Skip to main content

Full text of "The present state of Europe: : exhibiting a view of the natural and civil history of the several countries and kingdoms ... To which is prefixed, an introductory discourse on the principles of polity and government."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 




krrx t: 

"CT/ ^y/ 

' Priatk 



o p 

E u R ope: 

Exhibiting a View of the 





Constitution and Form of Govbrnmbnt} their 
Customs, Manners, Laws, and Religion ; their 
Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, and Commerce; 
their Military Establishments, Public Trea- 
ties, and Political Interests and Connexions. 

To which is prefixed, 


Principles of Polity and Government. 

By M. E. T O T ^ E, 

Late Secretary to the Univerfity of Gottingtn, and now Profeflbr of 
Hiftory in the Univerfity of Butzow, and Duchy of Mecklenburg. 

Tnnilated from the Gskman 


And Fellow of the Society of Antiquarie*. 

VOL. m. 

Friated for J. Noursb, Bookfeller to H t * MAJESTY. 
MDCCLXX. ■.. . 

' vp\\ - - . '.•■■ •-■ 

- ' V • •• ■ ■ 



E U R O P E. 

Of D E N M A R K. 

S E C T. L 

^ENMARK fignifie$ tlo more thanKtme« 
the country of the Danes (1)4 The 
name is of great antiquity, at leaft 
was uied in the 9th century (2). In the mid- 
dle ages Denmark was ufually exprefled in 
Latin by Dacia^ and not only foreigners, but 

(i).Tbe*word Mark imports, both in Daniih and Oemian« 
a frootier, a field, or part of a country ; and in this laft 
fenie it bears the' names of Finmark, and Lapmark. In the 
old Iflandic writings Denmark is called JDanavelde, as S>ve- 
den is Sviaveld. Pontoppid. Vol. I. B.L ch.L MaUet. Hift. 
de Danete. Tom. IlL p. 29. 

(2; On the tomb of king Gormo, who reigned in the IXth 
century, is engraved in Runic characters, TaQmiiark, and 
elfenrhere Tanmuark. Pontoppid. P. Ill, 

Vol. III. B the 


the kings of Denmark themfelves uCcd his 
appellation, both in their titles and feals! {a). 

S E C T. II. . ^ 

skaattoa, Thc kingdom of Denmark lies betwceh- 
and extent. 54 deg. 15. min. and 57142. north lat.** 
and 23. 55. and 28, 43. eaft long. Soutl^ 
ward it confines on Germany, and par^icu^ ' 
larly on Holftein, from which towards tlie 
ead it is feparated by the Levenfaw, and 
towards the weft by the Eider (3). Vi^eft- '. 
ward it is furrounded by the north;. fcji*, • ;^ 
northward by the Cattegat (4), and caft*-^ •.. 
ward by the Belt (5) or the Baltic (6) i .ti&ijf***<'J 
whole country contains '856 Danifh fqu&c..^*'; 

miles OJ). i: ^t/^Vt 

SECT. m. ;::v\^^.:r 

iliathef • '^^^ weather is pretty moderate^ wilHV;**/ 
out any very feverc cpld in winter, or iiptpnip. ■ 
and lafting heats. in fummer. Tli« rfiffr-ip^^^^^^ 

(a] Pontoppid. P. III. " " /. . * •/ 

(3) This river thus fohns the boundaries betw^n Den- 
mark and Germany ; and over the Holftein gate at Rdnf- 
burg, through which town it runs,' are thefe vQtdfj .''^ £i- . 

** dbra Romani Terminus Imperii.'' This boiin^^ was. • ..\ 
fettled at the peace between Charles the Gre^^^kkt-king ..' 
Hemming. •,..•;••. • 

(4) The Sinns Codranus ; for the origin of the- oiftilfr.of ' • ; 
Cattegat, fee Pontoppid. B. I. p. 314. . •'- . / -; 

(5) The water between Jutland and Fnhnen is. called tlie-*"' ' 
Little Belt, and that between Fuhnen and Zealand the Gfeait 
Belt, or only the Belt. - ,* .- • 

(6) It is rettiarkable, that the North-Sea is cdi\t}nually 
gaining on the land, but the Baltic receding froinMr.. Pen- ' 
toppid. Vol. I. p. 318. ••.). 

[6) Pontoppid. Vol. I, B. 1. ch. ii. 


1 ' 



damp, particularly in fpring^ but fo puri- 
fied by the winds, thgt up the country it is 
generally very healthy, though along the 
coaAs fomething noxious, as more expofed 
to the fogs, and the faline vapours of the 
fca {c). 

I)temnark is for the moft part a level FSeUi wi' 
country, fo that, excepting Himmelberg 
and Bouberg in Jutland, and Crcideberg, or 
Chalk-hill, in the ifland of Moen, very few 
of ike eminences can be properly called 
mountains (</). Large and navigable rivers it 
has none, the country not affording fpacc for 
a long courfe. This want is in fome mea* 
Aire fupplied by the many bays, which are 
of great convenience to the inhabitants for 
trade and intercourfe (^}. 

S E C T. V. 

Denmark produces all the neceflaries and Feruiitj« 
many of the conveniencies of life in great 
plenty ; and fome things fuperabundantly. 
In the animal kingdom we find large and 
beautiful horfes, horned cattle (7), (heep, 

(c) Pontoppid. Vol. I. B. 11. ch. i. 

(d) Ibid. ch. ii. 

(#) Ibid. c. vii. P. 33y. 

(7) Thc/e, together with the b*ft horfes, are chiefly bred m 
Jatlandy where the exportation of them makss a profitable ar- 

B 2 and 


(8) and fwinc in great numbers, and very 
good } likewife all kinds of deer, hares and 
rabbits, poultry, and wild-fowl (9) ; with 
great variety of fifh, particularly fea-fi(h 


The vegetable kingdom is not indeed la 
liberal, fome parts having little or no wood, 
not even fpr fuel (11); though on the other 
hand it affords wheat, rye, barley, oats, 
buckrwheat, peafe, beans, lentils, turnip-* 
feed, cumin, muftard-feed, and fome in 
fuch quantities as to be exported ; it like- 
wife produces flax, hemp, and hops, but 
not fuflicient for home confumption. The 
French colony at Fridericia in Jutland, have 
met with great fuccefs in their culture of 
tobacco, which, however, is ufed only by 
the lower clafs {/). 

Denmark was formerly thought to be 
quite deftitute of minerals, but lately it has 

(8) The Danifli ilieep» howerer, are bat finall, and their 
wool rery indifierent, except that of Eiderftadt, which, next 
to the Spaniih and Englifh is the beft in Europe. Pontop- 
pid. Vol. I. p. 387. 

(9) An extenfive account of thefe is to be met with ia 
Pontoppid. Vol. I. B. II. ch. i. 

(10) Between two and three hundred years ago, thele- 
profy came to be a comihon diftemper in Denmark, as it is 
now in the weftern point of Noiway and Iceland, and owine 
to eating too mnch fifh ; but that tood is no longer in fuch 
plenty as formerly. Pontoppid. Vol. I. p. 400. 

(11) This want is fupplied by turf, and in fome parts 
even by ftraw. Pontoppia. Vol. 1. p. 207. 

(/) Ibid. B. II. ch. viii. 


D E N M A R K. j 

been found, to contain mines even of gold 
and iilver ; feveral places abound in iron, 
and particularly that called moor-iron, 
from its ore being dug out of moors (g). 

Other foflils of the growth of Denmark 
are falt-petre, vitriol, allum, amber, feve- 
ral ufeful earths, as fuller's earth, bole, por- 
celaine-clay (^12), very fine chalk, tripoly, 
with fome dyes (^) ; ftones of all kinds as 
lime, marble, touch-Aone, mill-ftone, flate, 
pit-coal, ipat, agate (/) ; a mineral, how- 
ever, long wiihed for but not yet difcovered 
is fait (13). 


The kingdom of Denmark includes the Dm-fion of 
iflands of Zealand, Fuhnen, Langland, °^ 
Laaland, Falfter, Bornholm, Moen, with 
fome leiTer iflands, the Peninfula of Jutland, 
and the dutchy of Slefwick. 

(g) Pontoppid. B. II. Vol. L cap. v* 

(12) This is found io the iflaud of Bornbolm, znd one 
Toaraier a Preochman has made a complete fet of table fur- 
akare of it. Ibid. Vol. L p. 394. 

(h) Ibid, ch iv. 
(/} Ibid. chap. iii. 

(13) The coantry-folks on the (ea-coaft have a fhift of 
making fait with tang, or lea-weed, but which, befides its 
diogy colour, is rather bitter than fait. The inhabitants of 
fome parts of Slefwick boil fait from a faline earth, which 
they get out of thefea, and under the name of Friefland fal( 
it fetches no mean price ; but this likewifc is bitterlih. Ibid. 
Vol. I. p. 298. 

B 3 Thcf;3 


Thefc countries, Slefwick excepted, are 
divided into feven governments called Stifts-^ 
amptfters, and over each is a ftiftfamptfman, 
(14). In the iflands are three Stiftfamptfters, 
naqiely, !• Zealand, to which likewife 
. belong the iflands of Bornholm and Moen, 
2. Fuhnen, to which is annexed Lange- 
land, 3. Laaland and Falfter ; and in 
Jutland, four ; 4. Allborg, 5. Wiborg, 
6. Aarhuus, and 7. Ripen,. 

The dutchy of Slefwick is adminiftcre4 
by a governor, who likewife prcfides over 
the king of Denmark's part of Holftcin. 

SECT, vir/ 

Konwy. The kingdom of Norway, by the Danea 
called Norge, and by the Swedes Norrige, 
has been united under one fovereignty with 
Denmark very near 400 years : it extends 
from ^y, 47, to 71, 30 north lat. its length 
being in a dired: line 2029 and by the wind-^ 
ing of the coafts 350 Norway tniles j 
whereas its breadth is in moil: parts not; 

(14} This appellation is derived from the conftitutiona 
made at the time of the Reformation ; the prefent Stiftfaaipters 
were formerly bifliopricks. Chriftian III. havings in 1536, 
removed the Catholi^: bifhops from their campts, or dioceJes, 
a king's oiGcer, called Befalningfmand, was placed over 
every diocefe ; he exercifed the temporal rights andjitrif- 
diflion of the bi(hops» and coUeded their incomes; and af- 
terwards was diftinguifhed by the name of Stiftamptfman, 
or fteward of the Diocefe. Holberg's Hift. of Denmark, 
Part n. p. 351. 


above 30^ 40, or 50^ and in feme but 6 
fuch miles. The winters in the eaft, and 
Aill iqore in the northern parts, are ex- 
tremely {eve/e, but along the weftern coaft 
very tolerable ; the fummer's heat is 
greater than might be imagined, which is 
partly ow'iag to the kogth of the days, and 
the (Irong reAedtions of the fua from the 
mountains and rocks. 

The country is wild and barren, and the 
greater part of it over-run with mountains, 
marihes, and dcfcrts. The principal chain 
jOf Q^untains is the Kolen, which^ under 
difierenc names, runs through ail Norway 
from north to fouth. From thefe moun- 
tains ifiue innumerable fprings, Areams, 
and riverc, the laft of which are all called 

Some parts, however, afbrd good pa{^ 
jtijre, with plenty of horned cattle ; but 
^which, liJce the ilxcep, arc very fmali. The 
Norway horfes, though deficient in fize^ are 
well ihaped, ftrong, and fwift. The country 
abounds in game of all kinds, and itsforefls 
and mountains harbour many beads of 

The adjacent fca, with the many liays 

and rivers, affords plenty of fiOi ; the laft 

particularly fwarm with faimon, which, 

with many ojhcr kind?, and fome thou- 

B 4 fand 


fand tons of herrings, arc exported every 
year. . 

The vaft forefts fupply immenfe quantl* 
ties of timber^ chiefly oaks and firs, with 
which a confiderable trade . is carried on. 
But in grain Norway by no means anfwers 
the neceiTary demands of the inhabitants ^ 
befides what little it does afford, is often 
fpoiled whilfl (landing, either by the fliarp- 
nefs of a fudden cold> or the too great heat 
of the fummer, or by unfeafonable rains. 

Norway's greateft wealth confifts in its 
metals* It was not till und^rChriftian III. 
that the mines came to be properly worked ^ 
and ever flnce they have yielded great profits 
in iron, copper, filver and even gold (15). 

Magnets have been found here and there^ 
together with fome gems, as agate an4 
beautiful marbles, as jafper, granite {k) . 

•Norway is divided into four Stiftampters, 
Chriftania, or Aggerhuus, Chriftanfand, 
Bergen, s^nd Drontheim. 


ictitnd. The ifland of Iceland was peopled and 
cultivated towards the clofe of the ninth 
century, by fome Norwegian emigrants, 

(15) Of this gold, though in no great qoantity, Chriftian 
V. and Chriftian V. made ducats. Holberg, c. zii. §• 41$, 

(i) Sec Bufching's Geography, Vol. I. 


flying from the tyranny of Harold Harfagar 
king of Norway. The colony formed itfelf 
into an ariftocratical government, which 
fubfifted a confiderable time, till reduced 
by Haquin V. king of Norway ; and not 
long after Iceland came under the Danifh 
dominion, together with Norway (/). It 
lies between 63 and 70 deg. north lat. and 
its length from S. E. to N. W. extends 
about 1 20 German miles ; its greateft 
breadth is 150, and its fmalleft 12 of the 
fame miles. Its name is owing to the 
mafles of ice driving down from the nor- 
thern ocean. The ifland is a heap of rocks 
and mountains; of which Hecla is particu- 
larly mentioned by geographers, as once a 
"volcano, tho' for fome years paft it has ceafed 
to emit fire.' But in April 1766, it renewed 
its exploiions, emitting fmoak and fire, with 
fand and ftones of an extraordinary bignefs, 
accompanied as ufual with an earthquake ; 
and other burning mountains have broken 
out. The foil is full of fulphur and falt-petre, 
which fometimes taking fire, is attended with 
deplorable ravages, as particularly in 1729. 
Its principal vegetables, for it affords ;io 
trees, nor corn, are here and there fome 
blackberry and juniper bufhes. All the 

(/) See Mallet's Introdutton to the Hifiory of Denmark, 
VqL J, c. i|. . 



^our is brought from Denmark^ but this is 
only within the reach of the more wealthy ; 
the poor live on dried fi(h and fleih, atid 
make a fort of bread of fea weeds. Some 
fpots near the rivers yield very good pafture^ 
9nd in thefe the Icelanders breed horn^ 
cattle and fheep in middling plenty. The 
horfes^ which like the other cattle, are very 
fmall, are left to range about and (hift for 
themfelves. There are no beads of prey, 
or for the chace, except foxes, which from 
being in fummer bjue or grey, become 
white in winter; a few are black; but with 
wild fowl (i6), and birds of prey (17), Ice- 
land may be faid to fwarm. 

Its many bays, together with the ocean, 
afford vaft quantities of fi(h, as her- 
ring, fole, whiting, haddock, cod (18) of 
feveral kinds, holy huts (19)^ and fmall 
whales {m). 

The Faro illands, of which thete arc 
twenty«»iive, lying in 61 and 62 deg. north 

(16) Among tbem is tile eider, €0 famous for its down. 

(17) Partic«larly faicoas, reckoned the beiib in Europe, 
they are either grey^ grey and white, or all white ; the lail 
are accounted the bcft* Aoderfon'a Iceland. ' 

(18) Of which the people make flock&ih. Ibid* 

(19) It is nothing uncommon for one of thefe to weigh 
four hundred pound ; whereas in the North-fea they are ne- 
ver known to exceed an hundred and twenty, or an hundred 
and thirty pound. Of thefe fiflies are made raff and reckel* 
ing, fo well known in Lower Saxony. Ibid. 

\m) Ibid. & Holberg, c. ii* p. S4* 


DA N E M A R K. u 

]at. and fooiething more to the ibuth-weft 
than Iceland ; thefe likewife belong to 
Norway^ and produce plenty of graio, with 
great numbers of (heep. Among its (ea- 
fow! is alio found the Eider* 

Iceland and . tbefe iilands are under & 
Stiftamptfrnani who being continixally ab«< 
fent, public affairs are managed by deputies. 


Greenland was difcovercd about the end 
of the tenth century, by Eric Torwaldfon 
of Iceland (20), and an Icelandic colony 
founded in it. Chriftianity was planted 
there under the patronage of Olof Trygge- 
fon king of Norway, and, on its propaga- 
tion, two towns called Albe and Garde, 
were butlt> and the latter made a bifhop's 
fee. In procefs of time, it became fubjeft 
to Norway, and the Normans even carried 
on a confidcrable trade thJther; which 
in the year 1348, came to a period, the 
Black Death, as it was called, having about 
this time fwept away fo great a part of the 
human fpecies in Norway, that the voyages 
to Greenland were difcontinued, and little 
remembrance remained even of the country 
itfcif. At length Chriftian III. fent fome 

(30) He called the country fo from its verdure aod plca^ 
fant appearance » it lies to the northweft of Iceland, 



(hips thither, but they could not find the 
land. Frederick 11. made another trial, 
with no better fucccfs. Chriftian IV. lent 
ihips on the fame difcovery no lefs than 
four times, yet thefe likewife returned re 
infedta. A Greenland trading company, 
however, was formed at Copenhagen, and 
in the year 1636, they fent out two fhips^ 
who reached DavisVftreights, but return- 
ing without any advantage, the company 
dropped all farther enterprizes. It was 
thought that the old courfe from Iceland to 
Greenland muft have been flopped by the 
drifts of ice. The coall, to which the 
ftreights of Davis afford a paflage, was af-« 
terwards called New-Greenland, by way of 
diftindion from the former. In the year 
1 72 1, under Frederick IV. and by means 
of Mr. Egede, a Norwegian ecclefiaftic, 
who had the converfion of the Greenlanders 
exceedingly at heart, another Greenland 
company was ere£ted at Bergen in Norway ; 
this company entered on a trade to New- 
Greenland, but by great lofTes was obliged 
to drop it ; fo that the king himfelf took the 
work in hand. In 1728, he fent a number 
of people with all neceiTaries, and even cat- 
tle and horfes, for fettling a perpetual co- 
lony; but in 1 73 1, they were ordered home 
again : however, in the year 1733* the 



Greenland trade was again taken in hand» 
and the midion which Mr. Egede's refolute 
zeal had begun with very promifing fixcccfs, 
was continued (21). The Danifh company 
of general trade, purfuant to a charter ob- 
tained for that purpofe, now carries on an 
exclufive Greenland trade and whale iifliery, 
and feveral colonies have likewife been 
eftabliihed there (n). 

New Greenland begins at the 59th deg, 
north lat. and has been difcovered weft- 
ward as far as the 78th ; but, whether it 
be an ifland or a peninfula, is not yet 
known, and it is likewife made a queftioa 
whether it belongs to Europe or America. 

It produces very few vegetables of ufe, 
and fcarce any wood, but has whole moun- 
tains of amianthus, the flax of which is 
long, foft, and very white. No grain 
thrives there, and the deer and hares are ex- 
tremely fmall. Of fea-fowl it has plenty, 
and ftill more fifh, and of various kinds. 
Its coafts are noted for the whale fifliery {0). 

(21} The Moravians have likewife fent xxiiffionaries to 
Greenland, who have carried on their affairs better than the 
Danifli. State of the Arts and Sciences in the Daniih do« 

(9) Holb^g, ch. viii. 

(0) AndeHbn's Account of Greenland* 




oMttfc"' The king of Denmark is likewife pofielTed 
^j^ of a part of the dutchy of Holftein, and the 
counties of Oldenburg and Delaienhorfl: ; 
but thefe are fiefs of the empire. The for- 
mer came to the royal houfe by means of 
king Chriflian L and the latter was an ac- 
quiiition of Chriftian V. Both are fruitful 
in corn and cattlcj and under a didindt 

*>»p«i*M- The Danes have likewife, by their ma- 
ritime trade^ acquired territories and fettle-^ 
ments in the other three parts of thp world. 
In Afia on the coaft of CoromandeU they 
have the town of Tranqucbar, with its pre- 
cindt containing fifteen villages, which 
being fold to them by the king of Tanf- 
chaur, they built there a fort, to which they 
gave the name of Danlborg (/>). In the 
year 1705, king Frederick IV. fcnt fome 
miflionades to Tranqucbar, for the conver- 
fion of the inhabitants ; and that pious un- 
dertaking is ftill carried on with very great . 
fuccefs along the coaft of Malabar (^). 

(p) Holberg» chap. viii. 
(f) I^. chap. XV. 


D E N M A R K. i^ 

On the coaft of Guinea they have For t in Africt. 
ChriftiaDfborg, which was built by them- 
felTcs 1659 (r). 

In America^ the English, in i6y2, tranf- laAnerka. 
ferred to them the iiland of St. Thomas^ to 
which belong St. John, and fome other 
fmall iflands of the Caribbees. In 1733, 
they likewife purchafed from France the 
ifland of St. Croix {s). 

SECT, xu: 

According to the relations of the ancient sketch of 
northern hiftorians, Odin» an Afiatic mo- of D«a. 
harch, whom they rcprefcnt as a warrior, 
prophet, and forcerer (/), and equally emi- * 
nent in tfaofe three different charaders, 
made himfelf mafler of the whole north 
(22): Qponhis deceafe his fbn Skiold reign* 
ed in that country, which was afterwards 
called Denmark. His defendants whom the 
genealogifts from him call Skioldungers, fat 
on the throne of this kingdom during feme 
centuries in an uninterrupted fucceilion; 

(r) Holberg, chap. viii. 

(/) Id. ch. viii. 

(/) Vid. Torfaei Antiq. Univ. Septcntr. Lib. II. cap. if. 

(22) Concerning the aera of thcie events writers are not 
agteed ; fome placing thcxn feventy years before the birth of 
Chrtft ; and others above one hundred year^ after. Some, 
in order to reconcile this very great difFerence, maintain. 
that there were feveral* or, at lean, two Odins. Vid. Tor- 
fogs, lib. II. ch. iii. p. 113.^ 



but king Rolf Kraks dying, it became di-* 
vidcd into feveral fmall parcels, with each 
its diftinft king or fovereign. However, 
Ibar Widfadmi, a defcendant of Skiold, 
and king of Schonen, gradually maflering 
the other petty princes, reduced both Den- 
mark and Sweden ; and thofe two kingdoms 
remained united under three of his fucceflbrs 
Harold L Sigurd L and Ragn&r Lodbrok : 
but Sigurd II. and Biorne feparated them, 
by a partition, the £r(l taking Denmark, 
and leaving Sweden to the latter. 

Jutland, however, at the time of this 
jundtion, had its particular kings; andGott- 
rick or Grodfrey, and his fucceflbr Hem- 
ming, waged war with the emperor Charles 
the Great. 

Gormo, king of Denmark, grandfon to 
Sigurd II. reunited Jutland to his kingdom. 
He likewife reduced the Saxons and Vcnedi. 
Henry the Fowler, emperor of Germany, 
made war againfl him, difpofTeifed him of 
his conquefts, and placed a markgravc over 
Hethebye (now Slefwick) : but Harold II. 
^^^ Gormb*s fpn, cut to pieces both the mark- 
grave and the garrifon of the German fort. 
This the emperor Otho I. revenged by an 
irruption into Jutland, and obliged king 
Harold and his fubjeds to embrace the 
Chriftian religion ; but after his death his 



Denmark.,.; 17 

^^h agd fuccdlbr Sueno !• returned to J^a-« 
ganifm. This prince, ivk conj upftioa :Wi th 
Olof Skotkpnung, and Eric, a;N.cJrvvegi^O »oooi 
count, qofncjH^red Npriway, jof \yjijic;h Jje 1014. 
had one third* and afterwards r-ikhiluied 
England, where he loft his. life. .; : ,015, . 

His fon Canute the Great;. rcftpred Chrif- 
tianity in .Dcnmarfc : he likcwifci on the, o^^. 
death of Edmund Ironfide, king of Eogland^ ,„,^ . 
ptoade hifnfclf jibfolutemaftef of Ejjgland* 
And ^afterwards of all Norway; Oiofi a 
prince of die royal blood of Norway, who 
had recovered that kingdom, being driven 
from the. throne. Thus Canute became 
foVereigo' of three kingdoms, which h* 
diftributed aijaong his (Ibret fons. To th^ 10^%. . 
firft, Harold, be gave England; to CanuW 
or Hardaknut* the fecond, Denmark ;, and 
Sueno -thj5 third, who. was iUegUlmAtfi, 
^ ad Norway, of which^ : however, be w.a$io34* 
foondifpo^ Magnus, fon to the above 
Olof. Hprdaknut, after the death of his 
brother Harold, became king of England, 1039. 
but upon hia dying without iflue, the 
crown of Denmark, by virtue of an ggree* 
ment, vvhich had been made with Har- 
daknut, devolved to Magnus king of Nor- 
way. Thus Denmark became united un- 
der one ibvcreign with Norway. 

Vol. III. C But 


ButSuenoIL commonly furoaaMd Eftrid- 
fen, from his mother Eflrid^ daughter to king 
Sueno I. and who, in the time of king 
Magnus, had revolted againf^ him, after 
his death placed himfelf on the throne c^ 

«>47- Denmark, and thus the two kingdoms were 
again feparated. Some of his d^endants 
fignallzed themfdves by great atchievc- 
ments. Waldemar I. reduced the Venedt 
of Mecklenburg and Pomeranian and hiis 
fon Canute VI. conquered EiVhbnia, and 
feveral countries in Germany i his-brothef: 
Waldemar IL om*ran a great }p2ttt of Li«^ 
votiia, Courland, and Pruffia (fi^)* ^^' ^^ 
intrigue with copnt Henry of Sofewerin's 

1213. fpoufe, proved fatal to hiQi, th^ count feis^ 
ing on his peribn, and k^pis>g him three 
years a clofe ppif^w 5 this tonfinement was 
attended with ihe^^ total loffr of moft of 
his conquei^s ie Livonia, ' Gourland> 
Pruifia, and Gevinany. His deft;endant6 
were very unfortunate^ which, amon? 
other caufes, proceeded from the partition 
of his dominions among his fons, of whom 
Eric IV. had the kingdom 5 Abel, Slef- 

(23) In the coDteft between Ot^io ly. and Frederic II. 
for th« imperial crow^n, Wakiemar 11. tided w»th the latter, 
^ho» for his good fervice^, coofifpifd him in $f\ his fadwv'a 
and brother^s German conqae(ls. On U^is imperial charter 
Waldemar founded his title oJF kine of the Slavl, which waa 
afterwards altered to that of king of the Vcnedi, Holberg't 
Hiftory of Denmark* Vol. I. p, 275. 

Wick r 

D EIJ M A R K. i 

witk } tnd Cfariftophcr's portion was Laa- 
land aod FalAcr. King Eric IV. was mur« 
dered by tbf treachery of his brother Abel* 
who tipped the throne, but in a revolt, 
was icon otertaken by a like cataftrophe »5t. 
(t4). The €n>wn then devolved to the third 
brother Cfariftopber ; but both he and hia 
ibo 6ric V. and this prince's two ions Eric 
VL and Chriflopiier II. had all very trouble- 
jbme and imfortunato reigns. The latter 
was for difpoflefing duke Waldynar of 
Slefwickf then a minor ; bat hU guardian 
and ancle by the mother*6 fide» Gerard count 
of Hdftein,* efpoufed his caufe with fucli 
eealt and prevailed {q far with the ftates of 
Denmark^ that they renounced their aIle-» 
glance to king ChriAopher, and choie 2326. 
Waldenaar their king: their chief mo^ 
ttvc was the reunion of Slefwick with the 
crovn^ in which» however^ they were dif- 
appointed (25). The kingdom was a . 
great loiier by thefe troabJes, feveral pro- 
vincca falling into foreign hands, partica«« ^ 
krly Sweden got Schonen, Halland, and 

(24) Tllo«e^ I^i< deicendants ccwld not afcend the throne, 
they kept Slehvick, which occaiioned its being a long time 
detadhed fipoai ike down. 

( jf) It proved qaite the lereric ; WaUemar conferred 
SeDvick on cohm Uerard as a fief, and afurwards added a 
claafi^ that Slefwick fhonld never revert to the crown. HoW 
bcrg, V©I. I. p. 400, ^ 

' C 2 After 


1333. After the death of king Chriftophef, 

Denmark continued feven years without a 
king» Gerard count of Holftein, and the 
other proprietors, finding their advantage 
in fuch a Aate of affairs. But Gerard be^ 
ing taken off, - the Danes- called to the 
throne Waldemar III. fecond fon to Chrif*- 

,340. topher II. This prince reannexed to the 
kingdom, the feveral countries which had 
been difmembered from it, during the late 
difturbances, felling to the Teutonic! order 
in Prufiia, Efbbonia, or rather his right to 
it, in order to raife money for that pur- 
pofc. He likcwife, by artful . pradices, 
brought Magnus Smeck king of Sweden to 
reftore Schonen, Halland and Bleckingen; 
without any equivalent, 

,^7^. Waldemar III. dying without male iflue, 

the ilates conferred the fucceflion on Olaus 
V. only fon to bis daughter Margaret, mar* 
ried to Haquin VIIL king of Norway: 

,3«o. thus Denmark and Norway became again 
united, and have ever fince continued in 

^387- that ftate (26)..'rThis young prince dying 
early, his mother Margaret was declared 

,797. queen in both kingdoms. Having foon af- 

(26[ In the year 1386, died Henry, duke of Slefwick, the 
kft of king Abel's male defcendants ; on whidi, purfuant 
to a former agreement^ Gerard VL count of Holftetn, wa» 
inveiled with Slefwtck. 



<cr brought Sweden under her dominion, 
{he, by the union of Calmar, incorporated 
all the three northern kingdoms, though, 
in reality, it proved the caufc of very great 
diiientions and troubles. Denmark had 
undoubtedly the advantage, being the refi* 
dence of the fovereign, who from thence go- 
verned the other two kingdoms. 

Under her fucceflbr Eric of Pomerania ^36. 
grandfon to Ingeburga, her eldcft fifter, the 
union of Calmar received feveral amend- 
ments and explanations : but in other re- 
^leds this king's adminiftration was fo dif- 1438. 
pleafing, that Sweden univerfally revolted, 
and foon after the Danes and Norwegians 
likewife depofed this prihce. 

The Danes hereupon made choice of his 
nephew, by hisfifter*s fide, Chriftopher,duke 14:1. 
of Bavaria and count Palatine of the Rhine, 
who was likewife foon after acknowledged 
by Sweden and Norway. 

Chriftopher dying without heirs, the 144s. 
Danes conferred the crown on Chriftian I. 
count of Oldenburg, in which fettlement 
Norway readily joined ; but it was not 
without great difficulty that Sweden acceeded 
to the choice. Chriftian united to Den- 
mark the ifland of Gothland, which had,.^^ 
always belonged to Sweden, having made 
a compadt for that purpofe with the late 
C 3 king 


king Eric^ as its proprietor. On the deadl 
of Adolphus VIII. laft duke of Slefwick and 

HS9- count of Holftein, Slefwick reverted to the 
crown. But the king having likewife a 
claim to Holftein, fbefFedually pradifed 
with the ftates of both countries, Aat thqr 
elciftcd him their fovereign {2y). The tm^ 
peror Frederick IIL at hi^ req«ieft raffed 

1461. Holftein to a dutchy, and with it incofpo- 

i464« rated Ditmarfh; but on the other hand^ 
^ Sweden revolted from him and be was never 
able to recover it. . 

z48i. His fon John quietly fucceeded him in 

Denmark and Norway^ but to the crown 
of Sweden he was obliged to fight his way. 

U97. The people of Ditmarih likewife refttfed 
to acknowledge him, and his expedition to 

1500. reduce them mifcarried : the like til for-*, 
tune attended his arn^ againft Sweden^ 

X501. which had ibon broke out into a frefli re- 

Chriftian II. his fon and fucceiTori was 
more fuccefsfuU fo that the Swedes fo* 

jsw. lemnly received him as their fbvereigni but 
the horrid maffacre committed at his coro- 
nation excited a general infurre(flion againf): 

(27) Chriftian in return granted them fevtral coniidflrable 
privtlegesy particularly, the perpetual right of eledion, and 
that the two dutchies ihould never be leparatcd ; bnt the^ 
iveverwere allowed tl^c free exercife of the right of eledion. 
Bni ChriHian IV. totally abolilhed it. 



D B N M A R K. 23 

biin^ and the celebrated Gaftavua VaCz,is%%. 
for the brave defence of his country againft 
the tyrants Was rewarded with the throne, 
iRrhich put a total period to the union of 
Caiman Denmark itfelf foon after took 
up arms againft Cbriftian, and on his flight 
to the Netherlands^ made choice of Frederic, 
duke of Holftein, his father's brother (28), 
to whom Norway likewife was brought to 
fttbmit» though Chriflian had a ftroog part/ 
in that country. 

The fucceffion of Frederic's eldcft fon, 
Chriflian IIL was powerfully oppofed by 
the Roman Catholic clergy; t)ut a war 
with the Lubeckers and their allies 
breaking out at thisjun^ure, turned the 
fcale in favour of his cledion- The re-,^ • 
formation which had been begun by his 
father, be happily eftabli(hedj and fliared 
fhc dutchies of Slcfwick and Holftein with^ ^ 
bis brothers, John and Adolphus, the lattct 
of whom was the founder of the houfe of '^^' 
Holftein Gottorp, and introduced into it 
the communion and union, as it is com- 
mojnly called. 

Frederic II. his fon, compelled the people 
of Ditmarih to acknowledge his fove** 

(zS) His brother kinj^ John had made a partition of the 
dutchies of Slefwick and Holftein with him, the government^ 
J^owever, ftill remaining in common ; fo that Frederic being 
now king, the dutchies efdi^atdd to the crown. 

C 4 rcignty. 



acquired the counties of Oldenburgh and 
Deknenborft. Lewis XIV^ boviog iovaded 

^^ the Low Countries^ and Sweden fiding with 
the Frcncb> be entered into an alliance with 
JBrandenburgh and the United Provinces 
agatnil Sweden* In this war he made fe« 

^^ vera] conquefts ; bat at the peace^ France 
obliged him to reftore tbeoi alK He en* 
diavoured to recover Slefwic from the bouie 
of Holftein Gottorp, but cemld not accom* 

i|M^ plifh bis point* His fon Frederic IV« had 
the fame view, which he endeavoured to 
briiig about by means of the king of Poland 
svd the czar of Mufcovy ; but the houfe of 
HoIileinGottorp being fupported by Sweden^ 
England^ and the United Provinces^ main* 
tained its rigbt. This difference, appa- 
rently inconiiderable, gave rife to tb^ great 

Mjof. northern war, in which the king after- 
wards declared againft Sweden. The ad- 
miffion of the Swedifli troops into Tonin- 
gen, gave him a pretence to confider it as 
a violation of neutrality ; upon which he 
made himfelf mafter of the duke of Hoi- 
ilein's part of Slefwick ; and at the peace 
with Sweden had the pofleiBon of it guar- 
rantied by that very crown, and afterwards 

i7»". by fevcral other powers: thus was that 
country again united to the crown of Den- 

I . Under 




Under the fucccewJing kings Chriftian VI. "«•• 
and Frederic V . Denmark enjc^ed a longer 1746. 
peace than any ftate in Europe 1 and in this 
happy interval^ its domeftic profpsrity re« 
cei^ confiderable improvements, from the 
noble seal of thofe tMTO monarchs in pro- 
moting manufadures, trade, and naviga-^ 
tion, with all ofeful arts arid fciences : Pre* ^fi^ 
deric V. was fnccecded by liis fon Chrif- 


The Danes, like the generality of the ciunaerof 
northern people, are large and robnft, * **"' 
with fre{h ruddy complexions 1 the women 
very fair, and wefl fliaped. Their nutritive 
foods, and eating much fle(b, render them 
iftflguine; but it is owing to the heavy and 
damp fea air that they are fomewhat flow in 
their motions. This, however, is com- 
penfated by afTiduity and perfeverance in 
accomplifliing what they have once under- 
taken. Their resolution and intrepidity 
have at all times been fufficiently difplayed, 
in atchievements both by fea and land. 

Among the civil virtues their hofpitality, 
friendly difpofition, and courtefy, are highly 
commended; and their benevolence appears 
in the many foundations for the diflrefled. 
But this goodnefs of heart, or rather the 

' abufe 


abufc of it, has been produdivc of very bad 
confcquenccs ; many poor, are by the prof- 
pcdt of thcfe afylums for idleneft, fcduccd 
to be Icfs frugal and induftribu5 thajQ might 
be expeftcd;: rlt is, indeed, imputed, as a 
national failing, that every one is for living 
both in eafc and plenty ; and fo prevalent 
is this difpofition, that, even .foreign arti- 
ficers and workmen, are fcarce well, fettled 
here, when they give into the fame perni- 
cious turn of mind, and imitate the na- 
tives {u). In no country are infurredlions, 
• tumults, robberies, thefts and murders lefs 
frequent than in Denmark, which mani^ 
fefts both their fubmiffion and fidelity to 
their, and a good and honeft' heart. 
The chief foibles laid to their charge by 
their own writers, are an afFeftation of pre- 
ference in company, too much admiration 
of every thing foreign,, and a fondncfs for 
making a figure and living high, which, 
particularly in the capital, has got to fuch 
a head as to render houfe-keeping extremely 
dear (x). 
The Nor. Thc Norwegiaus were formerly fuch a 
^«$«««- tiirbulent people that their kings were fel- 
dom free from revolts.; but for fome cen- 
turies paft, and efpecially fince their union 

^ («) Pontoppii^. Vol. I. B. I. c. viii, 
* ^x) Kclberg*s Denmark, c. i, - 


t> E N M A R It. 4!9 

-with Denmark, they have fhewe^ thctn- 
ielves very quiet and obedient fubjed:s- 
They have a genius for, arts and handi- 
craftSy and make excellent Teamen ; but 
tbefe talents often have great alloy of fclf- 
conceit and contempt of others. In ambi- 
tion they rather exceed the Danes ; and 
will make a figure, whatever be the confe- 
quence to their families [y): 

S E C r. XIV. 

The* three northern kingdoms have butLangnaje. 
one language, though fomcthing different; 
in pronunciation;* they perfecflly under- 
ftand one another, except in a few par- 
ticular" words. It has great affinity with 
the German, Dutch and EnglKh, but very 
little with the old Norwegian language, 
with which the Icelanders only are ac- 
quainted, they being 'origfnally a Norwegian 
colony (s;)* The Danifh tongue is reckoned 
very proper for poetry, but till of late years 
had been much negledled, the Danifli wri- 
ters (^) generally preferring foreign lan- 
guages : at prefcnt it is ufed both for ori- 
g;inals and tranflations on all fubjcds fcien- 
tifical or entertaining ; and thus is brought 

(j) Holbcrg's Denmark, c. i. 

(z) Pontoppid. Vol. I. B. I. ch. vi. 

j[tf) HoJberg's Denmark, cb. i. ch. v. 



to great copioufocifs^ regularity^ and thh 
gance (^). 


^h^^. If» ^* northern biftorian$ afiirmt fttch 
fwarm8ofnation$» Qotbs^ VpdalSf AngJkSf 
LoDgobardSy and othersj formerly iflued from 
thefe quartern I Deomark^ Norway, 9iul 
Sweden muft have been excccdi^g^ popur 
lous : but the two latter are at prefent 
very bare of inhabitants. To account 
for this difference in population they.iay 
that the antient Goths, being Pagans, po- 
ligamy was common among them, which 
muft caufe an increafe of people (c) ; but 
that liberty ccafing after the introdudion of 
Chriftianity, and at the fame time of popery, 
which hot only prohibited the clergy from 
marrying, but countenanced a monaftic life, 
the people neceiTarily decreafed ; and laftly, 
that the Black Death, as it was called, or 
the peflilence, laid wafle the whole north 
{d). .Whether thcfe circumftances do fuf- 
ficiently account for the former great po- 
pulation, I fhall not examine; but that 
there has been no coniiderable increafe of 

(i) Pontoppid. Vel. I. B. L A. yiii. 
(r) Id. Vol. I. B. I. cap. ix. Dallin fuca^likcs Hift. 
Dccl. I. cap. ix. and Pontoppid. Vel. I. B, I. cup, b. 
{J) Pontoppid. p. IC2. 


D E N M A R K, $\ 

people in the north for above fliefc 300 
years may» in my opinion, be imputed to 
the long wars in which, fince the union of 
Calmar, thofe kingdoms have been engaged 
both «t home and abroad. This circum* 
^nce, however, affcdks Sweden much 
n&ore than Denmark, which now, for very 
near fifty years, has enjoyed an uninterrupted 
peace; and this happy. fituation, with the 
many beneficial regulations for promoting 
tillage and manufadrures, muft have greatly 
increafed the number of its inhabitants. A 
Daniih writer, in a piece publiflied not long 
fince, calculates them as follows (sq). 

la Denmark and Norway ii — » i$25Q,QQo 

In IcclaQ4i the Faro^Iflfia4^»l 
Hqlflfin^ Q14enburgj^ and> 500^000 
Dclip^tihorft^ \ 

la $lQfwick, — — 175,500' 

Tgtal *— . — 2,020,500 

Others, hpwcver, raife the number tp two 
inUliQiasi and bait 


According to the Danifh politlcianf?, the KoWtf. 
nobility conftitutpd bo particular clafs till 

(29) Eatropiin Philadelphus oeconomifch^baMance. ^uf- 
miictie'tDiviae OecoDomyy VoUL Table XIX. p. 61 > 63, 64. 

♦ the 


the time of Waldfimar I. to whom they 
owed their firfl privileges and diftin<£tion 
from other landholders. The eftates of the 
nobility were fiefs, which priginally fell 
only to the male defcendants ; but they af- 
terwards came to be hereditary in both 
lineSy^and the poiTeiTors were called^ here-* 
mand, u e. the lord's, or the fovereign*S:meD, 
as attending on hin) ^t court and in the 
wars {e). Under king Eric. VII. ftveral 
Pomeraxiian n9ble families came into Den- 
markr asdid ibme Bavarians under Chrif* 
topher III. The influence of thenobility in 
public' affairs flu£l.uated according to the 
king's ftridnefs or indulgence towards them. 
S'ince the time of Frederic I. their weight 
had very niuch increafed, and under Fre- 
deric IIL their power was at its very ze- 
nith; but the revolution in that reign, by 
which the prerogative was made arbitrary, 
and the crown hereditary under the fame 
prince, proved their overthrow. (y^). The 
nobility were at firft all on a level, till 
Chriftian V. in 1671, created counts and 
barons; ereded their .eftates into counties 
and baronies, and annexed to them, as like- 

(0 Holberg's Denmark, ch. vii, Pontoppid. Vol. I. B.'I. 
cbap. iv. 

(/) Holberg, ch. vii. 



Vifife to their perfbns, fome privileges above 
the gentry, or lower nobility {g). 

I'hc other inhabitants of Denmark are'B«'ifc««i 
burghers' and peaHints ; among the former 
thofc of Copenhagen have fome particular 
and confiderable privileges granted to. them 
10 1658, for their faithful fervices when the 
city was beficged by the Swedes [i). 

The peafants afc of four kinds, namely, Petiaii. 
I. Land-owners (Seiv-cyer-Bpnder, or Jor- 
degene-Bonder). 2. Farmers (Faftc-Bon- 
der). .3. Peafants particularly Co called 
(Tienerc) ; and 4. Villains, or hinds, (Vor- 
nede). In Norway arc only the two firft 
clafles, who are called Odels-fionder ot 
Bygfcl-Boflder (i)- 


The power of the kings of Deiimirk, fOxhe^ww. 
far from being abfolutely monarchical, vvaS5^*||'*yf' 
under many limitations. The obfctirity and "*^* 
deficiency of aAtient hiftory will not afford 
any certain, or pofitive judgment of the 
form pf government ; though, from the ge- 
neral cuftonl among the northerrt people, of 
iharing the government with their kings, 
it is generally conjectured that fo material 

(|) Holbcrg, cap. vii. 
(I) Ibid. chap. vii. 
(i) Ibid. 

Vol. hi. D a point 


a point was riot overlooked in Denmark. 
But the nearer we approach to, modern times, 
when hiftory becomes more cohfiftent and 
certain, the greater aflurances does it fur- 
nifli, that the prerogative of the kings of 
Denmark, atleaft fihce theXIIth century,has 
'been limited, fince they were obliged, in 
weighty matters, to confult the ftates of 
the kingdom- 
sme« of the Thefe confiftcd of the nobility, the clergy, 
the burghers, and peafants (30). They alfo 
at certain times held meetings, called Hwre- 
dage, or Dahehofc, ^hd either ordinary or 
great ; the former were held yeairly by the 
king and the council of the kingdom. In 
thefe aflemblies the firft bufinefs was law- 
fuits, from which they proceeded to the 
flateof the nation. But at the great mect- 
. ' '^^Z^r which were convened only on cxtra- 
, ordinary, and particular exigencies, the 
deputies of all the four ftates affifted, to 
' take into confideration the moft important 
national concerns, as the elcdion of a king, 
peace, war, and theneceflary contributions. 
The king had, befides the ftates, a ftanding 

(30) In the times of popery, the clergy was the principiil 
ilate, as the moft wealthy ; bat their granoear being curtailed 
by the Reformation, the pre-eminence naturally fch to the 
fiobility» on whom, indeed, almoft every thing refted ; for 
the peafantry, in procefs of time, were no longer fammoncd 
to the diet. 


D E N M A fe K.. 35 

council a£gaed tobioii coafifting of twenty*' 
three members^ all to be chofen from the 
nobility, which gave that order very great 
authority. The power of the king was far- 
ther limited by the hafid-faftenings, or com* 
pads, made at his eledioc, or itcceffion to 
the throne 3 and diis proves that they were 
not a little dependent on the ftates c^ the 
kingdom, and particularly the nobility (3 i )• 

SECT. xvm. 

This was in a particular manner the Tate [f^^]*"* 
of king Frederic III. a very hard hand-faft* 
ening being obtruded on him ; but under 
the very fame king followed a total change 
of the Oanifli form of government, on oc- 
eafion of debates between the nobility on 
one fide, and the clergy and citizens on the 
other, in itbedyet held at Copenhagen 1660, , 
concerning fome new impods : the latter in 
order at once to clip the ^ings of the too 
afpirhig nobility, invefted the king with an 

(31) HolhcTg'9 Hift. of Denmark, VoLill. This very 
writer meotums &vertl diets held fince the beginniog of the' 
Xmth century, in Which national a&irs of great .import-* 
ance were canvafled ; yet he .maintains the power of the 
kings to have been antiently without any limitations, and 
does aol, piodiice one .fingle ,proof of {bch ailbrtioo ; and 
when be comes to (jpeak of the introducement of monarchic 
cal foreretgnty, he calls it the 'MleAoration of the foye- 
reignty ^'' and fays, thatkingfredericlll. was reinilated ti| 
that fiiveiieign prerogauve *' which his anceftprs had for* 
fficrly enjoyed.'* 

D 2 abfo- : 


dbfolute prerogative^ and made the crown 
hereditary both in the male and female 
line : with this Angular proceeding the no*- 
bility afterwards found themfelves obliged 
-to concur. Hereupon the king's hand^faft- 
ening was returned to him (32), and after 
the fplemn homage of all the ftates the ad 
for rendering the crown hereditary, and the 
prerogative abfolute, was delivered into his 
poiTeflion. Thus, in a very fliort time, 
this important revolution was brought about 
and fettled, without any blood-(hed or com- 
motions (33). , 


|^«jj'« . King Frederic III. hereupon caufed the 
king's law (Konge Lou) to be drawji up, and 
he put his hand to it on the 14th of Novem* 
ber 1665. Farther, in 1709, a very fplendid 
edition of it in Danifh, German, and Latin, 
was publiihed by order of Frederic IV, (34) 

(32) Or nther a oopy of it ; the original having been 
iniflaid, and not foand again till 1710. See Counfell. Ha- 
Berlin's drcomffantial Account of the Introducement of the 
abfolute Sovereignty and hereditary Right in the Kingdom 
of Denmark, (a German Piece.) 

(33) Of this remarkable event, Mr. Haberlin has givea 
i very juft and regular account in the piece abovementioned. 

(34) The author was M« Schumacher, afterwards the fa- 
moot count Greifienfeld. Holberg*s Hift. of Denmark, 
Vol. III. p. 540. though others attnbute it to M. Reinking, 
dtancellor of Slefwick andHolftein. A Latin Tran&ation 
of this Roage-Lou is tobe found in Schmauflen's Corp, Jar. 
Gent. Acad. N« CLXH. 

- . 7' ' This 


This is to be held as a fundamental and un-^ 
alterable law of the kingdom^ and to be 
* perpetually obferved by the people, and the 
king's heirs and fucceflbrs (i). By virtue of 
this inftrument, the king of Denmark 
and Norway is an unlimited hereditary, 
monarch, poffcflcd of the fuprcme and ab- 
fblute power (/) ; raifed above all human 
laws {m)y alone inverted with the right to 
enadl and prefcribe laws (»), to make war, 
conclude peace and alliances, and impofe 
taxes {o)f and to whom alone belongs the 
fupremacy over the clergy, even in ccclefiaf- 
tical matters (/>), 

Notwithftanding this abfolute and unli- "^.^^ '^i"*'' 
mit^d prerogative^ Frederic lU. impofed it 
as a condition on himfclf and his facceflbrSf 
that they (hall be of the Chriftian religion, 
^cording to the pure confeflion of Augf- 
burg, fb as to maintain and fupport the fame in 
all their kingdom^ and dotninions, and pro- 
tect it againft all hereticks, opponents, and 
blafphemers {q). The kingdom, with its 
feveral appurtenances and regalities, (hall, in 
no wife, be alienated or difmembered (r)« 

(i) Koiige's Loo, lotrodadioo; 

(/) Art. XXVI. 

(m) Art. II. 

(«) Art. HI, 

(•) Art V, 

ip) Art. VI. 

{q) Art. I. 

(r) Art. 3{X, 

D 3 SECT. 



^MiHtution The kingdom of Norway, which has been 
orway. ^^^jj^j ^^ Denmark fincc the year 1380, and 
"^included with it in the union of Calmar^ 
continued under the fovereignty of the Da- 
. ni(h kings after the diflblution of that com-- 
padt, and was by them looked on as an he- 
reditary kingdom, purfuant to a refolution 
of the diet a(t Copenhagen. In 15371 it was 
incorporated with the crown of Denmark ; 
fo that, inftead of its council of ftatc (35), 
it came to be governed like a province, by a 
deputy or vice-roy. On the introdu6tion of 
abfolute fovereignty (36), Denmark and 
Norway again became two united kingdoms 1 
and on thi? occafion the latter recovered its 
high court of juftice, which had been abro-i- 
gated at the fame time as its council of 
ftate {s). 

All the royal children are ftiled heirs of 
Norway (37). 

(35) Holberg will by no means allow that Norway was 
fubjcCl to Denmark. Hiftofy of Penmarki Part 11, p: 354. 

(^6) This fhews that Norway was obliged to conform its 
ine^fures to thofe of Denmark, in confeqoence of which it 
acknowledged the new form of monarchy. 

{s) Holberg's Hift. of Denmark, Part III. p. 34, 35. 

(37) King John, on (baring Slefwick and Holftein with his 
brother Frederic, likewife conferred on him this title, which 
has fince been bo^oe by all the dukes of Holitein. Ibid. 
Part L p. 732, 



A$ the kings of Denmark hold their un- J^^n^^^/j" 
limited power by the beft title, fo have they '^^^^^f 
made the beft ufe of it for the joint advan- «n»mittd 
tageof the (late and fubjed:s ; for not only 
the domeftic condition of the kingdom has 
been greatly meliorated by many falutary 
laws, the introdudion of manufadures, the 
extention of maritime commerce, and ad- 
vancement of all kinds of arts and fciences, 
but the crown itfelf has by improvements 
in its land and fea-forces acquired a greater 
luftre and confideration abroad. All which 
the former government, under its many li- 
mitations, never could have brought about 
to fuch a degree. The Danes, accord- 
ingly, have never expreflcd any forrow , 
for that n^eafure, or any wifh that the for- 
mer limitations were reftored, but are per- 
feOiy contented with their condition* as 
indeed they have all the reafon in the world 
to be (/). 

S E <: T. XXIL 

Several writers have taken on them to %wctmon 
affirm that Denmark was always an here- Sre„V 
ditary kingdom. Indeed, by what glimpfes 

(0 Fontoppid. Vol. I. Book IV. ch, i. 

D 4 •the 


the darknefs of antient hiAory affords, the 
crown appears to have been hereditary 
under the kings of the Skiold line ; hot Co 
early as the reign of Waldeoaar I. we meet 
with traces of eledions, though never out 
of the royal family. At the union of Cal- 
roar in 1 397> elcdion was eftabliflied by an 
exprefs laWj yet^ at the fame time, limited 
to the royal children ; and on the renewal 
of the union in 1436, this limitation was 
again fpecificd («) : in the hand-faftening 
of Chriftian I. the ftates had it explicitly 
infcrted, that the kingdom was to continue 
an eleftive monarchy (x) : and though the 
\ following kings, in order to fecure the 

crown to the eldeft fon, ufed to have the 
folefnn homage paid preyioufly to him, 
yet,\ as this ceremony could not take place 
but By confcnt of the ftates, that expedient 
bore no little refemblance to an eledioh. 
Where no fuch meafurcs had be6n taken, 
the ftates freely made ufe of their right of 
chufing, and thus it was that Frederic I. 
Chriflian IIL and Frederic IIL were raifed 
to the t|irone: nay, the latter fays himfelf, in 
the preamble to the King's Law, that the flates 
of Denmark had given up their right of 
cledion, and transferred to him the fettle- 

(«) Holbcrg, Part !• p. 503, 587. 
ix) ibid, p. 629. 

DENMARK. . 4tv 

tnent of the crown. Would the king have 
cxprefied himfelf in fucb a manner, had this 
tight of eledion admitted of the leafV 
' doubt? Now from thcfe feveral premifes* 
what can be inferred, but that Denmark 
has, fince the union of Calmar, and particu- 
larly und^r the kings of the houfe of Olden- 
burg, been an elective kingdom (38) ? With 
the abfolute fovereignty was likewifc intro- 
duced the hereditary fuccefiion to the throne^ 
both in the male and female line ; and af-> 
terwards, to obviate all difputes and cavils, 
this fucceflion \7as very pundually and 
clearly prefer ibed in the Kong Lou, or King's' 
Law, according to which, 

L The kings legitimate male iflue are' 
the BrR heirs to the crown ; and the fe- 
male defccndants (y) excluded, whilft any 
of the former are in being. 

(38) See If aberlin'$ Hi/lorical Account, p. ij, 18. wherft 
he juciicioufly determines the queftion, whether IJen mark, be- 
fore the abfolate ibvereiffnty, was an hereditary or ah eleAive 
kiogdom ? Baron Hplberg produces the proofs on both fides ; 
however, he dedares for hereditary right ; and among other 
afgnment9, fays, that on a king's demife* there never wat 
an ioterregnam ; but herein he is palpably miftaken, therf^ 
having been a roanifeft interregnum before the eleAion of 
Chrifiian III- and Frederic |II. and, in the latter cafe, a^ . 
Holberg himfelf' allows, the cciebraud Cor£tz Uhlefeldt 
was, at It were» lnter*rex. The qtieftipn^ is, indeed^ of 
very little importance, even to the royal fhmily itfelf, which* 
holding its hereditary right by the beft of titles, the fret - 
refigoatioo of the people, may be very indiflTerent on what 
footing the fucceflion ftood before fuch a refignation. 
Ij) Kcog Loo, Article XXVII. 

!!• The 


II; Th« lines are to take place in this maa^ 
Vkt^. The Ton ihall immediately fucceed m 
the pUce of his father i and wbilft % prince 
of the firft male line is living* the fecond 
line fl>all not inherit i hut one line regularly 
follow the other. 

IH. In the fucceffion devolving to the 
f^miales^ the line which is of the royal blood 
by th^ father's (ide is to have the precedence, 
that of the mother's fide remaining ex«- 
eluded from the fucceffion^ whilft any of 
th^ former are living {a)* . 

ly • A princess by the male line is to pre-» 
cede a prince by the female line {J>\ 

V. Laftly^ in the fame line and iexj 
primogeniture is to be the rule» the elder 
inheriting befqre the younger [c\ 

citanfiM- !• T^c king is of age at his entrance into 
5Ww-' the fourteenth year. Dnring his minority, 
kiS •?mi- *^^ guardianship is to ftand as the deceafed 
•ority. ting has appointed by an inftrumcnt [d). 

11. In ca& of no fuch inftrumcnt or wilU 
the queen dowager, if the minor king's own 
mother^ (hall be regent^ afiifled by the fe* 

(a\ Art. XXVIIL 

(^) Art. XXVII. 

(c) Art; XXVIIL . 

(V) Art. VIII* 

- vea 


ven great ofBcers of ftate {e). In this council 
of regency every thing is to be determined 
by a majority of votes, in which that of the 
queen fliall be reckoned two {/). 

Ill; But in cafe of the queen's dying, or 
marrying again, the next prince of the blood, 
being of age (39)* (hall be inverted with 
the regency (^ )• 

iV. Laftly, if there be no prince of th^ 
blood of age, the regency and guariiianfhip 
are to be lodged in the feven great officers^ 
with an equality of power {&). 


The coronation is of very ancient date in 
Denmark, and was the more neceflary 
when the kingdom was elective* But this 
neceffity ceafed on the introduction of here- 
ditary right ; fince, according to the royal 
code, the next in the hereditary line, is, 
on the king's demife, really and actually 
king, with all the titks and prerogatives of 
an unlimited hereditary monarch, without 
any farther ceremony being in the leaf): 
requifite to his confirmation (/). For tho' 

W Art. IX. 

(/) Ibid. 

(i) Art. X. 

Ih) Art. XL 

(0 Konge Lou, or Royal Code. Article XV. XVL 




this very CQde direds that the king fhall be. 
folemnly anointed in the cathedral^ which. 
may be done in his minority^ yet is he not 
to take any oath, nor to enter into any en- 
gagement, cither verbal or v^ritten (i), 


Title. The many conqucfts fonnelrly made by 

the kings of Denmark, and fince loft, hav« 
occafiotied fcveral alterations in their title. 
Canute the Great, ftiled himfelf king of all 
England, Denmark, Norway, and a part 
of Sweden. . The following kings till thc. 
Waldcmars, ufed only king of Denmark (/). 
The title of Waldemar 11. was king of the 
Danes and Slavi (40). After the union of 
Calmar, all the three kingdoms were in-, 
eluded in the royal ftyle (41), to which 
Chriftian I. added thofe of Slefwick and, 
Holftein, Oldenburg and Dclmenhorft. 

(^) Art. XVI. XVII. xvin. 
(/) Holberg» P. L p. 115* 

(40) Concerning the Origin of this title, fee J 12. (23). 

(41) Chriftian I. in an alliance made with Edward IV. 
king of England, ftiled himfelf, Regnornm Dacise, Soecis, 
Norwegiae, Sclavorum, Gotorumque Rex ; Dox Slefvicenfis, 
Comes Holfadae, Stormarisc, Oldenburg & Delmenhorftl 
Du Mont, Corps Diplom. Tom. III. P. I. P. 585. That 
in the middle a^es, Dacia was written inftead of Dania, I 
have taken notice of abore^ § i. The title of king of the 



The prefent title is king of Denmark 
Mid Norway, of the Vandals and Goths, 
duke of Slefwick, Holftein, Stormarn, and 
Ditmarih, cottnt of Oldenburg and DeU' 

The title of majefty was firft known in 
DenoQiark under king John, but not con- 
ifantly ufed. ■ The preceding kings were 
ftikd your honour, your grace, &c [m). 


The three lions, as the chief arms of 
l^enmark, are firft found in the feals of 
king Waldemar IL King Eric VII. firft 
quartered the ihield with three lions in 
the upper dexter; in the fecond three 
crowns (42) 5 in the under dexter, the 
Norway lion, with the halberd ; and in the 

Gotbs icema not to have been carrent in Denmark ti]1 after 
the union of Calmar ; though fome fay, that it had been af* 
' famed by king Waldemar in. in 1363, on his making him* 
ielf mailer of the ifland of Gothland. Vid. Jac. Wilde, 
Snec. Hii!« Pragmat. cap. ii. § 36. In the negociations for 
a peace, in 1659, the Swedes would not allow of the kin|^ 
ot Denmark's Ihlinghimfelf king of the Goths. Hoibcrg, 

(«r) Holbcrg, P. I. p. 477. 

(42) Thefe qaeen Margaret and king Eric VTI. placed ife 
the (hiekly not only to denote the union of the three north- 
• cm kingdoms, but likewife on account of their very ancient 
right to bear theie arms. It however appears, that after the 
diiToiotion of the union of Calmar, king Frederick I. did 
sot bear the three crowns ; but his fon Chrifhan III. is faid 10 



fourth a Pomeranian griffin {n). But this 
fhield has been altered and augmented ie^ 
veral times* At preient it conMs of a 
Ihield quartered by the crofs of the Dane-* 
brog order^ a central ihield and a heart ihield. 
The dexter quarter of the firA^ is SpU fcmee 
with hearts Mars, and three lions Jupiter 
crowned Sol j for Denmark : in the iecond, 
a lton» crowned SoU griping a halberd 
Luna 5 in a field Mars ; for Norway : the 
third quarter, a fefs Jupitqr with the 
three Swcdiih crowns Sol ; in the lower, 
two lions Jupiter, crowned Sol i in a field 
Soli for Slefwick (43): The fourth, alfo 
a fefs, has in the upper part a leopard Ju- 
piter, with nine hearts Mars, in a field 
Sol ; for the kingdom of the Goths : in the 
lower part, a dragon, crowned Sol ; in a 
field Mars ; for the kingdom of the Van- 
have replaced them rrom political motives. Holberg, P. H, 
Thefe three crowns became the caufe of a bloody war be- 
tween Eric XIV. kiog of Sweden, and Frederick II. king 
of Denmark. At the peace of btetin, this difpute was re- 
.ferred to an amicable accommodation ; but that not taking 
place, it ferved, among other things, to kindle a frefh war 
between Charles IX. and Chriftian IV. At the i>eace of 
- Silorod, in 1613, it was at length aereed, that both kingdoms 
'might bear the three crowns. Hoiberg, P. II. 
(n) Holberg, ch. x. 

(43) This coat, which before was in the central OMi, 
Frederick IV. removed into the grand ihield in ij^zi, oa 
Us annexing all Slefwick to the crown. 

4 dais 


dais (44) : the central (hicld is likewife % 
fefs 1 in the dexter^ on the upper hzlF, is a 
nettle Lilna ; in a field Mars ; for Hol«- 
ftein (45) : in the finifter^ a fwan Lana, 
likcfi^ife in a field Mars $ for Stonnar : 
in theloweris atrooper^ araied^ SoI» with 
hts fword draWBj and IHcewiie in a field 
Mars; for Ditmardi (46);: the dexter of 
the heart-(hield, are. Mars, two bars 
Sol 5 for the coilnty of Oldenburg : and, in 
the finifter ; for the county of Dclmenhorft, 
Mars, a crofs wavy, Sol (47) : the great 
ihield farmouAted by a regal crown ; with 
the eniigns of the two orders of Danebrog 
and tl>e Elephant, appendcnt (o). 


The king's dldeft fon is ftUed the crown- Titht, ph- 
ptince-; the other royal children are called obiiKacioM, 
hereditary princes and princefTes^ and heirs chli/r^* 
of Norway. princeiof 

The king is to provide them with an ap-^""***^* 
piinage fuitable to their rank, either in mo* 

(44) Or df the Slaviy as it was formerly called. This 
ca&t was firft borne by Chriftopher III Holberg, ch. x. 

•(4c) This was firft placed m the<fliield by king Chriftiaa 
L Ibid. P. I. 

(46) Frederick II. added this coat after redocingDittDarfli. 

^7) Thefe artns of Oldenburg and Pelmenhorft ChriiUan 
I. firft quartered with the Danifh, as being thofe of his fa- 
mily. ^ 

(c) ProfefTor Gatterer's ncweft Maaoal of Genealogy and 
Heraldry, ^^ 



ticy or land, of which they are to cnjdy the 
produce ; yet only for life, and with a n^ 
ferve of the fovereignty to the king (j>). 

The ^king's daughters and lifters have 
likewife a princely fubfiftencc till they 
marry with the king's- confent, when they 
receive a portion in money ; and they, on 
their part, engage not to make any farther 
demand on the king^ either for themfelves 
or their children ( q). 

No prince of the blood is to marry, go 
out of the country, or enter into foreign fcr* 
vice, without the king's permiffion. 

On a fon or daughter being born to any 
' of the royal family^ the parents fball, with- 
out delay, make known to the king, the 
name and birth-day of fiich prince or prin- 
cefs, as an authentic voucher of their de- 
gree in , the hereditary fuccefilon to the 


Origin, ana The founder of the prefent royal family 

g^'^^tunewas king Chriflianl. eldeft fontoTheodo- 

fMay!^** rick the Fortunate, count of Oldenburg, 

who was a-kin to the former royal family of 

Denmark by his mother Hedwig. The 

fame epithet may very properly be applied 

' (/) Royal Code, Art. XX. 
{q) Ibid. Arc XXII. 



to his lioeage ; t. As having alreftd^f &t oh 
the tkrone abav^ three hundred years an 
« dktd male line, one iingle cafe except- 
' ed (48), which is more than iany roy^l 
fan^y iu EiMtoft can boaftt except that of 
Fmce c amd 2. as having the iiniitnited 
and hercdiUry ibirereignty coalerred on it 
l)y.the voluntary ^etfer of the (ftates, and 
conlequently holding it by the moftjail and 
valid tide : to which may be added, 3. that 
a prince of the Danilh royal family now 
wields the fceptet df Sweden ; and the heir 
apparent of the R^llian empire is likewife 
A branch of tfiat illuftrioas ftem (49) • 
ITitts, as at a former, but very (hort pe- 
riod, afl the three northerti monarchies jvill 
be ttnderpriaces df the blodd royal of Vcn-- 
ma)^(5o). Such good fortune has bcfal- 
Jcn m> other royal family in Europe, except 
that of fiourbon. 


The royal rcfidence was formerly at Rof- fj"?^'*/^"^ 
child, bttt Chriftopher IIL removed it .to dcnce. 

t^S) Wlieit Chriftiap II. being depofed, Frederick I. his 
bvomr^s Iba was rtifed to ^ throne. 

(4^) lodi the kiii9 of Sweden, and the crown prince of 
RalCa, are defcendel in a dtiea male line from Adolphvs, 
duke mf SMvick-H<Mem» third fon to Frederick I. king of 

(so) At the time when Peter III. faton theHnffian throne. 

Vol. in. E • Copen- 


Copenhagen (51), which has fince been the 
capital of the kingdom; and very great pri- 
vileges have been conferred on it» particu- 
larly by king Frcdferick III (/)• 

The king has feveral country palaces in 
the ifland of Zealand ; as Frederickfburgt 
Fr^ideniburg^ Jagerfftreis^ Jageriburgh» 
Freudenland^ Hirfchholnit with fome 
others («). 

S E C T. XXX. 

Great oM. The govemment, during the limitation 
ft!u. of the prerogative^ in a great meafure de-* 
pended on the council of ftate, and chiefly 
oa the four great ofiicers^ the high fleWard 
of the kingdom^ the marihal» the chan- 
cellor^ and the admiral; among whom were 
diftributed the moft important concerns of 
peace and war {x). But the eftablifhment 
of unlimited fovereignty put a final period 
bodi to the pofts and the authority of thefe 
officers^ as likewife of the council of ftate. 
King Frederick III. however, on the ercc- 

(51) This dty was firft called Kiobmandi-Havo, or Mer^ 
chants-Haven, which was afterwards fhortened to Kiobn- 
Havn. King Waldemar I. made a grant of it to the dio- 
cefe of Rofchild ; but under Waldemar III. it partly revert- 
ed to the crown, and entirely ander Chriftopher III. Pon- 
ti^pidan's Orinnes Hafnienles. 

(/) For the Pardcobrs of them^ may be coofulte.4 HoU 
berg, P. III. 

(») BnfchiDg's Geography, P. L 

(x) Holberg, chap,ui. 


b E ]k M A R ii. ^1 

tioil oFhisnew fovereignty, inftead of to«-~ 
tally fuppreffing thefe titles and dignities^ 
created twenty counfellors of flate ; and on 
five of them conferred the titles of high 
bailiff (52)^ chancellor^ marihal^ admiral, 
and treafurer: he at the fame time inftituted 
five commiifions or boards (53), over each 
of which, one of the five before mentioned 
officers was prefident, with three counfel- 
lors of flate, and fomc other noblemen and 
commoners under him ; thefe great officers 
of ftate were likewife members of the privy 
council formed by Frederic III (^). This 
arrangement fubfifted till 1676, when it 
was fupprefled {z), together with the titles 
and pofts both of thofe counfellors and 
great officers of date. 


The Dani(h court is compofed of a great coort-ofl. 
number of officers, and fomc very confider- ^• 
able. The principal are the great marfhaU 
the lords of the bed-chamber, the firft gen^ 
tlemen of the bed-chamber, the mafter of 

(fi) Thia tide was, perhaps, adopted in lieti of that of 
]dgh-flewa>d» finoiki a di&greeable remembrance of the ex- 
ceSve power of that officer. 

(55) Tilde were, i. The lord Vftcward's offite. 2. The 
diaBcerjr, aad comt of law. 3.. The war-office. . 4. The 
adminltr. e. Thetreafary. 

ij) Holbm, P; IIL 

(«} Sutc ofDeninarl^ ch. xv. 

£ 2 the 

5fc PRESEI^T St ATE of feUROPE. 

the horfe, the great huntfmitil^ and tib6 
taafter of the ceremonies. 

S E G t. XXXH. 

Order or t)fenmark has two celebrated orde^'of 
pkl^ knighthood, one oiF the Elephant* and the 
other of t)anebroge, but both of very uhcer- 
taih origin. Coneeming the former, fome 
afErm it to have been founded by kii>g Ca* 
nute VI. {a) during his croifiide to Pal- 
leftine ; but their proofs amount to no more 
than fftere conjeifture^, and fome manifeftly 
falfe {i). Chriftian I. may, in fome mea- 
fure, be accounted the inftitutor of this 6r« 
der, he and his cOhfort Doirothy havhig, iA 
1464, founded a religious fraternity^ the 
members whereof wore a chain with a me« 
dal, on one fide of which was the Virgin 
Mary (landing in a crefcemt, 'and on the re- 
verfe an elephant. This fraternity oon-* 
tinued tinder king John, but tinder Frederie 
I. and Chriftian III. the* reformation b«iag 
then eftabliAied, it became negleded as a 
matter of fuperftition. King Frederic lU 
however, took it again into confideration^ 
and revived it» though with a great altera-* 
tion in its enfigns, fupprefling Ae Virgin's 
image, and retaining only the elephant* 

(a) Bircherodios in Breviario Equeftri, Holberg's Hift. of 
Denmark, cap, xiv. 
(i) Kohkr's Medallic Rccivattoii (a German wo>k) PartX. 


P B N M A R K* 53 

llmsi a fpirifu^ fnteraity became changed 
iato a teqipor^ order of ^iughthood» wh;cji 
was called the order of the Elephant s 6x 
that ihis pfinpe muft he flowed, ifQotthe 
foifpcjeTi its reviver {c). After fonoie leiler 
^ter^ns under Cferiftian IV, and Fredc-i 
^riclll. it rpceiv^d its prefent form from 
Chriflia^ V. by whofe^ order ^ fpt p/ ]zw^ 
was dr^wn up for it, and figned by all tht; 
](night5 comp^pioqs on the ift Deceoxhcr 

The pqn^t)er Qf kpights is fixed at thirty, 
befidf^ tl^e king as foyereign, and his fons. 
The pn%p of the or4cr, which is a gold 
El^ph^t enfmaeUed white, is worn at ^ 
bhie ribhqnt hanging acrofs fro^i the left 
^pul^er, with ap octangular filver il^r, 
and a iil?ef crofs ip the cent^r^, ^mhroidere4 
on the left fide qf the coat : but on the fef-? 
tivals of the order they appear in the h^bit^^ 
apd over it a golden cham of elephants and 
toners placed alternately^ hanging round 
the ncct (0- 

The ii^itution of the order pf Danebroge order of 
is, in the preamble to the laws of this order ^^^'^•^ 

{c) Kohler'8 MedaUic Recitattoo, Part X. Holbeig's Hill, 
of Penmarf^x cap. xiv. 

(iO They are to be feen 10 Leibnitii Cod. Jor. GeDt* Di- 
plom. Manti^ 11. Its motto mull be allowed very good aad 
appolite : << Mal^ mori qaain fcpdari/* 

(0 Vid. Sttcot. Art. IV, V, YI. 

£ 2 drawn 


drawn up by king Chriftian V. in 16^3, 
attributed to king Waldemar 11. on occafioa 
of the Dancbrogc ftandard dropping from 
Heaven in his expedition to Livonia iq 
1219, and of the viftory prefaged by that 
miracle (/). But this, like the ftory of 
the ftandard itfelf, on which the inftitution 
of the order refts, is very dubious (jg). Suc- 
ceeding times likewife afford nothing ccr-» 
tain ; only it is a common opinion among 
the Danifh writers, that the Danebroge 
ilandard, the original enfign of the order« 
being loft in king John's unfortunate ex- 
pedition againft Ditmarfti in the year i50O» 
the order itfelf gradually funk into obli«^ 
vion, till ChriftianV, in 1671, revived it {b). 
But others, and not without reafon, reckon 
that prince to have been its firft founder (f), 
though he ftiled himfelf only the reftorcr 
• ofit(ii). 

The knights, exclufive of the fovc- 
reign and his fons, are fifty in number : the 
eniign is a longifti gold crofs enamelled 
white^ pendent to a red ribbon with a 
white border, paffing over the right ftioul- 
der to the left fide. The knights wear on 

(/) Vid. Statut Ord, Daocbrogici in Leibnitu Cod. Jor, 
Gent. Diplom. Manciif. II. p. 70. 
" (^) Kohlcr»8 Medallic. Recreation, Part XIX. 

Ih) Holberg's Hifti of Dcnipark, Part III. p. 794^ 

(1) Kohler'i Medallic. Recreacion, p. 382. 

(i) yid. Statut Art. VU. 




the right &de of the coatt an embroidered 
iilver ihr with eight points, and a filver 
crofs ; in the middle are thefe words : 
^* Rcftitutor Chriftianus R.'* With the ha- 
bit of their order they wear a gold chain c^ 
cro£G:s» enamelled white, with which every 
knightprovideshimfelf at hisown expence (/)* 
To thefe two orders has been added a 
third, inftituted by the late queen Mag- 
dalena Sophia, confort to Chriftian VL 
on the 7th of Auguft 1732, in commemora- « 
tion of the day of her marriage. It is ftiled 
the order of Fidelity, orDe T^Union parfaite, 
and conferred on perfons of rank of both 
fexes (54). The enfign of the order is a gold 
cvqiz enamelled white, worn on the left 
breaft at a light blue ribbon, with a iilver 
border; in the middle are the king and 
queen's names on one fide, and on the other 
thefe words : ^^ In feliciffimas Unionis Me* 
moriam {m).'* 


Chriftianity had been long known in thest«ti«f w 
fouthern and weftern parts of Europe, be- 
fore it reached the north; and its com-- 

(/) Wd. Statot. Art. II. VH, VHI, IX. 

(54) Tlie number of knights is not fixed ; the Daniih 
Coart SLalendar makes them above an handred and fifty. 

(«) Snpplem. to i« 2, 3, and 4th Part of the Genealo- 
gical ArchiTarios of ijsz, p* 23, 

E 4 mencement 


mmeement cannot well bo placed kigbeif 
than the ointh century. It was not^ m-% 
deed, lill theelev^nth^ that king Canoto 
the Greftt perfedly eftablifloed it ia Den- 
mark I and the immeduM good coafequeneo 
' •/ iatrodttciiig the Chriftian religioa was, 
that frofl^ the iaid penod we hear jmx n^orm 
of the northern piracies and ravages^ As 
St. Anfghariu^, who was rai&d to. th« 
arehbiihoprie of Hamburgh and Brmcn^ 
happened to be the chief ^nArameat ia tho 
converfion of the Normans, he and his £qc^ 
cefTors were inveiled witk the fpiritiial yg^^ 
rifdii^ion over the three northern kiogdome 
in quality of the pope's vicar. This authority 
continued in that fee, tiU at the re^eft of 
. Eric Ejegod, king of Denmark, pope Pa£r 
chal 11. raifed the bl&opric of Lund, ia 
Schonen, to an archbi(hopric, with eccle<<» 
£a(lical jurifidiAion over Norway and Swe-* 
den (n). But Drontheim and Upfal beii^ 
not long after ere^ed iatp archbiihoprics^ 
the archbifhops of Lund had nothing to do 
with any churches but thofc of Denmajrk. 

The papal fupremacy was introduced 
jointly with Chriftianity, and fo implicitly 
acknowledged by the P^ifla clergy, th^t, 
at length, they made little or no account 

(n) Saxo Qrammaticus in Hift. Dan. Lib. XII. Baronius 
in Annal. EcdeA Tom. XI. ad Ann. 1002, . 


DE N M AR K. yjf 

of diekkig's prerogative. The prekftcs in 
procefs of time, partljr by t^ weak iiidiil* 
gtncc of the kiogs^ partly by the means 
which their office put iata their ha£i4s> at** 
tained to gieat wealth, and of coAirfe to 
great confideratton and power. The archbi* 
ihop and bifhops afliimed royal preirogative^ 
coining flboney, interfering in ail Aatjt affairs, 
.and not a few of them ading at the head of 
armies, as commandera^ in ihort, they were 
become owners of the greater part of the 
kingdom, and their ftate, luxury, and jpride, 
eaeeeded aU bounds {a). Theie diforders 
lafted till the happy eftabliihment of tlie Re* 
fbfmationini536,by ChriftianllL Thearch^ 
bifliop of Lund, togedier with the fix Da- 
Bifli bishops of Roibhild, Odenfee, Ripen, 
Aarhoos, Wybowg, and Alburg, were de- 
prived of their dignity, their incomes f^quef*- 
tratisd, ftewards employed for the exercife of 
their temporalities, and fuperintencknti to 
porfbrm their ecclefiaftical fondions. Th)^ 
like methods were taken in Norway, in 1 537 ; 
and the reformation was introduced into that 
kuigdom without the leaft oppofition {p). But 
in Icclaod John ArDcfon the Roman Catholic 
bifhopof Holum,inflead of acquAefeingraifed 

(#} HDlbert'sHift^ofDtnmatk, Part. I. Tiut-H. 
(/) Ibid. P. II. 



fuch an infurreftion as was not to be quelled 
but by an armed force (f )* 

Thus king hereupon iflued an edid re«* 
lating to difcipline and dodrine, and cauied 
the. Bible to be published in Dani(h from 
Luther'^ tranflation ; a phenomenon never 
feen before in thofe parts (r). 

Thus the Lutheran religion became efta* 
bliihed in Denmark ; and the fucceflbrs of 
Chriftian.III. (hewed a great, or rather ex-> 
ceflive sseal in fupporting it (55), not tole- 
rating any {t&s, not even thofe founded on 
principles of the reformation {s). Frederic 
IV.- apd Chriftian VI. have by miiGonaries 
promoted Chriftianity amidfl the heathens in 
the Eaft-Indies, Greenland,and Finmark (t) ; 
and, with this commendable defign, the 
former founded the miflionaries .feminary 
at Copenhagen (u). 

The rules of faith in the Danidi church, 
befidcs the Apo(lolic» the Nicene and 
Athanafian creeds, are the Augiburg cOn« 

(f ) Holberg, Hift. of Denmark, ch. iv. 

(r) Ibid. 

(55) In the new Daimfli Code, or that of Chrifiian V. are 

and the Refonned, together with other fe&$, and likewiie 
the Jews, are tolerated in feme places, as Copenhagen^ Al- 
tona, and Predericia. 

(/) Holbcig's State of Denmark, and NorwaVi ch. ir. 

(/) See above Holberg, § ix. U. 

(») Holbprg, c. X?. 


D E N M A R |C. 59 

feffioQ, and Lather's catechifm {x). The 
Formula Coocordias was fo far from being 
accepted by' king Frederic, that he prohi- 
bited It by a public edid, though it's or^* 
thodoxy has been acknowledged both in 
Denmark and Slefwick {y). 

The clergy in Denmark are under fix bU 
fhops; the firft diocefe is Zealand; the fe* 
cond Fuhnen>Laaland andFalfter; the third 
Ripen ; the fourth Aarhuus; the fifth Wy- 
bourg ; and the fixth Alburg. 

Norway has four fees, Aggerhuus, ChriA 
tianfandy Bergen, and Drontheim ; and in 
Iceland are two, Scalhold and Holum. 

Thefe bifhops, at the time of the refor-* 
mation, were ordained only as fuperintend- 
ants (z) $ and fb the laws conti»aally term 
them; but the title of bi(hop fcems to have 
been retained in regard to antiquity. 

Next in order to the bifiiops are the pro- 
vpfts, or deans, and under thefe the town 
and country minifters, with other inferior 
church^officerSt Thebi(hops the king nomi* 
nates ; the others ar^ chofen by the clergy^ 
with the bifhop*s approbation ^a). 

e) HolbcK's Hift. of Demnarlt;. 
) Ibid. Art n. 

