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THE ENGLISH 

PRE-RAPHAELITE 
PAINTERS 

THEIR ASSOCIATES AND 
SUCCESSORS 

BY PERCY BATE 




LONDON 

GEORGE BELL & SONS 

1905 



o 



TO HIS MOTHER 

WITH ALL LOVE AND GRATITUDE 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 

BY THE AUTHOR 

XI. VII. MCMI. 




First Edition, 4/0, 1899 
Second Edition, Revised, 8vo, 1901 
Second Edition, Reprinted, 1902 
Third Edition, 1905 



PREFACE 

THIS book is neither a chronique intime nor a collection 
of anecdotes : it is simply an endeavour to give both 
in letterpress and illustrations a brief review of the artists 
who have painted under the Pre-Raphaelite inspiration, 
and of the work which they have done. It is somewhat 
remarkable that though ample and authoritative histories 
of the English Pre-Raphaelite painters have been pro- 
mised, and though scattered notices, critical and biogra- 
phical, have been published from time to time, no epitome 
has been written to set forth succinctly, and in a handy 
form, the essential facts of the inception and rise of the 
movement, and the work of the founders and followers of 
the school as a whole. Though it would have been 
impossible in the space available to attempt a complete 
and elaborate history of a movement so vast and far- 
reaching, the writer's aim has been to produce a book 
treating the great artistic crusade historically and in an 
unbiassed spirit ; and even in so short a work an attempt 
has been made to discriminate the qualifications of the 
different workers, and to show the high aim which has 
underlain and the brilliant achievement which has crowned 
their strenuous endeavours. 

The space in such a volume as the present precluded 
all thought of dealing with any other than pictorial art : 
the history of sculpture and the decorative arts as affected 
by Pre-Raphaelite influence witnessed, for instance, in 
the labours of Morris and Woolner, to name no others 
is perforce omitted. Necessarily omitted is also all allusion 
b 



vi PREFACE 

to the fact that many of the artists whose work is treated 
of here are not only painters but poets, and the friends of 
poets. That such a fact is of high importance in studying 
their work is most true, but the adequate consideration of 
so fascinating a feature would extend this volume far 
beyond its due limits. But the reader who bears in mind 
that Ford Madox Brown, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Thomas 
Woolner, James Collinson, Walter Deverell, Walter Crane, 
J. W. Inchbold, Sir Noel Paton, and William Bell Scott are 
all poets of varying achievement, and who remembers that 
in the inner history of the movement the names, inter alia, 
of Christina Rossetti, William Morris, Algernon Charles 
Swinburne, Coventry Patmore, Mathilde Blind, Philip 
Bourke Marston, and T. Gordon Hake, loom large, will 
see more clearly the aim of the Pre-Raphaelite artists, and 
will comprehend the intimate association of poetic feeling 
and expression with their devotion to veracity of present- 
ment. 

Reference has been made, as far as was possible, in 
the list of illustrations, to the owners, artists, and photo- 
graphers who have allowed their pictures to appear in this 
volume. The author and publishers desire, however, to 
express here their appreciation of the kindness and 
courtesy they have almost invariably experienced, and to 
tender their cordial thanks for the permissions for repro- 
duction, without which no adequate representation of the 
Pre-Raphaelite School of Painting would have been 
possible. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

IT would seem to be evident from the fact that a new 
edition of this volume is called for, that public interest 
in the great artistic crusade that marked the middle of 
the nineteenth century in England still continues keen ; 
and the opportunity has been taken to show in the 
illustrations to this second edition an even more complete 
and representative selection of the work of the artists of 
that date who were affected by the wave of Pre- 
Raphaelism. Additional pictures by the Brethren and 
their direct associates are included, others by painters 
who were temporarily under their influence have been 
added, and the works by the Scottish painters will show 
in a very interesting way that, without the personal 
contact or direct influence of the originators of the move- 
ment, there was, as a result of their propaganda, something 
"in the air" at that date to which young and sensitive 
artists thrilled responsive. 

That the influence of the Brethren and their tenets is 
still felt among painters is obvious to those who follow the 
course of art as apparent in exhibitions, in magazines, 
and in book illustrations ; and, accordingly, among the 
illustrations to this new edition will be found a few, at 
least, of the most typical recent manifestations of Pre- 
Raphaelism. Some of these pictures which it was 
intended to include have been, however, unavoidably 
omitted, owing to difficulties of various kinds which 
attended their reproduction. 



viii PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

The letterpress has been carefully revised, completed, 
and brought up to date, and it is the author's hope that, 
in this new form, this volume may be found an adequate 
epitome of, and guide to, a most interesting and note- 
worthy phase of British art. 



THE ROYAL GLASGOW INSTITUTE 

OF THE FINE ARTS, 

August 1901. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTKR pArE 

PREFACE ....... v 

I. THE FORMATION OF THE PRE-RAPHAELITE 

BROTHERHOOD : AIMS AND IDEALS . . I 

II. THE FOUNDER OF PRE-RAPHAELISM : FORD 

MADOX BROWN .... 17 

III. THE STAUNCH PRE-RAPHAELITE: HOLMAN 

HUNT ....... 25 

IV. THE TRANSITORY PRE-RAPHAELITE : JOHN 

EVERETT MILLAIS ..... 31 

V. PRE-RAPHAELITE AND IDEALIST : DANTE 

GABRIEL ROSSETTI ..... 39 

VI. THE OTHER PRE-RAPHAELITE BRETHREN : 
JAMES COLLINSON, WILLIAM MICHAEL 
ROSSETTI, FREDERICK GEORGE STEPHENS, 
THOMAS WOOLNER, AND WALTER HOWELL 
DEVERELL ...... $ 2 

VII. THE ROMANTIC INFLUENCE : FREDERICK 
SANDYS, SIMEON SOLOMON, AND GEORGE 
WILSON ....... 56 

VIII. PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PERMANENT IN- 
FLUENCE, I. : ARTHUR HUGHES AND NOEL 
PATON ....... 69 

IX. PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PERMANENT IN- 
FLUENCE, II. : CHARLES ALLSTON COLLINS, 
WILLIAM MORRIS, W. S. BURTON, W. 
LINDSAY WINDUS, MATTHEW JAMES LAW- 
LESS, ROBERT MARTINEAU, AND W. J. 
WEBBE ..... ', . 75 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

JOHN BRETT, A.R.A. 

THE STONE-BREAKER . . . . 14 

By permission of James Barrow ', Esq. 
ELEANOR F. BRICKDALE 

THE DECEITFULNESS OF RICHES . . . .114 

By permission of the Artist. 
FORD MADOX BROWN 

CORDELIA (Photogravure Plate) . . Frontispiece 

From a photograph by F. Hollyer. 

CHRIST WASHING PETER'S FEET . . . .18 
From the painting in the National Gallery of 
British Art. 

AUTUMN LEAVES 18 

By permission of Arthur Kay, Esq^J.P. 

WORK;*^ . - T~" " T~ . ~~7 . . 2C 

From the painting in the City Art Gallery, 

Manchester. 

CHAUCER AT THE COURT OF EDWARD III . . 20 
From the painting in the Sydney Municipal 

Gallery. 

ELIJAH AND THE WIDOW'S SON . . . .22 
From the painting at South Kensington Museum. 

KING RENEWS HONEYMOON 22 

By permission of the late James Pyke Thompson, 

Esq. 
SIR EDWARD BURNE-JONES, BART. 

CLARA VON BORK 100 

By permission of W. Graham Robertson, Esq. 
THE BACKGAMMON PLAYERS . . . .100 
By permission of Lord Battersea. From a 
photograph by F. Hollyer. 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

SIR EDWARD BURNE-JONES, BART. continued, PAGE 

THE MERCIFUL KNIGHT 102 

From a photograph by F. Holly er. 

KING COPHETUA AND THE BEGGAR MAID . .104 

From the painting in the National Gallery of 
British Art. 

THE MILL 104 

By permission of the late Constanttne lonides, 
Esq. From a photograph by Caswall Smith. 
LOVE DISGUISED AS REASON . . . .106 

From a photograph by F. Holly er. 

THE BLESSED DAMOZEL . . - . .106 

From a photograph by Caswall Smith. 

W. S. BURTON 

THE WOUNDED CAVALIER 78 

THE WORLD'S GRATITUDE '. . . . .78 
FAITHFUL UNTO DEATH . . . . .78 
By permission of Mrs Burton. 

HUGH CAMERON, R.S.A^ 

GOING TO THE HAY 90 

By permission of the Artist and the Board of 

Manufactures, Edinburgh. 
KATHERINE CAMERON 

MHAIRI DHU . . . . . . .118 

By permission of Messrs. James Connell & 

Sons, Glasgow. 
CHARLES ALLSTON COLLINS 

> CONVENT THOUGHTS 76 

From the painting in the University Galleries, 
Oxford. 

THE PEDLAR 76 

From the painting in the City Art Gallery, 

Manchester. 
JAMES COLLINSON 

THJ*-^EJL*U0NCIATION OF QUEEN ELIZABETH OF 

HUNGARY 52 

By permission of C. R. Park, Esq. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

F. CADOGAN COWPER TACK 

THE GOOD SAMARITAN . . . .114 

By permission of the Artist 

WALTER CRANE 

EUROPA , . 94 

By permission of the Artist. 
THE ROLL OF FATE 96 

By permission of Somerset Beaumont, Esq. 
THE MOWER 96 

By permission of the Artist. 

WILLIAM DAVIS 

VIEW NEAR HALE . * . . . .86 

By permission of William Coltart, Esq. 

EVELYN DE MORGAN c 

FLORA 112 

By permission of William Imrie, Esq. 
" Mercy and Truth have met together ; 
Righteousness and Peace have kissed each other? , 112 

By permission of the Artist. 
WALTER HOWELL DEVERELL -' 

SCENE FROM "TWELFTH NIGHT" (Act ii., Sc. 4) . 54 

By permission of Mrs A. Steele Roberts. 
MR W. FETTES DOUGLAS, P.R.S.A. 

THE CURIOSITY SHOP, ROME .... 88 

By permission of John Wordie, Esq. 
THE RECUSANT'S CONCEALMENT . . . .88 
By permission of Mrs L. Robertson 

WOLFRAM ONSLOW FORD 

PORTRAIT OF E. ONSLOW FORD, Esq., R.A. . . 118 
By permission of the Artist. 

ARTHUR J. GASKIN f 

THE ANNUNCIATION . . . . . .118 

By permission of the Artist. 

[OSEPH HENDERSON, R.S.W. 

THE BALLAD . . . . . . .90 

By permission of John Henderson, Esq. 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

ARTHUR HUGHES 

SILVER AND GOLD . 

By permission of H. H. Trist, Esq. 
APRIL LOVE . 

By permission of H. Boddington, Esq. 

W. HOLMAN HUNT, R.W.S. 

THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD 

From the painting at Keble College , Oxford. 
THE Two GENTLEMEN OF VERONA 

From the painting in the City Art Gallery, 

Birmingham. 
THE HIRELING SHEPHERD . 

From a painting in the City Art Gallery^ 

Manchester. 
THE AWAKENED CONSCIENCE . 

By permission of Sir A. H. Fairbairn, Bart. 
THE FINDING OF THE SAVIOUR IN THE TEMPLE. 

By permission of Mrs Holt. 
THE SCAPEGOAT .... 

By permission of Sir Cuthbert Quilter and Messrs 

Graves 6 Co. 
ISABELLA AND THE POT OF BASIL 

By permission of the late James Hall, Esq. 
THE TRIUMPH OF THE INNOCENTS 

From the painting in the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool. 

JOHN WILLIAM INCHBOLD 

LANDSCAPE (DEWAR STONE, DARTMOOR) 

From the painting in the National Gallery of 
British Art. 

MATTHEW J. LAWLESS 

THE SICK CALL 

By permission of William Coltart, Esq. 

A TOPER 

By permission of Viscount Powerscourt, K.P. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

G. D. LESLIE, R.A. PAGE 

DANTE'S LEAH 86 

By permission of H. H. Trist, Esq. 

}. F. LEWIS, R.A. 

. LlLIUM AURATUM 92 

By permission of Sir Cuthbert Quilter, Bart. 

R. B. MARTINEAU 

THE LAST DAY IN THE OLD HOME . . .82 
From the painting in the National Gallery of 
British Art. 

WILLIAM M'TAGGART, R.S.A. 

THE THORN IN THE FOOT 90 

By permission of Mrs Croall. 

SIDNEY H. MFTEYARD 

HOPE COMFORTING LOVE IN BONDAGE . .114 
By permission of the Artist. 

SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART., P.R.A. 

LORENZO AT THE HOUSE OF ISABELLA . . 10 
From the painting in the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool. 

OPHELIA 32 

From the painting in the National Gallery of 

British Art. 
CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF His PARENTS . . 32 

By permission of Messrs M l Queen Bros. 
THE DEPARTURE OF THE CRUSADERS . . .34 

By permission of Mrs C. E. Lees. 
SlR ISUMBRAS AT THE FORD .... 34 
THE ESCAPE OF A HERETIC . . . .36 
By permission of Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart., 
M.P. 

THE BRIDESMAID 36 

From the painting in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 

Cambridge. 

THE HIGHLAND LASSIE ..... 38 
By permission of Henry Willett, Esq. 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART., P.R.A. continued. PAGE 

MERCY ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY, 1572 . . 38 
From the painting in the National Gallery of 

British Art 
GERALD MOIRA 

"And with his foot and with his wing feathers 

He swept the spring that watered my heart's drouth. 
Then the dark ripples spread to waving hair; 
And as I stooped, her own lips rising there 
Bubbled with brimming kisses at my mouth." . .114 

D. G. ROSSETTI. 
By permission of the Artist. 
HENRY MOORE, R.A. 

A WHITE CALM AFTER RAIN x 

By permission of C. W. Mitchell, Esq. 
FAIRFAX MURRAY 

LOVE'S NOCTURNE .... .108 

Bv permission of the Artist. 
SIR NOEL PATON, R.S.A. 

THE BLUIDIE TRYSTE . 72 

By permission of James Coats, Esq. 
DAWN LUTHER AT ERFURT . . . 72 

By permission of Robert H. Brechin, Esq. 
VAL. C. PRINSEP, R.A. 

* ' Whispering Tongues can poison truth, \ 
And to be wroth with one we've loved, 
Doth work like poison on the brain " . ,88 

From the painting at the Arts Club, by permission 

of the Artist. 
W. GRAHAM ROBERTSON 

MY LADY GREENSLEEVES . . . .114 

By permission of the Artist 
CAYLEY ROBINSON 

THE BEAUTIFUL CASTLE 116 

By permission of the Artist. 
T. M. ROOKE 

AHAB'S COVETING . . . . . no 

By permission of Lord Batter sea. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 

DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI PAGE 

PAOLO AND FRANCESCA 40 

By permission of W. R. Afoss, Esq. From a 
photograph by F. Hollyer. 

LADY LILITH 40 

From a photograph by Caswall Smith. 
THE DAY DREAM (Photogravure Plate) . . .42 
By permission of the late Constantine lonides^ 
Esq. 

JOLI CCEUR -44 

By permission of Miss Horniman. From a 
photograph by F. Hollyer. 

LA BELLA MANO 44 

By permission of Sir Cuthbert Quitter, Bart. 
VENUS VERTICORDIA ... 46 

From a photograph by Caswall Smith. 
LA DONNA DELLA FINESTRA .... 46 
By permission of W. R. Moss, Esq. From a 

photograph by F. Hollyer. 
THE BELOVED (First version) .... 48 

By permission of W. M. Rossetti, Esq. 
ELIZABETH ELEANOR ROSSETTI 

LADY CLARE 50 

By permission of Fairfax Murray ', Esq. 
LUCY ROSSETTI 

ROMEO AND JULIET 24 

By permission of W. M. Rossetti, Esq. 
FREDERICK SANDYS 

-^MEDEA ........ 56 

VIVIEN 58 

MORGAN LE FAY . . . . . .60 

By permission of the Artist and of E. Meredith 
Cr6,sse> Esq. From photographs by F. Hollyer 
W, BELL SCOTT 

THE EVE OF THE DELUGE 98 

From the painting in the National Gallery of 
British Art 



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

BYAM SHAW PAGE 

LOVE'S BAUBLES ... .116 

From the painting in the Walker Art Gallery ', 

Liverpool 
THE BOER WAR, 1900 . . . 116 

By permission of the Artist 
FREDERIC SHIELDS 

JONAH 94 

From the painting in tlu Chapel of the Annunci- 
ation. By permission of the Artist 
SIMEON SOLOMON 

DAWN ..... 62 

By permission of H. Boddington, Esq. 

AMOR SACRAMENTUM 64 

Fom a photogaph by F. Hollyer 
LOVE IN AUTUMN .... .64 

By permission of W. Coltart, Esq. 
SPENCER STANHOPE 

THE WATERS OF LETHE 108 

From the painting in the City Art Gallery, 
Manchester 

VENUS RISING FROM THE : SEA . . . . IO8 

By permission of W. Connal, Esq. 
MARIE S. STILLMAN 

"UPON A DAY CAME SORROW UNTO ME" . .112 
MESSER ANSALDO SHOWING MADONNA DIANOVA 
HIS ENCHANTED GARDEN . . . .112 

By permission of the Artist 
G. A. STOREY, A.R.A. 

THE ANNUNCIATION . 86 

By permission of the Artist 
J. M. STRUDWICK 

"THE GENTLE Music OF A BYEGONE DAY" no 

By permission of J. Dixon, Esq. 

THE RAMPARTS OF GOD'S HOUSE . . .110 
By permission of W. Imrie, Esq. 

ISABELLA no 

By permission of W. Graham Robertson^ Esq, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix 

JAMES TISSOT PAGE 

THE CONVALESCENT . ... 90 

By permission of Mr Thomas McLean 
HENRY WALLIS 

CHATTERTON 84 

From the painting in the National Gallery of 

British Art 
W. J. WEBBE 

LAMBS AT PLAY 82 

By permission of G. H. Tucker, Esq. 
GEORGE WILSON 

ASIA 66 

By permission of Halsey Ricardo, Esq* 
THE SQNG OF THE NIGHTINGALE ... 68 

By permission of Dr John Todhunter 
W. L WIND X US 

BURD HELEN 74 

From a photograph by Caswall Smith 

Too LATE 80 

By permission of Andrew Bain, Esq. 



W. HOLMAN HUNT 




THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD 



ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE 
PAINTERS 

CHAPTER I 

THE FORMATION OF THE PRE-RAPHAELITE 
BROTHERHOOD 

IT was in the year 1848 that a young student at the 
Royal Academy antique schools, Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
by name, who had previously studied at Gary's Drawing 
Academy (otherwise Sass's), impatient of the somewhat 
tedious routine and the length of time that must elapse 
before he could pass in the ordinary course of events 
to the painting school, and, it may well be, a little 
contemptuous of the instructors into whose hands he 
would fall when he reached that bourne, wrote to an older 
artist, Ford Madox Brown, asking to be received as a 
pupil. He was then an impetuous youth, full of ideas 
and dreams, and ambitious of realising them on canvas, 
seeking to learn the technique of his art, desirous of 
passing from the drudgery of the drawing school, which 
wearied and seemed to fetter him, to the acquisition of 
brushwork and the power to use colour ; and he turned 
to an artist, his senior, but himself a young man, with 
whom he was not acquainted, but whose cartoons shown 
at Westminster Hall in 1844 and 1845 had produced on 
him a deep impression by reason of their great power 
A 



2 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

and originality, an impression which the Parisina and 
the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots had afterwards 
deepened and confirmed. 

In the letter sent to Madox Brown, a letter memorable 
by virtue of the great results that were later to accrue 
from it, Rossetti spoke in highly laudatory terms of the 
work of the painter whose pupil he sought to be (neither 
then nor later did he mince matters or measure his words 
in allotting either praise or blame) ; and the recipient, 
unaccustomed to such praise, and half-suspicious of an 
ill-timed jest, provided himself, it is said, with a stout 
stick and called at Rossetti's house to see his would-be 
pupil. However, the dread of being made the butt of 
an impertinent hoax was groundless : Rossetti was 
thoroughly earnest and enthusiastic in his desire to 
learn. Madox Brown at once accepted him as a scholar, 
and the meeting laid the foundations of a personal 
friendship destined to produce the most momentous 
results in the world of art. In fact, it was this friendship, 
which lasted until severed by death, and the teaching and 
influence of the elder artist one of the most strongly 
original of painters which confirmed the younger in the 
independent views he even then took of art, and the 
militant spirit he so soon displayed in propounding his 
opinions. 

Other friendships, almost equally far-reaching in their 
results, had commenced earlier, William Holman Hunt 
and Rossetti being acquaintances at the Academy schools. 
A third student, an intimate of Hunt's, and soon to be 
equally an intimate of Rossetti's, was John Everett 
Millais. At this time both Hunt and Millais, though 
students, had exhibited pictures of recognised merit, and 
were far in advance of Rossetti in all technical matters. 
The counsel and example of Hunt, and the brilliant 
achievements of Millais, went far to reconcile Rossetti to 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 3 

the drudgery that was so uncongenial to him, and to spur 
him on to steady and careful work along the lines laid 
down by Madox Brown. It was the association of these 
three lads Hunt being twenty-one, Rossetti twenty, and 
Millais nineteen in 1848 that was to result in the most 
important art movement of modern England, a wave of 
freshness and enthusiasm that, like the ripples caused by 
the stone flung into the water, spread and grew, and 
quivered and quickened, in so many and such divers ways 
that none shall say at any definite point this was the 
limit, and here the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites 
snded. 

And, taken together, what supreme qualifications these 
three had ! Rossetti, an ardent proselytiser, full of 
dreams and desires, dowered with the poet's soul, loving 
intensely and appreciating keenly all striving after the 
true and the beautiful, and gifted with that wonderful 
power of infusing his own enthusiasm into others that 
marks the born leader of men : Hunt, self-contained and 
fervent, hard-working, and strongly desirous of notable 
and original achievement : Millais, the marvel and shining 
light of the schools, already a successful artist, conscious, 
may be, of powers within him far in advance of many who 
sat in the high places of art, and full of the ambition of 
genius : this surely was a memorable coterie ! What 
wonder that the constant companionship of these three, 
ttn imagination of Rossetti, the sturdy self-reliance of 
Hunt, and the technical knowledge of Millais, acting and 
reacting on each other, infusing into this one poetic 
insight, and encouraging that other to toil, resulted later 
in the production from their brushes of masterpieces 
instinct with life, full of beauty and thought in 
conception, and sincere and true in execution ; pictures 
whose existence was a protest against the flimsy 
banalities that were the outcome of the art of the day. 



4 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

But it must not be forgotten, when one comes to 
consider what the movement was that these artists 
inaugurated, what the tenets were upon which they 
based their crusade, that Rossetti the dreamer, and 
through him Hunt the reformer and Millais the 
executant, were strongly influenced by the thought and 
the personality of Ford Madox Brown. His feeling was 
that art was moribund in the cage of convention ; that 
the systematic generalisation of rules of art was utterly 
pernicious ; that the contrary course of minute research 
into individual facts was imperative ; and that when 
painting, a picture of incident, instead of thinking how the 
picture would compose best and look pretty, the artist 
should consider how the action probably took place in 
reality. This was the artistic creed that he consistently 
followed through a long and laborious life the gospel 
that he practised long before the others began to preach 
it. He it was who, cognisant of the beauty of a simple 
and primitive school of pictorial presentment that was 
based on loving study of actuality and not on the cold 
convention of classic tradition, drifted into archaism as 
a man yields to fate : who, seeing the falsity and futility 
of the art of the period, had already struck out for 
himself an original line of work in which was noticeable 
an endeavour after truer light and shade (differentiating, 
for instance, night and morning, indoor and outdoor 
effects) and a desire for the absolute verisimilitude and 
dramatic presentment of fact, something apart from the 
petty trivialities of the prevalent story-picture or the 
theatrical display of the "grand style." 

Madox Brown was at an early stage (in fact, it might 
be said, throughout his career) strongly influenced by 
Holbein, and later the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel 
at Florence confirmed him in his admiration and 
appreciation of the heartfelt seriousness and high 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 5 

ndeavour of the early masters, both Italian and 
r lemish often naive in their presentment of fact, but 
Iways sincere ; often painting with unnatural hardness, 
ut always with loving care. He it was who pointed 
Tit to Rossetti the charm that lies in their work, the 
race and decorative beauty, and the tender and careful 
ainting displayed in their panels and canvases. One 
an imagine how such seed once sown flourished in the 
ongenial soil of Rossetti's mind, already quickening with 

contempt of the artistic cant of the day, when all men 
mcied they could be Leonardos or Raphaels, heedless 
r hether they possessed or lacked Leonardo's stupendous 
enius or Raphael's mighty power ; the cant which 
nplied that by a mere routine study of classic tradition 
ainters could be turned out from the schools to rival the 
reatest masters of the past the pernicious idea, which 
xisted rather as an accepted axiom than as an avowed 
octrine, that art could be learned by rote, and painters 
quipped to produce masterpieces by the application of 
:hool precepts, whether they possessed souls to conceive 
nd hands to compass, or whether they were as little 
Dgnisant of poetry and truth and beauty as they were 
1-equipped in matters of execution and style. 

Of course all art was not so debased at this time it 
mst not for a moment be forgotten that there were 
ainters of noble aim and fine achievement ; but these 
r ere the exceptions, and the average art of the exhibitions 
r as commonplace in the extreme, based on the con- 
entions of the schools and not on the verities of Nature, 
nd for the most part unadorned with any grace of style 
r fervour of imagination. It was this inadequacy of 
lotive and convention of treatment that the minds of 
le artists soon to be known as the Pre-Raphaelite 
irotherhood contemned. Rossetti was fired to rebel 
gainst the flimsy unreality then rampant, not only by 



6 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Madox Brown's example, but by the discovery in < 
manuscript by William Blake of the most outspoken (anc 
maybe largely nonsensical) strictures upon many grea 
artists, "any men whom Blake regarded as fulsomeh 
florid, or lax, or swamping ideas in mere manipulation " 
and when he and Hunt and Millais, meeting one nigh 
at the house of the latter, found Lasinio's book o 
engravings of the frescoes at the Campo Santo a 
Pisa, their enthusiasm was kindled and their vagu< 
desires took form for the art before them was simpl< 
and sincere, not the product of lifeless dogmas, bu 
the result of reverent study ; and they saw in it, o: 
thought they saw, aspiration and not decline, imperfection: 
maybe, but not the corruption of decay, and above al 
it was, as Ruskin later said, "eternally and unalterabl} 
true." 

