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"Cs D'ett pas daiifl lea poMlblllUs. c'eitdana Iliammo mems qui! fautftudlarl'boinmc : 
U DB I'aglt vta tl'lmoglner ce qu'il aiirolt pQ ou dU taire, male da regnrder ce quil bit." 

VOL. I. 




(Jtiphli of 3VttR«Iafioii uiul Rfjiroduefuni rcwivcJ.; 

V.I ' 





The present volumes, uniform with the previous 
Yolume of " Researches into the Early Historj' of 
Manldnd"(l5t Ed. 1865; 2nd Ed. 1870), cony on 
the investigation of Culture into odier brnncheg of 
thought and belief, art and custom. During the paat 
six years, I have taken oecasion to bring tentatively 
before the public some of the principal points of 
new evidenee and argument here advanced. Tlie doc- 
trine of survival in culture, the Iwiu-iug of directly- 
cxprcdsive language and the invention of numerals on 
the problem of early civilization, the place of mytli in 
the primitive hiBtory of the human mind, the develop- 
ment of the animistic. jihiloHophy of religion, and the 
origin of rites and ceremoniea, have been discHSscd in 
various papers and lectures,* before being treated at 
large and with a fuller array of facts in this work. 

The authorities for the facts stated in the text are 

* Fnrlnightljr Review : * Olivia of Lauganfft,* April IS, 1G01 ; ' Bcligion ot 
SftngtM,' AutpiKt 15. 1868. I*cliircs nt Royal Iiwlittition : "Tweet of Uir 
SMtiy M«ntil Comlitinn of Mini,' Mitrcih IS, UIS7 ; ' ^qrvirk! of Satn^ Tlioajht 
ia UodcTD CS-nlLMtioii,' April 23, 1805'. Uiture nt IfiiiwniilyCoUfRt, London : 
* Bpirittwliitii: Philoxuplif of Hir. Ixiwvr Rnom u( Mankiml,' May 8, 1869. Pijier 
K&d at BrilUh Amocwtion. NnttincliKm. )8<6: ' PhoDonitiia af Clrftlntloii 
TVwwable to m BoiliinsnUl OriKui Muquj; Surage Tribes.' Pftptr read at Etbau- 
lo^tal Sxiety at tioiKlaii, .tpril 29, isro : ' Thilnsopby ot Itcliffion unong tlio 
Jviwr ItncflH of Mnnltini],* ate «c. 



fully specified in the foot-notes, which mtist also serve as 
my general acknowledgment of obligations to writers on 
ethnography and kindred sciencea, as well as to historians, 
iraveUere, and mit^ionaries. I will only mention apart 
two treatises of which I have made especial use : the 
' Mensch in det Gcschichtc,' by Profcasor Baatian of BitUu, 
and the ' Anthropologic der Naturvolkcr,' by thd late 
Professor Waltz of Marburg. 

In discus&ing prohloms so complex as those of the 
development of civiH/^tion, it is not enough to put for- 
ward theories accomjKinied by a few illustrative examples. 
The statement of the facts must Fomi the staple of the 
argument, and the limit of needful detail i» only reached 
when each group so displays its general law, that fresh 
caBes come to range themselves in tlieir proper niches as 
new instances of an already cstabUslied rule. Should it 
seem to any readers that my attempt to reach this limit 
sometimes leads to the heaping up of too cumbrous detail, 
1 woidd point out that the theoretical novelty as well 
as the practical im|x>rtjLnce of many of the itisuca raisc<I, 
make it moet unadvisable to stint them of their full 
cvidenca In the course o£ ten years chiefly spent in 
these researches, it has been my constant task to select 
the most instinctive ethnological facts from the ■vast 
mass OD record, and by lopping away onneccsaiy matter 
to reduce the data on each problem to what is indis- 
pensable for reasonable proof 

KB. T. 

'^nltvn OT CSTilijaliou— Ita phcnnmoiu tcbted M»ardiag to doRDito Lsim — 
Mstliodof Kimili ration ami iliaciUEudii «f th« evidence— CooiiexloB of 
.luceuln stages of cii]tui« by FernuJi«iiM, Uodification, and Suiv-h-al 
—Prin^nl topic* cxamisod in tfa«|iivMat work .... 



SUgM «f (Olnm, indnctrial, inlelleciiul, fmlJUcal, moni— DoTwIapment oT 
snltnra ia gmt ueoBitn coiTMpaniU mcli tmuitJon itvia nrtgo 
throngh bnrlMTlc to clrQIwd Ufo—PiDgrcauoii-lliMiry— Dcgoncratien- 
thoory— Denslofimnt-tlisaiy incloilM both, tliG (lUQ u priiimry, the 
oUior u nooDilaiy — HiftCorintI and tnulitloiul evidBiKw not availnttle 
U to low tttgnt of cnUuro— HiKtutit^ tvidtnca «• to princJpliui 6f 
mg|uaei»liuii — Etlinoto^cul ci-iJciicc •» to n*« and Ull in cnltttnv frrau 
MOQaiBan of lUflerHit levela of r.allure io bnuiclteei ot iht ssue nca — 
Bitntt of UitMinUjr ncorded aaiiqnlv of drlluaUvn— IVsUrtotic 
Animtolegf oiteuds tha uitii|iiiij- oi mui ia low augM nf drilJulian 
— IhnMt of Htoae Agf, etitTohot»U*i by toBgalithid rtmetur**, Uko- 
dwcUin^ alivU-livniia, burial fLcox, etc, oointiao ta pnvo orijiixial \e\> 
CRltnn thraogluut Uu vroild— 3up» of jfKgn^To Duvdefaaait l« 
iudnatrial orta 





SonivAl and Supontition— CtildrtnS )[»me»— Ctmei of <Iiftnc&— THdi- 
tioml Kijiiigs- Sntsnry pntTjin — Provwhit — RiJtIlett— Sif^UJcance ftnd 
ttirviva] in ("milaini : siirciiTig-fiiTiiHilii, rile irf fonnii»tioQ-*ocrifii(»i 
prqndice tgiLiiut saving a dKurning aum 


SURVIVAL IN CULTURE ((*»(fn«*rf)- 

Oociill Sciinun— Ungica] povan Uuibuled by higher to lower 

Uigioal |wiM«!uca hued en Anocktien of Id«u— Oid*iii— Angniy, 
atA.— OMiromiiacy—Hwrocpioiition, S^imltinaDfy, Chiromancy, etc 
— Qutanuuicy, etc— RhnbdainanL-y, DuclyUomancr, CoacintHiiancy, etc. 
■^XMrviiigs — lDt«11iwtni^ conditinn* nrr^untinji for the ponutencn nf 
Magic— Eurvi vol ptuiM into RcviTiO— \VjtetiDmft,brtgtnatin|; in lungfi 
cnllurv, vonliatiM (a bailMirle oSvUization ; its dfcline in «utj : 
»val £urui>v (oUowcd by n*Wal ; its pmclicDs ami coiiuter-| 
Iwlong to farlicr ciiltnrc— flpininaluim hiM its wiii^ in early staerj 
of ailluii\ in rlruo rnnntntion with witchcraft — llpirit-rHiiijiDi; £1(1 
Spirit-writing— Ktrin;; in the mt— I'cTfonniin'Cni oT tiuil nieiUuiui— 
I^Wtio«l bearing Of \ho riuOiy of Survivul 1 


Klemuit of dirtcUy oipnwtirn Soiuid in I^ngtiign — Tc«t by indqwndont 
eoTTCBpODdcnce in distinct liujgtU|pw— Coutltuent ptwtmttK af Lm- 
ipmip — Oealore — ExprCMion offiMtuTc, eU. — Enioti<inbl Ton« — Arttev- 
Ut« Niluiiv Yowels flatetiniaoil by miuicul qu&lity and pltcht coaaauata 
— Bmplualt and Accent — PUmBu-inoloily, RcdtatiTe— Suiuid-Worila — 
Intoijcctinni — CalU to Animals — Emoliooal Tries — SnnM-WctdB 
formed froo JntetJMtiotiK — AtErmatire nnd N<^tirA pAttiHo*, eli.'. 



iiiulMi*aVunU — niimnn ai^linna mtmrd rmn «itin<l— Animal*' munHfrom 
ain, etc.~-Mniii.-Klitiitninimtii-t!aiuiili repNMluMd— Wonlainodiliid' 
Ur adapt aauaii io B«iiJt—Jtn](iplii:«lii>u— Graduation of vowcU tv 
iMprua •liatauco &iid (UiTemicd— Childtnn'a I^iimago— ^mind-wordaaa 
related to aenM-wonla— Langnago an original fradiicl of ths lower J 



IdoM of Nnmlwr dcriml Trom (EperiflaM— Stftte «f ultbi»«li'! amoDg 
nactTiliced n«4 — Sraatl vxtcut of lfoaieral-woH« amonij Ivir tribn — 
Oountiug byfingmukl toM— Hnuil-iiiiBonlaaliow'ilcrivntionof VoHmJ 
ndEoniiig 'ram G(«tiir«-c(>untinf!— Eiymoloiar of Nuinerala— QtuiuiT, 
DwtiDil, aniL ViijciiinuJ doUUuuh uf clic irorM derived tnia aoiutting 
on HagtTB and tM< — Adoption of f-Nwign Kuis»nl-vorda— £<rid«»c« 
of dertlopnnnt of Arithaittk from a low orlgiiuU level of Cultun . 21S 



Mjrtliin fuiny twMiI, liko otlier thouglil. od BxperteiKe— UytholocT ilTbtdi 
eriflcnm far rtndjing laws of Imtfcuution— Chugo in faWtt: opinion 
W to cradibUit; of Uylb*— KIjlli* ntiontlised into cllc^ry nnd tiiatory 
— Ethnolo;^! Import and treatment of Mylb—Mf th to be rmdicd in 
.jdnal aziitanco ami Erowth amnnK niodvm MTiflxa ani] h^rlmriaiil 
Otiyitial tonoaa of JAfOi — Enrly iluvtrio* of genorat Anlniadoo of 
NatON — PonooiGeatioB of San, Uooti, *td Stan ; Wator-spont, 8«id- 
julbr, BaiDbiiw, Wat«^E»ll, Pntilcnre— Atintogjr worked into Uytb 
and Mtiapliur— llytlu of ICnin. Thunder, ete.— Efleut of LnoRnagein 

tfonuftlion of Mylb— llnUritl IVrHiniBcati'Dii primuy, VoiW peraonill- 
uotiuJi MCUudkry^GrxinnialiiDl riMidur, intd« and fmnalc, antmala and 
isimimitr. in r^lnllou to Uyth— Pr«p«r nauioa of Ol{jecti in relatfon 
to Mytli — Mental alata pnigwr to pr-ininto mytluo inu^paalMU— 
DocUiuo of Wommlna— I%aitUKjr and Pani;/ Sf 7 


MYTHOLOGY (««».«iiwrf). 

Kature-mjrLlui, Uietr ori^ canon of iiitcrpreutioo, preotnatioB of arigiiittl 
««aae and tlfcni&cnnt isamra — Nnturc-niytlut of uppar anvigs race* 
compand «itii ralateil forniH jinoiig bvWic and dfUlud nationa— 
Haatttn and E&rtli aa UnivGnat Faraita— Snu and Moon : EcllpM and 
Snnaal^ aa Boro or Maidpn tmllowed by Uan«t»r; Buiiig of Sun froiii 
flcft anil Ihacent to Uador-frorld ; Jawi of Nifihl and Death, 9ymptC- 
gadoi; Bye of Itetvcn, cjrc of Odin aa<l llio OraLr— Snn nnd Muon as 
mytlilc civiliumt— Jilocin, 1i«r ini^oaatailoy, pmiodi<?n1 <lralb nnd rcri^-Al 
— Stan, thdrg«n«ni.tiou— Consttllalion^ tliptr pliwr in Uytholi^ and 
ArtKntomy— Wind and Tviuj'vrt — Tliuiuli't— Fjrtli.iiiiiljo . 




MTTIIOLOaY icmtlitiud). 


loaoplnca] Uftha; tttfcnoM* become pMydo-bicUtrj— Cmloglckl VfUba 
—Effect of iloctriiii- nf UiivleN on MjrtliolDgjr— Maitiintit- MonnUJi^- 
Hytlu of leUtiuo of Apec ta tltn by ilnv«]o]]inviit i>r (Ir^iinntion — 
EtiiDolagiM.1 tmroH cf mytlia of ApA-mai, Htu vith uil^ Hen of 
the wo«J*— Mjrtlia uf Eimr, Pi-n-Frainii, aiul Buggoaliou: slorie* *f 
Ounb^ tHnrin, nnd Honstroos Tiil)r« cf men— FanciM otiJonfttoiy 
Hytli»— Myilix nltat'liMl to InjiMidHy or biirtorical Pmmui p» Btymo- 
logics] iiylhv on nomu itf places adiJ peimtu— EjKiBTiBie Mfth* on 
narnM at iri)>n«, nnttann, '>niintri<^ dr. ; their et}|D«1c^i«iil impOTt 
— Pr«po»tif> MjtJm by rroliraitimg of mctaphgrx md iil«» — AJlcgorr — 
BeMrt>FAl)l« — Concluoicni !CiS 



Tclipotm idcn* jjcnrrftttir sppcnr atiioiiK low TMe% of Mankind— Nr^ttive 
ilnJeniMiU on tLiseubjtH frBi|ni'iitIy mUlMiling aiid luiaUktn: many 
otMR uncfirtain— Minimntn iJniinition of Roliginn— DoctrJnsof Spiritnal 
Bdnfp, here turned Aninujini — AniroiMn troatcd «« Ivlon^iioK to 
Knlnnl Boligioo— Auiiuinii diviilvd iuto tw\i vtctinna, ibc [ihilosopliy 
of Stnih, and of ntlifir Spirits— Dortri no nf Santa, its pitn'tiloDoc ai^ 
d>flaition undng tbo lo««r nu-m— Uttliiiitioii nf Apiwhtinnjil Haul or 
GhcHrt-Soiil— It U a thcoKlioal cououplbn uf jiriTuitivc Fliilotopliy, 
dtnffiml to oMOnnt f;>T pheoftuicni now dwiMtl tindir BJolagy, trpt- 
dolly Lib aod Death, Health bikI Diimuc, Sleop ontl Drrainii, Tnunco 
uid Viaiona- BoUtiutt of Suiil [ii nuiiL- and iwtun) to SIiwluWi Qlood, 
Breath — Dimion or Pliiralitj-ofSiml*— Smil fnti.^nof life; it» rwtom- 
lion to body vhra nupponnl iburnt— Exit of Soot In Tnami— DiMtru 
andTiaieiu: thMty of nit of drpuner'ii ornwrr^B own soul; theory of 
vujiU roCMVod tiy thom f^ui otlier muU— Hlioat-Sou] looe in Appaii- 
tioni— Wioitla aad I>iTOblrs- -Soul hia form of B<nly; cuRon miilj- 
latioii villi it— Voimof Chnut— Soul trcaUil and dcGned at of Material 
Subctanco: thia aiipoun to Im (ha arigfiud daclrln*— TtuinnlKion oC 
Soula U> Horie* In (otpro lifo by Funonl StoifiH of wtvm, attmdiBta, 
vtc.— Sonla of Aaiuala— TliMr tniiiMiiiMioii by }*iin«TaL Sacrifice— Soula 
of I1ajit»— Souls of OlgocU—Tlitir trantmiffiioB Vj tiaitnX Sacrlfica 
— Kdntinu uf MVa|[e ilixtrino of ClbjccuSouU to Spicntoan theoty of 
IiIvja-HliitoTiciil (leT\>]u]<menl of DociUint) of SouIb, fiuin thn Btheroat 
Soul »F primitim Biology t^ ikn ImmRKtuI Soal of mmlrni Theology 


Cnltim or CinlLnttian— Its jtlmonenft rcUud ecconling to dflRnttn LAwa— 
M«tho<l of clauiBmtbn itn't disrusMon tX tho evidence — Conntriom of 
Mocoarc rtagM of cnttiirD by ]'Frtnan«ncc, ilmiirii^stiou, and Surriral— 
Princijio] lopict exautiui^jl iu Uie prviinit wurk. 

CcLTUBE or Civilization, takpn in its wide othnogmphie 
sense, is tliat complt-x whole wliirh indudoH knowledge!, belief, 
iiTt. morals In^, custom, and any otlior mpnbilitios and liabits 
aoquuod lij man sl& a ineuiber of society. Tlio condition of 
culture among the variouii Kocietieii of mnnkiitd. iu ku far as It 
is o^ble of being inveiitignted on general principlpit, is a sub- 
ject apt for the study of laws of liuinau tLouglit and action. On 
the one band, the iinifonnity which so Inrgcly peiradcs civihza- 
tiou may be ascribed, in gi'cat measure, to the uniform action 
of uniform cousch ; while on tho othci' hand its vurioux gnulos 
, XDaj be regarded as stagea of development or evolution, each 
':tiM outcome of previous history, aod about to do \\» proper part 
in tbaping the bistoty of the future. To tho ioTCStigation of 
these two great principles in several departments of ethnography, 
with especial consideration of the civilization of the lower tribea 
as related to the dvilizaUon of tho liighcr nations, the present 
volume<i are devoted. 

Our modem investigators in tho sciences of inorganic nature 
are foremost to recognise, both within and williout their fecial 

TOb L > 


fields of worit, the unity of natiirs, tlie fixity of itf: laws, tl'e 
definite Be([ueuce of cause autl effect iLroiigli wiiich every fact 
depends on wltat has gone bpfoFe it, and ads upon vrlmt is to 
come after it. Tliey gni.'<p firmly the Pytlingorpan doctrine of 
puTToding onlcr in tho iiniversiil Kusmas, nioy (iflfimi. with 
Aristotle, that uature is not fiill of incoherent cpiRodos, like a 
bail liaKfcIy. They agree with Leibnitz in wliat he calla "my 
axiom, that uaturo nuvcr acts by leaps (la uatun: n'agit jamais 
par saut)," oa vtH as ia his " great principle, commonly little 
employed, tliat nothing happens without its sufficient reason." 
Kor, Again, in studying the structure and habits of plant* and 
itninials, or in invcsti^ting the lower fanctions even uf man, 
ftro these lending ideas unacknowledged. But when we come to 
talk of tlic higher piuceKseK uf huniiin feeling and action, of 
thought and language, knowledge and art, a change appears in 
the prevalent lone of opinion. The world at lai'go is scarcely 
prepared to accept the general study of Imman life ax a branch 
of natural science, and to carrj' out, in a large sense, the poet's 
ijijuuction, to "Account for moral as for natural tliiaga." To 
nuiDy educated mmds tlicrc seems soniethingprosiimptiions and 
repulsive in the ricw that the liifitory of mankind is part and 
paixiel of the history of nature, that our tlioughtH, wilU, and 
actions accord witli laws aa definite as those which govern the 
motion of waves, the combination of adds uiid bases, and the 
growth of plants nnd animiils. 

The main rcfisom; of this state of the popular judgment &» 
not far to seek. Thera are many who would willingly accept n 
Kcience of htcitoty if placed Itcfore them with stdistantial doB- 
nitencss of principle and evidence, hut wlio not uiireu^souably 
reject the systems offered to them, as falling ton far Kliort of a 
scientific standard. Through re«Ktance sijch as this, real know- 
ledge always, sooner or later, makes ita way, while the habit of 
opposition to novelty does uiich excellent service against, the 
iuvajsioDS of speculative dogmatism, that we may sometimes 
even wish it were stronger than it is. But other obstacles to 
the inveetigaiion uf laws of human nature arise from consider- 
atioQS of metaphyuics and theology. The popular notion of free 
iiuman will involves not only freedom to act in accordance with 


motive, but also a power of breakiug Ioo«*e from conlintiity and 
acting without cause,— a conibinution whidi ttmy be roughly 
illiutratcd by the fiimilc of a balancft sometimes acting in the 
usual way, but also possessed of t1ic faculty of turning by itself 
without or against it* weights. This view of an anomalous 
action of the will, which it need hardly be said i« incompatible 
with HcientiHc argument, sabsisU as an opinion, patent or laleat 
in menV mindR, and ntrongly affecting tlicir theoretic vions of 
histoiy, though it is not, as a rulo, brought prominently forward 
in syHtomatic reasoning. Indeed the definition of human will, 
U strictly according with motive, in the only possible scientiiic 

'baas in such euquiriex. Happily, it in uot Qvcdful to add hers 
yet another to the list of dissertations on supernatural intcr- 
tcntioii and natural causation, on libertv, pvedestioatioTi, and 
Booountability. We may hasten to escape from the regions of 

fttansocndeutal philosophy ead theology, to start on a more 
hopeful journey over more practicable ground. None will deny 
that, OS each man knows by the evidence of his own conscious- 
ness, definite and natural cause does, to a great extent, deter- 
mine human action. Then, keeping aside from considerations 
of extra-uaturat interference and causeless spontaneity, let us 
taJce this admitted existcnco of natural cause and effect as our 

' standiug-ground, and travel on it so far as it will bear us. It 
is on this .tame Lnsi-^ that physical science pursues, with ever- 
increasing succejw, its quest of laws of nature. Nor need this 
restriction hamper the BciciitiBc study of human life, la which 
tlic real <lifltr.itUics «re the practiont ones of cnomiuus com- 
plexity of evidence, and imperfeclion of methods of obser- 

Now it appears that this view of hyman will and conduct, as 
sabject to definite law, is iudccd recogjh;:o<l and acted upon by 
the TCty people who oppose it whtn stated in the abstract as a 

LjCeneral principle, and who then complain that it annihilates 

rnuii's free-will, destroys his sense of pers-inal responsibility, and 
dcgnulcs htm to a soulless machine. He who will say these 
things will ncvortbclMS pass much of h« o«*n life in studying 
the motives which lead to human action, s^kiug to attain bis 
wishes through them, ft'aming in his mind theories of personal 


ebancter, rcckomag what aru likely tu be tlic oifucts of new 
Unnbinutionis and giving to his remioning the crovmiDg character 
of troe scieotilic iiniuirj-, by lakiiig il for granteJ that iu so far 
sa Ms calculation turns out wrong, cither his cvifieDce must have 
been false or iacoiDpIetc, or hU judgment upon it unsound. 
Such a ono \n\l Bam up the eiqicrienco of years spent in cotn- 
plex i-oUtioiis with society, by declaring his pcrauasion that thoro 
is a reason for e^erytliing in life, and that nhere CTunts look 
unaoconntable, the nilo is to wait and watch in hope thai the 
key to the prublam may some day bo fou ni This maji'a observa- 
tion may liave been as narrow as his inferences are crude ami 
prejudiced, but nevertheless he baa beBU an inductire philosopher" 
" more than forty years without knowing it" Hf has practically 
acknowledged defioit* laws of human thought and action, and 
has simply thmwn out of account in his own studies of life the 
whole fabric of niotiselcs.s will and imcaased spnntiujcity. It 
is a»»umcd here that tbcy nliould be just so tJuowu out of 
account in wider ittudie^, and tliat the true philoHophy of hitttory 
lies in fixtendiag and improving the methods of tho plain people 
who form tlic-ir judgment* upon fact*, and check them upon new 
facti. Whether the doctrine be wholly or but partly true, it 
accepts tho vciy condition under which we search for newknow- 
hdgo in the lessons of experience, and in a word tho whole 
countc of our rational life i» based upon it. 

"One event is always the son of another, and wo must never 
forget the parentage," was a remark mada by a Bechuana chief 
to Ca«alis the African missionary. Thus at all times liistorians, 
BO fiu* ax they have aimed at being more than mere chroniclers, 
have done their best to show nut merely Bnccansion, but con- 
nexion, amnngthe eveutsitpon their record. Moreover, they have 
striven to elicit general principles of human action, and \ij IIiobp 
to explain particular events, stating expressly or taking tacitly 
for granted the exbtence of a philosophy of history. Sliould 
any one deny the possibility of thus e:4tabliBhing hLfb>ricnl laws, 
the aunvcr is ready with whirh BoswoU in such a Ciwe turned 
on Jolinson : " Then, sir, you would reduci: all history U> no 
bott«r tboQ an olmauack." That ncrerthclcss the laimura of bo 
la&ny eminent thiokcrd should have as yet brought history only 


to the tlii-csliold of scicnco, De«il cftuso no woodor in those who 
considor tlio bewihkriiig complt-xity of the prohl«ms wUicli 
come before the general historian. The evidence from which 
lie is to diuw Tm oouclusioui- is at once no multifaiiuiis and so 
doubtful, Uiat a full and diirtinct view of its beaiing on a par- 
ticuhu* <{iic5tion is hanlly to be attained, ami thus the tempta- 
tion beconiea all but imaistible to garble it in support aC some 
Tougli and ready theoiy of the coui?e of eveota The philosopliy 
of bi.'<tory at large, oxplaiuin^ the ]Ki^t atid predicting tlie future 
plicuumcua of man'H life in the world by Tcftmrnco to gcncnvl 
laws, is iu fact a subject with which, in the jiroscut state of 
taywlcdge, evengeiiiua aided by wide research seems but hanlly 
able to cope. Yet there are departments of it which, Uiou^U 
difficult enough, aeem compamlively accessible. If the Bcid of 
inquiry be uarrowud i'roui Historj- as a whole to that bicuich of 
it ^vhicU h here cailed Culture, the hibtory, not of tribos or 
unttt^os, but of the couditiuu of koowledge, religion, art, cURtoni, 
and the likt uraoug them, tho task of itn-egtigiition proves to 
lie within far more? moderate corapa.iR. We suflfer aliil from the 
Kiimo kind of difficulties which Iwsct tho wider argument, but 
thoy are mach duuinished. Tho evidence is no longer so wildly 
Leti)rugi>neous, but maybe more Himplycl.i>»iiied aud compared, 
wbilu the power of gutting rid of extraiioous mutter, and treat- 
ing each issue on itii own [nisper wet of iactA, inakex cIom> reason- 
ing ua ibe whole more available ihan in general history. ThiH 
may appear from a brief preliminary cxamiuation of the prebleni. 
how the phenomena of Culture may be classitiod and arranged, 
stage by stage, in a probable order of evolution. 

Surveyed in a broad view, the chiuuctei' and habit of mankind 
at oiic« display tliat iiimilarity and comustcncy of phenomena, 
which led the Italian provcrb-iuakcr to dochkra that " all tho 
-world Is one country," " tutto il mondo i paeae." To geneml 
likeness in human nature on the cue baud, and to general 
likeucfa in the circumstaacetj of life on the other, tbiti ^milarity 
and conaistcQcy may uo doubt bo ti-aced, and they may be 
studied with especial fitucKS in comparing races near the same 
grade of dvitization. Little respect need be bad in such 
oompajiitoiis for date in hi^toiy or fur place on the map; the 



ancient Swiss lakc-ilwellcr rosy Ic wt Wflide the medieval 
Aztec, and Uic Ojibwa of Korth America licsjdc tbc Zulu of 
Sontli AiricH. Aii Ifr. Jolinson contempttiously raid when be 
Iiad read aLout Patagoiiiaos and South Sea lalnndcrs in 
Howk'.'Hworlh's Vovttgfs. " one set of 6ttva^:c» is hkc unotlicr." 
How true a generalization this rcallj is, any Ethnological 
Muscwm mny sliow. Examine for instance the edge*i and 
pointed instruments in swch a collection ; the inrentorj" iDcliidoH 
hatclict, adre, chiwl, knife, wiw, scraper, awl, Ti<»cdle, spear and 
arrow -hoail, ami of tlioce moet or all belong with only difiorenceB 
of detail to mcoK the moitt varioii!i. So it ih witii savagB 
occupations; the wood-ctiopping, Bsliing with not and line, 
xhooting and spearing ^ame, fire-ntakiiig, cooking, twisting cord 
and plaiting liiiKkets, repent theniwlvcs with wonderful uni- 
formity in tlie museum Khelves wliich illustrate the Ufo of tho 
lower races from Kamchatka to Tierra del Fuego, and from 
Dahomc t-o Hawaii. Even wheu It comes to comparing 
barburoiis hordes witli civilized uatiuns, the cotisidcrattoti thnisLi 
itself upon our minds, how far item after item of tlio life of the 
lower raccA posses into anidogoiis proceedings of the higher, in 
forms nntloo far changed to be recngiiized.aiid Bometimes hardly 
cba.ngc<l at all. Look at the rtiodci'ii European peasant umug 
liiit hatchet nud his liue, aec IiIh food boiling or roa-tliiig over thn 
log-fire, ob8er^'e the exact place which beer holds in hitt catcuLt 
tioQ of happincsD, hear his tale of the ghost in the nearest 
hannfed house, and of the farmer's niece n-ho w.i« bewitched 
with knou in bcr inside till she fell into lile and died. ]f wo 
choose out in this way things which have altered little iii a loug 
couiite of ccntunea, we may draw a picture where tlieix) slinli be 
scarce a Land's breadth dill'ereuce between on English plough- 
man and a negro of CVntntI Afrieiu These pages will be so 
crowded with evidence of f^uch eorrespoudeuce among mankind, 
that there is no nee^l to dwell upon itK details here, but it may 
he ufeU at once to override a problem which would complicate 
the argument, namely, the ipiestion (^ race. For the present 
piu-poMi it appeals holh possible and dcsirahle to eliminate 
considerations of ht-rcditary varietien or races of man, and^to 
Iroai miinkind as homogeneous in nnture, though placed in 


dificrciit grail«a of clviliKutioQ. Tbo dctailii of the enquiry will, 
1 thiuk, prove tliat stages of cultuiv uiay Iw compared without 
tiklug into account how far tribcji who uso the siLmo implement, 
follow the samo custom, or bclicrc the sAtne myth, mar diller 
in their bodily configuration and the colour of tlicir skin and 

A first step in the study of civilisation is to dissect it into 
(letoiK and to cliiaeify those in their proper groups. Thnu, in 
examining weapons, th«y ore to be classed under eponr, club, 
sling, bow and arrow, aiid so forth; among l4?3ctilo arts aro to 
bo ranged matting, nelting, antl sftverol grades of making and 
weaving threads ; myths are divided under such hoadiiiga as 
myths of ttunriKe and nunKet. ecIipKe-myth!!, eartliquake-niytlis, 
local myths whidi account for the names of places hy some 
fiuctful tnle, eponymic myths which account for the pareutagu 
of a tribe by turning its name into the name of an imaginary 
ancestor ; under iitc& and ctrcmonies occur such practices as the 
Tarionti kinds of sacrifice ii the ghosts of tho dead and to other 
spiritiinl beinss, (he turning to the past in worship, the purifica- 
tion of ccit-muiiiul ur moraJ uuclcnuiicK» hy mcuusof watcroriiro. 
Such are a few miRcellaneouR i-xamples from a liiit of hundreds, 
and the ctbuogixiphcr'sbusiueas is toela&sifysuch details with a 
view to making out their disli'ibution in geography and historj-, 
and the relations irhich exist among them. What this task is 
lifc(^ may be almost perfoolly illustrated by comparing these 
detaihi of culture ^vith the Rpcciea of ptauts and animals as 
studied hy the naturalist. To the ctli nogmplior, the bow and 
anow is a species, the habit uf Hattuniug cbildi-en's skulls is a 
species, tho practice of reckoning numbers by t<^nB is a .ipecies. 
Tbo geographical di^trihutlDn uf theiw things, and their trans- 
misaion from re^cm to region, havo to bo studied as the 
u&turaliH studies the geogi'aphy of his botanical and zoological 
(^lecies. Just as certain plants and aiiiiuals arc peculiar to 
certain diHtrictA, so it is with nuch instnimcnts as the Australian 
boomerajig, tlie Polynesian stick -an d-groove for fire-making, the 
tiny l>uw and arrow us^cd as a lancet or phlcmo hy triheii about 
the Isthmus of Piuuuna, and in like manner yni\i many an art, 
myth, or custom, found iHolated in a particular liuld. Just as 


the c«4aloguo of ajl the species of [dauts and auimaU of a 
tliKlrict roiurefenU itn Flora and Fauna, »o tho Viat of nil tho 
items of the general life of a pcoplo represent timt whole nliicb 
wo call its culture. And Just lut dUtant K>gioits 60 often 
prcxluci* vegutahles ntid animu.U wliicb arc analogous, tliougb by 
no means identical, m It k mtb tbe detailn of the civilixatioa of 
llieir iufaabitanu. How good a woi'king analog)' there really is 
between the diflusiou of phitita auil animals and the dtfTusion of 
civilizatiou, comes w«ll into view when wc notioc how for tho 
same causes liavo produced both at once. In district after 
dialrict, tho same causes which have iatroduced the ailtivated 
plants and domwticated animals of civihsatiou, have brought 
in witb thoui a cuiTttNpniuling art and knowledge. The course 
of oventfi which carried lion^os and wheat to Auierica catTied 
"with tlicm t}io U6G of tiiu gun and tho iron hatchot> while in 
return the old world received not only n;atze, potatoes, and 
turkeyn. but tho habit of smoking and the sailor's Itammock. 

It 18 a matter worthy of considcmtion. tliat tho accounts of 
similar phenomena of culture, recuixinij in different [larts of 
the wurltl, aeLiinlly supply incidental prouf uf tlicir own authen- 
liciiy. Some yeam since, a qucfltioa which hrings out this 
point wiui put to me by a great hiiitoriau — " Uow can a state- 
ment as to customs, myths, heliefu. Sec, of a Ravage tribe be 
treated a^i evidence where it depends on the testimony of wme 
traveller or missiomu-y, who may bo a superficial observer, more 
or less ignorant of the native language, a eurele»i retailer of 
unsifted talk, a man prejudiced, or even wilfully deceitful i" 
lliis question is, indeed, one which every eilmograpber ought 
to kcop clearly anil couM.iutly Ix'fcire his mind. Of he 
is IiouimI to use Im bettt judj^meut as to the tru^twurthine^js of 
all authors he i|uotctj, and if poHniblo to obtain several acc<nmt« 
to codify each po'mt in each locality. But it in over and above 
these measures uf precaution, that tlic teh-t of recurrence eouics 
in. If tvo iDdcpondont vifiitora to difiei<cnt couutriee, say a 
modici'al Uohammedau iu Tartary uud a uioderu EnglLsliman 
in Baliome, or a Jesuit missionary in Brazil loid a N^'c^eyan in 
tbe Fiji Islands, agree iu describing Komo unal<>goiis art ur rito 
or myth among tlie people they have visited, it becomes difficult 


OT impossible to set down such oocraipoBdence to a cc i den t or 
wilfu] fraud. A story hj a Lnshm^et' ia AanUalJA majr, pei- 
'liaps, be ol^i>cted to as a mbtake ix su mrMitioci. but di<l A 
etbudist«r in Gamea caii^iiTe with him to ciieot tbe 
bite by telUttg tba sudc Btoc; there T The pomlbilitjr uf tntcn- 
lonal or auititi?DtiQtial mjstification is oftcA faarretl by such a 
\e uf tkiugs OA that a Btnilar ttatement is made in two 
moti> lands, by two wiLocaocN^ of whom A tired a cealury 
fore B, and B appears Ddrer to have beaid of A. Uov 
b arc the cuuuuies. li«vr wide apait the date*, bow 
iffefcnt the creeds and cliaracten of the otMenruv, in tho 
'<!aUUogtie of facts of civilization, needa no fitftlicr iboviog 
to any one who will ereo glance at tho foot-note* of the 
Kscnt work. And tbe more odd tho statetncDt, tb« lew 
kely that itevenl people in Revera] plaom Khoul'l Ukv« made 
wrongly. This being eo, it seomti reMouoble to jwJge tluit 
tho statemcnt!t are in the main truly f^veu, and that tiuar 
and regular coincidence is due to tho eropping up of 
iimilar facts in variMun diKtrlcta of culture. Now tho uiiMt im« 
poi-taat facts of ethnography are roachi<d for in thin way. Kx- 
periencc leads the xtudeut after a while tu expcd iiud fuid that 
tbe phenomena of culture, as resulting fruni widcly-ncting nimilar 
causes, should recur .igain and agiun iu tho wiirld. lie even 
msta isutaled Btatcmcuiji to which be known of do parallel 
itsewhcrc, and waita for their gi.'iiU)Ucni»s to Ini nliuwu by 
irtesiMndiug necviuuttt front tlie ulber ttide uf the eartli, or tbo 
other end of history. So strung, indeed, in thw moauji uf au- 
thentication, that tlio ethnogr»]>her in hiit library may i>ome- 
^tiniM prosurac t« decide, hqI only whetlitr a. jMrticuUr uiplwrcr 
^^m a ^rowd and honeat observer, but aLta wbetlier wbal, bo 
^Heports is conformable to tbe goucriU rules of civilization, Sfon 

^^M To tarn from the dititribution of cnltnrc in difibront countnu, 
' to its diffttKiou within these countries. The quality of man- 
kind wbicb tfoda ma»t to mnke tho Kplonmtic NtnJy of i-jvili< 
zatioD potsible, is that remarkable tacit coiuenMu ur ugru^juiont 
which to far iuducfvi wbolc populatiotui to unite in tliu mui of tho 
luune languoge, 19 fijllow the ttamo religion and cuntomory law, 

I c anst 



to ^ettlo down to tbc fHiiiic ^ticial level of art And knowledge. 
It is tbU state of tliiiigs whicL makes it so far posaibla to 
iguoro exceptional facts ami to Ueecvibo natiODB by ft sort of 
g^ocml average. It is tliis st«tc of tilings which makeB it so 
far possible to represent immenBO masses of details by n few 
typical tactit, while, thcito once itcttled, new cases reeartlod by 
now observei's simply fall into thoir places to prove the sound- 
ness of the clasaiiicatioii. There is found to be sucli regularity 
in the composition of wiciotics of men, that wo ean dmp indi- 
vidual differences out of night, and thus can generalize on the 
axis and opinions of whole nationn, jiiKt dk, when lookiug down 
upon an army frum a hill, we fopj^ot the individual Holdtt-r, 
whom, in fact, vre can scarce diKtinguish in the mass, while we 
see each regirncnl as an organized l)oi!y, sprcaditig or ct»ncen- 
tratiug, moving in advance or in retreaL In some branctie* 
of the study of social Uws it is now pofsible to call io ihe aid 
of st.iti.stic4, Anil to set apart special actionti of large mixed 
oommunities of men by mi^nnH of laxgatlicrcrs' scheduler, or 
the tables of the insurancc-ofEce, Aniou^ modern arguments 
on the laws of liumftu action, none have had u dt-'cper ettbct 
than getteralizatiomt such as thwe of M. Quetelet, on the rc^- 
larity, not only of such raattc-Ts as average staturo and tbo 
annual rates of birth and denth, but of the recurrence, year 
afler year, of such oljBcure and Roemingly inealculable products 
of national life as the DumbcTK of mnnleni and suicides, and 
the proportion of the very weapons of crime. Other striking 
cases are the annual regularity of jwrsons killed accidentally in 
the Londnn streets, and of undirected letters dropped into post- 
office letter-boxes. But in ejcamining the culture of the lower 
races, for from having nt command the measured arithmetical 
iactfl of modem statistics, we may have to judge of the condi- 
tion of tribes from the imperfect accounts supplied by lravcllcr» 
or missionnrit's, or even to reason upon relics of prc-hisloric races 
t^ whose very nziuies and IangiiagL-» wu are hopvdcssly ignoroDt. 
Now thc»o may seem at the Bret glance Kmlly indefinite and 
unpromising materials for a scientific enquiry. But in fact 
they arc neither indefinite nor unpromising, but give evidence 
that is good and definite, so for as it goes. They are data 



which, for tW £ai 
coBdtttoD 0^ tke 
oompuiiun vitk tl 
» «oiw ■mil haj. * a> 
wone M>?ei ana ynfn^ . 
dotd, an aeea«M af ai 
of oamtsaK 
cxpnaa iite wttte «f 
cuUtuc; a» tmfr a* A 
todof <kab«iriaa; 

notice «d fiolr 
of it It B«ii 
men that 

geDerafidag ^ l^ ta^ 
niili till iiiirfMiiiii Y 
pofiajit tatlK mm* m 
irhit matiiiii 11^ tlm nmm 
the aefwabeBb frf" 
rfthearti—rfmi ■■iimfilj^ai 
c^wMc «r a vSd* virv trf" aoKartr, is af)df docrilKd ia tfe Mfr- 
nfthakbe "canMCaee ClaeltRsAfctllWtmeft* fi^aalW 
MImv hand, the f-M^rT^tf aanr be as aat«iiaipaB la* jif l 
laiMof MMae^aato B^^MXtfae tnHniad a«t«a«f wlHa All 
Mciety ift a*dc Dp, uikI «f him it mmr W Mid Chat b* «aaMl 
M* tL« tttow (or (Jtw lunsL Wc kiMiv iio*' itfK «■•■■•. «a4 

manr tndmdoak. 14* tihUii aetifjo* bUh motitt; and cfleK flftoi 
eosie qtal* diKtisetlj waliaB our vitrv. The faiaU«7 tfau iftvea- 
tioe, as ojnniun, » a a i - nxi oy, in a biaLoty of aaggBMiiai aad 
mndificBtioa. cneoaiagwpgn and ofipaBfiiaai, pwa oaal gmn aad 
{MulT prvjudice, atkd the iodividiialB wmuBraed ad aai^ aeeaad- 
tug lo bit oini oantiTe*. a» defeanaased I7 hii chaiartrr aad 
dccanartaMcs. tRiiu (nmetiafla wm vatcb iadjiiduab adiitg 
iar thtrir oira endii wilh httlethotgllfcrf thetr cfiEct oo aofaeqr 




at latge, and sometimes we tiave to Rtutly movcmetitii <tf 
national lifu as si wliolc, wlieii? iho individuals ci>-opt*ratiu;j in 
them ar« utterly "beyond our tjliservation. But- st-eiiig tliut 
collective social action is the were resultsut of aiany iiidividiuil 
actiomi, il is l:U^ar that Hiean two tnuthwU of cmjuiiy, if rightly 
followcHi. iniist be absolutely coiiRistcnt* 

In Mtudyiiig bulli Uic recurrence of Hpcclal habits or Jdcaa iu 
several (lifitrict«, and their prevalence within each district, there 
come bcfoi-e us cvcr-niitorulcd proofs of regular cauivittoo pro- 
diiciDg the phciiomeim of human life, and of lawii of Diaititeii- 
aocc and (liffuBioiL according to which tlicsu plienouiena settle 
into pcnnoncnt fitandard cuuditioDA of suelcty, uf defiuitc sta^C-^ 
of culture. But, wliilc giving full importance to the evidcuco 
beaiiDg on these standard conditions of society, Itt us be careful 
to avoid a pitfall wbicli may entrap the unn-ary studont. Of 
course, the opinions and habits belonging in common to 
masses of mankind ore to a great extent the results of sound 
Judgmpnt and practical wisdom. But to a great cxt«ut it is not 
so. Tliat nianv numerous socioties of men kIiouIc^ have believed 
iu the influence of the evil eye and the exisWnce uf a firuia- 
iiient, Klioidd have sacrificed slaves and gouda to the ghosts of 
tlio depailed, should have hnndcd down traditions uf giants 
slaying monsters and men tuniing into beasts — all this is 

jund for holding that sikIi ideas were indeed priiducecl in men's 
Fminds by efficient causes. Iiut il la not ground fur holding that 
bhe rites in qnestion arc profitabl<^ tlio beliefs sound, and the 
history authentic. This may seem at the tin^t glance a tniittm, 
but, iu fact., it i» the denial of a fulkcy which di-cply alfectat the 
minds of all but a smalt critical miuonty of mankind. Populai'ly, 
what overybodysays must be true, what everybodydocs must be 
right — " Quod nbique, quod semper, quod ab onmibus creditum 
est, boc est vorc propricquc C'atholicum " — and so forth. There 
arc various topics, especially in historj*, law, philttfophy, and 
theology, where even the educated people we live among can 
hardly be brought to see that the cause why men ilo hold lui 
<^in)oii, or practise a custom, is by no means necssearily a 
leasoD why they ougtit t^i do so. Now eoltection& of ethno- 
graphic evidence, Iwiugiug so prominently into view the agico- 




and wide eavKK irf 
mare dw vanrf »4 
It bei^ Aon 1 
btMg ili n i lt ii l iaa 
aitt, t Arf i^ ^BCiB 
next knr far A»6et 

flinnilMB DHB ■•• 

tint Ifce oraapB m 

take op acMi tke Htnl UilHy 3Hlnlian. it mmj be 
tbai tk? w« ^MBB vlic^ tc^ to ras widrij inlo 

1 ml irtir ii ii niimii li Hi jirHinn riiir nliriw nwi irf 1 
gTuups ban to sAm, it ii pfaitt tbai lb* itadnt of the 
of manbiBd Ims » great adnatage onr the itadeBt of tke 1 
of {ilmi «m1 Musiafa. Anwog iMttonlisu it is aa open 
wbrtbva theoiTof denlBpHnat frmi apeam to ipeae* 
teoord of tnmitioiu whidi aeCoally took piaee, or a laaro 
M^€iB« «ernenUe in tbe danfieatioB of %peam whom 
V3S really tadepeadeaL But among etbnagi^ihan Utanht 
RQcli f|aettion u to tbe posibitll; of spacim of inipUtnetita or 
hainta or belief being devek^ied ooe oat of aootber, for dev«lop-j 
rocot in rultnra is recognixcd by our must familimr koowledf 
Hech^ical invention sappUcM apt examplM of the kind of de- 
velopment wtiicli affects cinlization at lar'^. In the biitoij of 
fire-anus, the clumsy wheel-lock, in which a notched steel 
wheel wm turned by a Iiandle aguiut tlie flint till a spark 
cntight ttie priming, led to the invention of (lie more sen-iceabl* 
flint-lock, of which a few still hong in the kitchens of our fiuin-' 



Eonaet, for Ibo boyo to tdioot kuioU birds wlUi at CUristiuas ; tbc 
flint-lock in time passed by an obvious modification into tbc 
pcrcnssiou-loclc, wbich in jiitrt. nov changing its old-fashioned 
arrangement to bo adapted from muzzle-loading to broech- 
looding. The modiaival uHtrutabe passed into tliutiumJnuit, now 
discarded in it^ ttirn by tho t^eamiui, who uses tlic more delicate 
sextant, and so on tliroiigb tiiu hibtoiy of one aii. uud inKtrumoDt 
after another. Such cxample» of progrojision Icno\\*n tu us 
u direct history, but so thoroughly is this notion vf develop* 
mentat hoin» in uur minds, ttiat by niean^ uf it we rt-cdutctmct 
tost lii&tory without scruple, truxtiug to general knowledge of 
the principles of Iiumau thought and action as a guide in putting 
the fads in tiieir proper order. Whether chronicle sptaks or iu 
silent on tbc point, no one comparing a long>bow and across* 
how would duubt that tbc cross-bow was a development arising 
from the liimpler itistniment. So among the tiavage fire-drilla 
for igniting by friction, it seems clear on the face of the matter 
that the drill worked by a cord or bow is a later improTcmcnt 
on the clumsier priraitivo instrument twirled between the 
handj. That instructive cUss of Hpecimens which antiquaries 
sonietimcs discover, bronze celts uiodcllDJ on the hoa'.'y type of 
the stone batchctr ore iiearcely explicable except as first steps in 
the transition from the Stone Age to tho Broozo Ago, to be 
followed soon by the next stage of progress, in which it is dis- 
ooreied that tlie new material is suited to a handier and lam 
waateful pattem. Aiid thus, in 'tho other branches of our 
history, there will come again and again into view series of facta 
which may be couaisteutly arranged as having foltoweil one 
ancdber in a particular oider of development, but which will 
hardly bear being turned round and made to follow ja reversed 
order. Such for instance are the facta I have here brought 
forward in a chapter on the Art of Coantiog, which tend to 
prove that as to tiiis point of culture at least, aa^'age tribes 
reached their position by learning and not by unlearning, by 
olevatiou from a lower rather than by degradation frum a higher 

Among evidence aiding us to trace the course which thecivili- 
zatioD of the world bos actually followed, is that great class of 



p «£ McieM habits IS iM^ «M 

Bd ill MMos bebr to \mgm 
fiA-btc vUb ■tiLiiiLilil ^faita of old-mtU 
■wM teas cl31 pawcrful £ar 
I sU tWiSktB aad pKCMs wiU bom 
Um ■ * at a weiU tkaS tbot^t Umm 

long Knee dead or ^ying ; here ntrriral passes into i^nl^ as 
has ktcSy hap p f ne J in so wmarkaMg a way in Uw hidoty of 
modcfB qiiritaalisni, a iob}ecs fall of inxtnictMin from tbe 
eiluiepapbei's poiot of new, Tbe stotiy of tfae principles of 
aorrival bac, indeed, no small practical itnportann^. lor moat of 
what we call HupeistiUon is indaded within Burriral, uiJ in this 
way lies open to tbe aitack of lU doadEeet CDcroy, a roaaooablo 
ujiplaaatioti. losignidcaBt, mnreorer, as multitudes of the 6kcts 
of surviral are la iliciaselves, tlieir study id n> effeolire fur trac- 
ing the couno of tlic htstoiical iic%x-lopmciit through which alotio 
it IB po^blc to tmder^tand their meaning, that tt bvconiM a 
vital point of ethnographic research to gain the cicarcttt possible 
insight into their nulnre. ThU importance must Juplify tho 
tietail here dcvottd to an examination of survival, on thu 



evidence of each gajnc*, popular sayings, customs, suporetitions, 
ntid the ]ike, a» may servef well to bring into view the ntanner 
of its oporatiou. 

Pi'ogrCRa, dcspYulation, sun'ivnl, revival, modificntion, are oil 
modes of tho connoxion that binds togothor the complex net- 
work of civilizaiion. It uoeds but a glanco into the trivial 
HetaiU of our own daily lifp to Ret ns thinking hovp far wo are 
really ks uriginatore, nnd how fnr hut llm triuismitters anil inodi- 
fiors of the ri'sidts of long past ages, Ijooking round the rooms 
we live in. we may try here how far he who only knows his own 
time can be capable of rightly comprehending even that Here 
is the honoytnickic of Assyria, there tho fleurnic-Iis of Anjou, a 
cornice with a Greek border nina round the ceiling, the style o{ 
Louis XIV. and its parent tUo Rcnoiasancc shore the looking- 
gUws between tliem. Trnnsformcd, shifted, or mutilated, such 
elements of art still carry their history plainly stamped upon, 
them ; and if the Iiistor)' yet farther behind is lesw easy to read, 
we are not to say that bocauso we cannot cIcArly discern it 
tliere i.s therefore no history there. It is thu.4 even with the 
fashion of the clothes men wear. Tlio riiHctiloutt little tails of 
the Qerman ptwlillion'a coat rIiow of themselves how thoy came 
to dwindle tu such absurd mdimcDtjt; but th« Engllih clergy- 
man's bands no longer so convey their history to the eyo, and 
look iiuaccuuntablo enough till one has seeu the intermediate 
atagvii through which they came down from tlie moro service- 
able wide collars, anch as Milton wears in his portrait, and 
which gave their nmuo to the *' baud-box" they used to be kept 
In fact the hookii of costume, showing bow one garment 


gniw or shrank by gradual stages and passed into another, 
illustrate vith much force and clearness the nature of the 
cbango and growth, revival and decay, which go on from year 
to year in more important matters of life. In books, again, wo 
me eacli writer not for nnd by himself, but occupying his proper 
place in history ; we look ttii'ough each philosopher, wathomn- 
tician, chemist, poet, into the background of Inn education, — 
tkiuugb Leibnitz into Descartes, through Dalton into Priestley, 
through Hilton into Homer. The study of language boa, per- 
haps, done more than any otiier in removing from our view of 

huccati thought and atHioa tbo ideas of cbanc? and ai-bltrary 
invention, and in sulwtitiiting for them a theoryof dtvelopmcnt 
"by tht- co-operation of individual men, throngli processoK ever 
Teasonnblo and intelligiblo whoie tho facts nro fully knowu. 
Hudimentary as the science of ctiUuro -itill i*, the symptom!) are 
becoming rery strong that even what seem its most spontaneous 
and motivdeM pheuomena will, neverthclesa, he shown to come 
within the range of distinct caasc and effect as certainly as tbc 
fact«i of mechanics. Wliat would he popularly thoiiglit more 
indefiuite and uncontrolled than the products of the imagina- 
tion in myUiK and fables ? Yet any syiiiematic iuvcsligatiou of 
mytUology, on the baflia of a wide collection of evidenci?, will 
show plainly enough in such efibrta of (ajicy at once a develop- 
m€at fi-om stage to stage, and a production of luiiformity of 
weult from uniformity of catiM. Here, ae elsewhere, causeless 
spontaneity is f«cn to reoeile farther and fartlier into shelter 
within tlio dark precincts of ignorance ; like chance, that still 
lioldn its place among the -^-ulgar as a real cause of events other- 
180 unaccountable, while to educated men it has long con- 
sciously meant nothing but thiii ignorance itself. It is only 
when men fail to soe the line of connexion in events, that tliey 
are prone to fall upon tbo notions of arbitraiy impulses, cause- 
less freaks, chance and nonsense and indefinite iiuaccountability. 
If childish games, purposeless customs, absurd superstitions arc 
set down as spontaneous because no ouc can say exactly how 
they camo to ije, the assertion may remind us of the like effect 
that the eccentric habits of tbe wild rice-plant had on the phi- 
losophy of a Rod Indian tribe, ollirrwise dispOHud to kcc in the 
harmony of nature the effects of one controlling personal will. 
The Great Spirit, sold these Sioux theologians, mndc all tilings 
except the wild rice ; but the wild rice came by chance. 

" Man," said Wilhelm von Humboldt, " ever connects on from 
what lies at hand (del- Mcnsoh kniipft immcr an Voriiandcnce 
an)." The notion of t Uo continuity of civilization contained in this 
maxim is uo barren philosophic principle, but is at once mndo 
practical by the consideration that they who wish to undarstaad 
their own lives ought to know the stages through which their 
opinions and baUts liave become what they are. 
vvu L 




Comt4 scarcely civerstatctl tlie Deccsnty of tlii-i Ktudy of 
developmeDt, when he (leclared at the bcgiimiug of lus 
'Positive Philosophy' that " no conception can be uDcleiHtood 
except through its historj'," and hh phrase will bear extension 
to cultura at large. To expect to look motlera life in the fece 
aod comprohcnd it by mere impection, is a kind of philosophy 
cfaat can costly he tested, linaj^iuc uiiy udc cxpluioing the 
triTifll saying, " a little bird told nie," without knowing of the 
old belief in the language of binU and beasts, to vrliich Br. 
Paaent, in the iotroduction to the Norse Talcs, so reasonably 
traces its origin. To ingenious uttt.*mpts at cxplmoing by the 
light of reason things which want the light of hintory to show 
their meaning, much of the learned nonsense of tho world has 
indeed been due;. Mr. Maiuc, in his 'Ancient Law,' gives a 
perfect instance. In all the literature which eit^liriLes the 
pretended philosophy of law, ho remarks, there is nothing more 
curious thua tho pages of elaborate sophistry in -which Black- 
stone att«rapt9 to oxplain and justify that extraordinary rule of 
English law, only recently repealed, which probihitod sons of 
the same fnthor by difiorcnt mothers from succoodiag to one 
another's land. To Mr. Maine, knowing the facts of tho case, 
H was easy to explain its real origin from tho " Customs of 
Normandy," whero according to the system of agnation, or 
kinship on the male mie, brothers by tho same mother but hy 
different fathers vjor^ of course no Telations at all to one 
another. But when thin rule " wa.s transplanted to Kugland, 
the English judges, who had no clue to its principle, interpreted 
it as a general prohthition against Oiv suoccssioa of the half- 
blood, anil extended it to coniunguincous brothers, that is to 
SODS of the same father by different wives." Then, ages after. 
Blackstonc Bought in this hlinider Uie perfection of roaaon, and 
fennd it in the argument tliat kinship through both parente 
ought to prcTAil over evt-n a nearer degree of kinship through 
but one perent \ Soch are the risks that philosophers run in 

> Bhckitone, 'CotBSiesUileB.' " Jtt tnrymittt'* own blood U compouniltd 
of tha 1)loads ct liii reqwctiva oooHtcn^ he ddI^ is propi?r1j' of tins wliule or 
«iiliT«Uood Willi «iielh6r, wholulh («o fcriw tli*iti««prinif <1(.^«'*^ will ptxmit), 
all tlM WM iogndicnta in tbc oooii>«Mtion of Ilia ^loml Uiat the otbcr hnti), " «tc. 

rnx SCIENCE of culture. 


detaching aoy pheDomenoD of civiliz&tioo irom its hold oo pMt 
events. Olid treatiog it us an istilattil fuct, to he simply dtsiKScd 
of by a guess at aome plausible explanation. 

In carryiog on the great task of ratioual ethnography, the 
inTC!!tigatioaof the cauiios v/\ucl\ have produced the phenomena 
of cultui-e, aod the laws to which they ai'e subordinate, it is 
desirable to work out as systomAtically as possible a scheme of 
evolution of this culture along its muny lines. In the following 
aaptcr, on the Development of Culture, an nttempt is made to 
cetch a theoi-etical course of civilization uinonj; mankind, such 
08 appears on the whole most aooordant with t ho evidence. By 
compariuj^ the varioua stages of civilization among races known 
to history, with the aid of aivhieological inference from the 
remains of prc-historic tribes, it BGoms possiblo to Judge in » 
.rough way of an early gi^neral condition of man, winch from our 
^point of view is to be regaided as a primitive condition, what- 
ever yet earlier stale may in reality have laJu behind it Thb 
h)-pothciical priraitivo condition corresponds in a considerable 
de^ec to that of modern envage tribes, who, in spite of their 
difierence und distance, haro In common certain elements of 
civiliiialioQ. which seem rcmaiDH of an early state of the human 
race at larga If this hypothesis l>o true, then, notwithstanding 
fteo continual intcrf<:rencG of degeneration, the muu tendency 
of culture Irom primaeval up to modem times has been from 
mvagcry towards einlixation. On the problem of this relation 
Wf savage to civilized lUo, almost every one of the thousands of 
fecta discussed in the Rucoeeding clinptcra has ibi direct beariug. 
Sunrivol in Culture, placing all along the course of advancing 
eivilizatiou way-marks full of meauiug to those who can 
decipher their signs, even now sets up in our miditt piiuuBval 
'monuments of barbaric thought and life. Its investigation tells 
latrongly in favour of the view that the European may find 
among the Qreenlanders or Maoris many a trait for reconstruct* 
ing tlic picture of his own primitive ancestors. Kcxi come* 
the problem of the Origin of Language. Obscure as nuuiy parts 
of tills problem still remain, its cleorur poaiUona lio open to tho 
invent ignt ion, whether speech took lis ori^n among mankind in 
tho eafagu state, and the result of the enquiry is that, cuDStfi- 



t«aUjr with nil kuowu evitlcvco, tliis may have been tlie case. 
From ttie exftmination <^ the Art of CoDDtiDg a far more de6nite 
oooaequcitoe i* sliowu. It mtiy be confidentlv asserted, that 
not only is thin important art fgiind in a nidimentarjr state 
among savnge tribes, but that satiHrootoTy evidence proves 
namcmtUiii to linvc been devclopird by ratiouuJ invciillon froia 
ihia Imv fitage up to that in which we ouraulvcs pottscsa it. The 
examiaation of iMytliol<^ vrliich concludes Uie 6r8t volume, is 
for the most part made from a epccial point of riev, on evidence 
collected for a &pecial purpose, that «f tracing the relation 
between the mjihg of Ravage tribes and their analogues among 
moro dvilbsod nations. The iasue of such cuquiry goes far to 
prove tliat the myth-maker arose and flourished among 
savage horde«, setting on foot an art wliich his more adtitred 
successors would carry on, till its results come ti) be fotidUzed in 

I superstition, inuitakeu for hietory, shaped and draped in poetry, 

' or CiiSt aside as lying folly. 

Nowhere, perhaps, are broad views of liiNtorical development 
more needed than in the study of religion. Notwithstanding 
ull Unit han bt-c-n wrilleu to make thu world aaiuuinu^I with 
the lower tbeologieA. the popular idea« of their place in history 
and tLinr relaliun to the faiths of higher nations arc still of the 
medi-TTal type. It is wonderful to contrast some missionary 
joumitla with Max MuUor's K.s3ays,and to set ibe unapprectnting 
hatred and ridicule that is kvislicd by narrow hostile leal on 
Brahmaniam, Buddhism, Zoroastrism, betiide tbo catholic sym- 
patliy with which deep and wide knowledge can surrey those 
ancient and noble pliascs of man's religious coawiousnoits ; 
nor, boeauso tbo religious of savage tribes may bo rude and 
priinitive, comparo<L with tbe great Asiatic syEtems, do tliey 
lie too low for inU>i-e»>-t and even for respect* The (question 
really lies lietween imderetimding and misunderstanding tliem. 
Few who will give lh<.'ir minds to mnHter tlie gciierul principles 
of savage religion will ever again think it ridiculous, or the 
knowledge of ib snpucfluouji to tbe rest of mankind. Far from 

its beliefi< and practicea being a rubbii^h-heap of miscellaneous 
folly, tbcy Kro connvtcnt and logical in so high a degree as to 
begin, as soon as even roughly classiiied, to display the prin- 



ciplcs of tlioir fonnatiOD and dtsrolopmcnt ; Oiud tbcso priuciplcs 
proTo to he essentiaUy i-ationaJ, though -nrorkin^ in o. mental 
condition of intense and inveterate ignonuice. It is with a 
sens« of nttetnpting an iiivetitigation whtdi besra very closely ou 
tlia current theology of our owd day, thnt I Imve not myself to 
exjimine aysteinatically, among the tower mces, the devclop- 
ment of Animiton ; l1]at Li Ui s&y, the iluutrinu of suuU and 
otlier spiritual beings in gonoroL The second volume of this 
work is in great pait occiipled with a mass of evidwuoa from all 
r^ions nf the world, displaying the nature and meaning of 
tim great clomcnt of the Philosophy of Religion, and tr&dng 
its trawinit.'uion, expniusinn, n^triction, moditirntion, along iliu 
course of history into the midst of our own modem thought. 
Nor arc the questions of small practicul moment which hare 
to be raised in a similar attempt to trace tlic derelopmcut of 
cerfaia prominent liiteit and Cercmouios — cuBfoms bo full of tu- 
struction as to the inmost powcre uf rcligiou, whose outward 
expression and practical result they are. 

In tliejte investigntioDs, Jtowcvcr, made rather from nn cthno- 
grnphie than a theological point of view, thoro has seemed 
little need of entering into direct controversial argument^ 
which indeed I have Uikcn pains to avoid as far as possible, 
The couueikioQ which ruu.s througli religion, from its rudest 
forms up to the stntui? of an enlightened Oiristianity, nuiy he 
convc'oienily troatGd of with little rwoiirso to dogmatic tlieo- 
logj'. The ritea of sacrifice and puriticalion may l»e studied in 
tlicir stnges of development witliout entering into questions of 
tlveir authority and value, nor does an examination of tho 
miooessive phases of the world's belief in a future life demand 
a diACUBsioQ of the urgumcntt that may he adduced upon it for 
our own conWctiotu Such cthuugrapliic results may then bo 
left aa materials for professed theologians, and it will not per- 
haps 1m9 long before evidence ao fraught with meaning shall 
t«Ico it» legitimate place. To fall back once again on tho 
analogy of natural history, the time may ftoon come wlicn It will 
be thoufflit as unreasonable for a scientific fitudent of theology 
not to have a competent acquaintance with the prjnciplc.s of tlia 
religions of the lower races, aa for a pbyaiologiat to took with 



(j^ ^,<.(.-,..|^ t;f f)/i|y y^ua R0O </D crideaoa 4«rired frocn tlw 
li'> 'ff Itf*', (JMnnEoy tbo •tntclur« of men iiiTerl«lffate 

wwUtiriui mutter ufiworthy of hit philo»'*]>liic study. 

Nirl iD'T'-ly tw n iiiiilUir of ouriviut rc<tc*rch, but m an impor- 
Iwit |i(M'i.|'!i>| {{iitilo t<i tliv tindorvtiUKling of the present, and 
llto «tii))(iiij of liiv fiiliin-, ibo inTWligslton into the origin and 
Mrly ilttVt»lo]uikont of riviliKntion mu»l Itu piishet] on 9!«aloii3]y. 
fivaiy jMi>Miltl» »vi>iiii<i uf liti(iwU'*I}{4i niUMi bo explored, every 
door Uled to wv ir il In i»p<.<n. No kind of orideoce need be left 
iilitiiiirti(n| fin tlin iPDro of rmnotonoiw or rotnplpxity, of minute- 
rtitM HI inviiilily. TIki tvudoouy of imMlc>ru onquiiy U mure and 
mora liiwniil tlin onnnliwion tlwt if low U anywliere. it- is eveir- 
wlioni, Til dt'»iiiiir uf what u coiuH-'ifUtious colk-ciion and study 
of fiirm limy Imtil 1o, nml to (Itrclnrc any pn>l>lcm insoluble, 
Inmwumi lUDIiHill and far off, U distinctly lo be on the wrong 
•Ido 111 Dcitiiif^i ; mill Ihi wliii will rhooiu o tinpuluxs to^ may set 
lilnMHilf Iti dUiuvpr tliu limila uf Uiticuvcry. One remembers 
CVntito blitrlinM in hiti ooconut of oAti'uuouiy witli a ifniark <m 
tUu uii'tMMvy limilntiuu of unr kiiowlodgo of tlio eturs ; wo 
vuuouivi', hi' k'lln UN, tlio iH>N<i)>ility of deterDuaiog their 
fiini), dUtnmv, »lio, Aud inovvtui-ut, whilst wo abotdd nenr bj 
wiy nivltxnl \v AbUi to rtudy thftr cJiomicAl composition, thdr 
nui^ ' ' ' 'viK-lim\ t^o, HhA the pbiloeopbor liv«d to see 
lit k'f i<|vvtnim oMlj-siii to this my ptttblem, bis 

(u< It 0^ Iho di*iiiniii\B doctrine of boocmuj jgaonmee 

vcMtiit jH-iitAjM Kavq b««a rwMttMi in Ekvomt ot m mora bopeAd 
ti««> AmI it Meittt to be nnh tbo ptukMipby at temoto 
Imiumi \Af MiAMwtutt u viih tlie itudy of ttte Batnre of the 
ttihitiiil Ki«tiiaL TVa pnewsaa «o ba nads o«t in tbe ckHt 
i^(M of oMT wmtal vraktxn bt <lHta»k ftoM w Id tiae as ^tt 
iAMM he dMtaM mw m in ^«e«^ but ibe lavs of tbe 9mmu& 
M»wKwalwlwitkll»JiwrtiilMiiiliiwefonraniiM Tkn 
biwl laWirial lu W HaJ in e«r ea^any-; anj valEtn an 
■WW UuwU m Wi^pitf Am ankmal iata aftii^ ifae^gb Enfe a^ 

Ww .W* Uwtt ^rtM Hft fM(Mrt&M to «te RHMB to 4b ; JbJ 

liN«J^ Amfm^mt^ to» «>* to ay tfcet theiMft iiitliaiirf 



8t«£M of ciUtisv, ti>du9lri'il| intolltctnAlt political, mvral — Darvlciinnent «f 
ciltiuv in siMt inc-uuro cDrmpmiila Kith tTandtlon from inm;^ thrangh 
bailieriG to civiliiod life — Prngir^sian-theory— I>gwionitioii-tli''oTy — 
l)ovtiepneiit-tli««ty incluiln* liotli, (ho ouu u primary, tho aiiiet lui tf^ien- 
tUi7— Hiotoricii «a<l tTnilitioita] «vid«nc« not AniluUe u to low ntnffiM of 
cnlUire— Hiatotii-iil critlirnco as to [iriQcl|i)c«ori>^|«an«tton— EilkDolojjciciil 
•ridoDco Bs to m» Hsd fnll in ciiharv, from cnrnpaTuon of (tiflcrDiit IcveU of 
culture in bnuidiM of Ui« Mimo noo^F.xInit of lu*tariamll}- rvcoixlnl anti- 
luity of dvilUatiuu — fruluiloriu Arebwolc^ cxlanda die antUjiitty of max fa 
low sti^^ of nitiliuiinn — Tn«M of Stono Ag*, («rroborat>.nl l>y majplitlito 
»tnutun«, liik<-Jw< Uiugf, «bcll-L«ap«, burial ■|'l««i", *o., oonibiiii) to provo 
oiigiiiol low culturi! tlirougliDttt Ha vrwU— fitngcs of progretAin Dctvclop* 
Hunt In fauliutiial uUi 

I>' takiug up tlic problem of the Jevclopmcat ofcuUurc as a 
branch of ethnological researcli, a first proceeding is to obtain a 
means of mcosurfmcut. Seelfinjj something like a defioite liiio 
nlong which to reckon proga'saioii unj rvtrugrcsiiioii in civiUza- 
tioQ, ire may appareotly find it beat in the clnsiiificatioa of real 
tribes and nations, past aiid prvscut. Civilizatiou actually oxist- 
ing among maokind la different grades, we aro enabled to esti- 
mate and compare it by positive esamples. The educated world 
of Eiiro[>o and Amorirn practically RCttlcB a standard by simply 
plociag ita own natiuu>i At one end of the oocial )teric<i and 
loivnge tribes at tbe other, arranging the rest of mnnkitid 
between these limits accurdiiig aa thuy coiTt-spoud more clo»oly 
to savage or to cnltured life. The priiicipn.1 criteria of claiwifica- 
tion are the absence or preaeuce, high or low development, of 
the industrial arts, especially metal- working, mauufaeture of 
implements and vessels, agriculture, nrchitccluro, &c, tlie extent 
of sciciitiiic kouwledgc, the deftniteuesn of moral principle'^, the 



coti<lkton of religioUH beliof and ceremony, tlie degree of xocial 
nnd pfiliticol cii^tiixation. antl fio fortli. Thus, on the definite 
lituii» nf coiiipiirvil foctM, ulliitogntplicn arc abit- tu set up at 
[i.-Mt A roiiyli Male of civilization J'ew would dispute that the 
fnlUiwinH n\(T% we nrrangud rightly in order of culture:^ 
Aafltralinn, T&liitian, Aztec, C'bii>c8e, Italian. By treating 
thn tl(3Vo](i|)iucnt. of civilizutiun on this plain cthuogropbtc 
iMuia, many dithciillii-n mny be avoided which havo embarrasGed 
itH diHUSiioii. ThU iiiuy be kocu by u glance at the relation 
whioli thooroticnl principles of civilisation bmr to the tnmsi- 
tioaB (<i bo obitvTvcd 04 uiAltiT of fact bQtnccn the extremes of 
Hnraf^ nnd rtiltuml life, 

Vroia an iiliMil juiint of v'lov, civiliKatJoo may lie looked upon 
tut tlie gtiiittml iiiipmvunH-iit of maukind by higher organization 
of tho indtvidunl nnd of society, to tho end of promoting at 
Olico ninn'i goodnetM, power, nnd happiness. This theoretinal 
dvilixnticm doca in no Bmnll monstire rorroapond with actunl 
civilizHtiou, as tniood by cowpariug bavagciy with barb&risiu, 
and barbaiiun with modem rtlucatitl life. So far as we take 
into accuunl only material and intellectual culture, this is 
especially trua Acqiiaintaneo with tho pbyeical laws of tbe 
valid, and Uio aecompanyinj; power of adapting nature to 
man'H own ends, are, on the vrhul<.\ among savages, mean 
among bntburians, and highi-st ninony; modem educated nations. 
Thua a Iraitsition fruin tho sitvagi- fituto to our own would be, 
piuvUcally, that vei>- pro^>»i of att and knowlcdgo which is 
one Daain element in tLe^ d<>vclt>pment of culture. 

Sut c^venthcdc stud<;^uuwbo bold moetstroi^thalth« general 
cottTtie of civilization, as measure) along tho «eale of roees from 
Mivag<4 to oun^:lYv<«, is pivgiv«R tomanitbo Wno6t of mankind, 
must Mlniit many and muuifbh) escvptiotti. Indu&trial aod in- 
«eU«ctiuJ eultun.' by no means advances uaifbrtnly m all its 
bnuvchM. and in fact excelK-nce in Tariotis of its clctails is often 
obtained under condittocuE which keep hack culture as a vbolft. 
It tx true that these cxcuptkaa SBUooa »«bii^ dw getwnd nile ; 
bdA ths Bwg^*hf"<H^ aduittiiv tlwk hit does not c&nb iilim 
tike the wihl AustraJtaii, nor track game &ke tbe lavage of tbe 
Bvaiilian forest, nor compete with ibe anctent EtrauKt aad tbe 




raodern Chinese in delicacy of goldemith's work ami ivory 
^Mirving, nor reacli llie classic Greek level of omtor>- ami sculp- 
ture, may yet claim for himself a general cunditiun above any 
of these races. Btit there actually have to be takeo into 
account iJcrclopiucnta of ecioncc ami art which tend directly 
against culture. To havo learnt to give poison scwrctly and 
efToctually, to have raised a coiTupt literature to peittileiit per- 
foctioD, to havo organized a succcssfid schemo to arrest free 
enquiry and firoseribe free expression, are works of knowledge 
and skill whose progress toward their go«l has hardly conduced 
to the general good Thus, even iu cumparing mental and 
artliitiR culture among Reveral peoples, the balance of good and 
ill i^ uot quite easy to strike. 

If not only knowledge ami art, but at the .tame time moral 
and political excellence, he taken into consideration, it Liecomcs 
yet harder to reckon on an ideal scale thi; advance or decline 
irota stage to Htoge of culture. In fact, a combined ititcllertnai 
and moral measure of human condition is an instniment which 
ao student hoa a^ yet learnt properly to handle; Even gmutioj; 
that intellectual, moral, and political life may, on a hroad view, 
be sGcn to progress together, it ia obvious that tbey are far from 
advancing with equal etep& It may bo taken as man's rule of 
duty in the world, that he shall strive to know as well us he can 
find out, and to do as well as he knows how. But tlie parting 
asunder of these two great principles, that separation of iutoUi- 
gence from i-irtue which accounts for so much of the wrong- 
doing of mankind, is continually seea to happen iu Uio great 
inuveraents of civilization. As nne con-ipicuous inntance of 
what all history stands to prove, if we study the early agei of 
Christianity, w© may see men witli rainda per\'aded by the new 
religion of duty, holiness, and love, yet at the sanie tima 
actually falling away in iulelleclual life, thus at oiwx vijpir- 
ou»ly gnusping one half of civilization, and coatomptuoiuly 
casting off the other. Whether tn high ranges or in low of 
human life, it muy be seen that advance uf culture <teldern 
TCDultA at once in unmixed good. Courage, faoneaty, gencnMiHy, 
Are virtues which may suiTer, at least for a time, by tho duvi>lo|i> 
mont of a scuso of value of life and property. Tho iavn|{i< who 



TiiE DEVELorarehT or ccltube. 

tulopLt sometbiDg oi fi>reigTi ch-ilizatioa too often loses his niiler 
viriucN wUhoat gaining tm oqiiiTolcnt. The wbito inrader or 
colonist, though rvprcHonting on the. whole a biglier moral 
Hiondard tlinn th« iMvage he improves or tlestTojs, often rcpro- 
Hint^ Ilia HtaudArd very ill, and at best can hardljr claim to 
siilMtitiitv Q tifo strongut', nobler, ami purer at cvi-iy polut tliaa 
tlint which be supersedes. The onward movemeot from hnr- 
barisui hnn drujiped buhiud moro than one quality of barbaric 
dinroctor, which culturud modem men look back on witfa regret, 
6»il will even strive to regain by futile attempts to stop the course 
uf hif<tiir>-, and ru»torx: tho past in the midst of the present So 
it It with frocial institutions. The sUvery recognized by savage 
and Imrlmronft racos in preferablo in kind to that which cxitttod 
for centuries in lato Kuropenn colonies. The relation of the 
Boxes among many KHiiige tribes is more bealtby than among 
tite rirlK'i- classes of tlio Mohammedan world. As a supreme 
aullinrtly of government, the aavago councils of chiefs and 
elders conijiare tavourably witk the unbridlml deKpotL>aii under 
ivbidi so nwny cultured races have groaned. The Creek 
Indians, asked cuucerning tlieir religion, replied thai where 
■greoment was not to be had. it was best to "let every man 
paddle his cautio his own way :" and aftor long ages of theo- 
logical strifo and pensecution, the modem world seems coming 
tu think theic savages Dot lar wrong. 

Anioug accounts of savage life, it is not>, indeed, uncommon 
to 6ud dt-tMla of admimble moral and social excellence. To 
take one prominent instance, Lieut. Bruiju Hops and }lr. 
WaUaeo have described, among the rudo Papuans of tb« 
£astern Arobipclago, a liahitual truthfulness, rightfulness, and 
kindlincw whicb it would ho bard to match in the genenU 
mond lifo of Persia or India, to say nothing of many a dvilised 
Sunpean district.' Such tribes may count as the " blamdeci 
Stliio|daDE " of the moilem world, and from thom oit import 
takt IcBBon may Im learnt Ethuognphers who seek in modem 
nngos types of the remotely aneienl homaa race at lai^ are 
bound hy sorli examples to conader the rude Bib of primaiTal 
BUUi under fisrourmble cooditioos to havs been, in its measorc^ a. 

> a V. bn. • VttmuK' ^ 7* ; i. L VtOkta. *bitea AiAlgiWi.' 


good ami liappy lifo. NevettiieleH!), tlie pictures <lrawii by somd 
travellers of itavagcry on a kinil of pariuiisaicaJ Btate arc mostly 
takou too c'selueively from Ibo bright side. It isremnrked as to 
these very PapuaDR, t)iat Europeans whose intercounie with 
them has hc«n hostile hccome so impressed with chewitd-bcast- 
lika cunnitig of tb«ir attacks, as hardly to bcUevo in tinfir having 
feelings m common with cintixed meo. Our Fuhir explorers 
may well speak in kiiidly tenns of the industry, the honesty, 
the checiiid coiisidcmtc politcne-'u oi' the Kstpiimaux ; hut it 
must be remembered thivt these rude people are ou their bcKt 
behaviour with forcigncns, and thut their character is apt to l>e 
foul ami brutal where they have nothing to expect or fciu-. The 
Caribs arc desaibcJ as a cheerful, modest, courtcoua race, and 
eo honcut among tfaenasolves that if they missed anything out 
of a bouse tliey said quite Baturally, "There has been a 
Christian here." Yet the malignant ferocity with which these 
estimable people tortured their prisoner of war with knife and 
finbruid and red pepper, and then cooked and ate them in 
solemn debauch, gnvo ftur reason for tho nami! of Coxib (Canni- 
l»l) to become Iho generic name of man-eaters in European 
lai^roagcc.^ So whon wo read descriptions of the hospitality, 
the gentlenet», the bravery, the deep religious fueling of the 
Noi-th American Indians, we admit their rinims to our sincere 
admiration ; but wo must not forget that they were hospitable 
literally to a fault, that their gentleness would puss with a flash 
of anger into frenzy, that tlii-'ir braveiy was stained witii cruel 
and treacherous malignity, that their religion expru6»ud itself in 
aWurd belief and useless ceremony. Tlie ideal savngo of thu 
18th century might bo held up us a living reproof to vicious and 
(nrolous London ; but in sober fad, a Londoner who sKould 
attempt to Ico^l tbc atrocious life which the real savago may 
load with impunity and even respect, would be a criminal only 
allowed to follow 1)13 savage models during his short intervahi 
Out of gaol- SftTi4fo moral standards arc real enough, but they 
are far looser and weaker than ours. Wo may, i think, apply tlio 
oftcn'rcpeated oomparison of savngca to children as faU'ly to 
their mural as to their intellectual oouditloD. The bettor savage 

> RMherort, • [lea AstiUu,' pp. 400— 4S0; 



Bociiil lifn se«raB in but itiutaUe cquiininuni, tialile to be ensjly 
U|imjI by tt hiiich of Jidtrcss. temptation, or violence, and then 
it Lccoraes tbo woreo mvage life, wliicb we know by so many 
ilUninl iiuti biOodiu exnmplca Altngolbcr, it may Ixt admitted 
Unit Hiitiiu riiilo tnlnu lend a life lo be envied by some burbar- 
riuH rnooa, and evvn by tbfi oitlcoflts of higher nations. Btit tbat 
miy kiUiwn MVugo trib* would not be improved by judidous 
I'ivtliitAliou, is a propoailiou which no moralist would dare to 
mulcu; whilfl the guiwral tenour of tlie evidence goes far to 
juHlify iho vidw that on Iho whole the civilizod nimi h not only 
wiuiT oiul more cajtablo than the savnge, but nUo better and 
Iiftppior, and that the barbarian stands between. 

It miglil, [lerlinps, accni prwtii*ablw to compare the whole 
avpnigo of the civjlizntion of two peoples, oc of ibo same poi>ple 
in (UtYoreut agett, by reckoning t'och, ittiin by item, to a KorC of 
ituiri<tulnl, and hliiking a balance between them, much as an 
appitiiKer ci)n){uin>K the value of two stoclcK of merchandiw, 
dillor as they may lioth in (|uaiitity and quality. But the few 
remarks Ihsto made will bare tfaowu hour looso must be the 
working-out of thoM rough-and-rc.-Mly fstimnles of culture, tu 
ftwrt. muoli of the labour spf ut in iuvvstigatiug the progress and 
tlertioe of civilixattun bas been mia-fipeot, in preoiaturo *t- 
K-iiipts to lri'»t that «s * wholo which i» us yet only susceptible 
of dividt^d Ktudy. Tbo present compamtivcly itorruw jugumeut 
«a tbo (U-VvloputvDt of cullutv at any rate avoids this grvaleat 
|wrplexity. It lakes Ci^'nizaucf principally of knowledge, art, 
lUkd euntom, and indcod only rery ][«tua1 c<igniBUi<K within 
ibiii flvld, ibo ra9t range of physical, political, KH:iat,uid ethical 
ooiistiK-ratHiii>i bi-ing left all but untouched. Its standard of 
ivck^uiing ^irvjivKt iiud decliue is not that of ideal piod and 
evil, bi)t of nioveuaeut along a measured tiiio from gtade to 
|[tade of aetual iiavagory, barbarism, and civilization. The thenis 
wbicb [ veoturo to siutaiu, xrilbia limits, i* umply this, tbat 
t^ sava^ titalo iu some mMsan nprvcents aa coriy conditioa 
of maukioJ, out of which tbe higber culton? has ^nKlually 
been dvvcteped or erulvcd. by piuvesavti atiU lo tvgular opcm- 
liou a^ uf old, tbe xujull sbowinj^ that, oa tbu whole, prugreisa 
baa iu: prevailed qxvt rulapac; 

On fJiis proposition, the main tendency of hnman maety 
daring its long term of exUtence has been to piaas from » 
eavogc to a civilized stAtc. Now all roust admit a great part of 
this assciiiou tu be not only truth, but tniitiin. Referred to 
direct history, a great section of it proves to belong not to the 
domain of specuUtiou, hut to that of positive kiiowk-dgR. It is 
mere matter of clironiclc tUivt niodorn ci'rilizatioa is adevelop- 
ment of mcdin^val civilization, which again is a deTelopinont 
from civilization of the order represented in Greece, Assyria, or 
Egypt Thus the higher culture being clearly traced back to 
what may Iw called the middle culture, the qiiostion which 
reranins is, whether this middle culture may he traced back to 
the lower culture, that is. to savagery. To affirm this, is merely 
to asaert that the same kind of development in culture which 
has gone on inside our range of knowledge has also gone on 
outside it, its counsa of procccdiug being unaffcctod by our 
haring or not having reporters present. If any one holds that 
huracui thought and action were worked out in primsevo] times 
nccortling to laws cfweutially other than those of the modem 
worid, it is for him to prove by valid evidence this anomalous 
state of tilings, otherwise the doctrine of penaancnt principle 
wilt hold good, as in astronomy or geology. That the tendency 
of culture has been similiir tliroughout the existence of human 
society, nnd that we may fairly judge from its known hlstorio 
C0UI8G what its pre-historic course may have hsBa, is a theory 
clearly entitled to precedence as a fundamental principle of 
etlinographic research. 

Gibbon, in his ' Roman Empire,' cxprcssc's in a few vigoroiia 
sentonoes his theory of the course of culture, ns from savagery 
upw;inl. Judged by the knowledge of nearly a century later, 
his remarks cannot, indeed, pass unquestioned. Esjiecially he 
aecms to rely witli misplaced cooJideiicc ou traditions of archaic 
rudeness, to exaggerate the lownoss of savage life, to under- 
estimate the liability to decay of the ruder arts, and in his view 
of the cfTuct of liigh uu low civilisation, io dwell too exclusively 
on the brighter side. Uut, on tlio whole, the great historian's 
judgment eccms m substantially that of the unprejudiced 
modora student of the progressionist itchool, that I gladly quote 




here at length, and take 

it as a text to represent 
the dcvelopmcnt-tlioory of culture : — " The discoveries of 
ancient and tnodem DBTij^tors, and the domestic history, or 
tnulitiou, of tho most eiili<:;li toned nation.t, represent Iho 
human ^avcige naked both in mind and bwiiy, outl destitute 
of laws, of arts, of ideas, a»d aimoet of language From, this 
abject eonJition, porhaps tho primitive and universal .itata of 
man, ho has gmiinnlly arisen to command the nnimalii, to 
{erttllie the earth, to traverse the ocean, aod to measure tho 
heavenfl. Ui« progreaH in the imprnvoment and exercii« of his 
mental and corporeal faculties has hcwo irrcgutnr nod I'nrioiis; 
infinitely elow iu the heginuing, and increasing by dtigrees with 
redooUed \'elocity : a^jej) of laliorious ascent have been followed 
1^ a moment of rapid downfall ; and the several climates of the 
globe liave fcti the vicissitudes of light and darknesa. Tct the 
experience of four thousand years sliouM enlarge our hopes, 
and dimiuii<h our apprehonaioDK : wc cannot determinu to what 
height the human species may aspire in their advances towardt; 
perfection ; hut it may safely be presumed that no people, un- 
less tbti face of nature is changed, will relapse into their 
oripnal barbftrii?m. The impi-ovcnieats of society may be 
viewed under a threefold aspects 1. The poet or philosophcf 
illustrates his ago and country by tho efforts of a »ing(e miud ; 
hut these Bupcrior poivcrs of reason or £uicy aro rare and 
spoDtaneoos productions; and tho genius of Homer, or Cicero, 
or Newton, would excita less admiration, if they oouIJ be 
created by the will of a prince, or the lessons of a preceptor. 
2l The benefits of law and policy, of trade and manufaclures, 
of arts and sciences, are more aoUd and permaoent ; and many 
iadividiiats may bo qualified, by education and discipline, to 
promote, in their respective stations^ the interest of the oom- 
mimity. But tliis general onlcr is the cfTcct of skill and 
labour; and the complex machinery may be decayed by time, 
or injured by violenea 3. Fodtuiiately for niankin<l, the more 
useful, or, at least, more necessary arts, can be perfonned with- 
out Bupeiior talents, or aatioDol subordination; without the 
powers of ojk, or tho union of niflny. Each village, each 
famHy. each individual, must nlwayn possess both ability and 



indiDiUicHL to perpetuate the use of 6re aad of metals ; tbe 
propagation and service of domestic animaltt ; tliu methods of 
bnnting and ii&hiug ; the nidiincnts of nayigation; Uio im- 
peifect cidtiratiua of corn, or other nutritive grain ; and tlio 
simple practice of the Diech»nic trades. Piivate genius and 
public industry may be extirpated ; but thcs6 bardy pUmts 
survive the tempest, auci striko aa everlasting root into the 
most uufavouruble eoiL The Bplendid days of Augustus and 
Trajftti were eclipsed by a cloud of ignoi-nucc ; and the bor- 
Ijarians subverted the laws and paiaces of Konie. But iho 
scythe, the invention or emblem of Satum, still continued 
anuually to mow the horresu of Italy ; and tlio human feasts 
of the Laistrigons have never been renewed on tho coast of 
Campania. Since the find discovery of the arts, war, commerce, 
and religious zcnl, have diflftised, amou^^ the savagea of the Old 
and New World, thusu inestiuiablc gifts ; they bare been ruc- 
cesslvely prc^mgated ; they can never be lost Wo may tliere- 
fote acquiesce in the pleasing concludon, that every age of the 
world has incrccuiud, and still incrcaecs, the real wealth, the 
luki^inee8,tbe knowledge, and perhaps the virtue, of the human 

This progrcsnon-theory of civilization may be contrasted with 
its rival, the degeneration-theory, in the dashing invective of 
Count Joseph do Maistre, written toward the beginning of this 
century. " Nous partons toujours," ho nays, " de I'hypolli^ 
banalo quo rhommo s'ost 6icv6 graduoUomont de la harbarie Ik 
la science et i la civiiisation. Cest le rdve favori, c'est Torrcur- 
mbrOt ct conune dit r<!colo, Ic proto-pecades do notre si^cte. 
Mais Bi les philosophes do co mnlheureux ai^clo, avec rhorriblo 
penrersit^ que nous leur avons conoue, et qui g'obstineut encore 
2Da^;r^ les avertisgeraents qu'iU ont re^us, avaiect poss^^ do 
plus quelques-unoi de cos connaittsances qui ont du ndcossaire- 
ment sppartenir aux premier hommes, &c"' Tfas degenerntion- 
theory, which this uloquent antagonist of "modem ideas" 
indeed states in an extreme sliapc, luis received the sanction 
of men of groat learning and ability. It has practically resolved 

' Cilttxin, ' Dcclioo &uil TtHl of Cbo Boman Xntiirt^* ch. xxzTiii, 
> D« M.'ugtn, ' aoirtu ileSt. rolenbou^' vaI. U. p. IJO. 



TlIE 0E\'ELOPin:>;T op CrLTFRE. 

itself into two astsiunptiona, 6rst, that the history of cullure 
began with the appeanmce on earth of a semi-civilized race of 
mm, and second, tliat from this 8tago cultnrp has proceede<J in 
two ways, Ijftckward to produce savages, and furwanl to pixiducu 
dvilized men. The idea of the onginal coDtlition r>f man betog 
one of more or less high culture, mu^t have a certain pro- 
minence given lo it on account of. its considerable hold on 
public opinion. As to dc-Bnito evidence, however, it does not 
aeoui to havp any ethnological Ixuti? whatever. Indeed, I 
scareely think that n stronger counter-pcrsnasiOQ could he used 
on on intelligent student inclined to the ordinary degeneration- 
theory tlian to induce him lo examine critically and impartially 
tho orgunie-nis of tho advocates ou his own side. It mtist be 
borne in mind, however, that tJie groands on which thin thcoiy 
hM been helil have generally been rather theological than 
ethnological. The strength of the position it has thus occupied 
may Imi well instanced from the theories adopted by two 
eminent French writers of the last century, which in a rcumrk- 
able way piece together a belief in dcgcuerotion and an nrjfti- 
ment for progn-ssion, De UroBses, whoae whole intellectual 
nature turned lo the progression -theory, argued that by stu(l>-ing 
what actually now hnpitonfi " wo may trace men upward from 
the sava<;e state to uliicli the ilood and diapeisloa had reduced 
them."' And G<^et, holding that tho pro-cxistiag arts 
perished at the deluge, waa thus left free to work out on tho 
most thoroQgh-going progressionist principles his theories of tho 
invention of Rk, cooking, agriculture, taw, and so forth, among 
tribes thus redue<-d to a condition of low savagery." At the 
present time it in not unusual for the origin of civilization to bo 
treated as matter of dogmatic theology. It has happened to 
me more than once to be assured from the pulpit that the 
theories of ethnologists irho con»der man to have risen from a 
low ori};inal condition ore delusive fandcs, it being revealed 
truth that man was originally in a high condition. Now as a 
mattci of Biblical criticism it must he remembered that a large 

1 DaBtmms, *DinxFcti«hei,*p. IS; ' ftmutloa dw LugoM,' roL L p. iS; 
Tol. ii. ]>. 3S. 
' Ooguet, 'OrifiiHdtsL«l^dttArt4*«te.,Tol.Lp. 88. 



proportion of modi^m theologians arc far from accepting snch a 
dogma. But iu investigating tlio problem of o»rI/ civilization, 
tho claim to ground scientific opinion upon a basis of revelation 
is in il«elf objectionable. It would be, I tliiuk, inescuKablc 
if 8tudcDt« wilt) havo seen in Astrocomj' and Ocology tlie un- 
happy re»ultf) of attempting to bajse science on religion, sliould 
conntcQance a simiUr Attempt in Stlinology. 

By long experience of the coureo of hum&u socic^, the prin- 
ciple of development in culture hnx become no ingrained in oiu- 
pliiloRophy tliat ethnologist*, of whatover school, hardly doubt 
but tlml, whether by progresH or degnutatiun, saTageiy and 
civili2.ition nro connected as. lower nml higher stages of one 
formatiou. As such, then, two principal theories claim to nc- 
cauut for their relation. As to tJie first hvpo:lic«is, which takes 
KftTage life st& iu some sort representing an early human Htato 
whence higher stalm were, in time, developed, it has to 1)0 
noticed that advocates of this progression-theory are apt to look 
back toward yet lower original conditions of ninnkind. It hdut 
been truly remarked that the modem natural i^it'ii dcx:trtuc of 
progrosaive development has eucoui-aged a train of thought 
singularly accordant with the Epicurean thuor>- of man's early 
oxintcncc on earth, in a condition not far removed irom that of 
tl»e lower aoimaJs. On such a view, savage life itself would be 
a far advanced condition. If the advance of culture be regarded 
as taking place along one general line, then existing savagery 
itandfl directly intermediate between animal and civilized life; 
if along diiTcFeDt lines, then savagery and civiUzation may be 
considered aa, at leant, indirectly connceteil through their cara- 
muo origin. The method and evidence here employed arc Dot, 
howover, sulfahle for the discussion of thiji n>moter port of the 
problem of civilization. Nor is it uccewinry to enquire how, 
under this or any other theory, the savaigo state first came to 
bo on earth. It is enough that, by .some mcarui or othtT, il has 
actually oome into existence ; and so far as it rany serve as a 
guide in inferring an early comlition of the human race at 
LhTgc, so far the argument takes the very practicable shape of 
a discussion turning rather on actual than imaginary statee of 
aodety. The second hypothesis, which regarda higher coltorp 

TOL. r. B 


as (triguUk]« AOtl the xavoge a)D<litiori as produoed from it hj a 
rauise or d^eneration, at once cute Iho hanxl knot of tlie origm 
of culture. It Uikes forgrautc-ct a supcniatuml iutcrfcrcucc, as 
where Arclibishop "WTiateiy simplj refers to miraculous revela- 
tion that condition above the level of baibarisni wluch he con- 
Kidcrs to have been luan'e original stale.' It may be incideutaUy 
reraai'ked, liowevcr, tbat the <loctrino of original civiliiwion 
iicstowctl on man by divine Jntcrveiiiioa, by no means necee- 
Korily involves tlift vti-tv that tiiis nrigiiial civilization -wan at a 
high level. Its advocates ai-e fivo to choose their stai'tiug-point 
uf culture above, at, or below the savage condition, as may ou 
the evidence seem to Ihoni most roneouable. 

The two theoiiOK which thus account for the relation of 
savaga to cultured life may be contracted according to their 
rnaiu character, ax the prnpn-ssion-tht-ory and the Jugradatiou- 
theory. Yet of course the progression-theory recngnizes degra- 
ilatiou, and the degradatien-Uieory recognizes progression, as 
[jowcrfiil inftuenccA in the course of ailtun*. Under proper 
limitations tbe principles of both thcoricit are conformable to 
liiKtorical kuowteilge, which allows uh, on the onr liand, that the 
ntate of the higher nations was reiicheil by progression from a 
lowor state, and, un the other hand, that culture gained by pro- 
^jeeeion may be tost by de^adution. If in this enquiry wo 
t'hould bo obliged to end in the dark, at any rato we need not 
1>^:in. there. Hi&tor>-, taken as our guide in eiplainiug the 
tlifferent stages of civilization, offcn a theory based un actual 
experience. This is a development-theory, in which both ad- 
vance and relapse have their ncknowledgod plncc-t. But m far 
us history h to be our criterion, pvogre«sion is primary and 
degradation secondarj- ; culture must bo gained Iwfore it can 
be lofit. Moreover, in striking a balance between the effecti) of 
lurwanl and backward movement in civili7Jitiou, it must bo 
liome in mind how powerfully the diffusion of culture acts in 
l>rescrving the results of progress from the attacks of rlegene- 
nition. A progrGswive movement in culture spreads, and be- 
comes indopeudoiit of the fato of its originatont Wliat is 

' Whatolf , ' EsMV PR Ibo Odidii of Civiliution,' in MuctUnncoos LcctnrM, 
etc. Sm hIm W. Cooke T«;br, ' Nnluni History of .'tocMtj.' 



protluocd in some limiieJ dislric-t is (lifTusetl oror a wider asd 
wider area, where tho prorcss of effecUiwI " fitami)!!!-; out " be- 
comes more aud more difilciilt. Tims it ia even pus;siblc for 
le habitH and iovontionfl of races long extinct to reinain as the 
common property of 8iir\'iving uations ; aud tbo da-ilnictivc 
actioos vliicb make euch havoc witL the civilisations of par- 
ticular distiicts fail to destroy the eivilizatiou of the world. 

The enquiry as to the relation of savagery to barbarism and 
somi-civilization lio^ almost (•ntireJy in pne-historic or cxtra- 
liatoric regions. Tliis is of course an unfavourable condition, 
and uiasL bu fi-aiikly accepted. Direct liistoiy hardly telU auy- 
thing of tlie changes of envnge culture, except where in contact 
with and under the domiuaut iudueuco of foreign civilization, a 
state of Ihin^H which is tittle to our present puiposa Periodical 
examinations of Ion- races otberwise left isolated to work out 
their own dextiuies, would bu iuturentiug evidence to the student 
ijf civilization if they could bu made; but unfortunately they 
cannot The lower race^, wnutiug documentary uiL-iuoriats. 
loose in preserving tradition, and ever ready to clothe myth in 
itA shape, can seldom he tniated in their stories of long-poat 
ages. History is oral or written record which cjm be satisfac- 
torily traced into contuct with the events it describes; and 
perhaps no accoimt of the course of culture in its lower stagew 
can satisfy this stringisnt criterion. Traditions may be urged in 
support either of the progresBion-thcnrj- or of the degmdatioii- 
th«or>*. Thcec traditions may be partly true, aud must be 
part]}' untrue j but whates'cr truth or uuti'iilh they may con- 
tain, there is such difficidty in separating man's recollection of 
what was from his speculation a» to what miglit have l>cen, that 
ethnology seems not likely to gain much by attempts to Judgo 
of early stages of civilization on n traditional Ixuiit. The pro- 
blem is one which has oeoupied the philosopldc inind eTcn in 
savage and barbaric life, and has boon solved by flpvculations 
assorted as facts, and by tmditiuns which are, lii great nioasure, 
mere rcalizod theories. The ChincHe can Rhow, with all due 
gravity, tho records of their ancient dynasties, and tell us how 
in (lid timeK their ancestom dwelt in caves, clothed tliemsulros 
in leaves, and ate raw flesh, till, under such aud such rulcn. 



they were toiight to ImilJ lints, prepare skins for garraents, anil 
inako fire> Lucretius caii Jeacdbe to us, in Lis famous lines, 
the large-lmncd, hanly, lawless, prims-vaJ race of man, livjug 
iho roving life of tbe wild boasts which he overcame with stones 
and heavy cluha. devouring henieB and acorn*, ignorant as yet 
of 6re, and agriculture, and the use of skio.t for clothing. From 
this state the Epicurean poet traces tip (he development of 
culture, beginning outside but ending ioBide the range of buman 
memory.' To the same class belong those legends which, starting 
from an anciuat savage atatc;, describe its elevation by divtoe 
civilizcni: tlii!!, which iimy he called tlio supcroatural pro- 
gression-theory, is exemplified in the familiar culture -traditions 
of Peru and Italr. 

But other minds, following a different ideal track from 
the present to the past, have seen in a for different «hape 
the early stages of human life. Those men wliose eyes are 
always turneil to look Ijack on the witiduni of the aneicnts, 
tliose who by a cominou confusion of thought .oscrilie to men of 
oht the wisdom of old men, tho9i! who hold fast to some once- 
hoiiuunxl Kchemo of life which new schemes ari? superseding 
before their eyes, are apt to ca.rry hack their thought of present 
degeneration into far-gone ages, till they reach a period of 
primajval glory. The Pars! looks back to the happy rule of 
King Yima, when meu and ciittle wore imuaortal, when water 
and trees never dried up and food waa inexhaustible, when 
there was no a>ld nor heat, no envy nor old age.* The Bud- 
dhist looks bock to the age of glorious soaring beings who had 
no sin, no sex, no want of food, till the unhappy hour when, 
tasting a delicious scum that formed upon the surface of the 
earth, they fell into evil, and in time became ilegnuled to cat 
rice, to bejir cliildren, to build houses, to divide property^ and to 
establish casle. lu after ages, record preserves details of the 
continuing course of degeneration. It was King Chetiya who 
told the first lie, aud the citizuns who heard of it, not knowing 
what a lie wiui, asked if It were white, Tilack, or blue. Ken's 
lives grew shorter and shorter, and it was King Halia SAgara 

' Ge^c^ vol. iii. ]i. 370. * I.m^ivt. r. 023, etc. ; k« Hor. Sat. L i. 

■ ' Avnta.' tnna 8iiir£el k Ulecck, toL ii. p, CO. 

THE DmajapMETT or criTniE. 

vrho, after a brief rei|^ of 233,000 jews, mtdo Oie disinD] 
discovery of ihc first grey hair.* 

Atlinitttog the iinpOTf(«tiuD of the histoneal reconi as r^imU 
the lowost stages of cnltoie, we must bear in miod that it teUs 
both vays. Kiuliuhr, attacking the ftOfgnmoKMU of tbe IStli 
ceatniy. remnrks that tliey hav« overkwlted tiM bet ' that no 
singlo example can be brought fbnranl of an actoally naTage 
people having imlt-pt'nilently become civifiied."' Wliatelj 
appropriated this remark, vhich indeed forms the kernel of his 
well-known Lecture on the Origin of CiTittiKtiuo : "Facts 
sxo Htubborn things." he says, "and that no aatbenlieated 
iostAnco cau be produced of savages that erer did eioer;^, 
unaided, from that stati; is no tlitary, but a statement, hitherto 
oever disproved, of a matter of /lut" He naes this as an 
or^mcat in support of his general codclusioD, that man 
could not have risen iudopcudcntly bom a savage to a 
dvilizcd state, and that savages ore dcgcnoratQ dcsccnduiti 
of dviUzed men.* But he omits to ask the couoter-qncitioo, 
whether we find one recorded instance of a civilized people fall- 
ing independently into a savage state ? Any sucli record, direct 
and well vouched, would lie of high interest to ethnologists, 
though, of C0UI-8C, it would not contradict tbe devolopmcitt- 
theoiy, for proving loss is not disproving previous gain. But 
where is such a, record to be found ? The defect of litstorical 
evidence as to the transition between Havf^jor)- and liigher 
culture is a two-siderl fact, only half t-iken into Arcld)tahop 
Whately's one-sided aiguraent. Fortunat*ly the defect is by 
DO nuiaEia fatal. Though history may not account directly fur 
ihe existence and explain tho position of savages, it at least 
gives evidenec which bears cl<»ely on tlic matter. Horoovcr. 
we arc in various ways enabled to ntudy the lower coune of 
culture ou evidence which cunnot have bcuu tampered with to 
support a thcoiy. Old traditional lore, bowovcr untnistworthy 
OS direct record of events, ooutains most £uthful incidcDtul 

■ BmTij. ■MinsAlof BiKlhi«ii,'i>p. SI, 193. 

* Ki«btilir, ' BomiMli* G«ietucltt«,' put i. p. 88 : " Nnr dju htiMtt ai* Ub«r- 
mIkb, dan kria ttaaKn Bcjraiocl ran dncu witUlcb wDdtn T«Ik BiffniwiiMn 
lit, velditt (ny xv Cuhur ubentcpncoa win." 

* ytbatiij. ' Euiy oo Orighi at ClrUiation.* 



il('iio)i|)|ioDii ft nunnvn edcI cuHtonui ; ardiinoloj^ diiiptays olc] 
Dlriirhirva anil biiriwi rclicd uf tlio remote pMt ; philology 
Ijrliiga oil! Uio iiiuluflgac'd buUiry in Uogumge, which gooeia- 
Utju atloi ^itiiKnition tuiTO handed down without a thought of 
itfl having luch Ni}(iilBcaiuw; the cthuologicnl surrey of tltc 
rneuN uf tlio worM t(.>IU much ; the nthuogmphical oompamou 
of Ihalr conilitiiiii tclU more. 

&m'«t ai)d diMiliuu iu ctvilimtioti arc to hu rucogoized as 
miinntf th«' iiiDiv rr(y)ucn( and powerful operations of nationnl 
llfi*. Thnt kmiwli'dxir, nito, niid. iu»titutiou» sliould decay in 
ovrUiit diBlrirtH, that pcoplm once progrcAsivv should la^ 
twhhid iiui\ III' iMuwvil hy lulvnaciiig nt'ighhourH, that eomc- 
thmit fVi'd wick-tiisi of wen should rooodu into ruiienefls and 
niini'ry— all Ihornt ore i^lieuomona with which modern history is 
/■niiliftr. Ill jiuljfiiiK of the n-Ulion of tlio lower to the higher 
■lag^>« «r livitixHiJou, it is c«»cutial to gain some idea how fnr it 
may \m\v boon afivctcd by Kuch (k-gt^itetntion. What kind of 
pvidoiuv can diroot tihwrvation and history give as to tht* 
d<*|;nu.luti<))t iif ntPii (Wmi a dvilizcil condition towaixl that uf 
itHvimi<r)' r Iu our ffvM eiliiw, tho Ho-«allod " (htugcrous chuises*' 
tav tiiiik in lii^lcou* iniM'ty luid d(<pmvity. If we have to strike 
A Iwhintv ItvtwiHin tlu' rapiiiins of New Caledonia and tfat: 
nuimiuniliiMi of Kurapeou iM'^^gars and thieX'eii, we may flsdly 
MikiKtwl«i)|^ thai we hav» iu our laitbl soDiething vocae than 
wracri^. Uut it IS. not avngeey ; it ia broken-down drilizatiou. 
Nr^ilivuljr. thv iunuilM of a Whilechapel atsual ward and of a 
IliHtrtitot kraal a^rri'v in tlieir want of tho knowledge and 
Yiltiw«f tiio tugh«r cuhurcb But pontiTcIy, their mental and 
BMni ehinBhsriotioB aro utterly diffonnt Thus, the sava^^'v 
lifr ia MWnttally devotnl to gaiung sahsstenco from nature, 
whii-h is just what the proletaiiaB liln ia aoL Tbcir rdotioM 
W aviUard life^tlte ooe «l iaAepcBdmce. Ibe eUier of 4e- 
fNHlMKv— «re ab»ht»Bfy ofpiaitB. lb By BU&d tbe pogmlar 
ytiimMw about "my mitc«a* aad "dntt Anb*" se«m lik^ 
wittpatinf m rainol faoaaa to a boader'a yud. It it more to 
ttM> (wupM* to MbM haw war and BMrile, bMine awi pesli- 
Ihm^ lwr« afMi awt i^aia ivnttailmd tanatxmt, Rdnead their 
I* WMiiAi* mmmbC^ «*d kiwoed thrir level if 


idvilJEation, and Itow tlic isoLited life of wild country districtfi 
seems sometimes tcadinj; towaril a stato of savagely. So far os 
wti know, however, uoue of these cauaoe havo ever rt-all^' 
reproduced n saTage commtinity. For on ancient account of 
degoiie ration under advL-rse circumsUuiceM, Ovid's moDtion of 
the uutiuppy colony of Tonii on tlie Blaclc Sea ik a coNe in 
point, though perhaps not to be taken too literally. Among its 
mixed Gn-ck oud Wrbaric population, haraeaed and carried off 
into slaTcry by the Sainiatian horsemen, mucli as the l^ersiann 
of toHJay are by the Turkomans, tlic- iwet dcacribtja the ncglcd 
of ilie ganlener'a craft, the decay of textile nits, the barbaric 
dotbiug of hides. 

" Nee t&iucn hioo loca buhL ullo pratioiui mi^tnllo: 

Hoeti* ft1> agrioolA \ix unit iUa foiU. 
Fui^iura iui>ii« tiiiM fulffvJ).-< jiniTtoxit tunictiiti. 

Sod Dun 8aniiiiti(v> tiiif^itur ilia tniin. 
T«lIl^^l duiu ftimut pucudva, oi PttUudu uta 

Arte TomitBiiEP non didicaie tinrus. 
FoDuiB pro laaa Ceriulia munciu frangit, 

Sni^oatoquo graTcm vcrtice portat iwiuiun. 
Non Vie pampiiDuiri amidtur vitibiiK uliiiux, 

Nullfl pnnniiat rtimos iionilore p<ima nuo, 
!Mtitia ilti:funnt.w pciriiuit nWnthiit attnpu 

T«n&t|ue do fructu iiuam sit smaiu, dooet." ' 

Ca»(W of exceptionally low civilization in Europe may perhaps 
he Bomedmea accounted for by degeuoratiou of this kind. But 
tb^ Kcm more often the reUcs of ancient iinclianged har- 
ittiism. Tlie evidence from wild parts of Ireland two or thn.'<- 
ceDturies ago is interesting from this point of riow. ActH of 
Farlianient were passed agatust the Inveterate habits of fasten- 
ing plougliH to the horscit' tails, and of liuniing oata from the 
straw to save the trouble of threshing. In tho ISth century 
IrelaiKl could stiU he thus described in satire : — 

" The Western islo lenown&d for l>og>, 
For toho# nsd for gnat wolf-dog*. 
For drawing Uobbiea by Uto taib. 
And tiirmliiiig corn with llfiiy llaib*."* 

» rh-iiL Hi Pont*, iii. 8 : *te Qrotc, 'Htftiwy of Ot««,' toL xU. p Ml. 
* W. C. TarloT, 'Kftt. ITicL vfiwMtj,' vol. i. p. X03. 


TjtUB MoryBon'a deiicriptiou of tlio wild or "meer«" Inst. 
about 1600, is amazing. The Teiy lords of them, he says, 
dwelt in poor clay houses, or cabins of houghs covered with turf. 
In many parts men as well as women had in very winter titae but 
ti Uneo rag ahoiil the loins and a wnolien mantle on their bodies, 
80 tlial it would tuni a man's .sluniaoii to see an old woman in 
Uie moniuig before hrcakfast He noticL-s tltidr habit of huni- 
ing ont!i fruni tliL- stmw, and making cakes tbcreef. They hail 
00 tables, but set their meat on a huiidlc of grass. Thoy fcaatud 
on fallen hoi^cs, aud tieethed pieces of beef and pork with thfl 
unwashed entrails of beasts in a hollow tree. Inppcd in a raw 
cow's bide, and bo set over the fire, aod they drank milk warmed 
with a stone first cast into the fire.' AJiolher district rcnmrkablo 
for a barbaric amplicity of life is the Hebrides. In 1S68 Mr. 
Walter Morrison thorn bought from an old wunum at Stornoway 
the service of- earthenware she was actually using, i>f which he 
gava me a crock. Thene eaitheu vessaU, unglazed and mado by 
hand without the potter's wheel, might pass in a museum as 
indiO'urt^nt specimens of savage manufactui-e. Such a modem 
state of the potter's art in the Hebrides Hts well with Ceorge 
Buchanan's statement in the lOlh century that the iislaudcra 
used to IkjII meat in the beast's own pnunch or hide.* Early 
ia the 18th century Martin ineotiona aa prevalent thcro the 
ancient way of dressing corn by burning it desterously from th« 
ear, whi<^ he notices to be a veiy quick process, thence called 
"graddau" COaclic.srra<( = quick).* Thus wc sec tliat the habit 
of humingoutthc grain, for which the " nieere Irish" were 
reproached, was really the keeping up of on old Keltic art. not 
witliout its practical ttsa So the appearance in modcni Keltic 
districts of other widespread arts of the lower culture— liide- 
boiliug, like that of the Scythians in Heroilotus, and stoae- 
boiliug, tike that of the Assinnboins cf North America — sccus 

Fj^e* HoTT*(.n, • lliBMetj ;' Loudwi, 1«17, juirt iii. p. KS, rtc. ; Erwi* ii» 
'ArcliKilopa,' rol. xIL Kn i^Mcrtiitioa of bide- bailing, et^., amiin); tlw triU 
Iri«li ab«at ICSO, iu j\iMlmr Ronnlf, ' Introiloctloii of KuonJnl^i',' td. by F. J. 
FiiniirnTt, R»ilr Riigliali Ten Soc. 1970. 

1 Biieli«a> n . ' Kaum Seotieanim Hiiloria;' E>lui1)tirf;li, 1538, p. 7- Sw 
• Earijr IlitUry of Mniikii><l,' SiiJ «!. p. 272. 

' Maitiu, ' D«9crip(JQU v( WvftiiRi Uuiib,' u I'iiiketton, vol Ui. p. SS9. 



W to fit not so wkU with ddgmdadoo fram a faigii m with fnrriTal 
from a lovoTBiasUioa. The Iiafa and Ae ^fandeaia luul been 
for ages under the Iitfiwn ee of co mpt atiTely ha^h ctrifin^an, 
which Derertheks may bare left noalcered moch at the oUer 
and ruder habit of the people- 
Instances of driUsed inea takinf; to a wfld Hfe in naUfioK 
dutricts of the world, and etamag to obCain or want the a|>- 
jdianoes of avUuiiiaa, gtre more distinck evidence ef degmdn- 
tion. la aammrian with thia atatA of thtnga takes phoe tke 
nearest known apptoacb to an i pJ epei kl en t degeneration fmui a 
dTilixed to a laTagc atat* Ihia hapfu in nixed nces. vboae 
■tudard of cJTiliaatioB a^ be man or lem below that of the 
higher race. The mntiiieefi of tbo Bonntr. with their Poij- 
Qcnan wires, founded a ntde bat not aaTige commonitj on 
Pitcaim's Island.* The mixed Portt^roeoe and native races of 
the Swt Indies aad Africa lead a life bdow the European 
standard, bat not a urage li&^' Tb« Qaoehoa of the Sontfa 
Amerienn Fampaa; a mixed Ear^ppan and Indian race of 
eqaestrian herdsmen, are described aiii attiog aboat on ox- 
skuUi, makiDg broth in boms with hoc cioderB heaped roand, 
livii^ on neat wtthont vegetables, and altogether leaiUng a fuol 
bnttnl. comibrtleaa, deg«nentc^ but not savage Bfe;' One atep 
be/oud this brings aa to the cases of nMiitidoal ciriltxed men 
bctnj* absorbed in aange tribes and adopdi^ the aav^pe life, on 
which they exeicise IHtle infioence for improremeDt ; the 
children of these men ma; come distinctly under the catcgoiT' 
of mvagca. Tbeaa caaea of mixed breedsL however, do notahow 
a low culture actoalljr pTodnced aa the result of degenera- 
tion from a high one. Their theory is that, given a higher 
aod a lower civilization existing among two iaoca» a mixed nee 
between the twu may take to the lower or an intermediate 

D«gencmtion probably operates even more actively in th« 

' 'MntiDjrof tha ilMm^,*cI& 

■ VftHMte, -Mtlaj AfcUptltga.' nL L pp- U, 471 : wL IL pp. 11. O. 4S : 
Utina, 'D«ia.Eih.,*v«LiLp|i.<*£-S;0. aC. UTii^MM,*£Tp.uZuabMi,' 

* S^nilwr, 'Hbtotj eTBas).' nO. iU. p. 133. 



lovrer tliaa in the higher culture. Barbarous natious anct saraj^e 
hordes, with their !o«s knowledge niiJ scantier applianceii, would 
liccm peculinriy exposed to d<^rading inftuencea. In Africa, for 
instance, tlicrc soeiuti to Iinvc been in modem centuries a 
falling uflT iu culture, pruLably due iu a couHiderabla degree to 
foreign influence, llr. J. h. Wilson, oontraRtlng the 16th and 
17th century accounts of powerful uegru kingdoms in West 
Africa, with tlio prc^icnt small ci:immuniti(^.<t, with little or no 
tradition uf their foi'cfatheni' luore exU'nded political orgnnizA- 
tiun, Itwk.s eJtpeciAlly to tliL' Blave-tradc na the duterioratjag 
cause.' In Soutli-east Africa, also, a comparntivelj high barbaric 
culture, whicli wu especially asstxjiatc with the old dcKcriptions 
of the kingdom of Mououiotapa. seems to li&re fallen away, aod 
the remarkiihtc riiius of Ijniidings of hewn stone fitted without 
mortar iudicat*; a former civilization above that of the present 
native population.' In ^ortli America. Father Charlevoix 
remarks of the Iroquoia of the last century, that iu old times 
tlicy used to btiild their cabinH bettvr than other natiouK, and 
better than they do themaelves now ; they carved rude figures 
in relief ou them ; but since in various expeditious almost all 
their villages liavo been burnt, Uiey have not takeu the trouble 
to reetore them iu their old condition.' The degradation of the 
CTieycnnc Indians is matter of histoiy. Persecuted by their 
enemiea tli« Sioux, and dislodgetl nt last even from their fortified 
village, tho heart of the tribe was broken. Their numbers were 
thinned, tbey no longer dnrod to establish them.selvcs in n 
permanent abode, they gave up the cullivatiou of the soil, and 
became a tribe of wandering hunters, witli honie:^ for their only 
valuable possiestion, which every year they bartered for a supply 
of com, be^jiA, pumpkinii, and European merchandise, and then 
returned intt) the heart of the. prairies.* When in the Rocky 
Hountaintt, Lord Milton and Br. Cli&aillo came upon an outly- 
ing fragment of the ShiLsliwnp race, without horses or dog^, 

> J. I. Wn»on, • W. Afr.,' j.. 189. 

• WuU. 'Aiithroj>olo0«,'nl U.p. 85ft, M«»l ; Dn ChuUn, ' AAhango-Uni],' 

p. lie. 

• Ch«r!oToll, • NouvcUe Knince,' tol *i. p. ill. 

• Irring, ' Astoru,* vel. H. «h. t. 


sheltering thetaselves uDder rude temporary slants of bark or 
matting, fnlliag year by year into tower misery, anJ rapidly 
dying out ; thici is another example of the degencratioD whicU 
DO doubt bas lowered or de!>troyed iniuiy a. sava^ people.^ 
There are tribes who ar« the very outcftHts of savage life. There 
la reason to look upon the mii^enibte Digger IndtonK of North 
Am«rie« and the Bushioeu of South Africa a^ thu poKccuted 
remnants of tribes who have tteen happier dayK.* The traditions 
of the lower races of their aDc«!ators' better life may sometimes 
he real recullections of a not far distant post. The Algomiuiii 
Indians look back to old days as to a golden agi: when life nvas 
better than now, when they had better laws and leaders, and 
mauiiera less rude * And indeed, knowing what wo do of their 
history, we may admit that they hare cause to remember io 
miti(;ry happiuessgone by. Well, too, might tJie rude Komchitdal 
deelarc that the world in growing worse and woree, that men 
arc becoming fewer and viler, and food «caroor, for the hunter, 
and the bear, and tlic reindeer are hurrying away from here 
to the happier life in the regions IjcIow.* It would be a valuable 
ooDtrihutioD to (he study of civilization to have the actiou of 
decliac and (iill investigated on a wider and more exact bwie of 
evidence than has yet been attempted. The cases hero statotl 
arc probably but part of a long sime« which might be brought 
forward to provedegenerallon in culture to have boen,byDo means 
indeed the primary cause of the exiatcoee of barbarism and 
savagery in the world, but a secoudary aeiion largely and deeply 
afftiCtiDg the genemt development of ctvilization. It may per- 
haps giro no unfair idea to compare dcgeueration of culture, 
botli in its kind of operation and in Its immense exteut, to 
denudation in the geological history of the earth. 

Injudgiiig of the reUtiouK between tutvagu and civilized life, 
vomething may be learnt by glancing over the <livi.<iionH of the 
bumao race. For thin end tho clawificatiou by finmilios of 

* HUt«a Mid Chc»Ue, ' KorUi W«M VMtgt by Und,' ^ S41 ; VaiU, vol. tii. 
pp. 7<-fl. 

* > Eu-ljr HUtorr oT Mukind,' p. 187. 

■ Sobooknfl, -Algk S«a.,' vol. i. p. 60. 

* Btdlor, ' Erattsehitkk,' p. STl 



lajiguftges may be conveniently med, if checked by the cridonoo 
of botiily cUiinicteristics, Ko doubt speech by itself a an 
itiKufScient guide in tiacing natioDal descent, as witness tbo 
extreme cuses of Jews io England, and three-parts negro races 
in the West Indies, nevertboloss sponlting Engli^ as theii- 
mother-tongue. Still, uiwler onlinarj- circumstances, connexion 
f)f speech dues iudicato morc or Ic-ss counexioii of ancestral race. 
A-"* a guide in tracing the hister)' of civilization, laognagu gives 
»till better evidence, for common language to a great extent 
involveg common culture. The race dominant enougli to maiu- 
tain or impose iu Ifiii^iage, usually mom or Ioks mnintains or 
imposes iUi civlHzatinii n]»o. Tlius the common descvnt of the 
languages of Hindus, Gi-ccks, and Teutons is no doubt duo in 
gr^at nieasurv toconimon ancestry, but is still more closely bmmd 
up with a common social and intellectual liistoty, with what 
Professor Max MUJler well calls their "spiritual relatioiBhip." 
The wonderful permanence of lauguagi: often enables us to 
detect among remotely ancient and distant trii^es tbe tiaces of 
counectoJ civilisation. How, on such grounds, Jo ravage and 
civiliJted tribca appear to stand related within tlic various 
groups of maokind couuccteJ historicallr by t}iu puiuicisioa of 
kindred languages I 

Tbo Semitic family, which represcntt; ouc of the oldest knonii 
civilizations of the world, includes Arabs, Jewa, Phamtciaua. 
Syrians, etc., and may bnve aa older as well as a newer con- 
nexion in North Africa. This family takes in some rude tribee, 
but nono which would be cliutsod ait snvajfes. The An,'an family 
has existed in Asia and Kurepe certainly for gevernl thousand 
yeats, and thei'e are well'knnwn and well-marked traces of its 
early barharic condition, which ha,s perhaps survived with 
least chaugu among secluded ttibes in the valleys uf the Hindu 
Kusli and Himalaya. Tliere Bccms, again, no knonn case of 
any full Aryan tribe having become savage. Tbe Gypsies and 
other outcasts are, no doubt, partly Aryan in blood, but their 
degraded conditiou is not savageiy. In India there am tribes 
Aryjin by language, but whose physique is rather of indigenous 
tyjic, and whose ancestry is mainly from indigenous stocks with 
more or less mixture of the dominant Hindu. Some tribes 



coming under this category-, as axmmg tbc Bliils and Kulis of 
the Bombay Presidency, speak dialccis ■which are Hindi in 
^-ocabulary at least, wlictber or not iu grAOimaticol structure, 
aiid jet tlie jieople themselves are lovrcr in ailture Uian some 
Hinduiwxl nations who have retained their orijpaal Dravidian 
speech, IheTamtU for instance. But thc!% all appear to stand at 
higher stages of civilizatiou than aucb nild fureet tribes of the 
peninsula as oin be reckoned even nearly SATagcs, who are non- 
Ar^'Au both iu blood and speech.' In Ceyloo, however, wc seem 
to have the rcmarkablo pheaomouou of a distiuctty savage race 
speaking an Arj*an dialect. This ia the wild part of the race of 
Veddas or "hunters," of whom a remnant etiil inhabit the forest 
land. Thcte people arc dark-tinned and flat-nosed, alight of 
fmme, and very small of skull, and five feet is a full average 
man's height. They arc a sliy, harmles<(, simple people, living 
principnily by litintiug ; they lime birds, take t\sh by poisoning 
the water, and are akilful in getting wild honey ; they have 
lxiT8 with iron-pointed arrows, which, with their hunting dogs, 
are their most valuable posstawiunR They dwell in caves or 
bark huts, and their very word for a house is Singhalese for a 
ImlK.wti-ee (jiil-ula) ; a patch of bark was formerly their drew, 
but now a bit of linen hangs to their waist-cords; their planting 
vf patches of ground is said to be recent. They couut on their 
Nugent, and prixluce fire with the mmplest kind of iire-drill 
twirled by hand. They arc most truthful and honest. Their 
monogamy and conjugal fidelity contrast rtmngly with the 
oppoeito habits of the moru civilized Singhalese. A remarkable 
Yedda mairiogc custom sanctioned a mauV taking his youugei* 
(not elder) sister as Lis wife ; sister-marriage existiiig among 
the Singhalese, but being couftucd to the royal family. Uia- 
taken statements have been made as to the Vcddos having no 
religion, no personal names, no language. Their religion, in 
fact, corre«poDds with the animism of the ruder tribes of India ; 
(tome of their names arc remarkable as being Hindu, but not in 
tiso among the modem Singhalese ; their language is described as 
a kind of Siuglialeae patois, peculiar iu dialect and utteraoce. 

' 8m G. CunplwU, ' Etbuology oT ItuUa,* in Jmim. A*. 8oc. Benj^nl, IttC, 



There is no iloulit atlAcliing to tlic usual opinion that the Vcddas 
ai-e iu the mwii deswmlRil from the "yakkos" or deniOHH; *. e., 
from the indigenous tribes of the island. Legend and Uuiguagc 
concur to make prnbublc an admixture of Anan blood ocoom- 
ponyiug the adoption of Aryan Mpccchj but Hit; cvidcnco of 
liodily charactcriiitictt abows tbc Vodda raoo to W principally of 
indigenous pne-Aryan typo.^ 

The Tfttnx family of ^orthom Asia and Europe fPuranian, 
if the word be used id a restricted scns«), displays evidence of 
quite ft different kind. This wido-lying group of tribes and 
nations baa motiibers u^nrly or quite touching the savogo ki'el 
in ancient luid i:>ven tnodaru times, such as Ostyaks, Ttinguii, 
Saraoycds, Litpps. wliile more or loss higb ranges of culture are 
represented by MotigolK, Turks, and Hungarians. Here, liow- 
orer, it is unquestionable that the riido tribes represent tlie 
earlier condition of the Tatar race at large, from which its 
more mixed and rivilized peoples, mo-ttly by adopting the 
foreigu culture of Buddhist, M oslem. and CliiisI i«n natiuux. and 
piu-tly by intcnml dcvolopmont, are well kniwn to have risen. 
The rthnolftgy of .Soutb-Enstem Asia is somewhat obscure ; but 
if Wf uwy classify uridir one heading the native races of 8iam, 
Birmn. i:tc, the wilder tribea'may be considered as representing 
earlier eaudition^, for the hiylKr culture of ihin region is oIj- 
viously foreign, espt^cially of Buddhist oiig^n. The Malay race 
is aleo remarkable for the range of civiliaation i-cprcscnted liy 
tribes classed as belonging to it. If the wild tribes of tlic 
Malayan pemnBuIa and Borneo be coint>ared with the semi- 
cisibzeil nations of Java and Sumatni, it appears tbot part of 
the race survives 1o tepresont an early eavage trtato, wliile part 
in found in possession of a civilization which the first glnncc 
shows to have been inoully borrowed frora Hindu and Alo.'tlEini 
BOiiroDS. Some forwt tribes of the peninsula seem to bo reprc- 
Dcntatives of the Malay race at a very low level of culture, how 
for oi'iyiual aud how far degraded it is not easy to say. Among 
them the veiy rude Onuig Sabimba, who have no agriculture 

» J. Dailey, ' VeJJalu,' in IV, Etii. Soe.. Tol. iL p. 8"S ; Mt vol, iii. p. "0. 
Compure BoWl Knoi, 'Ruioricjil Itvlatino of CajW.' [/nidoo, litSl, jntl liL 
dwp. i. ; Sir J. E. Tmiumi. 'Ojlwi,* etc. 



anil no boats, give a. renuirkable account of themsclvee, that 

they are desccndantji of sliipwrcckcd Malayit from tbu Bugis 

countiy. but vere ro harassed by pirates that thoj gave up 

civiJixatioQ and cultivation, mid vowed aot to oat fowlii, which 

betrayed thorn by their crowing. So they plant notbinj,-. but 

eat wild fruit and vegetables, arid all animals btit the fowl. 

' This, if at all founded onfact, is an iutoro.'Sting caeo of d«gtiucra- 

tioD. But Baragca iisuiUly iaveot myths to account for peculiar 

habit*, as whom, in the samo district, the Biduanda Kallang 

Account for their not cultivating the ground by tbu .story that 

thoir ancestors vowed not to make plantations. Another rude 

people of the Malay peninsula are the Jakunn. a nimplc, kindly 

'race, among whom some trace their pcdigr«« to a pair of white 

monkeys, while others declare that they are deMoendaots of whJto 

iKieii; and indeed th^ro i» some ground for i^upptniuglheHc latter 

■ to be really of mixed race, fw they iwc a few Portuguese woniii, 

and a report exists of some refugees having )»eltleil up the 

country.' The Fulynosiaua, Papuans, aud AuJttraliauit rejircscut 

, grailea of sarsgci^- spread each over its own vojit area in a coin- 

IpAralively bonK^neous way. liOsUy, the relations of savagery to 

i lugher oonditiona are rcmarlcubte, hut obscure, on thu American 

[ccntinenta There are ttcveiaJ great Unguistic famih^s wboae 

E'lnciaben vcrc diecovorcd in a aange state throughout : such are 

^the Eeqtdmaai. Algonqaio, and Quarani groupa On the other 

there wore three apparently unconnected distncts of tcmi- 

^vinlisBtioD reaching a high barbaric level, vi£, in 3Iexico and 

Central Anmcn, Bogota, and Peru. Between tboM b^^icr and 

knrer combtiaiis were imoea at the level of the Natchez of 

T^widann and the Apalaehea of Florida. Linguistic oonnvxioo 

is not unknown bcftwe«n tlM> more advanced peoplee and the 

^knrer races ansmd them.* But definite ewidenoe sbowiitg the 

'TwAm TTwrtW Wteaa i)u Ante 1m«v«» mi tfe Btmtm bmUf a- 
tlnifi^ 5. W. t»nB4 Oe MBtM of tW Itteoni «• BmAmb, •«!««» «w 
PmIw t» TOrflktaa Mak«t' Me., fa JLik. 4a JLkO. 4m 
ISH ; B«tla, lASt ; klM TV. Ctfc. flac, tO. ii. p. ISO. Fv IW 

MjUmtWh IT^Biiiil r J ■ .' UI7, nL C ^ M; ^ 'Xjtii «f |W5** 



higlicr culture to Iiave tu-isen from tlie lower, or tlic lower to 
liavc rollcn from the higher. Is scarcely forlbcoming. Both ope- 
rations m&y in degree hare happened. 

It i«appiirciit, fromauchgcncml iimprction ofthisoUinolo^oal 
problem, tliat it would repay a far closer study thau It has as yet 
received. As the evidence Rt^ndis at prosenf, it appears that 
when in any race some branches much excel the rest lu culture, 
this more often happcua by clovutiou tha» by subsidence. But 
thin ekvalioa is much more apt to be produced, by foreign than 
by native action. Civilization is a plant much oftcrer pro pogated 
than developed. Ab regards the lower races, this &ccor>is nitU 
tbo results of European intercourse with savage tribes during 
^0 last three or four ccnturicB; bo far as Uiese tribes have sur- 
vived the process, they have ossimilnie-l more or lees of Euro- 
pean culture and risen towards tbo European level, aa in Poly- 
nesia, South Africa, South America. Another important poiut 
bocoincs manifest from this ethnological survey. T!ie fact that, 
during BO many thonsnnd years of known existence, neither the 
Aryan nor the Semitic stock appears to liave tlirowii off any 
dir<*ct Ravage oflshout rt^coguizable by the age-onrlunng test of 
language, tells, with nome force, against the probability of de- 
gradation to the savage level ever happening from high-level 

With regard to tlic opinions of older writers on early civiliza- 
tion, whether progressionists or (legencmtiouists. it must be 
borne in mind that the evidence at tlieir disi)osal fell far short 
of even the miserably imperfect data now acccasiblc. Criticizing 
an 18th century cthnolo^t is like criticizing on 18tb century 
geologist. The older writer may have been far abivr than his 
modem critic, but he Itad not the same materials. Especially 
ha wanted the guidance of Prehistoric Arcbaology, a depart- 
ment of research otdy established on a scientific footing initliin 
tho last few years. It is essential to gain a clear vicv of the 
bearing of Utis nowcr knowledge on the old problem. 

Chronology, though regarding as more or less lictitious'the 
immeDscdyuasticschemogofthcSJgyptians, Hindus, and Chinese, 
passii^ OS tliey do into mere cipliering-book sums with years for 
unit«, nevertheless admits that existing monuments carry back 



the tracefl of comparatively high civilization to a diataaos 
of above five thooaond years. By piccinR togelhor Eostera 
and West«ni documentary evidence, it seems tbat the groat 
religious divisions of tho Ar^-an nice, to which moderu Brah- 
iiam, Zoi-athustriem, and Buddhinm are due, belong to a 
' period of rcmottily ancient iiiatoiy. Evou if wo are not (iiiite 
sure, with Frofesaor Max Mliller, in the preface to bis tranMattoa 
of tho " Rig Vcdfl," that this collcctloD of Aryan hymns " will 
'take a&d nuuntain for ever its position as the most anetotit of 
Pbooks in the Ubraiy of mankind," and if we do not fully mlmit 
[the stringency of hi» rockoniugs of its date in centurica B. C, 
[yet we must grant tlut bo kIiowh L'atise to refer its compusitiou 
to a very ancicut ponod, where it tbcn proves that a com- 
paratively high Iturbaric culture already exietetl. The Unguistic 
.MgumcDt for tho remotely anoifint common origin of the Indo- 
'Soropean nations, in a dogreo as to their bodily descout, and iu 
a greatOT degree as to their civilisation, tendx toward the same 
iiesult. So it is again with Egypt. Baron Bunsen's cAlculntions 
of Egyptian dynasticti in thousoudii of yearn arc indeud both 
dispotable and disputed, but they are bimed on facts which nt 
any rate antLorize the reception of a long clminology. To go 
no further than the identification of two or three Egyptian 
names mentionetl in Biblical and Classical history, wc gain n 
strong impressioD of remote antiquity. Such are tbv names of 
Sbishank ; of the rsamniitichos line, whoso obelisks ore to Iw 
seen in Rome ; of Tirfaokah, King of Ethiopia, whoac nurse's 
I eoffin is in the Florence Mueeiim ; of the city of Kamesen, 
Eplainly connected with that great Ramcssidc line which Egypt- 
^okp^stfl coll the IDth Dynasty. Here, before cla.'eic culture 
had ariaen, the culture of Eg^'pt cidminatcd, and behind thiit 
. taiDO lies the somewhat leas advanced ago uf the Pyr:imid kings, 
sad behind this again the indufinitti lapse of agox wbieb xuch a 
crvilization required for its production. Again, though no part 
, «f the Old Testament cao Katisfiictorily prove for itself an 
'antiquity of composition approaching that of tho earliest 
[ J^gTptian hieroglyphic inscriptions, yet all critics must admit 
I Ifaat ti>c older of the historical books give on the one haod coo- 
[t e a p or a iy documents showing considerable culture in the 
vol. L m 



Semitic world at a dato which in compariiioiL with classic 
histoiy ifl ancient, while on the other hand they afford evidence 
by way of chronicle, cajiying back ages forther the record of a 
somewhat advanc^-^d barburic civilization. Now if the deTcIop- 
m^Qt-lheory is to account for phenomeua such as these, its 
chroaalogunl demand must be do small one, and the mora so 
vhen it it admitted that in the lower ranges of culture progress 
would bo extremely slow in comparUou with that which 
experience shows among nations already far advanced. On these 
conditions of tJie lirst appearance of the middle civilization being 
thrown hack tu distaut antiquity, and of slow development 
being required to pcrfoim iU heavy task in ages still more 
remote, Prcliifitoric ^Vrchocology cheerftUly takes up the problem. 
And, indeed, &r from heiag dtsmayod by ibc vaatness of the 
period required on the narrowest comptitation, the prehistoric 
arcbffiologist shows oven too much dlspoaitiou to revel in caleu- 
lationii of thouiuinds of yeara, as a Snancier does in reckonings 
of tbouBands of pounds, in a liberal and maybe somewhat reck- 
less way. 

Prehistoric Archieology is fully alive to (acts which may hear 
on dL-^eueratioD in culture. Such arc the colossal humau 
figurcK of bcwu stone in Easter Iidand, which may possibly 
have been shaped by the ancestors of the existing islanders, 
whose preeent resources, however, are quite imoqual to the 
execution of sucli gigantic worka^ A much more important 
case is that of the former inhabitants of the KiBsissippi Valley. 
In districts where the uutivu tribes known in modem times do 
not rank high even as savages, there formeriy dwelt a race whom 
ethnologists call the Mound-Btulders, fivm the amazing extent 
of their motmdH and enclosures, of which there is a si^igle group 
occupying an »rea of four square miles. To have constructed 
such works the Mound-Builders must have been a numerous 
population, mainly subsisting hy agriculture, and indeed vestiges 
of their ancient tillage are still to be found. The civilization 
of these people has bectn, however, Bometimes overrated. Their 
earthworks did not require, as has been thought, standards o( 

» J. JT. Ijuii|trcy, in Traiw. of I'rcliiiilorie Coagma, Nonrieh, 1883, p. 60 ; J. 
U^ioa I'tliner, in Jonn. EUl Sob., toI. L, lg«0. 

THE DE\'Er,0PMEirr or ci*ltube. 


measurcment antl meajis of Uetoniijning angles, for a con] and 
a buiidle of stakes would be a. sufficient set of iustriiiiiCQU to 
laj out any of tlmm. Their use of native copper, liammereU 
ioto shape for cutUng iDstniments, in similar to that of some of 
the savagL' tribes furtht-r norlli. Ou the whole, jutlgiug by 
thoir cartliworks, fields, jiottRry, stone impkmenUi, and other 
Tfmaiiis, thvy iteeiit to liuve belonged to thoso high ravage or 
barbaric tril>OJt of the Southern States, of whom tbc Creeks xad 
Cherokees, as described by Bartram, may be taken as tj-pical.' 
If any of the wild roving hunting tribes now found liN-ing near 
the huge earthworks of the Mound-Builders are the dcsceudanl^, 
of this flomewhnt advanoetl race, then a very oonBiderablg de- 
gradation iiatt tukoQ place-. The question is an open one. The 
explanation of the traces uf tillage may ji&rhaptt m this caao be 
like that of remains of old cultivation-torraces in Borneo, ttiH 
work of CbinuBD colonists wIiosl* deacyuJants hare mostly heeu 
merged in the maw of tlie population and follow the native 
habiu.^ On the other hand, the evidence of locality may be 
misleading us to race. A traveller iu Greenland, coming ou the 
mined stone buildings at Kakortok, would not aigue justly that 
the Esquimaux ai^* degcnL-mto dusccndaula of auceetors capable 
of Kucb architecture, for in thrt these are the I'einaius uf a 
church and baptistery built by the aucleut Scandinavian ttettlcrg." 
On the whole it is remarkable how little of colourable evidence 
of degeneration has been di^Iosed by archaeology'. Ita aegativo 
evidence tdJs strongly the otlier way. A£ an instance may be 
quoted Sir John Lubbock's argument against the idea that 
tribes now ignorant of mctallurgj' and pottery formerly poe- 
B«sscd but liave fdncc loat theeo arts. " We may also assert, on 
a general propo.<tition, that no weapons or intitniments of metal 
liave ever been found in any country inhabited by savog&s 
wholly iguuranL of mL'talliirg)'. A still stronger case ia aflurdod 
by pottery. Polteiy is not easily destroyed ; when known at 

' SqnieraBil Darii, ' Mon. of UUiisdppi VftUej',' etc., in Sooltluoulitii Cuntr., 
Tel i. IMS. Sm Lubbock, 'Pnhi«t«Hi'- TimM,' cJiap. vii. ; W^itf, 'AnthM- 
p4«^* r»L uL p. 73. lUrtraui, 'Cr««k oud CLaiokeo Iiid.,' in Tr. Ain*r, 
£lliii«L Sac., roU iii. |Murt i. 

