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^. ^ 

r f • f 'M. 

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C R EAT 1,0 N 

T O 


By W. WILLIAMS, Efqr. 

Formerly of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Qais eft qaem non moveat clariffimis Monumentis teftata coniignataq; Aaciquitas? 
TuLLT dcDivia. i. 

Nobis videtar Quicquid Ltterit mandetur id commendari omnium Eruditoram Lefiioni 
deccre. Tully Tu{c. Difp. 

£xempla, ex vetere Memoria et Monumentis ac Literis, plena Dignitatis^ plena Antiqui- 
tatis, plurimum folenc et Aud iriutis habere ad probandum, et Jucunditatis ad audien 
diun. Tully in Verrcm. 3, 90. 

Priuted and fold by J. SEAGRAVE. 1789. 
(Large Paper^ Price One GaiAea;..«Small Paper Haifa Guineai to Sub/cribers.) 

f _ 





OF the moft ancient, as well as the moft fi^al 
and important, Events in the Annak of 
Mankind, compofed in, and by a Native of, 
that Loyal Principality, is. By the Gracious PermJJion 
of His Royal Highness, with the moft profound 
Deference, moft fmcere Gratitude, and moft dutiful 



B Y H I 8 


AugufL i2tb, 1789. 

William Williams, 



G H A P. II. 

ej JaphtVt ijfui. Of ShenCt. Concerning the aget of the Pojidiltt^ 
vian Patriarchs. The chromhgy of the Septuagint bejly but too long^ 
Abraham* s migration ^^^ years before the Iliac war^'j'jo after the flood. 
A coincidence offeveral chronological accounts fuws the interval between 
the flood and the Chrijiian era to be zg^S years. A iifcujfion of the 
Egyptian chronologjf. 


^f Ham's ifue^from whom the Titans^ who ruled the regions fur^ 
rounding the Mediterranean fea. Of Nimrod^ and the firfl kings ofBa* 
bylon. . OfNinus, Semiramis, and Myrina. The duration of the Affy^ 
rian empire. Various chronological matters as to Egypt and AJfyria. 
The chronology of the Book of Judges proved erroneous. The AJyrians 
potent early ^ Stmiramis was Ifis ; but her mother fometimes had that 
name, they being ofttn confounded together* A Table of the direS d^end^ 
^nts of Noah's three fons^ 

C H A F. IV. 

Of Noah and his Jons, of Ham nnd the Cabiri; Curetes^ DaByh^ 

Palici, Patceci, Penates, Lares^ Corybcntes^ AnaBes^ Diofcuri^ (3c. 

The fettlements oj Ham's iffue. Of MiJor\ in Egypt; Cufh, in Svjiana; 

Canaan^ in Phenicia. Of the Belus who went to Babylon. Of the fever al 

Meons. Of Hhea or Cybele^ the Titan Meon'ser Saturn's Udy. Of 

7 eutct or Tuithoj flre of MannvSy founder ef the Titans. OfAe Titans 

and their contemporaries. Of the Phenitian Hercuks prior to Cadmus 

mnd toSefoflris: Yet the Titans were long after the primitive Cabiri Meon 

or Saturn^ the father ofPicus dijlinguiftttdfrcm Amenophis and Acmon^s 

Jire^ and from Mifor^ one of the Egyptian Cabiri here enumerated. Oj 

Ammon^ TeuMamus^ Amos orAmofi^. Cf the Antiquity of the Titans. 

t 'n K p. % 

Se^Hements of Japhefi ijfue. Of Mai;og. OflJic Celts^ ScytTiians^ 
and Prrfian^. The Saronidce or Druifh attended Harries family. Gnmer 
fire rf Cimvieriin^:, Cowrnirn<^ CI:or,iarian^^ peopled Phrygin. Of their 
inroads: of ^mi^rat^im^ aiid -kg^ remriie^f^r t^iat-evilj An account 
qf the ancient Cel^w. Of B^-^fuin pr^p^^d ay Gnmerians, Pheniciam^ 
T^roians, and Goths. IJcotti or inferior Gofhs came to Ireland 
after their dejcent into Spain. A Table of (he royal families of 
Ireland. The Firholgs^ viz. ^el,^ee ; 'fir Oaili^ Viri Gallic Of tht 
progrefs of European population. The Gomerians proceeded atfirjl north- 
jtiOrJLt ihent^e^TMrd^ cd<hig rivtrs and btirJuten mountains. TAv? "Guhs 
jh9f9ei W€ftnmrd ; Mr ScJavcuian^ Mrikw^fd. Tht Hangitrians i»rt t 

CHAP. Tlv 

Stttlmtnis iffShem's iffue. Ahraa^nVs trmfit td Umaail: fht Sftiftr 
fremift. His tifit to Egypt. Confequencts ofSnrd'^s beauty. Tke tiWtt 
•of Ahraa^s miprmon fettled by the timtoftht txoS; itni this fitted 
i)y ikt reign of the Treafury Builder. Abraam liveS dt l^dmdfcx^ c^leV 
Athera: Jlisfona comrade of the Egyptian Henul^s. Abrdarn's return 
fr&iK Egypt, "tm^s refcue. A braam^s (fifldtioft and tijion. T/hmdet bo r^. 
Circumcifion ordained. Sarah promt fed a fon by God^ and by three An^ 
gels. Sodom burnt. Metamerphofs ofZot*s wife. His incefi. Abu- 
mcUc*s error and amends^ I facte* s birth and €ircumciJion.. Ifhmael ex- 
fofed. Abraam* i treaty with Abimelec. God's order for IfaaC'sfacrifcej 
his jredtmipiion. Of wor/h if on eminences. Sanchcfniatk^ aU%tdes to this 
/acri^cc. Furchafe of SaraJCs fepuUhm, , , ^ebcceefentfoK Ketur^k 
Abraham' s fecund wjft ; their tffiu. Abraham died^it^j^. '4/hmae{^ 
^^*^ 37- £f<^ani Jacob born. Efaufelli his iirlhright?, .Abimtlcc'A 
virtuous orders rtfpcSmg Rebecca: his treaty mithl/iM^ jJEfau.-marrm 
iilmMtMiiiand^n JJhmaelitci'hisifuc Heis -d^rmded of his blejing. 

ib Jacob 


Jacob goes to Padanaran.^ Bis dream: the orign of the Betilia. Jatoi 
welcome to Laban : hence the TwelveTribes. An appendix touching the 
the /acred chronology. 


C K( A p. I. 

Of the Pagan remnants 0/ ancient hijlory. Of Sanchoniatho; Manethe: 
the oldEgyptian chronicle. Of the table of Thtban kings fromEratoJlhenes. 
Of the interval between the Flood and the Chrijlidn eta. Of Herodotus^ 
JofcphuSy ApollodoruSy and Diodorus. Ancient account of Italy: the 
Umbri, Ligures^ Volfei, TyrhenianSj Aurunci, Au/ones^ Opicij Lcejlri^ 
gons, CyclopSy were Cclta:^ but intermixed with Pelafgi, Lydians and 
Phenicians. Of Annacus, Gordius^ and Midas, kings of Phrygia. Of 
Manes J Alcimus^ Cambles^ and jar dan, kings of Lydia. Of Rhodes. 
Of Lefbos : Of Iphimedia and Butes ; and of Cadmus. Ancient men- 
tion of the Scythians; of the Gctx ; of China. Ufe of a Genealogical 
Table of collateral lines. European poffeffions of Ham's family. Of 
jfanus, of Teuiat and Acmon^ Ham's defendants. A Genealogical Tabic 
from Sanchoniatho. 

C H A P. II. 

Sanchoniatho* s fragment^ with remarks. ' A Genealogical Table from 
Hefiod. The Atlantean Theogony of Diodorus. A table and dijcujffion 
of Tully's Titan Gods. The Cretan Theogony of Diodorus. A Jupple^ 
ment to the turetes in Diodorus. A Genealogicat Table oftHk Titans and 
thtir tonUmporwritf. v 

• : V CHAP. in. 



A defcription of ancient Egypt: a Jliort account of their old police, cuj^ 
torn., laws, and religion; with reJleSions. 


An account of the old Egyptian chronicle. Ohfervatiamon this chro^ 
niclc. - ManethoU Dynajltes and Panodorus. The Jirjl kings of Thebais 
from Eratofihenes. Manet ho^s twofirjl Tomrs oj Dynajlies from Afri^ 
canus and Eufebius ; with remarks: The lyth and i8M Dynajlies are 
alfofrom Jofephus. A new arrangement of the lith Dynajly, confonant 
to the number of reigns in the old chronicle ^ and to a hint in Syncellus. 
A correSed table of the old chronicle. Mane tho' s fifteen fucceffive Dy^ 
najlies held i^?i\ years; the years of the collateral are 1674; totals 3555* 
AJhort chronological table from the firfi fettlement of Egypt to the Trojan 
war. An arrangement of the Dynaflies down to that war^ and to the 
Exod, in Jive collateral columns. 


Hiflory ofthejirjt Egyptian kings. Of Mi/or or Menes Thoth*s father^ 
and of the primitive Egyptian Ifis. OfThoth and his literature. Mane-^ 
tho*s account of the Hycji ; hinted at by Polnno and Tacitus : and by 
HeredotuSy who Jays they afterwards fiole lo^ of whom an acccount. 
Touching the 18M Dynafly of Manetho, his account of the firfl king of 
the igthy whom he 7niflakesforSefoJiris, next follows. Manetho*s account 
of the Exod ; alfo Cheremon*s^ with remarks. The account of the Exod 
by Lyjimachus and Tacitus. Artapanus and Juflin mention the divifion 
of the Red Sed. A verfion of the Hymn of Mofes. 


viii HEA15S OF THE CHAi»Yfcii!|, 

c If A P. yr 

0/Phoroneus. Ogyges. Of the Ptlafgi. Lijh pfthe Si^onian, Ar- 
give, Athenian^ Arcadian^ and Bcsotian kings. Of Cecrops and his fuc^ 
Ceffbrs. The Titan war, and Typhon*s^ Saturn* s retreat to Italy. Of 
his fon Belus. Of Prometheus, iyphon's aSs in Egyyt^ The Egyptian 
JHonyfius and his conforL Her [on Orut. Berffcond hujbtmd \Ame^ 
Mfhis^ Menon^ or Belus. Marfyui. A fumm<gry auiMM tf Sejofirii : 
Tht continuation ofthi Hi/lory being to cammenC€ with Sefofiris^ Danaus^ 
Cadfims^ Minot ; and with Jacob's A"^ ptials : The preftnt accmnt ends 
miih an enumeration of the principal heads^ rtadiin^ danm to tkt TrijfeM 
andibe Ex^. 



TH E errors and contradidions in Ancient hiflory and 
chronology^ in writers both ancient and modern^ render 
^ it laudable to attempt a more probable account and date of 
Primitive events^ than we have hitherto been entertained with. 
Of the facred chronologies, the Hebrew counts the interval 
between the Creation and the Cataclyfm^ 1656 years, the 
Samaritan, three centuries lefs ; the Septuagint, fix centuries 
more! Two oixki^i^ accounts muft be falfe : but which are 
thefe two erroneous is the queftion. 