So an artistic brotherhood was formed to put intc 
practice the enthusiasms and the dreams which wen 
crystallised in the minds of the three by the chanct 
sight of this book of engravings, and the nam< 
"Pre-Raphaelite" adopted as a distinctive appellation 
But, as Holman Hunt has well put it, " neither then noi 
afterwards did they affirm that there was not mud: 
healthy and good art after the time of Raphael ; but i 
appeared to them that afterwards art was so frequentl) 
tainted with the canker of corruption that it was only ir 
the earlier work they could find with certainty absolute 
health. Up to a definite point the tree was healthy 
above it disease began, side by side with life then 
appeared death." 

These three then were the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood ; later, others were enlisted, Thomas Woolner 
sculptor; James Collinson, painter (who retired later 
and whose place was filled by Walter Howell Deverell, 
painter); Frederick George Stephens, then painter, now 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 7 

the doyen of art critics ; and William Michael Rossetti, 
younger brother of Dante Rossetti, also critic and poet ; 
and though Ford Madox Brown declined the invitation 
to join the society, simply on the ground that his sturdy 
and independent spirit had no faith in coteries, he still 
worked, as he had already done, along the same lines 
is they did, and probably with a much clearer knowledge 
ind a much more settled view of what he sought. In 
: act, though Rossetti was the founder, if founder there 
yere (primus inter pares would better express the 
position) of the Brotherhood as a society, of Pre- 
Raphaelism as a living force, Madox Brown was 
ndubitably the originator, though, of course, he 
brmulated no name to his creed, disliking "to deal in 
vatchwords over-much." 

It is true that afterwards, by Rossetti and Woolner, 
is well as by Madox Brown, the Brotherhood was treated 
is a mere boyish league, a piece of youthful camaraderie ; 
md though in later years these artists may have seemed 
i little ashamed of the fresh enthusiasms and lofty aims 
:hat they so valiantly strove to realise, at the time there 
s no doubt that each and all were keenly in earnest, 
md certainly the awkward word " Pre-Raphaelite," which 
hey coined, has so long been accepted as the appellation 
>f their school and the tradition that has succeeded 
hem, and has so entirely passed into the language 
vith this arbitrary significance, that it would be vain to 
ittempt now to substitute any more accurate or more 
expressive term. 

It should perhaps be noted here, that in later days the 
expression " Pre-Raphaelite " came to have a second 
neaning, apart from that originally intended by the 
nembers of the Brotherhood. They meant to express 
>y the word the qualities of sincerity and directness, of 
lonesty and definite inspiration, which they discerned in 



8 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

the work of the early Italian painters ; afterwards the 
public, who came to associate the term largely with the 
little-seen later work of Rossetti, applied it to his pictures 
and those of Burne-Jones, ignoring the earlier meaning 
of the word, and using it to denote the eclectic and poetic 
school of which those painters were the founders, and of 
which their work is the highest achievement. With this 
double sense the word exists, and with this twofold 
meaning it may be accepted, inasmuch as the later 
tradition was derived from the more mature development 
in the style of these two artists, who were originally 
Pre-Raphaelites in the stricter sense. 

The formation of the Brotherhood linked these young 
artists closely and intimately together ; living in each 
other's companionship, constantly meeting with open 
hearts together, they talked and aspired and dreamed and 
wrought in high endeavour ; and though much has been 
said and written as to their artistic beliefs, and though a 
good deal of misapprehension exists as to their aims 
and the methods they advocated, as a matter of fact their 
whole creed might almost be summed up in one word, 
for the keystone of the doctrines that they attempted to 
preach by word and deed was simply SINCERITY. Mr 
Michael Rossetti enunciates the bond of union between 
them very clearly and concisely : he says " it was 
simply this : 

" I. To have genuine ideas to express ; 

II. To study Nature attentively, so as to know how 

to express them ; 
III. To sympathise with what is direct and serious 

and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion * 

of what is conventional and self-parading 

and learned by rote ; and 
IV. Most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly 

good pictures and statues." 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 9 

This is the sober fact of the matter ; and all the ideas 
ibout a mere attempted revival of meclisevalism, the 
iccessity of accepting and depicting everything seen, 
selecting and rejecting nothing, and the imperative 
/alue of hard and laborious handling were but outside 
news of their opinions, travesties of their return to 
Mature and a healthy early art as her interpreter, and of 
:heir desire to paint with studious care and exactitude, 
vhich were foisted upon the public as the be-all and end- 
ill of their aims by those who failed to see the motives 
mderlying everything they did. Doubtless, carried 
iway by enthusiasm, they hampered themselves, as young 
nen will do, especially in the heat of argument, by 
promulgating dogmas not sufficiently thought out, by 
idvancing theories on the spur of the moment, and it is 
imall wonder that, tired of the threadbare pretensions 
ind bombastic creed of many of the painters of the day, 
hey went to extremes, deeming with Browning " One 
nust be fanatic, Be a wedge, a thunderbolt," to move 
he world. 

But the statement has been often made, and may as 
veil be once more controverted, that the Pre-Raphaelites 
:laimed as essential that the characteristics of a model 
ihould be copied implicitly, no deviation being permitted 
o suit the character of the picture ; but though they 
loubtless thought that the most faithful reproduction of 
Mature was essential in art which purported to be a 
epresentation of fact, they did not think that this 
ihould debar them from exercising the artist's choice, 
md departing, when the subject demanded such 
leparture, from the features of a model e.g. in the 
)icture which Millais painted as a practical exposition 
)f their views, Lorenzo at the House of Isabella, the head 
)f Lorenzo was painted from William Michael Rossetti, 
nit the hair was made golden instead of black ; and 



io ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Rossetti, painting the Virgin Mary in the same year from 
his sister, also made a similar variation. What they did 
seek and claim as essential was truth of presentment, 
verisimilitude of representation in every way, and though 
they endeavoured to attain this by scrupulous fidelity in 
matters of detail, and by close elaboration in painting, 
to say that they were slaves to microscopic copying is 
both inaccurate and misleading ; for, as has been 
authoritatively stated by Holman Hunt, although they 
deemed such care in painting good and useful for a 
student's training, they would never have admitted that 
the relinquishing of this habit of work by a matured 
painter would make him less of a Pre-Raphaelite. 

It was in the following year, 1849, that these firstfruits 
of the Brotherhood were exhibited. The members set 
to work, eager to produce pictures which should embody 
and shadow forth their aims, and Millais, Rossetti, Hunt, 
and Collinson each showed in the spring exhibitions oi 
that year a work remarkable in every way, a group 
especially noteworthy when considered as the achieve- 
ment of such youthful artists. All the pictures appeared 
with the mystic letters " P.-R.B." appended to the painters' 
signatures ; Rossetti contributing the Girlhood of Mary 
Virgin to the Free Exhibition ; and Hunt's Rienzi 
swearing Revenge over his Brother's Corpse, and Millais's 
Lorenzo at the House of Isabella, being hung on 
the walls of the Royal Academy. Each work was well 
hung, well received, and (further mark of appreciation) 
promptly sold ; while the criticisms in the reviews were 
not merely tolerant, but almost enthusiastic, the " Times" 
devoting two columns of comment to the works by 
Millais and Hunt as the remarkable feature of the 
exhibition, and the "Athenaeum" speaking in the most 
laudatory terms of Rossetti's panel. 

It was in the next year, when the meaning of the 




IS 



s :s 



$ 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 11 

itials, "P.-R.B." attached to the signatures became 
icwn (they were ignored or overlooked on the first 
:casion), and when it was seen that a group of young 
en had banded themselves together in defiance of 
tablished rules, daring to think independently, to doubt 
e value of much that was universally accepted as good 
t, and working boldly in contravention of accepted 
nons, that the storm burst ; and from press and 
iblic, artist and layman, abuse and obloquy of the 
ost virulent kind were poured forth, unmeasured 
dignation and horror expressed, their work con- 
firmed as shameful and preposterous, iniquitous, and 
famous, mere catchpenny charlatanism being the least 
il attributed to them, and an attempted subversion of 
I right principles of art the lightest charge laid to their 
>ors. Small encouragement to honest aim this ! But 
is amusing now to note, what was pretty patent at the 
ne, that the kindly and encouraging attention paid to 
eir work as that of young men of promise became 
L anged to such violence of attack when it was seen that 
ey actually dared to think on independent lines, and to 
it their heretical and unorthodox views into practice. It 
pretty evident, in looking back, that personal animosity 
is the cause of the condemnation of their work in 
[50 and 1851, better work than that of 1849, and lacking 
e minor crudities and imperfections incidental to early 
tempts ; and it was only when an independent and 
mest critic appeared, and John Ruskin wrote an 
ipreciative notice, that any attempt was made to 
asp their endeavour, or to search for any truth that 
ight underlie their heterodoxy. 

It has been frequently stated that the Pre-Raphaelite 
rotherhood owed its existence to Mr Ruskin, that the 
tists who banded themselves together under that name 
2re his disciples, and that it was the reading of his 



I 4 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

the work of many artists, outside the Brotherhood, who 
during the whole or a portion of their careers have 
worked under the spell of Pre-Raphaelism, to show 
how far-reaching has been the influence of the movement. 
There are many painters whose accomplishment is as 
beautiful and as sincere as that of the originators of the 
cult, and who may be considered if not as members of 
a school, certainly as co-workers, with the same simple 
and lofty ambition ; and though these may have been 
overshadowed in the past by their more prominent 
confreres, a glance at the illustrations in the following 
pages will show something of the beauty and charm 
they have infused into many masterpieces which are 
unknown outside a small, no matter how choice, circle 
of sympathisers. 

But to one who is an ardent lover of such genuine 
endeavour after truth and beauty, poetry and passion 
in art as the Pre-Raphaelite movement inaugurated 
nearly fifty years ago, it is a matter for question whether 
there are rising around us the young men to carry on the 
tradition. It is true that there are those among the 
younger artists who paint under the Pre-Raphaelite 
influence, but of the beautiful creations recorded and 
alluded to in these pages by much the larger portion is 
the achievement of the elder men, men who are one 
is thankful to say still among us, but who may not, 
one fears, leave worthy successors behind them. We 
have no Rossetti to-day, only imitators of his manner- 
isms ; no youth to paint, as young Millais did, such 
pictures as Mariana in the Moated Grange and The 
Proscribed Royalist ; to-day followers of the school are 
too often mere decorators, or mere echoes of the greater 
souls sooner or later to pass from us. Holman Hunt is 
with us, and Frederick Sandys, and there are others; 
but where are the young men to whom the lighted 



FORMATION OF THE BROTHERHOOD 15 

mp might be handed, and who would guard and 
lerish it? We have artists who can paint as closely 
i ever Hunt and Millais did, but can they give us the 
iul that there is in such a picture as Sir Isumbras at 
e FordJ We have men who do not hesitate to use, 
id abuse, all the resources of the pigment-maker, but 
tio paints to-day with the jewel-like brilliance and 
stre of Rossetti ? Posers we have who prate of line 
id colour, but they neglect the thought, the poetry, 
at must pervade all art that is to be noble, and are 
ere blind producers of artificial medisevalism, quaint 
id pretty, but how lacking in the spirit of old romance 
at shines from the work of Frederic Sandys, the 
nderness and sweetness that fill the pictures of Arthur 
ughes ! It is saddening to think that though we search, 
* search in vain among the pictures of to-day for the 
>ly simplicity of the Ecce Ancilla Domini^ the pure 
ty of the Donna delta Finestra, the tragic grandeur 

Medea, the absolute and unshrinking veracity of the 
tone Breaker: the achievement we find is just what 
e great men of the movement managed to avoid, a 
Ise mediaevalism of form and treatment, a soulless 
ideavou;- to be decorative. It almost seems that the 
ider the ripples flow the weaker they are, and that 
.ough the Gothic feeling which prompted the crusade 
jainst classic conventionality survives, the poetic and 
mantic spirit that made the Pre-Raphaelite art of 
>sterday a living art, an art to move the soul, has not 
ascended to those who attempt to follow in the footsteps 
" the leaders. 

But it may be, and one hopes that it is so, that one 
ils to find so readily the coming work because it is 
/ershadowed by the productions of the great ones who 
e still in our midst, or who have only recently ceased 
om among us ; and it may also be, and this is probable, 



16 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

that the Pre-Raphaelite movement has extended, 
recognised or unrecognised, so far, and succeeded so 
well in killing the falsity it was a protest against, that 
there is no longer the background of banality against 
which the firstfruits of the crusade shone out so clearly. 
Perhaps, too, it is not altogether loss, that the arts of 
design far and wide should receive some of the impulse 
that has done so much for pictorial art ; still one would 
sacrifice much in other directions to see on our gallery 
walls such work as The Two Gentlemen of Verona^ from 
the easel of a young man of twenty-four. 



CHAPTER II 
HE FOUNDER OF PRE-RAPHAELISM: 

FORD MADOX BROWN 

k OME two years before the death of Ford Madox 
'Brown, a number of artists and admirers, recognising 
t during a long and laborious life this great painter had 
eived no official recognition, subscribed the sum of 
oo, and commissioned him to paint a picture to 

presented to the National Gallery, which should 
;quately represent his work, and should be a fit 
morial of his genius. Such a commission was 
ibably unique, certainly it conveyed to the artist 
:ompliment and an appreciation of the highest kind ; 
1 one can only regret that, dying in 1893, the work 
ich he undertook in acceptance of this commission 
> never finished : the striking and powerful canvas 
ich now hangs in our National Gallery as an example 
his style, " Christ washing Peter's Feet" being one of 

earlier works. 

?or fifty years Madox Brown laboured quietly and 
adily, producing masterpiece after masterpiece, unrecog- 
sd as a great artist either by the press or the public, 
cnown even to a large number of the supposed cogno- 
iti of the day, content to go his way in peace ; pained 
haps that honest attempt and great achievement alike 
>uld be so little welcomed, but absolutely incapable of 

personal "puff" and glaring self-advertisement that 
the bane of art nowadays, and thoroughly disdainful 

B 



18 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

of all such artifices. It was as a mere child that he first 
evinced the artistic bent which was the foreshadowing of 
his future eminence ; and his father, recognising his 
ability, placed him first under Professor Gregorius at 
Bruges, then under Van Hanselaer of Ghent, and finally 
entered him at the Academy at Antwerp, at that time 
directed by Baron Wappers. It was here that he became 
thoroughly equipped as regards technical knowledge, 
obtaining a mastery over all and sundry processes of 
art which enabled him later to accomplish notable work 
alike in oils and fresco, water-colour and encaustic 
painting. 

Early in his career after leaving Antwerp he sojourned 
in Paris, and to his arduous labours there, while studying 
at the Louvre and drawing from the life, he probably 
owed that knowledge of style which is apparent in his 
work. It was at this date that he painted, influenced 
doubtless by Delacroix, the powerful picture, Parisina's 
Sleepy which was shown at the British Institution in 
1845, an d attracted the notice of Rossetti ; later he 
developed his more mature and independent style, and 
began to put in practice the system of accurate and 
veracious presentment of light and shade that he had 
worked out for himself, in contradistinction to the preva- 
lent artificial studio lighting differentiating indoor and 
outdoor effects, morning and afternoon lights, and so on. 
The pictures which he painted upon his return to 
England, such as the portrait known as A Modern Holbein, 
had all the finish and fidelity of expression which were 
the characteristics of his matured style. After three 
years' stay in Paris, he went to Rome, impelled by 
anxiety for the health of his young wife ; but his stay 
was brief, some nine months in all, though fruitful in 
matters of art. It was at Rome and Florence that the 
beauties of the Italian masters, early and late, now first 



FORD MADOX BROWN 19 

revealed to him, had a great effect upon his mind, 
sing new possibilities into his hopes and dreams, 
widening and deepening his sympathies and aims, 
the health of his invalid wife did not improve ; and, 
ous to gratify her, he hastened to bring her home to 
country she longed for but did not live to see, for 
died in Paris on the journey between station and 
on. 

nd so the bereaved artist settled in England in 1846, 
oughly equipped and accomplished, and proceeded 
aint steadily and well, sending picture after picture to 
Royal Academy, but always to meet with some 
tt, something to irritate him and confirm him in his 
empt of all cliques and corporations. Sometimes 
pictures were unhung, sometimes skied, sometimes 
bited without the appropriate frame ; and finally, 
itisfied in every way with the treatment accorded 

he decided no longer to exhibit at the Academy, 
n his boyhood enamoured of labour, the amount of 
: he completed was stupendous, and it would be 
:>ssible to give here a catalogue of his pictures, to say 
ting of his numerous cartoons for frescoes, stained 
3, and other styles of decorative art ; but among his 
luctions, while steadily working in quiet, and gradually 
ining a clientele of purchasers, were such fine and 
:h-making canvases as Our Lady of Good Children 
.8), the tragic Cordelia and Lear (1849), Chaucer 
'ing the Legend of Constance (1851), and in the same 

Pretty Baa Lambs, a picture which shows that if 
teachings of Madox Brown influenced the young 
ts of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, their love of 
uteness of realisation reacted on the older artist, 
ir, Christ washing Peter's Feet, Cordelia's Portion, 
% Renews Honeymoon, the magnificent Work (now 

of the gems of the Manchester public collection), 



20 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Romeo and Juliet, a masterpiece of emotional directness, 
Cromwell at St Ives, The Last of England (now at 
Birmingham), and many other grand pictures were con- 
ceived and completed ; and in more recent years he 
was the creator of an unique series of thoughtful and 
accomplished works in the frescoes which decorate the 
Manchester Town Hall, panels in which the artist 
has realised with equal genius the aspect of the remote 
centuries in The Romans building Mancunium, and The 
Expulsion of the Danes, and has depicted with dramatic 
veracity such incidents of later days as Dalton collecting 
Marsh Gas, and The Transit of Venus. 

These mural paintings are perhaps his best-known 
works, but it is scarcely by these that his achievement 
should be judged ; for they were produced under con-, 
ditions and limitations imposed by the necessity of the 
Gambier-Parry process, which precluded the possibility 
of their being so individually characteristic as some of 
his work in other mediums. Possibly if one were asked 
for the finest example, the most complete and successful 
realisation of his aims, The Last of England, would be the 
picture to rise to the mind's eye. This work was first 
conceived on the occasion of a visit to Gravesend in 1851, 
to bid farewell to Woolner, the sculptor, then on his way 
to Australia ; and as Madox Brown was contemplating a 
voyage to India, the idea appealed to him of realising 
on canvas the pathos and emotion of such a setting out 
into a new world. So he painted himself, his wife, and 
their little baby as emigrants the wife full of sadness, 
gazing her last on the loved shore of the old country, 
while the tiny baby-hand clasps hers in the same uncon- 
cious loving trust that prompts her to hold her husband's, 
strengthening and consoling him in his hour of grief, 
maybe of failure ; while the man's face, though doubting 
and questioning, is full of that strength which shall make 




s 



FORD MADOX BROWN 




CHAUCER AT THE COURT OF EDWARD III 



FORD MADOX BROWN 21 

the master of his fate wherever duty leads him. 
ivious of the drizzling spray and the rout of shouting 
w-passengers, they sit overcome by the flood of 
gled thought that surges over them. Such is the 
are, one of the masterpieces of English art, wrought 

loving care, for "to ensure the peculiar look of 
t all round which objects have on a dull day at sea, 
is painted for the most part in the open air on dull 
j, and, when the flesh was being painted, on cold 
>." So wrote the artist, and he added, " absolutely, 
out regard to the art of any period or country, I have 
I to render this scene as it would appear. The 
ateness of detail which would be visible under such 
litions of broad daylight I have thought necessary to 
ate, as bringing the pathos of the subject more home 
tie beholder." 

r hat care and zeal in order to be sure that everything 
bsolutely right and true ! And as in this instance 
artist depicted the shuddering bleakness of a grey 

at sea, so in other works he realizes the true 
:>undings of his drama : here showing the beauty of 
nlight as in The Corsair, or sunlight as in The Widow's 
; there the glamour of dawn as in Romeo and Juliet ', 
le sombre dimness of a dungeon as in Foscari. 
\ another masterpiece, Work, may be noted the same 
essful grappling with the endeavour to paint things 
ley are seen the stress and heat of a blazing July 
is actuality itself, the presentment both of the fact 

the lesson to be drawn from it is dramatic yet 
rained, and the whole composition is a poem that he 

runs may read, full of the dignity of labour, the 
:hiness of toil 

" which beads the brow, and tans the flesh 
Of lusty manhood, casting out its devils ! " 



22 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

This chef d'ceuvre has been well characterised as "ii 
colour, a cut open jewel ; in meaning, a sermon an< 
a hymn of praise ; in conception, the offspring of a bii 
brain ; in execution, the product of a master's hand 
The magnificence of gesture alone in the main group c 
workmen the navvies stamps the composition as th 
work of a great artist ; and its multiplicity of inciden 
and meaning, the elaboration of the composition, th 
novelty of the subject, and the completion, intellects 
and artistic, of its rendering are all entirely admirable. 
It is in such work as this that we have the highest fruit 
of the artist's passionate hopes and lofty devotion to th 
ideal he set before himself. 

When, a century hence, some great and discriminatin, 
critic shall arise to write the record of art in England i 
the latter half of the nineteenth century one of the mos 
interesting periods in artistic history it is a truisrr 
maybe, to say that many accepted reputations will be a 
pricked bubbles, while others at present obscured wi 
shine out more brightly than they do to-day ; but it i 
safe to prophesy that in the latter category will be foun 
the name of Madox Brown. Just how great he was, jus 
where he will be placed in the hierarchy of painters, on 
cannot say ; but certainly future generations will appre 
ciate, and ever see more clearly, the honest independenc 
of thought, the wide and kindly human sympathies, th 
great originality, the wondrous power of poetic an 
dramatic presentment, and the mastery over colour tha 
characterises his pictures. It is quite true that in som 
of his immature works the colouring has been criticise 
as inharmonious ; that there is an inclination to ovei 
emphasise, to exaggeration, in much of his work ; tha 
many fine compositions are marred by bizarrerie c 
gesture amounting almost to distortion ; and in so fa 
as he often sacrificed grace in his desire for the forcibl 



FORD MADOX BROWN 




ELIJAH AND THE WIDOW'S SON 



FORD MADOX BROWN 




KING RENE'S HONEYMOON 



FORD MADOX BROWN 23 

resentation of dramatic action, he fell short of his high 
il : but there are many pictures that are free from 
nish, pictures such as have been mentioned, palpitat- 

with intense thought and feeling and admirable in 
icity and power, redolent of largeness of conception 

virility of style and handling, as well as of feeling for 
>ur, which surely rank among the finest of the genera- 
It is by these that he must be judged, and one 
not but think that the verdict of future generations 

place him among the great ones of art, deeming him 

painter of supreme dramatic power, the artist who 
LS pierced to the heart of deep emotions, and conceived 
us the very aspect of great deeds." 
[o notice of Madox Brown, however brief, would be 
tplete which did not include an allusion to the accom- 
hed attainment of his daughters, Mrs Hueffer and 
i W. M. Rossetti, and the dawning genius of his son 
/er. Dying "untimely lost" at the age of nine- 
i, the latter was already a poet and novelist of great 
r er and still greater promise, and the artist of many 
:iful and deeply imaginative compositions ; and no 
i may say what a heart-breaking blow his death was 
lis father, or what a stupendous loss to the world, 
'he work of both Mrs Hueffer and Mrs Rossetti is 
ible for charm and distinction, the portraits and fancy 
ds of the former, and especially the subject pictures 
:he latter, being remarkable in a high degree. Such 
vings as the Romeo and Juliet or The Duet (which 
ite Rossetti characterised as a really perfect picture) 
full of thought, full of the very soul of the artist ; and 
jgh in her work one can trace the influence both of 

father and her brother-in-law, there is an added 
rm beyond the beauty of presentation or the poetry 
olour, the individual charm of a sweet and strong soul 
; saw with the perception of genius and drew with the 



24 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

tenderness of an artist who strove to make a picture 
as has been well said, "the exact and beautiful expression 
of a thing for ever." To dismiss such work with so few 
words of appreciation is to treat it in an admittedly 
inadequate fashion, but in so brief a review space forbids 
a more extended allusion. 



CHAPTER III 
FHE STAUNCH PRE-RAPHAELITE: 

HOLMAN HUNT 



early days of Holman Hunt, as of many an artist, 
were days of long-continued struggle with adverse and 
ropitiatory circumstances. The first cause of dis- 
"tenment lay in the objection his father entertained 
tis following his natural bent and entering upon the 
er of a painter ; the second came when, an unwilling 
sent being given by his parent, the uphill task lay 
>re the young artist of making money enough to afford 
his daily bread. 

.t a very early age he was sent into the city to earn 
living, and to get the artistic craze driven out of his 
i : but, curiously enough, in each of the two offices 
uccessively entered he found a chance encouragement 
i the first from his employer, an auctioneer of artistic 
:livities, who sympathised with a congenial spirit 
sad of instilling commercial principles into him ; and 
r from a fellow-clerk, who designed patterns and 
rht young Hunt what he could. During this time, 
lis father's opposition did not go so far as absolute 
libition, all his slender earnings were expended in 
ing for tuition in oil painting, until at last he broke 
and entered upon a definite course of artistic study, 
pite of his parent's refusal to countenance or assist 
such undertaking. Dark days ensued, three days a 
k he painted portraits, copied pictures, or did any- 



26 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

thing whereby he might earn a slender livelihood ; the 
other days he spent in study at the British Museum, 
endeavouring to qualify for the Royal Academy schools. 
In this attempt he failed more than once, but finally was 
admitted ; and here among his fellow-students were 
Millais and Rossetti, with whom an intimacy ensued, 
culminating, as we have seen, in the formation of the 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 

Already, in his student days, the force of circumstances 
had developed in Holman Hunt a remarkable power of 
patient work, and a definite and concentrated aim, while 
he had also acquired a desire for precision of touch, and 
a distaste for all loose, vague, irresponsible handling. 
These qualities were among those cherished by the 
Brotherhood, and these very qualities which marked the 
young student mark the accomplished artist to-day : in 
fact he was, and is, by far the most consistent and con- 
stant Pre-Raphaelite, still remaining true to the artistic 
beliefs of his youth. In his later works, as in his less 
mature pictures, we find to the full the characteristics of 
the Pre-Raphaelite creed ; alike in The Hireling Shepherd 
and the Christ among the Doctors are displayed the same 
loving care and patience lavished on the execution of the 
work, and the same endeavour to pourtray things as they 
actually are, to realise the scene depicted ; while in these, 
and notably in others such as The Light of the World 
and The Shadow of the Cross, are seen the qualities 
more individual to Holman Hunt than his confreres the 
strong religious feeling and complete and carefully 
thought-out symbolism which pervade the whole work, 
at the same time as the detail beloved by the school is 
everywhere used to accentuate the principal motive of the 
picture, and to exhibit and enforce the moral aim that to 
this painter, as to Ruskin, seemed the imperative duty 
of an artist. 




o 



*: 



. 



