Skip to main content

Full text of "Primary dictionary;"

See other formats
















According to act of Congress, in the year 1842, 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of 
the Southern District of 



It is hoped that the title, Rational Vocabulary, 
prefixed to this Uttle book, will not be thought 
to savour of presumption, or to rank it with 
True Grammar^ and The only Sure Guide^ in 
any elementary study. This vocabulary, in its 
selection and arrangement^ was taken from an 
Enghsh publication well suited to its purpose. 
The definitions are either original in their form, 
or carefully revised ; and though adapted in 
simplicity of expression to the language of the 
young, are intended to convey to them just 
and new ideas in words that are in good use, 
and of proper authority. 

Spelling-books and Dictionaries now in use, 
may, to many teachers, seem sufficient for all 
purposes of orthography, and all necessary aid 
to literary composition which can be thus deri- 
ved — but there are parents and preceptors who 
are accustomed to be constantly appealed to 


for plain and familiar expositions of words which, 
to their pupils, are new, and not of obvious 
meaning, who will be glad of a book that is 
quite comprehensible, and properly introductory 
to more ample and systematic vocabularies — 
to those which serve for ultimate standards, 
and which are asserted to contain all our primi- 
tive terms, and their modifications. 

To advance, without oppressing the infant 
mind, has been the design of all the publica- 
tions I have offered to those engaged in edu- 
cation ; and to make those publications illus- 
trative of others in very common use, but 
somewhat difficult for beginners to compre- 
hend, has seemed to me to be supplying so 
many steps that were deficient in the artificial 
helps furnished to the natural ascent of mind. 

It is an almost universal custom in schools 
to give children daily a certain number of 
words, with definitions annexed, to be com- 
mitted to memory. I have not found any effi* 
cacy in this practice ; and I must agree w^'ith 
Miss Edgeworth, that words without applica- 
tion, and of significations wholly remote from 
the possible knowledge of children, when thus 
forced upon the memory, rather make a mys- 


tery, or dead letter of language, than furnish 
an instrument which serves to express what is 
known, and to acquire what is unknown. I 
know not of what utility it can be for a child 
to repeat, " Metaphysics, the doctrine of the 
general affections of existing substances," and 
other such abstractions — but I believe that a 
selection from Dictionaries, of words corres- 
ponding to early requirements of the under- 
standing, * and intelligibly explained, may be 
useful to children. 

If any little book which I have given to the 
public has been useful, upon the same principle 
this will be found so, for it is designed to serve 
the same purpose as its predecessors, and I 

hope it may expeiience the same acceptance. 


New-York, April 28th^ 1828. 

The Primary Dictionary during fourteen 
years has passed through many editions, in 
which some errors might be detected ; but 
in the present revised form, it is hoped that 
these inaccuracies have been remedied, and 
that it will be found more completely fitted 
than formerly to answer its designed uses. 

Eliza Robbins. 
New-York, July, 1842. 


A-BAN-DON. Abandon, to leave or go away from. 
An abandoned man or woman, means a very 
wicked man or woman. 

A-BATE. Abate, to make or become less : the 
storm abates when it begins to be less severe. 

Ab-bre-vi-ate. Abbreviate, to shorten : Tom. is 
an abbreviation of Thomas ; one o^clocJc, is an 
abbreviation of the phrase, it is one hour of the 

A-BET. Abet, to help or encourage a person to do 
any thing. 

Ab-hor. Abhor, to hate, to dislike very much in- 
deed : as, God abhors lies. 

Ab-hor-rence. Abhorrence, great hatred. 

A-BiDE. Abide, to stay in a place. To abide, also 
means to remain faithful to one's word or engage- 
ment : as, " I have promised to go, and I will 
abide by my promise ;" that is, I will go. 

Ab-ject. Abject, very mean or cowardly. 

A-BiL-i-TY. Ability, is the power of doing some- 
thing : you who read this have ability to read. 

A-BiL-i-TiES. Abilities, talents, capacity to think 
rightly, and to do many things readily and well. 

A-BLE. Able, having understanding and bodily 
^rength ; you are able to speak and to walk. 

2 ABS 

A-BODE. Abode, house, habitation, place to live in. 

A-BOL-isH. Abolish, to put an end to, to destroy. 

Ab-o-li-tion. Abolition, or aholishmg^ causing 
that which has been allowed or done, to be done 
no more. 

A-BOM-i-NA-BLE. Abominable, very wicked, or 

A-BOM-i-NATE. Abominate, to abhor. 

Ab-o-ri-gi-nes. Aborigines, the original, or first 
inhabitants of a country. The Indian natives 
of North America are descendants of the dbo- 

A-BOVE. Above, higher in place. 

A-BOVE-GROUND. Abovcground, not below the 
surface of the earth. 

A-BOUT. About, around or encircling. 

A-BREAST. Abreast, along-side : two horses at- 
tached together before a coach, are abreast. 

A-BRiDGE. xibridge, to make shorter in words, or 
to make less in another way : "I shall abridge 
your play-time," would signify, " I shall not al. 
low you so much time to play." 

A-BROAD. Abroad, away from one's own home 
out of the house, in another country. 

Ab-rupt. Abrupt, very sudden ; an abrupt depart- 
ure, is when a person goes away unexpectedly. 

Ab-scond. Abscond, to leave a place secretly, 
and to hide one's self. 

Ab-sence. Absence. To be away from a place, 
is to be absent from it. Absence of mind, is inat- 
tention to objects before one : to be doing one 
thing and thinking of another. 

Ab-so-lute. Absolute, positive, certain, existing 
alone. Kings who rule their subjects without 

\CC 3 

written laws, just as they are pleased to do of 
their own v/ill, are absolute monarclis. 

Ab-sorb. Absorb, to soak up, or suck in. A 
sponge immersed or put into water, becomes 
w^et : the pores of the sponge absorb the water. 

Ab-stain. Abstain, not to do what one is inclined 
to do. 

Ab-ste-mi-ous. Abstemious, temperate, not taking 
much food. 

Ab-sti-nent. Abstinent, the same as abstemious 

Ab-stract. Abstract, to take away one part of a 
thing from the rest : to take aw ay colour from a 
piece of cloth, is abstraction of the colour. 

Ab-struse. Abstruse, difficult to be understood. 

Ab-surd. Absurd, ridiculous, having a foolish ap- 

A-bound. Abound, to be in great quantity : water 
abounds in rivers. 

A-BUSE. Abuse, to injure, or treat a peiison with 
undeserved insult and contempt. 

A-BUSE. Abuse, a bad use of a thing. 

A-BUN-DANCE. Abundauce, great plenty. 

A-CAD-E-MY. Academy, a school ; a company of 
men who join to encourage learning or arts. 

A-CAD-E-Mi-ciAN. Academician, a person who ia 
the member of an academy. 

Ac-CEDE. Accede, to agree to a proposal. 

Ac-CEL-E-RATE. Accelerate, to make any thing 
in motion go on faster and faster. 

Ac-CEPT. Accept, to take with pleasure. 

Ac-CEss. Access, the way to a place : the door, 
or place of entrance is the access to a house. 

Ac-CEss-A-RY. Accessary, a person who helps an- 
other to commit a crime : a man who should 

4 ACC 

give another a knife, in order to kill somebody, 
would be an accessary to murder. 

Ac-CEss-i-BLE. Accessible, easily reached. The 
house-top is accessible to the mason, who can 
ascend a ladder, but to those who cannot climb, 
it is inaccessible, 

Ac-ci-DENT. Accident, an unforeseen circum- 
stance, not necessary to happen. 

Ac-CLA-MA-TioN. Acclamation, shouts of praise 
from many voices. 

Ac-CLiv-i-TY. Acclivity, the rising of the ground, 
or any other surface. To go up a hill is to mount 
the acclivity. The slope from the top to the 
bottom of the hill is its declivity, 

Ac-coM-MO-DATE. Accommodatc, to furnish with 
necessary and comfortable things. Paper, ink, 
pens, &;c. are accommodations for writing. To 
accommodate matters^ is a phrase used to express 
the fact that persons who have disagreed, are 
become reconciled and satisfied. 

Ac-coM-PLisH. Accomplish, to finish, or to adorn, 
and make elegant. 

Ac-coM-PLisH-ED. Accomplished, well instructed 
in useful and polite knowledge. 

Ac-coM-PLisH-MENTS. Accomplishmcnts, elegant 
arts : to speak elegantly, to read well, to under- 
stand music, and foreign languages, is to possess 

Ac-coRD. Accord, thinking alike, acting alike, 

Ac-count. Account, a written fist of expenses, or 
of money due from one person to another. An 
account is a narrative of facts : "I rose at so- 

ACQ 6 

ven, ate my breakfast, studied my lesson, and 

went to school before nine o'clock, is an accoimt 

of the manner in which a child may spend his 

time in the morning. 
Ac-coM-PA-NY. Accompany, to associate with 

others, or to go along with them. 
Ac-coM-rLicE. Accomplice, a person v/ho aids 

another to do a bad action. 
Ac-CRE-TioN. Accretion. A substance increases 

by accretion, when it is made larger by some- 
thing which grows to it on the surface. A crust 

is sometimes an accretion. 
Ac-cu-Mu-LATE. Accumulatc, to collect, and heap 

Ac-cu-RA-CY. Accuracy, great exactness. 
Ac-cu-RATE. Accurate, very nice and exact. 

To tell the precise truth is to be accurate. 
Ac-cusE. Accuse, to impute a fault or crime to .a 

Ac-cus-TOM. Accustom, to do a thing often. To 

be accustomed, is to have a habit. You eat daily, 

you are accustomed to eat. 
A-CE-TOSE. Acetose, sour. A-cid. Acid, sour, 

Ache. Ache, to be in pain. 
A-CHiEVE. Achieve, to finish, or to perform some 

thing difficult. 
Ac-KNOWL-EDGE. Acknowledge, to confess. 
A-coRN. Acorn, seed of the oak. 
Ac-quaint. Acquaint, to tell a person of a fact, 

to give information. 
Ac-QUAiNT-ANCE. Acquaintance, persons whom 

we know. 


6 ADM 

Ac-QUi-ESCE. Acquiesce, to submit, to be satisfied. 
Ac-quire -MENT. Acquirement, any sort of know. 

ledge gained by exertion : the art of writing is a 

useful acquirement. 
Ac-Qui-si-TioN. Acquisition, whatever we gain. 
Ac-rid. Acrid, of a hot biting taste. 
Act, to do something. 
Ac-TivE. Active, quick and nimble. 
Ad-a-mant. Adamant, the hardest substance, the 

Ad-a-mant-ine. Adamantine, hard like adamant. 
A-DAPT. Adapt, to fit. Shoes are adapted to feet, 

gloves are adapted to hands. 
Add, to put one thing to another. 
Ad-dress. Address, to write or speak to a person. 
Ad-e-quate. Adequate, sufiicient, enough. 
Ad-here. Adhere, to stick to. Sealing wax ad* \ 

lieres to paper. I 

Ad-jacent. Adjacent, being next. One pew in a 

church is adjacent to another. 
Ad-jouiin. Adjourn, to put ofi* to another day. 
Ad-junct. Adjunctjjoined together. 
Ad-just. Adjust, to put things in proper order, 

or into their right places. 
Ad-min-is-ter. Administer, to afford things to 

other people, or to arrange affairs. 
Ad-mi-ral. Admiral, a commander of several 

ships in the British navy. In the American 

navy we have no admirals. 
Ad-mire. Admire, to regard any person or thing 

with wonder and pleasure on account of supe- 

rior worth or beauty, 
Ad-mit. Admit, to allow, to let into a place. 
Ad-mon-ish. Admonish, to speak gently and 

ADV 1 

kindly to a person of his faults, and to instruct 

him how he may do better. 
Ad-mo-ni-tion. Admonition, gentle reproof and 

A-DOPT. Adopt, to take another person's child for 

one's own. To adopt an opinion is to think as 

some other person thinks. 
A-DORE. Adore, to worship, to bow down before 

another being because he is more worthy than 

A-DRiFT. Adrift, floating upon the water without 

any guide or direction : we say of persons who 

wander about without any home or business, 

they are adrift. 
A-DULT. Adult, one who is no longer a child. 
Ad-vance. Advance, to come forward : to im- 
prove in any thing is to advance ; to advance 

money is to lend it. 
Ad-van-tage. Advantage, a benefit : a good 

education is an advantage, 
Ad-vejnt. Advent, the coming of Christ into this 

Ad-vent-uke. Adventure, an undertaking of 

which the end is uncertain. 
Ad-vent-ure. Adventure, is to undertake business 

without fear of bad consequences, to venture, 
Ad-ver-sa-ry. Adversary, one person acting 

against another, an antagonist or enemy. 
Ad-vers-i-ty. Adversity, trouble or affliction. 

To be very poor, is to be in adversity, 
Ad-ver-tise. Advertise, to let all persons know 

Ad-vise. Advise, to instruct others how to con- 
duct themselves, or how to act wisely. 

'8 AG A 

A-E-Ri-AL. Aerial, belonging to air. 

A-E-RO-NAUT Aeronaut, one who manages bal- 
loons, and ascends into the air. 

A-FAR. Afar, at a great distance. 

Af-fa-ble. Affable, polite, of amiable manners. 

Af-fair. Affair, something to be done, business. 

Af-fec-tion. Affection, love and good will. To be 
affected, is to feel in any way. To be affected 
with disease is to be sick. 

Af-firm. x\ffirm, to speak positively concerning 
any subject. 

Af-firm-a-tive. Affirmative. Yes, is an affirma- 
tive ; No, a negative. " I love you," is an af- 
firmative declaration ; " I do 7iot love you," is 
the negative of it. 

Af-fix. Affix, to fasten one thing upon another. 

Af-flict. Afflict, to grieve or to give pain. 

Af-flic-tion. Affliction, distress of mind. 

Af-flu-ence. Affluence, abundance of money 
wealth, riches. 

Af-flu-ent. Affluent, abounding in money. 

Af-ford. Afford, to be able to pay for : to be able 
to give a thing. 

Af-fright. Affright, sudden and great fear. 

Af-front. Affront, to insult, to give offence by 

A-FLOAT. Afloat, swimming on waten 

A-FRAiD. Afraid, in fear. 

Af-Ter. After, in time following some time be- 
fore : 

Af-ter-noon. Afternoon, that part of the day 
which follows twelve o'clock until sunset. 

A-GAiN. Again, once more, another time. 

A-(;ainst, Against, opposite to something. 

ALA 9 

Age. Age, the time a person has lived : w.e say 
of a child, he is six years of age. Age also 
means the time in which some great person liv- 
ed : when we say the Augustan age, we mean 
the time when Augustus, a celebrated Roman 
emperor, hved. 

Ag-gra-vate, Aggravate, to make worse. 

Ag-gre-gate. Aggregate, the whole of a number 
of things taken together, or collectively. 

A-GENT. Agent, one who acts, or performs some 

A-GHAST. Aghast, pale with terror 

A-GiLE. Agile, active. 

A-GiL-i-TY. Agility, the power of moving quickly, 
and with ease. 

A-Gi-TATE. Agitate, to move, to disturb, to shake : 
a person is agitated who is suddenly frightened 
or rejoiced. 

Ag-o-ny. Agony, violent pain of body or mind. 

A-GREE, Agree, to think like another, to be alike. 
When several things are fitted to each other they 

A-GREE-A-BLE. Agreeable, pleasing, fit. 

A-GUE. Ague, a disease. 

Aid. Aid, help, assistance. To aid is to assist 

Ail. Ail, to be sick. 

Aim. Aim, to attempt to reach, or to gain some- 

Air. Air, a thin substance which surrounds the 
earth, as a candle blaze surrounds the wick. 
Air is the element which animals respire or 
breathe : air keeps animals and vegetables alive. 
An air sometimes means a piece of music. The 
air of a person is his manners and appearance. 

10 ALL 

Al-a-bas-ter. Alabaster, a substance which re- 
sembles marble, and out of which statues and 
vases are often made. 

A-LAC-Ei-TY. Alacrity, willingness to do some 
thing, and ready exertion to do it. 

A-LARM. Alarm, a cry to express danger : the 
state of sudden surprise and fear. 

A-LARM-iNG. Alarming, terrible and surprising. 

Al-co-hol. Alcohol, the spirit which is in bran- 
dy, and other intoxicating liquors. 

Al-der-man. Alderman, a magistrate in a city. 

Ale. Ale, a species of beer, or malt liquor. 

A-LiGHT. Alight, to come down from a horse or 
carriage : a bird may alight from a perch, oi 
from his flight in the air. 

Al-i-ment. Aliment, food or victuals : bread, 
meat, &c. 

A-LivE. Alive, not dead. 

All. All, the whole. 

Al-lay. Allay, to abate heat or pain : water al- 
lays the painful sensation of thirst. 

Al-li-ance. Alliance, the union of several per- 
sons in the same undertaking, 

Al-li-ga-tor. Alligator, the crocodile of America. 

Al-lit-er-a-tion. Alliteration, the beginning of 
two or more words in succession with the same 
letters : Thus : 

*' The bookful blockhead ignorantly read, 
With loads of learned lumber m his head." 

Two words in the first line begin with B, and three 
in the second with L : this is alliteration. 

Al-le-lu-jah. Allelujah, pronounced alleluya: 
it signifies praise God. 

Al-le-vi-ate. Alleviate, to make pain or any 
affliction less. 

AMB 11 

Al-luse. Allure, to entice a person to do a bad 
action, or to go to a dangerous place. 

All- WISE. All-wise, knowing all things : God 
alone is all-wise or omniscient. 

Al-ly. Ally, one who assists another in some 

Al-migh-ty. Almighty, means able to do all 
things : it is only God who is almighty. We say 
too that God is all-wise, and that he is all-seeing, 
because he sees every thing which we do, in 
darkness as well as in the light. 

A-LOFT. Aloft, up high in the air. 

Al-tar. Altar, a kind of table, commonly made 
of stone or of w^ood, on which are laid things 
offered up to God. 

Al-ter. Alter, to change, to make a thing dif- 
ferent from what it was. 

A.L-TER-NATE-LY. Alternately, by turns, one af- 
ter another. 

A-MAss. Amass, to heap together. 

A-MAZE. Amaze, to terrify and astonish at once. 

AoiAZE-MENT. Amazement, great fear and won- 

A-MAz-iNG. Amazing, very wonderful. 

Am-a-zon. Amazon, a masculine woman. 

Am-bas-sa-dor. Ambassador, a messenger from 
the government of one country to the govern- 
ment of another country, 

Am-ber. Amber, a beautiful yellow substance 
found on the sea-shore : necklaces and orna- 
ments are made of it. 

Am-big-u-ous. Ambiguous, having two different 
meanings, uncertain. 

Am-bi-tion, Ambition, the wish which we feel to 
improve ourselves, or to raise ourselves higher 

12 ANC 

in rank or knowledge than we are now : an am- 
hitious person is one who desires to be greater 
or better than he is. 

A-MEND. Amend, to make any thing right which 
was wrong before, to become better. 

A-MEN-i-TY. Amenity, mildness of manners. 

A-MEL-ioR-ATE. Ameliorate, to improve. 

Am-e-tiiyst. Amethyst, a precious stone, of a 
beautiful purplish blue colour. 

A-Mi-A-BLE. Amiable, deserving love, kind and 

Am-i-ca-ble. Amicable, with a friendly intention. 

Am-mu-ni-tion. Ammunition, balls and powder, 
used in fighting. 

A -MOUNT. Amount, sum total : the whole of se- 
veral numbers together. 

Am-phib-i-ous. Amphibious : we call those crea- 
tures amphibious which can live both on land 
and in the water : the otter and the beaver are 
amphibious animals. 

Am-ple. Ample, large, wide, or plentiful. 

Am-ply. Amply, largely, in great plenty, 

Am-pu-tate. Amputate, to cut off limbs. 

A-muse-ment. Amusement, pleasure, play. 

A-Mus-iNG. Amusing, entertaining. 

An- arch- Y. Anarchy, confusion, want of govern- j 

An-ces-tors. Ancestors, those of our family who 
have lived before us. 

Ak-chor. Anchor, an iron implement used in 

An-cho-vy. Anchovy, a small fish. 

Ak-cient. Ancient, old, belonging to times long 
since past : by the ancients, we mean those peo- 
ple who lived in those times. 

ANT 13 

An-ecdote. Anecdote, a short piece of history. 

An-gle, Angle, a point where two lines meet to* 

gether. This is a right angle, | . This is an 

acute angle, ^. This is an obtuse angle, _/. A 
triangle is a figure which has three angles or 
corners, like this, A. A quadrangle is a figure 
which has four angles or corners, like this, n» 

An-gling. Angling, taking fish for sport. 

An-i-mal-cu-le. Animalcule, an animal too small 
to be seen without glasses. 

An-gu-lar, Angular, having points or corners. 

An-guish. Anguish, very great pain. 

An-i-mal. Animal, every creature which is alive 
and feels is called an animal. 

An-i-mate. Animate, all living creatures are aw- 
imate ; and all things which are not alive, and 
never have been alive, are inanimate ; a horse, 
a mouse, a fly, is animate; a stone, a tree, a 
flower, is inanimate. 

An-i-ma-ted. Animated, gay, lively. 

An-nex. Annex, to add one thing to the end of 
some other thing ; to join. 

An-nounce. To announce a things to tell it. To 
announce a person, to tell his name. 

An-nu-al. xinnual, coming every year. 

An-nu-al-ly. Annually, every year. 

Ant-arc-tic. Antarctic, belonging to the Southern 

An-te-ri-or. Anterior, going before, or happen- 
ing before. 

An-ti-ci-pate. To anticipate, a person is to do 
something which he intended to do, before he 
shall do it, so as to prevent him from doing it 

14 APP 

To anticipate, is to feel a circumstance, or think 

of it, before it has really happened. 
An-tic. Antic, a strange comical action or attitude. 
An-ti-dote. Antidote, any thing which is good 

against poison. 
An-tip-o-des. The Antipodes. This world in 

which we live is a large globe or ball, something 

in the shape of an orange ; those people, then, 

who live at the other side of the world, and have 

their feet opposite to ours, are called Antipodes* 
AN-Ti-aui-TY. Antiquity, times which are long 

since past, 
An-ti-qui-ties. Antiquities, the remains of things 

which were made or done a very long while ago. 
An-vil. Anvil, a strong heavy piece of iron, on 

which a smith hammers his work. 
Anx-i-e-ty. Anxiety, great trouble about what is 

to happen. 
Anx-ious. Anxious, full of uneasiness ; to be 

anxious ybr a thing, to wish for it very much. 
A-PART. Apart, separated from the rest of a num. 

ber of persons or things, or divided from a body. 
Ape. Ape, a kind of monkey. To ape, to imi. 

tate without good sense. 
A-PER-TURE. Aperture, a hole, or opening in any 

A-POL-o-GY. Apology, an excuse. 
A-POL-o-GizE. Apologize, to make excuses. 
A-pos-TLE. Apostle : the Apostles were those 

men who were sent by Jesus Christ to teach his 

Ap-par-el. Apparel, clothes, any thing in which 

one is dressed. 
Ap.pA-RENT. Apparent nlain, easy to be seen. 

ARM 15 

Apparent sometimes means not real, only pre- 

Ap-pease. Appease, to quiet, or to satisfy. 
Ap-pen-dage. Appendage, something which is 

added to another thing, or belongs to it. 
Ap-plaud. Applaud, to praise highly. 
Ap-ply. Apply, to apply to a things to pay atten- 
tion to it, or to work at it. To apply to a per. 

son, to ask him for something. 
Ap-pli-ca-tiox. Application, the use of something. 

Application means also great attention to any 


Ap-point. Appoint, to fix or settle. 
Ap-proach. Approach, to come near to. 
Ap-pro-ba-tion. Approb-ation, the being pleased 

with any thing 
Ap-prove. Approve, to like, to be much pleased 

4l-quat-ic. Aquatic, belonging to the water, living 

in water ; swans and geese are aquatic birds. 
Arch-er. Archer, one that shoots with a bow and 

Arch-e-ry. Archery, the art of shooting with a 

bow and arrow. 
Ar-chi-tect. Architect, a builder, or contriver 

of any edifice. 
Ar-chi-tec-ture. Architecture is the art of 

Arc-tic. Arctic, belonging to the Northern Pole 

of the earth. 
Ark. Ark, the vessel which God commanded 

Noah to build for the preservation of himself 

and his family from the flood. 
Arms. Arms, or weapons, are instruments used to 

16, ATT 

kill men, or to prevent them from being huit : 
guns and pistols diVQ fire-arms. To take up armSy 
means to begin to fight. 

Ar-dent. Ardent, hot, burning : sometimes ardertf, 
means, of a passionate or affectionate temper, 

Ar-dour Ardour, great heat. 

Ar-du-ous. Arduous, difficult, hard to be reached. 

Ar-gue. Argue, to dispute, or to try to persuade 
any body by reasons. 

Ar-gu-ment. Argument, a reason. 

Ar-my. Army, soldiers who fight together, and 
obey one man, called the general of the army. 

A-suN-DER. Asunder, parted, not together. Wood 
is sawn asunder, 

At-mo-sphere. Atmosphere, the air which is 
all around us. 

At-om. Atom, a very small part of any things 
or something exceedingly small. 

A-TONE. Atone, to make amends for a fault by 
being good. 

A-.TRo-ci-TY. Atrocity, great wickedness. 

At-tach. Attach, to fasten one thing to ano- 
ther : to he attached to persons or things, is to 
be very fond of them, to love them. 

At-tach-ment. Attachment, fondness for some- 

At-tain. To attain a things is to get it or 
reach it. 

At-tempt. Attempt, to try. 

At-tend. Attend, or to be attentive^ or to pay 
attention, is to mind what one is about. 

At-ten-dant. Attendant, one that waits upon 
another person. 

At-tract. Attract, to be attracted by any thing, is 

AUT 17 

to be drawn towards it, as a needle is drawn to- 
wards a magnet. 
At-trac-tive. Attractive,' pleasing, very agree- 
At-tri-tion. Attrition, the act of rubbing things 

A-scEN-sioN. Ascension, flight upwards. 
A-VAiL. To avail one^s self of any thing, to profit 

by it, to make use of it. 
Av-A-RicE. Avarice, love of money. 
Av-A-Ri-cious. Avaricious, covetous, selfish. 
Au-DA-cious^ Audacious, bold, impudent. 
Au-Di-BLE. Audible, loud enough to be heard. 
Au-Di-EXCE. Audience, people who listen to 

something : to give audience to a person <o iis 

ten to what he has to say. 
Au-Di-TOR. Auditor, a person who hears. 
A-VERSE. Averse, unwilling : to be averse lo a 

thing, is to dishke it. 
A-vER-sioN. Aversion, hatred, great dislike. 
AuG-MENT. Augment, to make bigger, oc to be* 

come larger. 
A-vi-A-RY. Aviary, a place to keep birds lO. 
A-viD-i-TY. Avidity, great greediness. 
Av-o-cA-TioN. Avocation, a person's business, or 

A -VOID. To avoid a thing, to get away from il, 

or to try to get away from it : to avoid a person^ 

to keep out of his way. 
Au-spi-cious. Auspicious, kind, lucky, happy. 
Au-sTERE. Austere, cross, severe. 
Au-STER-i-TY. Austerity, means severity, cruelty. 
At/-thor. Author, a person who first contrives 

something : an author is one who writes a b^iok 

18 ASP 

Ar-o-mat-ic. Aromatic, having the taste or smell 

of spices ; having a strong and dehghtful.smelL 
Ar-ray, Array, to dtess. 
Ar-ray-ed. Arrayed, dressed, ornamented. 
Ar-rest. Arrest, to stop, to hinder from going on 
Ar-ro-gance, Arrogance, conceit, pride. 
Ar-ro-gant. Arrogant, proud, and impudent. 
Art. Art, the power of doing something by taking 

pains : art sometimes means cunning. 
Art-ist. Artist, a person who is skilful in any 

particular art. 
Art-ful. Artful, cunning, contriving. 
Art-i-fice. Artifice, a trick, something dono 

Art-i-fi-cer. Artificer, a person who contrive* 

or makes any thing. 
Art-i-fi-cial. Artificial, means not natural, but 

made by art to imitate nature. 
Ar-ti-cle. Article, any particular thing. 
Ar-tic-u-late. Articulate, to speak words plainly, 
A-scEiN D. Ascend, to go upwards ; to descend^ is 

to go downwards, 
A-scent. Ascent, the way by which we go up 
As-CER-TAiN. Ascertain, to make quite sure. 
Ash-es. Ashes, what is left of something which 

has been burnt, or which is dead. . 

A-siDE. Aside, on one side : aside sometimes ^ 

means away from the company. 
As-PECT. Aspect, the look or countenance of a 

person ; as when we say, such a one has an ill- 
natured or rough aspect, 
As-PECT. Aspect, the appearance of a country. 
As-piRE. Aspire, to wish very much for something 

above us : to wish to rise higher. 

AWE 19 

As-SE3r-BLE. Assemble, to meet together, or to 

bring together into one place. 
As-SEM-BLAGE. Assemblage, either a number of 

things or a number oi persons all together in one 

As-sENT. Assent, to agree to a plan or proposed. 
A.S-SERT. To assert a fact is to affirm it, to say it 

is true. 
As-SER-TioN. Assertion, something which is said 

to be true. 
As-si-DU-i-TY. Assiduity, continual industry or 

attention to something. 
As-so-ci-ATE. To associate with a person, is to 

keep company with him. 
As-so-ciATE. Associate, a partner or companion. 
As-suAGE. Assuage, to ease pain. 
As-suME. Assume, to pretend to be more impor- 

tant than one really is : to assume a right or a 

duty^ is to take it upon one's-self. 
As-su-MiNG. Assuming, bold, impudent. 
As-suR-ANCE. Assurance, confidence in one's own 

ability. An assurance is a promise. 
As-suR-ED-LY. Assuredly, certainly, without doubt, 
A-STRAY. Astray, wrong, out of the way. 
As-TROL-o-GER. Astrologcr, a man who pretends to 

know what will happen by looking at the stars. 
As-TRON-o-MY. Astronomy, the science which 

describes the heavenly bodies, the sua, moon, 

and stars. 
Au-THOR-i-TY. Authority; power, rule. 
Au-TOM-A-TON. Automaton, an image, which is 

contrived to move like a living being. 
Aux-iL-i-A-RY. Auxiliary, a helper. 
Awe. Awe, respect mingled with fear. 

20 BAN 

Aw.FUL. Awful, inspiring reverence and holy 

fear : the name of God is awful. 
Ax-is. Axis, the middle of a sphere. 
A-zuRE. Azure, blue, the colour of the sky. 


Badge. Badge, a mark to distinguish a person : 
the eagle stamped on the button of a navy offi- 
cer is the badge of his profession ; it shows that 
he belongs to the American navy. 

Bait. Bait, meat put upon a trap to entice some 

Bal-ance. Balance, a pair of scales. When two 
articles of the same weight are put into the 
scales, the scales are poised, or exactly balanced. 

Bald. Bald, without any hair. 

Bale. Bale, a large bundle or box of any thing. 

Bale-ful. Baleful, full of mischief. 

Bal-lad, Ballad, a song which relates a story. 

Bal-loon. Balloon, a machine by which people 
can rise into the air. 

Balm. Balm, the name of a plant : sometimes 
halm means any thing which cures pain. 

Balm-y. Balmy, soft and sweet to the smell. 

Band. Band, something which is tied round any 
other thing: band means also a number of per- 
sons all together, as a band of music, or a band 
of soldiers. 

Bane. Bane, poison, mischief. 

Bane-ful. Baneful, bad, full of mischief. 

Ban-ish. Banish, to send a man out of his own 
country as a punishment : to drive away any 

Ban-quet. Banquet, a great feast. 

BEA 21 

Bar-ba-ri-an. Barbarian, a cruel, savage man, 

or a rude uncivil person. 
Ba.r-bar-1-ty. Barbarity, great cruelty. 
Bar-bar-ous. Barbarous, cruel : barbarous, also 

means, very ignorant, rude, or uncivil. 
Bar-gain. Bargain, an agreement about somo 

thing which is bought or sold. 
Barge. Barge, a large boat. 
Bark. Bark, the outside substance upon any tree : 

bark, a small ship. 
Bar-ley-corn. Barleycorn, one grain of barley : 

three lengths of a barleycorn make an inch, 
Bar-ren. Barren, unfruitful : the land or soil oa 

which neither corn nor plants of any kind will 

grow, is barren or unfruitful, 
Bar-ri-er. Barrier, something put to hinder y 

person, or stop him from coming any further. 
Bar-ter. Barter, to exchange one thing for an- 
Base. Base, mean, wicked, bad : the base of any 

thing, the bottom of it, or the part on which it 

Base-ness. Baseness, great meanness. 
Ba-sis. Basis, the lowest part of something on 

which the upper part rests, or any thing which 

serves as a bottom for some other thing to be 

raised on. 
Bask. Bask, to lie out in the sun. 
Bath. Bath, a large vessel of water in which one 

may bathe. 
Bat-ter. Batter, to beat down or to bruise. 
Bat-tle. Battle, a great fight between two armies. 
Beach. Beach, the sea-shore, the sands. 
BisAK. Beak, the pointed mouth of a bird. 

2^ BEN 

Beam. Beam, a large long heavy piece of wood ; 

heam means also a ray of light y as, when we say 

the beams of the sun. 
Beam-ing. Beaming, bright, shining. 
Beau. Beau, a man who dresses very gaily. 
Bkav-er. Beaver, an amphibious animal found in 

America. Beavers join together and build them. 

selves the most curious and convenient houses 

across small streams of water. Beautiful hats 

are made of their hair, which is thick, soft, and 

shining. This animal is also called the Castor, 
Bee. Bee, an industrious little insect that collects 

honey and wax from flowers. 
Be-guile. To beguile a person, is to cheat him ; 

to beguile tJie time, to be amused, to make the 

time pass quickly and pleasantly. 
Be-head. Behead, to kill a person by cutting off 

his head. 
Be-hold. Behold, to see, to look at. 
Be-ing, Being, any thing that lives : God is 

called the Great Being, men and women are 

human beings. 
Bel-dam. Beldam, a very old woman. 
Be-lov-ed. Beloved, much loved, very dear. 
Bench. Bench, a long seat. 
Ben-e-fac-tor. Benefactor, a man who does 

good to another. 
Ben-e-fac-tress. Benefactress, a woman who 

does good. 
Ben-ef-i-cent. Beneficent, kind, doing good. 
Ben-e-fi-cial. Beneficial, profitable, very good 

for some purpose. 
Ben-e-fit. Benefit, a favour, a kind action: to 

benefit by any thing, is to profit by it. 

BLO ^ 

Ben-ev-o-lence. Benevolence, good nature, kind- 
ness, a disposition to do good to every body. 

Be-nign. Benign, kind, doing good. 

Be-reave. Bereave, to take away. To be hereft 
of any things means to be deprived of it, to have 
it taken away from one. 

Ber-ry. Berry, pulpy fruit enclosing seeds. 

Be-seech. Beseech, to beg, to entreat. 

Be-set. Beset, to be teazed, to be wearied by 
something round about us. 

Be-speak. To bespeak a things to order it before. 

Be-stir. To Bestir one^s-self, to be very busy, to 
make a bustle. 

Be-stow. Bestow, to give. 

Be-tide. Betide, to befall or to happen. 

Be-times. Betimes, means early, soon : I hope 
you rise betimes in the morning. 

Be -TRAY. To Betray a person, to give him into the 
hands of those who want to hurt him. To be- 
tray, to tell something which we ought to have 
kept a secret. To betray one's-self to let peo- 
ple know something we did not wish or intend 
them to find out. 

Bier, Bier, a kind of carriage, on which dead 
people are carried to the grave. 

BiL-Low. Billow, a great wave of the sea. 

Bind. Bind, to tie fast, to hinder, to tie together. 
Bound, fastened, tied. 

Bi-ped. Biped, an einimal with two feet, like birds 
or man. 

Bliss. Bliss, great happiness. 

Blithe. Blithe, gay, light, pleasant. 

Block. Block, a thick heavy piece of wood. 
Block, means also a heavy lump of any things 

24 BLA 

To he brought to the block, means to be beheaded. 
BLooDi Blood, a red fluid in animals. Bloody of 

grapes^ means wine, the juice of grapes. 
Blood-shed. Bloodshed, murder, killing. 
Bloom. Bloom, to have flowers or blossoms. 
Bloom-ing. Blooming, flowery^ full of blossoms ; 

when we speak of persons, blooming means 

young and beautiful. 
Blub-ber. Blubber, the fat of the whale, which^ 

being melted, is made into oiL 
Blunt. Blunt, not sharp. A blunt person^ one 

who is rough or plain in his manner of speaking. 
Blus-ter, Bluster, to roar, as the wind does in 

a storm. 
Blus-ter-ing. Blustering^ rude, restless, and noisy. 
Boast. Boast, to speak proudly of one's own 

actions. A Z^oa^f, proud words ; something of 

which one may be proud. 
Bog. Bog, soft wet ground. 
Bois-TER-ous. Boisterous, violent and noisy. 
Bolt. Bolt, an iron bar to fasten a door. 
Birth. Birth, the first coming into life. 
Birth-day. Birthday, the day on which one is 

Birth-place. Birthplace, the place in which any 

one is born. 
Born. To be born, to come into life, to begin to 

be alive. 
Black-smith. Blacksmith, a smith that works in 

Blade. Blade, the long narrow leaf of grass and 

corn is called a blade. Blade, the sharp cutting 

part of a knife, or sword, or scissors, &c. 

EOT 25 

Bland, soft, gentle. 

Blank, white, not written on, as hlank paper: 
a blank is an empty part, or a paper not written 

Blas-phe-my. Blasphemy, disrespect to God Ah 

Blast, a sudden violent wind : blast sometimes 
means the sound of a trumpet. 

Blast-ed. To be blasted, to be withered, to be 
struck with some misfortune or plague. 

Bleach, to make white, or to become white. 

Blem-ish. Blemish, something which takes away 
the beauty of any thing, a disgrace, a stain. 

Blend, to mix together. 

Bless, to make very happy. To bless, means also 
to wish happiness to somebody. Bless, to praise, 
to thank very heartily. 

Bless-ing. Blessing, a great happiness ; a bless- 
ing is a wish for another's happiness. 

Blight, any thing which nips or hurts. 

Bond, any thing which fastens or ties. 

Bond-age. Bondage or bonds, confinement, im- 

BoN-NY. Bonny, gay, handsome. 

BooT-LEss. Bootless, quite useless, of no advan- 

BooT-Y. Booty, things got by robbing people 

Bore, to make a hole. 

BoR-ROw. Borrow, to take something from an- 
other person, promising to return it. 

Bot-a-ny. Botany, the science which teaches 
the nature oi trees y herbs ^ ^nAJlowers. 


26 BRI 

BoT-A-NisT. Botanist, a person who studies 
plants, to find out their ditFerent kinds and uses. 

Bough, a branch of a tree. 

Bound, to jump, to leap about. Bound, tied, 
fastened. Bound or a boundary, a border, an 

BouND-LESs. Boundless, exceedingly large. 

BouN-TY. Bounty, kindness, generosity. 

BouN-TE-ous. Bounteous, giving much, kind. 

BouN-Ti-FUL. Bountiful, bounteous, generous. 

Bowl, a large bail rolled along the ground. 

Brace, two of any thingj a pair. To brace, to tie 

Brack-ish. Brackish, having the taste of salt. 

Brag, to speak proudly. A brag, a boasU 

Brake, a place full of bushes and brambles. 

Brand, a lighted stick : a sword. 

Bran-dish. Brandish, to shake backwards, and 
forwards, to flourish about. 

Brass, a yellow metal, made by a mixture of cop- 
per and zink. A smith who works in brass is 
called a Brazier. 

Bra-zen. Brazen, made of brass ; also bold, im- 

Brave, bold, noble, full of courage. To brave^ to 
defy, not to care for. 

Breach, a hole, or opening broken into any thing. 
A breach, sometimes means a quarrel, 

Breed-ing. Breeding, education, manners 

Brev-i-ty. Brevity, shortness. 

Bribe, to give a person something to make him do 
wrong. A bribe, a reward for doing torong. 

BUC 27 

Beicks. Bricks are made of clay burnt in the 

fire, many houses are built of bricks. 
Brick-kil^\ Brickkiln, a place to burn bricks in. 
Brief, of short continuance. 
Brief-ly. Briefly, in a few words. 
Brill-iant. Brilliant, very bright, shining. A 

BriUiant, a very fine diamond. 
Bri3i, the edge of any vessel. 
Brixe, salt and water. 
Brink, the edge of any deep place. 
Brisk, gay, hvely. 

Bris-tles. Bristles, short, stiff, strong hairs. 
Brit-tle. Brittle, apt to break, or easily broken ; 

glass and chi7ia are brittle. 
Bronze, a mixture of brass and other substances. 
Brood, to sit on eggs, in order to hatch them, as 

a hen does. To brood over any thing, is to think 

of it with great anxiety. A brood, the number 

of young birds hatched at once ; as a brood of 

little chickens. 
Brook, a little stream of water. 
Broav, the forehead, — Brow sometimes means the 

edge of a very high place : as when we say, the 

brow of a hill. 
Brow se, to eat, to feed as goats and sheep. 
Brute, a beast; any creature without sense or 

understanding is a brute, 
Bru-tal. Brutal, like a brute, savage, cruel. 
Bub-ble. Bubble, a thin hollow globe filled with 

BucK-ET. Bucket, a kind of pail used to carry 


28 BYS 

Bud-Oet. Budget, a bag. 

BuF-FET. Buffet, a violent blow : buffet^ to strike, 

to beat. 
BuF-FooN. Buffoon, a man who makes grimaces, 

and pi ays tricks. 
Bulb, a round root : the roots of all plants which 

are bulbs are called bulbous roots : onions and 

hyacinths have bulbous roots. 
Bulk, the size or bigness of any thing. 
BuLK-Y. Bulky, very large, of a great size. 
Bull-y. Bully, a noisy, boasting, quarrelsome 

Bung, a stopper to fill up the hole in a barrel. 
BuN-GLER. Bungler, a person who does any 

thing clumsily and badly. 
Buoy -ANT. Buoyant, not sinking, floating. 
Bur-den. Burden, or burthen, a load, any thing 

which is heavy. 
BuR-DEN-soME. Burdcnsome, heavy, trouble- 
BuR-NisH. Burnish, to polish, to make bright. 
Bu-RY. Bury, to put into a grave, to hide under 

BusH-Y. Bushy, thick, spreading, full of small 

branches : foxes and squirrels have bushy tails 
BuTCH-ER. Butcher, a person who kills animals, 

and sells their flesh for food : butcher, to kill, to 

Buzz, to make a noise like bees, to hum. 
By-and-by, in a short time. 
By-stand-er, Bystander, a person who looks on 

without meddling in what is going forward. 


CAN 2» 

CA.B-IN. Cabin, a small room in a ship : a cahin 

sometimes means a little cottage. 
Cab-in-et. Cabinet, a small chest of drawers, to 

hold curiosities, or things of value : it also means 

a closet or small room. 
Cab-in-et-ma-ker. Cabinet-maker, a man who 

makes nice work in wood. 
Ca-ble. Cable, a great thick rope used in a ship* 
Ca-lam-i-ty. Calamity, distress, misfortune, sor- 
Cal-cine. Calcine, to burn a thing to powder. 
Cal-cu-late. Calculate, to reckon, to count. 
Cal-cu-la-tion. Calculation, the art of number- 
ing or reckoning. 
Call-ijng. Calling, a person's calling is his trade, 

his business. 
Cal-lous. Callous, exceedingly hard, without 

feeling, like bone. 
Cal-lo^v. Callow, without any feathers, like 

young birds. 
Calm, quiet, still. A calm, stillness. To calm^ to 

make quite still. 
Ca-ltjm-ni-ate, Calumniate, to speak ill of a 

person without reason. 
Cal-um-ny. Calumny, something spoken against 

a person which is not true. 
Camp, the tents in which soldiers live. 
Ca-na-ry-bird. Canary-bird, a little yellow bird, 

which sings sweetly : it was first brought from 

the Canary Islands. 


30 CAP 

Can-did. Candid, always ready to tell the truth* 

Can-dour. Candour, truth, fairness. 

Canes, are the stalks of a plant growing in the 

East and West Indies : when they are split, 

they are woven into chair bottoms, and other 

Ca-nine. Canine, like a dog : all dogs together 

are sometimes called the canine race. 
Can-ni-bal. Cannibal, one who eats the flesh of 

Ca-noe. Canoe, a small boat made of a hollow 

tree, or of bark, 
Can-o-py. Canopy, a covering above our heads. 
Can^vass. Canvass, coarse open cloth. 
Ca-pa-ble. Capable, able to do some particular 

thing. 1 

Ca-pa^cious. Capacious, large, wide, and deep, « 

holding a large quantity. 
Ca-pa-ci-ty. Capacity, the power of doing some* 

thing : a person of good capacity^ is a person 

who has abilities, understanding. 
Ca-par-i-son. Caparison, to dress out a horse^ 

very finely. 
Ca-per. Caper, a jump. 
Ca-per. Caper, to skip about. 
'Ca-pers. Capers, are the berries of a plant 

which grows in warm countries. 
Cap-i-tal. Capital, means first, highest : capital 

letters, are large letters. The capital, the chief 

or greatest city in any country : London is the 

capital of Great Britain ; Paris is the capital of 

France ; Madrid is the capital of Spain. Capim 

tal crimCy a fault which is punished with death. 
Ca-price. Caprice, a sudden fancy, a whim. 