Still more improbable are the chronological dates recorded 
in profane authors. Berofus made the Antediluvian period, in 
Sari, above 30,000 years ; the period afligned to Vulcan in 
^Syp'* .Herodotus counts 17,000 years from the Egyptian 
Hercules to Amalis. Diodorus Siculus, from Sol and from 
Ofiris to Alexander, 23,000 years : the reigns of the Gods 
and Demi-gods, 18,000 yiears : from thence to the time 
of Diodorus 15,000. Plato mentions- chronologies of Sais 
during 8000 years. Pomponius Mela fays that kings reign«d 
in Egypt before Amafis, 13,000 years. Laertius counts from 
Vulcan to Alexander 48,000 years. Tully fays, the Baby- 
lonians had records of 470,000 years; Diodorus, 473,000. 
Thefe are periods of days from the Titan Belus. Africanus 



mentions 48 myriads of Chaldean years : Berofus, at leaft i r 
myriads. Manetho counted the Egyptian Dynafties ; 3555 
years : Diodorus, above 3000. The old Egyptian chronicle 
extends their annals to 36,525 years. And, tho' Manetho 
and this chronicle have only 1 13 reigns, Herodotus has 330 ; 
Eufebius, 360 ; Diodorus, 470^ Africanus, about 480, during 
a period exceeding 5000 years. Jofephus deems Mofes to be 
contemporary with Amofis, who expelled the Hycfi ; who, 
as Manetho in Jofephus relates, removed from Egypt feme 
centuries before the Exod. Syncellus names 40 AfTyrian kings 
from Ninus to Sardanapalusj tho*' Diodorus Siciilus fays that 
Ctefias enumerated only 30, Among modern writers, fomc 
deem Noah to be Saturn ; fome. Ham ; fome, Abraham ; 
and fome make the Titan Saturn's rival, Ammon, to be Ham. 
Pezron brings the Titan Gods from the Celtas, and Japhct ; 
the' Homer deduces them from the Ethiopians, of courfe 
from Ham. Perizon denies that the king at the Exod was 
named Amenophis ; tho' Manetho proves this to be his name, 
from Egyptian records. Dr. Jackfon extends chronology 
exceffivcly, placing Semiramis above 2000 years before the 
Incarnation; thus confounding her with Ham's immediate 
progeny 5 altho' fhe was as late as Jove, Juno and Europa ; 
and of courle no earlier than Cadmus and Chiron; heroes that 
of \2itt.z,K petrified into religious towers! Auguftine counts 
her and Ninus very judicioufly fome 1000 years after the De- 
luge. On the contrary. Sir Ifaac Newton abridges chronology 
quite as unreafonably : and deems the predeceflbr of Danaus 
to be the fon of Perfeus, not of Crotopus. He and Sir John 
Marfham deem Sefoftris to be Sefac: the' Ariftotle fays rightly 
that Sefoftris was prior to Minos : Agathias fcts Iiim even be- 


fore Ninus. Herodotus (who faw his triumphal trophies) and 
Diodorus, fet him three or four reigns before the Trojan war: 
and Manctho fays, *' He was the brother of Danaus /' which 
Diodorus confirms, by faying that the Egyptian colony, fettled 
by Danaos at Cholchis, were foldiers of Sefoftris. 

Yet fome chronological intelligence flill remains of inefti- 
mable value* Eratoflhenes (hews that the Egyptian empire^ 
founded by Thoth's father Menes, declared by Sanchoniatho 
^ to be Ham's fon Mifor, fubiifted a little above looo years be- 
fore the Iliac war: and that Nitocris the 22d fovcrcign of 
Tbbbais (deemed by Manetho, the 23d of Memphis) began 
her reign or regency in Upper Egypt 670 years after the com- 
OEMshcement of that kingdom ; and about 338 years before the 
capture of Troy. Africanus fets her 1 9 years later, in the 
Dy^fties of Memphis; where fhe reigned during the abfence 
of Dionyfius ; as (he did fome time before at Thebes, in the 
Titahian war. during her father Ammon's avocations. Con- 
ftantifie ManafTes fays, the Egyptian empire lafted 1663 years, 
^lits ftttkverfion by Cambyfes: to this the 23,000 years from 
Sol and Ofiris to Alexander, taken as Lunar, agree. Varro 
fays, Egyptian Thebes (whofe founder, as Herodotus writes, 
was Menes the firft king of Egypt) was built 2100 years be- 
fore Ais time. Diodorus Siculus and Cephalion agree, that the 
Aiiyrian empire (founded by Nimrod) fubfifted 1000 years be- 
fore the fall of Troy. Nimrod is the Ninus whom Dicearchus 
in Stephanus deems the founder of Nineve ; and whom Emi- 
lius Sura in Paterculus places at the head of the Aflyrian em- 
pire, 1995 y^^s before the downfall of Antiochus Magnus, 
190 years bdfore the Chriftian era, Thele are grounds of a 




probable chronology. On thcfe I proceed ia the following 
refearches into remotefl antiquity. I may add tlia«k Bdfhopi 
Cumbcrlandi quotes Varro as feying,** there were i6iCentorifis. 
between the firft flood and the Olympiads :" whicdr i& only 281 
years wide of Archbiftiop Uftier's computation/; to which Ij 
fubfcribe. For, not finding that thofe lights have been thrown 
on Primitive Hiftory, which ancient authors afford^ I here 
endeavour to difplay them to public yiewji with a dcfign tch 
illufbate the venerable veflibule of the hiflortcal d^artment : 
a £dbric fo grand^ that^ like the Cupola of Sainfc Paul-s Cathe- 
dral compared with its appendages, it beggars^ all fucceoding 
fabjcds of record. 



Cecrops^ face 



3 S 

s W 

J2 ^ > 



•^1 1-2 ?! 



* %. 




B O O K L C H A P. L 


The Creation recorded /^ Moses is our folar fyjlem. An account of the 
Planets if that fyjlem. A folar Cycle of 33 years^ more correS and 
concife than the Gregorian; with a method for its CorreSion of 
Meto'« lunifolar^ in 334 years; and coincidence with the Gregorian, 
at the end of four centuries. Alfofor a further corrcHion of the luni^ 
folar Cycle, and for its coincidence with an ecliptical Cycle, of 1 803 
years; which is properly the great terrejlrial year. Meto's Cycle, 
known long before his time to the Titans, is alluded to by the igjlmes 
at Stonchenge, round the altar of the Sun and Moon, or of Belin and 
Belifama. Tkeprogrefs anciently made in AJlronomy. Mention of old 
AJlronomers. The planetary account continued. A p u l e i u s mentions 
the planet beyond Saturn. The planets probably inhabited. Of Comets. 
Other planets fur round other funs. A plurality of Worlds an ancient 
doSrine. The old Philofophers had an infight into many of the great 
phenomena of Nature. 

'T'H E mundane Creation recorded by Mofes the famous general 
'*' of the Ifraclites, who was converfant in the records of Thoth Qucft. i. 2. 
Ham*s grandfon, is our folar fyftcm; not confined to this globe 
alone^ nor comprehending the fixed ftars. The feveral orbs, that 
revolve in elliptical ambits round their common fun to the eaftward, 
make together one compleat piece of machinery. Thus Thales in 
Plutarch fays, *♦ The earth's dcftruQion would throw the univerfc 
into confufion." Lucan fays, 

^' Omniii fata laborant,-u»Si quicquam mutare velis/' 

The fate of all wou'd rue a fingle change. 



Hhe planets, and their fun aiQ mutxmlly on^nc another; attradinj 
at dated diftances, and at dated didances repelling one another; 
and confining one another within their refpeftive limits ; previenting 
that appulfe am} collifion which Tome apprehend; probably by 
means of the circumambient ether ; by its eladicity caufing repul- 
fion,*when approximation has taken place in the highed degree; till 
Opt. p. an oppofite repulfion, by the ether compreffed thro* a contrary 
323. 2^roximatioD> counterafb and overcomes the former rcputfion; thia 
repulfion is Sir Ifaac Newton's ethereal impulfe. 

That the mofaic creation includes all the planets of the folar 
* ' * / Tydem Saint Paul implies, who mentions the formation of Worlds. 
ap. omn, 2•^j|y ^ji^g ^j^^ f^n the moderator of the oth^r luminaries. Lucan fays, 

'* Sol radii fq; potentibus adra ire vctat." 
Sol's potent rays erratic dars rcdrain, 
Claudian,— — ^ Volventem fidera mithram." 

Sol whirls the planets. 
Manilius,— '* Sidus fidere condat.'* 

Stars in their orbits are retained by dars. 

Plato aflerts that Jove's golden chain in Homer is the fun, whofe 
Thccetcttt. ^y* influence all niaiture. Meffala, in Macrobius, taking janus to 
be the author of nature, writes thus; " The founder and governor 
of all, united the nature of water and earth, which by their gravity 
always tend downwards, to that of fire and fpirit, which by their 
levity mount Jwiftly upwards; and thefe he has confined to the hea- 
vens. To thefe heavens he has annexed fuch an attraSive force, 
as unites and binds together different natures and qualities.'* 

This fydem confids of the fun in the common but flu6luating focus 
of the planetary orbits, revolving round its axis once in 606 hours, 
as found by fpots oft appearing on its diflc' for fome time. This rota- 
tion retorts the attrafted ether of the fydem, that othefwife would be 
abforbed, and the planets wich it into the fun : which, thro* the vari- 
ation of the reciprocal attraftions of the planets according to their 



differeni fituations^ ibifts its place in a finall degree in the common 

elliptical focus of the fyftem. This^ like folar eclipfes, may fome- 

what affe6i terreftrial fealbns : for planetary fituations muft afF<^d the 

earth ftill more than the (on, whofe magnitude ailonifhingly exceeds 

the earth's: its diameter exceeding this globe's lOO times, equalling 

thrice the fpace between the earth and the moon. Ariftotle held the Plutarch fen- 

liin to be ether: Zenophanes, that it is an ignited cloud: Philolaus ^*°^"- 

ihe Pythagorean, that it receives its fplendour from the fire of the 

world : Anaxagoras, that it is a burning globe. It probably is, as Spea. 420. 

Addifon fays of the ftars, an ocean of flame. 

Mercury, or Stilbon, a fmall planet, tho' bigger than our moon, 
is the neareft to the fun : going round it 1092 times in 263 fidereal 
years. He moves above 1827 miles in a minute, in an orbit inclined 
fevcn degrees to the ecliptic: its nodes are in the 14th degree of 
\ Taurus and of Scorpio. ExceflTivc as this planet's velocity is, it is 
23, (Vow, comparatively to that of the folar light, as a fnail's in com- 
pan'/bn of a rwdiMoyf's: unlefs we fuppofe the folar rays to be con- 
tinued columns of ether, effefting vifion by an impulfe given by the 
end of the column next to the objeft, in confequence of an impulfe 
received by the column at its end contiguous to the fun: and not to he 
minute luminous corpufcles paflfing all the way from the fun to the 
eanYi. Mercury's eccentricity is to his mean diftance, as 21 to 100. 

Venus^ the next planet, is about the iame fize as the earth. 395 
times in 243 (idereal years, or full 13 times in 8 years flie goes round 
the fun; in an orbit, whofe axis is inclined to her's, 75 degrees: and 
to the earth's three degrees and a half; croflSng it in the 14th degree 
of Gemini and of Sagittary. Calfini could not determine her diurnal i^hilof. 
period: which lome count 23 hours; others 24 days. Auguftin, Tranfac. 
from Varro» records a Angular change in the cour(e> magnitude, 
figuve» cotouT, of Venus; faying that Caftor related it; and that 
Adraftus of Cizicum, and Dion of Naples, placed this event in the 
lime ofOgyges. Her atmofphere was noted in America, at her laft ^jn^rkan 
fcJar iranfic Her ^cccnui^ity is to her mean diftance from the fun» Tranf. Vol. 