W. HOLMAN HUNT 




THE AWAKENED CONSCIENCE 



HOLMAN HUNT 27 

In the early days of his career it was indeed fortunate 
at he possessed such a self-centred mind and so keen 
d indefatigable a power of toil, for the first and many 
cceeding pictures that he exhibited after the foundation 

the Brotherhood were the objects of contempt and 
/ilement of every description. The Rienzi vowing 
wgeance over the Body of his Brother certainly had 
ilts of crudeness and hardness, blemishes incidental to 
* work of an artist who lacked the training of experi- 
ce ; but these disappeared in the work of a few years 
:er, such as The Hireling Shepherd and The Two 
mtlemen of Verona (both painted in 1851), which 
:tfacted the notice and inspired the championship of 
hn Ruskin. The former picture is so characteristic 
at it may be taken as typical of Holman Hunt's 
:hnique and of his constant endeavour to use art as a 
>ans of presenting a moral and spiritual thought, 
le artist shows a shepherd kneeling and talking to a 
:1, and leaving his sheep to stray to their ruin. She 
s a tame lamb in her lap, but knows so little how to 
re for it that she is feeding it with unripe apples, 
owing herself a type of those careless daughters who 
ike unmotherly mothers and unwomanly women. Some 

the neglected sheep have already crossed a little 
earn, and are in the midst of the corn ; with no one to 
)k after them, and temptation lying so near, they 
turally follow their own ruinous instincts. And a 
uble peril awaits them, for not only will they perish 

surfeiting on the green corn, but the wolf is already 

sight, and has sprung upon some of their strayed 
mpanions ; while their guardian, careless of their 
Ifare, is catching insects to amuse his companion, and 
5 weak and superstitious nature is frightened when he 
ds his capture is a death's-head moth. Throughout 
s artist insists on the sinfulness of dereliction of duty, 



28 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

and enforces the lesson by displaying its dire con 
sequences ; while the whole picture is a gem of veracit} 
in its studious rendering of trees and sheep, and summe 
sunshine and shadow. 

From the time that Ruskin proclaimed the beauty am 
interpreted the aim of his work, the artist's reputatioi 
has been a constant and increasing one ; for though thi 
sum-total of his achievement is not large, owing t< 
the deep thought and tender patience exercised on even 
canvas that has come from his easel, the character o 
his pictures is so unique and distinguished as to maki 
each one linger in the memory of every person who ha 
seen them. The Hireling Shepherd was followed by ; 
work of a similar aim, The Awakened Conscience ; late 
came The Strayed Sheep ; and then the religious tendency 
of the artist's mind, already shown in A Converted Britis> 
Family sheltering a Missionary, prompted the stupendou 
achievement of the well-known Light of the World. Th 
success of that great allegory led to the artist's first so 
journ in the East, and the fruits of more than one lonj 
stay among Biblical scenes and surroundings may b 
seen in the many subjects that he has painted, inspire< 
by Holy Writ ; The Scapegoat, The Finding of th 
Saviour in the Temple, The Afterglow, The Shadow o 
Death, The Plains of Esdraelon, The Triumph of th 
Innocents, and other well-known pictures owe thei 
inception to the artist's deep religious feeling, and thei 
marvellous completeness of pourtrayal and symbolisn 
to the unwearying conscientiousness that lavished tim 
and trouble on them. More than this, the artist ha 
accomplished a noble achievement by illustrating th' 
history of Christianity among all its actual surroundings 
so far as they can be recalled or reproduced, an< 
realising for ever the actual aspect of the scenes as the; 
were. 



HOLMAN HUNT 29 

Among other works, as fully informed with thought 
id zeal, are The Marriage of the Prince of Wales, The 
hip, the Portrait of Sir Richard Owen, Amaryllis, and 
fay-day on Magdalen Tower, and in each and every 
le the artist is revealed, as a French critic well said, as 
la conscience fait peintre." He is admittedly the master 
" definite presentment, and in almost all his work we 
id (as has been said before), not only the artist striving 
depict the actuality of things, but the teacher aiming 
inculcate a moral lesson ; and though to many an 
Imirer the paintings that are entirely the outcome 
" the artist's own conception are to the full as interesting 
; those which are perhaps less original, inasmuch as they 
e inspired by actual rather than imaginative motives, 
ill it is by his religious paintings that Holman Hunt is 
*st known, and to these that he owes his fame. 

And yet it has been said that he is not a great religious 
tist ; and this may be so, for it is not altogether impos- 
ble that in his striving after contemporary verisimilitude 
: fact he may have lost something of the divinity, the 
Dd-like power and presence, that we would fain see in 
^ctures which endeavour to pourtray the scenes of the 
: e of Christ. But whether he fails (as others less con- 
tentious in endeavour and less high-minded in aim have 
Dt failed) or whether he succeeds in realising more than 
ie externals of the divine story, there is no doubt that 
; an exponent of a lofty moral aim he stands second to 
Dne. The parallelism and symbolism that pervade his 
ictures convey to all men a lesson that no man can be 
ie worse for, though sometimes it may be that the 
arable dominates the composition in such a way as to 
reclude a pleasure we should always be able to derive 
om the work of a great painter- the delight in a piece 
F pure artistic achievement. Apart from any sermon or 
.legory, one should be able to take pleasure in a picture 



30 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

as a picture, and this pleasure Holman Hunt does not 
always give us ; and it is a very moot question whether 
his highest successes have not been those canvases in 
which the inculcation of a moral is less the object of the 
artist's endeavour than the presentment of a poetic fact. 
Of The Two Gentlemen of Verona Ruskin said "There 
has been nothing in art so earnest or complete since the 
days of Albert Durer " : the picture is in every sense a 
masterpiece, the perfect realisation of an unique concep- 
tion, and the only blemish, if blemish there be, is the lack 
of beauty in the women's faces ; and when one contem- 
plates such achievements as this, the Isabella and the 
Pot of Basil, and that gem, the Amaryllis, one regrets 
that so few pictures of poetic charm have come from the 
artist's easel, and one wonders whether a little sacrifice of 
the painter's didactic aim would not have resulted in a 
higher aesthetic grace and a more beautiful, one would 
not say greater, artistic achievement. Hence it is a matter 
of sincere congratulation to many of the artist's admirers 
to know that he has turned once more to the realms of 
poetry as a field of inspiration, and has repeated on canvas 
the composition of that marvellous woodcut in the famous 
Moxon Tennyson, The Lady of Shalott. 



W. HOLMAN HUNT 




ISABELLA AND THE POT OF BASIL 




8 .S 



. 

1 



g I 

2 .3 

H sj 



tq 



CHAPTER IV 
THE TRANSITORY PRE-RAPHAELITE : 

JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS 

THE Pre-Raphaelite days of John Everett Millaisdate 
from 1849 to 1859, and in the course of these ten years 
produced a large number of important works, many of 
hich will rank as masterpieces of the English school, 
ifted with the greatest artistic power, his career may be 
ustly said to have been one continuous record of success, 
nmarred by adverse circumstances such as Holman Hunt 
ad to contend with, and unembittered by the neglect 
tiat was the portion of Madox Brown. The record alike 
f his student days and of his years of accomplishment, 
hows him as an artist supremely gifted by Nature, and 
ompletely equipped by training, a painter whose genius 
as recognised by all from the days of his youth, while 
or many a long year he was the favourite of both critics 
ind the public. Born in 1829, he evinced in the days of 
is childhood such a precocious talent that when in 1838 
is parents came to London, they sought the advice of 
>ir Martin Archer Shee, at that time the President of 
le Royal Academy. Sir Martin spoke very highly 
f the sketches submitted to him, and, fortified by 
is encouragement, young Millais entered Sass's school, 
nd thence passed to the Royal Academy schools, 
here his success was both instantaneous and remark- 
ble. A medallist at the age of thirteen, at fifteen 
e began to paint, and from that time forth he sold 



32 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

his work readily ; in fact, he was enabled a few years 
later to place ,500 which he had saved at the 
disposal of his friend Holman Hunt, who was then 
almost tempted by his ill-success to abandon the 
career he had planned, and seek fortune as a farmer 
in the Colonies. 

It was perhaps fortunate for Millais that when he was 
nineteen he fell under the influence of Rossetti and Hunt. 
Doubtless, he was a ready convert to the doctrines that 
the former enunciated so fervently, ' and that the latter 
strove so hard to express concretely ; but it is not 
improbable that, had he not been intimate with these 
youthful iconoclasts, he would have slipped into the con- 
ventional prettiness of early Victorian art. In this case 
certainly the world would have been the poorer for the 
non-existence of such work as the Ophelia and the 
Autumn Leaves ; while it may even be that without 
the stimulus caused by the mutual association of the trio, 
Millais might in after-years have been swamped by the 
beauty of his own handicraft, and have developed into a 
mere accomplished survivor of the prevalent soulless 
school of the period. 

When the chance intimacy of the young artists de- 
veloped into the formation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood in 1849, it was Millais who was looked upon by his 
confreres as the champion of the movement ; and a strong 
and fit champion he was, quick to feel the truths that they 
desired to promulgate, eager to enter the fray, far better 
equipped and more accomplished technically than either 
Hunt or Rossetti, and equally alive with them to the 
charm of poetry in art : and it may well be that from him 
came the suggestion that each should exemplify their 
creed by illustrating a subject from Keats, a poet then 
almost unknown to the general reader, but very dear to 
all the members of the Brotherhood. Millais chose as his 



JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS 33 

subject Lorenzo at the House of Isabella, and despite the 
iact that much work in the old style remained to be 
inished, he set to work and painted the picture which 
s now one of the ornaments of the Walker Art Gallery at 
Liverpool, a picture which has been called "the most 
wonderful painting that any youth under twenty years of 
ige ever did in the world." It is true that the work as a 
yhole may be said to be incoherent in design, but this 
vas due to the enthusiastic acceptance by the painter of 
he Pre-Raphaelite demand that an artist should say to 
limself, not "how will this scene compose best?" but 

how did this really happen ? " and should attempt to 
ealise it with all due dramatic intensity. Certainly the 

icture does not lack this last quality, nor is it wanting 
n beautiful colour or great delicacy and sweetness ; but 
hough Millais did not display Madox Brown's tendency 
o over-emphasis, or Holman Hunt's inclination to harsh- 
less, there is in this, and in the Ferdinand and Ariel, a 
light exaggeration of expression and pose, a nuance of 
nelegance which was to disappear in such work as The 
Huguenot and the Sir Isumbras, pictures in which the Pre- 
Raphaelite ideal perhaps reached its highest expression, 
nasmuch as they were frankly modern and contemporary 
n execution, absolute realisations of scenes as conceived 
)y the painter, and uninfluenced by the work of any 
former artist, except so far as they marked a return to the 
absolute honesty and veracity of the painters whose work 

(he Brotherhood specially admired. 
Although at this date Millais sold his pictures, and sold 
hem well, still he was equally with his fellow-workers the 
Subject of much adverse and blindly abusive criticism : 
the picture Ferdinand lured by Ariel, which followed the 
^Lorenzo, and Christ in the House of His Parents, better 
known as The Carpenter's Shop, were heartily and un- 
sparingly condemned; and the pictures shown in 1851, 
C 



34 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Mariana in the Moated Grange, The Return of the Do\ 
to the Ark, and The Woodman's Daughter, were all greete 
with obloquy, although they are poetic in conception, ar 
at the same time lovingly render absolute facts. Tl 
same beauty of idea is visible in the Ophelia and Ti 
Huguenot of the following year ; and though the form 
is scarcely a picture to appeal to the multitude, and tl 
other was at first included in the merciless onslaughts th 
were made on all Pre-Raphaelite works, later the inhere] 
beauty and charm of the second picture, not to speak 
the finished and exquisite technique, made it popul 
in the extreme. 

In the following year, 1853, Millais was elected A.R.^ 
and from this time most of the critics were respectful, ar 
many were appreciative. The foreboding ' that Rossel 
expressed that " now the whole round table was dissolved 
was not yet justified, though it ultimately proved we! 
founded enough ; for the artist still produced su< 
genuinely Pre-Raphaelite pictures as The Order , 
Release and The Proscribed Royalist, which, popularise 
in their thousands by engraving, combined to place tl 
painter in the forefront of public appreciation. Lat 
came The Rescue, a picture of a fireman carrying childn 
down the staircase of a burning house and restoring the 
to the arms of the distracted mother : this, which w; 
much praised at the time by Ruskin, was followed by tl 
beautiful and poetic Blind Girl and Autumn Leavt 
This latter has been so well described by Sir Walt 
Armstrong that one may be permitted to transcribe h 
words. He says it is " a work of sentiment and efTec 
It tells no particular story, though it conveys stror 
emotion. Four girls, two of gentle blood and tv 
children of the people, are heaping up withered leav< 
for the burning ; behind them is a twilight sky bathin 
everything in its gorgeous tints, and absorbing what litt 



JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS 35 

there is left of day. In colour this is one of the finest of 
Mr Millais's works some might call it the finest of all 
and its undefined intensity of sentiment is a complete 
reply to those who deny a poetic imagination to its 
author." To this description these charming words of 
Mr Andrew Lang are a fit corollary. He says, and no 
one could express more clearly the feeling that pervades 
the work, "the spiritual note of the picture lies in the 
contrast between the carelessness of the young girls, who 
are heaping the fire for the fun of it, and * the serious 
whisper of the twilight,' as Poe fancied he could hear the 
stealing of the darkness over the horizon." 

The next year, 1857, saw The Escape of a Heretic and 
Sir Isumbras at the Ford the former a beautiful work, 
: ull of all the painter's most admirable qualities ; the 
latter, to the minds of some, the greatest achievement 
of the artist's Pre-Raphaelite days. This work was 
ilways a great favourite with the painter himself, and in 
ater days he worked again on it, improving it in many 
Darticulars. The picture represents a ford in the " north 
xmntrie," a wide, fair stream, on the banks of which stands 
i typical peel tower. An aged knight in golden armour, 
-iding home in the evening light, has taken up two 
bhildren who have been gathering sticks, one before him 
and the other clinging behind, to cross the ford. That is 
iall, but the lovely colour of the whole composition, and 
nhe charming sentiment that pervades it, would make it a 
],vork of note, even without the kindly, thoughtful, noble 
face of the old knight, serene in the twilight of life as the 
andscape in the afterglow of evening, and the varied 
bxpressions of the two children the younger, a chubby 
boy, being intent only on keeping his position, while 
;:he elder, a girl, safer in her place in front of their 
guardian, sits gazing at the kindly cavalier, with 
ivonder and awe mingling in her expressive face. With 



* 



36 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

The Vale of Rest, a picture painted two years later, and 
too well-known to need description here, the mastei 
passed from the manner of his youth and entered upon 
another phase of his art ; and here consideration of his 
work must cease. Any detailed allusion to the produc- 
tions of this later period would be out of place here, foi 
it can hardly be said that the more recent style is the 
outcome or the development of the earlier ; although it i< 
true that in many later works one traces the effect of the 
earnest and painstaking endeavour of his younger days 
still it must be admitted that at this time the paintei 
ceased to be a Pre-Raphaelite artist. 

It cannot be said of Millais that he had, even in the 
youthful days of fire and fervour, a personal and individ' 
ual message to give ; he does not aim at the presentmen 
of a dramatic climax as Madox Brown so often did ; h( 
does not strive to pourtray, like Rossetti, the soul tha 
looks forth from the rapt eyes of some sweet inhabitant o 
poet-land, " out of space and out of time " ; nor doe; 
he paint with the moral and didactic aim of Holmar 
Hunt. Nevertheless, in all his Pre-Raphaelite work on< 
sees the qualities that he possessed in common with hii 
coadjutors, a love of absolute and sincere veracity o 
presentment, and a deep sympathy with the poetic as con 
trasted with the commonplace side of things. How far ir 
the lovely and thoughtful work of this period the beautifu 
conception is the artist's own one cannot say ; certainly 
in his later work, when no longer under the spell o 
Rossetti's personality, one misses the spirit that is presen 
in these pictures of an earlier day, and one is almos 
driven to think that these poetic and imaginative work: 
were planned and accomplished by the artist amids 
surroundings and associates that furnished the inspiratioi 
that he, the more accomplished artist, bodied forth s< 
finely. 



SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART., P.R.A. 




THE ESCAPE OF A HERETIC 



SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART., P.R.A. 




THE BRIDESMAID 



38 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

and in those later pictures which have charmed the multi- 
tude on the walls of Burlington House. 

Unhampered by the technical inability that was such a 
stumbling-block to Rossetti in the realisation of his en- 
trancing visions, and gifted by Nature with a power of sure 
and rapid work that rendered quite unnecessary the long 
and patient labour with which Holman Hunt builds up his 
pictures, one would expect that the work of Millais as a 
whole would have excelled the achievement of his fellow- 
artists. But it cannot fairly be said that this is so. There 
are individual pictures of beauty, distinction and charm, but 
despite the admirable qualities already alluded to, as a 
group they lack the individuality and the distinctive in- 
forming spirit that makes the work of Madox Brown and 
Holman Hunt so interesting and consistent ; though many 
an admirer thinks that had he continued to work on the 
old lines his achievement (great artist as he was) would have 
been still greater, and regrets keenly that from any cause 
he should have lapsed into another groove. It would 
perhaps be too much to say that when he abandoned the 
tenets of the Brotherhood of which he was the erstwhile 
champion, he became in any sense the " Lost Leader" of 
the poem ; and one cannot think that a painter who died 
a baronet and the official head of English art had retro- 
graded from the position he took up and the work he 
accomplished as a youth ; still there are those who would 
give much to see in his more mature work the poetic 
insight, the grasp of the romantic aspect of life, that mark 
his earlier pictures, and who mourn that one so supremely 
gifted as a painter should seem in his later days to have 
cared so little what the subject was that he depicted with 
unrivalled ability. 



SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART., P.R.A. 




THE HIGHLAND LASSIE 



SIR J. E. MILLAIS, BART 




MERCY ST BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY 



CHAPTER V 
RE-RAPHAELITE AND IDEALIST: 

DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 

ANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI, possibly the most 
original genius in the domains of art and letters that 
is century has seen, was born in 1828, the son of Gabriel 
ossetti and Frances Polidori, his wife. The Christian 
ames conferred upon him were Gabriel Charles Dante, but 
p early dropped Charles, and transposed the two others, 
id as Dante Rossetti his name will go down to posterity, 
i the house of his father, a man of singularly wide 
lading and ardent thought, and a poet as well as a 
holar, he lived in an atmosphere permeated with literary 
ilture. The natural consequence was that, gifted to 
i extraordinary degree with poetic and imaginative 
Dwers of the highest order, he would seem to have 
:quired unconsciously (or, at any rate, without any 
*ertion other than a pleasurable one) the means of 
terary expression, a craftsmanship in verse that is 
eyond cavil ; but when the longing came upon him to 
hibody pictorially the visions that, even as a lad, 
resented themselves to him, the drudgery of acquiring 
jie rudiments of painting was repugnant to his spirit ; 
fod it cannot be denied that much of his work in this 
liedium consequently exhibits technical shortcomings. 
LS to his inspiration there can be no two opinions. He 
r as essentially and thoroughly a poet of the very highest 
ink ; his mind teemed with coloured and mystical 






oru 

to speak; of 



trials, if CTZ 

HOHV 

- i::: 
::: i. t: :: i^t 



:- :_: 



? 









_ 




DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 41 

days, he undoubtedly acquired by this preliminary 
gery, and exercised at this time, a power of keen 
,nd accurate drawing, as is plainly evinced by the pencil 
)ortrait of his grandfather, Gaetano Polidori, dating 
rom 1848. 

The same year saw the formation of the Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood (as already detailed), and the inception of 
lossetti's first picture The Girlhood of Mary Virgin, 
yhich was hung next year in the " Free Exhibition " 
n Hyde Park, while Millais and Holman Hunt showed 
heir pictures at the Royal Academy. The kevjriotes_ 
fJjlis_4Hcture may be said to be simplicity anr| SP rrf ^ 
The Virgin, represented as a girl of about 



eventeen, is shown on a balcony beneath an overhanging 
dne, working, under the direction of her mother St Anna, 
it an embroidery representing a lily, the emblem of 
)urity, which she copies from a plant watered by a 
ittle angel with rose-coloured wings. The father, St 
oachim, is seen outside pruning a vine, on one of the 
upports of which roosts a dove surrounded by a golden 
lalo and symbolic of the Holy Spirit ; and there are 
mmerous other details, each with a well-chosen symbolic 
)r spiritual meaning, such as the books of the virtues 
>n which the lily stands, the seven-thorned briar and 
;even-leaved palm branch, surrounded by a scroll 
nscribed, " Tot dolores, tot gaudia." The picture is 
tainted in bright colours, quite in the style of the early 
irtists the Brotherhood took as their models ; the 
landling, though bv^jno means masterly, is delicate 
ind true, and the composition is quite simple and naively 
decorative,, while the effect of the work as a whole is 
/cry pleasing, full as it is of spiritual thought and 
appropriate symbolism. 

This picture, and the one which followed from 
Rossetti's brush next year, the wonderful Ecce Ancilla 




42 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Domini (marvellous indeed as the work pf a boy of 
twenty-one), may be taken as typical of the artist's 
work in oils in the first of the three periods into which 
his art may be said to fall. These, and some of the 
water-colours of this period, are the only truly 
Pre-Raphaelite pictures that he produced ; his later 
works (as will be seen) being by no means closely 
painted transcripts from Nature, but rather romantic 
works of the most ideal kind, in which, however, traces 
are still to be found in the attention to details and 
accessories of the artist's erstwhile enthusiasm for 
sincerity and veracity of presentment. But almost more 
characteristic of this phase of Rossetti's art are the 
numerous water-colours executed between the years 
1850 and 1860, full of splendour of colour and freshness 
of conception. The Passover in the Holy Family (a 
highly Pre-Raphaelite drawing, conceived in 1849, but left 
unfinished in 1855); Paolo and Francesca ; Lancelot 
and Guinevere at the Tomb of Arthur ; The Blue Closet; 
Dante on the Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice ; The 
Chapel before the Lists ; The Ttme of Seven Towers ; Sir 
Galahad; Lucrezia Borgia; Fazio's Mistress ; and many 
others which might be mentioned. These do not call for 
detailed description ; each is replete with rich colour and 
imaginative charm, and the effect produced upon those 
who were privileged to see them (Rossetti working then as 
always for a small and intimate circle, by no means 
desirous of any appeal to popular appreciation) may 
be judged from the description by the late James 
Smetham of The Wedding of St George. " One ol 
the grandest things, like a golden, dim dream. 
Love, 'credulous all gold/ gold armour, a sense o! 
secret enclosure in ' palace chambers far apart ' ; but 
quaint chambers in quaint palaces, where angels creep 
in through sliding-panel doors, and stand behind rows 







, she, ////// < <//'//////. 

-./,- /,/;;,/ 






DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 43 

of flowers, drumming on golden bells, with wings crim- 
son and green." 

A more critical note from the pen of Mr Sydney Colvin 
may be quoted as probably the soundest and sanest 
estimate ever penned of the artist's achievement of this 
period, in which the writer says : " To sum up generally 
the characteristics of this period, the first are vividness 
and ingenuity of dramatic presentment, the idea so 
predominating over the matter that actions are allowed 
to appear as strained, and compositions as naif, as they 
please, provided only the emotional and intellectual 
points are driven home. These are among the qualities 
whereby Rossetti's work is obviously and spontaneously 
allied to that of the Middle Age ; others are his enjoy- 
ment of the quaint invention of costumes and furniture, 
and the weight of symbolical meaning which he makes 
every circumstantial detail and accessory bear. Others, 
again, are his neglect of the elements of chiaroscuro and 
atmosphere in painting, and his delight in and insistence 
on the element of colour. Many of the little pictures of 
this time flash and glow like jewels or the fragments 
of some gorgeous painted window. Sometimes this 
brilliancy and variegation of colour is carried to a point 
where harmony is left quite behind ; in other instances, 
las in Mr Boyce's beautiful version of the Meeting of 
'Dante and Beatrice in Purgatory -, a water-colour of 1852, 
ja scheme of extraordinary daring, as it were malachite 
land emerald, sapphire and turquoise and lapis-lazuli set 
side by side, is nevertheless treated as to satisfy as well 
las amaze the colour-sense." 

In the pictures of the second period of Rossetti's > 
|art the more characteristic work is in oils, and the artist 
ceased somewhat to tell a story by means of a dramatic 
(group ; he rather used a single female figure and its 
accessories as symbolic of an abstract idea or theme, a 



dse 



44 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

personification of some .. InteHeetual CQnptjpn ; or else 
he simply painted beauty for beauty's _sake, a lovely 
form bedecked with all the rich adornments his vivid 
fancy revelled in ; a lovely face full of sensuous charm 
and the mystery of beauty. In these pictures Rossetti's 
genius shows itself ripe, but not over-ripe ; the 
characteristics of a certain type of feminine beauty are 
obviously dominant in his work, though not, as in 
later days, over-emphasised ; and his drawing, while 
occasionally poor, is not so faulty as it afterwards was, 
while his colour throughout is masterly, and the painting 
of the details he delighted to introduce into his pictures 
the flowers, rich stuffs and jewels is superb. Later, his 
colour was apt to be hot and jarring ; his genius, always 
poetical, seemed to turn to the morbid in its mani- 
festations ; and, though in the last year or two of his life 
better work came from his easel, it is not by the pictures 
of this third phase that he will be judged, and they do not 
call, accordingly, for detailed notice. When the subject 
of Rossetti's technique is under review, it should be 
noticed that it was characteristic of his method of work 
to prepare for these larger pictures in oils very careful 
chalk drawings (which indeed might rather be called 
crayon pictures), many of which are to the full as 
beautiful as the finished work, possibly because he 
understood the possibilities and the limitations of the 
method completely ; and it should also be definitely 
stated that, though he was admittedly never completely 
accomplished as a painter in oils, in this department he 
yet acquired real power within the limits that he set 
himself. Depth of tone and chiaroscuro he did not aim 
at, but his flesh-painting in this middle period of his 
work is excellent, displaying a certain bloom and beauty 
together with much delicate modelling ; problems of 
colour were by him solved in the most masterly 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 




JOLI CCEUR 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 




LA BELLA MANO 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 45 

manner ; and, as has been said, his delightful rendering 
of accessories, of enamels and blossoms, as in The Bride ; 
of mirrors and brazen vessels, and sumptuous furniture, 
as in La Bella Mano, must always be a keen source of 
pleasure to the beholder. 