CAR 31 

Ca-pri-cious. Capricious, full of fancies, whim- 

Cap-tain. Captain, a leader, one who has autho- 
rity over others. 

Cap-ti-vate. Captivate, to make people love by 
pleading qualities. 

Cap-tive. Captive, one who is kept a prisoner. 

Cap-tiv-i-ty. Captivity, bonds, imprisonment. 

Cap-ture. Capture, any thing which is taken by 

Car, a kind of carriage. 

Car- AT. Carat, a weight by which people weigh 

Car-cass. Carcass, a dead body of any animal. 

Car-di-nal-points. Cardinal points, are the East, 
West, North, and South ; if you turn your face 
to the sun in the middle of the day, you will 
have the South before you, the North will be 
behind you, the East on your left hand, and the 
West to your right hand. 

Ca-reer. Career, full speed : it also means a 
race, or the ground on which a race is run : ea» 
reer may also mean the life or actions of a per- 
son, as we say, death put an end to his career, 

Ca-ress. Caress, to indulge, to fondle. 

Car-mine. Carmine, a beautiful bright red colour. 

Car-pen-ter. Carpenter, a man who works in 
wood. [on. 

Car-pet. Carpet, any thing spread for us to tread 

Car-riage. Carriage, a coach : a person's car- 
riage^ is his behaviour or manners. 

Car-ri-on. Carrion, the flesh of dead horses and 
asses : crows eat carrion^ and hounds feed on 


3^ CEL 

Carve, to cut meat at table : carve is also to cut 

something out of wood, stone, or ivory, 
Cas-cade. Cascade, a waterfall. 
Cask-et. Casket, a little case or box. 
Cast, to throw, to let fall : to cast sometimes 

means to make of some particular shape : to 

cast one^s eyes on a thing, is to look at it : to be 

cast down, is to be sorry, to be sad : to cast up,. 

is to reckon, to count : to cast off, to send away,] 

or to throw away. 
Cas-u-al. Casual, happening by chance, without 

being expected or designed. [things. 

Cat-a-logue. Catalogue, a list of names or of 
Cat-a-eact. Cataract, a fall of water from a very 

high place. 
Cat-e-chism. Catechism, something taught by 

questions and answers. 
Cave, or cavern, a hollow place in the ground. 
Cav-i-ty. Cavity, a hole, which has been dug out. 
Cause-way. Causeway, a road raised above the 

rest of the ground. 
Caus-tic. Caustic, burning. 
Cau-tion. Caution, to warn against danger. 
Cau-tious, Cautious, careful, watchful. 
Cease, to leave off, to stop. 

Cease-less. Ceaseless, continual, always going on, 
Cel-e-brate. Celebrate, to praise very much : ^ 

to celebrate sometimes means to do something in Jj 

a solemn and particular manner : as, you cele-^ 

brate Christmas. 
Cel-e-bra-ted. Celebrated, very famous, [ness 
Ce-ler-i-ty. Celerity, great quickness or swift- 
Ce-les-tial. Celestial, belonging to heaven, or 

like heaven : as, when we say, celestial goodness. 


CHA 33 

Cell, a little cavity, or a little room. 

Ce-ment. Cement, something used to join things 
together : glue is a cement^ mortar is a cement. 

Cen-sure. Censure, blame : censure^ to blame. 

Cen-tre. Centre, of a circle or sphere, exactly 
the middle of it. 

Cei\^-tu-ry. Century, one hundred years. When 
we say, " such an event happened in the first 
century, or the sixth century," we only mean 
that it happened during the first hundred years 
after the birth of our Saviour Jesus Christ, or 
in six hundred years after the birth of Jesus 
Christ, &c. &;c. King Henry the Fifth con- 
quered France in the fifteenth century. We 
live in the nineteenth century. 

Cer-e-mo-ivy. Ceremony, a particular manner of 
doing something which does not happen daily ; 
the baptism of an infant is a ceremony ; cere^ 
mony, outward civility. 

Cer-e-mo-ni-ous. Ceremonious, formal and polite. 

Cer-tain. Certain, quite sure. 

Ces-sa-tion. Cessation, a stop, a leaving off. 

Chafe, to warm with rubbing : to chafe means, 
also, to fret, to rage. 

Chaff, the husks of corn. 

Cha-grin. Chagrin, ill-humour, vexation. 

Chal-lenge. Challenge, to call another out to 
fight, or to call another person to a contest, that 
is, to try who can do a thing best, as, " I chal- 
lenge you to run a race." 

Cham-ber. Chamber, a room in a house, [other, 

Cham-pi-on. Champion, one who fights for an- 

Chance, an accident, or unexpected event : cJiancCy 
to happen, to befall. 

34 CHA 

Chax-nel. Channel, hollow deep place in which 
a stream of water runs. The British Channel 
is the sea between England and France. 

CiiA-os. Chaos, confusion, a mixture of things 
in which nothing can be distinguished. 

Chap-lain. Chaplain, the clergyman who attends 
a family, a ship, or a regiment of soldiers. 

Chap-let. Chaplet, a wreath of flowers or pre- 
cious stones to put round the head. 

CyHAR-AC-TEK. Character, of a person, means his 
disposition, his good or bad qualities. 

Char-ac-ters. Characters, letters in writing or 

Char-ac-ter-is-tic. Characteristic, belongiDO|. 
to something as a quahty. It is characteristic^ 
of a good and amiable disposition always to for 
give those who offend us. 

Char-coal. Charcoal, pieces of wood burnt ton 
black cinder. 

Charg-er. Charger, a war-horse. 

Char-i-ty. Charity, a disposition always to think 
kindly of other people: charity often means kind- 
ness, relief to the poor. 

Char-i-ta-ble. Charitable, kind, generous to the 

Charm. Charm, something in another person 
which wins our love : to charm, to please very 

Char-ter. Charter, a writing which gives par- 
ticular rights to some people. [animal. 

Chase, to drive before us: chase, hunting some 

Chasm, a great hole or opening. 

Chast-en. Chasten, or to chastise, to punish, or 
to make better by punishment. 

CHU 35 

Cheap, easy to be had, or at a low price. 

Check, to stop something from going on ; a cJieck^ 
something which stops. 

Cheer, means eating and drinking : cheer, to com- 
fort, to make glad. 

Cheer-ful. Cheerful, gay, merry. 

Cheer-less. Cheerless, uncomfortable, sad. 

Cher-ish. Cherish, to encourage, to nurse kindly. 

Cher-ub. Cherub, an angel, a spirit of heaven. 

Chide, to blame, to scold. 

Chief, highest, first : a chief, or chieftain, is a 
captain, a leader. 

Chime, the sound of bells : chime, to jingle, to 
sound : chime sometimes means to suit with. 

Chi-me-ra. Chimera, a wild fancy. 

Chis-el. Chisel, a cutting instrument used by 
sculptors, stone-cutters, and carpenters. 

Choice. Choice, curious, uncommon, excellent, 
choice is also the power of choosing : as, " my 
mother gave me my choice of two books," that 
is, gave me leave to choose which I liked best» 

(!^HOiR, or chorus, a band of singers. 

(Jho-ral. Ckoral, sung by a number together. 

Chol-er. Choler, rage, anger, 

(/Hord, the string of a musical instrument ; and 
the agreement of certain sounds. 

Chris-tian-i-ty. Cl\ristianity, the religion which 
was taught by Jesus Christ. 

Chris-tian. Christian, one who is of the reli- 
gion of Jesus Christ. 

Christ-en-dom. Christendom, all the nations, 
and countries, and people, who believe in the 
gospel of Christ. 

Church. The church, besides meaning the place 

36 CLA 

where we worship Ood, means all the people 
who are Christians. 

Churl, a rude surly man. 

Churl-ish. Churlish, rude and ill-natured. 

Ci-DER. Cider, wine made of apples, 

Ci-PHER. Cipher, a figure used in numbering. 

CiR-cLE. Circle, any round figure, like a hoop I 
A circle often means a number of persons sit- 
ting round. 

CiR-cu-LAR. Circular, in the shape of sl circle, round. 

CiR-cuiT. Circuit, a going round. [round. 

CiR-cu-LATE. To circulate, to move round and 

CiR-cuM-FE-RENCE. Circumfercncc, the size of 
a round thing measured round the outside of it. 

CiR-cuM-NAV-i-GA-TOR. Circumuavigator, a per- 
son who has sailed quite round the world. 

CiR-cuM-sPECT. Circumspect, very careful and 

CiR-cuM-sTANCE. Circumstaucc, a fact. 

CiR"CUM-sTAN-TiAL. Circumstautial, telling every 
circumstance in particular. 

Cis-TERN. Cistern, a large vessel to hold water. 

Cite. To cite, or to quote, to make use of the 
words of another person. 

CiT-Y. City, a large town. 

Cit-i-zen. Citizen, one who lives in a city. 

Civ-iL-izE. Civilize, to make those gentle and 
civil who were before ignorant and barbarous. 

Claim, to ask something as one's right. 

Clam-my. Clammy, sticky. 

Clam-o-rous. Clamorous, noisy, very loud. 

Clam-our. Clamour, noise. 

Clan, a family of people : a number of persons liv- 
ing together, and bearing the same family name. 


Class, a number of animals, vegetables, minerals, 
or other things much alike. 

Clay, a soft, moist, sticky earth. Of some kinds 
of clay^ bricks are made. The beautiful china, 
which is sometimes painted with flowers and 
fruit, and ornamented vvith gold, is made of a 
fine kind of clay, which is first formed into a 
proper shape, and then burnt in the fire. 

Cleave, to split a tiling. To cleave to something y 
to stick fast to it, to be joined to it. 

Cleft, an opening or crack. 

Clem-en-cy. Clemency, pity and kindness for 
those who have offended us. Inclement weather 
means stormy weather. 

Cles-gy-matst. Clergyman, a minister who preach- 
es the gospel. The clergy, are all clergymen 

Cliff, a steep stony hill or rock. 

Clog, to hinder. Clog, something which hinders 
from going on, A clog is sometimes a woodea 

Clot-ted. Clotted, hanging together in lumps. 

Clothe, to put on clothes. 

Cloud, a kind of mist or fog, so light that it rises 
up in the air, and is driven about by the wind. 

Clo-ven. Cloven, split or parted. 

Clown, a rude vulgar man. 

Cloy, to make sick and tired with eating. 

Club, a great heavy stick. A club sometimes 
means a number of people who assemble toge- 
ther at appointed times. 

Ctus-TER. Cluster, a bunch, a number of things 
of the same sort growing together, or collected 

88 COM 

Co-AG-u-liATE. Coagulate, to run into lumps, to 

clot, as milk will do if it be left to turn sour. 
Coarse, neither fine, soft, or delicate. A coarse 

person^ a rude vulgar person. 
Coast, the edge or side of the country which is 

next to the sea. 
Cob-webs. Cobwebs, nets made by spiders to 

catch flies. 
Code, a book of laws. 
CoF-FEE. Coffee, the berries of a tree which 

grows in Arabia, and in the West Indies, 
CoF-FER. Coffer, a chest to hold money. 
Co-GENT. Cogent, strong, forcible. 
Co-HERE. Cohere, to stick together. 
Co-HE-sioN. Cohesion, the state of sticking toge- 
Coin, stamped money. 

Co-iN-ciDE. Coincide, to agree in any thing. 
Co-iN-ci-DENCE. Coincidence, agreement of seve^ 

ral things. 
CoL-LA-TioN. Collation, a meal, something to eat. 
Col-league. Colleague, a partner. 
CoL-LECT. Collect, to gather a number of things 

CoL-LEC-TioN. Collection, a quantity together. 
CoL-Li-sioN. Collision, the act of striking two 

things together. 
CoL-o-NY. Colony, a number of people who leave 

their own country, and go to live in another far 

Colt, a young horse. 
CoM-BAT. Combat, a battle, a fight. To combatf 

to fight against. 


to » 

COM 39 

OoM-BAT-ANT. Combatant, one who fights. 

CoM-BiNE. Combine, to join different things to- 

CoM-BUs-Ti-BLE. Combustible ; any substance 
that can be easily burnt is combustible. 

CoM-MAND. Command, to give orders, to have 
authority. A command, or commandment, some- 
thing ordered to be done. To have the command, 
is to have power over others. 

CoM-MENCE. Commence, to begin. 

CoM-MEND. Commend, to praise or approve. 

CoM-MEND-A-BLE. Commendable, right, deserv- 
ing praise. 

CoM-MERCE. Commerce, the buying and exchang- 
ing the goods of one country for the goods of 
some other country : for example, there are 
great quantities of pork, beef, flour, butter, fish, 
and other things, sent from this country in ships, 
all over the world ; and they bring back to us, 
tea from China ; spices, ivory, and beautiful 
muslins, from India ; coffee and sugar from the 
West Indies, and a great many useful things 
from other countries ; this is trade or commerce, 
and people who are engaged in commerce are 

CoM-MER-ciAL. Commercial, belonging to mer* 
chants and commerce, 

CoM-Mis-ER-ATE. Commiscratc, to pity. 

CoM-MiT. To commit an action, to do an action. 
To commit a person, to send him to prison. To 
commit any thing to a person^s care, is to trust 
him with it, to give it to him to keep safe. 

CoM-Mis-sioN. Commission, something we trust 
another to do for us. 

40 COM 

CoM-MO-Dious. Commodious, convenient, useful. 

Co:^-]\foD-i-TY. Commodity, any thing that is 
bought or sold. 

CoM-MON. Common, belonging to several. It is 
common to wasps and bees to sting, when they 
are hurt or teased. 

CoM-MO-TioN. Commotion, disturbance, agita- 

CoM-Mu-Ni-cATE. Commuuicatc, to tell something 
to another person. 

CoM-Mu-Ni-cA-TiVE. Communicativc, inclined to 
tell much that one knows. 

CoM-MU-Ni-TY. Community, a number of people 
or animals living all together, and agreeing to- 
gether in their business. 

CoM-PACT. Compact, an agreement, a bargain. 
Compact, close, strong, and tight. 

CoM-PARE. Compare, to look at, or think of seve- 
ral things together, to find out in what they are 
like each other, and in what they are unlike 
each other. Compare a horse and a sheep, and 
say what is the difference between them. 

CoM-PAss. Compass, the compass of a thing is the 
space or room which it takes up : we say that 
a thing is in a large compass^ when it spreads out 
and takes up a great deal of room ; and that it 
is in a small compass, when it takes up little 

CoM-PASs-ES. Compasses, an instrument to draw 

CoM-PASS-ioN. Compassion, pity for the misfor- 
tunes of others. 

CoM-PAss-ioN-ATE. Compassionatc, tender, full 
of pity. 

COM 41 

CoM-PEL. Compel, to force, or to oblige another 
to do something which he does not like. 

CoM-PLA-cEN-CY. Complaccncy, satisfaction 

CoM-PLAi-SANCE. Complaisancc, civility, pleasing 

CoM-PLEx. Complex, or complicated^ made of 
many different parts joined or mixed together. 

CoM-PLY. Comply, to consent to do something 
which another person wishes one to do. 

CoM-PosE. Compose, to make something, by 
joining several different things together : this 
earth on which we live is composed of land and 
water. To compose one^s self, to be quiet and 

CoM-Pos-ED. Composed, serious and quiet. 

CoM-po-si-TiON. Composition of any thing, the 
parts of which it is made. A composition, is 
any thing which is composed or made of diffe- 
rent parts. 

CoM-pos-uRE. Composure, quietness, serious- 

Co3i-pouND. Compound, to mix a number of 
things together. A compound, a number of dif- 
ferent things mixed together. 

CoM-PRE-HEND. Comprehend, to understand. To 
comprehend, often means to contain, as. Great 
Britain comprehends England, Scotland, and 

CoM-PRE-HEN-si-BLE. Comprehensible, easy to 
be understood. 

CoM-pRE-HEN-sioN. Comprehcnsion, understand- 


42 CON 

CoM-PRESs. Compress, to squeeze. 

CoM-PRisE. Comprise, to hold or contain. 

CoM-PUTE. Compute, to reckon or count. 

CoM-RADE. Comrade, a companion. 

CoN-CAVE. Concave, means hollow, and Convex 
means rising or swelling out in a round shape, 
the inside of an egg-shell is concave^ the outside 
of it is convex. 

CoN-CEivE. Conceive, to think, to understand. 

CoN-CERN. Concern, to belong to. There are 
many things it does not concern you to know 
now, which you will be taught when you grow 
older. A person^s concerns, means his business, 
his affairs. To speak concerning any thing, 
means to speak about it. i 

CoN-CERT. Concert, to contrive secretly. j 

CoN-cisE. Concise, short. I 

CoN-ciL-i-ATE. Conciliate, to gain love. 

CoN-cLUDE. Conclude, to finish, to end. To 
conclude, often means to determine in one's own, 
mind : when I see a little girl much beloved by 
her friends, I always conclude that she is ver 

CoN-CLU-sioN. Conclusion, the end. 

CoN-couRSE. Concourse, a vast number of per-I 
sons assembled together. f 

CoN-cuR. Concur, to agree, to be joined with. ! 

CoN-DEMN. Condemn, to order a person to bel 
punished. To condemn also means to blame. ' 

CoN-DENSE. Condense, to make thicker and 
closer. Hold a spoon, or a plate, or any things 
else which is cold over the top of a tea-pot or a 
tea-urn, so as to catch the steam of the boiling 
waler ; the sudden cold of the plate wiU con- 


CON 43 

dense the steam, that is. will make it thicker and 
thicker, till at last it will turn to drops of water. 
In the same manner, i^oot is only smoke con- 
densed^ as you may find by holding something 
over a candle ; in a little while it will be covered 
with soot. 

CoN-DE-scEND. Condescend, to yield without 
being obliged to it. to trouble one's self wil- 
lingly, or to oblige people who are much beneath 
us in any respect. 

CoN-Di-TioN. Condition, rank, station in life ; a 
man who is very poor, and who is forced to work 
hard for others, is in a low condition : one who is 
not forced to labour with his hands, but who is 
engaged in some profession which employs his 
mind, is in a higher station^ or condition. What- 
ever looks well, and is not broken^ or torn, or hurt, 
or thin, or sick, or poor, is said to be in a good 
condition : a fine horse is in a good condition; this 
old coat of yours is in a had condition, 

CoN-DOLE. Condole, to lament with another 

CoN-DucT. Conduct ; acting and behaving rightly 
is good conduct^ the contrary is ill conduct ; to 
conduct, to lead, to go with another, to show him 
the way. 

Cone, a figure in the shape of a sugar-loaf, the 
bottom or base of which is round, and the top 
ending in a point. 

CoN-FER. Confer, to talk with a person. 

CoN-Fi-DENT. Confident, positive, sure. 

CoN-Fi-DENCE. Confidence, trust in another's 
goodness : confidence sometimes means bold- 
ness, positiveness 


Con-fine, Confine, to bind, to shut up. 
Con-firm. Confirm, to settle, to fix, to mak< 

stronger or surer. 
CoN-FLA-GRA-TioN. Conflagration, a great burn 

ing, as of a house. 
CoN-FLicT, Conflict, a fight, a combat. 
Con-found. Confound, to entangle, to mix things 

together in a confused disorderly manner: to 

confound a person, to astonish and disturb him. 
CoN-GEAL. Congeal, to harden by means ol 

cold : ice is water congealed. 
CoN-GRAT-u-LATE. Congratulate, to complimeni 

a person on his happiness. 
CoN-GRE-GA-TioN. Congregation, an assembly o^ 

people who meet together to worship God. 
CoN-jEC-TURE. Conjecture, to guess: a conjee^- 

ture, a guess. 
CoN-Ju-GAL Conjugal, belonging to husband am 

CoN-juNC-TioN. Conjunction, to do something in 

conjunction with another, to be joined with him, 

and assist him in doing it. 
CoN-JURE. Conjure, to beg or to beseech in a! 

solemn manner. 
CoN-NECT. Connect, to join. 
CoN-NEx-iON. Connexion, a joining : a connexion^ 

a person who is related to us. 
CoN-QUER. Conquer, to gain by fighting: to 

conquer also means to get the better of; never 

yield to ill temper, but always try to conquer it. 
CoN-QUEST. Conquest, something gained bVj 

CoN-sciENCE. Conscience, the knowledge of our 

own thoughts and actions ; to have a good con^ 



CON 45 

science, to know that we have not done any thing 
wrong ; to be conscious of any thing, is to know 
it by thinking of it. [carefully. 

CoN-siD-ER. Consider, to think of something very 

CoN-siD-ER-A-BLE. Considerable, worth consi. 

CoN-siD-ER-ATE. Considerate, a considerate per- 
son, one who thinks before he does an action, 
one who thinks of others. 

CoN-sis-TENCE. Consistcncc ; any thing is said 
to have consistence, when it is not watery, but 
solid and thick. 

CoN-sis-TENT. Consistent, agreeing with. 

CoN-soLE. Console, to comfort, to cheer. 

CoN-spic-u-ous. Conspicuous, easily seen, fa- 

Cox-spiRE. Conspire, to join together to do a 
bad action : to conspire, to agree together. 

CoN-STA?fT. Constant, certain, never changing, 
always the same. 

Co]v-STANT-LY. Constantly, always, continually. 

CoN-STi-TUTE. Constitute, to make, to compose : 
many villages, and towns, and great cities full 
of people, constitute a nation. 

CoN-sTi-Tu-TioN. Constitution of a person, the 
state of his health : the constitution of a nation, 
the form of its government. 

Con-strain. Constrain, to force, to compel. 

CoN-sTRAiNT. Constraint, being obliged to do 
something we do not like ; confinement. 

CoN-sTRUCT. Construct, to build, or make. 

CoN-sTRuc-TioN. Construction, the manner in 
which any thing is made : how neat and beauti- 
ful is the construction of a bird's nest ! 

46 CON 

CoN-suLT. Consult, to ask a person's advice, to 
ask his opinion. 

CoN-suME. Consume, to waste away : fire ccm- 
sumes wood, eating consumes food. 

CoN-suMP-TioN. Consumption, a wasting away. 

CoN-TACT. Contact, touch : to be in contact with 
any thing, to be so near as to touch it. [tion to. 

CoN-TEMN. Contemn, to despise, to pay no atten- 

Con-tempt. Contempt, a mean opinion of a per- 
son or thing. 

Con-tempt-i-ble. Contemptible, mean, low, wor- 
thy of contempt : lying is contemptible, 

Con-tempt-u-ous. Contemptuous, full of con 
tempt, despising others. 

Con-tend. Contend, to fight, to strive against. 

Con-tent. Content, satisfied, not wishing for 
more ; to content^ to please, to satisfy ; the con* 
tents of any thing, means what is in it. 

Con-tent-ment. Contentment, satisfaction. 

CoN-TEN-TiON. Contention, or contest, a quarrel 
or dispute : to contest^ to fight, to dispute. 

CoN-TiG-u-ous. Contiguous, so close as to touch. 

CoN-Ti-NENT. Continent, a very great extent ot 
land, not separated by the sea. 

CoN-TiN-GEN-cY. Contingency, any thing which 
may happen by chance. 

CoN-TOR-TioN. Contortion, a twist. 

Con-tract. Contract, to make shorter, or to be- 
come shorter : to contract^ is also to make a 

CoN-TRA-DicT. Coutradict, to speak against, to 
say a thing is not true. 

CuN-TRA-RY. Contrary, entirely different from 

coo 47 

some other thing, not agreeing with it ; in perfect 

CoN-TRi-BUTE. Contribute, to have a share in 
doing something, to cause ; as. rising early, 
and walking before breakfast, will contribute to 
our health. 

CoN-TRi-BU-TioN. Contribution, money given by 
a number of different persons. 

CoN-TRi-TioN. Contrition, sorrow for our faultf. 

CoN-TROL. Control, to check, to keep in con- 
straint ; control your temper. 

Con- VENT. Convent, a house where a number of 
religious people live together. 

CoN-vER-sANT. Couvcrsant, to be conversant with 
any thing, is to know it well, to be acquainted 
with it. 

CoN-VERT. Convert a thing, to make use of it , 
to convert a person, to make him change his re- 
ligion, or his conduct. [another. 

CoN-VEY. Convey, to carry from one place to 

OoN-VEY-ANCE. Convcyancc, the manner of car- 
rying any thing from one place to another. 

CoN-viNCE. Convince, to make another person 
quite sure of the truth of something which he 
doubted before. 

CoN-vic-TioN. Conviction, the being sure or cer- 
tain of any thing. 

CoN-viv-i-AL. Convivial, belonging to a company 
of friends, merry. 

CoN-vuLSE. Convulse, to agitate the body. 

Coo, to make a noise like a pigeon. 

Coop, to shut up in a very small place. 

Coop-ER. Cooper, one who makes tubs, paila, 
baiTels, or casks. 

48 COS 


Co-Pi-ous, Copious, abundant, in great plenty. 

Cop-pee. Copper, the name of a metal ; sauce- 
pans, kettles, and boilers, are generally made 
of copper, covered in the inside with another 
metal called tin. 

Copse, a grove of young or short trees. 

CoR-AL. Coral, a marine substance, it is white, 
black, or red ; but the red is by far the most 
common ; it is found in the sea, and is made by 
an insect ; necklaces and other ornaments are 
made of coral. 

CoR-DiAL. Cordial, kind, hearty : a cordial, is any 
thing that comforts us and makes us cheerful. 

Core, the inner part of any thing. 

Cork, a stopper for a bottle : corks are made of 
the bark of the cork tree. 

CoE-o-NA-TiON. Coronation, the ceremony of put- 
ting a crown upon a king's head when he is 
first declared to be king. 

CoR-PO-RE-AL. Corporeal, belonging to the body. 

Corpse, or corse, the dead body of any creature* 

CoR-RECT. Correct, proper, right, without mis- 
take : to correct, to alter for the better, [better. 

CoR-REC-TioN. Correction, punishment, to make us 

CoR-RE-spoND. Correspond, to suit, to agree with : 
to correspond, often means to write letters 

CoR-ROB-o-RATE. Corroborate, to make surer or 
more certain. 

CoR-RODE. Corrode, to eat away by little and lit- 
tle, as rust corrodes iron and steel. 

CoR-RUPT. Corrupt, to make bad or wicked, to 
grow rotten : corrupt, wicked. 

CoR-RUP-TioN. Corruption, wickedness, rottenness. 

Cost, the price which any thing is bought for. 

COU 49 

CosT-LY. Costly, of a very great price. 

CoT-TAGE. Cottage, or cot, a small mean house. 

Cot-tag -ER. Cottager, one who lives in a cottage. 

CoT-TOis. Cotton grows on a plant which is found 
in the East and West Indies, and in the United 
States. It is spun, and afterwards woven into 
muslins and cloths of different sorts. [on. 

Couch, to lie down : a couch is a seat to lie down 

Cov-E-NANT. Covenant, a promise, an agreement. 

Cov-ERT. Covert, a hiding place : covert^ means 
secret, hidden. 

Cov-ET. Covet, to wish very much for something 
which belongs to another person. 

Cov-ET-ous. Covetous, selfish, too fond of money. 

CouN-ciL. Council, a number of persons met toge- 
ther to consider and consult with one another* 

CouN-SEL. Counsel, advice and instruction giveii 
to another person. 

CouN-TE-NANCE. Countcnancc, the look of the 

CouN-TER-ACT. Counteract, to hinder something 
from being done. 

CouN-TER-FEiT. Counterfeit, not real, but done 
or made in imitation of some other thing. 

CouN-TER-MAND. Countermand, to contradict an 
order that was given before. 

CouisT-LEss. Countless, in such great number as 
cannot be counted : the sands on the sea-shore, 
and the leaves on the trees, are countless. 

CoiTN-TRY. Country, any large extent of land : 
the country means not the town, but the open 
fields. Those who are born in the same coun^ 
iiry with us, are our countrymen and our country* 

1 women. 

50 CRA 

CouN-TY. County, a division or part of a coun* 
try; England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, 
are each of them divided into several different 
parts called counties or shires ; there are forty 
counties in England, twelve in Wales, thirty in 
Scotland, and thirty-two in Ireland. 

Cou-PLE. Couple, two of any thing. 

Course, a race, the act of moving from one place 
to another : the course of a river, is the track or 
line in which it runs. 

Court, the place where the king lives, and those 
persons who are generally about him : court, is 
an open place before a house. A court often 
means a number of persons met together to set* 
tie disputes and other affairs, according to cer- 
tain fixed laws and rules ; it is then generally 
called a Court of Justice, 

CouR-TE-ous. Courteous, civil, polite. 

CouR-TE-SY. Courtesy, pleasing manners, civility. 

CouR-TiER. Courtier, one who lives in courts, 
and attends on kings. 

Cow-ARD, Coward, a person who is always afraid 
without reason. 

Cow-AR-DiCE. Cowardice, foolish fear. jgj 

CoY, modest, not impudent. 'mf§ 

Crab-bed. Crabbed, of a sour, peevish, cross "" 

Craft, cunning, slyness. 

Craf-ty. Crafty, artful, sly. ^.^^ 

Crag, a rough pointed rock. wKL 

Crag-gy. Craggy, rough, full of points. ■''* * 

Cran-ny. Cranny, a little hole, a crack. 

Crash, a loud noise like many things falling and 
breaking together. v. 

CRI 51 

Crave, to beg to ask very earnestly for something. 

Cra-zy. Crazy, old and broken. Crazy also 
means, mad, deprived of reason. 

Cre-ate. Create, to make : God is called the 
Creator, because he made every thing, and all 
things which God has made are called the ere 
ation : living beings are creatures. 

Cred-i-ble. Credible, what may be believed, 
what is likely to be true. 

Cred-it. Credit, belief: to give credit to any 
thing is to believe it ; to give credit to a person, 
to trust him with money, or with things of value. 
Credit, often means honour, respect : he is a 
person of credit, means he is a respectable per- 
son. To credit, to believe what we hear. 

Cred-it-or. Creditor, a person to whom one 
owes money or any thing else. 

Cred-u-li-ty. Credulity, belief without reason. 
Incredulity, disbelief. [without proof. 

Cred-u-lous. Credulous, believing any thing 

Cres-cent. Crescent, the new moon, or any thing 
in the shape of the new moon. 

Crest, a tuft or ornament on the top of the head, 

Crev-ici:. Crevice, a cranny, a hole. 

Crew, a company of sailors, those who manage a 

Crime, a very great fault. [ship, 

Crim-i-nal. Criminal, wrong, guilty of a fault. 
A criminal, a man or a woman who has commit- 
ted a great fault. 

Crim-son. Crimson, a dark red colour. 

Crit-ic. Critic, a person who examines books, and 
afterwards describes what faults are in them. 

Crit-i-cal. Critical, very exact, happening just 
at a particular moment. 

52 CUL 

Ckit-i-cise. Criticise, to blame, to find fault. 

Croak, to make a noise like a frog or a raven. 

Crop, to cut off the ends of any thing. The cropy 
corn after it is all cut down. [tious. 

Cross-grain-ed. Cross-grained, peevish, vexa. 

Crouch, to stoop low. 

Crown, the ornament which a king wears on his 
head. The crown of any thing, is the top of it. 
To crown, to cover with a crown. To crown, 
sometimes means to finish, to make quite com- 

Cru-ci-fix. Crucifix, an image, or a picture of 
our Saviour on the cross. 

Cru-ci-fy. Crucify, to kill a person by nailing 
his hands and feet to a cross. 

Cru-ci-form. Cruciform, in the shape of a cross. 

Crude, raw, not changed by fire or by art. 

Crush, to squeeze or press violently, to beat dowa. 

Crys-tal. Crystal, a kind of stone very much 
like glass, and extremely bright and clear. 
Crystal means also beautifully clear and bright; i 
as the crystal stream. \ 

Cub, the young of a wild beast ; a young bear. 

Cud : to chew the cud, is to chew the food over 
again which has been eaten before, as cows and 
sheep do : to chew the cud, is to ruminate. 

Cud-gel. Cudgel, a stick to fight with. 

Cuff, to strike with the fist. 

Cu-Li-NA-RY. Culinary, belonging to a kitchen, 
and to cooking. 

CuL-PA-BLE. Culpable, guilty of a fault, deserv- 
ing punishment. 

OuL-PRiT. Culprit, a person who has done wrong, 
and who is brought out to be punished. 

CUS 53 

CuL-Ti-VATE. Cultivate, to plant the ground, or to 
improve it so that it may produce more plants 
and vegetables. To cultivate the mind, means 
to improve it, to fill it with useful knowledge. 

CuL-TURE. Culture, the act of cultivating. 

CuM-BER-soME. Cumbersomc or cumbrous, heavy 
and troublesome. 

Cup-BEAR-ER. Cupbearer, a servant who helps 
the people to wine at a feast. 

Cur, a kind of dog. 

Curb, to check, to govern a horse, or to control 
wild persons. 

Curd, milk which has run into lumps: cheese is 
made of curds, pressed and salted. 

Cu-Ri-ous. Curious : a curious person is one who 
is inquisitive, who wishes to know every thing. 
A curious thing, a thing which is very strange, 
uncommon, or made with great art. 

CuR-RENT. Current, passing from one person's 
hand to another, as current money. Current 
also means common, fashionable. A current^ a 
stream of water. 

CuR-Ri-ER. Currier, a man who dresses leather. 

Curse, to wish mischief or harm to some one, to 
torment. A curse, is an affliction, a sorrow. 

CuR-so-RY. Cursory, quick, hasty, careless. 

Cur-tail. Curtail, to make shorter, to cut short. 

Curve, any thing which is bent. 

CuR-vED. Curved, crooked, bent. 

Cus-TO-DY. Custody : to be in custody, is to be 
confined, to be in prison; to give something 
into a person's custody, is to give it into his care 
to be kept safe. 


54 DAR 

Cus-TOM, Custom, a habit ; something which is 

commonly done. 
Cus-TOM-A-RY. Customary, common, usual. 
CuT-LER. Cutler, a person who makes kniveSj 

scissors, and other cutting instruments. 
Cyl-in-der, Cylinder, what is in the shape of a 

pencil, or a rolling stone, or a candle. Cylinder^ 

may be hollow or solid. A hollow cylinder is a 

tube, as a pipe stem. 



Dab-ble. Dabble, to play in water or mud, 

Dai-ly. Daily, happening every day. 

Dain-ty. Dainty, pleasant to the taste ; affected 

and over-nice in eating. A dainty^ any thing 

nice to eat. 
Dai-ry. Dairy, the place where milk is made 

into butter and cheese. 
Dam, the mother of beasts. To dam up a river or 

a stream^ to confine the water, and prevent it 

from running any further, by making a bank 

Dam- AGE. Damage, mischief, harm. 
Dame, a mistress of a family, or any old woman. 
Damp, rather wet. To damp^ to make wet, to 


Dam-sel. Damsel, a young woman, a girl. 
Dare, to have courage to do a thing ; not to be 

afraid. j 

Dar-ing. Daring, bold, full of courage. 
Dart, a kind of arrow, which is shot from a bow, 

by the hand. To darty is to move quickly and 


DEC 55 

Date, the time when any particular thing happen, 
ed : the date of a letter, is the day on which it 
was written, generally nriarked at the beginning 
or the end. 

Daunt, to frighten. 

Daunt-less. Dauntless, bold, not easily fright- 

Dawn, the first appearance of light, before the 
sun rises in the morning : to dawn, is to begin 
to grow light. 

Daz-zle. Dazzle, to confound with a blaze of 
light, as the sun dazzles our eyes when we look 
at it. 

Dead-ly. Deadly, killing, hurtful, very mischie- 

Deaf, not able to hear. 

Deal, a quantity : a great deal, is a great quan- 
quantity : deal, means also the wood of the pine 
and fir trees. 

Deal-ings. Dealings, our actions, our conduct 
towards other people : we should be true and 
just in all our dealings. 

Dearth, a great want of bread, or food of any kind, 

De-base. Debase, to make low and mean. 

De-bate. Debate, a dispute, a quarrel : to debate, 
to dispute, to consider within one's-self. 

De*bil-i-tate. Debilitate, to make faint, to take 
away a person's strength. 

Debt, something which we owe to another person, 

Debt-or. Debtor, one who owes money to an- 
other man. 

De-camp. Decamp, to run away. 

De-cay. Decay, to waste away, to become bad, 
to become useless. 

66 DEE 

De-cease. Decease, death. 
De-ceit. Deceit, cunning, want of truth. 
De-ceit-ful. Deceitful, artful, not true. 
De-ceive. Deceive, to cheat : to endeavour to 

make others believe that what is false is true. 
De-cent. Decent, fit, proper, modest. 
De-cen-cy. Decency, fit and proper behaviour. 
De-cep-tion. Deception, any thing which cheats 

or deceives us. 
De-cide. Decide, to fix, to settle, to determine 

in one's own mind. 
De-ci-sion. Decision, something which is settled 

or determined by a person's will. 
De-ci-sive. Decisive, making any thing sure and 

fixed, which was uncertain before. 
Deck, to dress out, to adorn : the dechy the floof 

of a ship. 
De-clare. Declare, to show, to tell every body. 

as, " The works of God declare his goodness.'* 
De-ci*ine. Decline, to bend downwards, to fade 

away : to decline, any thing, to refuse it, to 

avoid it. [smaller. 

De-crease. Decrease, to grow less, or to make 
De-cree. Decree, a rule, a law, something which 

is fixed : to decree, to fix, to appoint. 
De-crep-it. Decrepit, old, worn out with old age. 
Ded-i-cate. Dedicate, to give to some particular 

De-duct. Deduct, to take away a part from any 

Deed, an action, any thing which may be done. 
Deem, to think, to be of opinion : as, " I deem it 

necessary for your happiness, that you should 

be good." 

DEG 57 

De-face. Deface, to hurt, to destroy, to spoil, 
De-feat» Defeat, to destroy, to make of no use, 

to bring to nothing. 
. De-fect. Defect, a want, a fault. 
De-fec-tive. Defective, wanting something, full 

of faults. 
De-fence. Defence, any thing which saves or 

protects us. 
De-fend. Defend, to save, to guard. 
. De-fer. Defer, to put off till another time. 
De-fi-cien-cy. Deficiency, a want. 
}De-fi-cient. Deficient, wanting something. 
De-file. Defile, to make dirty, to make cor- 
i rupt : a defile, a narrow passage. 
De-fine. Define, to mark out the qualities, or 
^ the size of any thing. 

De-form. Deform, to make ugly, or out of shape. 
De-form-i-ty. Deformity, ugliness, bad shape. 
^De-fraud. Defraud, to cheat a person out of 
, something. 

De-fray, Defray, to pay the expense of any thing. 
De-fy. Defy, to call to fight : to defy, also means 

not to care for. 
jDe-gen-er-ate. Degenerate, to become bad and 
\ unworthy after having been better. 
De-grade. Degrade, to make lower: to degrade 
one^s self, is to do something which makes us 
less esteemed than we were before. It is a de- 
grading thing to te4l a lie. 
De-gree. Degree ; the degree of a person is his 
situation in life : thus, there are people of high 
J degree, and of low degree. Degree, measure 
' or quantity. By degrees, means by little and 
little, not all at once. We go up stairs by degrees. 

58 DEN 

De-ject. Deject, to grieve, to make sad. 
De-jec-tion. Dejection, sorrow, sadness. ll 

Deign, to condescend. ! 

De-i-ty. Deity, God. 
De-lay. Delay, to put off, to hinder : a delays a 

De-lib-er-ate. Deliberate, to consider carefully ; 

to think, that we may choose properly : delibe" 

rate also means slow and careful. 
De-li-cious. Delicious, delightful, very sweet to 

the taste. 
De-lin-e-ate. Delineate, to draw the form or 

shape of any thing. 
De-liv-er. Deliver, to save from some misfor- 
tune : to deliver a things to give it into a person's 

hands : to deliver^ also means to speak or to tell, 

as, " the boy delivered his speech well." 
De-luge. Deluge, a great flow of waters, a rain. 

The flood mentioned in the Bible, is called the 

deluge: to deluge^ to cover with water, to 

De-lu-sion. Delusion, a cheat, something which 

deceives us. 
De-mand. Demand, to ask for something as our 

right to ask. 
De-mean-our. Demeanour, the manners or the 

behaviour of a person. 
De-mol-ish. Demolish, to put an end to, to de. 

stroy entirely. 
De-mon-strate. Demonstrate, to show that a 

thing is certain. 
De-mure. Demure, grave and serious. 
Den, the cave of a wild beast. 
Dense, close, thick, and heavy. 

DER 50 

De-NY. Deny, to say a thing is not, to refuse. 
De-part. Depart, to go away from a place 
De-part-ure. Departure, going away. 
De-pend. Depend, to trust to a person for our 

support, or for any service. 
De-pend-ant. Dependant, often means one who 

serves, or is under another person : " your father 

treats his dependants with kindness." 
De-plor-a-ble. Deplorable, sad and miserable. 
De-pop-u-late. Depopulate, to take away all the 

people out of a country. 
T)e-pose. To depose a king, means to take away 

his rank and power, and to permit him to be 

king no longer. 
De-pos-ite. Deposite, something which is trusted 

to the care of another. 
De-pos-it-ed. Deposited, put carefully into some 

De-praved. Depraved, exceedingly bad. 
De-prav-i-ty. Depravity, wickedness, corruption. 
Dep-re-da-tion. Depredation, the act of robbing, 

spoiling, and wasting. [another. 

De-prive. Deprive, to take something away from 
Depth, the deepness of any thing : the deph of 

winter, means the middle of winter. 
Dep-u-ty. Deputy, a person who does business 

instead of another person. 
De.ride. Deride, to make game of, to mock at. 
De-ri-sion. Derision, contempt, the act of de- 

spising or laughing at another. 
De-rfve. Derive, to be derived from, is to come 

from, or be caused by some other thing. All the 

blessings v/e have are derived from God, the\ 

come from God. 

60 DES 

De-scend. Descend, to come down from a high, 

De-scent. Descent, coming down. 

De-scry. Descry, to spy out something at a dis- 
tance. » 

Des-ert. Desert, a wild, dismal, lonely place,! 
without houses, and without people : to desert J 
to leave, to go away from. ? 

De-sign. Design, something we intend to do, al 
plan : to design, to intend to do something. I 

De-sign-ed-ly. Designedly, on purpose. | 

De-sire. Desire, to wish very much. 

De-sir-ous. Desirous, wishing or longing for 

Des-o-late. Desolate, lonely, dismal, without, 

De-spair. Despair, to have lost all hope. 

De-spatch. To despatch a thing, to do it quick- 
ly : to despatch a person, to send him away in a 
hurry, or to kill him. 

Des-per-ate. Desperate, without hope, mad, fu- 

Des-pise. Despise, to have a mean opinion of 
another because he is unworthy. 

Des-pi-ca-ble. Despicable, mean, contemptible, 
unworthy. Lying is despicable^ as well as 

Des-pond. Despond, to be very sad, to be with-i 
out hope. 

Des-pond-en-cy. Despondency, despair, sadness. 

Des-tine. Destine, to intend for something, to 
appoint. [every thing. 

Des-ti-tute. To be destitute, to be in want of 

De-steuc-tion. Destruction, waste, ruin. 

DEW 61 

De-struc-tive. Destructive, hurtful, mischievous. 
De-tach. Detach, to separate, or part one thing 

from another. 
De-tail. Detail, to relate the particulars. 
De-taix. Detain, to keep back. 
De-tect. Detect, to find out a fault. 
De-ter. Deter, to discourage or frighten a person 

from doing something. 
De-test. Detest, to hate very much. 
De-test-a-ble. Detestable, vei^ bad, hateful 
Det-ri-ment. Detriment, hurt, mischief. 
Det-ri-ment-al. Detrimental, doing harm. 
Dev-as-ta-tion. Devastation, destruction, waste. 
De-vel-ope. Develope, to display something that 

was hidden. The rose-bud, when it is expand- 
ed to the rose, is developed, 
De-vi-ate. Deviate, to go out of the common 

De-vi-ous. Devious, wandering, rambling. 
De-vise. Devise, to contrive, to invent. 
De-vice. Device, something which is contrived 

De-void. Devoid, without any thing, empty : as, 

devoid of sense, means without sense. 
De-vote. Devote, to give up to some purpose or 

De-vo-tiox. Devotion, piety to God, religious 

behaviour : devotions, prayers to God. 
De-vout. Devout, religious, full of piety. 
Dew, the vapour which rises out of the earth and 

falls again in small drops on the ground, and oa 

the leaves of plants. 
Dew-lap, the flesh which hangs down from the 

throat of bulls and cows. 

62 DIF 

Dew-y. Dewy, wet with dew, or like dew* 

Dex-ter-ous. Dexterous, ready, artful, 

Di-A-DEM. Diadem, a crown, an ornament worn 
on the heads of kings. 

Di-AG-o-NAL. A diagonal line, is a line reaching 
oblique from one corner to another, thus /. 

Di-AL. Dial, that part of a watch or clock on 
which the numbers are marked, which show the 
hours and minutes, the face of the clock. 

Di-AL-ECT. Dialect, language, the words which a 
person makes use of in speaking. 

Di-A-LOGUE. Dialogue, a conversation between 
several people. 

Di-AM-E-TER. Diameter, the length of any circu- 
lar thing measured exactly through the middle or 
centre : when an orange is cut into two parts, 
the measure across the middle of either part 
shows the diameter, 

Dic-TioN. Diction, the words in which any thing 
is spoken or written. 

Die, speaking of any creature, means to be with- 
out life, and without breath : to be cold, still, 
and unable to move, after having been alive. To 
die, speaking of plants, means to wither^ to fade 
quite away : to die, also means to make of some 
colour : as, this velvet is died black, this carpet 
is died of several different colours. 

Di-ET. Diet, food, victuals. 

DiF-FER. Differ, to be different from, not to be 
the same : as, how much does a 'painted flower 
differ from a real one ! 