(«) Id. Ibid. 

la) Dsniih Codeof pluiftta9 V. B. Ui 





copenh** |t will readily |?e f>erc^ived thaf l^ersture 
l^.'^'^'and the fwcnc^s were for^tjerly as Cc^rqc iti 
the pprth as in pthcr parts of Eufopc ; but 
after the introdu.dkiioia of Chiriftiaf)^tj» the 
Norot^ns (hew^d that they were not iaien- 
£hle tq the beautj^ and beae^ts of polite 
lparnin|;* The paRifti gentry and cihcrs^ 
who fceked prcf?rinent in. the church of 
ftate, vifited foreign univerftUf s^ ' partici?-? 
Urly Paris (j|6) and Cologne {6) : cyen 
the Icelanders fo ^ong 9go as th^ elevenths 
twelfth^ and thir^nth ;:entufi$$j, travels 
led tp Q^rmany, It%, Fraiic?, ajid Eng- 
land^ in pr4?r to. enter on » cpurfp of ftu* 
dies (c) y the north, ?t that (inje,. flp( ^if- 
fordin^ ^ny proper fcminaries, P\ijing the 
firft hSf of the fifteenth centijry there was 
not pnp univerfity in all the three northern 
kingdoms. Eric of Pomer^ni^ intended 
to have ere^cd one in Penn\arkf ^nd, in 
the year 1418, had pbtained a hVqncp fron^ 
pope Martin, which in thpf? times was qp- 
ceffaryj byt the ppntinual difturbgncei of 

($6) Two Danes, named Henning, and Petros de Dacia, 
the latter of whom was a great machem^ticiai). were r^c* 
tow in the Univcrfiiy of Paris. HoH?crg, Pait I. 

(6) Pontop^id. Vol. I. B. L c. vii. 

(r) Jo. End Difquifit, de Vet. Septentrional* Imprimis 
lilandorom Peregrinationib. cap. iii. p.' 85, 86. 


t> E N M A R K. U 

his rfei^n ^te^chted the accompliftitnent of 
& good a dcfign {d). JCing Chtiftian I. 
however, tztncd it into 6xecutioti> and» ia 
1478, founded tlie \iniverlity of Copen* 
hdgen, bttt could not furniYh it with a ftlf- 
ficient incomes fo that till the titneof Ctirif^ 
tiah l)t« it toade but a mean appearance^ 
iktfdhadibWydi&eoltiestd ftrttggkwithi[?). 
But this pHnce ahd his fon Frederic It> greatly 
iimelided fts <:oftdition with the fequeftrated 
church-lands : atid <!Siriftian tV. and fVe- 
dcric 111. (hemd themfchres veiy fibetd 
patrons^ by feveiftl new endowroents and 
foundations (/*)• Even private perfons have 
added colleges (57)9 in which a certain num^ 
berof itudents are lodged and boarded. 

At the deplorable fire in ijai, all the 
buildings belonging to the univerfity^ the 
churches^ colleges, and libraries, were to- 
tally reduced to aihes. King Chriftian VI. 
howevet, rebuilt the whole ; and, belides 
new conftitutions with regard to the uni- 

(d) Holberg's l>e&itmk, P. I. 

(0) Ibid. p. 718. 

i/) BtlAet^s State of DeftnUftrk «kid Norwi^, ^p* r> 

(S?) '^^c univeriicy has foar colics } the firft, called the 
RegCQtZy was foanded by king C^riftian IV. in 1623 ; the 
Hscamit by the k>f d high ftewafd Walfcendorf, in 1^5 { the 
chirdy called Colleginm Medieeam,in 1691. by the celebrat*- 
cd;phyiiciaii of the name of Bork ; end the fourth, io 17059 
by George Elerfen. Holberg's Suie of Deamaffk and Nor- 
way, chap.v. 



Veriity in general, augmented the fal'aries 
of the profefTors, and» in 1732^ gave it a nevir 
charter^ (58) 1 fo that he may be looked oa 
as its fecond founder {g). The number of the 
ordinary and extraordinary profeifors Is little 
fliort of fifty. 

Bfcfides Copenhagen univerfity^ the only 
one in the Danish territories $ Soroe has an 
academy of gentlemen (59), with feven pro- 
feifors; and Odenfee a collegiate (chooU 
with fix profelTors^ which' is likewife the 
only fi^minary of that fort in Denmark. 

Utemyfi^. For the improvement of the fciences and 
literature^ feveral focieties have lately b^en 
ereded at Copenhagen > and their writings 
have already met with the approbation of 
the learned world. The principal among 
thefe are tl^e academy of fciences^ which 
confifts partly of ordinary, and partly of ho- 
norary members; and the royal Dani(h aca- 
demy for' improving the Danifh language 
and the hiftory of the north (60); 

([58) It contains the whole prefent cooftitBtion of the 
nniverfinr. Ibid. ch. v. 

(i) Holberg, ibid. p. 201. 

(S9) Poi* the feveral changes made in it by king Frederick 
V'a neiAr diarter of the 17th of July, '1747, fee Holb. ch. viL 

(60} The Bimes of the members of both theie ibcietace 
tre to be feen la the Daniih Court Calendar. 



The favourite fciences of the northern nowJAinf 
nations^ were antiently poetry and hiftory, i 
v^hich they blended; their poets, whom 
they called Skaldrers (6i), being at the 
fame time their hiftorians. The Icelan- 
ders have chiefly diftingui(hed themfelves 
by hiftorical poems; and to them are owing 
the mod ancient written monuments of 
northern hiftory, how remaining (6). The 
other iciences made but a flow progrefs, in 
the north ; and it was not till the fixteenth 
and feventeenth century, that they became 
propagated to any confiderable degree, by 
the enlargement and profperity of the 
univerfity of Copenhagen. Since that 
time, this kingdom has produced many 
eminent luminaries (62) in divinity, phy* 
fick, mathematicks, philology, and hif- 
tory (63). 

' (61} Amcmg dide is Reenier Lodbroc; and Mr. Milfet» 
in hU Introdua. i V Hi£ de Daanem. Tom. II. p. 268^ 
has given us a tranflation of one of his compofitions. 

(i) Holberg's State of Denmark and Norway, ch. v. p. 
157. Cenf. Torha Antiquit. Univ. Sept. Lib. I. cap. i. p. 

(62) Holberg has their names, chap. v. He makes no men* 
tion of lawyers, becaafe, fays he, in Denmark they are not 
fo nnmerous as in other conn tries ; the Danifh law being fo 
Ihort and plain, and the intricate Roman law, with which 
other nations are peftered, not having room here. 

(^3) Of the three different hypothefes in the antient Da- 
nifli hiftory, and the writers who have been more or le(s 
folloired there, an account may be found in Holberg, cap. v. 



At prefenti }earaing> and all the fciences^ 
may be faid to flourifh in Denmark equally 
witli any other country, which is princi-' 
pally to be attributed to the noble attention 
and bounty of their majefties Frederic V» 

SECT, xxxvn. 

Ana of die The fine arts, under the patronage of thefe 
uanuk^ priuces, have enjoyed a like happinet^ ; not 
lo mention other ufeful and elegant inftituti- 
onsy Frederic V. founded at Copenhagen, an 
academy of painting, fculpture, and airchi* 
tedture *, and it is maintained in a manner 
truly rc^al. 

SECT, xxxvm. 

Dan^ib '^^^ countries of which the kingdom of 

^"^ Denmark comfifted^ had anciently diflPerent 
laws, and particularly Ze^nd and Jut- 
land (65). An abfolute prerogative hav- 

(64) A ifi^md tcftimony oF Ms^ among otherfy is^ the 
joomey to Anibk of a fociety of leahied pdrfeiKiit thekiiig% 
expence in 1762. Tbt mhty and grandcttr of this vsdtt- 
taking, may be ken m Mr. Midiaelift's preface 4to his qne(^ 
abm tnmfmitced to thatfociety, and the infttnAians likewife 
given in it ; but, at the fame time, how is to be lamented^ 
that this glorioas defign was in a great meafure fruflrated, 
snoft of the gendemen dying before they coald well proceeA 
to bnfinefs 1 ^ 

(65) The latter, which was termed the Great Jote Law, 
and is tranflated into feveral languages, king WaMemar 11. 
vrotnalgated in the year 1240 ; but it has been fuperfeded m 
fadand by Chriftan Vs. new Code, and is now tecained only 
MSkfwick. Holberg, ch. ii. 

6 ing 

log b^ep copferre^ op Frederick III. that 
pi-ioce cmploye^l X^yfitdl perfops tp draw up 
9 ig^qeral codiCi ifuitQd to tji^t jun(ftqre anjl 
the qew fqrm of gwWAOJCAt, >vhich .tpok 
thqm np f^otQ 1661, tp 16693 gndCbrif- 
tian V. after it » had been fevcr^I timQS re- 
viled by the greateft lawyers in the king- 
dom, had it printed in the year 1683, in 
order to its being better known (66). This, 
^ few articles excepted, which have been 
dUere^, remains in full force (/). Cafes, not 
^qiffTmimfd by it* J|re decided by the law 
of nature, and not by the Roman laws, to 
which no greater regard is paid in .Den- 
mark than to the canon law, or the feudal 
Jaw of Lombardy {k). 

King Cbriftian V. likcwife caufcd a codcNocwiy. 
ito be nxade fpr the kingdom of Norway (67), 
and abolifh^d that of Chriftian IV. which 
obtained in that cpuntry (/). 

(66) ^r. Waghort, late profefibr of law at Copenha^ctit 
publilhed a German and Dytch tranOation of it, under the 
title of Koiiges Chridian V. Dapfke bou. Molefworth, the^ 
Eogllfh envoy, who is pleafed to find fault %vich almoft ^vcry 
thing in Denniarky yet beftows the higheil encomiums, and 
indeed very defer vedly, on this code, for its brevity, per* 
fpicuity, and equity, L'Etat prefent de Daanemarc, ch. xv. 
p. 225. 

(/) Hplberg's State of Denmark and Norway, ch. xii. 

(i) Kofod Aacher ad Frid. Piatnerum Epift. de Au£lorit»te 
Jqr. Rqm, Cai^on. ec Longobard. in Dania, in Nov. Afi» 
£r4idit. Nov* 1761. p. 553. feqq. 

{67) TJ\€y were printed at Copenhagen in 1687, undcc 
the title of Kongcs Chriftian V. Norlkc Lou. 

(/} Holberg's $tacc of Denmark and Norway, ph. xli. 

Vol. III. F Ice- 

iccund. Iceland has retained its own laws, re- 
ceived, in 1280, from Magnus Lagebatt» 
king of Norway, and printed in 1 578, 1579, 
and laftly, in 1709 (jn). King Frederic IV. 
however, ordered, in 171 8, that in proceiles 
the courts (hould be governed by the new 
Norway code («). 


coum of Denmark has three inferior courts, the 
village- court, the court of nobles, and the 
town-court (68). Thefe •are held once a 
week by a judge (Fogct), and a clerk of 
the. court, with feven or eight afieflbrs 
(Xingcmand, or Stqckemand), who, in 
towns, are chofen from.the townfmen, and 
in the country from the peafants {0). 

From thefc an appeal lies to the country- 
courts, (Lands-Tingcr), of which there are 
four, and held monthly ; or, when necef- 
fary, every fortnight. But fome towns 
have a particular privilege, by which an 

(«) Holberg's State of Denmark and Norway* ch. xii. 

(») John Arnefens Inledning til den Gamie og Nye Rct- 
tergang i Idand (Kiobrihavn, 1762). Altena Literary Chro* 
niclc, 1763. No 3, 

(68) The firil arc called Herreds-Tinger ; the fecond 
Birke- Tinger ; the th'rJ Byo-TiDgcr. Herred fignifies a 
di(lri6l of feveral villages. Birke, a diftridt of noblefie, and 
gentlemen's eflates. 

(0) Chriftlan V's Code, B, I. ch. iii. Holbcrg, ch. xiii. 



appeal lies from the fentence of the judge 
of the court to the burgomafler and cor'* 
poration {p). 

The royal and fupreme court of jtiillce * 
was inftituted at Copenhagen, by Frederi^ 
IIL in 1661. To this tribunal lie appeals 
from the provincial courts, from the magi- 
ilracies of the pHvilcged towns, and from 
the courts of the nobility. Its feffion be- 
gins in March, the king himfelf opening it 
in perfon, and continues till the caufes 
brought before the court are duly terminated 
according to an eftablifhed form. 

For the great officers of ftate {q) and 
other perfons of diftindtion, king Chriflian 
V. ercftcd the Hoft-Gericht, or court tri- 
bunal i and for the commonalty an inferior 
court, called the Burg Gericht or town-tri- 
bunal ; both are held in the palace of Co- 
penhagen (r). 

The conftitution and method of the in- 
ferior courts in Norway are nearly the fame 
as in Denmark. In 1665, king Chriftian 
y. credled a high court of juftice at Chrif- 
tiania (<r), but with appeal to the royal court 
of juftice at Copenhagen. 

(/} Chriftiaa V't code, B. I^ ch. ili Holberg, ch. 4iu 

(f ) Holberg'a Sute of Denmark and Norway, ch. xr. 
(r) Ibid. 
(/} Ibid. 

F 2 SECT- 



State of the Denmark, before the foverefgnty "becainc 
*'**** ^""'' abfblute, does not appear to have h^ -any 
regukr and ftandir>g army, btit onily a kind 
of militia (/), till Frederic HI. irtiade ft dnfc 
of his firft concerns, that 24,000 men 
{hould be conftaritly kept on jfodt'forthc 
defence of the kingdom. This To>ce Was 
augmented,and received ibtae irriproveiliehts, 
under Cbriftiah V. but Frederic IV. corti- 
pleted the iiiilitafy fyftcih. In 1701, he 
regulated the militia in Denmark, and id 
1705, that of Norway 5 /and in I7i7f he 
put the Danifti cavalry, which till then, ufed 
to be difperfed all over the country. On a 
quite different footing, appointing "twelve 
Horfe-Diftrids, a^ they wiere called, in each 
of which a regiment Was to be quartered 
and maintained. He had before, in the 
year 1714, inftituted a company of cadets, 
confifting of 100 young gentlemen, with a 
yearly falary («). 

Thus the Danifh military eftablifliment 
confifts of raifed men,- And national troops 
or militia. The former, of whom the 
greater part, particularly the foot, are fo- 
reigners, receive a bounty for lifting, ami 

(/) Holberg's HJft. of Denmark, P. III. 

(u) Holberg's State of Penin2[rk and Norway, ch. xi. 



ace in all things like regular forces, and kept 
in cottftant pay ; the latter are furnifhed by 
the country»and as they do no conftant duty, 
fi> are they not in conftant pay, except the 
officers and fubalterns. The proprietor of 
an efiate of iixty tons of Hartkorn (69), 
finds a man for the militia, and half a one 
for the rcferve, Norway, relatively to its 
militia, is divided into fmall diftrids, called 
Lagder ; each of v^hich furniihes and main- 
tsdns a dragoon and a horfe. All the fons 
of farmers are regiftered immediately after 
their birth ; and on the death of a foldier 
in any Lagd, he is replaced by the eldeft 
in that Lagd, virho after ferving fourteen 
years is entered among the Land- Warn, or 
the garrifons in fortified places, and at the 
age of fifty he obtains his difcharge, 

Norvi^ay has likewifc eight companies of 
Skielobers, or fkaiters, who by their ex- 
traordinary fwiftnefs along the mountains, 
and on the ice, have fometimcs performed 
notable fervice. 

Farther, th^ other countries dependent 
on the crown of Denmark, as Slefwick, 
Holftein, Oldenburg, and Delmcnhorft, 
maintain fome regiments of militia. 

(69) This xQeans a fpot of land, the due fowing of which 
will require a ton of rye, a ton of barley, and two tons of 
oau; a (on is eight boihels. 

F 3 The 


The natiopjil regiments are exercifed 
every funday after divine fcrvice ; and once 
a year every regiment is embodied for the 
lame purpofe. They likewife, the refervc 
excepted J are provided v^rith an uniform. 

Sonie years ago the Danifti forces con^ 
fiftcd of, 

L In Denmark and the German territo- 

1. Oftwelveregiijicntsofhorfe, 
viz. the life-guards, ten re- 
giments of cuirafliers, and one 
regiment of dragoons. In all 6 1 84 

2. Twelve regiments pf regular 
infantry : — — i?9S^ 

3. Tv/o regiments of foot guards 1S72 

4. Seven national regiments, or 
militia .— — 10440 

5. A garrifon regiment — 1200 

6. panifh and Holftein artillery 864 

11. In N O R W A y. 


1. Of five regiments of dragoons 3120 
E^ch of thefe regiments has two 

companies of Land-Warn, 
making — — - y$^ 

2. Two regiments of regular in- 
fantry — — 2424 

3r Thir- 


3« Thirteen national regiments. Men. 

or militia — ^ 16224 

Each has two companies of Land- 
Warn, .making — - ^7^4 

4. Four garrifon companies — - 494 

5. Skielobers — — - 600 

6. Artillery — -~ 420 


In all (j^) 59278 

The chief fortified places in Denmark, 


arc, Copenhagen, Croncnburg, Korfor, piac«, 
Nyburg, Fridericia, Fladftraod* 

In the dutchi<s of Slefw)ck and Holftein, 
a^Tc;, Rcndlburg, Gojtorp, Gluckftadt, Hit- 
ler fort, and Stainfturg fort ; in the county 
of Oldenburg, the town of that. name, and 

In Norway, Frederipftadt, Fredericftiall, 
Aggerhuus, Kongfwinger, Chriftianfand, 
Bergen, Drontheina, and Wardoehuus^ 


The Danes have, in all ages, made aNa^y^ 
figure at fea, and been engaged in frequent 

Ij) Deamarkj in Bafching's Geography. 

F 4. war» 


wars on thiat efcmerit, yet the period when 
their kings began to have a conftant fleet of 
their own is fcarce fo much as conjefturcd, 
Chri^ian IV. who had a natural taph for 
fea-afFairSi is accotmtcd the firft who m^de 
any great improvements in the Danifii- M?vy, 
dnd rendered k refpedablc [z)^ All his 
fucceflbrs have made it the conftant objedt 
of their attention, fo that the Danifh fleet 
^ IS unqueftionabjy the befl: in the north. 

The matroffes, who are kept in pay at 
all times, corilift of four divifions, each of 
ten companies, and a company of gunners, 
ftiaking togfefher 4400 frieti. But th^t the 
, whole fleet liiaybri occafidn be expeditioufly 
manned, all fea-faring fifieri are tegiftered, 
and dividfcd into twelve dift^idts, CiX in 
Pefitujirk, and fix in Norway, which ib-r 
gethei- form i body of above io,coo men. 

As a liut-fery for able ofiiicers, king Fre- 
deric IV. in the year 1701, inftituted i^ 
company of fea cadets, Who, befides btihg 
inftrufted in all the fciences tcktive to the 
fea-fcrvice, hav^ a yearly appointmerit. 

Of all kinds of naval (lores Penmark has 
within itfelf a great abaqdintfe, (hemp only 

The navy feme years ago confided of 
forty (hips of the line, from a 100 to 50 

(2) Holberg's Sutf of Penmark, ch. xu 

guns J 


gan^ r ^nd fifteen frigates^ from forty to 
eighteen, befidcs manjftnallerveflels. King 
Fredefrc V. laitely added to it a cxinfiderable 
nmnber of gallics. The whole fleet lies in 
Copenhagen harbour^ where are feveral ma<* 
gmin^s, all full of (lores ready for fervice^and 
9 V^ large arfenal eqoally well provided (a). 


Cinute the Great is reckoned the firftcoiai. 
I>ani{h prince who coined money (70) ; but 
afterwards the biQiops and fevtral towns af- 
Turned that privilege : the former continued 
it till the reformation, and in the latter it 
was not fuppreiTed fill the time of Frederic 
Iti (3), At firft only fmall pieces as pfennings 
were coined ': but king John had pieces of 
the bignefs of a dollar flruck, with the date 
of the year, which is wanting on the for- 
mer pieces 5 and of thefe the proper name 
is not known. Under Frederic I. who like- 
wife coined fuch money, they were called 

(s) AcIieowalPs Conftitution of Earopean States^ in Ger- 
man, -c. vii. 5 57>.58« 

(70) Moft of his coins, however, were ftruck in England, 
as appears from the infcription, Cnut. R;*x. An. And, in- 
deed, the name of Schilling and Pfenning, feem to have 
been imported from England. It may like^ife be fuppofed * 
that Englifhmen were afterwards employed as mailers of the 
mint, the infcriptions on the fyH Danifli coins being a mix- 
lore of Danifli and Engliih, Holberg, cap. ix. 

(/) Ibid. 



thalcrs or Joakim's thalcrs {c). Chriftian 
III; firft coined dollars of forty-eight fchil- 
lings ; marks, of which three went to a. 
dollar ; and fchillings, of which lixteen 
made a mark ; and added the date and his 
name, which was not done before. Chrif- 
tian IV. put the coin under new regula-* 
tions, moft of which are obferved to this 
day ; and he likewife firft coined crowns of 
eight marks, which at prefent go by the 
name of double crowns {d). 

In Norway, money was formerly coined 
by the towns of Dronthcim, Alfloe, and 
Bergen j the latter held that privilege th^ 
Jongeft, namely, down to 1575 {e). 

The Danes reckon by rlxdollars, marks, 
and fchillings ; a rixdollar is equal to fix 
marks, and a mark to fixteen fchillings : 
Lubec and Hamburgh likewife reckon by 
marks and fchillings, in the following pro-* 
portion with thofe of Denmark. 

One Schil. Lub. is equal to two Danifh^ 

One Mark Liib. is equal to two Danifh. 

Three Marks Lub. to one imperial, or 
rjxdollar, which is the fame as in Den-y 

The Danifti current coins are. 

(<r) Holberg, c. ix, 
(J) ibid. 
(e) Ibid. 

I. Of 


I. Of GOLD. 

Ducats of fourteen marks (71) ; and the 
fiew currenjt ducats, as they are called, 
^qual to twelve marks. 

IL Of S I L V E R. 
Crowns of 4 marks (72). 
Double 8. 
Half 2. 
J^icccsof 24, 16, 12, 8, 4, 2 fchillings. 


Fyrkens, or dreylings, two of which go 
to a fchilling, 

A mark of fine filver, coined into crowns, 
makes 10 dollars, tt, but in what is called 
imail current money 10, 8, 4, and 2 
ichillings pieces, the (landard is the fame 
as at Hamburgh ; according to which a 
piark of fine filver is made to yield 1 1^ dol- 
lars. The crowns are about 17 ir per cent. 
better than the money of the Leipfick ftan- 
dard, in relation to which the DaniHi and 
Hamburg currency bears an agio of 8 iy 
per cent (/). 

(yi) ThefCy and ducats in general, rife and fall at Lti- 
beck, without any fettled value. 

(72) Thefe being of a better ftandard, have an agio of 
fear ichillings above the current money; and fo like wife the 
doable and half crowns in proportion. 

(f) Diflertation on Coins^ (a German piece). 

• SECT. 



Rerenue. Thc Ordinary revenue of the kings of 
Denmark formerly rofe from, the ?rown- 
lands ; which, however^ produced tut lit- 
tle, being granted to the nobility on fo fmall 
confideration {g), that |hcy reaped the chief 
benefit thereof (75), It was only on extra- 
ordinary occafions, and with confent of thc 
flates, that any general imports were Uid. 
But the finances coming wholly into the 
king's hands, on his being inverted with 
unlimited fovereignty, wer^ put under a far 
better regulation particularly by Frederic IV. 

The chief branches of the king's income 
at prefent are, 

1 • The dcmefnes, or crown-lands, which 
are very confiderable, but fomc URcJcr alic-p 
nation (74). 

z, The regalia, as the 'poft^ pffice^ ftamps, 
(75) and cards (76)* 

(g) Holberg's Hlft. of Dtnraark, P. MJ. 

(73) "^^^^ occafioned th.e mocion pade by the clergy and 
citizens at the diet of Copenhagen, in 1660, of farming out 
tkffe land? to the higheft bidder; and it war this motion that 
gave rife to the violent debate between the nobility and thofe 
two orders, to which the introdiuStion of unlimited fove^ 
rcignty was chiefly owing. Ibid. Part III. 

(74) Part of them Frederick IV, employed in formiog 
the borfc diftrifls. 

(75) All agreements, law-writings, acquittances, grants, 
commiflions, and warrants for employments, muil be made 
out on ftamp ppcr. Thefc (lamps arc from ^x fchiUings 
to three hundred rixdollars. See J^et^rps fi|r la Daooemarc, 
Lettre XL 

3. The 

i) E N M A R K. 

3. The 4and*lax (77) which is rated 'by 
*he riiimbfer of ttins of hart-korn (78). 

. '^. The ^king's tyftes (79). 
5. The fbmfty^ax, (Folke og Familie 
-icat) payable ^by thofc vAio refide in the 
coniitfy, without fdllowing agriculture, 
<tnd whofe lands are exempt from taxes. 

'6. Duties on imports and exports (80). 

7. Excife on all kinds of provifions and 

8. The marriage duty (81), payable by 
all perfons on marrying (6). 

(76} Pan-t of their produce goes to the new hofpital at Co- 

(77) Thw has been mentioned above, § 4,0. only be it 
bbferved here, that thos the land is raced according to its 
fertility, and not extenr. 

(yB) Every ton 'of hart-korn pays annoally to the c.'^rn- 
tax four marks twelve fchillings; to the grain-t x nine 
fliarks ; to the cavalry-tax one mark eight fchillings ; und to 
the ox and bacon-tax twelve fchillings. 

(79) Of thefe'the king only has a third, the other two 
^arts going to the chorch and the mtnifler. 

(80) or all the tolls, that of the Sound produces mpH, be- 
tween 5 and 6000 ihips paffing through it, communibus an* 
nit,, and each paying one, or rather more per Cent« lis 
produce, together with the tolls of Bergen and Drontheim, 
and fome of the duties paid at Alcena, go into the king's 
pnyate purfe.. Lett, fur la Dann. XI. The crown bf Den- 
mark u(ed to be frequently at variance with England, Swe- 
den, and the United Provinces, about this toll. M, Molef- 
worth makes (bme obje£\ions againft the Danifh right to this 
tolly to which the aatbor of Defenfe du Danem. has return- 
ed a keen anfwer. 

(81) Perfons poflefTed of an cmploynnent giving them a 
rank, pay fifty rixdollars ; gentry, without any office or ti- 
tle, twenty ; bnt peafanu, folditrs, aud feamen are exempt. 
Lettres, &c« XI. 

{&) For all the feveral branches. Sec Lettres fur le, &c. XI. 

2 TliefQ 




Thefe are the ordinary impoils i as for 
the extraordinary^ nothing can be faid of 
them with any certainty. Of thefe one is 
the princefTes tax, being levied on the mar- 
riage of the king's daughter, or fifter. On 
other occafions the king orders a poll-tax 
or a portion of the eftate or fubftancc of 
any perfon, or appoints other taxes, which 
are mod agreeable to him^ and will befk 
anfwer the purpofe. 


Agricoi. The iflands of Zealand, Fuhnen, and 
Laaland, befides their fertility in grain, 
have been excellently improved ; whereas 
in Jutland and Slefwick, a great many parts 
lie quite wade and barren. Some German 
families, however, forced by the calami* 
ties of the laft war to quit their country, 
came to fettle in thofe parts, and by their 
induftry have raifcd fome kiu3s of grain, as 
buck-wheat and rye, bcfides garden ftufF ; 
fo that the new inhabitants of this trai3:> 
which hitherto was looked on as quite un- 
fuiceptible of, culture, are in a fair way of 
procuring to themfelves a comfortable fub- 
iiftence, and have already built fome vil- 
lages (/). But it may be obfervcd, that the 

(.') Pontoppid. Vol. I. B. I. ch. ix. 



territories belonging to Denmark produce 
not only a fufficiency of corn for thcmfelves, 
but in good years, export coniiderable quan* 
tities to Norway (^i). 


Denmark was not without its manufac- Manufae- 
tures in the laft century : the little town of*" 
Kioge made carpets, and Copenhagen had 
its iilk looms. In 1668, Frederic IIL found- 
ed a cloth manufa<3:ory in the mih'tary hofpi- 
tal; and under Chriftian V. and Frederic IV. 
it was carried on with fuch fuccefs as to fur- 
ni(h cloathing for all the DaniQi foldiers and 
feamen in the fcrvice of the crown. But 
the period, in which manufafturcs were 
brought to fome degree of perfedion, and 
ipread throughout the kingdom, began un- 
der Chriftian VI. This prince fhewcd both 
an unintermitting zeal, and a boundlcfs li- 
berality, in promoting every thing that 
tended to the profperity of his dominions ; 
and this truly royal difpofition was zealoufly 
imitated by his fucceflbr Frederic V, Den - 
mark is now able to furnifh itlelf and all its 
dependencies, with cloth and various kinds 
of woollen and filk ftuffs, ftockings, hats 
&c. Inftead of iron, ftccl, and copper be- 

[i) Bofching*s Geography, Part L 


ing exported, tfaofe metals are now worked 
up at home into all manaier of utieofils aa4 
•tools ; all the .arms of the Donifh troops. are 
of a Danifli manufadliire ; and fiik petre» 
gunpowder, and vitriol are no longer fetch- 
ed from abroad. The jDanifli earthen wares 
and porcelaine are already in fome degree of 
reputation ; and the gloves, and other lea- 
thern manufaiftures at Randers and Odenfc;^ 
are univcrfally known. 

That fo many, and fuch a variety qf coa- 
nufadlures, are come into fuch vogue, and^ 
within no long fpace of time, is, befides 
the attention of the crown, not a little owing 
to the prohibition of foreign goods, and the 
liberal encouragement given (o Able artifi- 
cers and workmen. Copenhagen has a 
warehoufe, founded and fupported by the 
king, vvhere manufadt^rers on bringing a 
piece of work, which they are not able to 
difpofe of, immediately receive two thirds 
of the value, and the remaining third on 
the fale of it; fliopkeepers likewife.may 
here be fupplied with goods on credit for a 
year and a half, at the fmall intereft of four 
per cent. (/). 

(/) Lcttrcs fur la Dann«m. XIV. 




The whole trade of the north was foN TvsAti , 
tnerly carried on by the Hans**towns ; but, 
in the £xteenth century this advantage gra- 
dually became impaired by the increafe of 
the Dutch trade to the Baltic. The Danes 
lifcewiie applied themfelves to commerce ; 
but it was chiefly by raw exports in foreign 
bottoms. King Chriftian V. was the firfl 
who animated his /iibjeAs' to make a figure 
at fea, granting confiderable privileges to 
the owners of ihips of burthen^ of carrying a 
certain number of guns> and thefe were 
called Defenfion-fhips ; in confequence 
of whicK many perfons undertook foreign 
voyages in (hips of their own. This they 
particularly did during the ^reat French 
war which broke out in 1688, fetching 
French and Spani(h commodities at the 
firft hand. Frederic I V, ma3e Copenhagen 
a ftaple-town for wine» brandy, falt^ and 
tobacco, with a provifo, of their being 
brought from France and Spain in Danifli 
bottoms [m). Since that time, and efpe-^ 
^cially in the long peace which has now cpn-^ 
tinued fince 1720, the Danifli maritime 
commerce has been daily increafing^ fo as 

* (ffir) Holberg^t Suu of I^enmark, 4:h. viiv 

Vol. III. G to 


to be now the moft confiderable m the 

The Danifh monarchy confiding of (evc- 
ral iflands and countries feparated by the 
fea, a great intercourfe mufl: be carried 
on by water : between Denmark and Nor- 
way it employs many ihips and vefTels of 
Various dimenfions. The foutbem pirt of 
the latter kingdom, has its corn from Den« 
mark, and is prohibited from buying any 
other, though it might have it cheaper 
from foreigners, who are likewife excluded 
from trading; to the Faro-^iflands, Iceland^ 
and Greenland ; the trade to the two for- 
mer is indeed managed on the kibg's ac- 


Fordga The Danes have a confiderable foreign 
trade, and under fuch good regulations, 
that the ballance is on their fide (82). 

In Europe they frequent moft.of the har- 
bours of the Baltic, and carry on a naviga- 
tion to France, Holland, England, Spain, 
and Portugal. 

They likewife trade to the Mediterranean, 
Italy, and the Levant ; and for the fecurity 

(82) The exports in th^ year 1759, including the freight^ 
amaulntcd to 2,533.171, and tlie imports to 2,477,455 ri«- 
dollan. Bqfching's Geography, Vol. I. 



I) B N M A KK. 83 

of this ioiportint braiscb of tradCj the king 
has entered into treaties of commerce with 
feveral of the ilates of Italy, the Ottoman 
t^Df t^ and the piratipal rcpublici of Africa. 
In Afia they kad (hips to Tranquebar, 
Bengal, China- 
Jo Africa they traffick with Moroccot 
fiod.Fe?9 and along the coaft of Guinea. 
In the Wcft^Iadies they vc pofle0e4 of 
the illands of St. Thomas, St. John, and 
St. CToist, their coautoerce to which i^ veiy/ 
Urge and lucrative^ 

For the advancement of trade in genera], mdh^ 
and particularly the foreign, Denmark jias *'*"^"""* 
fevcral companies, atid thefe tfnjoy con-- 
fiderable privileges. That of the longeO: 
fiandiogt from its firft foundation, is the 
Eaft^^Indi^j which had for its founder king 
Christian IV» in the year i6i6. Soon af- 
ter its commencement it w^ able to pur* 
chafe the town of Tranquebar^ together 
with its territory (83). But not long after, 
either by ill management or misfortunes^ 
or bodi, its trade fell into fuch decay, that 
In 1634, it came to*a period* Chriftian V» 
in 1670, formed a new company, and thisi, 

(83) See »bove» 511. 

G 2. though 


though ftroAgly fuppofted by him and his 
fucceflbr Frederic IV. was at length dif- 1730. Soon after, however, at 
the king's encouragement, a new company 
was ereded, and Chriflian VL the fucceed- 
ing prince, in 1732, gave it a forty years 
charter for an exclufive trade, from the 
Cape of Good Hope as far as China^ and this 
is the prefeht Royal Daniih Afiatic Company. 
It coniifts of two funds, the firft, called the 
Settled Fund, is employed in purqhafing the 
poiTeflions and goods of the old company. 
Its fhares were originally four hundred, at 
two hundred and fifty rixdoUars each, but 
It has (ince raifed the price of them to fif- 
teen hundred rixdollars> and each of the 
four hundred (hares being now divided into 
four, a6d confequently the four hundred 
multiplied to fixteen hundred, one of thefe 
new (hares fells for three hundred and fe- 
venty***fivc rixdoUars. The other fund is 
diftinguiQied by the name of the Running 
Fund, and arifes from the annual contribu* 
tions of the proprietors for fitting out the 
fhips ; and on the return of the fhips and 
the fale of their cargoes, every one has his 
quota paid him 1 with* a proportion of the 

Iron is the only European commodity 
which the company exports to the Eaft- In- 
dies 1 


dies ; and in thofe parts,"" as likewife in 
China, it carries on its trade with ca{h. Its 
affairs in Europe .are under the adminiftra* 
tion of a governor, who is always a pcrfon 
of eminent rank, and four direiftors, of 
whom one mufl: be a civilian, or a fea officer^ 
and the other three merchants {n). 

Under Frederic III. was ereded a com- 2?|j? •?* 
pany for trading to Guinea, where, incoapan/, 
1659, it built fort Chriftianfburg.. 'With 
this was afterwards united the Weft-India 
company, founded by Cbriftian V. in 167 1, 
which has gradually acquired the iflands of 
St. Thomas, St John, and St. Croix {84), 
But on the firft of January 1675, Frederic 
V. abolifhed this united Weft-India com-* 
pany, and incorporated its feveral iflands 
and places with the crown, at the fame time 
taking on himfelf all the (hares, one thou- 
fand two hundred and fifty in number, at 
the current price, namely a thoufand rix-^ 
dollars with the intereft, at five per Cent. 
(p). The Guinea trade has, ever fmce 
been left free to all th^ fMbjeds. 

In the* year 175 1, a very advantageous ^«w 
treaty was concluded with the emperor of 

(m) Hdberg's State of I>eikmark» cfa. viii. 

(84) SeeabDve» ) ii. 

(«) Holberg's State of Denmark, c. viii. 

If) New Genealogical and Hiiloric«l Accoanti| ?« LXlV. 

G 11 Mo- 


Morocco, purfuant to which, they were to 
have an exclufive trade and fettlerhent iq 
the harbdurs of SafH and Santa Cro^ ;. but 
the French, Eoglifli, and Pqtch mer- 
chants jointly making a great clanwur about 
it, the court of Morocco revoked the con- 
vention (y): In the year. 1755* a new 
treaty, however, tpok placCi by which the 
fubjcfts of Denmark were allowed to trafBck 
in all the towns and ports of Morocco (r). 
This trade w^as eondqfted by the African 
company, founded in the year 1755. It$ 
capital is divided into five hundred ibaresji 
each pf five hundred rixdbllars (;). 
oenf^i King Frederic y. ii^ the year 174/1 
com^Lui. ereded af Copenhagen a general trading 
company, and granted to it the exclufive 
trade to Greenland (85), together with the 
whole fiffiery on that cpaft* Next to this^, 
their principal advantage arifci from ex- 
porting to France, Spain, Pprtugal, an4 
Italy, fifh, and all northern commodities^ 
as timber, iron, copper, hemp, tar, and 
leather J and bringing back wine, oil, fait, 
drugs, &c. It likewifp furnifties the Da- 
ifiiQi Weft-India iflands with flaves from 

(f) N«w Gencalojricil sod Hiftorical Accounts, P. XXy. 
(r) Ibid. P.LXXXV. . < . . 

(i) Lettrcft furle, Scc^ 
(85) See above, § 9. 



the coaft of Gaioea* lis original capital 
coniiftod of a thoufand (hares, each at three 
hundred dxdollars ; bwt in 1757* the pro* 
prietors paid in a contribution of two hiin* 
drcd rixdollars on every fhare, a hundred 
of which were to be omployed in purchafing 
two hundred fliare$ in the newly ereded 
Levant company (/)• 

This cop^pany was likewife brought to Lmnt 
a'confiftency in the year 1757, with a ca-***^^' 
^Ital of five hundred (hares, each at ^ five 
hundred rixdollars, ef which the general 
trading company ifiade a purchafe of two 
hundred, thereby acquiring two. fifths of 
the Levant commerce (i^). 

The whole trade to Iceland was fofmerly ronner w- 
la the hands of Hottand, Hamburgh, andpai^. 
Bremen, tiU king Chriftian IV. in 16 19, 
ereding an IcekBdic company, prohibited 
iA foreign interlopers. But fome Algerine 
^ates having in 1627, landed in Iceland, 
earried away many people, and a (hip be* 
longing to the company^ which misfortundi 
proved die caufv of its diiiblution in 1629, 
The. tntde to Icdand was feveral time* 
farmed (x), till in 17231 a new Iqeland 

(/) Lcttrw, Sec. XII. 

i^y AolMrA«11^A Cooiitmim of £«R>pc«n Suu»t op. vii, 
{») Holberg's State of Denmark^ 4c. cap. viii. 

4 com* 


company was ereftedj with a charter^ in- 
cluding likewife the trade to Fintnark ; but 
great loffes, by the decreafe of the fifhery, 
and the mortality among the fheep in Ice- 
land^ put, an end to it in 1759 {/) ; fince 
which this trade has been managed on the 
king$ account by fome merchants appointed 
for that purpofe {z)^ 
infiirance- - Farther, for the conveniency of trade in 
eompanj. ^^^^^^^^ Fredcric IV. iti 1727, inftituted 
the infurance company, and in 1736, 
founded the bank of Copenhagen {a). ^ 


Tfidiiig Denmark has feveral good trading towns 
i^im. and feaports, as Korfor and Kallundburg, 
in Zealand ; Odenfee and Nyburg, in 
Fuhnen ; Aalburg, Randers, and Ripen, in 
Jutland ; Flenfturg, and Friderichftadt, in 
Slefwicki Bergen and Chriftianfound, in 
- Norway, But it is at Copenhagen, where 
the good efFe<ils of the encouragement given 
by feveral kings, to trades, arts, and ma-* 
nufa^ures, appear in their foil luftre (S6). 

(y) Lettrcsfur, Sec. XIIL 

(je) Achenwally ibid, 

(#) Lcttrcs far, &c. Xlf . 

(86) Tlie general oorapany^ trade wat chieifr at&si 
with ft view of making; Denmark the flaple for the Baltick* 
Lettresfur, &c. 



S E C T. LL 

The fereral affairs of government are Aaniiiiftn* 
managed by particular boards or chambers^ m^ 
the principal qf which is the privy-coDncil 
of ftatc, inftitutcd by king Chriftian V. in 
16769 and in which the moft important 
concerns» f)oth domefUc and foreign, re- 
ceive their determination. Its members are, 
at moft, but three or four, with the king 
in perfon at their hea^, and two officers 
appertaining to it, the Danifh and the 
German. In thefe are digefted all matters 
preparatively to their being laid before the 
privy council : to the former belong the 
Dani(h and Norwegian affairs ; to the latter 
thofe of Slefwick and Holftein, Olden* 
burg and Ddmenhorft, and likewife fo- 
reign concerns. The former has a chief 
fecrctary (87), a MaJtre des Requetcs, fe- 
veral clerks and other officers. The latter 
has likewife a chief fccretary, an office- 
Iceeper and fome clerks* 

The other great boards are, 

I. "rtic war*o$ce, which takes cogni* 
nance of the arihy, fortifications, maga* 
zines, and all military concerns. The chair- 
man is likewife ftiled principal fecretary. 

(87) The principal Sxrttuy of each departi|i?fit, is al- 
^ny$ a mcpiber of f^e priv^-covacil. 



The cxpcnces for the military e(labii(hmeot 
are ftated by the commiffary-general. 

IL The admiral ty-officc^ to whofe dc- 
partment belong the fleet and all marititne 
affairs. At the head of it is^ a principal fe^ 
cretary of war^ befides clerks and other of^ 

III. The treafury and ejccbequcr, ins- 
tated by king Frederic IV. for the man^ge^ 
ment of the revenqe. I( was formerly undw 
a prefidept^ who was failed the great trea^ 
furcr, but his place is now fupplied by three 
deputies and a comn^ittee <pf fix. 

IV. the Weft-India and Guinea cuftom«« 
houfe was founded in 1760^ on the cxtinc^ 
tioq of the W^^ft^Itidxa and Goioea com^ 
pany ; and its province 13 to fecore tbo 
king's dues and rights in the iilftnds of St. 
Thomas, St. Johnt St. Croixr ^4 fort 
Chriftianiburg, as like wife the ^qftom an4 
excife dtities iq Denmark. iThis boar4 
(Tonfiftsof three deputies iindfive committee^ 

V. The commercial and oeconomy^-board^ 
founded byChriftian VI. in 1735^ &r tho 
improvement of trade» oavigfttion, the 
fiiheriesy manufadurcs, tillage^ ^, |t ce<* 
ceives, examines» and makc^ trial of ^U 
ichemcs offered for thofe good purpofes. 


D fe N M A R K* • 91 

VI • The ecclefiiftical infpe^ion-officc, 
wa6 Hkcwife inftitttWd by Chrlftian VI. in 
1737; ft* members arc fix in ijaraber, three 
laymen And three churchmen, ftiled Eccle- 
fiaftical Ifefpeeiors. All ecclefiaftical per- 
fond itnd caufes in pedmark And Norway, 
the aniTcrflty of Copenhagen, together with 
al} fchdols and f<^miftaries of learning, are 
uiider their in(pe<3}oh ; and all writings re-t 
lating to divinity and religion muft have 
their Imprimatur. 

VII. The getwral poft^office, which con- 
trottis all tlM pQA-boufcs. throughout the 
IdngdoBi (88), 

S ]? C T. til. 
The maxima by which the D^i>ifl^ go- {j^J^JJ^j;'" 
vernment has priQce^cd of late, and par- 
ticularly during the laft half century, are fo 
well a^ted to the rc^I advantage of the 
ftate and people, that Europe affords but 
few fuch infla^nges. At home, trade, na-^ 
vfgatton^ tiUagie, manufactures, and all the 
Vis and icieac^^, botli ornamcotal and 
Hfefof, have been promoted wjth the greatcft 
application and liberaHty ; and at the fame 
time the land an4 fea-forces were put on a 
fefpedlahle footing, Abroad, a conllant peace 

(88) Ccmcerning thofe fcireral offices. See {jettree far le 
Daoi^emark II. XV. and ({olberg's State of Qennsirk^c. xv. 

7 an4 


and harmony has been carefully cultivated 
with all the neighbouring and foreign pow- 
ers ; and during the two lad great wars 
.which (hook all Europe, and laid wafle fo 
^ many countries, Denmark obferved a flriA 
neutrality, from which it reaped great ad- 
vantages. To thefe falutary meafures is 
owing the prefent profperity of Denmark^ 
and on its adherence to them, entirely de** 
pends the continuation of its happinefs. 


Trciticf. The nioft remarkable treiaties between 
the crown of Denmark and other powers^ 
ar^ the following, 

I. With FRANCE {&).- 


III. With the United Provinces {J). 

(^) See chap. iii. $ 8i. And here I cannot onut whatM. 
dt Real (Science do Gouvern. P. Vt. p. $69.) fayi of a treaty 
between France and Denmark» condoded in 166& ; ia wliich» 
Art. XJ^III. and XXX. it waa agreed, that on the former 
crown's intending to fend more than three (hips through the 
Scnnd, it ihoold be obliged to fignifv the reaiop of fnch nm 
armament ; and that on its (ending five (hips into the BaU 
dck in the year 1739, it conformed to thofe articles. But 
nothine of this is to be (bund in the (aid treatyi except, that» 
when the men of war of either crown ihall remain longer than 
nrceffiuy in the harbours or rivers of the other, the gover- 
nor ihall be made acquainted with the reafons of foch ftay« 

(i) See Chap. iv. ( 73. 

(/) See Chap. v. ^ 5^- 

8 • IV. With 


IV. With the EMPEROR and the 

1. Treatj of peace and friendfhip of the 
23d of May 1544 [e). 

2. Treaty of peace of the zzd of May 
1629 {/) ; 3. Alliances of the 26th of 
January 1674 (g) ; and 4. Of the 26th of 
May 1734 (A). 

V. With ^WEDEN. 

I. Treatyof peace of the 1 3 th of Decem- 
ber 1570 (/)i 2. Of the 20th of January 
1613 W' 3* ^ ^^^ 13th of Auguft 
1645 (/); 4. Of the 8th of March 1658 
{m) J Of the 6th of June i66o {n) ; 5. Of 
the 26th of September 1679 {p)$ 6. Al- 
liance of the 7th of Oaober 1679 (/); 
7. Convention on the paiTage through the 

{#) Da Mont Corps Univ.. Diplom. Tom. IV. P. II. p. 274. 

(/) Ibid. Tom. V. P. II. p. 584, 

{g) Ibid. Tom. VJI. P. I. p. 251. 

{h] Rooilet Sopplem. aa Corps Diplom. Tom. II* P. !!• 

P- 334- 

(/) An txtradi of this piece occurs in Arkenholzen's Eflky 
towards a pragmat. Hiilorv of Treaties, (a German work.) 
. (i) Du Mont. Tom. V. P. !!• p. 642. 

(i) Rooliet Supplem. Tom. II. P. I. p. 313* 

£») Dn Mont, Tom. VI. P. II. p. 205. Mably, Droit 
]. de PEorope, Tom. I. ch. ii. p. 87, 88. 
(») IKd. Tom. VI- P. If. p. 21^. Mably, Tom. I. P. IT. 

P- 93* 

(0) IWd. Tom. VII. P. I. p. 425. Mftbly, Tom. I. ch. 
iv. p. ait. 

(/) Ibid. Tom. VIL P. I. p; 431. 


i^ . l>liESENT STATE 6t EUHOPfi. 

Sound und thd Belt^ of the 228^ cff May 
1680 (f); 8. Trtiiy of commwcie of the 
17th of March 1693 (f) ; 9. TrcMy of 
j)cacc of the I ith of June i/ld (/). 


t. Treaty concerning fahites at fed, of* 
the 30th of October 1730 (/); 2. Al- 
liance of the 26th of May 1732 («)* 


Alliance of the aBth of July 1657 (*)• ' 


Alliances, i. Of the 7th of Jahiiary 
1658 (;f)i 2. Of23dofD«cen:fberi656(2;). 


Celebrated Aoioog thc Qminsot Danifh ftatefo)en 

tn/warrf. arid warriors/ arc recorded the two archbi- 

"*• ihops of Lund, Ahfolom or Axel Huide» and 

Andrew Simonis, who did very good fervicc 

(q) Do Mont, Tom. VIL P. jl. p. «. 
(r) IbW. Tom. VIL P. JI. p. 325. 
(*) Ibid. Tom. VIII. P. II. p. 23. Mably, Tom. U. ch. 
viii* p. 184. ^ 

(/) t^omtt Sapplem/Tom. II. P. II. p. 285. 
(tt) Ibid. Snpplem. Tom. II. P. II. p. 334. 
{*) Pa Moac. Tom. Vt P. U. p. 189. 
(/) Ibid. Tom. VI. P. 11. p. ?oi* 
-(»> Ibid. Tom. VU.'P. I. p, 3x5, 


D E N M A R K. 95 

to Waldcmar I. Canute IL and Waldemar 
II. both with the fword and the pen^ and 
1>y land and fea. Undci- John and Chrif- 
tian n. flouriffied admiral Sorcn Notbjr ^ 
under Frederic II. general Daniel Ranzaw ; 
tinder Chriftian IV. Corfitz Uhlefeld ; un- 
der Frederic III. Hannibal Scheftedt; un*- 
dcr Chriftian V. Peter Schumacher, after- 
wards count (^ Greifenfeld (89). 

The moft reputable Danifli hiftorianf? Hiftoriam. 
are, Saxo Grammaticua (90) ; chancellor 
Huitfdd (91) ; John Ifaac Pontanus (92) ; 
John Meurfius (93) 1 baron Holberg (94) ; 
an4 Mr. MaU«t (95)^ 

(99) Short, but very jndkions ateounU of ^ek emiftefit 
perfboages are to be found in Pdrtraits Hiaoriques des 
mintfies illttilrtt ^e Diittflemtrc. V. Parties. 1746. 

(^) Hiaoria Dnvkx Ltbn XVj. 8cephanu8 yohaenis 
Stepbttiiis tecognovit tiotil^ ilharavit. Sotse, i^44* P^K 

($1) DaBBUBarids Rigis Kronicke IL Deelefr. itloba- 
havtt, i6c2. Pol. 

(92) lEbnixii btttiekmHi ifiADria, Libris IX. Amftdoda-^ 
itti, i6yx. Foi. 

(93) mftorioe Damcae libii XIII. Amdelodaflii, 1639. 

(94) Author 6f«Comtikte ifiitory of Denmark, which 
bas beien thought worth tranflatiRg into German. 

I99) Intiocmftion 4 I^ibire 49 Dannemarc, ok I'on 
trake de k ReltgiODi 4es Lmx, de$ Moeon, et des Ufages^ 
des Meiaat Danois. II» Totne»» a Geneve, 1765. iitno. And 
Hkewifh, mk»n de Daniie^arc. IV. Tomes, a Geneve, 
17^. tsini^. 

Te thefe may be added, 

Gdb et VelKgia Danornm edetm Dansam, predpue in 
OtUmXCt llalin, l»^ia^ ^IKa, AnglHi» SoMia, Hibernie, 



S ^ C T. LVL 

Accoontsof Accounts of the anticiit and prefent ftate 
Dramll^k. of Denmark have been publi(hed by M r« 
Molefworth, envoy from England (96), Ba- 
ron Holbcrg (97), Bifhop Pontoppidan (98), 
iSLTid many others (99)* 

Belgio* Cermania, et Sclavqftia, inaxiinam partem ipfis 
^cf iptorum non exoticorom minus qisam dommcorajn ver- 
bis adambrau : in ties Tomos difiinda, Lipte et Havniae^ 
1740, 1741. 8vo. 

The XXXlId voloine of the £n^li(h Oaavq Edition of 
1^ Modern Univerfal Hiftory* likewife contains a Jlhort hif- 
tory of Denmark ; but this part of the work feems by no 
means to have fallen into prooer hands ; the writer not bar- 
ing made theleail ufe of the beft and lateil Daniih HiHori- 
ansy as Huitfeld, Holberg, and Mallet 

(^) An account of Denmark^ as it is in the ytar iSgt, 
London, 1694. 8vo. A French franfiation of this work came 
out in the fame year, under the title of B tat prefent de Dane- 
mark : the author had been envoy from England to Den- 
mark, but writing with fuch freedom as to give ofience^ and 
not feldom on falie grounds, two confutations of it foon ap- 
peared by an anonymous author, who ieems likewife to have 
gone beyond hts fphere. They are written in Engliih ; the 
MA is called ** Denmark Vindicated ;" the title of the other» 
is, ** The Commonwealth's-man Unmaiked« &c. kc Or a 
juft Rebuke of the Account of Denmark." The former ia 
Jikewife tranflated into French, with the title, *' Defenfe da 
Dannemarc," &c« Cologne. See Buderi BibUoth. Hid. Sel, 
cap. xxiii. § is. ^ 

(97) Baron Holberg's Civil and Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of 
Denmark and Norway, 17491 4^* Tranflated from the 
Danifli original into German. 

(98) Theatrum Dani« veteris et hodiemsef a Vols, 4to« 
but this author, not long fince, b]r the king's defire, com-^ 
oofed a much larger work, of which the Irft volume has 
^en publiihed under the title of " Danike Atlas eller Konge 
Rike Dannemarkmet dets NatnrligeEgenikaber, &c £16- 
bcnhaven, 1763, 410. A German tranflation of it has al- 
ready appeared, but the learned author dying in the interim, 
it is uncertain whether the work will be continued. * 

(99) Among 

bENMARIt. 97 

(9^ Among theCe mnft not be forgotten ** Lettres far la 
DannemarCy a Geneve, 1757* 8vo. by M. Roger. Thcfe let- 
tera ate faid to be written with giieat troth and judgment) 
and have been tranilated into Danifh and German. 

The hifbry of Denmark in the Modem Univerfal Hif- 
tor/y is prepeded by a fliort defcription of the State of 
Doimark, liable to the fame cenfare as the hiftory it(elf. 
The compiler's only authority is Molefworch, and he feems 
a Uranger to the very namet of Holberg and Pohtoppidan* 

Vol. Iir. H RE- 



The precedtng Chapter of DENMARK, 
by the learned Mr. H ■> 

Page 4. 'nr^ HAT obfervation of Pontoppidan'f» in the 
J. loth note, concerning the leprofyfis not very 
exad : if fuch diftemper reigned formerly in Denmark, as it 
• now certainly does in Norway, Iceland, and the Ferro 
iflesy it did not, nor does it proceed from the quantity, but 
from the i^uality of the fi(h ; nor properly of the fiih itfelf, 
but of the inteftines, fach as the liver of the cod-fifh, which 
being mod agfeeable to the palate, are reckoned a great re* 
gale ; but are oily and unwholefbme, fo that they corrupt 
the bloed and juices, and prepare the body for a (brt of le- 
profy, not quite fo bad as the Oriental leprofies, jret ieem* 
ingly of that fame nature* 

ibid, k 7. Libiral. Soine parts having little or no Wood^ 
not even for fuel.] Wood is very much wanted, particularly 
for fuel, in (hat part of Denmark, where they had conve- 
niency of exporting it : fome land-owners, after encumber- 
ing their eflates by folly and extravagance, have cut dowa 
whole fort^%t and fold them to pay off' their mortgages ; 
others have done it oat of avarice, to turn their woms into 
corn-fields ; by which agriculture hath increafed, and the 
forefts decreafed. But in the inland parts where wood 
could not be conveyed but by land-carriage, at a prodi- 
gious ex pence, there are woods ftill, of beech, foffident to 
make fuel prodigious cheap, befides fome oak-woods for 
ihip-timber ; tho' the latter not in fuch plenty, as hath been 

P. 5. 1. II. Pitcoal) Pitcoal we have .not yet found 
enough to boall of, but are flill in fearch of it. There is 
indeed fome in the iile of Bomholm, hut not of tbebefl (brt» 
nor in plenty ; it is hard, and flatelike, therefore not ea£ly 
worked. In our ifles of Ferro are pitcoals of a better fert» 
and in fome plenty ; but troublefome to convey, bectufe of 
the diAance and iomewhat difficult navigation. One good 



Ihiog is, Aat we bare not very miicb occalon for it> but only 
in {mub*s forges : it is not oar afukl foel ; and ail the coun- 
tries rouqd the Baltic fupply 115 with what wood we want. 

Se£^. 6. Pf c. I.ip* Dmicfy §/ Sltfwiek ] this dutchy is a 
part of Jutland, therefore ought to be called, and is called 
ID records, and public wridngs. South Jutland, the more as 
it is governed bylaws, which were ftiled anciently, and are 
to this day, ** the Jutlandilh law;" but as in fome part of 
it the German laqgaage commonly obtains, and as the no«^ 
bility are alfo pof&iled of eftates in Holftein, this dutchy 
hath appeared to foreigners as a coontry different /rom Jut- 

$ed. 7* p. 8 1. 4. Oaks'^'Wftb which a confiJerailt iraJt 
is carried m.] This ia a miftake : no trade at all is carried 
Qn with oaks, that is to fay, none are e?rported out of the 
kingdom ; indeed, the proprietor may ufe the oak upon his 
ground as he pleaieth, nay, may fell it for home fervice, fuch 
as for boiJdings &c. But if he hath a mind to export it, 
&e BnH difpofe 6f it to the king's admiralty, for a dated 
price. Neither is it true that Norway abounds with oak ; 
It has hardly a fufficient quantity for the Danifh navy. Den- 
mark hath more oak than Norway ; only it is pity that 
the forefts of oak iifcill prefirrved in Denmark, are not (o 
near the fea and navigable rivers as could be wifhcd ; and 
hence it is that the Daniih oak is of dearer purchafe to the 
oavy, than the foreign, oak exported from the feveral coun- 
tries rpttnd the Baltic. 

Ibid. 1. iz.^Nornjoi^'^s grtat{fi Wtahb c§n/tfis in its mtrah.] 
As^ I apprehend, its greateil wealth confifts in its firs, and its 
fiilies i though certainly its mines are coniiderable enough, 
and the tradition is, that many inore fiiver mines might be 
ioand, if the inhabitants did not conceal their know edge of 
them thro* Icar of having their foreds ruined by the miners. 

$€&■ 8. p. u. K 3. P^nfy of GrainJ\ I do not remember 
to have heard much of this plenty. They may have a fuifi- 
ciency ; becaufe I never heard that grain was carried to them 
from Denmark, as it muft be every year to Iceland. They 
feed y^xy ffluch upon birds-eggs, of which they find great 
plenty 00 the tops of their high rocks, jind which are faid 
19 be very delicious aisd wholfome. 

$ed. 10. p. 14. 1. 7. King Chriftian I. was originally 
COOOt of Oldenburg, and progenitor of thres;augu (I fami- 
lies which now rule Denmark, Sweden, and Ruilia ; but 
whan lie came to be count of Holftein, after his uncle the 
laft .CQtt«t of Holftein (Holilein bearing' not yet the tkle 
af a djltchy) as he had eleven years before, been eiedk- 
tdtkioS'Of Deamark^ he left Oldenburgji and Deimen- 

^^ Ha horil 


hqrft to his younger brother Gerard, whofe defeendlntt ruled 
thofe conn ties a hundred and twenty years ; till io anna 
1667, that branch Jbecame extind, and thefe territories 
fell to the king of Denmark, Chriftian V. Antient records 
fhow, that, in very remote ages, the counts of Oldenburg 
have been fometimes ililed arch-counts, which ftile u now 
difufed. However, emperors have more than once offered 
to raife thc^m to the title of princes, but they never would 
accept it, chnfing rather to be the moft antient and powerful 
counts of the empire, than the yonngefl dukes. The counts 
of Holftein thought differently, and weredefirous to be made 
dukes, a dignity which they have enjoyed thefe three hun- 
dred years. The houfe of Oldenburg is defceoded from the 
Saxon commander Wittekind, celebrated for his long wars 

^yVtrith Charlemagne. Few hiHories in the Roman empire are 
better recorded than that of the ancient counts of Oldenburg, 
by two htftoriographers, Hamelman and Winkelmaan. 
There is now a report, that the king of Denmark is going to 

* exchange Oldenburgh and Ddmenhorft for that part of Hol- 
llcin, pofleiFed by the grand-duke of Rufiia ; which would 
be a very convenient bargain for both parties. 

Ibid. 1. 10. He that is lord lieutenant of Danifh Holflein, 
(at prefent prince Charles of Heffe) is ufually lord lieutenant 
of the dutchy of South- Jutland, commonly called Slefwick* 
but never governs at the fame time the couoties of Olden- 
burgh and Delmenhorft, which have their di^nA gover- 
nors, as they are feparated from Holftein by the two rivers, 
the Elbe and the Wefer, and the whole dutchy of Bremen 
between thefe two rivers. An excellent chorographical, and 
in part hiftorical, defcription of Holftein, is wrote by one 
Dankwerth ; a very fcarce book. 

Sedl. 12. p. ^8. 1. 16. Saxing ph Ins ptrfinJ] The count 
furprifed that warlike and vi^orious monarch in a treacfae* 
reus manner, without any declaration of war ; for hfs landed 
at a place where he knew the king ufed to hunt at that &a* 
fon, and under pretence of making him a vifit, he feixedan 
opportunity to kidnap him. It is true, the count , had. been 
fufficienily provoked by the king's behaviour to thecountefs, 
whom he left with that monarch during a pilgrimage which 
he undertook to the Holy-Land ; the monarch, overcome hj 
frailty, betrayed hii truft, for which he paid very dear, hav. 
ing never profpered from that time, particularly after lofing 
the battle at Bornhovet, by the treachery of the Dittmarfhiana 
who had joined his army. Before all thefe unhappy contin* 
. gencies, he was a very renowned monarch ; he had con- 
quered all the countries round the Baltic, was mader of 
Mecklenburgh, Pomerania, Pruflia, Courland, and Livonia; 



had made Hamborgh and Ldbeck pay homage to him; had 
inftitoted the moft honourable order of the Daonebrogue, had 
re-eftab)i(hed the Code of laws, called the <• Juftifes Low/' 
Ikill fobfifting in the dotchy of 8tefwick ; built the town 
of StralfoDd ; been founder of bilhoprics and abbeys, Sec. 

Sed. 24. p. 43* ]. 14. We Danes^ when we want to /peak 
accurately, in ftylo curue, do not call our king's inaugura- 
tion a coronation, but an anointment. David, and other 
icinga in the theocracy, were anointed, but never crowned. 
The kings of Denmark, fince i660y have been crowned by 
none but themfelves : the monarch folemnly pats the crown 
on his head, with hia own hands, and then puts another crown 
on the queen confbrt's head : but they are anointed by the 
bifhop, to (how by that pious token, that' they want to be 
anointed by the Lord, and confecrated by his holy fpirit, * 
wifdom, and vigour, for that weighty talk. of ruling the na- 
tion : then the queen is anointed, becaufe it is poffible ih« 
snay, in 41 cale of minority, become queen-regent. If 
the king marries a iecond time, he crowns his feco^d queen, 
but I know of no inflance where hb fecond queen has been 
anointed, when there is an heir to the crown by the former 

P. 45. 1. 6. None but the Roman emperor bore the title of 
majeiky in thofe days. King Henry VIIL Was only calM 
his grace in the beginning of his reign. He came to the 
crown in i^oo. King John of Denmark died in ann. 1513* 

P. 59. fub mi. Sedl. 33. The praepoiiti, or provofts, are a 
fort of deputy- bilhops, to eafe the bifliop in a certain divi- 
$on of his diocefe. For example, the bifhop of Zea]an4 
hath (befides Copenhagen) thirty two provofls under hi;n ; 
each of them may have from fix to fifteen churches under his 
infpedion* The provoil, with the re&ors of his churches, 
decides, under the direction of the temporal magiftrate, 
matrimonial matters and others belonging ad difciplinam ecr 
defiafticam ; this is called a Confiftonum ; if the condemned 
party takes out a writ of error, the appeal goes to the 
biihop and all his provofts, who, when to aflembled, under 
the direction of the lord lipu tenant of the county, are called 
Ober-Confidorium, being a fuperior ecclefiailical court. The 
Danifh Code giveth particular dire&ions how ail this is to be 
condudled* ' Each country church, generally fpeaking, hath ^ 
but one clergyman ; yet, when the congregation is numerous, 
the parifh extenfive, or fometimes provided with one or two 
chapels of eafe, then there are two, nay three, clergymen, 
of which the re^or is called Head-pailor ; his afliftant, if but 
one, is called either Capellanus, or Diaconus ; if there be 
two, then the youngeft is ftiled Diaconus^ and the eideft 
H 3 Archiit 


Arcli]AUc(>fidfl ; nitd there is a fubordltiaHdn between tbenl, 
as well as difftrence of incomes ; but as to 6rd!natioQ there is 
no difference, they being all li^ prieft*i orders, ffnralities 
are unknown tn Denmark, nor is a cler|ymirt'i abi^nce fircsfm 
his pari(h allowed ; but if he grows old, or infirdf, he majr 
obtain leave to 'keep a Cerate at his own expeAce, i. e. a 
deputy, who is in Denmark caHed Capdlanus pro Perfoni, 
and muft be ordained a priefi, and who having no parifli of 
his own» is without fuftenance and bread, when the old or 
infirm gentleman dies; but, if he hath behared well, 
the bifhop generally takes care to prefer him to a Kvhfg. 
) This cafe excepted, there ii no fuch thing in Denmark, as 
conferring holy orders upon a ftudent in divinity, before^ he 
hath got a curam animarom, in a parifh affigncd to hini. 
In the interim, the young ftudents arc generally tutors of 
children in gentlemen's- houfes, or ftritre to became parifh- 
clcrks ; for in Dcnmatk (not in Germany) all pariih-cterks 
are, or fhoold be by law, fnfficiently learned "to beomne 
clergymen themfeWes, to the end that they may occaiionaltr 
preach in the reftor's room, though, not being ordained, 
they cannot adminifter facraments, nor perform any other 
ccclcfiaftical furftion, than exercifing themfclves in preach- 
ing. Thcfe parifh-clcrks often become Capcllani prb Per- 
^na ; and thefe again Diaconi, or affiHant-redlors ; and 
thefe, in the track of feniority, and according tO merit, head 
paftors or re^ors ; out of whom the provofts are taken. In 
Norway there are more poor livings than in Denmark ; but 
in Denmark they are generally pretty comfortable. 

P. 64. in the Note 64. Fruftrate^J] It is not quitrfrOf rated. 

P. 67. 1. 5. InJtituuJ,} TTiat is to fay", he gave to the fii, 
j)reme court of joftice its prefent new form. It is true, 
there had been a fuperidr, and at that time iinal, de« 
cifion of caofes in Norway, from time immemorial. Much 
more might be faid on that head ; let it fuffice to obferve in 
general, that in former times our king'^ made circuits thro* 
their realms, with their lords and leattied council, and &v^ 
jufttce done with their own eyes. King Chriftian IV. waa 
the laft who did fo. Frederic III. was prevented from It by 
the troublefome times : then came on the revolution^ or 
change in the form of government. Then Frederic III.' and 
liis fon Chriftian V, began to new mould, and modernize the 
old oiftoms, which, by length of time were become imperfed^ 
and uncouth for the prefent age ; and after reviitons by the 
ihges of the kingdoms, he fettled every thing ; amongft the 
reft the adminiftration of juftice in its preient order, brevity, 
and perfpicuity, to the unfpeakable happinefs of the fubjeds, 

P, 98. 


. p. 6a« K 17. Jiftr^D^£Ar.] Tbqr wrt mm (though an 
CMntteni hfiitudoa tot the military) dbolilhed, onpetiuoh o^ 
th« fah^ ; siul that corps i^nd their money amongft their 
fkUtW'&bic&8p whkh before, by a cnriotu regnlaiion of a 
land-oidMioiBy ^ their own» they nfed to Ipend only amopgft 

P. 70^ 71.] In the military eflabliihment in Denmark^ 
(bnt no| ((^ much in Norway) there have been fome altera- 
tions made fince for better oonveniency, and in part for 
#ecoiKmy in the expences of the eflablifhment. The 
farcelling ont the army into regimenta» battalions, and 
compaaies, hath here and there undergone a fmall altera- 
tion, in Qpder to bring the whole to an uniformity, to 
«sai» every military man equally content, and to eafe the 
ftfaj^ « pefquifites have bc«n iboliSh^d, and the falaries 
gieafly: h^ghuned, fo that now every officer knows what 
to trna t»» and is upon an equal footing with his fellow- 
M^iU m the fame Aation ; whereas, formerly, one cap- 
tain, would enjoy ovfr*grown profits, and another cap- 
Qua of the (hme regiment being, perhaps, not fo fortu- 
aatelpr quartered, could live but poorly with his' family, up- 
Wfcif moderate pittance. But the main army, particular]/ 
^ genesal nnmber of troops, remains what this pag. 70, 7 j . 
ipakelh it o^t. The only alteration of any confcquence, but 
mit yea gidte finifted, is this ; that feveral regiments oi 
hotbf. or cmrafliersy and of whom we had rather too many, 
have been oonverted into drains, as the Englifh did the 
iim^ Ibme years ago ; by whxcK we can, for the future, kdp 
in time of {peace 7300 horfe and dragoons for the (ame mo- 
iiey» for which we i^ed to keep 6184, and thu already mak- 
nth II 16 horfe diftreacc ; or lelfe we need not mainuin this 
forplne nt all, but eafe the fubjefts fo nauch in their taxes* 

P, 7jl*» ie^, 41. Gottorp is a caftle lomewhat fortified, but 
only tor Qrnamenti or for keeping a party of roving huflars^ 
likft ifvnral gentlemen's ieau in that country, and not for 
maintaining a rcgnlar £eg^« 

P- 75* ia the Note 70. The name of Schilling very likdv 
never came from England to Denmark, nor from Denmark 
tp England* In the Daniih Ungnaee to this day, and no 
dpnbt formerly aa the old Eni^lifh, Kul or Skill, is, and was 
f^^ftively, the fame as to divide 3 hence ^chiUing,'in En- 
gfuk Shillin^» in Daniih $kiUing» fignifies a divifion, a 

' ' *'Ffoi 

r which divides, or cometh iiifelf forth from theadtof 
njg, that ooin being a divifion, otr a final! part of a larger 
voation of mo|tey, either pound, dollar, guinea, du- 
catj or B^rk filver, &G. The Gerpan language u&th a 
H 4 term 


^erm (ynonymous to it : it calls the fouUer coins Schd^^r 
Muntzey dividing-coins. From that northern term to Skilly 
Cometh the Engliih fubftantive» SkilU i. e. Judgment tc« 
quired by art or pradice ; becaufe all judgment confifts 
in diftingaendo, in well dividing and Teparating nottonv, in 
order to avoid confuiion, and faTfe conceptions ; juft as ge» 
» nius confiilethy in combining aod comparing different no- 

lions, no matter whether right or wrong, fo there be bnt » 
pleafing fimilarity. 

Pfenninge, which might more etymologically be fpelled 
Pfaimingy is obvioufly the daughter, the Diniiinutivam* if 
jroa pleafe, of the German word P^nne» EngUfh a Pao» 
]. e. any metal beaten flat, and now-a-days more partica. 
larly a certain piece of kitchen-furniture. They were called 
Pfenninge, or Pennies in Englifh, becaufe they are Httlo 
broad plates of copper. Innumerable are the inftances whero 
pf. and P. are interchanged in the two chief dialefU of the 
Teutonic language : fo oft^n as the Low Germans (fnch aa 
the ancient Saxons were) make ufe of the letter P. the Hlghi 
Germans convert it with a fort of afpiration, into PF- and 
pronounce it as the Greeks did their ♦. 

P. 74. A Lubeck Schilling is an £ngli(h penny; and 
a Daniih Skilling is an Englifli halfpenny ; there was for« 
merly, not quite 1 20 years ago, a coin in Denmark, at much 
in vogue, as are here Shillings, but now rare to bemet with. 
Called' Rtgets-Mark, (the mark of the realms-money) worth 
little more than ten Englifh pence ; and equal to it is ftill, 
'now-a-days, a French livre. 'Of that coin the name is ftill 
ufed in Denmark to this day, as a modus computandi : and 
ofthatRigets Mark, the Daniih' Skilling is a divifion, mak- 
ing its twentieth part netto, as Englifh Sliillings make the 
twentieth part of that modus computandi, commonly called 
^ one pound fieri ing, becaufe the one and the other fkilleth^ 
i. e. divides, the larger Realms- Mark, or Libram, into 
twenty parts'. ' And now we have of the Englifh Shilling 
and the Danifh Skilling the quite fimple etymology. Thaf 
king Canute may have made ufe of Englifl^ mint-mafters, ia 
very probable. 

P. S5. 1. 15. Frederic y. ahohjhtd^ &c.] This was as gene- 
rous an adlion as ever monarch performed, but here imper- 
fe^ly related. His majefty advanced, out of his own privy 
purfe, i,2^o,eoo dollars, (which in Denmark are no more a 
trifle than the fame number of Pounds AerlinginEngIand,and 
go there pretty near as far) to buy all the Wefl-India company's 
jiAtions (and by that their charter) for the market-price of the 
day. And for what } to monopolize the trade to faia crown ) 

\\kr » , » * . • ' • 1. 

DENMARK. ' ip5 

bf 110 siieQuifl ! but to make tl)e whole nation a prefeot of It, 
taytfig the thuie, before confined to a particalar coinpan|r, 
open to eveiy loving fabjedt* who had a mind to engage in 
it. The benefit of this indulgence fhowed itfelf quickljr i 
for thai tradCf which before was in a lingering conditio^ 
ioimifedHiteiy began to flouriih, and the fellers themielves 
were very glad pf |he bargain, eipeciall^ as the king took 
npon himfelf the expenceof the fortificacions^ that is of gar. 
rifoning them and keeping them in repair, as a right pro- 
perly belonging to the crowo, cnmberforoe and^ufelefs to a 
trading foc^ty. 

P. 89. in fine. The whole note 87, mall either be left 
par, or mended ; (b that for ** always," be put *< very often.*^ 

P. 90. 1. 8. The treafury and exchequer are not two dif- 
ferent things, but two different names to the fame thing. 
The wordi^ itrfiittttt^fy J^agl^Ttdericiy. muft be Jeft out. 
Their office was in being, and bore the fame name already in 
jChri^an V'i time many years. Aod, under the name of Schatzr 
Kainer, the fame office hath exifted for centuries. How can a 
fcingdem, or a nation, be without a treafury ? The name of 
Schatz-Kamer^ which it bore when the kings were eledive, 
came, by degrees^ ont of vogue after the reftoration of the an- 
cientfMerogatives' of the crown. True it is, Frederick IV. whp 
was himfelf a confummate financier^ has made many excel- 
lent regnlations in that office. 

Thepreient king hatb» lad February 1768, made two more 
fubdivifions in it, immaterial to be mentioned The office 
of Chief Secretary at War is atpreient, as feme time ago, 
executed by commiffioners, juft as a king of England, ac- 
cording to pleafure, hath the feal of Great Britain adnvioi- 
ftered rooH frequently by a lord chancellor, and another time 
by a lord keeper, and again fometimes by two, three, or 
four commiffioners, of all which we haye had inllances within 
thefe thirteen years : and jufl as fi nee half a century the high 
offices of lord high-treafurer and lord high-admiral have been^ 
here in England, as well as in Denmark, executed by commif* 
fioners; which either king may 9gain order quite otherwife. 

P. 97. At the conclufion. The author here might have 
mentioned. Travels through Denmark, and fome part of 
Germany, by way of Journal, in the Retinue of the Engliih 
Envoy in 1702, printed at London in 1707, for J. Tay- 
lor, and fbld by W. Taylor at the Ship in St. Paul's 
Church-Yard, and A. Bell, at the the Bible and Crofs-keys, 
yo Cornhil). This book, though not quite free of all mff« 
takes, to which a foreigner is liable, yet is guilty of as 
few as any defcription of Denmark yet extant, and quire 



iflipirdsl, Bcidi^ favoaring the Mwoyy as iMtffei aUKt 
be fufpefted to do» itor bent vfoa llMlio^ fluilt, at MoM^ 
worth malicionfty and icumlottfljr doa^, ia a madacr vifi* 
ble to every eye. The aDtk6r> who was fecreunr of tbc 
cmbafly to Mr. Vernon, then envoy to Deomarb, fteou 
. to h^ve been a lawyer, and hath s:iade many cuiiooa le*. 
narks upon the Daniih lawt. It U a book in tvo, ^^ 431 


..1. ■ I "" I ' ' ' ' ' ' 



OP , 



,C,H A P. VIII. 

8 E C T. I. 

THE Swedes call their country Sve<*^aiM. 
rige, or fomietimes Suea-Rike» 
. which fome derive from Suithurt 
or Suiur, the proper name of the Great 
OdiDy fo that it imports Si^iurs, i, e. Odin's 
Kingdom, or Country (i). Others again 
think Sverige to be no more than See-Rike 
or Sio^Rike^ i..e. Sea-kingdom, or Sea- ' 
land (2). Anciently Sweden was known 

(]} Otbers, however, rejefi this derividoiu VicL Ve» 
relli. Not. in Gothrid et Rolfi, Hilh p. 9* io« 

(2) This is affirmed by Dalin, the Jateft Swedifli hifioriaa* 
He fuppofes Sweden to have been at firft a dufter of iiland«» 
and moftly covered with water; by the gradnal decreaft of 
whidi, they became dry-land; and from this drcamftnioe 
rcctirti their name as rifen out of the fea« 


by the name of Svithiod (3), from whence, 
probably, came the denomination of Suedia, 
ufed by feme writers of the middle ages (4), 
and that of Schweden, and Sweden, com- 
mon among the Germans, Dutch, and Eng- 
li(h« The Swediih nation itfelf is in its 
own language called Suenfha (5). 


sitmtSon Sweden lies between the 56th and 69th 
!!j!liilu*"' degree of north latitude, and the 32d and 
55th of eaft longitude j it is bounded fouth- 
wards by the Baltic, and the gulf of Fin- 
land, and on the weft by the North fea, and 
Norway. Northwards it confines on Nor- 
way-Lapland, and eaft ward on Ruftia-Lap- 
land and Ruilia-Finland. It is about 200 
Swedifti miles in length, and 130 broad {a). 

(3) This name was derived from Sai4ia, i.e. to burn. The 
primhiveinhabitiints ufed to cut down the forefts^ and burn 
the treey, afing the aihes as manure for the land. Vide Ve- 
rel. I. c. p. 9. But Dalin will have Suithiod to be derived 
from Sui, fea, and Thiod» folk ; which fignifies fea-folk. 
Palin's SueaRikes Hift. DeeK L cap. L p. i^ 2. et c. iii. p. 

(4) As Adamus Bremenfis and Helmoldus, Vid. Grotii 
Hift. Goth. Vandal. & Longobard. in Prolog, p. 6. 

(5) And as fonie conceive from the word Suen, which im- 
ports young, noble, a foldier. Loccen. Asttquit. Sneco^ 
Goth. Lib. ]. cap. i. p. 8. 

{f) Tuneld, p. 1. 

S PC T. 

SWEDEN. 109 


The weather is not, in all parts, alike. ^^^^ 
In thle fouthern provinces it is pretty tem- 
perate ; but in the northern, the fummers 
arc very hot, and the winters extremely fe- 
vere : the former is owing to the length of 
the days, and the latter to the north and 
eaft winds, which fweep over large tradls of 
fnow and ice ; yet it is thefe winds, and 
particularly the north, which keep the air 
pure> and healthy {6). 

S E C T. IV. 

A great part of the country is over-runMonntiUH^ 
with mountains. It has alfo many {landing rivml 
lakes, of which the Maler is the largeft (6) ; 
and feveral confiderable rivers, the principal 
of which go by the general name of Elf, and , 
are diftinguiflied by the countries which they 
water ; as Gotifca-Elf, Dal-Elf, Kymene- 
Elf, Uleo-Elf ; but few are navigable, by 
reafon of the great and many water-falls. 

(B) For the advanuget of the Swedifh climate, fee Ta« 
neldt p- 8. 

(6) Is twelve Swediih miles in length, and full of fmall 
iilands to the number of 1290. King Frederick J. caufed it 
to be docked with gudgeons and tenches for propagating thefe 
kiodf, which before were ankaown in Sweden. 




Jnikfai. .Sweden produces every thing oeceflary 
"^ and comfortable for human life (7)* Some 
parts afford good pafture, but both th^ 
horned cattle and horfes »e fmall. * The 
breed of iheep, the wool of which is very 
coarfe^ has been amended by impcMrting 
Spaniih, EngliCb^ and Eiderftadt ram$» and 
ewes (8). Here. are deer of all kindst even 
to the elk and rein-deer 1 with woodcocks^ 
patridges^ moorfowU fnipes^ geeie^ dpoks, 
&c. Oh the other hand» the forefts^ waftes^ 
and mountainous parts, are full of bears, 
wolves, foxes, lynxes, martens, and other 
^ beafts of prey. The fca and rivers afford 
fifli in fuch quantities, that, befides a plen- 
tiful home-confumption, it is'alfb an article 
of exportation., 

It is only the fouthern provinces that 
produce fruit trees (9). If any are found in 
the norths they are of the worft kinds, and 
icarce deferve that name. The many fo- 

(7) So fiiys Tuneld, p. 9. bat he laments tbat his eoun- 
Ir^eii are not fatisfcd with the prodods of their country, 
or rather defpiie them ; and prudently wiflies that die 8we* 
difli hardinefs and vxgoar were not impaired by foreign deli* 
eacies, whidi.enenrate both mind and body. 

(S) Hfs and ihe*goats hare likewife been brought from 
Angora, in order to procure mohair. Taneld. p. 7. 

(9) Mulberry-trees have been planted near Lund, and 
feem to aniwer. 