Perhaps the best known of the pictures of this period is 
Beat a Beatrix ', the chalk version of which dates from 
1859, while the oil picture now in the national collection 
would seem to have been completed in 1863. This 
reminiscence of the painter's lost wife, " pourtrayed with 
perfect fidelity out of the inner chambers of his soul," 
depicts Beatrice seated on the balcony of her father's 
palace in Florence, entranced in heavenly visions ; and 
the depth and sense of mystery, the "intense and 
beautiful peace," pervading the work, place it on a 
plane apart. This was followed by such work as Fait 
Rosamund (1861); Belcolore (1863), a gem of the first 
water; Lady Lilith (1864); and then came the annus 
mirabilis of Rossetti's artistic life, which saw the com- 
pletion of the oil-colour versions of such superb 
masterpieces as Monna Vanna, II Ramoscello, Venus 
Verticordia, and The Beloved. Later were painted Joli 
Cceur (1867); Monna Rosa (1867); the crayon version 
of the Donna della Finestra (1869); Mariana (1870); 
Proserpina (1874); Veronica Veronese (1872); and La 
Bella Mano (1875); the last two marking perhaps in 
the exotic fulness of their beauty, the lavish wealth of 
their conception and the force of their colour and 
handling, the end of this, the noblest phase of 
Rossetti's art. These were succeeded by other pictures 
| in which the artist's individualities degenerated into 
; mannerisms ; his ideals more or less ran away with 
. him, and his colour and handling were no longer equal 
i to that of his best work. 

Most typical of the highest achievements of Rossetti's 



46 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

genius is The Bride, and of this picture so entirely 
adequate a description and appreciation has been 
penned by Mr F. G. Stephens, the lifelong friend of 
the artist, that no excuses are needed for quoting that 
critic's words at length. " The Bride, or The Beloved" 
he says, " dates its origin from 1863, and as regards its 
splendour and colour and the passion of its design 
need not fear comparison with the greatest works of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Venice. In 
these respects this chef -d? oeuvre is a superb and ardent 
illustration of the Song of Solomon, * My beloved is 
mine, and I am his ; let him kiss me with the kisses of 
his mouth, for thy love is better than wine ! ' 

"The picture comprises as if they had halted in 
a marriage procession, towards the spot where the 
enraptured bridegroom awaits them five life-size adult 
maidens and a negro girl, who, in the front of the group, 
and bearing a mass of roses in a golden vase, is adorned 
with barbaric jewellery, all of which harmonises with 
her dusky skin, which, although it has the true 
Titianesque ruddy undertint, is of a deep bronze-brown 
surface hue. The negress and her burthen are intended 
to contrast intensely with the costume and face of the 
bride herself, who is clad in an apple-green robe, as 
lustrous as silk and as splendid as gold and embroideries 
of flowers and leaves in natural colours can make it. 
This garment and its decorations support the colour 
of the dark maid's skin, and heighten the value of the 
pure red and white of the bride's carnations, while the 
contours of the African's face and form contrast with 
the Caucasian charm of the bride, her stately countenance, 
and ' amorous-lidded eyes.' 

"The Song is aptly illustrated by the attire of the 
bride and her companions ; it says : ' She shall be 
brought unto the king in raiment of needlework : the 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 




VENUS VERTiCORDIA 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 



LA DONNA DELLA FINESTRA 




DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 47 

virgins that be her fellows shall bear her company, 
and shall be brought unto thee.' On either side of the 
bride appear two damsels, not yet brides. The principal 
figures are differently clad, diverse in face and form, 1 and 
to some extent contrasted in character and expression. 
Besides her robe the bride wears about her head and 
throat a veil of tissue differing in its green from that 
of the robe, and above her forehead rises an aigrette of 
scarlet enamel and gold that resembles in some respects 
the peculiar head-dress of ancient Egyptian royalty; 
this is set like a coronet upon her hair, while advancing 
towards the bridegroom, with an action at once graceful 
and natural, she, half thoughtfully, half in pride of 
supreme loveliness, has moved the tissue from her face 
and throat. With the same movement she has thrown 
backwards a large ringlet of her hair, revealing the 
softened dignity of her love-laden eyes, as well as her 
face, which is exquisitely fair and fine, and has the least 
hint of blushes within the skin, as though the heart of 
the lady quickened, while we see there is tenderness in 

, her look, but voluptuous ardour nowhere. 

" All the four maids seem to have been chanting a 
nuptial strain, while they have moved rhythmically with 

j the steps of the bride. 

" Excepting one or two later works of the master, 
where sentiment of a more exalted sort, as in Proserpina^ 
inspired the designs, The Beloved appears to me to be 
the finest production of his genius. Of his skill, in the 
high artistic sense, implying the vanquishment of 
prodigious difficulties difficulties the greater because 
of his imperfect technical education there cannot be 
two opinions as to the pre-eminence of Mr Rae's 
magnificent possession. It indicates the consummation 
of Rossetti's powers in the highest order of modern 
art, and is in perfect harmony with that poetic inspiration 



48 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

which is found in every one of his more ambitious 
pictures. This example can only be called Venetian, 
because of the splendid colouring which obtains in it. 
Tintoret produced works which assort most fortunately 
with this one, and his finely dramatic mode of designing 
reappears, so to say, in The Beloved, where the intensity 
of Venetian art is exalted, if that term be allowed, in a 
modern strain, while its form, coloration, and chiaroscuro 
are most subtly devised to produce a whole which is 
thoroughly harmonised, and entirely self-sustained. Of 
how few modern instances could this be said ? The 
colouring of this picture supports the sentiment of the 
design in the happiest manner, and in its magnificence 
the work agrees with the chastity of the conception. 
There is a nuptial inspiration throughout it, even in the 
deep red of the blush roses the negress bears. The 
technique is so fine that it leaves nothing to be desired, 
even in the lustrousness of the gold vase, in the varied 
brilliancy of the robe of the bride, in the subtle delicacy 
of the carnations, solidly and elaborately modelled as 
they are, and varied to suit the nature of each of the 
figures. ^.ossetti's Beloved is in English art what 
Spenser's gorgeous and passionate EpiThaTamium is in 
English verse, and if not more rapturous, it is more 
compact of sumptuous elements." 

Any adequate attempt to review the characteristics 
of Rossetti's own wonderful achievement, and his 
influence on art at large, would necessarily be lengthy; 
no brief note would suffice to convey a true appreciation 
of the originality and the power of this wayward and 
self-centred genius. The influence he exercised on 
contemporaries and successors was by no means in- 
considerable, in spite of his life having been spent 
outside the world of art and letters. The position that 
"he occupied in the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood has 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 




THE BELOVED 






DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 49 

| already been alluded to, and what share was actually 
| his in their vivifying crusade may never be really known. 
! But it is admitted that it was he who had the penchant 
for propaganda and proselytising, that his was the fiery- 
soul that was the source of so much poetic inspiration ; 
without him the Brotherhood as such would probably 
not have come into being, and the existence of the 
Brotherhood converted the sporadic (and possibly futile) 
efforts, which the others would doubtless have singly 
made on their own initiative, into a systematic attempt 
to introduce a healthier tendency into our national art, 
an attempt which has had the most far-reaching results. 
The intense activity of to-day, in all branches of art, as 
compared with the lethargy and torpidity of fifty years 
ago, can be traced very largely to the stand made by 
these young men and their associates. But, besides 
the effect that Rossetti had on art through Pre- 
Raphaelism, and besides the school of direct followers 
that have arisen inspired by his work (a group to be 
treated of later), there is the influence of his own strange 
deals and his unique achievements to be traced in the 
work of many and diverse artists. It would be very 
ascinating, and at the same time rather startling, to 
: ollow the ramifications of this inspiration among those 
painters who are far from being of the school of Rossetti. 
Artists whose aims are as far apart as Mr Whistler and 
Sir J. D. Linton, Matthew Maris and George du Maurier, 
Vtr Wilson Steer and Mr William Wontner (these by 
way of example), have betrayed occasionally touches of 
nspiration or passages of work that, noted by the 
vntelligent critic, cause the question to rise unbidden 
n the mind would these have occurred to the more 
ecent artist had Rossetti never painted ? And though 
space will not permit any expansion of this theme, it 
nust be noted that not only English but Continental 
D 



50 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

artists are beginning to own the sway and the fascination 
of the work of Rossetti and his disciple, Burne Jones. 

Turning to his actual work it may be said that, 
materially, its keynote is splendour, splendour of colour, 
of conception, of mise en scene, coupled with grandeur 
and impressiveness of design. His essentially romantic 
spirit delighted in the exotic and the unique, and there 
is a sense of opulence in all his work that is almost 
overpowering. Technically, of course (as has been 
already said), there are shortcomings in some of his 
pictures ; his drawing is not immaculate, and his powers 
of realisation were not equal to his gift of imagination. 
He was essentially a poet working in pigments, and it 
is evident, from his use of the explanatory sonnet 
appended to so many of his pictures, that he himself 
was conscious of the inadequacy of pictorial art to convey 
all that he sought to express. But with all shortcomings 
what a glorious achievement his is ! 

Spiritually, he was a devotee of beauty, and supreme 
beauty he rightly found and fashioned in the ideal faces 
that he painted so well. But the distinction of Rossetti's 
work lies in the fact that he conceived and embodied 
not beauty alone, but that element of strangeness in 
beauty which Mr Walter Pater rightly discerned as the 
inmost spirit of romantic art. It has been said that he 
always depicted one face, and one only, but this has 
more than once been shown to be erroneous. At the 
same time, he has admittedly invested many of the 
faces he painted (especially in his later days) with the 
characteristics of a type of beauty that was a creation 
of his own ; in other words, he originated a new ideal 
loveliness, a type that appeals at once to the beholder's 
sensuous joy in beauty and his intellectual apprehension 
of a soul behind the mask. Lovely faces he depicted, 
overshadowed by a cloud of dusky hair, " sweet carved 



ELIZABETH ELEANOR ROSSETTI 




LADY CLARE 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 51 

lips for a conqueror's kiss," all the body's beauty that his 
artist's mind conceived he strove to depict, and by and 
through this beauty all the loveliness of soul that his 
poet's heart could dream of. The sweetness of love, the 
glamour of mysteries unknown, the brooding aspect of 
passion, the clear and placid joy of living, are all to be 
found in the limpid depths of his women's eyes such 
wonderful eyes as no other artist has ever painted, from 
the clear grey unshadowed ones, that seem to swim in 
the head of The Bride, to the dusky orbs that burn in 
the face of Astarte, " in Venus' eyes the gaze of 
Proserpine." 

There are critics, of course, to whom the type of 
beauty he chose is repellent, and there are pictures of 
his in which the " lovely large arms and the neck like 
a tower," are exaggerated to an unacceptable degree, 
as well as the facial characteristics that have been alluded 
to ; but, while one recognises the truth of some adverse 
criticism, one is still justified in acclaiming the author 
of so long a series of works, marked by such marvellous 
glory of colour, intensely vivid feeling, and opulence 
of beauty, as essentially and truly an artist of supreme 
genius. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE OTHER PRE-RAPHAELITE 
BRETHREN: 

JAMES COLLINSON 

WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI 

FREDERICK GEORGE STEPHENS 

THOMAS WOOLNER 

WALTER HOWELL DEVERELL 

THE remaining members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood, as originally constituted, were Thomas Woolner, 
F. G. Stephens (at that time an art student), James 
Collinson, and W. M. Rossetti. The latter, not being 
a painter, acted as a sort of secretary of the coterie, and 
was for some years almost the only writer who ventured 
to uphold the principles of the fraternity. This he did 
in the Critic and the Spectator ; and it was, doubtless, 
largely due to his championship, as well as to the 
advocacy of John Ruskin, that the Pre-Raphaelite 
influence extended far beyond the immediate circle of 
the original group. F. G. Stephens, well equipped by 
reading and temperament, also turned his attention to 
the literature of art, abandoning its practice ; and though 
his life's work, as he truly says, has been mostly with 
the pen, it would have been interesting to include among 
the illustrations of this book an example of his pictorial 
art, and it is a matter for regret that this was found 
impossible. The work of Woolner, the sculptor, being 
in another medium, is not treated of here ; and it must 



THE OTHER PRE-RAPHAELITE BRETHREN 53 

be admitted that the achievement of Collinson is not 
particularly noteworthy. This artist's most remarkable 
work is The Renunciation of St Elizabeth of Hungary, 
and this, which is a praiseworthy picture, was more or 
less of a spasmodic effort, his usual style being chiefly 
domestic art ; and he did not make the mark which 
in the early days of the movement his colleagues had 
loped for, although another picture of his, The Charity 
Debut, which was painted in 1848, before his 
mnection with the Brotherhood, attracted some attention, 
[odest and retiring in his disposition, his work was un- 
ibitious, and on becoming a Roman Catholic he 
fancied that it was incumbent on him to resign his 
lembership of the society. The connection thus 
;rminated was not re-established ; and though he lived 
id painted till the spring of 1881, he passes out of 
>ur story. 

When Walter Howell Deverell died, in 1854, at the 
early age of twenty-six, he was not only a loss to the 
circle of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, but also to the 
world of art at large, for had he lived a few years longer 
he would without doubt have distinguished himself. He 
was an intimate of Dante Rossetti, who nominated him 
for the place in the fraternity left vacant by the secession 
of Collinson, and Deverell more than repaid this act of 
friendship by being the means of introducing Rossetti 
to Miss Siddal, who was afterwards his wife. This lady 
was sitting at the time to Deverell as the model for the 
head of the disguised Viola in the picture reproduced 
in this volume how often and how lovingly Rossetti 
depicted her strangely-beautiful face as Beatrice, or in 
some other character, there is no need to say here. This 
large picture is a scene from Twelfth Night, Act II., Sc. 4. 
The Duke, the central figure of the composition, is a 
strong piece of painting : he is depicted as a love-sick 



54 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

man, wishing to be entertained by the songs and music 
of his surrounding friends and attendants, and yet, withal, 
he cannot hide the trouble which is uppermost in his 
mind his unrequited love for Olivia. On his right is 
seated Viola, disguised as a boy ; and to the left the 
clown is singing with earnestness, and, at the same time, 
with such an air of self-satisfaction as denotes the high 
value he sets on his own abilities. This is a picture 
which gives evidence of thought and power; but the 
painter was not to live long enough to show the fruit of 
his promise. Artistic, clever, genial, remarkably good- 
looking, fortune in other respects was unkind to him. 
In 1853 the death of his father, who was secretary to 
the Schools of Design (now enlarged into the Science 
and Art Department), threw additional responsibility on 
to his shoulders, and the ill-health which was to cause 
his death the year after attacked him. Still, in spite 
of all, he was full of courage, and continued to paint, 
his last picture being The Doctors Last Visit a physician 
trying to explain to the assembled family of a sick man 
that there is no hope. Other works by him were A Lady 
with a Bird-cage^ formerly in the Leathart collection, 
and & Scene from "As You Like It" on which Rossetti 
worked after the artist's death : and in these, as in all, 
he painted closely from Nature, and displayed an 
exquisite sense of simplicity and grace. 

It will thus be seen that the pictorial work accomplished 
by the actual members of the Brotherhood, other than 
the three leaders, was a negligeable quantity. In itself, 
it was not of great importance as a practical exposition 
of their creed, but it was desirable, in the interests of 
completeness and accuracy, that a brief account of it 
should be included here, before turning to the painters 
who did work based on Pre-Raphaelite principles, though 
they were not actually members of the brief-lived 



THE OTHER PRE-RAPHAELITE BRETHREN 55 

Brotherhood. How brief was the actual life of the 
Brotherhood^ as originally conceived and inaugurated, 
may be judged from Mr W. M. Rossetti's statement that 
the fraternity, founded in the autumn of 1848, may be 
regarded as sinking into desuetude from the early part of 
1851, if considered as a practical working organisation; 
how enduring and far-reaching the results of their crusade 
(which by no means ceased when their periodic meetings 
became obsolete), will be seen from the following pages. 






CHAPTER VII 
THE ROMANTIC INFLUENCE 

FREDERICK SANDYS 
SIMEON SOLOMON 
GEORGE WILSON 

HAVING considered the aims and the work of the men 
who were officially, if the term may be permitted, of 
the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, the following pages must 
be devoted to an account, however brief, of the achievement 
of the painters who have been directly or indirectly 
influenced by the principles or the practice of the 
members of the Brotherhood. It has already been 
pointed out that the term Pre-Raphaelite has been very 
loosely used by those who talk the jargon of art without a 
knowledge of the true meaning of the words they 
employ ; and that the expression has been applied 
indiscriminately to two classes of work. As has been 
noted, it has been employed to describe the pictures 
painted with unsparing effort after truth in every way 
honest endeavours after sincerity which are really and 
truly Pre-Raphaelite, as the inventors of the word under- 
stood it ; and it has been used (and this is where 
confusion has arisen) to characterise every picture which 
showed in conception or in feeling that the painter had 
been influenced by the later work of Dante Rossetti, or 
of his pupil, Edward Burne-Jones ; and the word has so 
far passed into the language with this double meaning 
that it would be vain to attempt to prevent its use in the 



FREDERICK SANDYS 




MEDEA 



THE ROMANTIC INFLUENCE 57 

twofold way. The only thing to be done is to accept it 
frankly, and to include in a book like this not only the 
work of Windus and Burton, entirely and absolutely 
Pre-Raphaelite, but also the productions of Simeon 
Solomon, for example, which never were Pre-Raphaelite 
in the true sense of the word (work less realistic never 
came from the easel of a painter), but which is Pre- 
Raphaelite in the sense of showing, in a very marked 
legree, an inspiration akin to that of Rossetti. 
The three distinguished artists who are here grouped 
>gether have been considered in one chapter because 
le observer may mark in their work the present- 
lent of the romantic spirit as affecting different 
linds. Each has painted ideal and imaginative pictures 
-that is the common ground on which they may be 
;ated of; the differences are great and noteworthy. To 
Lossetti the world of romance, the land of dreams and 
visions, was spiritual or sensuous or tragic by turns or 
[together : his magnificent and many-sided imagination 
>uld give us the pure loveliness of a Beata Beatrix, or 
the splendid " body's beauty," of La Bella Mano, or the 
haunting pity of the Donna della Finestra^ or the tragedy 
of Found. His was the master-mind ; but as regards the 
work of the three painters whose names head this 
chapter we may see one dominant idea in each case, 
Frederick Sandys strikes a note that Rossetti never did 
the Wagnerian note of the tragedy of heroes, almost 
superhuman, elemental ; Simeon Solomon shows us, 
maybe in allegory, the brooding aspect of passion a 
slumbrous yet ecstatic fervour that is not of the Western 
world, less of the mind than Sandys, less of the spirit 
than George Wilson ; while the work of this last artist 
displays a charm that is purely spiritual, a charm as 
dissociated from any earthly basis and any attraction 
of bodily beauty as is the source of so much of his 



icii an one 
be one of 
o his life- 



58 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

inspiration the poetry of Shelley. Of course, each of 
these artists, being an artist, expresses his ideal in terms 
of physical beauty, if the expression may be used, but 
with neither is mere physical loveliness the end and 
aim of his endeavours. 

There is at present a tendency among many of the 
gentlemen who pass as art critics to announce every now 
and again, with a blare of trumpets and a banging of 
cymbals, the discovery of a hitherto unknown artist. 
He may be either a very young man who endeavours 
to compel by novelty or audacity the reputation that 
years of solid achievement may not bring (such an one 
confounding fame and notoriety), or he may 
the seniors in the arts who has elected to do 
work quietly and unostentatiously, without any glare of 
self-advertisement or any chorus of puff from a clique ; 
in either case, it is his misfortune to be " discovered" 
occasionally, and no artist has suffered more from such 
" discovery " than Frederick Sandys. To those art lovers 
who are not allured by meretricious trickery or awed by 
pictorial fecundity, the occasional work of this great 
painter has always given pleasure. His pictures have 
been eagerly anticipated, greeted with admiration, and 
lovingly remembered ; but, at the same time, it is perfectly 
true that he has never been a popular artist, and that 
" the man in the street " knows him not. 

It has been stated more than once that Sandys was a 
pupil of George Richmond and Samuel Lawrence (upon 
whose style of chalk drawing he is supposed to have 
based his own), while it is also said that he attended the 
Royal Academy Schools ; but these assertions are incorrect, 
and, unlike some of the other Pre-Raphaelite artists, he 
owes nothing to the Academy for his artistic training and 
development. Born in 1832, at Norwich, his earliest 
teaching was derived from his father, himself a painter; 



FREDERICK SANDYS 




VIVIEN 



FREDERICK SANDYS 59 

and the studies executed in his days of pupilage which 
still exist show that, while working along independent 
lines, he tended to the same goal as Madox Brown and 
Holman Hunt. This tendency to searching care in 
draughtsmanship and absolute sincerity of presentment 
was, no doubt, confirmed by his acquaintance with 
Rossetti, the master-spirit of the group. It was in 1857 
that Sandys first called on Rossetti, taking the opportunity 
to obtain a mental likeness of him, afterwards used in 
that curious caricature The Nightmare. The story of 
this is so well known that it need not be told again ; 
suffice it to say that the acquaintance developed into 
friendship, and in 1860 the two artists were residing 
under the same roof. At first Sandys devoted himself 
mainly to drawing for woodcuts for Once a Week and 
other periodical publications, drawings in many cases 
so excellently translated by the engraver that the woodcuts 
are treasures to be hoarded ; but very shortly the artist 
commenced that lovely series of ideal pictures by which 
his fame is assured. One at least of these paintings, 
The Valkyrie, is a translation from the black-and-white 
of a woodcut (flarald Harfagr) into colour, and the 
beauty of this canvas and the richness of the colour in 
the flowers and the robe of the stately figure standing in 
the sunset glow and questioning the sacred raven make 
one wish that such drawings as Rosamund, Queen of the 
Lombards, and the splendid conception that illustrates 
Christina Rossetti's poem Amor Mundi had also been 
repeated as pictures. Others, such as Danae in the 
Brazen Chamber, Manoli, and especially The Old Chartist, 
would have made canvases that would have been delightful 
to look upon, strong and restrained, full of charm and 
decorative beauty. The qualities of grandeur of con- 
ception and strength of execution which are apparent 
in these woodcuts are evident throughout the artist's 



60 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

work in the nobler medium pictures, such as Vivien, 
Morgan le Fay, and Medea, and others which might be 
named, of subjects taken from the fields of old romance. 

It may be that it is to Rossetti's influence, or, at any 
rate, to his example, that we owe these and similar 
pictures of chivalric and classic ideal. Rossetti's influence 
may perhaps also be traced in some cases in the type of 
female beauty chosen by the artist, and in the sumptuous 
colour of the completed work ; but this inspiration did 
not go further, for it is to Sandys himself, technically a 
much more accomplished artist than his friend, that we 
owe the note of lofty tragedy that is the dominant theme 
in his art. This individual note is very remarkable. 
The artist choses as a subject Cassandra cowing with her 
scathing words of scorn the shrinking Helen, or the 
terrible agony of Medea, rather than the neo-Hellenic 
futilities that now pass muster as classic art ; and when 
he turns to subjects from the Arthurian cycle or the 
Scandinavian Sagas, we find him, if possible, still more at 
home. His spirit is essentially attuned to that of Gothic 
romance, while Rossetti's art gives evidence everywhere of 
his Italian blood. The sensuous medievalism, or the 
spiritual purity of Rossetti's triumphs, are alien to our 
northern climes ; we know their beauty, we feel their 
charm, but they are exotic : the sombre and tragic 
intensity of Sandys' work, and the stern, passionate 
beauty of his conceptions show an inspiration of sterner 
mould, and can only be compared to the grandeur and 
the brooding horror of the Sagas of the North. The 
calm, scornful loveliness of Vivien (reproduced in these 
pages), the splendour of the beauty depicted, and the 
masterly colour and technique of the painting, combine 
to make it a very noteworthy picture ; but it was 
succeeded by two other canvases, Morgan le Fay and 
Medea, in which the tragic note is more evident. Morgan 



FREDERICK SANDYS 




FREDERICK SANDYS 61 

le Fay was the sister of King Arthur, who, envying the 
love he inspired, and hating the guileless honesty of his 
soul, planned, with the aid of sorcery, many attempts on 
his life and happiness. The picture shows her, worn with 
the strength of her own evil passions, standing near the 
loom on which she has woven a mantle designed for 
Arthur a Nessus' shirt which will destroy the wearer 
and gazing at it by the light of a lamp, her face lit with 
the anticipation of her hateful triumph. Beauty distorted 
with passion, a soul whelmed in malice such is the 
picture. Medea has been thus described : " A half-length 
of the wife of Jason, her cheeks pale and thin, and her 
eyes wild with anguish ; the white drapery and the white 
countenance alike lit up with weird illumination by the 
flames that issue from a brazier set on a marble slab in 
front, upon which lie instruments of enchantment 
mysterious runes, pagan images, bright-eyed toads, and 
a shell filled with clotted human blood. With one hand 
she pours poison into the brazier from a strangely-shaped 
vessel of glass, the ringers of the other clutch wildly at 
the necklace of red coral and blue beads that is coiled 
round her neck ; and behind, on the dark background, 
are wrought symbolic figures of the Golden Fleece and 
the ship Argo, and all the tragic things of Medea's life." 
Sandys has in later years abandoned to some extent his 
work in oils, and has practised in crayons, producing in 
this medium many rich and beautiful designs ; but in 
all his work, in monochrome or in colours, this element 
of passion and of tragedy is conspicuous : he choses 
deliberately sternness rather than tenderness, power rather 
than softness. The scornful petulance of Proud Maisie 
as she listens to the prophecy of the bird ; the poignant 
longing of Penelope ; the intense horror of Cassandra, 
voicing the awful devastation of the future of Troy, and 
anguished beyond expression at the heedless aspect of 



62 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

those who hear such conceptions he depicts with vigour 
and strength ; while, from beginning to end of his 
achievement (and the end is not yet, we hope), he shows 
himself, as Rossetti said, " the greatest of living draughts- 
men " ; and his versatile technical accomplishments, 
united with such imaginative fire and spontaneity, 
proclaiming him one of the greatest of the Pre-Raphaelite 
painters, not embarrassed, as was Rossetti, by imperfect 
training in his craft, and more gifted with original insight 
and with inspiration than was Millais. 

It must not be forgotten that Frederick Sandys is also 
a portrait painter a painter of absolute and searching 
likenesses, such as place the sitter before the spectator 
with entire actuality. His oil paintings of Mrs Anderson 
Rose and Mrs Lewis are marvellous in their life-like 
fidelity, and may be said to be unapproached in this 
country since the days of Holbein ; while such chalk 
drawings as the portraits of Mrs Jean Palmer, Lord 
Battersea, Matthew Arnold, John Richard Green, Dean 
Church, and Lord Tennyson (the three latter being items 
in a series of likenesses of literary men commissioned by 
Messrs Macmillan) reveal in their vigour and dignity the 
hand of the master. Colour, detail, character all are 
here ; and in these, as in the imaginative works spoken 
of before, we see the apotheosis of Gothic art Gothic, 
that is, as contrasted both with the true and unconven- 
tional landscape school, which is a comparatively modern 
product, and with the neo-classicisms, obvious or masked, 
that do duty as the greater part of art in England to-day. 
Whether he re-embodies for us some old legend, or 
whether he shows, as in his portraits, the presentments of 
men as they are, he is an unflinching realist ; a master of 
beauty, he deals not in abstractions, but in actualities ; 
and if Ford Madox Brown was the modern representative 
of Holbein, assuredly Frederick Sandys is the successor 



SIMEON SOLOMON 63 

of Diirer the successor and not the copyist : for it is 
similarity due to sympathy, and not to imitation ; to the 
same grim, yet delicate fancy ; the same catholic apprecia- 
tion and assimilation of the good that has gone before ; 
the same originality, directness, and intensity, both of 
thought and expression. This applies both to the superb 
poetical work and to the portraits that he has painted. 
In the former we find dramatic conception allied to 
masterful technique, the romantic ideal expressed in 
terms of the severest draughtsmanship ; in the latter we 
see the very men and women who sat to him, not, as is 
the fashion to-day, a beautiful mask of the sitter, nor, 
as Mr Watts sometimes gives us, a translation of the 
subject's mind rather than an actual likeness, but a true, 
strong, and expressive portrait, excellent in modelling 
and in drawing the actual presentment of a human 
being. 