DiF-Fi-cuLT. Difficult, hard, not easily done, not 
easily pleased. [one's self. 

DiF-Fi-DEiN^T* Diffident, not proud, not sure of 

DIS 63 

Dir-FUSE. DifFuse, to pour out upon something, 
to spread out, to scatter widely about. 

Di-GEST. Digest, to melt or soften in the stomach. 

Di-LATE. Dilate, to make wide, or to spread out. 

DiL-A-TO-RY. Dilatory, lazy, slow in doing any 

DiL-i-GEXT. Diligent, not lazy, always at work, 

Dim, dull, not clear, not bright. 

Di-MEN-sioN. Dimension, the dimensions of a 
thing are its length, breadth, and thickness. 

DioiiN-isii. Diminish, to become less, or to make 

Di-Mix-u-TivE. Diminutive, small, very little. 

Din, a loud continual noise. 

Dint, a mark made in any thing by striking it. 

Dip-SAs. Dipsas, a venomous serpent. 

Di-RECT. Direct, plain, straight forward. To direct, 
to show the way ; to order sonrething to be 
done. The direction of any thing, is the way 
which it points. A direction, is something which 
is desired to be done. 

DiRE-FUL. Dire or direful, shocking, horrid, 
dreadful. [lame, 

Dis-A-BLE. Disable, to take away strength, to 

Dis-AD-VAN-TAGE. Disadvantage, an inconve- 
nience, something which causes us hurt or loss. 

Dis-AP-PEAR. Disappear, to go out of sight. 

Dis-As-TER. Disaster, misfortune, a sad acci- 

Dis-AS-TROUs. Disastrous, miserable, very unlucky. 

Dis-BE-LiEVE. Disbelieve, not to believe, not to 
think some fact which is written or told is true. 


Dis-CERN. Discern, to see, to spy out. 

Dis-CHARGE. Discharge, to do something which 
we are desired, or which we ought to do. To 
discharge also means to pay the money which is 
owing for something. To discharge a person^ 
not to allow him to stay with us. To discharge^ 
means also to empty, or pour out. 

Dis-€i-PLE. Disciple, a person who is taught, a 

Dis-ci-PLiNE. Discipline, teaching, instruction ; 
punishment to make people better. 

Dis-CLOSE. Disclose, to tell or to show something 
which was hidden before. 

Dis-coM-posE. Discompose, to put out of order, 
to disturb. 

Dis-coN-so-LATE. Disconsolate, very much grie- 
ved, very sorrowful. 

Dis-coN-TiN-UE. Discontinue, to leave off. 

Dis-coRD. Discord, quarrelling, disagreement. 

Dis-cov-ER. Discover, to find out, to show, to 

Dis-cov-E-RY. Discovery, something which is 
found out. 

Dis-couR-AGE. Discourage, to frighten a person , 
from doing any thing. I 

Dis-couRSE. Discourse, talk, conversation. 

Dis-CREET. Discreet, careful, always considering 
what we ought to do. 

Dis-CRE-TioN. Discretion, carefulness. Discretion 
sometimes means the power of doing exactly as I 
one likes, without being checked. ^ 

Dis-CRiM-i-NATE. Discriminate, to observe the 
difference between several things. 

Dis-cuss. Discuss, to talk about any subject* 


DIS 65 

Dis-DAiN. Disdain, proud contempt. To disdain, 
to think any thing mean, unworthy, and below 
us. You disdain to tell an untruth. 

Dis-EASE. Disease, sickness, a disorder. 

Dis-EPs-GAGE. Disengage, to part one thing from 
another : to disengage, to disentangle, to get out 
of some difficulty. 

Dis-GORGE. Disgorge, to pour out of the mouth 

Dis-GUisE. Disguise, to hide the real shape of 
anv thing:, to hide the truth : to disguise one's 
self, to put on an uncommon dress that people 
may not know us. 

Dis-GusT. Disgust, very great dislike to some, 
thing, ill humour. 

Dis-HON-EST. Dishonest, not true, not fit to be 

Dis-HON-ouR. Dishonour, disgrace. 

Dis-HON-ouR-A-iBLE. Dishouourablc, shamcful, dis- 
graceful, not honest. 

Dis-ix-TER-EST-ED. Disinterested, not selfish, 
thinking more of others than of one's self. 

Dis-joiN. Disjoin, to break, to separate or part. 

Disk, the disk is the face of the sun or moon. 

Dis-LODGE. Dislodge, to remove something out 
of a place. 

Dis-MAY. Dismay, to frighten, to terrify : dis^ 
may, fright. 

Dis-Miss. Dismiss, to send away. 

Dis-MOUNT. Dismount, to get off a horse. 

Dis-owN. Disown, to deny. 

Dis-PENSE. Dispense, to give out, to deal out to 
others ; to dispense with any iking, to excuse it, 
to do without it. 


66 ^ DIS 

Dis-PERSE. Disperse, to scatter about in different 

Dis-PiR-iT-ED. Dispirited, sad, without courage 
or strength. 

Dis-PLAY. Display, to spread open, to show. 

Dis-posE. Dispose, to put in order, to settle, to 
give ; to dispose of any things is to sell it, or 
give it away. To have any thing at our dispO" 
saly is to be able to do what we like with it. 

Ihs-QUi-ET. Disquiet, to disturb, to make uneasy. 

Dis-QTTi-E-TUDE. Disquictude, vexation, uneasi- 

Dis-sECT. Dissect, to cut or divide any thing into 
several parts, in order to examine it better. 

Dis-sEM-BLE. Dissemble, to pretend, to hide tho 

Dis-sEN-sioN. Dissension, quarrelling, a dispute. 

Dis-sEv-ER. Dissever, to separate or part in twOf 
to break. 

Dis-si-PATE. Dissipate, to scatter about, to waste, 

Dis-si-PA-TioN. Dissipation, idleness and pleasure, 
too great a fondness for amusement, and inat- 
tention to those things which we ought to do. 

Dis-soLVE. Dissolve, to loosen, to break : to dis^ 
solve often means to melt away ; as ice will dis~ 
solve before the fire, or as a lump of sugar will 
be dissolved when it is put into water. 

Dis-suADE. Dissuade, to persuade a person not 
to do something. 

Dis-TANCE. Distance, to leave behind in a race. 
Distance, space between things. 

Dis-TEM-PER. Distemper, sickness, a disorder. 

Dis-TEND. Distend, to stretch out, to make broad. 

Dis-TiL. Distil, to fall in drops : to distil, is also 


DIV 07 

to gather or collect the steam of something 
which is heated. 

Dis-TiNCT. Distinct, not confused together, but 
easy and plain to be seen. Distinct often means 
not the same, but different: distinct d\so means 
not together, but parted. 

Dis-TiNc-TioN. Distinction, some mark by which 
we may know one thing from another. Distinc^ 
iion also means something which raises us above 
other people, and makes us greater or better 
than they are. 

Dis-TiN-GuisH. Distinguish, to mark the difference 
between things: to distinguish, also means to 
know one thing from another, to see it plainly. 

Dis-TORT. Distort, to make something look ugly, 
by twisting it out of its right shape : as passion 
and anger distort the countenance. 

Dis-TRACT. Distract, to confuse the mind, to make 
one mad. 

Dis-TRAC-TioN. Distraction, confusion, distur- 
banco, madness. 

Dis-TRiB-uTE. Distribute, to give or deal out some- 
thing among a number of others. 

Dis-TRicT. District, a part of a country. 

Dis-TRUST. Distrust, not to trust in a person, not 
to believe the truth of a thing. 

The syllable dis, at the beginning of a word, 
generally means not, or different from ; as in 
di^-honest, which means not honest ; to dis-trust^ 
not to trust ; to dis-please, not to please ; to dis- 
agree, not to agree ; and in many others. 

DiT-TY. Ditty, a song. 

Dive, to go under the water in order to get some- 
thing. The people who dive for coral and 

68 DOM 

pearls, (which are found in a kind of oyster,) 

are called divers, 
Di-VERGE. Diverge, to point different ways fron 

one middle, as the points of a star. 
Di-VERs. Divers, several, more than one. 
Di-VERSE. Diverse, different from one another. 
Di-VER-si-FY. Diversify, to make different. 
Di-VER-si-Fi-ED. Diversified, marked with diffe 

rent colours, or different shapes. 
Di-VERT. Divert, properly, to turn something 

aside, or out of the way it was going ; or lo tun 

the mind from any thing we were attending to 

To divert, is also to please or amuse. 
Di-VEST. Divest, to strip, to take something of 

another thing. 
Di-viDE. Divide, to part one thing into several 

different pieces : to divide, also means to stand 

between two things, to part them, as the Alps 

divide Italy from France. 
Di-vi-sioN. Division, a part of any thing which 

has been divided. [day. 

Di-UR-NAL. Diurnal, done in a day, or done every 
Di-vuLGE. Divulge, to tell something which was 

secret. [managed. 

Do-ciLE. Docile, easily to be taught, or easily 
Dock, a place where ships are built or kept safe. 
Doc-trine. Doctrine, any thing which is taught 
DoG-MAT-i-cAL. Dogmatical, positive, in the tone 

of a master. 
Dole-ful. Doleful, sad, sorrowful, dismal. 
Do-MAiNs. Domains, the country which any one 

possesses or governs. 
Do-MES-Tic. Domestic animals, are those which 

are tame, not wild : a domestic, a servant who 


lives in the house ; a domestic person, is one who 
is fond of staying at home. 

Do-MEs-Ti-CATE. DoiTiesticate, to make fond of 
the house, to tame. 

Do-MiN-ioN. Dominion, power, authority over 
others : the dominions of a king is the country 
which he rules over : to have dominion over any 
things is to have the right of doing as we hke 
with it. 

Do-NA-TioN. Donation, any thing which is given, 
a gift. 

Doom, to condemn to some punishment, or to set- 
tle what is to become of any thing. 

DoR-MANT. Dormant, sleeping. 

Do-TAGE. Dotage, foolishness in consequence of 
old aoje. 

Dote, to be foolishly fond, to love extremely 

Doubt, not to be sure of a thing, to be afraid, to 

DouitT-FUL. Doubtful, not sure, not certain. 

Dove, a pigeon. 

Dough, paste before it is baked. 

Down, soft feathers, as swan's down ; down, soft 
wool, or soft hair, as the down of the cotton- 
tree, the down of the beaver. 

Down-right. Downright, always speaking plainly 
and truly. 

Ddz-en. Dozen, twelve. Half-a-dozen, there- 
fore, must be six. 

Drain, to empty something by little and little, or 
to make it quite dry, by drawing the wet from it 
by degrees. 

Dra-ma. Drama, a story which is not told, but 
acted and spoken by different persons. 

70 DRO 

Dra-per. Draper, one who sells cloth. 

Dra-pe-ry. Drapery, the dress, or cloth of any 
kind used to make dresses. 

Draught, a quantity drank at once. A draught, 
also means a drawing. A draught often means 
a quantity of fishes caught in a net all at once. 
{Draught \s pronounced draft,) 

Draughts-man. Draughts-man, a man who is 
employed in drawing pictures. 

Draught-horses. Draught-horses, are horses 
used to draw carts and carriages. 

Drawl, to speak in a low disagreeable tone ot 

Dread, great fear. Dread, means also striking 
us at once with fear and respect. Dread^ to fear 
very much. 

Drea-ry. Drear or dreary, gloomy, sad, dismal. 

Dregs, the grounds which are left at the bottomi 
when any liquor is poured off. 

Drench, to steep in water, to soak. 

Drift, our meaning or intention in doing or saying 
any thing. " I do not understand the drift ol 
what you say," is the same as — " I do not un- 
derstand what you mean by saying that." To 
drift, to drive in heaps, as snow is drifted by the 

Drip, to fall in drops. [wind. 

Droll, comical, apt to make us laugh. 

Drones, those bees which make no honey, and 
have no stings ; they live in the same hive with 
the working bees. A drone, sometimes means 
an idle person. 

Dross, what is left of any metal after it is melted,. I 
Dross means also whatever is of no use, the? ' 
leaving of any thing. 

DUT 71 

Drove, a large number of sheep or other cattle, 

which are driven along. 
Drought, very dry weather, when rain is wanting. 

DroiigM also means thirst. 
Drow-sy. Drowsy, sleepy, heavy with want of 

Drub, to give one a beating, to thump. 
Drudge, to work very hard. A drudge^ one who 

is employed in mean work. 
Drudg-e-ry. Drudgery, mean and hard work of 

any kind. 
Drug, something used in making physic, or in 

dvinor colours. 
Du-Bi-ous. Dubious, not sure or certain, not 

plain nor clear. 
Duc-TiLE. Ductile, easily drawn out into wire, or 

into long threads : gold is very ductile. 
Due, that which we have a right to. Due^ owing ; 

as prayer is due to God. Due sometimes means 

exactly, as when we say the wind blows due 

Du-EL. Duel, a fight between two people. 
Dumb, not able to speak, silent, not speaking. 
DuN-GEOX. Dungeon, a prison under ground. 
Dupe, a person who is cheated. 
Dur-a-ble. Durable, lasting for a long while : 

not decaying or wearing out soon. 
DuR-A-TioN. Duration, the length of time that 

any thing lasts or continues. 
Dusk, the beginning of darkness. Dusk or dusky, 

rather dark, of a dark colour. 
Du-te-ous. Duteous or dutiful, obedient, doing 

what we are bid. 

n EAS 

Du-TY. Duty : our duty is any thing which we 
ought to do, as, " duty first, and pleasure after- 
wards." It is our duty to obey our parents. 

Dwarf, a person much less in size than most peo- 
ple are. - [very httle. 

DwARF-isH. Dwarfish, smaller than ought to be ; 

Dwell, to live in a place, to be fixed or settled on 
something. To dwell ujpoii any things is to 
speak about it, or think of it for a long time. 

DwiN-DLE. To dwindle, to grow little or thin. 


Ea-ger. Eager, wishing very much for some- 

Ear, an ear of corn is the part which contains the 
grains or seeds of the corn ; part of an animal, 
the organ of hearing. 

Earn, to get or gain something by working for it. 

Ear-nest-ly. Earnestly, not in jest, but in a se- 
rious and affectionate manner. 

Earth-quake. An earthquake is when the earth 
trembles and shakes in a violent manner ; some- 
times deep hollow places open in the earth, 
from w^hich come water, fire, and smoke, with a 
noise like thunder. Earthquakes scarcely ever 
happen in this country, but in some countries 
there have been earthquaJces so violent, that 
cities have been thrown down, and thousands of 
people dashed to pieces or swallowed up. 

East, that part of the sky where the sun rises in 
the morning. The East means also those coun- 
tries which are towards the East ; as, " the best 
spicss come from the East.^^ 

EFF 19 

East-er-ly. Easterly, coming from the East. 

East-ern. Eastern being towards the Easty or 
belonging to the East. 

Eaves, the edge of the roof of a house. 

Eb-ul-li-tion. Ebullition, a bubbling and boiling 
up with heat. 

Ec-CEN-TRic. Eccentric ; an eccentric person is 
one of strange manners and strange habits, one 
who is not like other people. 

Ec-cLE-si-As-Tic. Ecclesiastic, belonging to reli- 
gion or the church. 

E-coN-o-MY. Economy, the management of a 
family : economy dAso means the proper manage- 
ment of our money or time, so as not to spend 
more than we can afford of either. Economy is 
the order and place of things. 

Ec-sTA-CY. Ecstacy, great pleasure or delight. 

E-DicT. Edict, some rule or order which is pub- 
lished or told aloud to all the people, so that they 
may pay attention to it. 

Ed-i-fice. Edifice, any thing which is built ; this 
house is an edifice. 

Ed-u-cate. Educate, to teach young persons 
what is proper for them to know. 

Ef-face. Efface, to rub out or blot out the marks 
of any thing, to make it no more to be seen, as 
you efface the marks of a lead pencil with Indian 

Ef-fect. Effect, any thing which is caused by 
another thing ; to effect, to cause, to make some- 
thing done. 

Ef-fem-i-nate. Effeminate, soft, tender like a 

Ef-fi-ca-cious. Efficacious : any thing which is 

74 ELE 

strong enough, and which can do what it was 
intended to do, is efficacious. 

Ef-ful-gent. Effulgent, very bright, as the efful 
gent sun. 

Ef-ful-gence. Effulgence, great brightness. 

Ef-fu-sion. Effusion, any thing which is poured 
or spilled out. 

E-GREss. Egress, the going out of a place, as in- 
gress means the going into any place. 

Eke, to make any thing longer by adding some- 
thing else to it. 

E-LAB-o-RATE. Elaborate, done with great pains 
and labour. 

E-LAPSE. Elapse, to pass away, as time does. 

E-LAS-Tic. Elastic ; those things are called elas- 
tic^ which, when they are bent out of their pro- 
per shape, spring back to it again ; Indian rub- 
ber is elastic^ and whalebone is elastic. 

E-LATEv Elate, full of joy and pride. 

El-ders. Elders, those who are older than others. 

El-der-ly. Elderly, rather old. 

E-LECT. Elect, to choose one thing or one person 
out of a great many others, for some purpose. 

El-e-gant. Elegant, pleasing and beautiful, not 
rude nor coarse. 

El-e-gy. Elegy, a melancholy piece of poetry, 
generally written on the death of somebody. 

El-e-ment. Element, earth, air, fire, and water, 
are generally called the four elements. The word 
element properly means a substance of one sort 
or kind. Several elements mingled together form 
a compound substance. Flour is one element^ and 

EMB 7% 

water another element of paste : paste is the 

compound of these elements. 
El-e-vate. Elevate, to raise up high. 
El-e-va-tion. Elevation, height, the state of 

being raised, or lifted up. 
Ell, a measure of one yard, and a quarter of ayard. 
E-lope. Elope, to run away. 
El-o-quence. Eloquence, the power of speaking 

much and well. 
El-o-quent. Eloquent, speaking much, and at 

the same time properly and agreeably. 
E-lu-ci-date. Elucidate, to make quite plain and 

easy to be understood, 
E-LUDE. Elude, to get out of danger by some 

trick, to get away cunningly. 
E-MA-ci-A-TED. Emaciated, without flesh, quite 

thin and lean. 
Em-bark. Embark to go on board of a ship. To 

embark any thing, is to put it into a ship. 
jEivi-BAR-RAss. Embarrass, to tease, to entangle. 
Em-bas-sy. Embassy, a solemn and particular 

message sent from one country to another, or 

from one king to another. 
Em-bel-lish. Embellish, to make something more 

beautiful than it was before. 
Em-blem. Emblem, an image or picture intended to 

give us an idea of something which we cannot see. 

You know we cannot see Time; but the figure of 

a very old man, with a scythe in his hand, and 

a bald head, is used as an emblem of Time. 
Em-brace. To embrace a persoji, means to press 

him in one's arms with kindness, to hug him. 
Em-broid-e-ry. Embroidery, flowers and figures 

of any kind, worked upon cloth with a needle. 


Eii-E-RALD. Emerald, a precious stone of a most 

beautiful green colour. 
E-MERGE. Emerge, to rise out of a hiding place, 

or to rise out of darkness, as the moon emerges 

from the clouds. 
E-MER-GEN-CY. Emergency, something which 

happens suddenly. [to another. 

Em-i-grate. Emigrate, to remove from one place 
Em-i-nent. Eminent, high raised above others. 
Em-i-nence. Eminence, height. An eminence^ 

any high place, as a hill. 
E-MOL-u-MENT. Emolument, profit, something 

which is gained. 
E-Mo-TioN. Emotion, agitation of the mind. 
Em-pe-ror. Emperor, a ruler of a country who 

ranks higher than a king. 
Em-pha-sis. Emphasis : in speaking and read- 
ing it is proper to sound some words stronger 

than we do others ; this is called speaking them 

with emphasis, or laying an emphasis upon them. • 
Em-ploy. Employ, to make use of a person or 

thing. To employ one's self, is to do something. 

To employ a person^ is to make him do something 

for us. 
Em-ploy-ment. Employment, business, something 

which we are about. 
Em-u-late. Emulate, to try to be like somebody 

who is better or greater than ourselves. 
Em-u-la-tion. Emulation, the wish we feel to 

imitate those who are better than we are. 
£m-u-lous. Emulous, wishing to be ^s good or 

better than some other person. 
En-chant. Enchant, to charm and delight very 


ENG 77 

En-chant-ing. Enchanting, delightful, extremely 

En-close. Enclose, to make hedges or fences 

round fields, to part them from other grounds. 

To enclose^ also means to shut up. 
En-com-pass. Encompass, to shut in by putting 

something all round ; or to go quite round any 

En-coun-ter. Encounter, to meet face to face, 

by accident. 
En-croach. Encroach, to take by little and little, 

something which we have no right to, or to get 

into some place where we have no right to go. 
En-deav-our. Endeavour, to try to do something. 
End-less. Endless, without an end, lasting al- 
En-dure. Endure, to last or continue. To en- 

dwre a person or a thing, means to bear or suffer 

En-e-my. Enemy, one who is not our friend : 

one that hates us, and would do us harm if he 

En-er-gy. Energy, force, strength, power to do 

En-er-vate. Enervate, to make weak, to take 

away force. 
En-force. Enforce, to make strong, to gi^e 

force to. 
En-gage. Engage : to be engaged, is to be busy, 

to be employed ; to engage, sometimes means to 

En-gage-ment. Engagement, something we are 

obhged to do. An engagement often means a 

fight, a battle. 

78 ENM 

En-gine. Engine, a contrivance in which many dif-' 
ferent movements and parts are made to produce 
one effect : thus we say, " clocks and watches 
are very ingenious engines. ^^ If you look at the 
inside of a watch, you will see that it is compo- 
sed or made of springs, and many different 
wheels, which turn round, and all together pro- 
duce the effect of telling the hour of the day. 
The art of contriving and making engines, is 
called mechanics and mechanism, A person who 
works at this art is called a mechanic. 

En-grave. Engrave, to make deep marks or cuta 
upon any hard thing, as copper, wood, or stone. 

En-grav-ing. Engraving, a picture which is first 
marked or cut on a plate of copper, or on a block 
of wood ; afterwards these lines are filled with 
ink, and when the copper is pressed on paper 
with a machine made on purpose, the ink which' 
was in the lines sticks to the paper, and leaves a 
mark or impression. Engravings on copper are 
often called copper-plates ; engravings on wood 
are generally called prints or cuts. You may 
see engravings in many books. 

En-hance. Enhance, to raise higher in price or 
in value. 

E-NiG-MA. Enigma, a riddle, a puzzle. 

En-join. Enjoin, to order or direct something to 
be done. 

En-joy. Enjoy, to feel with pleasiire. 

En-large. Enlarge, to make larger. [light 

En-light-en. Enlighten, to make light, to fill with 

En-li-ven. Enliven, to make merry and active. 

En-mi-ty Enmity, great dislike, hatred, a wish 
to do mischief to some other person. 

ENV 79 

E^proR-Mous. Enormous, exceedingly great, un- 
commonly large. 

E-NOR-Mi-TY. Enormity, great wickedness. 

En-rage. Enrage, to put into a passion, to make 
very angry. 

En-rich. Enrich, to make rich. 

En-sue. Ensue, to happen afterwards, [puzzle. 

En-tan-gle. Entangle, to twist, to confuse or 

En-ter. Enter, to come into, or to go into, any 
place. To enter ^ sometimes means to set down 
in writing. 

En-ter-prise. Enterprise, some difficult thing 
which we try to do. 

En-ter-tain. Entertain, to amuse, to please. To 
entertain^ means also to feast at table. 

En-ter-tain-ment. Entertainment, something 
which amuses us ; it also means a feast. 

En-tire. Entire, whole, not broken, not divided 
into parts. 

En-ti-tle. Entitle, to give one a right to any thing. 

En-trance. Entrance, the act of coming or going 
into a place. The entrance, the way by which 
we go in : a door is an entrance to a house or 

En-treat. Entreat, to ask, to beg. 

En-try. Entry, the same as entrance. 

En-vi-rons. Environs, places round about or 
near us. [oning over. 

E-Nu-ME-RA-TiON. Enumeration, counting or reck- 

En-vy. Envy, to hate another person for being 
better or happier than we are ourselves. Envy, 
the mean ill nature which some people feel when 
they see others happier and better than them- 

80 ESC 

E-Pis-TLE. Epistle, a letter written to some person. 
Ep-i-thet. Epithet, a word which serves to mark 

the good or bad quahties of any thing ; as, a 

beautiful nosegay, a sour apple. 
E-QUAL. Equal, the same : as one hundred cents 

are equal to a dollar. 
E-QUEs-TRiAN. EqucstrJan, on horseback. 
E-QUip. Equip, to make ready, to dress out. 
E-Quip-AGE. Equipage, a carriage with servants 

to attend it. 
E-Quiv-A-LENT. Equivalent, the same as another! 

thing in value : one hundred cents is equivalenA 

to a dollar. i 

E-Quiv-o-cAL. Equivocal, signifying different 

things, not plain nor sure. 
E-Quiv-o-CATE. Equivocate, to speak in such a 

manner as to express two senses, so as intention- 
ally to convey a doubtful or false meaning, 
E-RASE. Erase, to rub or scratch out. 
Ere, before : ere-long, before long, in a little 

while : ere-while, a short time ago. 
E-rect. Erect, to build, or set any thing upright 

erecty not bent, not leaning, but upright and| 


Err, to go wrong, to make mistakes. 
Er-ror. Error, a mistake, something which we 

do improperly without intending it. 
Er-rand. Errand, a message, something we are 

sent to do. 
E-RUP-TioN. Eruption, a sudden bursting out, or 

a breaking out of any thing. 
Es-cape. Escape, to get out of danger, to run 

away from, to get safe from something that 

would hurt us. 


EVE 81 

E-SPY. Espy, to find out something, or to see it 
at a distance. 

Es-SENCE. Essence, the chief properties of some 
herb or plant extracted or drawn from it : it also 
means a perfume. 

Es-SEN-TiAL. Essential, quite necessary. 

Es-TAB-LisH. Establish, to make any thing quite 
sure and certain, to fix or settle a thing. 

Es-TATE. Estate, the land which belongs to a 

Es-TEEM. To esteem a person, is to think him 
good and honest, to have a good opinion of him. 

Es-Ti-MA-BLE. Estimable, what is worthy of es- 
teem, good. 

Es-Ti-MATE. Estimate, to settle what a thing is 

Es-Ti-MA-TioN. Estimation, good opinion of some 

E-TER-NAL. Eternal, lasting always, without a 
beginning and without an end. 

E-THER. Ether, properly, air which is exceed- 
ingly thin, pure, and clear. 

E -VAC -u- ATE. Evacuate, to make empty, or to go 
out of place. 

E-VADE. Evade, to slip away cunningly, to avoid. 

E-VAP-oR-ATE. Evaporate, to turn into steam or 

E-VA-sioN. Evasion, an excuse to deceive a per- 

EvE-NiNG. Evening, the time which immediately 
follows sunset, before midnight. Eve and even 
are sometimes used in poetry instead of the word 

E-VENT. Event, any thing that happens. 


Ev-ER*MORE. Evermore ; for evermore means 

Ev-i-DENT. Evident, plainly to be seen. 

E-viL. Evil, any thing which is bad, wicked, 
hurtful, or unfortunate. 

E-viNCE. Evince, to show that a thing is true. 

Eu-RO-PE-AN. European, belonging to Europe : 
a European is one who is born in Europe. 

Ex-ACT-LY. Exactly, very carefully, or very nicely. 

Ex-act. Exact, to ask any thing as our right. 

Ex-AG-GE-RATE. Exaggerate : when people, in 
speaking of any thing, make it seem greater, or 
better, or worse than it really is, they exagge* 

Ex-ALT. Exalt, to raise up high. 

Ex-ALT-ED. Exalted, high : exalted virtue, is very 
great goodness. 

Ex-ALT-A-TioN. Exaltation, height, greatness ol 
rank, or greatness of power, or of goodness. 

Ex-AM-iNE. Examine, to look at any thing care- 
fully, to look at every side, and every part of a 
thing ; to examine a person, to ask him questions 
in order to find out the truth. 

Ex-AM-?LE. Example, something which we are 
to imitate or copy. For example, is a phrase 
used when we want to explain one thing by men^* 
tioning something else that is like it. 

Ex-As-PER-ATE. Exaspcratc, to put one into a 
passion, to provoke. 

Ex-CA-VATE. Excavate, to make hollow, to cut 
out. . 

Ex-CA-VA-TioN. Excavation, a place dug out. I 

Ex-CEED. Exceed, to go too far, to go beyond 

EXH 83 

Ex-CEL. Excel, to be better than another, or to 

do something better than another person ; as, 

you excel in writing. 
Ex-CEPT. Except, to leave out ; except, unless, 
Ex-CEP-TioN. Exception, something which is left 

out. An exception is also an objection, 
Ex-CEss, Excess, more than enough, too much 

of any thing. 
Ex-CLAiM, Exclaim, to cry out loud. 
Ex-CLA-MA-TioN, , Exclamation, something which 

is said expectedly, as Oh ! [on purpose. 

Ex-CLUDE, Exclude, to shut out, or to leave out 
Ex-CRES-CENCE, Excrcsccnce, something which 

grows out of another thing without any use, 

and without belonging to it: as a wart, or the 

large lumps which we often see growing on the 

trunks of trees. 
Ex-cuR-sioN. Excursion, a ramble to some dts- 

tant place. [be done, 

Ex-E-cuTE, Execute, to do what was intended to 
Ex-EMPT. Exempt : to be exempt from any thing, 

means to be free from it, not to be subject to it ; 

who is exempt from sickness and from death ? 
Ex-ER-cisE, Exercise, walking, running, jump- 
ing, or dancing, for the good of one's health ; 

to exercise one^s self, is to do something often, 

that we may do it well, 
Ex-ER-TioN. Exertion, something which is done 

with trouble, or by using force : running is an 

Ex-HA-LA-TioN, Exhalation, steam or vapour 

which rises into the air. 
Ex-HALE, Exhale, to throw out air from the lungs, 

to ascend in vapour. 

84 EXP 

Ex-HAUST. Exhaust, to make quite empty, to 

draw out what is m any thing till nothing is left. 

When we say, we are exhausted, we mean that 

all our breath, or all our strength is gone. 
Ex-HiB-iT. Exhibit, to show. 
Ex-HiL-A-RATE. Exhilarate, to make gay and 

Ex-iLE. Exile, to drive a person out of his own 

country, and not allow him to come back. 
Ex-iT. Exit : this word you often meet with in 

plays ; it means that a person goes out. 
Ex-OR-Bi-TANT. Exorbitant, enormous, too great 
Ex-OT-ic. Exotic. Those plants are called exo* 

tics which do not grow here naturally, but come 

from a foreign country. 
Ex-PAND. Expand, to spread open, as a rose-bud 

expands its leaves. 
Ex-PAN-sioN. Expansion, wideness, something 

which is spread out. 
Ex-PECT. To expect a person, to wait for him, to 

think he will come. lHo expect a tiling, is to 

think that it will happen. 
Ex-PE-Di-ENT. Expedient, any thing we make 

use of to help us on in something we are doing ; 

expedient, fit, convenient, useful. 
Ex-PEL. Expel, to drive out, to force out. 
Ex-PEND. Expend, to lay out money, to spend. 
Ex-PENSE. Expense, cost, something which is 

spent. [money. 

Ex-PEN-sivE. Expensive, costing a great deal of 
Ex-PE-Ri-ENCE. Experience, to know by trying. 
Ex-PER-i-MENT. Experiment, a trial, any thing 

which we do to find out the truth of something 

which we are not quite sure of. 

EXT 66 

Ex-pi-ATE. Expiate, to make amends for a fault 
by being very good. 

Ex-piRE. Expire, to die, to breathe no more, to 
be quite at an end. 

Ex-pi-RA-TioN. Expiration, sometimes means end, 
as when we say, at the expiration of a year you 
will read better than you do now. 

Ex -PLAIN. Explain, to make a person understand 
any thing. 

Ex-PLi-ciT. Explicit, spoken plainly. 

Ex-PLOUE. Explode, to drive out, or burst out 
violently, and with a great noise. 

Ex-PLO-sioN. Explosion, a bursting out with vio- 
lence and noise, as the report of a gun. 

Ex-PORT. Export, to carry something out of a 
country, as to import means to bring something 
into a country. We say that a great quantity 
of pork is exported, and a great quantity of tea 
is imported, every year. 

Ex-posE. Expose, to put in danger of something. 
To expose also means to show, or to tell what 
was hidden. 

Ex-PRESs. Express, to tell something in speaking 
or in writing, or to show the likeness of some- 
thing in a picture or an image. Express also 
means, to squeeze out : wine is the expressed 
juice of grapes. To express one's self, is to 
make use of words or signs to show what we 

Ex-Qui-siTE. Exquisite, exceedingly excellent. 

Ex-TEND. Extend, to stretch out, or to spread 
out, to make larger and wider. 

Ex-TEN-sivE. Extensive, wide and large. 

86 FAC 

Ex-TENT. Extent, of any things the length and 

breadth of it. 

Ex-TE-Ri-oR. Exterior, outside. I 

Ex-TER-Mi-NATE. Exterminate, to root out, to 
drive quite away. i 

Ex-TEE-NAL. External, outward, not inside. 

Ex-TiN-GUisH. Extinguish, to put out a fire or a 

Ex-TOL. Extol, to praise very much. 

Ex-TORT. Extort, to get something by force from 
another person. 

Ex-TRACT. Extract, to draw or squeeze some- 
thing out of another thing. 

Ex-TRA-OR-Di-NA-RY. Extraordinary, not common, 
different from most things, strange. 

Ex-TRAV-A-GANT. Extravagant, wasteful, spend- 
ing too much money. * 

Ex-TREM-i-TY. Extremity, of any things the part 
which is furthest off from the middle of it, the 

Ex-u-BE-RANT. Exubcrant, too abundant, or more^ 
plentiful than is necessary. 

Ex-ULT. Exult, to be very glad of something. 

Ex-uL-TA-TioN. Exultation, great delight and 

Eye, the organ of sight. To eye a thing y to watch 
it; or look attentively at it. 

Fa-ble. Fable, a story which is not true, but 
which is intended to teach something by exam- 

Fa-cil,i-tate Facilitatej, to make easy to be done/j 

FAR 87 

Fa cil-i-ty. Facility; to do a thing with facility 
means to do it easily and readily. 

Fact, a circumstance which has really happened, 
something which is true. 

Fac-ul-ty. Faculty, the power of doing some 
thing, as when we say, " Brutes have not the 
faculty of speech," or of talking. 

Fail, to miss doing something which we intended 
to do. To fail sometimes means to sink, to be- 
come less, to fade away. 

Fain, gladly, with pleasure. 

Faint, may mean weak, not strong ; or pale, and 
not bright, as faint colours ; or not loud, as a 
faint sound, a faint voice. 

Fair, beautiful. The fair, sometimes means al) 

Faith-ful. Faithful, true, honest, that may be 
depended upon. 

Fal-la-cious. Fallacious, deceitful, causing mis- 

Fal-low-land. Fallow-land, the ground which 
is ploughed, but not sown with seed. 

False, what is not true, nor honest. 

False-hood. Falsehood, a lie. 

Fal-ter. Falter, to hesitate in speaking. 

Fa-mil-iar. Familiar, common, what we are ac- 
customed to. 

Fam-ine. Famine, want of food. 

Fam-ish. Famish, to starve, to kill with hunger. 

Fang ; the long teeth of boars, and the long crook- 
ed nails of any great beast, are caWed fangs 

Fan-tas-ti-cal. Fantastical, full of whims and 
fancies, odd. 

Fare, something to eat. 

88 FEI 

Farm, land which a person may cultivate. To 
farm, to cultivate land. 

Farm-er. Farmer, a person who cultivates land. 

Fash-ion. Fashion, the fashion of a thing is the 
shape of it, the manner or way in which it is 
made. To fashion, to make of some shape. 

Fast, to keep from eating any thing. 

Fa-tal. Fatal, destroying life, deadly. 

Fate, death, or any thing that must happen. 

Fa-tigue. Fatigue, weariness. 

Fa-tigu-ed. Fatigued, tired. 

Fa-vor. Favor, kindness, or help to any person. 

Fa-vor-a-ble. Favorable, kind, affectionate. 
To favor a person, is to be good and kind to 

Fawns, young deer. 

Fear-ful. Fearful, easily afraid ; sometimes year- 
ful means terrible, dreadful. 

Fear-less. Fearless, bold, not afraid. The syl- 
lable less at the end of a word means vnihout : 
thus fear-less means properly without fear ; care- 
less, without care ; comfort-less, without comfort^ 
dec. &c. 

Feath-ers. Feathers, the covering of birds. Birds 
are called the feathered race, because yea^/tered 
means covered with feathers. 

Fea-ture. Feature, any single part of the face, 
as the nose or the mouth. 

Fee-ble. Feeble, weak, without strength. 

Feel-ing. Feeling cannot be described in words ; 
we know what we feel ourselves, but we can I 
never tell exactly what other people yeeZ. J 

Feign, to be deceitful, to seem to be what in reality 
we are not. 

FIC 89 

Fe-li-di-ty. Felicity, pleasure, happiness. 
Fell, cruel, very savage. To fell^ to cut down, 

or to knock down, as people ybZZ trees. 
Felt, a kind of thick cloth made of wool or hair, 

not woven like cloth, but rather stuck toge- 

Fe-male. Female, a woman, or the she of any 

Fem-i-nine. Feminine, like a woman, soft, ten- 
Fence, a hedge or railing round a field or garden. 
Fe-ro-cious. Ferocious, very wild and fierce. 
Fe-ro-ci-ty. Ferocity, fierceness and cruelty. 
Fer-tile. Fertile, fruitful, plentiful. Ground 

which produces corn, vegetables, and fruit, is 

cdWedi fertile or fruitful. 
Fer-til-ize. Fertilize, to make fertile. 
Fer-vent. Fervent, very warm. 
Fer-vid. Fervid, hot, burning. 
Fes-tive. Festive, gay, merry, full of pleasure. 
Fes-ti-val. Festival, a day of joy and pleasure. 
Fes-tiv-i-ty. Festivity, cheerfulness, merriment. 
Fe-tid. Fetid, what has a strong and very bad 

Fu-EL. Fuel, any substance that servos to make 

a fire, as wood and coals. 
Fi-BRE. Fibre, a thin string or thread. 
Fi-BRous. Fibrous, made of fibres or threads ; 

the roots of all kinds of grass a.Ye fibrous, 
FiCK-LE. Fickle ; a fickle person is one who is 

always changing, one who does not know his 

own mind. 


80 FLA 

Fic-TiON. Fiction, what is not real nor true, but 

only invented or pretended. 
Fic-Ti-Tious. Fictitious, not real or true. 
Fi-DEL-i-TY. Fidelity, honesty, and truth. 
Fierce, very angry, savage, and furious. 
Fi-E-RY. Fiery, hot, burning like fire, or made of 


FiG-uRE. Figure, the shape or form of any thing. 
FiL-A-MENT. Filament, a long thin thread. 
FiL-iAL. Filial, what belongs to a son or daugh. 

ter. Filial duty, means the love, obedience 

and respect which all children owe to their fa* 

ther and mother. 
Fill, to put as much into any thing as it will hold. 
Film, a thin skin. 
Filth, dirt. 

FiLTH-Y. Filthy, dirty, nasty. 
Fi-NAL. Final, last, belonging to the end. 
Fine, not coarse, but thin, smooth, and delicate. I 

A. fine, is money which any one is obliged to payf 

as a punishment. 
FiN-E-RY. Finery, gay clothes and ornaments. 
FiR-iNG. Firing, fuel, any thing fit to be burned. 
Firm, fixed and strong ; what is not soft nor easily 

shaken, is firm. 
FiR-MA-MENT. Firmament, the sky, the atmos 

FisH-E-RY. Fishery, the trade or business of| 

catching fish. The greatest fisheries are the 

Whale fishery, the Salmon fishery, the Herring 

fishery, and the Cod fishery, which employ a 

great number of people, and are very profitable. 
Fis-suRE. Fissure, a crack. 
Fla-gi-tious. Flagitious, exceedingly wicked. 

FLE 91 

Flail, a large stick with another stick hung at the 
end of it, used to beat out the grains of corn 
from the ear : this is called threshing corn. 

Flap, any thing which hangs down broad and 
loose, like the Jiap of a coat. 

Flash, any sudden quick blaze of light, which is 
gone in an instant; as di flash of lightning, or the 
Uash of a gun when it goes off. 

Flask, a kind of bottle. 

Flat-ter. Flatter, to praise any one too much, to 
praise untruly ; sometimes ^ai^er means to coax, 
to please very much. 

Flat-te-ry. Flattery, praise which is not deserved. 

Flaunt, to be dressed finely, and to display dress 

Flaunt-ing. Flaunting, too fine and gay. 

Flaw, a break, a crack, or a fault, in any thing. 

Flax, the name of a plant. The stalks o^ flax, 
which consist of a number of long and very fine 
threads, or fibres, are first steeped in water, then 
beaten with heavy wooden hammers, cleaned, 
and spun into thread with a spinning-wheel. 
This thread is afterwards woven into linen and 
cambric, or made into beautiful lace. 

Flay, to strip the skin off. 

Fledge, to cover with feathers. Little birds, when 
they first come out of the egg, are unfledged; 
that is, they are without feathers, and cannot fly. 

Flee, to run away from danger. 

Fleece, the wool which grows on a sheep's back. 

Fleec-y Fleecy, covered with wool. 

Fleet, very quick in running. To fl^et, to pass 
away quickly. A fl^eet, a number of ships to- 


92 FLU 

Flex-i-ble. Flexible, not stiff, nor soon broken, 
but easily bent, or easily managed. 

Flight, the power of flying, as birds do. Flight j 
a movement from some place to another. To 
take flight, is to fly away, or to run away. 

Flim-sy. Flimsy, thin and mean, not strong. 

Fling, to throw something out of the hand with 
great force. 

Flint, the name of an excedingly hard stone, of a 
dark colour, which strikes fire when it is struck 
against a piece of steel. 

Flint-y. Flinty, hard like flint, cruel, not kind. 

Float, to swim, not to sink in any fluid. 

Flood, a great quantity of water covering the earth. 

Flo-rid. Florid, of a red colour. 

FiiO-RisT. Florist, a person who is skilled in flow- 
ers, and one who cultivates flowers to sell. 

Flouk-ish. Flourish, to prosper, to be lucky or 
happy. To flx)urish is also to grow well and 

Flow, to run smoothly along, like water. 

Flow-ing. Flowing, what hangs long, loose, and 
waving ; as, when we say, " a horse with a 
flowing mane." 

Flow-er-et. Floweret, a little flower. 

Flow-er-y. Flowery, full of flowers. 

Fluc-tu-ate. Fluctuate, to move backwards and 
forwards, to be uncertain, or not able to deter- 

Flu-ent. Fluent, to speak ^wen^Zy or to read^w- 
ently, means to speak or read readily, easily, and 

Flu-id, Fluid, water, milk, wine, blood, ^re fluids ; 
and tiiere are many other fluids besides these ; 

FOR 1» 

things can sink or swim in fluids. What is fluid 
is not solid ; fluids run or flow, and they can be 
poured from one vessel to another ; what is solid 
must be of some shape, hut fluids are not of any 
shape, they take the shape of whatever they are 
contained in. 

Flut-ter. Flutter, to fly about. 

FoAii, a young horse, or a young ass. 

FoD-DER. Fodder, the food which is laid up to 
feed the horses, cows, and sheep, in the winter, 
when there is no fresh grass. 

Fog, a thick mist near the ground. 

Fold, a place where sheep are kept ; to fold, to 
double up, to crease : to fold sheep, to shut them 
up in B.fold for safety. 

FoL-iAGE. Fohage, leaves. 

Folks, people, a number of persons. 

FoL-LY. Folly, foolishness ; a. folly, a silly action. 

FooT-iNG. Footing, ground where there is room 
enough for the foot to rest on. 

Fop, a silly man who is proud of his dress. 

FoR-BEAR. Forbear, to leave off* doing something 
which we wish or like to do. 

FoR-BiD. Forbid, to desire any thing not to be 

FoRc-i-BLE. Forcible, what is strong, or done 
with force. 

Ford, a part of a river, or a stream of water, which 
is not too deep for any one to walk through. 

FoRE-BODE. Forebode, to think of something be- 
fore it happens. 

FoRE-FA-THER. Forefather ; our forefathers are 
those who have lived before us a long time ago ; 

94 FOR 

FoR-EiGN. Foreign, not belonging to this thing, 
or this country. 

FoR-EiGN-ER. Foreigner, a person who is born in 
another country, a stranger. 

Fore-most. Foremost, what is first in place. 

FoRE-NAM-ED. Foreuamed, what was spoken of 

Fore-sight. Foresight, dJidi forethought, generally 
mean careful attention to what may happen here- 
after or in future. 

For-feit. Forfeit, any thing which we lose, or 
which we are obliged to pay, because we have 
done wrong ; io forfeit, is to lose something by 
a fault ; we say, by giving way to ill-temper you 
yfiW forfeit the love of all your friends. 

Forge, a place where iron is heated red hot, and 
hammered into different shapes ; to forge, is to 
hammer iron to make it soft. 

For-get. Forget, not to remember, or not to think 
of a thing. 

FoR-LORN. Forlorn, sad, miserable, and mean. 

Form, to make something of a particular shape : 
the form of any thing, is the shape or figure of it 

Form-a-tion. Formation ; ih^ formation of a thing i 
is the manner or shape in which it is made. 

FoR-MER. Former, the first of two things, and 
latter, the last of two things, which we speak 
of. Suppose you had a plum and an apricot, you 
might eat the former, and give the latter to your 
sister. Former, also means past, as we say in 
former days. [past. 