■ Si. Jolm, ' Life in Pomti of Fur Em!,' rol. ii. p. S27. 

■ Rain, ' Amttieu Aretiake Luidca Gftinia Goognptti*,' [tl. rii., tU!. 




all it is alvnyB abundant, and it possesses two qualities, namelj. 
those of being easy tn l»reak, and yet difBcult to destroy, whicli 
render it very valuable in an archaeological point of view. 
Moreover, it in in most cases associated with buriak It is, 
therefore, a very significant fact, that no fragment of jiottery 
baa "ever been found in Australia, New Zealand, or tlie Poly- 
nesian Islands." * How different a niate of things the popular 
degQQeration-tbeoiy would lead u3 to expect is pointedly sug- 
gested by Sir Charles LycU's sorcafitia sentences in his 'Anti- 
quity of Man.' Had the original stock of mankind, be argueB, 
been really endowed with superior intellectual powcTF and 
insinred knowledge, while posBessing tbc eome improvable 
nature as their iwsterity, bow extreme a point of advaucement 
would they have reached. " Instond of the rudest pottery or 
flint tools, Eo irregular in fonn as to cause the unpractised oye 
to doubt -wliether tliey afford- unmintakablu evidence of de^sign, 
we .should now be finding sciUptured fonns ourpassing m beauty 
the master-pieces of Phidias or Pnaitel&s; lines of buried mil- 
■wavfl or electric telegraphs, from wliiuh the beat eiiginecTs of 
our Jay might gain invaluable hintti; nutronomicnt instniroeuts 
and microscopes of more ad^'ancodconstructioa than any known 
in Europe, and otber iudicatiuus of porfoctton in the arts and 
sciences, auch as the nineteenth century has not yet witnesaed. 
Still farther would the triumphs of inveDtire genius be found 
to have been carried, wboo the later deposits, now assigned to 
tbe ages of brouze and iron, were formed. Vainly should we bo 
Btmining our inuiginnttons to guess the possible uses and mean- 
ing of such relics — machines, perhaps, for navigating the air or 
exploring the depths of the ocean, or for calculating aj-Ithmetical 
problems iieyond the wants or even tho conception of living 
mathematician.^." ' 

The master-key to tlie investigation of man's i)nmi»val con- 
dition is held by Prehistoric Arcbieolog)'. This key is the 
evidence of the Stone Age, proving that men of remotely 
ancient i^ea were in the Havage state. Ever wnce the long- 
ddayed recognition of M. Boucher de Perthes' discoveries (18*1 

' I^bbodi, iu 'Rq>nrt cf Britiali AM(»ci«tioD, Dander, 18(7/ x*. 121. 
* LjcU, * Aatiqiitt}- of hlmo,' chop. xfz. 


and onward) of the Siot implements in the Drift grareli of the 
Sommo VoUcj, cvidcuco has been acc\imiilAting over n wide 
European area to nhow tiiat the nider Stone Age, represented 
by implomcntB of tlie Palwolithie or Ihifl typo, prevailed 
among savage tribes of tbo Quateruary period, the contempo- 
rariea of the mammoth ancl the coolly rhinoceros, in ages for 
which Geology asserts an antiquity far more remote tban 
History can ai'ail to substautiate for the buuian race. Mr. 
John Frere bad already written in 1797 respecting such Hint 
instnimeuts discovered at Home iu Suffolk. " The Bitualion in 
which these wrapom> were found may tempt ua to refer thcni 
to a very remote period indeed, even beyond that of the present 
world.'" The vast lapse of time through which the history of 
London has repreaentod the history of human civilisation, i^ 
to my mind one of the tnoeit uugge^tive fucts diitclosed by 
arcbsBology. The anti<iuary, excavating but a few yards deep, 
may descend from the debris i-epresenttng our modem life, to 
rehcs of the art and science of the Middle Ages, to signs of 
Norman, Saxon, lloiuano-Britiiih times, to traces of the higher 
Stone Age. A\nd on his way from Temple Sor to the Great 
Kortbem Station be posses near the spot (" opposite to black 
Maiy'K, near Qrayea inn lane") where a drift implement of 
black Hint was found with the skeleton of an elephant by Mr. 
Conyere, about a century and a half ago, the relics sidu by ado 
of the London mammoth and the London savage.^ In the 
gravel-beda of Europe, the laterite of India, and other more 
superficial localities, ^here relics of the Palaeolithic Age are 
found, what principally testiSes to man'« condition is tbc 
extreme rudeness of his stouo implcmcntji, and the absence of 
even edge-grinding. The natural inference that this indicates 
a low sarage stato is coufinued in tlio caves of Central France. 
There a race of men. who have left indeed really artistic por- 
traits of themselves and the reindeer and mammothii they lived 
among, seem, as may bo Judged from thu niniaiiis of their 
weapons, implements, etc., to have led a life somewhat of 

' Pf«K, b 'ArchawloKia,' ISOU. 

> J. Bnuu, to 'AreluEologb,' 18SI; LubbMk, 'Prehistoric Tinmi' Sod «!., 
p. 33S. 



Ksquimaux typo, but lower by tlie want of domesticated 
iiuimals. The districts where implemeuta of the nidc primiUve 
Drift type are found are limited in extent. It is to agesi later 
ill time and more advanced in devc-!opraont, that the Neolithic 
or Polished Stotii* Pyriud balouged, when the manufacture of 
Ktone ioatniments wim nnirh improved, and grinding and 
jMlishiug were generally introduced. During the long period 
of prevalence of this slate of thingK, Man appears to h&ve spread 
nimost over the whole Iiabitable earth. The examioation of 
district aftiT district of the world has now all but ctitablidhed a 
universal rule that the Stone Age (bone or nhell being tlic 
occasional substitutes fur stune) undcrlica the Metal Ago every- 
irbere. Even the districts famed in history as seats of ancient 
civilization show, like other regions, their traces of a yet more 
i;rchulc Stuuu Aye. Asia Minor, Egypt, PttlcatiuCj Iiidiu, Cltliia, 
farDi«h evidence from actual sperriiuenH, historical mentions, 
and survivals, which dcmonatratc the former prevalence of con- 
tlitiom of ^society which have their analoguos among modern 
Ravage tribes.^ The Duke of Arg>'ll, in bis 'Primeval Man,' 
while admitting the TJrift implements a.s having been the ice 
hatchets and lude kuivea of low tribes of men inhabiting 
Europe toward tlie end of tlie Glacial Period, concludoB thence 
" that it would be about as safe to argue from these implementfl 
113 to the condition of Man nt that time in the coiiotriea of his 
Primeval Home, a» it would be iu our owu day to argue from 
the habib! and arts of the Kskimo as to the state of civilization 
in Loudon or in Paris." * The progrcfs of archseolog}" for years 
past, however, has been cuutlnually cutting away the ground on 
which such an iirgiiiuuiit as thi» can stand, till now it is nil but 
utterly driven off the field. Where now is the district of the 
t-artli that can bo pointed to as the " Primeval Home" of Man, 
and that does not show by rude stone implements buried in its 
soil the savage couditiuu of its former inhabitants ? Tlierc is 
scarcely a known province of the world of which we cannot say 
certainly, savaj^es oucc dwelt b«re, and if in such a case on 
ctlmcdogist asserts that these savages were the dcscendauta or 

' Sw ' Ijirij nisliiiy or MmikLuil,' eluji. viiL 
' ArgjrII, ■ PHm«r>] Unn,' p. 1S». 


succe-taors of & civilized nation, thti burden of proof lies on him. 
, Agun, the BroQze Age anil ttio Iron Agu I)eloiig in great mob- 
fiure tu liistuty, but their rvlatiuu tu the Stuac Ago proves the 
Houodocss of the judgmciit of LucnatluR, when, attaching expe- 
rivuoo of the pn:<sent to memory and infareooe from the past, 
he propotmded what is dow a tenet of ardiieotogj-, the euc<:«S8ioii 
of the StCHie, Bronze, and Iron Ages : 

' Anna sntiqiu mums nnguet dcntMqne ftienint, 
Et Inpidcs, et itam eDvarum ftngininn nmi 

Poaterius Cem via est »iuqne roparta. 

£t prior mriii ont quoin fern cegaibu nam." ' 

Throughout the various topics of Pn;hiatoric Arrhicology, tho 
force and convergence of its testimony upon the devetopraeot of 
culture are (n'eipoweriog. The rclica discovered in gravol-bcdii, 
cnvcs, Hhell-mounds, tcrramares. lake-dwellings, eaithworlts, the 
results of an exploration of tho superficial soil iu monr countries, 
the OfHnparisoQ of geological evidence, of historical documents, 
of modern savage life, corroborate and explain one another. 
Tho megalithic structures, menhirs, cromlechs, dolmens, and the 
lite, only known to England. France, Algeria, a« the work of 
races of the myslerioua past, huve been kept up as matters of 
modern constmction and recognized pui-paia among tho ruder 
indigenous tribet! of India. The series of ancient lake-settle- 
ments which must represent so many centuries of Nucceiisive 
population fringing the shores of the Swiss takes, have their 
Biuviving represt'utativQB among rude tribes of the Ea*it Indies, 
Africa, and South America. OuUyiDg savages are still heaping 
up shell-mounds like tho.w of far-past Scandinavian antiquity. 
Tlie burial-mouuds still to be aeen la civilized countrieH have 
cterved at oacc as miuteumH of eariy culture and as proo& of its 
ttavngti or barbaric type. It is enough, without entering further 
here into subjecbi fully discussed iu modem special works, to 
claim the gcnemi nupport given to tlio development-theory of 
cidtore by Prehistoric Arcliteology. It was with a true opprc- 
datioQ of the bearings of this acienco that one of its founden, 
' lAcnt. D< ViPTUia Nuton, t. 1£SI. 



the venerable Profc«ot Sron Nilsson, dcclai'fid in lft43 in the 
Introducliou to bis ' PriraiUv© luUabitanta of Scandinavift/ that 
we are "unnhle properly to HnderrtAnd the significnocc of the 
onliquitioji of ikiiy iuilivtdufti country without at tlio same time 
clearly realizing the idcn thnt thp.y ore tlie fnigments of a pro- 
gressive scries of civilixation, nnd that the human race has 
aJwayK been, and still in, steadily advuitciiij^ in civilization." ' 

Entjuiry into tho origiii and ejtrly development of the 
material arts, aa judged of by compariug tJie various stage* 
at which they are found existing, leads to b correfiponding 
result. Not to take this argument up in its full range, n few 
typical details may »orve to show its gencnd character. 
Amongst the various stages of the arts, it is only a minority 
which show of tlicmsolvps by mero inspection whether they 
arc iu the lino of progress or of decline. Most each (actit may be 
compared to an Indian's canoe, vtem and stern alike, so that 
one cannot tell by looking at it -which way it is set to go. But 
tliere ore some which, like our own boata, distinctly point in tho 
direction of their actual coiiise. Such fiicts are pointers in the 
study of civilization, and in every branch of the enquiry should 
be sought out A good example of these pointer-facU is re- 
corded by Mr. Wallace. Tn Celebes, where the bamboo houeen 
are apt to lean with the prevalent we«t wind, tlio natives have 
found out that if they fix some crooked timbers in the ndett of 
the house, it will not fall They choose such accordingly, the 
crookedest they can find, but they do not know the rationale of 
the oontrivance, and have not hit on the idea that tttraight pole« 
fixed slanting would have tlie xame effect in making the stnic- 
turc rigid.* In fact, they have gone halfway toward inventing 
what btiilders call n " strut." but have stopped short. Now the 
mere night uf such a bonso would show that the plan is not a 
rcmuant of higher architecture, but a half-made invention. 

> 6m l^eU, 'AnHiiiuty nf Uui,' Sri cd. 1163 ; La1>bwk, * PrdiUtorlt TtmM,' 
Si)i«4l. lS;Oi 'TnoB. oTConxratof PnliictorM Arcaweidofj' (Nonricli, 1S«) ; 
SIcTMW, 'Flint Ckiiw, etc.,' 1870; NilaHS, 'PiiialUr* InlisliatuU at Sou- 
iliMTia' <«d. by [.oblxtck. IBMj; Fitlconcr, ' fklKantolo^cd aieuoiri, etc:' ; 
Larut Mil dirisiy, ' Kdiqui* Aquitmniec' («L by T. B. Jviua) ; K«Uer, * Lnka 
Dwelling*' (Tr. ud Eil. br J. E. L«e>, eU., etc. 

* WkUsctk ' Iniliaa ArfUpvlaje,' vdI, i f, iS*, 


This IB a fact !□ tlie line of progress, but not of decline. I 
have mentioned clscvbci-c a number of dinilor cases ; thus the 
adaptatioa of a cord to the fire-drill is obnously an improvo- 
leot OQ the Rimplcr instrument twirled by baii<l, and the use 
of the spindlo for making thread is lut improvement on the 
duiD^cr art of liaad-twisttng ^' but to reverse this position, and 
suppose the hnn<)-drill to bavo come into use by leaving off the 
rime of the cord of the cord-drill, or that people who knew the 
use of the spindle leA. it otf and painfully twiKt^d their thread 
by hand, is absurd. Agaiu, the appearance of an art in a 
particular tucality where it is hard to account for it as bocrowcd 
from eWwbere, and especially if it concerns some special native 
product, is evidence of ita being a native inreution. Thus, 
what people can claim the invention of the hammock, or the 
Btill more iuJniirable diticovcry of the extraction of the whole- 
wiuf cii:isavu Crum the poimnoUR manioc, bnt the natives of the 
South American and West Indian districts to which tbeae 
Ltliiogs belong? As the itiolated poi^'ssion of au art go«B to 
rprovc it« invention where it is found, so the absence of an art 
goes to prove that it waa never present. The onus proband! is 
on the other side ; if any one thinks that the East AfricaiiR* an- 
cestors had the lamp and tbc potter's wheel, anil that the North 
American Indians onco jfo&wsded tbo art of making beer from 
their maize like the Mexicanf!. but that theite art^ liave been lost, 
at any rate let him show cause for Buch an opinion. I need not, 
perhaps, go so far as a facetious ethiiulogical friend of mine, who 
les that tbo existence of savage tribes wbi> <la not kis8 thoir 
Fomen is a proof of priui»val barbarism, for. he says, if they 
had over known tlie practice they could not possibly Lave for- 
gotten it. Loatly and principally, as experience shows utt that 
arts of civilized life are developed through successive stages of 
improvement, w« nuiy lysumc tlmt the early development of 
even (savage aria came to pas8 in a similar way, and thtu, Bud- 
iog varioua stages of an art among the lower races, we may 
arrange these stages in a series probably representing their 
actual sequence in history. If any art can he traced back 
among savage tribes to a rudimentary state in which ita inven- 

< ' Early HiMoi? of Mankiiiil,' |ip. 192, 3J3,cC(^., «te. 



tion docs not seem beronil their intellectual condition, toti 
especially if it may 'bo produced by imitating nature or foUow- 
iug nature's direct su£:gcstiou, tliero is fair reason to Bupposo 
tho Tory origin of the art to have bc«a reached. 

Professor NilBson, looking at the remarkable similarity of the 
hunting and fUhitig instruments of the lower races of mankind, 
considers them to have been contrived InHtiactively by a sort of 
natural necessdty. As nn example ho takes the bow and arrow.* 
The instance seems an unfortunate one, in the face of the fact 
tliat the snpfioReil Iww-and-nrrow-making instinct fails among 
the natives of Australia, to whom it would have been veiy lists- 
ful, while even among the Papuan nntivex of the New Hebrides 
there is reason to think it not original, for the bow a called 
there /ana, pcna, n/ani/a. &c., names appai-ently taken from 
the Malay pantih, and indicating a Malay origin for the instru- 
ment. It svems to tne that Dr. Kiemm, in his di&iiertation on Id>- 
plcnicnta and WcaponB, and Colonel I^ane Fox. in his Iccturea on 
Primitive ItVarfaxc. take a mure instructive line in tracing the 
curly develtipmcnt of urta, not to a blind instinct, but to a hcIcc-' 
tion, imitation, and gradual adaptation and improvement of 
iibjccts and operaliyns which Nature, tho inistnictwr of priuncval 
man, sets before him. Thus Kk-mni tracts the etages by which 
progress appears to have been made from the rough stick to the 
finished spear or club, from the natural eharp-edgeJ or rounded 
atone to the nrtistically fashioned ecit, speor-head, or liamincr.* 
Fox traces connexion through the various lypea of weapons, 
|)ointing out hew a form onco arrived at is repeated in variuus 
xizes, like the spear-Uead and arrow-point; how in rude con- 
dttiona of the arts the same inHtrument serves different pur- 
poses, as whore tho Fuegians used their arrew-hends for 
kniveM, and Kafirs carve with their assagais, tUt separate funns 
are adopted for special purposes ; and how in the history of the 
striking, cutting, and })ierciog instrumenta used by mankind, a 
continuity may be traced, which indicates a gradual prngreasivo 
development from the rudest begiiiuiugs to tho most advanced 
improvementa of modern skilL To show bow far the early 

' NilMon, ■ PrimitiRi InHal-iUaU »t S(«nJin«»i«,' p. lOi, 

' KJbdhoi 'Allg. CuliunriattoiclMn,' put ii,, Wcuiicdge nwl W'tSta. 



i derelopmoiit of warliko arta may liave b«en duo to man's 
imitatlTe fiiculty, lie points ont the itnnlogieit in tnothods of 

[irarfitra among aniroalB aodi luvu, clfLssUyiug as (Icfensive 

^appUancoR hides, solid plutes^ juiuteil plntes, sc:lIi»i ; as offensive 
wenpoos, tho piercing, striking, st-rrated, poisoned kinds, &c ; 
and under tlie lieml of strabigenui, flight, concealnmrit, leadt^nt, 
outposts, warKTiea, and so forth.^ 

The niauulacture of Ktoae impli-meiitji is now alinust perfectly 
iind<;rstcMxi by archteologists. Tlie processes used by moJeni 
Bavagea have been observed and imitated. Mr. Jolm Eiiuis, for 
iastaiKiC, by blows with a pebble, prcisure with a piece of stag's 
horn. Hawing with a, boring with a stick and sand, and 
griudiug on a stunu Hurface, buccceds ui reproducing all but tbc 
Gne-st kinds of siuno implements.' Oil thorough knowledge we 

ibre DOW able to refer in great measure: tlic remarkable sinului'ities 
of the stone scrapers, flake-koives, hatchets, apear- and arrow- 
heads, Sic, as found in distant times aiid regions, tu Hm similarity 
of natural models, of materiaLs, and of rGquiromcnt* which 
belong to Mvagc life. The history of the Stone Age i« clearly 
^en to bo one of dovelopmcnt. Begicning with the natural 
sharp stone, the tiunsitioa to the nideitt artificially shapi'd stone 
iplerocQt is imperooptibly gnulunt, and onwnrd from tluN rude 
much independent progress in different directions is to be 
traced, and the ninnnfacturc at last anives at admirable artistic 
fection, by the time that the iulroduction of metal is stiper- 
iig it So with other irapleinents Rn<! fabrics, of whicli the 
stages are known through tlieir whole course of development 
from the merest nature to the fullest art. Tlic club is tracwl 
from the rudest natural bludgeon up to the weapon of finished 
shape and carving. Pebbles held in the bund to hammer with, 
ind cutting-instruments of stone shnped or Ictt smooth at one 

'^emt to be held iu the hand, may be «eca in museums, hinting 

tlut the important art of fixing instruments in liandtes vios tho 

re:tuU of invuDtiou, nut of iustLncL The stone hatchet, Uitod as 

> 1mm Fox, 'Lectunw on Priniitire Vufan^' Jmni. CniUd Sanico liitL, 

' -Rvsiut in 'Tnu». of CongnH of Preliutorio Jachttoiou' {Nomi«li, 1999)* 
p. Ul ; Bw la ' SuilhM&Ua Boporu^ ' 1869 ; Sir & llolchar in Tr. Sib. Boe, 
TOL L p. 13t. 



A wetpOD, puHS into the Imttl«-nx«. Tho spojir, a potntod stick 
or pol^ ItAfi it« point IiardoiieJ ia the fin?, mvl a. further ira- 
provemeut ui to flx on a Rharp point of hnrn, bone, or chipped 
Btona Stozieg ara fluDg hy hand, and then by tho gUng, a tou- 
irivaucc widfly but not imivui-sHllv known nmong savaffe tribes. 
From first to )a*t in the history of war the spear or lance U 
grasped as a thruating weapou. Its use as a missile no tloubt 
bt^an /Ui early, hut it has hnnlly survived sn far in civilization. 
Thus u^eiJ. it is most often thrown hy the uuaidod ami, but a 
filing for the purpose is known to variooa i%avage tribeii. The 
short cord with an eye used in the New Hobiides, aud called a 
" beckct " by Captain Cook, and a whip-like instrunicnt noticed 
in Kew Zealand, are used for epear-throwiug. But the more 
uBual instrument is a wooden handle, a fool or two long. Tiut 
spear-thrower is known across the high northotn dlstriet* of 
North America, among some tribes of South America, and 
among the AustraJians. These latter, it has been assorted, eoidd 
not have invented it in their preiient state uf barbarism. But 
the ivniarkablo foatiiro of tho matter is that tlie spcar-tlirowor 
bulongB eiipecially to savagery, anJ not to pjvilization. Among 
the higher nations the nearest approach to it seenw to have 
been the clatmic amentum, apparently a thong attached tu the 
middle of the javelin to throw it with. The highest people 
known to have usecl the apear-tbrower proptr ai-e the Aztecs. 
Its existence among them is vouched for by representations in 
the Mexican mythological pictures, by its name "atlatl," and by 
a beautifully artistic .'i-pecimcn of the thmg itaelf in the Christy 
Mu»eum ; but we do not hear of it aa in practical use at tho 
Conquest, when it bad upparcntly fallen into BUrvivol. In tact 
tliehistoryof the instrument eecms in absolute opposition to tlio 
degrodfttiou-thcury, representing as it does an invention belong- 
ing to Bavage culture, and ocarccly able to eurviro beyond. 
Nearly the aamc may be said of the blow-tube, which as a 
oerioua weapon scarcely ranges above rude tribes of the East 
Indies and South America, though kept up iu sport at higher 
levels. The Australian boomerang has been claimed as derived 
from some hypothetical high culture, wlieroas the transition- 
etftges tlirou^ which it is connected with tho club arc to be 



obecTTcd tn Its own countij, while do cinlized race possesMS 
the weapon. 

The use of an elastic switcli to fillip small missies with, atid 
the remarkable eldstic dart* of the Polcw Islands, boot nnd 
made to fly by their own spring, indic&t« inveDtiona which may 
hare led 1o that of the bow, while the arrow is a miniaturo form 
of the javelin. The practice of poisooing arrovfl, after Oie 
manner of stings nnd serpents' fai^, is no civilized device, bat 
a eluuacteristic of lower life, which is generally discarded evou 
At the barharic stage. The art of narcotizing fish, remembered 
but not approved by high civilization, belongs to many savage 
tribes, who might easily discover it tn any forest pool where a. 
suitable plant bad fallen iti. The art of setting feuctis to catch 
fish at the ebb of the tide, bo common among tlie lower raoen, 
is a simple dence for assisting nature quite likely to occur to 
the savage, in whom sharp bnnger is no mean ally of dull wit. 
Thus it is with other arts, ilre-making, cooking, pottery, the 
textile arts, are to be traced along linea of gradual improve- 
racait.' Music begins with tho rattle and the drum, which in 
one way or another bold their places from end to end of civili- 
zatioa, while [npe» and stringctt instruments represent an ad- 
vanced musical art which is still developing. So with architec- 
ture and agriculture. Complex, elaborate, and highly-reasoned 
sa are the upper stages of these arts, it is to bo remembered 
that tlicir lower stages begin with mere direct imitation of 
nature, copying the shelters which nature provides, and the 
propagation of plonta which nature perform.^. Without enu- 
merating to the same purpose the r(?maimng industries of 
sarage life, it may be said generally that their fojcts redst 
rather than requirt! a theory of degradation from higher 
culture. They agree with, and oft«u ueoessitate, the same view 
of development which we know by experieooe to oooottnt for 
the origin and progress of the arts among ourselves. 

In the various bmuches of the problem which will hencefor- 
ward occupy our attention, that of determiuiog the relation of 
the mental condition of uvages to that of civilized men, it is 
an excellent guide and safeguard to keep before oar minda the 
> Bm detaiU la * Euljr UlatMjr of Mialcind,' cbA[t. rii. — ix. 


theory of development in the materinl arts. Throughout all the 
mnjuftslations of the Iiunmu inttUccl, facts will Lu fonnd to fall 
into their places on the name gunei-al linen of evolution. Tlie 
notion of the iiit«Uectual state of »avages us rtwulting from 
decay of previous high knowledge, Reemn io have as little evi- 
dence in its favour as that Btoue celts are the dt^nerutc suc- 
cessors of Sheffield axes, or earthen grave-mounds degraded 
copies of Egii'ptian pyi-amids. The study of savage and civilizt d 
life aliko avail us to trace in the early history of the human 
intellect, not gifts of transcendental wiitdom, but liidc shrewd 
sense taking up the facts of common life nnd shaping from 
them Kchcmes of primitive philosophy. It -will Iw men again 
and again, hy examining such topics n» language, mytholog}', 
etiRtom, religion, that savage opinion is in ii more or leK-t rudi- 
mental^' state, while the civilized mind Ktill bears vestiges, 
neither few nor slight, of a past condition from which sayages 
repi-cBont the leoKt, and civilized men the gi^atest advance. 
Throughout the whole vast range of the history of human 
thought and habit, while civilizatiou has to contend not only 
with Bun'ival from lower lcvc;Is, but also with degeneration 
within its own borders, it yet prows capablu of overcoming 
both an<l taking its own course. History within its proper 
field, and ethnography over a wider range, combine to show that 
tlie institutions which can bt-et hold their own in the world 
gradually supersede the loss fit onea, and tliat this incessant 
conflict detcmiincs the general r«8ultAut course of culture. I 
will venture to eet forth in mythic fashion how progress, aberra- 
tion, and retrogression in the general course of culture contrast 
themselves in my own mind. Wo may fancy ourselves looking 
on Civilization, aa in personal figure she traverses the world ; 
we see her lingering or resting by the way, nnd often deviating 
into patlis that bring her toiling back to where slin had passed 
by long ago ; but, direct or devions, her path Ues forward, and 
if now and then she tries a few backward steps, her walk soon 
fnlU into a helpless stumbling. It is not according to her 
nature, her feet were not made to plant uncertain t>fep« lieliind 
her, for both in her fomard view and in her onward gait she is 
of truly human type. 



SBTTiTBl and SnpatHtitn — CTuUtcn'* gtntt — Gtmet of chance— TraditioiMl 
MjiBfti Twij pofiirt P iii r ii lw B ii MI r a fi i piiHr a nrr and nrriral in 
CatlMU ; ■uenBg-temBla, rite of faondrtiaw — friiw, prtjoHee agfiaA 

WheS a costom, an art, or an c^inion is lairij tUausul io the 
worid, dtstnrbuig infloences mar loog afiect it <» sU^tlj that 
it maj keep its oouzse from generation to gf;n«rati/yn, as a 
stream ooce fettled in its bed vijl fiov (« for ageSL TbLt i« 
meze pennaneooe of coltare; and the fpecial vond^r aly^at 
it is that the change and rercJntioD of bnmati afliaira ithcitild 
hare l£ii k» manj <]tf iu feieUjest riruleu to rm fo long; < Ja 
the Taiar Keppes, sx bTiadred j«ar% ago, ii irax an o9«do^ t/i 
tiead oo ihe i2u«&LiJid or looch tii^ v^^ :n ^lit'eriiig si t«Qt, 
and BCi> is appears tio be mQ.' G^iatcfxi oet^x^nvst A^t Oi'vl 
iD£iitKi» liie T-olgar "Bfjoaat oJ^jeoticn u> uiarnagi^ in Haj, 
vhicii be b£;«i szj^^DA'JsaJtKj ^Xflxsn \tj xIa txcusvofX: in tha*. 
nHnlh <.i iLe fsneal trim ■'A th6 LenMntsa : — 

"Haim sauM Xiao x:=i«n ru^ra igz.~ - 

Tht a>j^^ 'i^ai: zisan5^» ii: May ar? 'Q:;}:o'.k j tr:rr}T^ V/ ilsf 

^ TIL & Zuunmim a Auiaraii, -nL ri- ji)- *(^ C, 1£^ ; Kiiaii^ *€n«an 



of which bas pcrislied fur a^'cs, may couUtiuc io exist simply 
bocBuso it baa existed. 

Now there arc thouHonil!! of cases of this kind which have 
become, so to speak, landmarks in the course of culture. Wlien 
in the process of time there has come general clian^ in the 
contlitiou of a people, it is usual, iiotwithstauditig, to lind much 
that mamfe^tly had not its origin in the new state of things, 
but baa simply listed on into it On the strength of these 
fiurvivab, it bccomts possible to declare that tho civilization 
of the peopio they arc observeil among must have been 
deiivod frorn an earlier state, in which the pnj|ier homo and 
meaning of these thing<i are to be found ; and thus collections 
of xuch facts are to be worked as mines of historic knowledge. 
In deaUng with such materiaU, experience of vfbat actually 
hftppeuK is the main guide, and <lir(>ct history has to tench us, 
first and foremost, bow old habits hold thoir ground lu tho midst 
of a new culture which certainly would never have brought 
them in. but on the contrary presses hanl to thrust them out. 
What tbia direct ioformation is like, a single example may 
show. Tho Dayaka of Borneo were nut accustomed to chop 
wood, as we do, by notching out V-shaped ciite^ Accoi-dingly, 
when the white man intruded among them with this among 
other novelties, they marked their dii^igust at the innovation by 
levying a fine on any of (heir own people who should bo caught 
chopping in the hluropeon fashion ; yet so well aware wore the 
native woodcnttera tliat tha.whito man's plan wai an improve- 
ment on their own, that they would nsc it surreptitiously when 
tlioy could tniKt one another not to t#lL' Tho account is 
twenty years old, and very likely tho foreign chop may havo 
ceased to be an offence against Dayak conservatism, but i1» 
proliibition wan a striking instance of sun'ival by ancestral 
autliority in the very teeth of common sense. Such a pro- 
ceeding as this would bo usually, and not improperly, described 
as B superstition ; and, indeed, this name would he given to a 
large proportion of survirak generally. The very word " su- 
perstition," in whut is perhaps its original sense of a " Htanding 
over" from old times, itself expresses the notion of survival. 
> 'Jours. IqiI. Afcliip.' («d. hjJ. B. Legis}, roL u. p. lir. 

But the t«nn superstition now implies a, reproach, and tbotigb 
this repronoh may be often cast deservedly on fr&gTuents- of a 
dead lower culture cuibtiddt'd in a living higher one, yet in 
many cases it would bo liorsti, nnd even uatnie. For the 
ethnographer's purpose, at any rate, it is desirablo to intro- 
duce Huch at«rm as "nurvivnJ," simply to denote the his- 
torical fuel which the word " suporslition " is dow spoiled for 
expressing. Moreover, there have to lie included as partial 
surWvnIs the mass of cases where enough of the old habit is 
kept up for its origiii to be recognizable, though in takiug a 
new form it lias l)con so a<]apted to iicw circumatanceii as still 
to hold its place on its ovm mcrite. 

Thus it would be seldom reasouablo to call Lho chtldron'e 
games of modem I5urope supcratitioiiB, though many of them 
are Bur^-iTaJs, and iadeed remarkable ones. If the gamea of 
children and of grown-up people bo examined with an oye to 
ethnological lessons to bo gainod from them, one of the fiist 
thingsi that strikes us is how mauy of them are only sportive 
imitations of the seiious business of life. As children in modem 
drilizod limes play at dining and driving honses and going to 
church, so a main amusement of savage children is to imitate 
the occupations which they will carry on ui earnest a few years 
later, and Uma their games are in fact their lessons. The Ks- 
qutmaux children's Kporls are shouting with a tiny bow and 
arrow at a mark, and building little snow-hutfl. which they 
Kght up with scrape of Lamp-wick begged from their mothers.'- 
Miniature boomerangs and fipcurs arc among the toys of Aua- 
traliau children ; and even as the fathers keep up the extremely 
primitive custom of getting themselves wives by canying them 
off by violence from other tribes, so playing at such " bride-lift- 
ing" ha« been noticed as one of the regular gamea of the little 
native boys and girls.* Now it is quite a usual thing in the world 
Ibr a game to outlive the serious pi-actico of which it is an imi- 
tation. The bow and arrow is a conspicuous instance. Ancient 
and wide-spread to savage culture, we trace this iastniment 

' Klanm, ' CnltnT-ClMChicht*,' voL it. p. SOU. 

' OlUeU io ' Tr. Eili. Sua* voL iii. p. S86 ; I>iiinOTt d'UrriUe, * Voj. d» 
TAMToUWraL L p. 411. 

vol. I. V 




tlirough barbiuic and classic life nod OQwanl to a bigb lacdisevtd 
leveL But now, whuu we look on at an archeiy meeting, or go 
hy oountiy lanes at the season when toy bowa and otrowa aro 
" in " among the cbildreu, we see, reducoJ to a mere sportive 
survival, tbe antueat weapon wliiclt among a. few savage tribes 
still keeps its deadly pUce in the hunt and the battle. The 
cross-bow, a coinparattvely late and local iiuprovuuicnt on the 
long-bow, has diKappoorcd yd mora utterly ii'nin practical uae ; 
but as a toy it is in full European service, and likely to remain 
BO. for aQttquity mid wide dlfiusion in the world, through 
savage up to classic and mcditeval time^, the sling ranks with 
tho bow and aiTow. i3ut in the middle ogea it fell out of ub« 
aa a practical weapon, and it was all in vain, that the Idth 
century poet commended the art of slinging among tbo exorcises 
of a gooil soldier : — 

" Uao ud( the cMt of stonoi with alTnge or Londe: 
It lalleth ofte. yt other thot thoro none ii, 

Mao haneTsod in steel nmy not withstonde, 
Tba nollitude ajti imghiy vtuA of stouy* ; 

And •toDjn in cffecte, ara ereTy where. 

And slyages aro cot noyous for to beare." ' 

Perhaps as serious a use of the sling as can now be pointed 
out within Uii; limits of civilization is among tho herdsmen of 
Spanish America, who sling so cleverly that the saying is they 
cau hit a beast ou either horn and turn him which way they 
will. But the use of tho rudo old weapon is eapecially kepi 
up by boys at play, who are hero again the reprcsoDtattvos of 
remotely ancient culture. 

As games thuo keep up the record of primitive warlike arte, 
30 tliey reproduce, in what are at once sports and Uttlo children's 
lessons, early stages in the history of childlike tribes of man- 
kind. English children delighting in the imitations of cries 
of animals and so forth, and New Zcalandom playing their 
favourite game of imitating in chorus the bhw hissing, tho 
adze chipping, the muKket roaring, and tho other instnuneuts, 
making their proper noises, are alike showing at its source the 

1 Stratt, 'Sforts nnd Futtin«i,* book tL dinp. il 



imitatjve elemcDt m important in the forinatioa of lauguage.' 
When we look iulo the early developmeiil of tJie art of coiint- 
iDg, au<] see i\n> evidencs of tribe after tribe having obtained 
numerals tlirough the primitive slo}^ of counting on thetr 
fingers, we find a certaia ethnographic interest in the games 
which teach this earliest numeratiOD. The New Zealand game 
of "li" is described as played by counling on the fingLTs, a 
number being callml by one- player, and lie having instantJy to 
touch the pn^per linger ; while in the Samoan game one player 
hold& out so in;uiy fingers, and liiu opponent iniut do the ^nic 
iafltoutly or loae a point.' Thc&e may be native Polynesian 
gamee, or they may be our own children's games borrow&d. In 
tlte English nursery the child loams to say how many finger* 
the naree shows, and th» appointed formula of the game is 
"Buck, Ruck, how many horns do I hold up?" The game of 
one holding up fingers and the others holding up fingers to 
match ia mentioned in Strutt. We may se« small Kchoolboyn 
in the lanes playing tlio guessing -game, where one gets on 
anolher'it back and holdi; up fingers, the other imal guess how 
many. It is interesting to notice t)ie wide distribution and 
long permanence of these trifle!* in history when we read 
the foUovring passage front Petrooius Arbiter, written in the 
time of Nero : — "TriraaJchio, not to seem moved by this loss, 
kissed the boy and bade him get itp on his back. Withoat 
delay the boy ctiuibetl on liopibbAck on him, and slapped him 
on the shoukloTs with his hand, laughing and calling out "bu<ica, 
imcca, quot ^int hicl'*^ The simple counting-games played ^vith 
the fingers must not bo confounded with the addition^mc, 
wjicre each player throws out a hand, and the sum of nil the 
Sugars sliown has to be called, the auccossi'ul caller scoring a 
point ; pnicticftlly each calls the total before he sees his adver- 
sary's baud, Ko that the skill lies especially in slirowd guessing. 
This game affords endless amusement to China, where it is 

I rnlul:, ' Now jSealaadore,* vol. >!. r^ 171. 

* Fokek, Ibid.: WillcG*, 'U.S. Ux|i.'ruL L p. 101. SaatiMamaiintaf ihf gnD« 

4f Uagi » Mariner, 'Tonip b-'vol iL p. »!> ; uitl Yktt, 'iftw Z«*Ij>n<l,' p. 119. 

' Pvtna. Ailairi Sttlns r«e. Blicljtr, fi. ti [oHitz leoiiiti^ an itutte or 

V a 


called "tsocy-moey," and to Souiliem Europe, vrhere it is known 
ia Italian as " morra," ami in rrcncli as " mourrc." So peculiar 
a game wouUl hardly bave been invented twice over in Kiu'ope 
and Aflin, but it is hard to guose vhcther the Chinese learnt 
it from tKe West, or wliethcr it belongs to the romnrk&btc 
list of ck'verinvcntions which Kuropc htut borrowed &om China. 
Tlie ancient Kgyptiaos, as tlicir sculptures show, ased to piny 
at some kind of Biiger-^Liue, uud the Koiiirms bad their fiugi^r- 
flasliing, " mtcare digitiR," at which hut<chers used to gamble 
with thoir customers for bits of meat. It is not clear whether 
these were murra or some other ganies.^ 

When Scotch lads, playing at the game of " tappic-tousic," 
take one another by the forelock and say, "Will ye he ray 
man?"* they know nothing of tlio old Bymbolic manner of 
receiving a bondman whtc)t they are kcuping' up in survival. 
The wooden drill for making fire by friction, which ao many 
rudo or ancient mocs are known to have used an their com- 
mon boufiohoM instrument, and which lasts ou among the 
modern Hindoos us the time-honoured aacre*! means of light- 
ing the pure B&crificial flame, ha!< been found sur\-iving in 
Switzorkiud as a toy among the childn™, who made firo with 
it in sport, much as Esquimaux would have dune in earnest.* 
In Oothtand it is on I'ecord tliat the ancient sacrilico of the 
wild boar lias a*rt»ially been carried on into modem timea in 
qxirtJTe imitation, by lads in maH(|uerading cluthea with their 
i&ces blackened and painted, while the violim woa pcr^naled 
by a boy rolled np in furs and placed upon a scats with a inft 
of pointed straws in bi.s mouth lo imitate the bri&tles of the 
boar.* One innocent littk- child's sport of oar own lime is 
strangely mixed up with an ugly alory of above a thousand 
ycaiB ago. The game in question ia thus played in France: — 
The children stand in a ring, one lights a spill of paper and 
posse* it on to the new, saying, " petit bonhommo vit encore," 
and so on round the ring, each saying the words and paa&lLg on 

1 Comp*T« lUrU, 'Cluft*«,' voL I. p. SlI; Wilkiiiton, Ancient Egyptlwu, 
ToJ. L p. 188 -, FaccioUli, Lvuron, >. r. 'micue*; etc, 

* JuniotoD, ' Diet, of S<-atli«h Unft* >■ t. 

* 'Saxlj History or Mankind,' p. 144, etc.; Orimni, ' Dfutsclic Mjrtli.', ji. S'S. 

* Qnmm. ilad., p. 1200. 


the fiame a& quickly as may be, for tlie one in whose hands Ihc 
^iU goes out ho3 to pay a foifeit, antl LL Is Ihcu produtmcil 
that " petit bonhommo vst murU" Gritnnt ixiciitions a sinailar 
gaioe iu Germany, played with a Imming stick, and Halliwell 
gives tlie nursery rhyme which is sai<i with it wheo it is played 
in England : — 

" Jfick'H nliTO autl in rery good lieoltb, 
If he diet in j'our liitnd j'ou must Itxik to yoiireelf." 

Now, as all readem of Church history know, it used to he a 
favourite eiigine of controversy for the adliercnta of an esta- 
blished faith to accuse }iui-ctical ttecta of cclebrutiag: hideous 
orgies as the mysteries of tlieir religion. The Pagans told these 
atoric» of the Jews, the Jews told them of the Cliristians, and 
Ghrisiiaiis thctriBelvcs reached a bad cmiueiicc in the art of 
akadcring religious opponents whose moral life often seems in 
lict to have been exceptionally pure. The MouiehicaM wero 
aa cep«cial mark for such aspersions, whicli wore pa^e(^d on to a 
sect considered as their suoceBsoni — tlie PitiilicianK, wlio»e name 
ronppcors in the middle oges, in connexion with the C&thtui. 
To those latter, appareutly from ari exprfHaEun lu out- of their 
rcligiiMiK formulas was given the name of Boni Huminc-'), which 
became a recognized term for the Alblgenses. It is clear tliat 
tlie early PaulidanK excited the auger of the orthodox hy olijtct- 
ing to sacred images, and calling those who venerated them idola- 
ters; and about a.u 70U, John of Osun. Patriarch of Armeuia, 
wrote a diatribe against the »cct, urging accusations of the 
regular anti-Maniclijtan type, but with a peculiar feature which 
brings his statumeut into tlie present »iagulur connexion. He 
d&ciiutiB tliut they hhuipliumouKly call the odJiodux "imugC' 
worshippers"; tliat they themselves worship the sun; that, 
moroorer, they mis whcatcn flom- with the blood of infants 
and therewith celcbrato their communion, and " when they 
have slain by the worst of di-aths n boy, the fii-st-born of his 
mother, thrown from hand to liand among them hy turns, tliey 
vdQcratc> him in whose baud the child oxpires, as Imnng at- 
tained to the first dignity of the stct." To explain the corre- 
spondence of the«e atrocious detaiU with the nursei^ sporty 



it is perhaps tbe most li1c«IyBuppositiou, not tliat tlic game of 
"Petit Bonbomme" keeps up a recollection of a legend of tbe 
Boni Hominps, but tbal the gnme was knottii to the chilJren of 
tho oiglith ceulur/ much as it Is now, mid thai the Armenian 
Pnlriarclj simply acciisi3tl tlio Pauliciaus of playing at it willi 
live baboa.' 

It may be possible to trace another intcrcsting group of 
sports as 8un-l™!s from a. branch of savago pbilosopby, once 
of high rank though now fallen into merited decay. Games 
of chance correspond so closely with art* of dirinatiou belong- 
ing already to sav^o culture, that there is force in applying to 
several such games the i-ulc that the serious practice comes 
firat, and in time may dwindle to the sportire eiurvival. To a 
nioderti educated man, drawing lots or tossing up a coin is an 
appeal to cbauce, that ie, to ignorance; it is committing the 
decision of a question to a mcchanicAl process, itsalf in no way 
unnatural or oven extraordinary, but merely no difficult to 
fbllov that no one can eay beforehand what will come of it. 
But we nlso know that this Hcientific doctrine of chance is not 
that of early civilization, which ba-s little in common with tho 
mathoniaticiou's theory of probabilities, bnt much in common 
with such Kacre«l divination as the choice of Matthias by lot as 
a twelftli apostle, or. in a kler age, the Moravian Brethren's 
rite of choosing wives for their ^•oung men by casting lot* with. 

I Hnliiw-^n. 'PoinilM Rliyinca,' p. 112; Crinini, 'D. Jt' ^ 812. BttBtian, 
'M-mo^b,' v-ol. iii. |>. laS. JoliaiiuU l'liilo«i>p[ii Osatoiuis 0|>«r« (Auoli^r), 
Vonice, 16S1, p. 79— S9. " Inrutttiam wnguiai ntnilmn ccinniiUcentcB illcj^ti- 
msra ramanitiaDeu ticglntitmt ; c^uo jiacic {lomrain lura riDtiu itiunotiiter 
Twrntitun exiupemit •cjaduipui. Ijniqup illornm cwlnvam BU|>«r teaii tmliam 
MlutM^ KG Runiiin oealU in cn^lom de&x'ia n»\itivnf!», jmtnt (lifiio rtrbn oe 
ttaim:AMMimtmiovlt. SoUin T«Ti>d«prHun v(iUnto,ajunt: &i/Knj/i-, Xu^Victii; 
stqno aiinot, ytgaiKivo itemoaeM dam iuruant, juxU Uauiolmamin SimanuiqUB 
incantatoru crrorts. Similiter «1 [iriuuta puieotU fumitm piienuu de numu in 
RiMiiam int(T em invimii i>n:i«ctnni, imtuu pmstmlL morte ocriiinrint, illtitn, in 
pujiumnim eujiintrnit piiar. lul priniBin x^Ttiriligiiittitain pronrtnmveniirantnr; 
Abjus [wr ntriiu>iue iiomtoi anJent isMue jumv; Jurv, dicnnt, frr Mniytniiutn 
filUn : ot fttruin ; Tistem Mbav Hhi gloriam yat, in ciijui manunt uniffenilux 
JUitu tpiritian mum tradida , , , . Contrk hn [tho orthMtoi} auilartrr Dvomcro 
jinecnmaatimpiatatiaauat bilcm, atque luaoitlnutm, ex mall ijiirltiu blaitJmaiA, 
AM^pNtolu vocant." 



pr^er. It was to bo blind chance that the M.ioris looked 
vrbcD they divined by tluowiug up lots to fiutl a thief among a 
suspected compaoy ;' or the Gninca negroes whcD they went to 
tbe fetish-priest, who shuffled his bundle of little strips of 
leather and gave his eacred omca.^ Tbe crowd with uplifted 
hnods pray to the gods, when the heroes Cftst lots in the cap of 
Atreides AgamemnuD, to know who RhatI go forth to do battle 
irith Hektorand help the well-greavcd tirooka' With prayer to 
the gods, ftud lookiug up to heaven, the German priest or father, 
as Tacitus rulatetf, drew three lots fi'otn among the marked fruit- 
tree twigs scattered on a pure wliite garment, and interprete<l 
tbe answer from their signs.'* As in ancient Italy oracles gave 
reapoDseB by graviin lots,' so the modern Hindus decide dis- 
putes hy casting lots in front of a temple, appealing to the gods 
with cries of " Let justice ha sliown ! Sfiow the innocent ! "** 

The uncivilized man tliinks that lots or dice adjusted in 
their fall with reference to the meanuig ho may choose to 
attach to it, and cf^pecially he in apt to suppoi^o Rpirituul beings 
Standing over the diviner or tlu; gambler, jsliuftiiug the lots or 
tunung tip the dice to malce them giro their answers: ThiA 
view hold it« place firmly in the middle ages, and later in 
hietoiy we »till find games of chance looked on as results of 
supematiual operation. The general change fmm raedioeral to 
modern notions in this respect is well shown in a remai'kable 
Tork published in 1619, which aeema to bave done much toward 
briDging the cliangc; about. Thomas Oataker, a Puritan 
minister, in his treatise 'Of the Nature and Use of Lots,' stated, 
10 order to combat them, the foUowiug among tlip current ob- 
jectlouB made against giuncjt of chance : — " Lotj« may not be 
used but with great reverence, because the disposition of them 
commeth immediately from God" .... "the nature of a Lot. 

S Taluk, ml i. p. 270l 

* Boman, 'Oulneto Eort,* Uttor x.; Eng. Trsn^ in PinkfTton, tdL xtL 
p. US. 

* HctMt. Iliml. vii. ITl. 

* TtdL Gtmaiiin. 10. 

*8nihli'«'DicofCr. ondBora. Ant.,'«rt». 'wMulttm,' 'tOTtw.' 

* QobcftB. ' Oriouul Illiumttaua,' p. MS. 



wliicli ia affirmed to bee a worko of Gvla Hpuciall aud iiomc- 
diate [novidvaoc;, a sacred oracle, a divine judgement or son- 
tcQce: the ligbt use of it tLereforo to be an abuse of Gods 
nanie ; and ao n sinnc i^iaet the third Commaadcinciit." 
G&takor, in opposition to this, argues that " to expect the issue 
and event of it, an by onlinarie meaner from Qod, in common to 
all actions : to expect it by an immediate and oxtraordinarie 
works Is no more lawfull here than eUewhere, yea is indeeil 
mere roperstition."^ It took time, however, for this opinion to 
become prevalent iu the uducatetl world. Afuir a luptM of forty 
years, Jeremy Taylor could still bring out a rerooant of the 
older notion, in the courw of a generally reaaonable argument 
in lavour of giunes of chance wheo played for refrcshmt'ut mid 
not for money. " I have heard," he says, " from them that have 
akil] in sudi things, there arc such etrangc chances, such pro- 
moting of a hand by fancy and little arts of geomancy, such 
constant winning on ooc eiile, such unreasonable losses on the 
other, and those strange contingcucics produce such horrible 
effects, that it is not improbable that God liath permitted the 
conduct of Buch games of chanco to the devit, who will oider 
them BO where he can do most mischief; but, without the in- 
strumeotality of money, he could do nolliiug at all"* Witli 
wliat vitality tlie notion of su]x>rnntural inu-rference in games 
of chance even now suirivcs iu Eui'opu, is well Fihown by the 
still flourishing arts of gamblers' inugic. The fi>Ik-lore of our 
own day cDtiliuues to teach that a Oood Friday'x egg is to 1)e 
carried for luck in gaming, and that a turn of one's cliair will 
turn one's fortune ; the Tyrolese knows tlic charm for getting 
from the devil the gift of winning at cards and dice ; there is 
still a great sale on the continent for books which show how to 
discover, Irom dreams, good numbers for the lottei^ ; and the 
Lusatiou peasant will even hide his lottery-tickets under the 
altar-cloth tliat they may receive the blessing n-ith the sacra- 
ment, and so stand a better chance of winning.' 
Arts of divination and games of chance are so similar in 

> Oatakn-, p. 141, « ; icc Lecky, 'KiatoTToT ItattoiuUsro,* t«L i p. 307. 
* Jmmj Tnjlor, Doctor Dnbiuatiiini, in ' Vcrlci,' vol. lit. p. 337. 

> Sm Waltkp, ■])«utwh« Vulk«UMrglaubc,' p. K>. IIS, i;S. 

principle, that the very same instrumeot passes from one um to 
the other. ThU appears in the accounts, very HUggentive from 
this point of view, of the Polynesian art of cHvinatioQ by spin- 
ning the "niu" or cocoo^iiut. lothc Tongan tslands, in Mariner's 
time, the piincipal jnirposo for whifh this was solt-'iiiiJy per- 
formed wa* to incpiiri; if a fiick pci-son would, recover ; prayer 
was made aloud t'O the palrun god of the fauiily to direct the 
sat, which vaa then spun, and its du'cctloa at rest indicated tho 
intention of the god. On other occasions, when tho cocoa-nut 
was merely epun for amuHement, no prayer wua made, and no 
credit given to the result, Here the serious and the sportivo 
use of Ibia rudimentary teetotum are fomid togellier. In the 
Samoan If^lands, however, at a laU-r date, the Rev. G. Turner 
Gods tho practiec pa,sscd into n different singe. A party sit in 
a circle, the C(R'oa-uut in spun in the middlL-, and the oracular 
answer is according to the person towards whom the monkey- 
face of the firuit is turned wbt-n it stops ; bat whereas formerly 
the SamoBa<t used this as an art of divination to diacuvur tliieves, 
now they only keep it up as a nay of casting lot^, and as a game 
of TorfeiLs.' It is in Girour of the view of serious diviuatiua 
being the cnrUcr use, to notice that the New Zoalaadei», though 
they have no cocoa-nut», keep up a trace of the time when their 
aooestoTB in the tropical inlands had them and divined with 
them ; for it iu the well-known Polyne^inn word " niu," L c. 
coooa-nut, which is still retained in use amoug tho Maoris for 
other kinds of divination, eifpecially tliat perfunned witli Htieks. 
iir. Taylor, who point« out tbis curiously neat piece of ethnolo- 
gical (evidence, records another case to the present purpone. A 
method of divination was to clap the hands together while a 
proper diarm was repeated ; if the fingers went clear in. it was 
favourable, but a check was an ill omen ; on tbc question of a 
party crustiing the cotmtry in war-time, the locking of all the 
fingers, or the stoppage of some or all, were naturally inter- 
preted to moao clear passage, mcvting a travelling party, ur being 
stopped altogether. This quaiut little symbolic art of divina- 
tion soenu now only to eurrivc as a game ; it i$ called " puni- 

1 Kuisar, 'Tod^ Ii1u)di,'TAL ii. y. SS9 ; Tumtr, •Poljn*^' p. Sl<; 
WOUav^ '£()>.' v»L i. ^ SSa. CmpMt Coat, • Oiwkud.* ^ ML, 



pnni."^ A eimilar connexion between divination and gambling 
is shown by more familiar iustrunients. The liucklcboacs or 
OBtragali wcro used in diviuatioii in aucivul Ronic, boing con- 
verted into rude dic« by numbering the four exdes, aod ev6Q 
wheo the Roman gambler used the tali for gambling, he vould 
incokc ,1 god or his mistwes before bo made his tJ»row* Such 
iinplomuDts are now mostly naed for play, but, nerertJmleas, 
their um for divination vas by no nieiuis conHoed to the oneieDt 
world, for huoklobones arc mentioned in the 17th century 
among tlie forttiD«-taUing instrumeDtK wbicb young girls divined 
for hufibnnds with.' and Negro Borcerem still throw dice an a moans 
of detecting thieves,* Lots nerve the two purposes equally welL 
The Cbincsc gamble by lots for cash and dwcettneHts, whilst 
ihi^y also seriously lake omens by solemn apjicftls to the tots kept 
ready fur tlic purpose in the temples, and profesi«ional diyiners 
ut in the nwrket-placos, Uiufi to opL-u tliu futuru to their cim- 
loment' Playing-cards ai-e still in European usr for divination. 
That early sort knowu as "tarots" which the French dealer's 
lioouso to sell "caitcs ct torots " rtill keeps in mind, is said to 
be preferred by fortuno-tellors to tho common kind ; for the 
tarot-pack, with its more numerous and complex figures, Icnda 
itself to a greater variety of omens. In tUoeo eases, direct 
histor}' fails 1o tell uh whether tho line of the inntrument for 
omen or play came first. In this respect, the history of the 
Greek " Kottaboe" is iustnictive. This art of divination con- 
sisted in flinging wine out of a cup into a metal Iwsiu some dis- 
tance off widiout spilling any, the thrower saying or thinking 
his miKtrcsM's name, and Judging fiiom the clear or dull Rplash 
of the wine ou the metal what his fortune in loTO would bo ; 
hut in time tJic magic passed oat of Uio prDcees. and it becamo 
a mere game of dexterity played for a i>rize.' If this Iw a 
typical case, and the rule be relied ou that the serious u«c prc- 

* R. Tojbr, ■ New Zmkod.' n^ 30S, M8. S6?. 

* Siiiilli"s Die. Ml. • l«ln».' 

* Bnnd, ■ Popttlur AniiiiultleB.' rol. II. ]>. 413. 

« D. Jfca LiTliigrtoiic, -Exii. to Z«nt)Ml,' |i. 51. 

> Doglittiv, 'CbinM*,' t«1. ii ]l IQS, W~7 ; m* »<i BMtMn, 'OwtL 
Aneiii'Tcl. lii. pp. '9, 129. 

* SmitVa Die ait 'cottilMi.* 



cedes the playful, then games of clinnce may lie consictcrct) soiv 
TiTaU in principle or detail from correspoiKling processes of 
magic — as divimitiou in sport made gamUing ia earnest 

Seeking more examples of the lasting on of Rxcd liabits 
among mankind, let us glance at a group of time-honoured 

^ traditioaol sayings, old saws which have a. special intereRt as 
Cft»« of surviv-al. Even wlicn the real eigmficntion of these 
phrases has faded out of men's micdd, and they liavo sunk 
into sheer nonjton!W, or have been overlaid with some modem 
stipcrficiol mt^auiiig, still the old furmulaa &ra banded on, often 
gaining more in mj-stery than tliey lose in oeoseL We may bear 
people talk of " biijHng a pig in a poke," whose acquaintRnce 
with Englisb does not extend to knowing what a poke Is. And 
certainly those who winh to say that they have a great mind to 

.Bomcthing, and who express themselves by declaring that tliey 
we " a month's mind " to it, cjin have uo conception of the 
bopoleas nonsonse tliey are making of the old term of tho 

f" month's mind" which was really the monthly sei-vice for a 
dead man's soul, whereby be vra.'i kept in mind or remfmbmnce, 
Tbe proper scnao of the phrase "sowing his wild oata" seema 
gCTiorallyloet in our modern xiseofit. No doubt it oqco implied 

, that these ill weeds would spring up in later years, and how 
it voald bo to root them out. Like the cnnmy in the 
able, the Scandinavian Loki, the miachief-maker, Is pro- 

^Terbially said in Jutinntl to sow bit; oats (" nu safloi- Lokken nin 
havre "), and the name of " Loki's oats " (Lokesliavre) is given 
in Bamah to the wild onls (avenn fntun).* Sayings which have 
tlieir iwni'oe in some obsolotu custom or tale, of course lie es* 
pecially open to such ill-usage. It has become mere English to 
Ik of au "unlicked cub" who "wants licking into shape.'* 

^while few remember ttie explanation of these phrases from 
Pliny's story that bears are liom as eycieits, hairless, shapcleas 
Itunps of white Se«h, and have afterwards to be licked into 

Again, in roliu of old magic and religion, we have eometimee 

* Grimm, ' Diiutitclu! llytU.' p. 222. 
' PliD. Tiii. 54. 



to look for a deeper sense in conventional phrases tban they 
now carry on their fnce, or for a tvol meaning in what now 
teems nonsoDsc. How an ^ethnographical record may become 
emhodied iii a popuUir saying, a Tamil proverb now current in 
South India, will show perfectly. On occniiions when A htU B, 
and C cries out at the hlow, the bytitandem will say. " "T'ut like 
B Koravan eating asaft^tifla when his wife lies in l" Now a 
Koravan belongs (o a low i-aoe in Madras, and is defined as 
"gypsy, wanderer, asfi-driver, thief, eater of rata, dweller in mat 
tents, fortune-teller, and suapccti-d chunicter;" and tlie explan- 
ation of the proverb is, that whereas native women guncrally 
eat asafcetida as strengthening medicine after childbirth, among 
the Koravans it is the husbund who cat* it to fortify himself 
on tho occasion. Thie, in fact, is & variety of the world-wide 
custom of the "co«vn<le," where at childbirth tho husband 
undergoes medical treatment, in many cases being put to bed 
Jot days. It appears that the Koravans ai'e among the races 
practising this qtiaint cuntom, and that their more civilized 
Tamil neighhomrs, struck by its oddity, but uncougcioiis of its 
now forgotten meaning, have taken it up into a proverb.' Let 
ua now apply the some sort of etlinographical key to clailc 
eayings in oiir own modem language. The maxim, "a hair of 
Ihe dog that bit you " was originally neither a metaphor nor a 
joke, but a matter-of-fact recipe for curing tbe bite of a dog, 
one of the many triHtaiiccs uf Uio ancient homoeopathic doctrine, 
that what hurts will abio cure: it is mentioned in the Scandina- 
Tian Edda, " Dogs hair heals dog's bite."' Tho phrase " raising 
the wind" now posses as humorous slang, but it once, in all 
Aerioosucss, described ooo of tho most dreaded of the sorcerer's 
art«, practised espcetally by tho Finlajid wizards, of whose nn- 
canny power over tho weather our sailors have not to this day 
Forgotten their old terror. The ancient ceremony or ordeal of 
passing through a 6re or leaping o^'er burning brands has been 
kept np so vigorously in the Britisli Isles, tliat J.'iniieson's de- 
rivation of the phrase " to haul over tho coals " IJrom this rite 

' Prom m bttor t4 Mr. 11. J. Siokn, K«pfaum. 
CMinda in ' Eulj BM. of UanklBd,' p. IH. 
1 H&tubU, ISS. 

Gmeni dcUib at ths 



appears id no way far-fetched. It is not long nooe an 
IrishwomaD in New York was tried for killing her child ; she 
had mode it stand on burning coals iu find out wbclhcr it was 
really her own or a changeling.' The tlnglish ourso who says 
to a frclTuI child. " You got out of bed wrong foot forcniost titis 
tnomiDg," stldom or never knon-s the meaning of her saying ; 
but this is still plain in the German folklore rule, that to get out 
of bed left foot first will bring a bad day,' ono of the many 
ciamplos of that simpio association of ideas which connects right 
and left with good and had rMpcctively. "To be ready to jump 
oat of onc'8 skin " is now a mere phrase expressing siirpri^ or 
delight, but in the old doctrine of WerowoivM, not yet extinct 
in KnropCj men who are versipelleti or tiirntikins have the actual 
fiieuUy of jumping out of thoir Blcins, to become for a time 
wolvca To conclude, the phraxe " cheating the devil " seems 
to belong to that familiar !(crie» of legends where a man makes 
a compact with the lieuJ. hut at the lai^t moment gets otF scot- 
free by the interposition of aaaint, or by some absurd ovaaion — 
audi as whistling the gospel he has bound himself not to say, or 
refusing to complete hia bargain at the fall of the leaf, on tJio 

> plea that the sculptured leaves in the church arc still on their 
boughs. One form of the mediaeval compact wa^ for the dcnioii^ 
when he had taught his black art to a class of scholars, to seize 
one of them for his profcsyional fee, by letting them all run 
for their lives and catching the last — a story obviously connected 
with another popular saying: "devil take the hindmost," 
But even at this game tlio stupid fiend may be cheated, as m 
told in the folk-lore of f^pain anil Scotland. The apt scholar 

'only leaves the master his shadow to clutch as the hiudmiMt 
in tlie race, and with this unsubstantial payment he inuiit needs 
be Katisfiec), while the new-made magician goes forth free, but 
ever afler shadowless.' 

It seems a fair inference to think folk-lore nearest to its 

I XuRHton, 'Bcoltiili Dirtioiiary,' m. t. 'cobIi;' S. Hunt, 'Popular Bo- 
jtmnett,' lit na. |i. 83. 

' Vnttl», 'VolkMlw^UtibA.'r. 131. 
' BocblMlx, ' UouUclicr OUubt uiul Braocli,' vol. l, p. 130 ; Orinun, pp. MO 
a;«i Wnttk«.p. US. 



source vht-roilluia lU Ijighest place and meaning. Thus, if 
Gome old rhyme or saying has in one jilace a (solemn import in 
philoBopby or religion, while claewhere it lies at the level of the 
Dureory, there is some ground for troating the serious voraion 
as the more original, and tho playful cue aa its mere liDgeriug 
survival. The argument is not aafc, but yet ia not to bo quite 
overlookcil. For instance, there aro two poema kept in remem- 
brance among the moduru Jvws, anil printed at the end of tbcir 
book of Passover services in Hebrew and English. One U that 
known as wi3 in (Chad gadyi) : it bc-giue, " A kid, a kid, my 
fattier bought for two pieces of monvy ;" and it goes on to tell 
how a cat came and ate the kid, and a dog came and bit tlie 
cat, and so on to the cud. — " Then came the Holy One. blessed 
be He ! and slew the angel of death, who ulcw tho butclier, 
vho killed the ox, that drank the water, that quenched tbc 
fire, that burnt the Ktick, that beat the dog, that bit the eat, 
that ate tho kid, tliat my father bought for two piuccs of money, 
a kid, a kid." This composition is in the * Sepher Uaggadali,' 
and ia looked on by some Jews as a parable concerning the post 
and future of the Holy Laud. According to one intciprctation, 
Pftlestine, tlie kid, is devoured by Babylon the cat ; Babylon is 
overthrown by Per&ia, Persia by Greece, Greece by Rome, till 
at last Ihu Turks prcvail in tho land; but tlie Edomites (ia the 
nations of Europe) shall drive out the Turks, the angel of 
death shall da<!troy the enemies of Israel, aud his children 
shall be wffltored under the rule of MBsaiali. Irrespectively of 
any such particular ititerpretntion, tlie Kotemaity of the ending 
may tuclino us to think that we i-eally have the compo«tion here 
in somcthiug like its finit form, and that it was written to convey 
a mystic nx^aning. If ho, tht^u it. follows that our famibar 
uuntcry tale of the old woman who coiUdn'tget her kid (or pig) 
over tlie Btilc, and wouldn't get home till midnight, must be con- 
sidered a broken down adaptation of this oklJewish poem. The 
other eomposition is a counting- poem, nud begins thus : — 

" Who knovetb one F I (eaith Israel) know One; 
One is Qod, who u otdt heavon and earth. 
Who kaoweth two f I («utli Israel) know two : 
Tfro tablM of thft umnant; but O&a t« otir God vho 10 otot tk9 
bnTODS and tli* earth." 

(And M forth, aocumulaiing up to the last veis^ wblcb U— ) 

"tnuknoveththirtaan? I[nitblBaal)kaor tfatrteen: ThirtMU 
dinitft ftttribatM, twtlrs tribM, deroa •Un, Un oommMxlauDta, 
nine montlig praotdiiig chiMbirth, flight daya prwwdiiif canumoirion, 
Mwa dayi of the veck, «x booki «f tba Mialiniih. fin books of tko 
Law. four mfttnuu, time patiunha. two ttbles of the oovnuat ; 
bnt O&o u ooT God vho u or«r tlu bMTtas and tb* eortlt." 

This is one of a family of counting-poems, apparcnitly held id 
much &rour ia niedioeval Christian times ; for they are not yet 
qttttc foTKOttcn in country }^aces. An old Latin vcrsiou nins : 
" Unus est Dons." etc., and one of the stjll-surviviog Englisli 
fonos begins, " One's Que all alone, and ever more shall be m," 
and rodcona on as far on " Tvcire, (bo twelve apostles." Here 
both the Jewish and Obhstian forma are or have beeo serious, 
BO it i« possible that the Jew nuy hare imitated the Christian, 
but the nobler form of the Hebrew poem here again gives it a 
claim Ur be thought the earlier.' 

The old proverbs brou^t down by long inheritance into oor 
modetn talk are for from being iosigmBcant in themselves for 
tJheir wit is of)«n us fruuli, and their wisdom as pertioent as 
it ever waa. Beyond those practical qualities, proverb} are in- 
structive for the place in ethnography which they occiiprjr. 
Their range in dvilixation U limited ; they seem scarcely to 
bdoBg to the lowest tribes, but appear first in a settled form 
among some of tbe higher savagoa. The Fijians, who weic 
ibnnd a few yean since living in what archa-olugiats might oiU 
Ute upper Stone Age, have some well-marked proverbs. They 
Luijrh at want of forethought by the saying that "The 
^akoudo people cut the mast firat" Q,e., before tbey had built 
the canue; ; and wheu u poor man loolu vtstfuUy at what he 
anitot boy. they «ay. " Becalmed, and looking at the fish."* 
AiBoi^ the Bat of the New Zealaodei^ " wfaakatauki," or pro- 
Tefbo^ «ae deacnbes a iazy glutttn : " Beep throat, but shaUow 

■ Mfalft. *8«Tin t* At Rrrt V^^ta «f pMaorn-,' Lmclati, 1U2 Qn th» 
Jc«idi ifllMpntatiaB. the wwd *Aiw/tt,— ' cat,' i* ooniMnd vHk aUmir'^. 
Halliina,*B«KfrSl>7*M-, |k.SSe; 'Pofnlsr BkfM^' p. «. 

s Tin^M, 'Kii,' r«L L |i. 110. 


eincwR ;" another fays that the lazy ofton profit by tho work of 
the industrious : "ThelargecliipBnmde hy Hardwood fall to tlit* 
share of Sit-atUl ;" a tliinl moralizes time " A crooked part i>f a 
stem of toetoe oan W seen ; hut a crooked part in the heart 
cumot be seen."' Among the Basutos of South Africa, " Wat«r 
never get» tired of ruoniog,*' is a reproach to chattcrera ; 
" lions growl while ilicy are eating," raeanii that there are people 
who never will enjoy anything; "The Bowing-month is the 
head-Achc-tnonth," describes those lasy folks who mako excuses 
when work is to be don«; "The thief cata thuodcrhoUs," means 
that he will bring down vcngeaDce from heaven on himself.' 
West African nationa are especially strong in proverbial phJIo- 
Dophy ; BO much so that Captain Burton otnuAcd himself through 
the rainy eeason at Keruando Po in compiling a volume of 
native proverbs,' among which there are hundreds at about as 
high an intelloctual level as those of Europa " He fled from 
tho sword and hid in the scabharJ," is as good as our " Out of 
tlie frying-pan into tlie fire;" and " He who han only hu: eye- 
brow for a cross-bow can never kill an animaj," is more 
picturesque, if lean terse, than our "Hard wonls break no 
bones." The old Buddhist aphorism, that "He who indulges itt 
enmity is like one who throws ashes to wiudward, which come 
bock to the samu placu uiid cover him all over," ia put with less 
prose and aa much point in the ne|fro saying, "Ashes fly hock 
iu tho face of him who throws them." When suuie one tries to 
settle an affair in the absence of the people concerned, tJie negroes 
will object that "You can't shave a man's head when he ia 
not there," while, to explain that the master is not to be judged 
by the folly of his servant, they my, "Tlie rider is not a fool 
because tJie horse ia" Ingratitude is alluded to in "The sword 
knows not the bead of the smith" (whu made it), and yet more 
forcibly elsewhere, " When the calabash had saved them (iu the 
famine), they said, let us cut it for a drinking -cu]>." The 
popular contempt for poor meu's wisdom is put very neatly in 
the maxim, " When a poor man makes a proverb it does not 

> Shortland. ' Trxlitumn of N, 7..' p. IM. 

* Cu«li>i< '^tniLta (ur la \aiipse ft^linuia.' 

* R. F. Burt«it ' Wit and Wixlom from Vttt AfricK.' Sec alw Wollt, tcI ii. 

ju ats. 



Bpread," while the very mention of making a proverb as some* 
thing hkcly to hajipuu, shows a land wlicrc prorurb-umking iB 
BttU a living art. Transplanted to the West Inilics. the African 
keeps up this iirt> as witness tliesc saviti^ ; " Behind dog it is 
dog, but before dog it is Mr. Dog;" and " Toute cabinctte tini 
wariDgouin " — " Every cabin has Jt« moaquito." 

The proverb has not changed its character in the course of 
histoi^'; but has retained from fin^t to last a precisoly detinite 
type. The proverbial aayiugs recurded among the bigliei' 
nations of the world are to bo reckoned by tens of thousands, 
and have a large and well-knowu literature of their own. But 
though the range of existence of proverlw extemU into the 
highest levels of civilization, this is scarcely true of their develop- 
ment. At the level of Europeau culturo in the middle ages, 
Uiey have indeed a vast importance in prtpular education, but 
their period of actual growth seems alreaily at an end. Cer- 
vantes raised the proverl>-monger'!i cnift to a pitch it never sur- 
passed; but it mu^^t not be forgotten that the incomparable 
Sanclio's wares were inmstly heirloouiB ; for proverbs wcro oven 
then sinking to remnaQta of an earlier condition of society. Aa 
such they sun"ive among ourselves, who go on using much the 
same relics of ancestral uisdom. as came out of the squire's ia- 
exhaustible budget, old saws not to be lightly altered or made 
anew in our chiuiged modem timcH. We can collect ami use 
the old proverbs, but making new ones hiis become a feeble, 
spiritless imitation, like our attempts to invent new mytlis or 
new nnrxerj" rhj-mes. 

Riddles start near proverbs in the hiHtory of civilization, 
and they travel on long togcthei', though at la*t towards 
different endsL By riddles are here meant the old-fanhioned 
problem* with a real answer intended to be discovered, such as 
the tjr-]>ical enigma of Uie Sphinx. an<l not the modern verbal 
ooQundrums set in the traditiunal form of question attd answer. 
as a way of bringing in a jest apropos of nothing. The oti^nnl 
kiiMl, which may be defined as " aeDse-ridUles," arc found at 
home among the upper savages, and range on into the lower 
and middle civtlisation; and while their growth stops at this 
level, many ancient specimens have lasted oq in the modern 

VOL t. 



attiseiy aocl hy tbe cottage fii-eside. There in a plain reafion 
why riddles vliould belong to only Uie biglier grades of navBgeiy ; 
their making re^julres a fnir power of ideal comparison, and 
knowledge must Iiuve mudu cunjuderablc udvanco before this 
process could become m fniniHar as to fall from earnest into 
sport. At Inst, in a fai- higher state of culture, riddles begin to 
Lo lookoil on ns trifling, tliuir growtli ccofien, and tbej only sur- 
vive in remnani« for children's piny. Some example*!, chosen 
among various mccs. from savagery upwards, will ehon- rooro 
exactly the place in mental hi&toiy wbicbiho riddle occupies. 

The following arc specimens from a collection of Zulu 
riddles, recorded with quaintly simpW native comments on the 
philosophy of tbe matter: — Q. "Guess ye some men who are 
many and form a row ; they dance tbo wedding-danoc, adorned 
in white hip-dressen ?" A. " The teeth ; we call them men who 
form n row, for the teeth stand like men who are made ready 
for a wcjdding-dauce, that they may dance well Wlion we my, 
they are ' adorned with white hip-dre»8««.' we put that in, tbat 
people may not at onoe tltink of teeth, but be drawn aw.<iy from 
them by thinking. ' It \s men who put. on white hip-dres-ses,' 
and conUnually have their thoughts fixed on men," etc Q. 
" Ones ye a man who docs not lie down at night : he lius down 
in tbe morning until the sun sets ; he tlien awakes, and works 
all night ; lie docs not work by day ; he is noi aom when be 
works?" A. "The closing-poles of thocattlc-pcn." Q. "Guess 
ye a roan whom men do not like to laugh, for it is known that 
bis laughter is a very great eril. and is followed by lamentA- 
tion, and an cod of rejoicing. M«n weep, and trc««, and grass ; 
and everj-thing is heard weeping in the tribe where be laughs; 
and they say the man has laughed who does not usually laugh}' 
A. " fire. It is called a man tliat what is said may not bo at 
once eridcot, it being roncealetl by the woni ' man.' 3ten sny 
many things, scarcbing out the metining in rivali^, and missir^ 
the maik. A riddle ix good when it is not discemiblo at uih;^" 
etc' Among the Baauios, riddles ars a recogniied part of 
education, awl are set liko exeidses to a whole company of 

* Oakn;, * KUIW17 TUc^ «tr. of Zai<a%,' nl I. p. 3M, «c 


puszlcd childrcQ, Q. "Do you know wlmt tlurowa iUoif from 
tlie mouDtaia-top without bcin^ broken I" A. "A water- 
fall" Q. " There's a tluDg tbat tmvcU fut without legs or 
wings, and iio clifT, nor river, nor wall can atop it } " A. '' Tho 
roioe." Q. " Name tlie t-<'ii trt'es with tvn Hut RtonuR on tin* top 
of them." A. "The fingerfi." Q. " Wio in tlic littln im- 
morable dumb Iwy whu in drussuil up wttnn in tlie Jay aud Ivft 
naked at night ?" A. "The 'bed-clotJjeH' peg.'" From Karf 
AMca, thig Swabilt riddle is nu cxampli! : Q. " My hen hm laid 
araoug thoniK?" A. " A pineiippk-."* From Wrat Afiici), tliix 
Yoniba one : "A long slender trading woman who uovcr gets to 
market ? '' A. " A ciuioc (it stops at the h»udiug«pla<:c)."'' lu 
Polynosia, the Saiunan islandcrH ore given to riddles. Q. "Tbero 
arc four brothers, who are always bearing about their fatlwrt" 
A. " The Sumoan pillow/' which is a yard of tlirco-tnch bamboo 
rerting on four legs. Q. " A white-beaded mau etaiidfi above 
tbefcace, nndrcachos to the beavcos?" A, " Tho smoke of tbo 
oven." Q. "A man who standi! between two ravenoutt fifth?" 
A. "The tongue."* (There in a Zulu ri.idle like this, which 
oomparex ttie tongue to a man living in the midst of enemie* 
fitting.) The following are old Mexican enigma* ; Q. " What 
are the ten xtone^ one has at liis tcideK I" A. "* The finger^ 
BaiU" Q. " ^liat is it we get into by three parts aiul out 
of bj- one ? ■■ A. " A diirt." Q. " What goes through a valley 
and drags its entrails after it ? ' A. "A needle."^ 

Ilicse riiltlleK found among the lower races do uut differ atoll 
in Dstore from those that have come down, sometimes modem- 
ixed in the selling, into the niiraery lore of Europe. Thus 
Spanish chiUrua Ktit! aak, " What in the dish of nuts tJial is 
gatbered by day, and scattered by mgbtl" (the aton) Our 
£ta|^tsh riddle uf tlie piurof tong«; " Xxing legs, crooked th^lts, 
little bead, aad do eye*," is prioutire csougl) to Ittra been 

■ ChHlit, 'Ef^«^OTlsl^offlaRfc^lllMl^.^^«; 'BmbIm,' p. W. 

• T T -r rtiglTifii.'j 41IL 

> hatm, 'WIS^ ViKk» &«■ W« Xbiea,' f, ttl 

* Ttowr, • PdjM^> Sit. 8m Pabck, 'S««ZMJ«Jir^'mLII. ^ I7L 

> IhU i p m, *Bblaa> im Jiatr. E■pa^' n Kiiic*w«i«fc'( 'jUt^aWn^f 

s 1 



made by a Soutli Sva IslaDder. TKe following is on the same 
theme as one of the ZnUi riddlos : " A flock of white sheep, On 
a rod lull ; Hurc they go, tliere tbcy ^o ; Now lify slaud Ktill ? " 
Another is the very analiiguc of one of the Aztec specimens : 
" Old Mother Twitchett had but one eye, And a long twl which 
»hc let By ; Ad{1 evciy time she went over a gap, She left a bit 
of hei* tail in a trap ? " 

So thoroughly does riddlc-makiu^ belong to the mytliologic 
stage of thought, that any poet's simile, if not too lar-fetcbed, 
iiettd-s only inversion to be made at once into an enigma. The 
Hindu calliJ the San SaptAsva, t, *., " aoven-horaed," while, with 
the same thouglit, the old German riddle ttskn, "What is the 
ehariot diTuvn by seven white and seven blaek horses?" (the 
year, drawn by thw st-ven days and nighttj of the week.^) Such, 
too, IS the Greek riddle of the two sisteni, T)zy and Night, who 
give birtli each to the other, to be born of her again : 

CiVI KaaST/yjirat trrrai, £* q hIs Ti'irTfi 

Tijii irifai', avri) Si tkdvo' imi r^ft* tuivovrat. 

and the enigma nf Kleoboulos, with its olhor Hko fragraents of 
mdimantary mythology: 

Elf A tsHip, veiSn Ei KoHuta' rSv Zi y' JnlortJ 
nailtl foffi •rpiiftoi'T' irtiX'^ tlitt fx^vtral' 
*tt< filr X«i-«a1 taair ih'r, $ t' olrt it'^aW 
'AMM/rai ii t' iai-eat kra^eltavaii Sttoam. 

" Ono M th* Aithor, ond twolro tli« cbildno, and, born uoto eacit ono, 
Huidons thirty, vlioM form in iwiiiii in jAitcd asunder, 
^liito to bohotd oa tho «n« mdn, blank to boboll on the other, 
AJl ixamortnl in being, jrot doomod to dwindlo aod peiisli."* 

Such qaestions as the^e may be fairly guet<.sed now as in old 
times, and roust be diHtinguubcd from that scarcer class which 
retjuirc the divination of aomti unlikidy event to solve them. 
Of such the typical example is Samson 'fi riddle, and there is an 
old Scandinavian one Uko it. The story is that (Jeatr found a 

> Grimni, p. 8S9. 

' Ui»g. Lwrt. I n i AtlieoB^onu. x. ttl. 



duck sitting on her neat iu an ox's homed skull, (uitl tlioreupon 
propoiindetl a n(1<1Ii>, (iescribing with clmmcteri-itic Nortlmian'a 
metftphor ttio ox witti its horns fancierl a.s ntremly made into 
drinking-honis. The following tnuiKktiun dov:!; not exaggeratu 
ihe quaintnes* of tlie originnl : — "Joying in children, the biU- 
goose grew. And Iwr buiUiiig-timljers logetlier drvw ; The biting 
gras»-«heare-r screened her bed. With the majWeiiing drink- 
streoin overhead."' Many uf the old oracular jxwjKiiises ftre 
puzzlt'S of precisrly this kind. Such is ihe story of the Delphic 
oracle, which ordered Temenos to find a man with threo eyes to 
guide the army, which injunction ho fulfilled hy meeting a one- 
eyed man vn lioi'flchnck.^ ]t i» curious to hud this idea agiuu 
la, wlici-e Odin -tets I^iu^' Heidrek a riddle, " Wlio 
ftrc tliey two that faro to the Tiling: with ilu-cc oycs, ten feet', 
aod one tail ? " the answer being, the one-eyed Odin himself on 
his eiglit-footed horse Sleipnii-.^ 

The clorto bearing of the doctrine of sun-ivnl on the study of 
manners and customs is couHtiUitly coining iulo I'iow in oihuo- 
gntpliio research. It seems scarcely ton much to nssert, oucefur 
all, that meaningless cnstonis must In? survivals, that they had 
a practical, or nt least ceremonial, intention when and whL're 
they first arose, l»ut ai-e now fallen int<i absurdity from having 
been carried on into a new slate of society, where their original 
«cose has been dittcarded. Of course, new customs introduced 
in particular ages may Im; ridiculous or wickwl. but as a nilc 
tlicy bavo ili«cemihle motives. Explanations of this kiud, by 
recourse to eome forgotten meaning, seem on the whola to 
account best for obwcure ctuttoms which Kome have set down to 
more outbreaks of spontaneous folly. A certain Zinimermomi, 
who published a heavy ' Cit-ugraplucal History of Mankind * in 

' ManlianU'B ' ZeltKlir. fiU- Doutscho Mythglojic,' vol iii. p. 2, etc. : 

" ir<!g er f'inaiin iiiissit* vasiit, 
BarDt^Jcii'u lU it tmr liCtiuilir Kiiuiin ; 
lllifUkn licnni LaLinx tnUlc&Imir, 
Thtf U ilrylkjar df>-uhrwuii jflr." 

' S« GroU!, ■ Hwt. of Otccec.* tol. u. |i. 3. 
' ttumliuilt'ii 'XfittcLf.' 1. 1. 


tbo last ccDlury, remarks as foUoivs ou the prcvoloncQ of similar 
uomcDsical and stupid ciLitomR iu distnut couDtnca: — "For if 
two clever hcftdst may, cadi for himself, liit upoD a clover inven- 
tion or diwovory, tliou it la far likelier, con^dcring the much 
larger total of fools and hlockliomlM, tlmt like fooleries should bo 
given to two far disiont lands. If, tlien, the inventivo fool be 
likonido a man of importance find inflitoncc, as is, indeed, an 
oxtroniely frequent case, then Ixith nations adopt a amilar 
foUy, and then, centuries after, some liislorian goes tlirough it 
to extract liis evidence for tlie deiivatiou of these two nations 
one from tlie oilior.'' ' 

Strong views as to the folly of mankind seem to have lieon in 
the air about the time of the French Rot'olutlon. Lord Chester- 
iiuld was no duubt an extremely difieront person fn)m our 
QermaJi philosopher, but they were quite at one as to the 
absm-dity of customs. Advising Itis son as to the etiijuette 
of courts, the Earl writes thus to him : — " For example, it is 
I'ospectful to how lo the King of England, it is disrespectful to 
bow to tho King of France ; it is the rule to courte-sy to the 
Emperor; and the prostration of the whole body is required by 
Eastern Monnrchs. These are osttiblislied ceremonies, and must 
bo complied with ; but why tbcy were cstabUslicd, I defy aeose 
and reason t« tell us. It in the same among nil ranks, where 
certain customs are received, and mu»t nocessarily be complieil 
with, thougli by ua means tlie result of sense and reason. As 
for instance, tlie very aiisunl, thouph almost universal custom 
ni drinking people's healths. Cau tlicra he anything in the 
world less relative to any other man'ii liealth, than my drinking 
a glass of wine? Common si-nse. certainly, never pointed it 
out, but yet common senae tells me I must conform to it." ' 
Now, though it might be di0ictiU enough to make seusu of the 
minor details of court etiquette. Lord Chesterfield's example from 
it of the inntionality of mankind is a singularly unlucky one. 
Indeed, if auy one were told to set forth in few words tho vch- 
tioDS of tho people to their rulers iu different states of society, 

' E. A. yf. ZiRinionnsnn, 'Goof^phijichoGcKluclitailcn^rtvK-lian,' etc., 1773 
— S3, va\. iii. Bh KollMtoii's Iiiftngnnl AildnM, Britiiti Auoci^titpn, ISTO. 
* till or Chcrtwfiakl, ■ I^ltcn to hii Son.* red. ii Ko. Ixviil. 

StmviVAL rX tX'LTURE. 


he might answer ihat mcu gi-otd on tlicir facci; before the King 
of Siam, kiiL'fl on oiu: knee or xmcover before a European 
monarch, and shake the hautl of thv Prusiilcnt of tliu United 
States as tfiougli it were a. pnmp-UanfUe. Tiiesc we ct-remonies 
at ODcc iatolH^ble and ctigoIficaDi. Lord Oiesterfield is more 
fortunate in Lis second tListauce, for the custoni uf drinkui^ 
healths ii loally of obscure ori^. Yet it is closely connected 
with au ancient rite, practically absurd indeed, but done with o 
conscious and scriouj^ intention which land;! it ijuitc outside the 
region of iiouaense. Tliis is tlie custom of pouring out libuttouB 
and drinking at ceremonial bnnquets to gods iind the dead. 
Thus the old Scaudina\ions drank the "niinni " of Tlior, Odin, 
and Freya, and of kings likewisa at their funyjals. The custom 
did not die out with the convemion of tlie northern natitmit, who 
changed the object of worship and dmnk the "minne" of Christ, 
of Mary, of Michael, uud tlit-n, in later centuries, of Si. John and 
St Gertrude, and w> up to modem yeani, when it was reckoned a 
curious relic of aatiquity that the priest of Otbergcn litill once 
a year UlMSod a goblet, aa<l thu |>uoplu Urauk John's blessing 
in it. The " minno " waa at once love, memory, and the thought 
of the absent, and it long survived in Enfiland in the "min- 
n3'ing"or "myndc" days, on which the memory of tlie dead 
was celebrated by scn'ices or banquets. SutU evidence as this 
fairly justifies the writers, older and newer, who have treated 
these ceremonial driutiug UBaj,'e!J as in tJiutr nature sacrificiaL^ 
Aa for the pmcticc of dnnkiii^ the health of living men, its 
nncdcnt Iiistory reaches U!> from soveiul districts inhabited by 
Aryan nations. The Greeks in sympusiiim drank to one an< 
other, and the Romans adopted the habit {Trpoitiefiv, propi- 
nare, Gnuco mure bibere). The Gotlis cried " hails ! " as they 
pledged each other, as we have it in the cm-ious first llnu of the 
verses " De conviviis barbaria" in thw Latin Anthology, which 
80t£ down the .shouts of a Gotlnc drinking-huut of the fifth 
century or 90, in words which still portly keep their sense to an 
English ear: — 

" Inter tiU Qtsticata trapbtmattiata dritiean 
Nod uidot qiuiquain dlgnoa wlucoro T«r8us," 

■ Sw Grimm, pp. S2— 5, 1101 : Ilnui>). rol li. j>p. S14. SZS. Otc. 


SronVAt lit CULTURE. 

Ajs for oursulvoif, lliougli tlic old drinking Kalutatlun of "waei 
Iiiel ! " is no longer viilgar English, the forraiili remains with 
uS, sliffeutd into a noun. On tlie wkole, ilie evidence of ancient 
and wide prevalence of the custom of drinking to the living 
sooms uul aocom]xiuiiMl wiUi a suBficiciit clue to its ralioQtl 
origin, although, \>y comparison with the custom of drinking to 
gods oad the dead, we may take for granted tliat it had one. 

Let OS now pub the tbcorjr of survival to ft sooiowhat severe 
t«st, by seeking from it some explaaation of the existence, iu 
practice or memory, mthin the limits of modem civilized society, 
<^ three remarkable groups of euHtnma wbieh civilijwd ideas 
totally fail to account for. Though we may not succeed in 
giving clear and absoliitt? exptanationfl of their motiree, at SLoy 
rate it is a fitep in advance to be able to refer their origins to 
savage or barbaric antiquity. Looking at the«e customs from 
the modem practical jioiut of view, one ix ridiculous, tlii* others 
arc atrocious, and all are Kcnsutess. Tlie fiisl is the practice of 
salutation on sneesniig. the second the rito of laying the founda- 
tions of a building on a human victim, the third the pngudico 
against saving a drowning luutL 

In interpreting the customs connected with sneezing, it is 
needful to recognize a prevalciit doctrine of the lower races, of 
which ft full account will be given in another chapter. As a 
man's soul is eousidcrcd to go in and out of his body, to it is 
with other spirit:;, particularly mich as enter into patients and 
poeeeea them or ofiliet them with disesfio. Among the less 
Cultured races, the connexion of this idea with sneezing is Ijest 
fthonn among the ZuIuk, a people firmly porsnadcd that kindly 
or angry xpirits of the dead hover about them, do tliom good or 
harm, stind visibly liefore them in dreams, enter into them, and 
cause diseases in them. The following particulars are abridged 
from ihe native Htatomonts takco down 1^ Dr. Oallaway: — 
When a Zulu sneezes, he will say, " I am now blessed. The 
Idhloid (ancestral spirit) is with mc ; it has come to me. Let 
me hasten and praise it, for it is it which causes me to 
sneeze ! " So lie praises the maucs of the family, lu^king for 
cattle, and wives, and blessings. Sneezing is a sign that a sick 
pcrsou will he restored to health ; he returns lUouks after 

Kneeling-, sayiog, " Ye people of ours, I hove gained that pnw- 
perity which I wanted. Continue to look on uie with favourl" 
SQiCsing rcminib a muu that he &tiuulil uamc the Itungo 
(aDoestral spirit) of bis people without delay, because it is the 
ItoD^o which causes liim, to sneeze, that be may pcrcoirc by 
eneoxiDg that the Itongo is with bim. If a man in ill and lioea 
not sneeze, those who corac to him auk wh&tber ho has sneezed 
or not; if he has not sneezed, they niurniui-, saying, "The 
disease is groat !" If a child sneezeii, they ttay to it, " Grow 1 " 
it is a sign of liealtli. So then, it is siiid, snceztng ojoong block 
men gives a man etrungth to reuioinher thut the Itongo has 
entered into bim and abides with him. The Zulu diviners or 
scircerers are veiy apt to snueze, which ihoy regaid as an indica- 
tion of the presence of the spirits, whom tJiey adore by wiying 
" Makosi ' " {if., lords or masters). It is o suggestive example 
of the ti-ansitiou of sueli euslcras a» these from one i-eligiou to 
another, that the Amakosa, who uHcd to call on tlicir divine 
ancestor Utixo nlien they sneezed, since their conversion to 
Cbristinuity say, " Preserver, look ui>on me ! " or, " Creator of 
bearen and eai-tb 1 " ■■ Elsewhere in Africa, eimUar ideas are 
meDtioned. Sir Thomas Browne, in his ' Vulgar En-ors,' made 
well known tbe story that whc^n the King of Monomotapa 
sneezed, acclamationii of blessing passed from mouth to mouth 
through the city j but he should have mentioned that Godigno, 
from whom the original act-ount is taken, said thai tbia took 
place when the king droTik, or coughed, or sneezed.* A later 
account froni the other sido of the continent is more to tho 
purpose. In Guinea, in the butt century, when a princijxil 
personage sneezed, all present fell on their knees, kissed the 
earth, clapped their bands, and wished him all happiness and 
prosperity.' With a different idea, the negroe-s of Old Calabar, 
wbeu a child socezes, will sometimes exckim. " Far from you ! " 
with an appropriate gesture as if throwing off some cviL* 
Polynesia is anotfaei' region where the sneezing salutation is 

> Callairaj', 'RoligioB of Amnznht,' pp. 64, SSS— S, 563. 

* G«4)gutu, ' Vita PntriN Ci.iiuiiti S^trerio:.' Col. Agripp. 1016 ; lib. ii. & X. 

' Bmrbu, ' Gaia«ii,' ktUr xviii. in Piiikcrlon, toI. svi. p. 478. 

» Jliirtgn, ' Wfi aud ^Yi*Ium fturu West ATrica," y. 373. 



well marked. Iii New Zealand, a charm vras eaii to proTcnt 
evil wlieu a child sneezed;' jf a Samoan anc*z«d, the hy- 
sUuukms Kaid, "Life to j-oul**^ while in tliu Tou^'au group a 
soecKd on the startiiif; of an expedition iras a most «nl prc- 
mga? A curious Amcricao instance dates from Hernando de 
Soto's famous expciUtion into Florida, when Guacboya, n 
nativo chief, caaie to pay him a visiL " Wliile this was goiag 
(m, the cacique Guachoya gave a great sneeze ; the gentlemen 
who had oumo with him and were lining tho -walls of the hoU 
among the Sp(uiiard« there all at ooco bowing their huadK, 
opening their unan and closing th[>m again, oud making other 
gestures of great veneration and respect, naluted liim with 
different words, all directed to one end. sayings 'The Suu guard 
thee, he with lliw. f^nlighten thee, magnify thee, protect tlicc, 
favour thee, defend thee, prosper thee, save thee.' and other 
like phrases, as tlie wonlit come, and for a good ^>aco tJicro 
Ungcn-d the munnur of ilicufl words among tliem, whereat the 
gorenior woudcriug said to the gentlemen and captains with 
him, ' Do you not eeu tliat all the world is one ? ' This matter 
irae well uotcd among the Spaniards, that among so barbaruuu 
a people should he used the same ceremonieii, or greater, than 
among ihose who huld themsclvos to be very civilized. Wlienoo 
it may be beliered that this manner of salutation U natural 
among all nations, and not caused hy a pestilence, as is vulgarly 
mid," etc.* 

Id Asia and Europe, the sneezing siipentitlon extends through 
a wide range .>f race, age, aiid connli^-.^ Among the passage* 
rolatang to it in tlio cUussic agesof Greece and Rome, the follow- 
ing are some of the moHt characteristic, — tho lucky sneeze of 

* Shortland, "Tniti. ftfXew Zculuid,' p. 1S1. 

* Tomer. ■ PolyniwEi*.* p. 3*8 ; wo aln WUIami, • Fyi," toU p. MO. 
■ M«rinw, 'Tonga Ii." vol. L p. 456. 

* OarciloM d* U VtRa, ■ Hut. J* U norMa,' toL iiL elL xli. 

* AniMg «liaiertBtl«nH on Uio lat^oct, *m apecUly Kr Thoi. Biowa^ 
' Ftoadodoxu ^damici ' (Vtilpa Errors), boolc iv. c)ui|>. is. ; Brasd, ' Fopolir 
AiitlqniUei,' vol. iii. )i. 119, «tc. ; S. G. Hali burton. ' Neir ltUt«rinIi for Ui» 
History of Mib.' Htli/as, N. S. 1563; •EBcydoposlit BnUumipa," mC 'got*, 
ting ;' Wrmtdotf. ' Oo Bitu StvniNbutibBS bem* i>r«caailL' Uip«g, t7<l i ««• 
uIm Qrimtn. D. II. p, 1070, note. 

strbvivAt 111 cuLn'KK. 


TekmachoeiD tbo Odyssey ; ' tbo sokU«T*ii aaeom kdA tlio »h(Wl 
of adontion Ut the god nliidi rose Along ilio nuiks, nnd wliloll 
XeDophon appealed ta as a favotiraUlo omen ;^ AiUImUoV 
remark tbat people considtT a kticuh' an diviuo (rOi> fi)v irrofi^^ 
dtiir ^yavfit6a tivat), btit not a ooufjli,' etc.; iliti Gn^ck cpiKiiun 
on llio raau with llio long nose, who did not say 3U0 «&aav vrlmri 
W i^ntTezcd, for the nnWwiki too far oflf for liini to hoar ; * Pulru* 
nius Arbiter's mention of tho custom of nayiuK " Sidvo I " to uiio 
who sneeaed ;" and Pliny *h qucBtion, "Cur ntvniulniiii'iiliii idtht- 
tamu.'i?" apropos of which he n^mnrka thiil <-v^<ii Tilioritia 
OcMr, that saddest of muD, exacted Ihix nhsori'Rncc,' Hiinilnr 
rites of sneezing have long been ol>i*orve(l in Kiwtoni Afiu,* 
When a Hindu sneeswfi, bj-standcre H.iy, " Uvo ! " attd tho 
taeezer roplies, "With yout" It in aa ill omen, Ut wliii'li 

. amoDj; otlien the TIiu;4H paid groat n>gujx] on ntiirtiriK on an 
expedition, and whidi even compelled them to lot tho triLvi>ll>-ni 
with tbem escape.' 

Tlie Jevi?1i nieeidDg formnla vt, "Tohim chayim I " I.e., 
-'Good lifel"^ The Moslem uyM, " Praiw iu Atialil" wliitn 
hen«ciM,aDd his frieods cumplimeol him with [irvpur tur- 
nralas^ a cotom wfaidi aeems Ut be conveyed from nee to ntx 
wherever Uam exteodc'* lAntly. tbe ciuloin rauffe'l ihrvnti^i 

> meSaml into modern Europe. To dte old Qennan «Fxiuiiplei» 
"Vie Heiden ntcht endorfiea dichii, di man du^i Kyr'v^t^ 
■Na bdfittCkiCl'- -Wff ipr«cbctw»witiitt<G«iUtfidir'*u 

Fur ft floaftned Ei^iii mA Tmaet «umsit, tiw bOnrlBg 


» Man ywiWM zniS. 7. 
'■■*il»in ■i,fcMMfc,*«L«l.n«6. 

*o«c ^ha.' «^ ft. ^ :s>. 






linw (a.D. 1100) may serve, which bIiow our oH formula "was 
Iiajl ! " (" may you Ijc woU i " — " wnssftil ! ") need nim to avert 
liehig taken ill after a uuQeze : — 

" K pur una Stsyza oiitArDuor 
Tnatot [iiiidoat nial troaor, 
8i na/ieit 119 dtai! ap not . " ' 

Id the 'Rutc« of Civility* (a.D. 16S^, translated (torn the 
French) we read :■ — " If hU lonlsliip chanccjs to sneeze, j"ou are 
not to Irawl out. * God bloss you, sir,' but, pulling off your hat, 
bow to him han<lsomety, and niuke tliat olut'cration to your- 
self.'*' It is noticed that Anabaptisla and Qiiakera rejcctwl 
theae with other mlutalions, but they remained in the code of 
EngUiih gooct mtinQCJ'!! among high and low- till half a ccntuiy 
or 80 ago, and are so little forgotten now, that most people Btill 
see the point of the story of the Bitdkr and Lis wife, where his 
sneeze and her hearty " God bless you ! " brought about tliu 
removal of the fiddle case. " Gott hilf I " may still be heard in 
Oennany, and " FelicitA ! " in Italy. 

It is not stntnge that tlic existence of these absurd customs 
should have been for agos a puzxle to curious ijK|uireiw. Eape- 
dnlly the legend-mongers took the matter in hand, and their 
attempts to devise historical cxplaiiatiotis are on I'ecorx) in a 
group of philosophic mytlis, — Greek, Jewish. Cbristiau. Prome- 
theus pmys for the pi-eservation of his artificial man, wbca tt 
gives the first sign of life by a sneeze ; Jacob prays that man's 
aoul may not, a^ heretofore, depart fFotn his body when be 
sneezes ; Popo Gregory prays to avert the pe^lt-ncu, in those 
days when the air was eo de«dly thai ho who ttuiTcztxl dicti of 
iti and from these imaginary events legend declares Uiat the use 
of the enci-ziiig formulas was handed down. It is more to our 
purpose to notice the existeoco of a corresponding set of ideas 
and cuittoms connected vrith gaping. Among the Zuhui repeated 
}«wniiig and snoeziog ore daesod together as sigas of approach- 

* 'Uutiol Aet PeccUfi*,' in Wttlfvood, 
■ Brand, rol. iU. [u ISl 

'Die fiisUah Skymiagr,' a. r. 

■sXbba: %^aBgi^^ 

L» -ft. 

i frinMH M ri ' 

vliea m -nma jwnH. hr jnv ibe taA «r Ut Ml Imd tb Iw 

oKxtth, 07111^. " 1 «Hik Tgfap' vttk AMi «H> Sam te 

Aoconedl" ImttiwaB. of Tmsnap b m W vmiAai. iir^ir 

Deril is in iIb IwhA <rf iM yhig iiai> s 

inij riiij liliiljlii rtii ■■iMfiin, of tiirJftaoAi 

not thy waaA Ut Satan : " Tbf admi Inllf i£^ "cku* lAn 

itself deady in Jcwyhai' tuuy af lot itanif 

Jew. umed Bonv, cave dmNona in TMpMfaB> tami. I7 

drftwiog tbe ■*—"—" on ifavn^ 'Anr TonriadK. \k mmaf> uf • 

ring conUinine s nok ttf ansiB -Bhat ntmSemti bf SakMoiL* 

Tbeacnnnite of dw Hd «r ^ Hiiiiliii 1. T* ' «■ ifit 

and blow thcor aaitt to ocpd dw dews* tbi? viBht Wm 
drawn in wttbtbctfUtH^'lfaesMctdi <tf dM ■ii i wii l wnr- 

ciiU driving Mit denb ij i^li tke patiovl^ MMtiaR.*«iKl ^ 

coatom, BtiU kept up m tbe Tyroi. irf awat wwnitf wfcat mm 
yawna, leot KnoatUng onl AoM oocbs iaio «iw*s moo^T 
invcilire muUr ideM. In eonpariog iW nadem KaBr id«M 
with tboso of other dutricU of tbe worid. wv find a dtatinct 
Dotloo of m, aneese being doo to » s{iintiial pnmnoa. Tlittt 
wbich se«>nM indeed tbe ker to tJie wbole ntattor, hiw Ihwii 
well brougbt into view b; Hr. UjUiburtcpn, M diHpUyctl in 
Keltic folklore, in a gnrap of atoric* taming on the mipfi- 
Btition tliai nay one wbo Koeezes id liable to bo earri'il ofl' 
by tlie (airicti. uhIcm tbcir power bo countenurted by an Invih 
cation, as " Ood bl««s you 1 " * Tbo eorroapoDdiiig hiM aa to 

• CaUanr- P S«3. 

■ WmJ, I c 

» 'Ihaid-XoBteh,* it if »4cy, ch. IxUL ; K«iinr. 'MiirK* ■**.. |« •Ml 


* G. RtvcLci; ' Dm 1Va»»uuduitaU bn Talwnd,' |>. 1H j J«w^i. Am, 

■ Migam, ' Die dciBMika,' ■. r. 

■ B*i4iMi, 'Maaaiih.' vnl ii. \^ tl5. Bit. 

' Vntlfcf, * Clantactw Tolbab«]||Mili«.' r Uf- 

■ lUUbutan, op' *^^ 



yawDJog is to be found in an Iceland folklore legend, where 
the troll, vho h&s transfonnod bcr^Jf into the shapo of the 
beautifitl qiieon, eays, " When I jawn a little yawu, I am a 
aeat and tiny maidttn ; when 1 yawn a half-yawn, then I am as 
& balf-troll ; whco I yawn n whole yawn, then am I ju a wholo 
troll." * Ou the whole, thouj^b the smeezing BuperHtition makes 
QO approach to uatvo^ity among mankind, its wide distribn- 
^on ii highly remarkable, and ii would bo au intertssting 
problem to decide how far this wide distribution is due to 
iitdependeut growth in several region*, bow far lo coaveyance 
from race to race, and how far to ancestral iohcritauce. Here 
it has only to be maintained tliat it was not oiigiiially ao arbi- 
trar}' and meaningless custom, but tUc working oitL of a prb- 
ciple.' The plain statement by the modem Zulus fits vnih tho 
hinta to be gained from the aupetstitjou and folklore of other 
races, to connect the notions and practices as to SDeodog with 
the aucicQt and savage doctrine of pervading and iDrading 
spirits, coni!idcr«d as good or evil, and treated accoi'diiigly. 
The lii^ring survivals of the quaint old formulas in modetD 
Europe seem an unooDscious rcoord of the time when tbo 
exfdAaatton of saecziog had not yet been given over to pb}-ao- 
logy, but was still in the " theological stag&" 

There is current in Scotland the belief that the Picts, to 
whom local legend attributes buildings of prehLitoric antiquity, 
botbed their foundation-stones with Luioan biwd ; and legend 
eii'cn tells that St. Columba found it ncoesary to bury St. Oran 
alive Ijeoeath the foundation of tus monastery, in order to pro- 
[Htiatc tlie epirits of the soil who demolished by niglit what 
wa» built during the day. So late as KiS, in Germany, when 
a new bridge wa& built at Halle, a notion wa^ abi'oad among 
the people that a child was wanted to be built into the founda- 
tion. These ideas of church or wall or bridge wauting human 
blood or an immured victim to make the foundation stcodfaiit, 

* Pav«11 luul Ho^nMOi, ' t«|{ai<l]i or [ecUm],' 2fed mr. p. MB. 

* The CMH ID nliidi a necu i* iuteqirelcd noilor flpociil condllloiu, as with 
nferoBoo to liglt ami kft. urly monitng, etc. («« rinUcth. De Oeoia 
Soeratu^ f4c,), mn not coiwidoraj ban, u tltrjr bdang to otdifuuT onMn- 



not ouIt 'wide^Rod in E ui ope M i iblklore; but local diro- 

nide or taditioiL 

ihem H mtter at Iiistancal tad 


ttistiict m&er i^strict. Tim; wbcn Uie bnltcs iam at the Nogat 
bad to be re^ui«d m 1463. flt« ptMaata, om Ibe adriM to thraw 
in a hvjag maa, an aud to kaTe made a baggar dnmk and 
boriod bin tbere. Tbariagiaa legend dcdant tbat to make 
tba cattle at T ii !■ ili in baL and jmiimiii'IiiIiIc. a eiiild was 
bought £ar baid oMioay of its motfaar aad «aU«d in. It vac 
eating a cake wbila <be inawwii ven at work, tbe rtofy gp&t, 
and it cried oat, -Uotber, I we tbee stfU;" tbai ktcr, "Motbar, 
I see tbee a Ettlr Kill;' and, h tbey pot in ibe la«t itoac; 
" H olber. DOW I aee thee no mm.' Tbe wall of Cepenbafien, 
kgcni) mm, nnk ai bat as it was bdk; so tb^took an ii»- 
mont fiule fpA, set ber oo a diair at a table witb 11171 '"^ 
ftnHrr. and. aa abe plared and ate^ kwdve nMafii tititii 
doBBil s vaolfc am ho*; tben. wiA ■ '■'■g"ig mum, tbe wal 
-vaa TKmei, and ttood finn trtt after. Thna Italian legaid tdk 
«r tfe bc^ of Axta, t^t i<En in and feB m tai tbcy valad in 
tbe laaalif frnilrltKa wife^ ami she ipoke bo* djiof cvaa Ibat 
tbe btid^ ibMdd HcHble like a flewer-alalk beaeefatb. Tbe 
Shmmm chirib *"*■■*— *™g Dectne^ "■™f«'>g la tM baalbaa 
eaataai. wmA mA mm to take tbe fint boj' ibe^r mm. and hmry 
bim IB ibefa^iAttiaat. Serriae legeed teUi bow tbree bvatb«i 
Is bedd tbe fi«tnK«tf Sfcada(Seatari]; bai,j«ae 
■, 1^ dsBoa (vik) need Ij mj^ iibet tbe ibree 
law boBt by- d^. Tbe find noxt fcc ippcaaed bgr 
iamfiea,tbe in* of Uk three «m> ebo dneU ooae 
faad to tbe e mbie n. All tbfee brotben aese to 
keep tike ilmaiMil wcni, froes aarwhn; bet tbe t«o aUeaft 
l^ife liiibaiw wannag to tbdia. aad it waa tbe jmBgaal 
lev's vifc vbe eaaae naaMfacAing, aad Aej baik ber in. 
■be atnalad tbat as epenc abovU be kA fbe bar to 
t ber babf tbnagb, and Sat a twchcaaoetb it «a* tnwgbfc 
; 3b lUa da^f Serrian wives rail tbe lOBb of tbe good nwtbo; tfiB 
l^ a ilicato of water wbiA tackier nD? witb be^ 


tbe ftelrew waU. I^rtlf , tbere ia oar aw 
I, wbo eoaid BOC inaA bis tern till tbe 
feltod wiib tbe bload of a dbOd lore cf a 



a fatter. An U imml xq the LiBtory of Bacrificc, wc hear of sub-. 
stitut«s for eucU victims ; emptv coffins walled up ia Gemukny, 
a lamb waJled in under the nltnr iu Deum&i-k to make the 
churcb gtand fast, and the churcliyard in like manner hond- 
eeUed by burying a live Iwrm firat. In modem Crcoco an 
evid(;nt r«lip of the idoa siirvivcR in the superstition that the 
Brst passer-by after a fouiidation-stoQe is laid vill dio within 
the year, wheniforo the miutnni; will coinpromise the debt by 
killing a Iamb or a black cock on the stone. VTilh much the 
same idea German legend telht of Oie hriilge-buUdiug liead 
cheated of his promised fee, a hoiiI, by the device of making a 
cock run fir^t acixiss ; and thus German folklore says it is welt, 
before entering a new houac, to let a cat or dog run iu.^ From 
all this it seems that, with due allowance for the idea having 
passed into an often repeated and varied nijlhic theme, yet 
written and unvnitten tradition do presen'O the mcmoiyofa 
bloodthirsty barbaric rite, which not only really existed iu 
ancient times, but lingered long in European history. If now 
we look to less culturod countries, wc sliaU find the rite actually 
known aa matter of modem religion. Tlio thing hoi> been done 
within modem years, and very likcl}* will be done a^n. 

In Africa, iu CJalam, a boy and girl used to he buried aJive 
before the great gate of tlie city to make it impregnable, a 
practice once executed on a large scale Iiy a liambarra tyrant; 
while In Great Ba&Kaui and Yarrita such sacrifices were usual at 
tho foundation of a house or village' In Polyneaia, Ellis heard 
of the custom, instanced by the fact that tlie central pillar of one 
of llie temples at Macva was phintt-d upon the Ixidy of a human 
victim.* In Bonico, among tho Hldilanau Ihiyake^at tbe erection 
of tJ]G largest house a deep hole was dug to receive tbe first 
post) which wa.1 then suspended over it ; a slave girl was placed 
in tbe excavation ; at a signal the lashings were cut, and the 
onormoUK timber descended, cnishiug the girl to dciatli, a sacri- 

» W. BtM, ' MiiwJrcley of SeottUi. Boniw ;' FoH«* Le«!i», ' Esrlj lUcu (^ 
flcoltaiid,' vol. L i>. 119, 4S7 ; Orimm, 'DcutoAs Uytkolocii-,' ^ hli, lOeS; 
DuliaD, *Mmwh,'vol. ii. li. BS, 407, vol. iii. p. 105, 112; Buwrin^ 'Serrian 
Popular pMtry," p^ «*, 

> W«tJ, vol. ii. p. 1*7. 

> Ellis, ' Polj-n. B«e.' vol I. p. Zii ; T]rutiiiin uid BoaDst, roL C p, 38. 

fiee to the 8{>irit«. St. John s&w a oiildcr fonn of Iho rito 
performed, when the chief of the Quop Dnvnks &oi up a Hug. 
gtaff near hu! hoiiso, n chicken beiug thrown iu to ho onuhoJ 
by the dcsceuUiug pole.* Mora ctiliiircd iiAtiom of Soiithuni 
Ann have ctiiried on into modern iigcs tha rito of the foundnlion- 
Bacrifice. A ITth cvutiiry account of Japan nK<ntioiiH Ihu belief 
there that a wall laid on the Itody of a willing huinnn victim 
vould he secure from aceidoDt: accordingly, when a ^^reat wall 
was to be built, some wretched ulavo would offer liimmlf im 
foundation, lying doira in the trench to be cniiliud by thu 
heavy stones lowered upon him.' When the gato of Ibo iiqw 
city of Tavoy, iu Tcnasscnrn, was built, [jcTliaps twenty yoara 
ago, Mason wuh tftld by an eyv-wttncHs that n criminal was 
put in each po&t-hole to become a protecting dvuion. Thus lb 
appears that such stori&s as that of the human viciimi huri«d 
for spirit-watchers under the gates of Mandalay, of tlio quOAD 
who was drowned in a Birmcse reserTOir to make the dyke safe. 
of the hero whose divided body wu buried under tho fortrom of 
Thatmig to make it impregnable, arc tho reoorda, wlnrtlier in 
hiitoncal or mytliical form, of the actual custonou of th» huid.* 
'Within our own dominion, when Hajnh Sala Byni» wan bnilJing 
die fort of Sialkot in the Puujaub, tho foundation of tlio Hoiith- 
Mert hartioo gare way so repeatedly that he had recuunte tu a 
lootluit^er, who assured him that it woulil never Ktaod until 
tlK Uood of an only aon was shed there, wherefore the ouly 
■OD of a widow was sacnficed.' It is tljun phkiu that hidviux 
rite^ of which Europe has acarcely kept up more titan the dim 
memoiy, hare held fast their ancivut practice aad. mmaing iu 
Aftita, PolyoettB.aad Aaia, among races who reprasent ia. gxadc, 
if Dot in chp>nology, earlier stages of civilization. 

Wbeo Sir Walter Scott, in the ' Pirate,' t«lU of Sryee tiie pedlar 
nfiaaiig to help Mordaunt to bare the riiipwrftclc«d sailor froa 
drmniing, and even remouiitrBtiog with him on tlie r&abueM of 

■ 8t Jubn. ' Ftf Cmc' ruL L p. M : m« BmOm, vol tt p. SOT. 

■ CkMB, ■ J^wB.' IB Piiilwftau, rti.nL p. 9S». 

* Hiilliiii. 'Oi^ iMM,* TtO. L jqi. IM, S14 : VBi ii if>. »!, S7« ; roL til 
p. W 

* bmcmd. *]i«ud;-* <ta. Si. ^ itn. 

VU. 1. ■ 



8ucb a deed, be staU:H aii okl supcralitioo of tlic Shetlondcra. 
"Are you laad V stiye tlie pedlar; "yoti that liaro lived sac laag 
ia Zctlaud, to mk the saviug of a drowning man ? Wot yc 
not, if you bring liim to Ufo again, ho will be sure to do j^ou 
some capital iujury V* Were this inhuman thought noticed in 
this one diittrict nlone, it might Ik; fancied to have hod it^ nse 
in some local id^a uov no longer lo be explained. But when 
tnenttoni) of similar superBtitiunii are collcctCKl among the St. 
KiMa islaudcre and the boatmen of the Dannlw, among French 
and Euglifih Bailors, aud even out of Europo and among let« 
civilized races, we ceiu>« to think nf lucal fancies, but look for 
8omo wid«?!y accepted belief of the lower culture to account for 
such a tdati] of tilings. Tlic Hindu docs nut »lvc a man from 
drowning in the sacred Ganges, and the islanders of the Malay 
nrciiipclago slinrc tbo cruel notion.' Of all people the ntde 
Kamcliatlals have the prohibition in the most remarkable form. 
They hold it a great fault, saye Krachouinnikoff, to save a 
drowniog man: he who delivers him will be drowned himwlf.' 
Stell«r'fl account ia more oxtraordinaty, and probftbly npplici« 
only to caees where the victim is actually drowning : he saj« 
that if a man fell by clinnre into the water, it wbr a great rin. 
for him to get out, for as he had been destined to drown ho did 
wrong in not drowning, wherefore no one would let him into fais 
dwelling, nor speak to him, nor give him food or a wife, but he 
wa« reckoned for dead ; and even when a man fell into ihe water 
while othurawere standing by, far from helping him out tlicy would 
drown him by force. Now these savagetf, it appears, avoided 
volcanoes because of the spirits who live tlicrc and cook their 
food ; for a like reason thpy held it a sin to bathe in hot springs ; 
and tbcy believed with fear in a Jish-likc spirit uf the sea, whom 
they caUed Mitgk,' Tliis spiritnaliKtic belief among the Kam- 
chadals is, no doabt, the key to their superstition as to rescuing 
drowning men. Tliere is even to be found in modem European 
supGistition, not only the practice, but with it a lingering sur- 
vival of its ancient spiritualistic i>igni6cancc. In Bohemia, a 

' Baatian, 'KmmAt.' nL iiLp. 510; W«rf, •HindoOB.'rol U. p. 318, 
' HndtcntnutVow, 'TVwr. du Run^liatkA, Toj, en SiMrio,' toI. iii p. 72. 
■ SUUci, 'K4mtscliatlu,' pp. Z6G, 274. 

recent account (1864) says the fishcrnicn do not T<>ntiirc to 
snatch a drowning man flrom the waters. They few that tho 
"Waterman" (i. «., water-demon) wnuld taJto away their luok 
in fishing, and drown tht'maolves at tlic first opportunity.' This 
exptanattou of tlie prejudice againRt »avinj; Um water-spirit's 
victim may \te confirmt'd by a mass of evidence from various 
districts of the worlil. Tlius:, in dliiCtiMsiug the doctrine of nacri- 
flce^ it will appear that the ilsu.i1 manner of making an otferitig 
to n well, river, lake, or sea, is simply to cast property, cattk;, 
or men into the water, wliich peraoually or by its in-dwetling 
spirit takes posHeasion of them.' That tho accidental drowning 
of a man is held to be such a seiziu-e, savage and dsiliiiod folk- 
lore show by many examples. In N'uw Zi:aland huge supeiv 
natural rcpttk-moniiterfi, calloi Taniwlia, live in riTer•bead^ 
and thoeo who are drowned arc «atd to be puUe-d under by 
them ;' the Siamese fears the Pnuk or water-spirit that sejsea 
l>athcrs and dra^ them under to hi:^ dwelling;* in Slafoaic 
lands it is Topiele*' (the dticker) hy whom men are always 
drowned ;* when some one is drowned in Ocmuiny, peoplu re- 
collect the religion of iheir anoestore, and say, "The river-spirit 
claims JuK yearly Bacrifice," or, more'rimply, "Tlie nix ha> taken 
him :'•— " 

" Ich gUabo, die W«llon T«nioUing«a, 
Am Eodo FUcheO' and Kolin ; 
TTnd das hat mit ihrom Singon 
Die Iiorelei gethan." 

this point of view it m ohriouiE that to Kave a sinking man 
is to Koatch a victim from the very clutches of the water-spirit, 
a rash defiance of deity which would lianlly poaa unavenged. 
In the civilized worid tho nide old theological conception of 
drowning haft long been superseded by phynical explanation; 
aod the prejudice against rescue from such a death may bare 

' S. T. Uralimuin, 'AbergUnlM and OebrlkKlM «u Bukmo^' p. 1% 

• C1i»p. XVI !1. 

■ B. Ttflar, ■ N«r ZealutA,' p. 18. 

« BmUu, 'OmO. A^o.* toL uL ^ U. 

•Bauuch, •VlMiacluft(l«iSU<riKti«iMTtbiiii*!u2«tL 

• Gtimm, ' DcotMli* Ujth.' p. 488. 

■ t 


now almost or altogether disappeared. But archaic ideas, 
drifted on into modem folklore and poetry, still bring to our 
view an apparent connexiou between the prinaitive doctrine and 
the surviving custom. 

As the social development of the world goes on, the we^htiest 
thoughts and actions may dwindle to mere survival. Original 
meaning dies out gradually, each generation leaves fewer and 
fewer to bear it in mind, till it falls out of popular memory, and 
in after days ethnography has to attempt, more or leas success- 
fully, to restore it by piecing together lines of isolated or for- 
gotten facts. Children's sports, popular sayings, absurd customs 
may be practically unimportant, but are not philosophically 
insignificant, bearing as they do on some of the most instructive 
phases of early culture. Ugly and cruel superstitions may prove 
to be relics of primitive barbarisin, for in keeping up such Man 
is like Shakespeare's fox, 

*' Who, ne'er so tame, so cheriat'd, and lock'd up, 
Will have a wild trick of hia ancoBtors." 


SL'ttVIVAl. IK CULTURE (emtintud). 

enlt Sc)«noti»— Ua^«nl powon ftttribntcd by higktt ta lower nnt—UagioU 
]iK>co«jea IjHod on Aasocktbn of Itleoi— Oninu— Angiirx, etc — OD(iiii>- 
BHiiRf— Humiiintiati, Sc^inliimitpy, Chimintoey, vie. — C'uiomanry, «]t& 
— BLa^Uonunc/, Duetylinaikitcy, CoKinoniucf, vie. — Attruing}-— InteUec- 
liuJ rondltiiHia aMoiuitliif far Uib |«i«isteucu nf Magic — Surrird ptutM into 
Boviral— Witclictxfl, origiBittiiij iii aavi^ nilturu, cunlinuM in bulieile 
ciriluatioB ; tu <twliua in eariy medimral Eutopo followed hy rtwirtl ; iti 
pmcticto an<l counter- practi<«a belong to tajller culture — SpititualiMn hu ita 
jiciurcc ill tarty nU|^j a1 culture, iii done cniiiiitxian with vitclicrafi — Sprit* 
Ta{>ptngjLnilS|drit-writing— Riiing in the lit — Prrfonnaiicca of tiMi ntctliumji 
— Practical boadng of Mi<s tiluily uT Survival 

In examinmg tlie survival of opinions in the midst of con- 
ditions of society becoming gnuiiiaily estranged from thcnif and 
tftnding nt last lo suppress them aluigetbcr, mucli nuty be learnt 
from thehiRtoTyof one of the must pernicious deliLsions that ever 
vexed mankind, the belief in Magic. Looking at Occult Scienoo 
from this ethnographic point of view, 1 sliall in«tance some of 
its hrancbe» as illuiitrating the ouunu; of intellectual culture. 
Iw place in lustory is brieHy thia. ,It belongs in ita main 
print-iple to the lowest known stages of civilization, and the 
lower racoH, who liavu not purtokon tugely of tlie education of 
the world, still maintain it in rigoai*. From this level it may 
be tracetl upward, much of the ravage art faoldiug its place nvA}- 
stautially uncbani^d, and many nev practices being in course 
of time developed, while both tho older and newer developments 
have lasted on more or less among modern cultured nations. 
But during the ages in which progroflsivo Ta«68 have been lean- 
ing to stibmit their opinions to closer and closer cxperimt>ntal 
tests, occult science has been breaking down into the condition 



of a 5urvt\'al, in whicli Ktat« we mostly find it among our- 

The modem educated world, TejectiDg occult science as a 
contemptiMu snpeniLition, has practically committed Itself to 
Ihe opinioD that magic belongs to a lower levet o( dviliTatiun. 
It in rery itutructivc to find the soundness of this judgment 
undesignedly confirmed by nations ivliow education hits not 
adraDccd far enough to destroy their belief in the craft it«elf. 
In some casca, indct-d. the reputation of a race as sorcerers may 
depcud on their actually putting fonrard supomatural prcten- 
liionsv or merely on their being isolated and mysterious people. 
It ia thua irith the Lavas of Birma, siipposod to be the brokcQ- 
dowu rcRiuini) of an ancient cultured race, and dreaded as man- 
tigen ;' and with the Budaa of Abyssinia, who arc at once the 
smitli!) and potters, sorcerera and werewolve« of their disti'icl.' 
But the usual and suggestive state of things is thatnation.s who 
believe with the eincerest terror in the reality of the magic art, 
at the Kame time cannot xliut their eyeti to the fact that it 
more essentially belongs to, and is more thoroughly at home 
among, races less civilized than themselves. The Malays of the 
PcninHuto, who have adopted Muhainwedaii religiou and civi- 
lization, have thi^ idea of the lower tribcA of the land, tribes 
more or less of their own race, but who have remained in their 
««rij BftTigc condition. The Malays have enchanters of thcir 
own, but condder them inferior to the eorcerere or poyangs be- 
longing to the mde ilintira ; to these they will rcsoit for the 
cure of diacaaos and the working of mittforttmc and death to 
their encraics. It is, in fact, the best protection the Mintira 
liavo agfunsl tlieir stronger liaky neighbours, that thcee are 
careful not to offend them for fear of their powers of magical 
revenge. The Jalcuns, again, are a rude and wild race, whom 
the Malaya despise as iutideU anil little higher than animahi, 
but whom at tlic Bamc limo they fear extremely. To llie Malay 
the Jaliun seems a euperuatuml being, akillod in divination, 
sorcery, and fa.sfi nation, ahle to do evil or good according to his 
pleasure, whoee blessing will bo followed by the most fortunate 

> Bntiu, 'OimU. Aaien,' roL i. t>- !»■ 

* • Life of Katlx. P»re»,' «d I.V J. J. «»]l^ vol i. j.. 2S<. 



OIOOMS, aod hU cuise by tho tuusi divadflil mtusMjuuqMHi ; ha 
can tura lawiu^thv house of au t'livniv, ul ululvwi ilinlmicu, 
and beat two sticks tu^tbci till t)iAt uiit>m> will lull Ntik iui<l 
die ; be is BkUIod iii borbul pbji'up ; hu bnii tliu {mwur nF cbarilt* 
iug tbe fiercest wiM lioa^tx. TIium il in Umt thit Miilii^n. L)ii)ti){h 
thej deapiito tUo Jukuiu. rufniiii. in iiiiiity circmiiituiii^ti), fi<iiit 
iU-trcating them.' lu [rulio. in loiig-jHut a^vn, ttm iloiiiiimiiL 
Aryans describtMl tbe rudu iiuiiifuniM (rf tli^ larnl liy lliti njiitliuU 
of "possetcH^ uf inogicul puMum." "Blmiigiujf tlitiii nliAjHi al> 
vilL"' To this day, Uinduii »ottluil In CUitta-Nagirtir iijul tijiig- 
bhuju firmly bclivru tliat thu Miindiu linvo |miwci'h u(iiiiU:liciiUt, 
wbcrubj they can traDHr</i-m iUomaulvv ilibi tijjunt nwi ijlbirr 
he*sU of prc-y to devuur tbcir vtwtuim, msvi caij wiu-li> llttf 
lives of man uid beMt ; it U t« Ibv wiUMt uini uuM «ava^*i i4 
tbe tiibe that suefa powvra ar« (j^tt^rally o^crihcj* f *" ■' ra 
In£a, agata, we bear in ptuft titum 'A JJiiiduizi^ J <'>», 

tbe Sudtw oT Cauaia, bviug in few (tf tAio daviMuiacai pttvua 
(tf tb«; fll«Pb-eaAe below tb«!tu.* In our owu day, imuMt^ Driu/i- 
4^ tribeii oT tbe Nila^in dimrict, tli« Toda* aud Badiigiw Ar« 
in aortal drtsad uf tbe Kuruiubiu, dv^NMid ftod wnrtcbud £orMl 

vmoMtti. but gifUKl. it ie btilifvud. witb r ** ' \ng 

.3MB and *iiifipitn aud ]rfup*;rtj tiy wriuiicrui ■ . '^mi 

ban^ tbt like ouutraxt almrply iiiUi viev. Tbe j^uuui and 
iXsppa. wbuMc bnr Xalar barbariei! ■ ' tmotaowd by tutytiry 

«Bcb » &niriiba slill amoqg i - L/i^naD kim/nllf, irttfK 

•Mondnigly oig«cte of mtjitafMitim fvu W tbdir buoMluiairijui 
aud uinwuwWTC. lu tbv uuddW itgt* (' -rf 

mm, an II ffttU nauaiiK uuvMg tvnUrUttt imi-, - , - ^,ui 
t» tfast 4f — nmri.r . while l^plaod wiieb«« bad a HMtinmaa 
w pXMtitiaMnortbi' black an. Aget afl* 'ij* 

I in tbeaoeial acale. tbt l«pf» r«taiu0d uucl - . — -id 
hatfM»a^i babtL of UTc, acid with it naiurallr ibuir wiicbaafl, 
IV ibaL «««u tbe la^giii jifliil Fiuus sn*«n>d tb(< uocolt jKMraei 

*Jlalr. 'HMMknrtata,' ,mi l. |i. 4B£. 

'Shrs, Tn^n-'tr^^ifTir 'ir 'Tr Bftk.bc rTTiltlr 

V. Bkati* Ihu G«mw«( i'M^Mie inhML, 



of a people more Wbarous than ihenwelvcs. Riihs writes Uiqs 
Ciuly iu tlie present century : " There are still sorcerers iu Fin- 
land, but the skilfullt'st of tliom bclicrc th&t the Lapps far 
excel them ; of a ■well-experienced magician they say ' That ifl 
qtiitc a Lapp," And they joiimf-y to Lapland for such know- 
lodge.''^ All this is of a piece with the survival of such ideas 
among the ignorant elsewhere in the eivilizwi world. Many a 
white man in the West Indies and Africa drendu the incauta- 
tioufi of the Ohi-mau, and Europe oscrihes powers of sorcery to 
despised outcMt "races maudites," fiypKies and Oigota To turn 
from nations to sects, the attitude of Protestaats to CatlioUcs 
In this matter ix in«tructive. It was remarked in Scotland : 
"There is one opiaion which many of them entertain, .... 
tliat a popish prit-iit can cast out devils and cure madness, and 
that the Presbyterian clergy have no such power." So Bourne 
says of the Clturch of England clergy, that tlie vulgar think 
them no coDJnront, and say none cbu lay spirits hut pojiisli 
priests.' Tbe«e accounts are not recent, but in Germany the 
sune state of tbiDgH appears to prevail still. Protestants get tbc 
aid of Catholic priefits and monkx to help them against witch- 
craft, to lay ghosts, consecrate herb.'-, and discover thieves;* thus 
with unconscious irony judging the rekition of Rome toward 
modern civilization. 

The principal key to the understanding of Occult Science is 
to conaidcr it as based on the Association of Ideas, a (acuity 
which lief> at the very foundniioti of human rtiasun, hut in no 
small degree of human unreason niso. Man, as yet in a 
low intelloctual conditiou, liaving come Co associate in thought 
those things which he found by experience to Ije connected 
in fact, proceeded cixoneously to invert this action, and to 
conclude that association in thought must involve similaj' 
connexion in reality. He thus attempted to discover, to 
foretell, and to cause events by means of proccMCS which we 
con now see to have only an ideal significance. By a 
naas of evidence from savag^c, haj-huric, and civilized life, 

> F. Rilhs, ' FintuKl.' pi. SDS -, BaMiiui, ■ MeoKh.' nit. iii ]>. 202. 

* Bnuid, ' IVp. A&t.' vul iii. yp. 61— 3 ; m» 31S. 

■ Vutitr, ■ DeuUcLo VoUcMberigUnbir.' ]<. US ; lec 259. 



nfl|;ic arts vbich have resulted from thus mistukiD^ an ideal 
for a real connexion, may be clearly traced from the lower 
culture which they arc of, to the higher culture which tliey 
arc in.' Such are the practices whereby a distant person is 
to he affected by acting on winctliing closely asscctated with 
him — his property, clothu); lie has worn, and above all, ciittingit 
of bis hair and nails. Not only do iiava|,'eK liigli atid low like the 
AustiaJians and Polynesians, and barbnriiins lilcis the nations of 
Guinea, live in deaxlly terror of tliin spituful craft — not. ouly have 
the Pai-sis th<-ir eacred ritual prescrilied for Imr^nng their cut 
hair and nails, lest demoos and sorccrurrt should do mbcliief with 
thcni, but tilt: fear of Icraving such clippingH and pariugx about 
lesi their former owner should be harmed through them, has 
bj no means died out of European folklore, and the German 
pcMRnt, during the dnyii between hi» child*8 birth and baptism, 
objects to lend anytliitig out uf the houae, lest witchcraft ehouLd 
be ivorked through it on tho yet uncoiiiiccralcd baby.' As the 
negro fetiith-mau, when his patient does not come in person, 
can divine by means of his dirty cloth or cap instead,* so the 
modem clftir%'oyant professes to feel sympathetically the sensa^ 
lions of a di.'rtauit person if communication be made throu^i a 
lock of his hair or any object that has been in contact with 
him.* The simplu idta of joining two objects with a cord, 
taking for granteti that this communication will establish con- 
nexion or carry influence, has be«ti workt'd out in various ways 
in the world. In AuHtralia, the native doctor faHtens one end 
of a Ktring to the ailing part of the patient's body, and by 
Kucfeing at the other eud pretends to draw out bluod for liis 
rehef.' In Orisaa, the Jeypore yritch lets down a ball of thread 

' I For KB examination or nnnivmni magieol uta, mMtly coming tintler thia 
f, Kn 'Eftrlr Hiilory oC Mniikiml,' itinpa. tJ. nni x. 
SUnbriilip, 'Almr. of Vidr.m,' in 'Tr. Klh. Soc." rol. i. p. 299; Hli«, 
*Pol^. H«.'ro]. i. p. 86t; J. L. WiUan, ' W. Afri^*»," p, 2I5;Spi[^l, 'Avert*,* 
wl. L |n 124 ; Wuttkc^ ' Duulitclio Valkmilicrttlitubu,' p. 199 ; (ivaorkl nfortncM 
la ' Ewlj Hirtoo" of Mrnitiiiil.* p. H*. 

* Burton, ' W. anil W. from Wf.e Africa,' p, 411. 

* VV, Girgotj, *Lctt«ra on AuimiU Maf,iii:tinu,' ]i. 138. 

* Kyrc. 'Aiutnlia,' vol. it. \<. 361; Collin*, 'K«w Sooth Waits.' toL i. 
pfv Ml, 5M. 



through her ccemy'd roof to rcacli liis body, ihnt by piitttng tUe 
other end in her ovm moutb she may suck bis blood.' When a 
ri-'iodeer is sacrificed at a sick Oatyak's t*nt-door, tlie patient 
holds in hi$ hand a eoixj attached to tlie tnctim oflt^red for his 
beoefit^ Greek history shows a stmilar idea, when the citizens 
uf Kpbesus carried a rope Hnveii furtongH from their waltn to 
the temple of Artemis, tbus to pbico thomsclvos under her 
safeguard agalcwt tbc** altnck of Criesus ; aud iu tJic yet morB 
Ktrikiug Btoiy of tlie KyWniani^, who tied a conl to tbe statue 
of tbe goddess when tl)ey quiLl^d the asyhiiu, and clung to it 
for protectiou as tlicy crossed iinlialluwt'd ground ; but by lU- 
fate tbe cord of safety broke and they were nierrilcasly put to 
death.' And m our own day, Buddhist priests in solemn cere- 
mony put themselves ill communication with anacrcd relic, Ly 
each taking liold of aluug thread fastened near It and around 
the temple.* • 

JI<Ia£[ical arts in which the connexion h tliat of mere analogy 
or syntbolism arc endlessly nnracrous thruug-hout the cour«o of 
civLliaition. Their common tbeorj- may be readily made out 
from ft few typical case*, and thence applied confidently to the 
general mass. The Australian will obserre the track of an 
insect near a grave, to ascertain the direction where the sorcerer 
is to be found, by whose craft the man died." The Zulu may 
lie seen chewing n bit of wood, in order, by this symbobc act, to 
fcoften tlie heart of the man be wiuita lu buy oxen from, or of 
the woman he wants for a wife.' The Obi-mau of West Africa 
makes his packet of gravo-dust, blood, and bones, that this 
suggestive representation of death may bring his enemy to the 
grara^ llie Khond sets up the iron arrow of the War-god in a 
basket of rice, and judges from its stitiidiug upright that war 
must be kept tip also, or from its falling that tht; ijuarrel may 
bo let fall too ; and when he tortures human victims sacrifioed 

I Shortt, in • Tr. Etta. Sac' vol. tL p. 378. 
■ BmUu, ']l<»ack' to). iiL p. 117. 
> SMQnile, ToL iil pp. IIS, &S). 

* Hnrdf, 'Eulcni Honuclibn,' f^ 341. 

* 01<llivli], in 'Tr. l^th. Sac.' vol. iii. p. 2|«. 

* OroQl, ' Zolu-Uait,' i>. 131. 

* Se* ■[>ecim«n umI dMOri(<i«B in tba Chricl; Uuaum. 


to the Eaxth-goddees, Le rvjulcM to «m thuii) thoJ iiluuUftil 
tears, which betokea copious «ho««n to tiUl ui^n hU UuU.' 
ThcM ftTC fair examples of tb« ftyiululio luagio of ihu lovror 
noes, and they are fully rivjilM iu BuptihitiUuua which atill 
hold their ground in Europe. With ijuniul uiinphuity, tliti 
Germau cottagor tloetarua ihnt if u dog huu-l» looUiiig Juvrii- 
warJ, it portenih) a death ; but if upwiini, tliuii a rxxxtvoi^ from 
tdckness.* Locks must !>» upunod and IidIim ilnnwii tu n d^ing 
luajiK houw, tliat hiii Huul may uui liu liald fiwL.^ Ttia Hc^iiuii 
lad thinks that he oiay escape the viiuitcriplioii hy currying a 
baby-girl's cap in hin itockut — a Kyiidiullc way of n^piKlJAling 
manhood.* MgJeni Serviarw, danciug mid aiutjiiig, lu<ul ultouL 
B little girl drestted in learet antl tlowera, and {Mjiir bowU of 
-watix over her tu make thu raiu ouuu.-.' iituiluni L>ocaluu!d will 
aainuluuea whistle for a wind ; hut iu other wuathor tlwy liaki 
vhietliitg at soa, which raiHun a whiutliii]; xale.' Fiub, uys Iho 
Conuahmati, should be eatut from tliv tail tuwarclB the hoad, Lo 
hnng Uie olher fiabes' LomU tuwanU tUu tstiviv, fur uutiug thoui 
the wraag way tunut them fri>ui'tlio cooot.^ Ha who \m$ cut 
himitelf should ruh th« kuit'<^ with tat, atMi tm it. driv»> thv wouud 
will heal ; tlti« is a Uugt^ug vurviviU frwtu dayit wh«ii rovipiM 
for Rvmpalhetic oiiitiueiit wvrv U> ho found in thv fhanua- 
copoeia-'* Faiictf'ul aji^ thtaw tiutious arv, il ttUuuld U> burut.' io 
mind thai they oonu: fairly uudt-r dc-liDih:- luoutAl Uw, dvpuud- 
sag as they du un a priuciplv uf ideal a«M>ciatiuu, of whicL wc 
oan quite undeislaad the uionlitl acLiuo. tliuugli we duuy ila 
pnctical reBulte. Tb*; cluver Lord CliatturGi'ld. tou dnvtsr to 
■ndantaml fully, louy ifpun bu citetl to pruw thin. He* r«lat«s 
ill one of his hitters that the kio'^ had bvou ill, uud that ptwplu 
genenlly expected ihu iihuws tu he llatal. Lecauie the oldest 

* JlM|4KfMii, 'iaiim,' ^ 130. US 

* VToakm. •Volkabwikabc.' y. )!. 

