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Satbact (fCoUege litnatj 

/L jTAAjj-. f/. r 

l^arbarl) College ^.tbtatg 

*J &rl.AXVv. O-^ r&lX-A-tor>\^ . 



Ceo. Tbulmn tiSaniw 






Author of '* History of Preston," " Churches and Chapels" (Preston 

and District), "Places and Faces," ''Northward," &c., 

and Joint-Editor of the " Tyldesley Diary." 

Introduction by 


Preston : 

George Toulmin & Sons, The Guardian Printing Works, 


SEP 241907 



I •.*"/> -fri ^ ■>t.t. >X<*i-^ 





The appearance in volume form of these extracts from the 
Preston Court Leet books, with explanatory notes, is the result 
of the decision of the Corporation of Preston to defray out of 
the municipal treasury the major part of the necessary expense. 
The borough now stands in line with Manchester, Leicester, 
Nottingham, &c., in recognizing that the possession of valuable 
records carries with it duties as well as privileges. It is hoped 
that the example now set by Preston will encourage other towns 
to take a more earnest view of their trusteeship, and, by making 
public old documents which have survived, further the study of 
municipal life in bygone ages. 

These extracts and notes originally appeared in the Preston 
Guardian between November 16th, 1901, and September 19th, 
1903, and they have since been thoroughly revised. I have 
primarily to thank the Corporation of Preston for permission to 
go through the Court Leet books and make such extracts from 
them as I deemed suitable. My thanks are also due to the Town 
Clerk (Mr. H. Hamer) and the principal oflficials at the Town 
Hall for the courteous manner in which they facilitated my 
labours; to Mr. H. W. Clemesha, Preston, for contributing an 
Introduction as well as rendering much valuable assistance in the 

"^jft.. • ■-»■.•& 


revision of notes ; to Mr. T. H. Myres, Preston, for the loan of 
various local maps; to Mr. E. J. Andrew, Preston, for help in 
the preparation of the map of the town which accompanies the 
volume; and to Professor Tait, of the Manchester University, 
who has placed his great knowledge of this branch of historical 
study at my service, and has also been good enough to look 
through such of the notes as are not merely biographical or 
topographical in character. 

The dating of the records has been modernized, and the 
new year made to commence on the 1st of January and not on 
the 25th of March. 

A word must be said, in conclusion, respecting the map. It 
includes, amongst other topographical data, a combination of 
Lang's map and the tithe map, both of which are later in date 
than the majority of the sittings of the court here recorded. 
There is no doubt that, during many of the 160 years which the 
records cover, some of the land shown as inclosed formed part 
of the Moor or of the common fields, and did not become 
" intacks " until later. 

September, 1905. A. H. 


The following extracts from the records of the Preston 
Court Leet are a carefully revised edition of those which were 
made by Mr. Hewitson for the Proprietors of the " Preston 
Guardian " and appeared in the columns of that paper in 

In order to avoid repetition and to economise space, some 
of the presentments which were published in the " Preston 
Guardian " have been omitted, but it is believed that nothing of 
importance has been left out and that those remaining are typical 
and representative extracts, and will serve to convey a fairly 
complete and accurate knowledge of the jurisdiction of the court 
and of one side of municipal life in the period with which they 

The records are to be found in three thick folio volumes, of 
modern binding, which are kept in the Town HaJl, and are in an 
excellent state of preservation, though the writing, which, owing 
to the time covered, is, of course, in various hands, is in some 
parts very difficult to decipher. 

In addition to the proceedings of the Court Leet, they 
contain those of two other courts as to which a word must be 
said. The first of these was the Mayor's Court or Great Court 
of Election, which was held on the Friday before the Feast of 
St. Wilfrid the Archbishop (12th October), at which the Mayor, 
the town's Bailiff, and the town's Sergeant were chosen for the 
ensuing twelve months by a jury of twenty-four. The other is 
variously referred to as the Inquest or Inquisition of Office. This 


latter court, save in its title and its times of meeting, cannot be 
distinguished from the Court Leet, but would appear to be in 
every way similar to and to have been possessed of the same 
powers,, though not entitled to be styled the " Great Court Leet," 
that title being confined to the two courts which were held with- 
in a month after Easter and a month after Michaelmas. So far 
as can be observed, the Inquest did not sit merely for the pur- 
pose of " inquiring " whether the presentments of the preceding 
Court Leet had been carried into effect, as its name might lead 
us to believe, but itself brought in new presentments precisely 
in the same way as that court did. It is best described as a sort 
of intermediate session of the court, held either because some 
offence required to be dealt with without delay, or to relieve the 
next court of some of the business.^ Consequently in compiling 
these extracts it has not been thought necessary to observe a 
distinction which is apparently nothing but a legal or technical 
one, and the presentments have been selected indiscriminately 
from the transactions of the Court Leet and the Inquest of Office. 
The first Court Leet whose proceedings are set forth in the 
volumes named was held on the 21st day of October, 1653, during 
the Commonwealth period, and the last meeting of which the 
records remain, took place on the 1st day of March, 1813, rather 
more than two years before the Battle of Waterloo. It will thus 
be seen that in point of antiquity they must concede pride of 
place to those of Manchester which commence in 1552, but it 
may still be urged that during the greater part of the 160 years, 
which the records cover, the court was an active and living thing, 
possessed of real authority, and performing more or less 
adequately those duties for which it and similar courts were 

1. It is sometimes called the Court Baron in the records, but this it cer- 
tainly was not. In the law books the Inquest of Office is defined as a pre- 
rogative method of inquiring concerning any mattf^r that entitles the Crown 
to the possession of lands or tenements, goods, or chattels. As to the 
procedure, see 12 and 13 Vict. c. 109 ss. 30 et seq. But here it would seem to 
have been a court. In Select Pleas in Manorial Courts II., 137, the Inquest of 
Office is referred to, and appears to have been a Steward's Court preparatory 
to the Leet. Miss Bateson, in a letter to Professor Tait, suggests that the 
bailiff's simplex querela of Magna Carta, c. 38, refers to this Court. — Stubbs' 
Seltct Charters^ p. 301. 


created. In some of the presentments given below references 
will be found to others brought in at meetings of the Court Leet 
prior to 1653, but the records of these have been lost or 
destroyed. On the other hand, as will be seen later, there is 
evidence that the session of the 1st day of March, 1813, was 
not the last that occurred. 

The presentments of the Court Leet and of the Inquest of 
Office are written in English throughout, doubtless in pursuance 
of the Act of 1650, which directed that the proceedings of Leet 
and all other courts within the Commonwealth must be " in the 
English tongue only, and not in Latin or any other language, and 
in a legible hand, and not in court hand," under a penalty of 
£20, one-half of which was to go to the informer.^ But on the 
19th day of October, 1660, when the first court held after the 
Restoration took place the headings were Latinised, and so 
continued until the 23rd day of October, 1732, after which date 
the English style was resumed. 

Next we may consider the origin and character of the court, 
and of other courts of similar nature which are to be found in 
other parts of the country, like the Court of Sembly Quest or 
Assembly Inquest, which met on the Wicker Green, at Sheffield, 
the Mickletorn Leet, which was held at Nottingham, and the 
Courts Leet of Manchester and Salford. They have no exact 
modem equivalent, the nearest approach to them being found 
in the police court or the petty sessions of the present day. 
But they differed widely from these, not only in their procedure, 
but in the fact that in addition to punishing petty malefactors 
they exercised a paternal watchfulness over the borough, re- 
proving and exhorting all and sundry in a manner which is as 
interesting as it is at times humorous. 

When we turn to the older law books we find mention made 
of three courts which it is necessary we should notice, viz. : The 
Court Baron, the Court Customary, and the Court Leet. The 
first-named court is stated to be the court which was held by 
the lord of a manor before the freehold tenants who owed suit 

1. Manchester Court Leet Records (edited by Earwaker), IV. 56 n. 


and service to him and were bound by their tenure to assist in 
the dispensation of justice. It sat once every three weeks, and 
concerned itself chiefly with controversies as to lands within the 
manor, though it had also jurisdiction in personal actions in 
which the debt or damages claimed were less than 40s. Though 
the lord's steward presided at the sitting of the court, he was 
registrar rather than judge, for the freeholders " deemed the 
dooms." Owing to its inefficiency it fell into decay, and its 
ruin was completed by legislation. On the creation of the 
modem County Courts, in 1846, provision was made for the 
surrender of the right to hold this court to the crown.^ Its 
jurisdiction with regard to land was practically abolished in 
1860,2 while, not being a court of record, it fell within the 
provision contained in the County Courts Act of 1867 ^ that 
no action which could be brought in any county court should 
thenceforth be commenced or be maintainable in any hundred or 
other inferior court not being a court of record. 

As the Court Baron was a court of freeholders, the Court 
Customary was a court of copyholders. It settled disputes as 
to the custom of the manor, and in it the lord, through his 
steward, who was judge of the court, exercised authority over 
the villeins. 

The Court Leet differs altogether from the courts just 
described. The Court Baron owed its existence to the 
feudal principle that a landowner should have civil 
authority over his freehold tenants. It would seem that 
the mere fact that a man possessed land gave him 
a right to hold a court of and for his freehold tenants ; while 
over his unfree men, or over the tenants of his unfree land, 
" the lord had, according to the law of the King's Court, almost 
unlimited power; short of maiming them he might do what he 
liked with them."^ But to obtain criminal or penal powers over 

1. 9 and 10 Vict., c. 95, s. 14. 

2. 23 and 24 Vict., c. 126, s. 26. 

3. 30 and 31 Vict, c. 142, s. 28. 

4. Pollock and Maitland. Hist, of Eng. Lawl., 593. In practice, how- 
ever, villeins were included with freeholders as suitors to most feudal courts. 


his freehold tenants, it is obvious that something more was 
needed. The criminal power was in the hands of the king, and 
to hold a court exercising criminal jurisdiction consequently 
necessitated a grant from the crown. " Contrasted with the 
jurisdictional powers which a lord has merely because he is a 
lord with tenants, stand the franchises, liberties, regalities 
{libertates, regalia), powers and immunities which can only be 
possessed by those to whom the king has granted them. These 
franchises were of the most various orders, ranging from the 
powers of the palatine earl to those of the lord of the petty 
manor, who had merely the view of frank pledge and the police 
jurisdiction that was incident to it. This last franchise was 
common, and the court in which the lord exercised it twice a 
year was acquiring the name of a leet {leta) ; it was a police court 
for the presentment of offences, and for the punishment of 
minor offences ; it was co-ordinate with the sheriff's turn. Some- 
times the lord had yet higher justice in his hands, and might 
hang thieves taken in the act of theft ; and thus gradually we 
ascend the scale of ' royalties ' which leads up the palatine 

As will be seen, the foundation of the authority of this 
court was its right to exercise the powers, which were exercised 
by the sherifiF twice a year through every Hundred, to see that 
every one was in a frank pledge, and in a tithing, to obtain ac- 
cusations against those suspected of grave crimes in order that 
the sherifiF might capture them and keep them imprisoned or 
on bail until the Judges came on assize, and to punish minor 
ofiFences. These lords who had received a grant of view of 
frankpledge, or were exempted from the sheriflF's turn, performed 
those duties in their own courts, and saw to it that every one 
within their manor, unless he were a magnate, a knight, a clerk, 
or a freeholder, and so exempt, was incorporated with his fellows 
in a pledge for the good behaviour of one another. 

" Towards the end of the 13th century the word Leet {Jietd) 
— which seems to have spread outwards from the East Anglian 
counties — was becoming a common name for such a court, but 

1. Hist. ofEng. Law I., 531. 


to the last visus franciflegii remained the most formal and 
correct of titles. The lord who had this claimed to swear in a 
body of jurors — often they were the chief pledges or heads of 
the tithings — and to put before them those same 'articles of 
view ' (cafitula visus) which the sheriff employed in his ' turn.' 
The minor offences were punished on the spot by amercements 
which went to swell the lord's revenue. But probably the 
pecuniary profit was in the eyes of lords a small matter when 
compared with the power that was thus secured to them. Twice 
a year the villagers, bond and free, had to report themselves, and 
tell tales of one another, while no tale went outside the manor to 
the ear of jealous neighbours or rapacious officials. Probably 
the tenants also were gainers by the franchise; they could 
manage their own affairs without the interference of foreigners.'*^ 
The classification of such seignorial courts given in the old 
law-books is, it will be observed, clear and well defined. There 
are three courts, two of them " tenurial," and dealing respectively 
with freeholders and villeins, the other " franchisal " and meting 
out punishments to all and sundry. Each one has its separate 
province, and there is no possibility of confusion. But when 
we come to test the theory by the knowledge which we possess 
of the working of the courts from the existing records, we are 
inevitably driven to the conclusion, put forward by Professors 
Pollock and Maitland, that the actual practice differed widely 
from the carefully arranged and systematised scheme which is 
set forth by lawyers from the 15th century downwards, and it 
becomes plain that there were not originally three distinct courts 
carefully separated one from the other, but one court with more 
than one kind of jurisdiction,^ and that even in later times actual 
arrangements failed to conform exactly to legal theory. At 
Manchester, for example, though a Court Baron met once every 
three weeks for the recovery of debts or damages under 40s., 
yet the Court Leet, which met only twice a year, transacted 
business which the theory of the lawyers assigned to the Court 

1. Hist, of Eng. Law I., 580. 

2. Ibid, I. 531, 593. 

< t • 


Baron.^ Presentments as to the deaths of tenants, the names of 
next heirs, the taking of heriots, &c., which are theoretically the 
special province of the Court Baron, are found in its records, 
sandwiched in between others dealing with easing-droppers or 
the theft of firewood. But the question as to whether the title 
Court Leet covers more than legal definition allowed to it hardly 
arises in the case of Preston, which differed from the typical 
case of the rural manor which was in the hand of a local lord, 
in that it was in the hand of the King, and was a borough. For, 
it is obvious that the Court Customary, if it ever existed as a 
separate court, must have come to an untimely end, as the unfree 
holdings became burgages, and when royal privilege came to 
provide that the unfree man who dwelt within the bounds of a 
borough for a year and a day should become free.^ Again, 
there was very little likelihood of the continued existence of 
a " seignorial " court, like the Court Baron in a borough such as 
Preston, which acknowledged as its lord not a local baron or earl, 
but the far-off King, had obtained at a price exemption from the 
visits of the royal officials and itself collected the rents and 
gafols. What chance, too, would such a court have in the 
presence of the " communal " court, which, as we know, not only 
took cognisance of transactions in land, but in some places ab- 
sorbed the small debt jurisdiction of the Court Baron? And 
how could it meet the growing powers of the Gilds? Lastly, if 
it survived till later times, would not its jurisdiction in personal 
actions be ousted by and its sessions deserted for the newer 
courts with more efficient procedure, which, like the Preston 
Borough Court of Pleas, were being established by charter? 

These questions are difficult to answer with our present 
knowledge. Fortunately, we need not trouble ourselves with 
them, for the records which are here set forth are clearly those 
of a court which did not aspire to more than what we may call 
the recognised sphere of action of Courts Leet. 

1. Manchester Court Leet Records, ed. Earwaker. Occasionally {e.g., in 
1596) it is described in the heading as a CJourt Leet and Court Baron. 

2. A provision to this effect is found in the Preston Custumal. See The 
Law of Breteuil, Eng. Hist. Rev. XV. 496, 501. Cf . Hist, of Eng. Law, I. 648. 


It sat in the Moot Hall, which was on the site of the present 
Town Hall, and is generally stated to be held before the Mayor, 
the Bailiffs, and the Steward (who was also the Town Clerk), but 
for a short period the Recorder of the Borough sat in it, and 
in its later days, when its glory had departed, it was occasionally 
presided over by the Steward alone. The leet jury — an indeter- 
minate number — ^was sworn, and proceeded to bring in present- 
ments. Representing as they did an older system than the 
modem jury, the jurors did not listen to evidence, and then give 
a verdict. They represented the neighbourhood, and them- 
selves accused and convicted. Evil-doers were not tried; they 
were found guilty. And if they were not sent to the pillory, the 
cuckstool, the tumbrel, or the rogues' post, or sentenced to be 
confined in prison — which was in the Moot Hall until the lock-up 
in Turk's Head Court was built — their punishment was left to 
the Mayor, or they were fined the sums fixed by statutes or 
assizes, or lastly their amercement was assessed by the afFeerors.^ 
But the presentments comprised more than verdicts in cases of 
misdemeanours. They frequently contained complaints as to 
nuisances, as to the dereliction of duty of officials, as to the lack 
of repair of the " causeys " and other grievances which are nowa- 
days generally made known by " An indignant ratepayer " in the 
correspondence columns of the local press. Mr. Hewitson 
thinks he can trace a sort of topographical connection between 
the different presentments, and that a certain order was pre- 
served in recording them. At any rate, it would seem to be a 
fact that the presentments relating to the east or other end of 
the town frequently appear together, and recognition of this 
has made it easier in some instances to make conjectures as to 
the position of certain fields or meadows, whose names are not 
shown on any existing map, and would otherwise be difficult to 

In endeavouring to convey some idea of the variety of 
matters with which the court dealt, it may be stated at the 

1. Courts Leet also had cognizance of some more serious crimes, but the 
power of punishment lay with the justices. Manchester Court Leet Records 
(edit, by Harland). Chetham Society Publications, vol. 63, p. 32. 


outset that nothing was too large or too small to escape the 
watchfulness of the jury. The Mayor, the Bailiffs, and the 
Council of the borough were as liable to their criticism as 
those who played " tables," or those who " tussled " or were 
guilty of " fighting and ffliteing " with their neighbours. Still, 
if they were more careful of one thing than of another, it was 
that the privileges of themselves and of their fellow freemen 
should not be diminished or their burdens increased by the 
influx of " foreigners," who might exercise a trade that only 
burgesses could rightfully practice, or of " inmates," or lodgers, 
who, being persons of no apparent substance, might become 
chargeable to the town.^ Were these persons of proper merit, 
they might be allowed, on payment of the fine, to become 
burgesses by court roll, or obtain a license to live in the town, 
and be known as " staJlengers." From one presentment, it 
would even appear that though these interlopers might be what 
the Court Leet jury called " unfitt " persons, yet if they had 
resided in the town for a certain but indefinite period, they 
were deemed to have obtained a sort of right to remain, and 
might not be expelled, but were " stallenged."^ This word, 
which is to be met with in the local history of many boroughs, 
is generally applied to those persons who were compelled to 
pay for the privilege of having a stall in the market — a right 
which the burgesses possessed by reason of their status — ^but it 
seems fairly clear, so far, at any rate, as Preston is concerned, 
that the original significance of the word had been lost by 
this time, and that it was simply a general term for those who 
had obtained leave to live in the town and exercise some, but 
not all, of the privileges of freemen."^ It was the duty of 
*' houselookers," of whom there were three, appointed for the 
'* surveyinnge and disposinge of Inmates, fforeynors and other 
Enormities within this Towne,^'^ to present these intruders at 
the Court Leet, whereupon the jury fined them and those who 

1. Even foreign burgesses were not allowed to be harboured, p. 34 infra, 

2. p. 38. 

3. Owens College Historical Essays^ p. 237. 

4. p. 17 infra. 


harboured them until they were removed. Though the 
burgesses of Preston had some reason to be jealous of 
newcomers who exercised the privileges of freemen, and yet 
escaped the burden of " scot and lot,"^ there is no doubt that 
by too rigidly enforcing their rights of exclusion they hindered 
the growth of the trade and population of the borough, and 
sent prosperity from their gates. 

Next to the right to carry on a trade, which was the 
most valuable possession of a freeman, the right that was most 
highly esteemed was that of pasturing cattle on the Marsh and 
the Moor. By orders made and repeated at different celebrations 
of the Guild Merchant, " stallengers " were excluded from 
participating in this privilege, while the large number of present- 
ments with reference to the breach of these orders, to the 
overburdening of the pastures, to the damage done to them 
by geese, to the negligence of the pinders, who sometimes 
failed to impound the beasts of those who had not this right, 
all tend to show how carefully invasions of this privilege were 
guarded against. One man is presented for turning to the 
Marsh a heifer which hath not had a calf.^ A miller, who 
has a water mill close by, is repeatedly complained of for 
allowing the water to escape from the dam and spoil the 
pasture.^ The jury recommend that the cattle be not turned 
to the Marsh before a certain time in the morning, but 
be collected by the herdsman at Spittle Moss — a. piece of land 
which was so called because it was near to or formerly belonged 
to the dissolved Hospital of St Mary Magdalen — ^and taken 
there by him."* Similarly, the neglect of the Bailiffs to provide 
a town bull for the good of the commonalty is noted^; and 
after it is provided certain persons who " abused and foyled '* 
the beast " by Sleating doggs upon him " axe fined.^ We 
should be in error, however, if we supposed that the Prestonians 
of those days, in thus fining those who tortured the town bull, 
were actuated by any higher motive than a desire to restrain 
the doing of damage to their property, for we know that bull 
baiting was a recognised sport in the borough, and that in 

1. p. 62. 2. p. 125. 3. pp. 3, 61. 4. p. 25. 5. p. 60. 6. p. 80. 


later days, if not at this time, it was customary when a new 
bull had been bought to do the old one to death in the 
Market Place. 

Incidentally, these repeated references to the rights of 
pasture in conjunction with others relating to the right to 
obtain whins on Spittle Moss, to the " balks " or unploughed 
strips which separated the land of one burgess from another 
in the common fields, and to the wandering of pigs in the 
streets, and even in the Churchyard, serve to remind us that we 
may easily exaggerate the mercantile aspect of town life, and 
that even in the seventeenth century the town had not altogether 
outgrown that rural shell in which it had been reared. 

There are also to be found here those minute regulations 
with reference to the sale and manufacture of goods in which 
the policy of our law at one time delighted. The Assize of 
Bread and Ale is enforced, although, judging from the niunber 
of presentments relating to it, with some considerable difficulty, 
while " forestalling and regrating," i.e,j buying articles and selling 
them at an increased price, and " engrossing," i.e., creating a 
comer in goods,^ carrying out com and not inquiring for the 
"towler,"^ making up shoes with horse leather,' exposing for 
sale leather insufficiently tanned,* selling bricks out of town,^ and 
making them otherwise than according to the recognised 
measurements (which were 10 inches in length, 5 inches in 
breadth, and 2^ inches in thickness),^ all call for the reprobation 
of the jury and the punishment of the offenders. 

It is easy nowadays — ^it would have been still easier fifty 
years ago — ^to speak contemptuously of manv of these 
regulations ; but it should be remembered that in some instances, 
notably in the fixing of cab fares, in the inspection of 
food to ascertain its purity, and in the weighing of bread, we 
are still far from that complete freedom of contract which was 
held up to reverence by the economists of the early part of 
last century. There is something to be said, too, in favour 
of the enactments against "forestalling," "engrossing," and 
"regrating." In an era of well paved highroads, of railways 

1. pp. 85 96. 2. p. 60. 3, p. 139. 4. p. 18. 6. p. 13. 6. p. 139. 


and docks, of telegraphs and telephones, of wholesale houses 
and joint stock concerns, we have the whole world for our 
market; but it must be remembered that the efiFective area of 
supply for Preston during the time these records cover 
must have been limited to a few miles from its bars. It would 
consequently have been comparatively easy for a shrewd trader 
to have bought up the available supply of the market, and 
thereby enhanced prices to the detriment of the townspeople. 
Partial as the success of these regulations must have been in 
a borough like Preston, which had no walls, we imagine that, 
even in the present year of grace, many persons who pride them- 
selves on their smartness and shrewdness would be willing to 
barter some part of their reputation if they could but obtain 
a measure which would be as effective a restraint on speculators 
as this mediaeval device. 

The action of the Leet jury in the character of a Streets 
and Buildings Committee is not without interest The duty of 
looking after the highways seems to have been shared by the 
Bailiffs, the Supervisors of the Highways, and the general body 
of the inhabitants or the inhabitants of a particular district. 
One of the presentments states that, the " now Baylives of this 
Towne shall cause the streets and all other the pavements within 
this Towne to be repaired soe farre forth as others their 
predecessors have been accustomed to repaire the same."^ 
Another states that, " Ye Supvisors of ye highway shall repaire 
ye foote Cawsey and Cartway, in Broadgate, well and suffi- 
ciently before ye xvth day of May next, in paine of Xs."^ In a 
third, the jury order all the old clay pits near to the highway 
on Peel Moor to be filled up and made even, " by people from 
everie house within this Towne at the appointment of Mr. Maior 
and his brethren, as they in theire discretion shall thinke meete, 
when the weather may be convenient for the same " '^ while a 
similar presentment directs " all the Occupiers of the lands upon 
Avenham and thereabouts " to make a " platt," or small bridge, 
and a sufficient way for carts and carriages at the head of 
Titmouse Croft.* With some hesitation, it is suggested that 

1. p. 23. 2. p. 58. 3. p. 26. \. p. 42. 


the Bailififs were required to see to the repair of the streets 
within the town bars and of such other places as they had 
customarily attended to, while the Supervisors were held respon- 
sible for the condition of all other places. But even the jury 
would seem to have been in doubt, for we notice that on one 
occasion they do not venture to say definitely upon whom the 
burden of repair is cast, but present the Bailiffs or " whom it 
may concern."^ The general body of inhabitants might possibly 
be called upon to do the work of repair personally, when it 
was not thought advisable to levy a rate for the purpose. 

In addition to repairing the streets, it was the duty of 
the Bailiffs to see that the Moot Hall was kept in order and 
whitewashed, and that the wells of the town were cleaned and 
fenced about. The centre of the town seems to have been 
rather badly off for water in those days. The chief wells were 
Mince Pitt well, at the bottom of what is now called Main 
Sprit Weind, the well in the lower part of the Market Place 
(inade in 1654), a well in Fishergate (made in 1666), Lady 
well on the west side of Friargate, and Goose well, which was 
just outside the Church Street bars.^ One quaint presentment 
states that " there are maine Complaints of ye Inhabitants in 
the Lower end of the ffryergate for want of water, having none 
but at a great distance or upon leave, which is burthensome and 
uncertaine, and they being a people to their power as readie 
to observe and keepe all commannds which come from ye Major 
and Councell as their fellow inhabitants, which have reed 
ye like favour and libertie, not repininge thereat, but rejoycinge, 
onely hopeinge and prayinge they may enjoy ye same priviledge 
where ye Maior and Councell shall think fittinge, and at ye 
most easiest charge, wee therefore apprehend their said requests 
reasonable and ought to bee done when the convenientest tyme 
may appeare to Mr. Maior and his Councell."^ One cannot 
help hoping that this reasonable requirement was granted to 
such worthy and law abiding people as the inhabitants of the 
lower end of Friargate evidently were, though one must admit 
to a certain feeling of curiosity as to the part of the town in 

1. p. 61. 2. p. 24 and not« on p. 25. 3. p. 69. 


which the members of the jury who gave this testimonial resided. 
But in spite of the provision of new wells, cause for complaint 
seems to have existed down to 1729, when Robert Abbatt, a 
Quaker, and Thomas Kellett obtained a grant from the corpora- 
tion of some land on Avenham, built a " cistern " and distributed 
water by means of pipes.^ 

It was the duty of the bailiffs also to repair the pinfold^ 
and sheep fold,*^ and see that the partitions in the former were 
not broken down."* They were further required to keep the 
butts on Spittle Moss in repair^ — ^though the practice of archery 
must at this time have been much " decayed," — to see that the 
cuckstool,^ the pillory,"^ and the tumbrel^ were in order, and 
that the Marsh was not washed away through the absence of 
cauls. ^ They were also the treasurers of the borough, and the 
Leet jury on one occasion wax indignant because the late bailiffs 
have " unduely discharged themselves of 18s., by them prtended 
to bee for Wine bestowed upon Sir Gilbte Ireland and Mr. 

In 1656 we meet George Werden, who was evidently a 
pluralist, for he united in his own person the offices of beadle, 
scavenger, and swineherd, if not those of sexton and bellman 
as well. As he had such a variety of duties to perform, there 
is small cause for wonder that some of them were neglected, 
and that the town^s revenue was " vainely given." Instead of 
blowing his horn in the streets early in the morning that the 
freemen might turn out their swine to be taken to the Moor 
and there kept until four o^clock in the afternoon, and marching 
off beggars to the House of Correction, he appears to have 
allowed the swine to go about the streets and the town to be 
filled with poor people from the country " to ye discredit of our 
towne and hindrance of our owne poor.''^ 

There are numerous other presentments, which, though 
they have no connection with one another, serve to throw some 
light upon the life of the period. From one presentment we 
learn that members of the Town Council wore gowns,'^ " an 

1. p. 175. 2. p. 169. 3. pp. 37, 42. 4. p. 100. 5. p. 71. 6. p. 53. 
7. p. 93. 8. p. 93. 9. pp. 42, 87. 10. p. 120. 11. p. 64. 12. p. 62. 


ancient custom " which is now neglected. Many of them show 
that our forefathers were somewhat strict observers of the 
Sabbath, for it appears to have been a most heinous offence to 
carry water, and even to take tobacco, pubhcly in the streets on 
that day, though it is only right to point out that the person 
who was charged with the latter crime was also accused of 
being " staggering drunk. "^ A widow — ^probably the losing 
party in an action in the Borough Court of Pleas — ^is fined for 
using " scandalous and Rayling words against Mr. John Cottam 
and Robte Loxam, who were swore jurors in ye townes Cort of 
Tryalls, terming them as base in theire verdict, as if they had 
picked her pocket. "^ A member of the important local family of 
the Banisters is presented for not erecting a " burgage " which he 
had suffered to go to ruin.^ A large number of people, 
including the steward of the Court, are charged with encroaching 
on the streets by erecting rails and posts, and are directed to 
remove them or to pay rent for the same. Others are taught, 
by means of fines, that they must not break hedges,^ or " annoy " 
the streets by leaving rubbish or timber in them,^ or by flaying 
horses there.^ In short, there is no matter affecting the orderly 
conduct of the town, except the graver crimes, with 
which the jury were not prepared to deal, and, allowing for a 
little natural partiality for the privileges of freemen of the 
ancient borough, to do justice between man and man. 

Lastly, there remains the melancholy task of tracing the 
Court's decay. The causes were threefold. First of these, we 
may place the irksomeness of having to attend the court and 
take part in its proceedings, which in legal terminology was 
called the duty of performing " suit of court." The law books 
declare that this was an incident of tenure, and was attached 
to the holding of land. As to who owed it to the Preston 
Court Leet the records are silent, though on one occasion the 
Sergeants are amerced for not having given warning of the 
session of the court to those whose duty it was to attend."^ Possibly 
only those who held land were suitors ; possibly all the freemen ; 

1. p. 153. 2. p. 108. 3. pp. 3, 48. 4. p. 87. 5. p. 182. 6. p. 138. 
7. p. 173. 


or, again, the class may not have been strictly defined ; in which 
case it is probable that the Steward would have a right of selec- 
tion. In any event, the frequency with which fines were imposed 
on large numbers of persons for withdrawing their " suit " testifies 
to the fact that the burden was widely borne and was foimd 
to be a hardship. 

In the second place, we may put the unsatisfactory nature 
of the procedure, to which reference has already been made. 
There was no sifting of evidence, no hearing of the culprit. 
People from the vicinity, relying upon hearsay and tittle-tattle, 
possibly influenced by ill-will towards a neighbour, declared that 
an offence had been committed. The presentment could not 
be controverted : it accused and punished at the same time. It 
is scarcely surprising that this rough and ready system, which 
belonged to the 13th century, should be found to be unsatis- 
factory five hundred years later.^ 

This accounted for the preference which was shown for a 
rival court, the petty sessions of the justices, who received 
jurisdiction over all new offences which were created by the 
legislature, and thus formed the third factor in the 
overthrow of the Court Leet. However ridiculous Mr. 
Justice Shallow and other justices of the peace and 
of quorum might make themselves at times, their court 
must have been eagerly accepted as an agreeable alter- 
native to the archaic injustice perpetrated by the Leet jury. 
And while the powers of the justices were being steadily 
extended, those of the Court Leet were being gradually abridged. 
The Assize of Bread and Ale was abolished, and the statutes 
forbidding forestalling, etc., were repealed, these regulations 
having become repugnant to the spirit of the age. New views 

1. Those who desire to pursue the matter further are referred to the 
Introduction to The Manchester Court Leet Records ; to Le Court Leete et Court 
Barouy per John Kitchen (Lond., 1598) ; to The Manner and Forme Iiow to keep a 
Court Leet^ by John Wilkinson (Lond., 1620) ; to A Practical Treatise on Copy- 
hold Tenure^ loith the Methods of Holding Courts Leet, Courts Baron, and other 
Courts, by Richard Barnard Fisher (Lond., 1794) ; and to The Practice of 
Courts-Leet and Courts-Baron, published from the manuscripts of Sir William 
Scroggs, Knt., some time Lord Chief Justice of England (Lend., 1702). 


as to apprenticeship and as to trading privileges were in the 
air, and where the old customs were not actually swept away 
they were ignored. When firearms superseded bows and 
arrows, it became unnecessary for the court to see that there 
were butts in every tithing, and that those butts were in repair. 
And so, by degrees, time, Parliament, and the judges^ filched 
away the matters over which the Court Leet had cognizance, 
until its authority and influence dwindled away, and it became 
a shadow of its former self. Falling thus upon evil days, the 
court would seem to have died of inanition rather than to have 
met a violent death, and when the Sheriffs' Act of 1887 was 
passed, and the sheriflPs turn — ^the very foundation of the court's 
authority — was abolished,^ the section did not make a change, 
but simply recorded an existing fact. Courts Leet still meet, 
but their sessions do but caricature their former usefulness, and 
have little object, save to minister to the vanity of some local 
landowner, who induces the " suitors " to perform their duty 
by means of a substantial dinner. 

The epitaph of our local court is somewhat baldly recorded, 
and is very painful reading. It is written in the second volume 
of Peter Whittle's History of the Borough of Preston, under the 
date of May 5th, 1835, and thus it runs: — ^'^ The court leet 
belonging to the corporation became defunct, in consequence of 
its powers devolving upon the magistrates and the quarter 
sessions. It appears to have been originally ruled by custom 
and usage in a very partial manner, and defeated the very ends 
of justice, and filled the pockets of the body corporate or those 
immediately connected with them."^ 

1. The tendency may be easily seen by a perusal of the case of Colebrooke 
V. Elliott. 3 Burrows p., 1859. 

2. 50 and 51 Vict. , c. 55, sec. 18, subs. 4. 

3. p. 153. 



On the second page of the first book the Court Leet 
records commence, viz. : — 

The great Court Leete with view of ffranckpledge of the 
Burrough or Towne of Preston, in the Countie of Lancaster, 
holden in the Mootehall there, the one and twentieth day of 
October, in the yeare of our Lord 1653, before Edward ffrench, 
gent., Maior of ye said Burrough, Henry Breres and Richard 
Primmett, Bailiffs of the said Burrough, and Evan Wall, gent., 
Steward of the Court there. 

The names of the jury to enquire as well for the Comon- 
wealth as for the Maior, BailifFes, and Burgesses of the Burrough 
or Towne aforesaid, who were swome the day and year above 
said, viz. : — Roger Sudell, James Gorton, Richard Burton, 
Richard Woodburne, John Mitton ye younger, William Worden 
ye young., John Copeland, Edward Dawson, Edward ffrance, 
Henry Newshame, Thomas Hoole, Robt. Bayley, Thomas Oards, 
Rich. Turner, Thos. Graystocke, who say and p'sent upon their 
Oathe as followeth, in theis English words, vizt. : 

Wee find and p'sent the Exercise of Artillerie^ is not used 
within this Towne, accordinge to the forme of the Statute in 
such cases made and provided. And wee p'sent the now Bailiffs 
of this Towne shall repaire the Butts before the first day ci May 
next in paine of vjs viijd. And sett Rayles about them that the 
beasts doe not throw them down. 

1. The word " Artillerie " as jnet with in the above present- 
ment means bows and arrows. The reference to the Statute is 


2 Preston Court Leet. 

Wee find and p'sent the assize of Bread and beere^ lately 
p^scribed by Mr. Maior ought to bee observed. 

decisive. Shooting with guns was carefully restricted by law; but 33 
Henry VIII., c. 9, enforced the keeping of bows and arrows upon every 
male between seven and 60 years of age, and ordered every tything, 
village, and hamlet to keep butts for the exercise of archers in shooting, 
at times convenient, under penalty of 20s. for every three months wanting 
butts there. This was one of the regular articles of periodical inquiry by 
Courts Leet, and the manuals of their procedure, published early in the 
17th century, state the law under the heads ** Artillery to be maintained " 
and "Butts in every Tything." Probably at Preston, and certainly at 
Manchester (see Manchester Court Leet Records), Archery was ** won- 
derfully decayed " as early as 1578 ; but, as the law was not repealed, the 
butts continued to be repaired there as elsewhere far into the next 
century. They may have been used for musketry practice ; but the Court 
Leet had nothing to do with that. It has been conjectured that the 
outbreak of the Civil War finally put an end to an obsolete law. At all 
events, it seems somewhat significant that at Sheffield the butts were 
regularly repaired down to 1642, after which the item concerning repair 
never reappears in the town accounts (see Records of the Surgery of 
Sheffield). The Preston Court Leet records contain presentments, regu- 
larly made, as to repairing the butts, from 1653 to 1665 ; from 1665 to 
1687 they make no allusion to them ; in October, 1687, the Jury, by 
presentment, direct the Bailiffs to " repaire ye butts ; " and after this the 
records appear to be quite silent on the subject. The last mention made 
of local butts in the Manchester Court Leet Records (edited by Mr. 
Earwaker) is under date 1731. The butts at Preston, as referred to in 
the presentments, were on the north-west side of the town — on ** Spital 
Moss," a piece of land to which reference will be made hereafter. 
There were, however, local butts elsewhere, if not at the time mentioned 
in the Court Leet records, certainly later. At the close of the 18th century 
there were butts near the south end of Deepdale-road, in a croft between 
the present County Arms hotel and the site of the old Preston and 
Lohgridge railway station. 

1. The " assize " regulated the retail sale of bread and beer. The 
weight of the loaf was increased or diminished according to the price 
of grain. Originally or in very early times assize notices as to bread, ale, 
&e., seem to have been simply royal ordinances, the supervision and 
arrangement of them being under the control of ** the clerk of the market 
of the King's household." Afterwards various acts were passed regulating 
the assize of articles of ordinary consumption : the statute 61 Henry III. 
has generally been accepted as the earliest relating to bread and ale, though 
an Assize of Bread ascribed to the reign of Henry II. « is printed by 
Cunningham, English Industry and Commerce, I., p. 568 (3rd edition). 
The parts in this statute relating to ale — provisions which regulated its 
price in accordance with the varying price of wheat — were amended to some 
extent by 23 Henry VIII., c. 4, which gave the magistrates a discretionary 
power as to fixing the price of ale in their own districts, or within their 

Preston Court Leet. 3 

Wee find and p'sent Willm Bannester^ hath not erected a 
Burgage^ wch hee suffered to goe to ruin, on the Towns Land, 
att the east end of the Towne, accordinge to the 44th p'sentm't 
of the Inquest of office, in October, 1650, and accordinge to 
former and other ps'tm'ts, And therefore to pay his fine of xxs. 
alreadie forfeited, and to erect a house there before the 29th of 
Septemb' in paine of xls. 

Wee find and p^sent Edward Eccles hath not removed his 
swyne Coate or Co't, erected in the highway to Minespitt well,'^ 

own jurisdiction; but there was no such discretion allowed in regard to 
bread — the act definitely imposed its assize, which was from time to time 
enforced by orders of the Privy Council. In cities or corporate towns 
power to regulate the assize of bread and ale was often conferred by charter 
upon the local authorities, the interference of the clerk of the royal 
household being frequently precluded in special terms. This was the case 
at Preston when the presentment was made. The " great charter " — that 
of Queen Elizabeth, dated August 24th, 1566 — definitely grants the assize to 
the '* Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of Preston." The statute 8 Anne, 
c. 19, repealed that of 51 Henry III., imposed a fresh assize of bread, and 
made various regulations in respect to it. Acts wore passed at lator times 
concerning the assize; but by the statute 55 George III., c. 99, the practice 
was abolished in the metropolis, and subsequently in other places — Preston 
included — it was done away with. 

1. Bannester is a very old Preston family name. It is one of the 
names which most frequently appear in the Preston Guild Rolls; William 
being, evidently, the favourite *' Christian " prefix. In the Guild Roll 
for 1597 — the earliest extant Roll of Guild Burgesses — there is the name 
" Will Bannester." Between 1345 and 1626 the Mayoral chair of Preston 
was occupied 31 times by persons bearing the name of Banestre or 
Banester. And amongst the Parliamentary representatives of Preston 
there have been the following: — Richard Banastre, in 1306-7; Henry 
Banastre, 1327 ; and Henry Banister, 1614, 1625. 

2. Burgage refers to a house or other property *' held by burgage tenure." 
According to Blackstone, ** Tenure in burgage is . . . where the King 
or other person is lord of an ancient borough, in which the tenements are 
held by a rent certain." — The offence referred to is founded upon the 
following clauses in the Custumale of Preston! — "If any one wish to be 
made a burgess, he shall come into court and give to the prefect 12d. and 
shall take his burgage from the pretor; afterwards he shall give to the 
pretor's servant one penny, that he may certify him to have been made 
a burgess in court." ** Also, when any burgess shall receive his burgage, 
and it shall be a void place, the pretor shall order him to erect his 
burgage within forty days, upon a forfeiture ; but if he shall not erect it, 
he shall be in mercy 12d." — Eng. Hist. Jtev., XV., p. 496. 

3. Minespitt well was at the bottom of Main Sprit Weind, near or 
within the present enclosed ground of the Gt^e Company, on the north sid^t 

4 Preston Court Leet. 

to the annoyance of the Highway, according to the time limited 
in the 35th p'ntm't of the same Inquest, and therefore to pay his 
fine of vjs. viijd., and for every Month it continues unpulled 
downe after notice given vis. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nt Willm Blacoe ought to bee proceeded 
ag't according to the 36th p'sentm't of the same Inquest, and to 
forbeare to trade, use, or exercise any Trade contrarie to his 
Bond, given when hee became A ff*reeman, in payne of ev'y 
Moneth hee shall soe trade to forfeit xls.^ 

Wee find and p^sent Mr. William Hodgkinson^ hath not 
erected a Bu[rgage] upon a parcell of ye Townes Land, lyinge 
betweene George Hodgk[inson's] Lands on ye East side and ye 
Lands of Robte Bayley on the West side, according to the 26th 
p'ntm't of the last Inquisicon, and hath ther[by] forfeited his 
fine of xls., and that he shall erect one before ten[th] of 
September next, in payne of xls.^ 

Wee find and p'nt Mr. Edmund Werden hath not, 
accordinge to ye affearing^ of the 31st p'ntm't of the last Leet, 
Released his Interest in the old Milne steed and Damme, nor 
made any agreement with the Towne [as to] the new Milne Steed 
and Damme,^ And yt hee shall come before Mr. Maior and his 

1. In old times local trade operations were under the control of the 
Corporation, as represented by the Court Leet, and the wardens and 
nuuster tradesmen of the "local companies," and this control was' not 
entirely dropped until about 1792. 

2. Hodgkineon is a name, with a few variations in the spelling 
of it, which occurs more frequently than any other in the old 
Guild Rolls. It is first mentioned in the Roll for 1459. In the Rolls after 
that date down to 1682 the name appears 222 times. Between 1559 and 
1681 thirteen of the Mayors of Preston were named Hodgkinson ; one of 
them — James Hodgkinson — being the Guild Mayor in 1662. 

3. The bracketed portions of the words are now quite undecipherable in 
the minute book. 

4. ** AfFearing " relates to the action of AfFeerers — " persons appointed 
in Court Leets, &c., to set fines on offenders punished arbitrarily, for which 
no express penalty is prescribed by statute." As a rule, Affeerers were 
persons of some standing in the community, and, generally, " they served 
to prevent too high fines or amercements being made by any Steward or 
other ofl&cer of the Court." 

5. '* Milne steed " means the place or site of a mill. The *' steed " and 
" damme " were in the neighbourhood of Preston MazBh — probably near 

pREstoN Court Leet. 6 

Bretheren,^ and make an agreement with them, at or before the 
Second day of fifebruary next, in paine of xxs., And upon like 
paine of xxs. for every month hee shall neglect or delay to 
p'f[orm] the same Agreement with the Towne. 

Wee find and p'nte Mr. Edmund Werden hath not, 
according to the 29th p'ntm't of the last Inquisicon, filled upp 
the Little Ditch wch hee made into the old damme and 
thorough wch hee made a wateri[ng], to ye great annoy- 
ance of ye Marsh, And whereas by the same p'ntm't he was 
ordered to stake and wynd all alonge his Ditch att the Marsh 
side, wch hee hath neglected, wee doe therefore amerce [him] in 
vjs. viijd., and for every month he shall neglect to stake and 
wy[ndp and fill upp the said Ditch in vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'sent Evan Rogerson hath not performed the 
5th pntm of the last Leet in cuttinge his Wood^ wch hanges over 
Henry Wilson's house in the fFryergate, in the possession of John 
Singleton, and he therefore accordinge to the p'ntm't aforesaid 
forfeited his fine of vjs. viijd., and wee doe amerce him in every 
month the same continues undone in vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'sent Seth Morte^ of this Towne made an 
assault and affray and drew blood upon the bodie of William 
Brewer; therefore amerce him in vs. 

Wee doe find and pn'te the said Seth Morte made a Tusle^ 
and did abu[se] Richard Morte his brother, doe therefore amerce 
him in ijs. vid. 

the north-east corner below the old Spa Well. In the early part of the 
19th century there was a mill dam in that corner 

1. The '* Bretheren " were the members of the Council. 

2. '* Wynd " means to make a sort of wattle or hurdle fence. 

3. The " wood " most likely consisted of the branches of a tree. 

4. Seth Morte was the eldest eon of Adam Morte, who was a person of 
high standing in Preston, and for a long time connected with the Council. 
Adam — evidently the " Adamus Morte, Junior," named in the Guild Roll 
for 1622 — was elected Mayor of Preston for the Guild year 1642; but he 
declined to accept the honour, and was fined 100 marks for his contumacy. 
He was a strong Royalist. Early in 1643, whilst helping in the defence of 
Preston against the Parliamentary soldiers, he was killed. The Guild RoU 
for 1662 contains the name ** Mortt Seth, gen'," also the names of his Bons 
Thomas and Adam. 

5. " Tusle " means tussle — a struggle, or conflict, or scuffle. 

6 Preston Court Leet. 

We doe find and p'nte the said Richard Morte made a 
Tustle and did abuse the said Seth, doe therefore amerce him 
in ijs. v[id]. 

Wee doe find and p'nte Evan Rogerson being drunck did 
abuse and dr[aw] blood upon the bodie of Robert Ingham, and 
wee doe therefore amerce him in vs. And wee leave ye punish- 
ment of his drunkenness to Mr. Maior. 

We doe find and p'nte Margaret Walmesley, widdow, shall 
scoure her ditch and make a platt^ att her yate^, in the ffryers 
Lane,^ that she may have passage, wch annoy'th the highway, 
before ye 25th day of March next, in paine of vjs. v[iijd]. 

We find and p'sent John Higham shall scoure his ditch all 
alonge [the] Crofte in the same Lane, and kepe open his Piatt 
or Bridge att the Style leadinge [to] the foote path the[re], before 
the 25th day of March, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'sent William Chernock for delving and 
gettinge cl[ay], on this side of Eaves brook,^ contrary to the 
orders of this Towne, and therefore amerce him in vijs. 

Wee find and p'nte Willm Silcock, for gettinge whinnes on 

this side brook [name worn or torn off], contrary to the 

orders of this Towne, and therefore amerce him [part 

containing amount missing]. 

Wee find and p'nte Hugh Copeland hath encroached upon 
the Townes wast,^ att his new buildinge, without the fifriargate 
Barres,^ sixe yardes in length and a foote in bredth, to paye sm' 
[sum] Maior think fitt. ijd. 

1. Piatt seems to be a contracted form of Platting — a Lancashire word 
signifyinp: a small bridprc. 

2. " Yate " means a gate. 

3. " ffryers Lane " was on the west side of *' Friargate, its course being 
by the old Friary towards the Marsh. This would, practically, be the 
original IMarsh-lane. 

4. Eaves brook runs between Preston and Fulwood — it forms the 
boundary line of the two townships — and empties itself into the Savock, on 
the west side of the Preston and Lancaster railway. 

5. " Wast " — waste or common land. 

6. ** fFriargate Barres," or bars, were at this time near the summit of 
the "brow," a little south of where Back-lane branches into Friargate. 
Kuerden in his description of Preston (temp. 1681-87) says that Back-lane 
fell into — i.e., passed into or joined — Friargate ** below the Fryergate* 

Preston Court Leet. 7 

Wee find and p'nte Mr. John Marsh, according to the 6th 
p'ntm't of ye Inquest of office in fFebruary, 1651, wherein it was 
p'nted that hee shold stake and wynd alonge his close in the 
Lane side Leadinge to Aram Bankes^, and keepe ye water in itts 
course, in paine of vjs. viijd. hee hath not p'formed the same 
p'ntm't, and therefore to pay the fine and to repaire the same 
before 25th March next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nte Seth Morte shall erect and build upp a 
barne, in St. John's weend,^ where formerly his barne stood, 
upon the Townes Land, before the 29th of September next, in 
paine of xls. 

Wee find and p'nte several! p'sons have fetched sand in the 
Lane leadinge to the North Moor^ yate, and have made a great 
hole to the annoyance of the highway, and wch endangereth ye 
lettinge downe of Mr. Addisson^ hedge and fFence, and wee 
p'nte the same shalbee filled upp, and whoever shall hereafter 
trespas in the like manner shall forfeit for every load of sand hee 
shall fetch there iijs. iiijd. 

barrs," which, of course, means that the bars were south of Back-lane 
junction at that time. Lang's map (1774) shows a change in the situation 
of the bars ; the position occupied by them being some distance northward ; 
but the definition is too vaj^ue for an exact determination of the site. 
Shakeshaft's map, published in 1809, places the bars at that time about 
10 yards north of Hope-street. 

1. Aram Bankes, or Avenham Bank, was an enclosure on the slope 
below the present Park Hotel. It would seem that through the confusion 
of the letters r and n the word Aram has been applied to plots of land 
which in other places are called Anam. 

2. For St. John's weend see note p. 148. The word *' weend " or 
" weind," meaning a narrow street or " ginnel," is used as far south as 
Warrington. Cf. the Scottish " wynd." 

3. The North Moor, which was a considerable portion of Preston Moor, 
was enclosed in 1834, by the Preston Corporation, and in 1867, after under- 
going considerable surface improvement, &c., it was opened as Moor Park. 

4. It is not improbable that the Mr. Addisson named in the presentment 
was a member of or related to the family of Mr. T. B. Addison, for many 
years Recorder of Preeton, &c. There were members of his family living 
in Preston in 1641 ; and long prior to that time there were persons of the 
same name in the town. The first of this name to be mot with in local 
annals is Thomas Addyson, who appears in the Guild Roll for 1582 as a 
" haberdassher." In 1645 Matthew Addison was Mayor of Preston. George 
Addison was the Mayor five times between 1672 and 1709. Richard Addison, 
great grandfather of T. B. Addison, occupied the same position in 1727 and 

8 Preston Court Leet. 

Wee find and p'nte Nicholas Watson suffereth Timber I'rees 
and other wood to lye in the Streets, to- the annoyance of his 
neighbours and such as frequent this markett, and havinge notice 
to remove the same obstinately refuseth (as appears to us upon 
oath), wherefore we do amerce him in vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nte Jennett Haworth, widdow, hath had 
notice sevarall tymes to wringe her swine, and hath obstinately 
denyed to cause them to be wring[ed], to the great annoyance 
of her neighbours, and contrair to the ord'rs of this Towne, and 
therefore wee amerce her in vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nt Anne Ingham, widdow, hath made 
middinge or dunghill in the street at the Church gate barres,^ to 
the annoyance of the highway, and that she shall remove the 
same before the XXVth of March next, in paine of iijs. iiijd. 
and forbeare to cast any more upon the lik paine of iiijs. iiijd. 

Wee find the lane^ by the holehouse"^ is A highway leadinge 
into the ffeild"* for passengers and such as frequent the markett 

1735. And so did his brother John, in 1832 and 1843. It is conjectured that 
Addison, the poet, essayist, &c., in Queen Anne's reign, whose father was a 
native of Westmorland, was related to this family. 

1. Church gate is an old name for Church-street. The " barres " in this 
thoroughfare were at or near the entrance to Water-street, now Manchester- 

2. " The lane by the holehouse " was at or near the north-east corner of 
Preston Marsh. 

3. The whole or a considerable portion of Holehouse, with a barn 
adjoining, is still standing, and it goes by the name of Holehouse Farm. 
It is situated in Pechell -street, on the east side of Bray-street, off Tulketh- 
brow, and about 40 yards below the railway viaduct. For many years 
Holehouse was the residence of members of the Waljnsley family. The 
Guild Roll for 1622 contains the name of Thomas Walmsley "de Hoole- 
howse ;" and in subsequent Rolls there are the names of persons of the same 
family residentially associated with " de Holehouse." From the Walmsleys 
the Holehouse estate went to the Winckleys, by the marriage of Thomas 
Winckley, of Billington, with Rosamond, daughter of Edward W^almsley, 
of Banister Hall, and heiress of her brother, Thomas Walmsley ; and 
through the marriage, in 1807, of Frances Winckley, only daughter of 
Thomas Winckley, of Brockholes and Catterall, with Sir John Shelley, 
6th baronet, of Maresficld Park, Sussex, the property passed into the 
Shelley family. Subsequently the estate was sold in various sections, and 
much of it is now covered with miscellaneous buildings, &c. One reminder 
of the Shelley possession is found in the name of a road — Shelley-road — on 
the northern side of the old estate. 

4. " The ffeild " presumably means the Fylde. 

Preston Court Leet. 9 

when the water stopeth them that the[y] canott passe by Rible- 
side, and the passage is hindered by reason of the earth wich is 
slidden into the same, and wee p'sent Mr. Edmund Werden, 
Jane Walmsley, widdow, and the executors of Thomas Walmsley 
deceased ought to remove the same, and that the[y] shall make 
the same A suficient way before the xxvth of March next, in 
payne of vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'sent Edward Taylor suffereth his ffence to 
lie downe one his backside of his house, to the annoyance of his 
neighbour, widdow Ashton, and that hee shall sufficiently repaire 
the same before the second of ffebruary next in paine of 
vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'sent that John Preesall hath made a pave- 
ment and a Channell for the water to issue from the backside of 
his house to Mathew Dickson's backside, to the annoyance of 
the said Mathew, and that hee shall rayse the pavement and 
carry the watter downe his owne backside, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nte Henry Bullow's wife and children, Ellen 
Alpert, and Margaret Welshman doe frequently throw Garbidge 
in St. John's weend, which is a great annoyance to mens Cattell 
and endangereth the poysoninge of them, and that hereafter they 
shall forbeare to throw any there, upon paine for every one 
offendinge (the offence being proved before Mr. Maior) to forfeit 
and pay forthwith for every offence iijs. iiijd. or to bee punished 
at ye Discretion of Mr. Maior. 

Wee find and p'nte all such p'sons as have any Weights or 
Measures and all owners of Milnes^ shall brings their weights, 
measures, and moulture dishes^ before Mr. Maior or his officers, 
to bee approved and sealed, at such a p'fixt tyme as Mr. Maior 
shall think fitt and appoint. 

Wee find and p'nte A Tustle between John Higham and 
Thomas Loxam seres [serious] to Henry Atherton, and doe 
therefore amerce the said John in ijs. vjd. 

1. The " Milnes " referred to were corn mills. 

2. "Moulture" is an old word signifying "a portion of meal," &c., 
which was claimed by a miller '* as his fee for grinding the corn ;" and 
" moulture dishes " were evidently used by millers for measuring or holding 
the various portions claimed after grinding. 

10 Preston Court Leet. 

Wee find and p'nte Roger Woodroffe hath encroached upon 
the Townes wast, at ye house late Henry Mittons, Sexton, a foote 
and a halfe in bred[th] att ye one [end] of his wall and halfe a 
foote att th'other end thereof, and in length fower yards ; to 
bee rented att ye Discretion of Mr. Maior and his Bretheren. 

Wee find and p'nte the now BailifFes of this Towne shall 
repaire the Mooteha[ll] ffloare, and the glasse windowes such as 
have heretofore been glasened, belongeinge to the Mootehall, 
and ye doores into ye Councell house,^ before the first day of 
May next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Wee p'nte Mr. John Cottam hath a-stopt a watercourse wch 
ought to goe thorough the end of his new Bame, in Sant John's 
weend, to the annoyance of Edward Dawson, wch hath beene 
formerly found and p'sented, And that hee shall suffer the water 
to passe the ancient and accustomed way, in paine of every tyme 
hee shall stopp the same to forfeit vjs. viijd. 

Wee find there are great numbers of fforrayners^ crept into 
this Towne, who have beene sev'all tymes found and p'nted 

1. The *' Councell house " was that portion of the hall in which the 
Town Council meetings were held. 

2, " fforrayners " — foreigners — were people who were not burgesses — 
strangers, outsiders, not members of any particular guild in the 
town. Those alluded to in the presentment would, on first coming 
into the town, be merely "inmates," i.e., persons allowed for a 
consideration to reside in houses rented or occupied by other 
people. In the 16th and 17th centuries stringent laws were made 
against the harbouring of poor persons as inmates or lodgers — 
a practice which it was held tended to increase the number of paupers 
chargeable locally. Act 31 Elizabeth, c. 7, s. 6, says, " There shall not be 
any Inmate or more Famylies or Householders than one, dwellinge or 
inhabitinge in anye one Cottage." At a later period stran^gers were 
permitted to reside a& inmates with ordinary tenants on the latter giving 
satisfactory bond or surety to the local authorities that such persons should 
not become chargeable to the inhabitants. Persons of the strange, 
intruding, and poor kind were at this time very troublesome to the 
authorities of Preston, as they apparently had been a considerable number 
of years before. So burdensome had they become, in the first quarter of 
the 17th century, that the local rulers felt incapable of adequately dealing 
with them, and they appealed to the Judges at Lancaster Assizes, in 1624, 
for help or guidance in the matter. The Judges gave it as their opinion 
" that as well by the antient comon lawes of the realme as allso by the 
true meaning and equitie of the statute made for the reliefe of the poore 
that it was not lawful for anie person or persons whatsoever to receive, 

Preston Court Leet. 11 

unfitt members to inhabit within this Towne, and such as 
harbour them have had fines imposed on them by sev'all juries, 
but no execucon being done they have continued soe long untill 
they could not conveniently be removed, And are thereupon 
stallenged, since wch tyme they challenge and take to themselves 
the priviledges and p'fitts wch onlye belonge to free Burgesses, 
whereas the 9th order of Mr. Waltons Guild saith no stallenger 
shall put any horses, cattle, or other goods to the Comons, and 
by the 6th order of the same Not any stallenger utter Ale or 
Beere in his house, In pursuance of wch said Order wee find and 
p'nte theis sev'all p'sons [Stallengers] hereafter named doe some 
of them keepe Alehouse, others keepe horses and other goods 
upon ye Comons and Comon grounds belonginge to this Towne, 
contrary to the said orders. And wee doe therefore amerce every 
of the said stallengers who shall utter ale or beere in his house 
after notice given to the Contrary in xxs. for every month untill 
hee shall compound with the Towne accordinge to the said 
Order.^ And every stallenger who shall put any horse or other 
goods to the Moor, Marsh, or Comon flftelds,^ after notice given, 
shall pay for every offence vjs. viijd., untill hee compound with 
the Towne, and ye pind'rs are to take care and impound such 
stallenger's goods as they shall find for trespassing, and not to 
discharge them without the privitie or consent of Mr. Maior or 
ye Bailiffes. — Thomas Anderton keepeth two horses and a Cow. 

entertaine, or take to dwell, into any cottage any persons who are or might 
bo poore or beggars or burdensome to the parish, unless they give security 
to maintain them in case of need." According to the presentment it seems 
that many strangers, though several times presented to the Court Leet as 
unfit to reside in Preston, contrived, through lack of execution, to remain 
such a length of time in the town that they could not well be removed, and 
were subsequently "stallenged." 

1. " Stallengers " seem to have been, as a rule, non-burgesses who had 
to pay respectively a certain sum for the privilege of trading in the town, 
on the stallage plan — stallage meaning the right to erect a stall in a fair or 
on a market day, also signifying the rent paid for a stall. Strangers were 
** stallenged " for carrying on trade in shops as well as on stalls — a plan 
whereby we get a confirmation of one old meaning of the word stall, which 
was '* a little shop, &c., or the fore part of a shop." — Owens College 
Historical Essays^ pp. 237-8. 

2. " Comon ffields " were common lands or grounds belonging to the 
town, chiefly on the north and west sides. 

12 Preston Court Leet. 

Thomas Shawe keepeth Alehouse and keepeth a horse. Roger 
Serieantson keepeth a Cow. Willm Brewer keepeth Alehouse. 
Thomas Patricke keepeth alehouse, onely stallenged in vs., and 
hath brought in two children, therefore to give bond to save the 
Towne harmeless or bee removed. Thomas Arthwrite keepeth 
alehouse (admitted by Co'rt Rolle).^ John Barker keepeth a 
horse (admitted a freeman by Co'rt Rolle). Thomas Serieantson 
keepeth a Cow. Willm Brewer keepeth three horses. James 
Leigh keepeth 2 horses and a Cow (hath geeven Bond).^ Willm 
Elston keepeth a horse and 3 or 4 beasts. George Hindley 
keepeth alehouse in widdowe Sheppards house. Robte Holt 
keepeth alehouse. Nicholas Cunliffe keepeth a Cow. 

Wee find and pr'sent Thomas Goodshey hath encroached 
att his house, in the ffryergate, upon the streete, nyne yards in 
length and in breadth a foote ; to be rented att the Discretion 
of Mr. Maior and his Bretheren. — To pay 6d. p annum. 

Wee find and pr'sent Roger WoodrofFe^ hath broken upp the 
Townes wast, without the privitie of Mr. Maior or his officers, 
and made Breek and sould five thousand forth of the liberties 

1. '* Co'rt Rolle *' : Intcrmediato admission as a free burgess, or free- 
man, involved, like regular admission during the Guild proceedings, the 
payment of a fee or fine. Under the old regime, every person admitted as 
a Free In-Burgess or Foreign Burgess of the borough, by Court Roll, at an 
intermediate time, was entitled to be entered as one or the other, according 
to hifi admission by Court Roll, at the next Guild, on paying at such Guild 
to the IVIayor and Steward, for the use of the Mayor, Bailiffs, and 
Burgesses, the same fee or fine as he paid on his admission by Court Roll. — 
Owens College Historical Essays ^ p. 239. 

2. The words within paronthoees have obviously been inserted in the 
presentment some time after its entry in the record book. 

5. Woodroffe is an old local name. It is met with in the Guild Rollft, 
and is spelled in various ways. At the Guild in 1602 Thomas Wooa^ooff 
was admitted a burgess of Profiton, and a note on the Roll says that this 
privilege was granted to him " for Ringinge the daie Bell and Cou'lefewe 
[curfew] for the Somcr season duringo his liffe, and for makinge all the 
Scates in the Church for the townes men, Both against the Sabaoth daies 
and festivall daies sweete and cleano eu'ie of the said daies, for the said 
tormes." On the Guild Roll for 1642 Roger Woodrofif is mentioned Sfi an 
in-Burgess. On the Roll for 1662 there appears the name of Roger 
Woodruffe, who is described as a ** Briokma'." 

Preston Court Leet. 13 

of this Towne,^ Contrary to the 8th Order of Mr. Preston's 
Guild,2 and a thousand to a stranger, carryed away in a Boate, 
and hath therefore by the said Order forfeited iijl. — To pay for 
this offence 5s., and to enter bond not to Commit the like in 
paine of 40s. 

And wee further pr'te the said Roger Woodroffe before this 
June — saith hee wode not pay any money to this Towne but of 
Curtesie, And therefore we ffind hee shall observe the said order 
in all p'ticulars, and forbeare to break any soyle or digge any pitt 
for makinge of bricks without the speciall lycense and appoint- 
ment of Mr. Maior or his officers, upon paine to forfeit for every 
offense xxs. — This matter to bee examined by Mr. Maior and to 
be punished accordinge to desert. 

Wee find and pr'sent William Blacowe ought forthwith to 
repaire ye Bridge between Wilkinson's wife ground and Mr. 
Preston's Lands, being soe downe yt people cannot passe to the 
Markett, and therefore to be repaired imediately after notice, in 
paine of iijs. iiijd. 

Wee pr'sent John Singleton for breaking the pinfold,^ and 
doe therefore amerce him in iijs. iiijd. 

We find and p'nte the sev'rall p'sons hereafter named unfitt 
membrs to abide or inhabit within this Towne, and that they 
shalbee removed before the 25th day of March next, upon paine 
of every one to forfeit for every month after vjs. viijd., and such 
as harbour them vjs. viijd. : — Ellen ffareclough harboured by 
Thomas Catterall (removed); Alice Helme daughter to Henry 
Helme, with childe (chyld dead) ; Edward Johnson harboured by 
Mr. Richard Sumpner (removed)^; Jennet Hoghton harboured 

1. The words ** forth of the liberties of this Towne " mean beyond the 
boundaries within which certain immiinities or privileges were enjoyed. 

2. Mr. William Preston was Guild Mayor in 1622. 

3. The pinfold was near the north-east corner of Preston Marsh. It 
was done away with about 1870. The last pinder of it was the landlord of 
the Wheat Sheaf Inn, opposite which house — west side — the pinfold was 

4. The words in parentheses were evidently added later. Sumpner is 
an ancient and reputable local family name. Mr. Richard Sumpner was, 
in 1653--4, Mayor of Preston. Eight years before a Sumpner (Thomas) was 
the Mayor, and twelve years later another of the same name occupied the 
like position. 

14 Preston Court Leet. 

by Mr. Luke Hodgkinson ; Elizabeth Potts harboured by Evan 
Warden wife; John Sowerbutts and his wife . . . harboured 
by Mrs. ffleetwood^ (removed, hath geeven bond maij 6, 1654) ; 
Gilbte Greaves harboured by Mr. Henry Sherborne^; Thomas 
Cottam and his wife and two children harboured by John Key. 

Wee find and p'nte the p'sons hereafter named are 
flforreynors, and that they shall Compaund and agree with the 
Towne or bee removed forth of the Towne, upon paine of ev'y 
one mak'nge default to forfeit for every month vjs. viijd. : — 
Robt. Gregson harboured by Mr. William Bannister; John 
Shorte harboured by Sr Richard Hoghton^; Thomas ffisher 

1. Probably a widow. The earliest reference to this name in the local 
records is in 1397, when Edward, son of John ffletewood, and William his 
brother, are mentioned ae in-burgesses. Between 1551 and 1847 Preston had 
for 13 times Parliamentary representatives named Fleetwood ; one of them 
being elected four times in succession in the 18th century, and another an 
equal number of times consecutively in the 19th century. 

2. Henry Sherborne became an in-burgese of Preston two years after 
the presentment was made against him. He was the son of Richard 
Sherborne. His name appears on the burgess list for the last time in 1682. 
Sir Richard Sherburne was of Stonyhuret, being the son of Thomas 
Sherburne by marriage with Jane, daughter of Sir John Towneley of 
Towneley. He was a member of Parliament for Preston in 1554 and 1558. 
The first appearance of the Sherburne name on the burgess records of 
Preston is in 1582, when two Richards (father and son) and Hugh and 
Thomas (apparently brothers) are specified as out-burgesses. The first 
in-burgess here bearing the name was John Sherburne, son of John 
Sherburne, of Ribbleton : this was in 1662. In the 16th century John, son 
of Thomas Sherburne, of Stonyhurst, purchased the whole or a portion of 
the manor of Ribbleton, and took up his residence therein ; descendants 
long afterwards living in or being associated with the locality. One of the 
lost charities of Preston was bequeathed by a Mrs. Sherburn in 1625: it 
was, when bequeathed, of the value of £10. 

3. The later remarks within parentheses are in different ink, and have 
clearly been added to the presentment. Sir Richard Hoghton must at this 
time have had a residence in Preston. The Hoghtons figure very 
prominently in the old municipal and Parliamentary annals of Preston. 
Between 1370 and 1385 Adam de Hocton was Mayor of Preston six times. 
In 1411 H. de Hoghton was Mayor ; in 1438, 1451, and 1459 (Guild year), 
Robert de Hoghton occupied the chief magisterial position here. Sir Henry 
de Hoghton, fifth baronet, was elected M.P. for Preston five times between 
1709 and 1768, his membership covering in the aggregate nearly 30 years. 
He was succeeded as member for Preston by Sir Henry Hoghton, sixth 
baronet, who retained the seat till his death, in 1795, and was followed in 
the membership by his son. Sir Henry Philip, who held the seat till 1802. 


Preston Court Leet. 15 

harboured by John Higham (admitted freeman in Mr. BlundelPs^ 
tyme); John Jaunson (given bond); Robt. Walker harboured 
by Mr. Maior (admitted freeman by Cort Rolle) ; John Royle 
harboured by Henry Cuerdall; James Simpson to give security 
to ye Towne (hath geeven securitie) ; George Preston and his 
wife and one child harboured by Chrofer Santer ; John Harrison 
a wife . . . with child, to give securitie and compound with 
ye Towne or remove (admitted a free man by Cort Roll) ; 
Beniamin Smith harboured by Rich. Burton (hath geeven 
securitie and since removed out of ye Towne). 

Wee find and p^nte Mr. Edmund Werden^ shall cause a 

The Sir Richard Hoghton named in the presentment was a grandson of 
Sir Richard Hoghton, who, in 1617, entertained King James I. for several 
days at Hoghton Tower, and the second son of Sir Gilbert Hoghton, who 
garrisoned the Tower on behalf of Charles I. when the Civil War broke 
out. Sir Gilbert Hoghton, who died in 1657, was succeeded by his son Sir 
Richard — the eldest surviving eon — whose grandson was Sir Henr^r Hoghton. 
who was M.P. for Preston so long in the 18th century. The present owner 
and occupant of Hoghton Tower is Sir James de Hoi?hton, the 11th baronet. 

1. One of the Blundells Mayorally connected with Preston in the first half 
of 17th century — from a branch of the Blundells of Ince Blundell — and pro- 
bably Henry, Mayor in 1647. Eleven of the old Mayors of Preston bore 
the name of Blundell ; the first being Richard, who occupied the position 
in 1385, and the eleventh Henry, who held it in 1647. In the Guild Roll 
for 1397 there are five in-burgeeses named Blundell. In 1664 and 1669 one 
of the Preston Corporation Bailiffs was named Henry Blundell (apparently 
sou of Robert Blundell, of Ince Blundell, who was a " foreign " or out- 
burgess in 1642), and after him the name disappears entirely from 
the Corporate annals in their representative bearings. In the *' foreign " 
section of the Guild Rolls, subsequent to the last mentioned date, the names 
of several Blundells appear, including that of " Blundell Henricus de Ince 
Blundell." In Preston Market Place, near the north-west corner, there was 
at one time a residence, conjectured to have been a " family mansion," 
called Blundell House. Many years ago it was made into shop property — 
the present business premises between the higher or larger portions of No. 
32 and 36. Part of the building retains its original gable-fronted, quaintly 
diminutive appearance, and forms the only bit of antique structural work 
now to be seen in the Market Place. 

2. Mr. Edmund Werden, whose name is mentioned in throe previous 
presentments, belonged to a family of long and conspicuous standing in 
Preston — a family which, it has been conjectured, originally came from 
Werden or Worden, in the parish of Leyland. In 1628 Edmund Werden 
was appointed Warden of the Preston Company of Drapers, Mercers, 
Grocers, &c. He was Mayor of Preston four times — in 1641-2 (Guild), 1642-3 

16 Preston Court Leet. 

milne Hill^ to be made in such a convenient place on the Marsh 
as shalbee thought fitt and allowed by Mr. Maior and his 
bretheren, that the Marsh bee not spoiled with their winnowinge 
dayly upon ye same, And that such as winnowe upon the said 
Marsh but upon a place appointed and set forth shall forfeit for 
every offense iijs. iiijd. 

Wee find and prsent William Shawe^ and his mother 
suffereth his Timber to lye in ye open street, att ye white 
markett, called ye Butter Crosse,'' to ye Disturbance of 
Passengers and people wch come to ye market, and wee pr'sent 
hee shall remove ye same upon paine to forfeit for ev'y month 
not removed vjs. viijd. 

Wee find and p'nte John Ryley hath encroached upon Mr. 
Prestons Lands, att his garden wall, a yard and a halfe in length 
and three quarters of a yard in bredth. — To agree with Mr. 

(through the unwillingness of Adam Morte to take the position), 1649, and 
1657. On the Guild Roll for 1662 his name appears amongst the in-burgess 
lot. After 1692 no person of this name or any of its variants is mentioned 
as having occupied any municipal representative position here. After 
Thomas, the Bailiff, in 1692, the name disappears from the records. 

1. A ** milne hill " would be a piece of ground set apart for winnowing. 

2. The names of numerous Shawes appear on the Guild Rolls, the first 
being that of Richard Shawe, who is amongst the Stallengers enrolled in 
1602, the amount paid by him for the privilege being £3 10s. Shortly after 
the Guild of 1622 Richard Shaw was elected Mayor of Preston for the 
ensuing year. In 1644 and 1652 William Shawe was the Mayor, and in 
1654 he was one of the Bailiffs. Oliver Shawe was a Bailiff in 1659, and 
John Shaw held a similar position in 1667. After this the name disappears 
entirely from the Corporate annals, in a representative sense, till 1847, when 
William Shawe, of Church-street, was elected an alderman — a position he 
occupied till the end of 1862. He died in 1872, aged 90; and since his 
decease there has been no one bearing the name of Shawe in the Corpora- 

3. The Butter Cross stood near the top of Cheapside. 

4. Preston is a name which occupies a very prominent position in the 
early annals of the town. In 1304 Robert, son of William de Preston, was 
one of the Parliamentary representatives of Preston, and in 1329 Nicholas 
de Preston occupied a similar position. Between 1330 and 1343 Nicholas 
de Preston was six times Mayor of the borough ; and between 1467 and 1638 
eight of the Mayors bore the name of Preston. In 1474 Thomas Preston 
was the headmaster of Preston Grammar School. In 1622 William Preston 
(third son of George Preston) was the Guild Mayor, and the in-burgess 

Preston Court Leet. 17 

Wee find and p'nte his [John Ryley's] said garden wall 
encroacheth upon the Lands of Edward ffrench,! gent, and Anne 
his wife, three quarters of a yeard in bredth and two yards in 
Length, the same being now the Tenem't of John Kilshawe or 
his assignes. — To agree with Mr. Maior. 