FoR-MER-LY. Formerly, long ago, m times long 

FoR-Mi-DA-BLE. Formidable, terrible, frightful, 

FRA 95 

FoR-SAKE. Forsake, to leave, or to go away from* 

Forth, out, as the leaves burst forth in spring. 
Forth, means also, out of place, out of doors. 

FoR-Ti-FY. Fortify, to make strong or firm. 

FoR-Ti-TUDE. Fortitude, strength of mind, endur- 
ance of misfortunes or pain. 

FoR-TUNE. Fortune, the good or ill which hap- 
pens to a person. Fortune may mean also mo- 
ney or riches belonging to a person. 

Fos-siL. Fossil ; all those things which are found 
by digging into the earth, are calledyb^^zZ^, such 
as metals, stones, <k;c. 

Fos-TER. Foster, to nurse and take care of any 

Foul, what is not clean, nor bright, or not clear ; 
what is wery dirty. 

Found, to make the first beginning of any build- 
ing, such as a house, a church, or a bridge : to 
lay ihe foundation of it. 

FouND-A-TioN. Foundation, the lowest part of a 
building, the part which is first begun to be built, 
and which serves for the rest of the building to 
stand on. Th^ foundation is generally built un- 
der ground, that it may be stronger. 

Fount, or fountain, the place where water springs 
out of the ground. Fountain sometimes means 
the first beginning or cause of something ; we 
say, God is the fountain of goodness. 

Frac-ture. Fracture, to break a bone. 

Fra-gile. Fragile, easily broken or hurt, weak. 

Frag-ment. Fragment, a piece of something 
which is broken. [odour. 

Fra-grance. Fragrance, a delightful scent or 

Fra-grant. Fragrant, smellimy verv sweet. 

m FRi 

Frail, weak, easily hurt, or apt to do wrong. 

Frame, to make or contrive something by joining 
and fitting different parts together. A frame, any 
thing which is made of different parts fitted to. 
gether ; as we say, the human frame, that is, the 
body of a human creature. 

Frank, speaking freely, plainly, and kindly. 

Fra-ter-nal. Fraternal, like brothers. 

Fra-ter-ni-ty. Fraternity, a number of persona 
who live together, and are like brothers. 

Fraud, trick, cunning : any thing which is done to 
cheat other people. 

Free, not shut up, nor confined by any thing, but 
able to do as we like, and go wherever we please. 
Free from, means without : we say, who is free 
from fault ? — ^that means, who is without faults ? 

Freeze, to turn to ice, to make hard with cold. 
Frozen, what is made solid or hard with cold ; 
ice and snow are frozen water. ^ 

Freight, to load a ship. ^ 

Fre-quent. Frequent, often done, or often hap- 
pening. To frequent, to be often in any place. 

Fre-quent-ly. Frequently, often, many times. 

Presh, clean, cool, and new. Fresh, often means 
what is not salt : we say fresh meat, fresh but- 
ter : the water of the sea is salt, but the water 
of rivers and streams is fresh. 

Fret, to vex, to be angry and peevish. I 

Fret-ful. Fretful, angry, ill-tempered. 

Fric-tion. Friction, rubbing two things together. 

Frig-id. Frigid, very cold. 

Frisk, to skip and jump about merrily. 

Friv-o-lous. Frivolous, trifling, of no use, and 
of no consequence. 

FUR 97 

Fro : to and fro, means backwards and forwards. 

Front, the part of a thing which is turned towards 

Frow-ard. Froward, angry and ill-humoured. 

Fru-gal. Frugal, not wasteful, not spending 
much, but careful and sparing. 

Fruit-less. Fruitless, of no use or advantage. 

Frus-trate. Frustrate, to disappoint, to make what 
any person wished or intended to do of no use. 

Fu-Gi-TivE. Fugitive, a fugitive is one who runs 
away from his home and his friends, and wan- 
ders about ; or one who runs away for fear of 
being punished. 

FuL-FiL. Fulfil, to finish entirely. To fulfil our 
duty, is to do what we ought to do. To fulfil 
the wishes of our parents, is to do what they 
wish us to do. To fulfil the commands of God, 
is to obey him, to do as he has commanded us. 

Fume, smoke, vapour or steam. 

FuNc-TioN. Function, what a person has to do. 
Function, also means power, what any one is 
able to do. 

Fu-NE-RAL. Funeral, the ceremony of burying 
dead persons. 

Fur, soft warm hair. A fur, is a skin of some beast 
covered with soft hair, which is used in dress. 
Furs are much worn in cold countries, on ac- 
count of their being so warm and soft. 

Furl, to draw up, or close up in a smaller space, 
as we furl an umbrella, or as they furl the sails 
of a ship when they are not wanted. To unfurl 
is to spread out. 

FuR-NACE Furnace, a fire which is shut up in a 
close fire-place. Fkirnaces are used when a very 

98 GAL 

great heat is wanted ; as in melting metals, ma. 

king glass,&c, 
FuR-Ni-TURE. Furniture, all the goods and differ. 

ent things which are in a house, such as chairs, 

tables, beds, carpets, dec. 
Fur-row. Furrow, a long, narrow, but not very 

deep cut, or hollow place. 
Fu-RY, Fury, great anger and rage. 
Fu-Ri-ous. Furious, mad, raging, in a great pas- 
Furze, the name of a prickly plant with yellow 

Fuse, to melt. 

Fus-i-BLE. Fusible, capable of being melted. 
Fus-ioN. Fusion the state of being melted or 

made soft by heat. 
Fu-TURE. Future, not now at this present time ; 

but some other time which is to come. 
Fu-TU-Ri-TY. Futurity, the time which is not yet 



Gain, to get or reach something, or to win some- 
thing. Gain, what is gotten. 

Gait, the manner in which any person walks. 

Gale, a gale, a wind which blows strong, but not 
stormy ; a brisk gale, is a very strong wind. 

Gall, an animal substance which is excessively bit- 
ter. Gall, to hurt, to tease, or vex. 

Gal-lant. Gallant, fine, bold and brave. 

GAL-LE-Ry. Gallery, a long walk or passage in a 

Gal-ley. Galley, a small ship which is rowed 
along with oars. 

GEN 99 

Gar-land. Garland, a wreath of flowers or leaves. 

Gar-ment. Garment, any thing which is put on. 
to cover a human being. 

Gar-ments. Garments, clothing. 

Gar-ri-son. Garrison, a great number of sol- 
diers who are placed in some town or castle, to 
guard it. 

Gash, a deep and wide cut. Gash^ to cut deeply. 

Gasp, to open the mouth wide to catch breath. 

Gate, a large door or opening into any place. 

Gath-er. Gather, to heap up, or bring together 
into one place. To gather^ means also to pick 
or take : we say, to gather flowers. 

Gau-dy. Gaudy, too gay and fine. 

Gaunt, bony and thin. 

Gaze, to look at something with fixed attention. 

Gem, a small precious stone. Gems are of many 
different colours : green, as the emerald ; red, 
as the ruby ; blue, as the sapphire ; or of no 
color like water, as the diamond, which is the 
most valued of all. 

Gen-e-ral. General, not particular, what does 
not belong to any one, or to a few of any thing, 
but to a great number ; or what is done by most 
people. A Generaly a man who commands an 
army of soldiers. 

Gen-er-al-ly. Generally, often, mostly. 

Gen-er-a-tion. Generation, all the people in the 
world, who are born nearly at the same time, 
and die nearly at the same time. The present 
generation^ means the people who are now liv- 
ing ; the rising generatioHy means all those who 
are now children. 

100 GLA. 

Gen-er-ous. Generous, not mean, nor selfish, 

nor covetous ; but noble, good, and kind. 
Gen-teel. Genteel, polite, civil, handsome. 
Gen-tle. Gentle, not rude, or rough, but soft, 

tame, and tender. 
Gen-u-ine. Genuine, not mixed with any thing 

which is bad or untrue. 
Ge-og-ra-phy. Geography describes the differ- 
ent countries and cities which are in the world. 
Ges-ture. Gesture, any action or attitude of the 

Ghast-ly. Ghastly, pale and horrible looking. 
Ghost, soul or spirit. To give up the ghost, to die. 
Gi-ANT. Giant, a man who is much taller and 

larger than other men. 
Gift, any thing which is given, a present. 
Gild, to cover with gold, to make bright. 
Gilt, covered over with gold-leaf, so as to look 

like solid gold. [its head. 

Gills, of a fish, are the openings on each side of 
GiN-GER. Ginger, the spice called ginger is the 

root of a plant growing in the East and West 

Gird, to tie something round the body. 
GiR-DLE. Girdle, a belt, any thing fastened round 

the waist. 
Glance, a short quick look at any thing. To 

glance, to shine brightly and suddenly, to look 

at something for a moment. 
Glare, bright light which is too great for the eyes 

to bear. 
Glass, a substance made of sand and a kind of 

salt called soda, melted by a great heat : glass 

is beautiful and useful. 

GLO 101 

Glaze, to cover with glass, or to make shining 
and smooth. 

Gleam, a sudden, quick light. To gleam, to shine, 
to sparkle. 

Glean, to pick up the ears of corn which lie scat- 
tered about the field when the harvest is reaped 
or cut. 

Glee, gladness, joy, merriment. 

Glen, a valley, a deep place between hills. 

Glide, to move gently, smoothly, and quickly along* 

Glimpse, a short quick sight of something, when 
it cannot be perfectly seen. 

Glit-ter. Glitter, to shine, to look bright. 

Glit-ter-ing. Glittering, bright, sparkling. 

Globe, a thing which is round like a ball : a mar- 
ble is a little globe, and the world we live in is 
a very large globe. A terrestrial globe shows 
the shape of the earth, and the situation of all 
the different countries on it : the celestial globe is 
used to show the situation of the stars in the sky. 

Glob-ule. Globule, a very little globe like a drop 
of dew on a leaf. 

Glob-u-lar. Globular, of a round shape like a 

Gloom, darkness, dullness. 

Gloom-y. Gloomy, rather dark, dull, and dismal. 

Glo-ri-fy. Glorify, to praise and worship, as we 
glorify God. 

Glo-ri-ous. Glorious, veiy much praised ; bright 
and beautiful. 

Glo-ry. Glory, honour, great praise, great bright- 
ness. To glory in any thing, to be proud of it 

Glos-sy. Glossy, smooth and shining. 

Glow, to burn and shine with heat* 

102 GRA 

Glow-ing. Glowing, warm, or having a red co. 
lour, which is the color usually produced by heat. 

Glow-worm. Glow-worm, a little creeping worm 
which shines in the dark. 

Glue, a substance used to stick wood and other 
things together ; it is made by boiling the skins 
of animals in water till they become a jelly. 

Glu-ti-nous. Glutinous, sticky, like glue. 

Glut-ton. Glutton, one who eats too much. 

Gnaw, to bite and tear with the teeth. 

GoD-LY. Godly, good, religious, doing our duty 
towards God. 

Gold, the name of a metal ; it is of a beautiful yel- 
low colour, very heavy, soft, and easily melted, 
and it can be beaten with hammers thinner than 
paper. Gold is called a perfect metal, because 
it cannot be consumed in the fire, nor can it be 
hurt by the air or water, for it never rusts ; it is 
the least common, and the most valuable of all 
metals. Gold sometimes means money, and 

Gold-smith. Goldsmith, one who makes things 
of gold. 

GooD-LY. Goodly, beautiful, fine. 

Gore, another name for blood, 

GoR-GE-ous. Gorgeous, splendid. 

Gov-ERN. Govern, to be head over others, to 
manage or rule, or to keep people in order. 

Grace, kindness, goodness or forgiveness. Grace 
also means elegance of manners and motion. 
To grace, to ornament, to make beautiful. 

Gra-cious. Gracious, kind, merciful, good. 

Gra-da-tion. Gradation, going regularly for- 
ward or higher, step by step, or little by little. 

GRA 103 

Grad-tj-al. Gradual, going on by degrees, slow. 

Grad-u-al-ly. Gradually, not all at once, by lit- 
tle and little. 
< Graft, to join a branch of one tree on the stalk 
of another tree of a different kind. 

Grain, corn, rye, wheat, &c. A grain, is a seed, 
or a small part of something ; as we say a grain 
of sand. Grain sometimes means the fineness 
or coarseness of any thing ; as we say steel has 
a finer grain than iron. 

Gram-mar. Grammar teaches to use words pro- 
perly ; to speak and to write correctly. 

Grand, great, magnificent. 

Grand-eur. Grandeur, greatness, splendour. 

Grant, to give something to a person as a favour ; 
to allow. 

Grapes, the fruit of vines. 

Grasp, to catch or hold fast in the hand. 

Grate-ful. Grateful, a person is grateful who is 
thankful to those that have been good to him : — 
we should be grateful to those who instruct us ; 
when we say that any thing is grateful, we mean 
that it is agreeable ; the smell of the rose is 

Grat-i-tude. Gratitude, thankfulness, and love 
to those who have been good to us. 

Grat-i-fy. Gratify, to indulge, to please. 

Grat-i-fi-ca-tion. Gratification, great pleasure. 

Gra-tu-i-ty. Gratuity, any thing which is given. 

Grave, the place where dead persons are buried. 
Grave, serious. 

Grav-i-ty. Gravity, seriousness. Gravity means 
also the weight or heaviness of any thing. 

Graze, to eat grass. 

104 GRU 

Grease, soft fat. 

Green-house, Green-house, a house where those 
plants from warmer countries, which could not 
bear our winters, are sheltered from the cold. < 

Greet. To greet a 'person^ is, on first seeing him, 
to speak to him kindly or respectfully. 

Grief, sorrow, sadness, misfortune. 

Grieve, to be very sorry. To grieve a 'person^ is 
to make him unhappy. 

Griev-ous. Grievous, painful, causing sorrow 

Grim, having a horribly ugly face. 

Grind, to make any thing into powder, as corn is 
ground into flour. To grind, is also to sharpen 
the edges of things, by rubbing them against a 
stone, as men grind knives and scissors. 

Gripe, to hold something fast in the hand, to 
squeeze, to pinch. A gripe, a fast hold of some- 

Groan, to make a low hoarse noise like one in pain. 

Groove, a long hollow in any thing. 

Gross, thick, heavy, coarse, dull; not delicate, not 
fine and pure. A gross, twelve dozen of any 

Grot-to. Grotto, a sort of room made in the 
earth for coolness. 

Group, several things or persons clustered to- 

Growl, to make a low grumbling noise. 

Grudge, to murmur and be sorry when any 
thing good happens to another person ; to be 
unwilling that another should have something^ 
we like. Grudge, anger, spite against the pos- 
sessor of something we desire. 

HAC 106 

Gruff, sour-looking, rudely ill-natured. 

Grunt, to make a noise like a pig. 

GuARD-iAN. Guardian, a person who guards or 

kindly takes care of another. 
Guest, a person who is entertained in the house of 

another person. 
Guide, to show any one the right way, to manage 

or direct. A guide, is one who shows another 

person the way he should go. 
Guile, cunning, deceit ; secret cheating. 
GuiLE-LEss. Guileless, true, fair, without cunning. 
Guilt, an offence, a crime. 
GuiLT-Y, Guilty, not innocent ; to be guilty of 

a fault is to have done it. 
GuiLT-LEss. Guiltless, innocent. 
Guise, the manner, looks, or dress of a person. 
Gush, to stream out violently. 
Gust, a sudden violent wind. 
GuT-TER. Gutter, a narrow place for water to pass 



Ha-bil-i-ment. Habiliment, dress of any kind, 

Hab-it. Habit, dress, clothes. A hahit, any thing 
we do very often. Some habits are good and 
some are bad ; the habit of attending to what we 
are about is good ; making faces, and putting 
our fingers in our mouths, are bad habits* 

Hab-i-ta-tion. Habitation, a place to live m. 

Ha-bit-u-al. Habitual, what we do very often, 
what we are used to do. 

Hack, to cut in pieces, to chop. 

106 HAR 

Hag, a name for an ill-natured, ill-looking woman. 
Hag-gard. Haggard, pale and ugly, wild-looking. 
Hail, drops of rain which are frozen or made 

hard by the cold before they fall. 
Hal-low-ed. Hallowed, holy. 

Halt, to stop. To halt means also to walk as if 
one was lame. The halt^ means the people who 
are lame. 

Hal-ter. Halter, a rope to go round the neck ; 
a rope to hang people with. 

Ham-let. Hamlet, a small village : a few houses 
built near to each other make a hamlet ; where 
there are a greater number of houses, it is call- 
ed a village ; when there are more houses, and 
many people and streets, it is called a town; and 
a very large town is called a city. 

Hand-maid. Hand-maid, a maid servant. 

Hap-ly. Haply, perhaps. 

Hap-less. Hapless, unfortunate, miserable. 

Ha-rangue. Harangue, a speech. 

Ha-rass. Harass, to tire very much, to vex, to 

Har-bour. Harbour, a place where ships are safe 

from storms. A harbour also means a lodging or 
shelter of any kind. To harbour, to shelter in 
some place, or give shelter to something. 

Hard-ware. Hardware, things which are made 
of iron, steel, and brass. 

Hard-y. Hardy, strong, bold, and brave. 

Hark, to listen, hear. 

Har-mo-ny. Harmony, music. Harmonyy also 
means agreement : sisters should live together 
in harmony^ that is, they should not quarrel to. 

HEA 107 

Har-Mo-ni-ous. Harmonious, musical. 
Har-ness. Harness, the leather straps with which 

horses are fastened to carriages. 
Har-row. Harrow, several large pieces of wood 
put across one another, and stuck full of strong 

iron spikes. The harrow is drawn over the 

ground which has been ploughed, to break the 

hard lumps and clods of earth. 
Harsh, sour to the taste, or disagreeable to the ear 

Harsh^ also means peevish, rough, and cross. 
Harv^est-kome. Harvest-home, the feasting and 

rejoicing which farmers make when the harvest 

is gathered in ; that is, when all the corn is cut 

down, and laid up safe. 
Hatch ; to be hatched^ is to come out of eggs, as 

all young birds do. 
Ha-ven. Haven, a harbour, a safe place to shel- 

ter and rest in. 
Haugh-ty. Haughty, proud and insolent. 
Haul, to pull along by force, to drag. 
Haunt, to be often in some place, or near some 

person ; to visit often. A haunt, any place 

where one often goes. 
Hav-ock. Havock, great waste or destruction of 

any thing. 
Hay, grass dried in the sun to serve for food for 

cattle in winter. 
Haz-ard. Hazard, chance, or accident, or dan- 

Haz-ard-ous. Hazardous, dangerous. 
Head-long. Headlong, to fall headlong, is to fall 

with the head foremost. Headlong means also 

careless and hasty. 
HsALi to cure some sicknesS; or some hurt 

108 HEI 

Heark-en. Hearken, to listen, to pay attention 
to something. 

Hearse, a sort of carriage in which dead people 
are carried to the grave. 

Heart : the heart of any things is the inside part 
of it ; hard-hearted means cruel. 

Heath, the name of a plant ; a heathy a wide place 
all overgrown or covered with heath, 

Hea-thens. Heathens, those people who do not 
worship the true God, or know Jesus Christ, are 
called heathens. Heathen, like heathens. 

Heave, to lift something from the ground. To 
heave, means also to rise and sink again, to swell. 

Heav-en. Heaven, that happy place where it is 
supposed that God and his angels dwell, and 
where good people will go when they die. Hea^ 
ven, or the heavens, sometimes means the sky. 

Heav-i-ness. Heaviness, sometimes means sor- 
row, sadness. 

Heav-y. Heavy ; what presses downwards when 
we lift it is in general called heavy. Heavy, al- 
so means dull, slow, stupid, or lazy. 

He-brew, Hebrew, the language which was spo- 
ken by the Jews, and the language in which the i 
books of the Old Testament were first written ; 
the Jews are sometimes called Hebrews. 

Heed, to mind, to be attentive and careful : heed, 
attention, care ; take heed, means to be careful. 

Heed-less. Heedless, very careless. 

Heel ; the hind part of the foot : to take to one^s 
heels, is to run away as fast as possible, 

Heif-er. Heifer, a young cow. 

Height, the distance of something above the 
ground : a height, a high place, a hill. 

HEX 109 

Height-en. Heighten, to make higher, or to make 
better, or to make more. 

Heir, a person who will have any thing after the 
person who now has it, is dead. 

Hein-ous. Heinous, very wicked. 

Helm, or heknet, sl kind of cap which soldiers 
wear to guard the head when they fight. A 
helm of a ship or boat, is an instrument placed 
at the back part of a ship, which, by being turn- 
ed to the right or the left, guides the vessel the 
way it should go. 

Hem-i-sphere. Hemisphere, exactly the half of 
a globe. 

Hemp, the name of a plant which is something like 
flax, only much coarser ; the stalks of it are 
made into coarse cloth, ropes, and brown paper. 

Hence, from this place. Hence also means for 
this reason. 

Hence-forth. Henceforth ,yrom this time forward. 

Herb : small plants of any kind are called herbs. 

Herb-age. Herbage, grass, and other low plants. 

Herd, a number of beasts together. 

Here-in. Herein, in this. 

Here-to-fore. Heretofore, formerly, in past time. 

Hermit, a person who lives quite alone, and spends 
his time in reading and praying. 

He-ro. Hero, a man who is much braver and 
bolder than other men. 

He-ro-ic. Heroic, belonging to a hero. 

Her-o-ine. Heroine, a brave courageous woman. 

Hew, to cut down, to chop, or to cut into shape. 

Hex-a-gon. Hexagon, a figure which has six an- 
gles or corners. The cells which bees make to 

no HOL 

hold their honey are called hexagonal^ that is, in 
the figure of a hexagon. 

Hide, the skin of some animal. 

HiD-E-ous. Hideous, frightfully ugly. 

HiL-LocK. Hillock, a little hill. 

Hilt, the handle of a sword. 

HiN-GEs. Hinges, the joints which support a door 
or gate, on which it turns backwards and forwards. 

Hire, to pay money for the use of any thing, or 
for the labour of any person. The money which 
we pay to any person for serving us, is called 
hire or wages. 

His-To-RY. History, an account of events which 
have happened in the world, or of the great ac- 
tions which have been done by men. Natural 
history^ is an account of every thing remarkable 
in Nature : it tells us all that is curious about 
the earth, and about the different animals and 
plants which are found on it. 

HiTH-ER. Hither, to this place. 

HiTH-ER-TO. Hitherto, to this time, till now. 

Hive, a place for bees to live in. Hives are some- 
times made of glass, but generally of straw, or 

Hoar, white or gray. Hoary has the same mean- 
ing : we say hoary hair, and Aoar-frost. 

Hoard, to lay up something carefully, to keep 
some thing secretly. A hoards any thing w^hich 
is carefully laid up. 

Hoarse, having a rough voice or sound. 

HoL-Low. Hollow, not solid, or not filled up : a 
ball is solid, a bason is hollow. A hollow, a hole. 

Ho-LY. Holy, good, religous. Holy^ belonging 
to God or to religion- 

HOR 111 

HoME-LY. Homely, not beautiful, plain, coarse. 

HoN-EST. Honest : an honest person is one who 
always tells the truth, and who does not take or 
keep what belongs to other people. 

HoN-i-ED. Honied, sweet, full of honey. 

HoN-EY. Honey, the sweet food which bees ga- 
ther from the flowers. 

HoN-ouR. Honour, truth, goodness, honesty. — 
Honour means the praise and respect we pay to 
people who are greater or better than we are. 
Honour di\so signifies something which we may 
be proud of : we say, a good boy is an honour to 
his family. To honour^ means to pay respect 
and obedience : as, ''Honour thy father and thy 

Hoof ; what grows on the feet of cows and horses 
is called a hoof. The hoofs of cows, sheep, and 
deer, are divided or parted in the middle ; they 
are cloven-hoofed animals : the hoofs of horses 
and asses are not divided ; they are whole-hoof- 
ed animals. 

Hook, any thing which is bent round so as to catch 
hold of something else. 

HoR-i-zoN-TAL and Per-pen-dic-u-lar. Horizon- 
tal and Perpendicular : we call the floor of a 
room horizontal^ and the walls of the house are 

This is a horizontal line, 

This is a perpendicular hne, 

HoR-Ri-BLE. Horrible, shocking, terrible. 
HoR-RiD. Horrid, the same as horrible, 
HoR-ROR. Horror, great fear, mixed with hatred. 
Horror^ sometimes means darkness and misery 


112 HUM 

Horse-man. Horseman, a man who rides on 

Hos-Pi-TA-BLE. Hospitable, kind to strangers. 
Hos-Pi-TAL. Hospital, a place where poor sick 

people are taken care of. 
Host, a person who entertains people in his house. 

A host also means a great number of soldiers, 

an army. A Twst sometimes means any great 

number. The host of heaven^ is the sun, moon, 

and stars. 
Hos-tile. Hostile, not friendly, fighting against 

Hov-EL. Hovel, a little miserable mean house 
Hover, to hang fluttering in the air over head, as 

we sometimes see birds do. 
Hound, a dog used to hunt other animals. I 

House-hold. Household, a number of persons* 

living together in one house, and making one 

HousE-wiFE. Housewife, a woman who manages 

family affairs carefully and properly. I 

House -WIFE -RY. Housewifery, those things which! 

women ought to attend to, such as the proper 

care of the family, &;c. &c. 
Howl, to make a noise like a dog when it is hurt, 

to make a frightful noise. 
Hue, colour. 

Hum, to make a noise like bees and flies. 
Hr-MAN. Human, hke a man, belonging to a man. 

A human creature^ is any man or woman ; all the 

men and women and children in the world are 

called human-kind^ or the human race. 
Hu-MANE. Humane, kind, good-natured, not 


IDO 113 

Hu-MAN-i-TY. Humanity, tenderness and kindness. 
HuM-BLE. Humble, modest, not proud or saucy. 

Humble also means low, not fine or high ; as, 

" an Tiumhle cottage." 
Hu-MiL-i-TY. Humility, modesty, not conceit. 
Hu-MiD. Humid, wet, watery. 
HuMP-BACK-ED, or HuNCH-BACK-ED. Hump-back- 

ed, or Hunch-backed, with a crooked back. 
Hunt, to run after wild animals, to catch them or 

kill them. To hunt for a thing, is to seek or 

look for it. 
HuNT-ER, or Hunts-man. Hunter or Huntsman, 

a man who hunts animals. 
Hurl, to throw any thing with great force. 
HuR-Ri-CANE. Hurricane, a violent storm of wind. 
Hus-BAND-MAN. Husbandmau, a farmer, a man 

who cultivates the ground. 
Husk, the out-side skin of any fruit. 
Hut, a poor mean cottage. 
Hymn, a song of praise to God. 
Hyp-o-crite. Hypocrite, a cunning deceitful per- 
son, who pretends to be better than he really is. 
Hyp-oc-ri-sy. Hypocrisy, cunning, deceitfulness. 

I -DE -A Idea ; the idea of any thing, is the thought 
of it. 

Id-i-ot. Idiot, a fool, a person without common 

I-DOL. Idol, an image of something, which is wor- 
shipped instead of the true and only God : peo- 
ple who are so ignorant and foolish as to worship 
and pray to images, are idolaters 

114 IMM 

Ig-no-ble. Ignoble, mean, unworthy. 

Ig-no-min-i-ous. Ignominious, disgraceful, mean, 

Ig-no-min-y. Ignominy, shame, disgrace. 

Ig-no-rant : to he ignorant of any things is not to 
know it. An ignorant person, is one who is not 
learned, one who knows little. 

Il-le-gal. Illegal, contrary to the laws. 

Il-lit-er-ate. Illiterate, not acquainted with 

Il-lume, Il-lu-mine, or Il-lu-min-ate. Illume, 
Illumine, or Illuminate, to fill with light, to make 
bright, and light. 

Il-lu-sion. Illusion, something which deceives 
us by seeming different from what it really is. 1 

Il-lus-trate. Illustrate, to explain, to make? 
something plain and easy to be understood. 

Il-lus-tri-ous. Illustrious, great and good above 
others who are great and good. 

Im-ag-ine. Imagine, to fancy, to think of the ab- 
sent or distant. 

Im-bibe. Imbibe, to suck in, or draw in ; as earthl 
or sand will imbibe the water that is poured on it. f 

Im-bit-ter. Imbitter, to make bitter, or to make 

Im-i-tate. Imitate, to copy, to try to be like an- 

Im-i-ta-tion. Imitation, something which is co- 
pied from another thing. 

Im-ma-te-ri-al. Immaterial, of no consequence, 
of no importance. 

Im-ma-ture. Immature, not ripe, too soon, too 

Im-mense. Immense, large and wide. [early. 

Im-mens-i-ty. Immensity, exceeding greatness 

IMP 115 

Im-mi-nent. Imminent, very near, just at hand. 
Im-mor-tal. Immortal, never at an end, and never 

to die, living for ever and ever : God is im» 

Im-pair. Impair, to make something less or worse 

than it was, to do harm to any thing. 
Im-pal-pa-ble, Impalpable, so fine as not to be 

felt by the touch, or the hands. 
Im-part. Impart, to tell something to another 

person, to give something. 
Im-par-tial. Impartial, not more indulgent to one 

than to another. 
Im-pa-tient. Impatient, not able to bear pain or 

trouble. Impatient sometimes means wishing 

very much for something, in a great hurry for 

Im-pede. Impede, to stop, to hinder. 
Im-ped-i-ment. Impediment, a hindrance. 
Im-pel. Impel, to drive on, or push forwards. 
Im-per-cept-i-ble. Imperceptible, neither seen 

nor felt. 
Im-per-fect. Imperfect, not complete^ nor quite 

lM»PER-FEC-Tio]sr. Impcrfcction, a fault. 
Im-pe-ri-ous. Imperious, proud, commanding 

others in a haughty manner. 
Im-per-ti-nent. Impertinent, troublesome and 

Im-per-vi-ous. Impervious, not allowing some- 
thing to pass through ; we say, " a stone wall 

is impervious to the light ; metals are impervious 

to water." 
1m-pet-u-ous. Impetuous, violent. 
Im-pi-ous. Impious, not religious, very wicked. 

116 IMP 

Im-ple-ment. Implement, any thing which ia 
used to do or to make some other thing ; thus, 
spades and rakes are gardening implements ; 
brushes and paints are the implements of a 

Im-plore, Implore, to beg, entreat. 

Im-port. Import, to bring something into a 

Im-por-tant. Important, of great consequence. 

Im-por-tu-nate. Importunate, continually asking 
for something in a teasing, troublesome manner. 

Im-pose. Impose, to force something upon a per- 
son. To impose upon a person, is also to cheat 

Im-po-si-tion, or Imposture. Imposition, or Im- 
posture, cheating, deceit. 

Im-pos-tor. Impostor, a person who deceives 
people, by pretending to be different from what 
he really is. 

Im-prac-ti-ca-ble. Impracticable, incapable of 
being done. 

Im-press. Impress, to fix deep in one's mind. 

Im-press-ion. Impression : when any thing hard 
is pressed upon something which is soft, it sinks 
into it and makes a mark upon it and this mark 
is called an impression ; as, when we seal a let- 
ter, we press a seal, which is hard, on melted 
sealing-wax, which is soft, and the mark which 
the seal leaves on the wax we call the impres- 
sion of the seal. Whatever is fixed in oui 
minds and which we remember, is also an im* 

Im-prob-a-ble. Improbable, not likely co happen 
scarcely to be beUeved. 

INC 117 

Im-prove. Improve, to make, or to grow better. 

Im-pru-dent. Imprudent, not careful, not consid- 

Im-pu-dent. Impudent, too bold and forward, not 

Im-pu-ni^ty. Impunity : with impunity, means 
without being punished. 

In-ac-cu-rate. Inaccurate, not accurate, not exact, 

In-ac-tiv'e. Inactive, not active, idle, lazy. The 
syllable m put before a word, means not^ or con- 
trary to ; thus, inhumanity, means cruelty, the 
contrary to humanity. Incapable, means not 
capable. Inattentive, means not attentive ; and 
Inconvenient, means not convenient. 

1n-an-i-mate. Inanimate, without life. 

1n-cense. Incense, to provoke, to put into a rage, 
to make very angry. 

liv-CEss-ANT. Incessant, never leaving off, not in- 
terrupted, continual. 

In-ci-dent. Incident, something which happens. 

In-cis-ion. Incision, a cut. 

In-cline. Incline, to bend, to lean towards any 

In-clude. Include, to enclose, to contain ; as 
Great Britain includes England, Wales, and 

In-com-mo-dious. Incommodious, inconvenient, 

In-com-par-a-ble. Incomparable, excellent. 

In-com-pre-hens-i-ble. Incomprehensible, not to 
be understood. 

In-con-sid-er-a-ble. Inconsiderable, not worth 
considering, not of any consequence. 

118 IND 

In-con-sid-ek-ate. Inconsiderate, careless, inat*| 

In-con-sis-tent. Inconsistent, not agreeing with| 

some other thing, not suitable. 
In-con-stant. Inconstant, not constant, always^ 

changing and altering. 
In-con-test-i-ble. Incontestible, quite certain. 
In-corp-o-rate. Incorporate, to mix different sub- 
stances together till they make but one mass. 
In-cor-rect. Incorrect, not proper not exact. 
In-crease. Increase, to make greater, or to make 

more. To increase means also to become larger. 
In-cred-i-ele. Incredible, not to be believed. 
In-cred-u-lous. Incredulous: ^n incredulous per ^ 

son is one who will not believe what is told him. 
In-debt-ed. Indebted: to he indebted^ is to be 

obliged to a person for something, or to owo 

money to a person. 
In-de-fat-i-ga-ble. Indefatigable, never tired. 
In-del-i-ble. Indelible, never to be blotted out. 
In-de-pend-ent. Independent, not belonging to 

any other thing : not obliged to any person, or 

forced to obey any person. 
In-dian. Indian, belonging to the country called 

India, or to aborigines of America. 
In-di-cate. Indicate, to point out something, to 

In-di-gent. Indigent, poor, and in want. 
In-dig-nant. Indignant, very angry. 
In-dig-na-tion. Indignation, anger mixed with 

In-dis-creet. Indiscreet, careless, not cautious. 
In-dis-cre-tion. Indiscretion, carelessness. 
In-dis-pens-a-ble. Indispensable, quite necessary. 


INF 119' 

In-dis-pos-ed. Indisposed, not well in health. 
In-dis-tinct. Indistinct, not plain to be seen, con. 

In-di-vid-u-al. Individual, one single thing of 

any kind, or one single person, is called an i«- 

In-do-lent. Indolent, lazy, idle, careless. 
In-do-lence. Indolence, laziness, inactivity. 
In-du-bit-a-ble. Indubitable,quite certain and true, 
In-duce. Induce, to persuade by reasons. 
In-dul-gent. Indulgent, kind and good. 
[n-dus-tri-ous. Industrious, not idle. 
In-ef-fect-u-al. Ineffectual, of no use. 
In-ev-i-ta-ble. Inevitable, what must happen, 

what we cannot escape from. 
In-ex-haust-i-ble. Inexhaustible, that cannot be 

wasted away or emptied. 
In-ex-press-i-ble. Inexpressible, not to be told 

in words. 
In-fa-mous. Infamous, exceedingly bad and wick- 
ed, very shameful. 
In-fa-my. Infamy, great ^vickedness. 
[n-fan-cy. Infancy, the beginning of our lives, 

when we are little infants. 
Ix-fe-li-ci-ty. Infelicity, misery, unhappiness. 
In-fe-ri-or. Inferior, not so great, or so high, or 

so good, as some other person or thing. 
In-fest. Infest, to plague, to disturb. 
In-firm. Infirm, not strong, nor healthy, weak. 
In-firm-i-ty. Infirmity, fault or weakness. 
In-flame. Inflame, to set on fire, to make hot. 
In-flam-ma-ble. Inflammable, easy to take fire. 
In-flex-i-ble Inflexible, what cannot be bent 

or altered. 

120 INI 

In-flu-ence. Influence, the power which we may 
have over other people, to direct them, and to 
make them do as we think proper : as, " my 
mother has great influence over me," that is, she 
can easily persuade me to do as she wishes me 
to do. 

In-form. Inform, to let a person know something 
which he did not know before. 

In-form-a-tion. Information, what wo know, or 
what we are told. 

In-fi7S-ion. Infusion, what is made by infusing, 
or steeping something in any liquor; the tea 
which we drink is an infusion of tea-leaves in 
boiling water. 

In-gen-ious. Ingenious ; an ingenious person is 
one who is inventive, one who contrives or in- 
vents things well. An ingenious thing, is any^ 
thing which is well contrived. 

In-ge-nu-i-ty. Ingenuity, readiness in contriving^ 
something useful or beautiful. [^^i^g- 

In-gen-u-ous. Ingenuous, fair and true, not cun- ' 

In-grat-i-tude. Ingratitude, unthankfulness to 
those who have been good and kind to us, 

In-hab-it. Inhabit, to live in a place. 

In-hab-i-tant. Inhabitant, a person who lives m 
any place ; we say, the inhabitants of a house, 
the inhabitants of a country, the inhabitants of 
the earth. 

In-im-it-a-ble. Inimitable, what is so excellent 
that it cannot be copied. 

iN-i-aui-TY. Iniquity, w-ickedness. 

In-i-tial. Initial ; the first letter of a word is 
the initial, and the last letter of a word is the 

INS 121 

In-jit-di-cious. Injudicious, not wise, not careful. 
In-junc-tion. Injunction, a command, an order. 
In-jure. Injure, to hurt, to do wrong or mischief 

to any thing. 
In-ju-ry. Injury, harm or mischief. 
In-land. Inland : places which are at a distance 

from the sea, are inland. 
In-mat E. Inmate, one who lives in the house of 

another person. 
Inn, a house where travellers are lodged and fed. 
In-no-cent. Innocent, not wicked or hurtful, not 

able to do any harm. 
In-nu-mer-a-ele. Innumerable, so many that one 

cannot count the number. 
[n-of-fen-sive. Inoffensive, not hurtful, harmless. 
In-quire. Inquire, to ask questions about any 

In-quis-i-tive. Inquisitive, curious, wishing to 

know what is secret. 
In-sa-tia-ble. Insatiable, greedy, never satisfied. 
In-scribe. Inscribe, to write upon any thing. 
In-scrip-tion. Inscription, something which is 

written or engraved on tomb stones, coins, &c. 
In-sens-i-ble. Insensible, without feeling, without 

1n-sert. Insert, to put something in amongst 

other things. 
In-sig-ni-fi-cant. Insignificant, of no conse- 
In-sip-id. Insipid, without taste. Insipid^ when 

we speak of a book or a person, means dull, not 

pleasing or interesting. 
In-so-lent. Insolent, speaking proudly and rudely. 
Instance. Instance; an example of something. 

122 INT 

In^tan-ta-ne-ous. Instantaneous, very quick, in 

an instant. 
Ix-sTiNCT. Instinct ; by instinct, is generally meant 

the sense which God has given to brute animals 

instead of reason or understanding, to do what is 

good for them, and to avoid what is hurtful or 

bad for them without being taught by men. 
In-sti-tute. Institute, to fix or settle. 
In-struct. Instruct, to teach. 
In-struc-tion. Instruction, any thing which we 

are taught, or told to do. 
In-stru-ment. Instrument ; an instrument is any 

thing which we make use of to do something : 

knives and scissors are cutting instruments, a 

piano is a musical instrument, and a pen is an 

instrument to write with. 
In-sult. Insult, a rude insolent word or action ; 

to insult, to treat with great rudeness. 
In-teg-ri-ty. Integrity, truth and honesty. 
In-tel-lect. Intellect, understanding, mind. 
In-tel-lect-u-al. Intellectual, belonging to the 

I:»?-tel-li-gent. IntelHgent, sensible, not foolish, 

not ignorant. 
In-tel-li-gence. Intelligence, news, what is told 

us. Intelligence, is also mind or understanding. 
In-tel-li-gi-ble. Intelligible, easily understood. 
In-tense. Intense, in a very great degree, /w- 

tense cold, is exceeding great cold. Intense heat, 

very great heat. 
In-tent. Intent, busy and attentive ; an intent, or 
an intention, is a purpose or design that we have 

to do some action. 
IN'Ter. Inter, to bury under ground. 

INT 123 

In-ter-cept. Intercept, to hinder, or stop some- 
thing from coming to an intended place. 

In-ter-course. Intercourse, acquaintance or com- 
munication between difterent persons or coun- 

In-te-rim. Interim : in the interim, means between 
different times, or in the mean time. 

In-te-ri-or. Interior, in the inside. The inteHor 
is that part of a country which is not near the 

In-ter-miss-ion. Intermission, a stop, or leaving 
off for a little while. 

In-ter-nal. Internal, inside, not outward. 

In-ter-pret. Interpret, to explain what is said in 
a different language to persons who do not un- 
derstand the language spoken to them. 

In-ter-ro-gate. Interrogate, to ask questions. 

In-ter-val. Interval, the time which comes be- 
tween : as, I intend to go into the country next 
week- — in the interval (that is, between this time 
and the time in which I intend to go) I will be 
very industrious. 

In-ter-vene. Intervene, to come between. 

In-tes-tine. Intestine, in the inside, not outward. 

In-ti-mate. Intimate, acquainted with one an- 
other, familiar ; to intimate, to give a hint of 

In-tim-i-date. Intimidate, to make afraid. 

In-tol-e-ra-ble. Intolerable, what is too bad to 
be endured. 

In-tox-i-cate. Intoxicate, to make drunk. 

In-trep-id. Intrepid, not fearful, very bold and 

In-tri-cate. Intricate, entangled, confused. 


124 JET 

In-vinc-i-ble. Invincible, not to be conquered. 

In-vis-i-ble. Invisible, not to be seen. 

In-vol-un-ta-ry. Involuntary, not by our own 
choice, not according to our own will. 

In-ure. Inure : to be inured to any thing, means 
to be used or accustomed to it. 

Ire, great anger, rage. 

Irk-some. Irksome, troublesome, teasing. 

I-RON. Iron, the name of the most useful of all 
the metals. 

Ir-ra-di-ate. Irradiate, to make shining and 

Ir-ra-tion-al. Irrational, without understanding : 
we call all living creatures, except mankind, ir- 
rational, Man is rational. 

Ir-ri-tate. Irritate, to tease ver^ much, to make 

Is-LAND. Island, a place or country which is quito 
surrounded by water. Great Britain is an island* 
An isle^ means the same as an island. 

Is-suE. Issue, to come out. The issue^ the end. 

I-vo-RY. Ivory, the tusks of the Elephant. 

Jar-gon. Jargon, is language or talk which one 
cannot understand. 

Jeal-ous : to be jealous of a person, is to be afraid 
that he should be more loved, or better, or great- 
er, than we ourselves. 

Jest, in play, not real, not in earnest. 

Jet, the name of a kind of stone of a deep black 
colour : we often say, "as black asje^." 

Jrt-ty. Jetty, black like jet. 

JUV ]35 

Jew-el. Jewel, an ornament made of precious 

Join, to put things close together. 

JoL-LY. Jolly, gay, merry, plump, and healthy. 

Jov-iAL. Jovial, merry, gay. 

JouR-NAL. Journal, a 'written account of what 
happens each day. 

JouR-NEY. Journey, •travelling or going from one 
place to another by land. Travelling by sea is 
generally called a voyage. 

Joy, gladness. 

JoY-FUL. Joyful, glad. 

Judge, a person who has the power to say whether 
an action be right or wrong, or whether a per- 
son shall be punished or not for a fault. To 
judge, is to determine in one's own mind wheth- 
er some act be right or wrong, or something 
good or bad. 

JuDG-MENT. Judgment : to act with judgment^ is 
to act wisely and sensibly ; to act without judg- 
ment, means to act foolishly. Judgment, properly 
means the power of distinguishing right from 

Ju-Di-cious. Judicious, wise, sensible. 

JuG-GLER. Juggler, a man who plays tricks to 
amuse and deceive people. 

JuM-BLE. Jumble, to mix together in a confused 

JuN-ioR. Junior, younger than another person. 

Just, good, honest, giving to every body what each 
has a righ^. to. Ju^t also means exact and proper. 

Ju-vE-NiLE. Juvenile, young, or belonging to the 
young, as we say juvenile books, meaning books 
fit for children. 


136 KNE 


Keel, the bottom of a ship. 

Keen, sharp, cutting, piercing. Keen sometimes 

means very cold : we say, a keen air. 
Ken-nel. Kennel, a place for dogs to lie in. 
Ker-nel. Kernel, the inside of any nut. 
Key, an instrument to open a lock. A key or qnay^ 

also means a high bank of earth raised, on the 

sea-shore, that ships and boats may be more con- 
veniently loaded or unloaded. 
Kid, a young goat. 
Kid-nap. Kidnap, to steal children, or to steal 

men and women. 
Kiln, a place where bricks, or lime, or ware made 

of clay, is burnt. 
KiN-DLE. Kindle, to set on fire, or to catch fire. 
KiN-DRED. Kindred, or Kin, relations, people of 

the same family. 
KiNG-DOM. Kingdom, a country governed by a 

king, or queen. 
KiNs-MAN. Kinsman, or Kinswoman, a man or 

woman related to us, or of our family. 
Kite, a kind of bird which eats chickens and small 

Knap-sack. Knapsack, a bag which a soldier} 

carries on his back. | 

Knave, a cheating, dishonest person. I 

Knead, to work and mix together any substancej 

like paste or dough. i, 

Knife, a cutting instrument made of steel. i 

ILnee, a joint of the leg. t 

LAN 12f7 

La-bo-ri-ous. Laborious, done by working hard, 
and taking a great deal of pains. A laborious 
person, is one who works very hard, 

La-bour. Labour, hard work. To labour, to 
work hard, to take pains. 