* tt-Hmt. *]^ip. bam. «l V. at fiagUad.' tod 
.Aat'wLit. j<. Ul. 

* ««b, ]>. IM. 

* Awl. vni. 111. |.. XM, 

* Bon. ■ ■ . ■ r- 

* V«u UMid, r^ iiL p. MJ. 

T. p. Ui I 



lioQ in tlic Tovcr, about die Icing'ii nge, had jtiat died. " So 
wild and capricious is tlio liuman mind," Lc exclaims, by way 
of comment. But indt^ed tlie thought was neither wild nor 
onpridons, it was »inply Kuch nn argument from AOitlogy ns the 
educated world lia^ at leujftli painfully leajut to lie worthless ; 
but which, it in not ton mucli to cteclare, would to tliis day 
carry con«derable weight to the minds of four-fifths of the 
human race. 

A glance at those magical arts which have been systematized 
into pseudo-sciences, shows the same underlying priucipic. The 
art of toking omentt from seeing and meeting animals, which 
includes augury, is familiar to Ruch i^avages as the Tupis of 
Brazil^ and the Dayakn »f Burnco,^ and extendi upward through 
clflfisic civilisation. The Maoris may give a sample of the cha- 
racter of it<j rules: they hold it unlucky if an owl lioota during 
a consultatieu, but a council of war is encouraged by prospect 
of victury when a liawk 6ie9 overliead ; a Qight of birds to the 
right of the war-saa-ifice is prupitioiw if the villages of tlie tribe 
arc in that qunrtcr, but if the omen is in the enemy's direction, 
the war will be given up.' Compare Uit?8e with the Tatar rules, 
and it is obvious that f>im!lar thoicght^ lie at the source of both. 
Here a certaiu little owl's cry is a sound of terror, although 
there is a white owl which is lucky ; but of all birds the white 
falcon is most propliclic, and the Kalmuk bows his thanks for 
the good omen wlitii oue flies by on the right, but seeing one 
OD the left turns away his face and cxjtects calamity.* So to 
the negro of Old Calabar, tlie cry of the great kingfisher bodes 
good or evil, according as it ia bcanJ on the right or left' 
Here we have the obvious symbolism of the right and left hand, 
the foreboding of ill from the owrs doleful uote, and the sug- 
gestion of victory from the £erco swooping hawk, a thought 
which in old Cui'ope made the bird of prey the warrior's omen 
of conquest. Meaning of the samo kind appears in the 

* MagaDlMiBtile QuidAro, p. J2S: IVOrbigDy, vol tL ■p. 168. 

> St. John. *Foi But." vol. 1. p. 2D3 ; ' Jouni- tnJ. Arehip.' roL U. p. SB7. 
» Vote. • Kcw XcaUnd." p. M; IMtek. ruLi, p. 218. 

* Kleram. * <."ultnr-GfKh.' vol. iii. p. 202. 

* Buitiin, 'VlluidWiMlomfroni WMtAfrioii,'ii.3G1. 



l' tlic omc»3 takca from mcoting animals and people, 
especially on first going out in the morning', as irhen the 
ancient Slaves held meeting a sick man or an old woman to 
bode ill-luck. Any one who takes the troablc to go into this 
subject in detail, and to study tho classic, mcdiicval, and 
oriental codes of rules, will find that the principle of direct 
symbolism still accounts for a fiiir proportion of them, though 
the rest may bnve Lost their early significance, or may have 
been originally dite to Bome other rensou, or mny have been 
nrbltmrily invented (as a considerable proportion of siich donees 
muet ueceKsarily bi>) to fill up the gape in thu system. It is still 
plain to U8 why the omen of llie crow should be ditVerent on the 
right or left hand, vhy a vulture should mean rapacity, a stork 
concord, a pelican piety, an ass labour, why ttw fierce conijuering 
wolf should be a gootl omen, and the timUl hare a bad one, why 
bees, types of an ohedient nation, should be lucky to a king, 
while flies, returning however often they arc driven nif, iJiould be 
signs of importunity and impudence.' And as to the general 
principle thai animaU arc oiuinoua to those who meet thum, tho 
Gennaa peasant who says a flock of sheep is lucky but a hcnl 
of smnc unlucky to meet, and the Cornish miui.T %rho turns 
away in horror when ho meets an old woman or a rabbit on hia 
way to the pit's mouth, are to this day keeping up relics of 
early savagery as genuine as any Hint implement dug out of a 

The doctrine of dreams, attributed as they are by the lower 
and middle tacea to epiritual intcrcoiii-se, belongs in so far 
rather to i-eligion than to magic. But onGiromancy, the art of 
taking omens from dreams by non>natuml Lutorpretation, haa 
itii place hera Of tlie leading principle of such mystical expla- 
nation, no better types could he choRcn thnn the details and 
interpretations of Juseph's dreams (Genesis xxxvtl, xl., xli.), 
of the sheaves and the sun and moon and eli-vcn starH, of tho 
vine and the basket of meats, of the lean and fat kine, and the 
thin and iiill corn-earn. Onciromancy, thus symbolically inter- 

■ 8ie ComnlmiA^ppa 'B« OcoulU rhilnnopSiia,' i. HZ ; 'Da VnniUU Scirat.' 
S7 ; Criimu, ' I\ U.' p. 1U73; UmwmI), 'Skw. MjUi.' p. 395; Btsod, vol. Hi. 
pp. lSl-i3T, 



pKting th« ihingi eccQ in dreams, is not anknovD to the lower 
racea. A wbole AustTAlian tiibe ha;* been known to decamp 
becwiM one of their mimbcr dreamt of a oortoin kind of ovj, 
vbich dream the wi»e men liccLared to forebode an attack from 
A certain other trilw.' Thr Kamchndals, poopte wbow mindfl 
ran much an drt'atns, had special interpretations of some ; thns 
to dream of Hoe or dogs lietokened a visit of Russian travoUerB, 
&&' The Zulus, experience having taught them the fallacy 
of expecting direct fulfihnent of dreams, have in some cases 
tried to mend mattei-s hy rushing to the other extreme. If 
they dream of a sick man that he is dead, and they see the 
earth poured into the grave, and hear the funeral lameutation. 
and we all hifi things destroyed, then they say, "Because we 
have dreamt of his death he will not die." But if they dream of 
awrdding><lance, it is asign of a fuueinl.' It is positible that the 
Zulus ma,y have adopted these well-known maxims from Kuro- 
peann. If not, tliey have worked out, by the some crooktMl logic 
that guided our own ancestors, the axiom that " dreams go by 
contraries." It could not be cxpectud. in looting over the 
long lists of precept* of classic, oriental, and modem popular 
drcam-iiiterprctation, to detect the original .sense of all their 
readings. Many must turn on allusions intelligible at the 
lime, but now obscure. The Moslem dream-interpretation of 
eggs as conoemiDg women, because of a saying of Mohammed 
about women being like an egg liidden in a nest, is an example 
which will serve as well as a score to show how dream-rules 
may turn on far-fetched ideas, not to be recognized unless the 
key happens to have been pn«ien.'ed. Many rtdes must liave 
been taken at random to fill up lists of omens, and of con- 
tingencies to match them. Why should a dream of roasting 
meat show the dreamer to he a Ijackbiter, or laughter in sleep 
presage diCBcult circumstaiiCM, or a dream of playing on the 
davicord tlie death of relatives 1 But the other side of the 
matter, the »tiU apparent nonaensical rationality of so many 
dream-omens, is much mere remarkable. It can only be cod- 

■ OhUcld, in ■ Tr. Elk. Soe.' vol. lit pi 2il. 

* SttJler, • SkotMhAtkii,' p. 970. 

' Callaway, * Boligloa of Amontn,' yp, 334, Ml. 

■junnvAL ly ciLruttii 111 

jidaed 'hac :he ^uan -yui'uoiiteui ■.'uul a;, .ii. ik- -lv* >i '.lu- 
wboie ■ieiaaion. ''avourwi "be '^evpiiig it' liu; i^-.v 'im!\:u^ -i 

tfairii is I .jowi jmeu :tj iiv^iui ■>( ■^iiuiiuiij; nuilv ■■■i ^i.\-^':i, 
OT'it" sai^ im Kui -u irwHii Jt' ^juu'k -i- ;i.xt, -m -.•i uu- , i!m.' i 
p»lm,-«iee intiicat'.-s :iu X-.lI). tii,l i -^iuwA i. k.ii^ . ■.Ii.n, 'ii- w'. ■ 
^zeanta ii haVTinruii "be siiii'^ \*iU !ivo r'rvo .i'. m'miv ^iv-it ui m'-. 
ahiii. TaJca rjxn <:'ui^<: ruivs i* in th..- ■ ^>iKiu>i.-iiii<.\i ' ot \iu- 
niiiii}CT£i.aa<ipiks!joa tLi^iu^b: ihi.'Uii.\li;tA:il Uv.iIi-m.ti itviwuu* -lU* li 
adrfcun-iicEwnani-aiStfrvaut-iaaUls-ililUnu imvuu.N AiA\t Ikh-I-. 
at the fair, and ii will Iki swu that tUo auvuui tuU-t ilHl li"l>l 
their places to a ri>inarkitl>lo t^\to)tt, wltilo Itiill' llto luit-ia til j>ir 
cepts still show thfir i»ri)>iiial mjntiit Ni^uiliiiuno, luu.^llv iliii-il, 
but occasionally acoui'iUii|r tu tlm niln ul' i-iiii(itaii'->. An I'llVn 
sive odour signifies aniioyiLiicu ; l.>i wiinIi ilii.'liiiii>|.ii|i'.ii>iliin n^lin i<> 
from anxieties; to L'iiibrw:(i mm'n liL-nl, i.^ vi-i^ tuihiiiriti , 
to have one's feet cut '^fl' |mviiji^ n ji)iiiiiiy , Ik wiri(i in ulii ji 

ISaUgnof joy; llU V/\li) tlnuiUH in- iiiilli I-mI •! Nmlli n\M\l lnii: 

a Aiend ; and he tliat dtcatnn iIiulI. u mI' i- I'll' • h •'"■ "J hi.- rmN: 
shall ere long siy.- the- di.ath </i' \iir. wif. , i,-, r^ll'i.', I- > .;. l,-;ri/Li ij- 
gain; to he iitariit^ i^iynitii-.: lij.i' .i',jii' -li j-,-n Iwiul'^ll- .u.- 
dead; if one m*?^ niaiiv I'jwl.- i'y;4';ii.'j i.i.iit -li-iilJ ii' j- ;il'ii. -j 
and chiding; if a miuk.'.- |^ui»u' iiiiu .■ ' jj.m 1.' -i" i"- x"""' 
agaiQBt evil wuiu>:i, ;.■ 'jumh i/f 'i<.u\i >.■ i.-j\' .- i,;i|jjj-i-' ,-■'J 
long life: Vj dieaii <'f Aiiiimu^i.;^ w>': ••n/i.i.-^- .i. il.< I'u'.'i .- 
good. H'j that lin. ]iv;f: i>' riujj' av^.' ..^v.i , '■< 'Jcum vl 
cruiiiiii': a i^riu^-. 'i.;jjuy;.- \'ji iiil .';ii.' ; ^^■y/''- f^'^^' ■'■■ '■' 
seei: a i^eiwi i.. i>i.;iii;. . , . .■,-; ; --i-;:/- . ■ -.^: '■■■.-»' .■' 
bUali Ik-..- o-Jlu-. ^i'^' 'vi'. Wij: i;i.v.i.': ■-■' . ;.'i~.;;.-'.! J.,'-. 

lijirunpi'^'i.i<.>: i^-. 1 .'.V ' Aj.''.ti.i, \i^- .J- .' li^'. ' .•^i.'.c. > .. 

tlj>- lilhu-v - iaii'^ I j.\ ^':\.t^^! itU .u.'./... ,. .•^' .' '..< . ^ ..:.' \ 

^Lfl^Diuu: Lir "_*-■..>■: ^. .. ^. .. . - - . . ' '.., - F. .,^ , 

T'.''. I.. : aekiiKi. -■ ....•.>. — ' ■. '-' Jv. i^:.... . Jl^i'.ii. 

*jt-; . Uuviii-- , «i : - ■■ , ■■ 

l£t : i lua/.i.' .!•'-' w.u.u.;,-.. ,. Ii-'' 

- WBUf^ • ■ I*.-s- i. . i> . i' I . .. ..^ J^ . .. . ^. .■ 

tfUmiiiAl-. V'-. I *''•. '■ -.v -'■ r ~ ^ a', ..., ' '^[::i,r J,' 

VU^ > 1'. '■ 



is mcntionc<l a» |iracti»ic<l in Pcni under the Ii)ca&' Captain 
Biii-toD's account from Central Africa pcrbapa furly displays 
its symbolic principle. He describes the mgonga or sorcerer 
tAtcing on ordeal by killing and splitting a fowl and inspecting 
its inside : if blackness or blemish appears about the wings^ it 
doiiot<»8 the trcftchcry of cliildrcii nnd kinsmen ; the backbone 
convicts the mother and graudmotht^r ; the tail shows tlmt the 
criminal bt the wife, &e.' In ancient Rome, where the art held 
so grent a place in public affairs, the same sort of interpretation 
was tuual, sia vrttiK-ss the omen of Augustus, where the liren of 
the victims wenr found folded, and the diviners prophesied Itim 
acconlingly a douMed empire." Since then, Imnixpication has 
died out more completely than almost any magical rite, yet even 
now a chanicterisiic retic of it may he noticed iu Brandenburg ; 
when a pig is killetl and the spleen is found turned over, 
there will be another overthrow, namely a death in the family 
that year.* With horuspicatioii may he classed the art of 
divining by boo&s, as where North American Indians would put 
in the fire a certoiiu flat bone of a porcupine, and jud^'e from its 
colour if the porcu pi no-hunt would he succcwful* The prin- 
cipal art of this kind is divination by a Bhoulder-blade, tecbai- 
Cidly called ecapulimancy or omoplatoscopy. This is especially 
found in vogue in Tartar)*, where it ia ancient, and wbeoto it 
may have spread into all other countries where wo boftt of it. 
Its simple syraboILTOi is well shown in the elaborate account 
with dingrnms given by Piillas. The shoulder-blade is put on 
the firo till it cracks in various directions, and then a long split 
lengthways is reckoned as the " way of Ufe," while crws.'i-cracks 
on the right and Iclt> stand for different kinds and JegTOOe of 
good and evil fortune ; or if tlie omen is only taken as to some 
special event, then lengthwiae splitji mean going on well, but 
crocMwise ones stand for hindrance, white marks port«nd much 
snow, hluck ones a niUd winter, ftc' To find this quaint art 

' Ci*M d« L«on, p. 28B ; Ei*c» »n(l Tsohnii), ' P«m,* p. 183. 

* Bmton, 'CcoUat Ah.' vol. it. p. 82; VmU, vol. IL pp. 417, 819. 

* PliiL xl 79. S«« Ck. d* Dirtnatiol1^ii. 13. 

* Wnltke, 'VoIkMbwglaub*,' p. 82. 

* Le imnt, ' NouwUo Fnuico,' toJ. i. p, 00, 

* Klemm. * Cultur-Owch.* vol. iii. pp. 109, IW ; vol Ir. p. 3S1 ; Eulmifjiris. 



hhsliiig oa into modera titties in Europe wo can tianlly go to a 
Ftwtter pbce tbaa oar own coanU}-; a pivpL-r Kngtitli kiiu 
for it is " reading the speal-boDe " (sptfa/ ~ ttipauUi). lu Ire- 
land, Caraden describes tho Iof>ktn^ cIimu^'Ii the bUMlo-honv uf 
a abc«p, to find a dark spot wtiict] ftintteUs a dootli, and 
Dra^n thus commemoratos Iho art iu Im Fblyolbioii ; — 

" By th* ehoalder of a Tun from off tha ng^it <iil« par'd, 
Which usnally thny boilo, tho irpado-boiia being bftr'il, 
Which vhcD th« wizard takw, and guing thenipmi 
flings loDg to cximt for«aliowaa, «■ tXaiifga tluiia \i>ag igona."* 

Chiromancy, or palmistry, utmrnn uucli like tliiii, thuu^h il 1$ 
klM mixed up with Astrology. It flourislied in ancient Un»;CD 
and Italy as it Btill do<d in India, whore to eny, " It id writtuu 
on the palms of my hands," is a u<ual way of «xpr»«iD>f u 
senao of inevitable CiUe. Chiromancy iroocs in Ui« markings of 
the palm a line of fortune ood a Uii<; of lifu, fiudit proof of 
mdancboly tu the intersoclions ou tlio fiatiimino mount, 
preBages aoirow and death from blutk ispots iu tho 6n^r* 
naib, and at last, having exhausted the powen of this ohildixb 
lymboliMn, it oompletes its system by details of wluoh the 
ahAurdity is no longer rc-lieved by uv«u an iduul iieiue. The 
art hju it« modem TotarieB not merely unotig Gy|wy fortiuu*- 
tcllem, but in what is called " good society." " 

It may again and again thuB be uuticud iu magic arts, tltat 
th& as^jciatioa nf ideas is obvious up to a certain point. T)iuf>, 
when the ^'evr Zealand sorcerer took ouieus by tlw way \u» divin- 
ing sticks (guided by spirits) fell, he quite natundly <tai<l it was a 
good omen if the stick represeutiug hin own trilw ftfU wo top of 
that refffesenting the enemy, and vict^ versL Zulu dinnon still 
work a similar prooeaH witb tboir magical pioces of stick, whicli 
rise to Bay yee and fall to say no, Jump upon the hood ot 
stiomacli or other afliEjctod part- of tho pativut's body to show 

ia nslurtoB, Tvi.nLp.4i: Gntam. 'D. U.' p. IMT ; S. F. Hurton, 'fiiadfa,' 
r- 1W : M. A. Wilk«r. •HMdoau.- 1>. 1S». 

* Snad. ««L IU. |i. S3» ; Forboi Lwl». tcL U. 9. 4SI. 

« MMmry. •H^m ate..' p. 74 ; Brud, wL lit. f ■ M«, «t«. 8h Sgim !■ 
C«tMl>»» Agnpf^ '!>• OoculU rhflgwft.' iL S7. 

StmnVAt in Cl'LTORE. 

wlier« bU com]^iunt is, onJ lie pointing towards tlie house oT ' 
the doctor ivbo can cure liini. So likewise, u'liere a. simiUr 
(Icrice was practised ageei a^ in tlie Old World, Oie re^Moses 
were taken from stares which (by the operation of dsemons) fell 
backwanl or forwaril, to the right or left' But when processes 
of this kind are developed to complexity, the system has. of 
course, to be completed by more arbitrary nirangemeols. ITus 
ia veil fihown in one of the diviuatoiy arb mentioned in the 
last chapter for ihcir connexion with games of chance. In 
cartoraancy, the art of fortune-tcUing with packs of cards, there 
is a soii of nonsensical ecnse ia ouch rules as that two queens 
to&ua fricnduhip and four mean chattering, or that the knave 
of hearts prt^edes a brave young num who wUl come into the 
family to he useful, unless hia purpose bo reversed by bis card 
being upside dovm. But of course tlie pnck enn only furnish a 
limited number of such comparatively rational interpretations, 
and the rest mnat be lelt to such arhitrar}' fancy as that the 
seren of duunonds meAns n prize in the lottery, and the ten of 
the same mil an luiexpectetl jutimey.^ 

A remarkable group of dinning instruments illutitrates ano- 
ther principle. In Soutlt-ea^t Asia, the Sgau Karens, at funeral 
(eoatM, hang a batigic or metal ring by a thread over a bra&<i 
bttfiin, which the relatives of the dead approach in BiiGceBBiom 
and strike on the edge with a bit uf bamboo ; when the one who 
was most beloved toacbet) the baain, the dead man's spirit re- 
sponds by twisting and stretching the string till it breaks and 
the ring falls into the c\tp, or at least till it rings against it.' 
Nearer Central Asia, in the north-east corner of India, 
fl&Kmg the Bodo and Bhimal, the pi-ofessional exorcist has 
to find ont what doitj has entered into a patient's body to 
puuisU him for Rome impiety by an attack of illnoss ; this 
be discovers by setting thirteen leaver roimd him on the 

' B. Tajlor. 'New Zoaliml.' p. 90S : Shorlluul, p. 189 ; CaJlairajr, 'It«1i^ 
ofAtnualii,' ]<. S30, eu. ; Theophjrket. in Branil. ml iti. |). 3S2. C'utiipuo 
mnittoiu «f Bimllur dcvi«M; Herodot. it. S7 (Styilu«}i BuHon, *C«itnl_ 
Afrin,' rot u. p. SfO. 

* Mipie'i ' Die. d« Sc. Oct* 

■ Haaon. ' Kanni,' iu ' Joiun. Am. Soo. BoRpl,' I8S5, |iart U. ]>. 109; 
tini, ' OMd. Akwd,' vol. L fi, IM. 



gronod to represent tlio gods, and then boldlns o- penduluni 
attachwl to his thumb by a string, till tlic gixl in question is 
pcnmiuled by invocntJun to (ledare himself, making the pendu- 
lum swing towanU lus rcprtsentAtive ]ea£' These mystic arts 
(not to go into the iiueittioD how iheso tribes camo to neo them) 
are rode forms of the classical daetyliomancy, of which so 
curiong an acoomit is given in the trial of the conspiratoua 
Patriciiis and Hilarius, wlio worked it to find out who was to 
fiupplant the emperor VaK-us. A round tJible wax marked at 
the edjje mith the letters of the alphabet, ami with prayers and 
mystic ceremonies a ring was held suspended over it by a 
tJircad, and by swinging or stopping towaitU certain letters 
gave the responsive words of the oracle.' Dactyliomancy has 
dwindled in Europe to the art of finding out what o'clock it w 
by holding a ring liaiiging ininde a tumbler by a thread, tilt, 
witboul cooacious aid by the opirrator, it bcgiua to swing and 
strikes the hour. Father Schott, in his ' Physica Curiosa' 
(1662), rofrains with commendable caution from ascribing this 
phenomenon universally to da-monino inflncnee. Tt survives 
among ouiselves in child's play, and though wo are "no con- 
jurors," we may learn flomethiog from the UtUe instniment, 
which remarkably clipplays tbo effects of insensible movement 
The operator leitlty gives tjight impulses till they accumulate 
to a coiutiderable vibration, as in ringing a clmrch-bell by very 

kjentle pulls exactly timed. That he does, though unconsciously, 
cause and direct the swings, may be shown by an attempt to 
wotic the instrument with the opcrator'a eyes nhut, wttich will 
be fouod to fail, the directing power being loat. The action of 
the &mous divining-rod with its curiously versatile sensibility 
to wat«r, ore, treasure, and thieves, seems to belong partly to 
trickery by professional Douslerswivek, and partly to more or 
less coneciouE direction by honeat«r operators. It ii still in use 
OQ the CoDtineutv and in some places thoy arc apt to hide it in 

ft baby's clothes, and so get it baptijw<i for greater efficiency." 

' Bodsaon, 'Abor. of Imlio,' p. 170. See JSwfhvnon, p. lOd (Hbumla). 

* Amnnin. Uarralliii. ixix. 1. 

* ChsfnnJ, 'De U Ba^lta DivliutoiK, ilu Pendule dlt Eiplontsur, it dts 



nmnTAL iir cxltuke. 

To fiondade Uib gmap of dirinatary imtramenU, cfc&aoe or tlM 
0|Mtator^i dinctioti maj detennroe Uie action of one «f tfce 
socMl fiusQiar of tU«ic aDd m«diKTikl ordeals, tbe M-ctlkd 
flaacinoinaD<7, or. u it ts described in Hadibraa, " th' ocade of 
rivn and sbean, ttiat tunit aa certain ns tbe epbcrcs." The 
neve «m lield hanging hy a tlircad, or lij t)ie potntf of a |iair 
of ihean ataA into it! rim, and it voald turn, or swing, or &11, 
at tlis tnmtion of a tbiefs name, and give amilar ngna for 
otker porpaaea. Of this ancient rite, tbe Ctuistian ordeal of 
the Bible and key. Ktill in frmjnent oae, U a rariation : the 
proper my to detect a ihief by tUi* u to read the 50tb IValm 
to the appiuntiu, and irhcn it heart the vetse, " When tbou 
««Mt a tiiiur, tlivu thou conseoledst with iiim," it will toni 
U> Iho ailprit* 

Count dc Uoistrc, villi faiA usual faculty of takii^ an a^n- 
meiit lip at the vraag end, tclU tu that judicial Mtiolosy no 
doubt bangs to tntlu of the first order, vhicb have been taken 
from us M tuelen or dangerous, or which wc cannot recognise 
amlrr their now fonw* A »obcr examination of the subject 
iiiay rathof justify the contrary- opinion, that it is on an enw 
of tbo 6nt onlflf that nctrologj depends, the error of mistaking 
ideal analogy for real connexion. Astrology, in tbe uiunennty 
of its delusive indacnce on mankind, and by tbe compantiveljr 
modem period to vhicb it remained an hoouured brand) of 
ptdlotopbjr, may claim tbe bigfaest rank among tbo occult 
wiaBOBfc It aouDcly belongs to very low lereb of dTrlizntkia, 
alUkongh one of iu fandamentdl conceptions, that of tbe souk 
«r aailMtiiig mtolligenoctt of tbe celestial bodies, is rooted in 
tlw liepUit of aava^ie lil«^ Yrt tbL- fnUuiring Blaori specimen of 
•ili«lo([ial tMMoing is M real an aignmcnt m OMUbefoond 
in RnMlmi or Agrii^ nor is tbece reaaoit to doubt its haag 
Womo*«iM^ MThen tbe Mfe of a New Zoalwd pa is goii^ on. 
if Venua is ttcar tb<> moon, the catiTes natnnUy inagine the 

tomato Jl#lfV^>Di^MM« 3li«K'nL:Bm< «>L«.^m; 



two as enemy and fortress ; If the planet ia above, tlie foe -will 
liave tlie upper hand ; but if below, then the men of the soil 
will be able to defetJ theniBelves.' Though the early history 
of astrology is obscure, its yivat duvulopmcnt and elaborate 
s^'Ntcuiatizalion were undouhtcdiy tli« "work of civihzed national 
of the aocient and mcdiaivrd world, As might bu well sup- 
posed, a great part of its precepts hare lost their iiitolligilihr 
senM, or never liad any, but tho origin cf mauy others ia etill 
evident. To a eonsiderable extent they rest on direct sym- 
bolism. Such aro tho rules which counect the eun with gold, 
with the heliutru]>e and piuony, with the cock whicli heraldsi 
day, with mngiianimous nnimaU, such ns the lion aud bull ; and 
the moon with silver, and the chaugiug chamieleou, and tha 
|«ilin-tret!, whicli was considered to «KntI out a montlily shoot. 
Direct symbolism is plain in that main principle of the calcula- 
tion of nativities, tlie notion of the " ascendant " in the hor> 
BCt^,wblch reckons the part of tho heavens rising in the east at 
the moment of a child's birth as being connected with the child 
itself, and prophetic of its future life.' It is au old story, that 
when two brothere were once taken ill together, II ippokrates 
the phyucian concluded from the colucideuce that they were 
twim, bnt Foscidonios the astrologer cooitidcrcd rather that 
they were bom under the same constellation : we may add, that 
eitlicr ftTgument would be thought reasonable by a savage. One 
of tho most iustnictivQ astrological doctrines which has kept its 
place iu modem popular philosophy, is that of llie sympathy of 
growing and declining nnture with the waxing and waning 
moon. Among clasi^ical precepts are these : to ect eggs uudor 
the hen at new moon, but tu root up treieii when the moon is on 
the wane, and aft*! midday. The Lithuanian precept to wean 
boys on a u'ii.\ing, but girls on a waning moon, no doubt to 
make the boya stunly aud the girls slim and delicate, is a fair 
match for the Orkney islanders' objection to nmnying except 
with a growing muuu, whUo some even wish for a ilowing tide. 
The following lines, from TusBor's 'Five HundreJ Points of 

' SlmtUiul, 'Tndi., etc. of Now Zatlaai,' p. 13a 
* See <Scen> De Dtr. L ; Luuiaiu De Aatralog. ; Ccoflliiu 'Agrippa, 
OccDlUFfaOosophis;' Onuul, rol. liL 




UuHtwndry,' hIiow neatif in a single easo the two coDlrat; lunar 
inQucnoM : — 

*' 8owc poaaou and bcflos in the wano of the moose 
Who loweth them Hooner. he sowetli too bdods : 
IWt th«y, vtitb the pUoet, aia; not aud ma, 
Atitl llourUb with buitnntf, moit pl«atiM «-is».'* ■ 

Tito DOtion tliAt Uie woatlipr clmtiges with the moon'ii qtiarter- 
ings U still hfld n-itli great vigour in HngliLnd Tho metooro* 
logists, witli nil Uitfir eagerness to CAicli at any nilu iTliich at all 
auRWprn 1o facts, (|viite repudiate this one, which indee<l appeant 
to he Hiiiipl^' K majtim belougiiij^ to popular astrolog)'. Jttst as 
the growth aiid dwiudling of phints bccamo associated iiritli the 
moon's vta naJ waoc, so clianges of weather became associated 
with Hmijj.'us of the moon, while, hy iistrologers' logic, it did 
not innttcr n-hcthor the moon's change vrcro real, at new and 
full, or imagiimry, at the intermediate quarters. That educated 
people to whom exnct weather records ore accessible should i;till 
find satisfaction in the ^ciful lunar rule, is ao intorostlng case 
of intellectual survival 

lu ^iclt cases as ihe«e, the astrologer has at any rate a real 
aualog}-, doccptivo though it bo, to base his rule upon. Bui 
nioxt of hiii psvudu-scivnco soenis to rest on even weaker and 
mora nrbitrary analogiee, not of things, but of names. NatneK 
of stun and constelUtioiu. of signs denoting regiotis of the sky 
aud pcfioiU of days and ynars, do matter how arbitrarily given. 
■ro materials which the asttulogcr cad work upon, and bring 
into ideal coBwrxion with niuudane events. That astronoDicrs 
shviuld Itavo divided the sud'» coum- into imaginary sigits of the 
lotliao, was ono\igh to ori^nnat^ astrological nilc# tJiat thc«c 
oolwlial sigu hare au actual rficct \m rcai earthly lams. 
tfttlU onbe^ Uow, vitgina A child boin umier the sign of tbc 
Uon will h# eounigeous; but one bom under the Crab will 
HQl gt> fonnml vxA\ in Ufr ; ouo bora under the Wateirnan is 
Utt«lj to b« diuwued, aikl su forth. Ton-anls 15S-i, Europe wa« 
awnitiBg in an a|pwf of pmyvrAil torror the Bccond deluge, 



[otiphesiod for February in tLal jear. As Ibo fatal inoutb 
drew nigb, dwcltcni l)y tliu wnteniide movoil in crowds to tho 
hills, 9ome provided boats to savo tham, aad the Preaideut 
Aurial, at Toulouse, built Ititiuclf a Koab'a Ark. It was tho 
gnat astrologer SioeHer (Uic originrktor, it is sud, of the 
weAther-propliecies in our alniaiuu:ki«), who foretold this cata- 
clysm, aad hifi argumcot has the advaniage of being ntill 
perfectly ii)t«lligible^at the date in <]i]e8tion, three planets 
would bo together in the oqutMaa lign of Pisco). A^n, 
simply because a^troDomera choee to distribute amoog tbe 
pkni'ta tho namos of oertoin deities tho pUnotx thrrvby nc- 
quiri-d the characters of tbdr divine nameaakea. Tims it was 
that tbe planet Tenus became cooneoted with love, Mars with 
war, Jupiter (whose % in altered ntiape still liead.<v our physi> 
dans' prescription*), with power and 'joviality.' Tbrougboul 
tbe Kast, astrology renuuna a science in full ecteem. The 
conditioD of medisral Europe may stall be perfectly realized by 
the trarcDer in Pt-nio, where tlie Sbah waits for days outiude 
the walls of hln capital till tbe ooDstellatioBi allow him to enter, 
and where on tlie days appointed by the starii for letting blood, 
it litczally flows in etieama from the barbers* shops into tbe 
streeL ProfosBor Wuttke declares, that there are many districts 
in Oemumy where the child's horoscope is still rcigulady kept 
with the baptiimal certificate in tbe family chest. We scaively 
reach this pitch of ootuenatistD in EngUad, but I haf^en 
nyaelf to livo within a mile of an astrologer, and I lately saw 
a grare paper on oativities, offered in all good faith to the 
BriCaA Ajsoeiatjon. Tbe piles of ' Zadkiel's Almanack ' in the 
bookseUen' inodowa in country towns about Christmas, are a 
s^ptcnbowmnclijBtrHBaiDstobedone in popular edneation. 
Aaa ap ee hn en at ooee of t^ smnfal and of tbeaeaaing ef 
■strologic reasomng. 1 cannot do better than quote a jiamsflri 
frmn a bbtd: pQllished in London in IftSl, and entttkd. ' The 
Hand-Boci^ of Astrotocy. byZndlbel Tao&c' At page Ttat 
bisfint nJnme, tbeaslnloger rebdesas IoUovb: 'The Map of 
tlu heaTeos grren ai page 45 was 4ia*B on the ooBamMl flf n 
ynong lady baring been arred«l on a <fcafge of tbe — Jsrnf 
her iu&Dt fasadMo; Hcvii^ read in n ntvipaper, al VmBa»j4mr 



minutes put noon on tlie 2.^rd July, I860, that "Hiss C. K. Iiail 
been arrested on n charge of the murder of her yoiiDg brother, 
tlie author felt (it.-air<jii9 to uscertuin whctla-r she vfcre guilty or 
not, and ilrcw the map accordingly. Kin(!ing the moon in the 
tveUih house, she clearl)- signifies the prisouer. The moon is 
in a moreoble sign, nod raovcH iu the twvuty-four hours. 
14* 17'. She is, therefore, swift in motion. Tlieee things in- 
dicated that tho prisoner would be very speedily released. 
Then wo 6nd a moveable sign in the cusp of tho twelfth, and its 
ruler, 9, in a moveable sign, a further indication of ^edy 
xeleaoe. Hence it wns judged and declared to many frienda 
that the prisoner would be immediately releaseil, which was the 
fiict. We looked to see wliether the prisioner were guilty of 
the deed or not, and finding the Moon in lahra, a humane 
sign, and having Juki paxl the * aspect of the Sun and %, both 
b«ing on the M, C. we felt assured that she was a luimane, feel- 
ing, and honourable gii'l, and that it xf&& quite impossible she 
could be guilty of any such atrocity. Wc declan-d her to be 
perfectly innocent, and as the Moon w.i3 so well a>(pected from 
the tenth house, we declaa-d that licr honour would be very 
soon perfectly cstablisliofl." Had tlie astrologer waited a few 
raontbfl longer, to haTe rend tho confession of the miserable 
Constance Kent, he would jM-rliajM hare put a different 
sense on his moveable signs, just balances, and sunny and 
jovial aspects. Nor would tltie be a difficult task, for these 
fancies lend tlwmselvcs to endless variety of new intc-ipretation. 
And oD sneh fancies and such inteipretatiotis, the great scienoo 
of the stars haa from first to last been l)a0cd. 

Looking at the details here sotcctod as fair samples of sym- 
bolic magic, we may well ask the queistJoD, is tJiere in tho whole 
Dionittroiis farrago no truth or value wliatevej* f It appears 
that there, is pmntically none, and that tbo world has ,be«n en- 
tliralled for ajjes by a blind belief in processes wholly irrelevant 
to their supposed resultflt and which might as well have beeu 
taken just the opposite way. Pliny justly saw iu magic a study 
wortlir i>f his especial attention, " for tho very reason that, being 
the most fraudulent of arts, it bad prevailed throughout the 
World aud through so many ages" (uoipso qtiod (iaudulcntissima 

str&rirAL is cvlturh. 


srUnm plnriranm in toto tcrramm orlfc plurimtsiiiic scculis 
Talnit). If il be aakeJ how Biich a system coiilJ liavo hold ju 
grooDcl, nut merely in li)ile}>en(leDce but in tlc^liAncu of \t» uwu 
fiicte, a iair answer do«s oot soem hunt to give. In tho flrat 
place, it muKt bi- bunio in mind tliab occult scioucc lias not 
existed entire); in its own strength. Futile as its arts may bo, 
Ibejr are aaaodatod to practice with othur proooodingti by no 
meaiu fbtiK'. What are passed off at sacred omens, aro oflon 
really the cunning man's shrevd {^essee at tho past oiid futuru. 
Dinnation lerrcs to the sorccix^r as a mask for real inqqest, u 
when Ihe ordoal fpvca him invnhiable opportunity of examining 
the gnilty, whose trembling hamli and equivocatinu spocch 
betray at once their secret and thoir utter belief in bin powor 
afdiitcerMirij; if. Prt>phL'cy teuJH to fulfil iti^elf, as whcru tli« 
magician, by putting into n victim*!i miud thu Iwlief tliat fatnl 
aria have been practised agaiunt him, can »Uy liiin witli thin 
idea as with a material weapon. Often prical as well as mngi- 
clan, he has the wliole power of religion at hi^ bnck ; oflou a 
tnan in power, atwayn an nnsmipu!ou4 intriguer, )io can worV 
wilcbcraft and statecraft together, and make his left baud hulp 
hb right Oflcn a doctor, he can uid lii»i omca!i of life or dt!alh 
with remedy or poison, while what we still call " cimjurur'ii 
tncks'of sleight of hand, have done much to keep up his >uper- 
DOtural prestige. Krom the earliest known staged of civiliiatioii, 
profeasional magicians have exiAteJ. vrho live by thoir craft, tuid 
keep it aliTc. It has bucQ mid, that if Homebody had endowed 
lecturers to teach that two sides of a triaof^o are toffothor 
equal to the third, the doctrine would hare a rospootbblo follow- 
ing among ourselves. At any rat«, magic, with an inlliieiiUiil 
profcasion intercstod in keoping it in credit ami powor, did not 
depmd for its exi»tciici3 on more evideiict'. 

And in the second placid, as to this evidence. Magic has noi 
its origin in fraud, and f:ecm<i iteldom practised as an uttor 
imposture. Tho Hurc^rer gcnernJly lenms his iimo-honouruil 
professtoii in good failli, and Fetoiuii his belief in it moro itr loH 
from first to lost ; at once dupe and cheat, ho oamblDOa tlio 
eoetgy of a believer with the cunuing of a hypocrite. Hod occult 
sdence been simply framed for purposes of dcooptiuu, men 



DOiisense would have answered the piiTpose, whereas, what we 
find ut an daborale and ityKteiualic ]>seuilu-scieiice. It U, in 
fact, a sincere hiit fallncious system of philotiophj-, evolved by 
tlio hnman intclloct by jtrowsses still in gmat racusnirt- iutcl- 
ligible to o»r own minds, and it had thus an original standiog- 
ground in the worid. And though tbe evideuoe of fact waa 
dead against il, it wa.s Init lately and gradually that thix 
eridencd was hi-oiight fatally to bear. A geoeral survey of the 
practical working of the system may be nrndij uoiucwhab thus. 
A largo proportion of euccc^ul cases belong to natural mcanK 
di^niiKd as magic. Also, a certaia proportion of cases naitst 
euoceed by mere chance. By far the lorger proportion, how- 
ever, we what we should call feilures ; but it is a part of the 
niigicinn's profession to keep these from counting, and thia he 
does with oxtraordinaiy rcnource of rhetoi'ical shift and braaen 
impudence. He deals in ambiguoiiii phrasets which give luin 
three or four chances for one. He kuowg perfectly how to im- 
pose difficult conditioDK, and to lay thv blame of failure on their 
neglect. If you with to make gold, the alchemist in Central 
Asia has a recipe at your service, only, to use it, you must 
abstain throe day»i (nnn thinking of apes ; just as our EngUah 
folk tore saya, that if one of your eyelashes comes out, and you 
put it on your tlmmb, you will get auylliiug you wtah for, if 
you can only avoid thinking t>f ft>xrs' tails at the fatal moment. 
Again, if the wrong thing happens, the wizard has at least a 
n!aa)n why. Has a daughter been born wheu he piouiiaed a 
6on, then it is some hostile practitioner who has turned the boy 
into A girl ; doM a tempest come just when he is making fine 
W«aUNr, then ha calmly domaiMls a larg^ fee for stronger 
eeTanoiu«S|, assuring his clients that tboy may thank him as it is, 
for how much wonw it would have been had he not done what 
ho did. And even wttiiig aside all thi« accessory trickery, if 
w« look at honost but unscientilic people practising occult 
acioooe iu good faith, and faco to iitoe with facta, we shall sec 
that the failure*! which cimdoma it iu our eyes carry com- 
paraiindy hltle weight iu thetra. Part escape under tJic 
rluatic pivlext iif a"littlu U)i>re or Ivaus," as tlie loser in the 
lottoty oooiioIm Itiuavlf that hia lucky number came wilhin two 



«lf m ipaxtL, m the mooBMikMennei ]Kunt» out ttiumpliuiUv that 
a cfaaage ts wuubar infi cBOir wilhiu twd or tbm- ilan Imiitn- 
or dkar a. i pim er; «> UuU h» liefiniuiiti oT u»mr ■ nooD^ 
y*» iQIpIiai u ionr or ax ds^ not of every wva. I^rt 
MBi^ -^mnf^ iMBpanm' tb iqipnoisie negMivc efidooeo. 
-«flDdi ■Bnw ooB suBBBK ~U) nonraigb tn Jf-a flowa ^Imm 
Bim few iiiBK flie evnu anumg iiur tdnaUnil dumrn now, who 
inM; tui ' >'. ofitiatmaiiioniUaf«B^aitiH%a|^ 

xting ut . > 'tgatunu :' — "UlteinnMViflHilBldM^ 

^Aet wnyjnpimtmu hm Uxn uudc laid dam tjih** f»m 
ponml njnuwiit and bulitif. ur ftm fflw fdoiaaTa itvAfAk), 
ftM' ME J j F t lring ebe tii add &eA Miy pai t amA [ I llftnillllH>,; 
■■d ahbnagli mod ci^qir and nbimdant JMtwioai nu^ esii^ Vi 
Ae oamtBTir. ym. m^m iam uul u^Koroe or deltas IfticM, «r 
1^ nd of uiui KguBtfi Aaa bv Honic diRtiiiclaon, wU l i e l aM 
a^d ii]|itriiiii» prqjiuUcK. nidunr ihm sacrifioc tbc aifdbai^ >«f 
ht £m eaadunmn. it waa arid anaitniiiil I7 Imk itW «w 
diomi 3n a sanple «b« aative taUcito ^nsficaiAad Igr Kinti m Hud 
cac^pad iAk pedl of ^l i j^-imt and «-a« prtmei aa lo a<iaU> « 
fae fKwM tbtsi racu^maf tbe povrr of tlie {odt, (7 M i xpiily. 
' B«t idoe joe Uu poraaitK «f liKNe vfw faave periAwl frt 

Ob tbe trinSe. tiie carrival «f symbolic tufCK t.hnMifi^ Um 
aMdle a^s mi iato oar vn tiskes » an WMatnAMtorv, btt( 
BM m ^MnoBi fuL A —w aiUihlulnd ofdaitm, twtrevH' 
caa bold its on fron age to itgc. for b6lt«f MA 
itirif viibcnt vefensnoe to ib rowoubU ^Miipn. « 
p wf ue ***^ 'i''"" *^ withwl froth miiiiBg IVuM llM 

He U^mjcf sBrriral, in oasas liko thoM of iln^ Mi kiivi 
••d oecoh attt vbidi wo have been oolitiikrinK, Iim K»i- tlid 
mott part best a HtUnj of ilwiDiHin^ a»d dooAf. A* tiwil'* 
mindi change in pcogretedng cultore, old ou«tomi and ii|tlniohii 
&le gtadaaHj in a new and uncongoaia) atmo*|ihorF>, ix- (wm 
iota elates more oongruoas with Utc now lift; nnmnd (hem. 

• Dwan. 'Sons Otfuitn.' Hm orighil Morjr U tiul <rf IWiSPn^ >* 



Bat this is so far from being a lav without exception, that a 
narrow view of lustorT- may uftcu make it seem to be qo law at 
alL For tbu stream of civilization wiudis uud turns u{>on it6«lf, 
and wliat seems the biiglit onwarJ curreot of odq age may in 
th« next spin round in a -whirling eddy, or spread into a dull 
and pestilential swamp. Studying -tvitli a vide view the coiuso 
of human opinion, we may now and then tmce on from the very 
turning- point tho change from pasfiivo aurvival into acti\'e 
TovivaL Some well-lcuown Irelief or custom has for centuries 
shown syinptums of dccAv. whon we b<^a to see that the statu 
of society, instead of stunting it, is favouring it* new growth, 
and it hursts forth ngainwitha vigour often asmarveUoLm as itis 
unhealthy. And though the revival he not destined to huld on 
indefinitely, and thotigli wlien opinion turns agiuu its ruin may 
he more merciless tlmn before, yet it may last for ages, make ite 
w»y into the inmost const itiitiim of society, and even become n 
very mark and characteristic of its time. 

AVrilerB who desire to show that, with all our faulti^ wa are 
wiser and better thou uur ancestors, dwell wUlingly on the 
history of witchcraft l)c-twe«n the middle and modem ages. 
They can quote Martin Luther, apropos of the witohca who 
spoil the lanncrs' butter and eggs, " I would h&rc no pity on 
tbcae -witches ; I would bum them all" They can show tbo 
good Sir Matthew Hnic hanging witches in Suffolk, on the 
authority of scripture and ihe consenting wisiiom of ail nations ; 
and King James pn-siding at the Utrtutv of Br. Fian for 
bringing a storm against the king's ship on it« course horn 
Denmark, by the aid of a Oeet of witcltes iu sieves, who carried 
out a cliristcncd cat to sea. In those ilreadful dsTs, to be a 
Uear<i)'ed wiioQcd cripple was to be wonli twenty sbillings to 
n witrh'linder ; for n wi>diu) to liavv what this witch-finder was 
{deatK-d to call ihv devilV mark on her boily was prosumptioo 
for judicial acuteucv of death ; and not to bleed or shed te*n or 
mtk iu ■ pond wms torture &t8t. and then tlko stake, Refona 
of rolifioa wu &o ctuw for the disease of men's uunda, for in 
luol) tttin^ the Pnritan ww no worse than the Inquisitor, and 
no better. Papiit and PtotoMul fomgfeii with one another, but 
both tuned netiatt Ihu «B«ny of tin bvmu xnoa^ tlie big 

sKTmrirjo, ct crtrntE. 


whn hwl soM faenvlf to Saiaa to ride npoa • bcDocBStick, aad t« 
sock cfaadnn's blsod. aad to be fiir life ml AnOx «( aH 
eraatares the matt wrtldted But with new «B]igbt«nHai 
ibere came m die verr terth v^ Ibv awl aathority « change ia 
EoR^eu o|KBiBD. Tomd tfa* oBd «f tlM aennteeBih eeatnrj- 
tlie bideoiM eapecnitmi w fcntUng daws anoiig onndvcs ; 
Ridund Baxter, of the ' Saiat's Hett,' itroTe with fiutatie Kst 
to B^t again at Kame the wiu^>Sf¥a e£ Xew Eogtuid, hot he 
stnm in vaiiL Tear fajjcar the penecation of witches beeaaM 
mon hatciol to the edocated daases. and though it died hard, 
it died at last down to a mti^ In oar dars. when we read 
of a wHcfa heiog bumt at Camargo in I860, we poiot to Mexico 
as a oonntrr mifleral)!; in the rear of dviUzattotL. And if in 
Ei^la&d it stiU baf^rciu that rillage hoois baxe to be tiied at 
qoarter-desioQs for iU-using some poor old woman, who thejr 
Uacy bas dried a cow or spoiled a turnip crop, wc commeot oo 
the tenacity with whi<^ the mstic mind cling* to exploded 
lit^efl, and cry out far mare schoolmafiters. 

Trae an all this is, tbe ethnographer ntuet go* wider aod 
deeper in bis enqoii;, to do his subject justice. Tbe prevailing 
belief in witchcmfl that tat like a nigbtnuiTC on public opnion 
ftora the 13th to tbe 17tb ooaturieii, far from being itself a 
prodact of medixvalisoi, was a revival from tbe remote da}'s of 
p i' hi MBtal bistorr. The di^iease that broke out aftesb in Europe 
had been chruntc atuoog tbe lower race« for bow many ages we 
cannot telL Witchcraft i« part and parcel of savage life. There 
are nide races of Australia and South America whose intense 
belief in it has led them to declare that if men were never 
bewitched, and never killed hy violence, they would not die at 
alL Like the Australians, the Africans will cnquii-u of their 
dead what sorcerer slew them by his wicked arts, ami wlicn 
tbey have EattdBed themselves of thi-t, blood must Atone for 
IdoMl. In W«t Africa, it has been boldly asserted that tbo 
belief in witchcraft costs more lives than the slave trndo ovor 
did. In EoBt Africa, Captain Burton, a traveller ajit to draw 
his Mcinl sketches in a few shftrp lines, remarks that what with 
slavery and what with block-magic, life ia preearious among the 
Wikhutu, and " no one, especially in old age, ia safe from being 


siTBviVAL IS crt-mm'- 

Immt at a day's notice," and, travelling in tht* conntiy rtf tlie 
Wazaramo, he telU lis of toeeling every few niilea with heaps 
of aidies awl cbarooal, qow aud theo such as seemetl to have 
Iieeo a father and motlicr, with a little heap hsrd by that was a 
child.' Gvea id districts of BritUh India a statu of miud ready 
to produce h(>rrors like then? is well known to exist, antl to be 
kept dowD less br per»u.^^ion than by main force. Fram tite level 
of savage life, we tracu witchcraTt ^-u^viviDg Uiroughout tlic 
barbarian and early ci%*iiized world. It wati existiog io £un^ 
IB the ccDturic« preceding the 10th, but with no especial 
prominence, while laws of Rothnr and Charlomagne are acnjally 
directed against tiiicb as ehotild put men or women to death on 
the charge of witchcraft. In the 11th century, eccle&iastical 
influcDce was (iificotimging the superstitious belief in sorcery. 
But now a period of rtaction act in. The works of the monaetic 
legend and miracle-mongers more and more encouraged a 
baneful credulity as to the Kuperuntural lu the 13th century, 
when the ^int of religious perKecutJoa had Iteguu to jiossess 
all Europe with a ilark and cruel madnens, the doctrine of 
■witcbcrafl revived with al! its baibaric vigour' Tliat the guilt 
of thus bringing duwn Eun»i>c intcllect.uftlly and morally to the 
level of negro Africa lies in tJie main upon the lioman Church, 
the bullB of Grcgorj- IS. aud Innocent VIII., and the records of 
the Holy Incjuisition, are conclusive evidence to prove. To as 
here the main intercet of mcdiicval witchcraft lies iu the extent 
and accuracy with which the theory of survival explains it. Id 
the Tcry details of tlie bald conventional acousatioiiB that were 
sworn against the witches, there may be tnvccd tradition often 
bardly modified from barbarous and savage timoa. Thoy 
raised storms by mi^c rites, they bad charms agaimii the hurt 
of wcapcnfi, they bad their assemblies on wild heath and 
mountain-top, they could ride through the air on boasts aud 
even turn into witch-cats and wcre-wolves thnmselves, they had 
familiar spirits, they had Intercourse with incubi nod succubi. 

■ Dd Cli^n, •Adungo-laod,' pp. 42S, <3S; Kuiton, 
pp. 67, 113, 121. 

'Centnl A/r.,' vol L 

' 8co l^k;, ■ Hut. of mtlonalUn,' vol I rlitp. L ; Hont, ■ Z«sbcf-BiUi»* 
tJiek;' 'Tlie rop^*!"! tlic Council.* by 'Juiu,' nii 



thef conveyed thorns, pin^ f<::kibon, aud such thitigs xato tboir 
viothns' bodi^ they caused disease' by demoDucal poesesNoo, 
they oonid bewiufa. by spcUi and by tbo evt) cy«, by pitu>Uftiug 
on tmages and symbols, on Ajod and propem*. Now all ibis U 
iheBT flnrnvol from pne-Chrutiaa agea, " in vnorc pagaaoruin 
nwolnCar," an Barchard of Worms aaxA of the supeKtitioa of 
im time.' Two uf the most fiuniUar devioes used against tho 
taaSaewi witchex may serre to show tbe place io ctvitiKation of 
tbs whole craA. Tb« Orieotal jinu are tu KUuh dvudl/ (viTur of 
irao. thab tta reiy name is a chana against thont ; and m lu 
E m^ ann folk lore iron drives away ^ies and «lve8. and 
dsBtrays their power. They aiv t.'sia.-iitiaUy, il aeema. croaturcH 
beloDgtng to tbe ancient Stone Ago, and tbe new metal ia 
hntafiil and hurtful to th«m. Now as to iruo, witchoa are 
bnMj^ nnder tlie aam« cutv^orr &» clvutt luid Qiglitmaics. 
IroD iiutnuunts keep ihcm at bay, and o«poctaUy iron bone- 
sboea bun been choeen for this purpoae, aa half tbe stable dooni 
in Eo^wd gtill show.* Again, on« of the IwsC koo^'u of 
English wicch oid«ib is the tiial by " fleeting " ot Bwimuiog. 
Bound band and foot, tho aoeiuod waa tiling into duop water, 
tu sink if innocent, and swim if guilty, and in the lalU»r onM, 
as Hndibras has it, to be liangod only for not being drowuwl. 
King James, who seems to have had a nolioa ttt the rml 
primitive meaning of this rite, says in hiH I>»monolt:^y, "It 
mppeam that God huth appointed for a MU[)oniatunil \tigne of 
tbo monstrous impietie of witches, that the wnter shall refime 
to receive them iu her bosom that have sliiiJtcD off them iho 
sacred water of baptism," &c. Now, iu early tjeniion history 
this same trial by water was well known, and its meaning 
reoognixed to be that the conscious element rejecttt the giiilLy 
(si aqua ilium votut inuoxium recoperit — innoxii Huhmei^univir 
actna, culpabile<) supernatant). Already in the dth oentuty the 

■ Sm bIw Orinm, ' D. IV ; DoMut, ' Intrad. U Nom T*Im ; ' Uaniy, 
'IIa«}t,»tc,'Gb. Tii. 

* UuM, 'Thouond and Ona IHgliU^' rol, L p. M ; Qrinun, 'I). M.' pp. 4U, 
*K. 1W« ; BMtUB. ■ U«wcli.* »ul. ii, pp^ 265, 2»7 ; vol. lil, p. 3l>4 j U. WlUon, 
'Axdudog. of ScoUttuI,',i>. 43» ; MitttHit, • VolluilMrgliitM,' ff. U, SU, 


laws were probibitiDg tliis practice as a relic of stipcrsdtion. 
I<R«tly, t)ic same triul hy water ig recogiuzed u one of the 
regular judicial ordealii in tlit! Hindu Code of Manu; if tlie 
water ilocs not cause the accu»ei] to float when plunged into it, 
his oath is trac. As this aucioul ludiau hudj of law* wes 
itself no doubt compiled from materials of still earlier date, we 
may Tenture to take the correspondence of the wateinardeal 
among tbc European and Asiatic branches of the Aryan race 
as cairyiog hack itR origin to n peiiod of remote antiqaitj.' 

Let us hope that if the belief in present witchcrafl, and the 
persecution necessarily ensuing upon eucb belief, once more 
come into prominence in the civilized world, they may appear 
in a milder nhapc than heretofore, and be kept down by 
stronger Immamty and toler&oce. But any one who &Dciee 
from tlieir prcRcnt diitappeanLiice that they liavo necessarily 
diimppeared for ever, must have read history to little purpose, 
and has yet to learn that " revival in culture " is somethiug 
more than an empty pedantic phrase. Our own time has 
revived a group of beliefs and practices which have their roots 
deep in the very stratum of early philosophy where witchcraft 
makes iin fin>t appearanca This group of beliefs and practices 
constitutes what is now commonly known as Spiritualism. 

Witchcraft and Spiritualism have existed for thousands of 
years in a cloeeaess of union not un&irly typified iu tim verse 
from John Bale's ]6tli-ct;atury lutcrludc cunccming Nature, 
which brings under one bead the arts of bewitching v^;et&hles 
and p^try, and causiog supernatural movement of stooU and 

" Hicyr Ttlls I caa Up diye. 

Causa Irooa umI horbw to dyo. 

And «l«e aXL p«]t«y«, 

Wh«nai tD«n doth me man: 

I cm aatke ttolM to drnum 

And earthaD pottM to pnunw. 

That DftiM aliaU thMs mltaaac*, 
And do Init nut my glove." 

* BraD^ ' Titfk AbL' rel. ilL jif. 1—43 ; ^Vnltlct, ' VoSkadm^aabe.' p. 5D ; 
Orimm. • Dnitadia ItMiitMlurtbnmtv,' p. »n ; PidBt, * OikniM lado-Banp.' 
pan U. i^ 40 i Mu«, rUL, ]14-St m Flin. tU. L 



Tho .samo iDU>]lL-ctiiiil movement luJ to tlxe dedine ot botli 
vitcLcrafl uod ttptritualinn. till, earlj iti tlie preMHit oentuiy, 
men Uioagbt tbut botL -were dying or all but deiul together. 
Now, Iiowever, not only ate t^niitualiatii to be counted \rf Uta» 
of tlioiisaafls m Aiocrica and Engiand, Iaic tbere are amomg 
them several men of dutioigaulied meutM jxnrer, 1 am veil 
avare tJiat the problem of the ao-cBURl " ipirit-nuuiiieitatkniii " 
is one to be diicaaKd oo iu nienta, in order to airire at a 
tUstiiict ppinioti Iww far it ii imtiflfmfj wiiii facbi inattfficieittlT 
appreciatod and expUiaad by naeace, uti how far witb niper- 
•tiuoi), dcIufioD, and dkaer kaarcfj. Socli iav«tigatwii, 
potsaed by carela] ofaveiTBtiijci in & MienCifie tpitil, vmM 
seem apt to tlircrw li^t on lotto autC intanMk;;:; ptrdiolbipeal 
qttestiMu. But tBuf^ H li«s beyond nj ta/fm Ut- * bo 

spiritnaltfltie endenee far itarif, tike etiiaayisplue ■ .. - -^ Um 
matter baji, agraihilnn tu tkIuc. llt» thorn ■adwa 
Bpiritoalian tu lie in gnst mcaMC a dirurt rvrinkJ Ijom the 
r^oos of Krage [Ailoaephy aad priMiit UAklun. U i* net a 
ample giwitiaii of the ggMt a ae B of caUia fkeaotmut tt mumI 
and matter. It a tbst, is B o uprii oc t with tbtt f^ r n ia^ 
a gr«at phifaaoplti&fvUfiaiM dwtme, flovfido^g m th» luwar 
culture boi dwiod^g m the Ug^, haa i» wtoMiihad jtadf hi 
foil ngoax. Tk voild u agaia rw awuo g with JatoiBgaaft and 
.'powaiw diiTBitnidiea ^nntMal Imhi|^ Wnsac dsHl ■Aim Ml 
f'tho^gfat aad mttcr k agms ii wi<iiMll| MHfted m b iImm 
I and ocMntoea wh eiM fliymcal ■»■« baduCBayei wo far 

lOTiteaof aalMRt. 

Apparitaoo* hare m^MMd tWflaOe aad SMaasag which Ifaajr 
,held fam t2>e lend if lh« Imw OM to Ihtf «f aadwnl 
tXttiiDpa. The w^rfaf gliiit <wii» i» <rhaefc «yaoto rf tha JmJ 
[nslfcTiablraftdhan immm^ wifl nw i yi— l ■■■. — >m> 
■d diad with aev f iiw | lii a* -gfaMfata «f ch« 

MKOglfa to chcav wha an Aifand la htfcwa Chaa,«r 

r'AetrwaifcaeKtoihaaawhave bbl A> «/ «!< aMM li»« imiw 

i^ikaal iniiinwii with Ae apnto W iha ^mL Xas*. 



see tbc out«r Itarbarians como back, after a heretical interral of 
a fow coDtiiries, into Kympathv with his time-honoured croed. 
Ab Uie 8oreen?ri* of hnrlxirouR trilies lie in bodily ktkargy ot 
iloep vhito their roiUs depart on distant jouroeyB, so it is not 
vacommou in modera Kpiritualt^tic narrativun fur pcmone to be 
Id an Insensible suite when their Apparitions viiiit distaut 
placet, whoDce tliey bring back information, and vb«ro they 
couUDunicate with the living. The !(pirita of the living an well 
as of the dead, the ttouk of Sti-auss and Carl Vogt as well as of 
Augiutiue and Jerome, are summoned by medium)) to diataDt 
spirit-circles. As Dr. Bastian remarks, if ajiy celebraU^l man 
in Europe feels himself at sonic moment in a. melaueboly mood, 
he may cunsolp' 'nmself with the idea that his »ouI has been sent 
for to Anorico, to ussiitt at the " rough fixings " of some back- 
wooilaman. Fifty yeani ago. Dr. Macciilloch, in lii^ 'DescripUou 
of- the Western Islands of Scotland,' wrote thus of the famoua 
Highhmd eccoiid-sight: "In fact it has undergone the &te of 
witchcraft ; ceneing to be believed, it has ceased to exist" Yet 
a geuoratiou later he would have found it rcuostated iu a for 
lorger range of society, and tinder far better circumetanoca of | 
learning and mntorial prosperity. Among tlie influences which 
liBVC combined to bring about the spiritnalii^tic rennisHUiec, n 
pmrniuent pUee may, I think, be ^ven to the effect prodacod 
<in the religious mind of Europe and America by the bitunsely 
animistic teachings of Emanuel Swedcuborg, in tbc \&fH ccntuiy. 
tiM position of thiit renuu-knble Tuiiouary aa to some of the par- 
ticular Rpirilualistic doctrines may be judged of by the following 
statements fixjm ' The True Christian Religion.' A man's s^rit 
is his minti, whirh lives after death in complete human form, 
and this spirit may be ooDvej'vd from placu to place while the 
body remains at rest, aa on some occasions happened to Swc- 
dcnborg liimsett " I have oon^'orsed." he says, " with all my re- 
UlioUA and frit'uits likewise with kings and princes, and men of 
Iflamiuf:, after thar departure out of this life, and this now for 
Iwonty-ovveu years without interruption." And foreseeing that 
many who it<ad hi» ' Ufiiiontbl* ReUtionn,* will believe them t« < 
be fiotious of imagination, ho p^>t•,^3 iu tnith ibcy are not' 
flctioiu, but weiv really soon and heanl ', not ^ecn and h« 



in any sUte of miiid in sleep, but m a state of compkte inike- 

I shall ha.rt to speak elsewhere of iK>me of the iloctiiDes of 
tDodern Hpiritoaltsm. where they aeem to fall toto their place* 
ID the study of AninctistD. Here, as a means of illustrating ibe 
ftlatioD of the newvr to the older spiritualistic ideas. I propose 
to gUoce over the ethnography of two ot' the roost popular 
means of commnnicatiag with the tqiirit-worlil, by npptng itiul 
wtitiiig, and two of the prominuiit spirit- mamfcctatiood. the 
feat ofrisittg in the air, and the trick of the Davenport Brotben. 

The elf who goe« knocking and routing about the Ikkiso at 
ni^t, and whoM eipccial German name is the " Poltergci«tk'' is 
an old and familiar personage m European folklore.' From of 
okl, such imexplained noises have been ascribed to the agency 
of peiBonal aptrits, who more often than not are considered 
luunan aoola. The mwlcm Dnyakii, Siamese, and Singhalese 
^ree with the C&lUs as to each muting and rapping being 
caused by spirits.' Knockiuga may be considered mysiteriaits 
but harmlMs, like thoee which in Swabia and Franconia are 
expected during Advent on the An1cldpferIein»-Niichte,or" Littlv 
Knodcen' Nightx." * Or th^y may b« useful, as when the Wdidi 
mmen think that the " kaockeni " they hear undi-r^ound are 
iodicatiiig the rich reina of lead and silver.* Or they may be 
«mp[y annoying, aa when, in the ninth century, a malignant 
spirit infeat«d a parish hy knocking at the walls as if with a 
liammer, but h«ing overcome with Utanicti &nd holy water, 
confcBBod iteelf to be the fiimiliar of a certain wicked priest, and 
to have been lo biding under his cloak. Thus, in the aeven- 
teenth century, tlie Eamoas demon-drummer of Tu<IworCb. com- 
memorated by Olanvil in tlie ' Saducismus Triumpbatns,' 
thumped about the doors and the outside of the hoube, and 
" for an Lour toother it would beat MoundJteotU ami Cuehe^dv, 

1 B««ikaboi% * Tlw Trae dmatian B«li^ii.' Louioa, US5, No*; 1U, IS?, 


* firiami. • DnilKlw Kjth.' pt>. ITS. MI. 

*St Joba. 'Far &ut.' voL i. ji fl3 ; Dttdoa, 'Vtjxiialapt.' jt. Ill: 'OertL 
Allen.' vol uL pp. Kt, 359, SS8 ; Booobr, •Skatn Abtr^aiM,' f. 1(7. 

* B*>t.ui, • U•nBd^* raL U. ^ 74 
» Bnad. fnl. 

K 3 



the T<U-foo, and several otiicr Points of War, as well ta ftUy 
Dniminer." ' But popular philosophy has mostly AUached to 
sticb mystcnous noises a futvlnxiiug; of dcntb, the knock being 
held Ad a oign&l or summons aniosg spirits as nmong men. 
TIi€ RoiuaDS coDeiderod that the gcniusof death thus anDotinccd 
his coming. Modern folklore hol<l» cither that n knocking or 
ruinhliiig in the floor iji an omen of a death a'baut to bnppcu, or 
thnt dying persons theni8o]ve«i announce their dit<M>liitiou 14> 
tbeir friends in such stranjfo sounds. The Eiiglieb rule takes 
in botb caiteii : " Three loud ami digttncl knockK at the bed's 
head of a sick person, or at the bed's bead or door of any of bis 
relntiuD-S, is an omen of liis death." We happen to have a 
jjood means of testing lite amount of actual correspondence be- 
tween omen and event necessary- toertaMnUitbiMie rules: theillo- 
gical people who were (and still are) able to discover a connexitin 
between the ticking of the " death-watch " beetle and an en- 
suing death in the house, nn doubt found it etjuidly cost to 
giro a prophetic interpretation to any other niyettiions knooke.* 
There is n i^tory, dated lolU, of a ghost that answered quvstions 
by knockin}^ in the Catholic Church of Orleans, and demanded 
the removal tif the provosl'a Luthcrau wife, who had been 
buried thorc ; but the affair proved to be a trick of a Franciscan 
friar.^ The svRtem of working au alphabet by oouDted raps b 
a device famiUar to prii^n-celis, whore it has long boon at once 
tbo deupair of gaolent and an evidence of the diffuBion of eduea^ 
tion evan among the criminal classca. Thus when, in 1S47, the 
col«hnUMl rappin};^ began to trouble the township of ^Vrcadia in 
the Stat* of New York, the Fox family of Rochester, founders 
of tho modern (Spiritual muvemeut, had on the one hand only 
to revive the anvienl prcvaU-nt belief in epirit-mppings, wluch 
had almom fallen into the limbo of discredited superstitions, 
while, on tho other hand, the K)-stera of communication with the 
spirits was n?.idy made to thoir hand. Tlie system of a rap- 

> GbarU, 'SmIuc-Iiiiikk Triunii<hatin^'|«rt ii. 

* Bnad, *>>!. iii. ]<f. 'J2f, -iSi -. tSrimiu, I>^ SOI, 10S>. \U\ -. 'WnUks, pp. 3S- 
P, W8 ; ShortlRihl. ' Trad*, at Hvm ZmIumI,' |4. 13? (oaiiaoai tuning of intcct, 
donbtfnl vhrtlirr iilnt iuiivi>, or laUudncvd I7 foreiptn). 

* Buliuu 'Ucnwh.* vol ii. |>. »)«. 

ping-alphabet remains in full use, and oumberldss specimens of 
nwMsgos tlius recotved are in print, possibly the longost being 
A Qoret, oT which I can only give the title. ' Juauitu. Nuuvellu 
par line Chaise. A rimprimorie tlu GonvenicmeQt. Baiew Terre 
{(luadeloupe). IS53.' Id the recorded commuDicatloii^. nanic^ 
date-i, etc arc o£leD alleged to have been stated iimlcr re- 
uiarkable circuuiatsDces. while the style of thought, language, 
and spcUinij Ht.s witli the intellt^ctiial qunlity of the mt^^uui. 
A lai^ proportion of the communications being obvimialy false 
and (tilly, even when the " epirit " has announced itself in the 
name of i>ome gn;at titateAmnn, moralist-, or philosopher of the 
pant, tlic theory has been adopted by t«piritualist« that foolish 
or lying spirits arc apt to poraonate thoso of higher degree, and 
give messages in their names. 

Sptrit-writing is of two kinds, according as it U done with or 
without a material instrument . The lii-st kind is in full practice 
in China, where, like other i-itcit of divination, it ist probably 
ancient It h called " deacendiug of the pencil," nnd is espe- 
cially used by the literary cdiuset. When » Chinese wishes to 
coosidt a god in this way, he eeucU foi' a prutessiooal medium. 
Before tlie image of the god nro. set candles and ineensa, and au 
offering of tea or mock money. In front of thiR, on antitlier 
table, is phtced an oblong tray of dry wind. The writing instru- 
ment U a V-shnped wooden ImiHlle, two or three fi-i't long, with 
a woixleu tocidi fixed at it^ point. Two persons hold ihiii instru- 
ment, each gnuspiiig one leg of it, and the point resting in thu 
sand. Proper prayei"S and cbnriiis induce the god to manifest 
fais presence by a niovenient nf the point in tlie mtid, and thus 
the re«ponse is written, and there only i^emninti the somewhat 
difBcult and doubtful task of deciphering it. To what stuto uf 
opinion this rite belongs may be judged from thiA : when the 
laicrcd apricot-tree is to be robbed of a branch to make tlic 
Apirit-pcQ,au apologetic iniscription is eci'atchcd upon the ti'uuk.' 
^otwithRtunding theological diBercnces between China and 
^DgUmd, tlic art of spirit-writing is much the same in tlic two 

> Doo1la]^'CllIDeK,' P.11S: BotJao, •OMtI.AMa.>ToLiIL^»S: 



countries. A kind of " pliiiic^licttc " atouw to have bocn known 
in Europe in tlie sevente*?ntJi centory.' The instrument, which 
iiiuy now be buii^lit at tlic toj-shops, U a hcart-shupitl board 
some scFcn inches lon^, re'^ting ou thrive f^upporte, of which the 
two at Iho wide end are caslois. and the third at the pointed 
end a. peiwil thnut through a hole in the board. Tlie instru- 
ment is placed on a sheut o( paper, and worked by two pcrsoiia 
layinf( their fin^ent Hghtly on it, and waiting till, withont uon- 
8ciou3 effort of tlio oporatois, it inove^ and writes answers to 
queKtions. It in not everyiiudj who hiu the fnoiilty of spirit- 
writing, but a powerful medium will write nlono. Mediums 
sometim^H consider thuniselves acted un bysomo jiower separate 
from themselves, in fact, possessed. 

Ecclesiiisiieal bisttory eomtiiyniurates a mtracU at the close of 
the NiKune Council. Two bishnjw, Chrysanthus and Mysonius, 
liad died durin<^ i\» sitting, and ths rumaiuiug crowd of Fathers 
bniiiglit the actw, signed by tlifnustdves, to the tomb, addressed 
the deceased bishops as if still alive, ami left the document. 
Next day, returning, they found Iho two Miguaturcn added, to 
this eSect : — '* We, Chr>'uanthiis and MyaoniuR, con.'^cnting with 
alt the Fathers in the holy Brst luid cecutnenical Nicciie Syaod, 
altliough translated from the l>ody, have alfio aigncd the volume 
with our own hands," * Such spirit-writing without material 
iudtrumcnt ha.'> lately been renewed by the Baron do Culdcn- 
Blubb^. This wi'iter conlirms liy new evidence the truth of the 
tradition of alt peoples ay to souls of tlie dead keeping up their 
eonnoxioii xvith their mortal romnius, and haunting the places 
where ihoy dwelt "during their tvitestrial incaruation." Thus 
Francis I. manifests himself principally at Fontaiiiebleau, while 
howls XV. and Marie-Antoinette roam about the Triaaons. 
Moreover, if pieces of blank jMipt-r lie set out in suitable plactw, 
the spirits, einvcloped in their ethereal bodies, will concentrate 
by their force of will electric eurreoij* on the paper, and so 
form written characLurt. Tho R'in>« publishes^ in his ' Pneu- 

• TcMfliU, ' .Vurifbnilni CbjniiM,' cHeil bj- K. K. H. Uiekanii*, in ' Spititnalint,' 
ftlnr. IS, U7i). 
I Nicopbor, fallirt. KcclMiMt. IlUt Tilt. M J Suakj", 'BMtem Chiutli.* 



^V^tedwd. JdGv wad Avgag/tm Omv gm their mums mu- 
tbeir Btataee in tiie Lotnre ; Jtn>eDAl pfodncM k ludktwn 
uttfoipt at a M|iy oT ivtms; Hdoiae M FSfO-b-CbatM hi- 
£>nBS the wtnid, in moileRi Fmdi, UuU Abdiuxl and bIw 
are united and bappy ; Sl. Paul vrihs himaolf cA^inw «w- 
■rroAor ; and HippokiBtee the pfajsadan (vho spells himsalf 
HippoluatSs) attended M. de OaldMutubfatf at his lodgingm in 
Paris, and ^ve him a siguatura wludk of itself cured a Atrp 
afetAck of rheonuUism in a few minute$L' 

The miracle of rising and fluaiing in tlie air is one fully 
reoognlzed in the )iteniturL> of ancivnt India. Tbe Biiddhist 
aaiot of high ruM>?tic rank Attains tlie power called "perfec- 
tion " (irOhi), whercby be is ahU- to Hdc iu thu air, as aUu 
to orertum the earth and Etop the mm. Having thin power, 
tbe Baint exercUcs it hy tbe mere dvterinituitiou uf bis will, 
bis bodjr' becoming impondcrouH, ha when a nun in the common 
bam&n stntc deicnniues to leap, Uhnd k-nps. Buddliiat aooabi 
relate tbe performance of tbe miraculoua sufipcnsioa by Qau- 
taaoa himself, as well as by other sniots, as, for example, bin 
ancestor 31abA Sammato, wbo could thus seat himsvlf in the 
air without visible support. £v«*a without this exalted thculty, 
it is oon-sidercd posjiible to rise nnd move in the air hy an 
effort of ecstatic joy (udwega prili). A remnrlcabte mention 
of this feat, as said to he puriormed by the Indian BruhmanH, 
oocura in the third-cent urj* biograpliy of ApoUonius of Tyana ; 
these BnibmAns are descriljeil as gijing about in l>ie lur wmo 
two cubits from tbe ground, not for tbo sake of miracle (fiiich 
ambition tbey de«piKed), but for its lieing more suitable to solar 
rites.' Foreign conjuroni were professing to exbiUt tbia miracle 
among tbe Greeks in the neoonil century, as witness Lucian'a 

> * PncnimitilogiB pMliivs i>t ErpninintaU: I^ lUolit^ iIh Eiprfta ct la 
FMnoift6M H«T*ilI«<n de Wr £mttir« Direeta lUouisIriW,* par h TUna U d* 
OmUmtalM. Paris, 1867. 

*B«it7. •UimiMl af Bn.I]ii<(m,' 1^ 39. 138, 1» ; ' EMCorn VoMahEan,' 
pp. 173. zas, 332 : K<>ppi!i>. ' ll^llslon •!>-* BiitliUu,' vul. L p. tti j Bivtiiu. 
'UmU. Ajmh.' *dL iii. p. 390; niiluaUaU TIta ApaUan. Tyu. Ul. 15. 8m 
tiM ■»»<>« mnang xba StmlU of ladk UtUi Mutiny), ta Tnmt. In 'Midmaif 
fttljUter,' Jolj-, l?i«, pp. «>»—«. 



jocular accouat of tlio Hyperborean conjuror: — "Thou art 
joking, said Klcodemos, but 1 was oaco more incrftdulous thiin 
thoQ about «ucli ttiiugs, for I thought uothiiig could have per- 
suaded mo to belierc them ; but when I tit^l tAvt thut foreign 
burbarian llytng — he was of the Hj-porbnrenmi, }ie said — I 
believed, and was overcome in spite of luy resUtancc. For 
what was I to do, when I saw him earried through the air 
ID daylight, and walkiug on the wnter, and passing leisurely 
nnd sdowly through the Bm? Wliat ' (said hi& interlocutor), 
you 8flw the Hviiorborean man flying, and walking on the 
water? To he sure, mud he, and he had on undresspd leather 
brogues as they generally wear them ; hut what's the use of 
talking of such triflec, conKideriiig what othei' nuuiifMtatioDS 
he showed ii?, — .sending loveit, caUiiig up dremowt, raining tlie 
dead, aad bringing in Hekate herself viaibly. and drawing down 
the moon 1" Kleodemos tht;n gues on to relate how the cod>- 
jiiror first had his four niinse down for sacrificial expenses, and 
then made u clay Cupiil, nud Kt-nl it flying through the air to 
fetch the girl whom Giaukias had fallen in lo%'e with, and 
pnscntly, lo uud liuhold, tbci-c she was kuockiiig at the door ! " 
The interlocutor, however, comments in a sceptical vein on the 
narrative. It wiu gL-»rcu needful, he snYu, to have taken tlie 
trouble to send for the girl with clay, and a magician fixnn 
the liyporborean!), and even the moon, considering that for 
twenty drficlimtLS she would have let hei«clf be taken to the 
HyperhoreaDR tlicmselveg ; and she seems, moreover, to have 
been nflfected in qwito an opposite way 1v) spirits, for whcrcns 
these bciugs Uke tlijjht if lliey hoar the noi>ie of hi-ass or iron, 
Clitj-m no itooncT hears a chink of silver anywhere, but she 
anne.s towaixl the sound.' Another early iDstauee of the belief 
in mu'oculous suspension is in itio life of lamblichim, the great 
Keo-Platonist' myotic. His disciples, says Eunaptu^ told kim 
they had heard a repoit from his servaols. that whito in prayer 
to the gods he had li«eu lifted more than ten cubiu from the 
ground, his body and clothes chau^ng to a beautiful golden 
colour, but after he ceased from prayer his body became aa 

' Lncian. rUtoptHiMka, 18. 

and then lie came down to the gi-oiind auil ivlunied to 
the society uf hU folkiwt^n*. Tliey *!ntreat«d liini tli«rffore, 
"Wliy, O most divioo tcaclior, why doet thou do such tliinga 
hy tli}'»elf, iind not let us partake of llie more purfect wisdom V 
Thea Iaml)IicIiH», though not given to Iniiglitef-, laughed at 
this story, and said to tbem, " It was no fool who tricked you 
thus, but the thiiijf is not true," ' 

After a while, the prodigy which the Platonist diaclaimed, 
became a usual uttrihulc of Chmtian saiDta. Thufi St RicbBni, 
thtD clianccllor to St. fMmiiiid, Archbishop of Canterbury, one 
day softly opening the cliapel door, to see why the arclihiahop 
did tiutconiQ to dinner, saw him raised high iu the nir, with bin 
knees bent and his arms stretched out ; falling gently to the 
ground, and sc*cing the chancellor, he complained that he hod 
hindered him of great spiritual dulight and comfort. Ho 
St Philip Neri used to be sometimes seen raised scrural yards 
from the ground during his rapturous ilcvotious, with a bright 
light shining from his countenance. St. Igimtiua Loyola is 
ilwlared to have been rai^ nhout two feet under tlie samo 
circuiafitancGfi, and «irnilar It-gi-udB uf devout nficelics being not 
unly metaphorically hut materially "raised ahore the earth" 
are told in the lives of St. DoiQiuic^ 8t. DunstaD, St. Thcreui, 
and other less known saint':. In the last century, Dom Calmet 
speaks of knowing a good monk who rises somettmeH from the 
ground and remains involuntarily auspcuJed, especially qd aceiug 
some devotional image or hearing some devout prayer, and alsu 
a nun who has ufleu seen lier^lf raised in spite of herself to n 
certain dintAnce from the earth. Unforlunateij- the great com- 
oientfttor does not specify any witneitties as having seen the monk 
and nun riae lu the air. If they oidy thought iheiiiselves thus 
clevatoii, their storion can only rank with that of the young man 
mentioned hy Dc Maistre, who so often seemed to himself to 
float in the air, that he came to suspect that gravitation might 
not be natural to man.' The haUucinntion of riuing and tioutiug 

' ICiiiupitiH in lamtil. 

) Alban ttutlet, ' Utm of th« StttOa,' vol. I p, 674; CkIioqI, ' Dim. but la 
AfjiftdUuDs, etc,* ohip. mi. : D« UaUtn, 'Soin^iiloSt Tctentiuursi' vd. tL 



in ttie air is extremely coainioii, and ascetics of all religions are 
eapecially liable to it. 

Among modem accounts of diabolic possession, however, thft 
riMDg in the air is described as tftkiug place not subjecliTely 
but objectively. In 1G57, Richai-d Jones, a epriglitly lad of 
twelve years old, living at Sbcpton Mallet, was bewitched by 
one Jaad Brooka; ho was eccn to rise in the utr and pass over 
a garden wall some thirty yards, and at other times was found 
in a room with his liands flat against a beam at the top of the 
room, and lu« body two or three feet from the ground, nine 
people at a time sooing liini in this latter posit ion. Jane Brooks 
was accordingly condemned and execut(»l at Cliard Assizes in 
Starch, 1<>5.S. Itlchard, the Surrey demoniac of 1689, was 
hoisted np in tbb air and l«t down by Satan ; at the be^Daing 
of hui Bts he was, aa it were, blown or snatched or bonic up 
suddenly from his chair, as if he would have flown away, but 
that tbuae who licid him bung to his anus and tegs and clung 
about him. One account (not the official medical one) of the 
dcmouiucal puM»c-s^ons at Morsinc iu Savoy, ia 18G4, ruUtes 
that a patient was held suspended in the air by an inv-isibl© 
force during ^omc seconds or minutes above tlic ocmetery, in 
tho presence of the archbigbop.^ Modern spiritualists claint 
this power as possessed by certain distinguished bnng mediums, 
who, indeed, profess to rival in sober fact tho aerostatic miracles 
of Buddhist and Catholic legend. Tlie force employed is of 
counte oonsith'rwl to ho that of the spirit.t. 

The porfuriimiices of tied niediiim« hav« been speoaliy repre- 
sented in England liy the Davenport Cnithers, who "are gene- 
rally recognized by SpiritualiKls as genuine media, and attribute 
the reverse opiniuu so Ji-ejily rooted in thn public mind, to the 
untn! til fulness of the London and many otiier newspapers." Tho 
performers were hitund fast aud shut by themselves iu a dark 
cabinet, with musical instruments, whence not only muncal 
Hounds proceeded, but the coals of the mediums wcru taken off* 
and replaced ; yet on inspection Uieir bodies were discovered 

p|>. 1S8, Ufi. Sm alaa BMiaa, 'Modm]i,' raU ii. p. 678; * Pijohok^*.* 

> OUarLI, ■B«dDcUmiuTriain|<Iiatni,*r<trt U.; It««iiui, ' pj jobftloKi*,* p, ICl. 



BtitI botmil. 1'he spirits would also relc.ise the boimii mediums 
from tliL-tr cords, however carefully tiuj aliuut theni.' Now tho 
ide& uf sup«rnatnral unUnding is veiy ancirnt, rouclioJ for aa it 
13 by DO leas a pcraotiuy*; tliiui the craft.y Otlyasuua himeelf, iu 
hia adventure ou boanl the nhip of the Thes]>rot)aii(i : 

" M« oti tho woll-boiichotl >i>tMiI, MlrQngly-|>»ttn>I, 
They loavA, and *nutc}i tliclr mool upon tho boocli. 
Hut to my liftip tin goit thenKMlvm unwotiad 
Uy corde vith cose, though fiimly twistod ronnd," 

Iu early English chronicle, we find it in a story told by the 
Venerable Bedc. A ctirtuin Iiuum won found nil but dciid on the 
field of battle, and taken prifioner, but when he began to roctiTcr 
aod was put iit bund^t to prevent bis ciMmpin^, no sooner did his 
bindem leave bim but he was loose again. Tlic curl who owned 
him enquired whether he had about him such "looseoing 
letters" (Utcras sohitorins) bs tales wei-e told of; the man 
replied that he knew nought of such arts, yet when his owner 
»oId him to another maitter, there wa^ still no bitidiiii* him. 
The reeoivod explnnalion of this strange pmver was cmphnti- 
caily a Rptritual one. His brother lunl wought for liia dead 
body, foiiud one like him, buried it, and prpceet!od to any masses 
for his brother'K soul, by the celebration whereof it came to pass 
that no one enntd foi^ten him, for he waH out of bone])* again 
directlv. So tliey sent bira home to Kent, whence he duly re- 
turned his raniiom, and hin Ktorj-, it is i-cluted, stinuiliitcdmany 
to devotion, who understood by it how sniiitarj' an? tniLsncH to 
the redemption both of soul auil body. Again, tlit-ro prevailed 
in Scotland up to the lafit century tins notion : when tho 
lunatics who bad been brauglit to St. Fillan'a Pool to be 
bathed, were laiil bonii<l in the uei^hbouriu'- church next night, 
if they were found loose in the morninjt, their recovery was 
expected, but if at daivu they were still bouod, their cuie was 

Tho untying trick performed among savages ia bo similar 
to that of our mountebankin, that when wo litid the North 

' 'SpiHIiwlUt,' Felx 15, 1870. Onin Ablwtt, 'Tli« DavMiport Bwthcwi.' Vtw 
Voik, 1801. 



AmcncHQ Indian jugglcis <Ioing both this and the familiar 
trick of breathing fire, we are nt a loss to judpe whether ihty 
iaberitcd these two feaba from (heir savage uucustm-s, or borrowed 
them hova the whittt men. The point ii not, however, the more 
perlbrniaiic« uf the untying trick, but its being aitiibuted to 
the help of spiritual beings. This notion is tltorougbly at. 
borne in saragc culture. It comes out well in tb« £s()uimMix 
nocoimts. which date from early in the 1Mb cculuo'. Craw 
thuB describee tbe Greenbuid angekolc setting out on his mystic 
joiimcy to hoavon and belL When he baa drammed awhile 
and made all sorta of wondrous contortions, be is himself bound 
with a thong by one of bis pupiln, bi-s head between faiB legs, 
and bis hands behind bis baclf. All the kmp«i in the bouse are 
put out, am) the windowtt darkened, fur no one uiufit see bim 
hold intercourse with his spirit, no one must move or oven 
scratch his head, that the t^pirit may not be interfert>d with— or 
rather, Kays the mi.S!iionia^-, that no one may catch bim at his 
trickery, for there is no going up to heaven in broad dnyUght. 
At lost, after stmuge noises have 1>cen beard, and a visit lias 
been received or pniti to the tomgak or spirit, the magician re- 
appears uiiltoimd, but pole aud exciUMj, and gives nn account of 
his adventures. Castr(!n's account of the simiUir proceedings of 
the Siberian fihamans is as follows: " They are pmclised," be 
says, " in all sorts of conjuring-tricks, by which iht^y know how 
to dozsle the simple crowd, and inspire greater trust in them- 
selves. One of the most nsmil juggleries of the shamans in the 
GoromrocDt of Tomsk cousist of the following hocus-pocos, a 
wonder to the Russians or well as to the Samoicda. Tbe shaman 
sits down on the wrong aide of a dry reiudeer-hido spread in 
the middle of tbo Sour. There he lettj himself be bound band 
and foot by the assistants. The nbutters are closed, and the 
shaman b^ns to invoke bis miiiistenng spirits. All at once 
there arises a mysterious ghostliueitfi in ttie dark Rpace Voices 
are heard from difierent parts, both within and without the yurt, 
while on the diy reiudeer-skin there i* a rattling and drum- 
ming in regular time. Beam growl, snakes hiss, and squirrels 
leap about in tlie nxim. At last this uncanny work ccaiics. aud 
the audienoo impatiently await the refiutt of the game. A few 



moDKOts pass in ibin expectation, nnil beliokl, the shainaa 
•waJks in &ce and unl>ound {rom outside. Kt> one tloabta that 
it was thi2 spirits who were itrunuiung. growUng, and hissing, 
wbo released tho shaman from lib booda, Aud who carried htm 
bj accrct wayM out uf ilitt yim." ' 

On the wltc»Ie. th« etimo^^phy of spiritualism bears oa prac- 
tical opiDian aomowbat iQ Uiis rnannei^ Buida dw quostioa of 
the abflolate truth or fiUeity of the oUc!*^ po6«cssioDs. maaeft- 
ondes, doubles, bnun.waves, furaitan> mnring^, oad the rest, 
tboro remaina rhe history of gpiritua]i8(ic belief as a matter tif 
OfKJUoo. Hereby it appears that the received Hpiritualiatic tbeocy 
of the all<>ge<l phoniimeaii l)«limg<4 lo the pbikMwphy of savages. 
As to such matters aa apparitiotis or pc o w nri oDa this is obvioos, 
aod it bolik in nume extreme caMm Suppowj a wild NortJi 
American Imiiun lookingonataspirit-tf^ance in London. As to 
the prBsence of disembodied ^piritM, roanifetiung tberaaelvi!* by 
npB, noiaeK, voices, and other physical actJcns. the savage woohi 
be perfectly at home in tbu proceedingSw &r such tliin*^ arc port 
and parcel of his recognized system of nature. The part of the 
afliur roaUy straagc to him wouitt be the introductioo of such 
arts as tipelling and nriting. which do belong to a diStircnt statu 
of civilizatian from hia. The iasiie raised bj the compahifoa 
of savage, barbaric, and civilized spirituoliMn. is this: Do 
the Red Indian medicine-man, tbc Tatar necromaacer, tbd 
Highland gbost-«eer, and the Boston medium, share the pOBMO- 
non of belief and knowledge of the highest truth and import^ 
which, neweftluless, the great inteUectnal movemeiu of the last 
two oentnriea has simply thrown aside as worthless I Is what 
we are faabititnllv boasting of and calling new enlightenmeotr 
tfaiiD, in bet a deray of knowledge 7 If m, this is a tmly re- 
maricsUe case of dugemmitifto, and the savages whom some 
etfanggi^jhers look on as df^generate from a higher civilixatinD, 
may turn on th'?ir aocusora and^ them with having fallen 
from tha high level of savage knowledge. 

> Umbh-. 0.lyM. civ. us (WoMltT*' IVvni.t ; JMm, • Hiirtoris ITwlMlftirtm* 
iv. 8:1 ; I. V. flimpwm' In • Pro*;. Ant. S*-- -I^iImi'I." wJ. tr, ; RMtbif. ' lan^s 
Kxjfc ta 9L Pttfi'* m**T.' vn|. if, p, iW ; Rgr-I*-, ' fSnwiilan.I,' p. I»; Cma^ 
'GdslMl,' ^ tea; Cuti4n, ' Briwborichto.' ]3«S-». p. ITS. 



Tliroughout the whole of this varied invcatigation, whetlier 
of the ilwiiicUini: survival of old culture, or of its bursting 
fortti afresh in active reviv,il, it mny porliaptt be compljuDed 
tliab its illustrations shouKI be so ttiucli amoii;; Ibiugd >v-oni 
out, worthless, frivolous, or even biul with downright harmful 
folly. It is in fact so, and I have taken up tliis course of argu- 
incut with full knowledge and intent. For, indeed, wc have in 
such eni^uiries continual roason to be thankful for fools. It 
is quite wonderfiil, even if we hardly go below the surfoco of 
the subject, to soo how large n sliare stupidity and unpractical 
conscrvatiittn and dogged superstition Iiave had in preserving 
for US tracers of the history of our race, which practical utilita- 
rianisni would have remorselessly swept away. The savage is 
firmly, obstin.itely conservative. No man appeals with more 
unlie-atating coufideuce to the great pi-ectftieiit-makere of the 
past ; the wisdom of his ancestors can control againxt the most 
obvious evidence his own opinions and actions. AVe lisiten with 
pity to the rude ludlan m he niainLains against civilixed science 
and e^Lperience the authority of his rude forefatheia We smile 
at the Chinese appealing against modem iunovatiou to the gulden 
precepts of ('onfuciiis, who in his time looked back witli the 
same prostrate reverence to sages still more ondeot, counaelliug 
his dieciplcH to follow the Hcasonsuf Hca, to ride in the carnngo 
of Yin, to wear the ceremonial cap of Cliow. 

The nobler tendency of advancing culture, and above all of 
scientific culture, is to honour t he dead wi thout grovelling before 
them, to profit by the past without sacrificing the present to it 
Yet even the modern civilized world hag but half learnt this 
lesson, and an unprejudiced snirvey may lead us to judgo how 
many of our ideas and customs cxijtl rallier by being old than 
by being goo<L Now in deiiling with hurtful HUperstitions the 
proof thai they are things which it is the tfindency of savagery 
to produce, and of higher culture to destroy, is accepted ax a 
fair contmi'ersial argument. The mere historical position of a 
belief or custom may nuae a presumption as to its origiu which 
becomes a presumption as to its authenticity. Dr. Hiddlcton'ti 
celebrated Letter from Rome shows cases in jioinU Ue men- 
tions tho imago of Diana at Ephesus which fell from tbc sky. 


_ (lain&g:ing the prelcitsions of Uie Calabriao image of 
St. Dominic whicli, accoriliufi: to pious traOitioD, vtaa likewise 
brougbt (lo<n-D from hMTOD, He uoticc-8 tlinb aa the blood of 
St. Januaiius cow melti mirvnilously without heat, so ages 
ago th« priests of Gantia triod to |>ci«uaJc> Horaco, on his rood 
to Branduiiium, tliat the frankincense iu their temple h&A the 
Itabit of melting in like manner: 

"... iloliiDO Onttta Ijmplui 
Initis exstniota dodit miuKjUD jooo«qutt ; 
Dnm damitui sine lliura liquMoi<ro limine mero, 
Povawlcn cupit : crecUt Judwua ApolU ; 
Non pgo." ' 

Thus ethnographers, not without a certain grim BatiflfacUon, 
may at times fiitd means to muke stupid and. evU itiiptii'stitioaa 
beat intncss against UiemAelvcn. 

Moreover, in woikitig to gain on insight into the general laws 
of iiit«Ucctuft I movcraent, tbct-o is practical gain in being ablo to 
study them rather among anliquaiian relics of no intense modern 
interest, thnn among thosit- noethiiig problems of the <Iay on which 
action b&£ to be taken amid fenuent and nharp strife. Should 
some moralist or politician speak contemptuously of the vojiity 
of studying mattew without practical mumeut, it will generally 
be found Uiat his own mode of treatment will consist in partiznn 
diatribes on the questions of the day, a proceeding practical 
enough, especially in confirming such as agree with him already, 
but the extreme opposite to the scieulitic way of eliciting truth. 
The etlinogiapher's course, ngain, iilumid be like that vf the 
anatomist who cai'ries on his studies if possible rather on dead 
than on living subjects ; vivi-scctioD is nt-rvous work, and the 
humani: investigator liate-s inflicting needltss pain. Thus when 
tJie student of culture occupies himself in viewing the beaiingu 
of explod(»l controversies, or in unravelling the hiatory of loug- 
aupcrseded iuvcutions, he in gladly seeking his evidence rather 
in audi dc.t.d old history, than in tlie diacussiona vrboro ho and 
those he lives utnoog arc uUvc with intense party feeling, and 

Conjcrj ma<lI»toii, ■ A Lrtter bom liomt," 1720 ; Hot. 8»t. 1. t. P». 



wbcro liU judgment is biassed bj' tbo prcssoro of personal sym- 
patUy, and even it may be of peisomil gaio or loaa. So, from 
tilings vbicb i>crhaps never were of high importooce, tbiogR 
which have fallen out nf popular signiScance, or cveti ont of 
popular memoiy, he tricfi to elicit generAl Inws of ctiltare, often 
to be thus more easily and fully gained than in the arena of 
modem pltiloeophy and polities. 

But the opinions dmwn from old or worn-out cnltitrc ore not to 
be left lyii^ where they were shaped. It is no more reasODaUe 
to snppose the laws of mind differently oonstitiitod in AasinJia 
and in England, iutho timeof the cave-dwulUn-s and in the time 
of the builders of shoet-Iron hoiwes, than to suppose that the 
laws of chemical combination were of one sort in lhe lime of 
tlie coal-measures, and are of another now. The thing that has 
been will be ; and we are to study $avage« and old nations to 
team tin- lawi^ tliat under new circum»taiiccit are working for 
good or ill in our own development, If it in needful lu give an 
instance of the directness with which antiquity and sarageiy 
bear upon oiir modem life, let it betaken in the facts just brought 
forward on the relation of ancient sorcery to tbe belief in 
witchcraft which wafi not long eincc one of the gravest foots of 
Eur<>])ean history, and of savage spirituabsm to beliefs which go 
deeply afioct our civilisation now. No one who can ncc in these 
cases, and iu many otherb to be brought before bim in these 
volumes, how direct and close the connexion may be between 
modem culture and the condition of the rudest savage, will be 
pcone to accuse tiludeuta who spend tbi^ir labour ou even the 
lowest and most trifling facts of ethnography, of wasting their 
houiK in the satisfacticm of a frivolous curiosity. 




Bt of tlutrtly expTMure Smiad in lAngaag^— Tut by indspondmt com- 
ap«>d*n« ill diHtinctUngiug** — CoiuUtnenf procDMraof Laagaago — GMhtro 
— Bicpnmon of fiuture, cU. — Emotionftl Tono — Articulnto Kmndri, rownla 
deUrmincd bf miuicBl qiulitj* aiid jiitcU. catuoiuuiU— Km p}) Atria .-tiid Accmt 
^Kinua-rodody, BMlalivo — Sound-Wiwil*— Inte^jwtiuus— CalU la Aiii- 
tQLti— Emotloaftl CHm — Sensa-Wonis fbrrned frotn liiUiioctioiu— ADrmatiTD 
oad NagaUru t«rtic3«e» otb 

Ik caiT]riD£ on tbe enquiry into the development of culture, 
CTidcacc of some veight 19 to be g&incd from an examination 

, «f Language. Compaiing the grammars and dictionariea of 

I races at Tarious grades of civilization, it appears that, in the 
great art of speech, the educated mnn ac this day substantially 

\ -QKCst the method of tlie savage, only expanded and improved in 
the working out of details. It iei true Umt the languages of the 
IWnaniaa and the CluDese, of the Greenlonder and the Greek* 
diffijr TartouKly in structure ; but thb: is a secoudar/ difference, 

' underlaid by a primary similarity of method, the expression 
of ideas by articulate sounds habitually allotted to dieuL Now 
all lajigUBge.s are found on inspection U) contain some articidato 
sounda of a dii'ectly natural and directly intelligible kind. 
These are sounds of intcrjectional or imitativu character, whicll 
have their meaning not by inheritance from parents or adoption 
from forcigneru, but by being takun up directly from tlie world 
of sound into the worlil of flen»e. Like pantomimic gestures, 
thoy are capablo of oouveyiug their meaning of themselves, 
mrithout reference to the particular language thoy arc used in coo- 
nwiott with. From the observation of theae, there have arisea 
BpeculatioQs as to the origin of language, troatiug such expr«»- 

TOL. t. !• 




riT« sounds as llie fundamciolAl constitTtonta of language in 
geoeral, coiuiidenD^ tboee of them wliich are still pluoty reopg- 
nizablc as having remaiDcd more or lci» in their originsl 
state, long coiuses of adaptation and variation Laving produowl 
from such the great mass of words in all languages, in wluch 
DO connexion between idea and sound can any longer be cer- 
taiulj made out Tiitw grew up doctrines of a " natural " origin 
of language, which, dating from classic times, were developed 
in the eighteenth century into a systeni by that powerful 
thiokcr. the President Charles de Broews, and in our own time 
arc being expanded nnd Rohdified by a school of philologors, 
among whom Mr. Hen&lcigh Wedgwood is the most promi- 
oent.' These theories bare no doubt been incautiously ami 
fimcifuliy worked. No wonder that students who found in 
nature real and direct sources of orticuUtc Bpocch, in inter- 
jectional sounds like ak! ttgkl h'mj eh! and in imitative 
sounds lik<> purr, whis, toTntom, cttekoo, should have tbougbt 
that the wholo secret of language lay within their grasp, and 
that they had only to fit the keys tints found into one hole 
afWr another to open every lock. When a philosopher has a 
truth in hi^ bcuids, h^ is apt to stretch it further thau it wilt 
bear. Tlio magic umbrella must spread and spread till it be- 
comes a tent wide enough to shelter the king's army. But it 
mast be home in mind that what criticism toudies in tlieso 
opimcms is their exaggeration, not their reality. That inter- 
jections and imitattYc words arc really taken up to some extent, 
be it tsmuU or huge, into the very body and structure of lan- 
guage, ttO one denies. Such a denial, if any one ofiered il> the 
odrocates of the disputed theories might dispose of in the 
single phrase, tliat they would neither he pooh-j^oohed nor 
hoot*:d dovm. It may be fthown within the limits of the mo^t 
strict and sober ai^raent. that the theorj- of the origin of lan- 
guage in natural luid directly cxpressivo Munds docs account 
for a coDsiderable fraaion of the ensting copta verborum, 

17«); WoJgmml, 'OrigtB of tABgiM««' nW«); • Die. of ^|^ EQiBQlesy ' 

asonosM. Aso oaaxivz hxsaVAin& 


irtiile ii mises a prestnnption that, couid wu trace the bistoiT 

of wani« more fuUr, it wouid accaont for for vaon^ 

— hk bere examining iDbMJectiooal and unitaliTC saitnda witli 

tttir danvtttivts wonls, aa weU aa oertaia tither paiis of languavi:) 

of a moTO or less cc^n&te character, I piupoae to bring forwani 

■i &r OB pcMBihlc new oridcDcc JmTvtd from the lan^ua^cs of 

•wngB and harKiT BywdoiDg it beco«i>e8 practicable 

tone a check wi . • st mMntre iit(i]W tfae outiuMnrcc of 

nncftrtainty ami error in stieh enqairiee, tbe habit of otjraolo- 

gtzi: ' <>fF')iand from (>s|irr<i!nvn muoda, Itr tba itnnided 

■Ki igbty l'anc7 of a pbilologer. By (umpij oaiai^Dg 

tiia sarvfff of bw^^iuiffe, the pnmiuie of tbe unaghuitioa ia 

btought wttliin nnrrawor limiis. If seTi>ra] latigttsges. which 

•miot be classed iis diHtinctly of ibe ssme family, iinito in eX' 

pHMJiiH' some notion hv a particular sound which may fairly 

claim CO lie int«ijectional or imitative, tlieir rambinctl <.'laini will 

gu Sat to prove the chum-a jnst one. For if it be ubjcctud thai 

inch wnnl» may bars paned into tbe dit&ront languages from a 

comniDQ VNircc, iif which thu trace is for the moat piut ioBt. this 

ouqr b« answered by tJie question. Why is there not a propor- 

tionate a;pmneot between the iouguagcs iu (jitestioa UirouKbont 

^ far btrper mam of wonU which okaaot protend to b« direct 

swuid-woniji I If rtevoral longaiu^cH bave independently cboven 

fike words to expn?titi lik<t meanings, then we nsy rcacon^y 

aiqtpoM tbnt vre are not deluding uacsch'es in thinicingf snch 

wnnis hiffhiy itppropriM* to their purpose. They are words 

wfaidi Misw«r the •x-oditJon* nf on^nul language, confonning 

aa they do to the 8a}ring of Thonuut Atjuiiiaa, that tbe names 

of things ought to af^rt^ with tJi^ir natiirpo, "nomina 'Inbmt 

oaturis rentm (»ngn]<*r<>." AppH^I in ^acb oompariflon, tho 

laagnfl^eiL of tlw lower mew contrilmte evideoice of excellent 

ipialLty i'< ilie |iroUkni. Il will at tho mme time nnd liy llio 

auna pmolk appnar, thAl savngc« powiew in a high <legrce the 

fiutilty uf ntterioii th^ mmdB directly tn emotional tnnca tmd 

tnt' ' 'i> iiattm* to iitmi:th l:br>infielvea 

witii ;..;n. -I.-,....-, ,, i„a reprwliictiond uf tlunr own 

direct emotional iittfmncfjt, na meatiK nf ezpreanon of ideaK, 

and of introducing into their fonnal language word^ ^ pro- 




duccd. Tbey have clearly tlias for tbe mcADS and powei of 
producing language. la w far om the iJieories under coostderft- 
tioa account for the origina! fonnation of language, they counte- 
nance the view Ihitt \}nn fominlion took place among mankind 
in a savage Btute, and even, for anytliiiig appearing to tlio con- 
trary, in a still lover stage of culture tluui baa survived to our 

Tho first step in Buch investigation in to gain a clear idea of 
the various elements of which spoken language is made up. 
These miiy be enumerated as gcstuco, txpressiun of feature, 
emotional ton«, emphaeis, force, speed, etc. of utterance, modcal 
rhythm and intonntioii, and tlic formation of tho vowels and 
consonants which aw the skeleton of articulate speccK 

lu the oommou intercourse of men, speech is hobitualiy 
flocompanied by gesture, the hands, head, and body aiding and 
illustratiug the »poken phrase. So far a^ we can judge, the 
visible gesture and the audible word have been thu<> used in 
combination unce time^ of nioi^t remote antiquity iu the history 
of our race. It Beem-i, however, tliat in the daily intercourse of 
the lower races, gesture holds a much more important place than 
we are accui^tomed tu see it fill, a poiiition even encroaching on 
that wliich articulate speech holds among ounwlves. Mr. Bon- 
wick confh'ma by his experience Dr. Milligon's account of the 
Tasmanians a» using " signs to eke out the moaning of moao- 
ayllabic expruasions, and to give force, precision, and character 
to Tocal sounda* Captain Wilson remarks en tho use of gesti- 
culation in modifying words in the Chinook Jaigoo. Thecc is 
confitmation to Spix and Mortius' description of low Brazilian 
tribes completing by signs the meaning of thuir scanty sontouccs, 

' JuaoBg tho priacipo) eavogc nod b«i1)Vi« Uuguogcs hero unA fee nUmotk 
nro u follovnt :— Afrir* ■ Onlln <Ti]tMhok, Gr. «iid ]">ic,), YonibB (Bamn, Gr. 
nnillHc.), KuluCDtJinr, Hie). Polymma, rtc. : Manri (Kcmlull, Vocab.. WUIianii, 
Die.), TciBg& (Uuiner, Vo<«K}, Fiji (U&ilevcod, Die.), Heloiwifk laahleati, 
JiIcl*ii.SpT.). Aiiitn>lia(Q»7,M<Mtc,S«l)iln»iuiti,OldneM,To«abe.) K.AaiMiaa: 
Pinu, YakatBO, CUlUa, Lmuml. Cliiiuili, ItohHnk, UScmac (Sraltiuoa. Contr. 
TdL iiL), Cliinoak Jugcm (tiiblxi, Die.), QuiilxE (Ilniueiir, Gr. anil Die). 
S. Aiaeriu : Tupl (Dtiu, DicX Ofthli (Ewbefort, Voctti.), Quichtin (Hnrkbain, 
Qr. and Me.), Oiflinn {l'ii\vt». We.), BtmUIui tribfti {JUrtim, 'Gloawrk 
)tugu<iiuiiBtMiIi«B«itua'). SUu;- d«teil) la Putt, ' DoppeLiutg,' olc 




tfaiu makiag the words " vooil-go " mm to my " I will j^i Into 
'■ the wood," by poiotiug tbe mouth like a saout iu tho Jiroction 
' laewrt. The Rev. J. L. Wibon, doscnbing Iho Circbo Inngiutgo 
of West Africa, remarks that tlit>)r hare purauool proooun*, bttt 
seldom use Lliem in onverxntioD, leaving it to gMttira to ilotor- 
miue whether a verb ia to bo takeu in tho firat or secoud per- 
fiOD ; thiDi the words " »i ne" will menu " I do it," or " jou do 
it," accorctiag to the signiScant gestures of tbeiepeiifcer^ Bosldo 
such iuKtances, it will hereafter be ootioed that tho lower ncof, 
in couQting, habitually use gestiiro^lAoguage for a purpou to 
which higher racen apply wunl-hmguagu. To thin prominent 
condition of gCHture as a means of exprenion nmon;; nuk- trilxM, 
and to tbe deveiopmeut of paatominie id public khov aod pri* 
Tate intercourse among imch pcople« an the Xuapolitami of our 
own day, the most extreme contraat may be found to EogUuul, 
wher^ whelbor for good or ill, Buggestive poutumimi? ia now 
reduced to so small a corapaaa in social talk, and even iu public 

CbAi^;c9 of the bodily attitude, corrupondinx in tboir fiii« 
gradatiom with chanj^s of the feelings, DompriM oonditions of 
the surface of the bo<ly, poMorcs of the limb*, and also npvdatlj 
those expressive attitudes of tbe face to which oar atteotioa i» 
particularly directed when we notice one another. Tbe vMbte 
expresdcm of the featoieii in a aymptom wbieb daipliiyi Um 
Bpeaber's stato of miod, bis foelii^ of pleasure or disjifuit, of 
pride or bumibty. of &ith or doa>A, anil so CoTtb. Nut that 
there is between tbe cmfjtion and its bodily eKpiessioD any 
originally intentioQal ounocxioo. It is HMTsly tW » eertoin 
actiaa of our pfcysical machinery sbova synptonaa wbidi W* 
bare leatnt by expoience to refirr to » nMOtal caose, a» we 
[i ju^ hj mtiag a man sweat or Unp that he is hot or bcA- 
■ora Hasfciag is esnssJ by oerfaun snobaai, and anoog 
Ban]|ieaae it b m thshto mxjnmkm m wfmfum t4 Hum; aoi 
infesin h iinirif TmImm ubfilihitiiii ssWrlVrfl 

' B ie rtk. ■ DJf Ufc sf T « ii ii f 1 1 .' » 14e»C«fL Wil«M, Is ' 7c ttk. 
Bob.' rat (*. p. le. (fa. : i, L. WOmm, m 'i^n, Jtmrnr, (MmSJ Sk.,' M. L 
me.y*«; ih» cam. 'Owalwl/s. mtdtti JdM^t^im. fw iSfar 

MB— ■^w»'g^ahs.sni III i,>n. 



For1)CK points out, may be deUtcteil hy the hand or a tbermo- 
inoter, but being concealed hy the dark ekin cannDt serre as 
a viaiblo sign of fcoling.' By turuing these natural processes 
to accoQut, men contrive to a certiin extent to put on particular 
physioal expres^tions, frowning or »iuiting for iuBtaucc, in order 
to nmiilatii the t^inotions which would naturoll}' pnxluce sncb 
c^xpressioDS, or merely to convey the thought of such emotions 
to others. Now it U Well known to every one tbat pbynlcftl ex- 
pression by feature, etc., forming a part of the universal gesturo- 
Inn^iage, tbus serves as an important adjunct to spoken lan- 
guage. It is not BO obvious, but on cxsmination will provo to 
bo true, that such Gxpressian by feature itself acts aa a forma- 
tirc power in vocal language. Exprossion of countenance bas 
an action boyonil tbal of mere visiblo gesture. The Ixidily 
attitude brought on l>y n particular state of mind nficcts the 
posiUoQ of the organs of Bpeccb, both tho intemaJ kfynx, etc, 
and the external features whoso change con bo watcbed by the 
mere looker-on. Even though the expi'csslou of the speaker's 
face may not Ims seen by Ihe hearer, the effect of the vrbola 
bodily attitude of which it forms part is not thereby done away 
with. For on the piwition tbus taken by the variuus organs 
concerned in speech, ilepends what I have here called "emo- 
tiooal tone," whereby the Toico carries direct expresBum of 
(he speaker's feeling. 

The ascertaining of tho precise physical mode in which cer- 
tUD attitudes of the internal and external face come to corrc- 
^nd to certain moods of mind, is a pbysiol<^cal problem as 
yet Uttlu understood ; but the tuct that particular expressions of 
&oe tu^ acooropaDi«d by corresponding and dependent expres- 
sions of emotional tone, only r«4]uires an observer or a looking- 
^088 to provo it. The Uugfa made with a solemn, contemptuous 
or sarcastic fiice, is quite different frum tbat which comes from 
fl joyous one ; the oA / oh! ho ! he*/ ! and so on, change tlieir 
modulations to match tlie exprvssioD of countenance. The 
effect of the emotional tone does not even require fitness in 
the moaning of the spoken wenls, for nonsense or an unknown 

* F«fba, 'Avmtn ludioiu^' io Joam. EUi. Sec. UTO. t«L U. p, SM. 

EHonoxjx JtSD varxrvrE lueguaoe. 


fto^oe ma; be made to oonvt^, wbeo t|»okeo irttL exjvetBve 
ioloDatiinL, tbe fedingii wkidi are <liq4ajed upon tbe spukei'i 
frfia. Tlkii expreaaoo ma)' eren be reeo^^uised in tbe datk by 
;Aatkii^ tbe toDe H giTcs fonb, wbile tbe iontd cbatadar 
ipven by tbe attecopt to bring out a etnuMl not inatchrng even 
tbe uotmrd iila; of tbe SmtAo m can bardlj be biddea by tbe 
Buat expen TantdloqtuBt, and in aocfa iefdng, tbe woad per- 
MptaOjr di^itbe face into tbe attitude tbat 6ta witb iL Tbe 
aabm cf oommumcauoo by awwHitfttal too* aecBs to me to be 
aom gw ba l od ibis wise. It duus not appear tbat partiailw 
at aQ belong directJy and of tbenudves lo paitioubir 
, bot tbat tbeir acUcm depends ou tbe vnad arguiB of 
Ae ■leaker and bearer. Otber ■mJTfTii baring vocal " ' ^"^ 
£flcroiit from nun's, bave acoordui^jr, as we know, a difforaut 
code uf *™'^^"*™l fcODeK. Aa aheratioEi in man's vgcal utj^ans 
-would bna^ a oorrespoudiu^ altostian in tbe aBect of tone in 
txpte^ag Tedin^ ; ibiu umc vbicb to as expteasee mopriw ir 
aagcr n^gfat come to expreas pleaaure, and au furtb. As it i^ 
flfaSdrea liaira b} earl r experience tbat eucb and sucb a tooe 
indicates eucb and sucb an cniotiun. and tbis tbej make oat 
parUjr by finding tbetoaelvee uttering Boch tonee -wben tbeor 
frf^tftEF bavc broogiit tbeir bcea to tbe appropnate attitodfl^ 
and partly by oiieerving tbe expteasioii of vaiee in otben. Al 
tbfee or foor yean old tbey are to be seen in tbd ad uf aoquir- 
ing tbis knowUxlgc, turuiog round to IcKik at tbe epeifc^r's 
free and gswre tu make sure ut tbe meaiung of tbe tone. 
B«E in later yean this knmrledge beoamee so familiar that it ia 
M JHWWf * to bavc been intuita«& Tben, wben men l&Ik icBstlte^ 
liw bearer receivai from sucb emotJopal luue an indicatian.* 
■ignal. flf tiie speaker's nttitiidf of bodjr, and tUrcni|^ ibis of 
bb slate at nnud. Tbese b« can recognize, and even xvprodBM 
. in tiiraiirlf. as Ute irpaabar at uoe end of a telcgnqibic wire can 
iollim, by uotkiug bis aeedles. tbe action of Ins coUiagut: aL tlw 
olber. In watcbsqg tbe pcoooH wbich tbus enablea one nun 
in take a vufj of anotiier'e emotions tbroogb tbeir pbyutl 
oSceta uD bis vocal tone, we may admire tb« perfection wiA 
wbidi a means so sinif^^aoswen an end »o oompkx, und apftr- 
ttntlv so mate. 



By elimiiiating from Bpeech ull effects of geature, of erpree- 
sion of fttoe, a-nd of emotional tone, wc go far toward reducing 
it to tliBt system of convi!iitii>nal articulale uounds whicU the 
grammariiui and the comparative philologist habittialtj ooDsidcr 
aa language. Tiii'se articukt«> aoiiii<Li are capable of bciiig 
rouglily set down in s.ign» standing for towcIh and con^oiuuits, 
with the &id of MccentHantl other iiignificaut marks; and thej 
may then ^^In he read alond from tliej»« written liigns, by any 
one who has teantt to give its proper sound to each letter. 

"Wliat Vowels are, is a matter which has Imscu for some )-eai'3 
well understootL' They tire compound musical tones »uch as, 
in the vol Immojia stop ^uf the organ, are itoundcd hy reeds 
(vibmting tongiiee) fitteii to organ-pipes of particular con- 
struction. Tlie manner of formation of vowels by the voice is 
ehortly thia There'are situated in the larynx a pair of ribrat- 
ing menihranes calknl the vocal chords, which may he rudely 
imitated by stretching a piece of sheet india-rubber over the 
open end of a tube, m as la form two half-covers to it, " like 
the parchment of a drum split across the middle ;" when the 
tube is blown through, tlie india-rubber flaps will ribrate as 
the vocal chords do in the larynx, and give out a sound. In 
the human voice, the musical effect of the vibrating chords is 
iDcreased by the cavity of the mouth, which acts as a rcBonatoi- 
or Bounding-box, and which also, by its shape at any moment, 
modifies the musical " rtnnlity " <^ the nound produced. 
Quality, which is independent of pitch, dopoiids on the har- 
monic overtones accompanying tho fundamental tone which 
alone musical notation takes account of: this quality makes the 
difference between Uie same note on two instruments, flute and 
piano for instance, while some instruments, as the violin, can 
give to one note a wide variation of quality. To such quality 
tho formation of vowels is due. This is perfectly shown by the 
common Jew's harp, which when struck cau he made to utter 
the TOweU a, c, i, o, u, &c, by simply putting the mouth in 
the proper position for speaking these voweU In this expcri- 

• S»« Hilrnhnltx, • Tonempfiiidiinjpn,' Snl (xL ji. 16S J Tyndall, 'Sound,* 
iMtnn r. ; 3Ias SltlUcr, ' Lcolutcij, ' £iiil Miira, p. K, otc. 


mcnt the players voice emits no sound, hut tiio vibrating tonguo 
of the Jews harp placed in front of the mouth acts as a substi- 
tato for the TocoJ chonU, and the vowol-sounds arc produced by 
the various portions of the cavity of tlie mouth modifying the 
qunlily of the note, by hringing out with ditfcretit degrees of 
strength the sorios of hanoonic tones of which it is composed. 
As to uiui^ical theory, emotional tone and vowel-tone are con- 
nected. In fact, an emotional tone may be definot! as a vowel, 
whose parlicdar muKicftl quality is that produo&d by the human 
Tocal organs, when adjoated to a particular ittale of feeling. 

Europeans, while using modulatiou of musical pitch as, afibct- 
ing the force of words in a stentcnce, know nothing of malciag 
it alter the dictionary-meaning of a word. But this device is 
known clscwbure . especially in Soutb-&uit Aaiay wbore riacB and 
&lls of tone, to some extent like tlio««e which serve va in con- 
Vdyiog emphasis, question and aoHwer, ftc, actually give 
different signiBcation. Thus in ^amoaa, M=to seek, ASsspeeti- 
lence, hi~&ve. The ooueequence of this elaborate system of 
tonc-acccDtuation is the necessity of an accumulation of eiple* 
live particles, to supply the place of the oratorical or emphatic 
intonation, which being thus given over to the dictiooai^' is tosl 
for the gtammar. Another con8equenc« itt, that the fiystcm of 
setting poetry to music becomes nulically diffifrcnt from oura ; to 
sing a Siamese song to a European tune mnkcti tlio meaning 
of the syllabteti alter according to their rise and fall in pitch, 
and tumit their neoae into the wildest noDncrwe.' In Wnst Africa, 
again, the same device appears : Tlm« in I>ahouiau «o=8tick, 
MfshorAe, «6 = thunder; Yoniba, i(i=with, tii = bend.* F'or 
practical purposes, this linguistic music Ls hardly to be com- 
mended, but theoretically it is intcrcaiting. as iihovbg tliat 
man does not servilely follow an intuitive or inherited schemi; 
of language, but works out in various waja the resources of 
sound aA a means of expression. 

The theory of coasonanls ia much more obscure than tliat of 

> SMhlkfloix, •Oninn. UBg-ThA;' Baatian, In 'MoMUh. Bariia. Akid.' 
Jttha e, 1847, awl ' Roy. Aaatic S«c.' Job*, 1847. 

* ltiirtoin.ia'llcfa. Antbrop. Sm.,'toL l p. SU; Bowen. 'TonU Or. anJ 
Die.' p. S ; »ce J. I^ VfOtm, 'V. Air.,' p. Ml. 



vowela They are not musical vibmlioos as vowels arc, but 
nuiiies uocoinpuuying thcin. To the musiciiiu such uoiseso-s the 
rushing of the wind from the or^an-pipe, the scraping of the 
vioUu, the sputtering of the fluU;, arc aiiuply tmublesoiae as inter- 
fering with liifi musical toneti,and he takea j^ains to (liaiiuisli them 
as much as may be. But in the art of Jan^age noises of this 
kiod, far from being nvoidcd, arc tiimod to immense aoeount 
by being used as consonants, in combination with the musical 
vowels. As to the positions and movements of the vixal organa 
in producing eonsonauts, an cxeelltmt aooount with anatonucal 
.diognuns is given in ProfessMir TtUix Mlillpr'ti !U3eund series of 
Lectures. For the present purpose of passing in rcTiew the 
various devices by which the lanjiuageiiiaker lias contrived to 
make .sound a meaiis of expressing thought, perlinp.s no better 
illuati'alion of tlieir nature can be mentioned than Sir Charles 
Wheatstone'fi account of Iiis leaking machine ;' for one of Uie 
beat ways of studying difficult pbenoDieua is to see them arti- 
ficially imitjitetl. The instrument in question pronounced 
Latin, Frencii, and Italian words we!) : it could say, "Jevous 
aimc tie tout men ca-ur," " LcupoMua Secundus Romimorum 
Imperator." and «o forth, but it was not sn successful with Ger- 
man. As to the vowels, they were of course simply auunded by 
suitable recda and pipes. To aifcct them with cutiiiunantis con- 
trivances were arranged to act like the human oi^ns. Thus p 
was made by suddenly removing the operator's hand from the 
mouth of the figure, and l> in the same way, except that the mouth 
WM not Ignite covered, while an outlet like the nostrils was used 
in forming tn ; / and w were riendercd by moilifyiug tho sliape 
of tbe mouth by a hajid ; air waa made to rush through small 
tabes to produce the sibilants s and sfi ; and the liquids r and 2 
were Rounded by the action of tremulous reeds. As WbeaU 
stone remarks, the most important iiite of iinch ingenious 
mechanical imitations of Hpeech may be to fix and preserve an 
accurate register of the pronunciation of different. languageflL 
A perfectly arranged speaking machine would tn fact repreacnt 
for us that framework of language which oousitils of mere 

■ C. v., in ■ Lontlon tai Wcctmiufter B«vi«ir,* Oct. 1 J47. 

aionoiXAL ASD mtATirs lumuaoii 


voweig and cxHuonsots, thouigb witlioiit moat of Uuwe expitiHiTS 
adjuocU vbicU go to make np Uie eo u i gm tion of wyeakum niaik. 
Of vowels and consoaanto cqiftfale of imog etnployeil ia lan- 
guage, mao is able to pnRUNmoe and Hwrtinynith oii laxonnotu 
vnriety. But this groat wtoA. d powible mmaAt » aumhtn 
brought ioto use alingelher; Eadi Uagoage ur tluilect uf tba 
vorld U fuimd in prBCtice to sutert a limifcej wtriM of dtfAntU 
vowels aod conBOOimt*. kee|ui£ -vitli tolcTaUe v%tiaem Ut Mub. 
and Uias diooBing -what we tomy call lU pfauovik Jtl[/UtilitfL 
Jl^QglGCtiDg svdi mhsur drffaKOeea m wocur iu tW nwieh of i»- 
dividualis or saall oommaaitk*, cadi dialact of Uw w«fid May 
be said to have itt own phstte^ «7a*^ai, *Bd t4iM» pboMlia 
qrstenia rarjr widriy; Ov tov«1«, &ir iniluw, di&r murfi 
fVom tboMof Fnsdi and t>«idi. Frvneb Ihjow<^ ..•< .f .;f ti 
ekberof the aoiuidi wlueh we mte lu ik lu r hU, 

wbile the CartiKaa fiifMid e, the a»-call»d e«w, u a tWnJ ouv' 
KOiiuii which we inna. agda wtOut irluft to wittK m Id, U*imi|[1i 
it is c)uite ^ctiiict in aooad &«■ b«th our owa. Jt i* «|(iu« • 
usual tloBg fcr VI to fiad ibnigs laag;tii0M vujiiu); l>ril«M 
eroD Dear in aooad t* mmtd <«b^ vhS* girwfiim elibm ■»" 
&niifiarioo«Kh«i. A«K^ aach eaawaw A« CTrfawi dM^ 
cohjr is f— "~-'-i t r. aad the waut «f a actd / is AwtoriUlt 
diaieda. Wk» ^' ' 'g ' ' Iciad ta Usdb tiia tt^HHii*. wlw 
haiB BB litidg is dieir bogaoff , to pwowiicg iwndt »»iJ> j/ 
and &m than, tiK7f«4(9itad<ltal it vaaV«eridiouluMitw««fi*ft 
people to ABKtMrawo^ to lyedt; and Umc F'jrtoytMw di»' 
«ov«(«a «f BnnL suaaduar ^^ ^ udavm \m4 tMMiMff, I, 
not r ia their lattgatce. ftaati/ dmurihui tiMU a« n tMHfiiUi wcGb 
iMitter /iC <qi. aor r^, Macbtf fvCh, iwr^ awr kiua. h mtf 
fca(ipe^tfic^tteai)mdc«al/iw*dty wwM mAkw* m wu^jt^ 
timd aciim, wpiiMM and n»B«iHMU«, nhftll U uii<uu4 to 
aermnt Lgr othen hi Huur tLrli<Aikit« Lkugvuife. ^ .' i4 

tlai kind oeoBni wilIi tit*' iiuiwuti cuUud "^tioka." •'<*■• '"1« 
■nftMiibar tv ib w luuir jtAStiuut .: tUuKtIw laUuw' '^nr n ii^.u 
is the cfce u k (and twuall/ iu llw ieft^thuukj i* «vi: -^ O 

: hufsoa, wdiilr 9Biiial>k'> ■' '\ d(ibt«J mki jaikiu*^ 'iwili 
^«al&J «1k tongna Jtgatnvf >• uud cU: «vMf gf dUe 

oaamHti is .%!« ii<<' '.iKwttuiHjji of mujiom^ 



reproof, or satisfactiou. Tbus, too, tlic naUrcs of Ticrra del 
Fuego express " do " by a peculiar cluck, a» do aim the Turks, 
who occompftny it with the gesture of throwing buck the head; 
and it appears irom the uccouots of travellers that the clicks of 
Buipruc and admiratioa among the natives of Australia are 
iDUch liko those wo hoar at homo. But thovgh hero these 
clicking DoLses are only tiaed intcrjcctionatly, it is well known 
that South Afrieau ntcos have taken btich sounds up into their 
articulate speech and liavo made, as we may say, letters of 
them. The very name of Hottentots, applied to the Namnquos 
and ottier kindred IrihcH, ap]iears to \)e not a native uaiue (as 
Peter Ktilb thonghtj but a rude imitative woi-d coined by the 
Dutch to express tba clicking "Jiot en tot," and the temi Sot- 
teiitothm has been thence adopted tis a medical description of 
one of the varieUea of stammering. North-West America is 
another district of the world distingiii.thed for the prodaction of 
strange clucking, gur^jling, and grniiiiug letters, difficult or im- 
possible to Ktiropean voices. Moreover, tliere are many Hounds 
capable of being used in articulate speech, vanetics of chirp- 
ing, whistling, blowing, and Hucking noiseit, of which »oiuu arc 
familiar to our own use as calls to animals, or interjectional 
noi^cH of cont^rmpt or aurpriac, but which no tribe is known to 
bare brought into their alphabet. With all the vast phonetic 
variety of known knguages, the limits of possible uttemoce are 
for Irom beisg reached. 

Up to a certain point we can understand the roasoos which 
have guided the various tribes of mankind in the selection of 
their varioua alphabets ; case of utterance to the speaker, oom- 
binc<l with distinctne^ of effect to the hearer, have been tu- 
doubtedly lunung tJie priucipai of the selecting cuuees. We 
may fairly eooncct with the close oniformity of men's oi^ans (^ 
speech all over tho world, tlie general similarity which prevails 
in tlie phonetic systems of the most differeTit languages, and 
which gives us the power of roughly writing down so large a 
prop(»tion of one language by meiuis of an iilphabet intended 
for any other. But while wo thus account by physical simila- 
rity for the existence of a kind of natural alphabet common to 
mankind, we must look to other causes to determine the selec- 



tion of sounds used in (liffcrettt Inngunges, luiil to account for 
thase remarkalilt! counieK of cliaQge whicli go on in laogiiages of 
A coramoD stock, producing in Europe such varifttioiiB of one 
onginal word aa paier, faUter, vaUr, or iii the iolauds of Polj- 
neaia offering us the numeral 5 under the strangd^-T&ricd 
forms of ihiia, rlma, tli/ma, nimu, aud hhntL Cliuiigcx of this 
8ort have acted so widely and regvilnrly. that Rince the enuncia^ 
tion of Qrimm'8 h.v their study bos become a main part of 
jAilolog)'. Though their causes are as yet so ohscure, wo may 
at least argue that such wide and doBnitc operations cauuot be 
due to cbojicu or arbitrary fancy, hut must bo tho result of laws 
as wide aod definite as themselvea. 

Lob ufi now b-up]xise n l>ook to bo written with a tolerably 
correct alphabet, for instance, an ordinary Italian book, or an 
Eogliflh one in some good eystcm of phonetic letters. To 
suppose English written in tlie :nake8hift alphabet which we 
still keep in iisro, would be of course to complicate the niattor 
in hand with a nuw and neudless difficulty. If, then, tho book 
be written in a sul^cient alphabet, and handed to a reader, his 
office will by no means stop short at rendering back into 
ni'ticulate Houndn tlie vnwcU and consonants before him, as 
though he wci'o reading over proofm for the press. For tho 
emotional tone just xpoketi of has dropped out in writing down 
the wortls in letters, and it will be the reader's duty to guess 
from the meanlug uf the wonls what tbut tone should be, and 
Ui put it iii agiiin accordingly, ^e has moreover to introduce 
emphasis, whether by accent or stress, on certain syllables or 
words, thcrcljy altering their effect in the sentence ; if be says, 
for example, " I nerer sold you that horse," an cmpbaffis on ai^ 
one of thcitc dx words will alter the import of the whole pIiraB& 
3^ow, iu emphatic pronunciation two distinct processes are to 
be remarked. The cHcct produced by changes in loudness and 
duration of words is directly imitativo; it is a mere gesture 
made with the voice, as wc ma.y notice by the way in which any 
one will speak of " a short eftarp answer," "a long iiKary year," 
" a iotul burnt of music," " a geiUle glidimj motion," as com- 
pared with tho like manner in which the gcsturcdnnguage 
would adapt its force and speed to the kind of action to be 


jatlOnOKAL JiSO ihitatiye langbaoe. 

represcDteA Written laugnago can hardly convey but by tlie 
context the utriking effects which our imitative faculty ailJs to 
spoken lauguago, iu our continual endeavour to malce the 
sound of each word we iip(>ak a Rort of echo to ittt sense. We 
see this in the difference bcrtween writing and telling the little 
stoiy of tlif niau who was worried by being talked to about 
^good hooks." "Do you mean," he asked, speaking shortly 
with ft face of strong finu approval, "good Looks ?" "or," with 
a draw! and a fatuous-benevolent simper, "goo-ti books ?" 
MuBical accent (inveiiiits,' musical tone) is turned to account as 
a mi^aiiH of emphasis, ns when 'wc give promiacDcc to a par- 
ticular pliable or word in a sentence by raising or depressing 
it a 8cmi*ttiiic or more. Tho reader bos to divide his eentcuces 
with pauses, being guided in this to wrae extent by stops; the 
rhythmic measure in which he will utter prose aa well os poetiy 
is not without its effect; and he has again to introduce music 
by speaking each sentence to a kind of imperfect melody. 
Profcfwor Helmholtz endeavours to write down in musical 
notea how a German with a bass voice, speaking on B flat, might 
say, " Ich bin spatxteren gegangen. — Hst du spatzieren gegan- 
gent" falling a fourth (to F) at the end of the affirmative 
aentMice, and rising a fifth (to f) Ja asking the question, Uius 
nu^ng tlirough an octave.' When an finglish speaker tries to 
iUustiate tu his own language the rising and falling tones of 
Siamese vowcU, be compare!; tbem with the English U>oc» of 
question and answer, as in " Will you go ? Yea"' The rules 
of this iinperfecl muKJcal Inlouatiou in ordinary conversatlou 
have bceu u» yet but little studied. But as a means of giving 
solemnity and pathos to language, it has been more fully 
developed and even systematiiod under exact rules of melody, 
aiid we thus hare on the one hand ecclesiastical intoning and the 
lees oonvcnttonal holf-sinpng so often to be heard in religious 
meetings, and on the other tlic* ancient and modem theatrical 
recitativ(>. By such intermediate stages we may cnxu the wide 
interval from spoken prose, with the musiaU pitch of its Towela 
so carelessly kept, and so objured by consonants as to be diffi- 

' * Aooeata* cnt et iun tn diccnda cuQm oWnrior.' — Cic di OaX. 

* nOmhoHt. p. SSI. 

• CDinrell. In Battitit, ' Beritn. Akai.' I 0. 



feeling!) is quite beyond dispute, and th« philologist's concern 
with them is on the one hand to study their action in ox- 
[Mi38BiDg emotion, and on the otbei* to trace tlicir passage into 
more fally-formcd wordR, siich as have their place in connected 
syntax and fwrtn part of logical propositions. 

In the ficKt place, however, it is necessary to separate from 
proper inteijectJons the many setise-words which, often, kept up in 
a mutilated or old-fasbbuedguiHt^, come su close to them both in 
appearance and in use. Among classic exfunples are <pipf. IfSrt, 
age f vutcle ! Such a word ia hail ! which, as the Gothic 
Bible shows, was originally an adjective, "whole, hale, pros- 
perous," used vocatively. just as the Italians cry bravo ! brava ! 
Wavi ! hrtivf.! million the African negro cries out in fear or 
wonder momrf .' mdmA .' ' he might be thought to be uttering a 
real intcrjcctiou, "a word used to exprcas some passion or 
emotion of the mind," as Lindley Mtirray has it, but in fact ho 
ia amply calling, gi-own-up baby as he is, for his mother ; and 
the very siunc thing has been noticed among Indians of Upper 
California, who as aa cxpreaaiou of pain cry, and ! that is, 
"mother."' Other oxclamations consist of a pure interjection 
combined with a pronoun, as olfioi ! oiini ! ah -me I or with an 
adjective, aa alaa t helas .' (ah weary I) With wliat care inter- 
jections should be sifted, to avoid the risk of treating as original 
elementary- souudfi of laugtiage what are really notbiug but 
sense-words, we may judge from the way in which the commcm 
English exclamation 'n^ll ! ivell! approaches tlie genuine iator* 
jectioiial tiound in the Coptic expression " to make ouelMuie,'* 
which aigDifies to wail. I^tin ululare. Still better, we maj 
find a learned traveller in the la:«t century tjinte seriously re* 
marking, apropos of the old Greek battle-shout, oAoAd ! i/iaX6. 1 
that the Turks to this day call out AllaJt I AU^t I Allah I 
upon iho like occasion.^ 

* R, F. lliirloii, 'lAkv ftcRiont ol Ceutnl ATritx,' toI. ii. \). S33 ; LtTiog* 
steiie. 'Ul«1oniiry Tr. in ^..Afrtea.'p. 298: ■ Gr. orUponRwa )iiii(;.' (A. B. C. 
?. UinioiM, B«v. J. L. WilMn), p. S7. Sm CdUmty, 'Znln ToIm,' vol. i. 
■p. SP. 

* Arroj-o lie la Ciitnta, 'Or. arMntson lug.,' pi. 80, in ' SmitlisoDum Conlr. j' 
Tol. iil. 

■ ghav, 'Travel* U Bubuj',' In PlnkertoB, nL xr. p. (t6S. 



Th© calls to Aoimftls customary in diffifrent counlriGa' are ta 
a great extent interjectional in their u«c, but to attempt to 
explain them as a whole is Iti »ttip iipun as g)!p|)«^ry groan<) 
as li«s within the mnge of philology. SotnetimeK they may bo 
ill fact pure intt-rjectioas, like tliu BckA aetiil t monlioned as 
on olil QermiLn cry to Kcare bints, ta we nliould say nli nh ! or 
the ud ! with which the Indians of BnuII call their dogti. Or 
they may be Net down as simple imitations of thv aaimal's onu 
cries, as the clitcking to call fowh in our own ranii-yanl.s, or the 
Austrian calls of ■pi pi f or tiet tiet ! to chickens, or the 
Swabian hinier haut ! tf> tnrkeys, or the shepherd's Imting to 
call dieep la India. In other cases, bo«'Cver, they may be 
sensH-wonJt^ morn or \es» broken down, as when tliu t-reaturc U 
spoken to by a soimd which seems merely taken from its own 
common name. If an Ei^liah countryman mc«t« a stray 
sheep-dog, he will simply call to him tiup! skip! So ee}tdp 
acftdp! is an Austrian cuU to sheep, and koss kuhel f»6s! to 
cows. In German districts gw ^iw / gutck guacfi I gm gosf 
are «>ot down as calls to gccso; and when we notice ttiat tbo 
Bohemian peasant calls kusy ! to them, we remember that the 
name for goo9C in his langiinge is husa, a word familiar to 
English ears in the uamo of John Huss. llic Bohemian, again, 
will call to his dog jm jis ! but then fies mvan& " dog.*' Other 
e«ns«-words addressed to nnimais break down by long repeti- 
tion into mutilated fonns. Wlicn we ujre told that the to tof 
with which a Portagucse calls a dog is short for toma lomaf 
(i.t., " take take I ") wliich tells him to come and tako his food. 
we admit tlie explanation as pbusiblc ; and the coop coop f 
which a cockney miglit so easily mistake for a pure interjection, 
ia only "' Come up ! come up ' " 

" Cams nppe, ^Vhitafbot, ronw nppo, Llgjitfoot. 
Cnne oppo, Jetty, rise and follow, 
Jotty, to th* milking &fa«>il." 