Directly succeeding these presentments there are the names 
of four and twenty " Capitall Burgesses of the Burrough or 
Towne of Preston " — the " Comon Counsell to the said Maior 
for the well goveminge of the said Borrough for the yeare 
ensueinge [1654], those elected as viewers [inspectors] of fflesh 
and ffish, alefound'rs [founders — testers or conners of ale], pind'rs 
[impounders of stray cattle, &c.], heirdsmen, afferors of the corts, 
assessors of taxation," &c. ; also the names of persons nominated 
and elected for the " surveyinnge and disposinge of Inmates, 
fforreynors, and strangers, and other Enormities within this 
Towne, for ye years followinge, and confirmed by ye last Guild 
Merchant; " the portions of the town assigned to them for 
" surveyinnge," &c., being (1) " ffryergate weends and Backsides 
adioyninge to the same, beginninge att the shopp of Richard 
Sumpner and from thence to ye end of the said street," (2) " ye 
whole markett place and flishergate beginynge att Minspitt well 
weend and soe afterwards by ye end of the said Street," and (3) 
" Churchgate beginninge att Minspitt well weend with all ye 
weends and backsides of the said street and from thence east- 
ward by ye end of ye said Towne." 

Inquisition taken on November 1st, 1653, before Mr. 
Edward ffrench (Mayor), the Bailiffs, and the Steward, in respect 

section of the Guild Roll for that year contains at the head of it the names 
of six of his sons. He married Anne, daughter of Thomae ffarington, of 
Worden Hall, Leyland; the issue being the six sons alluded to and four 
daughters. He died in 1639. There has been no one named Preston 
connected, in a municipally representative way, with the borough of Preston 
for upwards of 240 years ; the last one occupying such a position being 
William Preston, one of the Corporation Bailiffs in 1664 — in all probability 
the ** Preston Guliel' gen\** who appears as an in-burgess on the Roll for 
1662, and who was a grandson of William Preston, Guild Mayor in 1662. 

1. Not one of the very early local names, and yet fairly old, is that 
of ffrench. The Mayor of Preston, when this presentment was made, was 
Edward ffrench. 


18 Preston Court Leet. 

to " Diverse Trespasses ag[ainst] the Statut[e]," by the oaths of 
Arthur Bostock, Ellis Wakefeild, Richard Turner, William 
Dobson, John Tyson, and Henry Thompson, who prsent and say 
— That Three paire of shooes of the goods of Chrofer Wildinge, 
of the valewe of fower shillinges, are not sufficient or Markettable 
accordinge to the Acte, and therefore to bee forfeit. — ^We likewise 
find one Sole hide of the goods of Richard Haydock of the 
valewe of Seaven shillinges, and two Bends of Leather of ye 
goods of Henry Newsham of the valewe of two shillinges and 
eightpence, not to bee sufficiently Tanned or serviceable. And 
therefore to bee forfeited accordinge to the Act in that Behalf e 

Inquisition taken on the 26th of November, 1653, before 
the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Stewards, concerning " Diverse mis- 
demenors agt divers acts of Parliamt," on the oaths of six 
persons, who say — That one hyde of Leather of Thomas 
Hodgsons, of Euxton, of the valew of Eight shillings, is not 
sufficientlie Tanned, and therefore forfeite. Who likewise find 
one piece of a Bend of Leather of Richard Cowpes of Cuerdall, 
of the valewe of sixteen pence to be insufficient, and therefore 

The transcript up to this point includes a copy of all the 
presentments at the first Court Leet meeting and those agreed 
upon at the two earliest Inquisitions, as particularised in the 
first of the volumes before mentioned. Hereafter, and for the 
sake of avoiding considerable sameness and smallness of detail, 
the transcript is confined to the more important and peculiar of 
the presentments, &c. ; and, with the view of obviating repeti- 
tion, the " Wee find," &c., phrase which forms the commence- 
ment of nearly every presentment, is omitted. In various parts 
the record books contain marginal notes, which need not, except 
in certain particular cases, be reproduced here, as they mainly 
repeat, in an epitomised form, the decisions given respecting 
fines, &c. 

Inquisition of office taken the 30th day of January, 1654, 
before the Mayor, Bailiffs, Steward, and a Jury of 15. The 
Jury upon oath " find and present " as follows : — 

Preston Court Leet. 19 

Nicholas Sudell^ shall take upp and remove the earth which 
is slidden downe into the lane leadinge to the Swillbrooke,^ that 
the high way may bee sufficient for carte and carriage, before the 
xxvth of this instant AprilP in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. William Hodgkinson shall take upp and remove the 
earth wch is slidden downe into the high way directlie over 
against Mr. Sudells ground on the other side of the same lane, 
and shall gett the same lineallie with the old meares^ before the 
xxvth of this instant Aprill in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Seth Morte shall open his watercourse, and lay upp his 
platt, and scowre his ditch as farre as the Ashe att the crooked 
Acre^ before the 25th of this instant April! in paine of vjs. viijd. 

1. Burgesses of the Sudell order figure strongly on the old Guild Rolls 
of Preston. The first of them met with is Robert Sudell. His name is in 
the list of " foreign " or out-burgesses for 1459 ; on the Roll for 1542 five 
appear as in-burgesses, the name taking the form of Sudyll ; on later Rolls 
the name occurs frequently, and, as a rule, it is spelt Sudell. Municipally— 
as members of the Town Council — the Sudells were not so very early in 
evidence; but when they got into thp Council they took prominent roles. 
Three of them occupied the Mayoral position nine times — William was 
Mayor in 1626-34-51, Henry in 1631-38, and Roger in 1682 (Guild year), 1690, 
1699, and 1707; and three of them — Roger in 1655, Roger in 1677, and 
Jacob in 1692 — were Corporation Bailiffs. Since 1707, the fourth 
Mayoralty year of Roger, there has been no one bearing the name of 
Sudell in the Preston Town Council. 

2. Swillbrook is a stream, now almost entirely covered from view, on 
the south-eastern side of Preston. It debouches into the Ribble, near the 
old Tramway bridge. The principal lane to it, when this Inquisition was 
held, would be along one whose course is now taken by the present Man- 
chester-road, previously Water-street, Leeming-street, &c. 

3. In these presentments the word ** instant," when applied to a month, 
refers to the coming or impending month of such name nearest to the date 
of the Court Leet meeting. 

4. Meares, or meers, were boundaries or marks of division ; in this 
instance probably banks of earth. 

5. The Crooked Acre probably abutted on Broadgate. A post-mortem 
Inquisition, taken in 1608, describes James W^erden, mercer, of Preston, 
who died in 1607, as being possessed at the time of his death of, amongst 
other property, a parcel of land called " Johnson's Crooked Acre ; " but 
the locality of it is not defined. There used to be a " Johnson's Garden ** 
on the west side of the higher part of South Meadow -lane. 

20 Preston Court Leet. 

Henrie Chorley,^ Mr. Seth Blackhurst,^ Bartholomew 
Worthington,^ and Mr. Edmund Werden shall remove theire 
middings wch lye without ffishergate barres^ before the Tenth day 
of May next, in paine of everie of them vjs. viijd. They nor 
anie of them shall hereafter lay anie more middings or dunghills 
there, but on the backside of their owne barnes, in paine of 
everie one of them offendinge contraie to this presentment to 
fforfeite and pay for everie offence vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Edmund Werden shall scowre his ditch in Ropers' 
feilde,^ all along from the Piatt to the greate watercourse, before 
the 25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

The now Bailives of this Towne shall stake and wynde and 
sufficientlie repaire Davill bridge,^ and shall sett stoopes and 

1. The name of Henry Chorley appears amongst those of the in- 
burgessea on the Guild Roll for 1642 ; but he did not take the qualifying 
oath till 1649. At the Guild in 1662 he and five of his sons were enrolled as 

2. Seth Blackhurst was the Mayor here in 1648, 1656, and 1667. 

3. One of the principal lenders of money to a fund raised in Preston, in 
1635, for V meeting the cost of Charter renewal (it was expected at the time 
that Charles I. would grant a Charter of confirmation, but he did not) was 
Bartholomew Worthington. By his will, dated December 18th, 1663, 
Bartholomew Worthington made provision for the founding of an alms- 
house, which was erected in Fishergate, at the top of Mount-street, and 
which seems to have fallen into a ruinous state and been pulled down in 
the latter part of the 18th century. This said Worthington also bequeathed 
to Preston Grammar School the leasehold in trust, for 99 years, of a piece 
of land; and the Corporation subsequently bought the reversion of the 

4. Fishergate bars were near the top of Mount- street. 

6. It is presumable that Roper's field was near the north-east corner of 
the Marsh. According to the eighth presentment of the Court Leet held 
on the 20th October, 1653, Mr. Werden, who had an interest in a mill stead, 
dam, &c., adjoining the Marsh — at the north-east corner thereof, it is almost 
certain — had neglected to put in order a ditch at the side of the Marsh, 
probably on the north side, along which there flowed to the Old Quay and 
then into the Ribble (point of debouchure since altered) a stream called 
Moor Brook, which may have been the " great watercourse *' mentioned. 

6. Adjoining the bottom of Marsh-lane, on the north side, there were 
in the early part of the 19th century two fields called " Divel Meadows;" 
a short distance above them there was a water pit about 120 yards long and 
40 yards wide, the overflow or leakage of which would run into the Marsh- 
lane ditch on the same side; and, **Divel" evidently being meant for 
Davill, the bridge in question would, in all likelihood, cross that ditch at 
the bottom end, on the Marsh. 

Preston Court Leet. 21 

rayles to keepe horses from off itt before the xxvth of this instant 
Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Edmund Werden shall payre severall places slipt downe 
into his mill ffleame,^ and shall stake and wynde in needfull 
places before the 29th of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Edmund Werden hath made and raysed A pace^ to his 
kilne,"^ on the Marsh, about five yeards in length and two yeards 
in breadth : to be rented at the discretion of Mr. Maior and 
his brethren. 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall open the Springs on 
Spitle mosse^ and repaire the Syke trough with leads before the 
xxvth of this instant Aprill in payne of vjs. viijd. 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall make A sufficient 
Pinfold for Sheepe where it formerly hath beene, before the 
xxvth of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

William Curtis shall scowre his ditch and paire his Copp on 
his owne side, att the end of the Vicaridge crofte,^ and forbeare 

1. Mill ffleame is an old word for mill stream. 

2. The pace referred to would be part of a floor raised slightly above the 
general level, or possibly a passage — a sort of roadway. 

3. This would be a kiln for drying grain. 

4. Spitle is an old contracted form of hospital, and in this case the hospital 
was that of St. Mary Magdalen, situated on Maudlands, which was founded 
before 1187. See Farrer, Lancashire Pipe Rolls , p. 333. Spitle Moss was 
a short distance west of the present St. Peter's-square, and belonged to the 
hospital of St. Mary Magdalen. The second cotton mill which Mr. John 
Horrooks built in Preston stood on a portion of the Moss ; it was erected 
in 1796, and was called Moss Factory. Moss-street is in the same region. 
St. Peter's Church, which stands on the eastern side of the old Moss, was 
often, in bygone years, called Moss Church, and occasionally this name is 
now applied to it. As to the springs on the Moss, they were, probably, pretty 
numerous. The water in ** Atherton's well " — a well formerly adjoining 
the Moss, on the north side — most likely came from one of them. At one 
time there was, no doubt, a water trough on the north side of Spitle Moss, 
its inflow coming from one of the Moss springs ; and the name of a public- 
house in the neighbourhood — the Watering Trough Inn, Fylde-road — was 
evidently derived therefrom. Such a name indicates that there was a 
watering trough not far ojQE. 

5. The " Vicaridge crofte " would be not far from the roadway 
called the Old Vicarage, which runs between Tithebam-street and Lancaster- 
road, and in which, on the north side, there was formerly the residence of 
the Vicar of Preston. The croft is not shown on any of the old maps. It 
would be on the north-west side, below where Lancaster -road now runs. 

22 Preston Court Leet. 

to encroach with his ditch on the lane leading to Plattfordale,^ 
that the way may bee sufficient for Carte and carriage, before the 
xxvth of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

The cawsey2 on Peele moore'' is broken forth and in greate 
decay, And fforasmuch as the Inhabitants and owners of lauds 
on the moore side (as wee finde by other presentments) havo 

Lancaster-road was not made till about 1830. The only northern way 
in old times from this part of the town was of a very primitive kind: it 
extended from Tithcbarn-street to a point a little south of Moor Brook 
(now covered), where it merged into Moor-lane, its course to the junction 
being that now taken, in a wider and better form, by North-road, and it 
was called Salter-lane. 

1. ** Plattfordale " was apparently a field between where Trinity Church 
and the Baths are now located. 

2. Cawsey or causey — a causeway. 

5. Peele Moor was east of the present Deepdale-road, and con- 
tiguous to the course thereof apparently from or near the north 
side of Ribbleton-lane to within a quarter of a mile of the 
Preston boundary. Peele or Peel was, originally, the name respectively 
given to small towers or forts at one time common in the north of England. 
A Peel consisted of a single tower, to which the inhabitants of the district 
in which it was situated went for protection when subjected to the attacks 
of marauders. The moor referred to no doubt owed its name to the con- 
struction thereon of a Peel tower ; and it is very likely that the position of 
such tower was on the south-west side of the moor, near the present 
junction of Peel Hall-street with Deepdale-road. The ground at this part 
rises considerably — is, in fact, included in the principal surface altitudes 
of the borough ; the land about slopes down gently for some distance in 
every direction ; in old times, when there were no buildings in this quarter, 
when all was moorland, the part mentioned would command a very con- 
siderable view, especially on the east, north, and south sides — the sides from 
which it would be mainly exposed to the incursions of marauders ; and this 
would be an excellent site for a lookout and defensive tower. It is fairly 
presumable that the Peel was in time changed into or superseded on the same 
site by Peel Hall. In 1576 Richard Banestre, gent., of Pele Hall, Preston, 
held or was connected with *' part of the demesne lands of Pelehall." On 
the Preston Guild Roll for 1582 (in-burgess portion) there is the name of 
Richard Bannester, gent., *' de Peel hall." Henry Preston, son and heir 
of Henry Preston, who was Steward of the Guild in 1582, and Mayor of 
Preston in 1598, by his will dated June 8th, 1599, bequeathed his "capital 
messuage called Peel hall " to his daughters Elizabeth, Mary, and Bridget. 
Peel Hall was situated about 60 yards cast of the present Deepdale-road: 
it was behind where Peel Terrace now stands, and a little south-east of the 
entrance to Peel Hall-street — a terrace and a street which derive their name 
from the old Hall. After its palmy or opulent residential career, the 
building with certain land about it became known as Peel Hall Farm, and 
amongst its successive tenants was John Wilcockson (brother of Isaac 

Preston Court Leet. 23 

beene accustomed to repaire the same Wee desire Mr. Maior 
would call the Ancyent Inhabitants there to give him an account 
who ought to repaire the same, and what proportions thereof, 
and to cause itt done accordinglie. 

John Chorley, butcher, shall sett up styles and bridges^ in 
the foote path, in Mr. Asheton's^ grounds,^ leadinge to the new 
well, before the xxvth of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Elizabeth Cowper, widdow, shall sett A style at her close, 
where it was usuall, in the foote path leadinge to Heppgreave,* 
before the xxvth of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall cause the streetes 
and all other the pavements within this Towne to be repaired 

Wiloockson), who, after being a hatter, in Preston Market-place, on the 
east side, became a coach proprietor — this would be about the year 1830 — 
and utilised the farm as a health -restoring place for out-of-condition horses. 
At that time a considerable quantity of land south-west of Peel Hall Farm 
— the land now enclosed and on which the Observatory is located, and that 
which East View and adjoining streets cover — was of a very rough, 
common description, and practically waste ground. There were various 
depressions, forming water pits, &c., in it, and some of them were taken 
advantage of for domestic cleansing purposes. In the town water was scarce 
and dear — ^it was retailed at so much per canful; but the water which 
accumulated in the pits named was free, and *' soft " in addition. Numerous 
Preston women went regularly to the best of them^-carried house clothes, 
cans, pans, &c., lighted fires at the sides of the pits, heated water, and did 
their washing there as expeditiously and effectively as the circumstances 
permitted. Into some of the pits, not used for washing, the Preston Gas 
Company — then quite in the dark, like kindred bodies, as to the value of 
*' residuals," emptied large quanties of gas tar, the greater portion of that 
produced at their works, and periodically, when the pits got full, set it 
on fire, the flames arising therefrom being wildly lustrous, and forming a 
spectacle greatly enjoyed by local juveniles. The structural portion of Peel 
Hall Farm was pulled down about 1854. 

1. These bridges would have to be of the " platt " kind. 

2. It is very probable that the Mr. Asheton here mentioned 
was Mr. James Asheton — a gentleman of good local position. In 1662, 
at the Guild, Mr. James Asheton was a member of the Preston Town 
Council, and in 1682 he was one of the aldermen of the Guild. 

3. The grounds would, it is not unlikely, be in the neighbourhood of 
Maudlands: an enclosure on the south side, which used to be called Well 
Field, and through which the higher portion of Wellfield-road now runs, 
might form part of such grounds ; but it is more likely they were in the 
opposite direction—on the northern side of Water-lane. 

4. ** Heppgreave " was the name given to a field or some enclosed land 
on the west side of the present Pitt-street. 

24 Preston Court Leet. 

soe farre forth as others their predecessors have been accustomed 
to repaire the same. 

George Werden is verie negligent in his dutie or office, and 
sufFereth the markett place to continue most parte of the weeke 
uncleansed, often until fFriday in the afternoone, whereas hee 
ought to sweepe and cleanse the same everie Munday, which 
this Summer tyme will bee verie noysome. Therefore wee 
present hee shall hereafter more carefullie discharge his dutie or 
bee discharged of his place and punished at the discretion of 
Mr. Maior. 

In severall presentments heretofore made by divers and 
sundrie Jureys all the owners of Cellars^ within this Towne shall 
gett stoopes and rayles or hang yates before their cellars, the 
want whereof is very dangerous. We doe therefore prsent Mrs. 
Joane Wall shall repaire the wall on the west side of her Cellar 
and put A Rayle into the same. And also that James Gorton, 
Mr. Seth Morte, Mr. James Hodgkinson, Symon Hynde, and 
Christopher Santer shall gett stoopes and Rayles or hange yates 
before theire Cellars before the 25th of this instant Aprill, in 
paine of everie one makeinge default vjs. viijd. 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall scowre and make 
cleane the Mince pitt well^ and the Goose welP twice in this 
summer, upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

1. Cellars for domestic, business, and workshop purposes, used to be very 
common in Preston, and some of them evidently constituted pretty valuable 
property. George Preston (father of William Preston, Guild Mayor in 
1622), by his will dated 26th of June, 1602, gave to his wife Agnes his 
interest in " one Sellor in Preston, late in the occupation of James Dyke," 
who was at that time an in-burgess. Formerly persons having house or 
cellar stepe, rails, &c., which projected or encroached on the public parts of 
streets, seem to have paid rent to the Corporation for the privilege of 
allowing them to remain undisturbed ! At a meeting of the Preston Town 
Council, on the 27th of April, 1832, a resolution was passed authorising the 
Steward of the Corporation to arrange with such persons as were liable to 
pay step, rail, and encroeujhment rents for the redemption thereof on the 
basis of a ten years' purchase. 

2. See note p. 5. 

3. In a record of property, which formerly constituted the Derby estate 
in the borough of Preston, Goose well is specified as being near a plot of land 
" without the East Bar." This Bar was down Church-street, near the end 
of Manchester-road. 

Preston Court Leet. 25 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall repaire all decayes 
and breaches of the Draw Well, in the ffryergate,^ before the 
24th of June next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Whereas divers complaints have hertofore been made and A 
great abuse done by mens cattell trespassing into Come and 
grasse in Summer tyme, occasioned by reason of the evill 
custome of men puttinge downe their cattell to the Marsh earlie 
in the mominge before the heardsmen bee readie with the rest 
of the Cattell, ffor redresse whereof wee the present Jurors doe 
present and give in verdict that not anie of the Inhabitants within 
this Towne shall hereafter put down their goods to the Marsh 
before sixe of the clocke, but shall keepe them on the Spitle 
Mosse att the furthest untill the heardsmen bee readie to receive 
them, upon paine to forfeite for everie offence iijs. iiijd. And 
if the Finders find anie on the Marsh, before they goe downe 
with the rest of the Cattell, and doe not Impound them, the said 
Finders to forfeite for everie neglect xijd. 

1. It is probable that this well was on the south-west side of Friargate, 
opposite Melling's yard. Towards the end of the year in which this 
presentment was made (1654) the Corporation resolved to have a public draw 
well at the bottom of the Market Place. On the south side of Fishergate, 
between Cannon-street and Guildhall-street, close to where the present 
drinking fountain stands, a draw well was made by the Corporation in 1666. 
There was also at one time a similar well in Molyneux-square — between the 
present Education OflBces, Lancaster-road, and the new County Sessions 
House. One of the very oldest wells in the town was that, previously 
referred to, near the bottom of Main Sprit Weind. Various other wells 
were likewise at time and time in existence, the best known of them being 
in the following postions — one at the bottom of Glover-street ; two in Friar- 
gate, in addition to that already named — one being on the west side, between 
Heatley-street and Hill-street, and the other on the same side between 
Edward-street and Hope-street ; Back Weend, on the south-east side of " the 
Orchard ;" Kendall well, bottom of Syke Hill, opposite the old Grammar 
School ; Twistleton's and Goose wells, in Church-street ; Atherton's well, 
adjoining and on the north side of the Moss ; Marsh-lane well, commonly 
called Bugmire holes, presumably on the south side of the lane ; an ancient 
well near Ryding hey (a field probably on the north-west side of Maudlands) ; 
two near the north-east corner of the Marsh — one on the side of Spa Brow, 
below Wellington Terrace, and the other in Water-lane ; and Lady well, on 
the eastern side of the present canal and about 60 yards south of Bridge- 
street, now part of Marsh-lane. 

26 Preston Court Leet. 

There hath been A Well of A longe continuance between 
Rydinge hey^ and A close in the possession of widdow Cowper, 
beinge Mr. William Hodgkinson lands, And that the same Well 
bee and remaine accordinge as formerlie it hath done, And 
neither the occupiers of Rydinge hey nor the said widdow 
Cowper shall spoile or defile the same upon paine to forfeit 
13s. 4d. 

There is A greate want in the Towne of convenient 
wateringe places for Cattell, And wee doe conceave there is A 
verie convenient place for one att the East end of the Towne, 
and desire itt may bee made by the Baylives before the ffirst day 
cf September next, by the consent and appointment of Mr. Mai or 
and his brethren. 

The highway on the Peele moore is verie dangerous both for 
man and beast, by reason of digginge Clay pitts for Bricks and 
other service of the Towne, And in regard itt is A greate armoy- 
ance, and beinge often heretofore presented and noe redress, 
Wee desire all the old clay pitts may be filled upp and made 
eaven by people from everie house within this Towne, at the 
appointment of Mr. Maior and his brethren, as they in theire 
discretion shall thinke meete, when the weather may be con- 
venient for the same. 

Roger Woodrooffe,2 Walter Myers,^ nor anie other shall 
hereafter digge clay nor make anie pitts^ upon the Moore for 
makeinge of Bricks, without the Licence and appointment of Mr. 
Maior or the Bayliffs for the tyme beinge, in the most convenient 
place for digginge of clay, neither shall they make anie pitts 
neare the high way, being dangerous for passengers with Carte 
and Carriage to theire grounds. And also shall fill upp all the 

1. Rydinge hey was the name of a field or enclosed portion of land- 
Part of the property which belonged to the " free chapel " connected with 
the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, on Maudlands, was a field named 
Ryddync ; and it is probable that this was Rydinge hey, and that it was 
situated on the north-west side of the town. 

2. For Roger Woodrooffo see note p. 12. 

3. Amongst the in-burgesses on the Roll for 1642 there is Walter Mires, 
and in the section of admissions, " per Rotul' Cur' " of the eame Roll, the 
name of Walter Myers, who is designated a " Brickman,'* appears. 

4. The pits were on Peel Moor. 

Preston Court Leet. 27 

pitts they have made or shall make, in paine of everie one 
offendinge contrarie to this presentment, to forfeit and pay for 
everie offence vjs. viijd. 

The now Baylives of this Towne shall provide A stronge 
and sufficient yate and stoope for the north moor^ yate, and shall 
hange the same, that itt may open both wayes and shutt of itt 
selfe, wch would bee A meanes to keepe the Cattell on the 
moore, which doe frequentlie breake downe to the Marsh, and 
into mens grounds, when the yate is thrown open, and breedes 
much dissention, which by this meanes would bee pr'vented. 

The Inhabitants within this Towne doe comonlie sweepe 
myre from before theire doores and houses into the Channell, 
or leave itt on heapes, to the great annoyance of the Towne, 
I'herefore everie one upon notice shall take away the same 
"within three dayes, that itt bee not noysome, upon paine of 
everie one makinge default to forfeite and pay for every offence 

There is a greate abuse in this Towne by reason of Swyne 
pullinge mens Sacks in peeces, on the markett day, whereof the 
countrey [people] doth much complayne. And severall present- 
ments have been heretofore made for redresse thereof. Wee doe 
therefore pr'sent that all owners of Swyne shall keepe them upp 
on the markett dayes, in payne of everie one offendinge to 
fforfeite and pay for everie swine xijd., whereof vjd. to the sub 
Bayliffe and vjd. to the Finders for theire care and paines. And 
if the Finders neglect to bee carefull and doe not theire dutie, 
they to fforfeite for everie abuse done by swyne, through their 
negligence, xijd. 

There is A greate abuse in this Towne by reason of the 
Finders lendinge mens horses and other goods of such as are 
frequent trespassers upon the Marsh, Whereas accordinge to the 
12th Order of Werdens Guild they ought to pay for everie 
second, third, and other offence vjd. Wee doe therefore present 
the Finders shall hereafter forbeare to lend the goods tress- 
passinge or discharge the[m] more than once without the Licence 

1. " North Moor " formed a very considerable portion of Prceton Moor. 
Free burgecses, i.e., freemen, had a right to free pasturage on the Moor and 
the Marsh. 

28 Preston Court Leet. 

and consent of Mr. Maior or o[ne] of the Baylives for the tyme 
beinge, upon paine to fforfeite for everie offence, accordinge to 
the 8th Order of Werdens Guild, vjd.^ 

The Marsh is sore burthened by reason of men[s] horses 
and O'ther goods tresspassinge upon the same in the night tyme, 
occasioned onlie by puttinge them to the Spittle mosse. And 
wee doe therefore prsent That not anie shall suffer theire goods 
to stay on Spitle mosse att after Sunsett, upon paine of everie 
one makeinge default to fforfeite and pay for everie offence vjd., 
whereof iijd. to the Pinder and iijd. to the Sub Bayliffe. 

Whereas wee find itt divers and sundrie tymes ancyentlie 
heretofore presented, as in the xxxixth year of Elizabeth, the 
45th presentment, Henrie Catterall,^ gent, beinge then Maior, 
and frequentlie both before and since, That noe person nor 
persons within this Towne shall putt anie geese to the Marsha 
fiom the 25th of March untill att after Midsummer, Now wee 
the prsent Jury havinge taken consideracon thereof, and per- 
ceavinge itt verie hurtfuU divers and sundrie wayes, and 
especiallie to the poorer sorte of the ffree Burgesses of this 
Towne, that anie geese should be putt to the Marsh, Therefore 
wee doe psent that noe manner of person nor persons within 
this Towne of Preston shall putt or cause to bee putt 
anie goose, geese, or goslings hereafter to the said 
Marsh from the xxvth of March untill the xvth of 
August, upon paine of everie one offendinge to forfeite and pay 
to the use of the Towne xxs. And that the Binders take care 
and see this presentment executed, and bringe all such geese as 
they shall find Tresspassinge on the Marsh into the Towne, and 
impound them untill the owner bee knowne and have payed the 
said ffyne or xxs. And if the Pinders bee found negligent or 
make default in the execucon of this presentment to fforfeite for 
everie offence iijs. iiijd., or three dayes and nights punishment^ 
And if any rescouse [rescue] theire geese soe taken to pay for 

1. Edmund Werden was the Guild Mayor in 1642. 

2. Henry Cattorall was a member of the Guild Council in 1582, and he 
was four times Mayor of Preston, viz., in 1595, 1597, 1602 (Guild year), and 

3. The alternative " three dayes and nights punishment *' mean* 
imprisonment of that duration. 

Preston Court Leet. 29 

everie goose rescoused iijs. iiijd. The execucon of these wee 
hope Mr. Maior will take course to see pformed. 

The Swyneheards of this Towne are verie carelesse and idle 
and suffer mens Swyne to trespasse into Corne grass, wch is A 
great Annoyance, And therefore henceforth they shall keepe the 
Swyne further on the Moore, and not suffer them to come neare 
the yate, or upon complaynt made to bee disp[l]aced and 
punished att the discretion of Mr. Maior for the tyme beinge. 
And that all ownors of Swyne shall after they retume from the 
Moore keepe them upp, untill the Swyneheard call for them next 
mominge, upon paine of every one offendinge to forfeite for 
everie offence xijd., whereof vjd. to the Pinder and vjd. to the 
use of the Towne. 

Great Court Leet with view of Frank pledge held on the 
18th day of April, 1654, in the Moot Hall, before Edward 
ffrench (Mayor), William Shawe and Richard Primmett (Bailiffs), 
and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

The Assize of bread and beere latelie prescribed by Mr. 
Maior ought to bee duelie observed within this Towne. 

The now BaylifFs of this Towne shall sufficientlie repaire 
the Townes Hall, before the 24th of June next, in paine of 
vjs. viijd. 

There is A greate and noysome abuse in this Towne by 
reason of butchers throwinge blood, ropps [intestines], and other 
garbage in the streetes, which is an unsufferable annoyance not 
onlie to Tradesmen and others frequentinge this Towne and 
markett but to the scandall of the government of this Burrough, 
And wee doe therefore give in verdict That Mr. Maior shall 
cause notice to bee given to everie butcher frequenting this 
markett to forbeare to tresspasse or offend contrarie to this pre- 
sentment, upon paine to fiForfeite for everie offence comitted by 
them or theire servants toties quoties iijs. iiijd. Whereof xxd. to 
the Serieant who shall give informacon thereof and xxd. to the 
Bayliffs for the use of the Towne. 

Whereas Seth Morte, of Preston, gent., did upon the second 
day of November, 1653, before the now Maior of this Towne, 

30 Preston Court Leet. 

enter into a recognizance of the penalties of xxli, together with 
James Dewhurst and William Werden of this Towne, as his 
Surties in Ten pounds A peece, Upon condioon that hee the 
said Seth Morte should appeare att the then next Leete Corte 
to bee holden for this Burrough, and in the meane tyme to 
keepe the peace of the Comonwealth against all people, and 
especiallie against Valentyne Robinson, gent, as by the said 
Recognizance remaining upon Record before the said Maior of 
this Burrough more att large appeareth,' Wee find and present 
that the said Seth Morte and his suerties have fforfeited and 
broken theire said recognizance, not onlie for that the said Seth 
Morte beinge publiquelie and duelie called att this present 
Leete, beinge the first Leete holden after the date of the said 
Recognizance, [hath] not made his appearance accordinge to the 
[condition thereof], But also hee the said Seth Morte did upon 
the 22th of the said [month] of November, after his entringe 
into the Recognizance aforesaid, and before this Leete, make an 
Affray and Tusle within this Towne upon the bodie of Richard 
Morte,^ to the breach of the publique peace and contrarie to the 
Condicon of the said Recognizance, And therefore the penal tie 
or forfeiture of the said Recognizance to bee Leavyed to the 
vse of the Maior, Bayliffs, and Burgesses of this Towne, accord- 
inge to such Charters and grants as are and have beene hereto- 
fore made and granted to this Incorporation. 

Edward Morte^ and his sureties [Richard Johnson and 
Henry Kilshaw] have forfeited and broken theire recognizance 
[£20 each], not only for that the said Edward Morte beinge 
publiquely and duelie called att this present Leete, being the 
ffirst Leete holden after the date of the said recognizance [2nd 
of November, 1653], hath not made his appearance accordinge 
to the condicon of the said recognizance, But also hee the said 
Edward Morte did upon the 30th of January, after his entringe 
into the recognizance aforesaid [to keep the peace] and before 
this Leete, make an Assault and Affray upon the bodie of 

1. Richard Morte was Seth Morte*s brother. 

2. Brother of Richard and Seth Morte. 

Preston Court Leet. 31 

Alexander Breres,^ in Eaves lane, near Chorley, and with his 
Rapier drawne pursued the said Breres, who leapt oflF his mare 
and fled, whereupon the said Edward Morte stabbed his Rapier 
into the bodie of the said mare, whereof shee presentlie dyed, 
as appeares to us upon Oath, to the breach of the publique 
peace and contrarie to the condicons of the said Recognizance ; 
And therefore the penaltie or forfeiture of the said recognizance 
to bee levied to the use of the Maior, Bayliffs, and Burgesses of 
this Towne, accordinge to such Charters and grants as are and 
have been heretofore made and granted to this Incorporation. 

Whereas itt is prsented to this Jury that Thomas Abbott, 
dyer, doth constantlie frequent this markett and receaves white 
cloth, and after hee hath dyed the same delivereth itt dyed in 
this markett, to the priudice of the flfree Burgesses of this 
Towne, whose livelyhood and maintenance wholelie depends 
i»pon the said Trade ; And fforasmuchas wee doe conceave itt 
verie priudiciall that the said Abbott should take the benefitt of 
Tradeinge from the ffree Burgesses of this To^vne and bear noe 
parte of the burden of assessments, duties, and services imposed 
on this Towne, Wee doe therefore thinke fitt that Mr. Maior 
and his bretheren (the Councill of this Burrough) call the said 

1. Alexander Breres was an out-burgess of Preston, may have lived at 
Chorley or the neighbourhood thereof, and was most likely a relative of 
the Breres of Preston, On the Guild Rolls for 1602-22-42-62, &c., there are 
both in and out-burgesses named Breres. In 1542 Oliver Breyre was one 
of the Preston Guild Stewards. The Mayoral chair was occupied in 1558 
by Oliver Breres, who took the role of a Guild Alderman in 1562. In 1588 
he was residing at the Old Friary, which was situated not far from and 
on the east side of the present Lower Pitt-street. Thomas Breres was one 
of the Stewards of the Guild in 1582; and John Breres was Clerk of the 
Guild in 1602. Henry Breres, son of Alexander Breres, was the Recorder 
of Preston when James I., during his progress southward, halted here, and 
he (Breres) made a speech at the cross, then in the Market Place, after the 
municipal body had manifested their loyalty by kneeling in the presence of 
his Majesty, who later was the recipient of a present from the Corporation 
and feasted in the Moot Hall. This same Henry Breres was a Steward of 
the Guild in 1622, and he was four times Mayor of Preston, viz., in 
1611-18-27-35. In the Guild Roll for 1642 he k described as of " de ffriers, 
gen ; " the residence here named evidently being the Old Friary — the 
ancestral abode. Some time between 1642 and 1662 he died. In 1653 one 
of the Corporation Bailiffs was named Henry Breres. After this the Breres 
appear to drop out of looal Corporate history completely. 

32 Preston Court Leet. 

Thomas Abbott before them, and proceede and take such course 
in the businesse as in theire discretion shall seeme meete and 
accordinge to the Charter and grants of this Incorporation. 

Henrie Chorley and John Chorley, butcher, late Bayliffs of 
this Burrough, have neglected and doe denie the payment of the 
Townes money, wherewith they acknowledge they stand charged 
att the foote of theire accompte, contrarie to the 6th branch of 
the Oath^ they tooke when they entered into the office of Bayliffs, 
and to the bad example of other sworne officers. And wee doe 
therefore give in Verdict that they shall within one month next 
cominge pay into the hands of the now Bayliffs of this Tpwne 
all such summe and summes of money as they or either of them 
stand charged withall by theire accompts, upon peine to fforfeite 
and pay for everie month it continues undischarged the severall 
summe of viijli. 

Nicholas Sudell, in the 2d presentment of the last Inquest, 
and William Hodgkinson, in the 3d presentment of the same 
Inquest, are prsented to remove the earth slidden downe into 
the high way leadinge to Swillbrooke before the xxvth of Aprill 
last, which, being undone, they have forfeited theire severall 
ffynes of vjs. viijd. 

Upon pvsall [perusal] of the prsentments of the last Inquest 
of office that divers persons hereafter named have not amended 
what they were enioyed [enjoined] by the Jury afforesaid, And 
wee doe fFyne them in the severall penalties and stmimes of 
money menconed in the same prsentments, And desire Mr. Maior 
to see the same flfynes Leavyed accordinglie : — ^Mr. Seth Morte 
to the 9th prsentment, Mr. Edmund Werden to the 19th and 
33th 34th and 36th, Henry Wilson to the 21th, Elizabeth Cowper 
to the 22th 30th, and 51th, Mr. James Hodgkinson to the 23th 

1. Th« " 6th branch of the Oath " was afi follows: *' You shall also make 
undelayed payment, or other sufficient discharge, of all such some or sums 
of money as by vertue of your office you shall or ought to collect or gather 
within this Town, or which, during the time of your said office, you or 
either of you shal be endebted or shal owe unto th© Mayor, Balive, or 
Burgesses of this Town, by reason of your said office, before th© feast day 
of the Purification of our blessed Lady the Virgin Mary, next ensueing the 

day of your Accompts."— (From Kuerden's Brief Description of the 
Burrough and Town of Preston, &c.) 

Preston Court Leet. 33 

28th and 45th, Mr. Seth Blackhurst to the 24th, Thomas 
Goodshey to the 29th, Mr. Nicholas Sudell to the 31th, Thomas 
Graystocke to the 35th, Jane Walmsley, widdow, of the hole- 
house, to the 37th, The Bayliffs to the 33th and 39th, Mris. 
Anne ffletewood and Mrs. Jane Bannester to the 41th, Thomas 
V/erden to the 43th, Mrs. Lemon to the 44th, William Curtes to 
the 47th. 

Roger Tomlinson^ shall remove his Assemiddinge wch lyeth 
att George Birchall garden end, and shall take upp and remove 
the Stoopes and Rayles, which stand before his house in the 
weend leading to mince pitt welF before the ffirst day of June 
next, in paine of vjs. viijd. And for everie month itt remaines 
unremoved vjs. viijd. 

Jane Walmsley, widdow, and Thomas Walmsley, of the hole- 
house, putt Geese to the Marsh contrarie to the 37th present- 
ment of the last Inquest'^ and contrarie to divers former and 
other prsentments, And therefore to pay theire severall ffynes 
of ijs. vjd. 

1. Numerous Tomlinsons — the spelling- of the name being considerably 
varied — appear on the Guild Rolls. Only one Tomlinson seems to have 
occupied a conspicuous position in connection with the old Corporation of 
Preston : this was Thomas Tomlinson, who was the Mayor's Bailiff in 1807. 
He was a native of Skipton, in Yorkshire ; but most of his life was spent in 
Preston. This Thomas Tomlinson was the grandfather of Sir W. E. ISf. 
Tomlinson, who is now, and has been continuously since 1882, one of the 
Parliamentary representatives of Preston. From 1837 till his death in 1842 
William Tomlinson was a Councillor for St. John's Ward, Preston. He 
was the eldest son of the above Thomas, and brother of the late Thomas 
Tomlinson, father of Sir W. E. M. 

2. The " weend " leading to the well named would be the present Main 
Sprit Weind — a narrow, dingy-looking road-way, the top entrance, which 
is only about two yards wide, being between Fishergate and Church-street, 
south side. Dr. Kuerden, in his manuscript description of Preston, thus 
refers to it: " Another foot passage southward is over against the Shambles 
or Town Hall, and leadeth by the Minspitt well, and over Avenham to 
Rible side, passing along the river to the boate or ferry of Penwortham ; 
and this is called Minspitt-lane or Pettycoat-alley, by reason of the frequent 
carrying of water from this well by woemen, and the milk maids bringing 
dayly their milk and butter to town this way from beyond the river Rible." 

3. The 52nd, not the 37th, presentment of the last Inquest related to 
geese on the Marsh — enjoined that they should not be put thereon between 
the 25th of March and the 15th of August; the fine for non-observance of 
this being not 2s. 6d. but 208. 

34 Preston Court Leet. 

The severall persons hereafter named are fforreigners and 
unfitt members to Inhabit within this Towne, and therefore to 
be removed before the 24th of June next, in paine of everie of 
them vjs. viijd., And the severall harbourers of them in each of 
them vjs. viijd. : — Robert Gregson and his wife and children 
harboured by Mr. Willm Bannester. Thomas Anderton and his 
wife and children harboured by Mr. James Wall. John Shorte 
and his wife and children harboured by Sir Richard Hoghton. 
John Royle and his wife harboured by Henry Cuerdall. Henry 
Shakeshafte and his wife harboured by John Higham. Henry 
Gotten and William Prockter and theire wives and the said 
Prockters children harbo'ured by Mr. Roger Sudell. John Mutus 
and his wife and children harboured by Thomas BickerstafFe. 
James Potter and his wife harboured by Nicholas Wattson, to 
give bond or remove. Raphe Porter to give bond or remove. 
Mr. Newton and his wife and A child and the wife . . . har- 
boured by Lawrence Grooke. Thomas Seriantson harboured by 
Roger Tomlinson. Grace Glough and her boy harboured by 
Sarah Kendall. George Gatterall and his wife harboured by 
Thomas Taylor. Elizabeth the daughter of Richard Bayley and 
A child, shee beinge wife to the old glasse-man, harboured by 
Richard Bayley. Mris. Kade harboured by Richard Burton. 
Agnes Greene harboured by Henrie Gowborne. 

John Nicholson and his wife and A childe harboured by 
Geoffrey Lomaxe, att Spittle Mosse, who keepeth Alehouse and 
of ill reporte, therefore the said Geoffrey to remove them before 
the ffirst of June next, in paine of xxs.. And for everie month hee 
continues there xxs. 

Roger Ghernocke, A fForraigne Burgesse, harboured by Mr. 
William Sudell, to give bond and make his agreement with the 
Towne or bee removed before the 24th of June, in paine of 
6s. 8d. 

Roger Elston (A fforraigne Burgesse) and his wife and three 
children harboured by Mr. Roger Sudell, to give bond and 
Gompound with the Towne before the 24th of June next, in 
paine of vjs. viijd. And in everie month after until! hee Com* 

Preston Court Leet. 35 

pound vjs. viijd. And the said Roger SudelP for harbouringe 
him in every month vjs. viijd. 

A great abuse in this Towne by reason of Carr}^on, dead 
Swyne, Doggs, and other noysome, filthie carryon beinge throwne 
in St. John's Weend and other Weends and backe lanes 
belonginge to this Towne, to the great annoyance both of men 
and Cattell, passengers and others, And for redresse thereof we3 
give in verdct That if anie man or theire servants shall throw 
anie Carrion in anie Weend or backe lane or suffer anie to Ive 
uncovered upon theire middings or before theire barnes to 
fforfeite for everie offence vjs. viijd. 

The now Bayliffs of this Towne shall make A new Tome^ 
for the draw well in the ffryergate and sufficientlie repaire the 
same before the 24th day of June next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

The severall persons hereafter named are free Burgesses 
and asyett have not taken the Oath of a Burgesse, and therefore 
wee further prsent that they and everie of them shall come before 
Mr. Maior at his commandement, to take the Oath of A Bur- 
gesse,^ upon paine of everie man makeinge default after notice 

1. The Sudells appear to have had quite a special likinj? for harbouring 
foreigners or persons of the outside, non-burgees class. 

2. " Tome " — turn — would be the roller and handle or winch at the 
head of the well. 

3. The usual time for taking the Burgess oath was on the first day of 
the Guild celebration ; but as the last celebration preceding the Court 
presentment named took place in 1642, or twelve years before the making 
of such presentment, it is presumable that the persons who had neglected 
to take the oath were either not of euflficient ago to do so or were out of 
the town when the Guild referred to was held, and had in the meantime 
become eligible for freemanship. The negligence or unwillingness to take 
the oath was, perhaps, in some cases due to or increased by Royalist 
training or proclivities. At this time the oath of a Burgess would involve 
fealty to Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector, or a recognition of his 
superiority in the nation, and consequently the taking of it would not be 
very palatable to persons of the Royalist class. The " Oath of a Free 
Burgesse Inhabiting within the Burrough " of Preston was as follows : — 
" You shall sweare that you shall be good and true to our Soveraigne 
[King or Queen, but in 1654, when the presentment was made, Oliver 
Cromwell, Lord Protector, &c.]. The Guild Merchant now holdon [these 
words would not apply in the case of intermediate admission], and which 
in time to come shall be holden, if you live thereunto, you shall maintaine 
and uphold ; and all and every ordinances and orders, made and confirmed 

36 Preston Court Leet. 

to fforfeite and pay vjs. viijd. — [Here follow the names of 45 
persons, after which are given the names of 35 Stallengers, all 
the latter, with the exception of two — one ordered to be removed 
and the other notified as being dead — having respectively paid 
or become liable for sums ranging from 2d. to 10s.] 

A meeting of the Great Court Leet was held on the 20th 
of October, 1654, before Richard Sumpner (Mayor), Roger 
Sudell and George Woodhouse (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall 
(Steward of the Court). The names of the four and twenty 
" Capitall Burgesses of the Burrough," forming the " Common 
Councell " for the year ensuing, are specified, the various Court 
officials are elected, and the names of those forming the Jury 
are given. 

Presentments : — 

Artillery is not used or exercised within this Towne accord- 

at this present Guild Merchant, which are not contradictory to the lawes 
of this kingdom, you shall, as far as in you lyeth, observe and keepe. 
Obeisant and obedient you shall bee to the Mayor of this Towne, oonceming 
the franchises and customes thereof, and the same you shall maintain and 
keep to your best endeavour, and this Town keep harmlee in that in you is. 
And whilst you do or shall inhabit within this Town, you shall be con- 
tributory to all manner of charges within this town, or Sumons, Watchs, 
Contributions, Taskes, Tallags, Scott and Lott, and all other charges, 
bearing your part as a freeman ought to doe. You shall color [disgruise] 
noe foreigners goods under or in your own name, whereby the King or 
thifl Town might or may loose their customes or advantages. You shall 
know noe foreiner to buy or sell any Merchandise, with any other foreiner 
within this Town, or the franchesis thereof, except at Faire Time, but you 
shall warn the Mayor or Bailiffs thereof. You shall also within this Town 
keep the King's peace in your own person, according to law. You shall 
know noe gathering, conventicls, [or] conspiracys made within this Town, 
against the King's peace, but you shall warn the Mayor or other Officer 
thereof, and let Qiinder or impede]. All these points and articles you shall 
well and truly keep, according to the laws of the Realm and of this Town 
to your power. So help you God and by the contents of thia Book " P^ew 
Testament]. The oath of a ** Free Burgess not Inhabiting within the 
Burrough " was practically — and to a great extent literally — the same. 
That of a " Free Burgess, being a Nobleman, Knight, or Gentleman not 
Inhabiting within the Town of Preston " included fealty to the Sovereign, 
the maintenance and upholding of the Guild, and discouragement of 
** gathering, conventicle," &c. ; no reference being made in it to the main- 
tenance of " franchises and customes," contributory liability, foreigrners' 
goods and merchandise, &c. In the case of a Peer of the realm, after the 
oath conditions had been read to him he agreed to observe them " upon his 
honour; " the ordinary swearing process being deemed unneoessary. 

Preston Court Leet. 37 

inge to the forme of the Statute in that case made and provided, 
And therefore that the pnte [present] Bailiff es shall put the Butts 
in repaire before ye 2nd of ffebr. next, upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

The assize of Bred and Ale is not observed and kept 
accordinge to the Statute in that case made and provided. 

That the Pinfold called the sheep ffould is gone to decay 
and ruinated, and that the now BailifFes do repaire the same 
with Breecks before 25th of March next upon paine of xiijs. iiijd. 

Mr. William Banaster hath not erected a Burgage wch hee 
suffered to goe to ruin upon the Townes land, at the east end of 
this Towne, according to the former pntemts of the Inquest of 
office and Jury of ye Leete in October, 1650, and October, 1653, 
and to pay ye fine of xxs. already forfeited, and to erect a house 
there before ye 24th of June next, upon paine of xls., and for 
every month after, in default, xxs. 

Mr. Seth Morte shall erect and build upp a Baxne, in St. 
John's Weend, where formerly his Barne stood, upon the Townes 
land, accordinge to the xxth pntemnt of ye Leet, in Obr 
[October], 1653, and that hee shall pay ye fine of xls. already 
forfeited, accordinge to the said xxth pntemt. And shall also 
erect one before ye 24th of June next, upon paine of 40s., and 
for evy month after, in default, xxs. 

The nowe Bailiffes shall sufficientlie repaire and dense and 
cause to bee kept cleane ye well called minspitt well, and ye well 
call[ed] ye Goose well, fower tymes in the year, upon paine of 
evy tyme neglectings vjs. viijd. 

Lawrence Cowper for a Tusle and blood wipe^ upon the 
body of Richard Bayley of this Towne amerce[d] ... in vs. 

Mr. James Gorton, Roger WoodrofFe, John Higham, John 
Sudall, Joyner, and Richard Turner — that whereas they were 
Elected Jurors and summoned by ye srt [Serjeant] for ye tyme 
being to appeare at the Court Leet, holden within this Burrough 
the xxth of October, 1654, And did not appeare accordingely, 
tr ye bad Example of the ffree burgesses of this Towne, There- 
fore, in pursuance of the sevall ordrs of the Guild Merchants, 
they for their contempt are to bee fyned by the afFerors. 

1. Blood wipe means a blow which draws blood. 

58 Preston Court LeeT. 

The Copps along ye weend Leadinge to Minspitt well are 
slidden downe, wch is a great Annoyance to the Highway and 
well, from Willm Rydings house downe to the Steele,^ All wch 
occupiers of those gardens, vizt., George Berchall, Mr. John 
Marsh, Bartho. Worthington, Willm Bushell, and George 
Clarkson, are to repaire and Cleanse their Copps, soe slidden 
downe, fower tymes in the yere, the first tyme to begin ye 2d of 
fFebr. next, upon paine of evey one ofFendinge xijd. 

Whereas Edward Eccles was Elected and chosen to bee ye 
Viewer of fflesh and ffish within this Towne for this pnte yere, 
by the Councell of this Towne, or the major part of them, And 
that upon Information to us given hath refused* to Execute the 
said office, to the priudice [prejudice] of this Incorporation, 
Tendinge to ye breach of his oath and the bad example of ohers 
[ethers] to offend in the like kind, contrary to sevall orders of 
guild merchants, Therefore wee referr the same to Mr. Maior 
and his Bretheren the Councell of this Towne, to fyne him and 
to doe therein as to their judgements shall seeme right. 

Ye sevall psons hereunder written are fforaynors and unfitt 
members to continue within this towne, and therefore to bee 
removed before 25th March next, upon paine of evy one makinge 
default vjs. viijd. : — Margaret ye wife of Geo. Catterall, with 
child, harbored by Tho. Taylor. Jane ye wife of Rich. Clitherall, 
with child, harbored by Jo. Crook. Grace Clough and her son, 
harbored by Tho. Catterall. Tho. Hoghton and his mother, 
harbored by Luke Hodgkinson. Geo. Preston, his wife, and 
child, harbored by Tho. Hodgson. 

Ye psons hereunder written, who being noe free burgesses, 
and yet havinge inhabited along tyme within this Towne, and 
cannot conveniently bee removed, to bee caused to give bond 
accordinge to ye ord'rs of this Towne, and to be stallenged at 
ye discrecion of Mr. Maior and his bretheren. — [Here follow the 
names of 32 persons, with sums respectively attached, except in 
four cases, ranging from 2d. to 6s. 8d.] 

1. Tho " Steele " was a stile, and would bo near (on tho eouth-west) 
tho present Syko-fitreet. When the presentment was made all the land 
between the south side of Syke-street and Swillbrook consisted of gardens 
and fields. 


Preston Court Leet. 39 

Anne Ingham shall remove her midinge, lyinge at ye syde 
of ye Church-gate Barrs, nere ye Myery weend yate,^ and shee 
shall remove it before 2d of fFebr next, upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Maior shall cause all ye Inhabitant Burgesses within 
this Towne, being age of 21 yeres and upwards, and as yet hath 
not taken ye oath of a Burgesse, to bee sumoned to appeare 
before him to bee swome accordinge to ye Custome of this 
Towne. And as many of them as shall refuse soe to doe they 
to be fyned accordinge to custome. 

Margaret, ye wife of George Berchall, for lookinge and 
herkinnge [hearkening] at the windowe of William Dobson, to 
bee fyned at ye Discretion of ye AflFerors. [Fined Is. 6d.] 

Willm. Dobson, for a Chamber pott emptied and throwne 
out of his windowe into ye backside of Geo. Berchall, to ye great 
Annoyance of ye said George, to bee fyned by ye Afferors. 
[Fined Is. 6d.] 

The proceedings of the Court terminate by the Jury finding 
and presenting that the Mayor " see all theis presentmts truely 
executed, accordinge to the true intent and meaninge thereof, or 
else to forfeit xls." The following marginal note is opposite the 
record: — "Wee doubt not but Mr. Maior will duely execute his 
office, and therefore this presentmt needles." 

Inquisition of office taken at Preston on the 12th of 
February, 1655, before Richard Sumpner (Mayor), Roger Sudell 
and George Woodhouse (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of 
the Court), and a Jury of 18. 

Presentments : — 

The now Bailiff es of this Towne shall sett stoopes and 
Rayles betwixt the wash pond at the End of the Churchgate^ 
and the High Way, for the prser\'acon of Travellers and their 

1. In Church-street, near the north-west corner of Grimshaw-street, 
and about 50 yards from where the " Barrs " stood, there was formerly a 
weind — the only one in the immediate neighbourhood ; a dingy rear passage, 
connected with it, still exifits ; and this must have been ** Myery Weend." 

2. The pond would bo a short distance beyond the bottom of Church- 
street — probably on the north side. In that region there were many water 

40 Preston Court Leet. 

goods from the danger thereof, before the first day of March 
next, in paine of xiijs. iiijd. 

The Supervisors of the Highwayes shall cause stoopes to 
bee sett all alonge the Cawsey in Ribleton Lane, for the 
prservacon of the same, that Carts and Carriages spoile not the 
foote way; this is to bee done before ye 25th of June next, in 
paine of vjs. viijd. 

Thomas Werden hath not cutt his underwood and scowred 
and clensed his ditch in Brockall Lane,^ accordinge to the tyme 
Limitted, and therefore forfeited his ffyne of 6s. 8d. And he 
shall scower and dense his Ditch all alonge his lands in the same 
Laine before ye 25th of this instance Aprill, in paine of 
vjs. viijd. 

Mr. James Hodgkinson was prsented and had notice to 
scowre his Ditch and open his platt over agt [against] Graystock 
house, and dense his Ditch all alonge his Lands over agt the 
New Hall, and, havinge neglected the Execution thereof, hath 
forfeited his ffyne of 6s. 8d. that hee shall sufficiently dense the 
same, before the 25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Seth Blackhurste and Robte Shakeshaft shall scowre 
their Ditches in Broadgate^ before 25th of this instant Aprill, 
Rible, before 25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

William Brewer and Mr. James Hodgkinson shall scowre 
their Ditches in Broadgate^ before 25th of this instant Aprill, 
in paine of either of them makinge Default, vjs. viijd. 

1. Brockall Lane would bo tho name of the roadway, on the east side 
of tho town, goinj? in the direction of Lower Brockholes, &c. This lane 
now fornis part of tho principal road between Preston and Blackburn — a 
main road which was made in 1824. Previously there was a way between 
the two towns, through the district traversed by the road named ; but it 
was a mere lane, and there was either no bridge or but a very poor, 
primitive one across the Ribble at Lower Brockholes. When this road 
improvement was projected, the landowners, &c., in Brockholes were 
greatly perturbed, and they actually petitioned Parliament to refuse 
authority for its accomplishment ; their chief contention being that if the 
contemplated new road were made it would give farmers in Samlesbury the 
means of competing with them in the sale of milk, butter, &c., in Preston 
and the neighbourhood ! 

2. Broadgatc was at this time a sort of lane, and there was not a single 
house or building of any kind in it; indeed, 60 late as 1844-6, when the 

Preston Court Leet. 41 

Mr. Edward Hodgkinson shall take upp and remove the 
Earth and Quickwood^ wch is slidden downe at Banckhead^ into 
ye highway to ye great annoyance of Travellers and such as 
frequent this market, and shall stake and wynd for ye prservacon 
of ye highway sufficient for Cart and Carriage, before ye 25th 
of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Thomas Goodshawe shall scowre both his Ditches under 
Goldsmiths banck,'^ leadinge to ye wattercourse wch goeth downe 
to Rible, before ye 25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. 

Mr. James Hodgkinson, Rich. Blundell, and Lawrence 
Tomlinson shall scowre their ditches in North meadow Lane* 
before ye 25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of each one 
makinge default vjs. viijd. 

Ordnance survey was made, there was only one house in it, at the north- 
west corner of an opening now forming the entrance to Bird-street. Prior 
to the opening of the first Penwortham bridge, in 1755 — a bridge which fell 
about a year afterwards, through foundation weakness, and was succeeded 
by the present one, built in 1759 — passage across the Ribble, on the south- 
west side of Preston, was secured by three fords and a ferry: one of the 
fords was opposite Broadgate — the part first built on, in row form — another 
was near the rear of the present Caledonian Engineering and 
Shipbuilding Works (late Allsup and Co., Limited), Strand-road, 
and the third began at the IVIarsh, went along the centre of the river bed 
for some distance, then traversed an islet, and afterwards joined the second 
ford, near the middle of the water ; whilst the ferry was up the river, 
nearly half a mile from the first-named ford, and opposite the Old Boat 
House. This House was, it is supposed, built in 1696 by Henry Fleetwood 
— a property owner in Penwortham at the time, and M.P. for Preston from 
1708 to 1722 ; and it was a public-house, called the Ferry Boat Inn, up to 
1826, when, owing to the making of a new portion of main road, westward, 
between Penwortham bridge and a point near Swallow House (a residence 
pulled down in 1901), which completely diverted the route of the ferry, 
bridge, and other traffic hitherto going quite close to the old house, its 
license was transferred to the present Bridge Inn, near the south-west end 
of Penwortham Bridge. Prior to 1696 there was an inn on or near the site 
of the house supposed to have been built in that year. Colonel Bellingham 
in his diary (1688-90) frequently refers to it. 

1. Quickwood means growing wood. 

2. Banckhead was at or near the north end of the present West Cliff. 

3. Goldsmiths bank was on the west side of the town, between the 
present Euston-street and Fitzroy-street. 

4. North Meadow Lane was on the north side of Fiiihergate Hill, nearly 
opposite the entrance to South Meadow Lane. 

42 Preston Court Leei*. 

The now Bailives of this Towne shall make or cause to bee 
made 3 or 4 sufficient large Cawles^ about and above where the 
old mill stood, for ye prservacon and encrease of the Marsh, wch 
greatly decayeth for want thereof, and this to bee done before 
24th of June next, in paine of xls. 

Henrie Chorley, John Chorleyi butcher, Mr. Jo. Sumpner, 
and ye rest of the occupiers of Mr. Ashton Lands, shall set 
styles and fFoot Bridges all alonge to the new well, before ye 
25th of this instant Aprill, in paine of every one making default, 
vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Robte. Blundell had notice to remove his Copp, all 
alonge the end of his close in North moor Lane,^ that Thomas 
Balshawe may have a sufficient way for Cart and carriage to his 
owne Lands where formerly his way hath beene, and havinge 
neglected ye Execution of the same hath forfeited vjs. viijd., 
and that hee shall make him a sufficient way before ye 25th of 
this instant Aprill, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

The now Bailives of this Towne shall cause a sufficient 
fFould to bee made for sheepe therein to be impounded and 
safely kept until ye ofFendors bee knowne and come to make 
sattisfaction, and this to bee done before ye 24th of June next, 
in paine of xls. 

All the Occupiers of the Lands upon Avenham and there- 
abouts"^ shall make a platt and a sufficient way for Cart and 

1. Cawlcs is the plural form of a word now spent Caul — meaning a sort 
of weir or embankment for modifying, keeping back, or diverting the flow 
of water. 

2. North Moor Lane was on the line of the present thoroughfare from 
the bottom of Friargate, opposite Walker-street end, to that part of 
Garstang-road which crosses the brook forming the boundary between 
Preston and Fulwood. 

3. The *' Lands upon Avenham and thereabouts " would, it is almost 
certain, bo entirely unbuilt upon at this time. Sixty years afterwards — in 
November, 1715 — there was, according to " P.M.'s *' Rebellion map, only 
one house on the Avenham side of Preston — ^a large, mansion-like building, 
situated cither on the site occupied by Avenham House or on some land 
a short distance north thereof, with large ornamental grounds on each 
side. Avenham-lane does not appear on this map at all. Lang'6 
map shows but a single structure on the same site, namely, Avenhara 
House. Avenham-lane appears on this map as a mere outside lane, 
commencing on the west side of Syke Hill, and terminating at the west 

.^ J 

Preston Court Leet. 43 

Carriage at the head of Titmouse Crofte,^ before 25th of this 
instant Aprill, in paine of every one vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Edmund Werden shall cast upp and make a win- 
nowinge hill in some convenient place nere his wattermill, yt ye 
marsh bee not overrune and spoyld with winnowinge from place 
to place, upon paine of every month after ye 20th of May next 
to forfeit vjs. viijd. 

Ye 18th and 21th pntmemts of ye last Leete, which is 
against stallengers, fforrainers, and unfit members, is not put in 
Execucon, accordinge to ye Affearinge thereof, and . . . divers 
Stallengers keepe Alehouse and put their Cattle and other goods 
to the moore and Comon grounds belonginge to this Towne, 
contrary to divers good and holesome Orders of severall guilds,^ 
to the great priudice [prejudice] of the ffree Burgesses within 
this towne, And wee further pnte yt ye [blank]. 

end of the present Ribblesdale -place ; and there branches from it, on 
the west side of Avenham Walk, a road going towards the Ribble. The 
land first laid out for street building purposes, on the Avenham side, was 
that along which Avenham-road now runs; and it is highly probable 
that this preliminary work was done in or about 1807. The land was laid 
out from Avenham-lane down to Syke field (a field which, later, formed the 
principal part of the ground required in the making of Cross-street) ; but 
for some years not much progress was observable in house-building. Up 
to about 1812 not quite half oi the west side (higher part) and but a very 
small portion of the land on the other side (top end) had been built on ; 
and the name given to this new residential quarter was Avenham Place. 
The first completed street, in respect to buildings, on the Avenham side, 
v/as Pleasant-street: the land needed for it_(a narrow field, called Little 
Avenham) was laid out and the houses planned for it were put up between 
1809 and 1813. 

1. Titmouse Croft was on Syke Hill. The National School was built 
on Titmouse orchard. 

2. The most stringent order or by-law relating to strangers, foreigners, 
&e., appears to be that made at the Guild of 1682. It runs as follows: — 
Whereas divers straungers and fforyners repayring to this towne and here 
making their habitacon haith contynuallie kept their cattell upon the 
Marsshe, Moore, Towne fieldes, and other waste growndes which onlie doe 
belong to the Mayor, bailiffes, and burgesses of this Towne, as by the 
Quenes Ma'tes letters patentts and other her Ma'tes progenytors to theym 
gyven, it doth and may appoare, ffor remedie whereof yt ys now ordered, 
constituted, and established and agreed by the consent and assent of the 
Mayor, Stewards, and Aldermen of this present Gilde, and for the welfare 
of all the burgesses of this towne for ever, that ffrom henceforth it shall 
not be lawful for any Stallenger which nowe doth inhabytte within this 

44 Preston Court Leet. 

Noe Inh[ab]itants within this Towne shall put downe their 
Cattle to the Marsh before sixe of ye Clock in ye mornige, but 
shall keep them till the Heardsman bee ready to receave them, 
upon paine of ye fForfeite for every offence iijs. iiijd. And if 
the pinders find any Cattle upon ye Marsh before they goe 
downe with the rest of ye Cattle, and doe not impound them, 
then the said pinders to forfet for every neglect xijd. 

The high way of ye Peele Moore is very dangerous both for 
man and beast, by reason of digginge Claye pitts for Breeck, 
and in regard it is a great annoyance, and hath beene often 
heretofore prsented, and noe redresse being made, wee desire 
all old Clay pitts may bee filled upp and made even, by ye 
people from every house within this Towne, at ye appoyntment 
of Mr. Maior and his Brethern as they in their discretions shall 
thinke meete. 

Noe person or persons shall hereafter digg clay nor make 
any pitts upon ye Moore for making Breeck, without ye lycence 
or appoyntment of Mr. Maior or ye Bayliffs for ye tyme being, 
in the mose convenient place where they shall thinke fitt, neither 
shall they make any pitts nere the highway, where may bee 
dangerous for passengers with Cart and Carriage, and also shall 
fill upp all their pitts they have made or shall make, upon paine 

Towne or within the liberties thereof to putt any his or their cattell to 
the Marsshe during any somer season, neither by lycense of the Mayor (for 
the time being) nor otherwise. Neither shall it be lawffuii for any the said 
stallengers to putt any his or thcyr cattell to the Moore, town-fildes, or 
other waste growndes belongyng to the Towne, but suche and so many as 
he or they shalbe thereunto lycensed by the Mayor of this Towne (for the 
tyme being). Neither shall it be lawful for any person or persons which 
hereafter shall repaire to this Towne, and here do make his nor their 
habitacon (and not being ffree of the said Towne), to putte any his or their 
cattell to the said Marsshe, Moore, Town i&ldes, or other waste growndes 
belongyng to the same (but only their swyne to the Moore). Neither shall 
it be lawful for any Mayor of this Towne to gyve lycense or libertie to any 
suche person or persons to putt any his or their cattell to any the said 
comons or waste growndee. But that they and every of theym hereafter 
to be utterlie Barred from the same. And that all and every person and 
persons which shall offend contrayrie to this' Order after their ffirste offeDce 
to lose and forfeitte for every tyme after offending twentie sheelinges to 
the use of the Burgesses of this Towne. 

Preston Court Leet. 45 

of every one offendinge, contrary to this pntemte to forfeit for 
every offence vjs. viijd. 

Noe pson or psons within this Towne shall put any Geese, 
Goose, or Goslinge to ye Marsh from ye 25th day of March 

untill ye 29th of ber, upon paine to forfeit for every one soe 

offendinge, to ye use of ye Towne, xxs., and that the pinders 
take care to see this pntemt executed, and bringe all such Geese 
as they shall find trespassinge upon the marsh into the Towne, 
and impound them there till the owners bee knowne and have 
pafd their ffyne of xxs. ; and if the pinders be found negligent, 
and make default in the execucon of this pntemt, to forfeit for 
every offence iijs. iiijd., or three days and three nights 
punishmte ; and if any rescouse their geese soe taken to pay for 
every goose soe rescoused iijs. iiijd. 

The wife of William Walmersley doth annoy Thomas Bonny 
by Throwinge his cloaths from of his hedge, and [we] referr her 
fyne or punishmte to the discretion of Mr. Maior, and leave ye 
execution of theis pntemt to his discretion. 

Great Court Leet, held in the Moot Hall, on the 4th of 
May, 1655, before Richard Sumner (Mayor), Roger Sudell and 
George Woodhouse (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the 

Presentments : — 

That the butts in the Spitle mosse is in decay, and that the 
nowe bailiffes shall see them putt in suficient repaire before the 
24th of July next, else to pay vjs. viijd. 

The asize of Bread and ale is not observed and kept 
accordinge to the statute in that case made and provided, 
although Corne beare soe Lowe a rate, yett nothing is done in 
releafe thereof. 

Whereas there are complaints that there should bee false 
waights and measures kept by some within this towne, Mr. Maior 
shall cause his officers to try the waights and measures of all 
such who byeth and selleth comodoties within this towne 
[? once] if not more every yeare. 

There is a greate anoyance in this towne by swyne both in 
mens come and grass, and wee conceive it is occasioned partly 

46 Preston Court Leet. 

by the carelessness of the Inhabitants of this towne, in that they 
doe not help to bringe their swyne towards the More, butt leteth 
them range up and downe the streets ; but especially the swyne- 
heard comes soe unconstantly and carelessly that the people 
can scarse have tyme to bring them into the streete, and beinge 
past will retorne no more ; for the preventinge whereof wee 
present and thinke fitt that the bailiffes shall cause the said 
swinsard to blowe his home from the church gate barrs to the 
fishergate bars and then retorne backe again and take the swyne 
alonge, and also that the said swynyard shall begin att the brand 
channel^ to blowe his home up alonge to the markett place, 
and then to retorne backe and take the swyne with him, and, for 
every tyme the swynyard doth neglect, for every such offence 
to forfeit and loose there [his] weekes wages, and that every 
Inhabitant haveinge first notice by the sexton shall ether putt 
forth there swyne that they may be taken alonge to the more, 
otherwise keepe them upp that they bee not straglinge in the 
streetes, especially one the markett days, to pull contry mens 
come sacks in peeces, or doe harme to mens grass and come, 
and that soe manie swyne and soe often as they shall bee found 
the owners thereof shall forfeit and loose 4d. a swyne, the one 
halfe to the pinders and the other halfe to the sub baliffe, whoe 
is disired may bee asittinge to the said pinders, and if anie 
rescowe there swyne soe taken to the fould the ofender to pay 

• • • • • • ^ 

njs. iijd. 

There is divers that sweepe dunge into there channell, and 
there it lys, and soe is a greate anoyance and disparigment to 
the govermente of this towne, which formerly hath beene taken 
much notice of and comended for the sweete and cleane keepinge 
of our streets, for the preventinge whereof wee disire that Mr. 

1. Brand channel was either at the Friargate end of Lune-street or at 
the bottom of Friargate, near the present junction of Walker-street. At 
each place there was a channel, the water of which lodged in a pit or pond- 
like depression; and in very wet weather there were at both places over- 
flows which inundated the adjoining cellars. As the range from the first point 
mentioned to the Market Place would be somewhat limited — ^in all likeli- 
hood not half the distance to which houses extended on the north-west side 
of the town — it is presumable that Brand channel was at the second or lower 

Preston Court Leet. 47 

Maior would give notice by the sexton to all the inhabitants 
within this towne that they shall not sweepe dunge into the 
channell, or there sufer it to be upon there cawsall [causeway] 
above three days, upon paine of 15s., and that Mr. Maior shall 
cause this order to bee obsen'ed, else to bee find att the dis- 
cretion of the first Leete after hee is discharged of his office. 

All the occupyers of the Land in the Fryer Lane shall lopp 
and cutt downe there hedges that carts and carages may pase, 
and that there shall noe cattell bee turned to the marsh that 
way, nor before 6 aclocke in the morninge the usall way,^ and 
that the heardsman shall bee redy to keepe them by fryer Lane, 
and drive them alonge by spittle mosse, upon paine of every 
one soe ofendinge xijd. 

If Mr. Maior and councell shall see cause and thinke fitt to 
order the nowe bailiffes to erect rales all alonge the watterin 
pools att church gate^ and accordinge to the first presetmte of 
the last Inquest, that then the balifFes shall cause the same [to 
be] donne before the 24th of June next, or else to forfeit vjs. 

Divers presentmts and finds imposed upon Mr. William 
Bannaster for suferinge his house to decay, upon the townes 
Land att the east more yate,^ and not erectinge another, and 
although Mr. Bannaster did pretend the said house to have been 

1. The way to the Marsh "by spittle mosse," after passing Fryer Lane, 
V7as in a north-west direction — along the bottom of Friargate, Fylde-strcet, 
Fylde-road, and Water-lane. 

2. The pools would be near the Church-street end of Water-street. 
Much of the ground in that region — south-east side of Water-street — was 
evidently, in old times, of a swampy nature, and covered more or less with 
willow beds. Lang's Map (1774) shows five willow fields on the side named. 
Afterwards the land was laid out for building purposes ; and a map of the 
town, made about 1812, shows that some of it had then been built on, and 
that the remainder or a considerable portion, had been made ready for 
structural operations. In 1901 Water-street, Leeming-street, &c., were 
named Manchester-road. 

3. The " east more " was that portion of Preston Moor which extended 
— on the east side — from the south end of Deepdale-road to a part of it, 
north, which crosses Eaves Brook near Fulwood Barracks. The enclosed 
piece of ground containing the Observatory, opposite Stephenson Terrace, 
Deepdale-road, formed part of it. 

48 Preston Court Leet. 

ruined and burnt by the souldiers in theis tymes of warr^ ; butt, 
finding severall presentments upon record to the contrary, Mr. 
Bannaster did crave tyme from Mr. Maior and companie that 
hee might provide timber and other matteriall to rebuild the 
said house, and did engage soe to doe before the 29th 
September, 1656, which tyme was grannted, butt in case Mr. 
Bannaster make defaulte (the tyme beinge expired) all fines to 
stand good and bee Levied. 

The Bailiffes shall see the cawsall repared in the Stonyegate 
to the milne feild^ gate and to the schooled before the 24th of 
June next, else to pay vjs. viijd. 

The nowe baliffes shall sett stoopes and rales at Davy bridge 
upon the marsh, to prevent the decay thereof by horses, before 
the 24th of June next or to pay vjs. viijd. 

Theis persons hereunder named, whoe are free Burgeses 
and yett have not taken there oathes, wee present that Mr. 
Maior shall send for every one of them, and cause them come 
and take theire oathes att or before the 24th of July next, and if 
anie of them, having notice by the Sergeant and sumoned to 

1. In the words, *' theis tymes of warr, "reference is made to the Civil 
War— 1642-61. 

2. The ** milne feild " would be south-east of the bottom of Stoneygate, 
and be either connected with or named after a com mill on the same side. 

3. This was the Grammar School, situated in Stoneygate: it was 
succeeded by a new school, built in 1666, located at the bottom of Stoney- 
gate, and this was kept open till the present Grammar School, in Cross- 
street, was erected in 1841^a. building erected by a body of private share- 
holders, from whom it was purchased, in 1860, by the Preston Corporation. 
In 1728 there was built for the Grammar School master, by the Corporation, 
a residence which adjoined or was near the School, at the bottom of Stoney- 
gate. When it ceased to be occupied by the master it became a public- 
house, taking the name of the Arkwright Arms — a name due to the fact 
that in 1768 Richard Arkwright, a native of Preston (Knighted by George 
III. in 1786), along with John Kay, of Leigh, set up his first spinning 
machine in a small rear room of the building, placed at his service by the 
master. The Arkwright Arms remained the property of the Corporation 
till 1862, when it was purchased by Mr. Richard Threlfall, junr., wine and 
spirit merchant, Preston. Some years afterwards the property changed 
hands more than once. On the 12th of January, 1892, Mr. A. Margerison, 
of the firm of Messrs. J. Margerison and Co., Preston, purchased the 
Arkwright Arms public-house, afterwards transforming it entirely into a 
lodging-house, and as such it still remains. 