La-ce-rate. Lacerate, to tear the flesh. 

La-den. Laden, loaded, having a weight to carry. 

Lair, the bed or den of any wdd beast. 

Lake, a large piece of water, with land all round 
it ; a lake is like a pond, but larger. 

Lame, not able to move or walk without pain or 

La-ment. Lament, to be very sorry, to grieve. 

La-men-ta-ble* Lamentable, causing grief and 

Lamp, a light made with oil. 

Land, ground, or earth. To land, to come out of 
a boat or ship on the dry ground. 

Land-lord. Landlord, a person who has land and 
houses of his own, which other people have the 
use of by paying money for them : those people 
who pay a landlord for the use of his houses or 
land, are called his tenants, 

Lan-guage. Language, the words which people 
use in speaking or writing. There are many dif- 
ferent languages in the world, for the people of 
almost every different country speak a different 
language. The language which we speak ia 
called the English language, because it is spo- 
ken in England ; in France people speak the 
French language ; in Italy they speak Italian. 

128 LEA 

Lan-guid. Languid, weak and faint. 
Lan-guor. Languor, want of strength, dullness, 

Lan-guish. Languish, to be no longer strong and 

lively, to become weak and faint. 
Lap, to lick up any thing, to drink with the tongue 

as cats do. 
Lap-id-a-ry. Lapidary, a man who polishes pre- 

cious stones, and cuts them into proper shape. 
Lard, the fat of pigs. 
Large, big, wide. To be at large^ is not to be shut 

up, to be able to go where one likes. 
Lass, a girl. 
Last, a piece of wood cut into the shape of a foot, 

on which shoes are made. 
Late, not early, after a long time. Late, put be* 

fore the name of a person, shows that he is dead : 

the late king, means the king who is dead. Late 

also means last : we say, the late inhabitants ot 

a house ; that means, the persons who lived 

last in it. 
Lath, a long thin narrow piece of wood. 
Lat-ter. Latter, the last mentioned of two things. 
Laud-a-ble. Laudable, right, deserving praise. 
Lav-ish. Lavish, wasteful. To lavish, to give 

away too much. 
Launch, to push a ship or boat from the land into 

the sea. 
Law, a rule which must be obeyed. 
Law-giv-er. Law-giver or legislator, a person 

who makes laws for other people to obey. 
Lay, a song. 

Laz-a-ret-to. Lazaretto, a house for sick people ; 
Lead, the name of a metal. 

LEN 129 

Lead, to go before to show others the way. To 

, lead is also to entice or prevail on a person to 
follow us. [mander. 

Lead-er. Leader, one who goes first ; a com- 

Lead-ing. Leading, first, of the most consequence, 

Leagu-ed. Leagued, joined with other persons 
to do something ; to promote some plan. 

Leak, a hole which lets in water. 

Learn-ing. Learning, what is contained in books ; 
knowledge of events which happened long ago. 

JLeath-er. Leather, the skins of animals prepared 
in a particular manner. 

Leave, permission to do any action. Leave, also 
means to depart. 

Lec-ture. Lecture, a discourse spoken by a per- 

I son to instruct others on some particular subject. 

j To lecture, sometimes means to instruct another 

\ in a severe, disagreeable manner ; to scold. 

Lees, the grounds left at the bottom of a vessel. 

Le-gal. Legal, lawful ; allowed by the laws of 
the country. 

Leg-er. Leger, a large book to keep accounts in. 

Leg-i-ble. Legible, plain enough to be read. 

Le-gion. Legion, a number of soldiers. A le- 
gion, also means a great number of any men. 

Le-gis-la-ture. Legislature, an assembly of 

Le-gu-min-ous plants. Leguminous plants, are 
those of which we usually eat the seeds, such as 
beans and peas. 

Lei-sure. Leisure, time enough to do any thing. 
To be at leisure, not to be busy. 

Length, measure from end to end ; breadth, mea- 
sure from side to side. 

130 LIN 


Length.en. Lengthen, to make longer. 

Let-ters. Letters, learning. A man of letter Sy 
is a learned man. 

Lev-el. Level, fiat and even, not higher in one 
part than in another : to he on a level, to be just 
as high as some other thing, to be exactly on a 
line with it : to level a gun, to point it at what- 
ever one wishes to shoot. 

Le ver. Lever, a bar of wood or of iron, which 
is used to lift heavy things. 

LiB-ER-AL. Liberal, generous, not mean, not self- 

LiB-ER-AL-LY. Liberally, plentifully, generously. 

LiB-ER-TY. Liberty ; to be at liberty, is to be able 
to do as we like, and to go where we please. 

Li-BRA-RY. Library, a number of books all toge^ 

Lid, a cover to any thing. 

LiEVE, willingly ; as, I had as lieve have none. 

Life-less. Lifeless, without life or strength, dead. 

Light, not heavy, easily lifted and moved. Light 
also means not dark. 

Limbs, legs and arms, branches of trees. 

LiM-iT. Limit, the border. 

LiM-iT-ED. Limited, confined, not wide, nor 
spread out. 

Limp, to walk lamely. 

Line, a long string : to line, to cover something on 
the inside. 

LiN-EN. Linen, cloth which is made of flax or 

LiN-GER. Linger, to be delaying a long time. To 
linger, means also to be a long time in pain. 

Link, one of the rings of a chain. 

LOD 131 

LiNK-ED. Linked, joined together, 

Li-QUiD. Liquid, means nearly the same hs fluid. 

In generSiL liquids are those fluids which wet any 

thing that is dipped into them. 
Li-QUOR. Liquor, a substance which is not solid, 

but liquid or fluid, what can be poured from one 

vessel to another. 
Lisp, not to speak plain. 
LiT-ER-AL. Literal, according to the exact mean- 

ing of words. 
LiT-ER-A-Ti. Literati, learned men. 
LiT-ER-A-TURE, Literature, what is contained in 

LiT-TER. Litter, a brood of young animals. A 

littei^ is also a kind of bed which is carried or 
■I drawn about. Litter, straw spread on the ground 

for animals to lie upon. [sist on. 

LiVE-Li-HooD. Livelihood, enough to live or sub- 
Liv-iD. Livid : when we get a hard blow or a 

bruise, the part which is hurt becomes livid, that 
'' is, of a bkieish or black colour. 
LoAD-STONE. Loadstone, the magnet, the stone 

that attracts iron. 
Loan, any thing which is lent to another. 
Loath, not willing, not liking to do something. 
Loathe, to hate and dislike very much. 
Loath-some. Loathsome, shocking and hateful. 
Lo-CAL. Local, belonging to some particular place. 
Lo-cusT. Locust, an insect like a grass-hopper, 
j but larger. Locusts eat vegetable substances 
j that come in their way, and do a great deal of 
' damage in hot countries. 
Lodge, to fix, or put something in any place. To 

lod^e, is also to live in a place for a short time. 

132 LUS 

LoDG-iNC. Lodging, a place to live in, 
LoF-TY. Lofty, high ; lofty sometimes means 

Log, a thick piece of wood. 
Loi-TER. Loiter, to idle, to be long about any thing, 
LoNE-LY. Lonely, alone, without people, wanting 

Lop, to cut off something. 

Lo-QUA-cious. Loquacious, talking too much, 
Lo-auAc-i-TY. Loquacity, too much talk, prattle. 
Lot, fortune or chance. 
LovE-LY. Lovely, beautiful and amiable. 
Lounge, to go about idly and lazily. 
Low-ER. Lower, to look dark and clouded. To 

lower^ is also to look sullen, to pout and frown 
Low-LY. Lowly, not high, not proud. 
LuB-BER. Lubber, a lazy awkward fellow. 
Lu-ciD. Lucid, bright and clear. 
Lu-CRA-TivE. Lucrative, profitable, bringing mo- 
Lu-Di-cRous. Ludicrous, merry, comical, making 

one laugh. \ 

Lug, to drag violently along. 
Luke-warm. Lukewarm, not very warm. 
Lull, to sing any person to sleep, 
LuM-BER. Lumber, heavy and troublesome arti 

cles out of use. 
Lu-MiN-A-RY. Luminary, any thing that gives 

Lu-MiN-ous. Luminous, shining, giving light 
Lu-NA. Luna, the moon. 
Lu-NAR. Lunar, belonging to the moon. 
Lurk, to go about secretly, to be hidden. 
JLus-cious. Luscious, too sweet. 

MAJ 133 

Lus-TRE. Lustre, great brightness. 

Lux-u-Ri-ANT. Luxuriant, plentiful in excess. 

Lux-r-Ri-ous. Luxurious, fond of eating and 
drinking, fond of pleasure. Luxurious, is also 
very delicious. 

Lux-u-RV Luxury, great abundance of things 
not necessary. A luxury, is any thing which is 
extremely delightful and pleasing, but superflu- 


Mach-i-na-tion. Machination, some cunning con* 

trivance to do mischief. 
Ma-chine. Machine, any piece of workmanship 

which has many parts, an engine. 
Mag-a-zine. Magazine, a place where provisions 

and other things are laid up to be kept safe. 
Ma-gis-trate. Magistrate, a man who has au- 

thority to see that people do right, and to punish 

those who do wrong. 
Mag -NET. Magnet, the loadstone. 
^^AG-NiF-i-CENT. Magnificent, exceedingly grand. 
Mag-ni-fy. Magnify, to make any thing seem 

greater than it appears to the eye alone. A mag- 

nifying-glass makes every thing which is seen 

through it appear much larger than it is without 

the glass. 
Ma-jes-tic. Majestic, very grand and stately, in- 

spiring respect. 
Ma-jes-ty. Majesty, power and grandeur. Speaks 

ing of a king or a queen, people say His or Her 

Majesty, speaking to them, they say Your Ma^ 



134 MAN 

Maim-ed. Maimed, wanting a limb, lamed. 
Main-tain. To maintain a thing, is to keep it, to 

hold it safe and fast. To maintain a person^ is 

to support him, to give him meat and drink and 

Main-te-nance. Maintenance, what is necessary 

to support life, such as food and clothing. 
Maize, a kind of corn : it is also called Indian corn. 
Mal-ev-o-lence. Malevolence, ill-nature, bad 

Mal-ice. Malice, ill-nature, a wish to do mis- 

chief to other people. 
Ma-li-cious. Malicious, ill-natured and mischiev- 
Ma-lig-nant. Malignant, envious, mischievous, 

and ill-natured. 
Mal-le-a.ble. Malleable, capable of being 

spread out by beating or hammering : all metals 

are malleable except quicksilver, but gold is the 

most malleable of all. 
Mal-let. Mallet, a large wooden hammer. 
Malt, barley steeped in water, and afterwards 

dried ; it is used in brewing beer. 
Man ; this word sometimes means all people, as 

when we say, God made man to be happy. A 

man of war, is a ship used in fighting. 
Mane, the long hair which hangs down from the 

neck of some animals. 
Man-ful-ly. Manfully, strongly and boldly. 
Mang-er. Manger, the place where corn or hay 

is put for cattle to eat. 
Man-gle. Mangle, to cut or tear in pieces. 
Man-i-fest. Manifest, plain and easy to be 


MAR 138 

Ma^"-kind. Mankind i all the people in the world 
are called mankind, 

Man-sion. Mansion, a house, a place to live in. 

Man-tle. Mantle, a cloak, a covering. 

Man-u-al. Manual, done by the hand. 

Ma]\-u-fac-ture. Manufacture, something which 
is made by the hand : we call those things mafi- 
itfactures which require contrivance and industry 
to make them : we do not call bread a manufac- 
ture, though it is made by the hand ; but we say 
that paper, and glass, and china ware, and cloth, 
are manufactured, 

Man-u-fac-to-ry. Manufactory, a place where 
any thing is manufactured. 

Man-uRe. Manure, what is laid on the ground to 
make plants grow. 

Map, a kind of picture of seas and countries, 
which are drawn according to their size, shape, 
and situation. 

Mar-ble. Marble, a species of stone, of which 
statues, chimney-pieces, and ornaments are 
made ; there are several kinds o^ marble, black, 
white, green, red, and veined with different co- 

Mar-gin. Margin, the edge of any thing. 

Ma-rine. Marine, belonging to the sea. 

Mar-i-time. Maritime, belonging to the sea, 
or ships. Maritime also means near the sea ; 
we say, a maritime country, a maritime town. 

Mar-ket. Market, the place where people meet 
to buy and sell. A fair is a very large market^ 
which is only held on particular days of the year. 

Marsh, wet ground. 

Marsh-y. Marshy, wet. 

186 MEA 

Mar-vel. Marvel, to wonder, to be surprised. 
Mar-vel-lous. Marvellous, strange, wonderful* . 
Mask, son^ething put over the face to hide it. A - 

Masque^ or Masquerade, is an entertainment inl 

which the company wear masks, and strange 

Ma-son. Mason, a man who builds houses with 

stone or bricks. 
Mass, a lump of any thing. 
Mas-sa-cre. Massacre, killing, murder. To m«5- - 

sacre, to kill. I 

Mass-ive. Massive, or Massy, heavy and large. 
Mas-tiff. Mastiff, a large dog. 
Match : when any thing suits another thing, or is 

exactly like it, we say they match, A match, a 

slip of wood, the ends of which are dipped in 

brimstone, that may catch fire easily. To match^ 

is to be like some other thing. 
Ma-te-ri-als. Materials, whatever a thing is 

made of. 
Ma-te-ri-al, Material, of consequence. 
Ma-ter-nal. Maternal, like a mother. 
Ma-tron. Matron, a married lady. 
Ma-ture. Mature, ripe. j, 

Ma-tu-ri-ty. Maturity, ripeness. 
Max-im. Maxim, a rule, a true saying ; " Do to 

others as you should wish they would do to you," 

is a very good maxim or rule. 
Mead, a meadow. 

Mead-ow. Meadow, a field of grass. 
Mea-gre. Meagre, thin looking, hungry, and 

Meal, what is eaten at one time. Meal^ coml 

which is ground. | 


MER 187 

Meas-uke. Measure, to find out the size or the 
quantity of any thing. A measure^ a quantity. 
The measure of any thing, is the size of it. 

Me-chan-ic* Mechanic, a workman. 

Med-i-cal. Medical, belonging to physic. 

Me-di-ci-nal. Medicinal, good for physic. 

Me-di-cine. Medicine, any thing which is given 
to people who are sick in order to cure them. 

Med-i-tate. Meditate, to think of something. 

Med-i-ta-tion. Meditation, thought, attention. 

Meek, not proud, gentle, of a soft temper. 

Mel-an-cho-ly. Melancholy, sad, gloomy, dis- 

Mel-low. Mellow, soft from being ripe. 

Me-lo-di-ous. Melodious, of a delightful sound 
like music. 

Mel-o-dy. Melody, music. 

Melt : to melt, to make something which was hard 
and solid, soft and fluid, by means of heat. 

Mem-eers. Members, the hmbs, the parts of the 
body. A TTiember, one of a society or company. 

Mem-o-ra-ble. Memorable, worth remembering, 
what ought not to be forgotten. 

Me-mo-ri-al. Memorial, something to make us 

Men-ag-e-rie. Menagerie, a place where a num- 
ber of different animals are kept, as curiosities. 

Men-tal. Mental, in the mind. 

Men-tal-ly. Mentally, in thought, in one^s own 

Men-tion. Mention, to speak or write of a sub- 

Mer.chan-dise. Merchandise, any thing which 
is bought or sold. 


1S8 MIL 

Mer-chant. Merchant, one who buys and sells. 
Mer-chant-man. Merchantman, a ship which is 

used to carry goods from one country to another. 
Mer-ci-ful. Merciful, kind, pitying and forgiv- 
ing the faults of other people. 
Mer-cu-ry. Mercury, a name for quicksilver. 
Mer-cy. Mercy, kindness, goodness, forgiveness. 
Mere : " you are a mere child." means that you 

are nothing but a child. 
Mere-ly. Merely, only, 
Me-ri-di-an. Meridian, noon, the part of the earth 

on which the sun is at twelve o'clock in the day. 
Mer-it. Merit, excellence of any kind, goodness 

which deserves praise or reward. To merits is 

to deserve. 
Mer-i-to-ri-ous. Meritorious, good, deserving 

Mess, a dish of meat. 
Met-a-mor-phos-ed. Metamorphosed, changed 

from one shape to another, quite altered. 
Meth-od. Method, the manner of doing any 

thing. Method, also means order and regularity. 
Me-trop-o-lis. Metropolis, the capital city, the 

first or greatest city in a country, as London is 

the metropolis of England. 
Mein, the looks or manner of a person. 
Might-y. Mighty, strong, powerful. 
Mi-GRA-TioN. Migration, a removal from one 

place to another. 
Milch : a milch-cow, is ^ cow that gives milk 
Mild, gentle and kind, not violent and cruel. 
MiL-i-TA-RY. Military, belonging to fighting and 

soldiers. A military mariy is a soldier. 

MIS 139 

Mill, a contrivance to grind corn and other things ; 

there are wind-mills^ water-mills^ and hand-mills. 
MiM-ic. Mimic, one who copies the manners, or 

actions, or voice, of other persons, to make peo- 
ple laugh at them. 
Mince, to cut a thing into small pieces. 
.Mind, to attend, to think of what we are about. 
Mine, a deep place in the ground, out of which 

metals are dug, 
MiN-ER. Miner, a workman who digs metals out 
c of a mine. 
MiN-ER-AL. Mineral, any substance which is dug 

out of the ground. 
''■ MiN-GLE. Mingle, to mix together. 
MiN-is-TER. Minister, sometimes means a clergy. 
] man. 

iVTiNT, the place where money is coined or stamped. 
MiN-uTE. Minute, very little, exceedingly small. 

Minute, also means very particular and exact* 
Mire, dirt, mud. 

MiR-ROR. Mirror, a looking-glass. 
Mirth, cheerfulness, gaiety, pleasure. 
Mis-cHANCE. Mischance, misfortune. 
! Mis-coN-DucT. Misconduct, bad behaviour, bad 

Mis-CRE-ANT. Miscreant, a wicked person. 
Mis-DBED. Misdeed, a bad action. 
Mis-ER. Miser, a man who is very covetous of 

Mis-E-RY. Misery, misfortune, unhappiness. 
Mis: the syllable mis put before a word means 
] wrong or ill. Thus, to mis-apply, means to put 

to a wrong use ; to mis-place, is to place wrong ; 

140 MOM 

to mis-leady is to lead wrong ; to mis-understand, 

is not to understand rightly, &c. 
Mis-MAN-AGE-MENT. Mismanagement, bad man 

Mis-TAKE. Mistake, to take one thing for another, 

to think wrong. 
Mis-trust. Mistrust, to doubt, not to believe. 
Mite, a little animal found in cheese. 
MiT-i-GATE. Mitigate, to soften, to make less vio- 
MoAN, to cry, to complain. [lent 

Mob, a great crowd of vulgar people. 
Mock, to mimic contemptuously. 
MoD-EL. Model ; a model, is a small thing made 

exactly in the shape of something which is large. 

If apiece of cork or wood were cut into a shape 

exactly like a house, it would be a model of a 

house. A model, is also any thing which is toj 

be copied or imitated. f 

MoD-ER-ATE. Moderate, not violent, not very 

large, not too much : we say, a moderate sized 

house, that means, not a very large house ; a 

cup of milk is a moderate quantity for one per. 

son to drink, but a pail full would be an im-mo- 

derate quantity. 
MoD-ERN. Modern, not old, done or made lately. 
MoD-ERN. The moderns are the people who live 

in the present time, or within a few years. 
Moist, rather wet. 
MoisT-URE. Moisture, wetness. 
MoisT-EN. Moisten, to make damp, to make ra- 

ther wet. 
Mo-LEST. Molest, to trouble, to disturb, to vex. 
Mo-MENT. Moment, a small space of time. Of 

momenty means of consequence* 

MOU 141 

MoN-ARCH. Monarch, a king, a governor. 
MoN-sTER. Monster, something which is very 

large or ugly, or a very wicked person. 
MoN-sTRous. Monstrous, uncommonly large and 

MoN-u-MENT. Monument, something to make us 
remember things or persons ; as, the monuments 
or stones erected over graves. 

Moon-beams. Moonbeams, the light of the moon. 

Moor, a large tract of watery ground. 

Mop-iNG. Moping, sad, not cheerfuL 

Mo-rose. Morose, of a bad peevish temper. 

Mor-sel. Morsel, a little piece of any substance. 

MoR-TAL. Mortal, liable to die. Mortal^ also 
means what causes us to die ; thus we say, a 

I mortal poison, a mortal blow; a mortal^ is any 
' man or woman. 

MoR-TAR. Mortar, a mixture of lime, sand, and 
j water, used to join bricks or stones together ia 

II building. 

MoR-Ti-FY. Mortify, to vex. 
Mo-TioN. Motion, a movement. 
Mo-TioN-LEss. Motionless, quite still, not mov- 

Mo-tive. Motive, a reason for doing any thing. 

Mould, the ground or soil in which any thing 
grows. Mouldy also means form or shape, or 
something which is used to shape any thing in. 
To mouldy to make of some form or shape. 

Mount, to rise up high, to climb, to get on horse - 

I back. A mounts a mountain. The word mounts 

I is generally put before the name of a mountain ; 

I we say, Mount Etna, Mount Vesuvius. 

jMouN-TAiN. Mountain, a high hill. 

142 MYS 

Mourn, to be sorry» 

MouRN-FUL. Mournful, sad, sorrowful. 

MouRN-iNG. Mourning, the dress which people 
wear when any of their relations or friends are 
lately dead. 

Mouth, of a river, the place where it falls into 
the sea. 

Mow, to cut down grass with a scythe. 

MuL*Ti-PLi-ci-TY. Multiplicity, a great number. 

MuL-Ti-PLY. Multiply, to make many, to make 
more : to multiply, to become more in number. 

MuL-Ti-TUDE. Multitude, a great number, a crowd 
of people. 

Mu-NiF-i-CENT. Munificent, generous, giving 

MuR-MUR. Murmur, to make a low noise, to com- 

Muse, to think. 

Mu-sE-UM. Museum, a place where many curiosi- 
ties are collected together. 

Mus-KET. Musket, a kind of gun. 

Mus-TY. Musty, spoiled by the dampness. 

Mute, silent. 

Mu-Ti-LATE. Mutilate, to break or cut off the use- 
ful parts of any thing. 

MuT-TER. Mutter, to grumble ; to speak in such 
a manner that people cannot hear or understand. 

Muz-zLE. Muzzle, the mouth ; to muzzle, is to tie 
up the mouth of an animal, so as to hinder it 
from biting. 

Myr-i-ad. Myriad, any great number. 

Mys-te-ry. Mystery, something which is secret^ 
something that cannot be readily understood or 
found out. 

NEC 143 


Nag, a little horse. 

Nap, a kind of soft woolly or downy stuff on cloth. 

Nas-ra-tion, or a Nar-ra-tive. Narration, or 

a Narrative, an account of something which has 

Nar-row. Narrow, not broad or wide, close. To 

look narroioly at a thing, means to look at it at 

tentively and closely. 
Na-tion. Nation : people who are governed by 

the same laws, who live in the same country, and 

and speak the same language, are called a na- 

Na-tive. Native : our native land, means the 
j country we were born in. A native, is a person 
I who was born in any place ; we say, a native of 

London, a native of France. Any thing which 

was first found in some particular place, is also 

called a native; the tea-tree is a naiCive of China. 
Nav-al. Naval, belonging to ships. 
Nav-i-ga-ble. Navigable ; a navigable river, is a 

river which is deep enough for ships or boats to 

pass on it. 
Nav-i-gate. Navigate, to sail on the sea, to pass 

from one place to another by water. 
Nav-i-ga-tion. Navigation, the art of traversing 

the water in ships and boats. 
Nav-i-ga-tor. Navigator, one who travels by sea. 
Nau-se-ous. Nauseous, disagreeable to the taste. 
Na-vy. Navy, a large- number of ships. 
Neat, clean, smooth, and in order. 
Ne-cess-i-tous. Necessitous, poor, in want. 

144 NIG 

Ne-cess-i-ty. Necessity, want, poorness. 
Ne-cess-a-ries. Necessaries of life, are those 

things which are not only useful and pleasant, 

but such as one must have in order to live : food 

and clothes are necessaries. 
Nec-tah. Nectar, sometimes means honey. Nee 

tar, also means the sweet juice in flowers, of 

which the bees make their honey. 
Need, want. To need, to want, to be necessary^ 
Need-y. Needy, very poor. 
Need-less. Needless, not necessary, not wanteds 
Neg-lect. Neglect, to forget carelessly, not to 

pay attention to. Neglect, carelessness, inat- 

Neg-li-gence. Negligence, forgetfulness, care 

Neg-li-gent. Negligent, forgetful and careless, 
Ne-gro, Negro, a black person. 
Neigh-bour. Neighbour, a person who lives near 

to another. 
Neigh-bour-hood. Neighbourhood, the people 

who live near us, or the places which are not far 

from this place. 
Neigh-bour-ing. Neighbouring, near, not far 

Neph-ew. Nephew, the son of a brother or a 

New-Year's-Gift. New-year*s-gift, a present 

which is made on the first day of the year. 
Nib, of a pen, the point of it. 
NiB-BLE. Nibble, to bite by little and little. 
Niece, the daughter of a brother or sister. 
NiG-GARD. Niggard, a mean, covetous person- 

NOX 146 

NiG-GARD-LY. Niggardly, selfish and covetous, 
not giving much away. 

NiM-BLE. Nimble, quick, active, and light, not 
heavy and slow. 

No-BiL-i-TY. Nobility, greatness of rank ; the no- 
bility, means the persons who are of high rank 
under aristocratical governments. 

Noble. Noble, of high rank. Noble, sometimes 
means generous and great ; noble, also means 
grand and stately. A noble, is a nobleman, a 
person of high rank. 

Noc-TUR-NAL, Nocturnal, nightly, by night. 

Nook, a corner. 

Noon, twelve o'clock in the day. 

Noon-tide. Noontide, the middle ot the day. 

North ; if you turn your face to the sun in the 
middle of the day, the North will be behind you. 

NoT-A-BLE. Notable, careful and busy. 

Note, a mark. Note or notes, often means music, 
a tune ; a note, sometimes a short letter : to note, 
to pay attention, to mind, or to set down in wri- 

NoT-ED. Noted, remarkable for something. 

No-TiCE. Notice, attention, remark. 

No-TioN. Notion, thought, opinion 

No-VEL. Novel, new. 

Nov-EL-TY. Novelty, newness. A novelty, is 
something new. 

NouR-isH. Nourish, to feed, to support, and make 
strong and healthy. 

NouR-isH-MENT. Nourishment, food, what sup* 
ports life. 

Nox-ious. Noxious, hurtful, doing harm. 

146 OBL 

Nui-SANCE. Nuisance, any thing which is hurtful 

or disagreeable. 
Numb, chill, unable to feel. 
NuM-EER-LEss. Numberlcss, more than can be 

numbered or counted. 
Nu-MER-ous. Numerous, in great numbers, 
NuR-SE-RY. Nursery, the place where children 

are nursed or taken care of. A nursery^ also 

means a plantation of young trees. 
Ni;-TRi-MENT. Nutriment, food. 
Nu-TRi-Tious. Nutritious, good and wholesome 

for food. 


Oaf, a fool, a stupid person. 

Oats, a kind of corn. 

0-BE-Di-ENT. Obedient : to be obedient, is to do as 
we are bid. 

0-BEY. Obey, to do as we are commanded ; to 
be dutiful. 

Ob-ject. Object, any thing that we can see or feel, 
or think, or talk, and write about. 

Ob-ject, to find fault ; not to allow something to be 
done ; not to be pleased with it. 

Ob-lige. Oblige, to please. To oblige, is also 
to force a person to do something ; if you do 
not oblige or please me by doing right, I shall be 
obliged, or forced to punish you. 

Ob-lig-ing. Obliging, civil and polite, respectful. 

Ob-liutje. Oblique, slanting, not straight ; lean- 
ing to one side. 

Oe-lit-er-ate. Obliterate, to rub out. 

Ob-long. Oblong, more long than broad. 

ODD 14T 

Ob-scure. Obscure, dark, not easily seen or un- 
derstood. Obscure often means not well known ; 
as, an obscure man. To obscure^ to make dark 

Ob-scur-i-ty. Obscurity, darkness, low condition. 

Ob-serve, Observe, to take notice ; to be atten- 
tive to what we see, or hear, or touch. 

Oe-steuct. Obstruct, to hmder. 

Ob-sta-cle. Obstacle, something in the way; a 

Ob-tain. Obtain, to get any thing. 

Ob-tuse. Obtuse, not pointed, blunt. 

Ob-vi-ous. Obvious, plain and easy to be seen or 

Oc-CA-sioN. Occasion, something that happens. 
Occasion also means a fit time. To occasion^ 
to cause, to make a thing happen. " It is the 
earth's turning round, occasions day and night.'^ 

Oc-CA-sioN-AL-LY. Occasionally, now and then, 

Oc-cu-PA-Tiois-. Occupation, employment, trade, 
or business. 

Oc-cu-PY. Occupy, to be in a place ; to take up 
a room : as, we occupy this house. To occupy 
one's self, is to be busy ; to be doing something, 

Oc-cu-pi-ed. Occupied, busy, employed about 
any thing. 

Oc-cuR. Occur, to happen : as, an accident occur- 
red last year. To occur, is also to be remember- 
ed, to come into one's mind ; as, it occurs to me 
that I have seen you before. 

Oc-cuR-REivcE. Occurrence, any thing that hap- 

0-CEAN. Ocean, the great sea. [pens. 

Odd, strange, particular, uncommon. An odd 
number, is a number which cannot be divided 


148 OPA 

into two equal numbers ; 4 is an equal number, 

5 is an odd number. 
0-Di-ous. Odious, hjiteful. . 

0-DOR-iF-ER-ous. OdoHferous, Smelling sweet. I 
0-DouR. Odour, a sweet scent. 
Of-fence. Offence, a wrong action, any thing 

which we do to hurt or displease another person 

To take offence, to be angry or displeased. 
Or-FEND. Offend, to do any thing wrong ; to dis-l 

please a person, or to make him angry. ' 

Of-fens-ive. Offensive, displeasing, mischievous 
Of-fice. Office, the place or room where busi- 

ness is done. To be in office, is to be trusted to 

do some public business. An officey is something^ 

which we are trusted to do. | 

Of-fic-er. Officer, a man who commands in the^ 

army or navy ; a person who does some public 

business, is also called an officer. 
Of-fic-ious. Officious, troublesomely kind, med 

Off-spring. Offspring, descendants from animals, 

or the fruit of plants. 
OiL-Y. Oily, like oil, greasy. 
Ol-ive. Olive : the oil which we use at table ta 

dress salad, and for other purposes, is the juice 

of olives ; olive-trees grow in Italy and Spain 
0-Mis-sioN. Omission, something which is left 

out ; or something which we ought to do, and 

yet neglect to do. 
O-MiT. Omit, to leave out. 
O-paque. Opaque : those things which the light 

cannot pass through are called opaque ; a piece^ 

of wood, or a book is opaque ; but glass ana 

ORE 149 

water are not opaque^ they are transparent, or 

Op-er-ate. Operate, to act upon ; to have an ef- 
fect upon something. 
Op-er-a-tion. Operation, something which is 

done : we say, the operation of drawing a tooth ; 

the operation of blowing glass 
0-PiN-ioN. Opinion, what we think of a person 

or thing. 
Op-po-nent. Opponent one that fights against 

Op-por-tu-ni-ty. Opportunity, a fit place or a fit 

Op-pose. To oppose a person, is to be against 

him. To oppose any action, is not to allow it ; 

to hinder it. 
Op-po-site. Opposite, exactly facing something 

else. Opposite often means contrary. 
Op-press. Oppress, to be cruel and severe to our 

fellow creatures. 
Op-press-ion. Oppression, cruelty, hardship, mis- 
ery inflicted by others. 
Op-press-ive. Oppressive, cruel, too severe. 
Op-press-or. Oppressor, a person who is cruel 

and severe to others. 
Op-ti-cal. Optical, belonging to the sight. 
Op-u-lence. Opulence, riches, plenty of money. 
Op-u-lent. Opulent, rich, wealthy. 
0-ra-tion. Oration, a long speech, spoken before 

many people. 
Or-a-tor. Orator, a person who makes a speech. 
Orb, a globe, any round body. 
Or-dain. Ordain, to fix, to settle or appoint. 
Ore, metal before it is separated from the earth or 

150 OVE 

stones with which it is always mixed when first 

dug out of the earth. 
Or-gan. Organ, any natural instrument : thus, 

the eyes are the organs of sight, or the instru- 

ment with which we see ; the tongue is the or- 

gan of speech, or the instrument with which we 

talk. An organ is also the name of a musical 

0-iii-EN-TAL. Oriental, belonging to the east, or 

belonging to those parts of the world which are 

towards the east. The Orientals are the people 

who live in Asiatic countries. 
Or-i-fice. Orifice, a hole, an opening. 
Or-i-gin, or 0-RiG-i-NAL. Origin, or Original, the 

beginning, or first cause of any thing. 
0-RiG-iN-AL-LY. Originally, at first. The tulip 

was originally a native of Persia. 
Or-na-ment. Ornament, what is put on any thing 

to make it look more beautiful. 
Or-phan. Orphan, a child who has lost its father 

and mother. 
Or-thog-ra-phy. Orthography, the art of spelling 

words properly. 
Os-TEN-TA-TioN. Ostcntatiou, outside show, con- 
ceited exhibition of one's own actions. 
Os-TEN-TA-Tious. Ostoutatious, proud, fond ot 

show ; fond of talking to other people about our 

own actions. 
O-VAL. Oval, in the shape of an ^gg ; rather long. 

er one way than the other. 
Ov-EN. Oven, a place heated by fire, where any 

thing is baked. 
O-VER-BOARD. Ovcrboard, out of a ship. 

PAL 151 

0-VEH-CAST. Overcast, cloudy, dull, or dark-look. 


O-VER-THROW. Overthrow, to throw down, to de- 
stroy, to put an end to. 

Ounce, a weight. 

Out-cry. Outcry, a loud cry. 

OuT-LAND-isH. Outlaudish, strange, not belong- 
ing to this country. 

OuT-RAGE. Outrage, violent injury. 

OuT-RAGE-ous. Outrageous, violent, furious. 

Owe, to be obliged to pay ; to be obliged to a per- 
son for something. 

Own, to have a thing by right. To own a fault, is 
to confess it. 

OwN-ER. Owner, the person that something be- 
longs to. 

Pace, step, manner of walking. 

Pa-cif-ic. Pacific, gentle, not rough, not inclined 

to quarrel. 
Pa-ci-fy. Pacify, to make quiet and peaceable. 
Pa-gan. Pagan, a person who is not a Christian ; 

one who does not worship the true God. 
Page, one side of the book. A page is also a boy 

who attends upon a great person. 
Pair, is two things of one sort : as, a pair of shoes. 
Pal-ace. Palace, a very fine house. 
Pal-at-a-ble. Palatable, pleasant to the taste. 
Pal-ate. Palate, the part of the mouth, with which 

we taste. 
Pale, of a whitish colour, not red or rosy. A pale 

or palings a wooden railing. 

152 PAR 

Pal-li-ate. Palliate, to make a fault appear les», 

to excuse. 
Pal-lid, Pallid, pale, white coloured. 
Palm, the name of a tree. The palm, the inside 

part of th'e hand. 
Pal-pa-ble. Palpable, felt by touching. 
Pal-try. Paltry, not worth any thing. 
Pamp-er. Pamper, to feed with nice things. 
Pane, a square piece of glass, like those in the 

Pang, a sudden violent pain, torment. 
Pann-iers. Panniers, large baskets which are 

hung on each side of a horse or an ass, to carry 

fruit or other things iu. 
Pant, to have the heart beat, and to be scarcely 

able to breathe, as when we have run a long way. 
Pa-rade. Parade, show, finery. The Parade is 

a place where soldiers exercise. 
Par-a-dise. Paradise, any happy place. 
Par-al-lel Lines. Parallel Lines, are lines which 

are drawn all one way, and which are always at 

the same distance from each other as these 

lines : 
Par-cel. Parcel, a small bundle, or a number or 

quantity of any thing. 
Parch, to scorch a little. 
IPar-don. Pardon, to forgive a fault, or to forgive 

a person who does wrong. Pardon, forgive, 

Pare, to cut pieces off the outside of any thing. 
Pa-rents. Parents, our father and mother. 
Pa-rent-al. Parental, like parents. 
Park, a large piece of ground covered with grass 

PAT 153 

and surrounded by a wall or fence, in which 
deer are sometimes kept. 

Par-son. Parson, the clergyman of a parish. 

Par-son-age-house. Parsonage-house, the house 
where a clergyman lives. 

Parts, divisions or members of a thing. Parts, 
sometimes means countries : we say, coffee 
comes from foreign parts. Parts, often means 
understanding : we say, a man of parts. 

Par-take. Partake, to have a share of something. 

Par-tial. Partial, kinder to one person than to 
another, or fonder of one thing than of another. 
Partial, also means belonging to a part of any 
thing, not to the whole of it. 

Par-ti-ci-pate. Participate, to have a share in 
any thing. 

Par-ti-cle, Particle, a very small part of any 

Part-ner. Partner, one who has a share in some- 
thing with another person. 

Par-ty-co-lour-ed. Party-coloured, having dif- 
ferent colours. 

Pas-sage. Passage, way or journey. Birds of 
passage, are those which pass from one country 
to another at different seasons of the year. 

Pas-sen-ger. Passenger, one who is upon the 
way to any place, one who pays to travel in some 

I other person's ship or carriage. 

Paste, flour and water mixed till they are a sticky 

I and tough consistence or mass. 

Pas-time. Pastime, play, amusement. 

Past-ure. Pasture, ground for cattle to feed on. 

Patch, a piece of cloth used to mend a rent. 

154 PEA 

, oif 

Pa-thet-ic. Pathetic, exciting tears, sadness, 

Pa-tient. Patient, able to bear pain or misfortune 

without ill-humour ; able to wait quietly for any 

thing : a 'patient^ a person who is sick. 
Pa-tri-arch. Patriarch, a father and ruler of a 

Pa-tri-ot. Patriot, a person who loves his own 

country, and tries to do it good. 
Pa-tri-ot-ism. Patriotism, love for one's own 

Pat-tern. Pattern, an example ; any thing which 

we are to imitate or copy. 
Pave, to lay bricks or stones firmly into the ground, 

to make a firm or smooth place for people to 

tread on. 
Pave-ment. Pavement stones beaten into the 

ground to make a road smooth and firm. 
Pause, a stop for a short time. Pause, to make a 

stop, to leave off for a little time, to consider. 
Paw, the foot of any beast. 
Pay, to give money for any thing. 
Pay-ment. Payment, what is paid, or given in re- 
turn for a thing. 
Peace, quietness and rest without fighting, noise, 

or disturbance of any kind. 
Peace-ful. Peaceful, not disturbed, not fighting, 

Peak, the point of a pyramid or hill. 
Peal, a loud continued sound ; thus we say, a peal 

of thunder. 
Pear-ly. Pearly, white, clear, and round, like 

pearls : we say, pearly drops of dew. 
Peas-ant. Peasant, a countryman. 

PER 165 

Peas- vnt-ry. Peasantry, country people in Eu- 

Peb-bles. Pebbles, small, round, smooth stones. 

Pe-cul-iar. Peculiar, belonging to one particular 
person, place, or thing, and not to others. 

Ped-lar. Pedlar, a person who travels about, and 
sells things. 

Peer, a nobleman. 

Peev-ish. Peevish, ill-humourea. 

Peg, a wooden nail. 

Pel-lti-cid. Pellucid, bright and clear. 

Pence, more than one penny. 

Pend-ent. Pendent, hanging, 

Pen-e-trate. Penetrate, to pierce through some- 
thing, or to get into a thing. 

Pen-i-tence. Penitence, sorrow for our faults. 

Pen-i-tent. Penitent, sorrow for having done 
wrong, and wishing to do better. A 'penitent^ is 
a person who is sorry for his faults. 

Pen-ny-worth. Penny-worth, as much of any 
thing as we may buy for a penny. 

Pen-sive. Pensive, sad and serious. 

Pent, shut up. 

Pen-u-ri-ous. Penurious, covetous not spending, 
not giving much. 

Pen-u-rv. Penury, poorness, want of money. 

Peo-ple. People, a number of persons. The 
people^ means the inhabitants of a country. 

Per-ad-ven-ture. Peradventure, perhaps. 

Per-ceive. Perceive, to know a thing by touching 
it, or hearing it, to observe or find out any thing. 

IPer-cep-tj ble. Perceptible, to be seen, felt, tast- 
ed, or perceived in any way. 

156 PER 

Per-emp-to-ry. Peremptory, positive, command. 

Per-fect. Perfect, quite complete, without anj 

fault, or mistake, or want of any thing. To per' 

feet, is to finish, to make quite complete. 
Per-fec-tion. Perfection, excellence, complete. 

Per-for-ate. Perforate, to bore a hole. 
Per-form. Perform, to do an}^ thing. 
Per-form-ance. Performance, any thing which 

is done. 
Per-ftjme. Perfume, a sweet smell. 
Per-il, Peril, danger. 
Per-il-ous. Perilous, dangerous. 
Pe-ri-od. Period, a particular time. Period, 
. means the end ; a period, also means a whole 

sentence, from one full-stop to another. 
Per-ish. Perish, to die. 
Per-ma-nent. Permanent, lasting, always remain 

ing the same, always going on. 
Per-mis-sion. Permission, leave to do any thing. 
Per-mit. Permit, to allow of a thing. 
Per-ni-cious. Pernicious, hurtful, mischievous. 
Per-pen-dic-u-lar. Perpendicular, in a straight 

line upwards and downwards. 
Per-pe-trate. Perpetrate, to do a bad action. 
Per-pet-u-al. Perpetual, lasting always, never 

leaving off or stopping. 
Per-plex. Perplex, to tease and disturb with 

some troublesome or difficult thing, to plague, 

to vex. 
Per-se-cute. Persecute, to tease a person con 

tinually, to be always tormenting him, and do 

ing him mischief. 

PES 157 

Pek-se-vere. Persevere, not to leave off, but to 
go on doing any thing that we have begun, in 
spite of difficuhies and dangers. When we go 
' on doing what we have begun, although we find 
it difficult, or dangerous, or disagreeable, we are 
said to have perseverance. 

Per-sist. Persist, to be obstinate in doing or say- 
ing any thing, to persevere. 

Per-son-a-ble. Personable, handsome, well-look- 

Per-son-i-fy. Personify, to mention a thing as if 
it were a 'person. A rose, is not a person, it js 
only a flower; but, when we say, "the rose is 
beautiful, when she sits on her mossy stem, like 

'j the queen of all the flowers ; her leaves glow 

\ like fire ; the air is filled with her sweet odour ; 

she is the delight of every eye ;" we personify 

the rose, that is, we speak of it as if it were a 


Per-spic-u-ous. Perspicuous, easy to be under- 

Per-turb-ed. Perturbed, restless, disturbed, not 

at ease. 
^ Per-turb-a-tion. Perturbation, restlessness, dis- 

Per- verse. Perverse, obstinate, in the wrong, 
' cross, spiteful. 

Per-vert. Pervert, to turn from the right, to put 
to a wrong use. 

Pe-ruse. Peruse, to read. 

Pest, a plague, a mischievous thing. 

Pes-ti-lence. Pestilence, a plague, or kind of 
sickness, which people catch from one another. 
J 14 

158 PIL 

Pet-al. Petal ; those leaves of a flower which 

are in general beautifully coloured are called 

Pe-ti-tion. Petition, a prayer, something which 

we beg or ask of another person. To petition, 

is to beg. 
Pet-ty. Petty, little and mean. 
Pet-u-lant. Petulant, saucy and peevish. 
Pew-ter. Pewter, a metaUic substance which is 

made by mixing lead and tin. 
Phe-nom-e-non. Phenomenon, any uncommon 

appearance in nature. Phenomena^ the plural. 
Phi-al. Phial, a small bottle, pronounced vial. 
Phil-os-o-pher. Philosopher, a man who is more 

wise or learned than other people. 
Phy-si-cian. Physician, a person who cures sick 

Phys-i-og-no-my. Physiognomy, the face, the 

Pick-axe. Pickaxe, an axe v/ith a sharp point. 
Pic-KLE. Pickle, a liquor made of salt or vine« 

gar, in which meat or vegetables are preserved. 
Pie-bald. Piebald, of different colours. 
Pierce, to bore a hole in any thing ; to get into 

any thing by force. 
PiERc-iNG. Piercing, sharp. 
Pi-E-TY. Piety, religion, love and obedience to 

God. Filial piety, is love and obedience to our 

PiG-MY. Pigmy, a very little person. 
Pile, a high heap of any thing. A pile, is also a 

strong piece of wood driven into the ground. 
PiL-FER. Pilfer, to steal. 

PIT 159 

Pill-age. Pillage, any thing got by robbing peo- 

Pi-lot. Pilot, the man who guides the ship by 
turning the helm. 

Pine, the name of a tree. To pine, to grow weak 
and thin with sickness or sorrow. 

Pin-ion. Pinion, the wing. To pinion, is to tie 
the wings or the arms, so that they cannot move. 

PiN-NA-CLE. Pinnacle, the highest point of a build- 
ing, the top of a spire. 

Pint, a measure, the half of a quart, 

Pi-ous. Pious, religious, doing one's duty towards 
God, and one's parents. 

