass a test every time he wants to eat. 
I think 111 be trends with Algernon. 

April 1 Tonight after work Miss Kinnian was at the laboratory. She 
looked like she was glad to see me but scared. I told her dont 
worry Miss Kinnian Im not smart yet and she laffed. She said I 
have confidence in you Charlie the way you struggled so hard to 
read and right better than all the others. At werst you will have it 
for a littel wile and your doing something for sience. 

We are reading a very hard book. I never read such a hard book 
before. Its called Robinson Crusoe 6 about a man who gets 
merooned on a dessert Hand. Hes smart and figers out all kinds 
of things so he can have a house and food and hes a good swim- 
mer. Only I feel sorry because hes all alone and has no trends. 
But I think their must be somebody else on the iland because 
theres a picture with his funny umbrella looking at footprints. 
I hope he gets a frend and not be lonly. 

April \0 Miss Kinnian teaches me to spell better. She says look at a 
word and close your eyes and say it over and over until you remem- 
ber. I have lots of truble with through that you say threw and enough 
and tough that you dont say enew and tew. You got to say enuff and 
tuff. Thats how I use to write it before I started to get smart. Im con- 
fused but Miss Kinnian says theres no reason in spelling. 



April l4 Finished Robinson Crusoe. I want to find out more about 
what happens to him but Miss Kinnian says thats all there is. Why 

April Vj Miss Kinnian says Im lerning fast. She read some of the 
Progress Reports and she looked at me kind of funny. She says Im 
a fine person and 111 show them all. I asked her why. She said 
never mind but I shoudnt feel bad if I find out that everybody isnt 
nice like I think. She said for a person who god gave so little to 
you done more then a lot of people with brains they never even 
used. I said all my trends are smart people but there good. They 
like me and they never did anything that wasnt nice. Then she got 
something in her eye and she had to run out to the ladys room. 

April \b Today, I lerned, the comma, this is a comma (,) a period, 
with a tail, Miss Kinnian, says its importent, because, it makes 
writing, better, she said, somebody, coud lose, a lot of money, if a 

6. Robinson Crusoe (kroo so) novel written in 1719 by Daniel Defoe, a British author. 



^Reading Check 

What is happening to 
Charlie? 



Flowers /or Algernon ♦ 1^1 



comma, isnt, in the, right place, I dont have, any money, and I 
dont see, how a comma, keeps you, from losing it. 

But she says, everybody, uses commas, so 111 use, them too, 

April H I used the comma wrong. Its punctuation. Miss Kinnian told 
me to look up long words in the dictionary to lern to spell them. I 
said whats the difference if you can read it anyway. She said its part 
of your education so now on 111 look up all the words Im not sure 
how to spell. It takes a long time to write that way but I think Im 
remembering. I only have to look up once and after that I get it right. 
Anyway thats how come I got the word punctuation right. (Its that 
way in the dictionary). Miss Kinnian says a period is punctuation 
too, and there are lots of other marks to lern. I told her I thot all the 
periods had to have tails but she said no. 

You got to mix them up, she showed? me" how. to mix! them( up,, 
and now; I can! mix up all kinds" of punctuation, in! my writing? 
There, are lots! of rules? to lern; but Im gettin'g them in my head. 

One thing I? like about, Dear Miss Kinnian: (thats the way it 
goes in a business letter if I ever go into business) is she, always 
gives me' a reason" when — I ask. She's a gen'ius! I wish! I cou'd be 
smart" like, her; 

(Punctuation, is; fun!) 

April l& What a dope I am! I didn't even understand what she was 
talking about. I read the grammar book last night and it explanes the 
whole thing. Then I saw it was the same way as Miss Kinnian was try- 
ing to tell me, but I didn't get it. I got up in the middle of the night, 
and the whole thing straightened out in my mind. 

Miss Kinnian said that the TV working in my sleep helped out. She 
said I reached a plateau. Thats like the flat top of a hill. 

After I figgered out how punctuation worked, I read over all my 
old Progress Reports from the beginning. Boy, did I have crazy 
spelling and punctuation! I told Miss Kinnian I ought to go over the 
pages and fix all the mistakes but she said, "No, Charlie, Dr. 
Nemur wants them just as they are. That's why he let you keep 
them after they were photostated, to see your own progress. You're 
coming along fast, Charlie." 

That made me feel good. After the lesson I went down and played 
with Algernon. We don't race any more. 

April 2.0 I feel sick inside. Not sick like for a doctor, but inside my 
chest it feels empty like getting punched and a heartburn at the 
same time. 

I wasn't going to write about it, but I guess I got to, because its 
important. Today was the first time I ever stayed home from work. 

Last night Joe Carp and Frank Reilly invited me to a party. There 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View How does the first- 
person point of view in 
the journal make this 
description funnier? 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context to Verify 
Meaning What comparison 
does Charlie use to show 
the meaning of plateau? 
What plateau has Charlie 
reached? 



J 92 ♦ Meetmg Challenges 



were lots of girls and some men from the factory. I remembered how 
sick I got last time I drank too much, so I told Joe I didn't want any- 
thing to drink. He gave me a plain coke instead. It tasted funny, but I 
thought it was just a bad taste in my mouth. 

We had a lot of fun for a while. Joe said I should dance with Ellen 
and she would teach me the steps. I fell a few times and I couldn't 
understand why because no one else was dancing besides Ellen and 
me. And all the time I was tripping because somebody's foot was 
always sticking out. 

Then when I got up I saw the look on Joe's face and it gave me a 
funny feeling in my stomack. "He's a scream," one of the girls said. 
Everybody was laughing. 

Frank said, "I ain't laughed so much since we sent him off for the 
newspaper that night at Muggsy's and ditched him." 

"Look at him. His face is red." 

"He's blushing. Charlie is blushing." 

"Hey, Ellen, what'd you do to Charlie? I never saw him act like that 
before." 

I didn't know what to do or where to turn. Everyone was looking at 
me and laughing and I felt naked. I wanted to hide myself. I ran out 
into the street and I threw up. Then I walked home. It's a funny thing 
I never knew that Joe and Frank and the others liked to have me 
around all the time to make fun of me. 

Now I know what it means when they say "to pull a Charlie 
Gordon." 

I'm ashamed. 



April 2.1 Still didn't go into the factory. I told Mrs. Flynn my land- 
lady to call and tell Mr. Donnegan I was sick. Mrs. Flynn looks at 
me very funny lately like she's scared of me. 

I think it's a good thing about finding out how everybody laughs at 
me. I thought about it a lot. It's because I'm so dumb and I don't 
even know when I'm doing something dumb. People think it's funny 
when a dumb person can't do things the same way they can. 

Anyway, now I know I'm getting smarter every day. I know 
punctuation and I can spell good. I like to look up all the hard 
words in the dictionary and I remember them. I'm reading a lot 
now, and Miss Kinnian says I read very fast. Sometimes I even 
understand what I'm reading about, and it stays in my mind. 
There are times when I can close my eyes and think of a page and 
it all comes back like a picture. 

Besides history, geography and arithmetic, Miss Kinnian said I 
should start to learn a few foreign languages. Dr. Strauss gave me 
some more tapes to play while I sleep. I still don't understand 



Literary Analysis 

First-Person Point of 
View How does the first- 
person point of view help 
you keep track of Charlie's 
development? 



tQReading Check 

What does Charlie 
discover about why 
people laugh at him? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ /^3 



how that conscious and unconscious mind works, but Dr. Strauss 
says not to worry yet. He asked me to promise that when I start 
learning college subjects next week I wouldn't read any books on 
psychology — that is. until he gives me permission. 

I feel a lot better today, but I guess I'm still a little angry that all 
the time people were laughing and making fun of me because I 
wasn't so smart. When I become intelligent like Dr. Strauss says, 
with three times my I.Q. of 68, then maybe I'll be like everyone 
else and people will like me and be friendly. 

I'm not sure what an I.Q. is. Dr. Nemur said it was something that 
measured how intelligent you were — like a scale in the drugstore 
weighs pounds. But Dr. Strauss had a big arguement with him and 
said an I.Q. didn't weigh intelligence at all. He said an I.Q. showed 
how much intelligence you could get, like the numbers on the out- 
side of a measuring cup. You still had to fill the cup up with stuff. 

Then when I asked Burt, who gives me my intelligence tests and 
works with Algernon, he said that both of them were wrong (only I 
had to promise not to tell them he said so). Burt says that the I.Q. 
measures a lot of different things including some of the things you 
learned already, and it really isn't any good at all. 

So I still don't know what I.Q. is except that mine is going to be 
over 200 soon. I didn't want to say anything, but I don't see how if 
they don't know what it is, or where it is — I don't see how they 
know how much of it you've got. 

Dr. Nemur says I have to take a Rorshach Test tomorrow. I wonder 
what that is. 



psychology (si kaT a je) n. 
science dealing with the 
mind and with mental 
and emotional processes 



April 22. 1 found out what a Rorshach is. It's the test I took before 
the operation — the one with the inkblots on the pieces of card- 
board. The man who gave me the test was the same one. 

I was scared to death of those inkblots. I knew he was going to 
ask me to find the pictures and I knew I wouldn't be able to. I was 
thinking to myself, if only there was some way of knowing what 
kind of pictures were hidden there. Maybe there weren't any pic- 
tures at all. Maybe it was just a trick to see if I was dumb enough 
too look for something that wasn't there. Just thinking about that 
made me sore at him. 

"All right, Charlie," he said, "you've seen these cards before, 
remember?" 

"Of course I remember." 

The way I said it, he knew I was angry, and he looked surprised. 
"Yes, of course. Now I want you to look at this one. What might 
this be? What do you see on this card? People see all sorts of 
things in these inkblots. Tell me what it might be for you — what it 
makes you think of." 

I was shocked. That wasn't what I had expected him to say at 
all. "You mean there are no pictures hidden in those inkblots?" 



1 94 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



He frowned and took off his glasses. "What?" 

"Pictures. Hidden in the inkblots. Last time you told me that 
everyone could see them and you wanted me to find them too." 

He explained to me that the last time he had used almost the 
exact same words he was using now. I didn't believe it, and I still 
have the suspicion that he misled me at the time just for the fun 
of it. Unless — I don't know any more — could I have been that 
feeble-minded? 

We went through the cards slowly. One of them looked like a 
pair of bats tugging at some thing. Another one looked like two 
men fencing with swords. I imagined all sorts of things. I guess I 
got carried away. But I didn't trust him any more, and I kept turn- 
ing them around and even looking on the back to see if there was 
anything there I was supposed to catch. While he was making his 
notes, I peeked out of the corner of my eye to read it. But it was 
all in code that looked like this: 

WF + A DdF-Ad orig. WF-A 
SF + obj 

The test still doesn't make sense to me. It seems to me that any- 
one could make up lies about things that they didn't really see. 
How could he know I wasn't making a fool of him by mentioning 
things that I didn't really imagine? Maybe I'll understand it when 
Dr. Strauss lets me read up on psychology. 

April 2-5 I figured out a new way to line up the machines in the fac- 
tory, and Mr. Donnegan says it will save him ten thousand dollars a 
year in labor and increased production. He gave me a $25 bonus. 

I wanted to take Joe Carp and Frank Reilly out to lunch to cele- 
brate, but Joe said he had to buy some things for his wife, and 
Frank said he was meeting his cousin for lunch. I guess it'll take 
a little time for them to get used to the changes in me. Everybody 
seems to be frightened of me. When I went over to Amos Borg and 
tapped him on the shoulder, he jumped up in the air. 

People don't talk to me much any more or kid around the way 
they used to. It makes the job kind of lonely. 



Literary Analysis 
Point of View and 
Dynamic Character 

Compare this entry with 
Charlie's first Rorschach 
test. What has changed? 



April 2T I got up the nerve today to ask Miss Kinnian to have din- 
ner with me tomorrow night to celebrate my bonus. 

At first she wasn't sure it was right, but I asked Dr. Strauss and 
he said it was okay. Dr. Strauss and Dr. Nemur don't seem to be 
getting along so well. They're arguing all the time. This evening 
when I came in to ask Dr. Strauss about having dinner with Miss 
Kinnian, I heard them shouting. Dr. Nemur was saying that it was 
his experiment and his research, and Dr. Strauss was shouting 
back that he contributed just as much, because he found me 
through Miss Kinnian and he performed the operation. Dr. Strauss 



VjReading Check 

What does Charlie learn 
about Dr. Nemur and 
Dr. Strauss? 



Flowers fur Algernon ♦ N5 







m 



r*» 






' 



^ 



W v^ 



r-?>" *i*V" 






L 



A Critical Viewing Does Charlie seem to have made progress, judging from the 
details in this photograph? Explain. [Interpret] 



196 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



said that someday thousands of neurosurgeons 7 might be using 
his technique all over the world. 

Dr. Nemur wanted to publish the results of the experiment at 
the end of this month. Dr. Strauss wanted to wait a while longer to 
be sure. Dr. Strauss said that Dr. Nemur was more interested in 
the Chair 8 of Psychology at Princeton than he was in the experi- 
ment. Dr. Nemur said that Dr. Strauss was nothing but an oppor- 
tunist who was trying to ride to glory on his coattails. 

When I left afterwards, I found myself trembling. I don't know 
why for sure, but it was as if I'd seen both men clearly for the first 
time. I remember hearing Burt say that Dr. Nemur had a shrew of 
a wife who was pushing him all the time to get things published so 
that he could become famous. Burt said that the dream of her life 
was to have a big shot husband. 

Was Dr. Strauss really trying to ride on his coattails? 

April 2.8 I don't understand why I never noticed how beautiful 
Miss Kinnian really is. She has brown eyes and feathery brown 
hair that comes to the top of her neck. She's only thirty-four! I 
think from the beginning I had the feeling that she was an 
unreachable genius — and very, very old. Now, every time I see her 
she grows younger and more lovely. 

We had dinner and a long talk. When she said that I was corning 
along so fast that soon I'd be leaving her behind, I laughed. 

"It's true, Charlie. You're already a better reader than I am. You 
can read a whole page at a glance while I can take in only a few 
lines at a time. And you remember every single thing you read. I'm 
lucky if I can recall the main thoughts and the general meaning." 

"I don't feel intelligent. There are so many things I don't 
understand." 

She took out a cigarette and I lit it for her. 

"You've got to be a little patient. You're accomplishing in days 
and weeks what it takes normal people to do in half a lifetime. 
That's what makes it so amazing. You're like a giant sponge now, 
soaking things in. Facts, figures, general knowledge. And soon 
you'll begin to connect them, too. You'll see how the different 
branches of learning are related. There are many levels, Charlie, 
like steps on a giant ladder that take you up higher and higher to 
see more and more of the world around you. 

"I can see only a little bit of that, Charlie, and I won't go much 
higher than I am now, but you'll keep climbing up and up, and see 
more and more, and each step will open new worlds that you never 
even knew existed." She frowned. "I hope ... I just hope to God — " 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context What 
restatement in this 
sentence helps you 
understand the meaning 
of the word opportunist? 



VjReading Check 

What is Charlie's 
opinion of Dr. Nemur 
and Dr. Strauss? 



7. neurosurgeons (ndo' rd sur' jenz) n. doctors who operate on the nervous system, 
including the brain and spine. 

8. chair professorship. 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 197 



"What?" 

"Never mind, Charles. I just hope I wasn't wrong to advise you 
to go into this in the first place." 

I laughed. "How could that be? It worked, didn't it? Even 
Algernon is still smart." 

We sat there silently for a while and I knew what she was thinking 
about as she watched me toying with the chain of my rabbit's foot 
and my keys. I didn't want to think of that possibility any more than 
elderly people want to think of death. I knew that this was only the 
beginning. I knew what she meant about levels because I'd seen some 
of them already. The thought of leaving her behind made me sad. 

I'm in love with Miss Kinnian. 



?p.06fP.6t)f) P-6P0P-T 12. 

April 30 I' ve quit my job with Donnegan's Plastic Box Company. 
Mr. Donnegan insisted that it would be better for all concerned 
if I left. What did I do to make them hate me so? 

The first I knew of it was when Mr. Donnegan showed me the 
petition. Eight hundred and forty names, everyone connected with 
the factory, except Fanny Girden. Scanning the list quickly, I saw 
at once that hers was the only missing name. All the rest demanded 
that I be fired. 

Joe Carp and Frank Reilly wouldn't talk to me about it. No one 
else would either, except Fanny. She was one of the few people I'd 
known who set her mind to something and believed it no matter 
what the rest of the world proved, said or did — and Fanny did not 
believe that I should have been fired. She had been against the 
petition on principle and despite the pressure and threats she'd 
held out. 

"Which don't mean to say," she remarked, "that I don't think 
there's something mighty strange about you, Charlie. Them 
changes. I don't know. You used to be a good, dependable, ordi- 
nary man — not too bright maybe, but honest. Who knows what 
you done to yourself to get so smart all of a sudden. Like every- 
body around here's been saying, Charlie, it's not right." 

"But how can you say that, Fanny? What's wrong with a man 
becoming intelligent and wanting to acquire knowledge and under- 
standing of the world around him?" 

She stared down at her work, and I turned to leave. Without 
looking at me, she said: "It was evil when Eve listened to the snake 
and ate from the tree of knowledge. It was evil when she saw that 
she was naked. If not for that none of us would ever have to grow old 
and sick, and die." 

Once again now I have the feeling of shame burning inside me. 
This intelligence has driven a wedge between me and all the people 



Literary Analysis 

Point of View and 
Dynamic Character 

How does Fanny evaluate 
the changes that have 
occurred in Charlie? 



198 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



I once knew and loved. Before, they laughed at me and despised 
me for my ignorance and dullness; now, they hate me for my 
knowledge and understanding. What do they want of me? 

They've driven me out of the factory. Now I'm more alone than 
ever before ... / . 

Ma^ 15 Dr. Strauss is very angry at me for not having written any 
progress reports in two weeks. He's justified because the lab is 
now paying me a regular salary. I told him I was too busy thinking 
and reading. When I pointed out that writing was such a slow 
process that it made me impatient with my poor handwriting, he 
suggested that I learn to type. It's much easier to write now 
because I can type nearly seventy-five words a minute. Dr. Strauss 
continually reminds me of the need to speak and write simply so 
that people will be able to understand me. 

I'll try to review all the things that happened to me during the 
last two weeks. Algernon and I were presented to the American 
Psychological Association sitting in convention with the World 
Psychological Association last Tuesday. We created quite a sensa- 
tion. Dr. Nemur and Dr. Strauss were proud of us. 

I suspect that Dr. Nemur, who is sixty — ten years older than Dr. 
Strauss — finds it necessary to see tangible results of his work. 
Undoubtedly the result of pressure by Mrs. Nemur. 

Contrary to my earlier impressions of him, I realize that Dr. 
Nemur is not at all a genius. He has a very good mind, but it 
struggles under the specter of self-doubt. He wants people to take 
him for a genius. Therefore, it is important for him to feel that his 
work is accepted by the world. I believe that Dr. Nemur was afraid 
of further delay because he worried that someone else might make 
a discovery along these lines and take the credit from him. 

Dr. Strauss on the other hand might be called a genius, although I 
feel that his areas of knowledge are too limited. He was educated 
in the tradition of narrow specialization; the broader aspects of 
background were neglected far more than necessary — even for a 
neurosurgeon. 

I was shocked to learn that the only ancient languages he could 
read were Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and that he knows almost 
nothing of mathematics beyond the elementary levels of the calcu- 
lus of variations. When he admitted this to me, I found myself 
almost annoyed. It was as if he'd hidden this part of himself in 
order to deceive me, pretending— as do many people I've discov- 
ered — to be what he is not. No one I've ever known is what he 
appears to be on the surface. 

Dr. Nemur appears to be uncomfortable around me. Sometimes 
when I try to talk to him, he just looks at me strangely and turns 
away. I was angry at first when Dr. Strauss told me I was giving 



Literary Analysis 
Point of View and 
Dynamic Character 

How does the first-person 
point of view allow the 
reader to measure the 
changes occurring in 
Charlie? 



tangible (tan' ja bel) adj. 
that which can be under- 
stood; definite; objective 



specter (spek' tar) n. a 
ghost; frightening image 



t/jReading Check 

Why does Charlie lose 
his job? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ l' w 



Dr. Nemur an inferiority complex. I thought he was mocking me 
and I'm oversensitive at being made fun of. 

How was I to know that a highly respected psychoexperimental- 
ist like Nemur was unacquainted with Hindustani 9 and Chinese? 
It's absurd when you consider the work that is being done in India 
and China today in the very field of his study. 

I asked Dr. Strauss how Nemur could refute Rahajamati's attack 
on his method and results if Nemur couldn't even read them in the 
first place. That strange look on Dr. Strauss' face can mean only 
one of two things. Either he doesn't want to tell Nemur what 
they're saying in India, or else — and this worries me — Dr. Strauss 
doesn't know either. I must be careful to speak and write clearly 
and simply so that people won't laugh. 

Mav IS I am very disturbed. I saw Miss Kinnian last night for the 
first time in over a week. I tried to avoid all discussions of intellec- 
tual concepts and to keep the conversation on a simple, everyday 
level, but she just stared at me blankly and asked me what I 
meant about the mathematical variance equivalent in 
Dorbermann's Fifth Concerto. 

When I tried to explain she stopped me and laughed. I guess 
I got angry, but I suspect I'm approaching her on the wrong level. 
No matter what I try to discuss with her, I am unable to communi- 
cate. I must review Vrostadt's equations on Levels of Semantic 
Progression. I find that I don't communicate with people much any 
more. Thank God for books and music and things I can think 
about. I am alone in my apartment at Mrs. Flynn's boarding house 
most of the time and seldom speak to anyone. 

Maw 2.0 I would^not nave noticed the new dishwasher, a boy of 
about sixteen, at the corner diner where I take my evening meals 
if not for the incident of the broken dishes. 

They crashed to the floor, shattering and sending bits of white 
china under the tables. The boy stood there, dazed and frightened, 
holding the empty tray injiis hand. The whistles and catcalls from 
the customers (the cries of "hey, there go the profits!" . . . 
" Mazeltov!" . . . and "well, he didn't work here very long . . ." which 
invariably seems to follow the breaking of glass or dishware in a 
public restaurant) all seemed to confuse him. 

When the owner came to see what the excitement was about, 
the boy cowered as if he expected to be struck and threw up Jiis 
arms as if to ward off the blow. 

"All right! All right, you dope," shouted the owner, "don't just 
stand there! Get the broom and sweep that mess up. A broom . . . 
a broom, you idiot! It's in the kitchen. Sweep up all the piece's." 

9. Hindustani (hin ddo sta' ne) n. a language of northern India. 




/ 



Literary Analysis 

Point of View 

How does the first-person 
point of view make 
Charlie's attempts at 
communication sad? 



refute (ri fydof) v. prove 
(an argument or state- 
ment) to be false by 
argument or evidence 



200 ♦ Meeting Challenges 




A Critical Viewing Which details in the photograph reveal that Charlie has increased 
intelligence? [Analyze] 



The boy saw that he was not going to be punished. His frightened 
expression 



lisappeafed'and he smiled and hummed as he came 
back with the broom to sweep the floor. A few of the rowdier cus- 
tomers kept up the remarks, amusing themselves at his expense. 

"Here, sonny, over here there's a nice piece behind you . . ." 

'^/ morirdcrrni£ qir^ . . r"~ 

"Hels- not so -dumb. It's easier to break 'em than to wash 'em . 



As his vacant eyes moved acro ss t he crowd of am us ed onlo okers, 
he slowly mirrored their smiles and finally broke into an uncertain 
grin at the joke which he obviously did not understand. 



^Reading Check 

Is Charlie able to 
communicate well with 
Miss Kinnian? Explain. 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 201 



I felt sick inside as I looked at his dull, vacuous smile, the wide, 
bright eyes of a child, uncertain but eager to please. They were 
laughing at him because he was mentally retarded. 

And I had been laughing at him too. 

Suddenly, I was furious at myself and all those who were smirk- 
ing at him. I jumped up and shouted, "Shut up! Leave him alone! 
It's not his fault he can't understand! He can't help what he is! 
But . . . he's still a human being!" 

The room grew silent. I cursed myself for losing control and cre- 
ating a scene. I tried not to look at the boy as I paid my check and 
walked out without touching my food. I felt ashamed for both of us. 

How strange it is that people of honest feelings and sensibility, 
who would not take advantage of a man born without arms or legs 
or eyes — how such people think nothing of abusing a man born 
with low intelligence. It infuriated me to think that not too long 
ago I, like this boy, had foolishly played the clown. 

And I had almost forgotten. 

I'd hidden the picture of the old Charlie Gordon from myself 
because now that I was intelligent it was something that had to 
be pushed out of my mind. But today in looking at that boy, for 
the first time I saw what I had been. J was just like him! 

Only a short time ago, I learned that people laughed at me. 
Now I can see that unknowingly I joined with them in laughing at 
myself. That hurts most of all. 

I have often reread my progress reports and seen the illiteracy , 
the childish naivete, 10 the mind of low intelligence peering from a 
dark room, through the keyhole, at the dazzling light outside. I see 
that even in my dullness I knew that I was inferior, and that other 
people had something I lacked — something denied me. In my men- 
tal blindness, I thought that it was somehow connected with the 
ability to read and write, and I was sure that if I could get those 
skills I would automatically have intelligence too. 

Even a feeble-minded man wants to be like other men. 

A child may not know how to feed itself, or what to eat, yet it 
knows of hunger. 

This then is what I was like. I never knew. Even with my gift of 
intellectual awareness, I never really knew. 

This day was good for me. Seeing the past more clearly, I have 
decided to use my knowledge and skills to work in the field of 
increasing human intelligence levels. Who is better equipped for 
this work? Who else has lived in both worlds? These are my people. 
Let me use my gift to do something for them. 

Tomorrow, I will discuss with Dr. Strauss the manner in which 
I can work in this area. I may be able to help him work out the 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of View 
and Dynamic Character 

How does Charlie now 
see himself? 



illiteracy (il lit' ar e se) n. 
inability to read or write 



10. naivete (na ev ta') n. simplicity. 



202 ♦ Meetmg Challenges 



problems of widespread use of the technique which was used on 
me. I have several good ideas of my own. 

There is so much that might be done with this technique. If I 
could be made into a genius, what about thousands of others like 
myself? What fantastic levels might be achieved by using this tech- 
nique on normal people? On geniuses? 

There are so many doors to open. I am impatient to begin. 

Maw 23 ^ happened today. Algernon bit me. I visited the lab to 
see him as I do occasionally, and when I took him out of his cage, 
he snapped at my hand. I put him back and watched him for a 
while. He was unusually disturbed and vicious. 

Maw 24 Burt, who is in charge of the experimental animals, tells 
me that Algernon is changing. He is less cooperative; he refuses to 
run the maze any more; general motivation has decreased. And he 
hasn't been eating. Everyone is upset about what this may mean. 

Maw 25 They've been feeding Algernon, who now refuses to 
work the shifting-lock problem. Everyone identifies me with 
Algernon. In a way we're both the first of our kind. They're all pre- 
tending that Algernon's behavior is not necessarily significant for 
me. But it's hard to hide the fact that some of the other animals 
who were used in this experiment are showing strange behavior. 
Dr. Strauss and Dr. Nemur have asked me not to come to the 
lab any more. I know what they're thinking but I can't accept it. I 
am going ahead with my plans to carry their research forward. 
With all due respect to both of these fine scientists, I am well 
aware of their limitations. If there is an answer, I'll have to find it 
out for myself. Suddenly, time has become very important to me. 

Maw 7J\ I have been given a lab of my own and permission to go 
ahead with the research. I'm on to something. Working day and 
night. I've had a cot moved into the lab. Most of my writing time is 
spent on the notes which I keep in a separate folder, but from time 
to time I feel it necessary to put down my moods and my thoughts 
out of sheer habit. 

I find the calculus of intelligence to be a fascinating study. Here is 
the place for the application of all the knowledge I have acquired. In 
a sense it's the problem I've been concerned with all my life. 

Maw 31 Dr. Strauss thinks I'm working too hard. Dr. Nemur says 
I'm trying to cram a lifetime of research and thought into a few 
weeks. I know I should rest, but I'm driven on by something inside 



Literary Analysis 

First-Person Point of View 
and Dynamic Character 

How has Charlie changed 
up to this point in the 
story? 



^Reading Check 

How has Algernon 
changed? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 203 



that won't let me stop. I've got to find the reason for the sharp regres- 
sion in Algernon. I've got to know if and when it will happen to me. 

Tune 4 

Letter to Dr. Strauss (copy) 

Dear Dr. Strauss: 

Under separate cover I am sending you a copy of my report entitled, 

"The Algernon-Gordon Effect: A Study of Structure and Function of 

Increased Intelligence," which I would like to have you read and 

have published. 

As you see, my experiments are completed. I have included in my 
report all of my formulae, as well as mathematical analysis in the 
appendix. Of course, these should be verified. 

Because of its importance to both you and Dr. Nemur (and need I 
say to myself, too?) I have checked and rechecked my results a dozen 
times in the hope of finding an error. I am sorry to say the results 
must stand. Yet for the sake of science, I am grateful for the little bit 
that I here add to the knowledge of the function of the human mind 
and of the laws governing the artificial increase of human intelligence. 

I recall your once saying to me that an experimental failure or 
the disproving of a theory was as important to the advancement of 
learning as a success would be. I know now that this is true. I am 
sorry, however, that my own contribution to the field must rest 
upon the ashes of the work of two men I regard so highly. 

Yours truly, 
Charles Gordon 
encl.: rept. 

Tune 5 I must not become emotional. The facts and the results of 
my experiments are clear, and the more sensational aspects of my 
own rapid climb cannot obscure the fact that the tripling of intelli- 
gence by the surgical technique developed by Drs. Strauss and 
Nemur must be viewed as having little or no practical applicability 
(at the present time) to the increase of human intelligence. 

As I review the records and data on Algernon, I see that although 
he is still in his physical infancy, he has regressed mentally. Motor 
activity 11 is impaired; there is a general reduction of glandular 
activity; there is an accelerated loss of coordination. 

There are also strong indications of progressive amnesia. 

As will be seen by my report, these and other physical and 
mental deterioration syndromes can be predicted with statistically 
significant results by the application of my formula. 

The surgical stimulus to which we were both subjected has resulted 
in an intensification and acceleration of all mental processes. The 

11. motor activity movement; physical coordination. 



Reading Strategy 
Using Context What 
recent events in the story 
help you to make an 
educated guess about 
the meaning of the word 
regression? 



obscure (eb skyoor') v. 
conceal or hide 



syndromes (sin' dromz') n. 
a number of symptoms 
occurring together and 
characterizing a specific 
disease or condition 



204 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



unforeseen development, which I have taken the liberty of calling the 
"Algernon-Gordon Effect," is the logical extension of the entire intelli- 
gence speedup. The hypothesis here proven may be described simply 
in the following terms: Artificially increased intelligence deteriorates 
at a rate of time directly proportional to the quantity of the increase. 

I feel that this, in itself, is an important discovery. 

As long as I am able to write, I will continue to record my thoughts 
in these progress reports. It is one of my few pleasures. However, by 
all indications, my own mental deterioration will be very rapid. 

I have already begun to notice signs of emotional instability and 
forge tfulness, the first symptoms of the burnout. 

Tune 10 Deterioration progressing. I have become absent-minded. 
Algernon died two days ago. Dissection shows my predictions were 
right. His brain had decreased in weight and there was a general 
smoothing out of cerebral convolutions as well as a deepening and 
broadening of brain fissures. 

I guess the same thing is or will soon be happening to me. Now 
that it's definite, I don't want it to happen. 

I put Algernon's body in a cheese box and buried him in the 
back yard. I cried. 

Tune Vj Dr. Strauss came to see me again. I wouldn't open the 
door and I told him to go away. I want to be left to myself. I have 
become touchy and irritable. I feel the darkness closing in. I keep 
telling myself how important this introspective journal will be. 

It's a strange sensation to pick up a book that you've read and 
enjoyed just a few months ago and discover that you don't 
remember it. I remembered how great I thought John Milton 12 
was, but when I picked up Paradise Lost I couldn't understand it 
at all. I got so angry I threw the book across the room. 

I've got to try to hold on to some of it. Some of the things I've 
learned. Oh, God, please don't take it all away. 

Tune If Sometimes, at night, I go out for a walk. Last night I 
couldn't remember where I lived. A policeman took me home. I 
have the strange feeling that this has all happened to me before — 
a long time ago. I keep telling myself I'm the only person in the 
world who can describe what's happening to me. 

Tune Zl Why can't I remember? I've got to fight. I lie in bed for 
days and I don't know who or where I am. Then it all comes back 
to me in a flash. Fugues of amnesia. 1 ' 5 Symptoms of senility — 

12. John Milton British poet (1608-1674) who wrote Paradise Lost. 

13. fugues (fyoogz) of amnesia (am ne' zha) periods of loss of memory. 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View Why does Charlie 
cry when he buries 
Algernon? 



introspective 

(in' tro spekf iv) adj. 
inward looking; 
thoughtful 



tQReading Check 

Why does Charlie get 
angry at the doctor? 



Flowers jnr Algernon ♦ 205 



second childhood. I can watch them coming on. It's so cruelly logi- 
cal. I learned so much and so fast. Now my mind is deteriorating 
rapidly. I won't let it happen. I'll fight it. I can't help thinking of 
the boy in the restaurant, the blank expression, the silly smile, 

the people laughing at him. No — 
please — not that again . . . 

June 22 I'm forgetting things 
that I learned recently. It 
seems 

to be following the classic 
pattern — the last things learned 
are the first things forgotten. Or is 
that the pattern? I'd better look it 
up again . . . 

I reread my paper on the 
"Algernon-Gordon Effect" and 
I get the strange feeling that it 
was written by someone else. 
There are parts I don't even 
understand. 

Motor activity impaired. I keep 
tripping over things, and it 
becomes increasingly difficult to 
type. 



June 23 I've given up using the 
typewriter completely. My coordi- 
nation is bad. I feel that I'm 
moving slower and slower. 
Had a terrible shock today. 








Reading Strategy 
Using Context What 
context clues help you 
verify the meaning of the 
word coordination? 



^Critical Viewing 

Charlie's boss says 
"Charlie Gordon, you got 
guts." How does this 
scene illustrate his boss's 
comment? [Support] 



206 •' Meeting Challenges 




I picked up a copy of an article I used in my research, Krueger's 
"Uber psychische Ganzheit," to see if it would help me under- 
stand what I had done. First I thought there was something 
wrong with my eyes. Then I realized I could no longer read 
German. I tested myself in other languages. All gone. 

Tune 30 A week since I dared to write again. It's slipping away 
like sand through my fingers. Most of the books I have are too 
hard for me now. I get angry with them because I know that I 
read and understood them just a few weeks ago. 

I keep telling myself I must keep writing these reports so that 
somebody will know what is happening to me. But it gets harder 
to form the words and remember spellings. I have to look up even 
simple words in the dictionary now and it makes me impatient 
with myself. 

Dr. Strauss comes around almost every day, but I told him 
I wouldn't see or speak to anybody. He feels guilty. They all do. But I 
don't blame anyone. I knew what might happen. But how it hurts. 

3uta 1 I don't know where the week went. Todays Sunday I know 
because I can see through my window people going to church. I 
think I stayed in bed all week but I remember Mrs. Flynn bringing 
food to me a few times. I keep saying over and over Ive got to do 
something but then I forget or maybe its just easier not to do 
what I say Im going to do. 

I think of my mother and father a lot these days. I found a pic- 
ture of them with me taken at a beach. My father has a big ball 
under his arm and my mother is holding me by the hand. I dont 
remember them the way they are in the picture. All I remember is 
my father arguing with mom about money. 

He never shaved much and he used to scratch my face when he 
hugged me. He said he was going to take me to see cows on a 
farm once but he never did. He never kept his promises . . . 

3u\>f 10 My landlady Mrs Flynn is very worried about me. She said 
she doesnt like loafers. If Im sick its one thing, but if Im a loafer 
thats another thing and she wont have it. I told her I think Im sick. 

I try to read a little bit every day, mostly stories, but sometimes 
I have to read the same thing over and over again because I dont 
know what it means. And its hard to write. I know I should look 
up all the words in the dictionary but its so hard and Im so tired 
all the time. 

Then I got the idea that I would only use the easy words 
instead of the long hard ones. That saves time. I put flowers on 
Algernons grave about once a week. Mrs. Flynn thinks Im crazy 
to put flowers on a mouses grave but I told her that Algernon 
was special. 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View In this entry, how 
does the first-person 
point of view allow the 
reader to understand 
what Charlie is going 
through? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 207 



3ulf l4 Its Sunday again. I dont have anything to do to keep me 
busy now because my television set is broke and I dont have any 
money to get it fixed. (I think I lost this months check from the 
lab. I dont remember) 

I get awful headaches and asperin doesnt help me much. Mrs. 
Flynn knows Im really sick and she feels very sorry for me. Shes 
a wonderful woman whenever someone is sick. 

ZTuta 22 Mrs. Flynn called a strange doctor to see me. She was 
afraid I was going to die. I told the doctor I wasnt too sick and that I 
only forget sometimes. He asked me did I have any friends or rela- 
tives and I said no I dont have any. I told him I had a friend called 
Algernon once but he was a mouse and we used to run races togeth- 
er. He looked at me kind of funny like he thought I was crazy. 

He smiled when I told him I used to be a genius. He talked to 
me like I was a baby and he winked at Mrs Flynn. I got mad and 
chased him out because he was making fun of me the way they 
all used to. 

Tuta 24 I have no more money and Mrs Flynn says I got to go to 
work somewhere and pay the rent because I havent paid for over 
two months. I dont know any work but the job I used to have at 
Donnegans Plastic Box Company. I dont want to go back there 
because they all knew me when I was smart and maybe they'll 
laugh at me. But I dont know what else to do to get money. 

3uW Vj I was looking at some of my old progress reports and its 
very funny but I cant read what I wrote. I can make out some of 
the words but they dont make sense. 

Miss Kinnian came to the door but I said go away I dont want 
to see you. She cried and I cried too but I wouldnt let her in 
because I didnt want her to laugh at me. I told her I didn't like 
her any more. I told her I didn't want to be smart any more. Thats 
not true. I still love her and I still want to be smart but I had to 
say that so shed go away. She gave Mrs. Flynn money to pay the 
rent. I dont want that. I got to get a job. 

Please . . . please let me not forget how to read and write . . . 

3uW 27 Mr. Donnegan was very nice when I came back and 
asked him for my old job of janitor. First he was very suspicious 
but I told him what happened to me then he looked very sad 
and put his hand on my shoulder and said Charlie Gordon you 
got guts. 

Everybody looked at me when I came downstairs and started 
working in the toilet sweeping it out like I used to. I told myself 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View and Dynamic 
Character What changes 
do you see happening in 
Charlie's writing? 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View How do you know if 
Charlie is being honest 
with himself about Miss 
Kinnian in this paragraph? 



208 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Charlie if they make fun of you dont get sore because you remember 
their not so smart as you once thot they were. And besides they 
were once your friends and if they laughed at you that doesnt 
mean anything because they liked you too. 

One of the new men who came to work there after I went away 
made a nasty crack he said hey Charlie I hear your a very smart 
fella a real quiz kid. Say something intelligent. I felt bad but Joe 
Carp came over and grabbed him by the shirt and said leave him 
alone or 111 break your neck. I didnt expect Joe to take my part so 
I guess hes really my friend. 

Later Frank Reilly came over and said Charlie if anybody both- 
ers you or trys to take advantage you call me or Joe and we will 
set em straight. I said thanks Frank and I got choked up so I had 
to turn around and go into the supply room so he wouldnt see me 
cry. Its good to have friends. 

3uW 28 I did a dumb thing today I forgot I wasnt in Miss 
Kinnians class at the adult center any more like I use to be. I 
went in and sat down in my old seat in the back of the room 
and she looked at me funny and she said Charles. I dint remem- 
ber she ever called me that before only Charlie so I said hello 
Miss Kinnian Im ready for my lesin today only I lost my reader 
that we was using. She startid to cry and run out of the room 
and everybody looked at me and I saw they wasnt the same 
pepul who use to be in my class. 

Then all of a suddin I rememberd some things about the operashun 
and me getting smart and I said holy smoke I reely pulled a Charlie 
Gordon that time. I went away before she come back to the room. 

Thats why Im going away from New York for good. I dont want to 
do nothing like that agen. I dont want Miss Kinnian to feel sorry for 
me. Evry body feels sorry at the factery and I dont want that eather 
so Im going someplace where nobody knows that Charlie Gordon was 
once a genus and now he cant even reed a book or rite good. 

Im taking a cuple of books along and even if I cant reed them 111 
practise hard and maybe I wont forget every thing I lerned. If I try 
reel hard maybe 111 be a littel bit smarter then I was before the 
operashun. I got my rabits foot and my luky penny and maybe 
they will help me. 

If you ever reed this Miss Kinnian dont be sorry for me Im glad I 
got a second chanse to be smart becaus I lerned a lot of things that I 
never even new were in this world and Im grateful that I saw it all for 
a littel bit. I dont know why Im dumb agen or what I did wrong 
maybe its becaus I dint try hard enuff. But if I try and practis very 
hard maybe 111 get a littl smarter and know what all the words are. I 
remember a littel bit how nice I had a feeling with the blue book that 
has the torn cover when I red it. Thats why Im gonna keep trying to 



Literary Analysis 
First-Person Point of 
View and Dynamic 
Character How have 
Charlie's co-workers 
changed? 



^Reading Check 

Why does Charlie decide 
to leave New York? 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 209 



get smart so I can have that feeling agen. Its a good feeling to know 
things and be smart. I wish I had it rite now if I did I woud sit down 
and reed all the time. Anyway I bet Im the first dumb person in the 
world who ever found out somthing importent for sience. I remember 
I did somthing but I dont remember what. So I gess its like I did it for 
all the dumb pepul like me. 

Goodbye Miss Kinnian and Dr Strauss and evreybody. And P.S. 
please tell Dr Nemur not to be such a grouch when pepul laff at him 
and he woud have more frends. Its easy to make frends if you let 
pepul laff at you. Im going to have lots of frends where I go. 

P. P.S. Please if you get a chanse put some flowrs on Algernons 
grave in the bak yard . . . 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Was being part of the experiment good for Charlie? 
Why or why not ? 

2. (a) Recall: Who is Algernon? (b) Compare: Explain how 
Charlie's development parallels Algernon's, (c) Interpret: 
What is the meaning of the title of the story? 

3. (a) Recall: Why does Charlie keep a journal? 

(b) Evaluate: How does Charlie's use of a journal contribute to 
the story's effectiveness? 

4. (a) Recall: What does Charlie do when diners make fun 

of the dishwasher? (b) Infer: Why does he have such a strong 
reaction? 

5. (a) Compare and Contrast: Name positive and negative results 
of Charlie's increased intelligence, (b) Analyze: How does 
Charlie feel about becoming more intelligent? 

6. (a) Recall: How do Charlie's coworkers react to his increased 
intelligence? (b) Draw Conclusions: What are the reasons for 
their reactions? (c) Make a Judgment: Explain why you do or 
do not sympathize with their reactions. 

7. (a) Analyze: When do you realize that Charlie's intelligence is 
not permanent? (b) Apply: What two details from the story 
reveal the progress of the reversal? 

8. (a) Contrast: What is the difference between Charlie at the 
beginning of the story and Charlie at the end of the story? 

(b) Apply: Why does Charlie decide to leave New York? 

(c) Predict: What will happen to Charlie? 

9. Take a Position: Do you think Charlie should have had the 
operation? Why or why not? 




Daniel Keves 



(b. 1927) 

Raised in 
Brooklyn, 
New York, 
writer and 
teacher 
Daniel Keyes 
has also been 
a photographer, a merchant 
seaman, and an editor. 
Keyes has written both fic- 
tion and nonfiction, 
including The Minds of Billy 
Milligan and The Milligan 
Wars, which are about 
a man with multiple- 
personality disorder. A 
meeting with a mentally- 
challenged young man gave 
Keyes the idea for "Flowers 
for Algernon." He began to 
wonder what would happen 
"if it were possible to 
increase human intelligence 
artificially." The central 
character, Charlie Gordon, 
is imaginary. 



210 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



First'Person Point of View 

1. In a chart like the one shown, fill in the blanks to show the differ- 
ence between Charlie's and another character's point of view. 



Event, character, 

or situation Charlie Other character 


Rorschach test 


He thinks pictures are 
hidden in the inkblots. 


You use your imagination to 
"find" the pictures. 


Algernon's death 






Joe trips Charlie 




- 



Connecting Literary Elements 

2. On a timeline like the one shown, briefly describe Charlie before 
the operation, six weeks after the operation, and then three months 
after the operation. 



Before Operation 



Six Weeks Later 



Three Months Later 



3. How do Charlie's relationships with other people change before 
and after the operation? 

4. How does Charlie's view of himself change? 

Reading Strategy 

Using Context 

Copy each sentence. Underline the word or words that give context 
clues to the meaning of the italicized word. Then, write a new sentence 
using the italicized word. 

5. He'd hidden this part of himself in order to deceive me, pretend- 
ing — as do many people I've discovered — to be what he is not. 

6. She said I reached a plateau. That's like the flat top of a hill. 

Extend Understanding 

7. Science Connection: What can scientists learn from failed 



experiments: 



Quick Review 

A story with a first-person 
point of view is told from 
the perspective of a 
character who participates 
in the action of the story. 
To review first-person point 
of view, see page 181. 



A dynamic character grows 
and changes during the 
course of a literary work. 
A static character stays the 
same. To review character, 
see page 181. 



The context of a word is 
the situation in which it is 
used — the surrounding 
words, sentences, and 
paragraphs. To review 
context, see page 181. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ 211 



■■■■■■OTNSHMIMOTHMHINMPMHV 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Greek Root -psych- 

The word root -psych- (pronounced sike) 
comes from the Greek word for "soul," but 
English words with this root usually refer to the 
mind. Combine this root with the suffix -logy and 
the suffix -osis to create two new words that are 
defined as follows: 

1 . "the study of the mind" 



2. "an illness of the mind" 



Spelling Strategy 

The s sound in psych is spelled ps, and the k 
sound is spelled ch. Write the words in these sen- 
tences that follow one of these rules. 

1 . She used a pseudonym for her essay about 
chaos. 

2. The chorus sang at the psychology 
convention. 

Grammar Lesson 

Verb Tenses 

The tense of a verb shows the time of an 
action, state of being, or condition. There are six 
tenses. Each tense has a basic form. 



r 

Present: 

Past: 

Future: 


1 own, he/she/it owns 


1 owned 


1 will own 


fi^^^lJ7nr?T»l 


past action that continues: 
1 have owned 


Past Perfect 


past action before another past 
event: 1 had owned 


Future Perfect: 


future action before another 
future event: 1 will have owned 



Fluency: Sentence Completion 

Use a word from the vocabulary list on page 
181 to complete each sentence. 



1. The professor taught a 



course 



4. 



about common mental disorders. 

In one case study, a man was haunted by 

the ? of growing older. 

The doctor achieved concrete, ? 

results using psychotherapy. 

No one could ? the results. 



5. No longer would rivals describe her studies 
and experiments as ? 

6. She was shy and ? 

7. She was troubled by her ? and 
wanted to learn to read and write. 

8. The source of her , ? was physical, 
not mental. 



► For more practice, see page R32, Exercise A. 
Practice Use the chart to help you label the tense 
of the italicized verbs in each sentence. 

1. He had turned 37 before he started. 

2. Charlie knows that soon he will have 
forgotten many things. 

3. Charlie will be a different person. 

4. Charlie is sad. 

5. Frank has helped him. 

Writing Application Change the incorrect verb 
tenses to the ones indicated in parentheses. 

Charlie was racing (past) Algernon in mazes. 
Tomorrow, Charlie wins (future). He practices 
(future) tonight, and by tomorrow's race he is 
(future perfect) the fastest. 



v\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 22, Section 2 



212 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



HHHi 



■i 



u 




Writing Lesson 



Observation Journal 

Write three journal entries in which Miss Kinnian tells events from her point 
of view. 

Prewriting Develop a list of events from the story. 

Drafting Write an account of each event, adding details that reflect how 

Miss Kinnian — not Charlie — would have thought, felt, or reacted. 



Model: Support Ideas 

Progress Report March 8. Now that I recognize the potential 
danger of the experiment, I wish Dr. Nemur and Dr. Strauss 
would not use Charlie. They do not even treat him like a human 
being. They talk about his low IQ right in front of him. He tried 
to write their conversation down. I wonder if he will read what 
he wrote someday and be angry with them. 



The words in italics show 
the difference between 
Charlie's entry and Miss 
Kinnian's. The writer 
shows the event through 
Miss Kinnian's eyes by 
including herthoughts 
and reactions. 



Revising Check to make sure you have used the correct verb tense. Review 
verb tenses on p. 212. 

V\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 5, Section 3 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Hold a group discus- 
sion about whether or not Charlie should have 
been used in the experiment. 

1. Prepare by finding examples from the story 
to support your argument. 

2. Ask questions to make sure you understand 
what other group members are saying. 

3. Before speaking to disagree with another 
group member, paraphrase or restate in 
your own words what the other person 
said. Ask if your paraphrase expresses what 
the speaker meant. Then, respond with 
your own point. 



Research and Technology Write a brief evalua- 
tion of how nutrition, rest, and study contribute 
to academic performance. 

1. Find facts or expert opinions on the influ- 
ence of these factors on school success. 

2. Write the evaluation, balancing researched 
opinions and statistics with opinions and 
examples from your own experience. 

3. Conclude by summarizing your ideas and 
how they are or are not consistent with 
the researched facts. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Flowers for Algernon ♦ '13 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 

, " ■ "■" ' " I " " I! ^ 

(^ Research Reports 



About Research Reports 



A research report presents information gathered from reference books, 
observations, interviews, or other sources. Examples of research reports 
include biographical sketches, which report high points in the life of a 
notable person, and documented essays, which use research to support a 
point or examine a trend. 

By citing sources, a research writer lets others check the facts for them- 
selves. A good research report also helps readers form an overall picture of 
the subject. The elements of an effective research report include 

• an overall focus or main idea expressed in a thesis statement. 

• information gathered from a variety of sources. 

• clear organization and smooth transitions. 

• facts and details to support each main point. 

• accurate, complete citations identifying sources. 

Reading Strategy 

Question 

To get the most out of reading 
research reports, ask questions. For 
instance, in the research report on 
the next page, the author explains 
that the Underground Railroad 
was an organization that helped 
slaves escape to freedom. You 
might ask, "Where did escaped 
slaves go?" If you read on, you will 
learn the answer. 

As you read "The Underground 
Railroad," keep a list of questions 
on a chart like the one here. 
When you find the answers, record 
them in the chart as well. Asking 
questions and looking for answers 
will help you read in an active and focused way. 



Questions 



What was the 
Underground Railroad? 



Why was it called the 
Underground Railroad if it 
was neither underground 
nor a railroad? 




Answers 



It was a secret network of 
people who helped slaves 
escape to freedom before the 
Civil War. 




214 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD 



ROBERT W. PETERSON 



Peterson's 
introduction 
includes a thesis 
statement giving 
his topic. 



Peterson 
organizes his 
points logically: 
First, he gives 
background on 
slavery. Next, he 
describes the 
operations of the 
Railroad. Then, he 
gives its history. 



Before the Civil War, thousands of slaves escaped on this invisi- 
ble train to freedom. The Underground Railroad wasn't under 
ground and it wasn't a railroad. But it was real just the same. 
And it was one of the brightest chapters in American history. 

The Underground Railroad was a secret network of people who 
helped slaves flee to freedom before the Civil War (1861-1865). 
The slaves were black people from families who had been brought 
from Africa in chains. They were owned by their white masters 
and forced to work without pay. 

The first slaves arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 — the 
year before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts 
(Buckmater 11). Two hundred years later, there were nearly 
four million slaves in the United States (Siebert 378). Most 
worked on large plantations in the South. By then, slavery 
had been outlawed in most northern states. 



Reading Informational Material: Re 



rch Rebon ♦ 215 



Throughout the 
report, Peterson 
provides specific 
facts to create a 
picture of the 
scope of the 
Railroad. He 
documents 
specific facts with 
internal citations. 



Peterson provides 
a "Works Cited" 
list that gives his 
sources in a 
standard format. 
Some reports 
include a 
bibliography— a 
list of all sources 
used, not just the 
ones cited. 



Thousands of slaves ran away each year. Some fled to get 
away from harsh masters. Others wanted to enjoy liberty. 
The Underground Railroad was started to help them. 

Its "stations" were homes, shops, and churches where runaway 
slaves were hidden and fed. The "agents" or "station-masters" 
were people — both black and white— who hated slavery. They 
wanted to help slaves get free. 

Its "conductors" led or transported fugitives from station 
to station on their way to free states. They had to watch for 
slave catchers, who were paid to capture runaways and return 
them. Some conductors guided slaves all the way to Canada 
(Siebert 187) .. . 

The Underground Railroad network covered all of the Northeast 
and went as far west as Kansas and Nebraska. Ohio had more 
stations than any other state. Thousands of runaway slaves 
crossed over the Ohio River into Ohio from Kentucky and what is 
now West Virginia (Siebert 134-135). 

Not all fugitive slaves headed north to find freedom. A few 
went to Mexico. Some fled to Florida and were given refuge by 
Seminole Indians. Indians in other parts of the continent also 
sheltered runaway slaves. In Ohio, the Ottawa tribe took them in 
(Buckmaster 12, 35, 186, 187). In Ontario, Canada, Mohawk 
Chief Joseph Brant welcomed escaped slaves (Siebert 203) .... 

We can only guess how many slaves used the Underground 
Railroad. Historians estimate the total at between 40,000 and 
100,000 by the time the Civil War began in 1861 ("Underground 
Rails" 126). The war was fought in large part over the slavery issue. 

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln declared slaves free. 
That was the end of the Underground Railroad. There were no 
ceremonies and no celebrations. The invisible railroad ended 
as it had began — quietly and without fanfare. 



H Works Cited 

Buckmaster, Henrietta. Let My People Go. Boston: Beacon Press, 1941. 
Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad From Slavery to Freedom. New 
York: Macmillan, 1898, reprinted 1992. 
"Underground Railroad." Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 12 15th ed., 1998. 



216 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. Explain the following terms as they apply to the Underground 
Railroad: stations, agents, and conductors. 

2. (a) Name three places that slaves went after escaping, (b) What 
attracted them to these places? 