Preston Court Leet. 49 

appeare, doe make defaulte, and soe every of them and soe 
manie of them that refuseth to come and take their oath, to 
forfeit ever)' of them vjs. viijd. [Here follow the names of 
the persons concerned, 46 in number.] 

Mrs. Parkinson shall not as shee hath once done before anie 
more turne horse or cattell to ether more or Marsh, but may be 
stallenged att the discretion of Mr. Maior and compaine. 

Willm Blacowe for harbouringe John Short wife and 
children to pay iijs. iiijd., and doe remove them before 24th 
July next, els to pay vjs., and soe for every month as longe as 
they shall bee unremoved. 

There hath not only for manie yeares last past, butt specially 
in this prsent yeare, beene a greate neglecte in the ofice of 
houslookers. Beinge sent for by this Jury, and disired an 
accompte from them, they answered they conceived themselves 
discharged at the first Leete, and therefore this 8 monthes (not 
beinge instructed) have neglected there ofice, to the greate 
periudice of this towne, and wee find that the best of there 
Indeav^ours have butt beene to remove such whoe have beene 
fined by Juries from one house to another very seldom, that the 
towne hath beene freed and quitt of them, the truth hereof is to 
well knowne unto us by manie insufferable (if not remedied) 
burtherns latly cast upon us. Wee humbly disire that soe good 
a custome as wee find in former Leets may again bee restored 
to us, vidzt, wee find Willm Preston, Alderman, and [anjother 
for fryergate, Willm Sudell, Alderman, and [anjother for church 
gate, elected for house lookers, or else one if not more con- 
tinually of the councell in every streete in that ofice, or otherwise 
that such as may be chosen to that oflSce may bee swome for 
the preventinge of anie futere inconvenancy Maior and 
company may thinke fitt.^ 

1. A Guild Order, made in 1622, after setting forth that great and 
excessive charges and expenses had grown and happened to the free bur- 
gesses of Preston through the unnecessary influx of foreigners and strangers, 
directs the annual appointment of Housclookers, their duty being to 
enquire and find what manner of Foreigners or Strangers should sojourn, 
inhabit, or dwell within the Town, and that after such finding they should 
give warning to the Receiver of any such foreigners or strangers to remove 

50 Preston Court Leet. 

Whereas Tymothy Woodward^ is fined and amerced in the 
34th presentment of the last Inquest for not scowringe a certain 
ditch that is meane^ betwixt Mr. Willm Hodgkinson and Mris. 
Williamson, wee conceive Timothy Woodward beinge butt a 
tenante for this yeare ought not to bee att that charge, butt that 
Mr. Willm Hodgkinson and Mris. Williamson shall cause the 
same [to be] srowred and made good .before the 29th Septembrr, 
1655, els to pay 3s. 4d., or, if the one of them doe butt refuse, 
the refuser to pay vjs. viijd. 

John Salter and John Bolton for makinge a tusle in the 
church, both of them to bee severly punished, else either to pay 
ijs. vjd. 

Richard Rydinge and Anne, the wife of Martin Mabery, for 
there abusive and corupt speeches to one another, either of them 
to pay Is. 3d. 

Agnes Read and Mary, wife of Thomas Gregson, shoe- 
maker, for there abusive and corupt speeches to one another, 
either of them to pay Is. 

Mary, the wife of Robert Shakshaft, [for] fightinge with 
Margrett, the wife of Thomas Patricke, to pay ijs. vjd. ; as also 
Margrett, the wife of Thomas Patricke, for drawinge blood of 
Mary, the wife of Roberte Shakshafte, to pay vs. 

Whereas Edward ffrance came and made a greate com- 
plainte to Mr. Maior ag[ains]t Thomas Bonny for puUinge his 
haire of his head, and Mr. Maior Informinge the Jury of his 
trouble with the said Edward ffrance, they both beinge called 
before the Jury would nether accuse one another, therefore upoii 
the complainte of Mr. Maior wee fine ether of them in ijs. vjd. 

and put them and their families out of their houses; and if after such 
warning the Receiver of such foreigners or strangers should not remove 
them accordingly he is to forfeit 6s. 8d. ; and, in case of refusal, the officers 
of the Town to make distress, and for want thereof the person or persons 
so offending to be disfranchised. 

1. Timothy Woodward was a haberdasher and an in-burgess. 

2. The word " meane " signifies midway. 

Preston Court Leet. 61 

Mr. James Hodgkinson^ shall raise the earth att the end of 
his well, that soe the water comeinge thence may run downe his 
own channell and not into minspitt well, before the 24th of June, 
els to pay iijs. iiijd. 

George Clarkson shall scower his ditch att his croft, by 
Minspett well, as also to paire downe his copp, att his garden 
syd, that the water may rune downe the channell, and to carry 
away the earth, and that Willm Bushell doe the same by his 
copp, Mr. Raph Sharrocke doe the same by his garden copp, 
and Mr. John Marsh doe the same by his garden copp, before 
the 24th of June next, els to pay iijs. iiijd. 

The Baliffes shall rase the cawsall where it is sunken downe, 
and repare the cawsall all alonge from Minspitt well stayres to 
style upon avenham,^ before the first of July next, else to pay 
vjs. viijd. 

Richard Primett, widow Cowper, and Hugh Blacklidge shall 
not throw downe anie soodes or wash land Cabish watter or anie 
other filthie water in Cheetham backside, which may bee 
anoyance to Mr. Willm Sudell wattercourse, under his house, 
which only is to convay raine watter out of the said Cheethames 
backside, and to observe and doe accordinge to the fitith 
prsentmte of ye last Inquest [? 29th, which refers to the 
cleansing of this watercourse by Primett, Blacklidge, and John 
Cowper], else to forfeit for every such offence iijs. iiijd. 

Mr. Maior may see the fines straighted Levied*^ against 
stallengers in fifty five prsentmts of the last Inquest, as also the 
fiynes Levied against such as suffer dunghills to lye before there 
doares, accordinge to the 16th prsentmte of the last Inquest. 

1. Mr. James Hodgkinson was Mayor of the town five years after this — 
in 1660. His well would, very probably, be on one side of Main Sprit 

2. This *' style " would bo connected with a footpath which ran 
diagonally between Main Sprit well and Avenham-lane ; the outlet of the 
footpath being at or near the top of the present Avenham-road. Later, 
when Avenham-road was laid out, the footpath still went into the higher 
part thereof, and continued to do so until the eastern side was built up and 
Glover-street and Cross-street were formed, when it was, necessarily, done 
away with altogether. 

3. The phrase " straighted Levied " is a scribal error. It should be 
straightly levied, meaning either strictly or immediately. 

52 Preston Court Leet. 

Whereas John Willasie hath Incroached in fryer gate 4 
yards in length, beating [deducting] a nayle,^ 2 yards in bredth 
save that the back end wants one nale, there are divers neigh- 
bours finds themselves agreeved and generally complained of 
that if that bee allowed to stand they generally disire the same 
preveledge; wee disire Mr. Maior and the Company will soe 
rent it that others may be discouridged from erectinge the like. 

All those owners of sellers that are complained of, for the 
danger of there sellers being without rales, they haveing tyme 
given them according to the 49th prsentmte^ of the last Inquest, 
wee find that they are not done, and therefore the said fine to 
bee paid. 

In the 10th presentmte of the leete chosen the 18th Apprill, 
1654, nether Thomas Abbott nor his brother should have noe 
liberty to bringe in cloath dyed or receive white cloath to dye 
upon a Satterday, it being a mistry or trade, and they haveing 
the said priviledge and payinge nether scott nor lott,^ the con- 
sequence will be to the ruininge of some famalies, both wife and 
children, and, beinge ordred by the Maior and Companie, the 
16th December, 1653, that they should not have the priveledge 
to take in cloath, wee therefore disire Mr. Maior and company 
would bee pleased to take the condicon of our neighbours whose 
livily hood depends thereon into serius consideracon, yt this 
greate abuse which is still continued may speedily be redressed 
as to there wisdomes shall seeme most fitt. 

The Baliffes shall repare all the broken places within this 
towne, from barrs to barrs, before the first of August, else to pay 

1. " A nayle " is the name of a measure of length — ^nail, as now spelt— 
and means the sixteenth of a yard, or two and a quarter inches. 

2. The 49th presentment makes no reference at all to cellars. The 28th 
does — states that cellars must be railed or provided with hang gates, and 
that owners neglecting to put up the same within twelve days will be liable 
to a fine, respectively, of 6s. 8d. 

3. As to the words " scott nor lott," they usually take the combined 
form of ** scott and lott," i.e., all taxes and levies assessed rateably upon the 
members of a community. Scot signifies a tax : lot means portion or allot- 
ment; hence to pay "scot and lot" is to participate proportionately in 
a.'^sessments or pecuniary charges. In towns non-burgessee enjoying trading 
privileges were usually required to be in ** scot and lot " with the burgesses, 
i.e., to pay their share of '* rates and taxes." 

Preston Court Leet. 63 

xs., as also other places which have formerly and accustomeraly 
beene repaired by the baliffes. 

There is a complainte made against George Birchall for that 
hee did knowe of some goods bought or offered to bee sould by 
fforaigners and did not Informe Mr. Maior thereof, according to 
his burgesse oath,^ therefore wee referr it to the consideracon of 
Mr. Maior and company. 

All owners of ground to the Maudland Land, from spitle 
mosse to the Marsh, may cutt downe there hedges, a man 
haveinge his eye strucke forth within this tenne days, before the 
first of July next, els to pay vjs. viijd.^ 

If Mr. Maior and Counsell shall see cause and think fitt, 
to order the Baliffes to ellecte [erect] and cause a cukstoole [to 
be] sett upon the wall of the washinge pool,^ else to pay 3s. 4d. 

1. A copy of the oath is given on pp. 33-34. In the margin, 
opposite the presentment, there is this note : ** referred to Mr. Maior and 
his Counsell, to pay 6s. 8d." 

2. There was a footway or very narrow lane which commenced at or 
near the south-east corner of Spitle Moss, passed over Maudlands, and 
terminated on the Marsh, a little below the old Spa Well, close to the base 
of Spa Brow, and the hedges in question must have flanked it. 

3. Lang's map of Preston shows three immediately adjoining fields, on 
the north-east side of the town — now mainly covered by East View, 
Holstein-street, Schleswig-street, and Jutland-street, and cut through 
above by Meadow-street — called Cuckstool Pit Meadow, Further Cuckstool 
Pit Meadow, and Cuckstool Meadow. The map does not specify any water 
pits in these fields ; but several pits are shown, on the east side and not far 
from them — on land forming the south-east corner of Preston Moor. The 
** washinge pool," to which reference has already been made, was one of 
these pits, and it would be not far from it if it were not actually the lowest 
of the lot, and, being so, the position of the cuckstool partiaHy suggested 
in the presentment would be opposite and not far from the higher or 
northern half of the present Barton Terrace, Deepdale-road. A cuckstool 
remnant — the upright post on which the dipping plank or beam used to be 
worked — was visible up to about 1826, at the side of a pit between Deepdale- 
road and the lower end of what is now East View. Though scolds were 
mainly subjected to cuckstool punishment, in Preston it was prescribed as a 
penalty for persistently selling bread and ale defective in weight or 
measure, or at a wrong price. In the ** Custumal " there is a clause which 
enacts that if a burgess offends against the Assize of Bread and Ale he 
shall for the first, second, or third time be fined 12d. ; but for a fourth 
offence he was to go to the cuckstool unless he paid " the best fine he was 
able."— (See Eng. Hist. liev., XV., pp. 499, 609.) There is no instance 
on record of any local male person having been ducked. A cuckstool 

54 Preston Court Leet. 

There is a greate need of sweete watter att the Almshouses,^ 
which is much to the prejudice of manie poore famalys there- 
about. The now baliffes shall cause the stones of the wall by 
the washing poole to bee taken upp and sett in some other con- 
veniant place, that that grivance may be remedied and the 
Inhabitants thereabouts subplyed ; and also that the baliffes 
shall cause the washinge poole to be emptied, that soe they may 
with conveniancy rase the same one foote in the midle, being 
conceived to bee to deepe. Both theis to bee done before the 
20th of July next, els to pay vjs. viijd. 

Inquisition taken on the 12th of February, 1656, before 
William Patten (Mayor),^ William Hodgkinson and James 
Assheton (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

consisted of a roughly made wooden chair, fixed at the end of two parallel 
beams 12 or 15 feet long, at the edge of a pond or water pit, and arranged 
so as to move up and down on a post rising a little above the surface of the 
water. In this chair the scold used to be firmly fastened, then the beams 
were pushed over the supporting post until the outer ends bearing the 
shrew in question were over a sufficiently deep part, when they were 
lowered and raised, each lowering movement involving a ducking. In some 
places the cuckstool was fixed at the end of a single beam, pivoted centrally 
on a vertical post, at the side of a large well, t)it, or fairly deep stream. 
The cuckstool is a very old English *' institution." It is referred to in 
Doomsday Book as ** cathedra stercoris." * 

1. In respect to almshouses, there were four or more in Preston in the 
latter part of tho 17th century, their probable positions being in 
Fishergate, near the top of Mount-street, at the north ends of Friargate 
and St. John-street, and at the east end of the town. The presentment 
mentions "almshouses," as if in one block, and these, it is almost 
certain, were in tho last-named position. In time, the almshouses fell 
into decay and were pulled down. Afterwards almshouses were erected or 
ro-erected at the bottom of Church-street. In 1790 they were sold with 
some adjoining land to tho County Justices, in order that a better road 
might be made to tho House of Correction, which was opened in 1789. The 
Corporation, in tho same year, built some almshouses on the east side of 
Deepdalc-road, on part of the site of the present Stephenson Terrace. At 
or prior to that time an almshouse was erected at the north end of John- 
street. It was pulled down in or about 1833; and the almshousee in 
Deepdalo-road wore done away with in 1835, since which time there have 
been no buildings of tho like character in Preston. 

2. The name of Patten, in its connection with Preston, is a com- 
paratively old one. In 1667 a William Patten in conjunction with John 
Bold, of North Meols, presented tho Rev. Leonard de Chorley to the 
vicarage — the benefice — of Preston. In the municipal or burgess records 

Preston Court Leet. 55 

of Preston the name first appears in 1642 : on the Guild Roll for that year 
there are, in the in-burgess part, the names of Will'us Patton, gen., and 
his two sons Thomas and Anthony. Will'us Patton was, no doubt, the 
William Patten who was a warden of Preeton Parish Church in 1647 and 
Mayor of Preston in 1656-66. He was also an Alderman, and owned Poel 
Hall estate. Patten House, Preston, to -which reference is subsequently 
made, derived its name from him or one of his ancestors, and there can be 
no doubt he occupied it. Trinity Church and the graveyard attached 
thereto — opened in 1815 — occupy part of what was at one time a large 
enclosure called Patten Field. Patten-street, on the north side of Trinity 
Church, runs through a portion of the same old enclosure. With respect 
to William Patten, his death took place some time before 1662. Thomas 
Patten (son and heir of William), along with three of his brothers, was 
enrolled as an in-burgess at the Guild in 1662. His name likewise appears 
in the same burgess class on the Guild Roll for 1682: on this and sub- 
sequent Rolls other Pattens, evidently relatives, figure both as in and out- 
burgesses ; but as time goes on they gradually decrease in number, and 
towards the end of the 18th century they virtually disappear from the 
burgess records. The above-mentioned Thomas Patten was one of the 
Parliamentary representatives of Preston in 1688-89, his colleague in the 
House of Commons being the Hon. James Stanley. Early in 1690 there 
was a Parliamentary election at Preston, and Thomas Patten tried to secure 
one of the seats, but by a very small majority Lord Willoughby defeated 
him. Near the end of the same year, through Lord Willoughby being 
called to the upper House, there was a vacancy in the representation of 
Preston, and Thomas Patten again came forward as a candidate ; but he 
was defeated by Sir Edward Chisenhall, though only by a majority of 57 
votes. In 1688, Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of Thomas Patton, 
married Sir Thomas Stanley, and through this union she not only brought 
Patten House — the property and residence of her father — into the Stanley 
family, but became the mother of Sir Edward Stanley, who was born in 
1689, and succeeded to the Derby earldom (as 11th Earl) in 1736. Sir 
Edward was Mayor of Preston in 1731, and an Alderman of the borough at 
the time he succeeded to the earldom. Patten House was situated on the 
north side of Church-street (opposite the end of Grimshaw-street), and 
about 30 yards behind the present line of shops, &c. At the time when it 
was erected it must have been nearly, if not actually, the outermost 
dwelling of the town on the directly eastern side. A supposition has been 
indulged in to the effect that tho mansion of William Ergham, Guild 
Mayor of Preston in 1397, was primarily on the site occupied by Patten 
House ; but I have not met with any really reliable evidence in support 
of this surmise. Celia Fiennes, daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, of 
the Parliamentary army, passed through Preston, going northward, in or 
about 1695 ; and Patten House quite specially attracted her. In her diary 
she says : " At ye entrance to ye town was a very good house, wch was a 
lawyer's [Thomas Patten, the owner of Patten House at this time, was a 
barrister-at-law], of good stone work, 5 windows in ye front, and high built, 
according to ye eastern buildings near London. The ascent to ye house 
yvas 14 or 16 stone stepps large, and a handsome court with open iron 
pallasados in the gate, and on each side of the whole breadth of ye house, 

66 Preston Court Leet. 

wch discovered the gardens on each side of the house, neately kept flowers 
and greens; there are also many steps up to ye house from ye court — it 
was a complete building." A map of Preston " with the Barricades and 
Cannon of the Rebels and ye Disposition of the King's Forces," in 1716, 
"Drawn on the Spott by P. M., Esq.," specifies Patten House as " Sr 
Henry Hughton's [Hoghton's] House." A " Merse Officer," who served 
under General Foster, in 1716, states, in a journal which he kept, that 
Patten House was the residence of Sir H. Hoghton. Patten House at the 
time in question belonged, no doubt, to the Stanley family ; but this would 
not preclude the letting of it to Sir Henry Hoghton, the 5th baronet, who 
was for nearly 30 years, in the aggregate, M.P. for Preston — the Rebellion 
year of 1716 being included in such time ; and the presumption is that for 
a short period, or a certain number of years, he rented Patten House. 
Between the 10th and the 14th of November, 1715, Patten House was 
alternatively occupied by a number of Scotch rebels and soldiers of the 
King. Daniel de Foe, in his "Tour through Great Britain," published in 
1724-26, refers to Preston, which he visited, and in the course of his remarks 
h3 says — " The great Street [evidently meaning Church-street and Fisher- 
gate, whose directly even conjunction would give them a single main street 
aspect] is filled with good houses, and is very broad. The house of the 
present Earl of Derby makes a noble appearance." In 1721 Patten House 
was refronted, and the Stanley armorial bearings, &c., became very con- 
spicuous on it. The front of the building was of brick, and it included a 
projecting pediment, the Stanley arms being on a shield below. Twenty- 
four windows were in the facade. The doorway was supported by two 
Corinthian pillars, and was approached by two flights of steps, whilst 
between it and the outer gateway fronting Church-street there was a grass 
plot or lawn. The outer gat« was of wrought iron, and was put up in 1749. 
It was fixed to massive stone pillars, each tipped with an urn-shaped 
ornament, and was surmounted by an earl's coronet. There was born at 
Patten House, on the 12th of September, 1752, Edward Smith Stanley, who 
became the 12th Earl of Derby, and was very notable in the sporting world. 
Lord Derby, in the winter of 1829, allowed the kitchens, &<3., at Patten 
House to be used for soup kitchen purposes. After the political defeat at 
Preston, in 1830, of the Hon. E. G. Stanley, who became the 14th Earl, 
an estrangement between the Derby family and Preston set in: the 
intervals between the family visits to Patten House, which for many years 
had been periodically occupied by members thereof, and generally 
recognised as their Preston mansion, became longer, and, by-and-by, they 
abandoned it entirely. Later it was used for a time as a barrack ; and in 
1835 it was pulled down. The large iron gate was purchased by Wm. 
Rawstorne, Esq., and afterwards fixed by him at the entrance to Howick 
House grounds, where it still stands; but it has not the originally sur- 
mounting Earl's coronet, and it is questionable whether the stone pillars 
to which it was hung are those which it was fixed to at Patten House. The 
gate is a very fine one. The stables connected with Patten House — they 
used to be called "the Derby stables" — were in Church-street, between 
the Blue Bell Inn and the end of Grimshaw-street — front part; the site 
being now occupied with shops. 

Preston Court Leet. 57 

Presentments : — 

Ye Supvisors of ye highways shall repaire and amende ye 
Cawsey att ye entrance upp into Ribbleton laine^ and all alonge 
ye same lane, and shall sett stoopes in convenient places for ye 
prservacon of ye Cawsey, which is ver>' ruinous by reason of 
carts and carriages treadinge forth ye same, and yt they shall 
repaire ye platt^ in ye upper end of ye same lane, before ye 1st 
c»f June next, in paine of xs. 

Whereas Roger Tomlinson hath upon summons removed 
ye style leading upp into Avenham into its Anncient place, hee 
hath neglected to make a pavement before ye same, accordinge 
tf) ye Tenor of his Lease, and yet hee shall pave ye same and 
make ye way ffaire and passable before ye twentieth day of 
Aprill next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Alexr. Rigbie, Esqr.,*^ and Anne Evans, widdowe, have not 
scowred and clensed their ditches and made their ffence at ye 
end of their Crofts, accordinge to warninge and tyme given, and 
have therefore forfeited either of them vjs. viijd. 

1. At the time this presentment was made it is very probable, almost 
certain, that there was not a builclin<r of any kind in Ribbleton-lane, which, 
as a road way, was in a rough, poor condition, and virtually a common 
country lane. About 1806 it was very much improved, as, indeed, was the 
whole road, of which this formed a section, between Preston and Clithcroe. 
Up to 1810 there were not more than about a dozen houses or buildinj^s in 
Ribbleton-lane, and when the Ordnance Survey was made, in 1844-46, there 
were only about 30 houses in it, taking the whole length from Dcepdalo- 
road to Gamall-lane end. 

2. This platt, or bridge, would cross Eaves Brook, which runs under 
the road, a short distance from Sion Hill, on the south-east side. 

3. Many Rigbys have been directly and indirectly connected with 
Preston ; in the burgess records of the borough they are frequently in 
evidence ; in its political annals some of them are conspicuous ; and, of 
tho various names met with, that of Alexander occurs the oftenest. As to 
the connection, politically, of the Rigbys with Preston, it may be observed 
that in 1660 Alexander Rigby (son of Colonel Alexander Rigby who 
besieged Lathom House, and a lieutenant-colonel in tho Parliamentary 
army) was elected M.P. for Preston, along with Mr. Richard Standish, by 
the Corporation — an election objected to by the in-burgesses, who returned 
Dr. Rigby and Alexander Rigby. The question raised by this conflict was 
referred for settlement to the House of Commons. By a resolution of the 
whole House tho electoral choice of the in-burgesses was confirmed ; and, 
beyond this, it was decided by the same authority that ** all the inhabi- 

58 Preston Court Leet. 

Ye now Bailiffes of this Towne shall stake and wynd and 
sufficientlie repaire ye bridge at ye end of Broadgate, before ye 
1st day of May next, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Ye Supvisors of ye high way shall repaire ye foote Cawsey 
and Cartway, in Broadgate,^ well and sufficiently before ye xvth 
day of May next, in paine of xs. 

Ye now Bailiffes of this Towne shall stake and wind at ye 
North Moore yate, and keepe ye brooke^ in its course which 
breaks forth and spoiles ye high way. This is to bee done 
before ye 1st of May, in paine of vjs. viijd. 

Luke Hodgkinson shall scowre and dense his Ditch all 
alonge his close, nere ye Vicaridge crofte,*^ before ye xxth of this 
instant Aprill, or pay his fyne of vjs. viijd. 

John Helme and Lawrence Cowper have with their ditches 
encroached upon ye Cart way in ye little laine leading upp from 

tants " of the borough of Preston had " voices in the election." Alexander 
Rigby, who was M.P. for Preston for only about a year, died in 1694, and 
was buried in the Preston Parish Church — in the Hoghton chapel portion 
of it. Edward Rigby (the legal gentleman who was twice Clerk of the 
Guild, and a brother of Alexander) was one of the Parliamentarry repre- 
sentatives of Preston from 1661 to 1681. For the first year in the next 
century Edward Rigby, his grandson, was one of the M.P.'s for Preston. 

1. At the south end of Broadgate the footpath would merge into that 
previously mentioned, which ran on the side of the river, and from which — 
undoubtedly in 1774, and probably very much earlier — two footways 
branched, one diverging at the south-east corner of the present Miller 
Park, then going up the side of Avenham Valley, through a field called 
*' Avonham Brow," and ultimately running into a lane at the west end of 
what is now Ribblesdale Place ; whilst the other slanted o£f about 80 yards 
farther on the river side, going north-east about 150 yards, then merging 
into a narrow lane which went on one side of ** Great Avenham Brow,'* and 
afterwards joining another lane, broader but much shorter, which 
junctioned with Avenham-lane, at the north-west corner of Avenham Walk. 
The present footways at the east and west ends of RibblesdaJe Place, 
running to the Ribble side, virtually, and to a very large extent actually, 
take the course of the old ones. 

2. This would be Moor Brook, and the flooding of the highway 
would be in the hollow of Garstang-road, near the English Martyrs* Schools. 

3. See note p. 21. 

Preston Court Leet. 59 

Davill bridge into ye Cawsey meadowes,^ and they shall make 
ye same passable for Cart and Carriage before ye 1st of May 
next, in paine of either of them vis. viijd. 

Thomas Goodshey stoppeth a foote path^ in ye flfryergate, 
wch leadeth from St. Johns Weend into ye flfryergate, and thorow 
wch the people of this Comonwealth had heretofore a Comon 
footepath and flfree passage, and yt in ye yere 1648 ye Jury upon 
Evidence found yt for 60 yeres then last past ye same had beene 
a Knowne way, and accordingely wee pnte yt Thomas Goodshey 
shall sett two styles frm his house there into ye said weend 
before the xxth of this month, in paine of vjs. viijd., and shall 
forfeit for ev[er]y tyme hee shall stopp yt way 6s. 8d. 

Great Court Leet, held in the Moot Hall, on Friday, the 
25th of April, 1656, before William Patten (Mayor), William 
Hodgkinson and James Assheton (Bayliflfs), and Evan Wall 
(Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Maior shold take care concerninge ye assize of bread 
and beare accordinge to ye rate of Come and such orders as ye 
Lawes have pvided in yt case. 

Ye swynheard doth not doe his duty accordinge to ye 4th 
presentment of ye last Leete, butt contrariwise, neither Blowinge 
nor giveinge warneinge by his home or Keepeinge ye swyne 
until fower a Clocke upon ye moore, beinge thither brought, butt 
suffers them to stray into men's Corne; therefore for ye tyme 
present to bee severly punished att ye discression of Mr. Maior, 
and for future the fine to bee Levied accordingly, if hee be con- 
tinued, or from such as may to his place bee elected, that soe 
the swyne may bee driven upp into ye moore. and not suffered 
to lye by ye yate. 

All ye inhabitants shall cause theire swyne roonge, and the 
pinder take care of the same, and, if that will not serve, to cause 

1. Cawsey meadows would adjoin IMarsh-lane, probably on the north 

2. This footpath, clearly the subject of some contention in the Court 
Leet, eight years before, seems to have taken, in its entire length, from St. 
John's Weind to Friargate, the line of the present Crooked-lane, Earl- 
street, and Back-lane. 

60 Preston Court Leet. 

them yoaked, that there may bee noe more spoyle in Come, and 
that the said inhabitants haveinge notice hereof, as also by the 
officer Blowinge of his home every morneinge, may bringe forth 
theire swyne, and, if need require, to helpe with them to ye 
moore, that there they may bee kepte, otherwise every oflFender 
haveinge theire swyne found in ye streete and not kepte upp to 
forfeite for every swyne, and soe often as they shall bee found, 
fower pence a swyne, the one halfe to ye Towne and the other 
to ye su[b]bayliffe and swyneard, equally to bee devided 
Betweene them. 

Thomas Combrall for Carrieinge Come out of ye towne and 
not enquireinge for the towler [toll collector], or payinge ye same 
untill it was demanded, to pay js. 

There are manie Lathers, Carte wheeles and yates unsould, 
comonly lefte in ye streete, especialy in ffryergate, till the 
marquett come, they sell them, which is a hinderence and anoy- 
ance to ye comon passages and vexation also of and much to ye 
peoples harme that have on occasion to goe that way in ye 
night tyme ; as also that such whoe owne ye wood ye which 
Lyes near the church yard wall may bee commanded to Lay the 
said wood close to ye wall or remove it, and to cause that filth 
theire removed which by them have beene stayed, so that com- 
mendible passadge may not bee stayed or anoyed ; and for ye 
ffuture prevention of theis and ye like inconvenencies, som good 
orders may bee made by ye Major and councell for ye remedy 
thereof as to them may seeme meete. To bee removed before 
ye 24th June instant, upon paine of 10s. apeece, to bee Levied 
upon defaulte. 

There hath beene a Bull^ usually pvided by the Baliffes for 
ye goad of ye comonaltie and ffree Burrgesses of this towne ; for 
ye present noe care is taken for the same ; wee therefore desire 
Mr. Major would take some speedy course therein, for ye good 
of ye poore people, and that ye said Bull may bee kepte all 

1. The ** Bull usually pvided " before the making of this presentment 
was purchased chiefly for freemen's cattle, and may eventually h«ve been 
baited. Later, for numerous years, the town's bull was usually baited 
before being killed. 

Preston Court Leet. 61 

winter as well as somer if it may bee thought fittinge by ye 
Major and Companie to buy one before the xvith June instant, 
and not to sell him again without ye consent of ye Major and 
greater pte of ye Councell, upon paine of xls apeece. 

There are manie presentments against Mr. Edmund Werden 
concerneinge the wasteinge and destroyinge of ye Arbish 
[herbage] of ye marsh, butt now in perticular there are manie 
complaints that hee, Liveinge in Asshton, turnes nyne or more 
beaste to our marsh from thence, as also manie Geese, which wee 
conceive ought not to bee, butt doe leave the fine to Mr. Major 
and his councell for the tyme past. And to take care to make 
some order to prevent ye same for the tyme to come to bee 
restrained. For the future the like not to bee suffered, butt ye 
Cattell to be impounded ; ye pinders to impound ye geese in 
some conveniant place, and not to deliver them without payment 
of 6d. a fflocke, and not to suffer them for ye like. 

Ye Bailiffes or whom it may conceme may cause a yate at 
both ye moore yates, but especially at ye north moor yate, soe 
hanged that it may open and shutt both ways of itself, wch wee 
conceive willbee ye best way to kepe mens goods from straieinge 
of and offendinge any, either by horse, beasts, or swine, and yt 
order may bee given to make them substantially good, and yt 
not priudiciall Course, still continued (serve our tyme, serve all), 
wch pues [proves] nor [no] remedie, but vainly and excessively 
to ye spending of ye Townes revenue ; as also yt Rayles and 
windinges may be made at Davy bridge, to prevent Cattle 
goeinge over ; and that those fflags on ye Marsh may be carried 
to ye Boate landinge^ on our side, to bee as pte [part] of a Key 
[quay] ; and that Swansey bridge,^ on our side, may bee staked 

1. The " Boate landinge " would be on part of the site of the *' Old 
Quay,*' at the west corner of Preston Marsh — a quay done away with, as 
was also the new one, about a third of a mile farther up, when the course 
of the river was diverted to the Penwortham side in 1885-92. 

2. Swansey Bridge would cross a stream running past or close to the 
north-west corner of the Marsh. This stream was Moor Brook, the outlet 
of which was at the Old Quay. On the map of Preston made in 1836, by 
the late Alderman J. J. Myros, it is designated Moor Brook. The Ordnance 
map (survey 1844-46) calls it Swansea Gutter. North-west of the stream 
(now covered over completely or diverted into the main sewer) there is 

62 Preston Court Leet. 

and winded; as also yt our pte of ye bridge at Tippinge 
smithie,^ which is in great decay, may be speedilie repaired, lest 
it bee wholie ruined and spoiled, and yt it may bee a stone 
bridge, if ffullwood will joine. 

That Worshipfull and honorble ancient Custom of 
Bailiffes weareinge gounes, according to maine Guild orders, butt 
especially against ye second order of Mr. Werdens Guild,^ have 

" Swansea estate," which is being utilised for house -building purposes. 
This estate is in Ashton. A family, named Swansea, owned and evidently 
occupied a residence here. Amongst those who took the CJovenant or 
Protestation, in 1661-2, in the " lower end of Preston ** parish, which included 
Ashton, were Edward and Henry Swansie ; and in the list of those who 
paid the Hearth Tax for the year 1663, in Ashton, was Henry Swanoe. The 
will of Henry Swanseye, of Ashton, was proved within the Archdeaconry 
of Richmond in 1673, and that of Ellen Swansea, of Ashton, waa proved 
within the same archdeaconry in 1691. The name first appears in the 
Guild Rolls in 1682. 

1. The bridge at *' Tippinge smithie " probably crossed Eaves Brook, 
the stream forming the boundary between Preston and Fulwood. 

2. Mr. Werden was Mr. Edmund Werden, who was Guild Mayor in 
1642. The second order of that Guild was as follows: — "Whereas by an 
order heretofore made and agreed upon by the then Maior and Comon 
Councell of this Towne bearinge date the five and twentieth Daie of 
August, Anno Dni 1612, concerning the yearly payment of Twenty markes 
of lawfull English money by the Baylives of this Towne for the tyme 
beinge to the Schoolemaster of the same, vizt., eyther of the said Balives 
six pounds thirteen shillings and fouro pence yearly and also for providing 
themselves with Gownes; as also that the CJomon Counsell of this same 
Towne should likewise provide themselves with Gownes; which said Order 
was then inrolled and entered into the Whyte booke or Booke of Orders 
for this Towne, and remayningo in the same amongst the Recorde thereof, 
and subscribed with the hande of the then Maior, Aldermen, and Comon 
Councell of the same; By which same order the Baylives were greatly 
eased of dyvers banquetts and feasts wherewith they then stood charged, 
and in lie we thereof they were soe ordered to pay the said vjl. xiijs. iiijd. 
a piece accordingely as aforesaid, and the same yearely payments have 
been duely and constantly paid since the tyme of the makinge of the said 
Order by the Baylives of this Towne for the tyme beinge successively 
untill this prsent : Now to the intente the Baylives of this Towne for the 
tyme beinge and all others whoe shalbee hereafter bee elected or succeed 
in the said office shall observe the said Custome and payment, and to the 
end they may bee the better enabled to pay the same and may bee eased 
of the greate charges and expenses in makeinge their feasts and banquettes 
as have been heretofore accustomed, Itt is Ordered, concluded, and agreed 
upon by the Maior, Stewards, and Aldermen of this present Guild 
merchant That the said recyted Order and all and every the matters, 

Preston Court Leet. 63 

left of the same, as alsoe that pay of sixe pounds therteene 
shillings fower pence a peece to ye schoolemaster,^ as formerly, 

agreemente, and things therein conteyned and menooncd shall from hence- 
forth remayne, continue, and bee in full force, strength, effecte, and to 
bee observed in all and every parte thereof acoordinge to the purporte, 
true Intente, and meaninye thereof. And itt is hereby further agreed 
upon That the Baylives of this Towne for the tyme beinge shall yearely 
paye to the Schoolemar of this Towne for the tyme beinge their said sixe 
pounds thirteen shillings and fourpence a piece quarterly by even porcons 
att the Daies and tymes hereafter expressed, that is to say, att Christmas, 
the Anunciacon of our Lady the virgin Mary, the feasts of St. John 
Baptist and St. Michaell. And itt is hereby likcwiee concluded and agreed 
upon That the said Baylives shall ordinarily upon Sondaies and other 
festivall Daies weare their Gownes and attend upon their said Maior upon 
payne to forfeyte for every defaulte twoe shillinges and sixe pence. And 
that the Aldermen and Comon Counsell of this Towne shall yearely attend 
upon the Maior of this Towne for the tyme beinge in their Gownes upon 
the Daies and att all tymes hereafter expressed for the worshipp and 
creditt of this Incorporacon, that is to say, upon the Sonday nextt after 
the feaste Day of St. Wilfrid the Archbpp, the feasts of the Nativity of 
or [our] Lord God, St. Stevens Day, and St. John's Day, upon the first 
Sonday in the newe yeare, and upon the feasts of Easter Day and 
Whitsonday, the twoe faire tymes, and other convenient tymes (whereof 
the said Maior shall give them notice by his ofl&cer), for the better enter- 
taynraent of Noblemen, gentlemen and others of Quality, cominge and 
repayringe to this same Towne ; and besides as often as to them or any 
of them shalbee thoughte requisite and mete, upon payne of three shillings 
and fourpence to bee forfeyted for every neglect therein to be levied by 
distresse or otherwise, to the use and behoofe of the Maior, Bayliffes, and 
Burgesses of this Incorporacon." 

2. The payments to the Schoolmaster, by the Bailiffs, wore discon- 
tinued, in accordance with a resolution passed by the Corporation three 
years before the presentment relating to this Guild Order was made. 
According to the old custom, the two Bailiffs had to provide annually, at 
Easter, " wine, beare, breade, cheese, ayle, and other bankettinge stuff 
and provisions," for the Mayor, Corporation, burgesses, "strangers, 
passengers, and neighbours" who visited Preston at such time; but the 
custom became financially burdensome to the Bailiffs and gave rise to 
scenes by no means creditable to the town, so on the 26th of August, 1612, 
the Corporation decided that the Bailiffs, instead of paying for Eastertide 
feasts, should annually give £6 13s. 4d. apiece towards the salary of the 
Grammar Schoolmaster. In 1650 one of the Bailiffs (William Curtis) 
demurred to the payment ; but he was informed by the Corporation that if 
he p>ersisted in his contumacy, a forced sale of his goods and chattels would 
be made by way of meeting the claim and the costs incurred in securing 
the money. In 1652 the Corporation resolved to free the Bailiffs from 
further payments of this kind, and to grant £22 annually out of the town's 
money on behalf of the schoolmaster. 

64 Preston Court Leet. 

and by the said order confirmed, but alsoe that there is not 
harmonious assent and Keepinge of ye said order by and 
amongst ye councell and theire brotherly sittinge together in the 
Church,^ which to us seemes strange, that order makers should 
not bee order Keepers ; and, therefore, Leave ye remedy to Mr. 
Major and Councell. 

George Werden^ is continued beidle and scavenger, is very 
negligent therein, and the Towne is full every day of Country 
poore, and the said office altogether neglected, to ye discredit of 
our towne and hindrance of our owne poore. Also that ye said 
George Werden is swyneard, also receiveinge wages for Both and 

1. As to the mombers of the Corporation " sittinge together in the 
Church," it appears that provision was made for this kind of accommoda- 
tion at least half a century before the Jury complaint about lack of 
harmony, &c., was formulated. In 1607, or perhaps a little earlier, the 
Archbishop of York appropriated to the Corporation ** five pewes or seats 
within the body of the Parish Church " of Preston ; and for a while 
the major portion of the Corporate members went to the church every 
Sunday as well as on each appointed holiday, both forenoon and afternoon. 
But at length some of the members lost their regard for uniformity of 
location in the church ; they sat in different parts ; and even " interlopers " 
were allowed to sit in the Corporation pews. In 1763 it was decided that 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Councillors must sit in the pews appropriated to 
their use, and that for every violation of this decision they would be 
respectively fined 12d. ; the only person exempted being Alderman W. 
Sudell, who in consequence of being deaf was permitted to sit in any seat 
he deemed most convenient. Many years ago this compulsory method of 
sitting was done away with. At the top end of the Parish Church there is 
still an appropriated part, containing a number of sittings for the Corpora- 

2. The duties undertaken by Werden were those of beadle, sexton, 
scavenger, swineherd, &c. At this time — middle of the 17th century — ^the 
beadles of some towns were regularly occupied in walking through the 
streets, &e., for the purpose of preventing ** rogues and other wandering 
beggars " and restraining the " native poor " from begging. Earlier, in 
the same century, at certain places — probably this was the rule throughout 
the country — a special official eye was kept on wanderers, beggars, &c. For 
instance, in 1614 the Manchester Court Leet appointed a beadle or marshal 
to secure and take to the constable '* all rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy 
beggars " found begging or wandering in the town ; the remuneration of 
the said beadle or marshal consisting of a fixed salary and 4d. for every 
person of the sort named who got whipped. The statement as to Preston 
being *' full every day of Country poore " points to the distress or depres- 
sion, the scarcity of work, lowness of wages, and poverty prevalent in the 
surrounding rural districts. And in towns the state of affairs was by no 

Preston Court Leet. 65 

performeinge neither. Wee therefore thinke fittinge and present 
that ye Baliffes shall appointe a newe Swyneard imediately, that 
see the townes revinue may not bee vainely given, butt yt ye 
Benefitt may bee found by ye inhabitants for whose case such 
officers were first elected ; and that Mr. Major will bee pleased 
to Comannd such Idle persons as theis to such offices, and such 
as refuse to send them to ye house of Correccon,^ haveing noe 
subsistance and Liveinge Places. 

means good. Wages were at this time — in the early stage of the Pro- 
tectorate — better than when the civil war was raging; but they did not, 
allowing for the difference, amount to much — wages generally being for 
artisans Is. 6d. and for labourers Is. per day, whilst the price of wheat was 
about 50s. per quarter. — The *' Idle persons," &c., are named at the end of 
the presentment ; one of them being the eldest son of a Preston Corporation 

1. The House of Correction stood upon a portion of the site if it 
did not actually absorb part of the structure of the old Friary, which was 
situated between the present Lower Pitt-street (nearly opposite the centre) 
and the canal — a structure which, after the Dissolution by Henry VIH., 
was occupied as a private family residence by the Breres, and later, pro- 
bably about 1680, transformed into a gaol under the foregoing designation. 
In 1690 the Governor of this House of Correction (William Iliggins) was 
evidently a person with considerable contumacy in his composition. The 
county magistrates, who had executive control of the establishment, 
decided that one William Tomlinson should supersede Iliggins in the 
governorship. Sir Richard Standish, Alexander Rigby, of Lay ton, and 
other magistrates were deputed to obtain possession for Tomlinson ; and on 
a certain day they went to the House of Correction with this object in view ; 
but they could not gain admission — the doors had been fastened against 
them ; and within the building were several rough-looking fellows with 
fire arms, one of which was discharged, apparently for the purpose of 
frightening the magistrates, who had to go away without accomplishing 
their object. Some time afterwards Tomlinson was installed Governor of 
the House of Correction. When he actually entered on his duties I cannot 
say ; but he was clearly ** in harness " in 1693. The Marsh corn return, for 
1695, in connection with Lea Demesne, which at that time was owned by 
Sir Charles Hoghton, Bart., contains an entry respecting " Mr. Tomlinson 
Mr [Master or Governor] of ye House of Correction." John Howard, the 
prison philanthropist, visited and severely condemned the condition of this 
House of Correction ; and the erection of the gaol at the eastern end of 
Church-street (opened in 1798) was chiefly due to the strictures he passed on 
the old establishment, which, after being abandoned as a correctional place, 
became known as the " old Barracks " (why, cannot now be explained). 
Later, the structure was made into a cotton factory ; next it became a store 
in connection with a foundry (J. C. Stevenson and Co.*s for many years 
and afterwards Stevenson and Co.*s, Limited), which it immediately 

66 Preston Court Leet. 

The Bayliffes shall, as is theire duty, goe twice in theire 
office and drive the more to see that fforiners goods beinge there- 
upon kepte may bee secured till course may bee taken with ye 
owners, and in particular that ye Bayliffes may Cause Thomas 
Loxam^ to bee swome whether those number of sheepe upon ye 
moore bee his or noe, beinge supposed that neither they nor ye 
Coulte are his ; also it is desired that Mr. Major and ye 
Companie may continue their perambulacon [perambulationp to 
see what incroachments are erected and made upon ye townes 
ground and Comons of ffullwood. 

adjoined, on the north-east side, and as euch it was used until the end of 
1891, when the foundry was closed (the whole of the property having been 
purchased for railway extension purposes) and the business operations of 
the company transferred to a new place in Fylde-road ; and now all that 
remains of the old building is a brick wall, about twenty-six yards long and 
ranging from three to six yards high, which formed the main portion, of its 
north side, and which will, by-and-bye, no doubt, be pulled down to make 
room for additional railway sidings. 

1. Loxam is a name which crops up somewhat numerously in the 
records of Preston. It is first met with in the list of burgesses, " Per Rotul' 
Cur'," for 1622 (Guild). Various persons named Loxam were Bailiffs of 
Preston, viz., Robert in 1671 ; Thomas, 1675 ; John, 1693 ; and Richard in 
1742-80-86. John, who was a Guild Alderman in 1702, became Mayor of 
Preston in 1709, and Richard was elected a member of the Town Council 
in 1745. 

2. At a certain fixed time the Mayor, Corporation, &o., went along 
the boundaries of the borough for the purpose of viewing and confirming 
their course and stopping encroachments thereon, if any happened to be 
met with. The custom was usually called *' boundary riding " — some who 
participated in it rode on horses, but the bulk walked ; and it was kept up 
till about 1835. The borough boundary was, of course, at the time the 
presentment was made, much more limited than it is now. Commencing 
on the south side, it followed, from the Ribble, the course of Swillbrook, 
going past Fish wick township, afterwards northward by Ribbleton Moor 
to Eaves Brook, proceeding at the side thereof, westward, to its junction 
with the Savick, and there bending south to the Marsh, crossing it near 
the " Colt Hole," then up the north bank of the Ribble, ending at the 
Swillbrook outlet — the point started from. The boundary riding took place 
periodically — generally on a Shrove Tuesday. The Mayor and Corporation, 
with friends and miscellaneous followers (the whole being preceded by a 
band of music and colours), took the course named. There were various 
scenes — noisy, humorous, and eccentric — on the way. On reaching the 
** Colt hole " — a sort of pond near the bottom of Marsh-lane, north side- 
some of those in the procession crossed the hole, a few managing to jump 
over it, but more floundering in the water and making ludicrous spectacles 

Preston Court Leet. 67 

Edmund Watson,^ milner, of Avenham, beinge noe free 
man, doth keepe a horse upon ye townes wast. It is desired 
that Mr. Major take Care aboute his removall or security, hee 
haveinge a wife, and Childeren as yett not come into ye towne. 
Butt for keepeinge his horse upon ye townes waste to pay xijd. 

George Mery is a Breaker of hedges, and did Cutt an Assh 
tree downe upon Mr. Ashtons Lands and other mens ; therefore 
to pay three shillings fower pence, and to bee made a publique 
example to the terifinge of all others as Mr. Major shall thinke 

Those persons hereunder named are Comon and ordinary 
hedge Breakers, and therefore for this offence to bee punished 

of themselves. On the boundary-riding? day the newly elected Bailiffs were 
** broken in," by beinj? whipped round some of the town's pumps. Other 
persons, it is said, were also flogped simultaneously. The chief whipping 
was done at a pump at the top of Lord-street. But in time the diver- 
sion, owing to its increasing peculiarity and severity, became intolerable. 
Not only was whipping of the ordinary kind indulged in, but blacksmiths, 
working at shops or smithies near the pumps where flagellation took place, 
used to rush out while the "ceremony" was being performed and boat 
the '* victims " with rods of iron ; and at length, owing to this maltreat- 
ment and the introduction of a comprehensive measure of reform in 
municipal matters, the custom was discontinued. 

1. On the Guild Rolls there are several persons bearing the name of 
Watson, with a slight variation in the spelling thereof. The first burgess 
of this name — John Watson — was of the ** foreign " order, his enrolment 
being made at the Guild in 1622. The primary in-burgcs8 Watson was 
Nicholas, his enrolment, which was immediately succeeded by that of his 
two sons, Thomas and John, taking place in 1662. The freedom of the 
three was renewed at the Guild in 1682, and at the same time another son 
(John) of Nicholas was enrolled as an in-burgess. Later, other Wateons, some 
of them, no doubt, descendants of certain of the foregoing, figure in the bur- 
gess lists. In 1764 a John Watson wa?i elected a member of the Town Council ; 
and in 1782 Thomas and John Watson were members of the Guild Council. 
The only Watsons, in addition to the foregoing, connected representatively 
with the Corporation of Preston have been the following: William Watson, 
a native of the south of Scotland, and in the drapery line, a Councillor for 
Christ Church Ward from 1851 to 1860; Robert Green Watson, solicitor (a 
native of North Lancashire), who was a Councillor for Fishwick Ward 
from 1867 to 1872, when he was made an Alderman, and so remained 
till his death in 1879; and his brother, Henry Proctor Watson, auctioneer, 
&o., Councillor for Christ Church Ward from 1871 to the time of his death 
in 1877. — The Edmund Watson mentioned in the presentment was an entire 
stranger to Preston, and he evidently never secured any definite connection 
with the town, for his name does not appear on any of the Rolls. 

68 Preston Court Leet. 

at Mr. Major's pleasure, either by stockes^ or ye Rouges Poste,^ 
and, if that will not serve tume, that Mr. Major will be pleased 
[to order] some more seveare Course for punishment as hee may 
conceive meete, vidz. : — George Morrys Children, George 
Werdens wife and Children, ould Myres wife, ould Sheppards 
wife, James Wasle, George Woods servants and prentices, 
Thomas Patricke sonne and daughter, John Weengreene 
Children, Roger Moss Children. 

Henery Haworth, Richard Claytons sonne John Clayton, 
Thomas Stringer al[ias] Richardson, doth usually and ordinarily 
gett whines upon Spittls mosse and Rattenwall Bancke,^ to sell 
them, and will doe it, which is a greate perjudice, that the super- 
visore cannot gett a whine to helpe the high way; therefore to 
pay apeece three shillings fower pence; and John Birchel is 
guiltie of ye same offence, and to pay ye like fine. 

1. The stocks were in the Parish Churchyard, at the upper south-west 
corner, and they were kept in uee or remained there till about 1825. The 
severest use of the stocks seems to have been in the case of persons 
disobeying or abusing any public officer or officers in the execution of his 
or their duties, or reviling or rebuking the same for or in respect thereto. 
Every person so offending had, according to an order made at the Guild 
of 1562, and " etablisshed for ever " by the Mayor, Stewards, and Alder- 
men, to be " punished in the Stockes " for three days, kept on bread and 
water only, and fined 6s. 8d. 

2. The rogues* whipping post was not far from the north-west comer 
of the Market Place, and near the old fish stones which were removed in 
1853. Long before that date, however, the post was done away with ; but 
flogging was continued at the same spot — on the triangle plan — ^till about 
1830. Part of the punishment of numerous male prisoners consisted of 
flogging. They were brought to the place referred to from the House of 
Correction or the lock-up (which appears to have been primarily 
in the Town Hall, and afterwards for several years in Turk's 
Hea3 yard, Church -street), then fastened to the triangle, whipped 
with a cat-o'-nine-tailfi, and immediately afterwards taken to one 
of the adjacent public-houses in New-street, on the north side 
of the Market Place, where their lacerated backs were washed with rum or 
salt and water. [The buildings in New-street, along with other property 
on the same side of the Market Place, were pulled down in 1894.] The last 
woman publicly flogged in Preston was Christina Fellowes. She was 
fastened to a cart's-tail and flogged, on her bare back, at oertain street 
corners. This was in 1786. 

3. " Rattenwall Bancke '^ is not specified on any of the maps of Preston, 
and there is no reference to it in any of the local histories. 

IL t 

Preston Court Leet. 69 

There are maine complaints of ye Inhabitants in the Lower 
end of the fifryergate for want of water, having none but at a 
great distance or upon leave, which is burthensome and uncer- 
taine, and they being a people to their power as readie to observe 
and keepe all commannds which come from ye Major and 
Councell as their fellow inhabitants which have reed ye like 
favour and libertie, not repininge thereat but rejoycinge, onely 
hopeinge and prayinge they may enjoy ye same priviledge where 
ye Maior and Councell shall think fittinge and at ye most easiest 
charge, wee therefore apprehend their said requests reasonable 
and ought to bee done when the convenientest tyme may appeare 
to Mr. Maior and his Councell. 

Henery Haworth and Thomas Wiggans did hange doggs 
and lefte them in ye high way unburied, to the greate anoyance 
of ye high way and danger to mens goods that pass to ye Marsh, 
and beinge found faulte with they replyed they would doe it, 
and if they pleased they would hang them upon ye pinfould 
Rayles; therefore to bee punished seaverly at Mr. Major's 
discretion; either of them to pay iijs. iiijd. 

Theis persons hereunder written are brought unto us by the 
houselookers, and therefore Mr. Major is disired to secure the 
town of them till they be removed, and if they thinke fittinge 
stallanged. — [Here follow the names of upwards of a dozen 
persons, one of them being harboured by a Bailiff of the town.] 

Roberte Bayliffe,^ Roberte Shakeshafte, Mr. Will Bannaster, 
widdow Hodgkinson, widdow Catterall, and Sr Richard Hough- 
ton2 shall cause their inmates [to be] Removed before the twenty 
fcwrth of June, else every one to pay 13s. 4d., and every month 
after [till removed] sixe shillings eight pence. 

1. Bayliffe is a name which does not appear in tho burgess lists; nor 
is it met with in the stallenger records. 

2. Persons bearing these names, with the exception of Shakeshaft, have 
previously beefn dealt with. The earliest burgess reference to Shakeshaft 
is in 1542. Robert Shakeshafte named in tho presentment was evidently 
an in-burges6 of Preston in 1642 and 1662. Later records contain the names 
of several burgesses bearing the like appellation. One of the six church- 
wardens of the parish of Preston, in 1647, was named Raynold Shakeshaft. 
William Shakeshaft, whoso very excellently drawn map of Preston was 
published in 1809, was a native of this town. His parentage was very 

70 Preston Court Leet. 

That Mr. Major may cause the Bell man^ to give notice that 
all ye inhabitants forbeare to take in anie Inmates unless they 
first acquaint Mr. Major and his Councell, upon paine of forty 
shillings, or some other way notice may bee given, as ye Major 
and Councell shall thinke fittinge, that they remove not from 
house to house as formerly. 

Theis persons hereunder named haveinge married ffreemens 
widdowes,2 they [the persons named] not being ffree or [not] as 
yett compounded with, that Mr. Major wil bee pleased to take 
care herein that ye inhabitans may not Loose theire prevelledge, 

humblo ; his education, if ho got any at all, was of the meagreet kind ; he 
began work as a common labourer, but before long became steward of the 
building property of John Ilorrocks, M.P., who was the first to discover 
his natural abilty ; land surveying as well as kindred work was afterwards 
studied by Shakeshaft; later ho issued his map of Preston; next he 
became land steward for Sir T. D. Hesketh, Bart., of Rufford Hall, and, 
after holding that post for about 20 years, he died, in 1834, at Rufford. 

1. The bellman would, in all probability, be the parish sexton. A 
previous presentment expresses a desire that the Mayor would " give notice, 
by the sexton, to all the inhabitants" respecting certain sanitary matters; 
and, as it was customary to attract attention in different parts of the 
town by ringing a handbell before giving notices to the public, the pre- 
sumption is that the sexton was likewise the bellman. The practice of 
going round and ringing a bell, immediately before shouting out a public 
notice, ceased in Preston about 1882, owing to the development of bill- 
lasting; but the place of bellman continues to exist, and on the payment of 
a shilling, at the Corporation bill-posting oflBce, any person can now put in 
motion the old process. 

2. The transference of burgess privileges to the widows of burgesses 
had a very early origin, and the plan thus established was confirmed as well 
as to some extent enlarged by an order made at the Guild of 1562; but 
that order did not specify anything in the shape of an extension of the 
privileges to non-freemen who might marry such widows. It ran as 
follows: — *' Where[as] it apperithe by Auncyent Reoordes that Widowes 
heretofore beying late wiffes of burgesses have after the death of their 
husbondes come in and done their dueties accordyngly as their husbondes in 
their lifftyme did, and that some other like Widdowes have bene suffred to 
have like lib'tie contrarye to the welfare of this Town, it is now ordered, 
constitute[d], and stablisshed by the Mayor, Balives, and Aldermen of this 
Guild for ever, for the proffitt of all the burgess[e6] of the said Town, that 
all and any Widowes hereafter beyng late Burgesses Wiffes of this Gild or 
that hereafter shall be made by Gild Merchaunt or by Court Roole shall 
have and enjoy such liberties and ffredomes duryng their Widowheade as 
their husbondes in liff tyme had and enjoyed by reason of their bur- 
gesshippe," &c. 

Preston Court Leet. 71 

vidz. : — Edward Mitchill, who married Jannett Cowper, Leonard 
Hawksworth whoe married John Sidgreaves widdowe, Ralph 
Sharrocke who married Elizabeth Cowper, Robert Tomlinson 
whoe married Thomas Becconsall daughtorr. 

That Mr. Major and Councell would bee pleased to allowe 
two shillings a week to either swyneard, 12d. a weeke beinge to 
litle to have a Livlyhood, and a disincoradgment to all for beinge 
swyneard, which is the greatest and comonest losse that is 
suffered and sustained amongst us ; also 6d. a weeke for a boy 
tc helpe them. 

Court Leet held in the Moot Hall, on Wednesday, October 
22nd, 1656, before Seth Blackhurst (Mayor), John Cottam and 
Henry Wilson (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments ; — 

Artillery is not used and exercised within the Towne 
accordinge to ye forme of ye statute in yt case made and pro- 
vided. And ye now Bailiffes shall putt ye Butts in Repaire att or 
before ye 25th day of March next, upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

Ye now Bailiffes of ye towne shall sufficiently Repaire ye 
Moote hall floare and ye Topp, and shall repaire the Councell 
house, and whitelime ye same, at or before ye first of May next, 
upon paine to forfeit xls. apeece. 

Ye now Bailiffes shall repaire Syke troughs^ upon Avenham 
and Spittle Mosse before ye 25th Mar[ch] next in paine of 
6s. 8d. 

James Townend, for sufferinge his hedge to lye downe next 
unto Mr. Pattens garden,^ whereby ye swine hath much spoyled 
ye said garden, to pay for ye tyme past iijs. iiijd. 

1. *' The Syke," which suppliod the troughs " upon Avenham " with 
water, had its rise in the elevated gfround near where St. Saviour's Church 
now stands, and ran down Leeming-streot, Shepherd-street, past the 
bottom of Syke Hill, behind Cannon-street Independent Chapel, the 
Grammar School, &c., then across Winckley-square, along Garden-street, 
by the south end of the land on which the railway station stands, after- 
wards for some distance going south-west, and eventually flowing into the 
Ribble opposite the end of Taylor-street. The other trough or troughs 

would be at or near the north-west corner of Spittle Moss, adjacent to the 
top of Fylde-road. 

2. Mr. Patten's garden would be that which adjoined Patten House, 
as to which see note pp. 55-56. 

72 Preston Court Leet. 

Ye now Bailiffes shall cause to bee erected a cuckstoole 
over ye washingpoole, nere ye Almeshouses, att or before ye 
25th of March next upon paine of xls. apeece. 

Accordinge to ye 37th pntmt of ye last leete, yt is therein 
pnted yt they have gotten sand and made holes in ye way towards 
ye bridge by ye Almeshouses and leading towards new-hall,^ 
which upon evidence appeares to us yt [according to] ye 
Indefinett ptickle [indefinite particulars] they to bee [those 
responsible are] Mr. Willm Sudell and Nicholas Sudell his sonne, 
And therefore to bee repaired and ye way made good att their 
own charges, att or before ye 25th day of March next, or els 
to pay 6s. 8d. a peece. 

1. New Hall is suggestive of the name-origin of New Hall-lane. There 
are some people who fancy that this lane derived its name from the New 
Hall in Samlesbury, which is on the south side of the main road running 
through that township. But this is an entirely untenable supposition. If 
hall proximity to the road on the east side of the Ribble had governed the 
application of the name, then the appellation would not have been New 
Hall but Old Hall-lane ; for Samlesbury Old Hall is quite close to the main 
road, whilst the New Hall is half a mile from it. And if hall nearness to 
Preston rather than to the road in question had been the regulating 
nomenclative factor, then Farington Hall or Ribbleton Hall, Fishwick Hall 
or Cuerdale Old Hall — any of them — would have come before Samlesbury 
New Hall in this case. But the conclusion I have arrived at is that New 
Hall-lane was so called in reference to a large building (shown on Lang's 
map) near to the almshouses already referred to. In old times the road 
deviated from the line of the present main way ; it took a somewhat lower 
course to the right, went a little south of where now stands the Deaf and 
Dumb School, through some land to the east, since covered with trees (Eyes 
Wood), and thence to the side of the Ribble, passage acrosB which was 
secured at two places — near Brockholes old mill, by stepping stones, and 
higher up, about 150 yards above Samlesbury Church, by a ferry. When 
New Hall-lane first got its name I cannot say, but it had it at least 130 
years ago. It is stated tha-t, for some time after the Dissolution, Mass was 
secretly said, at night time, in a barn up New Hall-lane, on the south side, 
and near the top of a narrow road which ran down towards Fishwick Hall. 
An idea became current that the building was haunted. But the fact was— 
a few Roman Catholics were at the time in the habit of meeting, periodi- 
cally, in the barn — very quietly, at night; and certain sounds, Ac., which 
superstitious outsiders had exaggerated into apparitional phenomena, were 
simply the devotional essentials or accessories of the worshippers within 
the building. Long after Roman Catholics had ceased worshipping secretly 
in the manner mentioned, the superstition that the old bam was haunted 
remained very strong. All over the town, and especially on the east side, 
the building was known as the " Boggart barn." Up to about 1830 the 

Preston Court Leet. 73 

Mr. Maior shall cause all ye Inhabitant Burgesses within 
this Towne, being of ye age of xxj yeres and upwards, and as yet 
have not taken ye oath of a burgesse, to bee sumoned to appeare 
before him, to bee swome accordinge to ye Custome of this 
Towne, And as many as shall refuse soe to doe to bee fyned att 
his discrecon. 

Ye supvisors of ye Highway shall repaire and mend ye 
Cawsey at ye entrance upp into Ribbleton Laine, being very 
dangerous to passengers frequentinge our markett and towne, 
And desire Mr. Maior and ye Councell to see such a good worke 
pfomed- And wee further find and pnte ye Highway on both 
sides of Debdale-brook^ to bee insufficient and not passable 
either for man or horse, Cart or Carriadgs, And desire ye like 
consideracon of ye Maior and his bretheren to see ye same 

Noe Inh[ab]itants within this Towne shall lay any middinge 
before their doores in ye street to continue there above 20 days, 
and in default of evy pson [every person] so offendinge to pay 
iijs. iiijd., the one halfe to ye towne and ye other halfe to ye 
Townes Serjeant. 

Mr. Maior shall cause summons to bee given to all 
Inhitants within this Towne who utter or sell beere or Ale, and 
have not been^lycensed, that they appeare before him and receive 
Lycense according to ye Statute in yt case made and pvided. 

John ffisher, John Whinrall, and Thomas Shawe for 
keepinge constant tiplinge in their houses on ye Sabboth dayes, 

barn had a boggarty reputation. In 1879 it was pulled down, and part of 
Sutcliffe-terrac€ now stands on its site. The first dwelling-houses built in 
New Hall-lane were some small cottages (on the north side, about 200 yards 
from the entrance) for- the accommodation of hand loom weavers, who 
worked in adjoining sheds, specially put up for them at the same time (the 
beginning of last century). Both the cottages and the sheds were erected 
by John Horrocke, the principal pioneer in the local cotton trade ; they 
stood in a portion of "Now Hall-lane fields;" and collectively they were 
called ** New Preston." In 1836, and probably earlier as well as for some 
time later, the west end of New Hall-lane went by the name of York- 

1. Debdale-brook means Deepdale Brook, which passes under Deepdale- 
road, a short distance north of the railway station, and afterwards becomes 
Moor Brook. 

74 Preston Court Leet. 

letimes in ye morninge and in tyme of Divine service and 
sermon, and late att nights of ye Sabboth dayes, And therefore 
wee conceive them guiltie of ye penalty of ye Act of parliament 
m yt behalfe, And not to be lycensed at all but upon their better 
reformacon, And Mr. Maior is desired to see this pformed 
accordinge to Act in yt behalfe.^ 

John Higham hath suffered his fence to lye downe adjoyn- 
inge to a feild called Toby-croft,^ now in ye possession of Mathew 
Dickson, to ye great losse and damadge of ye said Mathew 
Dixon, ye said Croft being now sowne with wheat, and upon 
information to us, upon Oath, wee conceive him to bee much 
dampnified by John Highams horses treadinge and spoylinge ye 
same wheate, Therefore yt be said John Higham shall make his 
fence sufficient, and scoure his watter course wch goes ye Right 
way to ye moor, att or before ye second day of ffebruary next, 
upon paine of xiijs. iiijd. 

Ye psons herundr written, who being not free burgesses, 
inhabited a longe tyme within this towne and cannot conveniently 
bee removed, to bee caused to give bond accordinge to ye orders 
of this towne, and to bee stallenged att the discrecon of Mr. 
Maior and his bretheren. — [Here follow the nanies of 30 persons, 
two of them being widows]. 

There is a great abuse by sevall of ye Inhibtants, Burgesses, 
to take upon them to encroach upon ye Townes wast,^ and 
to erect and build upon ye towne Land without ye acquaintinge 
ye Maior and his Councell aforesaid, by wch ye towne is much 
priudiced. Therefore wee desire Mr. Maior and his bretheren to 

1. An old order of the Council — it was made on October 2l8t, 1616— 
directs that none shall " tipple or drinke in anie ale-house above one houre 
att one tyme nor after neene [nine] of the clocke at night, nor in the tyme 
of devyne service or sermons on Sabaoth daie or other festival! daies, other 
then travellers or such as shall accompanie them, upon paine, &c., iijs. 
iiijd.'* This order was in accord with or mainly based upon the then 
existing statutory regulations. 

2. Toby Croft was on the north side of the town, presumably between 
the town and the Moor. 

3. The Charter granted by Henry III. appears to define or detail more 
fully than any preceding Charter, as well as to some extent enlarge, the 
general area of waste and other land owned, for the town, by the Corpora- 
tion ; and it was confirmed by subsequent monarchs. 

Preston Court Leet. 75 

make an order according to ye power of our Charter, and to 
informe ye Inhitants thereof yt they shall not under such a 
penalty erect or brake ye earth or encroach upon ye towns wast 
without ye Maior and Councells privity first had and obtained 
upon ye penalty of ye said Order. 

Ye Marsh is gone to decay by reason of ye Inundacon of ye 
waters ; and ye opposite calls [cauls] on ye other side, made by 
Willm ffarington, of Worden, esqr.,^ have gott much upon our 
side, and, if not tymely prvented, in tyme will destroy our pte 

1. At this time the manor of Penwortharn with the fishery rights in the 
Ribble belonged to the squire of Worden (William ffarington). The fishery 
included the south half of the Ribble ; its length being proportionate to the 
contiguous line of manor land. The cauls mentioned would be in the form 
of half-weirs, made of stakes or beams, projecting to or near the centre of 
the river, for either fishery purposes or the preservation of the bank on the 
south side, and the change in their position had, no doubt, been caused by 
*'ye Inundacon" (a flood), ffarington is a very old and conspicuous name 
in our local and county annals. The initial ff is merely an old form of the 
capital letter F. Originally the first f was somewhat less than the second, 
and was apparently adopted, in writing, as a primary *' flourish ;" but in 
time the ornamental part was made the same size as the letter, and hence 
the ff — a double initial which is not solely confined to the above patronymic. 
On the Preston Guild Roll for 1397 Henry son of William de ffarynton is 
named amongst the out-burgessos. This is the earliest mention, locally, of 
the name. The great bulk of subsequent Rolls specify burgesses bearing 
the name — some containing quite a formidable number. The William 
ffarington mentioned in the presentment resided at Worden Hall, near 
Leyland. He was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1636, a colonel of militia, 
a commissioner of array and collector and treasurer of the subsidy for the 
King (Chas. I.), one of the defenders of Lathom House, was taken prisoner 
in 1646, compounded for his estates in 1647-8, died in 1658, and was 
interred at Leyland. In 1732 Henry ffarrington, whose father was Valen- 
tine, second son of George ffarrington, of Shawe Hall, became Mayor's 
Baihff at Preston ; in 1735 he was elected an Alderman ; in 1736 he was 
made ^layor of the borough ; and in 1742 he was the Guild Mayor. An old 
Corporation minute book states that on the 4th of October, 1752, Henry 
ffarrington was " at his own desire discharged from the office of Alderman 
of the Borough, being much afflicted with the gout and other disorders;" 
that on the 25rd of June, 1753, he was " elected a Councilman, in the room 
of Robert Ashburner, gentleman, lately deceased ;" and that on the 24th 
of June, 1755, Robert Escolme was "elected a Councilman in the room of 
Henry ffarington, Esq., who died on the 11th of June " in that year. The 
Worden estates were bought by Sir Henry de Faryngton (from the Ander- 
tons) in 1534, and Worden Hall was the family residence until the early 
part of the 18th century, when it was superseded, for residential purposes, 

76 Preston Court Leet. 

[part] of ye marsh begininge on this side of ye brooke adgjoyn- 
inge^ neere untx) the wood holme^ all alonge westwards where ye 
old Call [caul] is. Therefore wee desire Mr. Maior and his 
bretheren to tak speedy care abt it, and to pvide to have it 
psently pformed. 

Ye bridge att swillbrooke is gone to decay and ruinated by 
}C late Inundacon of watters, and as yet for any thinge wee heare 
or can inquire of one halfe of it belongeth to ye Townepp [town- 
ship] of ffishwicke'^ and ye other halfe to ye Towne of Preston, 
wch wee desire Mr. Maior and his Bretheren to take into con- 
sideracon, yt speedy course may bee made for ye repaire thereof, 
and, if upon due consideracon had with his Councell it apeare 
yt ye said Towneshipp of ffishwicke ought to repaire the one 
halfe of ye said Bridge, wee desire they may bee sent unto about 
it; if not pformed by them, then to pnte [present] ye said 
Towne[ship] of ffshwicke before ye Justices att ye next sessions 
[quarter sessions], or what other course ye Maior and his 
bretheren shall thinke most meet. 

by Shawe Hall, near Leyland, and subsequently became, what it is still, 
a farm house. About 1842 Shawe Hall was rebuilt, and called Worden, by 
James Nowoll ffarington, the then only surviving son of William ffarington 
who died in 1837. After the death of James Nowell ffarington, in 1848, 
without issue, Worden became the property and residence of his sifiter, 
]\Iis6 Susan Maria ffarington, with whom lived her sister, Miss Mary 
Hannah. The latter lady died about 1892; the former died in 1894, aged 
85 years, her successor to the Worden property being William Edmund 
ffarington, a minor (born November 28th,1886), and now receiving his 
education at Eton. This heir to the property is a grandson of Admiral 
William ffarington, of Woodvale, West Cowes, Isle of Wight, who was 
related to the late Miss Susan Maria ffarington, through a common 
ancestor, William ffarington, who married, in 1694, Elizabeth, daughter of 
James Rufine, of Boulogne. — The ffaringtons of Ribbleton were descen- 
dants of the ffaringtons of ffarington and Worden. The first of the Ribble- 
ton ffaringtons was named Hugh, who is mentioned, along with four of 
his sons, in the out-burgess portion of the Guild Roll for 1542. 

1. The brook referred to would be the end portion of Moor Brook, on 
the north side of Watery-lane, between the Wheat Sheaf Inn and the Old 

2. *' Wood holme " was presumably near the west corner of the Marsh. 
The old caul was near the Old Quay. 

3. Fishwick, formerly a separate township, is now within the borough 
boundary of Preston. 

Preston Court Leet. 77 

Inquisition taken on the 16th of November, 1656, before 
Seth Blackhurst (Mayor), John Cottam and Henry Wilson 
(Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Ye now Churchwardens of this Towne hath not set a Steele^ 
at either end of the Clarke yard,^ according to tyme given, And 
have therefore forfeited ye some of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. James Hodgkinson hath not opened his platt and 
scoured his Ditch at Hesketh field,'^ according to ye tyme given 
him ; therefore hath forfaited ye some of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Maior, Mr. Warden, George Addison, Bartholomew 
Worthington, John Mitton, and Henry Chorley shll cause their 
middings lying before their Barnes, in fishergate Lane,^ to be 
removed before ye first day of May next, in paine of every one 
makeing default vjs. viijd. 

1. Steele Is a dialect word for stile. 

2. Clarke yard would be the narrow passage, still rotaininpr the same 
name, on the north side of Church-strcot, between St. John-street and 
North -road. 

3. Hesketh field may have been ITesketh Croft, which is referred to in 
a special order of the Corporation made in the latter part of the 17th 
century, and was at the rear of a residence called Hesketh House. This 
house was on the west side of Friargate, evidently somewhere between what 
is now the top end of Marsh-lane (late higher part of Bridge-street) and the 
present Edward-street, and presumably near the entrance of the latter way. 

4. Fishergate-lane was the present Fishergate-hill. When this present- 
ment was made, it is probable, almost certain, that there was not a 
dwelling-house of any kind on Fishergate-hill ; and for many years after- 
wards the state of affairs, in respKSct to the absence of houses, large or 
small, in this part, was precisely the same. On each side of the road-way, 
from top to bottom, barring the openings to branching lanes, there was a 
hedge. No flanking building is shown on the Rebellion map (1715), or on 
Buck's " Prospect " (1728), or Lang's map (1774) ; and there is none visible 
on Shakeshaft's plan of the borough (1809), the nearest existing buildings 
shown thereon being a house at the bottom of the hill (on the same site and 
probably the same building as that which in later years became, and still 
is, the Regatta inn), and two houses, or a dwelling with an adjoining barn, 
about 100 yards off the road, on the north side, close to a field a portion 
of which, transversely, afterwards formed the site of Stanley Terrace. 
Between 1809 and 1812 three houses were erected on the south side of 
Fishergate-hill, near the top — the present Nos. 8, 9, and 10. On the north 
side there were built, within the same period, four or five houses, which 
ran up to the south-west corner of a newly laid-out but unnamed and 
structureless street, on the line of what had been an old lane, about 60 

78 Preston Court Leet. 

Mr. James Hodgkinson, Mr. Wm. Shawe, Mr. John Marsh 
shall Lay upp their Timber close to ye Church wall side, and soe 
shall all others yt have any timber there, before ye first of May 
next, upon paine of every one vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet, held on the 3(>th of March, 1657, in the 
Moot Hall, before Seth Blackhurst (Mayor),^ John Cottam^ and 

yards long, leading to some fields. This street afterwards became part of 
Bow-lane. Two or three houses adjoining and at the bottom of those on 
the north side were put up at or about the eame time, and they formed 
the nucleus of the lot now on Spring Bank ; the site of them being at the 
top end of an enclosure called Spring Head Field. Stanley Terrace, off Fisher- 
gate-hill, on the north side, was laid out between 1809 and 1812; but at 
the latter date it contained only one or two houses, at the north end. 
Between 1812 and 1822 there was no addition at all to the houses on the 
south side of the hill — the entire number on that side being only three. 
But some extensions were made on the other side, viz., three houses near 
the entrance to Spring Bank — one above and two below ; Spring Bank was 
also nearly filled in with houses, whilst Stanley Terrace was completed. 
The hill road about half-way down its course was likewise widened and 
somewhat straightened — an advantageous alteration made, no doubt, under 
the Improvement Act obtained by the local authorities in 1815. Up to 1822 
fields mainly were at the rear of the houses on each side of Fishergate-hill. 
In the 14 years from 1822 to 1836 there there was not much building 
indulged in on Fishergate-hill; only ten additional houses were erected — 
five on the south side, two immediately above the entrance to Walton's- 
parado (which in 1836 contained about half a dozen dwellings near the 
north-east corner), and three directly below it; whilst of the remaining 
five, on the other side of the hill, two were, between Jordan-street 
and Bow-lane, and three between Bow-lane and Spring Bank. 
From 1836 to 1861 there were built, on Fishergate-hill, thirty-one 
houses ; between 1861 and 1880, three ; and from 1880 up to the present, 
seventeen ; and all these, with the exception of two (adjoining and 
immediately above Bow-lane), have been built on the south side. Some of 
the houses are now used for both residential and business purposes in 
combination. The whole of the houses, &c., in the streets flanking Fisher- 
gate-hill on the south side below West Cliff, with the exception of South 
Meadow-lane, have been built since about 1847 — the great bulk, in fact, 
since 1868. 