S W E D E N. 

refts of {Hue aod firs, arc continually lef* 
feniog ; fuch nuoibers of trees being burnt 
for charcoal, pot*a(h, tar, pitch, and whole 
trads of foreft lands for tillage. Some 
parts, and efpecially the m6il fouthern, af- 
ford com, but by no means enough for the 
whole country. The poor people in the 
northern provinces, the foil being fandy or 
flony, or marfhy, and confequcntly unfit 
for tillage, make ihift with a kind of bread 
made from the pounded rind of pines or 
fir, or ftraw and roots (lo). Befides corn 
fome parts likewife produce flax, hemp ( 1 1 ), 
and tobacco (la). 

fiut the defioiencies jn the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms, are amply made up by 
the mineral* Sweden exports iron, fteel, 
copper (13), brafs, fulphur, alum, vitriol. 


(10) HienMBner of making this bread may beieeaia 
Boichiag's Gei^graphy, Vol. I. 

(11) Mr. ToUeld informt as, tkat thecolttu« of flax and 
hftmo is very mach increafed ; and the flax growing in the 
neietiboarhood of Wadftena is of fo good a kind, as to be 
txiea in the cambrick mannfadare there. Tuneld, p. 16, 

(12) Moft of theSwcdiih towns of any confequence hare 
ftC prefent laj|fB tobacco plantations. Ibid. 

(13) Sweden particularly abounds in copper. The Falun 
copper^ttioey is thought to be the largeft mine in the uni« 
irerie, and Guftavus Adolphus ufed to call it his treafury. 
To the year 1687, it fell in, which accident was attended with 

Sear damages. Pet. Elvii Delin. Magnae Fodin^e Cupro 
bntansy p. 3*^28. That prince entertained a conceit that 
copper jnieht be brought to a higher value, and rendered at 
IcaiHy 'equal to fiWer, and had fome thoughts of making the 


1 1 2 PRESENt STATfi of EUROPE. 

marble, &c. and for its own ufe has filver 
(14), lead, afid fome gold {c). In fbme 
places are mineral waters, and fait is pro- 
cjrcd from the fca- water, butfcantily. 


Sweden anciently reached from the frozen 
fea to Oerefand, and from the Seve or Nor- 
way rocks, to the Baltick. It was com- 
monly divided into four kingdoms; thcfirft 
Sweden, properly fo called ; the fecond, 
the kingdom of Gothland ; the third Hal- 
fingeland ; and the fourth Warmeland (d). 

According to the modern geographical 
divifion, it confifts of five principal pro- 
vinces, Sweden, Gothland, Nordland, Lap- 
land, and Finland. 

Sweden contains Upland, Sudermanland, 
Nerike, Wcftmanland, Dalen or Dalicar- 
lia. Gothland is divided into Eaft, Weft, 
and South-Gothland. Eaft-Gothland, con- 
fifts of Eaft-Gothland particularly fo called, 

trial In conjan^ion with Bethelm Gabor, prince of Tran- 
filvania. Memuires coocernanc ChriUxney Reine de Suede. 
Tom. in. p. 194. 

(14) The greateft filver mine is near Sala, lo the year 
1675, it produced 7998 pounds of filver^ which indeed was 
its richeft produce, having fince that time been continually 
decreafmg, Groenwall» Argenti fodinx ut Sc Urbis Salans 
delineatio, p. 64. 

(r) Tuncld, p. 10. 

{J) Dalinsy Suea-Rikes, Hid. De!. L c. xtv. p. 400. 


SWEDEN. 113 

Smoland^ the ifland of Oeland^ and the 
ifland of Gothland. To weftern Gothland 
belong Weft-Gothland proper, Warme- 
land, Dalen or Daland, and Bohus-Lehn. 
South-Gothland contains Schonen, Hal- 
]and» and Blekingen. 

Nordland is divided into feven fmall pro- 
vinces, Gaftricland, Halfingland, Medel- 
pad, Jamtland, Harjedalen, Angermann- 
land, Wcft-Bothiria. 

To Lapland beFong the fix following dif^ 
trifts, Afele or Angermannlands and Jaemt- 
lands-Lappmarc, Umea-Lappmarc, Pittea- 
Lappmarc, Lulea-Lappmarc, Zornera* 
Lappmarc, Remi-Lappmarc. 

Finland confifts of feven provinces. Fin* 
land particularly, Aland, Eaft-fiothnia, Ta-^ 
vaftland, Nyland, Savolax, Kymmene- 

But according to the Swedifh conflitu- 
tion, the kingdom is divided into twenty- 
four captainihips. i. Upland, C. a. Stock* 
holm, C. 3. Scaroborg, C. 4. Abo and 
JBioeroebQrg, C. 5. Groncberg; C. 6* 
Joenkeping, M. 7. • Wcftmanland, C. 8. 
Kymmeiiegard, M. 9. £ail-*Gothland, C. 
10. Suodermanland, C. ii. Nyland and 
Tavaftehus, M. 12. Elffborg, M. 13. Cal- 
mar and Ocland, M, 14, Kopparberg, C. 
15, Nerife and Wcarmcland, C. x6. Weft- 

VoL^III. I Nord* 


Nordland, M. 17. Weft-Bothnia, C. 18. 
Eaft-Bothnia, M. 19. Gothland, M. 20. 
Malmohus, M. 21. Chriftianftadt, M, 22. 
Blekingen, M. 23. Halland, C. 24. Go- 
thenburg and Bohuflehn, M. (15). The 
captainftiips arc divided into Harader or 
jurifdidions, and thefe into parishes (Sokn), 


Drpendeo. The crowH of Sweden was formerly poP- 
"^'* feffed of very confideraWc dependencies, as 
Livonia, Efthonia, ingermanland ^ and in 
Germany, thedutchics of Bremen, and Ver- 
deo, and the weftern parts of P^tzierania : 
but all thefe, a corner of Pomerania, and 
the town of Wifmar excepted, were loft 
in the great northern war which lafted fron» 
1700, to 1 72 1. 

S""«»*nrof Some Swedifli hiftorians make Sweden 

rh« biftory 

ot Sweden, to havc bccn peopled immtediately after the 
deluge, and Magog, Japhet's fecond km^ 
the founder and firft fovereign : .after him 
his fon Sueno reigned over the Swedes^ 
and Gethar over the Geths or Goths^ the 
royalty farther defcending to their tffbe {e). 

(lO The captainfiiips marled with C, ^re filled up by 
the civil, and thofe with M, by the miiitary eftalbliftmeot, 

(/) Jo. Magni Coch. Sa60AaaM|iie»Htft.Libii.cap. iv. t. 
p. m. 28, 29. 

4 But 

SWEDEN. tts 

But as nothing of this can be proved au- 
thentically, others, with more probability, 
bring down the commencement of the 
SwediA monarchy to the fecond century 
of the Chriftian Era, Yngue fon to the great «s<»- 
'Odin being the firft monarch, and leaving 
his dignity to his pofterity. Thofe firft rulers 
indeed were only ftiled judges, (Drottars): the 400. 
firft who afFumed the title of king was Dygue ; 
{/), ooe of whofe fucceflbrs, Ingiald 111- 
rade» raifed Aich an univerfal hatred againft 
him by his tyraony and oppreflion of the 
Fyikw-Konige (i6), that upon his deceafe 
his fon Ofof Tratelja was fet afidc and dri- 775. 
vcn out of the country, which "put an 
end to the lineage of Yngue, the fuppofed 
firft monarch. On the other hand, Ifvar 
Widfamne, or Widfadmi, a Danifli prince, 
who had invaded the country fubjeft to In- 
gialdy was chofen king ; he likewife fubdued 
the greater part of Denmark; and both 
kingdoms remained under the defcendants %€o. 
of his daughter Oda, till Biorn and Sigurd, 
the fbfts of Ragnar Lodbrok, made a parti- 

(/) Dalitiy p. I. c. xi. xii. . 

(j6) Thefe were petty princes^ but acknowledged the 
kimg as itveMigo. Their origin is dated from thofe very 
remote times when every thing was carried by violence, and 
one head of a tribe fobmitted to a more powerful, that^ un- 
der his protedion he might opprefs and pillage his inferiors. 
Dalin, cap.i. Part IV. 

I 2 tion 


tion of them, by which the former had 
Sweden and the? latter Denmark. 

215. It was a cuflom among Biorn's faccefTors 

for two kings to reign jointly, and a long 
time did it continue. This is the period 
when Chriftianity began to fpread itfelf in 

looi. Sweden, particularly after Olof, furnamcd 
Scotkonung, had embraced it. Biorn's male 

1059. iflue failed in Olof s fon Edmund the elder, 
upon which his fon-in-Iaw StenkilJ, Jarl 
of (17) Weft-Gothland was cleded king ; 

1067. ^i^d, on his demife, Hakan, or Haquin, Jarl 

,075. of Warmeland ; and Inge, Stenkil's fon, was 
afterwards aflbciated to him. This prince 
being very zealous for Chriftianity the Pa- 
gans drove hira out of the country, chufing 
in his ftead Suen, commonly called Blot- 
Sucn, his fon-in-law, and a pagan, Jtnge, 

10%^' however, defeating Blot-Suen, recovered the 
crown, whicJi after the death of king Ha- 
quin he held jointly with his brother Half- 
flan. The laft of king StenkiFs line was 

1134. Ragwald, grandfon to Inge. 

,,36. Kol Jarl, fon of king Blot-Suen was now 

chofen king, and fucceeded by his fon Suer- 

1138. ker. After his deceafe, Eric Bonde whofc 
mother Cecilia was king Blot-Suen's daugh*- 

(17) This word fignifies one of the elders of the country, 
' from among whom were chofen the rulers and generals. 
Dalin. P. L cap. viL 


SWEDEN. 117 

tcr, was likcwifc advanced to tlie crown by 
cleftion. He forced the Finlandcrs tocin-"s^ 
brace Chriftianity^ and conferred great pri- 
viicges on the clergy and churches, for 
which after his death he was not only ca- 
nonized» but declared Sweden's tutelar faint. ii6i« 
At the enfuing eIe<Sion of a prince the 
Swedes and Goths difagreed 5 the former 
favoured Canute a fon of king Eric, and 
the latter were for making choice of Charles, ii«». 
king Suerker's fon. At length, a diet held 
at Upfal pafTed a refolution, that the kings 
of the two families (hould be chofen alter- 
nately, and Charles had the precedence ; 
but this regulation caufed great difturbances 
in the kingdom, and was produiftive of many 
treacheries, and even murders, in the two 
royal families, by which they foon de- 
ftroyed one another. 

The Suerker line failing in John I. and ^22%. 
that of Eric, in Eric Lafpe ^ Waldemar, a 
fon of Birger Yarl, of the celebrated family j^so. 
of the Folkungers (18), and princefs Inge- 
burg king Eric's lifter, was eleded king, 
but being a minor, his father had the re- 
gency, and held it till his death. This Bir- jM. 

(iS) This family is faid to be defcended from tn Englifh- 
man named Folke Filbiter, who left that kingdom upon the 
Norman conqueil, while others make no manner of doubt of 
its being of Swedifh origin. 




get had done great iervices to Sweden, and, 
as king Eric's general, reduced all Finland. 
King Waldemar now took the reins of go- 
vernment, but after fome years was depoied 

»76- by his brother, Magnus Ladulas, who got 
himfelf confirmed by the dated. He was 

1*93. fucceeded by his fon Birger who brought 
Carelia under the Swediih dominion, and at 
the fame time to the knowledge of Cbrifti^ 
anity. This prince had great difputes with 
his brothers Eric and Waldemar, to the for- 
mer of whom their father had givcnUpland, 
and to the latter Finland ; and having infi- 
diouily got their perfons into his hands, 
he clapped them in prifon where they were 

1318. flarved to death. This unnatural cruelty 
filled the flates of Sweden with fuch indig- 
nation, that they drove him out of the coun-> 
try, beheaded his fon Magnus, and conferred 
the crown on Magnus fon to prince Eric, a 
minor, who by his mother Ingeburg, daugh- 
ter of Haquin VII. king of Norway, inhe- 
rited likcwife Norway. During the diftur* 
bances in Denmark under king Chrifto- 
pher II, Sweden, taking advantage of the 

133*. jundure, purchafed Schonen, Halland, and 
Bleckingen ; but Magnus having reftored 
thefe provinces to Waldemar III. king of 

»359. Denmark without any equivalent (19), and 

(19) For which he was nick- named Smecki i.e. thedimx- 



SWEDEN. 119 

Tnedttating an arbitrary government in Swe- 
den by that king's affiftance, the dates of the 
ktagdom depofed him, after firft joining with 
him Eric bis eldefl fon, and on his demife 13^3* 
with Hdqmn the younger. But this dutiful 
prince rather than forfake his father, chofc 
to undergo the fame fate, and both were 
oWiged to renounce all claims to the crown i37»* 
of Sweden. Haquin^ however, retained 

The Swedes, in the mean time, had 
chofe for their king, Albert, prince of Meck- 
lenburg, fon to king Magnus's fifter. But 
his faddling the fubjedls, and particularly 
the nobility, with heavy taxes, and bringing 
numbers of the German nobility into the 
country, together with his manifcft parti- 
ality to them, made many male-contents, 
who entered into a confederacy with Mar-r 
garet, queen of Denmark. A war foon af- ijgg, 
tcr breaking out between that princefs 
and king Albert, they joined the Dani(h 
army at the battle of Falkoping, where Al- 
bert being taken prifoner, Margaret was 
acknowledged queen of Sweden. 

This princefs prevailed on thcftates of the *39«» 
kingdom to declare Eric (20) duke of Po- 

(20) His proper Chriftian name WM Henry, but Marga- 
ret altered it co Eric, as a fort of favourite name among the 
aortberd people. 

I 4 merania^ 


merania, and grandfon to her elder fifter In- 
gdburg, her fuccefTor and king of Sweden. 
Imniediately after which (he likewife form-' 
IT97. ed the Calmar-Union between the three 
kingdoms, which was highly difadvantage- 
ous to Sweden, it being now treated as a 
province of Denmark. If Margaret fouad 
i4»* means to keep the Swedes in fubje<ftion 
during her life, they foon revolted againft 
>43«. her fucccflbr king Eric ; and though he re- 
newed the union of Calmar, it was of no 
continuance; the Swedes feized the firfl 
opportunity to (hake off this power, and 
>439- made Charles Cnutfon adminiftrator of the 
kingdom. Eric having likewife alienated 
the Danes and Norwegians from him» faw 
himfelf obliged to relinquish all the three 
norcbern kingdoms, and for a time turn free- 
booter in the ifland of Gothland, which 
he at length yielded to the Danes, between 
whom and Sweden it frequently proved a 
bone of contention. 

After Eric's flight, the Danes and Norwe- 
gians eledted for their king his filler's fon 
Chriftopher, Palatine of the Rhine and duke 
i44i« of Bavaria, to which choice the Swedes after- 
^ ^ wards acceded j but upon his death, they re- 
• ceded from the union, and conferred their 
crown on the abovemcntioncd Charles Cnut- 
fon, This prinqp happening to quarrel with 


SWEDEN. 121 

the clergy and the nobility, they forced him 
to quit the kingdom, and fubmitted them- »457« 
felves to Chriftian L whom the Danes and 
^Norwegians had chofen for their king. But 
Chriftian neglecting to keep up a good under** 
(landing with the clergy, Charles was called 
home^ and received as king ; yet within the 
(pace of a year, he was again depofed by the 
influence and power of the clergy, and retired 
to Finland, He, however, made an effort 1467- 
to reinftate himfelf, and at length, had the 
good fortune to die king of Sweden. Sten 
Sturc, whom king Charles a little before '^70- 
his death had nominated adminiflrator of 
the kingdom^ and the flates afterwards 
raifed to the throne, fuccefsfully defended 
his country againft all the attempts of Chrif- '^^'^ 
tianl. After Chriftian's deceafe^ his fon John 
was» indeed chofen king of Denmark and ,483. 
Norway, and likewife of Sweden; but under 
certain conditions, among which, was the 
ceffion of the ifland of Gothland. But failing 
to make thefe conditions good, it was many 
years before he got pofleffion of the king- 
dom, and, at length, he owed it to the fuperi- 
ority of his arms, and the variances between 
the adminiftrator and the council. His 
royalty was of (hort continuance, being 
within a few yeara after driven from the iw* 
* throne, and during his life, the Swedes 



continued under the goveranQent of their 

"5^': adminiftrator* 

■530. At lengthy his fan Chriftian IL after a 

fuccefsful battle with the Swedes^ was ac- 
knowledged their king ; but his cauiii3g» 
immediately after his coronation^ £6 many 
innocent perfons to be put to death at 
Stockholm^ and over all the kingdom^ pro* 
voked the Swedes to a general revolt. Their 
leader was Guflavus Vafa^ a young no* 

issi. bleman of the ancient royal bloody whom 
they firft chofc adminiftrator of the king- 
dom, and foon after advanced to the throne^ 
and, thus the union of Calmar canoe to a 

ts^7• final period. 

King Guftavus introduced the Protcftant- 
religion into Sweden, totally abolifli- 
ing the papacy ; and, at the diet of Wc(^ 
teras, the ftatcs conferred the hereditary 
fuccefTion on his male deicendants. Ac- 
cordingly he was fucceeded by his eldeft fon 

,j^,^ l^ric XIV. who availing himfelf of the 
commotions in Livonia, made a conqucftof 
Efthonia. He had not the like good for- 
tune in his war with Denmark, but was 

,^(^ ilill more unfortunate in bis conttfts with 

15M. his brother John, who dethroned, and im- 
prifoned him, and at length had him put to 

'^^' death in his confinement. John III. who 
had been acknowledged king by the ftates, 




SWEDEN. 123 

made the reftoration of popery in Sweden 
his leading projedt ; and, in order to pave 
his way to the crown of Poland, had his 
eldeil fon Sigifmund brought up In the ca^ 
tfaolic religion ; which fo far fucceeded, that 
upon the death of king Stephen Bathori, he 1587. 
vras actually chofen fovereign of that king« 

Thus, on John's dcmife, Sigifmund faw 
himfelf king of Poland and Sweden ; but 1592. 
being bent on introducing both popery and 
arbitrary power into the latter, the Swedes 
threw off their allegiance, and declaring 
him and his ilTue to have forfeited the 
crown, eleded his father's brother, Charles 1604. 
duke of Sudermanland. This prince amidft 
the dillurbances which then prevailed in 
Ruffia, made himfelf mailer of Ingermann-> 
land and Carelia, whereas, his other wars iSos. 
with Poland and Denmark, did not anfwer 
his intentions. 

B\it his fon and fucceflbr, the great Guf- 16". 
tavus Adolphus carried the glory and hap- 
pinefs of the Swcdifli nation, to the very 
fummit. At the peace of Stolbova, con- 
cluded with Ruffia, he retained Ingermann- 1617. 
land and Kexholm : he reduced Livonia, andieas. 
part of Pruffia, both which were ceded to 
him at the fix years truce. l*he thirty 
years war afterwardi breaking out, he ,63a. 



turned his arms againft the emperor Fer- 
dinand IL and became the deliverer of the 

t^3u liberties of Germany and of the proteftant 
religion. This excellent prince is fuppofed 
to have been bafely murdered at the battle 
of Lutzen, the vidory, however, remain- 

>^^ ing on his fide : his name and memory 
will* be ever honoured by all lovers of truth 
and freedom. Under his daughter Chrif- 
tiana, to whom the fucceffion had been fe- 
cured in 1627, the German war was car- 
ried on with a brave pcrfeverance, and 
after the crown of France likewife cm- 
barked in it, was crowned with fuccefs* 

«^> In the mean time jealoufy and other caufcs, 
occafioned a rupture with Denmark, in 
which the SwediQi arms had fuch a ferles 
of advantages that, at the peace of Brom- 
febroe, the enemy was obliged to cede 
Jempteland, Harjedalen, with the iflands 
of Gothland and Oefel, but Halland only 
as fecurity for thirty years ; and likewife to 
grant an exemption from paying toll in the 
Sound and Belt. The German war was 
fqon after terminated to the great advantage 
and honour of Sweden, which, at the 
peace of Munftcr in 1648, obtained Bre- 
men and Verden, Weftern Pomerania, and 
Wifmar, with five millions of dollars^ and 
was made a ftate of the empire. 


SWEDEN. 125 

Queen Chriftina having brought the ftat9S *^5*- 
of Sweden to declare her coufin Charles 
Guftavus^ her fucceflbr, refigned the crown, 
quitted the kingdom, and made a formal 
profeflion of the Roman Catholic religion. 1654* 

Charles Guftavus, the new king, took 
cccafion, from the protefts of John Cafimir, 
king of Poland, againft his being railed to 
the throne of Sweden, to make war with Po- ^^ss- 
land. His fingular good fortune in this 
undertaking drew on him the envy of all his 
neighbours, and open hoftilities from Den- 1657. 
mark. But Charles Guftavus had ample 
revenge, fuddenly invading Holftein, Slcf- 
wick, and Jutland, which he reduced in 
the firft attack, and ibon after, all the Da- 
niih iflands. This obliged the Danes to 
come into a very difagreeable peace at Rof- ,65s. 
child. But he foon after renewed the war, 
intending to make Denmark a province of 
Sweden. In this attempt, however, he was 
fruftrated by the fuccours which the Danes 
received from the emperor, the United Pro- 
vinces, and Brandenburg ; a difappoint- 
ment which is thought to have hailened 
Charles's death. He was fucceeded by his i66p. 
fon Charles XI. who being a miqor, a re- 
gency was appointed ; in the beginning 
of it a peace was concluded with Poland at 
Oliva, and with Denmark at Copenhagen. 



By the former Livonia was ceded to Sweden j 
and at the latter, it obtained Schoncn, Hal- 
land, Bieckingen, and Bohuflehn. Lewis 
XIV. having invaded the Spanifh Nether- 
lands, and purfuing his conquefts wkh a 

J667. very rapid career, Sweden eatcred into an 
alliance with England and the United Pro-* 

i668« vinces^ to maintain the balance of Earope. 

167*. This occafioning a war between France aod 

1675. the two latter, the Swedes fided with 
France ; upon which the empire, Den- 
mark, and Brandenburg, uniting, ftripped 
Sweden of its German poiTefiions/ But the 

1675. French procured them all to bjc reilored 

Charles XL afterwards availed him£rlf 

1682. . of the diflhitions between the flates of 
Sweden, for abolifliiog the council's power, 
and acquiring an unlimited prerogative. He 

»697- was fucceeded by his fon Charles XIL who 
had no fooner entered on the government 

1700. than he found himfelf, witboot any caufe 
given on his part, engaged in a threefold 
war, with Denmark, Poland, «nd Rafiia^ 
The &T& he terminated with great n[X)de- 
ration ; in the fecond he dethroned his ad- 

,706. veriary Auguilus II ; and intended a like 
cataftrophe to the Czar ; but the defeat at 

,709. Pultawa quafhed all the fruits of his nine 
years afloniihing vidories. The kings of 


SWEDEN. 127 

Dentnark, and Poknd, who, had come 
to an agreement, but were not reconcilied 
with him, took up arms again ; and his re- 
jcding the mcafures propofed by other 
powers for the neutrality of his German 
po&ffions, cncreafed the number of his 
enemies, namely, Pruffia and Brunfwick- ,7,^ 
Luneburg, by whom the Swedes were to- 
tally driven out of Germany. Charles Xll. 
after (pending above half his life amidft 
the continual agitations of war, was (hot 
before Frcderickfliall in Norway. He was 
one of the greateft heroes of his own, or any 
age, had he behaved with moderation, 
he would have faved his country from fevere 
lofifes and diftreifes, and left a lefs fuUied 
reputation (21). 

The ftatcs of Sweden conferred the 1719. 
crown on his younger fifter Ulrica Eleo- 

(«-i) I cannot kere omit tlie fingoUr judgments pafTed on 
Charles XH. by jtwo celebrated Frenchmen. Montefquiea, 
nAediag a wattidrm, iays of him^ ** He was not Alex* 
ander» bnt he would have been Alexander's beft (bldier." 
Spirit of Laws, B. X. ch. xiv. Mr. Voltaire delivers him- 
frif tkas, ** The prefait istpinion is» that Charles XII. de« 
fcnred to be Peter the Great's firft foldicr." Hift. of Ruffia 
under Peter the Great. Tom. I. Pref. p. 2, Every body 
fees that Voltaire's toncett is borrowed from Monte(q«ieu $ 
but he is miftaken hirafelf, and deceives others in giving out 
that indecent jndgmenc to be the general way of thinking. 
A greater, and rojral author, who, in things of this nature^ 
ia a more capable judge than either of them, terms the Swe* 
difh hero» *** the Alexander of the North, who, with the 
king of Macedonia's good fortune, would have been like 
him in every thing.*^ 

nora : 



nora ; and^ at the fame time, made ufe of 
this opportunity for repealing the unlimited 
prerogative. The government's firft care 
was to reftore peacd, which, as affairs then 
flood, could not be done but with great 
lofs. To the elcdor of Brunfwick Lune- 
burg were ceded Bremen and Verden ; to 
Pruflia, part of Pomerania, as far as the 
Pene. The capital article with Denmark 
was Sweden's giving op its exemption from 
the Sound and Belt tolls ; and Ruflia re- 
tained Livonia, Efthonia, Ingermannland, 

i7>». Wyburg, and Kexholm. This laft peace 
was concluded by king Frederic I. to whom 
the queen his confort, had, by confent of 
the ftates (1720), refigned the government. 
The repofe which followed this long and 
very ruinous war, Sweden employed in re- 
iloring and improving its domeftick condi- 
tion, and the advancement of trade, ma* 
nufadiures, and tillage; and kept itfelf 
clear of every thing that had a tendency to 
war. But thefe peaceable meafures, on a 
new treaty of fubfidy with France, and an 
alliance with the Ottoman Porte, no longer 
prevailed. It was hoped that, at leaft, 
part of the provinces which had been yielded 

1741. to Ruffia, might be recovered. Hereupon 
a war was refolved on and begun ; but fo 
unfortunately carried on, that, in a very 


SWEDEN. "9 ^v^i' 

ihort time^ all Finland was lo(l»- and the 
kingdom reduced to extreme diflrefs. 

Queen Ulrica Eleonora dying without 
iffuc at the beginning of the war 17 41, the 
flates proceeded to the choice of a fucceflbr, 
which at the ftrong recommendation of the 
court of Ruffia^ fell on Adolphus Frederic, ,y^^; 
duke of Holflein and bi(hop of Lubcc : in 
return the czarina con fen ted to a very ge- 
nerous peace» contenting herfelf with 
Kymmenegard and Nyflot, and giving back 
all Finland. 

Upon the death of Frederic I. the fucceflbr ,^5^. 
to the ^ throne aflumed the government ; 
but yet not without fome oppofition, on 
account of mifunderftandings between him 
and the great council of the kingdom. 'A ,^5^^ 
con^iracy, formed during the ferment, and 
which aimed at a total change of the con- 
flitution, was difcovered, and the accom- 
plices feverely puni(hed. 

A War breaking out between Praflia and 
Auftria/the crown of Sweden entered into 
an alliance with the tatter, France, and 
Ruflia^ againft Pruflia ; which accordingly 
was attacked under colour of guarantying 
the peace of Weftphalia, and with a view 
of reducing Pomerania. But Ruffia re- 
ceding from the alliance, this fcheme mif- ^^^^ 
carried; and Sweden, after a burthenfome 

Vol. hi. K war; 


Hrdr, fawltfclf obliged to comb into a (AJadb^ 
which did'iiotiadd aTodt df'lahd^to*. 

"SECT. iX. 

cbtraacT The Swedes are ftrong-built, vigorous, 
swedtf. and hardy. They have lilcewife a great 
difpofition and genius^ together "with inde- 
fatigable application for every ufeful art and 
fcience, in which improvements of great 
utility are owiiig to them. In the common 
couffe of life, they are temperate and fru- 
gal, but on proper occafions are far "from 
grudging decent cxpenccs, which they 
fometimes carry even to fplendor.- They 
are naturally ferious and referved, and 
even fubjedi to fufpicion and miilruCl; 
but by intercourfe with foreigners and tra- 
velling they are enlivened, and become more 
converfable. They have a ftrong love for 
their country and liberty, but at the fame 
time are very faithful fubjcds to kings, 
whofe mcafures are agreeable to the ends 
of government. The Swedes have in all 
ages been celebrated as a martial and brave 
people (22), and they make excellent fol- 
diers both horfe and foot {g). It has been 

(22) Virtutem faam per vidtias getites fie drcumtdtere 
(Surci) ut illios fama nullis fint fecandiy beHandi reroarte aq 
induftria cunftas ancecedanc. 10. Schefferi'Memorab. Suet. 
Oentis Exempl. c. xv.' p. 94. 

{^) PufiendorPs Introdndion to the Hiftoiy of Sweden. 
De Real Science da Goversm. Part I. Tom. IL 


Sweden. 131 

fjfpfyfv^^ tha/t io the late wars between the 
^we<]k$ md DaoaSi ithe fonnier have hadl 
^vjMM>ge iby land, and Abe latter by iea. 

A ^^KdiflxiWiiter. commends« 
5i^fQen for vkAue, .chaftity^ ioduAry^ and 
g9Q4 honreMrjtfory^ addii^, (that ^e wivea 
are n6t only true to their hufbands^ bpt^ven 
obedient {6). 

S E C T. y. 

7he .^Wodifii language, like moft others^ t^iflgu>g«« 
h^S'iiQ^^rgPoeib many alterations^ that4liere^ 
is ;ic;9rce .any ^nity ibetween the modern 
an$i ilfic ^{>ti«nt« Jt was formefly obfervqd, 
as-^cpfmQOO foible of the Swedes, that they 
4i§figm¥ (/) their ;Ianguage iw;idi a number 
pf .Qetm^n, Jsrench, and other foreign 
wqrdiS (23) : >but .no fugh .charge can be 
brouglit ag^inft <the ipcefent Swedifh lite-* 
t^th \yho 3vrite in a.very^pure a|id elegant 
ftile. The prefs makes ufe pf Gcrmip cha- 
ra^er;s, thoi:^h, of Ute, imany books are 
publiihed in Roman types. Antjcntly the 
Swedes ,h»d ja fing^lar kind of charaders^ 

(*) ToneW, p. MIL 

(0 Vid.-Nicol. StobaeiObfervat. ctrca,hpdicrn.Ling. Sae** 
cam. in pr«f. p, 2, j.ct Scft. XI. p. 33, .3^ 

(25} King John had already taken notice of this fault, 
andiit thetliet of C^lmar in 15*87, recommended to his fon 
Sigifmund the improvement of the Swediih language, and 
not to coantenance the mixture of any forejgn words with it. 

K 2 calUd 

called Runic; and to this very day, many- 
tomb-ftoncs are found with infcriptions in 
thefc charadters 5 on which account they are 
called Runenfleine^ i. e. Runic ftones (24). 
Several places have likewife fquare Runic 
(laves, with perpetual almanacks cut on 
them {i). 

S E C T, XI. 

Kumterof Swcdcn is far from being peopled fuitably 
iniubiunu; jQ j^g extent ; all the towns in the whole 
kingdom do not exceed a hundred and two; 
and all the inhabitants, in town and coun- 
try, not three millions (/). Some, indeed, 
reduce this number to two millions (m) : 
but this very probably is going too low ; for 
in the year 1760, the males in the feveral 
Swedifli provinces, exclufive of Pomerania, 
were found to be 1,127,938 ; and females 
1,255,175; confequently of both fcxes 

(24) Some learned Swedes attribute great antiqaity to 
thcfe Runic ftones, and date the origin ofthem from the re- 
mote age^ of paganifm. ELilian. Stobaeus de Monumemis 
Lapidiariis, $ xv, xvi. xvii. xxii. But Olaus Celfius, in his 
jttdicious^Inquiry into the Antiqaity of the Runic Scones» 
£nd8, that mod of them come within the Chriftian sera, and 
that the number of thdTe; the age of which cannot be pre- 
cifely determined, is but very fmall. He has publifhed in 
the Swedilh TranfaAions, feveral diHertations, under the title 
of, *'Monumenta qusedam Sueo-Gothica temporibus fuis re- 
ftituta." See years 1726, 1727, 1728, 1730, 1733, 1736, 

U) Tuncid, P. XIII. 

t/) Ibid. P. XIV. 

(m) Safmilche> Divine Oeconomy. 


SWEDEN. 133 

^•3^3*^ ^3* f^5)' ^^ ^^ great a deficiency 
in population the caufes are partly the for- 
mer long wars» and the very nature and po- 
lice of the country, not to mention cer- 
tain diftempers, particularly of children, 
which of late have fwept av«ray great num- 
bers (26). 


The Swedi(h nobility is very numerous, Nowixty. 
and has great privileges. The difference be- 
tween upper and lower nobility was un- 
known till Eric XIV. who, at his corona- 
tion in 1 561, created the orders of counts 
and barons, and thus gave beginning to the 
upper nobility, making three of the coun«- 
fellors of ftatc, Suantc Sture, Peter Brahe, 
and Guftavus R09, counts ; and the Qther 
nine counfellors Guflavus Stenbock, Sten 
Lowenhaupt, Birgcr Grip, Gabriel Oxen- 
ftierna, Lars Flemming, Charles Gere, 
Joran Gere, Nicholas Home, and Eric 

(25) The government in 1749> appointed commiflioners 
for nambering the inhabitants^ and examining into the flace 
of population; and the Royal Academy of Sciences laid down 
a method of proceeding in this affair* Swedifli Tranfaflioof 
for April, May, June 1764. 

(26) The abovementtoned commiflion among thefe ill- 
nefles makes particular mention of the qutnzey, (Angina) 
which is faid not to have been known in Sweden till the year 
1755. Dan. Wilke Diif. de Angina Infantum in patria re^ 
CCQtioribtts annis obfervata, Upfal» 1764. 410. 

K 7 Sten-. 



Stcnbdtk, batons (*)• The ntimbt# of 
counts and barons ba^ fince bttd cb&Mci^ 
ably incrcafcd (27), rfnd quceft ChiiAHH 
particnlar}y was extremely la»ifh of tISgft 
honbtirs ; which^ gtoi^itfg coOtih&ti and M**- 
jng often confcfrfcd bti the tittwcyrthy (©), 
have loft a great part of their luftre ; {h6 ik 
charged with having ennobled not lefs thao 
400 families [p). 1"hc prefent noble fa-i- 
milies in Swedenj of whom ho fmdll num-r 
ber are foffcign (28), ambuhl to 2000 (y). 
Burghen, The othef ihhabitant§ tonfift of burgfa-t 
XiAu. ers and peafants; ihb latter kither pay 
Zins> or rent^ for their grounds, and are there«« 
fore called Zins boors ; or hold thent as 
their abfblute property, which entitles theni 

^ l^f) balip. P. III. vol. I. c. ix. 

(2;) In thb yeai- 1734, the coubts imoubied to ttvihiy^ 
eight, and the bardns to 209 ; aiid in 175;^ xht fbiiklftf 
had becii iiicreafe4 to S6, ^d the latter to 237. 

{0) AhecdbM de Suedb^ p. 38^ 39. 

(^) Mem. tpnctriu Chriltine Reii^e de Suede, Ton. Jtl« 
p. 264. 

. (28) Mib^ for^i^ners have been created abbles fihte the 
XKtb centurv. The prefent computation it, that the nobility 
confifts of a bundred families ot great antiquity ; pf eight 
Biibdriftd |hd ten, who havb rifen to nobility by holding; 
greikt employments ; ifeveh hundred JTeventy-two by the fword i 
^h(i fif^-two by the pen. The foreign families are ninety* 
twd German, fixty- eight Livonian, fifty- thnse Scotch^ 
twenty-four Danilh, ten. French, four j^olitb, and four 4>oni 
Cbbrland. Suea Rikes Ridderfkaps och Adels Wapn-bock^ 
Stockholm, 1764. 

Iq) Mem. concern. Chriillne Reine de Sifede^ Tpm. Ill, 
p. 204. 


SWEDEN, 135 

toi the diAixi^on of ^rfic and S;ato boor^ 

Tt^e prerogative has f^om tl^e mo(l an* AntMnt 
tient times been limited and fubordinate to or sw«aen. 
thp laws ; tl^e form of government, pajrti- 
culajly fince the introduAion. of 0hrif- 
tianit^y having a great mixture of arifto- 
cracy [r). During t^c thirteenth, four- 
teen^, and fifteenth centuri^s^ the power 
of the prelates and mobility was grown to 
fuchi a hpight, as to ballance that of ^he fo- 
vereign (30). They carried every thing be- 
fore (henii at the diets, the bprgh^rs and pea- 
f^nts being feldom called to thofe afTemblie;, 
except when they wanted to make ufe o^, 
force (j). Bijt fince the time of C3uftavus ^. 
who fefcued the kingdom from the tyranny 
of Chriftian II. chiefly by the affiftance oJ[l 
the commonalty and ruftics, the towns and 
peaf^nts have been ever fummoned to 
the diet, and their an tient privileges reflqred 
to them, in conlideration of their important 

(29) Villanaee, which antiendy. obtained in Sweden, vfai 
toujiy abolished in 1^3$, by a law of king Magnus Sni^k, 
PaliQ. 11. cap. jc'u 

(r) J^c. Wilde Suec, Hift. pragm. c. iii. § ii, xvii. p. 317. 

(30) In a refolation df the diet of Calmar io 1483, we 
havethefe words ** Jeder goter mann geiftlich ond weltHch, 
ibil Konig nber feine eigene Bauern feyn. Dalin." Del. if, 
c. xvii. p, 710. 

(/} Id. ibid. 

K 4 fer- 


fervices. This gave rife to a mixed govern-^ 
ment, compofcd of monarchy, ariflocracy, 
and democracy. 

As the king could tranfadt no very 
weighty affairs without the confent of thp 
ftates, there was afligned to him a perpCf 
tual council, confiding of the bifliops, who 
confidercd themfelves as counfellors of ftatQ 
ex ofEcio, and twelve lay perfons of diftinc- 
tion (/). In the turbulent times during the 
union of Calmar, when the nation fpmc- 
times had a king, and fometimes was with-p 
out, the counfellors of ftate engroffed both 
the rights of the crown, and thofe of the 
people; fo that the diets were fuperfeded, and 
the council of ftate, in conjundion with 
* the king or the adminiftrator of the king-<; 
dom, made laws and iffued ordinances 
without in the leafl: confulting the ftates. 
The council of ftate was fuppofed to re- 
prefent that body, and its confent account- 
ed the confent of the whole people («) 5 
making compafts in the people's name 
with the kings at their election, depofing 
and reinftating them (x). 

But the bifliops, who had ever been the 
principal or moft powerful members of the 

(/) Wilde, c. ill. § ii. § xxvi. 

(«) Ibid. p. 435. 448. 

{x) Ibid. \ xxviu p. 448, 454. 


SWEDEN. 137 

'council of ftatc, being after the reformation 
excluded^ the council underwent a change, 
and became more dependent on the king, 
who now took the nomination of the coun- 
iellors of ftate into his own hands (y) ; 
iince which time the number of them has 
not been fixed* and queen Chridina increafed 
it to forty. 

The principal members of the council of 
ftatc arc the five great officers, the chief juf- 
tice, the marfhal, the admiral, the chancellor, 
and the treafurcr (31). Thefe after the 
death of Guftavus Adolphus acquired great 
power, which during the fucceffive mino- 
rities of queen Chridina (32) and of Charles 
XL they did not neglefi to ftrengthen and 

Thus the prerogative hithcrtp appears to 
have been limited, however not always 
alike, as the kings, more or lefs, recom- 
mended themfelves to the confidence and 

( f) Wilde, ^ iii. § xxxiii. p. 566, C67. 

(51) lb. c. iii. §ii. § xxvi. p. 343, obferve5» that the chief 
JLoftice, ffiarflial, and chancellor, were formerly court-officers ; 
and that the council ofilate'svie«rin admitting them as mem- 
bers, was to flrcDgtheo that aflembly with the lever al powera 
annexed to thofe employments. 

(32) In the form of government, drawn up by Go (lavas 
AdoJpbus, and confirmed by the Hates of the kingdom in 
1634; the five great officers of the kingdom, were, during 
the king's abfence, or in cafe of ficknefs, to be guardians td 
the king or qaeen during their minority. Vid. Chrifl. Ner- 
tlebladt Formula Regiminis Sueciae de anno 1634. cum novif- 
^is de anno 17x9, Sf 1720. Colle^a, § liit. p. 5i> 52. 



refpedt of the flates by their perfbnat qua** 

S E. C T. XIV. 

lotrodw. But under Charks XL t^ Swedifli go* 

tion of un* . • • . • ' 

limited no- vern men t tHiderwent a \uolent arteratton. 

'^^ '* Th« powef which the council of flate bad 

hitherto exercifed^ as a pretended iftlerme^ 

diate ord^ between the king and the ftates 

of the kii>gdom9 was derogatory, and: coa^ 

iequentty an eye-fore to both. This it was 

which prompted the kuig to pot this quef* 

fion to the Aates ** whether he wa& to govern 

^ the kingdom with the advice of the conaci) 

^^ of ftate ? and in what noanner the council 

** of Aate was an intermediate order between 

^ " the king and the ftates ?" This, on the 9th 

December 1680, produced a refblution of 

the diet, *' that the determination of all 

" matters which the king, for the welfare 

^' of the kingdom, bad communicated to the 

'• council of ftate, depended entirely on his 

*' own juft and good pleafure j and that a 

*' king, on being of age, and governing 

•* according to law, was accountable for 

•* his proceedings to God alone ; that the 

" council of ftate was not to be account-- 

'* ed a middle order, nor fo much a« a 

•* fifth, ftate, but to be one and the fame 

<* with that of the nobles." In the fame 

2 refo* 


refoltttic* it Was fikewifc fpccified, '• that 
«* the king was limited only by the law of 
^* Sweden^ arid ftot by afty form of govern- 
^' ment/\ This refolution received the 
royal aflent on the loth of December i6So« 
The ufual ilile of the king and kingdom's 
council^ was at the fame time changed into 
that of Royal Council {z). Thus was the 
king emancipated from the controul of the 
council of fiate ; and this was the fird iiep 
to a more free cxercife of power, which, in 
the diet held in 1682, received fome addi- 
tions : for in its refolution of the 3d 
of Januafy 1683, the fucceffion to the 
throne was declared hereditary in the male 
And female line; and the king inverted 
with a right of beftowing fiefs and 
crown-lands, and of rcalTuming them. 
The ftatcs afterwards acknowledged his 
claim to the government of the kingdom ; 
to make laws and ordinances ; to regulate 
the militia, and recruit the military forces ^ 
yet, in the tnanncr prefcribed by law. In 
the fame refolution the ftates, however, 
fettled the time and rates of the taxes (a) ; 
which dearly fhews that they had referved 

J«) Anecdotes de Suede, p. 137, 138- Wilde, c. iii, 
§iv. § 42, p. 712— 717- 

(a) Do Mont. ^Corps piplom. Tom. VII. P. II. p. 40. ec 




the important article of taxes to themfelves 

<33)- , • 


The new This changc of fituation, however, was 
fwm^of^o- attended with fuch ill confequences under 
vumncuu chafles XL and Charles XII. that on the 
death of the latter, the Swedes laid hold of 
the firft opportunity of delivering themfelves 
from the burden (34), and introducing a 
form of government quite new ; by which 
the prerogative was reduced within much 
narrower' limits than even before the time 
of Charles XI. Accordingly, in 1719, they 
entered into a compact with queen Ulrica 

(33) ^3 ^^^^ revolution makes not the lead mention of aa 
unlimited power being given to the king, Wilde will not allow 
' that Charles XI. had the abfqlute rovereignt)\ Hift. Pragm, 
cap. iii. § iv. § 40. p. 678. In proof of this, he pro- 
duces feveral diets fubfequent to this alteration of the govern- 
ment, being held in the years 1686, 1689, 1693; io 
which the king, of his own accord, gives the Hates an ac« 
count of the fituation of the kingdom. Nay, he faysexprcfly, 
that fince 16B0, tho' the king has obtained more power, yet 
he has not more privileges and authority in reality, but only 
in appearance. Whereas it is rather certain, that the form of 
government was in reality altered, and only the appear- 
ance of it retained ; and that the kio^, even antece- 
dently to the abovementioned refolutions, did in many points 
confider himfelf as unlimited ; and that the dates of the king- 
dom, fo far from oppofing him, have, on feveral occasions, 
addreifed him as an unlimited monarch ; particularly at the 
diet of 1693, the ilates of Sweden formally acknowledged 
him for an •* abfolute and fovcreign king." 

(34) It is obfervable, that the Swedifh army were the firft 
movers for fuppreffing the abfolute fovcreigniy, as'appears 
from a letter of fieldmarfhal SifverhieliOy jin the^Suenflia BU 
^lioth. Del I. n. 6. 


SWEDEN. 141 

Eleonora^ and in 1720, with her confort 
Frederic I. (35), whereby they eftablifhed 
a perpetual form of government. 

This laft compadl or Form of Govern- ruii4.meii- 
ment, together with the AS of the Diet **' '*'*'• 
made in 1723, and the Declaration publifhed 
by king Adolphus Frederic 175 1 (36), arc 
the principal fundamentals of the govern- 
ment of Sweden, which have fincc been 
more clearly determined in feveral adts of 
the diet, and judicial fentences (37). 


In this new conftitution, the ftates of the stat« of 
kingdom have fecured to themfelves the fu- dom^'anr 
preme power, and the principal regalities ;**'*** 
which they exercife at the diets. The ftates 
confift of the nobility, the clergy, the 
burghers, and the peafants. Every third 
year, about the middle of January, a diet 
is held at Stockholm, or occafionally at fome 
other place ; and the king, with the advice 
of the council of ftatc ; or if he be abfent or 

f 35) The former is to be found in the Europ. Fama, p. 230. 
The other In profeffor Dahnert's German Tranflation of the 
Foodamental Laws of Sweden, p. 4 — 58. Among feveral 
alterations made in the lafl, the king's power is considerably 
more abridged. And the AA of Secarity in p. 105 — 128. 

(36) The aft of the diet is to be found in the Svwedifh 
fandainental laivs beforementioned, p. 61 — ic2y and the De- 
claration in p. io^-*-i28. 

(37) The laft are to be found in profefibr Dahneri^s AfU 


ficky the council of Aate iffups x\}^ fyogt^ 
mons. This mceliilg is compoired pf the 
deputies of tlic Hates, that is, I, Of the 
counts, .barons, and |[entryj oop t>f -each 
family, being at Icaft, twentynfftHryqars.ftf 
age* TI. Of .theclei:gy3 the biflioj>s,.m4Xll* 
pcrintendents ; or, in lieu of thsoi, ^^ijrfofi 
unaninaouflychofen by thie chapter ;^i^cthfir 
with a deputy from the clcrgy,of^n^ry^ 
who nxuft be one of their body. .HI. Qf .tbje 
towns, one or more from each (38), who 
rouft be one of the corporation, or at leift a 
burgher. AndJV, Ofthepc^iants, one from 
every diftria (Harad, whpfe charges tbi^y bear 
(39). The clergy of .feveral deaneries qaay 
agree in choofing one common reprefcntatiye^ 
which is likcwife permitted to two or ihvuf 
of the fmalleft towps, and different H^rad^. 

(38) The towns in Sweden are -ei titer Staple, or :Land« 
towns, and thofe larger or. fmallf r ; theila[^l& aiKi larger Uad- . 
towns fend each two deputies, the fmaller only one. Stock* 
'holm has the privilege of fending ten, and Couoobiirg- three. 

(39) The nobiUty at the diet amount to one ^h^ofa^d, aod 
the clergy to fifty perfons. At the diet held in 1755, ^nd 
*17S^» were prefent a hundred and thirteen .dopnties ban lh« 
towns, andi a hundred and thirty-five from the peafanis. By 
the form of government of 1634, the colonel, lieutenant- 
colonel, major, and a captain of each regiiQfnt> isi^ntklod 
to a feat at the diet ; and Locceniiis .places fhtm JAMMiffft 
the Aates of the kingdom^ whom in that account, he dividea 
into &ve clafles : bnt ic is a miftake to make tjie faid jniUlarx 
officers a particular clafs ; no mention is m^de of thfin ii\ 
the fummons of the ditt in 172^, where the feveral ftates 
are pun^laaliy fpecified. Likewiie in the A>r<n of govciBmcnt 
in 1719 and 17Z0, thefe officers are totally ^raiuod. 


SWEDEN. .143 

Such 'a tfeprefentatiw, /however^ ha^ only 

one vote. A didcefe, deanery, or town« foil- 

dng tO'fenda reprefentative, incurs apenalty 

<at 'the pleafure of its refpedive (late (^). 

The^of the threekflilates 

'muft be furnilhed with credentials made 

-out'in a certain form, and produce them at 

•the opening of the diet. Upon this the no-- 

bility make choice of the knd marlhal, and 

«ach of the other three dates chufe a fpeakerj 

.(Taleman). The diet is opened in the 

^king's^palace ; and by the king with all the 

enfigns of 'royalty, and the ftates in their 

robes. '^Alfter a fpeech delivered, either by 

'the king himfelf, or the chancellor, he 

c^ufes fueh orertuf es, the nature of which 

does not require fecrecy, to be read to the 

flates. But thefe ceremonies excepted, they 

themfelves tranfad: every thing ncccffary 

to the welfare of the kingdom. They 

-examine how the fundamental kws have 

been obferved, and into the conduct of the 

counfellors of ftatc; likewife into the ma* 

nagcment of the publick monies, and the 

condition of the army and navy. For the 

difpatch of thefe, and other affairs, they 

appoint committees, the principal of which 

is the fecret committee, taking cognizance 

only of the moft important concerns, as al- 

(i) Orders of the diet in 1723, §1— — /• 



liances, /peace, war, the navy, army, and 
the finances (40). The adls of the ftates, 
after being laid before the king for his 
ligning, arc proclaimed, and carried into 
execution in his name. 

A diet is not to fit above three months 
(41), but may rife fooner^ aU the iUtcs or 
three of them fodefiring; and a petition be- 
ing prefented to the king for its difiblution, 
he puts an end to it by proclamation. Upon 
the day appointed, thcdifTolutionofthediec 
(42) being previoufly figned by the council 
and the dates of the kingdom, and con- 
firmed with the feals of the chamber of. no- 
bles, the chapter of the cathedral, the city of 
Stockholm, and the Upland court, is read 
and receives the royal afifent {d). 
PrUiifgei The fupreme power being lodged in the 
Hons*'of the flates alTcmbled at a diet, they alone have 
the condud: of government, and explain 
and amend the particulars of the conftitu- 
tion {e) ; without their confent no law can 

(40) The fecret committee is ufually compofed ofdepnties 
of the three upper orders, none of the peafanrty being ad- 

(41} By reafon of the great expences^ which, if the diet 
continaes a twelve-month, airiount to eighteen hondred 
tboufand 4pl]ars, but this law has been little obfenred io the 
]ate diets. 

(42) No refolution of the diets can take place without 
the confent of at leaft three of the liaces. 
- (J) Aft of the diet, § 20, 24* 

(«•) Form of preamble. 

be ' 

SWEDEN. t^s 

be madc» altered or repealed (/) ; no war 
undertaken unlefe for the immediate defence 
of the kingdom againft an invafion (g) i no 
taxes, duties, and tolls impofed [Jb) ; no 
railing the value nor altering the ftandard of 
the coia (/), and no privileges granted to 
any clafs of the ftates coUedively (Jk) ; far- 
ther, all military officers take the fame oath 
to them as to the king (/), and they have 
iikevtrife referved to themfelves the nomina- 
tion of the guardians and preceptors^ of the 
king's children {m)^ 

The obligations which they had laid on 
themfelves are, that they fhall religioufly ad«- 
here to the form of government ; (hall not, 
under very fevere penalties, propofe or go 
about any thing tending to overthrow or al- 
ter it; and laftly, they leavt the king in the 
full and free exercife of his authority, and 
the enjoyment of his dignity, as prcfcribcd 
by the laws of Sweden and the form of go- 
vernment (»). 

(/) Form of G. § iv. 

(^) Ibid. S vi. Aaof S. § 17, 

(I) Ib&d. § V. 

(0 Ibid. §ix. Aaof S. ( 18. 

(i) Ibid, i xlix. Aa of S. § xi. 

(/) Ibid. ) xxiv, 

(«) Ibid. § iii. 

(«) Ibid § viii. 

Vol, III. L SECT. 




councHof O^ ^^^ "^^ ^*^"^ ^^ government taking 
place, in lieu of the unlimited prerogative, 
the council of ftatc was reftored to its for- 
mer privileges, though, without the five high 
officers. Its numTber is now fixed to fixteen, 
and on a vacancy in the council, the three 
upper ftates recommend three perfons to 
the king, who makes choice of one. Nb 
more than two of a family can be counfel- 
lors of ftate at the fame time. They arc 
next in dignity to the king himfcif (43), 
and efteemed the guardians of the laws and 
confervators of the rights and privileges of 
the ftates. The council of ftate is accord- 
ingly inveftcd with great powers, (b as even 
to guide the helm of government jointly 
with the king, orduringhis abfence or iHncfs, 
or on his demife {0). This aflcmbly pro- 
ceeds by majority of votes (^), and the king 
is fo far obliged to aftent to its refolutions^ 
that, on his making any difficulty, the 
council of ftate can ftamp the king's narne^ 
and caufe the refoluttons to be made pub- 

(43) The real cooftitution of Sweden, p. 46^. Ays, thai 
in the opinion of Charles XI. the counfellors of ftate, or as 
they were then called, the king's counfellors, were cq««l in 
rank to the prints, dukes, and peers of France* 

(0) Form of G. § xii. xiv. xvi. 

{/) Ibid, § IS« 


SWEDEN. 147 

Ik (44). The council of ftatc, during ^ 
xcccfs of riw ftates, njakc$ treaties of ppace, 
truces^ and alliances (45) in conjundtioa 
with the king(^): on a vacancy in the 
great employmeats^ fcom colonel to field- 
marfbal incluiively^ and others both cjvil 
and ecclefiaAica1» it propofes three perfons 
for the king to chufe one (r) ; and even, 
when JQwer in ^le cabinet employoients as 
they ^re jcaMed^ two counfellors of /late are 
alw9ys1aid before the king for his nomiaa* 
tion (/). 

The counfellor^ of jftate gre deputies of 
the dates [f), and its fpch accountable to 
them for their conduct {u). They are to 
reprefent to the king, on any extraordinary 
a&ify what the ordinances ^nd intereft of 
the reAlm reqtiire ; to take care that the 
fuodamentsd laws of ,the kingdom, and the 
/orm of govjerriment be duly obfcryed ; ;ind 
ftrongly to oppofe intrigues and pradtices 

X41O 'Whra f^9 jqpRiift^Ilprs pf 4tf^tt ^re unanimops, or 
only a mMJoniy, they am carry every thing throu^h» evqo 
again ft the king's inclinations ; of this the Swediih anec* 
dotes afifbrd many inilances. 

(45) Of thefe traniaaions they nyift jndce a import ,«t the 
next diet, and wbilft it continues fitting^theyarenot to take 
.iaJiimiiaiiy ^h ivporiant afTairs, ;«(ithout th^ .l^nowlqdge 
jt^d cpvikpt of the iUtes. Form of p. .i* ^4^- 

(/f) Forro.of .G.^^ii. 

(r) Ibid. § ix. 

(i) Ibid. § XX. 

(/) Adof S. & 15. 

(«) Form of G. ) xir. 

L 2 tending 


tending to the diminution of liberty, and 
the re-eftabliihment of an unlimited fove- 
reignty {x). 


Righti of It is eafily conceived from the authority 
which the ftates of the kingdoni have re- 
ferved to themfelves, and the powers with 
which they have inverted the counfellors of 
flate, that very little remains to the king : 
his unalterable prerogatives, declared by 
the ftates of the kingdom {y), are as enu- 
merated by a Swediih politician. 

I. The title and ftate of a king. 

II. The government of the kingdom ac- 
cording to the laws, with the right of in- 
heritance to his male heirs. 

III. The right of conferring nobility on 
perfons of worth (46). 

IV. Of creating knights of the feveral 

V. Nomination of and authority over his 

(jfVForm of G, § xiv. 

(j) Sec § xvi. cowards the end. 

(46) Tltff ftates, however, in the Form of G. of 1720, 
required of king Frederic I. that Sweden having already 
too great a number of nobility, no more noblemen mighc 
be made, till his kingdom could allow of it. 

VI. The 

SWEDEN. 149 

VI. The right of chooiing one out of 
three perfons propofed for certain employ- 
ments (47). 

VII. In certain cafes^ to nominate a per- 
fon not propofed (48). 

VIII. To tranfadt feveral affairs in the 
cabinet, i. e. jointly with two counfcllors 
of date, particularly the nomination to cer- 
tain employments out of three perfons pro- 
pofed to him. 

IX. The decifive vote in the council of 
ftate on an equality of voters ; or if there be 
a minority of two on the fide for which the 
king declares. 

And laftly, X. All orders and edidts are 
figned and carried into execution in his 
name (49). 

The king's principal obligations are, 

(47} The reafon of this was» that an unlimited difpo&l 
of eiDployments might hereafter be made nfe of as a means 
for introducing abfolute fovereignty. 

(48) But this nomination being objfdled to by the council 
of date, becomes void, of which leveral inftances occur in the 
Swedilh Anecdotes. 

(49) All thefe privileges are alfowed the king by the au* 
thor of the '* Real Conftitution of the Kingdom ;'' but what 
he gives the king with one hand, he takes awi^y with the other, 
snaking a difference between the fixed and mutable preroga* 
tives ; among the former, he only reckons his being reigning 
king over the Swedifh monarchy. This right, fays he, the 
king can forfeit, only by goin^ about to make hi mfe if abfolute, 
by open force or fecret pradices ; all the other rights of the 
crown are mutable : and be afferts, that the ftates of the king- 
dom may, occaiionally, curtail, and even fet them afide. 

L 1 I. To 

Hu obiiga. i^ To profcfs, fupport, and defend the 
Ltithcrflft religion («). 

II. Not to difmember the kirtgdom nof 
alienate ihj thing beloftgidg to it {a). 

III. To govern with arid hOt Without^ 
much lefs ag^infti the advice df the council 
df ftatc (50). 

IV. To deleft and rejeS abfblute fdyalty 
or fovereignty [6]^ ' 

, And V. to execute the refolutions^ ads, 
and ordinances of the diet. 

AbHorrencc Arbitrary power, or abfolute fovereisnty, 

oMheabfo.. 1 It J- O J .t.-^ d 

lute (ove. 18 extremely abhorred in Sweden 1 thi^ ah* 
rognty. j^q^j-^j^^^ fhews itfclf in the very laws erf the 
kingdom ; every perfon, on obtaining any 
employment whatever, muft abjure it upon 
oath {J). The members of the diet have 
tied their own hands with regard to it {e), 
by a perpetual law that they (hall not join 
in any defign or confpiracy for altering the 
cftabliflied form of government (5i)* The 

(z) Form of G. S u 
(a) King's Aff. §i. 

(50) And he obliges himfelf to fide with the majority of 
votes. Form of G. § xiii. xv. 

(6) King's Aff. § vi. 

(f) Order of the diet. § xx, 

iJ) Adlof the diet of 1719. p. it. 

(Old. Ibid. 

(5 1) In an ordinance of the diet of 1723, | ix. Contains a 
general form for the members of the diets, which lays tbea 
under this obligation. 

I king 

SWEDEN. 151 

king himfelf. In the moO: folemn manner, 
is bound by the law of forfeiture, never to 
aim at, or accept of abfolote fovcrcign ty (/) ; 
and feveral private pcrfons have, by their 
pens, dlfplayed a truly patriotic zeal for 
fuppocting the liberty, which has been fo 
happily recovered, and hitherto fo refo- 
Itttely pceferved (52). 

(/) Aa of S. § vi. xxiiu 

(52) A fingular teftimony of thi» is, the piece, inticled 
*\ GlomiH Sweden/' and tranflated into German by the 
title of, " Genaine Conilitotipn of the KiDgdom of Swe- 
den;*' which is throvgbout a panegyric on the prefent form 
of forernmenty and a j unification of all the meafures taken 
in fupport of it, thongh not without fome cavil and fophiftry. 
Tbk paaiphlet occa!fioned a great ftir in the diet held io 
^755 > A>nie declared the author deferved a public reward ; 
others were for having him exemplarily pnnifhcd. He expreiTes 
an ardent wifli» tiiat a Jawr catechifm was compofed for the 
ufe of the common people ; and this wifh has, in fome mea- 
fare, been fulfilled by a Swediih ecdefiaflic, who, in order 
to |ivc bis eoantryme n foaie acquaintance with the laws Qf 
their country, has introduced the iirit principles of the Swe« 
difh polity into his Illuftration of Lather's Catechifm ; 
which, on account of its iingularity, being, perhaps, the 
oa\y catechifm of its kind^ I fhall communicate to the 
reader. The queftions and anfwers appertaining to this Tub- 
jedl are as follow. 

** Who can make laws in our kingdom ? 

** The ftates of the kingdom; and the king figns them 
with his own hand, and caufes chem to be confirmed by hh 
royal feal." 

** Who can adminiflcr juflice ? 

" The king, jointly with the advice of the council of 
ftate, can adminifter juftice according to law; and he like- 
wife does it by other officers of his own, who are alfo thofe 
of the kingdom ; and on this account particularly the king 
is our ruler," 

»< Have the fnbjeAs then given away the power of go- 
vernihent f a 



. . &E C T- X"^. 

jndgment The Ofily^ipw of the ftate^ of Sweden in 
dHh^roi^of the. regulation^ of the cooftltution was, as 
goverwDcnujj^^y tbcmfdves dcclare, «^ That the king 
** might CdntiAue. unmokAcid in his dig^ 
<* nity ; the council of date. be maintained 
«< in its authority^ and the ftates in 
** their rights and immunities/' Liberty is 
the foul and effence of the.Swedifli form of 
government, , which is mixed and compofcd 
of monarch y» ariftocracy, and democracy, 
with the Icaft of the firft, and the moft of 
"^ the fecond, fo that Sweden is rather to be 
looked on as an ariftocratical free (late 
than a monarchy (S)* For, though all the 
four dates are on a level at the diet, yet 
feveral cafes occur which throw a great pre- 
pondcrancy into the fcale of the nobility. 

*' Yes, It is given away, and lodged in the hands of'the 
law and the government. But withal/ their reprefenutivet 
at the diet are bound by the laws, and ha\'e a right and 
power to fee that the government aAs according to ^he laws, 
^nd to amend whatever has been done contreriwife.'^ 

•' What relief then remains for a fubjcft under any grier* 
ances ? 

*' Pie has his natural and Chriftian liberty of defending 
hi^ life and fubdance ; and is never to give away his own 
or the kingdom's liberty." 

** Wherein confiRs this liberty of the kingdom, and of 
each man ? ^ 

** In being governed according to the conftitqtion and lawa 
of the kingdom ; but never to fulFer himfelf to be governed 
by the will and pleafure of an individual." 

^h) Science du Gouv^rn. d? M. de Rcal,Tdm.IV. p. 133, 



This admits not the lead doubts on confi- 
dcring, i. That the council of ftate, who 
fit at the helm of government, are of the 
body of the nobility. 2. That the nobility 
are pofTeired of the principal employment^, 
both civil and military ; and 3. That, they 
are therefore the mod conGderabie and the 
richeft of thefourftatcs.not to mention their 
fuperiority in numben All thefe advantages 
give them a great influence on the thrce^ 
other ftates, to the particular members of 
which, the nobility, from their authority 
and dignities, can be of great fervice or 
detriment ; and thus, according to the com- 
mon courfe of things, they can work on them 
through hope or fear; and confequently^ 
accompli(h whatever they pleafe. This 
form of government, fome hold as very in- 
convenient (/); and fo perhaps it would be in 
another kingdom; yet, every thing tho- 
roughly weighed, it appears well adapted to 
the domeflic and original ftate of the coun- 
try, and the genius of the people : the pub- 
lic liberty, its main fcope, is, amidft all 
the privileges of the nobility, fufficiently 
fecured to the other ftates by excellent 

(/) Jufti's Nature and Conftitation of States, § xcvii. and 
dt Real, Tom. ii. p. 694. 

(53) The author of " Glorious Sweden,** may eafily be 
«3(cufed for preferring the Swedilb form, of government to 




Some politiciaos^ however, from this 
great prevalence of ariftocracy^ forefee the 
overthrow of this ib highly valued conditu- 
tion. The author of the Chinefe Letters, 
proclaims it in a very decifive tone. *^ Swe- 
den, fays h«> however rigid and earneil it 
at prefent feem$» in maintaining its liberty^ 
is very probably only haflening to an afbi«> 
trary government; the diets, while they, 
pretend great care for the liberty of the 
people* are only laying the foundation of 
their own independency. The deliuled peo- 
ple willy at lengthy fall into the fnare of an 
ariftocratical fovcreignty, and then will be 
thoroughly fenfible that the government of 
many is always more burthenfome than that 
of an individual ; and in that mod danger- 
ous fituation, when one branch of the legif- 
Jature is able to fcize the whole, they will 
have rccourfe to the throne, which will 
never turn the deaf ear to their complaints. 
No people are known long to bear with an 
ariftocratical fovcreignty, when any other 
refuge is at hand : however, the com«- 
monality may, for a time, be enflaved 

every other in the univerie as the moft perfeA ; for this maj 
be very juilly faid, with regard to Sweden, though, in ge- 
' iier«l, or relatively to other iUtes* it tnight be found doobt- 
ful, or even untrue. 


S W E P E N. 155 

by a number q£ tyraikts, yet^ on the firft 
opportunity, they never fail having re- 
courfe«to deiJEKrfifm or democracy {k)." But 
this in all appearance is little to be appre- 
hended, the conititution being founded on 
fuch a regular bafcj and the crown fo li« 
mitedj that, without any extraordinary in- 
cidents it will icarce ever acquire a party fuf* 
ficien t to bring about any fuch alteriition (/)• 
And flill lefs is it to be apprehended Chat 
the democratical part of the ftate, the ari« 
ilopratical being fo flrdng, will ever under- 
take, or, at leafti aceompli(h any thing for 
its own particular aggrandizement, or for 
creating a monarchy^ 


A celebrated writer thinks that theTHe?of. 
Swedifh government is formed on that of sweSSi 
Great Britain, as far as compatible with^jj^^^ 
the fituation of the country, the manners 
of the inhabitants! and the fundamental 
laws of the kingdom [m). But a ihort 
comparifon will diew that i£ there be fome 
afiinity, there is a greater diiFerence* 

In Great Britain, the parliament has a 
fhare in making, altering, « and repealing 

(I) Chbcre Letters No. LV. 

(/) Prefent State of Europe, ch. iv. 

Im) De Real, Part L Tom. IK 



In Sweden the ftates are likewife the le- 

In Great Britain^ the parliament impofes 
taxes and impofts. 

In Sweden the flates have likewife fuch a 

In Great Britain the parliament can call 
the king's minifters to account for mifcondudt. 

In Sweden, the jftates can do the like^ 
both With regard to the couniellors of flate^ 
and other officers civil and niilitary. 

In Great Britain the king exercifes inde- 
pendently all the foreign privileges of roy- 
alty ; making war and peace, alliances, and 
treaties with other powers. 

In Sweden the king cannot enter into a 
war ^without the confent of the ftates, nor 
make peace, truces, alliances, &c, but with 
the advice of the council of ftate, i. c, ac- 
cording to the majority of votes. 

In Great Britain he has the difpofal of all 
great employments, ecclefiaftical, civil, and 

In Sweden, his houfliold excepted, he 
cannot of himfelf, give any employment s» 
either great or fmall. 

In Great Britain he can, at his pleafure^ 
call, prorogue, and diiTolve the parliament. 

In Sweden, the king mufl call a diet at 
the time appointed^ and the ilates continue 


SWEDEN. 157 

£tting, or put an end to their fcffioti, as 
they think fit. 

In Great Britain he can refufe his confent 
to the refolutions of parliament^ and then 
they are of no force. 

In Sweden he is obh'ged to aflent to the 
a£ts of the diet^ and to put them in exe* 

In Great Britain he is not obh'ged to defer 
to the majority of his privy counctU but 
can follow his own opinion. 

In Sweden he muft conform to the ma- 
jority of votes in the council of ftate. 

In Great Britain he can bring up his 
children as he pleafes, and commit their 
education to whom he will. 

In Sweden, the ftates of the kingdom 
nominate the perfbns, who are to be en-- 
trufted with the education of the king*s 


There is, however, a refemblance be- Parri« u 
tween the two dates ; and the ground of it ^''**** 
lies in their form of government. The 
fpiritof difcord has fhed its baneful influence 
in both. Sweden, no lefs than England, is 
diftraded with parties, by which the former 
in particular, has been hinder'dfrom reaping,. 
upon its change of government^ all thofe 



advMiCagfee^. mhich oth«rwi£b it migibt. 
Thefe parties have been (em to operate 
QOtooly ia itt doQikfiftic conctms^ boC in 
ibreiga aegimatiOBS, in wars, and alliajoqes ; 
and^ amidft their coUifioss, the Swedi& 
|>olitfecal fyftem i€ etier fkOuating {/i). To 
tbe violence o£ the prevailifig part^ uc, in 
a great meafure^ to be imputed the twx> Isdi 
wans mdn Ru€ia^54) and Pmffia^ b^ wl)ich 
tj»e kingdom w^s in ao finaU <ianger^ an4 
involved in vaft a:|ienc« iiad dnmago^ 
without any indcAwificaAion i( £ 5^ 


Tbe fuccef. Thc fttoccfiiDn to thiS threttkc of t&medem* 
"** was never perfe^Rly hercMUtaiy . For itAiougli 
the ions fncceoded ilieir fisith^B^ and tthe 
^rery daugbfers were tnat tgcchided^; ftA, itt 
the J&me lin», the people .wene pcriTdBed of 
a right of eledtion ; fo that if a youogtf brp^ 

(«) Science jdu QQiKernem.1>eJle»I. £. I. Tom.IL p. 
694 — 706. 

(54) ,Tlie &oiditi«n (for ilie wsr^idlii RtfCawvs bid is 
the diet of 1739, after . renewing the fabji4y f ^9tX 'vith 
Trance. Two^-partics were tben on'fbot, the "Hats, and the 
Night-c^6;^tTCrf0n«cr »were foria>«(»r, tii^ fherlnt^^Ar 
a peace. A third, di/lii\guiihed bjr tbername of Travelliaj^- 
xaps, -flepped'forth^s nentrals, ^without *tikmg part in-icif 
Af tkeir icheinet. Rut Achats beu)g Uieibonge^, ^^ yffr 
was refolved on. .Prefent State of Europe^ ch. iv. d. «. 

(55) ^^ the -Ruffian war,;Sw«den loft «part«0f ^l^lSiitf ^ 
and the chaisges of ^Uie .PiwiEan 4war, accordiAg 10 >piil)lip 
accoQDts, amounted to above fixty-two millions of dollars^ 




ther.or kinffnao fvife evidently fitter for go- 
vernincnt than the elder^ be was preferred ; 
and thus ao eleftion fuperieded primogeni- 
ture {t^). This cuilom was' conftantly ob- 
fcrweip and expreily eftabliflied at the union 
of Calmar* fiut Guftavus Vaia, being 
eledcid king, the ftates, at the diets of 
OerebrOy in 15399 and at Wefleras in 15449 
did» in confideration of his etntnent dt&rt$, 
snake the crown hereditary to hia male de- 
fcendants. King John IlL in 1 5^, pre-- 
vailed with the ftates of the kingdom to 
extend the hereditary right to the king's 
daughters, ^^ if unmarried, or afterwards 
'^ married with eonfent of the Aates >*' 
which was confirmed in 1604, by the union 
of Norkof]^ in behalf of the fems^ de<» 
fceodants of Charles IX^ under the fame 
coniiitians; and by the diet of 1627^ for 
Chriftinat daughter to Guflavus Adoipbo^' 
But in the adt of the diet in 1650, for de- 
claring the clcdor Pdatine Charles Gufta- 
vus king, nientioQ was made only of the 
male defcendants ; and not a word concern* 
img ihc female, neither in other ads relat-* 
ing to the fucoeffion« However, in the ad of 
the diet of 1683, the female fucccffion was 
acknowledged as valid, agreeably to the 

(p) DaliDf p. L c, vii. f xxii. 2xiii, 




Norkoping union> and the ^& of the diet of 
1627. At the fame time, thi$ diet invefted 
^ kiog Charles XL with the povvcr of fettling 
the fucceflion, which he accordingly did 
by his will in 1693, and» in tJ^. want of 
fons» nominated his daughters and thpir, de- 
fcendantSy founding fuch nomipationrO^ the 
a£t of the diet above mentioned in. 1683. 
On the demife of Charles XIL the Aatf^ of 
Sweden declared the throne vacant^ . and 
paid no regard to the daughters of Charles 
XI. and their heirs, the provifbe of the 
Norkoping union not being fulfilled with 
regard to them (56) ; yet they choie the 
younger daughter Ulrica Elconora, fettling 
the fucceilion on her male ifTue. And ppr- 
fuant to this hereditary right in the male 
line his prefent majefty Adolphus Frederic 
was, in 1743, declared fucceflbr to the 
throne {p). 

Kegeney ^^ *^^^ ^^'^ of govemoaent of 1634, the 
dillLSiT' ^^^ 8^^^^ officers of ftate are appoint^ re- 
gents and guardians, , during the kingViU- 
nefs or minority (j') ; and accordingly the 

($6) This was expr<fly fpecified iff the refoltttion of the 
ftates in 171^. ' • 

(p) Geouioe Conftitudon of the Kingdom of Sweden, p. 
^08— —426. 

(f) NettlebfadtPonn.Reg, 3/Vnii. p. s>* 


§ W E D E I^. 161 

government if as todjg?4 with tjoem during 
the minority of queen Ctriftina. .With 
them, Charles puftavus, by |iis wilt> Jlia 
ion Charles XI. being a minpr, joined, his 
confort Hedwig Elcofiora, with s| douWc 
vote (r) ; and this fame princefs Was, by 
Charles XI. nominated guardian, of his 
minor Ton Charles XIL in . C04ijun<5iQn 
with five members of the king's council (/). 
But in the form of government of 1720* 
the regency is, in. Tuch cafes, committed to 
the whoJe body of the council of ftate (/). 

The time of the king's majority was nptMijority. 
precifely determined, or at leaft not punc- 
tually bbicrvcd. Guftavus Aciolphus, at 
the defire of the dates, entered pn the go- 
vernment when he was feveniieen years of 
age (a)',* queen Chriftina in her eighteenth 
{x), and Charles XIL in his fixteenth year, 
though his father had fettled his majority 
at his entranceinto his eighteenth ^ear {y). 

AltW the crown, on the king's demife, Accefflon 
kumediately devolves upon the next heir,tioiu 

PufieodorPs Introdudion to the Hiftory of Sweden. 

(r) Les Anecdot. de Suede* p. 74. 

If) PufieodorPs Introdudion to 

(/) Fonn of G. of 172O9 § 16. 

(«) Hiftoire de GuiUve Adolphe, parM. deM* *, Livr. 

26, 27. 

Locceniusy Hifl»6uec. Lib. IX. p. m. y^a 
(>) Voltaire's Hift-deChiirles XII. Lin. h 

Vol. III. M yet, 



yet is he not to enter on the government 
till he has delivered his declaration/ been 
crowned {s7)» ^^^ taken his oa^h (2;). 
The kings, after their inaugaration, for- 
merly were obliged to make a progrefs 
through the kingdom {a), which was called 
Riks-Gata. Though this tuftom be riot 
formally abolilhed, yet appearing no iongtr 
neceflary, it feems left to the kiogVgobd . 
pleafure (^). 

SECT, xxvir. 

Tide- The firft rulers in Sweden were ftilcd 

' Drottars or judges (c). Dygue, and ^i« 
fucccflbrs, had themfclves ftilcd kjngs ,of 
Upfal, till Olof Scotkonung firft aliped 
the title of king of Sweden (4/), ^o which 
Magnus Ladulas afterwards add^ that of 
*' kingof the Goths (tf)j;; and Eric of Po- 
merania lengthened it with anoth^fj addi^ 
tion of " king of the Vcncii (58)." In 

. (57) It IS not oDWorthy notice, that tt,lhc. QOioiiation of 
a <jueen, flie is proclaimed aa king» and not as qu^o ; knd 
this was done at the corooatkoi .of qufcn Uliica^-filconora. 
Mem. coocefn. ChriAine Reine ide Saede^ Toxn« Ia.^ p. 32^ 
302, • - 

(») Farm of G. i iii. 

(a) Daiia. DeL I. cs^« vit* pv 9^5. . -v.^' ,:m 

t^) ^aof thadietof i752» i.7. .. . . . ^.uii ^ 

(0 Dalin. Del. L cap. xv» pi 3«e. - . r/< s.^c 

X^i) Ibidf'.czfK. xn* P' 6zz. ...» ^ » v z'^v 

(#) Ibid. Dell. II. ca[> viu, p> jjSB. . •£• n o:: 

(58) A record is fiill in being, in wiiich MagmsXadoks 
Jikewife Ailes himfelf king of tiic. VeHedi ; bat tiiis title was 


8 W j2 D E N. . i6j 

ptoQtfk (>£ tlmf^. t\fi^ tit}^ of any conquered 
CQuatrifij^j^^e % gf ^ ^ ^ } ibjat on the lofs 
of thecn^ wf^e ftt^ig If^ ^^^* 'i^h^ pi^* 
fent ujdial, tit|/|^, . li^iug of ^ the Svredes^ ' 
Goth3# and .V^^^aU^ great prince of Fin« 
lan4^ duke tafBiitkoncA, Stettin^ Pomerania^ 
&C. i^g)^ ttk,vh\ck ia now added^ heir of 
Npr\;*ayj..and duke^of Holftcin (/), the pre* 
£e|^|!^ji;^t)^io2!^ prince of the houfe of Hol« 


The arms of the king of Sweden are ^ar- 
tcyly ; the upper dexter, and lower finifter^ 
Tdpiter j tiittt crowns, Sol (60), for tho 
kin|dbtA of Sweden ; and party per bend 
^i^tf-^" jfupiterj with a crowned lion^ 
JWkf/; in a^i&elii, Bol J for the kingdom of 
thc^^Arfii {i). ' The arms of the prcfent 
klng^&ave likeWife a central (hield, and a 
Mciffit.fl)icl(!j injthcfirft of which are the 

not coDfiantly uki till tbe reign of Eric of Pomeranit* ThAla* 
i>ellr li* cftp. xi« p. j^r . 

(59) At Icift fy I iiod it by the tnmihriotts of treitict. 

i/) Sce*^^ vii. f^x. (37) and ( xxv/ 
- (69) Soflie derivH t^ crowns froia, tTi<; ibfifft prtncipat 
idoU in tbe moft remote times of paganifm^ and from thtf 
fuppofed iacrednefs of a number divi£b1e, into tkree eAa^ 
jNutSE, DnUa. Del. L ti^ t; and cnp, xv« Concerning the 
myderioos fignification attributed to tbefe three crowns by 
ibme Swedim writers, fee Beckman Synt. Dignit. Illufir. 
J>iferr* VII. €• ill. § xiii^ and the contefts with Denmark 
about betring thcmy are mentionedr ch, fii^ of tbis^ work, ( 
xiiii6.L(4n)6- ^ 
* X^iGitt^v'a New Mnn«d« 

JM 2 ' arms 


arras of Slefwick and Holftein ; and in the 
latter thofe of Oldenburg an^I Dclmcnhorft. 
The fliicld is furmounted with a crown ; 
\ two lions," Sol, the fupportcrs. 


TiiiM, The king*s fons arc called hereditary 

obiigarioM princes, and the eldeft diftingmflied by the 
king'* cbii- ride ^f Crown- Prince ; whereas thf daugh- 
ters, inftead of hereditary princeffes,^ are 
called princefles royal, not being heirefles 
to the crown. Neither the princes nor 
princefles have any lands, and muft not fo 
much as porchafe any, but content tf^eip* 
felves with the pecuniary appointments af- 
figncd ' to thctn. But the princefles, on 
their marriage, have theuCual portbn, and 
the princes are obliged to enter into thena*- 
tional fcrvice (i), , 


^cfiSen«f*' The kings of Sweden formerly reCdcd «t 
Up&U but hav^ fince removed to Stocl^- 
holm (61) as more "convenient, and being 

(/) Declaration of 1751. ^ 4. 

(61} Birgcr Jarly father co king^WaUemar, and r^enf 
of the kiD^om, fouoded this city about the yt^ar iz^^^slm 
a check againft the invafioiu of tke eailem nations, who 
fometimea made their way into the very heart of Sweden. 
Its name is compootided of Stock, or Stick, and Ho1m» an 
iAand ; as (landing on ieveral iflands ; and faid to be derived 
from the pieces of timber, Stockar. laid acro& the waters, 


SWEDEN. 165 

thtlcaplfti of the kingdom. The king's 
palacf is a fi0w m^ fplendid edifice ; and la 
the neighbourhood of Stockhblm he has 
feveral feats,, -as Friderichflioff, Carlfberg, 
Ulrichfdal, and Drgttingholoi. The laft is 
the fined and moil anfvyerable to the dignity 
©f the owner, . 


The king's houfliold is under the fuper- court. 
intendency of the grand marfhal, who i^ 
always a couniellor of ftate. flis office is 
to take care of the. king's courts, palaces^ 
and houfes, and (o regulate every thing re- 
lating to the table» the oncers and dome<- 
ftics, and other particulars &c. {k). 

Sweden has three orders, the Seraphim, orden or 
the Sword, and the North-ftar. The firft w'" 
is (aid to be of great antiquity (62), and 

IMirtly for paffin^ oter^ ind Jteep^g out an enemy^ flitps ; 
or fromihepaliUdoctof an old fore whtcb ftood there; an ^ 

odd Aory is told cooccrning the origin of this name in the 
Nfemoir poor fervir ^ FHiJt ciu XVIIffte Siec)», Tom. IL p« 
ap, 30. 

(i) Form of GoYcrn. § 35. 