Pipe, any long, narrow, hollow tube, used for 
something to pass through ; as the pipe which 
people smoke with, and the pipes which are fix- 
ed down the sides of the houses, to carry off the 

Pit, a hole in the ground. A coal-pit, a place 
where coals are dug out of the ground. 

Pitch, tar boiled till it is dry ; tar is got from pine 
and fir trees. Pitch, also means height : to 
pitch, to fix a thing in some particular place ; to 
pitch, also means to throw forwards. To pitch 
upon any thing, means to choose it. 

Pit-e-ous. Piteous, sad and sorrowful. 

Pit-fall. Pitfall, a hole dug in the ground, and 
covered over in such a manner that it cannot 
be seen, so that when one walks upon it, he falls 
in, and cannot get out again. Wild beasts are 
often caught in pitfalls. 

PiT-i-FUL. Pitiful, sad, miserable, mean. 

PiT-Y. Pity, kindness and tenderness to those 
who are in sickness or in misfortune. 

160 PLU 

Plague, any thing which troubles or torments us. 
The "plague^ is a kind of sickness which, in 
some countries, often causes the death of thou- 
sands of people in a short time. 

Plain, a wide, flat, open country, or field. 

Plain-tive. Plaintive, sad, complaining. 

Plank, a long, thick, strong piece of wood 

Plant : any thing which grows from a seed is call- 
ed a plants whether it be large as a tree, or small 
as moss. To plants properly means to put a 
plant into the ground, to make it grow : some- 
times to plant me^^ns to fix or settle in a particu- 
lar place. 

Plant-a-tion. Plantation, a place where a num- 
ber of trees or shrubs are planted. 

Plat-ter. Platter, a deep wooden dish. 

Pli-a-ble. Pliable, easily bent. » 

Pli-ant. Pliant, not stifi' or hard, easily bent oi I 
formed into some shape. f 

Plod, to walk heavily and slowly. To plod, means j 
also to do any thing heavily, and with trouble. 

Plot, a secret contrivance to do mischief. To 
plot, to contrive mischief against other people. 

Pluck, to give a sudden pull at any thing. To 
pluck, is to pick the feathers off" a bird. 

Plum- AGE. Plumage, feathers. 

Plume, a feather. 

Plump, fat and well-looking. 

Plun-der. Plunder, to rob, to take away by force 
the things that belong to other people. 

Plunge, to put a thing suddenly into the water or f 
any other liquor. To plunge, is also to sink sud 
denly into the water. 

POR 161 

Pod, the shell or case in which the seeds of some 
plants are found, such as beans and peas. 

Po-EM. Poem, a piece of poetry. 

Po-ET. Poet, a man who writes verses or poetry. 

PoiGN-ANT. Poignant, sharp, severe, painful. 

Poi-soN. Poison, any thing which, when taken as 
food, or applied to the body, injures health or 
destroys life. 

Pole, a long stick. 

PoL-isH. Polish, to make bright and smooth. 

PoL-isH ED. Polished, smooth and shining ; some- 
times polished means polite and civil. 

Pomp, grandeur, proud display. 

PoM-pous. Pompous, very grand, very fine. 

PoN-DER. Ponder, to think of a thing very atten- 

PoN-DER-ous. Ponderous, heavy. 

Pool, a small pond. 

Pop-u-LACE. Populace, the common people. 

Pop-u-LAR. Popular, liked by the people. 

Pop-u-LA-TioN. Population, the number of people 
in a country. 

Pop-u-Lous. Populous, full of people. 

Pore, a small hole. To Pore, to look very closely 
and long at any thing. 

PoR-ous. Porous, full of small holes. 

Port, a harbour, a safe place for ships. 

PoRT-A-BLE. Portable, easily carried from one 
place to another. 

PoR-TER. Porter, a man who waits at the door or 
gate to open it for people who may wish to pass 
in or out. A porter is also a man who is paid 
for carrying things. 

PoB-TioN Portion, a part or share of any thing. 

162 PRA 

PoR-TRAiT. Portrait, a picture 

PoR-TRAY. Portray, to paint or describe. 

Pos-i-TioN. Position, the particular manner in 
which any thing is placed or laid. 

Pos-i-TivE. Positive, real, certain, sure. I 

Pos-SEss. Possess, to have a thing of one's own ; ' 
when a person has a thing, we also say, that it 
is in his possession. 

Post : a post is a thick piece of wood set upright 
in the ground. A posty is any employment or 
office. Post also means a messenger who tra- 
vels quickly and carries letters. To post, to fix in 
some place. To post, or to travel post, is to tra- 
vel quickly. 

Pos-TER-i-TY. Posterity, descendants, people who 
will live after us. 

Post-pone. Postpone, to put off till another time 

PosT-scRiPT. Postscript, something written at the 
end of a letter : people often write P. S. for 
postscript* ..i 

Pos-TURE. Posture, or attitude, the particular man- I 
ner in which we place our bodies ; we say, a 
sitting posture, a standing posture. 

Po-TENT. Potent, strong, having great power. J I 

Pouch, a small bag. • ■ 

Pov-ER-TY. Poverty, poorness, want of money. 

PouL-TRY. Poultry, birds which are not wild, such 
as ducks and geese, chickens and turkeys. 

Pounce, to catch up with the claws, as a hawk 
pounces upon a little bird. 

Pound, a weight. In money, the sum of twenty 
shillings is a pound. To pound, to beat any 

Prac-ti-ca-ble. Practicable, possible to be done 

PRE 163 

Practice, Practice, the doing of any thing of- 
ten. To practise, to do a thing often that we 
may learn to do it well. 

Prance, to spring and jump as a horse does. 

Prate, to prattle, to talk too much, and in a fool- 
ish manner. 

Ppe-ca-ri-ous. Precarious, not sure, uncertain. 

Pre-cau-tion. Precaution, the care which we 
take beforehand to hinder some misfortune from 

Pre-cede. Precede, to go before. 

Pre-cep-tor. Preceptor, a man who teaches 
young persons. 

Pre-cious. Precious, dear or worth much money. 

Pre-ci-pice. Precipice, a high and steep place. 

Pre-cip-i-tate. Precipitate, to throw down head- 
long from some high place. 

Pre-cip-i-tate. Precipitate, too hasty, without 
taking care. 

Pre-cise. Precise, exact ; it sometimes means 
too exact. 

Pre-cis-ion. Precision, exactness in doing any 

Pred-e-ces-sor. Predecessor, a person who was 
in some place before another. 

Pre-dom-i-nate. Predominate, to be above the 
rest in quantity or in force ; to be more, to be 

Pref-ace. Preface, any thing which is spoken or 
written before. The syllable pre at the begin- 
ning of a word generally means before. 

Pre-fer. Prefer, to hke something or some per- 
sonft)etter than another. 

l«4 PRE 

Pre-fix. Prefix, to put one thing before another. 

Pee-ju-dice. Prejudice, the good or bad opinion 
we have of persons or things, without rea- 
son, and before we know whether they deserve 
to be Hked or disUked. Prejudice also means 
hurt, wrong. 

pRE-Ju-Di-ciAL. Prejudicial, hurtful, mischievous 

Pre-ma-ture. Premature, ripe too soon, done, 
said, or made, before the proper time. 

Pre-pare. Prepare, to make fit or ready for any 

Pre-pos-ter-ous. Preposterous, exceedingly wrong 
and foolish. 

Pres-ent. Present, something which is given 
To present, to give, to offer to our notice. Pre* 
sent, here, in this place, not absent. Time must 
be past, present, or future ; present time, is the 
time which is passing now, at this moment ; fu^ 
ture time is the time that is to come. 

pRES-ENT-LY. Presently, very soon. 

pRE-sERVE. Preserve, to save, or to keep safe; 
to keep from being hurt or destroyed. 

Press-gang. Pressgang, a number of men who 
are employed to force others to be sailors wheth- 
er they choose or not. 

Press-ure. Pressure, the force with which any 
thing presses upon, or against some other thing. 

Pre-sume. Presume, to suppose, to think some- 
thing is true before we are sure that it is true. 
To presume sometimes means to be proud of 
ourselves, and not respectful to other people. 

Pke-sum-ing. Presuming, conceited, taking much 
upon one's self. 

PRI 165 

Pre-sump-tu-ous. Presumptuous, vain, and im- 


Pre-text. Pretext, a pretence. 

Pre-vail. Prevail, to liave power over others. 
To prevail, also means to persuade a person to 
do something. 

Pre-vent. Prevent, to hinder something from 
being done. 

Pre-vi-ous. Previous, happening before. 

Pre-vi-ous-ly. Previously, first, before some 
event or action. 

Prey, something which is taken by force, to be 
eaten up or killed. Animals of prey are those 
which eat other animals. The lion and the cat 
are beasts of prey, the hawk and the kite are 
called birds of prey. 

Price, the money that is given for a thing. 

Priest, a person whose particular office or busi- 
ness it is to perform the ceremonies of religion. 

Prim, formal and affected. 

Prime, the best part. Prime also means the first 
part, the beginning. Prime, excellent. 

Prince, a man who is related to the king of a coun 
try. Princess, the feminine of Prince. 

Prin-ci-pal-i-ty. Principality, a country which 
is governed by a prince. 

Prin-ci-pal. Principal, first and highest, or of 
the greatest consequence ; as, the principal city 
in Scotland is Edinburgh. 

Prin-ci-pal-ly. Principally, mostly, above all. 

Print : to print, means properly, to make a mark 
upon any thing by pressing something hard upon 
it ; we say, the print of a footstep in the snow, 
the print of a man's foot in the sand. Prints, 

166 PRO 

pictures which are cut or marked on copper or 

on wood, and then pressed on paper. 
Pris-on. Prison, a place w^here people are shut up. 
Pris-on-er. Prisoner, a person who is confined or 

shut up, and not allowed to go where he likes. 
pRi-VATE. Private, secret alone. Private^ often 

means belonging to particular persons, not seen 

or not known by every body. 
Priv-i-lege. Privilege, some particular right or 

advantage which belongs to certain persons, and 

not to others. 
Prize, something which we win, or which we get 

by trying for it. 
Prob-a-ble. Probable, likely to happen. 
Prob-i-ty. Probity, truth, honesty. 
Pro-ceed. Proceed, to pass on from one place to 

another, to go on, or to go forwards. To pro* 

ceed, also means to come out of a place, or to 

come from a person : we say, all the blessings 

which we enjoy proceed from God. 
Pro-cess. Process, properly means the going for- 
ward of any thing ; it also means the manner of 

doing a thing. 
Pro-claim. Proclaim, to tell a fact to every body. 
Pro-cure. Procure, to get any thing. 
Prod-i-gal. Prodigal, wasteful ; a prodigal, is a 

person who wastes or spends too much. 
Pro-di-gious. Prodigious, exceedingly strange, 

large, or astonishing, monstrous. 
Prod-i-gy. Prodigy, any thing which is extremely 

uncommon and astonishing. 
Pko-duce. Produce, to bring forwards, to bring 

into sight. To produce, is also to bring forth, to 

PRO 167 

make to grow : as when we say, seeds produce 
plants, trees produce fruit. 

Peo-duct, or Pro-duc-tion. Product or Produc- 
tion, any thing which is caused or produced : we 
say, wool is a natural production, because it is 
produced or grows on the sheep's back. 

Pro-fess. Profess, to declare, or to say a thing. 
To profess, also means to let people know that 
we practise some particular art or business : as 
we say, a man who professes to teach drawing 
— a professor of the art of painting. 

Pro-fes-sion. Profession, any business or em 
ployment. A profession, is also something which 
is said or declared. 

Prof-fer. Proffer, to make an offer of any thing. 

Pro-file. Profile, the side face. 

pROF-Li-GATE. Profligate, exceedingly wicked. 

Pro-found. Profound, deep, learned. 

pRo-FUSEe Profuse, wasteful, giving or spending 
too much. 

Pro-fu-sion. Profusion, plenty, more than enough, 

Prog-e-ny. Progeny, children, young ones. 

Pro-gress. Progress, going forward, or passing 
from place to place : it also means improvement 
in any thing : as, " do you make a progress in 
writing ?" 

Pro-hib-it. Prohibit, to forbid, to order a thing 
not to be done. 

Pro-ject. Project, to contrive, to form a plan. 
To project, is also to put out, to stick out further 
than the other parts. A project , is a contrivance, 
a plan. 

Pro-lif-ic. Prolific, fruitful, producing much. 

166 PRO 

Prom-i-nent. Prominent, rising above other parts, 

Prom-i-nence. Prominence, any thing that stands 

Pro-mis-cu-ous. Promiscuous, mixed together in Ij 
a confused manner. ^ 

Prom-ise. Promise, to say what we will do. 

Prompt, quick, ready, j 

Prompt-i-tui)e. Promptitude, quickness. 

Pro-nounce. Pronounce, to speak, to sound words 
or letters. 

Proof, something which convinces us of the truth. 
The quickness with which you improve, is a 
'proof of your attention to your book : it shows 
us, or makes others beheve that you are atten- 

Pro-pen-si-ty. Propensity, disposition or inclina- 
tion to do something. 

Prop-er-ty. Property, what belongs to a person 
or a thing : as, this book is my property, it be- 
longs to me ; we also say, vinegar is sour, or 
sourness is a property of vinegar. 

Pro-por-tion. Proportion, the difference or the 
likeness there is between the size and quantity 
of one thing, and the size and quantity of some 
other thing. Proportion, is kept when the dif- 
ferent parts of a thing are suitable to each other,, 
and not too small or too large. 

Pro-po-sal. Proposal, something offered to our 

Pro-pose. Propose, to offer something to our con- 
sideration ; as, I propose a walk. 

Pro-pri-e-tor. Proprietor, a person to whom 
something belongs. 

PRO im 

Pro-pri-e-ty. Propriety, correctness, a proper 
manner of doing any thing. 

Prose, not poetry, what is not written or spoken 
in verse or in rhyme. 

Pros-pect. Prospect, the view of a country, trees, 
houses, and other objects when seen from a dis- 
tance. If you stand on a hill on a clear day, 
you may see a prospect. 

Pros-per. Prosper, to have good fortune, to be 
able to do every thing we wish to do, and to 
have all the things that we could wish to have. 

Pros-per-i-ty. Prosperity, good fortune, happi- 

Pros-per-ous. Prosperous, happy, fortunate, lucky. 

Pros-trate. Prostrate, lying fiat on the ground, 
or bowed down to the ground. 

Pro-tect. Protect, to keep safe, to save a per- 
son from being hurt, to guard him. 

Pro-tec-tion. Protection, safety, shelter from 

Pro-tract. Protract, to make something last a 
tediously long time. 

pRo-TU-BER-ANCE. Protuberaucc, a thing which 
swells out above the rest of a surface, as the 
nose in a human face. 

Prove, to try, or know a thing by trying. To 
prove, is also to convince, or to make a person 
know that a thing is true, or not true. 

Prov-erb. Proverb, a saying, a short sentence 
which is often repeated : such as, " honesty is the 
best policy," or, " nothing saved, nothing have." 

Pro-vide. Provide, to get things ready for use 
before they w411 be wanted. To provide, is also 
to give to anv person the things which they 

170 PUL 

want ; as, my father provides me with money, 
books, and every thing I want. 
Prov-i-dent. Provident, cautious and careful to 

prevent misfortune. 
Prov-i-dence. Providence, carefulness. Prom- 

dence, also means the care which God takes of 

all the things he has made. 
Prov-ince. Province, a large part of a kingdom 

or country. 
Pro-vi-sion. Provision, food. 
Pro-voke. Provoke, to cause ; as when we say, 

to provoke one to smile. To provoke is also to 

make angry, to put in a rage. 
Pro-vok-ing. Provoking, enough to make one 

Prowl, to wander about looking for something to 

eat, as wild beasts do. 
Pru-dent. Prudent, wise and careful. 
Pru-dence. Prudence, carefulness ; attention to 

what is proper to be done. [fairs. 

Pry, to peep, to try to find out other people's af 
PuB-Lic. Public, belonging to every body in a 

country, not to some particular people. Public ] 

also means not secret ; known, or seen by every 

body. The public, means all the people of a 

PuB-LisH. Publish, to make something known to 

all people. 
Pu-ER-iLE, Puerile, childish. 
Puff, to swell out with wind, to blow, or to breathe 

quick. K puff, is a sudden breath of wind : puf- 
fed up, means full of pride and conceit. 
PuL-LEY. Pulley, a wheel which has a hollow cut 

in the outside, round which a string is drawn. 

PTJR 171 

Pulp, any soft moist vegetable substance; the pulp 
of fruit is the soft part which is eaten. 

PuLP-Y. Pulpy, soft and moist like pulp. 

Pulse, the motion of the blood, which may be fek 
by touching the wrist : pulse, seeds of plants 
thai: are used for food, such as peas and beans. 

PuMP^ a machine for raising water from deep pla- 

Punch, a sharp instrument to make a hole. 1V> 
punch, is to make a hole by driving a sharp in- 
strument into any thing. 

PuNC-TU-AL. Punctual, exact in domg any thing 
that we intend, or that we have said we would do. 

PuNC-TU-AL-i-TY. Punctuality, exactness in re- 
spect to the observance of time. 

PuNC-TURE. Puncture, a prick, a very small hole 
made with a point. 

Pun-gent. Pungent, hot to the taste, biting the 
tongue like horseradish or mustard. 

PuN-isH. Punish, to make a person feel pain when 
he commits a fault, that he may not do wrong 

Pu-NY. Punyj little and mean. 

Pu-PiL. Pupil, a person who is taught, a scholar. 
The piipil of the et/e, is the dark circle in the 
centre of one's eye, 

Pur-chase. Purchase, to buy, to give a price for 
any thing. 

Pure, not mixed with other things. Pure, also 
means clear, not dirty, not bad. 

Pu-Ri-FY. Purify, to make quite pure and clear ^ 

Pu-ri-ty. Purity, cleanness. 

PuR-LoiN. Purloin, to steal. 

172 QUA 

Pur-pose. Purpose, any thing that we intend to 
do. To purpose, is to intend to do a thing. 

PuR-rosE-LY. Purposely, on purpose, with design. 

Pur-sue. Pursue, to follow or run after a person 
to catch him. To pursue, is also to go on with 
something that is hegun, to go forwards. 

Pur-suit. Pursuit, trying to overtake, or to get 
any thing. 

Pu-TRi-FY. Putrify, to make rotten, or to destroy 
a substance by decomposition, 

Pu-TRiD. Putrid, decaying, and offensive to the 


QuAD-RAN-Gu-LAR. Quadrangular, square. 

QuAD-RU-PED. Quadruped, an animal with four 

Quaff, to drink large draughts of any thing. 

Quake, to tremble, to shiver. 

QuAL-i-FY. Qualify, to make fit for any thing. 

Qual-i-ty. Quality, the goodness or badness of 
any thing. Quality, also means greatness of 
rank ; as, " a man of quality.^' The quality , 
means people of high rank. 

QuAN-Ti-TY. Quantity, size, number, and mea- 
sure, of substances. 

QuAR-RY. Quarry, a place in the ground where 
stones of any kind are dug out. 

Quart, a measure of two pints. 

Quar-ter. Quarter, the fourth part of any thing. 
Quarter, also means any particular part separate 
from other parts : as when we say, '^ i\\e quarter 
of the sky where the sun rises, is called th^* 

RAF 17^ 

East ; I came from that quarter of the town." 

To quarter y to divide any thing into four parts. 
Queen, a woman who governs a country, the wife 

of a king. 
Quell, to crush, to put down. 
Quench: to quench afire, is to put it out, to ex^ 

tinguish it. To quench one^s thirst, to drink till 

we are no longer thirsty. 
Quest ; to go in quest of a thing, is to seek after 

ii, to go and look for it. 
QuicK-s-\NDS. Quicksands, great heaps of sand 

in the sea, or in a river, which are continually 

shifted from place to place by the motion of the 

Quills, strong feathers of which pens are made ; 

the best quills are taken from the wings of geese. 
Quire, twenty-four sheets of paper. 
Quit, to leave, to go away from. 
Quiv-ER,. Quiver, a case to hold arrows. To 

quiver, means to tremble, to shake, to shiver. 
Quote, to make use of the words of another per- 

son in speaking or in writing. 
Quoth : quoth /, is the same as I said ; quoth he, 

he said, or says he. 


Race, a family. Race, also means running. 

Ra-di-ant. Radiant, shining very bright. 

Raft, a number of planks or large pieces of wood 
laid across each other, and tied together, in such 
a manner as to swim on the water and carry 
goods or people. 


174 RAP 

Raft-ers. Rafters, large and strong pieces of 

wood which are laid across other great heam%», 

to make the floors and roofs of houses. 
Rail, to abuse people, to blame them in a rude and 

impudent manner. 
Rai-ment. Raiment, clothes, dress of any kind. 
Rai-sins. Raisins, grapes dried in the sun, or in 

Ram-ble. Ramble, to wander about, to walk 

from place to place, or to go from one thing to 

another, without minding or knowing exactly 

what we are about. 
Ran-dom. Random : at random^ carelessly, by 

chance, without thinking about, or minding what 

we say, or do. 
Range, to place things in order, to place them in 

a row. To range, is also to wander about, to 

ramble. Range, a number of things placed in 

a row. Range, also means room enough in any 

place to wander about. 
Ran-sack. Ransack, to look for something among 

other things. 
Ran-som. Ransom, money which is paid for a 

person's liberty, or any thing which is paid or 

given to save a person from being confined or 

Ra-pa-cious. Rapacious, taking by force what 

belongs to other people, or in exacting money. 
Rap-id. Rapid, exceedingly quick. 
Ra-pid-i-ty. Rapidity, great quickness. 
Rap-ine. Rapine, violence, robbing. 
Rapt-ure. Rapture, great pleasure, very great 

delight and joy. 
Rapt, hurried. 

REB 175 

Rare, very uncommon ; seldom found, seldom 
seen, or seldom happening. Rare, also means 

Rar-e-fy. Rarefy, to make a thing lighter and 
thinner, by spreading it out. 

Rare-ly. Rarely, not often, very seldom. 

Rar-i-ty. Rarity, uncommonness. A rarity is 
any thing very uncommon and excellent. 

Rash, hasty, violent, doing things in too great a 
hurry without considering. 

Rate, the fixed price of any thing which is bought 
or sold. Rate^ sometimes means the manner in 
which any thing is done ; as, *4f you go on at 
this ra^e." To ra/e,isto set a price on a thing, 
to say how much it is worth. 

Ra-tion-al. Rational, having reason and under- 
standing. Rational, sometimes means wise, sen- 
sible, not foolish. 

Rav-age. Ravage, to waste, to rob, to ruin. 

Rave, to be mad, to talk wildly and foolishly. 

Rav-en-ous. Ravenous, furiously hungry. 

Ray, a beam of light : as we say, " the rays of the 

Reap, to cut down ripe corn. 

Reap-er. Reaper, a person who cuts the corn. 

Rear, those who come last. In the rear, means 
behind. Rear, to raise up. To rear a child, is 
to bring it up, to take care of it, and to edu- 
cate it. 

Rea-son-a-ble. Reasonable, not foolish, speak- 
ing or thinking, or acting sensibly. Reasona- 
ble, also means not too much or too little : as, a 
reasonable quantity. 

Re-bel. Rebel, to disobey, to fight against those 

176 KEC 

who govern us, and whom it is our duty to obey 
and respect. 

Re-build. Rebuild, to build up again. , 

[The syllable re at the beginning of a wordj 

sometimes means again, and sometimes it means* 

backwards ; as, to re-turn, is to turn back, to 

come again : and to re-call, is to call back, &c.] 

Re-euke. Rebuke, to blame a person for a fault. 

Re-ceive. Receive, to take in, to allow to come 
in. To receive a thing, to take it when it is 
given to us, or offered to us. 

Re-cent. Recent, new, what has happened lately • 

Re-cent-ly. Recently, newly, not long since. 

Re-cept-a-cle. Receptacle, any place or any 
thing in which something is received and kept. 

Reck-on. Reckon, to count. To reckon upon a 
thing, is to depend on it, to trust to it. 

Re-claim. Reclaim, to make a person good who 
was wicked before. 

Re-cline. Recline, to lean back, to rest upon 
any thing. 

Re-cog-nise. Recognise, to know again. 

Re-col-lect. Recollect, to remember, to bring 
back to our minds or to our memory. 

Re-com-mence. Recommence, to begin again. 

Re-com-mend. Recommend, to speak to a per- 
son in praise of some other person or thing. To 
recommend, means also to make pleasing ; as*, 
" I shall endeavour to recommend myself to my 
teachers by my good obedience." 

Re-com-pence. Recompence, something which 
IS given to a person in return for what he does ; 
as, " if you are attentive and industrious, you 

RED 177 

will receive as a recompence the love of your 
parents, and the praises of your friends. To 
recompence, is to give something in return, to pay 
a person for any thing that he does. 

Re-con-cile. Reconcile, to make one like a thing 
again. To reconcile, is also to make those who 
have quarrelled love one another and be friends 

Re-con-cil-i-a-tion. Reconciliation, the agree- 
ment of those who have fallen out, and become 
friends again. 

Re-cord. Record, to preserve a fact in writing, 
that people who live after us may know it, and 
that it may not be forgotten. 

Re-cov-er. Recover, to grow well after being 
sick. To recover any thing, to get it again. 

Re-course. Recourse; to have recowr^e to a per- 
son, is to ask him for something. To have re- 
course to a thing, is to make use of it when we 
want it. 

Rec-re-a-tion. Recreation, any amusement or 
pleasure which we enjoy, after we have been 
busy or at work. 

Re-cruit. Recruit, to fill up again, or to give 
again what has been wasted away. To recruit^ 
is also to procure new soldiers. Recruit, a new 

Rect-i-fy. Rectify, to make a thing right, that 
was wrong. 

Rect-i-tude. Rectitude, honesty and truth. 

Re-dee^. Redeem, to save, to recover something 
that was lost or forfeited. 

Re-deem-kr. Redeemer, one who saves some* 
thing from being lost. 

178 REF 

Re-dress. Redress, to amend, to set right. 

Re-duce. Reduce, to bring down to a less sizo. 
To reduce, is also to make poorer, to bring into 
misfortune or disgrace, to make lower : as, " this 
poor old man is reduced to the necessity of beg- 
ging his bread." 

Reel, a kind of wheel on which thread, or worst- 
ed, or silk, is wound into skeins. To reel, to 
w^alk unsteadily, to walk as if one was going to 
fall every moment. 

Re-fine. Refine, to make pure and clear from 
dirt or bad mixtures. To refine, is also to make 
elegant and polite. 

Re-fine-ment. Refinement, elegance in speak- 
ing, in writing, or in behaviour, improvement in 

Re-flect. Reflect, to throw back ; if you stand 
before a looking glass, you will see the rcfi^ec- 
tion of your figure, that is, it will be reflected or 
thrown back from the glass upon your eye : — 
if you hold the back of a watch opposite to the 
candle, or in the sun, it will reflect the light. All 
those things which reflect the light are called 
bright or shining. To reflect, often means to 
think attentively, to consider what is past. 

Re-form. Reform, to mend, to change from bad 
to good, to make good. 

Ref-or-ma-tion. Reformation, an alteration for 
the better. 

Re-frain. Refrain, to keep from doing something. 

Re-fresh. Refresh, to make strong and fresh 
again, to ease. To refresh, also means to make 
pleasantly cool. 


REL 179 

Re-fresh-ment. Refreshment, food when we are 
hungry, or rest when we are tired. 

Ref-uge. Refuge, shelter from any danger or mis- 

Re-ful-gext. Refulgent, bright. 

Re-fuse. Refuse, not to do what a person wishes 
us to do, or not to give something which we are 
asked for, or not to take what is offered to us. 
The refuse means that part of any thing which is 
of no use and of no consequence, which is thrown 

Re-gale. Regale, to refresh, to entertain, to 

Re-gard. Regard, to mind, to pay attention or 

Re-gard, attention ; it also means affection or 
respect. Regard^ sometimes means look, or 

Re-gard-less. Regardless, careless, not attentive 

Re-giox. Region, a country, a track of land. 

Re-gret. Regret, vexation and sorrow for some- 
thing which is past. To regret^ to be sorry for 
what is past. 

Reg-u-late. Regulate, to make regular, to put 
into proper order. 

Re-ject. Reject, to refuse, not to take what is 
offered. To reject, is also to put aside, or to 
throw away any thing that is of no use to us. 

Rein, that part of a bridle which is held in the 
hand. To rein, to check. 

Re joice. Rejoice, to be very glad. To rejoice 
is also to make happy, to make glad. 

Re-lapse. Relapse, to become bad again after 

180 REM 

having been good for a time, or to become sick 

Re-late, Relate, to tell, to give an account of any 

Re-la-tion. Relation, a person who is related to 
us, or of the same family. A relation is also a 
history, or an account of something. 

Re-lax. Relax, to be less severe, or to be lesw 
attentive and less industrious. To relax, pro- 
perly means to make loose or slack. 

Re-lease. Release, to let go of any thing, to put 
out of pain, or to let out of prison. 

Re-lent. Relent, to become kind, to feel pity, to 
be less severe. 

Re-lent-less. Relentless, cruel, without kindness 
or pity. 

Rel-ic. Relic, any thing w^hich is left, the part oi" 
a thing which is left when all the rest is gone, or 
wasted away. 

Re-lief. Relief, any thing which refreshes or 
eases us ; which takes away pain or sorrow. 

Re-lieve. Relieve, to give help to another per- 
son ; to ease pain, or to make less unhappy. 

Re-lin-quish. Relinquish, to leave, to let go, or 
to give up a thing. 

Rel-ish. Relish, taste ; it also means a liking for 
any thing. To relish, to taste, to like a thing. 

Re-luct-ant. Reluctant, not willing, not liking to ' 
do a thing. 

Re-luct-ance. Reluctance, unwillingness. 

Re-ly. Rely, to trust to a person for help. 

Re-main. Remain, to be left. To remain is also 
to stay. 

REN . 181 

Re-mains. Remains, what is left. Remains often 
means a dead body. 

Re-main-der. Remainder, what is left. 

Re-mark. Remark, to mind, to take notice. 

Re-mark-a-ble. Remarkable, worthy of attention. 

Rem-e-dy. Remedy, a medicine which cures a 
sick person. Remedy, means also a cure for 
any thing, what makes amends for some mischief 
or hurt. 

Re-miss. Remiss, not careful, not industrious. 

Rem-nant. Remnant, what is left of any thing. 

Re-morse. Remorse, great pain and grief for 
past faults. 

Re-morse-less. Remorseless, cruel, without pity. 

Re-mote. Remote, far off, at a great distance. 

Re-move. Remove, to take or go from one place 
into another ; to put at a distance, to take away. 

Rey-nard. Reynard, a name for a fox. 

Rend, to tear violently. 

Ren-der. Render, to give in return for any thing ; 
as when we sa)^, 

** What shall I render to my God, 
" For all his gifts to me ?" 
— To render is also to act ; as, " Little girls may 
render themselves useful in many ways." 

Ren-dez-vous. Rendezvous, a place where peo- 
ple have appointed to meet together. 

Re-nown. Renown, great praise and glory. 

Re-nown-ed. Renowned, famous above others. 

Rent, a tear or break in any thing. Rent^ also 
means the money which is paid to another per- 
son for the use of their house or their ground. 
To rent^ is to have the use of another person's 
house or land by paying money.- 

182 REP 

Re-pair. Repair, to mend any thing which has 

been hurt or broken. To repair, is also to go 

to a place, or to go to a person. 
Rep-ar-a-tion. Reparation, amends for any mis- 
chief or wrong. 
Re-past. Repast, a meal, a feast, food. 
Re-pay. Repay, to pay back, to give in return. 
Re-peat. Repeat, to do a thing again, or to speak 

again. To repeat, is also to say by heart, or to 

tell over from memory. 
Re-peat-ed-ly. Repeatedly, often, again and 

Re-pel. Repel, to drive back, or to push back 

Re-pent. Repent, to be sorry for something we 

have done. 
Re-pent-ance. Repentance, sorrow for our faults. 
Re-pe-ti-tion. Repetition, the saying or doing 

something over again. 
Re-pine. Repine, to fret, to be vexed or discon- 
Re-plete. Replete, quite full. 
Re-ply. Reply, to make an answer. A reply, \ 

an answer. 
Re-port. Report, to tell something, to give an 

account of something. A report, uncertain news, 

or something which is talked of by many people. 

The report of a gun, is the sound which it makes 

when fired. 
Re-pose. Repose, to sleep, to rest one's self. 

To repose may mean also to place, or to rest ; 

as when we say, "I can the greatest con. 

fidence or trust in your truth." Repose^ rest, 

quiet, or sleep* 

REP 188 Repository, a place where any 
thing is laid up or kept safe. 

Rep-re-hend. Reprehend, to blame, 

Rep-re-sent. Represent, to make an image or a 
picture of any thing ; to show the likeness of a 
thing or a person. To re/present^ means to show 
or to describe in words. To represent is also to 
be in the place of another person ; to act or to 
speak for him when he is not present, or cannot 
act and speak for himself. One who represents 
another person is called his representative, 

REP-RE-SEi\T-A-Tioy. Representation, something 
which is shown or described ; an image or a 
likeness of any thing. 

Rep-ri-mand. Reprimand, to blame for a fault. 

Re-pkoach. Reproach, to blame a person for 
some fault in a severe manner. Reproach, 
blame ; it also means shame or disgrace. 

Re-proof. Reproof, blame. To reprove a person, 
to speak to him of his faults, to blame him for 
doing wrong. 

Rep-tiles. Reptiles, animals of a particular 
class : a snake or toad are reptiles, reptiles, 

Re-pub-lic : when any nation or country is not 
governed by one person, but by several people, 
who have power given them to rule over the rest, 
or where the people of a country govern thein- 
selves by certain laws, that country or nation is 
called a Republic, or a Commonwealth, 

Re-pulse. Repulse, to drive off, to beat back. 

Rep-u-ta-tion. Reputation, a good character, the 
honour or esteem of other people. 

184 RES 

RE-auEST. Request, something which is asked. 

Request, to ask, to entreat. 
Re-quire. Require, to ask any thing as one's 

right. To require, is aiso to want, or to need. 
Re-qui-site. Requisite, necessary, wanted. 
Res-cue. Rescue, to save from some danger or 

Re-sem-blance. Resemblance, lil^eness. 
Re-sem-ble. Resemble, to be like some other 

person or thing': thfj Earth resembles an orange 

in shape. 
RE'Sejnt. Resent, to be offended, to be angry, to 

return evil for evil. 
Re-sent-ment. Resentment, spite or anger against 

those who have offended us. 
Re-serve. Reserve, to keep for some use ; not! 

to throw away, or give away a thing. ' 

Re-serv-ed. Reserved, modest, cautious in one's 

words or behaviour, not speaking much. 
Re-serv-oir. Reservoir, the place where any thing 

is kept in store ; in general, reservoir means the 

place where a quantity of water is kept for use. 
Re-side. Reside, to live in a place. 
Res-i-dence. Residence, the act of staying or 

living in a place. A residence, a place to live in. 
Res-i-due. Residue, the part which is left of any 

Re-sign. Resign, to give up what we have a right 

Re-sign-ed. Resigned, not complaining, patient 

and submissive to the will of God. 
Re-sist. Resist, not to allow, to be against a 

thing : it also means to fight against, to hinder. 

RES 185 

Re-sist-ance, Resistance, theforce which acts 
against us when we attempt to do something. 

Re-solve. Resolve, to make clear, to make a 
person know or understand a thing : as, " Re- 
solve m,e this question." To resolve, also means 
to determine, to settle something in one's own 
mind, as "I am resolved to pay attention to my 

Res-o-lute. Resolute, determined to do an ac- 
tion, not afraid. 

Res-o-lu-tion. Resolution, boldness and steadi- 
ness in conduct. A resolution, is a settled de- 
termination to do something. 

Re-soet. Resort, to go to a place. A place of 
resort, is a place where people often go, or often 
meet in. 

Re-sound. Resound, to echo, to make a loud 
sound, to be sounded back. 

Re-source. Resource, any thing from which we 
may get assistance, or amusement, when we are 
in want of either. 

Re-spect : to respect, is to pay honour and atten- 
tion to any thing : as, we respect truth. When 
we have a regard for a person, and fear to offend 
him, and pay attention to what he says, we have 
a respect for him : we respect our parents. We 
should respect all good and wise people, whether 
they are poor or rich. 

Re-spect-ful. Respectful, behaving civilly, and 
kindly, and attentively, to others. 

Re-splen-dent. Resplendent, beautifully bright 
and sparkling. 

Rest-less. Restless, not quiet, not settled or at 


186 RET 

Re-store, Restore, to bring back any thing to 

the same condition it was in before. To restorCy 

is also to give back something which was lost 

or taken away. 
Re-strain. Restrain, to hold back, to hinder, to 

keep a person from doing what he would wish 

to do. 
Re-straint. Restraint, hindrance from doing 

what one would like to do, confinement. 
Re-sult. Result, a consequence ; if you eat too 

much salt, the result will be thirst, or desire of 

Re-sume. Resume, to take back again. To re- 

sume, is also to begin again after leaving off; as, 

" he resumed his work." 
Re-tain. Retain, to keep. 

Re-tard. Retard, to hinder from going on quick- 
ly : it also means to put off to a later time. 
Ret-i-nue. Retinue, a number of people who at-^ 

tend on some great person. 
Re-tire. Retire, to go away from the company,, 

to go into some secret place. 
Re-tir-ed. Retired, lonely, secret. 
Re-treat. Retreat, a place of shelter, a secret 

place. Retreat to take shelter, to go into some 

safe or secret place. 
Re-trib-u-tive. Retributive, paying back, mak- 

ing a return for something. [lost. 

Re-trieve. Retrieve, to get again what has been ' 
Ret-ro-grade. Retrograde, going backwards, 

contrary. ^ 

Ret-ro-spect. Retrospect, a view of things whichf 

are past. 
Re-turn. Return, to come again, or to go back 

REV 197 

— To return^ is also to make an answer. To 

return^ sometimes means to pay back, or to give 

Re-veal. Reveal, to show or to tell something 

which was secret. 
Rev-el. Revel, to feast merrily. 
Re-venge. Revenge, to hurt those who have hurt 

or offended us : it is wicked to be revengeful ; 

we ought always to forgive those who have done 

us wrong. 
Re-vere. Revere, to love, to fear, and to honour 

a person. 
Rev-er-exce. Reverence, fear mixed with love 

and respect. 
Rev-er-end. Reverend, very respectable, inspir- 
ing love and fear. 
Rev-er-ent. Reverent, humble and respectful. 
Re-verse. Reverse, to turn upside down, to make 

the contrary way. A reverse means a change 

The reverse^ is the contrary. 
Re-view. Review, to look back upon something, 

to think of something over again, or to examine 

Re-vile. Revile, to abuse, to blame rudely and 

Re-vis-it. Revisit, to come back to a place, to 

visit again. 
Re-vive. Revive, to come to life again, or to 

grow strong and lively again. To revive^ is also 

to bring to life again ; or to bring to mind, to re- 
Re-voke. Revoke, to contradict what has beec 

said, or to undo what has been done before. 
Re-volve. Revolve, to roll or move round, as we 

188 RIG 

say, the earth revolves round the sun. To 76. 
volve, is also to think very attentively of a thing, 
to consider. 

Rev-o-lu-tion. Revolution, a moving round. Re- 
volution, also means some great change in the 
government of a country. 

Re-ward. Reward, to give a person pleasure for 
being good. A reward, something which is 
given to a person to pay him for doing right. 

Rhet-o-ric. Rhetoric, the art of speaking and 
writing elegantly. 

Rhvme, the last word of a line which sounds like 
the last word of another line : 

Well ! now I'll sit down and work veryfastj 
And try if I can't be a good girl at last- 

We say that the words last and fast rhyme to- 
gether beca.use they sound alike. Rhyme, some- 
times means poetry. 

Rick, a pile of corn o«- hay heaped up in a regu- 
lar manner. 

Rid, to clear from something which is disagreeable 
or troublesome. 

RiD-DLE. Riddle, a puzzling question which we 
cannot understand or find out. 

Ridge, any thing which rises up sloping to a high 
top : thus we say, a ridge of mountains or hills. 

RiD-i-cuLE. Ridicule, to laugh at a person, to 
make a subject appear contemptible. 

RiD-ic-u-Lous. Ridiculous, deserving to be laugh- 
ed at, and despised. 

Ri-FLE. Rifle, to rob. 

Rig, to furnish a ship with ropes. 

RiG-GiNG. Rigging, those ropes of a ship which 
support the masts and manage the sails. 

ROM 189 

RiGHT-EOUS. Rip^hteous, good and honest. 

RiCr-iD. Rigid, stiff; it also means severe, cruel. 

RiG-ouR. Rigour, piercing coldness. Rigaur, also 
means severity, strictness, or cruelty of beha- 

Rill, a little stream of water. 

Rind, the outside peel or skin of any thing. 

Ring-leader. Ringleader, a person who is at the 
head of those who behave ill. 

Ri-OT. Riot, to feast in a noisy disorderly way, 
to raise a disturbance. 

Ri-OT-ors. Riotous, noisy, disorderly. 

Rip, to tear open. 

Risk, to put in danger. Risk, is also danger chance 
of harm. 

Ri-VAL. Rival ; two persons who wish for the 
same thing, each striving to get it from the 
other, are called rivals or competitors. 

Rive, to spht violently. 

Riv-EN. Riven, split. 

Riv-ER. River, a large stream of water. 

Riv-u-LET. Rivulet, a small river. 

Roam, to wander about. 

Robe, a long dress, a kind of gown. 

Ro-BUST. Robust, strong. 

Rock, a large stone. To rock, to move back- 
wards and forwards. 

RocK-Y. Rocky, full of rocks and stones. 

Rogue, a cheating dishonest person. 

Rogu-e-ry. Roguery, tricks, dishonesty, mis- 
chievous tricks. 

Ro-MANCE. Romance, a tale, an unlikely story, 

Ro-MAN-Tic. Romantic, fanciful, wild. 

190 RUG 

Roof, the cover of a house. The roof of the 

mouth, is the top of the inside of it. 
RooM-Y. Roomy, having plenty of room, wide. 

Roost, a perch which birds sleep on. 
RooT-ED. Rooted, fixed deep and strongly. 
Rope, a thick cord. 
Rote : to learn hy rote, to learn and remembei 

words without understanding them. 
Rove, to wander about, to ramble. 
Rov-ek. Rover, a wandering, unsteady person ; 

one who is not to be depended on. 
Rouge, red paint; to paint the cheeks. 
Rouse, to awaken a person from sleep or idleness 
Row, to drive a ship or a boat along by means of 

RoY-AL. Royal, belonging to a king, like a king. 
RuB-BisH. Rubbish, broken stones and bricks and 

pieces of lime lying about in confusion. Rub- 
bish may also mean any thing which is of no use. 
Ru-BY. Ruby, the name of a precious stone of a 

beautiful red colour. 
RuD-DER. Rudder, an instrument fastened to the 

back part of a ship, which serves to guide the 

ship through the water. 
RuD-DY. Ruddy, r^osy, of a red colour. 
Rue, to be very sorry, to grieve for. 
RuE-FUL. Rueful, miserable, sorrowful. 
RuF-n-AN. Ruffian, a rude, savage, violent, cruel 

RuF-FLE. Ruffle, to disturb, to put into disorder, to 

put out of temper. 
RuG-GED. Rugged, rough, not smooth or even. 

SAC 101 

Rugged, also means rude, strong, and able to 
endure hardships. 

IFlu-iiv. Ruin, destruction, mischief, misfortune. 
Ruins, the remains of a building which has been 
destroyed or broken down. To ruin, is to de- 
stroy, to break down. To ruin, also means to 
bring into w^ant or misery, or any misfortune. 

Ru-iN-ous. Ruinous, ready to fall down, ready to 
break to pieces. Ruinous, also means very 
hurtful, or destructive. 

Ru-Mi-NATE. Ruminate, to chew the food over 
again, to chew the cud as cows do. Ruminating 
animals are those which chew the cud. To ru- 
minate, is also to think of a thing over and over 
again very attentively. 

Rup-TURE. Rupture, a breaking. Rupture, often 
means a quarrel. 

Ru-RAL. Rural, belonging to the country, like the 
country, in the country, not in a town. 

Rus-SET, Russet, of a brownish colour, it some- 
times means coarse. 

Rus-Tic. Rustic, like the country, plain, rough, 
not polite. A rustic, a countryman, a rough, 
plain man. 

RuTH-LEss. Ruthless, very cruel, without kind- 
ness or pity. 

Rye, a coarse kind of grain. 


Sab-bath. Sabbath, the day of rest, the seventh 
day, which God has appointed to be kept holy : 
the word Sabbath, means rest. 

Sack, a large bag. 


192 SAL 

Sa-cred. Sacred, holy, religious. Sacred, also 

means not to be broken : for we say, a sacred 

Sac-ri-fice. Sacrifice, to make an offering to 

heaven. To sacrifice, may also mean to givo 

up, or to lose a thing for the sake of another' 

Saf-fron. Saffron, the name of a plant with a 

yellow flower. 
Sa-ga-cious. Sagacious, quick in finding out 

things, perceiving the truth readily. 
Sa-ga-ci-ty. Sagacity, quickness in finding out 

any thing. The sagacity of the dog is wonder- 1 

ful for a brute animal. \ 

Sage, wise, grave. Sage, a grave, wise man. | 
SAiji ; the sailo^ a ship or boat, is a sheet of coarsei 

thick cloth, it is spread out to catch the wind,? 

which forces the ship along. Sail, often means 

a number of ships ; we say, ten sail, twenty 

sail ; that means, ten or twenty ships. 
Saint, a very holy and religious person. 
Sal-a-ry. Salary, the money which is paid regu 

larly to a person for services. 
Sale, the selling of a thing. 
Sal-ine. Saline, salt, tasting of salt, or contain 

ing salt. 
Sal-low. Sallow, of a pale, sickly, yellow colour. J 
Sal-ly. Sally, to come out of a place suddenly] 

and violently. 
Sal-va-tion. Salvation, everlasting happiness in. 

heaven, dehverance from sin and death. 
Sa-lu-bri*ous. Salubrious, wholesome or health- 




jSal-tt-ta-ry. Salutary, good for the health, whole- 

Sa-lute. Salute, to pay compliments ; to speak 
to a person when we meet him in a polite and re- 
spectful manner. To salute, also means to kiss, 

Sal-u-ta-tion. Salutation, compliments, the man- 
ner of speaking or behaving to persons when we 
meet them. 