1. See note p. 20. 

2. At the Guild of 1622 William Cottam, described as a chapman, was 
made an in-burgess, by Court Roll, on the payment of 20s. A William 
Cottam later became an Alderman, &c., and he was the first Cottam of 
the in-burgess order. John Cottam, described as a gentleman, appears as 
an in-burgess on the Court Roll for 1662. Five other Cottams are men- 
tioned on the same list. There is a John Cottam named on the Roll for 
1682; but apparently he is not the one just referred to. William, whose 
name appears on the same Roll, and who is described as a salter, i^as 

Preston Court Leet. 79 

Henry Wilson^ (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Ye Supvizors of ye height wayes shall repaire and amend ye 
Causey at Salter house,^ and make ye lane from thence to Swill- 
brooke good and passable for cart and carriage, before ye first of 
June next, in paine of xs. 

Ye persons hereafter named, whoe contrary to theire oathes 
as burgesses beinge sumoned by ye Sergeants not havinge or 
cravinge any Lisense from Mr. Maior, did absent themselves from 

chosen the Mayor's Bailiff for 1682-3 ; in 1685 he was elected a member ol 
the Council ; and in 1696 he died. In 1694 Samuel Cottam was the Mayor*6 
Bailiff. The Roll for 1702 contains the names of several in-burgess 
Cottams ; and later burgess lists include persons of the same name. After 
1683 no one bearing the name appears to have been connected, in a repre- 
sentative character, with the Preston Corporation till 1860, when Henry 
Cottam was elected a member of the Town Council — a position which he 
occupied for three years. 

1. Wilson is an old and oft-recurring name in the local burgess records ; 
and it is several times met with, but at considerably later stages, in 
the Council lists. There are several in-burgess Wilsons on the 1622 Roll, one 
of them bearing the name of Lawrence, who died some time before 1642, 
and whose son Henry, a glover, is named as an in-burgess on the Roll for 
that year. This Henry — the Henry, no doubt, who sat as a Bailiff at the 
Court Leet — along with three of his sons and a grandson, as well as another 
Henry, who was in all probability a relation, appears amongst the in- 
burgesses on the Roll for 1662. He died before the next Guild came round 
(1682), and at that time the Roll included only two of his direct descendants 
— a son and a grandson. By and by, this Wilson line gets still smaller, 
and the next Guild Roll does not, apparently, contain the names of any 
burgesses having a connection with Henry. In 1759-60 the town's Bailiff, 
at Preston, was one Thomas Wilson, and he, or a pi^rson of the same name, 
was a member of the Guild Council in 1782. and the Mayor's Bailiff at the 
Guild in 1802. Richard Wilson was the town's Bailiff in 1768-9, and W. 
Wilson was the Mayor's Bailiff in 1787-8. The name does not come up 
again with any prominence in connection with the old Corporate regime ; 
and since the time when the *' reformed Corporation " was fully con- 
stituted, in 1836, until now only two persons bearing the name have been 
members of it, viz., William Wilson, who had a seat for Trinity Ward from 
November 1st, 1843, to November 15th, 1847, and Edward Wilson, solicitor, 
of Broughton House, near Preston, who was one of the representatives of 
Christ Church Ward from December 22nd, 1857, to November Ist, 1863. 
The latter is the only surviving member of the Guild Corporation of 1862. 

2. Salter House was probably situated in the present Manchester-road, 
near the south-east corner of Shepherd-street, beyond which there was, 
down to about the end of the 18th century, no residential property nearer 
than this to Swillbrook. 

80 Preston Court Leet. 

theire duty to this Leete without any Lawful! cause as abovesaid, 
Wee amerce the[m] in evy one of them iis. apeece. — [Here follow 
the names of 70 defaulters.] 

Henry Burton for keepinge false weights for buyinge and 
sellinge . . . wee leave to bee examined and considered upon 
by Mr. Maior and his Councell. 

The now bailiffs to cause ye Causeway^ to bee repaired 
betwixt ye bridge and the schoole house,^ and that ye same be 
repaired before ye first day of June, upon pain of iijs. iiijd. 

Mr. Wm. Patten for yt his sonne and His servante have 
abused and foyled^ ye Towns bull, by sleating^ doggs upon him ; 
therefore wee referre ye ffine to bee ordered by Mr. Maior and 
the most pte of his councell. 

James Parcevell did make a Tusle in ye Church with Willm 
Clarkson and abused him, wherefore wee amerce him to pay 

• • • • ^ 

js. ujd. 

Margt ye wife of Nicholas Watson for making a Tusle with 
Richard Tyssinge, and struck at him with a board, and did hit 
him on ye face, and thereof did Drawe blood, therefore wee 
amerce her to pay 5s. 

The pinders . . . have not brought unto us any prsent- 
mets, and therefore for their neglect wee amerce them, to pay 
vjs. viijd. apeece, or els to be punishd at ye discression of the 
Maior and his bretheren. 

[After the presentments there is a list of persons, 29 in 
number, made stallengers; the money paid for the privilege 
varying from 2d. (two widows are respectively charged this 
amount) to 10s.] 

Inquisition taken at Preston on the 3rd of October, 1657, 
before the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Steward aforenamed. Only one 
presentment, as follows, was made by the Jury, viz.. That upon 

1. The causeway would be either at the bottom of Syke-hill or along 
the line of the present Shepherd-street. 

2. The *'6choole house" was the old Grammar School situated at 
or near the bottom of Stoneygate. 

3. ** Foyled " means to oppress, or overcome, or cause to fall. 

4. " Sleating " is the old provincial English word slating, sigrnifying to 
set a dog or dogs loose at anything. 

Preston Court Leet. 81 

viewe of one Hyde of Tannd Leather of ye Goods of Mrs. 
Assheton, of Cuerdall,^ they find one piece of ye neck thereof 
to ye value of 9d. to bee insufficiently tanned, but do not find yt 
ye same was exposed to sale, And ye same is acknowledged by 
Roger Tomlinson to bee searched and sealed by him amongst 
other hydes at unawares.^ 

Great Court Leet, held on the 23rd of October, 1657, before 
Edmund Werden (Mayor), Thomas Bostock and Roger Riving- 
ton (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

The exercise of Artillery is not used, exercised, within this 
Towne accordinge to the forme of ye statute in such case made 
and provided, and ye now bailiffs of this Towne shall forthwith 
cause the Butts to be prepared and keepe them in good repaire, 
and shall sett Railes about them to preserve them from Cattell 
rubbing upon them and pulling them downe. 

Ye Assize of bread and Ale is not observed according to ye 
statute, and desire Mr. Maior will take care yt ye officers 
sworn for ye purpose do duely execute theire office. 

Ye now bailiffes of this towne shall cause the ffish stones to 
bee put in good repaire before the 13th day of December next, 
in paine of vjs. viijd. 

John Hodgkinson, butcher, did affront and abuse Thomas 
Burton, sergeant of this towne, in ye due execucon of his office, 
upon ye 28th of October last, being ye ffayre day, on wch hee 
would had [have] tryed ye weights according to his oath and 

1. Evidently there was at this time a tannery, or some receptacle for 
hides when tanned, in Cuerdale. The goods referred to had apparently 
been brought to Preston, but not openly offered for sale. Mrs. Aseheton, 
of Cuerdale, was most probably the wife or widow of an Assheton related 
to or a member of the Assheton family who for many years resided at and 
owned Cuerdale Hall as well as a quantity of adjoining property. Cuerdale 
Hall was in some parts rebuilt by William Assheton, in 1700. It is now 
and has been for many years occupied as a farm house. A short distance 
west of Cuerdale Hall, and close to the Ribble, there was unearthed, in 
1840, a leaden chest containing various ingots and ornaments of silver and 
about 7,000 coins which ranged in date from a.d. 814 to 900 — hidden, it has 
been conjectured, at a time when some serious trouble or conflict prevailed 
or was apprehended. 

2. ** Unawares " means by mistake on the part of Tomlinson, the sealer. 


82 Preston Court Leet. 

office, And forasmuch as ye same abuse was contrary to his oath 
(if a sworn burgesse) and to ye evill example of othrs, and 
absolutely repugnant to the Xlth ordr of Mr. Prestons Guild,^ 
wee do therefore according to ye said order amerce him, ye said 
John Hodgkinson, vjs. viijd. 

There is a great abuse by reason of swine pulling mens 
sacks in pieces on the markett day, and for the prvencon thereof 
wee do give in verdict of all ownrs of swine shall keepe them 
upp on ye markett daies, upon paine of every one offending to 
forfeit for every offence xijd. Mr. Maior is desired to appoint 
a man on purpose to take notice of such offences and offendors. 

Inquisition taken on the 27th of October, 1657, before the 
Mayor, Bailiffs, and Steward. Only one jury presentment, viz. : 
— That a piece of a Bend and one piece of Lether of the Goods 
of Thomas Card well to ye value of x viijd. is insufficiently tanned. 

Inquisition taken on the 10th of February, 1658, before the 
Mayor, &c. 

Presentments : — 

John Twisleton, Mr. Willm Sudell, and Mr. Edward ffrench, 
and Mr. Willm Hodgkinson — that they dense their ditches along 
ye side of ye dacker gate,^ that ye water may have a right Course, 
before ye 25th of May, upon paine of evy one of them 06s. 08d. 

1. Mr. Preston was Mr. Williaan Preston, who was Guild Mayor in 
1622. The Guild order referred to states that inconveniences and dis- 
contentments tending to the breach of the King's peace and to the 
prejudice of the free Burgesses and Inhabitants had been stirred up by 
some idle, young and greenheaded, ill nurtured and worse educated persons, 
as well against the Mayor and Bailiffs as against Jurors, Sergeants, and 
other inferior oflBicers, &c., for reformation whereof it was ordered that after 
the sealing up of this Guild any person or persons whateoever within this 
Town or the Liberties thereof saying any uncivil word or doing any uncivil 
act or deed against the Mayor, or any of the Aldermen or brethren of the 
Common Council, or any Bailiff, Steward, or other officer, should for the 
first offence forfeit the sum of 6s. 8d., for the second offence be fined 
13s. 4d. and imprisoned at the discretion- of the Mayor and Council, and 
for the third offence be disfranchised. 

2. ** Dacker gate '* would be a road or way afterwards called Acregate, 
and forming the line of the present Acregate-lane on the eaat side of 
the town, 

Preston Court Leet. 83 

Mr. James Hodgkinson — that hee scoure his ditch along ye 

side of ye longe accker,i before ye 25th day of March upon paine 

of 06s. 8d. 

, Mr. James Hodgkinson — that hee open his platt and scoure 

his ditch alonge ye side of Hespitt field, before ye 25th of March 

upon paine of 06s. 08d. 

Rich Rydinge — that hee scoure his ditch alonge ye Rydinge 
hey,^ from his house along lane to ye sikes, before ye 25th March, 
upon paine of 13s. 04d. 

Robte ShakeshafFte — that hee scoure his ditches at ye end 
of his 2 closes called ye great park and ye little park, in Meadow 
lane, before ye first of April, upon paine of 06s. 06d.^ 

Mr. Maior — that hee scoure his Ditch alonge the side of 
Crooke Accor^ to ye lane, before the It of Aprill, upon paine 
of 06 08d. 

Mr. Willm Sudell — that hee open his ditch alonge ye Docke 
accer,® from Mr. Morts yate, all alonge the side to ye lane, before 
ye It of Aprill upon paine of 06s. 08d. 

Robert Haighton — that hee cast up his cope^ and sett two 
steeles at ye hobie horse field,^ before ye first of Aprill, upon 
paine of 06s. 08d. 

Ye pindrs to give Notice to all ye Inhabitants of this Towne 
that they make their Gardens hedges and Ringe yards^ before 
the 5th of March or pay 06s. 08d. 

1. Two fields between Ribbleton-lane and Newhall-lane, and about 300 
yards east of where the House of Correction stands, used to be called Long 
Acres. Moet likely " longe aocker," or Long Acre, was one of them. 

2. See note p. 26. 

3. "Meadow lane*' was just below the present West Cliff; Grafton- 
street now runs more or less on the line of it. ** Great park '* and ** little 
park " would be two fields, one being about a third larger than the other, 
on the upper and west side of the lane. 

4. See note p. 19. 

5. Docke aocer, i.e., Dagger Gate — Daker Gate, or Acre Gate. 

6. Cop, a Northern dialect word meaning an enclosing bank. 

7. Hobie horse, i.e., hobby horse — a small, light, or medium-sized nag; 
sometimes a name given to a small horse or pony chiefly in Scotland. 
There was, in the latter part of the 18th century, a field called Little 
Horse Hey, on Maudlands, close to the higher part of the present Well- 

8. Ring yards were staked or hedged fences for the temporary enclosure 
of certain portions of land. In the records of the Urmston Halmote (Court 

84 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on the 7th of May, 1658, in the Moot 
Hall, before Edmund Werden (Mayor), Thomas Bostock and 
Roger Rivington (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the 

Presentments : — 

The exercise of Artillery is not used or exercised within this 
Towne accordinge to the statute in such cases made and pvided, 
and the now Bailiffs of this Towne shall forthwith cause the butts 
to bee repaired and keepe them in good repaire, and shall set 
railes about them from [to prevent] Catle rubbinge upon them 
and pullinge them downe. 

Widdow Huson — that shee set 2 sufficient steel es and scouer 
her ditch alonge hollin head square,^ before ye 25th of March, 
and to keepe it open, or pay 06s. 08d. 

Lawr. Cowp — that hee make his weare betwixe him and 
Mr. Langtons sykes,^ at the Lower end of the field Called Hepp- 
greave,^ before ye 25th of March, or pay 06s. 08d. 

John Higham — that hee scour his Ditch and cut his wood, 
at ye North end of the Allow lane,^ to his own yate, that ye water 

of the Demesne Manor) there occur the names "Ring yate," "Rendyard," 
and " Rin? yard " — ^the last appearing most frequently. In his ** Court 
Rolls of the Honour of ditheroe " Mr. Wm. Farrer says that a Ring 
yard was a temporary fence, probably made of stakes and moveable 
cross-bars. Mr. H. T. Crofton in his "History of the Ancient Chapel of 

Stretford in Manchester Parish," &c., observes that a fence of the kind 
juet mentioned was probably erected upon a reean, roone, or uncultivated 
strip of land, in order to separate commonable meadow land or stubble 
from growing crops of either grain or grass, and was made moveable, so 
that, when the crops had been cut and harvested, the stubble or cleared 
meadow might then be thrown open to the adjoining common again for the 
pasturage of cattle, and that the ren-gard was put up again between mid 
March and mid April, in illustration of which he cites two old bye-laws, 
one made in the Halmote at Colne, in 1496, directing that "whoso has 
his ryng yorde not made up by myd April sail lose ijs.,** and the other 
passed at Extwisell, in 1561, ordering "all ringe yardes to be made afore 
ye XV of March yearly, sub poena iijs. iiijd., and at ye same day al cattel 
to be avoyded out of ye fields under like pains." 

1. In the 16th and 17th centuries persons named HoUynshead and Hollin- 
head resided at Preston. None of the old maps locate this square. 

2. Langtons sykes would be Furham Sykes. 

3. See note p. 23. 

4. Allow lane may have been Alley-lane, which, presumably, was on the 
south side of Marsh-lane, on or about the line of the present Buckingham- 

Preston Court Leet. 85 

may have its usuall Course, before the 25th of March, upon paine 
of 06s. 08d. 

Geo. Blundell — that hee scoure his ditch to ye lane,^ along 
sucklinge sikes,^ and open his groops^ downe thorrow ye middle 
of ye sikes, before ye 25th of March, or pay 06s. 08d. 

Theise sevall psons hereafter named for the forestallinge of 
the Markett,^ by Buyinge of fish in the Market and taking the 
same to their houses and afterwards on the same day bringeth 
the said ffish soe bought by them, by peels from their said 
houses, and sellinge ye same againe in the Markett, and there- 
fore to bee fined at the discretion of Mr. Maior and his Counsell, 
vizt., Evan Huson, John Duckworth, Jo. Cowbome, and Jennet 
the wife of John Harrisan. 

Willm Threlfall, John Kilshawe, Ralph Kilshaw, and 
George Gray are forraigners and suffered to inhabit within this 
Towne, and to sell Wood and Wooden Vessells all ye weeke 
alonge, to the great Prejudice of other [? the] free Burgesses 
within this Towne. Wee doe therefore pnte and say that they 
shall forbeare to Trade till they have Compounded^ with Mr. 

1. The lane would be that mentioned in the last presentment. 

2. Sucklinge sikes was probably another name for Furham Sykes, which 
had different names at different places in its course. 

3. The word groop primarily means a drain or gutter in a stable or 
cow house ; in a secondary sense it means a small trench, ditch, or open 
drain in a field ; and in the latter sense it is evidently used in the present- 

3. At this time forestalling was an offence at common law: it con- 
sisted in the buying or contracting for merchandise or victual on its way 
to a market with the intention of selling it at such market at a higher 
price, or dissuading persons from bringing goods or provisions thereto, or 
persuading them to enhance the price when brought. But the above- 
mentioned cases simply involved buying and selling in the market on one 
and the same day. Nothing is said in the presentment as to the chief 
object of forestalling — increased selling price. The oldest Charter in the 
archives of the Corporation of Preston — that granted by Henry II. — 
includes forestalling amongst the penalised offences. Forestalling was 
abolished, as an offence, by 7 and 8 Vic. c. 24. 

4. The words '* till they have compounded " would seem to imply (vide 
Taylor's Kuerden, p. 63) till they had been made Court Roll burgesses; 
whilst the alternative " or bee stallenged " meant the securing of permi^ion 
from the authorities to trade in the town ; and each plan involved the 
payment of sums varying with the aifferent circumstances of the persons 

B6 tKEstON Court Leei. 

Maior and his Councell for their fFreedomes or bee stallenged, 
upon paine for evy of them to forfeit for evy offence the some of 
vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet, held on the 22nd of October, 1658, 
before Evan Wall (Mayor),i Oliver Shawe and John Sumpner 
(Bailiffs), and William Shawe (Steward of the Court). 

1. Evan Wall, the Mayor at this time, who had previously occupied the 
same position, in 1660, and who for some time subsequent thereto had 
officiated as Steward of the Court Leet, was connected with an old and 
very important local family. For many generations — from the early part 
of the 15th century to the latter portion of the 18th — persons of the name 
of Wall were prominent in-burgesses of Preston, and several of them held 
high municipal positions in the borough. In 1542 one of the Guild Stewards 
was named Evan Wall. From 1580 to 1592 a person called Wall was the 
Vicar of Preston. Evan and Lawrence eeem to have been favourite or very 
persistent names amongst the Walls: they appear on nearly every Guild 
Roll for 220 years, commencing on that for 1542 and being noticeable on all 
the subsequent Rolls — in respect to Evan till 1742, and in the case of 
Lawrence till 1762. The Guild Roll for the latter year contains but two 
burgesses named Wall — Lawrence and Edward Wall, both of Preston, and 
both attorneys-at-law. The name of Wall does not appear at all on the 
Roll for 1782. And for many years afterwards it was, burgessly, non- 
existent. The Mayoralty of Preston was held 15 times by persons bearing 
the name of Wall. An order was made when Lawrence Wall was Mayor, 
for the second time, showing that the CJouncil had the right or power 
to appoint a curate for Preston Parish Church. A minute, under date 
February 20th, 1722-23, in the Corporate records, says : — " Mr. John Young, 
the present Curate of Preston, being lately presented to Brindle, the 
Council ordered that Mr. James Mathews be elected Curate, at the same 
salary.*' As the money given by the Council for this remunerative purpose 
amounted to only £10 a year, such sum could not have been the full 
salary, but simply an allowance or contribution towards it. A few years 
after the above order had been made the Vicar or somebody in authority 
at the Church had apparently come to the conclusion that the parish Beadle 
was more of a Corporate than ecclesiastical servant — anyhow, that he was 
not further entitled to certain pecuniary favours which he had in the past 
enjoyed in connection with the Church, and the whole or a portion thereof 
was stopped. At th© time the duties which devolved upon the official in 
question were of a decidedly complex, incongruous character, and amounted 
to a sort of ludicrous jumble: he was, simultaneously, the beadle, sexton, 
town crier or bellman, swine-herd, and public scavenger. By way of 
retaliating for the stoppage or curtailment of the pecuniiury favours alluded 
to, the Council, on the 20th of February, 1728, "ordered that the salary 
of £10 per annum which had been paid for some time to the present Curate 
of Preston out of the Towncs Revenue be withdrawn and suspended during 
such time as the Beadle of the Corporation has any of his perquisites 
withdrawn and taken from him." 

Preston Court LeeT. 87 

Presentments : — 

The stallengers allowed by Mr. Maior and Councell may 
not have Libty to the Moore and Marsh to turne catle to, or to 
Keepe comon Alehouses, wch we conceive a great prejudice to 
ye free Burgesses of this Burrogh, and desire that care may bee 
taken for the prvencon thereof and that or [other] Libtyes and 
freedomes may bee maintained.^ 

Whereas there was a Barrelle of Beefe left in ye comon 
streete in fFryergate, which beinge disowned by ye supposed 
owners, John Clifton and George Birches, and noe one layinge 
clayme thereunto. And pte of wch said Beife was carried upp 
and downe the streete by doggs and swine, to ye great greefe 
of the neighborringe Inhabitants, Wee therefore thinke fittinge 
yt ye Overseers for ye poore shall cause the remaindr thereof 
valued, wch is fittinge for mans meat, and ye same to distribute 
to ye poore Inhitants of this Burrogh as they may see cause. 
Pte of the said Beefe as before was valued by John Hodgkinsin, 
Christor Darwen, Tho. Comberall, and Henry Graddell at 10s. 

Anderton, sonn of John Anderton, pulls downe mens 
hedges, and therefore to bee punished at ye discression of Mr. 

Inquisition taken on the 9th of February, 1659, before the 
Mayor, Bailiffs, and Steward, who sat at the last Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffs shall repaire the Two Cawles wch is made 
upon the Marsh, and [we] doe desire that Mr. Maior and his 
Council wold ordr two more to bee made neare unto the Place 
where the old Milne^ stood, or where it may bee thought most 
conveinent, haveinge found by experience the benefitt of the 
said Cawles.'^ 

1. The Mayor, as Chief Magistrate, and one or more of the Council — 
not because they were members of that body, but in consequence of being 
magistrates — had power to allow or forbid the selling of ale within the 

2. The old mill was near the north-east corner of the Marsh. 

3. The two additional cawles would be for weir or dam-head purposes. 

68 Preston Court Leet. 

Upon the oathes of tenn ould men, there is a Comon foote- 
path and Highway^ from Ribble Bridge down by Albon Steepe,^ 
upon a baulke lyinge betweene the Lande late of John Sudell, 
feltmaker, now in the possession of Edward Hindle, and the 
Lande of Lawrence Bostocke, butcher, in a crtaine fFeild called 
Water Willowe,'^ and from the said Albon Steepe upon the said 
Bawk to the house end of the said Lawrence Bostocke, in 
Cockerhoale,'* wch said footpath and Highway was stopt by a 
staffe and bande hedge^ by the said Edward Hindle appoint- 
ment, to ye great prjudice of the Inhitants of this Towne. 
Therefore the said Edward Hindle shall cause the same [to be] 
pulled downe before the twenty fift March next, else to pay xxxxs. 
And if ever hee or any for him shall hereafter Comitt ye same 
Trespasse shall forfitt xli. 

Mr. James Hodgkinson hath not scowred his ditches in 
Newhall Lane,^ accoringe to tyme given him, to the great 
priudice of that way, and therefore to pay vjs. viijd. 

1. A considerable portion of Swillbrook-lane, south-east of Lark Hill, 
takes the line of the old footpath. Ribble Bridge crossed the river about 
90 yards below what is now called Walton bridge. It was superseded by 
that bridge, which was built in 1779-81, and it was soon afterwards pulled 
down — ^all of it, with the exception of portions of one or two piers, the last 
visible remnant thereof being demolished in 1867. 

2. Albon Steep was the slope of a brow in a field called Great Albin 
Hey, on the higher side of which Lark Hill house was built, about the 
beginning of last century, by Mr. S. Horrocks, one of the Parliamentary 
representatives of Preston from 1804 to 1826. A residence called Albyn 
Bank was erected at or about the same time a little to the north-east of 
Lark Hill. And the name seems to be of the persistent or favourite kind, 
for in the neighbourhood of Albyn Bank there are Albyn Bank-road, Albyn 
Bank-street, and Albyn-street. 

3. The field named Water Willow (deecribed in a subsequent present- 
ment as "a Coman feild *') was immediately north of Great Albin Hey. 

4. Cockerholo was the north or Church-street end of Water-street. 

5. A '' staffe and bande hedge " would be a hedge made with stakes 
raddled with thorns or hazel, generally both. The Wesleyan Methodist 
chapel in Woodplumpton, near Preston, which was erected about 1819, used 
to be called by many of the local folk ** Staff anban chapel," and it is said 
that this name was given to the edifice because there was in front of it, 
or near it, a staff and band fence. 

6. This presentment contains the first mention of New Hall-lane in the 
Court Leet records. 

Preston Court Leet. 89 

Great Court Leet, held on April 19th, 1659, before Evan 
AVall (Mayor), Oliver Shaw and John Sumpner (BailifiFs), and 
William Shaw (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

The now bailiffs for the neglect in their office . . . have 
not caused a stopp to bee set at the end of the Turne Steele in 
the Weend leadinge downe to Minspitt Well, to prvent horses 
and catle for goeinge downe to the same, And have not repaired 
the said Well and the stones set in ordr, As also have not paved 
within the barrs, from Barres to Barres, in needful places, as in 
Chur[ch]gate, ffishergate, and ffryergate, Therefore to pay for 
their Contempt 6s. 8d. a peece, and if not done before the 15th 
oi August next 10s. a peece more. 

Ellen Haworth, wife of Roger Haworth, for scowleinge and 
abuseing Mary, the wife of John Higham, with verry uncivell 
Language, to the bad example of others (if unpunished), as 
appeares by an Informacon, given upon oath before Mr. Maior, 
Therefore to pay for this offence 2s. 6d., otherwise Mr. Maior 
is desired to cause the said Ellen punished by bridleinge^ her 
through the Towne or otherwise as Mr. Mair shall thinke fitt. 

1. " Bridleinge " was effected by means of a bridle, more frequently 
called brank — a ga.^ for scolds. A brank consisted of a sort of horizontal 
iron hoop, surmounted by an arched band of iron, sometimes centrally 
hinged, rising from the front and the back. The hoop was, as a rule, 
laterally hinged: it was put round the lower part of the face and head, 
the line of it extending on each side from the chin to the nape of the neck ; 
on the inner side of the front part of it there was a ** bit " or gag — ^a piece 
of metal, generally flat and smooth, though in some instances rough or 
spiked, which pressed upon the tongue so as to keep it quiet. The sur- 
mounting band, which had in front of it an aperture through which the 
nose passed, went over the head, and, when fastened at the back, it pre- 
vented the ** victim " from removing the brank. A small chain was usually 
attached to the hoop, and by it the scold was led along the general route 
specified in the court presentment, kc. In some places — certainly at 
Nottingham — clamorous, bad-tongued men as well as female scolds were 
subjected to the brank ; but it was mainly put on the latter — as a rule put 
on when the tumbrel or the cucking stool had proved ineffectual. There 
used to be a brank at Preston House of Correction. About 1838 brank 
punishment at Preston House of Correction was discontinued. At the time 
referred to the brank had been put on a female prisoner there. By some 
means, the Home Secretary got to know of this, and directly afterwards — 
in accordance with an order received by the Governor — the old gagging 
plan was discarded, and the brank sent to London. 

90 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on October 12th, 1659, before 
William Sudell (Mayor), Symon Hynd^ and Thomas Dewhurst^ 
(Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Anne, the wife of Matthew Dickson, who by Informacon of 
Jennett, the wife of John Preesall, declareth that the said Anne 

1. In the latter half of the 16th century persons named Hynd first come 
into view as burgesses of Preston : in the century directly following several 
bearing the name took a conspicuous part in local municipal affairs. On 
the Roll for the Guild in 1702 only one is met with — a clergyman of Man- 
chester. After this the name disappears entirely — in neither the in nor the 
out-burgc6s section is it met with. 

2. The first reference in the burgess records of Preeton to any one 
named Dewhurst occurs in a curious note immediately following the 
general list of persons admitted by Court Roll at the Guild in 1622. The 
note runs as follows: — " Will'm's Dewhurst admitted a Burgesse att the 
instance of George Wilkinson of Spattle Moss yff the said 
George leave hym the said Will'm his estaite in the livinge 
w'ch hee the said George nowe haith and yff not the ffree- 
dome of the said Will'm to bee utterlie voide xxs." The sum 
specified is what was paid for the conditional burgess freedom. As the 
name of this William Dewhurst does not appear in any subsequent Roll, 
he evidently did not inherit Wilkinson*s estate, and consequently his free- 
dom became ** utterlie voide.*' The earliest "regularly made" burgesses 
named Dewhurst appear on the " in " portion of the Guild Roll for 1642. 
Five — two called James and three Thomas — were enrolled in-burgessos at 
the Guild in that year. In 1659-60 Thomas Dewhurst was the town's 
Bailiff at Preeton. The name of Dewhurst is entirely off the Guild Roll for 
1682; but it crops up again on that for 1702, though apparently in con- 
nection with the members of a separate family. On the Guild Roll for 
1722 eleven in-burgesses are named Dewhurst ; towards the middle of the 
century the number still further increased — on the Roll for 1742 there 
were 15 Dewhursts, four bearing the name of Thomas. At the Guild in 
1882 five Dewhursts were enrolled in-burgessos. The Guild Roll for 1902 
contains just one burgess named Dewhurst — one of the " in ** kind, and 
described as a guilder. Several persons named. Dewhurst have had a Cor- 
porate connection with Preston. In 1819 Hugh Dewhurst was elected 
Mayor of the borough (his Bailiff being named Thomas Dewhuret), and he 
was chosen to fill the same position in 1827. From 1838 to 1844 one of the 
Councillors for St. George's Ward was Daniel Dewhurst; from 1839 to 
1845 Thomas Dewhurst was a municipal representative of the same ward; 
John Dewhurst, corn miller, was a Councillor for St. Peter's Ward from 
1839 to 1848; Thomas Dewhurst (corn and flax mill manager and a nephew 
of the afore-named Daniel and John) was elected a Councillor for Trinity 
Ward in 1864, and he continued as such till his death in 1877 ; and Thomas 
Dewhurst, auctioneer, &c. (a nephew of the gentleman last named) is now 
a Councillor for Maudland Ward. 

Preston Court Leet. 91 

swore two oathes by God, for wch ofiFence wee amerce her to pay 
vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Maior shall cause the Inhabitant Burgesses within this 
Towne being of xxj yeares of age and upwards [who] asyet hath 
not taken the oath of a Burgessese to bee sumoned to appeare 
to bee sworne before him according to the custome of this 
Towne; and as many as shall refuse to take their oath to pay 
vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet " of or [our] Soveraigne Lord Charles the 
Second,^ by the Grace of God Kinge of England, Scotland, 
ffrance, and Ireland, Defender of the ffaith, &c., holden at the 
Burrogh or Towne of Preston aforesaid, in the Moothall there, 
the Elleaventh day of May, in the Twelfth yeare [1660] of his 
Maties Raigne," before William Sudell (Mayor), Symon Hynd 
and Thomas Dewhurst (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the 

Presentments : — 

Ann Ingham for layinge her worthinge^ by the Churchgate 
bans, at the way syde leadinge through Cockerhole, to the great 
anoyance of the said way, that shee remove it before the first of 
August or to bee fiyned at the discretion of Mr. Major and his 
Councell, and not offend by layinge any more in that place, upon 
paine to forfeite for every offence 3s. 4d. 

Great Court Leet held in the Moot hall, on the 19th of 
October, 1660, before James Hodgkinson (Mayor), Richard 
Hodgkinson and James Abbott (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall 
(Steward of the Court.) — The Latinising of the Court heading — 
discontinued during the Commonwealth — is now resumed. 

1. Charles Prince of Wales, who was the eldest son of Charles I., and 
who should have become King by right on the death of his father, but whose 
proclamation was prohibited by the Parliamentary party, is here recognised 
as King. The Commonwealth period is completely ignored in the heading, 
and Charles II.'s reign is computed from the time when his father was 
beheaded, on the 30th of January, 1649, to the day when the Court Leet 
met — a little over 11^ years. 

2. The ** worthinge " which is referred to as being such an annoyance 
was decaying animal or vegetable substances. 

92 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

Edward Eccles of this Towne hath denied [refused] to sell 
ale and beare according to the 9th Statute made in the first year 
of Kinge James, and therefore wee fyne him xxs., according to 
the said Statute.^ 

Robert Brindle of this Towne doth make and sell Mault 
within this Towne Contrary to the jjth [11th] ordr of Mr. 
Catterall's Guild.^ Therefore wee desire that Mr. Maior will 
puse [peruse] the said Ordr and impose wt [what] fyne or impose 
such punishment as hee thinks fittinge. 

Great Court Leet, held on the 10th of April, 1661, before 
James Hodgkinson (Mayor), Richard Hodgkinson and James 
Abbott (Bailiffs), and Evan Wall (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Silcocke is an Eve dropp, commonly called Eseing 
dropps,^ and stands under mens windows Jisoning and carrieing 
stories betwixt neighbour and neighbour, to the great disquietnes 
of neighbours and to the evell example of others, therefore to 
pay xiijs. iiijd. 

1. The object of this Act of Parliament was " to restrain the inordinate 
Haunting and Tipling in Inns, Alehouses, and other Victualling-Houses." 
The preamble states that '* the ancient, true, and principal Use of Inns, 
Alehouses, and Victualling-houses was for the receit, Relief and Lodging 
of Wayfaring people travelling from Place to Place, and for such supply 
of the wants of such people eus are not able by greater Quantities to make 
their Provision of Victuals, and not meant for Entertainment and Har- 
bouring of lewd and idle People to spend and consume their Money and 
their Time in lewd and drunken Manner." By one section of this statute 
— apparently the section which Eccles, named in the presentment, refused 
to comply with — it is enacted " that if any Inn-Keeper, Alehouse Keeper 
or Victualler shall at any Time utter or sell less than one full Ale Quart 
of the best beer or Ale for a Penny, and of the small Two Quarts for One 
Penny, that then every such Inn-Keeper, Alehouse Keei)er or Victualler 
shall forfeit for every such Offence, being duly proved in Manner above 
limited, the Sum of Twenty Shillings of Lawful Money of England." 

2. "Mr. Catterall's Guild" was held in 1602, when Henry Catterall 
was the Guild Mayor. The 11th order of the Guild named prohibited 
strangers or non-burgesses from making malt in the town. 

3. '* Eve dropp " or ** Eseing dropps " — i.e., eavesdropper — ^is a name 
originally applied to a person who stood close to the eavesdrop of a house 
(or the ground between the wall and the part on which fell rain water 
from the edge of the overhanging slates or thatch) for the purpose of 
secretly listening to the conversation of the people within. 

Pfeston Court Leet. 93 

Henry Graddell, upon the jjth Order of Mr. Prestons 
Cuild for abuseinge of officrs, fFor that hee by raileinge 
speeches, uncivell and unseemly words, and Curseings 
utterd and spoken against the Maior of this Towne and Comon 
Councell of the same towne, to the Evell Example of others to 
offend in the like if not pn*ented, wee therefore amerce him 
accordinge to the said ordr, for the first offence, in vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet held on the 4th of October, 1662, before 
William Bannester (Mayor),^ Thomas Hodgkinson and John 
Kellet^ (Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

The presentments so frequently made as to " artillery," 
butts, and the assize of bread and ale are repeated, and they are 
succeeded by the following, amongst others: — 

There is neither Pillory^ nor Tumbrell^ within this Towne, 

1. William Bannester, the Mayor, belonged to a very old local family, 
previously referred to. It was apparently his grandfather (Thomas 
Banaetre, who was Mayor of Preston in 1617-18), with whom Taylor, the 
" Water Poet,*' lodged during his visit to the town, and to whom the 
following lines, in hie '* Penniless Pilgrim," published in 1618, refer : — 

Vnto my wayward lodgings often did repair, 
Kind Master Thomas Banastre the mayor, 
Who is of worship and of good respect 
And in his charge discreet and circumspect ; 
For I protest to God I never saw 
A town more wisely governed by the law. 

It also appears to have been Thomas Bannester, brother of William 
Bannester, the Mayor who presided at the above Court Leet, of whom 
mention is made in that peculiar production called " Drunken Barnaby's 
Journal." ** Drunken Barnaby " (Richard Brathwaite) came to Preston, in 
the course of his rambles, about 1630, and this is what he says, in his 
** Itinerarium," about the visit: — 

Thence to Preston, I was led-a, 
To brave Banister's to bed-a; 
As two born and bred together, 
We were presently sworn brother. 
Seven days were there assigned ; 
Oft I supped, but never dined. 

2. Kellet is a name which frequently appears in the records of Preston. 

3. Originally, the pillory was at the east end of the town ; afterwards 
it was set on the north side of the Market Place. It was last used on 
the 11th of January, 1816: a man about 60 years of ago was at that time 
put into it for keeping a disreputable house in Back-lane. Prior to this 
the pillory had not been used in Preston for about 40 years. In the course 
of 1816 punishment by the pillory was abolished in respect to all offences 
except perjury; and in 1837 an Act of Parliament was passed doing away 
with it entirely. 

4. The tumbrel was a rough wooden chair, fixed at the end of two 
long poles or shafts on a pair of wheels. It was the punishment for scolds 

94 Preston Court Leet. 

and the now Bailifes shall erect and make the same, according tc^ 
the statute in that case made and pvided. 

Edward Chernocke doth keep unlawful! gaming in hi^ 
house, to the great injury of severall psons, by harbouring their 
sonnes and servants at unlawfull times of the night. And [we 
doe therefore refer him to Mr. Maior to be punished accordin 
as the law hath required in that case. Also we finde and prsent 
Thomas Burchas and Thomas ffoole to be guilty of the like mis- 
demenor with the above said Edward Chernocke, and to bee 
pceeded against accordingly.^ 

The foote bridge betwixt Preston and Ashton,^ upon the 
marsh, wanteth rayles, to the danger of all mens psons that pass 
over it; therefore that the now bailifes of this Towne doe 
repayre theire part of the saide bridge within fowerteen daies 
after notice given. 

Thomas Shepheard hath done much damage to Jane 
Walmsley, de Holehouse, by cuting downe in the night a payre 
of doore cheekes, to the great danger of her whole family ; there- 
fore he shall sufficiently repayre the same within seaven daies 
after notice, or to forfeit for his neglect xls. 

John Greenwood doth, contrary to the oath of a Burgesse, 
suffer forreiners to buy and sell and cut cloath in his house; 
therefore he shall hereafter not suffer any such abuses to the 
Towne to be done in his house, upon payne of xls. a time, and 
that the offences by past shall be left to Mr. Major to be 
punished accordinge to the crime. 

Immediately after the presentments there is the following 
minute : — " Tuesday, October 23, 1662. In pursuance of an 
Act of Parliament intituled An Act for the well govemeinge and 

of a l3etter social order than the ordinary ones. In some plaoes the 
offender, after being fastened in the chair, was wheeled through the town 
or village in which she resided ; in other parts the tumbrel was used as a 
cuckstool — the scold being tied fast in it, then taken to a pond or pit of 
water, and ducked therein. 

1. A marginal note says that the persons mentioned had " to pay 10b. 
a pees.'* 

2. This was very probably Swansey bridge, at the west comer of the 

Preston Court Leet. 95 

regulateing of Corporacons,^ made in the thirteenth year of the 
raigne of our soveraigne Lord King Charles the seacond, Wee 
the Comrs hereafter named administred ye severall oathes in the 
aforesaid Act menconed and took the severall subscriptions to 
the Declaracon in the said Act contained of ye severall psons 
whose names hereafter follow." — Preceding the names of the 
persons in question there is this declaration: — "I doe Declare 
that I hold that there lyes no obligacon upon me or any other 
pson from the oath comonly called The solemn league and 
covenant,^ And that the same was in it selfe an unlawful oath, 
and imposed upon the subjects of this Realm against the knowne 
lawes and liberties of the Kingdomer" The names include those 
of the Mayor (William Bannester), the two Bailiffs (Thomas 
Hodgkinson and John Kellett), the Steward (Edward Rigby), 
and twenty-three of the Court Leet Jury, four of whom are 

1. The regnant year in which was passed the " Act for the well 
govcrneinge and regulateing of Corporacone '* dates from the time when 
Charles should have become King, in immediate succession to his father, 
Charles I. ; the Commonwealth period being left out of the computation 

2. The Solemn League and Covenant was originally an agreement 
which the English Parliament entered into with the Scotch nation, in the 
time of Charles I., when the civil war was going on; its object being the 
suppression of Popery and Prelacy. The English Parliament, in 1642, 
had asked the Scots for assistance — a request which was in the year 
following made with more urgency. At that time the Covenanters were 
predominant in Scotland — were the " masters of the situation " there — 
and they made it a condition precedent to sanctioning or giving assistance 
that the English Parliament should "take the Covenant, and assimilate 
the doctrine and discipline of the churches of the two nations." On the 
25th of September, 1643, Parliament, along with the Assembly of Divines 
and the Scottish Commissioners, took the Covenant, after it had been 
somewhat modified by the Assembly, in St. Margaret's Church, West- 
minster. Subsequently these bodies, in their respective places of general 
assembly, confirmed their assent, by signature, on a Parliament roll. The 
House of Commons afterwards directed that the Solemn League and 
Covenant should be taken by all persons, on next Lord's day, in their own 
parishes. Charles II. took it in 1650, and also at Scone, when he was 
crowned by the Scotch, in 1651 ; but at the Restoration he rejected the 
Covenant, and in 1661 he sanctioned the burning of a copy of it by the 
common hangman. In 1662 it was abjured, Jn both England and Scotland, 
by an Act of Parliament; and hence, no doubt, the repudiation of it, in 
the latter part of that year, at Preston. 

96 Preston Court Leet. 

marked as being unable to write. Amongst the Commissioners 
\Nho administered the oaths and took the subscriptions to the 
declaration was Lord Derby. — Later minutes show that four 
additional Jurjmen, also the new Mayor elect, the Bailiffs, &c., 
took the oath of supremacy, &c. 

Great Court I^et held on April 16th, 1663, before William 
Bannester (Mayor), Thomas Ho<lgkinson and John Kellet 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Henry Blackburne upon fr}day the xijth day of June 
[? January], 1663, did in open Markett buy off John Loxam a 
veale calfe for the price of viijs. and Imediately After upon ye same 
day did againe sell ye same calfe to Edward Oram, butcher, for 
eigh shillings vid., which is contrary to ye Statute made against 
regrators,! and therefore to pay viijs. vid. ye vallue of ye goods, 
and to be further punised accordinge to ye forme of ye statute 
in that case made and provided. Also we find and prsent Henry 
Wildinge, then servant to Richard Whittle, for byinge of two 
sheepe comeinge to ye Markett within four Milles of ye towne, 
and the same day sellinge ye said sheepe againe in open market, 
contrary to ye Statute made agt forestallinge, and therefore to 
forfeit ye sume of xis., being ye value of ye said goods, and 
further to be punished accordinge to ye statute in that case made 
and provided. 

The Kay on this side on ye rivr Rible, were ye boat 
Landeth, in great decay, and the present balliffes shall take a 
care to repaire and amend ye same before ye 29th of Septem 
next, upon paine of vis. viijd. 

Upon the informacon of the houselookers those persons 
ffollowing doe live in ye towne as Inmates not being ffre Bur- 
gesses, and therefore to be removed by ye Maior. [Here follow 

1. Regrating — defined by the statute of Edward III. as "the buying 
of corn or other dead victual in any market and selling it again in the 
same market or within four miles of tho place " — was, like forestalling 
and engrossing, contrary to the common law of England, and was also 
forbidden by positive statutes ranging in the time of their enactment from 
the reign of Henry III to that of Elizabeth. In 1844 these "offences" 
were abolished. 

Preston Court Leet. 97 

^hs names of upwards of a dozen persons, nearly all men with 

wiVes and children.] And whereas ye psons abovenamed, 

accoxdinge to ye late Act of parliamt, for ye maintenance of ye 

poore, may claim a settlemt within this Burrough, not haveinge 

r^ci Legall disturbance within ye space of 14 dayes now last 

past ; therefore to prvent ye like inconveniences for ye future 

^^^ thinke fitt to prsent yt ye Maior of this Corporacon for ye 

ti«ie beinge shall for ye future cause ye house lookers to make 

tn^ire prsentmts to ye Maior every month, who shall Imediatly 

thereupon give a note of ye names of such as shall be prsented 

^^ Inmates to ye Churchwardens and overseers of ye pore wth a 

^^rrt to remove them, yt soe they may not claime a quiet and an 

^interrupted settlemt by ye space of 40 dayes, and thereby 

oecome settled by Lawe in ye towne, and ye towne be bound to 

nianteine them. 

The remaining presentments made at this Court Leet sitting 
include four of \ery considerable length. The first of them 
contains a complaint against the Mayor, for retaining or keeping 
from view the Orders made at the Guild in 1662, fines his 
Worship £5 " for his offence," and directs that the said Orders 
be published for the guidance and benefit of the burgesses ; the 
second and third relate to a couple of local charities — Henry 
Bannester's and George Rogerson's; and the fourth pertains to 
several sums of money, amounting in all to upwards of £600, 
raised and received at the Guild of 1662, by the Mayor, Alder- 
men, and Common Council, for the use of the Mayor, Bailiffs, 
and Burgesses, and calls upon the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Common Council to give, at or before the next Court for the 
election of officers for the borough, to the burgesses present, " a 
pticular accompt in writeinge how and in what manner they have 
disposed of ye said 6001., and to what uses, yt soe the said Bur- 
gesses may be satisfied howe they have discharged ye trust they 
have undertaken on ye said Burgesses behalfes." A Council 
minute, made on the 12th of December, 1662, shows that the 
Corporation receipts at the Guild in that year (mainly derived 
from the granting and the renewing of the freedom of the 
borough) amounted in the aggregate to £632 lis. lid. ; that 

98 Preston Court Leet. 

the expenses were £230 13s. lid. ; and that the balance, 
designated " the remaind'r of the p'fittes of the s'd Guild," and 
amounting to £401 18s., had been " paid in " to the Mayor by 
Mr. Thomas Sumner, one of the Guild Stewards. 

Great Court Leet, held in the Moot Hall, on the 23rd of 
October, 1663, before William Turner (Mayor),^ George Addison 
and Lawrence ffarington (Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward 
of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Martin, Alderman, continues Layinge his Middin 
behinde the ffriergate barrs, before a croft^ in ye possession of 
George Woodhouse, contrary to severall presentments . . . 
therefore to pay for the time past . . . vis. viijd.. And if he 
Continue soe doeinge to forfifeit and pay for every offence the 
like penalty. 

The Late Balliffes of this towne (Thomas Hodgkinson and 
John Kellet) did not Repaire the Key wch is on this side the 
River of Rhible, where the boat Landeth, according to ye 
prsentmt of ye Last Leete, wch shold have beene performed by 
them before ye twentyninth of September last, and is as we 
conceive of Evell Example to Succeedinge BailifFes ; therefore to 
pay ye ffyne of vis. viijd. Imposed upon them by ye said 
prsentmt. And for as much as the said Key remaines hitherto 
unrepaired, occasioned by ye neglect of ye said Thomas 
Hodgkinson and John Kellet, beinge Repugnant to ye said 
prsentmt, we doe therefore ffind and prsent ye now prsent 
BailifFes yt it is theire dutyes to undertake and see the same in 
all things well and sufficiently Amended wth whatsoever is 
needfull or belonginge unto ye Key afForesaid, and that before 
ye first day of March next, upon paine to fforfeit ye like sume of 
vis. viijd. 

1. William Turner was apparently the son of Thomaa Turner ; both are 
amongst those who qualified as in-burgesses in 1642. William Turner was 
one of the Guild Aldermen in 1662, and in 1663-4 he was Mayor of the 

2. On each side of Friargate, at this time, there were fields, large open 

spaces of ground, and in certain parts small enclosures called crofts. It is 
probable that the croft mentioned wae not far from the east end of the 
present Edward-street. 

Preston Court Leet. 99 

The Assize of bread and beare is as we Conceive much 
neglected, although Corne beare soe lowe a rate yet nothinge is 
done in reliefe thereof, which is Contrary to ye Statute in yt 
case made and provided. And that ye officers ellected fiFor that 
purpose may be Enquired of and Instructed by Mr. Maior. 

John Miller of this towne and his wife contry to several! 
orders and prsentmts made against suffringe mens servant sonns 
and Apprentices to harbour, tipple, and drinke, did in time of 
divine service sufferr an Apprentice of William Haworths to 
tipple and drinke in theire house wth other boyes and Appren- 
tices on the Lords day; therefore to pay xxs., and we desire 
Mr. Maior will take course for the ffuture. 

There is a Comon ffrequentinge of divers people in the 
ffriergate, at higher draw well,^ every Sabboth day, in the 
morninge, and that for the space of 2 howers of the same day 
yt [they] gett and drawe water, wch is a violation to the Sabboth, 
and if they soe Continue this towne will be evill spoken of, yt 
ye governmt thereof is not better had in regard; we therefore, 
to prvent this Inconveniencie, thinke it ffitt yt Mr. Maior wold 
Informe the sexton to give notice forthwith to all ye inhitants 
wthin this towne yt they shall forbeare to gett or carry any water 
upon ye Lords day, upon paine to forfeite every one soe, after 
notice of ofFendinge, vis. viijd., yt soe the good and wholesome 
lawes dependinge thereunto may not be soe wilfully (Frustrated, 
and that Mr. Mair shall cause this order to be observed, els to 
be ffinde at ye discrecon of ye first Leete after he is discharged 
of his office. 

Great Court Leet held on the 15th of April, 1664, before 
the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Steward. 

Presentments : — 

The prsent balives, Mr. George Addison and Mr. Lawrence 
fifarington, have not repaired the new Key accordinge to ye 
prsentmt of the last Jury Leet, therefore that the sume of six 
shillings eight pence be paid by them, accordinge to ye said 

1. The higher draw well would be on the south- west side of Friargrate, 
opposite the entrance to Melling's yard. 

100 Preston Court Leet. 

prsentmt, and that they repaire the said new Key before the 
2^h day of Septcnibr next, upon paine of 6s. viijd. more. 

Ye pinfould is out of repaire haxnng its pticons [partitions] 
within broaken downe, so that mens goods are in greate danger 
of beinge spoyled by reason that horses, beasts, sheepe, swine, 
geese are all togeather, when fifoulded, and being of soe generall 
consermt for the good and welfaire of this Corporacon, therefore 
that the said balives cause the Pticon to be made upp againe, 
and yt the pinfould be putt into as good and sufficient repaire as 
it formlly hath beene, upon paine of xxs., before the 15th of 
August next. 

All ye psons within this Corporacon who doe Keepe ale to 
sell are unlicensed, and doe sell the same without Lycence, con- 
trary to severall Statutes in that case made and provided. 

Those sevrall psons following [the wife of Thomas Leigh, 
Mary Sergeantson servant of Edward Hindley, and Margaret 
Burton] have voyolated the sabboth day publicquely by carrynge 
burdens of water on the sabboth day, contrary to the prsentmt 
of the last Jury Leet, and Contrar}- to ye good and wholesome 
Lawes of this Kingdome, and contrary to ye good govrmnt of 
this Corporacon ; thereafter to pay 12d. a peece ; for every 
offence hereafter to pay 2s. a peece. 

Great Court Leet held on the 6th of April, 1665, before 
Luke Hodgkinson (Mayor), William Preston and Henry Blundell 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

The highway wthin the towne, ffrom the Churchgate barrs 
to the townes end,^ is much in decay and mine, not only the 
Causey but that wch was formrly the wash way,^ and the same 
ought to be repair[ed] by ye Corporacon of Preston. 

Mr. William Bannester, late Maior of this towne, the 
Aldrmen, and Comon Councell have not as yet accompted to the 
Burgesses of this towne for the pffitts of the last Guild Marchant 

1. Tho " highway " extended from a point in Church-street, near the 
Water-street entrance, to the south ond of Deopdale-road. 

2. The " wash way " would be the road to certain water pits in and 
about the land now occupied by the Observatory, &o., between Stephenflon 
Terrace and East View. 

Preston Court Leet. 101 

here holden, being six hundred pounds and upwards, And they 
shall at or before the next Cort of Elleccon of officers give unto 
the said Burgesses then prsent a pticuar accompt in writing how 
and in what mannr they have disbursed and disposed of the said 
6001., and to and for what uses, that soe the said Burgesses may 
be satisfyed how they have discharged their trust on the Bur- 
gesses behalves. 

Elizabeth Woodhouse widd hath broken the pavemt in ye 
Streete and make a Sawe pit to the great priudice of the town 
and a bad Example of others, and wch is indeed contrary to the 
Guild order in that case made, and therefore to pay six shillings 
eightpence for her contempt, and to ffill upp the same sawe pitt 
and pave the same again before the 24th of June, 1665, upon 
paine of vjs. viijd. 

Wee are informed and of our owne knowledge knowe to be 
true that sevrall priudices harmes hath beene Comitted and donne 
by a Dogg of Mr. Joseph Boultons, and wch as wee are informed 
is a most unsufferable dogg to be kept wthin this Burrough 
wthout a chaine or mussle, wch the said Mr. Boulton hath denyed 
to do unlesse Mr. Maior wold fynd him one. The Sergeant 
beinge sent unto him, to Comand him to keepe his dogg to be 
mussled or kept upp, he replyed in Scomfull and abusive 
Languadge, vizt., he wold keepe his dogg unmussled in dispite 
of Mr. Maior and Jury, and if the towne wold have him mussled 
they should fynde him a Mussle for his dogg or els he wold not ; 
and therefore for his Contempt and abuse unto the towne and 
officers to fforfeite the sume of 40s. 

Great Court Leet, held on the 20th of October, 1665. 
Edward Rigby, Steward of the Court, is the only person named 
in the heading. 

Presentments : — 

There ought to be a pillory and tumbrell wthin this towne, 
and, there being neither, wee prsent therefore the prsent Balives 
doe cause both errected and set upp over the watring poole at 
the east end of this towne, or in some other convenient place, 
before ye xth of March next, otherways the fine of xxs. to be 
imposed upon them if in case they doe neglect ye doeing thereof. 

102 Pkeston Court Leet. 

Mr. Edmund Wearden shall scowre ye ditch alonge the 
highway at ye side of Lancr meadowe,^ wch troubleth the high- 
way soe yt people afFoote cannot passe dry shodd, before the 
first of January next, upon paine of 3s. 4d. 

By the Guild booke, the sevall psons hereafter named are 
ffree Burgesses, and have not as yet taken the Oath of A Surges 
according to the orders of this towne, and every one makeinge 
defaulte after notice shall forfeite vis. viijd. [Here fallow the 
names of 76 defaulters.] 

The Cart way Leadinge downe towards the marsh, from the 
house of Correction, is very ruinous and impassable, soe that 
neither cart nor loaded horses (as complaint hath beene made 
unto us) in that place cannot passe, but are in danger of being 
overthrowne, wch cause if it should happen might be prjudiciall 
to this towne And that the Supvisors cause the same to be 
sufficiently raised with gravell from the water^ before the feast of 
Easter next, or upon default we Amerce them in the sevrall 
sumes of xxs. a piece. 

The styles belonging to ye Clarke yard^ are out of repaire, 
to the spoyling of neighbours gardens, and as wee conceive 
ought to be repaired by the Churchwardens of this towne, and 
that the said Churchwardens doe putt them into sufficient 
repaire before the 20th of December next, in paine of xs. 

Ann Hughson, John Holme the younger, Henry Bretherton, 
Thomas Cumbrall, and Thomas Haydocke constantly make 
middensteads at theire (l(X)res in the streete belowe the flFryergate 
Barrs, to the great Annoyance of their neighbors and shame to 
yt govrmnt of this Burrowe, whereas they have convenient places 
on the backsides of theire houses for the same purpose, And 

1. Lancaster meadow may have adjoined Old Lancastor-laney which, 
when the preeentment was made, was a public way having a oonnection in 
Cadley with the main road poinp north. 

2. ** The water" from which t-he Supervisors were directed to obtain 
pravel would be the Ribble. 

3. Clarke yard was evidently, when the presentment was made. Church 
property — anyhow, property in which the representatives of the Church 
had an interest and for which they were responsible; and from eome 
eoclesiastical connection, or existing clerical poBsession, or Ticarial benefit 
involved, its name was, no doubt, originally derived. Cf. note p. 77. 

Preston Court Leet. 103 

therefore the said Middings by them bee removed before the 2nd 
of ffebruary next, in paine of every one soe neglecting the sume 
of vjs. viijd. 

There is the like undecencie used with middings lying wthin 
the ffishergate bans continued from yeare to yeare, and therefore 
all owners of the said Middings shall cause them to be removed 
wthin tenn days after notice shall be given them by an officer 
unto his or theire grounds or some other convenient place, that 
soe the highway may not be annoyed or hindered as fiformrly, 
upon paine of neglect of every one soe offending vis. viijd., and 
for every month after they remaine unremoved vis. viijd. a piece 

Ye psons abovesaide nor any of them, nor any of the 
Inhitants wthin this towne, shall lay or make any more middings 
or Dunghills wthin ye towne streets, but on the backside of theire 
houses or barnes, in paine of every one of them ofifendinge 
contrary to this prsent to fforfeit and pay for every offence 
vis. viijd. The execucon of these wee hope Mr. Maior will take 
care to be pformed. [A marginal note says " to be Donne."] 

The occupiers of Toogood^ shall keepe open the brooke 
wch runneth into ye Marsh Milne damme, and stake and wind 
broaken places, to keepe it in it's right Course that it overflowe 
not the Marsh nor annoy not the highway as it hath done, upon 
paine to fforfeit xxs. 

Whereas divers prsentments have beene hertofore brought 
against Mr. Willm Bannester^ for that he hath not accompted 
togeather with the comon coucell of this towne for the pffitts 
[profits] of this last Guild merchant, therefore wee prsent Mr. 
Willm Bannester afForesaid and the councell of this towne 
according to ye afforesaid prsentmts in regard as yet they have 
not as yet accompted to the ffree Burgesses of this corporacon 

1. The probability is that Toogood was a small field or enclosure 
immediately above the old mill dam at the north-east corner of the Marsh. 
Several years before the presentment was made there were prsone in 
Preston called Toogood ; maybe, one of them owned the field or enclosure 
in question ; if so, this would account for its name. 

2. Mr. William Bannester or Banestre was elected Mayor shortly after 
the Guild in 1662. See note p. 93. 

104 1 RESTON Court Leet. 

according to ye afforesaid prsentmts in regard as yet they have 
6001. and upwards remaining in theire hands, And that they shall 
before the next Cort of Elleccon [Court of Election] of officers 
make a ptiruler accompte in writeing how and in what manner 
the same hath I>eene disposed for the satisfaccon of all, wch as 
wee thinke is most reasonable.^ 

Great Court Ix'et held on April 27th, 1666. 

Presentments: — 

Mr. Richard Wallcott, being lately came into this town, for 
brewing and uttering of Ale and beare wthout Lycence, and 
fme him in xxs. 

Mr. Bushell, virarr^ — that he cause sufficient steeles [stiles] 
sett at ye Clarke yard, before ye first day of July next, upon paine 
of vis. viijd. 

By ye ninth prsentmt of ye last Jury of ye leete 
yt A pillory and tumbrell should have beene Erected and 
made by ye now Balives before ye xth day of March last, and 
find ye said Balives to have forfeited xxs. 

Ye said Balives shall cause a pillory and Cookstoole erected 
in such place as ye Maior and Councell shall thinke fitt before 
ye first day of July next, upon paine of xxs. 

Mrs. Preston shall lay at [ ? a] Raile at ye ffoote Bridge in 
ye ox he}-^ l>efore ye first day of July next, upon paine of 
VIS. viijd. 

Great Court Leet held October 15th, 1666. 

Presentments : — 

The Occupiers of Hinginge browe,^ belonging to Wilkinson's 

1. Thoro is a marprinal noto opposite this presentment, as follows: 
"Mr. Bannietor to account to Mr. Maior att next election or forfit 101.; 
Mr. Maior to forfit othor 101. if boo Doo not ca [cause] him to Doe it." 

2. Mr. Rushcll wns tho Rov. Soth Rusboll, at this time B.D., and lator 
D.D. Ho was tho oldest son of Adam Bushell. Esq., of Cuerden. From 
1663 to 1682 he was Vicar of Preston Parish Church. In the latter year 
ho became Vicar of Lancaster. Ho died in 1684, and was interred in 
Lancaster Parish Church. Dr. William Bushell, the founder of Goosnargh 
Hospital, was Iiis grandson. 

3. Ox hey was tho name jriven to Jrovoral fields on the north side of 
!Moor Brook between tho present Murray-street and Ripon-street. The 
footbridge alluded to would pass over Moor Brook. 

4. Hinginge browe, i.e., Hanging Brow, would, it is very probable, be 
a field on the west side of the town, on the hill going up to AditcHi. 

Preston Court Leet. 105 

^^nant, shall set a raile at the Bridge in ye fFootway from plump- 
^^^xi [Woodplumpton] to this market^ before the 2d of ffel^ruary 
^^^xt upon paine of vis. viijd. 

These psons following for suffring theire swine comonly 
Sx-aseing and rooting in ye Church yard and [are] prsented unto 
^-i ^ by the pindrs ; therefore wee amerce them and every of them, 
^-czrcording to ye guild ordr in yt behalfe made, in vid., for every 
^ixne such swine have been taken there.^ 

Hugh Rimmer^ doth entertaine in his house or keepinge one 
^enry Gradwell and ioyner by trade, he not being a ffreeman of 
^tiis Incorporacon, And suffers him to worke for his owne Advan- 
tage and pffitt upon Condition yt within 2 yeares time ye said 
^^radwell shall teach him ye said Rimer the trade of a Joyner, wch 
^e said Hugh Rimer begunn to be, contrary to sevrall Guild 
^IDrdrs of this Burrowe ; therefore wee ordr and say that ye said 
^tienry Gradwell shall forbeare working any more as a [joiner] 
A?vthin this towne upon paine of xxs. for every time he shall soe 
CDffend, And yt If Hugh Rimmer doe at any time after notice 
suffer ye said Henry Gradwell to worke wthin any part of his 
Inouse then ye said Hugh Rimmr to fForfeite for every offence xxs. 
Willm Dolfin and John Bostocke, contrary to ye ordes 
[orders] of this towne, have l)rough[t] calves forth [away from] 
^e appointed market, for the use of there masters, for wch offence 
^.ccording to the guild ordr we fiine them in 40s. apiece. 

1. This footbridge would cross IVIoor Brook. 

2. Here follow the names of nine persons, all having offended twice ; 
the total number of swine owned by them and found in the Church yard 
being 26 ! Some time before the presentment was made, the Church yard, 
it was reported, *' doth in most unchristianly manner lye wast and open, 
being daily spoiled and abused by swyno, for wante of makeinge upp the 
walls and ffences about the same." Five years after this statement was 
made the yard was described as being *' wast and unfenced." And later 
still — seven or eight years after the presentment was made — though the 
walls and fences might be in a better state, the church yard was in a 
disorderly, unseemly condition ; human bones from graves being scattered 
on the surface of the ground, and some even lying exposed within 
the church ! In old times there were footpaths through the Church 
yard, ** leading to Stonygat^ " ; they were closed at the beginning of last 

3. Hugh Rimmer was an in -burgees. 

106 pREstoN Court Leet. 

Mr. Thomas Birches and Robte Tomlinson doe keepe 
unlawfull gameing in theire houses, to ye great losse and damage 
of sevrall people, and therefore wee Amerce them in xxs. apiece, 
and desire Mr. Maior will take further Corse to see ye same 

John Threlfall for suffring gameing in his house upon ye 
Lords day, and therefore doe Amerce him in xs., and desire 
Mr. Maior will take Corse for the reforming of it. 

Great Court Leet held on the 22nd of April, 1667, before 
Thomas Sumpner (Mayor), Ralph fFarnworth and James Archer 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Alexandr Swansey for seting his dogg upon ye townes bull, 
being then upon ye Marsh belonging to this towne, and thereby 
forcing into great confusion and disordr the Cattle belonging to 
the Burgesses inhabitants wthin this towne, to ye manifest 
hazard and damage to many of them, upon ye Lords day, to the 
evill example of others, and therefore to pay ye fine of xxs. 

John Kellet, groc [grocer], frequently and obstinately, after 
divers prmonicons [premonitions], hath kept open his shopp 
doore and sould goods upon ye Lords day, thereby greatly 
pvoking [provoking] god and given occasion of Scandall and 
offence to men, and contrary to ye second ordr of the last Guild 
concerning the sabboth,! and therefore we amerce him to pay 

1. At the Guild in 1662 — the Guild referred to in the presentment — all 
the previously made orders were thoroughly revised and codified, and new 
ones, to meet actual or probable requirements, were likewise adopted or 
incorporated. Order 2 contains the following clause : — " From and after 
the publication of this present Gyld merchant no person or persons what- 
soever, either Inhbtnt wthin this Towne of Preston or the liberties thereof, 
nor any fforeiners whatsoever, shall keepe open his or their Shop or 
Shopps, or sett up any Stalls or other devices within this Towne, to sell 
any victualls, flElesh, or other comodities upon the Saboth day, upon Paine 
of Imprisonment and fforfciture of all such victualls, fflesh, and other 
Commodities so sold, offered, or shewd to be sold Except in case of urgent 
necessitie, and those to be made knowne to the Maior of the Towne for 
the time beinge, and likewise to be mannaged and procured with the 
greatest Privacie and least observance of other people that possiblie may 
be contrived and brought about, excepting likewise the prepareing of or 
necessarie medicines by any Apothecarie in [? on] speedy messages^ urgent 
occasions of Dangerous Sickness that cannot, without muoh hazard of life 
or health, admit of any delay." 

Preston Court Leet. 107 

^^e fine of iijl. vis. viijd. for his past ofiFence, And such other 
corporall punishmt as Mr. Maior shall thinke meet for soe great 
^^ offence, according to ye afForesaid Ordr, and further yt he pay 
ye fine of xxs. for every sabboth day hee shall continue to comitt 
^^e like offence, besides his corporall punishmt appoynted at ye 
^iscrecon of Mr. Maior as afforesd. 

Thomas Gregson for giving notice to fforaignrs of and 
^*iereby preventing an intended seizure of goods forfeited to this 
^^vrne, contrary to ye sixt Article of his Oath,^ therefore we 
*^nierce him to pay for this his first offence ye fine of vjs. viijd. 

The new hall Laine is in great decay, and yt ye 
supvisr doe cause ye same to be repaired, and ye cawsall to be 
paved a Long ye Lane side Leading to ffishwicke. 

Hugh Martin and John Critchley doe ffish wthin this river 
of Ribble and wthin the bounds and Libties of this Incorporacon 
wth netts whose maske [mesh — from the A.S. max; middle 
English and German masche] is not above an Inch broade 
[though] by ye statute it ought to bee two Inches and one halfe 
broade, and therefore wee doe amerce them to pay ye sum of 51i. 

Ye bridge at ye end of ye broadgate Lane being many times 
repared, yet in a short time is brought to decay by ye force of 
water yt comes often upon it, and for yt ye passage is very 
dangerous over it at High water when ye usefullnes of it is most 
necessary to ye people that passe that way ; wee therefore thinke 
it most advantageous to ye towne yt an arch of stone bee made 
over ye said watercorse for ye prventing ye inconveniencies yt 
doe and may arrise for want thereof, and yt ye now balives doe 
cause ye same to be done accordingly. 

Robt. Hall and his wife have not only throwne in theire 
wash but also filled upp a well upon ye townes wast, by wch a 
great many families now [? are] supplyed with water, wch was 
done by him wilfully and resolutely with scorne and contempt to 

1. An entry on one of the RoIIb favours the supposition that Gregson 
was connected with the leather trade. The sixth article of his oath, as an 
in-burgess, was as follows: — "You shall know no foreiner to buy or sell 
any Merchandise, with any other foreiner within this Town or the 
franchesis thereof, except at Faire Time, but you shall warn the Mayor 
or Bailiffs thereof." 

108 Preston Court Leet. 

ye govrmnt of this towne, and yt hee bee therefore severely 
punished according to ye discrecon of Mr. Maior for ye offence 
past, and yt he give securyty to forbeare such violence to ye 
wrong and priudice of ye neighbourhood for time to ccwne. 

Great Court Leet, held on October 14th, 1667. 

Presentments : — 

These psons following who are at Lawfull yeares to take the 
Oath of A Burgesse as appears by ye guild booke, and as yet 
have not ; therefore that they shall wthin one weeke after notice 
given them by serjeant come before Mr. Maior and take ye said 
oath, otherwise to forfeit 3s. 4d. apiece.^ 

Mr. Lawrence Wall and Robte Hesketh, supvisors of the 
highway the last yeare, did not Amende the plat in Ribbleton 
Lane, nere the half mile stone,^ being often moved thereunto, 
for wch neglect wee amerce them to pay each vjs. viijd. 

Elizabeth Woodhouse, wid [widow], for scandalous and 
Rayling words agt Mr. John Cottam and Robte Loxam 
who were swore jurors in ye townes Cort of Tryalls,* terming 
them as base in theire verdict as if they had picked her pocket, 
this being soe foule A prsident [precedent] and Incouragement 
to others to doe ye same to others Jurors, wee doe Amerce her^ 
to pay vjs. viijd. 

Willm Bannester, gunsmith, for breach of ye Sabboth, bein^' 
taken at Cards, at Thomas ffooles, and full of drinke, wee doe^ 
amerce him to pay vjs. viijd. 

Thomas fFoole for keeping an unLawfuU gameing house, to- 
ye utter undoeing of divers psons, and for harbouring sevralE 

1. One hundred and four persons are included in the list of defaulters. 
A copy of the oath is given in a previous note. See pp. 35-36. 

2. On the eaet side of Ribbleton -lane, at a point just midway between 
the first and second mile, reckoning the distance from Preston Town Hall, 
there used to be the pedestal of an old stone cross, and this may have 
been the " half mile stone " referred to. On the same aide, about half a 
mile from the " Churchgate towne end " — the bottom of Church-street— 
there was an enclosure called " Half Mile field." 

3. The *' Cort of Tryalls" was the old " Court of Common Pleas," still 
in existence, and called the Borough Court. 

Preston Court Leet. 109 

psons upon ye Sabboath to play at Cards, wee doe fine him in 
xxxvjs. viijd., and yt he forbeare to sell Ale upon ye penalty of 
4s. a month. 

Ellis Meaking for excerciseing ye trade of A gardiner within 
this towne, not being a freeman, to pay xs.. And for every month 
hee shall follow ye same xs. 

Willm Blacoe, for refuseing ye Alefounders a tast of his Ale 
and abuseing them with bad words, and tould them he neither 
knew nor would obey any such order or office they had to pforme 
— for this his denyall and brewing without Lycence he is amerced 
to pay ye fine of vjs. viijd. 

Willm Bannester, gunsmith, for breaking ye prisons^ [is 
presented and ordered to] repaire ye same and pay ye fine of 
xxs., [and] for using scandelous words agt ye prsent balives, Mr. 
Shaw and Mr. Whalley, to pay ye sume of xiijs. and iiijd. 

Ye bridge upon ye moore yt leads to Caddiley Causey^ is 
not repaired, and therefore yt ye Balives doe cause it [to be] 
repaired before ye first of May next, upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

Inquisition held on the 18th of February, 1668, before Seth 
Blackhurst (Mayor), John Shawe and Thomas Whalley (Bailiffs), 
and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Nicholas Wadson for laying his timber in the street nere 
unto his house, and likewise for laying Timber in the Maricet 
place, to ye great annoyance and danger of the Kings maties 
people and contrary to ye last guild ordr, hath forfeited ye sume 
of xs., and he shall remove ye said Timber according to ye said 
Guild Ordr therein menconed upon the penalty therein specified.*^ 

Willm Chamock, Thomas Walmsley, Butcher, and John 
Helm, junr., very frequently and usually water theire horses at 

1. The *' prisons " would be the borough lock-up, which at this time 
was in a part of the Moot or Town Hall. 

2. The bridge would be on the north-west side of Preston Moor, 
and would cross the boundary stream — Eaves Brook. ** Caddiley Causey " 
(Cadley causeway) is on part of the line of the Roman road which 
branched from Watling-street and ran as far as Rossall Point, near 

5. A marginal note says, " To pay ijs." 

110 Preston Court Leex 

ye draw well at ye lower end of the ffryergate,^ to ye great annoy- 
ance of the neighbors wch use the same well; therefore wee 
amerce them in the sevrall sumes of vjs. viijd. apice, And yt ye 
said psons and every of them and all other psons shall forbeare 
to committ ye like offence at any time hereafter, upon paine of* 
every one soe offending ye sume of vjs. viijd. apiece. 

John Cottam has in-Croached in yet Market place by 
erecting a bulke^ before the shopp windowe now in possion 
[possession] of Timothy Woodward, being 2 yrds and a halF 
long and one yard broade, and therefore to be rented at ye 
discrecon of Mr. Maior and his Councell. 