Simeon Solomon, who was born in 1841, came of an 
artistic stock, his brother Abraham being a painter of 
sufficient distinction to obtain the Associateship of the 
Royal Academy ; while his sister Rebeka also painted 
figure subjects, and attracted notice by several exhibited 
works, one of the best representing Peg Woffmgton's 
visit to Triplet and his starving family, as related by 
Charles Reade. Abraham Solomon's pictures show little 
or none of the spirit that animates his younger brother's 
work, the best known being Waiting for the Verdict a 
very popular subject, representing with truth and pathos 
the family of a prisoner on trial. Simeon Solomon, like 
Frederick Sandys, was not a student at the Academy 
schools ; and though he received some instruction, as was 
natural, from his brother, and some at Legh's Art School, 
in Newman Street, his genius was mainly self-taught. 
Like Rossetti, he was somewhat impatient of the disci- 
pline of the schools, for his fancies demanded embodiment, 



64 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

and, naturally enough, he preferred creative work to the 
routine imposed upon students. It was early in life that 
he attracted the attention of art lovers, his picture of 
Moses, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1861, exciting 
the favourable notice of Thackeray, who praised it in one 
of his " Roundabout Papers " ; and it was shortly after, 
in the year 1864, that he painted his most important 
work, Habet, which the writer has vainly endeavoured to 
trace. In this picture, inspired by Whyte Melville's 
novel, "The Gladiators," he concerned himself little, 
perhaps, with archaeological niceties, but he gave ex- 
pression to the varying play of emotion and character in 
the faces of a number of Roman ladies who are gazing 
from the gallery into the arena, where a gladiator, having 
succumbed to his opponent, is to lose his life the victim 
of their merciless whim. But this is scarcely an example 
of the artist's typical work, which dealt more with 
abstractions, with symbols, and not with actualities. His 
wayward genius may be said to be akin to that of the 
master mystic Blake, but it was of a softer, gentler kind, 
and with less riotous exuberance of vision. The charming 
little Love in Autumn is an exquisite example of his 
allegory. The shuddering figure and woful face of the 
god tell their own pathetic tale, as, buffeted by the chilly 
winds that mark the coming of winter and death, his 
radiant plumes bedraggled and useless, he wanders along 
the rocky path strewn with the fallen leaves that portend 
decay. The colour, rich but subdued, accords well with 
the sentiment of the picture, which, so far as it goes, is 
eminently satisfying : we must not ask virile presentments 
of intense emotion from the genius of a painter who is 
a dreamer of dreams, whose art is essentially mystic and 
exotic. Amor Sacramentum and Dawn are similar 
allegorical compositions ; and the sensuous fervour of 
expression that marks such pictures as the beautiful 



SIMEON SOLOMON 




AMOR SACRAMENTUM 



SIMEON SOLOMON 




LOVE IN AUTUMN 



SIMEON SOLOMON GEORGE WILSON 65 

Priest of an Eastern Church and Greek High Priest is 
thoroughly typical of the artist's poetic work. 

Allusion should be made here to his chalk drawings, 
some slight, but many carried so far as to rank with the 
finished pictures in the more lasting mediums, as was 
done by Rossetti, whose work evidently appealed strongly 
to Simeon Solomon's mind ; and the beautiful series of 
pencil drawings, from the book of Ruth and the Song of 
Songs, must not pass unnoticed. The artist was evidently 
strongly attracted by the intensity of feeling displayed in 
the latter poem ; his mind was attuned both to its music 
and its mystic significance, and the drawings by which he 
has illustrated it are full of the most exquisite beauty and 
the most subtle charm. Original in the extreme, they are 
thoroughly in accord with the great " Song," and Solomon 
shows in these, as in the pictures before spoken of, that, if 
not a great painter, he is certainly an artist of very distinct 
poetic charm, and of much individuality. 

It may be that exception could be taken to the inclusion 
of George Wilson in an account of the Pre-Raphaelite 
painters, and it is true that he was neither a member nor 
an associate of the group ; but it must be admitted that 
the same spirit was there he was as little content as they 
to adopt the routine and the conventions of picture making. 
Love of Nature and reverence for her was evident in every- 
thing that he did ; and the same reaction against a mere 
display of skilful technique, the same impatience of the 
attempt to formulate rules by which the production of 
masterpieces could be ensured, and the same honest 
endeavour to be individual, to paint good pictures, and 
paint them in the best possible way, mark him as being in 
sympathy with the aims of the earlier English Pre- 
Raphaelites. He sought his own path, he aimed at his 
own goal ; and, undeterred by his chronic ill-health, and 
unmoved by the damnation of faint -praise bestowed upon 
E 



GEORGE WILSON 67 

i of long grass and weeds and flowers." Such landscapes 
are fit settings for the beautiful visions of old. Dryads 
land Oreads would seem to haunt such mellow valleys; 
and the highest manifestations of Wilson's genius are 
those works in which he employs a delightful poetic 
landscape as a background for some ideal figure. Two 
very typical and lovely examples are the magnificent 
vision of Asia, from Shelley's " Prometheus Unbound," 
and the equally fine Alastor, inspired by the same poet's 
work. The last picture has been thus described : " The 
Alastor^ exhibited many years ago at the Academy, 
represents the Poet of Shelley's poem as he comes to 
the lonely spot in the woods where he is to die at 
moonrise. He puts aside the branches of the thicket, 
through which he has to force his way, with his right 
hand, peering through them with wistful, melancholy 
eyes, while with his left he presses his scanty drapery to 
his breast, as though his heart itself were a wound. The 
last faint afterglow of sunset is seen through the trees 
above his head, and a single white moth, disturbed by his 
coming, flutters away by his left shoulder. A few 
withered leaves, whose brown tints are of great value in 
the scheme of colour, mark the time as late autumn. 
The likeness of the poet's face to the well-known portrait 
of Shelley will be evident to everyone. In this exquisite 
picture Wilson has embodied the very spirit of Shelley's 
poem the spirit of solitude. It is genius making its 
way alone through the wilderness of the world. This is 
one of the most perfectly finished of his pictures. The 
figure is a masterpiece of expression ; and the lovely 
branch drawing is at once true to Nature and subtly 
composed ; as a piece of rich and delicate colour, it is 
beyond praise ; and the whole has a haunting intensity, 
yet is full of that decorative quality which runs like music 
through all this painter's work." 



68 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

One can but wish that the large picture to illustrate 
Keats' " La Belle Dame sans Merci " had been carried 
to completion. The mystic atmosphere of the poem, the 
dim land of fantasy, lit by the light that never was on sea 
or land : what artist could have rendered these for us 
with half the sympathetic power of Wilson ? But, 
diffident of his own work, and impatient of some little 
lack of success in attaining his ideal, he destroyed the 
canvas. It was this constant seeking after further 
perfection, a dissatisfaction with what had already been 
achieved, that caused some of the blemishes in his 
pictures faults of drawing, for instance, and a certain 
lack of freedom, produced by working and re-working in 
an attempt to get the exact pose of the figure, the precise 
gesture which would best express the ideal he had before 
him. That he was really a fine and reverent draughtsman 
of the figure is evident from the preliminary studies for 
his pictures ; and it is a great pity that his strenuous 
endeavours after a more perfect accomplishment should 
have resulted (as it must be admitted that they some- 
times did) in some slight lack of spontaneity. 

In conclusion, it may be again noted that throughout 
the work of George Wilson the atmosphere is essentially 
ethereal. The rare air is that of a poet's world, the sun- 
bathed Arcadia of nymph and faun, the mystic land of 
faerie ; but the air is the open air, and not the perfumed 
incense-laden breeze, that haunts the mind when one 
thinks of Rossetti's superb conceptions, or Solomon's 
mystically sensuous visions. He dreamed of beauty, and 
he painted poems because he lived in them ; and though 
he may not have been a painter of the highest rank, 
though strength may not be the keynote of his art, the 
world would have been the poorer lacking his exquisite 
work. 






CHAPTER VIII 

PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PERMANENT 
INFLUENCE, I. : 

ARTHUR HUGHES 
NOEL PATON 

IT seems to be the fate of many a painter, if he has 
not the faculty of self-advertisement, to be ignored 
*ven by those who might be supposed to know and to 
:are about the only genuine art the art which is 
ndividual and spontaneous. How few people, in spite 
}f the recent revival of interest in the Pre-Raphaelite 
irtists, know the work of Arthur Hughes ; and yet he is 
i>ne of the most sincere and delightful of the painters 
vho work in England to-day. Too retiring in his 
disposition, he has been content to work quietly, while 
irtists with not one-half his charm and ability have risen 
o popular success ; and though one may sympathise 
vith an artist whose mood of mind and work is so little 
self-assertive, one sympathises also with his hard fortune 
n lacking the meed of attention and praise that surely 
should be his. Born in 1830, he was quite a lad in 1848 
it the foundation of the Brotherhood, and was never an 
ictual member ; but being then and later intimately 
tssociated with Millais, the Rossettis, Collins, Morris, and 
>thers of the group, he became imbued with the same 
pirit, and he has ever since been one of the most 
consistent of their disciples. His beautiful Ophelia, 
'phowing the forlorn maiden sitting distraught beside the 



70 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

fateful brook, is original and pathetic ; and the Silver and 
Gold, reproduced in these pages, is a very typical 
example of his tender and gracious art, in which the 
natural tints of the scene fall in with certain little 
strangenesses of colour which the artist sometimes permits 
himself. The Eve of St. Agnes was another important 
work, a triptych illustrating Keat's beautiful poem ; and 
of April Love Ruskin said : " Exquisite in every way : 
lovely in colour, most subtle in the quivering expression 
of the lips, and the sweetness of the tender face, shaken 
like a leaf by winds upon its dew, and hesitating back 
into peace." 

Throughout all his art appeal is made to a delicate 
and refined sense of beauty (and this may be to some 
extent the cause of his lack of reputation) ; and in Good 
Night (a companion picture to Silver and Gold) and 
Home from Sea, this appeal is evident. The first shows 
a sweet maiden looking at us over her shoulder with a 
pair of very lovely blue eyes, and scattering flowers from 
the hood of her cloak as she goes bedward. The other, 
Home from Sea, which was shown at the Royal Academy 
in 1863, is full of simple pathos. It represents a sailor lad 
who has come home from sea to find some loved relation 
dead ; and he is in the quiet village churchyard with his 
sister, a gentle girl in black. Her sorrow has been 
tempered by time, for long grass waves upon the 
grave ; but his comes fresh, and in its terrible poign- 
ancy he has flung himself into an attitude of bitter 
anguish, and as the girl kneels tranquil and resigned, 
he is lying on his face, abandoned to his grief. 
This work was followed by The Lost Child, Springtide, 
and The Guarded Bower-, and many other pictures of 
religious or romantic inspiration from that date to the 
present have been shown at the Academy, the Grosvenor, 
and other galleries. But the vagaries of artistic reputation 






AKTHUR HUG I IKS 




ARTHUR HUGHES 




APRIL LOVE 



ARTHUR HUGHES NOEL PATON 71 

are strange in England, and Arthur Hughes, true artist 
and true Pre-Raphaelite, has suffered more than most 
men from lack of appreciation. Always sweet, always 
wholesome, his work shows delicacy of feature, purity of 
colour, truth of texture, poetic fancy. He rarely seems to 
aim at dramatic force. It has been said that there are 
mannerisms of composition and colour in his work, and 
strength and power are alien to his art ; but the more 
his pictures are seen, the stronger is the affection they 
inspire. There is a sweetness and gentle grace in the 
subjects, and a pleasing artistry in the accomplishment, 
that speak for themselves. Why his name is so seldom 
mentioned, and why his works lack the esteem that is 
their undoubted due, who shall say ? 

Graceful and delicate fancy is also the characteristic of 
the art of Sir Noel Paton, who, intimately associated 
at one time with Millais, was much impressed with the 
work that the Pre-Raphaelites were doing ; so that, 
agreeing with them as to the greater portion of the 
theories they endeavoured to act up to, he consis- 
tently emulated their achievements. Throughout a long 
life (he was born at Dunfermline in 1821) the influence 
of the movement has been obvious in his work ; and 
whether in the religious pictures of later years, or the 
delightful fairy canvases of his earlier period, loving care 
and study are evident on every hand. It was in 1842-43 
that Noel Paton came to London and worked at the 
Academy Schools, but this was for quite a short time; 
and indeed, both before and after that date, the artist's 
systematic training was very slight, and ideas came 
too thick and fast, perhaps, and clamoured for ex- 
pression before the artist's technical accomplishments 
were adequate. Endowed with the Celtic vividness of 
imagination, it was no wonder that he was attracted in 
his choice of subjects by the wild legends of the North, 



72 ENGLJSH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

and by the charms of the realms of faerie. Gifted on 
the other hand with an intensely thoughtful and religious 
spirit, he has produced many very striking pictures 
displaying notable allegorical conceptions, and deeply 
devotional inspirations. As well as these, the artist has 
painted a few pictures, such as the Home of 1856 and 
the In Memoriam of two years later, which come within 
another category, and may be said to be purely Pre- 
Raphaelite, both in idea and execution. Home is a 
beautifully-painted and deeply touching picture, which 
shows the meeting of a guardsman with his wife and 
mother on his return from the Crimea, the terrible tale 
of the privations and sufferings of the campaign being 
told in the soldier's face. In Memoriam is a scene from 
the Indian Mutiny the interior of a dungeon where 
captive white women and children are confined, expecting 
the nameless horrors of a cruel death, when they are 
released by the Highlanders who burst into the prison. 
Dawn: Luther at Erfurt dates from 1861, and is a 
thoroughly . sound piece of painting, colour and modelling 
being equally noteworthy. Highly wrought, brilliant 
and vivacious, it is a very remarkable work : " On the 
right of the picture is a massive golden crucifix, the 
emblem of time on the one side of it and of mortality 
on the other, above is the open window admitting the 
fresh incoming day, the dawning light of which quenches 
the lamp that hangs near it, and falls upon the hooded 
monk in his study of the Holy Book, symbolising the 
dawn of that light which he was to herald in by the 
Reformation." It may be interesting to add to this 
description that the face of Luther is based on an 
authentic contemporary portrait of the great reformer. 

Sir Noel Paton's pictures of fantasy or diablerie, which 
it has been said have been painted by the artist as a 
relaxation from the strain of the execution of his religious 






SIR NOEL PATON, R.S.A. 



7 






THE BLUIDIE TRYSTE 



SIR NOEL PATON, R.S.A. 




DAWN LUTHER AT ERFURT 



NOEL PATON 73 

works, are replete with charm ; full of insight into the 
graceful and delicate imagining of a great poet, as in the 
pictures from the " Midsummer Night's Dream," or 
imbued with a sympathetic appreciation of the quaint 
folk-lore of a primitive people, as in The Fairy Raid. 
This last picture, which is a very elaborate piece of 
painting, is one of the best he ever executed, and it is 
marked by an opulence of imagination and a completeness 
of realisation that show the mind of the poet as well as 
the hand of the artist. He has painted a moonlit 
landscape on Midsummer Eve, and the long cavalcade of 
the fairy queen bearing away a changeling, a sweet 
human child. Elf, fairy, gnome, and sprite are all there, 
peering between the massive trunks of the trees, gliding 
among and hovering over the flowers and fungi that form 
the undergrowth, and in the cold moonlight the distant 
forms of grey Druidic stones stand stark. With these 
works of poetic inspiration should be mentioned those 
others which owe their origin to some legend of the days 
of old, such as The Dowie Dens of Yarrow, Barthram's 
Dirge, The Bluidie Tryste, and Lancelot and Guinevere ; 
and whether the subject is drawn from old tradition or the 
realms of pure fancy, it is evident that the artist's mind is 
thoroughly attuned to his theme. 

Of his pictures of religious or allegorical significance, 
there is perhaps not so much to say ; and, though more 
popular and more widely known than the other works 
which have been alluded to, these homilies in pigment are 
not the highest manifestations of the artist's talents. 
Vigilate et Orate, which was painted for Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, is one of the best and most typical of these works, 
and shows the scene at the coming of dawn in the garden 
of Gethsemane, when Christ, returning after his hour of 
trial, finds the three disciples asleep, despite his injunction 
to watch and pray. Other works of the same class are 



74 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Satan watching the Sleep of Christ, The Man of Sorrows, 
and Vade Satana ; and though the sentiment of the 
whole series is above reproach, still one is not moved as 
one should be by great religious art ; they are the work 
of a man of profoundly reverent mind, but they cannot 
be said to be sublime masterpieces ; they are not inspired, 
the artist does not give us an adequate conception of the 
face of Christ ; in short, the whole task is one to tax 
genius to its utmost, and Sir Noel Paton can scarcely 
be said to have risen to the occasion. The less ambitious 
efforts such as Mors Janua Vita, and The Man with the 
Muck-rake, are much more successful ; they are frankly 
allegories, and they appeal to the spectator both from the 
literary aspect and from- many painter-like qualities of 
technique. 

Many honours have fallen to Sir Noel Paton. The 
knighthood he received in 1866 might have been followed 
in 1891, had he wished it, by the Presidency of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, of which body he became an associate 
in 1 847 ; but private reasons prevented his becoming a 
candidate. Prolific throughout a long life, he has 
produced, in addition to his painting, book illustrations, 
works of sculpture, and volumes of poems ; a fine 
draughtsman, and gifted with imaginative and poetic 
force of a very high order, as a colorist he is not so 
great, a defect possibly due to his lack of early training ; 
and his true power shows itself in his pictures from the 
realms of fancy, wholly delightful presentations of 
myth and legend (and, perhaps in a less degree, in his 
vividly-presented pictorial allegories), rather than in his 
more ambitious and less successfully realised religious 
conceptions. 



W. L. WINDUS 




BURD HELEN 



CHAPTER IX 

PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PERMANENT 
INFLUENCE, II.: 

CHARLES ALLSTON COLLINS 

WILLIAM MORRIS 

W. S. BURTON 

W. LINDSAY WINDUS 

MATTHEW JAMES LAWLESS 

ROBERT MARTINEAU 

W. J. WEBBE 

THERE are many artists of the Pre-Raphaelite school 
who are almost unknown outside the small circle of 
students of this phase of English art, and to many even 
of those who believe that it was to the Brotherhood and 
their followers that we owe the inspiring influence that 
has permeated and vivified the dry bones of our national 
art, and who know well the work of Millais and Madox 
Brown, of Sandys and Burne-Jones, the art of such men 
as Windus and Burton is but little known. All the 
pictures painted by the men whose names head this 
chapter could be contained in a very small gallery. Some 
curious fatality would seem to have attended them, 
and it has been their fate to exhibit but scantily the 
power that they possessed. An early death in the case 
of Lawless, Collins, and Martineau, prevented the full 
fruitage of their ability. The victims of adverse circum- 
stances and private griefs, Burton and Windus have had 
but little heart these many years to paint. And the 



76 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

genius of William Morris showed itself not in pictorial 
art, but in the many and diverse forms of decorative 
beauty that will be ever associated with his name. 
Unlike the artists who will be alluded to in the succeed- 
ing chapter, and with whom Pre-Raphaelism was but a 
passing phase of longer or shorter duration, in the minds 
of these men it was a strong and permanent conviction 
that prompted their endeavour after sincerity, and their 
abhorrence of pictorial artifice and convention ; and 
throughout all their work the same principles were 
consistently acted upon. It matters not whether, as 
with Charles Collins, the rich colour and masterly 
technique of Millais were the fountain of inspiration, or 
whether, as with Robert Martineau, the unflinching and 
patient realism of Holman Hunt appealed to the follower's 
mind ; the seed, from whatever source it came, fell upon 
fruitful ground. It is true that the inception of the 
practical protest against what they considered bad art was 
not due to them, they did not lead in the van of the 
revolt ; still, despite the fact that the sum-total of their 
accomplishment is small, they painted pictures with many 
remarkable qualities, and it is time that the extent of 
their achievement should be recognised. 

Charles Allston Collins was the son of William Collins, 
R.A., and the brother of Wilkie Collins, and was much 
attracted, as has been said, by the work of Millais, in 
whose style he painted. The picture of The Pedlar, here 
reproduced, gives an adequate idea of his art, and though 
he was not a great painter, the tendency to stiffness which 
mars such work of his as Convent Thoughts and A Girl 
with Flowers may fairly be considered a mark of 
immaturity which in time he might have overcome, had 
he not practically abandoned painting and turned his 
attention to literature some time before his early death. 
Which his real metier was, and whether, with his inherited 



CHARLES A. COLLINS 




CONVENT THOUGHTS 



COLLINS MORRIS BURTON 77 

artistic talent, he might not have ultimately produced 
much finer work, it would be futile now to inquire. 

William Morris used but rarely to express his feeling 
for the beautiful in pictorial guise, and it may be that we 
owe him more as the originator of a true decorative art 
(using the word in its widest sense) of a very original and 
satisfying kind, than we should if he had turned his 
attention to the production of pictures instead of 
magnificent tapestries and superb stained glass. At the 
same time, the very charming Queen Guenevere makes 
one wish that he had spared a little more time from his 
labours as a craftsman to devote it to more purely creative 
work. This picture shows a minstrel playing on a lute, 
while the Queen stands before her toilet table putting 
on her girdle ; she wears a white dress with pink 
embroidery and red sleeves, and a wreath of flowers 
adorns her head. The whole work evinces much power 
and facility, together with a feeling for rich and strong 
colour, while there is an individual poetic quality to be 
seen in it, akin to, but distinct from, the note that marks 
the earlier pictures of Rossetti. 

An almost forgotten artist of singular power and 
originality is W. S. Burton, whose great picture The 
Wounded Cavalier has seemed to many one of the finest 
works ever painted in England under the Pre-Raphaelite 
influence. That he has painted so little is a matter for 
very keen regret, and all lovers of sincere and original 
work will rejoice to know that though for many years he 
produced next to nothing, he has resumed the practice 
of his art, and is now again exhibiting pictures which 
are thoroughly characteristic of the man and his creed. 
Contemptuous of all pictorial artifice, and scorning all 
artistic trickery, he bade fair in his early days to rise to 
very great heights ; but adverse fortune and ill-health 
have been his lot, while private sorrows and lack of 



78 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

recognition have saddened him. He was a student 
at the Royal Academy Schools, where he won the gold 
medal for historical painting ; and when he was only 
twenty-six years of age The Wounded Cavalier (which 
was first shown at the Academy in 1856) excited con- 
siderable attention, not only from the character of the 
picture, but because it was catalogued without title or 
artist's name, a mystery which has only just been 
elucidated by the painter himself. This remarkable 
work, which hung on the line, next to Holman Hunt's 
Scapegoat, may be taken as crystallising the artist's 
practice and principles at that time, principles that he 
has consistently adhered to. The subject is a Cavalier 
whose despatches have been stolen from him as he jour- 
neyed through a wood, while he, sorely wounded, has 
been left to die, until later a Puritan and his lady pass 
by, and the latter stops to tend the wounded man, while 
her jealous lover looks sourly on. The desperate plight 
of the Cavalier is shown in his death-like countenance, 
while the pitiful face of the Puritan maiden, which is full 
of charm, strong, yet tender and replete with compassion, 
may be compared with the face of the lady in The 
Proscribed Royalist the anxious glance of eyes that 
have wept, depicted by Millais in such masterly fashion. 
Altogether this is a superb picture, full of dramatic vigour 
and fine in colour, and both strong and refined in drawing, 
while the technique is marvellous, and the master's hand 
is seen in the way in which all hardness is avoided, 
although the lichen on the tree trunks, the spider's web, 
the broken sword, the bracken, and the other details gene- 
rally, are painted with most minute fidelity and precision. 
Later works by W. S. Burton were A London Magdalen, 
The Angel of Death, and William TelPs Son ; while still 
more recently the artist has exhibited Faithful unto Death, 
and The King of Sorrows. The former work shows the 



W. S. BURTON 




THE WORLD'S GRATITUDE 



W. S. BURTON 79 

ictim of an auto-da-ft clothed in the horrid robes that 
rnark the recalcitrant heretic, about to be crowned by a 
nonk with the mitre head-dress worn in the procession 
Dy those about to suffer martyrdom, and is a very note- 
worthy picture, as strong in drawing as in sentiment. 
Even more beautiful is the small work, The World's 
Gratitude^ a picture of the finest quality, which shows 
:he sad questioning face of Christ behind prison bars: 
his may fairly be said to be one of the very few entirely 
successful faces of the Saviour in recent art the aspect 
)f superhuman knowledge is there, as well as the human 
md tender sorrow for the world that knows him, but 
<eeps him barred away while it goes about its business. 
Some works of Burton's have perished, others have never 
n carried to completion, so severe is his self-criticism; 
md though it is possible that we may be able to welcome 
n the future other pictures of religious inspiration from 
:his artist, it is lamentable to think of the many unpainted 
masterpieces we might have had from his brush during the 
Drime of his manhood, had not fate willed otherwise. The 
ew pictures we have are evidence of ability of a very high 
Drder indeed, as delicate in handling as they are strong 
n drawing, as original in their conception as they are 
sincere in execution; and we can ill spare the accom- 
Dlished work of such an artist, honest both as a man and 

painter, and entirely contemptuous and intolerant of all 
hams and trickeries. 

