Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. We also ask that you: + Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. + Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. + Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. + Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http: //books .google .com/I Q PREPARATION FOR CITIZENSHIP At Amherst College. BY ANSON D. MORSE. A. M. Winkley ProfesBor of History and Po!B»ca2 Economy ^ Amherst CoUege. Beprinted from " Education^^^ December^ 1888, </\ 4 -" / ■' ^ ^ MDUATC scHoa or miS^ MONROE C CUTMAM mM. "" \ often, is embittered isolation. The influence upon the rich is not less wholesome. They learn to judge themselves and others, not by what a man has, but by what he is and does. They learn also to regard themselves as belonging to the people rather than to a privileged class. Another side of this trait is the marked pref- erence for substance over form which characterizes both student and graduate. That the Amherst spirit is sensitive and respon- sive to universal interests is proved by the history of the college in respect to science, philosophy and foreign missions. The first formal step in " preparation for citizenship " at Amherst is taken at an interview with the President at the beginning of Freshman year. In this an exposition is given of the paragraph in the college catalogue which treats of "Administration." The most important clause reads : " A student whose recommendations have been approved, and whose examinations have shown him capable of admission to Amherst College, is received as a gentle- man, and, as such, is trusted to conduct himself in truthfulness and uprightness, in kindness and respect, in diligence and sobriety, in obedience to law and maintenance of order, and regard for Chris- tian institutions as becomes a member of a Christian College." The words are explicit; still, it is found useful to impress them upon the memory and to make clear as possible their application to the actual conditions of college life. Emphasis is laid upon the facts ; first, that the relation with the college into which the stu- dent enters is on his part voluntary ; second, that this relation is of the nature of a contract, which binds the college to admit the student to its privileges, and the student to observe the conditions on which these privileges are granted : and consequently, that non- fulfillment of obligations by either party should terminate the relation; third, that this relation is direct; the student deals with the college and the college with the student, not as a' member of a class, but as an individual. The next step is participation in the government of the college. The nature and extent of this parti- cipation are stated in the catalogue as follows : "The Faculty have judged it wise to associate with them, in the immediate govern- ment of the College, a body chosen by the students themselves, to which questions of College order and decorum are referred, and whose decisions, if approved by the President, are binding in the College. This body is called the College Senate, and consists of four Seniors, three Juniors, two Sophomores, and one Freshman, chosen by their respective classes. At the meetings of the Senate, which are held regularly once a month, the President of the College presides." ^ The attitude of the Senate towards the College is indicated by the following extract from its Constitution : — "Before taking his seat, each member shall sign the Constitu- tion, to which shall be prefaced the following pledge : ' I hereby sign this Constitution, promising to act as a judge upon all matters brought before me, and to endeavor in all my decisions to seek always the good order and decorum of the College.' " ^ The powers of the Senate are as follows : — "Whenever a member of the college shall appear to have broken the contract upon which he was received as a member of Amherst College, except in cases pertaining to attendance upon college exer- cises, determined by the regular rules of the Faculty, the case shall be brought before the Senate, who shall determine both as to whether the contract has been broken, and whether, if broken, it shall again be renewed. "The jurisdiction of the Senate shall also extend over such pro- cedures of any body of students, relating to order and decorum, as affect the whole colj^ge, and over whatever other business the President or Faculty may submit to it ; it being understood that in such cases the action of the Senate shall have the full authority of the college. " Any member shall have the right to introduce business, also to call for any vote by ballot whenever he shall desire it."^ The Faculty, subject to the approval of the Trustees, remains the general law-making branch of the college government. In the main the functions of the Senate are judicial. A large proportion of cases which come before it permit the application of principles and rules already in*Eorce. A question frequently adjudicated is whether a particular act in violation of order, decorum or good morals, should terminate the relation of the perpetrator to the col- lege. But the Senate does more than merely interpret law: it deals with many questions which relate to the welfare of the college in a general way, and to the settlement of which, existing rules are inapplicable. Questions which concern student publica- 1 College Catalogue, Par. on Organization. > Constitution of the Senate, Art. II., Sec. 4. «lbid. Art. IV. 6 tions, intercollegiate contests, the privileges of and restrictions upon organizations which engage in these, the Senate decides according to its own best judgment ; and in so doing, is gradually- building up a system of college local common law. A third very- important function of the Senate is to serve as a kind of perma- nent conference committee in which the President represents the Faculty- and the Senators, the students. By means of these confer- ences each of the represented bodies becomes acquainted with the views and feelings of the other, and under circumstances which dispose each to considerateness. The result is the prevention of those frequent and, at times, grave collisions which arise from misunderstandings between faculty and students. The President can veto the decisions of the Senate as he can those of the Fac- ulty ; but he has very rarely