Great Court Leet held on April 3rd, 1668. The onljr 
person named in the heading is Edward Rigby, Steward of the 

Presentments : — 

Ye now Balives have not caused ye minspit well, ye goose 
well, and ye foure draw wells within this towne to bee sufficiently 
Clensed and Repaired according to ye time given them, and 
therefore have fforfeited ye sume of xxs. ; And therefore yt ye 
said Balives shall cause ye said minspit well, the goose well, and 
ye said draw wells to bee sufficiently clensed and repaired at or 
before ye xxth day of July next, upon paine of xxs. 

Ye now Balives have not repaired the pavemts and made 
a particon wall in the pinfould according to ye time given them, 
and therefore have forfeited ye fine of xxvis. viijd., And therefore 
yt ye said Balives shall cause ye pavemt to bee repaired and ye 
particon wall to bee made in ye said pinfould at or before ye 
29th day of July next upon paine of vli. 

John Smith for a grosse abuse, by striking a boy, servt unto 
Thomas Scholes, with a bunch of Keyes, and thereby did breake 
3 of his teeth, wee Amerce in iijli. vjs. viijd. 

We continue all prsentmts heretofore made by sevrall other 
Juries of this Leet concerning an accompt to be rendred to ye 

1. The draw well was on the west side of Friargate, between Edward- 
street and Hope-street. 

2. Bulke was the name given to a framework projecting from the 
front of a ahop — a stall. 

Preston Court Leet. Ill 

Burgesses of this Incorpontcon of ye sume of 6001i and upwards, 
raised by ye last Guild, and yt Mr. Maior yt now is doe cause 
an accompt to be made and given in writeing to ye said free 
3urgesses of this Burrough at a certaine day appoynted by Mr. 
Maior, at or before ye first day of August next, and due notice 
to bee given thereof to ye said Burgesses of the day and time 
vipon paine of Cli.^ 

Ye pindrs for neglect of theire office and denying to drive 
rnens kine to ye Marsh and likewise for suffering mens kine to 
bee miched^ upon the Marsh to ye great Losse and annoyance 
of sevrall psons within this Burroughe, wee amerce in xxs. 

Great Court Leet held on October 20th, 1668; Edward 
^igby, Steward, being again the only Court official mentioned. 
Presentments : — 

Nicholas Watson for laying sevrall Timber trees and other 
wood in ye street before his dore in ye ffryergate, to ye great 
nusance of ye Burgesses of this towne and ye hazard of theire 
lives and limbs by falling over or upon ye same in ye night time 
wee doe Amerce for ye time past vis. viijd., And vis. viijd. more 
for every week after, untill hee remove ye said wood cleare out 
of ye street. 

George Gregson for yt his wife doth keepe an unruly and 
unlawful sowe, and suffers her to goe abroad in ye streets, con- 
trary to sevall ordrs of this towne, wch sowe hath pulled sevrall 
sackes in ye come market a pieces, to ye great damage of ye 
ownrs thereof, and ye great losse of their corne, wee doe find ye 
said Henry Gregson in xxs., And for ye future unles hee keepe 
upp ye said sowe or otherwise sell or dispose of ye said sowe 
forth of this towne, wthin six dayes after notice given to Henry 
Gregson's wife, to pay vis. viijd. more. 

Luke Greenfield keepes a very unruly sowe and suffers her 
to go about in ye streets, and hath pulled ye meat from ye shopp 

1. A marginal note says: ''There is an Aooompt made of the money 
menconed in this prsent [presentment] as appeares by the white booke of 
orders, 23d Oct., 1668." The White Book of the Corporation does not 
contain any reference in its minutes, &c., for 1668 to this matter. 

2. ** Miched," now almost an obsolete word, means to hide or conceal 
from view. The word, however, may be " milched." 

112 Preston Court Leet. 

boards of Butchers in ye sliambells, and spoyled theire meate, 
therefore ye said Luke (IrcHi^nlield shall keepe upp ye said sowe 
or otherwise forfeite vis. viijd. 

(Ireat Court Leet, held on April 19th, 1669, before Thomas 
Rishton (Mayor)^ Thomas Winckley^ and Lawrence Bostock 
(Bailiffs), and P^dward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments: — 

Ri(*hanl Brookfield, of ye Meales,^ for forestalling our 
Markett by buying upp salmon fish upon Wednesday, ye 21st of 
Aprill last, an<l on Wednesday, ye 25th of May last. 

Ellis Makeinge for exercising ye trade of A gardiner wthin 
this towne, not being a ffreeman. to pay 40s., and for every 
month hereafter that hee shall followe ye same xxs. 

Ve sevrall psons hereundr named have not taken ye oath of 
A Burgesse, and therefore wee doe desire Mr. Maior to send for 
them, and to tendr unto them ye said Oath, and upon ye refusall 
of any such pson wee Amerce them sevrally to pay iijs. iiijd. — 
[Here follow the names of 50 defaulters.] 

1. In 1662 Thomas Risliton— the ^fayor here named — was one of the 
Ouild Aldormcn. Some time aiten^'ardfi he appears to have withdrawn 
from the Corporation ; but in 1668 he was made an Alderman'; in 1669 
he became Mayor ; and in 1672. whil8t still an Alderman, he died. 

2. Thomas Winckloj was a man of unquestionable local importance; 
but Winckley is not a very old name in the burgess annals. Edward 
Winckloy — the first of this name mentioned in those annals — ^became a 
Preston stallenp:er. on payment of 35s.. at the Guild in 1602; on the Roll 
for 1622 the name ift continued : and so it groee on till 1668, when a 
dofioendant, directly or laterally, becomes a Bailiff. In 1669 Thomas 
Winckley was elected a member of the Council ; in 1678 ho was made an 
Alderman ; in 1679 he became the Mayor of Preston ; in 1682 he was a 
Ouild Alderman ; in 1688 and 1697 he was the Mayor ; in 1702 he was 
appointed Clerk of the Recognisances; he was a Guild Steward in the 
same year; in 1705 he again became the Mayor; and in 1710, whilst still 
an Alderman, he died. Subsequently three or four persons, bearing the 
name of Winckley, were Bailiffs. The late Lady Shelley was a great 
granddaughter of the Thomas Winckley above named. Winokley-square 
Preston, with adjoining streets, was laid out by Mr. Thomaa Winckley, 
in conjunction with Mr. William Cross, a lawyer and deputy prothonotary 
in the town, who afterwards ac(]uired Red Scar and the Cottam Ebll 

3. "Ye Mealos " no doubt means North Meols, on the south side of the 
Kibble estuary. 

Preston Court Leet. 113 

John Singleton for suffring his dogg, being unmusselled, to 
byte Elizabeth, ye wife of Thomas Walmsley, Butcher, and Jane 
Walmsley, to pay 13s. 4d., and if hee suffer him to goe 
unmusselled any longer to pay vis. viijd. p weeke. 

Ye Balives [to] repaire and dense A well comonly called 
L.ady welP before ye xvth of August next, or els to pay vjs. viijd. 

John Preston, gen., for 2 sevrall tussells and an affray made 
upon ye body of Willm Wearden, postmaster, to pay vjs. viijd., 
and we find that Wm. Wearden did in his owne defence then also 
Tussle wth ye said Mr. John Preston. 

Oliver Hatch and Elizabeth Harrison, widd [widow], doe not 
obsen^e the weight of bread, being breadbakers, and therefore 
desire Mr. Maior to bee Carefull to Rectifye ye same. 

Thomas Holme, of Euxton, being a forraigner and noe 
ffreeman of this Incorporacon, taketh to sale wthin this Cor- 
poracon upon ye market day, sadles and sadler ware, not 
haveinge beene bound apprentice to ye trade of A sadler, and 
hath exposed ye same to sale wthin this Corporacon for ye space 
of one month last past, therefore doe Amerce him in xs. 

Thomas Cooper, of Leyland, hee being a forreigner and 
noe ffreeman of this Corporacon, exposeth sythes and other hard- 
ware to sale, being not of his own makeinge, and therefore doe 
Amerce him for ye time past in 40s., and for every weeke yt hee 
shall continue hereafter to doe ye like to pay 5s. 

Great Court Leet held on October 14th, 1669, before Henry 
Blundell (Mayor), Robert Gremsworth and Thomas Myers 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward of the Court). 

Presentments : — 

Mathew Porter not being a freeman of this Incorporacon 
doth contrary to sevall ordrs Brew and retaile Ale and beare, 
and doth also keepe a very unlawfull house of Carding and 
tipling at unlawfull times of ye night, and therefore wee do 
amerce him to pay xxs. 

1. The preeent Ladywell-atreet was named after this well, which was 
just on the west side of the land forming the course of the roadway. 


114 Preston Court Leet. 

Elizabeth Woodhouse for striking and abuseing Thomas 
Beckonsall, Beadle of this Incorporacon for executing of his 
office Comanded by Mr. Maior, to pay vjs. viijd. 

James Whiteside doth lay his worthing adjoyning to ye mill 
hill in Churchgate towne end^ to ye great annoyance of ye high- 
way, therefore wee amrce him to pay vjs. viijd. if he do not 
remove it before ye 2(>th day of ffebr next. 

Ye Balives sufficiently repaire the townes hall, being in 
decay in sevrall places, before ye first of may next, upon paine 
of £10. 

Ye Balives remove ye Tumbrall to some Convenient 
place before ye first of may next upon paine of xxs. 

Thomas Shephard for pulling ye Call downe at ye water 
side and carrying some away with him to his fathrs house, to 
pay xxs. 

Inquisition taken on the 8th of February, 1670, before the 
Mayor, Bailiffs, and Steward last named. 

Presentments : — 

Ye supvisors of the highway amend or repaire ye platt in 
Ribbleton Lane, over against ye Lady hey,^ and repaire the 
sevrall breaches in the Cawsey wthin ye said Lane, and open or 
make a wyde gripp at ye higher end of ye said Cawsey seaven 
or eight roods in Length, at or before ye xxiiijth of June next, 
upon paine of xxs. 

John Barker for suflFring his dyitig stufFe or Liquors wch 
comes from his leads or ffatts to run into ye fFryer lane, to the 
great annoyance of ye highway, and ye same, Runing into ye 
springs or wells there, is supposed to bee very dangerous for 

1. There used to be two enclosures, respectively called "Town End 
Field," near the bottom of Church-street, between Park-road and Deep- 
dale-road, and it is very likely that the mill stood in the field next to the 
latter thoroughfare. It does not appear in Lang's map (1774). In Shake- 
shaft's map (1809) there is a windmill shown in the field adjoining 
Deepdale-road, and behind the present range of houses called Mill Bank. 

2. On the north side of and adjoining Ribbleton-lane, between the 
present Lutwidge-street and Young-etreet, as nearly as can be made out, 
there were four fields when the presontnient was made, two being called 
Lady Heys and the others respectively Middle Lady Hey and Farmo»t 
Lady Hey. 

Presto;^ Court Leet. 115 

Cattle yt usually drinke at ye said springs of [owing to] Gaules 
[^a'.ls], copprous [copperas], verdigrease, and sevrall other Com- 
pounds yt are in ye said dying stuife or Liquor, and yt hee shall 
cause ye same to bee carryed or Conveyed some other way yt it 
may bee noe more annoyance to ye said way or springs, at or 
before ye first day of may next upon paine of xxs. 

George Bennet, millr, for suifring ye watr to breake out of 
ye milne damme to ye annoyance of ye marsh, shall sufficiently 
repaire ye said damme, and keepe ye watr in its right Corse, 
-And hee shall lay a sufficient platt ovr ye water course wch 
Cometh forth of ye Tulketh grounds to Preston Brook^ at or 
before ye first of may next, upon paine of xs. 

Ye now Balives Repaire the syke troughs upon spittle mosse 
^vth Leade where it is wanting and open the gripps for ye springs 
to run into ye said syke troughs at or before ye first of may next, 
upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

Ye supvisrs of ye highways to repaire ye highway on spittle 
mosse to ye wash way^ leading downe to ye marsh, and to raise 
ye same way with Earth over agt Mrs. Laws house, ye 
same being worne and beaten soe lowe yt ye springs break forth 
and draweth ye water from ye sykes, and yt ye same bee so 
repaired and sufficiently amended at or before ye xxiiijth of June 
next upon paine of xiijs. iiijd. 

That Mrs. Lawe or Henry Boulton her tennt [tenant] cause 
a sufficient flFoot bridge wth a Raile to bee sett over the Brooke' 
near the dawe Banck,^ And also set one othr Bridge with a raile 
as aforesd neare, adjoining to ye ox hey^ belonging to- Mr. 
Preston, yt ye people yt comes Laden with sevrall Commoivtyes 
t«> sell in this market may have easy and ready passage ovr ye 

1. Preston Brook was Moor Brook. 

2. *' Ye wafih way " would lead to a pool or pit used for clothes washinpr 
purposes, and in all probability would be on the line or close to the north 
side of the present Fyldo-road. 

3. This would be Moor Brook. 

4. Dawe Bancke would be some property which, accordinj^ to a map 
made later than the presentment, went by the name of Doo Banks — two 
fields on the side of Old Lancaster-lane, and a short distance from Moor 

5. Ox Hey — ^see note p. 104. 

116 Preston Court Leet. 

same bridges, at or before ye xvth of Aprill next, upon paine 
of xs. 

The occupyers of George Hodgkinsons estate, Roger Char- 
nock, ye occupyers of Mr. Luke Hodgkinsons estate, and ye rest 
of the Inhabitants repaire the Causey way ovr ye peele moore^ 
and ye ifoot bridges^ over ye valley Leading to ye furthr moore^ 
at or before ye xxiiijth of June next, upon paine of iijs. iiijd. 

By ye informacons of sevrall old men wthin this towne there 
is a Comon ffoot path and highway Leading to this townes 
market through a little Close or pcell of Land called ye Tit- 
mouse Croft,^ lying betweene a certain close of Land called the 
Tentr hey^ and another close called ye greene crofts, wch said 
flFootpath and highway is stopped with a strong hedge, made by 
Willm Hold[e]r or by his appoyntmt, to ye great piudice of ye 
Inhitants of this towne, and people yt usually come to ye 
markett, by reason of ye Leane [lane] being not passable for 
people on foot in ye winter season ; Therefore ye said Willm 
Hold[e]r shall set styles as hertofore, yt there may bee a free 
way and passage through ye said Croft, at or before ye 29th day 
of Septembr next, upon paine of 40s. 

Great Court Leet held on the 8th of April of April, 1670. 

Presentments : — 

John Mosse, contrary to ye statute agt regrators, upon ye 
xvth of Aprill last did buy of A stranger a loade of cockles, and 
did sell and offer ye same to bee sold ye same day in or [our] open 
markett; therefore to pay ye sume of iijs. iiijd., wch wee con- 
ceive to bee ye valine of ye goods, and also that hee bee further 
punished according to ye statute in yt case made and provyded. 

1. Peele Moor was on the east side of Deepdale-road. See note p. 22, 

2. The footbridges would cross Deepdale Brook 

3. The ** fnrthr moore " would be north-east of Peele Moor. 

4. On Syke Hill there was at this time a small field called Titmoupe 
Croft ; but the close or parcel of land bearing this name, and mentioned 
in the presentment, was another plot of land to the south of Crown Piece 
and to the west of Green Crofts. 

5. Tenter Hey was to the soutli of Titmouse Croft, and at the west 
end of the present Tenterfield-street. The word " Tenter " is derived from 
the dialect word *' tent " used in Lancashire and the North, and meaning to 
look after, to watch. 

Preston Court Leet. 117 

Alexr. Swansey for rescousing and takeing sevrall fflocks 
of geese from John Coulburne as he was bringing them to bee 
impounded and in the execucon of his office; therefore to 
pay xs. 

Great Court Leet, held on the 14th of October, 1670. 

Presentments : — 

These persons following [Willm Chamocke, sen., Willm 
Chamocke, jur., Mary Chamocke, and Elizabeth Seddons] for 
fighting and ffliteing^ each wth othr, to pay iijs. iiijd. apiece.^ 

Henry and Richard Myers have made quantities of breecks, 
part of wch they have since sould, wch is not according to ye 
usual size of this Incorporacon, to ye great losse and prjudice of 
such inhabitants as have bought ye same, and desire yt Mr. Maior 
and his Councell would please to take such care to reform ye 
same as ye Lawes and customes have pvided.^ 

Inquisition taken on February 14th, 1671, before Tliomiis 
Walmsley (Mayor), William Lemon and Christopher Nowell 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas ffoole shall scoure his ditch and open his platt 
upon ye north side over against ye new hall barne at or before 
ye first of May next upon paine of iijs. iiijd. 

Ye Supvisors shall lay gravell to ye pyles on both sides of 
ye new flagged Cawsey leading to ye swillbrooke,^ before ye 
xxiiijth of June next, upon paine of vis. viijd. 

Ye now Balives shall cause a footbridge to bee laid over ye 
brooke betwixt Preston moore and ffullwood^ in ye high way 

1. *' ffliteing " is derived from flito — an old provincial English word, 
signifying to scold or brawl. 

2. The fine in each case was afterwards, according to a note, reduced 
to 6d. 

3. A marginal note says that the case is ** Referd to ye Maior and 

4. The "cawsey" would be on one side of the present London-road, 
which passes over Swillbrook a little above the junction of Salmon -street. 
The piles were, of course, for lateral support or protection. The 
systematic flagging of causeways or street footways was not commenced, 
in Preston, until the latter end of 1821. The work was begun by order of 
the Police Commissioners. 

5. The '* brooke " was Eaves Brook, over which there is now and has 
been from time immemorial a footway, leading from Preston Moor, of 

118 Preston Court Leet. 

leading towards sharowe and Broughton at or before ye xxiiijth 
of June next upon pains of xiijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet, held on May 3rd, 1671. Edward Rigby, 
Steward of the Court, is the only person named in the heading. 

Presentments : — 

Robte Loxam for a bloodwipe in breakeing Ellen Gregsons 
head ye sume of 3s. 4d. 

Hugh Martin and Willm Crichley wth the rest of ye ffishers 
— for yt theire netts for fishing wthin ye River of Rible are 
unlawful! and contrary to ye statute in yt cajse pvided, in y^- .sume 
of £5, and for so offending after warning given them £10 for 
every month. 

Great Court Leet held on October 13th, 1671. Edward 
Rigby, the Steward, is again the only person officially mentioned 
in the heading. 

Presentments : — 

Thomas ffoole of this towne, Richard Mosse of Longton, 
and two other psons unknown to ye Balives, were gameing at 
ye tables for money, in ye said ffooles house, upon ye sabbath 
day, about 4 of ye clocke in ye morning, being ye 26th day of 
Oct last, and fyne ye said ffoole and Mosse in xxs. apiece, 

[On] ye aforesaid day, about 5 or 6 of ye Clocke in ye 
morning, there were three men gameing at Cards in ye house of 
John Woods of this towne, and fine ye said Woods in twenty 
shillings for suffring them. 

About 3 or 4 of ye clock in ye morning of ye said 26th day 
a ffidler (whose name ye Baliffes know not) was playing In ye 
house of James Dawson, And ye Baliffe, Robte Loxam, having 
apprhended him, to take him to Moote hall, ye said James 
Dawson rescued ye ffidler from ye BaJiffe, and therefore to pay 

Jane Mitton, widd [widow], for causeing three shooting 
butts erected upon ye spittle mosse, being contrary to ye use 
there, and being dangerous to passengrs yt passe that way, and 
to ye losse of ye soyle there, fynd her in xxs. 

which Moor Park now includos the bulk, to Watling Street-road, Fulwood; 
continuation northward, from the footway, being by Sharoe Green-lane, ko. 

Preston Court Leet. lid 

Inquisition held on February 19th, 1672, before John Hynd 
(Mayor), Richard Taylor and Robert Loxam (Bailiffs), and 
Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Ye supvisors [highway surveyors] shall repaire ye narrow 
lane from Graystocke house towards Swillbrooke before ye 
xxiiijth of June next, upon paine of xiijs. iiijd.^ 

Ye occupyers of ye mawdlands — that they lopp the Hedge 
all along ye south side of ye watery lane leading to ye marsh 
before ye 15th of Aprill, upon paine of xiijs. iiijd. 

Thomas Patten hath not repaired the house at ye moore 
side fonnrly in ye possession of Willm Bayley, according to ye 
time given him, and therefore hath forfeited ye sume of £10, and 
hee shall sufficiently repaire ye said house before ye xxviiijth 
of June next upon paine of ye further sum of five pounds. 

Edward Walker shall make a gutter along ye side of his 
new house in ye Clarke yard, and remove his midding and 
Rubbade there, yt ye water may have its free current, at or 
before ye xvth of Aprill next, upon paine of xs. 

1. On the east side of the borough three narrow lanes ran towards 
Swillbrook (the present London-road, on that side, was a highway when 
the presentment was made). The farthest of these lanes was Fish wick- 
lane ; but neither in it nor near it, so far as regards the length between 
New Hall-lane and Swillbrook, was there a residence of any kind. The 
second, about 250 yards west of Fishwick-lane, had in it a small building 
of some kind — probably a barn, but it immediately adjoined Swillbrook. 
The third was at the end of Stanley-street, south-west corner, opposite 
the entrance to Newhall-lane ; and evidently this was the lane referred 
to as leading " from Graystocke house towards Swillbrooke." A local 
deed, bearing the date 1719, describes two closes of land adjoining a lane 
called Now Hall-lane ** over and against Graystock House." The 
map of Preston, by Lang, shows a building at the head of the 
third mentioned lane, and directly opposite or facing the entrance to 
New Hall-lane, and also looking towards some fields adjoining that 
entrance, on the north side. The lane, not now in existence, ran past the 
building alluded to — westward for a short distance and then due south 
towards Swillbrook. When the Court Leet presentment was made there 
were no houses at all within the borough of Preston on the east side of 
Stanley-street (with the exception of a few of the alms kind at the top, 
and the New Hall), and none in what is now called London-road. The 
building at the head of the lane opposite the entrance to New Hall-lane, 
&c., was evidently Graystock House, which stood alone. 

120 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on the 11th of April, 1672, before 
Kichard Hynd (Mayor), Richard Taylor and Robert Loxam 
(Bailiffs), and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Ye supvisors of ye high way — that they cause ye cawsey on 
ye moore, leading towards Lancr [Lancaster],^ to bee paved 
before ye xvth of August next, upon paine of vli. 

Ye same supvisors — that they fill upp ye Cookstools pitt 
before ye aforesd xvth of August next upon paine of vli. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hodgkinson — that she scoure her ditch in 
Salter-lane,2 before ye seaventh of August next, upon paine of 
vjs. viijd. 

Ellis Mackin for washing Carrotts at ye Sike troughs. And 
Anne Haworth, Anne Abbott, and Annas BuUen for washing 
puddings there, to pay iijs. iiijd. apiece. 

Great Court Leet held on October 14th, 1672. Edward 
Rigby, Steward, is the only Court official mentioned in the 

Presentments : — 

Ye Balives have not drest ye minspitt well and made good 
the Causey adioyning to it, as also ye Syke troughs, haveinge 
Lawfull warning to have done them before ye xth of December 
last. vli. 

Whereas Richard Taylor and Robte Loxam, draps [drapers], 
late Balives of this towne, ought by ye rules and custome of this 
towne to make True and Pfect accompts of all theire receipts 
and disbursemts during ye time of theire office, And the said late 
Balives have in their accompts of the disbursemts by them made 
wthin the said Time unduely discharged themselves of 18s. by 

1. This " causey " would be an old, narrow, lane-like way, running on 
the line of or parallel to Garstang-road as far as Watling Streei-road, the 
continuation thence towards Lancaster being westward, by the Withy 
Trees into Cadley-lano, passing over Cadley Moor into Broughton town- 
ship, and then onward through Broughton village, &o. 

2. Salter-lane ran from the top of Tithebarn-street to the junction of 
Moor-lane with Garstang-road, taking in its course the line of the present 

Preston Court Leet. 121 

them prtended to bee for wine bestowed upon Sir Gilbte Ireland^ 
and Air. Sudell,^ ye 24th of January, wch was in ye yeare of our 
Lord God 1671, And that ye said Balives did not according to 
theire said accompts bestow in wine on ye said Sr Gilbte Ireland 
and ;Mr. Sudell nor upon either of them ye said sume of 18s. or 
^"y other sume of money on ye said 24th of January or anyother 
tiax^^ for wch false accompt wee fine them in either vli apiece.-^ 

Great Court Leet held on April 14th, 1673. No official 
"^nies are mentioned in the heading. 
Presentments : — 

Richard Baliffe, plaisterr [plasterer], being able to worke, 
^nd contrary to ye Law turnes beggar and idle pson, and mani- 
fested to us, in respect hee waited amongst other beggars as old 
people and children, at ye Judges retome from ye last Assizes,^ 
craveing for relief e, therefore to bee punished according to Law. 

1. Sir Gilbert Ireland, of Hutt and Hale, was High Sheriff of the 
County of Lancaster in 1622-23 and 1648-49. Early in February, 1649, 
directly after the execution of Charles I., Sir Gilbert, acting under an 
order from Parliament, issued a statement to the effect that whocoever 
proclaimed a new King without the authority of Parliament would be 
deemed a traitor. This statement was proclaimed and published in 20 
of the towns of Lancashire (according to a letter Sir Gilbert sent to 
Lenthal, Speaker of the House of Commons) ; one of them being Preston, 
where the statement was proclaimed, &c., at 10 o'clock on the morning of 
February 10th. The name of Sir Gilbert appears in the out-burgess part 
of the Guild Rolls of Preston for 1622 and 1642 ; but hie freedom does not 
seem to have been renewed at the Guild in 1662. He died in 1675. 

2. The " Mr. Sudell " here referred to was Williani Sudell, Mayor of 
Preston during a portion of the municipal year 1671-2 (through the death 
of Thomas Walrasley). He was for many years an Alderman of the 
borough, and died in 1678. 

3. A marginal note says, " Ye amerciment remitted." 

4. The Judges would be returning from Lancaster Assizes — at this 
time Lancaster was the only Assize town in the county — and it is very 
probable they would put up for the night or stay for refreshments and a 
change of horses at the White Bull (now the Bull and Royal) Hotel, in 
Church -street. The Bull is a very old hotel. In 1693 it was demised by 
William Worden to Richard Jackson, on three lives, at a rent (after a 
preparatory lump-sum payment) of 40s. per annum. Some time after- 
wards it passed into the hands of William Bushell and others, from whom 
it was purchased, in 1731, by John Winder. Subsequently the Bull 
became the property of John Smalley and others. In 1773 they sold it to 
Lord Stanley, who succeeded as 12th Earl of Derby in 1776. Sinoe his 

122 Preston Court Leet. 

Mr. Thomas Bannester and Mr. John Chorley, prsent 
Balives — that they pcure [procure] the Cawsey at ye further 
end of ye Stonygate betwixt ye platt and ye yate going to 
Avenham milne^ to be paved at or before ye first day of Sep- 
tember next, otherwise to pay xxs. 

These psons following [Thomas Loxam, Thomas flfarn worth, 
Ralph Eeaves, and Thomas Hodgkinson] — that they sett styles 
in the anncient accustomed places in their several! closes 
Leading through ye Cliffs into meadow lane,^ at or before ye 
15th day of August next, otlierwise to pay vjs. viijd. apiece. 

Henry Graystocke hath taken away the stiles at ye west end 
of New well brow,^ and sufferrs his fences to ly open, wch is 

purchase, in 1773, this hotel, has rumained continuously in the possession 
of the Stanley family. If the Judgfes referred to in the presentment did 
not call at the Bull, it is almost certain they would halt at the next most 
commodious or important hotel then in Preston — the Castle Inn, Market 
Place, which was built in 1623. 

1. This " milno " would be a wind mill, and would probably be near 
or on the high ground on the south side of Avenham-lane between 
Pleasant-street and Groat Avenham-stroet. 

2. '' The ClifTs " were fields on the oast «ide of the present West Cliff. 
A f(»tpath, in some parts fenced, and open in others, went from the 
bottom of Mount-street westward, across the north end of the Cliffs, and 
then turned into Meadow-lane, on the line of which Grafton-street now 
mainly runs. 

3. New well brow would be on the west side of Maudlands. A lane, 
goin^ to some extent on the lino of the present Poddor-street, Ac., crossed 
about half of the ground, being succeeded by a footpath which went west- 
ward over the other half, then down Spa Brow, and so to the Marsh. The 
west boundary of a pretty large enclosure, called Well Field, adjoined half 
of the Brow. " New well brow " may have been on this half: if not, then 
the sloping ground north-west, traversed by the footpath mentioned, which 
passed the Cold Bath, would probably bo it (Cold Bath -street, which is near 
whore ran a part of the old lane referred to — oast end — got its name from this 
Bath). A few yards from the Bath — opposite the south end of it — there 
was a well. Immediately north-east of the Bath, which was done away 
with for bathing purposes about 1864, there was an enclosure which used 
to be called Spaw Brow Field (Wellington-terrace now ocoupieB a 
portion of it) ; near it was Well Field, extending east as far as 
Ashton-street, and south-east to the lower part of the present Wellfield- 
road, whof^ name is obviously derived from this same field. It is probable 
a well, obtaining its supply from one of the springs above or east of the 
old well, was sunk not so long before the presentment was made; and, if 
this were the case, then the brow on the west side of the field in which it 
was situated might be designated *' New well brow." 

Preston Court Leet. 123 

\eiry ]y beleeved, and that upon good grounds, he intends to take 
y^ ^Ldvantages agt ye ownrs of such Cattle as shall enter therein, 
^^d that in respect hee hath severall times threatned the pindrs 
^^ Indict them for their going through ye said Browes, being an 
^nricient way to ye marsh, and therefore to pay xxs., and also to 
P^y 5s. aweeke so long as ye said styles remains unsett upp, and 
y^ fences belonging to ye same unsufficiently made. 

Great Court Leet held on October 15th, 1673. Edward 
*^igby, Steward, is the only Court official named in the heading. 
Jury presentments: — 

The Balififes shall lay the hippin stones^ anew in Cocker 
liole and mend the railes before the first of January next, upon 
paine of xxs. 

The scavenger[s] for not makeing cleane the Cawsey betwixt 
the two Channels from Browne Channel^ to ye ffriergate Barrs, 
and yt for the future the scavengers shall doe the same upon 
paine of tenn shillings aweeke. 

Henry Wilding shall scowre his ditch and lay a new platt at 
ye end of his close neare ye wind mill in Broad gate,*^ before ye 
ffirst of ffebr, upon paine of xxs. 

Inquisition taken on P'ebruary 18th, 1674, before George 
Addison (Mayor), William Werden and Josiah Gregson (Bailiffs), 
and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentment : — 

Whereas there now is, and from ye time whereof ye memory 
of man is not to ye Contrar}- hath beene, a Comon and usuall 
ffootway in and through a certaine Lane or weend called 

1. Hippin or hipping stones aro largo stones usually placed in a brook, 
&c., to enaWe persons on foot to step on them, and so croes the water 
without petting wet. 

2. ** Browne Channel " was in Friargate, and must have had its outlet 
at or somewhere near the present north end of Lune-street. An agree- 
ment which I have seen, dated August 23rd, 1713, relating to the sale of 
a house, &c., on the cast eido of Friargate — the site of the house now 
occupied by the Old Britannia Inn and that of other property by Lill's 
Court — describes the situation thereof as being "over against the Brown 

3. Tbifi wind mill is not shown on any of the old map*. 

124 Preston Court Leet. 

Chetham Weend,^ from a certaine streete in Preston called 
Churchgate unto ye Sykes, and so to Avenham and ye waterside, 
at ye entrance into wch said weend from ye sd street there hath 
Constantly every time of ffaires, vizt., upon ye ffaire day wthin 
Preston aforesd, beene placed a pson to take and receive Toll 
from such psons as did at such times use and goe through ye sd 
way, Now wee find and prsent Mary Sudell, of Preston aforesd, 
widdow, for that shee the xxvijth day of March, in ye xxvith 
yeare of ye Raigne of our Soveraigne Lord King Charles ye 
seacond yt now is, did stopp ye sd way, by nailing and staking 
upp a dore at ye bottom of ye said Weend, and wch opens to ye 
said sykes, to ye Comon nuzance and prjudice of ye subjects of 
our soveraigne Lord ye King, and therefore wee doe amerce her 
in ye sume of xls.. And if shee ye said Mary Sudell doe not open 
or cause ye sd way to bee opened as formerly in the usual! place 
upon or before the xth day of Aprill next, then wee doe amerce 
her more in ye further sume of xxs. a month. 

Great Court Leet held on the 28th of April, 1674. 

Presentments : — 

Isabella Hall bought butter and other things and sold them 
again ye same day and Inhansed the markett thereby, and fine 
her in xs. 

Hugh Aynscough and Richard Withington, fFarmors of ye 
fiishing in Rible, that ye meases of theire netts are straiter than 
ye statute in yt case directs, and fine them in xls. apiece. 

1. The name of the "Lane or weend" mentioned does not appear on 
any of the old maps of the town. Lang's map shows four passages, 
between Water-street and Main Sprit Weind, running from the south 
side of Church-street down to the Sykes, viz., Stoneygate, the Bull Hotel 
yard, Turk's Head yard, and Old Cock yard. The passage in question 
could not be Stoneygate or Main Sprit Weind, for whenever reference is 
made to either of these in the Court Leet presentments the full name is 
given or very plainly indicated by the name of some adjoining place; nor 
could it be the Bull Hotel yard, which was a private or tenanted way 
directly connected with and forming part of the holding; neither would 
it be Turk's Head yard, for when the presentments was made that yard 
was called Cockshutt's backside ; so it would seem that Chetham weend — 
a name which has been dropped for generations — must have been the 
passage now known as Old Cock yard. 

Preston Court Leet. 125 

Great Court Leet held on October 23rd, 1674, before James 
Ashton (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

These milnrs as tmsgressors agt ye Law in takeing unreason- 
able toll or moulter of Come, therefore to bee punished accord- 
ingly — Willm Holme miller to Mrs. Eliz. Werden, George 
Bennet miller to Mr. John Langton, Adam Morris millr at 

Avenham millne, Rich. millr at ye Marsh milne. It[em] 

wee doe thinke fitt that Mr. Maior cause to bee brought before 
him their toule dishes^ to cause them to bee made right and 
sealed as othr measures. 

John Gregson, Butcher, in yt hee ye 20th of June and ye 
4th of July last, did Contrary to ye last Guild orders buy Calves 
before nine of ye Clocke, therefore to pay xxs. according to ye 
said order.2 

Great Court I.eet held on April 5th, 1675. The only 
official name which appears in the heading is that of Edward 
Rigby, Steward of the Court. 

Presentments : — 

Nicholas Watson*^ for Laying his Timber in a certaine street 
of this towne called ye ffr)'ergate, to ye great annoyance of ye 
Inhabitants, . . . [to] pay for ye said offence iijs. iiijd., and 
yt he remove ye same before ye first day of August next, upon 
paine of xls. 

Thomas Gregson for turning a heifer to ye Marsh wch hath 
not had a calfe, contrary to ye orders of this towne, to pay for 
ye said offence vjs. viijd. 

1. See note p. 9. 

2. Ordinarily, at this time, the cattle market was held in Church- 
street, every Saturday ; and, as it did not open till nine o'clock in the 
morning, Gregson was guilty of forestalling. 

3. Nicholas Watson was an old and most persistent offender. At time 
and time for upwards of 20 years he had thus trefipassed, chiefly if not 
entirely in Friargate, and though proportionately ** presented, " and fined 
by the Court Leet, he apparently could not or would not refrain from 
thie peculiar way of ''Laying his Timber." 

126 Preston Court Leet. 

Edward Rigby,^ Serjeant at Law, and Richard Kewerden, 
Dr. in phisicke,^ being ye overseers of ye highways, for noi 
repairing ye highways belonging to this Corporacon, and yt they 
cause ye way betwixt ye Almes houses at Churchgate end"^ and ye 
Swillbrooke, ye high ways in Ribleton lane, ye cawseye Rampier 
betwixt ye more brow and ye horse bridge leading to Caddiley,^ 
ye lane called Salter lane, and ye high way called ffishergate 
barrs^ and ye water side, to bee put into good repaire betwixt 
[now] and ye xvth of August next, upon paine of vl. apiece. 

Great Court Leet held on [blank] day of October, 1675, 
before John Kellet (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Henry Myres has built a lime kill at ye backe of his house, 
wch is to ye feare of all his neighbours ; wee doe therefore ordr 
yt hee pull down ye same before ye xxvth of March next, upon 
paine of xxs. 

1. Edward Rigby — a son of Colonel Alexander Rigby, who had charge 
of the military operations against Lathom Uouse during the first part of 
the memorable eiege there in 1644-45 — was Steward of the Court Leet, i.e.. 
Town Clerk. Between 1660 and 1680 he sat in three Parliaments as one 
of the representatives of Preston. In 1682 he was Clerk of the Guild 
here. He died in 1686. 

2. Richard Kuerden was bom at Cuerden, near Preston, about 1620. 
He was a physician, hietorical writer, &c. The bulk of what he wrote 
has never been printed. Much of his manuscript work is now in the 
Heralds' College, London ; some of it is in the Chetham Library, Man- 
chester ; and a small portion of it is in the British Museum. A descrip- 
tion of Preston, written by Dr. Kuerden between 1681 and 1687, was 
published (along with ** occasional notes " from the pen of Mr. John 
Taylor) in 1818, by Mr. Isaac Wilcockson, printer, Ac., Market Place, 
Preston. This was the first history of the town which, up to that time, 
had appeared in print. 

3. The Almshouses were opposite the bottom of Church-street, and the 
" way " between them and Swillbrook consisted of the ppeeent Stanley-etreet 
and the higher part of London-road. 

4. ** Moor brow " would be that part of the high road extending from 
Moor Brook, at the bottom of Moor-lane, to the present entrance to Moor 
Park Avenue. ** The horse bridge *' would be at the entranoe to a lane 
on the west side of the brow, about midway, and something like 100 
yards from the highway. Water from a pit, north of Gallows Hill, ran 
under a small bridge there, into Moor Brook. The lane passed Moor 
Hall, and from it there branched at diflTorent points two footpaths to 
Cadley ; one entering Cadley near the present Plungington Hotel, and 
the other opposite what used to be Hatch Mill. 

5. Fishergate barrs should be Fifiher^ate. 

Preston Court Leet. 127 


Ye supvisors of ye highways . . . repaire ye lane at 
Cockerhole along from ye fflagged Cawsey to ye scholehouse 
before ye xxvth of March next upon paine of xxs. 

Great Court Leet held on April 4th, 1676, before John 
Kellet (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Ye lane called Ribbleton-lane, ye lane leading downe to 
Braadgate,^ ye lane Leading to Rible Bridge,^ ye lane Leading 
to ye Marsh,"^ ye more lane,^ ye Long causey upon ye more 
leading to ye horsebridge,^ and ye Lane Leading to ye nearer 
end of ye Marsh called flfryer weend,^ are all out of repaire, and 
ought to bee repaired by this towne of Preston. And wee do 
judge and verily beleeve yt tenn pounds may bee a Competent 
sume to put ye same in good repaire. 

David Poole being elected and chosen houselooker by ye 
Maior and Councell, according to ye custome of this towne, for 
yt he neglects and refuses to execute his oflSce, therefore to pay 

Great Court Leet held on the 13th of October, 1676, before 
William Lemon (Mayor)^ and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

1. Fisher^ate-lane — tho present Fkhergate Hill. 

2. London-road, which at the time the presentment was made diverged 
west near the top of what is now called ** Walton Brow," then went 
along the back of and not far from the site of Swillbrook Mill, crossed 
Swillbrook-lane, next slanted to the south, and going along '* a winding 
hollow, down the centre of a sharply-sloping field, came out at the Ribble 
side, close to the then existing old bridge, about 130 yards below or west 
of the present bridge. 

3. Marsh-lane or Fylde-road. 

4. Moor lane. 

5. This would load across the North Moor into Fulwood. 

6. ** flfryer weend " obviously means " ffryer-lane " — afterwards called 

Bridge-lane, and now part of ]Marsh-lane. When the presentment was 

made there was in Preston a Bmall street or passage named " flfryer 

weend " : it was what in after times wont by the name of Anchor Woind 

— a narrow, dingy way, running from the top end of Friargato, near the 

north-west corner of the Market Place, to the bottom of Lord-street. 

Anchor Weind and Lord-street were done away with in 1895-96 to make 

room for street and building improvements on the north side of the 
Market Place. 

7. Lemon is the name of an old and very important local family. At 
an early time there were persons bearing this name in Walton-le-Dale. 
William mentioned in the Court Leet heading was for numerous years an 

128 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Nicholas Wall and Mr. Nicholas Walmsley, late Baliffs, 
for not collecting ye tenn pounds assessed for ye repaire of ye 

Thomas Sumpner, Ralph Eaves, and Ellize Makin — ^yt they 
repaire ye houses belonging to ye towne upon ye Sykehill before 
ye xxvth of March next, upon ye penalty of xxs. apiece. 

Great Court Leet held on April 5th, 1677, before William 
Lemon (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Ye supvisors of the highways that they repaire ye Cawsey 
from ye ffishergate barrs all along as farr as ye same has usually 
gone,^ formerly presented, and not done; therefore we find 
[fine] them in xxvjs. viijd. 

Mr. Serjt. Rigby [Steward of the Court] for not scouring of 
his ditch Leading to Davel Bridge, formrly prsented, and yet not 
done, wee therefore find [fine] him in xxs. 

Alderman Kellett^ has broaken ye Cawsey all along from ye 
schole house to ye wind mill field; wee therefore find him in 
vis. viijd. 

Thomas Hoghton, strongwaterman,' not being a ffreeman 

Aldorman and five timos elected Mayor of Preston (1676-85-94, 1703-15). In 
1723 he prayed to be relieved of his Aldermanfthip " by reason of his advanced 
age and infirmities," and his request was complied with. Near the end of 
the following year he died, at the age of 78, and was buried at Preston. 
He was never married, and *' appears to have been the last male 
descendant of the Lemons of Preston." 

1. The repairable length would be from the "barrs" to the bottom 
of Fishergate-hill and thence along Broadgate to its outer or south end. 

2. Alderman Kellett was the Mayor's Bailiff in 1665-6. In 1673 he 
was made an Alderman. In 1675, and again in 1684, he was elected 
Mayor. He was one of a deputation of eight members of the Council 
who in 1687 went to Chester, and there presented an address from the 
Profiton Corporation to James II., congratulating him as King of 
England, and expressing " loyalty to his royal person ajid the house of 
Stuart." It is said that "two Aldermen's daughters" accompanied the 
deputation " in order to receive the King's touch " — a supposed cure for 
" King's evil." Mr. Kellett, whose Christian name was John, continued 
to be an Alderman till his death, which took place in 1693. 

3. Hoghton would be a maker or seller of distilled or ardent i^irits. 
" Strong- water " used to be the name given to such spirits. 

Preston Court Leet. 129 

of this towne, wee do therefore order to remove forthwith, other- 
wise to pay ye sume of xli. 

Great Court Leet held on April 9th, 1678, before Luke 
Hodgkinson (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

John Millington for getting whins upon spittle mosse, not 
being free of this Corporacon, to pay iijs. iiijd. 

Richard Woods, for that he suflfreth his servts to water 
t^orses in ye Buckett at ye well in ye Markett place, to ye great 
Prjudice of his neighbours, to pay iijs. iiijd. 

Mr. Roger Sudell and Mr. Ralph Woodhouse, prsent 
^aliffs, for that they have not repaired ye townes streets to pay 
^Is. . . . [and] yt they repaire the townes hall in xxty days or 
^^s to pay xxs. 

Great Court Leet held on October 14th, 1678, before 
Lawrence Wall (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

James Moncke, Hoggatt, and Unsworth, for suflfring their 
horses to standing in Arams backside,^ upon markett dayes, to 
ye great danger and prjudice of any that pass that way, to pay 
iijs. iiijd. apiece. 

Tildesley Atkinson and Mary Bateson for being easing 
droppers under James Halls widdowe [window], to pay vjs. viijd. 

1. Not far from the Market Place — about 70 yards from the north- 
east corner, and in a diagonal line with it — there was at one time an open, 
oblong place called Aram's Backside. In or about 1686 it got a fresh 
name — was called IMolyneux-square. after its then owner (Mr. Thomas 
Molyneux, second son of Sir John Molyneux), who had made various 
material improvements in or about it) — and for a great number of years 
it was known by this name. Molyneux-square occupied a portion of what 
is now Lancaster-road — about 40 yards of it ; the western side being 
mainly in line with and covered in length by the higher end of the new 
CJounty Sessions House and the top of Harris-street, whilst the 
opposite side extended from the front of Ward's End, or World's End, 
to where the Education Offices now stand, at the corner of Lord-street. 
On the western side of the Square there used to be a large, substantial- 
looking brick house, which was occupied for some time in the first half of 
last century by Mr. James Cheetham, an eccentric veterinary surgeon ; 
and there are reasons for believing that if this were not Aram House it 
stood upon or very near the site of that residence. 

130 Preston Court Leet. 

Inquisition taken on February 13th, 1679, before Thomas 
Winckley (Mayor), John Chorley and Jonathan Seed (Bailiffs), 
and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

John Ryding had swine graseing in ye Church yard, and 
ye pinders offring by our appoyntmt to take the same to ye 
pinfould Hee the said John Ryding or some by his appoyntmt 
rescued the same swine from ye said pinders, and therefore wee 
amerce him in ye sume of Is. for his two swine their so being 
graseing, and for his Rescue in ye further sume of iijs. iiijd. 

The BaiUffes — that they make a new yate and a new Cuck- 
stoole at ye Churchgate towne end before ye xxth of Aprill, 
upon paine of 13s. 4d. 

The pinders of this towne — that they rake and gather the 
sticks and wrecke from of ye marsh and bume ye same, and 
spread ye Ashes, before ye xxth of Aprill next, upon paine of 
xnjs. mjd. 

Great Court Leet held before Lawrence Wall (Mayor) and 
Edward Rigby (Steward), on March 27th, 1679. 

Presentments : — 

Willm Welsh for a blood wipe upon the body of Christopher 
Woodburne, the said Christopher being one of the Jury, to pay 
vjs. viijd. 

These persons followinge for gettinge of Clay, in the high 
way at the end of the towne, called Churchgate towne end, to 
the great Decay of the highway — Sr John Mollinx^ to pay 
vjs. viijd., Robert Serjeant to pay iijs. iiijd., William Werden to 
pay 13s. 4d. 

1. Sir John Molyneux was the third baronet of Tevereall, Nottingham- 
shire—^ branch of the family of Mojyneux, Earls of Sefton. He married 
Lucy, daughter of Colonel Alexander Rigby, of Middleton, in Goosnargh, 
the officer in charge of the first siege operations against Lathom House; 
and at or about the time the presentment was made he had some property 
in Preston. At the Guild in 1682 he was enrolled an out-burgess of the 
borough. Thomas Molyneux, his second son, of whom mentioja was made 
in a prior note, was a Turkey merchant, had a residence in Preston, and 
for some time was a man of political consequence here. He was one oi 
the M.F.^s for Preston from 1695 to 1698, and at an election in 1701 he 
was again returned as a Parliamentary representative of the bc^rougb. 

Preston Court Leet. 131 

John Baly, Blacksmyth, for lettinge his fence to lye Downe 
unto a Coman feild called Waiter Willowes, to the great Loss to 
the occupiers in their Come, to pay xiijs. iiijd. 

Christopher Greenfeild, Esqr./ for Stopinge up the high 
way Leadinge through a Street called fryergate, and Soe through 
a house called Heskath house to a certaine croft called Heskath 
Croft^ in 40s. The said Mr. Greenfeild for not erecting a Style 
at the end of the said croft westward, leadinge to a certaine laine 
called Green layne and see forward [fined] in vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet held on April 20th, 1680, before Thomas 
Hinckley (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Those psons following for not appearing at this Leet Cort 
to pay iijs. iiijd. apiece.^ 

Edward Hollinhurst, Hugh Sinmion, John Harrison, Evan 
Hughson, ffarmrs of ye ffishing of Rible, for yt they ffish wth 
I'nlawfull netts, contrary to ye statute in yt case made and pro- 
vided, to pay xiijs. iiijd. apiece. 

He rearranged and improved a part of the town afterwards known as 
Molyneux- square. In 1715 he built, a short distance from that square, a 
range of shambles: they occupied some slightly elevated ground which 
many years afterwards fomK?d one side of the south end of Lancaster- 
road — ground which, when the shambles, &c., were demolished some years 
ago, was made level with the adjoining streets, and which the eastern 
walls of the Miller Arcade and the Free Library, as well as the interjacent 
top of Jacson-street, now cover. Thomas Molyneux*s son and heir (Rigby 
Molyneux) was the High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1749 ; and his (Thomas's) 
only daughter, Lucy, married Dr. Bushcll, the founder of Goosnargh 

1. Christopher Greenfield was a descendant of the Greenfields originally 
of Whalley and Wiswell (tenants under the monastery of Whalley) ; his 
father being Thomas Greenfield, gent., of Witton. He (Christopher) 
practised for some time, as an attorney -at-law, in Preston: he married 
Sarah, daughter of Dr. Bushel!, Vicar of Preston ; was one of the M.P.*s 
for Preston from the 20th of March, 1689-90, to the 22nd of November, 
1695 ; was knigted in 1693 ; and died in 1706. 

2. For Hesketh Croft see note p. 77. Green-lane was near such Croft, 
and may have derived its name through proximity to a bowling green 
between Bridge-street and Edward-street. 

3. Fifty-two are named. Apparently they were amongst those bur- 
gesses liable to serve as Jurymen at the CJourt, and had not, at time and 
time, complied with notices to attend. 

132 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on October 13th, 1680, before 
Thomas Hodgkinson (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Nicholas Watson, contrary to ye ordrs of this towne and 
Mr. Maiors pclamacon by ye bellman, letts his Timber ly in ye 
street l>efore his house, And his seller staires are very dangerous 
for ye inhabitants of this towne to passe by in ye night; there- 
fore to pay vis. viijd. for ye time past, and remove his Timber 
and secure his Celler in tenn days time, upon paine of xxs. 
[Also] hee Letteth his fTence in ye croft called Bostocke croft^ 
Ly downe to ye great annoyance of ye neighbourhood; That 
he make upp ye said fTence betwixt [now] and ye 15th of 
January next upon paine of xls. 

These psons following keepe Greyhounds and course haires 
rontrar}- to ye statute in that case made and pvided^; that they 
pay according to ye statute : — Randle Chorlicar, Roger 
Bannester, gen., Richard Woods. John Blackledge, Thomas 
Bostocke, Thomas Hatch. 

John Oarlicke, not being a ffreeman in this Corporation, 
doth suffer his wife to brew and sell Ale, and she refused to let 
ye Ale founders tast their Ale or measure their Quarts?; there- 
fore wee fine ye sd John Garlicke in vis. viijd., And leave it to 
Mr. Maior and Councell to suppresse him for ye time to come. 

1. Watson resided in Friarp^ate, and it is possible that Bostocke Croft 
was in tlio noiKhbourliocd thereof. 

2. Tlie 22 and 23 Ohas. II., c. 25. This statute prohibited 
all por.sons except such as had a freehold estate worth £100 pff 
annum or a leasehold for 99 years of £150 annual value, or were the sons 
and heirs apparent of 'equires, from having or keeping any greyhounds 
or other game dogs, or any guns. bows, ferrets, nets, lowbels, air pipes, 
gins, snares or other engines for the purpose of taking or destroying 
game ; the penalty for non-compliance with such statute being a fine or 
the seizure of "engines,'* &c., according to the discretion of the judicial 

3. In the 17th century, when there were married women living at 
alehouses, such women rather than their husbands had charge of the 
business, and they were called ale wives: but this name wae not confined 
exclusively to married females connected with such houses. Ale wife 
meant a woman that kept an ale house ; wife being used in the sense of 
woman, and hence it was a name which was applied to single and married 
as well as to widowed females. The feminine suffix in the word " brewster" 
shows that brewing was formerly a woman's trade* 

Preston Court Leet. 133 

Great Court Leet held on April 8th, 1681, before Thomas 
Hodgkinson (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

Lawrence Shepard for throwing Carrion in ye highway nere 
unto Titmouse barne to pay N-is. viijd. 

The houselookers for not doing their duty to pay xxs. 
Ye supvisors of ye highways for not doing their duty to 
pay xxs. 

Great Court Leet held on October 14th, 1681, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

The highwayes within the towne of Preston, vizt., the lane 
leading downe to broadgate, ye lane called ffryer lane leading 
to ye Marsh, ye lane leading from Spittle Mosse to ye 
Marsh, ye way from flfryergate barrs to Spittle Mosse, ye 
way leading downe to ye west moore,^ ye ways leading from ye 
east end of ye towne to Ribbleton and Swillbrooke, are all out 
of repaire and in very great decay, and wee conceive yt xiijl. 
wold bee a competent sume towards ye repaire of ye same wayes. 
Lawrence Cowp, for oppressing ye Commons by keeping 
CC sheepe, four horses or Maires, and two kine, to pay vli. 

Inquisition taken on February 16th, 1682, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor), Thomas Werden and Evan Hughson (Bailiffs), 
and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

Thomas Stirzaker and John Hodgkinson for spoyling of ye 
new well at Churchgate Townend,^ to ye prjudice of ye neigh- 
bouhood, to pay xs. 

The Bailiff es — that they fill upp ye skinpitts at Marsh 
Millne dame side^ before ye first of May, upon paine of xxs. 

Sir Edward Chisenhall^ and Mr. John Lawe — that they lay 

1. ** West more " would be the western portion of Preston Moor, and 
would embrace part of the land between Fylde-road and Cadley. 

2. This well would, in all probability, bo near the Almshouses which 
used to stand at the east end of Church-street. 

3. These ** skinpitts " would be tanpits. 

4. Sir Edward Chisenhall was a son of Edward ChisenhaJI, Esq., of 
Chisnall or Chisenhall Hall, in Coppull. This was the mansion of the 

134 Preston Court Leet. 

a raile and raise ye ramper at ye bridge leading to Daw Bancke,^ 
and to repaire ye Bridge and lay a raile at ye bridge leading to 
Oxhey,2 before ye first of Aprill next, upon paine of xxs. apiece. 

Ye occupyers of Crowne lane^ — ^yt they sett a gate at ye 
lane end next to ye moore lane, before ye 25th of March next, 
upon paine of vjs. viijd. apiece, and ye occupyers and in pticular 
their names. 

Richard Woods for denying to fill ye townes Gallon^ with 
Ale for 6d. to pay vjs. viijd. 

Henry Myers to fill upp his clay pitts on ffryergate moore^ 
before ye first of May or pay xxs. 

Chi«enhall family. Sir Edward's father, who was rcsidinfir at tho hall 
(now a farmhouse) in 1635, if not somewhat later, was one of the captains 
in the defence of Lathom House, during? the siege of it in 1644-45. Sir 
Edward Chisenhall waR knighted in 1671. He was one of the Parliamen- 
tary representatives of Wigan in 1688-9 — in the Whig interest. In 
December, 1690, ho was elected Tory M.P. for Preeton, defeating Thomas 
Patten (Whig candidate), of Patten House, Preston, by 57 votes; and ho 
held this position till the election in November, 1695. Sir Edward died in 
or about 1718. The Chisnalls who became out-burgesses of Preston in 
1622 and 1642 — Alexander, of CoppuU, in the former year, and Edward 
in the latter — may have been related to tho family of Sir Edward Chisen- 

1. See note p. 115. 

2. See note p. 104. 

3. Crowno-lane took tho lino of the present Cragg*s-row and Har- 
rison's-hill, on the east side of Moor-lane. Three moderately- 
sized, closely-adjoining fields at one time extended eastward from 
Crown-lane as far as the present Lancaster-road, and included, 
transversely, tho space, now occupied by streets, &c., 'bounded by Singlo- 
ton-row on the north and Elizaboth-stroet on the south. Two of the fioldfi 
wore respectively called Crown, and the third was named Crown Piece. 
Crown-street runs along what used to be the inner or lower side of the 
northernmost of these fields. 

4. Richard Woods had probably been giving short measure when selling 
his " sixpenny " and refused to have his gallon measure compared with tho 
standard gallon kept by tho town. 

5. When this presentment was made Preston Moor, or the moorland 
belonging to Preston, would, thore can be little if, indeed, any doubt at 
all, oxtond south as far as the bottom end of Friargate — to a point in 
lino with tho end of the present Adelphi-street — a street which was not 
laid out till about 1830 ; and it is fairly presumable that the land here 
would bo that described in tho presentment as " ffryergate moore." Moor- 
lane would fiank on the south-east or .cross diagonally a portion of the 
same moorland. 

Preston Court Leet. 155 

Ye Baliffes — that they make up je usoall number of 
Bucketts,^ in good order, before ye xxiiijth of May, upon paine 
of vli. 

Great Court Leet held on April 17th, 1682, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

Wee prsent the severall persons foUowing for not appeare- 
ing at this Court^ 

Thomas Patten, Esqr.. for suffering his Milne Damme, upon 
the Marsh, to goe out of repaire, in the sume of 40*. if the same 
bee not repaired at or before the 24th day of June next. 

The following, being Guild burgesses of this Corporacon, 
and not haveing taken the oath of a Burgesse, doe amerce them 
in 12d. apiece, if they doe not take the said oath before the 
tenth of July next.^ 

The Bayliffes for not repaireing the Church gate Barrs, and 
amerce them 6s. 8d. 

Inquisition taken on February 11th, 1683, before James 
Ashton (Mayor), Richard Langton and Richard Woods (Bailiffs), 
and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

Ye Baliffs for want of a Cuckstoole to pay xxxxs. 
Thurstan Darwen for keeping and selling goods by false 
weights to pay xxli. 

James Holt for harlx^uring of A woman and 3 children, 
being strangers, to pay xxxxli.* 

Great Court Leet held on April 11th, 1683, before George 
Addison (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 
Presentments : — 

Mr. George Addison, Major, for not scowring his ditch at 
banckhead,^ to pay iijs. iiijd. 

1. The«e back-ets wouid be for the town's draw wells. 

2. The nanae^ of tTrrfrK-r- j^rsoc* are inven, ten bein;? fined 12d- each, 
and two^ " helnz of t2>e GcHjncjeJl of the Towne," 5s. apiece. 

3- Fiftj are nansed. 

4. A marginai noi-e fcaj* — **Tbe peons being^ Unug mce remored, 
James Holt to pay iije. iiijd.'* 

5. See note p. 4L 

136 Preston Court Leet. 

Mr. sergt Rigby [Steward of the Court] for Laying rubbidge 
in fryer weend to ye prjudice of ye highway to pay xxs. 

Ye Bailififes for want of a sufficient Bridge betwixt this 
towne and Ashton to pay xxs. 

Willm, ye son of John Woods, for abuseing and fighting and 
' drawing blood upon ye body of Ralph Comander, one of this 
Jury, for offring to hinder him from watering horses in ye 
Buckett at ye well in ye markett place, to pay xls. 

Great Court Leet held on October 15th, 1683, before James 
Ashton (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Hill for driveing a malt trade wthin this Cor- 
poracon, not being ffree, to pay xxl. 

Roger Santer for an assail and drawing blood upon ye body 
of Thomas Kirkby, of Lancr post,^ to pay iijs. iiijd. 

These psons following for Slaughtering beefs and killing 
veales and muttons in ye shambles, contrary to ye Gyld order, 
to bee amced [amerced] at ye discrecon of ye "Major and 

1. Kirkby would be either the postman, per horse, or have charge of 
the postal arrangements between Preston and Lancaster. 

2. Thirty-three persons are named. The Shambles were near the east 
end of the Moot Hall, which stood on some ground now occupied by the 
Town Hail. After they had been done away with, miecellaneous shops 
were built on their site. The thoroughfare in which these shops were 
situated was called the Old Shambles down to the time when the ground 
they covered was required for street widening and structuraJ purposes in 
connection with Miller Arcade. The parapet or footway adjoining the 
west end of this Arcade runs over the land on which the shops stood. The 
order referred to was made at the Guild in 1682. It stated that the 
slaughtering of beasts in the Shambles and other places in and about the 
Moot Hall, where was commonly a large concourse of people, was most 
manifestly a groat nuisance, and might occasion if not prevented dis- 
tempers and diseases; that such slaughtering was also a great nuisance 
and prejudicial to the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses when they assembled 
in the Moot Hall, to the inhabitants residing near the Shambles, and to 
"other his ^laties Leige Subjects;** that the Guild Mayor, Stewards, 
and Aldermen had decided that slaughtering in the Shambles was *' a 
great Nuisance and unfit and dangerous to be continued;" and that no 
person after the 24th of June in the following year — " after the Sealing 
up of this present Guild" — should "slay or kill or cause to be slayne or 
killed any manner of Cattle or Beasts in the said Shambles or within any 

Preston Court Leet. 137 

Inquisition taken on Februan' 4th, 1684, before John 
Kellett (Mayor), and Roger Pigott and Daniel Dunster (BailifiFs). 

Presentments : — 

These psons following for forestalling ye markett, in buying 
^f ifish before ye Inhabitance are fitted, to pay 40s.^ 

James Whittle — yt he make up his Carding hedge, on back 
^^f ye Sevenstarrs,^ before 10th of Aprill, upon paine of 6s. 8d. 

Great Court Leet held on April 4th, 1684, before James 
-^shton (Mayor) and Edward Rigby (Steward). 

Presentments : — 

Ellen Cottam, wid [widow] — yt she contrary to ye Gild 
'^i^drs harboureth John Hatch, shoomaker, being a fforaignr, and 

*^<:>use, Shopp, or placo neare unto the same, nor within any Shopp or 

Palace next adjoyningo to any of the Publique Streetes within the 

^^arrs of this Towno, upon paine to forfeito and pay to the use of 

"tlie Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of this Burrough for every 

^ull, Oxe, or Cow slaughtered contrary to this Order the summe of fl&vo 

Shillings, And for every Sheepo, Calfe, Swine, or other Beast two shillings 

sixpence. And it is hereby declared and appointed that the Place or 

IMarkett in this Towne for selling of flflesh shall be continued and kept as 

ftormerly in the present Shambles and places about the Townes Hall, And 

Hoe Butchers be admitted to Expose fflesh to Sale in other places of this 

Towne Except by leave of the Major [Mayor], when the fulness of the 

Markett may Require the same, on pcnaltie of fl&ve shillings, to be paid 

as fforfeiture for every such ofTencc, to the use of the Major, Bailiffs, and 

Burgesses of this Burrough." 

1. Six persons are named. One of the Guild orders in force at this 
time directed that no person should '* regrate or buy up any butter, eggs, 
cheese, fish, flesh, cockles, mussels, nuts, fruit, or other victuals and things 
after the same is brought into the market," in a wholesale manner or for 
the purpose of re-sale, until the same had been exposed or offered for sale 
by retail for at least two hours. 

2. A Court Leet presentment made in 1695 states that the " Seven 
Starrs " was in Friargate ; but it does not mention any particular part 
of the street. The present Grey Horse and Seven Stars Inn, on the north 
side of Fishergate, has been a licensed house since about 1820. Its original 
name was the Grey Horse. Another Grey Horse inn, which existed before it 
and which for some time remained open concurrently with it, was in Church- 
street — adjoined the premises (much altered at different times in the 
second half of last century) now known as Addison's vaults, on the south 
side of Church-street, opposite the end of Lancaster-road ; but the name 
of this place, as a public-house, never underwent any enlargement. When 
the other Grey Horse — that in Fishergate — was opened there was no 
public-house called the Seven Stars in Preston. Why or when this Grey 
Horse got its name enlarged, astrally, is a problem. 

138 Preston Court Leet. 

yt shee remove him before ye first day of August next, upon 
paine of vjs. viijd.^ 

Mr. Roger Bannester^ contrary to ye peace and well 
governmnt of this incorporacon, and contrary to ye oath of a 
Burgesse, did assalt Roger Walshman, one of ye serjts of this 
towne, in ye execucon of his office, by throwing stones at him 
and knocking him downe and wounding him in ye head, to ye 
hazard of his liff e ; therefore do ffyne him in xs. 

Thomas Bradley, Taylor, hath sevall bastards in this towne, 
and hath left them to bee mainteined at ye towns charge, and 
although he absent himselfe yet hee keepeth journey men and 
apprentices to follow ye calling of a Taylor in this towne, And 
therefore wee thinke it fitt yt all or most of ye said bastard 
children should bee mainteined out of ye gettings of ye said 
servts, and do leave it to ye consideracon of ye Maior and 

Great Court Leet, held on May 14th, 1685, before John 
Kellett (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder).^ 

Presentments : — 

James Cowp caused his horse or maire to be ffleaed'* in ye 
open street, to ye great Anoyance of ye Inhabitants of this 


1. A marginal note says — " Wee conceive this prsentmt illegal.' 

2. Roger Bannestcr was a son of William Bannestor, who wi» Mayor 
of Preston in 1662-3. 

3. John Warren was a eon of John Warren, of Poynton, oo. Chester; 
several Warrens, evidently relatives of his, were enrolled as out-burgesses 
of Preston at the Guild in 1602 ; he became an out-burgesa himself in 
1662, the names of his father and a brother (Edward) also appearing in 
the same part of the Roll for that year; ho was a Justice of the Peace 
for the county of Chester and for North Wales ; on the 20th of November, 
1684, at a meeting of the Preeton Corporation, he was nominated Recorder 
or Steward of the borough, and at the same time it was decided that his 
name should be inserted in the now Charter — the Charter which received 
the Royal seal, at Westminster, on the 14th of January, 1686, and in 
which it was stated that he was appointed " first and present Recorder " 
of the borough of Preston. Warren retained the Recordership till his 
death, in 1706, when he was succeeded in that position by Nicholas 
Starkie, " Her ^Majesty's Attorney General for the County Palatine of 

4. *' ffleaed " means flayed. 

Preston Court Leet. 139 

Towne, Contrary to ye Laws and good Govermt of this Cor- 
partion, And therefore to pay ten shillings. 

The platt over ye Scoole dike at ye Lower end of Stonie- 

gate is both too Lowe and too Narrow ; yt upon a flush of 

Rayne itte over fflowed with water, soe yt his Majestys subjects 

in Comming to the markett in this towne and Scollers goeing 

and comeinge to and from the Scoole are very much Incomwied ; 

yt ye Baliffes of this towne Raise ye Cawsey and lay a Broader 

Bridge before ye 24th day of June next, upon paine of 20s. 

John Hodgkinson, Currier, and John Hall, Shoomaker, 
beinge appoynted Searchers and Sealers of Lether for this Cor- 
poracon, doth not discharge their duty in their places, but 
sufFereth shoos to be sould in ye Markett, by Edward Sumpner, 
that are made up wth horse Lether, contrary to ye statute, and 
therefore to pay 3s. 4d. apeece. 

Great Court Leet held on October 20th, 1685, before 
William Lemon, junr. (Mayor), and John Warren (Recorder). 
Presentments : — 

The Late BalifFs, Mr. Robt. Pigot and Mr. Daniel Dunster, 
for neglecting to Plant or Sett 20 plants, vizt., of Oaks, Ash, 
Elme, and Populor, according to an ordr made the last Gill, to 
pay Oil. ; the prsent Baliffs, Mr. Joseph King and Mr. Jo. 
RatclifFe plant or sett 20 plants upon the towns Land where is 
most needfull betwixt [now and] the 25th March next, otherwise 
to pay 011-OaOO.i 

These psons following, for not making their brick sizable 
according to the statute, vizt., 10 Inch longe, 5 Inch broade, 
2 and a half in thicknesse, to pay 001. 15s. OOd. a piece.^ 

1. Owinff to the dama^o done by flood water from the Ribblc, an 
order was made, at the Guild, in 1682, dircctinjr that the Baih'fFs were to 
plant, every year, at least twenty younp oak, ash, elm, poplar, or red 
withing trees, on the town's waste lands, to be used for the repair or 
employed in the makinj,' of cauls on the north side of the Ribble, for the 
preservation of the Marsh ; and it was further directed by the paid order 
that all the tenants of land belonging to the Corporation must plant 
certain trees for the like purpose. 

2. Three perrsons are named. Ordinary bricks are now generally 9in. 
long, 4iin. wide, and Sin. thick, or lin. shorter, ^in. narrower, and ^in. 
thicker than the common bricks which were used, or required by Act of 
Parliament to be made, at the time of the presentment, 220 years ago. 

140 Preston Court Leet. 

These psons following for Watering theire horses at the well 
in fryergate, by the Red Lyon, to pay 001-03s-04d. a piece.^ 

Inquisition taken on January 31st, 1686, before Lawrence 
Wall (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

Willm Wearden — that he scoure the ditch belonging to the 
White Horse neare to the Water side and amend the foote way 
betwixt [now] and fhe 24th of March next.^ 

Great Court Leet held on October 22nd, 1686, before 
Lawrence Wall (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

These psons following for not enrolling theire Apprentices, 
according to an ordr made the last Guild, whereby they have 

1. Two are named. The " Red Lyon " would, no doubt, be th« name 
of a public-house, and it would be situated towards the north or the south 
end of Friargate — which end it is now impossible to definitely say, but 
probably the latter. Many years afterwards there were two public-houses, 
respectively called the Red Lion, in Church-street: the older inn, which 
was done away with in the early part of last century, stood on the north 
side of Church-street, its site being near the centre of what is now the 
front of Miller zVrcade ; the other was the present Red Lion Hotel, in 
the same thoroughfare, opposite the Conservative Workingmen's Club. 

2. No penalty for default is mentioned. The White Horse would be 
an inn or beerhouse, probably the former, and, if it were actually *' neare 
to the water side," t.c, the side of the Ribble, then it is presumable that 
it was either the building now known as the ** Regatta" inn, at the 
bottom of Fishergate-hill, or that it stood on or near the site of such 
building. Presuming, however, that the house was up in the town, then 
it is not unlikely that it was in Friargate. For many years — though I 
have not been able to get at any date carrying back its existence to the 
time when the presentment was made — there was a public-house called the 
" White Horse " in Friargate: it was at the top of that thoroughfare — on 
the south-west side, opposite the corner of the present " Greorge " inn. 
The parents of Richard Palmer, who was Town Clerk of Preston for 51 
years, and one of the county coroners for about 63 years, and who died 
in 1852, in the 80th year of his age, kept the " White Horse " inn, Friar- 
gate, at one time — ^this was when Richard was young; and it is said that 
after the death of his father the business at the inn was conducted by his 
mother, '* with credit and success for many years." In 1886, after the 
" White Horse " had been purchased by Mr. A. Clemesha, the license was 
allowed to lapse, voluntarily, and the promises were subsequently trans- 
formed into a shop and a restaurant — the present Nos. 1 and 2. 

Preston Court Leet. 141 

forfeited for every apprentice xxs., but doe give them tyme till 
the first of May next for enrolling the same.^ 

Great Court Leet held on October 26th, 1687, before 
Nicholas Walmsley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Ellis Making — yt he draw a gripp^ and lett ye fFoot way dry 
on ye washing stead brow,*^ before ye seacond day of ffebr next, 
Upon paine of vjs. viijd. 

Mr. Ralph Rishton for not raiseing his pentice,^ at ye 
Comer of cheapside leading into ye markett place, as also John 
Whittiker for his pentice, wch if not raised before ye xxvth day 
of March next either of them to pay vjs. viijd. 

Great Court Leet held on May 10th, 1688, before Nicholas 
Walmsley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

1. Nineteen persons are named. The Guild Order referred to, made 

in 1682, was as follows: — ** For preventing of ffraudes and abuses in 

takeing apprentices by Tradesmen within this Towne, it is Ordered by the 

Major [Mayor], Stewards, and Aldermen of this present Guild, and by 

the authority of the same, that all Apprentices either to Shopkeepers or 

any Machanic Trade within this Towne shall be taken by Indenture, And 

that the Masters of such apprentices shall within one month after the 

Sealeing the Indenture attend the Maior for the time being with his said 

Apprentice, and then shall procure a short entry or Inrollment to be 

made in a Booke to be kept for that purpose, contayning the names of 

the Master and apprentice with the Addition of the Masters Trade or 

Misterie, the date of the Indenture, and the [time the] said Apprentice is 

to serve. And it is further Ordered that the Steward or his Deputy shall 

provide a Booke and make the said Entries in the presence of the Major 

for the time being, and for his paines in the entry of every Apprentice 

shall not take or demand above twelve pence. And in case any Master 

make default in making entry of the said Apprentice in manner aforesaid, 

then to pay to the use of the Major, Bayliffs, and Burgesses Twenty 

Shillings by way of fforfeiture ; but if the Apprentice is bound at the 

Townes charge, then the said Entry or Inrollment to be made Gratis." 

2. " Gripp " means a small ditch or furrow. 

3. " Washing stead brow " was at the south end of Avenham walk. 
The two terraces in connection with the Walk were made out of it. The 
Washing Stead, or washing place, was near the mouth of Swillbrook, and 
just below the brow. At the time the presentment was made the brook 
was quite an op)en one. 

4. Pentice means a sloping roof on one side only; or a pent house; 
also a shed standing aslope fropi the main wall or building and now called 
{^ lei^n-to, 

142 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentment: — 

Henry Graystocke^ for keeping geese and swine upon ye 
Marsh, and saying he neither cared for ye Jury nor the prsentmts, 
wee find him in xls. 

Great Court Leet held on October 26th, 1688, before 
Thomas Winckley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The Highwaies alx)ut this Towne are very far out of repaire, 
especially the ffishergate lane, Toolketh Jane, More lane, and 
Churchgate town end down to Swilbrooke, and wee Judge twenty 
marre^ may repaire them. 

The draw well in the Market place hath beene abused by 
some disolute person ; therefore that the BaylifiFes doe forthwith 
cause it to he clensed, upon payne of 10s. 

The draw wells in the friergate, Market-place, and fisher- 
gate are very dangerous to the people of this towne, and that the 
Baylifes set posts and Rales about the said wells betwixt [now] 
and the 25th of March next, on payment of 20s. 

Great Court Leet held on October 18th, 1689, before 
William Werden (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Willm Seddon, James Mosse, and Evan Graystocke for not 
repairing, laying, and finding a sufficient bridge leading betwixt 
spittle mosse and towards Hatch Mill,^ if not done before ye xth 
of Novemhr next to pay xs. 