Sanc-ti-fy. Sanctity, to make holy. 

Sanc-ti-ty. Sanctify, holiness and goodness. 

Sanc-tu-a-ry. Sanctuary, a holy place. Sane* 
tuary, shelter from harm. 

San-.dals. Sandals, loose shoes tied upon the feet 
and round the leg. 

Sain'-guin-a-ry. Sanguinary, cruel, delighting in 
shedding blood, or in killing. 

San-guine. Sanguine, of the colour of blood. 
Sanguine, also means expecting much, always 
hoping good, not fearing harm or misfortune. 

Sap, the juice of plants. 

Sap-phire. Sapphire, a precious stone of a blue 

Sap-ling. Sapling, a young tree. 

Sash, a window which does not open on hinges 
like a door, but which is moved up and down by 
means of cords and weights. 

Sa-ti-ate. Satiate, to satisfy with food, to fill. 

Sa-ti-e-ty. Satiety, fullness, more than enough 
of any thing. 

Sat-is-fac-tion. Satisfaction, pleasure, content. 

Sat-is-fy. Satisfy, to please, to give enough of 
any thing. 

3at-u-rate. Saturate ; a thing is saturated when it 
is completely steeped or soaked with something. 


194 SCA 

Sav-age. Savage, wild and rude. Savage, also 
means cruel, not tamed, fierce. A savage, a 
rude, cruel man. The inhabitants of some 
countries we call Savages, because they do not 
know how to read or write, are rude in their 
manners, and are acquainted with few of the 
arts of civilized life. 

Sau-cy. Saucy, pert and impudent. 

SAV-i?fG. Saving, not spending, nor giving much. 
Savings, what is saved or kept, and not spent. 

Sav^otjk. Savour, taste. 

Sav-our-y. Savoury, pleasant to the taste. 

Saw, an instrument edged with sharp teeth, which 
is used to cut wood and other things. j 

Saw-dust. Saw-dust, the little bits which fall from 
what is sawed. 

Scab-bard. Scabbard, a case for a sword. 

ScAF-FOLD. Scaffold, a kind of wooden floor, rais- 
ed high upon posts, for some purpose, in such a 
manner that it can easily be taken down again 
when it is done with. ^ 

Scales ; the covering of many kinds of fish is j 
formed of scales, which are smooth and light, but J 
very strong, and laid so closely over one another I 
that no water can penetrate or get through them. J 
We also call scales any thiag which is like the | 
scales of fishes. A pair of scales, is a machine 
to weigh things with. A scale, is any thing 
which is marked with a number of lines at equal 
distances, and used to measure the proportions 
or sizes of different things. To scale, to climb up, 

ScA-LY. Scaly, covered with scales like fishes. 
Scaly, also means like scales. 

S€A3Tr-T R. Scamper, to rim away quickly. 

SCI 195 

ScAN-DAL, Scandal, shame, disgrace. 

ScAN-DA-LOUs. Scaiidalous, disgraceful, shamefuL 

ScAN-TY. Scaiity, narrow and small, not much, 
or not wide. 

Scar, a mark left on the skin by a hurt or cut. 

Scarce, not plentiful. Scarce, also means uncom- 

ScAR-ci-TY. Scarcity, not enough of a thing, un- 

Scare, to frighten, to terrify. 

Scar-let. Scarlet, a deep bright red colour. 

ScAT-TER. Scatter, to spread or throw any thing 

ScAT-TER-ED. Scattered, thrown about in differ- 
ent places, not together. 

ScAV-EN-GER. Scavenger, a person whose busi- 
ness it is to sweep the streets and keep them 

ScEx-E-RY. Scenery, the appearance of places 
or things in a wide view, or open space. 

ScEXE, any action that passes before one's eyes, or 
any prospect which we are looking at. The 
scene in a play, means the place which the stage 
is made to represent or show. 

Scent, smelt ; scent, to smell, to find out any thing 
by smelUng. 

Scheme, a plan, something w.hich we intend to do, 
a contrivance. 

ScHOL-AR. Scholar, one who is taught. A schol- 
ar, often means a learned person. 

Sci-ENCE, Science, knowledge, what is learned 
or known. A science, properly means rules, which 
we learn, or know, by means of our understand- 
ing, or our mind, and which often instruct us to 

m SCR 

do something : Arithmetic is a science ; by 
thought only we can practise arithmetic. An art 
depends more on the skill of our hands ; we say,* 
the art of a carpenter, the art of printing, the art 
of making glass ; but we say, the science of mu- 

Scoff, to mock, to make game of a person rudely. 

Sconce, the head. Sconce, also means a kind of 

Scoop, to cut into a hollow or deep place. 

Scope, room enough, liberty. 

Score, an account. Score, also means reason ; 
when we say, '' I do not quarrel with you on that 
score^'^ or on that account. A score is twenty. 

Scotch, belonging to the country called Scotland. 

ScouK, to rub something hard to make it clean. To 
scour away, is to run very quickly, to scamper. 

Scourge, a whip, a lash. A scourge, is also any 
thing that punishes or torments very much. To 
scourge, to lash severely with a whip. 

Scowl, to look angry and sour, lo frown. 

Scram-ble. Scramble, to dispute or fight with 
other people in order to catch or reach at some- 
thing. To scramble, is to climb up a place with 
one's hands and feet. 

Scrap, a little piece of any thing. 

Scrape, to shave off small pieces, or take off the 
surface of a substance. 

Scraw^l, bad writing. 

Screech, to scream, to cry out ; screech, also 
means to make a noise like an owl. 

Screen, any thing which is used to keep out the 
heat, the light, or the cold. To screen, to shel- 
ter, or to hide. 


SEA 197 

Screw, to fasten or squeeze any thing with a ma- 
chine called a screw. 

ScRiB-BLE. Scribble, to write badly and carelessly. 

Scrip, a little bag. 

ScRiPT-URE. Scripture, a writing. The Script- 
ures^ means the Bible. 

Scroll, a piece of paper written upon and rolled up. 

Scrub, to rub with any hard coarse implement. 

ScRU-PLE. Scruple, hesitation in doing any thing. 

ScRUP-u-LOUS. Scrupulous, careful and exact : 
we say, " whoever makes a promise should be 
careful to keep it most scrupulously.^^ 

ScuLL-ioN. Scullion, a low servant. 

ScuLP-TURE. Sculpture, the art of cutting images 
out of wood or stone. Sculpture, also means 
figures, or images cut out of stone or wood. 

Scum, what rises on the top of a liquor when it is 
stirred or boiled. 

Sea, a large collection of water. 

Sea-man. Seaman, a sailor, a man who manages 
a ship. 

Seam, the place where the edges of things are 
joined together. 

Search, to look carefully for a thing, to try to find 
out something by examining or looking. 

Sea-son. Season, a part of the year ; there are 
four seasons, Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Win- 
ter. Season, means any particular time which 
is not very long. To season, to mix our food 
with salt or pepper, or any thing to give it a 
good taste. 

Sea-son-ed, Seasoned, used or accustomed to 
any inconvenience or hardship. 

1«8 SEL 

Sea-son-a-ble. Seasonable, what is done or what 
happens at the proper time. 

Seat, any thing to sit upon, a place to live in ; as 
when we say, a country seat. 

Sec-ond. Second, coming next to the first men- 
tioned. A second^ a very small space of time ; 
there are sixty seconds in a minute. To second 
a person^ is to help him in doing something. 

Sect, a number of people who are of some par- 
ticular reUgion or opinion, different from the set- 
tled opinion or religion of most other people. 

Se-cure. Secure, sure, not afraid. Secure^ also 
means safe from danger. 

Se-cur-i-ty. Security, not in fear ; security^ also 
means safety from danger. 

Se-date. Sedate, grave and quiet. 

Si»-i-MENT. Sediment, the dregs, what sinks to 
the bottom of a liquor. 

Se-duce. Seduce, to entice a person from doing 
what is right, to tempt one to do wrong. 

Sed-u-lous. Sedulous, attentive and industrious.! 

Seed ; the seed of a plant is that part of it froiiiJ 
which a new plant of the same kind springs up. 
Almost all plants have seeds. 

Seed-time. Seed-time, the proper season for sow- 
ing seeds. 

Seek, to look for a thing, to try to find it. 

Seize, to take a thing, to lay hold of any thing sud- 
denly and violently. . 

Sel-dom. Seldom, not often. 

Se-lect. Select, to choose some particular per- 
son or thing from amongst a number of others- 
Select^ what is chosen because particularly ex- 


SEN loe 

Self-ish. Selfish, not minding or caring about 
other people, only thinking of one's self: selfish 
people are disliked and despised by every body. 

Self-same. Selfsame, the very same, not at all 

Sell, to give a thing for money. 

Se-mi. Semi, means half. A semi-circle, is the 
half of a circle. 

Sem-i-na-ry. Seminary, a place where young 
people are taught what is proper for them to 
know, a school. 

Semp-stress. Sempstress, a woman w^ho works at 
her needle. 

Sen-ior. Senior, a person who is older than an- 

Sen-sa-tion. Sensation, something which is felt : 
the prick of a pin, or the odour of a rose, pro- 
duces a sensation. 

Sense : there are five senses, Seeing, Hearing, 
Smelling, Tasting, and Feeling. Most animals, 
besides mankind, have the five senses. Sense 
also means understanding. The sefise of a word 
is the meaning of it. 

Sense-less. Senseless, without feeling or life. 
Senseless, means also foolish, unreasonable, stu- 

Sen-si-ble. Sensible, able to feel, able to under- 
stand. Sensible, also means not foolish. Any 
thing which can be felt or understood, is called a 
sensible object. 

Sen-si-tive. Sensitive, able to feel. 

Sen-tence. Sentence : when a judge, 9r any one 
who has power, determines whether a person 

200 SER 

has, or has not done wrong, and whether he is 

to be punished or not to be punished, what he 

declares shall be done is called a sentence. A 

sentence^ in writing or in a book, is as many 

words as make sense together. 
Sen-ti-ment. Sentiment, thought, opinion, sense. 
Sen-ti-nel. Sentinel, one who is set to watch 

and to guard. 
Sep-a-rate. Separate, to break into different 

parts, to divide, to pan one thing from another. 

Separate, parted from others. 
SEr-UL-cHRE. Sepulchre, a grave, the place where 

a dead person is buried. 
Se-qttel. Sequel, what comes last, the part that 

comes after the other parts. 
Se-ques-ter-ed. Sequestered, lonely, secret. 
Ser-aph. Seraph, an angel. 
Ser-a-phim. Seraphim, angels. 
Ser-e-nade. Serenade, a song or music which 

is sung at night, or in the evening. 
Se-rene. Serene, quiet, still, and clear ; not dis- 
turbed, not cloudy, not ill-humoured. 
Se-ren-i-ty. Serenity, quietness of mind, peace, 

Se-ries. Series, a number of things v/hich come 

after one another in regular order. 
Se-ri-ous. Serious, grave, in earnest. Serious, 

also means of consequence. 
Ser-pent. Serpent, a kind of animal without feet, 

which moves along the ground like a worm. 

Some serpents are poisonous, that is, if a person 

were bitten by one he would die ; others are not 

Ser-vice-a-ble. Serviceable, useful. 

SHA 201 

iSer-vile. Servile, mean. 

Ser-vi-tude. Servitude, the state of being obli- 
ged to serve another person, whether we choose 
or not. 

Set, put in a place. To set^ when we speak of the 
sun, means to disappear in the evening, as, the 
sun sets in the west. To set on fire, is to put 
fire to a thing to make it burn. To set down a 
thing, is to write it down in a book or on paper. 
To set^ is also to put a plant into the ground. 
Set^ a number of things which belong to each 
other, and are suited to each other ; as we say, 
a set of tea-things, a set of maps, a set of chairs. 

Set-tle. Settle, to fix one's self in a place. To 
settle^ also means to fix, to make sure, or to make 
quiet. To settle^ may mean to sink to the bot- 
tom, as the grounds or dregs of any thing settle 
when left quiet. 

Set-tle-ment. Settlement, a place where a num- 
ber of people who have come from a distant 
country, settle themselves to live. 

Sev-er. Sever, to part one thing from another 

Sev-e-ral. Several, more than a few, but not a 
great number. 

Se-vere. Severe, cruel, apt to punish and blame, 
not kind. Severe^ also means sharp, painful ; 
we say, the cold is severe, 

Se-ver-i-ty. Severity, cruelty, not tenderness 

L and kindness. Severity, also means piercing 

' coldness. 

Shab-by. Shabby, having a mean appearance. 

iShade, darkness ; we say, *' the shades of night." 
Shade, also means coolness and shelter from the 

202 SHE 

heat and the light of the sun : as, " let us walk 
in the cool shade of these trees." To shade, to 
shelter from the heat and the light. 

Shad-y. Shady, cool and sheltered from the sun. 

SiiAD-ow. Shadow, the shape of a thing which 
obstructs light. There are some things which 
have no shadow^ because the light can pass 
through them, as a pane of glass : all things 
which are opaque have shadows, when held in 
the light. A shadow is not a thi?ig ; you can see 
it, but you cannot' feel or touch it : it is only the 
want of light upon some place. 

Shaft. Shaft, an arrow. 

Shag-gy. Shaggy, rough, covered with hair. 

Shal-low. Shallow, not deep ; we say, shallow 
water, a shallow stream. 

Shank,, the leg. Long -shanked, having long legs. 
Spindle-shanks are long, thin, ugly legs. The 
Shank, means the long straight handle of a 

Shape-less. Shapeless, what has no regular 
shape, or what is njot of a good shape.' 

Shat-ter. Shatter, to break a thing suddenly to 

Sheaf, a bundle of corn tied together. 

Shears, a kind of cutting instrument, like a pair 
of scissors, only larger. Shear, to cut any thing 
with shears. To shear sheep, is to cut the wool 
off their backs with a pair of shears. 

Sheath, a case for a sharp instrument: it gene- i 
rally means a case for a sword or scissors. 

Sheath-ed. Sheathed^ covered with a sheath or 

SHO 203 

Shed, to pour out, to spill, to let fall, A shed^ is a 
roof which is held up by posts instead of walls, 
and used only as a shelter or cover for some- 

Shep-iieed. Shepherd, a man who takes care of 

Shield, a tough piece of leather, or plate of some 
metal, which people who fought used formerly 
to wear upon the arm, and held before the 
body, to keep themselves from being hurt by 
the blows which were struck at them. A shield, 
also means any thing w^hich saves us, or shelters 
us from being hurt. To shield, to save from 
harm or danger. 

Ship-board. Shipboard : to go on shipboard, is 
to go into a ship. 

Ship-fing. Shipping, a number of ships. 

Shiv-er. Shiver, to tremble, to shake with cold. 
To shiver, is also to break a thing into a num. 
her of pieces with one blow. 

Shock, a violent meeting or striking together of 
two things ; a violent sudden shake. A shock, 
is also several sheaves of corn piled up together. 
To shock, to offend, to disgust. 

Shod, having shoes on the feet. 

Shop, a place where things are sold, or where peo- 
ple work. 

Shore, the edge of the land which is next to the 
water ; thus we say, on the sedL-shore. 

Shorn, having all the wool cut off; as, the sheep 
are shorn. 

Shove, to push any thing violently forwards. 

Shout, to call out very loud. 

Show£b, to pour down rain. To sJioicer, sometimes 

mk siG 

means to scatter any thing about in great plen- 
ty, to pour down. 

Shrewd, sly, quick in finding out any thing. 

Shriek, to cry out as if one were hurt or afraid. 

Shrill, of a sharp, disagreeable, piercing sound. 

Shrink, to become smaller. To shrinkyis also to 
draw back from any thing, as if we were afraid 
of it, or disliked it. 

Shrouds, the ropes which manage the sails of a 

Shrub, any small bushy tree. || 

Shud-der. Shudder, to tremble with fear, or with ' 

Shun, to try not to meet with a thing, to try to gefi, 
away. || 

Sic-kle. Sickle, a kind of hooked instrumental 
with which grain is cut down. 

Sick-ly. Sickly, rather sick, not healthy. 

Sieve, a piece of cloth over a hoop of wood, which 
is used to separate the fine and the coarse parts 
of any powdered substance. When flour is put 
into a sieve and shaken about, the fine parts of 
the flour pass through the sieve, and leave the 
coarse parts behind ; this is called bolting or 
sifting flour. 

Sign, an image, word, or picture, which serves to 
make some other thing known to us. When we 
see the new leaves beginning to shoot, and the 
flowers springing up, it is a sign that the winter 
is past, and that summer is coming on. 

SiG-NiF-i-CA-TioN. Signification, the meaning of 
any thing. 

SiG-Ni-FY. Signify, to make a thing known, to tell. 

SIN 205 

To signify J to be of consequence. To signify 
is also to convey a meaning. 

Si-LENCE. Silence, to make quiet, to make a per- 
son be silent. Silence^ a state of quiet. 

Silk, a shining stutf made of the webs spun by a 
kind of a catterpillar called di silk-worm, 

SiL-VER. Silver, the name of a metal which ranks 
in value next to gold : silver is of a beautiful 
shining white colour. Dollars, thimbles, spoons, 
and a great number other things are made of 

SiL-VER-Y. Silvery, of a white shining colour, 
like silver. 

SiM-i-LAR. Similar, like. 

SiM-rLE. Simple, not mixed with other things. 
Simple, not made of many different parts ; easi- 
ly understood ; plain. A simple person is a 
harmless, plain person. 

SiM-PLE-TON. Simpleton, a foolish, stupid person. 

SiM-PLY. Simply, only, merely. 

SiM-PLi-ci-TY. Simplicity, plainness, not cunning. 
Simplicity, also means plainness of dress, not 
finery. Simplicity sometimes means rectitude 
and innocence. 

Sin, wickedness ; any thing which is done against 
the command of God. To sin, is to do a wick- 
ed action. 

SiN-FUL. Sinful, wicked ; not religious, not good. 

Sin-cere. Sincere, not deceitful, honest, always 
telling truth. 

Singe, to scorch, to burn a little. 

Sin-gle. Single, not more than one, alone. 

SiN-Gu-LAR. Singular, different from others ; re. 


206 SLA 

Sip, to drink a little at a time. 

Sire, a father, or a king. 

SiT-u-ATE. Situate, to put in some particular place. 

SiT-u-A-TED. Situated, placed in a particular 

SiT-u-A-TioN. Situation, the manner in which a 
thing is placed. The situation of a person, is 
his condition of life, whether he be rich or poor, 
happy or miserable, great or mean. 

Skel-e-ton. Skeleton, the bones of a dead body 
without any flesh upon them. 

Skil-ful. Skilful, having the power of doing a 
thing quickly and well. 

Skim, to pass lightly over, as the swallow sJciins 
over the ground. To skim, is also to take off 
the upper part of some liquor, as we skim the 
cream off the milk. 

Skirt, the loose part of a dress which hangs be- 
low the waist. Skirt, means also the border, or 
outside part of a thing : as when we say, the 
skirts of a wood. 

Skirt-ed. Skirted, bordered or edged by some- 

Skulk, to hide one's self in secret places, to watch 
to do mischief. 

Skull, the bones of the head. 

Slab, a piece of stone or marble, flat and smooth, 
but not thick. Marble slabs, are used for 
hearths and chimney-pieces. 

Slack, not tight. 

Slack-en. Slacken, to make loose ; it also means 
to be less attentive or industrious. To slacken^ 
is also to make less strong, or less quick : W;e 

SLI 207 

say, he slackened his pace ; that means, he went 

Slain, killed. 

Slake, to satisfy one's thirst. 

Slan-dek. Slander, to speak ill of a person with- 
out truth. 

Slax-der-ous. Slanderous, speaking ill of a per- 
son untrul5% 

Slant, sloping, not perpendicular. 

Slash, to make long cuts in any thing. 

Slate, a stone of a dark blueish colour, used to 
cover the roofs of houses ; one kind of slate is 
used to write upon. 

Slat-tern. Slattern, a woman who is untidy and 
careless in her dress. 

Slave, a person who belongs to a master, and who 
works for him, without receiving wages. Slaves^ 
are not able to do what they wish, or go whither 
they like ; but are forced to do whatever their 
master pleases. Slaves are bought and sold. 

Slaugh-ter. Slaughter, killing, murder of a great 
number. To slaughter, to kill. 

Slay, to kill, to put to death. 

Sledge, a kind of carriage, made without wheels, 
to pass smoothly over the ice and snow. In cold 
countries, where the snow is on the ground dur- 
ing the greater part of the year, people generally 
travel in sledges drawn by rein-deer. 

Sleek, soft, smooth, and shining. 

Sleet, snow and rain together. 

Slen-der. Slender, not thick, of a small, thin 
shape, not strong. 

Slight, not worth much, not of consequence, not 
strong. To slight, to pay no attention to a 

^8 SMO 

thing, to treat a person with no respect or atten- 

Slim, of a slender shape. 

Slime, any dirty, sticky, gluey matter. 

Sling, an instrument made of leather straps, and 
used to throw stones from a distance at any 

ISlit, to make a long narrow cut in any thing. 

Slop-ing. Sloping, not strait upwards or down- 
wards, but oblique, inclining. 

Sloth, laziness, idleness, slowness in doing any 

Sloth-ful. Slothful, idle, lazy. 

Slov-en. Sloven, a man or boy who is dirty and 
untidv in his dress. 

Slov-en-ly. Slovenly, not neat. 

Slug, a kind of slow creeping snail. 

Sltjg-gard. Sluggard, a lazy, sleepy person. 

Slum-bee. Slumber, to sleep. Slumber, a sleep. 

Slunc, hung loosely by means of a string. 

Smart, to feel a sharp pain. Smart, brisk, lively, 

Smear, to spread over with something which is 
dirty and sticky. 

Smile, to look pleasant and happy. 

Smite, to strike. It also means to kill. 

Smith, a workman who makes things of metals ; 
we say, a Coppersmith, a Silversmith, a Gold- 
smith, &;c. A man who works in iron is called 
a Blacksmith. 

Smoth-er. Smother, to suffocate, to kill any ani- 
mal by keeping him from fresh air. To smother, 
is also to keep close, to hide, to keep down : as, 
he '' smothered his anger." 

SOL 200 

Snap, to break suddenly. To ^ncrp, to bite. To 
snaj) at a thing, is to snatch at it, or to bite at it. 

Snare, a trap, or any thing which is set to catch or 
entangle animals. 

Snarl, to growl like a dog when he is angry. 

Sneak, to creep slily, as if one were afraid to be 
found out. 

Sneak-ing. Sneaking, sly, and mean in manner. 

Snout, the nose of a beast. 

Soak, to keep any thing in some fluid till it is quite 
steeped, to wet through and through. 

Soar, to fly high, to rise very high. 

So-BER. Sober, not drinking too much. Sober, 
also means serious, grave, quiet. 

So-ciA-BLE. Sociable, fond of company, friendly. 

So-ciAL. Social, fond of gay and merry com- 

So-ci-E-TY. Society, company. In society, means 
not alone, in company with other people. A so- 
ciety, is a number of people united in one inter- 
est, and for some one purpose. 

SoD-DEN. Sodden, boiled, cooked. 

Soil, ground in which plants grow. Soil, also 
means country. Our native soil, is the country 
we were born in. Soil often means dirt. To 
soil, to make dirty. 

So-jouRN. Sojourn, to live in a place for a time. 

So-LACE. Solace, pleasure, comfort. To solace, 
to comfort. 

So-LAR. Solar, belonging to the sun. By the so- 
lar rays, we mean the beams, or the light of the 

Sole, the bottom of the foot, or of a shoe. SoUy 
only one. 


210 SOR 

SoLE-LY. Solely, only ; as, " I have saved from 

the fire this book, solely,^ — only this one. 
SoL-EMN. Solemn, grave, religious, and serious. 

Solemn^dlso means affected, and formally grave; 

for we say, " the solemn owl." 
So-LEMN-i-TY. Solemnity, a ceremony performed 

in a religious and serious manner. Solemnity, 

is also seriousness, stateliness. 
So-Li-ciT. Solicit, to ask, to beg, to entreat. 
So-Lic-I-Tous. Solicitous, careful and anxious 

about something. 
So-Li-ci-TUDE. Solicitude, anxiety. 
Sol-id. Solid, not fluid ; solid, also means not 

hollow ; as we say, a solid lump of gold, solid 

wood. Solid, may often mean strong, firm ; we 

say, solid sense, solid learning, a solid building. 
So-LiD-i-iY. Solidity, hardness, firmness. 
SoL-i-TA-RY. Solitary, alone ; at a distance from 

company, without people. 
SoL-i-TUDE. Solitude, loneliness. A solitude, a J 

lonely place. 
Solve, to explain, to make clear to be understood. 
SoNGS-TER. Songster, one who sings ; birds are 

often called feathered songsters, 
So-No-Rous. Sonorous, giving a loud and clear 

Soot, smoke which is condensed or collected in 

little pieces. 
Soothe, to please, to make quiet. In sooth, means 

in truth, really. 
SoPH-isT. Sophist, a person who disputes in an 

artful, cunning manner. 
SoR-DiD. Sordid, mean, low, covetous. 

SPA 211 

SoR-iiY. Sorry, often means of no worth, mean, 
vile ; as, a sorry old horse. Sorry, afflicted. 

Sov-E-REiGN. Sovereign, a person who rules over 
others. Sovereign, above others in greatness, 
and power and strength. 

Sound, strong, healthy, stout, or right. To soundy 
to let down a long string with a weight at the 
end of it into the water, to try the depth of the 

Source, the cause of something ; we say, " the 
sun is the source of life, and heat, and light." 
The source of a river, is the place in the ground 
out of which it first springs. 

South, that part of the sky where we see the sun 
at twelve o'clock in the day. The south some- 
times means the countries or places which are 
towards the south : this man comes from the 
south ; the geranium first came from the south 
of Africa. 

Sow, to put seeds in the ground. 

Space, room, any quantity of extent or place ; as 
we say, a space of ground to build a house upon; 
space of a thousand miles. Space, also means 
any quantity of time : as we say, the space of a 
week, the space of a hundred years. 

Spa-cious. Spacious, wide, having plenty of room, 
not narrow or small. 

Span-gled. Spangled, covered over witU spangles, 
or any shining thing : "the sky, on a clear 
night, is spangled with stars." 

Span-ish. Spanish, belonrjing to the country call* 
ed Spain. 

Spare, not to waste or to spend much. To spare, 
is also to do without a thing. To spare, also 

212 SPI 

means not to punish, to be tender. Spare, nar- 
row, small, not much, not plenty. Spare, also 
means thin, lean. 

Spawn, the eggs of fishes, or. the eggs of frogs 
and toads. 

Spe-cial. Special, uncommon. 

Spe-cies. Species, a sort different from others ; 
we say, there are several different species of the 
butterfly ; the silkworm is a species of caterpil- 

Spe-ci-fy. Specify, to mention or show any thing 
in a particular manner. 

Spec-ta-cle. Spectacle, a show, a remarkable 

Spec-ta-tor. Spectator, a person who looks on ' 
while any thing is doing or passing. j 

Speech, the power of speaking or using words. 
Speech, is also talk, or words which are spoken. 

Speech-less. Speechless, not able to speak. 

Speed, quickness in moving, haste, hurry. To 
speed, to make haste, or to move very fast. 

Speed-i-ly. Speedily, quickly, fast. 

Sphere : a globe, any thing which is round every 
way like a ball. Sphere, often means a worlds 
or a round figure which represents the world or 
the sky. 

Spher-i-cal. Spherical, round like a globe or ball. 

Spi-ces. Apices, are the seeds, the roots, the bark, 
or the flowers, of several different kinds of 
plants which grow in warm countries. Spices 
are pleasant to the smell, of a hot biting taste, 
and we use them in seasoning our food : nut- 
megs, mace, cinnamon, cloves, all-spice, ginger, 
and pepper, are called spices. 

SPO 213 

Spin, to draw out any thing into threads, as we 
say, " the spider s'pins his web;" thread is spun 
by means of a spinning-wheel. 

Spi-ral. Spiral, winding or curling round and 
round like a corkscrew. 

Spire, a steeple, the top of a building which is 
high and pointed. 

Spir-it. Spirit, the mind or the soul ; what lives, 
and thinks, and understands, and remembers, 
but what we cannot see. Spirit, often means 
boldness, liveliness, and force ; as we say, a man 
of s'piriU^ Spirit, also means disposition or 
temper, as when we say, ''a boy of a generous 
spirit never takes pleasure in hurting one who is 
less or weaker than himself." Spirits means 
the temper or frame of mind we are in ; if a 
person is lively and gay, he is said to be m 
spirits ; and when a person is dull or melan- 
choly, he is said to be out of spirits. Strong 
liquors, such as brandy, &c. are often called 

Spir-it-ed. Spirited, bold, and lively. 

Splen-did. Splendid, very grand, or very bright 
and shining. 

Splen-dour. Splendour, brightness ; grandeur, 
or appearance of wealth. 

Splin-ter. Splinter, a little bit of any thing 
\^ hich has been violently broken ; a little bit of 
wood or bone. 

Spoil, to make a thing bad or of no use. To spoil, 
is also to rob, to take away another person's pro- 
perty by force. Spoil, means things which are 
robbed from other people. 

Spokes, the bars of a wheel. 

214 SQU 

Sponge, a soft marine substance, full of pores or 
open spaces. 

Spong-y. Spongy, soft and full of holes. 

^r^poN-TA-NE-ous. Spontaneous, appearing without 
a visible cause ; those plants are spontaneous 
which grow without being planted or cultivated 
by the hand : weeds spring up spontaneously in 
, our gardens : oranges grow spontaneously in Italy 
and Spain. 

Sport, play, amusement. To sport, to play about, 
to amuse one's self merrily. 

Sports-man. Sportsman, a man who is fond of , 
hunting, or shooting, or fishing. 

Spouse, a husband or a wife. 

Spout, to pour out violently. [the ground. 

Sprawl, to tumble about, or stretch one's self upon 

Spray, a twig, a little branch. 

Spring, to grow up out of the ground, or to I'ise up 
out of any place. To spring, is also to start out. 
To spiking, is to jump, to leap, or to fly. Spring 
the name of the season v.hich comes next to 
winter, when the plants and flowers begin to 
spring up, and the weather becomes warm. 
Spring, a leap, a sudden jump. A spring, is als:> 
a stream of water which comes out of the 

Spurn, to despise, to drive a thing away, as if we| 
did not care for it. i 

Spy, a person who is sent to watch what other peo-f 
pie do. To spy, to see or find out from a dis- 

SauAB-BLE. Squabble, a quarrel, a dispute. | 

Squ AD-RON. Squadron, a troop of soldiers, or part* 
of a fleet of ships. 

STA 215 

SauAL-iD. Squalid, dirty, mean. 

Squall, a sudden violent wind. 

Squan-der. Squander, to spend too much, to 

Squat, short and thick. To be squat, is to lie 

close to the ground. 
Squeal, to squeak, to cry out with a sharp voice ; 

to squall. 
Sta»bil-i-ty. Stability, steadiness, firmness. 
Sta-ble. Stable, a house for horses. Stable, is 

also strong, durable, firm. 
Stack, a quantity of hay or corn piled up together 
Staff, a stick to walk with, or to fight with. 
Stage, a raised floor. The stage, the place where 

plays are acted. Stage, ov stage -coach, a travel- 
ling carriage. Stage, also means the place 

where people who travel rest themselves, or 

change horses. 
Stag-ger. Stagger, not to walk steadily. 
Stag-nant. Stagnant, standing still. Stagnant 

water, is water which is quite still, and which 

does not run or flow. 
Stain, a spot or blot. 
Stake, a strong thick piece of wood fixed upright 

in the ground. To stake, to offer in pledge ; as, 

I stake my books against yours, that I will write 

better than you. 
Stale, not fresh, long on hand. 
Stall, a bench or table where something is laid 

to be sold. A stall, is a place in a stable, for a 

horse or other beast to feed in. 
Stam-mer. Stammer, to speak with difficulty and 

Stamp, an instrument made of wood or of metal, 

216 STR 

which has figures cut upon it, and which is 
pressed upon things to make a mark or impres- 
sion upon them, as a seal, or a butter-print. A 
stamp, is also a mark set upon any thing. 

Stow, to lay up any thing safe and in order. 

Stkaight, not bent or crooked ; it also means di- 
rectly, immediately. 

Straight- WAYS. Straight ways, immediately. 

Strain, to squeeze any liquor through something^ 
to make it clear. To strain, also means id 
stretch tight or far, to force something out of its 
proper and natural shape. Strain, song, music. 
Strain, is also a manner of speaking ; as we say^ 
" If you talk in this strain.''^ i 

Strand, the shore, the edge of the land which i§ 
next to the sea. ' 

Stran-gle. Strangle, to choke, to kill any ani-| 
mal by stopping its breath. 

Strap, a long narrow piece of leather. 

Strat-a-gem. Stratagem, a cunning trick to de- 
ceive some person. 

Stray, to wander, to go out of the right way. 

Streak, a line of some colour. 

Streak-ed. Streaked, marked with lines of dif-, 
ferent colours. 

Strength-en. Strengthen, to make strong, to givel 
strength, firmness, or power. ' 

Stress : to lay a stress upon a word, is to speak iii 
with more force than others ; to lay a stressn 
upon any thing, is to make it seem of conse- 

Strew, to spread or throw about, to scatter. 

Strict, very exact, severe. 



STU 217 

Strict-ly. Strictly, with great exactness ; it also 
means se'oerely. 

Stride, a long step. To 5/nf^,totake longsteps. 

Strife, quarrelling or disagreennent. 

Strip, to take ofi'clothes. To 5^n;?, signifies to rob 
a person of every thing that he has. To strip, 
also means to take off the peel or covering of 
any thing. 

Stripe, a long mark of some colour. A stripe, is 
also a blow with a lash or whip. To stripe, to 
mark with lines of different colours. 

Strip-ling. Stripling, a very young man. 

Strive, to try hard to do something. 

Stroll, to wander about. 

Struc-ture. Structure, the manner in which any 
thing is built or made. A structure, a building 
of any kind. 

Strug-gle. Struggle, to strive, to try to do some- 
thing in spite of hindrance, or to be in any diffi- 
culty, or pain, or distress. 
, Strut, to walk in a stately affected manner. 

Stub-ble, the short stalks which are left after the 
corn has been cut. 

Stud-y. Study, attention to learning, or deep 
thought about any thing. A study, any particu- 
lar kind of learning ; as we say, " the study of 
the French language, the study of painting." 
To study, to mind one's book, to learn attentive- 
ly. To study, is also to think deeply and atten- 
tively of something. 

Stu-dent. Student, a person who studies. A stu- 
dious person, is one who is fond of books and 
learning. Studious, also means very attentive 

216 SUB 

and careful ; as, " this little boy is studious to 
obey his parents in every thing." 

Stum-ble. Stumble, to fall, to have one's feet 
tripped up in walking. 

Stump, the part of a thing which remains after the 
rest has been cut off, or taken away. 

Stun, to confuse one with a great noise, or to stu- 
pify with a violent blow. 

Stu-pend-ous. Stupendous, very wonderful and 

Stu-pi-fy. Stupify, to make stupid or insensible. 

Stur-dy. Sturdy, stout, strong, obstinate. 

Sty, a sort of house to keep pigs in. 

Style, the manner in which any thing is written, 
or spoken, or done ; we say, " a person's style of 
living should be suitable to his condition," or 
his fortune. To style, is to call by some name ; 
as, " the lion is styled the king of beasts." 

SuB-Di-viDE. Subdivide, to divide again, to divide 
a part of something into more parts. 

Sub .DUE. Subdue, to tame, to keep down, to hin- 
der from rising ; as, " he subdued his anger. 
To subdue, is also to conquer, to make obedient 

SuB-jECT. Subject, any idea that one is writing 
or thinking, or talking about. A subject, is a per 
son who is governed by another person. 

SuB-jEC-TioN. Subjection, the state of being un- 
der the rule of another. , 

SuB-LiME. Sublime, high in excellence, high in 1 
place, grand, lofty. 

SuB-Mis-sioN. Submission, willing and humble 
obedience to the wishes or commands of another 


sue 219 

SuB-Mis-sivE. Submissive, obedient and humble, 
not proud or obstinate. 

Sub-MIT. Submit, to put one's self under the rule 
or government of another person ; to be dutiful 
and humble. 

Sub-scribe. Subscribe, to agree to something. 

SuB-scRir-TioN. Subscription, money which a 
number of different persons subscribe or give for 
some use. 

SuB-sisT. Subsist, to continue to have the means 
to support hfe. To subsist, is also to Hve, to be 
fed upon something ; as, "animals which sub- 
sist upon flesh are called carnivorous animals." 

SuB-STST-ENCE. Subsistence, something to eat or 
to live upon. 

Sub-stance. Substance, any thing that exists in 
reality ; any thing which is real, not fancied. 

SuB-STAN-TiAL. Substantial, real, true ; it also 
means strong, solid. 

SuB-sTi-TUTE. Substitute, to put one thing in the 
place of another. A substitute, any thing which 
is used instead of another thing, or put in the 
place of another. 

Sub-tile. Subtile, very fine and thin. 

SuB-TLE. Subtle, sly and cunning. 

SuB-URBs. Suburbs, the buildings and houses 
which are without the walls of a city. All cities 
were formerly surrounded with strong walls, 

Suc-CEED. Succeed, to come after. To succeed 
in any thing, is to be able to do it as we wished. 

Suc-CESs. Success, good fortune. 

Suc-CEss-FUL. Successful, happy, fortunate. 

Suc-CEss-ivE, Successive, coming regularly after 

220 SUM 

one another ; ais we say, " for three successive 

Suc-CEss-oR. Successor, a person who comes in- 

to some place after another person. 
Suc-couR. Succour, to help one who is in dis* 

tress ; to assist. 
Sue, to beg, to entreat. 
SuF-FER. Suffer, to bear or to allow, not to hinder. 

To suffer^ is also to feel pain or distress, to be 

SuF-FER-ER. Sufferer, a person who is in pain or 

in distress. 
SuF-FER-iNG. Suffering, pain, hurt, misery, or 

distress of any kind. 
SuF-FiCE. Suffice, to be enough. 
SuF-Fi-ciEN-cr. Sufficiency, enough, as much ot 

any thing as is wanted. 
SuF-Fi-ciENT. Sufficient, not too few, not too small 

a quantity of any thing ; enough. Self-sufficient , 

conceited, thinking one's self wiser than other 

SuF-Fo-CATE. Suffocate, to choak, to stifle. 
SuG-GEST. Suggest, to give a hint or an idea of 

Suit, to be fit or proper. 
SuiT-A-BLE. Suitable, fit, proper. 
SuL-LEN. Sullen, obstinately angry and ill-hu- 
SuL-LY. Sully, to soil, to dirty, to make dull or 

SuL-PHUR. Sulphur, brimstone. 
SuL-TRY. Sultry, hot, and close. 
Sum, the whole number of several quantities. A 

suTYiy is any quantity of money. 

SUP 221 

Sttm-mer. Summer, the season of the year when 
the fruits grow ripe, and the weather is hot. 
Summer comes next to Sj)ring, and after Sum- 
mer comes Autumn, then Winter. 

SuM-MiT. Summit, the top of a high place. 

SuM-MON. Summon, to call a person, or order 
him to come to a place. A summons, is a call. 

SuMP-TU-ous. Sumptuous, grand, and of a great 

SuN-DER. Sunder, to part, to divide. 

SuiN'-DRY. Sundry, several. 

Su-PERB. Superb, exceedingly grand, fine, and 

Su-PER-Fi-CEs. Superfices, the outside of any 

Su-PER-n-ciAL. Superficial, only outside, not 
deep, not learned. To have a superficial know- 
ledge of a thing, is to know but little about it, 
not to know it thoroughly. 

Su-PER-FiNE. Superfine, exceedingly fine. [ed. 

Su-PER-FLU-i-TY. Superfluity, more than is want- 

Su-PER-FLU-ous. Superfluous, more than enough, 
more than is necessary. 

Su-PER-iN-TEND. Superintend, to overlook, or to 
be placed over persons and to have the care of 

Su-PE-Ri-OR. Superior, greater, or higher, or more 
excellent than some other. Our superiors, are 
those persons who are greater in any way than 
we are ourselves. 

Su-PER-NA-TU-RAL. Supcmatural, wonderful, or 
above nature. 

Su-PER-scRiBE. Superscribe, to write upon the top. 
or on the outside. 


222 SUR 

Sup-plant. Supplant, to put out of some place, 
to turn out another person, and take his place, 

Sup-PLE. Supple, not stiff, easily bending. 

Sup-PLi-ANT. Suppliant, a person who begs or prays. 

Sup-PLi-CATE. Supplicate, to beg, to entreat, to 
ask very humbly. 

Sup-PLY. Supply, to furnish, or to give something i 
which is wanted ; as, " our parents supply us | 
with food and clothing." A supply, something 
which is given when it is wanted, or necessary. 

Sup- PORT. Support, to bear any thing which is 
painful or disagreeable. To support, is also to 
keep from flilhng or sinking, to keep up. To 
support a person, often means to feed and clothe 
him, to give him what is necessary to live ; as, 
" this good boy supports himself and his poor 
old mother by working hard." 

Sup-pose. Suppose, to think a matter is true, with- 
out being sure that it is true ; or to think that a 
circumstance has happened, or will happen, 
though it never has happened, and, perhaps, 
never will ; as we say, " you should not go too 
near the edge of the pond, suppose you were to 
fall in and be drowned :" or, " when I see a lit- 
tle girl look cheerful and happy, I always sup- 
pose she is good." 

Su-PREME. Supreme, highest, greatest, most ex- 
cellent, or most powerful. The Supreme Being, 
is God. 

SuR-FACE. Surface, the outside of any thing ; as, 
" the surface of this piece of marble is smooth 
and shining ; if you were to scrape off the sur- 
face it would look rough ; metals are generally 
found far below the surface of the earth." \ 

SUS 223 

Surge, the swelling waves of the sea. 

SuE-GEON. Surgeon, one whose business it is to 
cure hurts of every kind, and cut off lirabs if it 
be necessary. 

SuR-LY. Surly, ill-humoured, rough and sour in 
one's manners. 

SuR-Li-NESs. Surliness, roughness, ill-humour, 

SuR-NAM-ED. Sumamed, having some name add- 
ed or put after one's own personal name. 

SuR-PASs. Surpass, to be more excellent than 
some other person or thing. 

SuR-PLUs. Surplus, what is left after we have used 
or taken all that we want of a thing. 

Sur-roujVD. Surround, to be on every side of a 
thing, to be all round it ; as we say, " an island 
is land which is entirely surroujidedhy water,'* 
that is, which has water all round it. The sur- 
rounding country i is the country or places which 
are round about. 

SuR-vEY. Survey, to look at something as if we 
wished to examine it. To survey^ is also to look 
all over any thing ; as, " we survey the prospect 
of a country." 

SuR-vivE. Survive, to live after another is dead. 
To survive^ is also to live after something, to 
live longer ; as, " these myrtles, if they are not 
taken care of, will not survive the winter." 

Sus-PECT. Suspect, to think something wrong, 
without being quite sure of it. To suspect a per- 
son^ is to think ill of him, without being certain 
that he deserves it. 

Sus-PEND. Suspend, to hang a thing. To sxts* 

224 SYL 

pend, is also to stop for a time, to hinder from 
going on. 

Sus-PEND-ED. Suspended, hung by something ; 
as, " the spider hung suspeiided in air at the end ^ 
of his thread." I 

Sus-rENSE. Suspense : to be in suspense^ is to be 
uncertain, to be hoping or expecting something 
without being sure of it. 

Sus-pi-cioN. Suspicion, an ill opinion of the ac 
tions of another without certain proof of guilt. 
A suspicious person, is one who is always think- 
ing ill of others, or being afraid without reason. 
A suspicious person or object, often means one 
that we think we have reason to be afraid of, or 
to think ill of. 

Sus-TAiN. Sustain, to hold up, to hinder from sink- k 
ing or falling, to bear, to keep up. f 

Sus-TE-NANCE, Sustcuance, food, what sustains life. 

SwAiN, a young countryman. 

Swamp, wet ground. 

Swarm, a great number of bees. A swarm is also 
a great number of any small animals. To 
swarm, is to be in numbers, to be crowded. 

Sway, power or rule over others. 

Swift, quick, moving very fast. 

SwiFT-NEss. Swiftness, quickness, speed. 

Swim, to move upon water, or any other fluid, with- 
out sinking. 

Swine, pigs. 

SwoLN, swelled out. 

Syc-o-phant. Sycophant, a flatterer, a person 
who praises another more than he deserves, in 
order to gain his favour. 

Syl-van. Sylvan, shady, like woods or groves. 

TAM 225 

Soi-ME-TKY. Symmetry, is the resemblance 
which one part cf a tiling hears to aiioilier part. 
If one arm ol* a man slioukl l)e shorter than the 
other, it would destroy the symmetry or propor- 
tion of his person. 