3. Describe how the Underground Railroad came to an end. 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Question 

4. If you had a question about the history of slavery, which paragraphs 
might you consult? 

5. Name two questions that the fifth paragraph answers. 

6. What questions did you have while reading? Where in the report 
did you find the answers? 



MLA Style for Listing 



Activity 

Create a Bibliography 

Choose a historical figure whom 
you find interesting and would like 
to learn more about, such as Harriet 
Tubman or Abraham Lincoln. Find 
five sources of information. Make a 
formatted bibliography. The chart 
here shows a standard format for cit- 
ing books, encyclopedia entries, 
newspaper and magazine articles, 
and Internet sites. 

Contrasting 

Informational 

Materials 

Research Reports and 

Historical Fiction 

In your library, find an example of historical fiction about the 
Underground Railroad. Read it, and answer the following questions: 

1. Name two elements of the story that are historically accurate. 

2. Name two elements of the story that are invented. 

3. How is the historical fiction about the Underground Railroad differ- 
ent from the research report about the Underground Railroad? 



Book with 
one author 

Article from an 
encyclopedia 


" ■ 

Pyles, Thomas. The Orgins and 

Development of the English 

Language. 

2nd ed. New York: Harcourt Brace 

Jovanovich, Inc., 1971. 


Askeland, Donald R. (1991). "Welding." 
World Book Encyclopedia. 1991 ed. 


Article from a 
weekly magazine 


Wallace, Charles. "A Vodacious Deal." 
77me14Feb.2000:63. 


Article from a 
newspaper 


Thurow, Roger. "South Africans Who 
Fought for Sanctions Now Scrap for 
Investors." Wall Street Journal 11 Feb. 
2000: A1. 


Internet site 


National Association of Chewing Gum 
Manufacturers. 19 Dec. 1999 
<http://www.nacgm.org/consumer/ 
funfacts.htmb 






Reading Informational Mate 



Research Rehori + 217 



Writing workshop 



Description: Descriptive Essay 



A descriptive essay presents a vivid picture of 
a place, event, object, or person. In this work- 
shop, you will write a descriptive essay 
focused on a topic that interests you. 

Assignment Criteria Your descriptive essay 
should have the following characteristics: 

• a clear, consistent organization 

• a main impression reinforced by details 

• strong sensory details — details of sight, 
sound, touch, smell, and taste 

See the Rubric on page 221 for the criteria 
on which your descriptive essay may be 
assessed. 






Prewriting 




Choose a topic and focus your perspective. Choose as the topic of 
your description something, someone, or someplace you see frequently 
or have a clear memory of. Then, choose a perspective — a particular way 
of looking at the topic. Choosing one perspective will give a focus to 
your description. The diagram shows how one topic can be viewed from 
several perspectives. 



Skier sees 



Photographer sees 



majestic mountain 
light and shadow 
graceful drifts 
of snow 



exhilarating slope 
challenging moguls 
streamlined curves of snow 



Climber sees 




difficult ascent 
bumpy ground 
monstrous banks 
of snow 



Different Perspectives 



Gather sensory details. Sensory details about your topic— what you 
see, feel, taste, hear, or smell— will enrich your essay. For all or most of 
the senses, jot down a few words that apply to your topic. 



218 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Student Model 

Before you begin drafting your descriptive essay, read this student 
model and review the characteristics of successful description. 



Katie Hill 

Baldwin Hills, California 



The View From the Lift 



At last I was back on my skis. After a soggy, hot summer that stayed 
hot through fall, I was finally feeling crisp cold air stinging my cheeks. The 
fresh tangy scent of the pine trees added a snap to the breeze. 

As I waited by the lift, I listened to the swish and crunch of passing 
skiers moving along the line to board. When it was time for my dad and me 
to board, I leaned forward, waiting to feel the bump of the lift chair lifting 
me from my feet. I was lifted all right — but way off balance. I swung my 
legs and grasped at the chair, but the slick metal was too slippery for my 
gloves. Soon, I was half on the chair, held there by one hand on the arm 
rest, but the rest of me hung four feet above the ground, rocking and sway- 
ing as the chair moved forward lifting me five feet, then seven feet — and 
kept on creaking forward. 

Even in my panic, I could hear the skiers below gasping as they real- 
ized what had happened. The lift lurched to a stop, but I was now eleven 
feet off the ground. When I looked down, the ground seemed as far away 
as if I were standing on top of my house. I could see the faces of the peo- 
ple waiting in line. Their mouths were open. Some faces looked stiff and 
frozen; other faces looked blank and dazed. I felt my Dad's hand grasping 
my loose hand but I didn't think he'd be able to pull me up. My boots felt 
like they were pulling my down. They had never felt so heavy. 

My arms burned as I tried to help. I pulled on the arm of the lift while 
my dad pulled on the arm of me! I could see our frosty breath and hear our 
desperate gasps as we strained to get me back on the chair. Finally, I was. 
Although it seemed like the incident took hours, it only took a few seconds. 
When he saw I was safe, the lift attendant handed my dad and me our poles 
and we rode the lift the rest of the way up in silence. As I sat quietly, my 
breathing returned to normal and my heart stopped pounding like a balloon 
about to burst. The bitter metallic taste I noticed alerted me that I had bit- 
ten hard enough on my lip to make it bleed a little! I decided that if that was 
the worst injury I had from this experience, then I was pretty lucky. 



The writer organizes 
her description in 
chronological or 
time order. She 
provides details in 
the order in which 
she experienced 
them. 



The writer creates 
a main impression 
of danger and 
suspense. Details 
contribute to and 
strengthen that 
impression 
throughout the 
description. 



The writer uses 
parallel structure 
to balance two 
actions and two 
descriptions. 



Sensory details 
throughout the 
description help 
readers imagine 
the scene. Here, the 
writer provides 
details of physical 
sensation, sound, 
and taste. 



Writing Workshop ♦ 219 



Writing workshop continued 



Drafting 

Organize the details to create a 
main impression. Shape your 
details into a coherent composition — 
an arrangement in which the pieces fit 
together logically. Several common 
methods of organization are shown 
on the chart. 

Elaborate to build a main 
impression. Keeping your perspec- 
tive in mind, choose one word that 
captures your subject. For example, a 
mountain described from the per- 
spective of a skier could be captured 
in the word exhilarating. A painter 
might use the word majestic. Add 
details that connect, suggest, or build 
toward the word that captures your main 



Organizing a Descriptive Essay 



Spatial Order - to describe places, scenes, or objects 
— Organize details by their physical arrangement 



Chronological Order - to describe events or processes 
— Organize details in the order in which events occur 



Order of Importance - to describe people, places, or objects 
— Begin with striking detail. Then organize from least important 
to most important. 



impression. 



Revising 



Revise for organization. Check to see if you have consistently fol- 
lowed your organizational plan. Make sure related details are grouped 
together rather than scattered throughout your essay. Use cutting and 
pasting to reorder details. 

1. Make an extra printout or photocopy of your draft. 

2. Look for related details that are far apart. 

3. Cut each misplaced detail out of the copy of the draft. 

4. Tape each detail in the correct position on your original draft. 

5. Add a transition to show how the inserted detail connects to the one 
before or after it. 



My arms burned as I tried to help by pulling myself while my dad pulled too. I could 






see our frosty breath coming in short puffs as 
we both strained to get me back in the chair.* 
Finally, I was. . . . 



at the time 
AlthoughJt seemed like the incident took 

later 
hours, Idealized it only took a few seconds. 



220 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Revise for parallel structure. Sophisticated, effective writing uses par- 
allelism, the joining of similar structures or sentence elements. Parallelism 
can be created by joining the same types of words and phrases: nouns 
with nouns, phrases with phrases, or clauses with clauses. 

Not parallel: The colors included brown, patches where it was green, 
and yellow. 

Parallel: The colors included brown spots, green patches, and yellow 
streaks. 

Compare the model and the nonmodel. Why is the model more effective? 



r 

Nonmodel 


Model 


My arms burned as 1 tried to help. 1 


My arms burned as 1 tried to help. 1 


pulled on the arm of the lift while on 


pulled on the arm of the lift while my dad 


my arm, my dad pulled. 1 could see our 


pulled on the arm of me! 1 could see our 


frosty breath and hear how we gasped 


frosty breath and hear our desperate 


as we strained to get me back on the 


gasps as we strained to get me back on 


chair. 


the chair. 



Publishing and Presenting 



Choose one of the following ways to share your writing with classmates 
or a wider audience. 

Make a tape. If your subject is nearby, videotape the topic of your 
description and read your description aloud. Organize the video in the 
same order you organized your description so that your words match the 
images. Add music or sound effects that add to the main impression. 

Build a booklet. Using artwork, cutouts, or photos, make a picture 
booklet based on your descriptive essay. Choose a particular audience, 
such as small children or older relatives. 

vV^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 5. 

Rubric for Self-Assessment 



,y| Speaking Connection 

To analyze the effect of 
descriptive details used in 
media, see the Listening 
and Speaking Workshop: 
Critical Listening, p. 222. 



Evaluate your descriptive essay using the following criteria and rating scale: 



r 

Criteria 


Rating Scale 
Not very 


Very 


How clearly and consistently is the description organized? 


12 3 4 


5 


How effectively are details used to create a main impression? 


12 3 4 


5 


How vivid or strong are the sensory details? 


12 3 4 


5 


How appropriately and effectively does the writer use parallelism? 
v. 


12 3 4 


5 



Writing Workshop ♦ 221 



Listening and Speaking workshop 



Critical Listening 



Television and radio offer drama, comedy, commercials, newscasts, 
and public-service announcements. Audiences: Beware. Do not listen 
passively. Practice questioning what pours into your brain. The form on 
this page can be used as a starting point for critical listening. 






Consider the Speaker 



In electronic journalism, the "speaker" is not always obvious. For example, 
in a newscast, the speaker may be the one doing the talking, but his or her 
material actually comes from a team of writers, a production staff, network 
executives, and news agencies like the Associated Press. Always consider 
the point of view of the people behind the words you hear. Evaluate the 
credibility of the speaker by considering these possibilities. 

Hidden agendas. Sometimes the speaker may have a purpose that is 
not readily apparent. When you think this may be so, ask yourself, "Is 
the speaker trying to accomplish something that is not exactly what 
is being said?" In other words, is there a hidden agenda? 

Speaker bias. Bias is the tendency to think in a certain way — no 
matter what. As you listen, consider whether information is presented 
in a slanted way or whether it takes several points of view into 
account. 

Appealing techniques. Consider how the message appeals to its 
audience. For example, does a commercial suggest that everyone use 
its product? Does it cite experts or celebrities? Does it attempt to appeal 
to your age group, your desire to be popular, your well-being? 

Ask Relevant Questions 

Listening critically means, in part, questioning everything you hear. 
Here are a few tips for putting your questioning engine into gear. 

• Purpose Is the purpose of what you are hearing to sell, inform, 
entertain, incite, or inspire — or a combination of these? Is the 
purpose clear? 

• Content Do you understand what you see? Is it realistic or 
imaginative? r 

• Delivery Does the message move quickly or slowly? How loud 
is it? How much is verbal? How much is visual? What mood is 
created by the way the message is delivered? 

(Activity: 



Critique a Commercial 



With a partner, view a television commercial 
with your most critical eye — and ear. After 
viewing, use the critique form to analyze what you have seen and 
heard. Then, discuss how the commercial affected you both. 



Commercial Critique 

The Source 

Hidden agendas? 

Bias? 

Techniques? 

The Effects 

Purpose: 

Summary of content: 

Delivery: 

Answer the following questions: 

What was the strength of this 

commercial? 

What was its weakness? 

Overall, was it effective? 

Why or why not? 




222 ♦ Meeting Challenges 



Assessment workshop 



Analyzing Information 



\ 



The reading sections of some tests require you to read a passage 
and answer multiple-choice questions by analyzing information. Use 
the following strategy to answer such questions. 

• Clarify the Question. Some test questions require you not only to 
locate information in a passage but also to apply it. You may have 
to put information in categories, compare and contrast items, or 
determine causes and effects. Think about what the question is 
asking you to do, and then analyze the information you need in 
order to do it. 



Test-Taking Strategies 



Read questions carefully 
to notice qualifying 
words such as all, none, 
except, and not. 



Sample Test Item 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the question that follows. 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvarez had left the 
babysitter this list of instructions: 

1. Feed the children at 5:30. Warm up the 
soup that is in the refrigerator. 

2. Let them watch half an hour of TV. 

3. Be sure they brush their teeth and 
wash their faces and hands. 

4. Read them a story of their choice. 

5. Have them in bed by 8:00. 

Martin fed the children on time. At 
6:00, while cleaning up, he heard theTV. 
At 7:30, the children were still watching 
TV. Martin hurried them off to the bath- 
room and then tucked them into bed. 
Then he started his homework. 

Which of the guidelines did Martin not 
follow? 



A 1 and 2 
B 2 and 4 



C 2 and 3 
D 3 and 5 



Answer and Explanation 



Comparing the list with the description 
of what Martin did, you see that he did 1, 
3, and 5. He did not do 2 and 4, so B is 
correct. 



Practice 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the items that follow. 

Erica made a list of the features she 
wanted in a new binder: 

1. zipper closure 

2. inside pockets for ruler and 
calculator 

3. inside pouch for pens and pencils 

4. subject dividers 

5. inside pocket for loose papers 
Then she saw this ad: 



r 



STUDY AID 3 

• Zips closed to 
keep paper from 
falling out 

• Full-sized pockets 
inside back and 

V front 



RING BINDER 

• Inside pouch 

• Available in a 
variety of colors 

•Only $15.95! 



1. Which of Erica's requirements is not 
mentioned in the ad? 

A2 B3 C4 D5 

2. Erica's list would be more helpful to 
her process of choosing a new binder 
if it specified — 

A the brand she bought last year. 

B the price range she can afford. 

C the colors she likes. 

D the store where she usually shops. 



>v 



J 



Assessment Workshop ♦ 223 



UNIT 



Quest for Justice 






Exploring the Theme 



t is human nature to search for what we 
believe is right. The quest for justice occurs in 
many forms and in many places— from court- 
room battles to international peacekeeping 
operations to efforts to settle disputes between 
friends. The selections in this unit explore ways 
in which people try to find or create what is just. 

As you read, you can think about the strug- 
gles and determination of people and characters 
who have chosen to take an active role in bring- 
ing justice about. 



■4 Critical Viewing What does this painting illustrate about 
the process of seeking justice? [Analyze] 



m&y- 



Exploring the Theme + 225 




■iimiMiMi ii 



> m ii 



mm 



Read Literature? 



The literature in this unit explores the theme of seeking justice— taking 
initiative for changing what seems unfair or destructive to people or things. 
Depending on the content, genre, and style of the works you plan to read, you 
will set various purposes for reading. Preview three of the purposes you might 
set before reading the works in this unit. 



Read for the love of literature. 

William Sidney Porter changed his 
name to 0. Henry. Under this pen 
name, he became famous for his sto- 
ries with surprise endings— many of 
them based on tales he heard in prison. 
Read one of these surprising stories, 
"A Retrieved Reformation," page 242. 

Toni Cade Bambara adopted the 
name "Bambara" after finding it writ- 
ten on a sketchbook in her great- 
grandmother's trunk. Growing up in 
Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant, and 
Queens, New York, and in Jersey City, 
New Jersey, she was encouraged to 
make the most of her imagination. 
Enjoy her story "Raymond's Run," 
page 288. 



^ 

▼ R 



Read to appreciate an 

author's style. 

Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow's poem 
about Paul Revere's 
ride is very famous, 
and very exciting, but 
it is not very accurate! 
Find out how 
Longfellow "jazzed up" 
history when you read 
"Paul Revere's Ride" 
page 302. 

What reason might Walt 
Whitman have had for shaping his stanzas like 
ships in a poem about Abraham Lincoln? Find 
out when you read "O Captain! My Captain!," 
page 261. 





Read for information. 

You probably know some 
laws that protect people and 
their property, but did you 
know there are laws to 
protect trees? Read a 
legislative bill to pro- 
tect oak woodlands 
when you read the 
Analysis of a 
Legislative Bill, 
page 283. 



In Paul Revere's own account 
of his famous ride, he spends more 
time telling of his being captured 
than of his midnight adventure. Learn 
more about Revere's own impres- 
sions of his ride when you read his 
sworn account in "Paul Revere's 
Deposition," page 311. 



Take It to the Net 



Visit the Web site for online instruction and 
activities related to each selection in this unit. 

www.phschool.com 



rlOLU to Read Literature 

Strategies for Constructing Meaning 

To fully understand a piece of writing, you must put words and ideas 
together in your mind so that they have meaning for you. Use these 
strategies to help yourself construct meaning: 

1. Draw inferences. 

Writers do not always tell you everything directly. Sometimes you 
need to draw inferences, or "read between the lines," to arrive at ideas 
the writer suggests but does not say. In this unit, you will practice think- 
ing beyond the literal meaning of the words to get a fuller understanding 
of what the author means. 

• Draw an inference by considering the implications of details that the 
writer includes or leaves out. 

• Think about what this choice of details tells you about the author's 
opinions or purpose for writing. 



2. Determine cause and effect. 

To better understand the information presented to you, look for rela 
tionships among ideas. Cause and effect is one kind of relationship. 

• A cause makes something happen. 

• An effect is what happens— the result. 

As you read the selections in this unit, you will learn to identify 
cause-and-effect relationships in fiction and nonfiction. 



3. Ask questions. 

Get at the meaning of text by asking yourself questions. Asking 
questions leads you to read more carefully and critically. 
Ask questions like the following: 

• Why does it happen? • What does this mean? 

• Why does he do that? • How does this fit in? 

You can question the writer's motives and judgment. You 
can question why the writer gives you a particular bit of 
information. Then, read on to find out what happens. For 
example, you might question the sample passage at the 
right from 0. Henry's "A Retrieved Reformation." 

As you read the selections in this unit, review the reading 
strategies and look at the notes in the side columns. Use the 
suggestions to apply the strategies and construct meaning 
from the text. 




r^y^n B 






sop 



G "e Ss 





/ low to Rend Literature ♦ 227 



Prepare to Read 



Brown vs. Board of Education 





■m^ As you read 
'''Kd^ this essay and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



In 1896, the court case Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld a law that allowed 
for "separate but equal" accommodations on railroad cars. The results 
of this case were used to support segregation (the separation of races). 
It was not until the Supreme Court decision of Brown vs. Board of 
Education that segregation was declared unconstitutional. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.2 Understand the most important points in the history of English language, 
and use common word origins to determine the historical influences on English word 
meanings. (Developed in the Reading Strategy and Vocabulary Development Lesson) 
Writing 1.4 Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer 
networks and modems. (Developed in the Research and Technology Activity) 
Language Conventions 1.6 Use correct spelling conventions. (Developed in the 
Spelling Strategy) 

I Listening and Speaking 1.2 Paraphrase a speaker's purpose and point of view, and ask 
relevant questions concerning the speaker's content, delivery, and purpose. 
(Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



228 ♦ Quest for Justice 






Literary Analysis 

Informative Essay 

An informative essay is a short nonfiction piece that gives facts and 
details about a topic. "Brown vs. Board of Education" is an informative 
essay about the events surrounding a Supreme Court decision on 
segregation of schools. Use an outline like the one shown to take notes on 
the essay. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Tone is the writer's attitude toward his or her readers and his or her 
subject. The tone of a work is shown in the writer's choice of language and 
details. In the following example, the author uses the words important and 
oppressed. These words reflect that the author has a serious attitude toward 
his topic and expects his readers to consider the information seriously. 

Brown vs. Board of Education signaled an important change in the 
struggle for civil rights. It signaled that the legal prohibitions 
that oppressed African Americans would have to fall. 

Think about the following focus questions as you read: 

1. What three words would you use to describe the tone of the essay? 

2. What does the tone of the essay suggest about Myers's reasons for 
writing? 

Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Word Origins 

Because modern legal practices have their roots in Roman law, many 
legal terms have Latin origins. For example, legislature, legislate, and legal 
have their roots in the Latin word lex, meaning "law." Learning the origins 
of these and other legal terms will help you remember their meanings. As 
you read, list the law-related words you encounter so that you can explore 
their origins once you have finished. 



Vocabulary Development 

elusive (i loo' siv) adj. hard to grasp or 
retain mentally (p. 231) 

predominantly (pre dam' a nant le) adj. 
mainly; most noticeably (p. 231) 

diligent (dil' a jant) adj. careful and 
thorough (p. 233) 

intangible (in tan' ja bal) adj. not able 
to be touched oi grasped (p. 234) 



unconstitutional (un kan sta too' she 
nal) adj. not in accordance with or 
permitted by the United States 
Constitution (p. 234) 

deliberating (di lib' a ra tin.) v. thinking 
or considering very carefully (p. 235) 

oppressed (a presf ) adj. kept down by 
cruel or unjust use of power (p. 235) 



Two Views 

School Segregation 
in 1950s 

A. "Separate but Equal" 
1 . Plessy v. Ferguson 



1896 
2. de facto/de jure 
B. Unconstitutional 
C. 

Thurgood Marshall 
A. 



B. 
C. 

III. The Brown vs. Board of 
Education Decision 
A. 



B. 



Br< 



lin 



>/ Education ♦ 229 



Brown vs. 

Board of Education 



"Wcdtev 




emv 



rYlu&iss 




f. "'.'..*'■■ 



A Critical Viewing In this photograph, a woman explains the significance of the ruling to her young daughter. 
What does the newspaper the woman is holding tell you about the impact of the ruling? [Connect] 

230 ♦ Quest for Justice 



9^ 

\^J here was a time when the meaning of freedom was easily 
understood. For an African crouched in the darkness of a tossing 
ship, wrists chained, men with guns standing on the decks above 
him, freedom was a physical thing, the ability to move away from his 
captors, to follow the dictates of his own heart, to listen to the voices 
within him that defined his values and showed him the truth of his 
own path. The plantation owners wanted to make the Africans feel 
helpless, inferior. They denied them images of themselves as Africans 
and told them that they were without beauty. They segregated them 
and told them they were without value. 

Slowly, surely, the meaning of freedom changed to an elusive 
thing that even the strongest people could not hold in their hands. 
There were no chains on black wrists, but there were the shadows 
of chains, stretching for hundreds of years back through time, 
across black minds. 



elusive (i lob' siv) adj. 
hard to grasp or 
retain mentally 



From the end of the Civil War in 1865 to the early 1950's, many 
public schools in both the North and South were segregated. 
Segregation was different in the different sections of the country. 
In the North most of the schools were segregated de facto; 1 that is, 
the law allowed blacks and whites to go to school together, but 
they did not actually always attend the same schools. Since a 
school is generally attended by children living in its neighborhood, 
wherever there were predominantly African-American neighbor- 
hoods there were, "in fact," segregated schools. In many parts of 
the country, however, and especially in the South, the segregation 
was dejure, 2 meaning that there were laws which forbade blacks 
to attend the same schools as whites. 

The states with segregated schools relied upon the ruling of the 
Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson case for legal jus- 
tification: Facilities that were "separate but equal" were legal. 

In the early 1950's the National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) sponsored five cases that eventually 
reached the Supreme Court. One of the cases involved the school 
board of Topeka, Kansas. 

Thirteen families sued the Topeka school board, claiming that to 
segregate the children was harmful to the children and, therefore, a 
violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth 
Amendment. The names on the Topeka case were listed in alphabeti- 
cal order, with the father of seven-year -old Linda Brown listed first. 

"I didn't understand why I couldn't go to school with my play- 
mates. I lived in an integrated neighborhood and played with 



Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Word Origins 

Why do you think the 
writer uses two Latin 
terms in this paragraph 
that he then translates for 
the reader? 

predominantly 

(pri dam' a nant le) adj. 
mainly; most noticeably 



tQReading Check 

What are segregated 
schools? 



1. de facto (de fak' to) Latin for "existing in actual fact." 

2. de jure (de jar' a) Latin for "by right or legal establishment." 



Brown vs. Board of Education ♦ 2M 













'•'R 







pun. (,-aic 




A Critical Viewing How is the classroom pictured above 
different from the classroom pictured at right? [Contrast] 



children of all nationalities, but when school 
started they went to a school only four blocks 
from my home and I was sent to school across 
town," she says. 

For young Linda the case was one of convenience and of 
being made to feel different, but for African- American parents it 
had been a long, hard struggle to get a good education for their 
children. It was also a struggle waged by lawyers who had worked 
for years to overcome segregation. The head of the legal team who 
presented the school cases was Thurgood Marshall. 

* * * 

The city was Baltimore, Maryland, and the year was 1921. 
Thirteen-year-old Thurgood Marshall struggled to balance the pack- 
ages he was carrying with one hand while he tried to get his bus fare 
out of his pocket with the other. It was almost Easter, and the part- 
time job he had would provide money for flowers for his mother. 
Suddenly he felt a violent tug at his right arm that spun him 
around, sending his packages sprawling over the floor of the bus. 

"Don't you never push in front of no white lady again!" an angry 
voice spat in his ear. 






232 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Thurgood turned and threw a punch .... The man charged into 
Thurgood, throwing punches that mostly missed, and tried to 
wrestle the slim boy to the ground. A policeman broke up the 
fight, grabbing Thurgood with one huge black hand and pushing 
him against the side of the bus. Within minutes they were in the 
local courthouse. 

Thurgood was not the first of his family to get into a good fight. 
His father's father had joined the Union Army during the Civil War, 
taking the names Thorough Good to add to the one name he had 
in bondage. His grandfather on his mother's side was a man 
brought from Africa and, according to Marshall's biography, "so 
ornery that his owner wouldn't sell him out of pity for the people 
who might buy him, but gave him his freedom instead and told 
him to clear out of the county." 

Thurgood's frequent scrapes earned him a reputation as a 
young boy who couldn't be trusted to get along with white folks. 

His father, Will Marshall, was a steward at the Gibson Island 
Yacht Club near Baltimore, and his mother, Norma, taught in a 
segregated school. The elder Marshall felt he could have done more 
with his life if his education had been better, but there had been 
few opportunities available for African Americans when he had 
been a young man. When it was time for the Marshall boys to go 
to college, he was more than willing to make the sacrifices neces- 
sary to send them. 

Young people of color from all over the world came to the United 
States to study at Lincoln University, a predominantly black insti- 
tution in southeastern Pennsylvania. Here Marshall majored in 
predentistry, which he found boring, and joined the Debating 
Club, which he found interesting. By the time he was graduated at 
the age of twenty-one, he had decided to give up dentistry for the 
law. Three years later he was graduated, first in his class, from 
Howard University Law School. 

At Howard there was a law professor, Charles Hamilton 
Houston, who would affect the lives of many African -American 
lawyers and who would influence the legal aspects of the civil 
rights movement. Houston was a great teacher, one who demanded 
that his students be not just good lawyers but great lawyers. If 
they were going to help their people — and for Houston the only 
reason for African Americans to become lawyers was to do just 
that — they would have to have absolute understanding of the law, 
and be diligent in the preparation of their cases. At the time, 
Houston was an attorney for the N.A.A.C.P. and fought against 
discrimination in housing and in jobs. 

After graduation, Thurgood Marshall began to do some work for 
the N.A.A.C.P., trying the difficult civil rights cases. He not only 
knew about the effects of discrimination by reading about it, he 



Literary Analysis 

Informative Essay What 
facts about Thurgood's 
family do you learn here? 



diligent (dil' a jant) adj. 
careful and thorough 

f/jReading Check 

What is Marshall's 
profession, or job? 



Brown vs. Board of Education +233 



was still living it when he was graduated from law school in 1933. 
In 1936 Marshall began working full-time for the N.A.A.C.P., and 
in 1940 became its chief counsel. 

It was Thurgood Marshall and a battery of N.A.A.C.P. attorneys 
who began to challenge segregation throughout the country. These 
men and women were warriors in the cause of freedom for African 
Americans, taking their battles into courtrooms across the coun- 
try. They understood the process of American justice and the 
power of the Constitution. 

In Brown vs. Board of Education ofTopeka, Marshall argued that 
segregation was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment — that 
even if the facilities and all other "tangibles" were equal, which 
was the heart of the case in Plessy vs. Ferguson, a violation still 
existed. There were intangible factors, he argued, that made the 
education unequal. 

Everyone involved understood the significance of the case: that 
it was much more than whether black children could go to school 
with white children. If segregation in the schools was declared 
unconstitutional , then all segregation in public places could be 
declared unconstitutional. 

Southerners who argued against ending school segregation were 
caught up, as then-Congressman Brooks Hays of Arkansas put it, 
in "a lifetime of adventures in that gap between law and custom." 
The law was one thing, but most Southern whites felt just as 
strongly about their customs as they did the law. 



intangible (in tan' ja bsl) 
adj. not able to be 
touched or grasped 



unconstitutional 

(un kan sta too' she nel) 
adj. not in accordance 
with or permitted by 
the U.S. Constitution 




A Critical Viewing Thurgood Marshall is being sworn in as a Supreme Court justice 
as President Johnson looks on. What details show that this is a solemn, historic 
occasion? [Interpret] 



234 ♦ Quest for justice 



Dr. Kenneth B. Clark, an African -American psychologist, 
testified for the N.A.A.C.P. He presented clear evidence that the 
effect of segregation was harmful to African-American children. 
Describing studies conducted by black and white psychologists 
over a twenty-year period, he showed that black children felt 
inferior to white children. In a particularly dramatic study that 
he had supervised, four dolls, two white and two black, were pre- 
sented to African -American children. From the responses of the 
children to the dolls, identical in every way except color, it was 
clear that the children were rejecting the black dolls. African- 
American children did not just feel separated from white chil- 
dren, they felt that the separation was based on their inferiority. 

Dr. Clark understood fully the principles and ideas of those peo- 
ple who had held Africans in bondage and had tried to make slaves 
of captives. By isolating people of African descent, by barring them 
from certain actions or places, they could make them feel inferior. 
The social scientists who testified at Brown vs. Board of Education 
showed that children who felt inferior also performed poorly. 

The Justice Department argued that racial segregation was 
objectionable to the Eisenhower Administration and hurt our 
relationships with other nations. 



On May 17, 1954, after deliberating for nearly a year and a 
half, the Supreme Court made its ruling. The Court stated that it 
could not use the intentions of 1868. when the Fourteenth 
Amendment was passed, as a guide to its ruling, or even those of 
1896, when the decision in Plessy vs. Ferguson was handed 
down. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote: 

We must consider public education in the light of its 
full development and its present place in American life 
throughout the nation. We must look instead to the 
effect of segregation itself on public education. 

The Court went on to say that "modern authority" supported 
the idea that segregation deprived African Americans of equal 
opportunity. "Modern authority" referred to Dr. Kenneth B. Clark 
and the weight of evidence that he and the other social scientists 
had presented. 

The high court's decision in Brown vs. Board of Education sig- 
naled an important change in the struggle for civil rights. It sig- 
naled clearly that the legal prohibitions that oppressed African 
Americans would have to fall. Equally important was the idea 
that the nature of the fight for equality would change. Ibrahima, 
Cinque, Nat Turner, and George Latimer had struggled for free- 
dom by fighting against their captors or fleeing from them. The 
54th had fought for African freedom on the battlefields of the Civil 



deliberating (di lib' a ra tin) 
v. thinking or considering 
very carefully and fully 



Reading Strategy 
Analyzing Word Origins 

To what language do you 
think you can trace the 
origin of justice? Why? 



oppressed (a prest) v. 
kept down by cruel or 
unjust use of power 

t/jReading Check 

What is the Supreme 
Court's ruling in Brown 
vs. Board of Education? 



Brown vs. Board of Education ♦ 235 



War. Ida B. Wells had fought for equality with her pen. Lewis H. 
Latimer and Meta Vaux Warrick had tried to earn equality with 
their work. In Brown vs. Board of Education Thurgood Marshall, 
Kenneth B. Clark, and the lawyers and social scientists, both 
black and white, who helped them had won for African Americans 
a victory that would bring them closer to full equality than they 
had ever been in North America. There would still be legal battles 
to be won, but the major struggle would be in the hearts and 
minds of people and "in that gap between law and custom." 

In 1967 Thurgood Marshall was appointed by President Lyndon 
B. Johnson as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He 
retired in 1991. 

* * * 

"I didn't think of my father or the other parents as being heroic 
at the time," Linda Brown says. "I was only seven. But as I 
grew older and realized how far-reaching the case was and 
how it changed the complexion of the history of this coun- 
try, I was just thrilled that my father and the others here in 
Topeka were involved." 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: How do you think the Supreme Court's decision in 
Brown vs. Board of Education has affected your life? 

2. (a) Recall: Who was involved in the fight against segregation? 
(b) Analyze: Why were so many people willing to fight 
against school segregation? (c) Apply: Which of today's 
leaders lead the efforts for achieving justice for all people? 

3. (a) Recall: What were the main claims made by parents in 
the lawsuit against the Topeka school board? (b) Support: 
What evidence did the lawyers present to support the case 
against segregation in schools? (c) Evaluate: Do you think 
that Thurgood Marshall was the best lawyer to present the case 
of Brown vs. Board of Education 7 . Why or why not? 

4. (a) Recall: What was the Supreme Court's decision in Brown 
vs. Board of Education! (b) Apply: Why is this Supreme Court 
case a significant event in American history? 

5. (a) Speculate: What is the author's purpose in concluding 
his essay with Linda Brown's comments about the impact of 
this case? (b) Make a Judgment: Linda Brown says she did not 
think of her father as heroic at the time. Do you think any o{ 
the participants in this case are heroic? Explain. 




Walter Dean Myers 



(b. 1937) 

A native of 
West Virginia, 
Walter Dean 
Myers was raised 
in New York 
City. His foster 
parents, the 
Deans, encour- 
aged him to read, and from 
them he developed a life- 
long love of books. Early in 
his life, Myers turned to 
writing poems and short 
stories as a way to overcome 
his painful shyness and a 
serious childhood speech 
problem. 

Myers's career as an 
author began almost by 
chance in 1969 when he 
entered a writing contest. 
His story won a $500 prize. 
Since then, he has pub- 
lished more than sixty 
works for young people. He 
has won two Coretta Scott 
King Awards and two 
Newbery Honor Awards. 
Long interested in and con- 
cerned by the injustices suf- 
fered by African Americans, 
Myers has focused much of 
his writing on their experi- 
ences. 



236 ♦ Quest for Justice 



NflHHHHHBHHMHHMHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHBHHHwi 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Informative Essay 

1. What are two facts that you learned about segregation in the 
United States from reading this informative essay? 

2. What role does Marshall play in the fight against segregation? 

3. Why is the title of the essay "Brown vs. Board of Education" 7 . 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. Use a cluster map like the one shown to record words, phrases, and 
details that reflect the author's attitude toward his subject and readers. 



* ' *■ ' 

• • 

' ^ ( ' 

f I ■ 



5. What three words would you use to describe the tone of the essay? 

6. What does the tone of the essay suggest about Myers's reasons for 
writing the essay? 



Reading Strategy 



Analyze Word Origins 

7. Enter the legal words you listed as you read on a chart like the one 
shown. Use the footnotes and a dictionary to complete the chart. 



Word Origin Meaning 


de jure 




by right of law 


de facto 






civil 






justice 




- 



8. What origin do most or all of the words share? 

9. Why do the law-related words share the same origin? 



Extend Understanding 



10. Social Studies Connection: What other events during the 
twentieth century had an impact on the civil rights movement 
in the United States? Explain. 



Quick Review 

An informative essay is a 

short nonfiction work that 
explains or gives 
information about a topic. 
To review informative 
essay, see page 229. 



Tone is the writer's attitude 
toward the subject and the 
audience. To review tone, 
see page 229. 



Word origins are the 

languages or cultures from 
which a word originally 
comes. To review word 
origins, see page 229. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Brown vs. Board oj Education ♦ 2.^7 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Prefix in- Concept Development: Synonyms 



The word intangible is a combination of the 
Latin prefix in-, meaning "not," and tangible, 
meaning "able to be touched or felt." Therefore, 
intangible means "cannot be touched or defined." 

Form words by adding in- to the following. 
Write a definition of each new word. 

1. appropriate 2. tolerant 3. definite 
Spelling Strategy 

You may have to drop or change a letter before 
adding -ed to form the past tense of a verb. When a 
verb ends in silent e, drop the e before adding -ed: 

escape + -ed = escaped 

On your paper, add -ed to these verbs to form 
their past tense. 

1. release 2. exchange 3. deliberate 



Grammar Lesson 

Adjectives 

Adjectives are words that modify, or describe, 
nouns or pronouns. They tell about the nouns or 
pronouns they modify by answering the following 
questions: 



• Which one? 
•What kind? 



• How many? 

• How much? 



In the following sentence, Myers uses adjectives 
to tell what kind of tug Thurgood Marshall felt 
and on which arm: 

Suddenly he felt a violent tug at his right arm . . . 



Synonyms are words that have almost the 
same meaning. Write the word that is closest in 
meaning to the vocabulary word. 

1. elusive: (a) hard to believe, (b) hard to 
hold, (c) frightening 

2. predominantly: (a) mainly, (b) quickly, 
(c) unfairly 

3. diligent: (a) respectful, (b) lazy, 
(c) hardworking 

4. intangible: (a) weak, (b) concrete, 
(c) not solid 

5. unconstitutional: (a) legal, (b) illegal, 
(c) illogical 

6. deliberating: (a) considering, (b) noting, 
(c) waiting 

7. oppressed: (a) cleansed, (b) beaten down, 
(c) hurried 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise C. 
Practice Underline each adjective, and draw an 
arrow to the word it modifies. 

1. His mother taught in a segregated school. 

2. His short temper flared. 

3. Marshall graduated first in his law class. 

4. Thirteen families participated. 

5. It was an important change. 

Writing Application Copy the sentences. Add 
at least one adjective to each sentence. 

1. Thurgood Marshall experienced discrimi- 
nation as a boy. 

2. He used his knowledge to pursue justice. 

3. The case changed lives. 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 16, Section 1 



238 ♦ Quest for justice 



Writing Lesson 

Analysis of a Decision 

Like most Supreme Court decisions, the decision in the case of Brown vs. Board 
of Education has had far-reaching effects. Do research to find out more about the 
decision and its impact. Then, in a brief essay, analyze the impact of the decision on 
life in the United States. 

Prewriting Review your research notes. Based on what you have found, write a 
single statement that expresses the overall impact of the decision. 
Then, organize specific examples in the order in which you will 
present and explain them. 

Drafting Begin with a quotation or a startling comparison to focus readers' 
attention on the significance of the decision. Then, present your 
examples and explanations of the impact of the decision. 



Model: Strong Introduction 

As President James Garfield once said, "Next in importance 
to freedom and justice is popular education, without which 
neither freedom nor justice can be permanently maintained." 



This writer begins with 
a powerful quotation to 
focus readers on the 
importance of any 
decision dealing with 
education. 



% 



Revising Underline each specific example in one color. Underline explanations 
in another color. If you find you do not have enough examples, 
return to your notes or conduct more research to find more. 

Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 77, Section 2 



Extension Activities 

Research and Technology Use a keyword search 
to find information on the Civil Rights move- 
ment, and develop a timeline of key events. 

1 . Begin by searching under some of the 
following key words: 

• Rosa Parks 

• integration 

• Civil Rights 

2. Open the first four results for each search. 
Note dates, names, and other search topics. 

3. Organize the information on a timeline. 



Listening and Speaking Listen to a recording of 
a speech made by Thurgood Marshall during the 
Brown vs. Board of Education trial. (Ask a refer- 
ence librarian to help you locate one.) After 
listening, paraphrase his speech. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Brown vs. Board of Education ♦ 239 



MMHHMI 



8RHBMMHBMHMHMHHRHHMR 



Prepare to Read 



A Retrieved Reformation 








*V /& ^ s V ou rea ^ 

"•fl/D a*" this story and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 

At the time of the story, the locks, dials, and levers of most safes were 
located on the outside. Safe crackers developed special tools and tech- 
niques to punch out these parts. Today, safes are built with their locks 
and bolts on the inside, making them much harder to break into. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 3.2 Evaluate the structural elements of the plot, the plot's development, and 

the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved. {Introduced In 

Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, 

opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices. (Developed in the Writing 

Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.2 Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical 

forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for 

emphasis. (Introduced in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.3 Organize information to achieve particular purposes by 

matching the message, vocabulary, voice modulation, expression, and tone to the 

audience and purpose. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



240 ♦ Quest for Justice 



HHHH 



HHHS 



Literary Analysis 



Surprise Ending 

O. Henry, the author of this story, is known for startling his readers 
with a surprise ending, an unexpected plot twist at the end of a story. 
Writers make surprise endings believable by including details that support 
the surprise ending without giving it away. As you read, use the following 
focus questions to help you examine O. Henry's use of this technique. 

1. How do you think the story will end? 

2. What clues lead you to expect this ending? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Irony in literature involves surprising, interesting, or amusing 
contradictions. In "A Retrieved Reformation," O. Henry uses irony of 
situation — in which an event occurs that directly contradicts the expec- 
tations of the characters and the reader — to create a surprise ending. The 
reader believes that the conflict of the plot has already been resolved, but 
the main character's circumstances take an unexpected turn. The new 
circumstances change the outcome of the plot. 

Reading Strategy 

Asking Questions 

You will have a better understanding of what you read if you ask 
questions about the characters and events. You might ask, for instance, 
why a character behaves in a certain way or what an action really means. 
Then, read on to find answers to your questions. Use a chart like the one 
shown to list your questions and the answers you find as you read "A 
Retrieved Reformation." 



Vocabulary Development 

assiduously (a sij' cro was le) adv. 
carefully and busily (p. 243) 

virtuous (vur' chdo as) adj. moral; 
upright (p. 243) 

retribution (re' tra byoo' shan) n. 
punishment for wrongdoing (p. 243) 



unobtrusively (un' ab trcro' siv le) adv. 
without calling attention to oneself 
(p. 247) 

simultaneously (si' mal ta ne as le) 
adv. at the same time (p. 249) 

anguish (ar)' gwish) n. great suffering 
from worry (p. 249) 



Questions 



What will Jimmy do when 
he gets out of prison? 



Answers 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 241 




3*-iJ 



RETRIEVED 




wmz/tesi 



O. Henry 




s 



A Critical Viewing What details in this photograph reveal that it was 
taken long ago? [Connect] 



242 ♦ Quest for justice 




guard came to the prison shoe-shop, where Jimmy Valentine 
was assiduously stitching uppers, and escorted him to the front 
office. There the warden handed Jimmy his pardon, which had 
been signed that morning by the governor. Jimmy took it in 
a tired kind of way. He had served nearly ten months of a four- 
year sentence. He had expected to stay only about three months, 
at the longest. When a man with as many friends on the outside 
as Jimmy Valentine had is received in the "stir" it is hardly worth- 
while to cut his hair. 

"Now, Valentine," said the warden, "you'll go out in the morning. 
Brace up, and make a man of yourself. You're not a bad fellow 
at heart. Stop cracking safes, and live straight." 

"Me?" said Jimmy, in surprise. "Why, I never cracked a safe 
in my life." 

"Oh, no," laughed the warden. "Of course not. Let's see, now. 
How was it you happened to get sent up on that Springfield job? 
Was it because you wouldn't prove an alibi for fear of compromis- 
ing somebody in extremely high-toned society? Or was it simply a 
case of a mean old jury that had it in for you? It's always one or 
the other with you innocent victims." 

"Me?" said Jimmy, still blankly virtuous . "Why, warden, I never 
was in Springfield in my life!" 

'Take him back, Cronin," smiled the warden, "and fix him up 
with outgoing clothes. Unlock him at seven in the morning, and let 
him come to the bullpen. 1 Better think over my advice, Valentine." 

At a quarter past seven on the next morning Jimmy stood in the 
warden's outer office. He had on a suit of the villainously fitting, 
ready-made clothes and a pair of the stiff, squeaky shoes that the 
state furnishes to its discharged compulsory guests. 

The clerk handed him a railroad ticket and the five-dollar bill with 
which the law expected him to rehabilitate himself into good citi- 
zenship and prosperity. The warden gave him a cigar, and shook 
hands. Valentine, 9762, was chronicled on the books "Pardoned by 
Governor," and Mr. James Valentine walked out into the sunshine. 

Disregarding the song of the birds, the waving green trees, and 
the smell of the flowers, Jimmy headed straight for a restaurant. 
There he tasted the first sweet joys of liberty in the shape of a 
chicken dinner. From there he proceeded leisurely to the depot 
and boarded his train. Three hours set him down in a little town 



assiduously (a sij" cro was le) 
adv. carefully and busily 



virtuous (vur' chcro was) 
adj. moral; upright 



Literary Analysis 
Surprise Ending At this 
point in the story, what 
do you think the ending 
will be? 



^Reading Check 

Where has Jimmy been 
for the past ten months? 



1. bullpen n. barred room in a jail, where prisoners are kept temporarily. 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 243 



near the state line. He went to the cafe of one Mike Dolan and 
shook hands with Mike, who was alone behind the bar. 

"Sorry we couldn't make it sooner, Jimmy, me boy," said Mike. 
"But we had that protest from Springfield to buck against, and the 
governor nearly balked. Feeling all right?" 

"Fine," said Jimmy. "Got my key?" 

He got his key and went upstairs, unlocking the door of a room 
at the rear. Everything was just as he had left it. There on the floor 
was still Ben Price's collar -button that had been torn from that 
eminent detective's shirt-band when they had overpowered Jimmy 
to arrest him. 

Pulling out from the wall a folding-bed, Jimmy slid back a panel in 
the wall and dragged out a dust-covered suitcase. He opened this 
and gazed fondly at the finest set of burglar's tools in the East. It was 
a complete set, made of specially tempered steel, the latest designs 
in drills, punches, braces and bits, jimmies, clamps, and augers. 2 
with two or three novelties invented by Jimmy himself, in which he 
took pride. Over nine hundred dollars they had cost him to have 
made at — , a place where they make such things for the profession. 

In half an hour Jimmy went downstairs and through the cafe. 
He was now dressed in tasteful and well-fitting clothes, and car- 
ried his dusted and cleaned suitcase in his hand. 

"Got anything on?" asked Mike Dolan, genially. 

"Me?" said Jimmy, in a puzzled tone. "I don't understand. 
I'm representing the New York Amalgamated Short Snap Biscuit 
Cracker and Frazzled Wheat Company." 

This statement delighted Mike to such an extent that Jimmy 
had to take a seltzer-and-milk on the spot. He never touched 
"hard" drinks. 

A week after the release of Valentine, 9762, there was a neat job 
of safe-burglary done in Richmond, Indiana, with no clue to the 
author. A scant eight hundred dollars was all that was secured. 
Two weeks after that a patented, improved, burglar-proof safe in 
Logansport was opened like a cheese to the tune of fifteen hundred 
dollars, currency; securities and silver untouched. That began to 
interest the rogue-catchers. 3 Then an old-fashioned bank-safe in 
Jefferson City became active and threw out of its crater an erup- 
tion of bank-notes amounting to five thousand dollars. The losses 
were now high enough to bring the matter up into Ben Price's 
class of work. By comparing notes, a remarkable similarity in the 
methods of the burglaries was noticed. Ben Price investigated the 
scenes of the robberies, and was heard to remark: 

"That's Dandy Jim Valentine's autograph. He's resumed business. 
Look at that combination knob— jerked out as easy as pulling up a 



Reading Strategy 

Asking Questions What 
question could you ask 
yourself about Valentine's 
actions in this paragraph? 



2. drills . . . augers (6' garz) n. tools used in metalwork. 

3. rogue-catchers n. police. 



244 ♦ Quest for Justice 







-^Critical Viewing 

What would appeal to 
Jimmy Valentine about 
this town? [Deduce] 



radish in wet weather. He's got the only clamps that can do it. And 
look how clean those tumblers were punched out! Jimmy never has 
to drill but one hole. Yes, I guess I want Mr. Valentine. He'll do his 
bit next time without any short-time or clemency foolishness." 

Ben Price knew Jimmy's habits. He had learned them while 
working up the Springfield case. Long jumps, quick getaways, no 
confederates, 4 and a taste for good society — these ways had helped 
Mr. Valentine to become noted as a successful dodger of retribution . 
It was given out that Ben Price had taken up the trail of the elus- 
ive cracksman, and other people with burglar -proof safes felt more 
at ease. 

One afternoon, Jimmy Valentine and his suitcase climbed out of 
the mail hack 5 in Elmore, a little town five miles off the railroad down 
in the blackjack country of Arkansas. Jimmy, looking like an athletic 
young senior just home from college, went down the board sidewalk 
toward the hotel. 

*- A young lady crossed the street, passed him at the corner and 
entered a door over which was the sign "The Elmore Bank." Jimmy 
Valentine looked into her eyes, forgot what he was, and became 
another man. She lowered her eyes and colored slightly. Young men 
of Jimmy's style and looks were scarce in Elmore. 



retribution 

(re' tra bydo' shen) n. pun- 
ishment for wrong-doing 



^Reading Check 

What does Ben Price say 
when he visits the scene 
of the crime? 



4. confederates (kan fed' ar its) n. accomplices. 

5. mail hack n. horse and carriage used to deliver mail. 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 245 



Jimmy collared a boy that was loafing on the steps of w ^ 

the bank as if he were one of the stockholders, and 
began to ask him questions about the town, feeding him 
dimes at intervals. By and by the young lady came out. 
looking royally unconscious of the young man with the 
suitcase, and went her way. 

"Isn't that young lady Miss Polly Simpson?" asked Jimmy, 
with specious guile. 6 

"Naw," said the boy. "She's Annabel Adams. Her pa 
owns this bank. What'd you come to Elmore for? Is that 
a gold watch chain? I'm going to get a bulldog. Got any 
more dimes?" 

Jimmy went to the Planters' Hotel, registered as Ralph D. 
Spencer, and engaged a room. He leaned on the desk and 
declared his platform 7 to the clerk. He said he had come to 
Elmore to look for a location to go into business. How was the 
shoe business, now, in the town? He had thought of the shoe 
business. Was there an opening? 

The clerk was impressed by the clothes and manner of 
Jimmy. He, himself, was something of a pattern of fashion 
to the thinly gilded 8 youth of Elmore, but he now perceived ^_ 
his shortcomings. While trying to figure out Jimmy's manner 
of tying his four-in-hand, 9 he cordially gave information. 

Yes, there ought to be a good opening in the shoe line. There 
wasn't an exclusive shoe store in the place. The dry-goods and 
general stores handled them. Business in all lines was fairly good. 
Hoped Mr. Spencer would decide to locate in Elmore. He would 
find it a pleasant town to live in, and the people very sociable. 

Mr. Spencer thought he would stop over in the town a few days 
and look over the situation. No, the clerk needn't call the boy. He 
would carry up his suitcase, himself: it was rather heavy. 

Mr. Ralph Spencer, the phoenix* that arose from Jimmy 
Valentine's ashes — ashes left by the flame of a sudden and alter- 
ative attack of love — remained in Elmore, and prospered. He 
opened a shoe store and secured a good run of trade. 

Socially he was also a success, and made many friends. And he 
accomplished the wish of his heart. He met Miss Annabel Adams, 
and became more and more captivated by her charms. 

At the end of a year the situation of Mr. Ralph Spencer was this 
he had won the respect of the community, his shoe store was 
flourishing, and he and Annabel were engaged to be married in 
two weeks. Mr. Adams, the typical, plodding, country banker, 



iterature 



111 COIltBXt Language Connection 



♦ Allusions: The Phoenix 

An allusion is a reference in a 
work of literature to a person, 
place, or thing in another artistic 
work (literature, art, music, 
history, painting, or mythology). 
For example, O. Henry writes, 
"Mr. Ralph Spencer, the phoenix 
that arose from Jimmy 
Valentine's ashes . . . ." The 
allusion here is to the phoenix, a 
mythical bird of the Arabian 
wilderness. It was believed to die 
in flames every 500 or 600 years. 
Then, the phoenix would be 
reborn, rising from its ashes. The 
allusion helps readers 
understand that Jimmy Valentine 
has completely reinvented 
himself as Ralph Spencer. 



6. specious guile (spe shes gil') n. crafty, indirect way of obtaining information. 

7. platform n. here, a statement of intention. 

8. thinly gilded adj. coated with a thin layer of gold; here, appearing well dressed. 

9. four-in-hand n. necktie. 



246 ♦ Quest for Justice 



approved of Spencer. Annabel's pride in him almost equaled her 
affection. He was as much at home in the family of Mr. Adams and 
that of Annabel's married sister as if he were already a member. 

One day Jimmy sat down in his room and wrote this letter, which 
he mailed to the safe address of one of his old friends in St. Louis: 

Dear Old Pal: 

I want you to be at Sullivan's place, in Little Rock, next Wednesday 
night, at nine o'clock. I want you to wind up some little matters for me. 
And, also, I want to make you a present of my kit of tools. I know you'll 
be glad to get them — you couldn't duplicate the lot for a thousand dol- 
lars. Say. Billy, I've quit the old business — a year ago. I've got a nice 
store. I'm making an honest living, and I'm going to marry the finest girl 
on earth two weeks from now. It's the only life, Billy — the straight one. 
I wouldn't touch a dollar of another man's money now for a million. 
After I get married I'm going to sell out and go West, where there won't 
be so much danger of having old scores brought up against me. I 
tell you, Billy, she's an angel. She believes in me; and I wouldn't do 
another crooked thing for the whole world. Be sure to be at Sully's, for 
I must see you. I'll bring along the tools with me. 

Your old friend, 

Jimmy. 

On the Monday night after Jimmy wrote this letter, Ben Price 
jogged unobtrusively into Elmore in a livery buggy. 10 He lounged 
about town in his quiet way until he found out what he wanted to 
know. From the drugstore across the street from Spencer's shoe store 
he got a good look at Ralph D. Spencer. 

"Going to marry the banker's daughter are you, Jimmy?" said Ben 
to himself, softly. "Well, I don't know!" 

The next morning Jimmy took breakfast at the Adamses. He 
was going to Little Rock that day to order his wedding suit and 
buy something nice for Annabel. That would be the first time he 
had left town since he came to Elmore. It had been more than a 
year now since those last professional "jobs," and he thought he 
could safely venture out. 

After breakfast quite a family party went downtown together — Mr. 
Adams, Annabel, Jimmy, and Annabel's married sister with her two 
little girls, aged five and nine. They came by the hotel where Jimmy 
still boarded, and he ran up to his room and brought along 
his suitcase. Then they went on to the bank. There stood Jimmy's 
horse and buggy and Dolph Gibson, who was going to drive him over 
to the railroad station. 

All went inside the high, carved oak railings into the banking- 



Literary Analysis 

Surprise Ending What 
conclusion do you expect 
will follow from these 
events? 



unobtrusively 

(un' eb troo' siv le) adv. 
without calling attention 
to oneself 



Literary Analysis 
Surprise Ending In what 
way can Ben Price change 
Jimmy's situation? 



^Reading Check 

What does Jimmy decide 
to do with his life? 