(62) King Magnus La^iulas is faid toliaye created knights 
of the 6i<er of the Sertph fo early as 1 2S2. Daliif. Del. II. 
c. viK. § 19. S. 290 't'ha fame hll^ortan likewjfe fay^ chac^ 
king Magnas Smecky and king John I^ at their refpedtive- 
coronations* made feveral knighis of this orden Dell. IL c. 
xi. § xviii. S. 447. and cap. xix. § xx. S. 836. 

Ml the 

the fccond but little poftcrlor (65%' ' B6tii, 
however, in "^time/ becamt difeTete ) ' atid 
it appears tliit kiftg Eric XIV. at his coro^ 
nation^ inftituted a new orcfer; very nearly 
refembling thSt of the Sferapfiitn ; King John 
IIL the Agnas Dei (f^), ai^d Charles XJ. 
that of Jehovah («) : yet their augoflr titles 
have not prcfcrved tbcni from the faie of 
the two former ; and that of the Amaran* 
thus^ iriftituted by queen Chriftina [0), like-* 
vrife became ektinguiihed fbon after her¥e- 
£gnation. Thus the Swedifh court was 
without an ornament^ which is eftablilSied 
in aU other European courts, till In 1748, 
king Frcdefk I. itncwed the Sera[^ni atid 
the Sword. ' ' * * ' 

The enfign of the former ii- a vehit^'tttii- 
melled crofs, with pyramidical points, the 
Swcdifli arms on a blue ofl m thSi^'cttitrc, 
and the letters IHS. i. e; '♦ Tdos Hoi6ihwn 
♦* Salvator.'* Round th^ orFar^-fMif'(tea- 
phim's heads, and four patriarch!^- ^ffes^ 
It is furmoltnted with a crown, -^ and Ifahgs 
at a watered blue ribbon, iVom ^ht ri^t 
ftoulder to the left fide. The princes xiFthc 

* -.:,.. -"..,. lit,' 

ifis) I^f>l>Q wiU have it that ;&> ea^ 1260^ Iw^ti of 
the Sword had been created by kiQg Waldemar. Del. U« c. 
yii. § xxii. S. 238. 

(41) Dalin. Del. III. c. xii. §iii. S. 7. 

{n) Ibid. cap. XX. § 16. S. 56J. 

^0) Mem. coacero. la Reine ChniUoe, Ton. I. p. 384^ 


fftpqd a^,.J)yf^^)^thvkjjigbta of this order: 

..^d tl^Q^^fm(fi^>cf. of the kaights^ who are 
W^^^^U f$ fiyod tQ.twcntj-foof. 
\ . TJ*^ order^ the Swor4» which is limited 
t^Tti^piry ciSSiccx$^ from a captain inclu- 
fy^^i^l? ^ arfi^d-m^r/ha], and even iaferior 
^$5f:^& o/i^diftiDguifhed merit* has twenty- 
foi^r €Qfmn;^^erie$s but without limitation 
fift^ potx^monSp who are little (hort of fix 
h^ifidrodU Iphjl^ epfign^pf the order is a faltier 
^c^'pej^i||yepgrailcd»inthe centre of which^ 
in ai^«(M:^, .^rethe three^ Swedifli crowns^ 

. jfi^ a fword ered ; and rpuad the orb are 
fcmt crowns^ topaz* The knights wear it . 
^t ^yellow ribbon^ on the breaft; but the 
commanders at a broad yellow ribbon* edged 
\i{it^:^ue> hanging from the right (houlder 
t9 the left fide. 
^ j^^des thefc two, Frederic I. in the year 

r-TyM-Sff Uiftitpted the order of North-Star, 
^hi^ ia^ conferred on perfons of merit 
.i)ffl^ij|(; regard to ftation; Its enfign is, a 

t ;frf^»)iH^^tAvh^^^ terminates pyramid ically, 
^4 ^^ Dortb^ft^r with five points ; the 

.^rf^^Q: "'Nefqit occafum," It never fets. 
Tbi& enOgn is worn by the commanders at 

"^^/[b^^ck ribbf^s hanging round the neck, 

' but' by the other knights at a button hole or 
the breads 

M 4 The 


•The 4ifjightd df tfee tjrder of the'Scra- 
j>hiifl^'are, as foch, commadder^of the two 
bthei's ip)y ^ ' .1 

State of re- Thc uppcf dcrgy in Sweden, whofc chief 
Sweden? iti the ctirly timbs of Chrifttaiiityv was the 
arcbbiihop of Hao^burg tod Breoien, afters- 
wards the archbifliop of Land, and lailly the 
archbifhop of Upfal, were formerly very pow- 
erful, bishops being invefied with both the 
fpiritual and tedi^poral power in thein dioN- 
ccfcs. They were thc firft ftate of the 
kingdom, and, by office, meoibers of the 
privy-council. During the ariilocratical 
government/ which prevailed forciicrbf, 
they might be faid to fit at the helmy^ anti 
were the principal adors in all the grcai re*- 
volutions of the kingdom. On tiiis account 
king Guilavus Vafa, when the reforfiia*^ 
tion was eftablifhed in Sweden, deterniiiv^ 
ed to humble them. At the diet of Wef. 
tcras, in 1 527, he granted the precedence 
before them, to the temporal members of 
the diet, and procured an a6t for inveftiAg 
him with their caftles and fuperfluous re- 
venues (y). Soon after, the papacy being 
totally abolifbed*^ and the Lutheran religion 

(p) Genealogical and Hidorical Accoanta. 

(?) Dalin. Del. JU, B. I. cap. iii. S. 126. 171. ' 


t SWEDE N. 169 

foFjiHdljr'lettle^ 1^ law, the fqperiority of 
die clergf Hkewiib' ceafed with their power 
and opulence. They now were only the 
fecond clafs at the diet, the nobility being 
the firft. The titles, however, were re- 
taioed, and the archbifhop of Upfal con- 
tinued the head of the Swedi(h clqrgy. Next 
to him, are the ten bifliops of Lipkoping, 
Skara» Strengnas, Wcftcras, Wexio, Abo, 
Ltmd, Borgo, Gothenburg, and Calmar.; 
anii . three fuperintendents of Caflfladt, 
Henoefand, and Gothland, all the dif« 
fcrence between whom «and the biQiops 
lies in their rank. Then follow the pro- 
vofls or deians, to the number of a. hundred, 
and ntnety-ttvo ; and laHIy, the priefts and 

Thearchhifliopis chofen by all thcconfif- 
tories of the kingdom, i. e. by the clergy of 
all. the dioceies : but, on the vacancy of a 
fee,ithree perfons, Vho have the moft votes 
in the dioce(e, afe prefented to the king, 
whk), in conjunSion with the national coun- 
cil^ names one (r). 

The Swedes have always fhcwn them- 
felws very zealous for Lutherahifm, and ♦ 
laid ihb king under an exprefs obligation to 
maintain its purity unalterably againil all 

(r) Fonn of C. § xl. Kii>g'» Declaration, § m. 




: s E ct: *icxxiv: , 

vmy^Ma. Uporj the gcACjra) rcftp|^tionpf ttic Cf^npfs 
ifl^fepropCf which biga,n,in ihe^yth^^JD- 
tury, tte^.d^pofition-.^ff^literatutfi ^fl^^" 
fcftcd itfelf in Swedeo i/kcwiie, ,^^hjj,^o»^h 
went to fludy at Paris, Pra^e^ aod rptfaer 
univcrfities; and in the ycjir .i47;r^,Sfccn 
Sturc, at the rcprcfcnt^tjjon of the a^ch- 
bifhop of Upfal, founde4 an university in 
that city (/), the firfl in the three northern 
kingdoms* But* the coi»mottao9. of the 
iucceeding times occafioued it& total^e^otinc* 
tion. Guftavua Valk reftored it (64.)^ and 
befides procuring men of abilities for P/To^f- 
fors, provided for its decent fupport i fojthat 
be may be looked on^ as Its fpcqjad fbutfder 
(u). His fuccefTors » iniilating {o - laudable 
an example^ the univerfity has fxee^^ !ci>fi!i* 
nually improving/ and time has broa|^t it 
to that profperity and rciputatiohrw^joK Jt 
now fo dcfervedly enjoys. (65). ' ;^; \^' 

h) FormofG,§i. King's AE^i. ' '- 

(/) Dalin. Del. 11^ c.ocviii. - : ;• 

{6^) Learning was then fo fcarce, that the t;iftg^/ fecre- 
tary^s office afforded not one fingle perfon^ who un^H^9od 
Latin^ nor had the treafury one who could .edit ' accdtiou. 
Dalin. Del. III. c. vi. 
(«) Ibid. Ibid. p. 339. 
(65) This univerfity has a very large lilrar/y cocfiding of 


: /• ' S Wl^Di N. i7# 

Swedes has two other tuuTtrfities^ Abo 
m Finlnd/and Lmd in Schobco. The 
former was founded in 1640, aod the latter 
in 1666 J under Charles JQ (x). The uni«» 
verity of Greifswaldf ereded tn (456^ by 
WratiflausIX* doke of PomeranU» islike* 
wife withm the dominions of Sweden. Each 
of the Swedi(h univerfities^ like thofe in 
England^ have their thancellor, chofen by 
themfelves^ who is a nobleman of the higbefl 
diftindion, or one of the royal family. 


* Sweden has not neglected forming lite- ^^^jr 
rary focicties for the promotion of the 
ibiences and philology (66). So long ago 
as the year 1668^ it had a fociety of anti- 

abqfe 1^,000 books, with no fmall namber of maDoicripes^ 
Goibvus Adolphns made a. prefeat to it of all the books 
wiodi were among tbe fpoila during his wart inUvoDia,, Po« 
ln^, and Germaojr : and from queen Chriftioa it receivied 
the t^enl coUe^ons of books fennd in Olmutz and Pragoe. 
BotiW c«a«sft eario£iy of the Upfal librarjF if tbe Bran- ' 
Heliam Ulphils, commonly called Codex Argentens, from 
its filler and goM letters, and not from its liver bindings 
For the fingnlar d^ftiaj of this book» fee Mem. coneem. Ja 
^dne Chnftine, Tom. I. p. 307. 

(;r) S. Loc«, Barop. Helicon. S. t^y, i$8. 

(66) Queen Chriftina (pared no cofts in inviting perfbns of 
Icmrmne to i«ttle in Swedeo, as. If. Vbffius, Hoet> Bochart, 
GarifolT Des Cartes, Nic. Heinfius, Marc. Meibom. Ludqlf, 
MerfenoMSf M. Grotius, Preinfliemy ScheSer^ and Locce* 
nias. , This learned coppanv ufed to meet on fet days in the 
qtoeen's library, and converfe on matters of icience, which 
gave rife to a fettkd literary fociety ; but. which iboa firv its 
ptni)i% Olavi Plantini Hellas fob Ardo. p. 41, 42* 

quarians ; 


quarians> and in i688> another was ihf^i- 
tuted £ar the impfovecbeat of tn^icine, 
under the title of Collegium Medicam. In 
1728, the Upial Scientific Society was in- 
ftitutec} ', 2Jldr iti 174I9 the Royal Academy 
of ?cien*cs at Stockholm j . both now of 
great repute in the world for their learned 
productions. Queen Louifa Ulrica, in the 
year 1752* inftitated the academy of the 
Belles LettMdy for the improvement of hii^ 
tory, poetry, and oratory (z). This was 
fucceedcd by other foundations for the im- 
provements of the pradtical parts of learning 
and the fine arts (67). 



FtoQriAuig By thefc and the like inflfitutions, and 
Sencclit^^^c national application, good tafte, and 
Sweden, capacity, -the fciences have attained to a 
very flonrifliing ftate fn Sweden, and make 
a quite different appearance from what they 
did formerly. In the former century anti- 
quities were the favourite Audies of the 
Swcdiib literati (68) ; in the prefent, phi- 

{k) New Genealogical aad Hidorical Accoants, P. XLDC- 

(67) Among theie are the laboraMrium for chemiftry ; 
the academies for land-furveying and fonificatioat, wit^ 
thofe 6f patQcinff aad fcaliTtttre. 

(68) Verelius* Perii^ikiokl, and Radbeck, havediftinoQifh* 
ed ttiemfelves in this kind of literature by a maidttidc or wric» 
logs; Bttderi Biblioch. Hift. Sell. c. xzxii. § 2. p» i6eop^ 


^^ SWEDEN. 173 

iofopHy ha$ engaged their > attention 1 par* 
ticularly n^turnl pbilo{b{>hy and natural 
hiftory, ]k)liticks^ t>economic8» matheait'- 
tics, . ftnd likcwife the more elegant fciences ; 
their waitings ^n thcfe.feverai fubjedshaye 
been received by the learned world with 
the greatefl approbation, and aiany even 
tranflated into foreign languages. 


King Idgiald had, (q early as the Vlllthuwi.' 
century, direffccd Wiger Sp4, or the Wife 
Judge of Upland, to oiakc colledions of the 
pld Swediih laws and cufloms ; and> from 
them, to draw up a^code according to the 
admisiftration and rul^s of juilice in Up- 
land (a) : on which account, the code wa$ 
called ijoth Wiger Spa« Flocker^ (or col- 
ledtidn&)'orxhe Upland Law; for, at that 
time.icvefy province of Sweden had its 

i6of J| aiid.p{i|^ciilarly the Utter in his ceUbrat^d Atlantica, 
has |>ubli(he<f a complete fyftem of Swediih aotiqitities, in- 
whf9b ha^akes Sweden cho univerfal mothcr-c^nc^, . iio| 
only of all European, but likewife of many Afiatic ana 
African nations : he derives from it alfo the origin of the 
pagan niyth«]ogy and religion, lango^ei^laws, fciences, &;c. 
9a3 iby a laboured, and forced con^rudion, attribnres ta 
Sw€deti every diiii(|g^ ftm»QS in ihe moft remoie ag^* A 
wocb in* which the author mo£k be alhiwed -fb Ihew a. lively . 
imagination, a moft extraordinAf iiigemxityi and kniQe#^ 
learning (• but withal a lore of his ooustry, inBitualad with 
the BIOS' extravagant pffjttdices. Buderi fiiblioth. Hift. Se],. 
1602, .r6o3. 
(a) Dalin, Del. L c. iiv. § xxiv. S. 431. 

6 own 

own hwg but that of Upknd wa8,jecikone<i 
preferable* King Eric furaamed thfi Piqqs* 
cADfed i€ to hm purgfed from ^^mrfyp^^ 
and upon its being: nranllated And a^esd-* 
ed by Birgcf Jatl, and fcy the kbfgs 
Magnus Lad4iks> and wasf|^(-» 
fied by the latter in 1296 (^). Bm.ippdftr 
king Magnu« Saieck, a general >code.«ir;as 
cooipofed for the whole kingdom^ w];uch 
was afterwards called Mittlege£et2? (mid^ 
die law) (r). This, however, was not re* 
C^ilfd in the kingdom of the Go4%Ull 
14164 .und^ king Eric of Pomeraniar jnor 
QQofirmed till 1442, by king Cj^riftc^r 1 
tod afterwards it commonly went l^jttthff 
name of king Cbri^cflier's Law-Booj^^'O* 
King Charles IX. had it firft printed in the 
year i6o8» that the people might be better 
acquainted with it; and, in this form it 
was called the Swedifh Landfla^, ^Vf^lfW^ of 
the country. The towns In Sf^dtttP'fittd 
their particular law (Stadflag^' which kiae 
t^ttitairut Adolphus printed in. 16:1^^9/1 

(I) Dalin» pel. U. ap. iv. ^ vl ^. 189. e. j^. ittJ S; 

• (c) Ibid. c« xii. § ix. 13* $» 47S, 484. 485^ 
(d) IbidL «. x^l % ill. S. 6z6. c. xvi. 5 v. S. 6^. ^^ -, 
(60) Bodi the country an^ tovo law have been trabflittj 

iSo li«da by JoL Locceiiias ; the former on^er the ^inr of^ 


Siie«ue Regm Leges ?rovincia!ef /^lout j|uot)tfdm a 0^^ , . 
IX......^Rege anno i438» publicat^funtiLon^inl Scaooiadn'^ 

1675, 8vo. The latter, SaecioEr Regni Leges CivSlts airi Ci- 


tTiiddr Qiarles 3^1. in 1667, was likewife 

pablifli*ftf ifife Sw^arfh^ hftHritae law {^6) : 

A^P-thtis flie SwcdlfH livtd rcftn&inedr 

tbStigh both tjucen Chriftma dhdr Cha/les 

Xll/cmj)loyerf per^fons ttf revlfe arid adicnd 

theAi {e). But on the death of the lattet', 

the dates of Sweden caufed a new book of 

Aatutes. to be drawn upj adapted to the new 

lifftftid ferm of ^overnriicflt t and in which 

the country and town--laws, which before 

hadljeen diftHiS, were blehded^ . After its 

t>dng eitamided and aflcnted to at the difcti 

1^*1731, and 1734, and tikewife ratified bj" 

the kingf, it was printed in 1736 (71), andi 

at the fame tirne^ both the country a*d 

tcJ\?ril'fi?iW8 wete aboliflicd. ' 

-^3^ -* s E c T. , xxxvm. 

io ^ 

^ , Sw^en is divided into cigbtjr-two juxifr c«»rtt ^ 
d)^icyn$^^ ^(Haoider , x>r Handfliofdings^don 

V^atiiQi^ /ecnndafl^ Guflavi Adolplt— ^^-Regis man^atum 
fihVitiii^tt^ph exotCXf A«i6t8.Loii4ilnScai)OrQm^l675; 
S vo. The iaine gendeman has lately publiflied an tntrodutton 
te thjQ law. of Sweden, entitled^ Svnopfii Jucis Privati a4 ^- 
ges Sfu^nas accommodata (Gothoborgi 1673. 8vo.) 

iyo) Thii likcwife Locc^nias has tmpflaced into Latftt t 
Suecias Regtri Jus M&ri^um (Holsfuje, tS^^ 9vo,) and' add- > 
4(d»lft it Jl work ptUs own, De Tore Marftimo, lib.. Iff/ 
™6?L^.Baderi Bn)liodi; Jar. Sel. c. rt 
7S» WA this, fitle Sacriges RilbeV La^; *fldln tatin, 
CcSnc LegtBiR S^oecicarah), ex Suecico' S^rmone k LatSnum 
vt^p^GhTii. KopBig,, HoImi« 1736; 4ro. 



mcr) (72) ; and in thcfe village-^courts, 
where twelve farmers always fit as affeiTors^ 
juftice is adminiftered to the country people* 

The towns have likewife their own 
courts, which, in the large, are filled by 
all the menabers of the corporation ; but in 
the fmaller, the mayor has the chief direc* 

From thefe, as from the village-courts^ 
appeals lie to the proviocial-courts (Lag- 
roanfdomer), which are 'twenty-one in 
number (jT) ; and from thefe, to the high 
tribunals, of which the. at Stock-* 
holm, the fecond at Jonkoping, and the 
third at Abo (73). Each tribunal has a 
prefident, a vice-prefident, abd feveral af*- 
feflbrs, the four eldeft of whcMii, in that of 
Stockholm, but in the two others only the 
two eldeft, have the title of counfellors (g). 

The party who thinks himfelf wronged by 
the fentence of a tribunal, may apply to the 
council of ftate for a Revifion j as to- this 
end was inftitutcd the Juflitz-Revifion : 
and from this court, he may farther ap- 

(72) A Haradt or Hs^ndiotdingiiomt, coafifts of a ccr* 
tain number of villages. Besides ikek eighty ^wo harads, 
there are five Jufiitiariengerichte. Tuneld. S. VII. 

(/) Tuncld. P. VII. 

(73) In cauiei relating to life and character, a Boblemaii, 
or gentleman, is to be tried only before one of the upper 
tribunals. F. of G, § xxiii. 

(g) Form of G. § xxiii. 


SWEDEN. 177 

peal to tlie dates afTembled in diet (Recurfus 
ad Comitia), who^ for the final decifion ' 
of the caufe or the complaint againft the 
court brought before them, appoint a de- 
putation : though this is a refource not fre« 
quently made ufe of, being both very ex- 
pehfiye, and at the fame time attended with 
danger (6), 

S E C T. XXXIX. ; 

Sweden formerly kept no conftant regu* Lmdma 
lar force on foot, except a few troops of ^"'^*^*** 
horft /or the king's (late, the main body 
of the cavalry confifting of the peafants, 
who OccaGoqally were armed, and led againft 
the.^pemy. The. author of th^ firft mi- 
litary eftablifhment was king Cuflavus Vafa: 
he and his fucceiTors made ufe of fo- 
reign officers and foldiers, chieHy Germans 
and Sf:otch, to train and head the national 
troops^ and likewife with a view of fparing 
thein> that the kingdom might not be too 
much drained of its men (/)• Guflavus 
Adolphus, .befides being the firft who 
' formed a con fide rable regular army, greatly 
improved the difcipline and art of war, fo 
as to give it 'a quite different form and 
fy/lem^ which, in time, has, with fome 

ii)^icth Or<L ^ xVu. 

^} FuSendorf '8 Introdu^ioo t» the Hiflory of Swedco, 

III!/ 1112. 

. Vol. III. N addi- 


additional improv^ements^ obtained thrpugh^ 
out all Europe (74) • 

The founder of the prefent military cfta- 
blifhment in Swedeoi was Cbarks XI ^ 
agreeable to his regulations, the land forces 
confiil of Levied troops, who ve moftly 
foreigners ; and national troops diftributed 
over the country, and furni{hed and inaio- 
tained by it. The nobility find and main- 
tain the horfe, every nobleman^s eftate of a 
certain extent being charged with a trooper 
and horfe, arms, and accoutrements ; as alfb 
with a dwelling, a piece of land for the 
fupport of himfclf and horfe, together with 
the addition of a pecuniary pay. 

The foot are furnifhed by the farmers, three 
farms generally finding a foldier, together 
with a dwelling, a piece ofland,tillage*impIe- 
Hients, and houfhold goods ; likewife fbme- 
thing of a pay ; but cloathing abd arms the 
crown provides. The officers and fubalterns 
are maintained entirely by the crown ; and 
inftead of pay, have certain crown-lands af- 
figned them, according to their feveral ranks. 

The foldicry are cxercifed every week; 
and, for their improvement, once or twice 

(74) The French themfeWei acknowledge iku th^ tie 
improved in the art of war fince their having generals, a» 
the dttke of Saxe Weimar, and marihal Gaffion, who lenm- 
*cd their trade under Gaftavtfs Adolphoi. Annales Polh. dc 
it. Pierre. 

S a year 

S W B D E N. 
a year embodied into companies or regU 

Thtfe tn>op8, on tlkiiig the field, are 
entirely mainliained by the crown ; and in 
this cafe; for the more fpccdy recruiting 
themj a man muft be kept in readinefs to 
replace another. This is called the War* 
gernings-Manflcap. By means of this iyf^ 
tein Chifles XL had condantly on foot aii 
ftrmy of 80,000 men ; but the lofs of fo 
tnany couhtri£s in the northern wars muft 
fieCeflafily have reduced it. 

Some years ago, the flate of it was as 
follows : 

t. H O R S E. 


i« Lifeguards. --ii *-^ 136 

i. The nobility's ftandard — ^ 6od 
3» Life-^regiment -^ — i^od 
4« Five national regiments -^ 5000 
5. Three regiments and one fqua- 
dron of dragoons -^^ *<7- 322^ 

IL F O O T. 
I • Regiment of guards -«- 1 800 

a< Eight regiments of leiries -^ 9000 

3. Twenty-one national regiments 242 3S 

4. Artillery * — —1 - --^ 3000 

-> > 3803^ 


N 2 To 



To thefe muft be added the abovemen- 
tioned Wargernings-Manfkap, which, in 
horfe^ makes about lo^ooo, and in foot 
24»ooo i thus, in all about 34,000 men« 


Fortifica. Nature herfelf has fecured Sweden from 
foreign attacks, being half furrounded by 
the fea, and the coafts over*run with rocks^ 
fome blind, and (hoals and fand banks» 
which it would be very dangerous for a 
flranger to venture, among. On the land- 
fide it is defended by vaft mountains, heaths, 
torrents, fwamps, fens, and lakes (i). 
The parts requiring the afliftance of art, 
are, on one fide, Finland, againft die Ruf- 
fians, and on the other Bohuilehn againft 
the Danes ; accordingly, with regard to the 
former feveral new fortifications have been 
made, at Helfingfors $ and in the latter, the 
frontiers are defended by fort Bohus, Mar- 
flrand, and Carlftein. 

Stockholm, Oerobro, and Jonkoping, 
have large and well provided armories. . At 
Wadftena is a houfe for invalids, where, 
however, no great numbers are maintained; 
but there is another fund, from which a 
comfortable provifion is made for 500 of- 

(i) Tnncld, P. XV. 


SWEDEN. i8i 

ficcrSj 550 fubalternsy and '4000 rank and 

S E C T. XLI. 

Sweden owes its naval power to kingMume. 
Guftavus, as the firft who conftantly kept 
ihips of war of his own {js)* His fon 
Eric XIV. during his wars with Denmark^ 
had fomettmes a fleet of fifty fail at fea (76). 
Bat the marine of Sweden, after confiderable 
augmentations under- Guftavus Adolphus, 
was brought to its height under Charles XL 
In the very long war of Charles XIL the 
conclufion of it being fo unfortunate, the 
Swedi(h marine was reduced very low ; 
but in the following twenty peaceable years, 
it lias been gradually re-eftabli{hed i and at 
prefent it coniifts of twenty-eight (hips of . 
the line, from ninety to forty-two guns, 
twelve frigates from forty to twenty-fix, 
three brigantines from thirty to eighteen, 
four floops of thirty guns, twenty-four fire- 
fhips, and bomb-ketches, with forty gal- 

(75} He alfo had gallies built by a Venetian ihipwright, 
bat foon laid afide. 

{76) Among them was a (hip of very extraordinary bulk 
called, the Mars, or Mucalos ; and likewife the Jutehatarep, > 
i. e« the Jutehater, cafrying above zoo guns ; but it blew up 
in the engagement off Gothland, in 1564. Oalin. Del. III« 
cap. X. § viii. S. 582. 

N 7 Sweden 


Sweden abounds in all naval ftoresj, es«* 
cept a fufiicicncy of hemp. For the fpeedy 
manning a fleet all the maritime provinces 
and the iflands are obliged to furnifli and main- 
tain a certain number, ih all 20,000 men s 
who are diftributed in Halland, Blockingeo, 
Medelpad, Angermanland, Gothland, Oe- 
land, and Aland, on the very fame footings 
as the national ti^oops. 

The fleet conflfts of three fquadrons, one 
at Carlfcrone, the fecond at Gottenburg^ 
and the third at Stockholm, as the three 
firongeft fea ports. Carlfcrone, befides be« 
ing the refidence of the admiralty, has a 
very fpacious and convenient dock 1 the 
making of which was a work of not lefs 
than nine years, from 171 5, to 1724 (/). 



Sweden has gold» filver, and copper-mo* 
ney ; though anciently only fmall filver 
pieces, called Penningar (77), w«re ufcd i 
which in Sweden to this day, fignifies mo- 
ney. They reckon by marks and pfennings^ 

(/) Bufching's Geography. 

(77) Till the time of kine Magnas Smeek, peiwitt were tfie 
oply coin. He wsw the firft who coined Oertngcrs, as they 
. were called, which were equal to eight penmeS) aad twenty* 
four of them went to a mark. Chrift. N«m:lbladt Com. 
men tat. de Jure circa Rem Nummariam ip Siiecia, SoA. I. 
S vi.p. 32. 


«iid 19* pfewing* tmke A mark (/»). Thw, 
at firft, was e<]i}^ cp a r«a} mark of fiq« 
^v«r* t>»t I»as been gradually fo rcdu- 
<)cd« thai the prefent Swediih marki to a 
real mark gf fin« fi}ver, U about 1 to 
1^9 (78). 

The firft goW ii)OQey> which wprc du» 
Mt(, king Cttfta?u8cauied to be coiosd (»)» 
Copper money was introduced by king Guf- 
tavus Adolphtts, yet not to go for mere 
tbsw it9 iptrinfic value {0), But the copper 
coin lik^wiif fiiffered confiderable diminu> 
tions ; a piece of fiy dollars, or a Plate, 
which, at firfl, contained twelve pound and 
three quarters, was in the year 1664, re- 
duced to ten j in 1674 to eight; in 17 10 
to fixj and fince to four pound and a 

(«) Kohler't MoaAeloft, i. e. Mfdallic Amufement, P. 
XX. p. 229, 

(78) A« a rpcclinea pf the fradwd ^ecreafe of tke S«ve-~ 
dift filver inane, Ilhall here fee down the prapardon in ^ 
venl yean between it and the' real mark of fine filver, 
wbidi in ti^ jtu i i6o wu worth two naiki Swedilh. 







— — 






















9iettelMadt> Sefi. IV. ( ir. p. $7, $8. The valoe of the 
Swisdifli mar)( hat been erer fince continnaUy decreafingr> tilt 
|c «f 4**)llk i» f«4i»fc4 4» «h« abwtfanmfiti proporopn. 
^) Nefiu««ft.|.iyt. p. 3,). 

N 4 half. 


half (*). The fmall copper coins arc al£b 
funk to a great redadion (/>). 

Silver and copper money are reckoned at 
prefent by dollars and oers^ likewife by 
marks and oers in both fpecies. 

A dollar is equal to' thirty-two ;oers> and 
a mark to eight oers j confequently, four 
marks make a dollar. ^ An oer is divided 
into four oerleins^ and this into fix pfcn- 


The filver coins are worth three times as 

much as the copper; confequently, 


I Silver dollar is worth 3 copper dollars. 

I Silver mark -— 3 copper marks. 

I Silver oer -^ 3 copper oers. 

The real coined monies are, 


Ducats, which are equal to the ufu^ 
coins of that name. 

II. S I L V E R. 

A fpecies dollar is 1 , , 

^ . }► 1 2 marks or 06 oers. 

equal to -^-^ ^ ^ 

Carolines — » 2 16 oers. 

Double. «^ 4 — 32 oers. 

^ The weight of the Plate has been rednced ftill lower^ a 
copper Plate of twelve dollars weighing at prefent bat eight 
fp^ks and ^, and ninety make a Stockholm ihip-pound.. 

{/) Net;. Scft. V. § i. ii. p. 65^68. 


S W E D EN. ^ 185 

Half — I • — 8 ocrs- 

Quarter — — 4 oers. 

Two Carolines are called a dollar Caro- 
line, and three Carolines a rixdollar Ca- 

There are likewlfe filver pieces of 10, 5^ 
4, 2, and I oers, or divers, as thefe pieces 
are likewife called- Under Charles XIL 
the filver coin was greatly raifed ; fo that in 
1716, the half Carolines went for I2i oers, 
the whole at 25, the double at 50; and 
in 1 71 7, the pieces of i per were raifed 
to two, thofe of 2 to 4, thofe of 4 and 5 
to 6, and thofe of 10 to 12 (79). 

ni. In COPPER. 
Pieces of 12 dollars, 01:4 dollars filver 
money, i 

9 -- 3 
6 — 2 

3 — 1 

2 T . — T 

The pieces of fix dollars copper, or two 
dollars filver money, are particularly called 

(79) Nettelbladt, Sea. IV. Mark VI. p. 62. But thele 
coins in commoo currency have a (HIl greater rife, namely* 
the Carolines to 32, and thedouble, the half, and quarter 



Plates, and this is the heavy copper mo^ 
ney. The light or change money is as fol* 

Pieces of fix oer, or two oer i^fer monffy. 
Slants 3 — i 

Ruhdftuck 1 — T ''-^ or 8 Pf. 
Fyrcar t --^ t ••^ or 6 Pf^ 

Stacks T •— T »--*• or 4 Pf. 

As to the value of the Swediih filvcr wd 
eopper money relatively to that of Germanvt 

SchUL Pf, 

A double Caroline in Hamb. 7 . 

cur. IS — 5 ^ 

A dollar S. M. ocrs — 13 
A mark filver qioney —^40 

A five oer piece at feven oers 2 6 
An oer — — 06 

A dollar copper money ""5 3 
A mark copper money — " i 3 

But according to the Leipfick flandard, 
a dollar filver money is reckoned at ten 
golden guilders eight pf. and thus nine 
dollars filver money make exactly four dol- 

The coinage was anciently the privilege 
of the kings only, till Magnus Ladulas 

Carolines in proporuon; fo tbai they went fpr iQppereeptr 
more tb«n they were coined for. So likewiib the i6 and 5 
oer pieces to 40 per cent, above their prinie vaU^e^^ 


SWEDEN. itj 

graatcd it to tbe biihops and counfdlors of 
ilate J and they accordingly e^crcifod this 
right without moleilation ; yet in the king's 
name^ or that of the town where the oaoney 
was coined (;)« King Guftavus entirely 
reannezsd it to the crown^ to which it waa 
continued even at the di0blution of the ah* 
folate fovereigntyi but, with tbe provifo 
that no alteration (bould he made in the 
weight and fiandard of the coin^ without 
the confent of the ftates (8o), 


The king's revenues aociently arofe en- itevenni. 
tircly from the crown's prbpcrty (8i) or 
lands. . But many of them beings in courfe 
of timet alienated^ and thus no longer fuf- 

(^) DaliD, Del. II. c. viii ^ xjcui S. 999* ctp. xvH. ( 
xxi. S. 732. 

(9o) Tkis tke ftfttes have exprefly^ reftrve^ te- thei^felves in 
ck9 Porn» «f Q. ^ ix. aii4 ia the K'« Deqlarat. of 175 1. ^ i8. 
They anqueftionably bad herein an eye to baron Gorcs's 
ftaoip oik the cofpeiu money y inciodticed loi«anli iht end of 
the reigD of Charles XII. of which there were no lefs 
than fuQiteen different ibrts ; yet only nine of them becamo 
current. Each in the com moo courfe of trade was to go 
ibr a dollar filver money » and within 171; and 17 19, no M% 
than eighteen millions of thefb (lamped pieces were coined, 
which* by reafon of the extreme lownefs of their intrinfic 
value, have been the caufe of unfpeakable calamities^ Koh- 
ler's Medallic Recre^tion^ P. Vt i 233. and Nettelbladt» 
Se6t V. ^ ii. iii. p. 71-- 73. 

(81) This b the moft remote times was termed Upfala- 
Oede, and confined of certain places, iilands* and landsg^ 
appropriated to the throne, and afcerwards augmented with 
feveral other parcels of land. Dalin, Del. L c. xi. ) iii« $• 
327. Sc cap. xiii. } xii. S. 395* 



ficicnt for the king's due fupport, the ftatcs 
granted him certain tithes, dues, and other 
incomes {Si). King Guftavus made aeon- 
fiderable addition to the property of the 
crown by fcqueftrating part of the church 
lands ; but they were extremely diminifhed 
by feveral of his fucceflbrs, and particularly 
by queen Chriftina. Charles XL reaffumed 
all thofe alienations, to the great improve- 
ment of the revenue : but in the long wars 
under Charles XIL the kingdom was fo ex- 
hauiled and loaded with debts, that, at the 
clofc of that king's reign, every branch of 
the finances was in the utmofl diftrefs and 
'confufion. The ftates of the kingdom, how- 
ever, have, as far as poflible, endeavoured 
to redrefs thofe grievances, during the fol- 
lowing interval of peace. 

The ordinary fources of the national in- 
come at prefent, are the crown lands, the 
mines, the cuftoms *, the excife, the 

(82) Dalin. Dd. II. c. viii. § xvii..xnii. p. 28 j — 287. 
After all thefe grants, the whole revenue of king Magnus 
Ladalas is choaght not to have exceeded 500,000 dollars of 
the prefent filver money ; and a coniidcrsjible part of this 
was paid in corn and provilions in lien of fpecie. Dalin. L 
€. p. 2S8. 

* Among thefe the moft confiderable is that called the 
great feadntv. In the year 1746, it was farmed for ten 
year?, and ail charges deduced has annually brought in 
i>6oo,ooo dollars filver-money; but in 17.659 the farm was 
AippreiTed, and the duty put under the management of the 
commiffioRcrs of the cuftoms. 


SWEDEN. 189 

ilamps^ and other regalia^ the poll-tax pay* 
able by the citizens and peafants^ the pro* 
fits of the national bank^ together with the 
crown's (hare in the ecclefiaftical tithes. 

The extraordinary incomes confift in de* 
dudtions from falaries, penfions^ annuities, 
intereftsy rents ; impofts on perfonal eftates, 
moveable or immoveable, and fuch other 
payments as the dates of the nation judge 
lead burdenfome. *■ 

The ordinary revenues for the year 1753, 
amounted to 6,332,706 filver dollars. In 
the year 1764, the ordinary and extraordi- 
nary incomes together, made 10 millions, 
736,546 dollars 14 oers filver money; and 
the difburfments amounted to 1 2 millions 
182,797 dollars, 16 oers. 

Under the new form of government, the 
management of the national income is put 
on another footing, the dates having re- 
ferved the fuperintendcncy of it to thcm- 
felves; and, for the more regular conduft 
of its feveral departments, have inilituted 
three feveral offices, an authentic date of 
the annual receipts and ifTues-out to be laid ' 
before them by the proper officers (r). 

The king has no (hare in the manage- 
ment of the revenues, though, in the date 

(r) 'Form of G. § xxx. xxxi. xxxir. 




abovemcntioncd^ a certain annual fum is 
ailigned hitnfor his fole difpoftl (83)1 and 
another fet apart for extraordinary ex^ 
pences, in the application of whidi^ bow« 
ever^ he muft take the advice of the council 
of ftate (s). To thefe mud: be added pro** 
per affignoitnts for the fupport of his honie- 
hold and thofe of the queen and royal fa- 
mily^ with all the fev^ral appurtenances (84)« 


National The dcbts contraAcd in the reign of 

Charles XIL have indeed been, in a great 

meafure, liquidated by the Care of the ftates ; 

but the wars which broke out in 17419 and 

27579 have loaded the nation with^a frefh 

burden : this, according to an account of 

the fecret comoiittee, laid before the diet 

' ft 

in 1765, amounted to 551810,873, filver 
dollars, and with the agio to above fixty 
millions; the annnal intereft.of which comes 
to 2,139,730, filver dollars (/)* 

(83) Namely, the priv/.purfe 6t 100,000 filver ddbrt 
fer the king, and ioO:Ooo for the qneen. 

(/> Form of O. ^ xxxi. 

(84) The fi^port of the king's houfiiold aitd the ro)r«l 
palaces, is an annual exi>ence of about a million filver money. 

(/} Merc. Hift. et Polit. May 1765, and other poUic ac^ 



S W E D E N. ,191 


The Swedes havc^ of late jears, exceeded AppK«tJoiL 
any other European nations in application sl^^ in 
and induftry, for improving trade in ge-|JDf^? 
neraU and all rural affairs. The learned^* 
iiave employed their genius on thefe fo uie- 
fill fuis^e^ (85)9 and offered many bener 
£cial £^eme$ to the publick ; the govern- 
xneat and the (tsitts have Seconded them s 
and private perfpns have laboured in expe- 
rimentSy fome of which have fucoeeded be- 
j^ond expe<Station. The confequence of this 
general zeal muft be that Sweden will, in 
time^ became a couatry every where culti- 
vated and improved ; as far a« the nature of 
the ibil admits of melioration^ 


Before the reign of king Guftavus, Swe-Maiufic- 
den fcafcc afforded one manufaAtife, down *^* 
10 the very lowefi: crafts $ Lubeck and other 
lianfe towns fupplyiog it withthofe kinds df 
iieceflliries. It was under this king that the 
Swedes firft began to work metals, and other 
taw products of their country : in queen 
Chriftina's time iron, fieel, and bra£s manu-* 
fafturcs, tanning and foap-boiliDg, together 

(85} Many of their Memoirs. the Germafis have thonght 
wciit& traDUtiDg. 



with wool and filk, looms, were fct up i 
and, during the laft years of Charles XI. 
manufa^ures in general went on very prof- 
peroufly : but the Idng war under Charles 
XII. which becatne io extremely unfor- 
tunate to Sweden, brought them very 
low. Since the peace which fucceeded that 
calamitous time, indeed, no means have 
been fpared to revive all ufeful arts and 
crafts; and, by the liberal encouragement and 
care of the government and the ftates(86), 
trade is fo far improyed, that Sweden now 
makes all kinds of necdfaries, and many 
articles of conveniency and fplendor (87).- 
A great objcaion, however, lies againft the 
Sw^edifli manufadqres, that is their exceflive 
dearnefs, being fbmetimes 50, 70, nay too 
percent, above the. price in other coun- 
tries. This is partly owing to the great 

(86) They hive laid the king voder an obligadoiu not 
only to maintain the fabrics and manufadares in their privi- 
leges, hut likewiie, in every refped, to affift tad proccffc 
fhem; and carefully to fee» that all the ordinances wlucdi 
the Rates have made for their good, be duly executed. 
King's Aflor. of 1757. 

(87) The number of perfons employed in the filk, woollea^ 
linen, and cotton manufactures, amounted in the year 17C4 
to 14,000, of whom only Sooo^worked in Scockh<4nu la 
the year 175 a, the filk- looms were computed at 285, which, 
at the doie of the year i7$4\ were increafed to 387. The 
total amount of all .the*goK>ds made in Sweden, from 1751 
to 1794, was 12,652,406 filver dollars ; one third being de- 
duAcd for the purchafe of materials, again remains to the 
nation of 8,216,040, filver money. Tuneld, p. 16, i^^ i8. 


SWEDEN, 193 

wages of the artificers, and to Sweden's 
being obliged to buy many raw goods for 
its manufaftures, from foreigners (88). 
This it is, which occafions the high price of 
Swediih manufaftures ; and farther, the com- 
parative cheapnefs of foreign goods, caufes 
great quantities to be run, whereas the 
Swedish, by reafon of their deainefs, find 
no vent abroad. 


The Swedes at prefent carry on a con- '"^•"^ 
iiderable trade, both inland and foreign. 
A great conveniency to the former is the 
rivers and lakes (89) ; and, in the fouthern 
provinces, it is much facilitated by the 
goodnefs of the roads. Accordingly it far 
exceeds that in the northern provinces, 

(88) The wool of the Swedifli flieep, for inflance, is fo 
coarfe acd bady that without foreign wool the manuf^flurers 
could not carry on their buiineS. The Swedes, indeed* 
have not been wanting to improve their iheep, by import- 
ing other kinds ; but the new breed requiring a particular 
fodder and management, the keeping of them is chargeable, 
and confeqnently muft afFefl the price of their wool. 

(80) For the advancement of inland-trade, and no lefs to 
avoid paying the heavy toll of the Sund, a navigation be-* 
tween Gotten barg and Scockhelm, acrofs the country, was 
(et on foot ; and endeavours have been ufed for opening a 
communication by means of feveral rivers and canals, be- 
tween the lakes Malar, Hielmar, and Wener, and the Elf 
IQ Gothland ; but hitherto the work has failed by reafoa of 
the triple water-fall in the Elf, called Trollbatta; yet a great 
iiuroib^r of hands are (lill employed to overcome that obfta* 
cle, by new canals and Quices. 

Vol. III. ' O whtje. 


where, befides the want of fuch commo* 
dioufners, the paucity of its inhabitants, and 
the diftance of the towns, do not admit of 
any coniiderable bufinefs. 


Foittgn. Though the (ituation of the kingdom of 
Sweden, on the Baltick and thie north fea, 
be very advantageous for foreign trade, the 
Swedes, for fome centuries, availed, them- 
felves but little of this advantage; the 
Hanfe towns engroffing the whole trade of 
Sweden, and with great privileges. The 
Lubcckers particularly, had obtained from 
king Guftavus an exclufive right, which, 
however, was foon revoked. The Dutch 
afterwards got pofTeilion of this trade; 
and, not long after, the Englifh came in 
for a (hare. During the French war, to 
which the peace of Ryfwick put an end, 
and wherein Charles XI. had kept himfelf 
neuter, the Swedes began to enlarge their 
foreign trade, and make voyages to France 
and Spain in (hips of their own. In the be- 
ginning of the war for the Spani(h fuccejf- 
iion, they made farther progrefs ; but the 
kingdom became fo diftrefied and exhaufted 
towards the latter end of the reign of Charles 
XII. as to be incapable of parrying on any 
traffic. Thefe calamities, however, being 


SWEDEN- 195 

jbUowed by happier tinie$^ the maritime 
CQmmerCt of Sweden has not only been re- 
iloredj bat encreafed beyoAd what it ever ^ 
vras at any other period. 

In Europe the Swedes trade to the prin^inBvop^ 
cipal ports in the Baltick* to Holland, Eng* 
land, France^ Spainj Portugal, Italy^ and 
ta the Levant (90), exporting all kinds of 
wooden'-ware, pkoks, mails, tar> pitch, 
pot-a(h, iron, fieel, copper wrought and 
unwroughtf &ۥ for which there i& a de- 
mand; and briog back wine, oiU refin, 
almonds, kmon$» oranges, &€» and many 
kinds of raw goods for their manufadures. 
This trade they chiefiy carry on with their 
own (hips, which they likewife hire to fo- 
reigners, with confiderable profit. 

The Swedes, at prcfcnt, have no trade •^^ «• c^' 
to Africa and America ; and what few (hips 
they fend to Aiia, go only to China. 

Hitherto their imports continue to ex* 
ceed their exports, and thus the balance of 
trade lies againft them. They, however, 
are not without hopes of giving a turn to 
the fcale (»)., and the rather as the. (latea 

(90) Tbe Lmmt tra^e was fbrgierly c^niw^dhf a par- 
ticular compimy, which being aboliAie<i' in X757> it ^as left 
open to all the fttbjeds of Sweden ; and, tor its fecirrity, 
the Cfowa entered tsto tvaaties with the pyratical ftates, and 
the Ottemaa Porte^ 

(e) Tondd, P.IL 

O z of 


of the kingdom zcaloufly promote whatever 
can contribute to fo defirable a change (9 i ). 


Yrtding Though the whole reign of Guftavus 
compMiiefc ^j^jphyg ^j^g QjjQ continued feries of war, 

yet did not that excellent prince overlook 
the encreafe of commerce* Soon after his 
acceffion to the throne^ he founded a com- 
pany for the Guinea trade 5 and in the year 
1^26, he granted a charter to William 
Uffelinx, a native of Antwerp, for a com- 
pany of trade and navigation to Afia, Africa, 
America^ and the fouth countries (x) ; 
which made a fettlement in Africa, and 
founded a colony in North-America, under 
the name of New Sweden, But this foon 
fell into theh^nds of the Dutch (92), who, 
at the peace of Breda in 1667, ceded it to 
the Engli(h, from whom it received the 
name of New* York, the Swedes retaining 

(91) The zeal of the dates in promoting trade and hof- 
baodry appears, among other inftances, from the commii&on 
inftituted in 1756^ for drawing up *' a Syftem of Commerce 
and Hu(bandry»" adapted to the nation's circomftances ; but 
this commiflion not anfwering the end, was aboliflied in 
1765;, after an expence of 1 2^,698 dollars, copper money. 

(;r) Jo. Marqnardi Fr. dc Jure Mercator. et CommerC* fi)ig. 
Append, p. 380. et ieqq. 

(92) This colony, not being fuppotted by SM»edeti> the 
inhabiunts pat themfelves under the pnotedion of the DNitch, 
who had a (ettlement near it. Account of the Eurap. Setd; 
in America, Vol. II. p. 184^ 


SWEDEN. 197 

only the privilege of nominating Lutheran 
zninifters in fevcn churches, for performing 
divine fervice in the Swedifli language (^y). 
But thefe/ and other fubfequent trading 
companies, had but a (hort exigence. 

At length, in j 731, the Eaft-India com- 
pany, ftill fubfifting, was ere(aed (93), 
with a charter for trading to all countries 
from the Cape of Good Hope, as far as Ja- 
pan (2), though hitherto they have not 
gone beyond China. The conftitution of 
it, is fomething particular. On the return 
of the (hips, and the fale of the cargoes, it 
divides the whole gain among the proprie- 
tors, and raifes a frefh fund for fitting out 
and fupplying the ihips. Each fhip, at its 
return, pays the crown 50,000 filver dol- 
lars, and this exempts it from all other cuf« 
toms and duties. 

S E C T. L. 

A bank, which had been under the ma- National 
nagement of private perfons and merchants, " ' 
failing in the year 1666, the national bank 

{y ) Mem. concern. Chriftioe Reine de Suede, Tom. IIL 
p. 203. 

(93) This company, in fome meafure, owes its origin to the 
fappreffion of the Ottend Eaft-India company*. Hi ft. of the 
Eaft-India Company eftabliflied in Sweden, in the Mod, 
Univcrf. Hift. Vol. XL p- 2^6, 252. 

(«) Hift. of theEaft-lndia Company, obi fapra, p. 253. 

O 3 was 


was founded in the year 1688^ as an efieh- 
tial convcnicncy to trade^ and, at the famt^ 
time, an advantage to the finances. It is ^ 
bank both of exchange and loan, feceivrng 
capitals at foar per Cent, and lending on fbrb 
pledges, as gold and lilver, and lands, at fix 
per Cent. All the national revenues pafs thro* 
the bank ; and the unwrought copper is 
likewife delivered there. The three tipper 
Hates of the kingdom are jointly and feve^ 
rally guarantees of this bank, which indeed 
gave rife to its firfl credit. Accordingly it 
is managed by nine direftors, of whomleach 
of the guaranteeing flates names three, who 
are members of their refpedtive bodies, 
Thefe, daring the feffion of the diet, give 
an account of their management to the bank 
committee, which confifts of members of 
the fecret committee ; and their power 
ceafes on the meeting of the flates ; Co that 
the produce of the bank, which is efti- 
. mated at between two and three millions 
filver money, is at the difpofal of the three 
ftates, and,^ circumflances fo requiring^ may 
be appropriated to the public fervice. But 
as t,he bank hath, by too great loans on im- 
moveables, encreafbd its current capitals 
to fuch a degree, that, inflead of fix mil- 
lions of filver money, which are fuppofed 
to be in the bank, its bills do not amount 


SWEDEN. 199 

to lefs than fevenCy millions (94) ; not 
a few are inclined to look on the fitua* 
tion of this bank as fomethi^g critical 
and fuipiciouSy if a great number of the 
creditors^ both foreigners and natives^ 
&ould take it into their heads to turn 
their paper into money. And this feems 
the rather to be apprehended, as fbveral 
perfons, bpth thofe who are acquainted 
with the myfleries of the bank ; and 
they who arc not, begin to withdraw their 
capitals, though at four per Cent, and lay 
them out on lands, which bring them in 
fcarce two {a). ' 


Sweden has twenty-four trading, or, as Trading 
they are called. Staple towns, i, e. fuch as^ 
are impowered to export home goods in 
their own (hips, and import thofe of fo- 
reign countries ; and to trade both with fo- 
reigners and natives (95). But Stockholm 
and Gottenburg have a great advantage over 

(94) The molcitade of bank notes is attributed to a pamph- 
kt caJledy ■* The Caufes of the Courfe of Exchange being 
(b high in Sweden ;** and publiflied daring the fitting 0f the 
-dlit in 176s. 

(0) Defcription of the bank of Sweden, by M. Bufching* 

(95) The other towns are not to trade abroad, beine al« 
Uiwtd only to traffick in the conntry, and fell their goods by 
wholefale at thefe ibiple^-townsy which, though lying on the 
iea, are called land-towns. 

O 4 the 

« towns. 


the others^ the national banks being kept in 
the former, and the latter being the refi- 
dence of the Eaft- India company. 


conduftof The conduit of the moft important af- 
faii^. fairs of government, both foreign and do- 
meftic, is lodged in the council of ftatc, at 
which the king himfelf preiides. It con- 
fifts of two departments, of which the firft 
is the foreign and war department ; the fe- 
cond, that of the law (96), 

The other high offices arc, i. The three 
court tribunals, the war-office, the admi- 
ralty, the chancery, the treafury, the ex- 
chequer, the mine-office (^). 

SECT. Liir. 

cofcrn- The provinces in Sweden arc governed 
^^Vceil * by twenty- four land-captains, part of whom 

are military, and others of the civil clafs (r). 

But Finlapd and Pomerania have each their 


(96) See the Form of G. § 17. The coanrcllors of Aiate 
have at prefeht a falary of i-2|000 filver doliarsy whereas 
hme time ago, it was only 6ooo. 

iS) Concern jDg all thcfc, ieeForm of G. § xxxii.— xzxiv. 

(0 See above, § vi. 


SWEDEN. ^01 


The end of the prefent form of govern- i-tefdi 

ment is liberty ; for the fupport of which 
there can be no better method, (and indeed 
it is abfolutely neceffary) than concord, and 
laying afide a,ll party- fpirit, the confe- 
quences of which muft be detrimental to 
the puWic liberty : for, to the diflentions 
among the dates was chiefly owing the great 
revolution under Charles XI. . 

And as Sweden now chiefly employs it-Fwa^ 
fclf in promoting its domeftic welfare, and 
improving trade and manufadures, with 
every ufeful craft, art, and fcience ; and 
the continuance and fuccefs of thefe under* 
takings depend on the continuance of the 
peace, its capital maxims is, to avoid a war, 
and all engagements which may involve the 
kingdom in fuch a misfortune. On this 
account fome hold the alliance of Swe- 
den with France to. be a wrong mea- 
fure (97), as obliging it fomctimcs to come 
to a rupture with its neighbours (98). But 

(97) M. de Real Science du Gouvernem. P. VI. p. 561. 
However M. de Real magnifies advantages which boch crowns 
may draw from this alliance, and reprefents it as particu* 
Jarly natural and neceflary relatively to Sweden ; thefe ad- 
vantages are mere appearances, and do not at all agree with 
the prefent ftate of things. 

(98} Of this France is fo perfuaded, that M. de Seal, 
who wrote about the year 1750, foretold the laft Swediih 
war with Ruifia. Science du Governem. P. VI. p. 560. 



this has often hurt it the more, from the 
French Aibfidies falling very (hort of the ex- 
|)cnces of the war and the loiTes incurred by 
at {J). 


Treatiei The cfowu of Swcdcn having, fince the 
"S^w^ ^ lad century, made a very confiderable figure 
in Europe, and taken part in the general 
tranfadions, mufl: neceflarily have formed 
a]lianoes, treaties, and other conventions 
^ith foreign powers. Of thefe, the moft 
ffemarkable are, 

I. With the EMPEROR and the 

1. The peace of Ofnabrugh the 24th of 
OAober 1648 {e). 2. Executive treaty at 
Nuremberg 26th of June 1650 (/). The 
peace of Nimeguen on the 5th of February 
1679 [g) 5 4. Treaty with the cn^peror Jo- 
feph for reftoring the proteftant religion in 
' Stlefia, ift of September 1707 (A). 

"{d) 'See tlie Pref. State ofEarope, Ch.'iv. p. 65. 
(/) Schmanfll Corp. Jar. Pabl. p. 197. ct in Ua Mont. 
Corps Diplom. Tom. VI. P. I. p. ^g. 

(/) Schmauff. p. 899. Da Mont. Ton. YI. P*. I. p. 549. 
{g) Dn Mont. Tom. VH. P. I. p. 359. 
(b) Id. Tom. VIU. P. II. p. 2ai. 

II. With 


IL With FRANCE (/)• 

ni. WiA GREAT BRlTAlN<i). 


V. With DENMARK (/»). 

VL With the Eleftors of BRANDEN- 
BURG^ afterwards kings of PRUSSIA. 

!• Treaty concerning the limits of Pome- 
raniaof the iftof May 1563 (^r), 2. Treaty 
concerning Ducal Pruffia being acknow- 
ledged a fief of the crown of Sweden, the 
17th of January 1656 (0); 3. OfFenfive and 
defenfive alliance of the 15th of June 1656 
{/); 4. Treaty concerning the aboliih- 
meint of the vaflalage of Ducal Pruflla, and 
ceding the fovereignty of it to the houfe of 
Brafidenburgh) of the loth of February. 
1656 {q) ; 5. Alliance of the ifl; of Decern* 
ber 1673 (r) ; 6. Treaty of peace at St* 
Germain en Layc, of the 29th of June 1 679 
(j) ; 7. Alliance for ten years, with a fe* 

(/) See cliap. iv. f Ixxxi. 

(i) See chap. v. \ Ixxiii, 

(/) See chap. vi. § Iviii. 

(m) See chap. vii. § liii. 

(«) Da Mont, Tom. VI. P. H. p 47, 

(e) Id. p. 127. 

(f) Id. p. 137. 

(f) Id. ibid. P. II p. T48. 
(r) Id. Tom. VII. P. I. p. 246. 

(/) Id. ibid. P. I. p. 408. This treaty the kio| of France 
nay be faid to have concluded in Sweden's behal^ 

8 cret 



cret article for maintdning the Protcftant 
religion in Poland, of the loth of January 
1686 (/); 8. The peace of the loth of 
February 1720 [u) ; 9. Alliance of the 
29th of May 1747 {x) ; 10. Peace of the 
22d of May 1762 (y). 

VII. With the Eleftor of BRUNSWICK 

Peace concluded on the 20th of Novem- 
ber 1719 {z). 

I, 3ix years truce of the 25th of Sep- 
tember 1629 (^?). 2. Armiftice for twenty- 
fix years of the 20th of September 1635 
(i). 3. Peace of Oliva of the 3d of May 
1660, in which were included both the 
emperor and the eledqr of Brandenburg 
[c) ; 4. Alliance with king Staniflaus of the 
1 8th of November 1705 (^) j 5, Peace 

{/) Duroont, Tom. VII. P II. p. 123, 

(u) Id. Tom VIIL P. 11. p. 21. 

(jr) Rouflet Recueil d'Adea Sc Traitez, Tom. XiX; p. 

(y) Merc. Hift. & Polit. Juia 1762, p. 677, Bat this 
treaty was never made public. 

(z) Da Mont, Tom. VIII. R IL p. 15. 

{a) Id. Tom. V. P. II. p. 594. 

(^) Id. Tom. VI. P. I. p. 115. 

(0 Id. Tom. VI. P. H. p. 303. Aaa Pacis Olivenfis in- 
edita cum Obfervationibas fioehmii, 2 Tomi WratiflaviaB, 
1763, 1764. 

(a) Du Mont, Tom. VIII. P. I. p. 173. 


6 WE D E N. 205 

with king Auguftus II. in which he re- 
nounces the crown of Poland 24th of Sep- 
tember 1706 {e). 


Treaties of peace, i. At Stolbova, of 
1 3th of February 1 61 7 (/) ; 2. At Kardis, 
of the I ft of July 1 66 1 (g) ; 3. At Ny- 
ftadt of the 30th of Auguft 1721 {6); 4. 
Alliances of the 2 2d of February 1 724 (/) ; 
5. Of the 5th of Auguft 1 735 {iy, 6. Peace 
on the 1 7th of Auguft 1 743 U). 

X. With the OTTOMAN PORTE.- 
Alliance of the 22d of Dec. 1 739 {m). 


Sweden has produced many eminent war- wimon 
riors and ftatefmen ; Birger Jarl, father to ,*"** ^^'^ 
king Waldemar, and regent ; Matthias 
Kettilmundfon, who, in the minority of 
Magnus Smeck, was adminiftrator of the 

{e) Da Mont, Tom. VIII. P. 1. p. 204. 

(/) Is to be feen in Traer's Introdudtion to thcHiflory of 
MoTcovy, p. 497. 

U) Da Mont, Tom. VI. P. 11. p. 363. 

{h) Id. Tom. VIII. P. 11. p. 36. 

W Id- ibid. P. 11. p. 76, 

{k) Roaflet. Supplem. an Corps Diplom. Tom. IJ. P. II. 
p. 536. 

(7) Rouffet Recneil d' Aftes, Traitcz, Toir. XIX. p. 64. 

{m) Lk Meme, p; 2. 



kingdom ; the three Sturs who hold that 
office in the time of the Union of Caiman 
chancellor Oxenftiern. Thofc great ct>m.* 
manders Baner^ Torflenfon, Charles Guf- 
tavus WrangeU ReenfcbUd^ Steenbock^ 
Lowenhaupt, ftaad immortalized io the 
Swediih annals. 

SECT. hVlh 

Biteiani. The moft reputable hiflorians among the 

Swedes are, Snorrc Sturlefon (99)1 Eric 

Olai (100), John Magnus (i), Meilenius 

(2), Loccenius (3), PufFendorfF (4), Verc- 

• 'i'^s (5), Dalin (6), and Botin *• 

(99) Hema Krinela eUer Konungs-Saga, five HiOoria 
Regum SepteDtrtonafiuniy quam cum verfiode Saecica & La^^ 
tina, botifque edidit Jo. Pmn^&iaU* Holmixy 1697. a 
Tom. £0]. Th» antient Idandic hiftorian Holberg always 
mentions with great commendations. 

(100) Suecoram GetlMrttaque HifioriiD Lifcii VI. editi i 
Jo. Meflbnio. Holmi«y i6ij. 4to« 

(i) Gothorum Saecoromque Hiftoria, ex probatis anti** 
QODruQi Monajnentii coHeda ec in XXIV. Libroa radaCU. 
Bafilea?, 155-8. 8vo. 

(t) Scandia illoftrata, fta Ctironologia de Rebus Scandls, 
h. f . Chronolo^a de Rebus S«fci9» Oaai^, Norwrgiae^ at- 
qne una Iflandis Groenlandiaequey tarn ecclefiailicis quam 
politicisyaMundtCataclyfjnaad annum Chriflii6i^.£dMit« 
Jo. Pcringfkiold, Tom. I. XIIT. XV. Holmise, 1700-1704. 
2 Voh fol Part XIV. has been loft. Buderi Biblioth. Hift. 
Sel. cap. xxxii. § 4« p. 160. feqq. 

(3) Hiftoria Suecorum, k primo Rege Suecis ufque ad Ca-» 
Tolum XI. Regem Suecix dodufbe Libri IX. acceduac Ajiti« 
quitatum Suco-Gothicarum Libri III, Prancof« et Lipfis, 
1676. 4to. / 

(4) Introdq^on to the Hiflory of the Kingdom of Swo» 
dmt, with a Continuation of it from the year- 1679 to 17509 
written in German, 


SWEDEN. 207 


Accounts of the ftatc of Sweden have^^^«»»«f 

the ftafie at 

been written by Wexionius or Gyllenftolpc ^^^^^ 
(7), Ocrnhiclm (8), Hermannidcs (9), 
Robinfon (lo)^ and others (11). 

(5) Epitomarum Hiftoriae Stteo-Godi]cae» Libri IV. et Go- 
thoram rerum extra patrUm ge^aniy Libri U. Stockholmis, 
1730. 4to. 

(6) Suea Rikes Hiftoria ifraa des Beeyunelfe til wara Ti» 
der, Stockholm 1747*1762, 410. In the XXXIIId Volume 
of the Engliih Univerfal Hiftory, is the Hidory of Sweden. 
The aothor of it chiefly follows Loccentui. To Dalin he 
fcems an utter flranger. 

* Utkaft til Swenika Folkets Hiftoria, i. e. Sketch of a 
Hiftory of the Swediih Nation* 

(7) Epitome Defcriptionis Suedx, Gothias» Fenningia;, Sec. 
et fobjeflarttm Provinciarum, Abox, 1690. 

(8) Deicriptio Regni Soeciae. 

^9) Penioinlanttm Regnum Sueciae feu Hiftorico-Geom« 
phica Defcriptio illarum partiom Suecicarum quae Balthico 
Mari a Germanicis feparancur provinciis. Aroftelod. 1671. 

(10) Robinibn's Prefent State of Sweden, a French Tranf- 
lation of which has been publifhed at Amfterdam, and en- 
larged according to the feveral editions. 

(I i) Deliciae £ve Arooenitates Regoornm Sneciae, Gothiae, 
magniqoe Dncatas Findlandiae, Lagd. Batav. 2 Vols. i2mo. 

Hiftorical, Political, and Geographical Defcription of the 
Kingdom of Sweden. Two Parts^ 170S. 8vo. a German 
work, printed at Leipfic and Francfort. 

Eric Tuneld's Inledning til Geographien ofwer Sweriges 
Rike, Stockolm 1762. 8vo. 

The Hiftory of Sweden in the XXXIIId Volume of the 
^Engliih Modem Univerfal Hiftory,. is preceded by an ac* 
count of the ftate of Sweden, of which a judgment may be 
formed from the author's including Livonia and Ingerman- 
land among the prefent provinces of Sweden. The XLIIId 
Volume of that work contains likewife another Account^ bat 
not a whit better* 





E U R O f E. 


Of p o L A N^ a 

S E e t- 1 

P6L AND» antiehtly a part o^ Euro-NraiM& 
peaii Sarmatia:^ aecording to fbme 
authors derives its name from the 
Polifli word Pole, a plain ; for the coantry^ 
after the forefls were Hewh down attd pre- 
pared for agriculture, was as it were turned ' 
into a fmooth level {a). But it is far more 
probable that the word Poland, and parti* 
eularly the Latin name Polonia, is of fo- 
reign origin, and afterwards was adopted 
by the inhabitants (i). 

(a) tflngoB Hift. Polon. Lib.. 1. p. 2z, Neugebattcr. 
Uia. PoloD. I^b. !• p. 4. 

(i) The celebrated M. Lenguich pbferves, thatforeiga 
Mthors who wr«tc the biflory of this people in lAtin foonef 

. Vol. III. f Tfejj 


situation This kingdom lies between the 47th and 
and wa. ^g^j^ j^g^ ^f NoFtH ht. and th« 35th and 

51ft Eaft long. Its length is computed at 
* 240 German miles, and its breadth 200. It 
confines weftward on Silefia, the Marqui- 
fate of Brandenborgh, and Pomerania; 
fouthward on fclungary and Tranfilvania, 
the Turki(h empire, and particularly Mol- 
davia and Bcflarabia ; caftwacd on Ruffia ; 
and northward on Pruffia and the Biltic *. 


Air and Tfae climatc in th6 fouthern provinces is 
weatiM temperate, but the northern have feverc 
winters (^ ; fo that lakes, fens, and rivers, 
are frozen ; and fometimes the cold is fo in- 
tenfe as to fplit trees (2)1 the air in Pbland 
however is healthy and pure. 

than the natives, made ufe of this appeHftt*on» and called 
the inhabitants Polenios, PoUianos» Bolanos, Polonos, and the 
country Polenium, Follianam, Poloniam ; the lad name as the 
moft ufnal has been apopted by the Poli(h wf iters, thou^ 
the Poles call themfelves Polacy. Lengnich DiiT. de Polo- 
nornm Majorib. § 4. in fine ejus Hil^. Polon. p. 424. 

* M. Dogiel, provoft of the college of Vilna, h«s tivett 
an account of the boundaries of the kingdom^ in a particular 
work intitled, ** Limices Regni Poloniae Sc ex Originalibus 
authentic! 8. Vifnae, 1763. 

(l) Mart. Cromeri Defcript. Polon. lib. I. p. 6. 

(2} Sxvas biemes terram flomioaque advinciunt, quia vio- 
lentia Aqitiionis uullit montibus repercii^» libenim at ia 


P 6L AU tJl. Hi 


It he country is for the mod part fmooth iAonentni; 
dnd levels particularly towards the weft 
and north ; but the foothern parts are over- 
run with the Carpathian mountains, fepa- 
rating Hungary and Ruffia from Poland, and • 
fpreading tbeoifelvei into feveral aroas {c). 

Poland IS watered by many large Hvcrs^Rj^^ 
the Viftuhi Warta, Nicfter^ Bogg^ Nieper, 
Dwina^ Memel, and others^ befides feveral 
lakes« the moft extenfive of which is the 
Gopleo five German miles longi and half 
fuch a mile in breadth (^« 

S E C T. VI. 

Tbe foil of Poland is very fruitful, plen-^ Feftifi^/ 
tifuUy fupplying the inhabitants with all 
neceflaries. Its horfes are fwift and ftrong,* 
though not large; it like wife produces great 
numbers of horned cattle and iheep; its 
wild animals are ftags, deer, h^res, elks^ 
buffaloes (^), wild afles and horfes, bears^ 

ptUgo caAum raph. BircMus in kon. Anutfor. ctp. yiVu 

P- 448- 

(0 CroftJcr, p. 6. 

{J) Ibid. p. 8, 9. 

(3) The manner of hunting Aid killing buSaloes Is de-^ 
fcribed by Cromef , Lib. h p. 10. 

P z wolves^ 


wolves, linxes, foxes, polecats, otters, &c. 
It abounds in tame and wild fowl, and 
amidft fo many rivers, ftreams, and lakes, 
cannot want variety of fifh. The bees in 
Poland arc of two kinds, tame and wild, the 
htter make their abode in hollow trees in 
the forefts(^). 

The vegetable kingdom is very confider- 
able in Poland, both for fruit-trees and efcu- 
lent plants and herbs ; efpecially vail forefts 
of oak, fir, beech, and pine (/), but for no- 
thing more than its immenfe fertility in corn, 
fo as to fupply the wants of other nations. 

The mineral kingdom affords filvcr (g), 
lead, and fome with a mixture of filver ; 
iron, quickfilver, marble, alabafter, amber, 
vitriol, fait petre, rock, and fpringcfalt, 
with fome mineral waters (^b) ; gems, 
ochres, gnd other ufeful minerals have been 
difcovered of late. 

S E C T, VII. 

Divifionof Poland, according to its political confti- 

thecountry. (ution, is dividcd into three chief provinces, 

Little- Poland, Great-Poland, and the Great 

dutchy of Lithuania : Lijttlcf-Poland contains 

{e) Cromer, Lib. I. p. 9, ii. Andr. CeUaxii NovUT. De- 
fcrip. Regni Polon. p. 19, 20. 
. (/*) Cromer K Lib. L p. 6, 7. 

(g) Vid. Leognich. Jur..ptbl. Regni Polon. Lib. XL 

(i) Cromer. Lib. I. p. 7. 

.. -- eleven 

POLAND. 215 

eleven palatinates ; Cracow (4), Sendomir, 
Lublin, Podlachien, ReuiTen, Belzk, Podo- 
lia, Kiow> Volhinia, Braclaw, and Czer- 
nichow; likewife the dutchies of Zator 
and Ofwiecim, but which (ince 1 564, have 
been united under the former name, toge« 
ther with the two free countries of Halicz 
and Chelm. 

Great Poland confiils of nine palatinates : 
Pofen (5), Kalifz, Siradien, Lenczicz, 
Brzefc, Inowroclaw, Ploczk : MaiTovia ; 
Rava, the two free countries of Wielun 
and Dobrizim, and Gnefen, which was 
ereAed into a'palatinate at the extraordinary 
diet held in the year 1768. 

The Lithuanian palatinates are nine 1 
Wilna, Trock, Smolcnflc, Polock, Novo- 
grodec, Witepfk, Brxefkie, Mfciflaw, 
Minfkt and the dutchy of Samogitia (/)• 

Every palatinate is divided into circles ; 
one, two or more of which make a grod 
or diftri<a, under the government of a noble- 
man. The large . palatinates of Maflbvia 

(4) To this pshtinite likewife belongs the county of Sce- 
pns, or Zipferland, which the emperor Sis^ifmuDd, ai king 
9f Httngaiy, mortgaged to king Ladiflaus II. in 141 2. 

(5) This includes the ftarofty of Drahcim, which in 1657, 
was mortgaged to the eledtor of Brandenburg for 120,000 
dollarst and has not yet been redeeaied. 

(i) Sketch of the prefent Conftilution of Poland, (a Ger- 
f&an work.) 

P 7 and 


and Rava are divided into feveral tracts, and 
ihefc again into circles and grods (^). 

Befides the provinces properly confti^ 
luting the kingdom of Poland, fome coun<- 
tries are become joined to it by war, or 
treaty, as Pruffia^ Liyonia, Courland, and 
pruflja. Weftern Pruflia, afterwards called Polifli 
or Royal Pruffia, was by the treaty of Thorn^ 
jn 1466, ceded to Poland by the Teutonic 
linights, as the former fovereigns of the 
country; but Eaftern Pruffia tlicy retained, 
jhough as a fief under the fovcreignty of 
Poland. In the year 1525, king Sigifmund 
I. granted it as a ducal fief to the grand 
mailer Albert, margrave of Brandenburg, 
His male ifiue failing in 16 18, it devolved 
to the eledloral houfe of Brandenburg. By 
the treaty of Velau, in 1657, Frederic 
William, elcftor of Brandenburg, had the 
infcofmcnt fuperfeded, and Pruffia made a 
free and independent country to him and 
his male heirs j but on their failure it was 
to revert to the crown of Poland ^s a fief, 
* pn condition of its being again granted in 
that quality to thp margraves of Branden- 

(i) Sketch of the prefent Conflitution of Poland. 


POLAND. 215 

burg, of the Cuimbach and Anfpach lines. 
Frederic IIL eledor of Brandenburg, in 
1 70 1, crefled the dutchy of Pruflia into a 
kingdom, at which Poland raifed a great 
clamour, and never could be brought to 
acknowledge this new royalty (/), till the 
year 1764. 

Polifh Pruflia contains three palatinates. 
Culm, Marienburg, and Pomerell (6). 
Though incorporated into the kingdom of 
Poland it retains its liberties, and the Pruf- 
iian nobility partake of every privilege of the 
Polish (;7/); fo that Pruflia is looked on as a 
part of Great Poland. 

Livonia, Eflhonia, and Courland, for^Ufom. 
merly belonged to the order of the EnfiferLi 
John fiafilowite czar of Mufcovy, invading 
thefe countries in 1558, with fuch a for- 
mtdable army, that the Enflferi were ut- 
terly unable to face, the laft grand-mafter 
Gottard Kettler, in 1651, gave Livonia and^ 
Efthonia to Sigifmund Auguflus king of 

(J) Vid. Lengnich JuC Pub}. Regni Poloni, Lib. I. cap. 
ar. S I, 2, 3. p. 3?. 

(6) The countries of Botow and Lauenborg formerly were 
a part of this palatinate. King Sigifmund Aogi^^ftus, in 
1526, had granted them as fiefs to the dukes of Pomerania, 
who, however, had been in po/Teifion of them before; and that 
houfe failing in 1637, thefe lands reverted to Poland. But 
by the treaty of Bromberg in 1637, they were ceded to the 
cleAor of Brandenburg, yet under every feudal obligation. 

(w) Vid. Ejufd. Juf. publ. Pruff. Polon. § 2. 4. p. 17, 18. 

P 4 Poland, 


Poland^ as grcM duke of LitbuaQia» and 
retained Courland and Semigallia under the 
title of- a dutchy to himfelf and his male 
heirs, but as a fief of Lithuania. Both 
Efthopia and Livonia were very foon brought 
under the dominion of Sweden, and at the 
treaty of Oliva, in i66o, formally given up 
by Poland, except a fmall fpot on this fide 
the Dwina ; and this constitutes the palati?- 
nate of Livonia, which is included in Li-* 
thuania {n). 
iCottriaiuL Poland and Lithuania uniting in 1659 
as one political body, Courland at the fame 
time became an immediate fief of tbecrowii 
pf Poland. The ftates of Poland intended^ 
on the death of the lafl duke Ferdinand^ 
the fole remainder of the Kettler family, 
to fequeftrate this dutchy i but the ftates of 
Courland, in 1726, chofe for his fuccefi!br 
the celebrated count Saxe, natural fon to 
king Auguftus II. whofe election, how- 
ever, the ftates of Poland immediately de- 
clared void. But duke Ferdinand, at length, 
dying in 1737, the Courlanders, aph^ger 
neral recommendation of the czarina Anne, 
could not ayoid phpofing the count of Biron 
chamberlain of her houihold, which paved 
his way to higher promotion, being, on the 
deceafe of the czarina in 1740, nominated 
(«) V5d. Lengnich. Hlft. Polom p. 65, 222. 


POLAND. 217 

regent of the Ruffian monarchy. But this 
iikewife proved the occafion of his fall» he 
and his whole family being banifhed into 
Siberia by Anne the new Ruffian fovereign. 
Courland was without a duke for the fpace 
of eighteen years^ till> in 1758^ Charles, 
fon of Auguftus III. was eleded» by the 
intereft of Elizabeth, emprefs of Ruffia. 
But her demife was foon followed by anb* 
ther revolution ; the duke of Biron was not 
only recalled from his tedious exile, but by 
the vigorous fupport of the czarina Catha- 
rine II. recovered the dutchy of Courland, 
in 1763, and the new duke Charles wa$ 
obliged to relinqui(h it (9). 



Several other countries, formerly united 
to Poland, have been rent from it. Among *^ 
thefe were Silefia, of which, though it had ^uefia 
its own prinpesy yet the fovereignty was 
lodged in the king of Poland. King Ca- 
iimir the Great in 1335* granted it to king 
John of Pohemia ; and his fucceflbr king 
Lewis, in 1 3753^ renounced all claim to it 
by a frcfh treaty concluded with thexcm- ' 
peror Charles IV. as king of Bohemia. 

(0) New Genealogical and Hiftorical Acooant*, P. XIIJ. 
andP. XXyi. 



Frauftadt, however, after the fir ft of theie 
treaties ; afid, after the fecond, the dutchies 
of Scverien, Aufchwitz, and Zator, which 
bad been parts of Silcfia, reverted to Po- 
land (/). 
latoBia. Livonia was alfo, for fome time, a pro- 
vince of Poland i but, as we have before 
obferved (y), it was firft reduced by the 
Swedes, and, at length, in 1721* confirmed 
to Ruflia by the peace of Nyftadt. 
Wthchit In the reign of king Ladiflaus Jagello, in 
t». 1386, Peter, prince of WaJachia, to which 

Moldavia was then annexed, and in 1403, his 
fon Alexander, acknowledged the king of 
Poland as fovereign. Elias, and Stephen, 
fons to the latter, quarrelling about the 
fucceflion, king Ladiflaus III. made a par* 
tition between them, adjudging Moldavia 
to the former, and Walachia to the latter, 
both continuing under the fovereignty of 
Poland till Sigifmund IIL who ceded them 
to the Turks by a difadvantageous peace 
in 1621 (r). 
8ef«rin, This king, on the other hand, made* fe- 

cwrnil"'"' veral conquefts in Ruffia, adding to Poland 
Kiow. Smolenflco, Severien, and Czernichow, . 

(p) Vid. Leogtiich Juf.Publ. R.Pol. Lib. I. c. xi. § 1—3. 

p. 43—46 
(f) S. ^ 18. 
(r) Lengnich. I. c. § 6. p. 47, 48. 


POLAND, 219 

which were formally yielded^ in 1634^ to his 
fon Ladtdaus IV. at the peace of Viafma ; 
but the Ruffians not only recovered them 
from his brother and fucceffor John Car- 
fimir» but likewife made themfelves maf- 
ters of the Ukraine and Riow; 9nd the 
whole was absolutely given up to them in 
two treaties, in 1667 and 1686 (x). 

S E C T. X- 

The Poles are a branch of the Slavic that onp^ •^ 
vafl: nation which fpread itfelf through all^ryofxu 
the eaftcrn parts of Europe ; and, according 
to no improbable conje<fture, are defcended 
from the Lazi (7), who, in the times of 
remote antiquity, dwelled in the country of 
Colchis, along the Black Sea, but afterwards 
gradually removing from their old habi- 
tations, came into Great Poland, and about 
the fifth century, fettled near the Warta (/)• 
But the eld Polifh hiftorians .make a prince 
called Lechus, the founder of the nation 
and kingdom, dating his coming in the 
fixth century. But every thing related of 

(s) Vid. Lengnicli. 1. c. § 5. p. 47. 

(7) Mr. Lengnich confirms this from the name of Polacy^ 
by wi^ich the Poles call themfelves in their own langatge» 
and imports the defcendants of the Lafi. See Diifcrt* de 
Polonor. Major. § 2, 4» 5. 

(/) Lengnich. Divert, de Polonor. Majorib. S 4. 1 1. p. 423^ 
& fe<jq. 



h»m» and his ance(lors» dowa to Pia(le» is 

fabulous and dark, and many particulars 

notorioufly falfe. This Piafle, who is fup- 

pofed to have been a burgher of Krufwica in 

the palatinate of Brzeck, was chofen prince 

of Poland about the middle of the ninth 

S4,. century (8). Micciflaus I. one of his fuc- 

9^- ceiTors, embraced Chriftianity, and fettled it 

i<»5« in Poland. His fon Boleflaus I. aflumed 

the title of king» though his predeceflbrs 

had been ftiled only dukes of Poland. He 

was fucceeded by his fon king Mieceflaus XL 

with whom his confort Richeza, living very 

uneaiily» fled with her fon Cafimir, into 

Germany, which on the king's demife, oc* 

'<»34* cafioned an anarchy. Ca(ia)ir was, in the 

interim, become a BenediAine monk ; but, 

at the follicitation of the Poles, and with 

the pope's permidion (9), he laid aftde the 

!•♦«• monadic vefture, and took on him the 

(8) His family has flotttifhed in Poland and Silefia above 
800 years ; and. from him, the native kings of Poland are 
to this day called Piailes. 