But I cannot offer a plausible guees at the origin of nidi calls 
aa huf huf! to bones, kokl kuhl I to geese, dedcd deckd ! to 

*flbau tf the ncunpla imn dW, wiU h* tmatiia Orimm, 'DcutMfae Or.* 
mL UL |v SOS ; Poll, ' Dpppdng-' ^ 8" ; Wcdgwwpd. 'OiifiB of t^ugpusB-' 
Vol, I. " 



tboop. It u fortuuato for et^rmologists that such triviaJ little 
words have not an importnnco proportioned to th<> difficulty of 
dOKriug up Uiuir oH^n. The word puss! rainue an interesting 
pliilologicid prubleiii. An EogliKh clitkl calling jmvt pu%s! is 
very Uk«l; keeping up the trace of tbe old Ecllic name for the cat, 
IrithplUiEnopitJai^, Qaellcpni«. Similar calls »reknon-n ulse- 
wbon iu Europe (as in Snjouy, 2>^ i^ -0' ^"^ thcro is soma 
reuoQ to think that the cat, whicli came to uk from tlie East, 
brought with it one of its Dames, vMch is still current there, 
Tamil putKi ! Afghan pu«Aa, Pcrai&n jiiuAai, &c, iAi: Wedg- 
vood fiath an origin for the call iu an imitation of the cob's 
spitting, nod romarks that the Servians ciy pia ! to drive a cat 
avray. vbilc tho Albanians use a similar sound to call it. The 
vrAy in which the crj of puss ! bas fumisbed a name for the cat 
itsdf, comes out curiously in countries where the auimal has 
been lately iutivduce^l by Englishmen. Thus U-o^i is the 
racognixcd word for cat in the Tonga Islands, no doubt from 
Captain Cooke time. Among Indian tnb«s of >loTth-wc«t 
America, pte^, pitJi-pixk, appear in native languages with tbe 
moaning of cat ; and not only i« tho European cat called a 
p«iaspiM8 in the Chinook jai^gon, but in the same curious 
dialect the wonl is applied to a native heHt» tbe cougar, now 
called ~ hyas pttae^pnsa,' i^, ** great cai."^ 

The derivation of names of animals in this manner from calls 
lo tbem, may perbapK not have lM.>en unfKt)Uf nt. It appears 
than kuM / is a cry used in Switzerland to set dtigs on to Bgbt, 
M *— «.' might he in Engiand. and that the Swiss call a dog 
Kvas or kcMm, possibly £rom tiui. We know tlw cry of tUU ! 
dUly! aa « raoognisMl odl to docks in Kngland, and it is 
diflBcuh. to think it a ix>rniptio& of any EngLisb word or phrase, 
for the Bohemians also call MiMi! to their ducks. Now, 
though dUl or dHig maj not be found in oar dictionariee as the 

> SMricM,*Or«ik. I««o-Buo^> |wt i ^U3;CkU«4 'Gr-cTDnn- 
«w la^' ^ 4M : V«^«ot1 Die ). t. •pRi^' via ; Umimte, 'Tvnm b. 
Ttaah' : QiUn, * Kc tt CUMok iiQMt.* nwliliiiaiM CML S«. Id ; m. 
dMf, *Gi. ud DkL trf Ytkuda,' iMirtawii OMt nL U. ; tamfwat J. I. 
irShm. •Mffwyw OtT ^ K. TW HMa ^Bft nII ta tk« nl «»> um/ 
Wty b tmha 4f«a k^m HtoAut. «Jm»cM j ttmfmn tk* Gmum c>Ua 
mmdJ «*tt/ wi tin PMck i 


joaae for a dncfc, yet Uie wav in vhidi Hood cm a» H m loch 
in one of Iua bait komm oomic poeiii% Aawz peiircU; tbe aMj 
and natural step hj wbicb amk tnaatioos can be made >- 

" For Itaiah anoB^ 1km «ate>JilnB, 
Ctiid * Due ad aw • to d hv dOlm." 

jut the aame my, becaitse i^m / is a ttoat call of tlie 
waggona to bb bouse*, tbe wurd gn-gi« ba» becone a 
' Jamilior museiy Dotm mcamug a booe. And &«itber in such 
nonerj word*, nor in words ooised in jest, is tbe erideDea 
lieoring on tbe ori^o of langua^ to be set ande as vrartbiMB ; 
for it may be taken a« a maxim ol echntdc^, tfaat vbat is done 
amoQg civilized men in jeat, or among dvilizcd cbiUrm to tbe 
nuraeiy, is apt lo find its aoalogtK iu the atnao* nental eflort 
of savage, and tberefbre of ptiuiBrva] tribes. 

Drivers' calls to tlietrbeaits^ntcbutbbjr«.'^e04o.' totngeoa 
horae^ and tvekf tooJt/ to stopUiem, fonn part of Hx TennaJar 
uf particular diatrict& Tbe geho ! perhaps, cuoe to England in 
tlic Nomiaii'Freocb. for it is kDOwn iu France, and ^>peais in 
the ItaliaQ dictionary as ^io.' The traveller who bos been 
bearing tbe drivers in tbe Gri30os stop their bontos with a long 
br^-r! majr ctms a pus and bear on the other isidc a Ail-a-il .' 
instead. The ploughman's cftlls to turn the leaders of tho team 
tu right and left have passed intu proverb. In France tbcy eaj 
of a stupid down " D n'entcnd ni j^ dia .' ni i hnrkaut ! •* and 
the comespoudiug Platt-I>«ut£ch phraso is" He vteet nich hutt! 
uocb hoh ! " So there is a regular language to camolN, ta 
CnptaiD Buxton remarks on bis journey to Mekka ; tJtA ilA .' 
makes tbem kneel, ydJtk ydlthf aiges tbcm ou, hai kai! 
inducaa caotioo, and bo forth. In the formation of theM qnwnt 
exjuemkaa, two causes have been at vork. The sounds aocm 
■omstimes thoroughly intvrjecttoiial, as tho Amb fuii ! of 
caution. 00* tbe French Ait<.' North Grrmanj»/ WhiLh-vcr tlieir 
coigiu, ihey may be made to carry their sense by imiUiiivv louet 
expTDBsiTe to tbe car of both honio and man, as any ono will Miy 
wbob«nr ' 'raift betw^'tfU the short and sharp high-pitched 

haft viii— ■-■—. the Swiss horse to go fiutcr, oud tbo lon^ 




drawn AtJ-G-4i-<l .' which brings hun toa staad-'Alw, tlie way in 
vhioh oommtiii sonsiy-woidii nre taken up into calls like ffee-up t 
vx^Atack! shows tluit we raay expect to fiod various old 
brukcii fragmcnlK of formal language in the list, and such od 
inspection we find acconlingly. The following lines are quoted 
br HalUwell from the MicTo>Craicon (U^):— 

" A boso Vetat) tamo of a bcsor eycr. 
Bnd in & oottago, waodering in tlu njer. 
TVith Q&iled abooM and wIup«laSI» in his hand, 
inrho with a hry and m ths hwsta oomnaod." 

T\m rte ! is equivalent to " tight " (riddle-me-ree —riddle mo 
ri^t),aiid te\h the leadert^tbe team to bear to the right hand. 
Thekfifi mi\v coTTcspond with tttU ! or ocmef^er/ which call 
him to bear " httlicf," i.e^ to the left In Oennanj kar ! Mr ! 
kar-Hh ! arc likcwiM the same as " her," " hither, to the lefL" 
So 9Vwi«! Mkvnde! nnu/«r/ "to the left," are of coarse 
'gunpl7*'xinrid«r"''on the contrary way." Pair* of odls for 
" right " and " left " in Oennan-speaking countries are hd ! — 
har ! and Airfl / — tciat ! This wat .' is an iotenvting example 
of the keeping up of ancient words in sn^ popular tiaditioa. 
It is evidently a mutilated form of an oh) Gennan wotd for the 
left hand, feinittrd, Angln-Saxcm witutre, a name Inng since 
forgotten by modem High Oennan. as by our own niodeni 

As quaint a mixture of wunb and inteijcrlional criea as I 
bave met with, is in an eld French Cyclopedia,' which gtvos a 
Runnbe dcscriptioci cf the himtcr's craft, and prescribes exactly 
what is to be cried to the hounds under all possible cootin- 
gendosof thediBSfl. If tbc crmtwvs mdentood grammar and 
i^jtttu. the laagttie* oonld not be mora •eeurat«Iy ami^eJ 
te tkeir ean. Sometiines we have what teem pure iztter-^ 

> nw hto rf «Mt* wmk na Oiink t c i Put, 
WDniML 'Wo. af AiAnemi Tranrnmi fa|9irik.'a.T. 'nc'Bna^ nl a. 

|L u : noH, |an a. ^ us. 

■ 'SMWil 4t Plaiiiiii wm Im Smwaa. In Arti, alt.,' I^m. ino, lat. 
'CJMaw' IfciliilMlMlaiwm^lgxrtwIwaaiaafc SBc*AV««ktaa 

jaotMud crie&. Thrts, tv «BOomgD tbe hnutMk to vork, liie 
h l i lamau is to call 1o tbera i^ htdU hali£ ftaUe ! wldle to 
laiag tbem up Insfore tlier are mtOMqikid it if fiT«wiriliad tliat 
ht AaSi QoU hav. Aau / or hau it^avi ! aud wben tbenr an 
BDOonpled lie ie lu diange iiu cr; to Aow lay la la j/hitajfeu! 
■m. call irliid] BOggeAi tlie Monnan origtaal t^ tl>e EngjiA 
tuttgf-Jto ! Witb cnim uf tbiti kind jiluti Frmdi vtirds are 
atennixed. Ad heUaninil Id <V<c, /d i/^i. Atru r<a/r< / — Uau Ttam^ 
tan ioH <9»4« apthi. 4 vYru^ u nwic / mud itu mi. And lunibb- 
iixaes -tranle buvc broktm donii intu oatU wljoBe (wmsc » not 
qoiU! g(iiie, like tlic " vtiili ici " aud the " voUa ce Vest." 
dliicli atf KtiU X'j be disLiupiiuliud iu iLc slitiul wlucb i« lu t^ 
tibe LuntetK tbat tbc wto^ tlitjr buvu Uhsu cbuiog bos made a 
nAmti,-vaultxiT«vainvautecd^ ! iJuttbedrolleM tbin; in tbe 
Greotiw in tbo giw« nn of EngUih wonU (id von' Galbc itbAftc) 
witb wbicli Engbiib dogx ure to Im* Hpuk«-ti to, bbcaase. dg the 
autiinr savt, " tbure art' moiiy Engluih biiuitdB m Fmnn:, and it 
IB difficult to got tb(>iii tv wurk when you Hpvak to ibutn iu ati 
ucikuDWu tuugUL', tbut is, iu titber tL>nuN Cbuu tliPV but'e bfieii 
tiained to." Tberefore, to call tliuni, tbt.' Imnuniitti) is to ay 
hen tio-do ho hit! to get Uiem back Ui tbe ri^ht trade he is 
\D say hinijtr, Uri/. liuujir buy ! vrbini tUure axv st-vtiml im abuad 
of tlie rest uf tlip pock, he is to ride up Iu tbptn and ctr At/ me 
huy, Sfifmi Urt/ ! lujd liwLl^, if tlirv ait' obstiiiiitt^' niid will noi 
Jtbup. be i» tu make tiurm gu bauk wttli a uliuut uf rnhat, robot } 

How fiir Uie luwor luiiuaU uiajr attaab aDj iuboniiit 
*«*— "■"f \fj iiili:r|t;cti<^niil mmtidn in u <|ut^OD DOt e**^ to 
■iwwer. But it m jiUiiu tbut iu tuoxt tjf tiic catiea inenttoiiftd 
here tbej* (oUy uudurstimd them as recoguized sigiuUs which 
bavi^ a OMMiiiiig by ragulor aoDciatitn), ut when t)>rT rcDMmber 
that tbej* arc ivA with one ttoiee aod driven away witb mnother, 
and thoT aku pay tttleatiuu tu the igeMtanm vhioh aooonipaQy 
tbe cries. Tbu» tb« wU-kiiowD SjHuittdi wot uf cuUtng the eat 
ti mu lid'r .' while safie sojir ! in uaed tu drive it awny ; and 
■Uw wnitf uf aa old dictioiiikry maintaiiks tbat there oau be oo 
raai di1I«.i(-a«-< betweeu these wurdts excvjA by outom. fur, hb 
def^t-r- - ) lia* heard that in a. certain mouasterT where th^ 
kij- -nlfmir calt, the brother in duujgt of the refectory 



bit upon tlio device of cuUiog sape sape I to thorn ythtu ho 
gave them tbcir food, md then he drove tlieu nwuv with a 
stick, crying angrily mis mis ; and this of couko prevented 
any atrongcr frum calling and 8t«alii)g them, for only he and 
the oata knew the secret ; ' To philologists, the manner in 
vhich Buch calls to animals became customary iu particular 
diatricia iUustrat^a the consensus hj which the use of words is 
eotilod. Each case of the kind indicates that a word has 
prevailed hy selection among a certain society of men, and Iho 
main rcaiono of words holding their ground within pariicular 
limits. tbuugU it lit so difBcult to assign them exactly in eacfa 
case, arc probably inherent fitness in the fiist place, and 
traditional iuhcritance iu the second. 

When the grouod has been cleared of obscure or mutilated 
Eiense-n-orda, there remiuos behind a residue of real aound- 
words. or pure int^irjections. It haa knig and reasonably boen 
Ootisidcrod that tho place in history of Uiese expressions is a 
very ptimitiTe ooe. Thus De Broases describes tliem as iieces< 
aary and natural wonU. comuuii to all mankind, and produced 
by tho combination of man's conformation with the interior 
affections of liis mind. One of the host means of judging tb« 
relation bctwcvn iutorjectional uttornnces ami the feelings th^ 
express, is to compare the voices of the lower animals with our 
own. To a eonsiderablc extent there is a simitaritv-. As their 
bodily and mental etrucluro bns nn analogy with our own, so 
they expreiK their minds by sounds which have to our eais a 
certain fitness for what they appear lo mean. It is so with 
the bark, tho howl, ani) ihu whine of the dug, die hissiug of 
geese, the purring of cats, the croi,riiig and clucking of cocks 
and hcna Hut iu other cases, as with the hooting of owls and 
the shrieks of parrute and many other birds, we cannot sup* 
poao that these fiomwfa are ioteoded to utter anything like tho 
melandtoly or pain which ttuck cries &om a human bcii^ 
would be taken to convey. There are many animals that 
never utter any cry hut what, according to oar hoUods of lh« 
toeuiog of sounds, voald «xpnM saga or didcomfert ; how far 

Uinta. *h n gu OutvOuM,* UxhU. IBTS, t. rr. kmm, mt. 


I bub « vU ^H> n fa* tU» 

A ima^am tfaaooBig jmim to b* ta pad^ar 

aad fintina 4qMafiB( 4* (h« phnml stcucUuv 
flTibe analaUA aCM» or biM» iha aMBii tft Mknm tba 
lfc»BiiMMt MMflMity <f iMiBjMiiM^ vttoaaos wMi^ ftQ lb* 
of tfaa *"T"m aea ut no imBanntt OMoifHtttMA uf 

■Muxb titl«Rd br man fcr like mpiiinn of 
hb avn frt^ntgg «erv« aln a* ngu [Bdutmg than bdiogi to 
iwhrr A loi^ fist of soch inceiiecliaii^ eoamoa to ems 
yJEmg the mast widaly wiaas UogiiagBB, ini^Uk ba art tJown 
B a roi^ vay » fupw w a t ii ig Uu aq^ ^nwo^ noMK ctia*, 
JmAa, aaii grawU by which maa pvos acU'ruicu to Tariotut ut* 
Ui faeiiiigB. Such, &>r instoactr, are waaut of Uu monr ewuwJh 
far vhich oA / ■lA' .' (a6» / au .^ are tfae iauprasuvo writtoa 
nfBMB&caliviis i audi is the si^^h which t» wnt(«L Uowa ta tilw 
W4W language of Ainca. as MiAA« ; in EagUsh aa A«ii^o / ia 
Obidt aaii iocin m if! H! A«u/ «/i«ii./ Tbua bho opoD- 
BkHnb«<i wiA KKiA.' of wtcmiHbmvnt, au coniniim in thi» £»!« 
iB^Hn ia America in ihaUuiak} hiri»-«m/ uf Iho Cliiu<H>k 
Jug^; «nd the kituiof groaawhii^unpnMiHitm] iu Euiupviui 
haffmgu by t«i./ ouaiMf omu'/ vim / !» {{ivuo ia CViptic bjr 
«■»/ ia QbUb. by wosro / b tba OMwtto of the CftuoKHW bjr 
mjfF amomg the Indiana of Bcidih Cbiombia hjr wvl / Whuni 
ihs incaQBeaona takma iluwa in Ihe vwabularive »f othiM laa* 
pa^Bi ififfis Erom thuM raoogniaad iu uur vwo, wo at Mi^y ttla 
•pfnaatH tbam and aee how they carry Uit'ir BMnmiimi That 
with tiK UalafiMfy u-u / of pAwattWi ttw Nvilh AuM-inui 
laiiun'd often ileaoibad (Utttttal a^ t tkv U-wA / <>f wa- 
tMi^ ta the OuHiok Jaigoa. tb«> IVii^riu 'A' tr- ■' ul |«ia^ Ui« 
li*«A wfr ib6/ of telnM. ih« naliv» 1 kk Itkt ct 

mailer aoU re««nifi«, tW AtyoA.' •»* wUI ktu'oit iu thn 
Buiw Fnirii^ of iIk Himx— ^ )-.>i' >•■■<) i^ttui v. uWu au 

£i^u«, wfcaa »n "y »•««« ^ '" ' *! ' 

tfae Moe «iA c^xm^uu* «: ..11. .,^1 1 

buiarvt IVw 



tho Siamese call of hi ! the Hcl^rew ke ! ha ! for " lo : behold I" 

tllO hii ! of the Clallam TiMliiuiB for " stop 1 " the Lummi fuii f 

foT "hold, enough I " — thoao imd othore liko Uiem belong jiist ae 

much to English. Anotltcr c\a&H uf inter jectiuti.s nrc Kiicb as any 

ono coDVGisant with the ge^turo-signs of savngcs and dcaf-mutee 

TTOuM recognize m being thenitielves gesture-sigiis, made with 

vocal Hound, in Khort, voice-gestnre.t. The sound m'm, vi'n, 

ma^e with the lips closed, is the obvious exprc^iou of the man 

who tries to Kpeuk, but caunot. Evcu the dciaf-andHlumb 

child, though he cAnnot hear the Boiind of his voice, makea 

this noise t« show that he is dumb. Ihot he is mit niu, as the 

Vei negroes of Wt^st Africa would jiay. To the speaking man, 

the sound -which we write as mum ! says plainly enough " bold 

your toagucl" "mum's tho M-ordi" and in occordaucc with 

this meaning has strved to form vaiious imitative words, of 

which a typo is Tahitian mamu, to be silent. Often made 

with a alight effort which aspirates it, and with more or less 

coQtiauiuice, this souud becomes wiiat may be iiulicated un 

'm, *n, h-'m, h'n, ete., interjections which are conventionally 

written down rw words, hem! ahem! }tem ! Their priiawy 

Bensc seems in any case that of he<utation to speak, of " hiim- 

ming and hawing," bnt this serve-s with a varied intonation to 

expres-s ttucU hesitation or i-efraining from articulate words as 

belongs either to suiprise, tloubt or enquiry, approbation or 

contempt. In the vocabulary of the Yonibas of West Afric-u, 

the DAftai inteijeetiun huri in rendLTod, just as it might be ia 

English, as " fudge ! " itochefort dpscrihcs the CariliB listening 

in reverent silence to their chieFs discouise. and testifying their 

approval with a hun-hun! just lu in his time (ITth cent) an 

EagUflli congregation would have ealuted a popular pieacher.' 

Tho gOBture «f blowing, again, is a familiar expression of contempt 

and diegust, and when vocalized gives { lie labial interjections which 

I " Thera pivvail«d iu lh(n« an iaileotot ciu<«m ; when tlie pnacbur 
lotcbed Any fatuuriu tuiiivk in a. iiiuiner ihftt dellgbteil hia ■udieaca. llieii 
&|iprabatiaii v±t nimstnl by * loud hum, coDliaaed iD proporiinu to tlieir 
zmI or plMmre. M'ben Rui-uvt |<mu:li«d, pott vf HI* oon^cgation liiinimnil m 
loudly 4ail K loDft, that he ut tlown to Mijoy It, and nlibMl bit hiw wuh bU 
luiQilk«Kbi*f. Wlitn Sfirat (irvKtbod, he Iik*«M» wm hounand with ih* like 
aniniAtiiij linin. Viit ho stnldinl oiit hia btatA \a the congr^tioD, ind cried, 
' Pewe. pea™ ; I jmy you, ]Wbc«.' " Johiuon, ■ Lite of Spnil,' 


are wnttCD pah f hakl put/h ) jumk f in WnUlj fiw ' in Utv 
Latin puj3|:^up/ utd Kt dovru l>y til' ' ' ;int 

in Aufittalia as pooh I 1'Ik-w iiii-<j i >tl< 

the maas of imit&tivu woitU* wliicb «iK|«nNui bldtvimi', kucli u 
MaUj^ pvpiti, to blow. 'I')ii! laljiul ^t.-#rijri,.x ni i |'i«i 

ioto those at spining, of «-bi''li ouc kiiiii {{ivi;« lUi; J. ur- 

jectioD f r f ! vbicb U irnlV'ii in JCuglufli ijr J^uUil> (.»/ tul I 
and tfiaC Ihu n: no aifrc fuum', u uiiuiUur of uui^vu vurU of 
r ar iam eontttntsu trill nerve lu kliuw, U'aliitiuu /ufuu, lu ■(lil, 
baing a t^ijncii] iiMtauoe. 

3%e pbuK of uiLerjvcliuual iitu*cuja< iu Ktvu^v t-., > U 

«el] abowu in CntaZK dwMvijAuta Tlic 'i ' - )ii, 

oywcJalhr tiie -mmma. mixoutp*uy twuty ■- ...iaI 

glsBOeft. and be* wbu dow uul uell a}>pctflivu<l ilii« tuojr uaaiJjr 
mim thr autwr. Tbus wUimi tWy atiiriu iUi>ti.M - : ' -,iiv 

Uter aock down air ity tlu- tUruat hiiIi u < . .utd 

-«lm fi^r duiv koytliii^ witlj vimU.'iu>jt ui Uwccwr, i1il'> turn 
ut> tKe tw»- ' ' 

ttMac an- ;,' 

rthaD tUoir wofd*.' latugt^cUwii and gobtiuc coaaitme to 

iooft a tD^r ' . tbs 

aetnuHUMfttj < i ^bu 

. M do«nibMl a« " vuuaiitutg buj^lv of miob iulurjurtiuaal 

httt s igwieui of -cil«cuvc Luuutu iuurtvuun*:. m mludi tliurv Laii 


-It.' |<. ts 



In tracing tlio progress of intcrjcclioiis upward into fiiUy de- 
veloped liui£uafp!, TTO begin ni(h sounds merely exproaaiitg the 
speaker's tictutil feelings, ^'hcn, Iiowcvc'r, oxprossivfr sounds, 
like ah ! uffh ! pocJt ! are uttered not to exliibit the apeakei's 
nctiiAl ft'L'lin^ lit tho niunicnt., but only in onipr to suggest to 
another the thought of admimtion or (li«j;iist, thou such iuter- 
jeotioua Lave littlo or DottuDg tu diutlDguish tliem from fVilly 
formed words. Tlio next step is to tmco the taking up of such 
flouuds into the rvgular forms of urdinar}' grainmiir. Familiar 
instances of niich formations may he found among oiirgclvee in 
AiiEBery lauguagc, where to icx>A is fouud in use with the 
moaning of to stop, or iu that real tliougli hanlly acknowledged 
part of tbe Eiiglisli Inugunge to whicli belong HUcb Terhs as to 
boo-hoo. Among the most obvious of bucIi wonU are those 
vhich denote tlie actual utterance of an interjection, or pass 
thcnC€ into sooia closely allied nieauing. Thus the Fijian 
women H cry of lamentation oiU ! becomes tbo verb otU " to 
bewail," <»f0-ltuba"to lament fur*' (tlie meu cry u^.'.') ; now this 
is in perfect analogy witli such words as ulxUare, iotiHtiL With 
different grammatical terminations, the same sound produces 
the Zulu verb glffildca and its EngliBh equivalent to giggU. 
The Galla i'jki, "to cry, Rcreani, give the battlo-cry" has its 
analogues in Greek i^, 1% "aciy," 1710; " vailing, moumfal," eta 
Oood case? may be taken from a curious modem dialect with a 
strong prapeuRty to the use of obvious sound-words, the 
Chinook Jargon of North- West America. Here we find adopted 
from an Indian dialect the verb to kwk-kiiA, that is, "to drive 
cattle or lioises " ; kumm stands for the word " Htink," verb or 
noun ; and the laugh, keehee, becomes a recognized term 
moauiiig fun or amusement, as in mamook heekee, " to amuse * 
(t. c. "to make kcrhee") and kediee kuuae. "a tavern.* In 
Hawaii, aa is "to insult;" in the Tonga Islandst M! is at 
onco the esclamatJOD " fie 1 " and the rorb " to cry out against." 
In New Zealand, he! is an interjection denoting surpriso at a 
mi&tjdce, /t/ as a noun or verb nteaning " error, mistake^ to eir, 
to go astray." In tho Quicht! language of Guau-mala, the 
verba ay, oy, boy, express Uie idea of " to call " in difleroct 
ways. In tbo C>un^as language of Branlf we may gaess an 

Msm nm^oncs: lasHMrjotK 

CtafiBK tSm. *» 

th* ivAitia^* 


na. aoraor * i^nwipiw A« iiwpt «WM«ii»i, 
FknaA 4h»i£ 

IvftWvMU" Jkt 

A«yMi.' u4 «ikhk ikkift wMiw.t 

"to aae the var-eij/ Helcev IM»i^ ' to naf fnit^^ •*^mff*i 
> ff» <Hyrt / a wd wtoA the UHwm M tta Itoe^ «hM^lA 
B«l lafiiM-vcn tW List tribm Mttml),* we!ffl i h ) »> iM ^M 
■sttte iiiiiTiiiw — 'i cknA «f ki4*-li-iah ! Ttw> Xuhi WM^IkM 
hb pMtn^ i«? 4» dn^ fls an exprcan^ vf UmL «Ms W 
Mjn tht the fcflt tKfc ti 's»TC An ia"; bia ««,y vW |«ih4k^^A 
■oag bj a id / Jm / it apparen JT tvpntwratott iu llw xv^tt Jht^ 
'* U> Uad a >OBg,* ^'■90 * * itartinp «oi- ' « to tW 

■t^y^ IpaHfT far the A^»i "; umI hU ibi. .,; l v)t^^MKtvtM 

6A U I -M vhoi «*e ^ncki hit ti)tt ("huu « l^ttU 1 UtHs'^ 
beooDiM m. ■ wW«« ot nant^'lu U? biliii «>? *linitt t>« tt^ 
tatbo, to prieft; to ■mr." IW Oatla hnjixtnKx' )iivv« «)tti«> itw^l 
#iwai|4f of iMrijiM iwaM {— ing into nM)\U «« vrttftM tW 
verbs birr^J«Ja (is «*j Avr/) ukI ftWritifit O'* i<^*^^ 
ksTc the BCMMf * to be tfi^** T1iu> >• / W i" 
aiunrer to a oilt m4 «!•• « ay to limv cAlU«s llu-i ' 


^ OMtt* AMM^ i^m^ in«thi\ 



from it by t)ic ndilitioii of v%'r)<al termiuatioiu, Uie vertw oada, 
" to iinswiT," mid nj'a, " to drive." 

Tlio caipnl>ilittcs of on interjoctioQ in modifying words, when 
la»{[i>'>S^ oliootws to uvail ilsulf tliurotiglily of Ihem, may be 
Necn in t]iu triMttment of this sanm intcrjecttoa o.' iu ttie 
Japanese gnunmar.^ It la used Wfore substaDtivw u u pre^x 
ofhonour; couni, "country'," ttius becoming ocouni. Whea a 
muu is tulkiu^ to his supcrioi'^, tie putso before tbe uame& of 
all olijixts tK>]oii;;iug lo tbcm, wbilu tbcso supertors drop the o 
in speaking of anything of their owii, or an inferior's; amoog 
the liighor clo&ses, persons of Lt}ual muk put o before the 
uanu-» of cnch otlier'a thinsH, but not bcforv their own; it is 
polite to sAir tf before tbe uameis of all women, and well-bred 
diildren arc iliDttngnisbcd from little peasants by the way in 
which they are tareful to put il ereu Wlore tbe nursu^ Damea 
of fotlier and mother, o Mo, o eaea, which correspond to the 
papa and mama of JSuropo. The o is al«o use^l to convey a 
distiact notion of cmiuuice, and e\*en to distinguish the male 
jpondcr from the female ; as o m'tiM, a horse, from ww m*«a. > 
loare. A diKtinctioo is made in written langu^ betwe en o, 
wliich is pitl to anything royal, and oo (prooounoecl o-o, not A) 
which means givat, as may be instanced in tbe use of the 
mini m^^H or " npy." (literally ' eye-fixer '*) ; o msUkf u a 
prioeely or imperial spy, while co mttU'ii b tbe tfff in chieC 
This iutegedional adjective oo. great, b asaany jvefiied to ihe 
najne of the o^tal aty. whkh it is customary to call oo Tedo 
in speakiag to one of its inhaUtants, or when officials talk of it 
among tbeauelvee. And laally. tbe o of hckouar b prvfiicd to 
Vfsbs in all their forms of conjog^ion, and it is poiite to ay 
iNNMidUn Mutof. " please to see." instead of the ucce plebcMD 
miiwIUi Mdfar. Now the ifightaM oonnkntioa ihov* that 
«n Ei^lbb child of «ix yrmn old would at ocoe ondentukd 
tk«w femationa ; and if we <ia not thus inoavpontn in oor 
miiMT tlw o ^ of admiration and nvcvmtial iiinbaniniinrwl. 
it It WMfetr beeanse we hare not choatt to take advwil^e of 
thW nidi— taTy Meaiv nf ejcptesnon. Another dowly nBied 

X. H. DvkLMCWti^ 'Ewil^tOi 




1, tbe C17 of «o f has taken Its place in ctrtoolofor. 
inn added br the Germoa to his ciT of "Klru-!" "Munl«rt" 
Fan^riu 5 Moniia t H Rmains iculeed as mere an inteijectioa aa 
the*.' tBoarsfei««tcrus(ifFbMe-or"'*DusM}.''*or thcJ.'tn 
•U Geniwa wmfntdf -toaimsl'* kitftl "balii!" But tbe 
jMoqpMm of Xartb Attwrica makta a fiillcr na* «f bb *"**"*^ 
aokd «nrie» bis k» / o£ aJmintioa into tbe thj fbnoatioa of 
canpottttd wonia, ad*Jui!; it to a nottn to tay thai it la bMuitifbl 
or gooi ; tbd?. ID MohAwk. garonta meaaa • tree, ganmti^ t 
hwntifiil tree; iq like maniuT, (MLm moans "rivvrbeautifut:" 
■ad Ontario, "htll-mck-beantifu)." \g iI«rivM] in th« «amo wa^. 
Whok, in the otd tjmen of tbe Fr«acb 'Ocrapaltoa of OuiatU, 
then «aa jent over a GuvvnK]r-0«aenil ol:' New Fmiu-e, Mock 
■Bar it Motionagpy. tbe Iroqoms reiuWod bis name fn>m xh/nit 
«Qtt) ffnoafr, "nuHmtiiin," tianalatiBg him into thumtut, ur 
* Gr«u Moimtain." and tbos it canw to pan that tbe name of 
Omu» ms banilad down loi^ aft«T. Uke that of CW«ar. ta the 
ittfe «f each lainiwTiin^ jjoienior. while for the Kiii^ of KnuKU 
mi iBBBrced the jet hi^er stjle of " th« grnA Onoatif*.'* ^ 

l!he qoeafe of integectiona] derations for MMiA'-vrords is VfA 
h» lead Ih* etyuMdogHt into nrj raab specuktiuna. Ot» of hda 
hoi xafcgoarda ia to test (bmu sappuwd to be iutcj^Hional. 
if aaMrtamtag whether anything Bmihr baa cone ioto um in 
deeidedljr £rttnct lutgnages. Tor inetance. among the fouiduur 
aovnda wbteh &U vn tbe tiav«Uer*« ««r in Spwa ia iho uuW- 
tecf'a cry to bia beaala, arrt I «n*e .' From this iat«>^««tiou. a 
tenly of Spaniih wonla are teasonably supfwae^l to ho dwiwd ; 
tfc« rerb orrRtr. - to driire moles." (tiwrgi. tho name for iho 
"■niltlMi ' hnad( and ao forth' Now \a tbi.4 art* ! itw>lf a 
giwiiaii hr tey etional aovodt It seems tiku),T ti^ Iw bul Rv 
O^bBo WtboB fband it in use in tbo P^w bhnilH. nhero tbp 
ffWfTi intii*caaoa were kept up tn their work hv rryiui; t^ 
dM».«rra / onM / Similar interj«ctioas arv uoticcd ebewbem 

* aijcw . IblUwIi bag.' PL IC, fk SHithwiM. Outr. nO. iU. (hhootgl^ 

* Ikt «w • iMT iMn beo intmlaMrf iu* liiivps V th» Umn. m )| U mmI 
is JiaMB. ■»•( iM OH » Isof* tow w foih watty «Uh ih* limit* of iIm 
KiMfMi «i««tint, m 9^ai <vtc/ fa nwiMM wt»7 




■mth & fietiso of more aSimiatiDii, as in nn Aastralian dt«]e«t 
wbcie a-ree ! is eet dovru as meanins- " indeed," and in tbe 
Quichoa Innpmge where ari ! means " yes I " whence tlie verb 
ar*i/i(, " to ftffinu." Two other cautions are desiniblo in sach 
<;nquine.'i. TheKd are, uot to iravcl too far rrDm the absolute 
meaning expressed by the intoijcction, unless there is siroi^ 
corroborative avldeuce, and not to override ordiiiarj* etyraologj 
by treating donvative wurdii aH though they were nulical. 
1i\*tlhout these checks, even sound principle breaks down in 
application, aa the fciUowing two examples rauj' show. It is 
quite true that h'itt! in a conimon inteijcclional call, and tJiat 
the Dutch have made a verb of it, hemvien., " to hem after a 
pi-rson." We may notice a eimilar call in Wc^b Africa, m the 
mma ! which Is IransUtcil " hallo ! stop ! " in the language of 
Fernando Po. But to apply this lut a dcriration for German 
Iierumen, " to stop, check, restraJn," to )t^m in, and even to the 
/i«m of a garment, aa Mr. Wedgwood does without even a per- 
haps,' is travelling too fax beyond the record Again, it is quite 
true that BOumU of clicking and smacking of the lipit are com- 
mon csptviKioiis of satisfaction iill over the world, and words 
may be derived from these sounds, as whore a vocabulary of the 
Chinook language of Xorth-West America expresses " good " as 
Vk-toic-ie. or e-tok-ie, sounds which wo cannot doubt to be 
derived from such clicking uoiseii, If the words are not in fact 
attempts to write down the very clicks themselves, But it 
does uot follow that we may take such words us deltcicc. deli- 
catus.oMi of a highly organized language like Latin, and refer 
them, OS the same etymologist (loen, to an interjectiomd utter< 
anccof satisfactioo. rf^'ici.'- Todothisis to Jauore altogether the 
comiioHition of wordti ; wo niiglit an well explain Latin diUdw 
M'-Engliflh delight as direct formationn fi-om expressive souutl. 
In concluding the present topic, two or tUrcu groups of wonU 
nwybcbroiightforwafd m exampleaof the appUcation of coUecled 
evidence from a number of languages, mostly of the lower rocos. 
The ftfBrmativc and negative panicles, which bear in language 
such meaning8as"ye8l'""indeodl"'and"no!""not/'may have 

■ Wfdiprood, ■ OrigtB of Lugiufe,' p. SH. 

iii:, riio:..:. ■.Ni) .'.i; ;■ .tiv,: ■ *\.-- ■■■■ 
z:^:: ^ :~: ;. .!.ii.i-:> .n ■■!■■. i ■ .■ i -w--,.- ■ - ■• 

j..,i-; ,. , .'.■.■■■■■■,• . ../.■■. ,■- - ,-•■■ '.■•■■■- .■<ii'. - 

'.1^ ~'77.,i :,!.•'.' iS<' ■ !;■ ■ .:■ ',,.■:• ■ ' <■ ■ 

'jyit: . ".'..-■ -!"■■■;.: 1 ill '1 '..' ■ t .i.T . I'l.i iM' . ' 

3£r5 -ili; ■-■ 1- .' '';; .■ m lii'ir •i.l ■ ■■ 

Tice ■: ..:i:.;::i'.' -r'-.s .:.::. .n-:,l,'l n- :..■ .. -.■. ■■I \.> ■•'••■• 

&bii "V-iuii .-;■;.:.-. . .--M ■ . ;. . -.1 .1 ■■■ .i K-- 

t-iC'i*-'ti i';;..' ■ ■■ II ..'..» iiii > '■' 1 

.-inVlUiriTV > '..i- \i:- y.:i-:' • ■ i .;i..i . 1 ■ ■ '"■' 

■ {•jii. .i-(;.,i-i::.; ■ . ... • - ' - '■ .|.'.mI.-.! .. 

Souri.i-m ..":.■:'.■:■: - ■ ■■ ' ■■ ....-|,l 

aay " Ui'.l^ .: '." i,i:. .■..•-..... ,...:,. ,..| ■ . 

-yii.' :ini; ■■I. ■;;.-:. ...■<. ■■ ■■■ '■■ ■ ' '*■ ■ ' ■ ' ■' 

ami '" -.lii'. " ../ii- ;■■... ■...!. '■> i i.-i .... 

tL.Dk ' rill 

axp :ii'T -.■r ..- 
iiiOU: :.■'::■ 
aesm .■! ■ - ■ .- ■ 
.mil .-fiarii-;. r ■ - . - 
Oicli •■r.'i't.r^- - - * 
Tir.lUVi'.-: - -"■ 
UjiiIi* - .--.■• 
:fc«nfi- . . : r 

"i ',rT' f^T ".".'■'i. ' ■ - 

■r.:.u'r,3i - . 


"ii*- ..J*-"-'. 



Indiaus, Uic e / of tlie Soeiito, ami tbe at .' of tlio Kannri, hre 
some Qxamples of a wide group of forms, of which the foUoviuj^ 
ai-e only part of those nvted down in PoIyDcsiun mul Soutli 
American district* — HI ^l ia! aid io! ya! tyt etc.. A'/ 
kthi hf-e! h&! Meitali! ah-Ivx! etc The idea has most 
weiglit where pairs of words for " yes ! " and " no ! *' are found 
both coiiforniiug. Thua iti tlie very suf^stive dcscriptiou by 
Dobrizhoffi^r among the Abipones of South America, for " ye* I " 
the men ami youths say A/// the women say hda! aud the oW 
men give a gnint; while fnr"no" they nil say yna! nod make 
the loudness of the sound indieato the strotigtb of the itegation. 
Dr. Martina's cotlectioti of ^iwaliuiaries of Brazilian iribes. philo- 
logtcally very distinct, contaiiw geveral such pairs of affirmatives 
and negatives, the equiviilents of "yes!" — "no!" being in Tupi 
ayi! — aan ! mini /; in Ouato ii ! — mau !; in Jumana tt^ae ! 
— -mdiu!: in Mimnhn iia u! — -imnr ,' The QuicJiiiaof Peru 
affirms hyyfhu! ami expresses "no," "not," "not at all," by ama.' 
maiian / etc.. making from the latter the verb Tnanamtii, *' to 
deny." Tlie Quicliii of Guatumala has f, or w. for the iilHrmatire, 
mil, Ulan, ruana, for the negative. In Africa, again, Uie Golla 
langtiage has M / for " yea ! " and hn, hiri, /mi, for " not I " ; the 
Feronndian m / for " yes 1 " and 'nt for " not ; " while the Coptic 
dictionaiygives the affirmative (Latin "sane") as^w. (>, and the 
negative by a long list of nasal sounds kucIi as an, emmeTi, en, 
mmn, etc. The Sanskrit particles ki I " indeed, cerlainly," rut, 
" not," exemplif)' »imiliu* forms in Indo-European languages^ 
down to our a^ / and no ! ^ There mu«t be some meaning id 
all thiit, for ollierwise I coiiM hanily have noUti down inci- 
denuilly, without making any attempt at a general tiearch, eO' 
many ca-<ic.s from such different languages, only finding a com- 
paratively small uumbtT of contradictory canes.' 

Ue BroaHes maintained that ihe Latin dare, to stand, might 
be traced to an origin in fxpi-tasivi; sound. He fancied he 

' Alw) Oram hof — ambo ; Jlietnoe i — mv>. 

* A tl«abla ■Mntmlivlion in Cnrib niiAa«.'="yM!" oi(Ji/="[io!" Singl<> 
oontrailictiotia in Cftloijuinn hnnij.' Tupi t^ml Itotncnilo bemfiem/ Yorub* 
•fl/ for "yotl" Calliio aiff Auitnliaii j/of Tor "no!" Ac Ho* innch 
thtat ■otnidJi d*[i«nd m pMnliu intoQAUon, ve, who habitually om A'm / aittisir 
Tor "ywl" or "nal" eu ««ll und<>nttnil. 


coulil hear in it ad cn^anic radical sigu dcsi<;iiatiug fixity, and 
could thus expUiii why st ! &h<j\\\d be iifled as a call^to make a 
man stand siiU. Its conucxion wilb tlicsc sounds is oflca 
spokOD of iu moro modem boolcs, and one imagiQaCi\'e Gorman 
philolog^r describes their origin amoDg primeval mea as vividly 
ns thoQgh he hod been there to soc. A innn stands beckoning 
in vftin to a companion who does nut seo bitn, till at last " his 
effort relieves ittwlf by the help of the vocal nerves, and io- 
voluntarily there breaks from him the sound ft ! Now tho 
otber licarN the sound, tunis townnls it, wen the beckoning 
gesture, knowH that he is called to stop ;" and when tliis has 
happeued again and agaJu, tlio action comes to ho described in 
common talk by uttering tlie now familiar stf and thus sta 
becomes a root, the 8i|-iubol of theabstractidea t» stand!' This 
is a most injrtuicms coujucture. but uufortuiwitely uotldng raorc. 
It would be at any rate Rtreiigt lieiied, thoug^Ii not cstabhshed, it 
its supporters could prove that the at ! used to call people in 
Gonuuny, pal ! in S]>aiu, is itsflf a pure iutcrjt.'ctioual sound. 
Evc-n thia, however, has never been made out. The call has not 
yet been shown to be in use outside our ovra Indo-£urope&n 
family of languages ; and so long as it is only found in ubo 
within ibeee limitii, an opponent might even plausibly claim it 
as an abbraviation of the v^ry *fti/ ("stay! stopl") for which 
the theory proposes it as an origin.- 

Thal it is not unfair to ask for fuller evidence of a sound 
Wing purely iutcrjectioiml thau its appearance in a single 
family of huiguagus may be sliowu by examining another group 
of intetjectaons, which are found among the remotest tribes, and 

* (ClurlM de Brono) *1Wtj ile U Kommtion Uccaitifjne Aet LMngUM,' tie. 
I'aiU. An ix., ToL t. p. 333 ; rol. u. p. 313. Linnt* onJ StoinUul, 
'Zotscbrift fiir Volkoqi«;cbo1u<;iu,' etc, ruL L |>. HI. llc]r*a, 'SjsteiadBr 
^praohwisieiurhiin,' p. 78. Fitrtnr, 'CtiapCarn on Liiii;^iuj;t!,' [i. 2011, 

* Sliullai mmadu an iimd tu iiuniuiniid wileaoa, to vlop spe&kini; as trell u to 
Kto|» goini;. En^litti Atiihir leliiMf KUtf Wslsh wC/ Froacb tkull lulian 
zxtlal SwtHlUli 'j/*(/ lEiusUii »(■■' mA llio Latin -<■' no well doicribcd in tlw 
ciuMw old liaa qutttnL by Ur. Farrar, vliicli tomiiarcfl il witli Ilia f;cst<uv of tlie 
finger tm Uie lijiii : — 

" Itit, et Huiioomtui digllo qui ^goificst st/" 

TliiH gnup of iut«rJKtigiu, «eiiia, lus not Uec promt to 1m in ue eutnde 
Arjnn liiitits. 

VOL. I. a 



thus have really considerable claJms to rank among tho priman- 
souiuls of lauguogc. These arc tho itimplc fiilnlaots, s! A! 
I^Ai used especially to Hcare birds, aad amniig men lo express 
avernoQ or call for Hlleucc Catliu describes a p&riy of Sioux 
Indians, whou tbcy come to the portrait of a dead chief, each 
putting his band over bis mouth with a kitsh-slt ! and when he 
himself wiKhed tx> approach the snored " medicine " in a Mandan 
lodge, lie vas ojtlii'd to refrain by the same AiWi-sA / Among 
ours^olvea the sibilant interjection pafiseft into two exactly oppo- 
site senses, aceonling as it is meant to put the speaker himself lo 
silence, or to cummand Bilence for him to be heard ; and thus 
we find the sibilant used elKCwhcre, soraetime* in the one way 
and sometimes in the other. Among the wild V'eddahn of 
Ceylou, iifs! is au exclamation of diKapproval, as m ancient or 
modem Europe ; and the verb ehdrak, to hiss, is ti?ed in Hebrew 
with a like sense. " they aliall hiss him out of his place." But 
in Japan revcrena; is expressed by a hiss, commanding silence. 
Captain Cook remarked that the natives of the New Hebrides 
expressed tliuir odmimtiou by hisKing like gcctie. Caisuli^ sajs 
of tliQ Basuto^ " Jiisses are the meet unequivocal marks of 
appUuse, and arc as much courted in the African parliaments 
as they arc dreaded by our candidates for popular favwur." * 
Among other sibilant iuterjectioiiM, arc Turkish sA«d ! Ossetic 
».'*»/ "flilenccl' Fcrnandian *ia.^ "listen!" " tush ! " Yoi-ubft 
fled/ "pehaw!" Thus it appears that tlienc sound?, far from 
beiDg special to one linguistic family, are very wido-Bpread ele- 
monte of human spceeh. Nor is there any question db to tbeii' 
pasBage into fully-formed woida, as in our verb to hu^, which 
has passed into the souses of " to quiet, put to uleep " (" as hiuk 
as death "), metaphorically to hiitJi up a matter, Greek at^ia 
" to hush, Hay hunh ! command silence." Even Latin siitre and 
Gothic »i"/an, " lo be silent," may with some plausibility be ex- 
plained Bh derived from the interjectional s '. of silence. 

' Csllin, ' North AmeriiaD Indinni,' voL i. pp. 221, 3S, 151, 152. B^le; In 
*1Y. Etti. Ror-.'veL ii. p. SI9. Job xxviL SS. (Tlu Tcrb tUrot alM sipiiSx to 
c»ll by a kin, *■ tnd L« will liia* unto tbom fran Uio tBil of tht evUi, anil behold, 
Uw]' sImII come nitli ipced,' li. v. SO ; Jer. xix. 8.) Alcock, 'Tbc UapiUl of 
tlteTyrMii,'TaL L p. 394. Cook, '2iid Toy.,' vol. iLii. 36. Oruti-S ' ItesilM,' 


Sanskrit dictionarieti recognizv several words vhich explicitly 
Rtiite their own intorjcctional derivation : nucTi am kAiiMra 
(AlJni-makiiig), " llw utterauce of the mystic religious exclama- 
tion kAmJ'* ami p^'i^ila (f if-«oum]), " a huts." Baitde tlieeo 
obvious formations, Oie iuterjectional element ispreseat to some 
more or leim degree in the list of Sanskrit nulicals, which repre- 
eeut proU-ibly better than those of anj other l&nguage the veri^ 
roots of the ancient Aryan stock. Id rri., "'to roar, ciy, wail." and 
mhikli," to laugh," we have the simpler kind of ioterjectioual 
derivation, that ivhich merely describes a soiiDd. A.ito the mcire 
difficult kiud, which corn- tlio «cwtc into a uew stage, Mr. Wedg- 
wood makeii out a strwig case for the connexion of intcrjoctioos 
of loathing and avenuon, 8ucb oa }»oo}i! jief etc, with that lafge 
group of wordij which arc reprcsciilctL in English by /buf and 
Jiend, in Sanskrit by the verbs p4j/, "to become foul, to sttnJc," 
and piy, pSy, "to revile, to hate" * Further evidence may be 
hero adduced in support of this theory. The languages of the 
lower races usie tlie stouint ptt to express an evil smell : the Zulu 
remarks that "the meat eaya pa" (inyama iti jdu), meaning 
that it stinks ; the Timorese has pnOp " putrid ; " the Qnidi^ 
language has puh, pok " corruption, pus," poliiT " to tarn bad, 
rot," pttjE " roCteunesB, what atiulu ;" iXw Tupi word for nasty, 
puxij may be compared with the Idtia putiduM, and the Go- 
InmbtaBiver name for tbe "^unk." o-/nMi-^n, with similar 
samea of vtinking auintaht, Sanskrit pAiikd " civei-cat." and 

*T«dgvaad, 'Origin ■>! Ijtnga^c' pL S3, 'IKelidBU7,'IittMd.pL xliLandiLV. 
"GnL" PraClUxUiiUcr, •LeetVTM.'Sndwtfai.IKOf.rTatMtl^liartdwia- 
JbcriiiiBBto 4«ivmtigB «f vorda 4incUr tram MKh ctiw u4 iBl*i7»etwn^ 1^^ 
4* la torm tiM ol ietemioKU roobk As t* tlw iracut tofic, b« paint* oat 
that Loiii pMa, fMtfrtf««, (iothic/Mk Eai^uliJta^liilkwrMiuD'vbsuifvvnb 
dnivMl tnm m angle noL Adainlag tUM, fcofwr , tb» itnMtloii ha* M W 
niMd, kdv fcr jnt9 iati^»edtt» tai ttA HiiKt dmrattvM, btiag mit-iafrm- 
mn and M l9 apiA Uraig Moadi, m iSmM by i4»«ti( dia^t taeh h Ikal 
«f Oiimi'a Uv, vIm^ iH on arlkalato aenada u» iaags tSj t sf nadrt tm 
tbenaalTM, bat IhimIhI daws hj ntn tnlhko. TbM p aad / wear la mm 
^td iba mme dtakrt in inUQeetkm of iliifat and vttnkmt yXl taA Jit 
Mm Wi inTmu-aor I'uii, joct aawwiar lamaiMwaaU ia in Lowtoo. la 
ttacteg tUa poBp «< maJifrw taatj-XijaB fcnai^ it wat alaa t* atliead ftat 
&^krit n*TvijimpahagMtiUr lu a^ifaakS liaa w /, and it cm imdtf 
0ivaUMnlaiBlliiaBatlarinlaafDagMpo«nifeigboApaad/. aadtkoaaqMUa 



French pnioh "pole-caC From tJie French inteijection fi.f 
words liaVQ long been formp^l bolonging to th« Ifm^ogo, if not 
autlienticatf-'cl Tjy ihe Academy ; in medisBval Fi'ench 'maistre 
/(-_/(.' WM a recognized term for a scavenger, antl jUfi books 
are oot yet extinct. 

There has Iwen as yet, imforttiiiatply, too much separation. 
bctwceu what may be called generative philologj-, which car- 
amines into the ultimate urigiiis of wonb, and hiiitorical phi- 
lology, which trace3 their transmission and change. It will be 
a great gain lo the science of language to bring these two 
bnmchctj of enquiry intu clueer nnior, even as tlic pmccHEcs they 
relate to have been going on together since the eailifst days of 
spcoeh. At. prosoot tlio bistoricai philologists of tlic school of 
Qrimm and Bopp, whose great work lias been the trftcing of 
ouv Indo*Kiiropeaii dialects to nn early Aryan form of language, 
havo had much the advantngo in fiilncss of evid*tire and stj-ict- 
nesa of trontment. At the same time it is evident that tho 
views of the generative pbilolofpsts, from Do BrossGS onwaid, 
embody a smmd principle, uiid that, much of the evidence col- 
lected as to emotional and other directly expressive words, is of 
the highest value in the argument. But iu wurkiug out tho 
details of sxicb wonl-fonuatiou, it must be remembered that ao 
department of philology lies more open to Augustine's caustic 
remark on the etyoiologi^ta uf hU time, tliat like the interpre- 
tation of dreams, the derivation of words is set down by each 
inan according to Lis own faucj-. (Ct somuioi-um interpretatio 
ita vcrliorum origo pro cujusfjuc ingenio piwdicatur.) 



Imltntire Wonis— Huuiiui «i;ligni nanieil Trum Kaund^Aniiiinls' namu from. 
crias, elr. — MaiJca] iurtraiiieiit*— SuuiiOi wprodticed— Words moiiifisd tw 
»<bfl cauRil to frnm—lUdiii'liciitiou— nrwluation of vnmls to expnn 
ilurtiiQ'i'« ftn<l iliilcn^iicD— Chitilnri':! l^ngiiit|fii— Sonnd-ROirls na related to 
Soiue'vrorda — I^nguogi: nil itriguiul jinHltict of Uie lower Culture. 

From Lliu uarlicsl timcii of laQgiinj^e to otir own day, it is 
unlikely that mcii ever q\iite ceased to be conscious that some 
of their words were derived from iuiitatioa of llic common 
sounds benrd about tbom. Id out ov.-n modem iunglish, for 
iiistauce, resuUii of tiuch imitation are evident; flics buzt, bees 
/mm, BiinJces /( MX, a PvacVor or a bottle of giuger-l>eer ;)o;w, a 
eanaon or a biltcni looms, la the words for auiniaU aud for 
rausical iuKtriimeDtn in tlie various langtiagcR of the world, the 
imitation of their cnc-s aud toiiei^ \» ufieu lo l)l-^ plainly lieanl, 
as in the iiamvs of thtt kuofim, tlie ui-nl Kluth, the hiJca purrut, 
the Eastern tcmima, which is a drum, the A]"iica.-i ulnlx, which 
i» a flute, the Siamese l-hon<]-bv»ff. which U a wooden harmoni- 
con, and so on throiijjli a JKhit nf other words. But these evi- 
dent cases arc far from representing the whole effects of imita>- 
tiou oil the growth of laujjuuge. Tliuy form, indeed, the easy 
entruacc t« a philological region, which becomes Icsa penetrable 
the farther it is explored. 

The operations of which wc ma the renults before iu in the 
actual languages of the world soem to have been Eomowliat as 
fotlowtL Jtlcn have imitated their ou'U emotional utterances ur 
interjections, the cries of animals, the tones of musical inatru- 
mentii, the tiuunds of shoutluj;, howling*, ittawping, breaking, 
tearing, scraping, and 80 fortii, which are alt day coming to their 




ears., anil out of Ibese itniutions many u-orJ» of language indis- 
putably have tlieir ooiircc. But these wokIs, iu> we find them 
in use, (lifft^r oft^ii widely, often boyoncl all rocognitioD, from 
the original sounds they spntog from. In the first place, man's 
voici; can only make a very ni<le copy of moKt sounds his ear 
receives : liin possible voueU an> very limited in their range 
compared witli natural tones, and lii<i jxiNidble <-an<ionant8 Htill 
more licIpleKj aa n itKiuis of imitating natural noises. Zilore- 
over, hb voice is only allowed to use a part even of this imper- 
fect imitative )>awer, seeing that each language for its own con- 
venience restrict-H it to a trniall nitmhcr of set vowels and oon- 
Bonants, to which tlic imitative soundit have to conform, thus 
becoQung conventionalized into articulate words with further 
loss of imitative accuracy. No class of words have a more per- 
iod imitative origin than those which simply profess to be vocal 
imltatintiR of sounit. How onltnnry nlphabeta to Rome extent 
succeed and to some extent fail in writing down the?;e sounds 
n&y be judged from a few cxamplen. Thu!<, the Australian 
imitation of a Rpear or bullet striking is given m toop ; to the 
j5ulu, when a calabash is beaten, it t.ays boo ; tlio Karens hear the 
flitting ghnfiU of the dead call in the wiiiling voice of tlie wind, 
lie )*, )W ro ; the old traveller. Pietro della Valle, tells how the 
Sliali of Persia KUeered at Timur and hi-4 Tatai-x, with their 
arrows that went itTier ; certain Umldhint heretics main(,-unod 
that water is alive, because when it boils it says cJticJiiid, 
cItU'ichUa, a symptom of vitality which occasioncil much theo- 
logical controversy as to drinking cold and warm water. Lnfitly. 
MUDd-words token up into the general inveutury of a Innguugo 
have to follow it* organic changes, and in the course of phonetic 
transition, combination, decay, and mutilation, to lose ever more 
and more of their original shape. To toko a single example, 
the French kuer "to shout" (WeUh hca) may Iw a pertect 
imitative verb; yet when it poises into modern English hte and 
cry, our changed pronunciation of the vowel deatroya all imita- 
tion of the call. Now to the language-makers all thin was of 
little nccount^ They merely wanted recognized words to oxprcM 
recognized tliuugblK, and no doubt arrived by repeated trials at 
nystem* which were found practically to an-iwer this purpose. 


But to the mod«m philologist, who u attempting to work out 
the eonvcnw of the prolilcm, nntl to follow (jnckwanl the coiirao 
of words to origiual imitative suiiuJ, the difficulty ia nioat 
cia1>arnissiiig. It is not only thnt thousands of words really 
derived from such inntation may now hy siiceossivo uhango 
have lost all safe traces of their hiirtory ; Kuch men* deficiency 
of knowledge in only a minor evil. What is far worse is that 
the way is thrown open to aa uidlnntcd number of fidsi; soln- 
tionB, which yet look on the face of them fvdly as like tnith m 
others which we know historically to he true. One thing is 
clear, ttiat it is of ni> use to resort to violent means, t^> rush in 
among the words of language, explaining them away right and 
left as derived each from »omo remote application of an imita- 
tive noise. The advocate of the imitative Theory who attempts 
this, trusting in his own powers of discernment, has indeed 
token in hand a perilous tAsk, for, in fact, of all Judges of the 
question at issue, be hm uouriiilied and trained himself up to 
beoomc the very worst. His imagination i.s ever suggesting to 
him what bis judgmaut would iika tu find true ; liku a witness 
answering the qucstionit of the counsel on his own side, he 
answers in good faith, but with what bias wo all know. It was 
thus with De Brosses, to whom this dcpartuiuDt of philology 
owes HO much. It is nothing to say that he had a keen ear for 
the voica of Nature ; Bhe must liave positively talked to him in 
alphabetic language, for he could bear the i>ound of holluwucMS 
in the ak of aKdirrai " to dig," of hardness in tbe oai of calUmty 
the noise of inKcrtion of a body between two others Jn tbe tr of 
trans, intm. In enquiries so liable to misleading fancy, no 
pains ftliould be spart^d in Hccuring impartial testimony, and it 
fortunately happens that there are available sources of such 
evidence, wbicU, when thoroughly worked, will give to tbe 
theor)' of imitative words as uoar an approach to accuracy as 
has been attained to in any other wide philological problem. 
By comparing a number of languftgos, widely apart in their 
general syBtems and materials, and whoee agreement as to the 
words in qucstioD eaa only he accounted for by similar fonna- 
tioD of words from similar suggestion of sound, wc obtain groups 
of words whose imitative character Ik indisputable. The groups 



bere consitlereil consist iu geocral of iiniiacive words of tiif 
simpler liind, tltoito directly connected with the special souud 
they arc taken from, bnt their exximiitatioQ to sotno extent 
adtuits of wonU hcing brought in, wheru the connexioB of the 
idea expressed with the sound imitated is more remote. This, 
Iwdy, opens the far wider and more dlSBcult problem, how far 
imitation of soiindH ia the primiir^' catisu of the gKoX uiatts of 
words iu tbo vocubularies of the world, between whose sound juid 
MDSO no direct cunncxiuii exists. 

Words whici) express human actions acc«mpanici.l with sound 
form & very large &ud intelligible chias. In remote and most 
different languages, we find such forms aapii, /ni/ 6m, buf, j'u, 
faf, in use with the meaning of pu^iig, /«^»3, of blowing; 
Malay pupiit; 'I'ongan hnJii; Maori pupui; Australian 60- 
&UM, biLu-hit7t ; GnWu inc/tt, tij'u/a ; Zn\ufnUi,}riinria,pujmza 
(fit, pu, used OS expressive particles) ; Quichd;)»6(t; QuichuajfU- 
huni ; Tupi y/w« ; Finuiali puhk'ut ; Hebrew pnach ; Danish 
3>]irff! ; Lithunnian jiKcm ; anil in numlwrs of other languages;' 
here, grammatical adjtmctii apart, the 8igiu6cunt force lies in 
the imitative syllahlt-. Savages have named tlie Zurupeau 
musket when thej saw it, by the sound pu, deacrihitig not the 
report but the puff of smoke issuing from the muzjtle. The 
Society I^landcrB Niipposcd at first that the wlittc mcu blow 
through the baixel of the gun, aud they called it accordingly 
jmpu/d, from tlio verb prihi to blow, while the Now Zwdondens 
more simply called it a ;>u. SotheAmaxo^ of South Africa call 
ititmptf. from the imitative souud i/u / The Chinook Jargon of 
Kortfa Wo«t America usca the phrase mamookpoo {tatikc pov) 
for a verb " to shoot," aud a aii-chambered revolver is called 
iakuui poo, i. «., a " six-poo." ^\^^en a European uses the word 
pvj^ to denote the discharge of a gun, he is merely uKing the 
same imitative word for hlowiug wliieh describes a pvff of wind, 
or CTCn a powder-pu/T or a jmff-hall ; aud when a pistol is called 
in colloquial German a iniffer, the meaning of the word matches 
that used for it in French Argot, a "sou0laDt." It huii often beeu 
supposed that the ^i:'^ imitates the actiml sound, the huiirj of 

' M|ioii^e ptinjina ,- Bttnto /vi-a .- Cuib ^Atw&b ,* Anvac opjMm Cgncm 
nfllftre). Uthur cues atv ffvai I17 Wedgmnxl, 'Or. of t^ng.,' |>. 83. 


the gun, and this lias been brought forwanl to show by what 
extremely diifei-eut words one and the eauie Bouut] may b« imi- 
tated, but this is a mistake.' Tlicse derivations of the name 
of tfio giin from the notion of blowing correspond with those 
which givp naiWH U> the coiiip«ratively iioiHeU-iUi h]ow-tub« of 
the bird-huittcr, called by the Indians of Yucatan a puh, in 
South America by the Chiquitos a pucuna, by the Cocanms a. 
pvyna. Looking into vocabularieH of languages which have 
Buoh verb* '■ to blow," it is usual to fiud with them other words 
apparently related bo them, aud exproHsing more or less distant 
ideas. Thus Austroliau poo-yu-, pnya " smoke ;" QuichuiL 
pnJiucuni "to Uglit a fire," punquini "to swell," pUf/u, 
puhuifu, " a cloud ; " Maori /iuku. " to pant," pvka " to swell ; " 
Tupi pupil. pupttii: "to boil;" Galla bube "wind/' bubisa "to 
cool by blowing;'* Kaauri (root /») Junghi "to blow, swell," 
/urtWw *'a stuffed paxl or l>olster," etc, buhule "bellows" 
QmbvU fwngln " I blow the bellows ") j Zulu (dropping the 
prefixea) ^wjt". 2'>uk\Lpu " frothing, foam," whence jnijfcupuJttt 
"an empty frothy icWov ," .pupnnui "to bubble, boil," Ju "a 
cloud," fum/a " bUiwa about like liigh gi-ass in the wind," 
whence Jamfuia " to lie confuseil, thrown into disorder," fvXo 
" bellows," /«6«t "the breaat. chirat," thunco figuratively "boeom, 

The group of words belonging to the closed lips, of which 
mxtm, Ttiuvivmiwj, mamhU are amuiig the muuy (onas belong- 
ing to European languages,^ are worked out in like manncr 
among the lower rtices — A''eimttwtt"dun)b"; Mpongft'e ImaTntc 
"dumb" ; ^ulu munutiu (from m»i)Ui, "amotion with tlio mouth 
as in mumbling ") "to move the mouth or lips," nmniata, "to close 
the lips OS with a mouthful of water," mumutamumuza "to eat 
moutbfuls of coin, etc, with the lipe shut ;" Tahitian mavw 
"to be Bilent,"' omumu "to murmur;" fijinn, nomo. nomo- 
rwnu> " t« bo sileot ;" Chilian, Homn "to be dlont ;" Quiche, 
7H«m "mute," whence mmun- "to become mute;" Quicbua, 
amtt "dumb, silent," amuUini "to have something in tho 
mouth, aniulUiifaeum nmieUi "to mutter, grumble." The 

* Sm Wadgmod, Die., s. t. '•■mm," Me. 



group reprceeoteJ hy Sanskrit I'kHt'kH " the sound of 8|)itting," 
Fenian thu kcrtlon (laokc tfiu) "to Kpit," Greek nr^w, may be 
comparad with C'iiiiiouk rnarnook tok, took (make i<fk, iooK) ; 
Cliiliaii tuvc^^n (make tv.v)\ Toliitian tutua; Galla tvni; 
Yonibft /i(. Amonj; the Sanskrit verb-roots, none carries its imito- 
tire nature more plainly thnn hsku " to sncozo ;" the following 
analogous forms arc from South America: — Cbilitui, etkiun; 
Qutchiia.dtr/i/jmi; ami froin vurioiut lan^in^s of Brazilian tribo^ 
teclMMti, haitticIi'U, aleJfian, imtscltnu, aritiscfiune, etc AniiLhar 
imitativo verb is well sliuwu in tlic Nojjru-English dialect of 
Suriuam, vjam "to eat" (pron, tiyam), ■njam-njam "food" 
(" eu hem -njarijant ben do spriukliau nanga boesi'boni" — 
"and hi* meat was lociwts and wild honey"). In Australia the 
imitative verb "to eat" re-appcars visgnavi-ant}. In Africa, the 
Susu language lias nimmtn, " to taste," and a similar formation 
ia observed in tlte '/m\\\ natnbita " to smack the lips after 
eating or touting, and thenco to be tasteful, to be pleasant to 
the mind," This is an excellent instance of the transition of 
mere imitative sound to the expresaion of mental emotion, and 
it corresponds with the imitative way in which the Yakama 
language, in speaking of little childi-en or pet animals, expresses 
the verb "to lovo" as Tiem-nO'sha (to make wVi-ii"). In wioro 
civilized countries these forms aro mostly confined to baby-hin- 
guflgo. Tlio Chiueao child's word for eating is nam, in English 
nunjerict nivi is noticed na nnxwcring the same purpose, and 
the Swedish dictionary' even recognizes namnant "a tid-bit." 

As for imitative names of animaU derived from their cries 
or noises, they arc to be met with in vvnry language, from the 
Australian Uconk " frog," tlie Yakania Tot-iy>l " lark," to the 
Coptic ceio "ass," the Chines Ktaou "cat," and tlio Englidh 
cuckoo and jwwmnV. Their general principle of formation being 
ucknowk-dgeJ, their further philological iutert-st turns mostly 
on cases whero corresponding words have thus been formed 
independently in distant regions, and those where the imitative 
name of the creature, or its habitual isound, passcH to express 
some new id«a suggested by its cliaracter. The Sanskrit name 
of the htifm crow rc-apjM;ani in the name of a similar bird in 
Briti&h Columbia, the kah-kait ; a By is colled by the natives of 


Auslrftlia a bumberoo. like Sanskrit iKtmUiai-dl! " a fly." Greek 
^ofjtj3^Atc;, and our hurnblf.-'boc. Aiialogotui to tho name of the 
tx-iM, tlie terror of African travellers, ia ntHijiisi, tho worJ for 
" a fly" amon^ the. Basuios, wliicli sIko. by n viinplc mutaphor, 
aenres to expreea the idea of " a parasite." Mr. If. W. Bates's 
iJcscription mxma to settle tbc dispute among naturalista, 
whether the toucati had its uame from its cry or uot. Ue 
speaks of its lond, shrill, yelping erica having "a vague re- 
semblance to the Byllablos tocano, toe n o , and hence tho Indian 
name of this genua of birda" Granting thia, we can irace this 
sound-word into a very new moaning ; for it appears that tho 
bird's nion»trouH bill }iiik suggested a name for a uertain large- 
Doscd tribo of Indians, who are acconlingly called the TueaiMs} 
The cock, gallu ffiiquiriqui, an the Spauiah uunwry-language 
calls him. ha* a long list of nmne-s from varinus languages 
which in various ways imitate hi* crowing; in Yoruba he is 
called hohlo, in Iho okoh), ukoht, in Zulu kuku, ia Finnish 
kitUco. in Sanskrit hiJd'uta, and so on. He is mentioned in 
tho Zend-Avesta in a very curious way, by a name which ela- 
borately imitates his cry, hut which the ancient Persians seem 
to have held disrespectfiil ti> their huly bini, wiio rouses men 
from sleep to good thoHght, word, and work ; — 

*' Th.6 kird who boani tho nnmo of TuriWaM, holy Kamthiuitni ; 
Upon whom eril-dp«&kiiie men iuitoHO tho aatae Ka/irhataj." ' 

ITie crowing of the cock (Malay ktUnruk, hihik) serves to 
mark a point of time, cockcrow. Other words originally derived 
from such imitation of crowing have passed into other airiously 
transformed mcauiugM : Old French cocart "vaiu;" modem 
French cfxjurt " fltnitting like a cock, coquetting, n cormmb;" 
cocanta "a cockade" (from its likened to a cock's comb); one of 
the best instances isivquclicof,a name given for the same rcatKin 
to the wild poppy, and even more distinctly in Languedoc, 
where cac(trac& uicuum butli the crowing and the tlower. The 
lien in some languages has a name corresponding to that of the 
cock, as in Kusaa kukudv-na "cock," kitkuJiovi " hen ;" Ewe 

^ Bftto^ 'Katnmluit m th« .Imuoti*,' Siul cd., [>. tai; Murkliaiu In 'Tr. 
Etti, Boe-.'Tol. Ui p. US. 
■ 'AvRta,* Parjc. xvJlL 8J-.'!. 



Jcoido-tmi. " cock," Icvklo-no " hen ; " and Iter eaekU (■vthaaao 
Hbe has in Switzerland the name of 'jngel, yilggct) bax paBed 
into language an a txsrm for Idle gossip and cUatlcr of wotDen, 
euqiLd, aiq-iuUr, gackcrn, much at) the noise of a very different 
creature seems to have givea rue not only to ite name, Italian 
ciada, but to a gioup of wurds reprcwentod by eUaiar " to 
cliirp, cKntter, talk Billily," Tlie JU('r/coi^ ir a good exiunple of 
this kind, botli for soimd aud ttcuee. It is Latin pipio, Italian 
pippiort^, ]>u%-u)ii«, p'ujione, modern Greek VLVunoBt French 
pvpwn {q\A), pigeon ; its derivation is from the youug bird's 
peep, Latin piptre, Italian pipiuiv, pir/iolare, mudcm Greek 
vtfrictCu, to chirp -, by a» easy metaphor, a pigeoti comes to 
mean "a silly young fellow easily caught," to pigeon "to 
cheat," Italian p!^)io)i8 "a silly guU, one that is soon caught 
and trepanned," j«7ij>iOHa>'e " to pigeon, to gull ono," In au 
entirely ditferont family of languages, Mr. Wedgwood points 
out a curiously iriniilnr proccJW of derivation ; Magyar pipegni, 
pipditi " to peep or cheop ;" pipe, pijiOl: " a chicken, gosUng ;" 
pipe-erribtt- {cWickeu-maa), "a silly younjffijllow, booby."' The 
derivation of Greek jSovs, Latin hos. Welsli hu, from the ox's 
lowing, or booing va it is called iu tliu uortb cuiiutry, has been 
mufdi dehatei]. AVith an excessive dei^ire to make Biuuiknt 
answer as a general ludoEuropean typo, Bopp connected Sans- 
krit ifo, old Oummn chuu, Engliiih cow, with tliese words, oii the 
unusual and foitred asaumption of a change from guttunJ to 
labial' The direct derivation from sound, however, is favoured 
byothor languages, Cochin-Cliinese ho, Hottentot hon^ The 
beasl mi;Y almost answer for himself in the words of that SpauiflU 
proverb which remarks that iiooplc talk according to their 
nature : " Habl6 el h\u^, y dij6 bu ! " " Tho ox spoke, and ho 
said boo!" 

Among muffcal instmnicnts witli imitative names arc tho 
following : — the ^iecshee-quoi, the mystic rattle of tho Red 
Indian medicine- man, an imitative word which re-nppeaii) in the 
Barien Indian dtuJe-Aal; the akool-^sJiook of the Arawaks, tlie 

> Vcdgwood, Die, «. r. "pdgeon ;" Diux, ' Elym. Warterb.,' t. t. "picoiano." 
■ Bopp, 'GIoMi SanxT.,* a V. "g/*." Sea Pott, ' Wtmel-WMtMb. dsrjiule- 
Ckm. Spt.t* •. ▼."go,* ZUilneUu, p. 227. 

Chinook 8Auj;& (wheDce gknyh^poota, mtUe-tail, «.«., " mttl^ 

suake;") — the drum, «iiU>il gttngti in TIniitom, f/iiM';>i/i in ihu 

Toralm countiy, gun^tmui by tlio Ciiitlas, luid li»viii^> itn itutt- 

logue in the Ba«teni gong; — tho lull, collod in Yiilciuna 

(N. 'Araer.) kuxi-lnl-hm-iul, in Yalof (\V. Aft-,) VHihml, iii 

Rnssian hofokoL The sound of thu hunt is imitaU-'il in Eiigliali 

Duiseriesi ns toot-toot, nnd this is tniUNfumxl lu cx[iruu thu 

"omnibus" of which the huglo Is tho signal : with this nnriiory 

word is to be clasaod ilio Funiviait naiiiu fur Um "nholl- 

trampct," pittuhti and the Gothic l/nitltatirn (ihut-hum), which 

is even used in the Ootluc Biblu fur Iho liut truiiiiMil uf Iho da^f 

of judgment, — "In sp&iifitin thuthadrnu. lUuUiabrnc-itli auk job 

da6thaaa lut^^udand " (1 Cor. xr. 5S). Hovr tiuch imitutivo 

irords, when thoroughly tnkcn tip into lanifiugii, BiiHvr chAiigo 

of pronuDciatiott in which tiie origin&J MMiiKl-mc-Aninfi; i^ liwtj 

may be seen in tbc'EogUsb word kUwr, which vie mi^bL not 

recognize us ft wnuul-word at all, did wo not notiou Uwt U U 

, nvokeh to&our, a word whidi in t>ie fonn twnibour obviouxly 

ifaelong* to a group of wonlx for dninui, oxt4?n(lin)^ frotii tho 

\ «iiaD lattlin^ Arabic tuhl to Lbu I ndian daiuUiubi aud tbit ionibe, 

\ tin Hoqtii dram made of a hollowed lo^ Tlio nuaa gfviip 

riiovs the tjaaxf«r of such imitalivu word« to ubjvcts whicfa 

are like the inxtrumeut. but have nothing to do with iht aound ; 

.few people who talk of Ctimbwr-work, ajid fewur Btill who 

of u ft>uti(tDol m a tahmird, *iV^^\^ thuK.- wurdx with 

tiui aouad uf a dram, yet (3ie oouaexian b clear enough. 

Wfaen these two proceaMti go on togetber, and a aouikd-word 

[duqgca it* ocigioal sound on the otie baud, tutd tranaCuni lU 

: to aoraetbiiig else on the other, the n«ult may eooc 

[Aawe philoloipcal aualriuA <juite holpl«M, tmluM by accidout 

Siuiorieal cndoooe ic fortbcomuig. 13tu» with the Engti<«b 

word j"jje. Pvttiag aade the porticubu' prouuneiaiion wliicb 

. ^re givt; Hie. word, and refi^rring it back to itu FreucU or mudi- 

anal lAtin raund iu jtipe. pipa, wc have Le£ore lu an evidoot 

imhattvtr name uf a niaaioU iuatruuMUt, durivod from a iamJIiaf 

usmI also to repr«H!Ot tb« chirping of cbidtcos, Latin 

p^ire. Kiiglirii u> pa^. as in the traiislation of Iwlidi vitl 

19: "Se^ . . . onto wtcardi) thai foi^. and Uiat mutler." 

fiU {wak niiBMiliiif Mfi^ tfcor BMC far i 

ftd^MtWmnlpCrwfcMlwMi tiwirfwui fioa tW anal 
lHtfl«M»t to vki^ it fint betoi^eil, and k ^^ lo ■^■■iJi» 
talm of vanoni ■orti^ gMpipei^ watepf^e^ aii FV** >■ 
yiMnL TbcR i* notlui^ imuiBil id time traamAamm of 
■atiiDtng. vkidi are ia Cict lather tbe mle Utaa tW e iLe p tiw L 
IV ettibouJ: vm or^mallT a Iiegdaiian's pipe or late ia Onlal 
JUOM. Tb£ cu^ujnct. popular!/ nuked wiUi tbe IrMiahawfc and 
Um mocaana aiaoiig AancUrudc Red Indian wwda^ h dbIt 
111* Mue Cor a sbeptumT* pq>c (Latm calammt) in tb« dialect 
of Konuaiidy, oomvpoDdtng with the «&alMnMu of liter&rr 
Frendi ; fur «b«D tli« cariy coIcmisU in Canada saw the Indjani 
pcrfonning tbv >rtnu>ge operation of smoking, "with a hoUow 
piece of RtOQC or wood like a pipe," as Jucqaee Outier has it, 
tbejr moreljr gave to the niitivc tohncco-pipc the name of the 
VroDch mtnical iustnimeut it reaemblod. Now changesof sound 
BiiiJ of w-ruio like tliia of the Engliiili word pipe must have been 
in cuiitjtiual upOTatioti in hiitidrcds uf languages where we hare 
no DTidence to follow them by, and where we probably may 
ni*vnr obtniu such evidence. But what little we do know must 
ouniiivl tin to do juHticQ to thu imitatiuii ufMund lui a really 
BxisUDg procem, capable of runii»lilng »n indefinitely large 
nipply of wonlH for thing>i and actions which have uo neces- 
nry connexion lit all with that tiound. Where the traces of 
the tnuiflfor tun IohL, the result is a stock of words which ars 
the deN)iikir nf filiilotogiiiLH, Init aru peiliapu none the Ie«8 £tted 
for L)i<> pruriicnl umc of men who eimply want recognized sym- 
boU fur h<c«^'iii/Ail idL-tiH. 

Tim i'liiitu of thi) Kjwtcni (oTntcvi to liavc it« name firom a 
fitflru imitalion of iti poiiikI liecm!^ an indisputable one ; but 
when wi» imticc in what various lnnmmj{ps the beatinj^ of a re- 
■nimdinjf ohjocl in I'^tpret^t'd hy something like turn, tumb, 
tump, htp, a» ill JiLviui tutubtd; Coptic tmno, " to pound in a 
mortar," it iM'vonioM evident that tlie ndmiRsion involves more 
tlionnt first si|,'1il iip]>eiini. lu Malay, fiiitpti,fainpri, is "to beat 

out, hammer, foigc ; " in the Chinook Jargon tum-ium is " the 
heart," and bv eombiningthesamc soiiml willi the English word 
" water," a nnma is made for " waterfall," /itni-iwito. The 
Oallns of East Africa doclore that n box on the oar ftorau 
to them to maku a noise like tub, for ih&y call itK oouad tub' 
djetla, that U, "to say tub" In the Rame language, (unia ist 
"to beat," whence tuniiii, " a workman, especially owe who boata, 
a sraitli," With the aid of another imitative wonl, i»/a " to 
blow," the Gallas can construct this wholly imitative sentence, 
twrtUtim, hufa biiftl, " fclio workraaii blows the byllovra," as an 
English cliild might say," the iuniiurn pufftt iyie. pv^et'." Thia 
imitative souml seems to have obtained a footing among the 
Arj'an verb-roots, oa in Sanskrit ivp, tuhk " to smite," while in 
Qreelc, tup, tump. Las the meaulug of " to beat, to thump," pro- 
ducing for instance rvft-aai-w, tynipdwum, "a dnim or tofotom." 
Again, the verb to crack lias become in modern English as tho- 
rough a root-woi-d aa the language possesses. Tho mere imita- 
tion of the souud of breaking has passed into a verb to break ; 
we apeak of a cracl'cd cup or a eroded reputation without a 
thought of imitation of sound ; but we caimot yot U80 tho 
Gorman kmcheii or French crLtqiuv in thia way, for they have 
not developed in meaning as our word has, but i-emain in their 
purely imitative stage. There are two corresponding Sanskrit 
words for the saw, hifi-htra, l-iri'kacha, that is to say, the 
" kni- maker, tm-crier ; " and it is to be oWen'od that all sucti 
terms, which cxpres-sly state tliat they are imitations of sound, 
are particularly valnabic evidence in these ewjuirics, for wbat- 
ever doubt tUcrL- may be as t<i other words being really derived 
from imitated sound, there can, of com-se. be none here. More- 
over, there ia evidence of the samo sound having given rise to 
icottativc words in other families of language. Dahoman kra- 
kra, "a watchman's rattle;" Grebo grikd "a saw;" Aino 
chaeha "to saw," Malay ^-aji " a aaw," i-urui " to gnash tho 
teeth," karot "to make a gmting noise;" Coptic kftrij "to 
gnash the t«eth," khrajrej " to grate." Another form of tho 
imitotioD is given in the descriptive Galla expression cacak- 
djeda, i. ft, " to say caad;" " to cmck, h-achen." With tliis 
sound corresponds a whole family of Peruvian words, uf which 



tiic root sccma to be tlie gutUim] cca, comiiif; from far Lack in 
the throat; ceaWcmi, "to break." ccataUini, ^'to gnaab the 
tocUi," ccachiy, "thuudcr," aud tlio expressive vroni for "u 
thunderstorm," octtccaccuka};, which tarriwi the imitative pr&- 
ccsB fio much farther tliau suck Europoau wonls as Uiuoder- 
rfop, donucr-^'/a^/ In ilnori, jtata is "tojpMWf)*as vratcr drop- 
ping, drops of rain." 'fhe Mancbu knfifua^ desorihes the uotse 
of fniit^ fftilitig from the trco:; n^ jHita paia (ao Hindustani 
hhadbhnd); this ia liku our word iial, and we should Bay in 
the same miuincr that the fniit cornea pattering down, wlii!e 
French jnttutra is a rucugnizeil ijuilatiou uf soinuUiiug falling. 
Coptic ^Jo/^ii 13 " to full," and the Australian baillxtilin (or 
pat2>atin) U tiuiislated Juto almost literal Eugliah as pitpat- 
ting. On the strength of Riich non-Aryan lAugiiageK, are we 
to assign an imitative origiu to the Sanskrit verb-root peU, " to 
&II," and to Greek iriirru t 

Wishing rather to gain a clear survey of the principles of 
language-making tluui to pLungu into obitcure problems, tt is 
not necessaiy for me to diHcuxs here questions of intricate 
detail. The point which continually nrisus is this, — gnuited 
that a particular kirtil of tramiitiua from isuund to sense is 
possible iu the abstract, may it be safely claimed in a parti- 
cular case ? Iu looking through the vouabularics of the wurl(l> 
it appears that moat languages offer words which, by obvious 
likcUncas or by their corrcspondence witii similar forms else- 
vrb«-o, may put forward a tolerable claim to be considered 
imitative. Some languages as Axtec or Mohawk, offer singu- 
larly few examples, while in others they arc much more nu- 
merous. Take Australian cases: ivalle, "to wail;" hung- 
&lM»j)f-f0W)i, " thunder ; " wirriti, "to blow, as wind;" vfirrvr- 
rtti, "lo storm, rage, as in fight;" iclrn, inpirri, " the native 
throwing rtick," seemingly !u> called from its uMr through the 
air ; hnyirriif, " to hum, buzz ; " k'u.rrin'urnri. " round about, 
uninteUigible," etc. ; pUata, *' to kuock, pelt, as rain." piiapl- 
taia, "to knock ;" wiUi, "to lough, rejoice"— just bb in our 
own "Turoament of Tottenham":— 

" ' IIV It hr -jaolli Tyb. and lugi, 
• Te cr a dnghty man ! ' " 


The so-called Chinook jargon of British Columbia is a Ian 
guage crowded witli imitative wonU sometimes adopted from 
Ibc native ludiau lu^a^s, somctiuicit raade on tlio spot by 
Uie combined efforts of tho wLito mcai and tlie ludiau to 
moke oDti another understand. Samples of its qaalitj arc 
h6h-hok, "to cough," li6~ko, "to knock," k\m-l(U'-hm-ia(, "to 
gallop," mutk-u-mud:, "to eat," chaJc-ekak, "the bald eagle" 
(fifora its scream), t*inh,"z gr'iadiAone," mamook («-j«A (mnJco 
tsish), "to sharpen." It has been ifmarkod by Prof. Max 
Miilter that the pecuhar KOuud luadu in blowing out a candio 
Is not a fsTOurite in civilized languages, but it seems td be 
reooguized here, for no doubt it is what tho compiler of the 
vocabulary Is doing hi.<t l)est to ivritc down when he gives 
mamook pok (make poll) as the Chinook expression for ** to 
falovoot or extinguish a^ a caudle." This jargon ui in groat 
raeasare of new growth within the last seventy or eighty years, 
bat its imitative words do not differ iu nature from those of 
the more ordinary and old-established languages of the world. 
Thus among Br^lian tribes there appear Tupi cor<^r6ng, cu- 
ruruc, " to snore " (oomparc Coptic khtriher, Quiohua ccoreuni 
{cow)'), whence it appears that an imitation of a snoro may 
perhaps serve the CaraJ&) Indianii to express " to sleep " arou- 
nm-eri, as well as the related idea of "night," roou. Again 
Pimenteira ir&aufi^, " to bruise, beat," compares with Yoruba 
j6a, ■' to slap," ffha (gbang) "to sound loudly, to hawj," luid so 
forth. Among Afncan languages, the Zulu seems particularly 
rich in imitative words. Tlius hihua, " to dribble like 
chlldreu, drivel in speaking" (compare English bi^); hahala, 
"the larger bush-anteWpa " (from the haa. of the female); 
U^ " to 6aWjfc. chatter, be noiCT," hohi, " a ta6W<rr ; " 
tio&oni, " a thro«tie " (crie» bo ! hoi compare American 
hdxliiik) ; bonAolota, " to rumblo in the boweH to have 
a howel-complaini ; " &ubuia, " to &u£s tike bees," ImbuUlft, 
"a awarm of beat, u huzziog crowd of peo[Je ;" buimiusa, 
"to make a blustering noi«e, like frott^g beer or boilii^ 
CM." Tb^ac examplea, front among tbow given under one 
initial letter in on« dictionary of one barbaric langnage, 
may gi%*e oo idea of the amount of the evideoce from 



Uio UagaagM of tba lower noe» bunag on the |Mreaeat 

For Iho pre««ut purpoee «f ^ving a brief aenes of «x- 
unplai of tlu« oort uf words in wbicb imitatire soaad feeotf 
fikirly traoi>AUe, dm straugust and tn<wt ouuiagoablQ evidoDM 
ii of connu) fauml amoug kucIi words as directly deacriba 
■ouods or whikl protlucus Uieri), Hucb as sounda of, and namei 
for Miiniulti, till} ttirtim for actiotiK accotnpiuiied bj sound, and 
llio inateriiLli and objeoU so acted upon. In further mvea- 
tigatiou it booouios more and more requuiite to isolate the 
■ouiul-typt) or root from the modifications and additions to 
wbicb it has be«u uubjectod for graminatical and pbonetical 
ttdaptatiuu. It will iorvo to give aa idoaof the extent and 
intricacy uf iliis praUoin. b> ^anoe at a group of words in ooe 
Kifopoau lauguage, and notice the et^-mulogtcal network which 
Bprnads rouud tho Qorinan wonl Hap/, in QrimiD'a dJrtioaary, 
ilap}Kn,i:i*p}ien, liopftntklSj/^tHt klimpem^ Uaii^iemJdaleTtH, 
UefMWii HitltrtH, kiitU*n, jKaofcttn, and so forth, to be matdkad 
with aUiod forou in oth<r tanguagos. Settiitg asida the con- 
Mknttooofgimumatieal iaile>xioQ, it belongs to the preseoisob- 
jtiCt to uotitM llial aiau'3 imitative faculty in bogvage is by do 
iiMaii« lituitod to making dinet oopiai of SMwiB and Aafia^ 
iheui iuto wonk It seiaeB upon nady-anda Waofwhatwar 
vrigio. alters and adapb tbetu to make thaitswuid fitting to ibcw 
utuc and {lUttn inftuthe dic 4i SQ tk a*i9adof a it^to d wapfaaf 
whKh the mart dittonh ta aaalpn ace tibaw which are nothar 
altogether elyMielagioal aac altegetber imiutire. bat partly boilx. 
Bow w«nb whib preaarriaft so to cpeak. the sava dnkto^ 
Mi^ be saaila to follow th« vaiiataoa of aooad, of fcn^ ef 
\hiiatioi^ of siKt aa inukattnr groop onrv or less WHTjrtiil 
vUhtlMlul wiUaho*— <riot;<reet,cniofc,ttMi4t«f»*l>i i »«i' t* » 
crawMik MTiiiadW t ewamm i k. It dnes ■■« i* aD SA* 4nK 
bacaiHt a wocd sofiia nieh iniiiim lad fTaboliB eha n g w k 
■MMt b^ Hk« tbLi, directly initatiive in iCt oc^ia. What, bx 
inntswwt oo«hi eouaJ bnc« inulalm thaa the dbibo of thea 
oM-faiJlionwl imoitm &r throwing gtape-eho^ th» patkntut 
Yak tha ii^imA^ oT ihe word ifpin in the Spntih fina 
faJhsra^ Fkendh. perrifr ,- k maasa siiB|tly an uisuuiuunk tor 


throwing stoues (ptedra-, ptate), and it was only when the 
Sponi^ih M-oi-d was adopted in Eiigio-nd tliat tho imitativo 
faculty caught and transformed it into an apparent sound- 
word, rcsembliiig the verb to patter. The propensity of Inn- 
jriiage to make «t'nst; of Btrange words byalteritig them iDta 
sometbitig witli an appropriate inejinin^r (like fwefmter ivtmi 
to^wr) has been ofleu dwell upon bv philologists, but tlie 
propensity to alter wohIk into Homething vitli an appruprinte 
Bound has produced rci^ults innnenscly more important^ The 
effects of Kj-mbolic chaage of sound acting upun vtrb-roou seem 
almost lioundlem. The verb to wtLddle. lias a strongly imita- 
tive appearance, and so in Clerman we can hardly resist the 
suggestion that imitative sound has Lo du -with the diScrcncc 
between vxnaiei'n and ^va^l^Jeln ; but all these verba bclonf^ 
to a family represented by Saiifikrit xnd, to go, Latin twlo, and 
bo this root there sccins no Kuffivienl ground fur uasiguiug au 
imitative origin, the traces of whioh it has at any rate lo«t if 
it ever had them. Thus, again, to etaytip ivith the foot, which 
hox been claimed as an imiuition of sound, iiifM>ms only a 
" coloured " word. The root itia, " to Btantl," Sanskrit «£M, forms 
acnusative «tnj> ; Sannlcrit gtMjxiH, " to make to ittaiid," GngltsU 
to «top, and a ioot-step m wlicn the foot comes to a stand, a 
{ooUvbip. But we have Anglo-Siucnn etapitn, $t(Bi)an, atep- 
pan, English to step, varying to express its meaning by sound 
into staup, to stavip, to Hump, and to xloup, contrasting in 
their violence or clumity weight with tlie foot on th« Dor^iet 
cottage-sill — in finiiies's poem : — 

'* Wlor« loTO do snok tho mauliMi'n CTcmpn vioor, 
Vfi' ttip'ttfp lifilit, on tip-tap sliglit 

Agriiia llm door." 

By expanding, modifytng, or, so to speak, cotouriug, sound 
is able to produce effocls closely like tlioso of gesture-language, 
expressing length or shortnetw of time, strength or weakness 
of action, then passing into a further stage to describe grcat- 
neaa or smallueits of size or of distance, and th^uco making 
itfi way into the widest ticlds of mt^taphor. And it does all 
this with a force which is surprising when we consider bow 




diililislil/biraple are ttie inenots employed. TbuR tbe BachapiD 
ot Africa call a mau wttk the cr^- h^lti '. Wt accoirduig •* bo 
is ikr or farther off tbe wuik! of the h^a I hi^-Ut t is 
teogUionod out Mr. Macgregor in his 'Rob Roy on tbe 
Jordan.* graphically dcwribcs this meth«i of expression, " ' But 
wlivrc » Z&lmotula V ... Then with rough eagemefls 
the strongvirt uf the Dowana Action pushes hia long for»- 
finger forward, pointing straight euougli — but whither T and 

with a voilcy of words ends Ah-tik-*i-a-<t (j-*i> This 

strange expression had long bet'oro puzxicd rae wben fintt 
iMard rrDm a shepbenl in Basliau. . . . But tbe simple 
meaning of this long string of oA'g " shortened, and qujck- 
en«d, and lowered iu tOD« to tbe end, is merely that tbe place 
pointed to is a ' very grmt way ofT* " The CbinorJc jaigDo, 
aa UAtial representing primitive developments of lai^cvage^ oses 
a mmilar dc\ ice in lengtbening the suund of wonb to m£cate 
distance. llio SiamcM can, by vaiying tbe tnoe-MCcne, 
mako tbe syllable non, " there," exprcs» a near, indefinite, or 
br distanw, and io tike maimer can modify tbe — '""g of 
such a word as ny. " tittle." In the Gaboon, tbe strength 
with which such a word as mpoln, " great." is Dttered serrw 
to show whether it is great, tctt grrat. or rerTr reiy great, and 
in this way. a& Ut. WiUon rvtmarks in his ' Mpiingwe Oianunar/ 
" the comparative dcgrevs of greatateat^ gmallpew. hsrJn— » 
mpidity. and Rtrength. &c., may be eoovcTed with more nee aw cy 
and prectikio than cuuld readily be coomved." In UadagaKnr 
nttrAi means " bad. " bat nitchi is " very bad." Tha nstiTW of 
Aostmlia, acconliog to Oldfield. show the use of this proc— is 
combination with that of ^rmbotic reduplication : among tbe 
Watchandic tribe jir-m signifies "already or past." jir-ri^ 
Jir-ri* indicates "a long time ago," while jU-r-rU Jirn* (the 
first syllable being dwelt on for sone time} ngniSes "aa mt- 
IMBM tim« agik" Again, hoa-rit a "small," Joo-rif fan n'e 
" vaiy «mtn." and ^<-r>s togru ■' eareccding^y niaU." Wilbefan 
mn HvoUxildt notices tbe habit of tbe soothem Guarani dia- 
lect of South America of dwvlbng more or 1«h time on the 
sttfix of the perfect tense, yma. y wa. to indiente the length 
er ilMftneBt of cbe distance of tinw at which the actica took 

place; ant) it U curious to obeen'c that a similar eoutrivauue it 
made one of amoag llit! alK>ri}{itial tnbos of Iiulin. whem tli« 
Ho langiiitge fonns it future t«n»e by adiling ti to tlie root, amt 
prolonging its souiwl. i-wyw " lo speak," Amg kajUtl " 1 wUl 
^eak." A.S miglib l>c expected, the langunges of very rudu 
tribta sliow extremely well liow tlie results of sucli primitive 
proccssiis i«isa into lliu n-ctigiiizt.'O stock of laiigiiaK«- Notliiug 
couiJ lie better for this than the wonis bv wbicli one of ihn 
rudest of Uving races, the Botocudos of Brazil, express the 
sea. Ther have a word for a stream, oiuitou, and an adjective 
which meaus great, iJipcd-tJUm ; thence the two words " streain- 
grotkt," It little strength ftiipd in Uie vott-eln, will give the term 
for a rivQv, ouutou-ijiipakiiijou, rs it were " stream-gtea-at," 
and this, to express the iniineusity uf the ocean, in amplified 
into ouatuu^iijip<ik-iiJoU'VU-i)H-ou-ou-ou. Another trihe of the 
some family workM out the name result mure simply ; the word 
OMOtoUi " stream," becomes ott«(«i(-otM)u-OM. "the sea." The 
Chavautes very nnturaliy atrelth the expression iwni-tMtYxii, 
" I go a long wfiy," into rom-u^a-o-o-wodi, " 1 go a very long 
way indeed," and when they are atUed upon to count beyond 
fite they say it i* ka-o-o-tf-H, by whicli tbey evidently mean 
it in a very grent many. The Cxuixanaii in one vocabulary arc 
described as saying lnv-uuiigtibi for four, and drawling out the 
same word for Bve, as if to »ay u "long four," in somewhat 
ihe same way as the Aponegicrans, whoee word for »x is Ua~ 
tntjw, can expand this into a word for seven, Uavniuna, ol^- 
viously thus moaning a " long six." In their earlier and simpler 
atages nothing can be more ensy U> comprehend than Uigm, so 
to speak, pictorial modifications of words. It in true that 
writiug, even with the aid of italics and capitals, ignores much 
of this itymbolism in spoken Inngiioge, but evety child can see 
its use and meaning, in spite of the efforts of book-learning 
and Hchoot-teadiing to set axide whatever cannot be expreaaed 
by their imperfect syralwU, nor controlled by their nairow 
ruletf. But when wc try tu follow out to their full results these 
mothods, at finit ho eawy to trace and appreciate, we .looa find 
them passing out of our grasp, llie language of the Sahaptin 
Indians shows us a process of modifying words wbich b far 



frmn clear, uid yet not atterly olwcnre. The^e Indtvts have a 
vTftjr of making a tlnd of disrespectful (limtnutive bj changing 
llie n in a nurtl to /; thus imntct muans "failkaSv" but to 
indicate porticiiUr smallneis. ix to express contempt, they make 
this iuto txfihei. prooounocit witli ou appropriate change of 
tune : anil ngiun. wtna means " river," bat this is maJo into a 
Uiininutiro teata by " cliauging u into I, giving the voice ft 
ftifitient tone, puttiag tlm liptt out iu ^Kwkiag. anJ keept&ji; 
them Buspenckd aroun^l the jaw." Here w« are toM enough 
about the chango of proauQciatioQ to gness at least how it 
eouM oonTCT tlio Dotions of smaUnea and oontompt. But it 
is leas easy to t'ullow the pracecs by which the Mpongwe lau- 
gaug9 tunut an oflinnatiTe into a nt^ntivo verb by " an intotia- 
lioB upon, or prulungation of the radical vowel," tftndtt. to lovt, 
tifaiia. oot to lore; Wiado, to be loved, t^mlo, not ti] be lov«d. So 
Yoruba, Mba, " a groat thing." bd&H, "a smaU thing." contnited 
in a provxrb. " Bidni boi hoha inoUe*' — ^" A great matterpots % 
smaller out of sigh u** [«ngaage in, in fact,fnllof pbooeticnuxii- 
ficatirOliS'wfaicIi justify a so^cion that nmbobc sotnid hail to do 
with their pfwdactiuo, though it may be hard to sit csactly how. 
Again, there in tlie fanitliar pruce^ of redupUcatioa. simpio 
or tooiUfiod. which piulucvs such funxui ae iMttrmw. pftpoltt 
hetienlxUtr. This action, though much Tcstrictnl in Ut^azy 
dialects, has sacfa immenM scope in the talk of chiUirin and 
amgcB that Proftesor Pott's treatise on it ' has become ind- 
dentally oni> of the roost valuable coU«ction« of facts ever 
made wilfa r^ation ta early stages of laiiga^«L Now np to a 
rertain point any child can aae hew aad why aodi dotdiliBg is 
doDo. aud how it always adds aoaieiliiiig to the ordinal idea. 
U nay laake superlativas or o(hecwia» iat ens ifj r wonK ■> i& 
M^Moa iod -laag." faUoa 'raw loag": lCaa£i^ iBrng 
*- a dtiU." tiii^iiKl^ 'a wiy little child." It makes phuals. 
aa lUlay ref/^raja '' priaoea,* at iMy «' m iy " fgnfle." U 
aids iiiliiiiiali. as Uosquito ma lw rn j " few'* ^wo^wo)^ or di»- 
tnhntee them, as Ooptic mhs* ««•» * sia^ ** (oae-oaeX Tkaa 



are cases where the motive of doaljliiig is coinparativcly eaxy 
to make otit As an example of coses much more difficult to 
comprcbend may be taken tlic familiar ri-'dupli cation of tlio 
perfect tcDtte, Greek ytypa^lia from ypatjuu, Latin imntumll from 
niorrdco.Oxtiliic haihald from fuddtni, "to bold." Reduplication 
is babituollj UKcd ia imitativo wonl« to intensify tlivm, uud still 
more, to ah«w that Ute sound is repeated or continuous. From 
the immense mass of tmcb wonis vro may t&ko as ioituiOM 
the Botocudo fiou-hciu-hou-gitcha " to auek " (compare Toogu 
huhn "breast"), kUtku-kdck-kSck "n. butlt-rfiy''; Quicbot 
chimuiuiSiehi " vrind wbistliog iu the trees"; ilaori haruru 
" noise of wind " ; hoJioro " buny " ; Dayak latkal-ltiht " to go 
on buigbing loud " ; Alno ^liriiuihiriutcaiim " a nxp " ; Tamil 
muTumuru " to murmur " ; Akra ewitnoiemevne " he Bpoke 
repeatedly and continually " ; and bo tm, throughout the whole 
range of the languages of the world. 

Tbe device of conv«y)ng different ideas of distance by the 
use of a graduated iscalc of towcLh seems to me one of jfreot 
philological interest, from the suggestive bint it gives of the 
proceedings of tlie Uuguage-makcra Ja most distant regions of 
the world, working out in variotui wayH a similar ingonious ooD- 
trivftocc of expreanoa by sound. A typical serien is the Javma : 
iJti " this " (dose by) ; iJta " that " (at some distance) ; ijfcw 
"that" (fiirtheroff). It is not Ukcly that tbe folliwing list 
neariy exbausts the whole number of cases in tbe languagiu of 
tbe world, fiir about half tbe number bare been incidentally 
noted down by myself without any especial search, bat merely 
ID the course of looking over vocabularies of the lower races.* 

Jsna . Oi, thia : tfai, Uiat (intftnosdisU) ; fk», UuL 

lUkpurf . M, tbcn [at a alwct dirtaaM); «», tlHr*<*t a 

ihorMr dirtaan) ; m, tb«». (dow aS kaad). 
abr.&m(Mitbro«); rtqr. Ami* (pmm) ; «iy, 


> r« wAwfriM M Mt^iiDr No. 'Jkrvimm' f ». <7-4t : v. t. 

H— l»oMi.'IJwm»-,'Trf,iLy.»; 31m MiBgla B— ■, ' nom. tt tTajr. 
HlH^'nfL ».IM;lilliM, 'Om^ IU.' y. «W; m< ifca gi i mU 

liHtiMiin nf tW fMtkate la^a^M. fk* OMnai m4 CMb «• MlWrilf «r 

iroift^7. • L*a»» Aawa^' w i. F M i dumI <r ib^«, • AfcMb «r 

!»«>,>«;», US [ CbMk 1*4. W mkH tt • ^ EtL fc>,' trf. tr. f. m i 

BMMaA»«ribnh^ 'Caaia. Sta^' 



Tunul . 
Dhinul . 

Oaijettc . 


Tomb* , . 
Fenwinclian . 
KunaLa • 


Scuftlra (CaliilU, lad. 



Oaiib . 

ho, ban : ha, thvK. 

kartra, these; kanra, Uiej- (thon). 

imnH, Ihiit; wanu, that (iaUrmedi&te} ; (nvRii, tiut- 

I. this ; i, that. 

ih, tlii*; rIA, that. 

iiho, ila, horo ; luhc, Mfa, thore. 

Hit idwjt this ; tifr, uitoay, Ibat [of thiuga aod 

poniOTi* respectively]. 
<t^', thift; k/ti, that, 
am. Wc ; urn, tbure. 
fi, this: ai, thjtt. 
apa, here; apo, ther«. 
Jeai, }t»o, laij/a ; abii-, abo, a&uya ; Ac. = this, thati 

that (in LhQ distAneo]. 
7MI, this ; ;(■', that. 
oio, this; ok; that. 
*r, thJB ; fi', that, 
ti^, I; njio, thou; njru, h*. 
u;t, hi!ie, there (where ona -pwnia to) ; tr, Qivro, 

lip tJiATO [foiind in Mtnp.]. 
),oxa,thia; Tx<. that. 
itjiHJ, borv; Anno, that*. 
itt, hem ; nit, thci-o. 
ibe, here ; abe, LIm'to. 
wtt. ne, Uu>a: ucJi, nj, he. 
ati, I ; of 1, thou, you, (pic^O to. 
ne. tboa : HI, bs. 
(va, vathi, tbit ; Iwjr, vtythi, that. 

It IB obiHouK ou iii8|)ectioD of thia lUt of pronouue and abrerbs, 
that tbey hava in some way come to bavo their vuvrcls con- 
tratrted to match the ranstrast of here and there, this mid that 
Accident may sometiintw account for such coscb. For instimcc, 
it is w«U known to philologists that oar own t/m and thai are 
proDOUDfi partly dijitiiict iti their fonuntioii, tki-s he'ing probably 
two pronouns ruu togtthcr, but yet the Dutch ncut«r» dit " tbis," 
and dot "that," have taken tbe oppeamnco of a single form 
witb coQtrasteJ vowcIb.' But ncodont cannot account for the 
frecjuency of Kuch words iu p&ire, nnd oven in sets of throe, in no 
many diflerent lajiguages. Tiiere uiuat have been some common 
intention at work, and thero ii evidence that some of tbciie 

.U*a Old Bijih Gcniian d!i and ilas. 


lan^inges do resort to chaugo of sound as a means of oxpress- 
iug cbauge of dlKtance. TKiis the language of FerDauilo Po cau 
not only express '* this " and " that " by oh, olf, but it can itvcn 
make a change of the pronoimcJatiun of the vowel distinguish 
between o hofJte, " this month," and oh boehe, " that month." In 
the fuune way the Grebo can make the difference between " I " 
and " thou," '" wc '* and " you," " solely by the iutunation of tUo 
vuice, which the final k of the second persons mdh and itit is 
intendod to ezpross." 

ffid ili, I mt ; mdk di, thou oatost ; 
d di, ve Mt ; dA lili, r« «at. 

The set of Zulu dcmoni^tiutivcti winch cxproiui the three 
distances of near, farther, farthest, are very complex, but » 
Tomark as to their use ehowa how tlioroughly eyinbolic sound 
enters into their nature. The Zulus not only say itaim, " here 
is," wtTuw, " there jg," naimya, " there is iq the distance" bat 
they even express t!ie grentnes-s nf this distance by the eniphasiH 
and prolotigation of the ya. If we could discern a similar 
gradation of the vowels to exprciifi a corresjxjnding gradation of 
distance throtigltoiit our lixt^ the whole matter would be cosier 
to explain ; but it is not so, the t-words, for instance, are some- 
timea nearer and Komotimcs farther off than the te-words. We 
«an only judge that, as any child can »cc that a iicalc of vowels 
makes a moat expi'essive acalc of duitances, many pronouns and 
adverbs in use in the world have probably taken their shape 
under the influonco of this simple dc-vico, and thus there have 
arisen sets of what we may call contrasted or " differential " 

How the differencing of wordu by change of vowels may be 
used to diKtinguifth between the sexes, it; well put iu a 
remark of Professor Max Muller's : " The distinction of gender 
... 18 8omotime;s expressed iu »uch a manner that wc cau only 
explain it by aticribing an expn^SMirc power to the more or Ichs 
obscure sound of rowels. UkUn, in Finnic, is an old man ; aUxi, 
aoold woman.. . . InMaiiguc^^icAaismoa . . . cA«c/«, femioa. 
Jtgnin, ama, in Mangu, i» father ; eme, mother; dmclut, fatlicr- 



, veAv-l»4sv.*'> IW Onwtf hi^iii^n af Bwnl 

Ijr ojotnsted pur (/ wurds MacUL'&Asr" 
tedoK -■uKKer," while the Ckrib bw 6afe far fatho; sDd KM 
far ■ntlMr. aod tbe Ibu of AAim has mw far father aad rim 
far matba. Thii ooatriTmaoe of dtxtii^itidiiac the a»le from 
the fit— It bf m ilifTuMiu cf vmrafa ia howvnrbBt k aoall 
yut «r the {Rwen cf fematMO which cw be tnoed >aea; 
foefa ««nb at thoee far father mui uothcK. Their eoosdetstiati 
faidi ato • Ttiy BtCfestn^ iphilologieil rtpm, that «f 
" Childrai't lABgnage." 

If we get down a few ef the pnn of words wU^ stand for 
* father * and "■othar" in ncy i£A<nttt and diataat langDagea 
— ^iqpa and mama : Wdsh, tad (dad) sod num ; Hungarian, 
o^andanja; H&ndu^o, /a and ha; Lamnu (X. Ameria), 
eHon and tan : Cktoqnina (S. Amoka) payA and w tt y tf ; 
Wakhendie (Anstnlta). ami> and ■9D--tbor coBtnwt boom to 
Ke in their eonaaaantik while nany other pniw diffg- tntally, like 
Hebrew, ab and i» ; Koki, p'ha and aoo ; Kajan, oma y and 
iafl*,' TanihBmani, Htfno and jeyi. Wotdt of the daa of 
j«|M and mcnna, oecaiTing in lecnote parts of the world. 
iMftt eace freelr ttaed a« erideaoe of a conunoo origin of 
the hBgiMflra in which tfacy veie fanad alik& Bat Prafaaor 
BwduiMim's paper on * >'atiufr-Soiind.'' pnbtiihed in 1853,* 
efiectaaQy orertkrew this aigoment, and settled tht> riow that 
neb cnincidencec ml^t arise again and ^ain bj independent 
prodpction. Tt wu doarir of no me to argne that Carib and 
Bngliwh were allied because the word pepn, " father,'* belosigsto 
bol^ or Uottestot and Kng^w** because both oso matna £>r 
"aHAher," seeing that theae duk&h articulalioBa maj bo ined 
in joat the oppoate way, for the ChiliaD wofxl for mother ia 
TMijM, and the Tlatakuiai Tor father ia moiM. Yet the choice 
«f ea^ little wonl< for " fiktber" and "mother" does not seem 
to have b««D quite iodismmiuate. The immense list of sttdi 
weeds eoUeeted by Buschmann shows that the trpes pa and (a, 

■ sax MilDw. L (. 
Sanitr,* i«L Ti awlw|lraMv*r<m.4ML.*v«Li.f Sit. 


witli llic similar forms ap aud a/, preponderate in tlic world as 
names for " fnthcr," while ma and na, am aiiil an, preponderate 
aa namefl for "mother." Uis explanation of this stat« of things 
as affected by direct symbolism clioo^og* the hard sound for tlio 
father, and the goutlor for the mother, has very likely tiiith in 
it, but it must not l)e pushed too for. It cannot be, for instance, 
tbe same principle of tiynibolism which leads the Welshman to 
say tad (or "father" aud-mitm for "mother" and the Indian of 
Britirfi Columbia to say nmttu, " father," and taati, " mother," 
or the Georgian to say vianui, " father " and r/erfa, " mother." 
Yet I have not Hucccc<led iu finding anywhere our familiar 
papn and mama reversed in one and the Bame language ; the 
neiLrest approach to it that I can give is from the island of 
Ueaag, where vintna meant "father, man," and iabi, " mother, 

ijetween the nursery wordii pajKt and ttuiTna and the more 
fonual /aM<r and molker there is an obrious resemblance in 
sound. What, then, is the ori^'in of these words father and 
viother ? Up to a certain point their history is clear. Thoy 
bvtuug to the same group of oi^janised words with vaUr and 
miiti«r, pater ami nuttey,TtaTi^/> and jiijryjp, pilar and TnAtar.antl 
other similar forms through the Indo-Europoan family of 
languages. There U no doubt that all these paira of names 
are derived from an ancient and cf^tnmon AnMn Konrce, and 
when they are traced back as far as possible towards that 
source, they appear to hare sprung from a pair of words which 
may be rouRhly called paUiv and malar, and which witl- furmcd 
by adding tar, the suffix of the actor, to the verb-roots ptt and 
•ma. There being two appropriate Sanskrit %-crLM fvi and tnd, 
H impossible to etymologize the two words as jnxfun " protector," 
8ndm«(aj", "producer." Now this pair of Ar>'an words must 
have been very ancient, lying back at the remote oommon 
source from which forms parallel to our English father and 
mother passed into Greek and Persian, Norse and Armenian, 
thws holding fixed type through the eventful course of Indo- 
Rnropean history. Yet, ancient as these words are, they were 

' Oaa IkiuiJjr of luifa^gM, th« Albipsurwi, conlaEiu Volli ojipd ami moiM u 
Una* for "fathir," in lh«Ta1ik«H ami Tltitolijiniii. 


wlioK common cliaracter U dne to its ooDcerning^ 

itsi^If n-itli the limited set of ideas in wlitcli Muh ctiitJi-L>n axe 
iatbTGSlaii. and expressing tLese ideas bj the Umitvd set of 
articulation!! suittxl to the child's first attempts to talk. Thii 
peculiar langua^ ia marked quite characteristically among the 
low savage tribes of Australia ; mctmman " father." nfjangan 
" mother," and by metaphor " thamb," " groat toe " (as ia morf 
folly cjcpiained in jinnamammaii "Krcat Uto" io. foot's 
&thcr), tammin "gmndfathcr or grandmothor," MA-fca " bad, 
fooliah, childiHli," bee-bet;, beep " hreaai," pappi " fatbor/'jxipjxi 
"young one, pup, whelp^" (whence ia grammatically formed the 
verb jfipixirniti " to become a yoimg one, to bo bom." Or if 
we look fur exampltis from ludia, it does not matter wlictlier wo 
take them from non-Hindu or Hindu languages, for in bnbv- 
lai^tiage all races tu'c on one footing. Thus Tamil a^i/xZ" father," 
ammd " motJier." Bodo ttphd " futht-r." difd " mother ;" tlic 
Koocli group ndnd and ndnt "patermd grandfather and 
giandmuthL-r," mAmd " uucle." diidd " cousin." may be set 
betiide Sanskrit tata " fiithcr," naiid " inutlicr>" auil the Hiudu»- 
tani words of the mme claims, of which aomc are familiar to tho 
Sugliih oar by being naturalized in Anglo-Iudinii talk, bdbd 
" father," UbA " child, prince, Mr.." libi - lady," iUtdd •' nurao " 
((Jy(2 "nurse" scorns borrowed from Portuguese). Such words 
are continually coming fresh into existence everywhere, and thc- 
law of natural Helection deteruiiucH their fate. The great mass 
of the namt's and tkuht's of the nursery die out almost ns noon 
as made. Somo few take more root aod Kpreail over lai;go 
districtt as accepted nursery words, and now .and tlien a curious 
philologist makes a colloetion of them. Of such, many aro 
obviouK mutilations of larger words, aa Frencli fairo dodo " to 
sleep" (dormir), Bramlfnbtirg mic/, a common cradle lullaby 
(wiegeu). Otliemi, wliatovtr their origin, fall in cousetjucnce of 
the imudl variety of articidations out of which they mutt bo 
cboaen, into a curlomily indi.scnmlnato and unmeaning mass, as 
Swbs bdho "a scratch;" hamkim "all gone;" Italian iot* 
"something to drink," gogo " littlu boy," far dede"U> play." 
Th«*e are words quoted by Pott, and for Eugliah examples 
nana "Dorsc." iaia.! "good-byo;" may serve. But all &a^y- 



wunlii, AH tliU Vary iuuiih provtu, ilu not stop short even at this 
Hliilfu of ptiUlioitjr. A Hniitll proportion of thorn eatAblififa them- 
Hulvm ill iho iinliunry Ulk of ;rruwii>up men and vomcn, and 
wlinii limy hnvo nni<o mudv gotHl tlioir plaoB as ooDnUtucat^ of 
Ifntioml litii({iti>|[t>. Iliuy may [in«i mi by iuheritance fn>m age 1u 
nf(u. Hm'h nxniiiploH tut havo lieea hoi'e quotad of Duraeiy wonU 
Itlvc a rliio ti» lltu iirigiii of u maaa of nntnca id the most tliTcne 
Uiijipinuiui, fur fiithrr. mother, grandmother, aunt, child, breast, 
toy. doll. Ac. Tho negix) of Fcrnaudo Po who uses the word 
tmUniK for "n liltlv Uiy," in on oi)tia] tcimK with the Gensan 
«lii< iiMNi f>iW<' : tho Ci>iiti<>-niau who uses iota for " &ther" 
WiMild tmdoraiAiid hi>w xhe MUM mrd could be used id dotaic 
lAtln fM " feUtff " ud medw^'m] UtiD f^v " pcdagogtw ; " tbo 
GhriUnml tlMOwoUitd JuluHler agree >rith tbe Kngttahman that 
f^tit is a anitalito «urd to fjcproas " fiather," and Ibcn it only 
rmMfm t« Mny u* Um worct, u>d make the }m3tiy-iMaga»igb 
ttam» tiM |thMl« ef tko SMton ChiiKk and tbe giwt Plaps «if 
the WoatosviL JLi iW aaiM tino iW aiii k aeB expluas tb« 
HMUibVMw with wHkV oBt «f Uw cwA cbsck «f anubUa 


Mmm; wI^ (MUM iMMM Imvo "WAkcr," ih«» "fuLer," tfcen 
**liMk^" VMMMm Imm * ■mUh*.*' iken *hiUi h U«." SaM 
lM»*1MfeH<rr tkm 'wmm.* Ikm " hn^C CaJa Imk "fttlier.* 
IImNi *miil^ a t^nv^ ftfntp «€ wmb may aerTc to abow 

^•ar n)p<Mi «f 

t»t*«*rAtv ■■ v> ivw-i, tW I'ifiwtMk." 


. 1 '1 f * _:_ 1. ^- 

1. _ _ J ^ _ ■ 

1r r' .-.-'. 

-> (t^wrm <>krlri\ wkaa «b dmqpli : 

^ «r fiauilr 



nvfa. Lookc<l St from tLle point of riew, cfaUdroii'A lingmj* 
may pve a rala&Ue km m to the fbtUHopgL He hw beCan 
him a kind oT lugiM|!«, fomiHl imder peeolmr Donditiaiis, aad 
abowing th*> weak ponitti of Hjr method of philoU^peBl reaesiTifa, 
oofy en^ggpectted into extnuirdiDiiry ifipTJUftrniii In ordinaiy 
langiiaga, thr diffieuUr uf oonuectit^ nntnd vitli BGose liafi is 
great m ea rore in tJif itwliili^ of a «nia]l nod n^ set of aiticii- 
btiixtu to eijaua an iDleaiunaU» vaoMf of tatii» and noaw. 
In childpeu's langoage, a atiQ mon wBtatx aet of ■rtimlrti"— 
iuU jci mort tu reader tiifcw dittiniTtiy. Tbe diffiaill^ of 
*—'~TC *^ detitatidu (if worda liea is greBt BOHDn m die nae 
41 Bon or loB ■oTwiijtr ruvt-comulii lor moat bfltcB^onBeoBS pm^ 
poaea. TiT aoBnae tlmt tnu irania uf dtfiorefit ?— ^iringy just 
"becanae iLer souud wjioevbat alike, moat ttkarafan ^uhv a 
^ffniiiiini agigt*', 11 flveti iii ordiniffT lat^uaec titt fiBBalaooica of 
Ind fl^malflgjr. £iu it> childreb'e Jaaguag« 1^ tbaoi; of not- 
Moadi Undr lmak» dwiL Few winid ^it m a ii> a«an» for 
initaDCi^ that ixtpa and vop hare a oomnian deiMBtian ot a 
*?«— "-TT TttoL Jdl tiial w(f can safely ny of inM B Htwn i heonen 
then i* that thei,- are wonU nlated by naBiawi aeB^toaaa is 
the mmtay iaatgaagn. As audi, they an watt«Baxhad ia 
•DBflnt Smh* h iu ni " d fy ^ ' ^-■^■"■^ : ^hqbh* " Mrtnon^ 
woritoi;* sOMM* "aMwg;" ** cam abom et pocmn i«a> ^ 
«•*■■ £aai. at tnasnsD niauiiiRiim. pattiiB lBta» (« 

Fram ciuldnm'a laKu«g^ moreover, vo have ttrjkuig jwoei 
t£ tbe power afaimmmm d* aacia^ in Mt Ji liihni g waada n 
aoMied aw withoat iluw- caoTiaf uaon ofinlMCBifiqMi^aB- 
^ H ti ttw tW t^ildnB sR! itrfaaateh- acquainted with 
tbe aae flf mMtisaial aod iButatire aaond, aatd Aar VBcal ista^ 

I l_^4 _f 1 iifii "^ TbedbaaaTdua 

«c j& ^^ 4mm ^^ndUr ia A* cb» of wads ve an oott- 
But it ia obriooa la-t the k-^og joaciph. «rf A«r 

I17 the I 


■»— ''It* 


Tff di) 







n|i|irHilii lilinu. Niiw Id tlio Laiijcitngna of grown-up people, it Ifll 
ntnni' itinl M.H'inl riinntMioUN linn worket) in iho snmo way. Even 
If iJiti I'tlmtiiK i«ii|i(iii»ititiii III* ^[noti'd, tliat Uio tUlimata ongin 
uj' ovory wonl i^ Imifningv lic« in inhoi-cntly oxpreadve soand, 
llilAimly iMtttIv nffiBsbitbe cuo, fi>r it wouldhave to lie admitted 
lti«l. Ill lu'liinl liin^tiiDm. iQONtwotdi have so far departed in 
iiumiiI itr tt>t\»p fVom tiiia oiifriit&lly cxprasave stage, that to all 
lltfitiita mill fiiiqtiMixi thpy niif^ht at firsrt have beeo arbitmily 
rl)i<n'i). Tli>> mnin [innci]^i.> of Uopuge faai 'been, not to 
pnw^nit tt«mi nf nrixiuAl anund-jugnifintira) $or the benefit of 
ht' ' I'tfl, bill to ti\ vicincnts of bt^nage to acrre as 

ei>vi;.u.. : I , .,^thv\t nvkonin^^flif idoas. la Uiis ptooBSB moch 
m1||1im1 PHi^ivmx-nHOT luM »o doabi Asqifwared It^mi all 

hrm «f ^1V^^^^-n, 

ft...,i. *... ^..M,» «f 1^ «|^ «■ wiudt Tooal so«Mta m«8i 1* 
1i'>^ I «>iHMwtvw «» flM hm4 «f dke -w«td«Mker u 

fit ' iA \tax* liMB vM<d •o cwJi a gl y. 

1 ■)< '>..'». ..»*■ <.»- i-.ntv«c« here aJdweBd JMilJfi» tha 

■pHmif itf 'M whiti iit <«AimI «b» IntorjwiiaBnl aai^ lwaii fe 
1*tiivitY to> ft «>wtf)ot(> dohitMi vf ^c ptnblea of ordinal Isn- 
fiwpv VmInI m t)»a tbtxAiy |w wo itHlf wttfaia linats, H woald 

flh^nt-il}' «iNv>itiil ^- a <«rai««*}i vf th» <vtA taaat Ja aar )aD> 
MHVI^ !■% CMtallt Mia aWOlMfr W^klHtKBl tt an aUMUHt* 

TMMMHt ^iTMW' vtfif'iii MMflH OBMiAa. A a^ vaik ^mbk 
mnv* iKvm tiMin thiv to h» udeMi aa A» wert^. Msn- 

fn < ■! to «lMnr the fMitftv Matad^^f: 

M«frti««i fA ^ht*<^v^ Tf<^ Minr* * tbratrrf tke aj^n 

if- rtg<W» <Wfc <i atiaUML It » 

%■<•' '■: m««m«g «f « ««ad y/jt im ^n 

I \ K.*aba1>- JU 


JffessioD lay iQ cmotiotial toao, imiUtivo noiise, contrast of accent 
or vowel or conaonant, or other phonetic qiwlity. Kven here, ei- 
oeptton of unknown And perhaps caormous extent must be made 
for Roantls choticn 1>y indi\'idunk to express some notion, from mo- 
tives vhicli evcu Ili«ir own tninds failed Co discern, but wliich 
sounds ncverthi'lesa modo good tbcir footing in the langtingit 
of the family, the tribe, and tho nation. There may be many 
modes even of recognizable phonetic expre»Kion, unknown to ua 
m jet. So fnj, however, as I have been able In trace them here, 
8nch niodeH have in cominon a clabu to belong not oxcIusiTely to 
tlie fichciue of tlm or that particular dialect, but to wide-ranging 
principles of formation of language: Their examples are to 
he drawn with equal cogency from Sonskrit or Hebrew, from 
tli« Durseiy-Ianguage of Lombardy, or the half-Indian, half- 
European jargon of Vancouver's Island; and wherever they 
are found, they help tu funii«h groups of iiound-wordii — irordn 
which fiave uot [o»t the traces of their first ex]»%ssive origin, 
but rtill carry their direct sigailicuiice plainly atamped upon 
them. Ill fact, the time has now cotno for a substantiai bosU 
to be laid for OeneraUTe Philology. A classiUcd collection of 
words with any strong claim to be self-expressire should bo 
brought together out of the thousand or so of reoogaized lan- 
guages and dialects of the world. In such a Dictionary of 
Sound- Words, half the cases cited might very likely be wortli- 
less, but the collection wonid afibrd the practical means of 
expurgating itself; for it would show on a large Male what 
pnrticnlar suunds have manifested thtir StnoKH to convey parti- 
cular ideas, by having been repeatedly chosen among different 
nic«» to convey tbem. 

Altempt« to explain as far as may bo the primary* formation 
of speech, by tracing out in detail such prooeesefl as have been 
liere described, are likely to increase our knowledge by suro 
and steady steps wherever imagination does not gut the better 
of sober compariiwn of facta. But there is one side of tlus 
problem of the Origin of Language on which such studies bare 
bjT BO mean* an encouraging effect. Uacfa of the popalar 
interest in meh mattent U centred in the qoestioo, whether 
llt« known languages of the world have thoir source in one or 
Tot. I. r 


ai$imtMHt *•<* iwrTATnx ujutjcc 

gift «l I'Nttiirii'M, iufT luu on/ one brouglit rurvard 

i» (k'iI^ '•! jtltH ul'til uvli|uiii>«iaiii»iuiUKl ilirect eiwagh to make 

HlitO'ixo l<> imiil inniu VAKiin (ijiiiiiuii jiiBtifiabte. Now Bucb 
|lh <ltn|fMiWl|i <ir liitiUtlvv or symlwllc woitIh fonu a 

fnti, Itn tt iiiifitl III l»i|iv, «r I III* Oriitiii »f Ijajiguitffi; btit tltpy 
•IV ii\ 101 (ii»tiii* nwlitt'ttil (<i mtv iwtrliculiir jilacir or period, 
<lMl( •»* iHili'iil »«io»i «r li-** III Hflivity now. Tlieir opuniUou 
M^ <> itl'ititi) InniriRiri' nill bo to intiodaoo in eacb 

-' ' v* '^- 1 iH'inlt-iil vivtlik uid wonUenw suB- 

. .( Ill iStft tlirtvt w«; become nlw- 

>l <^mn^^\H* bMvtM tin bngsiBee 

^^^ I IV 1*^ «( mk4 ftiiilfigiml eon- 

V<«' v enKM4iflT M nwn l m wtdk «ac^ or 

WvNNMir wittr^AMViMM*! m mnmi 
mifl «WKV WM "(tV flWWft •l((pfl» w» »*««•*«• "raw* «* 

tjLfte *^^^ lllifcia ^1 %t^k i^^^^t^^ 

* ?rWI II T^^Wi^wflB 




vonls of Uie dktiuuary in oov grwip with cxiea and gestuica 
And picturcit, &a being: all of them mcnna of mauifesting ont- 
niurdly the inward noi-kings of the miud. Such ad admisaion, 
it Tonat be obscrvc<I. i» far from bcJDg n nici-o dotail ofecioutilio 
claasificatioa It has really a most iniportAut beariDg od (he 
problem of the Origin nf Lnngiuigc For os t\w reasons are 
inostJy dark to ua, why particiiliir wurd» are currently iised to 
express particular ideas, lan^iiige haK coino to bo looked upon 
as a mystery, and cither occult philosophical eaiises ha\'u Leon 
odletl ill lo explain iu pliemiuieua, ur ehe the endoumeDt of 
uioo with tlie faeiiltit^ of tliought and utterance has been 
deemed iu8uf1icient,and a special revelation hag been demanded 
to put iota lii^ mouth the vocahular}' uf a particular language. 
In the dcltatc which has been carrie^l on for ages over this 
iniich-vfxt-ti pix)bk-in, the sayiug in tliu ' Kratyloa ' comes back 
to our miii(U again and again, whcrv 8okratc-« rltjacrilies the 
etymologists who release themselves from their difficullies oa to 
tile origin uf wonhi by Bayiiiy thai lla- first words wtro lUvinvly 
raado, and therefore right, ju&t on the tragediaiiK, when tlioy aro 
in perplexity, fly to their machinery and bring in the gods.' 
Now t think that those who Auberly contcimplate the operation 
of crief^ groanti, laughn, and other emotional vttenuicea, aa to 
xrhicb Rome consideratioiiH have been liero brought forwanl, wilt 
admit that, at least, our preaotil crude understanding uf lhi« 
kind uf expression would lead uh to cinsa it among the natural 
actions of man's body and mind. Certainly, no one who undor- 
stULndx iiuyttiing of tli« geKture-latigiiage or of picture- writing, 
would be jitfttitied in regarding either as due to occult causes, or 
to any supernatural interference witii the course of uian'^ Intel* 
Icctual development. I'heir eauKo evttleiitly lies in natural 
operations of tho human mind, not such ns were effective in 
tiome long past condition of Immauity and have siuco disap- 
peared, but in procoHscK existing amongst us, which wo can 
understand and even practise for ourselves. When we study 
the pictures and gestures with which unvagca aud the deaf-and- 
dumb cxprcitH their mioda, we can mostly see at a glaooe the 
direct relation between the outward nign and the inward 

' rklo Cratjltui. DO. 



Asft MRnrrs 

nO*>KnC wsmA iC 

■^ Mirf •• it WW* Mw a« ; or ' m^ * If th* 
i tt i ««ftii4 Art «f afrnftJltey it with dittmJi and i affo. Tbe 

rtmatitm vliiU'* p*«m4nok, Um mIh^v and tk mD«f; 
eamUlm «m1 tlw <«h.w><lir. ilww tlidr purport far tfas nme 
Mri ol irriiiwfit rvUtifin b»lw — , duioght bimL «gn. We n br 
irn<W<>tttn<l >ltv BHtiin uf thmu nuitlw of utfwncg. tfaat we azv 
nadf 'lumlvM tn «i|mMi bhuuKfat aftur ibongbt by mcfa moiu, 
HI Ihttt ituiw whu w* ^wr w|iw ^IulU pi'rci*iTc our nieaiuai^ 

Wli«^ KiiwovT, i*niniiir«tcoii tiy our mulT' ancceH in maJtiog^ 
(tM Uu9 ttftlHK Hiui wrtiMtt III' thttm rminf awtbodts we torn k» 
tit* llighck' «rt «( ipRM^ MmI wk buw KUth hmI ou^ vonk have 
wttM hi fiyra» mkI Mai ittA ^^■^^>^h^^ m fail oanclres fatx 
to flK» wfth Mt hMMnmw nwlfc u ifc M yd tac ift auU pwt, 
mttaiL Tlr niiiMiiriiniliUlirtiMtMililiiilTinii hiiiihIi Iii' 
WKw i n y w t>> piMh vfqCMWHtr tic w ar l w dM nnwch. bat 

pti^r -TirA-t^fTi TnKira till 8aA»nHtoc»litf 

aikid irat^ tt WM or i i ^at^ MiiiAwi ^iii I. is ite fiv 

off p.- mmpvaMfe. SlA lu^pM^abfira* sts i 

1i< l.nepwifctflWffif t)t«i Jc^e l iyd Bhe writing w 

ItmiMn fftn. :^rivH limnui wits. Tim sftau.' nf lla^gB 

ny Tift Tortini bcionj:* ^Ti-ltiKYfly to> Twlinw-nlmr pbilr4i]|picai 
op^'""'*'^" -' :i.> lh< diofwog KtpprsMTesouiKfe 1*1 NUBc onr- 


wtiorr ti-orHs (ilinwjy ^^ritting arc turned t*. t«» 

upw mwininpi «»■ ' 

:i>i ihtat 



<l<iwu to iittor clunnsinosA. For n sinj^Io instanoo, ono groat 
lUtiJuia ofgiviug uew meaning tu o\A huuuJ U nieUiplior, wliicb 
ti'niiitferK idea.s fiiim hearing to tiei>itig. from touching tu ihink* 
iug, from lliti concrete of uua kiud to tliu ab^^tract of auoiber, 
nml can thiu make olrrtuHt anything in the world help tu 
ik-jscnhv or suggest aiiji.hiiig else. VSTiat the Oeimati pliilo* 
xijihcr dL-ncriW'il as tlit- rulatiou of il cow to tt coiuct, lliaL buth 
have tails, is eiioiigli nml mon: thati enough for the lniiij;imgc- 
luakor. It struck the- Au:<tralirinB, whi'ii tliL-y naw a Eiir<>|K?an 
JiOLik, that it optri](»l ami hhiiL Hku a nuimel-K'hclI, uud tlioy 
hegaii accordingly to call Itook-s " niaartels" (muif&ni). The 
Mght of a jitcani engine may KUgge^l a wliolc group of hucIi 
tnmsitious in our own language; the st«aiQ ]>aii8e3 aloag " lifes" 
or " tniuipctM,'' that iH, fripi^ or lulai, and oaten 1>y "folduig> 
floors" or mtve9, to push a " pcstio" or piMon up and down in 
a " roller" or cylinder, while the light poure from the furnace 
in" stave*! " or " polo«," tbat i«, in tirif* or hcavm. 'ITie dic- 
lionaries are full of caaes compared with which such as theeo 
are plain and Ktmightforward. Indeed, thu prucewex \ij wlikih 
wards have really come into existence muy oden enough remiod 
US of the gajue of "What ik my thoiiglit like!" \\lien one 
knowg the answer, it is easy enough to 8e«.> vi\iat juiikfMing and 
cathedral canun» have to du with reeds; Latin jlut(cu« "a 
reed," Liw Latin Janatta, "cheese mode in a reed<baiket," 
lUdian tjiunaUa. "cream cheexe in a ruali finiU," French 
joitoade and Kngludi jwttxt, which an> preparations of cTRbm, 
und hi^Uy junlxitijig parties where such delicarcien are catca; 
(■reek kouti, " reed, cane," kiwwc, " meaaure, rale," theooe 
cr'tio/itctM. "a clerk uudcr the eoclefdasUcal rate or canon." 
But who could guew the lii«tory of tbe«c woixU, who did not 
Jiapp«u to know these intemediate liokn ? 

Tet there w about tbtft prooeM of derisation a thoroughly 
human artificial character. When we know the whole facta of 
Any ca.te, we can geuerallj niKlerstand it at unce. and nee that 
we mifrht have done tlie same oanelve* had It come in our way. 
And the aame thing in true of the prooe«ea of making aoaiKl- 
mmli detailed in these cliaptcn. Sodi a view im, however, in 
no way ineoaniiient with tli« attempt to geoeraliae npoD tbeae 


the known facts of philology. The causes which hnro [irodncod 
lADguagv, 60 CkT OS thsy an< iuidun>Lo\xl, nrv iiolablo for tbiki 
childlike etmplicity of opt^intioti nhich boBts tht* infaucy of 
human civilization. Tlie wa>-» in which sounds are in tho ftrst 
inataace cho»cu nnd anvognd to espivss ideas, are practical 
expe<li(;iiU at thv luvel of uiireery philowphy. A child of (ivo 
years old coul*! catch tlio meaning of iinitativo M)unds, inlor- 
j^ctionul words, eymboliani of »ex or distaoce liy contnut of 
vowels. JuKt AK no one in likely to enter into the real nature of 
mythology who Los not the keenest appreciation of nurasiy 
uJe^i, no the ispirit tu wliicli we giiess riddles uiid play at 
children's games ja needed to appreciate the lowrr phaws of 
luuguage. Such a state of tilings agrees with the opinion that 
Kucli rudimentary .speech had iVt ori<;in among men while in n 
thiKllike iutellectnal condition, and tluiii the Hflf-exprcsnivo 
bnuicli of buvnj^ language iiffords valiiahle mnteiialii fur the 
pi-oblt-m of primitive t>-peccli. If wo look back in imagination 
to an WU'iy period of hiiman intfircourse, where gesture and 
Kolf-OJEprcssivo utterance may Imve lind a far greater comparativo 
impoi'taiice than among ouiiielvefi, uuch a conception introduces 
no new element into the problem, for a «tnte of thingR more or 
less aosweriug to this is ^deacribetl among certain low savage 
tribes. If wo turn fi'om such itelf-expreasive utLiunnoo, to tliftt 
part of articulate language which carries ite seiino only by 
traditional and ^eomiugly urbitriiry custom,, we Khali find no 
contradiction Ut lliphypulhewis. Souod carr)'ing direct meaning 
may be taken up as an element of language, keeping its ihvl 
Sjgui6cajice recognizable to nntiunit yet uoboni. But it may far 
more probably become by wear of wound and shift of ncnee an 
expree^ioulesa symbol, such us might have Ixjcu choMUi tu 
pure arbitrariucas — a philological ^ocewB to which the voca- 
bularies of savage dialects liear full witaeaa In the courw of 
the development of huiguage, wwh traditional worda mtli 
meKly an inherited meaning, have in no small tncaiture driven 
into the background the Aelf-exprewiivc wordi, ju«t as the 
Sastem ^urcs 2, 3, 4, which aro not aelf-oxproMiivc, have 
driv«o into the background the Rouiau titimeraU II., IIL, lUl, 
'wfaidi ue^thia, again, i« an operatiun which lias its place in 


devised for such special work, but an old barbaric engine added 
to and altered, patched and tinkered into some sort of capability. 
Ethnography reasonably accounts at once for the immense 
power and the manifest weakness of language as a means of 
expressing modem educated thought, by treating it as an 
original product of low culture, gradually adapted by ages of 
evolution and selection, to answer more or less sufficiently the 
requirements of modem civilization. 





Ms. J. & Mnr. m im 'SyKoB «r Lxvk;* tekv 

tfcat two aal tkne aakc fi»» art " ntei— ly aradw,* 
a AoB ladcMeM of cetlaiBtj- liqcad tint sUck aae cxpe^ 
ikaee ciB ^tc; Jk. 313 ■Mats Am 'too and oae ve •^■■1 
to three " expvaHS bsrIj "a tivtb bowii to □• linr carlj simI 
ttHMsBt ^tptnCBot : aft iMiactnTB tnu; and SDcn tiBtM we 
Ae fiMwIaliiai of tfac adoKB of NoBbtz: The liiiifawilal 
huifca «f that adence all rest to tbe crideaoe cf aeMr; th^ 
mm prared I9 iboaia^ to amt kj^b mad oar fiifitn that mmj 
pwrmammber titkjtca^Ua hafc far cxanfl^ aay fcy ae^m- 
tJBftMJii MiiByiilcKhihit taaorieaaa all the dOcRMi 
Mteflf ankotW mm of wfakk m «{m1 te taa. AD iU 

iM|B JMrthiih irf'lirarliim. ■l ill iiMl i i to cUfc^ta fraoe^ 

aakM«MK»aftUB&(t. AD ^» viA to CMfy tha dilA 
m»a<< aloag^-with them in kanuie andnMtir; aO «ho viA to 
teacb utmbtn, aad do4 omm c^h«» mmw UaA it thfooch 
tha avidnev flf th* iean^ v the MMer n have d>- 
irtihed." 3Cr. MSTs aigmeDt is takcB frm the neatel eoe- 
ditaaaaaf peofik' aoHBg whaan Acn cuts a fci^dy a dtam w d 



arithtnetic. The subject is also one to be advantagcoosly 
ritudied frum tin: otIiDorjrnplier's point of riew. Tlit-' cxauiina- 
tioo of the raetliotU of oumeratioD in use among ttio lower 
TMOH not onl>' fully beam out Mr. Hilt'H view, tliat our kuow- 
lodge of tho relations of numbers is based on actual experiment, 
but it enablei us to trace the art of couutiog- to lU source, and 
to oftCfrtain by vhat steps it aros« iu tbc world among parti- 
cular mci.'S, and probably among all mankind. 