10. livery buggy n. horse and carriage for hire. 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 247 




^Critical Viewing 

Does the woman in this 
photograph share any 
qualities with Annabel, 
as described in the story? 
Explain. [Connect] 



room — Jimmy included, for Mr. Adams's future son-in-law was 
welcome anywhere. The clerks were pleased to be greeted by the good- 
looking, agreeable young man who was going to marry Miss Annabel. 
Jimmy set his suitcase down. Annabel, whose heart was bubbling 
with happiness and lively youth, put on Jimmy's hat, and picked up 
the suitcase. "Wouldn't I make a nice drummer?" 11 said Annabel. 
"My! Ralph, how heavy it is! Feels like it was full of gold bricks." 

"Lot of nickel-plated shoehorns in there," said Jimmy, coolly, 
"that I'm going to return. Thought I'd save express charges by taking 
them up. I'm getting awfully economical." 

The Elmore Bank had just put in a new safe and vault. Mr. 
Adams was very proud of it, and insisted on an inspection by 



11. drummer n. traveling salesman. 
248 ♦ Quest for justice 



everyone. The vault was a small one, but it had a new, patented 
door. It fastened with three solid steel bolts thrown simultaneously 
with a single handle, and had a time lock. Mr. Adams beamingly 
explained its workings to Mr. Spencer, who showed a courteous 
but not too intelligent interest. The two children, May and Agatha, 
were delighted by the shining metal and funny clock and knobs. 

While they were thus engaged Ben Price sauntered in and 
leaned on his elbow, looking casually inside between the railings. 
He told the teller that he didn't want anything; he was just waiting 
for a man he knew. 

Suddenly there was a scream or two from the women, and a 
commotion. Unperceived by the elders, May, the nine-year-old girl, 
in a spirit of play, had shut Agatha in the vault. She had then shot 
the bolts and turned the knob of the combination as she had seen 
Mr. Adams do. 

The old banker sprang to the handle and tugged at it for a 
moment. "The door can't be opened," he groaned. "The clock hasn't 
been wound nor the combination set." 

Agatha's mother screamed again, hysterically. 

"Hush!" said Mr. Adams, raising his trembling hand. "All be 
quiet for a moment. Agatha!" he called as loudly as he could. 
"Listen to me." During the following silence they could just hear 
the faint sound of the child wildly shrieking in the dark vault in a 
panic of terror. 

"My precious darling!" wailed the mother. "She will die of fright! 
Open the door! Oh, break it open! Can't you men do something?" 

'There isn't a man nearer than Little Rock who can open that 
door," said Mr. Adams, in a shaky voice. "My God! Spencer, what 
shall we do? That child — she can't stand it long in there. There isn't 
enough air, and, besides, she'll go into convulsions from fright." 

Agatha's mother, frantic now, beat the door of the vault with her 
hands. Somebody wildly suggested dynamite. Annabel turned to 
Jimmy, her large eyes full of anguish , but not yet despairing. To a 
woman nothing seems quite impossible to the powers of the man 
she worships. 

"Can't you do something, Ralph — try, won't you?" 

He looked at her with a queer, soft smile on his lips and in his 
keen eyes. 

"Annabel," he said, "give me that rose you are wearing, will you?" 

Hardly believing that she heard him aright, she unpinned the 
bud from the bosom of her dress, and placed it in his hand. 
Jimmy stuffed it into his vest pocket, threw off his coat and pulled 
up his shirt sleeves. With that act Ralph D. Spencer passed away 
and Jimmy Valentine took his place. 

"Get away from the door, all of you," he commanded, shortly. 

He set his suitcase on the table, and opened it out Oat. From 
that time on he seemed to be unconscious of the presence of 



simultaneously 

(si' mal ta' ne as le) adv. 
occurring at the same time 



Reading Strategy 
Asking Questions What 
question could you ask 
yourself about the 
situation in this 
paragraph? 



anguish (an' gwish) n. 
great suffering from 
worry 



^Reading Check 

What happens to 
Agatha? 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 249 



anyone else. He laid out the shining, queer implements swiftly and 
orderly, whistling softly to himself as he always did when at work. 
In a deep silence and immovable, the others watched him as if 
under a spell. 

In a minute Jimmy's pet drill was biting smoothly into the steel 
door. In ten minutes — breaking his own burglarious record — he 
threw back the bolts and opened the door. 

Agatha, almost collapsed, but safe, was gathered into her 
mother's arms. 

Jimmy Valentine put on his coat, and walked outside the railings 
toward the front door. As he went he thought he heard a far-away 
voice that he once knew call "Ralph!" But he never hesitated. 

At the door a big man stood somewhat in his way. 

"Hello, Ben!" said Jimmy, still with his strange smile. "Got 
around at last, have you? Well, let's go. I don't know that it makes 
much difference, now." 

And then Ben Price acted rather strangely. 

"Guess you're mistaken, Mr. Spencer," he said. "Don't 
believe I recognize you. Your buggy's waiting for you, ain't it?" 

And Ben Price turned and strolled down the street. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you have done what Ben Price did? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: Why is Jimmy Valentine in prison? (b) Infer: 
What is the prison warden's attitude toward Valentine's future? 
(c) Contrast: How is the warden's attitude different form 
Mike Dolan's attitude? 

3. (a) Recall: What job does Valentine take after his release 
from prison? (b) Infer: What details suggest that he may he 
cracking safes as well? (c) Draw Conclusions: How do you 
know Valentine has given up safecracking for good? 

4. (a) Recall: At what point in the story does Valentine have a 
change of heart? (b) Deduce: What causes this change? 

(c) Support: Find at least two details in the story that prove 
Valentine has really changed. 

5. (a) Recall: Who is Ben Price? (b) Infer: Why does Price 
pretend not to know Valentine at the hank? (c) Evaluate: 
Does Price do the right thing? Explain. 

6. Make a Judgment: Is Jimmy Valentine a good man? Explain. 





(1862-1910) 

O. Henry, who 
became one of 
America's best- 
known short- 
story writers, was 
born William 
Sydney Porter. His 
aunt Evelina nurtured 
his gift for storytelling by 
developing a game in 
which she would begin to 
tell a story and he would 
finish it. After growing up 
in Greensboro, North 
Carolina, Porter moved to 
Texas in 1882. There, he 
worked as a ranch hand, a 
bank teller, a writer and 
publisher of a humor mag- 
azine, and a reporter for 
the Houston Post. In 1898, 
he was sent to jail for 
embezzling bank funds. 
While in prison, he began 
to write short stories. It 
was there that he heard of 
a bank robber and safe- 
cracker who inspired the 
character of Jimmy 
Valentine, the hero of "A 
Retrieved Reformation." 



250 ♦ Quest for justice 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Surprise Ending 

1. Complete a chart like the one shown to compare your expectations 
to the actual ending. 



Ending I expect 



O. Henry's Ending 



2. What clues lead you to expect the ending you listed on your 
chart? Explain. 

3. What details support the logic of the actual ending? Explain. 

4. The surprise ending of this story arises from the decisions made by 
two characters — Jimmy and Ben. Use a graphic organizer like the 
one shown to examine those decisions and describe the character 
traits each one reveals. 




Connecting Literary Elements 

5. Explain the irony of Jimmy having his tools with him when 
Agatha gets locked in the safe. 

6. In what way does Ben Price almost ruin Jimmy? 

7. In what way does Ben Price actually save Jimmy? 

Reading Strategy 

Asking Questions 

8. You may have questioned whether Jimmy's "new life" in Elmore 
would last. What details in the story lead to your answer? 

9. How does answering "Why does Ben Price let Jimmy go?" help 
you understand the story? 

Extend Understanding 

10. Extend: How could Jimmy use his skills to prevent robberies? 



Quick Review 

A surprise ending is an 

unexpected conclusion. To 
review surprise ending, 
see page 241 . 



Irony of situation occurs in 
a story when an event 
directly contradicts the 
expectations of the 
characters, the reader, or 
the audience. To review 
irony, see page 241 . 



Asking yourself questions 
about characters and 
events and then answering 
them can help you better 
understand a story. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding oi 

the selection. 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 251 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Root 'simul' 

The word simultaneously contains the Latin 
word root -simul-, which means "same." 
Simultaneously means "at the same time." In a 
dictionary, find a word beginning with simul to 
fit each definition. Write each word. 

1 . to look or act the same 

2. an image or experience that is almost the 
same as the real thing 

Spelling Strategy 

When you add -ion to verbs that end in te , 
you drop the e before adding -ion. 

Add the -ion suffix to each word. 

1. rehabilitate 2. promote 3. donate 

Grammar Lesson 

Adjectives and Parallelism 

Parallelism is the use of similar words, phrases, 
or structures for equal ideas. When juxtaposing 
two things — placing them in balance for empha- 
sis — create parallel structure with the similar 
placement of adjectives. 

Not parallel: The heavy door was no match 
for the drill, which was light. 

Parallel: The heavy door was no match for 
the light drill. 

When writing items in a series, use parallel 
placement of adjectives. 

Not parallel: His worn tools, complete concen- 
tration, and an attitude that was experienced 
silenced the group. 

Parallel: His worn tools, complete concentra- 
tion, and experienced attitude silenced the 
group. 



Fluency: Sentence Completions 

Complete each sentence with a vocabulary 
word from the list on page 241- 

1. Detention is a type of ? 

2. Two things that occur at the same time 
happen ? 

3. If you are studying ? you are study- 
ing carefully. 

4. Tears can be a sign of ? 

5. Jimmy Valentine earned respect in Elmore 
by living a ? life. 

6. An elephant cannot move ? 



► For more practice, see page R33, Exercise E. 
Practice Revise the sentences to create parallel 
structure through the placement of adjectives. 

1. Jimmy's friendly manner, his smile that was 
charming, and his elegant clothes 
impressed the townspeople. 

2. The sleepy town was about to become a 
place that was exciting. 

3. Mr. Adams was a steady type but Jimmy 
was the type that was spontaneous. 

4. Annabel was pretty, well-mannered, and 
she was charming. 

5. Jimmy wore a gray vest, a wool coat, and a 
shirt that was pressed. 

Writing Application Describe one of the charac- 
ters. Use one sentence that includes nouns in a 
series. Include another in which you juxtapose a 
quality of the character with a quality of another 
character. Use parallel placement of adjectives. 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 16, Section 1 



252 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Writing Lesson 

Response to the Story 

Write a response to the story in which you explain whether you agree or disagree 
with Ben Price's decision to let Jimmy go. 

Prewriting Jot down several reasons for your agreement or disagreement with 
Price's decision. Then, list details to support your reasons, using 
examples, analogies (comparisons that highlight the main quality 
of a situation by comparing it to something else that shares that 
quality), or other comparisons. 



Model: Create an Analogy 



What it is 

Price's decision to let 
Jimmy go 



Jimmy's second chance 



What it is like 

A fisherman putting the fish 
back into the water 

Walking through a crowded 
intersection and just missing 
being hit by a truck 



This writer supports his 
or her conclusion by 
illustrating the positive 
aspects of Price's 
decision with analogies. 



% 



Drafting Begin by stating your position either for or against Ben Price's 
action. Then, list your reasons, giving support for each one. 

Revising Look for places where changing the placement of adjectives will 
add variety to your sentences. Notice also places where you can 
create parallel structure for important ideas or descriptions. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 72, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Research and Technology Conduct research on 
the life and works of O. Henry. Explore questions 
about O. Henry, such as 

• How did O. Henry choose his pen name? 

• What other jobs besides writing did he pursue, 
and how did they contribute to his stories? 

Share your group's findings with the rest of the 
class in an oral report. 



Listening and Speaking Retell the story in the 
form of a television news broadcast. Include 
answers to the reporter's questions "who, what, 
when, where, why, and how." Organize the 
details of the report to meet the purpose of 
informing. Focus less on the love story and more 
on the facts of Jimmy's legal situation. 



m Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

(jo online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



A Retrieved Reformation ♦ 25.^ 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



Emancipation ♦ O Captain! My Captain! 




Background 




As you read 
Lfii these selections 
"''Vo^ and complete the 
related assignments, 
you will focus on these 
standards. The Student's Guide 
to the Standards contains an 
outline of how each standard is 
introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Abraham Lincoln is the subject of both of these works. "Emancipation" 
is part of an award-winning full-length historical work, Lincoln: A 
Photobiography , written in 1987. "O Captain! My Captain!" is a poem 
written by the great American poet Walt Whitman — who served as a 
nurse during the Civil War — as a memorial to Lincoln after the President 
was assassinated. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 2.3 Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or 
organization of ideas. (Developed in the Literary analysis) 

Writing 1.4 Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer 
networks and modems. (Developed in Research and Technology activity) 
Language Conventions 1.1 Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence 
openings to present a lively and personal style. (Introduced in the Grammar Lesson) 
Listening and Speaking 1.1 Analyze oral interpretations of literature, including language 
choice and delivery. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



254 ♦ Quest for justice 




MM 



iw 



Literary Analysis 

Historical Context 

The historical context of a literary work is the time period during 
which it is written or in which it takes place. Identify the events, atti- 
tudes, beliefs, and customs of the time period. Consider also the other lit- 
erature of the time. These elements create the context, or situation in 
which a work is understood. 

Create an organizer like the one shown here to analyze the cultural 
context of each work. 

Comparing Literary Works 

These two works are both about Lincoln. However, they differ in their 
scope — the range of details they present — and in their organization and 
purpose. To compare and contrast these works, ask yourself the following 
focus questions: 

1. What details about Lincoln's life does each work include? 

2. How are these details arranged to convey a message about 
Lincoln's historical importance? 

3. What is the purpose, or goal, of each work? 

Reading Strategy 

Determining Cause and Effect 

• A cause is an action, event, or situation that makes something 
happen. 

• An effect is the result of a preceding event or situation. 

As you read these selections, identify cause-and-effect relationships 
among events by asking yourself why events occur. 

Vocabulary Development 




alienate (al' yen at') v. make unfriend- 
ly; estrange (p. 257) 

compensate (kam' pan sat - ) v. repay 
(p. 257) 

shackles (shak' els) n. a linked pair of 
metal fastenings, usually for the 
wrists or ankles ^f a prisoner 
(p. 258) 

peril (per' al) n. exposure to harm or 
injury; danger (p. 258) 



decisive (di si' siv) adj. having the 
power to settle a question or dispute 
(p. 258) 

humiliating (hydo mil' e at' in,) adj. 
embarrassing; undignified (p. 259) 

exulting (eg zulf in.) v. rejoicing 
( P . 261) 

tread (tred) n. step (p. 262) 



Emancipation/I ) ( laptain! M\ ( )aptain! ♦ 255 



EMANCIPATION 

from Lincoln: A Photobiography 



Russel Freedman 



President Abraham Lincoln was leading the country in 1862 
during the Civil War. He was challenged to find the best means for 
preserving the Union. His troops had just been beaten in fierce battles 
in Virginia. He had tough military and political decisions to make. 

The toughest decision facing Lincoln . . . was the one he had 
to make about slavery. Early in the war, he was still willing to 
leave slavery alone in the South, if only he could restore the 
Union. Once the rebellion was crushed, slavery would be con- 
fined to the Southern states, where it would gradually die out. 
"We didn't go into the war to put down slavery, but to put the 
flag back," Lincoln said. "To act differently at this moment 
would, I have no doubt, not only weaken our cause, but smack 
of bad faith." 

Abolitionists were demanding that the president free the slaves 
at once, by means of a wartime proclamation. "Teach the rebels 






Literary Analysis 
Historical Context What 
different attitudes of 
people in this time period 
are discussed in this and 
the next paragraph? 





256 ♦ Quest for justice 



and traitors that the price they are to pay for the attempt to 
abolish this Government must be the abolition of slavery," said 
Frederick Douglass, the famous black editor and reformer. "Let 
the war cry be down with treason, and down with slavery, the 
cause of treason!" 

But Lincoln hesitated. He was afraid to alienate the large 
numbers of Northerners who supported the Union but opposed 
emancipation. And he worried about the loyal, slaveholding 
border states — Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware — 
that had refused to join the Confederacy. Lincoln feared that 
emancipation might drive those states into the arms of the 
South. 

Yet slavery was the issue that had divided the country, and the 
president was under mounting pressure to do something about it. 
At first he supported a voluntary plan that would free the slaves 
gradually and compensate their owners with money from the 
federal treasury. Emancipation would begin in the loyal border 
states and be extended into the South as the rebel states were 
conquered. Perhaps then the liberated slaves could be resettled 
in Africa or Central America. 

Lincoln pleaded with the border-state congressmen to accept his 
plan, but they turned him down. They would not part with their 
slave property or willingly change their way of life. "Emancipation 
in the cotton states is simply an absurdity," said a Kentucky con- 
gressman. 'There is not enough power in the world to compel it to 
be done." 

Lincoln came to realize that if he wanted to attack slavery, he 
would have to act more boldly. A group of powerful Republican 



alienate (al' yen at) v. to 
make unfriendly; estrange 



compensate (kam' pen sat) 
v. to repay 



•^Reading Check 

Why did Lincoln enter the 
war? 





Emancipation ♦ 257 



senators had been urging him to act. It was absurd, they argued, 
to fight the war without destroying the institution that had caused 
it. Slaves provided a vast pool of labor that was crucial to the 
South's war effort. If Lincoln freed the slaves, he could cripple the 
Confederacy and hasten the end of the war. If he did not free 
them, then the war would settle nothing. Even if the South agreed 
to return to the Union, it would start another war as soon as 
slavery was threatened again. 

Besides, enslaved blacks were eager to throw off their shackles 
and fight for their own freedom. Thousands of slaves had already 
escaped from behind Southern lines. Thousands more were ready to 
enlist in the Union armies. "You need more men," Senator Charles 
Sumner told Lincoln, "not only at the North, but at the South, in the 
rear of the rebels. You need the slaves." 

All along, Lincoln had questioned his authority as president to 
abolish slavery in those states where it was protected by law. His 
Republican advisors argued that in time of war, with the nation in 
peril , the president did have the power to outlaw slavery. He could 
do it in his capacity as commander in chief of the armed forces. 
Such an act would be justified as a necessary war measure, because 
it would weaken the enemy. If Lincoln really wanted to save the 
Union, Senator Sumner told him, he must act now. He must wipe 
out slavery. 

The war had become an endless nightmare of bloodshed and 
bungling generals. Lincoln doubted if the Union could survive with- 
out bold and drastic measures. By the summer of 1862, he had 
worked out a plan that would hold the loyal slave states in the 
Union, while striking at the enemies of the Union. 

On July 22. 1862, he revealed his plan to his cabinet. He had 
decided, he told them, that emancipation was "a military necessity, 
absolutely essential to the preservation of the Union." For that rea- 
son, he intended to issue a proclamation freeing all the slaves in 
rebel states that had not returned to the Union by January 1, 1863. 
The proclamation would be aimed at the Confederate South only. In 
the loyal border states, he would continue to push for gradual, com- 
pensated emancipation. 

Some cabinet members warned that the country wasn't ready 
to accept emancipation. But most of them nodded their approval, 
and in any case, Lincoln had made up his mind. He did listen to the 
objection of William H. Seward, his secretary of state. If Lincoln pub- 
lished his proclamation now, Seward argued, when Union armies 
had just been defeated in Virginia, it would seem like an act of des- 
peration, "the last shriek on our retreat." The president must wait 
until the Union had won a decisive military victory in the East. Then 
he could issue his proclamation from a position of strength. Lincoln 
agreed. For the time being, he filed the document away in his desk. 



Literary Analysis 
Historical Context What 
does Freedman know as 
he writes the essay that 
people of Lincoln's time 
did not know? 



shackles (shak' als) n. 
metal fastenings, usually 
a linked pair for the 
wrists or ankles of a 
prisoner 



peril (per' q\) n. exposure 
to harm or injury; danger 



decisive (di sr siv) adj. 
having the power to 
settle a question or 
dispute 






258 ♦ Quest for Justice 



A month later, in the war's second battle at Bull Run, Union 
forces commanded by General John Pope suffered another 
humiliating defeat. "We are whipped again," Lincoln moaned. He 
feared now that the war was lost. Rebel troops under Robert E. 
Lee were driving north. Early in September, Lee invaded 
Maryland and advanced toward Pennsylvania. 

Lincoln again turned to General George McClellan — Who else 
do I have? he asked — and ordered him to repel the invasion. The 
two armies met at Antietam Creek in Maryland on September 17 
in the bloodiest single engagement of the war. Lee was forced to 
retreat back to Virginia. But McClellan, cautious as ever, held 
his position and failed to pursue the defeated rebel army. It 
wasn't the decisive victory Lincoln had hoped for, but it would 
have to do. 

On September 22, Lincoln read the final wording of his 
Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. If the rebels did not 
return to the Union by January 1, the president would free 
"thenceforward and forever" all the slaves everywhere in the 
Confederacy. Emancipation would become a Union war objec- 
tive. As Union armies smashed their way into rebel territory, 
they would annihilate slavery once and for all. 

The next day, the proclamation was released to the press. 
Throughout the North, opponents of slavery hailed the measure, 
and black people rejoiced. Frederick Douglass, the black aboli- 
tionist, had criticized Lincoln severely in the past. But he said 
now: "We shout for joy that we live to record this righteous 
decree." 

When Lincoln delivered his annual message to Congress 
on December 1 , he asked support for his program of military 
emancipation: 

"Fellow citizens, we cannot escape history. We of this 
Congress and this administration, will be remembered in spite 
of ourselves. ... In giving freedom to the slave, we assure free- 
dom to the free — honorable alike in what we give, and what we 
preserve." 

On New Year's Day, after a fitful night's sleep, Lincoln sat at 
his White House desk and put the finishing touches on his his- 
toric decree. From this day forward, all slaves in the rebel states 
were "forever free." Blacks who wished to could now enlist in the 
Union army and sail on Union ships. Several all-black regiments 
were formed immediately. By the end of the war, more than 
180.000 blacks — a majority of them emancipated slaves — had 
volunteered for the Union forces. They manned military gar- 
risons and served as front-line combat troops in every theatre 
of the war. 

The traditional New Year's reception was held in the White 



humiliating 

(hyoo mil' e at' in) adj. 
embarrassing; undignified 



Reading Strategy 
Determining Cause and 
Effect According to 
William H. Seward, how 
would the timing of the 
proclamation change its 
effect? 



^Reading Check 

What does William H. 
Seward persuade Lincoln 
to do? 



Emancipation ♦ 259 



House that morning. Mary appeared at an official gathering for 
the first time since Willie's death 1 , wearing garlands in her hair 
and a black shawl about her head. 

During the reception, Lincoln slipped away and retired to his 
office with several cabinet members and other officials for the 
formal signing of the proclamation. He looked tired. He had been 
shaking hands all morning, and now his hand trembled as he 
picked up a gold pen to sign his name. 

Ordinarily he signed "A. Lincoln." But today, as he put pen to 
paper, he carefully wrote out his full name. "If my name ever 
goes into history," he said then, "it will be for this act." 



1. Mary appeared . . . Willie's death Mary Todd Lincoln was the President's wife. The 
couple's son William died in 1862 at the age of eleven. 




Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you think President Lincoln ended slavery 
at the right time? Support your answer. 

2. (a) Recall: What does Freedman say Lincoln's toughest 
decision as president was? (b) Infer: How is this decision 
related to Lincoln's ability to lead? (c) Evaluate: Does 
Freedman present Lincoln as a good leader? Explain. 

3. (a) Recall: What consequences does Lincoln anticipate from 
certain northerners if he frees the slaves? (b) Infer: Why does 
Lincoln worry about Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and 
Delaware? 

4. (a) Recall: Name two reasons that Lincoln decides to attack 
the issue of slavery, (b) Synthesize: Explain Lincoln's reasoning 
when he decides to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. 

5. (a) Recall: What recommendation does Secretary of State 
William H. Seward make to Lincoln about when to publish his 
proclamation? (b) Speculate: Why does Lincoln choose to 
end slavery after the battle of Antietam Creek? (c) Evaluate: 
Does Lincoln achieve his goals by proclaiming emancipation 
at that time? Explain. 

6. Assess: What, if any, act or achievement by an American 
president is as significant as Lincoln's Emancipation 
Proclamation? 



Russell Freedman 



(b. 1929) 

If you like 
biographies, you 
may be familiar 
with the work 
of Russell 
Freedman. 
Freedman has 
written many critically 
acclaimed nonfiction 
books for young people 
that focus on great figures 
in American history, such 
as the Wright brothers, 
Crazy Horse, and Eleanor 
Roosevelt. 

Freedman was born and 
grew up in San Francisco, 
California. After his dis- 
charge from the army, he 
worked as a reporter and 
editor for the Associated 
Press. He published his 
first book in 1961 and 
has been a full-time writer 
ever since. His Lincoln: 
A Photobiography won a 
Newbery Medal in 1988. 



260 ♦ Quest for Justice 



*- *r *- 



( Kk/f ( KUOmam 



Ml 




O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, 
The ship has weather' d every rack, x the prize we 

sought is won. 
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all 

exulting , 
While follow eyes the steady keel, 2 the vessel grim 
and daring; 
But O heart! heart! heart! 

O the bleeding drops of red, 

Where on the deck my Captain lies. 
Fallen cold and dead. 



▲ Critical Viewing In 

what ways does Lincoln, 
as depicted in this 
photograph, exhibit 
leadership qualities? 
[Interpret] 



exulting (ig zult' in.) v. 
rejoicing 



VjReading Check 

Why is the speaker 
upset? 



1. rack n. great stress. 

2. keel n. chief structural beam extending along the entire length of the bottom of a 
boat or ship and supporting the frame. 



I M aptain! My Captain! ♦ 26/ 



O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; 
10 Rise up — for you the flag is flung — for you the 
bugle trills. 
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths — for you 

the shores a-crowding, 
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager 
faces turning; 
Here Captain! dear father! 

This arm beneath your head! 
15 It is some dream that on the deck, 

You've fallen cold and dead. 

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale 

and still, 
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse 

nor will, 
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage 
closed and done, 
20 From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with 
object won; 

Exult O shores, and ring O bells! 
But I with mournful tread , 

Walk the deck my Captain lies. 
Fallen cold and dead. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: How does this poem affect you? 

2. (a) Recall: What has happened to the Captain? 

(b) Infer: Why does the timing of this event make it doubly 
unfortunate? (c) Interpret: How does the mood of the poem 
reflect what has happened? 

3. (a) Recall: What words related to the sea and to sailing does 
the speaker of the poem use? (b) Compare and Contrast: In 
what ways does Lincoln's leadership of the country resemble 

a captain's role on a ship? 

4. (a) Recall: What is the ship's destination? (b) Interpret: 
What is the "fearful trip" that the ship has "weathered"? 

5. (a) Recall: How do the crowds of people respond to the 
Captain's arrival? (b) Recall: What feats has the Captain 
accomplished before the ship arrives? (c) Draw Conclusions: 
What kind of a leader does the speaker consider Lincoln? 




tread (tred) n. step 



Walt Whitman 



(1819-1892) 

Walt Whitman, 
one of America's 
greatest poets, 
began his career 
as a printer and 
journalist. In 
1848, he began 
working on Leaves of 
Grass, a collection of poems 
about America. Because of 
its unusual style, commer- 
cial publishers refused to 
publish the book. However, 
Whitman printed a first 
edition with his own money 
in 1855. Since then, the 
style of Whitman's poetry 
has greatly influenced poets 
around the world. 

During the Civil War, 
Whitman worked in 
military hospitals in 
Washington, D.C. 
Although he never formally 
met President Lincoln, he 
often saw the President at 
a distance in Washington. 
Lincoln's death moved 
Whitman to compose two 
famous poems, "O Captain! 
My Captain!" and "When 
Lilacs Last in the Dooryard 
Bloom'd." 



262 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Historical Context 

1. Explain why the knowledge that the nation was in a Civil War 
caused largely by the issue of slavery is critical to your understand- 
ing of "Emancipation." 

2. Why was emancipation important not just morally, but politically as 
well? How does knowing this help you understand Lincoln's actions? 

3. How does knowing that "O Captain! My Captain" was written just 
after Lincoln's death affect your response to it? 

Comparing Literary Works 

4. On a Venn diagram like this one, compare and contrast the 
portrayal of President Lincoln in these two selections. Consider 
similarities and differences in the way each work presents Lincoln 
as a president, as a man, and as a public figure. 



Emancipation" 




"O Captain' 



5. For what purposes do the authors write about Lincoln? 

6. How do Freedman and Whitman feel about Lincoln as a leader? 

Reading Strategy 

Determining Cause and Effect 

7. Use a diagram like the one below to identify three causes that had 
the effect of delaying the proclamation and two causes that even- 
tually led to the proclamation. 



Cause 



Slavery was the issue 
that divided the country. 



Effect 



Lincoln was under pressure 
to do something about it. 



Lincoln delayed in issuing the 
Emancipation Proclamation. 



Extend Understanding 



8. Social Studies Connection: If Lincoln were President today, what 
issues would he bring to national attention? Explain. 



Quick Review 

Historical context is the 

time period during which 
a literary work is written 
or set. To review historical 
context, see page 255. 



A cause is an action, 
event, or situation that 
produces a result. 

An effect is the result of 
a preceding event, or 
situation. To review causes 
and effects, see page 255. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



Emancipation/O Captain! My Captain! ♦ 263 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Suffix 'ate 

The Latin suffix -ate means "to make or 
apply." Complete these sentences by adding the 
Latin suffix -ate to the noun or adjective in 
parentheses. 

1 . The smell of food can make a hungry 
person ? (saliva) 

2. Lincoln did not want to ? people, 
(alien) 

Spelling Strategy 

When adding -ed or -ing to words that end 
with -ate, drop the e before adding any letters. 
Write new words indicated below. 

1. create + -ing 2. devastate + -ed 

Grammar Lesson 

Adverbs and Sentence Variety 

An adverb is a word that modifies, or 
describes, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. 
Adverbs answer the questions when , where , in 
what manner, and to what extent. 

"If Lincoln really wanted to save the Union . . . 
he must act now." 

(Really tells to what extent he wanted; now 
tells when he must act.) 

An adverb usually comes before the word it 
modifies, but it can also appear at the end or 
beginning of a sentence. 

I have been feeling more energetic lately. 
Lately, I have been feeling more energetic. 

Vary the placement of adverbs to create sen- 
tence variety. However, check to make sure that 
it remains clear which word is being modified. 



Fluency: Definitions 

On your paper, match each vocabulary word 
to its closest definition. 



1. 


compensate 


a. 


great rejoicing 


2. 


peril 


b. 


make unfriendly 


3. 


decisive 


c. 


step 


4. 


humiliating 


d. 


restraints 


5. 


shackles 


e. 


danger 


6. 


tread 


f. 


repay 


7. 


exulting 


g- 


crucial 


8. 


alienate 


h. 


hurtful to one's 
pride 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise C. 
Practice Identify the adverb and the word 
modified in each of the following sentences. 
Then, revise each sentence to place the adverb at 
the beginning of the sentence. 

1. Thousands of slaves had already escaped 
from behind Southern lines. 

2. Lincoln carefully wrote out his full name. 

3. I read a poem yesterday by Walt Whitman. 

4. Lincoln finally issued the Emancipation 
Proclamation. 

5. Lincoln spoke his mind decisively. 

Writing Application Add at least one adverb to 
each sentence. Then, rewrite each sentence to 
vary the placement of the adverb. 

1. Lincoln was cautious about freeing the 
slaves. 

2. Many believed slavery caused the division 
between the North and the South. 



V\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 16, Section 2 



264 ♦ Quest for justice 



Writing Lesson 

Description 

"Emancipation" and "O Captain! My Captain!" both give unique insights into 
Lincoln's personality and character. Use details from the selections to write a brief 
description of Lincoln. 

Prewriting Use an organizer like the one shown to jot down qualities and 
traits of Lincoln that are mentioned in the selections. Group 
examples around main traits. 



committed 



Lincoln 



intelligent 



concerned 



Drafting Begin with a general statement about Lincoln's character. In the 

body of your description, use the main traits or ideas that you write 
in the larger spaces as the main ideas in paragraphs. Use details in 
the smaller spaces as the supporting details. 

Revising Delete or move details that do not support the main idea of 
a paragraph. 

Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Section 2 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking With a group, take turns 
delivering an oral interpretation of the Emanci- 
pation Proclamation (1863), the Declaration of 
Independence, or "O Captain! My Captain!" 

1. Locate the work you will present through 
library resources or the Internet. 

2. Listen to professional recordings, paying 
attention to the way the speaker uses his 
or her voice to create different effects. 

3. Take turns delivering the work. Evaluate 
one another's delivery and the effect of 
volume, speed, and tone of voice. 



Research and Technology Use the Internet to 
research Lincoln's presidency. Conduct a key word 
search to find sites. When using Internet search 
engines, type in specific words about your topic. 
Connectors such as AND, OR, and NOT help to 
narrow a search. For example, "Lincoln AND 
presidency" or "Lincoln NOT childhood" may 
provide sites about the topic, Lincoln's presidency. 
Write a brief review of the three best sites. 



H 

Go o 

usinj,' the Internet. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 



Emandpation/O Captain 1 . My Captainl ♦ 265 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



Gentleman of Rio en Medio ♦ Saving the Wetlands 




>£££/! 




As you read 
^ftoP&P these selections 
and complete the 
related assignments, you will 
focus on these standards. The 
Student's Guide to the Standards 
contains an outline of how each 
standard is introduced, 
developed, and concluded. 



Background 



"Saving the Wetlands," by Barbara A. Lewis, focuses on the need to 
preserve wetlands — areas where the water level remains near or above 
the surface of the ground for most of the year. Types of wetlands include 
bogs, fens, marshes, and swamps. These areas are home to many kinds of 
plants and animals, including endangered species. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 3.3 Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters 

from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts. (Developed in 

the Literary Analysis and the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions {Introduced in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 

used. {Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.3 Organize information to achieve particular purposes by 

matching the message, vocabulary, voice modulation, expression, and tone to the 

audience and purpose. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



266 ♦ Quest for Justice 



mommm 



MHHI 






Literary Analysis 

Resolution of a Conflict 

In a narrative, a conflict is a struggle between two opposing forces. Often, 
a conflict takes the form of a problem that must be solved. The events in the 
narrative move toward the resolution of the conflict — the final outcome. 

As you read, look for answers to the following focus questions: 

1. What is the conflict or problem? 

2. What do the characters do to resolve the conflict? 

Comparing Literary Works 

The way characters try to resolve a conflict will be influenced by a 
number of factors: 

• the time period in which the character lives 

• the character's motives — the reason he or she acts in a certain way 

• the character's personality and past experiences 

"Gentleman of Rio en Medio" and "Saving the Wetlands" both 
present conflicts related to land ownership and the law. Use a graphic 
organizer like the one here to compare and contrast the way the charac- 
ters deal with the conflict. 

Reading Strategy 

Drawing Inferences 

An inference is a reasonable conclusion that you can draw from given 
facts or clues. Look at the following example. 

It took months of negotiation to come to an understanding with 
the old man. He was in no hurry. 

From these first two sentences in "Gentleman of Rio en Medio," you 
can infer, or read between the lines, that the old man does not make 
quick decisions. 

Vocabulary Development 

negotiation (ni go' she a shan) n. dis- 
cussion to reach an agreement 
( P . 269) 

gnarled (narld) adj. knotty and twisted 
(p. 269) 

innumerable (in nob' mar a bal) aiij. 
too many to be counted (p. 269) 

broached (brocht) v. started a discus- 
sion about a topic (p. 270) 



petition (pa tish' an) n. a formal docu- 
ment often signed by a number of 
people that makes a request of a 
person or group, (p. 275) 

wizened (wiz and) adj. shriveled or 
withered (p. 276) 

brandishing (bran' dish irj) v. waving 
in a challenging way (p. 277) 



Gentleman Wetlands 1 




time period 

experiences 

personality 

motives 





e " 


reactions to 

owning or 

sharing land 




V j 



< ientleman of Rio en Medio/Saving (he Wetlands ♦ 267 




Juan A. 



► Critical Viewing 

Does the man in this 
painting look like someone 
who would "bow to all of 
us in the room"? Why or 
why not? [Infer] 




268 ♦ Quest for Justice 



It took months of negotiation to come to an understanding with the 
old man. He was in no hurry. What he had the most of was time. He 
lived up in Rio en Medio, (re en ma de 5) where his people had been for 
hundreds of years. He tilled the same land they had tilled. His house 
was small and wretched, but quaint. The little creek ran through his 
land. His orchard was gnarled and beautiful. 

The day of the sale he came into the office. His coat was old, green 
and faded. I thought of Senator Catron, 1 who had been such a power 
with these people up there in the mountains. Perhaps it was one of 
his old Prince Alberts. 2 He also wore gloves. They were old and torn 
and his fingertips showed through them. He carried a cane, but it was 
only the skeleton of a worn-out umbrella. Behind him walked one of 
his innumerable kin — a dark young man with eyes like a gazelle. 

The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his 
hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin 3 once did that in a 
picture, in a bank — he was the janitor. Then he handed his things 
to the boy, who stood obediently behind the old man's chair. 

There was a great deal of conversation, about rain and about his 
family. He was very proud of his large family. Finally we got down to 
business. Yes, he would sell, as he had agreed, for twelve hundred 
dollars, in cash. We would buy, and the money was ready. "Don 4 
Anselmo," I said to him in Spanish, "we have made a discovery. You 
remember that we sent that surveyor, that engineer, up there to 
survey your land so as to make the deed. Well, he finds that you own 
more than eight acres. He tells us that your land extends across the 
river and that you own almost twice as much as you thought." He 
didn't know that. "And now, Don Anselmo," I added, "these Americans 
are buena gente, 5 they are good people, and they are willing to pay 
you for the additional land as well, at the same rate per acre, so that 
instead of twelve hundred dollars you will get almost twice as much, 
and the money is here for you." 

The old man hung his head for a moment in thought. Then he 
stood up and stared at me. "Friend," he said, "I do not like to have you 
speak to me in that manner." I kept still and let him have his say. "I 
know these Americans are good people, and that is why I have agreed 
to sell to them. But I do not care to be insulted. I have agreed to sell 
my house and land for twelve hundred dollars and that is the price." 

I argued with him but it was useless. Finally he signed the deed 
and took the money but refused to take more than the amount agreed 
upon. Then he shook hands all around, put on his ragged gloves, took 
his stick and walked out with the boy behind him. 



1. Senator Catron Thomas Benton Catron, senator from New Mexico, 1912-1917. 

2. Prince Alberts long, double-breasted coats. 

3. Chaplin Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), actor and producer of silent films in the United States. 

4. Don Spanish title of respect, similar to sir in English. 

5. buena gente (bwa na hen' ta) Spanish for "good people." 



negotiation 

(ni go' she a' shan) n. 
discussion to reach an 
agreement 



gnarled (narld) adj. knotty 
and twisted 



innumerable 

(i noo' mar a bal) adj. too 
many to be counted 



Reading Strategy 
Drawing Inferences 

In this paragraph, what 
inference can you draw 
about Don Anselmo? 



^Reading Check 

What business are the 
people meeting about? 



Gentleman of Rio en Medio ♦ 269 




A month later my friends had moved into Rio en Medio. They had 
replastered the old adobe house, pruned the trees, patched the fence, 
and moved in for the summer. One day they came back to the office 
to complain. The children of the village were overrunning their 
property. They came every day and played under the trees, built little 
play fences around them, and took blossoms. When they were spoken 
to they only laughed and talked back good-naturedly in Spanish. 

I sent a messenger up to the mountains for Don Anselmo. It took a 
week to arrange another meeting. When he arrived he repeated his 
previous preliminary performance. He wore the same faded cutaway, 6 
carried the same stick and was accompanied by the boy again. He 
shook hands all around, sat down with the boy behind his chair, and 
talked about the weather. Finally I broached the subject. "Don 
Anselmo, about the ranch you sold to these people. They are good 
people and want to be your friends and neighbors always. When you 
sold to them you signed a document, a deed, and in that deed you 
agreed to several things. One thing was that they were to have the 
complete possession of the property. Now, Don Anselmo, it seems 
that every day the children of the village overrun the orchard and 
spend most of their time there. We would like to know if you, as the 
most respected man in the village, could not stop them from doing so 
in order that these people may enjoy their new home more in peace." 

Don Anselmo stood up. "We have all learned to love these 
Americans," he said, "because they are good people and good 
neighbors. I sold them my property because I knew they were good 
people, but I did not sell them the trees in the orchard." 

6. cutaway (kuf a wa) n. coat worn by men for formal daytime occasions. 



•^ Critical Viewing 

Does this orchard seem 
"gnarled and beautiful" 
to you? [Evaluate] 



broached (brocht) v. 
started a discussion 
about a topic 



Literary Analysis 
Resolution of a Conflict 

What is the conflict of the 
story? 



270 ♦ Quest for Justice 



This was bad. "Don Anselmo," I pleaded, "when one signs a deed 
and sells real property one sells also everything that grows on the 
land, and those trees, every one of them, are on the land and 
inside the boundaries of what you sold." 

"Yes, I admit that," he said. "You know," he added, "I am the 
oldest man in the village. Almost everyone there is my relative and 
all the children of Rio en Medio are my sobrinos and nietosj my 
descendants. Every time a child has been born in Rio en Medio 
since I took possession of that house from my mother I have planted 
a tree for that child. The trees in that orchard are not mine, Senor, 
they belong to the children of the village. Every person in Rio en 
Medio born since the railroad came to Santa Fe owns a tree in 
that orchard. I did not sell the trees because I could not. They are 
not mine." 

There was nothing we could do. Legally we owned the trees but 
the old man had been so generous, refusing what amounted to a 
fortune for him. It took most of the following winter to buy the 
trees, individually, from the descendants of Don Anselmo in the 
valley of Rio en Medio. 



7. sobrinos (so bre' nos) and nietos (nya' tos) Spanish for "nieces and nephews" 
and "grandchildren." 



Juan A. A. Sedillo 



Review and Assess 







Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: If you had bought Don Anselmo's land, would you 
be satisfied with the way things turned out? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: Who is the narrator of this story? (b) Analyze: 
What is the role of the narrator? (c) Analyze: How does the 
narrator's behavior affect the outcome? 

3. (a) Recall: What does Don Anselmo discuss with the narrator 
before getting down to business? (b) Infer: What does this 
tell you about his personality? (c) Connect: What other 
details in the opening of the story indicate Don Anselmo's 
personality? 

4. (a) Recall: Why does the nanator offer Don Anselmo more 
money? What is Don Anselmo's reaction? (b) Compare and 
Contrast: Compare and contrast the attitudes of Don Anselmo 
and the Americans toward money and what it can buy. 

5. (a) Recall According to Don Anselmo, who owns the trees? 
(b) Interpret: Explain Don Anselmo's reasoning in your own 

words, (c) Deduce: How does Don Anselmo feel about the 
children and their parents? 



(1902-1982) 

A native 
of New 
Mexico, 
Juan A. A. 
Sedillo was 
a descen- 
dant of 
early Spanish colonists of 
the Southwest. In addition 
to being a writer, Sedillo 
served as a lawyer and 
judge and held a number 
of public offices. 

Sedillo's story, "The 
Gentleman of Rio en 
Medio," is based on an 
actual legal case that arose 
from a conflict over the 
value of a piece of property. 
Sedillo turned this case 
into a gentle tale that 
reveals the attitudes and 
culture of the people he 
knew so well. 



Gentleman oj Rfo en Medio ♦ 271 




Barbara A. Lewis 



One day in 1987, Andy Holleman's family received a letter from a 
land developer. The letter announced the developer's plans to build 
180 condominium 1 units near the Hollemans' home in Chelmsford, 
Massachusetts . 

Twelve-year-old Andy snatched the letter and shouted, "He can't 
do that! He's talking about building right on top of the wetlands!" 

Andy knew that several species living on that land were either 
endangered or on the Special Concern list of animals whose num- 
bers are shrinking. He had spent much of his free time roaming the 
area, watching great blue herons bend their long, delicate legs in 
marshy waters, seeing blue-spotted salamanders slither past shy 
wood turtles, and hearing the red-tailed hawk's lonely call — cree, 
cree. He often ripped off his baseball cap and waved to salute their 
graceful flight. 

"Mom, you've got to take me to the library," Andy insisted. "I need 
to find out everything I can about the land. We've got to fight this." 

Cheryl Holleman, a school nurse, dropped her son off at the 
library. There Andy examined the master plan for their town. He 
dug into the Annotated Laws 2 for the state. And he discovered 
that the condos would take up 16.3 acres of land, one-half of 
which would cover and destroy the wetlands. A new sewage treat- 
ment plant, oil from driveways, and fertilizer runoff could all pol- 
lute the water system or penetrate the soil, contaminating both 
water and land. 

Andy also learned that the proposed development sat on a 
stream which led into Russell Mill Pond. The pond fed into town 
wells. So it was possible that Chelmsford's drinking water could be 
contaminated, too. "Our drinking water was already terrible 
enough," Andy says, grinning. 

He had his ammunition, and he had to do something. He thought 
of all the living things whose habitats would be destroyed by the 
condos: the ladyslippers, mountain laurels, fringed gentians, foxes, 
and snakes. And he knew he could count on his parents' support. 
They had always encouraged him to respect the environment. 

Even now, when Cheryl needs Andy to do a chore, she doesn't 
bother looking for him in front of the TV. She knows she'll find him 
sprawled half off his bed or stretched across the floor, reading. Andy 
devours Audubon books about wildlife. He loves author Gerald 
Durrell's The Drunken Forest and Birds, Beasts, and Other Relatives. 
Sometimes, of course, he sneaks in a Stephen King thriller. 



Literary Analysis 

Resolution of a Conflict 

What problem will Andy 
try to solve? 



tQReading Check 

Why is Andy concerned 
about building on the 
wetlands? 



1. condominium (kan da min' e am) n. group of living units joined together; each unit is 
separately owned. 

2. Annotated (an 6 tat' ad) Laws laws with explanatory notes. 



^ Critical Viewing What animals do you think make their homes in this 
habitat? [Speculate] 



Saving the Wetlands ♦ 273 



Andy and his family have taken many nature walks in the wooded 
area by Russell Mill Pond. It's something they enjoy doing together — 
Andy, Cheryl, his dad, David, and his younger brother and sister, 
Nicholas and Elizabeth. 

Andy remembers sitting on the glacial rocks by the 
stream in the middle of winter, eating baloney sand- 
wiches. In the warmer months, he and Nicholas and 
Elizabeth played tag in the stream, jumping on the 
slippery rocks, soaking their shoes, socks, and jeans. 
When fall came, they gathered brilliant red leaves 
from swamp maples and golden oak, while their 
mother picked dried grape vines for wreaths. The 
children took their leaves home, pressed them 
between waxed paper, ironed them flat, then hung 
them on doorknobs and from picture frames. 

The wetlands area where the developer wanted 
to build held other memories for Andy. Sometimes 
he ice-skated on the pond. Sometimes he made 
important discoveries. 

"Once I brought home a huge baby crow," he 
says. "A baby crow is called a 'fledgling,' and 
this one was just learning to fly. It had fallen 
out of the nest. So I fed him popcorn and water 
that night, and built him a perch. 

"Mom wouldn't let me keep him in the 
house while I was at school. But that was 
okay. He was able to fly away the next day 
to return to his home in the swamp." 

When Andy was eleven, he found a 
skunk caught in a steel-jaw trap, the 
kind that rips animals' legs apart. 
Since he had been swimming with a 



Reading Strategy 
Drawing Inferences 

How does Andy feel 
about nature? 



▼ Critical Viewing 

In what way are the skunk 
pictured here and the 
hawk on page 276 alike? 
How are they different? 
[Compare and Contrast] 







274 ♦ Quest for Justice 



friend, Andy was wearing only his swim trunks and tattered 
sneakers — luckily, as it turned out. 

He put on a diving mask, sneaked up behind the skunk, 
pressed the release button on the trap, and grabbed the startled 
skunk by the tail. Then he carried him upside-down for a quarter 
of a mile — all the way to his house. He knew that skunks can't 
spray when held by the tail. 

Small children trailed behind him, holding their noses and gig- 
gling. A neighbor telephoned Andy's mother and said, "Go outside 
and watch. And shut your windows and doors behind you. Don't 
ask me to explain. Just do it." 

By the time Andy arrived home, he was leading twenty danc- 
ing, squealing children, like the Pied Piper. The skunk dangled 
from his hand at arm's length. 

"This is one animal you're not going to keep, Andrew," his mom 
called in a shrill voice. 

His father, who was home from his job as a medical technolo- 
gist, phoned the local animal shelter for advice. 

'They said we could either let the skunk go in the woods, or 
bring it in to the shelter," David Holleman told his son. "You'd bet- 
ter let him go and let nature take its course. There is no way 
you're putting that animal in my car, and you certainly can't hold 
him out the window by his tail the whole way to the shelter." 

"I let him go," Andy recalls. "His leg wasn't too bad, so it would 
probably heal by itself. Everyone thought I smelled pretty skunky, 
though. I bathed in vinegar, which smelled just as awful as the skunk 
to me. I finally came clean, but we had to throw my sneakers away." 

Crows and skunks aren't the only creatures Andy has brought 
home from the wetlands. "My mother remembers an eigh teen-inch 
snapping turtle which went to the bathroom all over the kitchen 
linoleum." He laughs. "I fed him raw hamburger." 

Often Andy just wandered through the woods to think or to write a 
poem. Sometimes he sat quietly for hours, studying animal behavior. 
He spotted deer and red foxes. He captured salamanders, snakes, 
mice, and moles; after learning all he could from observing each ani- 
mal, Andy carefully carried it back to its home in the woods. 

The wetlands were too important to cover with concrete and 
steel. Andy couldn't allow Pontiacs and Toyotas to replace blue 
herons and shy wood turtles. He couldn't permit blaring car horns 
to muffle the cree of the red-tailed hawk. 

"So I drafted a petition for the residents to sign to try to stop the 
developer from building," Andy says. "I walked around the neigh- 
borhood and collected 180 signatures. I told everyone to come to 
the public town meeting scheduled with the developer. I also col- 
lected about fifty signatures from students in the neighborhood 
and at McCarthy Middle School." 



petition (pa tish' an) n. 
a formal document often 
signed by a number of 
people that makes a 
request of a person or 
group. 

tQReading Check 

What kinds of things 
does Andy do as he 
wanders through the 
woods? 



Saving the Wetlands ♦ 275 



Only one or two people refused to sign the petition. 'They acted 
like they thought I was too young, like I didn't know what I was 
doing. But almost everybody was really supportive." 

Often Andy carried his petition around for an hour and collected 
only a few signatures — not because people didn't want to sign, but 
because they wanted to talk. They'd offer Andy a Coke and invite 
him in to discuss the problem. Andy spent a lot of time conversing 
with his neighbors. 

An elderly lady named Agatha answered her door with long, 
bony fingers. Although she was wizened and thin with wild, white 
hair. Andy's enthusiasm breathed new life into her. She attended 
over forty meetings and became a real activist. 

Once, on the way back from carrying his petition, Andy decided 
to detour through the swamp. He kicked up his heels with too 
much energy and tripped over a rotted log. He snatched help- 
lessly at the pages of his petition as they tumbled into a 
muddy stream, but he managed to salvage them. 

"It took a while for the pages to dry out," he recalls 
with a grin, "and then my mom had to iron them out 
flat. That's the last time I ever went through the swamp with 
something that wasn't waterproofed." 

Andy sent copies of his petition to the Board of Selectmen, 3 the 
Conservation Commission, the Zoning Board of Appeals, 4 the 
Board of Health, and the land developer. He wrote letters to sena- 
tors, representatives, and a TV anchorwoman. Although he 
received letters of support in return, no one did anything to help. 

"When I called the Massachusetts Audubon Society and told 
them my problem with the wetlands and that no one was really 
helping me, the woman gave me no sympathy," Andy says. "She 
just told me, That's no excuse for you,' and went right on giving 
information. I learned that when you really believe in something, 
you have to stand up for it no matter how old you are." 

Slowly, Andy's neighbors joined in, neighbors he had contacted 
with his petition. They organized into the Concord Neighborhood 
Association and raised $16,000 to hire a lawyer and an environ- 
mental consultant to fight the development of the wetlands. 

On the night of the town meeting with the developer, over 250 
people showed up. The meeting had to be moved to the basement 
of the Town Hall to make room for the crowd. And when the devel- 
oper stood up and announced that he was the one who had invited 
everyone, the residents disagreed, saying, "No, it was Andy 
Holleman who invited us here." 



3. Board of Selectmen group of persons elected to manage town affairs. 

4. Zoning Board of Appeals group of persons who review problems dealing with 
construction in business and residential areas. 



wizened (wiz' and) adj. 
shriveled or withered 



\ 



276 ♦ Quest for justice 




Andy had prepared a speech to give at the meeting. When it was 
time for him to speak, his stomach flipped, but he walked to the 
front of the room anyway, brandishing the brown shell of a wood 
turtle. 

"You call yourself the Russell Mill Pond Realty Trust, Inc.," Andy 
began. "I don't understand how you can call yourself this when 
you're essentially polluting your own name." The residents 
responded with thunderous applause. White-haired Agatha winked 
at him and motioned a thumbs-up. 

Andy continued. "We need the wetlands to prevent flooding and 
to purify the water through the mud," he said. "We need the plants 
and the creatures living there." 

Nobody won that night's debate. In fact, the meetings continued 
for ten months. There were at least two meetings every week and 
sometimes more. Andy and either his rnom or his dad attended 
every meeting — and Andy still got high grades in school. He spoke 
at most of the meetings. 

In one meeting with the Board of Health, the developer arose and 
announced, "I'm not going to argue hydrogeological 5 facts with a 
thirteen-year-old!" Andy's parents were angry, but Andy just 
shrugged his shoulders. 

Nine months after the first meeting, an important test called a 
"deep-hole test" was conducted in the swamp. The purpose of the 
test was to find out how quickly a hole dug in the swamp would fill 
up with water. If it filled up very fast, that would be a sign that the 
land was not suitable for building. 

The developer, members of the Concord Neighborhood 
Association, and state environmental officials gathered to observe 
the test. The hole was dug — and it filled with water almost 
immediately. Andy grinned clear around his head. 

The developer tried to withdraw his application to build on 
the wetlands, but the Zoning Board of Appeals wouldn't let 
him. Legally, that wouldn't have solved the problem. 
Someone else could have applied for the same kind of proj- 
ect, and Andy and his neighbors would have had to start 
fighting all over again. Instead, the Board totally denied 
the application. Their refusal prevented anyone from try- 
ing to build a big development on the wetlands. 
When they got the news, Andy and the Concord 
Neighborhood Association cheered. Their battle was 



brandishing (bran' dish in.) 
v. waving or exhibiting in 
a challenging way 



Literary Analysis 
Resolution of a Conflict 

Is this a good way to 
resolve the conflict? Why 
or why not? 