(9) Which however^ he would not do» but under the foI'> 
lowing odd conditions : i. '* Ut de (ingulis capitibos — — 
" qi|Dtannis obulos unus in lucernam perpetuo in sede D. 
^ Petri Romae arfuram pendatar, (qui etiamnitm S. Petri 
" nurorous dicitnr. 2. Ut omnes Poloni rotunda in mo* 
^ rem monachoram tonfora capiliorum utantur;-^— 3, 
'* Feftis folennibus quando facra peraguntur, ut fiagufi 
«< equites fafciaro lineam candidam in oiodum ito\x^ qua in 
** facris utuntur facerdotes, ac diaconi, e coDo fufpenfam fe- 
f^ rant^'' Neugrbaaer» Hilt. Polon. Lib. IIL p. 58, 


POLAND. .221 

government. His fon and fucccflbr Bolcf- 
laos II. having, v^ith his own hand, killed 
Staniflaus bifliop of Cracow, at the very al- 
tar ; and being, for fuch an aft of impiety ,^^ 
excommunicated by the pope, was driven 
out of the kingdom, and his brother La- ,oSo. 
diflaus I. advanced to the throne. This prince 
however contented himfelf witli the title 
of duke inftead of king ; and his fucceflbrs, 
for a confiderable time after, made ufe of 
no other, yet without any diminution to 
the fovercignty. For his fon duke Boleff-njt. 
laus III. divided Poland and the countries 
belonging to It, among his four fons, giving 
to Ladiflaus the eldefl, Cracow, Siradien, 
Lenciez, Silefia, and the fupreme jurifdic- 
cion; toBoleflaus, the next in age, Mazovia; 
to Mieciflaus the third. Great Poland ; and 
Henry the fourth fon had Sendomir. It 
was at the fame time prefcribed, that the 
' elded of the family fhould hereafter have 
the country and city of Cracow, with a kind 
of fuperiority above the other dukes. This 
partition occafioned a contefl between the 
brothers: Ladiflaus inilead of acquiefcing 
in it, infilled on having the whole ; fo 
that his brothers forced him to fly in- 
to Germany. Hereupon Boleflaus IV. 1146. 
the fecond brother, had Cracow and the 
fupreme government ; and Ladiflaus dying 



in the interim, he generoafly iovefted his 

,173. fons with Sileiia (10). He Wa$ fucceeded 

J17S. by the third brother Mieciflaos III. as the 

latter was by Caiinair V. who had been ex-" 

cepted out of his father's partition, but novr 

received an invitation from the people oF 

1^94- Cracow, who had idetbroned Mieciilau^. On 

his demife it was conferred 00 his eldeft ion 

Lefco, who reduced a part of Pomerania 

called PomerelU His iecond fon Conrad 

had Mafovia.; and he it was who called 

in the Teutonic knights to his affiftanpe^ 

m6. againft the Pagans of Prufisa > this gave 

the knights an opportunity of fettling thenv-^ 

fslves in PruHia, and at leng;th, they made 

themfelves maflers of the whole country. 

In the interval from king Mieciflaus I. Co 

the thirteenth century, the kings and dukes 

of Poland have acknowledged the fuprcme 

jurifdidion of the German empire, by pay-^ 

ing a yearly tribute (i i), which dependency, 

(to) Thefe were Boleflaus, Mieciflaus, and Coorad. Their 
detcendants condnued polTeflbrs of Silefia for 500 years, and 
became divided intoieveral branches, the lait of which fail- 
ed in i6y$i in the perfon of George William, duke of Leig* 
aitz, Brtegy and Wolaa. 

(11) Thtt Conring de Finib* Imp. Germ.. Lib. J. cap.- 
xviii. p. 307— 33», ihews, by feveral teftiitionies ftom the' 
old German hiAorians. He' has been anfwered by Mr* 
Schultz, profeflbr of law at Dantzicicy and afterwards at 
Francfort on the Oder, who has ptiblifhed a qaaito, intitled, 
*' TradatuI Hiftorico^Policicus de Polonia nun^am trtba* 
taria^ Gedani, 1694, 4(0. in which he Hrangely wrefls the 


POLAND. 223 

however, they availed tbemfelvcs of the 
troubles under the emperor Frederic II. to 
fet afide. 

On the demife of Lefco duke of Cra* 1327. 
cow, inftead of a regular fucceflion, the 
fupretne power was bandied about be- 
tween the feveral lines of the Piafte fa- 
mily / and during thefe fluiftuatlng timeSf 
Poland was terribly ravaged by fwarms of 
Afiatic Tartai-s. At length, Premillaus, de- 
fcended from Mieciflaus III. being made 
fovereign of Cracow and Great Poland, was 
crowned king at Gncfcn, but not long after 129s, , 
murdered. Wenceilacis king of Bohemia, 
who was before pofCcfSkd of Little Poland, 
now afcended the throne of Great Poland: 
ftrengthening his poiTeffion by marrying 
Richfa, the only daughter of king Premif- 1300. 
laus, he held it till his death. But at 
length Ladiflaus Lo6ec, by his Angular cotr- 1305. 
rage, again confolidated the whole king-x32o. 
dom i for which he is ranJced among the 
kings of Poland, by the name of Ladif- 

psdhges adduced by Conring, and charges the old hiftOrians 
with great uncertairty and iniideUty, and likewife confronts 
them >vith the Poliih modern writers. A celebrated litera* 
tor, and of great authority in the hiftory and policy of Po- 
land, judges far more equitably of the matter. ** Germaais, 
** qui setate priores, quiqae illis temporibus» de quibus tef- 
** timonia perhibent, vixerunt, omnem negare £dem, folis ' 
" autem doncfticis fcriptoribus, qui recentiores, ac incertis 
*' au^loribus antiqua memorant, credere durum et partium 
'* ftudio obnoxiom videtur." Lengnich. Juf. Fubl. R. PoL 
lib. II. cap. ii. { i. p. 55. 

6 laus 


laus I. he left the throne to his (on Ca* 

fimir II. furnamcd the Great, With this 

king, to whom Poland owes its laws and 

.courts of juftice, and the building of many 

1370. towns and royal feats, the Piafte naalc line 

failed ; and Lewis king of Hungaryt his 

lifter's fon, with the previous confent of 

»3«»- the ftatcs, fucceeded him. On his deaths 

the Poles made choice of his younger daugh^ 

tel: Hedwig for their queen, and noarried 

her to Jagello, a Pagan duke of Litbuank^, 

who, however» was afterwards baptized by 

the name of Ladiflaus 11. This was the 

opportunity which united Lithuania with 

Poland under the title of a great dutchy, 

and proved the means of its being bleiTed 

with the light of the GofpeL This king 

reduced the princes of Walachia (12), 

under the fovercignty of the kingdom of 

3403- Poland. His fon and fuccefTor Ladiflaus 

J440. IIL was ohofen king of Hungary on the 

death of Albert IL But this' drew him into 

a terrible war with the Turks, and he fell 

«444* in the battle of Varna. The Poles, on this, 

M45* chofe his brother Cafimir III (i^). Under 

his reign the PrulHan nobility and towns 

(12) Moldavia at that time was part of Walachia. See 
above, ^ ix* 

(13; He had been great duke of Lithuania fince 14409 
wd BOW united it wkh Poland under one fovereigiiv 

t^ b L A N 0. 425 

fubjeded themielves to the crown of Po- 1454, 
land» on account of the oppreilions which 
they fufFered from the Teutonic order; and 
in the war to whkh this change of mailers 
gave occafion> the knights were obliged to 
cede to the king, the Weftern or prefent 
Poliih Pruffia, and to acknowledge the fo- 1466. ' 
vercignty of Poland over the eaftern par^ - 
which they were allowed to retain. On h^ 
death, his eldeft Ton Ladiflaus, then king ,4^). 
of Hungary, was overlooked; and John Al- 
bert, the fecond Ton, eleded king of Poland; J501J 
and Alexander the third fon, was chofen 
great duke of Lithuania. The latter, on 
the deceafe of the king his brother, was 
advanced to the throne of Poland ; and ^nce 
that time Lithuania has continually re- 
mained under the fame ^ fovercign as Po- ,506. 
land. After his death, his brother Sigif- 
mund, the youngeft of king Caflmir the 
third's foas, was elected his fuccefTor. In 
his time Smoleniko was reduced by the ,^,4. 
Rufliiaas ; on the other hand, a frefli war 
breaking out with the Teutonic order, at 
the peace which terminated it, the fove- 
reignty of Poland over the eaftern part of 
Prafiia, was aiTerted beyond all exception 
(14). SigifoKind Auguftus, his fbn and 154s. 

(14) See above, § viii. 

Vol. III. CL fi»c- 


fucceifor acquiring, as great duke of Lithua- 
nia, a right to Efthonia and Livonia, pof- 
felled himfelf of them ; he obtained at the 
fame time the feudal fovcreignty over Coor- 
land and Senfiigallia^ which he ere<9:ed ioto 
a dutchy. He afterwards brought about 
fuch an intimate connexion between Bo- 
land and Lithuania^ that both jointly cboo& 
one king, meet in one diet, and enjoj all 
privileges in common. 

157*. The Jagellon male line failing in Sigif- 

mund Augudus, the next eledion fell on 

1573- Henry duke of Anjou, brother to Charles 
IX. king of France; but on his brother's 
crown devolving to him, he fecrctly with- 

1574. drew out of Poland, imagining to continue 
at the head of that kingdom, though ro^d- 

i57S« ing in France. The Poles, however, wit^ix^t 
the leaft regard to him, proceeded to afnefli 
eledtion, and chofe king Sigifmund's eldoft 
daughter Anne, and Stephen Battori, prince 
of Tranfilvania, for queen and king, on con- 
dition that they (hould marry. King Ste- 
phen governed with great reputation, and 

J3S1. obliged the Rufiians to relinquish all their 
poffeffions in Livonia. 

Upon his death, which happened in the 
prime of life, the Poles eleded Sigif- 

1586. mund III. at that time hereditary prince, 
and afterwards king of Sweden; he being 


P O L A NX). 227 

by his mother Catharine, youngcft daughter 
to Sigifmund L related to the Jagellon 
family : but by this acccflion, he loft the 1587. 
crown of Sweden ; and the Poles; difpleafed 
with his adminiftration^ declined aiHfting 
him in the recovery of that kingdom. He, '^4- 
however, availed himfelf of the diftur- 
bances in Ruflia, taking from them Smo^ 
leniko, Scvcrien, and Czernichow ; but 
was not able to compafs his deiign of placing 
his fon^ Ladiflaus on the throne of that 
empire: and as little did he fucceed in 
his^ endeavours to affert his fovcreignty over 
Walachia and Moldavia againft the Turks, 
being obliged to make a full furrender of 
thofe provinces to the Grand Seignior. In ^^*'- 
his Swedifh wars againft Charles IX. and 
Guftavus Adolphus, he was fo unfucocfsful, 
that Poland loft Livonia and a part of Pruf- 
fia i the latter of which, however, his el- 
deft ion Ladiflaus^ fome years after, reco- 
vered. He was fucceeded by his brother 1635- 
John Cafimir, whofe whole reign was zi^aZ. 
continued feries of misfortunes. The re- 1655. 
volt of the Coffacks, the war which this 
brought on with Ruftia, and the Swedifti 
war, occaiioned by the king's renewal of his 
claini to Sweden, proved extremely detri- 
mental to Poland, which was obliged to cede 
the fovcreignty over Ducal Prufliato the ,660. 
0^2 eleftor 


elector of Brandenburg^ Livonia to the 
crown of Sweden, and to the Ruflians 
Smolenfko, Severien, Czernicbow, the 

,66;. Ukraine beyond the Niepcr, and Kiow ( 1 5). 
Thefe and other croiTes aflfeifted the king 
to that degree, that he refigned the crown^ 
and ended his days in France, as abbot of 

1669^ St. Germain. 

His fucceiTor Michael Coribut Wiefbio* 
wietzkyi in whofe promotion to the thsqae, 
the gentry had been the chief a&ors, was 
not much liked by the great men in the 
fenate ; and a frefh revolt breaking out 
among the CofTacks, involved him in a war 
with the Turks, which his diArefled fitu^^ 
ation obliged him to terminate by a very 
difadvantageous, and even infulting peace. 

'^73- Such a complication of misfortunes foon 
put , an end to his life. But John Sobieiky, 
who was chofeo his fucceflbr, recovered 
all that had been loft, and by his defeat 

1683. q{_ t|je Turkifti army then bcfieging Vi- 
enna, and other fuccefTes^ he acquired a very 
great reputation. The clofe of his reign, 

1696. however, was fo difpleafing to the Polifh 

269;. nation that, at the next ele^on, inftead of 

(15 ) Kiow, at the thirteen years truce made in i66j^ was 
ceded to the RafBans only for two years, and was to be re- 
torned on an equivalent given for it ; bat in tlie peipetual 
peace made in i686j the Poles made an abfolute furrender 
ofit. ' 

, 2 Paying 

POLAND. 229 

paying any regard to his Tons, one party 
chofe the prince of Conti, and another gave 
their fufirages for Frederic Auguftus elcdtor 
of Saxqpy» But the latter^ fince known by 
the name of Auguftus IL carried the elec- i?**. 
tion. A war commenced by him in Livo- 
nia againft SwedeUf was of very bad con- 
fequence. Charles XIL carrying all before 
him in Poland, got a party to confer the 
crown on Staniflaus Lefcinfky, palatine of 
Pofcn (16) 5 and the Swedes having pe- 
netrated into Saxony, Auguftus was obliged 
to acknowledge the new king, and make a 
folemn renunciation of the* crown. But on 
the defeat of Charles XIL at Pultawa, Au-'i709« 
guftus recovered the crown of Poland (17) ; 
and maintained it amidft all the diftur- 
bances raifed by the oppofite party. 

On his deceafe, France found means to i733« 
raife a ftrong party, who declared in favour 
of the late king Staniflaus, whilft another 
efpoufcd the intereft of Auguftus IIL fon 
to the dcccafed king, and who, by the af- 

(16) tt does not appear Aat Charles XII. had, at firft, 
any latent of dethroning king Auguftus, but was put iipoa 
it in a conference between him and cardinal Radzie Jowiky. 
Memoires far les dernieres Revolutions de Pologne ou on jufU- 
fie le Retour du Roy Aagafte, p. 1 7. 

(17} See the aboveoaeniioned Memoires, p. 238, 239, 
where the anther (hews the invalidity of the peace of Alt 
Ranftadc, relatively to a (enunciation of the crown of Po^ 

0^3 fiftancc 


fiftance of the Ruffian army, took poflTeflioa 
>735* of the kingdom, which Staniflaus was 
ohliged to qait. He afterwards renounced 
theP6li(h crown, in confideration oJ^ having 
Lorrain during his life. Under Auguftus III. 
Poland enjoyed a continual peace. This 
king, having loft his hereditary Saxon do- 
minion? in the war between Auftria and 
Pruffia, was obliged, contrary to his cuftom, 
to refide in Poland during the laft fevcn 

1763. years : upon the peace he was reftored, but 
died foon after at Drefden ; and Staniflaus 
Auguftus, count Poniatowflcy was, at the 

1764. recommendation of RuiHa and Pruffia, una*- 
nimouily chofen in his ftead. 


Sic*pdcr^ A poet of the middle ages gives this dc- 
fcription of the Poles : 

" Gens afpera cultu, 

Terribilis facie, morutn feritatc tia)enda» . 
Horrendo violenta fono, truculenta minaxquc, 
Prompta manu, rationis inops, adfucta rapinae, 
Vix hominum fe more gerens, horrore fcrino 
Sasvior, impatiens legum, cupidiflima caedis, 
Mobilis, inconft^ns, accrrima, labrica, fallax. 
Nee dominis fervare Bdem, nee amare propinquos 
Sucta, nee affeftu pietaris dofta moveri («)/* 

^ff) Gunthcri Ligcrin. Lib. VI. v. 26^ 


POLAND. 231 

Bfl* this pi€ture» drawn in fuch ftrong co- 
iaurS). and perhaps overcharged, relates to 
an dg«) when cDofl European people ftill re^ 
t^incfd a great alloy of barbariroi* and, in 
ifie main featureSj were pretty much alike. 
Sifice that time, the former favagenefs has 
chrcry .where worn oflv and the Polanders, 
like odber nations, are hecome more civi- 
ligacd. The prefent inhabitants of the king* 
4om of Poland are a conflux of feveral na- 
tions* fielides the Aborigines, and the de- 
fcendants of the Slavi and Wendi, it has 
not only great numbers of German tradef- 
men and artificers fcattered in the towns, but 
whole villages of that nation, who formerly 
came into the country as colonifls, and have 
brought great advantages to it by their 
fkill, induftry, and labours (i8). Trade 
has likewife drawn many Armenians into 
Poland ; and great numbers of Tartars are 
iettled in Lithuania {x) : but of foreign in* 
habitants (19), the Jews make by far the 

(18) The Poles ow^ the iotroda^tioD of handicxafu and 
arts to the Germans ; accordingly moft of the Polilh words 
for tools» and other neceflaries in common life, are mani- 
feftly German. Newgebaur, Lib. I. P» XI. 

(x) Cellarius^ p. 280. 

(19) It was under the reign of Cafimir the Great, that 
fuch great numbers of Jews fettled in Poland, that prince 
having for his miftrefs a J^wefs whoTe name was Eijther» and' 
for her fake he granted feveral confiderable privileges to that 
people, and even allowed the daughters he had by her. to be 
brought up in Judaifm. Dugloff, Lib. IX. p. 1 1 10. But 

0^4 ma- 


majority, and fome parts have whole towns 
of them {y). All theie nattmis differ very 
much in their appearance, manners, and 
cuftoms. The proper Poles arc of a mid^ 
dling ftature, or rather ibmething talU 
gnd well (haped, with a frefh countenance 
and very light hair. Both (exes are ex-* 
tremely fond of fine cloaths, and as fickle 
in their faihions. They are accounted of a 
candid and open temper, ?oid of fraud or 
ill deiign, /oon angry, and foon reconciled^ 
They cannot be exceeded in courtefy am} 
Icindnefs towards foreigners, whofe man«- 
ners they readily adopt, and even Imitate 
their way of clothing, which makes them 
(o variable and different in their dreffes^ 
They are great admirers of any thing fo- 
reign ; and fo fond of travelling, that 
it often confumcs their whole fortune* 
They love feafting, and parties of pleafurc, 
which, however, are not without their ad-? 
vantages, as frequently bringing about recon- 
piliations of differences^ and creating friend- 
fhips ; but fometimes they prove as detri- 
mental, their cxceffes, too common in Poland, 
often giving rife to implacable enmities, The 

fhc privileges of the Jews have fince been reduced to the ex- 
crcifc of their religion and ufuff. At prelent they arc not 
allowed to farm any of the revenues, and befides, arc ondev 
a heavy capitation- tax. Neugebaucr, Lib. h p. !!• 
(jr) Cellarius, p. 26, 27, 


POLAND. 233 

commonalty have a very hard time of it» 
and live only from hand to mouth ; whereas 
the quality and perfbnfi of wealthy keep a 
iplendid table, loaded with foreign and do- 
meflic produds. The Poles were formerly 
efteemed a martial people, and the nobility 
ftill retain that quality ; though the pre- 
fent long peace has not allowed any oppor- 
tunity of fhewing their courage, except in 
the iotefline didiirbances among parties (z), 


The Polifli language is a daughter of the unpiage. 
Gclavonian, being common to all the nations 
defcendcd from the Slavi j that the Poles, 
Ruffians, and Bohemians underAand one 
another, though with fomc difference of 
dialect. It has not, however, hitherto been 
duly cultivated and brought to a critical re.- 
gularity, which muft partly be attributed 
to the general ufe of the Latin, not only by 
the learned, but in the law and other in- 
ftruments. Of late, however, it is become 
the objedi of attention, and everyday growr- 
ing regular, elegant, and copious (20), 

(z) Cromer, Lib. I. p. i$» 16* Neagebauer, Lib. L p. 
I i, 12, 13. Cellar, p. 2g, 30. 30, 40, 

(20} A proof of this is the fate introdudlion of PoHHi 
plays. M. Bohomektzky was the fird author of dramatic 
pieces in his native language. Jaaotzky Excerp. Polon. Li- 
terature, Vol. L p. 82* 


The Teutonic langu^e is likewife ycry 
coromon, great numbers of Germans beiog 
fettled in the country, and the trade with 
Germany rendering it very neceflary. The 
Jews likewife generally make ufc of the 
High Dutch,- In Poliflh Pruffia, both Ger- 
man and Pollth are current {a)^ 


Kombef 0f 'I'he number of inhabitants in Poland is 
inhabiums. f^^^^g to bc determined for want of ac- 
counts and principles on which fuch a cal- 
culation may be grounded. But that ihe 
country is not well peopled njay be con- 
cluded from the few large and po|Milous 
towns. Befides, according to the obferva- 
tion of a celebrated writer and well yerfed 
in things of this nature^ Poland is overrun 
with vaft, forefts, fens, and moors ; many 
fertile tradls lie uncultivated ; farqiers, con- 
tradors, projectors, and undertakers, inftead 
of being the better for what improvements 
they make, are fure when they have got 
any thing a little confiderable, to be mo- 
lefted and made a prey, if not baniftied the 
country ; farther, its fabrics and manufac- 
tures are very thinly fown. From thefe and 
other caufes the faid writer infers that Po- 

(a) Vid. Cromer, Lib. I, p. ii. Neugcbaucr, Lib. L p. 
io« zi. Cellar, p. i8. 20. 


POLAND. 235 

land cannot at moft have above twelve mil- 
lions of inhabitants {6) ; though others make 
them to exceed twenty millions. 


They confift of three clafles, the nobi-j^.^^^^^ 
lity, the burghers, and peafants ; moft of J^^j^*^^^^^.^ 
the latter are villains fixed to the cftates,^"* 
and cannot quit them without permiffion 
from their lords. The burghers live in the 
towns, and are either traders, artificers, or 
common labourers; the two latter have ge- 
nerally a very hard time of it. 

The principal clafs is compofcd of theNobUity. 
nobility, who alone, enjoy any (hare of the 
fo much vaunted Polifti liberty. Hereditary 
nobility is derived only from the father, 
without any regard to the mother's pedi- 
gree. Several families among the Polifli 
nobles have the title of prince and count, 
but with this difference ; fome deriving it 
from their anceftors, have this title given them 
even in public records (21); whereas others, 
to whom their titles were granted by the 
emperors, are not to make ufe of them in 

(^) Sufmilche's Difplay of the Divine C)econoroy> P. 11. 
di. XX. § 391. 

(21) As the princes Czartoriiky, Sangufico, Radzivil, Wif- 
nxowezky, the counts of Tencin ; but the two laft families 
gre now extin^. 



public records (22), The king of Poland 
Limfelf cannot confer thcfc honours on any 
fubjedt I the nobility would by no means 
, allow of it, as a breach of that equality 
which they are very zealous for preferving. 
Their delicacy on this point carried them fo 
far in 1673, that they who fhould make 
ufe of foreign titles <tnd arms were declared 
infamous ; fo that all the difference of rank 
and honour among the Polifh nobility ari(es 
from their pofts and not their titles ; and as 
a farther token of eqoalityi the nobility term 
one another brothers. Perfons of rank in- 
deed ufe the like appellation towards thofe 
who are much their inferiors (r). 

The nobility's privileges are very coofider*- 
able, being alone capable of holding great 
employments and of pofleffirig lands (23), 
and all ores and minerals in them are their 
property ; befides being exempt from quar- 
tering foldiers. The nobles pay no taxes, 
cuftoms, and tolls ; and their perfons are fo 
rcfpeded, that no magiftrate, nor the. king 
himfelf, can imprifbn a nobleman, uolefs 
legally convided of a crime 5 thefts rob- 

(22) As the Oflblinkys, Lubomirflcys, Sapiehas, Ja- 
blonow&ys, Sulkowfkys, &c, 

(0 Lengnich. Juf. Publ. R. Pol. Lib. III. c. i. &c. ii. 

(23) Some cities, as Cracow, Vilpa, Lemberg, Lublin, 
fuid the large Fiuifian towns, hold the like right. 


POLAND. 237 

bery> murdcjb a rape» fetting fire to a houfe, 
and high trcafon excepted. They can buy 
off manflaughter» and the law itfelf makes 
a great difference between putting a noble- 
man and a commoner to death. None but 
a. native can enjoy the privileges of nobility j 
fo that foreigners defirous of fuch-a diftinftion 
muft a]>ply for naturalization^ and this not 
to the king^ it being out of bis power, but 
to the dates affemWed in diet (24) ; for 
though the king creates noblemen, the 
power of conferring the privileges of nobi- 
lity the (latest have referved to thcmfclvcs. 

The nobility forfeit their honours by 
trade, handicrafts, or other dealings, and even 
by accepting of any office in the towns (25) ; 
and by crimes which render the delinquent 
infamous : the diet, however, can rein- 
ftate him {4)* But of all the privileges of 
the nobility, the moft important unqucf- . 
tionably is their great (hare in the govern- 
ment of the kingdom, as will appear from 
the following particulars. 

(24) Daring the reigns of the two Saxon kings» manv 
German ^milies were naturalized, but the expence was fucU 
that it IB iaid to have coft count Bruhl no lefs than a millioa 
of dollars. Life and Charader of Count Bruhl. ' 

(25) This howevef muft be underftood only of fmall 
towns. Len^nich* Lib. IL cap. ii. 

(^)' Lengnich, Lib. IIL cap. ii. 





K*'imi- The antient prerogative of the kings of 
em preroga- Pq]^j^ J was, in fomc meafure, unliaiited : 
many things they did without confulting the 
great men, and when they condefcendcd fo 
far, inftcad of being bound by their opi- 
nion, they determined the affair according 
to their own pleafure {e). But on the 
failure of the Piafte male-line, and the abo- 
lition of hereditary rights the prerogative 
became gradually curtailed, and the firft 
ftep towards this diminution was taken in 
the reign of king Lewis. Under the fol- 
lowing kings of the Jagellon line, it was 
made a part of the conftitution, that the 
great men, now, called fenators, ihotild 
not only be confultcd, but their advice fol- 
lowed. Under king Ladiflaus, the whole 
nobility were fummoned to the public con- 
fultations, particularly at the impofition of 
new taxes : and Cafimir III. folemnly pro- 
mifed not to make any new laws, nor order 
a general Poftpoliti, without the confent of 
the nobility. But it was under the kings John 
Albert and Alexander that the new confti- 
tution received its completion, a law paP- 
fing in 1505, ths^t. nothing new fhould be^ 

{i) Lcngnich, cap. iii. 


POLAND. 239 

ordained -without the council of ftate and 
the deputies of the nohility ; artd this was 
the origin of the flates of Poland. 

SECT. xvr. 


Thcfc, accordingly, are compofed of thcstates, 
ienators and nobility. The former, by 
their civil and ecclefiaflical employments, sentton. 
are the king's born counfellors. Among 
thefe are the archbiihops and biihops, the 
waywodes, caftellans, and fome high of- 
ficers of ftate* The archbifhops and bi- 
fhops, of whom I (hall fpeak farther in the 
fequel, take place of all other fenators. 
Next to thefe are the waywodes : thefe, waywodw. 
from their Latin title Palatinus, appear to 
have been originally court-officers, and, at 
the time when Poland was divided under 
feveral princes, each court had a palatine. 
In war-^time they headed the troops, and, 
on this account, were called Waywode, 
i. c, which in the Polifh language fignifies 
•* Commander of an army." Poland being 
united under one king, waywodes were 
appointed over certain provinces, therefore 
called wojewodzewo, or waywodfliips ; 
for thefe occur later in hiftory than the 
waywodes. In thefe they exercife the fu- 
preme power, and hold courts. The po- 


lice is likewife lodged in their hands i and 
for thefe feveral afFairs they appoint de- 
puty waywodes, who muft be gentlemen^ 
natives of Poland, and fettled in the way- 
wodftiip. On the nobility's being raiied> 
in time of war, the way wode . leads them 
into the field (g). 
cafteiian. Thc caftcllans, who derive their name 
from the Latin word Caftellum, were for- 
merly governors of the fortified places ; and 
as fuch managed the crown-lands depen- 
dent on them, and had the adminiflration 
of juftice. But thefe fundions have long 
fince been fuperfeded ; and all that remains 
to them now, befides their votes in thc fc- 
natc, is their title and rank. In war time 
they are the way wode's commiflary ; and, 
in his abfence, they lead the nobility of the 
waywod(hip into the field. The cafteU 
lans of Cracow, Vilna, and Trock, rank 
- with the waywodes, and fit among thcnr;. 
and a farther Angularity is, that the caftel-* 
Ian of Cracow takes place of all waywodes, 
and is the firfl counfellor of Aate (26). The 

(^) Lengnicb, Lib, III. c. iv. 

(26) The reaibn of this is unknown^ but the caltellant of 
Vilna and Trock owe their taking place of fome -way wodes 
to their dignities being of a more accient date than the late 
way wodfhips. On the fame acconnt the ftaroft of Samogi- 
tia has the precedence of feveral way«vodes. Leagakb, 
Lib. IlL cap. vi. 


P'O L A N 0. , i4i 

other cafteiteffs irt divided into tht firft ^nd 
fecoiid rank. The fotmtr bedr the u'tle of 
die vnrf wodfliips, iftd (it cfa ^ooh m a row 
i#itfa the Watfw&des } but the kfter are 
nasfed fioia the citctes, iM6 nhich thi 
W^#0(lfllip8t&'e (Kvidtfd,r atid fit on benches 
behind them {6), 

Soiai of d]W! principal minifters and of- Mtmftenor 
ficers of the kingdom of Poland, and the^^ 
ptegt Smttiy of Lithuania, who, by fea<^ 
{ott of theif poAs, were about (he king'^ 
perfofi, faavtf fifen to be fenators, fuch a$ 
thtf crbwil-maf(htd, the gfeat-niarflial of 
Litboiniii, the <*rown-chance}lor, th^ greslt- 
ehim^eltofr of Lithustni^, the crown-vice- 
chitnetlldr, th6 vice-chancelldr of Lithul- 
fliay iht cnma hig^>treat(arer, the higli- 
treafinref of Lidiuania, ttib crown high- 
fteward, tEe high*.(VeWard of Lithuania. 
At the es^traordinary diet in 1768, thege- 
ilerals weYe admitted among the fenators, 
and die^eld* iflah-fhals to rank next to the' 
grind^matfdiat of the court, and the lieute- 
iHMTt field ^n^ah next to the marfhalof 
tilt dotfft'. Tlseir employment is incompa- 
tible With that Hf ti wayWode or caftellan, 
nor p^ribfl bififig td hold two fenatoHal pods 
(1) : yet a bifhop may be crown-chancellbr 

(A) LwfnicK, I^ib. lit. cup. vii. 
(/) M. Lib. Ill/ cap. viii. 

Vol. III. R and 


and crown vice-chancellor, except only the 
archbifhop of Gnefen, and the bi(hops of 
Cracow. andCujavia s as to the former there 
is indeed a law^ by which that pofl; is. to 
be alternatdy filled by a fpiritual and a tem^ 
por^l fenator, and to be beftowed at the 

Thus there are five different clafles. of. 
couafellors of flate. i. The fpiritual fc-^ 
nators, who are the two , archbifhops of 
Gnefen and Lemberg, and fifteen bifliops, 
in all feventeen ; 2. The waywodes and 
thofe of a like rank, being thirty-eight in 
number; 3. Thecaflcllanspf thefirflrank* 
thirty-three ; 4. Of the fecond raak, forty^- 
nine ; 5. The ten miniflers . of '^flatc, five 
of Poland^ and five of Lithuania : thus one 
hundred and forty-fix perfons compofc 
the whole body of the fcnators (/). 

wobiiity. Ijj ^q nobility are included all the gen- 
try holding immediately of the king, and 
who are not fenators, Thefe, in every 
waywodfhip, or free-province, choofc, by 
majority of votes, a certain number of de- 
puties, as their reprefentatives, at the diet ; 
and who are called Nuncii Terreftres, or 

rnVt^^tn country-mefTenger^. It was not till Cafi- 

{i) Lengnich, Lib. IIL cap. viii. 
(/] Sketch of the Conftitucion of Poland, aGermtii work» 
p. 70. 


POLAND. 243 

mir III. that the nobility fent reprefenta^ 
tives to the diet. They inuft be fettled in 
the waywodfliip for which they are chofcn;^ 
and^ by an aft of the diet in 1736, of the 
Roman, Catholic religion ♦. They receive 
a pecdiliary allowance from their reipeftive 
waywodihips and free countries («i). . 

The number of the country mcffcngcrs 
or reprefentatives is, from 

Little Poland 
Great Poland 

befides thofe of Pruflia, the number of 
whom is uncertain ((?). The towns were 
formerly fummoned to the diet; but of 
late they have loft that privilege, excepting 
fome which ftill fend deputies in an inter- 
regnum, or to the confederations, and elec- 
tion of a king. 


The Polifti diet is properly a meeting of poUflmiet, 
all the fenators and country reprefentatives, 

• This unjuft law was aboliflied in the extraordina|:y diet ' 
of 1768, (6 that at prefent Diflidents may be chofen reprefen* 

(m). Lenenichy Lib. Itl. cap. iii. cap. ix. 
* (jr) See' the Table added to the Sketch of Poland. 

{0) Lengnich, Lib. III. cap. ix. ^ 

R 2 to 

to the Domberof aboat 330 perfofts j and is 
either ordinary or extraord^ry^ befide< 
the oc^ifional, as at an: interregaara» fof 
eleding and crowning the king^ inrfiicsh OmU 
be fardier tieated of in: the fecpiel. 

ordimry. The Ordinary diets are fommooed b^ (ii« 
king's Uniyedalia^ nine weeks befbi>t*tkeif 
meetings circniar letters being &at t6 the 
fenators to receive their opinion on tb« fe-^ 
veral objects of the national deliberations* 
The place and time of the diet were for* 
merly at the king's pleafure^ but they are 
now fettled by the laws, according to which 
the ordinary diets mufl: be held, every two 
years, and twice fucceffively at Warfaw* 
and the third time at Grodno j a regtrhtltw 
founded on the main divifion of tHe king- 
dottf of Poland. Irs continuance is 6itd 
to fix weeks, and its opening tarthi next 
Monday after Michaelmas, wjrcn it is 
trfiiered in with mafs and a fermon, tbe 
king, the fcnate, and the country-repre- 
fentatives afliftiog. After divine fervice 
the fenators repair to their hall, ands tlMffe- 
prefentatives (o their ufual chamber, wHicb 
they call Stuba. The method of bufinefs 
in the diet, is by an ordinance of 1736^ re« 
gulated in the following manner. 

I . The coun try-rcpj^efcntatives choofe their 
marflial^ or prefident,who is commonly called 


POLAND. a^^. 

the latiibal of thf diet (27). Then comes 
Ad a.TlieconfiriyiationorexcIiifionofthore 
nptcCcntzthee whok eleAioo is contefted. 
Afterwacfls, 3. The country reprefentatives^ 
with the mar(hal at their head, repair to 
the fenflte-halU where the king is feated 
on hftfi :thraoe : the mafhal addreiles him 
In a fpeedh* wjbdch is anfwered by the 
cfon^b-chaoceUor* And then, 4. The com^ 
padt of eleftion ia read ; after whidi the 
rc|H?e&ntatives ar« at liberty to offer ^eir 
x^aaplatikts i^eiaft any viok^ion of it*. Af- 
terwards the cr^wiHi^httcellor, in the 
king's name, lays open the obJe<Ss of the 
4eGberatiiQttS, which icM;:li>de every political 
«o«cerii« as laws, war and peace, alliances, 
finances, the army, trade, pcdice, &c« 

6. Important and fecret affairs, asde- 
cWttioas of waf , priopoiak of peace, and 
lajlkjicest are difcuiTed by die primate and 
snafflts^ of the diet, with a committee of 
fenators ; and their feveral refolutions oa 
(hele heads are laid up in the archives, till 
cifcumftaoces allow of their being made 

(97) TJbis choice QioM be majle loimedtateff on the rerv 
firft day, and bv a majority of votes ; but it is often attend- 
ed with hth delays* that the whde fix weeks which the diet 
ja to la(W aiie elapfsd before fo much as a beginning is 
snadcL Lengnich, Lrb. IV. cap. xi. 

R ^ 7. The 


7. The marfbal of the diet makes a re- 
queft to the king, that he will be pleafed 
to difpofe of the vacant lands, dignities, 
and employments; and adjourns the diet till 
his requeft is executed. ^ 

8. The counfcUors of ftate give their 
votes on the objedls of the deliberations. 

9. The great chancellor nominates three 
deputies of the fenate, for drawing up the 
new laws and a6ts of the diet. ^ 

10. He like wife appoints a commifiion 
of counfellors of ftate, for examining the ac- 
counts of the high-treafurer and mafter of 
the ordnance. 

1 1 . The envoys give an account of their 
negociations, and at the fame time deliver 
their papers into the king's hands. 

12. The agents for the armies deliver 
their reprefentations and petitions to the two 
chancellors. All this being gone through : 

ij. The country reprefentatives return to 
their chamber ; and 

14. Take into confideration the king's 
propofals, and what new laws are intended. 
In the interim : 

1 5. The diet-courts are held by the king 
and the fenate, jointly with eighteen of the 
country reprefentatives. Laftly, the mar* 
fhal of the diet having, in the chamber 
of reprefentatives, enlarged on all the ob- 


POLAND. 247 

jefts of the deliberations* makes a fpeech 
and refigns his office. Afterwards, 

16. He again, at the head of the coun- 
try reprefentatives, attends , the king in the 
fenate-'hall, which is called the rc-aflembly 
of the country reprefentatives with the 
jfenate, and mud be done five days before 
the breaking up of the diet ; though this 
term is not always obferved. Here he reads 
over the refolutions of the reprefentatives 
(28); and if approved of both by them and 
the fenatc (29), they become laws, and arc 
called Conflitutions. Hereupon a number 
of fenators are nominated to attend the . 
king's perfon till the next ordinary diet ; and 
the decrees of the diet-court are read over. 
Laftly, the marfhal of the diet anfwcrs the 
king in another fpeech, congratulating him' 
on the happy iffue of the diet : hereupon 
the king, attended by the ftat5es, repairs to 
the cathedral, where Te Deumr is fung, 
and the diet breaks up {q). This is like- 
wife done on a happy conclufion of the 
diet, which, however, is very feldom the 

(28) If thi^ coatinues till night, as it often happens, no 
candles are to be brought in bot for the mar(hal of the diet 
who reads the refolutions. Lcngnieh,;Lib. IV. cap. ii. 

(29) JSvery reprefentative having a right to oppofe what 
he had before aflented to in the chamber of reprefentatives, 

{g) Lengnichy Lib. IV, cap. ii* 

R 4 cafe» 


cafe, for every zQ, of t^ f|i^ 8||}ft ^« ^r 
' proved of >virfj f»jch ^n;v»«J^ly» tJj|t l6* 
oppofition of opj^ finglf perfop ^(!#)es what 
b^d been »pptpved by thp w\^9\^ f^ianb|y. 
^o^ fucb an oppo^tipA M V^ry cpinmoii 
and declared in tjiefe vjirprds ; *^ Ijiq Maff 
Zgoda, not cp;jfent}" ^< N^p ^o^^a^, I 
^pn't allpw of it (r) ;" t^P priviUfgfi^ ftf thf 
country reprefentatives ^rc p^ticyi^rly pm% 
in this refpei^, that fll f|)p 4f <«i^<l4ii^9^ 
gf tb^ ^iet depend QP their iy)f)|>if)»da| 
conient ; for which the ehaa^beir of p^p-n 
ii:ntat|ves is c^led pfficins^ Legoi?^ (#). 

The i^ing bad forqaerly a gpesitet W^Or 
rity in tb? diets ; apd wbep i(9y pf bM pto* 
ppfals miQ:i^rried, it was ov^og to tbie joiat 
and loud oppofition of mpft of tb? rp prc^- 
t^tives ^nd many of tb§ ffn^tors (/) : bat 
this oppofition, which was fprqierly t right 
of appi?rt?nancc only to a f<fW. ev?»y one. 
ba§ in time cpq?? to a0)in)p, %ni moft 
atjufively j fqch 4 (jngle opponent p^t oaly 
putting a (lop to the propeq^g; of tib« 
di^t> but by his cpptra4i^ipn> if be qmt9 
the town where the diet is held, renders it 
invalid or diflblved. The firft iqft'ailpe pf 
this was iq 16531 when Siczinfky, reprefenr* 

(r) Sketch ef the Conllitutton flf fcland, p. 121. 
(0 Lengnich, Lib. IV. c, ii. 
Il?id. Uh. IIJ. «. uf. 


fcft l^e 4i?$ Qo ^Bclariflg )iis diffcn^. TW 

againft by the Aates^ it has pcpy^ {q fyr $, 
pwoB^eof , 4j;»U after mwy cjf the UJe^ in- 
fi?W«i^ (hp right of a fipgl^ oppofitfop jji 
171.9, rpcqiy^ the An^rj of tfec Jaw (ly) 1 
a&(l yiMlfr th? formftr goyerno^efU t|i0j« 
was icarce a diet which did not brpf^ ^p 
tumultuoufly {39). The pp|iofition of one 
iingle reprefentative is of force at all times, 
and ill itU places, bdbcc and after the idioice 
of a maribaii in the heginning* in tLe 
ipiddle, and at the cioiex)f the diet; is dia 
fcn^teand in the chamber of reprefentativ^s, 
before and ajBtec the ^e-raiftmhly yirith thg 
&oate ; and the confequftnce of his depart 
ture from the place where the diet is facU, 
is that all the foimtr re£blutk)]}s bepoo^a 
void (ap). 

Though the Senators have an equal right 
of oppofing any refolutioas and interrupting 
tlij^iMfPCefdipgis of the 6X9$% there is not a 
i^gle ioftance of any fijoatQr having Mufed 
a diflpl»ti0n. Thin beiqg 4 yery i^pppu^ 
fer ^ eve» icritatiog %p, they leave it to 

(«) Lengnich^ Lib. III. cap. ix« 

(30) The primate at the opening of a diet on the loth of 
IMay 17649 declared in his ^)e9clion' tbacoccafion, that in 
iereaty-foar years, only one diet had fet its d«r time. ' 

ix) liCngnich, iib. IV. cap. ii. 



the reprcfentatives, among whom, having 
always their creatures, they eafily bring 
about what they themfclves do not care to 
be feen in {y). 

The diet may likewife, by common con- 
fent, be prorogued on account of the mul- 
titude of affairs j .but in thefe cafes the re* 
folutions which have pafTed remain va- 
lid (2?) • -^ ' 

Extriorai- Thc dicts fummoned by the kins:, with 

nary diets* ' ^ 

the confent of the fcnators, out pf the ufuat 
time, are called extraordinary diets* They 
ate fo far different from the ordinary, as 
generally lafting only a fortnight, or three 
weeks ; neither are all the ufual ceremonies 
obferved at them ; and, by an ordinance of 
1726, they are never to be held but on the 
mofl urgent occafions {a). 


coontfj Previous to both the ordinary and extra- 
ordinary national diets, are held the country- 
diets, that is, the meetings of the nobility 
and gentry in the palatinates and the free 
countries, Thefe are held in purfuance of 

(jf) Leiignich, Lib. IV. cap. ii. 

(e) Id* Ibid, cap. ii. 

(4} Id. Ibid* cap. ii. . . 



the king's Uniycrfalia, in order to take into 
confideration the objedts of the approaching 
diet, to chufe reprefcntativcs, and give them 
' their credentials and inftrudions {i). 

If the national diet has ended peaceably, 
another provincial diet is held, under the 
denomination of the Report-diet, the re- 
prefcntatives making a report to tlfcir con- 
ftituents of what has been tranfaded in the 
national diet. The day of this meeting is 
at prefent appointed by the king and ft- 
nate, whereas 'the country-reprefentatives 
ufcd to fettle this themfelves at the national 
diet (f). 

Other provincial diets are likewife held 
annually, for appointing deputies to the up- 
per tribunals of the kingdom, and the great 
dutchyj ahd'likewife for adjufting the par- 
ticular concerns of the nobility irt the pa- 
latinates. Thefe are ordinary provincial 
diets ; the extraordinary is that called by 
the palatine on the vacancy of an office, to 
chufe four candidates who are laid before 
the king for his nomination of the fucceA 
for {d). ' 

.{^) Leagnich, Lib. IV. cap. ii» 

(c) Id. Ibid. cap. iii. 

(d) Sketch of the CoRAltutioD of Poland, p. 142. 





Aflemuy At tht CQOclufion of z diet» before the 

i^aof fcaators feparatc, the king holds a Sepatus 

*•*• ConcUiup 5 wbicb> however, is ootji mat-- 

ter of indifpenfahJe obUgatlo^. Th« bigli 

chancellor fignifies tp thei;n, in circular 

letters, the fub)e£kof the intended delibera- 

ti99S, aqd %\\t meeting is held in the feoa^e 

bfU^ thQ k^ng fitting as preiid^nt on \fxs 

throne* If the diet has been brought to 

fn amicable conclofioQ^ they take into con-- 

fideration the execution of the z€t^ ef tbe 

diet, the fending of envoys on {bsiall ajQF«irs, 

the preferving a gopd underfkandlng with 

^forei^n poweri» the repair p{ public e4i- 

fices, and the liket which do aot helqog to 

the. diet. If the diet has been diflblved by 

oppoHtioin, the council canfi4ers wbethm' 

tQ caU 9n extraordinary^ or wait the next 

cu'dipary pxeeting j; and how, in the mean 

time, tQ preferve the pi^blic tramiuillity. 

On fon^e occi^fions extraordinary aflepiblies 

of the council have been held, and theie 

are entirely at the king's pleafure. Their 

form and method of proceeding is the£tme 

as in the ordinary meetings ^ the reiblutions 

of both depending on the majority of votes^ 

whicbj^ however^ have not a legiflative force 

a tiU 

POLAND. jt3'3 

tilt approved by the ftates aflemtiled tt t&6 
diet {tfj. 

lA ditigetotis jundufes, thtt eoUddl df 
ihW* Irtay meet, in the lung's abfehcc, iird 
<♦«» ($hqttii*d inta the king's pTOceetfi 

SECT. xxr. 

Thefe^ and all the otHer abovem«ntieficd ?«<>& 
snoetings» nike place ii^ peaceable times^; htii 
many civil cofiHXK>tions andtbreMeninl; dr« 
cumftamres^ endeavours are afod for qisell-J 
krg the dilbrders by armefd dfiemblieerC*U'<J 
ed ConfederationeSi foj^med eithor by all 
the ftatea of the kin^onw or bjr fome pa» 
latinatesy or by the nobilUy anld gentry j 
and (hi& either in an interregnum after tho 
king's deo^ife^ of wbiUl he i«' living.; andb 
either fcK* htm or aglinfl; hikA [g). Thefts 
coafedefdei^^ which hive been frequent iir 
Polaind/ fliew the cdnfti4^ul!ion to be fundsK 
laentaUyde^edivei as for f he reoKifral o^ 
one et^ily another- no' lefs mitft be employed^ 
The confederacies are figned and fworn to 
by all the confederates, whodeftahMjU 
ibal and council for the prderVatioin of ei-. 

(i) Lcogftteft; Lib. Vt. e. iv. 

(/) Ibid. Lib. IL cap. xii. ^ vi. p^ 33S, ^^f. 

ii) Lengnich, Divert. • de Polonor. Conroedtriit. f xt« 


der amidft thefc diforders (^6). A gene* 
ral aflbciation being formed in the tinac of 
^n interregnum, the whole commonwealth 
refts on it. It determines war and peace, 
makes laws, andcondudts the mod weighty 
affairs of government, proceeding by ma- 
jority of votes, without any regard to a 
fingle diffident (f). The confederacies of 
palatinates, in oppofition to others, are 
little lefs than an inteftine war {k). The 
like may be faid of the aflbciations of the 
nobility, fometimes formed againfl ' the 
king and the fenate, and commonly called 
Rokofz, though they might more properly 
be called Infurredions (/). The confede- 
racies of the army differ from all the fore- 
g6ing, and formerly were fet on foot when 
not duly paid ; the confequences were, 
that the foldiery renounced all obedience to 
their commanders, eleding others under 
the title of marshals and counfellors, im- 
pofing taxes and provincial contributions, 
and living at difcretion {m). But fince the 
year 1717* when a conftant fund was fettled 

{h) Id. ibid. § xviii. zxi. xxvli. ct Juf. PubL R. Pol. Lib. 
IV. cap. V. § 3, 4: p. 391, 362. 
. (f) Lengnicb, Id. Poton. Confoeder. § xri. xvii. tt i& 
Jar. PubL R. Polon. Lib. IV. cap. v. § 4. p. 392. 

(i) Id. de Polon. Confoeder. J xjucviii.--*-xxxix« 

(0 Ibid. § xxx.-^xxxvi. 

{m) Ibid. § xli. 


POLAND. - 255 

for. the payment, of. the troops, no fuch 
diflurbance^ have.beeia hea?d gff (»)[. 

, When the confederates feparate^ the (ua-^ Airembiyof 
nagement of public affairs is committed to!oundi!' 
a council of fcnators and reprefentatives, 
called Waiha Rada. It is held in the 
chajmber of the reprefentatives, without 
the cuflomary formalities, and proceeds by 
majority of votes. Sometimes fuch a great 
council is made a diet; as a great dist, on 
fome diffolutions, has been turned into a 
great council : likewife, if no public co(i-- 
federacy be on foot, the ftatcs at the diet, 
may appoint a great council {0). 

The king, in the moft weighty concerns ^««»b«?^» 

^ o / of the king. 

of the kingdom and government, as war or 
peace, important embaffics, taxes, the coin, 
laws, judicial fentences, decifion of quarrels 
occafioned by difference of religions, is' tp 
conform to the will of the ftates (p). In lefs 
important affairs, he governs jointly with^ 
the council of ftate; and with theni can 

(») Sketch of the Conftitution of Poland, p. 137, 138. : 

(o) Lengnich de Polon. Confoeder. § xxii. — xxv. ec ia I. P/ 

R. PoL Lib. IV. cap. v. § ix. — ^xi. p. 396, 397. . 

(/) Id. Lib. IV, cap. in, § ?. ii. p. 398, 399. ; 


i fi PRESENt StATft ^ tUROPE, 
ti&Meni ofd7Aary ^fifd ixitMtditaiTf Atfet- 
ings {j). A ^ettaifi riaiaMr of etun^ 
fellors of ftate are appointed to reiide con- 
tinually at hit court/ and about his per- 
fUti Thttii^, beiided themkliftersr of ftate» 
mt dsi> sifchbifliop; or bifliopj a palatme 
md two caltettante ; ^Itboat wfaofii confem 
{fit a mkjority of votetf fiiiftices) W Can ib 
iif6thing of an^ coA&^ence : aH which 
ibfews the pi^rdgalke to bd vtff circuai* 
fcfibed. Yet k th« king, fit^t wSdiottt lomt 
diftingdim^Ii rigkts^^ Whkb giv«: nd fuflH 
^ei^ht (6 d^ify. He htfsf the ^poM of 
dl civil amieccleilafticdhoAour^j pofts^ ani} 
ehoployrii^ts (31% likcwi<<t of tHecfO^h^- 
lands(32); agreeably, howei^er, to) iSm 
laws of the kingdom (33). He confirms 
former privilegfes, and grants nc>y (34) ; he 
can likewiic confer nobility on mltive^and 

(f\ Sketch, § 90. 

^'^ .^^^^^K ^^- ^- ^*P- '"• P- 343— 347- , . i 
(5i> witbft ftw exce^odSy lU oT thd MyWodts ff F»>. 

lock and Witepik in LithaanUy together with the Haioft of 

Samojgitjtf, who are clioieh by the n&6ifiQr Hi tW&f cothiiAcs. 

Led*rtdi, Lib. II. caij. xi. Fdr the escetpwas m OtSf*^ 

pofftTof eccleiiaftical employments, Cct^^. 

(3i) What this irtiptfes, (ee ( 52.- 

(^S) ^ Leng^nkh^ Ltb; IL cap. xi« wh€le every thia^ 
remarkable concerning the perfbns* oActt, aiK^ even ein« 
ploypentSy and the manner of beAowing them, is adduced 
from the laws, 

(34) When not contrary to the tomittbii ItK^s of I^)taiid 
and Lithuania, or deti-imemdl totf third perl&ti. lAogt^, 
Lib. I(. cap. xii. 



foreigners (35)9 and create the latter barons» 
counts^ &c. the laws are promulgated and 
the courts held in his nagie (s) 5 and when 
in the army» he is commander in chief (/)• 
Among the king's foreign privileges is like«> 
wife this, that, at certain times, he can re* 
commend a perfon to. be made a cardinal, 
and may nominate a cardinal at Rome, as 
cardinal protedor of the Polifli nation (36). 

Aofiong the obligations which the king obiiftdoofi; 
is under, the principal is, to govern the 
kingdom by law, and maintain the rights 
and freedoms of the dates grounded thereon. 
So ftrongly is he bound to this, that on a 
breach of it, the fubje^fts are difcharged 
from their allegiance {x). Farther, hemufl 
be of the Roman Catholic religion (^), 
JboU the throne during his life (37), and 
sot appoint any of his children his fuccciTor, 
by righ^ of inheritance (2^). 

* he) Withoar, however, any fliare in tbe righta of tbe 
PoHih nobility, tbe dates having rcferved this to thcmfclvej. 

(/) Leonich, Lib. 11. cap- xii. p. 339""34«» 

(/) Id. Lib. II. c. xi. p. 30S. , , ^ 

(30) This muft, however, be done with the knowledge 
and advice of the fenators. 

(y) Lengoich, Lib. II. cap. xiii. 

(jr) Id. Lib. IL cap.iv.^ 

(37) He is not A> much as to make a propoial of Tt&gtapg 
the government. Lengnich, Lib. II. cap. ii. 

(c) See the eompaa at the ekaion of Auguftos IIL is 
the Sketcht &g^ 



poitna, an This, howcvcr, was, in former times, 
kiii|d7m. fo far cuAomary, that even Boleflaus IIL 
made at partition of the provinces among 
his Tons, as if his own patrimonial eftate. 
And the hereditary fuccefiion continued till 
the extinction of the Piafte male line, with 
fome few exceptions in turbulent times (a). 
But king Cafimir the Great, the laft of that 
line, intending to beftow the crown on a fo«^ 
reigner, visp. Lewis, prince of Hungary, fon 
to his (ifler Elizabeth, applied to the great 
men for their confent, which was neceflary/ 
as preferring him to the dukes of Mafovia 
and Silefia, who had a collateral right. 
Thus Lewis became his fuccefTor, and be- 
fore his death, prevailed with the ftates to 
take the oath of fidelity to Sigifmund, mar- 
quifs of Brandenburg, at that time newly 
married to his eldefl daughter Maria -, how- 
ever, on his refufal to comply with the 
conditions propofed to him, they abandoned 
him, and declared Hcdwig'syoiingeft daugh- 
ter, their queen. Jagcllon duke of Lithua- 
nia, marrying her, was made king, by the 
title of Ladiflaus II. and the dates pro- 
9)ife(l him to accept of one of his two fons 

(a) See Profcflbr Joachin's Treatile on the Origin of the 
. Right pf QleAion in Poland ; a German work. 


15 o L A N 0. 

for king> whom they £hould judge mdft 
capable. Accordingly the elder^ Ladiflaus^ 
fucceedcd him at the age of ten years/ and 
fae> dying without heirs^ was Aicceeded by his 
brother Cafimir III. After him the throne 
fucccffively devolved to his three fpns John 
Albert^ Alexander^ and Sigifmund^ Sigif* 
mund Auguflus^ fon to the latter, was pro- 
claimed king in 1579, when only ten years 
of age, and crowned the enfuing year, with 
a provifo, that he (hould not take on him 
the government till his fathers death. 
Thus, in the time of thefe kings of the Ja- 
gellon family, there was no fuch eledion as 
at prefent : what the hiflorians call an elec- 
tion, being only a declaration of the great 
men and the nobility, previous to the new 
king's taking on him the government. 
Here is a manifeft mixture of hereditary 
right with the eledtion, and. the kings of 
the Jagellon line, laid fuch ftrefs on it as 
in public inftruments to flile themfelves 
heirs of the kingdom of Poland ; but after 
the death of Sigifmund Auguftus, this was 
fupprefTed by a formal law {i). 

The death of Sigifmund, the laft of the reign- 
ing family, gave occafion to the firft formal 
eledion of a king, which went in favour of 

{i) Leognich, Lib. II. cap. ii. 

8 2 Henry 




Henry . of Anjou. And now a law was mad^ 
that the king£iiould not nominate 4 iuccef- 
for, nor a day of ele&ion i but .that on the de*- 
ceafe of the king the ftates fliould for ever 
have the right of a free eledion {c} : and 
John Cafimir propofing the eledion of a 
fucceflbr to the diet of 1661, raifed fuch a 
ferment as broke out into a civil war, till 
the right of a free election wa« confirmed 
by a new law {d). 


interrcg- As tto fucccflor is to be named during 
the king's life, his demife muft neceflarily 
caufe an interregnum; during which the 
fovereignty is reprefented by t^e archbifhop 
of Gnefna, as primate of Poland and Li« 
thuania ; and in his abfence, by the bifliop 
of Cujavia. He notifies the king's demi(^ 
to the fenators and ftates, appoints a diet, 
where he adts as prefident, and likewi/a 
in the council of (late ; he acquaints the 
ftates with any affairs of importance then 
occurring, he himfelf conducting thefmal-* 
ler ; in fine, he is to omit nothing tending 
to the good of the commonwealth. On the 
death of the king, all the courts of juftice 

(() Lengnich, Lib. II. c. ii. 
{i!) lb. Lib. IL c. ii. 


POLAND. 26i 

are {hut ; but they are replaced by tempo- 
rary courts called Csipturgerichte [e). 


The firfl: diet after the king's death is Cotme^. 
called the convocation -diet ^38). xhe'*'**"**'^** 
formtfof proceeding are the fame as in the 
ordinary diets, except the primate's fitting » 
prefident. Here the time and place for 
clcSing the king, and every other particu- 
lar for the due performance of that im- 
portant ceremony (39)* and for the common 
fefety, are fettled. To the afts of this diet, 
which are termed Confederationcs, or Cap- 
turs, all the fenators, together with the 
^arfhal of the diet and the reprefentatives, 
fet their hands (40). In the year 1696, the 
convocation-diet was diflblvcd, of which, 
till then, there had not been one inftance. 
The ads made in it, however, remained 


(4 Len](ntgb, Lib. 11. c. iiL 

(38} Tii« firft convocatioa diet was held at Warfaiv in 
v?75» (^Q tKe death of Sigtfmand Auguftas, which has been 
6olenrcd ever fince. 

(59) Concerniog the perfons of the candidates ; it was ' 
loaded at the convocation«diet in 1696, that all Piaftes, or 
native candidates, (hould be excluded; whereas in 1733, a 
contrary n€t pdiTed* that none but a native Pole or Ptafle, 
iiould be capable of being chofen. Lengnich. Hift. Polon. 

P- 27^f 374* 

(40) Likewife by fome towns, who are privileged to be 
prefentattheeleflion-diet; though* this is but a mere for- 
roality, no regard being paid to them in the main affair. 

S3 in 


ia full force» and the time aAd place for 
the elcftion-diet were like wife appointed (/). 


The interval between the convocation and 
*^^* the cledion-diet is not fixed, as depending 
on circumftances ; there muft> however, 
be time for the country diets to meet. The 
eledion-diet is held in a plain not far from 
Warfaw, and near Wola, a village on the 
Viftula. The eledors are the feqator;, and 
nobility 5 the latter not pply fend rcprefen- 
tatives, but every Qoblemai) or gentleman^ 
.if hp pleafes, may b? prefent ip perfon^ 
which firft took place at the eledioq of king 
Henry (41 )• The crown qqarter-mafter^r 
general pitches the eleftion-c^^mp, accords 
ing tp the ran|c of (he palatinates; and the 
place of ele^ion is furfounded with a rao)-* 
part and ditches ; it has likeyvifp threp 
gates, towards the caft for Great Poland, 
towards the fouth for Leflcr Poland, and 
the third towards the wcfl for Lithuania. 
In the centre is eredled for the fenate a large 
canvas booth^ with a boarded rqof, by tb^ 

(/) Lengnicb, Lib, 11. cap. iii. 

(41) Some cities, a» Cracow, Pofen, Vilna, Lcmberg, and 
Warfaw, likcwifc fend reprcfeotativcs to the cleaion ; a pri- 
vilege which alfo belongs to Thorn, Elbing, and Dant- 
ZTiCk, though, fince the efeaion of John Cafimir, they havo 
jjfplined ufing it. Lengnicb, Lib. IL cap. ly. 


POLAND. 263 

Poles called Szopa« Without it the coun- 
try reprefentatives aflemble, in a place called 
Kola» (a circle) ; but the nobility and gen* 
try, are to cbntiaue in the camp, in the places 
aligned to each palatinate ; for they have 
only « vote; and the fenators ^nd reprefenta- 
tives alone are prefent at the preliminary de* 
liberations. On the day of the diet's meet- 
ing, the pope's nuncio, or the archbiOiop 
of Gnefoa, celebrates mafs, in the cathe- 
dral of Warfaw, and a biihop preaches the 
iermon ; after which the audience repair to' 
the place of eledion, where the nobility 
firft chufe their marfhal, which^ though 
done by a majority of votes, is often made 
a long-winded bufinefs. The marfhal muft 
fwear that he will deliver the inftrument of 
«le€tioo to him only, who (hall be chofen 
^y the unanimous fuiFrages of all and every 
particular perfon. On this, the marshal, 
at the head of the reprefentatives, repairs 
to the fenate in the Ss^opa, and the primate 
then makes a motion for drawing up the 
compact of election, for abolishing any ex- 
orbit^ntia (49)9 and providing for the fe- 
curity of the camp. While thefe feveral 
objects are in agitation^ the fenate gives 

(42) This word figoifies all general and private griev. 
aoccf occafiooed by TioIatiooB of the law, and to be redrefied 
prcvioufly to the eleftioD, but that ia faldom the cafe* 

S 4 audi'^ 

audience to foreign ambafTadors recom- 
mending candidatest aod offering certain 
conditions on their behalf; forthecandi* I 
dates themfelves mufl not be prefent, and 
even the natives fend their agents. The 
primate then proclaims the candidates, that 
the nobility may proceed to the election. 
The eledion diet* in the year 1632^ was 
£xed to fix weeks* but this fpace being 
frequently wafted in difputes, it is fcMne- 
times lengthened till the premifes being laid 
mfide, tbe election day is fettled. The elec- 
tion diet is compofed of the fenafors and the 
reprefentativesi who meet in the Kola^ 
whilft the nobility and gentry wait on horfe« 
back in the places afligned to their refpec- 
tive waywodihipsy till the time of giving 
their votes. The primate harangues the 
flates, and after naming the competitors^ 
recommends to the aflembly, to enter on 
the eledion, and concludes with fing-> 
jng Veni Creator Spiritus on his kneeSt 
in which all the aflembly join, in the 
like pofture. The fenators and reprefen* 
tattves then return to the nobility, all in 
their refpedire palatinates, and recommend 
to them that candidate whofe interefl: they 
cfpoufe. The primate, and the marfhalof 
the diet alone remaining in the Kola, wait- 
ing the confcqucnce of the clcdlion. The 


POLAND. 265 

mar{ha1 coUctfls the votes 5 and, if tmani- 
mous, the primate rides round the Kola 
and afks the by-ftandcrs three times, whe- 
ther they have all chofen the king unani- 
moufly. This being anfwered by an uni- 
verfal fliout, and no contradiftion offered, 
he proclaims the king, which is likcwife 
done by the marftials of Poland and Lithu- 
ania ; and the crown grand-mar{hal re-> 
peats the proclamation at the three gates 
of the Kola. - But inQead of fo tranquil and 
vnamimous an eledion, the king is often 
proclaimed without this univerfal agree- 
ment, and fometimes the diet has been 
fplit into two parties, each chufing a king 
(43). After .the election, they retura to 
Warfaw, where Te Deum is fungin the ca- 
thedral ; then the compad of election be<» 
ing dra^n up by a committee of fenators 
and rcprefentatives the agents or envoys 
of the abfent king, aflent to it, and fwear . ' 
to its obfervance. If the new king be pre- 
fent, he himfelf does fo, and thereupon 
receives the inftrument of elea:ion, which 
is written in Latin. If a foreigner be 
chofen, an embafly is fent to invite him 

« (419) As in 1575, when Stephen Bathori and the eraperor 
Maximilian II. were chofen; and in 15879 in the cafe of 
Sigiimund IH. and archduke Maximilian; in 1697, that of 
Aaguftus n. and the prince of Conti; and in 17339 in the 
double eleOion of Scaniflaas and Auguitas III. ^ 



into the kingdom^ and adminiiler the oath 
of ele(aion ; on which the inilrument 
of eleftion is delivered to him. The pri* 
mate continues invefted with the govern- 
raenti till the coronation of the new king^ 
who, in the mean time^ ftiles himielf 
King Elea ig). 


fiTriroro**"' Thus the king's adual government com^ 
tion-ditt. mcnccs only from his coronation. The 
day is appointed by the dates at the elec* 
tion-diet^ and is three or four months^ and 
fometioies more, after the eledion. Cra<» 
cow ufed to be the place, but the laft 
was performed at Warfaw. The funeral 
of the late king muft precede the corona-* 
tion, and the new king be prefent at it* 
The day after, purfuant to an ancient cuf- 
torn, he goes on foot,' to the church of St. 
Staniflaus in the fuburbs. On the follow-* 
ing day, having taken the ufual oath, he is 
anointed and crowned in the palace church 
of the fame faint, by the archblfhop of 
Gnefen, and in his abfence, commonly 
by the bifhop of Cujavia, the fenators and 
reprcfcntatives affifting. On the third day 
after, the coronation-diet opens, according 
to the previous ordinance of the eledtion-r 

(j;) Lengnicby Lib. II. cap. iv. 


POLAND- ae; 

diet. Here the king confiritos by charter^ 
the rights of the kingdom of Poland, of the 
great duchy of Lithuania, and all their ap^ 
purtenances ; and in a Latin circular letter 
notifies his eledlion and coronation, at the 
fame time ordering all the courts of juf- 
tice, which during the interregnum had 
been fhut,^ to return to bufinefs. The pri- 
fnate hereupon gives an account of his ad- 
miniftration in the interregnum^ which is 
fometimes approved of, and fometimes un- 
dergoes a cenfure. When the cle&ion has 
been attended with contefts, fo as to pro- 
duce difturbances, the coronation-diet is 
iucceeded by a pacifiation and exorbitant, 
tia-diet {b)^ 


The king, at his coronation, fwears a fe- EieftSon 
cond time to obferve the eledlion compaa,J^Shli 
by the Poles called Pa<aa Convcnta, and^**' 
farther confirms it at the coronation-'diet (/). 
This is the primary law, to which he is 
f>ound (44), The election compads arc 

10 Leognich, lib. II. cap. y. 

(1) 1<|. p. 187, 201. 

(44) The term Pa£U Conveota dates its origin from tlio 
ele^on of kine Henry, when the fir ft written compad was 
made with the king. They contain, befides a prefcript for, 
the new king, the conditions which Jie has taken for himfelf 
(o perforjDi Tor the good of the republick ; and fince Henry's 
finie this has l^n obieryed by all the fucceeding princes 


always incorporated with the Conftilu* 
tiones (45), i- c- ordinances of the diets^ 
which are laws of the kingdom, as far as 
relating to polity and public affairs. But 
the laws having left many things unde« 
cided, in thefe cafes, cuftom or prcfcription 
tre the guide, and equally valid with the 
law (i). Among thefe are the procedures 
at the eledion of a king, concerning which 
no ordinance has hitherto been liTued (/)• 


luseaioiii The Pdles charaderize their conftitutiofi 

Si'^w'^ofin thefe words, " Penes regem eft majef- 

2^[|*" «• tas, penes fenatum autorkasj penes or^ 

*^ dincm equeftrem libertas (w)/' Tbia 

has induced fome writers to make three 

except kin^ Michael. The Pada CenTencsi from briag 

couched originally in Latin, and before the ele£lion» hate for 
fome time pad been made 6at in PoliA, aad not till the e]ec« 
Cion is over. Lengnich, Lib. L cap. iii* 

(4S) '^^^' name came in ufe under SigifmaAcI Aogafttrf^ 
the old name wa j Statota ; fince which time they have like- 
wife been drawn up in the Poliih language, whereas the Sea* 
tuta are in Latin. The Patres Piaram Scbolarum at Warfaw^ 
have made a coUedion of both the Sutntji and CosfiitQ-- 
tiones, and publifhed then in fix folio volumes, the laft of 
which appeared in 1739, Lengnich, Lib. I. cap. ii. It is 
farther to be obferved, that the laws made in diets ail^mbled 
under the king, are called Conftitutiones ; whereas thofe 
made by the tUtes, during an interregum, are diftingoiihed 
by the name of Confederationes and Ordimuiones. Leog-' 
nicb. Lib. II. cap. xii. 

(i) Lengnich, Lib. I. c. vi. tot. 

(/) Id. Lib. II. cap. iv § i. p. ^b* 

(m) Sketch, Sea p. 59. 


POLAND. t6g 

ftates in Poland, and the king the firft ; a 
divifion, however^ agreeing as little with the 
dignity of the king> as with the laws of thp 
kingdom, which mention only two ftates^ 
the fenate and the nobility*. Long and ge- 
neral ufe, however, has introduced, both 
among foreigners and natives, this exprcffion 
of '' The King and the Republic of Po- 
'^ landi'' and this feems heft to quadrate 
with the prefent gpvernment of the king* 
dom, -which, in reality, is neither more 
nor lefs tban an ariftocratical free Aate i for 
it is in the nobility that the whole autho* 
rity is lodged ; the fenators, both, fpiritual 
and temporal, are all nqbles, and mud he 
nominated from the body of the nobili ty« 
Thus the nobility reprefent the whole re- 
public ; and if the king be its head, it is 
only with fuch power as the nobility have 
been pleaied to leave him, and this they 
have now reduced within very narrow li- 
mits. Such is the balance between the 
nobility and the king : and relatively to 
the other inhabitants, it is flill more un« 
equal ; the nobility, with the legiflative 
power in their hands, have appropriated to ^ 
themfelves immunities and privileges of all 

• The law hat, by the extraordinary diet in 1768, made 
exprefs mention of three Hates, the king, the feoate, and the 

2 kinds. 

tjo PRESENT StATfi or fiUROPE. 

kinds, and fome privileges of very great 
importance, or rather exorbitant, and with 
a total exclufion of all who are not of their 
order. Honours, pofts, wealth, are their 
portion ; whilft the people groan under 
taxes, contributions, and indigence. With 
what contempt and imperioufnefs are the 
artificers treated ! and as for the country 
people, they may be faid to live in a de- 
plorable flavery, their property, and, in 
fome meafure, their very lives, depending on 
the good pleafure of their lords (46). How 
wretched and iniquitous is a forni of go- 
vernment, which gives up the greater part 
of the inhabitants, as it were, a prey to the 
few, without any proteQing rights! All 
inhabitants of a (late form one body ; and if 
all its members cannot enjoy the like ad- 
vantages, yet have all an equal claim to 
the protection of the laws, againft violence 
and oppreffion. Poland feems to have no 
fuch laws for the poor, or at leaft, they lie 

(46) Let us liear a royal aathor, who was well acqotiitt- 
cd with Poland ; •* Je nc puis fans horreur»" fays he, 
*' rapdier ici cette ioi qui n'lmpofe qu'une amende de quinze 
<'v Ffaccs a tout gentilhomnie qui aura tue od payian. C*cft 
** i ce prix qu'ou fe rachete dans n6cre nation des riguears 
*• de la juftice."— " La Pologne eft Je feul pays oii la popo* 
•* lace foic comme dechiie de tons le droits de rhumanite." 
La Voix Libre du Citoycn, oq Obfcrvat. .fur Ic Gouveroem. 
de Folognc, p. a 3$. 


POLAND. 271 

dormant, without being made any ufe of {0). 
This is a very gccat defefl: in the Polifli 
conAitution ; and another no, lefs, is the 
fingularity of their diets, which is of fuch a 
nature^ that it can fcarce be expeded they 
can take any eflfedt; yet the nobility cfteem 
it as the feal and flrength of their freedom. 
Every refolution of the diet muft be voted 
unanimoufly, fo that one opponent member 
annuls all the preceding refolutions (p). But 
is fuch an unanimity fuppofed to be among ' 
fo great a number ? the bare poflibility of it 
would require that each member of the 
public councils be aperfon of extraordinary 
virtue s that all be animated with the like 
patriotic zeal for the public good ; and that 
the moft perfeft harmony prevail among 
them. In Poland it is the very reverfe, 
every. one has his particular views, to which 
all other coniiderations are made to give 
way. ^ Now, as in fuch fel6flinefs and col- 
lufion of things, nothing can be brought to 
a head in the diet, anarchy muft necef- 
farily be the confequence, and this veri- 
fies what that great prince, Stephen Bathori,. 
ufcd to fay even in his time that " Po- 
land was (entirely governed by chance (47).'* 

(0) See the Prercnt State of Earope^ ch. xviL p. 105. 
(^) See above, § xvii. 

(47) Veiira Poloni Refpablica* non ordine, qao caretls. 
nOA regimine, quod contemnitis, fed folo fato regitar. 


Such are the wretched confequences 
of a (ingle perfon's being inveAed with 
a right of oppofition, fo as to put a flop 
to public proceedings, and annul what has 
. palled. It is amazing that fuch an abufc 
Should ever have got footing, and obtained 
even the fandion of the laws. The only 
affignable caufe fecms to be, that the right 
exercifed by an individual, is accounted as 
general, and every one is fond of rcferving 
it for himfelf, to make ufe of it at his own 


The kiuR't The firft fovereigns of Poland were called 

title* ^ 

only princes or dukes, and not kings. Bo* 
leflaus I. is faid to have Hrfl afTumed the 
title of king in the year 1024 (48), which 
his immediate fucceflbrs, till Boleilaus IL 

Voyez M. de Real- Science du Governein. Part f. Tom. IL 

p. 596. King Suniflaas fays tiie very fame thi»g : ** A nt 

jager de nos aflembles publiques, que par le tvmake U la 

coafofioa .qui y rcgnent, on diroit qae c'eft le hafiird ienl 

^ ^ ^i gouverne n6tre etat. La Voix Libre du Citoyen» p. 151. 

(48) According to feveral Poliih hidorians, as Michovia* 

Duelofs, Cromer, and others, Boleilaiis L received the title 

of king from the emperor Otho III. in the year looo ; but 

the oldGerman hiflorians make no mention of it. ProfeiTor 

Joachim's Di/IertatSon on the Origin of Ele£live Right in 

^ the Kingdom of Poland. This appears the greater error* a> 

• Otho Freifitngen, of Wippo,' and other German writers, 

\ exprefly fay, that Boleilaus II firft aflumed the title of king 

.in io24» or 1025. Vid. Struvii Corp. Hift. Germ. TO0. 

I. p. 336. not. 23. 



likewife bore ; but the following, from 
Ladiflaus I. whofe reign began in io8r, 
dropped that title for above the Tpace of 
200 years (49). It was revived by Pre* 
miflaus duke of Great Poland, who in 1295, 
caufed himfelf to be anointed and crowned 
king at Gncfna. Wenceflaus king of Bo- 
hemia, his fucceflbr, likewife bore the title 
of kfng of Poland, but after his death in 
1305, it was again difcontinued. At length 
Ladiflaus Lo£ticus having again united all 
Poland under his fceptre, re-affumcd the 
title of king, on being crowned at Cracow 

(49) The dircontiooancc of the title of king in Poland, 
was probably owing to that king's being excommunicated by 
pope Gregory VIL for the murder of Staniflaus bifliop of 
CracoWy which excommuaication likewife included Poland 
itfclf, and deprived, not only the king, but the kingdom of 
its royaky ; and the biihops received cxprefs orders, neither 
to crown or anoint a king of Poland, without the knowledge 
and permiffion of the fee of Rome. " Regem Boleflaum & 
" Regnam Poloniac omni hcnore di^nitate ct cxcellentia 

•* Regali privavit." Inhiben^ — Gncfncnfi Archiepif- 

«* copo et ibis Cocpifcopis, ne aliquam cajufcunque gradus, 
** prseeminentiae et ftatus perfonam in Poloniae Regem coro- 
" nare & inungere audeant, fedc Apollolica inconfulta.** 
Duglofs/Hift. Polon. Lib. III. p. zgx- This Baronius in 
AnnaL Ecclef. Tom. XI. ad Ann. 1709. in XL, et XLI. 
allcdgcs from that hiftoriaii, and adds, that the pope's bull 
no longer fubfifling was nothing ftrange, many other records 
of Pope Gregory VII. being wanting. Concerning Ladif- 
laos I. brother and fucCeiTor to king: Boleflaus XL DuglofTus, 
Lib. IV. p. 301 • imputes his not ufing the title of king, to 
his being neither anointed nor crowned as his predecelTors, 
the bifliops having, in obedience to the pope's prohibition, 
refofed to perform the ceremony ; and the fame rcafon, per- 
haps* might have weighed with the fucc^cding kings. 

Vol- III. T in 


in 1320J and his facceflbrs have kept it up 
ever iince {q). 

But the title has received feveral addi- 
tions. Ladiflaus Jagellon fliled hjlmfelf kiag 
of Poland and fovereign prince of Lithua- 
nia, which laft title his fon Cafioiir III. 
changed to that of great duke. Pruflia^ 
Livonia, and other provinces being reduced 
under the crown of Poland, they were alio 
added to the king's titles fothat Sigifmund 
Auguftus was ftiled king of Poland, great 
duke of Lithuania, Ruflia, Pruflia, Mazo- 
via, Samogitia, Kiow, Volhinia, Podla- 
chia, .and Livonia. To thefe Ladiflaus IV. 
added Podolia, Severien, Czernichow, and 
Smolenflco, the three laft countries having 
been ceded to him by the Ruffians ; but 
being given back to Ruffia at the peace in 
1686; it was at the fame time fUpuIafed 
that the king of Poland (hould forbear thofe 
titles when writing to the Czar ; on other 
occafions, they are ufed to this day. 

The prcfent title is king of Poland, great 
duke of Lithuania, Ruffia, Pruffia, Ma/b- 
via, Samogida, Kiow, Volhinia, Podla- 
chia, Livonia, Smolenfko^ Severien, and 
Czernichow. If the kings had any foreign 
dominions, they likewife bore the titles of 

' (q) Lengtiidiy Lib. II. c. ii. 


POLAND. zjs 

tbem> as Wenceflaas filled himfelf king of 
Bohemia and Poland ; Lewis^ of Hungary 
and Poland -, Ladiflaus III. of Poland and 
Hungary. King Henry added to his^ 
Dokeof Anjou; and king Stephen^ pnnce 
of Tranfylvania. Sigifmund III. Ladiflaus 
IV. and John Cafimir, ftiled thcmfelves 
kings of. Sweden ; and the two late Saxon 
kings bore the title of their hereditary do- 
minions (r). 

John Calimir having C3tpdlcd the Soci- 
maBs ottt of Poland, pope Alexander VII. 
conferred on him the title of Rex Ortho-* 
doxi»€ (j)» but neither he nor his fucccfTors 
erer 11bD>ught fit to ufe it. ' 


Concerning the origin of the arms of/rmf. 
Poland nothing can be faid with any cer- 
tainty (50). The firft credible account is 
that king Premiflaus in the year 1296, had 
an eagle <:ut on' his fcal, with the inicrjp- 
tion: ** Reddidit ipfe fuis vidricia figna 
" Polonis/' alluding to the title of king 
which be had revived (/)• The prefent 

(r) Lengnich, Lib. 11. cap. iv. p. 20^ — 213. 

(i) 'fidcmin^ Sync. Dignit. illulln Dif&rt. II. c. 21. § xi. 

P- J59- 

(50) Very fingular opinions are to be found about it4ii 

BecmaD» S.ynt.' Dignit. VII. cap. iii. § iv. p. 179, and 

Lengnich, Lib. II. cap* ix. p. 22S. 

(/) Duglofs, Lib. VIII. 

T 2 arms 



arms are quarterly, the firft and fourth 
Mars, an eagle crowned, Luna, for Po- 
land ; and the fecond and third a horfeoian, 
armed Luna; with a naked fword and 
fhield, Jupiter; on which is a patriarchal 
crofs, Sol, on a wild-horfe, Luna, (hoes, 
Sol, and caparifons, Jupiter, -for Lithuania. 
In the middle ftiield arc the king's family 


Of the The laws of Poland have impofed fevc- 

ral obligations on the perfon of the queen. 
She mufl be a Roman Catholic, in which 
cafe (he is crowned jointly with the king ; 
(he is to have only Polifh officers and fer- 
vants, very few excepted; flic is not to 
purchafe eftatcs, nor hold any of the crown 
lands ; and, efpecially flie is not to meddle 
in ftate affairs. Accordingly, at the elec- 
tion of an unmarried king, he is to promife 
Hot to marry without the confent of the 
fenate. The queen has her own houfhold^ 
marflial, chancellor, and other officers, but 
no particular revenues, except 2000 ducats 
per ann. out of the Cracow fait- works. On 
the king's demife, her dowry is paid out of 
the crown-lands («). 

(ft) Lengnichy Lib. II. cap. xvi. toL 


POLAND. 277 

The king's fons have no right to the^^^*~y»* 

01 ft t children. 

crown, yet may itand candidates. They 
arc not to be employed in public affairs but 
by confent of the ftates. Their perfonal 
litigations are cognizable only before the 
king and the fenate. They are ftiled Moft 
Illailrious, and bear the arms of Poland 
and Lithuania (a:). 


The capital of the kingdom of Poland is caphaij 
Cracow, which was likewife the king's re-d^ce/^ 
fidence. Sigifmund Auguftus, and Ste- 
phen lived much at Warfaw, and Sigif- 
mund III. built a palace there for his con- 
flant refidence ; in which he was imitated 
by his fucceflbrs. This removal is thought to 
have been owing to Cracow's being fituated 
at one end of the kingdom, and thus at too 
great adiftancefrom Lithuania and Pruflia; 
and likewife to a refolution pafTed a little, 
time before Sigffmund Auguflus's death for 
holding the diets at Warfaw {y). 

{u) Len^ich, Lib. II. cap. xvi. tot. 

{x) Id. Lib. II. cap. xvii. (ot. 

(j) Ibid. Lib. If. c. viii. p. 216, 217. 

T 3 SECT. 



The crown, Bcfidcs thc ihiniftcrs of ftatc {z) who fill 
grcatoffi- the principal employments, and arc Icna- 
undl^dLitors; there arc fevcral other gtcat officers, 
***"""• deriving their title from the kingdom and 

the great dutchy, but are not fcnators. 