In our mtvanctnl Hyst(>m of mimemtioii, no limit is kixiwii 
either to I.irgcnesa or suialluc-ss. The pbilosophor cauuot coQ- 
ceive the fomialiou of any quantity so large or of any atom so 
nnaJI, but the aritlimctician can kcop )wc« with tiim, and can 
define it iu a MiupU- cumbiiiutiuu ui written sigus. But as wu 
go downwanla in tlie scale nf culture, we find that even where 
the current laugua^'c baa terms fui- liumlreda and thousands. 
iborc Is lc!w and less power of fgnniiig a distinct notion of laigc 
number;*, the reckoner is sooner driven to his fiugei's, and there 
increaseK aiimng vwa thu must intelligent of n trilx; thai 
Dumerical indefiniteness that we notice amoujj children — if 
there weie not a thousand people in the sli-cet there were cer- 
tainly a hundred, at any rate there were twenty. Strength in 
aritUinelic does not, it is true, v&iy repalarly with the levol of 
gcncml culture. Some savajiij or barbaric peoples uro excep- 
tionally skilled in numeration. The Tonga Isluudem really 
have nntivo mimerals up to 100,000. ^Jot content evc-u with 
this, the i'lfocli explorer Labillarditrc pressed them fitrlhar 
and obtained oumemlti up to 1000 billions, wliicli wore duly 
printed, but proved cii later examination to be partly uouaeoso- 
words luid piii-tty inili:^liimte expressions,' so that the supjHtsod 
sorlcs of high numdi-aU forms at once a Utile vocabulary of 
Tougan iiid(H!(>npj, nnd il wnrnirg ns to tile probablo rcHultn of 
taking down unchueked nimwers frutii questiou-worriod eavaguti. 
In West Africa, a lively and continual habit of bargaining hnii 
ilereloped a grejil power of anthmotic, uud litttu clnlilroa 
oU'eady do feals of computation with their heaps of cowrint. 
AnKing the Yonibas of Alxtokuta, to say "you don't know nino 
times nine " is actually au insulting way of tiayiug " you are a 

' lUrtiitr, 'Tuu^t Itlanil^' vol. ii. p. SlIO. 


THE Xta Ol- LVfSTlXa 

doooe." ' Tbi» ia on eztraonfisazy prmcrh, wtum we comptn 
it with tlie standard whtdi oor corre^^Ddiag Earopaui iAyin^i 
Mt (or tbe Itmitd of Atupiility : the Gennaa bmj*. * be can scuee 
4oaat five " i the Spaaiard, " I wiU. tell yaa how mnj make 
Am " (euuktos wd obcd) ; and ve hare the lame nw in 

" . . . u ann u I *■ a&re, 
Aad hasw* haw maiir heaaa mak» tn," 

A Sai Baae Uw-coart will not take the endcfice of a wiuma 
wb« canM* eonnt or nckon figiuv« up to tea ; a nila which 
rbdbJb vm vt the aaoent eostooi of SkrewihoiT, wWe & 
P»OB was d««med of ^e when he knew bov to coooi op la 
taMire pesee.' 

Amoog tiie lowest Gring men, the langies of the Sooik 
Amenean fimsts and tbe dcKifci of Amtt^^ 5 ia adaaBy 
IbiiDd to he a manber which the Uii(aiceB of soon tohea ia 
not know bj a qtedal wunL ^ot aal]r haw innDecs firihij 
to get &om them nane* far ammi wi B liwTv 1 3. oc 4. h«t the 
opcaBOB thai ihew an the real limitft of their DWaesal senes ■ 
faj their we of then- h^^est kaswrn uomibtr aa OK 
temfcrapvalnMij;. Spix aai IfwtiH ttf of A* 
Ivw Iribcs of BcazO, 'The; coont cvounaotf \j tbeir fiayep- 
jaifli^M vp 10 three oolj. Aanr kfja-Banher ^a^ aifpms 
bythawoid'aaay."** In ■ riii'i nualiiihij tba 
^wcB aa Loom; S.«wn/i; 3Lprw«, *mai^'': ia 

» ifa^ S. «»IE.. .. Bbdkh«.» fida k, iLr 

lit IG^^H^ ^««i 

abi OyfaU (wn^ 

I ClUlfclH. *TMAft TiMBl. 

"Uwta >Jlaah.lkiL.aBeft4|u'«^i (i «»: DaHknka Ifea. &.(»&— ft) 

id. AcHH^fi SBi. 
» aito mt ifcrta^. -ly— ia ■!»«.■■ ' ~ 

. aMW^^I* I in I fc"B>McW^ -^ -.-> 104. llUII«n»IFic>a% 



especially of "West/rni tril»e.s) says, "Tin.' New Hollaiidprs have 
DO uamcs for numben beyond two. The Wakliaiidic scnle of 
notation is co-ote-<jn (oiio),-u-f«u-»'tt (two), fjool-tita (raaoy), and 
bool-tha-bat (very many). If absolutely required to express the 
numbers three or four, tlicy say «-<<tr-rt* «w-(«-tfo to indicate 
the former number, and U'Uty-ra «-(flt'-m to denote the iatter." 
That is to WIT, their names for one. two, three, and four, are 
ecpiivatent to " one," "• two/" " two-one," " two-two." Dr. Long's 
numerals fmm QiKwnslfuid are juRt the same in principle, 
though the words are differont : I . ffanar ; 2. hurta ; 3. buria- 
ganar," two-nne"; 4. buria-hurUt "two-two"; koruvtba, "more 
than four, much, great." The Komilnroi dialect, though with 
the same 2 bk the last, improveR upon it by bavtog an inde- 
pendent 3, and with the aid of this it reckons as far as 6 : 1. 
mal; 2. bulat-r; 3. fftdiUt; 4. luUtrfhalttrr, "two-two"; 5. 
huUiguUfta, "two-three"; 6, tjnlihagulihn, " ihree-tliree." 
Thcie Australian examples are at least evidence of a very 
scanty ox well as clumsj' numonit srstt-m among ccrtaiu tribes.' 
Yet here again higher forms will have to be noticctl, which ia 
one district at luaat eiury the unlive numerals up to 15 or 20. 

It is not to be supposed, because a navago tribe has no 
current words for numbers above 3 or o or so, that therefore 
they cannot count hoyond thia It nppcais that they can and 
do count coDJudurably further, but it is by falling biick on a 
bwer and ruder method of csprcfwion than speech — the gestare- 
langoage. The place in iutclleotufil development hold by the 
art of counting on one's fingera, is well markeil in tJie deecrip- 
lion which Masaieu, the Abb^ Sicard's deaf-and-dumb pupil, 
gives of his notion of immbers in his comparatively untaught 
ehildlukxl: "I knew the numbers before my instruction, my 
fingers had taught me them. I did not know the ciphers; I 
counted on my fingers, and when the number pawed 10 I made 
iiotehRs on a bit of wotid."* It is thus that all sav.ago tribixs 
have becu taught anthmctic by their finger!). Mr. Oldficld, 

I OlJfirU io. Tr. Elh. 8m. vol, iii. p. S£>1 : I.«i% ' QutuulaDd,' p. 4IS; 
LuUiwn, ' I'ouij'. Phil,' p. S5i. Other tomu in Bonwicic, I. c, 

* Slcaidi "Th&nie du Sigac* pvur I'lDstniclimi do* Suiinl8-MucU,'Tot ii. ^i 



aflcr giviug tiiu acoouut. just quoted of ihc oqialiUity of tJbe 
WatchauUio language to rrocli 4- by nurncmln, goes on to dc- 
scriLe the mcaus by wliicb the tiibc cuutnve to deal with ft 
harder problem in numomtion. " I onw ivishcd to ascertain 
the exact number of natives who bad been slain on a certain 
Occasion. The individual of whom I made the enquiry, began 
to think over the names .... assigning one of hi» tinmen to 
each, aud it wan not until after many fnihirex, nnd eonM.><[uent 
frosHi starts, that he was able to oxpross so high n nnmber, 
which he at length did by hdtding up his hand threu times, thus 
giving me to UDdcrsUtiid tbat fiflceu wai^ the nnsn-cr to thU 
most difficult arithmelioal qucstiou." Of tlie aborigiuos of 
Victoria, Mr. Stanbridge Rays : " They have no name for 
numerals above two, but by repetition Uiey count to five ; they 
also niconl the dnyit of tlie moon by means of tho (ingcm, the 
hones nnd joints of the iirms aud the head."' Tbe Bororos of 
Bnuul ix-ckun : 1. cimai; 2. mia)H(n; A.nmti; and then go 
on counting on their Hngem. repeating this vuai* Of course 
it DO more foUouit amoug xavogos tlian amonj^ uuntelvoK that, 
becatise a man counts on his lingers, his language must be 
irentiug in words to express the number hu wi:shcs to reckon. 
For example, it was noticed that when nativcB of Kamchatka 
were Ret to count, they would reckon all their Bngers, and tlien 
all their toc«, 80 getting »ip to 20, and then would ask, " ^^^u^t 
arc -wo to do next?" Yet it was found on examination (hat 
numbers up to HM> existed in their language.* Travellers no- 
tice the use of fiiigcT-coimting among irilK« who can, if they 
choose, Mpeak tht- number, ami whoeither silently count it upon 
their fingers, or very usually ace«mpauy the word with the 
action ; uur iudecd are either of these modes at all unfamiliar 
in modem Europe. Let Father Gumilla, one of the early Jesuit 
missionaries in Soiitli Amt-rica, dtsicrihu fur us the relation of 
gesture to speech in counting, and at the same time bring to 
our minds very remarkable exninplvs (to be paralU'lcd ebe- 
where) of the action of con-scnsus, wheraby conventional I'ulcs 

> Stuihridge ill ' Tr. ElJi, Soe.' toI. i. p. 3M. 

* Mnrtiiu. '(jlou. UrMt!.* p. 15. 

* RnclMntnnilov, * EniDtcliBtk*,' p. II. 



beooiDC Bxed nmong socieUe« of mon, evon id so dniple an Art 
a» that of cuuiiliug ou out>'A tiugt;ns. " Nobcxly among oiimelves " 
he remarks, "except incidentally, wonM aay for insUDce 'cme,' 
'two,' etc, anJ give the uuiuber on hU fingers an well, l>y 
toacbing them witli the other hand, tjcactly the contrnry hap- 
pens among the Indtaiu. They say. for iuBtaocc. 'givo me one 
piir of acidsoni,' and forihwith they raise one finger; 'give me 
two,' and at oncu they raiiiu two, and so on. They would never 
nay ' five ' without showing a hand, never ' ten ' without holding 
out both, never 'twenty' without aJdiug up the liiigere, plactxl 
opposite to the toes. Moreover, the mode of showing the nuni- 
bcrs with tlie fingont diffcn in eadi nation. To avoid prolixity, 
I give OS an example the number ' three.' Tho Otomacs to 
Bay 'three' unite ttic thumb, forofinger, and middle finger, 
keeping the others down. Tlio Tamanncs show the little finger, 
the ring finger, and the middle fiugcr, and dose the other two. 
The ftUipurea, lastly, r&ise the fore, middle, and ring finger, 
keeping' tho other two hidden,"' Throughout the world, the 
general relation between finger-counting and word-counting 
may be stated a* followa. For rcndincM and for ease of appre- 
heniiioD of numbers, a palpable arithmetic, such as is worked ou 
fingor-joint* or fingers,' or heaps of pebbles or beans, or the 
more artificial contrivances of tlic rosary or the abacus, has so 
great an advantage over reckoning in wordi: as almost neoea- 
sarily to precede it Thus not only do we find fingei-counting 
among savages and UDwhiciitfld mon, carrying on a part of 
their mental operations where language is only portly able to 
follow it. hut it also retatnii a place and on undoubted nse 

■ OumilU, 'llUtoiu d«l OrHKKM,* vol iU. th. xlr. ; Pott, ' ZihlmMuti*,' 
p. Id. 

* Tie Eiumni broken fiara uisd (at •gw. and ilill dmv tbp motliod ofatctaKy 
indietiiDg nnmbm to o<i« snoUHr ia bui^ning, by "mi|iptiiglliig«ninBileFa 
cloth." " Y.viay joynt and ertty iagtr bull hit tignifluiion," u «b old tn- 
vvlliir r»jit, und lliv HTaloiii wenu a mar* or kns artlficMl iUv«lDpin*nt of ordiiiftty 
linKcT-ciiuoliuK. Ui« ttiDml> »aJ licilo Itngtr btrMclied out, rad tlie oUtor finitmi 
clnwd, auniUng Cor or 00^ tk« addition of tho fanrth Rofpr matkiag 7 or 70, ami 
w on. It 11 nid tlut b«t«wti two brokur* Mailing a [oko by tlint mipping viUi 
tlw Ancan, dtTcmow in Inigwninj;, oflffriog a UiUa tnotv, liOMUtitiib »pnMiiis 
■n o^ntiiMU nIbMl to kd brtbor, auil to Imtii, oocum vM joat a« in chaffuinf in 


among the most cultoretl nations, as a prepanitioa for uul 
means of Aoquinng bigkor itritlitiietical mutlHNJit. 

Now Ibere exists valid endcnce to prore tliat a child learniiig 
to count upoa itti Stigcrs dues in a way reproduce a process of 
the mental hi$1ury of the human race ; that in fact men counted 
Qpon their tiogen before they found wonls for the numhcrs 
t^y thus expressed ; that in this department of culture. Word- 
laiif[uag» not only followcl Gesture-lai^uaflfc, but actually grew 
out of it. The endt^ncc in question is principally that oflan- 
gaago itself, which sliom-x that, among many and dititant tribcii, 
men wanting to express ■'> in wonk called it simply by their 
name for the ktthil uliich tUoy hvid up to denote it, that in tike 
manner tht'r »iid tuv hmulM or hal/a man to denote 10, that 
the wonl/bo( ciuried on the reckoning up tol5, and to 20, which 
thsy described iu wunU as in geiitore by the lufndii and /ext 
together, or as o»f m nn, and that lastly, by various exprMBions 
rofornug directly to the gtnlures of counting on tlie fiugeni aud 
tooa^ they gave names to the«c ami intermediate namerals. As 
m dofinito term iji wanted to describe signiBcant numerals of 
tbia chus, it may be conrenient to call them " faand-nuraerab " 
or " digit-DU mentis." A selection of t^-pical instances will eonro 
to make it probable that tt)i» ingenious device was DOt> at any 
nte generally, copied from ouc tribe by another or inlieritcd 
from a common source, but that its working out with original 
ohamoter and curiously van-iug detail displays the rccurrcncoi 
of a similar but independent process of mental development] 
among various races of man. 

Father Qilij, deaeribing the arithmetic of the Tamanaca oui 
the Orinoco, gives their numerals up to 4: when they oomo 
to 5, they express it by the word amffnaii6iif, vflxitii being 
taunslated monns "a whole hand"; 6 is oxprL-B;^ by a term 
vhich translates the proper gesture into wonk iUiojito antffna^^i 
jwnd teviTiUpe "one of the other hand/' and so on up to V-^H 
Coming to 10, they give it in wonls as amt/na ne^jmntii'^ " l»th ^' 
handa" To denote 11 they stnitch out both the luinds, and 
adding the foot they say pidUa-pond temiiitpn, "one to the 
foot,*' and 80 on up to l\ which is iptaitone "a whole foot." 
Next followH 16, "one to the other foot," aud so on to ii\tevhh-. 



ne Indiau ;" 21, itacoTio iibto jaw^n^r hoiid, tcvinU})e, 
" oue to the hantU of tijc otbcr Indiau ; " 40, occImM itHto, 
"two ludiaiiii." and so on for GO, 80, 100, "thvco, four, five 
Indians," and Vteyond if necdfiiL South America La remarkably 
rich in such evidence of an early condition of finger-counting 
recorded in spoken langun^e. Amon^' il--: mnny other lanyungBa 
which have reeogniznlile digit-numoraU, the Cayriri, Tupi, 
Aliipone, and Carih rival the Tamanac in tliuir systematic way 
of working out " hand/' ■' hands," " foot," " foot," eta Others 
Khow ((tighter traces of rhe same procesti, where, fui instance, the 
numcraU 5 or 1 are fount! to be connected with worda for 
•■ hand,'' etc., aa when the Oniagua uses piut, " hand." for 5, and 
reduplicates this into UjKtpMt for 10. In oome South American 
languages <i man in recltoucd by fingers and toes up to 20, 
while in contract to this, there are two languages which dis- 
play a miserably low mental state, the man coimting only one 
hand, thuM stopping ehort ut 5; the Jnri (fltomen apa "one 
man," fitands fur 5 ; tlio Cayriri U)ick6 is used to mean botli 
"person" and 5, DigitruumeraU are not couBned to tribes 
standing, like these, low or high within the limits of savagery. 
The M-uyscas of Bogota were among the more civilized native 
races of America, rankiDg with the Pcmviaufi in their culture, 
yet the same method of formation which appears in the lan- 
guage of the rude Tamanacs is to be traced in that of the 
Moyscas, who, when they come to II, 12, 13, counted qmkichi 
ata, bo»a, mica, i^., "foot one, two, three."* To turn to North 
America, Cranz, the Moravian missionary, thus describes about 
a century ago the numeration of the Gruenlandera. "Their 
numerals," he says, "go not hr, and with them the proverb 
holds that they can scarce count Ave, for they reek<m by the 
five fingers and then get the help of the toes on their feet, and 
so with labour bring out twenty." The moderu Greeulaud 
grammar gives the numenils much as Cranz does, but mora 
fully. The word for .1 is iattllrimat, which there is some ground 
for supposing to have onco meant " hand ;" 6 Li arJiw^iHittmis^, 

' C31j; 'SoKKi^ 'It Stoiia Amcricnna,' rot, iL p. 883 f^naSMc, HitTpim). 
Uoitlua, 'QluM. Bnuil.' (Cajriri, Tii^ii. CariU Omngiia, Jari, Oaictil, Corota, 
Channtoa, UucnnuUi Caripiiaa, Ciuiixiiitn, Cnn^iJa, Coroado^ fte.}; Dubrix* 
hoffer, ' Atiipotia^' tai. ii. p. 1«8 ; JItitiiboUt, ' Monnmnu,' pL xMv. (MnytA). 
vou L <t 



* oD tlic oUjer hand one," or more lihortly ar/itLi^it, " tliosc 
wliicti liavc ciD tluj other liaiid;" 7 ia it rjiiuh-Ttuirdluk^" on tbv 
other lian«l two;" 13 bi arkanfl-finr/asut, "on Uie first foot 
tliruc ;" 18 la ar/cntatuJi-jntt'jdsul, " uu the other foot three ;" 
when tliey reacti 20, thej can aay i«ui ndvdlugo, "a auut 
ondod," or inii^ amtal jidvdlugit " the man's outer membeis 
«lMled;" and thus bycorniting wcvcral men tUcy reach higher 
numboiB, thus cxprcseio^, for example. 53 as iniip pitigajuga- 
«ind arktinel-'-piugnmil, " on the tbinl mau ou the first foot 
tbroo."^ If we pass from the rude GreeoUod«r6 to the oom- 
pftntJrely ctvUixi^d Aztecs, wc »hiiU fmd oa the >'orthorD as on 
the Southern continent traces of early finger-numeration sor- 
viving among higher races. The Mexican namee for the first 
four nnmomU are as obscure in etymology ns oar ovn. But 
when wo come to £ wc find tliin expressed by nuieuilli, and as 
ma (ma-itlj meany " baud," and cuHoa " to point or depict," it 
tB likuly that tlio woni for 5 may have meant sometluug Uko 
"haml-dcpicling." In 10, TfuxtlaeiU, the word -ma, "hand," 
appcan again, and tlacill mcaiut half, and is represented in the 
Ucxicaii pirtiirc-writingN hy thi* figure of half a man from the 
waiitL upwitrd ; lIudi it appears that the Aztec 10 mean» the 
"faand-half of a man, jtut oh among the Towka Indians of 
South Aiiierlai HI is expressed as " half a man," a whole man 
hc-iug 20. When tin; i^jstecs reacii 20 they call it cempoaUi, 
" onu countiug," with evidently the same meaning as etsewhora, 
one whole man, fingcnt and tues. 

Among races of the lower culture elsewhere, nimiUr facts arc 
to bo oLfiorved. The Ttutmaiiian language again shows the 
man utopping nbort at the reckoning of himidclf when ho bn« 
held up one lumd and counted its fingers ; for here, aa in the 
two South Anionean tribes hoforc mentioned, ^Kf/r/ftrMy "man," 
stands for 5. Some of the West Australian tribca haw done 
much hotter titan this, using their won^ for *' hand," mai-ft-m ; 
Ttutrk-jin-baiuf-lfa, " lialf the hands," is 5; marh-jin^Hinff-ga^ 
guiijir-ffi/n, " half the haniU and one," is 6, and eo on ; vnav^ 
jin-b(illi~belli-ffiutjir-j'ma-ba7ig-ga, "tho hand on either side 

> Cntnt, 'Gi^nhiul,' p. SS6 ; ' Klciuehnildt Or. dtr GronL Spr. ;' Kaela 
•Tr. Eth. Soc' vol. ir. p. 1*5. 


anil half the fcc1j"i3 15.' An au example from llie Melaoesian 
langnagea, Uie Martj will serve; it reckons 10 as omc rr rue 
iviicnine appurcutly " tliv two sidcu" (Le. Imtli liatiils). 20 qb «a 
r« flfliojjie " one man," etc.; thiia iu Jolm v. 5 "which had an 
infirmity thirty aad eight yooni," tlic numeral 38 lit expressed 
by the phrase, "cue uiau aud both sidos livo and tliice."" In 
the Malayo-PolynesUm languages, tbn typical word for 5 is lima 
or rimri "iiand," and the connexion is uot lost by tho phunvtic 
variations among different brandies of lliis fcimily of langua^ges, 
as ia Malagasy Uimy, Mairjuesan Jima, Tougao nima, but 
■while livia and ita varieties mean S in almost all Molayo- 
Polyticflian dialects, its meaiiiaj* of '"band" is confined to a 
much nan-ower district, uliowing that the word bcoime more 
permanciit by passiog into the comlitiou of a. traditional 
numeral. In longuageiii of the MiJayo-Polyneilan family, it'is 
usually found that C etc, are carried on with words whoso 
etymology is no longer obvious, but the forms livui-m., linut' 
swa," hand-one," '"hand-two," have been found doing duty for 
C and 7* Iu West Africa. Kolle's account of the Vei laogui^o 
givcv a case in pnint Thcso negrot-s are su dejM:iidt:ut on their 
fingers that some can hardly count 'without, .ind their toes are 
convenient as the calculator M^uatii on the ground. The Vci 
people and many other African tribes, when counting, first 
count the fingcra of their left hand, begiuuiug, be it remembered, 
from the littJo one, tht:n in the iiamc manner those of the 
right hand, and afterwards the toes. The Vei numeral for SO 
mo bdiuU! means obviously " a person (mo) in finished (baadc)," 
and 80 on with 40, 60, SO, etc. " two men, three men, four men, 
etc, are iiniKbed." It U an interesting |)oint that the negroes 
who nsed these phrases had lost their original descriptive Bcnse 
— ^the words had beoomo mei-o dumt-raU tu tUeui.* Lastly, 
for bringing before our minds a picture of the man counting 
upon his fingers, and being struck by ttiu idea that if he 

> MiUlpui, ], c. ; C. F. UooTc, 'y'>cab. W. Aualnlin.' Compttn » Mtlt* of 
' iiniiimls 10 D, rrom Sviluvy, m Tntt, ' Zttliltnclhoilp,* p. Id. 
Uiib«]eiit^ 'lU'lancHiflu! SgimiJKin,' p. 1S3. 
' v. V. HDinlioMt, ' Knwi S[ir.' voL il. p. 309 ; eorrobornlcd by 'A*. Ret-' 
vol. vi. p. iJiQ; 'JoDrn. Iiitl. Aicliip.' vol. iii. p. i&t, ok. 
• KotUe, 'Cr. ttfVd. Laug.' p. SJ. 



IBX AIT or tlHWIJIfc. 

im wrtuw m vvvifa, &tm radt wmj beeone an 
M* Car Ik* noMber, pe^Bps m kagage of the voild 
tfeZgk. "n I Tiitii iiwli^t wi fcii liimii I igiiii in 
gnsitvttJitfeSttlkfia^iraf Uikftknd. "WlMai be coma 
te aw dp* h» aaj- cJ rfrwh " faiA ^mI;* then be goes on 
ID ibe tbaafe «f ibe n^ bnd. nd a» lb* vavd tatiaiii^a. 
"t3il3i«tbatbMBb'*bMsaaaBaaMnl farft Tbentbev^ 
fafliia * u pacnt,'* imSralny tbe farafiayi;. or * pomlerr'' 
makm tbe mgtt wwal 7. T%n, ■wiiiau, tbe ({oeetioft 
"TTmrmirri iRIjriMr nwiliii iJiit jwraSda iraiid ay"!! 
U wJti k ' "Hepoiatedwiib bk fatefiaeec'* ^ '*Heg>TeiDe 
KftAt^ud tbiscBiieaimyaf ns^tbcsBiDeialnnbis tbovB 
ft mrtr in mmirlr m " imihiiihi MfeotMe" * tbe boBes have 
poate^* UL. " tbera vece aercB of UtetB." In like mnnner, 
l^amgatctiti "keep bade bm fiagtei,** tju S, ettd fvan^u^ 
hmje ' kc«p bncfc dim ^agft." i'a. 9, iMd oo to fami, 10 ; «t 
tbe oonpIeiMi of each t«a th« two faanda with cpen Shgets are 
ciapped togvtbw. ^ 

Thfl tbeofj that aan't fitiailive uode of eomttiiig wa« pal- 
pable reckaBJag on hk haodi, and the praof that oumyaaaMnla 
in pnaent oae are actually derived frora sacfa a state of tbin^ 
b a great step towanU di ae o y erin g tbe oci^n nf nmnenla in 
geBCcal Can «« go Gutiwr, and state broadly tbe meotal pnK 
aam}rf whucb sarage men. baring do nametal as yet in tbeir 
laagoa^ came to inrent ihem ? Wlut was the origm of 
IT'IIIW** not munt^ with ret'er^BCt: to hand'* and feet, and 
espectaQy of ibe tnmienilB bebv five, to whick sach a dcnvation 
ia hardly apprupfiate 1 The subject is a peculiarly difficult <me. 
Yet aa to principle ic t» not oltojjietliifr oiMcure* fiir aucno 
erillaDee ia forthcoming aa to tbe actual formation vf nuv 
QtitDaml vt'jfla. Cti«Mi being matie by simply pressio^ 'mto tbe 
serricB aamca of oi jccts ur actions in some "vfuY appropriate to 
tbe purpvM^ 

People p(]t«e»ini; full S(>t.4 of ioberitcNl niimcralii in tbeir own 
langonge* ban DeT«rtb«lc-ES sometimes found it coOT«ni«nt to 
invent new onea. Tliua tlie ^Hiol&Rt of India. B^ges ago, selected 

> Mknadrr. 'Gr. rDrZii]gS(iM)(A,*ik»): Diilui^ >ZtiLaDu>.:* GtMit, *ZaIa 
Qf.' Sm Hnliii, *Cr. 4m H*t«i>«l' 

Tuc jutT or ootnnuio. 


a Bet of wordi» for a memotis tecfanica in onler to reotxtl datea and 
nnmbon. Tbcao wordi Ukejr dbote far reMOus whiok ftra lUIl in 
^great measure endcftt ; tbw *'iaooB''or "eutb" expruMdl, 
iCTo being but one of each ; 2 migfit be tajltd " ejre," " wu^" 
' ann,'* " jaw," as going in pain ; for 3 tbejr said " Bama," 
' fire," or " quality," there being eoniidered to be tiiree Rama^ 
irve kinds of fire, tkree qoaliuea (guna) ; tor 4 vere nwd 
f* Teda," * age," or ' oMao," iImtv being &m id eadi recogaiaed; 
for 6, became tfaef leckoaed nx nnKnis; ** Hge ** or 
" Tffwcl " for 7, from tbe wren iigta and tbe ceren voveli ; and 
aooo vithbigber nunbesi, ' ann " for 13, bc)=uiNe i^ tile twelve 
animal deoonmutiaDS, or ' aodtac ** from lU twclre sigot, and 
" nail " {<x 20. a word incidental^ brii^ng in a fiager-i>oUtiait. 
JU Samkiit is tcct- ricfa io ijmonjrMi; and aa ereo the nomcrala 
ibenaadrea ni^t be oaed, it beeauM nrf laqr U draw op 
phrases or n anieii ! > - TOJta to raoord aeries of mnnbcn hj tfcn 
jjBteni of artificial mtaarj. Tbe CuOoving ■■ a Hindn aatro- 
nonueai fanush, a list «f nwnbeis nletiisg to tbe ttan of tbc 
loaar wilePationi. Each verd sUnds as tbe ■ inen oai c vjaa* 
Talsaii of tbe Dtunbcr plaoed over it in tbe En^di tMshriciL 
Hw geaenl pezneqile onviridii tbe wcads am ikosiB to • 
I MUibcn ■■ evident viUiovt fiotber esflaMatiea : — 

" T Ah tri nnka is^arfii knU^niLUaa 
!*tVii jTipMtii TJi^ifc 





9 S S S 114 4 

Jknvm. iksvia. i^ aoDV. matk. aanfa, «p^ oeeu, 

II 4 t 1 • IM S 

BaAB.tK«n.. £ma. qaalilr. T^s, haaina, two, 

VaaOi: iT&e viw h«»«fcMBMt{aiAts«rfa'tWi^^ 

r V. in. is 'a*, ths^' rA H 17M. ^ SK i H Jarqwt is 'Smr. Iobb. 
t«»; V. «. HnAMUt. *KMn4if«.- TdL t !>. ta. nBiTMn tf » 

y^tf «r iMmiuI AnmaUffi^mi aa mA AaBdH. I!» 

tm carswtsa. 



ift wfffifi— «i. w m MM 




(tf'WHiMnUanr von* iMK j^nilui 

MirMidBii if Ti>ii 


.N udNT '" 

•. UDUU^ tilt 

10%^' -.Ji'^, 

. .1. 

disutd. It) 

^ xam.. Witii dl t&u 



lb uuuMimli, 3 bung oisft- 

lihu OiUTUW lituit. 


L. i Wdrriljm; 3l KaJ- 


■ , 7. Waaguiya ; 

«. N 

1 iU< iiAni(-«. friim 

Tax AST or oocimKL 

niiidi thu £stiiBle di&r in terminslioo. Tbe7 mtt pstm Mi 
facrtli, wan di aJBrfciw fyrihtiflw bng luv iAMMidf 
cboMB.! It k imtrrtiiig ttoi a ■■■nwlii iJniflar lajiit maw* 
iu if ^ wna oe siBoiig tlie Ufthyi^ wlw id Houe diarieto « 
nyurtrf tOMwri—rf HanannocB in ocdiv of 4g«, Legn^ 
inac«i& L AiZay (-«Uect**}; S. ^fsoiy (" frMScl, cuaqio. 
Bun **), B&d ending viLh KaAaL, (' fiuib om;") cr Mtm/m 
C jiiMiiini ir *•)■ Hmkmw &r m; ^w^rtw li»— JfA fi»> 
fiirf. »J TiifiktiMDW Iwe !• W ■mrnA fcr jKanJaod dirtaclMBL* 
I. TImI^w,,. Ae Mity GMOMxiiB nvifato Jtatf n lb* 

&a8^frafivims«.«hidi jw;, hiwimii. aftaa aiteilratod is 

["■uUt^L iotualr',. Jfe^Hw j' iBliMBMiliiilii"; &)- 

jfaraMBcy CiiA Ifsn^bauaKrV ih* to aoMMidi u> SU and*- 

flf tkomi 



yot the Dew 2 and 5, p'lti and 7mt«, became so poiKiTcI^ the 
pixtpcr Dumeralii of the language, tlmt tbey staud instead of rua 
and rima in the Tahitian translAtion of the GoHjiel of St. John 
rondo at the time. Again, various special hahita of connting in 
the South Sen iHlamls havu bad Uii-ir ctVL-cl on language. Tlie 
M&rquesans, counting fi»h or fniit hy one in each ItAnd, han 
come to use a system of cDuiiting Ly pairs inst'Oad of by unita 
They start with Uiuna, " a. jtair," which thus becomes a numeral 
equi^fdent to 2; then tbey count onward by pairs, so that when 
they talk of tftl-ati or 10, tbey really mean 10 pair or 20. For 
brwul-fruit, as they ai-e accustomed to tie them up in knots of 
four, thoy begin with the wokI pono, "knot," which thos be-] 
oomcii a real numeral for 4<, nud here again they gn on counting 
by kuote, so that when they say takau. or 10, they mean 10 
knob! or 40. The philological mystification tluu caused in 
Polynesian I'ocabularies is extraordinary; in Tahitian, etc., rttu 
and mano. properly meaning UK) and 1,000, have come to signify 
200 and 2.0I>0, while in Hawnii a second doubling in their sense 
makes them equivalent to 400 oud 4.000. Moreover, it seems 
possible to trace the transfer of suitahlc names nf objectts still 
farther in Polynesia in the Toiigau and Maon word 'cXutt, 10, 
which seems to have been a word for "paa-cel" or " buncit," 
used in counting yams aud fiah, as also in tefuhit 100, derived 
from /tthi, " sheaf or bimdle." > 

In Africa, also, special numeral formations are to be noticed. { 
In the Yoniba language. 40 is called ogodai, "n string," becau^ 
cowries are strung by forties, and 200 is iglit, " a heap," mean- 
ing ogaio a heap of cvwriesL Among the Dahomaos ia like 
manner, 40 cowries ninko a l-fuh or "string." 50 slringH make 
one afo or " head ; " these words becoming numerals for 40 and 
2,000. When tlie king of Dahomc attacked Abookuta, it is on 
record that he was repuUt'd with the hoa\*j" loss of " two hcade, 
twenty stiiugs, and twenty cowries" of men, that is to say, 4,820.* 

Among atltiired nations, whose lan^^es are most tightly 

' U. BtHn. ' Ethnograjilijr nml Pliilulogy,' rot vi, of Wllkei, II. S. Explorinj; 
trp., PliiUdvIidiiA, IBtO, yp, IT't, SS9. (K.B. Th« OAlinftrjr cditlou do not 

contBtn UtU un]i«ituit rolninu.} 

' Bowen, ' Or. end Die »f Voruba.' 
p. 314. 

Barton in ' Ucin. Antltro|i. Soc.' vol. i. 



bounil to the cODTOniiooal and unintclltgiblo numerHln of their 
ancestors, it is likewise usual to find oilier tcrmg existing TrLich 
arc practically Dumeials&Iready. and might drop at oiioq into tho 
rocr^izcd pkcc of Hucti, if by any chance a gap were tniulo for 
Ibem in the traditional Bcriee. Had wc rouin, for ioatauco, for 
a new wonl instead of ttco, then cither pair (Latin pur, " equal ") 
or eoKpli (Latin copuh, " bond or tic,") is ready to fill it« place; 
Instead of txc^nty, the good English word acore, " notch," will 
serve oar turn, while, for tbo came purpo<;e, German can nee 
Hiege, poenbly with the original sense of " a xtall full of cattle, a 
Sty ;" Old Xonw djiHi, " a company," Danish, »n«!«. A lint of 
such nrords tused, Init out giaminalically classed as nnmerala iu 
European liuigiiages, shows gn^ut variiity : examples are, Ohi 
Norscv fiockr (flock), 5; avnt, C; driitt (par^), 20; Oiiodh. 
(people), 30 ; fSiJ: (people), 40 ; 6id (people), 80; her (anny), 
.100; Sleswig, KJiilk, IS (an though we were to maka a word 
}mi of " sliiUing ") ; Mid High-German, rUU. 4; New High- 
■Geirnan. ■mnmld, 15; nchock (BheafJ. 60. The Lctta give a 
curious pandlel to Fotyu&iiau caaea Juxt cited. Ilioy throw 
crabs and little Btdi tJircc at a time in counting tJieui. and 
Uicrcforc the wortl indUns, ' a throw," has como to mean 3 ; 
while flounders being fastened in lots of thirty, the word kuhlu, 
" a cord," becomes a term to cxprcas this number. ' 

In two other ways, the productioo of numerals from merely 
descriptive wonls may bo otMorred both among lower and 
higher races. The Oalias have no numerical fractional terma, 
but they make an equivalent net of terms from Oie divi- 
sion of the cakos of salt which they use as money. Thus 
tekalmana, "a broken piece *' (frum tchaiia, " to lireak," aa wo 
rsay "a iroction"), receives the meaning of onC'lialf; a t«rm 
which we may compare with latin dimitHum, French iltFinf. 
Ordinal nunil)eni nre generally derived froin airdinal nuuilfun^ 
«s ikird, foxirtk, jifih, from //tree, four, Jivt. Bat aooag Uia 
very tow oDe» there in to l>c seen evidcuoe of lodapoiHlmt 
formation quite uncoDDccted with a conventional ayatMo of 
numeral) already exivting. Tbua the Orcenlaudcr did nut UM 

> Swrolt, ■ Z&UmetluNk,' pp. <^ ». \U, Kl i Orinn, 'llMlasbslUAla 

attariliitiB«T,' eh. v. 



bis "one** to mak« " first," liut calls it svJugdUh, "foremost," 
nor " two" to make "second." -which he cnlls aipd, "his com- 
panioo;" it is only at "thinl" that hd takes to his cardinals, 
and farms plngujuat m connexion with jilntjatntt, S. So, in 
Indo-Buropcan languages, the ordinal jtratha-niae, vpuros, 
primus, first, has nothing to do with a numorical " one," but 
with the pi'cposition pra, "before," as meaning simply "fore- 
most ', " and although OrccIc& and Germans call the next ordinal 
Mrtpw, stcviVc, from tvo, zivei, vro call it second, Latin MCWt' 
dU9, " the foUovrbg " (sequi), vhidi is tigiau a desciiptivo 
sense- word. 

If -we allow ourselvea to mix for a momont what ia with what 
might be, wc can see bov unlimited is the £eld of possiblo 
growth of numerals by more adoption of the names of familiar 
things Following the example of the Slesnigers wc might 
make eJiiUing a uumcral for 12, and go on to ospress 4 by 
ffrout ; vxek would provide na with a name for 7, and trover 
for 3. But this 8im[)le method of description is not tha onl/ 
available one for tlio purpose of making nnraerais.- Tho mo- 
ment nny series of iiameB is arraoged in regular order in our 
minds, it becomes a conotbg-machine. I have r©a<l of a little 
girl who was net to coimt cards, and she counted them accord- 
ingly, January, Ftbruai^'. March, April. She miglit, of courae, 
have reckoned them as Monday, Tuesday. Wednesday. It is 
interesting to iind a case coming under the same class in the 
language of grown pcojdc. We know that the numerical 
value of the Hebrew letters is given with rcfereuco to their 
place in the alphabet, which wqa arranged for reaAoos that can 
banlly have bad much tu do wiib arithmetic. The Greek 
alpbubet in modified from a Semitic one, but instead of letting 
the numeral value of their letter* follow throughout their newly- 
arranged alphabet, they reckon a, 0, y, 8, *, properly na I, 2,3, 
4, &, then put in r for 6, and so manage to let i etand for 
10, as ^ does iu Hebrew, where it is reidly the loih letter. 
Now, having this cunventioual arrangemcut of letters made, it 
is evident that a Grook who had t*> gi\'o up the regular 1, 2, 3 
— <tf, bvo, Tpus, could supj)ly their places at once by adopting 
tho nunes of the letters which had been settled to stand for 



tbem, tbits calling 1 alpka, 3 ieta. S gamma, and so fortb. The 
thiu^ has actually bappcncJ ; a rcmarkoblo slang Jtalccb of 
AlhoDia, which h Greek in structure, though full uf burrowed 
nod mystiiied word^ aud metaphors and epithets uuderatood 
only by the initiated, ba«, as its cqaivalcnt for " four " and 
" tea." the words H^m and twra. ' 

While iosistisg on the value of such evidence a9 this in 
making out the guuerol piiiKnplcs of the furmation of numomH 
I bavc n^)! found it profttobte to umlertake the ta<tk of t>tyiiKiIa- 
gizing tiie actual uumerala of the languages of tho world, 
otrtode the safe limiUi of (be s^rstems of digit-nuin»als among 
the lower races, already discu^cd. Thera may bo in the Lan* 
guages of the lower racLS otla-r relics of tho etymology of 
ntnnerab, giving the due to the ideas according to which they 
w«re selected for au arithmetical purpose, but such relics seem 
■canty and indistinct' Tliere may even exist vestiges oS a 
growth of numerals from descriptive words in our Indo-Ettropean 
liuignagcs, in Hebrew nnd Araiiic, in Chinese. Such etymolo- 
gies have been brought forward,^ and they are consiiOent with 

> Fnui«M]iwML:Iiel, > XrgoW p- 1$3> 

- Of oriilenca of this cUu, die roUairinK dtMnrcs Utciilioii : — DobriKlioObr 
'^liiponn,' Tol. IL p. mi, glrca ffeymUiati, ' oatiicli-toca,' u tho numeral 
for 4, tli«ir ostrich hnving tlm« tow Mm mi tm» behind, *nil luhAaiet, '* 
livft^oiiKd ■[■dttul Iiidf,' M tht nmnftnit G. D'Oibij^ir, 'l/Komnin Aueri- 
uiit,' rol. iL |>. 1Q3, txiniuks ;— " Lm Ctuqiiitoi no Mvcnt comptcT >\mo jasqu'tl 
uii {tiuiia), a'syniit pitu eiiMiite que <lo lerincs de i:o>ii{inniUun," Kijllc, * Or. ot 
Vei Lnng.,'noticMtliat flra mmnaboth 'with' oiid 2, and tlilnki the tormar 
maaniiig origUul, (conipMv thoTdu piti, 'tngtiltn,' thoncv 3 ) QnicbuBc/iiawi^ 
'luspi'tfAuiKiv, 10, ua;bB«onnect«iL Aitcc, m, I, Mo-f/f, 'grain' auf !•« con- 
itftclcd. Oil pouiblu >lt*ivatioiis of 3 from luml, ftc, MptcioII}- ButtcnUit Ctvam, 
■hand, 9,' MM Pott, 'Zlihlmethoila,' ]>. 29. 

* See t'Hnur. ' Chnpti-n on L«n2iue«,' p. 22S. fieokcw, ' lli^dierdiM aiir 
rOrielaQ dea Nonis du Kombn;' PicUI, 'Origins In.lo-Eiirop,' part II. cIl 
ti. ; Pet^ * Uhl^l•tllod^' p. ISg, «tc. ; A. r. HumboMt'a xiUiiniMn «Eitii|i«ri*<)U 
betiKMi Skr. Fontia, S, and ?vn. pei'j(\, ' llie jmlin of tliii i»iiil widi tha 
fittgen qmad out ; tha onUprcad foot of n bird,' aa tliuugli 5 mira cnllwl ^atiKJts 
Uam baing like a baud, la etiuueuui. Tlip I'nrnan pnijt/i a jtwlf derived frum ilia 
ftiunera] S, aa in Sfar. iha linnd ia coUmI jmtuhitfUblia , 'tha flrO'braneliaiL' 
Tho ainin fanmation U fomiil in tlngluh ; ilaiij; <lMi.'ribaa « aau'a haml nt hi* 
* lin»,' or ' bunch of firM,' tlioim tlis uniiia of tlia g/asu of flraik plafnl hf 
■trikiuK the ball vith the o]Ka hand, n tenn whirh haa nuido Iti mj' oni of along 
into BMepCcd UDguage. Iturluu tleuribcH the ]>o)iKi Arab at n inual, Ailing Ua 
eenrpanlon'iattonticn tnajn^iiaof rlco EaUen Into hit board. "Tb« fuaUaliln 



wlint is known of tliB principles on which numemU or c|iiagi- 
nuaierals are really formeil. But so far as T have \>evu able to 
examine tlio evidence, the coses iJl seem so philologioilly 
doubtful, that T cannot liring them fon^-anl in aid of the tlieoiy 
before us, and, indeed, ihink that if thcj succeed in estAblishing 
theniK(>Ivcs, it will lie by the theory nippoititig them, rather 
than hy their supporting the theory. This state of thing)^ 
indeed. fHa perfectly with the view here iuloptu'd, that when a 
vronl has once been taken up to serve 9u< a uumcraJ, and is 
thenceforth wonted an a lut-rc symbol, it becomes the Interest 
of lai^iiagu to allow it to lin?ak down into an appitrciil non- 
sense-word, Irom wliicli all traces of original etymology have 

Etymological research into the derivation of numeral words 
tliua hardly gfie-s with safety beyond showing in the langut^tei! 
of tlio lower culturo frequent ingtonecs of digit numerals, words 
taken. fn>m direct dewriptiDu of the gestures of couuling on 
fingers and tocR. Beyond thiti, another Htrong argument in avail- 
nblo, which indeed covers almost the whole range of tlie problem. 
The numerical systems of tlie world, by ibw aclwal schemes of 
their arrangement, extend and confirm the opinion that count- 
ing on fingers and toe* was man's original method of reckoning, 
taken up and represented iu language. To couut tlio fiugeiii of 
cne hand up to 5, and then to go on with n »econd five, is a no- 
tation by fives, or oh it is cnllcd, a quinary uotatJOD. To count 
by the use of Ireth hands to 10, ami thence to reckon by tena, 
is a decimal notation. To go on by lionds oud feet to 20, and 
tbcQcc to reckon by twenties, is a Tigesimal nutation. Now 
though in the larger proportion of known languages, no distinct 
mention of fingers and toes, bands and feet, is observable in the 
numerals themselves, yet the very schemes of qiiiuarr, decimal, 
and vigeaimaJ notation remain to vouch far such hond-aud- 
foot-counting having been tlio original method on which they 
were founded. There seems no doubt that tlie number of tho 
fingers led to the mloption of the not espeoiftlly Ruitable number 
10 as a period ia reckouiug, ko tlint deciiual arithmetic is based 

thr ganlcn," he n^i, villi u iitiili;. " W« irfU lintit tiof mth tlio fiu," i» tli* 




on human nnntoiny. ThiH in so olirioiin, tlint it ia citrions to see 
Ovid in liis well-known Hues puttiug the two faots dose together, 
witliotit Beein^ tluit the Mcond was tlic consoqucnco of tUo 

" Annus, ilocunum cum Ions Teoaper&t ocbem. 

nio mimcnu nugno tooa ia honom ftiit 

Son quia tot digib', per qoov nnxtwrara solemus: 

Sou (]ui& bia <{mi\o fcmina monaa pniit : 
Seu quod aduvqao docora nnnuro crMC«nt4 Tenitur, 
FriDcipiam vpatua samitor isdo noria." ' 

In, aurvcjiug the languages of tlie world at large, it is found 
that among tribcK or uatiou» far cuougli advanced in nrithmetic 
to count up to five in worda, there prcvailsi, with scarcely on 
exception, n method founded on hand-counting, quinary, deci- 
mal, vigesimal, or combined of theac For perfect examples of 
tbo quinary method, vie may take a Polynesian sories which 
nins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 51, 52, &c, ; or a Melancsinn seriis which 
may bo rendered atj 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2nd 1, 2nd 2, fee. Quinary 
leading into decimal l-s well shown in tlie Fellala scries 1 ... 5, 
31 . . . 10, 101 . . . lO-.'S, lO-.l 1 ... 20, ... 30, .. . 40. etc. Pure 

decimal may V int*ta»eed from Hehrewr 1, 2 ... 10, lOi 20, 

20-1 . . . i^T. Pure vigcRima! is not usual, for the obvious reagon 
that a set of iadcpeudent nameraU to 20 would ho inconvenient, 
but it takes on from quinary, as in Aztec, which may be ana- 
lyzed 08 1, 2 . . 5. 51 . . . 10, 10-1 .. . 10-5, 10-51 ... 20, 201 
. . . 20"lO, S(M0'1 ... 40, Ac. ; or from decimal, an in Ilasque, 
1 ... 10, 101 ... 20. 201 . . . 2010. -SOlOl ... 40. eW.' It 
seems utinccciMary to bring fonrord hero the ma&s of linguistic 
det^ls re(|uired for any general demonstration of these prin- 
ciples of numeration among the races of the world. Prof. Pott, of 
Halle, has treated the subji^^t ou ulaborate philological evidence, 
in a special monograph,^ which is incidentally the most esten- 

■ OvH. FmI. iii. 131. 

' Tlie wtuul word-uiunorKlscf tlu two qalnaiy teAta •» sfven mi cx»n[»tM. 
Triton's lUv, 1, MuuW; 2, rtttti: S. Unnent: i,faat:S, rimi- 4, riM^iitMM.- 
7, rim-roitti ,' 8, riin-timivrvt ; B, rim-faat; 10, ttotUj'a, Ufa, I, jtatjut; 9, b,- 
\ kun; 4, Utaek,- 5, Utatumki i, t^ii« ; 7i Uftt-lo; 8, lo-kvmi ; », h-lkadti 
10, tc-htanete. 

* X r. I'ott, ■ Dla Qaiain uad Vlfuiraale ^iUiuthodo bei TAtkeni allar 



em eoUeciion of details relating to DUtnerals. Jndi^wnsable to 
students occupied with such tinquirieft. For tiio present pur- 
pose tho following tongh gCQCralizntion may suffice, that tlie 
quiunry RyBtem is fruqueut among the lower races, amoug wbom 
also the vigesimal system is consiilerably dvTciopeJ, but the 
■UsnAeaey of tlie liiglier nations has been to avoi<l the one as too 
scanty, and tlie other as too cumbroiui, and to use the inter- 
mediate decimal s^-stcm. Thc?e diJfercDCCN in the tiHtge of 
various tribes and nations do not tntcifcro witli, but rather 
confirm, tbe general principle wliich in tbeir common cause, 
that man origiuaily Iconit tu reckon from tiis Bugcrsand toes, 
and in various waya stereotyped tn language the results of this 
priinitivo luctliod. 

Some curious points as to the relation of these systems may 
bo ooUced in Kuropu. It was observed of a certain dcaf-and- 
duDib boy, Oliver Caswell, that lie learnt to count ns bigh as 50 
Ott bis fingers, but always " fived," reckouing, for instance, 18 
objoet« aa " both bands, one hand, thr(>c fingers.* Tbo eugges- 
tiou iias been made tbat tlie Qreck use of vinsiitu; "to five/' 
as an cxprossion for counting, is a ti-oce of rude old quinary 
nomeration, (curapare Finuiah hld-et " to count," from lokk« 
"ton.") Cerlninlj, the Roman numerals I, II, . , . V, VJ . . , 
X, XI . . . XV, XVI, etc., form a remarkably well-defined 
written quinary tiyKtCRi. RemninK of iigasimal counting are still 
more instructive. Counting by twenties is a strongly marked 
Keltic charncteristic. The cumbrouti vigesimal notation could 
hardly be brought more strongly into view in any savage raco 
tiian in such examples aa Gaelic aon deug is da fhickead 
"one, ten, and two twenties," i",*.. ol ; or Welsh unarbymfftfff 
ar vfjain "one and fiflLt-n over Iwc-nty," i.e., 36; or Breton 
vnneh ka iri-uffcnt "eleven and three twenties," i, e., 71. Now 
French, being a Romance language, has u regular ^vtem of 
Latin tens up to 100 ; niiquante, iiuiru7itr., wpiante, hmUi/ttUi, 
•miuvnie, which are to be found still in use in districts within 
tbo limits of the French languagi^ as iu Belgium. Ncvcrtliolcss, 

We]Uli«iI^' H>]1«, 1SI7; ■uppkinniliMJ iii 'Fcstgako ru xxr. TerMmmliing 
Dentacbsr FhiloloKcn, cU^, iu UnUo ' |1917V 
> ' Accatmt of hunn Bridginan,* London, ISW, ji. 159. 


tho clumsj' 83'steiii of reckoning I'y tweutios has broken out 
through tlio docimal system in Franco. Tlie wptante i» to n 
great exteut KupprcsseU, aoixanU-fiuatone, (or iostAncc^ standing' 
for 7* ; q}uilr&-vhujtM lias fairly establisliod itself for SO, ami its 
OSG coDtiuuGs iuto tbc nineties, as q\jLatre-vmgt4i'eize for 93 ; 
ID numbers above 100 «« fiuJ aix-vingU, sejit-vingti, huit- 
vingU, for 120, 140, IGO, and a. certain hospital has its name of 
Les Quinze-viiigtx fruni iU 300 iiiniat«& It is, perhaps, the 
loost rea.sona,ble explanation of tln.^ cunoiis phenomenon, to 
wippose the earlier Keltic system of Fiance to have held its 
ground, modelling the lattT Firnch iuto its own nidi-T sliapc. In 
Eugluud, tlic Anglo-Saxon numeration is clenmal, liiind-aeo- 
/ontig. 70 ; knnd-ecJitatig, 80 ; hwrnh-nvjoittiij, \W;hvmd-t<on- 
tig. 100; hund-cidufoiiiuj, 110; kund-fttvlfiiff, 120. It may 
be here also by Keltic survival tliiit tin; vigtsimal reckoning by 
the "Bcore," Vn-eeaeore and ten, /oiiraaore and tfiifieen, etc, 
gained a position in English which it has not yet totally lost' 

From soUQO minor details in numemtion, ethnological hints 
may be guned. Among rude tribes with soatity series of name- 
Tab, combinaiion to m.ake out new numbors ia very soon refwrt«<l 
to. Among Australian tribes addition makes " two-one," " two- 
two^'* express 3 and 4; in Guachi "two-two" is 4 ; in San 
Antonio " four and two-one " is 7. The plan of making nume- 
rabi by subtraction is known in North AmtTica, and is well 
shown iu the Aino language of Yesso, where the words for 8 and 
9 obviously mean "two from ten,'* "one from ten." MuUipU- 
calion appears, as in San Antonio. " two-ainl-one-two," and in a 
Tupi dialect "two-tliree," to express 6. Division seems not 
knomi for auch purposes among the lower races, and quite 
exceptionally among the higher. FacU of this class show 
variety in the inventive devices of mankind, nutl independence 
in their formntiou of language. They arc coniostcnt at the 
samo time with tlm ^'eneral principles of hand-counting. The 
traces of what might be called binary, ternary, quaternary, 

' C<im|MT« iito RAjmnbnli triboi tdopting Hin^l &<nn«r«lt, jet nokoolng b; 
twYQtics. Shaw, I. c Tho uao of a * K<nv' ns on inilcfinilo number in Engtaad, 
aiul nmilnrly of 30 in Ftuiif;ir, of 10 in llie Ilcilireir of the Old TcBtamcot and tbo 
AnUe of the Tbontand ami Ou« HigbtB, ma/ b« udouj; Mbcr traces of mAy 





■enuy reckoning', Tliidi turn od 2, 3, 4, C, arc aocro rariotitt, 
loading np to^ or Upsiag into, qninvy aod decimal iDetbod& 

TbeooDtiast is n strikioj; onv bctirc«a ihe cducatMl European, 
vitb bU easy uw of bia boundless DUtn«nl eeries, and the 
Taamaaian, who reckons 3. or nnytUmg beyond S, as "nuuty." 
and laakee shift bj Lis whole hand to reach tho limit of " man," 
that ■ to aay, 5. This contrast is doc to azreat of dcrdopment 
io tho saTage, vhom mind rcnuiins in the childish state whieb 
OBO of our DaneiT ODinber-rhraiee illustnU«(> in a eariooaty 
perfect way. It runs — 

" Oo» *» BOM, 

Two 'a MOM, 
Tbno '* a suuy. 
Four *a ■ pcnaf , 

To DOtico this stato of thii^ among Bavages atkd chiUieu 
raises intaccting points as to the «aclj hiat«y of gnunmar. W. 
van HttmboMt sagg«atcd th* aaalogjr between tb« sar^e aoticn 
of 3a« "roaaj-and tbegra g i ro at ic alMeof 3 to form a kind of 
si^eclatiTO, in fomu of which ' trisDMgistns," " tcr UUx," 
" thrivo blest," arc familiar instancea The icIatJon of single, 
dttol, and ploral Is wdl sbovn pietorially in the ^ypttan hien- 
gtyphicB, where the picCote of an object, a hone Ibr "»g*»f. ia 
Bdnked hj a single fine ( if but one is oseaat, by two liaat 1 1 
if two are meant, br tbr«« lines 1 1 1 if three or an i«^^*mtt» 
plmBl Bun^ier are meant. The sdieme of granunatjcal Dumfaar 
tn eooM of the noa madeut and important hnpiegu of the 
worid is hod down on ths wune sbti^ prinopke. ^ jplian , 
Anhk; Hcbfew, Sanskrit, Greek, Gothk; are exan^les of hm- 
goafci ong Bngnlw, dnal and plnml namher; hot the tan- 
dcoey of h U gh u mteBectari cnilMe haa been to diajni the pha 
as inoantvnioBi and onprafitabfe, a»d only to '*'*«J"ig»'J' sin- 
gnlvandphonL No <k»hfe the dal held tte pbca I7 i 
aaee from an early period «f odhB^ and Br. Ct Vihsn 
jnMifiedin hid opuucatkatit"pRMtTmtonathe mcsnrialof 
tiM* at^ of thought when all tijend two «» m iden of 

TOE AST or cors'Tixo. 


When two races al different levels of calture come into con- 
tact, the ruder people adopt new art and kiiowletij^, but at tho 
same time their own special culture URiially cnmen to a stanii- 
sUll. ttud cvfu foils off. It is thus with the art of counting. 
Wc may Iw nhlt: in provo that the lower mcu had actually 1r'l*ii 
making great and independent progress in it, but vfhen the 
Iiigber race uunica vrith a convcuicul and unlimited meuiis of 
not only naming all imf^nablo ciumbera, bnt of writing thctn 
down and rc-ckouing with them by Dicaas of a few siu^ple 
figure*-, what likelihood is there tJiat the harbariao's clumsy 
methods should bo farther worked out) Ab to tho ways in 
which the ikuuicfal* of the Rtiperior race rto grafted on tho Inn- 
goaffe of the inferior, Qiptain Omut describes the natiTO slaves 
of KqimtoriiU Africa occupying their lounging houni in Uiiniing 
tho nmnt'tab! of tlieir Arab niastoi-s.' Father Dobrizhoffer's 
account uf the aritlinietical relations between the ualivc Bra- 
zilians and the Jesuits is n good description of tbc iatellectual 
contact between savages and missiouuries. The Guaraiiis, it 
appean, counted up to 4 with their native nt)nienil.s and wlieu 
they got beyond, they would say " iiiDunierable," " But as 
couDting in both of manifold u»c in common life, and in tbc 
confessional absolutely indispensable in making a complete con- 
fcesiuu, the Indiana were daily taught at the public catechising 
in tho church to count in Spanish. On Sundays tho whole 
people u»ett to count with a loud voice in Spanit^h, from 1 to 
1,001)." The miAaionan-, it ts true, did not tind the natives use 
the numbers thus learnt very accurately — " We were washing 
ttt a blftckanooor," he says.* If, however, wc examine the 
modem vocabularies of Ravage op low barbarian tribes, they will 
be found to afford interesting evidonce how really effective tho 
influenoa of higher ou lower civilization lias bc-cii in this matter. 
So far as the ruder sy-stom i.s complete and moderately con- 
venient, it may stand, but where it ceases or grows cumbrous, 
and sometimes al a lower limit than this, we can see the cleverer 
foreigner taking it into his own bantU, supplementing or sup- 
planting the scanty numerals of the lower race by his own. 

> Onnt in * Tr. Kth. Soe.' wl. liL p. DO. 

' DtWilieffer. 'Coich.tiw Abiponer," p. 205 ; Eug. Tran*. vvi. u. p. 171. 
VOIm I. K 



The bigher race, tliougb iidvonccd enough to act thos on iho 
lower, netxl not be hse-lf at an extremely Iiigh level. M a rk ham 
ol)S«rvoa that the Jivnrns oflko Mfunflon, with native nuiocrals 
lip to 5, adopt for higher numlteni tho<ie of (he Quicliuu, Ok* 
loDgungc of the Pei-uviaii Incwt.' The cases of the indigeoes of 
India, are instradivv. The Khutida reckou 1 and S in nativo 
words, and then taVe to borrowed Hindi numerals. The Omoti 
tribes, white belonging to a race of the Dravidlan stock, and 
baring had a series of native numerals accordingly, appear to 
have given up their u«e beyond 4, or someUmee even 2. and 
ailopted Hindi numeraU in their plnr(\' The SoatJi American 
Conibos were observed to count 1 and S with their own words, 
and then to iiorrow Spaniab numerolis. niucli as a Brazilian 
dialect vf the Tupj family is noticed in the last century as 
having lost the native 5, and quitted down into utdng the 
old native uiimcmlK up to 3, and then continuing in Fortu- 
gueae.' In Melnnet^ia, the Annatom language can only ootiat 
in ita own numorals to 5, and then borrows £Dgli&h aU-9, aevtn, 
ett, inain, etc. Id some FoIync^aD islands, though tho native 
namcral-i are cxten.itvc enough, the confusion arieing from 
reckoning by pairs and fours as well aa units, has induced tlie 
natives to escaiio fioni perplexity by adopting /tunm and} Ami though the Estpiimuux counting by hands, feet, 
and whole men, is capable of expressing high mimlien;, it be- 
comes practically cInmKj- even when it gets among the scores, 
and the Oroculander ha» dono well to lulopt wntrtte and (uaiiUe 
from Ilia Danish tt-achi-iit. Similarity of numerals in two lan- 
guages is a point to which philologists attach great and dcMjrred 
importance in the question wlic-tlicr they are t« be considered 
OS sprung from a cummon stock. But it h clear that so far as 
one race may have borrowed numerals fi-om another, this evidence 
breaks down. TJiu fiict that this borrowing extends as tow as 

' M«Tkhiwn in ' Tr. Eih. Soc-,' vol lii. p. 106. 

- Ijiliinm. ' Cgin|>. I'liil." ]\ IM ; Slinw in ' As, Be».' voL it. ji. H; ' Jvttm. 
Ab. Sot. Hougal,' ISQIS, |iiirl ii. |>|>. -27. -HH, 351. 

* au Cric] in < Biillntin de U Soo. d« 0«d|;.' 1953, p. S30 ; P<AU ' ZiUiaa- 

tbvdc' r. 7. 

* G«>bckDU, p. £9 ; BJe, 1. c. 


3, and may even go ettll farther for all we knon-, is & renfon for 
lifting the argiimeol from cuDocct^d Dumcruts c»iitioii»1y, nii 
t^uiitug rather Ut prove intercoumfi th&ti ktnsliip. 

At the other em! of the scale of civilijKitioii, l!io ailoption of 
□unicrals from oatiou to tiatiuu ntili prt'seutd iutere^tiug philo- 
logical pointx. Our own lungiiiigu gtvett curious iuNtancuSj as 
second and miUioiu The manner in which Riiglieh, in commao 
with Germau. But^h, Banish, nud even Kussiuu, has mlopted 
Modi»\'aI Latin dozetui (from duodecim) showB how ooiiv«nieot 
an arniDgemeut it was found to buy and sell by tlie doien, and 
how neceiisary it was to have a sjiocial wonl for it. But the bor- 
rowitig process has gone farther than this. If it were a-sked how 
many sets of numerals arc in use among Etiglish-apeukiug people 
in Englaml, the probable ri^jily would bo one set, the regular 
one, tux), tJirte, etc. Tliure exi.-«t, however, two borrowed acts as 
wrll. Ona in the wcll-kauwQ dlciug-acl, act, deuu, tray, caUr, 
eifique-, pise; thus sise-ace ia "6 and 1," citi^ucs or einkn, 
"doubles." These came to ii* from Franoe, and «)r«!spon(i 
with the common French nuoaerals, except at*, which in T^itiii 
aa, a word of great philological interest, meaning " one," The 
other borrowed set h to be found in the Slang Dictionary. H 
up[)eare that the English street-folk have adopted as a moans 
of necret communication n set of Itidian numeniU from Llie 
organ-grinders and image-sellei-s, or by utlier ways thiuugh 
which Italian or Lingua Franca is brought into the low neigh- 
bourhoods of London. In so doing, they have performed a 
philological operutiou not only curious, but instructive. Uy 
copying rnich exprvAsions a» Italian due ttoldl, tiv midi, bh 
equivalent to " twopeuce," " threepence," the word tntUcc becsuno 
a recugiiizcd sUng term for " penny ; " and pence are reckouod as 
Mows : — 

Ontj/ wAm Id. una oMo, 

Doot tttUtt 2d. duo acrldi. 

Trai) taittt M. tro sold). 

QniiHer<r taH*e 4d. qiuttrn Midi. 

ChttJerr nltct . . . . . wl. ciiuiuu miIiIL 

Say 4ullre tjd. net itcilili. 

Say <nity hiIIm orteitfT ratttt , . , . id. nettii soldi. 

Say (fixe in^fM or otter nlUt . 8J. otto (oldi. 

&iy truij mltn or »oU>a mUk . . . . Ud. novo MildL 

ti -i 



Sojr yaarOrtr miHtt or Au/ta talU* , lOd. died nidi. 
Svg <Mntxr tathe or dada mcy Mlt<e . lid. undid aoMi. 
Onry hrtmg ..... Is. 

J bto^s my mi7/i« 1<. 64. 

Doot htony «ny M/frc or «iu(^ mnmi . Sfc Vd. (half erovu. bmbb 


Ono of thciie Reriea (Hmply adopts Italian numerats deoimaU}*. 
But the other, wlicn it has rencbed 6, having lind enough of 
novelty, makes 7 by " Bir-one," and so forth. It is for no 
abstract rcaNon that 6 is thii» miule the tiiming-point, but 
fiimply h«cause the coetenaongcr U adding peace up to the 
Bilver sixpence, and t}icn adding pence again np tu the fihillin^. 
Thus our duodecimal coinage has led to the practice of counting 
1^ atxea, and produced a philological curiosity, a real senary 

On evidence such as ban been brought forwnnJ in this easa^, 
the apparent rchitiona of Mivago to civilized culture, ait regards 
the Art of Coiinting, may now he briefly stnted in conclusion. 
The ]jrincipaj loethoda to which the development of the higher 
arithmetic aic due, lie otit«idc the problem. They aro mostly 
jugenioiifi plaas of expressing numerical relations by written 
STmbols. Among tliem arc the Semitic scheme, and the Greek 
derived from it, uf using the alphabet as a series of numerical 
Bymbols, a plan not quite discarded by ourselves, at loaat for 
OTdiuidfl, as iu ecbedutes A, B, &c. ; the uue of initials of numora] 
"wordii m tignrett for tlie numbers thcmitelvcii, as in Greek n ami 
A for 5 and 10, Komnn O and M for 100 and 1,000, and tbd 
Indian numeral»i tbemselreg, whose origlnahi appear lo be initials 
of " ek.i," " dvi," " tri," Sic ; tlie device of expressing fractions, 
thciiivn in a ludimcntary stage in Greek /, V, for J, J, y^ for J ; 
the introduction of the cipher or zero, and the arrangement of 
the liiillan numerals in uitler, mi that position distinguishea units; 
tens, huudrcdii, &c. ; und lastly, tlie modern notation of ticcimol 
fractions hy carrying down hplow the unit the proportional order 
which fur age.s hiid lieeu iu lutc above it. The ancient Egj-pUan 
uQiI tfao still-tued Roman and Chincttu numeration arc indeed 
jband(?d oil savage picture-writiug,* while the abacus and the 

' J. C. Kottbu, 'SUng Dicliuuniy,' p. 213. 
■ ' Enrly Hi«nry of MnTikiml," [>. 1"P. 


swnn-pan, the opo istUi a valuably seliyul-iustrument, aiul the 
other ill full practical nsl^ have th>.'ii" genu in the Rnvngc 
counling by groups uf object, us when South Stta Itdandeni 
count with cocoa-imt iitalkii, putting a. little one amde every 
time they come to JO, and a large one when they come to 100. 
or wheii African ne;fros i-eckuu with pchbk-s or uuls, and e%tTy 
tiniH tb«y come to 5 put them aside in tu little heap.' 

We are here especially couoemed with gcsluro-couutiug mi the 
fiu^-ni, OS aa absolutely savage art Ntill in use anintig children 
and pcjuants, and with theBy^tcmof unmeriil word^ known to' all 
m&ukind, appt:arii);r scantily among the lowest tribcx, oiid reach- 
ing within savage limits to developments which the highest civi- 
lization has only improved In detail. These two methods of 
compiitntion by gcsLuro and word tell the story of primitive 
arithmetic in a way that can b>e hanlly perverted or niisunder- 
stood. We see the savage who Cftn only count to 2 or 3 or 4 
in wonis, but can go fartht-r in iliimb show. He has words for 
Imndx ood fingei-s, feet and toes, and the i<iea Rtrikes him 
thai the words which deBcrtbe tlio gesture will eorve ftlw to 
exprcRS it» meaning, and they become hut immeraLt accordingly. 
This did not happen only once, it happened among different 
races in di>itant regions, lor such terms an " hand " for 5, " haml- 
one"for 6, "hands" for 10. "two on the foot" for 12,"haDd« 
and fett " or " man " fur 20, " two men " fur 40. ot^.-.. show «uch 
uniformity as is due to common principle, but also such ranety 
aa is due to independent working-out. Tlieso aro "pointci^ 
factft " which have their place and explanation in a development- 
theory of culture, while u dogencration-llieory totally falU to 
take them in. They are distinct records of development, and 
of independent devrlopmcut, among savage tribes to whom 
£omo writcrn on civilisation have rasldy tlenie<d the very faculty 
of Belf-improvcmcnt Tlie original meaning of a great part of the 
stock of numerals of the lower races, especially of those from 1 
to 4, not Btiited to bcr named as lumd-numorals, is obscure. 
They may have bc*n named from eomparison with objects, in a 
way which is shown actually to happen in such forms as ** to- 
gether" for 2, " throw " for 3, " kuot " for 4 ; hut any concrete 

' nii*, ' tVlyn. Rca.* vol. i. j-, 61 ; Klmni, C G. rnl.iii ji. as,*!. 




raeiuuDg ire may guess tLcm to have once had scorns now hy 
nuxlification and mutitation to have passed out oi knowledge. 

Reinenilwriag bow ordinaiy words diange and loeu tlieir 
traces of nrigrnal mentdiig in the course of ages, and thai in 
uuinumU suc\i breaking down of meauiug h actually desimMe, 
to make tliein fit for pure arithmetical syinbolu, wc cannot 
wonder that so large a proportion of existing Damcnds should 
have no discemtble etymolog}'. Thin is eiipeciallj true of 
the 1, S, 3, +, among low and high racas alike, the earliest to 
be made, and therefore the earlieint to Iomc their primary signifi- 
cance. Beyond these low numheni, the languages of the higher 
Bnd lower races hliow a remarkable difTereuce. The hand- 
and-foot utiinorals, so pi-c%-alent and UDmiatakeable in sarage 
tongues like hkquiinavtx and 2!uhi, aro ticaiix-ly if at all troco- 
alitv in the great laiig\>u^o» of civilisation, aiich as Sanskrit and 
Greek. Hebrew and Arabic. This Ktale of things k quite coa- 
fbrmahle to tlio development-theory of language. We may 
luiguc that it WAS in cAinprtmtivcly recent times that eAvogcs 
arrived at the invention of band-QumcraU, and that therefore 
the etymology of such Diimcrals remainft obvious. But it by no- 
means follows from tlic uou-appca^rancc of sitcli primitive forms 
in cultured AKia and Europe, that they did Dot exist tliere in 
remote ages; they may since have l>een rulled aiid bn.f;tpred 
like pebbles by tlio stream of time, till their original shapes cau 
no longer 1h! made out LaxtJy, among savaga and civilixed races 
alike, the general framework of mimeration irtands throughout 
the world as an abiding monument of priniaival culture. Tliis 
framework, the all hnt univerHfJ sclicniL- of reckoning by fives, 
tens, and twcatiet<, shows that Uie chtldii>h and savage practice 
of counting ou 6nguns and toett lies at the foundation of our 
arithmcticuJ acicace. Ten seems the mont convenient arithmetical 
basis offered by systems foimded ou baud-counting, bub twelve 
woiUd have been better, and duodecimal arithmetic is in fact a 
protest against the leas conveiiieat decimal aiithmetic lU 
ordinary tise. Tbo cose is the not imcommon one of high 
civilization bearing evident traces of the rudeness of its origin- 
iu ancient barliaric life. 



VrditaAf^fclM^^Uhl Other llioDKht, on Gx|ie?VTnc»— MjrtWo^raironU «v1- 
4ftlMilltllll^lBgIftVBoriiiiiigiiMtian— L'hnn)^ in |iiitilie ojilnlnn >■ to trt- 
diUlitr of Mythfl— Hytha rationnltMd into nll.'gor}- nml liiitoiy— Ktlinoh^* 
cftl import and tr«atm«at of llj-th— Uj^h to Uo ituiliod hi kutuol txbitoiH 
and growth hioodji modcni mvngca uid bartniiint—OngiiiAl amirrfii of )lj1h 
— Euly doculiuor e«li«nl Animation of Ifaluiu — I'anmnilltAtinn of Rnn, 
Moon, end Stan; Waterspout. Sand-pillar, ]UnlMir. Wni«r-r«l1, Pntl- 
l«iie« — AoAlngy iroTlc*d into Myth and Mpta;>l>ar— MytliK at Itaio, Thnnilor, 
fto.— ElFtct of LangnaKv iu fonnalion »r Myth— Mnt-Tlnl rvnoniHL-nllou 
prini&rji Verlinl IVrsoninallon MfatiiUry— Gniniiimtu-nl Qtudiir, inula luul 
boulf^ atiiinati> And uumimat*. in nbtiun to Mjrtli— riopiir iiuiijMorOl>J«cia 
in KlMiOR Iu Hytb— Mental stata prD|ii-r tu pmiiiuU uiytlik: Iiiumluutlou 
—Doctrine of Warewolwa— PlittninaynnJ PnncT. 

Amoxg those opioioDs which arc produced hy a littb know- 
ledge, to be dispelled by a lilllo more, is the btlief in lui almofit 
boiiti<lle^ creative powei' of the kutnau iitiag:i)iatioti. Tliu ou- 
perficial student, mnzed in a rrowd of se(<tningly wild nmt law- 
less faDctes, which be thiuks to havo no rcaMm tu nature nor 
pattoru in this material woi'l<], at firit condiideK tlioin to ho new 
births fruD) the imagination of the po«t, the tale-tullcT, niid iho 
ie«r. But Little by little, io what set-toed the moNt iipontaniwiM 
ftction, a more oompreheatdre study of tbe Murces of powti; an<l 
romance begins to diaclou a. cause for each fancy, an education 
tb&t has led op to each train of tltouj^ht^ a otoru of inherited 
niAterials from out of which each proviuc<--uf Lite poot't laud has 
been ahaped, and Iniilt (itlt, and peopli?!. Badcwamd from uur 
own times, tLe couree of meotal hutoi7 nuty be traced tbiougli 
tlic dwDgw wrought by tuodeni acboob of thoujfht and fiabcy, 
ttpoii AH iatellectval iubcritaaoe handod down to tJtvm fraa 
«*riief geeentioika. And through reuiot^T periods, a* wo reovd« 



more iictuiy towunl primitiru condiLious of our race, the threads 
which connect new thought witJi old do not alwAys vanish frjm 
our sight. It is in large mtasurc [Kistiiblu to foUoir th«n u 
clues luadiitg hack to that actual experience of nature and liJe, 
wliich is the ultimate source of human faucy. What Mattbev 
Aruold. batt Mrittcn of Man's thoughts as be floats along the 
River of Time, 13 moat true of hiB mythic imagination : — 

" As is tho \n>rld on tho ba&ka 
So i< tho m tnd of tho qhlq. 

Only tlie tnutt vbon ho Miln 

He vote of : only the thoughts, 

BaIchI by tb» oliJKt* h« puesw, aro bts." 

lmproe«iotw thus receiiwd the mind will modify," and work 
upon, tran8mittiDj( the products to other mimU in i^hapcs that 
often seem now, etrangc, and arlntmry, hut which yet Ksult 
from pi'ocesscs fnmilinr in our experience, and to be found at 
woHc in our owu iudividual cou^ciousnesa. The office of uur 
thought is to de%'eh)pe, to combine, and to derive, ratlibr thai] to 
cruato ; and the cousi^^tenl laws it works by arc to bo diKCcmod 
even in the luisubitauttal Ktnictur&s of the imagination. PTers, 
AS elsewhere in the universe, there Is to he recognizetl a sequence 
from cause to effect, a setiueace iiitelligible, definite, and where 
knowledge reaches the Hi^edfiil pxactness, even calculable. 

There is pcrlmpa no better subject-matter tlirnugh which to 
stndy the processes of the imagination, than the well-marked 
incideuta of mythical story, rajiging aa they do through every 
known period of civiliaition, and through ail tlio pltysiodly 
varied tribes of mankind. Hero Maui, the New Kcal&ud Sun- 
god, fishiug up the island with hut encluuited hook from the 
bottom of the sen, will take his place in cumpnoy with the 
Indian Vi&hnu, diving to the depths of the ocean in his avatar 
of the Boar, to briiij; up the submerged earth on his monstrous 
tU9ke; and hero Bninnic the ere»tor, whose voice the rudo Aue- 
tmlinns hear in the rolling thunder, will sit throned by tho sido 
of Olyuipiftn Zoufl himseif. Startiug with the bold ruugh 
natun>mytli8 iutu wiiicli tlie utvage moulds the lessons he has 
learnt from big childlike contemplation of tlie uuiversej tlio 


inograpliarcAn follow thoso rudo lictiDns up intu times when 
they were shaped and incoqwrated iutu cuinplux mythuloyic 
Kjfsteins, gracefully iirtistic in Gret'ce, stiff nnd monrtroiw in 
Idfxico, Rwelleil into bombastic cxaggonitiou lu Buddhist Asia. 
Ho can watch how thu mytliulogy of classic Europe, once so t rue 
to nature and bo quick with her oetiBelesB life, fell among the 
o^inmcn tutors to bu plaetcrcd with allegory or eiihumcrised into 
diiil aliam history. At last, !□ the midst of modern civilization, 
he finds the clflaitc volumi-s Btudit-d rather for their manner thaD 
for their matter, or mainly vahied for their n-ntiipiarinn i-vidcucc 
of the thoughts of former times; while rt-lica of structures 
rcarud with »uch ftkill and slivngth hy the myth-makeni of the 
paat mii^t noA' be sought iu scraps of nursery folk-lore, in 
vulj^or HU]>cr8titioD8 and old d}-ing IcgcndH, in thoughts and 
alliuioDS carried ou from luicicnt days by the perennial fttream 
of poetry and romance, in fragments of old opinion which etiU 
hold an inherited rank gained in past ages of intellectual 
histoiy. But this turning of mythology to account an a meang 
of tracing the history and laws of mind, is a branch of swence 
Bcareely diocovttred till the present eenttiry. Befort' *>utoring 
hcra on Komc researches belonging to it, there will lie advantage 
in glancing at the views of older inytliologistg, to show through 
wIiiLi chaugen their study lias n.t length reached & condition in 
whicli it has a scientific value. 

It ia a mumcntouKphaHu of the education of numkiud. when 
the regularity of nature has so imprinted itself upon men's 
minds, that they begin to wonder how it is tliat the ancient 
legends thut they worti bruught up to hear with such reverent 
di.-light, should describe a world so strangely difi'ereut from their 
own. Why, they oak, are the guiU and gianta and monsters 
no longer seen to lead tlicir prochgious lives on earth — is it 
perchance that the course of things is changed since the old 
dayi? Thus it scorned to Pausanias the historian, that the 
vide-growu wickedness of the world had brought it to pass 
tiial limes were no longer as of old, when Lykaon was turned 
into a wolf, and Kiobe into a Ktone, when men still snt as guests 
at table with the gods, or were mised like Uerakles to become 
gods themselves. Up to modern tiinex, the hypothesis of a 


c^iao^ wOTid bas niorii or 1«m arailed to remove the difficulty 
of lieliof in aneieol wouder-tatesL Yet tliougli .ilwars lioliling 
fimal; a partial ground, its application was soon limited for these 
obvious rooBons, that it juMtilicd falM:ho(Ml and truth alilcti with 
Bven-handed favour, and utterly hroke dowu that barrier of pro- 
bubtlit/ which in some measure hiu always Hcparated fact froin 
fancy. Tho Grrpk raind found other outlets to the probleo. 
In Uie words of Hr. Grotc> the ancient lesvuds were cast back 
into an undeBnod past, to take rank among the hallowed tradi- 
tions of dinne or heroic nutiquitj. gratifviiig to extol by rhe- 
toric, but repulsive to ecrutinize in argument. Or they were 
transfonucd into ehapcs more familiar to experience, as when 
Plutarch, tcUing tho talo of Thcsctu, hcgi for indutgcnt hearers 
to accept mildly ttie archftic story, and assures them that he 
has set himself to purify it by reaaoD, that it may reoeive the- 
aspect of history.' Tliis pfocees of giving fable the aspect of 
history, thin prDfitla<» art of transforming untrue tmp(>$»i1)itities 
into untrue poedbilitiefl, has been carric-d on by the ancieuts, 
and by the moderns after them, eupecially according to tbe tvro 
following methods. 

Men have for ages buen more or less conscious of that great 
mental district lying between belief and disbelief, where nxim U 
found for all mythic iDU'rprvtalion, good or bad. It being ad- 
mitted that some legend in not the real narrative which it pur- 
poila to be, they do not thereupon wipe it out from hook and 
memory as simply signifying nothing, but they aek what 
original KL:nHe may be in it, out nf what oMer i>tory it may he a 
second growth, or what actual event or current notion may havo 
saggasted its development into tho istate in which they find it I 
Bach qtiestJODs, however, prove almost as easy to answer plau- 
sibly as to set J and then, in tho endeavour to obtain security 
that thew off-hand answew are the true ones, it becomes 
evident that the problem adinita of an indefinite number of 
apparent fiolutions, not only ditfcrcnt but iQcompntiblc. This 
mdicnl uncertainty in the speculative interpretation of myths is 
forcibly Htated by Lord Bacon, in the preface to his ' Wisdom of 

' Grota^ ' Hist«T of Omca,' v«L t dapa ix. xL ; TaiiMnias riiL t ; no- 
tvck. Tfaoania 1. 


tlie AneicDts.* " Neither am t tgaonnt," be iaja, " ham fieU> 
UMJ iocoostaot a thing Actiaa ia, as beti^ subject to b* ifasn 
and vrest«d uy way, iLnd ham groat the comnHxliijr of wit aad 
(tieootiree is, that ta able to apply things well, yet so a« nevar 
UMttat by the first authors." The need uf such a cautioo may 
1)0 jud{>ed of from the rery treatise to which Bacon prefiuxtl it. 
for tbevB he n to be aeeo ptan^Dg heailloog iato the very pit* 
{■11 of which he had sn discreetly warned his dtHCtpliM He ati> 
dertakes, aft«r the manner of not a few {^ulooophen before and 
after him. Co interpret ibe dasic myths of Greece as moral 
aU^oneai. Tbuit tbc story of Memnott depictit the Jeotiniaii of 
nab ywag men of promise ; while Perseoa symboItKB war, 
and when of the thrt-e Ourguiu he attocka only the ourtal one, 
this means that only practicable wars are to be attempted. It 
woold not be easy to bring oat into a stronger ligbt the difier- 
enec between « fiuictfuE application of a myth, and its aaalytts 
into its real elements. For here, where the interpreter be- 
lieved hin»^ to be revonng the process of mytb-oiaknig; he 
wsa in Gut only eanying it a sCi^ Cutber in the old dire^io^ 
and out of the sngjieslioa of ooe tnun of thooght evtdnng 
another eouiected with ic by aome more or less raoiote aaakigT. 
Axtw of na may practise lUs nmple art, emA sceotding to Us 
own £uicy. If, for inrtaoe e, potitical eoonomy hsppena tar the 
moment to lie appcTOOSt in oar mind, we may with doe gnvi^ 
cxpcniad the stocy of Pferveai sc an allegory of trade : I^ B ^^e^s 
hiineelf is Labour, . and be finds Andromeda, who is Profile 
Aained and ready to be deroured by the nonster Oqatat ; be 
leecaea her, and earrita beroff in triuoqih. To fcnmr aar^uag 
of poetry or of my i lici s tt is to know this repvodactire growth of 
(aacf a* ao mhaSn/^H and admired tateDectoat praeies. Bui 
wbea it eocnaa to saber iawstigatjoa of the proBa— is at Byth»> 
logy, the attempt to peoetntc to the fomdation of aa oU haey 
will seeieely be belied hj boyying it yet deeper 

Neterthefw, aOe^ory ha* had a *hare ta the de wl op iust «f 
myths wfaidi no interpreter mast overlook. The Csalt of the 
ntaonaliaer lay in taldag allsysy bsyoad ila prafMr aetsoo, 
and efi pl yu i g it as* —l e wil auhwa to lejhee 4sgk stoMi ta 




tmnsparent sense: Hie same is true of the other great raticm- 
aliziog process, foimcled also, to sotoe vxtcut. on tacL NoUiiiig is 
moreccrtaiaUiBti tlibt real penoooges often liavomjIhiciQctdentft 
tackeit on to tlieir bistoiy, and that they even figure m tales of 
which the vury eubsliLaot; is xayHuc No ooti flisbclicrcit io tlio 
existence of Solomoa hccau^ of his I^^ndacy adveutuvc in the 
'Valtoy of Apes, nor of Attila bccaiue be figures io the Nibot- 
uogen Ltcd. Sir Francis Drake is made not Jess but more real 
to us by the cottage tales which tell how he still leads the Wild 
Hunt over Dartmoor, nod )itill rises to his revcU when they beat 
at Buckl&iid Abbey the drutu that he carried round the world. 
The mixture of fact and fable in traditions of great men shows 
that legends coutaiiiiog mouetrous fiancy may yet have a basis 
in historic iact But, on the strength ot' this, the myihologistH 
arranged systematic methods of rodacuig legend to bistaiy, and 
thereby oontnTed at once to Btnltify the mythology they pTO> 
iessed to explain, and to rain the history they professed to 
develope. So far na the plan cousiiited in mere suppression of 
the majTellous, a notion of it« treBtwoilhinesa may be obtained, 
mt Mr. 0. W. Coz well puts it, in mtioualiisiug Jack the Giont- 
Killer by leaving out tliu giatitft. So far at> it treated Icgendnty 
wonders as being matter-of-fact disguised in metaphor, tlic 
mere naked slabuniunt of the remlhs of the method ia io our 
minds itii most cruel criticlam. Thus already in claaslo times 
men were declaring that Atla& was a great astronomer who 
taught the use of tlie sphere, and was therefore represented 
with the world resting on his shoulders. To such a pass had 
come the decay of mjtb into commonplace, that the great 
Heavcn-god of the Aryan race, the living personal Heaven him- 
self, i^u» the Almighty, wua held to have been a king of Krete, 
and the Krctons could show to wondciing strangers liis se- 
pulchre, with the very name of the great departed inscribed 
upon it The modem " euhemerisis " (so called from Euhemeros 
of Messenia, a great professor of the art in the time of Alex- 
ander) in part adopted the old interpretations, and sometimes 
fairly left their Greek and Roman teachers behind in the race 
after prosaic possibility. They infonn nn that Jove smiting the 
giants with bis thunderbolts was a king repressing a sedition ; 

X)aiuit.''.'> j:iiiik'i. »uii«'" W.I 1 '■ 

Tverf briix'.; ; 1 'rmn'-i iii-n i'i,"ii > <■■- ■■■■ 
hTperbuiiuiili'. «;ii' iip:i- n- •f-i-.- *•••■ 

ciay : au',' wic-i. i)-MMii v,., i< 

viiic'i> WLiiK'j'i, :mi \. ■■-■■■ III' I' ■"i|..-- 

stattif;.-. :iu-. .■-'.■|i;!::ii ' 11 ' '■ 

til- L^ui-l':- '.■: '::i •':■ ■■':•■ ■■ '■• ■ 

fTl. , -. . - 

'-itr- A^'^- 



tlimioished. but that the oonsciomBen of igwH'uioe b» grown. 
We ore being tnuned U> Uw facto of phjsiad sdcocc^ which m 
can trst and test sgain. and wc feel it a fail from this 1i%h Icrol 
opf proof wbcn wc turn oar miuds to the old records which dnde 
aacii testiog, and arc nveu admitted on all hands t« coolaiD 
statcmetjtx uoi to be relied oo. Uutorical CTittciem beooott 
hard and cxscting, cvco where tbe dmrnkle r«conU events not 
irapTobable io theraselfo« ; aiul the Dioment that tbe stot; falls 
out of our Bcheme of tbe wurid's habitual coarse, the Ofer 
repeated question oomes ont to meet it — Which is tbe more 
likely, that bo iiDusuaL aa crent should bave teaWy baj^Kiwd, 
or tbat the record should be misunderKtood or laUe T Thus we 
gladlj seek for sources of history in antiquarian relics, in node- 
JogBod and collateral proob. in docameuts not nritwu to hv 
chronide*. But can any reader of geology aay wo on; too 
uicredoloiis to believe vruntlers if the evidcoce cany any fiur 
warrunt of their tnitli? Waa there ever a time wben lost 
history van being rvconHtnictwl, and ciisting bUtory rectified, 
more zealously than tbe; are now by a vbole army of traveOeis, 
ezcavstors, soorcbcrs of old charters, and explorers of forgotten 
dialectn 1 Tlie very myths tbat were discarded as tying fables, 
prove to bo sourou of history in ways that their makers and 
tr&DSQUtter3 little dreamed of. Their meaning has been mis* 
nndcTirtood. but tbcy hare a meaning. Every tale that was 
ever told has a mcaoiog for the times it be1ong!< to ; even a lie, 
a* tbe Spnnish proverb says, is n lady of birth (" b. mcntira os 
hija de algo"). Thus, as evidence of the development of 
thooght, as records of long past belief and usage, even in some 
measure as materials for the history of tbe nations oniiing tbem, 
the old myths have fairly t^kea their place among historic 
&ct8 ; and with such tbe modern histoiian, so aUo and willing 
to poll down, in also able and willing to rebuild. 

Of all things, what mythulogic work nwsU is breadth of 
knowledge and of handling. luterpretationii made to suit a 
narrow view reveal their wcnkncss when exposed to a wide one. 
See Herodotus mtionalizing the story of the infant Cyms, 
vxpoeod and sucklul by a Intch ; ho simply relates that tlic 
child was brought up by a herdsman's wife named Spako (in 



' l&e«k Kj-no), wlieaoe arose the fable that a teal bibcb reieacd 
And fed bin). ScSuaa good — Cor a autgio caw. Bat 6am tb* j 
8tDi7 of RomulQs hoA Bemns Itkewiso record a real ertnt, 
mystified id the self-Mune maoMr hj a pun on a nitrxt'i name, 
which bappeDod to be a tbe-bessls T Did thu Bomao twina- 
oIbo realty happen to be exposed, and Irunghb up by a fc»lflr--l 
mother who b^vpened to be csIImI Lupa? PodtiTely, th« 
' Lcmpriere'fl DietiooBiy ' of out jooth (T quote the 16th oditkm 
of 1831) grar^lr gnr«s tbb a» tba origin of the bmous Icgvod. 
Yet, if we look properij into the matter, ve find that lb«M two 
stories are bat «pectmsns of a wide-ffpcced mythic group, itaelf 
only a HctioD ct that far larger bod/ of tca£tiaa« ia which, 
exposed in&ate are eared to beoone national hmota. Tori 
other examplai. Slavonic bAkAan tetla at tha rfM-wolf and tha | 
abe-bear that iBckled thaw mpcrbaian twiai, Waltfom 
moanfeaiB-nQcr aod Wyrwidaib the aak-vproatcr; 
baa ita legend of Dieterkfa. oUled WoUaicteridi Irom bia fiirter- 
mother the Ae wolf; ia laifiaf the c|Mod* recara io the 
of ffTitatibiii aid Iba l^ntm, end Sag-fiifaa awl the tigraa d 
legeaA tcUi of BorlA^.'btoo, iha boy who waa caiC orta * hkt^\ 
aod pcweffcd by a ihc-watf I* beeom leaadcv of tW Ti 
kiBgdMB;a*dc*»tWtt«ig»Y«taaH4i«fBnnl t«l«f1 
dirwe Ikt* Tin, who waaaaetibd by sjagMr.* 

■ytbifirpnafiw. m the nnlnij. h 
hfmA iiiiiii II *f maikrtmm. W1 

7. it ■ favl thai tbcf* avr gmaya «f I 


■a^vfia a 

leaSy few waA vafffe. 1 

taf •*«*». Ibv MB. 



Rgnlnnty of mcnUl Uw; and thus stories of whicli a eiugilo 
instance iroulO have heco a mero isolated curicwtt/, take their 
place amoiig v'cll-markeil anJ conHLstcnt irtnictQres of tlie human 
mind. Evidence like lliis will again and again drive ut -to 
admit that ereu a» "tiiitb is Ktrangcr than fktioti," so myXli 
may be more uniform timn Iiiwtory, 

There lies within our reach, moreover, the evidence of raoca 
both anci(:at and niodc-m, who so faithfully represent the ctato 
of thought to which nnth-devclopment belongs, as etill to kvep 
up both the coueciouBDes£ of meaning in their old myths, and 
the unstrained unaffected habit of creating new ones. Savages 
have been for mitold age«, and still arc, living in the myth- 
making stage of the human mind. It was througii sheer igno- 
rance and neglect of tliis diivct knowledge how and by what 
manner of men myths are rcnlly mode, that their simple philo- 
aopliy has come to be buried under maanes of commentators' 
nibbisli. Though never wholly lost, the secret of mythic inter- 
pietatiou was all but foi>;otteD. Its recovery has been mainly 
duo to modem Htudeiits who have with vast labour and skill 
searched the ancient language, poetry, and folk-lore of our owu 
race, from the cottage tales cotlcetod by the brothera Qrimm to 
the Rig-Veda edited by Max Miillcr. Aiyran language and 
rittiiaturc now opens out with wonderful range and deamcsa a 
viow uf the early Htages of mythology', dii<playing thoso primi- 
tire germs of the pi>e1i'y of nature, which later ages swelled and 
diatortud till childlike fancy sank into siuperstitiouii myatery. It 
id nut proposed here to cnqitiro spocially into thi& Aryan mjtbo- 
logy, of which so many eminent students have treated, but to 
compare some of the most important development* of mytho- 
logy among the vari<iuK racen of mankind, eapeciallj in order to 
det«nnine the general relation of the myths of savage tribes to 
tbo m}th9 of ctvilijied antioiut. The argument does not um 
at a general diKCUBsion of the mythology of the world, nnm- 
boTB of important topics being left untouched which wmild have 
to be coitflidered iu a geueml treatise. Tlie topics chosen are 
mostly such a* are fitted, by the strictneRi of evidence and ai^gu- 
meiit applying to them, to make a sound boitis for the treatment 
IU bearing on the general etlmological problem tif the 


lieTelopmeat of ciTiIizntion. The general thesis maiDloiDed is 
that Myth arcwe in the savago cDutlitioa jtrevalcut in remote 
age» among the wholo httman mce, tliat it nimainH compar:^' 
tively uiichougeJ uiuoug the modcru rude tribes who havo 
departed least from these primitive conditioDH, while higher 
and lat«r grades of civilization, portly by retaining its actual 
principles, and partly hy carryiDg on its inhcritod results in the 
form of aacestnU tradition, continued it not merely in tolera- 
tion but in honour. 

To the human intellect in its early childlike statti may be 
anigned the origin and first dcrelopmcnt of myth. It is true 
that leamt'tl critlcB, taking up the study of niytbotogy at tho 
wrong Qod, have idmost habitually fivilcd to appreciate iti child- 
like ideas, conveulionalized iu poctiy or disguised as chronicle. 
Tet the more we compare the mythic fancieit of different nation^ 
in order to discern tho common thoughts which underlie their 
resemblances, the more reatly we ithall be to admit that in our 
childhood we dwelt at the very gates of the realm of myth. In 
mytholc^, the child is, in a deeper sense than wc ara apt to 
ase the phraw in. father of the man. Thus, when in surveyti^ 
the quaint fancies and wild legendu of the lower tribes, we find 
the mythology of the world at once in its most distinct and moat 
radimeniaiy form, wc may here again claim the savage aa a 
representative of the childhood of the human race* Here Eth- 
nology and Compai-ativc Klvthology go hand in hand, and tho 
development of Myth forma a consistent port of the develop- 
ment of Culture. If navage races, as the neanst modem repre- 
sentatives of primxval culture, show in (ho most distinct and 
imchanged state the rutiimentaiy mythic conceptions thence to 
be traced onward io the course of civilization, then it is reason- 
aUe for studeott to begin, so far as may be, at tlie begioniog. 
San^ mythology may be taken as a basis, and then the myths 
of moro dvilized races may be iiisplaye<l as compositions »pr«ng 
from like origin, though moro advanced in art. This mode of 
tieatmcnt proves satirfactory through almost all the branches of 
the enquiry, and eminently m in inveetigatiog those most bean- 
tifiJ of poetic fictions, to which may be given the title of 

VOL L t 




P1r?t and foretiK«t among tlic cauites vliidi fransfigurG into 
myth the facU of Uaily expertuuce, is the belief in tbo aoimjUJoa 
of sU nature, risir^ at its liigfaest pitch to personificatJuD. TIiIb, 
no occauooal or bypotbetico] action of the mind, is inextricablj 
bouiMl in with chat primitiTe mental 8Ut« frhere man reccgnixea 
in ererjr detail of his worU the operation of personal Ii£e and 
vill. This docttine of Animism will be coniodered elwwheie as 
afiecting pbilooopfaj and lel^on. but here we have only to do 
with its bearing on mythology. To the lower b-ibes of man. son 
and Stan, trees and nTers, winds and cloads, become personal 
animate creatares. leading lives conformed to human or animal 
anakigiea, and performing their special fimctions iu the univctsc 
with the aid of limbs like beasts, or of artificial instruments like 
men ; or what men's eyes b^old is but the instrument to be 
ufcd or tbo material to be shaped, while behind it there stands 
some prodigious but yet half-human creature, who grasps it with 
his hands or blows it nith his breatli. The basis on which such 
ideas as these are built is not to be narrowed down to poetic 
fancy and transformed metaphor. They rest upon a brood plu- 
losophy oC uaturo, early and crude indeed, but tliougbtfoJ, 
comastept, and quite really and Beriously meaot 

Let Its put this doctriuc of universal vitality to a teet of direct 
evidence, lest readers new to the subject should suppose it a 
modem philosophical fiction, or think that if the lower races 
really «xpre<» sodi a notion, they may do so only as a poetical 
way of talking. Even in civilized oonnttiec, it makes its ap- 
pearance as the child's early theory of the outer world, nor can 
we fail to MX' how tliis comes to pae& The first heings that 
children leam to understand somethii^ of arc human beings, 
and especially tlieir own Helves ; and the Srst ejtplanation of all 
events wilt be the human explanation, as though choirs and 
sticks and wooden horses were actuated by the same sort of 
personal will as nurses and chUdrcn and kittens Thus infants 
take their first step in mrthology by contriving. like Cosette 
with hc-rdoll, "sefignrcr que quelquc chose est qaclqu'un ;" and 
the way in which this childlike theory has to be unlearnt in the 
course of education shows how primitive it is. Even among 
full-grown civilized Suropcaus, as Ur. Grote appositely remark^ 


" Tho forco of momeulni'y passion nHll often suffico to eupcrserto 
tho aci|uin>tl lutbit, nnil even nn intelligent miui may Le impel- 
led in a tnoment of ngoiiizlrtg pain to kick or beat die lifolew 
object frtim whicU he lias ttuHVircd." In sucli matters tlie savogo 
mind vcW reprcKcnts the childish stage. The wild native of 
Brazil would btt4> the atone Le stumbled over, or ihu arrow that 
liad wounded him. Such u mental condition may l>o traced 
along the course of histoiy, not merely in impulsive habit, but 
in fonnolly enacted law. The nidu KtikiH of SoutJicm Asin 
%verc rory scrupulous in carrying out thoir simple low of vcn- 
geauoo, life for life ; if a tiger killed a Kiiki, hjii fnmily were in 
disgrace till tbey had retaliated by killing and catiug thi« tiger, 
or annther; but further, if a man was killed by a fail from a 
tree, hia relatives would take ilieir rcvungo by cutting tho troo 
down, and scattering it in chips.' A modem king of Cochin- 
China, when one of his idiips sailed hudly, used to put it ia Uie 
}HUory uii he would any other cnminal.^ In chusical times, tho 
stories of Xerxes Bogging tho Hellespont nod Cyrus drmoing 
the Gyndcs occur as tMQH in point, but one of the regular 
Atliom"on legal proceedings ia a yet more Ktiiking relic A court 
of justice was held at the Prytaneum, to try any inanimate object. 
sudi as an axe or a picco of wood orstonc, which hoii cauwd tho 
death of any ouo without proved human agency, and this wood 
or stono, if condemned, was in solemn form cast beyond the 
border.' The spirit of thin remarkable prowdure reapjiwi™ iu 
the old Kngllth law (repealed in the present reign), whereby not 
only a beast that kills a man. but a cort-whiiel that runs over 
btm, or a tree that Jalls on him ami kill-s him, ix deodond, or 
given to God, i.e., foifeited and sold fur the poor: as Bracton 
says, "Omnia C|Usd moi'cnt od mortem ttunt Deodondo." Dr. 
Reid comments on this law, declaring that its intention was not 
to puninh tbc ox or the cart as criminal, but " to ioapiro tbc 
people with a sacred regard to tho life of man." But his aigu- 
meni rather aerves to ahow the wortblcsancss of oflMiand spMu- 

' iUme in ' A>. B<&' toL rli. j>. IS9. 
> Bubui, '0«U. Aawn.' ?ol. L p. 51. 
' ' Gnte, Ttit. Hi. p. IM : roL r. |i. » : IlnodaC L IU ; tIL SI ; Pwfhjt. 
4>AW*iMiitift& tOiPaiaauL t. 2S; PoUtu, •OaoBiuticoti.' 

■ 2 


IstiaBS m tba ori^ of Uw, Bke bk own in tku Eutter. rauutled 
tjf theiadiipenaahleefiifencerf hMtoyaJ etbnograpbT.' An 
emoide &im modem folk-lcre aliov? tlus pnmitiTe ococeptun 
stiOatitssbBiMtstretdL The patbetie eusiom of * keUiiig kbe 
bees'wbeB tlw miitnr or nustrea oT* booae <&«ihB noA ■>- 
known In mar own coonliy. But in Qermaoy Ibe ide* is more 
foltf woikcd oQt ; Ani oot ooij is the ad niiiiitun givcw to 
•mj bM-kive in Hne garden and emj tenrt in the stall, bvt 
evnyn^of cocB omtt betoodicdaDd efqythiayinthehot 
aiHkeB. ttttt tfaqr 10*7 knew tbe iHiter » gone;' 

AnimiiM takes in aemal doetriiMa wludi ao fcraUf eon fats 
to p a w opi fi eattoo, tkat mvtgea and barbaiiaoe^ apporentlj with- 
oat an eCbrt, can gire eataateat individnal Kfie to pbenonwa. 
tbat oar atmoat stiet^ of &iiey only avuk to fenaatf m eoo- 
•nooi Bwt ap hor. An idea of pervading Ufe and will in anbae 
fe ovteida nodcni limiti; n bcBrf in psaonal ■ 
«T«o wfanfe we call i— -i™-*- bodisi^ a tbaoiT of 
of nxds as well in fife aa aftar daatk. a ana* of owwib of 
tuaJ beii^ aotoSliaHa fitting thiw^ the air, bat 
nlsD iwhahiting ticca aad rocks and watH&IK Uii 
thdr own pcnwarf^y to aacfa awtcrial i 
VO& in tayQutagf with such ouaifijld cotscidcnoe^ aa to make 
it hacd indeed to nnnrel their sepante actno. 

Snra anmuatic ongin of Datme-niytna inova oat nty dosaQr 
in tfaa gnat cosmic gnop of Sun, Xooo. and Stars. In cailjr 
p M sBop hy tkPDog^ont tka «<diU„ t^ San aad Mmk aae abr« 
aad a0 it van hnoHn in tkev aatan.. VcaaBT^ 
OHla ad female, they nenrtlketeaa difier in the sex 
to each, •» w«ll as in tkair idatiaas to on* ■netbat. Ammg 
tba Mbooobts «^ Sooth America> the Moon h a mm aad Aa 
Son bis wife, and the itoiy is toid bow aha onee feQ down 
and an tadwn pot bar ap again* bnt Aa Mt n amoad 
tanm and set Ae Ibnat bbamg in a d^aga of Am* Ta 
disphy the oppasito of tha iden* and at thn aanv time to 

* Vntfht, ' Tiriiilliq^M^^' f, St*. 


illustrate the vivid fancy with whicli savages cau personify the 
heavenly bodies, we may read the following discuwiioii concern- 
ing eclipses, betwetiit CLiiaiu, Algonijuin Indians and ono of the 
early Je&uit tiiisdiouaiies to Canada in the 17tli centuiy, 
father Lc Jcunc ; — " Jc leiir ay demandd d'oii venoit I'Eclipsa 
de Lune <?t de Soleit", iU m'oiit reepondu que la Lune s'Ailip- 
9oit ou paroiasoit noire, A. cause qu'cUc tenoit son fihi cntrc ses 
bnts, qui empeschoit quu Ton ne viat ea nlartd Si la Luae a uu 
fils, cllc est maiiiic, ou I'a 6t6, Iciir dis-jo. Oily dea, mo direiit- 
ilii, le Soleil est ruu mary, qui marclie lout le jour, et elie toute 
la nuict; et s'il s' Eclipse, ou x'il s'obacurcit, c'cst qu'il prend 
auKsi pflr fois le Sis qu'il a ou de la Liiul- enlre ses bras. Oily, 
raois ny )a Liine ny lo Soleil n'ont point de bra**, leiir disois-je. 
Tu n'a^ point J'e&prit : ils tionncnt tousiours lours arcti band& 
dtiiiant eiix, voil^ pourquoy leurs bran ne paruixHent poinL Kt 
8ur qui veulent-ib tirei' i Il^qu'en scauonsnoiis t "' AmytHo- 
logicalty important legend of tlie Haiue race, the OttAwa story of 
Iosco. d&scribe» Sun and Moon as brother and fiister. Two 
Indians, it is said, apmng through a chtutm in tlie itky, and found 
tlicmsclvei!) in u pleaflant moonlit land ; there they Haw the 
Moon approaching as from behind a hill, they knew her at the 
first sight, ahv was an i^cd woman with white facu and plca«ittg 
air J speaking kindly to them, she led them to her brother tho 
Sua, and he carried them with hiui iu hiij coui'sc and sent tbdm 
home irith promises of happy life.' As the Egyptian Oeiris flA<l 
Isis were at once Sun and MooD,brotlier and sister, and huaband 
and ivifc, so it vm with tho Pervrian 8un nnd Moon, and thus 
the sister-marriage of tlie Incaa Itad iu their religion at onco a 
meaning and a justification/ The niytlix of other countricB, 
whore such relationa of sex may not appear, carry on the some 
lifelike persoiiifieatinn in telling the ever-reityrated, never ledioua 
talo of day and night. Thus to tho Mexicans it was an ancient 

Sm Cliulcvoii, ' NniiTclle Fkuoir'Tal. it. i>- 170, 

* Sclitxtlcnft, * Alj^n Hmarclici,' toI. ij. |u fi4 ; cum|xtrD * Tanner'* Kuntin,* 
p. 317;MieKlK>*l>nM Edda,' i. 11; 'Early Hurt. aStL'p. 337. 

■Prtscott, *r«ra,' vtiL L pv »; CuciUco do k T*;^. 'Coidbi. Real' L 




liura 'wlio, nlicn (be* ul<I siiii van Uimt out and hail \vii tbo 
wnrlil in darkntMH, Kfiran<f into n liu^ fire, dcsceudetl into the 
ittiflilL>8 liclow.uud nroML- tloifKil and glorioiLt in the cast aa Tona- 
tiiili tliti Sun. Afl'<i- him thcro ]cii]H in nuulhcr hero, but dow 
till! fii-o liiul }<:n>wD dim, »nd ho arose only in milder nulianco u 
21t'ti!tii tli» Mu»n.' 

Jf it bo ohjuctod thnt all fhis may bo ni«re expressive form 
of Hpoiicli, liko a iiiod4>m \Mot's )'ixucifiil mcUiphor, thcro ia 
uriOenco which ii» f<nch nlijnrtioitcaQ stand against. When the 
AU^uliniu t)iuu);ht Ihiil i( nuy ODC gave offence to the moon, bo 
wftiild Wing d'lwii Btonos on the ofP'nder and kill Iiim.* or wliou 
tho moon came down to an Indian sijuaw, appearing in tho 
farm of k Iwautifnl woniiui with a child in her arms, and 
ildmniidinK lui ufl(>riiii| nt" IuIkicco and fur-robes,* what concep- 
tinoii of pomiiinl lifn eould lie moiv diHtincl titan these ? Wl«n 
thu A])sche ludiiLu pointed tu tlt« sky and asked tlio white man, 
" Do yoii not bi'liovc lliat 004!, tliia Sun (qae Dios,est<> Sol) sees 
wlutt wi> do and punishtM ns when it is evil ?" it i:* impowtiblc 
lo nay that tliw aavago wils tidkinjj in rhetorical simile.* There 
Wflfl wimrthiiig in tho Huracric contemplation of the liWny 
jwraooal llt'liat. that was more and deeper than metaphor. 
Evan in far later agi-t;, wo may read of the outcry that arose 
in Urrcco against tho astronomers, tboeo blasphemous mate- 

^ riatiAla who deuictl. nut the divinity only, but tlic very porsao- 
lity ef iIk> aiui, ntid tUx'laned him a huge hot balL Later 
a, 1m>w vividly Tacitus liriags to view Uu> old ponooificatiou 
lyinifiiiio ititnilo amonj; th« Romabs. in ccutnst vith it^ still 

Fviidurint; ivHi^muh vij^tir anwuj; tbo German nations in the 
mcnn) of Boi.walvms pltMuling before Oie Roman l^ate that his 
trilMt kliiiiild iiitt Iv drivi^n fmm tbw buds. I>x>kin^ toward 

'tlw Mm. ami niDniy on Uio other b«««Mlly bodice as thoogfa. 
my* ttni hintorian, tlwy had been tlKre proseot, th« Gonoan 
rhiof demanded of tlwrn if it mra th«ir vill to look down 

I tWifWHMAK < Mrauvili laJkM.' ti <S ; Cbilcm. *»L ii. ^ f ; Si^i««a ia 

K«'W*Wlw»>. ' Aat^<lfttn mT M«sir«.' 

• iWlka, • UiMeh,' W. li. ^ »^ 

* mwlatl. 'I ••ml lawKa.* |k 49a. 

upon a vacant soil! (Solem dcinde rea^Mcicns, et cstemaadcra 
rncanR, (]iiasi coram iuterrogabat, vellentne contueri ioaae 
solum ? ) ' 

So it is with the stars. Savage mytholc^ cootains many a 
story of tlicni, iigrevinjj through oil other difference in altribiit- 
ing to them animate life. They are not merely talked of iu 
fancied pcrsouoUty, but pcrsoual action ia attributed to them, 
or they are even declared once to Iiaro lived on earth. The 
natives of Australia not only fiay the stars in Orion's bolt and 
scabbard are young men daacing a coiroboree ; thoy declare that 
Jupiter, whom they call " Foot of Day " (Ginabong-Bcarp), was 
a chief among the Old Spirits, that ancient race who were 
translated to heaven before man came on earth,' The Esqui- 
maux did not stop short nt calling the stars of Orion's bcU the 
Lost Once, and telling a tale of their being oeal-buntoni who 
missed their way home ; bat they dii^tinctly held that the stais 
were in old times men and animahi, before thoy went up into 
the slcy.' So the North American Tiidiiuis had more than 
superficial meaning in calUug the Pleiades the Danc-ers, and the 
morniug-atar the Day-bringer ; for among them stones are told 
like that of the lowaH, of the star that an Indian had long 
gazed upon in childhood, and who came down and UiUccdwith 
hira when ho was once out hunting, weaiy and luckless, and led 
hint to a place where there was much game.* The Kasia of 
Bi^'iigid dcclnn: that the stora were once men : they climbed to 
the top of a tree (of course the great heaven-tree of the 
mythology of so many laudj>). but others below cut the trunk 
aod left them up there in the branches." With such savage 
conceptions as guide?, the original meaning la the liitmiliar 
chwdc personification of <^Ar8 can scarcely be doubted. The 
explicit doctrine of the aoimation of stars is to be traced 
thnnigh post centuries, and down to our own. Origcn declares 

■ Tat. Ann. xiU. 5S. 

■ StanWAet, in ' Tr. Eth. Soc' rot L p, 801. 

* CnuiE. ' UrOnlnnJ,' p. iVS ; IUjtm. 'Arctic Ihwt Jonn»r,* p. 214. 

' ftcboolcian. 'IndiuiiTribos'iKiit. iii. p.S<fi:(ecaI»DeU Bwds, 'OBnlbn,. 
p. 52S. 

* Uthan, ' Doer. Btk' toI L p. 110. 

■ stu ntioctfdt ^DovBa vub ^r^** oiotx 
maAnamm at it vdqU he abcnrd to ssy ^^-^t^'^*^ oraBtoot 

diMm Art nfcana— WB» haw haH &e liiMiiiiMi iM t t£ beuisite 
ba irmr*" aai nuooai amtmait wluk odiers liaie lieU iLem 
■me ifgridgw mud ttmaAem \KAa, m» «iie nsj caQ «nodier 
ft heniac iar hQlding Ti'rther fiew, fir Unvb is no optn Imfaiwi 
«B ibe nlyeaU and eras t^dJemaaan fa»w tboH^ Amsfir «f 
iL It u (nop^i to iwit ipn iicire ^'^**' wi21*^sifszi BMMJKiH 
doabdoB tiX rtBF«>iilB and ■ur«iigdit bo intitMtdly vaxei op 
Titlt tfao ddasoiu of aMivlogT. In our ovo tme tLe Uadoiy of 
Dm "r'nrlint: wnk «f sUra fiitda sdll here am! tiiwe as 
and Dv Maartt^ pdnoe and leadsr d* 
haMs itp agamat nodeia artwaoMnr the ' 
cf paaon] vxQ is litanaaiD apfio^ md the tiieor; «f 

foa lq f kaa8D£vke|it abro id obt nuad* tiie (^ mi'miB^w— 
fbeosy of nattDc. ilttt it » ■» gnat aBnt ta ns tofurr t^K 
vatanpoot a faqgB ipaaA or saa-aaartBC aad ta dcjuot xa wbac 
«e ctfl a f pop riat a — ^lyLirr ito aateh aew Am 5dAt of 
ooaaa. Bat wliere sodi fomiE trf" yiadi aa c m m t aaa^g 
aoe^ 1^9 an wlnrtiiil I7 a dirinet franc 
;«f&oL TliHi iliii aalnifaali ataiillii Tqiiaiw «■ 
ao aiaa off tkor asaila an te Aea k^B-fedtd dqgDDiL '' flfi^f 
flpiate ttiaair wiui & asinaBd nMBatt ■■no^ 
caD Aaa'taaiBaki,**-i|M)atai« 4i^aM.*' Wa 

fc^aooae GUaaM to te aocaMaed ly ftaaaoem and 
■li cf tlie dngaa; altbcni^ aever sees bead and wl^ 
fa- daodi. fiAasMB aad aaaadt itfk catch 
trf Ac iMhr aaiadlii^ fao tto aili 1 aafl 
iag te it/ la ihc ma dM CT a i Ghnmcde d" laSm «f 

ia <be Gatf rfgKtfk m fte fti^hjiiMM 

A groat Hadt 

* Ma m ^WW ut^Ji , i.r, St IWbML Afi^. in Ontte. ». £«■ 

dragon seems to como in the clouds, letting dawn his hcul into 
the waves, while bis tail seems fixed to the sky, and tliis dit^on 
draws up tlio wai'CK to him with such avidity tliat even a Jiulcn 
ship would be taken up on liigh, so that to avoid this danger 
the crowa ought to shout and beat boards to drive the dragon off. 
But, concludes the chronicler, some indeed saj that this ia not 
a dragon, but the sun drawir^ up the water, which seems more 
true.' Thu Moaloina still account for waterspouts as caused by 
gigantic demons, such as that one desteribcd in the "Arabian 
Nights : " — " The sea became troubled before them, and there 
aroite from it a black pillar, asctmding towanln the fky, and 
approaching the meadow . . . and heboid It was a Jinnee, of 
gigantic stature."' The difficulty in interpreting language like 
this is tu know how far it U seriously and how far fancifully 
meant. But this doubt in no way goes ngniniit its original 
animistic meaning, of which tbero con be no tjuostion in the 
following story of a "great sea-serpent'* current among a 
barbarous Bast African tribe. A chief of the Wanika told 
Dr. Kmpf of a great .serpent which is sometimai seen out at 
Dca. roacliing from the sen to the sky, and appearing especially 
during heavy rain. " 1 told them," says the miasiounry, " that 
this was no serpent, but a waterapout."* Out of the similar 
phenomena on land there has arisen u similar group of myths. 
The Moslem fancies the whirling sand-pillar of the desert to be 
caused by the flight of an evil jitin, and the East African 
simply calls it a demon (p'hcpo). To traveller after traveller 
who gazes on these monstrous shapes gliding majestically across 
the desert, the thought occurs that the woll-rcmemhered 
" Arabian Nights' " descriptions rest upon personitications of 
the sand-pitlars themselves, ax the ^gantic demons into which 
ianey can oven now so naturally shape them. * 

Rude and distant tribes agree in the conception of the B(uq- 

* Ofaron. Joli. DnmitoD. in ' Hist. Angl ScripUma,' z. Xtc I. |i. 1910. 
' liuia, ' ThmunMiil and (liin N.' irnl. i. |i. $0, 7. 

» Knipr, 'Tr»r»U,'p- IflS. 

* iMit, ibid. pp. 80, 42 ; Buttoa, *E1 Mt-dituli *iid U<«Mh,' rot it. p. 69 ; 
'I^a Kc^ODB,' to], i. p. Z!>7; J. D. H<H)V<ir, ' Himolafnti ionnul*,' tdI. !. 
■p. 70 ; Tylor, * Mexico,' p. Hi ; Tycnuko ami Beonct, tuL ii. |>. 3S2. 


howaa a living aoBStcr. Hew ZeftUnd nu'th, describing the 
bottle of the Tempeirt against the Forv^st, t«1U how the Rain- 
bov an»o and ptaccd his month clo!t« to Tane-mnhuta^ the 
Father of Trees; and continued to assault him till his trunk waa 
anapt in two, and hb broken branches strewed the jp'ouud.' It 
is not uoly in mere nature-myth like this, bat in actual awe- 
Ktrtick Itclicf anil terror, tbat the idea of the live Baiabow is 
worked out The K&rens of Iffirma saj it is a 5[ant or demon. 
"The Rainbow can devour men. . . . When it devours aperaon, 
he dies a sudden or violent <lealii. All persons that ilic badly, 
by fiUls, by drowuiog, or by wild beasts, die because the Boin- 
bow has <levoured their ka-ta, or spirit. On devouring persons 
it becomes tltirsty, and comes down to drink, when it is seen in 
the sky drinking water. Therefore when people see the Rain- 
bovr they say, ' The Rainbow has oome to drink water. Look 
oat> Home one or other will die violently by an evil death.' If 
cbildron are playing, their pareota will say to them, ' The Rain- 
bow has oome down to drink. Flay no raore.leet some accident 
should happen to you.' And after the Rainbow has been seen, 
if any ialal aociilent liappens to auy one, it is sajd the Rainbow 
has devoured him.'*' The Zulu ideaH correspond in a ciiriou;; 
way with these. Tbe Rainbow lives with a snake, that is, where 
it iii Lh(fre is also a snake ; ur U is like u sheep, and dwells in a 
pool. When it touches the earth, it is drinking at n pool. Men 
are afraid to wash in a large pool ; tlicy say there U a. Rainbow 
in itv and if a man goes in. it catelies and eais him. The Rain- 
bow, coming out of a river or pool oud resting on llie ground, 
poisons men whom it meets, aflcctiug tbcm with eruptions. 
Men say, "The Rainbow is disease. If it rests on a man, 
something will happen to him." ^ Lostly. in Dahomc, Oaoh the 
Heavenly Snake, which makes the I'opo beads and confere 
wealth on man, is the Rainbow. * 

To the theory of Animism belong those endless tales which 
all nations tell of the presiding genii of nature, the spirits of 

■ Taylor, •'Ftvr Zoakiid,' p. 121. 

- Uuon, ' Eucan,' tc ' Jonru. yV& Soc. B«lipil,' ISfiJi, pnrt JL p. £17. 

' CdUmy, -Znlu TalM.' vol. i. p. t>i. 

* BuftMi, • Dnhoine,' toI. ii p. )4i ; sm 242. 



clii&, wells, waterttUIs, Tolcaooff, the elves and woodnymphs &«e& 
at timo3 by human cyea when woodering bj* moonlight or 
asscmblotl at tlicir fairy fcfltivak Such beings may personify 
the nfiturnl objects they belong to, as when, in a North 
American talc, the guardian (spirit yf waterfalls rushes through 
the lodge as a raging current, bearing roclf;« and trccic along in 
its tremendous course, and then the guardian spirit of the 
uilands of Lake Snperior ent«rR in the guii© of rolling waves 
covered with sitvur-sparktiug fuam. ^ Or they may be guiding 
and power-giving xpirit^ of nature, like the spirit Fugamu. 
whose work is the catajact of the Nguyai, and who stilt 
wanilers night and ilay aronnd it, though the negroes who tell 
of him can no longer see Ids botlily form." The belief pre- 
vailing through the lower culture that the diseases which vex 
mankind are brought by individual peiTsonaJ spirits, is one 
which has produced strikiug L-xaoiplea of mythic development. 
Thus the savage ICaren lives in terror of the mad "la," lb© 
epileptic "la," and tho rest of the seven evil demons who go 
about scxiking Iiik lifu ; and it is nitli a fiuicy not many degrees 
removed from this early stage of thought that the Peman sees 
in bodily shape the apparition of Al, tliu &carlot fcvor : — 

' ' 'Would jaa know AI ? «li« ieems a. MuabiDg mud,r 
'Vl'itb lacks oC dune and chooks all ros; rail." * 

It is with this deep old spiritualistic belief clearly in view 
that the ghastly tales are to be read where pestilence and 
death como on their errand in wcinl human fiha[)e. To the 
minti of the Israelite, death and pestilence took the personal 
form of the destroying ongel who amoto the doomed.* Wlien 
the great plngue raged in Justiniau'a time, men saw on the sea 
brazen barks whose ci'ews were black and headless men, and 
where they landed, the pestilence broke out." When the plaguo 

' .Stliooliasft, ' Aljtio Rm." vol, if, p, 148. 

' Dn Ch&illu, 'Aakango-lnnd.'p. 10)1. 

* Jm. Athtiuan, ' CiistDTQii of lh« Womon of P^fnJA,' p. 19. 

■ S Sun. xiiT. 16 ; S Kings xix. 3S. 

' a. & AanuiMniii 'fiibliothow Ori«nUlia,*K. Sff. 



fell on Rome in Gregory's Ume, the Eiunt fmag from prayer 
saw Michael standing with his lilooiiy sword on Hadriau's castle 
— the archangel etanJa there yet in bronze, giving the old fort 
it^ newer name of the Castle of St.. ADgelo. Atnoug a vrfaole 
group of stories of the pestilence seen in pentonaL shape 
travelling to and fro in the Land, perhaps there in none more 
vivid than this Slavonic one. There sat a Buaiian under a 
lux:h-trce, nod the suuahinc glared like fire. He saw something 
coming fi^m afar ; he looked again— it was the Pcst^maideD, 
huge of stature, all shrouded in linen, Htriding toward him. Ho 
■would have fled in terror, but the form grawpcd him with her 
long outstretched hand. " Knowcat thou the Pest ? " she eald ; 
" I am she. Take me on thy shoulders and carry me tbrotlgh 
all Ruflsia ; taiss no village, no town, for I must visit all. But 
fear nut for thyself, thou shalt bo safe umid the dying." Clinj;- 
ing with her long hands, she clambered on the peasant's buck; 
he stepped onward, saw the form above bim as he v(mt, but 
felt no burden. First he bore her to the tO'wns ; they found 
there joyous dance and song ; but tho form waved her linen 
Khroud, and joy and mirth were gone. As the wroichod man 
lookoJ ruund, he sa.w mourning, he heard the tolling of the 
belU, there came funoral proceasioiiB, the graves could not hold 
the dead. He patised on, and coming near each village heard 
the Khriek of the dying, saw all facea white in the desolate 
boasea But high on the hill xtands his own hamlet : hh wife, 
his little children are there, and the aged parents, and his 
heart bleeds as he draws near. With strong gripo he holds the 
maiden fiist, and plunges with her beneath the waTc& He 
sank : kIiu rose again, but she quailed before a heart so fearlosi^ 
and fled far away to the forest and the mouutain."* 

Tet, if mythology lie surveyed in a more comprehensive 
view, it is soon that its animistic development falU within a 
broader generalization still, Tlic explanation of the course and 
change of nature, as caused by life such as the life of the 
thinking man who gazes on it, ut but a part of a Far wider 
mental proecsK. It belongs to that great doctrine of analogy, 

» HnmiMh, *S!av. Mftlitii,' p. 822. Coinp»r* ToNiuomBtl*, 'Monu<]itU 
Indiaii*,' i. e, li (Mexico) ; Birtian, *P«yvliol»pc,' p. 197. 



from wliicli we liara gaiued so mucli of our apprchonaioa of tlia 
worlJ aronr<l us, Dwtrasted iw it now is hy aeverur science for 
its mi)ilc?Jtdmg results, analog is still to us a chief moaDx of 
discovery and ilhistmtioii, u'Utle in earlier gradejt of education 
ita influenco wan all tut paramount. Analogies wMch ai-c bat 
fancy to iis wrre to men of past ages reality. They coulil sea 
the flame licking its yet undevourecl prey witU tongues of fire, 
or the serpent gliding aloug the waviug sword from hilt to point; 
they could feci a live creature gnawing wiUiin their bodies in 
the pangs of hunger ; they heard the voices of the hill-dwarfa 
answenng in the echo, and the chariot of the HeavcD-god 
rattling in thunder over the solid firmament. Men t« whom 
these were living thoughts had no need of the achool- 
mastcr and hi^s mien of compoaitiou, hi^ mjuuctious to uso 
metaphor cautiously, and to take continual care to make ftU 
nimilos consistent. The similes of the old bards and orators 
were consistent, because they seemed to see and hear and feel 
them : what wo call poetry was to tbem real life, not as to the 
modern versemaker a maflquerade of goda and heroes, shop- 
herda and Khephecdeaaes), stage heroincK and philo-tDphic nuvages 
in paint and feathers. It was with a far deeper congciousneoB 
that the circuin^tanoo of nature was worked out in endless 
imaginative detail in ancient' days and among uncultured 

Upon the sky above the hill-country of Orissa, Piilzu Pcudu, 
tbo Rain-god of the Khonda, rests as he pours down the 
ahoweis through bis sicve.^ Over Peru there etands a princess 
with a vast! of rain, and wliBn her brother striken the pitclior, 
men hear liie ^hock in thunder and see the dash in lightning." 
To the old Greeks the rainbow scorned stretched down by Jovo 
from heavon, a purpio aign of war and tempest, or it was the 
pereonal Iris, measenger between gods and men.'* To the South 
Sea islander it waa the beavon-ladder where heroes of old 
cdimbed up and down ; * and m to the Scandinavian it was 

> Hapjiheiwia, ' Inilia,' p. 857. 

* Markhum, 'l^diua Or. niirl Die' [>. 9. 

* Wcldwr, 'Ciieoli. OiJtUrL' vul. i. ji. BOfl, 

* Klw, ' I'bIj-b. Bes.' r<d. L p. tSl ; Polack. ' Now. Z.' vol. i. p. 273. 



BifriJat, the trembling bridge, timberctl of tbrce hues 
Etretchotl Trom sky to earth ; and in GenDon folk-lore it is tbu 
bridge -where the souls of the just arc led by their gxittnliau 
aaigtla across to paradise.' As the Ismclite called it the bow 
of Jcbovah in the clouds, it k to tiie Hindu the bow of Rama,* 
and to tlie Finn the bow of Tlenjiet the Thunderer, who slaj-a 
urith it the norceren that hunt after mtjn'ii lives;* it in 
imagiDed, moreover, as a gold-embroidered scarf, a head-dross of 
feathers, St. BeraardV eruwu, or the Kidde of on Esthonian 
dei^.* And yet through all .inch endless varieties of mythic 
conception there nmg one main principle, the evident sugges- 
tion and analogy of nature It bus beeu said of the savageii of 
North America, that "there i« always something actoal and 
pliysiciU to ground an Indian fancy on."' The saying goes. Loo 
far, but within Itmibi it is cmphaticoJly true, not of North 
American Indians alone, but of mauliind. 

Suoh resemblaDces as have just been displayed thrust tbum- 
Belvcs directly on the mi ad, without any necessary iute^^'entioD 
of worda Deep as language liea in our meDtal life, the direct 
compariMD of object with object, and action with action, lies 
yet deeper. The myth-maker's luind shows forth even among 
the deaf-and-dumb, who work out just such nnalogie^ of nature 
in their wordless thought. Again and again they have beea 
found to suppose themselves taught by their guardians to wor- 
ship and pray to sud, moon, and stars, as personal creatures. 
Others have described their early thoughts of the hesvenly 
bodies as analogous to things within their reach, one fancying 
the mooD made like a dumpling and rolled over the tree-tops 
like a marble across a table, and the stars cut out with greftt 
sciisors and stuck ngninst the sky, while another supposed the 
moon a furnace and the stars fire-grates, which the people above 
the firmament light up as we kindle fires.' Now the mythology 

' Crimm, • D. M." ff. 594— fl, 

• WmiI, 'HiiwkiOJi'vwI. i, p. Ufi. 

' Culreii, ' FiniiLicliD Myllioloxir.' pp. *8, 41', 

• I)(!»inu-k in LAumsnuit SiuiiiLlutl'* KniwUrin, vol. UL p. SC9. 

• SdiuulcraTt, jiart iit. [i. ASO. 

• SiwrJ, ''Jlitorio des Signed, rtc.' Patia, 1609, vol. il p. 631; 'Pmoial 

of mankind at large is full of conceptionK of nature like tliesc^ 
and t« assume for them no deeper original source tban meta- 
phorical plirajteK, would be to i^ore ODe of tbo great traniiitions 
of our intellectual Itistory. 

Language, tbere is no doubt, has bad a great share in the 
fbrmiaion of myth. The mere fact of its individualizing in 
words such notions as winter aud summer, cold and heat, war 
and peace, vice and virtue, gives the mytli-maker the means 
of imagiuing these thoughts as personal beings. Language 
not only acta in thorough uniHon with the imogiuatioa wliosc 
products it expresses, but it goes on producing of itaelf, and 
thus, by the itido of the m)-thic conccpiioDS in which kbguagc 
has followed imagination, we have others in ^vhich language 
has ted, and imagination has followed in the track. These 
two actions coincide too closely for their effects to bo tho- 
roughly sopai-ntcd, but they should he distinguished as l&r as 
poBsihle. For myself, I am disposed to think (differing here 
in some measm-e from Professor Max Uuller's view of the sub- 
ject) that the mythology of the lower races rests especially on 
a basis of real aud sensible analog)-, and that the great expan- 
sion of verbal metaphor into mjth belongs to more advanced 
periods of civilization. In a word^ I take material myth to be 
the primarj', and verljal myth to be the secondai}' formation. 
But whether tliis opinion be historically sound or not, the dif- 
ference ;n nature between myth fuunilod on fact and myth 
founded on word is sufficiently manifest The want of reahly 
in ycrhol mL-taphor cannot he L-ffcctually hidden by the utmost 
etrctch of imagination. In spite of this essential weak ni^i*, bow- 
ever, the habit of realiniiig everything that words can descrilxi is 
One, which has grown and flourished in the world. Descriptive 
Dames become personal, the notion of personality stretches to 
take in even the most abstiBct notions to which a name mny 
bo applied, and realized name, epithet, and metaphor pai» into 
interminable mythic growths by the process which Mai Midler 
has 80 aptly characterized as " a disease of language." It would 

BeooIlMtiinii,' by CbarlotU EILjubttli, Lontloo 19(1, [>. 183 ; Dr. Orpoi, "Tbu 
Gontmt,' p. 25. ComjuiTO Ueilwn^ vol. 1. p. 43. 



be <lifScult iotked to tkfiac the exact thought lying at the root of 
every mytliic conception, bwt in eaej caaes the course of fornia- 
tioa cun be iiuitc wl-U ioUowtd. North American tribes have 
personified Nipinukhe ami Fipunukhe, the beii^ vho Imng 
the spring (iiiplii) and thu winter (pipuu) ; Nipiaukhe briags. 
the heat and hirils and vcnlure, Pipiinukbe ravagea vrith hi» 
ooU! winds, bis ice aLil snow ; one comes om the other goes, and 
between them they divide the woriJ.^ Just such pcrsoaification 
as this furnishes the staple of endless nature-metnpbor in our 
own European poetry. In the springtime it comes to be said that 
Maj baa conquered Winter, liis gate is open, he has sent letters 
bofoTO him to trll the fniit that he is coming, his tent is pitehed, 
he brings the wooda their summer clothing. Thus, when Night 
is pcniomfied, we see how it comes to pass that Day is her son, 
aiid how each in ft henvenly chariot drives round the world. 
To minds in tliis mythulugic! Rtagc, the Curse becomes a per- 
sonal being, hovering in space till it can light upon its victim ^ 
Time and Nature arise m real entities; Fate and Fortune be* 
come personal arbiters of our lives. But at last, as the change 
of meaning goes on, thoughts that once htut a moi-c real sense 
faile into mere poetic forms gf speech. We have but to com- 
pai-e the effect of ancient and modern peraouificutiou on our own 
minds, to uudcnLaud something of what has happened in tbu 
interval. Milton may be consisteut, classicol, mojestiot when 
he tells how Sin aud Dcatlt sut witliin the gates of hell, and how 
tlicy buUt their bridge of lengtli prodigious across the deep abyss 
to earth. Yet such descriptions leave but rcant sense of mcauiug- 
on modctn minds, and we are apt to any. as we might of aome 
counterf«t bronze from Naples. "For a sham antique how cleverly 
it is done." Entering into the mind of the old NorscmaD, w© 
guess liow much more of meaning tbon the cleverest modem 
imitation can carry, lay in his pictures of Hel. the death-gotldess, 
stem and grim and livid, dwelling in her high and strong- 
barred house, aTiil keeping in her nine worlds the souls of tbe 
departed ; Huuger is her dish, Famine is hor knife. Care is 
her bed, and Misery her curtain. When such old material 

> LeJooDoiD <BeLd««Jci. diu»laN<nireUfl FMni»,'ie8l, p. 13. 



ilc»cri[itioiis are trauslerrcd to modern times, in spite of all the 
aocuiac}' of reproiluctiou their spirit is qnitc chongcii. Tho 
story of ttio monk wlio displaved among his relics tho garments 
of St Faith is to us only a jest ; and wo call it t{unint humour 
whoc Charles Lamb, falling old and infirm, onco wrote to n 
fiiond, " My bcd-f*>!low3 ate Cough and Cramp ; we sleep three 
in a bed." Perhaps we need not appreciale the di-olloiy any 
tho less for seeing in it at once a conKequence and a record of & 
past intellectual lifo. 

The distinction uf grammatical guuder is a process intimately 
connected with the formation of myths. Grammatical grinder 
is of two kindsL What may be called stixual gender is familiar 
to all clasaically-educated Kngiishnien, l.liougli their niothor- 
tongUG ha» mostly lost its traces. Thus iii Latin not only are 
such wnnls a» Iiovio and fvmiiia. cln%sed naturally a* mas- 
culine and feminine, but bucIi words a« pen and gUuliva arc 
made musculiue. aitii Uga and Tuivia hmuntxe, and the same 
distioction ta actually drawn between i;uch abstractions oa 
h<m08 aud Jidce. That sexless object.t and ideas should thus 
bo classed 0:3 male and female, in epito of a new gender — the 
neuter or " neither *' gender — having been defined, seems in part 
exphiined by considering this latter to have been of later forma- 
tion, and the original Indo-fiuropeau genders to have boon 
only nifuicuhne ami funiiuine, as ia actually (ho c&ao in Hebrew. 
Though tho practice of nttributing sex to objocts that hnvo 
noue \& nut easy to explain in detail, yet there seems nothing 
mysteriouH in its principles, to judge from ono at least of its 
nukin idcoK, which in stilt quite intelligible. Language makes 
an admirably appropriate distinction between strong and weak, 
stem and gentle, rough and delicate, when it contrasts them 
as male and feuiale. It Is possible to understand even such 
fancte8 as those which Plctru della Valle describes among the 
medta:vid Fcntiuns. dihtinguiiihing lietween male and female, 
that is to wiy, prnrticaMy between robust and tender, even in 
flucli tliiugs as food aud cluth, ftir aud water, and prescribing 
Lhcir proper uso accordingly.^ And no phr^isc could he more 

Plotto d«lU T»ll^ "Yiaggt,' letter xri. 

I Oat oftbe Dftyaks of Boneo, who 
of tsin, " njatn ani, 'a!" — "aA^ 
M H BUiT be to decide bcv f*r objects and 
> ebaaed in Ungoage ns ntalo and feroaio boeatue 
■* fTBOciified. mnd how &r tbej were peraonifiod 
%l*l«tt» thiej wvn dassod as male' and fi^nial^ it w evident at 
4bj» IM» that these two processes fit together aud promote 

Muivowr, in etudjiog languages which lie beyond the range 
4t raounon Etiropean Bcholarslnp, it is found that the theory 
ift gyamnutical gender must be txtended tato a wider field. 
TKo Dmvidiau langiMges of South ludia make the intereKtiug 
dtatiuctioQ between a " high-caste or major gender," which in- 
cludes rational beings, i. r^ deities and roeu, and a " caste-leas 
or minor gender," whidi includes imitional objects, whether 
titnag animals or lifeless things.' The dtstincticn between au 
animate and an inanimate gender appears with especial import 
ia a&milj of North AmoricanluJiau Uu^uages. the Algonqato. 
Here not only do all animalH boUn^ to the animate gender, but 
alao the sun, moon, and btars, thunder and lightmng, as being 
penonified creatures. The animate gender, moreover, includes 
not onl; treco and ftiiits, but certain exceptional hfoless objects 
whicli appi'ar to owe this distinction to their special sanctity 
or power ; fiuch are the stone which serves as the altar of sacri- 
fice to Uw niaoitus, the bow, the eagle's feather, ttie kettle, 
tohncco-pipo, dnim, and wampum. Wliore tbo whole animal 
is animate, parts of its body considered separately may be in- 
animate — hand or foul, beak or wing. Yot oven here, for 
special reasons, special objects are treated as uf animate gen- 
der; such are the eagle's talong, the bear's claws, the beaver's 
castor, tlie man'H nails, nnd other objects for which there is 
claimed a peculiar or mystic power.* If to any oue it seems 

* 'Joum. !ii>l ArrJiip.' vul. ii. |i. xsiii. 