«r Reading Check 

What happens when they 
conduct the "deep-hole 
test"? 



5. hydrogeological (hi' dro je a laj' i kal) adj. related to water and 
to the science of the nature and history of Earth. 

•^ Critical Viewing In what way is a red-tailed 
hawk like this strong? In what ways is it fragile? 
[Classify] 



Saving the Wetlands ♦ 277 



over! And the wetlands were safe from large developers. 

Soon after, the developer started building condos on an old 
drive-in movie lot — an acceptable site Andy had suggested in 
the beginning. 

What did all of this mean to Andy? He became a celebrity. 
Even though he is modest and shy, he accepted invitations to 
speak at schools, community groups, and organizations. He 
received many awards, including the Young Giraffe Award for 
young people who "stick their necks out" for the good of others. 
His award was a free trip to the Soviet Union in July, 1990. 

And what is Andy doing now? He's planning to go to college in 
a few years, where he'd like to study environmental law. 
Meanwhile, he's setting up a non-profit, tax-exempt fund to 
purchase the wetlands and any surrounding threatened land to 
preserve it forever. Then he can always wander by Russell Mill 
Pond, gathering autumn leaves from crimson swamp maples and 
golden oaks. He can watch the blue herons bend their long, 
delicate legs in marshy waters, and see blue-spotted salamanders 
slither safely past shy wood turtles. And he can hear the lonely 
cree of the red -tailed hawk as it soars freely, high above the ■ 
pond, dipping its wings as if in salute to him. To Andy. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What part of the environment do you care about 
most? Would you mount a campaign to save it? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: Why does Andy Holleman want to save the 
wetlands? (b) Analyze: Why does the narrator tell so much 
about Andy's experiences with the animals? (c) Connect: 
How do these accounts help us know Andy better? 

3. (a) Recall: What is the first thing Andy does in his struggle 
against the developer? (b) Contrast: Contrast the two 
different types of reactions he gets, (c) Assess: Do you think 
Andy's age worked for or against him in his campaign to stop 
the developer? Explain. 

4. (a) Recall: What test led to the rejection of the developer's 
application? (b) Evaluate: Explain why Andy was or was not 
successful. 

5. Hypothesize: Suppose Andy had lost his fight. What would 
have happened to the wildlife and the wetlands? 

6. Take a Position: What are your opinions about the balance 
between progress and development and preserving natural 
areas? 




Barbara A. Lewis 



(b. 1943) 

Barbara Lewis 
never expected 
to be a writer. 
While teaching 
sixth grade in 
her home state 
of Utah, her 
class began a campaign to 
get rid of a hazardous waste 
site. Lewis was so 
impressed by her students' 
efforts that she decided to 
write about them. 

Lewis believes that when 
it comes to taking social 
action, age does not mat- 
ter. She wants young peo- 
ple to know that they can 
make a difference. To 
demonstrate this belief, she 
wrote The Kid's Guide to 
Service Projects, The Kid's 
Guide to Social Action, and 
Kids With Courage, a book 
that tells the stories of 
eighteen young people 
who spoke up for what 
they believed in. 



278 ♦ Quest for justice 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Resolution of a Conflict 

1. What is the conflict or problem in each work? 

2. What does each character do to resolve the conflict? 

3. Identify "winners" and "losers" of the conflict in each selection on a 
chart like the one shown. Then, tell what each has gained or lost. 



Winners Losers What's Lost or Gained 


"Gentleman of Rio en Medio" 








"Saving the Wetlands" 






. 



Comparing Literary Works 

4. What are each character's motives, or reasons for acting as he or 
she does? 

5. In what way do the customs, beliefs, and laws of the time period 
help or interfere with Andy's and Don Anselmo's struggles? 

6. How do Andy's motives compare and contrast with Don Anselmo's? 

Reading Strategy 

Drawing Inferences 

7. What can you infer about the Americans in "Gentleman of Rio 
en Medio" based on the fact that they offer more money for Don 
Anselmo's land? 

8. What inference can you make about Don Anselmo's character 
based on the fact that he will not accept the money? 

9. Complete the chart to identify details that support the inferences 
shown. 



Support 


mmmmmmmmmm 


Inferences 1 




Andy enjoys spending time in the wetlands. 




The developer doesn't take Andy seriously. 


v 


Andy will continue to work for the protection 

of natural lands. 

J 



Extend Understanding 



10. Career Connection: Andy learned a great deal in his campaign 
to save the wetlands. Identify several careers he might pursue 
using the skills and knowledge he gained. 



Quick Review 

A conflict is a struggle 
between two opposing 
forces. The resolution is 
the outcome of the conflict. 
To review conflict and 
resolution, see page 267. 



A character's or person's 
motives are the reasons 
he or she acts in a certain 
way. 



When you draw inferences, 

you make an educated 
guess based on details in 
a story, essay, or article. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



( tentleman of Rio en MediolSaving the Wetlands ♦ 279 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Root -ratm- Concept Development: Synonyms 



Words that contain the Latin word root -num.-, 
as in innumerable, are related in meaning to the 
word number. Innumerable means "too many to 
be counted." Write the word from the list below 
that best completes each sentence. 

enumerate numerator innumerable 

1. The sky was dotted with ? stars. 

2. The ? is the top number in a fraction. 

3. The teacher will ? the rules. 

Spelling Strategy 

The n sound you hear in the vocabulary word 
gnarled is spelled with a silent g preceding the n. 
Unscramble these gn words, and write them on 
your paper. Then, refer to a dictionary to write a 
definition for each one. 



1. wagn 

2. tnag 



3. hnags 

4. mogen 



Grammar Lesson 

Adjective or Adverb? 

Good is an adjective. Use it after linking verbs 
including looks, feels, seems, sounds, and forms of 
be. Well is usually an adverb; occasionally it is 
used as an adjective. 

Incorrect: The class behaved good all day. 
Correct: The class behaved well all day. 

Incorrect: That dress looks well on you. 
Correct: That dress looks good on you. 
Correct: She is not well. 

Bad is an adjective. Badly is an adverb. 

That loud music sounds bad. 
I did badly on the test. 



Synonyms are words that have almost the 
same meaning. For each numbered word, write 
the synonym from the three lettered choices. 

1. negotiation: a. discussion, b. argument, 
c. opinion 

2. gnarled: a. angry, b. intelligent, c. twisted 

3. innumerable: a. countless, b. difficult, 
c. impossible 

4. broached: a. mentioned, b. bejeweled, 
c. followed 

5. petition: a. request, b. reply, c. complaint 

6. wizened: a. wise, b. shriveled, c. empty 

7. brandishing: a. waving, b. bragging, 
c. swaying 



► For more practice, see page R28, Exercise C. 
Practice Copy the following paragraph, proof- 
reading and correcting errors in the use of good, 
well, bad, and badly. 

There are only a few students in the orchestra 
this year. I think this is good because we have 
more time. I feel badly for the orchestra leader, 
though. I don't think the orchestra plays as good 
this year as last. It's not that they play bad, but 
they need practice. They sounded well last week. 
I hope they sound as good this week. 

Writing Application Write a brief paragraph 
about a subject involving school or the environ- 
ment. Use the following words at least once: bad, 
badly, good, and well. 



]/\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 25, Section 1 



280 ♦ Quest for Justice 



■ ■ MMMHBI 



Writing Lesson 

Persuasive Speech 

At a town meeting, Andy Holleman spoke persuasively against building on the 
wetlands. Write your own speech either for or against building on the wetlands. 

Prewriting Use periodical indexes to gather details about the effects of devel- 
opment on wetlands. A periodical index lists (alphabetically by 
subject) articles in magazines, newspapers, and journals. Look for 
articles that contain details, statistics, and quotations that support 
your position. 

Drafting Begin by stating your position. Then, support your position by 
organizing your reasons and details in order of importance. 
Conclude with your most powerful reason. 



I Model: Organization 
Reasons are 

numbered in order We need tQ c|ean thfi abandoned fje | ds and stream 

of importance. 

Each reason will near t ' ie industrial park because 1 ) the area is unsightly, 

be developed and 2) the fields could be used as a sports field or playground, 

supported in the and 3) dangerous chemicals and other materials are 

body of the essay. po||uting the stream and water tab|e 



^ 



By saving the most 
important issue until last, 
the speech will have 
more punch and is more 
likely to be remembered. 



Revising Add transitions to indicate the relative importance of each point. 
Common transitions for order of importance include significantly, 
first, primarily, also, in addition, finally, and most importantly. 

v\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 7, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking With another classmate, 
hold a debate — an organized discussion of two 
opposing viewpoints — about the issue of develop- 
ing the wetlands in Andy's town. 

• Match your vocabulary to your purpose. 
Accurately use words and technical terms 
that are specific to the topic. 

• Use facial expressions to indicate distress, 
confidence, amazement, and other reactions. 

• In your message, use reasons that will show 
your audience the benefits of supporting 
your position. 



Research and Technology Identify a community 
problem, and work out a community action plan. 
To find problems, look at online or print newspa- 
pers, study bulletin board announcements, or call 
or write local environmental groups. Then, with 
several classmates, work out a plan for solving one 
of these problems. Consult with your teacher or 
other adults about putting the plan into action. 



Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Co online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Gentleman oj Rio en Medio/Saving the Wetlands ♦ 281 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 1 

( ^ Public Documents j 
About Public Documents 

Public documents include laws, government publications, legal notices, 
minutes, or notes, from public meetings, and other records of information 
that the public has a legal right to access. 

An analysis of a legislative bill (a proposal for a law) is a public document. 
It summarizes the bill, tells what the current law is, explains what the bill 
would do if passed, and gives background on the issue that the bill addresses. 
It may also list organizations that support or oppose the bill. In California, a 
legislative bill analysis is prepared by legislative staff and submitted to the 
committee that is considering the bill. The committee uses the analysis to 
quickly gain an understanding of the bill and to begin discussing it. 

Reading Strategy 

Analyze Proposition and Support 

An effective legislative bill presents a clear proposition — the proposed 
legislation — and supports the need for the legislation by providing back- 
ground information. If the proposition or proposal is well-supported in the 
bill, then the support will show in the analysis. 

As you read the following bill analysis, pay attention to the way the 
text is organized. The table shown here briefly explains the features and 
function of each part of the bill analysis. 



Legislative Bill Analysis Structure 


Introductory . Information at the top of the bill analysis includes the bill number, the author of the 
Information bill, the committee considering the bill, and the chairperson of the committee. 


Subject 


This is the topic of the bill. 


Issue 


This section states the proposition of the document — that is, what the bill proposes. 


Summary 


This section lists details concerning what the bill will do if it is passed into law. 


Background and 
Existing Law 


This section explains the current law or practice and tells why changes are being 
proposed in the bill. 


Proposed Law 


This section tells how the current written laws will change if the bill passes. 

- 



Read the sample legislative bill analysis on the next two pages. Use the 
annotations to help you understand the meaning and purpose of the 
analysis. 



I ■■■ ■■ ! ■■ I I 

282 ♦ Quest For Justice 




An easement is 

the section of land 
on someone's 
property that is 
actually controlled 
by the government. 



The "Summary" 
section includes 
numbered items 
so that the exact 
actions of the bill 
are clear to the 
reader. 



Analysis of a Legislative Bill 

California State Assembly 

Senate Natural Resources and Wildlife 



BILL NO: 
AUTHOR : 
VERSION: 

FISCAL: 
URGENCY : 
CONSULTANT : 
HEARING DATE: 



AB2 42 

Thomson 

Original: 2/19/99 

Amended: 5/28/99 

Yes 

No 

Neal Fishman 

6/22/99 



SUBJECT : 

Conservation of oak woodlands 

ISSUE: 

Should there be a new program within the Wildlife 
Conservation Board to grant funds to local agencies 
and nonprofit organizations to acquire conservation 
easements preserving oak woodlands? Should a fund be 
established in the State Treasury for receipt of funds 
for the conservation of oak woodlands? 

SUMMARY: 

This bill would do all of the following: 

1. Establish a program within the Wildlife Conservation 
Board to make grants to local government agencies, 
nonprofit organizations, park and open space dis- 
tricts, and resource conservation easements on oak 
woodlands and to develop local plans and public 
information activities which would encourage oak 
woodland conservation; 

2. Create a fund in the State Treasury to receive money 
from public and private sources to carry out the 
program; 

3. Require that the program -be developed in consultation 
with the Board of Forestry, Department of Food and 
Agriculture, the University of California Integrated 
Hardwood Range Management Program, conservation 
groups and farming and ranching associations; 



Reading Informational Material: Public I hicwncnis ♦ 2H3\ 



4. Require that the board adopt criteria for making 
grants which would address long-term easement moni- 
toring and a priority system for selecting projects 
"which achieve the greatest lasting conservation of 
oak woodlands"; 

5. Require that the program include cost share incentive 
payments to private property owners who agree to 
long-term easements and management practices that 
protect oaks; 

6. Require that the program include public education 
and outreach that educates the public about the 
values of oak woodlands; and 

7. Limit to 10% the amount of money that the Board 
could expend pursuant to this program on public 
education and local planning. 

BACKGROUND & EXISTING LAW: 

Oak woodlands, lands dominated by oak trees (Quercus 
spp.) make up about 10 percent of California. In all 
their varieties they make up California's most diverse 
ecosystem, providing habitat for approximately 2000 
plant, 160 bird, 80 mammal, 80 amphibian and reptile 
and 5,000 insect species. These natural communities also 
help to stabilize and develop soil and maintain air and 
water quality. 

Oak woodlands are not protected by the Forest 
Practices Act. They can be cut down for firewood or 
subdivisions without benefit of a timber harvest plan. 
They have marginal protection under the California 
Environmental Quality Act and the California Endangered 
Species Act. Some oak woodlands are protected by local 
planning and zoning ordinances . 

Oak woodlands are under increasing threat due to 
development and cutting, mainly for firewood. An early 
1980s study placed the conversion of oak woodlands at 
about 14,000 acres per year. This has accelerated over 
the past fifteen years. Current estimates are that 
about 60,000 acres per year have been cut averaged over 
the past five years. Additional lands have been con- 
verted to urban uses or fragmented in a way that 
reduces their habitat value. 

PROPOSED LAW: 

This bill would enact various uncodified legislative 
findings concerning the value of oak woodlands and the 
present condition of and threats to this habitat type. 
The bill would create the new program by adding Chapter 
11 to Division 4 of the Public Resources Code, a divi- 
sion generally dealing with forest resources and the 
department of forestry. 



h 



An incentive is a 
reward offered 
ahead of time; 
something that 
stimulates one to 
take action or 
work harder; 
encouragement 



The background 
of a bill often 
- contains statistics 
that support the 
author's position. 



h 



Zoning ordinances 

are regulations 
dividing a 
community into 
areas determined 
by restrictions 
on types of 
construction, such 
as into residential 
and business 
zones. 



This paragraph 
refers to an 
existing law code, 
- explaining specifi- 
cally how it would 
be altered if the 
bill is passed 
into law. 



284 ♦ Quest For Justice 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. If this bill were to pass, what would the new program within the 
Wildlife Conservation Board do? 

2. According to the hill analysis, why are oak woodlands important to 
California? 

3. How are the oak woodlands endangered? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Analyze Proposition and Support 

4. What is the proposition of Bill No. AB 242? 

5. What information is given to support the proposition? 

6. Are enough facts offered to convince you of the need for this law? 
Explain. 



Counterargument 



My Arguments 



At the current rate of woodlands conversion, thousands of animal and plant 
species will disappear in just a few years. 



Counterarguments 



There are thousands of species of animals and plants left in the country. 



My Responses 



If everyone had that attitude, we would destroy natural habitats all over 
the country without even trying to protect them. 



Activity 

Deliver a Speech 

Deliver a persuasive 
speech in which you sup- 
port or oppose Bill No. 
AB 242. Make sure you 
include a clear thesis — a 
statement that conveys 
your position. Develop 
two or three arguments 
connected to your thesis, 
and provide detailed 
facts, reasons, and exam- 
ples to support each argument. Use a chart like the one shown to antici- 
pate the arguments of people who disagree with your position (called 
"counterarguments"), and address them using additional facts, reasoning, 
or examples. 

Comparing Informational Materials 

Bill Analyses and Newspaper 

Find a newspaper article that reports on a woodland or other natural 
area. Compare the kinds of information provided in the article, pointing 
out similarities hetween that information and the details about California 
oak woodlands given in the hill analysis. Then, contrast the audiences 
and purposes of the two documents. Does the article present a proposition 
or try to persuade the reader to see things in a particular way? If not, what 
is its purpose? 






Reading Informational Material: Public Documents ♦ 285 



BHMMWHHHHMMMHHHHHMHMOTOTHMI 



Prepare to Read 



Raymond's Run 





§* As you read this 
' iyD ' kV story and complete 
the related assignments, you 
will focus on these standards. 
The Student's Guide to the 
Standards contains an outline 
of how each standard is 
introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



It is implied that the narrator's hrother has Down Syndrome — 
a condition that has hoth physical and mental symptoms. People with 
Down Syndrome develop and progress more slowly than people without 
the condition. Nonetheless, people with Down Syndrome, like other 
people, continue to gain physical and mental skills throughout their 
lives. Focusing on a special interest or ability often helps a person with 
Down Syndrome achieve his or her fullest potential. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 1.1 Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and 
figurative meanings of phrases. (Developed in the Reading Strategy) 
Writing 1.4 Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer 
networks and modems. (Developed in the Research and Technology activity) 
Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices 
to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 
Speaking and Listening 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, 
appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice in ways 
that enliven oral presentations. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



286 ♦ Quest for justice 




■ 






, '' I HI HHH 



Literary Analysis 

Major and Minor Characters 

Characters are the people (or animals) in a literary work. 

• A major character is an important character in the story. 

• Minor characters play smaller roles in the story's events but are 
necessary for the story to develop. 

In this story, Squeaky, the narrator, is a major character. As you read, 
jot down notes on organizers like the one shown to indicate Squeaky 's 
relationships with Raymond and Gretchen, two minor characters. At the 
top of each connecting line, write words and phrases that describe 
Squeaky 's actions and attitudes from the beginning of the story. Write 
feelings from the end of the story near the bottom. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Characterization is the process of creating and developing characters. 
Characters are developed through the characters' own actions, thoughts, 
and words; through the way other characters react to them; and through 
direct descriptions by the narrator or by other characters. 

Use these focus questions to guide you as you read: 

1. What does Squeaky say about herself? 

2. What qualities are revealed through Squeaky's actions or through 
other characters' actions toward Squeaky? 

Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Idioms 

Idioms are words and expressions that have a meaning in a particular 
language or region. 

Example: [It] drives my brother George up the wall. 

You know George is not literally in a car going up a wall. Most speak- 
ers of English in the United States will recognize that phrase as meaning 
"It annoyed George a lot." 

Find clues in the story that help you determine the meaning of idioms. 

Vocabulary Development 

prodigy (prad' a je) n. a wonder; an 
unusually talented person (p. 290) 

signify (sig' na fi) v. to show or make 
known, as by a sign or word (p. 291 ) 

ventriloquist (ven tril' a kwist) n. 
someone who speaks through a 
puppet or dummy (p. 291 ) 



periscope (per' i skop) n. instrument 
used in submarines to see objects on 
the surface (p. 29}) 



Squeaky 



protects him Asuspiciousof her 




Raymond I I Gretchen 



Raymond's Run ♦ 2H7 






Toni Cade Bambara 







288 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Mi don't have much work to do around the house like some girls. 
My mother does that. And I don't have to earn my pocket money by 
hustling; George runs errands for the big boys and sells Christmas 
cards. And anything else that's got to get done, my father does. All I 
have to do in life is mind my brother Raymond, which is enough. 

Sometimes I slip and say my little brother Raymond. But as any 
fool can see he's much bigger and he's older too. But a lot of people 
call him my little brother cause he needs looking after cause he's 
not quite right. And a lot of smart mouths got lots to say about that 
too, especially when George was minding him. But now, if anybody 
has anything to say to Raymond, anything to say about his big 
head, they have to come by me. And I don't play the dozens 1 or 
believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of 
talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances 
even if I am a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, 
which is how I got the name Squeaky. And if things get too rough, I 
run. And as anybody can tell you, I'm the fastest thing on two feet. 

There is no track meet that I don't win the first place medal. I 
used to win the twenty-yard dash when I was a little kid in kinder- 
garten. Nowadays, it's the fifty-yard dash. And tomorrow I'm subject 
to run the quarter-meter relay all by myself and come in first, sec- 
ond, and third. The big kids call me Mercury 2 cause I'm the swiftest 
thing in the neighborhood. Everybody knows that — except two peo- 
ple who know better, my father and me. 

He can beat me to Amsterdam Avenue with me having a two fire- 
hydrant headstart and him running with his hands in his pockets 
and whistling. But that's private information. Cause can you imag- 
ine some thirty-five-year-old man stuffing himself into PAL 3 shorts 
to race little kids? So as far as everyone's concerned, I'm the fastest 
and that goes for Gretchen, too, who has put out the tale that she is 
going to win the first-place medal this year. Ridiculous. In the sec- 
ond place, she's got short legs. In the third place, she's got freckles. 
In the first place, no one can beat me and that's all there is to it. 

I'm standing on the corner admiring the weather and about to take 
a stroll down Broadway so I can practice my breathing exercises, 
and I've got Raymond walking on the inside close to the buildings, 
cause he's subject to fits of fantasy and starts thinking he's a circus 
performer and that the curb is a tightrope strung high in the air. 



Literary Analysis 
Major and Minor 
Characters and 
Characterization What 
do you learn about 
Raymond from the 
narrator's words? 



Vl Reading Check 

What is the speaker's 
most important 
responsibility? 



1. the dozens game in which the players insult one another; the first to show anger 
loses. 

2. Mercury in Roman mythology, the messenger of the gods, known for great speed. 

3. PAL Police Athletic League. 



^ Critical Viewing Most young people, not just athletes, wear athletic shoes. 
What do athletic shoes symbolize to you? [Generalize] 



Raymond's Run ♦ 289 



And sometimes after a rain he likes to step down off his tightrope 
right into the gutter and slosh around getting his shoes and cuffs 
wet. Or sometimes if you don't watch him he'll dash across traffic to 
the island in the middle of Broadway and give the pigeons a fit. 
Then I have to go behind him apologizing to all the old people sit- 
ting around trying to get some sun and getting all upset with the 
pigeons fluttering around them, scattering their newspapers and 
upsetting the waxpaper lunches in their laps. So I keep Raymond 
on the inside of me, and he plays like he's driving a stage coach, 
which is O.K. by me so long as he doesn't run me over or interrupt 
my breathing exercises, which I have to do on account of I'm seri- 
ous about my running, and I don't care who knows it. 

Now some people like to act like things come easy to them, won't 
let on that they practice. Not me. I'll high prance down 34th Street 
like a rodeo pony to keep my knees strong even if it does get my 
mother uptight so that she walks ahead like she's not with me, 
don't know me, is all by herself on a shopping trip, and I am some- 
body else's crazy child. 

Now you take Cynthia Procter for instance. She's just the oppo- 
site. If there's a test tomorrow, she'll say something like, "Oh, I 
guess I'll play handball this afternoon and watch television tonight," 
just to let you know she ain't thinking about the test. Or like last 
week when she won the spelling bee for the millionth time, "A good 
thing you got 'receive,' Squeaky, cause I would have got it wrong. I 
completely forgot about the spelling bee." And she'll clutch the lace 
on her blouse like it was a narrow escape. Oh, brother. 

But of course when I pass her house on my early morning trots 
around the block, she is practicing the scales on the piano over and 
over and over and over. Then in music class she always lets herself 
get bumped around so she falls accidently on purpose onto the piano 
stool and is so surprised to find herself sitting there that she decides 
just for fun to try out the ole keys and what do you know — Chopin's 4 
waltzes just spring out of her fingertips and she's the most surprised 
thing in the world. A regular prodigy . I could kill people like that. 

I stay up all night studying the words for the spelling bee. And 
you can see me any time of day practicing running. I never walk if I 
can trot, and shame on Raymond if he can't keep up. But of course 
he does, cause if he hangs back someone's liable to walk up to him 
and get smart, or take his allowance from him, or ask him where he 
got that great big pumpkin head. People are so stupid sometimes. 

So I'm strolling down Broadway breathing out and breathing in 
on counts of seven, which is my lucky number, and here comes 
Gretchen and her sidekicks — Mary Louise who used to be a friend 
of mine when she first moved to Harlem from Baltimore and got 



Reading Strategy 
Analyzing Idioms Why 

do you think the idiom 
uptight is used to 
describe a tense or 
nervous person? 



prodigy (prad' a je) n. 
a wonder; an unusually 
talented person 



Literary Analysis 
Characterization What 
do Squeaky's actions tell 
you about her character? 



4. Chopin (sho pan') Frederic Francois Chopin (1810-1849), Polish composer and 
pianist. 



290 ♦ Quest fur Justice 



beat up by everybody till I took up for her on account of her mother 
and my mother used to sing in the same choir when they were 
young girls, but people ain't grateful, so now she hangs out with the 
new girl Gretchen and talks about me like a dog; and Rosie who is 
as fat as I am skinny and has a big mouth where Raymond is con- 
cerned and is too stupid to know that there is not a big deal of dif- 
ference between herself and Raymond and that she can't afford to 
throw stones. So they are steady coming up Broadway and I see 
right away that it's going to be one of those Dodge City 5 scenes 
cause the street ain't that big and they're close to the buildings just 
as we are. First I think I'll step into the candy store and look over 
the new comics and let them pass. But that's chicken and I've got a 
reputation to consider. So then I think I'll just walk straight on 
through them or even over them if necessary. But as they get to me, 
they slow down. I'm ready to fight, cause like I said I don't feature a 
whole lot of chit-chat, I much prefer to just knock you down right 
from the jump and save everybody a lotta precious time. 

"You signing up for the May Day races?" smiles Mary Louise, only 
it's not a smile at all. 

A dumb question like that doesn't deserve an answer. Besides, 
there's just me and Gretchen standing there really, so no use wast- 
ing my breath talking to shadows. 

"I don't think you're going to win this time," says Rosie, trying to 
signify with her hands on her hips all salty, completely forgetting 
that I have whupped her many times for less salt than that. 

"I always win cause I'm the best," I say straight at Gretchen who 
is, as far as I'm concerned, the only one talking in this 
ventriloquist -dummy routine. 

Gretchen smiles, but it's not a smile, and I'm thinking that girls 
never really smile at each other because they don't know how and 
don't want to know how and there's probably no one to teach us 
how cause grown-up girls don't know either. Then they all look at 
Raymond who has just brought his mule team to a standstill. And 
they're about to see what trouble they can get into through him. 

"What grade you in now, Raymond?" 

"You got anything to say to my brother, you say it to me, Mary 
Louise Williams of Raggedy Town, Baltimore." 

"What are you, his mother?" sasses Rosie. 

"That's right, Fatso. And the next word out of anybody and I'll be 
their mother too." So they just stand there and Gretchen shifts from 
one leg to the other and so do they. Then Gretchen puts her hands 
on her hips and is about to say something with her freckle-face self 
but doesn't. Then she walks around me looking me up and down 
but keeps walking up Broadway, and her sidekicks follow her. So 



Literary Analysis 

Characterization Will 
these girls be major or 
minor characters? Explain. 



signify (sig' ns fi) v. to 
show or make known, as 
by a sign or word 



ventriloquist 

(ven tril' a kwist) n. some- 
one who speaks through 
a puppet or dummy 



^Reading Check 

What do Squeaky and the 
girls talk about? 



5. Dodge City location of the television program Gunsmoke, which often presented a 
gunfight between the sheriff and an outlaw. 



Raymond's Hun ♦ 2 L )I 



& 



: 



-^ 



;.-■•■; 



j - 



r 




me and Raymond smile at each other and he says, "Gidyap" to his 
team and I continue with my breathing exercises, strolling down 
Broadway toward the ice man on 145th with not a care in the world 
cause I am Miss Quicksilver herself. 

I take my time getting to the park on May Day because the track 
meet is the last thing on the program. The biggest thing on the pro- 
gram is the May Pole dancing, which I can do without, thank you, 
even if my mother thinks it's a shame I don't take part and act like 
a girl for a change. You'd think my mother'd be grateful not to have 
to make me a white organdy dress with a big satin sash and buy 
me new white baby-doll shoes that can't be taken out of the box till 
the big day. You'd think she'd be glad her daughter ain't out there 
prancing around a May Pole getting the new clothes all dirty and 
sweaty and trying to act like a fairy or a flower or whatever you're 
supposed to be when you should be trying to be yourself, whatever 
that is, which is, as far as I am concerned, a poor black girl who 
really can't afford to buy shoes and a new dress you only wear once 
a lifetime cause it won't fit next year. 

I was once a strawberry in a Hansel and Gretel pageant when I 
was in nursery school and didn't have no better sense than to dance 
on tiptoe with my arms in a circle over my head doing umbrella steps 
and being a perfect fool just so my mother and father could come 
dressed up and clap. You'd think they'd know better than to encour- 
age that kind of nonsense. I am not a strawberry. I do not dance on 
my toes. I run. That is what I am all about. So I always come late to 
the May Day program, just in time to get my number pinned on and 
lay in the grass till they announce the fifty -yard dash. 

I put Raymond in the little swings, which is a tight squeeze this 
year and will be impossible next year. Then I look around for Mr. 
Pearson, who pins the numbers on. I'm really looking for Gretchen 
if you want to know the truth, but she's not around. The park is 
jam-packed. Parents in hats and corsages and breast-pocket 



Literary Analysis 
Major and Minor 
Characters and 
Characterization What do 
Squeaky's reactions to the 
memory of her recital add 
to your understanding of 
her character? 



292 ♦ Quest for Justice 



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handkerchiefs peeking up. Kids in white dresses and light-blue 
suits. The parkees unfolding chairs and chasing the rowdy kids 
from Lenox as if they had no right to be there. The big guys with 
their caps on backwards, leaning against the fence swirling the bas- 
ketballs on the tips of their fingers, waiting for all these crazy people 
to clear out the park so they can play. Most of the kids in my class 
are carrying bass drums and glockenspiels 6 and flutes. You'd think 
they'd put in a few bongos or something for real like that. 

Then here comes Mr. Pearson with his clipboard and his cards and 
pencils and whistles and safety pins and fifty million other things 
he's always dropping all over the place with his clumsy self. He sticks 
out in a crowd because he's on stilts. We used to call him Jack and 
the Beanstalk to get him mad. But I'm the only one that can outrun 
him and get away, and I'm too grown for that silliness now. 

"Well, Squeaky," he says, checking my name off the list and 
handing me number seven and two pins. And I'm thinking he's got 
no right to call me Squeaky, if I can't call him Beanstalk. 

"Hazel Elizabeth Deborah Parker," I correct him and tell him to 
write it down on his board. 

"Well, Hazel Elizabeth Deborah Parker, going to give someone else 
a break this year?" I squint at him real hard to see if he is seriously 
thinking I should lose the race on purpose just to give someone else 
a break. "Only six girls running this time," he continues, shaking his 
head sadly like it's my fault all of New York didn't turn out in sneak- 
ers. "That new girl should give you a run for your money." He looks 
around the park for Gretchen like a periscope in a submarine movie. 
"Wouldn't it be a nice gesture if you were ... to ahhh . . ." 

I give him such a look he couldn't finish putting that idea into 
words. Grownups got a lot of nerve sometimes. I pin number seven to 



▲ Critical Viewing 

What constitutes success 
in a race? Is the winner 
the only one who 
succeeds? Explain. 
[Define] 



periscope (per' a skop) n. 
an instrument used in 
submarines to see objects 
above the surface 



%QReading Check 

What is the only event of 
May Day that interests 
Squeaky? 



6. glockenspiels (glak' an spelz) n. musical instruments with flat metal bars that make 
bell-like tones when struck with small hammers. 



Raymond's Run ♦ 293 



myself and stomp away, I'm so burnt. And I go straight for the track 
and stretch out on the grass while the band winds up with "Oh, the 
Monkey Wrapped His Tail Around the Flag Pole," which my teacher 
calls by some other name. The man on the loudspeaker is calling 
everyone over to the track and I'm on my back looking at the sky, 
trying to pretend I'm in the country, but I can't, because even grass 
in the city feels hard as sidewalk, and there's just no pretending you 
are anywhere but in a "concrete jungle" as my grandfather says. 

The twenty-yard dash takes all of two minutes cause most of the 
little kids don't know no better than to run off the track or run the 
wrong way or run smack into the fence and fall down and cry. One 
little kid, though, has got the good sense to run straight for the 
white ribbon up ahead, so he wins. Then the second -graders line up 
for the thirty-yard dash and I don't even bother to turn my head to 
watch cause Raphael Perez always wins. He wins before he even 
begins by psyching 7 the runners, telling them they're going to trip 
on their shoelaces and fall on their faces or lose their shorts or 
something, which he doesn't really have to do since he is very fast, 
almost as fast as I am. After that is the forty-yard dash which I use 
to run when I was in first grade. Raymond is hollering from the 
swings cause he knows I'm about to do my thing cause the man on 
the loudspeaker has just announced the fifty-yard dash, although 
he might just as well be giving a recipe for angel food cake cause 
you can hardly make out what he's saying for the static. I get up 
and slip off my sweat pants and then I see Gretchen standing at the 
starting line, kicking her legs out like a pro. Then as I get into place 
I see that ole Raymond is on line on the other side of the fence, 
bending down with his fingers on the ground just like he 
knew what he was doing. I was going to yell at him but 
then I didn't. It burns up your energy to holler. 

Every time, just before I take off in a race, I always feel 
like I'm in a dream, the kind of dream you have when you're 
sick with fever and feel all hot and weightless. I dream I'm fly- 
ing over a sandy beach in the early morning sun, kissing the 
leaves of the trees as I fly by. And there's always the smell of 
apples, just like in the country when I was little and used to think 
I was a choo-choo train, running through the fields of corn and 
chugging up the hill to the orchard. And all the time I'm dreaming 
this, I get lighter and lighter until I'm flying over the beach again, 
getting blown through the sky like a feather that weighs nothing at 
all. But once I spread my fingers in the dirt and crouch over the 
Get on Your Mark, the dream goes and I am solid again and am 
telling myself, Squeaky you must win, you must win, you are the 
fastest thing in the world, you can even beat your father up 



▼ Critical Viewing Put 

yourself in the place of 
this race's winner. How 
must she feel? 
[Speculate] 




7. psyching (sik' in,) v. slang for playing on a person's mental state. 






294 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Amsterdam if you really try. And then I feel my weight coming back 
just behind my knees then down to my feet then into the earth and 
the pistol shot explodes in my blood and I am off and weightless 
again, flying past the other runners, my arms pumping up and down 
and the whole world is quiet except for the crunch as I zoom over the 
gravel in the track. I glance to my left and there is no one. To the 
right a blurred Gretchen, who's got her chin jutting out as if it would 
win the race all by itself. And on the other side of the fence is 
Raymond with his arms down to his side and the palms tucked up 
behind him, running in his very own style, and it's the first time I 
ever saw that and I almost stop to watch my brother Raymond on his 
first run. But the white ribbon is bouncing toward me and I tear past 
it, racing into the distance till my feet with a mind of their own start 
digging up footfuls of dirt and brake me short. Then all the kids 
standing on the side pile on me, banging me on the back and slap- 
ping my head with their May Day programs, for I have won again 
and everybody on 1 5 1 st Street can walk tall for another year. 

"In first place ..." the man on the loudspeaker is clear as a bell 
now. But then he pauses and the loudspeaker starts to whine. 
Then static. And I lean down to catch my breath and here comes 
Gretchen walking back, for she's overshot the finish line too, huffing 
and puffing with her hands on her hips taking it slow, breathing in 
steady time like a real pro and I sort of like her a little for the first 
time. "In first place ..." and then three or four voices get all mixed 
up on the loudspeaker and I dig my sneaker into the grass and 
stare at Gretchen who's staring back, we both wondering just who 
did win. I can hear old Beanstalk arguing with the man on the loud- 
speaker and then a few others running their mouths about what the 
stopwatches say. Then I hear Raymond yanking at the fence to call 
me and I wave to shush him, but he keeps rattling the fence like a 
gorilla in a cage like in them gorilla movies, but then like a dancer 
or something he starts climbing up nice and easy but very fast. And 
it occurs to me, watching how smoothly he climbs hand over hand 
and remembering how he looked running with his arms down to his 
side and with the wind pulling his mouth back and his teeth show- 
ing and all, it occurred to me that Raymond would make a very fine 
runner. Doesn't he always keep up with me on my trots? And he 
surely knows how to breathe in counts of seven cause he's always 
doing it at the dinner table, which drives my brother George up the 
wall. And I'm smiling to beat the band cause if I've lost this race, or 
if me and Gretchen tied, or even if I've won, I can always retire as a 
runner and begin a whole new career as a coach with Raymond as 
my champion. After all, with a little more study I can beat Cynthia 
and her phony self at the spelling bee. And if I bugged my mother, I 
could get piano lessons and become a star. And I have a big rep as 
the baddest thing around. And I've got a roomful of ribbons and 
medals and awards. But what has Raymond got to call his own? 



Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Idioms What 
expression would you use 
to say you were proud? 
What idioms does 
Squeaky use? 



^Reading Check 

What does Raymond do 
while Squeaky runs the 
race? 



Raymond's Run ♦ 295 



So I stand there with my new plans, laughing out loud by this time 
as Raymond jumps down from the fence and runs over with his teeth 
showing and his arms down to the side, which no one before him 
has quite mastered as a running style. And by the time he comes 
over I'm jumping up and down so glad to see him — my brother 
Raymond, a great runner in the family tradition. But of course every- 
one thinks I'm jumping up and down because the men on the loud- 
speaker have finally gotten themselves together and compared notes 
and are announcing "In first place — Miss Hazel Elizabeth Deborah 
Parker." (Dig that.) "In second place — Miss Gretchen P. Lewis." And I 
look over at Gretchen wondering what the "P" stands for. And I smile. 
Cause she's good, no doubt about it. Maybe she'd like to help me 
coach Raymond; she obviously is serious about running, as any fool 
can see. And she nods to congratulate me and then she smiles. And 
I smile. We stand there with this big smile of respect between us. 
It's about as real a smile as girls can do for each other, consider- 
ing we don't practice real smiling every day, you know, cause 
maybe we too busy being flowers or fairies or strawberries 
instead of something honest and worthy of respect . . . you 
know . . . like being people. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: If you were Squeaky, how would you feel after the 
race? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: What is the relationship hetween Raymond and 
Squeaky? (b) Analyze: How does Squeaky feel about taking 
care of Raymond? 

3. (a) Recall: What does Mr. Pearson hint that Squeaky do in 
the race? (b) Analyze: Why does this suggestion make 
Squeaky angry? (c) Speculate: How would Gretchen feel if 
she knew what Mr. Pearson had hinted? 

4. (a) Recall: What does Raymond do during the race? 
(b) Connect: How does this change Squeaky's view of 
Raymond? (c) Deduce: Why doesn't she care about the 
outcome of the race? 

5. (a) Draw Conclusions: Why does Squeaky look down on 
most of the girls in her class? (b) Evaluate: Is her opinion 
justified? Why or why not? (c) Apply: What famous women 
do you think Squeaky would admire? 

6. (a) Interpret: What is the meaning of the smile Squeaky and 
Gretchen exchange after the race? (b) Speculate: Will 
Squeaky and Gretchen become friends? Explain. 




Toni Cade Bambara 



(1939-1995) 

A native 
New Yorker, 
Toni Cade 
Bambara 
was edu- 
cated in 
Europe and 
the United States. She 
taught at every level from 
preschool to college. As a 
writer, she often focused 
on her African American 
heritage, portraying her 
characters with affection. 
Her short stories have 
been collected in Gorilla, 
M;y Love (in which 
"Raymond's Run" appears), 
and The Sea Birds Are Still 
Alive. She also wrote a 
novel, The Salt Eaters. One 
critic wrote, "Bambara tells 
me more about being black 
through her quiet, proud, 
silly, tender, hip, acute, 
loving stories than any 
amount of literary [discus- 
sion] could hope to do. All 
of her stories share the 
affection that their narra- 
tor feels for the subject." 



296 ♦ Quest for Justice 



NK9HHHHHEHHHBHHHilHHHMHHK0MB9SMHBHHI 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Major and Minor Characters 

1. What changes do you see in Squeaky as the story progresses? 

2. Is Raymond a major or a minor character? Explain your answer. 

3. How does Gretchen contribute to the story development? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. What details have other characters or Squeaky herself told you 
about Squeaky? 

5. Which of Squeaky 's qualities have you learned about through her 
actions or through other characters' actions toward her? 

6. Use separate character wheels like the one shown to analyze 
Raymond and Gretchen. 



What character does 




What character says 



What others say about character 



Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Idioms 

7. Use a chart like this one to analyze the idioms used in the story. 



Idiom Literal Meaning Idiomatic Meaning 


"I'm so burnt." 






"give someone else a break" 






"has a big mouth" 






"give you a run for your money" 




. 



8. What idioms do you and your friends use to express approval of an 
idea or situation? 



Extend Understanding 



9. Science Connection: What properties of air do runners consider 
when they are dressing or preparing for a race? 



Quick Review 

A major character is one 

of the main or leading 
actors in a literary work. 
To review major character, 
see page 287. 

A minor character plays a 
smaller role in a literary 
work but helps the story 
development. To review 
minor character, see 
page 287. 



Characterization is the 

way a writer brings a 
character to life through 
actions, words, and 
descriptions. To review 
characterization, see 
page 287. 



An idiom is a word or 
expression that has a 
meaning unique to a 
language or region. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Raymond's Run ♦ 297 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Greek Root -scope- Fluency: Definitions 



On your paper, match each vocabulary word 
with its definition. 



1. prodigy 

2. signify 

3. ventriloquist 

4. periscope 



The Greek word root -scope-, meaning "to see," 
is used to form the names of several instruments 
used for seeing. Write a definition of each word. 

1. periscope 2. telescope 3. microscope 

Spelling Strategy 

In almost all words that end in -gy, the vowel 
before the ending is o. Examples include biology, 
ecology, and psychology. There are some excep- 
tions to the rule: effigy, elegy, and strategy. 

Write the word that completes each sentence. 

apology biology strategy 

1. I made an ? for my mistake. 

2. Her winning ? was to work hard. 

3. Sports doctors study human ? 

Grammar Lesson 

Prepositions ► For more practice, see page R29, Exercise D. 

A preposition is a word that relates the noun Practice Copy each sentence and underline the 

or pronoun following it to another word in the sen- preposition. Draw an arrow between the two 

tence. Prepositions often show relationships in time words that the preposition relates. 



a. person who speaks 
through a dummy 
or puppet 

b. young person with 
unusual talent 

c. to show or make 
known 

d. instrument used in 
a submarine to see 
the ocean surface 



(before, after) and in space (above, beyond). In 
"Raymond's Run," Squeaky says, "I'm the swiftest 
thing in the neighborhood. The preposition in 
relates neighborhood to swiftest thing. 

Here are some other common prepositions: 

about across 

behind below 

for from 

over toward 

Some prepositions are made up of more than 
one word. Here are some examples: 



against 


around 


as 


beside 


between 


down 


into 


near 


of 


under 


up 


with 



1. George runs errands for the big boys. 

2. I'm standing on the corner. 

3. He can beat me to Amsterdam Avenue. 

4. Here comes Mr. Pearson with his clipboard. 

5. We were too busy being strawberries 
instead of something honest. 

Writing Application Copy this sentence three 
times, inserting a different preposition each time. 
Explain how the meaning changes. 

The racers ran ? the fence. 



according to 
in front of 



ahead of 
instead of 



as of because of 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 77 



298 ♦ Quest fur Justice 



MMSMSHHHHMHHNi 



Writing Lesson 

Article About the Race 

Write an article about the race. Include details that will help readers feel the 
excitement and suspense. 

Prewriting Write down details of what the crowd sees and details of what you 
imagine the racers are feeling. Think of one quotation each for 
Gretchen and Squeaky about their reactions to the race. 



Model: Using Quotations 

When you use a quotation, introduce it by identifying the speaker. 
Gretchen gave us her reaction after the race, "I was worried. 
This is the first time I've run against someone who is as serious 
about racing as I am." 



The words of the speaker 
are set off in quotation 
marks. The comma 
separates the explanatory 
words from the 
character's exact words. 



% 



Drafting Begin by describing the exciting finish. Then, go back and lead up 
to the moment Squeaky wins. Finally, use quotations about the event. 

Revising Add a quotation if you don't already have one. Use quotation 
marks and commas to punctuate the quotation. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 13, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking Act out a radio 
broadcast of the race in the story. 

1. Use precise language. For example, don't 
use running if you mean jogging. 

2. Use action verbs like flew, streaked, and 
plunged to capture the movement. 

3. Deliver your sportscast, using your voice 
and posture to convey some of the tense 
ending. 

Writing Write a note from Squeaky to Grerchen 
in which Squeaky asks for Grefchen's help with 
Raymond's athletic training. Include details 
about why Squeaky wants to work with Raymond 
and why she thinks Gretchen would be a help. 



Research and Technology Use the Internet to 
research the Special Olympics. Create an 
informational brochure. 

1 . Use a search engine to find appropriate sites. 
Get an exact match: Use quotation marks 
around the words: "Special Olympics." 

2. Find topics that contain both words, not 
necessarily in that order by using a plus 
sign between the words: Special + Olympics. 

3. When you find a site with good informa- 
tion, look for links to other sites. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
usin^ the Internet. 



Raymond's Run ♦ 2W 



Prepare to Read 



Paul Revere's Ride 




^ 






As you read 
^Nop-P this poem and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



What many people know — or think they know — about Paul Revere's 
famous ride on April 18, 1775, comes from Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride." The poem however, is not a 
completely accurate account of events on that night. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 2.3 Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or 

organization of ideas. {Developed in Literary Analysis, the Reading Strategy, and the 

Connections Feature) 

Writing 1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original 

ideas. (Developed in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.1 Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence 

openings to present a lively and effective personal style. (Developed in the Grammar 

Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 2.5 Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, 

or dramatic soliloquies using voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to 

enhance the meaning. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



300 ♦ Quest for Justice 



■ 



MHMMN 



■■s 



Literary Analysis 

Historical Characters 

In literature, a historical character is usually a mix of fact and fiction 
based on a real person from history. An author may add or exaggerate 
details to make the historical character more dramatic or more human. 

As you read "Paul Revere 's Ride," notice the differences between the 
way the poem presents Paul Revere and the way a history book would 
present him. Use the following focus questions to guide you: 

1. Which details in the poem illustrate Paul Revere 's heroism? 

2. Which of these details would probably not be found in a history 
textbook? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Paul Revere has become more than a historical figure; he is a hero who 
represents courage. These lines from "Paul Revere 's Ride" show that the 
poet is creating a heroic image. 

A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door, 
And a word that shall echo forevermore! 

As you read, look for other details that add to the heroic image of Pau 
Revere. Jot them down on an organizer like this one. 

Reading Strategy 

Recognizing the Author's Purpose 

An author's purpose is his or her reason for writing. Common 
purposes include 

• to entertain • to persuade 

• to instruct • to inspire 

The author's purpose influences the details that are included. If the 
author's purpose is to inspire, then details may exaggerate the character's 
brave and heroic deeds. If the author's purpose is to instruct, then details 
will be straightforward and factual. 

As you read, notice the types of details Longfellow includes to achieve 
his purpose. 



Vocabulary Development 

stealthy (stel' the) adj. secretive; 
trying to avoid notice (p. 304) 

somber (sam' bar) adj. dark and 
gloomy (p. 304) 

impetuous (im pech' oo as) adj. done 
suddenly with little thought (p. 304) 



spectral (spek' tral) adj. phantomlike, 
ghostly (p. 304) 

tranquil (tran' kwil) adj. quiet or 
motionless; peaceful (p. 305) 

aghast (a gast') adj. feeling great hor- 
ror or dismay (p. 305) 



/ \ 

\ • /■ 



Paul 
Revere 



PaulRevere's Rule ♦ 30J 



Paul Revere's Ride 



Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 




302 ♦ Quest for Justice 




• 




Listen, my children, and you shall hear 
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, 
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five; 
Hardly a man is now alive 
5 Who remembers that famous day and year. 

He said to his friend, "If the British march 
By land or sea from the town to-night, 
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch 1 
Of the North Church tower as a signal light, — 
io One, if by land, and two, if by sea; 
And I on the opposite shore will be, 
Ready to ride and spread the alarm 
Through every Middlesex village and farm, 
For the country folk to be up and to arm." 

15 Then he said, "Good night!" and with muffled oar 
Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore, 
Just as the moon rose over the bay, 
Where swinging wide at her moorings 2 lay 
The Somerset, British man-of-war; 3 

20 A phantom ship, with each mast and spar 
Across the moon like a prison bar, 
And a huge black hulk, that was magnified 
By its own reflection in the tide. 

Meanwhile, his friend, through alley and street, 
25 Wanders and watches with eager ears, 
Till in the silence around him he hears 
The muster 4 of men at the barrack door, 
The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet, 
And the measured tread of the grenadiers, 5 
30 Marching down to their boats on the shore. 



1. belfry arch (bel' fre arch) curved top of a tower or steeple that 
holds the bells. 

2. moorings (moor' irjs) n. lines, cables, or chains that hold a ship to 
the shore. 

3. man-of-war armed naval vessel; warship. 

4. muster n. an assembly of troops summoned for inspection, roll call, 
or service. 

5. grenadiers (gren' 8 dirz") n. members of a special regiment or corps. 



•4 Critical Viewing What details of this picture reflect the 
heroism and adventure communicated in the poem? [Connect] 



Reading Strategy 
Recognizing Author's 
Purpose In what way do 
these details create a 
heroic image? 



i/jReading Check 

What is Paul Revere 
going to do when the 
British arrive? 



Paul Revere's Rule ♦ 103 



Then he climbed the tower of the Old North Church, 

By the wooden stairs, with stealthy tread. 

To the belfry- chamber overhead, 

And startled the pigeons from their perch 

35 On the somber rafters, 6 that round him made 
Masses and moving shapes of shade, — 
By the trembling ladder, steep and tall, 
To the highest window in the wall, 
Where he paused to listen and look down 

40 A moment on the roofs of the town, 
And the moonlight flowing over all. 

Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead. 

In their night-encampment on the hill, 

Wrapped in silence so deep and still 
45 That he could hear, like a sentinel's 7 tread, 

The watchful night-wind, as it went 

Creeping along from tent to tent. 

And seeming to whisper, "All is well!" 

A moment only he feels the spell 
50 Of the place and the hour, and the secret dread 

Of the lonely belfry and the dead; 

For suddenly all his thoughts are bent 

On a shadowy something far away, 

Where the river widens to meet the bay, — 
55 A line of black that bends and floats 

On the rising tide, like a bridge of boats. 

Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride. 
Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride 
On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere. 

60 Now he patted his horse's side, 

Now gazed at the landscape far and near. 
Then, impetuous , stamped the earth, 
And turned and tightened his saddle-girth; 8 
But mostly he watched with eager search 

65 The belfry-tower of the Old North Church, 
As it rose above the graves on the hill. 
Lonely and spectral and somber and still. 
And lo! as he looks, on the belfry's height 



6. rafters n. beams that slope from the ridge of a roof to the eaves and serve 
to support the roof. 

7. sentinel (sen' ti nal) n. guard. 

8. girth (garth) n. a band put around the belly of a horse for holding a saddle. 



stealthy (steT the) adj. 
artfully sly and secretive 



somber (sanY bar) adj. 
dark and gloomy 



A 



impetuous (im pech' oo as) 
adj. done suddenly with 
little thought 

spectral (spek' tret) adj. 
phantomlike; ghostly 




304 ♦ Quest for Justice 



A glimmer, and then a gleam of light! 
70 He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns. 
But lingers and gazes, till full on his sight 
A second lamp in the belfry burns! 

A hurry of hoofs in a village street, 

A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark, 

75 And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark 
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet: 
That was all! And yet, through the gloom and the light, 
The fate of a nation was riding that night; 
And the spark struck out by that steed in his flight, 

so Kindled the land into flame with its heat. 

He has left the village and mounted the steep, 9 
And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep, 
Is the Mystic, 10 meeting the ocean tides; 
And under the alders 11 that skirt its edge, 

85 Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge, 
Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides. 

It was twelve by the village clock, 
When he crossed the bridge into Medford town. 
He heard the crowing of the cock, 
90 And the barking of the farmer's dog, 
And felt the damp of the river fog, 
That rises after the sun goes down. 

It was one by the village clock, 

When he galloped into Lexington. 
95 He saw the gilded weathercock 12 

Swim in the moonlight as he passed, 

And the meeting-house windows, blank and bare, 

Gaze at him with a spectral glare, 

As if they already stood aghast 
ioo At the bloody work they would look upon. 

It was two by the village clock. 
When he came to the bridge in Concord town. 
He heard the bleating of the flock. 
And the twitter of birds among the trees, 
105 And felt the breath of the morning breeze 



Reading Strategy 
Recognizing Author's 
Purpose What details and 
comparisons does 
Longfellow use to 
heighten the significance 
of the ride? 



tranquil (tran' kwil) adj. 
quiet or motionless; 



peaceful 



aghast (a gast') adj. feeling 
great horror or dismay 



^Reading Check 

What does Paul Revere 
see? 



9. steep n. slope or incline having a sharp rise. 

10. Mystic (mis' tik) a river in Massachusetts. 

11. alders (61' darz) n. trees and shrubs of the birch family. 

12. weathercock (weth' ar kak') n. weathervane in the form of a rooster. 



•4 Critical Viewing 

Why would a church 
steeple like this one 
be ideal for a signal? 
[Connect] 



Paul Revere's Ride ♦ $05 



Blowing over the meadows brown. 
And one was safe and asleep in his bed 
Who at the bridge would be first to fall. 
Who that day would be lying dead, 
110 Pierced by a British musket-ball. 

You know the rest. In the books you have read, 
How the British Regulars fired and fled, — 
How the farmers gave them ball for ball, 
From behind each fence and farm -yard wall, 
115 Chasing the red-coats down the lane. 
Then crossing the fields to emerge again 
Under the trees at the turn of the road, 
And only pausing to fire and load. 

So through the night rode Paul Revere; 

120 And so through the night went his cry of alarm 
To every Middlesex village and farm, — 
A cry of defiance and not of fear, 
A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door. 
And a word that shall echo forevermore! 

125 For, borne on the night-wind of the Past, 
Through all our history, to the last, 
In the hour of darkness and peril and need, 
The people will waken and listen to hear 
The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed, 

130 And the midnight message of Paul Revere. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Does the poem capture the suspense and excitement 
of Paul Revere 's ride? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: What is the reason for Paul Revere 's ride? 