Thefe are, 

1 . The crown great fecretary of Poland. 
The great fecretary of Lithuania. 

2. The crown referendaries of Poland. 
The referendaries of Lithuania (51). 

3. The crown court treafurer of Poland. 
The court treafurer of Lithuania. 

4. The crown great .chamberlain of Poland. 
The great chamberlain of Lithuania (52). 

5. The crown great ftandard-bearer of Po- 

The great ftandard-bearer of Lithuania. 

(z) See above. Sea. XVL 

(;i) Poland has two referendaries, and Llthaania likewife 
two, of whom one is always an ecclefiaftick. Their origi- 
nal bufinefs was to receive petitions, and make a report of 
them to the chancellor ; but thefe employments have long 
fmce been difcontinued, and at prefent they are preiidenrs 
of certain coufts called Referendariatus, and have likewife 
a feat and a vote in the aAe/Torial courts. Lengnich, Lib. 111. 
cap. X. 

(52) In Latin he is called Succamerarius, though he has 
no fuperior. Thefe great chamberlains are to take care of, 
and have an eye to the king^s perfon ; fo that count Tenczin 
was in extreme perplexity when king Henry fecretly withdrew 
out of Poland in 1574, left he (hould be called to account 
for negligence. Lengnich, Lib. IIL cap. x. 

6. The 

6. The crown court ftandard-bcarer of Po- 
The courfc ftandard-bcarer of Lithuania. 
J. The crown fword-bearer of Poland. 
The fword- bearer of Lithuania. 

8. The crown mafter of the horfe of Poland. 
The mafter of the horfe of Lithuania. 

9. The crown equerry of Poland. 
The equerry of Lithuania. 

10. The crown firft mafter-cook of Poland. 
The firft mafter-cook of Lithuania. 

1 1. The crown firft cup-bearer of Poland. 
The firft cup-bearer of Lithuania. 

12. The crown carver of Poland. 
The carver of Lithuania. 

13. The crown great butler of Poland. 
The great butler of Lithuania. 

14. The crown under-butler of Poland. 
The under-butler of Lithuania. 

15. The crown fub-cup-bearer of Poland. 
The fub-cup-bearer of Lithuania. 

16. The crown great huntfman of Poland* 
The great huntfman of Lithuania. 

17. The crown court huntfman of Poland. 
The court huntfman of Lithuania. 

1 8. The crown chancery director of Poland. 
The chancery diredor of Lithuania (5 3)* 

(53) They are called in Latin RegentesCancellariae. There 
are two in Poland, and two in Lithuania, according to the 
number of chanceries Their office, anoog other thin|(s, is, 

T 4 6. The 



19. The crown chancery recorder of Poland. 
The chancery recorder of Lithuania (54. 

20. The crown great treafury recorder of 

The treafury recorder of Lithuania (ss)^ 

21. The crown warden of Poland. 
The treafury warden of Lithuania. 

22. The crown inftigator of Poland (56)* 
"* The inftigator of Lithuania {a). 

S E C T- xxxvir, 

uTofficcrt The great military officers of the kingdom 
l^LithM- of Pol^^^d ^^^ ^^^ g^^^^ dutchy of Lithuania 
nia. are : 

1. The crown field-marfhal of Poland. 
The field-marfhal of Lithuania. 

2. The crown lieutenant-general of Poland. 
The lieutenant-general of Lithuania {^y). 

to examine writings of any importance that are made oat ia 
chancery, whether they are agreeable to the faw, and pro- 
perly worded. Lengnich, Lib. IL cap. x. 

(54) Tbefe are four in number, one to each chancery. 
They are called in Latin Mttricanics^ from Metrica^ i.e. jtfa- 
tricula^ and the boolgi iH which they enter the patents, grantt, 
aud other public inftruments made out in the chanceries. 
Lengnicb, Lib. IIL cap. viii. 

(5c) Of thefe Poland has two, and Lithuania three. 

(^6) i. e. iifcal, to whofe cognizance belong public com- 
plaints, particularly Againft ftate-crimes, and odiers of a very 
iieinous or importact nature. 

(if) Lengnich, Lib. HL cap. x. 

(57) When the ilate is witnout both a field-marflial and a 
lieutenant-general, the king, till thofe emplojrments are 
filled up, appoints an intermediate commander in chief, term* 
ed Regimentarius. Lengnich> Lib. IIL c. x. 

3. The 

POLAND. 28t 

3. The crown field-notary of Poland. 
The field-notary of Lithuania. 

4, The crown great major of Poland. 
The great major of Lithuania. 

5^ The crown great mafter of the ordnance 
of Poland. 
The great mafter of the ordnance of Li- 
6 . The crown general quarter-mafter of Po- 
The general quarter-mafter of Lithua- 
nia (^)- 


Next to the great employments of thetudca- 
crown and kingdom come feveral provin«' '^"^ 
cial officers, taking their title from fome 
captainfhips^ as the upper flaroft of Great 
Poland, and the other of Lefler Poland. 
The treafurer and fword- bearer of Prufiia 
likewife rank among the great provincial 
officers {c). 


The palatinates and free countries have Luiddiim- 
farther, a clafs of officers ftiled Dignitarii *** 
Xerrarum, provincial dignitaries. Thefc 
arc the provincial receiver, the provincial 

(^ Lcngnichy Lib. III. cap. x; 
(<} Id. Ibid. cap. xi. 



ftandard-bearer, the proviticial fteward^ 
the provincial cup^b^arer^. the provincial 
huntfman^ the provincial fword^bestrers^ 
the provincial treafurers (5&)^ the diredtor 
^ the circle (59). In Lithuania fome par- 
ticular diftri(5ts have likewifb: their marflial, 
and other dignitaries {J)., 

Among the provincial digni^i^ are 
Ukcwife the ftaroftes (60), or gentlemen^ 
on v^rhqm the king has conferred a man- 
fionf-houfe and land during life; and fome 
. with a jurifdiftion annexed to it ; while 
others have jDnly the bare produce of the 
land {e). - 

S E C T. XL. 

Oraenof Laflly^ Poland has two temporal orders 
h^^'- of knighthood; the firfl i» that of the 
White Eagle^ inftitiited by king AuguftusII. 
in 1705. The enfign of the order is an 
Eagle^ Luna> crowned, with expanded wings^ 
at a blue watered ribbon pafling from the 
left fhoulder under the right arm. The 

(58) Al^ thefe, proviocial receivers eicepted, are bare 

(59) In Latin termed TMuni. their bufinefe is to take 
care of the public fafety* whilft the nobility are in the field. 

{i) Lengnich, Lib. IIL cap. xii. 

(60) The Latin. naiqe \s Capitanius, the Poliih word fig- 
Bifies aged, as anciently this dignity was conferred only on 
the aged. Lengntch, Lib. IL c. xi. 

(r) Lengnicb, Lib. XL cap. xi. and Lib. III. cap. xii. 



knights wear on the left breaft an o£tanga«< 
lar ilar embroidered in gold» with a filvet 
crofs in the centre, and this infcription : 
** Pro Fide, Rege, et Lege j" but that of the 
king as fovereign of the order, has the& 
words ; <• Pro Fide, Lege, et Grege (/)•** 
The iecond is that of St. Staniflaus, in ho- 
nour of whom his late majefty Staniflaus 
Auguflus inftituted it on the 8th of May 


Poland was converted to Chriftianity In Ecdefiim- 
the tenth century, but Lithuania not till ?2iiSd!^ 
towards the clofe of the fourteenth; At 
the head of the Polifh church are two arch- 
biihops and fifteen hiihops. The dignity 
of their office, their learning, of which, at 
firil, they alone had any fhare> and ftill 
more the large eftates which they had got « 
into their hands, gave them, in the very 
infancy of Chriftianity, a powerful influ- 
ence on ilate aflfairs ; fo that they became fu-» 
pcrior to the temporal grandees (61), and 
were the firft fenators of the kingdom. The 

(/) Lengnichy Lib. tL cap. yfii. 

( g) Merc HilL & Polit. AvriJ, p. 469, Se Jvin, p. 69S. 

(61) According to Lubieniky, they alone compofed the' 
king's council ; Ixit this is more than can be proycd ; for 
hiftoriansy when fpeaking of public cooTuhations^ always 
ufe the cxpreffion Praelati et Barones, Lengnicb> Lib. Ill; 
cap. V, 

' arch- 



archbiihops are thofe of Gnefna and Lem- 
berg : the bifhops fees arc Cracow, Cujavia» 
Pofen, Vilna, Ploczko, Ermland^ Luck, 
Prcmiflau, Samogitia, Culm, Chelm, 
Kiow, Caminicc, Livonia, Smoleniko. 
The archbifhop of Gnefna is the principal 
, ecclefiaftick, and primate of Poland and 
Lithuania ; which title the council of Con- 
ftance granted him in 1417 ; fo that both the 
archbifliop of Lemberg and all the biftiopg 
are his fuffragans, Ermland excepted, as 
immediately fubjedl to the pope. At firft 
he confirmed the new-made bifliops, but 
this privilege the fee of Rome afterwards 
thought fit to appropriate to itfelf. In 
the year 15 15, pope Leo X. conferred 
on him the dignity of hereditary nuncio of 
the fee of Rome, purfuant to which, in the 
abfence of the pope's nuncio in ordinary, 
he afts as fuch. He is likewife ftiled Firft 
Prince, and, in an Interregnum, is regent 
of the kingdom till the coronation, which 
he performs. He takes place of all fena- 
tors, and may make reprefentations to the 
king on his doing any thing againft the 
laws. He refides at Lowicz, which Con- 
rad, duke of Mazovia, gave to the church 
of Gnefna about the year 1240. He has 
his marflial, who is a caftellan of the fe- 
cond ofder, his chancelf^r, and other offi- 

POLAND. 285 

cers {h). Next to the primate is the bifhop 
of Cracow, who is ftiled duke of Seve- 
rien; and, as fuch, has the temporal jurif- 
didion in that province (/). Then follows 
the biihop of Cujavia, who, in an interreg- 
num, fupplies the abfence of the primate, 
in all his feveral funftions {k). The bi- 
ihops of Pofen and Vilna take precedence 
alternately from one diet to another, which 
is alfo obferved by thofe of Ermland and 
Luck 5 the former ftiles himfelf Prince of 
the Holy Roman Empire, which title, 
however,, the records of the kingdom do^N..^ ^ 
not give him (/). 

The lower clergy in Poland and Lithu- 
ania are very numerous, thofe countries 
containing no lefs than thirty-one abbeys, 
five hundred and fifty-fix convents of men, 
and ninety nunneries, forty-nine colleges 
of Jefuits, and fifteen of the fathers Piarum 
Scholarum {m). The king nominates the 
archbifliops and bifliops, Ermland ex- 
cepted, to the chapter of which, he, how- 
ever, propofes four candidates, recommend- 
ing the perfon whom he could wifli chofen. 

{b) Lengnich, Lib. Itf. c. v* 
(i) Jd, loid. % xxxi,— xxxvi. p. 88 — 93. 
(i) Ibid. Lib. U. cap. iii. % i. p. 65 » ec cap, v. % ix. p« 
(/) Ibid. Lib. III. cap. y. § xl — IviiiJ p, gS'^it^* 
\m) Skf cch, ice. 



The king had anciently the difpofal of all 
the abbeys and deaneries 5 but the monks^ 
having, or iginally, had a right of ele^lton^ 
folicited the recovery of that privite^c 
under king Michael ; and the coatroverij 
was referred to the pope's 4ecifion» who 
terminated it by an agreeqient that the king 
was dill to have the nominatioa of eleven 
abbeys and one deanery^ but the monks ta 
ele£t to all the others {n). The reye&ues 
and pofleflions of the whole body pf the 
clergjr arc very large^ above two*tbirds of 

"" ^ aU the lands in the kingdom being m tbckc 
hands (62). 


vo^\ Poland had» from the tiipe of Cafimir I. 

KuSd!" (o), remitted a yearly donation or tribate 
to Rome ; and» from thence^ fome would 
make Poland to have been a fief of the pa- 
pacy ; but that remittance has long beea 

(») Lengnidiy Lib. 11. cap. xi. 

{Sn) KiBg Staniilaus fives them a iharp le^re For their 
pridcy ftate, and luxury $ and afTertSy that as the church 
lands were a part of the hnds of the ftate, the latter has a 
right to abolifli the flagrant abuses of them^ and to reduce 
the clergy to a right ufc of their opulence. He therefore ad- 
vifes and exhorts them voluntarily to facrifice their fuperfiui- 
ties to the public good^ as this would raile a very confidcr- 
able fum» by which a part of the army might be mainuiDed, 
and the lower clals of people* who almoll alone bear the 
burden of impofts, be greatly eafed. La Yoix Libre do 
CitoyeBy p. 44, 46, &c. 

{(b) See above, Seft. X. 

6 dif- 

P O 3L A N D. «% 

difcontihued'('^). On the other hand^ the 
pope> even, to this day» conftrms all new- 
nnide biHiops and abbots ; and before this 
confirmation the ibrmer cannot fo ranch as 
take their feats in the fenate» much lefs ex^ 
ercife their epifcopal fundlions {q). His 
nuncios have a .particular court called the 
Nunoiaiurc^ :for«ocleiiafticalaiFairs; among 
ivhicli are reckamd thofe relating to m»^ 
ri^e. It is likewife loudly complained <y£ 
that they extend their jnrifdiAion too far ^ 
cofnpmhonding in it the cogntisance of 
jnany temporal .matters (r). At the rifing 
of the coroQatioii-diet» the ivew king fends 
an ambaiTador to the pope in teftimony of 
his obedience. This being an old cnilom, 
is confidDred rby Ibe fee of &ome as a <luty : 
and inftances tare not wanting that the pope 
has been higfUyrofFeoded at any long delay 
cf this embaify^ and kings have thought ift 
advifeable to pacify him by fpecious ex- 
cuses {s). 

Though popery be the eftablifhcd reli^^Toiente* 
gion in Poland *, there are feveral other *^**"*' 

{p) Lcngnich, Lib. IV. cap. xir. 

(a) Id. Lib. IL cap. xi, 

(r) Id. Lib. m. c. v. 

(j) Id. Lib. II. cap. v. 

* By a ]aw xnade in the extraordhiar^ diet of ijSB, a Ro- 
man Catholic changing his religion is to be baollhed the 



fefts, to which the laws have granted free 
cxercife of worfhip, as the Greek church ; 
(but of thefe fome being united with that of 
Rome^ are called Unitarians (63), while 
others are diftinguilhed by the name of 
Difunitarians ;) Armenians (64) ; Protc- 
ilants, both Calviniils and Lutherans^ who, 
under king Sigifmund Auguflus, a mode- 
rate prince, obtained a free exercife of their 
religion,, together with fome neceffary pri- 
vileges. In the fame reign, the Socinians^ 
in Poland called Arians, flocked into the 
kingdom : and thefe feveral feds fo en-- 
creafed, that in the interregnum following 
the deceafc of Sigifmund Auguftus they 
balanced at leaft the Catholics in the fe- 
nate ; but, among the nobles and gentry, 
made no inconfiderahle naajority. This in- 
duced the catholic and uncatholic ilates in 
the convocation-diet of 1 573, to enter into 
a covenant for themfclves and their defcen- 
dants, reciprocally to prcferve peace and 
harmony, not molefting or perfecuting any 
perfon for his religion. This covenant was 
called the Religious Peace, and inferted in 
the general confederation, which was drawn 

(63) They have three arcU>i(hops» Kiow, Polocz, and 
Smolenfko, and fix bifliops, Wlodzimir, Finfk, Chelm, 
Lucky Preminaus, and Lemberg. 

(64) Thefe have a patriarch at Lemberg* but thefe like- 
wife are now united with the church of Rome* 


POLAND. 289 

up ih the name of the fenators temporal 
and fpiritual, the whole nobility and all 
the ftatcs. It was then that the name of 
Diflidcnts was firft heard of; for the- ftates 
being of different religions^ they termed 
thcmfelves collcftively Diffidentes de Reli- 
gioncs. This religious peace was after* 
wards fworn to by king Henry, to which 
his fucccflbrs have likewife conformed. 
The confederation of 1573 was likewife 
confirmed as a religious compadt, in the 
interregnqni after the death of king Ste- 
phen ; and till then the name of Diflidents 
had included both catjiolics and others ; 
but in the confederations of the following 
interregnum, the former meaning of thii 
word was altered, and confined to thofe 
who are non-catholics, and at length only 
to the Greeks, Lutherans, and reform- 
ed {t). The Socinians, indeed, believed that 
they were of the number of the DifJidents ; 
ind they had in cffedl, hitherto enjoyed all 
their rights and indulgences ; but under 
Ladiflaus IV. a defign was formed to ex- 
clude them from all places of honour and 
public employments ; and in the convoca- 
tion-diet in 1648, it was rcfolved that for 
the future none fhould be accounted Dif- 

(/) Lengnichy Lib. IV. cap. xiv. 

Vol.. III. U fidents. 

fidents^ l)ut fuch only as believed the 
Trinity i ^nd that the Socinians were doc 
of that nuinber. At laft^ in the diet of 
16589 3ocinianifm was rnade deaths yet 
allowing three years, though afterwards 
fborten^d to two, to difpofe of their effeds, 
and quit the country 1 which all who would 
not turn Roman Catholics faw themielves 
obliged to do. The Qiiakers, Mcnnonifts, 
and Anabaptiils> were afterwards included 
with the Spciniansif and under the like fen^ 
tence. The Piffidents formerly, enjoyed 
the fame rights as the Catholics, were ca« 
' pable of being temporal ienators, reprefeo* 
tatives, and holding all other public em- 
ployments; but by the confederatioa of 
1733, they were totally deprived of aU 
thefe privileges, and declared guilty of high 
treafon». in cafe they applied to any foreign 
powers for their mediation. This was con-» 
firmed luiy the conftitution of 1736, after 
very fevere limitations had been laid on 
the Difl^nts in exerciQng their religion, 
and ever fince ftridty coAtinucd on all oc^ 
cafions to their extreme oppreffion (x). But 
in the diet of 1768, at the ftrenuous inter- 
ceifion of the emprefs of Ruffia, the king of 
Pruflia, and other Proteftant powers^ the 
Dididents have been relieved from their 

(;r) Leognichy Lib. IV. c« xir. 

6 oppref- 

i* O L A I* D. , tf^t 

bppfeiSons^ enjoy a free exercife of tbeir 
religion, and are capable cf holding any 
temporal honours and employments. 

The Poles have ho lefs genias than in- vmnn^tiei. 
clinatidn fot the fciencefs ; but in the mot6 
Ancient times they had no oppot-tubity for 
mental improvements, which, however, 
have been carried on with very profflifin|^ 
fuccefs fince the eftabliihtiient of ichobls 
and univeriities. Of the latter, Poland has 
three ; the moft ancient and principal of 
which is that of Cracow, founded by king 
Caiimir in 136 1, and completed by La- 
diflaus Jagellon in 140c. The bifliop of 
Cracow is always chancellor, and at his 
indudion, the prcfcrvation of its privileges * 
are earneftly recommended to hitti {y)^ 
The fecond univerfity is that 0/ Vilna, for- 
merly a Jefutts college, tilt made a uni- 
verfity by pope Gregory XIIL in the yea^ 
1 579 ; on which account it is under the 
infpcftion of the Jefuits {z). The third, 
or that of Zamofcia, To called from its foun- 
der, the celebrated crown-chahcellor and 
field-mar{hal John Zamoyicy {a), at pre- 
fcnt is veryiittle talked of. 

(/) VM. Cellar, p. 142. Lengnich, Lib. III. c* v. p. 92. 
(«) Vid. Cellar, p. 377. 
(«) Id. p. 343. 




stxctfthe Though the fctences have been greatly 
piSS!"' promoted, and diffufed by thefe univeriities, 
yet has not Poland produced fb many per- 
sons eminent for literature as other na^ 
tions. One caufe of this may. be^ that evea 
they, who were really learned, wrote little 
qi nothing; and when they had writtea 
any thing they could not publifli, for want 
of printing houfes, fo that the names of many 
literati have died with them (^), The fix- 
teenth^ and the firil half of the feventeenth 
century, however, hasproduccd the mod wri- 
ters, and particularly many hiflorians, who^ 
among otner recommendations, are greatly 
admired for the beauty of their Latin (c)^ 
The like praife is due to feveral of their 
poets. One would be inclined to think 
that as the conftitution of the ftate renders 
the talent of fpeaking in public fo necef* 
igry, the Poles (hould excel in elocution ; 
but one of the grcateft of their countrymea 
pronounces them to be very indifferent 
orators (65). There is, however, room to 

(i) Cromer, Lib. I. p. 15. 

' (rj Dircouife on Struvens Introdaftion 10 the Hiftorf of 
tlie Empire, p 48. (a German work.) 

(6g) Nos harangu'Ts dans les Affcmbles pabliqnes— <«ne 
font qae des oavr^ges fans genie, de miferables puerilites de 


cxpcft that they will apacod ibeir philology, 
as they now tranflate the oid'Grcek and 
Latin writers into their language (66). AH 
the fciences, in general, are likewifa cul-<t 
tivated with much greater accuracy and af-^ 
iiduity than.. formerly » Philofophy, Mar- 
thcmatics, .thc.,hiftory and polity of the 
conntry, the Greek, and Latin philology^ 
together with the Belles Lettre^, are, ac« 
cording to the lateft accounts, the objeda 
which; chiefly employ the Pdliih literati* 
Many of the great, to promote the ^ubli^. 
cation pf learned and ufeful works, ^ defray 
tjie charges of the prefs. The learned at. 
Warfaw^havc? the advantage of the Zalofky: 
libraryt(67), ivhich is bptb very* numerous 
a;id valuable. Under the aufpice3-of thefe 
times, fo favourable |^o the Polilh nraies,* 
literature will foon put on another appear-* 
apce than what it had feen in the laft cen- 

college, oji I'on remarque pi as de vaiD elocation que d^ boi^ 
ieni. RieA ne va au grntid et au folfde; nulchoix, nal or* 
dre^ nulle-iimplictte : en ne voit dans ces difcours que ftgnreft 
entafles et puifTecb dans d' mfipiics recaeils, ct I'on n'y trait© 
TiCi' moins que le fujet qui oblige ^ les fure^^^^^^La Voix 
Libre da Citoyen, p. 132. 

(66), Among otherr, the Orations of Denfioftfaenes have 
been tranflated into the Poli(h language by Mr. Nagare* 
zewilcy. Janetzkv, Excerp:. Polon Luterat Vol. I. p. IQ. 

{67) To th:s Mr. Janorflty has dcoicatcd the firft part of 
his Excerpt. Polon. Litterac. whtchy perhaps, is the firft 
<ledicatioa of this kind. 

V7 $ECT, 



i^^^ In the times of remote aDtiqiiity» die 
Pols8« like the other florthero nations, had 
1K> written laws y their difputes were ter« 
minated by natural equity* and fometimcs 
by armsi or a fingle combat (d). It was 
oot till after the eftabli(bment of Cbrifli- 
anity that laws were couched in writing ; 
but they being very defe^uoos, the Mag* 
deburglaw became ufed in Poland; Bo- 
leflaas V. duke of Great Poland having, in 
1^57, permitted the city of Cracow to fol- 
low it ; which perraiffion was afterwards 
grated to other cities. King Cafimir the 
Great made confiderable additions to the 
old Polilh laws^ on which account he is 
efteemed the principal legiflator of Poland* 
The legiflative power becoming com- 
mon to the ftatcs and the king, under Ca- 
fimir III. the laws were made at the diets, 
and firft termed Statuta^ afterwards Con-- 
ftitutiones (e). Thefe conftitute both pub-- 
lie and private right ^, and Poland has no 
other particular law-book. 

(/) Vid. Franc. Martinii Diifert. dt Scopo Rcip. Poloxu 
pap vii. p. lie, ii6. ibiqne allegati audores. 
(e) LcRgnich, Lib. IV. c. xiii. 
(/) Id. Lib. I. cap. ii. 


POLAND. 29^ 

Lithuania has likewife its own Conftitu* , 
tionsy containing its public and private 
rights and of which many editions have 
been publi(hed (68). 

In Pruffia^ the towns and the nobility have 
a different Ihw, the former called Culm-la w» 
the latter diflinguiflied by the title of the 
Country Right of the Pruffian nobiHty (69). 
The canon-law, together with the de* 
crees of the council of Trent, have like- 
wife been introduced into Poland; and the- 
former both in temporal and fpiritual con- 
cttns (g). The Roman -law is in great 
coniideration ; but not with the full force 
of a law, as i^me would maintain [6). 


KingXafimir the Great made feveral or-coiitttof 
dinanccs relating to the courts of juftice;***^*^ 
aboliihed the appeals from the towns where 
the Magdeburg law obtained, to the court 
of Magdeburg ; ereding in lieu at Cracow, 
a fupreme court for the Magdeburg law. 
This, however, has lately been fupprefledi^; 

(68) Under the dtle of Stattttom Lithoaniim. The fere^ 
ral edidoos may be (ben ia Buderi Biblittth. Jor, Sel. c. vi, 

(6^) Concerning the alterations in the Pruffian ]avrs» and 
its ieveral editionsi fee Lengnkb, Jm PuU. Pl^li^• Pol. ^ 
^ 114, ice. 

(/} Marinnsy cap. vii. p. 137. 

{Jb) Ibid. p. 138— '142* 

U 4 on 


on the ipftitution of fevcral otlier i<pptr- 
courts (/)> Among the^^JPoUCb lower courts, 
the principal f re : ' : 

I. The country courts^ which are held^ryicircle of the waywodlhips for try- 
ing difputes between noblecpen qoncerning 
the.purchafe of their cffeds, or other tranf- 
adlions relating to their lands. 2. The fta- 
roftey courts, held by thofc ftaroftes who arc 
inverted with juridical power, to take cogni- 
zance of penal caufes and perfonal complaints 
among the nobility* 3. The qoiin try receivers 
courts fur determining difputes among the 
land*holders about the bounds of their lands. 
4, The town-courts held by the magiftra- 
cies of the towns. Here the Magdeburg 
|aw is the rule of proceeding, unlefs the 
town, has its own particular laws, 5. The 
juftices court, for trying caufes among the 
pcafants and other mean people, Thefe 
courts likpwife proceed by the Magdeburg- 
law. 6. The deputy vfray wode courts, bc- 
fdre which are brought all civil proceffes of 
the }ews, and caufes relating to the police. 
7. Mixed courts, generally held by the 
ilaroiles and the magiflracy of the town, 
when a nobleman is apprehended for a 
criiDC newly committed, the privilege of 

(0 Lengnicby Lib. IV. cap. xiii. 


;. POL A N t). ^ iigjr 

QobSily not allowing. tl^ rnggiftratH} jb^ 
Vy hitn at thcicown bar; &4. The bi(bo{/# 
cQiftfts;! whicb .eacb bHbdp .holds in hif 
^iQcefcs t»»trwith ipp^l lo that:4)f.^«h^L 
cunpio (ii)«>r] .v». /; . : - ,-.... j 

V Th^re are.likbwife fevwal claflbs of :uj^[ 
pqr courts^! as t.: The chzncevj or iChff&^ 
Fja^ court^v^ whifh dre twpi one for PotaniJ^' 
anji- tb<.«tkc«.fpr Lithuania. The 'firil: 
name they ^ owe fo the cbanceHpr^s being - 
pr^^detit :m thenif and the' hitter to the Ve«fi^ 
fqrfiid^fi^ J and mailers in chancery ^bein^' 
airc0Qf;a:(/). c :To thefe^ courts^ appeals' lij^i 
ffpin th$ tpnrnrcoucts; :..^ j;/* 

. 2. The re^tion*cpurt, which is held i^^ 
the^king'^ pre&nce, and the fenators, witb*^ 
the pd.iriiAer^ of ilate^ ar? aieilbrs./ A Te4* 
feFen<}4ry proclaims the ca;ufes, the coiin- ' 
ie|lorQ fpeak pro and con, and the.chan<»' 
ceUpr pronounces fentence according to the 
majority of fuflfrages* The Courland and ; 
Livonian a^airs come under the cognizance 
of ^his coi^rt. Sometimes appeals ^r(r 
bfppght before it from the afTelTorial codrts, : 
and fometimes: the king himfelf calls up 
caufes frqm, it$ deterrnination. 3. The 
diet-courtt which is held during the diet, - 
by the king and the fcnate^ together with 

(i) Sketch, &c. 

(/J Lcngnkh, Lib* III. c«p« viii, § xlii. p. 189. 

7 eigh» 

mgh^am MpreioifUthres. It trks crioM* 
^inft the ftatci^ aodothor cnminal oaulbs j 
^iib4 proQouncea fimtenoe acoovdiflg to amh-^ 
j«dlty.of. votca ;.4. The upper oouncrjr 
courts^ or tribunals inftituted by. faing Stt^ 
/ pb90 fee the; kiogdotn: «f Fdmd ttd the 
Great Diicbjr of Litboania*. Theiedetar- 
ijufie^. Wftthoiatappnl^ all proceife^ €f Ae 
HObilitft botbiaomLanitpcttalcftfisiw The 
PolSAt upper coaatvy cottrts were at fiift 
held atnaBHy* at Bctrkrow for Greet Poland^ 
aad: afterwards atXiddm for Little P^deiid, 
hy the fame judges,^ who were perdf fpi^ 
ritual and partly temporalis and eveqr year* 
cbcfynk by the diocefe^ the waytModf^ps* 
4Uld firee coitttfritt* The prefideac of the 
if^taal» is always the dder of fAie two 
prebendedea dented by the dioceie cf 
Gneffaa; the. teeoporal choofe a aiarflial^ 
iiiho is gener^y^a fraatjor^ with the title 
of marfliaLof the tt-ibuaaL* 

The upper eoocitry court jfor Litbttaafia^ 
of which n6 eedefi^c can- be a member^ 
ixioets annually at Vilna ; and^ after fitting 
twenty-*two weeks, removes to Novogrodec 
Of Miniks for the iame fpace of tirae» fit* 
ting every othier year alternately at tfaefe two 
cities. 5* The treafary court, which is held 
annually for fix weeks at Radom in Poland, 
and con^ijts of fbtn» fcnators appointed by 


POLAND. »9jl 

die king, and the reprefenutt^^ of the 
nobility, one from each waywodihip. Both 
tke fbripcr and latter hold their office two 
jipars. ' The hafinefs of this court k to levy 
tbc aitew6 of taxes, to punifli mUhetfk^ 
tioD6, and to pay the ariny out of the monies 
eoll«dted« Accordingly the mufter rolls are 
laid before it, and fwom to. It examiaea 
the complaints of the inhabitants againft the 
troops, and of feldlers againft &e officers, 
ju4gii^ without appeal* 

JLitbuaniji hat no particular treafory^ 
ceuit ; but it is held annually fay the upper 
coajitry court/ 6« The marifaars court 
tfM^s cognisance, not only of all peribna 
beloogiiig to the court, but likewi£e of all' 
crimes and trefpafies committed in die 
king's courts or within the diftance of three 
mileSw It liJcewiie has the infpe&ion of the 
pcrfice, and (ks in the king's palace de die 
in diem. y. The referendary court, fo 
called from being held by the referendaries ^ 
tbefe determine differences between tbe> 
pofiefibrs of the crown lands, and the far«^ 
mcrs of them (/»). 8. The courts martial 
are entirely dependant on theiield^marflial'^, 

(») Concerning all thele opper coiimi fee l^ngaiA, Ltb. . 
yV, cap. xiih 


^(^<jt PRESENT! Srr ATE o» EUROPE. 

w}>o appcints the members, }md caufcis the 
. .f^ptences to be put in execution {n). :• i 
. I^aftly,, 9f .The .Captur-cp»rt (70)4 -jto 
j|Qt ]to be 9VK^H^Aii tl^ough held only dintng 
ah interregniipfir for the pqblic fafety*-: A«- 
<?or4ingly ijts juri/di<aiofi U coiifin^dtoxw- 
minal cafes^ as hpmic^^. jf(^tiag .fire to 
any thing, robbery, &c. {o)^ , ; . , . 

'f S EC T. XLVIIli 7 

Forces. Poland formerly had no ftanding arnw j 

every one,. in time of: wait, turned ftl- 
dbri: and nobility and' geiitry, burghers 
^d peafants, Jippeared in the 'field. Ca^' 
fimir tbeiGreat,'and Ladifl^ii^ Jagellon firft 
raifed foldiers>i .who were chiefly foreigners ; • 
and thefe, cm a peace, /wdre cashiered.* 
The firft ftanding body oF /troops was feen 
under king Sigifmund Akiguilus^ and the/e 
were called Quartans, from a quarter of 
the crown lands being, in 1562, aflighed 
£pr their fupport j they were cantoned 
on the frontiers of Ruffia and Podolia, to 
defend thofe countries agatnft the inroads 

(») Sketchy &c. p. 163. 

(7P) The word Captar, Id Polifli, properly figntliefe a 
cap, or hood, but figuratively ?n alliauce formed by the fimtes 
of the kingdom durio? an interregnum* for^maintaining ihc 
public tranquiHity. Thefe alliances, perhaps, have givea 
name to the court inftituted for the like purpbfes. Scel»eng< 
nich. Lib. II. cap. iii. 

(^) Xicngnich, Lib. IL cap. iii. 

P O L A N 0. l<Jt 

of the Tartars. The Quartans (71) not 
being fufficient, for fuch a fervice, more- 
troops, both horfe and foot, were raifed ; 
and the flates provided for their mainte* 
nance. But the Polifih infantry being very 
bad, Germans and Hungarians were raifedj 
and the two armies, of Poland and Lithna** 
nUj had their origin. Since the time of 
icing Cafimir the Great, the great men and 
nobility have likewife taken' upon them- 
iHves to levy troops and fupport them {p)i 
and particularly this is thejr cuftom during 
an interregnum. In the year 1716, the 
two armies were. new-modelled, and now; 
confift of national and foreign troops ; the 
former are all cavalry, clothed and armed in 
tbe Poliih manner ; the latter in the Ger- 
man, or foreign mode. Some of the horfe 
are called hulfars^ and thefe are generally 
Poliih gentlemen, and term themfelves 
Towarezyz. They were formerly armed 
cap-a-pee, and at prefent as cuirafliers.' 
Others are diftinguifhed by the name o£ 
Pantzers; and though their arms are fome- 
thing lighter, they wear cuiraffes, to which 
indeed their names allude ; to thefe muft 

(71) Though the Quartans are mentioned in all the^ec-. 
tioQ- com pads of the kings, yec no fuch word is ioand ia> 
the lift of the army, as xegulatcd in the year 1716. X^eog-i 
jiich. Lib. IV. c. viii. 
. Oh Lengnicb, Lib. IV. cap. v'liL 



be added fome fquadrons of Tartars (72) 
and ColTackSy who are quite light troopa. 
The foreign troops confift of dragoons and 
infantry, and are divided into regiments 1 
and the national into polks or brigadea {q). 
The Poli(h crown-army confifts of four 
pulks of national troops. 

Firil pulk, called by the king's name. 

Four troops of buflisirst the bodyr 
companies of loo, the others of 
55 men, — -p— 265 

Twenty troops of pantzers or cuiraf- 
fiers, a body-troop of 100, the 
others of 50 men, — — 1050 

Four fquadrons of Tartars and Cof-- 
lacks, of 125 men, with an indc-' 
pendant troop of 50, — 550 

Second pulk, which bears the name of the 

prince- royal.- 
Four troops of hufTars, a body- troop 

of 80, the three others of 55 men, 245 
Nineteen troops of pantzcrs, a body- 
troop of 80, the others of 50 men, 980 


(72) Thefe are generally called Ulans, probably from 
colonel Ulane6zky» who firft brought them iDto the Poliih 
fervice, vnder icing Sigirmund Augiiftiu. LengAich,Lxb.lV. 
cap. vHi. 

(f) Leiigni€h» Id, Ibid. 



Third pulk^ or the crown iield^aarihal's. 
Four troops of huiTars^ as above. 245 

Nineteen troops of pantseers or coi* 

rafliers -oi- -— 980 

Two fquad. of Tartars of 125 mea> 250 

Fourdi pulk, or the fub-field-marfhal's. 
Four troops of huflars^ as above. 
Nineteen troops of cuiraffiers — > 
Two fquad. of Tartars of 100 men^ 


The foreign troops are : 

Seven regiments of dragoons^ the 
firft called the dragoon guards of 
1 000, and the others of 500 men. 400^ 

Seven regiments of foot^ the firft 
called the bodyguard, of 3000 
men, the two next of 1000, one 
of 900, two of 850^ and one of 
536 men. — — 8136 

Three companies of Hungarians or 
Janiflaries, as a life-guard for the 
crown<*great-mar(hal, the crown- 
field-marihal, and the fub-field- 
marihal ; the two former of I50, 
the laft of 100. — - 


Total of jhe crown army 18526 



Tbe Lithijanian army confifts in national 
Iroops of : . - " 

Six troops of huflars^ the Jirft as the 
body troop, of loo^ 4he three fol* 
lowing of jOf '^nd the two laft of 
45 men, - — — 400< 

Twcnty-feven troops of pantzersi 
' whom the Lithuanians call Pety^ 
boris, divided into four pulks, 1240 
Twenty troops of Tartars and Cof- 
, .facks (Letkics) — — i 700 

. _ Foreign Troops* 

Four regiments o( dragoons, the 
firft as the body guard of 600, 
the others of" 300 men, — 1500 

^rce regiments of foot;, the firft as 
the body guard of 100, the others^ 
of 425 mcn^' / — -. 1850 

One company of artillery, — 1 50 

Fouf, cotopanies of Janiflaries — — 400 

Total of the Lithuanian army (r). 6240 

By thefe lifts the two armies ftiould con- 
fift of 24766 men ; but in the fund af- 
iigned for the fupport of thefe troops, ra- 
tions and allowances being reckoned only 

(r) Sketch, &c. p. 172. 


POLAND. 305 

for rank and file ; a great number of theie 
muft be fubtratfted to make up the deficit- 
cncies in the pay of the officers ; and ac- 
cordingly the dedudtion from the real 
numbers amounts to one half^ confeqiiently 
the two armies make but about 12^000 
men {s). 


This as the republic's ordinary force ; Rai^i of 
but on urgent neceffity, the king, withihy."^^* 
confent of the ftates> may raife the whole 
Bohility^ which the Poles call Pofpolite 
Rufzenie, i. e« a general campaign^ All 
the nobility and gentry, (a few excepted on 
account of their employment) and all who 
}iold crown lands, and burghers with free- 
holdst arc bound to appear in the field on 
liorfcback. The towns furnifh waggons 
and pther implements 1 . the nobility and 
gentry pf every waywodfhip repair to the 
rendessvous, headed by their waywode. 
They are not, however, obliged to flay 
there above a fortnight, and, if not led 
againfl the enemy by that time, they may 
return home^ The nobility likewife are 
not to be led beyond the frontiers againfl 
their inclination ; their only commander in . 

(#) FRNn ihe Polifli Monitor^ Numlm IV. 

Vol. IIL X chief 

chief bf iog the king* ejrcrpt in aa iiiteiTC|^ 
.iittm# when th«y are un<ter the crovif fidkf^ 
mar^h^I. The kft Pofpolttes, or raifing of 
the nobility^ were m tbe years i6sit aod 
1^7^ {f)' S,ueh in expeditiQa .would at 
pr ^pjt b« 9f li(ile fervice. The art of war 
being totally changed; fuch a comfuhd^ 
raw multitude^ without dirciplioeaod:obe«* 
dience to the officers^ could nerer dd^aay 
tbiag againft European rtgnlara. fho 
Aiort time that the nobility ^u« {Mtftd-m 
keep the field, the difficiilty of ftiMUUiig^ 
fuch a prodigious number ^ men 'tod 
horfeS) and the defolaiipn of die cmmtrjT' 
attending fuch an encampfpent> With other 
iiiconveniencies^ ipeak loudly i^iiA a; 
Pofpolite. According to the prof^hl 06 
a certain great priqoe^ it would te ondl* 
better to difpenfe the nobility frooi thii ^»^* 
cumbrance, and tax the rich to payibr;ilir 
fupport of a greater Qumber of regular 
troops (75). But it is fi:arce to be hoppi 

(f) Leognhht Lib.IV. oip« viii. .,. 

(73) S^^ LaVoix Libre da Citojroi, P* I4Q' 9 inin 
wlMve tb«» 9fs»pofal it laid iomn at la^. TbatV«o^ ^ 
fides theaoutihty of cbe Po^li(% tpd th^ C'^ <>Vcq4|^' 
nfencies uoavoidably Mending u» addndA ftnotber ttMhu 
for tea aboliflMDOttt, tbe 4t»ett of ibr njbilltr bek^i^ 
tally cut ofi* at once, and baned i« a Mi of battle. S«t I 
own focb a danger feem^ Ikde to be i^pitheiided ^ 'de^jfeiv 
in'U'hich the whole vanquiflied' party it cat to nifrft^ ava 
outofdate. TJHpil^ofmdtAafj^Wgr««t|rJMtttl|r 


J^'' p6t AND. 307 

thait iuc^ an innovation will e?er be a^e4 

S E C T. L. 

T^ Poles have bat few fi>rtified placei } p«riita 
Mul ttp the country fcaroe any, the nobflity ''****' 
lookng on thnn both as unneceffiury and 
ijarigrrrr to their Uberty: only in Podo« 
litk Camimec and 2^aiiiofcie hsn been for- 
tifiod, as barriers againft the Turksi thoogh 
ibe Ittier, at prelent, it of little impor- 
ftooei Tawtrdt Ruffla, Brattdenbmg, ami 
S^ofiiW ^ oeuotry Hes quite open.' Cra^ 
cam» however coafiderable fonnerly, is Hod 
teB»ke^t pvefent. Thorn in Pruflia way 
qnc^A ftrong place, but in the kft Swedifli' 
war, th^ workfl were entirely raied. Elb- 
io^ was Ukewile a fortification $ but Dstt^ 
aidk -is turn the caij {dace deierving that 

S fi C T. LI. 

^ ^me fcave advanced that no money wai*^ 
coined in Poland brforc the fourteenth 
cmtnryy but this is a,iaiftak<:, Poland bad 

both gold- and filvor coifts^;fo early as the 
eleventh. The imntagHfc was a royal pre- 


rogativc, till Cafimir the Great, and La* 
diHaus Jagdlon excrcifed it with the advice 
and confetit of the fenators ; afterwards the 
nobility being admitted into, the govcrn- 
ment^ their aflent likewife becanie necef- 
faryi and thus the coinage was included 
in the diet's deliberations {x)^ The profit 
of the . mintage accrued to the king, 
till Sigifinund III. refigned it to the re-* 
public ip 1632 (JJ. It has been fettled 
by convention with Lithuania, Priiffia, and 
Courland^ that all thofe countries ihould 
coin their money according to the Polifh 
ftandard : yet was the republic itfelf the 
£rft in deviating from the rule; for the 
two armies having, in John Cafimir*s timey 
entered into an open confederacy, on ac- 
count of their arrears, the ftates of the king- 
dom, to appeafc the mutiny by paying the 
• foldiers, had recourfe to coining lighter 
money. Accordingly the coinage was 
farmed to two private pcrfons, Titus Livius 
Boratin and Andrevv Tympf, who deluging 
the kingdom with their bafe money (74), 
occafioned great confuiions in the Polifh 
coin and private trade. The flates of the 

(;r) LengnicB, Lib. IV. cap. xix; 

O) Id. Lib. If. cap. X, » 

.(74) The guildera coined by Tympf, whicli were aboQt 
half tbtk intrinfick worth, have always gone by hh namr. 
Lepgnich^ Lib. IV. cap. m. 



kingdom were for remedying thcfe evils^* 
by cauiing the money to be laid up in cof«^ 
fers, .till, the making of a new cdid, con- 
cerning the coin. But diet after diet com-« 
ing to no refblution on this bead» the mo« 
ney remained coffered up {z)., till at laft« 
under the prefent king^ new money has^ 
been coined. 

The Poles reckon by guilders, groiches^ 
and fchillipgs. A guilder is thirty grofchjes* 
and a grofche three fchillings. 

By the new ftandard'of 1765, the Cologne 
mark of fine Giver makes, in coinagis, 
eighty-four Polifli guilders, in th^ follow* 
hijg proportion to the new Gernian mo-, 
npy, of which a fine mark makes twenty 

In S I L V E R. 

QoU. Or. 

A fpecie dollar at 8 Polifli guilder? i • 8 

pieces of 4 9 16 

^ 08 

15 Gr* o jj 

7; P I 

In C O P P E R- 

Pieces of three and one Polifli grofche^ 
and in likemanner^ Schillings. 

(*). Lcngiiich. Lib. IV. cap. xii. Sec alfo hU Hiftoiy of ' 
pQUnd> -p* 230. 

. X3 P«- 




Ducats are fixed a( i6 i PoIUh 9f4h^iff^^ 
The filvcr money is coined at W%^^|v, aiyl 
the copper at Cracow. ^, 

Poli(h Pfuffia ftiU retaining the old .Pc^flj 
ftandard^ a PruflSan guilder is worth ifVX{f ^ 
thing above two polifh guildepsf, ^fi 
Tyrnpfs, which were coined for a gVi^lt^Qt 
or thirty grofches Polifli, afterwai^ fi/29^ 
jn Poland to thirty-eight grofches, i^ ^ru^Ba 
go only for eighteen grofches that couptr^ 
money (tf). 

« k CT. UI. 

The kJni^i There was, formerly, no difference be- 
tweeh the king's and the republic's rcvC'** 
nues ; the king impofing taxcfs as circui»p 
itftnces required, fuited then} to lii$ pwa 
necefiities, and thofe of the cotatnon^- 
wealth. But king Lewis declaring 4|, lus 
fubjeds exempt from taxes (^)^ t& ^g's 
revenue arofe from the laxids beloogiag to 
him within the kingdopl. Thefe ind^e^ 
were once very confiderable, but have 
been gradually diminished by grants an^ 
fales, mortgages, and donations dttrid)( 

life, as the ftarofties (75), fiefs, {76), .bai» 

» * ** ■ • 

. U) Lfnaoieh, Lib. IV. «. «i. - • . J 

[i) Id. Lib. IV. cap. xi. 

(7J) •Capitaneatn*. See above, 9tSk KXX^:' .""^ 
(76) In Latin thcjr are ^e4 Ttimtifj, ud conM of tII» 

- ':V; >^oL A N dV ' : 

fiiKdcs (7^). And thde tbree forU of hndi 
•te fliofe wfaicb, at pre/e|)t, sTrb called 
erawa famds, though very imprdperly (i:)j 
not thd leaft jpfofit or ad^antdjgfe a^crom^. 
to ikt kii^ from tmm^ he being obliget) 
cm Onir becbming vabant, itAmediattty fo 
^i^ofr of them (iij. Thus the iitcomcs 
jndoniifiBg to the kiftg, being too fc^nty for 
tbc ^tpjpQvtaf faithoufbold, it became Ae^ 
eeUktf for mhers to^ le affigft^d fo hirti, 
trhkh Lcthsaaiadid in the year 158$/ and 
fdkrd in 1590* Thefd ccnfifted cf fivt^ 
rd parceb of land in Lhhuanict, the- old 
eisftoms (78 >, the Cracow and Hirilia T^k* 
\^orks^ the fiircr mine at Ofkufe (79), the 
tKiroftii;sof Sendomir and Sambor; fevc- 
%& bilates in Pra^a^ called the ftewarties of 
IBfa^tolMirg^ Dnkhaih and Roggenhaofen ; 
^tilmktskhesait^ ra atnd about Cracow (80), 

C* (17) itf Latiii Ai^f$tati49^ by which areimdarAood forrai, 
JtoMnwty ^miHi» pabKckhoufes, and^M Of more viHagea. 
3'/w I<^»'Lih. IL cap. x- 

* (7^) ThB €ttflotat in Palimt «e the dtf and new ; the 
ifft'meri^ foeh is were impoM before the rri^ of iciiifrSicrif. 
jpji^n^ the letter stre pofteriOr to that time, Leiigiiich» 

• i<^^). CTh^ produce of the mine*works was once very rich* 
apd th«^ were viaorouily carried on by private perA>o<» wha. 
peSl a certain d'edaftion to the kln^ ; but they have now 
iQiirfincc^ laid w^fte. Lengnicb, Lib, 11. C9p* x. 


fS)) 'Tlieft are eilled Magna Procuratio Cracovien£s| 
and-ftae adminiiEbatoi^ of them had formerly the title of M«{« 
iuit Procorator. Thcfe efcheats were formerly very ooofi* 

" X 4 the 


the pier*money at £lbing» and half of.tliat 
• at Dantzick (Si). Tbcfe revenues m» 
called Royal Board Lands, OEconomies and 
OEconomical Lands {e), and muft be caie? 
fully difllnguifhed from the abovementiooed 
crown land;* The king is not to duninMh 
(hem I and as little is he allowed to eii« 
creafe them ; neither can he farm them to 
any other than PoliOi .noblcmcQ, refidiog- 
in the palatinates. The produce of them is 
fo very fmall as not to make a million of 
PoliOi guilders good Pruflian money; fo that 
king 'Michael, who had nothing but the 
Board Table Lands, could hardly koep yf 
any thin^ of a kingly grandeur ffj^ , . 


]repui>)ic*f The republic's revenues confift mofUy m 
taxes and impofts, as, the ca& 
excife on all kinds of liquors, beer, mead, 
wine, brandy 5 the cabaret- tax, payable 
by retailers of liquors i the excife on provi* 
iions and other neceiTaries ; the capitation 
or poll-tax s the Jews tax, which is* oftw 
failed ; the tax on foreigrt traders and Tar* 

df rable ; but they are at prefent farmed for 20,000 fplUb 
gaildcrs per annum. Lengnich, Lib. 11. c. x.- 

(81) This is a 4ttty payablt by goods cosungto.botli' 
thefe cities by fea, 
(/) Id. Ibid. • ' 

(/) Id. Ibid, . - 

. ^ tars 



tars in Lithuania ; tin} tax on houfes^ 
commottly called fmoke money^ levied oh 
all hofdfes in town and country ; the new 
ctiftott9»^ &c. Some of theie tates are con- ' 
Diant/ others only occaiionaU and . tempo- 
rary*' "Though -taxes are not to be im- 
pofedDut by the unanimous confent of the 
ftates^^ yet is it not required that they agree 
ia one kind of taxes, which accordingly 
are di'fferent in Poland and Lithuania, and 
not unfrequently even in fihgle way wod- 

Among riia^ lands and rev^hAes of the re- 
pafa4ic may likewife be reckoned certain 
funds and interefts lying in the kingdoms of 
Naples, and to which the Poles lay claim^ 
though they never yet could get poflcffion of 
them (82). • The neat produce of all the faid 

{g) Lengnichy Lib. IV. c. xi» 

(82) The repaUic's claim on thefe funds are derived from 
queen Bona, coDfort to Sigifmand I. and daughter to John 
Galeazzo Sforza» duke of Milan. On the demife of her 
^oufe, ihe returned to Italy in 1556, and in the following 
year died at Ban in the kingdom of Naples. The king of 
Spain owed her 430^000 Neapolitan ducats> as king of Na- 
plesy and had aligned her 44*400 ducats annually as intereH, 
payable out of the cuiloms of Foggia. She ^nd her chil^ 
dren being dead, part of this capital devolved to her grand- 
iim Siglfsiund III. who, at his eledion-compadk, aligned 
it over to the republic ; yet both he and his fons Ladiflaus 
IV. and John Cafimir, took care conflantly to receive the 
iptertfi, ThQ .repoblit ha> fince ufed many fniitlefs endea*' 
vours to procure the payment of the capital or tntereft, which 
has always met with infuperable difficulties amidd the many 
nevolntioni diat have, happeued in the kingdom of Naples* 
Lengnichy Lib. £[. cap. xv» 


lands tmonnti in the kingdom of Pubni C6 
6»o86,o48Jccint. Oiit of wlitch iwfsiAi' 

I. For tlje crttwft trmjr 5^30,856 

*. Tbe artUkry ^ H7»79« 

3. Smidler matters -« - 16^8 

Total s,s^s*i^i 
Romaiader 5oo^a6 

The whole f?veouf of Utlrat* 

, J. P^ f9i nMMitaiaingilieli-- . - 

^^fof^ciH-tillorjr . «m #^j«oo 

Total g,r3<r,627 
Remainder 185^00. 

SEC r. LIV. 

Atried. Though the foil in Poland be fruitful, 
far 18 It fronj being properly; calti^ted : 
not lefs than a fourth ^m U computod to 
lie wafte. On thi^ account king Staniilaac 
carneftly exhorted the PoIi& aobUiiv and 
gentry to treat their peafants with more 
equity and kindnefi, and e««n|>t then 
firon) villanage, as it would tend greatly to 
the improveineDt of tbetr ^y^ eftates, to 
« the 

vi^ -. - P L A N D^ 3i| 

^ pof^uktum of th« kingdcuB^ md It ke^ 
vri^ 4i#^& -wealth and plony (^). 

S £ C T. LV. 
: . .Poland has ficw or no manufaduret or M>Rofic- 
;fAt^ricks. The inhabitante* iodeedt have'''''''' 
Utile-inclination or ability for fuch undcr^ 
takings. The Poles either defpife or detefl; 
TQ^^tgnerSy cfpeciallj if of a different reli- 
gion ; a temper which muft neceffkrily 
hurt trade- and population : for who will 
einplpj his nioney or his talents, where be 
fees nothing bvtobftrttdiion and malevolence, 
a|]4 «aq^pe^ none of thofe advantiages, 
* ^Mch invite to a fettlement and animate 

:;■ SECT. LVI. 

Poland indeed carries on no fsnall land mat. 
trade, and from Dantzick alfo by fea. It 
exports oxen, hor(es, hides, wool, feathers, 
urax^ com, hops, cummin, annifeed, tim- 
ber, pot-afh, linen, &c. of which laft^ 
n)iiniiodities the Dutch particularly fetch 
great quantities. But after all, the Poles 
are no gainers by this trade, as purcha0ng 
tfrom ibroad neceflaries and jfiiperfluities far 
exceeding all their exports. Trade might 


generally be put on a much bpttcr footing 
in this kingdonm, particularly by the great 
conveniency of its mapy rivers ; and by 
means of canals joining fome of them, a 

, communication might be accompliihed 

between the Black Sea and the Baltjck : but 
who is to defray the cofts of fuch a work (/J ? 


Domeftic Thc moft intcrcfting concern of every 
Ih^klng.^^ ftate, is to maintain the form of govern- 
to« of Po- ^gj^^ ^g i^y j^^ eftablifhed. But when ef- 

fential imperfetftions and defeds are mani- 
feft, a change becomes neceffary ; and this 
in the opinion of a writer, who was himfclf 
at the head of this kingdom, is the prefent 
cafe of Poland. Among many defeds 
which he takes notice of in the Polifh coo* 
ftitution, the moft evident and important 
are the abufes of the church lands, the in- 
ftability of the public aflemblies, which 
f raft rates all refolutions ; the diflblution of 
the diets, the inadequatenefs of the fprces 
to the extent of the kingdom, and to the 
power of its neighbours -, the Jow ebb of the 
public ttvenue ; the fcarcity of money, 
arifing from the want of trade ; the op- 
pf eflion and thraldom of the people ; the 

(0 Suf tlcfa's Divine OecoDomy, &c. Vol. II. 


POLAND. ^ :^iy 

want of order and police in every part of 
the government ; the unalterable form c^ 
the eledion of the king (A). He concludes 
with giving his cbuntrymen very excellent 
inflrudions for removing thefe evils^ and 
icttingup a better form of governments 
but, in all appearance, they will never go 
beyond good wiflies, whilfl the nobility ac-^ 
count thfcir Liberum Veto, or the right of 
contradidion at a. diet, the very foul and 
cflcncc of Polifli liberty. 

As to the intereft of Poland relatively ttt Fo«?gn 
foreign powers, its fituation feems very cri- ^'"'''^"' 
tical and dangerous. It is furrounded witb 
very powerful neighbours, and the country; 
on all fides, open and defencelefs ; no for-* 
tified places, and with little or nothing of 
an army, artillery, or money, or any thing 
neccffary in war. " Such a ftate," fays a 
celebrated late writer, " muft, at lengthy 
** come under the yoke; and the day," 
adds he, •* perhaps, is not far off; that day 
*^ will be when the neighbouring powers 
'* {hall have agreed about dividing it (/). 
But fuch an agreement has fo many difficult 
ties, that it is fcarce to be apprehended ;• 
and a multitude of inilances in all ages, 
proves that fuch concerted partitions, what 

/i) La Voix Libre du C2toyen» p. 386. 
(J) M. de Real Science du Gouvern. P. 1. Tom. IL p. 997. 



with the difcofds of tl^e confederated par- 
tieSy and unforefeen incidents, come, to 
nothing; fo that the final cataftrophe* of 
Poland, if to be brought about only hy fuch 
a combinatton, is hf ^tn being fo near as 
the faid writer takes upon him to foretel. 
And though, (etting afidb that cafe, tach 
of the great' powers confining on Poland, 
be, of itfelf, ftrong enough to reduce it, 
yet, without a very great change in Aie af^ 
fairs of Europe, the other neighbours, in- 
dead of permitting it, would haften to (tfc- 
ebur the republic. Thus the jealpui^ jof 
its neighbours, none of whom would 
tamely fee (b important a conqueft In the 
hands of another, is a fure barrier, and 
i!ecures it from all danger of foecoikiing a 
prey to a conqueror, I may fay, from any 
hoftile attempt. But this prefuppo/es Po- 
land adhering to a pacific fyftem,; and not 
moleflingor making war on its neighbpursi 
fdt, in this ca(e, though it ihould, from 
the foregoing reafons, efcape being brought 
under a foreignvdominion, it would at lead' 
be a great lofer, and obliged to (ubmit to ai) 
ioglorious peace. 


- - P O Ir A K D. •> '' ^ '%ip 

SECT. LVin. 
The principal treaties between FolandTictdM; 
and other powers (83) are : 

I. With PR'ANeE(«). 

H. Wi* DENMARK («)/ 

m. With SWEDEN (tf). 

IV. With the Ttbotonic Order 
Treaty of peace of the 19th of Odober 
1466 {fi, 


Trfaties l . Of the 24thof Aug, 1 335 (^^i 
a. Ojf the ift of May 1553 (r). 

VI. With H U.N GARY, 
Treaty of the 8th of November 141a (/), 

^83) M. Dogid, befidei hit defcripdoo of tlw bovndariw 
of Pouad, bM poblilha4 tk* ^Itowfnff Tolmniiioiit work; 
Fcden^Coiivendonet,LitMii|i, ct«wdc«ti^ sennit A Aa . 
PlgWMiilkMr Raigiiua Mowtt ct Bohemiam, Hoogariua. . 
ttq. Tarn. L VilB«» 1758. fol. Tom, Y. U»d. 1759. VW. 
Jaaxoakv Hmnn^ V«W. {>■ S^^4* 

(») Chap. iv. 

in) Chap. vii. 

(/) vn Mont, Ctupit Sf plan. Tom. III. P. t |b 34S. 

If) Id. Tom. I.. P. n. p. leo. 

(r) Id. Tom. I. P. lLj>. M{. 

(i) Rodl^ Sappkm. iW 1. P. H. p. 331. 

VII. With 



VII. With the HOUSE of AUSTRIA^ 

Defcnfive and ofFenfive alliance of the 
31ft of March 1683 (/)• 



Treaties i. of the 19th of September 
1657 (u) i of the 6th of May 1657 (x). 

Treaty of peace, i. of 1634 fyj ; truce 
of the 30th of January 1667 {z) $ 3. peace 
of the 14th of April 1686 {a); 4. defen- 
five and offenfive alliance againft Charles 
XI. of Sweden (^). 


Treaties of peace, 1. of 162 1 (r) ; 2. of 
the 18th of Oaober 1672 {J) 5 3, of the 
i6thof Oftober 1676 {e) ; 4. of the 12th 
of Odober 1679 (/) 5 5. of the 26th of 

(/) Du Mont, Tom. VII, P. IL p. 6a. 
(«) Id. Tom, VI. P. II. p. loi. 
(x) Puifendorff de Reb. CdL Frid. Wilh. M. Lib. VI. 
p. 387. 

( jr) LudoIPs Ttieatrum Mundi, P. IL p. 361.^ 
(«) Dttmonty Tom. VIL P. I. p. 4. 
la) Id. Tom. VI. P. II. p. W. 

{h) RoQiTet: Supplem. Tom. II. Part 11. p. 38. 
(r) J)tt Mont, Tom. V, P. XI. p. 371. 
\d^ Id. Tom. VII. P. I. p. 212. 
{e) Id. Tom. VIL P. L p. 325. 
(/) Id.Tom.VU. P.Lp.43S» 


• 1>OLaN£). 3ar 

Januaiy 1699 {g) i 6. treaty concerning .li- 
mits, of the 14th of November 1703 (J>). 


HiAories of Poland have been written by iSAariiai. 
piugofz(84), Cromar(85), Fulfzftin (86), 
Neugebaacr (87),jpengnich (88), and Solig- 
nac (89). 

S E C T. LX. 

Dcfcriptions of the kingdom, and flc-Ac«>.«ttrf 
counts of the conftitution of Poland, are to J',"*"** 
DC found in Cromrs (90), Staravolfky (91), . 

iz) Da Mont, Tom, VII. P. IL p. 452. 
{b) Roaflet. Supplcm. Tom. II. ?• JI. p. 57. 

(84) Hifiorise Polonicse Libri XIII. ex Bib)ioth«ca et cum 
pnefatione Henn L. B* de Huyflen» 2 Tomi, Lipf* 1711^ 
1712. fol. ^ To the fecond volume are added, u Vincent. 
Kadlobkonis Hiftoria Polonica ; 2. Staniilai Sarnici Anna- 
les; 3. Stantflai Orichovii Olcfti Annalei; 4. Illuftrium 
Viroium Epiftols, Opera Stab ifl. Camcovii| 5, Suniil. Sar* 
nicii Defcriptio Poloniz et Rufiis* 

(85) De Origine et Qcftu Polonoram,, Ub, XXX* Colo- 
oise, 1589, fol. 

(86; Chronica five Hiftoria^ Polonicae compendiofa De* . 
fcriptio. Baiilcse, 1615, 410. 

{Z-j) Hifloria Rcrum Polonicarom libris decen concinnata. 
Hanovix, 1618, 410. 

(88) Miftoria Poiona a Lecho in Annum 1748, deduAa ; 
Gedani, 1748, 8vo. A tranflatlon of this has been publifliei , 
20 German. 

(89) Hifloire Generale de Pologne, 5 Tomes, i Arofter- 
dam, 17$ I. This has likewife been tranflated into Ger*^^ 
man, with notes and additions. 

^ (90) PoIonisB Qentifque et ReapHblics Polonicae Defcrip* 
cionis, Libri Il« 

(91) i^olonia^ Wratiflari«, 1734. This is the neweft 

Vol. JII. Y Cella- 


Cellariufi (92), HautevUk (93), Lefignich I 
(94), and other writers (95.) 

(92) Regtii Polonx^ Magniqae Docatni LithaaDic omni* 
nmqoe Regionam Jori Polonico fubjeftarttm novtlEaili De<» 
Icriptio. Amftelodami, 16599 121110. ^ 

(95) Relation Hiftolriqae de Pologne^ conteoantle pon- 
▼qir de fes Rois, leor Elcaiooy & kur Conrosiiea^eoty les Pn« 
vitegea de la Noblefle» la Religion, la Jaftice, lei Mocari 
et les Inclioattoni dea Poto&ois, a tuis, 16^79 i2ino.-* 

(94) Jni Pttblieum Regni Poloni, 2 Tomi, GckUnt 17^X9 
1 746, 8to« Thii has been tranflated intotfolifli by M. Mo&c- 
zenlky. , 

(95) Reladon de I'Etat de Pologne & de la Repnbliqoe^ ! 
16889 1 2010. fiy an anooymous auchor. 

Memoires fur le Goavernement de Pologne» k Manheim» 
>759« ^v^« 'I*^* likewife has been tranflated into Gerauui. 


■ ■ ■ ■ I . - I . ■ . I > I. t 

■fc i H ^. I .I ff I I r , r n mf ■■■ M l f i r ii, \ ^ , *, i , , ,, t, , |, i|| ^ 






Of the Empire of RUSSIA. 


FOREIGNERS in general ufed toK.«« 
call Ruffia by the name of Mufcovy, 
from the capital of the empire i znd 
the people M ufcovites : it is only in the 
prefent century that the pamc of Ruffia is 
grown fcommoo. It is unqueftionably de- 
rived from the ifthabitjintB the Ruili ; bat 
the origin of this, name is npt fo certain* 
S<Hne deduce it from Ru8 the fgppofed 
founder of the empire, whom they make 
brother to Lechs the firft Polifli prince i 
ibme from a tpwn of great antiquity fo 
called; fo^ie from the peoples red hair, 
Y % who> 


who, on that account, were nick-named 
RofTen ; and others again, from the apcient 
Roxolani [a) ; all which at beft are but du- 
bious conjectures, and fome manifeftly erro- 
neous. The moft antiient known inha- 
bitants of Ruffia were named Tfchuden and 
of Finnish extradion, ^but expelled or fub- 
dued by the Slavi and the^proper predecef* 
fbrs of the RuOians. In the middle ceo*^ 
tury the Wareges or fcafaring people, a 
mixture of Swedes, Danes, and Norwe^- 
ans, eroding the Baltic, came into thefe parts 
and very probably were firfl called Ruf- 
fians by the Finlanders (i), and to the fame 
people the Slavi feem likewife to have 
owed that name. Thefe afterwards be- 
coming fubjeA to the Waregers now called 
Ruffians^ the name of their conquerors was 
given to them, and at length to the country 
itfelf (2) ; as Gaul received the liame of 
France from the Franks, and Britain of 
England from the Angles* 

{a) Herberftein in Commentar. Rer. Mafcovic, 'p» i. 
Stnhlenberg's North and Baft Parts of £iirope aad Afia, 
p- 168. . . 

(1) For to this day» the Finlanders call the Swedm Ruf- 
iians, or properly Rofla.Laine* tfaongh on whu* acetMnit i« 
not known. r.\ T' 

^2) This is the derivation of the name of Riiflift» for 
which Mr. MoUer, profeflbr at Peterlbnrgk dtdates;r«s •moft 
probable. Di/Tert. de Originibos Gentis et Nomioia Rullb- 
runs, Petropoli, 1749. Bat the fale of that learned work has 
been prohibited, 


- RUSSIA; 325 

S E C T. 11. 

The Ruffian empire reaches longitudinally s;tMti<m, 

/• f t »t jr' extent, too 

from the 40th to 205th deg. and from 10 to)imiu. v 
25 deg. north lat. fo that its greateft length 
is 1 245 geographical miles, and its greateft 
breadth 375. Its whole furface is com- 
puted at 300^000 fuch miles, containing 
more than one third of Europe and near as 
much of the continent of Aiia: thus in ex* 
tent it exceeds any monarchy in the uni- 
verie either ancient or modern (3), and is 
one continued trad without the leaft repa- 
ration by any foreign countries interven- 
ing (4). Weft ward it confines, on Po- 
land, the Baltic, and Sweden ; northward, 
on the North and Frozen Sea ; eaft ward on 
the ftreight which Yeparates Alia from 
America (5), and the eaftern ocean ; fouth- 

{$) According to M. Voltaire, the Ruffian empire is above 
],ioo»ooo fquare leagues in extent, that is, as large 
again aa all Alexander's dominions, or the fo ihtich boaiied 
Roman empire itfelf. Hift. de r£mpire de Ruffie, fous 
Pierre le Grand, Tom. I. cb. ii. 

(4) From Riga to Anadirflcoi-Oftrog, which is the moft 
cmftern Ruffian colony, is a journey of 11,299 wci'A'» i* e« 
above 1600 geographical miles ; and all along through the 
Ruffian dominions. 

(5) That America U feparated from the north eaft part of 
Afia, only by a narrow ftreieht, has been (hewn by Mr. 
Muller from the accounts of Ruffian mariners. Captain 
Beering, a Dane, in the year 1741, in his voyage from 
Knmtfchatka eaftward, adnally dtfcovered the continent of 
America at the 5;5th and 56th degree of north latitude. P. 


y 7 ward 


ward on Great-Tartary, and particularly 
Mungalia, a dependency of China, the 
countries of the Caracalpacks ; likewife on 
the empire of Perfia and Leffcr Tartary, as 
it is called {6). 

cfimttcaid The parts of the Ruffian dominions be* 
ing of fuch an extentj lie under differenif 
climates (6), cohfequently there muft be a 
difference in the quality of the air and the 
heat and cold* It is, however, obftrvcd, 
/ that the latttcr is far greater than in thrf 
weftern parts of Europfe under the fame la- 
titude {c). 

V* Havens, Nye og Forbcdrede Efterratnin^er om det Ruf» 
iSih Rige, Deel. II. cap. iii. p. 26, 27, &C. 

(^) See Voltaire's Hiilory' of the Rnffiaa Empire atider 
peter the Great, Vol. I. cap. i. 

(6) This may be fufficiencly ieen h the ^trf dffFer«iic da* 
ration of the longeft and ihorteft days, at fome places in the 
foutbern, middle, and northern pares of this vatl empir?. 

For at Aftracan, thp longeft day is 15 hours, 36 jninates, 
sad the fborceft 8 hours 24 minutes. 

At Kiow, the longefl day is 16 h. 14 n. aad the fliorteft' 
7 h. 46.01. 

At Mofcow, the^longeft day is 17 h. 14 m. and die fhortdft 
6 h. 46 m. 

At Toboliky the longeil day is 17 h. 5x10. tiieihdrttil 
6h. Sm. 

At Peterlburgy the longeft day is s8 h. 3c m. a«d tke 
ihorteA 5 h. 30 m. 

A great part of the Ruffian empire lies ftiH mort to tht 
northward than Archangel; and in the longeft days the fiw 
IS not feen to fet, as in the (horteft not (een to rife, Bufch* 
ing's Geography, Vol. I. p. 399. 

(r) Bttfching's Geography, article Rai&a« 


.RUSSIA. ja; 

S E C T, IV. • 
The Ei]ropean diviiion of the Ruflian em-» 
pire i&t for the moil: part> a level country^ 
but in the Afiatic are feveral vaft moan-» 
tainst particularly the ftupendous chain ex-* 
tending itfelf from the Frozen Sea to 
the length of fixteen degrees fouthward^ 
by the ancientft called the Riphean moun-^ 
tains, by the RufGtns Kamenoi or We« 
liki-Poyas, " girdle ^f ftones or great 
•• rocks/' likeWife Poyos Semnoi, " the 
«* earth's girdle {J):' In the extremities 
of Siberia, are feveral volcanos {e). 

S E C T. V. 

Ruflia is watered by a great many largeRiten. 
rivers. In the European part of it are the 
Wolga, vrhich difcharges itfelf into the 
Cafpian fca i the Don, into the fea of Afoph ; 
the Nieper into the Black Sea ; the Dwina, 
into the Frozen Sea; the Duna, into the 
Baltick; the Neva, into theGulph of Fin* 
land. In the Afiatic parts, befides the 
Wolga beforementioned, are the Jaik, the 
Jem or Gihum, of which the former runs 
into the Cafpian fea, the latter into that of 
Aral I the Ob or Obi, the Jeaifei, the 

(d) Strablcaberr. 
(/) Iden. 

y 4 Lena, 


Lena, an^ the Anadir. The three former 
join the Frozen Sea, the fourth the ftreigkc 
between Alia and America. • 

Rufila, befidee tbefe rivers has V^veral 
large inland lakes, as in the European 
parts thq Peipus, the Ladoga, and Onega i 
land in the Afiatick the Cafpian Sea» along 
^hich lies the kingdom of Aftracait i like« 
wife the lakes Aral, Baikal, Akin, or, 9S 
the Ruffians call it (7), Tcldkoi Ofero. 

S E Cf T. VL 

tt^m^f The difFcrcnt fituationjs of the countrj 
naturally caufe a remarkable diff<?ref)ce in 
its fertility, which if very deficient in the 
northern parts, is hot to be complained of 
in the middlei and in the foutb^ra it is 
abundant (8). The animal kingdom af«- 

(7) Theie and other targe rivers and lakes are defirnfect! 
inprc at large in Bufching'j Qeo^rapby j andPernrjia hit 
State of Ruifia, gives an entertainipg account oi fome re^ 
snarkable paf ticuUrs in the CafptaD-fea. * 

(8) Strahlemberg divides Ruffia into four parts ;. thej$rft 
between the 7ocb and 6oth degree of north latitude ; tQ^e 
fecond between the 6oth and 57th ( the third between the' 
r7th and ; and the fourth betwixt the, j(^cK AndAard- 
The fira IS deftitiite of corn, fruit-trees, and gardeir'efea* 
lents, but abounds with berries -and (hrubs of varioiiskwdSft 
wild-fbwly and fi(h, and is but thinly inhabitefi ; the^fe* 
cood is Icfs dreary, the inhabitants fohving fome torn, HA 
breeding cpws« flieep, eoats» and ^horfes^.'^j^rd. hfnt 
plenty of corn, fruits, and vegetables ; the fourth, in which 
are Ukraine and Aftracan, abouitds in * vegvt'abfesy' fMii; 
and grains of all kinds- Adracan likewife produces wine,bttt 
good fyx. Ht^e» by xeafon of ihc ffttiAe^d nitmoiibl, fod 
wUl not teej^* . . 


RUSSIA. 329 

fords a fuffictcncy of black cattle^ goats» 
ihccp, horfesy vcnifon of all kinds, ftags, 
elks, rcin-dccr, wild- boars, fallow decrs, 
hares; with many beafts of prey, as 
bears, wolves, foxes, &c. In Siberia are 
likewife thofe beafls, the fkins of which 
are very valuable, as fable, hyenas, ermin, 
black, blue, red, white, and other un« 
common kinds of foxes, fquirrels, beavers^ 
and lynxes : tame and wild-fbwl, as turkeys^ 
pheafants, moorfowl, partridges, wood>» 
cocks, geefe, and ducks, may be faid to fwarni 
there. The lakes and rivers abound with va^ 
xiety of 6fli, the beft and (9) largeft of which 
are the beluga and the flurgeon, which 
laft, the Ruffians call citrine or ofletrine. 

Ruflia has very large forefts of oak^ 
beach, pine, firs, birch, larch, and many 
other forts of trees. Siberia affords a kind 
of cedar, but beyond the 6oth deg. of north 
lat. little elfe is to be had but brufh-wood 
The middle and fouthern parts have plenty 
of fruit-trees of all kinds, as likewife of 
garden plants; and the Aflracan melons are 
famous. The country here and there pro- 
duces all kind of grain, as rye, barley» 
buck- wheats peas, and vetches; but no 
oatSr except a few about JVIofcow, and 

<9) Tile foes of the bdtogft and dorg^n make tfae ca- 
?iar. The former is accounted the befi. Strahlenberg^ p. 342. 



tbefe but Very indifibrent. Some places pro* 
duce hemp and flax ; and in, the Ukraine 
tobacco begins more and more to be calti- 
vated. But the country, of which a ^reat 
parti efpecially in Siberia, lies wade, might 
be turned to greater advantage, with a 
proper fpirit of induftry. and more mo- 
hey and people to fecond it.- 

The mineral kingdonfi in Ruffia is very 
Confiderable, affording a great number of 
iron and copper-ores (lo), and fome in Si- 
beria, which contain gold and filver (r j). 
Here are likewife found topazes, agates, 
eomelians, green jafper fpeckled with red, 
Mufcovy-glafs, very large magnets, and 
even whole mountains of magnet, and the 
northern parts afford pit-coal.; HeYe are 
falt-»)akes and falc-fprings^ which yield k 
fait as white as fnow, befides a whole modtio- 

(to) The fiill fearcb after filver and copper ores was (et 
cm foot about the year 1491, under John Baftiowitz; bat this 
wurky probably, Was fbon difcontiaued, fsr« 
ther account concerning it. Under Michaelowitz, a Dane 
and a Hollander fet up a regular iron mine-worjc, ninety 
werftt frpm Mofcew^ which iliil contsniiet to be worked. 
The emperor Peter I. caufed the mines of Olonefi and Ca< 
tbarinenDurg, tobe conAradled/and Inftituted a mioeooK 
lege. More copper and iron ores have been finca dii«ov<erfd, 
and are worked by private perfons. 

(11) According to publick acciimts t)ie Siberian oiiiid* 
works in March 1764^ delivered into the imperial treafiiry 
tioo pounds of gold, and 16,000 pOunds^ of fitver; bat 
without fpecifying of how long a time fuch a quantity mgbt 

1^ the produce* 


RUSSIA. 33t 

tarn of fait;, thirty fathom deep and twd 
hundred in length, and confifting of a very 
hard» and tranfparent fait, and abfolutely 
pure. Within the earth along the rivers 
Obi, Jenifei, Lena,* and others, are found 
what is called Mammonts Bones, which 
probably are elephants bones and teeth; 
and accordingly are worked as ivory {J^}. ^ 


The Ruffian empire containing a vcryttvifioo. 
great part. both of Europe and Afia, the 
geographers very properly divide it inta 
European and Afiatic. But, as the many and 
large countries, of which it at prefent con* 
fids, inftead of having always belonged to 
it, have been fucceffively brought under the 
dominion of Ruffia by war, this has occa- 
iioned the divifion into Proper Ruffia, and 
the Conquered Countries. The former con- 
fifts of Great, Small, and White Ruffia (12). 
Among thefe were, i . In Europe, part of 
Fihland ; next Ihgermanland, Livonia 
and. Efthoma. 2. In Alia, the kingdoms 
of Cafan, Aftracan, and Siberia. But the 
emperor Peter divided the empire in a 

</) Bafclrin^, Anit)t l^ufliir. - 

(tc) The countries no^ ealled Little and White Ruffia 
wete, for fotne centuriei, in the hands of the Poles, and from . 
them t«ceived thoie names; when theyivere afterwards re- 
covered by the Raffians, the czats inserted them in their title* 
The oamc of Great Ruffia wa) ufcd long before. 


manner entirely neWt erecting out of all the 
countries, belonging to it, firft' eight, than 
nine, and afterwards ten goyernments {g). 
Thefe have been encreafed by his fuccef- 
ibrs tofixtcen, i. That of Mofcpw. 2. Of 
Novogrod. 3. Of Archangel. 4/" Of 
Nifchnci-Novogrod. 5. Of Woronitz. 
Thefe five compofe Great Ruffia. 6. Of 
Kiow. 7. Of Belgorod. Thefe two make 
Little Ruffia (i 3). 8. That of Smolenfko. 
which confifts of White Ruilia (14). 
9* That of Riga. lo. Rcval. 11. Pc- 
tcrfburg. 12. Wyburg. Thefe four in- 
dude Livonia, Efthonia, Ingernianland, 
and part of Finland. 13* Aftracan. 14. 
Orenburg. 15. Cafan. 16. Siberia (15). 

Ig) Strahlembergy p. i8o. 

fi5) This is commonly called tlie Uknuoe* i« e. Prontier- 
LiiHi, and is »liabi^d by theCoflackSy who are difiinnsiih- 
cd by the name of MaloroffiOce, i. e. Little Ruffia Co£cks. 
' (14) This is a part of White Ruffia, belonging C6 Lithaa- 
nia. which, with the before- mentioned Little Raffia, was 
ceded to Poland in the truce of i667» and ^terwarda more 
(•ny at the peace in 1685. 

(15) ACofacnamed JermakTimofew, was the inftrunent, 
in a very extraordinary manner, of Siberia coming under the 
^Dnunioo of theRoffians, who were not long in extending 
themselves, fo that at the end of the fixteenth centory, they 
hid reduced M the north«eaft part oF Alia. In the year 
iiSo8^ another Coflac, by name Adaflbf, fnbdiied the pen« 
infula of Kamfcbsitka, the moft remote coontry beWngii^ to 
the government of Siberia. The h^toy of Kamticbatka, and 
t^e KnriJflcy-Iflands, pubHfhed in the Rnffian language, and 
tranflated by James Grieve, (Gloixceftcr, 1764, axo.) The 
government o^ Siberia is the largeft, being no lets than 800 
Qerman miles in length, and 309 in breadth s it is divided in- 


RUSSIA. 333 

Tthcfc four conftitutc the Afiatick part 6if 
the Ruffian empire {h). 

All the countries and territories which 
make part of the Rufllan empire are infepa"^ 
rably conneded i fo that there is fcarcc znf 
fenfible difference between the chief country 
and the dependencies, except the provinces 
taken from theSwedes, which retaining their 
former rights by virtue of treaties of peace, 
on fome particulars are on a better footing 
than the*antient dominions. 

The Raffiilns are originally Slav! or Sla- onpaM^ 
vbnians, and accounted deicendant^ of thc^c '•***"'*^' 
SUvoni&n colonies, which in the times of very 
remote antiquity dwelt along the Volga^ 
and afterwards along the Danube in the 
parts occupied by Bulgaria and Hungary. 
But; according to the relations of old Ruf- 
fian hiftorians, being driven from thence by 
the Wolochern or Wolotanern, by whom 
tbey meant the Romans, they removed to the 
banks of the Neiper, from whence, after 
making themfclves matters of Poland, they 
fpread themfclves farther into the Eaftern 


ito.tbne provinces^ Tobol(Id» Janifei^^aad Jrkut, only the 
Ucter* ioftead of beiog under (he govcfrnor, has a vice-go* 
< terndfy who i»-iadepeii dent of him. 