* Soe ivmarks on the U'udciKij- uf Bex-dcnotiRg Ungaapi la imdnco myHi is 
AMcA, in W. H. Bl««k, 'Kvyusnl tlie Fox in 8, A/r.' |t. xz. ; ' Ori^ of Lon^,* 
jv. zxiii. 

» CalJwJl, 'Conip. Gr. of Ihxiiiiin Umpt." p. 174. 

* Suhoulcreft, ' Iu>liaii Thlms' ]nut it |i. MO. Fw Dtbcr taan we aspecallj 

surpi-Uiug that sava^'o thought should be Ktwi{M!<l diroiigli aod 
through, in mythology, let hira consider the meaning that U 
iuvolvcd ill a grammar of nature like tliia. Such a iftin,'uagc 
Is the very reflexion of a mythic world. 

Tliere is yet anotlit^r way in which language and mythology 
can act aud re-act on cue another. Even wc, with mtr himitcd 
ntythologic sense, cannot givi; an individual n&rae to a lifeless 
object, such as a boat or a weapon, without iu the vury act 
imagioiog for it «omottiiug of a peraouoi nalurc-. Among uutioutf 
whose mythic conceptions have remame<l iti fuU ngoiiv. thia 
action may be yet more vivid. Perhaps very low savages niay 
not be apt to notno thotr implements or their canoes as though 
tbcj were live people, but racen a few stAges above tliena show 
the habit in pcrffction. Araoug tho ZuIuh we hear of uatiies 
for clubK, Igumgcblo or Uluttou, U-nutlilola-mozihiiko or Hc- 
who-watches-the-fords ; among uainca for assagaia aru Imbubuzi 
or Groan-oauser, U-Bilo-si-lanibile or Hungry Leopard, and the 
weapon being ol^o used as an implement, a certain assagai 
hears the peaceful name of U-sImhela-banta-bami, He-dlgh-u]!- 
for-my-cliiUlren.^ A Riniilm- c:ustom prevailed among the New 
Zealandera. The traditions of their ancestral migrataoDS tcU 
how NgaUoe iiiadt: from his jaspfr Htone thoRe two xhaip axot 
whose names were Tutauni and Haubau-tc-rougi ; haw with 
these axes were BhnpcJ the cnuoes Arawa and Tainui ; bow the 
two stone anchors of Te Arawa were called Xuksi-parore or "Wry- 
stone, and Tu-te-rangi-hai-uru ur Like-to-tho-roaring-«ky. The»e 
legends do not break oft' in a remote paat. but carry on a chrn- 
niclu which ix-ucheti into modem timua. It ia only lately, the 
Maorin ftay, that the famous axe TutAuru was lost, and as for 
the oar-oruameut named Kaukau-matua, which wa^ made from 
a chip of tho eamc stone, they declai-c that it was not lost till 
1816, when its uwncr, Te Heuheu, perished in a laitdeUp.' Up 
from this savage level the Kamc childlike habit of giving per* 

P»tt la Ewh and OmlMr"! • AUg. Encyclon." art. ' G«»cH«clit ;* aiaa D. Forbcii 
* r«niiiin Gr." I^ 2B ; Utliam, ' Dwcr. Kth.' vol. ii. p. 6D. 

' tVUwB^, ' Itelig. or Aiuojiulii,* p. I6d. 

» Orcj, * Poljm. Mjtt; pp. 182, cit., Sll ; ehonl»uJ, 'TrKlitioM of K. Z.' 
f. Iff. 




tAon flw ffattU kanr w 

finag tbnn^ Ui« idr. or of Arthur s bnud. £xcaliimr, c«i^ 
}fy tbe um dotbed in white samite vben Sir Bedirere thag 
htm buck into Uie Ukc. or of tbc Gd's mighty cwoid "naons, 
the Kin>bnitM), whom h« voiced to buiT' in hist own breast were 
•be OTvrcuou! through cowivdioe of hi&, 

The t4!achings of & childlihe prinupTAl pfaOosopliy sficxibiag 
penonal life to nature at largn, and the eoHjr tyraaoy of spaeeli 
over the hiunao minJ, have thtu been two gtcat and, perhaps, 
greatest agentft in mnbologic dcvelopmeot. Other causes, too. 
liave been at work, which will he noticed in coiuiexioQ with 
Kpecial legendary gronps; and a fall list, oould it be drawn up, 
migfat include an ooDtritratorie^ many otlier iotellectnal acUooft. 
It inust be tboTDQgbly imdc-Ktood. however, that such ioresti- 
gation of the proceasea of myth-formation deinaods a lively senM 
of the sUUo of mcn'a minds in tlic mytholt^ic period. When 
the Basdans in Siberia listeiic<I to the talk of the rode Kirps, 
they stood amazed at the bArbartans' ceaseless flow of poetic 
improrisatioD, and cxvl&imcd, " li^lintcvcr Ihcec people mo gives 
birth to Eutcies;'' diist so the civilized European naj contnst 
hia own stiff ordorly pnsaic thought with the wild slufting 
poetiy aod k-jjend of the old myth-maker, and may say of him 
that e\"erything he saw gave birth to fancy. Wanting tho 
]>owar of transporting himself into this imagioatlvo atmocpfaere^ 
ihe fititdenl occupied witli ttie analysis of the mythic world, 
may fail so pitiably in conceiving its depth nod intensity of 
meaning an to coavi^rt it into stupid fiction. Those can see 
more jtiHtiy who have the poet's gilt of throwing tlieir minds 
back into the world's older life^ like tUe actor who for a mo- 
ment can furgct himself and become what he pretendii to be. 
Wordsworth, that "modem ancientv" ta Max MUller has so well 
called him. could write of Storm and Winter, or of the naked 
flan climbing tho sky, afi though he were some Vedic poet at 
the head-spring of the Aryan race, "aeeliig" with his mind's 
eye a mythic hymn to Agni or Vantna. Fully to understand 
on old-world myth needs not evidence and ai;<;utuent alone, but 
deep poerie feeling. 

Yet such of us a^ sliai-c but very little ia tliia rare gift, may 
make shifi to let evidence in some measure stand in itti iitcad. In 
the poetic atage of thouglit we may see that idea! conceptions 
once shaped in tlic uiiud must liavo assumtd some such reality 
to grown-up tneo and women as they still do to ohitdron. 
I have never forgotten the Tividiiess with wliich, as a child, I 
fanciod I might look through a great telcscopo, and wq the con- 
stellations stand round tlie sky, md, green, and yellow, as I luul 
jiitt been shown them on the celestial globe. The intensity of 
mythic fancy may be brought evan more nearly home to our 
raind.s by comparing it with the morbid xubjectivity of illness. 
Among the lower racci:!, and high above tlieir lerel. morbid 
ecstasy brought on by meditation, fasting, oai'cotics, excittiuieut. 
or disease, is a state common and held in honour among tlie 
vcr}' specially concerned with tnyihio idealism, and 
under its influence the barriers between Rcnsation and imagi- 
nation break utterly away. A Nortli American Indian pro- 
photesB onco related thu atory of lior Bnt TtsioD : At ber 
solitary last at womanlioud she fell into an ecstasy, and at tllO 
coll of tho spiiitK she went up to heaven by tlie path that leads 
to the opening of the eky ; there she beard a voice, and, 
standing still, saw the figure of a man standing near the patb, 
whose bead was snrrounded by a brilliant halo, and his breast 
was covered with Ri]uares ; he said, " Look at me, my name i» 
Oshauwaucgeoghidc, the Bright Blue Sky '■ " Recording her 
experience aflerwanls in the nide picttire-writtug of her race, 
slie painted this glorious spirit with the hioroglyphlc boras of 
power and the brilUaiit halo round bis head. We know enough 
of tile Indian pictographs, to guess how a fancy with these 
fomiliar detailrof the picture-langut^ came into the poor ex- 
cited creature's mind ; but how far itt our cold analysis from her 
utter belief that in vision she had really seen this briglit being, 
this Ked Inilion Zeus.' Far from being an tsoUted caM;. this is 
scarcely more than a fair example of the rule that any idea 
shaped and made current by mythic fancy, may at once acc|uira 
all the definitcnofis of fact Even if to the 6nit ahaper it be no 

* Schooacnft, * lAdim THbM^' t«n i. ^ Ml ra>l iJ. S5. 



nxiro UiftQ lively imnginntioi), jut, whcu it comes to be em- 
iKxltod in wonk and to pass fruin house to house, those who 
lieAT it become vapabli* of the moKt iuteitse belief ihsX it may 
be Been in material shnp«, that it has been seen, that th^ 
tbcmxelvcB lukvc seen Jt. Tlie Suutb Afrtcaa who bulicvcs in a 
god witlia crooked leg »eesliiin with a crooked t^iDdreamHatid 
Tiaioos.* Id the time of Tacitus it was said, with u more puetic 
im^^iuition, thnt tn tho fjir north of Scandinavia men might see 
the ver)' forniH of the gods and the rays strcaoiiDg from their 
bcoda,* In the Sih cuntury the fatnecl Nilo-gud mjglit still bo 
seen, in gigantic human form, ming waiat-high from theirotets 
of his rivor.^ Waut of originiUity indeed soctna one of tbo most 
remarkable features in the visions of mystics. T\xq atiflf Ma- 
doooas with their crowns and petticoats still transfer thetnselreB 
from the pictures on cottage veaWs to appear in spiritual por- 
souality to pea^nt viuiouarle^, oa the miints who Htu»(l in viaiuo 
before ecstatic monks of old were to he known hy their conven- 
tioD&l pictorial atti'ibutos. AVIioii the devil with hums, hoofe, and 
tml bad once Ix^oome n fixed iimtj^e in the popular mind, of 
eooTBO men saw him in this conventional siiape. So reul luul St. 
Aulliony'g sal^T-deraon become to men's opinion, that there is n 
grave 13th century account of the mummy of such a devil being 
exhibited at Alexandria ; and it lit not fifteen yeunt back from ths 
pretieut timt- that there was a story current nt Teignmouth of a 
devil walking up the walls of the houHi!^, and leaving his Jiendish 
backward footprints in the snow. Nor in it visicMi alone that is 
ooiicemcd with the delusive realization of the ideal; tlierc is. 
as it were, n conKpinto}' of alt the scnnes to give it proof. To 
take a striking instance : there is nu irritating herpetic disease 
whidi gradiuilly encircles the body as with a girdle, whence its 
Eugtiitb uatnc of tlie sh'uujlts (Latin, cingulum). By au ima- 
giuatioD not difficult to understand, tlua disease is attributed to 
& sort of coiling srnike; and I remember a caso in Cornwall 
where a girl's family wnit^l \n great foar to see if the creature 
would stretch all round her, the belief being that if tbo stuko's 

» UvtngMoiic, ' 8. Afr." jt 124. 

* Tar. UvniKUiin, 45, 

» JUary, ■ MogU, •!«,' p. 175. 

meiuiin^ of this fnntAstic uolioii is i>riiii};lit ntit. in nii iiocouilt. 
by Dr. Bostian ut' n phymciaii who stiHbntl in it [<mi)fiil diiiciuie, 
as tbooj^rh a soako were twiueU round liim. mul in Vi'tumv tmiiil 
this idea reached Buch reality tlmt in mom<!fibt of uioMwiw |)aiii 
)ie coald eee the saako and touoli its n>u(()i hoiiIi>h with Ilia 

TliG relation of morbid iinaginaiion Xa raylh i» poeuliarly 
well instancod in the lijfltory of & widimprea^I hullof, cxLunditiff 
tbrough savage, borbn-ric, cln»<io, oriontnt, and modia'v&l liTu, 
and surviviog to thbi day in Kuro|)fan KtipontitioD. Tbia Ixtltuf, 
which may bo convenipntly calM tlio I>ootrin(> of Wcntwolvtm, 
is that ciirtaiu men, by imtiiral g!fl or tnogic art, cun turu fur & 
time into ravening wild buiutH. Tlio origin of this idoa U lijr 
DO mean8 sufficiently cxpliuned. What wo nrn v)ipi.>cia]ly coo* 
ocmed with is tbo fact of it« prevalence in the wuHd. It may 
be BOticed, however, that mich a notion in quite coiitii«tcnt with 
the animistic theory that- a man's houI may go nut of bix body 
and enter that of a bi'ost or liird, an<l mint with thu o|nniija 
that meD may be traiutfonned into aniinalii ; botli tbMo Idcaahav- 
iog an important place in the Ix-lief of maulcind, from mvagtry 
onward. Tlie doctrioe of werewolves u lubitiuttiaUy thai of 
a t«mporaty met«mpqrcboM8 or ixietamorpboaui Now it rosily 
ocean that, in variooa (anm of mental <li«K«ae, patienbi |ifowl 
riiyly, loDg to bite and deaCroy maokiod, and even fancy thom- 
aelrea traaifc nned into wild bea«ta. Belief in the p>jNiiUlily 
«f aneh tnaifcrDiation may bare b««i the wrj auggmtiag 
OMMB wfakfa led the patient Va imagine {t takii^ plaee in hfa 
DVB pcfMDo. Bat at any rate aocfa iuatiie itAwiom ife ooear, 
and phywiaas ap|4y to them the mythtJIo^ t(;rxa </ lyeau- 
thnfFf. The be&ef in men betnf w w wolw a . r*— r-fry— *. nod 
Ae Quv naj thai hwre the ateoDg awppott of tfce very wit- 
win believe dwawlvcB to be andi cnaiwrca, Tbrongli 
W i«hmi^ii|*iii ^toaa iiilaliin to <Im nalyrt, Aam 

■aa-Aiytt M^w«flnJii,tWtribni«f tW 


tremens, in which tlie patient vsalka like a tigor, eliunniog 
ftociety.^ Ttio KhonJs of Ori^n say that some »moiig them 
have tiie art of "mleepa," atitl by the aid of a god hecomo 
"mleepa" t^re for the purpose of killing enemies, one of 
tho man's four souU goiug out to aiiimalo the bestial fonn. 
Natural tigeni, say the Khoucbi, kill game to beneBt men, who 
find it haIf-devoure«.l and share it. whereas man-killing tigers 
arc citlu;r iticaruations of tliu wmthful Eortb-goddcm, or tbcy 
are transformed mea' Thus the notion of man-tigers fwrreK, 
aa Bimilar notiuus do elsewhere, to oooount for the fiict that 
certain individual wild hearts nhow a pcculiiir hostility to man. 
Amon^ the Ho of Singbhoom it is related, as an example of 
tiimUar bulivf, that a iiiaq usincd Mora savr liis wife killed by 
a tiger, and followed the hcni^t till it led him to the bouse 
of a man uumcd Foo»a. Tl.'1Uu^ Poosa's relatives of what bad 
occurred, they replied that they were aware that bo had the 
power of Incoming a tiffer, and acconlingly they brought him 
out bound, and Muni, cieliberatcly killed him. Inquisition being 
mode by the autJiorities, the family deposed, in explanation of 
their belief, that Pnosn hiul one night devoured an entire goat, 
roaring like a tiger whilst eating it, and that ou oJiothcr 
occaaiou he told his friendii he bad a lenging to eat a paiti- 
cular bullock, and that veiy night that very bullock wa.s killed 
and devoured by a tiger.' Suuth-easteru Asia m not less 
fjimiliar with the idea of tiorcerers turning into man-tigers and 
waadering after prey ; thus the Jakuns of the Mahiy Penin- 
sula bclicvu that when a luun becomes a tigor to revenge 
himself on his enemies, the transformation happens just before 
be springs, and has hcea soeu to take phi(M:> 

How vividly tho imagination oi" an excited tribe, onco inocu- 
lated with a belief like thl^i, can realize it into an eveut, is 
graphicivlly told by Dobrizhoffer among the Abiponos of South, 
America. When, a Eorcerer, to get the tetter of an enemy. 

1 Eli»l in ' Ai. lUi.' Tol lii. J>. 32. 
' llocphuuc-ti, ' liidii,' |>p. 9i, W, 10S. 

> D&lton, 'Kolso/ClioU-Sngiiow" in 'Tr, Ellu Soc.' wL vi. p. 82. 
4 J. Cnm^ron. ' UaU)-*ii India,* p. 893 ; Bnttiiui. ' Outl. Asfm.' toI. i. p. I1&, 
vol. Hi. lip. Sai, 878; 'As. Em.' vol yi. p. 173. 

threatens to change liimsclf inUi a tiger iind tear his tribes- 
men to pieces, no sooner does he l»egin to roar, tliau all the 
neighbours fl; to a distance ; but still thoy hcur ilic feigued 
sounds. "Alas!" they cry, " his whole body is beginning to 
be covered with tiger-spots I " "Liiok. bis nuiU nn: growing," 
the fear-stnick women exclaim, allhougli they cannot see tho 
rogue, -who ia concealed within hh lent, hut distracted fear 
presents things to their eyes ivliich have no real existence. 
"You daily kill tigers in the plain without dread," said the 
misaonary; "why then should you weakly foar a false ima- 
ginary tiger in the town?" "You fethers don't undorstaod 
theae matter*." they rpply with a smile, " We noTCr fonr, hut 
kill tigei-a in tho plain, bccaiis© wo can see tliem. Artilicial 
tigers we do fear, becau)<e they can neither be eeon nor kilted 
by us." ' Africa is especially rich in myths of uiaii-lious, man- 
loopiirds, man-hy:Buas. In the Knnurt language of Bomn, thero 
18 grammatically formed from the word " hultu," a hj-aiatt, tha 
verb " bultuiigin," meaning " I transfi)rm myself into a hyscna ;" 
and the natives maintain that there is a town called Kalmtiloa, 
where every man possesses this faculty.^ The tribe of Budas in 
Abysunia^ irnii'wurkers and pottcn^, are believed to combine 
with these civilized avticationa the gift of the evil eye and the 
power of turning into hj'amiis, wherefore they are excluded from 
society and from the CbriHtian sacrament. In the 'Life of 
Nathaniel Pearc©,' the testimony of one Mr. Coffin is piinted, 
who almost saw the transformation happen on a young B\idn, 
his servant, tho young man vauishing on lui o[>en plain, when a 
large hyicna woa seen rnnning off Coftin says, moreover, that 
tho Budaa wear a peculiar gcild ear-ring, and this he has fi^ 
quently seen in the ears of hyxnas nhot in traps, or speared by 
himself and otbi^r^; tho Bud as are dre^ed for their magical 
arts, and the editor of tho book suggests that they put ear-riiiga 
in hynuuis' ears to encourage a proStahto superstition.* In 
Ashango-land, BI. Du Giaillu telk tJio following suggeativo 

' D&brUIioirer. 'Abi|«nM," i-ol. ii. p. 77. S** J. G. lllllUr, 'AineT. irm!l:;c.' 
p. e3; Mirtiiw. 'Ethn. Amkit.' ji. flJi : Orfedo. ' Niiututjua,* p. 229; [Inln- 
hit«, ' Ifiin«i R^Tllo do tlrarfiiifl,' pirl i. ]ib. i. «. 3. 

' Ki>f!lc, 'Aff, Lit. nni Knuim Vocnb.' p. S75. 

' ' Lift Villi AdvtnWnra vt Ntiihiuiiel Pforai ' (ISlO— 9k, cd. b>- J. J. ilAlI% 



■tory. He was infonned timt a h>opan) liail killed tiro men. 
and luauy palavere were held to seitle Uie alTiur; but this was 
no onliaary leopard, but a transformed man. Twoof Akoo- 
dcgo's men had disappearetl, and only their blood wai foand, a» 
n great doctor was scut for, who said it was Akondo^'s own 
nephew and heir Akoaba The lad vtaa sent for, and when 
adked by the cliief, answered, that it was tnily he who hod 
Dommiltod tlie nturduni, that ha could not help it, for he bad 
turned into a leopard, and bis heart longed for blood, and after 
each deed he had turned into a nuia again. Akondc^ loved 
the boy ho much that be would not believe hie oonfessioD, till 
Akosho took him to a plaee in the forest, where lay the roangled 
bodies of the two meu, whom he had really mnrder«<I under tha 
influonce of this morbid tmaginntioo. H«; was slowly burnt to 
death, all the people standing liy,' 

Brief mention is enough for tho comparatively well-known 
European ropreseutatives of these beliefs. What with the 
more continuance of old tradition, and what with cases of 
pfitiouU under delusion believing themselves to have sufferod 
tniufornuLtion, of which a number arc on rpconl, the European 
series of details from ancient to modern agea is very complete. 
Of the cUlshic accountH, one of the inoKt remarkable is Pctronius 
Arbiter's siory of the transformation of a " versipellis " or 
" turnskin ;" this contains the episode of the wolf being wounded 
and the man who wore its sha-pe found with a similar wound, 
on idea not sufficiently proved to belong originally to the lower 
races, but which bccometi a familinr feature in European stories 
of werewolvca and witches. In Augustine's time magidans 
•were persuading their dupes that by means of herbs they could 
turn them to wolves, and tho uBe of salve for this purpose is 
mentioned at a comparatively modem date. Old Scandinavian 
iHigaii have their werewolf warriors, and " sbapo-cliangers " 
(hamrammr) raging in fits of furioua madness. Tlie Danes still 

London. 1831, vol. i p. 288 ; also * Tr. Eth. Soe.' vol. rl ji. t8S ; WMta, nl u. 
■p. HI*. 

I DaChi^n, 'AaUuiK<vk,aiI,'p. S3. For otbtr African ilvtait*, dc« Woiu, 
-toL il. p. Sf 3 ; J. L. Wilson, ' W, Aft.' p]>. SS8, Sflj, 396 ; Biirtwi, ' K Aft.* 
p. 0"; LlvinpTonc, 'S. Afr'pr.. filfl. (M2; M«g>-nr. 'S. Atr.'f. !». 


vbo H a ««iK«r«lf bjr luv vjclUvwa UMMtiog, and 
Marfj, tL« iMoiiuu tr}w gf (Lv jmvJ, xetdjr 
te flj-^ and «atl«r«MB« uUwr bodjr. lu thv laM /tar uf die 
8ai£di vnr vidi Pr*^, cb* feofAn v( Kjalni>r Mud tLt wuUoi 
vdnA ^ma aa ^bie laad worv tt»attoaaa4 8*re(li«b {jfitoneoi. 
Fxam Sendoua^ ItigoDci «f tiie Keuti vUu iaiucxl aveiy pimr 
Cn- » fev itfB to ira)««i, we foUoir die i(k« «> BlftTouk gpiuuA 
tD n^iere lArunion wMOCTgff huliiK y uMijr in * nser nud turn (uT 
<)Bdn days i« «ulv» , mhI lode^pnad fibifiir •upaititiMi 

■fin dMloM ikM iUc walvw ihii *tr^ in btiUr miaUm 

don: to sttBck ttieiK arc Uiuiy—1?M " trilkokk*" dkd bewibdwd 
nUA -walTc ^mpe. !rbe looden 'Gtodu. iMiead v( tlic dune 
AaaMtpHaac, ado|K tbe Slavonk t«n» g|^»Aa«ni 'Bultn^rLk*! 
' ^ikobk **) : it i» a mHi wbo ttU> udi> a oMakf i 
tua aaal ailef*< a wtJf a&d fiM=t n*«9iuig Imt biuuu. Jd^Xi^iii 
O wMauy . ifwgiiily in iW uurth, Ail] k(«}ie ^ Uu: autaim uf 
— rffj^inlliii ml in JteBembsr Tou nuui not "talk <rf llu< wotf" 
liT DHBc. IsK tLe wwwa l » a> ioar ^iml Oar Engliili vnad 
- wvmNif " l^at w "■oo^alf" (tl>e "VMOTotf" of GurtV 
lAm;,itiiU nmuads ai of t^ old bcUef in our us£ caunU7,aDd 
if It W iMd lar OMtoiMb bat liuk plaof u> £ticiMl' iulUtar. 
ibix iM» IfMoi not m> matii iW lack of wtyia ito yo. as of aniraa. 
Xu JaaMiBt Ibe aurritaJ af tlie adua. tmMfi>T«ri to auuditf 
^ jBMv amdoD iiiiriili |wiMliwi tJn- tatiumu^ 
%y anvc Cuciaut ««ta^»at Uann fiw a Uwg 
I Ml liMiest icUvw imkr tlie umm\ imm of vaU. 
liU Ha« aigfat lie pai tiiMu tu fli^ ariUt hw L«Bad«*i«d, aod 
art 4ftr Uk i>^g of aiK left luiable titaa Uiu net ; takiag it «p, ao 
kv — wwtrtiwat ^ jiniad it lu l#r a wtaaa&'i itag, and laact 
flMmtBg t^ «iMew«and lU (dd ^ jtswoar witb tet Mei^f 
ia sVnaee tlie otatore ^a* i^iat it iumaatalir tbc ««■» 
" wtiCwniU' : " vir iij «jtrlv funu^ " brnilt^ui*," 
' ipuuot." and uow pU wMtien hmuii 

>:1^ fuule ala» .ittiiMJsm ; 

lawaifof Ambi- ^-. . v.—;..^. -.. -^uaadiaad 
inniiic to wdfii daari ; in 1M3. in iIk ewe «f J*9ui 
Jigu dsBland Iji— Miiiijij to b« an uusuk: detn- 
Id lAi6, & Fiu a ch ^tiiial ijwchpiwu of a 

ij. .^,' __. 

1*.. _ : tf_ 



tbem hnir far lepond. in ti« syinpatiMtic AokkniF of wir, Inre, 

«rinut. oiiveiiture. Saiv, h ou)y taQhc Urn f^tmmuA Kuny td tbe 

woeU'* daily life. Xbe mjtlui idwiKd out ni tboae nniBiiM 

■nalo^ut) IwtireoD mu> nud natun- vhitdi are Urn BOiil oT all 

paebrr, liiU> ihaae li&lf'hniuaii stirrie^ ittill w> fall to lu of 

nnfuduig lift- suit bmiiriT, mv tlic inaKtcTpH!oee> drui srt iMdnu- 

iof^iaitite' ' n^uit iltoii ti I -ux. Tbt; grmrtli of mvili 

faMboott I KVHcicuDt, : i^ of weijjiite and meamra, 

tf |ini}Nictknie and qwonuiiift — 31 ie ma. auij dying, bat inlf 

imd. utd fltuddrUi lUT ■aatanniai^ iL In tliie varld one taus 

do vhst oiLC c&u. sud if Ili« owdanks eanoot it;ii] oiyiL ok thoir 

fawfariwtw did, si haOL tbejr Qtn suailTHe JL Thorc if ii kind of 

■idbetnal frnntitir wttfaiii wfaicli be mast. W wbc wi]! arta- 

|Hftiae with mrth, viult ht must Ik- vttbuut vrbo will iavcb- 

tigate it, nod it i^ our lartime tLid wt live iubt tbie bwaier- 

Ham, wcuA cam go itt and din. B n w iji em acfaoknt can BtiR is a 

nBUim uudetstaiid tbf IwUef of Cic eb or Hnt fw ur ilti«i*Te in 

iSbMr Doljvr rnvtlw, tati at t^ aanp time can oamparv and 

intfirpKt Uhud w-itboul thr itcruplaB oT men to vbom imidj lalae 

tmt hislanr. and cfvuc ttacaed bbnonr, Huraorrac. mne di> 

vUle buntan mcr at a onifunp lend of cobare -ntb f mn ri n e ^ 

h wcmld W bard to bring oar mindfi te Gscuve of tnlm in tkm 

BHotal itaaew irhiiii&e eariy gnivtb itfuaaHiv^Tlii hahmi^ 

«asi w it if now land 1o pioMre 1o emmimm m aaittw «f 

iBHdcaDd)i>wQr UiBO anj tbai bafibseBackaaDfrfaaid. fimtiw 

& Img oMDW tf biaUHT, and ibere wuvive bv iwifKoTif tmmgea 
4Bd lArbadtt* iHiine uindii Htill iHttdaoe, ib nid« anfaair &ni, 

TboK irtioitt»afir d* finat tine lliii iliiiiiiMiliiaii «riln 
asdn adKidt of injAdnpMi, and MBVtisai «w IhoB 'vIm 
baae fas^ fiHSisr vift tbaa liaf 7*"^ •■• !■••* •o*^ ^£k 

thttrMrtaqwtatwwii. can tbey be raaUr tnie T Cte«»(RHt»pait 
«J -dje l^tindaiT kqe rf rfaiit. 1»rimaD, and nefiaval BBBppa 
M taken 49 ^ocb 1^ ew^ l ^ll^^^n g diyctioB of Sm aoid Skr, 
Ptam^ f lii M ii H' P'y —J 35^ S— Mw md •ffiptet.Cfapd 



their litiroie human aapacl, liave tbolr real origin in authiopcn 
raorphic myths of iiaturo ? Without any attompt to discum 
these opiuions at large, it will Im scvu that iuspection uf uature- 
iiiytliology from the prt^eiit paint of view tdU in their fnvour, 
at lea^t sa to priudplo. The geuorol thuury tliat such dircc-t 
coDoeptious of nature as sue so naively and evon baldly utti-rx^d 
in the Veda, are among the primary kouivcs uf myth, 'n ottfoKed 
by evidence gain*?d elsewhere in the world. Enpecially the 
tnulitious of savage race^ diiiplay mythic coDCcptiona of the 
outt^r wurld, primitive like tliose uf the ancient Aiyann, agn-cing 
with them in. their general character, and often remaiknhly 
con'cspouding iu their very t^pisodea At the same time it must bu 
clearly understood tliat the truth of such a general priaciptc is 
uo varrtmt for all the particular int«rpretatioiu which mytho* 
I<^st8 claim to hatio upon it, for of these in fact many are wildly 
^lecul&tive, and many ht>pclessly uusounU. ^ature-uylli 
domoads indeed a recognition of ite vast importance ia tfao 
If^endary 1m% of mnnkiml, but only so far as it« claim is backed 
by strong and legitimate evidence. 

Tlie cloHe and deep Analogies between the life of nature and 
the life of man buvo been for ages dwelt upon by pcH'te and 
philuftophcnt, who in aimilu or in argument huw told of light 
and darkness, of calm and tempest, of birth, growth, change, 
decay, dissolution, renewal. But no one-sided ioterpretation 
can be permitted to absorb into a single tlicory each eodlew 
many-sided correspondences as thesa Rash inferences which 
on ihe strength of mere reaemblance derive cpiaodc« of myth 
from e[usode8 of nature muat he regarded with utter mistniiili, 
for the student who ba^ no more etringent criterion than tlus 
for bis myths of sun ami sky and dawn, will find them « Uero- 
cvcr it pleases him to sevk tbcm. It may be jadgcd by Bimple 
trial what such a method may lead to ; do legend, no allegory, 
DO notsery ihyme, is safe from the hermeneutics of a tbiwoitgh- 
gwog mythologic tbeorisL Should be, for insUnoe, demand m 
hifl property the nuraery " Soi^ of Sixpence," his eUim would 
be auUy established : obviouxly the fuur-and-twenty bUdchirdt 
ar« the fimr-aad-(«eaty hoon, and the pie that hold* them is 
the miderlyiag earth oofcnd with tba orciarchtng dcy; bow 



true a. touch of nature it in that when the pie u opened, that u^ 
vlwu Jay breaks, the birda Ijt^jjiD to «uiy ; lUe Klug is the Sun, 
ami hU coanting out his money is pouring out the sunshino. the 
golden shower of Danae ; (he Queeo Ix the Moon, nnd hei' trana- 
pftTCut homy the imxtuliylit ; llie Maid is tho " rosy- 6n<;L- red" 
Davn who rises Wforc tho Sun her master, and hangs out th« 
doiids, liis clothes, acroAs the sky ; the particular blackbird who 
fio tr)]^callj cnd)i the tule by snipping off licr dotc, is the hour 
of sanme. The time-honoured rhyme really vants but one 
thing to pi-ove it a Siin-mj'th, that one thing being a proof by 
Bomo argtinient more ralid than analogy. Or if historical eha- 
recten be Kclected with any discretion, it id easy to point out 
the Kolnr episodes embiMlied in their lires. See Cort^ landing 
in Mexico, a.ud seeming to llio Aztecs their very Sun-priost 
Quctzalcoatl, come liack frum the East to renew his reigu of 
light and gloT}- ; mark him deserting the wife of his youth, eTen 
as the Siiti leaves the Dawn, aad again m later life abaodouing 
Manna for a now bride ; watch his san-likc career of brilliant 
conqucstv checkered with intervals of storm, and declining to a 
death clondcd with sorrow and dit^rucc. The life of Julius 
Caesar would fit as plausibly into a scheme of solar myth ; his 
splendid course as iu eacli new laud he coiuc, and mvi, and 
cooqucrc-d ; hii< duiici'tioii of Cli;opatra ; hiH ordinance of the Bolar 
year for men ; hh death at the hand of Brutus, like Sifnt's dc&th 
nt tho band of Hngen in the I^ibolungen Lied; his foiling 
pierced with many blooding wounds, and elirouding himself in 
his doak to die in darkness. Of C«esar, better than of Caieins 
his dayoT, it might have been said ir. the language of sun- 
myth : 

"... (J fottiiig nw. 
A« in thy red mjra thou doat aiok to-ni^t, 
&o La hi& ted blood Cuuds' Aaj U Mt ; 
The Bun of Uoine is eet ! " 

Thus, in interpreting heroic legend as based on nature-myth, 
circumstantial amtlngy must he TCty cautiously appealed to, and 
ttt any rate theru is need of cvideucw more cogent than vagne 
likenesses between human nnd co.<imic life. Now such evidence 
18 forthcoming »t> its strongest in a crowd of myths, whose open 


iceaniitg it vonld be wanton increihility to doubt, so little do 
thcT (ll'^iiMo, ID name or stiisi-, tlie liiiiiDiar iwpecis of nature 
which they figure as scenes of pcraonal life. Kveu where the 
tellers of legeiiJ mfty hnvi: nlterod ur forijottea its earlier mythic 
meaning, there arc often suBicicul gfouiKls for an attempt to 
restore it- la spite of change and coiT«ption. myths sjtq slow to 
low all consciousness of their first origin ; as for instance, cla.<si- 
ca! literature retained enough of nienniiig in the groat Greek 
SUD-Tuyth, to compel oven Lcmpriero of thn Claiisienl Dictionary 
to admit that Apollo or Photbus " i^ often coufoiunlpiJ with the 
sun." For another instance, the Greeks had still present to tlieir 
thoughts the muauiug of Argos Panoptes, lo's hiindrod-oyed, all- 
geeing guard wlio was slain by lierni(>!t and clianged into tba 
peacock, for MacTubius writes as recognixing iu him the star- 
eyed heaven itself; ' even as the Ary.iii Indra, the Sky, is tlie 
"thoufiand-eyed" (sahasrdksha, sahasttniayana). In modem 
times tlie thought is found surviving or reviving in a strangle 
regioo of Unguage : whoever it was that brought argo rs a word 
for "heaven" into tlio Lingua FurbfMca or Robbers' Jargon of 
Italy,' must have been thinking o( the starry sky watching him 
like Argus wjth his hundred eyes. The etymology of names, 
moreover, is at once the guide and safeguard of the mythologist. 
The obvious meauiug of wonla did miirh to preserve vestiges of 
plain ficn&e in classic legend, in spite of all the; efforts of the 
commentators. There was no disputing the obvious facts that 
USlios was the Sun, and Sclcae the Moon ; and as for Joto, all 
the nonsense of pseudo-history coiild not <iuite do away the idea 
that he was really Hcavon, for language continued to declare 
this in BUch expressions as " sub Jove frigido." The explanation 
of the rape of Persephone, as a nature-myth of summer and 
winter, docs not depend alono ou analogy of incident, bnt hns 
the very uam«H to prove if« reality, Zens, Helios, D5m«ter — 
Heaven, nnd Sun, and Mother Earth. Lastly, in stories of mythic 
beings who are the presiding gonii of star or mountain, tree 
or river, or heroes and heroines actually metamorphosod into such 

1 UAUflb. 'SatanL' t IQ, IS. S«« XuHp, Phom. IIIC, eto. oad SoboU'; 
WvlcW, vuL i. }>. 33S i Mm Uiill«T, 'Ltcturo^' rol il p. 880. 
' FruDcisiiuo-MicLcl. '.Vigot.'p. 425. 
vou I. o 


obJMta, p wwifcj tktt of natore is sdB pUtdy enJent ; tKe 
poet may ctill m of old cee Atlia hear the he»T MM oa }am 
mf/bif akoaUn^ %ad AIpfa«u in impetaoo* eoone panae lbs 
nuSdai Jbcthott. 

In ft atndj of the lutnre-mjrtlis of the irorU, U u luniljr 
pnctkalite to nurt from the eoocept i ow of the raj lowoi 
hmniui tribo. ukd to work opwards from theme to fictiooa of 
hi^acr growth ; pnrtlT because oar infi^matioD is bat meagm as 
to the belleft of tbcsc ahf and seldom quite intelHgiUe Mfc. 
and partly becstae the legends they poasesa haTo not l ea d b aJ 
thai artistic and sjrstematio shape vfakii they atitaia to aooog 
iBoea next h^faer in the scale: It -therefore ansveis beUer to 
lake as a foaoOation the mythology of the North Americaa 
JiK*W**% the South Sea isUnderv, aiid other high savage trib» 
wlio best repreecDt iii modem times the eariy uythologie 
period of buman Iiistory. The survey may be fitly commenced 
by a stoguUrly peifect and pnrponeftil cmmic myth from New 

It seems long ago aud oflen to have como into meD*s miod^ 
that the overarching Heaven and the alt-produciug Earth are, as 
it wore, a Father and n Mother of the world, whoso ofl^iriiig 
are the living creatures, meu, and beatiU, and pUut^. Nowhere^ 
in tlie telliug uf this oft-toM tale, i» present natnie \'eiled in 
more traDSpnrciit person ification. uowberc is the world's fomi* 
liar daily life rcpuatul wttli inurt- childlike uroplicity as a story 
of loug post ages, than in the legend of 'The Children of 
Hoav-cn and Earth,' written down by Sir George Grey among 
Uie Maoris not twenty years ugo. From Bangi, the Heaven, 
and Papa, the Earth, it is said, sprang all men and things, but 
nicy and earth clave together, and darkness reeted ui>oil thoui 
and the beingn they bod begotten, till at last their childi-en 
took counsel whether tlicy tthould reud apart their parents, or 
slay thuDL Tbon Tnne-mahutn, father of forests, said to his 
live great brethren, " It ia bolTer to reud them apart, and to let 
the heaven stand far above us, and the earth lie under our feet. 
Let thu sky bticome as a stranger to us, but the earth remain 
close to us as our nursing mother." So Rongo-mo-tane, god 
ADi] father of the adtivaled food of man, arose and nUovn to 

svpsntc tbc heaven and the earth ; he elru^led, but iu vain, 
and v«iii too were the efforts of Tniijjaroo, fiilbcr of fish and 
replilfrf, a.ii<l of Haumid-tikitiki, father of ■wilU-jji-uwiii;^ food, 
and of Tu-niataueiiga, goj aud fmher of fierce men. Then blow 
uprises Tiuie-molmta, god and fatliiir of forests, and wrei*tlos 
with hU pareatjf, slriviuj;; to part ihem with his hands luid 
anDB. " Lo, liA pauses; hiK heitd U now fimdy planted on hU 
mother the «<arth, hU feel he raieeti up aad rc-sts against hut 
father the .skies, ht; Ktniinii hU hnck and limits ivilh mighty 
effort. Now are rent apart Raugi aud PapSy and with ci'ies 
and gntniiH of woe tticy shriek aloud .... But Tane-iaaliiita 
pauses not; far, far beneatli him he pressf>s down tho earth; 
far, far ahtivc liiai he thru?its up the nky." Bat Tawhiri-ma-tta, 
father of winds and storms, had never consentefl that his mother 
lihoutd he torn from her lord, and now there arose in his breaeii 
a fierce de-sire to war againHt Iiia brethren. So the StAriD-god 
rose and followed his father to the rcalnis above, hurrj'iog to 
the sheltered hollows of the boundless skiea, to hide and cltng' 
and nestle there. Then came forth his proj^ny, tlie mighty 
vindfl, the fierce squalls, the clouds, dense, dark, liciy, wildly 
■drifting, wildly bimting ; and in their midtd tliolr father nishejl 
upon liii) foe. Tane-mahnta and hi<<^ant forests »toad uncon- 
scious and unsuspecting when the mging hurricane burnt on 
them, snapping the mighty trees across Icnving tnmks and 
branches rent and torn upon the ground for the insect and the 
■grah to prey on. Then the father of storms swooped down to 
lasli the waters into billows whose summits rose like cliffs, till 
Tangaroa, god of ocean and father of all that dwell therein, 
fied atTrighted through his seas. His children, Ika-tere, the 
father of fish, and Tu-tc-wehJwelii, the father of reptiles, sought 
where they might cticape for safety; tho father of fish cried, 
" Ho, ho, let us all escape to the sea," hot tho father of reptiles 
shouted in anawcr, " May, nay, let us rather Hy inland.*' and ao 
these ci-eatores separated, for while the fish fled into the eco, 
the reptiles sought safety in (he forests and scrubs. But tho 
flos-god Tai^Toa, furious that hiii children tbc repUlei ahoold 
have daserted him, ha« ever since wolfed war ou his brother 

Tano who gave them Ehelter in h\s irooda. Tane attacks him 

c S 



ib retuni, supph-iug the offspring of his brother Tu-mil«aoiiga, 
father of fierce men, with canoes and vpean and fish^iookft 
luado from bis trees, and with nets woven from his filHOUn 

pliuitfit, tliat they may deatmy withal Uie fiah, the Sea-god's 
children ; and the Sen-god turns in wrath upon the Forest-god, 
overwhelms his cauoea with the surges of the sea, sweeps with 
floods hi»; tn& ami lionKCs into the haiimlless ocesii. Next the 
god of Ktonns pushed on to attiick liis brothers tlie gods and 
progenitors of the lilkil food and the wild, but Phpa, tlie Karth. 
caught them up anil hid them, and so Baft-ly were these her 
children concealed hy their motht-r, that the Storm-goti sought 
for them iu voia. So he full upon the last of his hrothurs, the 
father of Rurcc mon, but him he could not cvvu shake, though 
he put fortli nil his Btrength. What cared Tu-mataucnga for 
his brother's wrath? He it wua who bad planned the destruction 
of their parents, and had shown liimsolf bravo and fierce in war; 
his brotliren liad vielded before tlie tTGmeiulous onset of the 
Storm-giMi and his progeny; tho Forest-god ami hi--( oti'spriiig had 
been hrokon and torn in pieces; the Sea-god and fais children 
had fled to the depths of the ocean nr tJie receHses of the shore ; 
ihBgods of food had been safe in hiding ; but Man still stood 
erect and uni;haken upon the bosom of his mother Earth, and 
at hist the beai'ts of the Heaven and the Storm became tran- 
<^uil, and their paKsiou was aMuaged. 

But now Tu-nmluueiigu, father of fiercu men, took thought 
how he might be avenged upon his brethren who hud left him 
nuaided to stand ngiunst the god of storms He twisted nooses 
of tho leaves of the wliaaake tree, and the biids aud beasts, 
children of Tanc the Foreat-god, ftdl before him; he netted nets 
from the dax-plant, and dragged ashore the dsh, the children of 
Tnngartia the Sea-god ; ho found in their hidiog-plncc under- 
ground tho cliildreu of Rongo-roa-tane, the sweet potato M»d 
all cultivated food, ami the children of Haumio-tikitiki, the 
fuiu-ruot and all wihi-growing food, he dug them up and let 
them wither ia tlie suu. Yet, though he overcame his four 
brothers, and they became Im fooil, over the fifth he could not 
prevail, and Tuwiiiri-ma-tea, the Storm-god. still ever attacks 
him in tempest and hurricane, striving to destroy bim both by 

sea. and Innil. It was tbe bui'stiD}; foith of tlte Stonn-god's 
wmtli figaitittl liis brethrcii ihnt cAused the dry latid to illsappoai 
1}en«ath the- wntcrs : the beings of ancient days who thus suh- 
lucrged the laud were Terrildc-ram, Loiig-contiimed-rain, 
Fierce-liailntormii ; and their [jrogeiiy were MUt, and Heavy- 
dew, and Light-dew. and thus but little iif the dry land wns 
left staudiiig >d>uvo tbe eea. Thcu clear li^ht increased id the 
TCorld, and the heinjp: wliii hiid bucii bidden between Raiigi and 
Papa before they wei-e parted, now ntidtiplied \ipo» the earth. 
"Up to thin tiiim the vast Hcjivcu him still t;v(T ruinniued 
separated from his spouse the Earth. Yet their mutual love 
siai coutiaucs ; tbe aotl warm sighs of her loving b<j»am still 
ever rise up to him, ascending from the woody mountiuns and 
ralleys, and men call these mists ; and the vast Heaven, as he 
moumR tliningh the h^iig titf^hUi his »j(<piimti<in from his heluved, 
drops A-oquent toar^ upon her bosom, and men seeing theso 
term tliem dew-dvopH." ^ 

The rending asunder of heaven and earth is a far-sprcnd 
Polynesian legend, well Ituowu in the island groups tliat lie 
away to the nnrth-c.'ist.' Itn elaborntion, liowever, into ttie 
myth here sketched out was probably native New Zealand 
work. Nor ueed it be supposed that tin; purticuhir form iu 
which the Eiiglinh governor took it. down among tlic Maori 
prieata and Lale-tellers, is of ancient date. Tbe story caiTies in 
itfi'clf L'vidcnco of an antiquity of character which douH not 
necessarily belong to mere lapse of centuries. Just as the 
adzci^ of poltHhcd jade and the cloaks of tied flox-Ebrc, wbidi 
these New Zealandere were using but yesterday, are older in 
their place in hisiory tbiiu tbe bi-ouze battle-axes and linen 
mummy-cloths of ancient li^ypt, so the Maori poet's shaping of 
iiaturo iutu nalure-mylh belongs to a stage of intellectual 
histury which waa pOHsiiig away in Greece tive-and-tweuly ceu- 

' Sir G. (iitiy, ' Poly tmiiinii Mj-tlinlojy," ji. i. eli'., trniintntprl fmin the origiiin] 
kluri Cuxl iHiliIUIiciI by him unilvi' Uio liUi- ' Kv iigo Muliiugn u ugi Tupnoa 
MMri, «U.' Loadon 18S4. Com^nn n-jih .'iiiorilniKl, "Tnul*. of K. Z.'p. B5, 
vte. ; R. Tajlor, ' Kew Xwlnnd,' p. Ill, etc. 

' Selairreii, ' Wouiitmatji:)] dcr NtimuFluiKlor, etc'v. 43; £Ui«, ' Palyn. Bo*.' 
Tol, L p. 118 ; Tjrmnui Bnd Dcirnot, p. 02(5 : 1'unmr, ' Polyucwa,' p. US. 



turics aga The mj-th-mnker's fimcy of Htaven anil Earth as 
fatlier ami mother of all thjiigfi natiinjly fiiiggciitcfi tlie legend 
tiiui tLey in uld days a))oi]e logctliL-r, bin bavt; since been lorn 
asunder. In Ctiina tlie tame idea nf llic univoniial poi'cntago u 
aocompanietl hy a similjU' legeml of the seinnition. Wkctlier 
or not ttiCTO in Iiistoricul coanvxiou hen )ictn*ci*u tbu mytho- 
logy of Polynesia and China, I will not guess, but certaioly the 
ftncient Chinese legend of the gcparation of heaven and earth 
in the priniae^-al days of Piiang-Ku se«ms to have taken the 
very shape of the Polynesian in3rth : " Some sny a pcnwn 
called PuAug-Ku opened or separated the heavens oud tfa« 
eartJj, they previously being pressed down close together." ' 
As to the Diytliic details in the whole story of ' llie Children 
of Heaven and Earth,' there is saarcely a thought that hi not 
still tmngparcnt, scnrcely even a woi-d that has lost its meaning 
to uk The hrukeii and titiflViied truditiuu^ which our fathers 
fancied relicn of ancient history are, as has been imly naid, 
records of & post which wfut never present ; but the simple 
iiatii re-myth, as we fiml it iu its »rtiial growth, or reconstruct 
it from its legendary remnants, may be rather called the record 
of » present which ia never piuit. The battle of the storm 
iigaiust the forest and the ocean is etill waged before oiir 
oycs ; wc Btill luok upon the victory of man over the creatures 
of the laud and sea ; tho food-plants ntitl hide in their motlicr 
earth, aud the hiih and reptiles liiid shelter in the ocean aud 
the thicket ; hut the ini}{hly forcst-trccs stand with their ro<>t» 
firm planted in the gronnd, while with their branches they 
puah up and up against the sky. And if we liave loAmt the 
secret of man's thought iu the childhood of Ins race, we may 
still realist' with the tuivagu the pi'monal being of the ancestral 
Heaven aud Kartli. 

Tlif idea of the Earth as n mother is more simple and 
ohviouti, nnd no doubt fur That reason more common in the 
world, ihun the idea uf ihu Heawn as a father. Among the 
native races of America the I'Darth-mother in one of the great 

< Pivmarpin I^ntbuir, ■IinM5Mrtid»rori«iit,*i>. 10; DoolHtle, 'ndiiMe,' 
vol. ii. p. 390. 


personages of mytliologj-, The Peruvians woisliipped her as 
MaDia-Ppacha or " Molher-Eartli ;" tlie Curibs, when there 
was &a earthquake, said it wait their mother Earth dancing. 
and Kgnifyiug to thorn to dance and make meny Hkcwuie, 
which accordingly they ditl. Among the I^orth-Amencan In- 
dinnH tlu! Comanches call on tlie Earth oh tlif3ir niotliur, aud 
the Grcat Spirit as their father. A rtory Uild by Gregg shows 
a somewhat difforeut thimyht of mythic parentage. Goacral 
Ean'isoQ once cailetl the Shawnee chief Tecutn-seh for a talk: — 
"Como here, Tecuniseh, aud sit by your father 1 " he gaid. 
" You my father ! " replied the chief, witli a stem air. " No ! 
yonder 8un (poiutins towards it) is my lather, and the earth 
is my motlicr, so I will rest on her bosotn," aud he sot down on 
the ground. Like this was the Aztec fancy, as it seems from 
this passage in a Mexican prayer to TezcaLlipoca. offered in 
time of wui' : " Be pleased, our Lorrl, that the nohles who 
Bh&U die in the war be peacefully and joyously i-eceived by the 
Suu aud Ibc Barth, who ori: the luvliig fiitlier aud motlier of 
all." ' In the mythology of Ji'innti, Lapps, and Esths, Eortb- 
Mother is a divinely honoMred personage." * Throiigh the 
mythology of our own country the same thought may bo traced, 
from the days when tlte Anglo-Saxon called upon the Kiirth, 
" HAl wes tbu folde, fira modor," " Hail thou Sartb, men's 
mother," to the time, when medieval EngHslmien made a riddle 
of her, asking "'Who is Adam'tt motherf" aud povtry con- 
tinues! what mythutojQ' was letting fall, when Milton's arch- 
angel promised Adam a life to last 

'• . . . . till, liko rii>o fniit, thou drop 
Into thy mothoi-'s lap."^ 

Ainong the Aiyao race, iudood, thero stands, wide and firm, the 
<toubh> mytli of tlie "two great parent*," aa the Rig- Veda 

> J. 0. Miillor, ' Amor. CrMls." pp. 108. Il^ 117, 221. 889, «l. «0 ; BIt«» 
and nchuiii, ' Ant o( ?cni,' |i. Idl : Gngx, 'ioutti»l of « ttania ¥i Tmdcr.' 
vd. ii. |u 237 ; Sa1iii(;iin, ' Hatorico, eU.. Uexloani,' Dap. 3, in KUtpborou^b, 
•Ant «f Hexlco,' toI. v. 

a ChiltCn. • Finn, llytli.' p. 61 

> GrimiD, 'D. M.' p. xU. SiMS. 409 ; llAlliwcIl. ■ I'op. IthjmM^' ^ ISS ; 
Milton. 'IVraidlM Lml.' U. tTS. xL tU : k-q Lucratin^ i. 220. 



callt them. They are Dt/nujJtpitar, Zevt wr^. Juftiter, Uw 
* Heaveo'bUier.' and Pt-Utipi mdtar, the "Earth-mother;" and 
their relatiua ta blUI kvpt io muni id tbc ordituuioQ of BnJunaa 
mamage Bccordiog io the Yajar-V«da, where the bridegrooai 
aajv to tfao briilo, " I uui thu Ay, iUou art the earth, oome lei 
BS many." When Uruuk poets cailud Ouraooe and <;Uu, or 
Zmu and Deineter, huAl)aud and wife, what they meant wai the 
naioo of UeavcD uo<l K&nii ; and vbco FLato »aid that the 
earth brought fotth men, hut God was their shapcr, the same 
old mythic thought mast have been preseot to his mind.' It 
re-appeara in nudout Scythla;^ and again in Cliina, where 
Heavuu aud EitrtU art> caJled in the Shu-Kin^ "Father and 
Mother of all things." Chineac philosophy naturally worked 
tUi idea inlo tht* Hclieme of the two great principles of nature, 
Uic Yd aud Yang, male and female, hcaTcaly and earthly, and 
frum this dispmutioQ of nature they drew a pi-acUcal moral 
lewon : Heaven, said the philonopheni of the Kiing dynasty, 
made man, and Earth made woman, and therefore woman is to 
he nibjcot to loun b» Earth to Heaven.* 

Entering next upon the world-wide myths of Sun. Uoon, and 
Starii, tlie rcgiilnriLy and cont(iM.eucy of human ima^nation may 
bo first (liHplayud in the buliefs couuccU»l with ooli|iKc& It is 
welt known that tbeae phenomena, to us now crucial inetancea 
of Uifl cXQctnew of natural laws, arc, throughout tbc lower 
BtagCB of civilization, the veiy cmbodlmont of miraculouB dis- 
Mtor. Among the native races of America it is po!«iil>Ie to 
nloct a typical scrips of myths describing and explaining, 
ACConling to tlio rules of f^iviige philosophy, thciw? porl<?iiis of 
diiQiay. The Chiquitos of the gouthem continent thought the 
Hoon was hunted ncrOKs tlio sky by luigc dogs, who cnugbt luid 
tore bet till her light wa» reddened aud quenched by the blood 
flowing from her woimds,nJi(l then the Indians, rniang a fright- 
ful howl and lamentation, would ahoot across into the xky to 

■ Mu Miiller, 'LtcCoiu,' Sail tense, y. iSt ; INctet, ' Orif^iiiu liuki- Euroj).* 
fiurl iL Pit. Mi-l ; Colcbraokc, * Kuny*,' rol. L p. iia. 

1 Uotul. Ir. S». 

* Plalli, ■ Bflig^on d«r altcfi CliltifBen,' pirL L \i. S7 ; Davb, ' CkinNe,* 
Vol. IL JK 04; Legj;"' 'Confucius,' j-. JOC ; Biuitintv ' M™»*ii,' vo], ii, [i. J$" ; 
Tol. i;i, p. 302. 

4ture the mou^tcnt off. Tliu Curibs, tliiuklog that tlie demon 
Maboja, Iiatcr of all light, was seeking to tlevoiir tlio Sun aud 
Moon, would iiuacc auU bowl in couccrt all night long to sauv 
him away. Xho Peruviaud, imagining ancb on evil spirit iti the 
!>bapc of a monstrous beut, raised the like frightful din when 
the Moon was oclipscd, shouting, sounding musical in^itnimcnts, 
and beating tlitj dogs to join their howls to the hideous chonu. 
Nor are such ideas extinct in our own dnys. In the Tupi 
languflgc, (he proper dtwcription of a solai- eclipse is "oanwu 
jaguarete vi'l," thnt is, " Jaguai- lias eaton Sun ;" and the full 
meaning of tliis phrase is displayed by tribes who still sliout 
and let fly burning arrows to drive the devouring hessl from his 
prey. On tlie nortlieni continent, iigain, some navages believed 
in a great Kim-Kwallowing do^, while others would shoot up 
ArrowH tu defend their luminaries against tbo cncmie^t they 
fancied attacking tlieni. By the side of these prevnleot notions 
tliere occur, howcvL-r. variouii uthcrs ; thun the Coribs could 
imagioo tlie eclipsed Moon hungry. Rick, or dying; the Pcru- 
fians could faucy the Bun au^'ry and hiding hin fnce. and the 
sick Moon likely to foil in total darknc»), and bring on tho ond 
of the world ; the Hurous thought the Moon eick, and explained 
their ctiRtomary choi-ivori of shouting men and howling dogs u 
performfd to recover her from her complaint. Paaaing on from 
these must primitive conception?, it appears that natives of 
both South and Mui-tb AmoritM fcU upon philosophic mytlis 
somewhat nearer the n.>al facts of the case, iiLSomuch an they 
admit ttint Sun and Moon cfiuse eclipses of one nnotltor. In 
Cumana, men thought ttmt the wedded Sun and Moon qua> 
relied, and that one of them was wounded j and the OjibwaH 
endeavoured by tumultuous noise to distract tU» two from such 
a couflicti. The coui-sc of jirogresHivc science went far beyond 
tliis among tlie Axtecs, who, as part of tlieir remarkable niitru- 
nomicaj knowledge, seem to have had an idea of the real cause 
of ccIi|iviuK, but who kept up a relic of the old l>clicf by con- 
tinuing to ?peak in mythulogic phrase of the Sun and Moon 
being catcu.* Elsewhere in the lower culture, there provailcd 

■ J. G. Miillir, 'Axn. Umlig,' pp. £3, SI9, 231, S95, Zfti, 120; Untfiuy 




umilar mytliic conc^pliomi. In ibe Soutli Sea IsUdcIb, some sup- 
potied the Sun aiiU &f<K>n to be Rnnllowed bj ao offeoded deitf. 
■whom they tlicrefore iiMluced, l>y liix-ral offerings, to tject the 
liiiuionnm from his fstOinocL' Id Sumatra we hare the com- 
juratirely scientific notion that ai) eclipec haH to do with the 
action of Suu oiid Moou on one anotlici', and, acoordin«1y, tJicy 
make a loud noise witli sounding iiuttnimcnts to ^x^vont tbc 
one from devouriDg the other.* So, in Africa, there may be 
found both the nideat theor)- of the Eclipse-monster, and the 
moro sdvancod coaccptton that a solar eclipse is "the Mom 
catching tJie Sun." ' 

It is DO cause for wonder that an asp«ct of t)io heavens so 
awful BS an oclipHu should in timeo of imtrunomic ignorance 
have filled men's minds ■ft'ith terror of a coming de»itnietion of 
the world. It may liulp us stilt to realixe this thought if we 
oonxider how, as Calmct pointed ont many years ago. the 
prophet Joel adopted the plaiuest words of description of the 
solar ami lunar cclipM-. ''The huu ahull be turned uito doricnesa^ 
and the moon into lilood ; " nor cou Id the thought of any 
catastrophe of untiiic have bTou«ht his bearers face to foice 
with a raon! lurid uud uwful pictnra But to our winds, now 
that tlio eciipfle has long paRsed from the realm of mythology 
into the realm of science, such words can carry but a feeble 
glimmer of their early meaning. The ancient doctrine of the 
cclipBo bos not indeed lust it*i whole interest. To trace it up- 
ward fmm its curly fijiva^o stngea to tbo period when astronomy 
claimed it, and to fi>Uuw tlio courae of the ensuing conflict over 
it lietweim thcoJngi,- anil NCiencc — ended nmong oursflvoK bnt 
Btill being sIuggiKlJy fought out among leas cultured nations — 

' KUinej. Amer.* ml i. pp. 8S9. 467, f.8S ; vol. ii. p. lOfl ; SuuUioy, ' Bnrfl,' 
v«L t. f. iSi ; vol. ti. r*- !!' 1 ; I>c U Bonic, ' C^ilUu,' p. 52S : DobrUliaffn', 
' Abi]iciic9,' rol, ti. ]>. H : Smilk nud Luwc, 'Juiiinny from Uuik to Pin,' 
p. 330 ; tklieolinin, ' Imlinti TriWa uf X. A,' jini-t i. )>. 271 ; Cbiulotoix, 'IToUT. 
Pinnrp,' rol. xi. p. 3*8 ; Cnnz, * GTiinlMid," \i. 29J ; nAntiui, ' Munxch,' t«I. iii. 
p. IBl : 'Kutly HUl. of -Mmikiutl. ■ p. 163. 

' Klli*, ■ Polyn, Km.' v^.I. i. p. 351. 

* Uuniloii, ' Siinulm,' p. IBJ. 

) Crant in 'Tr. Etb. Soc* ml. iii p. DO; Kof11«, 'Kanuri ^p^nr1», etc.* 

p. so;. 



this is to lay open a cliapter of tlie hifttory of npinion, from 
which the stuJcut wiio looks forw-ard as well aA liack nifty learn 
gravu lessons. 

There is reosou to coDsidcr laost or sM civilized natioDS to 
hnTo Btarted from the myth of tlie Eclipse-monster in forniH ss 
&)Lvago as thoBc of iho Now World. It prevails still miiong the 
Sgreat Adiatic naliuUH. Tbo Hindus say that the dc-iuun KAhu 
insiuuntcd himself ftHitjng the god», and nbuiined a ptirtioii of 
the aiarita, the ihiiik of immoitalily ; A'ishnu smote off the 
now imiuortal head, which still pureu(>s the Smi ajid Moou 
whose watclifid gaze d^tect^d his presence in the divine a*, 
sembly. Aiiotlier version of the myth is that thtre are two 
deinoiiii, llahu and Kutu, who devniir Sun mid Moon respec- 
Uvely, and who arc descriljed in confoiTQtty with the pheno* 
mt'im of uclipsus, Haliu bcin^ l)lack, and Ketu ml ; the usual 
charivari is raiseil by the populace to tlrive them off, though 
indeed, as their budiezt have bccu cut otf at tbo tuxk, their 
prey must of natural couiiio slip out as soon as swallowed Or 
BAhu and Kctii are the head and body of tlie disaevcreil demon, 
by which conception the l<Iclipi)c-mon titer is most ingeniously 
adapted to advanced astronomy, the bead and tail being iden- 
tified with the ftscondinsT and descending code. The following 
remai-k8 ou the ecIip«e-coiitroversy, made by Mr. Samuel Davis 
eighty years ago in the Asiatick Kosoarehes, are still fid! of 
interest. "It is evidcut, from what haa been oxplaJued, that 
the PiimlitR, learned in the Jyutish shastnl, have truer iiotimiH 
of the form of tlio earth and the economy of the uuivoKo than 
are tiKcribeil to the Uiiidoai in general : and that they inmtt 
reject th« ridicidoas belief of the coianiou Brahmi'ins, that 
ecU]wte-< are occanionwd by tlie intenentloii of the moaiitor 
Rahoo, with many other pailiailars etpmliy iin-scientific and 
absurd. But as this belief is founded ou explicit and positive 
declarations contained in the vvdii'f and pooranuM, the divino 
authority of which writings no lievont Hindoo caa dispute, the 
Q.<Ttronomei-s have soim.- of them cautioiL-dy explainud such pas- 
sages in those writings as disagree witli Uio principles of their 
own ecience: and where recoDcdialiou wiis ini[]uiuible, have 
apologized, u well as they could, for pi-opoaitionji necessarily 

IB tte 

rfit. It 



• he m0Sa;lm tori 
MtWMbraLi U 

nA dM ^Dde of Kl«ii«. aid db«^ I 
oBDVcft tike iWJfibf Kitfnoe of as cadf 
AffM* of a hte oae Aattic pwplw — Ji 
Aaw Ae ad y e-i ay th in om dM a wat itigcfc TW ra4e Mqb- 
geit aiaVii a ■**—*■—• of loo^ mmib to drfre the **'**^*t; 
(Btta) from 8n «r Mooo. A BteUkisi 
hy Dn Bartaao ia m nbrn ladia tbe Ha a fg ng od 
Bifaa with hii tteadoMu sad apfimg apen Us Itdyv •> ^^^ 
Ahboogl) fa« eui nralbv tlw bcarenljr bodies be lets tfaen dtp 
c«t agatik.' Tbe more cirilbed natiam of Sootb^iMt Asia, 
a«eeptiag tlw triiptt demoM Blfan and Keto, wen not qaitc 
HtggBWiil IB tbeir bdief hy the foreignen' power oC fci oml fag 
ae Mpwi^ nor even I7 Icaniiag mog^y to do tbe nsM ttem- 
B^ML Tb« (Amcae han oOaal amuMncemmt of aa ecfipM- 
doJy made belbeeliaiMl, and tbeo proceed to eDCOooter ifae 
oadoow OMiiMtflr, wbes he tama, wHh googs and bells awl thv 
vqtBkriy appoioted prajen. TiaTellenof aeeatoxyor tvoago 
TcJate corions details of sucb ooabiiied belief in tbe dfRgoo and 
tbo aJmaoac, cvlmiikatiBg in an iBgetuoas argument lo acr^uni 
for tbe acctaaxj of tbe Enropeaa^ prBdictiom. These clever 
people, tbu Siamese ssid, know the monster's mealtiiiMis, sad 
caa tell Imw )iui^^ be will be, that is, how Uige an eclipae will 
ba rcqaim] to satisfy him.* 

In Eoropo popular mytliulogy kept up ideas, either of & liglit 
of sun vr moou with celestial enemies, or of tbe moon's fiuuting 
or siclcneSB ; and eqieaAUy remnants of luicb arobaBc belief 

* H. K, WtUon. * VWmnpnrMm.' pp. 78. IM ; Skr. Die. «. t. liha ; Sir W. 

Jmm bi 'An. tin.' rol. IL jk 1M;8. DBrtM. Mt, ^»8: KeCst. 'OrigiBM 

laiUKEorap.' put. it. f. Ui; ^hmM, 'Ometd mMtntfuu,' ^ 7 ; Hsrtjr, 

' OMtrfn. 'IIbil l(rtli.*p. «3: Bartiui. 'Out!. Aaien.' vol. iL t>- Ml 
■ Kksnn, 'C. a* rol. vf. p. U9 ; DooQttli^ 'CUimm,' toL i ^ 309 ; Tnpte, 

lltefwH ta>l Doni in nuknrum. vol. tr. fp. S79, T», Vlfi : Butiaa, *OmII. 

.Uira,' lul il.|>. 109; vuLiii. p. 312. Sm Zatnoieagfr, ■ EntUMku* JulentliBm,' 

v«l. i. f. t>$ (TiilBiuiiii! mjtli). 


manifestod ia the tamuituous clamour raUcd in Jeroocc or 
encouragement of the afflicteU lumiiiarr. Tlie Romans flung 
tircbrnDds into tho air, and blew trumpets, and clanged brazen 
poU and pans, " Jaboranti succurrere luoae." Taeitua, relating 
the story of the conspirators against Tiberius, tclUi how their 
plans were frustrated by the moon iniddonly langiiisliing in a 
clear sky (luna claro rapente c«b1o visa lauguesoere) : in vain by 
clacg of brass and blaj^t of trumpet they strove to drire away 
the darlcHHSs, for cloudsi came up and covered all, anil the 
plotters saw, lamenting, that the godjt turned away fmm tlieir 
crime.' In the period of the converaiou of EiUT>po, Christian 
ttachcre began to attack the pagan Kupcrstition, and to urge 
that men should no longer clamour nnd cry"rince luiia!" to 
aid the moon in her Hore ilaoger ; and at latit there came a time 
wlieti the picture of the sim or moon in the dragoo's mouth 
l)ecamc a mure uld-faahioiiod symbol to represent edijwes 
in the calendar, and the eaying, "Dion garde la luae dea 
loupe " paascd intu a mocking proverb against fear of remote 
danger. Yet tho ceremonial charivari is mentioned in our 
own countiy in the seventeenth century : "The Irish or Welsh 
during eclipsoji run about beating kcttica and pa»8, thinking 
ttiL'lr clamour and vexations available to the assiiitancc of tlie 
higher orbea." In 1654, Nuremberg went wild with tcnwr of 
nn impending sotar eclipse ; the markets ceased, the cliiuches 
were crowded with penitents, and a record of the event re- 
mains in the printed thanksgiving which wns ixsued (Danck- 
gebeth nach vergangener hot;bMtbedrohlich uiid liochschatUicheT 
Sonnenfinstemuss). which gives thanks to the Almighty for 
giiMiting to poor terrified sinners the grace of covering the sky 
with clouds, and sparing them the sight of the awful sign in 
beaveu. In our own time, a writer on French folklore was sur- 
prised during a lunar eclipse to hear aighs uud exclamations, 
" Hon Dieu. qn'ellc est souffrante t " and found on inquiry that 
the poor moon wus believed to be the prey of some invisible 
monster seeking to devour her.' No doubt such late iiumvala 

■ FlaUrclu Da Puio in OrtM 1mm ; Jnraul, S4t rL 441 ; PSn. U. • ; T«iU 
.\nm.l. L 28. 
* OHiun, 'D.ll.,'6<S-78,S24i Bwucb, 'SUr. Mrtb-'r-MS; Dnod, 'Pvr. 

fli , ^mU ili<i|(iM*— i^ tlMi myth on de> 

p., ■ < M itw 't'/rffHring Mfl wKiln^ b«e of tbe penonAl 

v^' 'i.iiitffiiir, 'J'lwi t'llowlitjf Hiuin Icgewl will 

iLti| , . . 1 iitVH Itiul IliM iiiiiufxlu or tliQ Suq'bot Uie 

Ifii^i ildHili III •iiMMili tn«> In ilriiiiiiitJiei-tl into a tolu of a pur- 
MKiiil M'fliH I 1 1 > ill!' JMxIy uf ilio penoQiU Night 

tlitut 111' "iit< Imu'd, nl Itio ODd of his {jlo- 

t«mi(|j iMttitt Iti llU t^lhw'a couutty, and wm told 
I ,lil Iw ovBWX'iiii-'. for lii-n) dwoll his 
i'(tl-lt>-|Mi, (.UiMtt-WomuU'Nij'ht, whum 
' ivtl, iuhI im it wvi\< itfH.>uinj; uid Rhuttiag 
• t iho aV,v ; what ^-ou tm yvoiet 
~.^„.^L ;..., j.;^ :.a qyvi^UKl bvx uwik am as afattip 

3di»: n 

s ' W vNvtUu :i 


and hard ai paeoe* at Toleuue §!■■; ber body ii Itku that of 
a man; and a* iar tbe pvpib of ber ej%% ibe; are ja^ier; 
and ber bair » like ifae taa^ei of long sea-weed, and ber 
noutfa U Iik« tbat td a buiaoovta.** ItauJ boasted of hta 
fonner exploiu, sad aid, 'Let tu fearkciJy seek wbetber ooen 
are to die w Ur« £jr erer; " but bu ^tber called to miiid axt 
eril ofuen. tbat wbea be va< *'*f*'«™g Haul ha b&d left out 
put of tb« fittn; ptkyo^ and thocfim be knew that bii wn 
mart periidL Yet b« nid, ** O, ny bat-bom. uid Uw iitreiigth 
of vpf old Bgi^ ... be bold, go and viMit ytnr great atioea> 
treaa. wbo flaabea ao fievoely tbere wbete tbe edge of tbe 
luMUDB maata tho iky." Tbra the birda came to Maui to be 
Id! eom pani ona in tbe a ait eq aii^ and it waa ereniog wbea 
tb«j wcat with fann, and tbey cane to Um dwelliiig of Hmo- 
oui-tc-po, auf] foandber&Kt aalcep, Vaoi charged tbe birda not 
to lai^ vben thq' lav hiin creep into tbe old dueftaiaea, but 
when be bad gotaltogetberimdileber.aiu] wiu corning out of bur 
montb, then ibejrtnijy'lit laugh long and loud. 8a Uaiii utripped 
off bin dotbet. and tbe ftkin on hia hip«, tatoood bjr thu chiaol of 
UetoDga, looked hmiUM and beauttfiil, tike a nuckerd'a. an he 
crept in. Tbe birdi kirpt nilt^ncL-, Ijot when Lc wan in up to 
tbe waist, tbe littJo ttwakavaka couUl bold tta Uugbter in no 
longer, aud bunst out luud with ita merry note; tb«D Maui'it 
anccstreM awoke, cloaed on bim and eattglit htm ttgbt, aud be 
was killed. Thus died Maui, and tbu4dcatheaniQittt«tIie World, 
for Hine-nui-t^-po ia tbe goddeas both of ui{;ht and death, and 
had Maui enberod into her body and poiuied aafoly through 
her, men would liave died no more. The New 2ealamlera 
hold ihat the Sun iJ>?«ocn<U nt night into hix cnvem, batbca in 
tbe Wai Ora Taw?, tlw Water of Life, and returns at dawn 
from ltii> ntiiler>world ; hence we nuiy interpret th«ir thought 
tbat if Biau cuuld likowiite dMCcnd into Hiulex and return, 
bin race would be immortal.' It in seldom that solar cbarac- 

■ Orvj, 'Polyn. Myth.' p. M— SI ; in hi* rditUrei of ih« Uuni text, Ko tiita 
UoUag*, |t|». 2S-S0, Ko ti^ MuteatM, yf. sIviU-ic. I bin to tliani Sir O. 
Or«; for « ■»<)» vKi>licit aa<l inyOioIogiMliy ni«n> ranHnlvat lniii«liUi«ti nf Um 
atarj of llaui'i mtreiiM Inta tlia woinli or Iline-nui-to-iKi uid ber onakiaa '>■"> 
to dntli Mwccn Iter iIuk^*, tbui b fS^-a iii Vit Riiitlish reniaii. CMn|MM 
It TbjIot, ■ Sew ZstUnd,' \t. l»2 ; Sdiirren, ' WBin)or«Bg*u dw Iffl«i"«*l.' I» *5 ; 

it, JUtar tiK finrf Ouse 

amcxmuLhs aid' 

■■il JtottntoMda, 17 «f HinUM and 

0m^ or lHnrai& it ■ nntBa to ■ i 

Mar;, that wIimi tIw Ti»jbb Ciip EawHaAi bad 

amori 'men ttw 8A'* gi^nff diroBC, mi wmung imA 

IB pOTK of 3emiiie origiii. mai h ia o Am '■^■■r— 7 vyA a£ 
BtaJanc or Al fa n nw h vidt chs Mary of Xaoifc'K iib.. far w fckk 
miliiiil Ihii r h wriiHiiwi irf iliBtiiwiih ' i iiiiii w tii m iiw i ■■ 

rtwreywrtigB»rfjlihnwBfc'»dMiiw«i>wA»feBnt of the 
tvn w«r» cikiitMd a FEBty'i time, aad iriMaes tfce boats if 
1 -^rli ~iTi mrffiil m ffimn ■■ mfiii if lifaiiMih'i miiMlii 
T* VHVgMW riw piaea which cfee aatn»«7A of tbe Xn ml- 
Iamt4 by iW KonNer aenipiM m wTtbebfj^naMiff nmau and 
■mig* new ml eawm4 amoag t&a bi^er oaiiaa^ tMteta ibt 
i g w M w * <«■ » pAia */ lCfc*i*«l i.wti-H» It ab^phcfla the 
ffomtioa at Uw ericiai who, mmag that di* Book of J<Btth eott* 
nrtii ef t«o wonAm-€pmaAm — *f"^ to eMfaro a*o gratt rIk- 
f{KMP banfti, BO Mi^wBppns b(mIibb4C Btwl BvcBbrc n 
iHmc tlM7 maj birlj eonnija- ai ifca hsM Ahnrala puaUe uf 
riwOUTtimwit. Bad tfe Bo(& of JouE happowd to be 
baliD old tiaDe»,aDd only leeently reawer w l. h a indeed haidlj 
Uketj thai aa^ cAber opinioD of h than Uih vouki find accept- 
JUMM aoion^ sdiotani.* 

•OMrfk 'BmiUm,' p. U7: dncnjr, 'Zsli TdM,* ««L L p^ SC. If , i«, 
WKwaImUm Mint ^ Ml*' (k« fr«f iA* •nllOTvd tka iNiMM mhI «nM 
W Mitt bMM). •» Cms, p. m rmilMJ a^A«k ■mDmrf by l>ur awl 
mlfwtnd UwnniBpiwds). anil BMdu.'](taidi.' vat. B. pp. »«-7: J. U. 
IfarHi lit ' M«M. AjrtbopL Boc.' ni ft p^ SI (liaEkr MtioBi fa Afika md Ka* 


' TmIm AfL I.;MiphTnn. CuMiuIn, S3. JU In noaalaii arfth Jon* ""d 
Phnnlata. m iTin. *. U; it. «; Hda, L ]t;Stmb^ xri S, SS; MoTMa. 
nmaliin, vol. I. pp. 433 a. TIm «x|Miri»n in Joub ii. 9; "«ttt of the Mly rf 

U«]e*"<(»Ibt«i*fcMl, /« MMAiai fM ■arm a nlic of arifliMi BcaitlBC. . 

The eonct^pUoD of Hades as a moustcr swallowing mon in 
Jeatii, was Actually faniiliar ti> Clinslian thought. Thus, to 
take two instances Iroin (ItfforGiit periwli*. the accnnnt i»f tho 
Dosccnt into Hmlea in the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicotlemua 
makes Hades itp4>iLk in hU proper person ulity, complnining thnt 
his baUy is in pain, when th« Saviimr ia to Jvsofuii nml eet five 
the soiatii prtsoned in it from the beginning of thu world ; luid 
in a iiiuJia-vft! reproseiiiatiou of this deliverauoe, Christ is de- 
picted staniHi)g before a huge fish-like monster's open jaws, 
wlience Adam and Eve are coming forth first of mankind.* 
With even more distinctness of mythical meaning, thr man- 
devouring iuonst«r ia introduced in the Scaodiuavian EiFck»> 
Saga. Eirek, journeying toward Puntdise, came bo a stone 
bridge giianled by a dragon, and entering into ita nrnw, found 
that be had arrived in the world of bliss.' But in another 
trondur-tale, belonging to that legendary- gruwtb which formed 
round early Cbriiitian bbtory, no aach difltinguisbable remnaDb 
■of naturc-mytJi survives. St. Margaret, daughter of a pric«t of 
Antioch, bad been cast into a dungeon, and there Stttan came 
upon her in the furo of a dragon, luid swallowed hor alive : 

" kriuilen Mwgroto tlio Iiolcod Iior bcnide. 
And sees a luathly dragon. Out of an him glide: 
Hit tytm woTo fall giioely, llit mouth opvncd tkIo, 
And Margreto iniglit iio whero lle« Tlieie alitt most aliiilet 
Mnidon Margntte Stood still na iiny utono. 
And tbttt loatltl; worm. To Iicr-wurd. piii i;«uu 
Took bcr in bis foul mouLli, Aiiil swallowt^Nl hor flasK and boii«. 
Aaon he brii3t^Datnag« hath >he noiio ! 
MnidoD Mcrgr«t« Upon thodragva stood; 
Ulyth was her hart«. And joyful was her mood." * 

Stories belonging to the same group are not unknomi to 
EaropL>an folkUire. One ia the storj- of Little Red Riding 
Hood, mutilated in the English nursery version, but known 
more perfectly by old wtvcB iu Qennaoy, who can tell that the 

' ' AiKK. Ctnp.' Nicodeniius ch. >x. ; Mm Jummh, ' Bburr of inir Lord in 
Art,' vol. a. p. 268. 

> Eir*l(R Sigis S, 4, tn 'FlalPjjnrbok,' ti>1. i., ChrMuau, ISftO; Dsring- 
Oaald, ■ iiytU of th« iVMU Aif^*.' p- S3S. 

* Mm JkiiMsoQ, 'Siacil aitJ Ujp-ndary All,' voLli p, 13& 

!C 2 


lovely little mud in her ttliiDiDg red eatju cloak was Bwallovred 
vitli licr grnoilmotlier hy the Wolf, till ihcj both came out 
safu and sound when the huuter cut open tlie aletpiit;; bcasL 
Any oue who can fmic)' witli Prince Hoi, " the blessed saa Lim- 
txiS a fair Iiut weuch iii Qaiue-coloured ta6«ta," and can tlieu 
iioaginc her fiwolloncd up by Skoll. the SuQ-dcrouriDg Wolf of 
Seandiuaviaii mytholojiy, may be inclined to class tbe tale of 
Utllo R«d Ridioghood ils a myth of sunset nnd suitriso. There 
it iDdfH^d aiiother story in Orinitn's Harcfa«D, partly tb« same a» 
this one, which we ran hnrdly doiibt to have a quaint touch of 
(tun-myth in it. It is called the Wolf and S«vcu Kida, and teUs 
of the wolf swallowing the kids all hut the yuungtsit of the aerea, 
who wa« hidden in tlic ctock-coM>. As id Little Ked Ridioghood 
tbcy cut open the wolf and fdl htm with stoDO& Tbi« tale, 
whicli took its present shape since the invention of clocks. 
looks as though the tnle-tcller was thinking, not of real kids 
aod wolf, but of days of the week etwoUuwed by night, or how 
should he have hit upon such a fancy an that the wolf could 
not gel at the youngest of the scveu kids, bc-cause it woii bidden 
(like to-day) in the clock-case 1' 

It may be worth while to raise the que&tion aptt^xis of thia 
iiarsci>' tale, doe^ the peasant folklore of modern Europe really 
still diaplay episodes of nature-myth, not as mere broken-down 
and senseleas trngmcnt^jbut in full shape and significance ! In 
nnswor it will bo enongb to quote the etoty of VaeiliBsa tho 
Beautiful, brought forward by Mr. W. Ralston in a recent 
leetui-e on Russian Folklore. VaxiliiKa's stepmother ond two 
sisters, pluttiug agaiust her life, eend ber to get a light at the 
bonse of Bttba Yog^ the witch, and bor joumoy contnins the 
following history of the Day, told in truest mythic fashion. 

' J. ami W. Ghnun, ' Kinder diuI Haiimnrclutu.'ToL t i>p. 26, 144; ml. UL 
p. IS. Par tnvntiotia of tli« wolf of dtrkn^ut, w« Wax MiiJI«r, ' Leomra*.* 
Snd aeries, |>. SOS, m« Z'iS; Cliigih, fU., vul. it. p. 103; HanuMh, p. IK; 
Edda, GyUiKitminib 13; Gtiiani, >D. )l.'pp-32(, 6es. Willi tiu vpwwk of 
tlia itoiiat BulBlitutwl, ccxnpuv tlia mjrth of Zcua and Rruna». F«ir T«rii*i» 
otlitr slorifa boIongiDg to Iba gnap or the Uao iwaUawed I17 tlit Hotuter, wu 
Uutijr. '31iiiiular Knddfabnt.* p. Ml; Land, "niowaBilmdOnDNigiit*,*vQl. iji. 
p. lui: Hilliwcn, 'I^|).Bh;iu««,'i«.ft6i >Nimet7 IUiyDkM,> Ui'SuljUikt. 
«r llaitkiiul/ p. 337. 

Iu;sfi goes aDt] wanJers. waadera in i 
'. slmddeni. Suddenly fciifore be: 
>vl)itv, and clad iu white, the lior^c under biiu white, 
and the trappings while. Aiid dn>- bc^au to duwu. She goea 
farther, wheu a second rider bounds forth, hinuclf red, clad In 
red, and oa a red horse. The sun began to rise. She goea on 
nil day. and towards cruning nrnvos ot the witch's house. 
Suddculy thcro comes ngain a ridor, himself black, clod in 
all black, and on a bluck hari>o ; he bounded to the gatus of the 
B&ba Yb^ nnd dis:ippc»rcd lus if he litid gunlc through the 
earth. Niglit felL After this, wheo Vaailiwta a»ks Uio witch, 
who was the white rider, she answered, " That in my clear Day ;" 
who was the red rider, "That is ray red Sun;" who was the 
Vladc rider, " That is ray black Night ; they are all my trusty 
friends." Now, considering that the story of Little Tied Riding- 
hood belong to the same class of folklore tales as this iitory of 
Yanliasu the Buautiful, wu need not bo afraid to svck in the ono 
for traces of the same archaic type of nature-mytli which 
the other not only keejt^ up, hut keepii up with the fiUlcsL 
cODsciousQcss of iDc&aiag. 

The development of nature-myth into heroic legend serine to 
have tokca place among the savage tribes of the South Sea 
Inlands and North Amerioji much as it took place aiuung tho 
ancesboni of the classic nations of the Old World. We are not 
to expect acCTimto consistency or proper sequence of epiS':)de8 ia 
the heroic cycles, hut to judge from the cliaiacteristtcs i»f the 
episodeK them^ielves as ti) the idea;s which Muggested them. Aa 
n^ards the less cultured racej*, a glance at two legendary 
cycles, one from Polynesia and the other from North America, 
will serve to give an idea nf tho varieties uf treatment of phases 
of suu'myth. The New Zealand myth of Maui, mixed as it may 
he nntli other faucies, ia iu its uiuMt Htrikiiig filatures the atory 
of Day and Night The story of tlie Sun's birth from the ocean 
ia thus told. There were five hrolhei-s, all cidled Maui, and it 
'Mras the youngest Maui who had been ihrowu into tho sea by 
Toiaog* his mother, and rescued by his ancestor Tama-uui-ki- 
io-Ba^g:!, Grcat-Man-iD-HcAToD, who took him to bis bousc,and 
huog him iu the roof. Tlien ia givea iu fuucifuj personality 



Ihe tale of t3io TanliiLiD^^ of Night at damn. Ouc Qigbt, v>b«n 
Tsraoga came home, slie found liltJc Uaui with bis btotbers, 
and whcQ she knew her but born, the child of her otd agu. she 
took Kith to 8le«p nith her, as she had been used to take ibo 
other Mauis his brotbere, bcfom they were grown op. But the 
littl9 Maui grow vexed nod suRpicious, when he found tbnt every 
mWDittg hia nwiUier rutu; iit dawn and disapptfareil bum the 
bouse in a moiociU. not to rotum tilt nigbtfnll. So one night 
he crept out and stopped ovlt/ crevice in the wooden window 
and the doorn'ay, that the day might not shine into the house ; 
then broke the faint llyht of early dnwn, and then the nun rose 
and mounted into the heareuH, but Tarauga slept ou, for she 
knew not it was broad day outside. At Inst she sprang up. 
pulled out the stopping of the chinks, and fled in dtsioay. Then 
Uaui saw her plunge into a hole in the ground and disappear, 
and thus he found the deep cavern by which hia mother went 
dowii bctuw thi- caith an each ujgbt deported. After thitt, 
follows the episode of Maui's visit to his nncestress Muri-ranga- 
wheuua, at that western Land's Eud where Maoti souls descond 
into the tJubtcrrnucfiD region of the dead. Sbe snifis as ho 
comes towards her, and distends herself to devour him, but 
when »«tie bus !^nif^cd round from south hy enst to north, she 
smells his coming by the western breeze, and »o knows that he 
is ft (iesccndant of hers. Ifo neka for hot wondrous jawbone, 
she gives it to him, aud it is his weapon in his next exjiloit 
when he entches the nun, Tama-nui-tc-Rn, Grcat-Mnn-Siin, in 
the tiooi^e, nud woundt; him and makes klm go slowly. With a 
JiHhhiiok j)ointed with the miraculous jawbone, and suieareil 
with hU blood for bait, Maui next perfnrmK hi« most famous feat 
of fishing up New Zealaud. still called Te-Ika-a-Uaui. the ftsh 
if Hani. To un<lcrHtand tliitt, wc must compare bhe varioiiK 
vomions of the slory in tliese aud otlier Pacific Islands, which 
show that it is a gencrut myth of the raising of dry land froui 
beneath the ocean. It is said elsewhere tliat it was Haui'n 
grandfather, Raii-iL-Wcnuii, Heavcii-Earth, who gave the jaw- 
hone. Miire distinctly, it is nlso said that Maui bad two sons, 
wliom he «]ow when youug to take their jawbones ; now themj 
two sons must be the lioruiag aud Evening, for Mnui made thi> 



tttorning and erening stan) from an eye of each ; and it was with 
tho jawbone of the eldest tlint he drew up the land from the 
deep, Tlius the bringiug iip of llic knd from (he oceau by the 
blortd-staiiicd jawbone of the morning seems to be a myth of the 
dawn. The metaphor of the jawbone of morniuti;, s^int^n-hat far- 
fotchcd an it muy itiivm. rc-appenrs in tho Ktg-Ve-la, if Profitusor 
Max 31uiler's interpretation of S&rameya m the Dawn will hold 
good ia this passage: " When thou, bright Saj-ameyn, opc'ticst thy 
tootJi, O red one, Fpcars seem to glitter on thy jaws as thou 
swallowest. Sleep, sleep." ' Another Maori legend tells how 
Haui takes fii-o in hi^ hands, it buriiB him, aud ho springs mth 
it into the sea : " When he sank in tlie waters, the sun fur the 
first tioio sot, and darkness coverod the earth, \Vlicn be found 
that all wa« night, he itnmediatcly puntueit tlie sun, and brought 
him back in the morning." When Maui carried or flung the 
fire into tlio sea, be set a volcano burning. It is told, again, 
that when Matii had put out all fifea on earth, his mother scat 
him. to gtt new fii-o from hvr aucestrojw Mahuika. The Ton- 
gans. in their version of the myth, relate Iiow the youngcat Mani 
disooveiB the cavern th«t leads to Bulotii, the weHb-Innd of the 
dead, and how his father, another Maui, sends liim to tho yet 
older Mani who sits by his great fire ; the two wrestle, and Muui 
brings awuy fire for men, leaving the old earthqnake-god lying 
crippled below. The legendary group llms dramatizes the birth 
of tho sun from the ocean and the i]epa.rtiiro of the night, tho 
extinction of the light at sunset and its return at dawn, and the 
descent of the sun to the western HadoK, tho under-world of night 
and death, which ia incidentally identified with the region uf sub- 
terranean fire and earthnuako. Here, indeed, tlio chnraeteristica 
of true nature-myth aro not indistinctly markL-d, and Mam'8 
death by bis ancestress the Night fitly ends his solar career.' 

' nitf-Voda, vU, Si ; >Ux Miillcr. * Uciiirw.' 2n.l «er. p. 473. 

' Oicy. Toljii. Myth.' ii. IS. ptu.. hm Hi. Otlior delaitx in fkfttrmn, 
•WAortrtMgnn tier XciuMlnnJpr.' pp. 82-7, US-6I ; It. Tuvlor, "New Xealntiii,' 
p. 154, tto.; comixire UB, Ul, els., mul volcano-myth, p. 218; Vat«,'N»<» 
Zfdaiid,' V H2 i Polnck. ' M. u»<l C. ot Now. Z.' vol. i. p. 1& ; 8. 8. F»nucr. 
'Tonga la.' p. 1X4. SoBilnn Tiirnor, 'PolynMiA,' pp. 3S3, 537 (■'^ninoitii vrnion). 
Ta cnrnjiiTint! tiie ffruup of llaui-lsfpndJi it U ti> bu abiMrvdJ thnt New /oalaud 
Miilmiku Eii<l h[flui>Tikitiki cornwpond to Tongnn Marnikc and KJjikiji, Somoan 
Mftfiiic and Tiitit. 


liiiiilHil Wiawfc A»«rig» lofco wyA af it» Bat 8—. Tic 
rtM7 bcknip to tbe Mgfmegmi nwc TIm bofeer C$b«» had 
)■! kilM • tnr utd fMgim to Nfcia bi^ vfan aidda^ mm*- 
Afaf ni tim0d aUiim ut Mnad. RMdny Ife ib<e of » 
lalw, tht Sit^m mn it ««« a bwtiM rtd nnn, wj— 
flMig* flttlMnd in llw turn. la na tbe ImHiii ibx kit 
iMm fef lh« bird ftttWd oabanMd aoA nnkuiHat. bat at iMt 
h* riffwmWml thr«e vta^e arttfwt at boow, vinefc bad b«i» 
Mt fitllwr'a. llw fint tad Moond arrew Sew mbt and aeiRr, 
tSm thitA otntAk thfi «inio, and flappiag Ha win^ it Bew off 
•Jowly rnwnr'l Ihn iinkiiu; (A iba «an. With fnU waie of tbe 
pDOlin iv>liu' xiwtitiifift 'if tliia epiMxle, LoagfcUuw baa adapted it 
m a R)tni)«l pi'cturv, in uno of bin Indian jpoems : 

" Uit 11 b* tlM nm dMcaodiBK 
O'lr tb« l«ffll pUfat flfwate r 

Of lbs B«d itwaa floatias. flTbig. 
Wtmodwl iif tb» aufb mow, 
ftlabiiaK nil tha wan* with niniMQ, 
WItb Uw oriiuMn of jta Iife-blo«d, 
Villbie aQ Uiff ntr irith oplvndotir, 
Wilb lb« fjiloudi'iu uf iLji pIuDuigt:'" 

TbiT nUiry K>f^ "" t<> tell liow llic hunter speeds westward in 
[Hiriiiit i*f Uic llud HwniL At lodges wber« ti(-- nsus, they tx>li 
htia *be but oHoii ]mmi.i\ tbueJniL Uiotiovbo followed ber bare 
nvvvt ti*liiniHil, Hill- in Ihc dnugbter of an old magician who 
him IunL bin hcbI]!, wliitih Oiibwa nuccecdH in rocavcring for bim 
Hiid piitii Imi'k uu bin hood, and tlie old man rises &ont this 
wuUi, IM> loit^'xr n[(i'd Hiiil docrcpil, Lul splendid in youlbful 
glurjr. Ujdiwit dcpitrttt, and tbi> inogiciiUi ixUs fortb tbe beauti- 
HjI iitniib'H. nfiiv nut liiit d»nf[litiT btit bit sister, and gives ber to 
bU vU'it'iiiiui rrk'iiil. Ii wiw in nfU'r t\nyn, wbcn Ojibwa bad 
I]UM(< biiiHii witli bin bride*, thai bo travelled forth, and conuaj; 
III nil o|K<iiiii(( in llio cnrtb, doHoondtnl and came to tlic abode of 
iliipiii tod ii|iinl4 ; thoro bo could licbold tbo bright weeteru 
n>)iliHt itf tbo ^kI. nnd ilio dork cloud of wickedness. But the 
a|(irJi<i told tiitii ibat liU lirotlitrii at borne were quarrelling for 
Ibi* iMMW'wiitiH of bis wlfi,-. and at liul, oftor lung wandering, this 

Hed In£(Hli«%^pBeus retumetl bo bid mourning cotiittant Pene- 
lope, laid the magio arrows to bis bow, aud utrelchcd the wicked 
suitors dead at his foct * I'htu savnge legends from Polyuesia 
and America may well support the tlioory that Odyiseus 
visiting the li^pian fields, or Orpheus dcsceudiHg to tlie land 
of Hade« to bring back the " wide-ehiiiing " Eiirj-diki^, are but 
the Sun liinwelf (leneenJinjf to, and artceuding fi-om. the world 

Where Night and HaJes take personal shape in n»ytli, wu 
Tony expect to find conceptions like tliat siraiily shown in a 
Sanskrit word for evening, "rajaiiimiikha," i. €.. "mouth of 
night," Thus the Scandinavians told of Hel the death -goddess, 
with mouth gaping like llie inoulli of Fenrir her brother the 
moon-deTouring wolf; and an old German poem describes Hell's 
abyss ya^Tiing from heaven to eartb : 

" der WM ilflf HolUa giSith 
diu dkz «bgrun«I« 
bagcnit niit ir miiado 
uude den IuqiqI zoo der enlen." ■ 

The uculpturea on cathedmls 8tiU display for the terror of tlie 
wicked the awful jaws of Death, the month of Hell wide yawn- 
ing to swallow its victinLs. Again, wlit;re barbaric cosmology 
accepts the doctrine of a firmament nrching above tlie earth, 
and uf an under wurld whither the* sun descends when he set* 
and man when he dleK, here the conception of gates or portoU, 
whether really or metaphorically meant, has its place. Such is 
the great gnft: wliicli the Gold C-oast negro de-scribes the Heaven 
as opening io the morning for the Sitn ; &ach were the ancient 
Greek's gates of Hades, and the ancient Jew's gates of SlieoL 
There are three mythic dotcriptionH cunnuctcl with these ideas 
found among the KareoR, the Algonc^uius, and the Aztecs, which 
are dracrviug of special notice. The Karoos of Birma, u 

* 8elwolc»fti * jVlgic Hcii.' Tol. ii. pp. 1 -3!. Tbo ihrco ntnxirs ncur ia Hum- 
boih^i ahjiag tho SliiiiiuE llsnitu, iqL f. [■■ 158. Se« the corioiul; cunnpoBii* 
Jiig Hum nuciu irrom In Umr Odil'i Si^i ; MUwon. 'Ston* Age,' p. VtT. 7h» 
Kad-Swunayth of tuiwit h intraltiMd is Gw>i]{« E!iut's 't!pftinihG7p>f,'p. <8; 
Liynj;(«IIow, ' Ilijiintlha,' xiL 

> OrhDin, ' D. U.' pp. SOI, 7f7. 


mm amoaf wham lyeeisi Am an cmiaa^mat 
barrowiKl ftamtbaivxe eotercd oec» ifaey hsm bee* » «a»> 
Uet in«K fa*v* puu & kMum htn far ih* i ^nkh t Li m m of tbor 
■taunmc. Tbe^i^tba in like wttn iben ai» two wmi i 
MlzBta of ndu whkit ue co B tinuaD j opaniy mnd ritntxiii^ and 
batVMB ibeae Miau the ma Jaicanili at ranM^ bat hom the 
oppor irtrttam u rapported. no one can detcnbt^ Tbe idaa. 
eofuea well into view in tbe deici^itiDa of a B^ai fotrr^ 
whan nerifioM] famh an thm rnUnmei^ — ^TbenreobiaTaosw 
tbon aaceoAemt to tbe top ; tbe cereo eartb*. iboa JeiceiideBt 
to tlio bottocR. Tboa airireat at Kba-tfae; iboa goeet onto 
IWma [i. e., Varna, tbe Jndge of tbe Dead in Hada]. Tboa 
goovt tbnmgh the creTic** of itclu. tboa ^omk tfaToagh tbv 
cref i cea of predpicev. Ai tbe opening and sbuttiog of tbe 
westeni gate* of rocfc, tbon goest in between ; thmi goest bcknr 
the ewth where the Sau travcU I empluv thee, I exhort the& 
X make thvc a mcwenger, I tnakfi tbee an aogel.ctc"* Faasn^ 
from Birma to tlie region of the North Amerkan bkes, we find 
ft eomatpcmditig doscriptioa in the Ottawa tale of loeoo, already 
qootod here for itt dearly marked pereonifioAtion of Sun and 
Mood. This legend, though raorlcm in some of iu description 
of tbe Eoropeans, their tAiipa, and their far-off land across tbe 
aea, ia evidently fuuudi!i] on a myth of Bitj and NJgtit. loeco 
aeenm to \m lonktha, the White One, whose contest with bia 
brother Tawiitcara, the Dark One, is an early and most genuine 
lliimii rmtiire<myth of Day aad Night. Iosco and Itis friemti 
trawl fur years euxtwnnl and e-istwanl to reach tIiR8nn,andoome 
at laMt to tliL> dwctliug of Mnuabozho near the edge of the world, 
and then, a little twyond, to tlie clinmn to he piusod on the way 
to the land of the 81111 nnd Moon, They began to hear the sound 
of the bleating aWy, nod it flt-umfd near at hand, hut they bad far 
to travel before they reached the place. When the sky camo 
down* its ]>ri)eiiuro vould force ^hLs of nicd fix^ni the opening, 
■0 irtrong that the tra\'cUcT8 could hardly keep their feet, and 
the Btui poMed bitt a short dintance abo\'o their heads. The 
■ky would come down with violence, but it would rise slowly 

Uiwa, 'Kuf»' in 'Journ. At. Son. Bengsl,' 1S65, put If. pp. 93S-4. 



and gradually. Iosco and one of bis friends stocci near the edge, 
and witli a gn-nt eSort leapt through and gaiiied u foothold on 
the other hide ; 1)ut the other two nere fearful and undecided, 
and when their coiiLpauioiiii caUed to them throu;,'h the dark- 
ness, " heap I leap I the sky is on its way down," they looked 
up and saw it descending', but paralyzed by fear they tiprang 
BO feebly that thoy only reached the other side with Uwir 
IiandB, and the sky at the sbiuc moment ati-iking violently on 
(he earth with & terrible sound, forced them into ihe dreadful 
black nbyss.^ Lastly, in the funeral ritual of the Aj!ti>cs there 
is found a like description of the first peril that llie shade had 
to enenunter on the road leading to that subterranean Land 
of the Dead, wliich the sun lights when it is night on eartli. 
Giving the coqise the fii'st of the pas&poiU that were to carry 
Iiim safe to his joiimey's end, the sunivors said ti> him, "With 
these you will pttss beLwoen the two moantaius that siuito one 
against the othi^r.'" On the suggestion of this group of solar 
ognoeptions and that of Mniii'a death, we may perhaps ex- 
plain ae derivcil from a brukvit'down fancy of solar-mytii, 
that famous episode of Greek legend, where the good ship 
Argo passed between the Hynaplfgodcs, those two hu^ clif& 
thai opened and closed again with swift and violent eulLi^on.* 
Can any effort of bnselc^ fancy have brought into the poet's 
mind a thought so quaint In itself, yet so fitting with the Karen 
and Aztec mythit of the gates of Nijjhtaud of Death 1 With the 
Maori legend, the Argonautic tale has a yet deeper coincidenoa 
In buUi the event m to determine the future; but this thought 
is worked out in two conveivtc ways. If Maui passed through 
the eutiuuce of Nijjht and returned to Day, death should not 
hold mankind; if the Aigo passed the Clauhurs, the way Hhould 

' Si^hAolanft, 'Alfiie Bcfcni'chiM,' *ot, ii. p. 40, eM. ; Lo«ki«l, 'noseli. der 
Miuk-ii,' Baibj, 1769, [). i' {\he Eil;;)jeJi vijitiqn, ptLTt i jk 35, U iacorrecl). Sw 
dm Brbton. * hljlia of Nrw World,' p. 63. 

* Toniucumtla, ' Uamtninii Iiiiiiiiim,' xiii, i' ; "Con wto» hot ilc ptumr por 
uiedio ill] do* Siemu. ([ud hs eiUui baUenilu, y encuiitniiiilu In uun eiiti !■ oUv." 
CUv%BTO, roL U. p. 9i. 

' AiHtllodot. i. 9, 33 ; Apollfln. RlioiL AlgOMOttea, il. SIO-015 ; Pitidnr, 
IVtliia Cann. iv, 370. Sea Kuhn, ' Ilcrablciuift <!« Pram,* p. 1S3 (iu«utloD of 



lie opco bctwct>D tliem for ever. Tbe Argo fspad through in 
aKfvtv, nnd t\u' SymplJgadea can clash uo Jougcr oa thu poMtng 
ship ; Uaot was crustied. aad man comes not forth again Gram 

There is another solar metaphor which desciibes the sun, not 
aa a pccsoDal creature, hut tut a loeuibcr of a yet greaior being. 
Ho is called ID Jftva and iSumatra " Mata-aii," in Madagascar 
" Maso-andro," the " Eye of Day." If we look for trazislatiion 
of tliis thought from metaphor into myth, va may find it is the 
New Zealand stories of Maui setting his ovm eye up in heaven 
as the Stin, and the eyes of his two children as the Jtrorniug 
and the Evening Stars.' The nature-myth thus implicitly and 
explicitly stated ih one widely devdoped on Aryan giuuud. It 
formx part of that macrocosuiic description of the universe well 
known m Asiatic myth, and in Europe exprcHMed iu that paa- 
Bage of the Orphic poem which lelht of Jove, at once the world'H 
ruler and tliu world itKelf : Iuk gluriouH head irradiates the sky 
where hangs his starry hair, the waters of tbe sounding ocoap 
are tlie belt that girds his sacred huily the earth omuiparent, 
his eyes are sua and moon, his mind, moving and ruling hy 
counsel all thiugH, is lliu royal ittlicr that no voice nor soimd 

" Sunt ocruli nccbua, Pbooboqae advorta tMorrcna 
Cynthu. Mens TDnuc nulliiiuc obnoxitu lothar 
It«gius intvritu*, ([ui (-imcu aovotijuo ivgit^jtw 
Cousilio. Vox uxilU i>otee>t, waitaave, dm ulliu 
Hmcw Jovia sutxilt^ui a^Tvjitttut, nco fiuna latere 
Sio aniini Mnium, et oaput inniartnla b««ttia 
Oitiovt ; iUnsIro, immcniiuiai immutabilo pandcaff, 
Atqoe lacertornm vallilo stauB tnlore certua." * 

Where the Aijan myth-maker takes no thought of the lesser 
light, he can in variouH temi» defscrihe the sun iis the eye of 
heaven. In the Ri^'-VeJa It is the "eye of Mitm. Tanma, 
aad Agoi '' — " cbukidiuh Mltrosya Vurunuisyuh Agnch." * In 

■ PbUr){. 'Uinncra of N. Z.' vol. L i>. IS; 'Stm Zc«l>Bd,*voL i. p. 3<8( 
y«to. p. US ; Stlimu, w- £8, M$. 

■ faiwU Pnigj. £TKt)g. iii. C. 

■ lEig-VadB, 1. US 1 ]'a>1iiIu)^ aad Kotli, lv. 'luitn.' 

the Zomj-Avcsta h u " the sliining sun with Ihc swift bones, 
the eve of Ahura-Mazda and Mithra, tht; lonl of Ihe rvgion." •■ 
To HosioJ it is the " all-seeing cjo of Zeus " — " ttcutq iinv 
Ai&t 6tttl}a\fi6i : " Mocruliitis i>]iu:iUs of antiiiuit; cullinij; the »ua 
the eye of Jore — "ri i}KiO$; oif^avui^ o^floXjiuV."- The olA 
Gormans, iu calliag the mia "Wuotan's eye,"* recoguiaed 
Wuotan, Wodeu, Odbin, as being binisolf the dinitc HcavoEt. 
Tboso ZDythic expressions aro of the most uueqiiivocal i;)'pe. 
By the hint they give, conjectural intcq)rctntionB may be here 
not iiKieed asaerted, but itugyc'Stetl, fur two of thu quuiuUist 
cpii<odc» of ancient European myth. Odio, tlie AlUfatlier, a&y 
the old scnlds of Sctmdiiiiivin, eits among his JEar in the city 
Asgaid, on his high throne HJidskJalf. whence he cau look 
dowD OTer tho whole world discerning all the ileeda of men. 
He tM au old mau wrapped in his wide cloak, and clouding his 
face with his wide hat, " os piloo iie cultu prodcretur obimU-nn," 
as Saxo Qrammaticus has it Odin is onc^^yed ; lie desired to 
dj-ink from Mimir's well, but he had to leave there one of hb 
eyca in pleilge, as it is said iu the Voluapa : 

"AU know I. Odin! 
Whoitt tbau liiildeat thino ty» 
In Uimir'B lanious well." 

We need Iianlly seek this wonder in Mimir'a well of wisdom, 
for any other pool will show the lost eye of Odiu, to hira 
who {•azoH at the hhu reflected iu its waters, when the other eye 
of Iteaven, the real sun, stan<is high at noon.'* Possibly, too, 
KHDM tiucli solar fancy may explain part of the ntylli of Pei'sjus. 
"niere are three Scandinavian Noms, wliaie nauie-i arp Urdhr, 
Verdhandi, and Skuld — Was, and Is, and Shall-bi? — and theae 
three maidens are the " Weird sisters " who fix thL- lifetime of 
all men. So the Fates, the Purk.T, danghtem of tlie inevitable 
Aoangke, divide among them the periods of time: I^chesis 
aBgH Uio past, Bklutho the present, Atropos the future. Now is 

* Avsrtn, tr. Spiopil and Bl««:Ic, Vajim, 1. SC ; eancput* BnnMif, YnfOA. 

* UktoK SaturuaE. i. SI, I«. Sto Mux UuUcr. 'Chips,' vol. iJ. p. ftS. 

' Gritnni, 'I>riitw-h« Mylli.' \: G05. Sf^ulim Itomtiid), 'Shit. M^ili'p. ^I^ 

* Bddii, •Vulii9p«.'22: *Ojlfiiguiabg,' 15. Soe Orinun, • D. IL' !•. 133. 



ft aJkmahLt la oonliia' tbcae final ■wteri m of co m i i o b aatara 
wHli 1«n otlvr njlfaic asler-tnub — d»e Gnue hbI dieir kia»- 
Ir41[ tlie OorgjMW I If it be K), it m eaijr to oadcnteBd whj 
t/f th«: thrr* Gofgon* tnic aJnoe wu nmrtal, wbcec life bcr two 
iniiiMirt«l WMCcn ooal<J ooi mtc, for tbe ileathlw pact and 
folofft cMi&ol tare th« eTcr-Oyiog pccicstL Nor wmlil llt« 
liddlb ba hard to read ; wbot iji the one eje that tbe Qrkic had 
bMwven ih«m. anrl puwed from o«e to anotber ?— tbe ej^e of 
lUy^bo Mtn, ttutt thn pMt girof np to the pneent, and the 
prwcnt to the future' 

CotniMinxl with the itpli^ndi^I Lord of Dar, tbe pole lady at 
Ni({bt tiik(«, in rnyth m in nature, a lover and leflser place. 
AiDMiiff iho widtt Ivgeudary group which aasociates together Sun 
ami Mwm. two nlriking examples are to beee^i in tl»> traditions 
by whicli haif-cirilized race* of South America traced their ri«e 
frcim llio CDMlition of tfae Havage trilfcH around them. TbcM 
l<>(((^tKlii hiivo been appealed to even by modem writera as grate- 
ful])' ■rL'tnuniberod reoerds of real human buneJactors, who carried 
long Ago t^i Aroericn the culture nf the Uld World. But hap* 
fril/ for hiiiUirio Initli, mythic tradition teUa its talcs without 
rxfiurRstin}; llio ojiiMKlvs which bctraj* ita real character to 
iimru eriticid olMorvntion. The Muyscas of tbe high plains of 
liogota wiTfi unco, tlicy said, ttavogtfl withtrub a^culturc, rcU- 
gion or lavr ; biit tlicro caric to tliem from the Ea^t an old and 

■ Aa ttf ikii {ilriillfldaliftn «f tli4 Komn uxt tho FotM, m« Onmm, 'I>. U.' 
Ii|» IT6-V0i Uu iklUr, 'C);i|i«,' viL ii. p. IS^ It it to la vliMtved iacon- 
imion will) tito r«r*tiii-inj-tli, thni auutlitx of ita uWura e|ib(de«, tha Otoson's 
tiMd liiniliiK tliuM w)iu liiok on U iniu Moitf, rorrt^pouiU wiUi nifllifl of lbs ma 
IiM<lf. Ill IIU[iuilota, tiwii mno uut of twuoaroN iLbctboingliornortlMir motfaer 
KafUi}) Di' fknl tilio gnunltd thett mtm itnj^ one nl^t, utd tbe ruing niK 
tiimwl lilni InIom iftwlrork voUtJ KauU, jimtM llw Gutkud'sIicwI tunivJAtlB* 
lli« hrtli-liiMtT Ipto llio mountnin tli«t Ukia Hia Mint ; aflor iMa, otbera of tho 
Milf MVP-ntun vvnaurpriMd bj Um niUi^it, am) tiimml into sttmeM, tne*, |ibuU 
Id \muU (FrUr Hoaiui Van* in ' Life of CatuitMit * iu Pinkart«n, rol. sii. p. SO ; 
J. O. MUlUr, 'AnwT. Um-%'r 179). In Ceniml AiMViM • Qnicht Icgnna 
nU(m kxw llMkudvkl •uUiuiU wm |iv1r<fi«<l Vj thr Son (BtMWU, Toj-ol VbIi,' 
|i. lUI. TliiM Uw AnMitoaw lunv tli«> •ttalosue wf iLe ScamBiiaTiui tajtha of 
IttMtU Niiil ilwuOi *ui|iriBt<l bjr divt^lit uuui<l« tli#tr hxlLD^tikeei, and tuned 
In ilMiaK Hiieli fuivlw Bjifwar eannrctrd wth tb* bAeJMl htmun (tiapM of rack* 
or *'ataaillt4t-alouca" uliitk pMianU *tiU aeeauil fat a* ttaaafaniinl fmlsm ; 
thla kW* ta )Kv«i;ht alao tnlo tin IVnaua-aijrtli, r«r tW rorlx abeandii^ a 
8a(i]4ioa an iW iibadrre Uiw ikkUM Igr Uw Ccnsva'a hcauL 



beardod man, Bocliica, tho cliUd of the Sun, and he taught thera 
to till the ReUls. to clutlie tlieniHelveii, to wuvsliip tlti* goils, to 
Ijcconm a nation. 13ut Bochica hnd a wicket^l, beautiful wife, 
Huirthacji, who lovcU lo spite and spuil her liusbnnd'* work ; 
and she it was who made the river swell till thi; land wa& 
covered by a flood, and biii a few of mankind escaped upon 
the nionntain-top». Then Bochicn wan wrutli, and hv diuvo 
the wicked Huvthaca from the earth, and made her the Moon, 
for there had 1>l-cu ho idoou before ; oud he cleft the rocks and 
made the mighty cataract of Toqueudama, to let the deluge 
flov away. Then, wbea the limd was dty, he gave to the 
remnaat of mankind the year imd its periodic ftacrificos, and 
the worsliip of the Stin. Now the people who told this myth 
had not foi'gottCD, whtit indeed wo might gucfui without their 
help, tliat Bochica was hiiiiiielf Zuhi^, the Sun, aud Hu)^baca, 
the Sun's wife, the Itoon.' 

like to this in meaning, though differeut ia fancy, is the 
civiliwrtion-myth of the Incaa. 5Ien, said this Qqichiia legend, 
were lawless naked savages, dovouiiug what unaided nature 
gave, adoring plants and lieasts with rude fetiKli-wumbipL Bnt 
our father the Sun took pity on them, and sent twu of his chil- 
dreu, Mauco Ccapoc and Iiis sister-wife, Mama Oello : tkese 
ruse from the lake of Titicoca, and gave to tlie naked, uncul- 
tnred hordes law and government and moral order, tillage 
and art and science. Thus was founded the great Peruvian 
empire, where in after age» the Sun nud Moon were stJlI repre- 
sented in rule and religion by the Inca and his sister-wife, con- 
tinuing the mighty race of Munco Ccnpoc and Mama Oetlo. 
But the two great ancejttora returned when their earthly ivork 
was done, to hccomc, what wo may sec tliey had never ceased 
to be, the sun aud moon themselves.- Thus the nations of 

> Platlnkitt, ' Hbt. G<!ti. ilu laa CouiiuiilM M Haevo Koyiio de GnmoilB,' 
Anftrerii, 1SS8, [mt L lib. i. e. 3 ; HumlMtUt, * Monumeu,' pi. vi; J. 0. 
ititiW-T, • Airnsi'. Urr.]]^.' jip. 424-30. 

* (tarcilMD lie In Vc^ ' ConitnenUrint BmIos^* L c IS; Trraciitt, 'Peru.' 
YOL 1. p. 7 ; J. O. ]tlilUer, pp. 80$-8, 8SS-3V. Othtr Pcrarinu vvnloua show 
ths fimdinioRtiil aolar idea in (ltt!«rDiit mylliic tlinpes (Tr. or CIczs >1« Lran, 
ir. mil (d by C. R. Hnrkltiiiiv Hiiklnyt. S(>.-. nst, y. xlix. US. iH, ST9). 
W. B. Stereiuaii (* fi««[dcao« in S, A[a(hi'n,'T(i]. j. p. 3DI>iin<l ButUii{'H«uwh,* 



closely rcumUiiig this, that it is difficult not to suppose both 
to be vcreious fi-om a commoa origiunl, is told in tliu Jistant 
Fiji lilouds. Thorc was a dispute betvreea two gfxls as to Low 
man should dio: "ItaYula (tlie Hooa) coutcmioil tliut man 
sLould be like himaelf — disappear awhile and thon live agnin. 
Ra Kalavo (tlio Hat) would not listen to this kind proposal, 
but said, ' Let man die as a mt dies.' And he prevailed." The 
dates of the version? eeom to show that the preaencQ of these 
uiyths ainuiig the Hutt^^ntoLR and Fijian.s, at cho ttvo opposite 
sides of the globe, is at any rate not due to transmiBeioD in 
motluni time&' 

There is a vory elaborate savage naturo-mjth of the geuora- 
tiou of the Stars, which may miijuestiouably serve as a cine 
connecting the history of two distant tribes. The rude Miatira 
of the Malayau Peninsula express in pUin terms the belief w. & 
solid Hnnament, usual in the lower grades of civilization; they 
say the sky is a great pot held over the earth by a cord, and if 
this cord broke, everything on cartli would he crushed. TIio 
Heon is a woman, aud the Sun also : the SiMS ai*o the Moon's 
childi-en, aud the Suu liad in old times as many. Fearing, 
however, tliat mankind could not bear so much brightness and 
heat, they a^eed each to devour her children ; but the Moon, 
instead of eating up her Stars, hid them from the Sun's sight, 
who, believing them all devoured, at© up her own ; no sooner 
had she done it, than tlie Moon brought her family out of their 
hiding-place. When the Sun saw them, filled with rage she 
chased the Moon to kill her ; the chase has huslcd ever since, 
and 80m(>tiiaes the Sun even comes near enough to bite the 
Jlwon, and that is mi eclipse ; the Sun, as men may still soe, 
devours his Star* at dawn, but the Moon hides hers all day 
white the Suu is near, and only brings them out at night when 
her pui-suer is far away. Now among a tribe of North East 

cannucioQ of tlw mnuii witli Iho linw, cf. Skr. "f»7uika ; '* ant] ia Ucxico, 
Baht^ii, book vii. c. S, in Kiiit^borou)^, to), rii. 

■ WlUUmi, * PI)!,' vol. i, [1. ai>:s. Comfinre the CujotiDc ItlasJ njth that to 
tb» iMfpBaing moti only iiiittrd lite on Ilic liut duj of thn waning uioob, a&<i 
rmudtBlcd aa froiu a jivwcfiil tlvp wLcn abo roaiipotCHl ; bnt ths tri\ tgiiit 
tjifpTKn inflicted a ilmtli froui wliidi tliiTe U no nrinl : Da BiOMce, ' Hi«t. dM 
Sai-ig. nux Tenw Aiutr»l«».' vo). ii. ji. 473. 

vot. I. t 



India, tlie Ho of Cliota-Nagpore, the myth reappears, obviously 
from the same source, but with a varicii ending; the Sim clcit 
the Moon io t^'itin for her deceit, aiul thus cloven and growiug 
wbolc again she ^cmain^ and licrdaugbtcrs with her which ara 
the Sure.' 

From eovugury up to civilization, there may be traced ia tho 
mythology of tho Stars a course of thought, changed indeed in 
Application, yet never brokcu in its evident connexion from first 
to last. The savngc sees individual Rtarn as animate bciogs, or 
combines star-groups into living celestial civaturcs, or limbs of 
them, or nbjtcts cnnnfcted with tlioin ; while at the other 
oxtremity of the scale of civilization, tlic modem astrouomor 
IceepH up junt KUch uncienl fancies, turning them to account in 
useful fiiirvival, as a means of mapping out the celestial globe. 
The savage names and storios of hiars and constellations may 
seem at first but chihliiili an<l pinpotielraui £uicieii ; but it always 
happens in the study of tlie lower races, that the more means 
we have of un<ler»tanijing their thoughts the more sciue and 
reagon do we Bud in them. The aborigines of Au.stratin oay 
tJiat Yurroe and Wanjcl, who an; thi; jstora we call Ciiator and 
Pollux, pursue Purra the Kangaroo (our CnpoUa), and kill him 
at the be^uiti<^ of the great heat, aud the mirage is tho smoke 
of the lire they roiuit him by. They my also that Morpean- 
Kun'k aud Nc-illoan (Arcturua aud L}Ta] wero the discoverers 
of the ant-pupis and tlic eggs of th<> loan-bird, aud taught the 
a.borigine8 to A»d them for food. Translated into tho langutgo 
of fact, tlieso simple myths record the ttummcr place of the stars 
in quQHtiou, niid the seasons of nnt-pupas and lono-cggs, which 
Bea»oD8 are marked by the stars who are called their disco- 
Terers.' Not less tmnsjjarent is iho meaning in the beautiful 
Algonquin myth of the Suiiimpr-Maker. In old days etei'ual 
winter reigned upon the eaiih, till the Fisher, helped by other 
beasts his frit- ntls, broke an opening tliTOiigh the sky into the 
lovely heaven-htiid beyond, let the wann winds pour forth and 
tho iummer descend to earth, and opened the cages of the pri- 

■ Jo^uni. Id j. Archiji. rol. i. T^ SSI ; toL Ir. p. 833 ; HckeU in ' 3mm. Aa. 
Soc.'rol. ix. j«rlii. p. r&7 ; Lttlliani, 'Dracr. Elh.* ToL tl. p. 4XS. 

* SUabiidgo ia 'Tr. Elh. Soc." vol. i. fp. 301-3. 

soBed birds: but when tlio dwclloro in heaven saw Uwir birds 
let loose and their v,-aTxn gales descending', tJjey started in pur- 
suit, and shooting their arrows nt the Fisher, hit him at Inst in 
his Qtic viiltieraUe spot at the tip of Ida taiJ ; thus he died for 
tho good of iho iuliabitautfi of earth, and becnme the constella- 
tion that bears h\.% name, so that still nt the proper Eoason men 
see him Iving as he fell toward tlio north ou the plains of 
lieaven, witli the fatal arrow Htill sticlctng in his takV Compare 
these savage stories with Orion purmiing the Pleiad ubIOtb who 
take refuge from him in the aea, and the maidenii who wept 
themnclvei; to death and became the starry cluster of the 
Hj&des. whoFte rixiiig ami setting betokened rain : such mythic 
creatures might for simple Higoiticaucu have liccn invented by 
Htvages, even aa the savage con»tellatiou-RtytliB might have 
been made by ancieut Greek*. When wc consider thai tJie 
Australians who can invent such myths, and invent tketn with 
TOcTi fulness of uieaoiug, are savages (vho put two and one to- 
gether to make their numeral for three, wo may judge how 
deep in the history of culture those eoncepUons lie, of which 
the relics are Ktilt rcprcitcnted in our stAT'innpfi by Castor and 
Pollux, Aroturiia and Siriua, Bbotes and Orion, the Argo and 
the Chai-Ws Wain, the Toucan and the Sonthem Groan. 
Whether civilized or itavagCj whether ancient or new-made after 
tlio ancient oianncr, such n&m«8 ore so liko in cliaractcr that 
any tribe of men might adopt them frnni any other, u 
American tribes are knowQ to receive European names into 
tboir own Hkics, and oa our coaatclhitiou of the Royul Oak 
is aaid to have found its way in new copica of old Himlu 
teMtiaea, into the company of the Seven Sages aud tlie olbor 
ancient constellations of Brabmanic India. 

Such fancies are so fun<»ful, that two ])CopIeii seldom fal] oa 
the same name for a coostcUatidn, whik-, e^-co within the liniibi 
of the »amu race, tertoB may differ altogether. Thiu tho ktarfi 

■ S«lio«lcnkft, ' AJgic Re*.' vol. L ff. »;-4<. TIm ilorj «r Ui« li*r( or Mif 
iamlncnbla Gk« Aoktllm aavt ia mm weifc apot, neon In llio tolet of Ui* t\*yitiu 
at tlw SUainjt Muiltu. vIimo Kulp tknia was nUiwrftblfl, uul of Uis tpltlity 
Xwuiiiil, wlio conld be kilM onlj bj tho com (A tbf wkita |Am momMng Uia 
TulannUA |ilMt on tbc avm of Ux bekd {lol. L f . IS); vol. IL f. KA). 

T 3 




vfhicli wc call Orion's Belt are in New Zealand eitlipr the 
Elbow of hlaui. or tliey form tliv atero of the Outoe of Tamare- 
rotc, whrwK anchor tlroppul from the prow is Utc Southern 
Orosa.' Tiie Great Hear is cfnially like a Wain, Orion's Belt 
serves as well for Frigg:i'» or Mnrv's Spindle, or Jacob's Staff. 
Tct sometimes natural corrcftpondonccs occur. Tho Mron sister 
Fl«iftd«s socm to the Australians a gvonp of girls playiDg to a 
oortobortH; ; while tho Koith American Indiana call them the 
Dnocors, and the Lapps the Coiapnny of Virgins." Scill more 
striking is the corre8puiid(>DC« hetwefu savages and cultured 
Datiout in fancteii of the bright starry baud that lios like a road 
acro8R tho sky. The Baswt«8 call it the *' Way nf the Gods ; " 
the Oji« say it is iht- " Way of Spirits," which souU go up to 
Leaven by.* North American tribes know it as " the Path of 
the Master of Life," the " Patli of Spirits," " the Road of Souls." 
irhere tJicy travel to tlic land beyond the grave, and where tlicir 
camp-fires may he accu blazing as brightt^r etars.* Such )>avage 
imn^nations of tho Milky Way fit with the Lithuauiaa myth of 
bhe "Road of the Birda," at whose end the souls of tho good, 
fancied luiflitting awayat death like birds, dwell free and happy.' 
That souls dwell in the Galaxy woa a thought familiar to the 
Fythagoreana, who gave it on their master's word that the bouIs 
that crowd there deacood, and appear to mc-n as dreams,' and 
to the Mntiicha»D6 whose fancy transferred pore souls to tliis 
"coluroa of ligljt," whonoo they could come down to earth and 
again return.* It is a fall from sacb ideas of the Galaxy to the 

> Toykff. • S™ Zwlfliiil.' p. 3SS. 

* Stantinil^m, L c. ; CluilmiiK, vol vL p. 14S ; LMtnit, I^planO, in Pinkos 
ton, voL i f. 111. Tli« namo «f Ihr Ucnr o«eumug in Kortli Ainftieaiii MS- 
nuxiuti vritli th« ntan «r tlic Umt mid IJltlc Rent [Cliarlcvuis, L c. ; Otton 
Mather id Scltmikraft. 'Tribcv' ^"l- i. P- ^^*i ^ 1<">8 ^""^ Knutkfd m 
[Gn^gt, Vol. i. ]i. S02 ; voi. n. p. 34H>. bat irith nAnnco to GraaBkud, *m 
Cinuz, p. SSI)- Sc* otemtlona cu the hixtoiy of tlio Aijxn dudb im Uax 
UtLlkr, ■ Uctom*,' Znd min, p. 301. 

> CM»It«, (h IM; Waiu, toL 1L p. 191. 

* Lon^'a (^p. vaL t. p. S.>S : SchooJrr.ift, put. i p. S7f : L* Je«M in ' Bd. 
i]m Jra. lie U Ncavalltt Knacw,' 1034, p. 18; Lodiiel, pnt L |i. 3S; J. 0. 
mWet, p. 63. 

« lUnuKh, pp. 574, «;, 415. 

* Potphyr. i» AnttQ NjriBpkkrani, SS ; Uacral). ile Sunm. Soft I. IS. 

> Kraiuobrt. ' Iliirt. de UmokIiAi.' r«L U. p. ML 



Siamese " Iliioil of the Wliitc Elephant," the Spaniards' " Roa.1 
of Sitntiago." or the Turkish " Pilgrims' Road." nml a still luwer 
lull to tliK " Stmw Rood '* of the Syrian, the Peman, and tha 
Turk, who tLu3 compare it witli their lanes UttenKl vvitli the 
morecU of straw that fall from the nct^ they can-y it in.^ Btit 
of oil tlie fancies which liavo attached themselves to the celestial 
road, we at home have the qiiaintc«t. Passing along the short 
and crooked way from St. Paul's to Cannon Street, ono thinks 
t« how small ft remnant has shrunk the name of the j^ieat ati-eet 
of the Wa^tlingas, ivhJch in old <Uy.s ran from Di>\"er Uiroiigh 
London into Wales. But there is o Walling Street ia heaven 
aa well as on earth, once fiimilinr to Kngllxhmcn. though now 
perhaps forgotten even in local dialecU Chuucor thus speoki^ of 
it in hiR ' House of Fame :'■ — 

' r^ tlwro (c|iir«l he) ciwt up thiaa Cjw, 
So j-ondir, lo, tliti Oalnxie, 
The whicho men i;lGp« The ULlky Wny, 
For it is whit«, aud »omo pftrfay, 
TcaUm it haa Wntlyngo atrcto.'" 

Tumiug from the mythology of the heavenly bodies, a glance 
over other districts of nature-myth will afford fresh evidence 
that Aiich legend has its early home within the precincts of 
savage culture. It is thus with tlie myths of the Winds. The 
New Zpalanders ti^ll how Maui can rido upon the other Wimln 
or imprison them in their caves, but he cannot catch the Wcat 
Wind nor find it^ cave to roll a itboue agaiuitt the mouth, and 
therefore it prevails, yet from time to time he all Ixit overtakes 
it» and hiding in its cave for shelter it dies away.* Such 'w the 
fancy in <^a8«ic poetry of ^ftjlus holding the prisoned winds in 
his dimgeon cave : — 

1 Huaaa, 'OesU. Aura.' toI. ili. ]>. 941; 'inmnkiTia da Tilnil,* tr: 
DuImbc, it.'M i Criinin, 'I), it: p. 330, etc. 

' CbMlAtr, * IImim or Fnin«,' IL i'iJ. With fforvuee to (]tia4ii>tM U Xtym 
mjtbelogj iUtwtnUid hj tie i«Mg» gaUsj-mvilui, ufd Rrtrt, ■ OripMf,' 
pari ii. p. i^. ttr, 

* Yat«, ■StvZdOud.'p. Ill, smEIH ' ?o] jn. Bci.' ireL H. p. 4ir. 



" HiQ viifito rex JEolun ftntro 
LoctviUs rCDtus, Icmiicifliitfwittu no norms 
Imperio pramit, ac vinclia et carccra frmnat." ■ 

Tlic mytii of tlie Four WintU is developed among: the oatire 
races of Amorica witli a raugo and vigour aad licautj scarcely 
riralled elsewhere in the mythology of the world. Episodes 
liotoQging to tbU branch of Kcd Indian folklore ore collected in 
i^oulcraft'ii ' Algic RoRearchcH,' aiid tlicnce renderetl with ad- 
mirable tjuite and sympntliy, though iinfortunntely not with 
proper truth to the origiuale, iu Ijougfullow's luaAler-pieee, tlio 
'Song of Hiftwatha.' The West Wind Mndjokeewis is Kahcyun, 
Father of the Wiiids. Wahtm is the Juul Wind, Shawondusae 
the Soutli Wind, Kahitioiiokka the North Wind. But there U 
another mighty wind not belonging to the mystic qiiateruiyn, 
Manabozlio tlie Nonh-West Wind, therefore descrilied with 
mythic approprintenctKi as the uidawful child of Kahcyun. The 
fierce North Wind, Kfthibonok ko, in vain strives to force 
rthiogcbia, the liogcriiiy diVLT-bird, from Iuk warm and happy 
winter-lodge ; and the lazy Sotith Wind, Shawoiidaaee, eighs for 
the laaideti of the prairie with her sunny lioir, till it tumM to 
silvery white, and as be breathes upon hsr, the prairie dan- 
delion has vanished.^ Man oatur&Uy diridee his horizon into 
foui* quarters, before and l)ohini!, right and left, und thas 
comes to fancy the world a square, and to refer the winds to its 
four comers. Dr, Brinton, in liit: ' Myths of the New World,' has 
well traced from these ideas the growtli of legend after Ic^Dd 
among the native races of America, wliere four brothei- herooa, 
or mjlhic aneeKton? or divine patrons of mankind, prove, an 
closer view, to be in ih-i-j^oraI shape the Four Winds.* 

The Vedic hymns to the MarutH, the Storm Winds, who 
tear asunder the forei>t king« and make the rocks shiver, 
and assume again, after their woul, the form of new-Wm 
babes, tlie mythic feats of the child Hermes in the Homeric 
hymn, the legendary birth of Boreaa from Aatraios and E&», 

1 Tirg. ^4i«id. L S3; Ilcpmrr. Oilpi. x. 1. 

> 8t;bwlcnift. 'AlgiiiUi«.'vuI. L p.SDO; voLU. ]>i). 12S,SU ; 'Indinn Triboc,* 
(Hirt iii. p. 381. 
* Driulou, ' Mj'tlu of tlie Haw VTodJ,' clt. liL 



Stan^' HcavcD and Dawn, work out, on Aryan gi-ound, jnytbic 
concepUona tliat Red Intlinii tale-tellem could understand and 
rivaJ,' llic p«A«&nt who keeps up in fireside tall; the memory 
uf the Wild Hunteiuan, Wodejiiger, the Grand Veneur of 
rontaifloUcaii, Herno the Ilunter of Wiiidsar Forest, haa 
olmoet lost the significance of this grand old stoim-mjT-h. By 
mere force of tradition, tlie name of the " "Wish " or " Wusli " 
lioiinds of tlie Wild Huntsman has been preserved tlirongh the 
west of EuglanJ ; the wonU most for ages past have lost their 
meaning among tho country folk, though we may plainly re- 
cogoine in them Wodeu'a nncient well-known name, old German 
" Wunsch." Ah of old, the Hunvou-god drivus the clouds before 
bim in raging tempest across the aky, while, safe within the 
cottage wnJhi, tlio tdc-tcllor unwittingly describes, iu pcraonal 
le^ndary shape, this some Wild Hunt of tho Storm.' 

It him mauy a time occurriid to tlic savage poet or philosopher 
to realize the thunder, or iu cause, in mytha of a Thucdcr-Bird. 
Of this wondrous creatui-c North American legend has much to 
t«U. He is the bird of the great Hanitu, n.s the caglo is of 
Zoua, or he is even tbo great Manitu himself incnruatc. llto 
Asiniboins not only know of hi-t existence, but have even scon 
him ; in the far nort3i the story is told how he created the 
world; in Britisli Columbia tJie Indians ofier the first-fruits of 
their i«lmon and their venison to the Great Spirit, who, they 
say, flies down to earth from his dwelling iu the sun, and the 
thunder and the lightning are the clapping of his wings and the 
flashing of his eyes in anger. Of siicli myths, perhaps, that told 
among the Docotas is the L|uaint4-Ht : Thunder is n lai'ge birdt 
they say; hence its velocity. The old bird begins the thunder; 
its rumbling noise is caused by an immense quoutity of young 
birds, or thunders, who continue it, hence the long duration of 
the peals. The Indian saya it is the young birds, or thunders, 
that do the mischief; thuy orv like the young mischievous men. 

■ ' Rlg-VwlA,' tr. bjrMaxMtlllcr, toL i. (Ilymu* to Uanita) ; ^'ckW, 'CmcU. 
Giittnl.* ToL liL p. 87; Cox. 'Myllioloi^y of Arynii NatiuiLH,' *ol. li. th, v, 

* Crinint. -U. U." pp. ISO. 509, 804; Hunt. 'Pop. Rom.' Ut wr. p. xix. r 
llATing-Goakl, 'Book of \V irrtvohrm,' ji. 101; mo 'Mj-tht of th« Jliddlo AgM.' 
p, SSi Wattko, ' VcalMhoVolkMbei:^ub«,'pp. 13^ SSd; Mounier, 'TnuUdcoi^* 
pp. 76, t*c, 'il, 747. 



wbo will not liaten to good couneol. The old thunder or bird is 
wise nnd good, and docs not kill anybody, nor do any kind of 
mischioC Deeceuding southward to Central Anioricn, there is 
found mention of tlic bird Voc, the messenger of Hnrskao, the 
Tcmpost-god (whose uamo has been adopted io £nropcnu Iah- 
gitaf^ as hurxteimo, tninimin, kurricaue) of the Lightning and 
of the Thtmdcr. So among Caribs, Biiwilinns, Harvey Islanders 
and Korenit, Beclmana-t and Basutu!;, wo Gnd legeudis of a flajv 
ping or fhii^hing Thinider-bird, which ^eein nimply to tnuudate 
into myth the thought of thunder and lightning descending 
from the upper n^gions of the air, the hotnc of the eagle and 
the vulture.' 

The Heaven-god dwells in the regions of the aky, and thus 
what form could be fitter for him and for his messengers than 
the likeniiss of a bird? But to cause the ground to quako 
beneath cur feet, a being of quite different unturc ix needed, 
and accordiii^jly the office of supporting the eoHd earth is giveu 
in various countries to various monstrous creatures, human or 
animal in character, who make their office manifest from time 
to time by a ahuke given in negligence or sport or anger to thoir 
burden. Wherever earthquakes are felt, wo arc likely to find a 
version of the great myth of the Earth-bwirer. Thuii in Poly- 
nesia tho TongEiiiB liny that iiani upholds tbo earth on his 
prostrate body, ami when he tries to turn over into an easier 
posture then) is an earthquake, and the people shout and beat 
the ground with >;ticks to make hiui lie KtJll. Another version 
fonns part of the iuteresting myth lately mentioned, which 
connects the under-world whither the suu descends at night, 
with the region of Hubtenaneiui volcanic fire antl of earthquake. 
The old Maui lay by Iiih Hve iu the dead-land of Bulotu. when 
his gi-andsou Maui came down by the cuvcm entrance; the 

' Pr. JUx. T. Wied, •K«u» in K. A." vol i. pp. Ht, 4U ; vol. iL fip. 152, 223 ; 
Sir Alex. Miickeni:|i.>, ■VoytgM.'Ti. «rii. ; Irving, 'Artorin,' v«L li. ch. »di. ; 
Lo Jcunc, op. tit. I83(, p. 2fi ; 8i:b<jokniA, ' liiditui Tnlw,' pwt UL p. !I$3 i 
'AIkic Um.' rol ii. jtp. JH-B, 108; Cailiu, vol. iu p. 164; Hisuear, ' Pupol 
Vnb," p. 71 anil ImW, * Hural;iiJi : ' J. 0. Miillor, * Amrr. Vm].' pp. 2SS. 2"1 ; 
EUii, 'Pol/iL BcE.* vul. it. p. 417 : Jno. WilUiuH>, ' UiHionary Entt^qiritHi,' 
p. 9S ; Mnnm, I. e. p. 217 ; MolTut, 'SniiUi Africa,' ]i. 338 ; Cxsalia, 'Buutot,' 
p. 230; CtJluVtuy, 'lUligiouof AihahiIu,' p. 119. 

young Maui carried oif the lire, they wrestled, the old iltiiii waft 
overcome, and has Iain there bruised and drowsy ever since, 
underneath the earth, n'hich quakes when he turns over in hi^ 
sleep.' In Celebes we hear of the worirl-supporting Hog. who rubs 
liimsclf aguiust a tree, and tlien there is an earthquake.* Among 
the Indians of North America, it is said that earthquakes coroo 
of the moveuieut of the gi-eat world-bearing Tortoise. Now this 
Toitoiso (leoms but a mythic picture of the Karth itself, and tliua 
the story only expresses ia Diythic phrase tlie very fact that the 
earth quakes; tbo meaning is but one de^'ce Icw! duttinct than 
amooK the Caribs, who say when there ia an earthquake that 
their Mother Karth it* dnncing,' Among tliK higher race« of the 
continoDt, eucb idoau rematu little ehaiiged in uaturc ; the Tliu- 
calans Haid that the tired world>eupiKirting deities shifting their 
burden to a new relay caiiRCil the enrthquake j* the C'hilwba.1 
said it was their gi»d Cliibchacuin umving the earth from 
shoulder to Bhoitlder. * The myth irnigCR in Asia tbrotigli as 
wide a stn^tch of culture. The Kaiiiehadals tell of Tuil the 
Earthquakp-god, who fledges below ground, and whuu his dug 
Hhake.s off He-is or snow there is an carthiiuake ; • Ta Ywa, the 
solar hero of the Karens, set Shie-oo beneath the earth to carry 
it, and there is ao earthquake when he moves.' The world- 
bearing eltpbanU) uf the Hindus, the world-supporting frog of 
the Mongol Lamas, the world-bull of the Moslems, the gigaoUo 
Omophore of the ManichicnucosnHilogy, are all creatures who 
carry the earth on tbcir backs or heads, and shake it when they 
stT«teh or shift. ** Thus in European mythology tbo-ScAodi- 
oavian Loki, strapped down with thon^ of iron in bis subter- 
nuiean cavern, writhes wltcu the ovcrlmnging serpent drops 

' KariiMT, 'Toagu In* vol. il. ^ ISO ; a 8. Fanuvr, 'Tan9^* {v lU ; Scfainen, 
pp. 85-7. 
a * Jonra. Ind. ArcIUp.* twl U. p. 88?. 
» J. C. «iiH.T. • .\nicr. Vmli^' pp. «1, 128. 