(b) Infer: Why is he willing to face danger to make this ride? 

3. (a) Recall: Explain the signal plan, (b) Apply: Why is it 
important that Revere and his friend agree on the signals? 

(c) Evaluate: How effective is the signal plan? Explain. 

4. (a) Infer: Why is Revere restless as he waits for the signal? 
(b) Draw Conclusions: How important is this ride to Paul 
Revere? To the country? 

5. (a) Interpret: What does Longfellow mean when he writes, "The 
fate of a nation was riding that nightj'? (b) Make a Judgment: 
Does Paul Revere 's ride accomplish its purpose? Explain. 




Henry Wadsworth 
Lonqfellow 



(1807-1882) 

Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow was 
one of the "fireside 
poets," writers 
whose popular 
poems were read 
aloud by nineteenth- 
century families gath- 
ered around the fireplace. 
He wrote several long 
poems on themes in 
American history in the 
style of old ballads. Many 
people can quote at least 
the first few lines of "Paul 
Revere 's Ride," "The 
Wreck of the Hesperus," 
The Song of Hiawatha, or 
Evangeline. Born in what is 
now Maine, Longfellow 
showed his writing talent 
when he was a teenager, 
entering Bowdoin College 
at age fifteen. He traveled 
and studied in Europe, and 
he then taught modern 
languages at Bowdoin and 
Harvard. He also wrote a 
novel and essays. 



306 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Historical Characters 

1. In what historical situation does Paul Revere play a role? 

2. Which details in the poem illustrate Paul Revere 's heroism? 

3. Which of these details would probably not be found in a textbook? 

4. Use a Venn diagram like the one below to compare and contrast 
the poem with a factual account in a textbook or an encyclopedia. 
Write common elements in the shared section. Write details that 
are unique to each work in the outer parts of the circles. 




Connecting Literary Elements 

5. What details in Longfellow's poem contribute to the sense of dan- 
ger Paul Revere faces? 

6. What is one drawback to reading only the poem? 

Reading Strategy 

Recognizing the Author's Purpose 

7. What is Longfellow's purpose for writing "Paul Revere's Ride"? 

8. Complete an organizer like the one shown to explore the relation- 
ship between the author's purpose and the details that are included 
in a work. 



Author's Purpose 













Detail 




Detail 




Detail 



Final Result 



Extend Understanding 



9. World Events Connection: Are there opportunities today for the 
kind of heroism that Paul Revere displayed? Explain. 



Quick Review 

A historical character is a 

figure in literature who is 
based on a real person 
from the past and is por- 
trayed with a mixture of 
fact and fiction. To review 
historical character, see 
page 301 . 



The author's purpose is his 

or her reason for writing. 
To review author's 
purpose, see page 301 . 



Take It to the Net 
www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Paul Revere's Rule ♦ $07 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Root 'Spec' Concept Development: Synonyms 



The Latin word root -spec- comes from the 
verb "to see." In the word spectral, for example, 
the root means "related to appearances or some- 
thing seen." On your paper, match these words 
with their definitions 



Synonyms are words that express the same or 
very similar meanings. On your paper, match 
each vocabulary word in the left column with its 
synonym in the right. 



a. band of colors 
found in light 

b. look at carefully 

c. eyeglasses 



1. spectacles 

2. spectrum 

3. inspect 

Spelling Strategy 

Sometimes the hard g sound is spelled gh, as in 
ghastly. On your paper, unscramble the letters to 
write words that contain the hard g sound spelled gh. 

1. hogst 3. thasga 5. hettog 

2. itteghaps 4. lough 

Grammar Lesson 

Prepositional Phrases 

A prepositional phrase is a group of words 
beginning with a preposition and ending with a 
noun or a pronoun. The noun or pronoun in the 
phrase is called the object of the preposition. A 
preposition is a word like in, of, between, or from 
that shows the relationship between the object of 
the preposition and another word in the sentence. 

In the following lines from "Paul Revere 's 
Ride," the prepositional phrase is underlined. 
The preposition is circled. 

Listen, my children, and you shall hear 
( gythe midnight ride @Paul Revere . 



1. stealthy 

2. somber 

3. impetuous 

4. spectral 

5. tranquil 

6. aghast 



a. calm 

b. secret 

c. horrified 

d. impulsive 

e. dark 

f. ghostly 



Replace each underlined word with a 
synonym from the left column above. 

1. a sneaky burglar 3. a(n) sudden outburst 

2. a peaceful scene 4. a gloomy mood 



% 



Practice Copy the following passages on your 
paper. Underline each prepositional phrase and 
circle the preposition that begins it. 

1. ... If the British march / by land or sea 
from the town tonight. 

2. And I on the opposite shore will be 

3. ... in the silence around him he hears / 
The muster of men at the barrack door. 

4. And startled the pigeons from their perch / 
On the somber rafters . . . 

5. It was two by the village clock / When he 
came to the bridge in Concord town. 

Writing Application Write a short summary of 
the events on the evening of April 18, 1775, 
using at least three of the following prepositions: 
on, across, until, during, of, like, at. 

Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 17/ Chapter 20, Section 7 



308 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Writing Lesson 

Comparison'and'Contrast Essay 

Write a brief essay in which you compare and contrast Longfellow's poem with a 
historical account of the event. Explain why you think Longfellow presented details 
in a way that is not entirely factual. 

Prewriting Conduct research on the facts of the night Paul Revere took his 
ride. Take notes on details that differ from Longfellow's account. 

Drafting Begin with a general statement about the factual accuracy of 

Longfellow's account. In the body of your essay, give examples of 
the differences between the facts and the poem. Then, explain 
your own ideas about the reasons for the difference. 



Model: Balance Details with Original Ideas 



"Where he paused to listen and look down 
A moment on the roofs of the town, 
And the moonlight flowing over all." 



The writer balances the 
quotation with his or her 
own original thought on 
the significance of the 
details. 



Even though they are not strictly factual, the pause and the moonlight 
give a spooky feeling that allows readers to experience the event, 
rather than just know about it. 



Revising Make sure that your quotations illustrate a point and that you have 
recorded them accurately. 

v\h Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 8, Section 8. 1 

Extension Activities 



Research and Technology Research the events 
of April 18, 1775, when three people rode to 
warn the countryside. Draw or trace a map of 
Boston and the surrounding area, noting towns 
and landmarks mentioned in the poem. (Use a 
historical map if possible, because the Boston 
shoreline has changed.) On the map, trace the 
routes taken by Paul Revere, William Dawes, 
and Samuel Prescott. Compare your map to the 
route described in the poem. 



Listening and Speaking With a partner, perform a 
recitation of "Paul Revere 's Ride." 



Divide the stanzas to be memorized. 
Practice delivering your stanzas expres- 
sively — using your voice to show the 
feeling of the words. 
Perform your recitation. 



Bl Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

C jo online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



PaulRevere's Rule ♦ 109 



V. 



CONNECTIONS 

Literature and History 

Paul Revere: Fact and Fiction 



i i 






J 




Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote "Paul Reveres Ride" in 1861, 
long after Revere 's historic ride. When the poem was published, 
it made Revere into a hero and his adventure into a legend. The 
story had not been well known, although Revere himself wrote sev- 
eral accounts of it. One is the "Deposition" you are about to read. 
A Network of Spies During the autumn of 1774, Paul Revere and 
about thirty other patriots had formed a spy network to watch the 
movements of soldiers stationed in Boston to enforce British rule and 
make sure the colonists paid their taxes to the King. On Saturday, 
April 15, the day before Easter, Revere and others had noticed that 
British troops had been taken off the streets of Boston, and their 
small boats had been hauled in for repairs. They speculated that soon 
the grenadiers and infantry might be sent on an expedition to 
Lexington, about 15 miles away, and Concord, about 20 miles away. 
In Lexington, two prominent members of the patriots' Provincial 
Congress — Sam Adams and John Hancock — were visiting. In 
Concord, the defiant patriots had hidden arms and ammunition. 

A Quiet Warning On Easter night, April 16, Revere rode quietly to Lexington to warn 
Adams and Hancock that they were in danger of being arrested. On his way back to Boston 
that night, Revere instructed patriots in Charlestown to watch for a lantern signal from the 
steeple of Old North Church. This would tell them what they would be responsible for telling 
Revere: which way the troops were traveling. On Tuesday afternoon, April 18, word leaked out 
that British officers had orders to patrol the roads that night between Cambridge and Concord. 
The patriots hastily put their plans in place. Robert Newman, the sexton of Old North Church, 
would give the lantern signal once he knew how the British would travel. Revere, the principal 
express rider, would take the fastest route to Lexington, first crossing the river by boat. As a 
backup plan, a second express rider, William Dawes, would take the longer route, by land. 
The Ride Begins The moon was not yet high in the sky when Revere had two friends row 
him across the Charles River in a rowboat he had hidden. To avoid being seen by the British 
frigate Somerset, they crossed as far downriver as they could. In Charlestown, Revere was met 
by patriots who had spotted the flicker of Newman's two lanterns in the steeple — meaning that 
the British were also taking the faster route, crossing the river by boat. Revere was given a good 
horse, donated by one of Boston's wealthiest citizens. Then he began his ride. 

Connecting the Poem and the Deposition 

As you read Paul Revere 's Deposition, notice how it differs, in facts, details, and mood, from 
Longfellow's poem. As one critic points out, Longfellow might have been Revere 's best "pub- 
licity agent," but "[he] was a poet and not a historian." Paul Revere, on the other hand, was a 
patriot and not a writer. You will notice misspellings and enors in his draft, which has been left 
uncorrected for historical accuracy. 



3 JO ♦ Quest for Justice 



The Deposition: Draft 

Paul Revere of Boston, in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in N. Eng- 
land of Lawfull age doth testifye and Say: that I was in Boston on the Evening 
of the 18th of April 1775, that I was sent for by Doer. Joseph Wanen about 
10 o'Clock that evening, and desired, "to go to Lexington and inform Mr. 
Samuel Adams, and Hon. John Hancock Esqr. That there was a number of 
Soldiers composed of the Light troops and Grenadiers marching to the bottom 
of the common, 1 where was a number Boats to receive them, and it was sup- 
posed, that they were going to Lexington, by the way of Watertown to take 
them, Mess. Adams and Hancock or to Concord." I proceeded imeaditly and 
was put across Charles River [by] Boat, and Landed at Charlestown Battery. 
Went into the Town and their got a Horse, while in Charlestown I was 
informed by Richd. Deavins Esqr. that he, that Evening after sun sett, mett 9 
officers of Gages Anny, 2 well mounted and Anned going to wards to Concord. 
I sett off (it was then about 1 1 o'Clock) the Moon Shone bright. I had got all- 
most over Charlestown Common towards Cambridge when I saw two officers 
on horse back standing under the shade of a Tree, In a nanow part of the 
Road. I got near enough to see their holsters and Cockades? When one of 
them started his horse towards me and the other up the Road as I supposed to 
head me, I turned my horse short about and Rid upon full gallop for Mistick 
Road, he following me about 300 yards, and finding he could not catch me, 
stoped. I proceeded to Lexington throu Mistick, and awaked Messr. Adams 
and Hancock, and delivered my message. After I had been there about half 
an hour, Mr. Daws arrived, who came from Boston over the neck. 4 We sett 
of together for Concord, and were over-taken by a Young Gentleman 
named Prescot who belonged to Concord, and was going home. When we 
got about halfway from Lexington to Concord, the Other two Stepped at a 
House to awake the Man. I kept along, when I had got about 200 Yards a 
head of them, I saw two officers under a Tree as before. I imeaditly called to 
my company to come up, saying here was two of them, (for I had told them, 
what Mr. Devens told me and of my being Stopped) in an Instant I saw four 
officers who rode up to me with their Pistols in their hands and said [...] 
Stop if you go an Inch farther you are a dead man, imeaditly Mr. Prescot 
came up, he turned the butt end of his whipp. We attempted to git thro' 
them but they kept before us and swore if we did not turn in to that pas- 
ture, they would Blow our brains out, (they had placed them selves opposite 
to a pair of Barrs and had taken the Barrs down) they forced us in, and 
when we had got in, Mr. Prescot said to me putt on, he turned to the left, I 



Thematic Connection 

The nonstandard spelling 
and unusual language 
style are clues that this 
document was written a 
long time ago. What other 
clues do you find? 



1. the common Boston Common: a central "green," or park-like area, in Boston. In 
1775, it was bordered on one side by the Charles River. 

2. Gages army Gage was the British general in Boston. 

3. Cockades n. rosettes or ribbons worn on hats as badges. 

4. the neck in Revere's day, the town of Boston was situated at the end of a long, 
narrow spit of land, called Boston Neck. 



Connections: PaulRevere: Fact and Fiction ♦ 3 J 



turned to the Right, towards a wood in the bottom 
of the pasture, intending when I reached that, to 
jump my horse and Run afoot. Just as I reached it 
out started Six others on horseback, wrode up to 
me with their Pistols in their hands put them to 
my Breast siesed my bridle and ordered me to dis- 
mount, which I did. One of them who appeared to 
have the command there, and much of Gentle- 
man, asked me where I came from, I told him, he 
asked me what time I left it, I told him, he said Sir 
may I crave 5 your Name, I answered my Name was 
Revere, he said what Paul Revere, I said yes, the 
others abused me much, but he told me not to be 
afraid, they should not hurt me. I told him they 
would miss their Aim. He said they should not, 
they were after som deserters that were on the 
Road. I told him I knew better, I knew what they 
were after, that I had alarmed the Country all the 
way up, and that their Boats had catched aground, 
and I should have 500 men their soon. He seemed 
supprised and rid imeaditly up to the Road to them 
that stopped me. They came down on full gallop, 
one of them (whom I have since learned was 
Major Mitchel of the 5th Regt.) clapd his pistol to 
My head, and said he was agoing to ask me some 
Questions, and if I did not tell the truth, he would 
blow my brains out. I replied that I calld my self a 
Man of Truth, and that he had stopped me on the 
high Way, and made me a prisoner I knew not by 

what right. I would tell the truth, for I was not afraid. He then asked me the 
same questions that the other did and many more but more particular, I 
gave him the same answers; after he and two more had spoke together in a 
low voice he orderd me to mount my horse, but they first searched me for 
Arms. When I had mounted, the Major rode up to me and took the reins 
out of my hand and said [. . .] Sir you are not to ride with reins, and gave 
them to an officer upon my right to lead me. I asked him to let me have the 
reins, and I would not run from him, he said he would not trust me, he then 
orderd four men out of the Bushes, whom I found were Country men, 
which they had stopped and to mount their horses, and then Ordered us to 
march. He came up to me and said: "We are now going towards your friends 
and if you attempt to run, or we are insulted, we will blow your Brains out." 
I told him he might do as he pleased. When we had got into the road they 
formed a Circle and ordered the prisoners in the centre, and to lead me in 
front. We rode down to ward Lexington prittie smart. 6 1 was often insulted 
by the officers calling me [...] Rebel &c. &c. The Officer who ledd me said 



5. crave [krav], v. ask. 

6. prittie smart pretty smart: In other words, at a good pace; rapidly. 



— _ 



The draft of Paul Revere's statement 

▲ Critical Viewing 

How can you tell that 
this is a picture of Paul 
Revere's draft of his 
account, rather than his 
final copy? [Analyze] 



312 ♦ Quest for justice 



I was in a [. . .] critical situation I told I was sensible of it. When We had got 
about a mile, I was delivered to a Serjant, who was Ordered to take out his 
Pistol (he rode with a hanger) and should I run to excecute the Major's 
Sentance. Whe[n] we got within about half a mile of Lexington meeting- 
house we heard a Gun fired, the Major asked what that was for, I told him 
to alarm the Country, he then Ordered the other 4 prisoners to dismount, 
which they did. They cut the Bridles and saddles off the Horses, drove them 
away, and told the men they might go about their Business. I asked the 
Major to dismiss he said he would not. He then ordered us to march. When 
we got within sight of the Meeting-house, we heard a Volley of Guns fired 
as I supposed at the Tavern, as an Alarm, the Major ordered a halt, he 
asked me ho[w] far it was to Cambridge. I told him, after Asking me a num- 
ber of questions he Asked the Serjant if his horse was tired. He answered 
Yes, he ordered him to take My horse which he did. Then after cutting the 
Saddle and Bridle off the Serjants horse they told me they should make use 
of my horse for the Night and rode off, towards Cambridge. I then went to 
the house where I left Messr. Adams and Hancock and told them what had 
happined, thier Friends advised them to go out of the way, I went with 
them, went about two miles a cross road and their stopt, after resting my 
self I set off with another man, to go to the Tavern, to enquire wither the 
troops had come, or were coming. When we got there, a Man who has just 
come up the road, told us they were within two mile. We went into the 
Tavern to git a Trunk of Papers belonging to Col. Hancock, before we got 
out I saw the Ministearal Troops 7 from the chamber window, coming up the 
Road. We made haste, and had to pass thro our Militia, who were on a 
green behinde the Meeting house, to the Number as I suppose of 50 or 60. 
It was then Daylight. I passed thro' them, as I passed I heard the Command- 
ing officer, say words to this Effect "Lett the Troops pass by and donot 
molest them with out they bigin first." As I had to go a Cross road I had 
not got half gun shot distance, when the ministeral Troops appeard in 
Sight, behind the Meeting house. They made a short halt. When one Gun 
was fired, I saw the smoake in the front of them, they imeaditly gave a 
shout rann a few pace and then fired. I could distinguish first iregular firing 
and then platoons. At this time, I could not see our Militia, for they were 
covered by a house at the bottom of the Road. 

7. Ministearal Troops the British troops. 



Thematic Connection 

What do we know now 
about the significance of 
that shot that Revere did 
not know when he wrote 
his account? 



Connecting Literature and History 



1 . What events does Revere 's deposition describe that Longfellow's 
poem does not? 

2. Considering only the events that both the poem and the deposi- 
tion describe, what differences of fact, detail, and mood do you 
notice between Reveres account and Longfellow's poem? 

3. Why do you think Longfellow's poem made Revere a hero, while 
Reveres own account did not? Explain. 



Connections: PaulRevere: Fact and Fiction ♦ 313 




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Read 



Always to Remember: The Vision of Maya Ying Lin 



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f* c$ tip ^ !( * s i; ^P^^ k « )l *« » / 

* JAMLS i. M< XI 1 • ^ 
f • CiARY I: R| [a/m^\. v 

J<')ACKi.) ; 



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JAMl S 1 Klk'Uv 
■ ■i-Ai»-.>v'ir\. . • ' 

AVONV |r • 

JC )BER I O A( FVLDO • l^^^KRMiTAr 

vfy • 1511 LY T 1 lARPlR • WESl I Y 1' Rt^DRK r c - 
j KNl (.: Kl.Lll-.Y • JOHN MAR' 



Background 

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy sent 3,000 military advisors to 
help the South Vietnamese government fight against communist rebels 
supported by North Vietnam. By 1968, the U.S. had more than 500,000 
troops in Vietnam. In the United States, the war sparked massive protests. 
The nation became bitterly divided between those who supported the war 
and those who opposed it. 

Focus on the Standards 



ft, As you read 
*d/^ this story and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Reading 2.7 Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural 

patterns of text. [Developed in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 1.5 Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original 

ideas. (Developed in the Research and Technology activity) 

Language Conventions 1.1 Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence 

openings to present a lively and effective personal style. (Developed In the 

Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.7 Use audience feedback (e.g., verbal and nonverbal cues). 

(Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



314 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Literary Analysis 

Biographical Profile 

A biography tells the full story of a person's life. A biographical profile 
is a shorter piece of writing that often focuses on one important event or 
achievement in a person's life. As you read this profile, notice how Maya 
Lin's background has influenced her creative work. 

Her father, Henry Huan Lin, was a ceramicist of considerable 
reputation and dean of fine arts at Ohio University in Athens. 

Look for other details that may have influenced Maya Lin's interests 
and abilities. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

The information about Maya Lin in this biographical profile is part of 
a longer article. The writer's purpose is to present a particular view of 
Maya Lin and of the memorial she designed. As you read, look for details 
that support a particular view, and identify what the view is. 

Reading Strategy 

Evaluating Internal Consistency of Text 

You will better understand what you read if you are able to evaluate 
the internal consistency, or the logical relationships, in the text. To 
evaluate internal consistency, focus on questions like the following: 

1. Are all the details connected to a few main ideas? 

2. Is the text coherent — that is, does it hold together or does it 
seem like a collection of random ideas pulled together? 

The chart at right shows consistent internal structure. You should 
be able to trace any detail in a selection along a path that leads up to 
the main topic. You should be able to find connections along the 
main ideas as well. 



Subject 




Vocabulary Development 

criteria (krl tir' e a) n. standards by 
which something is judged (p. 318) 

registrants (rej' is trants) n. people 
who register to participate (p. 318) 

harmonious (har mo' ne as) adj. 
combined in a pleasing, orderly way 
(p. 318) 



anonymously (a nan' a mas le) adv. with 
the name withheld or secret (p. 319) 

eloquent (el' a kwant) adj. fluent, 
forceful, and persuasive (p. 319) 

unanimous (ydo nan' a mas) adj. 
agreed to by all (p. 320) 

conception (kan sep' shan) n. an 
original idea, design, or plan (p. 322) 



Always to Remember: The Vision of Maya Ying Lin ♦ 315 



ALWAYS TO REMEMBER: 

Lke Vision o\ 






Brent Ashabranner 



/, 



n the 1960s and 1970s, the United States was involved in a war 
in Vietnam. Because many people opposed the war, Vietnam veter- 
ans were not honored as veterans of other wars had been. Jan 
Scruggs, a Vietnam veteran, thought that the 58,000 U.S. service- 
men and women killed or reported missing in Vietnam should be 
honored with a memorial. With the help of lawyers Robert Doubek 
and John Wheeler, Scruggs worked to gain support for his idea. In 
1 980, Congress authorized the building of the Vietnam Veterans 
Memorial in Washington, D.C., between the Washington Monument 
and the Lincoln Memorial. 

The memorial had been authorized by Congress "in honor 
and recognition of the men and women of the Armed 
Forces of the United States who served in the Vietnam 
War." The law, however, said not a word about what 
the memorial should be or what it should look like. That 
was left up to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, but the 
law did state that the memorial design and plans would have to 
be approved by the Secretary of the Interior, the Commission of Fine 
Arts, and the National Capital Planning Commission. 

What would the memorial be? What should it look like? Who 
would design it? Scruggs, Doubek, and Wheeler didn't know, but 
they were determined that the memorial should help bring closer 
together a nation still bitterly divided by the Vietnam War. It 
couldn't be something like the Marine Corps Memorial showing 



► Critical Viewing 

Why do you think Lin 
designed the memorial 
with such a long 
walkway? [Analyze] 




316 ♦ Quest for Justice 



American troops planting a flag on enemy soil at Iwo Jima. 
It couldn't be a giant dove with an olive branch of peace in its 
beak. It had to soothe passions, not stir them up. But there was 
one thing Jan Scruggs insisted on: The memorial, whatever it 
turned out to be, would have to show the name of every man and 
woman killed or missing in the war. 

The answer, they decided, was to hold a national design competi- 
tion open to all Americans. The winning design would receive a prize 
of $20,000, but the real prize would be the winner's knowledge that 
the memorial would become a part of American history on the Mall 
in Washington, D.C. Although fund raising was only well started at 
this point, the choosing of a memorial design could not be delayed if 
the memorial was to be built by Veterans Day, 1982. H. Ross Perot 
contributed the $160,000 necessary to hold the competition, and a 
panel of distinguished architects, landscape architects, sculptors, 
and design specialists was chosen to decide the winner. 

Announcement of the competition in October, 1980, brought an 
astonishing response. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund 
received over five thousand inquiries. They came from every 
state in the nation and from every field of design; 
as expected, architects and sculptors were 
particularly interested. 



Reading Strategy 

Evaluating Internal 
Consistency of Text 

How does this detail 
connect to the title? 



vf Reading Check 

What is the purpose 
of the memorial? 




•■**> 



"*^- . 




Everyone who inquired received a booklet explaining the criteria . 
Among the most important: The memorial could not make a politi- 
cal statement about the war; it must contain the names of all per- 
sons killed or missing in action in the war; it must be in harmony 
with its location on the Mall. 

A total of 2,573 individuals and teams registered for the compe- 
tition. They were sent photographs of the memorial site, maps of 
the area around the site and of the entire Mall, and other technical 
design information. The competitors had three months to prepare 
their designs, which had to be received by March 31, 1981. 

Of the 2,573 registrants , 1,421 submitted designs, a record 
number for such a design competition. When the designs were 
spread out for jury selection, they filled a large airplane hangar. 
The jury's task was to select the design which, in their judgment, 
was the best in meeting these criteria: 

• a design that honored the memory of those Americans who 
served and died in the Vietnam War. 

• a design of high artistic merit. 

• a design which would be harmonious with its site, including visual 
harmony with the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington 
Monument. 

• a design that could take its place in the "historic continuity" of 
America's national art. 

• a design that would be buildable, durable, and not too hard to 
maintain. 



criteria (kri tir' § a) n. 
standards or tests by 
which something can be 
judged 



registrants (rej' is trants) n. 
people who register to 
participate in something 



harmonious (har mo ne as) 
adj. combined in a pleas- 
ing, orderly arrangement 



318 ♦ Quest for Justice 




^ Critical Viewing 

What does the pictured 
veteran's reaction to the 
memorial tell you about 
its effectiveness? [Draw 
Conclusions] 



The designs were displayed without any indication of the design- 
er's name so that they could be judged anonymously , on their 
design merits alone. The jury spent one week reviewing all the 
designs in the airplane hangar. On May 1 it made its report to the 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund; the experts declared Entry 
Number 1,026 the winner. The report called it "the finest and most 
appropriate" of all submitted and said it was "superbly harmonious" 
with the site on the Mall. Remarking upon the "simple and forth- 
right" materials needed to build the winning entry, the report 
concludes: 

This memorial, with its wall of names, becomes a place 
of quiet reflection, and a tribute to those who served their 
nation in difficult times. All who come here can find it a 
place of healing. This will be a quiet memorial, one that 
achieves an excellent relationship with both the Lincoln 
Memorial and Washington Monument, and relates the 
visitor to them. It is uniquely horizontal, entering the earth 
rather than piercing the sky. 

This is very much a memorial of our own times, one that 
could not have been achieved in another time and place. 
The designer has created an eloquent place where the 
simple meeting of earth, sky and remembered names con- 
tain messages for all who will know this place. 



anonymously 

(a nan' a mas le) adv. with 
the name withheld or 
secret 



eloquent (el' a kwant) adj. 
fluent, forceful, and 
persuasive 

i/jReading Check 

What criteria did the jury 
use to select the best 
design? 



Always to Remember: The Vision oj Maya Ying Lin ♦ 319 







▲ Critical Viewing 

What impact does the listing of names have on the viewer? [Analyze] 



The eight jurors signed their names to the report, a unanimous 
decision. When the name of the winner was revealed, the art and 
architecture worlds were stunned. It was not the name of a national- 
ly famous architect or sculptor, as most people had been sure it 
would be. The creator of Entry Number 1,026 was a twenty-one-year- 
old student at Yale University. Her name — unknown as yet in any 
field of art or architecture — was Maya Ying Lin. 

How could this be? How could an undergraduate student win one 
of the most important design competitions ever held? How could she 
beat out some of the top names in American art and architecture? 
Who was Maya Ying Lin? 



unanimous 

(ydo nan' a mas) adj. 
agreeing completely; 
united in opinion 

Reading Strategy 
Evaluating Internal 
Consistency How does 
the author make the 
connection between 
information about the wall 
and information about 
Maya Lin? 



320 ♦ Quest for justice 



The answer to that question provided some of the other answers, 
at least in part. Maya Lin, reporters soon discovered, was a 
Chinese-American girl who had been born and raised in the small 
midwestern city of Athens, Ohio. Her father, Henry Huan Lin, was a 
ceramicist of considerable reputation and dean of fine arts at Ohio 
University in Athens. Her mother, Julia C. Lin, was a poet and pro 
lessor of Oriental and English literature. Maya Lin's parents were 
born to culturally prominent families in China. When the Com- 
munists came to power in China in the 1940's, Henry and Julia Lin 
left the country and in time made their way to the United States. 
Maya Lin grew up in an environment of art and literature. She was 
interested in sculpture and made both small and large sculptural 
figures, one cast in bronze. She learned silversmithing and made 
jewelry. She was surrounded by books and read a great deal, espe- 
cially fantasies such as The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. l 

But she also found time to work at McDonald's. "It was about 
the only way to make money in the summer," she said. 

A covaledictorian at high school graduation, Maya Lin went to 
Yale without a clear notion of what she wanted to study and 
eventually decided to major in Yale's undergraduate program in 
architecture. During her junior year she studied in Europe and 
found herself increasingly interested in cemetery architecture. 
"In Europe there's very little space, so graveyards are used as 
parks," she said. "Cemeteries are cities of the dead in European 
countries, but they are also living gardens." 

In France, Maya Lin was deeply moved by the war memorial 
to those who died in the Somme offensive in 1916 during World 
War I. 2 The great arch by architect Sir Edwin Lutyens is consid- 
ered one of the world's most outstanding war memorials. 

Back at Yale for her senior year, Maya Lin enrolled in 
Professor Andrus Burr's course in funerary (burial) architecture. 
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial competition had recently been 
announced, and although the memorial would be a cenotaph — a 
monument in honor of persons buried someplace else— Professor 
Burr thought that having his students prepare a design of the 
memorial would be a worthwhile course assignment. 

Surely, no classroom exercise ever had such spectacular results. 

After receiving the assignment, Maya Lin and two of her classmates 
decided to make the day's journey from New Haven, Connecticut, to 
Washington to look at the site where the memorial would be built. On 



Literary Analysis 
Biographical Profile 

What details help you 
appreciate that Maya Lin 
is an ordinary young 
person? 



S 



Reading Check 

Why is Maya Ying Lin 
famous? 



1. The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings mythical novels by the English author and scholar 
J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973), chronicling the struggle between various good and evil king- 
doms for possession of a magical ring that can shift the balance of power in the world. 

2. Somme offensive . . . World War I a costly and largely unsuccessful Allied offensive 
that sustained roughly 615,000 casualties of British and French troops. 



Always to Remember: The Vision oj Maya Ying Lin ♦ Ml 



the day of their visit, Maya Lin remembers, Constitution Gardens was 
awash with a late November sun; the park was full of light, alive with 
joggers and people walking beside the lake. 

"It was while I was at the site that I designed it," Maya Lin 
said later in an interview about the memorial with Washington 
Post writer Phil McCombs. "I just sort of visualized it. It just 
popped into my head. Some people were playing Frisbee. It was a 
beautiful park. I didn't want to destroy a living park. You use the 
landscape. You don't fight with it. You absorb the landscape. . . . 
When I looked at the site I just knew I wanted something horizon- 
tal that took you in, that made you feel safe within the park, yet 
at the same time reminding you of the dead. So I just imagined 
opening up the earth. ..." 

When Maya Lin returned to Yale, she made a clay model of the 
vision that had come to her in Constitution Gardens. She showed it 
to Professor Burr: he liked her conception and encouraged her to 
enter the memorial competition. She put her design on paper, a 
task that took six weeks, and mailed it to Washington barely in 
time to meet the March 31 deadline. 

A month and a day later, Maya Lin was attending class. Her 
roommate slipped into the classroom and handed her a note. 
Washington was calling and would call back in fifteen minutes. 
Maya Lin hurried to her room. The call came. She had won the 
memorial competition. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What is your response to the design of the 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial? 

2. (a) Recall: Why did people think that a Vietnam memorial 
was needed? (b) Interpret: What did the design of the 
memorial have to accomplish? 

3. (a) Recall: How was the design for the memorial 
chosen? (b) Infer: How did this process increase 
Maya Lin's chances? 

4. (a) Recall: Why did Maya Lin enter the competition? 
(b) Draw Conclusions: Why was her win so surprising? 

5. (a) Analyze: How does Lin's design meet the criteria of 
the competition? (b) Evaluate: From the photographs, 
do you think the Vietnam Veterans Memorial succeeds 
as a memorial? Explain. 




conception (ken sep' shan) 
n. an original idea, 
design, or plan 



Brent Ashabranner 



(b. 1921) 

Brent 
Ashabranner, 
who lives in 
Williamsburg, 
Virginia, 
served in the 
military 
during World War II and 
knows what it's like to lose 
friends in battle. As a pro- 
fessional writer, he has 
drawn on his experiences as 
a Peace Corps advisor and 
from living overseas in 
Africa and Asia. He has 
written books on social 
issues for young adults, 
dealing with subjects such 
as migrant farm workers. 
The subject of the Vietnam 
Veterans Memorial 
appealed to Ashabranner 
because "It will make us 
remember that war ... is 
about sacrifice and sorrow, 
not about glory and 
reward." 



322 ♦ Quest for Justice 




R 



eview 



and A 



ssess 




Literary Analysis 



Biographical Profile 

1. List four of Maya Lin's personality traits. Then, use a chart like this 
one to show how those traits have influenced her work. 





lity Traits 


Character trait of Maya Ying Lin Scholarly 








Event that shows trait 








Role that event played in her success 









2. How does the background information portion of this article 
contribute to the biographical profile? 

3. How has family background influenced Maya Lin? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. What do you think the author's purpose was in writing "Always to 
Remember" — to inform, to persuade, or to entertain? On a chart 
like the one shown, identify details that support the purpose you 
have identified. 



Detail How it fits purpose 1 


| 


| 




| 


■■ 


^B 



Reading Strategy 

Evaluating Internal Consistency of Text 

5. What main impression or idea do the details build toward? 

6. Write one sentence to explain the link between one paragraph 
and the next for paragraphs 3-6 in the article. 

Example: The first paragraph, about the approval of the monument, 
leads to the second paragraph, about plans for its design. 

7. How effectively does the writer support his view of Maya Lin and 
the memorial she designed? 

Extend Understanding 

8. Apply: Describe two other American monuments or memorials, 
and explain how their appearance is consistent with the image of 
the person or group honored. 



Quick Review 

A biographical profile is 

a piece of writing that 
often focuses on one 
event or achievement in 
a person's life. To review 
biographical profile, see 
page 315. 



An article is a type of 
nonfiction writing that 
informs, entertains, or 
persuades. 



The internal consistency 

of a work is its logic, 
organization, and 
coherence. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to cheek 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



Always to Rei 



sr: The V 



Maya Ying Lin ♦ 323 






Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Fluency: Definitions 

Match each definition in the left column with 
the correct vocabulary word on the right. 

1. without a known name a. unanimous 



2. deeply expressive 

3. standards 

4. those who register 

5. pleasingly arranged 

6. in complete agreement 

7. idea 



Word Analysis: Latin Plural Forms 

Some English words derived from Latin keep 
their Latin plural forms. One is criterion, which 
means "a standard for judging." To form its plu- 
ral, criteria, you change the -on to -a. For several 
Latin-based words ending in -urn, form the plural 
by changing the -urn to -a. Write the plural of 
each word. Check your answers with a dictionary. 

1. medium 2. datum 3. phenomenon 

Spelling Strategy 

Words ending in -ant and -ent sound alike but 
are spelled differently. Unscramble the letters to 
write words ending in -ent and -ant. 

1. quelonet 2. gristreant 3. trimnopen 

Grammar Lesson 

Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives 

and Adverbs ► For more practice, see page R30, Exercise C. 

A prepositional phrase modifies another word Practice Copy the fol lowing sentences. LJnder- 

line each prepositional phrase. Then, identify the 
word it modifies, and tell whether the phrase is 



b. criteria 

c. anonymously 

d. registrants 

e. eloquent 

f. harmonious 

g. conception 



in the sentence, functioning as either an adjec- 
tive or an adverb. 

• Adjective: They find it a place of healing. 
The phrase of healing modifies place. 

• Adverb: The nation was bitterly divided by 
the Vietnam War. The phrase by the Vietnam 
War modifies divided. 

You can add variety to your writing by beginning 
some sentences with prepositional phrases. 



% 



used as an adjective ox adverb. 

1. American soldiers returned from the war. 

2. Between two famous monuments the 
Vietnam memorial stands 

3. Announcement of the competition 
brought an astonishing response. 

4. Lin's design arrived near the deadline. 

5. During the year she studied in Europe. 

Writing Application Add a prepositional phrase 
to the beginning of each sentence. 

1. Maya Lin received a call. 

2. The monument fits its environment. 

3. Many are affected by its quiet beauty 

Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 17/ Chapter 20, Section 7 



Of all the entries, hers was best. 



324 ♦ Quest for Justice 




Writing Lesson 

Tourist Brochure for a Memorial 

Create a brochure for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial or another memorial in 
Washington, D.C. Provide background, interesting facts, and a guide on features. 

Prewriting Prepare a layout for your brochure. Sketch in where photos would 
go. Jot notes for picture captions and text content in the appropri- 
ate places. Then, do research to fill out the spots in your brochure 
that are reserved for text. 



Model: Layout 



Monument 
Name 

Intro text 



Picture of 
Monument 



History of 
Monument 



Fill in 
Research 



Facts 



Fill in Research 



Hours 
Phone # 



Highlights 
of Tour 



Rules 



Picture of 
Monument 



Drafting Using a word-processing program, write the text of your brochure. 
Use formatting to create heads that stand out. 

Revising Ask a classmate to pretend he or she is a visitor to the monument 
and to evaluate the usefulness of your brochure. Consider your 
reviewer's suggestions and revise as needed. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 11, Section 2 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Give a tour guide's 
explanation of the Vietnam Veteran's Memorial. 
Look carefully at the pictures in the book, or find 
some other pictures on the Internet, especially 
one that shows how the memorial fits into the 
ground. Review the selection to find information 
to use in your guided tour. Include details about: 

• the goals and purposes of the monument. 

• background on the designer. 

• why it was constructed. 



Research and Technology Conduct research on 
one of the other monuments in Washington. 
Compare and contrast the purpose and appear- 
ance of the two monuments. Include your own 
reactions to the memorials as well as information 
you have researched. 

Writing Write a summary of the article. In addi- 
tion to restating the main ideas, include your inter- 
pretation of the significance of the events described. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschoohcom 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Alwciys in Remember: The Vision of Maya Ymg Lin ♦ 325 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 



Documentary Transcripts 

^»- ■ i I . - n 



) 



About Transcripts 

Transcripts are written records. Often, the word transcript refers to the 
written record of information originally communicated in a form other than 
writing — usually speech. Transcripts are a useful way to find information 
originally presented in one of the following ways: 

• speeches • interviews • talk shows 

• documentaries • dehates • how-to programs 

A transcript of a spoken presentation is an exact record of the words 
said. No comments on or interpretations of the words spoken are included. 
Formatting, such as color or a font change highlights who is speaking. 

Transcripts are a source of information on a wide variety of topics. You 
can obtain transcripts in several ways. 

• Order from the source. The network or station that originally broad- 
cast the program may offer transcripts for a small fee to cover mailing. 

• Check with a librarian. Many libraries keep transcripts of important 
public presentations, such as speeches or debates. 

• Search the Internet. If you know the name of a program or event, 
search through the program title. If you are looking for information on 
a general topic, transcripts of related interviews or presentations will 
probably show up in a key word search. 

Reading Strategy 

Establish a Purpose for Reading 

Reading without a purpose is like playing basketball without a basket — 
you have nothing to shoot for. Establish a purpose for reading and focus 
on appropriate details. 

You might read "Accidental Entrepreneurs" 
for enjoyment. In that case, details about 
Castognaro's snoring will score high with you. 
You might read instead for help with problem- 
solving. In that case, Castognaro's transformation 
of a nuisance into a business idea will inspire 
you. You might also read to be informed, or to 
find models for your own writing. 

As you read, use a graphic organizer like the 
one at right to list details that fit your purpose 
for reading. 



My Purpose in Reading 







326 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Everything the 
host says, 
including his 
introduction of 
himself, is 
included in the 
transcript. 



The documentary 
begins with an 
introduction 
describing the 
topic, and then 
introduces a 
specific example. 
Here, a particular 
entrepreneur is to 
be interviewed. 



Bright red text 
sets off each 
speaker's name 
from the words 
he or she says. 
This formatting 
also makes it easy 
to see when 
speakers change. 



Accidental 
Entrepreneurs 



H DEREK MCGINTY, hostThis is AIIThings Considered. I'm Derek McGinty. 
The labor issues that concern most Americans are similar to those 
that prompted the UPS strike. 1 Pensions, job security, hourly pay. 
Though we may daydream about quitting our jobs altogether to 
strike out on our own, most of us never get an idea that we think 
would justify such a radical move. 

But there are some people who stumble on inspiration in the 
midst of their everyday lives, and somehow, manage to turn that 
-j inspiration into their livelihoods. 

NPR's Chris Arnold spoke with several of these accidental entre- 
preneurs 2 and has this report. 



ARNOLD: . . . some people don't get hit with an innovative idea until 
much later in life. At 70 years old, Vincent Castognaro has just start- 
ed a business to help people stop snoring. Vincent, whose friends 
call him Jimmy, says he's been snoring most of his life. 

^ VINCENT CASTOGNARO, entrepreneur: So I was known as "Jimmy the 
Snorer." In my younger days, I was known as "Jimmy Dimples" 
because of my dimples, but later on, I was known as Jimmy the 
Snorer. 



ARNOLD: Vincent grew up shining shoes and working in factories in 
Brooklyn, New York. He later moved out to Long Island, where he 
struggled to make a living as a cabinetmaker. For much of the last 25 
years, Vincent and his wife Eleanor both have suffered with his snor- 
ing. He has a condition called sleep apnea, [ap nee] where the jaw 
slumps back during sleep, blocking a person's airway. 

CASTOGNARO: Very, very uncomfortable for me. I would wake up 
with an extremely dry mouth in the morning. And all kinds of 
sore throats and problems of that type. And woozy during the 
day, sleepy. I could just simply close my eyes for two minutes 

1. UPS strike On August 4, 1997, nearly 200,000 United Parcel Service workers went 
on strike. 

2. entrepreneurs (an tra pra nurz') n. people who start and manage their own 
businesses. 



Reading Informational Material: Transcripts ♦ M7 



and I would end up falling asleep. It was drastic. It was really that 
bad. Naturally, it was uncomfortable for everybody else in the 
room, too. 

ELEANOR CASTOGNARO. wife of Vincent: He used to snore terribly. I would 
have to get up and go in the living room and sleep on the couch. 

ARNOLD: Vincent says surgery was too expensive and anti-snoring 
products on the market were too uncomfortable. One doctor recom- 
mended a machine with a mask that would strap around his head 
and pump air into his nose all night. Then, Vincent says he got an 
idea from a child dressed up as a vampire. 

CASTOGNARO: One Halloween day, I saw some children with these 
imitation fang teeth in their mouth and that gave me, pretty much, 
the idea of what I thought would be necessary to keep my mouth 
closed. 

ARNOLD: About this time, Vincent lost his cabinetry business. So with 
very little savings, he started to work full-time on inventing an anti- 
snoring mouthpiece to hold his jaw in place. He went to the library, 
found out what types of plastics were used for mouthguards, got 
some plaster for molds, and then started spending days on end in his 
basement wood shop working on his invention. 

CASTOGNARO: Well, with trial and error, trial and error, I — by hand and 
with knives and files and sandpaper— I managed to make these two 
shapes. My wife and people that saw me thought I was a little bit 
cuckoo. But as the days and the months and the years went by, this 
thing started to really take shape. 

ARNOLD: Along the way, Vincent became friends with an ex-aerospace 
engineer, who joined him as a partner. He went for tests at a sleep 
clinic and confirmed his mouthguard cured his snoring. They got a 
patent, 3 consulted the FDA, 4 and found several dentists through 
which to sell the devices. They've only been in business five months, 
so they're not yet turning a profit, but the mouthguards are selling 
and they think they could do well. 

All of which makes Vincent very happy. 

CASTOGNARO: It is the most incredible thing in my entire life. And 
again, like I say, I'm not a young kid anymore, and to have something 
like this happen, I can now, maybe, hopefully, say, well, now I can 
give something to my children. 

ARNOLD: I'm Chris Arnold reporting. 

3. patent a patent is a description of an invention filed with the government to protect 
the inventor from imitators. 

4. FDA Food and Drug Administration, which regulates the sale of health items. 



Because a 
transcript records 
exactly what is 
said, even 
repeated words 
and incomplete 
sentences are 
included. 



- uj i JimtMiMi. , mmwu 



328 ♦ Quest fur Justice 



Check Your Comprehension 

1. What is an "accidental entrepreneur"? 

2. What is sleep apnea, and how did it cause a problem for the 
Castognaros? 

3. How does Vincent Castognaro's invention solve the problem? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Establish a Purpose for Reading 

4. Did you read the selection to be entertained, to solve a problem, to 
be informed, or as a model for your own writing? 

5. What details in the transcript helped you accomplish your purpose? 

6. What is one other purpose someone might have for reading this 
transcript? 

7. What details would help the reader accomplish that purpose? 

Activity 

Locating Transcripts 

Locate transcripts on a topic or person of interest to you, using the 
three different ways of locating transcripts identified on page 326. Try 
to find different types of transcripts. For example, find the transcript 
of a speech, an interview, and an informational program. Explain to a 
small group how you found the transcripts and the type of information 
contained in each. 

Contrasting Informational Materials 

Transcripts and 

Presentations 

Compare and contrast a tran- 
script to an oral presentation. 
Watch or listen to an informational 
program, a speech, or an interview. 
Based on what you observe and 
what you now know about tran- 
scripts, compare and contrast the 
characteristics of the two ways of 
communicating information. 
Explain the strengths and weak- 
nesses of each form in each category 
shown on the graphic organizer. 



Program 



Transcript 



Easy to understand 



Entertaining 



Informative 



Reading Informational Material: Transcripts ♦ 329 



Writing workshop 



Business Letter 



A business letter is a document written for a formal purpose such as 
requesting information, stating a problem to do with a product or service, 
or placing an order. In this workshop, you will write a business letter. 

Assignment Criteria. Your business letter should have 
the following characteristics: 

• Correct business letter format 

• A statement of purpose 

• Content that is clear, concise, and focused 

• Support for any points you make 

• A tone that is appropriate for your audience 

To preview the criteria on which your business letter 
may be assessed, see the Rubric on page 333. 



Prewriting 



Choose a topic. Make a list of problems you would like 
to solve or issues you would like to address by writing to 
a public official, business, or organization. Select the topic 
that interests you most. 



Topic Ideas 



express a political opinion to my senator 

question my Internet service about the rate increase 

ask the mail-order company about a discounted price for the 
team's order of uniforms 

request a refund from the magazine publisher for my 
canceled subscription 




Write a statement of purpose. Identify the main thing you want to 
accomplish in your letter. Write one statement to sum it up. 



Example 
Statement of Purpose: 



I want to voice my support for building an 
addition to the town library. 



Plan your support. List the information you will use to explain and 
support your purpose. You may need to include concrete facts and exam- 
ples. For example, if you are dissatisfied with a product, provide specific 
examples that will help your audience understand your problem. 



330 ♦ Quest fur justice 



Student Model 



Before you begin drafting, read this student model and review the 
characteristics of an effective business letter. 



£ 



1253 Campground Drive 
Lawrence, IN 55555 

November 10, 2002 

Mark Gary 
Unitron Corporation 
Fourth Street 
Lawrence, IN 55555 

Dear Mr. Gary: 



In a block format 
business letter, the 
writer's address, 
the date, and the 
address of the per- 
son to whom the 
letter is written are 
aligned on the left 
side of the paper, 
with spaces 
between them. 



r 



The salutation 
addresses the 
person formally 
and is punctuated 
by a colon. 



Community Students is a group of active, dedicated young people at 
Lawrence School who volunteer time to improve the quality of parks and 
other public spaces in our area. Last year Unitron generously supported our[_ 
group and I hope we can count on your support again. Our next planned 
project is the improvement of Lees park. The plan includes the addition of 
two new benches and four picnic tables along the blacktopped walking 
path. In addition, we will plant four ornamental trees along the path. 



The body of the 
letter identifies the 
writer's purpose, to 
get a donation. The 
wording of the letter 
communicates a 
formal, professional 
tone, or attitude. 



Placing benches and tables near the blacktopped pathways will give 
greater accessibility for the physically challenged, the elderly, and parents 
pushing strollers. The trees will beautify the path. 

Our group has scheduled bench and table building for January, February, 
and early March. Outdoor work is scheduled to begin in April. Planting is 
scheduled for late May and a final cleanup day is planned for June 1. 

We have offers from Hahn Lumber and Fred's Nursery to give us materials and 
trees at a discount. We have raised $250.00 with our own fundraising activities. 
However, we need additional funding to meet the total budget for this project. 

If you are willing to donate, please make out a check to Lawrence School 
Community Students. I have enclosed a flyer with more information about 
the group, including how you can contact us if you have questions. 

Sincerely, 

Jake Merkis 

President, Community Students 



T 



The writer offers 
support for his 
request by pointing 
out what the 
group has already 
accomplished 
toward the goal. 



The closing 
Sincerely is 
common for 
business letters. 
Respectfully yours 
also communicates 
the appropriately 
formal tone. A 
business letter 
ends with both 
a handwritten 
signature and a 
typed name. Use 
your full name 
when signing a 
business letter. 



Writing Workshop ♦ 33 J 



Writing WORKSHOP continued 



Drafting 



Keep to the format. A business letter must follow 
an appropriate format. This format will give your letter 
a professional look. Include each part of a business let- 
ter noted on the chart. 

Draft the body. In the first paragraph, state your 
purpose for writing. Present your explanation or proposal, 
and supporting information, in the following paragraphs. 
To conclude, restate the purpose of your letter or indicate 
what will be done to follow up on it. 

Present specific information. Whether you are 
explaining a problem or giving reasons for an opinion, 
specific information will make your letter easy to under- 
stand. Vague information might make the reader wonder 
exactly what you want or need. 

Example 

Vague: I have been having some problems with 
my VCR. Please tell me what I should do 
about it. 

Specific: The rewind and fast-forward features of 

my VCR do not always function. Since it is 
still under warranty, I believe it should be 
fixed free of charge. 

Revising 

Revise for conciseness. Business letters should be 
brief and to the point. Review your letter for wordiness 
and unnecessary repetition. Cut and condense any 
passages that go on and on. 



Heading: The writer's address and the date are 
placed in the upper left corner. 



Inside address: The name and address of the 



recipient are placed below the heading, against the 
left margin. 



Salutation: The salutation, or greeting to the 
recipient, is followed by a colon. 
Examples: Dear Mr. Davies: 



Dear Sir or Madam: 

To Whom It May Concern: 



Body: The main part of the letter presents the 
writer's purpose and the information that supports it. 
Closing: The closing begins with a capital 
letter and ends with a comma. 
Examples: Yours truly, 



With best regards, 
Sincerely, 



Signature: The writer's name is typed below the 
closing. Between the closing and the typed name, 
the writer adds a handwritten signature. 






Model: Revising to Be Concise 

Community Students is a group of active, dedicated young people at 
Lawrence School who volunteer time to improve the quality of parks 
and other public spaces in our area. You may th i nk that peop l e i n 

-l-»/-x/-xl rin't -i r r- o r-y* r-J i r l-> i-vm irU t-»i ifr ui^ /- -a r\ \A//-\'wo s4nryr\ rv»-ar»w 



ivvi \-Kti 



l |JMJ I t l HUV tl UUl t VV! VW II . TT V * \. \JI\J 1 



vwn, r iCnt pfOjv.s,t ' J U 'T tt 



I IV. V.* tl IV. V_\_M T I 



■ un i ty. oast year Unitron 
generously supported our group and I hope we can count on your 
support again. 



The writer realizes that 
Unitron is aware of the 
group's work. One 
sentence to jog Mr. Gary's 
memory is sufficient. 




332 ♦ Quest for Justice 















Revise for businesslike language. Business writing should not 
include slang, rude comments, or details from your personal life. Use 
serious, polite language that communicates respect. 

Example 

Non-professional tone: Your CD player is a rip-off. It broke and 

wrecked my party. I want my money back now. 

Professional tone: This product does not work properly and 
would be too expensive to fix. Therefore I 
request that you refund my money promptly. 

Compare the model and the nonmodel. Why is the model more effec- 
tive than the nonmodel? 



Nonmodel 



Hahn Lumber and Fred's Nursery will cut 
their prices for us. We've come up with 
$250.00 bucks with cake sales and stuff. 
We still need a lot of cash to get this 
project started, let alone finished. 



Model 



We have offers from Hahn Lumber and 
Fred's Nursery to give us materials and 
trees at a discount. We have raised 
$250 with our own fundraising activities. 
However, we need additional funding to 
meet the total budget for this project. 



Publishing and Presenting 



Choose one of the following ways to share your writing with class- 
mates or a wider audience. 

Share your letter. Read your letter to a partner. Ask how he or she 

would respond to receiving it. 

Send your letter. Print out an error-free copy on good-quality paper. 
Enclose it in a properly addressed envelope and mail it to the person or 
group to whom you wrote. 

v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 26, Section 3 



Rubric for Self-Assessment 

Evaluate your business letter using the following criteria and rating scale: 



r . ... ^ 

Rating Scale 
Criteria Not very Very 


Is the letter's purpose clearly stated? 


12 3 4 5 


Is the content focused and concise? 


12 3 4 5 


How well does the letter follow correct format? 


12 3 4 5 


How professional and appropriate is the tone? 


12 3 4 5 



Writing Workshop ♦ 333 



Listening and Speaking workshop 



Delivering an Informational Presentation 



In an informational presentation, you organize and deliver informa 
tion orally— in spoken form. This workshop will help you prepare and 
deliver an effective informational presentation. 



4 



Be Organized 



Like an essay, the content of an informational presentation 
should be logically organized. Organize your information in a 
way that most clearly shows your topic. 

• Chronological, or time, order is good for explaining 
a process or for presenting a biography or a history 

• Point by point. Group related details such as "back- 
ground" or "physical features." 

• Make an outline. Prepare an outline of your presenta- 
tion. Highlight words to be defined as explanations 
that are accompanied by visual aids so you do not for- 
get to include these. 

Be Precise 

• Use appropriate grammar. Your 

audience will better understand your 
presentation if you stick to the rules. 
Save the slang and the fragments 
for casual conversation. Speak in 
complete sentences that are 
grammatically correct. 

• Use appropriate word choices. Refer 
to the notes on your outline to 
accurately cite numbers, names, 
or quotations. 



Activity: 



Persuasive Speech 



Following the 
suggestions 
above, deliver a two-to-three minute 
informational presentation on one of 
these topics: 

• How to make a food you like 

• An animal that makes a 
good pet 

• How to get from your school to 
another location 

• An exciting vacation destination 




Pitching and Science 



sjpeed and direction^ 
I. Introduction: Velocity affects a pitcher's success. 