An almost exactly parallel career is that of William 
^indsay Windus, a Liverpool artist, who at one time 
ittracted considerable notice by his sound and refined 
vork. He painted subjects of sentiment, Biird Helen 
and Too Late, for example, in a thoroughly Pre-Raphaelite 
nanner ; and also pseudo-historical subjects somewhat after 
:he style of Cattermole, of which The Surgeon's Daughter 
:S an example. But suddenly, owing, it is said, to a great 



8o ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

sorrow, he left off painting, and nothing was seen of his 
work till, in 1896, the New English Art Club startled 
the picture loving public, who had thought Windus dead, 
by showing three unfinished works of his on their walls. 
What the veteran Pre-Raphaelite was doing in that gallery 
was a question not easy to answer, but the little pictures, 
incomplete as they were, were gems of their kind. Living 
retired from the world, he has not sought public notice, 
and, as in the case of W. S. Burton, to look for a typical 
example of his work one must go back to the earlier years 
of his artistic career. Too Late was painted in 1858, and 
represents a poor girl in the last stage of consumption 
whose lover had gone away, to return at last, led by a 
little child, when it was "too late." Madox Brown said 
of this work: "The expression of the dying face is quite 
sufficient no other explanation is needed." The subject 
of Burd Helen, painted two years earlier, was taken from 
the old Scottish ballad of the girl who ran by the side of 
her faithless lover's horse while he rode, and swam the 
Clyde, rather than he should escape. Ruskin's remarks 
on this picture are entirely true. He says: "The work is 
thoughtful and intense in the highest degree. The 
pressure of the girl's hand on her side, her wild, firm, 
desolate look at the stream she not raising her eyes as 
she makes her appeal, for fear of the greater mercilessness 
in the human look than in the glaze of the gliding water 
the just choice of the type of the rider's cruel face, and 
of the scene itself, so terrible in haggardness of rattling 
stones and ragged heath, are all marks of the actions of 
the very grandest imaginative power, shortened only of^ 
hold upon our feelings because dealing with a subject too. 
fearful to be for a moment believed true." Windus's 
works are few ; The Young Duke, The Outlaw, and the 
very beautiful little drawing entitled The Flight of 
Henry VI. after Towton have been seen at lo< 



8o ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 






sorrow, he left off painting, and nothing was seen of his 
work till, in 1896, the New English Art Club startled 
the picture loving public, who had thought Windus dead, 
by showing three unfinished works of his on their walls. 
What the veteran Pre-Raphaelite was doing in that gallery 
was a question not easy to answer, but the little pictures, 
incomplete as they were, were gems of their kind. Living 
retired from the world, he has not sought public notice, 
and, as in the case of W. S. Burton, to look for a typical 
example of his work one must go back to the earlier years 
of his artistic career. Too Late was painted in 1858, and 
represents a poor girl in the last stage of consumption 
whose lover had gone away, to return at last, led by a 
little child, when it was "too late." Madox Brown said 
of this work: "The expression of the dying face is quite 
sufficient no other explanation is needed." The subject 
of Burd Helen , painted two years earlier, was taken from 
the old Scottish ballad of the girl who ran by the side of 
her faithless lover's horse while he rode, and swam the 
Clyde, rather than he should escape. Ruskin's remarks 
on this picture are entirely true. He says: "The work is 
thoughtful and intense in the highest degree. The 
pressure of the girl's hand on her side, her wild, firm, 
desolate look at the stream she not raising her eyes as 
she makes her appeal, for fear of the greater mercilessness 
in the human look than in the glaze of the gliding water 
the just choice of the type of the rider's cruel face, and 
of the scene itself, so terrible in haggardness of rattling 
stones and ragged heath, are all marks of the actions of 
the very grandest imaginative power, shortened only of 
hold upon our feelings because dealing with a subject too 
fearful to be for a moment believed true." Windus's 
works are few ; The Young Duke, The Outlaw, and the 
very beautiful little drawing entitled The Flight of 
Henry VI. after Towton have been seen at loan 



WINDUS LAWLESS WEBBE 81 

exhibitions in recent years ; but is it too much to hope 
that he may yet give us more pictures as strong and 
masculine, as full of enthusiasm and refinement as those 
that have been alluded to ? 

Matthew James Lawless, who was born at Dublin in 
1837, died too young to have ever shown to the full his 
artistic powers. He went during his pupilage to various 
art schools in London, finally studying under Henry 
O'Neil, R.A., and though hampered by deafness and 
constant ill-health, he produced during his short life book 
illustrations (for The Cornhill Magazine, Once a Week 
and kindred publications) of a very high order ; and 
after trying various styles, he seemed to be settling 
down into an individual method, when consumption 
claimed him as its victim, and he died in 1864. The 
j picture in which he really showed his power was The 
Sick Call, exhibited at the Royal Academy the year 
before he died. It represents a scene in the waning light 
of evening a priest who is crossing a river in a boat, 
taking the host to render the last offices to a dying 
person, and accompanied by his white-robed acolytes, 
and the weeping woman who has fetched him ; while the 
towers and spires of the town on the river bank rise clear 
into the still air. This is a picture full of quiet feeling 
and gentle charm, simple and refined in the highest 
degree, and, had he lived, there is no doubt that Lawless 
would have produced still more noteworthy work. As it 
is, his reputation is deservedly high. 

A brief allusion to two artists who were much influenced 
in their work by that of Holman Hunt must close this 
section. One of these was W. J. Webbe, whose very 
pleasing little picture of Lambs at Play might almost 
be taken for the work of the artist of The Strayed Sheep 
himself. The other was a painter whose early death was 
a distinct loss to art Robert Martineau. Martineau's 
F 



82 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

work at one time attracted considerable attention ; to-day 
he is almost forgotten ; but his painting approaches his 
master's very closely in quality and technique. He 
painted very slowly and conscientiously, and only 
produced three or four pictures of importance before he 
died. The Lesson, a picture illustrating a scene in 
Dickens' " Old Curiosity Shop," Katharina and Petruchio, 
and The Last Day in the Old Home, are good examples 
of his patient and laborious skill ; and the last, which is 
rather a large work, recently acquired by the National 
Gallery of British art, is reproduced in these pages. 



CHAPTER X 



PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PHASE: 



HENRY WALLIS 
JOHN BRETT 
HENRY MOORE 
G. D. LESLIE 
G. A. STOREY 
VAL PRINSEP 
J. D. WATSON 



P. H. CALDERON 
W. FETTES DOUGLAS 
HUGH CAMERON 
WILLIAM M'TAGGART 
JAMES TISSOT 
J. F. LEWIS 



T TNDOUBTEDLY, Pre-Raphaelism in the fifties and 
J sixties was a living and moving force of no mean 
order, and many an artist succumbed for a longer or 
a shorter time to its influence. To some of them to-day, 
t is a matter for a sort of half-tolerant joke, an episode 
n a career to be somewhat ashamed of; others recognise 
rankly, that if from one cause or another it was an 
mpracticable gospel, still, its power was distinctly for 
good. It tended to overthrow the mawkish mediocrity 
Ithat was almost entirely usurping the field of art ; while 
it substituted an ideal that at least had the merit of 
honesty and spontaneity, a desire to be original and not 
the product of a workshop for the manufacture of painters, 
and a gospel that said, " not failure but low aim is crime." 
Such a crusade against crusted prejudices needs en- 
thusiasm to embark upon it, and strong convictions to 
carry it on, and enthusiasts are not always judicious. 
They are just as prone to excess in the field of art as 
[elsewhere ; still, progress does not come of half-hearted- 



84 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

ness, and one can forgive many crudities of expression 
for the sake of the honesty of the aim, aud many errors 
may be overlooked in the preacher when the doctrine 
smacks of truth. If there had been no necessity for the 
reaction, it would not have existed, not to say, succeeded \ t 
and though the first efforts of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood and their entourage provoked scorn and laughter 
from the public and the critics, many artists saw that 
there was something in the movement. They learnt 
one lesson, to go to Nature, and copy her details as 
stepping-stones to her greater truths ; they learnt, too, 
the value of imagination as a factor in art, and the 
young artists who banded themselves together in that 
Brotherhood initiated a movement which was in a great 
measure the salvation of English art. 

To-day there are too many " movements," and such an 
agitation as the Pre-Raphaelites started would attract 
little, if any, attention. In the stagnant state of the arts 
at the period spoken of, it was as the troubling of the 
waters, and there was healing in the troubling. At that 
time, the elderly Gandishes who believed in "history 
painting" and the " grand style," and who also believed 
that the acquisition of this " grand style " was a matter 
of teaching, of rule and method, were, of course, aghast 
at the militant enthusiasm for quite other ideals and 
doctrines displayed by the small band of brothers ; but, 
of the younger men, many were quick to discern that 
many forgotten truths lay behind the immature ex- 
pressions of their creed achieved by these as yet 
imperfectly trained artists. Later, when the seed sown 
in the minds of the original Pre-Raphaelites blossomed 
into the full flower of such work as The Proscribed 
Royalist, and The Last of England, and the other 
masterpieces of the next decade, many painters who 
either fell under the personal influence of the Pre- 



PRE-RAPHAELISM AS A PHASE 85 

Raphaelites and their associates, or whose minds 
responded to the ideals that they set before them, 
bestirred themselves, and also honestly endeavoured to 
put the best that was in them into the work that they 
did. They saw that a paucity of flimsy ideas and a few 
rules of thumb were not the equipment with which to 
produce great art, and they recognised that technical 
skill must be allied to dignity, or, at any rate, honesty of 
conception, if a picture is to be anything more than a piece 
of mere craftsmanship, of uninspired manipulative ability. 
As has been said, with gome artists the Pre-Raphaelite 
phase was but a momentary mood, the result of an 
impression that was far from permanent ; with others, 
the mental result has been more lasting, though their 
later work has ceased to partake of the definite character 
which is associated with the term Pre-Raphaelite. In 
some cases, too, the painter's individual aims and ideals 
have been quite other than those animating the original 
members of the Brotherhood ; and in many instances 
artists have outgrown the manipulative practice that is 
exemplified in the work of Holman Hunt and Strudwick, 
and the laborious care bestowed upon the pictures of 
early years falls into place as part of the student's 
curriculum, and is abandoned after having served its 
purpose in the attainment of a mastery of technical 
methods. It would be folly to impugn an artist's right 
to paint in the way that pleases him best, his duty to 
himself is to express his own creed in his own way ; but 
the fact that the Pre-Raphaelite phase can be seen in the 
careers of so many painters is interesting, because it is 
an additional proof of the strength and extent of the 
influence exerted on contemporary art by the school 
an influence so far-reaching, indeed, that its traces can 
be noted in the work of many painters who never were in 
any way ostensible followers of the Brotherhood, but who 



86 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

yet recognised the essential truth of the creed its members 
advocated. 

In this section, necessarily a brief one, it would be 
impossible to attempt any account of the careers of the 
various artists who have been spoken of above in general 
terms ; all that can be given is a note on some of the 
pictures from their easels painted under Pre-Raphaelite 
influence. Much of the work of Henry Wallis betrays 
this influence, and the beautiful Chatterton, as well as 
The Return from Marston Moor and Marten at Chepstow 
Castle, are examples of very sincere and delightful art. 
Of the first of these Ruskin said that it was " Faultless 
and wonderful ; a most noble example of the great school. 
Examine it well, inch by inch ; it is one of the pictures 
which intend and accomplish the entire placing before 
your eyes of an actual fact and that a solemn one." The 
enthusiasm of the same critic was also roused by The 
Stonebreaker^ by John Brett, now A.R.A., and his words 
may fitly be quoted in this connection. He said, " I 
know no such thistledown, no such chalk hills and elm 
trees, no such natural pieces of far-away cloud. . . . The 
composition is palpably crude, and wrong in many ways, 
especially in the awkward little white cloud at the top, 
and the tone of the whole is a little too much as if some 
of the chalk of the flints had been mixed with the colours. 
For all that it is a marvellous picture, and may be 
examined inch by inch with delight." This painter's 
pictures still show more than a trace of his early 
enthusiasm, and the beautiful seascapes that he has 
accustomed us to expect year after year are full of 
most searching and careful work, full, too, of the love 
and reverence for Nature that was one of the guiding 
stars of the schools. It is curious to note that both our 
great sea-painters of this generation passed through a 
Pre-Raphaelite period, for the small example of Henry 



G. A. STOREY, A.R.A. 




WALLIS BRETT LESLIE 87 

Moore's work reproduced in these pages is thoroughly 
in accord with the principles of the Brotherhood. But 
John Brett did what few ventured to do, he carried the 
tenets of the Pre-Raphaelites into the painting of 
landscapes a task of enormous difficulty and those 
who have seen his Val cFAosta know how successfully, 
this marvellous landscape being a veritable tour-de-force, 
indeed a thing almost unique. It is curious to note, 
when one comes to consider, how few painters have 
succumbed to the influence of the school in depicting 
pure landscape ; and yet Holman Hunt, in his Hireling 
Shepherd, showed once for all that their principles were 
as applicable to landscape art as to romantic figure 
pictures. One thinks of J. W. Inchbold, of Thomas 
Seddon, of William Davis, of Waller Paton, R.S.A., and 
the list is closed of those who have painted landscapes 
face to face with Nature, and painted them with the 
elaborate fidelity demanded by the Pre-Raphaelite 
tenets. Perhaps the remark of the critic who stigma- 
tised the latter as "the Coryphaeus of the Chinese 
school " has deterred our younger artists from attempting 
the same thing. 

The early work of three other present members of the 
Royal Academy must also be alluded to in this chapter 
G. D. Leslie, Val Prinsep, and G. A. Storey. They 
were noble dreams that inspired such a picture as Leslie's 
Dante's Leah, and no artist was ever the worse for the 
intellectual effort that prompted him to begin, and enabled 
him to execute, work of such quality. Poetically con- 
ceived, and beautifully wrought, such a picture lingers in 
the memory ; and a similar intensity of feeling marks 
such pictures by G. A. Storey as The Annunciation, A 
Song of the Past, and The Burial of the Bride. The 
rich colour and close technique of these beautiful works 
betray the artist's admiration of the earlier pictures of 



88 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Millais, and though this phase of inspiration has passed, 
the painter's canvases show to-day that the influence was, 
in his case, by no means an ephemeral one. Side by 
side with these we may class Val Prinsep's Bianco. Capello, 
and Whispering Tongues can Poison Truth, and the other 
pictures painted under the direct personal inspiration of 
Rossetti ; and these pictures are by no means the worst 
that the versatile artist has produced clear, sharp 
painting and graceful composition are their charac- 
teristics, as well as a very real and poetic imagination. 
The same qualities are apparent in the work of another 
artist of this group, and such pictures as J. D. Watson's 
Bubbles, and The Garden Seat, painted in 1856 and' 
1858 respectively, as well as the same artist's woodcut 
designs of about this date, are full of delicate feeling and 
fancy, and really call for more than the passing allusion 
permitted here by the exigencies of space. There are in 
connection with this group of artists, two other painters 
who must be mentioned as having been attracted by the 
work of the Pre-Raphaelites H. W. B. Davis, R.A., whose 
earlier landscapes are strongly influenced by the tenets of 
the Brethren and their associates, and the late Philip 
Calderon, R.A. Once, at least, the latter artist, moved by 
the prevalent excitement, painted in the style they advocated 
and practised ; Broken Vows, the work in question, was 
highly successful when it was exhibited in 1857, 
and although with this painter the phase was but a 
passing one of short duration, this picture, and the success 
attending it, afford another piece of evidence as to the 
working of the leaven in the minds both of artists and 
public. 

The late J. M. Gray, the scholarly keeper of the Scottish 
National Portrait Gallery, once made a suggestive remark 
as to the unnoticed extent to which Pre-Raphaelite in- 
fluence had affected the work of Scottish painters. Apart 



SIR W. FETTES DOUGLAS, P.R.S.A. 




THE RECUSANT'S CONCEALMENT 



VAL C. PRTNSEP. R.A. 




Whispej'ing tongues can poison trut/i, 
And to be wrath with one we've lovc 
Doth work like Poison on the brain " 



SCOTTISH PAINTERS 89 

from the pictures of Sir Noel Paton, already treated of, 
Pre-Raphaelism is strongly evident in the work of Sir 
William Fettes Douglas, P.R.S.A. As in the case of 
J. F. Lewis, it is not in the works of his youthful days 
that this phase of his artistic development may be traced, 
but rather in the period of his early maturity. Later, his 
works became analogous (like those of many other Scottish 
painters) to the genre pictures of the Dutch school, but 
for a long time, as Mr Gray observed, his pictures 
manifested " by their delicate and exquisitely refined 
finish, by their force of pure, lovely colouring, by their 
frequent quaintness of form and costume, and by the 
sometimes odd and segmental style of their composition, 
a distinct affinity with the work of the English Pre- 
Raphaelites. His treatment of rustic child-life in Little 
Dot, The Match-Seller, and the large Cottage Interior, 
Borrowdale, is analogous to that which we find in the 
class of works centrally represented by The Blind Girl of 
John Millais ; and the more romantic and mediaeval phase 
of Pre-Raphaelism finds a kindred expression in paintings 
like The Ruby Ring, The Tapestry Worker, The Spell, 
and many others." 

Again, in such Scottish pictures as Going to the Hay, 
by Hugh Cameron, R.S.A., one finds a work "as perfectly 
Pre-Raphaelite in the best sense of the word, as could be 
desired full of the most delicate, finished, and sensitive 
expression of detail not a single corner in the tender 
sprays of the briar-hedge is slurred over, not a spot is 
missed on the expanded wings of the butterfly, yet the 
whole is in right relation." Only a passing allusion can 
be made to the Arthurian subjects of James Archer, which 
re-echo the imaginative inspiration of his English con- 
freres, and to the Pre-Raphaelite influence as expressed 
in the earlier work of Joseph Henderson ; arid the 
extraordinary divergence between the early and highly 



90 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

wrought work of William M'Taggart, R.S.A., and his 
later superlatively loose and suggestive handling, can 
only be briefly spoken of here. No one who saw The 
Thorn in the Foot by the side of The Storm, or When 
the Boats come in, could believe that the same artist had 
painted them ; but the extreme freedom and breadth of 
handling of M'Taggart's later work is, if not the result, 
at any rate the consequence, of a scrupulous exactitude 
and fidelity to the details of Nature in his earlier days. 
No doubt this painter's broad, free, and masterly style is 
the truer expression of his individuality ; but it is curious 
to note how wide the difference is between his pictures 
admittedly painted under Pre-Raphaelite influence and 
those of to-day. 

The influence of the school has extended by now 
beyond our own country, and is obviously apparent in 
the pictures of many Dutch, Belgian, and French artists ; 
and although a consideration of the work of this Con- 
tinental following cannot be undertaken here, allusion 
may be made to the work of a Frenchman, who practised 
so long in this country as to be legitimately included 
among English artists. The versatile and popuh 
painter, James Tissot, at one time distinctly fell under 
the spell of the Brotherhood and their followers, and such 
pictures as The Triumph of Will, and The Convalescem 
are as Pre-Raphaelite, both in conception and execution, 
as may be ; the flowers to which The Convalescent stretches 
out a weak hand might almost have bloomed in the garden 
of Mariana or the meadows of the Hireling Shepherd. 

In the case of nearly all the artists alluded to thus 
briefly in this chapter, the tendency to Pre-Raphaelism 
was a youthful one, and, though its results are still more 
or less evident in their work, it has been ostensibly 
abandoned by all in later years. But the reverse was 
the case with another painter of note, John Frederick 



HUGH CAMERON, R.S.A. 




JOSEPH HENDERSON, R.S.W. 




THE BALLAD 



W. M'TAGGART, R.S.A. 




THE THORN IN THE FOOT 



J. F. LEWIS 91 

Lewis, R.A., who, though not of them, must still be 
placed beside the Pre-Raphaelite painters. Born in 
1805, in his earlier years he was known as "Spanish 
Lewis," from the source of his artistic inspiration ; but, at 
the age of forty-five, after many unproductive years spent 
in the East, he spontaneously developed a new style 
almost absolutely coincident as to date with the first 
manifestations of the Pre-Raphaelite spirit in the work of 
Millais and Holman Hunt, and almost identical as to 
manner. Extreme elaboration and complexity of drawing, 
splendid colour and breadth of effect, mark the superb 
work of this latest period ; while, saturated through many 
years' residence in the East with the spirit of Orientalism, 
there is a richness and sumptuousness of effect shown 
throughout these pictures that place them in a class by 
themselves. His diploma picture, The Door of a Cafe in 
Cairo, is a good example of his art ; even finer is the 
Lilium Auratum, which shows a richly attired Odalisque 
and her attendant in the garden of a hareem, the lady 
holding a costly vase with red and white roses in it, while 
the young girl, evidently amused at something, also 
carries flowers from the wilderness of lilies, poppies, 
pansies, and fuchsias, through which they have come to 
the rose-covered doorway of the garden. Other pictures 
by this painter, The Doubtful Coin, The Turkish School, 
A Street Scene in Cairo, The Arab Scribe, The Hareem, 
show the same richness and elaboration, the same daring 
juxtaposition of colour and skill in rendering textures, but 
in a brief epitome like this space forbids a full considera- 
tion of his art. It is true that his wonderful pictures, full 
of jewel-like colour and superb handling, call for more 
careful notice, but this brief account must suffice, although 
another allusion may perhaps be permitted in conclusion 
to the remarkable fact that, at the age of forty-five Lewis 
developed a new method, which he consistently practised 



92 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

to the end, entirely akin to that evolved by the ardent 
youths who initiated the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 

In closing this section it may be well, in consequence 
of the double meaning that is now unavoidably associated 
with the word Pre-Raphaelite, to point out a fact which 
is evident from the reproductions of the pictures described 
in the last two chapters namely, that the paintings of 
the artists just treated of do not show as a whole, or in 
any marked degree, the dominance of the later work of 
Rossetti (as the pictures of Simeon Solomon and Burne- 
Jones admittedly do), but display very clearly the 
Pre-Raphaelite ideal as expressed by Millais and Holm; 
Hunt. This, as has already been said, is the narrowei 
and truer meaning of the term, and the works of the! 
artists have been grouped together because they displa] 
the influence of the creed as originally enunciatec 
and followed by the members of the Brotherhood 
succeeding chapters will exhibit the other use of th< 
word in dealing with the school initiated by Dante 
Rossetti and continued by Burne-Jones a tradition ol 
style rather than an artistic creed. This is a tradition 
that exists in connection with certain types of beauty, 
that implies poetry of conception and sumptuousness of 
presentment as shown in purely ideal works ; the other 
was a doctrine which insisted upon absolute veracity and 
sincerity in the depiction of actualities, as an essential of 
living art. 



J. F. LEWIS, R.A, 




LILIUM AURATUM 



CHAPTER XI 
RE-RAPHAELITES AS DECORATORS: 

FREDERIC SHIELDS 
WALTER CRANE 
WILLIAM BELL SCOTT 

ELIGIOUS subjects scarcely seem to have appealed 
to the majority of the Pre-Raphaelites in the same 
y that romantic and poetic conceptions did ; but to one 
them at least it has been as great a source of inspiration 
to Sir Noel Paton. Frederic Shields, like Arthur 
ughes, has been content to do his life's work in the 
quietest and most unassuming manner, so that few people 
j know what the extent of that work is ; a result due, 
perhaps, to the fact that in pictorial art, in the strictest 
| sense of the word, he has done comparatively little, 
though as a decorator he takes very high rank. His 
illustrations to Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress " showed 
marked power and originality, and that earnestness which 
has been the characteristic of his art as of his life from 
boyhood onwards. His first effort from the life, he says, 
was a portrait of his mother, done in "true Byzantine 
style," but it was long before he found his true vocation 
as a religious decorative designer ; and while the very 
beautiful work that he has accomplished in the private 
chapels of Sir W. H. Houldsworth at Kilmarnock (illus- 
trating The Triumph of Faith) and the Duke of West- 
minster at Eaton Hall (from the Te Deum Laudamus), in 
glass and mosaic, is but little known, the fine series of wall 



94 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

decorations that adorn the chapel in the Bayswater Road 
are accessible to all, and by these the artist can be judged. 
The one that is illustrated in this volume is Jonah, in 
which the prophet, to quote the artist's own words, 
"appears as rising out of the jaws of the sea monster, 
which, turned upon its back, its life-blood gurgling from 
its nostrils, dies in the disgorgement of its prey, even as 
its great antitype, Christ Jesus, by submitting to be 
swallowed up, of death, destroyed 'him that had the 
power of death, that is, the devil.' The sea-weeds that 
make a chaplet about his brow allude to his own prayer: 
'The depths closed me round about, the weeds were 
wrapped about my head.' " The religious turn of 
this painter's mind is evinced by other works Christ 
and Peter, The Good Shepherd, Love and Time, and 
Solomon Eagle, among others ; the last subject taken 
from " Old St Paul's," being a sermon on the text " Arise, 
or be for ever fallen," and shows the half-demented en- 
thusiast who, with his burning brazier, went through 
London during the great plague, denouncing the evil- 
doing of the people and exhorting them to repentance. 
Of Frederic Shields it has been well said that " he is an 
artist in every nerve ; but he is much more." His own 
creed is that art demands sanctification, and that purity of 
heart and mind are essential to the production of noble 
results, and, added to this reverence of soul and sincerity 
of purpose, he possesses artistic powers of no mean order ; 
the consequence is that, though all his life he has practised 
his art within certain narrow limits, within those self-set 
bounds his work, firm in drawing, exalted and vigorous in 
conception, is characteristic of the man. 

Another decorator who must be included among the 
Pre-Raphaelites, although the influences to be discerned 
in his work are many, is Walter Crane. Born in Liverpool 
in 1835, his father was a miniature painter of ability, as 






u 

rf 

I 




FREDERIC SHIELDS 




JONAH 



WALTER CRANE 95 

'ell as a practitioner in oils, and the son at a very tender 
ge, evinced a strong artistic tendency. So early as the 
ge of twelve, when Millais's Sir Isumbras at the Ford was 
anging at the Royal Academy in the year 1857, the boy's 
mpathies were attracted by the colour, the poetry, and 
e style of this great work ; and this accordance of feeling 
tween Walter Crane and the Pre-Raphaelite painters 
as existed from that day to this, for it is only quite 
ently that he showed a work, Summer, depicting a 
arming maiden reclining among the ox-eye daisies in a 
ay-field, which is as thoroughly Pre-Raphaelite a piece 
f painting as can be desired. But although so early as 
862 he showed a picture at the Academy (an event only 
nee repeated in Mr Crane's career, when in 1872 a 
icture of his was hung), for some years yet he was 
student rather than a practising artist. Heatherley's in 
ewman Street, and the studio of W. S. Linton, the wood 
graver (to whom he was apprenticed), were his chief 
hools ; and from this basis, influenced now by Japanese 
rt, now by Renaissance, now by the English Pre- 
aphaelites, and now by the Greek marbles, he evolved 
at definite and individual style of his which is known 
and wide. The decorative work he has done is 
normous, and the mediums he has practised in are too 
any to enumerate ; but through all the products of his 
tense activity runs the characteristic method, original, 
otent, artistic. But of his designs for pottery and 
brics, for books and metal works, it is impossible to 
peak here ; and but briefly can allusion be made to the 
ictures that have come from his easel with unfailing 
gularity. The Sirens, which was shown at the Grosvenor 
allery in 1879, is a very typical piece of his work, in 
hich the principal place in a very delicate colour scheme 
f pale orange and blue is, of course, given to the suave 
jind graceful forms of the three malign sisters who, dancing 



96 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

on the sea-shore, seek to lure the shipmates of Odysseus 
from their high-prowed bark to a cruel doom. Later, in 
1882, The Roll of Fate, a subject from the Rubaiyat of 
Omar Khayyam, was shown, in which the artist depicts 
a winged messenger, who kneels at the feet of Fate, and 
strives in vain to make that "stern recorder" cease 
his writing on the scroll. The flowing lines of the 
picture, the colour of marble steps, golden throne, pearly 
wings, and distant sea, and the rhythmical feeling per- 
vading the whole composition combine to make a beautiful 
piece of decoration. Earlier than these were Ormuzd and 
Ariman, The Red Cross Knight in Search of Una, Endy- 
mion, A Daughter of the Vine, and others ; while succeeding 
years brought Diana and the Shepherd, The Bridge of Life 
(a simple and telling allegory), Pandora, and Freedom ; 
while of a still later date may be mentioned Neptune's 
Horses, The Rainbow and the Wave, that very noble com- 
position, The Chariots of the Hours, and the delightful 
Renascence of Venus. 