found it necessary to do so. After full discussion, the President, who from the nature of his office embodies the conservatism of the college, and the Senators, who in their official capacity represent its radicalism, have come to an agreement respecting almost every question. The idea of a con- tract as the basis of the relation between student and college, and participation of the student in college government, are leading features of what some have called the "Amherst System." The influence of this system begins with the first day of college life and increases to the end of the course. Its first aim is to develop in the student the capacity for wise self direction ; its second, is to awaken in him an interest in the college and a sense of responsi- bility for its welfare. The system combats at the threshold the tendency once prevalent and still powerful, to put class feeling and college custom in the place of the judgment and conscience of the individual student. It tries to make him feel, with respect to the administration of college government, that he is not so much the subject of the faculty as their colleague.* Is the system successful? Yes, but like other systems it must be used a while before it can work with perfect smoothness. Under this system college public opinion has greater weight than it used to have. It is probable that neither faculty nor students realize as yet the full consequences of this fact. In order that public opinion may become a safe guide in determining college policy, two conditions are requisite; first, it must be based on regard for not one, nor a few, but all important interests con- cerned; second, the estimate of the relative importance of these interests must be just. From a standpoint which takes into view only a certain set of interests, required attendance at church and chapel seems indefensible ; from a standpoint with a broader out- look, the question assumes an aspect which would lead advocates of the voluntary system who have the highest good of the college at heart to wish for more light before assuming the responsibility of a revolutionary change. The habit of looking at both sides, or rather all sides of a question, cannot be formed in a day. The encouraging feature of the situation at Amherst is the evidence of progress in this direction. In general the difference between fac- ulty-views and student-views is less radical than it used to be ; the relation between faculty and students is more frequently that of friendly and hearty cooperation. Under the influence of this change certain hateful incidents of the old method of governing — its conflicts, diplomacy, and espionage, are being forgotten. The student is becoming a good citizen of the college community, and in this way, is preparing to become a good citizen of the state. At Amherst the fraternities, nine in number, are a marked fea- ture of the college. The proportion of "Society men" is consider- ably larger than twenty years ago and is steadily increasing. In certain respects the fraternities are colleges within the college; they are bodies of colleagues whose corporate aims are in sympathy with those of the college and supplementary to them. Their vitality and prosperity indicate that they satisfy a real want. In fact what they offer the student is something he needs and cannot with equal ease and fulness obtain by other means. To prepara- tion for citizenship the fraternities contribute in several ways. They establish a close and permanent relationship between alumni and undergraduates, through which the juster views of life and of college opportunities and duties, which prevail among the alumni, reach and influence the undergraduates. By means of their intercollegiate relations the fraternities develop a friendly and magnanimous spirit towards other colleges. Through admitting delegates from each of the four classes they do much to keep class spirit from becoming arrogant and belligerent. As literary socie- ties they encourage the serious study and discussion of political topics. But of all their services to preparation for citizenship one of the greatest is the aid they give in maintaining relations with general society. The tendency of college life towards s eclu sion is a survival in the field of education of the once domin an 8 influence of monasticism. This tendency explains in^ part why the educated modern is less frequently a man of affairs than was, in classic times, the educated Greek or Roman. To many a studi- ous man, going to college has been to such an extent a going out of the world, that only with difficulty could he find his place again. To many who were not studious, partial isolation from ordinary social influences during the four years of College life has proved seriously demoralizing. The happiest result is when social and in- tellectual development keep even step. The comradeship which the fraternities have always fostered is now widening into practical citi- zenship. Through his chapter house the relation of the student to the town of Amherst is undergoing a radical change ; he has be- come a householder, a neighbor, and a host ; as a taxpayer he has an interest in the management of town affairs ; his stake in the community is much more like that of other citizens than it used to be ; in brief, through helping the student to maintain responsible relations with general society, the fraternities make it difficult for him to be a recluse, a Bohemian, or an Ishmaelite. On the other hand it must be conceded that " Society men " are sometimes clannish; and clannishness is narrow and narrowing^ the counterpart in college of sectionalism in the state. It is, how- ever, a fair question whether the fault does not lie in the men rather than in the fraternities — whether in fact the fraternities do not in many cases really broaden the associations and sympathies of men who are by nature clannish. Observers agree that the evil was greater when the fraternities were fewer. Turning now to the curriculum, we find that the studies and exercises which deal most directly with political subjects, are oratory, debates, history, political economy, international law, moral science, and discussions with the President. To oratory are assigned four exercises each week during the second and third terms of sophomore year, and one each week during the first term of