Sym-pa-thy. Sympathy, the same feelings that 
another person has ; if we fecil glad when others 
are glad, or grieve when they are grieved, we 
have sympathy with them, we sympathise with 

Symp-tom. Symptom, a sign. 

Sys-te3i. System, method, or regular order. 

Tab-let. Tablet, any smooth surface to write up- 
on. Table sometimes means the same as ta- 
Met ; we read, that the twelve commandments, 
which God gave to Moses, were written upon 
tables of stone. 

Tack, to join, or stitch one thing to another thing. 

Tac-kle. Tackle, the ropes of a ship. 

Taint, to stain or to soil. To taint, is also to spoil. 

Tal-ent. Talent, the power of doing something 
well, understanding. 

Talk-a-tive. Talkative, too fond of talking. 

Tal-low. Tallow, the fat of animals ; candles 
are sometimes made of tallow, and sometimes of 
wax, and spermaceti. 

Tal-ons. Talons, the claws of a hawk, or any 
bird of prey. 

Tame, dull, without life or spirit. Tame animals, 
are those which are not wild and fierce, but gen- 
tle and harmless. 

226 TAT 

Tan. Leather is made of the skins of beasts ; 
these skins are turned into leather, by sleeping 
them in a liquor made by boiling the bark of oak 
trees in water, which makes them shrivel up, 
and become tough and strong ; this is called 
tanning the skins, and when they are tanned they 
are called leather, 

Tan-ner. Tanner, a man who tans, or who manu- 
factures skins into leather. 

Tan-gi-ble. Tangible, felt by touching. 

Tan-ta-lize. Tantalize, to teaze people, by show- 
ing them pleasure which they cannot have, or by 
setting before them good things which they must 
not taste. 

Tap, to bore a hole in a barrel or cask, into which 
is put a small pipe to draw the liquor out. | 

Ta-per. Taper, of a shape which is thick at the! 
bottom, and becomes thinner and smaller till thef 
top ends almost in a point. A taper, is a wax 

Tar, the ^p of pine and of fir trees : sailors are 
called tars, perhaps because of a great deal of 
tar is used about a ship. 

Tak-dy. Tardy, slow, late, not quick. 

Tar-nish, Tarnish, to soil, to make dull, or dirty,, 
or rusty. 

Tar-ry. Tarry, to stay in a place. To tarry y 
means also to be long in coming, to be slow. 

Tart, of a sharp or sour taste ; it also means sharp, 
pert, or severe in speaking. 

Task-mas-ter. Task-master, one who gives ano- 
ther person hard tasks, and makes him work. 

Tat-ter. Tatter, a rag, a rent. 

Tat-ter-ed. Tattered, torn, ragged. 

TEM 227 

Tat-tle. Tattle, to talk foolishly, and too much. 

Taw-dry. Tawdry, too fine, or too showy ; not 
neat and elegant. 

Taw-NY. Tawny, of a brownish yellow colour. 

Teach, to inform a person of some truth, or to 
show him how to do something, which he did not 
know how to do before. 

Team : the number of horses, or oxen, which are 
used together to draw a wagon, a cart, or a 
plough, is called a team of horses, or a team of 
oxen. [some. 

Te-di-ous. Tedious, too long or too slow, tire- 

Tel-e-scope. Telescope, an instrument which is 
used to look through, at objects which are very 
distant. Objects which are really very far oft, 
appear quite near and plain to the eye, when 
seen through the glass of a telescope, 

Te-mer-i-ty. Temerity, carelessness of danger. 

Tem-per. Temper, to mix things together. To 
temper, is also to make metals, particularly steel, 
of a proper hardness. 

Tem-per-ate. Temperate, not too much or too 
great ; as we say, " a temperate heat." Tern,- 
perate weather, is weather which is neither too 
cold nor too hot. A temperate person, is one 
who does not eat or drink much, and who is con- 
tent with plain food. 

Tem-pest. Tempest, a very violent wind. 

Tem-pest-u-ous. Tempestuous, stormy, very 

Tem-ple. Temple : the place where Christians 
worship God, is generally called a church ; but 
the place where people of any other religion 
worship, is called a temple. 

228 TER 


Tem-po-ra-ry, Temporary, lasting only a short 

Tempt, to entice a person to do wrong. 

Tempt-a-tion. Temptation, state of being en- 
ticed to do wrong. We say, *' lead us not into 
temptation. ^^ Temptation also means any mo- 
tive that tempts or entices us to do wrong. 

Te-na-cious. Tenacious, holding a thing fast. 
Those tilings which are sticky like glue, and 
those things whose parts are not easily broken 
or divided, are te/iacioits substances : gold is ve- 
ry tenacious. 

Tend, to watch, to take care of: as, "the shep- 
herd tends the sheep." To tend, is also to move, 
or lean, or approach towards some place, or to- 
wards some thing. 

Ten-der. Tender, soft, weak ; not hard, not 
strong. Tender, also means kind, loving, gen- 
tle ; not cruel, noi; willing to afflict any creature. 

Ten-drils. Tendrils, small thin curling stalks 
with which the vine, the pea, and some othei 
plants, clasp whatever is near to support them- 

Tent, a kind of shelter or lodging, made of cloth 
or the skins of beasts, which are stretched over 
high poles : tents are easily put up or taken 
down, and carried from place to place. A num- 
ber of tents together is called a camp. 

Tep-id. Tepid, rather warm. 

Term : a term is a word, or a name for a thing. 
Terms, language ; words which we use in speak- 
ing ; as, " he spoke to me in kind terms J^ To 
term, is to call a thing by some name. 

THE • 229 

Ter-min-ate. Terminate, to end, to have an end. 

To terminate a thing, is to put an end to it, to 

finish it. 
Ter-min-a-tion. Termination, the ending of any 

Ter-res-tri-al. Terrestrial, belonging to this 

world, earthly, not heavenly. 
Ter-rif-ic. Terrific, dreadful ; causing fear. 
Ter-ror. Terror, great fear. 
Ter-ri-fy. Terrify, to frighten very much. 
Ter-ri-to-ry. Territory, country, land. 
Test, something by which we try the goodness or 

truth of a thmg. To bring to the test, is to know 

by trying or examining, whether a thing be good, 

or real, or true. 
Tes-ty. Testy, peevish, ill-tempered. 
Text-ure. Texture, the coarseness or fineness, 

the smoothness or roughness of any woven sub- 
Thatch, to cover the top of a house with straw 

instead of slates or tiles. 
Thaw, to melt after having been frozen ; as, snow 

and ice thaw when the sun shines. 
The-a-tre. Theatre, the place where plays are 

acted ; the playhouse. 
Theft, stealing. 
Thence, from that time, or from that place. Thence 

means also for that reason. 
There-at. Thereat, at that. 
There-ix. Therein, in this, or in that. 
Therb-of. Thereof, of that. 
Ther-mom-e-ter. Thermometer, an instrument 

to show the heat of the air, or other substances. 

230 THW 

Thick-et. Thicket, a number of bushes and trees 
close together. 

Thief, a person who takes secretly what belongs 
to other people. 

Thieve, to steal. 

TiiiEv-isH. Thievish, like a thief, apt to steal, sly. 

Thirst, to be thirsty; to feel pain for want of drink. 
To thirst; is also to wish very much for some- 

Thith-er. Thither, to that place. 

Thong, a long slip of leather. 

Thrash, to beat grain with a flail, in order to sepa- 
rate the grains or seeds from the ear 

Thread-bare. Threadbare, worn out. 

Threat-en. Threaten, to try to frighten a person 
by telling him that he shall be punished, or that 
some evil will happen to him. 

Thresh-old. Threshold, the stepping stone which 
is just under the door of a house. 

Thrice, three times. 

Thrif-tv. Thrifty, saving, not spending much. 

Thrive. To be fortunate in doing any thing to be- 
come rich or become healthy. 

Throne, the seat or chair of a kmg. To sit on the 
throne^ is to be a king. To come to the throne, 
is to be king after another person. 

Throng, a crowd, a great number of people press- 
ing against one another. To throng, is to be in 
crowds, to come together in great numbers 

Thrust, to push in between, to push any thing 
away violently. 

Thctn-der-bolt. Thunderbolt, the noise of light- 

Thwalit, to cross. 

TOI 231 

Tide, the rising and falling of the water of the sea 

or of a river. Tide, means a streann. 
Ti-DiNGs. Tidings, news of sonnething that has 

Tiles, thin square pieces of clay baked in the fire ; 

tiles are used to roof houses, and sometimes to 

cover floors 
Till, to plough or to cultivate the earth ; the plough- 
ing and sowing of the ground is called tillage* 
TiM-BER. Timber, the wood of large trees after 

they are cut down and sawed into planks and 

beams. The timbers of a house or of a ship, are 

the large beams which are used to support the 

TiME-LY. Timely, early, happening soon enough. 
TiM-iD. Timid, fearful ; apt lo be afraid without 

TiM-iD-i-TY. Timidity, fearfulness. 
TiM-OR-ous. Timorous, full of fear, or apt to be 

Tin, the name of a metal, white hke silver, but not 

so valjable. 
Tinge, to make of some colour. 
TiN-KER. Tinker, a man who mends old pots and 

Tint, a colour. 
Ti-NY. Tiny, very little. 
Ti-TLE. Title : a title is a name ; it generally 

means a name of honour or rank ; as we say, 

" he has the title of a king." 
Ti-TLE-PAGE. Title-page, the first leaf of a book, 

on which the name of it is written or printed. 
Toil, to work very hard. Toil, hard work. A toily 

is a net used to catch animals. 

232 TOR 

To-KEN. Token, a sign, a mark of something. 

ToL-ER-A-BLE. Tolerabl.8, capable of being en- 
dured. Fire produces intolerable smart. To- 
lerable, also means neither very good nor very 

Toll, to ring slowly ; as, the bell tolls when any 
person is buried. 

Tomb, a place where a person is buried. 

ToMB-sTONE. Tombstone, a stone which is put I 
upon a grave. ^ 

Tone, the sound of the voice. Tone, means also 
the sound of any musical instrument. 

Tongue, part of the mouth, an organ of speech. 
Tongue, sometimes means a particular language, » 
as we say, " the English tongue ;" our native 
tongue, is the language of the country in which 
we were born. 

Tool, an instrument used when we make or do 
something wath our hands : the saw, the ham- 
mer, and the plane, are carpenters' tools, 

To-PAZ. Topaz, a precious stone of a yellow 

Tor-ic. Topic : the person or thing we are talk* 
ing about is the topic of our conversation. 

Torch, a light much larger than a candle, which 
is not put into a candlestick, but is carried in 
one's hand. 

ToR-MENT. Torment, to put to pain, to vex, to 
teaze. Torment, pain, misery. A torment, is 
any thing which gives us pain or vexes us., 

ToR-Pii). Torpid, without feeling, without motion, 

ToR-RENT. Torrent, a large and violent stream 
of water. 

TRA 233 

ToRT-ifRE. Torture, very great pain. To torture^ 
is to put to violent pain, or to vex very much. 

To-TAL. Total, the whole number. 

To-TAL-LY. Totally, entirely, completely. 

Tough, not easily bent or broken. Tough, also 
means sticky, like clay. 

Tour, a ramble, a journey to several different 
places to see them, or to amuse one's self. 

Tow, flax or hemp betbre it is spun into thread. 
To tow, is to draw any thing along by a rope. 

Tow-ER. Tower, a very high building. To towet, 
to rise very high. 

Trace, the marks which any thing leaves as it 
passes along, footsteps. To trace, to follow any 
thing by observing the marks or footsteps which 
it leaves in passing along. To trace, is also to 
draw, to mark out. 

Track, footsteps, or the marks which any thing 
leaves in passing : we can see the track of a 
person who has walked through the snow, and 
the track of the carriage wheels on the high 

Tract, any quantity of land. 

TracT'A-ble. Tractable, easily taught, or easily 

Trade, commerce, exchanging articles for money. 
Trade, any particular business which a person 
employs himself in to get money ; we say, the 
trade of a carpenter, the trade of a grocer, or a 
linen-draper, &c. &c. 

Trades-man. Tradesman, a shopkeeper. 

Traf-fic. Traffic, trade, commerce. To trajic, 
to trade, to buy, or sell, or exchange the goods 
of different countries. 


5^ TRA 

Trail, to drag along the ground. 

Train, to bring up, or educate, to teach one to do 
something ; as we say, " this Uttle girl has been 
trained up in habits of industry. In Greenland, 
dogs are trained to draw sledges and carriages, 
instead of horses, which could not Hve in that 
cold country. Train, a number of people who 
follow and attend upon some great person. The 
beautiful feathers in the tail of the peacock are 
called his train. 

Trait-or. Traitor, a person who is trusted with 
some secret, or some employment, and betrays it. 

Tram-ple. Trample, to tread under foot, or to 
tread quick and loudly. 

Tran-quil. Tranquil, quiet, still, not disturbed. 

Tran-quil-li-ty. Tranquillity, peace, quietness. 

Trans-act. Transact, to do business, to manage 

Trans- FER. Transfer, to give a thing from one 
person to another, to remove. 

Trans-form. Transform, to change the shape of 
any thing. 

Trans-form-a-tion. Transformation, a change of 
the shape of a thing, as of a bell to a cup. 

Trans-gress. Transgress, to disobey some laW; 
or some command. 

Trans-gress-ion. Transgression, a fault, some- 
thing which we do contrary to the rule or com- 
mand of another person. 

Tran-sient. Transient, passing soon away. 

Trans-late. Translate, to explain what is said 
or written in one language, in the words of a 
different language. 

TRANs-rA-RENT. Transparent, admitting light ; 

TRE 235 

gliass is transparent, and water is transparent ; 
paper, horn, and many other substances are also 

Trans-plant. Transplant, to move a plant from 
the place where it was growing and plant it in 
another place. 

Trans-port. Transport, to carry any thing in a 
ship, or in a carriage of any kind, from one 
place to another. To transport, often means to 
put one into any violent passion, or violent joy ; 
as we say, " he Avas transported with anger ;" 
" I shall be transported with joy to see you," 
Transport, great pleasure, great joy, and delight. 

Trap, a contrivance to catch animals, and some- 
times to catch persons. 

Trap-pings. Trappings, ornaments for a horse, 
or fine dress of any kind. 

Trash, any thing bad and of no use, or not good for 

Trav-el. Travel, to make a journey, to pass 
from one place to another which is far off, or to 
pass from one country to another. 

Trav-el-ler. Traveller, a person who is on a 
journey to a place. A traveller, means often a 
person who travels to far distant countries, to 
see different places, and to observe the manners, 
dress, and customs of different nations. 

Treach-e-rous. Treacherous, deceitful, not to 
be depended upon, doing mischief secretly and 

Trea-sures. Treasures, money, or precious things 
laid up safe. A treasure, any precious thing. 

Tbe-mend-ous. Tremendous, dreadful, astonish- 
ing and frightening at the same time. 

236 TRI 

Trem-u-lous. Tremulous, trembling and shaking. 

Trench, a ditch. 

Trench-er. Trencher, a wooden plate. 

Trep-i-da-tion. Trepidation, great hurry, fear 
and trembling. 

Tres-pass. Trespass, to commit a fault. To 
trespass against a person, is to hurt him or dis- 
please him. A trespass, a fault. 

Tress-es. Tresses, curling hair. 

Tri-al. Trial, something which is done to find 
out the truth concerning which we are certain. 
To make a trial, to examine something by trying. 
The word trial, often means the questioning or 
examining a person before a judge in court. 

Tribe, a number of people distinguished from the 
rest of the people of a country, either because 
they are of the same family, or for some other 
reason ; we read in the Bible of the twelve 
tribes of Israel. The tribe of Judah, the tribe of 
Levi, means the people who were of the family 
of Judah, or the people of the family of Levi. 

Tric-kle. Trickle, to fall down in drops. 

Tri-fle. Trifle, to act or talk in a foolish man* 
ner, to spend one's time in an idle silly manner. 
A trifle, a thing which is of no consequence. 

Tri-fling. Trifling, silly, of no consequence, of 
no value. 

Trim, to make neat. Trim, neat, nicely dressed. 
Trim, also means dress or ornaments. 

Trin-ket. Trinket, a toy, or any pretty orna« 

Trip, to walk lightly and quickly along. To trip 
up a person, is to make him fall by catching up 
his feet. 

TR13 237 

Trite, common, not new. 

Triv-ial. Trivial, of no consequent e, tridinfir. 

Tri-umph. Triumpli, success over our enemies. 
To iriumjjJi, to rejoice at being victorious oi suc- 

Troop, a company of people togetlier, or a num- 
ber of soldiers. Troops, soldiers. 

Troop-er. Trooper, a soldier who rides on horse- 

Trow, to think, to imagine ; as, " who have you 
with you, I troio ?" an old-fashioned word. 

Tru-ant. Truant, an idle person who amuses him- 
self instead of minding his work. To jilay tru- 
ant, to stay away from school without leave. 

Trudge, to walk heavily along. 

Trunk, the stem or stalk of a large tree. The 
word trunk has other meanings; we say, " the 
trunk of an elephant :" a timnk is also a sort of 

Truss, a bundle ; as we say, " a truss of hay." 

Trust, to depend upon a person, to believe what he 
says, and to thmk him honest. 

Trus-ty. Trusty, honest, true, fit to be trusted or 
depended upon. 

Truth ; to tell the truth, to tell exactly what we 
know or have seen, without hiding or inventing 
any thing. People who love the truth never say 
what is not true, even in play, and every body 
loves, and trusts, and believes them. People 
who do not always tell the truth are called liars, 
and nobody ever believes them even when they 
do speak the truth ; they are despised by every 
body, and, what is worse, God is displeased with 

238 TWI 

Tube, a pipe ; any tiling which is long, round, and 
hollow, like the nose of a pair of bellows, or 
like the barrel of a gun. 

Tuft, a little bunch of feathers, leaves, or hair. 

Tug, to pull with ail one's strength. 

Tu-i-TioN. Tuition, the care which is taken to 
teach a person. 

Tu-MULT. Tumult, noise and confusion. 

Tu-MULT-u-ous. Tumultuous, loud, violent ; full 
of confusion and noise. 

Tun, or Ton, a weight of two thousand two hun- 
dred and forty pounds. 

TuNE-FUL. Tuneful, musical, sounding sweet. 

TuR-BAN. Turban, a long piece of cloth twisted 
round the head, either as a covering, or as an or- 

TuR-BU-LENT. Turbulcnt, violent and loud. 

TuR-Bu-LENCE. Turbulcnce, confusion and noise. 

Turf, that part of the ground which is covered with 

TuR-PEN-TiNE. Turpentine, the juice of the pine 
and fir trees. 

TuR-RET. Turret, a small piece of a building whicbi 
is higher than the rest ; a little tower. | 

Tusks, long and strong teeth which project fromi 
the mouths of some animals. 

Tu-tor. Tutor, a man who teaches and takes cai*e 
of a young person. 

Twain, two. 

Twice, two times. 

Twig, a little thin branch. 

Twi-LiGHT. Twilight, the faint light in the even- 
ing just before the night comes on. 


Twine, to twist. To tioine round any thing, is to 

turn or twist closely round and round it. 
TwiN-KLE. Twinkle, to sparkle like a star. 
Twirl, to turn any thing round very quickly. 
^TwixT, the same as between. 
Type, the letters which are used in printing : thus 

we say, " this book is printed in a small or in a 

large type.^^ A type is also an emblem. 
Ty-rant. Tyrant, a king or any person who 

governs people in a cruel, severe, and proud 

Ty-ran-ni-cal. Tyrannical, like a tyrant, cruel. 
Ty-ran-nize. Tyrannize, to be like a tyrant ; to 

behave cruelly and proudly to dependent peo- 

Tyr-an-ny. Tyranny, the conduct of a tyrant. 


Ud-der. Udder, that part of a cow from which 
the milk is pressed. 

Ul-ti-mate-ly. Ultimately, in the end, at last. 

Um-brel-la. Umbrella, a portable canopy of silk 
or cotton, used to keep off the rain or sun from 
one who carries it. 

Um-pire. Umpire, a person who settles disputes 
between people. 

Un-ac-quaint-ed. Unacquainted, not acquainted, 
not knowing. The syllable un, put before a 
word, always means noty or different from ; thus, 
un-ahle means not able, un-hurt not hurt, un- 
washed not washed, un-natiiral not natural ; 
there are a great many words which begin with 
«n, the meaning of which we mav easily find 

240 IING 

out by changing un into not : thus, an wn-civil 

person, is a person that is not civil, that means, 

one who is rude or ill-mannered. 
Un-aii)-ed. Unaided, not helped. 
U-NAN-i-Mous. Unanimous : several persons of 

one mind or opinion, agreeing together to do 

something, are unanimous, 
Un-a-vail-ing. Unavailing, of no use. 
Un-a-wares. Unawares, suddenly ; when one 

does not expect or think about it. 
Un-bouivd. Unbound, loose, not tied. 
Un-con-cern-ed. Unconcerned, not caring about 

a thing. 
Un-couth. Uncouth, odd and strange. 
Un-dauint-ed. Undaunted, not afraid. 
Un-der-go. Undergo, to bear some pain ortrou* 

ble, to suffer. 
Un-der-hand. Underhand, secretly, slily, cun- 

Un-der-stand. Understand, to know a thing by 

thinking ; to know the meaning of what we see 

or what we hear. 
Un-der-take. Undertake, to take upon ourselves 

to do any thing, to say that we will do it, or that 

we will try to do it. 
Un-der-wood. Underwood, the low small bushes 

and trees which grow among large trees. 
Un-err-ing. Unerring, certainly right. 
Un-feign-ed. Unfeigned, real, not pretended, 

Un-fold. Unfold, to spread open. To unfold, 

sometimes means to tell, to show what was se- 
cret or hidden before. 
Un-god-ly. Ungodly, wicked. 

UNS 241 

U-Ni-roT?M. Uniform, always the same, alike, not 
changing. A uniform y is a dress in which many 
people are clothed alike. 

Un-in-tel-li-gi-ble. Unintelligible, impossible 
to be understood. 

Un-ion. Union, joining together. Union, also 
means agreement between persons. 

U-NiTE. Unite, to join two or several things to- 
gether into one. To unite, is also to join toge- 
ther to do something. 

U-NiT-ED. United, joined together, or agreeing 

U-Ni-VEKSE. Universe : this world, and all the 
creatures, and all the things that are in it ; the 
sun, the moon, the stars, the sky ; in short, all 
things which God has made, are, together, called 
the universe. 

Un-just. Unjust, not just, not right ; wicked. 

Un-mer-ci-ful. Unmerciful, without pity. 

Un-mer-it-ed. Unmerited, not deserved. 

Un-mind-ful. Unmindful, careless, not mindful, 
not attentive. 

Un-num-ber-ed. Unnumbered, uncounted. 

Un-per-ceiv-ed. Unperceived, not seen ; not 
known or observed. 

Un-prof-it-a-ble, Unprofitable, of no use and 
no advantage. 

Un-ques-tion-a-bly. Unquestionably, certainly, 
without a doubt. 

Un-right-eous. Unrighteous, wicked, bad. 

Un-ruf-fled. Unruffled, quiet, still. 

Un-ru-ly. Unruly, violent, rude, not manageable. 

Un-sea-son-a-ble. Unseasonable, done or hap. 
pening at an improper time. 

242 ASU 

Un-ser-vice-a-ble. Unserviceable, of no use, of 

no service. 
Un-skil-ful. Unskilful, not knowing how to do 

a thing we.ll. 
Un-suc-cj^ss-ful. Unsuccessful, not happening as 

one would wish a circumstance to happen. 
Un-suit-a-ble. Unsuitable, not fit, not proper. 
Un-time-ly. Untimely, too soon, happening be- 

fore the natural, or usual time ; as we say, an k 

untimely death. f 

Un-truth. Untruth, not truth. Untruth, a lie. 
Un-va-ri-ed. Unvaried, always the same, never 

Un-wa-ry. Unwary, not cautious and careful ; 

Un-wea-ri-ed. Unwearied, not tired ; it also 

means never tiring. 
Un-wield-y. Unwieldy, large and heavy, not 

easily moved. 
Un-will-ing. Unwilling, not liking to do a thing. 
Up-braid. Upbraid, to tell a person that he has 

done wrong, to blame him in a severe unkind 

Up-per. Upper, higher. 
Up-right. Upright, straight up ; as we say, to sit 

upright, to stand upright. Lfpright also means 

good and honest ; as we say, an upright man. 
Up-roar. Uproar, noise, violence, disturbance 

and confusion. 
Ur-chin. Urchin : a lively and mischievous boy 

is sometimes called an urchin. 
Us-age. Usage, the manner in which we treat a 

person, or behave to him ; we may give a per- 
son good usage or bad usage. 

VAL 243 

U-su-AL, Usual, what often happens, or what is 
commonly done. 

U-suRr. Usurp, to take a thing by force from an- 
other, or to have any thing we have no right to* 

U-suRP-ER. Usurper, a person who takes or has 
what he has no right to have. 

U-TEN-siLS. Utensils, vessels for sundry pur- 
poses ; thus we call pots, pans, and kettles, 
kitchen utensils. 

Ut-ter. Utter, to speak, to sound words. 

Ut-ter-ance. Utterance, the manner of speak- 
ing. Utterance^ is to speak or tell our thoughts 
and feelings. 

Ut-ter-ly. Utterly, quite, completely, entirely. 

Va-cant. Vacant, empty. Vacant, also means 
not busy. 

Va-grant. Vagrant, a person who wanders about 
without a home or a house. 

Vague, not settled, not determined. 

Vain, foolish, of no use, and of no consequence. 
A vain person, is a person who is conceited or 
foolishly proud. In vain, means to no purpose, 
without any use ; as, " he tried in vain to break 
the shell of the cocoa-nut." To take the name 
of God in vain, is to say it too often in a thought- 
less manner, and without that veneration with 
which his great name ought always to be re- 

Vale, or Valley, low ground between hills. 

Val-iant. Valiant, strong, bold, and brave. 

Val-our, Valour, boldness and strength. 


Val-f-a-ble, Valuable, precious, costing much 

Val-uk. \alue, a price set upon a thing. The 
value of any thing, is its price, or what it costs. 
To set a value upon a thing, is to think it pre- 
cious, to like to have it, or to wish to keep it. 

Van-ish. Vanish, to pass away out of sight, to 
be gone suddenly. 

Van-i-ty. Vanity, foolishness, conceitedness. 

Va-pour. Vapour, rises from warm fluids, and 
mixes with the air, like steam and smoke. 

Va-ri-ance. Variance, a state of difference. 

Va-ri-a-tion. Variation, difference, change. 

Va-ri-e-ga-ted. Variegated, marked with difl^er- 
ent colours. 

Va-ri-e-ty. Variety, change, difference. A va- 
riety of things, means a number of different 
kinds ; as, " here are a variety of flowers." 

Va-ri-ous. Various, several, different ; as, " there 
are various kinds of trees." 

Va-ry. Vary, to make different. To vary^ is also 
to be different, not always to be the same ; to 

Vast, exceedingly great or large. 

Veg-e-ta-ble. Vegetable, any kind of plant. 

Veg-e-ta-tion. Vegetation, plants of every kind. 

Ve-hi-cle. Vehicle, any thing in which some 
other thing is carried from place to place ; there 
are many kinds of vehicles^ such as carts, wag- 
ons, coaches, ships, boats, sledges, &;c. dec. 

Veil, something put over the head to hide the face. 
To veil is to cover, to hide. 

Ve-lo-ci-ty. Velocity, the quickness with which 
any thing moves. 

VER 2^5 

Ven-er-a-ble. Venerable, worthy of love and 

Ven-er-ate. Venerate, to love and respect a per- 
son at the same time. 
Ven-kr-a-tion. Veneration, love mixed with re 

spect and fear. 
Venge-ance. Vengeance, determination to pun- 

ish offenders. To take vengeance, is to punish 

a person. 
Ven-i-son. Venison, the flesh of a deer. 
Ven-om. Venom, poison. 
Ven-om-ous. Venomous, poisonous. 
Vent, an opening to let something out. 
Ven-ture. Venture, to dare to do something. 

To venture^ is also to put in danger ; as, he ven- 

tured his life. 
Ven-tur-ous. Venturous, bold, not afraid of dEUi- 

Ye-ra-ci-ty. Veracity, truth or honesty in speak- 
Ver-dant. Verdant, of a green hue like grass. 
Ver-dure. Verdure, green colour of grass and 

Verge, the edge. 

Ver-i-ly. Verily, truly, certainly. 
Ver-mil-ion. Vermilion, a beautiful red colour. 
Ver-mtn. Vermin, any little animal which we 

think mischievous, such as rats, mice, fleas, 

&;c. &;c. 
Ver-nal. Vernal, belonging to the spring. 
Vers-ed. Versed ; to be versed in any thing, is to 

know it well ; as, " she is versed in the French 



2m YIE 

Vij»-Ti-CAL. Vertical, exactly over our heads* 

Ves-sel. Vessel, what is used to put any thing 
into ; a tub or a barrel is a vessel : cups, mugs, 
goblets, and bottles are drinking vessels. Ves^ 
sel, often means a ship or a boat of any kind. 

Vest, a coat, a dress. 

Ves-ti-ges. Vestiges, marks which any thing 
leaves behind as it passes along. 

Vest-uee. Vesture, dress, clothes. 

Vex, to plague, to trouble, to disturb. 

Vex-a-tion. Vexation, trouble, uneasiness. 

Vex-a-tious. Vexatious, troublesome, teasing, 

Vi-ANDs. Viands, meat, food, victuals. 

Vi-BRATE. Vibrate, to move from side to side like 
the pendulum of a clock. 

Vice, wickedness. A vice, is a fault, a bad quality. 

Vi-cious. Vicious, wicked, bad, doing wrong. 

Vi-ciN-i-TY. Vicinity, nearness. In the vicinity. 
means near, not distant. 

Vi-ciss-i-TUDE. Vicissitude, change. 

Vic-TiM. Victim, some animal killed for a sacri. 
fice. A victim, is also some animal or person 
which is cruelly destroyed or killed. 

Vio-TOR. Victor, a person who gains the victory- 

Vic-TO-RY. Victory ; when two persons or two 
armies fight against one another, and one beats 
the other, we say, that the party which has bea- 
ten has got the victory, or that it is victorious. 

ViCT-UALs. Victuals, food, meat, and drink. 

View, to look at any thing with attention, to see. 
YieWy sight. A view^ often means a prospect ; 
as we say, " what a beautiful view." To take 
a view of any things is to look all over it in an 

VIV 247 

attentive manner. View, sometimes means in- 
tention, something that we wish or mean to do. 

ViG-i-LANT. Vigilant, watchful, very careful. 

ViG-ouR. Vigour, strength, force. 

ViG-oR-ous. Vigorous, strong, full of force and 
life, not weak or unhealthy. 

Vile, wicked and shameful. 

ViL-LA. Villa, a country house. 

ViL-LAG-ER. Villager, a person who lives in a vil- 
lage, a country person. 

ViL-LAiN. Villain, a very wicked man. 

ViL-LA-NV. Villany, wickedness. 

ViN-Dic-TivE. Vindictive, revengeful. 

Vine, a climbing plant; grapes grow upon vines, 
and a place or a garden planted with vines, is 
called a vineyard, 

ViR-GiN. Virgin, a young unmarried woman. 

ViR-TUE. Virtue, goodness, excellence. A virtue^ 
is any good quality, as truth, love. 

ViR-TU-ous. Virtuous, very good ; we say, a vir- 
tuous person ; we do not say, a virtuous thing, 
but a very good thing. 

Vis-cous. Viscous, sticky, like gum or glue. 

Vis-i-BLE. Visible, capable of being seen ; as, the 
sun is visible by day, but the stars are not visible 
till after the sun has set. 

Vis-ioN. Vision, sight, the power of seeing. A 
vision, is a dream. 

Vis-iT. Visit, to visit a place, is to go to it. To 
visit a person, is to go to see him. 

Vi-TAL. Vital, necessary to life, having life. 

Vi-VA-ci-TY. "N ivacity, liveliness, quickness, not 

248 VOR 

Viv-iD. Vivid, lively, bright ; as when we say, 

vivid colours. 
Vo-CAL. Vocal, sounded by the voice : thus we 

say, vocal music, that is, music which is sung, 

not played upon instruments. 
Vo-CIF-E-Rous. Vociferous, loud, noisy. 
Vogue, fashion. To be in vogue, to be in fashion, 

to be much worn or used by people. 
Voice, sound from the mouth. 
Void, empty. To be void, often means to be with- 

out something; as we say, " this little boy is 

not entirely void of good nature ;" that means, 

not entirely without good nature. 
VoL-A-TiLE. Volatile, of a lively, thoughtless, 

changeable disposition. 
VoL-CA-NO. Volcano, a burning mountain ; that 

is a high hill, which sometimes bursts out with 

a terrible noise, and throws up flames, and smoke, 

and red-hot stones, and streams of fire. 
VoL-iT-BLE. Voluble, speaking much and quickly. 
VoL-u-BiL-i-TY. Volubility, quickness in speaking, 

too much talk. 
VoL-uME. Volume, a book. Volume, often means 

something which is curled or rolled : thus we 

say, volumes of smoke. 
VoL-UN-TA-RY. Voluntary, done of one's own ac 

cord, or by one's own choice. To do a tiling 

voluntarily, is to do it willingly, to do it of one's 

own accord, without being obliged. 
Vo-RA-cious. Voracious, eating very greedily, as 

if one was exceedingly hungry. 
Vo-RA-cious-LY. Voraciously, greedily. 
Vo-RA-ci-TY. Voracity, great greediness, raging 


WAN 249 

VoR-TEX. Vortex, any thing which is whiiled vio- 
lently round and round, a whirlpool. 

VoucH-sAFE. Vouchsafe, to give any thing as a 

Vow, to make a solemn promise. A vow, a solemn 
promise made to heaven. 

VoY-AGE. Voyage, a journey by sea. To make 
a voyage, is to travel to some distant country by 
sea ; that is, in a ship. 

VuL-GAR. Vulgar, mean and low, common. The 
vulgar, means the most ignorant people. 


Wade, to walk through water, or through deep 

Waft-ed. Wafted, carried lightly through the 

air, or over the water. 
Wa-ges. Wages, money which we pay to a per- 

son for serving us, or working for us. 
Wag-on. W^agon, a large cart for carrying heavy 

Wag-on-ee. Wagoner, a man who drives a 

Waiin-scot. Wainscot, the boards which are put 

round the walls of rooms. 
Wal-let. Wallet, a bag used for carrying meat 

and clothes. 
Wal-low. Wallow, to roll in mud and dirt like a 

WAN, looking very pale and sickly. 
Wand, a long thin stick. 
Wan-der. Wander, to go here and there, to go 

about from place to place, without knowing or 

260 WAS 

minding where we go. To wander^ means 
sometimes to go out of the right way. 

Wan-ton-ly. Wantonly, in sport, in play ; as, 
" we should never wantonly torment any thing 
that has life." 

War : when the people of one country quarrel 
with the people of another country, and fight 
against them, it is called war ; we say, there is 
^ fight between two men, but we say, there is a 
war between England and France ; we do not 
say there is ^ fight between England and France. 

War-ble. Warble, to sing very sweetly; as, 
" the birds warble in the green shade." 

Wares, things to be sold ; Chin-d-v-are, is properly 
wares which come from China, though now we 
make China-w;are in England ; we also say, 
edirthen-ware, wooden-tvare, &;c. &;c. 

Ware-house. Warehouse, a place to keep the 
goods which are to be sold. 

War-like. Warlike, fond of fighting, fit or ready 
for war. 

Warn, to tell a person of a fault, or to tell him of 
some danger, that he may avoid it. 

Warp, to bend out of the proper shape, to grow 

War-ren. Warren, a piece of ground where a 
great number of rabbits have their holes ; it is 
sometimes called a rabbit-warren. 

Warr-ior. Warrior, a soldier, a man who fights 
in war. 

Wa-ry. Wary, cautious, wise, and careful. 

Wasp-ish. Waspish, peevish, and ill-natured like 
a wasp. 

WEB 251 

Waste : waste-ground^ is ground which is not 
planted, nor sown, nor built upon, nor put to any 

Waste, a desert place, a place without people or 

Watch, not to sleep, to observe with attention. 

Wave, to move loosely backwards and forwards. 

Wav-er. Waver, to be uncertain, not to be set- 
tled, not to be determined or sure. 

Wax, to grow ; as, " he waxed strong." 

Wax-en. Waxen, made of the wax which bees 
extract from flowers ; as, a waxen doll. 

Way-lay. Waylay, to watch for a person in the 
way, in order to start out upon him to do him 

Weak, not strong, without force or power to do 
any thing well. 

Wealth, riches, plenty of money, or other pre- 
cious things. 

Wealth-y, rich. 

Wea-pon. Weapon, any thing that is made use 
of to fight with, such as sticks, swords, bows, 
and arrows, &c. The horns and claws of ani- 
mals are called weapons, because they use them 
to fight with, or to save themselves from being 

Wear-i-some. Wearisome, tiresome and trouble- 

Wea-ry. Weary, tired. To weary, to tire, to be 
fatiguing and troublesome. 

Weave, properly to make thread into cloth, bui 
spiders are said to weave their webs. 

Web, a piece of cloth, or any thing which is 
woven ; for we say, " the toeb of a spider." 


252 WES 

Web-foot-ed. Web footed ; all birds that swim on 
the water, such as ducks, geese, swans, and 
some kinds of animals that swim, such as the 
beaver, the otter, the water-dog, have their toes 
joined together by a skin that grows between 
. them ; this is being webbed or web-footed : it 
helps them to swim well, for their feet are like 
the fins of tish. 

Wedge, a piece of wood or metal which has a 
sharp edge at one end, and is very thick at the , 
other. Wedges^ are used to split wood and|| 
stone : men put the sharp edge into a little slit 
or hole made on purpose, and then drive it fur- 
ther in with a heavy hammer. 

Wedg-ed. Wedged, stuck fast in between two 
things, so as not to be able to move. 

Weed, any plant which is hurtful, or which is of 
no use to us. 

Week, seven days. 

Week-ly. Weekly, done or happening once in 
a week. 

Weep, to cry for sorrow, to shed tears. 

Weight- Y. Weighty, heavy, of great weight. 

Wel-come. Welcome, glad to see a person when 
he comes to see us, to receive him kindly. WeU 
comCy glad to have or to receive, what is pleasing 
to us. Welcome^ kindness to those who come 
to see us. 

Well, a deep place full of water. 

Well-bked. Well-bred, polite, not rude or unci- 
vil in one's manners. 

West, that part of the sky where the sun sets. 
The loestj often means the places which are to- 

WIC 253 

wards the west; as, "he comes from the west^ 

he lives in the west of England." 
West-er-ly. Westerly, coming from the west; as, 

" a westerly wind." To go westward y to go to- 
wards the west. 
Wheat, a kind of grain ; the best and the whitest 

bread is made o^ wheat. 
Whelp, a young dog ; it also means the young of 

some other beasts ; we say, a lion's wJielp, 
Whence, from what place ; as, " whence come 

you?" Whence, also means for which reason. 
Where -BY. Whereby, by which. 
Where-fore. Wherefore, for which reason. 
Where-in. Wherein, in which. 
Whet, to sharpen, to give a sharp edge to any 

thing by rubbing it with something, or upon 

Whey, the thin part of milk separated from the 

Whim, an odd fancy. 

Whim-si-cal. Whimsical, fanciful, full of whims. 
Whim-per. Whimper, to cry in a low voice. 
Whine, to cry and complain with a low voice. 
Whirl, to turn round violently and quickly. 
Whirl-pool. Whirlpool, a place where the water 

turns round and round with great violence. 
W^hith-er. Whither, to which place. 
Whole, all. Whole, means also not broken, not 

hurt. Whole, may sometimes mean well, cured 

of some sickness or hurt. 
Whole-some. Wholesome, good for the health. 
Whol-ly, Wholly, quite, entirely. 
Wick, that part of a candle or a lamp which flames, 

and which has oil, tallow, or wax within it. 

254 WIT 

WicK-ET. Wicket, a little gate. 

WiD-ow. Widow, a woman whose husband is 

WiD-ow-ER. Widower, a man whose wife is dead. 

Wield, to move or use any heavy thing with case. 

Wild, not tame ; as we say, " wild animals." 
wild, growing without being planted ; as, " wild 
flowers." Wild, means also disorderly. A 
loild, a savage country, not planted, nor inhabited 
by people. 

WiL-DER-NEss. Wildemess, a wild. 

Wile, a trick, a deceit. 

Wi-LY. Wily, cunning, deceitful, sly. 

WiL-FUL. Wilful, obstinate. 

WiL-FUL-LY. Wilfully, obstinately. To do a thing 
wilfully, is to act in opposition to others. 

WiLL-iNG. Willing, liking to do a thing. 

Wind, to turn, to twist, not to go straight along. 
To wind a horn, is to sound it by blowing it. 

Win-now. Winnow, to part the grains of grain 
from the chaff. 

WiN-TER. Winter, the season of the year when 
the weather is cold, and when there are no flow- 
ers, nor leaves on the tree. 

Win-try. Wintry, like winter, cold and dismal. 

Wire, long threads made of metal. 

Wise, not foolish, knowing what is right, and doing 
what is right. 

WisT-FUL. Wistful ; to cast a wistful look, or to 
look wistfully at any thing, is to look at it atten- 
tively, as if we wished to have it, or to reach it. 

WiTH-DRA w. Withdraw, to take back, to take away. 
To mthdraw, is also to go back, to go away 
from the company. 

WRA 255 

WiTH-ER. Wither, to fade away. 
WiTH-HOLD. Withhold, to keep back. 
WiTH-iN. Within, in the inside. Within, often 

means in the house. 
WiTH-STAND. Withstand, to act against, to oppose. 
WiT-NESs. Witness, to say that a thing is true, 

because we have either seen it, or know it to 

be true. To witness a thing, is sometimes to see 

it or hear it ourselves. 
Woe, sorrow, grief, misfortune, or misery. 
WoE-FUL. Woeful, sad, grieved, very sorry. 
Wo-MAN-KiND. Womankind, all women in the 

Wood, a place where a great number of trees grow 

Work-man-ship. Workmanship, the skill with 

which something is made, or the manner in 

which it is made. 
WoR-RY. Worry, to tear in pieces, as beasts tear 

one another when they fight, or kill one another. 
WoR-sHip, Worship, to adore, to perform acts of 

religion ; as " we worship God." 
WoRST-ED. Worsted, wool spun. 
WoRTH-LEss. Worthless, mean, without any good 

qualities, not precious. 
WoR-THY. Worthy ; as, " a child who always 

tells the truth is worthy to be trusted." Woii,hy, 

also means good ; we say, ^^^ worthy man." 
Wound, a violent hurt. To wound, to hurt by vio- 
Wran-gle. Wrangle, to quaiTel, to dispute in a 

cross peevish manner. 
Wrath, violent anger. 
Wkath-ful. Wrathful, very angry. 

356 YEA 

WreatH; a garland of fiowers twined together. 

Wreck ships, when they sail on the great sea, 
sometimes meet v/ith violent storms of wind, 
which blow them about, and sometimes dash 
them against the rocks, where they are broken 
to pieces ; this is called a wreck, or a shipwreck. 

Wreck-ed. Wrecked, dashed to pieces. 

Wres-tle. Wrestle, to try which of two com- 
batants shall throw the other down. 

Wretch, a miserable unfortunate person. A 
wretch, also means a wicked or a mean person. 

Wretch-ed. Wretched, miserable and unhappy, 
mean and bad. 

Wright, a workman, a maker of any thing ; a 
cartwright, is a maker of carts, a wheelwright, is 
a maker of wheels, &c. 

Wring, to squeeze ; it also means to turn, to twist 
out of the proper shape, or to torment and dis- 
tress very much. 

Wrink-led. Wrinkled, marked with wrinkles, , 
like the face of a person who is very old. 

Writ-ing. Writing, something which is written : 
it also means a book. 

Wrought, did, or worked ; as, " he wrought won- 
ders," that is, he did wonders. Wrought, also 
means made or formed, or worked in some 
shape or manner. 

Wry, crooked, or twisted out of the right shape. 

Yard, a measure of three feet, or thirty-six inches. 
Yarn, worsted, wool w^hich is spun into thread. 
Yeah, twelve months, or three hundred and sixty- 

zoo 257 

live days. Years, old age ; he was full of 

years, means that he was very old. 
Yell, to scream out, to make a loud cry. Yell^ a 

loud horrible cry. 
Yelp, to cry like a dog. 
Yes-ter-night. Yesternight, last night. 
Y^ield, to give; as we say, '* these trees yield 

fruit." To yield, is also to give up, not to be 

obstinate, to submit. To yield, also means to 

allow, to agree to something. 
Yolk, the yellow part of an egg. 
Yoke, a bandage put on the neck of animals to 

draw any kind of carriage. Yoke, may. also 

mean severe rule or government. To yoke, to 

couple with another, to subdue. 
YoN, or Yon-der. Yon or Yonder, at a distance, 

but not out of sight ; as, " he lives in yonder 

YouNG-STER. Youngster, a young person. 
Youth, that part of our lives when we are no long. 

er children. A youth, a young man. 
YouTH-FUL. Youthful, young. 

Zeph-yr. Zephyr, a gentle soft wind. 
Zest, taste, a relish. 
Zone, a girdle. 

Ze-nith. Zenith, that part of the heavens di- 
rectly over our heads. 
Zo-oL-o-Gy. Zoology, the history of animal life. 


OCT -0 


Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Oct. 2006 



1 1 1 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry Township, PA 16066 


003 337 252 8.