B 2 The 

In Ptafanit, 


The Earth (created at firft a ihipercfii defoiate mafs^ as Mofes and 
L. 9, ' Hefiod teftify) revolving daily on its axis, compleats 160 circuits 
round the fun in 58,441 days: but^ with ^ motion mod accelerated 
At the beginning of March and Oftober, performs 61 g tropical years 
in 226085 days: that is, 33 years contain 12053 days, more nicely 
than the Gregorian account : To that every eighth intercalated year 
fliould be the fifth year (inftead of the fourth) after the feventh inter- 
calation. Shak Cholgji in Hyde (hews that the Perfians ufed fuch a 
cycle. This fhortfolar cycle of 33 years may be made to coincide 
with, and to be fubordinate to, the Gregorian. Ten periods of 33 
years each and one olympiad, making 334 years, will correft Meto's 
cycle of 19 years, by admitting amidft every 17 of thefe laft cycles 
an intercalatory one of 11 years: thus neither the fun nor moon 
would err a fingle day in 2600 years. The two next folar periods of 
33 years each, after this lunifolar cycle of 334 years, would com-' 
pleat the Gregorian cycle. Thus then I conftitute a ftiort folar cycle, 
and afterwards by it correft Meto's Itmar. 

4— 4— 4r-4— 4— 4— 4— 5-:^33 tropical years, or 12053 days. Theft 
ten times 33 years, and one olympiad make 334 years. Next, to 
corre6t Meto's cycle anfwerably, 19—19—19^19—19—19—19—19 
(—11) —19—19—19—19—19—19—19—19—19-334 years: which 
121,991 days exceed by 90 minutes; and 334 tropical years exceed 
4131 lunations juft as much. It is notable that eight Jubilee peri- 
ods, each of 7 times 7 years, equal i43>i75 d^X'* within 12 minutes. 
But to communicate a nice and high lunifolar cycle; three periods 
of 334 years each, and two of 19 years each, amount to 1040 tro- 
pical years, and to 12,863 lunations; alfo to 379,852 days. The 
defed both in the lunar number, and in the diurnal, is lefs than half 
an hour. The next century may begin with new cycles of the Sun 
and Moon. The folar thus; every 33d year inftead of the 32d may 
be a leap-year, for ten periods of 33 years each, when an ordinary 
olympiad may enfue. So, for three periods of 334 years each; when 
another period of 33 years may enfue ;" which with five years, the laft 
of which to be a biflextile, make 38 years or two of Meto's cycles; 
to be added at every third return of our reformed lunifolar cycle of 


In Ptolemy. 

In Diodoro^ 


334 years. Thus the account of the Sun and Moon will not err a 
fingle day in 50,000 years. 

The tropical year is fhorter than the fidereal, by tlie fun's 
^rofling the equator more to the weftward annually ; occafioning a 
a yearly prevention of the equinoflia! points, firft difcovered by 
Hipparchus, and amounting to 50 feconds of a degree, according to 
feme ; but Vince computes it only 2 1 1 feconds in ten years. Thus 
in Hefiod's time Arfturus rofe at fun fet, 60 days after the winter 
folftice. Hipparchus computed the folar year lefs than 365 1 days, 
by 288 feconds: this anfwers nearly to 19 years during 235 luna- 
tions; the cycle adopted by Meto, and alluded to by Hecateus, 
where he mentions Apollo's vifit to the arftic ifland once in 19 years, 
as Diodorus Siculus pofitively declares. To this cycle alfo relate 
the 19 ftones round the altar of the Sun and Moon, Belin and Beli- 
(ama, at Stonehenge, and anciently called the choir of the Gaurs, 
3lt\A. Xmbennount from its fan6iification : where.the 30 arches of the 
/>iy/erfircJe allude to the days of the month; and the five trilithbns, 
to the intercalatory days: the 40 circular ftones denote novendial 
periods, into which the year was divided. Anfwerablc to which 
Mela fays the virgin prieftefles of the Gallic: deity were nine. Dio- 
dorus fays (5) that the Curetcs were nine. Nicander aflerts that 
RVveawas adored on the ninth day of the moon. Add that perq; 
novem noScs priefts, prieftefles, and initiated perfons abftained from 
vcnery. The Roman nones arid Niindinac likewife favor this opinion. Macrob.Sat 
Roman males were given a name on the ninth day. The Romans 
feem to have intended the cycle of indiftion to correft their Julian * 
year anfwerably to Meto's cycle, by omitting a day at each fifteenth 
retuin of it: but, tho* 19 Julian years exceed 235 lunations; yet fo 
many lunations exceed 19 tropical years about two hours : and pro- 
bably the difcovery of this occafioned the difufe of the indiftion. 
Meto introduced his cycle into Greece 432 years before the chriftian 
era. Couplet fays, this cycle was in ufe in China, in the reign of 
Yau. Du Halde tells us, the Chinefe above 2000 years ago counted 
the year to contain 365 days, 5 hours, 50 minutes. The ancient 
Perfians counted 49 min. 15 fee. tho* for civil ufe they added 

35 days to 120 yean of 365 days each. Strabo (17) fays that when 




Solttn Ge- 
lal's year 


Eudoxus attended Plato into Egypt, he learnt from the priefts how 
much the folar year exceeded 365 days,. the difcovery of which he 
Potter's attributed to the Egyptian Hermes. Solon^s cycle confifted gf 1461 
» "^^^**""«- ^g^yg in 4 years. He learnt it in Egypt: the* he entered not into this 
nicety in his converfation with Croefus. Diodorus and Strabo (17) 
fay the Egyptians counted their (aftronomical) year 365^ days, which 
was determined by Hermes. Their fothiac or canicular period of 
1461 civil years equal 1460 Julian: Jablonfky derives fothiac from 
fothios, commencement of time. This period they multiplied by 
their lunar cycle of 25 civil years of 365 days, containing 309 luna- 
tions, with a furplus of 68 minutes: this fhews they had made early 
and accurate obfervations of mean lunations. Cenforinus fays the 
fothiac period was eftablifhed 1322 years before the chriftian era. 
Syncellus attributes the intercalation of five days to Afeth, (AffisJ one 
* of the laft kings of the Hycfi. Macrobius fays, this intercalation took 
place at the end of the Roman Auguft; and Alex. ab. Alexandro 
fays, the Egyptian year began at September; that is from the intro- 
du6iion of this intercalation. But probably the Egyptian, like the 
Macedonian, Chaldean, and Afiatic, originally begah at the au- ' 
tumnal equinox; yet the fothiac cycle commenced at the fummer 
fplftice. And, as the civil year of Egypt fell fhort of the tropical, 
5 hours and 49 minutes; and the year began at the Heliac rifing of 
Sirius, when the fothiac cycle commenced; we may hence find that 
^ the rifing of Sirius was on the day of the fummer folftice, at what 
time that cycle was adopted. Cenforinus writes that Sirius rofe he^ 
liacallyon the 21ft day of July, A. D. 238^ a century before 
which a fothiac cycle ended. Sirius is to be traced back according 
to the fidereal year ; the folftice, according to the tropical ; 
Columella fet it, in the reign of Claudius, on the 25th of June. 
From thence to the time of Cenforinus, the Julian years exceeded 
the tropical by 36 hours, that is, in 198 years the folftice, fuppofed 
on the 2^5th of June at middiiiight, fell truly on the 24th at noon, A. 
D. 238, whence upwards 1560 juUan years contain 12 days more 
than fo many tropical : therefore, from the account of Cenforinus, 
1322 years before the incarnation the fummer folftice was on the fixth 

of the Roman July : .but as i^GoJidercal years contain 5,69800 day^, 




Sirius rofe heliacally July the ninth, A. C. 13$ 2. But Pliny dceme4 ,. .7, 

the heliac rifing of Sirius three days earlier ; which fets it exa&Iy at 

the furamer folftice, in the year 132 a before the incarnation. Poiphyry 

fays the fothiac cycle began originally at a new moon : probably ; as 

ihcir lunifoiar cycle was 25 fothiac. Plutarch's Tale of Mercury's IfuctOfihs. 

getting the five intercalated days from Luna arofe hence. As the 

War year exceeds by full five days the old civil year of 360 days; 

cxprelTed by the literal numbers in the word mithras : which as much 

exceeds the lunar year ; tho' at firft they were all computed equal : 

Mercury took five days from the lunar year, and added them to 

the folar. Ctefias in Photius, and Berofus in Atheneus (14) fay, 

^ Thefeftival Saceas at Babylon (refembling the Saturnalia) held five 

days, from the 16th of Lous." It feems in memory of this noted 

imetcalaiion. Hefychius fays that Sechcs among the Babylonians was 

• Mercury ; Strabo thought there was a Pcrfian goddefs Sacea ; as o- 

tStveu JfctmSakia an Arabian deity: yet the name arofe from the . , 

Atheneus, 4. 
Shields Salei^ on which they beat the tune Orlhios with their fwords, Apolon. 

in the mi/itary dance Bctharmos. The ancilia of the Roman Salii ,,,^] 

were \n imitation of thefe fhields. This feftive anarchy or MiffuU 

arofe from the five days being a fupernumerary period above the 

la civil months : as it was at Mexico,, at the firft difcovery of that 

totuitry; and fpent there alfo in feftivity, a cuftom derived from 

Aflyra— The golden circle, that adorned the tomb of Symandes, 

ftews that the year was then counted 365 days. Plutarch fets this 

intercilation in the time of the Titan Saturn ; faying, the days bore 

the names of five of Rhea's children; who are Ofiris, Arucris or the 

ddcr Orus, fons of Sol ; Ifis, whofe fire was Hern:es; Typhon and 

Nephkbe (Venus, Viftory or Finis) who efpoufcd each other. His 

accoDmis a confufed medley; being a phyfical allegory under the 

»>amcsof real perfbns. Apollodorus deems Typhon, Saturn's brother. 

Venus was Ifis herfclf, the lady of Typhon's affeflions. The elder 

Orus is Sanchoniatho's Apollo, the antagonift of Marfyas, and the 

Olympian wreftlcr. The father of Ifis is faid here to be Hermes, 

^coLuk Meon, Menes or Mifor, was ftiled Hermes and Ofiris : but 

Wurb Cybcle's hufcand, the father of Ceres or Ifis^ was alfo called 

i'Mi: aoid is therefore confounded with Mifor and others who had 



the name of Meon : which is Celtic for Ocean, hence Venus is faid 
to fpring from the Sea ; tho* the original Venus was Ham*s wife, and 
her father Noah was the primitive Oceamis fire of the Pagan Gods« 
Oceanus being alfo a name of the Nile, Cybele*s huftand was alfo 
confounded with every Nilus, that is with every Meon and Ame« 
nophis from Mifor to the King at the £xod. The Sol in Plutarch 
above is Hyperion, Titan or Ammon, a fpoufe of Rhea or Cybeie 
his fifter likewife, and fire of the Titan Ofiris who was the Egyptian 
Dionyfius : and Saturn was Apopis, fet amongft the Paftor Kings : 
for Plutarch fays, ** Sol's fon Ofiris aided Jove againft Sol*s brother 
Apopis**; but this Ofiris was Aitimon's fon; and the war was that 
of Ammon and Saturn. Apopis and Arcles, tho' Titans, are fet at 
the end of the paftoral kings, as they probably obtained the fupreme 
ccnnmand over the Hycfi, before they were expelled by Amos, who 
- according to Plutarch was Ammon. But if, with Syncellus, we admit/ 
AflSs or Afeth partly with Arcles, who is his Certus or Melecertes, • 
Plutarch Ihews that Seth or Afeth was TypT^on; and thus nearly 
agrees with Syncellus as to the time of the intercalation. Saturq 
and Typhoh were both Aftronomers. Yet Afeth's difcovery feenpls 
to be the lunifoiar cycle of 25 years, each of 365 days. For Syncelfus 
relates that in Afeth's reign the Calf Apis, as he is called alfo by 
L. $. a8. Herodotus, was deified. Plutarch fays, the years of Apis were the 
Marcel. L 22 fquare of five : iaind Ammian writes that Apis was the moon's emblem. 
Macrobius allows that Apis was confecrated to the moon, as well as 
to the fun; that is, his fignification had a lunifoiar refpeQ. His 29 
marks in Elian allude 10 the days in the lunar period. Plutarch 
tells us that his dam ^^ras fuppofed to be impregnated by the lunar, 
rays. Fabricius writes that the Egyptian Kings at inauguration, in 
the temple of Apis, vowed that the civil year fliould confift of 365 
days ^xafily. Mnevis at Heliopolis, confecrated to the fun, was 
degraded to a fccondary rank by Apis; whofe inftitution was an 
improvement. The bull Onuphis at HenAunthis, where there was 
a Nilometer, regarded the fun only as the Nile's inunda 'on enfues 
when the fun attains his greateft ftrength, of which a bull is the em- 
blem: as alfo did Serapis, whofe moft ancient temple was at Mem- 
phis; yet remotely, Serapis alluded to Noah and his inundation: tho' 




Chap, t.) P RI M IT I VE HIST O R y. 9 

Serapts fometimes fignified the hibernal fun. lablonfky interprets 
Agaihodcmon, a name of the Nile and of Ofiris, to lignify the fun ; 
and Aprs was Ofiris. 