1. Graystocke was an in-burgess, and resided in Friargate. 

2. Mark. Tho value of a mark was 13s. 4d. 

3. TTatcli Mill was in Cadley, near the confluonoo of tho Savock and 
Eaves Brook, and about 150 yards west of where the London and North- 
western Railway now rune. The road to it — that mentioned in th« pre- 
sentment — would bo^in at Oroen Bank, going along the west side thereof, 
then pas8 by {ho side of one or more fields, cross others, and «o on. north- 
ward to the mill ; tho main length of it taking the form of a foot- 
path. Ilatcli Mill derived its name from a family or a person 
who originally owned or worked the concern, named Hatch, and had a 
contiguous residence. Early in the 18th century (1705) there was a 
William Hatch living, and it is very probable that he owned or was very 
directly connected with Hatch Mill, for at a Court Leet held in the year 
named ho, along with another person, was ** presented " for not setting a 
rail at the side of a bridge between Preston and Hatch Mill. In the last 

Preston Court Leet. 143 

Ye occupyers of ye Myter^ for suffring an open Wall and a 
breach therein to lye open betwixt ye said Myter and Willm 
Cottams, wch is a newsance, if not repaired betwixt and 
E>ecember next to pay xs. 

cjuarter of the same century, accordinpr to the pedigree of the Haydocks 
of Bartle and Leach Hall, William Haydock, son of George Haydock, of 
the Tag, in Ingol, married Mary, daughter of " Oliver Hat<;h, of Hatch 
Alill," who was, no doubt, related to the builder or primary owner of the 
rnill, and in all probability was a direct de«>cendant of Oliver Hatch who 
Mras enrolled an in-burgess of Preston at the Guilds in 1642 and 1662. 
I^Iatch Mill was in the first instance worked entirely by water from the 
Savock, the original dam being close to it, on the east side. Later an 
Ordditional dam, farther up the course of the Savock^-on the higher side 
of the railway — was made, used for numerous years, and then done away 
with. The work of the mill was mainly, if not entirely, confined to corn 
g-rinding; and for a considerable time in the latter part of its career, 
steam as well as water power was used. The mill was demolished and the 
old dam filled up in or about 1879. For several years before it was done 
away with, this ancient corn-grinding concern was called Cadley Mill. 
The miller's house — Mill Bank — is still standing, and is now, as it has 
been for the past 35 years, occupied by William Noblett, who last worked 
the mill. 

1. The '* Mitre " Inn stood on the east side of the Market Place, at 

the chief entrance to the Strait Shambles. The Scotch Rebel officers met 

at the " Mitre," to discuss the question of capitulation, on the afternoon 

of November 13th, 1715. Next morning, when a general surrender of the 

Rebel soldiers took place, ** the swords of the lords on the Rebel side 

were delivered up at the Mitre Inn." An old local historian says that on 

the 21st, of October, 1745, the nobility and gentry of Lancashire met (to 

formulate defensive measures in case the Young Pretender should make 

an attempt upon their liberties) "at the Moot Hall, situate nearly 

opposite the Mitre Inn, Fishergate." This is obviously a mistake, so far 

as relates to the '* Mitre," which, at the time named, was still in the 

Market Place, and would whilst there be "nearly," or not so many yards 

from being, opposite the east end of the Moot Hall. It is said that the 

Young Pretender slept one night at the " Mitre " — either the night of the 

27th of November, 1745, when on his way South, or on that of the 12th of 

December following, whilst retreating to Scotland. Some time after 1745, 

the license and the name of the " Mitre " were transferred to a house in 

Fishergate— the present " Mitre " hotel, on the south side of Fishergate 

and near the top of Cannon-street. This, it is conjectured, would be 

about 1768: anyhow, the "Mitre" in Fishergate was a well-known and 

well-established public-house in 1790. Reverting to the old " Mitre " in the 

Market Place, I may just observe — for landmark purposes — that it stood 

on the line of the massive front base of the present Harris Free Library 

building, about half a dozen yards from the south-west corner of that 

base, and directly opposite the " Castle " hotel yard entrance. 

144 Preston Court Leet. 

Mr. Birch, ye prsent Viccar,^ for not opening and scouring 
his ditch betwixt St. Johns lane^ and ye dogghouse,^ if not done 
before ye last day of November next to pay iijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet held on October 20th, 1690, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

James Clayton and his wife for washing bowked yarne^ in 
ye Sicke [Syke] trough, and doe fine them in 6s. 8d. 

Inquisition taken on February 8th, 1691, before George 
Addison (Mayor). 

Presentment: — 

William Jolly^ for not tenting the Church Clocke and hall 
Clocke, and for not ringing eight and four cloke bell^ according 
to his duty. 

Great Court Leet, May 8th, 1691, held before Roger Sudell 
(Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

The Supvisors for not repaireing the Causey betwixt ffisher- 
gate bars and the Spring head,^ and the Laine called fFryer 

1. Mr. Birch would he the Rev. Thomas Birch, who was Vioar of 
Preston from 1682 to 1700. 

2. St. John's-lane would be the present St. John-street, probably much 
narrower at the north end than it is now. 

3. '* Ye dogghouse " would be a kennel for a dog or a pack of dogs, 
and it would probably be at the north end of the lane. 

4. Bowked yarn is yarn which has been washed in lye. 

5. William Jolly was one of the servants of the Corporation. A 
brother of his — Seth Jolly — was at this time the parish sexton or beadle. 

6. The bell-ringing would, in all probability, have some connection 
with the markets — that at eight o'clock would, at any rate, for the 
markets opened at eight o'clock in the morning (Wednesday, Friday, and 
Saturday), from which hour till nine the privilege of buying articles was 
confined exclusively to the in-burgessee or inhabitants of the borough. 
After nine o'clock operations were unrestricted — anybody oould buy any- 
thing there was in the market for sale. 

7. Springhead was the name of a field on the north side of the upper 
part of Fishergate-hill. The present Spring Bank crosses the higher 
portion of the land which formed this field. There was a very copious 
spring here, and water from it ran very freely on the north side; a con- 
siderable depression in the surface of the land on that side much facilitat- 
ing its flow. In a cellar under a shop at the south-east corner of Euston- 
street, directly in line with and a short distance — between 70 and 80 yards^ 

Preston Court Leet. 145 

Laine, and likewise the Rampier nere the fFryergate More gate, 
aj^d fyne them in OIL 6s. 8d. if not repaired betwixt this and 
the 8th of August next. 

Great Court Leet held on October 26th, 1691, before 
George Addison (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

John Hatch for plowing up A Land Mark or bocke of 
^nd^ between him and James Drinkwater, lying to the north 
side of the Towne, Mawdlands, [and fine] in the sume of thirteen 
shillings and fourpence, if not laid too againe before the first of 
^arch next. 

The Occupyers of Chrofer Woodbume house (being his 
^^fe) for setting [letting] one Margaret Lucas a house, not being 
^^ee, in the sume of 20s. 

Great Court Leet held on October 21st, 1692, before 
Richard Langton (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Mr. John Harrison and Mr. Tho. Gradwell, late Bayliffs, 
*iave not planted trees upon the Townes wast Ground, according 
^o an order of the last Guilde ; That they sett or plant 20 young 
trees at the least of Oak, Ash, Elme, Popler or red Withings, 
betwixt [now] and the seacond day of March next, upon payment 
of 10s. 

The wash troughs about this Towne are out of repaire, and 
the Draw Wells as well as other wells stand need of Clenseing; 
that the Baliffes repaire the Wash troughs and Clense the Wells 
before the tenth day of March next, upon payment of tenn 

Inquisition taken on February 20th, 1693, before Josias 
Gregson [afterwards Mayor].^ 

from Spring Bank, there is now a very full-flowinpr spring of water. This 
water unquestionably comes from the old " Springhead " land ; and it 
now runs into a drain or street sewer. Formerly the water was allowed 
to accumulate in a well-shaped hole in or close to the cellar, and many 
neighbouring people got water from it. 

1. " Bocke of Land " means balk of land — ^the name given to un- 
ploughed strips, in open fields, which often served as land marks. 

2. Josias Gregson was the only son of John Gregson, of Preston, and 
he appears to have been the first of his name who evinced a particular 

146 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

Hugh Ciornall for watring his horses upon the Sabboth day, 
in the Burkett at ffryergate well . . . [fined] in 3s. 4d. 

The psons following,'^ that they remove theire middings 
lyeing betwixt the Pinfold and St. John's lane, and that they 
remove the same before May 1st upon paine of 6s. 8d. a piece. 

Great Court Leet held on October 23rd, 1694, before 
William Lemon (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

The severall psons hereafter named,^ All shopkeepers or 
following Trades within this Town, have every of them taken 
one or more Apprentices which have served them above a 
month, and yet have not entred or Inrolled them according to an 
order of the last Guild Merchant,^ Therefore, psueant to that 
order, wee Amerce them in 20s. a peece, If the said psons doe 
not procure the said Apprentices entrd and Inrolled before the 
first day of May next. They haveinge notice in the meane time 
given them of this our prsentment. 

Great Court Leet held on October 18th, 1695, before 
Nicholas Walmsley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Chrofer Jackson — that hee being the present Occupier of 
the lande on both sides the wood bridge usually placed in the 
Great ffoot way or passage from this Town to Walton, over Swill- 
brooke, Doe cause a good strong Bridge and Rail placed over 
the said brook before the twenty-nynth oi fFebruary next, Or in 
default thereof to pay xxs. 

roprard for or took a marked interest in municipal matters here. It is 
probable that his family descended, collaterally, from the Giegsons of 
Eleton, near Preston. In 1673-4 he was the town's Bailiff of Preston; in 
July, 1675, he was elected a member of the Town Council ; in February, 
1684-5, he was appointed the Town Clerk and Clerk of the ReoogniKaooes 
of the boroup^h ; in October, 1693, he was raised to the Aldermanio bendi, 
and shortly afterwards made Mayor: in 1702 he was the Guild Mayor; 
and he continued his connection with the Corporation, as an Alderman. 
till his death in 1712. 

1. Four are named, one beinp an Alderman. 

2. Thirty-six persons are named. 

3. See note p. 141. 

Preston Court Leet. 147 

Wee the Jury Leet haveing with the Assistance of Mr. 
Walmsley the prsent Major, Mr. Alderman Werden, Mr. 
Lawrence Piccop, and Mr. Roberts the Town Clerk, lately Sur- 
veyed and compared the present Rales, Bulkes, Seller Staires, 
and other Incrochmts within this Town, with the Parchment 
Rentall which was made in the yeare of our Lord 1670, Doe 
find and prsent these Alteracons following, wch wee Referr to 
the Consideracon of Mr. Major and the Councell, applying to 
the Parchmt Rentall by the figures ensueing.^ 

Great Court Leet held on May 6th, 1696, before Nicholas 
Walmsley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Upon the Informacon given to us by the houselookers of 
and within this Towne Doe find and prsent the severall psons 
following who are free [? not free] of this Incorporacon, And 
}et take upon them to inhabite, keep publick houses, and follow 
Trades and imployments therein, to the manifest prjudice of the 
free Inburgesses inhabiting within this Town, And therefore doe 
fine and amerce the said sevall psons in Tenne shillings a peece. 
And order that upon notice to them Respectively given by the 
Serjeant they severally remove out of the Towne or compound 
and agree with Mr. Major and the Councell for their respective 
freedoms before the Twentieth day of September next, Other- 
wise wee recomend to Mr. Major and the Councell to endeavour 
the remedying of this grievance soe farr as by Law they can.^ 

Henry Heaton Bullen, Willm Dolphin, and George East- 
ham, all of this Towne, for keeping Mastive Doggs or Bull 
doggs, and not keeping them Musled, the want of which are 
dangerous, Therefore wee fine them in One shilling a peece. 

Great Court Leet held on October 22nd, 1696, before John 
Atherton (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

1. Eighty-five cases of removals, alterations, encroachments, non- 
rentals, and such like, in respect to buildings, rails, bulks, poets, porches, 
horse stones, &c., are specified. 

2. The names of 55 persons are given. 

148 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

Wm. Walmsley^ — that hee make, place, and sett a sufficient 
Bridge or plat over the Brook comonly called Graystock brook,^ 
neare unto the Orchard belonging to the Hole house, being a 
Comon foot way between Preston and Ashton, on or before the 
fifteenth of ffebruary next, on penalty and forfeiture of Six 
shillings and Eight pence if hee make default 

Upon Informacon given by the House lookers Wee prsent 
these severall psons being not free of this Corporacon.^ 

Inquisition taken on the 7th of March, 1697, before Thomas 
Winckley (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

James Clayton for washing and claping yame in the Syke 
trough, to the great damage of those that fetches water there, 
and doe fine him in Thirteene shillings and four pence. 

The wife of Wm. Blackledge for carrying fire in a paire of 
Tongues, in open street, in danger of fireing the Towne, and doe 
fine her in Thirteene shillings and four pence. 

Great Court Leet held on April 30th, 1697, before John 
Atherton (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

The Bayliffes of this Corporacon — ^that they doe repair and 
pave the Cart way in St. Johns weend leading from opposite the 
Anchor* up to the end of the building late called the Chappel 
(the same being very much in decay and dangerous to 
travellers in passing through the same) on or before the first of 
October next, or in default thereof wee Amerce them in the 
sume of five pounds. 

1. Mp. Walmeloy lived at or was connected with Hole House. 

2. Graystock brook was the name of a western portion of Moor 
brook, just below Hole House orchard. 

3. Forty-nine unfree or non-burgess persons are named. 

4. St. John's Weind appears to have originally included what after- 
wards became known as St. John-street and Lord-street; the former now 
being part of Tithebam -street, whilst a considerable iK>rtion of the latter 
has been demolished. The "Anchor" was an inn situated at either the 
south end of Anchor Weind or directly opposite that end of the weind— 
presumably in the latter position. Anchor Weind (called Fryers' weend in 
Kuerden's ^IS. description of Preston) was a passage between the top end 

Preston Court Leet. 149 

Alderman Addison for setting [letting] a house contrary to 
Law and former Orders to Browne and his wife, psons con- 
ceived may become chargeable and noe wayes ffree in this Town, 
and fine him in the sume of Thirty shillings for soe doeing. 

Great Court Leet held on October 19th, 1697, before 
ThcHnas Winckley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Martin (one of the present Bayliffes of this Towne) 
and Hugh Gurnall for not laying a sufficient ffoot bridge over 
the Brooke called Graystocke brooke, in the ffoot way leading 
from this town (in and through the grounds in their possion) to 
Cowford bridge,^ And do amerre them in the sume of Sixe 
shillings and Eight penrc* a peece if not well and sufficiently 
done betwixt [now] and the Tenth day of March next. 

Wee haveing psented John Shaw, the present miller at the 
windy mill,^ neare the end of the ffryergate in this Towne, for 
grindeing corn upon the Sabath day, not haveing any necessity 
soe to doe, and therefore Amerced him in the sume of Six 

of Friargate and the bottom of Lord-strcot.. and wm done away with, like 
the lower half of Lord-street, &«., in 1895-96. Accordinpr to one of Taylor's 
notes (p. 10, Kuerdon'e description of Preston — see note p. 126) the name 
of the passage mentioned was changed to Anchor Woind " bocauBO the 
house opi>osit€ the south end was formerly a public-house, known by the 
sign of the Anchor." This public-house would, it is highly probable, adjoin 
the existing narrow, winding passage called Anchor Court, which is opposite 
what was formerly the south end of Anchor Weind. The "Blue Anchor" 
inn, for many years a well-known house, in a yard on the east side of the 
Market Place, and pulled down with other property to secure a site for the 
Harris Free Library building, was not, it has been conjectured, opened as 
a licensed place until after the ** Anchor " had been closed. 

1. Cowford Bridge crossed the Savock, in Cadley, a short distance 
below Cadley Bank. Many years ago the course of the Savock was 
straightened here. The present Cowford bridge crosses the stream about 
45 yards south of its old channel and the same distance from where the 
bridge named in the presentment weis situated. 

2. The " windy mill " — a wind-mill of the ordinary kind — was situated 
between the top of Mill-hill and Adelphi-street, or about 50 yards north 
of the present Adelphi hotel opposite the bottom of Friargate. The 
original structure of Mill-hill Ragged School, built in 1853 (five years 
after the inauguration of the Ragged School movement in Preston), stands 
a little to the west of the site which the old mill occupied, and the 
addition to the school, at the east end, made in 1889, mainly if not 
entirely covers it. The mill was pulled down about 1848. 

150 Preston Court Leet. 

shillings and eight pence; And for every other wilfull offence 
thereafter we do hereby impose upon him the further sume of six 
shillings and eightpence; But he appearing and makeing a 
Submission, wee as far as in us lyes doe remitt and pardon the 
ffirst offence, but order the latter penalty to stand in case of 
future default. 

Willm Greenhalgh for setting or markeing Roger Mosses^ 
sheepe marke on his own sheep, And Amerce him for soe doing 
in Six shillings and Eight pence. 

Great Court Leet held on April 26th, 1699, before John 
Chorley (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The Highway or Lane called Ribbleton Lane, The Lane 
and fflagged Rampier leading towards Rible Bridge, The lane 
leading downe to Broadgate, The lane leading to the Marsh, 
The Moor lane. The long Cawsey upon the Moor, And other 
the Publick Highways and Cawseys in the Town of Preston and 
the Liberties thereof, are in decay and much out of Repair, And 
Therefore wee doe Amerce the Inhabitants of Preston aforesaid 
in the summe of fiifteen pounde for the speedy Repair of the 
said Lanes, Highwayes, and Cawseyes, according to the Statute. 

Mr. William Tomlinson (now Tenant att the Anker), That 
hee Cause the Deep and dangerous middingsteed, att the bottom 
of St. John's Weend, to bee filled up with earth, even with that 
Weend, before the twenty nynth of September next, Otherwise 
wee Amerce him in fforty shillings. 

John Greenalgh, Blacksmith, and Hugh Gumall for layeing 
a dead horse in Alderman Sudell's Ditch, in the South meadow 
lane, neare adjoineing to the Publick Road, to the great Annoy- 
ance thereof; And doe Amerce them for soe doing in three 
shillings and four pence a peece. 

Great Court Leet held on October 20th, 1699, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

1. Greenhalgh was a tailor, and Mosse either a tailor or a glover. 

Preston Court Leet. 151 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Bancks,^ John Cooke,^ John Hardman,^ Richard 
Stanley, Esq.,^ and Henry Darbyshire,^ not only for 
laying their middings within the Ban in the ffishergate, But 
also for not removeing the same upon wameing given by the 
Bellman,^ And wee doe Amerce them in six shillings eight pence 
a peece if the same bee not Removed before the second day of 
ffebniary next. 

Richard Bray, one of our fellow Jurors, and Amerce him in 
three shillings and four pence for not meeteing upon summons 
and not attending with us to deliver up this our verdict. 

Inquisition taken on March 3rd, 1700. 

Presentment : — 

Sr Charles Hoghton, Barrt., for not causeing the Cawsey 
after side of Mr. Blundels Great Barne in St. Johns Weend (wch 
is now used as a Tyth Barne) to bee well and sufficiently paved 
and kept in Repaire.^ 

1. Thomas Bancks was an out-burgese and is described, on the Guild 
Roll, as being a gentleman of Wip^an. The midden favours the presump- 
tion that he had either stabling accommodation or a residence of some 
kind in or near Fishergate. 

2. John Cooke was an in-burgess, and probably a descendant of John 
CJooke who was made an in-burgess at the Guild of 1602, and who is 
described as a spinner on the Roll (in-burgess part) for 1622. 

3. John Hardman lived in Penwortham, was a cook, and got enrolled 
as an out-burgess for services rendered by him in the cookery domain — 
no doubt that of the Mayor — at the Guild in 1682. Probably he had a 
small shop or a baking place in or contiguous to Fishergate. 

4. Richard Stanley was the son of Thomas Stanley, of Eccleston. 

5. Henry Darbyshire was not at this time a burgess; but he seems 
to have been allowed to reside in the town. The first burgess reference, 
locally, to the name of Derbyshire is made on the Guild Roll for 1722 
(in-burgess part). In 1723 the Bailiff of the Mayor of Preston was James 
Derbyshire; and in 1745-6 the Mayor was named James Darbyshire. 
Those may have been related, directly or indirectly, to Henry Darbyshire. 

6. The town's Bellman not only went round making ordinary 
announcements, but conveyed to persons, individually, notices from the 
Mayor, &c. 

7. The cawsey would be St. John's Weind, and the portion 
of it referred to would be about 20 yards from the Vicarage, 
which stood nearly opposite the north gable of the tithe barn. 
Sir Charles Hoghton, of Hoghton Tower, was the lay rector 
of Preston ; he would consequently have some interest in the buildings 

152 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on April 26th, 1700, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Wee fine Alice Garlick, widdow, 6s. 8d. (being as before 
presented), for not muzeling her mastife Dogg, according to the 
dirreccon of the said prsentmt. 

Mr. Alderman Atherton, Mr. Alderman Chorley, Mr. 
Thomas Graddell, Hugh Walker, and Widdow Garlicke for 
letting their Middings lye in the back Weend,^ and also Willm 
Lytham for setting his carts in the Weend faceing ye Church,^ 
And doe amerce them in 3s. 4d. a peece, if not removed on or 
before the 25th of July next. 

Great Court Leet held on October 22nd, 1700, before 
George Addison (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

Mr. John Bannester, Govmour of the House of Correction, 
for not scoureing his Ditch leading to the Sikes on the west side 
of Alley lane,^ altho he had time allowed for the same till the 
Tenth of ffebruary, wherefore we amerce him in six shillings and 
eight pence. 

mentioned, and he was evidently held responsible for the state of the 
contiguous roadway. Representatives of the Hoghton family sucocssively 
held the advoweon of Preston Parish Church for many years, eventually — 
in 1828 — selling it to Hulme's trustees. The tithe barn is still standing: 
it is near the south-east corner of the short street called the Old Vicarage, 
is about 25 yards long, 10 yards wide, of medium height, and, with various 
alterations, now forms part of Messrs. Hall and Co.'s (late CardwelPs) 
brewery. On the east side this barn was originally open, wholly or for 
about three-fourths of its length, to Tithebarn-street ; in the latter part 
of last century some intervening structural work was done away with and 
supplanted by certain new buildings; and now, through these, much of 
the east side of the barn is hid from external view. 

1. Back Weind ran diagonally from a j)oint at or a little north of the 
Old Vicarage, and joined Back-lane at the south-west corner of ** The 

2. The weind facing the Church would be St. John's Weind. 

3. Just below the old House of Correction there were some enclosures 
called '* House of Correction fields." Adjoining were Furham sykes, 
which flowed into the Ribble opposite the end of Marsh-lane. On their 
line of flow they went west of a lane which may have been Alley-lane, and 
which took the course of the present Buckingham-street. Cf. n pp. 84-85. 

Preston Court Leet. 153 

Inquisition taken on February 13th, 1701, before Josias 
Gregson (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

The BaylifFs for not repairing the Cawles on ye marsh, and 
Thomas Gregson for not scouring his ditch and making his fence 
sufficient between Berry field^ and Bull field.^ 

Great Court Leet held on October 22nd, 1701, before Josias 
Gregson (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Yt widdow Crabtree open the watercourse att the old Cuck- 
stool pitt^ leading to the Swillbrook before the Twenty fifth of 
March next, on paine of Six shillings and eight pence. 

The psons following^ for causeing or pmiting their respec- 
tive servants frequently to wind, draw up, and carry away water 
to their severall houses, from the Publicke Draw well in the 
Market-place, on the Sabboth day, and doe amerce each of them 
in two shillings a peece. 

Thomas Richardson alias Stringer for being staggering 
drunck and takeing Tobacco publickly in the streets on the 

1. On what was at one time called Great Avenham — an oblonj? quan- 
tity of land, on the south side of Avenham-lane, between Frenchwood- 
street and Latham-street — there used to be an enclosure named Bury field ; 
whilst about 170 yards east of Great Avenham there were two enclosures, 
one being called Great Bull field, and the other Little Bull field. 

2. There was an enclosure designated Bull field (larger than either of 
the fields referred to east of Great Avenham) near to and on the west 
side of Deepdale-road, the stream called Deepdale brook forming its 
northern boundary. A small enclosure between the south end of this field 
and the land which the Preston and Longridge Railway now goes through 
might be Berry field. 

3. It is probable the pit here mentioned was used before that on the 
east side of the town for the punishment of scolds, and that when the 
presentment was made it had been discarded for many years as a 
ducking place. It is not shown on any of the old local maps ; but 
evidently it was not very far from Swillbrook, and it may have been near 
the south end of the present Stanley-street, or in the hollow at the south 
end of Manchester-road, or in a depression a little to the east of the 
Washing Stead, near the outlet of the stream, below Bank Parade, 

4. Five persons are named, one of them being Nicholas Walmslcy, 
junr., son of Alderman Nicholas Walmsley and a member of the Town 

164 Preston Court Leet. 

Sabboth day, And wee doe Amerce him in six shillings eight 

James Kitchin, watchmaker, for cutting and selling Linnen- 
cloth not belonging to his Trade, And doe amerce him in 
vjs. viijd. 

Simon Penington, Edmund Bostock, and Richard Burton, 
Barbers, for carrying their Basons and Aprons publickly in the 
streets on the Sabboth day, and useing their Trade on that day. 
And Amerce them in five shillings a peece.^ 

There is now no Rale att late Thomas Walmsleys house in 
the fFryergate, Nor any Bulke^ att Mr. Parkinsons house, next 
John Harrisons, in the ffryergate, Nor any sign post att John 
Birchalls house, late Tysons, in the fFryergate, Nor any Rales att 
George Drinckwaters house, in the ffryergate, Nor any sign post 
att the house late the sign of the Plow, in the Churchgate, There- 
fore wee Conceive that what is severally charged for the said 
things ought no longer to bee brought into the Bayliffe Accounts, 
or continued in the Towns Rentall. 

The outstaires at Mr. Alderman Addisons house, in Min- 
spitt Weend were never charged or brought into the Towns 
Rentall till the last survey, taken in the yeare 1695, And, it 

1. Barbers were at this time blood -letters, as they had been for lonfr 
before and were for a considerable while afterwards ; they also " practised 
the art of medicine ;" and they were called Barber-Surgeons. Bleeding]: 
was, in the old days, deemed nearly the only remedy for human ailments, 
and some persons wore periodically bled not for curative but preventive 
purposes. The "Basons" which the barbers named in the presentment 
were carrying would bo used by them respectively for catching blood after 
a vein had been lanced. Preston has, at time and time, had interesting 
and peculiar associations with barbers and their shops. Sir Richard 
Arkwright — a native of Preston — served his apprenticeship in the shop of 
a Preston barber. The present hairdresser's shop, No. 140, Church-street, 
Preston, under the Conservative Working Men's Club, occupies wholly or 
in part the site of a building which was used for generations by successive 
barbers, and was so used when Benjamin Franklin twice visited a relative 
at it, in 1771-5. For years there was in part of the base of Preston old 
Town Hall — that superseded by the present Hall — a barber's shop. Anc^ 
the remarkable laughing scene caused by Grimaldi, as described in his 
" Memoirs," edited by Charles Dickens, occurred at a barber's shop in or 
near Preston Market Place. 

2. *' Bulke " in the case referred to means a solid or framework pro- 

Preston Court Leet. 155 

appeareing by an Antient Presentmt that those staires are stand- 
ing on Mr. Addisons own ground, Wee therefore thinck that the 
Two pence charged yearly for them ought to bee taken out of 
the Towns Rentall. 

Great Court Leet held on [blank] May, 1702, before Josias 
Gregson (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 
Presentments : — 

Stephen Pearson^ for taking Bribes to let persons Cattle 
wch are not free^ goe upon the Marsh, and for this offence doe 
amerce him in a Noble.^ 

Henry Rowbotham for badging without a Licence,^ and 
amerce him in thirteen shillings four pence. 

Thomas Stringer, William Wasle, and Evan Hodgkinson for 
being drunk in the streets and breaking the Sabbath, and for this 
offence doe amerce them in six shillings Eight pence a peice. 

Thomas Cham ley for opening a shop and selling fflax and 
Iron in Preston, and fine him in five pounds. 

Great Court Leet held on October 22nd, 1702, before 
Geoffrey Rishton (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 
Presentments : — 

The Supervisors of the Highways of this Town for not 
repaireing the Cawsey that leads from the mill yate^ at the 
ffr}er Gate Town end to the pinfold wee fine in six shillings 
Eight pence if not repaired within a fortnight. 

Mr. Wm. Patten for stopping the Current of the watr that 
runs of the backside of Willm Tomlinsons house, in Ginbo 
Entry^ (where Serjt. Cort now lives), wee fine in the sume of 
six shillings eight pence if the same be not mended before 
Shrovetide next. 

1. Peareon was an assistant pindcr. 

2. Cattle belonging to persons who were not free men or in-burgceees. 
5. A noble was 6s. 8d. 

4. Badging moans to deal a& a badger — a badger being a person 
licensed to buy com and other commodities in one place and sell in 
another without incurring the penalties for engrossing. 

5. The mill yate would be connected with the windmill, on Mill-hill, 
^lear the north end of Friargate. 

6. Ginbo Entry was Gin Bow Entry — a narrow, crooked passage 
l>etween the Market Place and the old, oblong space called Molyneux- 

156 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held an April 21st, 1703, before Geoffrey 
Rishton (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Alderman Addison, Mr. Henry Taylor, Mr. Edwd. 
ffarnworth, and Henry Heaton, late Supvisors of the highways, 
for not making and giving up their Aces to the succeeding 
Supvisors, for wch wee do amerce them in 40s. 

George Rishton for coming into this Town and keeping a 
publick house, being no flFreeman of this Corporacon and 
refuseing to make himselfe free, ... we amerce him in forty 

The persons following for not repairing their severall 
Cawseys before their housing^ and not removing their middings, 
vizt., Tho. Molyneux, Esq., Sr Chrofer Greenfeild, Kt., Willm. 
Dawson, Mr. Wm. Wall, Mr. Patten, Mr. Parkinson, Mr. Tho. 
Gradwell, Mr. Johnson,^ doe amerce them each in three shillings 
four pence. 

Henry Graystock for bringing wood from the water side to 
Mr. Cliftons,'^ upon the Sabbath Day, wee fine him in three 
shillings four pence. 

Great Court Leet held on October 19th, 1703, before 
William Lemon (Mayor) and John Warren (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The Supvisors for seting the stoops at fFryer Gate Barrs too 

square (now part of Lancaster-road). Its entrance from the Market Place 
was noar tho present north-west corner of the mafisive range of stono work 
at the base of and fronting? the Free Library. In 1751, half a 
century after the presentment was made, this passage was (aooording to an 
item in a Hchodule of property at the Derby Estate OflGico, Preston) called 
Gin Ball Entry. The earliest name of thifi particular passage, eo far as I 
have been able to ascertain, was Gin Bow Entry. Dr. Kuerden, in his 
manuscript description of Preeton, written between 1681 and 1687, refers 
to it as " this alley or passage," which " hath been antiently called Gin 
Bow Entry." 

1. J lousing moans houses taken collectively. It is now obsolete. 

2. In this list are included two local ex-M.P.'s (Greenfeild and 
Molynoux) and an Alderman of the borough. 

3. Mr. Clifton had at this time a new house near the north corner of 
the Alarsh. 

Preston Court Leet. 167 

high, being very prjudiciall to Leaden horses in tearing their 
sacks, and do Amerce them in fort}' shillings.^ 

Richard Cowhand for not scouring his ditch adjoining Mr. 
Gradwell's feild, called Rivington felM,^ near \«*w w«'II brow, 
and is prjudiciall to Madam Patten in sU>ping the wat<'r ttnirnt: 
running to the Dam, and also for not laying platlK nwr Mm* naid 
water course, wch if not done on or l>efore the tw<'nly nixMi of 
fFebruary next wee do amerce him in twenty shillinj4n. 

Inquisition taken on Fel^ruary 19th, 1704, bi-forr Williiini 
Lemon (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

Widow Hugall for not repairing the way at Uittom of AlriM'n 
house Lane."^ 

The Bayliflfes for want of a Sufficient I^dd<'r at the Ciw liiiij;^ 
stool, and do ordr the same io be n'pain-d b^'fon* *h** fifni ol 
April, or fine them 13s. 4d. 

Great Court Leet hehl bf-fore Willi;ini L«'fnon (Mayor) and 
John Warren (Recorder) on May 12th, 1704. 

Presentment : — 

Ellen Greenough, widow, for laying a miding Hi TilnioiiM' 
Bam, near Parson Peploes,^ Ix-ingagreat AnnoyaiMf in him and 
a stoppage of the way to Avenham, and do ain*'r* <• h<'i in ihf«'<* 
shillings and four pence. 

1. The horses referred to woulri Ix' paurk horw«r, 

2. Rivington field would fx? at tin* wot otid of MMiidUndc, iM'wr or )ii 
the neighbourhood of Spa Brow, 

3. This lane was the present Mount '^tr<Mft, <m thn h<«ii(li s<idi* of Kiaiuo' 
gate. It was named Alms JIousr>-lan<^ throunli tli«* <»r«M(ion of iin Ahnu 
House at the top of it — north-wcbt corn<*r in ]()(A. hi Mi<' ImIUt pnH of 
the 18th century, when owing to diicay fhe Ahn>i IIoumi wiu» <l«Mir<'d nwu.v, 
it was called Brewery-lane (a brewery wa«, J b<*li«jv<*, built in I he* lurto. on 
the west side, near the top, some time prior l-o 1774) ; lind mtiro ttboul 
the beginning of the 19th century it ban InH'ti tUitt'mtinU'ii Mount mlrtt*t\. 

4. Parson Peploe was the Rev. Samuel PopUx^, M.A., who wii»» Victtf 
of Preston from 1700 to 1727. While the Sootcli liuMti woro at Pr«»«lon, 
in 1715, he "read prayers every day for the Kin^ ((ionrnt) I.), lind did 
so once, it is said, in the presence of even the l*n't<'nd<'r." Il« wuh n VJ»ry 
enthusiastic Hanoverian or Royaliet, and, according to a ntory wliiclj lian 
come down, the King, on being informed of Pephw'ti name and his loyal 
conduct, exclaimed: "Peep-low! Peep-low! by - — ho Hhall Peep high: 
he shftll be a Bishop." This may be true or otherwise; but it is a fact 

158 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet held on October 25th, 1705, before 
Thomas Winckley (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

Robt. Toogood and Richd Taylor for gathering sticks on 
the Lords day, and do amerce them in 13s. 4d. 

Great Court Leet held on April 19th, 1706, before Thomas 
Winckley (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

William Lorrimer for suffering his meat to corrupt in his 
shop, in the Shambles, being a nusance to the neighbourhood, 
and do amerce him for the same in vjs. viijd. 

Henry Rowbotham for suffering psons to Bowl on the 
Green,^ on Sunday, and do amerce him in 13s. 4d. 

The severall persons following^ for not appearing at this 
Cort Leet, having been duly summoned and warned therto, and 
for such default do amerce them in six shillings eightpence 

Great Court Leet held on October 23rd, 1706, before John 
Chorley (Mayor) and Thomas Walmsley (Steward). 

Presentment : — 

Mr. James Clifton for building a wall that stopps not only 
the boundaries of this Town but also blocks up the way leading 
to the house in Mr. Cliftons possession wch he holds undr the 
demise of Mr. James Werden, and do amerce him in xxs. 

that in 1718 George I. appointed Vicar Peploe to the Wardenship of the 
Collegiate Church of Manchester, and that in 1726 Peploe became Bishop 
of Chester— a position he held up to the time of his death in 1752. The 
Rev. Samuel Peploe, junr., his only son, succeeded him (on the nomina- 
tion of George I.) as Vicar of Preeton: he was instituted on July 2nd, 
1727, and he remained here till 1743, when he obtained the vicarial 
benefice of Tattenhall. The present Vicar of St. Peter's Church, Preston 
(Rev. F. H. Webb-Peploe, M.A.), is a descendant of the Bishop. 

1. Lang's map very definitely shows a bowling green near the bottom 
of Friargate, west side. A much earlier map ("P.M.'s" "Exact plan of 
ye Town of Preston ") induces the supposition that when it was published 
(circ. 1715) there was a bowling green in the same part; and it is highly 
probable that the green mentioned in the presentment was here. The 
rear part of the present Edward-street crosses some of the ground which 
formed the green to which the maps refer. 

2. One hundred and three defaulters are named. 

Preston Court Leet. 159 

Great Court Leet held before John Chorley (Mayor) and 
Nicholas Starkie (Recorder) on May 5th, 1707. 
Presentment : — 

Mr. Alderman Addison, Mr. James CUfton, and Wm. 
Chesterfield for stopping the foot way betwixt the dye house 
Lane and the Lane leading to the Marsh Mill,^ and not seting 
stiles, at their severall Closes by them occupied, for the passage 
of foot passengers to the said Marsh Mill, And in case this way 
be not opened and the stiles set and repaired in a weeks time 
we do amerce them in six shillings eight pence a peice. 

Great Court Leet held on April 26th, 1708, before Roger 
Sudell (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 
Presentments : — 

Widow Richardson for laying old Thatch in the ffisher Gate 
street and not removeing the same, amerce in iijs. iiijd. 

The BaylifFes for not repaireing the Townes clock amerce 
in ten shillings. 

Great Court Leet held on October 21st, 1708, before John 
Harrison (Mayor)^ and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 
Presentments : — 

The Sup visors of the high way for not repaireing a foot 
Rampert that leadeth from Graystock Lane*^ to the Spittle moss 
.... amerce in three shillings and four pence, if not done 
before the first of March next. 

1. Dyehouse-lane was the name of either part of Friar-lane, on the 
line of which the higher portion of Marsh-lane now runs, or of a very 
small lane (in which there was a dye-house) branching therefrom ; and a 
footway, presumably the one referred to, went from it, up Maudlands, as 
far as about the south end of the present St. Walburge-street, where it 
entered a lane which ran west for a short distance and which was suc- 
ceeded by a footpath going to the end of Maudlands and down Spa Brow, 
past a corn mill, to the Marsh. 

2. Died during his Mayoralty, in December, 1708; George Addison 
being elected his successor for the remainder of the municipal year. 

3. Graystock-lane went north of the moss, and continued in that 
direction as far as some rising ground — field land — called Graystock's 
Brows, along the base of which about 300 yards (central part) of the 
present Aqueduct-street runs. 

160 Preston Court Leet. 

The Supvisors of the high Way for not repaireing the Way 
coming from Church Gate Moor^ amerce in six shillings eight 
pence if not done before the fourteenth of March next. 

Great Court Leet held on May 17th, 1709, before George 
Addison (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

James Clifton for building betwixt Ashton and Preston 
amerce in forty shillings.^ 

Inquisition taken on February 20th, 1710, before John 
Loxam (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

The Bayliffes of this Corporation for not repaireing the way 
leading to Church Gate Moor and for not repaireing the Cuck- 
stoole, and Mr. Bushell for not repaireing the way at Stone 
Style leading from Mince pit Weend to Avenham, and if not 
done before the next Cour[t] Leet We do amerce them in forty 

Great Court Leet held on May 5th, 1710, before John 
Loxam (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

Nicholas Starkie, Esq. [Recorder], Mr. Alderman Lemon, 
George Clark, Henry Bramwell, Richard Myers, and John 
Bayley all for geting of Sodds upon the Peele Moor and other 
ptes of the Comons belonging to this Corporation, and do amerce 
them severally in xxs. a peice. 

Great Court Leet held on October 25th, 1710, before 
George Lamplugh (Mayor) nnd Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Richard Peddar for wetting Straw for Thatch at one of the 
pumps, and do amerce him in six shillings eight pence. 

1. Church Gate Moor was a portion of Preston Moor, forming the 
south-east corner : the lowest part of it was about 150 yards from the 
bottom end of Church- street. 

2. The nature of this ofFenoe is difficult to determine. There may have 
been a bye-law forbidding building in the outskirts. James I. prohibited 
building outside London. 

Preston Court Leet. 161 

The persons following^ being above the age of Sixteen 
years^ for not appearing and doing their Suite and Service at 
this Court Leet, having had sufficient notice and warning, and 
having no leave for their absence from Mr. Recorder, and do 
amerce them severally in six shillings eight pence a peice. 

Great Court Leet held on April 11th, 1711, before George 
Lamplugh (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Roger Banister for not attending the Chain at the Moor 
Yate, to the great prjudice of many of the Inhabitants of this 
Town, and do amerce him in vjs. viijd. 

The Bayliffs for not provideing a good Clock at the Townes 
Hall, and if not done before Michaelmas next do amerce them 
in 201i. 

Great Court Leet held on May IQth, 1712, before William 
^^radwell (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

John Colly for not filling up the Hole or place near Patten 
"^Id, persons being in danger of breaking their Limbs and other 

1. The names of 60 are given. 

8. The minimum aero rule, respectinp: ** Suite and Service," had at 

^'^s time, in Preston, undergone a change from the primary regulation 

^^cog-nised or enforced by Leet Courts generally. Originally, all persons 

^fc>ove the age of twelve years and under sixty (except peers, clergymen — 

®|*^a.tutably exempted — females, and aliens) who had been resiant or had 

^^'^elt within the jurisdictional area of a Court Leet for a year and a day, 

'^^tlier masters or servants, owed suit to such Court, i.e., personal 

,^^^ridance at it. In the Court they had to take the oath of allegiance. 

i.Y^ "Suit to the Court was understood or said to be real — ** regal or due to the 

^*'^^," inasmuch as " everyone bound to do suit to such Court as a 

. ^^i^nt was also bound to take the oath of allegiance, unless he had taken 

. t>^fore." A man with " a house and family in two leets, so ae in law 

, ^^>e conversant or commorant in both," had to do suit to the leet where 

, ^ 'v^as personally "commorant," i.e., where his bed was located or where 

-^ ^lept; but if he occasionallv resided in each, then he was obliged to 

^^ ^uit to the Leet Courts of both. Prior to the holding of a Court the 

^"Vvard issued a precept to the Bailiff of the leet, directing him to warn 

^'*'tain resiants to be present at it ; the time and place of meeting being, 

^ bourse, duly specified. As soon as the Court was opened the Bailifif 

^^ded to the Steward a list of the persons summoned to serve as jury- 

^li along with the " suit or resiant roll ;" the names on this roll were 

^^in called out, and those persons who did not respond, or were absent, 
^^« usually fined. 

162 Preston Court Leet. 

misfortunes that may happen by reason of the said Hole, and do 
amerce him in ten shillings. 

The Butchers for not removing their Garbidge, Dirt, and 
other stuflFe in the Shambles, to the annoyance of the Town ; if 
not made clean every week each Butcher amerced xs.^ 

Inquisition taken on February 16th, 1713, before Ralph 
Assheton (Mayor). 

Presentment: — 

The Bailiffes of this Town for not repairing the Rails at 
Twistleton's Well^ in the sum of 15s. 

Great Court Leet held on April 15th, 1713, before Ralph 
Assheton (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Francis Bramwell for putting 3 Scab'd horses upon the 
Comon belonging to this Burrough, to the prjudice of the 
Inhabitants Cattle [amerced] in 20s. 

John Seed for following and Exercising the Employmt of a 
Broker, not being a Freeman of this Burrough, amerce him in 
the sum of forty shillings. 

Great Court Leet, held before Edmund Assheton (Mayor) 
and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder), on October 19th, 1713. 

Presentments : — 

The BaylifFes for not repairing the Steps leading up into 
Townes Hall do amerce them in twenty shillings. 

Richard Green and Henry Tompson, house Lookers, for 
not bringing in their prsentmts, having notice given them, we 
amerce in 10s. each. 

Robert Read and William Walmsley late of the Hole house, 
for forstalling the Market, we do amerce in five pounds a peice. 

[Mem.] A fine of 10s. was set on William Place by Mr. 
Recordr for contemptuously departing the Cort without leave. 

1. A marginal note says, ''The butohers in the narrow shambles to 
pay 5s. each." The "narrow shambles" would be the Strait Shambles, 
which were on the east side of the Market Place, above and in direct 
line with the old Mitre entrance. They were done away with, at the time 
when other property on the same side of the Market Place was pulled 
down, to make room for the Free Library building. 

2. See note p. 25. 

Preston Court Leet. 163 

Great Court Leet, held before Edmund Assheton (Mayor) 
and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder), on April 19th, 1714. 

Presentments : — 

Widdw Maudesley for keeping a disorderly House, 
Widdw Greenwood in the Fishergate the same, Widdw Green- 
wood in the ffryergate the same, 21i. 10s. 

Margaret Macclesfield for forstalling the Butter Market, 
^s. 8d. 

Great Court Leet, held before Lawrence Wall (Mayor) and 
Nicholas Starkie (Recorder), on October 12th, 1714. 

Presentments : — 

James Green for not puting a Fleak^ in the Moor Brooke, to 
prevent people being drowned and Swine going up the Brooke 
into the fields above, ten shillings. 

The severall psons following for not appearing and doing 
their suite and service in this Court Leet, having had due notice 
thereof, and not having obtained leave of Mr. Recorder, three 
shillings and fourpence.^ 

Great Court Leet held on October 25th, 1715, before 
William Lemon (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

No presentments; a minute following the list of those 
sworn is as Jurymen running thus : — " The Jury above say upon 

1. A fleak is a wattled hurdle or open wickerwork ehield. 

2. Ninety-two are named. Jacobites, and persons by no means 
enamoured of the Hanoverian dynasty, if not actually avowed supporters 
of the Stuart line, were now becoming more active, and evincing, directly 
or indirectly, an aversion to the new King (George I.) ; and the increase 
in the number of persons ** presented " at the Court Leet of Preston very 
strongly induces the supposition, indeed may bo taken as proving, that a 
scheme had been formulated and that an attempt was actually being made 
to secure fealty or allegiance to the King by means of oath-taking 
necessitated through doing suit and service at this Court. At the Preston 
Court Leet held in April, 1714, not a single person was presented for 
being absent from it; but at that held ten weeks later — ^the first Court 
Leet held in Preston after George I. had begun to reign — 92 persons were, 
as before stated, presented ** for not appearing and doing suit and service 
in this Court ;" and for some years the number thus presented at the Court 
was, comparatively, very large — as a rule, considerably above 100 at each 
Court; once it was 200, twice more than 200, and once nearly 300. 

164 Preston Court Leet. 

their Oathes That they have nothing to prsent within their 

Inquisition taken on February 13th, 1716, before William 
Lemon (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

Henry Bailey for making a Saw pit in the street before his 
house; if not filled up in ten days time, xiijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet, April 30th, 1716, before William Lemon 
(Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

For keeping disorderly houses, John ffell, Anne Greenough, 
widow, Widow Hall at the blew Ball,^ forty shillings a peice. 

Great Court Leet, October 25th, 1716, before Robert 
Chaddock (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Only ordinary presentments made; the last of them 
relating to 76 persons who were fined 6s. 8d. each for not 
appearing and doing suit and service at the Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet, May 15th, 1717, before Robert Chaddock 
(Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

John Clayton husbnd for not seting a stile over agt the 
Marsh Lane well, comonly called Bugmire holes^; thirteen 
shillings and four pence if not done before the first of August 

1. This would be due not to Preston people having all at once become 
immaculate, or having inaugurated a millennium of their own, but rathei 
to distracting vuirest and excitement through the development of tha 
Jacobite cause locally, and the movement southward of a numerous bod; 
of '* Rebels " (the main army of the Pretender — James, only son of Jamc 
II.), who reached Preston in about a fortnight after the Court TjP i 
meeting at which there was " nothing to present.'* 

2. The '* blew [blue] Ball " would be a tavern. In one of the Pre6tcz=>jj 
Court Leet presentments made in the latter part of the 18th century th&.xr« 
is clear mention made of "the Blue Bell"; it is referred to as being xi? 
Church-street ; it was evidently an inn ; its name may have been chans"^ 
from Blue Ball — the name which appears in the 1716 presentment — to 
Blue Bell ; and probably it was the public-house called Blue Bell now in 

3. See note p. 25. 

Preston Court Leet. 165 

The Bayliffes for not removing the Rubbish lying in St. 
John Weend, near the pump^ ; six shillings eight pence, if not 
removed before the first of August next. 

John Threlfal for steeping Willows and leting his Ducks 
swim in the well over agt Singletons Sniithy,^ twenty shillings. 

Inquisition taken on February 24th, 1718, before Joseph 
Curtis (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

Ye Reverend Mr. Mercer^ and ye occupants of his grounds 

3t ye water side, near broad Meadow,^ for diverting ye footway 

3nd setting a stile too near ye water side, to the danger and 

P^judice of his Majties Liege people; if not removed in a 

Month's time vis. viijd. 

Sr Edwd Stanley^ for damaging ye Moor by getting Gravel 
^thout leave from ye Corporacon, xs. 

Mr. Stanley of ye House of Correcon^ for laying his brick in 
^^e Church gate ; if not removed in a month's time, vis. viijd. 

1. The pump was at the top of Lord-streot. 

2. This well was in Church-street, and presumably near the entrance 
^o Water-etreet. 

3. The ** Reverend Mr. Mercer " would be the Rev. John Mercer, 
Vho became Rector of Elccleston, near Chorley, in 1706. He married, at 
AValton-le-Dale, in 1708, Mary, elder daughter of Thomas Hodgkinson, 
Avho was Mayor of Preston for six months, in 1673, in succession to a 
deceased relative (Richard Hodgkinson), and who was, some years after- 
wards, an Alderman of the borough for a short time. The Rev. John 
Mercer continued Rector of Eccleston from the time of his induction till 
hifi death in 1736. 

4. Broad Meadow was on the south side of Eaet Cliff, and close to 
the Ribble. A footpath, running from the west end of Ribblesdale Place 
to the river side, went through it diagonally. The Lancashire and York- 
shire Railway (E. L. section) crosses almost the centre of what was Broad 
Meadow ; and the oast end of Miller Park — a strip running from the top 
to the bottom, parallel with the railway, and about 40 yards wide — is 
made of land which formed a portion of it. 

5. Sir Edward Stanley was the son of Sir Thomas Stanley, Bart., of 
Bickerstaffe, and was the elder of two sons forming the issue of Sir 
Thomas's marriage with Elizabeth, only daughter of Thomas Patten, of 
Patten House, Preston. Sir Edward was Mayor of Preston in 1731-2, and 
he became the 11th Earl of Derby on February 1st, 1735-6. 

6. Mr. Stanley was, probably, the person who occasionally appears in 
the records as "Mr. Edward Stanley" or "Edward Stanley, gen." He 

166 Preston Court Leet. 

Richd. Myers, the PQstmaster,^ for not scouring his Ditches 
at ye side of ye square meadow and long close^ ; and if not done 
in a months time, vis. viijd. 

Great Court Leet, 9th May, 1718, before Joseph Curtis 
(Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The BaylifFes for not Repairing the two pumps in the flfryer- 
gate. Hi. 6s. 8d. 

Thomas Pennington for washing potatoes and Carrots at 
ffishergate pump, xiijs. iiijd. 

The persons following^ for not Appearing at this last Court 
Leet and doing suit and service thereat, vis. viijd. severally. 

Great Court Leet, October 24th, 1718, before Richard 
Casson (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Wm. Gregson and Hugh Gurnall for laying Daub^ in the 
Street and suffering the i^ame to continue there to the Annoy- 
ance of the Inhabitants, iijs. iiijd. each. 

The persons following^ for not appearing at the last Court 
Leet to do Suit and service thereat, 6s. 8d. severally. 

Inquisition taken on February 29th, 1719, before Richard 
Casson (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

The BaylifFes of this Corporacon for not repairing the 

may have been related, collaterally, to the Stanleys of BickeriBtaffe or 
those of Cross Hall in Lathom; and he evidently had some connection 
with the old House of Correction — perhaps he was the Governor of it or a 
superior official of some kind. 

1. The post office which Myers had charge of was at the south end of 
the Shambles in Lancaster-road, at or very near the part which now forms 
the east entrance of Miller Arcade. 

2. There is pretty strong reason for believing that these fields were 
immediately west of the present Hermon-street, off Bibbleton-lane. 

3. One hundred and thirty-four are named. 

4. Daub would be a rough sort of plaster — clay or mud with chaff or 
stubble mixed in it, and used with wattle or laths to make the walls of 
cottages, huts, and the like. Sometimes it was used, unmixed, for irjm- 
ming or strengthening cop-sides and fence bottoms. 

5. One hundred and forty-seven persons are mentioned. A side note 
says — " to pay sevally 2s. 6d." 

Preston Court Leet. 167 

Cawsway from the Parsons house^ to the bottom of Stoneygate ; 
if not done betwixt [now] and Midsummer next, two pounds 
xiijs. injd. 

Dan Muggalt for laying his Wood and Ship tymber on the 
Marsh^ without the Mayors licence, to the great damage and 
prjudice of the Comon, xli. xiijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet, 20th April, 1719, before Richard Casson 
(Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The several psons following^ for not appearing at the last 
Court Leet to do Suit and Service thereat, vis. viijd. severally. 

Ye BaylifFes of this Corporacon for not repairing the High 
Cross,^ the Town Hall Clock, and the Butts on Spittle Moss, vli. 

1. The '* Parsonfi house " may have been the residence of the Vicar 
(the Rev. S. Pcploo) or merely an ordinary dwelling, forming part of the 
property attached to his benefice for stipend purposes. Its position may 
have been at the top of Stoneygate ; but as a previous presentment 
indicates that the Vicar had a building of some kind on Syke-hill, which 
is only a ehort distance from the " bottom of Stonygate," it is more 
probable that the house was in this part than in the other. 

2. Shipbuilding on a systematic basis was not commenced at Preston, 
on the Ribble side, till about the middle of the 19th century ; one of the 
first builders, if not the first, being Samuel Speakman. Ho was followed, 
successively, in the building of ships — a very fluctuating trade here — 
by T. Smith, Ogle and Robinson, J. Hodgson, the Preston Shipbuilding 
Co.. J. H. Mackem, W. AUsup and Sons, R. Smith, Allsup and CJo., Ltd., 
and the present Caledonian Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. 

3. One hundred and sixty-nine persons are mentioned. A marginal 
noto says that they have severally to pay 2s. 6d. 

4. This cross was in the Market Place. It was pulled down in or 
about 1729. On the site of it there was afterwards made, by permission 
of the Corporation, a large " cistern or conduit," from which a supply of 
water for public use (paid for by those who got it) was provided. This 
cistern or conduit was, by desire of the Corporation, done away with, 
about 1739, and subsequently an obelisk was erected on the ground which 
it had occupied. The obelisk had only a short career; it "fell or was 
taken down " some time prior to 1782; and afterwards there was put up, 
on or near its site, by the Corporation, another obelisk, which remained 
undisturbed until 1853, when the municipal authorities sold it to Mr. R. 
Threlfall, who pulled it down — this was one of the conditions of sale — 
and afterwards had the stones of which it was composed made into a 
gateway, &c., connected with his residence at Hollowforth, near Preston. 

168 Preston Court Leet. 

John Winder, Gen.; occupant of the Whitebull,^ for suffer- 
ing a Sign Post to stand into the Street before his house, being 
a Comon Nusance to all his Majties Liege people and an annoy- 
ance to the publick street, xxs. 

Inquisition taken on February 20th, 1720, before William 
Gradwell (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

The Bayliffes of this Burrough for not setting up a Cuck- 
stole in the usual place on the Moor, vis. viijd. 

Ye Bayliffes of this Corporacon for not fixing Pointers^ at 
the bottom of Fryergate to direct the road to Lancaster and 
Kirkham, xs. 

Mr. Mayor for Annoying the back street by setting Tubbs 
and laying Wood therein, iijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet, October 20th, 1720, before William 
Gradwell (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Wm. Gradwell, Esq., prsent Mayor of this Burrough, for 
laying a Midding in ye back Weend to ye annoyance of ye Street, 

Thomas Parr, who being duly appointed one of the Viewers 
of fflesh and ffish within the Burrough of Preston, at the prsent 
Leet, did in a very obstinate and contemptuous Manner refuse 
to take upon him the Execucon of the sd Office, and peremp- 
torily denyed the taking his Oath for that purpose, xiijs. iiijd. 

Great Court Leet, 26th April 1721, before William Grad- 
well (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Thomas Molyneux, Esq., for suffering a Noisom Dunghill 
to lye in his Wood Yard, in the back Weend, in danger of 
rendring the Air infectious and a Comon Nusance to all his 
Majties Liege people, xli. 

1. John Winder was a descendant of Thomas Winder, yeoman, of 
Nether Wyresdale. In addition to being "occupant of the Whitebull," 
ho was an Attorney. Robert Winder, jMirieh clerk at Pre&ton from 1692 
to 1725, was an uncle of the above-named John Winder, to whom the 
late John Winder, solicitor, Fox-street, Preston, was related. 

2. Pointers mean the " arms " of a guide post. 

Preston Court Leet. 169 

The prsent BaylifFes of this Burrough for not repairing ye 
Pinfold and Cuckstool, xli.^ 

Great Court Leet, October 23rd, 1721, before Edmund 
Assheton (Mayor) and Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

Ye BailifFes for not setting up a Cuckstool in some con- 
venient part of ye Burrough, ili. vis. viijd.^ 

Charles Holcroft for using and exercising the Trade of a 
Tallow Chandler, in a ground room adjoining to the street, 
which occasions an Intolerable Smell and Stench, and is a great 
Nusance to the whole Town, but especially to the several persons 
Inhabiting or dwelling near him, forty shilhngs. 

The Butchers [twenty-eight are mentioned] for slaughtering 
in the New Shambles,^ being in the body of the Town, and 
throwing their . . . Garbage in ye open street, to the great 
Annoyance of all people, and especially the Inhabitants of ye 
said Town and [causing] a Comon Nusance, forty shillings 

Great Court Leet, October 22nd, 1722, before Lawrence 
Wall (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

Richard Arkwright for pulling up a Stile in ye back Weend,^ 
Opposite to a house lately Called Watson house, and stopping 
ye usual foot Way there over ye Croft, and thro' ye sd Richd 
Arkwrights house into ffryergate, And do ordr him to fix a Style 

1. A note at tho ond of this Court's proceedings says, *' These present- 
ments were pardon'd by ye Act of Grace." 

2. This presentment was, according to a side note, " referred to ye 
Mayor and Council." 

3. The New Shambles were at the south-west comer of a short road 
which branched from Church-street, and which, about 1828, after being 
extended northward a short distance, was called Lancaster-street. It was 
further extended northward about 1848, and joined a comparatively new 
street called Lancaster-road — a name which the whole length, from 
Church-street to the junction with North-road, then took and still retains. 
Thomas, son of Sir John Molyneux, built the New Shambles in 1715, and 
they were pulled down, as stated in a previous note, about 1883. 

4. The Back Weind went south-west from a point at or near the Old 
Vicarage to the south end of Back -lane. 

170 Preston Court Leet. 

in the old usual place in three days time after this prsentmt 
deliver'd, or do fine him in ten pounds. 

Inquisition taken on February 8th, 1724, before John 
Clayton (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

Tho. Leach for annoying ye footway by laying a Midding 
at Avenham house,^ and if not removed on or before ye first of 
March next xs. 

Abraham Roydes for neglecting to cut ye hedge in the foot- 
lane leading from Richd. Simpson's Dyehouse to ye house of 
Correction lane, and if not done on or before ye 25th of March 
next, vis. viijd. 

Great Court Leet, 30th April, 1724, before Nicholas Starkie 

Presentments : — 

Jno. Whalley for abusing and assaulting one of the Pindars 
of this Town, and forcibly takeing ye key of the pinfold from 
his wife, and by force and violence taking his goods out of the 
ffold impounded for trespass, and thereby comitting a pound 
breach, xiijs. iiijd. 

Two hundred and ninety-three persons severally fined 
6s. 8d. (afterwards reduced to 4d. each) for neglecting to appear 
at the Court to " do suit and service." 

1. For a long time Avenham House etood at the south end of some 
rough, uncultivated ground — formerly gardens, &c. — along which Bairstow- 
street was formed in or about 1860. The house tended to somewhat 
unpleasantly block or interfere with the alignment of the street at that 
end, and it was pulled down in the spring of 1901, in order to secure an 
improvement there. About half of the site — ^west side — ^has been added 
to tho street ; and on the remainder of the ground dwelling-houses have 
been built. Probably during the closing years of the 18th century, and 
certainly for a time at the beginning of the 19th, Avenham House was 
occupied by John Dalton, Esq., afterwards of Thurnham Hall, near 
Lancaster. For some years subsequently the father of the late Richard 
Newsham, Esq., of Preston, resided at Avenham House; and later, for a 
long while, it was the residence of headmasters of the Grammar School; 
the last of such masters who occupied it being the Rev. A. B. Beaven. 
From the autumn of 1897 to the spring of 1900 it was utilised for the 
lodgment of the main body of the Groosnargh Hospital people, whilst 
alterations and additions were being made at that establishment; and in 
1901, as previously stated, it was pulled down. 

Preston Court Leet. 171 

Inquisition taken on February 21st, 1725, before Thomas 
Garlick (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

Geo. Dicconson, Wm. Astley, John Allen, Will. Bailey, 
Stephen Eliot, and John Bailey, for ffleeceing the Comon,^ xxs. 

John Colly for not repairing the foot way adjoining to his 
Garden,^ if not sufficiently done in a Months time, xxs. 

Great Court Leet, April 5th, 1725, before Nicholas Starkie 

According to the presentments made, five persons were 
fined 20s. each for laying timber on Spittle Moss; 16 were 
variously fined for laying middens in different " streets and 
highways " within the town ; two were penalised — one 6s. 8d. 
and the other 10s. 6d. — for fixing dangerous street obstructions ; 
several were named as being " Inmates and Inhabitants within 
this Town and having no Legal Setlemts;" and 200 were 
severally fined 6s. 8d. (the sum being afterwards reduced to 4d. 
each) for neglecting to appear at the Court, to which, in the 
opinion of the Jury, they owed suit and service. From 1716 
to and including the date of this Court Leet (1725) there were, 
amongst those presented for neglecting to do suit and service, 
various persons connected with the " Mock Corporation " of 
Walton-le-Dale, which was a body " ostensibly social and con- 
vivial in its aims, but actually a species of political organisation 
in favour of the development of the ill-starred Stuart cause." 
It was established in 1701, adhered with some earnestness to its 
dynastic object till 1800, and afterwards for about a score of 
years, during the remainder of its existence, social talk and 
•^ clay-moistening " were the main things which the members 
cared for. Amongst the " various persons " before alluded to 
were Sir Edward Stanley, who was Mayor of the " Mock Cor- 
poration " in 1713 ; Banistre Parker, of Extwistle, who gave one 

1. " Floeceing " would be cutting grass on the common and taking it 

2. This footway would bo on the north side, or at the north-west 
corner of the ground called *' CoUcy's Garden," which afterwards became 
known as " The Orchard." See note p. 174. 

172 Preston Court Leet. 

of the " Corporate " official staves ; and gentlemen bearing the 
following names, which are frequently met with in the records of 
the said " Corporation " : Rawstorne, Osbaldeston, Townley, 
Winckley, Sherborne, Patten, Starkie, Chorley, Hesketh, and 
Atherton. In addition to these, there were in the lists of those 
presented, for not doing suit and service at the Court Leet, Sir 
H. Hoghton; Lawrence Wall, who was Mayor of Preston in 
1714-15-22 ; Dr. Bushell ; Thomas, son of Sir John Molyneux ; 
Robert Chaddock, Mayor in 1716-17; John Addison, Mayor's 
Bailiff in 1715; William Wall, Mayor's Bailiff in 1716; John 
Ravald, Town's Bailiff in 1724 ; Geoffrey Hornby, &c. 

Great Court Leet, October 25th, 1726, before Nicholas 
Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

The Bayliffs of this Corporacon for not repairing the 
Gibbet^ and Fryergate Barrs, the Sykes at Spittle Moss, the Post 

1. In 1200 Theobald Walter, a great owner of land in Lancashire, and 
Sheriff of the county for some time in the reign of King John, 
issued a plaint against the iree burgesses of Preston "oonoerning gibbet 
and gaol" in the town, and, in order ''to have peace" respecting the 
plaint, a fine of ten marks and a palfrey was proffered by them. The 
reference to the gibbet in the presentment is the first of the kind I have 
met with in the records of Preston Court Leet. There is no allusion in 
any of the local histories to the position, or even the existence, of a 
gibbet in Preston. There are now some gibbet irons (chains) in the show 
room of John Whitehead's successors (Messrs. Newsholme Brothers), iron- 
mongers, &c., Fifihergate, Preston. For many years, and up to quite 
recently, they were in the warehouse (Glover' s-court) at the rear of the 
shop. In 1859 they were bought, simply as old iron, by John Whitehead ; 
they came from the House of Correction at the bottom of Church-street — 
had, in all likelihood, been taken there amongst other " relics " when that 
place was opened as the successor of the old prison in 1789. The last time 
this gibbet was used was in the case of a man named William Whittle. 
He was tried at Lancaster Assizes on the charge of murdering his wife 
and two children at Farington, near Preston, was found guilty, h&nged 
on Lancaster Moor on the 5th of April, 1766, and afterwords his remains 
were gibbeted at the four lane ends, near the present Farington Vicarage, 
and but a short distance from his house where he committed the threefold 
tragedy. In some quarters an idea prevails that this was the last time 
the gibbet was used in England; but this is quite erroneous. The last 
person gibbeted in this country was a man named George Cook, book- 
binder, of Leicester. He was executed for the murder of a commercial 
traveller, and was gibbeted in Saffron-lane, Aylestone, near Leicester, in 

Preston Court Leet. 173 

near Churchgate pump,^ and the Turn Stile leading to Avenham 
Syke, which We find to be severally out of repair, and Order 
the same to be sufficiently done on or before Lady day next, or 
we Amerce the said Bayliffes in five pounds. 

Thomas Molyneux, Esq., for not railing or Coverin the 
Draw Well in ye Square,^ which lyes open to the great peril and 
danger of his Majties Liege people, and if not done on or before 
the first of January next do Amerce him in five pounds. 

Great Court Leet, April 25th, 1727, before Nicholas Starkie 
(Recorder). Presentment: — 

John Parr and John Derbyshire, the Serjeants of this Town, 
for neglecting their duty in not giveing due Notice and Warning 
to several Inhabitants of this Town of the time of holding this 
Leet, as the duty of their Office required, do Amerce them in 
xxs. each. 

Great Court Leet, October 24th, 1727, before Nicholas 
Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentment : — 

John Parr and John Derbyshire, the present Serjeants of 
the Burrough, for neglect of duty in not Levying the Estreats 
of former Leets Court, tho' the sd Estreats were duly issued 
and delivered to them for that purpose, and Do Amerce 'em in 
one pound one shilling Each. 

Inquisition taken on February 9th, 1729, before Edmund 
Assheton (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

The BaylifFes of this Corporacon to repaire the Yate and 
Rails at ye End of Avenham Walk'' within the time aforesaid, or 
we Amerce 'em in xxs. 

1832. In tho room previously referred to (Messrs. Newsholme's) there are 
an iron pillory top, a flogging frame, some leg irons and wrist ehacklee, 
which were formerly at tho House of Correction, and were bought, at the 
same time as the gibbet irons, by the late John WTiitehead. 

1. This poet was probably connected with either the sign of an inn or 
the bar which was in Church -street. 

2. Molyneux-square. 

3. In 1697 the Corporation purchased Avenham Walk from Alderman 
Lemon, and soon afterwards much improved it. Later the Walk was 
widened and further improved. The " South Prospect of Preston," pub- 

174 Preston Court Leet. 

Great Court Leet, May 24th, 1731, before Nicholas Starkie 

Presentment : — 

William Hardman for not setting a stile out of the house of 
Correction lane into a field joining to Vicars Greave,^ now in 
possion of Thos. Aldred, whereby the footway or passage there 
is annoyed and obstructed, and if its not done in 20 days we 
amerce him in 30s. 

Great Court Leet, May 4th, 1732, before Nicholas Starkie 

Presentments : — 

John Colly for not drawing or keeping open a Ditch or 
Sluice thro* his Garden^ to draw the water from the higher End 
of the back Weend, whereby the Ancient Course of the Water 
there is stopp'd and obstructed, and the highway thereby very 
much overflowed, annoyed, and prejudiced, and if not done in 
XX days We Amerce him in xxs. 

lished in 1728, by S. and N. Buck, shows the Walk as an oblong: piece of 
ground, tree-flanked, with a fence of some kind on each side and at the 
south end. The steps and terraces at the south end were made by the 
Corporation in 1846. 

1. Vicars Greave was an enclosure or field between the old House of 
Correction and Fishergate; the higher end of the present Pitt-etreet 
being, presumably, very near if it does not actually croes the land which 
formed it. 

2. This garden was north of the upper or eafitem end of Back 
Weind. A map of Preston relating to the Royal and Rebel posi- 
tions at Preston, in 1715, and apparently published at the end of that 
year or soon afterwards, shows the space covered by the garden; but only 
a portion of it — on the north or more cultivated side — eeems to have been 
at that time definitely enclosed. Lang's map (1774) describes it as Colley's 
Garden, and gives some representations of trees or bushes in it. About 
1815 a moat or ditch surrounded the ground, and cows grazed amongst 
the trees — probably fruit trees — which it then contained. Afterwards a 
person named Chadwick owned or was tenant of the ground, utilising it 
for orchard purposes, and it became known as " Chadwick's Orchard." 
Later it was occupied for some time by Bart. Duckworth. In 1821 it 
ceased to be an orchard, and its sides (north and south) were subsequently 
opened out for building purposes. The main portion of the ground is now 
occupied by the Covered Market, the erection of which was oommenced 
in 1870 and — after delays due to the collapse of a considerable portion of 
the iron work and to misunderstandings, &c., with certain contractors — 
completed in 1875. 

Preston Court Leet. 175 

Robert Abbatt for neglecting to repair the Breaches in the 
Streets occasioned by the laying or taking up of pipes, and if not 
done in five days We amerce him in xxs.^ 

Great Court Leet, October 23rd, 1732, before Nicholas 
Starkie (Recorder). 

Presentments : — 

George Singleton, Thomas Walmsley, Anne Haslingden, 
Easter Townend, Benjamin Colley, Edmd. Parker, James Ether- 
ington, Anne Fairclough, James Jameson, Margaret Bostock, 
widw, Richd. LJvesay, Thomas Bailey, and Robert Sherrington, 
for severally using and Exercising the Comon Selling of Ale and 
Beer in their respective houses in Preston without being there- 

1. Robert Abbatt and Thomas Kelkt — the former being' a chapman 
and the latter a joiner — wore the original promoters of an improved and 
systematic supply of water for Preston. In 1729 they entered into an 
agreement with the Corporation to " set waterworks on foot " in the town 
for the accommodation of the inhabitants. The Corporation leased to 
them some land containinpr watercourses. &c., adjoining Avenham Garden, 
which was connected with Avenham House, and was situated between the 
present Starkie -street and Chaddock-fitreet ; also gave them liberty to 
erect a cistern or conduit in the Market Place, to be supplied with water, 
by means of pipes and onpines, from various springs and watercourses on 
Syke-hill ; and furthermore permitted them to lay pipes through any of 
the streets, weinds, or back lanes in the town ; but it was stipulated that in 
making and maintaining their waterworks they had not to interfere with 
nor injure any of the existing wells and pumps. Of course, the water 
which Abbatt and Kellet agreed to supply had to be paid for by those 
who required it "in accordance with such terms as they might make.*' 
The works, which wore commenced in May, 1730, had to be completed 
within three years ; but in less than a year Kellet ** surrendered his title 
and interest " to Abbatt. who thereupon became solely responsible for the 
undertaking; and hence the presentment of the Court Leet Jury sub- 
sequently made against him alone respecting " Breaches in the Streets." 
About the time when this presentment was made — in thesame month — Abbatt 
was joined by several persons in his enterprise. Certain rearrangements 
as to Corporation privileges and the work to be done by Abbatt and his 
associates were then entered into; the undertaking was in due time com- 
pleted; and by it water was supplied to many Preston people for a long 
time. This way of supplying water, as well as by means of certain small 
auxiliary or competing plans separately set on foot, was eventually super- 
seded by a better and much more comprehensive scheme undertaken by 
the Preston Waterworks Company — a body organised in 1832 by Act of 
Parliament. In 1853 the works of this Company were purchased by the 
Preston Corporation. 

176 Preston Court Leet. 

unto Lawfully admitted or Licensed, and Amerce them in twenty 
shillings Each.^ 

The Watercourse near the Almshouse in this Town,^ 
Adjoining to the Stile leading out of the Street and highway into 
a Close of Ground called the Whittakers,^ is stopt and 
obstructed, And it appears to us that the said Watercourse ought 
to run down the ditch at the End of the several Gardens Leading 
to a place called the Clark Yard, and by such Stoppage and 
Obstruccon the street and highway near the said Almshouse is 
Annoyed, Overflowed, and prejudiced, And we do Order the 
several occupiers of the said Gardens to Open and Scour such 
parts of the said ditch as adjoins to their respective Gardens 
within the space of thirty days after notice hereof. Or we Amerce 
them in twenty shillings Each making default. 

" Court Leet with View of ffree pledges " held in the Town 
Hall, on April 23rd, " in the sixth year of the Reign of his 
present majesty King George the Second, and in the year of our 
Lord, 1733, before Nicholas Starkie, Esquire, Recorder."^ 

1. An Act of Parliament, passed in 1729, after reciting, among other 
things, that oertain inconveniences had arisen through the granting of 
alehouse licenses by Justices residing at a distance, enacted that "no 
license shall in future be granted but at a general meeting of the magis- 
trates acting in the division in which the applicant dwells." In the Act 
there was likewise a clause which placed the keepers of liquor or brandy 
shops under the same regulations, respecting licenses, as alehouse-keepers. 
For some time from 1733 " alehouses became the shops for spirits as well 
as for ale and beer,'' owing to the flagrant way in which spirits had been 
exposed for sale and hawked about, and in consequence of this the proper 
regulation of alehouses became much more difficult than previously. 

2. This almshouse stood at the north end of St. John-street, on or 
near the site of the present pig market. In or about 1833 it was pulled 

3. A " Whittaker Row " is shown on Shakeshaft's map on the east 
side of Tithebarn-street " Whittaker s " was the name of a small field 
or enclosed piece of land at the rear of the almshouse and on the north 
side of Lord's-walk, near which, and also on the north side, were the 
gardens mentioned. 

4. English, which was supplanted by Latin directly after the close of 
the Commonwealth, in the wording of the head lines, is now resumed. After 
the statement as to the place where and the time when the Court was held, 
the names of the jurymen, 21 in number, are given, and then comes this 
line in respect to the said jurymen — " Who say and present upon their oaths 
as followeth:" But not a single presentment is recorded I 

Preston Court Leet. 177 

The next Court Leet was held on October 23rd, 1733, 
before Nicholas Starkie (Recorder). The Jury consisted of 13, 
and they made only one presentment, viz. : — ^We present the 
BailifFes of this Corporation for not repairing the East end of 
Saint John's Lane, and for not supplying the Market Street 
[? Place] Well with Utensils to take the Water. 

Inquest of Office, or Court Baron, held on [blank] February, 
1734, before John Myers (Mayor). — The Jury was, numerically, 
very large, 48 being sworn on it. The presentments made were 
of a very ordinary kind. 

Court Leet, May 10th, 1734, before Nicholas Starkie 
(Recorder). — ^The Jury consisted of 13, and directly after the 
record of the names, there is the following — ^^ Note this Jury 
never made or brought in any presentmts. Q[uery] — ^whether 
they have acted according to the Obligation of their Oaths." 