{i) Coacerning all cheie ^vernixientSy fee Voltaire's Hift. 
of, t^ Ruffian empire underrecer the Great» Vol. L cap. i. 


parts of Ruflia^ expelling or fubduing the 
Tfchuden its antient inhabitants (16)^ 
The time and more particular circumftances 
of thefe tranfadtions are uncertain, except 
that in the ninth century, the Ware- 
gers came hither from Scaadinavia and 
virere by the inhabitant called Ra0ians (/% 
Thefe afterwards reduced the Slavj, l^tp 
' at the fame time fo intermixing with them 
as to become one people, under one com^ 
mon name : for the Novogrod Slavi cboft 
for their fovereigns three brothers, Ruric, 

(16) So the Ruffian hiftorians call them* whereas foMgn- 
crs diftingtii(h them by the name of Scythians ; and thia 
m9^t$ no contradi^ojif the analogy of the aames plainly 
. indicating the Tfchuden and Scythians to havic been ooe pcx># 
pie. The author of the Lettres Mofcovites, however, gives 
• quite difoem origin to the Aojianf, allcdgiog, inm He* 
fodotusy Lib. IV. c. ill. and Tuftin, Lib. III. c. 5. that the 
Scythians having been long dctaineid abroad in their third 
Awdc e^pedicioB» according to Herpdotus iwenty-eighc 
years, and Juitin't account only eight, dieir impatient wivea 
jnairied their fiaves, who, xin the return of tfodr former 
inafters, oppofed their entranec into the cquiiuy, fword ia 
hand, but the Scythians put them to the rout only by 
Ibourges: hereupon tihc defisatad ilaves bene their fiighc 
nordiwards to a counQry at that time ttmnhabited, whi^h 
their defcendants dill poflefs, and that this country was 
^led Riifslaodt as the pUce to which they had Aed is Atil 
known by the name of Clepigorod^ L e. $iave*s-Towji. 
The author is hugely pleafed with this coticeit, (voyez la 
iMXr. V.p. 143, 144. et laPotfaqe* p. f$s* 35^) v^hich 
he» by a great miftake, reprefeots as ibmething new, and 
very acceptable tQ philpfopny, though he has not given the 
lead degree of probability to it ; Herodotus and Jvftin beiw 
whptlv llenr as to the place or country to whic^b the flavea 
betook themfelve9 after their defeats 

W Sep %bpye. Sea. L 


RUSSIA: 335 

Sinau, and Truvor, who were Waregcrs. 
They had divided the country between 
they» but the two laid dyings Ruric be-- 
<;aaie folc fovcrcign (17). He was fuc-sy,; 
ceeded by his Ton Igor : but, by reafen oS 
his minority, the government was com«^ 
mitted to Qleg, a near relation of his^ who 
reduced the fouthem parts of Ruffia, and 
refnoved the refidence to Kiow. It was^ij. 
not till after ius deceafe that Igor took on 
himfelf the government, and he fell in %^^. 
battle sgainft the Drulands, and Swatoilaw 
bis fon being a minor, his confort Olga 
was made regSnt. She embraced the Chrif^ 
tian faith, and, on that account, was fur«^ 
named the Holy. Swatoflaw's martial tern- 964. 
per proved fatal to him in an aftion on the 
banks of the Neiper, againft the Petfchengs : ^^^ 
his ddeft fbn Jaropolk reigned after him, but 
was murdered by the pradices of Walde*^ 
tnir his younger brother, who feized on 
the government. He afterwards was CQn-,si. 
verted to Chriftianityi^ in which his cx^ , 
ample was followed by great numbers of 
his fubjeSs. After him Swatopolk, hisiois. 

(17) Mr. Haven relates, from an old chronicle, thatRnriq 
came to Rnffia from Stargorod in Waregen ; this he itluf* 
tmn hj Oldenburgh in Wragia, adding, that Ruric called 
Ills n€W (ettlement Novogorod, in memory of the former^ 
that his arms was a buiFaloe^s head, and he originally a Van- 
4aM«il« Havfn'9 Sfc^rritninger, Oeel. I. cap. yii. lU* M9^ 

I or 


or his brother Jaropolk's fon, afcended the 
throne ; but having caufed three of his bro«^ 
thers to be put to death, another of tl^nij 
by name Jaroflaw, forced him to fly the 

toiC country, and poiTefled himfelf of the Ruffian 
monarchy which, at that time, confided of 
Novogrod and Kiow. Perpetual difcords 
and enmities prevailed among his fons and 
fucceflbrs, one continually dethroning ar^- 

s"4* tber, till his grandfon Wladimir Monoma* 
chus reftored the public tranquillity. He 
took a journey into Greece, and the em* 
peror Alexis Comnenus prefenting him 
with the diadem, which diftinguifhed princes 
of thofe times, he caufed himfelf to be 

ti%s» crowned czar and abfolute monarch of Rufiia. 
He was no fooner in his grave than the in-» 
teftine feuds broke out again ; the regular 
fucceiiion was difregarded amidft the con* 
tefts of thofe ambitious princes, all ftriving 
by force and fraud to raife themfelves to 
the throne, and fometimes it was filled by 
two at a time. Andrew, a grandfon of Wla-^ 
dimir Monomachus, removed the refidence 

list. of the court from Kiow to Wladimir. The 
empire having in the mean time been ex- 
tremely weakened by partitions and do- 

ii3<* meftic quarrels, the Tartars invaded Ruffia, 
and Chan Bathi made the great dukes of 
Ruffia vafifals ; fo that he and his fucceflors 


RUSSIA* 337 

naifed and depofed them at pleafurei laid 
tributes^ and exercifed an unlimited autho- 
rity over them. About this time, how* 
ever, Alexander, great prince of Novo- 
grod, a defcendant of Wlademir Mo^- xs5>, 
nomachusj fignalized himielf in Livonia by 
his atchievements againfl the Swedes and ns^ 
the Knights of the Sword 5 but towards the 
cloie of his life he reiigned the fovereignty, 
and retired into a convent (18). His twonsi. 
fons Andrew and Daniel reigned after him, 
though not immediately, the former at 
Wlademir, the latter at Mofcowi and 
both clofed their lives after the example of 
their father. Iwan, Daniel's younger fon,z329, 
was inflalled by the Tartars as great prince 
both of Wlademir and Mofcow. His eldefl <34<>« 
ion Simon fucceeding him, was afterwards 
eleded great prince of Novogrod. On his 1353, 
deceafe the Tartars conferred the government 
on the fecond fon Iwan j who, like wife, with 
their confent, was fucceeded by his fon 
Demetrius, though not immediately* Af-^ 1361, 
ter his demifc his Ton Wafilisi, or Bafil, . 
was advanced to the fovereignty^ and after . 

(iS) The RnSao church Tainted him, and even Peter I. 
ereded a ftately convent ^ him, on the field of one of his 
moft fignal vifiories, and caafed his body to be brought thi- 
ther from Wladimir ; iaftttuting likewife an order of his \. 
nams and ihe czaxiaa Elizabeth had a filver ^ffin made 
for his bones. 

• Vol. Ill, Z him 


13^. him hifr fi>n» who Was accordingly Called 

<4i5* Bafil Baiilowitz i tho' not withoat great op'- 
pofitidn#and'eycn having his eyes put out by 
Jurje» his coafin> which canfcd bim to be 

146s. nicknamed The Blind. His fon John I. 
or John Bafilowitz* at length (hook off the 
Tartarian yoke, in which ho was not a 
little aflifted by the prudence and fagacicy 
of his fecond ipoufe Sophiai a princeft de« 

«47«- fcended from the Palaeologi, emperors of 
Greece. He reducdd'the opulent and power- 
ful city of Novogrod, which had hitherto 
fet up for independency, demolifhing^ the 
far greater part of it. He fubjeded the 
princes of Severien and the kings of Cafan 
under bis dominion, and fo extended his 
Conquefts on all fides, that he may be 
looked on as the fotmder of the Ruffian 

i5<»5« : empire in its prefent amplitude. His foh 
and fucceflbr Bafilowitz added to his em« 

1514. phcr Plefkow and Smolenfko ; and his fbn 

John Bafilowitz II. conquered the two 

. Tartarian kingdoms of Cafan and Affra- 

^^54. can. But in Livonia and Efthotiia his 
arms had little fuccefs, unleis in barbt- 
roufly ravaging thofe countries with fire 

1577* and fword. In his lafl: years, however, he 
had the: iatisfadion of feeing the firfl pro- 
greiTes towards the conqueft of Siberia*. 


ttiftoi^ terms him terribic and cftt^ (19^), 
but in- other rcfpeds he vi^is a prince of 
great capacity, and attcntiye^^ to ev«iy 
political improvement. He wffis fuccecd-,rt4i 
ed bf hiis fon Fcodpr I. whg t^ing a 
weak And timorous prince/ bfs father>ih- 
law Boris Godunoff governed, in liis ilamc, 
Boris was ambitious and crafty, paving bi«" 
Wayjta the throne; and the better .to re- 
move obftfudions he caufcd Demetrius the 
*^.«^'?.:y5?Hngcr s^nd only brother, to b« 
^W£4«.«4r. which; proved a fource of in-',an 
cxprefl^ble calamities to Rudia. 

On the demife <?£ Fcodor, t^e.laft of 459$. 
tlic RuEJc famjiy,. Boris, by dint of. artifice- 
sui4 sdU kinds of illegal pradiccs, got him- 
fcif chofcn czar. But an impoftor, <3rifchka< 
^fi^fi^^/pretcnding to be the murdered De- 
metrius, and having gained a confidcraWe 
party both in Poland and Ruffi^ marched.' 
to Mofcow with a great force, which filled 
the czar with fuch terrors that he prevented i«m. 
the inapcnding troobles by taking poifoo. 
His ^ucccflbr ix\ the throne was bis fott 
Fepdor ; but on Grifchka appearing before. 
Moftow, he was defcrted l^ dl, and after 

(ipjf *rKe dejebrafccTTreuer him enJeavdured to dear Wm'^ 
nthiffeitttiack im hi* A^xdogia plrb Joanne Bafilide Ty- ' 

Z a a mock 

a mock reign of only fijf weeks^ put to 
death by the conqueror's 'commahd. Grif- 
chka now aiTumed the government by the 
name of Demetrius; but was fb unequal 
to the flation, and fb difliked by the RuC- 
fianSj that» by the contrivance of Baiil 

*^* Schniflcoy, he and fevcral Poles were ma£- 
* j^cred^ Hereupon Bafil became czar» but 
a fuppofititious Demetrius ftarting up fbon 
. after, the Ruffians of all degrees fpHt into 
parties, and applied to the Poles and 
Swedes for help. Scrme even chofe Ladif^ 
laus, fon to Sigifmund IIL king of Pdland» 
and having caufed Bafil Schnifkoy to un«« 
: dergo the monachal tonfure, delivered hinx 
up to the king of Poland; The Poles 
likewife made themfelves mafters of the 
city of Mofcow, and fubdued Smolenfko^ 
Severien, and Zeraichow. On the other 
hand, the Swedes took Novogrod and other 
places, whilft anarchy with all its calamities ' 
daily encreafed. 

Some patriotic Ruffians had at length' 

i6ix. the good fortune to drive the Polifli gar«> 
rifon out of Mofcow ; whereupon the elec« 

,6,3. tion of a czar being taken in hand with- 
out delay» Michael Feodorowitz Roma« 

rtjy. now was chpfcn. He rcflorcd the tran- 
quility of the nation both at lioine mnii 
abroad, though not without fome loffcs, 


R U S S I A. 341 

yielding to Sweden, at the peace of Stolr 
bow, Ingermaoland, and Carelia; aiid to 
the Poles Smolenfko, Severien, and Zer-i^is. 
nichow, by the truqe at Divilina, which 1634. 
afterwards was changed into a fettled peace 
by the treaty of Viafma. But his Ton and i^s* 
fucceflbr Alexis, availing himfelf of the 
CoiTacks having revolted againft the Poles, 1654. 
not only recovered thefe provinces, but 
likewife reduced Kiow and the Ukraine ««55- 
beyond the Niepcr. His eldcft fon FeodoriSTS. 
Alexiowitz fucceeded him in the throne }^ 
' but being a prince of a weakly conftitution 
died after a reign of fix years, without heirs« i68t. 
His two brothers, John and Peter, were 
hereupon proclaimed czars ; and, by reafon 
of the imbecility of the former, and the 
youth of the latter, the government was 
committed to their iifter Sophia. But this 
princefs, who had an ambition equal to her 
addrefs, forming fchemes to raife herfelf to 
tbe throne, her brother Peter, on being ap- ,5,^ 
prifed of the plot, clapped her at once into a 
convent, and took the government into his 
own hands, his brother John having willingly 
refigned it. He not only aggrandized his 
empire by large conquefts north ward (20) and 

(^o) The Swedes at tlie peace of Nieftadt 1721, ceded to 
KoCa, Ifivofik, Bftbofiia, Ingennanland, and a part of Fin- 

Z 3 fouth- 


fouthward (21)/ but likewife introduced 
trade^ manufadturess and all the arts of 
"vrar and pcace» which till then had 'beeo 
unknown, and improved favage Ruflik into 
a civilized and regular ftate. He was the 

iWf firft of the Ruffian monarchs Who ftile4 
himfelf emperor. At his demifc;, his grands 
fon Peter II, was the Only prince of thQ 
imperial family furviving ; yct^ inilead of 
Immediately fuccecding him, Catharine^ 
the emprcfs dowager, was preferred, and 

iTst. before her death fhe declared this youn^ 

i^t. prince her fucccffor, but he died without 
heirs before he bad enjoyed the throne 
quite three years. Hereupon the fpiritual 
end temporal grandees of Ruffia, together 
with the fenate, eleded Anne, dutchefs 

ini« dowager of Courland,. youngefl: daughter 
to czar John Alcxowitz. She powerfully 
affifted Frederic Auguftus eledlor of Saxony 
in obtaining the crown of Poland, and af«» 
terwards, on account of the depredations 
citimmittcd in the Ukraine by the Crioi 
Tartars, made war on the Turks, and took 

WJf* frona them Azoph, Oczakow, and Molda- 
via ; but all was given back at the peace, 

1744. Before her deceafe, fhe had nominated for 
her fucceflbr John HI, fpn to bcr niece 

(ti) JlcKtch Tamafib ceded ieveral provinces to Peter l,- 


R\U SSI A. 543 

^noe^ an infant of tbree oioqths old j an4 
the coont of Biroq^ who» by ber means^ bad 
bfien cboi«n duke pf Courland in 17379 
Wfsdeclar^ r^ent of tbe empire, during 
bis . mioori ty. But be was foon difpoiTefied 
of the regency by the young emperor's mo- 
ther, \rho aiTunaed it under the title of 
Great Dutcbefs. She bad icarce tailed of 
iavereignty when J^isabeth, youngefti^^,. 
4»ughter to Peter L in one night placed 
h^rfelf on the throne. This priacefs put a 
¥ery happy and honourable end to the 
war (22) which Sweden had began under 1743* I 
the former government, and improved this 
opportunity to get Adolphos Frederic, duke 
. of Holftein and biihop of Lubeck, declared 
fucccilbr to the crown of Sweden. Pur- 1746. 
fuant to a clofe alliance into which fbe en^ 
tcrcd with Auftria, (he made, war on Pruflia, 
which being bare of troops her forces cafily 
took poileffion of, and it appeared as if her 
intention was to keep thefe conquefts 1 but 
ihe did not live to fee the end of the war. 
Her lifter's fon Peter III. duke of Holfteiii, ^^^ 
who fucceeded her in the government, havr 
ing been nominated long before, not only 
i:]apped up a peace but likewife entered intp 

(tt) SwfdcB, hj the tteaty of peace at Abo, in 1743, 
etdled the previace of KymiMttiprd, Kgethtr with mt 

Z 4 a dole 


a clofe alliance with the king of Pruflia, as 
a means of making good his pretention to 
Slefwick againft Denmark: but in the 
midft of his preparations he» by a no Icis 
a(loni{hing than fudden change of fortime^ 
was deprived both of crown and life, and 
his fpoufe raifed to the throne by the name 
of Catharine IL In the continuance of the 
war between Pruilia and Auftria, ihe ob- 

17^ ferved a neutrality, but afterwards leagued 
with the king of Prufiia, and both joined 
in promoting the eledion of count Staniflaus 
Auguftus Poniatowfky, to the crown of Po-- 

S E C T. IX. 

chsrafter ' Thc vaft circuit of the Ruffian empire 

SLi^**''^' contains a multitude of nations very dif- 
ferent in their manners, way of living, Ian- 
guage^ and religion. The Ruffians them- 
felves, as the chief nation, have not long 
fince been dcfcribed as favagc, fcrvilc (23), 
rudely ignorant (24), and given up to glut- 
tony and other vices {i). They might be 
faid to be detached from the other Euro- 
peans, having little trade or intercourfe 

(33) Servituti gens naU ad omnt libercatit Teftigiam fctoK 
eft ; placida fi prematur. Barclaiat in Icon. Animor. cap. 
viii. P* 4$i« 

, ' (24) Fertnr popnlos adeo liceraram rudis efle, ot paoci, 
inter Ulos volgatiflimaa precci nemoria tencaiit, qoibos iia«> 
men propidamas. Ibid. 
- it) Sre Olearius Travek. 


R U S S I A, 34^ 

with them ; and in their apparel and fbme 
cuftoms, morerefembled the Maticks (25). 
They were likewile extremely tenacious of 
their ancient manners and ufages, and with 
all their fubmiflion and paffive obedience to 
their monarcfas (26), (hewed aft tmcommon 
obftinacyand refradorinefs at any alt^a* 
tibn^ though in matters quite indi£Feitnt, 
as admitting a new fafhion inftead of an 
old one (27). Peter I. was therofbreput to 
no little difficulty to bring about the great 
alterations which he had plannedj many of 
which were not confined to eacternals, but 
thwarting the very genius and temperof 
the people. His firmnefs and the inter- 
mixed ufe of corrofives and lenitives, gra- 
dually accompliihed his views, and gave a 
new appearance both to the people and the 
fiate. The introdudion of arts and fciences 
and foreigners of abilities, and encouraging 
the young noblemen to travel, fo contrary 
to their former cuflom, have greatly con- 
tributed to humanize and improve the 

(25) So lately as the beginning of the great Northern 
war, they nfed tp make a fale of the Svmifli prifoners. 
WcW, V0I.L p,4i6. 

(26) Ultro fiitentor Princtpi fe fervire» illi in faas opes, 
in corpora, vitamque jus efle. Barclai. L c. 

(27} The fhaving of the l)eard, and a new manner of 
dreffingy enjoined by Peter I. occafioned great difcontents. 
He was exclaimed againft as a tyrant ; and in Aftracan thefe 
frivolous inncfvations excited a general inforrefiion. Perry, . 
p. 3oS» ^309. Stnhlemberg, p. 248, 249. 


^atipi)* The R4%ns» if general^ are of 
9Q honefty ferk^ counCenj^Dfe aa4 car* 
riage.; ha^e a verjr good patural under* 
jft^odH)g» a Arong {^laginatiioa, and, con- 
fequentiy, iog^nui^ and fir^t; withal %re 
Y€|;y veh^qo^pt if) tl^ir ]:^i)ipf^ $ apd great 
lc>yers of whatever ftrikes the ^c, ffwogfa, 
i)P a clofer view, it has neither fyff^mj^^ 
4Dfdec or beauty,^ and fofQe £iy this (a/lc 
declare^ itfelf in their tav^ns ^^d j^oufcs. 
In coo)mon )ife.thiqy are full of cef'eqfio-* 
Aies» and tedf(^ in the^r mark3 of refjpied ; 
if\\t vc(y p6af;|fits ufe ti^es of eminence 
tpvif^rds one another. I|i their ^pp^M'el, 
si|ih|Gh is generally in a foreign cut, per- 
sons {>f any rank both male ^nd fcm^e zw 
very fond of (hew anjd richne^ s the latter, 
from the higheO: to the lo^eil ufe p^nt, 
accounting that there can be no beauty 
without a fluih in the face. The coa\» 
monalty live a wretched life, without £p 
npimch as what may properly be called a 
window, looking glafs, chair, bed, or bed* 
fiead in their dwellings, and their fare all 
the year round is turneps, cabbages, r^^ 
difhes, onions, peafe, and a fmall pittance of 
flefh or fifli. They breed up their chil- 
dren hard, and enure them betimes to heat 
•and cold ; it is cuftomary to bathe them in 
warm water, plunging them immediately 

I after 

RUSSIA. 347 

after In co)4> or in winter in the fnow i 
and this practice is continp^d wh«n grown 
up, frequent bathing, at leaft ooce pr twice 
a week, being deemed oot only a point of 
cleanlinefs, but abfolutely neceifary to health 
(28). This in reality hardens them fo, that 
it muft be owned they bear the inclemen- 
cies of the air beyond any other nation. 
One of their. hereditary vices is fondnefs for 
ilrong and fpirituous liquors, which among 
the commonalty is excefiivc; and fo little 
is drunkennefs accounted a vice or difgrace, 
that, at certain feafons, both men and wo* 
men are feen reeling about the ftreets. 
Having always been accuftomed to a fevere 
and arbitrary government, and the power of ' 
parents over their children, of buibands 
over their wives, and mailers over fervants 
being almofl uncircumfcribed (/), they pay 
great refpedt to their fuperiors, and fubmit 
to their commands, if not contrary to certain 
favorite cuflopis or prejudices, with the 
moil refigned obedience (m). Since Pe- 
tervL plots and tumults have been feldom 
heard of; for as to the violent revolutions 

(2l) Befides the ufiial baths 10 the bflgoips, they have 
(hree other kinds, one of which they nfe as the moft e|IeG^ 
toal medicament in anv violent diftemper. Weber, P. I. 

(/) Supplement to the Hiftory pf Ro^ a Cermao work, 
p. 56. . . 

(«r) HaTen^ P, I. chap, ^isit 

of the throne^ but a very fmall number of 
perfons were concerned in thofe events ; all 
the part the people aded being only to ac« 
knowledge the new ibvereign, and be as du- 
tiful and fabmiifive to him as they were to 
the former. 

S E C T. X. 

i«>«»^* The Ruffian language is derived from 
the old Sclavonian, and divided into feveral 
diale&s, a^ thofe of Mofcow, Novogrod» 
Archangel, and Ukraine. It has forty-two 
letters, moftly borrowed from the Greek, 
and a few from the Hebrew (29) : this 
number is owing to their reprefenting two 
or three letters as ch, fch, tfch» ph, ps, 
tz, rs, by iingle and diAindt charaders« 
The fciences in Ruffia being but juft be- 

^ ginning to fhoot forth> their language is 

not yet confidered as one of the learn* 
cd: it is, however, daily improving, and 
made a conveyance of ufeful know- 
ledge ; many books from the ancient and 
modern languages being tranflated into 

(29) According to the Raflian annals, Michael, emperor 
of Conflantinople, fent the Sclavonian letters into Bnlgariay 
aboat the year 6406, according to the Radian chromSogy, 
or 89H of the Chriftian ^ra; and lince that period theRnf- 
fians have begun to take account of their hiftory. Heber- 
Aein Commentar. Rer. Mofcovit. p. 3. But tbeie Sdavo- 
nian charaaers.were no other than thofe ufcd by the Greeki 
in the ninth cencory, 


R U S S I A. 349 

it (30)9 which cannot but greatly* contribute 
to its purity^ elegance^ regularity^ and co-* 

S E C T. XI. 

The Ruffian empire is thirty times asNomberof 
large as France or Germany, but for po- ' 
pulation will not bear any comparifon with 
thole countries : its towns, which in any 
wife deferve that name, are reckoned only. 
358, wJbereas thofe in Germany exceed 2 300, 
exclufive of burroughs and large villages, 
moft of which furpafs Rpffian towns (/r). 
Some compute the inhabitants of theRuffian 
empire at 1 2,000,000 (0), fetting aiide the 
Finlanders^ Livonians, Eilhonians, CoiTacks, ' 
Kalmucs, Tartars, Samoiedes, and Lapland^, 
ers; fo that, including thefeat 3,000,000, the 
total will be 1 5,000,000. Others raife the . 
aggregate number to 24,000,000 {p) : which . 
is a very great difference. On examining- 
the grounds of both calculations, one ap-J 

(30) Peter I. caafcd tranflation* to be made of Caeikr'< • 
Commentaries, Qaindus Curtias, Sleidan's FoarMaBarehies» - 
Poffendorf 'f Introdu^on to Hiftory, aod (evera} othei' a(b« 
fill books. French Tragedies are now tranflated into the* ' 
Ruffian langnage. and aded. 

(ff) Voltaire's Hiflory of the Ruffian Empife, ^c. Vbl^ i. ' 
diap. if. 

(0) Haven, Part I. c. xviii. ' 

(f) Voltaire's Hift. Vol, I. ch. ii. 


356 PRESENT ^Afi o? EtJROPfi, 
l>cart too fmaH (31) and ttie other as mach 
to exceed (32) ^ heftce a mediumi deter-^ 
mining the total of the inhabitants at 
20,000,000, may be nearer cbe truth (33) ; 
whereas if peopled according to its ejn&it, 
tlienumber ftiould atleaft be 20o,ooo^ooo(^)« 
l^his deficiendy of depopulation a cert&in 

,(31) Haven ;gtqmids kh ctlcnlatidh' oii a tat-regtfter of 
1725, which roakei the nambser jof males 5,091 ,S^|(Cft^qt 
Dllthottt inclttding the i^eiafantry in the government; of Wo- 
rontzkoy, Kiow, C«ran,.Aftracaa, anid likewiie Siberia^ aii<| 
tBe iiobodes» or fmall towni s whom adding- to the fortner, 
t9|e(her with' tfeie nKilittiy , the placemen, the no&ility,, and 
the cl«rgy, as ei^mpt fj-om taxft^. h^ eocnafei'thd itiales t§ 
fifDc miltions, with an eqftal n umbtf^ of females, jand thismaket 
t]re total twelve niillions. Bat it is'to be obferved, that the 
tax-regtfterof L72C, was made at a timewfaen th^cocmtry^kAd 
IJeen extremtly exna'ulFed^by a twenty years yrar, (ii^ce whieb 
the fpecies h>8 been confiderablf entre^Jed; and' the d^-' 
f(}ns omitted, as exempt from taxes and on other acoofW, 
nray have ekce^ded Kis computation. 

' ()i) Voltaire Allows a ttx-reglftcr df 1^47, atcorcRnjg^to* 
wliich the taxable diales, children and old men iocli|d«d, 
amounted t6 6,646^,396. This numbet^' he triples* adding 
to it the feo^eli, ^d thus mafces apL hia . tntenly n^Bioas, 
which' is a manifeil exaggeration j-for^ hQw can two females 
be reckoned fbr on€ male ? l\y this groundteis lurptus he 
adds the.perfons exempt froai,tak;es»;thc{ inhabitants. of Li- 
vonia, Efthbn^aj &c. the'Coifacks, Calmncks, Tartari, &c. 
who are not included in the tax-regifter ; and thus will have 
the tot^ of the f«v»ral inhabitants of thts'Rutfan enaplre to 
be twe&t}i4»ibur millions. Vdlaire's Hifl. &c. 

(53) This' is the number at which the celebrated Bufchlng 
rates xhtxxif frbm a tak-'Hsgifier Yrom 1744'to 1751 ^ accord- 
ing to which the male-burghers and peafants, children in- 
cl^cid, of eleven governments amounted' to 6,7 3 2,^33. 
Then adding thofe in the other, five governnients, together 
with the perfons exempted froih taxes, makes the entire 
nomber of males to be ten millions $ and this fura, doubled 
for the females, raifes the total to twenty millions. 

j) See Sttfmilch's Difplay of the Divine Oeconomy, &c. 




R U S S I Ai J51 

writer charges on t!ie RiiiSan cufbni erf 
bathing their childreii in hot, aiid afti»'-* 
wards in coli^ water > and to the tkhivirndF 
prevalence «id^ malighify of the venetcil'' 
diftempei^ particuiarijr in Siberia (y). If 
the ftactfe be dteprivcd of great nninbers df 
ihbabitthttf by thoTe cmtfcs^; the nikhy wars 
in whkrh Rirffia hks b4e& engaged dhtfe the 
beginning of this ccntniy^ itiuft have rib 
left<?oHtfibuted Uy thft depopulation (/); 
cVery canipalgri, frotn fcvcral circum- 
flktt<fc8'('34), cbftihgit? a fitf greater num- 
ber of itieh' dia aHy oAci' fhitc m Europe.- 

SECT. XlPf^ 

l^he RuOiah noBihV coniifted formerly R«ffiM m^ 
of Kniafes^ i, e. princes^ and Divbrenin^^ 1 
or conimbri noblemen (3 5). l^he princes 
tHemfelvesi may be divided into tHreeclai}es»' 

(r) S¥i SkppleiAtk to tlw fliddry of the Rutf ad empiir. 

it) See Mr. Safmilch, Vol. 11. p. 200. 

(34) As thp long marches of the new levies to the rehdea^ 
iro«s, where they'ire tnrght tKmr«xercile, aiid fr6in thtntc 
to the army, which generally lies at a great diflance. Th^ 
hardlhips undergone in thefe fatigaeifweep away a great part 
of the recruits befhretheyotfitfetaitee aa eneifrv; fo'tbat thlT 
Roffians are tnd to have loft in the war with Priiifia« ahov^ 
200,000 men*' 

(as) .!< «» ' mtftake in fbroier writen to fet down tbtf" 
bojars next to the kniafes as noblemen, they haring^pever 
been arlafs of the nobility* Bojar war only a name otomcei 
and a title given to the principal officers of the date and privy 
coonfellors; among whom were foniaiiines kniafcl. Qiaitd 
Pcfcr I. the word ocyar is grown out of ofc. 

i« thofe 


!• thofe defcended from WIademir> or who. 
were raifed to that dignity by him y aqd, 
among tbefe are the Dolgorucki^^ and the 
Repnins; a. fome foreign families, as Gallit- 
fin, Trubetzkoi, Kurakin, Chavpniki, all 
iflued from the old dukes of Lithuania; 
3. and the third clafs is compofed of the new 
created princes, as Cantimio Wplkonikoi, 
Menzikof, but tbefe are not to be con-* 
founded with the petty knialibs of Tartarian 
lineage, who make a body of about two 
hundred families: this title was granted 
them on their conforming to Chiriftianity^ 
when they peremptorily refufed to be bap- 
tifed on any other condition. Otherwife 
they are reckoned only on a level with the 
nobility (/). 

Counts and barons were formerly un- 
known in Ruffia, till Peter I. introduced 
thofe titles, and both he and his fuccelTors 
have not been fparing of them even towards 
foreign families {u). 

Certain families among the untitled no« 
bility, or gentry, . are diftinguilhed by 
privileges, particularly thofe out of which 
the czars formerly chofe their confi>rts, 
having thereby attsuned to great conlide- 
radon and opulence, yet without any 

(/) StralileiBl)er|9 p. ^oi. 
(«) Havea, P. L c xiii* 

$ title. 

tkle (x). The Syn Bojarfkoi, i. e. fbn$ 
of Bojarst us they were called^ had like-* 
wiie ibme diftindion&i nobility not bet- 
ing eilimated merely according to the aitti- 
quity of families or degree of rank, but ac- 
cording to the fmaller or greater number of 
perfons of merit, and eminent ftatejfmen or 
warriors, in which one family exceeds ano-* 
thcr (^). But this occafioning many dif- 
putes about precedence, Fcodor Alexowitz 
put a ftop to thefe bickerings, throwing the 
patents of nobility into the fire, and declar- 
ing that for the future all pre-eminence 
ihould go by merit, without any regard to 
birth {z). The great Peter fully enforced 
this declaration, annexing rank only to ci- 
vil and military pofts, totally aboli(hing the 
derivation of privileges from the fevcral de- 
grees of nobility (a). 

They who, from a low birth, have raifed 
them&lves to be officers, acquire nobility 
for themfelves, and fuch of their iffiie as 
^re born after their preferment (A). 

The nobility compofe the firft clafs of 
thie Kuffian nation ; the two others are the 

(;r) Haxren, P. 1. cap. xiii. 
(jn Strahlembergi p. 301. 
(jb) Id, Ibid. 

(«) Order concerning Precedence, Article VIIL Haven«^ 
p. ij.. 
{*) Ibid. Art. XV. 

Vol, III. A a burgh- 



burghers, who arc circumftanccd juft ai 
in Poland ; and the peafants who are. yaiTals 
. cither to the crown, the clergy, or the no* 
bility. - 

Fimgttife The power of the Ruffian monarchs has 
fita mo-" * always bcc;n the moft arbitrary of all En- 
rope, fo as to have a great* affinity with the 
defpotifm prevailing among the orientals. 
Their fubjc(9:s are fo dependant on them, 
that their perfpns, goods, and hfe itfelf, lie 
at their pleafure, without any fubterfuge or 
contradidiion whatever (36). The govern- 
ment here is fometimes extremely fevcre, 
enaSing uncommon laws (37)1 and inllid- 
ing fhocking punifhments (38). In no 
country are fanguinary executions, fevere 
corporal punifhments, exiles and confifca- 

(36} Honor principi tantus ab ofnnibos defcrtor» qoantut 
vix cogitatione intelligi poteil. Ab ipfo, & non credunt, 
eerte ita crebro fatentur, fe vitam, falutem ombiaqne habere, 
nt et gratise Dei et Olementias magni czarii-— jan£Utriboere 
putentur : et verberati ac propemoduin morientes, id loco 
oeneficii fefe incerdum dicant'acdpere. Anton: Poficvin Com- 
menur. dc Rcb. Mofcovit. P. XVI. p, 6. 

(^7) Peter T. publifhed an order, under pain of deatb, 
againft any one's interceding for another. Weber, Vol. IL 
p. 167. 

(38) The clergy having rcfufed to pay a fubiidy for tfce 
war> and even exhorted the people from the pulpit agaioft 
paying it, John Bafilowitz II. fee twenty of them to fight 
with bears, and they were all torn to pieces, without any in* 
tcrpofjtioti. Weber P. III. Two fenators being convided of 
perjury, Peter I. ordered their tongues to be pulled out with 
ved hot irons. Strahlemberg, p. 238. . 

' tionS| 

"f K V B S I A.' 25S 

tforisi (6 frequent as in Ruflla (351). Here 
h a private chancery, and a private inqui- 
fitibn, where fufpcdled perfons, or who are 
informed againft (40), for having fpofceh or 
for carrying on any evil defigns againft the 
government or the fovcreign, are privately 
tridd (c). Thus the monarch is provided 
with iuificient means for maintaining his 
fovcreignty, and fecuring himfclf againft 
any pra6lices of malecontents. His hand 
raifes the poor and mean from the duft ; 
and one word from him immediately 
cru(hes the great and wealthy ; honour and 
pofts are taken away as fuddenly as con- 
ferred, and the prince and powerful place- 
man of to-day, is the next thrown down 
among the loweft of the populace. Thefe 
arc ftrongly marked tokens of dcfpo- 

It was cuftomary for the monarch of Ruf- scvmief. 
Aa, in the moft important airairs of ftate and muingiu 
government, foa<3: only from his ownim- 

(39) ^ l^A ^^ ^^^ pnncipal perfons who have uiidergoiie 
theie ponifhrnents fr6m 1721. to 17421, is to be found in Ha- 
ven, P. I. cap. xH. 

(40) Czar Alexii Michaelqwitz firll ia/litated the pri- 
vate chancery, for enqniring intogafes relating to his perfon. 
Scrahkmberjg, p. 214.. From the l^w-book which he pub* 
iifhed, falfe informatioofl appeared to have becu very common.; 

{c) Haven, JP, II. cap. xi. 

A a 2 pulfcx 


pulfc, without confulting any other pctionv 
for their approbation or confcnt. ^]k will 
was the only rule of his meafure^ ; s^nd the 
great men and the nobility faw thenifejYci 
bound to the moA implicit fubmiffion p(jually 
with the loweft of the people. It appears, 
however, that they have not been totally 
wanting in endeavours to fejt themfelves at 
liberty, and procure a fhare ip the go- 
vernment. On the eledion of Koias Ba/il 
$chui(koy, after killing the pretended 
Demetrius, he was obliged to promifc 
•* not to make any new laws, nor alter the 
f* former, nor impofe any taxes without 
^ their previous knowledge j'^ and after- 
wards, when Michael Romanoff was ctiofco 
cizarj other conditions were addgdt parti- 
cularly, that he (hould '* maintain and de- 
*' ferid the Greek religion, and neither cn- 
** ter into a war, nor make peace of his 
*' oWn accord (J)." His fon and fucceflbr 
Alexis bound hinifelf at hijs coronation, to 
, the obfervance of the fame conditions; 
and though he immediately entertained ar- 
bitrary defigns, yet he proceeded very cau- 
tipufly, fometimes giving way, and even 
consented to the Bojars making peace with 
iPoland fooncr than he could have wiflicd {e). 

(J) Strahlembefg,' p. ioi, 202, zop. , 
(») lb. p. 212, 214; ' • ' / ' 

^ • " ' But 

k t;"s ^ I A; 357 

£ut under his fiiccelTors no mention was 
biadc of thefe conditions; and the great' 
men jmd nobility funk into fuch tameheis 
and infignificancy as to be flripped of all 
mariner of inflaencc iri the government. 
C25a^ Fcodor Alexowit25 burned their pa- 
tentSi and deprived them of their privi- 
leges (/). Peter I. humbled them ftill 
more^ cauiing the young nobility to be in- 
difcriniinately prefled for foldiers and fal- 
lors {g), and totally fuppreifed all rank de- 
rived from birth (i), however illuftrlous. 
He likewife governed more arbitrarily than 
any of his predeceiTors^ and quelled all the 
tumults and plots formed againfl him^ by 
the expeditious death of the accomplices^ 
On the deceafe of his grandfon Peter II. 
the grandees and the fenate elefted- Anne, 
datchefs dowager of Courlandy as a mean 
for limiting the prerogative, and prefented 
to her the following compaft of eledtion ; 
" to make the fenate's approbation the 
*• rule of her government; not to enter 
** into a war or conclude a peace without 
** their confent ; not to impofe any taxes, 
** or difpofc of any confiderable employ- 
^^ ments; not to puni& any nobleman ca*^ 

{/) See above. Sea. Xlf . 
{g) Strahlemberg, 241, 260. 
(J) See Haven, P. I. cap. stiir, 

A a 3 <• pjitally. 


•* pitally, or confifcatc his eftate, but- on 
. ** full convidion ; not to give any orders 
" concerning the crown-lands, nor alieriat^ 
** any of them ; not to marry without *hc 
" confent of the fenate, nor nominate a 
*• fucceflbr." Thcfe limitations were highly 
difpleafing to the new czarina; ilill £be 
thought it adv.ifeable to fign the cpmp#<fl. 
She» however^ was no fooner feated oo the 
throne than (he declared the compad of qo 
efiedt, and even tore it to pieces (i) ; fo that 
every thing was put on the footing as under 
Peter L and the two following reigns took 
care to continue it fo. But Peter III. oA 
cending the throne, gave a iignal proof 
that he did not intend to govern de^>otip 
cally, difcharging> by edidt, the nqbili^y 
from the extreme fubjedion ip which they 
had hitherto been kept, and granting dieo) 
all the privileges held by the nobility of Lt*« 
vonia and other conquered provinces; that 
they might enter into the lervice of fuch 
foreign powers as were well difpofed to^ 
wards the empire {i). He likewife fup* 
prefTed the private chancery, where i^y^ 
cence had frequently been involved in the 
penalties due to guilt (/). His fucce^r^ 

(O Wcbcr, Vol. riL p. 183, &c. 

(i) Merc. Hift. et Polit. Mars, 1762. 

(0 New Genealog. and Hift. Pieces, Vol. V. 


R It S 8 I A. 359 

Catharine IIL goTeras with the like mo* 
d^retion and lenity^ and fuitable wifdom s fo 
that the happy period feems at hand^ when 
all remains of the former fevere and defpo* 
tic government will be effaced. 


The faccedion has ever been hereditary, The fuccec 
and the right of primogeniture conftantlyaTnMc!!^'*'' 
obfervcd; though not without exceptions ; 5^"'='"^» 
feme of the reigning monarchs having on 
certain circumftances deviated from that re- 
gtrlarrty, John Bafilowitz fettled the fuc- 
ceffion on his younger fon Gabriel, in pre- 
ference to his gfandfon by his elder fon De- 
metrius ; and though before his death he 
had revoked that ordinance, it remained in 
force, and Demetrius was excluded (m). 
Feodor Iwanovitz, the laft of the Ware- 
ger line, nominated in his laft hours his 
kiniman Feodor Nicolas Romanoff, but 
this difpofition did not take place : and czar 
Feodor Alexowitz, to the exclufion of 
John the elder brother, declared his younger 
brother Peter his fucccflbr {n). Thefe, 
however, were extraordinary cafes, which 
'did not *ibtafide the ufual fucceffion. But 

(m\ Treaer's Introdudion to the HiA. of Mofcovy, p. 19. 
(»; Lomopoiloffy p. 37, 4JB. 

A a 4 Peter 


Peter L made a total change in it, 4Xta- 
fioned by his cldeft Ton Alexis» who cbold 
not digeft the late innoTations, znd to 
avoid the indignation of his father, who 
fought to reclaim him from his undutifuU 
nefs and notorious vices, had fecretl j with- 
drawn out of the empire. For this and 
other mifdemeanors Peter excluded him 
from the throne, as undeferying of it (41)9 
and fettled the fuccefiion on his fetond fi>n 
Peter {0); but he dying foon aftof^ the em- 
peror iflued thi^ very extraordinary edid (42} 
'^ that the reigning emperor fhould always 
*' be allowed to nominate whom he pleafed 
'* for fucceflbr ; and, after noaiination* to 
'^ exclude him on finding him incapahbe or 
« unfit (43)." To this ordinance all the 

(41} Theft caufes were fet forA in the maaifefto of Feb. 
3» 1718. Bat there feems befides thofe to have beeti aoo* 
ther» his great love for his fecond fpoafe CafhariQe, and his 
children by her; elfehe woald fcarce h^ve fettled the ftt&> 
ceilion on his fecond fon Peter, a child orAy ia hit third 
yeari and thas coold not know whethcf be would prote more 
defervine than his eldefl fon whom he had excluded, as like- 
^9vife a && of the anhappy Alexia^ and who hadgiveiT ao 
oiience. . 

(o) Lamberti Mem. Tom. ii. p. 95. 
, (42) It is .dated the $th of ifeb, 1 722^ and i« to h0 fbnad 
In the Ceremonial de Ruilie, ^ ii. dans le Ceremonial Di- 
plomat, de Rottifet, Tom. II. p. 624. 
. (43) The emperor hadi fo.early as -the year .17 i|»iR9de « 
law for his fnbje^s, that with regard to all imrabveable goods 
which by primogeniture were to fall to on^ ftn)» the^-parcnti 
fliould be at liberty to beftow them on whomsoever they judg- 
ed moft deferving of chem. Rabener^s Ufrof Peter I. (a Get- 


k U S S I A. 361 

ftates, fpiritual and tertibotal^ were A^rci, 
and engaged to obey tJhd facceflbr whoiii 
be (hbuld appointy and acknowledge bini 
z£ their fovcrctgrt (44), 


in this difpoiition of the throne, ut^ReHeaioii 
terly unufual in Europe, and very probably T ^"^ 
borrowed from China (45), feems to lie 
the real caufe of the fucceeding cornmo-* 
tions. Thefe, in a great meafure, baii^ 
arifen from a defeat in the law, as not prcK 
viding againft.a vacancy of the throne whcti 
no fuccefTor has been nominated : a cald 
very poflible, both from the uncertainty of 
human life, a fudden and unexpeded death; 
and feveral other caufes ; as indeed it did 
ji£tua% come to pals In the perfon of Peteir 
L hinifelf, and afterwards in his grandioa 
Peter IL It was farther neceflary, (as by the 
new law, the fucceiSon, according to pri-^ 

iDtawork) p. 704. Some conceive that by thii, he 'meant to 
pave tbe way to that plan of fdcceffidii which he had' chbt 
determined on within himfelf. De Real Science, &c. 

(44) This oocafiooed great commotioi&t in Siberia, whblo 
towaa fifufing to taloe anf fach oath. 8cnhleinl>erg, p; 

, (45) The fttceeCon in China is petfedly on the Tame foot- 
ioMt that lAtrDduotd by Peter L into Raifia» the emperat 

, oi Chiwi cboofi^g for hif facceflbr that Ion whom he judges 
AoE capable ; and in cafe hit own family ailbrds. none, he 

. CMn appc4nt*one of hia fttb}e^wbom he loolcs upon as beft 
^ualiHed. Da Halde's China, VoL U* p. i&' 



mogeniture, was fet aildc» and the nop:}!'^ 
nation of the heir to the crown, left to th? 
reigning monarch), explicitly and pumftu^ 
ally to prefcribe what turn theiucceflioo to 
the crown was to take, if no previous re- 
gulations had been concerted. And this 
not being done in the ordinance of Peter I. 
the death of a monarch without naming a 
fucccflbr, muft naturally be produftive of 
doubts and difficulties* Let us only take a 
curfory view of the occurrences in the en- 
fuing times, and thefe will fufficiently (hew 
us the many inconvenieqcies ariiing from 
this famous law. The emperor Peter I. 
himfelf appears to have fludluated concern- 
ing the perfon of his fuccefTor. His lad 
illnefs, which he probably did not look 
upon to be mortal, quickly proved fo ; and 
death furprized him before he could make 
any difpofition. This put the great men 
to a ftand about a fucceffor. A ftrong party 
declared for Peter ; but the emprefs Catha- 
rine, by means of prince MenzikofF, gained 
over the officers of the guarda and* the 
clergy, and thus was proclaimed emprefs 
(/), on the very day her hufband expired. 
Thus the law-giver had no (boner brpatbied 

his laft than the dcfea: of his law (hewted 

■ ■ . > - 3 

. 0) Voltaire'* Hift. of Ruff. Tom. II. ch. xvU. / \c 


' V R U S S I A.' 36J 

itfi^f, a perfbn afcending the throne whom 
he had not nominated (46)^ and who^ in 
h^rfelf, had no right to it. But a cir* 
ctimftance of ftill greater importance, and 
a moft dangerous precedent, was, that the 
regiments of guards now, for the firft time, 
came to underftand that it was in their 
power to impofe a fovereign on the em- 
pire, and they have fince eagerly clofed with 
every opportunity of fhewing their weight. 
The emprefs Catharine had, in her wfll,^ 
fdttledthefucccffion on her grandlbn-in-law 
P^ter II. fon to the unhappy Alexis (47) ; 
arid m cafe of his dying without heirs, on her 
two daughters Anne, dutchefs of Holftein, 

X;j^) It is indeed generally thought that the emperor de- 
clared his fpoufe fucceflbr on his death-bed ; and Weber« 
Vd. IlK p. 5. lays fo expreily ; but he himfelf immediately 
after Tetatesi that (bejncde fore of the regimenis of guards, 
to whom (he did not omit donations, and by theie meafures ob* 
tained'the crown. Her very manifefto makes no mention of 
nonunation. Weber, Vol* III. p. 10. Voltaire, who drew 
his relation of thefe circumftaaces from very good fources, 
coaot Bailewitz's private Memoirs, gives pretty much the 
fame account i adding, that in the confultations which were 
held fof form fake, the archbilhop of PleflLOW declared that 
the. emperof had U&d the evening before the emprefs's core* 
nation, '< I wonld have her crowned, that (he may reign af«> 
ter me.*' Voltaire, Tom. II. cap. xvii. 

(47^) It was matter of great wonder that Catharine did 
not nominate one of her daughters her immediate fucceiTor ; 
bat fibe was diverted from this by Menssikoff, who had a' 
gaea^^icendaat over ker, and who even then was medicatittg . 
to i>ecome the young emperor^ father-in-law, and thus re- 
gent of the empire, during his minority. Weber, Vol. III. 
p. 80, 82. , , . . . "^ 



and Elltzhtthi with their iffuc^ fuccc/i 
fively ; and aiftet them^ on princefs Nati}ia> 
fitter to Petef 11 (48)* Tht emperor Pe- 
ter IL died without maiking any cegulatiohd 
concerning the fucceilion (49)/ By the 
cmprefe Catharine's wilU the crown was to 
havb devolved <m the young ptincc of HoI-« 
flcin, Charles Peter Ulrick, whofc mo^ 
ther Was thetl dead ; bat inftead of payii>^ 
any regard to this will (50), the fenate and 
great men proceeded to an eledion^ al«> 
ledging that the male line of the reigning 
houie being extindt, a regent Was to be 
fought among the female ddcendants of 
crar Iwan, as elder brother to Peter I. Ac- 
cordingly they chofe his younger daughter 
Anrte, dutchefi dowager of Cotifland; over- 
looking, for reafons of ftate, tke elder fiftcr 
Catharine, marWed to Charles Leopold, duke 

(4J8) An eiAraa of this will is te be hand k Rasfix, 
Suppkin. av Corps Diplom. Tom. II. P. II. p. |88« It 
was likewife printed feparately in 17279 bat in'av6ry fkdky 

(49) He notiHed by a publick tdi^i of the 4th of Ai^nft^ 
]7a7» that the maniiejlo for the new fettlelnieDC of the foe* 
ce^on> with all other iflfbruments relating to hU Aither'acafc^ 
(hould be colledted together and publickly burx^L HafCSi. 
Part L cap, xiii 

(50) Count Ofterman was, in the manifefto pobHihed hf 
tjie emprefs EHeabeth at her acceffion to the throne, nod in 
the ientence pronounced againft him, «cciifed of hamr fe- 
cxeted the cmprefs Catharine's will. Bat the contents ortftta 
wjM, whkh procnred. Peter IL the throne, muft hav<* been 
very well known to all the great men of the coart, ^fyt^Mf 
having been printed abroad. 

1 of 

1^ U8 8 I A. 36^ 

<{f Mecklenburg (y). This was the i|^cond 
j^ipie of a pprfon's afc^ading the throne 
yi^ftl^out haying been naoied by the dcccafcd 
monarch, and excluding Peter I's grand- 
fon by his eld?ft daughter, and his younger 
daughter! though the emprefs Catharine's 
will was in her favour, which afterwards 
occafioned a great revolution. The em- 
prefs Anne fcnt for Elizabeth Catharine 
Chriftin^, d^qghter to her eldeft fifter the . 
dutchefs of Mepklenhurg, which Elizabeth 
afterwards took the n^me of Anne, was 
married to Anthoay Ulrick, prince of 
Bruni\vick, and looked on as the pre* 
fijpptiye heirefs to the crown. This 
railed the greater wonder that the emprefs 
bcft^re her death, inilead of declaring her 
th^ fucceflbr, nominated her fon John, an 
infant of two months, by the name of 
John HI. and this wonder was ftill greatly 
esicrtaied at her naming the duke of Coar- 
lai^d regent of the empire during thie mi- 
nority of the young prince (51). So fin- 
gul^r an arrangement of the fucceflion 
could not but weaken and unhinge the 

(^) Weber, Vol. 11. p. \%ii 

\^}) And th^t with no lefs povcr than the empeifor Urn* 

felt could have had ; ^ far that, iA cafe of the young cm* 

, jperor and his brothers who were to fucce^d hiniy dying wick* 

oi^ iifvipf he» together with the cabinet nunifters, the (enafie^ 

and the field-marOials, might choofe a new emperor. 



new. government 5 for, bcfidefe placing *a 
fmiiior» an infant, on the throne/ v^hSiM 
cenders a guai-dianfhip or regency indifp^n^ 
J^ble, though always and efpecially in large 
dominions accounted a great evil ; vs^fikt 
m^ht raife greater apprehenfions was, that 
, the mother of the young emperor, whoih 
refpcJa of his right to the crown, couid 
have none but throi^h her, was riot only 
absolutely and for ever excluded from the 
fovereignty, but even from the guardianfhip 
and regency during her fon^s minority. 
This could not but touch her to the quicks 
and indeed it prompted her to meditate sC 
revolution, and precipitate the regent from 
that high fortune to which he had been 
raifed on her unjufl humiliation $ and this 
fhe foonefieded (52). Hereupon (he took 

(qz) In the fentence pronounced agsdnft the duke, " iba 
•' firft charge was, that during the emprefs Anne^s M ul- 
<' oefs. he had thought of nothing but fecarifi^ to himiblf 
<< the adminillration of the Ruflian empire during the eio% 
<* peror's minority, to the excluiion of his very parents ; and 
« with this view, not<mly inceifant^y impprtvned the &tk 
•* emprefs to commit tlie regency to him, but likewifc per- 
** eeivittg her at lirft little difpofed to any fuch thing, made 
** ufe both of the power which he then enjoyed, and ai{ . 
*< manner of intrigues and artifices to comp^ his end#/' 
Whereas in an account publiihed by the duke at the accef- 
£on of the emprefs Elizabeth, concerning his being appoint- 
ed regent, and many other circumftances appertaining to it, 
heavers, that he had for a long time declined the repealed . 
offers of the regency, and might be faid to have been, as it 
were, forced to accept of it. But how far this account ia 


RUSSIA: 367 

on^bcrfelf the government by the«<itleof 
Great Princes ; and in Order to fix herfelf 
in it, and for the greater dignity (53), want- 
ed to be proclaimed emprefs. Before this 
could be done, princefs Elizabeth, affifled 
by the guards, placed herfelf on the throne 
(54), an undertaking, greatly facilitated by 
the tottering condition into which the go** 
vernnient had been brought by the ordi- 
naDce of the emprefs Anne. For had (he 
conferred the fucceffion, or at lead 'the re- 
gency, on her filler's daughter, inftead of 
John her infant fon, that princefs's power 
and dignity would have flood on a more 
iblid bafe. She had indeed eafily, and 
without any great flir, excluded the duke 
of Courland from the regency; but this 
very cvtnt might give princefs Elizabeth to 
fee, that it would be no difficult work 
to feat herfelf on the throne, having a right 
to it by birth, and her mother the emprefs 
Catharine's will; and the event fully ve* 
rificd the conjedlure. Elizabeth nominated 
for her fucceflbr Peter, the young duke of 

^eiminey and tbe many anecdotes in it to be relied on, muft 
be left to every one's judgment. 

(53) '^^^ ^^ mentioned in the emprefi Elizabeth's mani- 
lisfto'of th« 28th of Nov. 1741. 

(54) The emprefs, in her manifefto of the 25 th and 28th 
of Nov* 1741, fays, that fhe had afcended the throne at tho , 
r^qoeft of all her loyal fubjedsi and particolarly of the re« 
^iments of guards. 



If oK^cbf ber e14er fii^cr'; ion, und Vfho, as 
fach, h^4 i^n^rer right thap herfelf; and, 
on her dc<?cafc, he acforcjiftgly 9fce|i4«d 
^t throne I hn% ^fiter holding it fcarce half 
f yev, be Wfts tumbled from it by a fudden 
revolt, in ^b^^ tbe regimeots of guardf 
were the chief f^&OTS, as thf y had been in 
the promotiosi of bis prf deceflbr, 

AU thefe gt^9t and in ibine ineafur^ vio^ 
lent revolutions were confluences of the 
Uw of Peter I, for altering the mode of fuc- 
ceiSon* And if| according tp the opinion of 
fome (r), his drift bereip wai tp exclude 
his gi'andibn Peter IL from the crown, and 
bring in his pbildren by the fecond venter, 
he mifcarried ; fpr ipimediately after his de* 
ceafe they were kept out of the throne by 
the emprefs Catharine, by her nominat- 
ing agam Peter Ih apd ftill farther by the 
de^ion of the emprefs Anne ; and this for 
abov^ the fpace pf fixt^en y^ars. If prince^ 
l^Uzabeth at length got pQ0e(fion, ihc 
owed it entirely tp ber prudence and cpu* 
rage, with feme mixture pf good fortune. 
This circumftance, of one branch of the 
imperial family being excluded or driven 
from the throne by another, hath been 
produ£tive of parties, the excluded having 
their adherents, who are ever at work 

(r) De Real, Part L Tom. IL p. 722. 


RUSSIA* 369 

to bfing about a revolution. Such a fluc^ 
tuating ftate of affairs weakened the govern^^ 
inent, and put into the hands of the regi- 
ments of guards the very dangerous power 
of ibtting up and pulling down the fove« 
reign^ as has been done more than once» 
very eafily and without bloodihed; and thefe 
fuccefsfttl inftances may occafionally be pro-* 
dudivc of the like convulfions. The con«» 
fideration of thefe and other inconveniea- 
cies would almoft incline one to think, that 
the arbitrary nomination of a fucceiTor does 
not fuit fo well with the fecurity of 
the reigning prince or the public tranquil- 
lity, as a regular fucceiCon in the royal fa* 
mily eilablifhed by law, as that of Den« 
mark. \ 

S fi C T. XVlt. 

It farther appears that in thecourfe ofRemtrkw 
thefe refblutions the Rufiian empire has^vMll^ 
been principally deftined for the fair fex, *» ^•^- 
having in the forty-one years fince the 
death of Peter L been poffcfled by four ' 
czarinas, and three czars ; the former . 
fw^yed the fccpter with great reputation 
and felicity 1 the latter all together held it 
but stbout four years, the two laft were un- 
uncommon and fad inftances of the in(la« 

Vol. III. B b bility 

hility of human affairs even in tko Qoft^ ex« 

alted Rations. 


Guaf^ian- As by thc Uw of PctcT I. thfi nomioejtiQii 

pncv dur- of the fuGceflbr entirely depends oo the fb* 

noricy. vereign's wilU no iefs arc the gu4rd<ap{hip 

and regency referred to him {^s)^ aodi lik€^ 

wife the deterounation of the minority {^6).- 


FundAmen- ^he czorina Cadiariae dire^ed in hcf 
tai uwt. ^ jii^ among other particulars, " that no pec- 
'^ fon (hould ever fit on the throne of Ruflia 
r «* who was, not of the Greek reUg^nj ov 

•' who already held a; crown (57).*' This 
article the emprefs Elizabeth exprefly inien- 
tions and repeats in the manifefto, which fhe 
publifhed on her accc[ffioo to the throne (j) ; 

(55) '^^ evprefs Cathanne L tjipoiatcd bar two daugh- 
ters,, and the duke of Holfi^o,, jaintly with, the OMiiitea, pf 
the cabiiset-council, to be goanlians uid regeots daring the 
ininority of thc emperor Pe^r II. hntthu appciHUaeat waa 
not obferved* 

(56) The emprefs Catharine I. fettled the majority of 
Peter II. at his entrance ipta his feventeenth yew ; lod hp 
an order of the emprefs Anne, the regency was to coatina^ 
till John III. arrived at the fame term. 

(57) This is mentioned in the eighth article of th^ i^ 
will, with this addition however, that '* fach a^ hoc ta the 
<< crown of Rnffia fliould he allowed to appojat one of Ida 
<< children to the facce$on; and tha( Qn.4i8Lmalpo9A^pab- 
<< He profeffion of th« Greek rellgioDp he ihould be received 
** and acknowledged as the npdoabt|MlfoMereiga>of>RiiiDa. 

(i) New Fama Europ. Part I^IX. p. 646.. 


RUSSIA. 371 

and when (he determined to confer the fuc-- 
ceffion on the duke of Holftein, her fiiler's 
ion, he was obliged previouily toprofefs him- 
self a member of the Greek church, and like-* 
wife to decline the crown of Sweden, which 
Bfad been offered him about the fame time. 
Irhis ^ews that the emprefs Catharine'* 
appointment is one of thofe obligations to . 
which a Ruffian monarch is a fubjeft, and 
cpnfequently a fundamental law; and herein 
indeed coniifts his fole obligation, unlefs the 
xndivifibility of the empire be reckoned 
fbch ; iince, though not the fubje(ft of any 
particular law, it has the fandion of an« 
tient cuftom, having > been invariably ob-' 
fervedfrom the time of John Baiilowitz. 


The moft antient fovereigns of RuffiaTUi^ 
mied themfdves Walliki Kniaes, i; e. great 
prince of Wladimir, or Novogrod, of 
Mofcow (s^). Bafil Iwanowitz^ firft took 
the title of czar (59) and monarch of all 
Ae Ruflias (60); John Bafilowitz ftilcd 

(58) Halberftein, p. i;, 17. Riiflia having formerly beep 
divided into ieveral pfiDcipalides, every great prince bore th« 
tiile of that of which he- was more immediately fovereign. 

(fo) Thii word in the Sdavooiao Bible is always akd to 
bgmy Kisg. 

(60) Straleobttffe however hyh that John Bafilowttz waA 
the firft who took Uiat tide, ob his coiiqaeft'or Cafan. 

B b 2 faim« 


himfelf czar of Cafan, Aftracan, Siberia, 
great prince of Mofcow, Wladimir, and 
Novogrod, lord of Plefkow, ruler (6i) and 
fovereign (62) of all the Ruflias (t). The 
title which Alexis Michaelowitz gave him- 
felf in a letter to Frederic William^ elefior 
of Brandenburg, was great lord, czar, and 
great prince of all the Great, Lefler, and 
White Ruflias (63), fovereign of Mofco\^» 
Kiow, Wladimir, Novogrod, czar of Ca- 
fan, czar of Ailracan, czar of Siberia, lord 
of Plefkow {u). This title continued with lit- 
tle alteration till the year 1721, when Peter I. 
being, on occafion of the glorious peace 
concluded with Sweden at Nyflat, requeftcd 
by the fenate and clergy to take on him the 
title of Emperor of Ruflia, jointly with the 
furname of Great and of " Father of his 
Country (64),*' ftiled himfelf according- 


(61) In the Ruffian language Powelitel, a word of ih^ 
isLtac import as that of Imperator in Latin, namdy, a Com- 

(62) In the Ruffian Samoderfchetx, which has the &mt 
meaning as Autocrator in Greeks and Souveratn in Fiesch. 

(1) Stralenbere, p. 267. 

(63) How the^ name^ came into the title of theforereigni 
pfRuffia, fee above, Sed. VH. . 

(«) Becmao/Synt. Dignit. Illaflr. Diflert.III. cap, 11, $ 
3. p. 178. 

(64) Stralenbere fays, p. 26^9 that the archbifiiop of No* 
yogrod firft propofed altering the Ruffian ftile of Powetkel 
into that of imperator; but the latter appears to have been 
prcvioufly ufed in public political wricittgst drawn op inLatio» 
See Reflci^ioQs on the QoeftioOy whether theStik and Tide of 


RUSSIA. 373 

ly{x). This new title was readily acknow- 
ledged by Pruffia, the United Provinces, and 
Sweden ; whereas other European powers^ 
particularly the emperor (yj^ France, and ^ 
Spain, raifed great difficulties about it, till 
at length, under the emprefs Elizabeth, 
all Europe (65) acknowledged her, ex«- 
cept Poland (66) and the pope {z) (67). 

Emperor can be ^tven to the Czars of Ruflia, without Preja- 
dice to the Dignity of the Emperor, and the Holy Roman 
Bnpire* the moil Chriflian King,' and all Free States. 

(x) Weber, Vol. II. P. III. p. 6. 

Ij) Ceremonial de Ruffie dans le Ceremonial Diplom. de 
Ronflet. Tom. II. p. 625. 

(6p The emperor and empire gratified Elizabeth with 
the tjtie of emprefs in the year 1747, France in 174;, and 
Spain in 17 $9, but the two lail had procured Reverfalia, that 
this title fhonld make no alteration in the ceremonial ; yet on 
their requiring the like Reverfalia, ihe refufed ; but on the 
2ifl of November 1762, (he made a declaration to all foreign 
miniflers that the title of emprefs fhould caufe no alteration 
in the nfual ceremonies between courts. Hereupon thofe of 
France and Spain made a counter.declaration, that though 
their courts would likewife give the emprefs that title, yet 
fhonld any of the empre/^'s iucceflbrs require any thing con- 
trary to the eflabliflied nfages of rank and precedence, they 
would that inftant alter their addrefs, and no longer give 
Rnffia the title of Imperial Majedy. 

(66) The king had long a^o acknowledged that title, but 
the republic could not be brought to it till 1764. 

(«) Voltaire's Hid. of Ruffia, &c. Tom. II. ch. xv. 

(67) As Peter L affuming the title of emperor made a 
great noife in Europe, not a few writings were publifhed 
pro and con, and an account of them may be feen in Buderi 
jBiblioth. Hid. Sal. ch. xxxiii. § vi. a letter from the empe- 
ror Maximilian I. to czar Bafii Iwanowitz, found among 
the records of Mofcow, giving him ihe title of emperor and 
fovereign of all the Rumas, was printed at Peteriburg in 

Bb 3 



The whole tenour of the title fince this 
alteration is : emperor and OK>Qarch of all 
the Ruilias, fovcreign lord of Moicow, 
Kiow, Wladimir, Novogrod, czar of Cafan^ 
Aftracan, and Siberia, lord of Fldkow^ 
great prince of Smolenfko^ duke of Bftho-- 
nia, Livonia, andCarelia, of Twer, Jugo-- 
ria, Permia, Wiatka, Bulgaria, and other 
territories, great prince of the low countiy^ 
of Tfchernichow, Refan, Roftow, Jaroflow» 
Bielofero, Udoria, Obdoria, and Coadi« 
nia ; emperor of the whole northern coun- 
try, lord of the province of Iweria, of the 
czars of Carthalin and Gruzin, of tb« 
princes of Rabardin, Circaflia, and Goriich, 
likewife prince and fupreme ruler of many 
- other provinces. 

In negociations with the Afiatick powers, 
the title is fomewhat altered, and more 
adapted to the oriental ftile (68). 


Amii, The firft arms of the fovereigns of Ruf- 

fia fince their profeffion of Chriflianity 
were three circles within a triangle; but 

(68) In a manifefto publKhed in Perfia^ in the jretr Jyz2^ 
Peter I. fiiles himfelf, ** Emperor of all RulHa, and mo. 
" narch of the Eaft and Northern empires and coontries, 
« lord from weft to fonth, and of many other kio£doms and 
^ lordihips, &c/* 

hav- I 

havingi after the demolition of the citjr of 
Wbdimir> removed their reiidence to Mof- 
cow, they began to ufe the particular arms 
of that city, ruby, a horfeman pearl. De- 
metrias the great prince added the dragon 
purfued by the horfeman, in commemo**- 
ration of a fignal vidory obtained over the 
Tartars {a). John Bafiloveitz L marrying 
with Sophia the princefs of Greece, ilie 
took the arms of the Roman empire, .the 
fpttzd eagle (69)> which has been retained 
evdr fince. Thus the arms of Rufiiaare Sol, 
a fpreiid eagle crowned, Saturn ; with a 
fceptre Sol, in its right claw ; and in thtf 
left a monde of the fame. On the eagle's 
breaft is a fhield. Mars, with a St. George, 
Luna, killing the dragon, for the principa* 
lity of Mofcow. On the right wing are 
the three fhields of Aftracan, Novogrpd^ 
and Kiovir. Oh the left, likewife, three, 
with the arms of Siberia, Cafan, and Wla- 
dimir. The (hield is furmounted with a 
cloie erown, and round it the collar of the 
order of St. Andrew. On the great feal 

(a) Strahlenberg, § t69. 

(69) So lays LomoBoffoiF, $ 29. bat others will hav6 Joha 
BafilowitB II. to have firft born thefe arms in the year ij;4a» 
from an imagination of his that the three firft Ruffian pnnce% 
Rorick, Sinau, and Truwor were defcended from the empe- 
ror Aogoftas* Bat, however, groundlefs thii may be, it is 
not improbable that the Spread eagle alludes to the eafteiA 
tmpxt, to which the Ruffians lay fome claim. 

B b 4 Qf 



of the empire, the (hields of the other pro^ 
vinces form an oval round the eagle (^). 

Agreeable to a cuftom of great antiquity^ 
the Ruffian monarchs are folemnly anointed 
and crowned ; this office was formerly per- 
formed by the patriarch, with many reli- 
gious ceremonies and prayers. The mo- 
dern fovereigns were clothed with a very rich 
robe by the principal bojars, who^at the fame 
time, put on the czar's head a cap richly 
decorated with jewels and pearls (70) ; but 
this has lately been fuperfeded by a crown 
of ineftimable value : at the corona- 
tion of Peter L in 1^21, hehimfelfput it 
on {c) ; and when he ordered his ipoufe 
Catharine to be crowned, a ceremony which 
was never feen before, he himfelf held the 
fceptre and crowned her; on which the 
archbifhop of Novogrod delivered her the 
monde ; but the emperor held the fceptre 
all the time, and afterwards (he was 
anointed with the confecrated oil {d). The 

(t) Weber, Vol. II. p. 180, 183. 

(70) No other enfigns of royalty are ufcd. Set the de* 
fcription of the coronation of the czar in Olearius'a Travdf 
into Mafcovy and Perfia. Book III. ch. xiii. 
. (r) Weber, Vol. IL p. 34. 

(^) See the defer! prion of this coronation in Roofliet*s Ce« 
fcmonial Diplom. Vol. Jl/p. 6zj. Lilccwifc Voltaire's Hill^ 
Vol. II: cjiap, »viit 


RUSSIA. 377 

coronation of the emprefs Anne was ac- 
companied almoft with the like ceremo- 
nies^ except that the archbishop, after 
placing the crown on her head, put the 
monde, and the iceptre likewife into her 
hands (e). The fuccceding coronations 
^ave been conduced pretty much in the 
fame manner. As to the reft, the RuA 
fian monarchs take no oaths at their coro* 
nation, nor make one fingle promife. Since 
the extinftion of the patriarchate, the in-- 
auguration is performed by the archbifhop 
of Novogrod, and always in the capital* 


The fovereign'S eldefl; fon the prefump-Titicofthii 
tive heir to the crown, ufcd to be named Wf.""^^'* 
czarowitz, i. e. the czar's fon. But fince 
the death of the unhappy prince Alexis Pe- 
trowitz, this appellation has been difcon- 
tinned, and his fon Peter, with the fucceed- 
ing heirs to the crown, have been entitled 
Great Prince. 

The capital of the empire of RufSa is capital. 
Mofcow, built in the twelfth century, and 
in the fourteenth made the foverdign's re- 

(#) A defcription of it 19 to be found ia the Ceremoqial de 
JMBe, J iii. in Rouflfe;. 


iideDce. It is not lefs than twenty-twe 
Englifh miles in circumference^ being the 
largefl: city in Europe ; but at the fame 
time not very populous (71). It lies in t 
delightful plain, and the river Mofcow^ 
which waters part of it, has given it itfe 
name, as formerly to the whole country 
and the people. It is divided into foot 
circles, one fucceffively including another* 
The firft or inmoft is called Kreml or Kre* 
melyn, i. e. the citadel, in which is the 
czar's palace, which was built in the fourr 
teenth century by the great prince Detne* 
trius Iwanowitz ; feveral churches, the ar« 
fenal, and other publick buildings : it is en- 
vironed with walls and towers of a confider- 
able height and breadth, as alfo with a lined 
ditch. The fecond circle, called KitaiGorod, 
i. e. theChinefe town, is the trading part, and 
particularly for Chinefe commodities : this 
likewife has its walls and towers. The third 
circle is diflinguifhed by the name of Beloi* 
Gorod, or the White City, from the white 
wall which enclofes it : as the fourth is cal* 
led Semlenoi-Gorod, the Earthen City, being 
encompafled only with a rampart of earth. 
AU the buildings in the firft and fecond 

(71) Voltaire's Hift, of Peter the Great, VoL L ch- i. 
gives Mofcow 500,000 inhabitants, which certaxnlj is too 
much, Dr* Bufchtng makes them only 1504000. 


RUSSIA. 379- 

circles^ are entirely of ftone; in the third 
they are chiefly of wood ; and in this is the 
hou£e*marl&et9 where wooden houfes may 
be purchased ready made. The fourth has 
&w or none but wooden houfes. Round 
thcib are feveral ilobodes or fuburbs^ which 
hav« perfedUy the appearance of villages^ 
the foreign or German fuburb excepted^ 
which the RuiHans call Ifnafemika o No- 
xnetfka'- Slobodan and is by much the beft 
buik. At a little diftance from them li^ 
ieveral convents^* and fome imperial feats $ 
among which Preobrfefchenflcoi^ Semo- 
Aowikoi and Ifmailow are remarkable from 
the three regiments of guards bearing their 
names. The city of Mofcow has fuffered 
terribly by the inroads of the Tartars^ but 
much more by frequent conflagrations ; fo 
that there are feveral wafte fpots in it {/). 
But what has chiefly contributed to its de-» 
cline was the removal of the court to Pe«> 

This city lies partly on the ifland formed The empf. 
by the Neva at its iflue into the Gulphd^li^,* 
of Finland. Peter I. having in the year 
1702, made himfelf mafter of fort Note- . 
burg, now called Schluflelburg, and in the 
following year, of the town of Niefchanz, 

(/) See the DfifcripUQQ of tku city in Weber« Vol. I. p. 
'3»» 'S3' ' ^ 



began to ereft on one of thofd iflands a 
fortification and fome buildings (72), but 
only of wood, being then uncertain of 
keeping poffeffion. After the/defeat of 
Pultawa, the war taking a very advantage- 
ous turn in his favour, his fo'ndnefs for na- 
vigation, and a defire of perpetuating his^ 
n^me, put him on building a city, which 
he would make his reiidence; and with 
fuch activity was the work carried on, that 
. a place, which had only two poor fifher- 
men's huts, in a (hort time became a large 
and fplendid city. Its increafe andprofperity 
were greatly promoted by the orders given to 
every noble family to build a houfe there, and 
to great numbers of trades-people and ar- 
tificers to remove thither ; likewife by the 
Archangel trade being transferred to it j and 
laflly by the emperor making it his refi« 
dence, and that of the fenate and all the 
great offices (73). The fort, which, at 
firft, was intended only as a fence to the 
place againft any attacks from the Swedes, 
was afterwards inclofed within the city, and 

(72) The firft hoafe Peter L built with his own hands ; 
bat it being very foiall, and for the Angalarity of the thing, 
it is kept within a larger. Haven, Part I. c. iii. 

(73) '^^^ Kiiflians were not at all pleafed with this remo* 
val of the court ; and, indeed, the inconvenieacies of Pecerf- 
burg arc by no means fmall, lying at the very extremity of 
ikch vail dominions, and in no very plentiful country. Strab^ 
Jenbcrg, p. 244. 


RUSSIA. 381 

at prefent ftands in the centre, where it 
ferves for a large and fecure prifon {g). 
Peterfburg is reckoned to confifl: of 8>ooo 
houfeSf the greater part wood, and contains 
130,000 inhabitants (74)9 mod of whom 
are natives of Ruflia, though with a con- 
iiderable mixture of almofl all European 
nations, particularly Germans, and even 
ibme Afiaticks, as Georgians, Armenians, 
Perfians {6). This city, conddering its fituar 
tion, is a wonder ; the ground was very low 
and marfhy, and the building clogged with 
inexpreflible difficulties ; fo that no prince 
with lefs ardour in executing his enterprizes, 
or lefs power over his fubjeds, could have 
accomplifhed his defign. But no fooner 
had he formed the refolution, than multi- 
tudes of Ruffians, Tartars, Coffacks, Cal« ' 
mucks, Finland, and Ingermanland pea- 
fants, fome of whom had 800 or 1000 
Engliffi miles to travel, were got together 

{g) Voltaire's Hift. of Ruff. Sec. P. I. ch. iii. 

(74) Voltaire, iodeed favs, that the inhabitants are reck- 
oned at 4009OOO9 bat this is an enormous excefs. Accord* 
ing to the bills of mortality of 1765, the burials of males 
were 418$. Now allowing one out of thirty to die every 
year* though that be fomething too little for inch a city, ic 
will make only 125,550; fo that 130^000 is the great^ll 
round number that can be reckoned. Mr. Haveii, about 
twenty years ago» computed the inhabitants at fomething 
above 40,000, ex^lufive of the court and troops. If this 
compuution be righti Peterfburg has exceedingly increafed 
iu inhabitants fince that time. 

{i) HaveOf P. L c. ill. 


from all parts of this vaft empire, tcf fifl upr 
the low fwampy foil wrth trets, ftoncs, anS 
earth. In this toilfome work, in. which, at 
fifft, not only tools and implements, btrt 
even provifions were wanting, the conntcy 
being then quite wild and uncultivated, 
above 100,000 men perifhed in their full vi- 
gour of age (/). At fo dear a rate were laid 
the foundations of PetcrfSurgh {j^. 

In the neighbourhood of Peterlburgh arc 
feveral rmpcria:! palaces, as Oranienbaum^ 
Peterhof, Mbn Plaifir, with others i like*- 
wife the magnifiicOTit convent of St. Aiex- 
antfcr Ncwlkoi {k). 

Coutd The court and manner of living ef the 

former czars was pretty much in the Afia** 
tic manner. They feldom ajq^eafed 
abroad, and to procure accefe to thenar was 
a matter of great difficulty. But Pbter L 
put an end to all this troublefbme con- 
ftrainti and modelled his houfliold after 
that of other European princes j in which, 
however, his wars, and other undertakings 

(/) Weber, Vol. I. p. 447. Vo!. IT. p. 17^; 

(75) TWlo&of fo man/ lires was partly owliig to'fhe 
palTage over thrLadoga-Iake, as frequcfltty obftraAtitby 
coitiraTy winds, and partly to the' wanft of care and^pralfitf 
In thofe -who had the iiifpe€tion: of the work; Webei^ Vol. £ 

P* 447- 
(i) Haven, P. I« c. iiu 


Russia; 383 

requtring great fums» he had always an eye 
to OBconomy.. But under his fucceilbrs the 
hou{hold and its expences have been greatly 
encreafed (76) ; fo that at prefent the Ruffian 
court for magnificence is equal to any in 
Europe (/). It has a great number of of* 
ficers^ the priiicipal of whom is the grand 
marfhal; next to him are the mafter of 
the borfe, the locd fleward^ lord chamber* 
lain» with twelve real and fome honorary 
lords^ of the * bed*^chamber, grooms and 
pages, the grftat: huntfman^ the mailer of ' 
the ceremonies,' the mafter of the court ce- 
remonies (77)1 the chief pbyikian, a phy- 
fician, a court phyfician, a court fur- 
geon, &c (^). The rank of all officers, 
civil, military, and belonging to the court, 
was fettled in. 1722, by an ordinance of 
Peter II {n)^ which has been conftantly 
obferved, except when fome of the principal 
court officers hs»ie obtained a grant for ^ 

(76) The annual expence of the honihold under Peter L 
was between 50 and 60,000 rnblei ; whereas in the emprefs 
Anne's tifnty the bare iidartes 110,0009 and 
under Elizsjxth to aooyooo rubles, and the whole expenc» 
tOLaiaillioo. Bufching. 

(0 Haven, DecL 11, c. ist 

(77) Thefe officers ihould be very knowing in ceremonies, 
%9C9ing to. do not only with European courts, but likewife 
thofe of Afia, as the Turkiih, Perfian, and Chtnefe» who 
are all extremely precife in thefe matters^ 

(m) Haven. Deel. II. c xii. 

(a) Id. Ibid. c. xiv. 



higher rank than was allowed them in the 
ordinance {p). 


orfenof The orders of knighthood, of which 
IZ^'' Ruffia has three, were likewifc firft xnfti- 
tuted by Peter L In 1698, he founded 
that of St. Andrew, the enfign of which is 
a gold St. Andrew's crdTs enamelled azure, 
with the Apoftle faftened on one fide of it; 
At the four ends of the crofs are the let-' 
ters S. A. P. R. *' Sanftus Andreas Patro- 
** nus Ruffiae," and over it is likewifc a 
crown of gold, enamelled azure.. On the tc^ 
vej^ie h the Rufiian fpread eagle furmoanted 
by a crown in flames. On its breaft and 
round the neck is a ferpent, with a RufSatf 
infcription fignifying ** Pro Fide ct Fide^ 
litate." This order is worn at a broad Jight 
blue ribbon, with a Aar on the knight's 
coat. After Peter's demife a fet of laws 
was drawn up for it, and habits of ceremony 
appointed {p). 

Peter L in honour of his confort Cathe- 
rine, and in commemoration of her pru- 
dence and addrefs in the dangerous cam* 
paign near the Pruth in 171 1, inftittrtedf 

(9) Haven. Deel II. c. xiv. p. 429. 
(/>) Wtbcr, Vol- III. p. i6i- 


r^XJSBlA. 385 

r»U ftf4«r ?«f: hl^K name, ^^a cnfign is a' 
JOM^f !$9l> eoaDMlled, IVlars^ with a fal- 
^i^t* ribcQiSf XiQnaj and on the reverfe, St. 
^C^herlpc: ^tis worn at a fcarlet ribbon 
^p«flft«g ;frQqa'44^e right fhoulder to the left 
J^^, Qix wh^h/is zn embroidered filver ftar. 
TJii5;is ^;fff male order and conferred only 
-OR prioce^E^s and other perfonages of high 

. ^JPftctiL t^^es the fumptuous monaftery 
id^tf^attfd>^:^(.^ Alexander Newifkoi^ i^- 

< .Ai^utei} jaor oi^l^r of thi^ name, though ^t 
WftStnotAKolutely fettled and cpnfirmed tjU 

. ;^«r the decea jQb ,of tl^at monarch. Its ep- 
:%n is ift . red eqafnelled crofs interfe(£^d^gUf, ai>d in the centre the Saint on 

jboff^Qk in jen^meL The knights wear 
;it4t.a;fciirl9t ^ribbpn^ and on their coats a 

. .ftar In yfbiclii i^re the letters, S. A. ,in a cy- 
pher with this infcription *• Principihus 

SECT- xxm 

.Ghriftianity owes its e£(abli(hQient In state •fn. 
Ru^ to WladimirL who received bs^-RuSJ" 
4ifm in the year. 989 : the £rft teachers 
being procured from Conftantinople, the 
Gf^ek church was the hrapch of Chrifti- 

(9) Weber, PartT. p. 57, 

(r) Id; Partllt p. y8.' ' \ 

yoL. III. C c anifqi 


^nifm which obtained^ and has be^n the 
national profcffion cver'fince, T6c pubUc 
' fervice is performed in the SclaToman lan- 
guage, their Bible likewife is in that Ian- 
'^ guage, the RuHian being fappofed not ca- 
' pable of affording a good tranflition (^S). 
They pay devotion to faints, and particu* 

• larJy to St. Nicholas, whom the commo- 
nalty, in fome refpeiSts, eqaal to God 
himfelf ; they admit only painted images in 

' their churches (79). Their fafts, of Which 
they have four in the year (x) befides' two 
faft days every week, they tlbfervt much 

' more ftriftly than the Rbmifli cha^fr (/). 
They formerly began the year on the firfl 

* of September as the epocha of the cidition» 
' frbm which they date their chronology; and 
" fo lately as 1700 reckoned 7208 j biit both 

thofe nfages^ were aboliibed by Peter I (80). 
♦ " • . . ' 

(79) Weber, indeed faysy that Feter L bad aii4f ptf pt- 
rations for printiog the Bible in the Rdffitn language, and 
that every h«i4 of a family wat to porchafe a copy i biiC 
thit defign dots not appear to haVe tal^en dkeL 

(0 Perry, p. 359- 

(79) For they hold caft or carred iaiagca fbrbfaUoi, aad 

^roek prieft poald not be perfoaded to bay an exoeUent 
piece of Titian, the relief being fuch at to gire it the ap- 
pearance of a'fculpture. Addifon'a DiAlognet of the ,«|bfid- 
9efs.of aotient medals, in his works. Vol.. HI, p. liSj. 