* DruKiir, 'HexuiUF,* voL iii. p. 4SS. 

* Pbachc!, 'Ruralitv ^ Knco^' p. S. 
« SUlkr. ' KunlKkallu,' p. »7. 

' Huon, ' Kvow.' I. c. p^ 1S£ 

* B«ll, "Tr. in A«b* in Piuki'rton, vol. vii. p. 3«9 ; Butiaii, ' Onrtl. Amn,' 
roL ti. p^ ICB i Luif, * Tliomunl ml Ono Ni^U,' mL L pi. SI ; vm LtUwn, 
'Oima. l^t.' ni u. p. m i BtMuofare, • Uwiobfa,' voL i. p. »«. 




TODom on him ; or PrC'inethciici stniggks beneath the earth to 
break his bonds; or tlio Lettish Drchktils or Poseidon the 
Earth-shaker makes the grouml rock heiieolh men's feet^ 
From thoroiigli Tnyths of imnginnlion such as nicwt of tlie^, it 
may be sometimes possible to tiislinguish philosophic myths 
Ukc ihein iu fonn, but which appear to be ttttciupta at serious 
cxplanauoii without even n metaphor. 'J'bc JnpuiK'sc thuik 
that eartliquakcs are caused by liuge wliales oreeiMng under- 
gTouiiil, having hecn pnilably lud t» this idea by Sodiug the 
foBul bones which seem tlio remains of such subtomuieaii 
moELsters, Just an wn know t9iul thu Sibumus who find in the 
ground the mamnioth-bones and tusks account for thorn as 
beloDgIng to huge buiiowiug beasts, and by force of this belief. 
hsTC brought themeclTeii to think tlioy can sometimes Bc« th« 
earth heave and sick as the monsters crawl below, llius, ia 
investigating the earthquake-myths of the world, it appears that 
two procetses, tho translation into mythic language of tho 
phenomenon itself, and the crude scicntilic theory to account for 
it by a real moving nnininl underground, may result in legends 
of veiy striking shuilarity.' 

In thus surveying tlie mythic wonders of heaven and earth, 
san, moon, nnd star?, wind, thunder, mid eai'thqiiako, it \s pos- 
Mblc to set out in iuvt^^tigation under condition» of actual cer- 
tainty. So long as such beings as Heaven or Sun are oonsciously 
talked of it) tnyUiic language, the meaning of tlicir legends is 
open to no rpieation, and the actions ascribed to them will as a 
rate be natural and apposite. But when the phenomena i)£ 
nature take a more autliropomorpliic form, and hccomu idcDti- 
6cd with personal gods and heroes, and when in after timea 
these beings, losing their first consciousness of origin, become 
centres rourui which floating fancies cluster, then their sense 
beconieu obscure and corrupt, an<l the conaifitcncy of their 
uarlier diameter must no longer Ijc demanded. In fiu:t, tho 
unreasonable expectation of such consistency in naturc-mytbs, 
after they have passed into what may l)e called their heroic 

' WAi, *n>-lfapnmna' 51) ; GrimiH, *I>. M,' p. T7T, ile, 
* Kofiiiiirrr, 'JtiiHui,' in ritiki-rtuii, vul. vii. p. 081 ; Me lauDUiotti-mftliS In 
• Early Hist, of Jtatikiiid." p. 31C. 

slago, is ooo of the mytbologist's most dania^'lng errors. The 
present examiiiatiou of nature' -myths has mostly taken them in 
their primitive and urnnistakcjible condilion, mul has only been 
in somo degroo extended to iBclude clouely correspoailinj; Icgenda 
in a loiw vaHiiy ititeriiretaltlc state. It lia.'i loin beyond my 
scope to enter into any syjttemntic discussion of the views of 
Grimm, Orote, Max lliiller, Kuhn, Scliiri-en, Cox, Bii-'al, Daxent, 
Kelly, and other mythologists. Even the outlines here sketched 
out have Ijceu purposely left without filling lu surrouuding 
(Istail which might cuiifuxe their shape, althuugh this xtrictni^ai 
has caused the neglect of many ft tempting hint to work out 
t-pisode afl«r f]»isode. hy tracing their relation to the myths of 
fur-otf iimtin atut lands. It hns rather been my object to bring 
prominently into view the natnrc-mythoIogy of the lower races, 
tliat their clear and fresh mythic conceptions may servo as a 
basis in studying the Dature-mythi> of the world at Large. The 
ovidenoe tuid interpretation here bi-ought forward, imperfect ob 
they are, seem lo countenance a strong opinion as to the 
historical developmuiit «f legeuda ivhioh JeiMiribe iu [wraonal 
Hhape tht* lifo of nnttire. The state of mind to which sucli 
imaginative fictions W!ong is found in full vigour in the savago 
coudidou of mankiud, its gi-owth and inhuritaufw continue into 
th(i higher culture of barbarous or half-ctvilized nations, and at 
last in the civdized world it^ cllects pass more and more from 
realized belief into Cuicifut, affected, and even artificial poetry. 


MVTUOIAQV (mUinmd.) 

IliiloMphiciil Mj'tlu ; iiircrmtT* txicdnin pKMidn-liiiAorf — n«oli»p(>a1 KlytHa — 
EHVct of iloctrinc of Mirai'l« on Mftliolo^Q^— Mn);iiaH<.- JlountuD— Mftlo of 
rcbtlou of A)»9 to Utiu hy ilvtuluiitni-iit <ir 'Icgviivnitiun— Etlinolfl^pnl iia- 
jiort of tnyllis of Apc-iucu, Hdu with taiU, Men of Oie wMxlit — Mjitb§ of 
Enor, PiTvi-ixion, (iiiil Exny^niiioii : ttorim of Gii^iitJi, Dtrnrfs, nnil Mon- 
ttraiu Thliw of men — Kaupiful orj>Uniii«7> MyOn — Mjrtlm attaclMit !■> 
Ingpuilniy or hittciriciil ri-n«ii»};i'8 — EtfiLH>1>i}; MyUm un imiu«» of JiInm* 
and pcrRona — Eponimuc Myths no iuUDr« of trilim, nntious, couutiio^ h^, ; 
thoir ettmolngiral impon— ?nigniiilic Mjtbti liy n-Alixntton nriciotapllicntmd 
IiImuh- All vffivy— Buun - VMv — Cutid niioii . 

Althuugu tlic ai'vciupt to roduco to rule bqJ ii,vKt«m the 
whole domain of mythology would tm yet be rash and preiiiatm-o, 
yet the [liectrraeal mvaaiou of one mythic ppovUice after anotlier 
proves feasible and prolitJihle. Hanng discussed the theory of 
nature-uiyths. it is worth while to gain in other Jirfcti(ms 
gUmpses of the crude nnd child-like thought of irmnktud, not 
amiDgcd in ahatnct doctrines hut embodied by mythic lancy. 
\Vc ehull find tho rcMilt in inii.'^ses of legends, ftdl of hitcreat as 
lieAnng on the early liislory of opinion, and which may be 
roughly clas-sificd under Lht: following hcndinj^s: myths pliilo- 
sophical or cxptanatery, myths hasai on real descriptions niia- 
ondorstood, cxaggeratod, or perverted, myths attributing inferred 
event* to lejrondary or liistoricnJ personages, mytha haatA on 
realization of fanciful metaphor, aud uiytlis rande or adapted to 
convey moml or social or political incitruotioa. 

Man's craving 1o know the causes at work in onch event he 
witnesaes, the reasons why each state of things lie sun-ej-s in 
Buch as it is and no other, is no prwluct of high civilization, but 
a characteristic of hrs race down to its lowest stages. Among 



rqde tuivages It is already an intellocttial nppetite wliose gaUs- 
faction claims many of the inomeiits uot cugroasoii hy i\-ai- or 
sport, food or sleep. Evcu to tlio Butocudo or Australian, 
scicntiiic speculation has its germ in sctnal experioucc : he hmt 
learnt to do duBiiitu acts lUut defluitc rCMilts may f'ullav, to see 
other acts done and their results following in course, to mako 
inference from tliu ix-sull back to the previous action, and to 
find his inference vei-ified in fact When one day he lias seen 
a deer vt a kaagai-oo leave foolpnnts in the soft ground, and tho 
next day he ha» found new footprints and inferred that euch an 
animal mado them, and has followed up tho trade and killed 
tho game, tiion ho knows that ho has recwnslnictpd a hi.story of 
post events by inference from their ret^ults. But in iho early 
gtagffs of knowledge the coiifuaiou is cxlromo bctweoii actual 
tradition of events, and ideal roconstniction of them. To this 
day tlieri- go about the world endless stories told a^ matter of 
kaovm reality, but which a critical examination sliows to bo 
mere iufereiicos, often utterly illnsoiy ones, from facts wliich 
have stitnutntetl the invention of some curiouH enquirer. Thux 
a writer in the Asiatlck Researches of some eighty years ago 
relates the futlowing account of the Andaman ialondcrs, as a 
historical fiict of which he had been informed: " Shortly afWr 
the Portuguese lutd discovered the pamage to India round tb« 
Cape of Good Hope, one of their ships, on board of which wcro a 
number of Mozambique ncgroea, wa« lost on tho Andaman 
islands, wluch were till then uninhabited. The blacks remained 
in the island and settled it : the Europeans made a small 
fihallup in which they sailed to Pegu." Many readera mqit 
havo hod their interest excited by tliis curious story, but at tho 
ftnt touch of fact it di»sulvcs into a phllomphic myth, made by 
the eAKy tmn-sitinn from what raij^t hare been to what wna 
So far from the islnndit having been uninhabited nt the time of 
Vaacx) de Gama's voyage, llieir population of naked blackii with 
frizzled hair lieen described six hunilred yeani lairlier, and 
the stoT}', which sounded reasonable to people puzzled by tho 
appoonuiCQ of a block population in t)ie Andaman itdoods, is of 
coarse rcpmltated by clhni^ogistH aware of the wide distribution 
of tJio ucj^id Papuans^ really su diatiiict from any race of 



Africfm ucgTOCs.' Not long Kiticc, I met with a very {K-rfoct 
myth of this kinij. In a brick field near I^nilon, there hjid 
bccD found a ouiultcr of fossil deplmnt bones, and soon aHjCP- 
wards a stoi)- wss in circulation iu the iicij^'Iihourliood Mmowbot 
m ttiis shape : " A few years Ago, one of Wombwell's cuarans 
was here, &□ olcphaot died, and they buried him id the field. 
ftttd now the sctentiHc gentloraen hnvo found hia bones, and 
tbtiilc thoy liAve j;ot a pnc-AttninitG elephant" It seemed 
almost cniel to spoil this ingeuious myth by pointing otit that 
BQcb a prize as n living itminmotli was beyond the resources 
even of WomltweU'B menagerie. But so exactly does 8U<^ a 
stOTj- explain the fact* to mindg not troubU-d with nice dis- 
tinctions Ix'tween existing and extinct species of elephants 
that it wnit on another occasion invented eUcwhere uiidi;r 
pitntlar circumstances. Tbiii ytn& at Oxford, vrhcre Mr. BucUland 
found the ^tory of the Wombwcll's camvan and dead elephant 
current to explain a similar find of foAsil bones." Sucli explana- 
tions of tlic finding of iomih arc ua»ily devised and used to 
b(; freely made, aa when fossil bonces found in tlio Alps vcrc 
set down to Hannibal's elephants, or when a petrified oyster- 
shcU near the ilont Ccnis seta Voltaii-o reflecting on the crowd 
of pilgrims on their way to Konie, or when theologians supposed 
such tihelU on moiintmns to have been left on their slopes and 
summits by a rising deluge. Such theoretical explanations are 
uuimpeachabio iu tht'ir pliiloaopluc tpirit, until further observa- 
tion may prove tlicm to be unsound. Their disastrous effect <m 
the historic conscience of mankind only begins when the in- 
ference is turned upside down, to be told as a recorded fact 

In this connexion brief notice may be taken of the doctrine 
of miracles in its i^eclal bearing on mytbolog)'. The mythic 
wonder-episodes related by b savage tale-teller, the amazing 
nuperhiinian feat)^ of bis godn and licraeK, are often to bis mind 
mimck's in the original popular nenAS of the word, that ifi, 
they arc strange nml marvellous events ; but tbcy are not to his 

1 KBOiiltoTi in ' Ai. Be*.* ml. ii. p, 3U ; Ctilebrouke, SnJ. vol. Ir. p. 988 : 
Eorl ill 'Jonm. IntL AreUiii.' vol. (ii. ji CSJ; vol if. p. 9. See Bomidot. 
' TnTfU of Tiro U&hoiniiitdiiii*,' in Piiikrrlon, vol. til p. 188, 

• F. BucMonil, ' Cui iooitira of Nat. Hist.' Snl Scrio*, rot xL p. SP. 



mind miracles in a frequent modern sense of the word, tlml is, 
they arc not violations or supci-seaftlons of reeognizod laws of 
nature. Exceptif> ])rnb3t regutam ; to Jicknowledge anj-thing 
as an exception is to imply the rule it departs froni : but the 
savage I'ecoguizes neither rule nor exception. Yet a European 
hearer, brought up to iise a different canon of evidence, will 
calmly reject this savage's most rcvcn-'d anccfitral inulitioHB, 
simply on the ground that they relate events which are impog- 
Bible. The ordinary* staudaiilti of poseihiUty, ns appttml to the 
credibility uf trwlitiun, liuvo indeed changed voHtly in the 
course of culture through its Aava^ barbaric, aDd civilised 
stages. What concerns us hero ia that there is an iutportant 
' dvpartment of legend which tliia chaogo in public opinion, 
generally bo resiatlcsa, left to a great cstunt uoaUcred. In tbo 
middle ago» the loug-accoptcil practice rose to its lieight> of 
allowing the mere assertion of supernatural influence by angeln 
or deviU, saint8 or sorcererg. to override the rules of ovidoneo 
and the resalts of experience. The eonsequouce was that the 
doctrine of mii'acles became a* it were a bridge along wLicA 
mythology travelled fmm the lower into the higher culture. 
Principles of mylli-formation belonging pi-operly to the nieiital 
state of the savage, were by its aid continued in strong action 
in the civilized world. Mythic epi^iodeit which Europeans would 
have rejected contcmptuuuNly if told of savage deitictt or bcroct, 
only rc(|nireil to lie adapted to appropriate hwal details, and to 
be set forth as miracles iu the life of some t^uperhuman per* 
sonage, to obtain as of old a phwc of credit and honour to 

From the eQormo\is mo^ uf avaiUhlc instances in proof of 
this, lot lis take two cases belon^ng to the class of geological 
myths. The fii*st i.i the wcll-lcnown legen<) of St Patrick and 
the serpents. It is thus given by Dr. Andrew Boordc in bis 
doecriptioQ of Ireland atid tlio Irish in Henry YIII.'s time. 
" Yot in lerland i.« stiipendyiius thynges ; for thiire is neytlier 
Pyes nor venymus wovmes. Tliere is no Adder, nor Snako, nor 
Toode, nor Lyzerd, nor no Euyt, iior none such lyke. I liauo 
Bene stones the whicbe baue had the forme and shap of a suako 
and other veniniua wormos. And the people of the countre 



dayih that sucho atones veere wonacs, and tfaoy wero turned 
into 8toti68 b^ Uio power (»f G<A and the prajers of saynt 
Patrj-k. Ami Englysli inarcliaiintcs of England do fcteh of the 
orU) of Irlondc to casts in their gardens, to ko]>e out and to 
kyll Tcmmous wormus."* In truattng tliis pa.<»age, tlio lirst 
step is to separate pieces of impoitetl foreign myth, botouging 
properly not to Ireland, but to islands of the Mediterranewi j 
tlie titury of tlic earth of the island of Krcte being fatal to 
't-enomous serpents h to bo found in ^lian,' and St. Honoratus 
deoruig the Knakea from his ialiuid (ouc of the; Lcrinn opposite 
Cannee) seems to take precedence of the Irish saint. What b 
lefl after these deductions is a philosophic myth accounting 
for Uic cxi;«tcaco of fossil omnionitcH as petrified ttnakes, to 
which myth a historical position i» given by daimiug it us a 
miracle, and ascribing it to St. Patrick. Tho socond myth is 
raloable for tho hijitorical endencc which it iocideDtally pre- 
Mrre* At tho celebrated niins of the temple of Jupiter 
Serapis at Pozzuoli, the ancient Futeoli, tho luarblo coltunns, 
endrcled IiiJf-way up by borings of lilhoilomi, Ktand to prove 
that the ground of the temple must have been formerly sub- 
merged many feet below the soa, and afterwards upheaved 
to become agniu «lry l«ml. History is rrmarkably silent as 
to tlie events demoustrated by this remarkable geological evi- 
dence ; between the recorded adornmcut of the temple by 
Roman emperors from the second to the third century, and the 
mention of its existence in ruins in tho 16th centuiy, uo 
documentary information was till lately recognized. It has 
now been jroiuted out by Mr. Tuckett lluit a patcwigc in tho 
Apocryphal Acta of Peter and Paul, dating apparently more or 
les6 bcfort) the enJ of the StU century, mentions tho rfubsidenco 
of the temple, aflci-ibing it to a miracle of St Paul The legend is 
as follows : "And when be (Pawl) came out of Messina he sailed 
to Didymus, and remained there one lught. And having sailed 
thence, he came to Pouliole (Puteoli) on the second day. And 
Dioacoros tho sbipmostcr, who brought turn to Syracuse, sym- 

> JmArtv Iloordc, ' InbtMluclioD of Knowledge,' cd. l>7 1. J. Fnrnivall, Eulf 
Bug, Test Soc. 1870, p. 133. 
• Man. Dc Nnl. Anlinol. r, S, wc 8. 

patliizinw with Paul Ix-eaiise he had delivereil his son firom 
death, having left his own ahlp m Syi^acuse. accompanied him 
to Pontiole. And some of Peter's disciples having been foimd 
there, and having received Piinl, exhorted him to May witli 
tlicon. Aud he stayed n week in hiding, beconso of the com- 
mand of Castar (that Iio shoidd be put to death). And all the 
loparchs weru ^vaiting to seize and kill him. Bnt Dioacortia 
the flhipraaator, being himself nlso bald, wearing h'm shipniiifitcr's 
dress, and speakius hol<tly. on tlie first day went out into tho city 
ftfPontioIo, TUiukitig thfreforc that he woe Paul, they scijted 

hioi and beheaded him, ami sent his head to Caesar And 

PanI, being in Pontiole, and having heard that DioKConitt had 
been belii^aded, Iwing grieved with great grief, gazing into the 
height of the heaven, said : 'O L«,ii..\lmiglity in Heaven, who 
h&8t appeared to me in every place vrtmi^j*^^ have gone on 
ROconnt wf Thine only-bcgotten Wonl, our Lond^ttML"; Christ, 
punish this city, and bring out all who havo bidieveoSi^Ood 
and followed His nonl.' He said to them, therefore, 'Foi 
me.* And going forth from Pontiole with those who had be- 
lieved ill th« word of Gud, they cvime to a place called Baiu 
(Bniii;), and louking up vith their eyes, they all .sec that dty 
called Pontiole sunk into the sca-fhore about one fathom ; and 
thcru it in until this ilny, fnr a i-emembrance, under the sea. 
. . , And those who had been saved out of the city of 
Pontiole, that hatl been swallowed up, reported to Cieaar in Rome 
that Pontiole had been »walIowed up with all its multitude."' 

Episodes of popular myth, which arc often it«a[is of Ihe 
-Hrioiu belief of the times they belong to, may scn'o at im- 
^^Mttttttt records of intellectual history. As ut example belong- 
ing to the class of philoisophioal or explanatory myths, let u« 
^ance at an Arabian Night.t' storv, which at tint sight may 
BMm an eR'ort of the wildest iuiagiaation, but which i? ocver- 
theless traceable to a scientific origin ; thia is the atory of the 
Magnetic Mountain. Tlie Third Kalenter relates in liis talo 
how a. contrary wiud drove his ships into a strange sea, and 

* *A<b of Frtcr anil Pan!' traim. liy A. '^■Ikcr, lu ADt«-KiccBo Wmrj, 

rol. uri. p. avr ; F, iu •KoIure.'Oct. 20, 1S70. Se* Lycll, TriadplM 
of Oeolugj,' di. XXX. : ]'liilli[<a, ' Vnmvttm,' p. SJl. 

rot, t, B 



tbfiTCj by the attraction of tliotr nails autl otbcr irouwork, tliuy i 
vrere violently drawa towards a inouutaiu of black loAilatoue,' 
til] at last the iron flew out to tbe moiULtain, and the abips 
went to pieces in tho surC The episodo la older than the dote 
when the 'Thousand and One Niglits' were edited. When, to 
Henry of Veldcck's 12th century pocra, Duko Erneet and bis 
companions sail into tlie Kleljermiiur, tlit^y see the rock that in 
cnllod Magncs, and aws thcmaslvcs dragged in below it among 
"many a work of keeU," wbose masts bianit like a foreot.* 
Turning from tft]<'-tellers to grave geographers and tmvellora 
who talk Lii the loadstynii mountain, wo find El Kazwiui, like 
SeraptOD before hira, believing sucli boats as may be still sc&i ' 
Iq Ceylou, pegged and sc-wti without metal iiaik, to bo so built 
Icat tlie magnetic rock shptiid tMnwt them from their eourwe at 
Bee, Tbia quaint u^itm is to be found in Sir John Haudeville : 
"Id on is|(^Mpt CrucH, btm m:hi{ipt:s withoutcu naylce of ircn, 
or byilaB, for the rocket of the adamaiidcs; for tbcy 1>cu lUle | 
tbcru about*: iu that see. tliat It itt marveyle to £pakcn <^. < 
And gtf a schipp passed by the marcbea, and tiailde eitber iren 
bandfrs or irc-u iiayles, auon lie aholde ben perishct. For tho 
ndiuutuidc of thiii kinde dmws the ircn to him ; and so wolde it 
draw to him tlie scbipp, because of the iren ; tbat be sholdc 
never dcpm-ten fro it, no never go thens."^ Now it seems tbat 
accounts of the magnt^tic mouutuin haA*e been given not only > 
na belonging to the southern seas, but also to the north, and 
that men have conncetcd with such notions the pointiug of the 
magnetic needle, aa Sir ThomaH Bruwue says, "ascribing tlioreto 
the causu of the needle's direction, and couceeving the effluxions 
from these mouiiUiius and rocks invite tho lilly towaitl tbe 
uortb,"' On this evidence we hiive, I think, fair ground for 
supposing that h\'ptitheifes of polar magnetic motintaias were first < 
devised to explain the action of the compass, and that these 

' iMBt, 'ThCTunnd txid One N.' ti>1. i. pj». 1«1, ai7 : vol iU. p. 78 j Holo, 
'KeniJirku on Ui« .\r. X.'p. 101; Ileiiiricli run VuUcck, ' Homg XnM'n von 
nay<.>ro Erbuliiuig, ele.' iH. Hixiicr, Arnhnrg 1830, {i. C6; st« LmUow, 

iifiM or uiddh AgM,' ?. m. 

* Sir Joha Maandnrilc, ' Voioge nnU TVumllt.' 

* Sir TIiDiniu DraniKv ' Vnlfinr ErTocru,* ii. 3. 

gave rise to stones of such Tnoiiiitains exerting wlint would be 
considered their jiropcr cfffct on tho iron of pii«iiig iships. Tlio 
argument is clonchcd by the consideriLlioit that KiirupcuiifL, who 
colloquially any the needle point.f to the north, naturally re- 
quired their loadstone mouutain iu high iiortLcrQ ktitiides while 
on the other hand it was as natural that Oiioutals should place 
thia woodrDiis rock in the south, for they Hny it ia to the 
south that the noodle points. The conception of magnetism 
among pouplus who hail not reached the idea of doubk* puliufity 
may he giithored from the fidlowing (ju.ilnt mmnrkii in the 17th 
century cyclopajdia of the Chiuese emperor Kaiig-hL " I now 
ibe Europeaus say it is towards the Nortli pole that the 
'Compass turns; the aDcieots finid it was toward the South; 
which have judged uiost rightlyl Since neither give any rea»on 
why, we couie to no more with the one side tlian witli iliu 
other. But tlie ancients are the earlier in date, and the farther 
I go the uiore I pL-rccive tliat tliey understood tho incchaniHui 
of nature. All movement languishes and dies in proportion as 
it appruacheti the nurtli ; it in hard tu U.'liuvu it to be from 
thence Uiat the movement of tho magnetic needle oomes."^ 

To suppose that theories of a relation between nuui and the 
lower mammalia arc only a product of advanced science, would 
be an extreme mistake. Even at low levels of culture, men 
addicted to Rpcculatix-c philosophy have been led to account for 
the' reHomhlance Inttweeu upcti and themselves by solutions 
satisfactory to their own minds, hut which we muiit clai« as 
philosopliic myths. Among these, Ktoriog whicli embody the 
thought of an upward change from n{>u to man, more or lea 
approaching the last^ccntury theory of ilcvclopmcnt, are to be 
found Hide by side with others which in the oonverse way 
socoiint for apes as degenerate from a previous bunian state. 

Central American mytbology workii out the idea thai monkeys 

' 'M£mMr«i »»i«. i'HU., eic, Ow Cluimii,' v»L i». p. 157. Cowipare llio 

«l«r7 uf tbc nagBOtiqt) liortciuii in ' Tliousutl ai»d Uno X.' vol lit (■> tl^i with 

tlic old CLioMC mctuion of matnictie care witb a iix/vnabl*-&iiti*d [KNiiUtig fi]cwi% 

A. r. HnmboUt, ' Am* Centnle,' toI i p. st ; GagnM, *ot iti. fi. 184. (Tlw 

'louktma navntaiii hu iu pomr tna a korwauu on the tap with bimim 

' hom.) 





were once a bumao race.' la Soatb-Easi A/nca. Father Dob 
SaatOR renuirkid long sance tliAt " thfj liold that the apes 
«er» aiicR'utly men aod vomco. »utl tliu^ tliey odl tbtim in 
their tongue the first people." The Zulus still tell the tale of 
on AfORft-tne tri1>e who hecnme babooDs. Titer were an idle 
nee whu did iiut like tu di^. but w-ishcd to eat at other pc(iple'« 
booMS. mring. " We shall lire, altboagh we do not dig. if we 
««t the f'jod of Ibow who cultivate the soiL" So the chief of 
that placr, of the Iwtise of TaM. aswinldcd the tril>r. and thcy 
prcpared food aod went out into the vrild«nies&. Tbey fiuftened 
on behind thoio Ihu haodlcH uf tJicir dovt nsclcea digging pickn, 
these grew aod become taib, bair made its appearaxioe on their 
bodice, tbcir foreheads bcctune ovcriiai^{iag. and so they became 
baboons, who are still called "Ttui's men."' Mr. Kii^sley's 
Ktory of the great and famous nation of the DcuuyooUkea, who 
dcgCDOTTtted bv natural soleetioo into gorillas, is the civilized 
munterpart of this savage myth. Or munkejs maj bo trans- 
formed aborigines, m the Mbooobis relat« in South America : 
in the great coufiagratiun of thcii- forests a loan and woman 
c'limliwl a tree for refiige from the fiery delnge, but the flame* 
MiDged their facoi; and they became apo&.^ Anwug more civt- 
tizetl nations tlieKe faiiciex have graphic representatires in 
Silosiem legends, of which one is as follows : — ^Therc was & 
Jewish city which sUioJ by a, river full of tiah, Uit the cunning 
creatoi-es. noticing the habits of the citizens, ventured froely in 
flight on the Sftbbaih, though they carefully kept away on work- 
ing-days. At liiAt the temptation wa3 too strong for the Jewish 
lisbemicu, but they paid dearly for a few days' fine sport by 
being miraculoualy tumc-d into apes as a piwisbmcnt for 
Sabbath-breaking. In afier timee, wlien Solomon passed 
through tlio Valley of Apca, betweea Jerusalem and HareK 

> UnaMur, 'PopotVuh,' ]>]>. S3-31. CMnpatv lUs C«iilni] Atii«ri«Mi ntfth 
of tha mcKiit MiucteM OMBiiikivii wlio 1<rc4itn« inunkajrik witk n rottowalcqui 
]aSend in Schoolcnft. ' ladiau Trilies' put i. t^ 320. 

* Doa SutORv ' eUii«i>U Orirutal ; Kvora ]60fl. [<4it i. ckap. ix. : C'&IUmr. 
•Znln T«l«s," ToL i. p. i;7. 8*0 ftlw Rarton, ' Foatsl«[i* la E. Ah.' p. 37* ; 
"U'tft* *Alith»|«l*(tie," r..|. ii. p. ITS (W. Aft.). 

* D'OriMgnjr. 'L'lloaiiiK AntJricun,' voL ii. jx 102. 



he received from their descenJimtK. monkeys living in liouses 
and dmieufd like m«n, nn account ol' their Htntng« historv.' So, 
in cla-ssic times, Jove liail cbasliscd the treucliLTaim race uf Lhc 
Ccrcopi's ; hi! took iVtJiii ilium llic use of loiij^tipji, Iwm but 
to perjure, leaving them to bewail in hofirse cries their f«te. 
irausfoniiL'd iitlo ihu liaity ayvA of the PithocuaBC, like uud yet 
utdike thi; men thc^y luul heen : — 

'* In (loformo viro* nniioal rAut«vi^ ul Uem 
Diiwimilus huintni |)CKS»ont eitnilcaqiio yidori." * 

Turning from dogL-iiL-ratiou to dcvelopmpiit, it is fuuiul that 
legcnda of the dt-sct-nt of hnninii tribes from apes are espe- 
cially applied to racet despised lu low and huut-hkc by wjme 
higher neighlioiiriug petiple, «iid the Uiw mcc may even ac- 
kQowledj.t: the liumiliutiiig esplaimtioii. Thus the aboriginal 
features of tbc rohber-coste of the Miirawiira of 8i)ulb India ore 
tihe justification for their alk^'cd dosc&nl fi-om RiLnin.'H uiookeys, 
as for tbc like genealogy of the Kathkuri, or catC'cbu-gatbcrcra, 
which these small, dark, low-hrowed, cuiiy-hairod tribea ac- 
tuftlly thcmsches believe in. The Jaitwas of lUjpatana, a trihe 
rwkonod politically as Rajputs, nevertheless trace (heir descent 
irom the n)onkcy-g»d Ucmiiman, and confirm it hy allc^ng 
that their priuoea »till bear iu evidenco in a tail-like prolonga- 
tion of the spine; a tradition which haa proliahly a n^d ut)mi>- 
logicftl meaning, pointing out the Jaitwas ns of non-Aryan 
raca' Wild tribes of the Malay peninJluh^ looked down ou as 
lower animals by the more warlike and civilized Ma1fty)i, have 
auioug them tnulitions of their own destx-ux from a pair of 
thu "iinka puteh," or " white monkeyit," who reared their young 
oneH and wnt thoin iuto tlie plains, ami there ibey perf>?rte<I so 
well tliat they and their de«cendaatjt lH.-4--ame men, but ihoHc 
who returned to the mountains still remained apes* Tbtis 

> 'VTcil 'BibL l.(^ dnr Muirlndnnrr,' ]x. 3(T7 ; Lbw, "TboMMiduiilOaa S.* 
to), iii. ]u UO ; Bnrton. * XI Mmliiudi. utc' «ul. iL f. 343. 

* Ofid. 'HeUMin.' sir. 8»-100 ; WdcLtr, ' GfUKfalMlie GOlteriekn,' iraL IIL 

^ lot. 

> Cunpbcll in ' Josra. A*. So«. BeDgid,' tM4, pu\ IL p^ 192 j Lubm, ' Doct. 
Zllk' r<^ U. |i^ «S«: Toil. * JiailNoT lUiMtluui.' rat L p. IK. 

* OoatiMi ill 'Tr. Klfc. Sir.' vol. iii. p. 73 ; mm 'Junrn. Inil. Arrhrp.' vol. B. 
p. «!. 



Bud<Uti8t le^nd relates the origin of the flnt'Doscd, uncouth 
trilies of Tibet, oHRpring of two niiraculuii!i upes, tniaiifoinned 
to people the snoiv-kingtloiu. Taught to till the grouad, when 
they bad gi-own com ojid eat(>D it, theii* tails anil hair ^vJuaUy 
disappeared, they began to speak, Iwranie men, ami clothed 
tlremselves with leavL-s. Tht- popuklioa grew closer, ihv laud 
was more and more cultivated, nod at last a prince of the race* of 
Salcya, drivvu fruiii his homo in tudia, united thi^ir isut»tv(l tribes 
into a singlu kingdom.^ lii tlic:se traditiotis the dovulupmoot 
from ape to man is considered to have come in succesMve geoe* 
rations, but tlit) ncgnies are ttaid to attain the result lu the 
iadividiial, by way of nietenipaychosia. Krnchal fip^-aks of negro 
dftvos iu the United Slates believing that in the next world 
they shall lie white men and free, nur is there anything 
pitrange in their chcrisliiiig a hope no preraleat among their 
kindrt^J in West Africa. But fivnj this the traveller goes on to 
qtioto another etory, which, if not to* good to be true, is a 
theory of upward and downward dovelopment nlmait thorough 
enough for a Ijiiddliit-t philusoplicr. Ho says, " A (Jenoan whom 
I met here ttild mo that the blackH believe the damned among 
the negroes to become mnnkcyg j but if in this state they 
Ijehave well, they are advuniiwl to the state ef a negro again, 
and bliss is eventimlly possible to them, consisting in their 
turning whitu, becoming wiii;>od, and mo uu."* 

To imderstaiid these storit^s (inid they are worth some at- 
teutiou for the ethuolugical hints they conlain), it is uecessary 
that we should dlscanl the rcsnlus of mwlern scientific zoology, 
and bi'icg our mlnd-t back to a ruder condition of knowledge. 
The myths oi human degcucmtiuu and development hare 
much more in common with the spendatinn^t uf Lonl Uan- 
boddo than with the anatomical argimients of Profeswr Hux- 
ley. Oa the one hand, micivilizLtl men delibcmtcly (lasign 
to ftpes an amount of human quality which to modern natu- 

> BMthn, 'Ontl. ABieii,' vol. iiL |i. 495; ' Mcuscli,' vol lit p|k 34', M9, 
38J ; Kwi^Bii, tijI. ii. p. 44 ; J. J. Schiuiill. ■ V.ilker Mitlfl-Asina*,' f. 210. 

■ FVmIh.'1, '(Vnlml AiiiDriot,' ]t. 390; we B<Mnikn, ■Oiilxioi' iii IlnliMtaD, 
vn], xri, p, 401. For alhcr tnulitbua of liumaa tlcocout trom apco^ itee Pamr, 



ralists is simply ridiculous. Evcryoue lias beard tJie story of 
the negroes declaring that opes roally oiti speak, but judiciously 
hold their tongues leat they should bo made to work ; but it iri 
not so gcuerally known that this i^ found as gonoui; matter 
of belief in several distant i-egioiis — Wust Africii, Madagascar, 
South America, &c. — where inaiik<^y» or apiw are found,' 
Mlth this goes another widcly-sprpad anthropoid story, "wUtcli 
relates how great apes liko the gorilla and the oni»g-utan carry 
off women to their homeii in the woods, much as the Apaches 
and Coiuanchfs of our own time carry off to their prairies the 
women of North Mexicti.*- And on the cjther hand, popular 
opinion has umJer-eatiinntcd the man a'* nmch as it has over- 
estimated the monkey. We fc now liaw .sailors ami emigrants 
can look on savages an senseless, ape-like brutes, and how some 
■writcra on anthi-opoloj;^' have couliivt-d. to make out of the 
moderate intellectiml ditlercncfj Ix^twei-n an ICnglishmnn and a 
negro something equivalent to the immcusc interval between a 
negro and Ik gurilln. Thujt we can have no difhciilty in under- 
standing how savages may »cciu mciv ap«s to the eyes of men 
who hunt them like wild beasts in tlie forests, who can only 
hear in their language a eort of inational gurgling and barking, 
and who tail totally to appreciate the real culturw which better 
ncquaiutaneo alwayu dhow^ among tlie nidefit tribes of man. 
It JB well known that when Satwkrit legend tolls of the apea 
who fought in the anoy of King Hamiuiau, it really r«fore to 
thoMj ahoriginea of the land who were diiven by the Aryan 
invaders to the liilla aud jaugle<i, and whwie ileticendants are 
known to U!i as Bliits, KoIr, Sonthnis, and the like, nidc tribes 
such as tho Hindu still speaks of as " monkey-people." ' One 

* Btninaii, ' Giiineo,* p. 440 ; W«itx. ml, ii. p. I73 : fimnhn. ' llolatinn dfl 
MiKhguiWf.' p. UT i Dobridioirdr, 'Ablpottcs' vol. i. )>. SSS ; llattinn, 'Meovch.' 
vol. It. f. 44: Poriclitt, 'I'luMlityof Hhiiim Hiuv,' (i. 22. 

* ttonl>i»l>ln, 'On'Kiitntiil I'r^crcnof l^ig.' 2iiil til. to). 1. p. 177 1 Dn Cbollln. 
* EqiubiriAl Arrica,' ii. 61 ; St. Juhu, ' Fi>mlii of Far East,' vol i. p. 17 ; vol. U, 
p. 239. 

' Max Mrillcr in Biin«vti, 'Phil, Ciii». Hurt.' vol. i. p. 840; 'Joiirn. A». Sew. 
ReuKuV riil. Aiiv, |i. 207. Sim MnrMlfii in 'As, Kcs.' toI. W. p. S26 ; fUch \a 
1*11)111.-11011. vnl. is. p. 4lA; Butiau, 'OntL Aileik,* rul. L p. 4S5; vol. U. 
p. SOI. 




of tliG most perfect ulciitificaiiona uf tlic savage ami ihb 
monkey iu lliotltistau i« ilto following description of tlio bull' 
wuiiiiM, or "mau of tbc wooda" (Sauakr. vanft=wood, 
m.anushfi!=innn). "The bunmantu in &a ouimal of the 
uioukcy kiud. His face has a near resemblance to tlie 
human ; be has no toil, and walks croct. The eltin of liia 
body is black, oud slightly covered with hair," That thia 
clescrlptlun n>ftlly npplieK tint tn npes, but t^i the ilark-!«](iuued, 
iiou-Arynn aborigiiit-s of tlio land, appearti further in the ciiu- 
memtioii of the local dialects of HinduKtan, to wliicli, il Is eaid, 
"may 1)0 added the jargon of the hiinmanug, or wild men of 
the W00J&" ^ III the islands of the Indian Archipelaj^'o, who»u 
tropical forosts swarm both with high apes and low Riivages, the 
«oufur<iuu between the two lu the uuudii of the half-civilized 
inhiibiutnt.'i tiecomes mo!it inextricable There is a wull-kiiuwu 
Hindu fahle in the Hitopadesa, which relates as a warning to 
stupid imitators the fate of the ajjc who imitated the carpenter, 
and was caught in the cleft when he pulled out the wedgo; this 
fuhtc has coiuc to be told in Sumatra an a real story of one of the 
iudi^eticius MiviigcH of the iisland.' It is to rude forcAt-men that 
the Idalay^liahitually give the tiamv o{ ocaug-utan, i.^,," man of 
the woods." But in Borneo tKis term is applied to the miyas ape, 
whence we have learnt to call thia creature the orang-utan, and 
the i[alay3 thomaelvos are known to give the name in one and 
the same district to both the savage and the ape. ' This t«rm 
"mau of the woods" extends far beyond Hindu and Malay 
limits. The Siamese talk of the Kho7i pa, " men of the wood," 
meaoiuy apes;* the Bi-aziUana of Ctiuiuri, or "wood-uion," 
meaniag a certain i^avnge tiilie.^ The name of tbu Bwjegman, 
so amusingly mispronouueed by Eiiglifiliineu, as though it were 

' Aj'coi) Altinivi', twiv lij GInilwtn; ' It«[K>rt of Ellinulo^oil CmonittM 
Jnbl>iiJl"im Kjliibition, lS(I)j-7,'l«i'l I- p. 8, 

* MnndcR, ■ Siimmni,' p. *1, 

* LoKmi iu '.loiini. Iti<1. Arcliip.' vcL L p. S40 ; v»L iii. p, 4S0 i TUovummi, 
ibuL voL i. p. nS(l ; Cmwriinl, it/i'it. riA iv. p. )S6. 

* Bftttuui, 'Oestl. AiiKU,' vol. i. |i. i::t; TtiL liL ]>. iSTi. Sec tlie menlloD a( 
tlie£MHnaiituiAinKnTi!noDnndNFpfll,<'uiii{ilwtl;'Ett;Dol(ij7 oTluJIn.' iu * Jouru. 
JiM. Soe. Benpil," ISflfl, psit ii. p. ■««. 

* Mm-tiua, 'Etliuog. Amor.' roL L pp. I2!r, -171. 

stomc outlniidiiili nfttivo wonU is merely tlic Dutch equivalent 
for £wk-7mtn, " man of the vroods or buslu" ' In oar owu 
UngiiRgo tlie "Lt»ino ei7w<t<;u*" or "forest-miin " hns become 
tlia " salvage man " or anvuge. Europeau opinion of tlio uative 
Irihes of tho New AVorM mny Irn judged of by llio fact tlmt, in 
1537, Popa Pan] iU. bad to inako express slak'iiioiit tlint these 
Iiidiiuut weni n?a.lly num (att<mih;iile8 Indiw ipsai iitpoto veros 
homilies).^ Thus thoro is Ultlo cause to waudc-r at the cireuU- 
tioti of KLorieH of npn-nidn in Soiit}i America, anil at Uiere buiiig 
some indefiniteness in the Incal account of tho stlva<ff\ or 
•"aavagc," that hairy wild man of the woixls who, it is saidi 
lives in the trees, ami sometimes carries off the native women.' 
The meat peifL-ct of iUl-su mystificatious in to be found in a 
Purtugucsfl mainiscript (pioted in the account of Castelnan's 
expeflition, and jrivln*;. '" ^^ eerioiisness, the following acoouut 
of thu pcuptf uUk-d CutUan: " Thin jiupiiluuH mktiim (IwcUa cast 
of tho Janigna, in tlio noighbourhood of tho rivers San Joao 
and San Tliome. advancing even t-j the confluence of the 
Ji\ruena and the Arinos. It is a ver>' ivninrkablc fact that 
Uie Indians composing it walk naturally like the quatirupeds, 
with their hands on tho ground ; they have tho Wily, brpjwt, 
arms, and legs covered with hair, and are of small stature ; thoy 
aro fiurce, and uro their teeth on weapons ; thuy sdecp on the 
ffround, or among the branches of trees ; they have no iuduistiy, 
nor agriculUire, aud live only ou fruita, wild roots, and fish."* 
The writer nf this record showa no symptom of being aware 
that ciuxla or coaia is the name of the large black Simia Paiiis* 
cus, and that he hais been njolly describing, not a trilje uf In- 
ilians. bill a species of apes. 

Various rcBMons may have lod to tho gTwwtli uf another 
qiuunb group of legemls, doscribing human tribes with tails 

' Its nnnliigue ia I«v(aE>oi-, "tinKli-goat.' tho AMoau uaulnpc Tim ilcnTntiou 
vf tlia £Mjama*'M unme from liJii ii(wt-lik« alMltor in a biuh, kivmi Uj IloIIwd 
ratid o\hmra ainM, fit nvnet and fiir-fL-telieiL 

' UortJtU, vol. f. GO. 

* Httiuboldt knd lluu|iluii<l, vol. r. p, 51 ; Sonth«y, 'Bttidl,' voL L p. xxx. ; 
Bitet, ' AmuoDH,' vol i. p. 73 ; vol. ii, p. 204. 

■ Cutelnan. ' Exp. rluns lAmCr. dii Suil,' rol. >iL jb US. Sec MTtiiu, v(>I. 
i. p^ US, Hi, KB3, «a3. 



liko lieastSL To people who at onre believe monkeys a kind 
of UTsgeB, anil Kavages a kin<I of monkeys, men with tailic are 
creatures coming under Loth Jefinition^ Tlius tlie Homo cnu- 
Aaian, or Ratyv, often iipptan in |x>pukr IwUef as & lialf-faiiman 
creature, while even in old-fashioned works on nAtund histonr 
lio may bo Ibuud depicted on the evident luodi-l of au antbro- 
poid ii]ie. In yjtst, AfricA, the imtLgined tiibe of long^tailcd 
men ore tkleo monkey 'faced,' 'while in South Americn the coata. 
(aintya, or " niniikry-mcii," aw as luitunilly described m men 
vith talk* Kuropean travellera have tried to rationali2e the 
stories of tailed mirn wliicb they meet with iti Africa and tbo 
East. Tluia Dr. Krapf points to a leather appendago yronx 
beliind frora the prdle by the Wakamba, aad remarks, " It is no 
wonder that people sciy there are men with tails in the interior 
of Africa," and other writers have called attentiun to haogiog 
mats or wairt-cloths, tiy-Huppeis or artifieial tails worn for ufoik' 
uient, ax having mada their wearers liable to be mtj^t&keu at a 
distHnen for tailed men,' But these apparpntly silly myths 
liavo often a real etlmolugieal aiguincnuce. deeper at any rata tlion 
Kuch a trivial blunder. When iui ethndlogiitt tutiets iu any 
district with the stniy of tailed ineii, he ought to look for a 
desplaed tribe of abonginan, outcasts, or heretics, living near 
or among a dominant population, who look npon tbem as 
beasts, and furnish them wilb tulls acconjingly. Although the 
aboriginal Minn-tflxe, or "children of the »uil," come down from 
time to time into Cuntou ta trade, the Chinese still firmly 
believe thum to have short tails like moukeyii;* the bolf- 
civiliKod Malays describe the ruder forest tribes as tailed men ;^ 
tb« Moslem uatiout) of Africa tell tbo souo story of the ^iaui- 
Nam of tbe interior.'^ The outcast raco of Cegota, about tbo 

' Pelhorick, ' Efiyi't. tte.' jv 387. 

* Sotillic^, 'Btncil,' rul. i. |>. eSG ; Marliii>, vol. I |<|>, 435, 613. 

■ Krapf, p. 143 : Ilskor. 'Albon Njruiaa,' vgl. L |>. 68 ; St. Joba, toL. i. i>p. II, 
405 ; an>l other!). 
' LocUart. 'Aljor. of China.' In 'Tr. Etb. Soe." vol. L Ji. »8L 

* 'Jonm. InrL Ar^Iiip.' vol. li. ^ S58 ; ml. iv. p. 874 ; Cntnaon, 'Ual^ui 
IiiJin,* p. 190; Mmnlim, ji. 7 ; Aiilouic Onlvano, \tp. 120, SIS. 

* Darin. 'CArtlu^o,' p. HQ ; l^stock uid Bilcf's Plinj (Bohi^* oi.), nU it. 
1^ 1S4, iiiite. 



l?jtQu9w, were said to t>o born with tails; mid in Spain Lhu 
medieaval superatitiou still yurvives tluit llie Jews bare taiK 
like the devil, m thoy nay} In EngUnil the notion was tuineil 
to theological profit by belug claiineil as a juilguifnt on wi-etciies 
who iiisiiit«il St. Augustine and St. Thomiw of (Canterbury. 
Home Tooke f^uotes thus from that zealous autl somewhat foul- 
moutliud reformer, iJisbop Bale: "Joban Capgrave ami AJex- 
ander ef Es-wby sayth, that for castynge of fyshe tayles at thys 
Aogustyiio, Dorsett Sbyru inennc baddc tnylat ever after. But 
Polydonis applieth it unto Kentish meu at StrouJ by llochcsttir, 
for citttioge of Thonuw BL-okel's hovsea tail lliua hath Eng- 
land ia all other land a perpetual! infamy of tnylcs by Ihcyr 
myttea legeuJcs of Jyc^ yet cou tlicy not well t4;II, where to 

beatowc them truely an Knglysbifiau now am- 

not travaylc in an other land, by way of marcKandyso or any 
other honest occiipyinge, but it is most contiimclioiiHly thrown 
in his tetho, that al Euglishmen have tajles."" The story at 
last Rtink into a commonplace of local slander betwoea shirc 
and .shire, aud the Devuu^hire belief that Cornishincu had IjuIk 
lingered at least till a few years aga' Not less curious is tho 
tradition among savago tribeii, that the tailed state was an eazly 
or original condition of maiu In tlie Fiji Islands there is a 
legend of a tribe of men with tails like dogfi, whn perished in 
the gi-eat deluge, while the Tasmauians declared thai men 
oiigiiially bad tuiU and no Itnee-joinls. Among the natives of 
Brazil, it is related by a Portuguese writer of about 1600. after 
a couple have been married, thv father or fatbcr-in-law cuts a 
wooden stick with a Rhfirp Hint, imagining that by this cere- 
mony he cuts otf tlic tailn of any future gi-aud children, ao tJial 
tbey will be bom tailless.'* There flecma no oridence to coaacct 
tho ocwwiona] occurrouc3 of tail-like projections by malforma- 
tioo with the stories of tailed human tribes.* 

■ 7TUiriM]tie-3Ileli«I. 'Rbmi UaaditM,' vtiL L p. 17; 'Argot,' |>. U»; 
ftmn Cab*ll(R>, ' Ia GavJAto,' roL i. p. fi9. 

> Hone Took<?, * VivonitMa of I^rlcy,' ntL L p. 3&7. 

> Bwinfc-GiKi:.!, 'MTthK,' p. Ifff. 

< WlUusM. -Fiji,' vol. i. ^ tSt; Backboow, 'Amtr.' p. S£7 : PuxdiMt 
vol. Ir. p. lUO : Oe Lwl. •^'»nls OiUi*.* p. 1143. 
• F^r TuiiMs ollMf U«rM» of teiloil bmh, ce ' X*. IU«.' j<i. iit. ]». I IP ; ' Uen. 



Aotliropotogy, until modero times, classified among its fncts 
tliG parliciilars of iDonstroun hitmnn trilieii, ^^luittc or liu'urfiKlt, 
miHitblcsH or lieiullcss, ouo-eyed or ouo-Ioggeii, and wj foitli. 
The worku of ancieut geii^^pticrfi aad uatiiraliiits itbound in 
il<>KLTiplii>ns of the-se Btrange crwitnri,'K ; writJii-s siich ant Isidore 
of Seville aud Itogcr Bu<:uu iMlltii'tn-d tliem, and sent theto into 
freak and wider cirailntion in the midille ageu, and tlie popular 
belief of iinciviliiKd nations retains tliein litiil. It was not till 
the real world had been so fJiorouglilj explored aa to leave 
littts room in rt for the monsters, that about the li^iuoing 
of the present century science banished them to the ideal 
world of mythology. Having had to glance here at two of the 
principal species in Uiis auiuziug scmi-humnn nienageric, it 
may bo ^\-orl.b while to look among the r&si for more luuts as 
to the Bourees of mythic fancy.' 

That some of the myths of giants and dwarfii ore connected 
with traditions of real indigenous or hoHtile tribes is eettlod 
beyond cpieRtion by the e\ndence hnmglit forward by Grimm, 
Nil^son, nml Hanu^icb. With nit the difTiciilty of analysing 
the mixed nature of the dwarfs of European folklure, and 
judging how fai- tlicy are elves, or gnomes, or such like nature- 
spirits, and how far hiuuaii beings in mythic aapeet, it hi im- 
possible not to recognize this latter element in the kindly or 
mijiehievous aborigiue»< of the laud, with their special bngUAgei 
and religion, ami costumen The giaiit't appear in Em'Opean 
folklore as Stoue-Age heathen, shy of the concjueriug tribes of 
men, loathing their agi-icultun; and the sound of tbeir diuricb- 
ImJIh. The rude native's fear of the more civilized intruder 
in his land is wall depicted in the tale of the giant's daughter, 
who found the boor ploughing hiH field and carried him home 

Aiil)iroi>. Soc.' Tol. i. p. 4&1 ; ' Joum. Ind. Arclii)i.' vol, ijj. ]i, 2(S], etc. (Nico'bar 
UlnmU) ; KI«nin, 'C. a' vnl, ii |>p. 2t«, 316 (Snrylwrlirw In.); • U-tUin at 
ColumbUB,' Halcluvt Boe. y. II |l'iili.i), tU^., <tp. 

' DutttUa ul aiuiiBtruun triW* liiiv« U-cn in jnuiL centurioi lijicrully cvIIikU^ iit 
Uie foUciniDg -ivoika : ' AutLiru]Hiiiic'UiiJur|>lioiLU: Mati Ti-aiisfunuol, or iho Arti- 
lii-iiill Cliaiigding, me.,' H-ripsit J. B. cognomento Cluro)ir<|iIin», kl.D., Lomlon, 
1<53 ; L'uloviiu, * Do ThHuniatnntliivp7lo(]iii, yen pnriUr uV\xk Iil-U tractatnt 
hittorico-phnicui,' RoMock, IC$& ; J. A, FaWiciiui, ' IHs*crt«tio d« lioininitqu 
urUii tioalri iuoolis, eL&,' Huuburic, IJSl. Onljr a Tew ]>rinci|nl refertacoa an 
lion ^nn. 

in tier apruu for a pUytbing^plougl). aud oxen, and all; Ijut 
her inotliin' hnAv htr cany Uium bock ta where .she roiini] 
tbom, fur, wiid slie. they are of » people that cau du the Uuiis 
much ill. The fact of the giant tril)e« I»eoring snch historic 
oames as Hun or Cliud is significant, »i)d Slavuuic mcu have, 
perhaps, not yet f<orgiJtti:u that the dwarts talked of in tlicir 
legends were descended ivom the aborigines whom the Old- 
Prussians found in tho laod. Beyond a doubt the old Scandiiidr 
v-iaoB are doBcribiug tho ancient and ill-used Lapp popnlation, 
once 80 widely tipread over Northern Eui-opc, when their migiu 
tell of the dwar&, stunted and tigly, dressed in reindeer kirtlo 
and coloured cap, cuoiiiug and cowardly, shy of inlerewirse 
eireii with friendly JCorsetnen, dwelling in caves or in the 
mound-like laptaud " ganim," armed ouly with arrowii tipped 
with Htontf and bone, yet feared and hated "by iJieir conqucrotH 
for their fancied powers of witchcraft.' Moslem legend relatoa 
that the race of Gog and Magog (Yajuj aud Majuj) are of liny 
xtature. but with ear^ like elephants ; they are a numeroiu 
people, and ravaged tlie world; tliey dwell lu the Ea«t, sepor 
rated from Penda by a high mountain, with but one pass ; and 
the nations their neighbours, when they heard of Aleiander 
the Great (Dhu rKaraein) traversing the world, paid tribato 
to bim, and he made lUcm a wall of bronxe and iron, to keep 
ia tbe nation of Gog and Magog' \^'bo can (ail to rooogiuxo 
in tbia a mystified description of tho Tatars of High A^iaf 
ProfesBor NUason tries to account in a general way for tbe hn^ 
or tiny stature of legendary tribes, as being mere esaggermtion 
of their actual largeness or fimallnesa We must admit tliaK 
tltisRoinetiiiiC'^ really bappcng. Tbe neoounts whieli Earopean 
eye-witne%M^» Itroughl liome of the colosMd stature of tbe Pata^ 
jpwioiis, to whose watats they Raid their own heads reached, oro 
oQongli to settle once for all the fact that myths of giants 
may arise from the ftij^ht of really tall men ; * aod it ix so, too^ 

■ Orioiu. *V, U.' dL. x«iL xriii. ; KiImoii, TriiBitm lubUuaU of SeuUi- 
MT>v' di. Ti. ; n>nucb. 'flWr. Mpk.* w ^M, M£-7 ; VTuibv 'rtdlwlMisL* 
K S81. 

* 'llmniiM lie Tatnut,' tr. DubMs. -pm L dL viii 8m Eoru, xvtiL »& 

■ KplMU in I'inlHrtnn, voL si. f. 314. Km Blnantacb, 'Da Gcntfis 



witli the ilwarf-legenils of llie same rojjioo, an whore Knirot, 
tho old traveller, reniaiks of the little people of Rio de la 
PUui, thai thay aro " uot so very little as de-tcribed" ' 

IJeverthvlessv this same group of giaiit and dwarf myths 
ifMiy s«rvc lis a warning not to stretch too wi<lely ft partial ex- 
plnniitiun. however sound witliiu its proper Hiiiils. There is 
plenty of uvideuce that giant-lcgcnds arc mtiictimcs philosophic 
tnytli!), to account for the findin*; of great fo^hil IjonpH. To 
give but. iL eiiigle tDRtaacc of such cuuuiiJcioo, certaiu huge jaws 
and toeth, found in excavating on the Hoc at Plymouth, were 
reco^iztid as holonging to the giant Qogmagog, who in old 
times fuUj;ltt his lost fij;bt there agaiiut Corineu^, tho «poDymic 
liori> of ComwalL* As to the dwarfs, i^n, stories of them are 
curiously iLWH-'iatiHl with thoM long-enduring monuments of 
<Ioparte(i mci>s— tUcir butial-cyfits and dolineus. I'hus, ju 
the Unit«tl States, ranges of rvde stone cysts, oken only two 
or three feet long, arc connected with the idea of a pygmy 
nic« buried in them, wlale in India it is a usual legfnd of 
the prehistoric dolnienK, that they were dirarfo' houses — 
tlie dwellings of the ancient pygmiea, who here again Appear 
as repPCiseDtatives of prehistoric tribca.* But a very rlificrcnt 
moaning is obvious in a inetliirvnl traveller's account of tlic 
hairy, man-like crentures of Cathay, one cubit high, and that 
do uot bend their knees u» they walk, or in an Arab geogra- 
pher's description of an island people in the Indian eeas, four 
spans liigh, naked, with red downy hair on their focus, and 
who climb up trees and shun mankind. If any one could pos- 
«hly doubt the real nature of these dwarfs, his doubt may bo 
resolved by Marco Polo's Rtatement that in his time monkeys 
K-crc regularly cmbolmed in thu East Indies, and. sold in boxes 

HmuDK VoriotAte : ' Fitavr, ' Vvj. of Adveotnn and Bcftglc,' vol. i. ; Wdtz, 
' AnthropoloKle,' to), ill. p. 488. 

■ Knivct in PnrrJiaii, vnl. ir. p. ISSl ; Mmiwro HnmlmMi and BMii>lai)(l, 
Y«l. V. p. iAi, witli Uartiiu, • Klhoog. Amcr.' [>. 4ii ; w« &I*) Rnp^ ' Ea«t 
Africa,' [1. SI ; I>ii Chaillu, ' AUiugo-loiKl,' p. SIS. 

• 'Eftrlj-IIIitt. frMaiikiiiJ,'eli, xi. ; Hunt, ' P"ii.It<rin.' 1 rt »«i«, pp. 1 8, 801. 

• Bfinitr, 'jtUr. MoDiini«ijts of N. V.' p. M; Long'i 'Kip.' »uL L i<ji. 03,275; 
Ucndum Taylor la 'Juttrn. Elli. Sw.'rol. i. p. Ii7. 

to be exhibited ovor tho worUI as jiT^uit^s.* Thus 'v'orioiu 
diSercnt facts have gtvuu Hm^ to stunes of gtanto and dw&rfs, 
moru thaii onu inji'tbic c1ciul-»L pcrtiapG couibuuug to form a 
single legend — a result perplexiug m the extreme to thfi my- 
thological interpreter. 

JJCKoriptions of strange tribes mode in entire fjood faith may 
come to be understood in new extravagant Koanaj, when carried 
among people not aware of tlie original facts. The following 
are (tome iuterpretatioDS of tliis kind, amoni; which some far- 
fetched ca.sc8 aro given, to nhnvt that the nietbod munt nut be 
Crusted too much. The term "noseless" is apt to be min- 
uudenitood, yet it wan fairly eiiough applied to flat-nosed 
tribes, such hn Turli.s of the steppes, wliutii l^bbi B<-njauuD 
of Tudela thus depicts in tlie twelfth century: — "They have 
no noscw, but draw Itii'fttli tlirougli two small hulcs." * Again, 
among the common orriamental mutilations of savagoi; is that 
uf fltrctchiiig the cant to on enormous sixe by weights or coils, 
and It is thu» verbally quite true that there arc men \Thosc 
eats huug dowu upon their shuuldei'd. Yet without explanation 
such a phriuio would be understood to describe, not the appear- 
ance of a real savage with his ear-lobes Rtretclied into pendant 
Heshy loops, but rather tliat of Pliny's Patwfli, or of the 
Indian KariiainiiiiaiHuna, " whoso ears sei-vo them for cloakg," 
or of the African dwart't^, who u»c their ears one fur mattress 
and tho other for coverlet when they lie down. One of the 
moA exttavagant of tliei-e stories in told by Fray Pedro Simou 
in Califoraifl, whore iu fact the territory of Oi'eijon has its 
name frum tho Spanish term of Otvjoiu/i, or "Big-Ears," given to 
the inhabitants from their pmctico of strotcliing their ears with 
ornameutK* Even purely met-iphorical deBcriptious. if taken 

' GvL in Rubrainu in PinkorMti, nil. vii. p. S9 ; Ltn^ ' Tlioosaml aud One 
S.' nl. iii. pp. SI, 01, mid U, 62, 97; Hot^ p. 03; Mnico Pol«. tMok Uf. 
cb. xii. 

' Bvajaiiiin ft' Tudvlii, ' Il^DKrsty,' rJ. uid tr. Iiy Aalur, E3 ; Plui. vii. S. Sm 
Uu MiUlcr In Bniucn, vol. i. ]<]}. 344, 308. 

' niii. iv, 27: Meln. iii. fl; Hn«liiin, 'OmU. AKi«n,' %o\. L p. 120; vol. 0. 
p. 03; St. John, rot. il p 1J7; Marwlun, p. 53; lani'. "Himiwuiil bjhI Ono X,' 
V.J. Hi pp. 0^ JOS J r»lliwok, ■ E+ffTvl, ptc." p. SaT; Rorlan, ' Cidttral Aft." 
voL i p. S3£ i Tctlro Simon, ' Indins Uuditcutalra,' p. 7. A noiiie tlniUu' to 



tn a libcrnl sciiso, aru rmpaMe of tuniing into cutcLeo, IHce llie 
etory uf the 1101*30 with its hood where its tail siionld be I 
hare beun tohl by a French Prutestatit fn>m the N)iitn(>s district 
that tlie vpithffi o( fforgno lUffro, or " blnck-throat," bj which 
Cstholics describe a Huguenot, is lakeii no litwrally that hfretic 
children are Boinetinies forced to open their months to satisfy 
the orthodox of their h«iug of the u«ual colour within. On 
oxaminin^ the drscriptiortK of savage Ixihcs by higher ruccs, it 
appears thnl seveml of the epitliets usually applied only ncctl 
Utcralizing to turn into tlic wildest of the Ic^udnry monster- 
Btoriea, Thus, the Binnese speak of the nido Karens as 
" dog-nicit ; " ' Murro Polo describes the Angauiau (Audamau) 
itdandcrii as bnitihh and snvage canoiliaU, with beads liko 
dogs.^ .^linti':; account of the dog'headed people of India is 
on the face of it on account of a savage race. The Kynokcpbali, 
h© saye, or© so called from their bodily appearance, bat other- 
wise tbey ftixj human, and thoy go drexsed in the skin* of 
heasts; tliey are just, and hano not men; Ihvy cannot speak, 
but roar, yat they understand the languago of the Indians ; 
they live by hunting, being swift of foot, and tbey cook their 
game not by fire, but by tearing it into fnigrnents and drying 
it in the stin ; they keep gnats ami sheep, and drink the luilk. 
The naturalist concludcit by saying that be mentions these fitly 
among the irmtlonal aiiitnalH, U-catisn tliry Iiave not articulate, 
tlistinct, and biiman langimge.* This last suggestive remark 
veil Htatca the olil prevalent notion that Ixarltariau-s liavo no real 
language, hut arc "speechie^ts," " tongiielean." or even mouth- 
Igso.* Another monstrous people of wide celebrity are Pliny's 

Ott^nra ja Pataftont)!, or * Itig-foct,* wlikli mnaiiui in PtOagmia .- oomiMrc vitb 
tliia Ihn •tari'^a qf nicti witli Ttiet no Ut;^> dh to MtYu Tor jntuula, Ui« SUapoiIes 
or * Shu-Ion roflt,' Plin. vH. 3; wt Kiiwlinioii'sUeKidotiii, 7ol. J. p. £D. 

' iUatititi, *OoitI. <^ti('lL,' vol, i. p. 183. 

' Mnrcu Tolo) book iii. rli. xviii. 

* /Rliitn, ir. M ; Fliiu ri. 3.1 \ nt. 2. Riw foi odier vernoiu, Pun-.liiia, tuI. ir. 
p. 1191 : ml. r. f. m\ : Cnmi. p. 307: Louo, 'Tbonauiil and On« Ntg^Lc.* 
vol. Lli, [ip. U, M, »;, 30£; Dnris, 'Cartlingc,' pL 230 ; a^tbwm, *Di«p. Klk.* 
vol. ii. p. JiS. 

* Plin. T. 3; vi. 21, SS; rii. £; Me]*, III. 9; HgriwnUln in Ikkluyt, vol i. 
p. £93; IJitluni, ' Dmrr. Ktli.' rol. i. p. 493; Daru, I. c. ; «c ' Eaiiy UuL of 
Aluikiiiii,' p. 7T. 



Blemtnya), said to be bcaJIi-ss, anJ accordingly to have tbcir 
nioutlis aud eyes in their breasts ; crentures over whom Prcater 
Jobu rcigDcd in Aaia, vrho dwelt far uitd wide iii South Ameri- 
can forestfl. and who to our meiliaivnl ancestors were as real as 
the cantiibals with whom Othello couples them. 

" The Aatbropopfcasi, amd men wlioso b«ad9 
Do grow beneath tk«ir.Hh(mli}rni." 

"If, however, we look iu dictiouaries for the AeejJiaU, we may 
finil not actual headless monsters, but heretics so called because 
their original head or founder was not knowo ; aud when the 
kinglesa Turkoman hunle« aay of tliemflclvns " We are a people 
without a head," the metaphor is even more plain and natural.^ 
Again, Moalcu) legend tells of the Shikk and the Ncsnns, crea- 
ires like one half of a split man, with one arm, leg', and eye. 

'Possibly it was thence that the Zulus got tlieir idea of a tribe 
of half-men, who iu one oi their eturies found a Zulu maiden in 

f A cav« and thought she was two people, but on cloaer inspection 

lof her ftdmitteH, "The thing U pretty I But oh the two lege ! " 
This odd fancy cotncidcH with the simple nifetophor which de- 
scriliCR a savage as only "half a man," amnikvTno, as Virgil 
calU the fLTocioiis Cneus.' Agnin, ulien tho Cbtucuu compared 

'themselves to the outer harlmiians, tliey said " We see with two 
eyes, the Latins with one, and all other nations are blind." 
Such raetapliorK, pro'verhial among ourdelves, vorlially corre- 
spond with legends of one-eyed trilie*, such as tlie savage oave- 
dwclling Kyklopes.* Verbal coincidence of thia kind, untnist- 

- ' Plia. V. 8 ; Une, toL L p. 83 ; rol. it p, 377 : rol. lit p. SI ; KiunmcogcT, 
voL 11. p. 5511; Miin(l<-ri!1o, \\ 2i3; Hulngh in lUklujrt. toI. iii, j^. 682, 6SS ; 
HuiuWilt nnd HanplHiil, vol. r. p. 17B; Piiri-ha*, vol, Iv. p. 1285; vol. T. 
p. 001 ; liriUor. UUpiU. s. v. 'Acqibali;' VmiiUii^, j<- 310, Me ]>. 4U^. 
» Ijuia. vul i. p. 33 ; ColUw.iy. *Ztilu TuU-v' rol. i. j.p. lM,i02: Virg. ..Eu- 
E»iil. 18t. CoTnimi* tlin 'oni.-l''2HP''* !rilm«, I'liii. vii. S; S dim i) craft, ' iodiaii 
ib«i,' put iii. }). R21 : Cluuhviiix. vol. L p. 25. Tbc Aiutmllmia un? Uio tn«ti. 
plior 'ol imi l*g' inintug^) W describe ttiW im of ona itock, C F. Moore, 
•VoiKib.' pji. S, "I. 

» Haylim ici hirelios, vol. iiL p. 108; sro Rlomni, 'C, O.* vot ri p. 12*; 

Vimbtfry, Pl ■IU; llomnr. Oilyisu ix.; Rtrabu, i. S, 12 ; •■>« Sohimar, *V<ij. of 

< 3((>v>ir«.' rnl.ii. p. 40 ; C.J. AnilsnaoD, * Lnlie ygaml, vtc'p. 45S[ Dn CUllo, 

*Eqiul«TiiU Africa,' p. 440; 8ir J. Biehafdaon, 'I'olar B«giMU,'pk 800. For 

VOL. 1. a * 




worthy enough in tlieso Utter instances, paeses at Inst luto the 
vaguest feDcy. The negrooB call Europoaus " long-licaded," 
tuing tbe [Anuc in our fainilinr ntpUiphnrieiiJ sense ; hut trans- 
Intc it into Gi-u^k, and at onco Hosiod's Mfderokepftaim oonte 
iuto beiu^.^ Ami, to oozicludo thu litit. oue of the comraoDest of 
tbo moiister-trihes of tlie Old and New \Vorl<l is that difrtan- 
guiiihed by having feet tunied backward. Now there is reaUy 
a people, whoap itame, jneinorable in sdentilic controversy, de- 
scribes them in "haviujf feet the opposite way," and they still 
retain that ancient name of AnlipodiUi} 

Reiuruing from this digresftiou to the iM>^oa of philosophic 
mytli, wc may cxuuiinu uuw groups of ejtphmatory stories, pro- 
duced from that craving to know causes and reasons which cvar 
beseU mankind. When Uic atieution of a mau iu the myth- 
making dta^'ti of intellect la drauii to any phcuomenon or 
custom which has to dim no obvious reason, he invents and 
tolls a story to account for it, and even if lie docs not persuade 
hinuielf that thia is a real legend of hui forefathers, the Rtory- 
tutlcr who hears it from him and rcpcatfi it is troubled with no 
such difficulty. Our taak in dealing with such stones is made 
easy when the criterion of possibility can be brought to bear 
upon them. It has bccotno & mere certainty to modems that 
asbeirtos h not really salanmnder's wool ; that morbiil hunger is 
uot really caused by a Iizar«l or a bird in a man's stomach ; that 
a Chiuesu philosopher cauuot really have invented the fire-drill 
by seeing a biril peck at the branches of a tree till sparks came. 
The African Wakuafi account for their cattle-lifliug proclivities 
by the calm lufitcrtinn that £!ngai, that is, Uearen, gave all 
cattle to them, and so wherever there is auy it ia their call 
to go oad ache it* So in South America the fierce Mbayaa 
declare they received from tlie Caracara a divine command to 

rribei irilh mora Uiui two ey««, ten Fliny'i nictaptioricanj expliisMl TTitirirtTw 
uiiLI<'l^i, Ptin. ri- 35; dto Butiiin, 'UenKih,* tvL ii f. il*; 'Ocitl. Atiem,' 
roL L ]>ii. iS, 70 ; Pttberick, L c. ; Boven, ' Vonihn Or.' p. xx, ; Sotiimni 
p. 1S6. 

' KmHhv 'Vei Or.* p. 229; Stnba. i. • 3S. 

* Plin. vU. 3 ; Ilsmboldl uul ll«nplaii>l, vol. v. f. SI. 

* Rmpf, p, 859. 


make war on all otiier tritics, killing tlie men &nd adopting the 
womeo nml chililren.' Bvtt tboiigli it iimv be consistent with 
tbe notions of tlitse savagus Ut relate such explanatory legenik, 
it J8 not consistent with our notions to believe them. Fortu- 
nately, too, the ex post facLo legends are wpt to come into 
collision with more authentic sources of infoimiitinn, or to en- 
croach OH the iloiimiii of valid Listorv. It is of no iisc for the 
Chinese to tell their stupid story of written characters having 
been invented fram the markings on a, tortoise's shell, fur the 
early forms of sucli characters, plain and simple picturcift of 
objecta. have been preserveit in Cbina to this day. Nor can we 
piuifiC auytliiug but ingenuity iu the West Highland legend 
that tbo Pope once laiti au interdict on iho laud, but forgot to 
ourae the hills, so the people tilled them, thia story being told 
1.0 account for those nneient tj-antit of tillage still to be seen on 
1 he wild bill-aides, the yo-called " elf- furrows." • Tbo most em- 
liaimsinng cases of explanatory* tradition aro thoae which are 
neither impossible enough to condemn, nor probftble enough to 
receive. Ethnographere who know how world-wide is the 
practice of defacing the teeth among the Kiwer races, and how 
it only dies gradually out iu higher civiUzatiou, naturally ascribe 
the habit to some general rea.'Jon in human nature, at a parti- 
cular stage of dcvclopraeot. But the mutilating tribes lliem- 
selrcii ha%'c lucal legends to uc-count for load customs ; thus the 
Peiiongs of Binuah and the Batuka of East Africa Iroth break 
iheir front ti;eth, but the one tribe 8ay« its reason is not to 
lode like apes, the other that it is to bo like oxeo and nob like 
zebnui.^ Of the legends of tattoeiug, one of the oddest is that, 
told to account for the fact that while tlio Fijians tattoo only 
tbe women, their neighbours, the Tongans, tattoo only the tnea. 
It is related that ft Tongan, on hw way from Fiji to report to 
his countrjTncn the proper custom for them to observe, went on 
bis way repeating the rule he bad carefully iearni by heart, 
"Tattoo the women, but not tlie nwm," but uiduckily be 
tripped over a utump, got his lesson wrong, and reaehcc) Tonga 

■ SuuUify, ' BtuU,' t«L ilL -p. 390. 

* U. WilKD, 'ArvlifDoIugr, etc. or SciotlBrii].' p. 1». 

* ButtAii, 'Ocdll. Atwn,' TuL i. p. 123 ; Liniugitoiir, Pl 531 

X a2 



rcpoAtiitg: " Tattoo t1i« men. bnt not the women," an ordinance 
which thoy olisci-vcd ever nftor. How rcftsonftblc such on 
t'xpluuation s(>eDi<>(l to tlie Folyni>sinu mind, may Ite judged 
from the Somouis having a vcriiioii with diHVnmt detail.^, and 
applied t*i tlioir own iiistt?.!!] of itiu Tongan ieknds.' 

All men feel how wanting in sense of reality is a story with 
no |H'rgL)uaL name to linug it to. Tins want is tints gi'nptitcally 
expressed hy Spreugur the hiNturiau in hin life uf Muliamiued i 
" It makes, on me at least, quite a different impression when it 
is related that ' the Prophet said to AUtaina," even if I Icncw 
nothing wliAtever eW of tlii-s Alkania, than if it were niLTcIy 
stated ttiHt ' he said to somebody.' " The feeUug which this 
acute and hiamed critic tliuii candidly confesst-s, has from tliu 
carhest tinieti. and in the minds of men troubled witli no snch 
nice historic conscience, germinated to ihu pi-oductiou of inuck 
mythic fruit. Thus it has come to pass that one of the leading' 
petsonugirs tu he uivt with la the tradition uf the world is really 
uo more than — Somebody. There ia notliing tlua vondroua 
ercatui'C cannot achieve, no shape he cannot put on ; one only 
restriction binds liim at all, that the name he assumes shall 
have some sort of congruity with the office he undertakes, and 
even fix>m this he oftentimes break* loose. So rife in our own 
day iB this mannfauturo of pfi-nonal history, oflvu fitie*! up with 
details of pbee and date intti the very Remhiance of real 
cluouicle, that it may ho guessed how vast in wotkiiig must 
have been in days of old. Thu>i the ruins of ancient buildings, 
of whoso real histoij and nxe no trnstworthy tradition survives 
in local memoty, have been easily furnished by myth with a 
builder and a puipone. In Mexico the great Somelwdy asHumes 
the name of Mouteznnia, and builds the a<)ueduct of Tezcuco; 
to Uie Persian any huge and antiquo ruin is tlic work of the 
heroic Antar; in Russia, says Dr. Itafitlan, buildings of the 
must various ages are set down to Petci the Great, as in Spain 
to Boabdil or Cbarlcn V, ; and European folklore may attribute 

' 11Pilluuna,'Fiji.*p-lW;8e«iniiiii), 'Vili.'ii. TlSjToraor, Tolywai*," p. 182 
{« (imiUr Irgfiul ln\A by the 3«tn(Wi9). .Anotb<;r Uttiioiiis Irpiad in l«tliain, 
*I>aior. £th,' tuL i. p- 152; IIubUiiii, 'UmU. Aaien,' rul. L p. li::. 



to tho Devil aay old bniWing of uouHual maasiveneBB, and espe- 
cially thoBG atone etructtire* which atitiiinarics now claj« as pre- 
historic monitnK'nbi. With a more graceful thoiiyht, the ludiatis 
of North America dcdwe that, the imitative tumtili of Ohio, 
great moundfi laid out in niUc iinilatiou of animals, were 
shaped in old dnys hy the gi'Rat Manitii liimHelf, iii promiKe of 
a plentiful supply of game in the world of 8pint& The New 
Ze&lHmlera telt huw the hero Kitpe separated the North and 
South Islands, and formed Cook's Straiu. Oreck myth placed 
at the gate of the Mcditerrauviiu Lhc twin piUant of Hcraklcs ; 
in more recent times the oponing of the Straits of Qihraltar 
became one of the many feats of Alexander of Mucedoii' Such 
a gixiup of etories an thiH ik no unfair tu»t of the value of mere 
traditions of personal names which simply aD»irer the questions 
that mankind have bocn asking for ugc» about the origin of 
their rites, laws, aistoms, arts. Some euch traditions ore of 
course genuine, and we may be ahle, especiully iu the more 
modem ca«€fi, to B«pnrate the real from the imaginary. But it 
must be ilifttinctly laid down that, in the absence of corrobora- 
tive evidence, every tradition stands suspect of mythologj-, if it 
can lie made by the simple device of fittiug some perttunal namo 
to the purely theoretical assertion that somebody mast have 
iatroductd into the world fire-making, or weapoas, or oma^ 
menttt, or games, or agriculture, or marruige, or any other of the 
element* of civilization. 

Among tlie various matters which liavc excited curiosity, aod 
led to its satisfaction by explanatory myths, ai'c local Dames. 
These, when the impularcar has lost their primitive Bignificance, 
become in ItaTharic times an apt subject for the myth-maker to 
explain iu hiii peculiar faahion. Thus the Tibetans dcchu-e that 
their hike VUornor'iri was named from a woman (i-laimo) who 
was carriuil into it by the yak she was riding, and cried iu 
terror ri.-ri .' The Aralw wiy the founders of the city of Sf.nnaiir 
fiftv oa the river kuik a beautiful woman with teetli glittering 

' Butian, ')leiuch,'vol. Ui. pp. 167-8 ; Wilkiii»on in ]tnwtiii*«ri ' Hciwlohw,' 
vol iL p. 7» ; Gninm, ■ D. SI.' pp. »72.6 ; Vl. C. falKravi-, ' Anbia,' toL I. 
p. S(l ; Squicr vid liivit, ' ilanumtaU of Minluippt ViUi;)-,' i>. 134 ; Tijrlor, 
*S«wZ«slaiKl.'p. 25S. 



like fire, wheoca tliey called llie place Sijinrfr.i. a, "tooth of 
fire." Tlie Arka<liaQs derirwl the uanic of their iowd Trnpes^ta 
from tbe table (trapesa), which Zeus overtumet) when tliQ 
wolfish Lykaou iMirvcd a diild un it for a bnuquet to iiim.' 
Such crude fancies no way iliffcv in nature from English local 
lE^tiditcurrunl up to i-i.'cciit times, such as ttiAt which ivlatca 
bov the Romans, coming; iu bight of whcro Exeter now slAnd^, 
eiclaimed iu detiglit, " £(vc teira .' " and thus the city hful its 
nasati. Hox long Ago, a cnriou* en*iuircr wished to kn<»w from 
the inhabitants o( Fontinjbrid^, or m the country people call 
it, Fardeiibridge, what the origin of ibis name might 1k>, and 
heard in reply that tlie bridge wan thought to have been built 
when wages wei'o xo cheap that nia^ont; wnrkod fur a " fanlen" 
a day. The Falmoiith folks' Btory of Squire Pendarvw and Us 
otu is well known, how hin xorvant excused hersvlf for KGlliDg it 
to the sailora, because, as slie said, " Tlio jwHwy rome no qnick^' 
whence the place came u> be called J'ennt/coitteqttuk ; this 
nonMDse being inventwl to arcoiim for an ancient Cornish 
uame, probahly Peiiyctungu/tc. " head of the creek valley." 
Mythic fancy hatt fallen to a low estate when it dwindled to 
Buch rctunauts as this. 

That personal names nmy ytass into uduuk, ivc, wbo talk of 
brovghanis and bhickeis. cannot fleoy. But any «uch clymo- 
logy ought to have conteuipomry document or some equally 
forcible proof in its favour, lor tliii^ is u fonu of cxplaiiatioU 
token by the nio»t flagrant myths. Dnrid the p&intcr, it ia 
relatod, had, a promising pupil named Chicquf, the son of a 
fruiterer; the lad died at eighteen, but his master conlinued to 
Ikold him up to later students r^s a model of artistic clevcruoss. 
and hence arose tbe now familiar term of cliic Klymologigts, 
a race not warning in effrontery, have hnnlly ever surpaaaed 
itiis circumfitantial cananl; iho word c/u'c dates at any rate from 

I Lntltaui, 'Pescr. Etli.' »rf. i. ]>. 48; Irfjtim tn 'Rev. dca Dcox MondM,* 
15 FbI*. 1M12. p. 850: A I -oil (11 1 or. iil. ?. Cfunpin! thp ilrnfalinii of Air^uipitlty 
t)ia PtnivUn> fr^ni tlir kkt'U aril fir/^ys'ym! letnaln.' auiil to liavu been 
k^dnwml to tlio ccilouitU by llie lni.» : Miikiiiuu, ■ljiii<:1iaii r>r. ami l>ic.i' olaa 
the Mppowd clymolngy of PfjAcmi*, Itanhlaj-fiKTi^' an tlie litlly of Dniih,' (Vtna 
iba atmjr of Kin;E l>ik(> liuiUiliiu hii paliire nii the Ixnly of thu conquered King 
Ehinli r Burton, in ' Tr. Elh. Soe* r«l, lit i>, iOl. 

tbo seventeenth century.' Another word with which sunUar 
liberty has been tiikmi, is cant Sttiule, in tlie ' Spectator.' says 
that sumo people derive it frfim the name ot' one Andrew Cant, 
a Scotch mioiifter, who Imd thu gift of pruachinj,' lu such a 
dialect that he waa understood by none but his own congrega- 
tion, and not by all of them. Thin is, poihups, not a very 
accurate delineation of Andrew Caut, who is mentioned in 
' Wliitoiock's Memoriahi,' and wetna to have known how to 
speak out in very plain terms indeed. But nt any ruto he 
floiirislitd about 1650, whereaa tho verb to ainl wa« then 
alraiuly an oh) word. To cunte, meaning to B5)cak, in moD- 
tioned in Harmau'a 'Liht of Rijgm-s' Words' in ISUli, and iu 
1587 Harrison says of tho boggurs niul gypsies that tJiey Iiave 
devised a language among thoinsolvoii, which thoy name cant' 
«7ij7. hut oihom " Pedlars' Fienche." * Of all etymologic^ 
ascribod to personal uames, one of the most cnriouH is that 
of the DansG Macabre, or Dance of Death. »<i well known from 
HoIbL'iii's pii;tiirt.-N. Its nappoised author is tlni» mL-ationoU in 
tlio ' Bingi'aphio Univcr^elle :' " Macaber. poete allt-maud, serait 
tout-iL-fait inoonna sans I'ouvragc iju'oii a sous iton iiom." Tkist 
it may be added, is true enough, fur there never was aiich a 
peraou at all, the Dudev itacabrc being ivully Chorea MachO' 
baoTum, tho Dance of the Miic&thffta, a kind of pioos pa&to- 
mime of death performed in churches in the fifteenth century. 
"Why tbo performance rt-cc-ivtJ this name, is that tho rito of 
ijasii for the Dead id difitiuguiiihed by the reading of that 
pasHage from the twelfth chapter of Book 11. of the Maecabasa, 
vhicl) relatc») how the peopio betook themselves to prayer, and 

■ Chtraocl:, 'Vgi^MXamlulU,*!. t. 'dilo;* m FniiciB]iie-MtdMl. 'Argot,' 
■. r. 

>*8p<cUtor.*N9. 147i \itm\, Top.iat.'r^L iii. f. n;U<>t(«n. 'BUi^DIe- 
tloaaiT,' p. a : ClianicKk, 1. 1. 'canL' A* to llie ml pirmului:;. Itulfhrnit^licS' 
ipr'* vlilninti tkantU in ifefKliva, fof Um bcjpr Jtu|« ihw I'lno curlljr >beti Iw 
tanU, i.i., talk* j«t]^D with hii f-lloiTL 11 etnlU Airtntly (mm Latin entlaM, It 

*il] mmvfQwl witli Itxluil fantnrt mn-l Fnlidi ehntttrr, U>tli U<0 M alwg Word* 

for U> apeak (PnDci»)Dc-Uitli«l, ' Mfffi'). A Krliic ori^ U poadbte. Gwlk 
•ad Irbh osi'ttR^ (at«jMtalk,ltiicafB,dUirt: thaGMlic wptivalaatvlbriMillan' 
fHndi or UMtt{w' tUn^ %n 'Latdknui UBCMrd,* *ariMiii.cbiMnl.'<«.| liulmi' 
Ijitin or jifpxi, or rxa^tly • cmtA^ tad.' A dMp«r MBMsioB bttvWB mbiHt 
oad osaMrv dust mC affect Ibu. 



boBOiiglil. the Lord that tlie sin of those who liftd boon slam 
among tbcm migbt be wbullj bluttcd out ; I'ur if JaJas bad not 
expected tbat the nUiu nhoiild rise again, it bod boon sniper- 
Huous and vain to pray for the dead.* Traced to its origin, ii is 
thus seen thnt tbe JXtnie Mticabm is noltbcr more nor li^tts tlian 
tho Dance of tbe I>i*ail. 

It ia not (iQ unusual tiling for tribes nnd nntJons to lie kuowu 
by llie Dame of tlieir chief, iia in b<K)k>i of Africau travel we 
road of " Kjo'b poopio," or " Kamrazi's people." Such Umns 
may beoome permanent, like the name of the O^nianli Turkic 
t-tkcn from the frreAt Othmfin . or Oiman. The notionK of kiu- 
ship and cbieftalicsltip may eaiiily be eombiued, as wbera some 
iudividiial Brian or Aljmie may tiave given bia name to a clan 
of O'lir'tcnn or Mac Alfnne". How far the tnbol names of tbe 
lower i-aces may have beeu derived from iudindual names of 
cbio£i or forefathers, ia a c|uetitioii ou which sound evidcucu is 
difficult to obtain. The Zubis and Maoris were iiices wbo paid 
<^n;at attcutiou to tht- troditiuuid genealogies of their cUd- 
anceatois, wbo veie, indeed, not only their kinsfolk Imt their 
gocb ; and they dtstiuctly reoogmzc the posidbibty of tribes 
being named from a deceased, ancestor or chief. The KaBr 
tribe of Ama-Xos»i derives its name fr^m a chief, 'V-Xosa;- 
and the Maori tribes of j\';y(//*-ir(ifc««e and Xga'Pald claim 
descent from chiefa called Wakaue and PwAi.* Around title 
nueleuH of nctitality, however, there gatbere au enormoaa mass 
of fiction simulating it« cfTcctR. The myth-maker, curioiu to 
know how any people or couulry gained iw name, bad only to 
conclude that it came from a great ancestor or ruler, and then 
the simple process of turning a national or local title into a 
personal name at once abided u new genealogy to historical tra- 
dition. The mvth-makcr has in some cases made the name of 
tbe imagined oQceator such that the local or gentile uarae should 
stand aa grammatical ly derived fnim it, as usually bappcna in 
xeal cases, like the derivation of V<eeaita from deaar, or of llie 

* 8m also Fnncuque-llichel, 'Arjiot,' a. r. * nai-cnlio, ina<t)iAl)&)'>=naT& 

* DiSluM, * Zulu Die' p. 417; ArtmuKt umI XtaDtruu, p. :d9; Wuiix, vol. ii. 

Benedict Inen from Jienedict. But in the fictitious goneiUogy 
or history of the myth-Diak«r, the mere unaUere'l nnjiic of the 
uatiuu, tribe, cuuiitry, or city ufteii hecumen witliout inure ado 
the namo of tJic cponymic lioro. Tt has to \>o rcmembcrcdf 
moreover, that countries aud imtions cau he per^uuifu'd by an 
imaginative process which has not quite lost i\n sense in 
modem speech. France m talked of by politicians as an in- 
diridual bein^, witJi particular opinions and habits, ami may 
uvcti be embodied a^ a statue or picture vrilh suitable al« 
tributes. And if one were to say that lirUaniiia lias two 
daugbteni. Canada and AtidralHt, or that she has gone to 
keep house for tt dccrL-pit old aunt called /n(ii<(, this would be 
admitt<-d as plain fact expressed in fantastic language. Tlie 
invention of ancestries from cponymic beroen or nnnie-aacestors 
I1A8, however, often liatl n scriouti effect in rorrupting liiHtoric 
truth, by helping to fill ancient aiinahs with ^watiit-t uf fictitious 
(eneakgics. Yot, when surveyed in a large view, the natturc of 
the epouymic fictions is patent and indisputable, and so regular 
ore their forms, that wc could scarcely choose more telling ex- 
amples of the consistent procoxscs of imagination, as shown in 
the development of myths. 

The great numhi-r of tho epouymic ancestors of ancient 
Qreek tribes and nationti makes it easy to text them by com- 
]>ari»on, and tho tcRt is a destnictivo one. Treat the heroic 
genealogies tiicy belong to as traditions founded on real history, 
and they prove hopelessly independeDt and incompatible; but 
consider them as mutttly local and tribal mytlia, and such inde- 
pendence ami incompntibitily become their proper features. 
Mr. Grote, whose tendency is to treat all mytlia as Bctions not 
only unt-xplnincd but uncxphiinable, here makes an exception, 
troaiig the epanymic ancestors from whom Qreek cities and 
triboa derived their Icgcndaiy parentage, to mere embodied 
local and gentile names. Thus, of the fifty sons of Lyka^ a 
whole large group consists of pcn«onifiL-d cities of Arkodia, such 
aa ifaniin^UA, PUuj<dos. Tefjcatei. who, according to the simply 
inverting legend, are called founders of Maniinia, PhxgaliOy 
Tegea. Tbc fatlicr of King i£akos was Zeus, hU mother his 
own personified land-±i/end; tho city vdfifkfnai had not only 


an anccatrcae MyMni, but an eponymic anceetor ns -well, 
Mykenetia. Long an<>rwar(U, mediaivnl Europe, filiiotilAted by 
Uiu spleodid ^uvulo^Mc-i tliiMu;;!! wliiclt Homo had ottocbcd 
herself to Grocco uikI tlic Gre<.-k goja and heroes, discovered 
the secret of rivallinu them in the cUroniclM of Oooffry of 
Honmouth and olhorg, by claiming, as founders of /'ai*i«and 
Tours, tbu Trtyaiia Paviu aud J'uniiw, and connecting France 
and Briiain with the Trojan war through Fftneus, son of 
Hector, ami Br«f((s, jp-eat -jnnKlson of ^'Eneas. A romarkably 
perfect eponymic liistoriail myth accounting for the Gypsies or 
Egj'piiaiie, may bu iuund cited seriously iu ' Blacketoue's Com- 
iaenUiri(.'K :' when Sdltaii Selim <^on(niered J^fvpt in 1317, 
Heveral of the natives rofuitod to suhmil to the Turkish yoke, 
and revolted under one ZhtfjaneuH, whuuce the Turks called 
them Zinga-nees, hut l>eiDg at length surrounded and banished, 
they agreed to dispL-isu iu small [«irties over tlic world, etc. etc. 
It is curious to watch Mikon's mind emerging, l>ut not wholly 
emerging, from the state of the incdiiDval chronicler. He noeo- 
tiona in thn hcginnlng of liis ' Hifltory of Brituin,' the "oul- 
laui]i«!i fi-jiUL-ut" of the four kin-js, Muijits, Saron, Dntii, and 
Bmxiicii; he has no approval for tlie giant ^l/ium, son of Nep- 
tune, wbu suliducd the inland n7id calli'd it after hif> o^'n name ; 
he BCofTs at the four sons of Jnphct, cidlcd Fnnicua, ^OTnantis, 
Ahtmannus, and Britfo. But when he comes lo Jirutus and tbo 
Trojan legends of old English history, his sceptical courage fails 
him; " those old and inborn name« of succoesivo kings, nev-er 
any to have bin r«il persons, or don in tJieir lives at least soin 
part of what so long Imth bin romombor'd, cannot he thongfal 
without too strict an iueredulity." ' 

Among rudcT races of Iho world, asserted genealojpea of this 
olnss may he instanced in Sooth American tribes called tho 
Amoipira and Potifuam,^ Khond clans called Battka aud Jalcao* 

' Oil t)i« ailoiition or imu!:iiiiiry ant-citon a* comaecti^ itith tlic Ticttun oT a 
common dtsNiit, nnd llis im[>orInnl politknl and relij^Iaiu efl'i>i<t< of these pro- 
cM(lings oMMp^cUlly Crotrt, 'Uirt. of Or«««#,' tuI. L; U«L«Bnnii, • Prinitiva 
ttamngi-; ' Maiov, 'Anvimt Low.' Intcrrrtinj; detail* on «i>uiijiiiic aiicntorain 
TntT, 'Anli-Ksnltm, oder SljrtliiKlic VuntnllanKcn tan Unimmgedrr Vj>tkcrDnil 

> lUniiu, 'Ethnoj?. Amw.'vol. i. ]v 5(; leoSSS. 



Turkoman b<)dlBflQilIecl YojmU, Tekke. and Chaudor,^ all of 
them profosnng to derive tbuir clcalgnatiiias from aocestora or 
cliicfs who bore as individuals thefic veiy names. Whore criti- 
cism cau be bruught io beat' ou tlicso ^nciL]o;i;i«5, iu effect id 
often Buch OS drove Brutut and his Trojanit out of English 
history. Whon tliere appear in tho genealog>' of ilaussa, ia 
West Africn, pinin names of tflWDs like Kano and KaUena? it 
18 natural to coueidtr th«se towns to liavo been personified into 
mythic anueHlurs. Uoxican tradition asKigns a whole ttet of 
pprjnpnic nnrcstore or chic-fu to tlie various races of the limd, 
as Mexi thu foundvr of Mr:cu.i>, 0i.ichimecad the first king of 
tbe Ckiehimeca, and so forth, down to Olonutl the ancestor of 
tha Otomis, whose vary name by its tenuiuatiou b6ti-ay>i its 
Aztec invention.^ l^ie Braxilino-s account for tbe division of 
the Ti'ins and Ouaiunis by the legend of two ance^ral 
Liothcra Tujd and (hutmni, who quarrelled antl »«;[)ara;cd, each 
with his followers ; but an cpouymic origin of the story is mado 
likely by thu word Gtuirctiii not Ijcingan old national nnnic at all. 
but uicivly the designation of " warriors " given by the mission- 
aries to certain tribea,'* Ami when such tacta arc considered art 
tliAt !Nortli American clana namcil alicr aniinala, Beaver, Cray- 

'./leA, and the like, account for ihci^e names by simply claioung 
the very creatures themselves as ancestors,* the tondency of 
general criticiam will prohably be not ao much in favour of real 
forefathers and chiefs who left their names to their tribea, as of 
eponyiiiic ancesl^jrs crcnled by backwards imitation of such 

The examination of cponymtc legend, however, jnust by no 
moans stop short at the de»;tructive stage. Tn fact, when it 
hoH un<lei^uiie the sharpest criticism, it only displaym the more 
cWarly a rcnl historic value, not le>s pt^rhnps than if all tlm 

''names tt records were real names uf ancient. chic-Cs. AVttb all 

' TambSry. 'Contml Awa.' p. 523: wo nltn Jxthani, 'Dwrr, Ktlu' roU i. 
p. iSi (Ortyolu) ; (ii^orfft, > Ik-ise iui ltu«. I:ckli,' voL i. [i. Si3 (TuDgwt). 
> BnrUt, "N. & Coiitr. Afr.' toI. ii i>. "l. 

* J. 0. IKLllor. 'Aincr. Umtig.' p. G7(. 

■* Uortiiu, vnl i. pji. ISO-*; W«iu, rot iii. p. *lfl. 

* ficiliiMlcnifl. 'ItiOinn Tiiboa.' purl L ii, Zlt, \mn Iii. p. SSS, im pttt U. pk 48; 
Catlin, wL ii. p. las ; J. G. Mullor, jip. ISJ, XV. 



their fnnciesj blunders, aud shortcomings, tite heroic gutiealogien 
preserve early theories of nationnlily, tmditionH of migratioo, 
tiivastoD, cooncxion by kiiidridd ur iiit«rcour»& The etlinolo^iitts 
of old days, borrowing ihe phraseology of myth, stated what 
tliey looked ou as the actual relatious of races, in a punsuuifyiiig 
language of winch the nwaning may still l»e readily interpreted. 
The Qreck Ic^iicl uC the twlu hrothcrt Datutoa and JSijffiA.oe, 
fouudcm of the imtions of the iMnnoi ur Homeric Greeks and 
of the Jiififplums. represents a distinct though weak ethnolo- 
;;ical ihewy. Tbcir ciwuyiuic myth of Hellen, the personified 
race of the lUlltHM, ia another and more i-e.a80Dahlo etiinolo- 
giad document statiug kiosliip among four great branches of 
the Greek race : the three eons of Uellin, it relates, were 
AiidoN, iJavvif, and Xovihoa; the firet two gave their names to 
the JSoUans and Dorians, the third had sons called AtJiaioe and 
I&^i, whose names passed as a herilago to the Achaioi and 
ionxans. The bcHef of the Lydians, Mysians, and KafUtiig, 
us to tlieir national kinship is well expressed in the genealogy 
in Herodotus, which traces their doscftil fmm tlie ibroo brfitbofS 
Lytlos, Mi/Hus, aiul A'ur.' The Pereian li'gRntl of Feridun (Tlirae- 
tROiia)and Inn three sons, frej, Tvr, and Selm, distinguisheR tlie 
two ualionalilieii of Iranian, anti Tiumiian, i.e., Porsian aud 
Tatar.* Tlie national genealogyof the Afghans is worthy of remark. 
It runs thus : Ihlelik Talut (Kiug Saul) had two soiih. Berkti and 
Irmia (B<?rekinli and Jeiemiah), who served David ; the son, of 
Berkia was A/yUiii, aud the son of Irmia was Ughfi'-. Thanks 
to the aipiiliuc nusi-N of the Afghans, and to their use of Biltiicat 
personal names derived from Biblical sources, the idea of their 
being dcsceudanta of the lost tribes of laiuel found great cre- 
dence among Kuropt'an wiiolnrs up to the present ceiiturj'.' 
Tet the pedigree is elhnulogically uhauni, fur the whole source 
■of the iningincd roiLsinship of tlic Aryan A/'jhaii and the Tura- 
luan Vsbek, so diatinct both iu feature aud in lauguagc, appears 

* Grotr, 'Tfiiit. of Grcrtr;' Paiimn. Hi. W; Diod. Kct.; AiwHtMlDr. Ribl. i 
;. », Ti. I, * ; HuniJot. L 171. 

3 Mux Muller In BmiHn. tqI. i. {i. 33S ; TiiUri, jitn i. oli. xlv. Ixix. 

3 ^ W. JonM in 'As. Km.' vol ii. j\. HI ; Tatinttart, ibid, p. 67 ; «a Cimp- 
Ml, la ' Joam. As. Soc. Ucspil,' 1&«^ put ii. f, 7. 



to ba in their union 1)y common MotiainmetlaQUni. ^Iiile the 
reckless jumUe of sluun liistory, which derives buth from a 
Semitic source, iit only too cluinK;t«.Ti8tic of Uoslem chronicle. 
Among the Tatars is fotnid a mtirh mot-e reaAonnble national 
pedigree ; in the 13th ccuturv, William of Riiy&broek relates, m 
M>her circumstantJal history, tliut thoy were originally called 
Turiif from Tu-rk the chlest son of Japhet, but od« of their 
prinCM left his dominions to his twin tonn, Taiar and Mon^l, 
, wfaiob gare riite to the distinction that has erer since prevailed 
^IwtweeD these two nacionfl.' Historically absunl, thiA loj^ad 
states wliat appears the unimpeachable etbDological foct, tliat the 
Turhi, MoixTfalu, and Tatarit are clowly-ojiiacctod bnnebeN of 
one national stuck, and vre can only dispute in it what Beenifl an 
exorUtant claim on the part uf the Taria to reproent tlia head 
of the family, tho ancestor of tbc Mongol and the Tutnr. Thu« 
those eponymic national genealogies, mythcdogical in funn but 
ethnological in subHtatice, embody opinioos of which we may 
admit or deny the truth or valoe, but which we must rocognisa 
as (listiDCtJy ethnological documeutK* 

It thus appearx ttiat early ethnology is lialtiliially i rjiic— iil 
in a meta{>liorical language, in which laods and nations ore per- 
Booifietl, and their relatkms indicati»j by tennn of penonal kia- 
xhipi ThiJi descripiion appliea to tliat impurtant docttmeiit of 
ancteot ethnology, the table of nations in the 10th cbapler of 
Oeoflns. lu some canes, it is a problem of mioiita aod Jiffiealt 
oitkiasi to dii^ingutsh among tu anoeitral oainai tlio«e wbicli 
ace ntnply local or oationftl deaignatioDs in penooal lunn. Bat 
tocnttesoooTcnaotwitb tito ethnic gOMftkgiMcf other peoplel^ 
Midi h* bare ber« been quoted, siaple iMpeetlM of thu ttatioaal 
list may mSoe to show tluit poirt of iu names are of such local 
or national diaraetcr. Tb« city Zidon {yvri) << brotbcr to 
Httk (m) the father of the HiUiUm, mail next tdUaw tn penm 
tba JvUistte and the AnMirita. Aaong plain aunee of eunntrw^ 

m vttt^mimt bjiIh !■ Mii Mit1.«. ThliB'T^I B ji Iff 



CimA or .Ethiopia (p'\S) bcgcta Nimrod, Aaekur or Assyria 
(niBV) builds Nineveh, and even the dual Misratm (HnsCi], 
the "two £^{y])t«" (appaTCQUv mcaoing Upper find Loner 
E^jjA, the " two lands," as thfi J^-ptiane themselves wrote it ia 
their iniKriptions), nppeani as a personal son and brother of 
other countrit'^. Mid ancestor of populatioos. The Aryan stock 
in olitarly rucogniicutl iu pcrsumtications of at least two of 
itH meinbcrti, iludni (''is) ttio Mede, and Javan {fv) the 
Jimian, Aitd a^ n^jiank the family tu which tho liimeliteR 
tlioinfMjIvoB belong, if Cannan (1333), the father of Zidou 
(frx), ho trouxfunx'd to it lo rapreeent the PlicBnidauB, bjr 
tho iii*lo of JwAmt (iic?H). Aram. (CPB), Eber ("CS), and the 
oth*<r duaouudaDts of SItem. t)io result will be muinl^r to arrange 
tho Semitic stock according to the ordiaiir}' claisiBcatioa of 
modpni ciitiiparativc philology. 

Tiimiiiji now frooi cuses when* mjllinlogic pbraso serves as a 
iiiediiim for oxprossiog phikwi^hic opinion, let us quickly cross 
lhi> district wliore fiuKV tusumes the semblunoc of exptaDatory 
ltt|I«tMl The ine<Ita^ii'al tjcboolinen haw becu justly Inughed at 
fov ihvir habit of traodatiuK plain facLi into the terms of mei&- 
l^lty^o^ Aud thcD fioleomly oSmog them in this sciontilic guise 
M cxplflDAtionii of theiQselvee — accounting for opium making 
jtMftlc sleep, by itii pasiieiMrion of n dormitive virtue. The myth- 
tnakeKs prr>cei«liog8 may in ono U'S|>ect be illustrated by com- 
paring tliern witli thie. Hulf mythology is occuptetl, aft many a 
l^nd oitvd in tlK-ne chapters \v\s tihown, in shaping the famj- 
tiar factM of daily lift: into imagiuary hiutories of their own (ause 
and origin, childlike answers to tha^ie workl-old questioos of 
whence nnd why. which the ftavage neks as reudtly aii the rage. 
So Ixmiliur is the nature of sucli dt«(criptioii in the dress of 
history, tlial ita ciinier examples translate oft' bnud. ^VhcD the 
Samooas say that ever sine*: the gvual battle among tlii^ jihui- 
tuns and bananas, the vnnijuished have bung down their heads, 
while the victor stands proudly crcct,^ who can mistake the 
nimpio metaphor which cumimrcs the upright .ind the drooping 
plauts to a conqueror standing among hia bvatvn fuca Iu 
iqmilc ju»t aa obvious lies tho origin of another Polynesian 

1 f!fpir*nii, • Vfii,' ^ Sll : Turanr, ■ PnljnMia,' fL SSS. 



le^nd, which relates the crcatioD of the coco-Dut from a mait's 
licivl, the diestnuta frum bis kido^jTS, and the yarns from fah 
logs.' To draw ooe niin% example from the mythology of 
plants, how ttansparonl is the Ojihwa faocy of that beaTcnljr 
youth with green robe and waring feaUien, whom for the good 
of meu the Indian orercamc and buried, and who nprang again 
from liis gniTG as the Indian com. Mondamio, the "Spirit's 
graiiL"' The New Forest peanaat deems that the marl he digs 
is still red with the blood of his ancient foes the Danes; the 
Maori sees on the red cliffii of Cook's Straits the blood stains 
that Kiipe made when, mourning for the death of his daughter, 
he cut hi^ forehead with pieoai of obfeidlan ; in the spot where 
Buddha fffcred his own body to feed the starved tigrea^s cubs, 
his blood for ever reddetied the soil and the trees and flowers. 
Ilic niodcru Albanian Klilt wjes the stain of xlauj^tcr in streasofl 
running rod with earth, as to the ancient Greek the river that 
flovad hy Byblos bora down in its stnmner floods the red blood 
of Aduois. Tim C-jmLHbman knows from the red 61my gmwtli 
on the brook pebbles that murder has been done there ; John 
tlw Baptist's Uood still grows in Oertnany on his day, and 
peasants still go out to march for it ; the ml meal-iungni is 
lilood dropped by the fiying Hnns when they hurt their ieei 
a^iiaA. the high towet-roofs. The trareller in ItMlia might aw 
on the rained walls of Oai^ R>^ the tiacpsof the Uood of the 
citixcos ipilt in the siege, and yet more nuureUons to vdasev ■( 
St. Denis's dinrch in Cornwall, the IJoodntaJp^ oa the rixoies fcfl 
there when the saint's bead was cut off somewliere efae.' Of 
auch traiulatiuns uf desoiptire metafdior under thin pnteDoe <i 
history, tn-ery collection of myth is crowded with eiamplee. but 
il itxettgtbeos our judgment of the eoubiaed oomistcncy and 

I TribM.' fvt L ^ 1M» pst 

■ BUb. • roljn. Bca* toL L p. «L 

■/. B.Wb(;'TlKS«rP«c«t,*p.lM:Tb7te, 'rixTMlmri Mft ¥■■ 
MnOtt. 'CUpi.' loL l [i M»; IL A. Vabv. •Uaaiama,' p. tftt; Uam, 
-rbMukr,' ToL i. p.«e: Ladsa. 4» EMSyittS: Hnt. ' fop. IbM.* Sal 
tMM. f. »; Wactk#, 'TiaafcwtfMil^' |fi It; •!; BMlin, •Mmh^> 
wL B. p. S9; nJ. iM. |>.18(iBMkM«B,'lIj«OT«,eU.*iaFUMM,t«LTn. 



l^cty of -wlint taay Le callcJ thu mythic tanguoffc, to extract 
Jrom iU clictioiiarT fiiich a group as tliif^, whidi in sudi vanously 
imng^ioativo fosbiou tloficrilictt tlio appcanuicc of a bluod-rcd 

'Xho merest shadowy fancy or Lr^jkoii-dowu metaphor, wbcD 
OQco it gnius a sense of rQality. may l>cgin to be spoken of ns an 
octuitl event The M<»lemH have heanl the veiy etones praise 
Allali, not in similo only but in fact, and among them the iwy- 
iug* that a man'*) fate is vrrittoo on Lis foruhcad has been mate- 
rialtsed into a iwilief tliat it can be deciphertid from the letter- 
like markings of the sutui-es of his skull. One of the miracu- 
lous passages in the life of Mohammed Iiimself i!> traced plau- 
sibly by Sprcnger tn sncb a pragmatized mntapbor. The imf^el 
Gabriel, I«.'g<?ud declares, opened the Pruphi-t's bi-east. and took 
a Idack clut fr»m bis heart, which he washed with Zemzerp 
water and replaced ; details nre given- of tlie BQgcl'a dress and 
goldi-n btuiii, mid Aua.s ibn Mnlik declared ho had seen the very 
mark where the wound was sewn up. We may venture with 
thu histoi'iau to ascribe this marvellous incidcDl to tbc familiar 
metaphor that Mohammed'» heart wan divinely opened and 
cleansed, and itiiieed he dues iiay in the Koran that Qod opened 
hifl heart.' A single instance i& enough to represent the umo 
baUt in Christian legend. Marco Polo rektoa how in 1225 the 
iCbalif of Bagdad commanded the Chri^ians of hi? dominions, 
under penalty of death or Islam, to justify their Scriptural 
text by removing a certjtin muunt&in. Now there was among 
them a shoetnaker, who, having been tempted t« excess of ad- 
miration for a woman, had plucked out faiR offending ayv. This 
man eommiLnded the mountain to remove, which it did to the 
toiTor of the Khalif and all his {M.'opk', and since then the anni- 
versnij- of the miracle liai been kept hiily. The Venetian tra- 
veller, after the manner of media-val writers, records the story 
without a s^Tiiptom of suspicion ;' yet tn our minds its whole 
origin Ko obviously lies in three verses of St. Matthew's gospel, 
that it is needless to quote tlieni. To modern ta«rtc sucli wooden 
fictions as theee are far from attractive. In fact the pragma- 

■ Sjireaner. * Lehcn dm Jlnliiiaiinail,' rol. L. pp. 76^ II?. 10?, 810, 
* Umne Polo, baalt t clu viii. 

tixer is a stupid creature, not>iing is tou l)eauliful or too Boored 
to be made dull and vulyur 'by his touch, for it i» through tlio 
very incapacity of IiU mind to liold an aWtnict idea tliat he u 
forced to embody it in a material incideoL Yet wearisome as 
ho may be. it is none tho loss needful U> uiidewtand him, to 
ackoowledgo the vatst inOucnce he ha.i lind on t\ui belief of iniui- 
kiud, mid to appreciate him oa represeuiiug in itscxtreme ahuiio 
that tendency to clothe every tliought in a concrcii; shape, 
which has in all ages been s. mainspring of mytliology. 

Though altegoiy cannot maintain the Ibi;;u plucu often clnimvd 
for it in mythology, it baa yet had too modi inQiience to ba 
passed over in this stm'cy. It is true that the scArch for 
allegorical explanation is a pursuit that baa led aumy a zealoas 
explorer into the quagmires of myHticism. Tet there aru case* 
in which all<^oiy Is ceitnioly used with historical intent, n« for 
inetanco in the apocryphal Book of Enoch, with its cows and 
sheep which jitaod for Israelites, and msck awi wolret for Midi- 
luiitc!! and Kg^'ptiaos, these creatures 6guriug in a. pseudo-pro* 
phetic skeu-h of Old Testament ehrotiicles. As for moral aUefgofjr, 
it is immensely plentiful in the world, although iu limits aro 
narrower than mythologists of post centurie* have suppoaed. 
It is now reasonably thought prepost«roiu to inte^'pret the Oreck 
legends as moral apologues, after the mantker of Herakleides tha 
l^oeopber, wbo could diacem a parable of repentant pnideoee 
in Athene snziiig AchUles when just about to draw bis sworti 
on Agamemnon.' Still, such a mode of tnt(Tpnrtation has tbtl* 
mach to justify it, that numbere of the faocifnl aiytb« of the 
world are really aU^orieL 'nwre h allcgoiy in the Heeiodic 
myth of Pandora, wbam Zeus sent down to men, dedt«d with 
goUea band and garland of tpnag flowers, fit cause of longing 
and the pangs of love, but DiiiDg with a doff-like mind ber gifts 
o( lies aiwltreMibery and pleasant Fpeoch. ]Ieodle« of bis wiser 
Icvtber's wocds, the fbotvib Epunetbeos took ber ; she raited tbe 
bd of the great cmIc and riwwk oat tJie efiU that wander anuog 
«w*ftl|[T*y*. and the £aeMBS (hat by day and nig^ emne aleBtJj 
fc rinpn g iQ ; At aet on tbc Hd again and thnt Hope in. thai 
ver bopeleH to mankind. Shifted to fit a Jifla- 


•Om^nLLr M7. 





rent moral, the allegory renmined in tlio later version of tbo 
talc, llittt the cask held uot curses but ble$siDg4 ; tbese were l«t 
go and lost to men wlieu tbo vessel vaa too curiously opcow), 
vhUa Hope alone was left behind for comfort to the luckless 
human tbcc.' Yet tlie primitive nature of such logcndlit andor- 
lies the moral shape upon tbem. Zcuo U no allogorie fiction, 
nod Prometheus, unless modem mythologists judge him very 
wrongly, has a meaning far deeper than parable. Xenophon 
tulk (lifter Prwlikos) the story of Honikles choosing between 
the Bhort and easy path of pleasure and the long and tuibwrno 
path of Tirtue,^ but though the mythic hero may thns be made 
to Bgtirc in a moral upoluguc. au imaginatioQ m little in keep- 
ing with his unethic nature jars upon the reader's mind. 

Tlie general relation of allegory to pure myth can hardly be 
brought more clearly into view than in a class of stories f&miliar 
to every child, the Beast-fables. From the ordinary civilized 
point of view the all^l<oiy in such fictions Beemit fundamental, the 
notion of a moral lesson f>cems bound up with their very nature, 
yet a broader examination tends to prove the allegorical growth 
an it were piirnsitic on an aider tniak of myth without mornl. 
It is only by an effnrt of intellectual reaction that a modem 
writer can imitate in parable the beast of tlio old 6fast-&ble. 
No wonder, for tlie creature ba-s become to his mind a raonst«r, 
only couceivablo sis a caricature of man made to carry a moral 
lessen or a satire. But among savages it is not sa To their 
minds the Hemi-human beast is no fictitious creature invented, 
to preach or nnecr, he is all but a reality. BeaRt-fabtas arc not 
nonsense to men who a.%ribe to the lower animals a power of 
apeecli. and look ou them aa part/dtiiig of moral human nature ; 
to men in whose cyea any wolf or hyiena may probably be a man- 
hyiena or a werewolf; to men who so utli-rly believe " that the 
soul of om- graudam might haply inhabit a bird" that they vrill 
really regulate their own diet tw aa to avoid eating au ancestor ; 
to men an integral part of whose religion may actoally be the 
worship of beasts, Such beUcBi belong even now to half man- 
kind, and among such the beast-HtorieH had their tirst home. 
Kwen tlie Australians tell their quaint beast-tales, of the Rat, 

' WfilElicr, vol i. !>. 7501 ■ XcDopih. itUmonbili*, u. 1. 



tlje Owl, auJ the fat Blackfellow, or of Pussy -brollier who tiingMl 
his friemU" noRes while they were ajJeep.^ Th« KamclnulaU 
httxe an elaborate myth of the advoiitiirea oftlieir titiipiH deity 
Kutlca with the Mict.- who pluycii trickK npna liini, kiicIi u 
painting his fac<; tike a woman'H, ro that ivhen h>^ looked in the 
water he fell in love witli himself.' Bon8L>ljU).-H abound uniong 
»uch niccK jui the Pulyncstann aiid the North American Indiatin, 
who value in them iogennlty of incident and neat tulajitatioa of 
the habits and characters of the crcatiin-s. Thu« in a k-gcaid uf 
the yiathcad IndiauD, the Little W<ilf fonrtd in clotidhviid hi4 
^Tandstres the Spiders with their grizzled hair and Im^ crooked 
nails, and they spun bolls of thread Vt lot him down to oArth ; 
when he came down and found hid wife tbc Speckled l>uek, 
whom the Old Wolf liwl tak^n froni him, die Rvd in oonfiuJon, 
fitid that is wliy she lives and dives aluiie to this rery day.' In 
OoiDcn, where beast-fable in one of the great Ktaplca of nntivo 
cOBTersation, the fi^owing stoiy is told am a type of the tale* 
which in this way aoraant for jiecitliaritiea of animoli. TbB 
great Eoj^na-monker offered hi* dau(^iter to be the brid« of 
the ciiampion who shouki perform the teai at drioking • wbole 
band of rum. Tlic dignified ElephuU, the gmoefiil LeopsrJ, 
die sarly Buar, tried the first nxmtbfal of llie fire-water, moi 
retreated. Then the tiuy Ti'linsa-muokfy came, who KmI ott- 
ningly hidden in tlic bug gram tbowaodiof bis fellowv; be took 
bb fint glaw and went away, but imlead of hit ooauug back, 
aaotbcr jwK like him came for the wooad. «Dd ao ob till tbe 
barrel wat emptied and TeHoga walked off witb the Monk«r- 
fciag'* daughter. But in tbe aajntw path the Elepbaat aad 
Leopard aitacfcod him and droT« him off, and he took nrfngv in 
tbe higheat boi^j^ of tbe treei, vowiag tmrer man to Itva cm 
tbe gmiid and avtbr Mcfe wioIsM* and iBJottaoe, T^'mwij 
to tUa d^ the liula tilmpB an Mlf <p«irf is iba U^ha« 1>B»> 
Ufa.* Sack tLonm havs beaa tiuMuHd fajr aaaM* trma «nfe 
twdhino in tWr aqpna] atate, vUla a* / ec do moca) leMon baa 

a VHm te Tl: Ctfc. is.' mL tr. fi SM. 

■ t 4 



entered into thoin. Yet the ca«y nml natural tmnsitinn from 
the stor\- iulo titc ]Kirablt> in mtule among savagos, {iviliaps with- 
out lielp from higher rnces. In ihp Hottentot Tnles, dde by 
side witli lh<_' niythii of the cunniitg Jackal tricking tlie Liou out 
of the best uf tha cjuca^c, aud geltitig ihu black etripu Inirut on 
his own back by cari^'ing off the Sun, there occurs the moral 
apologue of the Lion who thoiiglit himself wiser than his Mother, 
and pciLihcd by the Hunter's spear, for want of hucd to her 
warning ngairtKt the duailly creature whoao bead is in n line with 
lus breast and shouidem.* So the Zulus have a thorotigb moral 
apologue iu the story wf the hyrax, who did not go to fetch his 
tail OQ the day wbcu tails wei-e given out, because he did not 
like to be out in the rain ; he only aoked the other auimaU to 
bring it for him, and so ho never got it.* Among the Xorth 
American legonds of Maiiabozho, thei'e i^ n fnble quite <J^»pian 
in its humour. Manalwzho. triuuiforme<l into a Wolf, killed a 
fat nrioosp, and being very hungry sal down to eat But he fell 
into great doubts as to where to begin, for, said he. If I begin at 
tbe head, people will laugh and aay, he ate him b-ickwards, but 
If I begin at the side they will say, he ate him Bidewayit. At 
last he madi; up hU miiid. and was just putting a delicate piece 
into bis mouth, when a tree close by creaked. Stop, stop ! said 
be to the tree. I cannot eat with such a noUe, and in spite of 
hia hunger he left the meat and clirabwl up to quiet the creak* 
lag, but WW caught between two branches and held fast« and 
presently he saw a pack of wolves coming. Go that way I Go 
that way ' he cried out, whereupon the wolves said, he must 
have Bometbing there, or he would not tell us to go another 
way. So the}- cnme on, and found the moose, and ate it to tlie 
bones whde Matiabozho looked wistfully on. The next he«.vj 
blast of wind opened the branches and lot him out, and he went 
home tliinkiug to himself "See tlie effect of metlilltng with 
frivolous things when I had certain good iu my possession."' 
In the Old World, tho moial Beast-iable was of no mean 

* Bloelc, ' Rsjrnud in S. Afr.' ftp. H, 47, VI <Ltaciia sf* not ainong tho gtoriec 
which Mem r«c«iitly borrowed fraro Ear«|ic*ina)i. Set 'Euly Ilutory of Mutkioi],* 
p. 10. 

•Culbiwtr. 'Zii1bT«1m.*vo!. 1. v- 3GS. 

* SckMibiran, 'Algic Itoc'voL i. p. 160; ace 43, SI. 

antiquity, biit it did not at oticc iuppliuit tlio ADiinitl-mytlui 
paro And siinplc. For ages tho KuropcAii mind wm capablo at 
vnce of receiving' lesBuiis uf wiulom (ram (liu jYktt^vui crttvru nnil 
foxes, and of enjoying artistic Itil by no iiicaiii« (■Jifying U'lut- 
Btoriesof more pi-imitivctype. Id fnct ihoBnUriiiH iiml P)iii<dni* 
collections were over a tliouKand yean oM, wlien lint ^unuiiKi 
]3ea«t-£pic readied it« fiiil«-Ht growth in ilia incmiixindila 
'Reynard ttie Fox;' tntceable iu Jocoli tiriiiim'ti view to lUi 
original Franklih compoBition of tlie 12lli rontiiry, it>u'ir ron- 
taitung toatt-riaU of fur carliiT dut«.' Keyoani ib uut a ilidiicttc 
poem, at least if a aioral hanga on to it here and tliora it in 
ofkeoeet a Macchiavelltnn one; nor in it mwciittrdly a lutttra, 
Bhafply as it la«he« idvu in gencnU and tlic clergy in iNirticular. 
Ita creatures arc incarnate <|ualiti(it. lltu Fox of ciiJiriinjf, llic 
Bearofatren^lt, tlie A&tof dull eonteot, ibe Shaep of gviUAem- 
seoL The diarm of the narrative, which every elaa* id medunral 
Eofope delighted to. bat which we have allowed to drop o«t of 
all hal sdiolarv* knowledge, Ilea in great meanre in the drrorfy 
sDitaiiied oomlmaatioa of the beaMt's oaUtre sad tlie wao'i. H«w 
great the inflneoee of the Beynard Epae wai u the middle agi», 
nay he judged fmn fUyuard, lintin, ChaatUimr, \mo^ tfill 
naaiea luniliar to paof4e win have do idea of tlMir baviig b«M 
rripaallj lUT i nf ihf rTiinffrnin tIm fprriit h n M r f ih lf £rea 
t renariaUe are in traow io tnodera Frtskch. Hie du«kc7 haa 
!«f hHi^fenAi«ulot«.B^Unot^AiiL riMiiiw 
n«MA £i^iaiw>» iSe Bot evcB eaaira the mi4 9MipaI (nclfMii), 
m riBwtBiIly kaa tbe iMm ua&K of the <M beeo drives out *i 
^mm \f hw Ftmt^ tiife m tW Hft F^iif. it9gi»Hv4 Ike 

wluch Gfims I iiiiliflwri/ crib "laUw 

I flB vw ew pipea tne •■ aafM vutBi ■^■■oai, ane *pw ^ 
laitiwtic i|uafi(T w eo ioyc d with tlie giaiiiiiiii beaat^iyUw. 
fAaligiai ^fia will he ■{« i» jv^ge ftMOB lAv de HMaar 
'4c<JUMwbe Mil kPV(i»>i»Aat«M loWw 'Moirf* 
jnded is .£w|)'s KUai, tfirt c a wty tu dy nii^ kcMnr wbaK to 


The want «f power of nlMtmctioii wliit'h has ever Uad (tich 
dUastiYius ctfoct on the bi-liefs of manic inci, confontKliRg tn^h 
and chronic!^ ami cn]»iliiiig t]ie spirit uf liistory uutlvr ibe rub- 
bish of Ittemliiwcl tnulitlon, comes very clearly into view io tbe 
«tud/ of parable. The state of mind of the deaf, dumb, and 
blind Laura Briilgman, si> iiiNtnicLivc in iJluatratiag the mental 
hal^ts of unediicate<l tboiigti fulUsenHcd men, dUplnys in an 
extreme ft<rm thu diQiciitty ^uch men have in comprehending 
the unrL'Hlity of any Htury. She coiilil not bo made to sao that 
arithmetical problems were Anything but stAtementa of concrete 
fact, and vrhcu hc-r tcuchur osUcd lic-r, " If you can buy a barrel 
of cider for four dollars, liow much can you buy for one dollar ? " 
she replied quite simply," I cannot give much for cider, because 
it is very sour." ' It is n yurprising instance of this tendency to 
coucretibiu, that among people so civilized as the Jjuddhisls, tlie 
moxt obviously inoml beast-fables have become literal iiioidcnU 
of encrcd history. Gautama, during litB 550 jatakns or birtlis, 
took the fonu of a, frog, a IikH, a crow, an ape, and various other 
aoimaU, and eo far were the legends of thc^e tmn^fonnations 
from mere inytli to his fulluwent, that there have been pre- 
served as relics in Budtlhwt temples the hair, feathen?. and bones 
of the creatures ^Yhose bodies the great teacher iuhabiuxL Now 
among Uiu incidents which happened to Buddha during hU 
series of animal births, he appenred as an iictor in the familiar 
fable of tbe Tox ami the Stork, aud it wua ho who, when te was 
a Squirrel, eet an cxamplo of parental virtue by trying to dry 
Up ^e ocean with hie tail, to save his young ones whose nest 
bad drifted oat to sea, till h'n persevering courage was ivwardod 
by a miracle.' To our modern minds, a moral which seems the 
very purpuKe of a story is cviileuce unfavourable to its tnith as fact. 
But if b%'t!n apolngiies of tjilking bird-i and beasts have not been 
safe ftxim literal belief, it is clear that the most evident moral 
can have been but slight f)rotectioii to parabl&'i told of possible 
and life-like men. It was not a needless precaution to state ex- 

* AcoMint ot ijMin Brid^piuui, p. 120. 

* Bomiag, ' SJuu,' vol I. )i. SIS ; Hnnly, ■ Hainul of BiuUiitin,' p. K. 8m 
tb« tabh of tlM'Crow M<t ritcher' in PUn. x.SO, Bud BmIuui, 'UeuKh,' vol. i. 





plicttly of tbe New Tuetamont parables that they irere parables, 
and ercD tbts guanl has not availed cotirely. Mrs. JomoBOu 
Tclatefl some curious expericoce m Uiu following paBBago : — " I 
know that I tros not very yoUDg wk«u I eulertaincd no mcHTc 
doubt of Uie substantia] existence of Luorua and Dives than of 
JobiL tbo Baptist aiul Herod ; when the Gk>od Samaiitan was as 
real a perstmngc as aiiy of the Apijistle* ; when I wafl ftiJl of 
siDceresl pity for those poor foolish Virgin* who had f<»;gottoa 
to trim thi^ir lumps, and thought thvtn — in my secn^t soul — > 
rather hardly treated. This impression of tliu literal furtual 
truth of thu parublcK I have siucc met with in tnany children, 
a.Dd iu the uiiL-ducat'--d but devout hearers and rt-oders of tlie 
Bible ; and I remember tliat when I once tried to exphiiu to a 
gpod old woman the proper meauiog of the word ponible, and 
that the story of the Prodigal Sou was uot a luct, she was scan- 
dalized — she was quite sure that Jesus would n6V«r have told 
anythiDg to his disciples ttut was not tnie. Thus aho settled 
the matter in her own mind, aiid T thought it beat to leave it 
there undisturbeil."' Ner, it may be added, baa such mi»- 
coDccption beCQ conlinGd tu tbe mituU of the poor and ignomn^ 
St. Lazarus, ]jatroii wiiut of lopere and their hoHpitals, ami from 
whom the ttizzarone nnil the Uiszarelto take their name, ob- 
viously derives these tjualilies from tlie Lazarus of the parable. 

Tlie proof of tbe force and uhsliuacy of tbe mythic faculty, 
thus givcu by the relapse of parable into pseud o-hisloiy, may 
coacludc thi^i diitsertatiou ou mythology. Id ita courae tbcre 
have been examined the procesHos of animating and personifying 
naturo, the formatioa of legend by cxaggcrnlion and pervcraton 
of fact, the stifieningof metaphor by miHtukeu realization (»f words, 
the couveriiiou of spcculfttive theoiies and Ktill lens eubst&ntiat 
fictionH into pretended traditional events, the passage of mytit 
into miracle-legend, tbe definitiuii by name and place given to any 
floating imogioatioQ, the adaptation of mythic incident as moral 
example, and the incci^sant crp'stallizntion of Rtory into history. 
The investigation of these intticate and devious opemtions has 
brought ever raoro and more broadly into view two prindplM 
of mythologic science. The £rst is that legend, wbeu claasificd on 

' Jomcion, 'UUtory of Our Lonl in AH,' »ol. i. jil 8JB. 



^ laHioient scale, disjila^'s a rejpilaritv of duvi'lupmeiit which die 
noCtoii of moiivde88 faDcy r|iiitp (aih to nrcoiint for, and whicK 
rauut bo ftttrilmted to laws of formalioii whereby every story, 
old and new, lias nri^tnu (roin its definite origin and sufficient 
cmnao. So uoifonn indeed is such development, that it hecomee 
poMihlu to treat mjrth as an organic product of mankind at 
liu:gQ, in whirh indiridiial, tiatiooal, and even racial distinctions 
■taud AuLorJinatu lo univor&al qualities of the buraOD mind. 
The oecnml |)rinci[>le cnncerns the relation of myth to histnry. 
It It truo that the eicarch fur tuutilated and mystified trodiliuna 
of real events, which formed so nmin a part of old mytholo^cal 
ronoroheif, seeinti to ^I'ow more hopeleos the farther the Htutly 
of Ugead extendi. Even tlic fra^cnts of real chronicle fouod 
ombeddod in the mvthie structure ore mostly iii so corrupt a 
Btato, tliat far from thoir elucidating history, they need history 
to elucidate them. Yet uncouscioiisly, and as it were in spite 
()f tliomtielveH, the shapeni and tran-tmitt^rs of poetic legend 
liave pn»orrod for \m nuMScH af gouad historical ovideuce. They 
inotildoil into ujithic Uvom of gu^h and heroes their own an- 
coatral hoirlocimH of thmight and wonl, they displayed iu the 
Htructuro of tlieir legends tho opuratioDH vi iht-ir own minds, 
they placed on record tho arts and mannei*, the philosophy and 
religion of their own tinies, times of which furmal Liittoiy has 
oFtea lout tho very memory. Myth is the hiKtory of itK authors, 
not of ila Buhjectij ; it records the lives, not of superhuoum 
boroes. hut of poetic iiatiuus. 



lUli^ODa iilcu £«iicnlly appKu utDonj; lowraceaof Uniikiuil — K^^ttn utat*- 
nirnb on thw siihjrcC frciiiieiitly t^iBl^Mlbg and laibtilirn : insDy mat 
uiir.ntiua — Minimnm itrriuitian of [[cliftioit— Doctrine of Kpirilii«I tiitingi; 
ben toniioit Aiiliuiini— Animlini Irvaied h belonging to Nminl (tcU^^ii 
— Animinn <]ifi<li(l into tvo »rctioi», t)i« |ibiloao)iliy of S^mU, niid cf »Uuit 
Spirit*— Doctrine of Sonic, iti pnrTAlmcc auiL ilc&nitioa among the lower 
nuTs— 'Dcrinition of Appnritiniml Aoiil or Ohont-Snnl — It ix * ihrarrttcnl 
conceptiou of prlioilivH Pliilost)|it:iy, iletipiifd to iiccauiil fur iibniugnnn 
Bftir tIasMd nnOer Biology, MjiMJally Lift and Dcatli, llraltli auil DlMoe, 
SI(>up and DrpsniH, 'JVnnrc and Tialma — B*l«lian of Sciul in luune 
ui n«tnra to SIikIow, Blood, Btentk— Divuian or Plnnliiy of Souk— 
SoqI I3UBU of Life ; iU rtetontioii to body irltan iiippoiK!(1 aliwnt— Exit of 
SonJ iu Trauf.w— Drearaa and ViHioni : theory of «li of dnani«r'4 or »eer'« 
onn »Diil ; theory of visiu ncnrrd Ijy Ihom from otlier soiils— OLost-Soil 
mtn tn Aitjiaritian*— Wraitlia and Doubles— Soiil Itits form of tioily ; untTeni 
niulilatiou wtUi it — Vulco of Gliosl — Sotil Irvattrd and defined aa vf Material 
Snbatauce : llua a)>pean to he the uiigiwtl doctiiue— TiuiBiniisiaii iif Soula 
to ■oTvice in futtiTo life by Funeral i^AtrrifiM nf virta, attmdnnta, Ac. — Sonla 
of AiiiiniLla— Tlifir tniiii:ii»!iian by >'i]iiunl Sncrtficu--Suuh of Planta—Souls 
«t Oltjiwta— Their tninnnijn«n iy Funtnit SiuTillff — Relation of uvofp 
doctrine of Otyctt-Soula to Epicnnvu tlicory of Mou— HiatoiJcol devilqimcnt 
of Doctrine ofSouU, from the Etlicnul SoqI orpriniitive Rinb;^ to Ibo tni- 
auiuriiil Soul of inoilpni Theology, 

Arf. ttierf. or liave there been, tribes of nieu soIomv in culture 
as to bave no religiiius conctrptioii!* wliattver 1 This is practi- 
cally the qwestiou of tbe universality of religion, wliicb for so 
maoy centurie.4 lizia been affirmed and tie nied, witJi a confidence 
iu Htrikin^ contmtit to the imperfect evidence on wlitcli both 
(iHirmatton and denial Ituve been based. EtJinogriipIicrs, if 
looking to a theory of derelopment to e-tplain civilization, and 
rrgnnling itti Hiioccsnre stngcs a^ aiiaing one from another, 
would receive with peculiar interest acwunU of tribes devoid of 



itll religion. Her«, tbey would Dnturally sny.are mt-n who havo 
DO rvli^itu teottiLto their furefiillim'S Iiml iiuue, iiit>u nliu rt>pre- 
sent a, pne-religious condition of the human race, out of which 
in thv course of time rcligtuuit cumUliou!! Iiavc m-tscD. It doon 
Qot, however, stxm ftdvisable to Rtart from this groiiml in an in- 
vestigation of religious ilevelopmenL Though Uio theoretical 
tiichr is it-mlv aud convunicut, the tictual litjilnu to fill it in not 
furthcoming. The case in id som« ilcgrue similar to that of the 
tribes aaaerttMl to exist without laugnftge or without the use of 
fire ; notliing; in the uuture of tilings Hocnui to forbid the poasi- 
bilitr of such existcnct^, hut an a matter of fact the tribes arc 
not fuund. Thus the agscrliuu that niijo uou-religinus tribes 
have beeD kiion-n ia actual existence, though in theory pos> 
sible. and perhaps iu fnct true, docs not ut pn-sent rest on that 
sufficient proof -tv-hich, for aa ex<!«ptionaL state of tiiioge, wo arc 
entitled to demaod. 

It is not unusual foi* tbo very writar whO"dKlVBII'ai,gM^^^^H 
terms the absence of i-eligiouhi plicnuiucua iBmODg ■oOt^'MnQ^^^H 
people, himself to give CMiIeuce that show-s hk oxpre.ssio«8 to Iw 
miHloading. Thus Dr. Lang uul only dfckios that the nbo- 
rigines of Austntlin have no itJea of n Ktipreuift divinity, creator, 
and judge, no object of worship, no idol, temple, or sacrifice, but 
that, " in Khort, they have uothiug wh-ilcver of iht? character of 
religion, or of religious olwervancc. to distinguish them from che 
bcasti that perisli." More than one wTiter has since made use 
of thia telling stntemeut, hut witliout rcferriug to certain de- 
tails which occur in the verj" same bonk. From these it appears 
that a tlJHcasc like aiuuU-pox. which fiouietiucs attnckts the 
natives, is ascribed by them " to the inftucnco of Budyali, an 
evil spirit who delights in mischief;" that when tlie uativcs 
rob a wild bees' hive, ilicy generally leave a little of the honey 
forBudd.ii ; thatat certain biennial gatherings of the Queeoslaod 
tribes, young girls arc slain in «acrifico to propitiate some evil 
divinity ; aud that lastly, nccoitliiig to the evidence of the Kev. 
W, Ridley, " whenever ho has conversed with the aborigines, ho 
found them to have definite traditions concerning supernatural 
beings, Baiamc, whose voice tbey hear in tliuuder, and who 
made all things, Turmmulhm the chief of demons, who is tha 

author of disense, mischief, imcl wisdom, anrt appoam in the form 
of a serpent al their great assomLUes, eta"' By tho concurring 
lestinioQy of a crowtl of ohservers, it U kju>nni tliat the imtiveii 
of Australia were at their discovery, and have since remained, a 
race with miiidK saturated witli the most vivid belief in soul^ 
demonH, atid duitii»>. In Africa, Mr. Moflat's declaration ah to 
tho Bechuaoas is scarcely lasi surprising—that "man's immor< 
tfllity vm never hcanl of among that people," tin liaving re- 
marked in tho seotenoe next befom, that the word for theshadea 
or manes of tho dead is "liritL"^ lu SuuUi Amcriea, again, 
Don Felix do Azara comments on tho positive fal&tty of tho 
ecclemastics' assertion that tho native tribes bavo a religion. 
He simply declarer that they have nouo; novoitholess io tho 
cotirso ofbia work he mentions such (nets as that the Payaguoa 
bury 8rm» and clothing ihit-h tboird(^and have !«>mcnotioii»of 
n future lif«, and that the Guanos bt-iteve in a Bi>tu,i{ who re- 
wards good and punishes evil. In fact, this author'^ recklen 
denial of religioa and law to the lower races of this region 
justifies D*Orbigny's sharp criticiiim. that " this k indeed what he 
RayK of all tho nations ho dcscribofl, wbilo act^ially prnring tho 
contrary of his thesiit by the very factit lie allvges in iu HUppurt,'** 
Such auen iihow l>ow deceptive are judgmentH to which 
breadth and generality are given by the use of wide wonis in 
narrow senses. Lang, Moffat, njid Azara are authors to whotn 
ethnc^raphy owes much valuable knowledge of the Irilies they 
visited, but they seem hardly to have rocofj;iiisud uuytJiing short 
of tlie organized and established theology of the higher races m 
being religioa at all. 'fliey utlritmte itreligtoa to trihea whose 
doctrines are unlike theinn, in much the same manoer as tbcolu* 
giaus have no often attributed atheism to thoee whose deitiev 
dtfr«red from their own, from the time wJK-n the ancient ti>- 
voding Ai^'ans described the aboriginal tribes of Iwlia as 
cuteva, i^, "godless," and the Greeks fixed tbo oorrcapondtug 

> J. D. LatiA ■ Onmnlud,' pp. UO, 374, U4. W. iU (Bnidil »ppmnt ^ 
St l>, ai ciuwD/ » ddaffB 1 ^ ■> praWUy UeMioU wHk SndfaL). 