Diodorus Siculus fays that the Titan Saturn's Kre for his. aftrono- 
micaHkill was named Uranus. He determined the annual period; 
andisthe old aflronomer Ophion, in Nonnus (41); who fays that 
Idmon a Phrygian feer explained a folar eclipfc (38) to Ercchtheus; 
9Jid Atcas determined the months and folar period. Natalis Comes 
fays thai Hyperion determined the the folar and lunar periods: that 
fone deemed Typhon, fdme Atlas, fomc Endymion, to have deter- 
mined the lunar motions. Lucian fays that Phaeton afccrtained the 
folar ambit: hence he is feigned to have occafioncd the conflagration Aftr<rf. 
mentioned by Ariftotle. Apollonius Rhodius (3. 245) tells us that 
Medea'^brother Abfyrtus was Phaeton. Paufanias mentions a Phae* 
m fon of Cephalus. Strabo writes that Atreus taught the folar 
courit; Hy^mus fays. He firft folved a folar eclipfe. Nonnus (6) 
/a/s that Atreus wdis an aftrologer. Clement of Alexandria tells us, 
Chiron drew fchemes of the heavens. Laertius writes that Mufseus 
contrived a fphere. Tully mentions Prometheus, Cepheu9, and 
others as aftroimmers. Paufanius thought that Titan was allegori- Tafc. Difp. 
cally deemed fol's brother from his celeftial obfervations. Dionyfius 
Hal. fcis Atlas on mount Caucafus, where Prometheus alfo ftudicd l. ,. 
fheflmjhc, as Servius writes, inftrufled the Affyrians in that fci- Virg. 
cnce: who, as Diodorus fays, began to make aftronomical obferva- 
1^ tjom 473,000 years (of days) before Alexander's empire; that is, fomc 
. 162 J years before the Incarnation. But Callifthcnes fent Ariftotle 
from Babylon aftronomical obfervations made there during igoj 
years; that is, from the firft fettlement there after the general dif- 
perfion. Laertius fays, that 373 folar eclipfes, and 832 lunar, had 
been obfcrved before the time of Alexander, Paufanias writes that 
Atla5 made obfervations inBocotia, on mount Ceryx, the native place 
of Mercury. But the aftronomer Mercury in Manilius (1) is Mifor, 
the firft egyptian Ofiris; who is the aftronomer Bacchus in the poet 
Dionyfius. Hyginus fays, the planet Stilbon was dedicated to 

Mercury^ becaufe he firft determined months and the courfe of the 

C ftars; 

AOr. a. 

10 l^RIMITIVE HISTORY. (Book i. 

ftars; but adds that Euhemerus faid, Venus (Mifor's mother) was 
Athenco, 12. Mercury's inftruaor. She is the Cupris counted by Epicharmus 
more ancient than Mars, Jove, or Saturn; and ftiled by Ptolemy the 
mother of the Gods, as Atargatis is in Macrobius. Plato fays that 
Thoth (the fecond Mercury, termed by Eratofthenes, Hcrmogenes) 
invented aftronomy, bcCdes letters, arithmetic, geomctr)^ and dice. 
"Ccelum, Saturn, and Mercury, faid by Thoth Trifmegiftus, in Lac- 
tantius, to be his kinfmen, are Noah, Ham, and Mifor, whofe fon 
Thaut, in Sanchoniatho, is this Trifmegiftus, or Plato's Theuth, and 
faid by Sanchoniatho to be the inventor of letters: tho* he fays, 
'* Three were invented by Ifiris, Cna the firft Phenician's brother;" 
the Ofiris who was Mifor. Thoth was that primitive god of elo- 
quence, the honour of which the Greeks beftowed on Maya's fort: 
jho' Thoth's mother was the ancient Amaya and Ifis, whofe name 
was afterwards affumed by Cybele, and her daughter Ceres. julii|f 
Firmicus fays, '' Quae efculapio Hermes, ^nich nufq. tradiderunt;* 
he means, what Enoch taught to Noah, and Mifor to Ifmunus. He 
tells us, " Mercury taught efculapius, and Anubis aftronomy." 
Anubis was Thoth; for Plutarch fays, " He was the fon of Ofiris/* 
that is, of Mifor or the firft Menes. Alcandi rightly deems Trifme- 
giftus the fecond Idris or Mercury; but fome oriental authors deem 
Enoch, the firft Idris or aftronomer. Idris is derived from the Celtic 
Edrych, like the Greek derko, video: thus, cader idris, the Welch 
mountain fignifies fpeculum, or the obferver's feat : hence it appears 
to have the fame fignification as Ida: yet Idris is a proper ijame in 
Wales, like the Arabian Edris, Origen fays, that a part of Enoch's 
writings, containing the courfes and names of the ftars, was found in 
Arabia Felix. Polyhiftor wrote that in the reign of the chaldean 
Evochus, (who was certainly Nimrod) the computation of Time by 
Sari was omitted; that is, periods of years containing each 360 
days; which, as Herodotus fays, had been ufed in Egypt, till the 
folftices had made two compleat revolutions, efFefted in 138 years. 
^ g Pliny fays, *' the baby Ionian Belus, whofe tower was ftill extant, 
was the inventor of aftronomy.*' But Diodorus (1) fays, the ChaU 
Tofcpb. deans learnt aftronomy from Egyptian colonies. Berofus wrote that 
Antiq. i. 7. iq the tenth generation after the deluge, a juft and great Chaldean 



was (killed in aftronomy. - He is fuppofed to be Abraham : who^ as 
Artapanus fays, was an excellent aftronomer, and taught that fcience 
to Phenicians hefort he vifitcd Egypt. Polyhiftor wrote that he g^^^^^ p^^ 
taught the Egyptians and Phenicians^ but did not invent aftrology : 9* 17* 
his anceftors derived it down to him from Enoch: whom he takes to 
be the mod ancient Atlas. Bochart writes that the Arabs called 
Enoch, Idris, in greek an adept. So the Orphic Hymn fays pro- 
bably of Abraham, tho' it is no argument of their authenticity. 

Idris, &c. 

" That Great Adept, who knew each ftcUarway, 
•* And cou'd each planetary Courfc difplay.*' 

But Diodorus Siculus fays that the Rhodian Sol's fon A£leus, who 
built Heliopolis (and of courfe arrived at Egypt before Abraham, 
llfho refidcd in that city) taught the Egyptians aftronomy. This 

fiiews tVvat Abnbam was fcarcc prior to Cecrops, fon in law of l. 4. 

ASteus. NoDous fays that Cadmus was an aftronomer and geogra- 
pher; but Lycophron fhews that Cadmus was a name of Mercury. 
Nonnus adds that Linus inftrufled the Arcadians in the folar courfe. 
Cyril counts this Linus coeval with Cadmus: who, as Zenobius ^^^ , , 
writes, flew him. Linus taught Orpheus the maftcr of Mufoeus; 
wYvofc mother being, as Plato writes, Selene, the Arcadians were 

fabled fO be Profelenians. Dionyfms of Chalchis, and Arifton of 

Chios fay that Selene appeared juft before the Gigantic war. But 

others attribute that name to the Arcadians, becaufe they counted 

not time at firft by the moon. Herodotus fays, the Greeks learnt 

the ufe of the pole and of the fundial from the Babylonians. Hours 

arc mentioned by Daniel. Hefiod fays that Themis and Jove were 

authors of the hours. Porphyry derives the name of Horus from the 

divifion of time. The ancient watches fliew there were exaQ divi- Bufcb. prep. 

fions of nodumal thne, UliOes (hews that the Greeks divided the 3. n. 

night into three watches, as we do. Cedrenus fays that about the 
time that Babel was built, Audoubarios of Arphaxad's lineage firft 
taught the Indians aftronomy. 

To rctum to the planetary account; the mean diameter of the 

C s . " . Earth's 

II. 10. 253. 



Earth's orbit is 190 millions oF miles: its •eccentricity is to its, mean 
diameter as 17 to 1000. Its axis is, for providential ends, as held by 
Anajcagoras, inclined to the earth'3 near 23 i- degrees; this Empedoclcar 
imputed to the fun's influence on the atmofphere. Indeed the Earth's 
fpiral courfe fcems to arife from the alternate rarefaftion and diffipa* 
don ofthcietlier furrounding each hemifphere: but with the greateft 
effeO: in the northern, owing to a greater reflection from more ex- 
tenfive continents in that hemifphere. Yet, that the current of air 
between the tropics flows weftward, is owing to denfe particles of air 
lagging behind the rolling globe, and thence relatively acquiring a 
retrograde motion. Otherwifc the noftumal air from the Weft, as 
moft condenfed, would flow towards the rifing fun continually. The 

Strom, c. in BceUe, as Laertius and Clement of Alexandria write, was an Egyp- 

Eufcl>- tian 'emblem of the fun! Porphyry and Pliny (11) fay, "They roll 

balls of dung backward: and (33. 1 1} the fun's operations refembjc 

Pliny, 2. 47. (i^jg animars.'* But the emblematical rcafon may be the bro\fe 
beetle's arrival at maturity every Olympic period or Roman luflrum. 
Paufanias limits the life of the reptile, named by the Seres a Nuet, to 
this period; he dcfcribes it as a large Spider: our Nuet is of the 
Lizard clafs. Note here that the period of the Olympic games, 
founded by Hercules the Daftyl, alludes not to their number; for 
Strabo, and Phoronidis Auftor, nane 3 bcfides the 5 in Paufanias. 
Strabo fays they were five males and five females. Diodorus counts 
them 10: the fcholiaft of Apollonius, 11. It refpefts the quadrennial 
cycle, afterwards introduced at Athens by Solon, and at Rome by 
Cefar. The Egyptians who, as Eufebius and Syncelliis write, called 
the moon, Olympias, had a fimilar cycle, founded on the fame cal- 
<:ulation as their fothiac, fubftituting days for years : yet Olympias 
feems to relate to Diana's rites at Bubaflis, fee Bryant on Omphe. 
Ammian jays they began the firft year in the evening, the next at 
midnight, the third in the morning, the fourth at noon. This was 
the cycle of the auguft Gpds; the fourth year being named Orws; 
the third, OJiris; the fecond,^s ; the firft, Sothis; who, fays Plu- 
tarch, was the dog of Ifis: but this became an ignominious name^ 

y ct Valcns. ^^^^ Typhon the gallant of Ifis fell into difrepute: for Petofiris calls 
Sothis, Scth, Typhon*s name in Plutarch. This Seth or Sothis 
feems th| idolatrous Kyon^ Kiun^ Sirius, whofe appearance was of 