Court Leet, October 24th, 1735, before Thomas Whitehead 

Presentments : — 

Madam Mary Molyneux, of Preston,^ for permitting and 
suffering a Deep draw Well, in Molyneux Square, within this 
Burrough, to lye Open and Uncovered, to the great peril and 
danger of the lives of his Majesties Liege Subjects passing and 
repassing thro' the said Square, and a Comon Nusance, And 
order her to rail or Cover the same in a ffortnight after notice 
hereof, or We amerce her in ten pounds.^ 

Henry Robinson for burning Cow claws [hoofs] in or near 
the public Streets, Lanes, or highways within this town, and 

1. Thomas Whitehead was a barrister-at-law, of Preston, and Mats- 
head, near Garstanp^. In 1718 ho married Sarah, daughter of Thomas 
Winckley, gentleman, of Preston. The Corporation of Preston appointed 
him Recorder of the borough on the 19th of August, 1735, in place of 
Nicholas Starkie, who died five days before that date. He very seldom — 
not more than two or three times — presided at the Court Leet, ajid in 
1742 he died. 

2. Madam Mary Molyneux was the widow of Thomas Molyneux (third 
son of Sir John Molyneux, Bart., of Teversal), who was several times 
elected a member of Parliament for Preston between the summer of 1695 
and the autumn of 1702. 

3. This conditional fine was afterwards reduced to 10s. 


178 Preston Court Leet. 

thereby raising and Occasioning a fulsome and offensive Smell, 
to the great danger of the healths of his Majesties Liege people. 
.... And Amerce him in xxs. 

The Proprietors of the Waterworks for not covering the 
pluggs in the Streets, and if not done in a Weeks time after 
Notice we Amerce them in xxs. 

Ralph Kellet, of Preston, for regrating and getting into his 
hands and possession in the publick Market within this Burrough 
one Load of Potatoes brought to the said Market to be sold and 
afterwards selling the same Again in the Same Market, And 
Amerce him for the said Offence the sume of five shillings. 

Inquest, February 21st, 1736, before Henry Farington 
(Mayor). — Amongst the jury men — 34 in number — are 
some who previously figured as defaulters, through not attending 
the Court Leet. 

Presentment: — 

John Colly for not opening and scouring the watercourse in 
his Garden in the back weend, for want thereof the Water falling 
from the feeble street^ is stopped at the head of the sd Garden, 
which is a great Nusance and annoyance to the way there and 
to all his Majesties Leige People passing and repassing that way, 
and if not sufficiently Done in a week after notice We amerce 
him in forty shillings. 

Inquest (Court Baron), February 13th, 1737, before 
Edmund Assheton (Mayor). — Fifty-five persons sworn on the 

Presentments : — 

Robert Abbatt for not repairing the Breaches in the Caus- 
way in several parts of the Town, occasioned by the bursting of 
the pipes. If the same be not well and sufficiently repaired in 
three weeks after notice we amerce him in forty shillings. 

The Bayliffs of the said Burrough for neglecting their 
duty ... in not repairing the Streets in several parts of the 
Town, particularly near the Talbot,^ before the house late in 

1. " The feeble street " would be the short, narrow way called Feeble- 
street which runs between the Old Vicarage and Crooked-lane. 

2. The Talbot would be an inn ; and it is not at all improbable that 
its license was transferred to the present publio-house called the Talbot. 

Preston Court Leet. 179 

possession of the Earl of Derby,^ in the back weend,^ and near ye 
Fryergate Bars. If the same be not repaired in a month after 
notice we amerce them in five pounds. 

Court Leet, October 24th, 1737, before Thomas Whitehead 

Presentment : — 

David Brown for not repairing the Platts in the Common 
Foot way leading from the Chapel yard^ thro' his Fields to the 
house of Correction [and] thro' his field to the Fishergate Lane, 
which are so much out of repair That his Majestys Leige People 
cannot safely and conveniently pass That way, and if not done 
in a month after notice We amerce him in five pounds. 

Court Leet, May 17th, 1739, before William' Atherton 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffs for neglecting their duty in their offices in not 
repairing the Pump and well in the back weend, which have 
been useless for several years for want of repair, and also in not 

in Chapel-yard, off Friargate. Strange to say, the house is not 
mentioned at all in the earliest lot of local directories, viz., the Commercial 
(published in 1818), Whittle's (1821), and Baines's (1825). For a long time 
the Talbot inn was more or less a " Catholic house." It has been said 
that there was formerly — " about 200 years ago " — a Catholic chapel in 
Chapel-yard, on or near the ground which the Talbot inn occupies. But 
this is quite a mistake. The only Catholic chapel in existence at Preston 
200 years ago was that already referred to, in Old Chapel Yard. A deed 
and a release dated January 29th and 30th, 1739. in the possession of Mr. 
J. H. Longworth, Chapel-street, Preston, describes Chapel-yard, in which 
the Talbot is situated, as Apple-street. The Rebellion map (1715) ehows 
some gardens or orchards on or near the ground now occupied by St. 
George's, at the south end of Chapel-yard, and their proximity may have 
originated the name of Apple-street. 

1. This would be only a small building owned, not occupied, by Lord 

2. This would be what is now and has for long been called Back -lane. 
Its east entrance would, originally, be at or near the present Lancaster- 
road end of the Old Vicarage. 

3. Old Chapel Yard, in Friargate, between Bridge-street and Edward- 
street. The footway would run from the rear of this yard diagonally, 
south-west, into House of Correction lane, and thence passage would be 
resumed, by footway, to a point in Fishergate-lane at or near the top of 
the present Bow-lane. 

180 Preston Court Leet. 

repairing the well commonly called Kendall well^ which is so far 
out of repair that the same is of no use or service, And if they 
do not sufficiently repair both the said Wells and the said Pump 
within six days after notice of this Presentment We amerce them 
in five pounds. 

John Colley for not repairing the Way in a certain lane or 
alley, commonly called the Dirty Alley,^ which he has suflPered 
to be out of repair for several years. And if the said way be not 
cleaned and repaired in a week after notice We amerce him in 
fifty shillings. 

Court Leet, October 20th, 1740, before Lawrence 
Rawstorne (Mayor).' 

1. See note p. 25. 

2. It 16 very probable that this "lane or alley" was either on the 
west side of " the Orchard," at or near the upper end of the present 
Orchard- street, or at the north-west corner close to where the old Starch- 
houses are situated. 

3. With an old and important family was Lawrence Rawstorne con- 
nected. Laurence Rosthorne, of Windsor — a descendant of John Ros- 
thome, who was living at Lumm, in Aydenfield, in the time of Eklward 
IV. — purchased the manor of Hutton, in Penwortham, from the Crown, in 
1545. His great grandson, Edward Rosthorne, of New Hall, in Totting- 
ton, and Gray's Inn (son of Edward Rosthorne, High Sheriff of Lancashire 
in 1629), was one of the six captains who assisted the Countess of Derby 
in the defence of Lathom House, in 1644. Afterwards he was, at the 
request of the Countess, made colonel of a foot regimeift, and he was 
likewise appointed governor of Lathom House, which, when the siege was 
resumed, in 1645, he vigorously defended, till surrender became inevitable 
near the end of that year. He died in 1646, and was buried at Has- 
lingden. The family property which he inherited descended, on his death, 
to his brother, Laurence Rawsthorne, who was High Sheriff of Lan- 
cashire in 1681. Laurence was succeeded by his son William, of New 
Hall, who was High Sheriff in 1712, and who had two sons, Edward and 
Laurence. By arrangement, Edward (the elder), who was never married, 
surrendered the family estates to his brother Laurence's son, who was also 
named Laurence. This brother Laurence was the one who presided at 
the Preston Court Leet, in October, 1740. He married, in 1736, Jane 
Langton (daughter of Richard Langton), who in 1732 inherited Broughton 
Tower property, near Preston. She was 70 years of age when married, 
and lived only about two months after the event. Subsequently Laurence 
Rawstorne married again; his second wife being Agnes, daughter of 
Robert Dent, of Preston. In 1736-7 he was the Mayor's Bailiff at Preston. 
He was elected an Alderman of the borough in 1739. In 1740-1, 1750-1, 
and 1760-1 he was Mayor here. He retained his Aldermanship till his 
death, in 1763 The son Laurence, who inherited the family property by 

Preston Court Leet. 181 

Presentment: — 

The Bailiffs for not repairing the pump in back Weend, 
which for want of such repair is become of no use, and also in 
not amending the pavements in the street in Churchgate, near 
the house lately in the possession of the Earl of Derby,^ and 
also in the street near the Bulls head,^ which are broken and 
much out of Order, and if they do not Amend the same in a 
Fortnight after Notice we Amerce them in 20s. 

Court Leet, April 23rd, 1741, before Lawrence Rawstome 

Presentments : — 

The Bayliffes of this Burrough for not Calling and Securing 
the Marsh, by the Neglect whereof the said Marsh grounds 
belonging to the Mayor, Bayliffes, and Burgesses of this 
Burrough are Wasted and Washed away, and if not done in 
twenty one days after notice We amerce them in One Hundred 

the arrangement referred to, was the issue of the second marriage. He 
was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1776, and he purchased Hutton Hall 
and the manor of Penwortham in 1783. When he died the property was 
inherited by his eldest son (Laurence Rawstorne, of New Hall and 
Hutton), who was High Sheriff in 1814, and lieutenant-colonel of the 1st 
Lancashire Militia. He died in 1850; his heir being his only son, the 
present Lawrence Rawstorne, who was born in 1842, and who now resides 
at Hutton Hall. 

1. Patten House. 

2. The " Bulls head " was an inn or ale-house. Up to about nine 
years ago there were two beerhouses in Preston respectively called the 
Bull's Head — one in Savoy-street, a little to the west of Lower Pitt-street, 
and the other in Bo wran -street, on the west side of Corporation-street. 
But as Savoy-street was not formed until some time between 1824 and 
1836 the house therein referred to could not, of course, be that mentioned 
in the presentment. The Bull's Head in Savoy-street was done away with 
— closed as a drink-selling place — about 1896. It is within the range of 
probability that the Bull's Head alehouse, in Bo wran -street, still in exist- 
ence, is either the original house having that sign or its successor. Much 
of Bowran-street has now disappeared, owing to the formation of Cor- 
poration-street ; and through the same cause the higher part of Mount 
Pleasant — a street which used to cross here, and was originally a portion 
of the branching way from the top of Friars-lane to the Friary — has been 
done away with. The Bull's Head is at the north-west corner of the 
Mount Pleasant intersection. 

3. A marginal note relative to this says — " An Improper Present- 

182 Preston Court Leet. 

Lancellot Butler, Mr. Thomas Woodcock, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Casson, Cuthbert Wade, Esquire, Mr. Nicholas Walmsley, Mr. 
Charles Gibson, Rigby Molyneux, Esq., John Winckley, Esqr., 
Thomas Jolley, Mr. James Chorley, Roger Hesketh, Esqr., Mr. 
William Prichard, Robert Abbatt, and John Cheetham for 
severally neglecting to Open and Scour the Ditch and Water- 
course adjoining to the South End of the Orchards and Gardens 
in their respective possions [possessions],^ by the neglect 
Whereof the Comon fFoot [way] leading from the Waterworks 
through the Closes called the Sykes is Annoyed and Obstructed, 
And if not done in twenty-one days after Notice We Amerce 
them in two Shillings Sixpence Each. 

Court Leet, October 25th, 1742, before John Walshman 

Presentments : — 

John Walshman, present Mayor of Preston, for Laying a 
Dunghill in St. John's Lane, in Preston, to the annoyance of the 
street and Highway There, and if not Removed in a Week We 
amerce him in five shillings. 

Rigby Molyneux, Esq., for Laying Rubbish and wood near 
the HorsemilP in the back weend, to the annoyance of the street 
and Highway There, and if not Removed in a Week We amerce 
him in five shillings. 

1. These orchards and gardens extended, east and west, from Main- 
sprit Weind to Winckley-square, and occupied in width more than half 
of the ground between Syke and Cross-streets and Fiehergate. The water- 
works were at the bottom of Glover' s-court — occupying what afterwards 
formed the north-west corner of the Gas Company's Glover -street works — 
and were for a long while derisively called "the Folly." 

2. Walshman, with sundry variants, figures frequently as a burgess 
name in the records of Preston. John Walshman, who presided at the 
Court Leet mentioned, was Town's Bailiff at Preston in 1729-30. He was 
one of the wardens of Preston Parish Church in 1734-5-6-7-9. In 1734 he 
was elected a member of the Town Council ; in 1741 he was made an 
Alderman ; and directly after the Guild in 1742 he was chosen Mayor for 
the ensuing municipal year. He retained his aldermanship till his death 
in 1745. 

3. A horse-mill was a mechanical contrivance used for different pur- 
poses, driven or kept in motion by a horse — usually by one walking in. 
a circle. 

Preston Court Leet. 183 

Benjamin Whitehead for Laying a piece of Timber over 
against Joseph Bray's Garden,^ below the ffryergate Barrs in 
Preston, to the annoyance of the Highway there, and if not 
Removed in a week we amerce him in five shillings. 

Court Leet, October 24th, 1743, before William Prichard 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffs for not repairing the Pump at the Upper end 
of the Back Weend, wch has been out of Repair sevl years. If 
not repaired in six weeks We amerce them in £5. 

Mr. James Holcroft for not repairing the Pump opposite 
the Rose and Crown, next fFriergate Barrs,^ And also the Pump 
beyond ffriergate Barrs, both wch are very much out of Repair, 
and if not Done in 10 days we amerce him in 20s. 

1. Bray's Garden was at the bottom of Friargate, adjoining the west 
corner. About the end of the 18th century a considerable quantity of it 
was laid out for building purposes. The last portion of the garden — an 
oblong- piece on the north side, near Fylde-etreet — was effaced between 
1821 and 1824. "Jo. Bray," the owner or occupier of this garden, was 
enrolled as an in-burgess of Preston in 1702. He was a son of Richard 
Bray, gardener, who became an in-burgess of the borough in 1682, and 
was. probably, a descendant of the first Bray whose name appears in 
the Preston burgess records — Peter Bray, of Layton, in the Fylde, who 
was enrolled as an out-burgees, at the Guild of 1642. Joseph Bray, 
solicitor for a long time in Preston, who died in 1862 at Tulketh Hall, 
Ashton-on-Ribble, which he purchased about 1848, and who was uncle 
and for some time partner of the late Alderman W. Gilbertson, in the 
legal profession, was, no doubt, a descendant of the Bray mentioned in 
the presentment. 

2. The Rose and Crown wavS a tavern. When the presentment was 
niade it was the property of a local gentleman (Alderman William 
Harrison). Its position seems to have been a little south of Friargate 
bars. There is now in Friargate a very old licensed house (the Crown 
and Thistle) about 40 yards south of where the bars were originally placed, 
and where they would be at the time the presentment was made. Perhaps 
^his used to be called the Rose and Crown. In 1745, when the " Scotch 
^bels " passed through Preston, the name of this house may have been 
changed to that which it now bears ; else the tenant, if an Englishman 
^^ sympathy with the Jacobite cause, or a Scotchman with kindred 
feelings and at any rate with an ardent regard for what has been Scot- 
land's emblem ever since 1540 — the thistle — may, a short time after the 
^sappearance of those malcontents, have made the alteration. The 
thistle as part of the sign name is certainly suggestive of strong Stuart 
^^ northern proclivities. About 70 yards from the Crown and Thistle, 

184 Preston Court Leet. 

Court Leet, October 22nd, 1745, before James Derbyshire 

Presentment : — 

The BaylifFs of this Town for not providing and Keeping 
due and proper statutable Standard Weights as the Law directs, 
And if not provided in three months We amerce them in twenty 

Court Baron (commonly called the Inquest of Office, or 
Inquisition), February 10th, 1746, before James Derbyshire 
(Mayor). — Fifty-two persons were sworn on the Jury. Nine pre- 
sentments were made. They contained nothing of interest. 

Court Leet, April 25th, 1746, before James Derbyshire 
(Mayor). — The Jurymen, 18 in number, were duly sworn, but 
there is no record of what they did, for this simple and sufficient 
reason, as stated in a note after their names, viz., " This Jury 
never deliver'd in any Presentments." A blank space, in the 
record book, equal to three and a half pages, succeeds the note. 

Court Baron, February 22nd, 1748, before Richard 
Shepherd (Mayor).^ 

and on the same &idc of the street, towards the bottom end, there is an 
alehouse whose name is likewise suggestive of tendencies in the same 
direction: this is the Old Sir Simon — a name which, of course, at once 
reminds one of Simon Fraeer, Lord Lovat, the cute old Jacobite chief 
who helped on the Rebellion of 1745, and who, in 1747, was tried in 
London for treason, found guilty, and beheaded. It is fairly presumable 
that the two Friargate houses mentioned have been well patronised by 
persons with old northern sympathies or by descendants of theirs. Con- 
tiguous to these houses, intermediately, there used to be a Catholic place 
of worship; Catholics mainly favoured the Stuart cause; hence this par- 
ticular part of Friargate would, for a while, and so far as sympathy went, 
be a somewhat considerable Jacobite stronghold. The Crown and Thistle 
was one of the last buildings in Preston with a thatched roof. It was 
unthatched and slated about 1886. 

1. The Mayor hero mentioned was Dr. Shepherd. He was born at 
Sizergh, near Kendal, in 1694. When of due age, he studied medicine, 
&c. Subsequently he settled at Preston as a practising physician. He 
was enrolled a freeman of Preston in 1724, was the town's 
Bailiff in 1740-1, became an Alderman in 1746, was Mayor in 
1747-8 and 1755-6, and continued an Alderman to the time of 
his death, in 1761. Dr. Shepherd bequeathed to the Corporation 
of Preston, in trust for the use and benefit of the inhabitants, his 
extensive and excellent library, which is now in the reference department 

Preston Court Leet. 185 

Presentments — the Jury consisting of 42 persons, all duly 
sworn : — 

Lancellot Butler for not fixing a Rail to the fFoot Bridge at 
the fFurther end of the Comer Gap^ ; and if he don't do the 
same on or before the 25th of March next We Amerce him in 
13s. 4d. 

Mrs. Chorley for the like offence in the next fl&eld,^ leading 
toward the Boat^ ; and if she don't do the same in the like time 
We Amerce her in the like sum of 13s. 4d. 

John Winckley, Esquire,^ for enclosing part of the Comon 
ffields,^ and if he don't pull the same down on or before the ffirst 
of Mav next We amerce him in £100. 

John Westby and his servants for Washing his silks in the 
Sike Well^ we amerce in 20s. 

Court Leet, April 27th, 1749, before Richard Pedder 

of the Harrifi Free Library. TIo was buried in the Rraveyard of St. 
George's Church, Preston ; but tho oxact part of the ground in which his 
remains were interred is not positively known. On the 3rd of July, 1888, 
the matter was specially investigated by a few local gentlemen ; and, 
taking all the best available evidence into consideration, it was decided 
that the most probable burial spot was that which is now covered by a 
memorial stone — a slab of polished gray granite (on tho east side of the 
principal walk to the church), which bears an inscription relative to Dr. 
Shepherd's generosity, professional status, municipal career, &c., and 
which was provided and put down at the sole expense of Dr. R. C. 
Brown, of Winckley-square. Preston. 

1. Corner Gap was a field forming the south-west corner of what is 
now Avenham Park, and close to the Ribble. 

2. The " next fheld " was on the west side of Corner Gap, and was 
called Chorley Meadow. 

3. The Boat would be tho wharf (done away with many years 
since) on the Preston or north side of the Ribble ferry, opposite what is 
now called the " Old Boat House." 

4. John Winckley was a barrister-at-law, of Preston. His son Nicholas 
was the Mayor's Bailiff in 1767-8. and Mayor of the Mock Corporation of 
Walton-le-Dale in 1774. 

5. The *' Comon ffields " were alx)ut 250 yards north-east of the ferry. 

6. The Sike well wa;? at or near the bottom of Syke-hill. 

7. Pedder is a name which first appears in the local burgess list in the 
latter part of the 17th century. The town's Bailiff in 1728-9 was named 
Richard Pedder. In 1731 Richard Pedder was elected a member of the 
Common Council. Ho was raised to the Aldermanio bench on 

166 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffs of this Borough for not repairing the Pump 
near Mr. Hardman's house, in the ffryergate,^ and if they do not 
repair the same in two Months after notice We amerce them in 
six shillings and eight pence. 

The Representatives of Lady Petre^ for not raising and 
repairing the Causeway about fifty yards or thereabouts from 
Clappyates^ to Swillbrooke, and if the same is not raised and 
repaired in two Months after notice We amerce them in Twenty 

Court Baron (Inquest of Office), February 26th, 1750, 
before Thomas Astley (Mayor).^ 

June 30th, 1748 ; later, in the same year, he was chosen Mayor ; in 
1756 he was also made the chief magistrate of the borough ; and on 
December 20th, 1762 — being an Alderman at the time — he died. Numerous 
Pedders — Edward being a very prominent name — were subsequently, for 
many years, municipally connected with Preston ; and the last associated 
with the Council was the late Richard Pedder. He was elected a member 
of the Council in 1842; in 1848-9 he was Mayor; in 1852 he was made an 
alderman: and he retained his aldermanic connection with the Corpora- 
tion till 1877, about which time he left Preston and went to reside in 
Finsthwaite, near the lower end of Windermere, where he died some 
years ago. 

1. This would be the pump which used to stand on the south side of 
Friargate, opposite the entrance of Hardman's-yard. 

2. Lady Potro was, before her marriage, Catherine Walmesley — a 
daughter of Bartholomew Walmesley, of Dunkenhalgh, &c., who was a 
descendant of Sir Thomas Walmesley, a notable lawyer and judge, and 
owner of much landed property, &c., in Lancashire and Yorkshire (1537 — 
1612). Bartholomew Walmesley died in January, 1701-2, and in 1711 the 
above-mentioned Catherine was his sole surviving child and heiress of the 
family estates. On the 1st of March, 1712-13, when but 15 years old, she 
married Robert, 7th Baron Petre, of Writtle, in Essex, who died of small- 
pox about a year afterwards. A posthumous son^ named Robert James, 
was the issue of the marriage, and this son, when of age, succeeded to 
the title as 8th Baron Petre. In 1733 Lady Petre, his widowed mother, 
married Charles, Lord Stourton. Her ladyship owned a considerable 
quantity of property on the south-east side of Preston, and one of the 
streets in that region — Stourton-street — bears her second marriage surname. 
She died in 1785, at the age of 88. 

3. Clappyates would be a field between Frenchwood and London-road. 

4. Thomas Astley was a descendant of the Astleys of Stakes, in the 
parish of Blackburn. He resided at Fishwick Hall, was a merchant or 
wholesale grocer, and was understood to be a man possessed of a good 

Preston Court Leet. 187 

Jury of 50 sworn. Presentments: — 

Lord Derby for breaking up the Comon ffootway Leading 
over the Churchgate Moor^ to Sherburne's.^ 

The Bailiffs for not repairing the two Horse platts betwixt 
ffishergate Lane and the Marsh, as also for not repairing the 
Bridge and Piatt beyond it at ffishergate Lane end. 

Court Leet, May 7th, 1750, before Thomas Astley (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

The Supervisors of the Highways within this Borough for 
not laying a sufficient stone platt or sough overcross the Lane 
in the usual place where one is or has been, between the poor- 
house and ffree school,"^ and if they do not do the same on or 
before the [blank] day of [blank] next We amerce them in 
[blank]. — [A note in the margin says — " An Improper Present- 

deal of wealth. He was one of the wardens of Preston Parish Church in 
1725, waa made Mayor of the borouti^h in 1749, and died at Fishwick Hall 
in or about 1758. 

1. Churchgate Moor was on the east side and formed part of Preston 

2. On the east side of Deepdale-road, and nearly opposite the east end 
of Serpentine-road, there is a farmhouse called Sherburn, and probably 
this place got its name through some connection, proprietary or otherwise, 
with the Sherburnee of Ribbloton, 

3. The poorhouse was, originally, a work house — a building in which 
work was provided for poor persons, and for which they were regularly 
paid. In 1674, owing to the great necessity which existed of setting the 
poor of Preston to work, " and to keepe them from wandring and 
begging," the Corporation purchased some old buildings on the north side 
of Avenham-lane, at the comer of Bolton 's-court, and made them into a 
workhouse ; working in wool — making it into yarn or worsted — being 
mainly, if not entirely, the employment provided. The Mayor and Town 
Council fixed the rate of wages. Some time after the workhouse had been 
opened, helpless poor people incapable of working were lodged and pro- 
vided with food in a portion of it. The records of the Corporation also 
show that on the 4th of August, 1679, various ** rules and orders" for the 
" well and good governing " of the establishment were adopted. These 
rules, &c., directed that henceforth the workhouse mujst be ** governed, 
guided, and managed " by a master or governor, a deputy, a storehouse 
keeper and treasurer, a clerk, a master workman, and a foreman or second 
workman. The master and the deputy had to be free burgesses residing 
within the borough, of the " best ranke and qualitie," and amongst other 
things they had to see that as many of the poor persons including children 
within the town as were able to work and had no work whereby to main- 

188 Preston Court Leet. 

tain thomsolvos should, as the workhouee stock would permit, be "eett 
to work and kept close thereunto, and not suffred to beg or wander 
abroad " ; whilst such ae would not work had to be taken bef<»re the 
Mayor with the view of being sent to the House of Correction, " there to 
bo whypt and sett to hard labour and receive due correction for their 
Idleness." The storehouse keeper and treasurer had to be a free burgese, 
and an inhabitant of the town. The clerk had to be able to read and 
keep accounts, and to be present when stores, &c., were received or 
delivered. The master workman had to instruct one or more free bur- 
gesses in the "art, science, craft, or mystery," of the woollen trade and 
manufacture, " to the end that thoar may not want sufficient persons to 
manage and carry on the sade trade and manufacture in case the sade 
master workman shall die or be removed"; and he had to *' cause all 
young children and other persons who are not mothers of families to go 
and work at the said workhouse in a room or place prepared for that 
purpose, and while there to see the sade children and other poore persons 
be keopt strictly to work, and to teach and instruct them in greasing, 
carding, spinning and workeing the sade wooll into yarn." The foreman 
or second workman had to take care that all young children and other 
persons were kept to their work, and '* the sade children and other persons 
who shall be imployed and sett to work at the sade workhouse shall every 
year between the first of March and the first of October dayly go and 
ropaire unto the workhouse by 6 of the clock in the morning, and their 
continue working until twelve of the clock at noon, and shall in the after- 
noons return again at one o'clock and there continue working until seven 
at night; and between the first of October and the first of March shall 
dayly go to worke at seven in the morning and continue till twelve at 
noone, and then return at one, and there continue until six in the evening, 
and shall respectively receive such wages and rates for greasing, carding, 
and spinning the sade wool, twisting and winding the sade yam, or 
dooinge any other their work as the sade master workman shall think fitt, 
and shall be allowed and approved of by the sade govemour or his deputy, 
or the maior and Common Council or the major part of them." The first 
master appointed under these regulations was Edward Rigby, ''aerjant at 
lawc." In 1788 a workhouse was built at the south end of what was then 
Preston Moor, not far from and opposite where the Infirmary now stands 
— ^about 100 yards at the rear of it. The first workhouse was^ at or 
about this time, abandoned as a place providing employment and relief for 
the poor; in 1799 the Corporation let it for some purpose, to a person 
named William Boothman, for 16 years; on the expiry of the lease the 
building was variously utilised; and in 1850 it was pulled down, the 
ground on which it stood being excavated for a water lodge in connection 
with Horrocks and Jacson's cotton mills. The building erected at tho 
south end of Preston Moor was, along with all the district workhouses in the 
Union, except that in the township of Ribchester, superseded by the 
present workhouse in Fulwood, which was opened on December 29th, 1868.— 
The " ffree school " was the Grammar School. 

Preston Court Leet. 189 

Court Leet, October 21st, 1751, before James Bolton 
(Mayor). ^ 

Presentments : — 

Rigby Molyneux, Esqr., for suffering his Cellar steps at the 
House near the Green Man^ to lye open to the street, and if he 
do not Cover the same in Five Davs after Notice We amerce 
him in 3s. 4d. 

Court Leet, April 27th, 1752, before James Bolton (Mayor). 

Presentment : — 

The Supervisors of the Highways for not sufficiently amend- 
ing the Footpath^ and Ramparts, draw the Watercourses, amend 
the Bridges and Steping Stones over the Leaches^ and leading 
from a Stile, near the Brick Kills, over the Moor towards Hinley 
House,^ and if the same are not done and amended on or before 
the ffirst of August next We amerce 'em in 10s. 

Court I^et, October 25th, 1752, before Robert Parker 
(Mayor) .^ 

1. Jame6 Bolton was a mombor of the Guild Council in 1742; having? 
some time previously been elected a member of the Corporate body. In 
January, 1750-1. he became an Alderman ; in 1751-2 and 1758-9 he was 
Mayor of the borough ; and ho retained his Aldermanic position till his 
death in 1766'. 

2. The Green Man was a public-house in the Back Weind. Subse- 
quently the license and the name were transferred to a house on the south 
side of Lord-street, between Lancaster-road and Cheetham-street. This 
was closed, ae a public-house, on October 10th, 1894. 

3. The footpath branched off Deepdale-road, about 200 yards from the 
south end, running principally on or close to the line of the present East 
View, Stanleyfield-road, and St. Paul's-road, then crossing, northward, 
Preston Moor, afterwards passing over Eaves Brook, where the present 
footway goes, and so onward into Watling-street, Fulwood. Its course 
from Stanleyfield-road to the north end of St. Paul's road was through 
fields ; the preceding portion of it — the length from Deepdale-road to the 
top of Stanleyfield-road — going on one side of a piece of Preston Moor, 
where there were several water pits. 

4. *' The Leaches '* would be small depressions in the ground of a moist 
and muddy character. 

5. Ilinley ITou&e would be not far from the Watling-street end of the 
footpath. No existing building bears the name. 

6. Robert Parker, who resided at Cuerden Hall, near Preston — eldest 
son of Banastre Parker, " first of Cuerden " — was bom in 1727 ; married 
Ann, daughter and heiress of Thomas Townley, of Royle, near Burnley; 
was the father of two sons and four daughters, one of the former being 

190 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

Bartle Duckworth for not opening the Watercourse in his 
Orchard,^ and do order the same to be made a yard Wide and a 
yard Deep, and if not done in Thirty days after Notice We 
amerce him in ffive shillings. 

Lord Strange for laying Rubbish in the Street opposite his 
House in Churchgate,^ and if he don't remove the same in a 
Week after Notice We amerce him in ffive shillings. 

Court Baron, or Inquest of Office, March 5th, 1753, before 
Robert Parker (Mayor). — Thirty sworn on the Jury. 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffs of this Borough for not putting up a Horse- 
stone^ in the Comon ffields over against the Boat House, also for 
not keeping in repair a platt at the bottom of ffishergate Lane, 
and if not repaired in a Month after notice. We amerce them in 
6s. 8d. 

Court Leet, May 11th, 1753, before Robert Parker 
(Mayor); Court Leet, October 25th, 1753, before William 
Prichard (Mayor).^ — After the record of Jury names, at the 

Thomas Townley Parker, father of the late Robert Townley Parker, of 
Cuerden Hall ; was elected a member of the Preston Corporation on June 
20th, 1752, and on the 4th of the following October became an Alderman ; 
was ^Tayor of the boroucrh in 1752-3 and 1761-2 (Guild year) ; and continued 
his connection, as an Alderman, with the Corporation till his death in 
1779. His grandson, the late Robert Townley Parker, was one of the 
Parliamentary representatives of Preston from 1837 to 1841, also from 1852 
to 1857, was Guild Mayor in 1862, died in 1879, aged 86, and was suCbeedcd 
at Cuerden Hall by his son, Thomas Townley Townley-Parker, who still 
resides there. 

1. Duckworth's orchard afterwards became known as Chadwlck's 
orchard. The principal portion of it is now occupied by the Covered 
Market. See note p. 174. 

2. This was P^atten House. 

3. A horse- stone was a large, flat- topped block of stone, with steps cut 
in it, which persons got upon to assist them in mounting or getting off 
horsos, and was particularly useful for females when they rode singly or in 
pillion style. 

4. William Prichard was born at Chorley, removed, in comparatively 
early life, to Preston, where he carried on business as an apothecary, and 
became a very important man in municipal affairs. In 1726-7 he was the 
Mayor's Bailiff at Preston; on January 4th, 1730-1, he was elected a 
member of the Preston Town Council ; in 1740 he was made an Alderman ; 
he was chosen Mayor of the borough in 1743-53-59-65 ; till his death, in 

Preston Court Leet. 191 

former Court, there is this note : " The Jury above say upon 
their Oaths that they have nothing to present within their 
view " ; and following the like record, at the latter Court, a note, 
expressing the opinion of the Jury, says that " any Thing Pre- 
sentable within their view has been reformed by the Offenders." 

Court Baron, or Inquest of Office, February 25th, 1754, 
before William Prichard (Mayor). 

Presentments : — 

The Company of Grocers,^ for laying several Loggs of Wood 
in the Fishergate Lane, whereby the King's Highway there is 

1773, he continued an Alderman ; and he was succeeded in business by hie 
son William, who was elected a member of the Ck)uncil about a fortnight 
after the death of his father, became an Alderman subsequently, and was 
Mayor in 1792 and 1800. He died in 1803, aged 67. 

1. The Company of Grocers was, along with other Companies, con- 
stituted by an order of the Town Council dated October 14th, 1628. The 
prefatory part of the order states that, notwithstanding the regulations 
and restrictions contained in two Acts of Parliament, divers handicrafts- 
men and servants at husbandry had left their occupations, sought ** not 
only to live easily but rather idly," and taken upon them, within the 
town of Preston, to set up and live by trade — buying and selling divers 
wares and merchandise contrary to the law, &<j. ; for the remedy of 
which the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Buru esses, on the petition of most of the 
tradesmen of the town, order that "from henceforth for ever" there 
shall be *'a Companie or ffraternitie called Wardens and Companie of 
Drapers, Mercers, Grocers, Salters, Ironmongers, and Haberdashers," to 
have power, with the consent of the Mayor and Common Council, to make 
laws for the better ordering of the said trades, &c. It is furthermore 
ordered that no member of a Company or fraternity shall take an appren- 
tice for a term less than seven years ; that no j>erson being the child of 
any free burgess shall, not having served an apprenticeship of seven 
years, use any trade without first obtaining the consent of the Mayor and 
Council for the time being; that every person before being admitted a 
master of any trade shall have his name enrolled amongst the names of 
the masters of such trade before the Wardens, &c., and shall pay 3s. 4d. 
at the time of enrolment; that no person, not inhabiting the town, shall 
exercise any of the afore-mentioned trades on pain of forfeiture of 10s. 
for every week so offending (the money to go to the use of the town and 
the Company concerned) ; and that no stranger coming within the town 
shall set on sale or sell, wholesale or retail, any wares or merchandise 
belonging to — i.e.. made, or dealt in, or sold by — any of the aforesaid 
trades, except at fair times, on pain of forfeiting the wares so sold or 
offered for sale — one half to go to the use of the town and the other half 
to the benefit of the Company affected, unless such wares be of its own 

192 Preston Court Leet. 

very much straitned and obstructed, and if they do not remove 
the same imediately on Notice We amerce them in Ten shillings. 

The Supervisors of the Highways, for not repairing the Cart 
road from a certain Piatt near Jo. Bray's Garden to the bottom 
of Spittle's Moss, and if they do not repair the same on or before 
the 1st June next We amerce them in 39s. 

Court Leet, May 9th, 1754, before William Prichard 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Henry Cowbum, for want of Cellar Rails at the 
Printing Office, and if not fixed up in 3 Days after Notice We 
amerce him in 6s. 8d. 

Court Leet, October 20th, 1755, before Richard Shepherd 
(Mayor). — Nearly all the presentments, 33 in number, relate to 
inconveniences and nuisances caused by persons placing and 
leaving rubbish, middens, wood, iron, sand, &c., in various 
streets. The last presentment refers to the Bailiffs, who are 
accused of having let " all the Pumps in the Town " get out of 

Court Leet, May 11th, 1759, before James Bolton (Mayor). 
Presentment: — 

The Revd. Mr. Andrews^ and the occupants (James Parker, 
Edward Preston, and John Jackson) for want of Opening or 
Scouring the Sough near the Upper End of Back Weend ; if not 
done in one month after notice we amerce them in 11. 10s. Od. 

Court Leet, October 22nd, 1760, before Lawrence Raws- 
tome (Mayor). 

1. The Rovd. Mr. Andrews, i.e., the Rev. Randal Andrews, was 
curate of St. George's, Preston, from 1733 to 1743; and on April 30th, 
1743, he was instituted Vicar of Preeton Parish Church. Andrews was a 
keen supporter of the Whips, and the interest he took in their cause, at 
Preston, very much offended the Tory and Corporation party here. At 
the " i^Toat election," in 1768 — a most hotly -contested, uproarious, and in 
some respects very destructive affair — ^the antipathy to the political 
utterances or attitude of Andrews was so strong that his claim to vote waa 
rejected by the Mayor, who held that he was not a freeman of the 
borough. Andrews continued to be the Vicar of Preston till his death in 

Preston Court Leet. 193 

Presentments : — 

John Blackledge, James Tootell, and Wm. Wood (the 
Bridge Undertakers), for not Carting and canying away but 
suffering large Quantitys of Stone to lye in the King's Highroad 
betwixt the Bridge at the bottom of the ffishergate Lane and the 
new bridge over Ribble, by means whereof the Highway there 
is much Damaged, Straitned, and obstructed, and in many places 
become deep and founderous; and if they do not remove the 
said Stone in fourteen days after Notice We amerce them in 
Thirty nine shillings and elevenpence.^ 

Roger Fishwick, for not Dubbing the Hedge^ at Titmouse 
Orchard, which hangs over and encroaches upon the Road 
leading towards the Workhouse, And if not done in fourteen 
days after Notice We amerce him in five shillings. 

The Serjeants of this Borough for suffering Strollers to beg 
through the Town without produceing legal passes. 

Court Leet, April 20th, 1761, before Lawrence Rawstome 

Presentments : — 

The Bailiffes or the Revd. Mr. Oliver^ for not repairing the 
Causey by ye Free School, and order them or him (to whom it 
of right belongs) to repair the same in 20 days after notice or 
pay the sum of 10s. 

1. Tho road between the two bridpres was Broadgate. The first- 
mentioned bridpe was a Bmall one, and was nearly opposite the entrance 
of what is now Taylor-fitreot. The second — "the new bridj^e" — was the 
present one which crosses tho Ribble at the south end of Broadgate. It 
was built in 1759, as the fucceseor, on the samo site, of a bridge which 
was erected by subscriptions (Preston Corporation contributing 500 guineas 
towards it), and opened in 1755, but which fell, through some defect in 
its foundations, about a year afterwards. Ever since 1768 tolls have been 
enacted at different times for repairs and alterations at the bridge. 

2. "Dubbing" moans cutting or trimming. 

3. The Revd. Mr. Oliver was the Rev. Robert Oliver, M.A. He was 
instituted Vicar of Warton, near Lancaster, in 1734, was appointed by the 
Corporation Headmaster of Preston Grammar School in 1737, and in 1743 
he accepted the curacy of St. George's, Preston. These three positions 
he held simultaneously. ITis relations with the municipal authority of 
Preston were, however, as time went on of a strained character. This 
state of affairs was owing to either neglect of his school duties or the 
character of his political views, the latter being antagonistic to those of 

194 Preston Court Leet. 

Ralph Smith for not repairing the Road from Cuckstool 
house to the first Moor Slacks, and Order him to do the same 
within 40 Days after notice or pay 40s.^ 

Henry Brewer the elder for not cleaning the streets, and 
hereby Order him to do them before the Races or pay 40s.2 

Court Leet, October 27th, 1762, before Thomas Jackson 

Presentment: — 

The Bailiffes for a bad Road at the bottom of New-street 
and Angel Weind ; also a bad Road in the Back Lane.' 

the Corporation — ^the Corporation at this time being strongly Tory, and 
having an idea that they had the exclusive right of electing members of 
Parliament for Preston ! Oliver alleged that the feeling against him was 
due to political causes; the Corporation said otherwise, and on February 
3rd, 1747-8, at a meeting of the Town Council, it was decided that he " be 
removed from his place as schoolmaster ** on account of his remissness and 
nes:ligence in the performance of his duties. But Oliver continued to be 
the Headmaster of the Grammar School for several years aft» this — till 
1764 or 1765, probably the latter year, though present available evidence 
is not really definite on the point. His successor at the school was Mr. 
Henry Ellis, B.A., of Brazenose College, Oxford, who was appointed on 
May 19th, 1766. Oliver retained the curacy of St. George's till 1768, and 
he kept on being Vicar of Warton till 1775, when he resigned. 

1. A slack is a hollow or depressed piece of ground. There used to be 
a building at the outer edge of Cuckstool Meadow on the west side of 
that portion of Preston Moor which was principally between the lower 
part of Deepdale-road and the present East View and Stanleyfield-road, 
and this may have been Cuckstool house. 

2. The races would be those for horses, held yearly on Preeton Moor. 
It is not exactly known when they originated. The common impression 
has been that they were commenced in 1786; but the Order Book of the 
Preston Corporation shows that on May 27th, 1695, a resolution was 
passed directing the Bailiffs to " sett posts on Preston Moor to garde the 
intended race course." The races were continued on this Moor till 1791. 
From 1786 to the close they were specially supported by the Corporation, 
owing to opposition races got up, through political differences, by Lord 
Derby and his party, and run during that time (1786-91) on Fulwood Moor. 
From 1791 to 1833 horse races, but not of an antagonistic kind, were run 
on the same moor. There were horse races on Penwortham Holme in 
1842 (Guild week), 1845-6-7-8. 

3. In the latter half of the 17th century — circ. 1684 — ^Lord-t9Etreet, about 
the same length as it is at present, was called St. John'e-street ; in 1715 
the name of it had been changed to New -street; and some time between 
1715 and 1774 there was an extension of the street, westward, to where 
the north end of Anchor Weind joined Back-lane. This extension was 

Preston Court Leet. 195 

Court Leet, October 26th, 1768, before Thomas Grimshaw 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Henry Brewer the elder and Mr. Henry Brewer the 
younger for not opening a watercourse and lying a platt in that 
lane leading from the House of Correction to the plantation^ 
and which Runs along the side of a Close of Land. 

The occupiers of the fields adjoining to the Road for not 
Repairing the Road leading from the Oak tree to the new 
bridge,^ being a Dangerous Road, and if not Repaired in one 
month to pay £20. 

Court Leet, October 25th, 1769, before Richard Assheton 

Presentment: — 

The Landowners or Occupiers of Land for not repairing the 
road leading from the new Chappel^ to Lady Well . . . and 
if not repaired in a (fortnight's time we amerce them in 13s. 4d. 

done away with a few years ago to make room for some street and 
building improvements, &c., and the change reduced the thoroughfare 
to about its original length. — As to Angel Weind, there used to be a 
small passage between the north end of Molyneux -square and Lord-street; 
until about 1828 this passage was in existence ; and as its position would 
be close to "the bottom of New-street," it is not improbable that such 
passage was that Weind. 

1. In 1754-5 Thomas Grimshaw was the Mayor's Bailiff at Preston. 
He was elected a Town Councillor in 1756; on August 1st, 1768, he was 
made an Alderman, his son John taking his place, on the same day, as a 
Ck)uncillor ; in 1768-9 and 1775-6 he was Mayor ; he was a Guild Alderman 
in 1782 ; in 1787 he died. The notable Nicholas Grimshaw, who was 
Mayor of Preston seven times, including two Guilds, was his son. 

2. The plantation was near the two Davil meadows -which adjoined 
Marsh-lane, north side, and it belonged to John Grimshaw. 

3. The new bridge was that at the south end of Broadgate — ^the 
present Penwortham bridge over the Ribble. 

4. The new chapel (Roman Catholic) supplanted the old one in Old 
Chapel-yard, and stood upon the site of the present St. Mary's, Friargate- 
brow. It was opened in 1761. During the great election riot, in 1768, it 
was demolished by an infuriated mob. The existing St. Mary's Chapel is the 
second Roman Catholic place of worship built on the same site since that 
act of vandalism. 

196 Preston Court Leet. 

Court Leet, October 12th, 1771, before James Cowbum 

Presentments : — 

The Reverend Randall Andrews for not opening a sough 
in the Tyth Bam street, whereby the Inhabitants in that neigh- 
bourhood are greatly annoyed, and if not repaired within ffour- 
teen days after notice we do amerce him in the sum of 13s. 4d. 

Mr. Thos. Addison for having fixed a water pipe in that 
part of his House which stands in the Mitre yard, whereby his 
Majesty's subjects passing and repassing through the Mitre yard 
are greatly annoyed by the water in Windy Weather being blown 
in their faces, and if not removed or altered within 14 days after 
notice we do amerce him in the sum of 13s. 4d. 

Court Leet, October 28th, 1774, before Bartholomew Devis 

Presentments : — 

John Dalton, Esquire,^ for not amending the rails before his 
house, and if not amended within 21 days after notice we amerce 
him in £1 19s. lid. 

John Hoggatt for making a midden stead in Wood-street,^ 

1. Cowbum ifi a name which appears early in the local reoords. In 
1754-5 James Cowbum was the town's Bailiff; in 1756 he was elected a 
Councilman; early in 1771 he became an Alderman; later in the eame 
year he was made Mayor; and in 1777 the like honour was again con- 
ferred on him. His son Thomas, who was a Preston cotton manufacturer, 
was the Mayor's Bailiff in 1766 ; afterwards he became an Alderman ; and 
in 1787 he was made Mayor. He had a brother James, who waa aleo a 
local cotton manufacturer. 

2. Bartholomew Devis was the town's Bailiff in 1758; in 1763 he 
was elected a Councilman; in 1773 he became an Alderman; and he was 
chosen Mayor three times — in 1774-80-85. 

3. John Dalton, Esq., was a Roman Catholic, belonged to the Dalton 
family of Thurnham Hall, near Lancaster, and was a very weU-known, 
highly-respected gentleman. His house — ^referred to in the presentment — 
was, I believe, in Friargato. Later he occupied Avenham House. After- 
wards, about 1804, he built a residence in Winckley-square — ^the present 
No. 8 — east side, and for a time periodically occupied it; but then, and 
afterwards till his death, in 1837, his main abode was Thumhajn Hall. 

4. Wood-street was on the north side of Lord-street, and gave a 
passage from that thoroughfare to Crooked-lane. It is not in existence 

Preston Court Leet. 197 

and if not removed within 14 days after notice we amerce him 
in 13s. 4d. 

Nicholas Winckley, Esquire, and John Oram for not repair- 
ing a Street or Lane called the Turks head yard, and if not 
repaired within 42 days after notice we amerce them in £1 
19s. llfd. each. 

Court Leet, October 26th, 1775, before Thomas Grimshaw 

Presentment : — 

John ffairhurst for keeping a Billiard Table in his House, 
which tends much to the Encouragement of Gaming and other 
vices, and if the same is not taken away and such Practices dis- 
continued within one Week after notice we amerce him in the 
sum of ten pounds. 

Court Leet, October 30th, 1776, before Edward Pedder 

Presentments : — 

The Chapel Wardens for not repairing the Piatt and Rails 
in or near the South Side of the Yard belonging to Saint 
Georges Chapel within Preston,^ and unless the same are respec- 
tively repaired within one month after notice we amerce them in 
the sum of thirty-nine shillings. 

The Bailiffs for not repairing the Pump in the Market-place^ 
and also that near Charles Townshends in the ffriergate, and if 
the same are not sufficiently repaired and amended within one 
Month after Notice We amerce them in the sum of thirtv-nine 



1. In 1748 Edward Pedder was elected a member of the Council ; in 
1762 he was made an Alderman ; and in 1776-7 and 1790-1 he was the 
Mayor of Preston. 

2. St, George's was for many years a chapel-of-ease to the Parish 
Church. In 1843 a definite district was assigned to this place of worship, 
and in 1868 it became, under Lord Blandford's Act, an independent 
church; but fees for marriages, &xj., were paid to the Vicar of the Parish 
Church till 1877. 

3. The old draw-well at the bottom of the Market Place had evidently 
at this time been covered by a pump. At a later date nearly all the 
public wells in the borough were pump-covered. 

198 Preston Court Leet. 

Henry Lutwidge, of Walton, Esquire, and John Cooper, of 
Gregson Lane, within Walton aforesaid, for not sufl&ciently 
amending and repairing the Street or Road near the Mill in 
Molyneux's Square, and in the said Square, and if not repaired 
within one month after notice we amerce them in the sum of 
thirty-nine shillings each. 

Court Leet, October 29th, 1777, before James Cowburn 

Presentment : — 

John Watson the elder, Linnen Draper, for laying a large 
quantity of Dung near the High Road which is near the Gallows 
hill, upon Preston Moor,'^ and if the same is not removed in one 
month after notice we do amerce him in the sxmi of five pounds. 

1. Gallows hill was a sandy, irregular-surfaced eminence jufit north of 
Moor Brook. The old highway passed on the west eide of it. When the 
present Garstang-road was made or improved, in the early part of last 
century, Gallows hill was cut through — the line of the new portion of the 
road going lengthwise near the middle of it. Northward this hill extended 
about 180 yards from where St. George's-road and Aqueduct-«treet junc- 
tion with Garstang-road, and it was something like 100 yards wide. The 
Church of the English Martyrs and numerous houses, &c., in its vicinage 
stand upon ground which was surmounted by portioi]^ of this hill. Sixteen 
persons who took part in the Rebellion of 1715 forfeited their lives — four 
being shot and twelve hanged — on it; and it is supposed that "many 
more were executed at this place for complicity of a kindred character.'* 
In 1817, when Garstang-road was being formed or improved, there were 
found, during the excavations in Gallows hill, two cofi&ns containing two 
headless human bodies supposed to be those of Rebels. Up to 1865 a 
considerable portion of the hill — the bulk of it on the east side of 
Garstang-road was visible ; but since that time it has entirely disappeared, 
new streets and buildings necessitating its removal down to a proper 
utilisable level. The names applied to several parts of this locality are 
strong reminders of the Rebellion days, or rather of various persons who 
were executed for taking part in the revolt of 1715: Derwentwater-plaoe, 
Kenmure- place, and Lovat-road remind one of the Earls of Derwent water 
and Kenmure and Lord Lovat who were beheaded in London ; Muncaster, 
Arkwright, and Shuttleworth roads are directly suggestive of Roger 
Muncaster, of Garstang, William Arkwright, and Richard Shuttleworth, 
of Preston, who were hanged on Gallows hill; whilst Lockhart-road, 
immediately east of the roads named, brings to remembzanoe Captain 
Lockhart, a Rebel officer, who was shot at Preston. 

Preston Court Leet. 199 

Court Leet, October 23rd, 1782, before John Grimshaw 

Presentments : — 

Mr. Vemon and Mr. Cross^ for laying Rubbish from their 
Gardens into the Watercourse leading from flfolly to the Brew- 
house lane,"^ and if not removed in two days we amerce them 
each in 6s. 8d. 

Thomas Worden, Landlord at Boarshead,^ for suffering 
peoples Carts to stand in public street at night without any Light 
at his Door, and for every offence after notice we amerce him 
in the sum of 6s. 8d. 

Court Leet, October 26th, 1786, before Richard Atherton 

1. John Grimshaw, son of Alderman Thomas Grimshaw previously 
referred to, was the town's Bailiff in 1761-2 ; he was elected a member of 
the Council in 1768; in 1782 he was made an Alderman, and towards the 
end of that year ho was chosen Mayor — an honour also conferred upon 
him in 1788, 1799, and 1806. 

2. Mr. Cross would be John Cross, of Preston and Cottam, who 
married Dorothea, daughter of Richard Assheton, of Preston. He was a 
Deputy-Prothonotary of the county. In 1799 he died, leaving an only 
eon, William Cross. This son was for some time a Deputy-Prothonotary. 
Along with Thomas Winckley he laid out Winckley-square and certain 
adjoining streets, including Cross-street, which takes his surname. He 
built, about 1800, the first house in Winckley-square, at the north-east 
comer, where the Girls' High School is now situated ; here he resided, 
having his office at the corner of Winckley-street, next to his house. 
Afterwards ho purchased Rod Scar and Cottam Hall, and he lived at the 
former. He died in 1827. The present octogenarian Viscount Cross is a 
son of his. 

3. Brewhouse-lanc — also called Browery-lane — was the present Mount- 

4. The " Boarehead " was an inn, and presumably it was, or stood 
on the site of, the present Boar's Head Hotel, near the top of Friargate. 

5. The father of Richard Atherton was William Atherton, who was 
an Alderman of Preston, and Mayor of the borough in 1732-3 and 1738-9. 
Richard was Mayor's Bailiff here in 1760-1, was elected a member of the 
Council in 1766, made an Alderman in 1771, served the ofl&oe of Mayor in 
1773-4, 1781-2 (Guild year), and 1786-7, and was one of the firm (Messrs. 
Atherton, Greaves, and Co.) that opened Preston Old Bank in 1776. He 
was living in 1802, but had apparently at that time severed his connection 
with the Corporation. 

200 Preston Court Leet. 

Presentments : — 

John Watson, the Elder, Cotton Manufacturer,^ Thomas 
Glover, Gardener, Jonathan Tinsley, Wheelwright, and William 
Briggs, Merchant, for not removing their several and respective 
carts out of the ffishergate, and if they are not severally removed 
within fourteen days after notice we amerce each of them in the 
sum of twenty shillings. 

Court Leet, October 5th, 1788, before Thomas Cowbum 

1. John Watson, the elder, cotton manufacturer, was for a long time 
an important person in the municipal and commercial life of Preston. 
He was elected a member of the Town Council on April 12th, 1764, and 
for about 40 years was connected with that body. He walked arm in arm 
with the notable John Horrocks, at the head of a number of cotton 
manufacturers who formed part of a great procession on one of the Guild 
festival days in 1802. Watson, along with one Collinson, built in 1777 
the first cotton mill in Preston " on the factory basis.*' It was erected on 
the east side of Moor-lane brow — on the ground which now forms the 
north corner of the Walker-street works of the Preston Gas Company. 
This mill was, it is said, fitted up with Arkwright's spinning machinery. 
Watson also worked Penwortham factory, and he had a warehouse near 
the top of Avenham-street, Preston. He was for a time the main 
customer or buyer of the yams of John Horrocks, then of Bolton, and 
afterwards of Preston — "the first great extender of the cotton trade of 
Preston." The yarns which Horrocks used to sell to Watson were spun 
by himself (Horrocks) and brought by him, on horseback, to Preston. The 
partnership with Collinson was, after some time had elapsed, dissolved. 
For a while Watson worked Penwortham factory. Amongst his opera- 
tives at that factory were a number of children from London hospitals or 
charitable institutions. They worked very long hours at the factory, and 
a considerable number of them became lame or deformed. On Sundays 
they were taken, on foot, to Walton-le-Dale Church, and their aspect was 
curiously conspicuous, chiefly through their wearing green collars and 
yellow cuffs. At this time or not long afterwards Watson was joined by 
certain members of his own family; the firm being deugnated John 
Watson and Sons. Early in 1808, apparently through some trade mishap 
or pecuniary difficulty, the *' cambrics, muslins, and yam " of the firm were 
sold by auction " at their late warehouse." In 1809 Watson was in Lan- 
caster Castle for debt, and a notice, locally published on the 8th of July 
in that year, intimated that he intended taking advantage of the Insol- 
vent Debtors' Act. After this the Watsoni&n light gradually flickered out. 
The mill erected at the side of Moor-lane, in 1777, was pulled down in 
January, 1860. 

Preston Court Leet. 201 

Presentanents : — 

John Rogerson for not placeing or affixing a Sufficient Light 
at Night on his Waggon or Cart sufifered to remain opposite his 
House ; If he neglects to place or Affix a Sufficient Light when 
as aforesaid We amerce him in the sum of 40s. for every oflFence. 

William Tomlinson for not having a sufficient cover or 
Board adjoining the skinhouse in the Minsprit Wient, and if not 
repaired within 6 days after notice we amerce him in the sum 
of 10s. lOd, 

Court Leet, October 29th, 1790, before Edward Pedder 

Presentments : — 

The Inhabitants of the Borough for not repairing a certain 
part of the Road leading to Ribbleton, beginning at the Church 
Gate and ending at the Turn of the Hill on the or [other] side of 
Messrs. Swainson and Chippendale's Factory,^ And if the same 
is not well and sufficiently repaired within one Month after 
Notice we amerce them in the sum of one Pound one shilling. 

Nicholas Starkie, of Frenchwood, Esq.,^ for not cleansing 
and scouring a Watercourse opposite James Thompson's Dye- 

1. Swainson and Chippendale's factory was on the north side of 
Ribbleton-lane, between the present Ribbleton -street and St. Mary's- 
street North. 

2. Nicholas Starkie was tho son of Thomas Starkie, of Frenchwood 
House, Preeton, whose father was Wm. Starkie, one of the five eons of 
Nicholas Starkie, Recorder of Preston from 1706 to the time of his 
death in 1735, and a descendant of tho Starkies of Huntroyde. For a 
considerable time this family owned Frenchwood House, beautifully 
situated on tho south side of Preston, as well as certain adjoining 
property. On the death of Thomas Starkie, his Bon Nicholas (mentioned 
in the presentment) succeeded him at Frenchwood. Nicholafi was a 
member of the Preston Town Council from 1756 to 1774, when he resigned 
his seat. Ho died on May 10th, 1797. Afterwards others belonging to the 
Starkie family successively inherited the Frenchwood estate; and then, 
owing to there being no male heir, the property passed to female repre- 
sentatives, primarily or principally to Elizabeth, daughter of the last- 
mentioned Nicholas. She married Henry Bence Bence, of Thorington 
Hall, in Suffolk, and to a son of this union (Colonel Bence) the property 
subsequently descended. Within the past 20 years portions of it, east and 
west, have been sold for building purposes, &c. Frenchwood House, as 
well as certain adjoining land, is now held by the trustees of Colonel 
Bence, deceased. 

202 Preston Court Leet. 

house, in Cockerhole, And if the same is not done within 14 
Days after Notice we amerce him in the sum of £1 Is. Od. 

Thos. Winckley, of Preston, Esqr.,^ and the Representatives 
of the late Miss Stanley^ for not repairing a certain Wall in a 
place within Preston called the CoflFee Garden,^ and wch 
separates and divides that place from the Road down the Min- 
spit Weend, and if the same is not well and sufficiently repaired 
within 14 Days after Notice We amerce them severally in the 
sum of £1 Is. Od. 

Robert Abbatt and the other proprietors of the Quakers' 
meeting house"* for laying a quantity of Rubbish in the Back 
lane adjoining such Meeting House, and if the same is not 
removed within 3 days after notice we amerce them in the sum 
of 10s. 

1. Thomas Winckley was an attorney-at-Ia^ in Preston. 

2. Miss Stanley's relationship is not definitely known: she may have 
been related to the Stanleys of Cross Hall or those of Great Eocleston 
Hall. She apparently owned a considerable quantity of property in 
Preston. An assessment made on November 28th, 1777, " upon all and 
every the inhabitants and occupiers of land and housing within the 
borough of Preston and the liberties thereof by the Churchwardens and 
Overseers," shows that her property ranked the tenth, for its value, within 
the ratable area. Her representatives were Alderman Ralph Watson and 
Edmund Parkinson. 

3. The Coffee Garden was on the east side of Main Sprit Weind. 
There is now, on the cast edge of this Weind, a space which goes by the 
name of Coffee Gardens. It is about half-way down the Weind; but its 
name does not, in any way whatever, tally with its appearance. The 
place called Coffee Gardens is just a common, slightly-raised bit of ground 
— a sort of rough, rubbish-accommodating indention in the Weind, about 
12 yards square, with a low wall, partially surmounted by a thin iron 
rail, in front. It seems, however, to have been a portion of what was 
towards the end of the eighteenth century — about the time when the 
presentment was made — an open piece of ground, about 100 yards long 
and 25 yards wide, with some buildings at the north-east and south-west 
corners; and this ground may have been utilised for coffee -drinking or 
recreational purposes. 

4. This Meeting House was built in 1784; about 1797 it was recon- 
structed ; and in 1847 the present Meeting House was erected on itB site. 
The first regular meeting place of the Friends, in Preston, was a building, 
or a room, between Spring Gardens and Everton Gardens, on the north 
side of Lord's Walk. 

Preston Court Leet. 203 

Court Leet, October 26tb, 1791, before Thomas Greaves 

Presentments : — 

John Nabb, gent.,^ and Robt. Abbatt for not well and suffly 
[sufficiently] opening their respective Ditches and Watercourses 
in a certain walk near Saint George's Chapel, called Roper's 
Walk,2 and if ye same are not well and sufl5cly opened and 
scowered and cleansed on or before ye 1st day of Dec. next we 
amerce them in ye sum of 13s. 4d. each. 

John Addison, Esq.,"^ for laying and placing a large quantity 
of Earth near a certain place within the Borough called the 
Starch-house,'^ and if not removed within 14 days after notice we 
amerce him in ye sum of £5. 

1. John Nabb was elected a member of the Town Council on 
Deoembcr 23rd, 1761, and he continued a Councilman till January 17th, 
1767, when he was appointed Town Clerk and Clerk of the Recognizances 
— oflBces which he hold until hw death on July 29th, 1793. 

2. Roper's Walk was a narrow way, now known as Chapel Walks, 
between Fishcrj^^ato and St. George's, and ropes used to be made in it. 

3. John Addison. Ks(i., lived at a houRO at the top of Chapel Walks, 
east corner, the front portion of which, facing Fishergate, has for many 
years been a chemist's shop. He took but little interest in local municipal 
matters, was a barrister-at-law, Recorder of Clitheroe, and died in 1837. 
He was the father of the very well-known and greatly respected Thomas 
Batty Addison and John Addison — both barristers-at-law. The former, 
who was the elder, was appointed chairman of the Preston Quarter 
Sessions in 1821, and Recorder of Preston in 1832, and he held both 
positions till his death in 1874 ; the latter was County Court Judge of the 
North Lancashire Circuit from 1847 to his death in 1859. 

4. In 1774, two very email enclosed spaces, at the bottom or south 
end of a field called Platford Dale, near where Back-lane and the present 
iiigh-street and Lawson-street converge, formed what afterwards became 
the site of the Starch-house. This house was surrounded by a number of 
small, primitive-looking buildings in which a number of people lived and 
did handloom weaving as well as they were able. The first representation 
of the place appears in Shakeshaft's original plan of Preston (1809) ; it is 
by this defined in general outline — is triangular, with an open centre, the 
entrance being at the north-west corner, and it is designated Starch 
House. Shakeshaft's revi^jcd plan (1822) shows a similarly formed place, 
bearing the same name ; but the previously depicted open centre is 
occupied with a square building. Alderman J. J. Myres's map (1836) gives 
the same general outline, with an addition to the central structure; and 
the name of the general block is pluralised — called Starch houses, the 
name which it still goes by. Originally, the Starch-house may have been 

204 Preston Court Leet. 

Edwd. Clayton, he being the scavenger for Church-street, 
beginning at the Cockerhole and ending at the Church-street 
Bars, and which is not properly cleansed, and if the same is not 
well and suffly cleansed immediately after notice we amerce him 
in the sum of 40s. 

John Danson^ for not erecting or placing a sufft [suflScient] 
wall to inclose his middingstead in a certain yard called ye old 
Coffee house yard,^ and if the same is not done on or before ye 
2d day of Feby next we amerce him in the sum of £20.^ 

The BailiflFs for not havg a secure and wholesome Prison as 
a place of temporary security, and also anor Prison in different 
rooms for ye Confinement of Debtors of both sexes,^ and if ye 
same is not well and suffly provided on or before the 29th day of 
September next we amerce them in ye sum of £60. 

Thomas Hubberstey, John Hoggett, and John Baxter, for 
not having sufft stiles or platts in their respective Fields adjoin- 
ing ye Brewery Lane, and if there are not sufft stiles or platts 
and the Roads sufifcy repaired on or before ye 2d day of Feby. 
next We amerce them in ye sum of 39s. each. 

used for sizing or size-making purposes Early in last century there were 
sizers in a closely adjoining part (High-street), and they may have had 
some connection with the Starch-house, or have been employed at a com- 
peting if not prior-going concern. 

1. John Danson was a Quaker, eccentric in character, and not over- 
burdened with money. He lived at a hoiLse in Stoneygate which belonged 
to Lord Derby, who was popularly known, in Preston, as "Owd Ned," 
and was the great-grandfather of the present Earl. 

2. The old Coffee-house yard would, probably, be not far from the 
Coffee Gardens. 

3. This fine was reduced to £5. 

4. These prisons would be for very temiwrary purposes. Small local 
debtors wore liable to imprisonment in the ordinary gaol or House of 
Correction ; debtors of the heavier or more serious order, in Preston and 
the county generally, went to Lancaster Castle for a certain time. In Pres- 
ton, at or about the time when the presentment was made, the preliminary 
prison for miscellaneous offenders was in the Town Hall; afterwards — as 
a police station — it was in Turk's Head-yard, off Church-street; next in 
Avenham-street (opened in 1832) ; and then at the corner of Earl-street, 
Lancaster-road (the present Police Station, opened in 1858). 

Preston Court Leet. 205 

The following orders were made at the Court Leet on the 
26th of October, 1791 :— 

That all persons residing within the Borough shall sweep 
the footpaths before their Houses, Warehouses, Shops, and 
other Buildings for three yards from ye front of such respective 
Buildings, where there are no such Foot causeways ascertained 
by side stones or posts, on every Saturday and Wednesday, upon 
pain of forfeiting five shillings for every offence or neglect. — 
That no person or persons shall throw into or lay any ashes, dirt, 
or other offensive matter in the Public Streets, Lanes, Highways, 
or other Passages within this Borough, on pain of forfeiting the 
like sum of Five Shillings for every offence of this nature. — ^That 
no person or persons whomsoever shall ride on or lead or drive 
any Horse or other Cattle on any of ye Causeways or Foot 
Paths in the Streets or Highways within this Borough on pain 
of ye like forfeiture. — That no person or persons whomsoever 
shall leave or place any Timber, stone, or other matter m the 
Public Streets or Highways within this Borough on pain of for- 
feiting ye sum of ten shillings. — And that all Inhabitants of 
Courts, Lanes, and Passages where ye Scavengers cannot go with 
Carts are to carry their Ashes or other dirt [with one exception] 
unto him as soon as he shall make his first appearance in the 
Public Streets near their respective Houses or other Premises, 
on pain of forfeiting the sum of five shillings. 

The Court Leet juries did not make any presentments 
during the years 1792 — 1802. No reason for this long-con- 
tinued cessation or silence is given ; but periodically the usual 
official appointments were made ; and at a Court Leet held on 
October 28th, 1802, nine " constables " were chosen either as 
auxiliaries, when required, of the two or three policemen who at 
the most constituted the " borough force," or as supplementary 
to the arrangements entered into about this time, by a number 
of the inhabitants, with Hugh Dewhurst, gentleman, of Preston, 
" in order to secure greater protection for their property, the 
more certain punishment of delinquents, &c." These first 
locally elected or recorded " constables " were — James Town- 
send, John Clowes, William Halstead, James Thompson, John 

206 Preston Court Leet. 

Hurd, Thomas Dickinson, Thomas Hoghton, Edward William- 
son, and John Dent. 

Court Leet, October 28th, 1803, before Daniel Lyon 

Presentments : — 

John Sill, Innkeeper, for laying spent hops and ashes 
opposite his Brewhouse in the Shambles,^ in the public street 
there, and permitting the same to remain there an unreasonable 
length of time, to the annoyance of the public, and we amerce 
him in the sum of six shillings and eightpence. 

Mrs. Ann Sumner, proprietor of the Swan, in the Strait 
Shambles,^ for not having sufficiently covered a well near the 
entrance into the said Shambles, so that the same is dangerous 
tc the public passing over the said well, and amerce her in the 
sum of forty shillings if not sufficiently repaired within one week 
after notice. 

We recommend that Richard Walmsley, Linen Draper,^ 
have liberty to rail or fence oflF his cellar in the Cheapside, so 
that the same may be rendered less dangerous to the public. 

1. The Shambles would be the new Shambles, at the south end, west 
side, of what afterwards became Lancaster -road. 

2. The Swan would be the Swan with Two Necks inn, on the north 
side and in the lower part of the Strait Shambles, which with other 
propery was demolished about the end of 1881, to make room for the 
Free Library site. There used to be, in the now done-away-with New- 
street, on the north side of the Market Place, an inn called the Swan. 
For a time the two inns referred to existed simultaneously. The full 
name of the latter was the Swan, whilst that of the former included two 

3. Richard Walmsley was a linen and woollen draper, and had a shop 
at the top of Friargate, south side — the present No. 4, which was occupied 
for many years by the late Hugh Lamb, hosier, &c. Walmsley was one 
of the old Police Ck)mmissioners of Preston. In 1808 he bought, for 
£2,200, one of the old houses in the Market Place, at the rear of the 
Town Hall. It was at that time the only piece of property connected with 
the Town Hall buildings which did not belong to the Corporation. In 
1822, when the Corporation contemplated the erection of a new Town 
Hall, they purchased the house for £2,350; but a new Town Hall waa 
not then built. The late Alderman Thomas Walmsley, barrister-at-law, 
and Mayor of Preston in 1853-54 and 1859-60, was the only son of the 
above Richard Walmsley. 

Preston Court Leet. 207 

Court Leet, October 17th, 1808, before Nicholas Grimshaw 

The record of this Court is a very long one. Eighty-three 
persons — shopkeepers, bread bakers, butchers, and confectioners 
— were presented for having in their possession defective 
weights, one of them having also a pair of uneven scales. All 
the weights were ordered to be forfeited, and in three instances 
the offenders were respectively fined 6s. 8d. as an additional 
penalty. — The only subsequent presentments made at this Court, 
worth noting, were the following: — 

That the post on the Foot Path before the House occupied 
by Mr. Septimus Gorst, in Fishergate,^ is a very great annoyance, 
and ought to be removed (the same being totally useless), and 
unless the same is removed within one month from the sixth 
Day of December we do fine the Corporation of Preston in the 
sum of 20s. 

That the post (to which the pipe for the Conveyance of 
Water from the Water Works is affixed) near the Shuffle and 
Broom, in Fishergate,^ ought either to be removed to the wall 
of the House adjoining or the post ought to be made con- 
siderably higher and painted with white paint and a lamp affixed 
at the top of the same, and unless one or other of the said 
alterations be made within one month from the sixth day 
of December instant the Jurors do fine the Tenant of the said 
Waterworks in the sum of 20s. 

1. Mr. Septimus Gorst resided on the north side of Fishergate, part 
of the present Gas Office occupyinsr the site of his house. He was a cotton 
manufacturer, hie mill being between his residence and Friargate. 

2. The Shovel and Broom inn wa.s on the south side of Fishergate, 
and it occupied what subsequently, between 1821 and 1825, became the 
site of the present Shelley Arms hotel. At the time the presentment was 
made pumps had begun to compete very considerably with the motive 
power, pipes, posts, &c., of the water company, whose chief reservoir was 
" the Folly." There were at the time named 15 street pumps in Preston, 
viz., in Fishergate, one; Church-street, two; Friargate, three; New 
Preston (north side of Newhall-lane), two; and one, respectively, in Lord- 
street (top end), Molyneux-square, Turk's PTead-yard, Spring Gardens, 
Crown-street, Queen-street, and Duke-street. In 1822 the street pumps 
numbered just the same and occupied exactly the same positions. Later, 
and mainly through private enterprise, some additional pumps were fixed in 

208 Preston Court Leet. 

That the Public Foot way leading to Saint George's Chapel 
from Fishergate, called Roper's Croft, ought to be suflSctiy and 
effectually repaired, and unless the same is done within three 
months from the sixth Day of December Instant We do amerce 
Mr. Joseph Seaton Aspden,^ the Occupier of the adjoining fl5eld 
(on one of whom [ ? on whom] the Burthen of repairing the same 
lies), in the sum of 40s. 

Court Leet, December 15th, 1809, before Daniel Lyon 

Presentments : — 

Mrs. Catharine Mayor, widow, for not repairing the Foot 

different parts of the town. The only visible relic of the old pump times 
is in Pump-stroct. On the north side of this street, at the entrance from 
Park-road, there rieos througrh the front of the roof of No. 1 house a 
square and somewhat tall brick chimney, which was originally connected 
with a boiler fire below ; the steam of the boiler being used for a small 
cnjrino which worked a pump at the side of the street. This concern was 
private property, and the water here obtained was sold at so much per 
pail or canful. The pump gave the name to the street in which it was 
situated ; it was put up (over a well) about 1827 ; and it was generally 
called ** the Park pump." A little north-west of Pump-street there is the 
Craven Heifer public-house, in the yard of which there used to be a 
pump, and the water raised by it was principally sold to neighbouring 
people. — There is a remnant of the system of the old Waterworks Com- 
pany — the company formed in 1832 — at the rear of the shops of Mr. E. 
Ambler and Mr. J. Marsden in liancaster-road (Nos. 186 and 187, Stanley- 
buildings). Here, under the flags of a short passage — a passage whioh 
forms part of what used to be the south end of Wood-street, off Lord- 
street — there runs a section of the old company's water main, and the 
iron cap covering the valve or plug hole in connection with it is now quite 
visible. The modern main does not go in front of the shops named, as it 
does in the case of contiguous property, and their water supply is obtained 
solely through the old portion referred to which proximately joins the 
later general system. On the cast side of the passage there is a door 
connected with what was formerly a house (No. 2) in Wood-street. The 
number is still on the door. 

1. Mr. Joseph Seaton Aspdon was Seal Keeper for the County and a 
Clerk in Court for the Chancery of Lancashire. He was a Captain in the 
Royal Preston Volunteers raise d in 1797. He built a house in Winckley- 
square (the present No. 1), adjoining the north-west comer, and after 
living in it some time sold it to Mr. Henry Fielding, calico printer, 
Catterall, near Garstang. Mr. Seaton Aspden died on October 23rd, 1827, 
aged 71 years, and his remains were interred in front of the chancel of 
St. George's, Preston. 

Preston Court Leet. 209 

Way in the Back Lane, in front of Henry Simpson's School,^ her 
property, and unless on or before the first day oi February next, 
after notice thereof, she effectually repair such flfoot way we 
amerce her in the sum of 20s. 

Mr. John Fallowfield, Druggist,^ for placing a middingstead 
in Lord-street, in front of his premises there situate, and unless 
on or before the first day of January next after notice he remove 
such middingstead and desist from placing any there in future 
we amerce him in the sum of 20s. 

Court Leet, November 28th, 1810, before George Blelock 
(Mayor). ^ 

Presentments : — 

Mr. John Greenwood,^ Executor of the late Mr. James 
Haworth, for plarinp; a post about the middle of Mount-street, 
and unless within ten days after notice he remove the same we 
amerce him in the sum of 10s. 