II. Define and Contrast Pitches: 

A. Fastball 

B. Curve 



Contrast velocity of pitches: 



A. Fastball — no change in direction 

B. Curveball — change in direction affects speed 

-v\_— — — - — *, v 
Cshow diagranxs 



IV. Conclusion: Velocity affects a pitcher's success. 
Use funny quotation "-^ 



r 

I 77 
\ 



Baseball is ninety percent mental. X. 

The other half is physical. " ) 



-Yogi Berra 



334 ♦ Quest for Justice 



Assessment worksho 



Identifying the Main Idea 



Ny 



The reading sections of some tests require you to read a passage 
and answer multiple-choice questions about main ideas. 

Sometimes, the main idea of a passage is stated in a topic sen- 
tence, which may appear anywhere in the passage. Sometimes, the 
main idea is not stated directly but is implied, or suggested, by the 
details in the passage. Use what you have learned about making 
inferences to determine implied main ideas. 



Test-Taking Strategy 



After reading a passage, 
identify the main idea in 
your own mind before 
reading the choices. 
Select the choice that is 
closest to your idea. 



Sample Test Item 



Directions: Read the following passage, 
and then choose the answer that summa- 
rizes the author's message. 

The platypus lives in the lakes and 
streams of eastern Australia. It looks like 
a duck-billed seal and acts like a lizard. 
Being a mammal, the platypus is warm- 
blooded and has fur. However, it also has 
some characteristics of a reptile. For 
example, instead of bearing live young, it 
lays eggs. Like a lizard, its legs are 
attached to the side of its body rather 
than underneath it. 

1. What is the main idea of this passage? 

A The platypus lives in Australia. 

B Although it is a mammal, the 
platypus shares some characteris- 
tics with reptiles. 

C The platypus looks like a duck-billed 
seal. 

D The platypus is a graceful swimmer. 



Answer and Explanation 



A and C are details. D is not men- 
tioned in the passage. B is the implied 
main idea of the passage. 



Apply the Strategy 



Directions: Answer the question based 
on this passage: 

On Saturday, at 7:30 a.m., students 
began gathering in the school parking lot. 
Many carried home-baked goodies. 
Others brought pails, soap, sponges, and 
clothes. The students had formed a com- 
mittee to raise money for theTinyTots 
Preschool, which had been severely dam- 
aged in a fire. With the car wash and 
bake sale, they hoped to raise funds to 
replace most of the school's books. By 
one o'clock, the students were counting 
their hard-earned money. 

1. What is the main idea of the passage? 

A Students held a car wash and bake 
sale to benefit theTinyTots 
Preschool. 

B TheTinyTots Preschool had fire 
damage. 

C Students like to help out in a crisis. 

D The students worked hard to earn 
money. 



Assessment Workshop ♦ 335 



/ 



unit From Sea to 
Shining Sea 






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'*/' *gs 







'l ff 



Exploring the Theme 



Oome people describe the United States as a 
melting pot, in which people from different cul- 
tures blend to become American. Others prefer 
the image of a mosaic, in which people retain 
their original heritage while joining American 
society. No matter whether you choose to cele- 
brate Americans' similarities or differences, 
there's no disputing the fact that the United 
States is a rich nation — both in its people and in 
its geography and resources. 

The selections in this unit explore what it 
means to live in this vast and diverse nation. In 
"Travels with Charley," John Steinbeck decides 
the best way to understand America is to travel 
its roads. Steinbeck encounters wildly different 
people and places that demonstrate why it is so 
difficult to come up with a single description of 
America or Americans. 




< Critical Viewing How do the colors and patterns of 
this quilt serve as a metaphor, or symbol, for America? 
[Infer] 



Exploring the Theme ♦ 337 







Read Literature? 



Whenever you read, you have a purpose, or reason. Your purpose will vary, 
depending on the content, genre, and style of the work you plan to read. 
Preview three purposes you might set before reading works in this unit. 



Read to be inspired. 

When we are younger, it can be 
difficult for us to appreciate how much 
our parents do for us. Two poets, Robert 
Hayden and Evelyn Tooley Hunt, reflect 
back on how the thankless sacrifices of a 
parent allowed them to live a better life 
in "Those Winter Sundays," page 400, 
and "Taught Me Purple," page 398. 







Read for information. 



In 1920, more than eighty years 
ago, women won the right to vote. 
This right was achieved through a 
long and difficult struggle which is 
now largely forgotten. It is difficult 
to take this right for granted after 
reading the powerful words of early 
feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
in "Arguments in Favor of a 
Sixteenth Amendment," page 404. 




Martin Luther King, Jr.'s message of 
peace and justice brought out the best 
qualities in many people. Alice Walker 
discusses how King's eloquence and 
courage transformed her life in her inspi- 
rational essay, "Choice: A 
Tribute to Dr. Martin 
Luther King, 
Jr.," page 364. 



Read for the love of literature. 

The poet Emma Lazarus was from a wealthy fami- 
ly. Nevertheless, she still felt sympathy for the vast 
numbers of poor immigrants streaming into New 
York City in the late 19th century. Witness the words 
that have inspired countless numbers of new and 
established Americans when you read "The New 
Colossus," page 372. 

Memorable literature can sometimes capture a 
feeling with pinpoint accuracy. You may feel a flash 
of recognition as you experience the conflicted 
emotions of the young girl in Gish Jen's story, 
"The White Umbrella," page 384. 



■J™ Take It to the Net 

Visit the Web site for online instruction and 
activities related to each selection in this unit. 

www.phschool.com 



338 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 




rlOlU to Read Literature 






Interactive Reading Strategies 

Interactive computer games can be more fun than simply watching tele- 
vision because you are more of an active participant. Interactive reading 
is similar. When you interact with the books you read, the experience 
becomes richer and more fun. Use these reading strategies to help you 
interact with the text. 



1. Clarify details. 

Most people encounter some moments of confusion when reading 
new material. When this happens, take time to clarify the details of the 
passage you have just read. 

• Pause to think about what has happened in the story. Then reread the 
passage slowly and carefully to clear up any remaining confusion. 

• If you still have questions, continue reading to see whether you can 
find answers in passages that lie farther ahead. 

2. Recognize connotations of words. 

A connotation is the implied, or suggested, meaning of a word or 
phrase. For example, if you call someone a "clown," you are prob- 
ably relying on the connotation of the word — more than its literal 
meaning— to get your message across. 

• To determine a connotation, notice how a word or phrase 
makes you feel. 

• Classify the word or phrase as positive or negative, 
depending on its context and your past experience. 

3. Respond to a theme. 

Poems and stories are most memorable when their 
themes generate an emotional reaction. 

• Determine the main theme that the author is 
communicating. 

• Note your reaction to the theme. You might respond 
with approval, anger, or any other type of emotion based on pre- 
vious experience. 

4. Predict 

Predicting, or making guesses about what will happen later in a 
story, keeps you actively involved in a story. Use prediction to avoid 
missing details in a story that could be important and to check your 
understanding of what you have read. 

As you read the selections in this unit, review the reading strategies and 
apply them to interact with the text. 




I law to Rccul Literature ♦ 339 



Prepare to Read 



from The People, Yes 



**».-• < >-+, «..*>. »*>" »,t-» # «-*r* *♦ • • *:->»ei 





Background 



4s you read fh/s 
poem and complete 
the related assignments, 
you will focus on these standards. 
The Student's Guide to the 
Standards contains an outline of 
how each standard is introduced, 
developed, and concluded. 



This poem was published in 1936 during the Great Depression, a time 
of economic struggle that began in L929 and lasted until World War II. 
In the poem, Sandburg recalls another critical era in American history: 
the age of Westward expansion, when tales of heroes with great strength 
inspired settlers who faced great hardships. Sandburg chose this subject 
matter to remind Americans of the courage and hope that are part of the 
American tradition. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 3.7 Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, tradi- 
tions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author. (Developed in the Background, Literary 
Analysis, and the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 1.1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coher- 
ent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion. (Developed in the 
Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices 
to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 
Listening and Speaking 1.7 Use audience feedback. (Developed in the Listening and 
Speaking activity) 



340 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



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torn 



» 



Literary Analysis 

Oral Tradition 

The oral tradition is the passing on of stories from generation to gen- 
eration by word of mouth. In his poem, Sandburg refers to many familiar 
American tales that were passed on in this way. Because this kind of 
storytelling is not as common as it once was, you may not recognize all 
the stories mentioned, but you can still see the humor in the exaggera- 
tions. Use these focus questions to guide you as you read: 

1. How does Sandburg's use of language give his poem the quality of 
oral storytelling? 

2. What is Sandburg's purpose in cataloging stories from the oral 
tradition? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

Sandburg's poem starts with the words, "They have yarns ..." A yarn 
is another term for a "tall tale," a story that depends on claims that are so 
extreme and impossible that they are funny. Note the exaggeration in this 
example: 

... Of the man so tall he must climb a ladder to shave himself, . . . 

A yarn may be based on actual people or events, but the storyteller 
wildly exaggerates some characteristics to create humor. 

Reading Strategy 

Recognizing Cultural References 

Sandburg's references to American tall tales are examples of cultural 
references — details that reflect a writer's heritage, background, and tradi- 
tions. Sandburg was a distinctly American voice — a poet who celebrated 
ordinary Americans and reveled in the American oral tradition. By 
referring to American folk heroes and tales, Sandburg captures many of 
the values and beliefs of American culture. 

As you read, use a chart like this one to list references to folk heroes 
and tall tales and to record the qualities that you think Sandburg is trying 
to capture through these references. 

Vocabulary Development 

mutineers (myoot' an irz') n. crew 
members on a ship who revolt 
against their officers (p. 343) 



Speed 



flue (flcro) n. pipe in a chimney that 
leads the smoke outside (p. 343) 



railroad train 
that reached 
the station 
before the 
whistle 



man who 
had to climb 
a ladder 
to shave 

sheep counter 
so fast he 
counts feet 
and divides 



from The People, Yes ♦ 34 J 










A Critical Viewing Which aspects of this illustration of Paul Bunyan are realistic? 
Which aspects are exaggerated? [Interpret] 



J 



342 From Sea to Shining Sea 





Carl Sandburg 



They have yarns 
Of a skyscraper so tall they had to put hinges 
On the two top stories so to let the moon go by, 
Of one corn crop in Missouri when the roots 
5 Went so deep and drew off so much water 
The Mississippi riverbed that year was dry, 
Of pancakes so thin they had only one side, 
Of "a fog so thick we shingled the barn and six feet out on the 

fog," 
Of Pecos Pete straddling a cyclone in Texas and riding it to the 

west coast where "it rained out under him," 
10 Of the man who drove a swarm of bees across the Rocky 

Mountains and the Desert "and didn't lose a bee," 
Of a mountain railroad curve where the engineer 

in his cab can touch the caboose and spit in the 

conductor's eye, 
Of the boy who climbed a cornstalk growing so fast he would 

have starved to death if they hadn't shot biscuits up to him, 
Of the old man's whiskers: "When the wind was with him his 

whiskers arrived a day before he did," 
Of the hen laying a square egg and cackling, "Ouch!" and of 

hens laying eggs with the dates printed on them, 
15 Of the ship captain's shadow: it froze to the deck one cold 

winter night, 
Of mutineers on that same ship put to chipping rust with 

rubber hammers, 
Of the sheep counter who was fast and accurate: "I just count 

their feet and divide by four," 
Of the man so tall he must climb a ladder to shave himself, 
Of the runt so teeny-weeny it takes two men and a boy to see 

him, 
Of mosquitoes: one can kill a dog, two of them a man, 
Of a cyclone that sucked cookstoves out of the kitchen, up the 

chimney flue , and on to the next town, 
Of the same cyclone picking up wagontracks in Nebraska and 

dropping them over in the Dakotas, 
Of the hook-and-eye snake 1 unlocking itself into forty pieces, 



Reading Strategy 
Recognizing Cultural 
References What details 
in the poem reflect the 
poet's cultural heritage? 



mutineers (myoof en irz') 
n. people on a ship who 
revolt against their officers 



flue (fldo) n. the pipe in a 
chimney that leads the 
smoke outside 

•^Reading Check 

What does the speaker 
list in the poem? 



1. hook-and-eye snake here, a snake that is fastened together with metal hooks. 



from The People, Yes ♦ 343 



each piece two inches long, then in nine seconds flat 

snapping itself together again. 
Of the watch swallowed by the cow — when they butchered her 

a year later the watch was running and had the correct 

time, 
25 Of horned snakes, hoop snakes that roll themselves where 

they want to go, and rattlesnakes carrying bells instead of 

rattles on their tails. 
Of the herd of cattle in California getting lost in a giant 

redwood tree that had hollowed out. 
Of the man who killed a snake by putting its tail in its mouth 

so it swallowed itself. 
Of railroad trains whizzing along so fast they reach the 

station before the whistle. 
Of pigs so thin the farmer had to tie knots in their tails 

to keep them from crawling through the cracks in 

their pens, 
30 Of Paul Bunyan's big blue ox, Babe, measuring between 

the eyes forty-two ax-handles and a plug of Star 
tobacco exactly, 
Of John Henry's hammer and the curve of its swing and 

his singing of it as "a rainbow round my shoulder." 





Review and Assess 



Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Which tale sounds most interesting to you? Why? 

2. (a) Recall: Identify three animals mentioned in these yarns. 



(b) Infer: Why do tall tales often include unusual anim; 



Us.' 



(c) Generalize: What characteristics do the people, animals, 
and things in these yarns share? 

3. (a) Recall: Name three geographical locations mentioned in the 
yarns, (b) Analyze: What do these locations reveal about the 
origins of tall tales? 

4. (a) Recall: Identify three people mentioned who have amazing 
abilities or skills, (b) Compare: In what way does each 
character's ability or skill contribute to survival? 

5. (a) Interpret: Based on what you have read in this section, 
explain what you think the title of the poem means. 

(b) Connect: What inspirational stories from recent times — true 
or fictional — could be used to give hope and courage? 

(c) Evaluate: Are the heroes of the tall tales still inspirational or 
encouraging in today's world? Why or why not? 



Carl Sandburg 



(1878-1967) 

Carl Sandburg 
was not only a 
folklorist and 
poet but also a 
journalist and 
historian. As a 
young man, he 
worked as a truck 
driver and farm worker. 
In the early 1900s, he 
became an active part of a 
Chicago writers' movement. 

In his work, Sandburg 
focuses on the stories of 
ordinary Americans, using 
playful humor in his stories 
for children. He won a 
Pulitzer Prize in 1940 for 
a four-volume biography 
of Abraham Lincoln and 
again in 1951 for his 
Complete Poems. "The 
People, Yes" is an epic 
poem, published in 1936 
when Americans were 
suffering the hardships of 
the Great Depression. 
The poem celebrates the 
American character and 
spirit. 



344 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



HNMS 



■VHMMi: 



•a*ks-.v 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Oral Tradition 

1. How does Sandburg's use of language give his poem the quality of 
oral storytelling? 

2. What is Sandburg's purpose in cataloging stories from the oral 
tradition? 

3. Complete a chart like the one shown. For each quality or concern 
that was important to the settlers of the West, identify two tales 
mentioned in Sandburg's poem that illustrate the quality or concern. 
Explain each answer. 



Dangers of Nature 



Hard Work 



Cleverness 



Connecting Literary Elements 

4. On a chart like the one below, list three yarns referred to in the 
poem. Then explain how exaggeration may have been used to 
create each yarn based on an actual event. 



r 

Yarn 


Actual Event Exaggeration 


| 


1 II 1 


JH 







Reading Strategy 



Recognizing Cultural References 

5. What American attitude or belief is reflected in the fact that tall 
tales make everything bigger than life? 

6. What is Carl Sandburg's attitude toward the tall tales? How do you 
know? 

7. Why would Sandburg include these tall tales in a poem he wrote to 
inspire courage and hope during the Great Depression? 

8. What overall impression of the United States and its people does 
this poem convey? Support your answer with details from the poem. 



Extend Understanding 



9. Evaluate: How important is it for a country or a culture to have 
its own oral tradition? Explain. 



Quick Review 

The oral tradition includes 
all the songs, stories, and 
poems in a culture that are 
passed from generation to 
generation by word of 
mouth. To review oral 
tradition, see page 341 . 



A yarn, or tall tale, 
is a story or legend that 
creates humor through 
exaggerated actions and 
situations. To review yarns, 
see page 341 . 



Cultural references are 

details that connect a work 
to the writer's heritage, 
background, and 
traditions. To review a 
technique for recognizing 
cultural references, see 
page 341 . 



Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding ot 
the selection. 



from The People, Yes ♦ .H5 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Suffix -eer 

Add the suffix -eer to a word to form a noun 
that means "a person who does or works with 
[something]." For example, an engineer works with 
or operates an engine. Add the suffix -eer to each 
of these words. Then, use the word in a sentence. 

1. auction 2. ballad 3. mutiny 

Fluency: Sentence Completion 

On your paper, write the vocabulary word 
from the list on page 341 that best completes 
each sentence. 

1. Soot and ashes can clog the ? of a 
chimney. 

2. The ? seized the ship and sailed to 
a deserted island. 

Use each vocabulary word in a sentence about 
a tall tale or yarn mentioned in "The People, Yes." 

Grammar Lesson 

Subordinating Conjunctions 

Conjunctions connect words or groups of 
words within a sentence. A subordinating 
conjunction connects two complete ideas and 
shows that one is dependent on the other. 

Example: Although redwood trees are huge, 
they are not large enough to hold a herd of 
cattle. 



Common Subordinating Conjunctions 



after 
because 
unless 
while 



although 
before 
until 
whenever 



as 

if 

when 

whenever 



as soon as 
since 
when 
while 



Spelling Strategy 

To make the plural of a word ending in -o, 
follow these rules: 

• For most nouns ending in -o preceded by a 
vowel, add -s: radio + -s = radios 

• For most nouns ending in -o preceded by a 
consonant, add -es: mosquito + -es = 
mosquitoes 

• For most musical terms, add -s: piano + -s = 
pianos 

Write the plurals of these words: 

1. hero 2. potato 3. concerto 4. studio 



► For more practice, see page R29, Exercise E. 
Practice Revise the following passage by com- 
bining underlined words with another sentence. 
Use a subordinating conjunction to make the 
underlined clause dependent on the clause that 
comes before it. You may rearrange, remove, or 
add words or groups of words as needed. 

Tall tales are part of American culture. They 
are also known as yarns. They are not the only 
examples of folk tales told in America. They cap- 
ture an important part of our American oral tra- 
dition. Enslaved Africans brought with them 
many trickster stories. The stories began to 
include "American" details. 

Writing Application Add a paragraph of your 
own that includes subordinating conjunctions. 



vIq Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 18, Section 18. 1 



346 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 




wmmmmmmBBBmKffBBBmamaam 



Writing Lesson 

Profile of a Legendary Figure 

Write a profile — a short biographical article — of a legendary figure. 

Prewriting Research your subject's background, taking notes of interesting facts 
and stories. Prepare an "impression tree" to help you focus your main 
impression of the subject. First, list several adjectives to describe your 
subject. Combine specific words to form a more general description. 
Continue combining until you arrive at one overall word. 



Model: Impression Tree 



Drafting Using your impression tree, write a thesis statement — a sentence 
that states the main idea of your profile. Then, use each adjective 
from your tree as the basis for a supporting paragraph. Give details 
and events from the subect's life that support the adjective you 
chose. Conclude with a restatement of your main impression. 

Revising Eliminate details that do not contribute to the main impression. 

nn Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 6, Section 4 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Choose an American 
yarn and prepare and perform a storytelling for 
your class. 

Use verbal feedback. Answer questions and 
respond to comments, but do not stray too far 
from the story or listeners will forget where the 
story left off. 

Use nonverbal feedback. Watch faces and body 
language. People who are looking away or mov- 
ing restlessly are not listening. Adjust your story- 
telling to make it more interactive if you see any 
of these signs. 




Research and Technology In a small group, 
make a collection of tall tales. Each group should 

• choose a legendary figure. 

• use an Internet search engine or library 
resources to find different versions of tales, 
songs, and poems about the figure. 

Collect the tales in a book and display it for the 
class to read. [Group Activity] 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschooi.com 

( Jo online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



from The People, Yes ♦ 347 



Prepare to Read 



from Travels with Charley 




!££$/, 




y^ As you read this 
•3#vd/x£ <> essay and complete 
the related assignments, 
you will focus on these standards. 
The Student's Guide to the 
standards contains an outline of 
how each standard is introduced, 
developed, and concluded. 



Background 



As the author John Steinbeck travels westward through the United 
States, he finds himself in the Badlands of North Dakota. The Badlands 
are a rugged region of fantastically shaped rock formations separated by 
valleys. In that barren landscape, few plants grow. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 1.1 Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and 

figurative meanings of phrases. (Developed in the Literary Analysis and the Reading 

Strategy) 

Writing 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives. 

{Developed in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices 

to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, 

appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice in ways 

that enliven oral presentations. (Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



348 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 




Literary Analysis 



Travel Essay 

A travel essay is a brief nonfiction work about a trip. Most travel essays 
include a combination of facts and personal impressions. Notice how John 
Steinbeck's personal impressions are reflected in this passage: 

On the Bismarck side it is an eastern landscape, eastern grass with 
the look and smell of eastern America. Across the Missouri it is 
pure west, with brown grass and water scorings and small outcrops. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

In his travel essay, Steinbeck uses the following types of figurative 
language — descriptive writing that is not meant to be taken literally. 
Examples are given in the chart on the right. 

• Metaphor: Description of one item as if it were another, without 
using like or as. 

• Similes: Comparison of two things using like or as. 

• Personification: Nonhumans are given human characteristics. 
As you read, keep these focus questions in mind: 

1. In what way do comparisons make a description clearer? 

2. What does figurative language add to Steinbeck's descriptions? 

Reading Strategy 

Clarifying Details 

When you do not completely understand a passage in a travel essay, use 
strategies to clarify, or make clear, the meaning. First, try to clarity with- 
out leaving the text. 

• Look Kir footnotes or margin notes that give additional information. 

• Recall similar words, place names, or expressions. 

• Reread to discover details you may have missed. 

• Read ahead to find additional details. 

If the meaning remains unclear, use a resource such as a dictionary, a 
thesaurus, an atlas, or a reader's encyclopedia to clarity the meaning. 

Vocabulary Development 

diagnostic (df eg nas' tik) adj. rigorous (rig' ar as) adj. very strict or 

providing evidence about the nature harsh (p. 352) 
of something (p. 351) inexplicable (in eks' pli ka bal) adj. 

peripatetic (per' i pa tet' ik) adj. moving not possible to explain (p. }54) 
,n,m Pk ce toplace (p. J51) celestial (sales' chal) adj. of the 

heavens; divine (p. ^55) 



Metaphor 



Steinbeck was a casual 
turtle, carrying his house 
on his back. 



Simile 



Charley has a roar like 
a lion 



Personification 



the grieving sky 



Imiii Travels with Charley ♦ 549 




My plan was clear, concise, and reasonable, I think. For many 
years I have traveled in many parts of the world. In America I live 
in New York, or dip into Chicago or San Francisco. But New York 
is no more America than Paris is France or London is England. 
Thus I discovered that I did not know my own country. I, an 
American writer, writing about America, was working from memory, 
and the memory is at best a faulty, warpy reservoir. I had not 
heard the speech of America, smelled the grass and trees and 
sewage, seen its hills and water, its color and quality of light. 
I knew the changes only from books and newspapers. But more 
than this, I had not felt the country for twenty-five years. In 
short, I was writing of something I did not know about, and it 
seems to me that in a so-called writer this is criminal. My memories 
were distorted by twenty- five intervening years. 

Once I traveled about in an old bakery wagon, double-doored 
rattler with a mattress on its floor. I stopped where people stopped 
or gathered, I listened and looked and felt, and in the process had 
a picture of my country the accuracy of which was impaired only 
by my own shortcomings. 



A Critical Viewing 

What impression of 
traveling does this 
picture give? [Analyze] 



350 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 




So it was that I determined to look again, to try to rediscover 
this monster land. Otherwise, in writing, I could not tell the small 
diagnostic truths which are the foundations of the larger truth. 
One sharp difficulty presented itself. In the intervening twenty-five 
years my name had become reasonably well known. And it has 
been my experience that when people have heard of you, favorably 
or not, they change; they become, through shyness or the other 
qualities that publicity inspires, something they are not under 
ordinary circumstances. This being so, my trip demanded that 
I leave my name and my identity at home. I had to be peripatetic 
eyes and ears, a kind of moving gelatin plate. ' I could not sign 
hotel registers, meet people I knew, interview others, or even ask 
searching questions. Furthermore, two or more people disturb the 
ecologic complex of an area. I had to go alone and I had to be self- 
contained, a kind of casual turtle carrying his house on his back. 

With all this in mind I wrote to the head office of a great corpora- 
tion which manufactures trucks. I specified my purpose and my 



diagnostic (di' og nas' tik) 
adj. providing evidence 
about the nature of 
something 



peripatetic (per i pa tet' ik) 
adj. moving from place to 
place 



^Reading Check 

What is the narrator's 
plan? 



1. gelatin plate sensitive glass plate used to reproduce pictures. 



Travels with ( Charley ♦ 35 1 



needs. I wanted a three-quarter-ton pick-up truck, capable of going 
anywhere under possibly rigorous conditions, and on this truck I 
wanted a little house built like the cabin of a small boat. A trailer is 
difficult to maneuver on mountain roads, is impossible and often 
illegal to park, and is subject to many restrictions. In due time, 
specifications came through, for a tough, fast, comfortable vehicle, 
mounting a camper top — a little house with double bed, a four- 
burner stove, a heater, refrigerator and lights operating on 
butane, a chemical toilet, closet space, storage space, windows 
screened against insects — exactly what I wanted. It was delivered in 
the summer to my little fishing place at Sag Harbor near the end of 
Long Island. Although I didn't want to start before Labor Day, when 
the nation settles back to normal living, I did want to get used to my 
turtle shell, to equip it and learn it. It arrived in August, a beautiful 
thing, powerful and yet lithe. It was almost as easy to handle as a 
passenger car. And because my planned trip had aroused some 
satiric remarks among my friends, I named it Rocinante, which you 
will remember was the name of Don Quixote's 2 horse. 

Since I made no secret of my project, a number of controversies 
arose among my friends and advisers. (A projected journey spawns 
advisers in schools.) I was told that since my photograph was as 
widely distributed as my publisher could make it, I would find it 
impossible to move about without being recognized. Let me say in 
advance that in over ten thousand miles, in thirty-four states, 
I was not recognized even once. I believe that people identify things 
only in context. Even those people who might have known me 
against a background I am supposed to have, in no case identified 
me in Rocinante. 

I was advised that the name Rocinante painted on the side of 
my truck in sixteenth-century Spanish script would cause curiosity 
and inquiry in some places. I do not know how many people 
recognized the name, but surely no one ever asked about it. 

Next, I was told that a stranger's purpose in moving about the 
country might cause inquiry or even suspicion. For this reason 
I racked a shotgun, two rifles, and a couple of fishing rods in my 
truck, for it is my experience that if a man is going hunting or 
fishing his purpose is understood and even applauded. Actually, 
my hunting days are over. I no longer kill or catch anything I cannot 



rigorous (rig' ar as) adj. 
very strict or harsh 



Literary Analysis 

Figurative Language What 
metaphor does Steinbeck 
use to emphasize qualities 
of the truck? 



2. Don Quixote (dan' ke hot' e) hero of an early 17th-century satirical romance by 
Cervantes, who tries in a chivalrous but unrealistic way to rescue the oppressed and fight evil. 




get into a frying pan; I am too old for sport killing. This stage 
setting turned out to be unnecessary. 

It was said that my New York license plates would arouse interest 
and perhaps questions, since they were the only outward identifying 
marks I had. And so they did — perhaps twenty or thirty times in the 
whole trip. But such contacts followed an invariable pattern, some- 
what as follows: 

Local man: "New York, huh?" 

Me: "Yep." 

Local man: "I was there in nineteen thirty-eight — or was it thirty- 
nine? Alice, was it thirty-eight or thirty-nine we went to New York?" 

Alice: "It was thirty-six. I remember because it was the year 
Alfred died." 

Local man: "Anyway, I hated it. Wouldn't live there if you paid me." 

There was some genuine worry about my traveling alone, open to 
attack, robbery, assault. It is well known that our roads are danger- 
ous. And here I admit I had senseless qualms. It is some years since 
I have been alone, nameless, friendless, without any of the safety one 
gets from family, friends, and accomplices. There is no reality in the 
danger. It's just a very lonely, helpless feeling at first — a kind of deso- 
late feeling. For this reason I took one companion on my journey — 
an old French gentleman poodle known as Charley. Actually his 
name is Charles le Chien. 3 He was born in Bercy on the outskirts 
of Paris and trained in France, and while he knows a little poodle- 
English, he responds quickly only to commands in French. 
Otherwise he has to translate, and that slows him down. He is a 
very big poodle, of a color called bleu, and he is blue when he is 
clean. Charley is a born diplomat. He prefers negotiation to fight- 
ing, and properly so, since he is very bad at fighting. Only once in 
his ten years has he been in trouble — when he met a dog who 
refused to negotiate. Charley lost a piece of his right ear that time. 
But he is a good watch dog — has a roar like a lion, designed to con- 
ceal from night-wandering strangers the fact that he couldn't bite his 



^Reading Check 

Who accompanies the 
author? 



3. Charles le Chien (shah' \a she un') French for "Charles the dog. 





way out of a cornet de papier. 4 He is a good friend and traveling 
companion, and would rather travel about than anything he can 
imagine. If he occurs at length in this account, it is because he 
contributed much to the trip. A dog, particularly an exotic like 
Charley, is a bond between strangers. Many conversations en 
route began with "What degree of a dog is that?" 

The techniques of opening conversation are universal. I knew 
long ago and rediscovered that the best way to attract attention, 
help, and conversation is to be lost. 



▲ Critical Viewing 

Why is the name 
"Badlands" appropriate 
for the region pictured 
here? [Analyze] 



The night was loaded with omens. The grieving sky turned the 
little water to a dangerous metal and then the wind got up — not 
the gusty, rabbity wind of the seacoasts I know but a great bursting 
sweep of wind with nothing to inhibit it for a thousand miles in any 
direction. Because it was a wind strange to me, and therefore 
mysterious, it set up mysterious responses in me. In terms of reason, 
it was strange only because I found it so. But a goodly part of our 
experience which we find inexplicable must be like that. To my 
certain knowledge, many people conceal experiences for fear of 
ridicule. How many people have seen or heard or felt something 
which so outraged their sense of what should be that the whole thing 
was brushed quickly away like dirt under a rug? 

For myself, I try to keep the line open even for things I can't 
understand or explain, but it is difficult in this frightened time. 



Literary Analysis 
Figurative Language 

How is the sky personified 
in the phrase "grieving 
sky"? 



inexplicable 

(in eks' pli ke bel) adj. not 
possible to explain 



4. cornet de papier (kor na' da pa pya') French for "paper bag. 



354 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



At this moment in North Dakota I had a reluctance to drive on 
that amounted to fear. At the same time, Charley wanted to go — 
in fact, made such a commotion about going that I tried to reason 
with him. 

"Listen to me, dog. I have a strong impulse to stay amounting to 
celestial command. If I should overcome it and go and a great 
snow should close in on us, I would recognize it as a warning 
disregarded. If we stay and a big snow should come I would be 
certain I had a pipeline to prophecy." 

Charley sneezed and paced restlessly. "All right, mon car, 5 let's 
take your side of it. You want to go on. Suppose we do, and in the 
night a tree should crash down right where we are presently stand- 
ing. It would be you who have the attention of the gods. And there 
is always that chance. I could tell you many stories about faithful 
animals who saved their masters, but I think you are just bored 
and I'm not going to flatter you." Charley leveled at me his most 
cynical eye. I think he is neither a romantic nor a mystic. "I know 
what you mean. If we go, and no tree crashes down, or stay and no 
snow falls — what then? I'll tell you what then. We forget the whole 
episode and the field of prophecy is in no way injured. I vote to 
stay. You vote to go. But being nearer the pinnacle of creation than 
you, and also president, I cast the deciding vote." 

We stayed and it didn't snow and no tree fell, so naturally we 
forgot the whole thing and are wide open for more mystic feelings 
when they come. And in the early morning swept clean of clouds 



celestial (sa les' chel) adj. 
of the heavens; divine 



%4 Reading Check 

With whom does the 
narrator discuss his 
decision? 



5. mon cur (mon kar") French slang for "my dear mutt. 



from Travels with Charley ♦ 355 



and telescopically clear, we crunched around on the thick white 
ground cover of frost and got under way. The caravan of the arts 
was dark but the dog barked as we ground up to the highway. 

Someone must have told me about the Missouri River at 
Bismarck, North Dakota, or I must have read about it. In either 
case, I hadn't paid attention. I came on it in amazement. Here is 
where the map should fold. Here is the boundary between east 
and west. On the Bismarck side it is eastern landscape, eastern 
grass, with the look and smell of eastern America. Across the 
Missouri on the Mandan side, it is pure west, with brown grass 
and water scorings and small outcrops. The two sides of the river 
might well be a thousand miles apart. As I was not prepared for 
the Missouri boundary, so I was not prepared for the Bad Lands. 
They deserve this name. They are like the work of an evil child. 
Such a place the Fallen Angels might have built as a spite to 
Heaven, dry and sharp, desolate and dangerous, and for me filled 
with foreboding. A sense comes from it that it does not like or 
welcome humans. But humans being what they are, and I being 
human, I turned off the highway on a shaley road and headed in 
among the buttes, but with a shyness as though I crashed a party. 
The road surface tore viciously at my tires and made Rocinante's 
overloaded springs cry with anguish. What a place for a colony of 
troglodytes, or better, of trolls. And here's an odd thing. Just as 
I felt unwanted in this land, so do I feel a reluctance in writing 
about it. 

Presently I saw a man leaning on a two-strand barbed-wire 
fence, the wires fixed not to posts but to crooked tree limbs stuck 
in the ground. The man wore a dark hat, and jeans and long jack- 
et washed palest blue with lighter places at knees and elbows. His 
pale eyes were frosted with sun glare and his lips scaly as snake- 
skin. A .22 rifle leaned against the fence beside him and on the 
ground lay a little heap of fur and feathers — rabbits and small 
birds. I pulled up to speak to him, saw his eyes wash over 
Rocinante, sweep up the details, and then retire into their sockets. 
And I found I had nothing to say to him. The "Looks like an early 
winter," or "Any good fishing hereabouts?" didn't seem to apply. 
And so we simply brooded at each other. 

"Afternoon!" 

"Yes, sir," he said. 

"Any place nearby where I can buy some eggs?" 

"Not real close by 'less you want to go as far as Galva or 
up to Beach." 6 

"I was set for some scratch-hen eggs." 

"Powdered," he said. "My Mrs. gets powdered." 



Literary Analysis 

Travel Essay What factual 
information about the 
place does Steinbeck 
provide here? What 
impressions does he 
describe? 



6. Galva . . . Beach cities in western North Dakota near the border of Montana. 



356 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



"Lived here long?" 

"Yep." 

I waited for him to ask something or to say something so we could 
go on, but he didn't. And as the silence continued, it became more 
and more impossible to think of something to say. I made one more 
try. "Does it get very cold here winters?" 

"Fairly." 

"You talk too much." 

He grinned. "That's what my Mrs. says." 

"So long," I said, and put the car in gear and moved along. And 
in my rear -view mirror I couldn't see that he looked after me. He 
may not be a typical Badlander, but he's one of the few I caught. 

A little farther along I stopped at a small house, a section of 
war-surplus barracks, it looked, but painted white with yellow 
trim, and with the dying vestiges of a garden, frosted-down gerani- 
ums and a few clusters of chrysanthemums, little button things 
yellow and red -brown. I walked up the path with the certainty that 
I was being regarded from behind the white window curtains. An 
old woman answered my knock and gave me the drink of water I 
asked for and nearly talked my arm off. She was hungry to talk, 
frantic to talk, about her relatives, her friends, and how she wasn't 
used to this. For she was not a native and she didn't rightly belong 
here. Her native clime was a land of milk and honey and had its 
share of apes and ivory and peacocks. Her voice rattled on as 
though she was terrified of the silence that would settle when I 
was gone. As she talked it came to me that she was afraid of this 
place and, further, that so was I. I felt I wouldn't like to have the 
night catch me here. 

I went into a state of flight, running to get away from the 
unearthly landscape. And then the late afternoon changed every- 
thing. As the sun angled, the buttes and coulees, the cliffs and 
sculptured hills and ravines lost their burned and dreadful look 
and glowed with yellow and rich browns and a hundred variations 
of red and silver gray, all picked out by streaks of coal black. It 
was so beautiful that I stopped near a thicket of dwarfed and 
wind-warped cedars and junipers, and once stopped I was caught, 
trapped in color and dazzled by the clarity of the light. Against the 
descending sun the battlements were dark and clean-lined, while 
to the east, where the uninhibited light poured slantwise, the 
strange landscape shouted with color. And the night, far from 
being frightful, was lovely beyond thought, for the stars were close, 
and although there was no moon the starlight made a silver glow 
in the sky. The air cut the nostrils with dry frost. And for pure 
pleasure I collected a pile of dry dead cedar branches and built a 
small fire just to smell the perfume of the burning wood and to 
hear the excited crackle of the branches. My fire made a dome of 



Literary Analysis 

Figurative Language 

What type of figurative 
language does Steinbeck 
use to describe the 
woman's native land? 



^Reading Check 

What are the "Badlands"? 



from /) 



with (,7i 



arlcv 



♦ 357 



yellow light over me, and nearby I heard a screech owl hunting 
and a barking of coyotes, not howling but the short chuckling bark 
of the dark of the moon. This is one of the few places I have ever 
seen where the night was friendlier than the day. And I can easily 
see how people are driven back to the Bad Lands. 

Before I slept I spread a map on my bed, a Charley-tromped 
map. Beach was not far away, and that would be the end of North 
Dakota. And coming up would be Montana, where I had never been. 
That night was so cold that I put on my insulated underwear for 
pajamas, and when Charley had done his duties and had his bis- 
cuits and consumed his usual gallon of water and finally curled up 
in his place under the bed, I dug out an extra blanket and covered 
him — all except the tip of his nose — and he sighed and wriggled and 
gave a great groan of pure ecstatic comfort. And I thought how every 
safe generality I gathered in my travels was canceled by another. In 
the night the Bad Lands had become Good Lands. I can't explain it. 
That's how it was. 



John Steinbeck 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you have liked to join Steinbeck on his 
travels? Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: Why does Steinbeck decide to make this trip? 

(b) Interpret: Explain what Steinbeck means when he says he 
"had not felt the country for twenty-five years." (c) Synthesize 
What does Steinbeck hope to gain or learn from his trip? 

3. (a) Recall: Who is Charley? (b) Analyze: What are 
Steinbeck's reasons for bringing Charley on the trip? 

4. (a) Recall: What are Steinbeck's initial reactions to the 
Badlands? (b) Contrast: How do his feelings change as night 




fall 



s: 



5. (a) Recall: Identify two different people that Steinbeck meets 
on his journey, (b) Compare and Contrast: In what ways is 
each person similar to and different from Steinbeck? 

(c) Generalize: What generalization can you make about people 
in the United States based on Steinbeck's experience? 

6. (a) Compare and Contrast: What can you learn from visiting a 
place that you cannot learn from reading about it? 

(b) Make a Judgment: Do you agree with Steinbeck that 
traveling around the country is the best way to learn about it? 
Explain, (c) Assess: In your opinion, does Steinbeck succeed 
in his aim to get reacquainted with America? 



(1902-1968) 

John Steinbeck's 
long and 
successful 
career made 
him one of 
America's 
best-loved 
authors. Drawing 
on his own upbringing 
in southern California, 
he often wrote with 
sympathy and humor 
about "ordinary" working 
Americans, such as fisher- 
men and farm workers. 
The Grapes of Wrath, a 
dramatic story of people 
uprooted by the Great 
Depression, won the 
Pulitzer Prize in 1940. 
Several Steinbeck stories, 
including East of Eden, were 
made into films. He also 
wrote film scripts, including 
the one for his own book 
The Red Pony. Steinbeck 
won the Nobel Prize for 
Literature in 1962. 



358 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Travel Essay 

1. Explain how the excerpt from Travels with Charley fits the 
definition of a travel essay. 

2. Prepare a chart like the one shown. Fill in details about the Badlands. 



Subject Facts Descriptive Author's 

details thoughts 


By day 






By night 







Connecting Literary Elements 

3. In the beginning of the essay, what kind of figurative language is 
Steinbeck using when he writes ". . . memory is at best a faulty, 
warpy reservoir." 

4. Analyze the comparison by breaking it down on an organizer like 
the one shown here. 



Thing being described 




Shared quality 



Meaning of comparison 




Compared to 



5. Identify and explain at least one example of metaphor, 
personification, and simile that Steinbeck uses. 

Reading Strategy 

Clarifying Details 

6. Explain how you were able to clarify the meaning of the italicized 
words below. Go back to the page given, and tell what helped you 
discover the meaning. 

(a) On page 353: "Actually his name is Charles le Chien." 

(b) On page 352: "I named it Rocinante, which you will remember 
was the name of Don Quixote's horse." 

(c) On page 358: "Beach was not far away, and that would be the 
end of North Dakota." 



Extend Understanding 



7. Take a Position: Explain why it is or is not important for 

Americans to see and understand parts of the country where they 
do not live. 



Quick Review 

A travel essay is a brief 
nonfiction work about a 
trip. To review travel 
essays, see page 349. 



Figurative language, such 
as metaphor, simile, and 
personification, is writing 
that is not meant to be 
taken literally. To review 
figurative language, see 
page 349. 



Clarify details— make them 
clear — by using footnotes 
or margin notes, recalling 
similar details, rereading 
to discover missed 
information, or reading 
ahead to gather new 
details. To review this 
technique, see page 349. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self- test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



1mm 



Travels with t Iharley ♦ 359 



IWHBSMHMHHMHHMMMBW 



■■ 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Greek Suffix 4c Concept Development: Analogies 



The Greek suffix Ac means "like" or "related to" 
[something], as in diagnostic — "related to a diagno- 
sis." Add Ac to noun bases to form adjectives: 
patriot + Ac = patriotic 

Write a definition for each of these words, 
including the definition of Ac in each answer. 

1. photographic 2. fantastic 3. artistic 

Spelling Strategy 

The kw sound is spelled qu when it occurs at 
the beginning or in the middle of a word, as in 
quiet, inquire, and quest. Rewrite these phonetic 
spellings with the actual spelling of each word. 

1. (kwiz) 2. (ri kwest) 3. (urth kwak) 

Grammar Lesson 

Coordinating Conjunctions 

A conjunction connects single words or groups 
of words. Coordinating conjunctions connect 
words of the same kind and equal rank, such as 
two nouns or two adjectives. They also can con- 
nect larger groups of words such as phrases or 
entire sentences. Common coordinating 
conjunctions are and, but, or, for, nor, so, and yet. 

Connecting nouns: If a man is going hunting 
or fishing, his purpose is understood. 

Connecting verbs: I listened and looked. 

Connecting sentences: The caravan of the 
arts was dark but the dog barked as we ground 
up to the highway. 



An analogy expresses a comparison between 
two ideas, situations, or words that are alike in 
one significant way, but different in most others. 
On your paper, write the vocabulary word that 
best completes each of these analogies. 

1. Active is to athlete as ? is to traveler. 

2. Terrestrial is to Earth as ? is to 
heavens. 

3. Unsure is to uncertain as unexplainable is to 

? 



? 



as computer is to 
as relaxed is to 



4. X-ray is to 
electronic. 

5. Harsh is to 
comfortable. 



► For more practice, see page R29, Exercise E. 
Practice Copy these sentences and circle the 
coordinating conjunction in each. 

1. 1 had to go alone and 1 had to be self- 
contained. 

2. 1 specified my purpose and my needs. 

3. I waited for him to ask, but he didn't. 

4. I had to be peripatetic eyes and ears. 

5. A stranger's purpose might cause inquiry or 
even suspicion. 

Writing Application Using the coordinating 
conjunctions specified, write sentences according 
to the following instructions. 

1. A sentence about Charley liking to 
travel/being good company using and 

2. A sentence about Steinbeck/Charley using or 

3. A sentence about the night/day in the 
Badlands using but 



C Mq Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 18, Section 1 



360 ♦ From Sea to Shirting Sea 



Writing Lesson 



Travel Essay 

Recapture the look and feel of a trip you have taken by writing a travel essay, 
just as Steinbeck did. 

Prewriting Think of a specific place, incident, or event from your trip that 

you want to describe. Then, jot down sensory details that describe 
the sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and physical sensations of your 
experience. 



Model: Using Sensory Details 

Sunrise Over the Lake 

Breeze from the lake 



Birds singing 



Details that appeal to the 
senses will bring the 
travel essay to life. 



Waves lapping against boats 
Fishy smell 



Intense colors: grayish blue lake 
Wet grass 



Drafting 



Revising 



% 



Begin your essay with a description of the experience you have 
chosen, using the details you jotted down. Then, tell why you 
chose that particular experience. Why does it stick out in your 
mind? How do you feel about it? 

Read your draft. Circle any details that do not contribute to the 
overall impression you are trying to convey. Then go back and 
eliminate or replace those details. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 4, Section 3 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking With two or three class- 
mates, prepare an oral presentation about the 
Badlands. Begin with details from Steinbeck's 
essay. Members of the group should 

• each describe a different aspect of the 
Badlands. 

• brainstorm precise nouns, colorful modifiers, 
and sensory details to describe it. 

• use active verbs to enliven the presentation. 

When you are ready give your presentation to the 
class. 



Writing Steinbeck once said, "To my certain 
knowledge, many people conceal experiences for 
fear of ridicule." Write an essay in which you 
explain how this selection might have been differ- 
ent if Steinbeck had been one of those people. 

Research and Technology Create a map of North 
Dakota's Badlands. Label the places that Steinbeck 
mentions in his essay. Post your complete map in 
the classroom. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschooLcom 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



from Travels with C ,7i 



uncv 



♦ .46/ 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 

Choice: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ♦ 
Ellis Island ♦ Achieving the American Dream ♦ The New Colossus 




>» F -g» 




i As you read these 
^a/dp^ selections and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



The literature in this group tells of the immigrants who came through 
Ellis Island, the chief immigration station of the eastern United States 
for seventy years. From 1892-1924, approximately sixteen million immi- 
grants entered the United States through Ellis Island. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 2.3 Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or 
organization of ideas. (Developed in the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.2 Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective tran- 
sitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques. (Developed in the Writing 
Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.3 Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices 
to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 
Listening and Speaking 2.5 Recite poems, sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, 
using voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning. 
(Developed in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



362 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Literary Analysis 

Epithet 

An epithet is a phrase that points out a notable characteristic of a per- 
son or object. Like a nickname, it can substitute for the actual name — for 
example, Honest Abe and Golden State. In the following example, the epi- 
thet, shown in italics, immediately follows the thing it names. 

California, the Golden State, attracts many visitors. 

Look for epithets as you read the works in this group. Notice how they 
shape your impressions of the people and things they describe. 

Comparing Literary Works 

One epithet for the United States is "the land of opportunity." Each of 
the writers in this group writes about the United States as a land of 
opportunity. Although the topic is similar, the treatment in each work is 
different. Use the following focus questions to help you identify similari- 
ties and differences in these works. 

1. Which works seem to suggest that the United States is a land of 
opportunity, and which works seem to suggest that it is not? 

2. Which work is most sentimental? 

Reading Strategy 

Recognizing Connotations of Words 

The United States is called "a land of opportunity." The connotations, 
or ideas associated with these words, are positive. 

As you read, look for words with strong connotations, either positive 
or negative, and write them in the chart. Then, describe the ideas associ- 
ated with each word. 

Vocabulary Development 

colossal (ka las' el) adj. astonishingly 
large; extraordinary (p. 366) 

conscience (kan' shans) n. recogni- 
tion or inner sense of right and 
wrong (p. 366) 

literally (lit' ar al e) adv. actually; in 
fact (p. 366) 

immigrate (im' a grat) v. come into a 
foreign country to settle (p. 370) 



Words 
from Connotations 
Text 










■ 


^, 



apprehension (ap ra hen' shan) n. 
fear that something bad will happen 
(p. 370) 

immersed (i mursf) adj. deeply 
involved in (p. 371) 

ancestral (an ses' tral) adj. relating to 
one's ancestors (p. 371) 



( '.hi nee: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther Kingjr./Klhs \\Umdl Achieving the American Dream/The New Colossus ♦ 363 






'% 



> 



4t 



* . v 



*> 



-^ 









U 



364 ♦ From Sea to S/immg Sea 






'4 :;*-• 



A TRIBUTE TO 

Dr: Martin Luther King, Jn 

1 

Alice Walker 



cvGcJgSKs 



This address was made in 1973 at a Jackson, Mississippi, 
restaurant that had refused to serve people of color until forced to 
do so by the Civil Rights Movement a few years before. 



M 



cse^, 



y great-great-great-grandmother walked as a slave from 
Virginia to Eatonton, Georgia — which passes for the Walker ances- 
tral home — with two babies on her hips. She lived to be a hundred 
and twenty-five years old and my own father knew her as a boy. (It 
is in memory of this walk that I choose to keep and to embrace my 
"maiden" name. Walker.) 

There is a cemetery near our family church where she is buried; 
but because her marker was made of wood and rotted years ago, it 
is impossible to tell exactly where her body lies. In the same ceme- 
tery are most of my mother's people, who have lived in Georgia for 
so long nobody even remembers when they came. And all of my 
great-aunts and -uncles are there, and my grandfather and grand- 
mother, and, very recently, my own father. 

If it is true that land does not belong to anyone until they have 
buried a body in it, then the land of my birthplace belongs to me, 
dozens of times over. Yet the history of my family, like that of all 
black Southerners, is a history of dispossession. We loved the land 
and worked the land, but we never owned it; and even if we bought 
land, as my great-grandfather did after the Civil War, it was always 
in danger of being taken away, as his was, during the period follow- 
ing Reconstruction. ' 

My father inherited nothing of material value from his father, and 
when I came of age in the early sixties I awoke to the bitter knowl- 
edge that in order just to continue to love the land of my birth, I 
was expected to leave it. For black people — including my parents — 
had learned a long time ago that to stay willingly in a beloved but 
brutal place is to risk losing the love and being forced to acknowl- 
edge only the brutality. 

It is a part of the black Southern sensibility that we treasure 
memories; for such a long time, that is all of our homeland those 
of us who at one time or another were forced away from it have 
been allowed to have. 

1. Reconstruction period following the American Civil War (1867-1877) when the South 
was rebuilt and reestablished as part of the Union. 

^ Critical Viewing Judging from the size of the crowd, what can you infer about 
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? [Infer] 



tr Reading Check 

Why does the speaker 
believe that she needs to 
leave her birthplace? 



Ck 



A Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr. ♦ 365 



I watched my brothers, one by one, leave our home and 
leave the South. I watched my sisters do the same. This was 
not un-usual; abandonment, except for memories, was the 
common thing, except for those who "could not do any bet- 
ter," or those whose strength or stubbornness was so colossal 
they took the risk that others could not bear. 

In 1960, my mother bought a television set, and each day after 
school I watched Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter 2 as 
they struggled to integrate— fair -skinned as they were — the 
University of Georgia. And then, one day, there appeared the face 
of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. What a funny name, I thought. At 
the moment I first saw him, he was being handcuffed and shoved 
into a police truck. He had dared to claim his rights as a native 
son, and had been arrested. He displayed no fear, but seemed 
calm and serene, unaware of his own extraordinary courage. His 
whole body, like his conscience , was at peace. 

At the moment I saw his resistance I knew I would never be 
able to live in this country without resisting everything that 
sought to disinherit me, and I would never be forced away from 
the land of my birth without a fight. 

He was The One, The Hero, The One Fearless Person for whom 
we had waited. I hadn't even realized before that we had 
been waiting for Martin Luther King, Jr., but we had. And 
I knew it for sure when my mother added his name to the 
list of people she prayed for every night. 

I sometimes think that it was literally the prayers of 
people like my mother and father, who had bowed down 
in the struggle for such a long time, that kept Dr. King 
alive until five years ago. 3 For years we went to bed pray- 
ing for his life, and awoke with the question "Is the 'Lord' 
still here?" 

The public acts of Dr. King you know. They are visible 
all around you. His voice you would recognize sooner 
than any other voice you have heard in this century — this 
in spite of the fact that certain municipal libraries, like the 
one in downtown Jackson, do not carry recordings of his 
speeches, and the librarians chuckle cruelly when asked why 
they do not. 

You know, if you have read his books, that his is a complex 
and revolutionary philosophy that few people are capable of under 
standing fully or have the patience to embody in themselves. 



2. Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter 
made history in January 1961 by becoming the first two African 

Americans to attend the University of Georgia. 

3. until five years ago Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (b. 1929); U.S. clergyman and leader 
in the civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his death by 

assassination on April 4, 1968. 



iterature 



Id COnteXt History Connecti 



The March on Washington 

One of the most dramatic days 
of the civil rights movement was 
August 28, 1963. Some 250,000 
Americans gathered peacefully at 
the Lincoln Memorial in 
Washington, D.C., to show their 
solidarity with the hopes and 
goals of Dr. Martin Luther King, 
Jr., and other civil rights leaders. 
The highlight of the March on 
Washington was King's 
unforgettable "I Have a Dream" 
speech. He spoke eloquently 
about an America in which 
character would matter more than 
race. The march — the largest 
protest demonstration the country 
had ever seen — influenced the 
passage of civil rights legislation 
the following year. 




colossal (ke las' al) adj. 
astonishingly large; 
extraordinary 

conscience (kan' shens) n. 
recognition or inner sense 
of right and wrong 

literally (lit' ar el e) adv. 
actually; in fact 



366 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Which is our weakness, which is our loss. 

And if you know anything about good Baptist preaching, you 
can imagine what you missed if you never had a chance to hear 
Martin Luther King, Jr., preach at Ebeneezer Baptist Church. 

You know of the prizes and awards that he tended to think very 
little of. And you know of his concern for the disinherited: the 
American Indian, the Mexican-American, and the poor American 
white — for whom he cared much. 

You know that this very room, in this very restaurant, was 
closed to people of color not more than five years ago. And that we 
eat here together tonight largely through his efforts and his blood. 
We accept the common pleasures of life, assuredly, in his name. 

But add to all of these things the one thing that seems to me 
second to none in importance: He gave us back our heritage. He 
gave us back our homeland; the bones and dust of our ancestors, 
who may now sleep within our caring and our hearing. He gave us 
the blueness of the Georgia sky in autumn as in summer; the col- 
ors of the Southern winter as well as glimpses of the green of 
vacation-time spring. Those of our relatives we used to invite for a 
visit we now can ask to stay. . . . He gave us full-time use of our 
woods, and restored our memories to those of us who were forced 
to run away, as realities we might each day enjoy and leave for 
our children. 