Every credit must be given to the artist for his enor- 
mous fecundity, and the industry which enables him to 
accomplish so much ; but hasty production, and especially 
over-production (a fault that many think that Walter Crane 
must plead guilty to), have manifold disadvantages. Grace 
of composition, skilful disposition of forms, draperies, and 
accessories, and flowing beauty of line, are such constant 
elements in his work that we accept them as a matter of 
course, and are not always duly grateful ; but hurry 
begets carelessness, it results in draughtmanship that is 
not always irreproachable, and colour that is not always 
happy ; and though the artist has an uninterrupted flow 
of ideas, he cannot possibly carry them all to completion, 
however industrious he may be. The consequence is, that, 
although all painters may be said to repeat themselves 
more or less, in Walter Crane's case style is apt to 



WALTER CRANE 




THE ROLL OF FATE 



W. BELL SCOTT 97 

degenerate into mannerism, the literary element is perhaps 
unduly obtruded, and the decorative charm which may 
well be an underlying constituent in all pictures, becomes 
the dominant element. These easel paintings, judged as 
such, are not altogether satisfying, though considered as 
decoration, they have very great beauty and charm. The 
artist himself does not draw " any hard and fast line 
between pictorial work and other work," and his practice 
is consistent with this attitude ; but critics who do not care 
for allegory, who think that pictures should show relief 
and express atmospheric values, naturally say that com- 
positions which lack these essentials, which depend upon 
their literary appeal and their pleasing arrangements of 
line, can only be considered as decorative and not as 
pictorial art. But even if, considered pictorially, the 
artist's work does not appeal to all, it cannot be denied 
that, decoratively, Walter Crane's achievement is very 
fine, spirited, imaginative, well-balanced, and thoroughly 
original. 

One other artist who should be alluded to in this con- 
nection is William Bell Scott, inasmuch as his chief work 
consisted of more than one series of mural decorations ; 
and he displays his powers more adequately in these than 
|in some of the easel pictures he painted. He was born at 
[Edinburgh in 1811, and died at Penkill in 1890, leaving 
L posthumously-published autobiography which aroused a 
[considerable amount of feeling among his contemporaries, 
is brother was the erratic and original genius, David 
cott, and from him and their father, a well-known 
graver, his first artistic instruction was obtained. Later, 
e " Trustee's Academy " and the British Museum were 
he fields in which he worked, and from 1840 onwards 
e find him occasionally exhibiting at various London 
alleries. Of his oil paintings a typical example is The 
Eve vf the Deluge, now in the National Gallery, in which 
G 



98 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

we see a princely personage, sitting on a terrace sur- 
rounded by his attendants, while tiger cubs gambol at his 
feet, and the empty goblet he holds, and the harp in the 
hands of a slave, denote the recent feast. On the balcony 
burns a jar of incense, and in the middle distance the 
family of Noah are entering the ark, while from the 
horizon rises a cloud, dark, and foreboding destruction. 

But his most notable productions were the two series 
of mural paintings he executed, the one at Penkill Castle, 
illustrating The King's Quhair, and the other at Walling- 
ton, an old manor-house in Northumberland. Here, on 
the walls of a cortile, he painted a set of eight large com- 
positions illustrative of scenes from Northumbrian history, 
two of the most striking being those which depict King 
Egfrid offering the Bishopric of Hexham to St Cuthbert 
and The Death of Bede. This last shows the death of the 
venerable monk as he finished the dictation of his trans- 
lation of the Gospel of St John. Sorrow-stricken brethrei 
support his frame ; pigeons, types of dissolution, are flyinj 
through the open windows, and the gusty wind has jusl 
blown out the candle. It is a striking composition, th( 
work of a man who was poet as well as painter, and wh< 
in his art was probably influenced (if his self-centred mint 
was influenced at all) by the painting of Ford Mado: 
Brown, rather than by that of Dante Rossetti, who was his 
more intimate friend. With the cartoons and frescoes 
the former artist his mural decorations certainly seem t( 
show an affinity ; and, while not always free from fault 
of drawing, his work is possessed of no mean power 
vigorous presentment, and there are certain novelties 
of conception and a freedom from convention in his 
productions that are distinctly attractive. 



CHAPTER XII 
THE ROSSETTI TRADITION, I: 

EDWARD BURNE-JONES 

THE two artists whose work has given rise to the 
popular use of the word Pre-Raphaelite, as against 
e legitimate use of the term, are undoubtedly Rossetti 
and Burne-Jones. The proper application of the word to 
xpress the aim of a group of artists who went straight to 
e fount of Nature for teaching and inspiration, rather 
han imbibing them from the polluted source of the con- 
ention of the schools, became perverted to express (and 
till does convey to the popular mind) the style of the two 
at poetic painters who respectively inaugurated and 
arried on a new and individual kind of art. This is 
ccounted for by the fact that in the case of these two 
rtists (maybe the most original spirits of all who were 
nnected with the movement) the principles of Pre- 
phaelism were applied to a class of picture but little 
nown previous to their time, pictures of pure romance, 
;of wonderland. The public knew that the painters of 
(these pictures, now mystical and wan, now opulently 
beautiful, but with the same exotic vein of poetry running 
through all, were classed as belonging to the Pre-Raphael- 
jites, and so the adjective became almost synonymous 
With "Romantic," and still continues, for even to-day one 
may hear classed as "Pre-Raphaelite" pictures which 
;bear no affinity to the work of the Brotherhood except 
in the chance choice of subjects from the realms of 
romance and fantasy. 



loo ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

For this reason it may be well to insist once more that 
Sir Edward Burne-Jones was a Pre-Raphaelite, not by 
reason of his choice of subjects from that world which is 
"out of space and out of time," but from the consistent 
adherence he gave to the principles of honesty and 
sincerity enunciated by the Brotherhood ; disdaining alike 
the artifices of the schools and the trickeries of prevalent 
art, he sought to be himself, and to put into each canvas 
that left his easel the best that was in him. The career 
of this great painter was indeed a remarkable example of 
unperverted directness of aim, of consistently strenuous 
endeavour, and of successful achievement along the indi- 
vidual lines laid down by himself. Uninfluenced by 
contemporary art when once he set a goal before him, 
throughout a long artistic career he was true to his 
principles, and the consequence is that his life's work 
forms an accomplished and coherent whole, in which 
can be traced growth, development, and fruition. 

He was born at Birmingham in 1833, and was of Welsh 
descent on his father's side. There are those who see in 
his works of mystery and romance the pictorial expression 
of the poetic soul of the Celtic race, and this may be so. 
He was the first member of his family to display any 
artistic inclination, and this artistic tendency does not 
appear to have been evident during his schooldays, or, 
indeed, -until he met at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1852, 
a young Welshman named William Morris, who had come 
up to the University intending, as did Burne-Jones at 
that date, to enter the Church. The acquaintance which 
ensued grew rapidly, thanks to a deep sympathy in 
literary and artistic matters, and developed into a friend- 
ship of lifelong duration ; and their smouldering aspirations 
needed but a spark to set them ablaze. This spark came 
from a sight of a woodcut of Dante Rossetti's and a water- 
colour drawing by the same artist, Dante drawing the 



. 



SIR E. BURNE-JONES, BART. 




CLARA VON BORK 



EDWARD BURNE-JONES 101 

%ce of Beatrice. The poetic fancy and rich colouring of 
is charming little picture then in the possession of Mr 
pombe of Oxford appealed irresistibly to the admiration 
|f both, and together they resolved to embark on an 
rtistic career. To the answering chord in the heart of 
5urne-Jones that responded to the dream of Rossetti, the 
orld was to owe in later years such pictures as The Briar 
lose series, and The Beguiling of Merlin. It was in the 
ear 1855 that the young undergraduate came up to 
.ondon with the intention of seeking out the painter 
rhose work he deemed so admirable ; and Rossetti, when 
e saw the dainty imagination and the feeling for beauty 
i the drawings submitted to him, urged the untaught lad 
:> drop all idea of taking his degree, and to devote himself 
ntirely to art. This was done, and for some years there 
as constant intercourse between the two young men. 
Lossetti (who, it must be remembered, was only five years 
le senior of the other) was doubtless not the best leader 

> follow in the technical matters of art ; and Burne-Jones, 
ho was already twenty-three, had to set himself resolutely 

> work at the drudgery of the rudiments to make up for 
>st years. But, if the older artist was not at his best as 

teacher of drawing, he was an ideal friend as regards 
ispiration ; no one was more fitted to encourage and 
ssist the development of the mystic and spiritual art 
hich is inalienably associated with the name of Burne- 
ones. 

It is usual to say that the ascendancy of Rossetti is 
rident in the work of his pupil, and this is true in such 
ictures as Sidonia von Bork> and Clara von Bork, 
ater-colour illustrations of Meinhold's romance, which 
light almost be taken for Rossetti's own work. But it 
ould not be correct to conclude, from the similarity of 
noice of subject and poetic aspect which pervades the 
fork of both artists, that the elder painter imposed his 



102 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

personality on that of the younger; rather one must 
think of them as kindred souls who were fortunate enough 
to meet early in life, and to mutually inspire and influence 
each other. Another example of the period when Burne 
Jones based much work on that of his leader is the picture 
of The Backgammon Players, a knight and lady sitting 
with the board between them in a garden of flowers, 
fenced in with a trellis of roses. This little work is 
redolent of the art of Rossetti, but that this influence was 
neither paramount nor permanent is evident from an 
extremely beautiful and individual drawing completed in 
1863 (the year after The Backgammon Players), and 
called The Merciful Knight. This charming and tender 
work illustrates the old Florentine legend of S. Giovanni 
Gualberto, the knight of old who rode out on Good 
Friday to avenge his brother's death, but spared his 
enemy and forgave him when he asked for mercy in the 
name of Christ who had died on the cross on that day. 
Later, as on the hill of San Miniato the merciful knight 
knelt before the wayside crucifix, the carven effigy of the 
Saviour bent to kiss him, and the miracle moved him to 
abandon the profession of arms for a holy life. 

A long series of works in oils, tempera, water-colour, 
and other mediums came from this artist's studio during 
the course of the succeeding years ; and a multitude of 
wonderful and beautiful studies in all mediums, and 
scores of cartoons for stained glass, mosaic, and tapestry, 
attest his unceasing industry. Allusion can only be made 
to the titles of a few pictures which are typical in one way 
or another; those who have seen them will need no 
description to recall such works as Green Summer, The 
Wine of Circe, Le Chant d? Amour, The Annunciation 
(this theme was more than once chosen, the interpretations 
being quite different), Love among the Ruins, The Mill, 
The Wheel of Fortune, the Pygmalion series, Cupid and 



3IR E. BURNE-JONES, BART. 




THE MERCIFUL KNIGHT 



EDWARD BURNE-JONES 103 

*syche, Pan and Psyche, The Days of Creation, The 
beguiling of Merlin, The Feast of Peleus, The Mirror 
>f Venus, Laus Veneris, The Golden Stairs, Dies Domini, 
King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid, Perseus and the 
Iraice, and The Depths of the Sea. The contrast between 
tie rich play of colour, as of a casket of jewels, in such 
>ictures as Le Chant d Amour, and Laus Veneris (works 
f the artist's middle period), and the almost monochrome 
oloration of the large Annunciation, and Perseus and the 
Iraice (which are of later date), is more than enough to 
imaze ; and the artist's versatility in matters of technique 
s displayed in such work as the highly-wrought Feast of 
D eleus and the broadly-conceived Love among the Ruins, 
low, alas ! no longer existing in the first and finer version. 
It would be very difficult to single out as typical any 
ixample of the painter's work ; it is, as a whole, so 
ompact together by the ubiquitous evidence of his 
>ersonal genius, and so varied in theme and method by 
he necessities of each individual conception. Love 
imong the Ruins is one of the most beautiful creations 
hat ever came even from the fecund brain of Burne- 
ones ; it shows lovers who have met among the ruins of 
,n ancient city, grass-grown ruins with the wild briar 
railing thorny stems over fallen column and sculptured 
rieze. The girl, clad in a robe of brilliant hue, clings to 
he neck of her lover ; and her face, despite his protecting 
>resence, bears the impress of the pity and fear excited 
n her mind by the surrounding evidence of " old unhappy 
ar-off things, and battles long ago." The expression of 
he varying emotions in the lovers' faces, and the vague 
ndication of the tragedy that culminated in the desolation 
>f such a palatial city, haunt the memory of the beholder, 
ong after the details of the picture may be forgotten. 
Vtay there not have been, too, in the artist's mind, the 
;econdary interpretation which may be read into the 



io 4 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

work, the everlasting existence of love, its sweetness and 
sadness, though nations fall and the kingdoms of the 
earth pass away ? 

Equally characteristic of Burne-Jones's art is the 
sumptuous Laus Veneris, which depicts a royally beauti- 
ful woman, attired in marvellous flame-coloured robes, 
who reclines pale and weary in the ecstacy of her 
love-sickness in a chamber hung with tapestries wrought 
in green and blue and gold. Her hand-maidens, richly 
dight, stand and sing the praise of Venus, Queen of Love, 
from scrolls of music, to charm their mistress's dark 
mood away ; while outside, five knights rein in their 
horses, regarding with eager eyes the wan queen, and 
listening to the damsels' song. Brilliant in colour as a 
mediaeval illumination, ardent and intense in feeling, this 
picture is as decoratively beautiful as it is poetically 
conceived. 

The technique of the painter has already been alluded 
to. He was a most delicate and careful draughtsman, 
revelling in the subtle curves of the human form, and the 
gentle flow of draperies ; and though the construction of 
his pictures was rather a matter of the sway of lines, of 
the building up of a well-ordered decorative design, than 
of the inevitable and necessary form which the com- 
position was bound to take, there are evidences in all 
parts of his work of an unrivalled wealth of invention 
supported by irreproachable drawing. A better instance 
of Burne-Jones's simpler compositions could not be 
named than The Mill, in which the figures of the dancing 
maidens, their rhythmic poise and sweep, their suave and 
stately movements, are very characteristic; while of the 
more complex schemes that he sometimes planned, a 
good example is Cupid's Hunting Ground. In much of his 
work the involution of the thought is often paralleled by the 
intricacy of the rendering ; and the fertility of his invention 



SIR EDWARD BURNE-TONES, HART. 




KING COPHETUA AND THE BEGGAR MAID 



PQ 



PQ 




EDWARD BURNE-JONES 105 

showed itself not only in the richness of the conception, 
but in the lavishness of detail and symbol with which it was 
illustrated. Where he desired rich colour, the pigments 
are used to produce lovely patches of brilliance, which 
give rather the effect of a mosaic of tints, than a subtly 
ordered harmony pervading the whole scheme ; where he 
worked in subdued shades the infinite variety and play 
that he attained is very remarkable. Dash and bravura 
of execution were, of course, far outside the limits he set 
himself; his pride was that every portion of his work bore 
evidence of loving care and patient labour, and the result 
is that his pictures are gems of beautiful craftsmanship, 
enshrining marvels of delicate inspiration. 

Almost invariably the subjects of Burne-Jones's works 
were drawn from the regions of old romance, sweet 
egend, or poetic fable ; magic and enchantment seem to 
fill the atmosphere of his pictures; love potions and 
spells are natural to this dim fairyland, far removed from 
the workaday world. His great decorative gift enabled 
him to express in beautiful compositions the vivid scenes 
his superb imagination conjured up, and whether the 
subject was drawn from classic legend or the realms of 
mediaeval tradition, the field in which he conceived the inci- 
dents as occurring was one to which he alone had the key. 
All through his long career he was constant to one ideal, 
and that ideal he expressed perfectly. Weird, fanciful, 
imystical, splendid, and dainty as are his dreams, it is not 
to be wondered at that to many his sexless figures and 
iwan faces seem morbid and unpleasing ; but whether the 
jatmosphere of a world of enchantment and wonders is 
jnecessarily poisonous because the fresh breeze of actuality 
idoes not blow across its meadows is open to doubt ; and 
[he would be a bold man who would affirm that the ex- 
Ipression of a mind gifted beyond the normal must be 
; unhealthy. Certainly, if it is the function of art to invent, 



io6 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

to create beautiful unknown things, Burne-Jones was a 
great artist, though what place he occupies in the hierarchy 
of art it would be difficult to say. His genius can be 
fairly compared only with that of one man, his master, 
Dante Rossetti, and in relation to the art of his leader, 
his own might almost be said to be " as is moonlight unto 
sunshine, as is water unto wine." Rossetti's temper was 
essentially vigorous, sensuous, and luxuriant, in the 
highest degree ; Burne-Jones, always a dreamer and a 
mystic, was often ascetic ; a fertile and delicate fancy in 
his case took the place of the opulent imagination of the 
senior artist. But it is not right to push too far a contrast 
between the two artists ; they were not opposites, rather 
should they be considered as complementary one to the 
other. 

The reputation of a great artist is not affected by the 
honours of which he was the recipient ; and the medals, 
the university degrees, the cross of the Legion of Honour, 
the associateship of the Royal Academy (conferred in 
1885, resigned in 1893), and finally the baronetcy that 
was bestowed upon him, do not affect the critical esteem 
of this or future generations ; but it is pleasant to think 
that, though many fine artists go to their graves utterly 
unrecognised, the subject of this chapter reaped his full 
reward in his lifetime. 



SIR E. BURNE-JONES, BART. 




LOVE DISGUISED AS REASON 



SIR E. BURNE-JONES, BART. 




THE BLESSED DAMOZEL 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE ROSSETTI TRADITION, II.: 

SPENCER STANHOPE 
FAIRFAX MURRAY 
J. M. STRUDWICK 
T. M. ROOKE 
MARIE STILLMAN 
EVELYN DE MORGAN 

MORE or less contemporary with the two great 
pioneers, Rossetti and Burne-Jones, a group of 
irtists have worked who derived their inspiration almost 
ntirely from one or other of these painters. Though 
hey may be legitimately spoken of as disciples, it must 
lot be concluded that they are by any means servile 
jfollowers of their leaders ; each of them is too individual 
^.n artist to be a mere echo ; although it is almost always 
the fate of a painter to be classed as an imitator, who 
finds that the method and style best adapted to the em- 
jbodiment of his ideas have been used and developed by a 
(predecessor. 

The work of Spencer Stanhope, the friend and fellow- 
worker of both Rossetti and Burne-Jones, bears, as might 
jbe expected, distinct traces of this association ; but the 
influence of Mr G. F. Watts, R. A., who also gave him 
instruction and guidance, is apparent as well. A prefer- 
ence for religious and allegorical, as well as romantic 
themes, is evident in his pictures, which have largely 
taken the form of panels for church decoration, executed 



io8 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

as accessories to the architectural work of Mr G. 
Bodley, A.R.A. Pre-Raphaelite from association, he is also 
Pre-Raphaelite in his adherence to primitive methods of 
work, for in the pictures which he has painted in tempera 
(in which style he has worked as freely as in oils or water- 
colours), he adopted the early Italian system of using the 
yolk of eggs as a medium, a method demanding extreme 
care and patience. The Shulamite, Charon and Psyche, 
Eve, Patience on a Monument, and The Waters of Lethe 
are among the most noteworthy of his pictures, and the 
latter may be taken as typical. The classic title was 
adopted (although the character of the picture is by no 
means classical), as most suitable for the allegory of 
humanity hurrying to cast off its burden and seek rest in 
the grave. The passage of the water symbolises death, 
the island is the grave, and the gardens in the distance 
depict the future state of happiness which comes as the 
reward of the pains suffered here. The pure and brilliant 
colouring of this refined and elaborate picture makes it 
noteworthy as a piece of decoration ; but it is more than 
that, inasmuch as (in itself a vehicle of thought) it 
demands and rewards the thoughtful consideration of the 
spectator. 

Of the work of Fairfax Murray, which may perhaps be 
said to be more directly inspired by Rossetti than that of 
most of his contemporaries, far too little has been seen 
of late years. Madonna Laura, Pharamond and Azalais^ 
The Wanderers, The Violin Players, A Pastoral, and 
others, have hung in the Grosvenor Galleries in succeed- 
ing years; and the latter, dating from 1882, is a most 
charming piece of decoration, representing a group of 
noble men and women sitting in an Italian garden, 
listening to music discoursed by some of their number. 
This is in every way a beautiful work, the purity and 
depth of the exquisite colour, especially in the blue robes 



u 




I 

I 



il 





o 





I 
ll 



SPENCER STANHOPK 




VENUS RISING FROM THE SEA 



J. M. STRUDWICK 109 

of some of the figures, is masterly ; and the whole picture 
exhibits artistic powers of the very highest rank. The 
painter is by no means an imitator, but an artist of great 
i original power ; and since poetic inspiration and accom- 
jplished presentation, such as mark his work, can ill be 
spared, it is justly a matter of great regret to his sympa- 
thisers that artistic pursuits of another kind should have 
precluded Fairfax Murray from practising his craft to 
the full. 

It is not to be wondered at that a man who has acted 
I as assistant first to Spencer Stanhope and then to Burne- 
Jones should be saturated with the atmosphere that 
imbued those artists, especially when his mind is one 
which revels in quaint and beautiful decorative fancies, 
in sweet and poetic symbolism. The artistic career of 
J. M. Strudwick is a curious one. Born in 1849, his 
student days commenced with a course of South Ken- 
sington, and though the requirements of the department, 
and the mould into which budding artists must perforce 
be pressed, were far from congenial, he stayed his time, 
and then passed into the Academy Schools. Here all 
his endeavours after rewards and distinctions were quite 
unsuccessful, and the only encouragement he received 
was from the late John Pettie, R.A., which resulted in 
an entirely futile endeavour to acquire the bold colour 
and free brushwork that marked the work of the Scotch 
painter. That such an attempt should have been made 
seems ludicrous, when one stops to consider what the 
characteristics of Strudwick's own mature style are. His 
student days may be said to have been a failure; but 
success came when he found his master in the person of 
Edward Burne-Jones. This short pupilage showed him 
the direction in which his power could best be exercised, 
?and from the day when he thus found his mttier he has 
never looked back. 



no ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

His pictures speak for themselves, and it is easy to see 
that with Strudwick, as with Rossetti, the endeavour to 
embody beautifully a beautiful conception stands first and 
foremost. Inspired, now to pay a painter's homage to 
music, now to depict some poetic theme from the regions 
of romance, he has painted such pictures as St Cecilia, 
Golden Strings, and Elaine ; and in every case he has 
adorned his pictures with such wealth of charming detail, 
such glow of colour, and such delicacy of handling, that 
they haunt the memory even as other sweet visions do. 
The Ramparts of God's House may be taken as an example 
of his more elaborate compositions. In this "a man 
stands on the threshold of heaven, with his earthly shackles 
newly broken, lying where they have just dropped, at his 
feet. The subject of the picture is not the incident of the 
man's arrival, but the emotion with which he finds himself 
in that place, and with which he is welcomed by the 
angels. The foremost of the two stepping out from 
the gate to meet him is indeed angelic in her ineffable 
tenderness and loveliness ; the expression of this group, 
heightened by its relation to the man, is so vivid, so 
intense, so beautiful, that one wonders how this sordid 
nineteenth century of ours could have such dreams, and 
realise them in its art. Transcendent expressiveness is 
the moving quality in all Strudwick's works ; and persons 
who are fully sensitive to it will take almost as a matter 
of course the charm of the architecture, the bits of land- 
scape, the elaborately beautiful foliage, the ornamental 
accessories of all sorts, which would distinguish them even 
in a gallery of early Italian paintings." 

It will be evident from the above quotation from Mr 
Bernard Shaw that, Pre-Raphaelite in his desire "to paint 
the best possible pictures in the best possible way," he 
spares no labour of invention or of craftsmanship that may 
make his works as perfect as he desires. He would 




{t The gentle music of a byegone day" 



J. M. STRUDWICK 




ISABELLA 



J. M. STRUDWICK T. M. ROOKE in 

almost seem to possess the soul of a mediaeval illuminator 
working with the hands of a thoroughly accomplished 
artist of to-day. Whether the inspiration is religious or 
chivalric, there is an air of aloofness from mundane 
matters, of cloistered meditation, about all that he accom- 
plishes that is not of this epoch that carries the mind 
Dack to some artist-monk at work in the sequestered 
jcriptorium ; and even when a subject from classic myth, 
uch as Marsyas and Apollo, attracts the artist, the render- 
ng is such as one might expect from an Italian of the 
mattro-cento. Delicate, dainty, and fervent, obviously 
he creations of a poet, the pictures of Strudwick are 
distinguished by an execution as complete and detailed 
as the conception ; and yet, despite all the charming 
elaboration that marks them, there is an air of simplicity 
pervading all his works that is as noteworthy as the 
passion for beauty that he everywhere evinces. Beautiful 
n conception, beautiful in colour, and charmingly de- 
corative, these pictures are evidently the achievement of a 
man with a high and a very definite ideal. That ideal he 
expresses to perfection, and what more may be asked of 
in artist ? 

Another painter who at one time worked as an assistant 
:o Burne-Jones is T. M. Rooke, who is perhaps best 
cnown by the fashion he adopted of painting several 
compositions depicting successive scenes of the same 
>tory, which were designed to be placed in one frame. 
The Story of Ahab, The Story of Ruth, and The 
Nativity were pictures of this class, and each was marked 
a wealth of invention and a feeling for colour that was 
loteworthy. Such pictures as these, and the companion 
impositions of Daphne and Clytie, Morning and 
^Evening, as well as The Triumph of Saul and David, 
'(The Thistledown Gatherer, and the later work, The Man 
'Born to be a King, are typical of the artist's style. They 



ii2 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

are full of convention and of personal idiosyncrasies, that 
can in no wise be deemed faults, and at the same time 
they are replete with thought and invention, and with 
grace of colour and of line. Hardly a great artist, Rooke 
is at any rate a sincere one, and all through his work it is 
apparent that the painter deems that every scrap of space 
in a picture is precious, and to be wrought as exquisitely 
as may be. These little canvases are as vivid as the 
pictures of Holman Hunt, though not so actual, by 
reason of the decorative sense present throughout ; and 
they are the work of a very genuine artist, who is 
obviously possessed of the first artistic requisite, a keen 
sense of the beautiful. 