junior year ; to debates, one exercise each week during the last term of junior year and all of senior year. Of the relation of these studies to preparation for citizenship the professor in charge says : "As the oratorical aim is not to impress upon the student any arbitrary system of delivery, but to develop and train his individ- ual powers, a necessary condition is a theme of interest and recog- nized importance to the speaker and his hearers. Experience has shown that this condition is most happily found in questions relating to our political, social, and economic life. The more thoroughly the questions are studied and the more deeply inter- ested the student becomes in their preparation, the more easily does he, as a speaker, relieve himself from restraints and reveal the powers and defects that demand the guidance and criticism of the instructor. This is therefore sufficient ground, aside from other important reasons, for making the course a stimulus and guide to reading and thought upon subjects readily seen to affect the wel- fare of our country. The subjects assigned are carefully arranged so as to make the course progressive and systematic. The work early interests the student in subjects bearing upon the duties of citizenship and in many instances it undoubtedly directs his private reading in the same channels. It is also probable that much of the forensic work in the literary meetings of the societies is largely influenced in its character by these exercises of the class- room. "The questions assigned for debate and discussion relate mainly to political history, our social problems and present administra- tion. Typical questions as debated or discussed by the class of '88 are : — 1. Has the influence of Compromise in our history been more harmful than beneficial? 2. Is the cure of our social evils to be more largely moral and religious than physical and economic? 3. Should the friends of temperance favor high license ? 4. Was Thomas Jefferson a better president than Andrew Jackson ? 5. Is the "Fisheries Bill" the best means of meeting our diffi- culties with Canada? 6. What is the true regulative principle in the industrial world? 7. How are the interests of the laboring classes in this country to be best advanced ? 8. What should be done in regard to the accumulating surplus in the United States Treasury ? 9. Which of the great political parties in the history of the United States has had the most influence upon its institutions? 10. What should be the course of the United States in regard to immigration?" ^ 1 Quoted from statement of Professor Frink, made at request of the writer. 10 In history there are two courses : one, a general course, which has four exercises each week of junior year; the other, a course in the political and constitutional history of the United States, which has two hours each week of the first senior term and four hours each week of the second. In the study of general history the following divisions are made : (1) A review of Oriental, Greek, and Roman history. (2) A course of twelve weeks on the period from the Migrations to the Renaissance, in which the history of England and the movements and institutions which affected west- ern Europe as a whole, receive most attention. (3) A course of twelve weeks on the period from the Reformation to the French Revolution, in which the Reformation, the Catholic Counter-Refor- mation, and the Revolutions in England and France, are the features most studied. (4) A course of eleven weeks on American col- onial history, the political history of the United States, and, in outline, the history of Europe since the French Revolution. Throughout these courses the standpoint is that of world his- tory. Only those facts are studied which have a traceable relation to general progress. The history of a nation is treated as a chap- ter in universal history ; the importance of individuals, peoples, movements, and institutions is measured by their contributions ta civilization. The question which the course propounds is : through what experiences and by what agencies has the world as it was at the dawn of history become the very different world of to-day? This course is a preparation for citizenship, because every man is. a citizen of the world as well as of a particular country ; and the best work of a citizen is that through which he aids his country to recognize and discharge its obligation towards the world. More- over, there is nothing which so clears the judgment respecting national affairs as acquaintance with and interest in the affairs of mankind. The course in political and constitutional history begins with the inauguration of the new government in 1789, and comes down to the close of Reconstruction. In the spring of 1888, a special course of twenty lectures on "The Civil War and Reconstruc- tion ," was given. In explaining methods, an account of the work of the first term will serve. The period covered is 1789-1833. The following general subjects are selected for investigation by the students : foreign relations ; Indian policy ; banks ; internal im- provements ; tariffs ; national sovereignty ; state sovereignty. 11 These subjects are sub-divided; that on foreign relations, for example, furnishes topics for ten students ; that on tariffs, for three. Examples of special tbpics are: (1) foreign relations during the administration of Washington; (2) the foreign policy of Washington compared with that of Jefferson ; (3) foreign policy of the Federalists during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison ; (4) history of the first bank of the United States ; (5) history of tariffs down to 1816, including an analysis of Hamilton's Report on Manufactures in 1791 ; (6) history of New England Sectionalism; (7) the political work and influence of Hamilton ; (8) the political work and influence of Gallatin. Each student, as far as possible,, makes use of original sources; in studying Hamilton, for example,, he reads Hamilton's own words. The essays, so far as the nature of the topic permits, conform to the following scheme : (1) narra-^ tive of facts, (2) discussion of the constitutional questions involved,. (3) influence upon political development. Each essay is read before a section of the class and in the discussion which follows. every member takes part. About one-fourth of the lectures of