He gave us continuity of place, without which community r 
is ephemeral. He gave us home. 1973 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Would you have liked to hear this speech in person? 
Explain your response. 

2. (a) Recall: Where is Walker making this speech? 
(b) Connect: What is significant about the location? 

3. (a) Recall: Where did Walker first see Martin Luther King, Jr.? 
(b) Interpret: What did she realize about King? 

4. (a) Recall: Before the civil rights movement, why did African 
Americans in the South feel disinherited? (b) Evaluate: 
According to Walker, what was King's most important gift to 
African Americans? 

5. (a) Interpret: Why did many black Southerners move away 
from the South? (b) Synthesize: How does the black Southern 
experience compare with that of European immigrants? 




Alice Walker 



(b. 1944) 

Alice Walker 
is a novelist, 
poet, and 
essayist whose 
writing often 
deals with 
social injustice, 
especially in the lives 
of several generations of 
African American women. 
Born in Georgia, Walker 
left the South to finish 
college in the Northeast. 
Perhaps her best-known 
novel is The Color Purple 
(1982), which won her a 
Pulitzer Prize and was 
made into a successful film 
in 1985. A number of her 
essays, including "Choice: 
A Tribute to Dr. Martin 
Luther King, Jr.," are 
collected in In Search of 
Our Mothers' Gardens. 



Choice: A Trihule to Martin Luther King, jr. ♦ 367 





JOSEPH BRUCHAC 



Beyond the red brick of Ellis Island 
where the two Slovak children 
who became my grandparents 
waited the long days of quarantine, 1 
after leaving the sickness, 
the old Empires of Europe, 



1. quarantine (kwor' en ten) n. period, originally 40 
days, during which an arriving vessel suspected of 
carrying contagious disease is detained in port in 
strict isolation to prevent any diseases from spreading. 



Literary Analysis 

Epithet What epithet 
does Bruchac use in this 
stanza of the poem? 



368 Ellis Island 



a Circle Line ship slips easily 
on its way to the island 
of the tall woman, green 
10 as dreams of forests and meadows 
waiting for those who'd worked 
a thousand years 
yet never owned their own. 

Like millions of others, 
15 I too come to this island, 
nine decades the answerer 
of dreams. 

Yet only one part of my blood 
loves that memory. 

Another voice speaks 
20 of native lands 

within this nation. 

Lands invaded 

when the earth became owned. 

Lands of those who followed 
25 the changing Moon. 

knowledge of the seasons 

in their veins. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Which symbol of the United States is more 
meaningful to you — the Statue of Liberty or Ellis Island? 
Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: Who are the ancestors of the speaker in "Ellis Island"? 
(b) Interpret: What does the speaker mean by the phrase "native 
lands within this nation"? (c) Compare and Contrast: How do 

his two sets of ancestors differ m their attitudes toward the land? 

3. (a) Analyze: How does the speaker's dual ancestry influence his 
father's feelings toward Ellis Island? (b) Apply: Why does the 
speaker see the United Stares as a "land invaded"? 




Joseph Bruchac 



(b. 1942) 

"Ellis Island" 
refers to 
Bruchac's own 
heritage as the 
son of an 
Abenaki Indian 
mother and a 
Slovak father. He grew up 
near the Adirondack 
Mountains and has juggled 
careers as a writer, story- 
teller, and editor. Bmchac 
has published more than 
fifty books, including collec- 
tions of Native American 
stories. 



Ellis Island ♦ J69 





ACHIEVING 

^AMERICAN 

DREAM 






Mario Cuomo 



In the Provincia di Salerno 1 just outside the Italian city of Naples, 
a laborer named Andrea Cuomo asked Immaculata Giordano to 
marry him. The young woman accepted under one condition: that 
the couple immigrate to the far-off land of her dreams — America. 
Andrea Cuomo agreed, and after marrying, the Cuomos made the 
long voyage to New York Harbor in the late 1920s. The young couple 
left the life, the language, the land, the family, and the friends they 
knew, arriving in Lady Liberty's shadow with no money, unable to 
speak English, and without any education. They were filled with both 
hope and apprehension . 

All that my parents brought to their new home was their burning 
desire to climb out of poverty on the strength of their labor. They 
believed that hard work would bring them and their children better 
lives and help them achieve the American Dream. 

At first, my father went to work in Jersey City, New Jersey, as a 
ditchdigger. After Momma and Poppa had three children, Poppa real- 
ized he needed to earn more to support his growing family. So he 
opened a small Italian American grocery store in South Jamaica, in 
the New York City borough of Queens. 

By the time I was born in 1932, the store was open 24 hours a 
day, and it seemed as if Momma and Poppa were working there all 
the time. I can still see them waiting on customers and stocking 
shelves. And I can still smell and see and almost taste the food that 
brought in the customers: the provolone, the Genoa salami, the pro- 
sciutto, 2 the fresh bread, the fruits and vegetables. Our store gave 
our neighbors a delicious taste of Italy in New York. 

My parents lacked the education to help us much with our school- 
work. But they taught us every single day, just by being 
who they were, about the values of family, hard work, honesty, and 
caring about others. These were not just Italian values, or American 
ones, but universal values that everyone can embrace. 

1. Provincia di Salerno (pro vin' se a de sa lar' no) region surrounding Salerno, 
a seaport in southern Italy. 

2. prosciutto (pre shoot' 6) n. spicy Italian ham. 



A Critical Viewing 

Do the facial expressions 
of the author and his 
mother reveal their 
determination to 
prosper? Explain. 
[Deduce] 

immigrate (im' a grat) v. 
come into a foreign 
country to settle 



apprehension 

(ap' re hen' shan) n. fear; 
anxiety that something 
bad will happen 



370 ♦ From Sea to Shinirig Sea 



From my earliest days, I felt immersed in the culture and 
traditions of my parents' homeland. I grew up speaking Italian. I 
heard story after story from my parents and relatives about life in 
the Old Country. 

Though not an immigrant myself, I saw the hardships Italian 
immigrants had to endure. I saw their struggle to make themselves 
understood in an alien language, their struggle to rise out of poverty, 
and their struggle to overcome the prejudices of people who felt 
superior because they or their ancestors had arrived earlier on this 
nation's shores. 

As an Italian American, I grew up believing that America is the 
greatest country on earth, and thankful that I was born here. But 
at the same time, I have always been intensely proud that I am the 
son of Italian immigrants and that my Italian heritage helped make 
me the man I am. 

The beauty of America is that I don't have to deny my past to 
affirm my present. No one does. We can love this nation like a parent 
and still embrace our ancestral home like cherished grandparents. 

I like to tell the story of Andrea and Immaculata Cuomo because 
it tells us what America is about. Their story is the story not just 
of my parents, or of Italian immigrants at the beginning of this 
century, but of all immigrants. Our nation is renewed and 
strengthened by the infusion 3 of new Americans from 
around the world. 

3. infusion (in fydo' zhsn) n. addition. 



immersed (i mttrsf) adj. 
deeply involved in 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What is your reaction to Cuomo's story about his 
parents? Explain your response. 

2. (a) Recall: Why do Cuomo's parents decide to emigrate? 

(b) Infer: What challenges do they face in the United States? 

3. (a) Recall: How do the Cuomos make a living after they 
immigrate? (b) Analyze Causes and Effects: How does their 
lifestyle influence Mario Cuomo's attitudes and values? 

4- (a) Interpret: What does Cuomo mean when he says " I don't 
have to deny my past to affirm my present." (b) Deduce: How 
has his background influenced his career? 

5. (a) Interpret: What is "the American Dream"? 

(b) Make a Judgment: Have Mario Cuomo and his family 
achieved this dream? (c) Evaluate: Do you think it is possible for 
most people to achieve "The American Dream" today? Explain. 




ancestral (an ses' trel) adj. 
relating to one's ancestors 



Mario Cuomo 



(b. 1932) 

Born in Queens, 
New York, Mario 
Cuomo has spent 
most of his career 
in public service. 
In "Achieving the 
American Dream," 
he describes how growing 
up in an Italian immigrant 
family influenced his 
views. Cuomo became 
New York Secretary of 
State in the late 1970s and 
was governor of the state 
from 1983 to 1995. 

A leading thinker and 
speaker of the Democratic 
Party, Cuomo's keynote 
speech was a highlight 
of the 1984 Democratic 
National Convention. One 
of Cuomo's main concerns 
is that rich and poor work 
together to solve the coun- 
try's problems. 



Achieving ihc American Dream ♦ 371 



THE NEW 




Emma Lazarus 



Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, 1 

With conquering limbs astride from land to land; 

Here at our sea- washed, sunset gates shall stand 

A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame 
5 Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name 

Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand 

Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command 

The air -bridged harbor that twin cities frame. 

"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she 
io With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor. 

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, 

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. 

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost 2 to me, 

I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" 

1. brazen giant of Greek fame The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of 
the World, was a huge bronze statue built at the harbor of Rhodes in commemoration of 
the siege of Rhodes (305-304 B.C.). 

2. tempest-tost (tern' pist tost) here, having suffered a turbulent ocean journey. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you share the speaker's awe of the statue? 

2. (a) Recall: What does the Statue of Liberty hold in her raised 
hand? (b) Synthesize: What does it represent to the world? 

(c) Speculate: What do you think the old Colossus looked like? 

(d) Compare and Contrast: How are the two statues alike and 
how are they different? 

3. (a) Recall: In "The New Colossus," what does the Statue of 
Liberty say to newcomers? (b) Apply: What situations are the 
immigrants leaving? 




Emma Lazarus 



4^ (1849-1887) 

^^^ The famous 
last lines of 
Emma Lazarus 's 
"The New 
Colossus" are 
written on the 
base of the Statue 
of Liberty. 
Raised in New York City, 
Lazarus studied languages 
and the classics, publishing 
a book of poems and trans- 
lations at age 17. She drew 
on her Jewish heritage for 
poems and plays, seeing 
America as a refuge for 
those persecuted in Europe. 



372 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



■HBMHMSHHRHKSHHHHBHHHHHSBBHHHMRflBHHHHwHHHNii 



Review and Assess 

Literary Analysis 

Epithet 

1. Use an organizer like the one shown to explore the three 
different epithets used by Alice Walker to describe King. 



r ^ 

The One 
Epithet The One The Hero Fearless Person 


Quality emphasized 








Overall impression 







2. What is the overall impression of Dr. King that Walker creates by 
using all three epithets? 

3. In "The New Colossus," what qualities of the Statue o£ Liberty are 
emphasized by epithets? 

Comparing Literary Works 

4. Which works seem to suggest that the United States is a land of 
opportunity and which works seem to suggest that it is not? 
Support your answer. 

5. How does the African American southern experience described by 
Alice Walker compare with the Italian immigrant experience 
described by Mario Cuomo? 

6. Which work is most sentimental? Support your answer. 

Reading Strategy 

Recognizing Connotations of Words 

7. In "Ellis Island," Bruchac speaks of "lands invaded." What are the 
connotations of invaded? 

8. For the italicized word in each phrase, identify a word with more 
positive or more negative connotations. 

(a) "With conquering limbs astride from land to land . . ." 

(b) "The wretched refuse of your teeming shore . . ." 



Extend Understanding 



9. Evaluate: Do you agree with Cuomo's belief that a person need 
not deny his or her past to affirm his or her future? Explain. 



Quick Review 

An epithet is a word or 
phrase that points out an 
outstanding characteristic 
of a person or place. To 
review epithet, see 
page 363. 



A connotation is the set 
of negative or positive 
ideas associated with a 
word. These associations 
go beyond its dictionary 
definition. 

_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to cheek 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



( %>ice: A Tribute to Dr. Martin Luxher King, Jr./EUis Island} Achieving the American Dream/The New ( hlossus ♦ 373 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Forms of migrate Fluency: Definitions 



The verb migrate means "to move from place 
to place." That meaning is included in other 
words related to it, such as immigration, emigrate, 
migrant, and migratory. On your own paper, com- 
plete these sentences using one of those related 
words. 

1. The ? workers picked cherries. 

2. Cuomo's parents decided to ? from 
Italy. 



3. Most nations limit 

4. Canada geese are _ 



birds. 



Identify the part of speech for each form of 
migrate . 

5. immigration 7. emigrate 

6. migratory 8. migrant 

Grammar Lesson 

Correlative Conjunctions 

Like coordinating conjunctions, correlative 
conjunctions are used to join words or groups of 
words of the same kind. These conjunctions, 
however, always appear in pairs and help indicate 
the relationship between ideas. 

Examples: They were filled with both hope 
and apprehension. 
This story is not only about my 
parents but also about the whole 
immigrant experience. 



Common Correlative Conjunctions 



both . . . and 



neither. . . nor 



either 



or 



not only . . . but also 



whether. . . or 



Match each vocabulary word in Column 1 
with the closest definition in Column 2. 

sense of right and wrong 

submerged 

inherited from forebears 



1. ancestral 

2. apprehension 

3. colossal 

4. conscience 

5. immersed 

6. immigrate 

7. literally 



huge 

e. anxiety about the future 

f. actually 

g. to move to a country 



Spelling Strategy 

One way to remember the spelling of a word is 
to find smaller words within it. For example, if 
you remember that loss appears in colossal, you 
, will know which consonant is doubled. In each 
word below, identify a smaller word. 

1. balloon 2. early 3. piece 



► For more practice, see page R29, Exercise E. 
Practice Copy the sentences. Underline the 
correlative conjunctions. 

1. Bruchac's ancestors included both 
immigrants and Native Americans. 

2. Neither Andrea nor Immaculata knew 
what to expect. 

3. Cuomo learned values that were not only 
Italian and American but also universal. 

4. Dr. King showed neither fear nor anger. 

5. Dr. King gave back to African Americans 
both their heritage and their homeland. 

Writing Application Write five sentences 
about the Statue of Liberty. Use different pairs 
of correlative conjunctions in each one. 



^Mq Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 18, Section 1 



374 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Writing Lesson 

Tribute 

Alice Walker's essay about Dr. King is a tribute — a speech recognizing someone 
for outstanding accomplishments. Write a tribute about someone that shows your 
admiration for him or her. 

Prewriting After you have chosen the subject of your tribute, brainstorm for a 

list of the qualities and deeds about him or her that you admire most. 

Drafting Organize items in a logical order, such as least important to most 

important. Use transitions both within and at the beginning of para- 
graphs to show connections among ideas, such as time sequence. 

Model: Transitions 

At first, my father went to work in Jersey City, New jersey, 
as a ditch digger. After Momma and Poppa had three children, 
Poppa realized he needed to earn more to support his growing 
family. So he opened a small Italian American grocery store . . . 



At first and after are 
transition words that 
showtime, and so 
indicates cause and 
effect. 



% 



Revising Underline the transition words you have used. Determine whether 
or not they make the connections between ideas clear. If not, 
change them or rephrase the sentence. Also look for places where 
you can add transitions. 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 11, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking Alice Walker originally 
delivered "Choice," her tribute to Dr. Martin 
Luther King, Jr., at a restaurant in Jackson, 
Mississippi. Follow these steps to present the 
speech to the class. 

• Read the speech out loud at home or in 
another quiet place. 

• Look for places where you should modulate 
your voice by varying its pitch or intensity. 
Speed up to build to an emotional high 
point. Slow down or pause for effect. 

• Rehearse the speech several times. 

• Read the speech aloud to your class. 



Writing Write a brief essay in which you 
describe the qualities that you believe people 
must possess in order to leave their homeland to 
emigrate to the United States. If possible, quote 
lines from one or more selections. 

Research and Technology Report on the life of 
Dr. King. Gather photos, news clippings, and, if 
possible, video- and audiotapes. Write text to 
explain and connect the pieces of your multi- 
media report. Present the report to the class. 



JB Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



Choice: A Tribute to Dr. Murun Luther King, Jr./Kllis Island! Achieving the American Dream/The New ( Colossus ♦ .^^ 






CONNECTIONS 

Literature and Culture 

Ellis Island and Angel Island 






1 



Three of the selections in this grouping deal with people immigrating to the 
United States. The ancestors of millions of present-day Americans immigrated to 
the United States in ships that sailed across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
around the turn of the twentieth century. Before the ships' passengers could make 
this country their home, however, they had to pass through an immigration station. 
The best-known stations were at Ellis Island, in New York, and Angel Island, near 
San Francisco, California. 




Life on the Passage 

Embarking for the United States, whether from Europe or from Asia, 
was not a decision lightly made. In many families, a father or older broth- 
er or sister would come first, find work, and send money back home to 
other family members. Once on the ship, the trip could take from ten 
days to a few weeks. Many people could afford only a ticket in steerage, 
the lowest level of the ship. There, several hundred passengers shared 
cramped space with no fresh air, inadequate bathroom facilities, and 



376 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



terrible food. Diseases could spread quickly, and the immigrants were 
never sure whether they would reach their destination alive. 

Ellis Island 

Today, more than forty percent of living Americans (over 100 million 
people) have an ancestor who entered the United States through Ellis 
Island in New York Harbor. When a ship arrived, the passengers would 
enter a room called the Great Hall, where doctors and inspectors examined 
them. A myriad of voices speaking some thirty languages filled the air as 
immigrants answered questions about their health, their backgrounds, and 
their families. Immigrants who were healthy and passed inspection were 
ready to leave Ellis Island after a few hours. People who were sick with a 
curable disease were hospitalized until they were well, sometimes for weeks. 
Those with incurable diseases were deported back to their homeland. 

Angel Island 

In 1910, an immigration station that became known as the "Ellis Island 
of the West" opened on Angel Island in California. Officials anticipated 
that when the Panama Canal was completed in 1914, a flood of immigrants 
would arrive from Europe on ships traveling through the canal. World War 
I broke out in 1914, however, and such travel ceased. Immigrants from 
Asia, especially China, came instead. Like immigrants at Ellis Island, those 
at Angel Island could be detained, but there was an important difference. In 
order for people to be admitted to the United States through Angel Island, 
they had to prove that they had been born here or that their husband or 
father was a U.S. citizen. Most newcomers waited an average of two to 
three weeks. Some, however, stayed for several months, even up to two 
years. While they waited, some immigrants carved poetry on the walls of 
the detention center. That poetry can still be seen today. An example is 
shown behind the title on p. 376. 

Living History 

In 1940, the immigration station on Angel Island was closed. The 
station on Ellis Island closed in 1954. In both locations, the buildings 
through which thousands upon thousands of immigrants had passed would 
have been destroyed if it were not for a few individuals who thought they 
should be preserved as pieces of living history. Today, the buildings have 
been restored, and visitors can tour museums at both sites to learn what 
immigrants at the turn of the twentieth century withstood to start their 
lives anew in the land of promise. 



Connecting Literature and Culture 



1 . Do you think the immigrants portrayed in the selections on 
pp. 368-372 came through Ellis Island or Angel Island? Explain. 

2. How were the experiences of immigrants coming through the 
two stations similar and different? 



Thematic Connection 

How do the two 
immigration stations 
discussed here connect 
to the theme "From Sea 
to Shining Sea"? 



( )onnections: EUis I k 



stand (Din 



Angel Island ♦ 377 



Comparing Literary Works 



MHMMWW 



Mmv 



Prepare to Read 



A Ribbon for Baldy ♦ The White Umbrella 





■ft, As you read 
■*/\/d/v£ these selections 
and complete the 
related assignments, you will 
focus on these standards. The 
Student's Guide to the Standards 
contains an outline of how each 
standard is introduced, 
developed, and concluded. 



Background 



In "A Ribbon for Baldy," the main character plants corn for his 
school science project. Corn seeds are planted in early spring. The grow- 
ing season is four to six months, so in Jesse Stuart's story, the narrator's 
corn, planted in April, would be ready to harvest in August. 

Focus on the Standards 



Reading 3.3 Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters 
from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts. (Developed in 
the Literary Analysis) 

Writing 1.6 Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point 
of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas. (Developed in the 
Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.1 Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence open- 
ings to present a lively and effective personal style. (Developed in the Grammar 
Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 2.1 Deliver narrative presentations. (Introduced in the 
Listening and Speaking activity) 



378 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 






■A, 'l-M 



Literary Analysis 

Character Traits 

Character traits are the qualities that make up a character's 
personality. A character's traits are revealed in the following ways: 

• through the character's actions. 

• through his or her thoughts and conversations with other characters. 

• through descriptions by the narrator or by other characters. 

As you read these selections, look for details that reveal character traits. 

Comparing Literary Works 

The main characters in these two stories come from very different back- 
grounds, but they share similar ideas and motivations. Use these focus 
questions to guide you in comparing and contrasting the two characters: 

1. What similar challenges do the main characters in these stories 
face because of their families' situations? 

2. How do each character's circumstances affect how he or she copes 
with the challenge? 

Reading Strategy 

Predicting 

Understanding a character's traits can help you make predictions, or 
educated guesses. Your predictions may also be guided by your own experi- 
ences in similar situations or by hints that the author provides. Predicting 
gets you involved in a story. 

As you read these two stories, compare your predictions with the actual 
outcomes. Use an organizer like the one shown to record your predictions 
and the actual outcomes. 



Vocabulary Development 

surveyed (sttr vad') v. looked over in 
a careful way; examined; inspected 
(p. 381) 

envelop (en vel' ap) v. to wrap up; to 
cover completely (p. 381) 

bargain (bar' gan) n. something 
bought, offered, or sold at a price 
favorable to the buyer (p. 382) 

discreet (di skref) adj. careful about 
what one says or does; prudent (p. 385) 

credibility (kreo" a oil' a te) n. 
helievability (p. 386) 



constellation (kan sta la' shan) n. 
group of stars named after, and 
thought to resemble, an object, an 
animal, or a mythological character 
(P- 387) 

anxiously (arjk' shas le) adv. in a 
worried way (p. 388) 

revelation (rev a la' shan) n. 
something revealed; a disclosure ol 
something not previously known or 
realized (p. 391) 



Prediction: 



Based on: 



Outcome 



A Ribbon for Baldy/The White I 'mbrella ♦ 379 




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he day Professor Herbert started talking about a project for each 
member of our General Science class, I was more excited than I had 
ever been. I wanted to have an outstanding project. I wanted it to be 
greater, to be more unusual than those of my classmates. I wanted to 
do something worthwhile, and something to make them respect me. 

I'd made the best grade in my class in General Science. I'd made 
more yardage, more tackles and carried the football across the goal 
line more times than any player on my team. But making good 
grades and playing rugged football hadn't made them forget that I 
rode a mule to school, that I had worn my mother's shoes the first 
year and that I slipped away at the noon hour so no one would see 
me eat fat pork between slices of corn bread. 

Every day I thought about my project for the General Science 
class. We had to have our project by the end of the school year and it 
was now January. 

In the classroom, in study hall and when I did odd jobs on my 
father's 50 acres, I thought about my project. But it wouldn't 
come to me like an algebra problem or memorizing a poem. I couldn't 
think of a project that would help my father and mother to support 
us. One that would be good and useful. 

"If you set your mind on something and keep on thinking about 
it, the idea will eventually come," Professor Herbert told us when 
Bascom Wythe complained about how hard it was to find a project. 

One morning in February I left home in a white cloud that had 
settled over the deep valleys. I could not see an object ten feet in 
front of me in this mist. I crossed the pasture into the orchard and 
the mist began to thin. When I reached the ridge road, the light 
thin air was clear of mist. I looked over the sea of rolling white 
clouds. The tops of the dark winter hills jutted up like little islands. 

I have to ride a mule, but not one of my classmates lives in a 
prettier place, I thought, as I surveyed my world. Look at Little Baldy! 
What a pretty island in the sea of clouds. A thin ribbon of cloud 
seemed to envelop cone-shaped Little Baldy from bottom to top like 
the new rope Pa had just bought for the windlass 1 over our well. 

Then, like a flash — the idea for my project came to me. And 
what an idea it was! I'd not tell anybody about it! I wouldn't even 
tell my father, but I knew he'd be for it. Little Baldy wrapped in the 
white coils of mist had given me the idea for it. 

I was so happy I didn't care who laughed at me, what anyone 
said or who watched me eat fat meat on corn bread for my lunch. 
I had an idea and I knew it was a wonderful one. 



Literary Analysis 

Character Traits What 
traits are revealed in the 
narrator's thoughts about 
his project? 



surveyed (sttr vad) v. 
looked over in a careful 
way; examined; inspected 

envelop (en vel' ep) v. 
to wrap up; to cover 
completely 



S 



Reading Check 

Why does the speaker 
want to have the most 
outstanding project in the 
class? 



1. windlass (wind' las) n. device for raising and lowering a bucket on a rope. 

k^ Critical Viewing How much effort do you think it would take to plant and 
harvest a cornfield like this one? [Draw Conclusions] 
t 



i 

1^ 




A Ribbon far Baldy ♦ 181 






"I've got something to talk over with you," I told Pa when I got 
home. "Look over there at that broom-sedge 2 and the scattered pines 
on Little Baldy. I'd like to burn the broom-sedge and briers and cut 
the pines and farm that this summer." 

We stood in our barnlot and looked at Little Baldy. 

"Yes, I've been thinkin' about clearin' that hill up someday," Pa 
said. 

"Pa, I'll clear up all this south side and you clear up the other 
side," I said. "And I'll plow all of it and we'll get it in corn this year." 

"Now this will be some undertakin'," he said. "I can't clear that 
land up and work six days a week on the railroad section. But if 
you will clear up the south side, I'll hire Bob Lavender to do the 
other side." 

"That's a bargain ," I said. 

That night while the wind was still and the broom-sedge and 
leaves were dry, my father and I set fire all the way around the base. 
Next morning Little Baldy was a dark hill jutting high into 
February's cold, windy sky. 

Pa hired Bob Lavender to clear one portion and I started working 
on the other. I worked early of mornings before I went to school. I 
hurried home and worked into the night. 

Finn, my ten-year-old brother, was big enough to help me saw 
down the scattered pines with a crosscut. 3 With a handspike I 
started the logs rolling and they rolled to the base of Little Baldy. 

By middle March, I had my side cleared. Bob Lavender had fin- 
ished his too. We burned the brush and I was ready to start plowing. 

By April 15th I had plowed all of Little Baldy. My grades in 
school had fallen off some. Bascom Wythe made the highest mark 
in General Science and he had always wanted to pass me in this 
subject. But I let him make the grades. 

If my father had known what I was up to, he might not have let 
me do it. But he was going early to work on the railway section 
and he never got home until nearly dark. So when I laid Little 
Baldy off to plant him in corn, I started at the bottom and went 
around and around this high cone-shaped hill like a corkscrew. 
I was three days reaching the top. Then, with a hand planter, 
I planted the corn on moonlit nights. 



2. broom-sedge (broom' sej) n. coarse grass used in making brooms. 

3. crosscut (kros' kut) n. saw that cuts across the grain of the wood. 



bargain (bar' gen) n. 
something bought, 
offered, or sold at a price 
favorable to the buyer 



▼ Critical Viewing 

Which area of this terrain 
is cleared for planting? 
How can you tell? 
[Deduce] 




382 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 






When I showed my father what I'd done, he looked strangely at 
me. Then he said, "What made you do a thing like this? What's 
behind all of this?" 

"I'm going to have the longest corn row in the world," I said. 
"How long do you think it is, Pa?" 

"That row is over 20 miles," Pa said, laughing. 

Finn and I measured the corn row with a rod pole and it was 
23.5 miles long. 

When it came time to report on our projects and I stood up in 
class and said I had a row of corn on our hill farm 23.5 miles 
long, everybody laughed. But when I told how I got the idea and 
how I had worked to accomplish my project, everybody was silent. 

Professor Herbert and the General Science class hiked to my 
home on a Saturday in early May when the young corn was pretty 
and green in the long row. Two newspapermen from a neighboring 
town came too, and a photographer took pictures of Little Baldy 
and his ribbon of corn. He took pictures of me, of my home and 
parents and also of Professor Herbert and my classmates. 

When the article and pictures were published, a few of my class- 
mates got a little jealous of me but not one of them ever laughed 
at me again. And my father and mother were the proudest two 
parents any son could ever hope to have. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: What do you admire about the narrator, the 
main character of "A Ribbon for Baldy"? 

2. (a) Recall: What three things does the boy do that make 
him different from his classmates? (b) Analyze: Why 
does he want to gain the respect of his classmates? 

3. (a) Recall: Who or what is Little Baldy? 

(b) Connect: How does Little Baldy provide inspiration for a 
science project that the narrator considers worthwhile? 

(c) Deduce: Why does the narrator keep his project a secret 
from his father? 

4. (a) Recall: What steps does the narrator take to complete his 
science project? (b) Interpret: When the narrator explains his 
project to the class, why are they silent? 

(c) Draw Conclusions: Does the narrator achieve his goals? 

5. (a) Speculate: How do you think the narrator will feel about 
his classmates' opinion of him after the science project? 

(b) Support: Why do you think so? 




Jesse Stuart 



(1906-1984) 

Poet and novelist 
Jesse Stuart grew 
up in rural 
surroundings in 
eastern Kentucky. 
J After high school, 

he worked for a cir- 
cus and a steel mill 
before attending college. 
He then became a teacher 
and school superintendent. 
Stuart is known for his chil- 
dren's books, including Red 
Mule. Although he received 
many awards and honors in 
his lifetime, he was most 
proud of being a teacher. 
"First, last, always, I am a 
school teacher," he said. "1 
love the firing line of the 
classroom." 



A Ribbon for Baldy ♦ 



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A Critical Viewing What inferences might you make about this story based on the painting above? [Infer] 



384 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 




'hen I was twelve, my mother went to work without telling 
me or my little sister. 

"Not that we need the second income." The lilt of her accent 
drifted from the kitchen up to the top of the stairs, where Mona 
and I were listening. 

"No," said my father, in a barely audible voice. "Not like the Lee 
family." 

The Lees were the only other Chinese family in town. I 
remembered how sorry my parents had felt for Mrs. Lee when she 
started waitressing downtown the year before; and so when my 
mother began coming home late, I didn't say anything, and tried 
to keep Mona from saying anything either. 

"But why shouldn't I?" she argued. "Lots of people's mothers 
work." 

"Those are American people," I said. 

"So what do you think we are? I can do the pledge of allegiance 
with my eyes closed." 

Nevertheless, she tried to be discreet ; and if my mother wasn't 
home by 5:30, we would start cooking by ourselves, to make sure 
dinner would be on time. Mona would wash the vegetables and put 
on the rice; I would chop. 

For weeks we wondered what kind of work she was doing. I 
imagined that she was selling perfume, testing dessert recipes for 
the local newspaper. Or maybe she was working for the florist. 
Now that she had learned to drive, she might be delivering boxes 
of roses to people. 

"I don't think so," said Mona as we walked to our piano lesson 
after school. "She would've hit something by now." 

A gust of wind littered the street with leaves. 

"Maybe we better hurry up," she went on, looking at the sky. 
"It's going to pour." 

"But we're too early." Her lesson didn't begin until 4:00, mine 
until 4:30, so we usually tried to walk as slowly as we could. 
"And anyway, those aren't the kind of clouds that rain. Those are 
cumulus clouds." 1 

We arrived out of breath and wet. 

"Oh, you poor, poor dears," said old Miss Crosman. "Why don't 
you call me the next time it's like this out? If your mother won't 
drive you, I can come pick you up." 

"No, that's okay," I answered. Mona wrung her hair out on 
Miss Crosman's rug. "We just couldn't get the roof of our car to 



Literary Analysis 
Character Traits What do 
the narrator's thoughts 
and actions about working 
mothers reveal about her 
character? 



discreet (di skref) adj. 
careful about what one 
says or does; prudent 



%^Reading Check 

How does the narrator 
feel about the fact that 
her mother works? 



1. cumulus (kyoo' myoo las) clouds n. fluffy, white clouds that usually indicate fair 
weather. 



The White Umbrella ♦ 185 



close, is all. We took it to the beach last summer and got sand in 
the mechanism." I pronounced this last word carefully, as if the 
credibility of my lie depended on its middle syllable. "It's never 
been the same." I thought for a second. "It's a convertible." 

"Well then make yourselves at home." She exchanged looks with 
Eugenie Roberts, whose lesson we were interrupting. Eugenie 
smiled good-naturedly. 'The towels are in the closet across from 
the bathroom." 

Huddling at the end of Miss Crosman's nine-foot leatherette 
couch, Mona and I watched Eugenie play. She was a grade ahead 
of me and, according to school rumor, had a boyfriend in high 
school. I believed it. . . . She had auburn hair, blue eyes, and, I 
noted with a particular pang, a pure white folding umbrella. 

"I can't see," whispered Mona. 

"So clean your glasses." 

"My glasses are clean. You're in the way." 

I looked at her. "They look dirty to me." 

'That's because your glasses are dirty." 

Eugenie came bouncing to the end of her piece. 

"Oh! Just stupendous!" Miss Crosman hugged her, then looked, 
up as Eugenie's mother walked in. "Stupendous!" she said again. 
"Oh! Mrs. Roberts! Your daughter has a gift, a real gift. It's an 
honor to teach her." 

Mrs. Roberts, radiant with pride, swept her daughter out of 
the room as if she were royalty, born to the piano bench. Watching 
the way Eugenie carried herself, I sat up, and concentrated so 
hard on sucking in my stomach that I did not realize until the 
Robertses were gone that Eugenie had left her umbrella. As Mona 
began to play, I jumped up and ran to the window, meaning to 
call to them — only to see their brake lights flash then fade at the 
stop sign at the corner. As if to allow them passage, the rain had 
let up; a quivering sun lit their way. 

The umbrella glowed like a scepter on the blue carpet while 
Mona, slumping over the keyboard, managed to eke out 2 a fair 
rendition of a catfight. At the end of the piece, Miss Crosman 
asked her to stand up. 

"Stay right there," she said, then came back a minute later with a 
towel to cover the bench. "You must be cold," she continued. "Shall I 
call your mother and have her bring over some dry clothes?" 

"No," answered Mona. "She won't come because she . . ." 

"She's too busy," I broke in from the back of the room. 

"I see." Miss Crosman sighed and shook her head a little. 
"Your glasses are filthy, honey," she said to Mona. "Shall I clean 
them for you?" 



credibility (kred' a bil' e te) 
n. believability 



Reading Strategy 

Predicting Predict what 
might happen with the 
white umbrella. 



2. eke (ek) out barely manage to play. 



386 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Sisterly embarrassment seized me. Why hadn't Mona wiped 
her lenses when I told her to? As she resumed abuse of the piano, 
I stared at the umbrella. I wanted to open it, twirl it around by its 
slender silver handle; I wanted to dangle it from my wrist on the 
way to school the way the other girls did. I wondered what Miss 
Crosman would say if I offered to bring it to Eugenie at school 
tomorrow. She would be impressed with my consideration for 
others; Eugenie would be pleased to have it back; and I would 
have possession of the umbrella for an entire night. I looked at it 
again, toying with the idea of asking for one for Christmas. I knew, 
however, how my mother would react. 

'Things," she would say. "What's the matter with a raincoat? 
All you want is things, just like an American." 

Sitting down for my lesson, I was careful to keep the towel 
under me and sit up straight. 

"I'll bet you can't see a thing either," said Miss Crosman, 
reaching for my glasses. "And you can relax, you poor dear." She 
touched my chest, in an area where she never would have touched 
Eugenie Roberts. "This isn't a boot camp." 3 

When Miss Crosman finally allowed me to start playing I played 
extra well, as well as I possibly could. See, I told her with my fin- 
gers. You don't have to feel sorry for me. 

'That was wonderful," said Miss Crosman. "Oh! Just wonderful." 

An entire constellation rose in my heart. 

"And guess what," I announced proudly. "I have a surprise for 
you." 

Then I played a second piece for her, a much more difficult one 
that she had not assigned. 

"Oh! That was stupendous," she said without hugging me. 
"Stupendous! You are a genius, young lady. If your mother had 
started you younger, you'd be playing like Eugenie Roberts by 
now!" 

I looked at the keyboard, wishing that I had still a third, even 
more difficult piece to play for her. I wanted to tell her that I was 
the school spelling bee champion, that I wasn't ticklish, that I 
could do karate. 

"My mother is a concert pianist," I said. 

^She looked at me for a long moment, then finally, without say- 
ing anything, hugged me. I didn't say anything about bringing the 
umbrella to Eugenie at school. 

The steps were dry when Mona and I sat down to wait for my 
mother. 



3. boot camp place where soldiers receive basic training and are disciplined severely. 



Literary Analysis 
Character Traits What 
traits does the narrator 
want Miss Crosman to see 
in her actions? 



constellation 

(kan ste la shen) n. group 
of stars named after, and 
thought to resemble, an 
object, an animal, or a 
mythological character 



%3Reading Check 

What thing of Eugenie's 
does the narrator wish 
were hers? 



FheWhiu 



ibrella ♦ 387 



"Do you want to wait inside?" Miss Crosman looked anxiously at 
the sky. 

"No," I said. "Our mother will be here any minute." 

"In a while," said Mona. 

"Any minute," I said again, even though my mother had been at 
least twenty minutes late every week since she started working. 

According to the church clock across the street we had been 
waiting twenty-five minutes when Miss Crosman came out again. 

"Shall I give you ladies a ride home?" 

"No," I said. "Our mother is coming any minute." 

"Shall I at least give her a call and remind her you're here? 
Maybe she forgot about you." 

"I don't think she forgot," said Mona. 

"Shall I give her a call anyway? Just to be safe?" 

"I bet she already left," I said. "How could she forget about us?" 

Miss Crosman went in to call. 

"There's no answer," she said, coming back out. 

"See, she's on her way," I said. 

"Are you sure you wouldn't like to come in?" 

"No," said Mona. 



anxiously (arjk' shas le) 
adv. In a worried way 



▼ Critical Viewing 

Are the girls in the 
photograph playing the 
piano in earnest or just 
having fun? Explain. 
[Make a Judgment] 




388 



From Sea to Shining Sea 




"Yes," I said. I pointed at my sister. "She meant yes too. She 
meant no. she wouldn't like to go in." 

Miss Crosman looked at her watch. "It's 5:30 now, ladies. My 
pot roast will be coming out in fifteen minutes. Maybe you'd like to 
come in and have some then?" 

"My mother's almost here," I said. "She's on her way." 

We watched and watched the street. I tried to imagine what my 
mother was doing; I tried to imagine her writing messages in the 
sky, even though I knew she was afraid of planes. I watched as the 
branches of Miss Crosman's big willow tree started to sway; they 
had all been trimmed to exactly the same height off the ground, 
so that they looked beautiful, like hair in the wind. 

It started to rain. 

"Miss Crosman is coming out again," said Mona. 

"Don't let her talk you into going inside," I whispered. 

"Why not?" 

"Because that would mean Mom isn't really coming any minute." 

"But she isn't," said Mona. "She's working." 

"Shhh! Miss Crosman is going to hear you." 

"She's working! She's working! She's working!" 

I put my hand over her mouth, but she licked it, and so I was 
wiping my hand on my wet dress when the front door opened. 

"We're getting even wetter, " said Mona right away. "Wetter and 
wetter." 

"Shall we all go in?" Miss Crosman pulled Mona to her feet. 
"Before you young ladies catch pneumonia? You've been out here 
an hour already." 

"We're freezing." Mona looked up at Miss Crosman. "Do you 
have any hot chocolate? We're going to catch pneumonia." 

"I'm not going in," I said. "My mother's coming any minute." 

"Come on," said Mona. "Use your noggin." 4 

"Any minute." 

"Come on, Mona." Miss Crosman opened the door. "Shall we get 
you inside first?" 

"See you in the hospital," said Mona as she went in. "See you in 
the hospital with pneumonia." 

I stared out into the empty street. The rain was pricking me all 
over; I was cold; I wanted to go inside. I wanted to be able to let 
myself go inside. If Miss Crosman came out again, I decided. I 
would go in. 

She came out with a blanket and the white umbrella. 

I could not believe that I was actually holding the umbrella, 
opening it. It sprang up by itself as if it were alive, as if that were 
what it wanted to do — as if it belonged in my hands, above my 
head. I stared up at the network of silver spokes, then spun the 



Literary Analysis 
Character Traits What 
different traits are shown 
by Mona's and the 
narrator's different 
reactions to the situation? 




^Reading Check 

What are Mona and the 
narrator waiting for? 



4. Use your noggin (nag' in) informal expression for "use your head" or "think." 



MiD 



The White I 'mbrella ♦ 589 



umbrella around and around and around. It was so clean and 
white that it seemed to glow, to illuminate everything around it. 

"It's beautiful," I said. 

Miss Crosman sat down next to me, on one end of the blanket. I 
moved the umbrella over so that it covered that too. I could feel 
the rain on my left shoulder and shivered. She put her arm 
around me. 

"You poor, poor dear." 

I knew that I was in store for another bolt of sympathy, and 
braced myself by staring up into the umbrella. 

"You know, I very much wanted to have children when I was 
younger," she continued. 

"You did?" 

She stared at me a minute. Her face looked dry and crusty, like 
day-old frosting. 

"I did. But then I never got married." 

I twirled the umbrella around again. 

'This is the most beautiful umbrella I have ever seen," I said. 
"Ever, in my whole life." 

"Do you have an umbrella?" 

"No. But my mother's going to get me one just like this for 
Christmas." 

"Is she? I tell you what. You don't have to wait until Christmas. 
You can have this one." 

"But this one belongs to Eugenie Roberts," I protested. "I have to 
give it back to her tomorrow in school." 

"Who told you it belongs to Eugenie? It's not Eugenie's. It's 
mine. And now I'm giving it to you, so it's yours." 

"It is?" 

She hugged me tighter. "That's right. It's all yours." 

"It's mine?" I didn't know what to say. "Mine?" Suddenly I was 
jumping up and down in the rain. "It's beautiful! Oh! It's beauti- 
ful!" I laughed. 

Miss Crosman laughed too, even though she was getting all wet. 

"Thank you, Miss Crosman. Thank you very much. Thanks a 
zillion. It's beautiful. It's stupendous!" 

"You're quite welcome," she said. 

"Thank you," I said again, but that didn't seem like enough. 
Suddenly I knew just what she wanted to hear. "I wish you were 
my mother." 

Right away I felt bad. 

"You shouldn't say that," she said, but her face was opening into 
a huge smile as the lights of my mother's car cautiously turned 
the corner. I quickly collapsed the umbrella and put it up my 
skirt, holding onto it from the outside, through the material. 

"Mona!" I shouted into the house. "Mona! Hurry up! Mom's here! 



Reading Strategy 

Predicting Do you think 
the narrator will get 
to keep the umbrella? 
Why or why not? 



390 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



I told you she was coming!" 

Then I ran away from Miss Crosman, down to the curb. Mona 
came tearing up to my side as my mother neared the house. We 
both backed up a few feet, so that in case she went onto the curb, 
she wouldn't run us over. 

"But why didn't you go inside with Mona?" my mother asked on 
the way home. She had taken off her own coat to put over me, and 
had the heat on high. 

"She wasn't using her noggin," said Mona, next to me in the 
back seat. 

"I should call next time," said my mother. "I just don't like to say 
where I am." 

That was when she finally told us that she was working as a 
check-out clerk in the A&P. She was supposed to be on the day 
shift, but the other employees were unreliable, and her boss had 
promised her a promotion if she would stay until the evening shift 
filled in. 

For a moment no one said anything. Even Mona seemed to find 
the revelation disappointing. 

"A promotion already!" she said, finally. 

I listened to the windshield wipers. 

"You're so quiet." My mother looked at me in the rear view 
mirror. "What's the matter?" 

"I wish you would quit," I said after a moment. 

She sighed. "The Chinese have a saying: one beam cannot hold 
the roof up." 

"But Eugenie Roberts's father supports their family." 

She sighed once more. "Eugenie Roberts's father is Eugenie 
Roberts's father," she said. 

As we entered the downtown area, Mona started leaning hard 
against me every time the car turned right, trying to push me 
over. Remembering what I had said to Miss Crosman, I tried to 
maneuver the umbrella under my leg so she wouldn't feel it. 

"What's under your skirt?" Mona wanted to know as we came 
to a traffic light. My mother, watching us in the rear view mirror 
again, rolled slowly to a stop. 

"What's the matter?" she asked. 

'There's something under her skirt!" said Mona, pulling at me. 

"Under her skirt?" 

Meanwhile, a man crossing the street started to yell at us. "Who 
do you think you are, lady?" he said. "You're blocking the whole 
crosswalk." 

We all froze. Other people walking by stopped to watch. 

"Didn't you hear me?" he went on, starting to thump on the 
hood with his fist. "Don't you speak English?" 

My mother began to back up, but the car behind us honked. 



revelation (rev' a la' shen) 
n. something revealed; 
a disclosure of something 
not previously known 
or realized 



Literary Analysis 

Character Traits What 
do the narrator's actions 
in this passage reveal 
about her? 



^Reading Check 

What does Miss 
Crosman give the 
speaker and how does 
the speaker thank her? 



The White I 'mbreUa ♦ 191 






Luckily, the light turned green right after that. She sighed in relief. 

"What were you saying, Mona?" she asked. 

We wouldn't have hit the car behind us that hard if he hadn't 
been moving too, but as it was our car bucked violently, throwing 
us all first back and then forward. 

"Uh oh," said Mona when we stopped. "Another accident." 

I was relieved to have attention diverted from the umbrella. 
Then I noticed my mother's head, tilted back onto the seat. Her 
eyes were closed. 

"Mom!" I screamed. "Mom! Wake up!" 

She opened her eyes. "Please don't yell," she said. "Enough 
people are going to yell already." 

"I thought you were dead," I said, starting to cry. "I thought you 
were dead." 

She turned around, looked at me intently, then put her hand 
to my forehead. 

"Sick," she confirmed. "Some kind of sick is giving you crazy 
ideas." 

As the man from the car behind us started tapping on the win- 
dow, I moved the umbrella away from my leg. Then Mona and my 
mother were getting out of the car. I got out after them; and while 
everyone else was inspecting the damage we'd done, I threw the 
umbrella down a sewer. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Were you surprised when the narrator threw 
away the umbrella at the end of the story? Why or why not? 

2. (a) Recall: What excuse does the narrator give Miss Crosman 
for arriving at the piano lesson soaking wet? (b) Infer: Why 
does she hide the truth? 

3. (a) Recall: Why is the narrator's mother late to pick up the 
sisters? (b) Infer: Why is the narrator bothered by her 
mother's lateness? (c) Analyze: Why does the narrator refuse 
to go back into Miss Crosman's house to get out of the rain? 

4. (a) Infer: Why does Miss Crosman give the narrator the 
umbrella? (b) Deduce: How does Miss Crosman feel about 
children? 

5. (a) Recall: How does the narrator feel about the white 
umbrella? (b) Interpret: What does the umbrella represent to 
the narrator? (c) Draw Conclusions: Why does the narrator 
throw away the umbrella at the end of the story? 




Gish Jen 



(b. 1956) 

The daughter 
of Chinese 
immigrants, 
Gish Jen grew 
up in Yonkers 
and Scarsdale, 
New York, 
communities that had very 
few Asian Americans. Jen 
began writing fiction as an 
undergraduate at Harvard. 
After teaching English in 
China, she entered the 
University of Iowa writing 
program, where she wrote 
"The White Umbrella." 
Her first novel, Typical 
American, was published in 
1991, and her second, Mona 
in the Promised Land, in 
1996. Both of these novels 
deal with the clash of cul- 
tures that Asian Americans 
face in the United States. 



392 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Character Traits 

1 . For each narrator, make a web like this one. Identify at least two 
character traits and two examples of details that reveal each trait. 



narrator 







trait 




..• 


* 






*• 


"••.. 


example 






example 





trait 




, • • 


• 




*• 


■•... 


example 




example 



Comparing Literary Works 

2. What similar challenges do the main characters in these stories 
face because of their families' situations? 

3. How do each character's circumstances affect how he or she copes 
with the challenge? 

4. What is similar about the two narrators' attempts to achieve 
respect? What is different? Use a Venn diagram like the one 
shown to compare and contrast their attempts. 



A Ribbon for Baldy' 



CSC) 



The White Umbrella' 



Reading Strategy 

Predicting 

5. What prediction did you make about the outcome of the narrator's 
project in "A Ribbon for Baldy"? Why? 

6. (a) What predictions did you make about the narrator and the 
umbrella in "The White Umbrella"? Why? (b) Which predictions 
were accurate? 






Extend Understanding 



7. Evaluate: In your opinion, how important is the opinion of 
others? Do you think most students your age feel it is more 
important or less important than you do? 

8. Take a Position: Do you agree or disagree that Americans place 
too much importance on things? Explain. 



Quick Review 

Character traits are the 

qualities of a character's 
personality. To review 
character traits, see 
page 379. 



When you predict, you 
make educated guesses 
about what will happen in 
a story based on the 
information the author 
gives you. To review 
predicting, see page 379. 

jy Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



A Ribbon for Bahh/Thc White I hnhrella ♦ 393 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Latin Root -cred' Fluency: Sentence Completions 



Each of the words below contains the Latin 
root -cred-, meaning "believe." Rewrite the sen- 
tences, filling in the blank with the correct word. 
a. incredibly b. credit c. credibility 

1. She earned ? for taking lessons. 

2. The job was ? difficult. 

3. She told so many fibs that she didn't have 
much ? with her friends. 

Spelling Strategy 

The ksh sound in anxious and in some other 
words is spelled xi. Write the following words, 
spelling the sh sound with the letters xi. 

1. no ous 

2. comple on 

3. obno ous 

4. an ously 

Grammar Lesson 

Subjects and Predicates 

The subject of a sentence tells who or what 
the sentence is about. The predicate tells what 
the subject is or does. 

S 

Example: Our teacher, Professor Herbert, | 
p 
talked about a project for each member of our 

General Science class. 

The simple subject is the main noun or 
pronoun in the complete subject. The simple 
predicate is the verb or verb phrase in the predicate. 

SS SP 

Example: The corn row | measured 23.5 miles 
long. 



Review the words in the vocabulary list on 
page 379. Then, on your paper, write the vocabu- 
lary word that best completes each sentence. 

1. The ? Orion was visible in the sky. 

2. He ? the land before building a 



for th 



eir mom to 



fence. 

3. They waited ? 

arrive. 

4. The story was so fantastic it had no 

? 



5. At dusk, the fog would 



the hill- 



top, making it invisible. 

His solution to the problem came like a 



7. She was 

8. At the sale, she got a 
music. 



., telling no one about her job. 



on piano 



► For more practice, see page R30, Exercise A. 
Practice Copy the sentences. Underline each 
subject once and each predicate twice. Circle 
each simple subject and simple predicate. 

1. My mother went to work. 

2. A gust of wind littered the street. 

3. I could feel the rain on my left shoulder. 

4. We burned the base of Little Baldy. 

5. The boy worked into the night. 

Writing Application Write five sentences, or tell 
a story, about one of these selections. Use simple 
subjects and simple predicates in your sentences. 



y\A Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 19, Sections 1 and 2 



394 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Writing Lesson 

Recommendation 

A recommendation is a written statement about a person's abilities or accom- 
plishments. Write a recommendation for the narrator of "A Ribbon for Baldy" or 
"The White Umbrella" for a job in a store. 

Prewriting Make a list of the narrator's positive character traits. Jot down 
examples from the stories to support each trait. 



Drafting 



Revising 



Begin by stating the main quality that makes the narrator worth 
hiring. In your introductory paragraph, elaborate, or provide more 
details, about how that quality will help the narrator perform well 
on the job. Then, continue with other strong qualities in the para- 
graphs that follow, using examples to support your claims. 

R.evise your word choice by adding specific information in place of 
vague references. 



Model: Revising Word Choice 

is a hard-working person 

who would make wonderful 

Jesse 



; and he is always reliable. 
a.gardener. I've known him for a long timei 

He's a groat person ! He has had a lot of experience working on his 

father's farm. For a school science project, he plowed the land and 

planted a cornfield that consisted of one long, single row of corn. 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 7, Section 2 

Extension Activities 



Listening and Speaking With a small group of 
classmates, prepare a narrative presentation 

about goals each of you is proud of achieving. 

1. State the reasons you wanted to achieve 
your goal. 

2. When you explain how you reached your 
goal, break the actions down into their 
smallest parts and choose precise verbs to 
name each action. 

3. State the reasons you are proud you 
achieved your goal. 



Research and Technology Use a search engine on 
the Internet to research how corn is normally 
planted. Look for agriculture sites or magazine 
articles or use an online encyclopedia. 

Prepare a list of sites where others can find 
useful information. 



_ Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 



A Ribbon for Boldy/The White I hnhrdla ♦ 395 



Comparing Literary Works 



Prepare to Read 



Taught Me Purple ♦ The City Is So Big ♦ 
Those Winter Sundays 












3fr 



i££^y. 




, As you read 
<r$DP&^ these poems and 
complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



Evelyn Tooley Hunt's poem, "Taught Me Purple," mentions a tene- 
ment an apartment building that low cost but run-down. Conditions in 
many tenements are crowded and dangerously substandard. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 3.5 Identify and analyze recurring themes. (Developed in the Literary Analysis 
and Reading Strategy) 

Writing 2.2 Write responses to literature. (Introduced in the Writing Lesson) 
Language Conventions 1.4 Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is 
used. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 

Listening and Speaking 1.4 Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of 
organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and sum- 
maries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion. (Developed in the 
Listening and Speaking activity) 



396 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



■■I 



MBMHMHHMHH1SMHHMHBMMMM 



Literary Analysis 

Theme 

In a work of literature, the theme is the central message or insight 
about life that the work conveys. To uncover the theme of a work, look 
carefully at specific details to see if they have some bigger meaning that 
can be applied to life in general. For instance, in the following lines from 
"Those Winter Sundays," the speaker realizes that as a boy, he did not 
appreciate all that his father had done for him. 

What did I know, what did I know 
of love's austere and lonely offices? 

The specific experience of the speaker can be expanded into a general 
statement, such as "Appreciate the love shown in everyday actions." The 
organizer at right shows how to expand from specific to general ideas. 

Comparing Literary Works 

Certain themes recur throughout literary works from different ages and 
cultures. The three works you are about to read focus on two of the most 
common recurring themes: the importance of family and the role of indi- 
viduality. As you read, compare and contrast the poems' explorations of 
these themes. Use the following focus questions to guide you: 

1. What is conveyed about relationships and human interaction? 

2. How are the messages about interaction different in each poem? 

Reading Strategy 

Responding to Theme 

To get the most out of a work, you should respond to the theme — 
react to its message. The following are just a few of the ways you can 
respond to a theme: 

• Decide if you agree or disagree with it. 

• Look for ways to apply it to your own life. 

• Identify other works or experiences that show if the theme is valid 
or not. 