Chap, k) primitive HISTORY. . ij 

importance in Egypt; being attended with the rifing of the Nile, 
and the confequent fertility implied in the Cornucopia of Ifxs, who 
faid, "She rofc in the dog Star." Yet, if the elder Ifiis be meant, 
Saturn may be Kiun, KOiON Coeh, Coinos, a defpot; fee Hefychius 
and Bryant: yet kiun in Turkifli is Sol or Mithras. Strabo (17) Anc Un. 
fays, the Thcbans of Egypt added to their annual period the fur- p. 31". 
plus above 365 days, when it amounted to a day, and to a year; 
and that the invention was attributed to Ilcrnics. Diodorus fays, 
the people of Thebais at the end of 12 months of 30 days each, 
intercalated five days and a quarter: and he mentions a quinquennial 
feftival (3) obfervcd in Phcnicia: and that the Gauls facrificed their 
captives every fifth year. ApoUodorus fiys (3J that fo early as the 
x\me of Cadmus a cycle of 8 years was iji ufc, refembling a double 
olympiad; that Cadmus obtained Ilarmonia after ferving Mars 
•iurir^ that period. This was about the time of Jacob's fcrvitude. piach. Phil. 
P\uiaTc\\ caW&ihis period the great year, and fays " Apollo fcrvcd ^* 

A dmctus during this icrm:'^ which was lunifolar, and contained 99 Amato 
junations: thus the Olympiads are faid by Pindar's fcholiaft to have 
been 4g months and 50 alternately; fee Cenforinus. The Daph- 
nephoria was a Novennial fcllival in Apollo's honour, by which 
the Boeotians comenioraied the double olympiad. They exhibited 
365 crowns, reprefenting the days of the year; and globes, for the 
Ajij and moon. Sir Ifaac Newton fays, this oQaeteris was the nov- 0<i-»9- K9' 
ennial period of Minos in Homer. The Pythian games at firft were ' 
celebrated every ninth year ; afterwards, like the Olympiads, every 
fifth; which (hews their relation to the folar period. Their inftitu- Natal. 
tion was fo high, as that Zetes, Calais, Caftor, Pollux, Pelcus, 
Telamon and Hercules obtained crowns at them. The firft prize 
0/ Zinging was won by Chryfothemis a Cretan, whofe father Car-' 
manaor expiated Apollo ; the next by Philammon ; the third, by his 10. ' 

fon. Plutarch fays that " fome deemed the great year to contaiii 
8; fome, 19; others, an enormous period determined by a con- Sent. Pmloi. 
junftion of all the planets:" as Venus complcats 3121 ambits, and 
Mercury 7972, in 1920 terreftial years. Some count a great year, 
when the equinu6lial points compleat an entire revolution. The 
Egyptians counted it 36525. I deem it 1803 years; when the fame 



cclipfe, after one hundred repetitions, returns on the feme day of 
the year: it contains 22300 lunations; and 658,532 days. There- 
fore, if to the correfted lunifolar cycle of 1040 years before men- 
tioned, we add two lunifolar cycles of 334 years each, and five of 
Meto's cycles, which equal 3^folar cycles of 33 years each, lacking 
a common olympiad, we obtain a compound cycle of the fun, moon» 
and cclipfes, in 1803 tropical years. 

The earth's inclination to the plane of the ecliptic decreafes. 
Hipparchus found it 23 degrees 52 minutes; it is now lefs by 24 
minutes: this diminution accelerates, and of late has been two 

L. I. I. feconds in five years. Columella fays, " Hipparchum prodidiflc 
tempus fore, ut cardines mundi loco moverentur.*' Plutarch fays^ 
'5 At Syene even at the northern folftice objefts caft a fliadow, not 

In Orac. fo formerly." That the north ftar revolves round the pole of the/- 
earth's axis was known to Aratus, ( 

" Breyi convertitur orbe." 

The nutation of the earth's axis may arife from partial vapours, 
rains, fnows, condenfated air, accumulated water of the ocean thro* 
a continuance of ftrong winds from the fame quarter, till a reflux 
enfues. Cefar of Bologne found the meridian to alter. 

In Orac. The diminution of the earth's annual period Plutarch fliews us 

was apprehended in the time of Calliftratus. LaQantius afferts that 
this will be found true in the latter times. Copernicus held that the 
earth was in his time 31 femi-diameters nearer to the fun, than in 
Ptolemy's : hence our humourous Butler tells us, 

*« That in 1200 years and odd, 
" The fun had left his ancient road; 
" And nearer to the earth is come, 
'* Full 50,000 miles from home." 

The earth's annual motion is found by the apparent retrograde 

motion of the fuperior planets, as the earth pafles by them ; alfo by 

the fwifter apparent motions ofvenus and mercury,, in their fuperior 

conjun£lioa with the fun, than in their inferior; when their appa-- 

rent velocity equals only the difference between the earth's and 



In Stratx) 

2. IIO8. 


their own. This terreftial progrefs was maintained by the Pythago* 
reans, as Plutarch and Ariftotle affert, Laertius writes that Philo^ Oc Ca;h), 
laus firft taught of the earth's motion in an orbit. Tully fays, this Acad. 2. 
opinion was held by Hicetas: Plutarch in Numa fays fo of Plato: 
Ariftarchus of Samos held it alfo: Pythagoreas probably brought 
this doftrine from E^pt. 

The earth's oblate figure is noticed by Dionyfius the poet. 
" Expanded moft beneath the folar path." 

Polybius held the earth to be high at the equator. The mean 
difiance of the earth's furface from the centre is 3969 englifh miles, 
la axis is to the equatorial diameter as 229 to 230. Lucretius ad« 
vances an opinion of the earth's continual augmentation by the ac- 
ccfs of corpufcles floating in the regions of fpace. But thefe are 
on\y -bodies in the atmofphere, fometimes afcending, fometimes 
defcending, according as the air is condenfated or rarified; a meer 
appendage of the earth: pure ether is too minute, elaftic, and volatile, 
to adhere to grofs bpdies. We may as well expeft the folar rays 
will plate the ocean with gold. It is true that ignition augments 
the weight of bodies; but this acccflion is tranfient. The igneous 
ether, having formed a coalition, flows in a continual ftream to 
mailer 11 aflTefts in ignited bodies, and caufes it to. evaporate with 
itfelf: in which conjunct operation they pervade folid bodies 
oppofed to them, as iron or ftone : in thefe they are, in this com- 
bined ftate, awhile entangled, but extricate themfclves with the 
utmoft expedition, together with fuch adventitious matter as is natu- 
rally fuited to confort with thefe volatile fugitives; attaching itfelf 
to them, inftead of adhering to its old aflbciates, juft as metallic 
particles in water will apply itfelf to metal. The ethereal matter 
detached from ignited bodies, when condenfated to a proper degree, 
becomes luminous and vifible; yet thro* exceflive minutenefs it 
penetrates the eye without doing it damage : for the difference be- 
tween luminous fire, and burning fire, refembles that between light 
and wind aQing on the furface of water; light pervades it without 
difturbance, but wind, more grofs, joftlcs againft it, and crej^tes a 

commotion : 

i:6 P R I M I T I V E HISTORY. (Book 


commotion: thus not luminous fire, but the rurrent of ignited and 
rarified air accompanying it, caufcs ebullition and combuftion; ex-. 
cept the luminous body be fo greatly condenfated, as in the focus 
of a burning-glafs, that the Pores of an objeft be unequal to their 
freepaffage; when its difTolution enfiies, with an inflammation of 
phlogifton. Thus wood, in a glafs decanter of water, was burnt by 
Parker's lens to a coal, tho' the water was not warmed ; but it boiPd^ 
when ink thrown into it impeded the rays. Hence denfc ether is 
light; denfer ether, fire. 

In the earth's atmofphere, the tcrreftrial vapours and effluvia, by 
their various combinations, fermentations, condenfations, attrac- 
tions, repulfions, rarefaftions, refraQions, and refleftions, produce 
extraordinary effefts; as clouds, rain, hail, fnow, froft, ftorms, 
blights, feabrine, haleoes, rainbows, waterfpouts, heat, thunder, 
lightning, earthquakes, nofturnal lights, meteors, flaming lances, / 
and bloody appearances, as mentioned by Pliny. Julius Obfequens 
mentions northern lights in Tubero's Confulate, refemb/ing 
' burning arrows. Sauflure has found the electricity of the air to in- 
creafe fometimc after funrife and funfct, and to diminifh fometime 
before both. 

The earth is attended, at the mean diftaiice of 240,000 miles, by 

the moon; tho* her diftance, owing to the fun's greater attraftion 

at the folar perigee, is greater than at the apogee. The moon's 

Luna: facie, circumference is about 6840 miles. Plutarch fays, the Egyptians 

counted the moon's quantity of matter to equal a 72d part of the 

earth's; this eftimate is too little by a fifth part. Petofiris and Ne- 

W 2. 23. ^gpf-Q^ calculated a degree of a lunar circle to be 33 ftadia. Manetho 

Allron.poem j^jj^^ ^j^j^ Petofiris his friend : but how fo, if fq ancient as to be 

mentioned by Ariftophanes ; unlefs this poet ufed a general appella- 

Atheneos, 3. tive belonging to priefts of Ofiris ? Julius Firmicus deemed Necepfo 

a juft king, as well as good aftronomer; and terms them both prelates* 

HifL JMx. Reineccius fays, a book of Petofiris to Necepfo is 11 extant. 

Plutarch held the moon to be of a terreftial nature; which, fays he, 

Scntim. '< GlaJJis ftiew in an eclipfe.'* But as to this, the Druids ufed magu 



magnifiers for aftronomical purpofes. Anaxagoras held« there are 

mouBtainSy plains, and valleys in the moon. Volcanoes appear in 

it. Zenpphanes held it to be inhabited: Proclus cites Orpheus as 

a maintaincr of this doArinc, Dcrham obfcr\ed the moon's atniof- 

phere, in eclipfes. Ancient eclipfcs prove a fmall diminution of 

ber monthly period ; which may be farther examined into by the 

total folar eclipfe faid by Plutarch to have begun upon the meridian: Lun« facie. 

and by the lunar eclipre according to Tully before funrife, when 

Alexander beat Darius ; but deemed by Pliny at funrct in Sicily : 2. 70. 

and by that in the 547^h year of Nabonaffar, at funfct : alfo by that 

at Babylon in the 383d year before the incarnation, w hen the fun 

was fetting : and by that, 201 years before the incarnation, when 

the moon was rifing at Alexandria. The moon rofe eclipfed at 

Cambridge, in^New England, in February 1700. The fun fet 

ecUpfed in France, in June, 1630. The Saxon Chronicle records 

''^(o\9ti edipfe at noon, 1140. 13. Kal. April. At Berlin the fun 

'began to-be edipled at rifing in February, 1718. A folar ecfipfc 
was at funrife^ May 14th, 1231. a lunar at funfet, June 1, 1250. — Holingflied. 
The moon now performs 4366 circuits in (334--19— )353 tropical 
y^ears; retaining nearly the fame fide towards the earth continually; 
and influencing by attraction the terreftrial ocean varioudy, accorcf- 
ia^^tbe fun and moon aft in a coincident direftion or otherwife. 