the course are introductory to the period ; the others treat of party history. Political economy has four hours each week of senior year, and international law four hours during the last term of that year. " The first term is devoted to the study of economic theory ; the second, to the social problem and the problem of transportation. In the study of the social problem, the individualistic, socialistic, and social reformatory propositions are analyzed and criticised, and the lines indicated along which the solution must take place. In this course one important aim is to determine the principles and limits of state action. The third term is devoted to fiscal science and the tariff. In the former the main topics of investigation are : the theory of public fiscal administration ; the principles which should guide in making appropriations for public expenditure ; the subject of revenue in its general aspects ; the methods of raising revenue; the principles and the different forms and systems of taxation; the general subject of public credit; the extent to which the state may safely employ credit; and lastly, the principles which should guide in the administration, contraction, liquidation, and conversion of the public debt. In the course on the tariff, the theories of free trade and protection and the history of the tariffs of the United States, are studied. The aim is not to make stu-^ 12 dents free traders or protectionists, but'' to secure acquaintance with the subject and establish the habit of candid thinking. "The method of instruction is as follows: the subject is first outlined by means of lectures and then discussed in the class. By means of references, acquaintance with authorities is ob- tained. For those who can devote more time to the subject a seminary is held for the free discussion of practical economic questions. In international law the methods are the same as those "employed in political economy." ^ Moral science has five hours each week during the second term of senior year. "In the study of Ethics, which covers the whole sphere of moral obligation, special attention is given to the study of citizenship. It is felt that however perfect may be the form of government, its administration and its laws, these alone can no more make a good citizen than sunshine and rain and a rich soil can transform a pebble into an oak ; there must be a spirit of life from within before environment can call outgrowth; the spirit of life, the vital force of citizenship, is virtue. " The method of conducting the study is, first, to ground the student in the convictions of an immutable morality as opposed to j)rudence and expediency. Then, having found the source of moral obligation, an exhaustive investigation of the nature of the State and claims of positive authority is attempted, in order that the conscience of the student may be aroused and government may be seen to be one of right as well as might. Having thus laid the foundations of civil authority, the questions respecting the forms which are legitimate and the limitations of its action, are discussed, &o far as these can be brought within a philosophical investiga- tion." 2 Once each week during two terms the Seniors meet the Presi- dent for the discussion of questions which they themselves propose. A large percentage of these questions relate to social and political problems. The discussions are more like conferences than formal classroom exercises. Their value as a preparation for citizenship will be understood by all who know the college. Summarizing, we find that the political studies at Amherst equal thirteen and a half full terms of four exercises each week. Of these three terms and a quarter are in the department of public ^Quoted from statement of Dr. Tuttle. * Statement of Professor Garman. 13 speaking, eight and a half in the department of history and political economy, one and three quarters in the department of philosophy. Most of these studies belong to junior and senior years; were they equally distributed, there would be one and a fraction for each term of the course. To what extent do the students come under the influence of these studies? Debates, moral science and discussions with the President are required; the others are elective. The present divisions in oratory include all the class except eight members. All of '88, except three, and of '89, except two, elected at least one section of the general course in history ; and of these, nearly all elected the three terms. On the other hand, the division in political and constitutional history is smaller than in any other of the studies named; in the class of '89 which has ninety-eight members, it numbers forty-one. About half the last class elected political economy and international law ; in the present class, the proportion is somewhat greater. But long before the extended introduction of political studies, a college course was justly considered a vMuable preparation for citizenship. To explain this, account must be taken of factors, such as the influence of teachers, of classical study, and of re- ligious instruction, whose bearing on political education is too often overlooked. Their importance in this respect is very great. A strong teacher who is himself a good citizen, invariably devel- ops good citizenship in his pupils. Many of the selections from Plato, — the Apology and (7n^o, for example, — Thucydides, Demos- thenes, Cicero, and Tacitus, concern the citizen even more than the scholar. Moreover, the study of the classics, through acquaint- ing the student intimately with the thoughts and acts of great men and great peoples, tends to free him from the tyranny of petty interests, and creates in him a liking and aptitude for public affairs. The political service of religious instruction consists in part in the theory of the state which it teaches. The difference between the good and bad citizen begins with different conceptions of the state ; to the latter it is an association for the furtherance of private ends ; to the former, an organism in which the function of the individual is to work for the welfare of the whole. Not until a man has learned to feel as well as "think organically" can he be a good citizen; but religion and rational religious instruction promote, perhaps more than all other influences united, this kind of feeling and thinking.