The names of two ladies, who have also carried on the 
Rossetti-Burne-Jones tradition, must bring this chapter to 
a close, Mrs Stillman (Miss .Marie Spartali) and Mrs de 
Morgan (Miss Evelyn Pickering). The former accom- 
plished lady early fell under the personal influence of 
Rossetti, and it is not a matter for surprise that her worl 
such as the beautiful Persefone Umbra, or Love's Messen- 
ger, betrays his inspiration. In the case of Mrs d< 
Morgan, the more elaborate compositions that she hj 
painted show rather that Burne-Jones and Spencei 
Stanhope have been her models ; and Love's Parting, 
The Gray Sisters, that fine work, By the Waters oj 
Babylon, and The Dawn, are pictures from her easel 
distinguished by rich and brilliant colouring, great decora- 
tive charm, and sincere poetic inspiration, qualities that 
mark this artist as not the least of the disciples who ha\ 
worthily worked on the lines first attempted by Danl 
Rossetti. 



EVELYN DE MORGAN 




FLORA 



CHAPTER XIV 

PRE-RAPHAELISM TO-DAY, 

1 HE ripples of the agitation started by the formation 
of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood are still sweeping 
on, and widening as they go. It may be that the main 
work that the initiators set themselves to do has been 
accomplished, and accordingly the movement is more 
diffuse and less marked than in its early and more 
vehement days ; but the two phases, the genuine Pre- 
Raphaelite inspiration, and what has here been termed 
for convenience the Rossetti tradition, are still potently 
existent. The inception and rise of yet another branch 
of the art movement, of what may be termed the 
decorative school, can also undoubtedly be traced to 
the influence of the members of the Brotherhood and 
their associates. Such work as that of C. M. Gere, J. E. 
Southall, L. Fairfax Muckley, Arthur Gaskin, H. Payne, 
and the other artists of the Birmingham group, is 
evidently the outcome of Pre-Raphaelism ; and equally 
the moving spirit of such decorative artists as Charles 
Ricketts, C. H. Shannon, J. D. Batten, Henry Holiday, 
Heywood Sumner, the brothers Rhead, and the various 
supporters of the Arts and Crafts Association, may be 
traced to the same source. 

More frankly inspired by Rossetti and Burne-Jones are 
such pictures of individual merit and poetic charm as have 
been painted by Gerald Moira, The Kings Daughter, and 
Willow-wood-, Archie M'Gregor, The Spirit of Life, and 
The Mirrors of Time ; Graham Robertson, The Queen of 
H 



H4 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

Samothrace, and My Lady Greensleeves ; Henry Ryland, 
Summer Thoughts, and others ; Cayley Robinson, The 
Beautiful Castle, and The Close of the Day ; Byam Shaw, 
Whither, Love's Baubles, and others. Curiously enough, 
Madox Brown, probably the most individual artist of the 
original group, has founded no school, but his pupil, 
Harold Rathbone, naturally shows his influence ; and it 
has been said that the work of Edwin Abbey, R.A., is to 
some extent reminiscent of the achievement of the dead 
artist. Other painters that must also be classed as Pre- 
Raphaelite are, E. R. Frampton, H. J. Ford, and E. A. 
Fellowes Prynne ; and such work of T. C. Gotch's as The 
Child Enthroned, Alleluia, and other pictures in a similar 
style, almost seem to fall into the same category. 

Noteworthy work is at present being done on the most 
rigid Pre-Raphaelite principles by Miss Eleanor Brickdale, 
who, in such pictures as The Deceitfulness of Riches, 
achieves a notable success in a most ambitious style. This 
painter should do much in the future to exemplify the 
still living force of Pre-Raphaelism as a school. Another 
lady, Miss Katherine Cameron, should also be mentioned 
in this connection ; the purity and brilliance of her colour 
would almost seem to mark her out as artistically the 
descendant of Rossetti, while the delicacy of her fancy 
and the poetic quality of her inspiration are equally 
noteworthy. The influence of the Pre-Raphaelites is also 
surely to be seen in the pictures of J. Young Hunter, whose 
My Lady's Garden is not the least noteworthy of the 
recent purchases under the Chantrey Bequest, and whose 
later work shows no falling off from this achievement ; 
while Wolfram Onslow Ford in the portrait of his father 
and in other pictures seems almost to have gone back 
to the primitives themselves for his inspiration. And even 
while this edition was passing through the press, the 
Royal Academy Exhibition exemplified once more the 



F. C. COWPER 




THE GOOD SAMARITAN 

' ' And he set him on his own 
beast and brought him to an inn 




i 





^ 



W. GRAHAM ROBERTSON 




MY LADY GREENSLEEVES 



PRE-RAPHAELISM TO-DAY 115 

Dersistence of the Pre-Raphaelite tradition and influence 
n the work of Dennis Eden, Sidney H. Meteyard, and 
Campbell L. Smith. The work of these young artists is 
"ull of charm and has much individuality, both of outlook 
md presentment ; of course it is impossible to say 
vhether this present Pre-Raphaelism is but a phase or 
vhether it is the promise of continued good work along 
:hese same lines. However this may be, it is pleasant to 
>ee that, not only did the work of the great men, painted 
ifty years ago, influence their contemporaries, but that it 
ilso has a distinct following of disciples to-day. 

All these names are but a random selection ; every visitor 
:o the exhibitions of to-day will mentally add to this brief 
ist ; perhaps it will be better, instead of lengthening it, to 
ievote the following paragraphs to a note on the work of 
:wo of these artists who may be taken as typical of the 
^resent development of Pre-Raphaelism Cayley Robinson 
md Byam Shaw. 

The artistic career of the latter, although as yet brief, 
s very interesting from the fact that his love of Rossetti's 
ichievements, both poetic and artistic, seems to have 
:arried him up the stream of that painter's style, to the 
earliest Pre-Raphaelite days. That is to say, that such 
vork as Circle-wise sit they. Silent Noon, and Rose Marie, 
llustrations of Rossetti's poems, are also reminiscent of 
:he poet-painter's later pictorial method ; while the later 
Drilliant Love's Baubles, and the still later Boer War, 
rpoo, are much more searchingly and carefully painted- 
ire, in fact, in the strictest sense Pre-Raphaelite. In all 
:hese works, and in the cabinet pictures he has recently 
devoted himself to, the artist shows an intense desire to 
express his theme clearly, with a distinct preference for 
subjects of a high poetic order ; and he displays a 
technical accomplishment and a daring in the use of pure 
:olour (in Whither, and The Queen of Hearts, for 



n6 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 

instance), that are remarkable in the work of so young a 
painter. The reproductions of his work in this volume 
speak for themselves; his Academy picture of 1897 at 
present marks the highwater mark of his accomplishment. 
Love's Baubles represents a band of radiant maidens who 
pursue across a flower be-spangled lawn the winged 
figure of Love, striving to obtain from him the fruit he 
bears in a golden dish. The elastic movement of the 
laughing boy, winged and aureoled by butterflies, is 
admirably rendered ; the painting of the whole is close 
and masterly, though in no way niggled, and reminiscent 
in its purity and brilliance of the work of Millais, when 
that artist painted Mariana, and The Blind Girl; and 
the symbolism is not so complex as to be cryptic. It is 
pleasant to see the artist's disposition to depict joyous 
circumstances, the gladness of youth, and the sweetness 
of smiling faces ; to note his inclination to exalt our Lady 
of Happiness above our Lady of Pain (as has been well 
said) ; and to observe that there is a reaction against the 
sadness, not to say morbidity, that one has been apt to 
associate with much of the elder Pre-Raphaelite art. 
When the promise in a young artist's work is so great, 
one is justified in hoping nay more, in expecting that 
he may be able to attain in the future a very exalted 
position in the annals of English art. 

Far other is the work of Cayley Robinson. Robustness 
of thought and execution, and a riot of colour are not for 
him, rather is he a dreamer of dreams, and a dweller in 
the twilit land of old romance. The atmosphere of 
medievalism so apparent in A Souvenir of a Past Age, 
The Beautiful Castle, and The Close of the Day, would 
seem his native air, so well he imbues with it these 
pictures painted in an alien century. To an unusual 
extent his work is thoughtful and imaginative ; highly 
original in his ideas, he has consistently worked along the 



CAYLEY ROBINSON 




THE BEAUTIFUL CASTLE 




- I 
3 I 

2 I 

: J 



.8 



BYAM SHAW 




THE BOER WAR, 1900 

Last summer green things were greener , 
brambles fewer , the blue sky bluer" 

CHRISTINA 



ROSSETTI. 



PRE-RAPHAELISM TO-DAY 117 

lines he decided were those he meant to follow ; and into 
each of his pictures, full of delicate charm, the spectator 
will read just so much of poetry and romance as his own 
soul is gifted with. A curious formality which undoubtedly 
makes for decorative beauty is apparent in his art, and all 
his pictures bear evidence of ungrudging expenditure of 
thought and patient labour ; features that his work has in 
common with that of Burne-Jones, from whom he has 
undoubtedly learnt much. But no one standing before 
one of Cayley Robinson's pictures would take it for the 
work of the elder artist ; he has not only preserved his 
individuality, he has shown us that there are still un- 
exhausted possibilities in art. Popular his work will 
never be, but those to whom it appeals recognise that it 
is the accomplishment of a painter of great power and 
marked charm, from whom still finer things may con- 
fidently be anticipated. 

Whether any of the painters whose names are 
mentioned in this chapter are destined, in carrying on 
the work of Pre-Raphaelism, to produce work of the 
highest artistic rank, as was done in the last generation 
by the founders of the movement ; or whether the 
splendour of the pictures painted in the past is to remain 
the unapproached high-water mark of the school, it were 
vain to speculate. That there are artists among the 
younger painters whose promise justifies us in hoping 
very great things of them is, one is glad to say, evident ; 
and there is reason to trust that the coming men may do 
as fine work as their forerunners. The principles of 
Pre-Raphaelism remain as essentially true as when first 
promulgated, and work equally good ought to be the 
result of an honest acceptance of them ; but perhaps it is 
too much to hope to find among their exponents such a 
galaxy of genius as the original founders and followers of 
the Brotherhood. 



WOLFRAM O. FORD 




PORTRAIT OF E. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 



ARTHUR J. GASKIN 




THE ANNUNCIATION 



INDEX 



Titles of pictures are printed in italics 



ABBEY, Edwin, R.A., 114 

Afterglow, The, 28 

Alas tor, 67 

Alleluia, 114 

Amaryllis, 29, 30 

Amor Mundi, 59 

Amor Sacramentum, 64 

Angel of Death, 78 

Annunciation, The (Burne-Jones), I O2, 

103 

Annunciation, The (Storey), 87 
April Love, 70 
Arab Scribe, The, 91 
Archer, James, 89 
Arnold, Mattheiv, Portrait of, 62 
Ana, 67 
Astarte, 51 

At Tou Like It, Scene from, 54 
Autumn Leaves, 32, 34, 35 
A'wakened Conscience, The, 28 

Backgammon Players, The, IO2 

Barthram's Dirge, 73 

Batten, J. D., 113 

Battersea, Lord, Portrait of, 62 

Beata Beatrix, 45, 57 

Beautiful Castle, The, 114, 116 

Beguiling of Merlin, The, IOI, 103 

Belcolore, 45 

Beloved, The, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51 

Bianco Capello, 88 



Blind Girl, 34, 89, 116 

-S/w C/wrf, The, 42 

Bluidie Tryst e, The, 73 

Bodley, Mr. G. F., A.R.A., 108 

Boer War, 1900, The, 115 

Brancacci Chapel, Frescoes at, 4 

Brett, John, 86, 87 

Briar Rose Series, The, 101 

Brickdale, Eleanor F., 114 

Bride, The, 45, 48, 5: 

Bridge of Life, The, 96 

Broken Voivs, 88 

Brown, Ford Madox, i et seq, 

Ruskin and, 12 ; 17 et seq., 38 
Brown, Oliver, Madox, 23 
Bubbles, 88 
Burd Helen, 79, 80 
Burial of the Bride, The, 87 
Burne-Jones, Sir E., 8, 92, 99 et seq, 

109-111, 112, 113, 117 
Burton, W. S., 57, 75, 77 et seq. 
By the Waters of Babylon, 1 12 

Calderon, P. H., R.A., 88 
Cameron, Hugh, 89 
Cameron, Katherine, 114 
Carpenter's Shop, The, 33 
Cassandra, 6 1 

Chant cT Amour, Le, 102-103 
Chapel before the Lists, The, 42 
Chariots of the Hours, 96 



120 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 



Charity B"y's Debut, The, 53 

Charon and Psyche, 108 

Chatterton, 86 

Chaucer reading the Legend of Constance, 

Child Enthroned, The, 114 

Christ among the Doctors, 26, 28 

Christ and Peter, 94 

Christ in the House of his Parents, 33 

Christ -washing Peter's Feet, 17, 19 

Church, Dean, Portrait of, 6^ 

Circle-ivise Sit they, 115 

Clara i on Bork, I o I 

Close of the Day, 114, H 6 

Clytie, III 

Collins, Charles Allston, 75, 76 

Collinson, James, 6, 10, 52, 53 

Colvin, Sydney, 43 

Convalescent, The, 90 

Convent Thoughts, 76 

Converted British Family sheltering a 

^Missionary, 28 
Cordelia and Lear, 1 9 
Cordelia's Portion, 19 
" Cornhill Magazine," 81 
Corsair, The, 21 
Cottage Interior, BorroivJale, 89 
Crane, Walter, 94 et seq. 
Cram-well at St. Ives, 20 
Cupid and Psyche, 103 
Cupid's Hunting-Ground, 104 

Dalton collecting Marsh Gas, 2O 
Danae in the Brazen Chamber, 5 1 
Dante dra-wing the Face of Beatrice, I OO 
Dante on the Anniversary of the Death of 

Beatrice, 42 
Dante's Leah, 87 
Daphne, III 

Daughter of the Vine, A, 96 
Davis, H. W. B., R.A., 88 
Davis, William, 87 
Daivn (Solomon), 64 
Daivn, The (E. de Morgan), 1 12 
Daivn : Luther at Erfurt, 72 
Days of Creation, The, 163 



Death of Bede, 98 

Deceitf tilness of Riches, The, 114 

De Morgan, Evelyn, 112 

Depths of the Sea, The, 103 

Deverell, Walter Howell, 6, 53, 54 

Diana and the Shepherd, 95 

Dies Domini, 103 

Doctor's Last Visit, The, 54 

Donna del/a Finestra, 15, 45, 57 

Door nf a Cafe in Cairo, 9 1 

Doubtful Coin, The, 91 

Douglas, Sir W. Fettes, P.R.S.A., 

89 

Doivie Dens ofTarro-w, The, 73 
Duet, The, 23 
Du Maurier, G., 49 

Ecce Ancilla Domini, 15, 41 

Eden, Dennis, 114 

Elaine, no 

Endymion, 96 

Escape of a Heretic, The, 35, 37 

Eve, 1 08 

Evening, HI 

F.ve of St. Agnes, 70 

Eve of the Deluge, The, 97 

Execution of Mary Queen of Scott, "2. 

Expulsion of the Danes, ZO 

Fair Rosamond, 45 

Fairy Raid, The, 73 

Faithful unto Death, 78 

Fazio's Mistress, 42 

Feast of Peleus, The, 103 

Ferdinand and Ariel, 33, 35 

Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, Z% 

Flight of Henry VI. , 80 

Ford, H. J., 114 

Ford, W. O., 114 

Foscari, 21 

Found, 57 

Frampton, E. R., 114 

Freedom, 96 

Garden Seat, The, 88 
Gaskin, Arthur, 113 



INDEX 



121 



Gere, C. M., 113 

Girl ivith Flotvers, 76 

Girlhood of Mary Virgin, IO, 40 

Going to the Hay, 89 

Golden Stairs, The, 103 

Golden Strings, no 

Good- Night, 70 

Good Shepherd, The, 94 

Gotch, T. C., 114 

Gray, J. M., 88, 89 

Gray Sisters, The, III 

Greek High Priest, 65 

Green, John Richard, Portrait of, 62 

Green Summer, IO2 

Gregorius, Professor, 18 

Guarded Boiver, The, 70 

Habet, 64 

Harald Harfagr, 59 

Hareem, The, 91 

Henderson, Joseph, 89 

Hireling Shepherd, The, ^6 , If, 87, 90 

Holbein, A Modern, 18 

Holiday, Henry, 113 

Home, 70 

Home from Sea, 70 

Hueffer, Mrs., 23 

Hughes, Arthur , 15, 69 et seq. , 93 

Huguenot, The, 33, 34, 35 

Hunt, W. Holman, 2 et seq., 32, 38, 

85, 87, 112 
Hunter, J. Young, 114 

// Ramoscello, 45 

Inchbold, J. W., 87 

In M.emoriam, 72 

Isabella, and the Pot of Basil, 30 

Jolt Caur, 45 
Jonah, 94 

Katharina and Petruchio, 8* 
King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid, 103 
King Egfrid offering the Bishopric of 
Hexham to St. Cuthbert, 98 
I 



K* n g of Sorroivs, The, 78 
King Rene's Honeymoon, i<j 
King's Daughter, The, 113 
King's Quhair, The, 98 

La Bella Mano, 45, 51 

Lady Lilith, 45 

Lady ofShalott, The, 30 

Lady -with a Bird- Cage, 54 

Lambs at Play, 8 1 

Lancelot and Guinevere, 73 

Lancelot and Guinevere at the Tomb of 

Arthur, 42 

Last Day in the Old Home, 82 
Last of England, 2O, 84 
Laus Veneris, 103, 104 
Lawless, Matthew James, 75, 81 
Lawrence, Samuel, 58 
Leslie, G. D., 87 
Lesson, The, 82 
Lewis, J. F., 89, 90, 91 
Leiuis, Mrs., Portrait of, 6l 
Light of the World, The, 26, 28 
Lilium Auratum, 91 
Linton, Sir J. D., 49 
Linton, W. S., 96 
LonBjn JMagdalen, A, 78 
Lorenzo at the House of Isabella, 9, 10, 

33 

Lost Child, The, 70 
Love among the Ruins, IO2, 103 
Love and Time, 94 
Love in Autumn, 64 
Love's Baubles, 114, 115, Il6 
Love's Parting, 112 
Lucrezia Borgia, 42 

M'Gregor, Archie, 113 

M'Taggart, W., 90 

M.ade>nna Laura, 108 

Man born to be a King, The, III 

Manchester Toivn Hall, Frescoes at. 

20 

Man of Sorrows, The, 74 
Manoli, 59 



122 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 



Man -with the Muck-Rake, The, 74 

Mariana (Rossetti), 45 

Mariana in the Moated Grange (Millais), 

i4 34> 37> 9> II6 

Maris, Matthew, 49 

Marriage of the Prince of Wales, 29 

Marten at Chepsto-w Castle, 86 

Martineau, Robert, 75, 81, 8* 

Marsyas and Apollo, \\Q 

Match-Seller, The, 89 

May Day on Magdalen Tower , 29 

Medea, 15, 60, 6 1 

Meeting of Dante and Beatrice in Purga- 
tory, 43 

Merciful Knight, The, IO2 

Meteyard, Sidney H.. 115 

Midsummer Night's Dream, Scenes from, 

73 

Mill, The, 102, 104 
Millais, John Everett, 2 et seq,, 31 el 

seg., 116 

Mirror of Venus, The, 103 
Mirrors of Time, The, 113 
Moira, Gerald, 113 
Monna Rosa, 45 
Monna Vanna, 45 
Moore, Henry, 86 
Morgan le Fay, 60, 6l 
Morning, III 

Morris, William, 76, 77, 100 
Mors Janua Vitae, 74 
Moses, 64 

Muckley, L. Fairfax, 113 
Murray, Fairfax, 108, 109 
My Lady Greens leeves, 113 
My Lady's Garden, 114 



Nativity, The, III 
Neptune' 's Horses, 96 
Nightmare, The, 59 

Old Chartist. The, 59 
"Once a Week," 59, 81 
O'Neil, H., 8 1 
Ophelia (Arthur Hughes), 69 



Ophelia (Millais), 32. 34, 71 

Order of Release, The, 34, 37 

Ormuzd and Ariman, 96 

Our Lady of Good Children, 19 

Outlaw, The, 80 

Owen. Sir Richard, Portrait of, 29 



Palmer, Mrs Jean, Portrait of, 6z 

Pan and Psyche, 103 

Pandora, 96 

Paola and Francesca, 42 

Parisina's Sleep, 2, 1 8 

Passover in the Holy Family, 42 

Pastoral, A, 108 

Patience on a Monument, 108 

Patmore, Coventry, 12 

Paton, Sir Noel, 71 etseq., 89, 93 

Paton, Waller, 87 

Payne H., 113 

Pedlar, The, 76 

Penelope, 6 1 

Persefone Umbra, or Love's Messenger, 

112 

Perseus and the Graiae, 103 
Pettie, John, 109 
Pharamond and Azalais, 108 
Plains of Esdraelon, The, 28 
Pretty Baa Lambs, 19 
Priest of an Eastern Church, 65 
Prinsep, Val, 87, 88 
Proscribed Royalist, The, 14, 34, 37, 

7 8,8 4 

Proserpina, 45, 47 
Proud Maiiie, 6 1 
Prynne. E. A. Fellowes, 114 
Pygmalion Series, The, IO1 

Queen Guenevere, 77 
Queen of Hearts, 115 
Queen of Samothrace , The, 113 

Rainbow and the Wave, The, 96 
Ramparts of God's House, The, IIO 
Rathbone, Harold, 114 
Red Cross Knight in Search of Una, 96 



INDEX 



123 



Renascence of f^'enits, 96 

Renunciation of Elizabeth of Hungary, 

53 

Rescue, The, 34 

Retro Me Sathana, 40 

Return from Marston Moor, 86 

Return of the Dove to the Ark, The, 

34 

Rhead, The Brothers, 113 
Richmond, George, 58 
Ricketts, Charles, 115 
Rienzi swearing Vengeance over his 

Brother's Corpse, IO, 17 
Robertson, Graham, 113 
Robinson, Cayley, 114, 115, 116, 

117 

Roll of Fate, 96 

Romans Building Mancunium, The, 2O 
Romeo and Juliet (Madox Brown), 2O, 

21 

Romeo and Juliet (Mrs. Rossetti), 23 
Rooke, T. M., in, 112 
Rosamund, Queen of the Lombards, 9 
Rose Marie, 115 

Rose, Mrs. Anderson, Portrait of, 62 
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, i et seq., 

*3, * 6 , 3 8 , 39 t "I-, 53, 57, 59, 

100, 106, 113, 114 
Rossetti, Mrs. W. M., 23 
Rossetti, William Michael, 7, 8, 9, 

5*, 55 

Ruby Ring, The, 89 

Ruskin, John, n, 12, 13, 27, 30, 

32, 52, 70, 80, 86 
Ryland Henry, 114 

St. Cecilia, IIO 

Sandys, Frederick, 14, 57, 58 et seq. 

Satan watching the Sleep of Christ, 74 

Scapegoat, The, 28, 78 

Scott, William Bell, 97 

Seddon, Thomas, 87 

Shadow of Death, The, 28 

Shadow of the Cross, The, 26 

Shannon, C. H., 113 

Shaw, Bernard, no 



Shaw, Byam, 114, 115 

Shee, Sir M. A., 31 

Shields, Frederic, 93, 94 

Ship, The, 29 

Shulamite, The, 118 

Sick Call, The, 8 1 

Siddall, Miss, 53 

Sidonia von Bork, IOI 

Silent Noon, 115 

Silver and Gold, 70, 72 

Sirens, The, 95 

Sir Galahaa, 42 

Sir Isumbras at the Ford, 15, 33, jj, 

37, 95 

Smith, Campbell L., 115 
Solomon Eagle, 94 
Solomon, Simeon, 57, 63 et seq. 
Song of the Past, 87 
Southall, J. E. 113 
Souvenir of a Past Age, 1 1 6 
Spell, The, 89 
Spirit of Life, The, 113 
Springtide, JO 
Stanhope, Spencer, 107, 108, 109, 

112 

Steer, Mr. Wilson, 49 

Stephens, Frederick George, 6, 46, 

5 2 

Stillman, Marie, 112 
Stonebreaker, The, 15, 86 
Storey, G. A., 87 
Storm, The, 90 
Story of Ahab, in 
Story of Ruth, III 
Strayed Sheep, The, 28, 8 1 
Street Scene in Cairo, 91 
Strudwick, J. M., 85, 109 et seq. 
Summer, 95 
Summer Thoughts, 114 
Sumner, Hey wood, 113 
Surgeon's Daughter, The, 79 

Tapestry Worker, The, 89 
Tt Deum Laudamus, 93 
Ttnnyson, Lord, Portrait of, 6l 
Thistledown Gatherer, III 



124 ENGLISH PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTERS 



Thorn in the Foot, 90 
Tissot, James, 90 
Too Late, 79, 80 
Transit of Venus, 2O 
Triumph of Faith, The, 93 
Triumph of Saul and David, 1 1 1 
Triumph <f the Innocents, 28 
Triumph of Will, The, 90 
Tune of Seven Towers, The, 42 
Turkish School, The, 91 
Twelfth Night, Scene from, .53 
Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1 6, 1 

Vade Satana, 74 
Val d'Aosta, 87 
Vale of Rest, The, 36 
Valkyrie, 59 

Van Hanselaer at Ghent , 1 8 
r<fw.r Verticordia, 45 
Veronica Veronese, 45 
Vigilate et Orate, 73 



3 



Virgin Mary, IO 
ffvfoi, 60, 6l 

Waiting for the Verdict, 63 
Wappers, Baron, 18 



Wallis, Henry, 86 

Wanderers, The, 1 08 

JFafcrj of Lethe, The, 108 

Watson, J. D., 88 

Watts, G. P., 107 

Webbe, W. J., 81 

Wedding of St. George, The, 4* 

Westminster Hall, Cartoons at, 1 

Wheel of Fortune, IOZ 

When the Boats Come In, 90 

Whispering Tongues can poison Truth, 

88 

Whistler, J. M'Neil, 49 
Whither, 114, 115 
Widow's Son, The, Zl 
William TeWs Son, 78 
Willow-wood, 113 
Wilson, George, 57, 65 rf y. 
JPi'/j* of Circe, IO2 
Hindus, W. L., 57, 75, 79, 80 
Wontner, William, 49 
Woodman's Daughter, 12, 34 
Woolner, Thomas, 6, 7, 10, 51 
Work, 19, 21 
World's Gratitude, The, 79 
Wounded Cavalier, The, 77, 78 



, 80 



THE RIVERSIDE PRESS LIMITED, EDINBURGH 



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INDINGSECT. MAY 2 11981 







PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



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B3 
1905 



Bate, Percy H. 

The English pre-Raphaelite 
painters, their associates 
and successors