Lady Gerrard^ for not making a proper Foot Causeway in 
ffront of the Dwelling house occupied by her in Fishergate, and 

1. This school was on the south side of Back-lane, at the top 
or north-west corner of Lill's-court. The building?, which was closed 
as a Bchool about 1873, is still standing, and at present ie occupied as a 
wood-turner'g shop. 

2. In 1777-8 Mr. John Fallowfield was the town's Bailiff; in 1797-8 
he was the Mayor ; and in 1814 he was one of the wardens of the Parish 
Church. He opened the first properly equipped chemist and druggist's 
shop in Preston : it was at the lower part of the north side of the Market 
Place, close to Anchor Weind (the property here was demolished some 
years ago for improvement purposes), and stood opposite Anchor-court. 
Fallowfield had for some years in hie shop, either as assistant or appren- 
tice, James Mounsey, who subsequently kept a shop at the top of Friar- 
gate, nearly opposite Fallowfield 's, and claimed to be the original maker 
of the noted " Preston Smelling Salts." But Fallowfield's eon John, who 
,was also a chemist and druggist, and had a shop in Church-street (the 
present No. 148). was apparently the first to give vogue to these salts or 
get them into high favour. 

3. In 1787-8 Goor^^e Rlolock was the towil's Bailiff; he was a member 
of the Guild Council in 1802 ; and he was Mayor of Preston twice — in 
1804-5 and 1810-11. 

4. Greenwood was an attorney at 93, Fishergate. 

5. It is very probable that Lady Gerrard was Catharine, daughter of 
William Andcrton, of Euxton. She was twice married — first to Thomas 
Clifton, of Lytham, and afterwards, on his decease, to Sir Robert 
Cansfield Gerard, of Garswood and New Hall, near Warrington, who died 
in 1784. Lady Gerard died at Richmond, co. York, in 1821. 

210 Preston Court Leet. 

unless within two months after notice she cause such Foot Cause- 
way to be made we amerce her in ten pounds. 

The proprietors of the Waterworks or Mrs. Tipping, for not 
cleansing the Reservoir of Water at Preston, by reason whereof 
the water therein contained is become very foul and nauseous 
and injurious to the Health of his Majesty's subjects, and unless 
within four months after notice they or she cause the said Reser- 
voir to be eflFectually cleansed we amerce them or her in ten 

Messrs. Wren, Corry, and Woodcock,'^ Timber Merchants, 
for placing a large stone opposite to the House of Mr. Naylor, 
in Mount-street, and unless within ten Days after notice they 
remove the said stone we amerce them in ten shillings. 

The Surveyors of the Highways for not making a ffoot 
Causeway below the Green Bank from the Terminatioii of the 
present Foot Causeway and to extend beyond the steam mill in 
Watery Lane^ . . . and unless within one month after notice 
they make such Foot Causeway we amerce them in four pounds. 

Court Leet, January 19th, 1813, before Nicholas Grimshaw 

Presentments : — 

Joseph Goodier for placing a large stone at the end of 

1. Messrs. Wren, CJorry, and Woodcock's timber yard was at the eouth 
end of the present Woodcock' s-court, off Fishergate. The "first theatre 
in Preston of which we have any reliable account " wafl at the end of this 
court. The buildin? was abandoned as a ** Play-house " — this was its old name 
— about 1800, on account of its inconvenience or dilapidated condition. It 
was the immediate predecessor of the theatre built in Fishergate in 180^, 
on the site of which the present Theatre RrOyal stands. 

2. When this presentment was made Watery -lane extended west from 
the canal bridge, near Green Bank, to its present terminus at the north- 
west comer of the Marsh. It ran on the south side of and dose to the canal 
— only about ten yards off — for a considerable distance, the foot oauaeway 
referred to taking an intermediate course, and it (the lane) was the prin- 
cipal way to the town from the west or Fylde country. Some years later 
— presumably about 1830 — the present Fylde-road was made, and owing 
to its straightness, width, and evenness of surface, it supplanted the 
higher portion of the old lane entirely. The steam mill was on the north 
side of the lane, and about 100 yards east of the canal aqueduct. Only the 
length from the north-west end of Strand-road to the comer above men- 
tioned is now called Watery -lane ; whilst the higher part from Strand-road 
to the canal aqueduct is named Water-lane. 

Preston Court Leet. 211 

Singleton Row,^ and a Midding, which are public nuisances and 
dangerous to His Majesty's Subjects, and unless within fourteen 
days after notice he remove the same we amerce him in ten 

William Alexander, Surgeon,^ for not repairing the Chapel 
Yard opposite to his premises there, which want of repair is 
attended with great danger to his Majest^s Subjects, and 
unless within one month after notice he repair the same we 
amerce him in twenty shillings. 

David Ainsworth, for permitting Bengal Square^ to be in a 
very dirty state . . . and unless within fourteen days after 
notice he cause the same to be clensed we amerce him in forty 

Richard Newsham, Esquire,"* for permitting Holding Square 
and the passages leading thereto to be in a very dirty state . . . 
and unless within fourteen days after notice he cause the same 
to be cleansed we amerce him in forty shillings. 

1. With the exception of a portion of Moor-lane, between Cragg's- 
row and Corry-stroct, Sinpleton-row was at this time the most northernly 
occupied street in the borough. 

2. This gentleman resided in Chapel-yard (north side of St. George's), 
ofiF Friargate. Many years ago the house he occupied, which stood at the 
north-east corner, being then No. 1, with the front door facing Chapel- 
yard, was made into a shop— the lower part of it, at any rate — with the 
entrance in Friargate (it is the present No. 28, Friargate), and afterwards 
the Talbot inn, which was next door in the same yard, became No. 1. 

3. Bengal-square was off Church -street, near Cotton-court, and adjoin- 
ing or on one side of it was a cotton mill worked by David Ainsworth, 
and later by him and others under the firm-name of Messrs. Ainsworth, 
Catterall, and Co., cotton spinners. David Ainsworth died in 1819, and 
was interred in the graveyard attached to the Unitarian Chapel, Preston — 
a small piece of ground (between Church -street and Percy -street) in the 
centre of which is the Ainsworth family vault. 

4. Richard Newsham had an interest in some property in Holding or 
Holden's-square — a square which was on the north side of and close to 
Dale-street, and the area of which is now principally covered by a weaving 
shed, connected with the " Yard Works," which was built in 1891. He 
was the father of the late Richard Newsham who resided for so many 
years at No. 1, Winckley-square, and he took a conspicuous part, locally, 
in municipal, financial, and commercial matters. In 1786-7 he was the 
town's Bailiff at Preston ; in 1802 he was a member of the Guild Council ; 
later he became an Alderman ; and he was Mayor in 1807-8, 1813-14, 
1818-19, and 1824-25. During his second Mayoralty he gave one of the 

212 Preston Court Leet. 

Samuel Horrocks, Esquire,^ for permitting the Road at the 
bottom of Canal Street^ to be out of repair and dangerous to 
His Majesty's subjects, and unless within two months after 
notice hereof he repair the same we amerce him in the sum of 
forty shillings for the offence. 

bells forming the present peal at Preston Parish Church. It is the sixth 
bell, and bears this inscription: — "Rich. Newsham, Esq., Mayor, 1814.** 
(The bells constituting this peal were rung for the first time on Christmas 
Day, 1815). He was associated with the Preston "Old Bank" when it 
commenced business, in 1776, and from 1806 to 1825 he was a member of 
its proprietary firm (Messrs. Pedder, Newsham, Lomax, and Denison). 
Along with Thomas Greaves he, in 1792, joined John Horrocks, the great 
pioneer of the Preston cotton trade, in working a mill commonly called 
Bolton's Factory, on the north side of the upper part of Syke-street. 
Horrocks had, a year before this, built the '* Yellow Factory " — the 
nucleus of the present immense " Yard Works " of Messrs. Horrockses, 
Crewdson, and Co., Ltd., on the south-east side of the town. The partner- 
ship referred to continued for only a short time. Messrs. Isaac and 
George Horrocks subsequently became the proprietors of the concern, and 
it was the root or predecessor of Messrs. Horrockses, Jacson, and Co.'s 
cotton works in Avenham-street. Spinning wa^ principally done at these 
works. In 1883 operations in the cotton trade were entirely discontinued 
here, and since then the buildings have been miscellaneously occupied for 
trade purposes. Mr. Newsham, senr., died in 1843, in the 90th year of his 
age, at Avenham House, where he had resided for nearly 40 years. 

1. Samuel Horrocks was one of the M.P.'s for Preston for 22 years. 
On the death of his brother, John, in 1804, he was elected as his 
successor, and he held the seat till 1826, when he retired. For upwards 
of 30 years he was a borough Magistrate and a member of the Corpora- 
tion. In 1833 — having for some time been an Alderman — he voluntarily 
withdrew from the corporate body. He built and resided at Lark Hill 
House, Preston, and he died there on the 24th of March, 1842, in his 76th 
year; his son Samuel being at that time Guild Mayor of Preston. 

2. This road would lead to the adjoining ** Canal Factory," which 
was built by John Horrocks in 1799. He died in 1804, leaving two who 
had been trade partners with him — his brother Samuel and Thomas 
Miller, father of Alderman T. Miller, of Preston; and the former being 
the principal member of the firm, on the death of John, was apparently 
deemed by the Court Leet the likelier to tackle or the more responsible 
for a defect in a road connected with one of their mills. When the pre- 
sentment was made, Canal- street was about twice as long as it ia at 
present. The remaining portion of it is now called Kendal-street. 

After the minutes of the last-mentioned Court Leet there is 
an entry as to a meeting of the Court Baron, " commonly called 

Preston Court Leet. 213 

the Inquest of Office," held on March 1st, 1813, before Nicholas 
Grimshaw (Mayor). The names of 14 jurymen are given, and 
then follows a line running thus : " The Jurors returned no 
presentments." This is the final entry in the last Court Leet 
record book. After the entry there are in the book upwards of 
500 blank pages. The Court Leet was not abolished, or, per- 
haps, it would be more appropriate to say, did not die out, 
until May 5th, 1835, and entries of presentments may have 
been made in some other book up to the close of the Court's 
career; but there is no evidence confirmatory of this conjecture 
in the existing archives of the Corporation; and the blank 
pages in the book alluded to strongly indicate that after March 
1st, 1813, no actual written record of the proceedings was made, 
or, at any rate, preserved. 



P.M.'s Rebellion map 1715 

Geo. Lang's 1774 

Wm. Shakeshaft's 1809 

Tithe map, about , 1812 

Wm. Miller's (a revision of Lang's) 1822 

Ed. Baines's (History of Lancashire, 1836) ; survey in 1824 

J. J. Myres's 1836 

Ordnance map (survey in 1844-46); published in 1848 

John Newton's 1858 

Wm. Brown'S; about 1875 


Page 3 (first note). — Tn 1662-3 the Mayor of Preston was named 
William Banestre. 

Page 15 (first note). — Twelve, not eleven, of the old Mayors 
were named Blundell, and Henry Blundell was Mayor, not 
Bailiff, in 1669. 

Page 25 (note). — The drinking fountain in Fishergate, between 
Cannon-street and Guildhall-street, was removed in 1904. 

Page 53 (first note). — Pp. 33-34 should be pp. 35-36. 

Page 160 (second note). — The nature of the offence is specified 
in the last presentment on p. 158. 


Abbatt, 175, 178, 182, 203. 
Abbott, 51, 52, 52, 91, 92, 120. 
Acregato, 82, 85. 

— lane, 82. 

Act of Grace, The, 169. 
Addison, 7. 8, 77, 98, 99, 123, 155, 
144, 145, 149, 152, 154, 155 

156, 159, 160, 172, 196, 205. 
Addison's vaults, 157. 
Adolphi Hotel, 149. 

— street, 154, 149. 
Affoorors, 4, 17. 

Age for Suit and Service, 161. 
Ain.sworth, 211. 
Albin Hey, Great, 88. 
Albon Steep, 88. 
Aibyn Bank, 88. 

— — street, 88. 
Aldermen's gowns, 65. 
Aldrod, 174. 

Ale and Alehouses, 11, 75, 74, 87, 
92, 100, 105, 109, 115, 152, 154, 
175, 176. 

— founders, 17, 109, 152. 
Alexander, 211. 

Allen. 171. 

Alloixiance, supposed scheme for, 

Alley lane, 84, 152. 
Allow lane, 84. 
Allsun, 167. 
Almshouses, 20, 54, 72, 126, 133, 

157, 176. 
Almsliouse-lane, 157. 
Alpert, 9. 
Ambler 208. 

Anchor Court. 149, 209. 

— Inn, 148, 149, 150. 

— Weind, 127, 148, 149, 194, 

Anderton, 11, 54, 75, 87, 209. 
Andrews, 192, 196. 
Angel Weind 194, 195. 
Apprentices, &c., 99, 140, 141, 146. 
Apple-street, 179. 
Aqueduct, canal, 210. 

— street, 159, 198. 
Aram Banks, 7. 
Arams Backside, 129. 

Aram House, 129. 

Archer, 106. 

Arkwright, 48. 154, 169, 198. 

— Arms, 48. 

Arkwright's spinning machinery, 

Arfehiwrite, 12. 

Artillery, 1, 2, 56, 71, 81, 84, 93. 
Ashburner, 75. 
Xshton, 9, 23, 42, 61, 67, 104, 125, 

135, 136, 157, 148. 160, 185. 

— street, 122. 
Assembly of divines, 95. 
Assessment, early, 202. 
Assessors, 17. 

Aesheton, 53, 59, 81. 162, 163, 169, 

175, 178, 195, 199. 
Assize of Bread and Beer, 2, 3 29, 

37, 45, 55. 59, 81, 93, 99. 

— Judges, 121. 

— town 121. 
Astley, 171, 186. 187. 
Atherton, 9, 147, 148, 152, 172, 

179, 199. 
Atherton*s well. 25. 
Atkinsqn, 129. 
Avonham, 42, 57, 124, 157, 160. 

— brow, 58. 

— Garden, 175. 

— Groat, 152. 

— — brow, 58. 

— House, 42, 170, 175, 196. 

— Little, 43. 

— lane, 42, 45, 51, 122, 152, 


— MiH, 122, 125. 

— Park, 185. 

— Place, 43. 

— road, 43, 51. 

— street 200, 204, 212. 

— — Great, 122. 

— Syke, 175. 

— Troughs on, 71. 

— Valley, 58. 

— Walk. 43, 58, 141, 173, 174. 
Aydenfield, 180. 

Ayleston, 172. 
Aynficough, 184. 



Back-lane, 6, 59, 93, 152, 169, 179, 
194 202 209. 

— Weind, 25," 152, 168, 169, 174, 

178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 189, 

192, 205. 
Badging, 155. 
Bailey, 164, 171, 175. 
Bailiffs' accounts, 120, 121. 

— " broken in," 67. 

— duties, 65, 98. 

— expenses, 62, 63. 

— feasts, 62, 63. 

— negligence, 178, 179. 

— oath, 33. 

— road orders, 148, 193, 194. 

— to provide temporary 

prisons, 204. 
Bairstow-street, 170. 
Baliffe, 121. 
Balshaw, 42. 
Baly, 131. 
Bank. Old, Preston, 199, 212. 

— Parade, 153. 
Banckhead, 41, 135. 
Bancks, 151. 

Bannefiter, 3, 14, 22, 33, 54, 37 47, 
48, 69, 95, 94, 96, 97, 100, 103, 
104 108, 109, 122, 132, 152, 

Barbers and their shops, 154. 

— at work on Sunday, 154. 
Barker, 12, 114. 

Barracks, Old, 65. 

Bars, 6. 8, 20, 24, 52, 89, 98, 100, 
102, 103, 123, 128, 155, 155, 
157, 144, 151, 156, 172, 173, 
179, 183, 204. 

Bartle, 143. 

Barton Terrace, 53. 

Bateson, 129. 

Batty Addison, 203. 

Baxter, 204. 

Bayler, 1, 4, 34, 37, 119, 160. 

BayliflFe, 69. 

Beadle, 64, 86, 114. 

Beaven, 170. 

Becconsall, 71, 114. 

Beef, 87. 

Beer, 73 175. 

Beggars, 64, 121, 193. 

Bell, clock, ringing, 144. 

Bellingham, Colonel, 41. 

Bellman, 70, 132, 151. 

Bence, 201, 

Bennet, 115, 125. 

Bengal-square, 211. 

Berchall, 38, 59. 

Berry field, 153. 

Biokersffcaffe, 34, 165, 166. 

Billiards, 197. 

Birch, 144. 

Birchall, 33, 53, 154. 

Birchel, 68. 

Birches, 87, 106. 

Bird-street, 41. 

Bishop of Chester, 158. 

Blackburn, 96. 

Hlaokhuret, 20, 33, 40, 71, 77, 78, 

Blackledge, 132, 148 193. 
Blacklidge, 51. 
Blacoe, 4, 13, 109. 
Blacowe, 49. 

Blandford's, Lord, Act, 197. 
Blelock, 209. 
Blew (Blue),Ball, 164. 
Bloodwipe, 57. 
Blue Anchor Inn, 149. 

— Bell Inn, 56, 164. 
Blundell, 15, 41, 42, 85 100, 115, 

Boar's Head, 199. 
Boat, the, 55, 184. 
Boa-thouse, 190. 

— — Old, 41 185. 
Boa;t landing, 61, 98. 
Bocke or balk of land, 145. 
Boggart barn, 72. 

Bold, 54. 

Bolton, 50, 189, 192 200. 

Bolton's Court, 187. 

— Factory, 212. 
Bond, 74. 
Bonny, 45, 50. 
Boothman, 187. 

Bostock, 18, 81, 84, 88, 105, 112, 

152, 154, 175. 
Bostocke Croft, 152. 
Bdrough boundary, 66. 

— Court, 108. 

— ''Force," 205. 

— government, 102. 
Boulton, 115. 
Boundary marks, 19. 

— viewing, 66. 
Bow-lane, 78, 179. 
Bowling green, 131, 158. 

— on Sunday, 158. 
Bowked yarn, 144. 
Bo wran -street, 181. 
Bramwell, 160, 162. 
Brand channel, 46. 
Brank, 89. 
Brathwaite, 93. 
Bray, 151, 183. 
Bray's Garden. 183, 192. 
Brazenose College, 194. 
Breaches in streets, 175, 178. 
Breiui, weig^ht of, 113. 

— and Beer, Assize of, 2, 3, 29, 

37, 45, 53, 59, 81, 99. 
Breakers of hedges, 67. 
Breres, 1, 31. 65. 
Bretherton, 102. 
Brewer, 5, 12, 194, 195. 
Brewery-lane, 157, 204. 



Brewhoufire-lane, 199. 

Brewing, 104. 109, 113, 132, 

Brewster, 132. 

Bribes, 155, 

Bricks, 12. 13. 26, 44. 117, 139, 165. 

Brick kilns. 189. 

Bridges, 41. 87, 88, 107, 127. 150, 

193 195. 
Bridge.' Brokdgate, 107, 193, 195. 

— Inn, Penworthani 41. 

— lane 25. 127 

— on Marsh, 94. 

— street. 77, 131, 179. 

— tolls, 193. 

— undertakers, 193. 
Bridling, 89. 

Bripgs, 200. 
Brindlc, 86, 92. 
Britannia Inn, Old. 123. 
British Mutieuin, 126. 
Broadgato. 40. 41, 58, 107, 127, 
128. 150, 193. 195. 

— Wind Mill. 123. 
Broad Meadow. 165. 
Brockall-lane. 40. 
Brockholes, Lower, 40. 

-- Old Mill, 72. 
Brookfield. 112. 
Broughton, 118. 120. 

— Tower, 180. 
Brown, 185. 
Browne, 149. 179. 

— Channel, 123. 
Buckets, well, 135. 

Buck's Prospect of Pref^ton, 77, 

173, 174. 
Buckingham-street, 84, 152. 
Hugmire Holes, 25. 164. 
Jiuilding restriction. 160. 
Bull baiting 60. 

— Fields. 153. 

— and Royal Hotel. 121, 124. 

— town's, 60, 80. 
Bull's Head, 181. 
BuUen, 120. 
Jiulke, 110, 154. 
Bullow, 9. 
Burchas, 94. 
Burgage, 3. 

Burgeflses' admission, interme- 
diate, 12. 

— cattle, 106. 

— non-, 148. 

— oath, 35, 39, 48. 53 73, 79, 

94, 102, 108, 112,* 135. 
Bursting of water pipes, 178. 
Burton, 1, 15, 34, 80, 81, 100. 154. 
Bury Fields, 153. 
Buehell, 38, 51, 104, 121 131, 160, 

Butchers, 29, 162, 169. 
Butler. 182, 185. 
Butter Cross, 16. 

Butts, 1, 2, 37, 45, 71, 81. 84, 93, 
118, 167. 


Cadley, 102 109, 120, 126, 133, 

142, 143, 149. 
Caledonian Engineering and Ship- 

bulding Co., 167. 
Calves, 96. 105, 125. 
Canal Aqueduct, 210. 

— Factory, 212. 
Cannon-street, 25, 143, 212. 

— — Independent Chapel, 71. 
CansBeld. Gerard, 209. 

Cards, 108, 109, 113, 118. 

Cardwell, 82. 

Carrion, 133. 

Carts 152, 199, 200. 

Cas.son, 166. 167, 182. 

Carrie Inn, 122, 143. 

Catholics and the Stuart Cause, 

Catterall. 13, 28, 34, 38, 69, 92, 

208, 211. 
Cattle, 25, 27, 44, 47, 61, 81, 84, 87, 

106 123, 155, 162. 

— Market, 125. 

— watering places, 26. 
Cawles or Cauls, 42, 75, 76, 87, 

114, 139, 153, 181. 
Cawsey or Causeways, 22, 47, 51, 

57, 80. 109, 114, 116, 117. 120, 

122, 123, 127, 128, 150, 156, 

186, 193, 210. 
Cawsey Meadows, 59. 
Cx^Uars, 24, 52. 
Chaddock, 164, 172. 

— street, 175. 
Chadwick's Orchard, 174, 190. 
Chancery clerk, 208. 

Chapel of Ease to Parish Church, 

— new, 195. 
Chappel, 148. 

Chapel of Stretford, 84. 

— Walks, 203. 

— wardens, 197. 

— yard, 179, 211. 

— — Old, 179, 195. 
Chargeable persons, 149. 
Charities, 97. 
Charnley, 155. 

Charles I., 121. 

— II., 91. 95, 124. 
Charnock, 109, 116, 117. 
Cheapside, 16 206. 
Cheetham, 129, 182. 

— backside, 51. 

— street, 189. 

Chemist and druggist's shop, first 

proper, in Preston. 209. 
Chester, Bishop of, 158. 
Chetham Weend, 124. 
Chernock, 6, 34, 93. 



Chesterfield, 159. 
Chetibain LibTary, 126. 
ChisenhaU, 55, 133, 134. 
ChisnaU, 133, 134. 
Chorley, 20 23, 32, 42, 54, 77, 122, 
129, 150, 152, 158, 159, 165, 

172, 182, 184, 190. 

— Meadow, 185. 
Chorlicar, 132. 
Church, 152. 

— attendance of Corporation, 

Church-gate, 47, 89, 91, 124, 154, 
165, 173 181, 190, 201. 

— bars, 8, 100, 135, 204. 

— Moor, 160, 187. 

— end, 126. 

— town end, 108, 114, 130, 133, 

Church -str<^t, 25, 55, 77, 88, 108, 
114, 121, 124 125, 126, 133, 137, 
140, 154, 160; 164. 165, 169, 172, 

173, 204, 207, 209, 211. 
Churchwardens, 77, 97, 102, 202. 
Civil War, 95. 

Churchyard, 105, 130. 

Clappyates, 186. 

Clark 160. 

Clarke yard, 77, 102, 104, 119, 176. 

Clarkson, 38, 51, 80. 

Clay, 130. 

— Pits, 26, 44, 134. 
Clayton, 144, 148, 164, 170, 204. 
Clemesha, 140. 

Clavton. 68, 148. 

aiffis, tihe, 122. 

Clifton, 87, 156, 158, 159, 160, 209. 

Clitherall 38. 

Clitheroe, Recorder of, 203. 

— Honour of, 84. 
Clock, Town Hall, 161, 167. 
Clocks, ringing bells of, 144. 
Cloth, 31, 52, 94. 

Clough, 34, 38. 

Clowes 205. 

Cockerhole, 88, 91, 123, 127, 202, 

Cockshutt's Backside, 124. 
Coffee Garden, 202. 

— Gardens, 202, 204. 

Coins, &c., found in Cuerdale, 81. 
Cooke, 151, 172. 
Cold Bath, 122. 

— — street, 122. 
Collegiate Church, Manchester, 

Colley, 175 180. 
Colley's Garden, 171, 174, 178. 
Collinson, 200. 
Colly, 161, 171, 174, 178. 
Colne, Halmote of, 84. 
Colt Hole, 66. 
Comandor, 136. 
Comberall, 87. 

Combrall, 60. 

Commissioners, Police, 117. 
Common field, 88. 

— Council officials, 17. 

— 162, 167, 171. 

— fields 11, 185, 190. 
Commons 133, 160. 
Common Pleas, Court of, 108. 
Commonwealth, 91, 95. 
Company of Grocers, &c., 191. 
Companies, locally control, 4. 
Compound, 34. 
Compounded, 85. 
Conservative Working Men's 

Club, 140, 154. 
Constables, 205. 
Contempt of Court, 162. 
Cooper, 113, 198. 
Coppe, 38, 42, 51. 
Copeland, 1, 6. 
Coppull, 133, 134. 
Corn, 45, 59, 60, 99, 125, 131, 149. 
Corner Gap field, 185. 
Corporation Free Burgess, 103. 

— governing and government, 

95, 100. 

— pews, 64. 

— street, 181. 

— Torvism, 194. 

— trade control, 4 (see Trade 

Cort, 155. 
Corry, 210. 

— street, 211. 

Cottam, 10, 14, 71, 77, 78, 108, 
110, 137, 199. 

— Hall, 112, 199. 
Gotten, 34. 
Cotton Court, 211. 

— Mill, first in Preston, 200. 

— trade, Preston, first great 

extender of, 200, 212. 
Coulburne, 117 198. 
Council house, 10, 71. 
Councillors' gowns, 63, 64. 
Country poor, 64. 
County CS>uirt Judge, 203. 

— Deputy Prothonotary, 199. 

— Seal Keeper, 208. 

— Sessions House, 25, 129. 
Coursing hares, 132. 

Court Baron, 212. 

— of Common Pleas, 108. 

— Contempt of, 162. 

— of Election, 101, 103. 

— Leet: heading. Latinised, 

91; Englished, 176. 

— — non-attend*aiioe a*, 178. 

— — Suit and Service, 161, 

163, 164. 

— — end of, 213. 

— Boll admission, 12. 

— of Trials, 108. 
Covered Market, 174, 190. 



Cow claws, burning, 177. 

Cowhand, 157. 

Cowborne, 34, 85. 

Cowburn, 192, 196, 200. 

Cowford Bridge, 149. 

Cowp, 84, 133. 

Cowper, 23 26, 32, 37, 51, 58, 71. 

Crabtree, 153. 

Craprg's-row. 134, 211. 

Craven Heifer Inn, 208. 

Crichley, 118. 

Critchley, 107. 

Crofton, 84. 

Crofts, 98. 

Cromwell. 35. 

Crooke, 34, 38. 

Crooked Acre, 19. 83. 

— lane, 59, 178, 196. 
Cross, 112, 199. 

— Hall, 166. 

— High. 167. 

— Hill 202. 

— old stone, 108. 

— street, 43, 51, 182. 199. 
Crown, 134. 

— lane, 134. 

— Piece, lieu 134. 

— street. 134, 207. 

— and Thistle Inn, 183. 
Cuckst^)ol, 53, 54. 72, 89. 94. 104, 

120, 130, 135. 160, 168, 169. 

— House, 194. 

— Meadows, 53, 194. 

— old, pit, 153. 
Cuerdale "find," 81. 
Cuerdall, 15. 34, 81. 
Cberden, 104. 126. 

— Hall. 189, 190. 
Cuinbrall, 102. 
Cunliffe, 12. 

Curate of Parish Church, 86. 
Curtes, 33. 
Curtis, 165, 166. 
Cursing, 93. 
Custumal, 53. 


Dacker gate, 82. 

Dagger Gate. 83. 

Dale-street, 211. 

Dalton, 170, 196. 

Danson, 204. 

Darbyshire, 151. 

Darwen, 87, 135. 

Daub, laying, 166. 

Davil Bridge, 20, 48. 59, 61, 128. 

— Meadows, 195. 
Dawe Bank, 115, 134. 
Dawson 1, 10, 118, 156. 
Deaf and Dumb School, 72. 
Debtors in Lancaster Castle, 200, 


— temporary prisons for, 204. 

Dent. 180, 206. 

Deepdale Brook, 73, 116, 153. 

— road, 22, 47, 54, 67, 114, 153, 

187. 189, 194. 
Denison, 212. 

Deputy Prothonotary, 199. 
Derby, Earl of, 55, 56, 9b, 121, 165, 
179, 181, 187, 194, 204. 

— £stato Oflfioe, 166. 

— fitables, 56. 
Derbyshire, 173, 184. 
Dorwentwator, 198. 
Devis, 196. 

Dewhurst, 30, 90, 91, 205. 
Dicconson, 171. 
Dickens, 154. 
Dickinson 206. 
Dickson, 9, 74, 90. 
Directories earliest local, 179. 
Dirty alley, 180. 
Disorderly houses, 163, 164. 
Ditch and watercourse openinjr, 

, &c., 182. 
Divines, Assembly of, 95. 
Divisions of the town, 17. 
Dobson 18, 39. 
Dock Accer, 83. 

Dogs, 69. 80, 101, 106, 113, 147, 152. 
Doghouse, "144. 
Dolfin or Dolphin, 105, 147. 
Doo Banks 115. 
Door Light, 199. 
Drink, 99. 

Drinkwater, 145, 154. 
Drinking order, 74. 
Drink, staggering, 153. 
Drunken Bamaby, 93. 
Dubbing hedge, 193. 
Duckworth, 85. 

Duckworth's orchard, 174, 190. 
Duke-street. 207. 
Dunkenhalgh, 186. 
Dunster, 137. 139. 
Dye House -lane, 159. 

— — Simpson's, 170. 

— — Thompson's, 201. 
Dying liquors, 114, 115. 


Earl-street 59, 204. 
Easing droppers, 129. 
East Bar, 24. 

— Cliff, 165. 

— Moor, 47. 

— View, 23, 53, 100, 189, 194. 
Eastham, 147. 

Eaves, 122, 128. 

— Brook, 6, 47, 57, 62, 66, 109, 

117, 142, 189. 

— dropiper, 92, 129. 

— lane, near Chorley, 31. 
Eccles, 3, 38, 92. 
Eodeston, 151, 165. 

— Hall, Great, 202. 

Election, Court of, 101. 

— riot. 195. 
Elizabeth 96. 

— street. 134. 
Ellia, 194. 
Eliot, 171. 
Ebton, 12, 34, 146. 
EnoroacbraeiitB, 51, 110. 147. 
Englished Court head lines, 176. 
English Martyrs' Church. 198. 

— — Schools, 58. 

— Parliament, 95. 
Entertaining, 105, 
Entortainmeiit of Noblemen. &c., 

Ergham William, 55. 
Eecolme, 75. 
Eeeing dropps, 92. 
Estreats, levjing, 173. 
Etherington 175. 

Factorv childroii from London, 

FfBJrhuist 1S7. 
Fallowfield, 209. 
Fareolough, 13. 17S. 
Farington, 172. 178. 

— Ball. 72. 
Ffarington, 17 75, 76, 98, 9 
Ffarnworth. 106, 122, 166. 
Farrer, 21, 84. 

Feeble- street. 177. 
Foil, 164. 
Fellowes. 68. 
Ferrj, 33. 41, 185. 

— Boat Inn, 41. 
Fields, 38. 

Fiddler, playing, IIB. 
Fielding, 208. 
Ficnnes, 55. 

— piopcr chemist and druR- 

gist's shop in Preston, 209. 

— theatre in Preston, 210. 
Fish, 85, !37. 

Fieher, 14. 73. 

Fi^ergate, 25, 89. 126, 137, 142, 
143, 151. 157, 159, 163. 166, 172 
174, 182, 200, 205, 207, 208, — 

— Urs. 20, 54, 103, 126, 128, 

144, 151. 

— lane and hill, 77 78. : 

140, 142, 144, 179, 187, 

191. 193. 
Fishery, Ribble, 75. 
Fishing, 107. m, 131. 
FishwSk, 66. 72, 76 107, 183. 

— Hall, 186, 187, 

— lane. 119. 

Flax &o., selling, 165. 
Fleak, 163. 
Fleame. Mill, 21. 
Fleecing the Common, 
Fleetwood, 14, 33, 41, 
Flesh Market, 137. 



, 117. 

Foe, Daniel de, 56. 
Fold for sheep, 42. 
Folly, the, 182, 199, 207. 
Ffoole, &4, 108, 117. 118. 
B'ootpaths through Churchyard, 

Footway, Great, 146. 



Foreigners, 10. 14, 34, 38, «, 49. 

53 85. 94, 107. 113, 137. 
Forestalling, 85, 86. 112, 125, 157, 

162 163. 
Founders, ale, 17. 
Fox -street, 168. 
Fojled, 80 
France, 1, 50. 
Franklin, 154. 


■, 184. 

Burgesses of Corporation, 

— LibcaFy, 131, 143. 149, 155, 

162 185, 206. 

— School, 187, 193. 
Freeman, refusing to be, 156. 
Freedom, granting and rene^rsl 

of, 97- 
Free men's cattle, 60. 

— Widows, 70. 

French, 1, 17, 29. 82. 

Frenchwood, 186, 201. 

., 153. 

B7, ; 

12^. 131, 154, 140.' 142. 146> 
149, 154, 155, 158, 163, 166, 156 ^ 
IM, 170, 1S3. 18b, 196 197 . 
199, 206. Z07. 209. 211. 

— Hara, 6. 98, 102, 123, 13S, 

156, 172. 179, 183. 

— Jloor. 134. 145. 

— town end. 166. 



Friary, Old, 6. 31, 65, 181. 
Ffryere-lano, 6, 47, 114, 127, 133, 

144. 169, 181. 
Ffryer Weeud, 127, 136, 148. 
Fulwood, 62, 117, 118, 127. 

— Barracks, 47. 

— Moor, 194. 

— Workhouse, 188. 
Furham Sykee, 84, 85, 152. 
Further Moor, 116. 
Fylde, the, 8. 

— country, 210. 

— road, 47, 71, 115, 127, 133, 


— street, 47, 184. 

Gallon, Town's, 134. 
Gallows HiU. 126, 198. 
Gamall-lanc, 57. 
Game dogs, 132. 

— engines for taking, &c., 132. 
Gaming, 94, 106, 108, 118, 197. 
Gaol. 65. 

CJarbage. 9. 162, 169. 
Garden, Collov's 171, 174. 
Gardens, 38. 83, 182. 
Garden-etreot, 71. 
Garlicke, 132, 152, 171. 
Garstang, 198. 208. 

— road. 58. 120 198. 
Gars wood, 209. 

Gas Company, Preston, 200. 

— Company's re:?idualt>, 23. 

— Works, Glover-street, 182. 
Geese, 28, 33. 44, 61, 117, 142. 
George Inn. 140. 

Gorrard, 209. 
Gibson, 182. 

Giblxjt, gibbeting, &e., 172, 173. 
(iiib'rtson 183. 
Gin Bow H^ntry, 155, 156. 
Girls' High School, 199. 
Glover, 200. 

(Jlover's Court, 172, 182. 
Glover-street. 25. 51. 
Goldsmith's Bank, 41. 
Goodier, 210. 
Goodshawe. 41. 
Goodshev, 12, 33, 59. 
Goosnargh Hospital. 104, 131, 170. 
Gooc^e Well. 24, 25, 37 110. 
Gornall. 146. 
Gorst. 207. 
Gorton, 1, 24, 37. 
Government, Corporation's, 100. 
^— town's, 99, 102, 108. 
Gowns, Aldermen's and Coun- 
cillors'. 62, 63. 
Grace, Act of, 169. 
Graddell, 87. 93, 152. 
Gradwell, 105, 145 156, 157, 161, 

Grafton-^trect, 83, 122. 

Grammar School, 20, 25, 48, 71, 

80, 170, 187, 193, 194. 
Gravol, 102, 165. 
Gray. 85. 
Gray's Inn, 180. 
Graystock, 1, 33, 122, 142, 156. 

— Brook, 148, 149. 

— Brows, 159. 

— llouae, 40, 119. 

— lane, 159. 
Great Albin Hey, 88. 

— Avenham, 153. 

— Bull Field, 153. 

— Ecclcston, 201. 

— Footway, 146. 

Ci reaves, 14, 199, 303, 212. 
Greene. 34, 162, 163. 
(Jroeno Bank, 142. 210. 
(Jreene Crofts, 116. 
Greenfeild, 131, 156. 
Greenfield, 111, 112. 
(Jreenhalgh, 149, 150. 
Green-, lane, 131. 

— Man Inn, 189. 
Greenough, 167, 164. 
(Greenwood, 94, 163, 209. 
Gregson, 14. 34 50, 106, 111. 118, 

123, 126, 146, 146, 163, 164, 

— lane, 198. 
(Jremsworth, 113. 
(irey Horse, 137. 

— — and Seven Stars, 137. 
Greyhounds, 132. 

(irimaldi, 164. 

Grimshaw, 196, 197, 199, 207, 210, 

Gripps,'ll4, 116, 141. 
Grocers'. &c.. Company, 191. 
(iroops, 85. 

(jJuide post pointers, 168. 
Guildhall-street, 26. 
Guild orders, 97. 

— receipts, 97. 

— expenses, &c., 97. 

— profits, 100, 103. 

— account, 110. 
Gurnall, 149, 150, 166. 


llaighton, 83. 
Halt-mile field, 108. 

— stone, 108. 

Hall, 107, 124, 129. 139, 164. 

Halls. Cuerdale, Farington, Fish- 
wick, New, Ribbleton, Sam- 
lesbury. 72. 

Hal mote, Urmston, 83. 

Halstead, 206. 

Hanging Brow, 104. 

— do^s, 69. 
Hanoverian Dynasty, 163. 
Harbouring, 10, 34, 49, 99, 136, 


Hanimaii. 151, 174, 136. 

Hardraan's yard, 186. 
Hardvirare, 113. 

Hollinbead. 84. 

Hollin Head-square, 84. 

Hares, Coursing 13S. 

Harris Free Librarr, 
156, 162, 185, 205. 

143, 149, 

I ollowforth, 167. 

Holljnshead, 84. 

- street, 129. 

Holme, 102, 113, 125. 

Harrison, 15, 85. 113, 

131, 145, 

— Penwortham, 194. 

154, 159. 183. 

Holsteio -street, 63. 

HarriBOn's Hill, 134. 

Holt, 12, 1J5. 

ome Seoretory, 89. 
onour of Qitferoe, 84. 

Hatch, 113, 132, 137, 1<2 

143, 145. 

- Mill, 126, 142, 143. 

Hoolo, 1. 

Hawhsworth, 71. 

opo.atreet, 25, 110. 

Haworth, 8, 68, 69, 89 

99, 120, 

Horn blowing, 59, 60. 
Hornby, 172. 


Haydoek, 18, 102, 143. 

Horrocke 73, 88, 200, 212. 

Headmastors of Gramm 

r School, 

Horrockaes, Ctewdeon, ft Co. 


170, 193, 194. 

- Jacson. ft Co.. 212. 

Heatler.Btrset, 25. 

Horrocks and Jacaon's milU, 


Heaton, 156. 

Horsea, 27. 28, 129, 1S3, 136 


- Bullen, 147. 

150, 157, 162. 

Hedge breakera, 67, 87. 

Horse kidge, 126, 127. 

- dubbing, 195. 
Hodeea, 83, 87, 193. 

- Hey, Little, 83. 

— leather. 139. 

Holme, 13, 58, 109. 

- Mill. 182. 

Henry IH.. 96. 

- races 194. 

Heppgreave, 23, 84. 

— stone, 190. 

Heralds' College. 126. 

. 21, 

Herdsmen, 17, 25, 44, 47 


HermoD -street, 166. 

Houghton. 69. 

Hosketh, 108, 172, 182. 

— croft field, boi^ 
Heapitt field, 83. 

77, 331. 

89, 102, 165, 166. 172, 173 


188. 204. 

Higpins, 55. 
Hig£ Cross. 167. 

- — lane, 170, 174, 179, 


fields. 1^. 

— School for Girla, 199. 


— street, 203, 204. 

133, 147, 148, 162. 

Hieham. 6, 9, 15, 34, 37, 74, &., oa. 
Highways. 100, 102, 108, 114, 116 
119, 126, 128, 133. 142, 150, 198. 
Hill, 136. 

— street. 25. 
Hindle, 88. 
Hindley, 12. 100. 
Hinley House, 189. 
Hipping sWnes, 123. 

History of Preston, first printed, 

Hobie Horse field, 83. 

Hodgson, 38, 167. 

Hodgkinson, 4. 14, 19, 24, 26 32, 
38, 40, 41, 50, 51, 54, 58, 59, 
69, 77, 78. 81, 82, 83, 87, 88, 91, 
93. 93. 94. 96, 98, 100, 116, 120, 
122, 129. 132, 133, 139, 155, 165. 

Hogg alt, 129, 196. 

Hoggett, 204, 

HogEton. 13. 14, 15. 34. 56, 58, ftS, 
128, 151, 152, 172, 206. 

— Towor, 15, 151. 
Holcroft, 169. 183. 
Holden, 116, 

Holden'fl or Holding-square, 211. 


, old, 1 

Howard, 65. 
Howick House, 56. 
Hubbcrstey, 204. 
Hughaon, 102, 131, 133. 
Hulme's Trustees, 152. 
Hantroyde, 201. 
Hurd, 206. 
Huson, 84. 85, 
Hutt and Ha1«. 121. 
Hutton, 181. 

— HaU, 181. 

- Manor of, 180. 
Hynde, 24, 91, 119, 120. 


. 5. 
Qvement Act, 78. 
In -burgesses, 147. 
Inconveniences. &0., 192, 
Incroachments. 147, 
Ingham, 6, 8, 39, 01. 
Ingol, 143. 
Inhabit. 85. 
Inhabitants, 171. 201, 
Inmates, 10, 70, 95, 97, 17L 

Idle p 

Inquest of Office, 213; 

Insolvent Debtora' Act, 21 
Instant. 19. 

Ireland, 121. , „ 

ItLnerarium, Bacnabj s, 9 

Jacobito cause. 185. 
_ Btronghold, 184. 

— sympathisers, 163. 
Jacion- street. 131. 
Jackson. 121. 146, 192, 194. 
James I., 15 31. 92, IW. 

— II., 128. 
Jameson, 175. 

Joh^on'. 13, 30, 156- 
Johnson'^ Uardon, 19. 
Jolly. 144, 182. 
Jordan-Blreot. 78. „, 
JudL'cs of Asaizo, 121. 
Jurymen, 131. 
Jutland, street, 63. 

Kadc, 34. 

Keflet 93 96, 96, 9S, 106, 126, 127, 

128, 137. 175, 17B. 
Kendal. 184. 

Keeping. 105. 
Key, 14, B8, 99, 100. 
Kifli and pace, 21. 
Kino, 110, 133. 

King's Evil and Toucb, 12B. 
King Geortre I., 157, 158. 163. 
II.. 176, 



Kiljt-^haw, n, 30. B5. 
Kingdom's Law^, lOO. 
Kirby, 136. 
Kirkham, 168. 
Kilchin. 154. 
Kuerden, 126- 
Kuerden's Prt-wton, 6, 33. 1 

Lady Hey, Middle and Farmost, 

I, 170, 

OS, 121, 172. 

— emtio Debtors, 20O, 2M. 

— lano. Old. 102, 115. 

— Meadow. 102. , „„ 
_ road, 21. 22, 85. 129, 134, U7. 

ISi 166. 169, 179, 189. 204, 

— Vicar of. 104. 
Land mark 145, 
Langlon. 125,135.145, ISO. 
Lanfe-ton^s Sjkea. 84. 
Lark Hill. 88. 

— — House. 212. 
Latham-slroet 153. 

""I'^Hen^, 67, 75. 126, 130, 134. 

U«(il ycflM, 108. 
Lawfl, 115. 

— of the Kingdom, 100. 

Liiy Rector, 151. 
La J ton, 65, 183. 
Lea DemcinB, 65. 

— Marsh, 65. 
lAiuth. 170. 

— Hall. 143, 
Lenchcs, Thp, 189, 
LeaRueand Covenaul. Solemn, 95. 
Leather, 18, 81. S2, 139. 

LcfiU paseea, 19S, 
Leeming-jtreet, 19, 47, 71. 
Lect, holding of the, 173. 
Loicf4ti;r, 172. 

L!:.'m.!n, 33. 117. 127, IE8, 139, 146, 
1S6. 167. 160. 163. 1&4, 173. 

Lenthal. Speaker. 121. 

Leyland. 75, 76, Hi. 

Liberties of the town. 13, 160. 

Library, Free, 131, 143. 149, 156, 
162. 185. 206. 

Linen cloth, selling, 154. 
'— ^Bul'rFieW. 153. 

- Ilej-s. 114. 

— Well, 25. 113. 195. 
Ladjwell-street, 115. 

uid Yorkshire Railway, 165. 


i. 19L 

Lomaxe 34. 

London, IB4. 198. _ 

- rtiad, 117, 119, 126, 127, 186. 
Longe Accker or Lone Acre, 83. 
Long Causey, 127, 150. 

_ Clos 

, 166. 



Longton, 118. 

Longworth, 179. 

Lord-street, 67. 127, 129, 148, 149, 

165, 189, 194, 195, 196, 207, 208, 

Lord's Day, 99, 106, 156. 

— Walk, 176, 202. 
Lorrimer, 158. 
Lovat, 184, 198. 
Lower Brockholes, 40. 

Loxam, 9, 66, 96, 108, 118, 119, 120, 

122, 160. 
Lucas, 145. 
Lumm, 180. 
Luno-street, 123. 
Lutwidge, 198. 
Lyon, 206, 208. 
Lytham, 152, 209. 

Mabery, 50. 
Mackern, 167. 
Mackin, 120, 128. 
^Macclesfield, 163. 
Magdalen St. Mary, Hospital, 21, 

Main North Road, 102. 
Maintenance, 97. 
Mainsprit Weind. 3, 25, 33, 124, 

154, 160. 182, 201, 202. 
]\Ialt, 92, 136. 
Manchester, clergyman of, 90. 

— Collegiate Church, 158. 

— road, 19, 47, 79, 153. 
Maps of Preston, 214. 
Margerison, 48. 
Market. Covered, 174. 

— for flesh, 137. 

— place, 24. 25. 68 93, 109, 110, 

122, 126. 127, 129, 136, 142, 
143, 149, 153, 154, 155, 156 
162, 167, 175. 177, 197, 206, 

Markets, 144, 176. 

Marsden, 208. 

Marsh, 7, 38, 51, 78. 

— the, 6. 16. 20 25, 27, 28, 33, 

42, 44, 47, 53, 61, 75, 76, 
87, 94, 102, 103, 106, 110, 
114, 115, 119, 122, 123, 125, 
127, 130, 133, 135, 139, 142, 
150, 153, 154. 167, 181, 187, 

— lane, 6, 25, 59, 66, 77. 84, 127, 

152, 159. 

— — W?ll, 25, 164. 

— — Mill, 125, 159. 

_ _ -_ dam, 103, 133. 
Master of Workhouse, First, 188. 
Matshead, near Garstang, 177. 
Maudlandft, 23, 25 26, 53, 83, 119, 

122, 145, 157, 159. 
Martin, 98, 107, 118, 149. 
Maudland Ward, 90. 

Maudesley, 163. 

Mayor, 208. 

Meales, 112. 

Mcares, 19. 

Meat, bad, 158. 

Meadow-lane, 83, 122. 

Meaking, 109. 

Melling's yard, 25, 99. 

Mercer, 165. 

Mery, 67. 

Miched kine, 110. 

Middings, 20, 102, 103, 146. 151. 

152, 168, 171. 
Middleton, 130. 
Mill Bank, 114. 

— dam, &c., 4, 5, 103, 115, 135, 


— field, 48. 

— fleame, 21. 

— Hill, 16 114, 149. 155. 

— Hill Ragged School, 149. 

— in Molyneux-square, 198. 

— old, 87. 

— steam, 210. 
Miller, 99, 212. 

— Arcade, 131. 136, 140, 166. 

— Park, 58, 165. 

— moulture, 9, 125. 
Millington, 129. 

Minespitt (Main Sprit) Well, 3, 24, 

33, 37, 38, 51, 89, 110, 120. 
IVIitchill, 71. 
Mitre Inn, 143, 162. 

— — yard, 196. 
Mitton, 1, 10, 77, 118. 

Mock Corporation, Walton-le- 

Dalc, 171, 172, 185. 
Molyneux, 129, 130, 166, 168, 169, 

172, 173 177, 182, 189. 

— square, 25, 129, 131, 155, 173, 

177, 195, 198. 207. 
Moncke, 129. 

Moor, 87, 150, 160, 166, 188, 189, 

— Brook, 20, 68, 61 76, 104, 

105, 115, 126, 148, 163, 198. 

— Brow, 126. 

— Church-gate, 160. 

— Friargate, 134, 145. 

— Hall, 126. 

— lane, 120, 126, 127, 134, 142, 

150, 200, 211. 

— North, 7, 27, 58. 61, 127. 

— Park 118. 

— — Avenue, 126. 

— Preston, 27, 29, 63, 109, 117, 

133, 134, 160, 187, 188, 189, 

— Slacks, 194. 

— West. 133. 

IMoot Hall, 1, 10, 31, 71, 109, 118 

136, 142. 
Morte, 6, 6. 7, 16, 19, 24, 29, 30, 31, 

32. 37, 83. 



Morris, 125. 

Morrys, 68. 

:Moss 21, 25, 28, 45, 53, 68, 71, 90, 
115, 116. 118, 129, 133, 142, 149, 
159, 167, 171, 172, 192. 

— Church, 21. 

— Factory, 21. 

— Spitlo, 21, 25, 28, 47, 68, 90. 

— street, 21. 
Moulturc, 9, 125. 
Mounsey, 209. 
Mount Pleasant, 181. 

— street, 20, 54, 122, 157, 199, 

209, 210. 
IMuggalt, 167. 
Muncaster, 198. 
Murray -street, 104. 
Mutus, 34. 

:\Iuzzled, doLrs to be, 101, 147, 152. 
Myers, 26, 113, 117, 134, 160 166, 

Mycry Wcend, 39. 
]\Jyrc sweeping, 27. 
Myres, 68, 126. 
Mystery or trade, 52. 


Nabb, 203. 

Narrow Shambles, 162. 

National Schools, 43. 

Naylor, 210. 

Nether Wyresdale, 168. 

Nets, fishings 107, 118, 124, 131. 

New Chapel, 195. 

— Preeton, 73, 207. 

— Shambles, 169. 

— street, 68, 194, 195, 206. 

— Well Brow, 122, 123, 157. 

— Hall. 40, 72, 119. 

— — barn, 117. 

— — fields, 73. 

— — lane, 72, 73, 83, 88, 107, 

119 207. 

— — Tottington, 180, 181. 
Warrington, 209. 
Neweham, 170, 211, 212. 
Newshame, 1, 18. 
Newsholme, 172, 173. 
Newton. 34. 

Nicholson. 34. 
Nobleman's, &c., oath, 35. 
Noblett, 143. 

Non-attendance at Court Leet, 177. 
Non-Burgesses, 148. 
North Lancashire Circuit, 203. 
-- ]\Ioadow-lane, 41. 

— Meole, 112. 

— Moor, 7, 27, 58, 61, 127. 

— Moor-lane, 42. 

— road, 120, 169. 

— - — main, 102. 
Nottingham, 89. 
Nowell, 117. 


Cards, 1. 

Oaths, 32, 35, 39, 48, 53, 73, 79, 91 

95, 96, 102, 107, 108, 112, 135, 

168, 177, 191. 
Obelisks, 167. 
Observatory, 23, 47. 100. 
Obstructions, 171. 
Officials, Common Council, 17. 
Officers, Court of Election, 101, 

Ogle, 167. 
Old Bank, 199, 212. 

— Barracks, 65. 

— Boat House, 185. 

— Britannia Inn, 123. 

— Cock yard, 124. 

— Chapel yard, 179. 

— Coffee house yard 204. 

— Friary, 31, 65. 

— houses, 206. 

— Lancaster-lane, 102, 115. 

— Mill, 87. 

— Quay, 20, 61, 76. 

— Shambles, 136. 

— Sir Simon alehouse, 184. 

— Vicarage, 21, 151, 169, 178, 


— water supply, relics of, 208. 
Oliver 193, 194. 

Oram, 96, 197. 

Orchard, the. 25, 152, 171, 180, 190. 

Orchards, 182. 

Orchard-street, 180. 

Orders, Guild, 97. 

Osbaldeston 172. 

Overseers ot the poor, 87, 97, 202. 

— of higrhways, 126. 
" Owd Ned," 204. 
Oxford, 194. 

Oxhey, 104 115, 134. 

Pace, kiln, 21. 

Pack horses, 157. 

Palmer, 140. 

Parcevell, 80. 

Parchment rental 147. 

Paris'h Churdh advowson, 152. 

— — bells, 2l2. 

— — chapel of ease to, 197. 

— — curate, 86. 

— — Vicar, 104, 158, 192. 

— Churchyard, 68, 105. 

— clerk, 168. 

Park, Great and Little, 83. 
Parks, 58, 118, 165. 
Park-road, 114. 208. 
Parker, 171, 175, 189. 192. 
Parker, Townley, 190. 
Parkinson, 49, 154, 156, 202. 
Parliament, English, 95. 
Parr, 168, 173. 

Parson's house, 167. 
Patricke, 12, 50 68. 
Passes, IokhI. 193. 
Patten, SC 55, 5B. 8D, 119, 134, 1J5, 
155, 156, 157, 166, 172. 

— Field, 55, 161. 

— Gardan, 71. 

— House, 55, 56 134, 165, 181. 


— street. 55. 
Pavement. 110. 
Pearson, 155. 
Peddar, 160. 

Pedder, 185, 197, 201, 212. 

— street, 122. 

Peel hall, street, tower, ftc., 22, 55. 

Peelo Moer, 22, 26, 44. 116, 160. 

Peer's oath, 35. 

PeniEKton, 154. 

Ponnileas Pilgrim, 93. 

Pentice, 141. 

Penwortham, 151, 180. 

— Bridge. 41, 193, 195. 

— Factory, 200. 

— Holme, 194. 

— Minor, 180. 
Peploo, 157. 158, 167. 
Perambulation of boundacice, 66. 
"^ercy- street, 211. 



Pottycoat Alley, 33. 

Piocop, 147. 

Pig Market, 176. 

Pipott, 137, 139. 

Pillory, 93. 101. 104. 

Finders, 17. 25, 27, 80, 105, 110, 

130, 170. 
Pinfold, 13. 21, 37. 100, 110, 130 

146, 155. 169. 170. 
"■■ ■ t. 23, 174. 



tation, 195. 
Plants and planting, 139, 145. 
Plait (bridge), 6. 
Plattfordale, 22, 303. 
Play house, 210. 
Playing, fiddler 118. 
FloasanC-streot. 43, 122. 
Plough Inn, 154. 
Plumpton, 105. 
Plungington Hotel, 126. 
" ■ guide post, 168. 

Police Commiss 

117, ! 

Political differences, 192. 

Poole, 127. 

Poorhouse, 187. 

Poor persona, relief, &c., 10, 11, 64. 

Porter, 34, 115. 

■aston. 13, 15, 16. 17, 22. 24, 38, 
49 77. 82. 9i, 100, 104, 113, 115, 
121, 126, 127, 130, 134. 136. 142, 
146. 148. 149, 160, 154, 160, 164. 
167. 170. 172, 175. 175. 177, 180, 
183 184, 190, 192, 197, 198, 199, 
2O0, 201, 202. 204, 20b, 207, 210, 
211. 212, 213. 

— lirook, lis. 

— cotton trade, 200, 212. 

— Gas Company, 200. 

— and Longridge Railway, 153. 

— Moor. 53. 109, 117, 1J3, 134. 

160. 188. 189. 194, 198. 

— Shipbuilding Co., 167. 

— smelling Baits, 209. 
Pretender, Old, 157. 

— Young. 143. 164. 
Prichard, 182, 183, 190. 191, 192. 
Primmett. 1, 29, 51, 

Prisons, 109, a)4. 
Prockter, 34. 

Pnrthonotary, Deputy, 199. 
Public- bouse a, keeping, 147, 156. 
Pump-streot. 208. 
Pumps. 165, 166, 173. 179. 180. 181 
183, 186, 192, 197, £07, 208. ' 

Races, horse, 194. 

Rasrged School, Mill Hill, 149. 

Rails and stoops. 24. 

Railways, 153. 166. 

Rjitelitfe, 139. 

RattenwaU Bank, 68. 

Ravald, 172. 

Rawfitorne, 56, 172, 180, 181. 192 

Read, 60, 162. 
Rebellion reminders, 198. 
Rebels, Scotch, 1*3, IBS, 184, 198. 
Receiver, 49. 

Reoordar, 31, 139. 177, 201, 203. 
Rector, Lay, 151. 
Rod Lion Inn 140. 

— Scar, 112, 199. 
Regatta Inn, 77, 140. 
Regrating, 96, 116, 137, 178. 

Relics of old nalor aupplj, 20B, 
RflminiiiT* of Robellioii, 198. 

R^^nlal. TownN. I54, l55. 
Rfiital, nor.lim^ijt, 117- 
Reservoir of wfllor, 210. 

Rcniduste. EHi '23- 

Ni^v nniHiMHalk. 72. 
; IS, 24, 136. 
or Sfflii-ock. 66. 142, 143, 

Bridge. 87, 88, 127, ISO, 193. 


, 201, 

43, 58. 165 

187, 201. 

..jj, 72. 

lano, 40, S7. 73, B3. 108, 114. 

126, 127, 150. 166. 
Moor. 66. 
rd-on, 68. 153, 159, 

Rifl-bv. 57. 58. 65. 93. 94, 96. 93. 
100. 101. 106. 109. 110, 111.112. 
113, 117. 118, 119. 120, 123, 12S. 
126. 127. 128, 129, 130. lil. 132 
133. 13S. 136. 137. 188. 

— Field. 157. 
Robrrts, 147. 
Robini^on. 30, 167. 177. 
RottPrson. 5. 6, 97, 201. 



I. 109. 

- Field, 20. 

- Walk 203. 

Ro™ and Crown tavern, 183. 

Rosaall Point, 109. 

Ruwbotham 155. 15S. 

Rojnl .Prwton Voliintwrs, 208. 

Kovalist clasR 35. 

Rojdcs. 170. 

Rojle. 15, 34. 189. 

Riifinr, 76. 

Rydins. 58. 50, 83, 130. 

Rvdin,,. .. 
R.vley. 16- 

■ hpy. 1 

), 83. 

School, the. 139. 

— Froe, 187, 197, 

— House. 80, 127, 128. 

— Simpaon's. 209. 
Ri'bl.'fwiB-stwt, 53. 
SchoiiM, 110. 

^'bnolrniutrr'H Mlart. 62, I 
Rca[df. 93. 

Scot and Lot, 52. 

Soots, 95. 

Scotch Rebdt. 143, 183. 

— nation, 95. 
Scoflaiid, 95, 
S^iUFiiid'- -"niblpni. 183. 

S<-alon Aspden, 208. 
Sr^tft wor^liip. 72. 
-Scpd, 130. 162. 
Soddan, 148. 
Krddons, 117. 
Softon. 130. ^ 

Slmroo Gref-».|ftii>', US, 

Sharrookc, 51, 71. 

Shawp. 12. 16. 29, 73, 78, , 


- Libi 

1, 94. 

184. 185, 192. 
■urj. 184. 
?t. 71. 79, 80. 


12. 68, 132. 



. Sherburne. 14, 





■\ 1B7. 

in, 175. 



ns, 167. 



Ship timber, 167. 

Shoes, 18, 139. 

Shortc, 14, 34, 49. 

Shovel and Broom Inn, 207. 

Shuttleworth, 198. 

Sidgroaves, 71. 

Sill, 206. 

Silcock, 6, 92. 

Silks, improper washing of, 185. 

Simmon, 131. 

Simpson, 15, 170. 

Simpson's Schol, 209. 

Singleton, 5, 13, 113, 175. 

— row, 134, 211. 
Singleton's Smithy, 166. 
Sion Hill, 57. 

Sir Simon, Old, alehouse, 184. 
Sizergh, 184. 
Skinhouse, 201. 

— pits, 133. 

Slaughtering in Shambles, 136, 137. 

Sleating dogs, 80. 

Smalley, 121. 

Smelling salts, Preston, 209. 

Smith, 15, 110, 167, 194. 

Sods, getting, 160. 

Solemn League and Covenant, 95. 

South Meadow-lane, 19, 41, 78, 

Sow, unruly, &c., 111. 
Sowerbutts, 14. 
Spa Brow, 25, 53, 122, 157, 159. 

— Brow Field, 122. 

— Well, 5, 53. 
Speaker Lenthal, 121. 
Speakman, 167. 
Spirits, ardent, 128, 176. 

Spitle Moss, 21, 25, 28, 45, 53, 68, 
71, 90, 115, 118, 129, 133, 135, 
142, 159, 167, 171, 172, 192. 

Spring Bank, 78, 144, 145. 

— Gardens, 202, 207. 

— Head, 144, 145. 

— Head Field, 78. 
Square Meadow, 166. 
Stabbing affair, 31. 
Staff and band, 88. 
Stakes, 186. 

Stallengors and Stallenging, 11, 38, 
43. 51, 69, 74. 80, 85, 86, 87. 

Standieh, 57, 65. 

Stanley, 55, 56, 121, 122, 151, 165, 
166, 171, 202. 

— Field road, 189, 194. 

— street, 119, 126, 153. 

— terrace, 77, 78. 
Starch Houses, 180, 203, 204. 
Starkio, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 

164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 
172, 173, 174. 175, 176, 177, 201. 

— street, 175. 
Steam Mill, 210. 
Stephenson-terrace, 47, 54, 100. 

Stevenson & Co., 65. 
Steward of Court Leet, 126. 
Sticks, gathering, on Sunday, 168. 
Stirzaker, 133. 

St. George's, 179, 185, 192, 193, 
194, 197, 202, 203, 208, 211. 

— — road, 198. 

— John's-lane, 144, 146, 177, 


— — street, 54, 77, 148, 176, 


— — Weend, 7, 47, 59, 148, 

150, 151, 166. 

— Margaret's, Westminster, 95. 

— Mary's-street North, 201. 

— — Friargate, 195. 

— Mary Magdalen, hospital of, 

21 26. 

— Paul's-road, 189. 

— Peter's, Vicar of, 158. 

— — Ward, 90. 

— Saviour's Church, 71. 

— Walburge-street, 159. 
Stiles, 204. 

Stocks, 68. 

Stonoygate, 48, 80, 105, 122, 124, 

138, 167, 204. 
Stonyhurst, 14. 
Stoops and rails, 24. 
Stourton, 186. 

Strait Shambles, 143, 162, 206. 
Strand-road, 210. 
Strange, 190. 
Strangers, 10, 43, 49. 
Streets broaches in, 174, 178. 

— cleaning, &c., 194. 

— town's, 129. 
Street sawpit, 101. 

Strefcford, ancient chapel of, 84. 

Stringer, 68, 163, 166. 

Strollers, 193. 

Strongwaterman, 128. 

Stuart cause, 171, 184. 

Suckling Sykes, 85. 

Sudell. 1 19, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. 57, 

39, 45. 49. 51, 72, 82. 83, 88, 90. 

lV?59.'''' 129, 133, 144, 150, 

Suit and service, 161, 163, 164. 165. 
167, 170, 171, 172. 

Sumner, 45. 98, 206. 

Sumpner 13, 17, 36, 39, 42, 86, 89. 
106, l28, 139. » » ' » 

Sunday, bowling on, 158. 

Sunday duties of Aldermen, Ooun- 
ciilors, &c., 63. 

Supervisors of Highways, 73, 79. 
102, 107, 108, 114, lis, 119, 1^0 
127, 128, 133. 144. 166, 156, 159 
160, 187, 189, 192, 210. 

Surveyors of Inmates, Ac., J 7. 

Sutcliffe-terraoe, 72. 

Swainson and Chippendale*8 fac- 
tory, 201. 



Swan Inn, 206. 

Swallow House, 41. 

Swansey, 61, 62, 94, 106, m. 

Sweeping- foot causeways, 205. 

Sweet water, 54. 

Swill'brooke, 19, 32, 66, 76, 79, 117, 

119, 126, 133, 141, 142, 146, iE3, 


— lane, 88, 127. 

— Mill, 127. 

Swine, 8, 27, 29, 45, 46, 59, 71, 82, 

105, 130, 141. 
Swineherd, 29, 46, 59, 60, 64, 65, 71. 
Syke, the, 71, 144. 

— Field, 43. 

— Hill. 25, 42, 71, 80, 116, J28, 

167, 175, 185. 

— street, 182, 212. 

— troughs, 21, 71, 115, 120, 143. 

— well, 185. 

Sykoe, 124, 152, 172, 182. 

— Furham, 84. 

— Suckling, 86. 
Symon, 90. 

Tajr, in Ingol, 143. 
Talbot Inn, 178, 179, 211. 
Tanning, 18. 

Tattenhall, Vicar of, 158. 
Tavlor, 9, 34, 38, 93, 119, 120, 126, 
' 156, 158. 

— street. 71, 193. • 
Taylor's Notes (Kuorden's Pres- 
ton), 149. 

Tenter Hey, 116. 

Tenterfield-street, 116. 

Toversal, 177. 

Thatch, 159, 160. 

That<;hed buildings, one of the 

last, 184. 
Theatre, first in Preston, 210. 

— Royal, 210. 
Theobald, Walter, 172. 
Thompson, 18, 162, 201, 205. 
Thorington Hall, 201. 
Threlfall, 48. 85, 106, 165, 167. 
Thurnham Hall, 170. 196. 
Timber on the Marsh, 167. 

— in streets, &c., 8, 16, 78, 109, 

111. 125, 132, 168, 171. 
Tinsley, 200. 
Tipping, 210. 

— Smithy, 62. 
Tipi^ling, 92. 99, 113. 
Tithe barn, 151, 152. 
Tithe-bam-street, 22, 120, 140, 152, 

176, 196. 
Titmouse barn, 133, 157. 

— Croft, 43, 116. 

— archard, 43, 193. 
Tobacco, taking, in streets, 153. 
Toby-croft, 74. 

Toll, 124, 193. 

Tomlinson, 33, 34, 41, 57, 65, 71, 

81, 105, 150, 156, 201. 
Toogood, 103, 158. 
Tootell, 193. 

Toryism of Corporation, 194. 
Town end, 108, 114. 

— fields, 44, 114. 

— Clerk, &c., 126, 203. 

— Hall, 29, 68, 108, 109. 114, 

129, 136, 137, 154, 162, 204, 

— Serjeant, 81. 
Town's bull, 60, 80, 106. 

— clock, 159, 161, 167. 

— Court of Trials, i08. 

— divisions, 17. 

— end, 100. 

— gallon, 134. 

— government, 99. 

— land, 3, 4, 7, 47, 74. 

— money, 32. 

— rental, 154, 155. 

— streets, 129. 

— revenue, 61, 65, 86. 

— waste, 6, 10, 12, 67, 74, 75, 

107, 139, 145. 
Townend, 71, 175. 
Townley, 172, 189. 

— Parker, 190. 
Townsend, 205. 
Townshend, 197. 
Trade companies, 191. 

— restrictions, &c., 4, 52, 106, 

109, 112, 113, 154, 155, 156, 

162. _ 
Tramway bridge, old, 19. 
Trees, 139, 145. 
Trinity Church, 55. 
Tubs, setting in street, 168. 
Tulketh g-rounds, 115. 

— Hall, 183. 

— lane, 142. 

Tumbrel, 89, 93, 94, 101, 104, 114. 
Turk's Head yard, 68, 124, 197, 

204, 207. 
Turner, 1, 18, 37, 98. 
Tussle, 5, 80. 
Twistleton, 82. 
Twistleton's well, 25, 162. 
Tyseinge, 80. 
Tyson, 18, 154. 


Union Workhouse, Fulwood, 188. 
Unitarian Chapel, 211. 
Unsworth, 129. 
Urmston Halmote, 83. 

Vagabonds, 64. 
Veal, 96. 
Vernon, 199. 



Vicar's greave, 174. 
Vicar of Lancaster, 104. 

— — Preston Parish Church, 

104, 158. 
Vicarage, 161. 

— Croft, 21, 58. 

— the Old, 21, 152, 169, 178, 

Victualling houses, 92. 
Viewers of fish and flesh, 17, 168. 
Volunteers, Royal Preston, 208. 
Votes of " all the inhabitants," 57, 


Wade, 182. 

WaHson, 109. 

Wages, 65. 

Waggon or cart light, 201. 

Wakefeild, 18. 

Wallcott, 104. 

Walker, 15, 119, 152. 

street 200 

Wall, 1, 24,' 29, 34, 36, 39. 45, 54, 

59, 71, 77, 79, 81, 84, 86, 89, 90, 

91, 92, 108, 128, 129, 130, 140, 

156, 163, 169, 172. 
Walmersley, 45. 
Walmesley, 6, 8, 33, 94, 109, 113, 

117, 121, 128, 141, 146, 147, 148, 

153, 154, 158, 162, 175, 182, 186, 

Walshman, 182. 
Walter, Theobald, 172. 
Walton-le-Dale, 127, 146, 165, 198. 

— Church, 200. 

— Mock Corporation, 171, 172, 


— bridge, 88. 

— Brow, 127. 
Walton's Parade, 78. 
Wardens, Chapel, 197. 
Ward's End, 129. 
War times, 48. 

Warren, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 

154, 155, 156, 157. 
Warton, Vicar of, 193, 194. 
Wash pond, 39. 

— troughs, 141. 

— way, 100, 115. 
Washing pits, 23. 

— pool, 53, 54, 72. 

— potatoes, &c., 166. 

— silks, 185. 

— Stead, 153. 

— — Brow, 141. 
Wasle, 68, 155. 

Waste, Town's, 6, 10, 12, 74, 75. 
Water, 69, 99, 153. 

— courses, 175. 

— lane, 23, 25, 47, 76, 210. 

— pipes, bursting of, 178. 

— poet, 95. 

Water reaervoir, 210. 

— side, 124, 126. 

— street, 9, 47, 88, 124, 165. 

— supply, 167, 175. 

— sweet, 54. 

— willows, 88, 131. 
Watery-lane, 210. 
Watering horses, 129, 140, 146. 

— places, 26. 

— pools, 47, 101. 

— Trough Inn. 21. 
Waterworks, 175, 178, 182, 207, 210. 
Watling Street-road, 109, 118, 120, 

Wateon, 8, 34, 67, 80, 109, 111, 125, 
132 198, 200, 202. 

— House, 169. 
Wayfaring people, 92. 
Wearden, 113, 140. 
Webb-Peploe, 168. 
Weend or Weind, 7. 
Weengreave, 68. 

Weights, measures, &c., 9, 46, 80, 

81, 135, 183, 207. 
Wellington-terrace, 25, 122. 
Wells, 26. 99, 110, 113. 120, 122, 

129, 134, 136, 140, 142, 145, 146, 
153, 162, 164, 165, 173, 177, 179, 
180, 185, 197. 

Well Field, 23, 122. 

Wellfield-road, 23, 83, 122. 

Welsh, 130 

Welshman, 9. 

Werden, 4, 5, 9, 14, 15, 20, 21, 24, 
28, 30, 32, 33. 40, 43, 61, 62, 
64, 68, 77, 81, 84. 101, 123, 125, 

130, 133, 142, 147, 168. 
Westby, 185. 

West Cliff, 78, 83, 122. 
West Moor, 133. 
Whalley, 109, 131, 170. 
Wharf, ferry, 186. 
Wheat, 74. 

Wheat Sheaf Inn, 76. 
Whins, 68, 129. 
Whinrall, 73. 
Whipping Bailiffs, 67. 

— rogues, vagabonds, Ac., 64. 
White Bull Hotel, 121, 168. 

— cloth, dying, &c., of, 31. 

— Horse Inn, 140. 
l^arket 16 

Whitehead, 172, 173, 177, 179, 183. 

Whiteside, 114. 

Whittakers, 176. 

Whittaker Row, 176. 

Whittiker, 141. 

Whittle, 96, 137. 

Widows of Burgesses, 70. 

Wigan, 134. 161. 

Wiggans, 69. 

Willasie, 62. 

WiUows, 166. 

Wilcockson, 22, 23, 126. 



Wilding, 18, 96, 123. 
Williamson, 50, 206. 
WUkinfion. 13, 90, 104. 
Willoughby, 55. 
Willow fields, 47. 
Wilson, 5, 32, 71, 77, 79. 
Winckley, 8, 9, 112, 129, 131, 142, 

148, 149, 158, 172, 177, 182, 185, 

197, 199, 202. 

— square, 71, 182, 196, 199, 208, 

Winder, 121, 168. 
Windermere, 186. 
W^indmilL Broadgate, 123. 

— Field, 128. 
Windy mill, 149. 
Windsor, 180. 
Wine, 121. 
Wiswell, 131. 
Withington, 124. 
Withy Trees, 120. 
Witton, 131. 

Wood, 85, 156, 167, 168, 193. 
Woods, 68, 118, 129, 132, 134, 135, 

Woodburne, 1, 130, 145. 
Woodcock, 182, 210. 
Woodcock's Court, 210. 
Wood Holme, 76. 
Wood House, 36, 39, 45, 98, 101, 

108, 114, 129. 

WoodToffe, 10, 12, 13, 26, 37. 
Wood-street, 196, 208. 
Woodpiumpton, 88. 
Woodvaie, 76. 
Woodward, 60, 110. 
Worden, 1, 75, 76, 121, 199. 

— Hall, 17. 
Words, 93, 108. 
World's End, 129. 
Workhouse, 187, 193. 
Workhouses, District, 188. 
Worship, secret, 72. 
Worthinge, 91, 114. 
Worthington, 20, 38, 77. 
Wren, 210. 
Whittle, 186. 
Wyresdale, Nether, 168. 

Yard Works, 211. 
Yarn, bowked, 144. 

— washing, &c., 148. 
Years, lawful, 108. 
Yellow Factory, 212. 
Yorkshire, 186. 
York-street, 73. 
Young, 86. 

— Pretender, 143. 



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