■ Modfal. • SoBth JUrtca.' p. ML 

Mitm, 'TiK. 4uu I-Aniriqiu UMdiawle,* r«L U. ppu 3, 14, 23, SI, «^ t1, 
1», ate ; irOrtdgBf, a'tlomiiM AatlnniB,' roL U. p. SIS. 



tcnn of 20(01 on tho early Chriatians as uobelierers la the 
dassio gixls, to tite comparatively' mudera ages whcu dUWliuvers 
in witchcraft nnd apostolical iiucccssioii were dcaoiinccil u 
ntheUts, and down to our owu dny, wb«Q ooDtrovcrsi&lists are apt 
to infer, ng in past centuries, tliat naturalists who support a cheory 
of doTclopmont of species tbcrefon; necessarily hold atlieisUe 
o^oaionii.^ Tli&ie are in fact t>ut extimploR of a general i)erver- 
«0D of fftir and open judgment iu tlieologlcal oiattcrg, among 
tbo rcb-iilts of which is a popular misoonception of the religions 
nf tlie lower races, dimply amazing to students who have 
roflchod a liiglior point of view. Some missionaries, no doubt, 
thoroughly iinderatand the minds of the jmragcs they have to 
dual with, and iudeed it is from men like Cranz, Bob rizh offer, 
Cliarlovoix, Ellis Hanly. Calhiway, J. R. Wilfion, T. Williams, 
that we have obtained our best knowledge of the lower phases 
of religious belief. But for the most pitrt tbo " religious world " 
itt 60 ooaipied in bating and despising the beliefs of the heatlien 
whoiw Y»iA revolts of the globe are painted black on the mis- 
oionary mii|u, tliat they have little time or capacity left to 
undcr>tta»U tbcm. It cannot be so with those who fairly seek 
to compi'chcnd the nature and mcaniug of the lower pbascu of 
religion. Thtis*-, while fully alive to tho absurdities believed 
and tho hornn-B perpetrated in its name, wiU yet regai-d with 
kindly inteivHt nil records of men's enrneet seeking after tnitb 
with imch light oa they could lind. Such students will look for 
meaning, buwev«r crude and childish, at the root of doctrines 
often nioHl dark to the boHcveni who accept them most zealously; 
tliuy will search for the i-uaBOnable thought -which oooe gavft 
life to obifervances now become in seeming or reality the most 
abject uud superstitiouH folly. The reward of these cuquirera 
will he a more ratiomd comprehension of the faiths in whoeio 
midst they dwell, fur no mure can he who uuderstands but one 
religion understand even that religion, than thu muu who 
knows but one language can understand that language. The 
bi<£ia of thculugiual ticiencc muiit be historical as well as cvidcn- 

' Muir. 'SftMkrit Tots." jmrt ii. p. 15S ; E.i«b. 'trirt. Ecd.' iv. IS ; Ring- 
haiDiliuok L di. ii. ; Vinint, *De AiltnirantlU h'nciinL-ArraaU,' dinl. 37 ; Locky, 
* Hilt, of RiiUcmnliain,' vol. i. p. 1S6 ; Raejda[>. lint. *. r. ' 8iipc-red:iun.* 



tial> anmmments raust recognize iha ctoIuIiod of religious 
doctrines, and hy gtepnmting the (•ffocta of tradition j'rom the 
effects of direct conviction, leave free the diacU!<eion of objective 
tnitli. No K'tigioi) of muiikiiid lieii in utter isuktloD from the 

iTCst, B.nd the tboughiR and principles of inixlem Chrintiiuiity 
Kre attach^ to iutellcctual chics which run back through far 
praQ-Chnxtian a^cs to the very origin of human civilization, 
perhaps even of human escietence. 

While obscn-cK who have hod fair opportuaities of ntadjmg 
tho religions of saviiges have thus somctiiuee done scftnt ju&tice 
to the facts before their eyes, the hasty doniaU of others who 
have jtidg^I without ©von facta con carry no grcut wt-tght, A 
Itith-century traveller gave sn account of the natives of Florida 
which IB typical of Kuch : " Touching the religion of this people, 
which wco have found, for want of their language wee cuuld not 
uuderstund neither by signs nor geKtiire tliat they had any reli- 
gion or lawo at alt We suppose that (hey have no reli* 

gioii at all, and that they live at their own Ubertie."' Better 
knowledge of these Floridans neveithelcuH showed that they 
ha^l a religion, aod bettvr knowledge lias reversed many another 
hasty asHCrtiou to the same effect ; an when writers u»ud to 
docl&re that the natives of Madagascar had no idea of a future 
atate, aod uo word for soul or x[Mnt ;* or when Dampler eo- 
qiiired after the religion of the natives of Timor, and was told 
that tbey hiid ooue \^ or when Sir Thomas Roe landed in Bal- 
daoba Bay on his way to the court of tltc Great Mogul, aad 
retnarkMl of the Hottentots that " they have left off their 
euBtom of Btealing, but know do God or religion." * Aioong the 

^BumerDua accounta coOecied by Sir John Labboefc aa crvidoaoe 
bewiog on the absence or low development of religion aiaot^ 

.low laccs, ' Booic may be eoleetod aa lying open to criticiam from 
point uf vietr. Thus t)ie Btatement that the SamcM 

' J, da Vtmiaiw to EUklajt, uA. in. p. 300. 

> ik« Qlk, • H-4iytr.' ml. L p. A» : rUeoait ' HM. da UadaeMor,' 

' D— j ( ui, ' Vtjtfa,' vol iL put iL pk 3<. 

Boa bt nalwftatu toL liiL f. t. 
■ UUMtk. • PnhiatOTic Titoit,- p. BN : aw bIm 'Ori^ ti CMSm^aa^^ 
f. UK 



Islanders had no religioa caunot stand in face ttf the elaborate 
description hy the Rev. G. Turner of the Sanioaii religion itself; 
and the a«tertion that the Tupioambas of Brazil had no religioa 
in one not to be reoi'ivcd witliuut Home more ptK^ittve proof, for the 
relig^ouH doctrines unci practices of the Tiipi race have been 
locordcd by Lyry. J)c Lac-t, and other writeriL Even with much 
time and care and knowiedge of language, it is not nbvaVH eany 
to elicit from 8aTi^[eH the details of their theology. They rather 
iry to Ikido from the piTinfC i^i^tl contemptuous foreigtier tboir 
■worship of fiodfl who seem to shrink, like their worehippera, 
before the white man and his mightier Deity. And thus, even 
where no positive proof of religionfl development amonj; any 
p&rtieular tribe hna renclied ii-t, we should diittruttt its denial by 
ohservcre whose ncqunintaDcc with tlio tribe in question has uot 
been intimate us well aa kindly. Aiisertiutifi of tluR sort are 
made very careleiisly. Thus it is said of the Aiidnman Tshinders 
thai they have not the ruJoMt elements of a relijjlouii faith ; Dr. 
Mouat ststett thi.4 explicitly,' yet it appears that the natives did 
not even dinplay to the foreigners the rude niu^ic which they 
actually poasefwed. so Uiui they could scarcely have been ex- 
pected to be communicntive a.% to their theology, if they bad 
toy. In our time tlie must stvikiu^ ucgation of the religion of 
Kmige tribes in that ptibiinhed hy 8ir Sumnel Baker, in a paper 
Kfld in iHiiii befurt! the Ethnulogica] Society of London, afi fol- 
lows: "The inoiit northern tribes of the White Nile arc tho 
Dinkafi, Shilloeks, Niielir, Kytch, Bohr, AUab, and Sliir. A 
general description will suffice for the whole, excepting Uio 
Kytch. Without any exception, they arc without a belief in a 
Supreme Being, neitbci' liave they any form of worship or 
idolatry; nor it; the darkness of their mindR enlightened by 
even a ray of superatitioii." Had this distiuguiahed explorer 
spoken only of the lAtukns, or of other trihe'< hanlly known to 
othDOgrapbors except through bis own intercourse with them, 
hiti denial of any religious conKcioiisiietui to them would liave 
been at least entitled to stand slu the b<!st procurable account, 
until more intimate communication should prove or dinprove it. 
But in speaking thus of comparatively well known tribes such 
' Uonat, ' AtulnnuD I»Ui)dtr*,' y^ S, 278, 803. 



as the Dinkaa, Shilluks, aad Nuebr, Sir S. Eikor igiiui-es tlie 
oxisteiice of imblUhed evidence, uncK as describes tlio sacrificeti 
of the Dinkas, their belief in good ami eril spirits (n<ijok and 
djyok), their jfood deity aud licaveii-dwelUug creator, Dfudiil, 
S8 likewiHe Ntiar the deity of the Nuclir, and the Kliilhikii' 
creator, who is desci'ibeJ as visiting, like other spiritii. a sacred 
wo(hL or tree. Kuufinatiii, Brun-KoUut, Ll^Juoii, uiid ultier 
observers, bad thus placed on reconi deiAils of the religion of 
these White Nile tribes, years before Sir S. BaJiei'8 raab denial 
tliat tloy had aoy religion at all. ' 

The first rciiuisitc in a gystcui&tic study of the roligioun of 
the lower races, is to lay down a nidinientfiry dctitiition of 
rcli^oD. By requiring in tbU di^Bnition the belief iu a 
BiipFemo deity or of jtidgnicnt nfYer death, the tidoratioQ of 
idols or tlie praetJce of 8acrilicc«, or other partially-diffused 
doctrineti or rites, no doubt many tribes may be excluded from 
the categon' of religioueL But such narrow doGoition has tlic 
jault of identifying religion rather vrtth particular devulopmeats 
thaD with the deeper motive wliich underlieii them. It seemR 
' liest to foil back at once on litis e^iiientia) Kource, and simply to 
<Tlaim, n« a minimum definition of IleligioD, the belief in 
iSpiritual Beings. If tliis standard be applied to the descnp- 
tions of low races aa to religion, the following re&utts will 
appear. It cannot be positively asserted that every existing 
iribe recognises the belief in spiritual IxiiugM, for tbe Dative 
''Condition of a considerable number is obscure id this respect, 
and from the rapid cliaage or extinction they ore undergoiog, 
may over remain so. It would l>c yet more unwarianted to set 
down every tribe mijiitioucd iu hUtory, or known to us by the 
discovery of antiquarian relics, &i necessarily having possessed 

' tkkcr, * Bmcb *f the Kik IlMiii,' in Tr. EUi. SfJC t*L v. p. 231 ; 'Tke 
AlbeK Nynnxa,* rol. i. f. X4tf, Sen KaiiftiMnn, ' ScJiiMoniogCB otu Ccotral- 
•fcikii.' JK ViZ i llnin-ttollet, ' Le N'U BUiie ct le Soiidaii,' pp. IM. 222, «lw pp. 
1S1, ZOO, iU ; U. Lvjow in ' Kft. dec Deux it.' April I, 1M2, p. iM ; Wail^ 
' ABthnjNiIiigic,' «tiL iL p. T3-& ; Bution, ' Uruch.' T«t. iii. p. 309. OUmt 
j'-Kftlod CMWordaBMlornlijpon of iwragc tdboon Murvir dcfiuilMn orinkjw- 
41<uti ■vi<I«soo Ba^lwfooBil ik MeiMi** 'OmcIi. Jm Bel.' vol. i. pi>. 11-16 
I .liutnliuu uiil (^ilbrnktui ; WtJU. ' Atitliroiiologl«,' rol. i. p. 3X3 (Am U- 
lanilen, etc.); Funr Ja 'Aaihrojn Rev.' A«(f. KOI, p. PCXViL (Kifirs etc); 
UatUiu, 'KHMKig. jbuM-.' toI. L p^ S93 (UuM«). 



the ilefincil miiiimiim of religion. Grcatcrstill would Tic the tin- 
wisilom of declAriog siicli a rudimeniaiy belief natural or in- 
Btinctiveinallliiiinan tribL-sofoll tuues; for no evidence justificfl 
the opinion that man, known to bo capable of so vast an intel- 
lectual ilerelopnient, CAiinot have cinei'ged from a noii- religious 
condition, prwious to that rcli^uuH condition in which he Imp- 
peos at present to come mth sufficient clearness within our 
range of knowledge. It is desirable, however, to take our basis 
of enquiry in observation ratlier than from speculation. Here, 
90 far as 1 e»n judge from the immense mass of accessible evi- 
dence, we have to admit that the belief in spiritiuil beings 
appears among all low races with whom wa havR nttained to 
thoroughly Intimate acquaiutauco, whereas the assertion of 
abnenrc of such belief must njiply cither to ancient tribe^ or 
more or less imporfeetly described modem ones. The exact 
lieariag of this state of things on the problem of the ori^n 
religion may be thus bnefly stated. Were it distinctly proved^ 
that non-religious savagi?s exist or have existed, these uiight b© ; 
at least plausibly claimed as representatives of the condition 
Man before he arrived at the n-digious stage of culture, It is 
not desirable, however, that this argument ehould l>c put for-, 
waril, for the aasortcd existence of the uou-religious tribes vaA 
question rcHts, as we liavc seen, oh evidence often iiiiKtaUea and 
never conclusiva The argument for the natural evolution of 
rolij^ouji ideas among mankind is not invalidated by the rejec- 
tion of an ally too weak at pn.'sent to give effectual help, Non- 
religioui tribes may not exist in our day, but the fact bears do 
more decisively on the development of rchgion, than the impos- 
ubility of finding & modem English village without scissors 
books or lucifer-mntehes bears on tho fact that there was a timel 
when no such things existed in the land. 

I purpose here, under the name of Animism, to investigaior) 
the deep-lying doclriuo of Spiritual Beings, which emlKxhes the 
very GBsenc« of SpiritualiHtic as opposed to Materialistic philo- 
sophy. Animism is not a new technical term, though 
seldom used.' From its special relation to the doctrine of tfaf 

' Th« Uim hi» bMo e«reei«lly Mod to dcncto iho dw-trin* ol Stahl, Oit pro- 
molff»toralMffftbBplil<^*ton-tlioor}'. Tkc Aututiiui ofSuU U a R>*iviU aiul 

AKIMIiiM. 3S5 

smil, it will be Mien to Iiavo a poeulinr 'nppropnattiiiQsa to tlio 
viow here taken of the tnodo in wliieli tlioological ideas have 
been developed among mankind. Tlie won] Spirituali*in, 
though it may be, and sumetiuies ie, used iu a getieriU attae, 
has tilts obvioUB defect to us, tlut it has becuine the deugnation 
of a particular modern sect, who indeed Imld extreme Hpirltual- 
istio views, but cannot be taken n» topical repreMCutatives oi' 
these vieivs in the world at large. The sonso of Spiritualism tc 
. its wider acoqHation, the general doctrine of ftpiritual beiugg, is 
here given to Animism. 

Animism characterizes tribes very low in the Acalo of hu- 
manity, and thence ascends, deeply modified in its transtnitiNioo, 
but from first to last presorting an unbroken continuity, into 
the midst of high modem citlture. Where doctrines adverse to 
it are held by in<)ivifiu.iU or xclioolis they aro usnnlly to bo 
ncoonntcd for as due not to early lownesa of civUiatien, but to 
later changes in the intellectual course, to divergence from, or 
rejeotioD of, ancestral faiths, and auch newer developments do 
not affect the present enipiiry as to a fundumental religions 
condition of mankind. Animism i», in fact, the groundwork of 
the Pliilosoptiy of Rvlt^oii, from that of xavagc^ up to that of 
civilized men. And althwigh it may at iinit fdght seem to ailbrd 
bnt a bare and meagre defiuition of a minimum of religion, il 
will be found practically sufficient ; for, where tbc root ts, the 
branches wilt generally be produced. It is habitually foand 
tliat the thcoty of Animism divides into two great dogma:j^ 
forming parts of one conHtatcnt doctrine; first, concerning soula 
of individual ercatnrea, capable of continued existence after the 
death or destractton of the body ; second, concerning other 
spirits, upward to the rank of powerful deitiea S]Mritual boingB 
an held to affect or contr-l tiie events of the material world, 
and man's life hero and hereafter ; and it being considered that 
they hold intcreounto with men, and receive pleasurB or dia- 
pleacore from bnman actions, the belief in their oxietcncc leads 
natarally, and it might almoat be said inevitably, sooner or 

^ntofiowiit tBtRnkni tcUutific tluiN oflTii flMaTrlTii ry UraUfriag vital priad- 
pUuiNaL SMhb"nMorialU<lk«V«ik'HalU17»':Hidth0crttkaldiMt- 
tatioa m Us ili^ LmoiBB, ' U ThiUM* at rAmnna d» 8uU.' Iteti. ISM. 

toL. I. - e c 



later to active renrcrcncc and pru]Htiaiioii. Thus Asioaism. 
it« full devcloinucut^ iucludes llie belief iu coDtroUing duitictf' 
and mibonlimte Hpiritd, in Koub, and ia a fature state, these 
dociriacji pmclicallj reeulting in sume kind of actixi; worshtpi 
Ono g»at deuitiot of icligJoD, tlutt moral clement wliicb to lu 
foTjaa its motit vital part, h indeed little rcpreseuted iu the reli- 
ffion of the lower laccs. It is not that thoseraccs have no m 
BenxQ or no moral staDdard, for both are strongl}* marked amoo^ 
thorn, if not in fortnal precept, at least in that tniditic-nal oon- 
wnnu of Docicty which wccall public opiQion,acconling to which 
c4iciain actioiiH are held to he good or bad, right or ^iruDg. It is 
Uiat ihu vonj unction of ethics and Animistic phitoMtphy, xo inti- 
mate and poworful in (ho higher cultuic, seems scarcely yet to 
hftvobej,'"" '" thi-liiwor. T propose liere hardly to touch upon the 
purely moral aitpect* of religion, but rather to study the ftuimi«ni 
of tho world so far an it conittitutes, as unquestionably it doe^i 
constitute, an ancient and world-wide philosophy of which 
boliixf iH tho theory aud wuitthip is the practice Endeavouring 
ia shflpo Uio nmtoriaU for an enquiry hitherto stmngety under- 
valued and neglected, it nill now be lay ttisk to briu^ as clearly 
as iiiny hv into view the fundamental Jiniini»m of tho loiv^ 
mcuH, luid iu nuine slight mid broken outline to trace its coutse 
into highL>r rcgionH of civilization. Uuru let me state once for 
•II two |)riiici|ml condiliuofl under which the preflcnt reseaivh is 
Carried lui. Firiit, ai* to tho religious doctrines and practices 
uainiaiKt, thoM are treated a* botouging to theological systems 
dovisi'd hy liuinuu riMuton, without ftupernatural aid or revela- 
tion ; iit other wordit, as being developments of Nntui-al Relt- 
gioB. Sucoud, as to the connexioQ between similar ideas and 
ritOH in tho religions of tho savage nn<l the civilized world. 
Whilo dnrelliug at some length on duotrluee and ecnjmonies of 
the lower nuxw, and soniolimoK particulnriziug for special 
reaMins the related doctriiiOH and ceremonies of tho lughcr 
nations, it hag nut seomod my proper toidi to work out in detail 
the problems thus suggested among the philosopLies and creeds 
of Christendom. Stjcli applicotions, extending farthest from 
the direct scope of a woik on primitive culture, are bnofly 
stated in genenU terms, or touched lu slight allusion, or taken 


for granted wittcwt remark. Educated readur& possess Uia infor- 
mation required to work out tlieir general beariog on theology, 
while more technical dli^'us^ioii be 1i>ri ta ■pra(visioTa\ tbeolugiiius. 
The first brancli of the suhject to he consiJei-ed is the 
doctrine of human nud other SouU, an examination of ubtvli 
"will occupy the rest of tlic pn-sent chapter. What tlie doctrine 
of the soulis among the lower races, may he explained by a theory 
of its development It »eem» as though thinking men, aa yet 
at a low level of culture, were deeply impressed by two groups 
of hiologicul pmblemti. In the tirat pluce, what is it tliat makes 
the difference between a living body and a dead one; what 
cuusus waking, sleep, tninec, disefl.'ie. death? In the »ccond 
place, what are those human ^tiapes which appear in dreaniH 
I and viitions 1 Looking at these two groups of phenomena, the 
ancient savage pliilosopberfl prncticnlly mode each help to 
account for the other, by combining both in a conception which 
we may call an apparitional-ttoiil, a ghost-soul. The conoeptioii 
of a peraonal soul ur spirit among the lower races niay bo 
defined ra follows : It is n thin unRulistniitinl laiman image, 
in its nature a sort of vapour, film, or shadow ; the caUM of 
life and thought in the individual It animate.<i ; independently 
possessing the personal consciousness and volition of its cor- 
poreal owner, pa&l ur pretient ; capable of leaving the body far 
behind to flafth swiftly fi-om place to place ; inoatly impalpable 
and invisible, yet also mimifesting physical power, and especially 
appearing to men waking or anleep as a phantamn separate 
£rom the body of which it bears the likenesn; ablo to enter 
into, po£M-^ ami act in the bitJies of uther men, of nutmalM, 
and even of things. Though tJiis definition is by no means of 
wuTersol applicatioc, it has auffictent generality to be taken ox 
a standard, modified by more or leas divergeuco among any 
particular people. Far from these world<wide opinions being 
arliitrary or conventional products, it itt seldom even juiitifi!U>le 
to considor tbeir unifomiily among distant races aa proving 
communication of any mrt. They aro ductrineB nnicweriiig in the 
most forcible way to the plain evidence of men's seosos, a» 
interpreted by a fairly consistent and rational primitive philo- 
sophy. So well, indeed, does the theory account for the f»ct«. 

vc 2 




that it hu bold its place iuto (lie liigbcr l«rels of edacatioD. 
lliough claaflic nnd racdiecval philosophy modified it much, and 
moitern pliilosoptiy tins bnndJed it yet moro titvipnringly, it hiw 
$0 ftx Tiitained the traces of its original chamcti^r, that b^- 
loooavof primitive Ages may bo claimed in (he existing pycho- 
logy of the mviliaod world. Out of the vast mass of evidence, 
ooUoctCfl nmottg tlie inu^t various and distaot mces of mankind, 
typical details may be selected to display the earlier thonry of 
the soul, the relation of the parts of this theory, aud tic 
manner in which these pnils havi> heen Hitamloncd, modified, or 
kept up, tdoiig the course of culture. 

To uudei-staiid the popular coiiccptiona of the human soul or 
npiritv it is inatnictiTo to notice the wonk which have been 
fouud suitaUe to express it^ The j;liost or phantasm seen by 
the dreamer or the visionary 'i& liko a shadow, and thus tli« 
familiar term of the ^titWe camcs in to cxpre^ the »oul. Thus 
the Tasmanian word for the shadow is also that for the spirit ; ^ 
the Algonquin Indians describe a man's soul as oUUichult, 
"his shadow ;"* the Qiuctn^ iangiiagx^ uses iiatub for "shadow, 
soul ; " * the Amwac ueja menus " shadow, soul, image ; "* lh« 
Ahipones made the one word !oiikttl serve for " jthadow, soul, 
ooho, image/*' The Zulus not only use the word tiaisi for 
" sliadow, spirit, ghost," but they conHiJer that at death tlie 
shadow of a man will in i>nme Kaj dcpiirt from the coi'pse, to 
become an ancestral spirit," The Ba^utos not only call the »(pirit 
remaiiiiug after death the serit'i or " shadow," but they tliink. 
that if a man walks on the river bank, a crocodile may iteixe 
his shadow in the water oud draw him iu ;^ while in Old Calabar 
there is found the same idcnlitication of the spirit with the 
vi^on or " shadow," for a man to lose which ia fatal.* Tkcro 

' BoR«ii--k, "Tmii-iiitiiiiis' |>. 1S2. 

• ToniH!r'» "Ximt." bL b/ Jomni, p. 2DI. 
■ Ht»»*Tjr, ' t.uiig»oQiiicliih,' a, v. 

* iUrtitij, ' Elhngg. Auier.' vuL I p, 705 i vol. ti, p, 310. 
' PoltriiliofTcr, ' AMpniK^!!,' viil. ii. p. IU. 

* Dtitiue, ■ Zulu ]>lc.' *. V. -tuiiai' Collamijr, ■ BeL of Ainnnila.'lfp. »1, 126; 
■ Zultt Tal»ii,' vnl L t>. 8J2. 

J (?rtulia, ' lUint.!*,' J.. S4S ; ArWotwot mi Daamas, ' Vvjoj;?,' f, 12. 

• B«rlM., • W. nnd. W. fr. W. Mr.' p. 39D ; mo KocHp, 'Afr. N*iirt Lit," p. 
221 (Knnitnt. Alw 'Juuni. ItjiL .tri^liiii.' toI. v. p. 713 tAiutnliaii>. 


are tlius fjund among tlie lower races uot only iha typce of 
Uioso fomiliar ria'wic terms, the skhi or umhw, but also wliat 
Boema tlio futidaiuontal lliou^jlil of Ihu nUmi^a of wliJiJawlefis 
men still current in tho iblklore of Europe, and familiar to 
moJeru readers iu Cliuiuiaiw's tuly of Pctot Sshlt'tnllil. From 
▼arioua otlii^r vital upcratioDH, otiior attriliutes are taken into 
the tiotion of houI or spirit. Thus the Caribs, connecting the 
pulses with spiriiual lieings. iiin] I'specjully considering tlmt in 
the heart ilwclls nun's chief scml, Jestincd to a future heavenly 
life, could reasonably use the one word tou^tmi for "soul, life; 
heart.'*^ The Tougans i=upposud the eoul to exist throughout 
the whole exloniiou of the body, but particularly in tho hearth 
Oil one ocautiuu, tho uutives were declaring to a Eurupeau tlmt 
a man buried montlis ago M-as nevertheless tttill alive. "And 
ODO, cDdeavouriug to make me understand what he meimt, took 
hold of my hniid, and s()ucc2iug ii, said, ' Tiiis will die, but the 
life that is within you will never dio ; ' with bis other hand 
pointing to my hcnrt,'*' So the Basutos pay of a dcati man that 
bis teart is goue out, and of ouc recovorinjif from Bicknose that 
his hfittrt is cDuiing baclc,' Thi« corresponds to the familiar Old 
World view of the Iioiirt as tho prime mover in life, thought, 
and pajisiou. Tliu connexion of uoul and blooil, familiar to tlio 
Karens and Papuan, appears prominently in Jewish and Araliic 
philosophy.* To educaltHl modera* the idea of the Macusi 
Indiaiu of Qulanu may »cciii quaint, that altliougl) the body 
vill decay, "tho man iu our eyes"' will not die, but wander 
about,' Yet the association of personal animation with the 
pupil of the eye is familiar to Kuntpeau folklore, wiiioh not un- 
reasonably discerned a Kign of bewitchment or approaching 
death in the disappearance of tlio imaj;c, pupil, or baby, from 
tlie dim cyebalU of the tick man." 

The act of breathing, so characteristic of the higher auimaU 
daring life, and coinciding so closely with life in its departure, 

' Iloclwlbrt. |»iv <29. 518 ; J. G. Sliiller, [i. C07. 

* MuJner, 'Tun;;) Is.' vol. ii. p. Hi ; S. t(. Fnriiior, 'Traiffa,' etc, 
' OftMli*, I. C. S«Tal«ft Mnriiii'r, 'Tung* l«.'voL ii. p. 19S. 

* Btutioa, 'P^chologio,* pp. 15-33. 

* J. H. Benun, ■ Brit. Gniaiim' p. 134. 

* Urimin, ■ D. il.' pp. 102S, 1133. Anglo-Sflxon moa-RM. 

pL 131. 



lias bceo rcpcatnll; and nAturally kleQtifieil Tritli tlie life or soul 
itAcK Laura Brtd^nuiii sltowcJ in la-r iustntctire way the 
nnalog'y Iictween the cffefrti* of reatrictetl sense aod restricted 
tivUiintiou. wlicu ouo day she miwic the ycstwe of taking some- 
thing away from btr nioutli : "1 dreanictl," she explained in 
words, •■ timl OotI too^k awoy my breath to heaven.' It Is thus 
tliat West Aiistrnlinn* used one word wuw'/ fur " breath, spirit, 
Riul ;"' lli&t iu the Motela laiijjuagD of Cnlifoniia,y/M/« meftus 
" life, Woath, Boul;"* that certain Greonlanders rocltoned two 
kouIh to nuin, uaniely hU ghndaw and bis breath ;* that the 
Malays say thu soul of the dying man escapes through hU 
nailrilB, and in Java use the same word fiavu for " breath. 
]ire. soul."' How tlio notions of life, heart, breath, and phantom 
uuitf in the on<: conception nf a soul or spirit, and at the snme 
time how loose and vnj^ue such Ideas are among the lower races, 
13 well brought into view in the Buswere to a religious iii(|iicst 
held in 1528 among the natives of Nicaragua. "When thoy 
die, there comes out of their mouth eumcthiug that resembles 
a poreoQ, and is called julto [Aztec yuH=to live]. This being 
goes t« the place where the mau nud woman are. It iii like a 
person, but doca not die, and the Wdy remains bera'" Qvegtion. 
" Da those who go up on high keep tho same body, the same 
face, and the same limbs, as hero below?"" A».^utr. "No; 
there is only the heart," Qutntton. " But since they tear out 
tlieir hearts [>. p., when a captive was iincriticed], what happens 
then?" Aiimoer. "It la not precisely tho heart, but that in 
ihem whiuli makes them live, and that quitti tliu body when 
they die." Or, oa stated in nnothor interrogatory, " It is not 
their heart that goes up above, but what makes them live, that 
is to say, the breath that issues from their mouih nnil is called 
Julio'" The conception of the soul as breath may be followed 
up through Semitic and Aryan et^-mology, and thus into the 
main sti-onms of the philosophy of the world, Hebrew shows 

I Uebrr, ' l^nn lEridsmtin,' in Sniittttoniui Cootrilx vdL it p. S. 

» B. r. Moore, 'VotTib. ofW. .Mulmli*,' ]». lOX 

■ Brintdn, p. SO; m S3i ; IlMtiAB, ' Pijcbolo^c,' jh IS. 

* Cnat, ' OiiittUuU,' |>. 357. 

* CrswftiiO. > Utlftj Gi. and Die.' *. r. ; Uorsiaa. 'Suuatn.* p. iH. 

* Oft«do, ' Hut. du Nicancu*,' PP- Sl-ftl. 

A^iAhA, "brcatli," passinj* iuta all the meanings of " life, soul, 
mind, animal." wliile ruach ami nejuJiamtOi itiake the Uk« tran- 
sition from "breath" to " spirit ;" and to these thw Arabic 
neft aad ruh correspond. Tho same is iLe Lisloiy of Sanskrit 
dtnmu ami pMiiu, of Greek paycftK ami jmr^uma, of Latin 
animus, a7iima,8piritus. So Slavonic (hich has developed tlje 
meaning of " breath " into that of soul or spirit; and thr> dialcctfl 
of the Oypsie.'j have this word ftefcwith the meanings of " breath, 
spirit, gbust," whetlicr these pariuUs brought the word from India 
as part of their inheritance of Arj-an spee^ch, or whether they 
adopted it ill llieir migration across Slavoaic lands.^ German 
geiat and £nglb>h (/host, too, may pussiblj' have the same original 
sense of breath. And if any should think such expressions duo to 
mere metaphor, ho may judg* the strcngl^h of the implied con- 
nexion betwoon breath and spirit by cases of most iinoqiiirocal 
«ignificanco. Among the Seiiiinoles of Florida, when a woman 
died in childbirth, the infant was held over her faca to receive 
bar parting spirit, and thus acquire streiiglh mid knowledge for 
its future use. Tliese Indiatis eonid have well understood why 
at the death-bed of an ancient Roman, tho nearest kinsman 
leant over tn inhale tho last breath of the departing (et excipies 
banc animam ore pio). Their stuto of mind is kept up to 
thits day mnong peasants, who can still fancy a good 
man's soul to issue from his moutb at death like » little wliito 

It will be shown that men, in their composite ami confused 
lAotions of the soul, have brought into connexion a list of mani- 
atiorut of life and thought even more miiltifanoua than this. 
But also, seeking to avoid such perplexity of combiuation, they 
have soroctimes ondoaroured b} define and cliuHify more closoly, 
especially by the theory that man bos a combination of several 
kbids of spirit, Boul, or image, to which different functions 
belong. Airoady among savage races auch classification appears 

' Pott, ' Zigi'iiaer. vol li. p. 3Q(J : ' Iiiito^Gcria. Wurtcl-WCnorliutli." vol- 1- 
p. 107S; HoiTow, 'IjivrnRro,' rol. JL «h. irrL "writ* (li« Itl of him wlioM 
dm* guUop* iIoMm thut liitl cv«y night," mo toI. Hi. th. iv. 

* ItrintoH, ■ MylliB uf Sew Tft'oriil,' p- £53 : Comm, in Vi^^ ^<a- iv. fifl* i 
etc Verr. t. *5 ; Wu^tl:^ ' VollonberglBube,' ii. 211) ; RooUholj. ' DeaiKhor 
OUub»,'rt«t voL i. p. HI. 


in full vigour. Tlius the Fijians diHtinguUh bctwoca a nuui'ii 
" dark spirit " or sbiuluw, whicli go<^ to Hailes, aod lufi " light 
spirit " or rcBuxion in water or a iniiror, which stays Dcar wliere 
he dici).^ The Ualogaf^ say that th« Mtna or mind vanishes 
at death, tlio aina or Itfo bocomes mcTC air, but the tnatoaioa 
or ghost hovers round the tomb.' in North America, the duality 
of tho will ii a strongly mnrkod Algonquin belief; one soul goes 
out nnd sei^s di'«auiK while tlie oUier remains behind ; at death 
one of the two nliidcs ivith the body, nud for thU the survivois 
leave offerings of food, while tlie other departs to iho Innd of the 
dead. A division into three souU is also known, and the Dakotas 
»ay tliat man has four souhi, one remaiuiug with the corpse, one 
stajnog in the village, one going in the air, and one to the land 
of^iritsL* The Knrena distinguish between the ' lii ' or ' kelah,* 
which may Le doflned lui ibcpenioniillif&-phaiitoni,und the 'thah* 
whicti in tlie responsible moral suul.* The fourfold division among 
the Khoiids of Orissa is as followH : the divt soul is that capable 
of beatjficatign or restoration to Booruthe Good Deity ; the necond 
ifl attached to a Khond tribe on earth and is re-bom generation 
ofler gouumtiun, so (hat at Ihehirlliof eaeb rhild the priest oaks 
which rocmlwr of the tribe has rcUirucd ; the third goea out to 
hold sptiitiuU iutcTCflurse, leaviug the body in a languid titat«j 
and it is this soul which out migrate fur a time iuto a tiger ; the 
fourth dies on the dlsMJution of the body.' Such classificatioDs 
reaomble those of higher races, as for instance the three-fold 
diviaion of shade, iuane«, and spirit: 

" Bin duo euDt bomint, maaes, goto, apiritus, umbra: 
Quatuor hmo tod bit doo snccJiiiunt. 
Tern u-git cnrnem, tomulnm ciiciunvolat nrabra, 
Mooca OrcuH habot, spiritoH aatto pelit." 

Not attempting to follow up the details of such psychical 

' TillbBlS, '^.'rfll. L p. til. 

■ EUU, • Hftclii,(utv,' v«l. i. PL tn. 

' CkitlOTdi, vol. ifi. [ip. 7IW ; Schoolcraft, *l*di«iTril*«.* j*rl 1. pji. 83, 
88, part lii. n 220. put i». p. 79 ; Waiu, vol. iii. p. 19t j S. G. aiullw, pp. «6, 
•M7. 8. 

• Cnwi in • Jgum. Amer. OncuUl Soc:' T«L iv. p. UO.) 

• MaqJiciMH, pp^ 01, 2. Rm i]n Kkmn. *C. a' vol. iU. p. 7J (Upp.J ; Si. 
J<4ui, ' Tm Kut,' vat. i. p. 189 <DAyik«). 

divuttcn into the elabtjrnto systems of Hturary nations, I shall 
not discuBS the distinction wliit-h tlie aiiclont Egyptians seem to 
]mve made in Hm Kitual of tlie Duaci lieLweeu ttie man's to, 
oik, ku, khaba, translated by Mr. Birch as his " soul." " mind," 
"eiistflnce," "shade," or the Rabbinical tlivi«oniii1o wtiat uiuybc 
roughly described as the bodily, spiritual, and cele-'^tial souls, or 
the distinction between the emanativc anil genetic souls in 
Hindu philosophy, or the dislribution of life, app.irition, ances- 
tral spuit, among the three wmls of thi: Chinese, or the demar- 
cations of the nnufi, psyche, iinil pireuma, or of the anima and 
aitintua, or the famous classic and mediEeval theories of tho 
vegetal, sensitirc, and rational kouIs. Suffice It to point out 
here that such Bpec\ilatioii dates back to the savaj;^ condition 
of our race, in a state fairly coniparinj; as t& scientific value with 
much that has gained esteem vithin the procinctfi of higher 
culture. It vould bo a iliOicuU to.':!: to trt-At such clos^ilicatiOR 
on a consistent logical bnsis. Terms correaponding with those (^ 
life, iniud, soul, spirit, ghost, and so forth, are not thouyht of a« 
describing really Bcparntc entities, so much as thp Reveral forms 
and functiousof one individual being. Thus the confu^ou whicli 
here prevails in our own thought and langnage. in a muuuer 
typical of the thought and languagu of inankiud in general, is 
in fact duo not merely to vuguene-m of terms, hut to an ancient 
theory of substantial unity vhicli ■indcrlie.>« them. Sudi ambi- 
guity of language, however, will be found to interfere little with 
the present enquiry, for the details given of tho naturo and 
action of apirittf, souls, or phantoms, will themselves define tlie 
exact sense such woixlii arc to be takrti in. 

The early animistic tlicory of vitality, regarding the functions 
of life as caused by tho soul, oflers an explanation of several 
bodily and mental conditions by the theory of departure of the 
soul or some of its constituent Bpiri.ts. This thcoiy holds n mdc 
imd strong pcaitiuu iu savage biology. The South Aastralinns 
express it when Ihey say of ono iusonuble or unconscioo-s that 
ho is " wilyamaiTaba," i.e., "without soul."' Among the Al- 
(uin Indians of Nortli America, we hear of sickness h^g 
^accounted for hy the patient's "shadow" being unsettled or 

' StiflriBPnii, ' \'oca}>, of Purukollii Lanji,' a, r. 




(leUolied Croni his liody, uiid of tlie oonTnlesoent 1)«iug ro]>roarbe«l 
for cxpasing liimwlf Ix-fore his shadow was safely settled do*vn 
in liiu ; wbero we hIiouM miy tliat a man wa^ ill and njcoverod, 
tbey wonlil consider that lie ilicti, but muK* ngiun. AiioUicr 
account from among the same race explains tho cnndition of 
men lying in letliargy or trance ; their souls have travelled forth 
to tlie banks of the River of Death, hut hare been drivMi l>ack 
atid rotum to re-auimatc tlieir bodies.' Among the Fijiana, 
" when anyone faint» nr dica, their spirit, it itt said, may liomc- 
times be brought back hy calHtig atler it ; and occasionally the 
hidicroiU! eccuv is witnessed of a stout man lying at full length, 
and bawling out lustily for the return of his own aoul."* To 
tbo negroea of Xorth Guinea, derangement or dott^ is caused 
by the patient being pn^maturoly deserted by his soul, sleep 
being a more temporary withdrawal.^ Tlius, in rations coun- 
tries, the blioging back of lost souls becomes a regnlar part of 
the sorcerer's or priesfa professiun. The Salisb Indians of 
Oregon r«ganl the spirit aa distinct from the vital principle, 
and capable of quitting the body for a short time without the 
patient being cunscious of it* absence ; but tu avoid fatal conse- 
quences it must be restored as Boon as possible, and accordingly 
the medicine-inaii in solemn forra replaces it down through the 
patient's head.' The Turanian or Tatar races of Northern Asia 
strongly hold the theory of the soul'fi departure in disease, and 
among their Buddhist tribes the Lamas can-y out tlio ceremony 
of soul-rcstorntion in niot<t elaborate form. When u man has 
been rohhed by a deniun uf his ^rational soul, and han only bis 
animal soul left, his sense and memoty grow wook aud he CaUs 
into a dismal state. Then the Lama undertakes to cure him, 
and with quaint rites exorcises tho evil demon. But if this 
fails, then it is the patient's soul itself that cannot or will not 
find its way Itack. So tho sick man is laid out in \m heat attire 
imd surrouudod with his moat attractive possessions, the friends 
and. relatives go thrice round the dwelling, atTectionately calling 

' Tanuct'i 'Kan-.']iL 101 ; Koalin^ 'Van. of Ijaiig*t Exp.' toL iL f. 151. 
» ■WUlbiBK. • Fljt.- v»l. i. p. 212. 
» 3. L. VTilMO, • W. Afr.' p. «0. 
• fioatiMi, ' Knawtit,' vol. U. f. SIV. 



ImcIc tlie sou] by nanio, wliiln or n fui-tlier iiiitiintniriit tlio liiimn 
reaAs from liU Imok deHcriptioDii of tho pains of licll, iiiiil lliu 
dangers incurred by a soul which wilfully nliaiiiliHin iln bitily, 
and then at lout tbi> nliolo oMombly dnolnro wiili ikiii vu'uv thnl 
the wnndeniig npirit hnx rettirnn) otiil tli<i patinnt will n'lnvor^ 
Tbe Karens of Birino will run aljout proWiiditiH lo riUili n nick 
iiian's wondcrttig rtmil, nr a» thny nay willi tlin niicinnl (Irvuli;), 
his "butterSy" {Uip-pyn). ntid at liuit drop it tb^wti upon hU 
head. Tbo Karen doctrine of tliu \h. in indui^il a pftrlbd and 
woU-m&rkcd ritaliiitio i>y«t"rit. 'Hmh I^, h<>uI, {{Ittjrit, nr tj^i'io*. 
maybe Kparatcd from the Uxly it b^ilongN to, and U ii n inaitcr 
of the dMpest intereat to tlio Komi to kvup hit 12k with hint, by 
calling it, making offiBtingH of f'wd to it, awJ m (<»rth. It i* 
Mpocialty when tlio Imdy in aNbwp, that tbo Kml gom out oimI 
vaaden; if it in detained beyonjl a certain tima, diMoxo «n«u«i, 
and if fiermaaently, then iU ownar diua. Wbao tlw " «iM " m 
^ant-doctor ti emptojed to call badt the 'lepaitad aliada ur Itls 
of a Kanm. if he cataiuA reourer it front tha ra|pcNi of tba dead. 
1» will aamathnM tak« tlte iltade of a living maa aud iraiM<ir 
it to tfaa dead, vfaile iu pwprr opncr, wtnat kmI hai rantimd 
out is a dRMn. mdum and diea Or wltti a Kami faaouotat 
mk, ba^Hd aad |iiBii« inn h» tt Uri<« UA htM^ bi* firioUt 
iril parfDOB a uiaiuMj f wUh a pnoMt cC (ba ianlida aad a 
fbvi wUeb is e0(4ed aad aSered vtth ncc« taveiuBg tihe afarii 
witk fuaal pnyiia to cana Iwli to tfca yitenl' lliia mw- 

to aB;lir«iMA MWMT «f diAwoB «r «>fc«tt.«iik a oto ^M 

to awJ ia n i f i pMi a to fce di ii id j at rfllit liudy, a r ililiwi 

|r l)«aeeKfct4daigHp<hapalaMita«M*Mi a luny im m \*M, to 

aUl* aTMUtfOoit ty 

L loto <lw «H^ !• <b4v to 

fMt il back iMa'Aa mA aaa. 'if tfaa Unbw. dW * ana 

•lM.^ CMfii. -U« 
1. c- y W. Mb. : Omm. ' Xmm^ 


taros round slowly in tlio liolilcr's Iianils, tliiu sbows tliak the 
EjHrit is iiisidc the ganncuL' 

Siicli tcmporar)- exit of tho soul bos a world-wiJv appHcution 
to tlie proceedings of the Horcerci', pri«at, or seer binuielf Uo 
profotiECS to send forth UU f^pirit ou distant jourDeys, and pro- 
bably often believes his soul roleascd for a time from its bodily 
priMD, OS in the cmc of timt remarkable dreamer nod Tlaionaxy 
jecomo Cardan, wlio describes himstlf as having tlio faculty of 
paenng out of his itensos lut into ccHta^iy vliencviT he will, feel- 
ing when ho goes into this stAtc a sort of sepnratioD near tbc 
IiE>art as if hiii soul v.ere departing, thin stale bt'giuuiug from 
his bratn and passtog down his spine, and he then feeling only 
that lie is out of himself.^ Thus the Austmlian native doctor 
U alleged to obtain his initiation by visiting the worKl of spirits 
in a Iraaco of two or three days' duratiou ; * tho Ehond priest 
anttienticates his cUitn to office by remiiining from one to four- 
teen days in a laugiiid dreamy state, caused by one of his souls 
being nway in the divine presence ;^ the Greenland angekok's 
soul goes forth from his body to fetch his familiar demon ;' the 
Turanian fthaman lies in ktharg)' while lila eoul deports to 
liring hidden wiadom from the land of Bpirits," Tliu literature 
of more progressive races supplies siuiilar aecuuuts. A diarac- 
torietic story from old Scandinavia is that uf the Noxsc chief 
lugintund, who shut up three Finus in a hut for three QtgbtS, 
that they might visit Iceland and inform liim of the lie of tlic 
countiy where bo was to settle ; their bodies became rigid, thoy 
Bcnt their ftouls on the errand, and awakening after the three 
days they gave a description of tbo ^'atn8da■l.' The t^-picol 
classic case is the story of Hermotiinos, whose prophetic soul 
wont out from tirao to time to visit distant regions, till at last 
his wife biinit tho lifeless body on the funeral piU', aiid when 

' DooIittK 'Chinwp,' vol. i. f. IfiO. 

' Cardan, ' De Viirii-'Uilo KL-nuu,* Hosil. lESfl, raiK xtlii, 

> £t■nbrid|c^ 'AlKir. of Tietonii,' 111 "Tr. Elli. Soc'vul i. p. 300. 

* Macirhenou, ' LiJii,' p. 1«3. 

* C'ranr. • fitiinlsnil.'p. 209. 

* BuliK, * rinluriil,' p. 303 ; CuAria, • Ftnii. Ujrili.' p. 134 ; Buttu, ■ Utnadi,' 
iroL ii. p. 319. 

I V«Uk«dnJa. Segrt ; IJ»riiig-C«nI.I, •WcwNPfilvcK,' p. 29. 



tlio poor soul camo buck, thora wns no longer & dwelling for it 
to animate.* Agroup of tho legenilaiy visits tu the sjiirit-worliJ, 
which Tvill bo Hcscriltcil in the next chapter, ticlong to this cUsr. 
Atypical spiiitnalit^tic instance may bo (juoteJ from Juug-Slillin^, 
who Kay» that txaniplLii hnvu cunic to lii-s knowledge of niirk 
persons vho. longing to see absent friendii, have fallen into a 
swoon during which they have appeared to (he distant objects 
of thoir nflection.* As an illiuitration from our own folklore, 
the well-known superstition may nerve, that fasting watchers on 
St. John's Eve may »cc the apparitions of those doomed to dio 
during the year come with the clorgj-man to tbo church door 
and knock ; these appuritions are spirits who come forth from 
their bodies, for the tniuixter htut been noticed to be much 
troubled in his sleep while hia phantom was tlius engaged, and 
when one of a party of watchem fell into a sound itlcep and 
Gonld not be roneed, tho othem ^aw his apparition knock at Ihu 
church door.' TlJod«ra Knropw has indeed kept closely enough 
to the lines of early philosophy, for such ideas to have littlo 
Ktrangeness to our own time. Language preserves record of 
them in snch exprefislons as " out of oneself," " besitle one- 
self," "in an cc«ta«y," and he who says that hia spirit goes 
forth to meet a friend, can still realize in the phnme a meaning 
deeper than metaphor. 

This same doctrine forma one wdo of the theory of dreams 
prevalent among tho towei* races. Certain of the Grccnlanders, 
Cranz reuiai-kn, consider tiuit the soul ({uil'S the body in tbo 
uight and go<;H out hunting, dancing, and visiting; thi:ir dreaou, 
which are frequent and lively, having brought them to thiti 
opinion,* Among tho Indians of North America, we hear of 
the dreamer's soul leaving bis body and w-nndering in quest of 
tbingH attractive to it These tliingR the waking man must 
endeavour to obtain, lest bis sotil be troubled, and quit the bod/ 

' PUii. WL 53 ; LucJu. Ittnnodnia), Mute Enram. 7. 

■ K. D. Owni, < FeotfalU on tha Ikmuluy of ttoOmr VoM.' f. St>7. Sm A. 
K. Vp'hIUm, ' Scienlilic .^cfMct of ll« SopwBnttmil," p. 4S. 

■ IlnnJ, ' Pep. Ant.* roL I p. S31. Tol. iii p. S34. So* CUnut, * DIM «* 
1m Eopriu ;' Btfturjr, ' M■gi^' pm >L ch. ir. 

■ Cranz. ' OrOfiUua.' y. iil. 



altogetbor.' The New ZeaJanJers coneidered Uic (IreAming soiil 
to leave Uie body ami rettim, even trnvvlUng to tho rojpon of 
the dead lo Lold converse with iu friends.' Hie Tagals of 
Lazon oLjecl to wukiiig a sleeper, uu account of tbo absoDcc of 
Ills soul.' The K.iren.':, uliuse tliuory of the vaiideriug sodl has 
jii^t Leeu noticed, e\pUiu ilronms to be what ttiu li sees and 
experiences in its jounieys wlieii it lias left tlie body aideepi 
They even account with miich aciitt-ripsa for the fact that wc are 
apt to lireaui of people aud places nliich we knew before ; the 
Icip-pyo, thuy say, can only visit the regions wbero the body it 
belongs to has been already.* Onward from the savBge fitete. 
the idea of the si)irit's dopai-turi: in sleep may be traced into 
the specniative philosophy of higher nations, as in the Vedanta 
By8t«m, and the Kabbalo.^ St. Augustine telU one of the 
double uaiTfttivcs which so 'well illustrate theories of thj« kind. 
The man who telU AugiistlQe iho story relates that, at home one 
night before going to sleep, he saw coming to him a certain 
pliiloaophcT, moat well known to him, who then expounded to him 
cei'Iniu Platonic pa.'isiigeK, which when a-iked previou.ity he had 
refused to explain. And when he (aftem^rds) enquired of this 
pliilosojphcr why he did at his liuuiu^ what he liad refused to do 
when asked at his own : " I did not du it/' said the philosopher, 
" but I di-camt I did." And thu^ says Augustine, that was ez- 
hihitctl to one by phanta^tic Image while waking, which the 
other saw in droaiu." European folklore, too, has preserved iu- 
t^CHtiug detailti of tliiii primitive th-eom-thcory, such as tlic 
fear of turning a fileeper over le«t the absent soul should miss 
the way back. King Guuthram'8 legend is one of a group iutcr- 
eeting from ttic saoic point of view. The king lay in the wood 
asleep with his head in his fuithfid henchman's lap; the servant 
aaw as it were a suuke l&sue Irum his lurd's mouth and run to 

' "WKiU, T«l. iU. p. 3S5. 

' TbYlof. 'lict, Kwlaud,' pp. 101, ISl, »S3 ; Baker in 'Tr. £tli. Soc' voL i. 
II. S7. 

* IIa>ttiiii, ' Mtnwli,' Tol. ii. ji. ai9. 

* HuHOD, ' Kureut,' 1. a. ji. IDS ; Crou, L c. ; Unittun, 'OwtJ. Auan,' rol. i. p. 
HI, vol. ii. 1'. 380, »o1. iii. p. aCQ. 

* liastiiui, * Cayi-holojjiti,* pj*. 14-20 ; EiituiiMngvr, tdL i. p. tM, vol. n. pp. 
IS, 30, ira i Fnuik. * KaltUIr,' p. 2U. 

* Aiirwtin. De L'lv. DclirilL IS. 


tlic bmnk, but it coiiltl not pan, to tlic lu^rvajit Uiil Iiiii swortl 
across the water, uud tlie a^ature ran along il and \ip into 
a mountain ; after a vrliile it cnmc liack and returned into 
tlic tnoutli of the sleeping king, who waking told how lie had 
dreamt (hub Itu went over nn iron bridgt: into a mouutain full of 
gold.' This is one of tliose instnictivc lesends which preserve 
for UB, us in a museum, I'clicit of au early iutellectual conditioa 
of our Aryan race, in thoughts which to our modern minds Imvo 
fallen to the level of quaint fancj'. but whieh still remain Bound 
and rewoiiAble philosophy to the aavage. A Karen nt this day 
would appredate every point of tlie story ; tho familiar notion 
of spiriti not crossing water, which bo wtemplifies in his Bur- 
mese forests by stretching threads acrosB the brook for ilio 
ghosts to pass along ; the idea of the soul going forth enilKMlicd 
in an animal ; and the thoory of tbo drcnm bein;; a real jtrumey 
of tho sleeper's kouI. Finally, this old belief still finds, as audi 
beliuEi so often do, a refuge in modern poetry : 

" Too child ifi drntning for nwmjr, 
ADd u not where h» mmaa." 

This opinion, bowover. only coORtitutes one of several parts of 
the theory of dreamH in sai-agt: psychology. Another part has 
alao a place here, the view that human kouIs come from withont 
to visit the sleeper, who sees tlicm as dniuns. These two Tiemi 
arc by no means incompatible. The North American Indiaort 
allowed theiaxclvcs the altemutive of supposing a dream to be 
a rieit from Uio bouI of the porx^in or object <!reamt of, or a aight 
seen by the rational aoul, gone out for an excursion while tho 
sensitive soul remains in the body.' So tlie Zola may b© vinted 
in a dream by the uhade of an ancestor, the itongo, who comes 
to warn him of danger, or he may himself be taken by ths 
itongo in a dream to rioit hig distant people, and nee that they 
are in trouble ; as for the man who is pusing into the morbid 
oonditioQ of the profemooal seer, phantoms are continually 
cmning to talk to htm in his sleep, till he beoomei, m the eipre»- 

'a«krois,'all«TBa•rnun!,'voLTL^7B. L«Jutl,t<•TtL^;<. 



five native pliraM is, " a liouse of drcama."' Id the lower 
range of cultarc, it la porlinps most frequently taken for granted 
(liat a iniui's apparitiuu iu a dream i« a visit from bis duem- 
bodied spirit, which the dreamer, to uso nn expressive Cljibwa 
idiom, "sues when asleep." Such n thought comes out clearly 
ill the Fijiau opinion tlmt a living man's spirit may leave the 
body, to trouble other people in their flleep ;' or in a i*ecoiit 
accouut of Du old ludiciu womaa of British Columbia ecuding 
for the medicine man to drive &way the dead people who cnme 
to her every ni^ht.* A modem observer's descripUon of the 
state of mind of the nc^-ocs of Suuth Guinea i» this respect is 
extremely cliaraoteristic and instntetive. " AU their dreams are 
ooDjttnted into visits troro the itpiritR of their deceased friends. 
The cauiiuiis, hinti, and waminHH which come to tlicrn tlirough 
this source, are received with the most seriotis and deferential 
attontion, and are atwavs aeted upon in their waking hoursL 
Tlie habit of relating their dreams, which is unlvomal, grently 
promows the habit of dreaming itKylf, and hence tlioir sleeping 
liours are characterized liy almoat as ranch intercourse with the 
dead as their waking are with the liviug. This is no doubt, 
one of the ivasons of their excessive supci-stitioiisneis. Their 
imaginations hecoine so lively that thpy can scarcely ilistingulsb 
between their dreams and tlieir waking thoughts, between the 
real and the ideni, anil they conari^uently utttT faLichood with- 
out inteuiling, and profess to see tilings which never existed." * 
To the Gruok of old, the dream-soul wan wliat to the modem 
nvago it &tiU is. Sleep, loosing cares of mind, fell on Achilles aa 
he lay by the sounding sea, and there stood over him the soul 
of Patroklos, like to him altogether in stature, and the beau- 
teous eyes, anil the voice, and the garments that wrapped liia 
akin ; he spake, and Achilles stretched out to grasp him with 
loving bauds, but caught him not, and like a emoko the coul 

> Calinrny, 'Rrlig. of AuiozhK'pp- SSil, 2S0, ftl3. Sm *1» St. Jfibn, 'Fu 
E«t.' vol. t. p. 189 (Dsyaks). 

' Williums ' Fiji.' «iL i. p. 2(2. 

» Majne, ' Brit, folumlii:!,' p. 281. 

• J.L. Wi!«wi. ■«". Afrirn.'ii. SB5, »M 210. Sea »]m Ellii, • PoJjb. Xe*.' 
'<r«L i p. SOS 1 J. I). Mtilk'r, ' Aiiiir. VrivV \\ SS7 ; ])iicltniiui, 'Uywm' in 
FtuIcoUm, Tol. Tiii. p. Cm ; ' Karty llitl. orMnnklml,' p. 9. 

sped twittering below ttio earth. Along tbe ages tliat separate 
ug from Homeric timt>s, the apparition io drcamB of mob living 
or dead h:i<i Wen a Hubji>ct of philosophic lipeculatiou and of 
AuperHtitioiis fear.' Both the phautom of tbe living and the 
ghost uf the Jeod figure lu Cicero's typical tale. Two Arcadiaos 
came to Mcgara together, one lodgeil nt a friend's housi\ the 
other Ai nil inn, In the night this tatter appeared to lu» fellow- 
traveller, implciriug his help, for tlio iniikocpcr vtoA pluttiug 
his death -, the sleeper sprang up in alarm, but thiDbing the 
vision of no conHCC|Uoncc went to sleep ugaiu. Then a socouJ 
time his companion appeared to him, to entreat that thougli ho 
hod failed to help, ho would at least avenge, for the innkeeper 
hiul killed him and hiddea his body in a dung-cart, whercturo 
he chained his fellow-ti-aveller to be early next tuoniiog at tlio 
city-gsto before Iho cart passed out Struck with this second 
dream, the traveller went ua bidden, and there fouud the cart ; 
the body of tbe murdered man wiu^ in it, and the innkeeper was 
Vtrotiglit to justice. " t^uid hoe sumuio dici poloat diviuiual "* 
Augustine discusses with reference to the nature of the soul 
varioua dreara-etorieH of hid time, where the apparitions of men 
deai] or living are seen in di'enm!<. In one of the latter he 
himself figured, for when a disciple of his, Eulogius the rhetor of 
Cartilage, once could nut get to sleep fur thinking of an obscure 
passage in Cicero's Rhetoric, that night Augustine came to him 
in ft dreaiii and. explained it. But Augustine's tendency was 
toward the modem theory of dreams, and in this case he says 
it WAS certainly his image tluit apjK-arud. not himself, who was 
far across the sea, neither knowing nor caring almut the matter,* 
Ab we survey the imtncuac scriea of drcaiu-stories of aimikr 
types in patristic, medieval, and modem literature, we mayfind 
it difficnlt enough to decide which are truth and whicli ore fio* 
lion. But along the course of tht»)c myriad narratives of bumaa 
phautetns appearing In dreams to cheer or torment, to warn or 
inform, or to demand fulfilment of their own desires, the problem 

BoHMT. 11. xiiii. SB. Sen bIm Odjai. zi. i07. 333; ron>l>rr. D« Autn 
yjm'fiiMam ; VtiniL Xa, iL 79* ; Oviil. ra*L v. 47S. 

* Ctan Ot DiTbiMkiM, I. S7. 

* Aufputio. Da Ciul jiro Uurtuis, x.-sU. EpuL olriii. 



of drcom-apparitions ma; he tmccJ in progress of gmduul dc- 
temunatioD, frotu the earlier couviction tba-t a disembodied soul 
really eomoB inlo tJic prci^cncu uf tbc idccpor, toward tlio InUir 
opinion tlmt eucli a phantaAtn is produced in the dreamer's uiud 
without Ihe perception of any external objective figure. 

The evidence of visions corresponds with tho evidence of 
drcoms in tboir bcnring on primiiivo tbcoriea of tbe soul, and 
the two cltis»e.<i of phenomc-na substantiate and Riipplcincut 
one anolber, Even iu lic-altby waking lil'c, tho savage or bar- 
barian bait never learnt to mnkc tbat ngid distinction belwe«n 
DubjectivG and objective, between imagination and reality, to 
enforce wbicb is uuu uf tJie main results of scientific education. 
Still less, when difiordored in body and mind be sees aroand 
bim pbniituni btimnn forms, can be distrust tlie evidence of bJs 
vciy Kcnscji. TIiUH it comeH to pa&H that tbruugbout tbe lower 
civiUsatioQ men believe, with tbe most vivid and intense belief 
in Lbo objective n-nlity of tbe buuiun epectrcts which they see 
in sickncsfl or exhausition. under the inBuence of mental ex- 
citement or of narcotic drugs. As will be hereafter noticed, 
ono main tcueon of tbe pmcticc^s of fasting, pcnauco, narcotizing, 
asd other means uf bringing on morbid exaltatiun, h tliat tbe 
pQticnt0 may obtain tbo sigbt of spectral beings, from whom 
tlioy look to gain epiritual knowledge and oven worldly power. 
Human ghosts are among tbe priuei^xil of these phnntosmAl 
figures. There is no doubt that bonejit visionaiics describe 
ghoKte as they really appear to their perception, while even the 
impostors who pretend to see them confunn to the descriptioos 
thus cfitablishcd ; thus, in West Africa, n man's Ua or suul, be- 
-coming at bis death n siea or gbust, can remain in tbe bouse 
with the coi'j)8e. Imt is only visible to the W0Dg«ra.-m, tbe spirit- 
doctor.^ Souifetimts tbo phantom Laa the cbaracteriatic cjuality 
of not being visible to all of an o^cmblcd company. Tlius the 
natives of the Antilles bc-lievcd that the dead appeared uq the 
zoadit when oul- went alunt-, but not when many went together^ 

■ SUlnWiMf, 'Itclig;iou(lotKcgera,'iii ' Miigoaiii der Er«ng. MatwacD,* lUiel, 
1866, No. % p. 33J. 

« ■iiitlori* del a. D. Fcraan-Jo Colomtw," tr. Mtaao VUoo, Tmle^ IS71, ^ 
137 ; Bng. Tr. in Piukert»n, vd. xii. |>. DO. 



ifttnonj^ the I^inns the ghosts of ttie dend were to be seen 
the slianiane, but not by men gtincraLly un1e»<in droanis.^ Sucli 
is perhaps the monuing of the dpscri|>liou of Saiiiiiel's ghost, 
visibly to the witcli of Kudor, vrbilo Saul yet has to ask lier what 
it is she goes.' Yet this test of the nature of an appnrition m 
oue which easily breaks down, We know well how in civilized 
coiititrics a current rumour of some unc having aiion a phaatom 
is enough to bring a sight of it to others wbose minds are in b 
properly receptive state. The condition of the modern gliost- 
»ccr, wiiusu iinn^nntion posses ou audi flight cxciti-incnt intu 
positive halluciDatioD, is ratlier the rule than the exception 
among uncultured and intensely ima^nntivc tribes, whose 
uunds mny be tbrowo otf their balance by a touch, a vrord, a 
gesture, an unaccustomed noise. Among savage tribes, howerer, 
ss among ci\-ilixod racc« who have inherited remains of cayly 
plnlusopLy foraifd under similar condilious, the ductniio of tbe 
visibility or invisibility of phantoms liiu t>ecn obviotiHly shaped 
with reference to aetual experienec. To declare that souls or 
ghost* necessaiily eilh«r visible or invisible, would directly 
contradict tbe evidence of men's fienaes. But to assert or imply 
as tlie lower races do, that they are visible Boraetimes and to 
some ptTsous, but not always or to every one, is to I.ny down an 
cxpUnation of facts which ia not indeed our usual modern ex- 
planation, but wbich is a perfectly rational and iutelligiblo pro- 
<luct of early science. 

Without discussing on their merits tbe accounts of what is 
«allod "second eigbt," it may be pointed out that they are 
related among savage tribes, as when Cajitain Jonathan Carver 
obtained from a Creo mcdidQC-uiau a true prophecy of tbe 
arrival of a eanoc with news next day at noon, or when Jilr. J. 
Mason Brown, travelling with two voysgeurj* on the CoppcrmiDO 
River, was met by Indians of the very band he was seeking, 
tbeee baviug been seut by their medicine-man, who, on enquiry, 
stated that " He saw ihem coming, and heard them talk on their 
journey."' These are analogous Ut accounts of the Highland 

> Cnatnin, ' Finn. Xrylli.* p. 120. 

* I. Sam, iiviii. IS. 

' Briuion, ' JljlliitotXpw TCori.l.'p. 28>. 

t> n 9 



H&cond-RigTif., iw wlion Pcnnnnt hotird of n gontleman of the 
Uebritles, n&id to li»f o die couvenieot gift of forc«e«Hig visitors 
ID lima to got ready for Oiem, or wlicn Dr. Johnson was told 
1>y snothor lainl tliat a labourltig iiian of his had |)ro(tictod his 
I'vtuni Ui the iNluiul, luid fluwjrihed the pccuHnr liver}* his servant 
hiut hecn oewlv drei^sed in.' 

As a geut^ral rule, pcoplt* ore apt to cuutiider it iropoasiblc 
for a inan to be in two places at once, and indeed a saying to 
tliat t>fr«ct ha» becuine a popular »lw. But the rule is so fiar 
fiTjm being universally accepted, that the word "bilocation" 
has been invented to expre».s the miraculous faculty posseased 
by ccrtiiiu Suintii of the Koman Church, of being in two places 
at imcc ; like St. Alfonso di Ligiiori, who had the useFiil power 
of preaching his sermon in church while bo was confessing 
penitents at home.' The reception and explanation of these 
various classes of stories fits perfectly with the pritnitive Mum- 
i8tic theory of apparitions, und the same is true of tho most 
numerous class of the second-sight nan'atives. 

Death is the event which, in all 8tagi?s of culture, brinp 
tbotJ^S^^ ^ ^^ ^'^*"*t intensely, tliotigh not always meet 
healthily, on the problems of psych {tlogy. The apparition of 
tho disetnbodiod soul has in all ages been thought to Iwer 
especial rolatiou to its departure from its body at death. This 
is well shown by the reception not only of a theory of ghwrts, 
but of a aiiecial doctrine of " wraiths " or " fetches." Tliua iJie 
Karens say that a man's spirit, appearing after death, may thus 
announce it' lu New Zealand it is iiniinous to sec the figure of 
an absent person, for if it be shadowy and the face not visible, 
his death may ere long be expect^, but if the face l)e swen he 
is dead already. A party of Maoris (one of whotn told the 
story) were seated round a fire in tho open air, when there 
appeared, bccu only by two of tbem, the figure of a relative left 
ill at home ; they exclaimed, the figure vanished, and on the 
TOtura of the party it appeared that the siek mau bad died 

' pMiuaiit. 'Snd 7uui' in StetUmli' ia Pmkcrtoii, vol iii. ji. S15 : Juknaon, 
' Jminipy to ibit HtWdc*.' 
» J. Gnnliipr. ' Kuillw of tlie WorlJ." %. r. • Irilocalion.' 
* Msaon, ' Kflrmib* L a. p. I9S. 

about tlie time of the vifflon.^ Examining the position of tlio 
ilocLrine of wraitlis amooff tbe higher rrnxs, we find it especially 
promtiioiit in thri;e iutellect^iaJ districts, Christiii.n hagiology, 
popular folk-lore, luiil moiteru spiritunlism. St. Aitthoiiy aaw 
tbe soul of St. Ainmouitis carried to heaven In tho midst of 
dioirs of aaRcls, the same day that the holy hcvniit died five 
days' jauriiey off in the desert of Nltria ; when SL Ambrose 
died nn Kaster Eve, several newly-baptized children saw the 
holy biahuii. and jmiDted him out to theii- parents, huL Ibcso 
with their le.i» pure eyes could not behold him; and iso furth.^ 
Folk-loru vxamplcs abound in Silesia and the Tyrol, where the 
gift of wraith-seeing still flouriahen, with the customary dotatlx 
of funerals, ehutY^ics, foui'-crosa r<Hub, and headiest phantoms, 
and au especial association with Now Year's Ere. The accounts 
of " second-sight " from North Britain mostly belong to a eomc- 
what older date. Thus the St, Kilda people nsed to bo hnxintcd 
by tlielr own spe'Clral duubl&9, forerunners of impending death, 
and in 1791) a traveller ivrites of the peanaiits of Kircudbiight- 
shire, " It is common among them to fancy that they see iho 
wraiths of pereons dying, which will be visible to one aod 
not to otheis present with him, Within thew lust twenty 
ji'eara, it wajt htirdly po&>iible to nw&t with any person who had 
nut xeun many wniithit and ghostii in tho courHc of his expe- 
rience." Tiio»e who discuss the antlieuticity of the second-sight 
stories as actual evidence, must bear in mind that they vouch 
not only fur human apparitionit, but for such phantoms m demoD- 
dogs. and for slUl more fanciful symbolic omena. Thus a phan- 
tom shroutl itcen in iipiritual viHion on a living man predicts his 
death, iniinediate if it is up to his head, less uearly approaching 
if it is oidy up to hiH waist ; and to sco in spiritual vision a 1 

epaxk of fire full upon a pei'son's arm or breast, ia a forerunner ' 

of & dead child to be seen in his anmL''' As visionaries often sec 

> fihortUnil, 'Tndi. af X«vr IttltuA,' p. lift ; Pnlack, ■ M. and C. oT New 
ZttitaiAtn,' vol. i. p, 348- 8m alto EllU, • llAJagAOMr,' vol. i, p. 803 ; J. 0. 
MAIUr. |>. S61. 

' Ddiniit, ' Dim. mir Im Fjiprit*,' rol. i. rli. xl. 

» Wutlk*, ■ VoIk««lierjrInul«,"].|i. ^i, 0«. 208; BtniiJ. 'Popular Anlfqultlon.* 
ToU ill. ^p. ISS, 'iSS ; J«hn«<r>n, ' Joiinify Ui the HoI-HiIn ;' Jlnrtin, ' WnIcdi 
ItJaudi cf Svotluila' m PinkorluD, vol. iiL ]x 970. 



phutODU of living persons without any remarlcable cTcnt eoia- 
<4ding with tbcir bAllucinations, it is naturally ailinittod that a 
inatrii phantom or " double " tnny bo seen without portending 
niij'thing in pmrliovtlftr. TIiu spiriltiRliiitic theory spwially in- 
»ist)> on cases of nj.pniitioti where tlio pcriiuu's tloath oorro- 
sponds more or l«s.t nearly with the lime when some friend 
peiteives his phnntom.* Nurmtives of this clasi are abundaotly 
in circnhitioD. Tlni!?, T have au nccount by a lady, who " 8aw, 
aa it were, the fonu of some one laid out," nejir the time when 
a brother died at MtUiounie, and who mcnuoiis another lady 
known to her, who thought she saw her own father look in at 
the church wuidow at the uiomeut he was dying in his awn 
houae. Anotlior aooount is sent me li|y & Shetland lady, who 
relates that about twenty years ago she and a girl lending her 
pony recogiuKcd tbt familiar figure of ouo Puter Sutherland, 
whom they knew to be at the time in iU-hcalth in Edinburgh ; 
he turned a comer and tbey saw no movo of him, but next 
week came the news of his suddou death. 

That Uie npparitional humim soul bears the likeness of its 
fleshly body, is the principle implicitly accepted by all who 
believe it really and objtjctively present in dream or visiouu ]t 
is indeed hnbitnally taken for granted in nnimistic philosophy, 
savage or civilized, that souls set free from the earthly body are 
recognized by a likeness to it which the}' stilt retain, whether 
as ghoiitly wanderers on earth, or inhabitants of the world 
beyond tJie gi'ave. Man')! spirit, says Swedeubor^, is his mind, 
which live* after death in complete human fonn, and this ia the 
poet's dictum in ' In Meraoiiam.' 

" EtiMTinl form nlinlt t<till iltvidc 
Tba etemiit bguI trom nit tic«iilQ; 
Asii 1 thall kiKrtf him wlian ws moot." 

Tliia world-wide thought, coming into view hero in a multitude 
of caxps from all gradeK of culture, needs no colleclion of ordi- 
nary instances to illustrate it.^ But a quaint and Kpecial group of 

, ' See B. D. Owrii, *rootfUUoii iho noumUrj' of Miftllitr World' ; Mra-Cmwe, 
' Xigjit-iiiili? (if Kiilaw ; ' Hovitl'a 'fr. of Ktm(>nioiier'« * iloj^c,' ntt 
> Tbr cDncef^tiuB of tb« soul as n Riuli bntniui imags ia fcnnil In Tariou* 


beliefs will serve to display the tliorougbnoas with which the soul 
ia thus conceived as a.n imncoof thi^ luidv. Asa coHaistont<^o^ol- 
lary to such an opiuion, it is argued ihat tht! imitilation of the 
Ixidy will have acoTTcRponding t'ffuct upun the soul, and very low 
savftgo races have philosophy enough to work cmt tliis idea. 
Thus it was recordeil of the ludiaua of Bmxil by one of tho 
early Eiiropeaji visitors, that they " beliovo that the dead arrive 
in the other world wounded or hacked to pieces, in fact just as 
they left thlj.' Thii.1, too, the Australian who has &Iain his 
enemy will cut off the right thumb of the corpse, bo that 
although the spirit will hecome a hofttite gliost, it cannot throw 
with its mutilated hajid Iho shadowy apoar, and may bo safely 
left to wander, nmligoaiil hut harmless.* The negro fears long 
stcknesii before death, such &b will scnil him lean and feeble into 
the next world. His theory of the mutilation of soul witJi body 
could not be brought more vividly into viow than iu tliat ugly 
Btory of the West India planter, whose ulavcs began to seek in 
miiddc at once r«lief from present misery and restoration to 
tbeir native laud ; but the wliito man was too cunning for them, 
he cut off tlie heads aud handt) of the corpses, and the survivora 
saw that not even death couM fave them from a master who 
could inaiui th«ir vury souls iu ihu uext world." The aamo 
rude and primitive belief conttnueii among natiouit risen far 
higher in intellectual rank. The Chinese holil in rspcciol horror 
the punishment of dccapitatioo, considering that he who quits 
tbia worlil lacking a member will ao arrive in the next, oud a 
caec 18 recorded lately of a criminal at Amoy who for tius reason 
begged to die instead by tho cruel deiitb of crucifixion, and was 
crucified accordingly,^ The series ends as usual in the folk- 
lore of the civilized world. The phantom skeleton in chains 

distilctaiMwBrre. 'AintnlK'roL U. p. 154; St. John. • For Em*,* rol. 1 f. 
IW (Oftnlii): WuO, Tol. iii p. 194 (N. A. Ind.>. Tfa» I'Im of a «onl u ■ tort of 
" thiunbtinf " u CunilUr to Um Hirnliu and t« Ocrmtn folk-Iiu* ; coapan Um 
vepvcMntatiou* of tior i>oul> in tiu4ueTal laeUuea. 

• UajpJhaiiM il« GuKlaro, f. 110; itaSu, 'li»li«OrietttiJi,']h 107. 
' OMiieU In 'Tr. Elh. Soc.' rol. iiL p. HJ. 

3 Wuu; vol ii. IX IU ; Bumn', ' Qtuara,' p. 42. 

* Hriun. mL ii. p. 7i«, 7<1: Pncb^ roL KL p. tK; J. Jodn In 'Tr. Etk 



tlint liauntctl the Itoiise at Bolognn, bIiou-ih] tlie way to tlie 
^rd(^u wbcre unts burictl tUc real chalDLil Sc^UIess skeleton it 
belonged tO; aiwl came no mure ivlicu the rciuams had bcon 
duly buried. Wlien the Earl of Cornwall met the fetch of bis 
friend William Rufus carried black aud naked ou a black goal 
across the lJo<tmin moors, he navr that it was wonodcd Ihroagh 
tbo midat of the breast ; aud afterwards ho heard that at that 
Tory hiHir tht^ king had bcoi slain in tho New Forest by the 
arrow t>f Walter Tirt-il.' 

In studying; thu nature of the eouL as conceived amon^ the 
toiror races, aud in tracing such conccptioiu onward among the 
higher, circumntAntial details arc available. It is as widely 
vccognized among maDkind tbat souls orghogts have voices, «■ 
that tbnv have viaiblu forms, and indeed the evidence for both 
is of the same nature. Men who perceive evidently tliat souls 
do talk when they present thomselves in dream or vision, 
uattirally take for granted at once the objective reality of the 
ghostly voice, and of the ghostly form from which it proceeds. 
This is iavolved iu the series uf narratives of spiriuialcummiuu- 
cations with liviug men, from savagi-ry onward 1o civilization, 
while the more modem doctrine of the subjcetivity of such pheno- 
mena rccojpiiKeK the phenomena thcmHclvcs, but offers a ditfcrcDt 
explfuiatioD of them. One special conception, however, requites 
particular notice. This defines the spirit-voice as being a low 
murmur, chii-p, or whistle, as it were the ghost of a voice. The 
Algomiuiu ludiauK of Xorth America could hear the &hadow- 
souIb of the dead chirp like crickets. * The New Zealand t^^irits 
of lUo dead, coming to converse with the living, utter their 
wotda in whistling tone^ and such utteranoe^ by a aqucoking 
noise are mentioned elsewlicro in Polynesia.* The Zulu 
diviner's famiUai' spirits are anct-'stral nuinus, who talk tu a low 
whistling tone short of a full wbistle, whence they have their 
name of " imilozi " or whiatleri * These ideas correspond with 

' C&loiet, vol. L ch. xxtrl. ; Hunt, * l'ii|.. ItomancM,* ihiI. ii. p. 156. 

* ]> Jddiio ill ' Rol. <li>* JvMuilcs lUni Iu ^0Dvelle Fnni-e,' lff30. [>. 13. 

* SboMliind, 'TnuU. of N. X.' p. 03 j Yal*, p. IM : It. T«jl<.r, p. 104 ; KOU, 
■ Polyn. Bra.' vol. i. p. -(00. 

* Oollawty, ■ ltd. of Annxnila,' p. 818. 


Umbra eruenta. Bttmi visa oit •miKtora l«oto, 
Atqtto bcec exigno uanntm vorbA loqiit." * 

The bolicfs tliat tho nttributcs of the houI or ghost extend tu 
other spiritual beings, and that the utteranccu of such ore to a 
great extent given by the voice of mpdiunii*, may lead us to 
conuect t}ieMo accoimtti wiik tlie practices of whUporuig or mur> 
muring charms, the "susumis necromnnticiis" of Korceroni, to 
whom the already cited description of " wizards that peep (i. e. 
chirp) and mutter" is widely applicable. ' 

The coDception of di^ams and ristions as caused by pre- 
scut ohjCL-tivi; fi;riirc^ and tlie idi;ntificutiou of Biich phantom 
sonls vith the shadow and the bi'cnth. has led nuiny a 
people to treat sould tui substantial material bcin^. Thuit 
it. 18 a UHual proceeding to niako opcinitigH through solid 
materials to allow souls to pas><. The Ii-oquoin in old timoa 
used to leave on opcniug in the grave- for the lingering soul to 
%-ifiit its body, and some of them stUl boro holes in tho coffin for 
the some purpose. • The ilalagnsy sorcerer, for the cure of a 
tilck man who had lo^t hU soul, would maku a holo in tlio 
buriiU-houoo to let out a spirit, wliicK he would catch in his cap 
and 80 convey to the pnticut's head. ^ The ChiucHe moke a 
hole iu the roof to let out the soul at deatli.* And lastly, tlie 
custom of opening a window or door for tho departiitg soul when 
it (}uits the Iiody is to this day a very f&uiili&i- sufierfititiou in 
France, Germany, and England. ' Again, tlie wiiU of the dead are 
thought susceptible of being beaten, hurt, and driven like any 

' nom«r. II. xnii. 100. 

= Orid. Ffcrt. v. 457. 

> iMlab, vUi. 19 ; xiix. 1. 

* Morgan, 'Iroquout,' p. ITO. 

* Fhcourt, 'Madagnsnir.'p. 101. 

* RaAUn, ' IVycliologW,' p. IS. 

r Mouoier, • Traditlous PofiablKi,' i<. 142; tVnllko, ■ Tolluab«r^l)«,* |i. 
2W; Orimta, 'li. H.'p. 801; Uuaera, toL. ii p, 781. 



Other living creatures. Thus the Queensland aborigines voul 
beat the air in an nnniial rnock iiglit, liclil to snare away the 
souls that death bod let loose among the living since last year. * 
Tbns North Amcricnn Indian.s, wlien tlivj luul tortured an 
eoemy to deaili, ran about CJ^'ing and beating with Micks to ; 
Ecaru the ghost away ; tbcy havu been knowii to BCt net« niund 
their cabins to oitcb and keep oat neighbours' departed souls ; 
fancying the soul of a dying man to go uut at tbo wigwi 
roof, tbcy would bsbitually iK-at the sides witb sticks to drive it 
forth ; we even hear of the ■widow goinp; off from bcr buaboud't 
fiiDcroi foUow<xl by a person tloiirishing a handful of t% 
about her bead like a flj-flappGr, to drive off her basbwM)*! 
gho«rt and leave her free to mnrrj" ngain.* Witb n. kindlier! 
feeling, tlio Congo nt-groes abstained for a whole year aftei 
a death from fiwtK>piiig tlio house, lest tbe dust choutd injai 
the delicate subglancc of the gboKt;* tlie Tonquinese avoidt 
hoitsoH^leauing during the fi^ttval when thu soulg of the dc 
came back to their houses for the New Year's visit ; * and it 
seems likely that the spt'cial pi-ofession of die Roman " everrii 
tores" who swept the houses out after a funeral, was connectoc 
with a similar idea."^ To this day. it remains n Geriuau pcaaaDt 
sayipg that it is wrung to alam a door, lent one should pinch a 
soul in it.' The uot uncommon pmrtice nf strewing aslu's to 
&how lh& fuotpi-iiits of ghosts or di^iiioiis takes for gnuiLo<l that 
they are siilk^tatitinl Imdies. In the literature of onimi 
extreme tests of the weight of ghosts are now and then fnrtb-4 
coming. Thoy range from the declaration of a Ba^uto divjjii 
that the late queen had been beetridiog his shooldera, and he 
never felt such a weight in his life, to Glnnvirs «ory of Darid 
Uuuter the nt-at-lienl, who lifted up the old woman's gho^t, aud 
Hhe felt just like a bag of feathers in his arras, or the pathelto 

* I*n(t, 'Qnfcnsliuiil.'fi. ■ill; Bonwick, ■ Tuiiunkni,* p. 187. 

- CWlcvoLx, 'Notivullg Fraucc* vul. vi. jip. 73, 1S2; Lit Ji'ium iti *Rcl, flo 

III NoiiTello Fmncc.' 1634, p. 23 ; IflSa, |i. U ; Tanner's 'Sorr,' p. 2S2. 
' ItoMkti, 'JtlL-iiKrh,' vol. it. p. 333. 

* Meinere, vol. i. p. 318. 

* Fcatns, ». V. '<!T»rriatOT«a;'HeButiiu), ], e,, iad oamp«n> Tlartknocli, cited 
biiaw, v«L iL p. S<J. 

' Vultke, 'VolkaTHMTtlBubp." jip. 13J, 2I«. 

German Buperetition that tlie dead mother's coming back in tho 
niglit to suckle the baby «ho has left on padli, may lia known 
by tho hollow pressed down m the boJ wlicrc she lay, and at 
hist down to the alleged modcra Kpiritimlixtic reckoning of tho 
weight of a human soul at from 3 to 4 oiince.?. ' 

Explicit statcmcuti as to the substance of soul are to be found 
both among low and higli races, in an inittructivc scries of dcfi> 
nitiona. The Tongans imfigiaed tho human soul to be the finer 
or more aeriform part of the body, -wbicU loaves it euddenly at 
the moment of death ; something oompamldo to the perfume 
and essence of a Hewer as related to the more solid vcgct'kble 
fibre.' Tiio Greenland suer^ described tlic tioui as they hubilu* 
ally perceived it in tlieir visions ; it is pale and soil, tbey snid, 
an<l ho who tries to seize it fecU nothinp. for it has no flesh 
noi* bone norsincw.^ The Caribs did not think the soul so im- 
niat^^ria) as to bo invisible, but Raid it vas <iubtlu and thin like 
a purifiod bady> Turning to higher races, we may take the 
Siami)<iQ as an example of a people who conceive of souU as uon- 
sisting of snbtle mnttc-r escaping sight and touch, or an united 
to a swiftly moving aerial body.* In the classic world, it is 
recorded as an opinion of Epicurus that " they who say the houI 
'58 incorporeal talk fully, for it could uwitUer do nor suffer any- 
tbing were it such."* Among tbe Fatherii. Iremeus describes 
iwuIn as incorporeal in comparison witli mortal bodies.' and 
Tcrtnllian relates a vision or revelation of a certain Moutauist 
prophetess, of the soul seen by her corporeally, thin and lucid, 
aerial in colour and human in form. " For an example of 
mediaeval doctrine, may be cited a I4th century English poem, 
the "Ayenbile of Jnwyt" (u & "Bemoree of Conscience") 

■ CkMtiic, *B(uirto«,']ii.S8S: Gkiivil. 'Siiliuiisiinis'niniiiiiluUu.''|i«n ii.p.lSl; 
Wanke, p. 31(t; Bulian, ■ Pkjvholqfi*,' p. IM. 
' U«riii«, 'Tonga U' vol u, ].. 135. 

* Ciut, 'Urenloud.' p. 2J7. 

* Itocliofart, ' I In AalillM,' p. *■£>. 

* tjDubct«, 'SiaiD.' ToL i. |i. m; Buiiu, 'OMtL Arioo,' VoL iil f. SS9; 


* Diog(. I.Am. z. 67-9 ; mm S«rr. >d Ma. it. 9S4. 

' Imwwi cootn Hwm, v. 7, 1 ; act Oiista. l>e Priacip. U. S, 2. 

* TtitnlL I>c Anim*, ». 



which points out how tlie soul, hj reason of the UuDmsc of its 

substance, suffers all the more m purgatoi^- : 

" Tho Bonl U inoro tondra and ocscho 
Than tbo bodi tk»t hatb Im»)C« luid fl«r»<-lu ; 
ThanoeUMMiul tiiatUao tondotn ofkiEde, 
Mole aedu faure pcimuiiee fafudara y-findn, 
Tbaa eoi bodi Uut erera ou Urc vu." > 

The doctrine of tlic ethereal soul passed on into more mo(li*rii 
pl)ilo«op)iv, niid tho Europenn peoHUit holds fa^t to it Htill ; tm 
Wuttke liar's, Uio gho!^ of the dead have lu liiiu a misty out! 
evanescent inaterjality, for they have bodies aa we have, though 
of other kind : they c»u cat and diiiik, they can be wouudi-'i] aud 
killed.' Nor wait the ancient doctrine *!vvr more diHtiactly 
stat«d tliau by a modem spiritualistJc writer, who observes that 
"a Kpirit U no immaterial Kiiltslaiice ; on the contntry. ttie 
spiritual oiganization is composed of rnattcr .... in a 
very high state of rcGueniciit imd attenuation."' 

Among rude races, the original conception of the human soul 
seems to have beer, that of ethereaUty, or vaporous materiality, 
which liaA held m largo a place in human thought cvnr since. 
Id fact, the later metaphyaical notion of iminatci-ialily couM 
scarcely have conveyed any meaning tii a »ttvnj:f. It in more- 
over to ]}e noticed that, as to the whole nature and acUou of 
ap^uiritionol Muis, tho lower pbiluso]}hy escapes various diffi- 
culties which down to modem timei" have iJerplcxcd meta- 
physicians ajid theologians of the civilized world. Considering 
the thin othcrcal body of the «oul to be it«olf snfficieot and 
suitjible for vwibility, movement, and speech, the primitive ani- 
mists luul no need of additional liypotbcses to account for these 
maniftmtations, theological theories such as we may End detailod 
by Calmet, as that immaterial bouIk have their own raporous 
bodies, or occasionally have such vaporous bodies pcxividcd for 
them by supernatural means to enable them to appear as spectres, 
or that they possess the power of condensing the circumambient 

1 Himpole, * Ajwnbitc of Inwyt.' 

' WullU, • VolkMihfttgUiibp,' -pv 2I«. Kfl. 

• A. J. D«TU, ' l"hilo»c.]iltyor Sptittua) IntcrcnarM,' Ntw York, 1S5I, |i. 4li, 


ail- iuto pbantom-lilce bodies to invest themselves in, or of form- 
ing from it vocal instruraenta.' It appears to have been within 
systcmaticschooUofcivilizeil philosophy that the traasccudcntal 
definitions of the imiriftteriol soul were obtftiood, by abstraction 
from the primitivo conception of tho ethercal-matoriol soul, so 
OB to reduce it ftoin a pliyHical to a raetaphyaicul entity. 

Departiug from the body at the time of death, the soul or 
jtpirit i» cnntiidt^red set free to linger near the tomb, to wander 
on eai'th or flit in the air, or to travel to the proper region of 
spirit'' — the world beyond the grave, Tlie principal concep- 
tions of the lower psychology an to a Future Life will be con- 
sidered in the following chapters, but for tho present puqwao of 
investigating the theory of sowls in general, it will be well to 
enter here upon one department of the subject. Hen do not 
Htop short ul thu persuasion that death releases the soul to a 
free nnil active eiistencc, but they quite lugic&Qy proceed to 
RRsiat nature, by shiyiug men in order to liberate their souls 
for ghostly luea. Thus there arises one of the most wide- 
Epreud, diatiuct, and intelligible rites of animistic religion — 
that of fiincral human sacrifice for the service of the dead. 
When a man of rank dio9 and his eoul departs to its own place, 
■wherever and whatever that place maybe, it ie a rational in- 
ference of early philosophy that the soula of attendants, slovcs, 
and wivc!?, put to death at htx funeral, will maVc tho same 
journey, anti continue their service in tho next life, and the 
argument in fre(|uently Ktretched further, to inchido tho souls 
of new victims Kncrificed in order that they may enter upon 
the same ghostly servitude. It will appear from the etbno- 
grapliy uf this rite that it is not xtrongty marked ui tlic 
very lowest levels of culture, but that, ariiung in the higher 
savagely, it developea itself in the l>arbaric stage, ami thcnoe- 
fbTth coniiuuea or dwindles in survival. 

Of the mnntcrous practices tn which this opinion leadt, re- 
markably lUatioct accdunts may \m cited from among tribes of 
the Indian Arcliiptilujjo. The follo«ing account is given of the 
funerals of great men among the savage Kayans of Borneo : — 

* CnlnM^ T«l. i. du lU. , «t«. 


"SUres are killed in order that they mny Tollow Ihe deceased 
and attend upou hiiii. Before they arc killed t>ic rclatiotis 
nho surroand them <>njoin them to tako great care of their 
master when tbeyjain him, t« watch and abaoipoo him whon 
ho is induposed, to ho nlways near him, and to obey nil bis 
behests. Tiio fcmolo relatives of the deeeased theu take s 
spear and slightly wound the victims, after which the males 
spear them to death." Agnin, tlic opinion of tlie Idaao is " tbat 
all whom they kill in this world Khali attend tJicra as slavos 
after death. This notion of fnturc interest iu the destruction 
of the human species is a great iropeiUment to an intercourso 
witli them, S.S munk-r j^ocs fnrtlior than present ailvnntnge or 
Tesentment From the same principle they will puicliaefe a 
atave, ^ilty of any ct^itnl crime, at funrfuM his value, tliat 
they may be his esecutioners." With the same idea is con- 
nected the ferocious cuatom of " liead-hnnting," so prevalent 
among the Dayaks in-foro Rajah Brooke's time. They con- 
didcred tliat the owner of every human head they could pro- 
cure would sotTO ibem in the next world, where, indeed, a 
man's rank would be according to his number of heads in 
this. They would contimio the laouniing for a dead man till 
head was brought in, to provide him with a slave to accotn- 
pany him to the "habitation of souli! ;" a father who lost his 
child would go out and kill the first man he met, an a fimcrai 
coromony; a young man might not marry till he had pro- 
cured a hear!, and some tribes would bury with a dead man tlic 
first head he bad taken, togetlior with spean:, cloth, rieo, and 
betel. Waylaying nud murdering men for tlieir heaJe Ijecainc, 
in lact, the Dayaks' national sport, and they remarked " thti 
wbite men it-ad Ixioks, we hunt for hends instead." ' Of such 
rites in the Pacific islands, the most hideously purposeful ac- 
counts roat^i us from the Fiji group. Till lately, a main part 
of the ceremony of n grrat man's funeral was thw stranglinj^ 
of wives, friends, and slaves, for the distinct ])urpu»{: of attend- 
ing him into the world of epirits. Ordinarily tJio first Tictitn 

' •Jonra. IdiI. Archip." rol. ii. p. 88»; vol. ill. pp. 101. 558; Karl, *F.4Mom 
Sms.' jk. 26S ; 81. John. ' Fur Host.' vol. i. pp. M, 73, JS, Ilfl ; Mondjr, • N»rr. 
from Iba»l:«'« JounuUa,' p. 20$. 8«a Kltftt In 'It. lUt.' vol. Hi. ]*. 38 (Garoa). 


vos the wife of the deceased, and ni«r« than one if be hod 
several, and their corpaos, oile4 as for a foast, clothod with 
new fringed giTdlos, with heaiU dreswecl and omamontcd, and 
vertnilioQ and turmeric powder spK&d oa ihcir faces iwd 
bosoms, were laid by tlio side of tliB dead warrior. AMi[)ciates 
and inferior attendants were likewise slain, anil theHo hodicH 
were spoken of as "graas for bedding tlio gravu." Wlioii lU 
Mbithi. the prlds of Suniosotito. was lost at hod. seventeen of 
\m wives were killed ; and &fler the news of the maaaaci'e of 
the Namcna. people, in 1839, clglitjr women were Btranglecl 
to accompany the apirits of their murdered husbanda. Such 
sacrifices took place uiider the tame pressure of public opinion 
which kept up the ^ridow-liuiitiDg in modcni India. The 
Fijian widow was worked upon by her relatives with all the 
preseurti of pcrsiiasiou and of monacc ; she undcralood woU that' 
life to ber henceforth would mean a wretched exUteoce of 
neglect, disgrace, oud destitution ; and tyrannous cuBtom, as 
hard to stru^le againat in the savngc as in tlio civiliwd world, 
drove her to the grave. Tliua, far from resisting, she became 
importUQftto for death and the new life to como, and till publk 
opinion ix'aclied a more i-niightODed state, the miasionaries 
often used their influence in vain to save from the straogliDg- 
cord some wife nhom tbey could have rescued, but who herself 
refused to live. So repugnant to the native miod was the idea 
of a chieftain gning unattended into the other world, that tbs 
missionaricH' prohibition of the chcrisliL-d custom wu chb 
reason of their dislike to Christianity. Many of tbe wwrnriti 
Christians, when once a chief of theirs was ttholhvattsi 
hush, esteemed it most fortunate that u stray Kbot at tiiu 
time killed a young man at a distance from bim, aud liius pant- 
Tided a companion for tbe spirit of the slain clii«£' 

In America, the funeral human socriftoe isflk«i iV ctttaO' 
teristic appearance. A good example may bv takoi .froat 
amoog the Otoges, whoM babit was sotoctimw u> |i4uitLiD 'Jb* 

For New ZoaUuJ scctKtnU, m« 1!. Tkf lor, • Xcw taim^ ' f^>JaMtj:7 zttk^ 

* ^cv Zvdutitn,' roL i pp. dii, 7(, Hi, 




i they 
oon- I 
prac- J 

cairn raised over r corpse a polo wiUi am enemy's scalp he 

to the top. Tlieir notion vi&» lliat by taking an enemy 

saBpending \m w»1p over the grave of a deceased friuatl the 

spirit of the victim becnino subjtict^J to the scpint of the bari^H 

warrior in the laail of eplrits. Hence tlic Ust and best servwB^ 

that could be performed for a deceased relative waj) to take an 

enemy'n life, and thiiK transmit it by bis scalp.^ The 

Bpondence of this idea with that just mentiunod amon^ 

Dayaks 'a very slrikiug. With a Mmilar intention, the Carihs 

would ulay on the dead master's grave any of his slaves they 

could lay hand» on.^ Among tlte native peoples risen tc oon- 

fliderably higher grades of social and poUtical life, these 

tices were not suppressed but exaggerated, in the gfai 

eacrificGs of warriors, hUvcs, and wives, who departed to continue 

their duteous office» at tho funeral of the chief or niooaroh 

in CcDtrul America* and Mexico/ In Bogota' and Pora.* it is 

interesting to notice, in eomowhat favourable contrast wit 

tbMO cuetoms of comparatively cultured American nations, tl 

practice of certain nide tribes of tho North- West. The Qoa- 

kooltbti, for inatanc(>, did not actually sacrilict} the widow, bu 

they made her lest her head on her husband's corpse while 

vas being burned, until at last she was dragged mora 

than alive from the flames; if she recovered, she collected h< 

husljand's aithes and carried them about with her for tbi 

years, during which any levity or deficiency of grief wonl 

render her an outcast. This looks like a mitigated survival 

from an earlier custom of actual widow-burning.^ 

> J. U'Cor, 'Hiat. ofBiipU».tliiilianUiiiilona,'p. 880; WiiU, vol iU. p.! 
Sn nliM SifbiMilcnfY, 'Indian Tribiu, ' furt 11. p. IKt (Comanchw}. 
1 Bocliifntt, Ml» Andlln,' pp. 430, BIS; s*« Um J. 0, UUlUr, pp. 171, 

* Oriwlcs 'Relition tie CueV' P- HO; CliarlcToix, 'Kobt. Ft." toL 
p. ]73lN«tcbM); Waitx, vol. itL p. 219. See Urintan, 'Jfyilsor If«w Wc 
]>. 23V. 

* BrMMiiT, 'MMtiqn*,' »»!, HL ]>. S'S. 

* licdmbiln, ' Nticvo Jtcyno tl« Granada,' put i. lib. L r. 3, 

* Ciem rlc I*on, ji. ICI ; Rirrro and TBclimli, 'Prruv. Aut,' p, lOO [ Pn*.. 
ectt, ' F«ni,' vuL L \i. 211. See ilalcmnnU u to «ai(p«, J. G. Utiller, p. 379, 

: flintipwiD, * Jounioy,' vol. i. |i. IDO ; timikf pnctiM sisoiij TakulU or l^a 
InA., WfiiU, vcL iii. ^ 300. 

Ofsttch funeral rites, carried out to the dcatb, gr&pklc oud 
horrid <te3criptioii3 are recorded id the countries ncrosa Africa 
— East., Centi'al, and West. A headman 'if tUe Wadoo is buried 
sittiag io a shallow pit, ntid with the oorpso a male and fcmolo 
slave alivL', Iio with a hill-hook in his hand to ciit fuel for bis 
lord in tltc death-world, she seated ou a lilUu sUial with the 
dead cliiern head in her lap. A chief uf Unynrnwczi is cn- 
tomhed in a vaulted pit. sitting on a low stool until a bow in 
his liyht hand, a«d provided with a pot of native Leer; vrith 
him ar<! shut in alive three women &Ihv<>i>, and the ceremony jg 
concluded with a libation of beer on the eoi'th heaped up above 
thcni all. The same idea which in Ouinea makca it common 
for the living to send niessngeR by the dying to the dead, is 
developed in Asbauli and Bahonie into a inoostroua system of 
n)a«»acrc. The King of Duhome roust cuter Deodloiid with a 
ghostly court of hundreds of wives, eunuchs, singers, drummers, 
and soldiers. Kor la thJs all Captain Burton thus describes 
the yearly "Customs: " — "They periodically supply the deportod 
monarch witli frcfih attendants in the shadowy world. For un- 
happily these murderous scones ore an cxpreiKion, lamentably 
mistaken but perfectly sincere, of the liveliest filial piety." 
Even thiit annual slaughter must be supplemented by almost 
daily murder : — " Wliatever action, however trivial, is performed 
by tliL- King, it must dutifully lie leporteil to his Hire in the 
shadowy realm. A victim, almost always a war-captive, is 
chosen ; the moas&ge ia delivered to bim. an Intoxicating 
draught of rum follows it. and be is dispatched to Hndea 
in the best of humours." ^ In soutlicrn districts of Africa, 
accouuta of the same class begin in Congo and Angola with 
the recorded slaying of the dead man's favourite wives, to live 
with him in the other world, a practice fitill in vogue among 
the Chovaa of the Zambesi district, and formerly known among 
tbe Uaravis, while the funeral sacrifice of attendontd witJi a 
chief is a thing of the paat among the BarotM, as among the 
Zului), who have cot forgotten the days when the chief's scr- 

> Bnrton. 'Cr^ntnl Afr.* vol. up. 131; vol. U. p. 33 : 'I>kli<nM,*Tol. U. p. 18,. 
cto. ; 'Tr. EUl 8<h!.- vol. iU. p. 403 ; J. I.,. Wibco, ■ W. Afr." pji. 303, Sl», Ml. 
t(o« aba H. Howlflv, ' Uittivn to C'eatrel A(rio»," p. J». 

vou I. x s 



vuate and attendiuit warriors were cast into tlie fire wliich htvi 
oonsumed bis body, that they might go with bini, aud jirejiore 
tbm^ beforubantl, aod get food for tiim.l 

If now w« turn to the n-ctmls of Asia and Kuropc, vu ahall 
find the sacrifice of atteadnntt for the dcatl widely prcTtdent in 
both couiiucnts in old timca, while in the east its course may 
be traced contintiing onward to our own day. Tim two Moham- 
medans who tnivclled in SoutheiTi Asia in the ninth centiu^' 
relate that on ilic accceaion of cci'tuiii kitigx a qiiautily of rice 
ia prepM-cd, which is eaten by some three or four hundred men, 
who present themselves voluntarily to share it, thereby under- 
taking to bum themselves at the moaarch's death. With this 
corresponds JUarco Polo's thirtecaith centiiry aooouut in Southern 
India of the king of M-aabor's gtim\i of horsemen, who, when 
hn dicK and hia body is burnt, throw lhum«elves into the fire 
to do him ser^'ico in the next world.' Id the wvcntocQth cen- 
tury tlie practice Ih described as prevailing in Japati, where, on 
the death of a nobleman, from ten to thirty of Iils son-ants put 
themselves to doath by the " Uara kari," or ripping-up, having 
indeed engaged during his liFetinie, by the Hulemn compact of 
drinking wine together, to give tlieir ludies to their lord at btx 
death. The Japanese form of modiiD survival of xucIl funeral 
sacrifices is to substitute for real men and animals images of 
stone, or clay, or wood, placed by the corpac.^ Among the 
Ussetca of tKo Caucaitus, an inlvrciitiDg relic of widow-sacrifioe is 
still kept up : the dead man's widow and his saddle-horse are 
led ttiriee round the grave, and uo man may marry tlie widow 
or mount the horse thus devoted.* In China, legend proserres 
the memory of the ancient funeral human sacrifice The 
brother of Uliin Vang, a disciple of Confucius, died, and his 
widow and nteward wished to bury some living pertions with 

' Cttvnxt^ 'laL DoMT. da* In llegiti Congo. MaUmlw, ct Angoli,* Bologru, 
16S', UK 1.261; WoiU, toL u. pp. 410— SI ; CtUaira;, 'Boligioii ef .inwciilq,' 
p. XI!. 

* Reoanidot, 'Ace. by tvo Uohnmmoiliui Trarvllen.' Imii]ou 1733, p. SI 
in PtnlEDrtaiB, toL rii. p. £12 ; Muco Polo, book Hi. diap, xx. ; and in Plul 
»nL viL p, lot 

» Cinm, ' Japan," ibW., p. 622 ; Sitljold, ' Ki|ipoD,' v. p. 22. 

* 'Jouni. !u(L Arcliiii.' uewtcrio!^ vol. ii. p. J7-t. 

him, to eerve liini iu the regions kolow. Tliercupoa ifao sage 
Ruggestod iKftt the proper vicliniK would be the Hidow ami 
stewmxl tliemselvos, but tbis not prGciitd}' lufotiiig tljoir vi^ws, 
the matter ilropped, antl tlic deceased wiw interred wltliout at- 
tendants. Tliis story at least shown tho rite to liave been not 
only kiiowu but undeivtood in Chiou long ago. In modem 
<Jhina, the xiitcide of widows to accompany their husbands in a 
recognised practice, sometimes evon iKTroniii--d in public. More- 
over, tht ceremony of providing sodnu-bcaj'crs and an nmbrellD- 
bearer for the dead , and sending mounted liorsemen to announco 
heforeluuid hiti arrivo] to the authorities of Hades, although 
these bearers and niefniengcra are only made of papor and 
bui-Dt, ficem to represent survivals of a more marJerous reality.^ 
The Aryan race gives striking cxflmplce of the rite of funeral 
hiiman sacrifice in its sternest shape, whether iu history, or in 
myth th:it records 08 truly as histoiy the manners of old days.' 
Tho episodes of tlio Trojan captives laid tvith the bors^ti and 
hounds on the funeral pile of Patniklos, and of Evadnc throwing 
henielf into tho fnueral pile of lior husUind, and Pansanlas's 
narrative of the fiutcide of tho three Mfuscuiau wldowB, are 
among its Greek representatives.* In Scandinavian mytli, Baldr 
i.s burnt with hiK dwarf foot-page, hisliorse and ssaildle; Brynhild 
lies on the pile by her beloved Sigurd, and men and maids 
follow after them on the hcil-way. * The OauU iu Ciusar's time 
burned at the dead man's sumptuous funeral wimtevcr was 
dear to him, animals also, and nmch-lovud slaves and clients. * 
Old mentions of Slavonic heathendom describe tlie burning of 

> LrfUf, -ConfudtH,' ^ 119; Doolittle, 'ObiticM.'ToL 1. pp. lOS, 1/4, 192. 
Tba pructaco t\ mtXtcXuati vt kUliuK uU ])«naiii lunt 1<y n fuiivnO iinwosaUai U 
pcrlia{« Rcncnilljr coniifctod vltli ruiionil linmaii Htriflic; aujoat mrt on tlie 
moil by t!i» rutiRnil of a MoujidI printer m« ilun nnd ordtnvl ta fng a* tarort ; in 
tli« Kiin1>tiii<lu (-omilry, uuy miu wliu mui'lH a rayol Ituenl iira<«titiuu i* put t« 
dMth villi t!i« otiirr \'i--liinM >t tlin gniv«< |Mat;\'nr, 'Silii AlViluii p. 3»3) ; «t* 
bIso M*miur, 'Toiignla.' rvl. L p. \m; Cwk, Tint Voy.' Tol. J. pp. \W, !3<( 

* Jacob Urimtn, ' Vctbrcnncn ikr Loldien,' eontalni on InNtnittlva eolltctitm <X 
rtfomcoB anil dtutioiiB. 

■ Homer. II. stziii. 175 -, Karip. Siippl.; PauMnifM, iv. 2, 

* htii*t 'Orlljigijining.' 4D ; ' BrrnblUitniTitlM,* etc, 

* Cnor. BelL (klL vi. Itf. 

B z 3 



tho dewl with clothing' and wcnponi, horse* ami hound*, wilh 
lailliful HcrvauUi, and alxjvt- all. with wives. Tlius St Boaifoco 
sajn that " the Wends keep mutrimrtnial lore n-ith no great 2e*I, 
lluit the wife may refuse- to survive her liu»dimi<I, «nd Jibe is 
iu'ld praUcwartliv Qmonjf nuiiu-u who staj-s hfrsi-li' wiih her 
uwn band, that she may l^e hurot on one pyrv vilh her lord." * 
This Arynu ritt.- uf widuw-tmLTifiiv has out only an elhnogmpUic 
and nntititiariati interest, hut even a plocu in iiKHk-ni i)oUtica. 
Id Brahmanic India the widow of a Hindu of the Bndtnuui or 
tho Kflbatriya caste vas hunit ou the funeral pile M-ith herhus- 
Uutd, Its & oofi or " good woDiau," which word has ptu^d into 
English M tfuilte. Ueutioucd lu classic and mcdiawal times; 
tlic practice vuLi tn hdl x-igoiir at the be^nning of the preseot 
ttuturj-. * Often one dead husband took nuiuy wives with him. 
Some went willingly and gaily to the new life, many were 
driven hy force of cuatom, by fear of disgrace, by family per- 
Kuasion, hy priestly thrcatn and promiseii, by sheer violence. 
When the rite was suppressed under modem Britisli rule, the 
priextliood resiitted to the ulteimofii, appealing to the \*eda as 
sanctioning theoidinance.and demanding that the foreign nilers 
should respect it^ Yet in fact, a* Prof. H. H. Wilson proved, 
the prieslii lind actually faL4i6cd their sacred Veda in support of 
a lite enjoined hy lon^ and inveterate prejudice, hut not hy tho 
traditional tttamlunbi of Hindu faith. Tlio ancient Bmhrnnnic 
funeral rites have been minutely detailed fivm the Sanskrit un- 
thurilica in an essay by Prof. Mi(.\ Muller. Their dirc-clions are 
tliat the widow is to be set on the funeral pile with hi-r husband** 
corpse, and if he be a warrior his bow is to he plac«l there too. 
But then a hrothcr-in-lnw or adopted child or old sen-ant v* to 
lofld tbo widow down again at the summons, "Rise, woniim, 
eome to tho world of life; thou sleepest nigh unto him whose 
life is gone. Come to wt. Tliuu hast thus futfillod thy duties 
of a wife to the husband who ouce took thy hand, and made 

•> -HatitiKh, 'SUw. Uytk.' f. MS. 

« fitrobo, XV. 1, 82 ; Cic Tuk,-. I>i^. t. 87, 78 ; DioJ. Sic. xru, » ; xU. SI; 
vie; OriraiD, ' Vctbrcniicii,' p. £41: Rinaailot. 'T«o MdiMiniiioJuHi' ]>. 4 ; 
mill ill I'iukiTton. voL vU. ]i. 1P4. Stso Bnclmiun, iliid. jip, C'5, Mi ; ^Vaijl, 
•HiiMlww,' ToL it. pp. »»-81S. 

thee a tnotlier." Tlie l>ow, Iiuwever, in to lift lirolccn and thrown 
back iipou tho pile, and the dead man's 8acrifici;J iD8triiin(>iiU 
nre tn be Inid with him and really consumed. While admitting 
with Pror. MUller that the more modem nnlinancc of Suttuo 
biirniiig is a coinipt departure from the early Biiiluiiatiic ritual, 
we may ncverthelcKs find Homc reaMia to consider (he practice 
OS not a iit.-w invention by the later Hindu pno»tbood, but n/t the 
i-evivnl, under coiijjiuiiul iiill iieuct-s, ol" an ancient Arjan rite 
lielouging orl^nally to a periofl even carJier than the Veda. Tlio 
ancitint authoriBcd coromwiy looks as tliougli, in a still more 
uucivnt form of the rite, tlio widow had been actually stnt wit3i 
tbe dead, for which real >iacrificu a more liumano law suhHtitntttd 
a mere pretence. Thii9 view is supported by the exif>tencc of au 
old and expre.1? prohibition of thu wife Ijeing Mcrificwl, a prohi- 
bition seomingly directed against a real custom, " to follow the 
dfnd hnsliand is pnibiliited, so says Ihc law iif the Bmbmnns. 
With rogard to the other«s thU law for women may bo or 
may mrt W."' To treat tlio Hindu widow-burniug as a ease of 
survival and revival seemsto me most in arcDnhmce with a gene- 
ral ethnographic view of the subject. Widow-sacrifice is found 
in various regions of the worid under a low Htate of avilization, 
and this fit« with the hypothesia of its having belonged to the 
Aiyan race while yet in au early and barbarous condition. 
Thus the prevalence of a ritL- of tuttee Hkc that of modem 
India among ancient Ar^'an nations settled in Kurope, Greeks, 
Scandinarinns, {Jijrinans, Slavic, may U; simply iirroiinted for by 
direct inheritance from the remote conmion antiquity of them 
alL If this theory be sound, it will follow that ancient an the 
Vedic ordinances may be, thoy represent iu this matter a reform 
And a rc-action against a yet more aacicut savage rite of widow- 
sacrifice, which thoy prohibited in fact, hut yet kept np in 
qrmboh 1'he history of religion displays but too plainly tie 
pronenees of mankind to relapse, in Rpitc of reformation, into 
the lower aad darker condition of the past. Stronger and more 
teoBcions than even Vedic authority, the hideons custom of tho 

■arax Mbllrr, 'ToiltoilfnilnltunxWiIcnnnlmuflra, !b 7,rilv1ir. ilrr IVatM'lt. 
UoritniiL Ohl* vbl. ix. ; ' Cliip^' tuL IL {i. U ; I'Ictcl, ' U.-tt;iiiti lu(ti>-Liir>i]<,* 
part ti. p. 930. 



i^uttoo may faaro outlirod an attempt to sapprou it in oaHy 

Brahmanio times, and the Knglish rulers, in abolisliing it, may 
have abotiHhcd a relic not merely of degenerate Hiaduisin, but 
i>f the far more remotely aucitnt savagely out of wbich tlio 
Aiyan civilizntion liatl gi-omi. 

In now pasdng front the coosideraliou of the souls of men to 
Uuit of tlio Mouls of the lower auimals. we have first to iafomi our- 
itelrcs OH to tlic ravage man's idea, wliicli is very tliffereiit frum 
the civilized man's, of the nature of these lower animals. A 
romarkahlo group of tibsurv-anccs customary among rudu tril>os 
will bring this distinction sharply into view, Sjivagcs talk 
quite sciriously to lieasts alive or deiul as ihoy wmild to men 
alive or dvad, ofiW tliem homage, a«k punlou vhcn it is their 
paioful duty to hunt a.ud kill them. A North American Indian 
will reasou tiIIl a hoi-sc m il" rational Some will spare the 
rattleenakc, fearing the vengeance of its Bpirit Jf shun; others 
will salutC' the civntiirc fovcrcntly, hid it welcome as a friend 
from the land of ^tritit, t<prinkto a pinch of tobncco on its hoad 
for an oiforiug, catch it hy the tail and dispatch it with extreme 
dexterity, and carry off its skin as a trophy. If on Indian h 
attadced uud toru hy a beur, it is that the beast fell upi)ii him 
intentionnlly in anger, perhaps to revenge the hurt done to 
another bcju-. WHiou a bfai- Is kUled, they will beg pitnlou of 
him, ur even make him contlone the oAencc hy smoking tlie 
peace-pipe with his murdcrew, who put the pipe in his mouth 
and blow down it, begging his iipirit not to take revenge. ' So 
in Africa, the KnSrs will hunt the cIcpLaut. begging him not to 
tread on them ami kill them, and when he iti dead they will 
naaure him that they did not kill him on purpose, and they will 
burj' his trmik, for the elephant is u mighty cliict* and hi^ trunk 
i« his hand that he may hurt withal. The Congo people will 
even avenge such n murder by a jut-U-iided attack on thv 
hunters who did the deed. ^ Such cu»tonu! nie common among 
the lower Asiatic tribes. The Stiena of Kambodia ask pardon 
of tli« beut they have killed .^ the Ainos of Ycsso kill the bctr, 

• SchDolcnft, * Indioji Tnbei^' part i. p. £13 ; ftut Hi. pj). 229, £» ; Wait^ 
vol. iii. pp. 181-S. 

• KIcmin, 'Cullur-C«c!i.* roL iii, pji. 855, 381 ; Woilj, vol. ii p. 178. 

• Mouhftt, MiiJo-ChmB,' roL L p. tSi. 


offer obeuiaiice and salutation to bim, ami cut tip lus carcase.^ 
The KorUks, if they hare slain a Itear or wulf, will flay him, 
dress one of thoir people in tlic 8kin. and dance round him. 
chanting excuses that they did not do it, and especially Inyiug 
the bliUQC on a RuKHian. But if it is a fox, ihcy take biii skin, 
\Trap his dead liody in hay, and sneering tell him to go to Iiis 
own pooplc and say what famous hospitality he hua IuhI, and 
hov they gare him a now coat inste&il of hi<) old one, ' The 
Samoyeds cxcui^e thein^lves to the slain bear, telling him itwa* 
the Rusdans who did it, and that a Kussiau knife will cut him 
op.' The Goldi n-ill set up tho slun bear, call him " my lord" 
and do ironical homage to him, or taking him alive will fatten 
him in A cn^, call him " son" and " brother," and kill and eat 
him as n sacrifice at a solemn festival. * In Borneo, the Dayaks, 
when they liave caught nn allij^ator with a Imited hook and 
rope, address him vitb respect and soothing till they have his 
legs fast, and then mocking cull bim "rajah" and "granii- 
father."* Thus nfben the savage gets over his fcarn. he Btill 
keeps up in iroulcal meniment the reverence which had lU 
origin in trembling wncerity. Even now tlie Norso hunter will 
say with horror of a bear that will attack man, that he cau be 
"no Chruitian bear." 

The sense of an absolute psychical diMtinctiou between tauk 
and beast, so prevalent tn the civtlizud world, tii hardly to be 
found among the lower races. Men to whom the mes of beasto 
and birds seem like huiunn language, and tbcir actions guided 
as it were by human thought, logically eaongh allow the 
existence of souls to beasts, Imds, and reptiles, as to men. The 
lower psychology' cannot but recognise in beasts thi: very 
characteristics which it attributes to the buinan soul, iiarady, 
the phenomena of life and death, will and judgment, and the 
phantom seen in vision or in dreatn. As for believers, savage 
or civilised, in the great doctrini* of metcmpKychosia, these not 
ooly condder that an animal may have a soul, but that this 

> Wood in 'Tr, tXh. Soc.' toI. ir. p. aa 

> Butuui, 'Xmtah,' vol. iu. t^ S«. 

■ De BrouM, • Diens Fitielx^' p. <1. 

* TUTciurteim 'Amur,' p. &sa ; T. VT. Alkisimi. p. 188. 

* SL Jolin. • Fv tut,' veL <l p. iS3 (Dajaka). 




tiout may hare iuhabitcd a. Iitunan lacing, ami thna the croature 
niaj Ih: ill fact their own auce&tor or ouce fiuiitliar friead. A line 
of facts, arranged as wayrnarks along the coiiise ofdvilization, w tit 
serve to indicate the history- of opinion from savagery onwarj, 
as to the souls of antmiJs during life ajid aflor dtiath. North 
Amecicao Indians hi-Id every uiiimal to have its sjurit, and these 
Bpiritfi their future life ; the soul of the Canadian dog wont to 
eerre his roaster in the other world ; Among the Sioux, the pre- 
rogativo of having four souls was not confined to man, but 
belonged also to the bcai-, the most human of animals. ' The 
Greoblandci-s ron«idere<l thnt a siok human soul might ha ro- 
pkced b}' the lioi-ceter with a fn-«h healthy soul of a hiiro, a 
reindeer, or u young chiliL' Maori talo-tollers have heard of 
the v<xu\ liy which the spirits of dogs descend to Ri'iiiga, tho 
Hades of th<* departed ; the Hovas of Madngiutcar know that the 
ghosts of Iwastit and men, dwvlling in a great mountain in the 
south ealletl Aiuhoniiromhe. come out occasionally to walk 
among tlie touihii ur executiou-plsces of criminala. ' The Kaia- 
chiidaU hcM that every creature, even the smallest 6y, would 
live ogaiu in the under wurlJ.* The Kuki» of Assam think 
that the ghont of every animal a Kuki kills in the chase or for 
the feast will hclung to Itiia in the next life, even as the eneuiy 
he aliiys in thi: Bcld will then become hist ^lave. The Karena 
apply the doctriac o( the spiiit or pcim>ual life-phantom, which 
is apt to wander from the body and thus suffer injury, cquaJJy 
lo men ami t« animals. * The Zulus sny the cattle they kill 
come to life i^in, and b<K.'omti the property of the dwellers in 
the world beneath. " The Siamese butcher, when in defiance of 
the very priacipleo of his Buddhi»m he slanghtei's lUi ox, before 
he kills theereatupehfts at least the gmco to beseech it« spirit lu 
«cek a happier Jibude. ' I a eoimexion wilb such transmigration, 

' Ch«TleTnix, 'Koiivnllf Franw," vol. ri. p, 7S; S«giiiil, 'Hint, ilu Ciuuita,' )». 
197 : Si-htK.lefuft, ' [n'liun TriI«H," p«rt. lil. p. 2!0. 
' Cratix, 'nriinlftad.*]!. 257. 

* TKjl^r. ■ Ncn /^Uiul,' p. 271 : Ellta, ' Uadogueir,' toI. L p. (SO. 

* Btrlln-, ' Kamtacliatka,' p. iiS. 

* Stswirt, • KukI* ; ' Crou, * Kartnu.' I. c. ; IKmoo, * Katciu^' I. r- 

* C«IUwsy. 'Z«l<i T-iK-a/ val. L f. m. 

* J,«w fn 'Joum. JmI. Arcliii^' tol i, \^ lit. Sm Mcincr^ rtH, l jn S20 ; 
ml. ii. p. 791. 

Axunsu. 4S? 

PyDiagoreati and Platonic pliUoaopIiy gives to the lower aoiraalii 
UQtl^iui; souls, wliUu otlicT classic opinion may rccogiuxe in 
beasts only an inferior order of hiu], only the "nnima" but not 
tlte liuuutu "auimus" beaUlea. lUiut Juvcnul: 

" Principio inauTmt ponanunw oosditor iUia 
TantAtn nnimu ; luAw rmimtim t^noque. ..." * 

Thr«>ugli tie middle agea, controvcr»?y as to the psychology of 
brutta lia& IiistcJ on into our owu timw, ranging liutwuen two 
oxtremoB : on tho one the theory of De--(cartea whicli reiluccd 
aiiimald to lucre inachiues, on Iho other nliat Mr. Aljfcr defines 
as " iho fuitb that Bnimals have imnialcriul am) deathlcsii tiuiils." 
AmouK modern speculattona may be iust&nct-d that of Wu-sley, 
who thought that iu tho uest life noimoLi will be rtused oven 
above tfaoir bodily and mental stalw at Ihe crealiou, " the 
honidncta of tlieir appearance will be cxchauf^ed for their 
priniflDval beauty," and it even may bo that they will bo rondo 
wliat nion arc now, creatures capable of religion. Adam Clarke's 
argument for the future life of aniniali^ rc^ut on abtilrnct justice : 
wliereas they did not sin, but yet are involved m the sutTerings 
of sinful man, and cannot have in the prenent stale the hnppineax 
deigned fL>r iheui, il is rcat>uuabk> that ihL>y mutX have it in 
onotlior.^ Atlhnugh, however, the pnniitive belief in the souls 
of animals still aurvivcti to some extent in serious philc»u>phy, it 
is uhvious that the tendency of educated opinion on the quea* 
tion whether brutes have soul, as diiiliujjuiiilied from life and. 
mind, has for ages been in a ne^tive and sceptical direction. 
The doctrine htui faMtm from itA once high estate. It betongetl 
ori^nally to real. thuugU rude »^ieuce. It has now sunk to 
become a favourite topic iu that mild spceulativo talk wliiolt 
still docs duty so largely as intellectual conversatioo, aad even 
then it«! propounders defend tt with a lurking consciousocai of 
its being after alt a piece of sentimental nonsense, 

■ JavciiaL Sat. xF. 14?. 

' AlgBT, ' Futurt Life,' |i. A31, ■»<! *co ' Bibliogn|>hy,' aftiwiidix iLi Vttitf, 
'SnnMiBoaBoin. viii. IB— SS;' Adainriarkr, 'Comnmtaij-.'oaiHiDeteil. Tliii^ 
1i)r Uie njr, t« ilia miivcnc vitw lo Jh-lbnniiic'ii. Vila mi iMtintljr let the fleu 
1)ita him, a^tn^ "Wa Anil hmn hi*vtn bt nnrard m for tmr MiStiiiig^ hat 
dWM poor OMluiM litTD nothing bu Um tttJojniMM of llw pt«M&t life."— uiylt. 





Kat matf d> tiff's 

6a^ is borM vitk fcin, hn od ike Nonli Jkncneaa 
ifaa ifvitof theAig ku iHCker x^Mdcmble ofiee la ; 

CwUmKajiiiMaiii, m Cam wdabm,womii hjr a dog^ hMid 
in a cUU's gnvc:, tint Ae no] of the 6og, «fco ever fiads 
Ui bam; mif gwk ^m In^ka iafiui to tbe bad of amlL 
la a BC Brfm ee wilb tlan, '^f**™ Sc awjii y ia JaBeHa'a I^ad 
fiNUMlafkig'ft dniUiaaMBaBgiaiia^pnilaU^acmd'a Jk^m, 
ia the diitank lepoa cf the Aitco^ oae sf the iraacqial fuoen] 
oanaKMnei wu torfan^tw a tad ii dii, or aatire dag; U vaa 
fcaniorboried with the ooqiee. vithaeoUoa Ihnad fiuteaed 
to it« B«dc, sad ill office waK to coorer the dcecawd ttnm the 
tlMp waten of CSifahaahMpen, on the vajr to the laad of tha 
Dead* The dead Btmi'i brotirita bone, led saddled to Ih* 
gnrt, killed, end floaK to, may aerre for « Tatar example.* 

• lAMlmA. ' Mifli TrihM,' p«1 1, pp. S»7, Mt i p«rt u. ^ «. 

f irOMcvr. •L'UMMtAMMnh.'nLL^lH: nl.B.Ff>.8l»7B:HkHr. 

• I^JM, •nwmlmA,' p. Ut; OiM, f . 3W; tJBMii.iL IIP. 

AVUII3U. i27 

In Tooquin, even wild auimaU have beeu ciuitomarily drowned 
at funeral ceremonies of priooeii, to be at the service of the de- 
parted in the next world.' Among Semitic tribes, an instance 
nftlic custom may be found in tlie Arab sacrifice of a camel on 
t!ie grave, foi- the dead man's spirit to ride upon.' Among 
tlic nuUon!) of tlie Ar^'uo race in Kuropc, the prevalence of kucIi 
rites is deep, wide, and full of puqiose. Tims, warriors were 
provided in deaili vitU homes and botisingM, with tiouiids ami 
falcons. Ctu>tomFi thus described in chronicle and legend, are 
vouched for iit our own time bv the opening of old barbaric 
btirial-ploces. How clear a relic of snvage meaning lies here 
may be judged fri>m a Livonian account as late as the four- 
teenth century, which iclatca how men and women, slaves, 
ehcop, and oxcu, with other things, were burnt with the dead, 
who, it was believed, would reach some region of the living, 
and tind there, with the multitude of cattle and shiveit, a 
country of life and happiness.^ As tisunt, these rites may be 
imeed onward in Hur\'ival. The Mongols, wlio formerly slaugh- 
tered camels and horses at iheir owner's burial, have been 
~ induced to replace the actuid socrilice by a gift of the cattle to 
the Lnmaa.* The Hindus offer a black cow to the Brahmani^ 
in order to secure their passage across the Vmtarant, the river 
of deatli, an<] will (>flen die grasping the caw's tail as if to 
swim across in herdsman's fashioOj holding on to a cow.' It is 
mentioned ax a belief in Northern Europe that ho who has 
given a cow to the poor wiil iind a cow to take him over the 
bridge of the dead, and a ciuUim of loading a cow in the 
fiiDerol procosHJon is said to hare been kept up to modem 
time}'.'' Ail these rites probably belong together as ooimccted 

■ Raron, ' Toni^uin,' in Pinkerton, vol. ix. p. 704. 

: \\: a. PiJ^ravc, ' Antlin,' roL I. p. 10 ; BtutUo, ■ IhmtW vol. !L p. SU ; 
iraiu, W. iL ]>. 519 (Oalliu). 

' Orimni, ' Vcrbrtnnm dcT Lcicticn.* A riiriou) norrcipon-JuDira in lUc finctJce 
of cnltiiiRoirarnvriibcail u a funrral ri» in to bo iioticad among tlio Vciml«a of 
W. ACHca (Burtun, 'W. ikuil W.' p. 231)), Cliinraahu of Siberia (Cutrea. • Flon. 
Uytlk* IV ISO), «M RumUm {OritaTD, • VvrbKniwo,' p. SSI), 

* BwUftu, *Mi>i)Kt,' vol. il p. 395. 

* Colehrooke, 'Ewjri,' tdJ. i. p. 177: VaH. *Hbi<Ioiu.' vol iL p[k <«, 
SS4. SSI. 

* UannliBrdt, ' GoHfnnIt d«r DentMhen, tU.' rnt. L p. SID. 

men only but to animals and fiUiuls.) Tho Dajaks of Bor- 
neo not only consider tiion anil nnimalu to Iikvu a Hphit or 
living priiiciplo, wlioso departure from tho body caiieGa nickness 
and eventually death, bnt they aI»ogivp to tJio rice ila "saiuaiigftt 
padi," 01 ''«pirit of the paddy,'' aind tlicy hold fcftsts ta rctAin 
this Houl fii-airfily, lest the crop aliould docay.' Tho KarcDS 
nay tlmt pUut'} as well as men am) auinuUs Imve their "It^" 
(" kcUh "), and tho spirit of sickly rico is b«rc a1»o called bnck 
like A Iniman spirit coneidercd to Imve left ibo body. Their 
formulas for the pui-poao have even been written down, and 
thia is part of one :—" come, rico kelah, como. Como 
to the field. Come to tb.» rice. .... Come from tho 
Weal. Como from tho ]ywt. From tho tliroBt of tho binl, 
from tho maw of the ape, from tlio throat of the elephant. 
, . . . From all granarieji come. O rice kelah, come to 
the rtc*."* There ia reason to think that tho doctrinr of 
the Hpirita uf plautti lay d««p in tlie intellectual hiatory of 
Sontlt-Kant A!»ia, but v/tis in great mearnm? supeTMJed under 
Buddlmt inducucu. Tlic Buddbist books show that in the 
i-arly days of their ruligion, it was matter of controversy 
whetJiur treca had ttonlH, and therefore whether tbcy might 
lawfully bu injured. Orthodox Buddhism decided against the 
tree-souls, and cousoqucntly against Iho acniplo to hnnn tlicm, 
declaring trees to have no Tuiod nor sootient principle, thotigh 
udniittiug that certain dowa^ or spirita do reside in the body 
of trees, and speak from within thtm. Bnddhista aUo rehito 
that a lietctxxlox aect kept up the early doctrine of tho actual 
juiiiuate life of trees, in connexion with which may bo ro- 
mcmbei'ed Mnrco Polo'tt Homeivhnt doubtful Ktntomont ob to 
certftin nuatere Indians objecting to green herbs for such a 
reaRuii, and acme other paaaageK from later writers, Qonerally 
Kpeakiipg, the iiiibject of tho spirits of plants is an obscure 
ODe, whether from the lower races not having definite opinions, 

' Vwiviilwiit. ' Vuy. mix 11(4 iln Onuil Oofan,' vol. I. p. <30. 

» SL Jolin. • Fur l-jiiH.' vol. i. p. IJT. 

1 Kuan, 'Kui-u*,' in ■ Jnurii. Aa, Hoo. fimgal,' 18CE, |«rt ii. f.WS) Onmi in 
■Joimi. Atuvt. Oricatiil Rw.'voL Ir. p. 'i09. Sec coDipariKii of Siomcu iiul 
llnl*}' Ueiu : l/nr in * Jtiura. liiJ. Arcliip.' vol. i. p. 340. 



or from our not finding it easy to trace tb«m,^ The evidence 
firom funcml sacrifices, ea valuatilo as to most deportments of 
early ps^cliology, f«iU us here, from plants not being thought 
miitnblc to sentl for tho eorvico of the dead. Yot, as wo shall 
see moic fully olsowhere, there ore two topics whicli bear closely 
on Uie iuatt«r. On the ono hnnd, the doctriueof trantnnigmtioii 
widely and clcnrty rerdgniKCs the idea uf trees or smaller plants 
being animated by human noiiIs; on the oOier, the hcHef in 
tree-spirit* auJ the practice of tree-worship idtoIvc uottous 
more or less cloetely coinciding witli that of tree-souls, as when 
the classic hamadrvad dies with Iicr tree, or when the Taleio 
of 8outh-Eusb Antu, considering cvciy trci; to liavc a deioon or 
spirit, offers prayers tiefoie he cuts one down. 

Thus far the <lctaila of the lower aninuKtic philosophy arc 
not very nnrsmiliar to ntodern fttudcnts. The primitive irievr 
of the 8onU uf men and hensts, as asserted or acted ou in Uic 
lower and middle levehi of culture, m for bclottgs to carrent 
civilized thought, that those who hold the doctrioe to be false, 
and the ptaetlocs based upon it futile, caa nevertheless under- 
stand and sympathise witli the lower natioos to whom they are 
mtittcTs of the moat sober mid nenous conviction. Nor in 
oven the notion of a separable spirit or soul as the cause of 
life in plants too incongruous with ordinary ideas to be readily 
apprccinble. But the theory of souls in thti lower culture 
stretches beyond this limit, to take in a conception much 
stnnger to modem thought. Certain high savage races dis- 
tinctly hold, and a, large proportion of other savage and liarba- 
rian races make a more or le»s close approach to, a theory 
of sepnrablo and stirviring souls or spirits belonging to stocks 
and stoncii, wcaponn, boat«, food, clothes omament«, and otlicr 
objects which to iih are not merely soulless but lifeless. 

Yet, fatnmgL' us Kuch a notion may seem to iis at finii al^il. 
if we placo ourselves by an efibrt in the intellectual podtiou of j 
an uncultured tribe, and examine tlie theory of object-souls 

' HttHly. 'Munuiil of BuOliiwn.* VV- *"'• **' : B*rt'*n. ' Oertl. Athn,' xoL IL 
f. 1S4 ; Mueo Polo, hAok iiL ch. xxii (oompan) vwi«na i«kdin^] ; kleUcn, voL L 

p. SIS : v«L iL [I. ;bb. 

jumoaai. 431 

Hmm tlioir poiut of view, we stiall IiarJly pronoimoo It irratJona). 
Xa discuNiiiiig the oiigin oi niytli, soutu acci>uut hns Weu already 
giv«n of the primitivo stage of thought in wliicli penwDaJity 
aiA \i!v are ucribcd not to men an<l bcn^ts only, but to tLiugs. 
It has been shown how what we call ina»imato (objects — rivers, 
stoned, trecj^ weapous. and bo forth — are treated as Hving in- 
telligent beings, tjdkcd to, propitiatixl, piiuishcd for tliu liana 
they da. Auguste Comto has even vcntwrcd to bring such a 
Etato of thought luiilcr terms of strict definition in his concep- 
tion of the primary ucntal condition of ninnlcind — a state of 
" pure fetishism, constantly characterized by the free and diiMt 
exercise of our primitive tendency to conceive oil external 
bodies soever, natural or artificial, aa animated l^ a lifd eas«u- 
liolly analogous to out own, with mere difTerences of intensity." ' 
Our comprohenaion of tlio lower stages of mental calturc de- 
pends much on the thorough ness with which wo can appreciatt) 
this primitive, childlike conception, nnd in this our best guide 
may be the memory of our own cliilJish day*. He who recol- 
lects when there was still personality to him in post* and atJclcii, 
cluurs and toys, may well understand how the infant phi- 
lo»>phy of mankind could extend the notion of vitality to 
what modern science only recognisci as lifeleaa things ; thus 
one main part of the lower animistic doctrine us to souls of 
objecta is accounted for. The doctrine requires for ita fiiU 
conception of a »oul not only Ufe, but uUo a phantom or app»- 
ritional spirit ; this development, however, follows without 
diiBculty, fur the evidence of dreams and visions applies to the 
spiiits of objects in much the same uanncr as to human 
ghosts. Everyone who has seen visions while light-headed in 
fever, ovcrj'ono who bos ever dreamt * dream, has' seen the 
phantoms of objects as well aa of pcraons. How then can wo 
cliarge the savage with far-fetched absurdity for taking into bis 
philosophy and religion an opinion which rests on tho very 
evidence of his senses 1 The notion is impUcitly recognised in 
his accounts of ghosts, which do not come naked, but clothed 
and even armed ; of course there must be spirits of garmeuls 

< Oomta, 'I^iHoMphlc Positive,' voU r. [». 3a 



anti in>apoiM. Mtung that; tba tfSiibt of own mna brnig ilnns. 
It w31 iodev) pfaoB Mva^ pfutaacipi^ ia no mftcvoaabb U^A. 
if V6 r'tiUfWHi wv uiiwuia •lumutK iff I HP'™lff a i£ wiu 
khe pr-i' nn. n^ iarrrni^ tn nvflizcd cmtnfziiai as u> 

gjuwu .L .-^Btme fit the btmuB mml am cmnecfcfij witli 

Ihcn. Wban tlir gbo«t nf Haisk^a Cukat npp'f'' acmctl 

Snrh ■»«• tttt wrr 


MnnMnii he Dad on 

And thm it in * halttiniU f<fttore of the gfaoat^tone* of tbe 
cmtixeti, M of eh« mvage world. Glut tbe gbovt coawi dnsMdr 
Had AVAD (lre««?d in well-lroown eUmbrng wotm m KJe. H*»>™g 
M waII m Ki){tit t«KtUieaio Uw pbrntomi flf oCjeeto: tlwdtek- 
ing of glioatly chaim and die mtJiag of gfaoatly Ji—M are 
dMcritwd in tiiu literature of apfMntjons. Now by tbe ^mge 
Ihaorjr, according u> wliieh the j^ioat aad hia cloches are alike 
raal and objective, and by the modeni adentific tlieoiy, aceonl- 
inp tn which both gbmt and fjamwnt are alike imaginiify and 
ui) joctive. tlip incu of apporiliuiu are laltooally meC Bat the 
modem rtilgar who ignore or repudiate the Dotioa of gfaoata of 
UiiogM, while rotAiiiiof; the ixttion of ghosts of penooa. hara 
fallim into a bybriil Ntatp ipf optaion which has Doitlier tha 
lo{po of th(r aArngc nor of tlir avtiized philoaopher. 

AmoTtK the lowrr ract^M nf iiiaDkiod, three bare been obAerrml 
to bold moitt explicitly nrnJ distinctly tbe doctrine of object-flOQl& 
'JlioMt fire the Algonquin tribes exteadtsg over a c:reat district 
of Nrtrtli America, tho islandc-rfl of tbo Fijian group, and the 
KarctiH r>f Hirmnli. Among the Indians of North America. 
Fatlior ('liarlevoix wrote. wjuU arc, as it were, t