Tully mentions the lunar influence over the tides. Hipparchus Nat. Dcor. 
determined a mean lunation to be 29 days, 12 -rll-l- hours. The 
Arabs counted the fraftioh 792, which gives 44 minutes exaQly. 
The difference is the 18th part of a minute: this (hews how nicely 
that old aftronomer had calculated mean lunations ; we now count 
a Curplus of 61 out of 1200 parts of a minute. It is therefore not 
furprifing that Agis, Dercylus, ApoUodorus and Dionyfius Hal. 
fhould hold that Troy was taken 1 184 years, A. C. at a full moon, 
17 days before the fummer folftice : or that Dionyfius (rf Argos, 
Hellanicus and Eratofthenes fhould place that capture 1 1 days earlier 
in the enfuingyear. Both accounts will (land thq teft of examina- 
tion: for a full moon enfued, on June the third, in the year 1784. 
at fix P. M. the folRice being on the 20th at midnight. Thus it was 
(twice 1393, or) 2786 years before; that is^ 1002 years before the 
^ D incarnation: 


hicarnation: and in 182 years before this, there were 1251 lunations 
with a furplus of 18 hours : thus the full moon was 164. days Jn^orc 
the fummer folftice,in the year A. C. I184 and tx days earlier the 
next year. 

The lunar nodes complete their retroceffion round the heavens in 
18 years and 225 days; this not being the exaQ period of any num- 
ber of lunations, nonreturn of an eclipfe can occur then: but after 
2^3 lunations, or "6685 days, the fame node will be within 284. 
minutes of its former iituation, and an eclipfe will be then renewed 
with a little variation : thus there is a regular progrefs of eclipfes ; 
one, feen at firft within the polar circle, becomes vifible after 223 
lunations nearer to the equator, and at length nearer to the oppofke 
pole; and returns exaftly 100 times in 1803 tropical years. After 
68go lunations, the fun and node meet into 1 1 feconds. As the 
Suidaa. Chaldeans before the deluge counted by Sari, periods containing 1 8^ 
years and a half of 360 days each, a method of chronology difufed 
in the reign of Evochus, it ftiews that mankind had an early- know- 
ledge of eclipfes : tho' Thales, who as Pliny writes, determined the 
Occafus matutinus Vergiliarum to be 25 days after the autumnal 
equinox, was in Greece held to be the firft prediftor of an eclipfe; 
being that which prevented the Medes and Lydians from a battle 
, Laertius lays, the ancient Egyptians knew that a lunar eclipfe enfues 
when the moon pervades the earth's fhadow. The moon in the 
horizon appears larger than on the meridian, thro' the greater den- 
fity and refraftion of the lower region of air: this phenomenon is 
more confiderable thro' fome wood ; owing to ftagnant vapours and 
the atmofphere of the trees, as infpeftlon thro* a tube will efFeftually 
prove^ In autumn the moon approaches, at and after full, towarda 
the north pole ; thus fhe rifes almoft as early one night as another, 
tho* owjng to her progrefs in her orbit fhe attains the meridian fome 
49 minutes later nightly. At the winter folftice ftie attains her 
greateft northern latitude juft at her i'ull: thus fhe reflefts in the 
higheft degree, and with the longeft continuance, the folar light to 
our hemifphere, when we arc moft deprived of light direftly from the 
fun ; as (he does to the fouthem hemifphere, when it is winter 

* there 


there. Her borrowed light was early underftood ; for as her name 
Moon is from the Hebrew Mon^ an image, lb I.una is from th9 
Celtic LLun^ an image. 

Mars, called alfo Pyrois and Artes, more diftant than the earth Jul. Firmic. 
from the fun, tho' his diameter fcarce exceeds the earth's femidia* Vafcmir 
meter^ and he has no viCble fatellite, goes round the fun in an orbit 
inclined two degrees to the ecliptic 193 times in 363 tropical years: 
rev<dving thrice in 74 hours on his axis ; which is inclined almoft 
60 degrees to the ecliptic: tho' his inclination decreafes three fe- 
conds in ten years. His Atmofphere is confiderable ; and its re- 
fraftioB may fupply the i^fe of a fatellite. His form, like the earth's 
and Jupiter's is oblate ; the equatorial diameter being to the polar, 
as i6 to 15. His eccentricity is to his mean diftance from the fun^ 
as 93 to 1000. « 

TVie iBBO^t Jupiter, ftill farther from the fun, goes round it in 
433^T ^yh rerolving on his axis once in 596 minutes. His axis is 
a/moft pe/pendicular to his orbit; which inclines 80 minutes to the 
ecliptic: its nodes are in the feventh degree of Cancer and of Capri- 
corn. His diameter exceeds ten of the earth'$. Several long clouds, 
like belts, appear occafionally on his furface. Of four moons, the 
.-neaxeSt goes round Jupiter in 42 hours 28 minutes, 36 feconds. 
The next, in 85 hours, 13 minutes, 42 feconds The third, in 172 
hours, lefs 24 feconds. The laft, in 400 hours, 32 minutes, 9 
feconds. A planet whofe equatorial day is only five hours, requires 
more fecondary light than the earth. Thefe fatellites arc fo difpofed 
as to fucceed one another duly. His eccentricity is to his mean 
diftance from the fun, as 48 to 1000. 

Saturn ftill more remote from the fun, goes round it in 10759 J 
days, fnrrounded by a luminous ring of unequal thicknefs, inclined 
30 degrees to the ecliptic, and above 20 thoufand miles in breadth, 
and as many diftant from Saturn : whofe diameter exceeds 8 diame« 
ters of the earth. His orbit is inclined two degrees and a half to 
t!ie ecliptic, and interfcfts it. in the 21ft degree of Cancer and Ca- 

'D 2 • pricorh. 


pricorn. Saturn has belts on his di(k. By fpots on it his diurnal - 
fbtation has been found. Of five moons, one goes round him in 45. 
hours, 18 minutes, 27 fcconds. The next in 65 hours, 41 minutes^ 
22 fcconds. The third in 108 hours, 25 minutes, 12 feconds. 
The fourth in 15 days, 22 hours, 41 minutes, 14 feconds The laft 
in 79 days, 7 hours, 48 minutes. Thefe fatellites prove the opacity 
of their primariesi by being eclipfed by them; and their owno'pa^ 
city, by eclipfing them. Cedrenus writes that this planet's was alio 
a name of Nimrod ; hence Kiwn is miftaken for Saturn, inftead of 
Sirius; which ftar was dedicated to Nimrod who was the'firft Orion. 
la Amaforio. ^he inferior planets prove opaque confonant to Plutarch's aflertion 
of Venus, by appearing quite dark during their tranfits over the fun: 
as Venus on the third of June 1769; being totally immerfed at 12 
minutes after 7. P* M. under the meridian of Lundy: having enter- 
ed the folar difk about the breadth of her own diameter to the fouth^ ' 
ward of the higheft point of the fun's edge. Saturn's eccentricity ^ 
is to his mean diftance from the fun, as 1 1 to 200. 

Nat. PKilo- A planet, mentioned by Apuleius, has been lately difcovered fo 
^ ^' vaftly diftant from the fun, in the uppermoft regions of the fyftem, 
as to foar almoft in the higheft heavens, and challenge the name of 
Uranus. Its circuit is performed in 83 years and 18 weeks. Its 
diameter is to the earth's as 9 to 2 : and its eccentricity is to its mean 
diftance, as 1 to 21. Of its two fatellites, one performs its ambit in 
8 days, 17 hours; the other in 13 days and a half nearly. Aulus 
Gellius was aware of the probability of fuch difcoveries ; faying, 
'* It is ftrangely held that there are no more planets: for there may 
be others, tho* we cannot difcern them thro* their immenfe diftance; 
which (adds he) muft render aftrological rules quite uncertain."— 
Thus the folar fyftem confifts of feven primary planets; 12 fecond- 
ary ; two facred numbers. Sol inclufive, the number of globes are 
twenty — Befides thefe, feveral comets in contrary dire£lions pervade 
the fyftem, generally approaching fo near the fun as to take fire; 
and, receding with incredible velocity, tho' it decreafes as they re- 
treat, in orbits extremely elliptical, to immenfe diftances, with a 
vaft atmofphere furrounding, and a ftiining train (lowing from them, 


Chap. 1.) ' PRIMITIVE HISTORY- 21 

oTaa aftonilhing lengthy ihcy neverthclefs arc many years, fome of 
them feveral centuries in performing their ambits: yet perhaps they 
do not iu general tranfgrefs the limits of the folar fyftem. That of 
1680 removes 11200 millions of miles from the fun : its periodical 
time is 575 years. 

The cubes of the central diftances of the planets are as the fquares 
of their periodic times: and in equal times they defcribe equal areas; Sent. Philof. 
which feems to be Plato's doftrine in Plutarch. ** ' ' 

The little alteration, that the planetary periods and paths have 
undergone during a long ferics of ages, argues them to be fubjc6l 
to permanent laws impofed on them by Omnipotence. Even the a- 
mazing periods and paths of comets are precifely determined by a 
power incomparably beyond that of vifiblc beings. This even the 
kncients apprehended. Plutarch fays that fome of the Pythagoreans Sent. Philof. 
4Keued a comet to be a ftar, which at ftatcd periods, after com- 
plcating a cemin ambit, reappears. Diodorus Siculus fays, the 
Egyptians could predift the return of fome of the comets. Some 
maintain a comet to be implied by the Egyptian Phcnix: but Taci- 
tus favs the Phenix was likewife the emblem of the Cynic cycle, ^ . , ^ 

. , Annal. 6.i8. 

containing 1460 Julian years; when hiftorians fuperftitioufly fup- 

poted t\\at a political revolution took place correfpondent to the 
aftronomical ; and therefore limited the duration of the Egyptian 
and Affyrian empires to that period: thus Diodorus fays, that 52 
(which may allude to weeks of a year) of the race of Menes reigned 
above 1400 years; as he fays of the Affyrian; therefore, where he 
fpecifies 1360, we fhould read 1460; like as Syncellus computes. 
The comet of the years 1532, and 1661, has fometimc fince been 
expefted to reappear early in the year 1789: this could be nothing 
more than meer conjeflure; unlcfs a third appearance had corre- 
fponded with thefe two. Befides, Halley fays, that yVp^an's obfer- 
vations in 1532 were vague ; fo that if a comet appear foon, it may „ , 
be that of 1737, and 1684. The comet of 1672 may be that of SaxonChron. 
1532; 1110. 

£2 Primitive history. (Bookt« 

Invalid is the objeftion that intempcrature renders the ^ther 
planets uninhabitable; as for inftance^ becaufe the folar heM ai 
Venus is double its heat at the earth. Heat depends not abfoIiHelf 
on the fun, tho* Sol is a grand operator : v|e have warm days ia 
winter, cold in fummer. At Nova Zemla the fduthwind is cold; 
the northwind, hot. The various combinations of the different efflu« 
via from the earth, in the atmofphere, occafion great alterations of 
heat and cold. Can we think the glorious planet Jupiter, lOO times 
as fpacious as the earth, and illuminated by 4 moons, was not in- 
tended for as noble a purpofe, as this globe of ours; which as to the 
major part of it, at leaft fince the deluge, is only the ruins of a world; 
. fufficiently good as it is for the merits of its inhabitants ? Yet what 
naked mountains and dreary waftes doth it exhibit : how vaft are 
the Arabian deferts ; how extenfive,. formidable and ominous are the 
Lybian fands ! Quite uninhabitable is the fpace wkhin 20 degree^i 
of each pole! tho' indeed refraftion caufes the fun's appearance a- 
bove the horizon in fpring at Spitfbergen 10 days fooner than other* 
wife 5 and the Aurora Borealis is there very luminous. 