(0 Pcrry/376. 

(60) Perry, 37^* This compnution of time j|pp«mdy 
owes iu origin to the artificial epocba forobfemng the paff* 
over, adopted by the Gieek cbor<;h in^t^e Vth o^tary, and 
the beginning of which it had fettted'at the 5$6a year« be- 

^ ' • Since 



k U S S I A* 387 

Since the iixteentb century the Ruflian ^ 
tburch has been divided^ a party having 
feparate4 from it^ for which they have 
been nick-named Rofkoltfchiki or Rofkol^ 
nikit i*^. Apoftates or Backfliders; but 
they call (hemfelves Starowerfci» i. e. Pri- 

. initive Believers. . The controverfy between 
them apd the orthodox chiefly turns on . 
iodiflerent matters^ except their holding 
dvil government to be contrary to Chrif- 
tiaoity^ and living in a brotherly community, 
f'ormerly they .were violently perfecuted and 
inany thoufands of them burnt and put to 
various kinds q( death, till Peter 1. ordered 
thatf. whilfl they did not fpread their tenets 

^ among the other Ruffians, they {hould not- 
be moleftedv pnly double taxing them and 

. ^ftinguifliin^ them by a bit of fquare red 
cloth on the back of their coats (2^). 

Some endeavours have been ufed for 
bringing the Ruffian church to an union 
with that of Rome : with this view pope 
Gregory XIIT. fent the famous Jefuit An- 
thoby Poflevih to c^ar John Bafilowitz II. 

Jfoft the ChriftlaD lera ; bat pofieritv being wholly igoonuit of 
Tttch matterit imagined thefe e^os years related to the cret- 
tioa of the world, and as fa^ they have been received by 
the Ruffians. This is what had occafidned the great excefs 
ot years in their chronology, Scaliger, de Emendat. Teoip* 
Ub-V, ^ 

..ffll $ttahlenberg» cap. riii* Haven^ PartIL cap. an^ 

C C 2 but 

tut Tie returned as lie went (B i). Peter L 
being at Farrs in tMe yedr t^iy^ the Bor'- 
bonneprcfefnted'ioliim k ffropofal for -flric 
end, accompianied ^ith ah cpiiftrc to tlie 
'Roffian clergy, refprelShtihg the'dlfierence 
of ddiSrirics between thte twb tlRirdbes 
to be hut ihcorifldertble, titid ^ckiibW* 
Iddging the pbpe^s Toprehiacy to be flie 
'chief point. The Ruffian biffiojjs rctratictt 
a ycty complaifint iinf^cf, with^'^xcbfiifg 
thenirclvcs " that tiicy cobld'hbt enter oil 
tihat afiiiir the patriarchal chair tTdiig 
Vacant aiid ' they' cbhlcqiichtly waniSng ^ 
"head, without 'whom thdy were tiot 'to 
ineddle with any ndatters of itnpoi^ 
" tarice; that, however, they'woird,'\ndi 
" the czar's permiffibn, "^rite to their'* 
orthodox oriental patriarch, whofc fdit 
is the foundation of the M^hole Ifru&afc 
of the church,' *' and not fail of cdni- 
^ municating his anfwer to' the Sb^- 
" bonne (x)." Here the affair ended (82). 

(81) Of PoiTevinus n^tj^tioiis OA 4if pbilit ^A timci^ 
lie himfelf gives an account in hi» Comment. De Re1>« MoT- 
covic. p.31 — 37, ... 

(*) Both letter and ahlwer aw to MiMn 5n ftiRr%, !>« 
II, cap.xvH. 

(82) So far was Peter I. 'from iacknowlcdglftg" the pope's 
power, that to expofe it, he had one ofhis court-fbols>1e^- 
jed pope ; and after foddling him andalt his dt^fege ^ dir- 
dinals, caufed (hem to walkf oblidcly in pit>cei|oii. A^tef Ofee 
death of this knias papa, for fo he Was mled« the cerenidajr of 


R V S S I A. a59 


^8 tlie Ruffian cl^iurclii received its doc- Ruffim 
tr^f^c and difpiplinp from Cpnttantinople, fo''^*^* 
it i^as always been under (h? infpe.(£tion of 
the pafri^rch of that city, who placed a 
4 metropolitan oyer ^uf^a, firft refining a!t 
ICio^, afterwards at Wljtdiwir, and laftly, 
at ^qfcoy^. Thi« prcrqgativp the patriarch 
of Cpiiilantinpple retaip^d till the time of 
czar Bafil Bafilowitz^ when the Ru0iaQ 
clergy took pn thenafelvps tP chufe their 
9Wp fnptropolitan» which thpy cpuld the 
mo^-e pafily do, the digaity of thp patriarch 
9f Conftantinppjc hjivipg extremely decUped . 
fii^ce the t^ki|>g of that capital by the Turk$. 
Zip length Jeremiah the patriarch of Con-* 
i^antinppl^^ who, in 1588^ wgs come in 
perfon to Mofcow, decjar.ed Job, at that 
t^e metropolitan of RufSa, patriarch of 
all ^ufiia^ and he was acknowledged as fuch 
iSy the other Eaftern patriarchs of Alexan^ 
^ria^ Antioch^ and Jpruialem : his fuccef- 
fors, however, were to be every time con- 
firmed by the patriarch of Conftant^nople. 
This fubordination continued till the reign 

this lodiaroi^^c£lionof apope wai three timet repeated; 
^Qd ibU was ^il the good the Sorbonne got by its endeavoart 
to Moite the cburcto of Rome and Ri^Oia. Voltaire's Hift* 
Tom. II. G. ix. 

C C q of 


of czar Alexis Michaelowitz, to whom 
Nicon, the then eleded patriarch of Ruiliat 
a haughty and ambitious man> reprefented 
that the Conftantinople ratification was not 
at all neceiTary, and accordingly, it was not 
applied for ; but this Nicon afterwards be- 
ginning to ad the pope in Ruflia^ and af* 
fuming to himfelf a great authority in 
worldly affairs, the czar held a general con- 
vocation of the Greek and R^iffian churches, 
who, befides rejeding the patriarch Nicon*3 
extravagant demands^ depofed him. His 
fucceffor, neverthelefs, retained fo much 
authority as to be very troublefome to the 
ci2irs (83). Peter I. took advantage of 
the deceafe of patriarch Adrian in 1699^ to 
rid himfelf of that incumbrance, not per- 
mitting the clergy to choofe a fucce^br; 
and in the year 1719^ he appointed an ep- 
clefiaftical commiffion for the adminiAratioi^ 
of church-affairs, giving it the name of the 
Sacred Synod, or the Moft Sacred Supreme 
Synod. It confifted of a prefidenti v^hp 
was always to be the foverei^n, a vice- 

(85) The patrjarch was t)ie firft per/bo in the tmjatfoext 
to the c^ar. All the clergy were fubjedl to hiaiy and he had 
fall power in church affairs, only recommending to the ezaf 
the execution of what he had thought £t to order< CAearias, 
Book III. c. xxvlii. Ac the proceffion' on Twelfth*^, 
the czar ufed to help the patriarch on horfeback^ kdU« 
ing the bridle during the proceffion ; and even with tk»(^P«^ 
W t tod m ftrft complied, Wpber^ ?• !!• p. 57. 


prefident, and twelve ipiritual and Tome 
teiqporai members (y). He afterwards 
made feveral very falutary arrangements for 
this eccleiiaftical. council^ all tending to the 
fappreffion of abufes, and to the improve*- 
ment of church difcipline and real reli- 
gion (z). Thus was the patriarchate totally 
abolifhed^ and the church lands belonging 
to it put under fequeftration {a). 

The principal of the Ruffian clergy are 
the metropolitans, of whom there are only 
two, Kiow and Tobolflc. After thefe 
come feveral archbi(hops and bi(hops, both 
under the common name of Archirei, and 
they are twcnty-feven in number. Amidfl: 
thefe feveral titles of metropolitans, arch* 
bifhops,. and bifhops, all the difference lies 
in rank, they not being in the leaft fubor* 
dinate one to another, but all immediately 
under the facred fynod, and every one ex- 
ercifing within his diocefe the power com^ 
mitted to him by the new ordinances {6). 
The number of monafteries for both fexes 
is very great (84) ; the heads of the former^ 

(j^) Strahleiiberg, cap. ix. 

(«) Haven^ ParcJI. cap, xy» 

(«) W€b«r, P. I. p. x6. 

(i) Haven, P. IL c. xv. 

(84) By aa-ordinaace of Peter I. 00 man is to be admit- 
ted into a convent under fifty years of age ; but this was a& 
tflfflfards fo far altered, that a male or female tamed of thirty 
i^ghJt embrace the monaMc ftate. Weber, P. II. and Vol* 

C c 4 were 

39 » 

392 PRESENT STATE Of Europe. 

are called Archtai^iid*rh;es'» i. e, zHokr^tifg 

or Igumehcn, i. e* pwors. Thfe Mlk^ er 

priorcfs of a nunnery has thi iiairie o^ J^d^ 

menja. All thdfe compofe tfee np^ ckqgy^ 

The lower clergy ate riic Pfotti^opcn (8^)v 

i. c. firff or archpriefks ; the Popes, i. cf* 

^priefls, the firfl of whom are likewise cafHtfd 

Archi-Jcrei, arid the ktter Jerei ; attd tliC 

Deacons, who miniftcr at tire pabltc wol^-# 

(hip. Tho' the upper Clergy muft be unmar-* 

ried, the prlefls. On the contrary^ ird 

bound to marry, and with a virgih. Od 

the death of the wife, he lofcs his dffiecfi 

and his only altfetnative is to go into a moi^ 

nailery, or quit the ecclefiafttcal GaAti 

and in the laft cafe, he is at liberty to 

marry.again. The common priefts have fo 

little learning, that if they can read it is 

fuf&cient (86). The monks, whoarelike^ 

Utre's Hift. Vol. IL cb. xiv« Another order «m jpaliliflied 
under Peter I. limiting the oamber of convents to fifty, and of 
Wionks in each to fifty-two. Bat this gave great olence t^ A^ 
clergy, and accordingly never was put in execatioD: Weberv 
' p. 111. In the year 1761, the convents for men in the AuT* 
fian dominione, exclofive of feveral lefler liooies, wei% recr- 
koned to be 479, and thofe for women to be 74. The nam* 
ber of oionks exceeded 7000, and the nana 5000; the priefts, 
and other inferior chorch-offlcers, amounted to 67,875. 

(8;) This title is given by way of pre-eminence to tti0 
priefts of the archiepifcopal and epifcopal c&o'rches. 

(86) Yet tb)5 Ruffian clergy feemed formerly to have kp- 
fBtd themfelvcs to cafaiftical divinity. Haven, P,' IT. c. 
xvi. fives us a conference between two of them, entirely Oil 
cafes of confcience, of which I ihall only mention one ai 
as a (jpecimen. 


wife fcplorftblj ignonfnt, letd a very auilere 
acid retted IHe; they are not allowed HtQi, 
Batter^, dbeefe^ cggps^ nor any other food of 
the animal kind (c). Both the regular and 
fecular clergy arc poflefTed of large * eftates 
(87), but not exempt from taxes. As for 
t^c common priefts^ they are fubjedt to 
Iieavier impofts than other men (cf). 

The Ruflxans ufed to hold that orthodoxy 
was to be found only in their church, and 
looked on other feds of Chriflians as little 
better than heathens ; fo that all converts to 
their religion were baptized a fecond time 
(BB). But, on becoming better acquainted 
With the world, they have laid afide fuch 
narrow notions, and new converts now are 
not re-baptized as before {e) ; they even 

<< Q;^ Whit is the duty of a perfiM who intenda to many ??' 
** Anf. He who intends to marry flially for the ^ace of 
forty, or at leaft eight days before, abftain ffom all carnal 
conyeriatioa with other women/' Thefe are the bride- 
groom'sdsttess bat what is requited jBom the bride* the 
cafuift has ftot determitted. 

(c) Hnven, P. II.^c.xv* 

(67) la the beginning of tbejp«at Northern war, Peter r» 
feqaeitrated all the lands belongmg to biihopa and nonsfte* 
riess bat in 1711, they were re&red to the fbnner,, and 
fome of the latter afterwards obtained their pofieCona. We* 
ber, P. I. p. 46. The emprefs £Haabeth at length caafed 
Ihe remainder to be reftored to their former poflo&rs. 

(d) Weber, P. L p. 46, 

(88) The many ceremonies and drcumftanceB which, ac- ' 
tording to t^ Ruffiaki cafuiib, ere to be obfenred in i^ 
may be feen in Haven, P. II. «• xW. 

(#) Id. cap. xvik 




always £hew themfclves very friendly tm 
other feds i and inflead of perfeciiting^ al- 
low flrangers an unmolefled freedom of 


Tokntieii Accordingly, there ire in Ruffia, befidea 
•fniispoD. the eftablifhcd church, many other fcOs ^ 
for the Lutherans have not only retained a 
perfcft freedom for their religion in Livo- 
nia, Efthonia, and Finland i but both they 
, and the reformed have long fince, been. to- 
lerated in Ruffia itfelf, and publickly per- 
form their worfhip in feveral towns with- 
out the leaft moleftation (89). The Ro- 
man Catholicks are favoured with the like 
indulgence, except having Jefuits (90). 
The Armenian Chriftians have a bifliop 
and public churches at Aftracan (/), and 

(89) The firft churcli the Lothenni built was at Mofcow, 
under ]ohii BaiTilowitz If. aod, as they greatly encreafed, 
ib that feveral congregrations of them were formed at diie- 
ttnt places, Peter I. allowed them a fuperintcndaftt refiding 
at Mofcow. See Dr. Eufching's Account of the Lotheraa 
Congregations in Ruflta. Vol. L Piece II. of his Diiierti* 
tions and Treaties. 

(90) For in 1719, a mifanderftanding having arilen be^ 
tween the courts of MoA»w and Vienna, the Jefints siert 
banlihed the empire, and the caafe affi^ned in » inaaileilo 
sddrefled to the Catholic Church was, ** That th«r dangeroas 
machinations, and their foodnefs to be meddling with polir 
ticks, was fufiiciently known.'' Weber, P. 1. p. 36a. 

{/ ) Strahlenberg, c. viii. 


R US S I A. 395 

the Unitas Fratrum or Moravians, have 
like wife obtained freedom of confcience(^). 

Befides the feveral fefts of Chriftians, thef^*^|2I^ 
vaft eoipire of Ruffia has great numbers of^"**«*'^»* 
Mahometans* and flill more pagans (91} : 
the facred fy nod has not only inftitut- 1 
ed a ^' fociety for propagating the Chrif^ 
" tian religion,'* but adually (ent miffion- 
aries for converting infidels ; and with fuch 
good fuccefs, that, according to the pub« 
lick accounts, thoufands or rather hundreds 
pf thoufands have been brought over to the 
RuiSan church (92). 


Literature and the fciences were, duringstat^ortht 
the jgreater part of the laft century, totally^***"**** 

if) '^0 patent granted to them by the eraprefs Catharine 
II. 10 17649 may be feen in Bufching's DifTert* &c. V6l. L 
Piece I. 

(91) Mr. Strahlenberg, cap. viii. computes the former to 
be the thirtieth part of the inhabitants of the Ruffian em* 
pire, and the other at three times that number. 

(92) Near 30,000 Mahometans and Pagans are faid to 
liave been faapazed in the firft half of the year 1 74.8, Tvithiu 
die government of Cafan» Nifchoowc^rod, Woronetz, and 
Orenburg. An aftoniihing number, indeed, in fo (hort 4 
time i bat not at ali-impoffible, if the reverend miffionaries 
finest to work the fame way as Philopbei, archbilhop of To« 
bolAi, with the heathen Tartars of Siberia, caufiog them 
wko would not come of their own accord, to be hunted 
by dragoons, and thofe who wonld not voiunurily be bap- 
tized, to be thrufl by violence into the water; and thofe 
who eot to land again, had a crois tied about their necks, 
and 10 were made Chriftians. Gmellin's Journey through Si* 
])eiia^ Part IV. p. 2^^ 

unkoown in Ilvffia, fo that Peter the pre^t 
may be laid to have firft introfiuced th^. 
He founded f^veral fchpols for hiftru<5tfiig 
youth in Latm and other hnguages (4) ; 
and afterwards inftituted the aca!3emjr g| 
fcienccs at Peterfburgj, whiph, however^ 
was UQt opened tUl 1726. after hjts death (i)l 
It confifts of three cla^s^.the mathemati-* 
cal, pbyficjl, and hiftpric^l {i) ; and f6on 
acquired a coniidcrable reputatiod, which 
it has ever flpce maintained, The emprpfs 
Elizabeth may be cofifidercd as its fecond 
founder^ having coniiderably augrpented its 
income, and thus removed the difflcaltics 
which fometimes had o|)ftfu^ed its pur- 
fuits (95). The ijcaden^y is connoted 
with an univerfity and grammar fbhools, fo 
that it not only publifhes collections of the 
xncmoirs coippofed by its rpembers, but 
Hkewife books of inftrudion for the RuA 
iian youth. TIvfe» and their otjier works 
have certainly been the foundation of much 
goody but this alone is not fu^fficient to caufe 
any confidcrable propagation of learning in 
this vaft empire. It requires more femina* 

(i) Weber, P. III. 

(r) Id. Ibid. p. 52, 60. Sec Haven, P. L cap. ti, p. te. 

(i) For its difcipliirc. See. Haven, P. I. c. iv. 
. (93) She 'aogmemed the ufiial reveaae of tiie acade my 
with an anaaalftixn of 531 joo rubles, .for maintaining feve^ 
ral artificers Whom it wanted, and for the iifcW itt iSbmtf 
and jnufeuxn. 


IR t; S S 1 A. 397 

ties 6f ill degrees. Which Thifherto have 
hditiL very hiueh (vantirtg in Rulfia (94) ; 
the clrtiVferilty of tcferlburg, and that 
Ydifnded at 'MofcttW in ^755, by the cm- 
b'fds Bli4(iibiith,^bdifig the oiily twoiinivef 
&f6l vl^lthftflR circuit. As for the coU 
Icgfe at 'K.i6^, it^is 6Kly a feminary of di-^ 
Viriity'fdr/ihe tJkraltfeelergy,(/) ; and lite* 
Yature it fcttos'cah jiVoniife itfcif little in- 
•dfesCfe iFroto'thls fouftdatidn (95). Though 

. ^t^4) Of tUrthtf^ettfttftir Ater tlU wasfo l(etifib]e» Ifmt 
he intended to. have fQU04^d JQAOie fchools ; and his principal 
Tievr herein *wib,ihU'thcnK:iitea1i cltrgy tnight emerge from 

3heir«s/3frjt;n^r«flce, and gp: thToo^h a regubtf jeouife of 
ftodiet. as tnofe of other countries, . 
<0- Havcft, ^. I. c. Yu P. H. c: xVi. 
igx) ^HayeBy P. H.-ci^. }h^..-^eiH3otis the ifbUowin^ tid« 

^of aDobJcpabfiflied By a Kiow profcflbr, .in 1745. phiio* 
Ibphfa- AKKiftirta ad^irieht^n/PerfjMt^tieoriiQi tradila: Ejua 
iacradffinue. majeftatis heredit^Has/ noftr^e mitgnm d^oiinaB, 
adgutHtembimperatrVciB^nzabeth PetrdwnaB tonus Rofiise 
fiddi'fohditdfaCI'orum/'Roftadir flee nan Romania impea- 
oram illuftriflimo regis comiti, cxcellentii&mo totum per im- 
perium J^ger magiftraaftuali^-ejttrdein (kcradffiinsD maieftatia 
Ober-Camer, Hero, Leyb/compagniaBUitenantiOji variorum* 
que ordinum cavaleroj ejus regis comitis illnftriflimas excel* 
le'iiifs'ATezid Hryhoriewicz Rozuinowikyy anniveHaria.cjiii^ 

-dem ttkelaHsjreeordatibne d^odta* Sincere cxti^adui e li- 
brxs Latinis atque Polonicis typo xnandatis de tfntiqna HoM- 
Hffind^Mf d<Hhiddmim Rd^liltK^&idram gcneilogia imnxa : 
in qdatubr doctttnenta diviili ; et pnblicia in aeademia Mo* 
hyio^Z^lbdrcNifHtfim Kiotkiifi dif|»atadonibo9 apprcybata : per 
hamilffliuui eorum tbrvttra^ neo' non -Dei exoratbrem, acade- 
miae Kiovienfib ]$l>iefe^ini j ejufdeitique ^ilofbphis ter fex- 

' eitbfiimyu4!fia<fua|^dft£bftm>tiieitmonachuni;Mich^^^ 
KOzacktyhM dUftta: ^eihd^ per aitditoirm futim, Grtacact 
Hri»Mte/«ec'DOttGermanficae dialedloroiB diftij^nHltn/nDU* 
teiR dmMMhirGftgQrf«hi-S2e«eibaclci defenfa; KitM^^ 
ptsfi^codffli^ qniiopra^ praelMbcx^itibhifeclrr^*-^' « ^^ 

a the 

^p PkESENT fiTATfi o^ EUROPE^ 

>{Mibll(b^ by «be title oCSpbonaTUkf&ofe^ 

Hi. e. Ubanimoikif^aiidtlJi^er^^ 

^{^) : tbefe And thfeifeveral ordinances of lii^ 

^fuccefibrS) :|>&rtioiilarly i^ter I. [o)^ are>the 

tildes for ttit courts of j(iftioe« The latter 

tfaad epfiployed the meft capable jperfons 

-thM4(aet^ to be proouMd, <o draw.up^ new 

'^and couiplete kw book^ but the ficti&ing 

* liaaii has-not 4>een putto it (it), 'She^prs- 

fent czarina^ Catharine XL has wdotedl '.a 

new code of laws to be drawn up, which is 

actually inland-; and tlikt it may have all 

^.^ . j)efrible,^erfe6lion, a TOuncil CQ9fi0^^ of 

' deputies frbm all the provinces o^ the j^gA 

^ lian dominions is eft2^b^&cd at Petcribtti^ : 

^feveral ^raineni forel^hers have'Jllc^ile 

been invited thkher to affift witH ith^F fii- 

'(lod)'Tlieffi laies^baraa Miyerbei^, tke^cmpemrlwpcfln 
env^yt t^i^fl^od into Ld^t, f|Kl^4<M thooi to iiUfa^m 
Mofcoviam, and a Geraan uanflftion trom klutlisaidfie 
\lMsen pttblfdied 'at Danteic. 

(0 Haven, cap. n. Part II. • ' 

(I) See Voltake's Hifl. Tom. II. ch. nii. he, iajetd, U 

' thefame tiine, tityt^ tiiit the emprdfi EliMbethiDiih^ tke 

' wtik wMeh lief^frtlMr had ^gw. Btnxkksr mtmmk;^ 

-^f^\ tiiMi^kfi icdbtradid tbit ; ao4 the SmphaMt mfim 

neweH Political HiftoiTt-cf 'Raffia, affirms, tlitc thie emBtrar 

^Peter Al. caofed! tto God^ Aid«riciaB«i t»ht U&tttmd fa* 
';to tkeRAffiin laiiguac;e; in ordtri togpthtfr with dbe lUfiui 

'law^ to make' it a book of aatotes for the cmjnh: iionr 
'"this would^lNmf kten "oditl^ nsnecdbry, had'tto^rli aad 

the emprefa EUsaheth before provided ii with «- «Mfpkis 


- i jperience 

K u s s I a: , 401 

perience and learning. Her ihajcfty's in- 
Arudlions to this council, which have been 
printed, do honour to her penetration and* 
Wifdom^ as like wife to her humanity. 

Livonia, Eflhonia, and Finland, beihg 
conquered provinces, .retain their former 
laws, agreeable to the ftipulafion made for 
them by the crown of Sweden in the treaty 
of peace. In the Ukraine the Magdeburg 
law ohtains (/). 


. Such difputes among the pcafants as ^^j^ ^ 
cannot be compofed by their elders, are 
^rqught to the decifion of their lords ftew- 
wards. But in cafe the lords, of the eftates 
are themfelves at law with one another^ 
the complaint is carried to the way- 
wod*s court, whci'c he fits as judge with a 
few affeflbrs. If either of the parties acr 
quiefce not in his fentence,. an appeal lies 
!;9 the governor's court, and from this 
^gai^nto the upper court in Mofcow, and 
from this to the fenate, and lajftly to the 
monarch himfelf, who decides it finally iu 
the cabinet council. 

The magiftrates of towns adminifter juf* 
ticc within their' diftridts, and from thefe 

[p) Havciit Part II. c. ii« 

Vol. IIL D d the 


the firft appeal lies to the coimtry coirft 
an4 So gradually' up to the throne it- 

^ In .ecclefi?^ftical and fnatriipohial wufcs 
'the.^rf): pleadings, arc before the bijfhb^ of 
eyiqry dioccfe^ and the fccond, which ki&e 
laft,.bcf9rethciracrc(i iynod. __ ' \ 

, ^When a pcjlbii of ranlt fias $f ought him^ 
felf under the law, a commi^on of the 
principal civil and military officers is ap- 
pointed to try, ,l\im(y).;^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Livonia, Efthonia, and Fin}and, wliich^ 
in virtue of the treaty of peace, ftitt iii^Cfy 
their laws and civil conftitiition, have^tFts 
terfburg an upper court, called the ^r^i^n 
college of juftice, where they who conc^^v^ 
thcmfelves aggrieved by the tinder court 
in thofe provinces, ajjply for a revificnHi 
from this lies an appeal to the Unite, a&3 
laftly to the cabinet. 

Moft of the coiporal and CEij(>ital -jitiir 
niihments are very fevefe, and unKBowh 
in other parts of Europe. Amoh^ tbV for- 
mer are thebatog, the knut>cuttin|; dutlfhc 
tongue, flitting the noftrife, bahi{bli%'ib 

(•) Bribery, «iaod«r ptA-$bvi(ct9'mref<mtia4K\Mgo 
fo notorious in the Ruffian coartA of joAioe, diat the emmu 
Gatbart&e U. ifTttexl a very remarkable kni itrift m^mim 
againft diofe pradlices. 

(f ) Haven, .Part U. cap, ii 


R tJ a S I A- 403 

RifeiSi;ia.(2) : fome of the latter ate hanging 
tuaf by the rib&j impaling^ hurying alive ; 
tpiefc laft, however, arc liow fuperfcdecj bjf 
bfe^lking on, the whe^l and bejieading. 

Pe{;(ons fentenced to 4^ath for crimes 
^aif)ft the ftatc forfeit lands apd efiefls to 
t^e croyrq ; this is always the caf^, thopgh 
life Q/v^d happen not to be touched* 


The Rufliaqs ufed t9 bripg into the £eld Lud-rttctii 
^rWWe? of ^bpve looj^ooomenj buttjhcfe^in- 
^f 94 9f heiQg regular forces jcept in cpnftant 
pay# K^ere only a poflc of the nobijity, gentry^ 
^d pther (ubjedts. The firft fleps towards 
thie ioiprovement of the Ruffian military 
4ifcipline were made by John Bafilowitz, 
wJ^o invited many/oreign officers into hijs 
fejryicp {/). In this he was imita(;ed by his 
fticqcfTors^ jind particularly by AIe;;fcis Mi-^ 
qb^elp^iitss yrh(^ forn^ed eight regiments of 
(Cglilar fqgtt \yith all foreign officers (/). 
Xl^e .^PQi^^ part of theRuj^jan forces 
9pn^ed Qf the Strelitzes^ i.e. fold^ers» a 
felp^.pf 1^^090 fqpt^ >eing as a gUard to 

iz) Some were fent thither |p work as Saves at the minet 
ux^ ipj^^CiZUyM ; t>ut.ot)^rs» .and pll of any rack, as ftate* 
^nGm^ni taefe were ftriEly guarded In fortified* hoafes^ 
where they often underwent great hardlhips, PartL cap. xii. 

(/) Haven» Part II. cap. viii. p. I50»,iii- 

{f) Strahlenbergi cap. v. p. 213. 

D d a ^h* 

\ , 

the czar and a garrifon to the city of Mos- 
cow. They had great privilegts whiclik 
made them infolent» fo that if things did not 
gojuft according to their fancies, a mu- 
tiny was the confequencc. They particu- 
larly refented the military aiteratioris made 
oy Peter I. and took' occafion of his ab- 
fence during his firil journey in 1698, to 
raife a dangerous infurredion, but were de- 
feated by general Gordon, and the greater 
part of them taken prifoners. Peter L- 
made ufe of this opportunity for totally^ 
difbanding the Strelitzcs, after caufing fbmc 
thoufands of them to be executed. Here- 
upon he gradually formed all his troops 
botli cavalry and infantry after the German 
manner, in their uniforms, exercife, and 
difciplirie. The Ruffians being from 
their early years inured to hard living, and 
habituated ftriftly. to obey thofe who 
have a command over thcm» make hardy 
and good foldiers when well officered; The 
foot (at), however, are preferred to. the 
horfe (j). The prefent Ruffian forces con^ 
of regulars and irregulars, the former com- 
pofe the emprefs's guards, the marchinig 
regiments, and the regiments of the gar- 

(Af) Parry, p. 442. 

(j) Wcbcr, Part I. p. 28, 


RUSSIA. 405 

rifonfi and gof erriments ; all thefe are both 
hCfth axid foot. 
^ ' . 

Military cilablinHnent of the Ruflian em- 

la the beginning of the year 1762, the 
following lift of the Ruflian forces was de- 
livered to Peter III. 


Troop of the emperor's life guards 

(3) — . _ --364 

I. The Preobrafchonfkoi regiment, 
together with the company of 
bombardiers — — 3*780 

IT. The Semonowfkoi regiment ^^SS^ 

III. Ifinailowfkoi regiment (4) 2,536 

Horfe guards — — ^ i>376 

Total 10,552 

(3} This corps theemprefs Elizabeth Ibrmed oat of the gre* 
nadiers of the regimeot ofguardsy who didingiitihed themfelves 
io her advancement to the thrboe. She likewife created them 
nobles, and with fome coniiderable privileges. Peter III. on 
his acoeflion to the government diibanded the trooped life- 
guards, and the emprefs Catharine II. formed oat of it a 
corps, called the Chevalier Garde, of iixty men. 

(4) The lUe-goards, were by Peter I. their fbonder, ho- 
Bonxed with confiderable diilinftions. The officers afed to 
be called to coancii in important affairs, efpeciaiUy oa the 
U^mI 'Pf Aale-crimioals ; even the fentence of death pro- 
nounced againft the anhappy Cz^^owitz Alexis, is figned by 

D d ^ Cadets 


Cadets who are all young gentle- ' 

men or noblemen — — - Szz 
Matrofles, engineers, gunners, and 

others in the artillery department 34*032 
Cuirafficrs, 6 regiments, each 945 mtch 5^670 
Horfc grenadiers^ 6 regiichents, each 

960 —r- — — *T "5f7^Q 

Dragoons, 18 regiments, each 1 140^ 

and 2 regiments of 125 1 23,022 

Foot grenadiers, 4'regithents 2^61 

men ^^ — — - i 0^004 

Infantry, 46 regiments each 262$ 

men — -^ i2o;796 

^Garrifons along the Baltick 20 rc- 

; giments, of 1281 men each,' and i 
r * battalion 753 r-r rr- '26; 373 

* Carrifons in the empire 24 regiment? 

of foot and 1 1 regiments of dra- 
* ' gdons of different complemehts, 

together with fome additional 

battalions aiid fquadrons r^ - 49,^5^ 
"Militia, 24 regiments of diflferent 

jcpmplements rr- »--r 26,^598 

feveral captains, lieutenants, and ^figns; t&d ^tace. t^at 
^ tixne the great (hare they had in the lat^ ):eVohiti6ns,'hauriio( 
^ |i little added to their confideratiop, 


jR U S S I A, 407 

Troops on duty at the public offices **«• • 
of the ftatc — ^ — 2,584 

Ji^v^flars, 8^ regiments of different 

complements — ' ^~ 9»S93 

^Other ligH't^ troops", 7 regiments, ' 
Tome confining' of 4 or* '500b 
^men ^ * " ' ' ' 20,242 

Total 34^,006 ' 

.Irregular troops, Coffacks, Cal- 

mucks ofc. 261,172 

In a]l 606,178 

The irregular troops all .ferve on horfe-p 
back, with officers of their own nation. The 
Ukraine Coffacks are commanded %y their 
Hetman, who is of their own choofing, btit 
muft be confirmed by the czar, though this 
pofl fometiojkes continues vacdnt, as at prfe<!> 

The chief poils in the Ruffian army are, 
the field-itoarffiai general, the general in 
chief, the lieutenant-general, major-gene- 
rail ^nd bHjgf diers. 

P d 4 The 


'Hie pay of a field*-ina;r(hal gene- 
ral is 7000 rubles and 200 rations 
worth — — ~ . . ^i^t^ 
General in chief — 3600 80 4^6 
Lieutenant-general -*^ a 160 50 29'^ 
Mftjor^general ^-^ 1800 40 2a8 

Brigadier — - 840 ao 171 

« •* ' - * 

Each of the faid officers is farther al* 
lowed a certain number of Dentfch^qki, 
u t. icrv^ots^ furni(hing them only wltlh 
cloathing (^z). 

The pay of the regimental officers differs 
tccocding to the difference of the troops«. 

In the 


In the garrifon The other garrifon 


regim. along and govtotnteiit 

the Baltick« regiments^ 

The p|iy of 


rubles. rabies* 

acolonel is 


400 JTOO 

J>ieot. cqI« . 


240 . «id 



200 * 100 



120 • to* ; 



90 45 



60 30 

Each of thefe is likewife illotved a cer- 
tain number of rations, and one or more 
fervants (a). 

(«) See the Hiftory of Ruffia in the Mod. Univ. HiiL V^oL 
5JXXV. p. 175. 
U) Boiching^a Geograpjij, futide of Ifiokovj^ 



The yearly pay of a private man Is reck- 
oned at 16 rubles 72 copecks; but 4 rubles 
6^ copecks- is all he receives in money, the 
" greater part being deduced for provifions, 
clothing, cartridges^ mufket*flints^ the fur« 
gcon, &c. {6). This fhews that the Rufliaa 
zxmy, in proportion, cofls the leafl: of aay 
troops in Europe. 

The officers of the guards, artillery, and 
engineers, are paid according as they rank 
with the officers of the marching regiments j 
and a private man in the guards bas double 
pay (4. 

In recruiting the regular troops, for the 
guards, the beft men are rcrrfoved from all 
the other regiments. For the marching and 
fialtick garrifon regiments, recruits are raifed 
throughout the empire 5 125 men and fome- 
times more or lefs, being obliged to furniOi 
afoldier. The other garrifon and government 
regiments are recruited by foldiers, who are 
no longer able to ferve in the field ; and the 
huiTars are foreign volunteers {d). 

Every nobleman or gentleman having two 
or more {cms was, by an ordinance of tj^t 
emprefs Anne, obliged to make.foldiers of . 
them> except one ; and they were to feryc 

(6) Bafching's Gcographjr, Article of Hukovy. 

(f) Haven, P. II. cap, viii. 





twenty -tfixp years frqpi their twj^iitic^ jcai; 
{e) ; but .this ieveri^y was abo^ibcd,by Pc- 


A.cadct acajJwny was fopnded at JPetcrf- 
burgh ia 17321 for training up a^jjp Ruf- 

ilaa and :I20 German young gentlemen, in 
feveral icieaces^, languages, and ,ejiccrcifes. 
But it is fufficient that they qualify them- for civil.cmploymeats without being 
bound^tP.ent^r into the army (y)» 

The .care, and recruiting of i;hc army, ac- 
clufive ©f the guards, belongs to the war- 
office, in which are feveral departments, 

.the. commiiTary general's office, the artil- 
lery office,, the, commiflary of war's office, 

, the pay.nsafter's offipe, the cloathing office, 

..the prgviiion officci and the acco^iptaot's 

S E,C T. XpCXV. 
Fortifici. The* frontiers of the Ruffian empircL be- 
ing fo very extenfive, and oiaay of its 
neighbours favage and turbulent, it is .110- 
der a neceffity of keeping up a gi^at 
number of fortified places : it is reckoned 
to have twenty-four on the &ltick, nine- 
teen towards * Poland, Crim-»Tartflary» and 
Turkey, befi^es feveral irregular, fortifica- 
tions on the Ukraine line, fifteen in Sibe-i 

(#) Haven, P. IL c. xii. 
(/) Bufehing's Geography^ 


RU S-S I A. 411 

ria, atfd nine on the 'Wolga, together with 
tlic Tzarizifki line, df ten redoubts 5 and ^ 
whicfh, nice the 'Ukraine line, is always 
guarded by a good number of troops f^j). 
"Peterfbufg, Mbfcow^ Novogrod, and Riga 
have ^ery large arfen^ls, and filled with 
airfortsxdf ftores, navd and military. 

cfi E C T^ XXXVL 

The 'Ruffian navy, like the army,' is awafy, 

work of Peter the Great, andnot'lefs an 

pbjedt of admiration, being, as it were, 

fprung from nothing, and in a very (hort 

time. He returned* from bis firft journey 

in 1698, with fome fea-ofBcers and fhip* 

builders from England: and Holland; and 

fct them to work about a :fleet on the 

Don, intending to employ it ^gaiaft the 

Turks on the Black Sea. Having, in the 

northern war obtained fome fettlements on 

the Baltick near the Nev;i, he immediately 

began to build a rlarge fleet, which rin a 

few years became fo con^erable .as .to be 

able to appear at fca, rand.6ght^he Swedes. 

In the Perfian campaign in 1722, he had 

' jikewife (hips fitted out on the Cafpian S^ea, 

for ftipporting his land enterprizes. A little 

JDcfore his death, he had given orders about 

(f) Haven, P. II, cap. tiu. 

a fur- 

a fprvey in. Kampfchatka, for fit places to 
make fea ports. His viewrs were io ex- 
tcnfive that in all parts of the ocean which 
.waflicd Jiis dopiinions,. he was for having a 
fleet; but the lofs of Afoph, and the Pcr- 
fian provinces, totally quafhed the Ruffian 
mariije in the Black and Cafpian Seas. 
In the BalticK, however, it has always 
maintained its reputation. In the year 
1746^ arid It has not been much cncrcafed 
fince that time, the navy confifted of, 

• 24 Ships of the line. T 

- 7 Frigates. . ' • ■ 

3 Bomb-ketches, 

2 Prancics. /^^ r: 

4 Packet*-boatS4 

Which, in the whole, carry 2042 guns, 
peter I. likewife caufed fome gallics to be 
builf, and made ufe of them with great ad- 
vantage on the coafts of Sweden. At his 
dcccafe the number of them amounted to 
160, but in 1746, only 102 remained. 

The great officers of the Ruffian navy are 
one admiral-general, three admirals, three 
vice-admirals, and three rcar-adttiirals. 
The number of men in the feid'year, 
amounted to 10,097, exclufivc of 73b5 hia- 
• trofles, and fome thoufands of marihes'(i5), 

(h) Haven, P. II. cap. ix^ 


R US S I A. 417 

Pcterfbiirgh has an academy for 360 fca- 
cadctsi as a nurfery for the lower officer's : 
failors, however, are very fcarce; for iho 
Ruffians doing little bufinefs by fea/ and 
confequently bringing up few feamen, the 
natural decceafc of men in the fleet is, 
(except the foh's of the old feamen at Cronr 
ftadt) chiefly fupplied with peafants, who, 
like the military recruits, are draughted 
out of the country. But with timber, and 
ill other naval ftores, Ruffia abounds. 
* The admirals and other officers of the 
fleet are paid according to the rank, which 
they hold with the generals and officers of 
the land forces. When the feamen are 
not employed at fea, they have an allow- 
ance 9f provifions like the foldier's, with 
fome money, though fomething more than 
the latter. 

• According to- the eftablifbmcnt made by 
Peter L the annual charge of the Ruffian 
navy, . including the building and fitting 
but of ihips and the fubfiftence of the fea- 
men, is about one million two hundred 
tliouiiand rubles {i)^^ 

. The whole marine is under the infpee- 
rion of the admiralty, and this coniifts xf£ 
fpur dcpartnwnts. Th& general navaj com- 

(0 Haven, P. 11. c. ir. 

miflary's ' 

Iiiifiary.*s office £m: the provifion ^ndioy-f- 
ment of the feamea^ the ftore office^ which 
has the <^are of the magazines and the 
fitting out of (hips } the fhip«bttUder*s pf^ 
fice» and the ocdnaoce office. . 


Port! for the Moft of the (hips of war lie at Cronfistdtp 

'^*'' '''''and the others arc divided between Rsvef 

and Archangel* The place £or the gaUin 

is Peteriburg. A great defe^ in the hap* 

hour of Cronftadt is the freOmeis ofitbewa^ 

. ter> m which fhips decay (boner than in4«k 

water» Co that thejr feldom laft abore twcfare 

or fifteen yeari, and this impairaieat ii fap^ 

ther haftened by the ice and ihow 44 lbe 

long winters (6). 

Peteriburg luis two docks, one £m ibo 
£hips of war and the. other for the galHes ; 
the third is at Archangel. A dock lias 
been con{lru£ted at Croniladt for rq6tti|qg 
ibips which, for the breadth and depthof 
its (lone canal, is looked on as a pnodigy 
of art (7)* Here, as at Pctcrlborg ^d 

(6) Another caafe of the Rafian Alps dpuig fo Ittile fer- 
vke^a faid to be the Ciflm <a4k» m kA: oftiapafib jad iuud 
ihan 6ther oak ; and of this the PetMA}Vg.(kip»)aic blUu 
HHven, Id. Ibid. 

. ^7);.Tj>ts.c^»pen[fiv«.TMal ^was bcgmi by.AalttrJ* J>il(ji^ 
finiihed till the reign of his daughter Elizabetb^^ who htrklf 

rned it» and with great foIemoityooDicccatied it on^tke Ttk 
Augaft 1752. 


RUSSIA- 415 

ArchingeT; are large magazines, ^ith all 
ibrts of fldres. ^ ' 

• The oldef): pieces coined in Rufiia are g<mii« 
fmally irregular, but moftly oblong, pieces 
of filver, tailed Copecks, i. e. lance, the 
im|>f^oa being a' horfeman with his 
Iktitti (8). They *rere at firft of p^rt hU 
▼eif; but an alloy 1>eing afterwards added', 
thdjT intrinfic value has been pretty much 
lowered. Undfcr czar Michael Peodoro-i 
^itis, fifty of them iliadfe a fpecie-dolhr (*)i 
hv^- under his fon Alexis, the dollar tva$ 
worth IOC* The other filver coins Were 
denga, x>t denufch, two of which made a 
c6peck ; and polufchks, i. e. half denufehj 
or quarter copecks : afterwards were like* 
wife coined altins (9), which went for 
thi^e copecks ; and grieves or pieces of ten 
Gopccks. A hundred 'copecks the Ruffians 
called a ruble (lo); but this was only a 

(8) This imprefeon is oil moil of them ; but Tome Ulcewife 
have the name and title of the great princes and czars of the 
refbeStive times. 

(i) Oiearias, Book tlL cK x. 

(§) Aitiii 18 a Tartar word fi£nii)'ing Htc, ilka piece beinjjf 
cquiad to fix demifches* 

(10) This name, comes from the Ruffian word Rvibit, 
wUch fignifies to heWt or cut ; for ct^Mkr befffg their oAly 
inotiey» they made u& of a tally in recboftiflgi and at ^ytry 
kund^a made i Ittf e ^oldl lb ^i^ 4vhich was ttttted RuUle. 
Haveoi Part X. p, 507. 


4i6 PRESENT STATE op EUR01>£. 

mxne and not any adual coin« Czar Alexis 
coined the firfl: rubles^ which were 
equal to a fpecie-dollar (ii), but after- 
wards the ilandard of them being made 
worfe, their Value funk below the fpecfe- 
dollar (/). Gold pieces were ilruck only 
on folemn occafions, as a vi^ory or a mar- 
riage {my Formerly the goldfmiths made 
the money, apd exchanged coined filver 
for an equal weight in bullion on a mode- 
rate deduction being allowed for the 
work (/r) ; buttheczar^ in proce(s of time^ 
aiTuraed the coinage to himfelf, and bad 
mints at Mofcow, Novogrod^ Twecr, and 
Plefcow {o). 

The RuHlans reckon by rubles and co- 
pecks ; and ,their prefent current coins are, 

I. In G 6 L D. 

Imperials equal to — lo rubles. 

Half imperials (12) — 5 

Ducats — — 2 30 copecks* 

Andrew ducats -— 2 

Golden rubles — i 

(11) Even fbreiftn fpecie-dbllarf were ftamped widi t\m 
Raffian arms, St. George lolling the dragon ; and like a ro- 
Me, were eqoal to a hundred copeclu* Haven, Part I. cap* x. 

(/) Ibid. 

(«t) Olearius, 

(«) Herberfleia» p. 57, 

{0) Oiearias, p. 223. 

(12) Thefe two meca were irft coined by tbe cmpieTt 

8 il. In 

RUSSIA; 417 

n. In 8 I L V E R. 

Rubles — • 100 copecks 

Half (poltinnick)* *— 50 
Quvter (poh poltinnick) — - 25 

Grieves \ — — 10 

Altins — « .^^ , 2 

Grofches — * i— 2 
Single copecks (i3)# 

IIL In C O P P E R. 

Pieces of five and one copeck, denufchker 
or halft and polufhkes or quarter copecks* 

A ruble is worth about one dollar four 
grains, according to the Leipfig ilandard 1 
or three marks two fchillings, Hamburgh 

The emprefs .Elizabeth^ in 1757, had 
particular filver pieces coined for Efthonia 
and Livonia, but to gp only in thofe coun- 
tries. Thefe are, 

Livonians *— — 96 copecks* 
Half — ^ 48 

Quarter — — 24 . 

and afterwards pieces of 4 and 2 copecks. 

(13) Thefe, and the two foregoing, are no longer cqin« 
ed, neither are they current. 

Vol. III. E e The 


The infcriptions on the Livoniau money 
are Latin ; whereas, on all the above men- 
tioned coins, they are in Ruffian. As to 
the Ruffian flandard it mufl be obferved, 
that the pound is divided into ninety-fix 
parts called Solotnic, of one qf which a 
third makes a loth, or half an ounce ; and 
the pound is to that of Cologn as fevcn to 
eight; confequently is one eighth lighter (/). 
In the year 1745* the proportion between 
the intrinfic and extriniic value of the Ruf- 
fian coin was, that a pound of ducat gold 
contained ninety- three folotnics of pure 
gold, and three folotnics of copper, and out 
of it were coined 118 pieces. A pound of 
Andrew ducat gold contained only feventy- 
five folotnics of fine gold, and twenty-one 
folotnics of copper, and made a hundred 
pieces. A pound of filver for rubles, half 
and quarter rubles, contained feventy-feven 
folotnics of filver, and nineteen folotnics of 
copper, and of this were coined fifteen 
rubles, thirty-four copecks. In the pound 
of filver for grieves were feventy-two folot- 
nics of fine filver, and twenty-four folotnics 
of copper; and of this like wife was coined 
to the amount of fifteen rubles eighty-four 
copecks {g). 

(/) Haven, Part I. cip. II. 
(f ) Id. cap. 3c. 


U U S S I A. 419 

Of copper money, pieces of five copecks 
Iiave been joined fince Peter I's time, and 
at the rate of forty rubles from a pud> i. e« 
ibrty pounds, that is^ fix times above the 
real value of the copper i the confequence 
of which v«^as, that foreigners conterfeiting 
this light money, the empire was over-rua 
-w^ith many millions of it. The empreft 
Klizabeth therefore lowered this Coin in 
1 745, to four i in 1 746, to three ; and in 
1747, to two; and laftly, in 1758, called, 
in the whole (r). The pieces of five and 
one copeck, now current, are of a better 
ftandard, a pud being coined only to the 
amount of eight rubles. 

The proportion of gold to filver was in 
the. faid year 1745, as i to I3tV, and that 
of filver to copper as i to 91 (j). 

The value of the ducats coined in Ruffia 
from i7ii to 1746, ambunted to 800,000 
rublesi the copper denufchkes andpoluflikes 
coined between 1730 and 1746, made 
1,800,000 rubles ; and all the feveral kinds 
of filver money coined from 1719 to 1746, 
made coUeftively 354 rtiillions of rubles : 
the quantity of filver money circulating in 
the empire in 1746, was eftimated at la 
millions (^). 

(r) Haven, P. 1. 1. x. {s) Id. ibid. (/) Id. 


E e a SECT. 


RcTeaie. Thc gfcat powcF of thc thronc over its 
fubjeds is of a three- fold advantage to it, 
pcrfonal fcrvices, fupplies of provifions, aad 
pecuniary taxes. Among thofe who arc 
obliged to fcrve the crown are the Coffacks, 
Cal mucks, and feveral hordes of Tartars, 
who receiving* orders from court, appear 
on horfeback 5 the recruits for the fleet and 
army, which are furniftied by eiti^ens and 
farmers; likewife, all kinds of handicraft- 
men, particularly carpenters, mafons, 
fmiths, labourers; which they are to furnifh 
for building new fortifications, and other 
works (14). The provifions confift of a 
certain quantity of rye-njeal, and groats, 
wiiich the farmers deliver into the em- 
prefs*s magazines, orpay the value in money; 
this is applied to the fupport of the troops, 
and thc payment of other fervants of the 
crown: the annual quantity of meal re- 
quifite for thofe fervices is eflimated at 
nine hundred thoufand tons (u).' 

(14) "VVeber herjc obferves^ Part L p. 39, that thb is* as it 
were the abyfs, in which infinite numbers of RufEan fabjeds 
are fwallowed up ; and that feveral pedbns who vtrj well knew 
what they faid» affirmed, that the building of the Citadel of 
Taganerowy on the Black-Sea» coft above 30O9060 lives ; 
and that white the works of Peterlburg and Cronflot were 
carrying on, a ftill greater number were fwept away by hun- 
ger and diftempers, proceeding from the fenny foil. 

(«) Haven, Part II. c. x. Weber, Part I. p. 34. 

8 The 

RUSSIA. 421 

The pecuniary taxes paid by the fubjeds 
are head money> by the Ruffians called po« 
dufchnoia dengi» i. e. Soul money. This 
all males pay from infancy to decrepid age ; 
townfmen and peafants having lands of 
their own, likewife the crown-farmers, an- 
nually pay 120 copecks; the other peafants 
but feventy (15). 

2. Ground rent of hou(es not (landing on 
white, i. c. free ground. 

3. The tax ofthefecular clergy, who, be- 
fides the perfonal taxes for themfelves and 
their children^ pay fix copecks for every 
houfe in their parifh. 

4. Taxes on baths in private houfes, for 
which peafants pay every year five copecks, 
citizens and priefls a ruble, rich traders and 
nobles three rubles. 

5* Im'pofls on mills, ponds, fifheries^ 
bee-hives (i6). 

The funds of the other incomes are, 

6^ The public baths, which are a mono- 
poly of the crown. 

7. The kabacks, i, e. viftuallers, who 
pay annually a certain fum for the licence 
of felling beer, brandy, and mead. 

(15) This capitation-tax was introduced by Peter I. in 
lieu of a kind of tax on houfes, paid annually by town and 
countrymen, and was of lefs produce. Id. ibid. 

(16) Efthonia, Livonia, and Ruffian Finland, in lieu of 
all thefc impoAs, pay annually certain fucns, the total 
6i|000 dollars. Weber, Parti. 

E c 3 8. The 


8. The duties on imports and exports* 

9. Mines, the mintage, and other i^iigalia* 

10. Fines and payments put of the fide 
of confifcated goods. 

1 1 . Crown lands, which are variable by 
reafon of frequent grants, refumptions, and 

: fequeftrations. 

I?. Exclufive trade of rhubarb (17), to- 
bacco, potafh, weedafli. Archangel tar, 
train oil, flock fi(h, falmon, feal fkins, 
pearls, ' ifinglafs, iron, fait, Siberia fbrs, 
whatever is above the value of ten rubles, 
with all other gpods of which the crown is 
for afliirping the trade to itfelf. 

Thefe are the ordinary incomes, but 
when not anfwcrable to the public expen- 
ditures, extraordinary impoAs are laid in 
proportion to the exigencies (x). The na- 
tions in the remote parts of Siberia pay 
their tribute in fur^, money being there 
extremely fcarce. 

The pecuniary incomes formerly were 
but fmall, and are faid to have amounted 
to no more than five millions of rubles in 
the time of czar Michaclowitz {y) ; at pre- 
fent they arc eftimated at fourteen, or fif- 

( 1 7) This was formerly a confiderable article, but U mock 
lefTened fince other European nations have brought rhubarb 
from China. 

(x) Weber, Part {• p. 42. 

(^J Strahlcnberg, cap. v, Haven, cap, x, 


RUSSIA.. 423 

teen teillions (18) i an4 even this feerns but 
a fmall matter for fo v^fl; a monarchy^ yet 
is it fufficient for the ordinary difburfe- 

The cuftoms and vidualling-licences are 
farmed^ whereas the other duties are levied 
and accounted for. 

The emperor Peter L affigned all thefc 
feveral incomes to certain fervices, 9s the 
crown lands and monopolies, for the court, 
the capitation^tax for. maintaining the 
troops, thekabacks, or vi£lualling*licences 
with a part of the capitation^tax for the 
life-guards and the admiralty 6cc. and, on 
this account, the moneys, as brought in, 
are paid into the treafuries of the feveral 


Ruflia is far 'from being fufficiently cuUwintaf 
tivated, many large tradls lying wafte. ThetSre!**** 
Ruffians formerly ufed in their wars to 
bring away the inhabitants of the enemy's 
country, and form them into colonies. 
Michael Feodorovitz removed fome thou- 
fands of Finlandcrs, his fon Alexis amul- ; 

(18) Voltaire, Hift. Vol. I. chap. ii. fays, that lo 1725, , 

the revenues amounted to thirteen millions of rubles ; others I 

about the fame time make them above twenty millions, I 

Strahlenberg, ch. x. But Haven, P. II. cap. y. about the | 

year 1746, reckons them only at right millions. { 

E c 4 titude . 'i 


titude of Poles^ and Peter I. on taldog^ 
Narva and Dorpt, fent above fir thOufiktid 
men and women to cultivate deferts in thte 
very heart of Ruffia {a). Her majefty die 
prefent emprefs Catharine IL has o^ered 
very advantageous conditions to foreigners 
fettling in her dominions; fo that agriculture 
and every part of hufbandry begins to be 
followed much more than ever; and for 
the promotion of thofe fo ufeful fciencee^ 
a fociety has been inftituted at Peteriburg^ 
in imitation of other countries (19). But 
the deficiency in point of agriculture i6 in 
part owing to the indigence of the people^ 
to the want of towns for the farmer to difpofe 
o^ his grain and other goods (^)» and to 
the difpiriting opprefiions of thp peafants^ 
which are fuchj that it is not uncommon 
for them to quit houfc and home (r), as 
they can no where fall into a worfc condi-* 


Manufac- So Httlc was Ruffia acquainted with ma- 
nufadufcs, that it had not fo much as the 

(a) Weber, Part III. p. zpi. Strahlcnb. cap. v. p. 214. 

(19) This fociety » tp which the emprefs has I een pleafed 
to grant a charter, has already publifhed the firft part of its 
memoirs, with this title * Works of the Free CEconoinical 
Society for the Advancement of Agricultorc and Hufbandry 
in Ruffia, Peterlb. 1765.* ^ . . . 

16) Haven, P. I. c. iv. 

(c) Weber, P. L p. 50. 



moft common handicrafts; and even at 
this time, the peafants build their own 
hou&s» make their own wheels^ carts, 
fledgeSi ploughs, harnefles, cordage, and 
even weave their linen and woollen fluffs 
for apparel. Their fhoes they make of 
baft, and can put their hands to mafonry 
and other bufinefs. But as herein they 
f<dlow only their own natural knowledge, 
fo their works have neither art, regularity, 
or ftrength ; and this is the cafe with al- 
moft every thing that comes out of the 
hands of their workmen, though looking 
tolerably well to the eye {d). On this ac- 
count it was that Peter L brought a con- 
iklerable number of foreign artificers and 
workmen into the empire, that his fub-- 
jeds might improve by their Example. 
He likewife fet up manufai^ures and fa- 
bricks. Accordingly Mofcow, Peterfburg, 
and ibme other large towns have their filk, 
woollen^ and linen looms; and in many 
places one meets with lime and brick-kilns, 
potteries^ glafs-houfes^ paperr-mills, foap- 
houfes, armouries, and other working 
(hops, furniftiing a great part of the ne- 
ceiTaries which Ruflia ufed to purchafe of 
foreigners {e). They have, however, from 

{d) Haven» P. L c. v* 
(«) lb. p« 68. 



time immemorial been in pofTeflion of a 
particular and highly advantageous manu- 
fadture, the making of Ruffia leather, in 
which no Europeain nation can rival 
them (20). 


Ind"^ The Ruffian empire confiding of fo many 

.countries different in fituation and quality, 
and inhabited by fo many nations, the in* 
habitants muft naturally carry on a great 
trade with one another, by reafon of the 
neceffaries which they reciprocally fland in 
need of; and this trade is greatly facili*- 
tated by the many rivers and other inland 
waters. And Peter L to improve this con- 
veniency and open a communication be-* 
tween aH the inhabitants of his dominions 
from one end of it to the other, united 
feveral large ftreams by canals. By the 
Ladoga canal, the navigation betwixt the 
rivers Wolga and Neva, is fccured (21). 

(20} Weber, P. JI. Making this leather is very trouble* 
fome and tedious ; chie procels is to be feen in Haven, P. L 
cap. V. 

(21) This canal is one of the moft celebrated works of 
tbe kind in Europe. Peter I. undertook it in 1718, by rea* 
ion of the dangerous paifage on Ladoga- lake, and it was not 
finiflied till 1730. mr. Haven, however, fays, that as for 
%}ke danger ot Ladoga-lake, the emperor might have faved 
Umfelf that vaft expence, great numbers of (hips being feen 
. to take that way, in order to avoid the duty of the canal : 
but that he did it for the fafety of the Ruffian barks, which. 


RUSSIA. 427 

The Wolgaand Wolchow (22), are joined 
hy the canal of Twer ; and the Wolga, the 
Mofcua, and Occa, by that of Rzwea (23). 
Thefe large canals, the expence of which 
was certainly immenfe, are the means of a 
corrcfpondence between the Baltick and 
the Cafpian fea, and the three capitals of 
Peterfburg, Mofcow, and Aftracan, which 
is accompanied with infinite advantages. 
And even when the navigation isobftrudcd 
by frofts, fledges carry goods from place to 
place at a very cheap rate. ^ 


Ruffia has a great variety of goods fofFw^ 
foreign trade, as coftly furs of fable, blue,* 
black, and white foxes, ermins, hyenas, 
beavers, lynxes, fquirrels, bears, wolves, 
martins, wild^cats, white-hares, &c. lea-- 
ther, tallow, wax, caviar, (lock-fifli, fait- 
fi{h, train-oil, ifinglafs, caftoreum, Sibe- 

Jn rummer bring go6ds ^nd proyi||ons of all kinds from the 
fouthern and eafiern provinces to Peteriburg, and are not the 
beft rea-boats« 

(22) This canal joins the rivers Tvvrer and Mota» the firft: 
of which raps into the Wolga, and the other into Illman- 
lake, out qf whiqh i^uet the WoIcqw. near Noyogrod. 

(23) Concerning thefe three canals, fee Stralenb. ch. ii, 
where he alfo mei^tion^ thre^ other canals planned by Peter 
I. partly for opening a commmiication between the Calpian 
and the Black*Sea ; and likewife between the Frozen-Sea 
and Onega-Lake. In the two former the work was adlually 
begun, but on account of the many difficulties was giveii 



rian-mufk, mamont's bones, whalebone^ 
feathers, briftles, hemp, flax, thread, dowlafs^ 
fail-cloth, and coarfe linen, callimancoes, 
matting, timber, pot-afli, weed-afti, tar, 
pitch, rofin, linfeed-oil ; likewife copper, 
iron, Mofcovy glaf?, with many other 
commodities. The Ruffians formerly car- 
ried on a great trade with the Hans-towns, 
chiefly by the way of Novogorod and 
Plefcow, and afterwards with the Livoni- 
ans. About the year 1553, captain Richard 
Chancellof, an Englifhman, being in queft of 
a north-eaft pafl^age to the Eaft-Indies, acci- 
dentally came to Archangel, which opened 
a very profitable trade both to the Englifh 
and Dutch. The Swedes likewife begati 
to trade with the Ruflians on the Neva. 
But under Peter I. a great revolution hap- 
pened to the trade and navigation in theie 
parts : for, after he had built Peterfburg, 
he removed the Archangel trade thither j fo 
that the new town, in a fhort time, be- 
came the mofl: confiderable ilaple in the 
whole Rufllan empire. The maritime 
commerce is chiefly carried on here by 
foreign merchants (24), and the Ruffians 

(24) Half of this trade is in the hands of the Englifli ; 
the Dutch having a quarter, and a quarter the other trading 
nations. It has been encreafin^ frooT year to year, though 
the foreign merchants, what with the great credit they give 


RUSSIA. 429 

find their account in it fo well, that inftead 
offending any (hips of their own, they both 
import and export in foreign bottoms {f). 
Befides this maritime trade, Kiow carries , 
on no inconfiderable traffick by land With 
Poland and Silefia; and Smolenfko with 
Poland and Pruflia. 

The Ruffians trade with the Turks 
and Greek merchants in Turkey at Te- 
mernicow and Nefchin (g), and at Aftra- 
can with the Perfians and Armenians {h). 
Laftly, a trade of great importance fub- 
£{ls with Chi»a by caravans, and of 
which Peter I. laid the foundations by a 
treaty wirfi the emperor of China. The 
principal commodity carried thither is 
furs ; and the returns are in cotton and 
filk-ftufFs, green tea, rhubarb^ tygers 
and panthers fkins, and toys. This 
tl-ade was formerly , in the hands of the 
crown, which, however, reaped little be- 
nefit by it, by reafon of the exceffive 
fmuggling and embezzlements : the em- 
prefs Catharine IL has thought it advife-* 
able to cafhier the crown caravans, and 

to the Rnffiaos, and the bad xnanagemeat qf their agents, 
oftea fuftain confiderable lofTes. 

(/) Haven, P. F. cap. vii. 

\g) Hanover Mifccllanies of Koowlcdge and Pleafure, 

1760. N^xcm. 
W Id. No xcviir. 



leave the whole Chinefe trade open to/mer^ 
chants (i)* 


AdminUbi. '^^^ condudt of the domeftic affairs of 
tiaaofftitp. the empire is committed to the fenate^ 
which was inftituted by Peter 1. as the 
fupreme council of government and the 
high court of juftice, to which all temporal 
officers, governors, and courts of juftice are 
fubordinate. The chancellor of the em- 
pire, and vice chancellor, fit as prefidents« 
For fecret and foreign affairs, the em- 
prcfs Catharine afterwards inflituted the 
privy-council, and the emprefs Anne, the 
cabinet, confifling of a few of the principal 
miniflers, from whom the fenate fomctimes 
were obliged to receive diredlions : but the 
emprefs Elizabeth reftored them to that con- 
fideration which they enjoyed under Peter I. 
Peter III. again threw a great fhade over this 
body, depriving it of any (hare in flate affairs, 
appointing a conference-minifterium for the 
condudl of that part of government (i). 
The emprefs Catharine reflored its power, 
but foon after erefted a fupreme council, 
as it was termed, to which fhe committed 

(/) Mullcr's Ruilian Hiftory, Vol. VIII. Colleaion fdr 
the Hiftory of Ruffia. 

{k) Genealogical and Hiilorical Accounts, P. V. and VL 


Russia: 431 

the declfion of the mofl: important affairs 
belonging to the fenate (/). 

Spiritual and church affairs come under 
the cognizance of the Sacred Synod {m). 

The other great offices are. 

The war-office (»). 

The admiralty-office (o). 

The foreign-office, which pays the 
Ruffian minifters at foreign-courts, the en- 
tertainment of foreign envoys who are en- 
titled to it, makes out pafles, determines 
any diffisrences that happen with foreign 
minifters, and whofe province entirely re- 
lates to embaffies. 

The Mofcow court of juftice, which re- 
ceives appeals from the inferior courts. 
Some members of it refide at Peterfburg, 
under the title of ** the German court of 
'* juftice,** to which appeals lie from the 
courts in Livonia, Efthonia, and Finland.. 
It has like wife a confiftorial jurifdidtibn 
over the Prot eft ants, and Papifts at Pcterf- 
burg : but at thefe trials an ecclefiaftic of 
the defendant's religion is an afleflbr. 

The fifcal-office, which fuperintends 
the levying of the crown's incomes, except 
the capitation^tax and falt-trade. 

(/) Genealogical and Hiftorical Accounts, P. XXXIII. 
(m) See above, Sedl. XXVIII. 
{n) Sec above, Seft. XXXIV. 
W 5cc abive, Se^. XXXVI, 



The treafury, which has the manage-* 
ment of the publick monies, and dire^s 
the exchequer in the feveral iflues» 

The revifion-oiffice, for checking the ac- 
counts of all other offices. ' 

The office of trade, • the objed; of which 
is the encreafe of trade^ the improvement 
of mannfadures, and the deciiion of dif^ 
putes among merchants. 

Mine and manufadure-office» which fa- 
perintends the mine-works» manufactures^ 
and fabricksi and judges in caufes relating 
to mines. 

.The confifcation-office, for the (ale of 
confifcated effedls and levying fines. 

The fak-office, -for fccuring the produce 
of the falt-works, which goes to the em^ 
peror's privy purfe. 

©«««: ^ The government of the fevecal parts of 

ncnt of the ^ ' i 

frofincet. the vaft Ruffian empire, is lodged in ftadt- 
holders with a council of regency. In all 
the province^, likewife> into which the 
governments are divided, are waywodes 
for the adminiftration of juftice (/), and 
to take, care that the laws be every where 
obferved in their full force (^), 

' (/) See above, SeQ. XXXIH. 
(f) Haven, Part II. ch. xi. 


:K u S5.rA.: :^ .: 431 


. Aft that has hitherto been faid relating i^mfiieBt 
to' the' cpoftitutipn o^ the RuiTian cmpive^^J^^f^^ 
the arts and fcicnces, roanufa<aOTCs and[*"^ 
trade, the ftate of. it3 ^xilitary force by fca 
and land, js the work oif Peter the Greati^ 
a monarch^ who, was the admiration of the 
whole ^erld^ and whoby his eminluitqua-. 
11 ties defervcd thpjfe napnunxcnts.of national 
gratitude, whi?h other: nalloas have pro- 
lufelyerpijlfd.^c) their .princes: from vanity 
and aciul^tion; He had a foul of immenfe 
compaf§,c<>niprehending everything both. 
miQute aod ,gr^^t. He equally underilood 
the low<j[l hitndiarafts and arts, and no lefs 
tlie. exalted fcience of government ; he 
was no lefs the ingenious carpenter and 
turner, tha^ the great commander, admi- 
ral, iUtefman, and monarch. It was.fuch 
a penetrative and pliant, genius, with 
a firmneft peculiar to himfelf, which 
enabled him to improve his dominions and 
people : but what heightens our admiration, 
is his performing fuch grand defigns amidft 
a long and heavy war and the perpetual 
din of arms. In a peaceful and tranquil 
reign he would unqueftionably have brought 
feveral things to greater perfection : but his 
many glorious qualities were alloyed with 
Vot.llL Ff the 

|§i PRESENT^tiClrife ^f -tUROPE. 

|fi^ffg^h^an(r^ ^Wer : 'rf'^fRBt 'mW^eXt 

fccured his'^^<^fifio/f8'4n'"»f$«'-'nfe^*%v'a 

.peace with fp/^^P* tl^iaQrJ^cJi^ened after 

larger poflGtrntvis )n/tne lowh^ aod drov^ 

';;-:;.^-t1imrfiMtfi)pi 'i c^dtett^'BhiWrV on 

^'•cwipwa ^fiv 

sih union w5fti Peffik (>•);' Ih'^oi-deVfe AIW 
^ ftcrctiylaboured W efelte 'Art liliiftW^ 
'ijoh in the Turkifli dbm?nfo'nff,1jy Weilft W 
:thi' Chrift^S 'dffpcrfed' Tri.ifibfV cdt^iUlf, 
'and thus to adff the titl6 o/ctopcroV 6? A 
^aft to thai of Ruffia W.^3af'ri6t'(fi5^tfefili 
pfhli years fceefli cqt iliort fo tlpifes^^e^lg, 
'ihe cdnftquenfces of his pliHs i\^wiIa''ii2Kt 
'fhcwcd Acmfelvesi ahd' m^V' ha^<i jJVfe. 
^iJuced a |encra^ revolutidh 'ii^ ^kHh^^V<^ 
fcad he even fucceeded iri ffi^f^ v¥$ IdStiM, 
it'hey would riot liave metitfidVuiJlfiiA^W- 
VoWiuth as that given -"t6.1ffrt{,'!B"k ^- 
"tain panejgyric, oii aCt:btffrP i^r'^K^ f^- 
% l>enetits • derived - to- ^'fiTI ''iSBtiiMs 

""hTs aaniinittra'tJon: " Hfe'-war,'^fiyj''=^e 

«*-noblc orator, fouiidefOf r'M^W'l^iplh 
.;..••.... c -,.,..,:. : -;: :.> . oi"ojft Wj 

e-VV^ftW, lwtll-..i-i5#.l;. oJ .b-jobi eidJ ni 

^ ,^(j) Memoir, de Mont^on^l^. Vltl. p.^e^8< 

" and 

^e ^cif^tiof) a^4 cultlyago^ p£ the. coun- 

j^^ jthe«duo»fioii/o/yQ»tii jjljicjncreafe'of 

lij^wfj^ures.ji^Qd.. ^iadip^ th($,'^m^roveaiei»t 

-^^][ arts and. fciepjces*. a^dvi^.^miniAratlon 

ofijwfticc b, (he courts of'iaW'j.r^uUrity iji 

j^ fina^fiCf ^ ^d the maintatnlpg^^ of the land 

^^ieih-forces pn a reifpe^able f(K)ting, ace 

i^(|;a]Mres di(5tate(i by found politicks, ana 

]By fvbtcb the liappinefs of' the empire and 

jbj^ Jtepptatiqio of its inpnarch .^haye bee{i 

jb^i^i; to thehigbpft pitch,.. Her cndovy* 

n^f^,r«iV^r.l)f^ capable of accomplish W 

jjEfUiineet yrit^ the fewer oburpdiions, .Ije' 
1^ i^rvefy dfi^QttS of 'cultivating peacej 
.^^C(i[t;^«,;be ^jw taken up with militiry cn- 
.te^jzef ap4 fphcipes of conquefl. Far* 
jb/er^ \f%, her brea^^ it lies to make the peace 
^^f.rf roifp^»n<i •^4, lading ^s (be wifhef ; 
the fituatton of the Ruflian empire being» 

in this refpedt, fo advantagtoiK tbtt it -has 

• .^....-j ■•..■.• •.J^• f -^v...,: ,.. .• .,-.jj^ 

4g(^ PKESEUrfkf/a^ Idr^UROPB. 

no hoftilities to abprehend ; its fhMfcIer 
lieighboii^ ^Hxi^mS^ ^^Mk'^^S cxfe& ad« 
tai](Mg<k(l MarbflmbrT AiililCbii^ WedKs 

fian militasyj/orc^ is #9^ ;yp,^ p^jwith 
them for iiumbers^ and m difeipline and 
martial ^ifetri hitebi:f6!^d!j»*^pcridr«. 
From 4iftifie'c6Datt)d[ Rbflftf hai yhAing 

fore fo much fSTqpchiirgr^thc theatre of 
wan Thus Ruflia is the onlyftate m£u* 
rppe that na$.!it in its power Yo^tc al 
peace, and can enjoy thai bappihcis^ VA"^ 
it forbears entering into foreign engage*^ 
ments, whidi may induce ''it tdllaKe part 
lA dtflaat qaarreh- / ^. : . JIA . i ' 

SECT. xthiiC : ^^V 

;The Ruffian xxionarchs ibad; ^igtiffyf^ 
but efpccially fince the ff ffeif ; Cp^j5j5y^^ 
been often involved in the general ' dlf^ 
ferences of Europe, which 'has- gWtfit^^ScMb^ 
fion to many alliances, • treatfis ..<^;f»ef^, 
and other conventions betvi^i(bh'{fhti^lgd 
foreign powers ; the moft irc^afiu^o ^ 
thefe. * i J .;..i/ii.a o]^ 

• Ttiish« evidently appeared in tJie focceflc8j[i^|ft 
fians during the ^rtkht s^ar wttK the Oct({m(njPiirt^}(vi. 
broke out Sn€c uki publicauon oribii. ^prk j^j^€ir]fynj| 

^*ur\V Xi ... " I, With 

,^. ,. i^^ .WltK ^ fe N W A fe* (al)V >''^,»^ 

^a ^M^* tbe^MPEROR and the He^ 

y W'^^' of A,U STRIA.- . . rol 

Uliaates i. of the 6th of !AujeH]ft> 172^ 


{iVOf the. 26th of May 17^12. 
^/^wfej.the ;22tJ of A^aj^ 1746 j^^). \ 

7^^S^JL With P^RUSrSI^. m 

- ^^^^5^^^^^ the 4th of ftugttft'i7i5^'- 

• . C^)/'!*';V. Apceipon to the peace of Bcriiii 
• i^Aoiyin Augiift 1743 Cg*)-' 3- Treaty of 

V Ki^ of the 1 i til of Apri! 1 764 (ij. 

K) Chitf. V.' § Ixxiii. 
I V?"^>Oif-Mont, Tom. VIIL P. II. p. 131. 

Supplem. Tom. II. Part II. p. 334. 

i .1 
- 1, n 




*• V.^tAdtfffet Recueil dc Traitcz, Tom. XlX. p. 46^5^, ^ 
• <yy&:©uttiont, Totf . VlIT; P. F. p. 466. ' " ' ' ' 

.V*. ipSjThJs trcaif has not been made public. ' ' ' ''' '" '''^• 
; '.^ rJ^-M«r<J: Hill, * Pplit. Juxn rj 

i7^4» P- 7'J- 

IX. With 

nil PHESENA SmTBJof EUBiOfS.; i 

a St 1698 (i^. 2« On the Prutli o|<^^ft 
of July 1711 (^ ^3p "Kr^ty/of the i^ttpr 
1. .:n.o.A Aptil :*7Jft ^«?i^; -i i:. %^S4uQf Mn^ 

-^Tlle•lllfio^yvcif Huffirii^llill a fii|*^^ 
U»di €»liii««H(jl^ the RiufiiitM^ domi^ii^^ 
l^tj^rt^'n^h^th Bttfd|>^^ ha*tf ik5-J5I^^ 
i^iao^of thdur*i^^ (2 ^)»/Mid wktc fotieiei ^ ' ' 
^jft7c.4elivej;|5cl OB that A^j»^^ ^ig 
J»«ifea(^6)v 'The Uttk^hpokB (4 'Tfi 
{zy) and La Combe (28)|fcar^ fclpf^l^^^^"^ 
Cftftj and in the Uhiverikl Hlftorr/' 

VX^S) But they mky nof^foon expea dbei tdunftl&^^^io^ 
fiidiiosbfF ir Kinptoyed in kcottplete hiftorv of Ifi'^cMNii 

iiosbfF ir Kinptoyed in kcottplete hiftory, 

ffy.!ii the Rullfan hingaaet» Md hks alieiBtdy puKlJII 

ftcetso? ii. - * * - • ^ ^•''^v.^. 2.11,5.0,1 

(26) The colleaiofi intltled; Rtttti^ l^lloviltt^']^^ 
^res variicpnjrefti in onimi eorpm^ Ppiicof. 1606*1^9^^^ 
tilhs ytty ihtlc pt^perly i^iitinA- b ^c; hiftory of Kam^ 
' idait. Id the Hiil. ofMofcovy, pvbTfl^^ j|t£i 

^ ^, Inttbdndt. id the Mill. otMofcovy, pvUfl^^ 1 . 

fTg and 'Wolfecbttttd 1720 ; it begios do ear)ie> <&^^')%^ 1 
tfld concludes In 1617; with the peMCe of' ScUbov (f^Gmu « 

(28) Hiftoire des Revel ut!oni de rS|ftt^!fe ^ tbafi^^^' ''^ 
lU>dasi, i^db'j IFttle more than i Mlfory of i^eAPiTfafe 

*J .- i'< 

\i '. 



.araO-fl[U3 loIfiT/BIB iCW3E3-a^ 4||||^ 
of Rufit takes op but m ntitow compaAf 

Poflcvin (3?)5lflfeig?fet«f £B^f and Ole- 

U'tle *^ranfl«ttoi(i i^hibh fte pabliihed m 1701'^ not only Iwl^a 

^)<Th& (H^DH'lUHIl^ XXXVth HlffiAA Df the Brt^W 
frf^Tbflltit 9Mfff^Uvav> Uncbpi^tictti*^ -i^icie.D^pd 
to mpdfln tipKs. , \ ' ^ 

jnay be of great ufe to rome futore hiliorian. 

& MetropoIi« e}os'Mb{cbvia;.De{cripiio Cberograpbiqfls^lfa- 
balae retigionis indicatio/'modiu excipifBdi &,(rKUadi^9l|ra* 
tore$9 &c. coolii^iuuri :Bafilec, 1571, fo]^,; . ^' 

(32) Mofcom &; ap^Ojiera deftatu,|tQjus.iibculI ftdv^eniia 

C^bpHf^ ,£cckruc boftc^f jCoIodiV/ if^i^.fql.^ B<fidea 

(of^^ttm th^ Raflp^'wipir^ '9^^ 

I ^.jpfLna€n of cbe. people^ this contains tho reli^tout £0^1 

trbverfies between the Greek and Latin cburcHe^; |iod.jKil 

Toarnev to iMofcow.afia 
,.^ , , . fas of HolIlcm.Gottorp, 

cp JM^(^iei f^^dorowit2;i Ca^ar of Mofcovyt and Schach ^>jp^ 
SPiffl!: J^^ .^^r^^%^^^^. 1663. ^ AH that relates tq {be 
lute oFRiiffia 18 cohtaioed in the xith cbapter to tbe xvuim 

^1 UsjLjTbe ^i-cfeat Swcff Raffia, or Mofcow« 1717, Syp^ 
it Juaoeea tranilatec! l>oili into German and French*. ' ^o 


Wie|Mr^d^^9tnihkiifactfg(37), HaS^tJfi), 

dill work Kas Seen added; as I feeonfl paff, aTVuAifibB of 
Relaziooe Geographica 'ftorico-Polidca dell* I^^Ovi dtlii^ 
COTiatparMiri Antonio Paodelfo. (To Miiano» 1713* laino.) 

(36) Rnffia refonncd, i^'^liiEh ant coAfidered the preftot 
^M^fiafbcal andxivil gQveriiiiieiu» thewar^offioc^ inimuii^ 
'Sic^' ^'derkm wofrk.) )ftnov^» 1739. - 
r (37^. fThf *north«ra a«d esKcrn Parts of Bbc<^ i|ri ikfii^^ 
containing xfie whole Rafiian l£oipire,,witb Siberia, and Great 
9tftaj% Stoetlielm, ^1^30.' 410. 

(a|\ Nie Ofl; forbrede ^e rracniogc r om dat RnS&e Rig* 
If. j3eeler. KiobenbaVn» 1747^ ^o. This it. the nc^ edi- 
ti^^a iMrkpabliflMd Ittfg Aooaat Rjg»> ^ i|ie dib a§, 
EAerratorager om det Ruffiike Rige, which has aRb'ttede ite 
9ffl#Mranol:i«OfMia«» 'QQt>eohageA» 17^'.. 

<39> Among xktk are the tettre^ Moicovites, i Paris ^736. 
"the aju^u wbp £iy^* hiflsfelf out 10 be a native of laljf* 
^ ieetlismtbcr.a Frenchman, bas.faid a great deal of iU of ■ 
of the Ruffian nation, and conmitccd manjf errors in the aC"»- 
CfiUM^ ihfilt ftaie : bf .ha^ibeen confated^ ia the Gemna* 
tfK»0^<m^ /ind the remarks .accompaDyin|( U. Faxthex, tho. 
Ro^kn hiilory Tias a defer! ption of the* State of dutcoaa« 
uywfi^^i to it in* the Uiuverfal 4itdery. * 

•N-". IS.- 

« .• « < • 





ttaaces lo be 

This boG»k is uad«r do oiroutiis 
take a from tlie EuiJd 

f«»ln ^n