Vocabulary Development 

tenement (ten' a ment) n. here, a run- 
down apartment building (p. 398) 

quake (kwak) v. tremble or shake; 
shudder or shiver, as from fear or cold 
(p. 399) 

banked (bar)t) adj. adjusted to burn 
slowly and long (p. 400) 



chronic (krarf ik) adj. continuing 
indefinitely; perpetual; constant (p. 400) 

austere (6 stir') adj. showing strict 
self-discipline; severe (p. 400) 



Personal 
Experience 




Taught Me Purple/The ( 'i(\ Is So Big/Those Winter Sundays ♦ 397 



: • 41 l- 





m%V 






•*m 


L 




1 











zzzz 



' ■■ ■ I 



ice 






.* 4 



Taught Me 

Purple 



Evelyn Tooley Hunt 



10 



My mother taught me purple 
Although she never wore it. 

Wash-gray was her circle, 
The tenement her orbit. 

My mother taught me golden 
And held me up to see it. 

Above the broken molding, 
Beyond the filthy street. 

My mother reached for beauty 
And for its lack she died, 

Who knew so much of duty 

She could not teach me pride. 



tenement (ten' 9 ment) n. 
here, a run-down apart- 
ment building 



Evelyn Tooley Hunt 



(b. 1904) 

In 1961, Evelyn Tooley 
Hunt won the Sidney 
Lanier Memorial Award for 
her first collection of 
poems, Look Again, Adam. 
Her poems demonstrate a 
keen interest in other 
cultures. "I like to write 
from the inside of some cul- 
ture other than my own," 
she says. She is best known 
for her variations of haiku, a 
type of Asian poetry, which 
she writes under the pen 
name of Tao-Li. 



398 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



• A I K j^- 1. • 



Richard Garcia 



-- — — — - 



The city is so big 

Its bridges quake with fear 

I know, I have seen at night 

The lights sliding from house to house 
5 And trains pass with windows shining 
Like a smile full of teeth 

I have seen machines eating houses 
And stairways walk all by themselves 
And elevator doors opening and closing 
10 And people disappear. 



quake (kwak) v. tremble or 
shake; shudder or shiver, 
as from fear or cold 



Richard Garcia 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selections 

1. Respond: To which poem do you have a stronger 
reaction? Why? 

2. (a) Recall: In "Taught Me Purple," what does the speaker 
say her mother taught her? (b) Interpret: What does each 
color represent to the speaker? 

3. (a) Recall: What did the mother not teach the speaker? 
(b) Infer: Why not? 

4. (a) Recall: In "The City Is So Rig," what arc two unusual events 
the speaker says he has seen? (b) Interpret: In your own words, 
explain what the speaker has actually seen. 

5. (a) Analyze: What is the feeling behind most of the events or 
occurrences in the poem? (b) Apply: What is the mood or 
general feeling of the work? (c) Draw Conclusions: Explain 
how the speaker feels about the city. 




(b. 1941) 

Richard Garcia 
writes poetry for 
adults and chil- 
dren. His books 
include The 
Flying Garcias 
(1993) and a 
contemporary folk tale for 
children, M>> Aunt Otilia's 
Spirits (1978). 

Garcia is the Poet-in- 
Residence at the 
Children's Hospital in Los 
Angeles, California, where 
he leads poetry and art 
workshops for hospitalized 
children. He also teaches 
creative writing class :s. 



TheCity is So Big ♦ 399 



Those 

Winter 



Sundays 



Robert Hayden 



Sundays too my father got up early 
and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold, 
then with cracked hands that ached 
from labor in the weekday weather made 
5 banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. 

I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. 
When the rooms were warm, he'd call, 
and slowly I would rise and dress, 
fearing the chronic angers of that house, 

10 Speaking indifferently to him, 
who had driven out the cold 
and polished my good shoes as well. 
What did I know, what did I know 
of love's austere and lonely offices? 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: In what ways is the speaker's father in "Those 
Winter Sundays" admirable? 

2. (a) Recall: What did the speaker's father do on winter 
Sunday mornings? (b) Infer: Why did the speaker's father get 
up early even on Sundays when he could have slept later? 

3. (a) Recall: How did the speaker respond to his father when 
he was young? (b) Infer: How has his attitude toward his 
father's actions changed? (c) Support: Which lines emphasize 
the speaker's current attitude about his father's actions? 



banked (bant) adj. adjusted 
to burn slowly and long 

chronic (kran' ik) adj. con- 
tinuing indefinitely; per- 
petual; constant 

austere (6 stir') adj. show- 
ing strict self-discipline; 
severe 



Robert Havden 



(1913-1980) 

Raised in a 
poor Detroit 
neighborhood, 
Robert Hayden 
became the 
first African 
American poet 
to be appointed as 
Consultant of Poetry to 
the Library of Congress. 
His poetry covers a wide 
range of subjects — from 
personal remembrances to 
celebrations of the history 
and achievements of 
African Americans. 




400 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 



Theme 

1. In "Taught Me Purple," what is the relationship between the 
mother and the daughter? 

2. What theme or message is expressed by this relationship? 

3. Looking back on the situation in "Those Winter Sundays" as an 
adult, what does the speaker realize? 

4. What general message about life can you make based on the 
speaker's realization? 

Comparing Literary Works 

5. What does each work convey about relationships and human 
interaction? 

6. In each category, give each poem a rating from zero to five. (Zero 
means the idea does not apply at all. Five means it applies very 
strongly.) When you are finished, choose two poems and explain 
how the messages are the same or different. 



Love Sacrifice Identity Work Positive Negative 1 


"Taught 
Me Purple" 




3 










"The City 
is So Big" 















"Those 
Winter 

Sundays" 

>- 




5 











Reading Strategy 

Responding to Theme 

7. With which themes do you agree? With which do you disagree? 

8. Which, if any, of the themes relates to your life? Explain. 

9. For each work, identify another work of literature that has a simi- 
lar theme. Explain the similarity. 

Extend Understanding 

10. Cultural Connection: Which of the three poems' themes seems 
most relevant for today's world? Explain. 



Quick Review 

The theme of a literary 
work is its central 
message, concern, or 
purpose. To review theme, 
see page 397. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 

Take the interactive 
self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
these selections. 



Taught hAc Purpk/The ( 'ity Is So Big/Those Wintei Sundays ♦ 401 



mmmmm/mm 



mmm 



mmmm 



mmm 



warn 



mm 



Integrate Language Skills 

Vocabulary Development Lesson 

Word Analysis: Greek Root 'chrori' Fluency: Sentence Completions 



The word root -chron- comes from the Greek 
word for "time." Chronic means "continuing for a 
long period of time." Suggest a meaning for each 
of the words below. Then, use a dictionary to 
check your definitions. 

1. chronicle 2. chronological 3. chronometer 

Spelling Strategy 

Some words, like tenement and cemetery, are 
spelled with three e's. To remember how to spell 
these words, think of the three e's in remember! 
Spell each of the following words correctly: 

1. refirence 2. elament 3. independance 

Grammar Lesson 

Compound Subjects and Verbs 

Sentences may have more than one subject or 
verb. A compound subject is two or more sub- 
jects that have the same verb and are linked by a 
coordinating conjunction such as and or or: 

Compound Subject: That mother and father 
work hard for their children. 

A compound verb is two or more verbs that 
have the same subject and are linked by a coordi- 
nating conjunction such as and or or: 

Compound Verb: The city lives and breathes 
on its own. 



Review the vocabulary list on page 397. 
Then, write the vocabulary word that best 
completes each sentence. 

1. The ? was built to provide housing 
for the poor. 

2. The room was so bare that it looked 

? and forbidding. 

3. The ? problem with the heat kept 
the rooms from ever getting warm enough. 

4. A ? fire will burn through the 
night. 

5. When the radiator came on, the floors 
would ? and the pipes would quiver. 



► For more practice, see page R30, Exercise B. 
Practice On your paper, combine the following 
sentence pairs by forming a compound subject or 
a compound verb. When you change the subject, 
make sure the verb agrees in number. 

1. My father got up early. My father started 
the fire. 

2. He did not speak much. I did not speak 
much. 

3. Elevator doors open. Elevator doors close. 

4. He drove out the cold. He polished my 
shoes. 

5. The mother lives in a tenement. The 
daughter lives in a tenement, too. 

Writing Application Write a paragraph contain- 
ing one sentence about each of the poems in this 
section. Use at least one compound subject and 
one compound verb. 



y\n Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 19, Section 3 



402 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Writing Lesson 

Response to Poems 

When you respond to literature, you react on a personal level to language and 
techniques as well as to ideas and themes. Choose two of the poems from this section, 
and write an essay in which you compare and contrast your response to each one. 

Prewriting Reread the poems and jot down notes about your response to each. 
List how your responses to the two poems are similar and different. 

Drafting Use comparison-and-contrast organization. You might write about 
one poem first and then the other. Alternatively, you might 
describe similarities between your responses to the two poems in 
one paragraph and differences in the next. Support your compar- 
isons by citing passages from the poems. 






Model: Comparison-and-Contrast Organization 

I had different reactions to the last lines of the poems. The final 
lines of "Those Winter Sundays" made me feel sympathy for 
the speaker. By contrast, the final line of "The City Is So Big" 
made me feel tense. 



This writer states her 
similar reactions to the 
poems in one part of 
her response, and her 
different reactions to the 
poems in another. 



Revising Check your notes to make sure you have included all of your 
points. 

v\r^ Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 72, Section 3 



Extension Activities 

Listening and Speaking Prepare an outline for 

an informal speech about someone you admire. 
The following steps will help you: 

• State your main point, the overall 
impression you want to give, in the 
introduction, or opening. 

• In the body of your speech, give details and 
examples. 

• Conclude with a summary of the reasons 
you admire your subject. 

When you are ready, give your speech to the 
class. 



Taught 



Research and Technology With a group, develop 
a magazine that describes city life. Use maga- 
zines, newspapers, and online resources to gather 
information. Write articles using this information. 

Writing Find a word in one of the poems that is 
critical to the poem's overall meaning. Then, 
write a brief essay in which you discuss why the 
writer chose this word and how the word relates 
to the poem's message. 



ISSfl Take It to the Net www.phschool.com 

Go online for an additional research activity 
using the Internet. 

Mc Purple/The ( )ity Is So Big/Tfiose Winter Sundays ♦ 40.** 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 



v Persuasive Speeches J 



About Persuasive Speeches 

Like autobiographies and diaries, speeches can provide you with a first- 
hand view of historical events. In addition, they are a great source for 
learning about the various sides of political issues. When reading a speech: 

• Remember that it was originally written to be presented orally to an 
audience. 

• Try to understand the speaker's purpose, arguments, and evidence. 

• Think about the other sides of the issue that the speaker may be 
ignoring. 

Many speeches, such as political speeches, have a persuasive purpose. 
As a result, speakers often use carefully chosen words and details in order to 
convince the audience to agree with their position. Speakers also use a 
variety of techniques — including repetition and appeals to emotion — to 
influence listeners. 



Speaker' 
Propositi 

Supporting 
Details 



Reading Strategy 

Analyzing Proposition and Support 

Writers of speeches often make a proposition — a 
subject or statement to be discussed or debated — 
when they begin their speech. The proposition is 
the main point of the writer's speech. In order for 
a proposition to effectively persuade the reader or 
listener, it is necessary to present sufficient support: 

• logical arguments 

• facts 

• expert opinions 

• personal observations 

When reading speeches critically, first identify the speaker's proposition 
or main point. Then, look for the details that support the proposition. 
Finally, you should evaluate the speech by looking at your own response. 
Were you influenced by the speaker to believe in his or her argument? Use 
a chart like the one shown to analyze Elizabeth Cady Stanton's proposition 
in "Arguments in Favor of a Sixteenth Amendment." 



Your 
Response 



What does 

the speaker 

want me to believe? 

How does the 
speaker 
support his 
or her 
argument? 

Did you "buy" 
the argument 
of the speaker? 
Why or why not? 



404 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 







Stanton introduces 
her topic with 
loaded language 
that makes her 
distaste for 
inequality evident. 






Arguments in Favor of 
a Sixteenth Amendment 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton 

The Republican party today congratulates itself on having carried 
the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution, thus securing "manhood 
suffrage" and estalishing an aristocracy of sex on this continent. As 
several bills secure Woman's Suffrage in the District and the Territories 
have been already presented in both houses of Congress, and as by Mr. 
Julian's bill, the question of so amending the Constitution as to extend 
suffrage to all the women of the country has been presented to the 
nation for consideration, it is not only the right hut the duty of every 
thoughtful woman to express her opinion on a Sixteenth Amendment. 
While I hail the late discussions of Congress and the various bills pre- 
sented as so many signs of progress, I am especially gratified with those 
of Messrs. Julian and Pomeroy, which forbid any State to deny the right 
of suffrage to any of its citizens on account of sex or color. 



Reading Informational Material: Persuasive Speeches ♦ 4(\ 









This fundamental principle of our government — the equality of all the 
citizens of the republic — should be incorporated in the Federal Constitu- 
tion, there to remain forever. To leave this question to the States and partial 
acts of Congress, is to defer indefinitely its settlement, for what is done by 
this Congress may be repealed by the next; and politics in the several 
States differ so widely, that no harmonious action on any question can ever 
be secured, except as a strict party measure. Hence, we appeal to the party 
now in power, everywhere, to end this protracted debate on suffrage, and 
declare it the inalienable right of every citizen who is amenable to the laws 
of the land, who pays taxes and the penalty of crime. . . . 

1 urge a speedy adoption of a Sixteenth Amendment for the following 
reasons: 

A government, based on the principle of caste and class, can not stand. 
The aristocratic idea, in any form, is opposed to the genius of our free insti- 
tutions, to our own declaration of rights, and to the civilization of the age. 
All artificial distinctions, whether of family, blood, wealth, color, or sex, 
are equally oppressive to the subject classes, and equally destructive to 
national life and prosperity. Governments based on every form of aristocracy, 
on every degree and varety of inequality, have been tried in despotisms, 
monarchies, and republics, and all alike have perished. In the panorama of 
the past behold the mighty nations that have risen, one by one, but to'fall. 
Behold their temples, thrones, and pyramids, their gorgeous palaces and 
stately monuments now crumbled all to dust. Behold every monarch in 
Europe at this very hour trembling on his throne. Behold the republics on 
this Western continent convulsed, distracted, divided, the hosts scattered, 
the leaders fallen, the scouts lost in the wilderness, the once inspired 
prophets blind and dumb, while on all sides the cry is echoed, "Republican- 
ism is a failure," though that great principle of a government "by the people, 
of the people, for the people" has never been tried. Thus far, all nations 
have been built on caste and failed. Why, in this hour of reconstruction, 
with the experience of generations before us, make another experiment in 
the same direction? If serfdom, peasantry, and slavery have shattered king- 
doms, deluged continents with blood, scattered republics like dust before 
the wind, and rent our own Union asunder, what kind of a government, 
think you, American statesmen, you can build, with the mothers of the 
race crouching at your feet, while iron-heeled peasants, serfs, and slaves, 
exalted by your hands, tread our inalienable rights into the dust? While all 
men, everywhere, are rejoicing in new-found liberties, shall woman alone 
be denied the rights, privileges, and immunities of citizenship?. . . 

Of all kinds of aristocracy, that of sex is the most odious and unnatural; 
invading, as it does, our homes, desecrating our family altars, dividing those 
whom God has joined together, exalting the son above the mother who 
bore him, and subjugating, everywhere, moral power to brute force. Such a 
government would not be worth the blood and treasure so freely poured out 
in its long struggles for freedom. . . . 



Stanton states her 
position by using 
concepts such as 
fairness and 
equality. 



Stanton prepares 
her audience for 
the evidence she 
will use to support 
her proposition. 



Stanton makes 
her case by 
portraying the 
opposite side 
as outdated and 
undemocratic in 
their thinking. 



Stanton uses a 
rhetorical question 
here. A rhetorical 
question is one 
which the speaker 
has already 
answered or 
implied and 
with which the 
audience is 
expected to agree. 



^ 









■ 



406 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Checking Your Comprehension 

1. What is the purpose of the Fifteenth Amendment? What would the 
Sixteenth Amendment add to it? 

2. What hills did Messrs. Julian and Pomeroy present to Congress? 

3. What does Stanton believe to be the fundamental principle of the 
government? 

4. What does Stanton say about the aristocratic idea? 

5. Why does Stanton believe that "no harmonious action on any 
question can ever be secured"? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Proposition and Support 

6. What is Stanton's proposition? 

7. What three details does she provide to support her proposition? 

8. Why do you think Stanton provides examples of other governments? 



Activity 

Prepare a Speech 

Use a chart like the one shown here to organize 
your thoughts for a speech in which you propose a 
plan, viewpoint, or suggested action. After outlin- 
ing your plan, conduct research as needed to find 
statistics, expert opinions or other details that 
support your proposition. 

Comparing Informational 
Materials 



Proposition 




Support 



Reason 


[ Reason 


• 


■■ 










■ 





Reason 



Speeches from the Past and Present 

The speech given by Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
was given in the nineteenth century. Using the 
Internet, find a speech that was recently given about a proposed 
amendment or law. Evaluate the speech by identifying the proposition 
and the supporting details. Then, compare the two speeches by asking 
the following questions: 

• Which speaker do you think is more effective in influencing readers? 

• Which speaker backs up their argument more thoroughly? 

• How is the language and style of the two time periods different? 
When you are finished, present your comparison to the class. 



V > 



Reading Informational Material: Persuasive Speeches ♦ 407 



READING INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 



Persuasive Essays 



About Persuasive Essays 

A persuasive essay is a written work in which a writer presents a case 
for or against a particular position. Some examples of persuasive essays are 
newspaper editorials and magazine commentary pages. 

In a persuasive essay, each logical argument or striking phrase is like a 
step on a staircase leading to a window. As readers climb the staircase, 
they come closer to looking out this "window" — to seeing things from the 
writer's point of view. A persuasive essay has 

• an issue with more than one side. 

• a clear statement of the writer's position. 

• a clear organization that huilds toward a conclusion. 

• evidence supporting the writer's position, including arguments, 
statistics, expert opinions, and personal observations. 

• powerful verbal images and language. 

Reading Strategy 

Understand a Writer's Purpose 

A writer's purpose — to inform, to entertain, to shape a viewpoint, to argue 
for or against a position — determines what facts, arguments, and images he 
or she selects. For instance, in the essay on the next page, "Darkness at 
Noon," the writer uses a series of anecdotes to support his argument that 
sighted people often make mistaken assumptions about the blind. As you 
read, keep track of these anecdotes in a chart like the one shown. 

Writers often make their purpose clear 
by stating it in the introduction. Then, 
in the body of the essay, they explain the 
connection of each main point to their 
overall purpose. In "Darkness at Noon," 
the writer introduces a paragraph with the 
following sentence: "The toughest mis- 
conception of all is the view that because 
I can't see, I can't work." This connects 
the paragraph to his main purpose, which 
is to persuade people to treat the disabled 
fairly, especially in the workplace. 




Anecdotes Used to Support the Argument 



A waitress 
believes that 
because 
Krents cannot 
see, he also 
cannot talk. 




mm> 



408 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Darkness at Noon 

Harold Krents 




Blind from birth, I have never had the opportunity to see myself and 
have been completely dependent on the image I create in the eye of 
the observer. To date, it has not been narcissistic. 

There are those who assume that since I can't see, I obviously also 
cannot hear. Very often people will converse with me at the top of their 
lungs, enunciating each word very carefully. 

Conversely, people will also often whisper, assuming that since my 
eyes don't work, my ears don't either. 

For example, when I go to the airport and ask the ticket agent for 
assistance to the plane, he or she will invariably pick up the phone, 
call a ground hostess, and whisper: "Hi, Jane, we've got a 76 here." 
I have concluded that the word blind is not used, for one of two reasons: 
Either they fear that if the dread word is spoken, the ticket agent's retina 
will immediately detach, or they are reluctant to inform me of my condi- 
tion, of which I may not have been previously aware. 

On the other hand, others know that of course I can hear, but believe 
that I can't talk. Often, therefore, when my wife and I go out to dinner, 
a waiter or waitress will ask Kit if "he would like a drink" to which I 
respond that "indeed he would." 

This point was graphically driven home to me while we were in Eng- 
land. I had been given a year's leave of absence from my Washington law 
firm to study for a diploma in law at Oxford University. During the year I 
became ill and was hospitalized. Immediately after admission, I was 
wheeled down to the X-ray room. Just at the door sat an elderly woman — 
elderly 1 would judge from the sound of her voice. "What is his name?" the 
woman asked the orderly who had been wheeling me. 

"What's your name?" the orderly repeated to me. 

"Harold Krents," I replied. 

"Harold Krents," he repeated. 

"When was he born?" 

"When were you born?" 

"November 5, 1944," I responded. 

"November 5, 1944," the orderly intoned. 



The opening 
states the issue 
addressed by the 
essay: the 
perception of 
blind people by 
others. Since he 
does not state his 
position clearly in 
the opening, 
readers must infer 
it, or figure it out, 
from the 
examples he 
chooses and his 
attitude. 



Examples from 
the author's own 
life serve as 
evidence for his 
argument. Such 
evidence, as well 
as powerful 
language, helps 
readers 

sympathize with 
the author's 
viewpoint. 



Reading Informational Material: Persuasive Essays ♦ 409 



The author 
uses humorous 
anecdotes as 
persuasive 
devices that build 
toward his central 
argument: The 
disabled deserve 
fair treatment by 
employers. 




This final anecdote 
gives readers a 
simple, powerful 
image of the 
future for which 
Krents hopes. 




This procedure continued for approximately five minutes, at which 
point even my saintlike disposition deserted me. 

"Look," I finally blurted out, "this 
is absolutely ridiculous. Okay, granted 
I can't see, but it's got to have 
become pretty clear to both of you 
that I don't need an interpreter." 

"He says he doesn't need an inter- 
preter," the orderly reported to the 
woman. 

The toughest misconception of all 
is the view that because 1 can't see, 
I can't work. I was turned down by 
over forty law firms because of my 
blindness, even though my qualifi- 
cations included a cum laude degree 
from Harvard College and a good 
ranking in my Harvard Law School class. 

The attempt to find employment, the continuous frustration of being 
told that it was impossible for a blind person to practice law, the rejection 
letters, based not on my lack of ability but rather on my disability, will 
always remain one of the most disillusioning experiences of my life. 

Fortunately, this view of limitation and exclusion is beginning to 
change. On April 16, [1978,] the Department of Labor issued regulations 
that mandate equal-employment opportunities for the handicapped. By 
and large, the business community's response to offering employment to 
the disabled has been enthusiastic. 

I therefore look forward to the day, with the expectation that it is cer- 
tain to come, when employers will view their handicapped workers as a lit- 
tle child did me years ago when my family still lived in Scarsdale. 

I was playing basketball with my father in our back yard according to 
procedures we had developed. My father would stand beneath the hoop, 
shout, and I would shoot over his head at the basket attached to our 
garage. Our next-door neighbor, aged five, wandered over into our yard 
with a playmate. "He's blind," our neighbor whispered to her friend in a 
voice that could be heard distinctly by dad and me. Dad shot and missed; 
I did the same. Dad hit the rim; I missed entirely; Dad shot and missed 
the garage entirely. "Which one is blind?" whispered back the little friend. 

I would hope that in the near future, when a plant manager is touring 
the factory with the foreman and comes upon a handicapped and a non- 
handicapped person working together, his comment after watching 
them work will be, "Which one is disabled?" 



410 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Checking Your Comprehension 

1. What disability does the writer have? 

2. Name two misconceptions that sighted people have had about the 
writer. 

3. (a) According to the writer, what is "the toughest misconception of 
all"? (b) Why does the writer find this misconception so difficult to 
handle? 

Applying the Reading Strategy 

Understand a Writer's Purpose 

4. How does the introduction show that the writer's purpose is to 
persuade people to avoid inappropriate assumptions about people 
who cannot see? 

5. The writer uses humor in the essay. Find one example of humor, 
and explain how this helps him accomplish his purpose. 

6. What evidence does the writer use to support his argument that the 
disabled need fair treatment in the workplace? 

Activity 

Media Evaluation 

Many perceptions are formed by the way people are portrayed in the 
media. Choose a movie or television program that has a person who is 
blind as a character. Watch the movie or program. Discuss with a partner 
how Harold Krents would react to the portrayal of the character. 

Comparing Informational Materials 

Persuasive Essays and Persuasive Speeches 

Persuasive speeches use many of the same techniques as persuasive 
essays, such as logical arguments, charged language, and appeals to values 
and emotions. However, since they are meant to be heard as well as read, 
they often make greater use of speaking devices, such as repetition and 
emphasis. Compare persuasive speeches and persuasive essays using a 
chart like the one shown here. 



Persuasive Essay Persuasive Speech 1 


Purpose To persuade readers 


To persuade listeners 


Format 






Techniques 
Used 







Reading Informational Material: Persuasive Essays ♦ 411 



Writing workshop 



Persuasion: Persuasive Composition 



A persuasive composition is a written work in which a 
writer presents a case for or against a particular position in 
order to try to convince readers to agree with his or her 
ideas. In this workshop, you will write a persuasive composi- 
tion on an issue of interest to you. 

Assignment Criteria. Your persuasive composition 
should have the following characteristics: 

• An issue that has more than one "side" 

• A clear thesis statement that presents your position 

• Detailed evidence, examples, and reasons in support 
of your position 

• Arguments that anticipate reader's concerns and 
counterarguments 

• Powerful words and vivid language 

To preview the criteria on which your persuasive composition may be 
assessed, see the Rubric on page 415. 




Prewriting 



Choose a topic. For inspiration, check national and local news stories, 
or ask friends and family members to name topics that interest them. 
Here are a few broad categories to choose from: 

• Laws that affect young people 

• School rules 

• Environmental issues 

• Media influence 

Know your audience. Choose details and 
a writing style that will appeal to your read- 
ers. To do this, create an audience profile to 
help you analyze your readers. 

Conduct research. To support your pro- 
posal, present detailed evidence, examples, 
and reasons. Conduct interviews or surveys, 
or use the library or online research to gather 
quotations and facts from reliable sources. 

Anticipate the counterarguments. Think 
about the arguments against your position. 
Plan ahead to answer concerns and meet 
opposing ideas head on with persuasive 
arguments of your own. 



Audience Profile 
Audience members: Classmates 
Grade: 8th 

Topic: Why rats make the best pets 
Attitudes toward my topic: doubt, skepticism 
Knowledge about my topic: limited 
Interest in my topic: high 



412 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Student Model 

Before you begin drafting your persuasive composition, read this student model 
and review the characteristics of a successful persuasive composition. 



Joseph Bunke 
Daytona Beach, Florida 

Why Rats Make Better Pets Than Cats and Dogs 

It has come to my attention as a pet owner and scholar that most pet 
owners own cats or dogs, and are repulsed by rodents — especially rats. A 
few years ago, we acquired a new family member after our pet snake refused 
to eat a rat. Since then, I have learned that rats are superior to cats and dogs 
in numerous ways, and I intend to show you how. 

I believe that man's fear of rats stems mainly from an irrational fear of 
disease. This fear may have been legitimate back in the Middle Ages when 
fleas on street rats spread bubonic plague. Nowadays, rats have been 
domesticated, and pet rats are quite clean and free of disease. Their 
habitats are clean as well. Cats have litter boxes, true, but dogs have to be 
walked or let outside. A rat requires only a change of wood shavings in its 
cage once weekly. Also, since rats do not go outside of the house, their 
soft fur coats aren't exposed to much dirt, making them cleaner than cats 
and dogs. 

Rats have nice personalities in addition to being so clean. They are 
affectionate and trusting towards humans, especially if they are exposed to 
humans before they are two months old. Rats, like dogs, can be trained to 
do tricks because they are very intelligent. I have yet to see a cat do tricks. 

Then there's the issue of cost. Cats and dogs can cost several hundred 
dollars just to purchase. Then you have to pay monthly costs for basic 
needs like food, flea treatment (unless you want fleas), veterinary care, and 
repair expenses for the damage they inflict on your house. Rats cost much 
less. They cost only five dollars to purchase, require little or no veterinary 
attention, eat relatively anything, and are easy to entertain. You could 
realistically support three rats for the price of one cat or dog. 

I personally think rats are great pets, but you can judge that for yourself. 
Think of it this way: Would you rather have a hulking mongrel who has to be 
watched all the time, a feline whose innocence conceals four sharp sets of 
claws, or a small, sweet, cheerful, clever rodent who loves people uncondi- 
tionally? It's your choice, but if I were you I would choose a rodent. 



- Joseph has chosen 
the unpopular side 
of an issue that 
clearly has an 
opposing argument. 



His thesis is clearly 
stated and sets up 
his persuasive 
arguments. 



Given his 
controversial 
thesis, Joseph 
chooses to deal 
right away with 
readers' potential 
objections to rats. 



He devotes each 
paragraph to 
examples of rats' 
superiority. Here he 
addresses cost. 



Joseph's use of 
vivid language in 
this paragraph is 
intended to sway 
the reader. 



Writing Workshop ♦ 413 



Writing workshop continued 



Drafting 



Begin with a strong introduction. Before you can persuade 
your reader, you must "hook" him or her. Try one of the lures, 
shown at right, as tempting bait. 

Combine logic and emotion. Logic without emotion can be 
dry and bland. Emotion without logic is easily dismissed as 
empty and melodramatic. Successful persuasive writers use 
both. 

• Logic: Take your readers step-by-step down a logical path. 
Let one point lead naturally to the next until together they 
reach the conclusion you have planned all along. 

• Emotion: Brief stories or vivid descriptions can move read- 
ers to share your feelings. Words with strong connotations 

can pack a punch in just a few syllables. For example, calling an idea 
irresponsible or childish can be more effective than just calling it 
mistaken. 

Save the best for last. Try a plan of attack called Nestorian Order. 

Begin with your second strongest point. Present other points and then-r- 
BOOM! — hit your reader with your strongest reason — a dramatic way to 
conclude. 



Hooking Your Reader 



Detailed 
description 




Provocative 
question 



Revising 



Revise for coherence. A good essay coheres, or holds together well. 
Read the last sentence of each paragraph followed by the first sentence 
of the next paragraph. If there is no obvious connection between the 
paragraphs, highlight the space between them. Add a word, phrase, or 
sentence that "glues" the paragraphs together. Use the following ideas 
to glue your paragraph together: 

• Repeat a key word or phrase. 

• Use a transitional word or phrase such as similarly, however, or in 
addition. 

• Insert a sentence that takes your reader smoothly from one idea to 
the next. 



Rats have nice 
personalities in 
addition to being 
so clean. 




Model: Making Paragraphs Stick Together 

Also, since rats do not go outside of the house, their soft fur 
coats aren't exposed to much dirt, making them cleaner than 
cats and dogs. 

Rats are affectionate and trusting toward humans, 
especially if they are exposed to humans before they are 
two months old. 



Joseph repeats a 
different form of the word 
"cleaner" in order to 
emphasize the connection 
between paragraphs. 



414 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Revise to repeat key words. Determine the most important words in 
your sentences. Try repeating them for emphasis. Use this strategy to 
create connections between sentences. Do not use it because you cannot 
think of another word. 

Compare the model and the nonmodel. Why is the model more effec- 
tive than the nonmodel? 



Nonmodel 



Then there's the issue of cost. You can 
spend several hundred dollars just to 
purchase a cat or dog. Then you have to 
pay monthly fees for basic needs like . . . 



Model 



Then there's the issue of cost. You might 
spend several hundred dollars just to 
purchase a cat or dog. Then you have to 
pay monthly costs like . . . 



Publishing and Presenting 



Choose one of these following ways to share your writing with class- 
mates or a larger audience. 

Record a speech. Use your persuasive composition as the basis for a 
speech that you tape-record and share with your classmates. 

Publish a magazine. Combine your persuasive composition with 
other students' to create a class magazine that covers school, local, 
national, and worldwide issues. Give your magazine a title that will 
attract readers. Then, display it in your school library. 



% 



Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection: Chapter 7 



/ 



Speaking Connection 



To learn more about 
delivering a persuasive 
speech, see the Listening 
and Speaking Workshop, 
page 416. 



Rubric for Self-Assessment 

Evaluate your persuasive composition using the following criteria and rating scale: 



Rating Scale 
Criteria Not very Very 


How clearly have you defined and stated your thesis? 


12 3 4 5 


How effective is the evidence you present? 


12 3 4 5 


How well do you address reader concerns and counterarguments? 


12 3 4 5 


How powerful and vivid is the language used in the essay? 


12 3 4 5 



Writing Workshop + 415 



Listening and Speaking workshop 



Delivering a Persuasive Speech 



A persuasive speech is a speech that attempts to persuade, or con- 
vince, the listener to adopt the speaker's opinion. A persuasive speech 
follows the same guidelines as persuasive compositions. (To review 
these, see the writing workshop, pp. 412-415.) It includes a well-defined 
thesis supported by detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning. Like a 
persuasive composition, it also anticipates listener concerns and 
counterarguments. However, a speech has additional dimensions and 
tools: careful preparation of speaking notes, as well as dramatic delivery. 



Be Prepared 



Prepare notes. When you prepare notes for your speech, do not write 
down everything you will say, word for word. Instead, prepare basic 
notes which will remind you of the main points you wish to cover, while 
still allowing you to speak spontaneously. The notes can be in outline 
form, with key points and details underlined or highlighted. 

Rehearse. Rehearse the speech at least once, using your notes, so you 
will feel comfortable using them in front of an audience. 



Use Your Voice and Body 



Delivery can be a powerful persuasive element. Use these 
techniques to make a lasting impression on your audience. 

Voice modulation. Adjust the sound of your voice to suit 
your audience and the place in which you are speaking. Use 
different intensities for drama and emphasis and to keep your 
audience engaged. 

Tone. If possible, don't read your presentation. Use note 
cards to help you move from point to point, but speak as natu- 
rally and reasonably as you can. 

Pace. In general, speak slowly. However, there may be times 
in which you speed your pace to create excitement or build suspense. 
Remember that your audience will only hear your speech once — and you 
want them to hear every word. 

Use Your Body. Your audience is not just listening: they are also 
watching. While speaking make direct eye contact with your audience 
and gesture dramatically to emphasize key points. 



Checklist for Persuasive Speeches 



U Well-defined thesis 

[U Detailed evidence 

I— I One opinion, many facts 

[J Sound, logical reasoning 

LJ Listener concerns anticipated 



<£ 



Activity:^ 

i-irvr-rffm'rerni 



Deliver a short persuasive speech to your class- 
mates in which you take a stand on this ques- 
tion: "Should eighth graders be required to 



learn to swim before they can be promoted to ninth grade?" Prepare 
your speech by writing note cards with your main ideas. 



416 ♦ From Sea to Shining Sea 



Assessment workshop 



Identifying the Best Summary 



The reading sections of some tests require you to read a 
passage and answer multiple-choice questions in which you identify 
the best summary of that passage. Use the following strategies to 
answer such questions: 

• Before choosing an answer, summarize the passage in your 
mind. Then, choose the summary that is closest to your own. 

• Avoid choosing a summary that is true, but may include details 
that are unnecessary. The best summary is not necessarily the 
most detailed. 



Test-Taking Strategies 



• Always reread the ques- 
tion to make sure you 
understand it correctly. 

• While reading the pas- 
sage, always keep the 
test question in mind. 



Sample Test Item 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the question that follows. 

The platypus lives in the lakes and 
streams of eastern Australia. It looks like 
a duck-billed seal and acts like a lizard. 
Being a mammal, the platypus is warm- 
blooded and has fur. However, it also 
has some characteristics of a reptile. For 
example, instead of bearing live young, 
it lays eggs. Like a lizard, its legs are 
attached to the side of its body rather 
than underneath it. 

1. What is the best summary of the 
passage? 

A The platypus is a mammal that 
shares characteristics with reptiles. 

B The platypus is found in eastern 
Australia. 

C The platypus, found in Australia, 
is a mammal that lays eggs and 
has legs attached to its sides like 
a reptile. 

D Found in streams and lakes, 
the platypus is warm-blooded, 
fur-bearing, and egg-laying. 



Answer and Explanation 



A states the main idea but is not a 
summary. B and D don't include all the 
important information. Cis correct. 



Practice 



Directions: Read the passage, and then 
answer the question that follows. 

On Saturday, at 7:30 a.m., students 
began gathering in the school parking 
lot. Many carried home-baked goodies. 
Others brought pails, soap, sponges, and 
clothes. The students had formed a com- 
mittee to raise money for theTinyTots 
Preschool, which has been severely dam- 
aged in a fire. With the car wash and 
bake sale, they hoped to raise funds to 
replace most of the school's books. By 
one o'clock, the students were counting 
their hard-earned money. 

1. What is the best summary of the 
passage? 

A Students brought food and cleaning 
supplies to the car wash and bake 
sale. 

B When a local preschool was dam- 
aged in a fire, students held a bake 
sale and car wash. 

C Students counted their money. 

D TheTinyTots Preschool lost all of its 
books. 



Assessment Workshop ♦ 4I7 



UNIT 



Extraordinary Occu 




nces 




I Exploring the Theme 



.L>xtraordinary occurrences happen in every- 
one's life. They serve as eye-opening jolts that 
shock us out of the ordinary and force us to look 
at the world differently. Sometimes we seek out 
these experiences, like when we leap off a high 
diving board or shiver our way through a chilling 
mystery novel or scary movie. But extraordinary 
occurrences are not only found in dramatic 
events. You can find the extraordinary in subtle 
changes as well. You might step outside one day 
and it seems— overnight— the tree that you barely 
noticed the day before has new leaves. 

The selections in this unit revel in the feeling 
of awe that accompanies the extraordinary in the 
unusual and in the "everyday." 



■4 Critical Viewing What aspects of this painting make 
it extraordinary? [Connect] 



Exploring the Theme ♦ 419 



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itfty .t *i t gi mm Wti* m f**n 



■MM 



■MMI 



■MHMMHMM 



MM 



Read Literature? 



Whenever you read, you have a purpose, or reason. You may 
start out reading with one purpose in mind and find it has 
changed halfway through. Or you may read a single work for 
multiple purposes. Preview three purposes you might 
set before reading works in this unit. 



Read for the love of literature. 

Did you know that the average person will 
spend two weeks over his or her lifetime wait- 
ing for the traffic light to change? Find out what 
interesting things happen during a traffic jam in 
May Swenson's poem "Southbound on the 
Freeway," page 452. 




Did you know that the first lamp was created 
in 70,000 B.c.?The original purpose of a lamp was 
to light up dark places and to end peoples' fears 
of the dark. Although its purpose hasn't changed, 
sometimes lights can actually cause someone to 
be afraid. See how lights affect Annie Dillard in 
the excerpt from her autobiography, An American 
Childhood, on page 424. 



~~ D 



Read to be entertained. 

Blue jays are a lot smarter than you would imagine. 
Did you know that blue jays' loud cries warn 
other birds and mammals of approaching 

predators? Read more about the 
incredible things blue jays can do in 
Mark Twain's "What Stumped the 
Blue Jays," page 438. 







If you heard the phrase 
"Elementary, my dear 
Watson," you would know 
immediately that Sherlock 
Holmes said it. But would you 
be surprised to know that, 
although his character says it 
in movies, he never really 
said it? Find out what else 
Holmes has to say in "The 
Adventure of the Speckled Band," 
page 462. 



Read for information. 

Many people know that the 
microscope was invented by 
Leeuwenhoek, but did you 
know that he kept his method 
for making lenses a secret until 
his death at age ninety? Read 
about how to use a microscope 
on page 489. 



420 ♦ Extraordinary Occurrences 




rlOLU to Read Literature 

Strategies for Reading Critically 

Whenever you read a work that contains an author's ideas or opinions, it is 
wise to read the work critically. When you read critically, you examine and 
question the author's ideas, statements, and message to decide how you feel 
about their quality. Use the following strategies to help you read critically: 



1. Recognize the author's purpose. 

An author always writes with a particular purpose, or pur- 
poses, in mind. Recognizing these purposes will help you to 
evaluate if the work is successful or not. 

• Start by asking why you think the author wrote the piece. 

• Determine whether you think the author achieved the pur- 
pose or purposes. Support your opinion with evidence 
from the text. 

2. Evaluate the text. 

Once you fully understand a text, you are ready to 
evaluate it. 

• Check for logical organization. A story should unfold in 
a way that is clearly understood. Arguments in persua- 
sive pieces should build on each other and support the 
main point. 

• Check for consistency. In fiction, the characters should 
not act in ways that seem out of keeping with their basic 
personalities. In a persuasive piece, one supporting argument should 
not contradict another. 




4uth 



°r's l> 




• To 
' To 



Ur Po$ e 



m 



P er suade 



obtain 
P ' ece ofW In 

°'e than 9 ^ hav * 

than °ne pur Pose 



3. Identify the evidence. 

Evidence can take many forms, depending on what you are reading. 
If you are reading a mystery novel, evidence takes the form of clues. If 
you are reading a science report, evidence could be statistics or data 
that support the final conclusion. 

• When reading fiction, use the evidence you collect to reach conclu- 
sions about what will happen next or to figure out the personality 
traits of a main character. 

• In nonfiction, make sure that the author presents evidence that 
directly supports the conclusions. Make sure that the evidence can- 
not be interpreted in another way to support a different conclusion. 

As you read the selections in this unit, review the reading strategies and 
look at the notes in the side column. Use the suggestions to interact with 
the text. 



How to Read literature ♦ 421 



Prepare to Read 






from An American Childhood 





As you read 
^)5dJ^ this story and 

complete the related 
assignments, you will focus on 
these standards. The Student's 
Guide to the Standards contains 
an outline of how each standard 
is introduced, developed, and 
concluded. 



Background 



In this selection, Annie Dillard discovers that the strange motion of 
light she observes is caused by the reflection of light. When light is 
reflected, it bounces away from an object that it has run into. The direc- 
tion of the bounce is determined by the direction of the "hit." The mov- 
ing lights that Dillard sees are caused by the headlights of cars. 

Focus on the Standards 

Reading 2.7 Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural 
patterns of text. (Developed in the Reading Strategy) 

Writing 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives. (Developed 
in the Writing Lesson) 

Language Conventions 1.1 Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence open- 
ings to present a lively and effective personal style. (Developed in the Grammar Lesson) 
Listening and Speaking 1.5 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, 
appropriate and colorful modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice in ways 
that enliven oral presentations. (Concluded in the Listening and Speaking activity) 



422 ♦ Extraordinary Occurrences 



Literary Analysis 

Vignette 

This excerpt from An American Childhood is a vignette — a brief story 
that captures a memorable scene or experience described in precise detail. 
In the example below, precise details — words and phrases that give very 
specific information — are italicized. 

A car came roaring down Edgerton Avenue in front of our house , 
stopped at the corner stop sign, and passed on shrieking as its engine 
shifted up the gears. 

As you read this excerpt from An American Childhood, use the details 
to get a clear image in your mind of what the author describes. 

Connecting Literary Elements 

To make a vignette interesting, some details are presented through 
metaphor. A metaphor is an implied comparison in which one thing is 
described as if it were another. Although metaphors are often brief, they 
may also be elaborate, lengthy comparisons. An extended metaphor is a 
comparison that is developed throughout the course of a work. This chart 
shows one comparison in an extended metaphor from the vignette. 

Reading Strategy 

Evaluating the Text 

When you read, evaluate the text by judging how well the writer has 
communicated ideas. A paragraph or composition has unity when all of 
its parts relate to a single idea. Writing has coherence when ideas are 
organized in a logical order that shows readers the connections and the 
flow of ideas. Writing has originality when it presents ideas in a unique 
way. You can judge the relevance of a selection by determining whether 
the subject connects to your life or interest. 

Use these focus questions to help you evaluate Dillard's vignette: 

1. What is the main idea of Dillard's vignette? 

2. What details of description add to the originality of Dillard's writing? 



Vocabulary Development 

luminous (loo' me nes) adj. giving off 
light; shining; bright (p. 425) 

ascent (e sent') n. the act of rising or 
climbing (p. 426) 

contiguous (ken tig' ydo es) adj. in 
physical contact; next to (p. 427) 



conceivably (ken se' ve ble) adv. 
possibly (p. 427) 

coincidental (ko in' se dent' el) adj. 
occurring without plan at the same 
time or place (p. 428) 

elongate (i lor)' gat) adj. long and 
narrow (p. 428) 



Detail from Text 



It found the door, wall, and 
headboard; and it swiped 
them, charging them with 
its luminous glance. 



What Is Compared 



The lights moving through 
the room to a living thing 
searching for something 



How It Connects 



Earlier the light flattened 
itself against the wall and 
slid into the room. This 
new comparison adds to 
the impression of a hunter 
or predator. 



from An American Childhood ♦ 42.^ 




hen I was five, growing up in Pittsburgh in 1950, I would 
not go to bed willingly because something came into my room. 
This was a private matter between me and it. If I spoke of it, it 
would kill me. 

Who could breathe as this thing searched for me over the very 
corners of the room? Who could ever breathe freely again? I lay 
in the dark. 

My sister Amy. two years old, was asleep in the other bed. 
What did she know? She was innocent of evil. Even at two she 
composed herself attractively for sleep. She folded the top sheet 
tidily under her prettily outstretched arm; she laid her perfect 
head lightly on an unwrinkled pillow, where her thick curls 
spread evenly in rays like petals. All night long she slept 
smoothly in a series of pleasant and serene, if artificial-looking, 
positions, a faint smile on her closed lips, as if she were posing 



A Critical Viewing 

What details of this 
photograph might be 
frightening to a young 
child, like the narrator? 
[Analyze] 



424 ♦ Extraordinary ( )ccurrences 



from 

An American 
Childhood 



Annie Dillard 



for an ad for sheets. There was no messiness in her, no rough- 
ness for things to cling to, only a charming and charmed inno- 
cence that seemed then to protect her, an innocence I needed 
but couldn't muster. Since Amy was asleep, furthermore, and 
since when I needed someone most I was afraid to stir enough 
to wake her, she was useless. 

I lay alone and was almost asleep when the thing entered the room 
by flattening itself against the open door and sliding in. It was a 
transparent, luminous oblong. I could see the door whiten at its 
touch; I could see the blue wall turn pale where it raced over it, and 
see the maple headboard of Amy's bed glow. It was a swift spirit; it 
was an awareness. It made noise. It had two joined parts, a head and 
a tail, like a Chinese dragon. It found the door, wall, and headboard; 
and it swiped them, charging them with its luminous glance. After its 
fleet, searching passage, things looked the same, but weren't. 



luminous (loo ma nes) adj. 
giving off light; shining; 
bright 



^Reading Check 

What frightens the 
narrator? 



Ik mi An American ( Childhood ♦ 425 



I dared not blink or breathe; I 
tried to hush my whooping blood. If 
it found another awareness, it 
would destroy it. 

Every night before it got to me it 
gave up. It hit my wall's corner and 
couldn't get past. It shrank com- 
pletely into itself and vanished like 
a cobra down a hole. I heard the 
rising roar it made when it died or 
left. I still couldn't breathe. I 
knew — it was the worst fact I knew, 
a very hard fact — that it could 
return again alive that same night. 

Sometimes it came back, some- 
times it didn't. Most often, restless, 
it came back. The light stripe 
slipped in the door, ran searching 
over Amy's wall, stopped, stretched 
lunatic at the first corner, raced 
wailing toward my wall, and van- 
ished into the second corner with a 
cry. So I wouldn't go to bed. 

It was a passing car whose wind- 
shield reflected the corner streetlight 
outside. I figured it out one night. 

Figuring it out was as memo- 
rable as the oblong itself. Figuring it out was a long and forced 
ascent to the very rim of being, to the membrane of skin that 
both separates and connects the inner life and the outer world. I 
climbed deliberately from the depths like a diver who releases 
the monster in his arms and hauls himself hand over hand up 
an anchor chain till he meets the ocean's sparkling membrane 
and bursts through it; he sights the sunlit, becalmed hull of his 
boat, which had bulked so ominously from below. 

I recognized the noise it made when it left. That is, the noise it 
made called to mind, at last, my daytime sensations when a car 
passed — the sight and noise together. A car came roaring down 
hushed Edgerton Avenue in front of our house, stopped at the 
corner stop sign, and passed on shrieking as its engine shifted 
up the gears. What, precisely, came into the bedroom? A reflec- 
tion from the car's oblong windshield. Why did it travel in two 
parts? The window sash split the light and cast a shadow. 

Night after night I labored up the same long chain of reasoning, as 




ascent (a sent') n. the act 
of rising or climbing 



Literary Analysis 
Vignette and Extended 
Metaphor What 
comparison does Dillard 
draw in this passage? 



426 ♦ Extraordinary Occurrences 




night after night the thing burst into the room where I lay awake 
and Amy slept prettily and my loud heart thrashed and I froze. 

There was a world outside my window and contiguous to it. 
If I was so all-fired bright, as my parents, who had patently no 
basis for comparison, seemed to think, why did I have to keep 
learning this same thing over and over? For I had learned it a 
summer ago, when men with jackhammers broke up Edgerton 
Avenue. I had watched them from the yard; the street came up in 
jagged slabs like floes. When I lay to nap, I listened. One restless 
afternoon I connected the new noise in my bedroom with the 
jackhammer men I had been seeing outside. I understood 
abruptly that these worlds met, the outside and the inside. I 
traveled the route in my mind: You walked downstairs from here, 
and outside from downstairs. "Outside," then, was conceivably 
just beyond my windows. It was the same world I reached by 
going out the front or the back door. I forced my imagination 
yet again over this route. 



▲ Critical Viewing 

Which word best 
describes this 
photograph of lights in 
the night: threatening, 
comforting, or useful? 
Explain. [Interpret] 



contiguous (ksn tig' yoo as) 
adj. in physical contact; 
near or next to 



conceivably (kan se' va ble) 
adv. possibly 

t/]Reading Check 

What is the cause of the 
light? 



limn An American Childhood ♦ 427 



The world did not have me in mind; it had no mind. It was a 
coincidental collection of things and people, of items, and I 
myself was one such item — a child walking up the sidewalk, 
whom anyone could see or ignore. The things in the world did 
not necessarily cause my overwhelming feelings; the feelings 
were inside me, beneath my skin, behind my ribs, within my 
skull. They were even, to some extent, under my control. 

I could be connected to the outer world by reason, if I chose, 
or I could yield to what amounted to a narrative fiction, to a tale 
of terror whispered to me by the blood in my ears, a show in 
light projected on the room's blue walls. As time passed, I 
learned to amuse myself in bed in the darkened room by 
entering the fiction deliberately and replacing it by 
reason deliberately. 

When the low roar drew nigh and the oblong slid in 
the door, I threw my own switches for pleasure. It's 
coming after me; it's a car outside. It's after me. It's a 
car. It raced over the wall, lighting it blue wherever it 
ran; it bumped over Amy's maple headboard in a rush, 
paused, slithered elongate over the corner, shrank, 
flew my way, and vanished into itself with a wail. It 
was a car. 



Review and Assess 

Thinking About the Selection 

1. Respond: Do you find Dillard's childhood fears understandable? 
Explain. 

2. (a) Recall: Who else is in Dillard's room when the mysterious 
event occurs? (b) Compare and Contrast: Why doesn't Amy 
react to the event in the same way? 

3. (a) Recall: What happens to the thing before it reaches 
Dillard? (b) Analyze: Why does Dillard believe it can't 
find her? (c) Contrast: What is the real reason it doesn't 
reach her? 

4. (a) Recall: What does Dillard finally figure out is the source 
of the event? (b) Paraphrase: What does this teach her about 
her place in the world? (c) Infer: After she figures out the 
mystery, Dillard sometimes pretends that she does not know 
the solution. Why? 

5. Speculate: Why do you think Dillard chose to relate this 
particular childhood experience? 



coincidental 

(ko in' se dent' el) adj. 
occurring without plan at 
the same time or place 







elongate (i Ion' gat) adj. 
long and narrow 



Annie Dillard 



(b. 1945) 

This excerpt 
is from An 
American 
Childhood, 
Annie Dillard's 
memoir about 
growing up. In 
it, she describes how her 
parents fostered her eager- 
ness to explore the world. 
She also discusses the 
importance of books in 
her early life, emphasizing 
the relationship between 
reading and life. 

An intense, creative 
writer, Dillard spends many 
hours carefully choosing 
and refining her words. 
Inspired partly by Henry 
David Thoreau's Walden, 
she spent four seasons liv- 
ing in a rural area of 
Virginia. There, she kept a 
journal in which she 
recorded her observations 
of nature and humanity. 
She edited the journal 
material to create Pilgrim at 
Tinker Creek, which won 
the 1975 Pulitzer Prize for 
general nonfiction. 



428 ♦ Extraordinary Occurrences 



Review and Assess 



Literary Analysis 

Vignette 

1 . How does the opening line of Dillard's narrative grab a reader's 
interest? 

2. Identify three details Dillard uses to describe the nightly event. 

3. Why is this event so memorable to Dillard? 

Connecting Literary Elements 

4. In the extended metaphor she generates, to what does Dillard 
compare the unknown thing in her room? 

5. What qualities of this thing are suggested by the words swiped, 
charging, and glance! 

6. What effect does Dillard's use of this extended metaphor have on 
your response to the vignette? Explain. 

Reading Strategy 

Evaluating the Text 

7. (a) What is the main idea of Dillard's vignette? (b) To evaluate 
the selection's unity, identify three details that contribute to the 
main idea. 

8. Which paragraph maintains the selection's coherence during the 
shift between the description of the mystery and the explanation 
of it? 

9. (a) What details of description add to the originality of Dillard's 
writing? (b) Given the subject, why is originality important to the 
success of the vignette? 

10. What makes this selection relevant to young readers? Explain. 

1 1. Using your answers to 7-10, rate Dillard's vignette in each category 
below. Use 1 as the lowest score and 5 as the highest. Explain your 
ratings. 







Extend Understanding 



12. Science Connection: Write two questions Dillard might have 
used to research the source of the light she saw. 



Quick Review 

A vignette is a sketch 
or brief narrative of a 
memorable scene. To 
review vignette, see 
page 423. 

An extended metaphor 

is a metaphor that is 
developed through several 
comparisons. To review 
extended metaphor, 
see page 423. 



When evaluating the text, 

you judge the unity, 
coherence, originality, and 
relevance. To review these 
qualities, see page 423. 



_ Take It to the Net 

www.phschool.com 
Take the interactive 

self-test online to check 
your understanding of 
the selection. 



from An American Childhood ♦ 429 



Integrate Language Skills 



Vocabulary Development Lesson 



Word Analysis: Latin Root -lum* 

The word luminous contains the Latin word 
root -lum-, meaning "light." Something that is 
luminous reflects or produces a steady, glowing 
light. You will find -l