Macrobius fays that at the creation, the moon was in Cancer, the 
Sun in Leo, Mercury in Virgo, Venus in Libra, Mars in Scorpio, 
Jupiter in Sagitcary, Saturn in Capricorn. This pofition of the 
heavens feems an f^ptian calculation to authorize the commence- 
ment of the Sothiac cycle from the fummer folfticc. It fets the 
«ioon in her laft quadrature* 

The folar fyftem is encompafsed with an infinite number of o- 
ther fyffems, at immenfe diftances; and illuminated by their refpec- 
tive funs: many of them appear to us in clear nights ; and both their 
magnitudes and diftances muft be aftonifhing: for the diameter of 
the earth's orbit is only as a point, making no fenfible difference 
(except a little as to a very few of them) in their diftances, or ap- 
parent magnitudes. Molyneux computes that their diftance ex- 
ceeds the fun's 400,000 times. An infinite number of thofe funs 
are too remote 'to be vifible to the naked eye; but in fome places 
are fo numerous, that their blended rays give a brighter hue to the 




fty, than its general complexion: thus the galaxy appears thro* 
Tclcfcopes fo powder'd vith ftars, that it may be fuppofed the 
Heaven of Heavens : a fad apprehended many ages ago* Manilius 
ilbi . • • . 

*' An major denfa SteHarum Turba Coron^ 

" Contexit Flammas, et crafTo Lumine candct?" 

Ariftotle fays^ Anaxagoras maintained that the galaxy is the Meteor, i. 

light of ftars.— Tully afferts " Mundorum innumerabilia.'* De- Nat. Deor. 
iDocritus and Epicurus held there are an infinite number of worlds ; 
fo did Anaximander ; fo Anaxagoras j fo Zenophanes. Lucretius Amm: 

" Efle alios aliis terrarum in partibus grbes :" 
Round other Suns terraqueous globes revolve. 

T\\e ancicnuhad an infight into many of the great phenomena 
of nature. Iwcretius held colours to be rays of light. Pherecydes, 2.794. 
and Anaximander (born. Olympiad 42. 2.) predifted earthquakes. 
Anaximenes his pupil faid they arofc from en unequal temperature 
of the fuperiour and fubterrancan air. Pliny writes that an earth- 2. 79. 
quake bears an afl^nity to thunder. Anaxagoras (who was born 
0\yinpiad 70, and held that a rainbow is a folar refradion from a 
dcnfe cloud; and maintained the |^r(?t;i(rf^n^i«/ obliquity of the fphere) 
aflerted thunder to be a collition of hot and cold clouds: Ariftotle, 
from the concourfe of moift vapours and dry exhalations, ^^naxi- 
mcnes, who taught in Greece the art of making dials, compared fea- 
brine to lightning : thefe are both eledrical effefts. Tullus Hof- 
tilius was thunderftruck, like a Ruffian profeflTor lately, thro* fome 
error in praflifing Numa's eleftrical rules, to foUicit Jove Elicius 
from above : hence Ovid fays, 

^ Eliciunt Cocio Te, Jupiter!'* ^*** ^• 

Thee Jove they lure from heaven. 

Pliny writes that N^ma^Mid PorCemmti fruited this feat. Servius 2. 53. 
fays, the nymph Bygois wrote an " Ars Fulgitrarum/* Ariftophanes 



hints at the praftifc '^ of hifTmg at lightning:" the moid breatii 
condufts the lightning away. Pythagoras, born Olympiad 43. 
2. and Epimenides, could calm the wind and Tea, by allaying tlie 
violent fermentation : that of the laft element is. done by oil • 
which alfo effefts it in the human bowels, and is excellent in the 
flux. Exploded gunpowder will abate a ftorm ; as will ill-fcented 
^»«'* combuftibles. 

Other fyftems of worlds have comets likewifc: which are obferved 
^Sec Jonfton, to appear fuddenly with great luftrc, and then vanifh for an unde- 
termined length of time. Hollingftied records one A. D. 1572. 
llein.It.Soc. Another appeared lately in CoUoCeti. 

The whole folar fyftem. feems to alter its pofition in a fmall de- 
gree with refpeftlo the Cdereal fyftems and abfolute fpace. 

In Lycorgo. Plutarch has a fine expreffion of Plato/ that « when the wor<i 
^as created and fet in motion, it afforded pleafure to God'^-^CIau- 
dian thus- celebrates God's wiidom in the creation. 

When I obferv'd the world difpos*d with art. 
And mutual laws obey'd by ev'ry part; 
The fea confined within its ftated bound. 
And years revolving dance their conftant round ; 
Th* exaft viciffitudes of night and day: 
I faw creation own'd theCodhead's fway. 
That providence bid the ftars in order move ; 
And difPrcnt fruits a difPrent feafon love : 
The fun to rule the day with native light ; 
The moon with borrowed Tays to govern night« 
* He girt the main with fhores extending far ; 

And on its axle balanced earth in air. 

Biit the wonders of providence in the natural world are ftill more 
admirably difplayed by King David in the 104th Pfalm. 



B O O K L C H A P. IL 


The MeJJiMi kwmanfpiritjirjl created^ and tnjlrumental in the general 

Creation. His divine nature is God. The Angels^ and fixed Stars, 

prior to this World. The exifience of Angels ajferted by the Ancients. 

Scripture^ Phocylides^ Pherecydes and Empedocles^ mention Apojlate 

Spirits; Serapis is from Sarphy Celtic /or a Serpent. Pagan Gods 

affeSed the nameofSerpents.'^God^s operation by injlruments gradual. 

Pagan notions of the Author of the Creation^ confonant to Scripture; 

' tri^naUy divine Communications. Of Divine Love. The order of 

theCreation. Various genera of Animals. All Creatures areforpro^ 

vid€ntial Ends. Of Man. The Divine Nature of the human Mind ; 

its Immortality; tho* under refiriSions at prefent. Of Dreams. Of 

the RefurreBion. 

/CHRIST'S divine nature is the eternal God— *'God ever blcffed/* Rom.- 9- 
^^ —God manifeft in the fleffi— The Godhead bodily— The CoIos!"*2f' 
mighty God, the everlafting Father/' His human fpirit was the ^^^' ^' 
firft of created beings, to be God's prime inftrument, operating thro' 
the divine energy of the Logos in the formation of the Univerfe. 
So he fiiys, " Father, glorify me with thyfelf, with the glory which John 17. 5. 
I had with thee before the world's exiftence"— " The Lord poffefled Prov. 8. 
me in the beginning of his way/' Saint Paul fayS, **He is the Pro- Colos. i. 15. 
togCiicsof every creature; for by him all things were created— God Ephcs. 3. 9. 
created all things by Jefus Chrift." Being united, as we find from 
John, 1. where we read, " The word was God, all things were made 
by him ;•' and Hcb. 11. " The worlds were framed by the Divine 
Logos/* Being, let me repeat, united with this Divine Logos 
fwho is one with the '• God of our Lord Jefus Chrift, the fatlier of gphcs i. 

E g^ory) 



1 8. 



Ch. 7.& 


Lib. 7, 
od; I. 


PI u tar: 


Pliny 36. 
Arnob. 1 . 

I. Tim. 3. 


gtory) in the creative operation : when, as Job fays, ** the .earth 
w?is hung upon nothing; and the morning ftars fung in concert^ and 
all the fons of God made acclamations of joy.'* Hence we^Ieam 
that the fixed ftars, which by their permanent polition (after due 
allowance for the earth's annual progrefs) afcertain the approach rf, 
morn, exifted prior to our folar fyftem. As alfo the fpiritual minU 
ftersof God: Beings of a pure empyreal mould, irrefiftible by grofs 
matter, and employed in fuperintending the affairs of the univerfe, 
and human concerns in particular. S > Chrift fays, " Their angels 
always behold the face of my Father who is in heaven." Saint Paul 
enquires. Are they not all miniftering fpirits, emiflfaries, and a mi- 
niftry to the heirs of falvation? Daniel, who mentions a hundred 
millions of angels ftanding in God's prefence, fhews us there are 
particular angels conftituted to fuperintend the feveral provinces of 
the world. With this doctrine ancient Hefiod agrees ;*ftilfng thent 
" Jove's immortal guardians of mankind, and obfervers of theil^^ 
aftions.'* A Punic treaty, referred to by Polybius, mentioned the 
Demon of Carthage. Homer fays, '* The Gods often vifit pfaces 
incognito, to obferve the vices and virtues of men." Laertms in 
Zeno mentions the Stoical opinion of demons who intereft tbem- 
fclves about mankind. Thales, Pythagoras, and Heraclitus held 
the univerfe to be full of fpirits and demons. Tully fays,^thc air ii 
full of immortal demons. Laertius writes that the Magi held the- 
atmofphere to be full of demons. Plato defcribes the fupreme Being 
as iffuing his commands to inferior fpirits touching human concerns. 
Thales, Pythagoras, Plato and the Stoics held that there are fpiritu- 
al fubftances of a middle nature. Hoftanes held, both divinean- 
gels refiding in God's prefence ; and others terreftrial, vagrant and 
hoftiletoman; as the evil genius of Brutus; the truth of which 
apparition, and of that to Dion; and to Curtius Rufus; and to Caffiua 
Parmenfis ; alfo Cefar's to Caffius, feems unqueftionable. 

Some of thofe fpirits are thro' pride degraded. So faint Paul men- 
tions the Devil's condemnation. Saint Peter implies tl^at God fpared 
not the tranfgreffing angels, but cad them down to 1 c'\ Judc fays. 
«' The angels, who kept not their ferll eilate, but left tHeir habita- 


lion, he has referved in perpetual chains under darknefs, to the 
judgment of the great day. Job fays, " He charged his angels 
with folly." So Empedocles afferted the lapfe of demons purfued Plutar.Ufury 
by divine vengeance. Hence Ate, Jove's offspring (a name derived 
from the Arabic Ada, to be hoftile) is faid to be precipitated irrew 
vcrfibly from heaven. Phocylides maintains the exiftence of evil Homer II. 
/piritsas well as of good. ' Apollo's oracle declared, ** The Demons 
who iraverfe indefatigably fea and land, are kept in fubjeClion by aIcx. 
the fcourge of God.'* Ficinus fays, that Pherecydes mentions the piato's 
apoftacy of Demons ; and that Ophion headed the revolters. Here Vhxir, 
it is obfervable that Uranus is by Lycophron and Apollonius Rhodius 
named Ophion; who was a Pheiiician deity, of whom Pherecydes 
wrote. Nonnus mentions him as an aftronomcr, as was Uranus Eufcb. Prep. 
Probably from him the Ophiogencs were derived; their founder strabo 13. 
being Caid to be converted from a Serpent into a Hero. Some Phny 7. sad 
Ophiogencs refided near Lampfacus; others in Cyprus. There Su-abo 10. 
were Opbioncs in Etolia: probably they were followers of Ophion 
and Acraon his fire from the Thermodon, with Cyclopes, Amazons 
and Chaiybes; fo Stephanus derives the Opici or Ophici from Oph- 
ion. Thoth attributed divinity to ferpents. The Egyptian Cneph Eufcb. Prep. 
Ufas figured as a ferpcnt with a hawk's head to denote his fagacity and 
vigilance. Of angels, fomc were filled Seraph^ from flying fer- 
pentsoFa, fliining appearance; thcfc being fymbols of their acute 
parts and expeditious powers. A ferpcnt is in Welch named Snrph. 
Hence the king of Hell was named Serapis. A fcfpent is alfo the 
fymbol of the artful Satan, the original Serapis. The Pagans ap- 
plied this Hieroglyphic of mental abilities to their fiflitious Gods, of q^j^j„ 3^^^ 
which fee more in Stillingfleet. And it was afTeCled by princes and 3- 3- 
commanders. The firft king of China is recorded to have had a Couplet. 
ferpenfs body, and fcems related to the' Egyptian Cneph. The 
eWeft Ceres istheCcnchreisof Hyginus; Lucan fhews that Chencris 9 7»«- 
is a ferpent. Ceres was drawn by ferpents. The Scj^thians affirmed piodor. mic. 
Aat the founder of their Nation was the fon of a woman from the ^' 

waifl: down like a ferpcnt. She is the pcrfon employed by Typhon 
to guard 'Jupiter, and is Ceres. Typhon*s fatellites were ferpents. 
Thefc allegories all allude to feraphic vigilance. Cecrops was re- 

E a puted 


puted partly a ferpent. The comrades of Cadmizs became ferpentsi 
and hence the Greeks were named Achivi.— Asthe higheft order of 
angels were named Seraphs^ the Arch Apoftate was of that clafk' 
till his condemnation to the moft abjed condition by God's decree^ 
Other angels of an inferior order are denominated Cherubs ; beings 
from their miniftry and expedition compared to flying Oxen, 

As God's will is executed by ccleftial minifters, the. gradual for^ 

mation of the world is no impeachment of Omnipotence^ AH the 

operations of nature are graduiJ. The elements having received 

their properties from God^ and been originally fet in motion by 

Him^ are continually employed in performing his pleafure^ and 

by their a6lion on one another are inceflantly effecting mighty vi- 

ciffitudes. <* He makes his angels^ winds; and his minifters^ fire.^ 

EfchylusTays of the deity^ Uore fuv ug IIup (Patysruu The Porfiaml 

In Clem. Held (hat angels were created to form the univerfe. 

The Chaldaic oracles aflert that the world has inteltigent and 
unfwerving guides. But« as to the fupreme power^ however full- 
ordinate beings gradually execute his inftantaneouswill» Empedoeles 
held that ** God has not form and members^ but is a holy ineffable 
mind, who by fwift thoughts agitates the univerfe/' This muft aj^ 
pear probable to man ; who». imperfe£l as He is^ by thought exerts 
his nerves^ finews> and. animal fpirits. Empericus fays^ he held 
divine reafon indefcriptible ; human^ declarable. Pythagoras faid 
that ** God made the world in a thought^ not in procefs of time.'* 
When Ariftotle faid, that "Mind with nature caufed the univerfe/* 
he meant that a rational caufe ufed natural operations inftrumentally: 
this is Tully's ars naturae. This vis infita, this plaftic nature com^ 
Eofeb. Prep, municated by Jehova, induced Orpheus to deem Ether the mind of 
Jove ; this is Porphyry's logos fpemiaticos. Ariftotle held a per* 
feEL incorporeal being the head of all : that nature, the inftrument 
of this intelleSj afts not merely according to the neceffity of ma- 
terial motions, but for purpofed ends unknown to itfelf^ tbf natur* 



ality of raoraUty. Sa Plutarch fays, Empedoclcs held, the fyHcm 
oi the world not to be the refult of fortuitous iMchanifm, but of « 
divine wifdom affigning to every part the mod convenient place for 
the common good* Stobeus (ays, Ecphantus held that a providence 
Ciiperiotend^ the material world* philo the Jew maintains^ that ^'God's 
eternal Logos is the ftroi^ column of the univerfe : this ^iflbciatca 
and regulates the component parts^ that water diflolvc not eartl^ 
nor fire inflame the air/' 

Sacred writ requires not profane authorities for confirmation ^ 
but it proves their imperfed traditions frequently to have a true 
foundation. We may therefore obferve that the Pagans had tradi- 
tionally fome notions of the creation, which bear an affinity to truth. 
BeroAis wrote that Dis or Belus (the Lord^ clove afunder Omoroca Alex. Polyh: 
(the Chaotic Abyfs}, divided the darknefs, fcparated earth from ^ ch^^^/"^ 
Vieaveti, axvd marihalled the univerfe; adding, that after the creation 
of beafts, bird^ and man, Belus perfe3ed the formation of the fta^s, 
fun, moon, and five planets : for a refinement of the air afforded a 
profped of the conftellations. So Sanchoniatho fays, ** The uni« 
verfe was illuminated, and the fun, moon, and ftars became efful* 
gent.** Plato mentions Anaxagoras to have held that a difpofing 
mind was the univerfal caufe. Tertullian fays, that Zeno held the 
Logos to be the creator and direftor of all things in nature. The 
Cbinefe in Formofa deemed the world at firft a chaos, but reduced 
to order in four years ; that is years of days. The primitive con- 
fu&on of elements Ovid fays, " Deus et melior Natura diremit." 

From the great Protogenes of the creation Pagans derived the 
primitive Prometheus, accounted by Efchylus the fon of Themis. 
In that poet he declares himfelf the fource of human intelligence. 
Phornutui fays the Logos was named Japet; that is metaphorically, 
as being the Protogenes. Plato told Dionyfius that the ancients 
joined Prometheus to Jove. Tully fays, •' The fcience of Prome- Tafc.Difp.j 
theus is divine intelligence traduced to erroneous fable." Siiidas 
tells us, ** Prometheus taught mankind wifdom/^ Infinite inteli- 
fence feems to be the Egyptian Cneph, the author of their Phtha, 



Opas, Vulcan or divine fire ; by which is meant that nature of the 
divine Logos, which was the Protogenes of the creation, and per- 
former of the divine will in the fabrication of the world ; whofe 
emblem thro' all the Eaft was material fire, by reafon of its a6iivity 
and vitality: thus this divine Protogenes is the Vulcan, who, as 
Hyginus writes, made Pandora, deemed the firft woman; her fabu- 
lous hiftory having'taken its rife from Eve. The Chaldaic oracles 
fay, '* The father perfefted all things^^ and affigned them to the fe. 
cond mind;" Chrift's human fpirit. Plato, by his Nous Aionios, 
Autopator> intends the coeternal divinity of the Logos; and bv his 
Phyche, and Logos Demiurgos, the Protogenes above-mentioned. 
From the true Logos came Hefiod's Minerva *' fprung from Metis 
implanted effentially in Jove.*^ Phornutus nicntions this Minerva 
from Jove's Metis. Herodotus (8) calls Minerva, Provident. In 
hymns attributed to Orpheus this Minerva is ftiled Monogenes; and 
faid to be male and female. And the Protogonus is ftiled Diphues, 
of twofold nature. Hereobferve the confufion of the Pagan poets. 
Ifter in Suidas, and Nonnus (5) fay Tritogenia was Luna; hence 
they reputed the Titan goddefs, inftcad of divine wifdom, male and 
female ; hence Lui)us and Luna; hence the Deities Afhtaroth; the 
Mithras found at Lyons had a female head. The Arabian poet 
Motanabbi fays to this efl^eft, 

" Nee Nomen Fccmininum Soli Dedecus, 
, " Nee Mafculinum Luna* l^loria." 

Apuleius frbm the Orphic Theology has this line, 

" Jupiter et Mas eft, et Femina, nefcia mortis." 

Minerva was Luna, Aftarte or Venus Urania called (as Hefychius 
writes) by the Egyptians Athyr, a name by Plutarch attributed to 
Ifis, that is the elder, who was Cybele or Rhea ; hence Orpheus 
deems Rhea (blending her with intelligence, called by Plutarch Ifis, 
whom he deems the fame as Minerva) the daughter of Protogonus. 
Nat. Comes, alfothc wife of Prometheus ; namely that Pxometheus, who as Lyfi- 


Chap. 2.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 

machides wrote, was much ancienter than Vulcan: and whom Tully, 
as above, denominates divine intelligence. Thus the facred names 
conferred at firft on the divine mind, were proftituted by Oriental 
adulation at firft to Ham and his family, and afterwards to the Ti-i 
tans; from them I here retrace them to the facred original. To 
the truly divine Minerva or Ifis, wlio is Plutarch's intelligence, re- 
lates the infcriptioh at Sais, ** I am all that was, is, or fhall be, and 
no mortal has unveiled me." Minlerva or Ifis is faid by Plutarch, 
to be Science, and deemed the daughter of Prometheus: fhe teaches 
temperate perfons a knowledge of God refident with her. Cudworth 
informs us that Ariftidcs in his oration on Minerva fays, Pindar af« 
firms that, " Sitting at her fire's right hand, (he there receives com* 
mands from him ; for fhe is fuperior to the angels, and gives them 
the mandates fhe had firft received from her fire." He concludes 
thus, *• All Jove's works are common with Jove and Minerva." 
Se^rvxus tays ** Minerva and Vulcan had the command of the Thunder 
in common with Jupiter.** Confonant to this, Plato fays " Vulcan 
and Minerva had a common nature, as of the fame origin; and their 
purfuits and operations have the fame tendency." To this heavenly 
Minerva the Maya of Indoftan bears a relation ; Maya, the parent 
of the Pagan god of wifdom; Amaia, the original Ifis. 


En. I. 

Cudwonh writes, that Heraclitus held "All things were made by 
the eternal Logas, who was with God, and was God." Plato held, 
" The conftruflor of the world to be the fon of God." Even 
Julian allowed, that '* the primary caufe produced an intelleftual 
fun, who formed the materiarfun." The intelleftual fun is the 
Phanes of the Greeks, the Monogenes of the Orphic philofophy. 
The Orphic Argonauts fay, " He was furnamed Phanes from the 
priority of his Epiphany." Empedocles held, " a fun, the original 
of iVc vifiWe fun." He is the Perfian Mithras mentioned in Plu- 
tarch's Ifis to be " the mediator between the good principle and the 
evil, Oromazes, and Arimaniiis:". words compounded of the names 
of thofe ce'eflial bodies that influence natural good and evil: Orus 
being Apollo, or the fun, orlight; Ma is Venus Urania; Mazeus 
was Jove's Phrygian name, as Hcfychius af]'erts; Ares is Vars; 



In Heniiu. 







Rom* 8* 14* 
Gal. 4* 6. 

Jolm. 14. 




Manes is Meon or Saturn^ Cybele's fpoufe. Thus has moral good 
and evil been perfonified. Philo the Jew terms the Logos, the image 
of God; adding that he was God's inftrument in the creation. Daniel 
mentions an appearance of the fon of God. He is Apollo Loxias f 
the Lokius, or divine fire of the Volufpa, who was the enemy of the 
falfe Gods of the Goths. Tenifoh fhews that the ancient firachmans 
held the world to be framed by the fon of God. Orpheus main-, 
tained that the divine operator in the beginning created ether, but 
enveloped in chaos : that light burfting thro' the ether illuminated 
the creation : but fpoke of God as being transfufed thro' this light, 
^d that he endued man with a rational foul. Cyril of Alexandria 
(|uotes Orpheus thus, *' I adjure thee, thou voice of the Father, 
which he 'firft uttered, when by his counfcls he founded the uni- 
terfe.'*— Sanchoniatho wrote, that the fpiritual breath thro* love 
produced Mot, termed by Athanagoras Ilus, where he mentions the 
Orphic creation : tho' Mot amongft the Kifti fignifies tongue. Ari- 
ftophanes fays that love engendered on chaos men and all animals. 
Suidak on Annacus fays, that Zeus ordered Prometheus and Minerva 
to make teen of clay ; then an infpiring fpirit to give them life. 
Lucian attributes this infpiration to Minerva. We hence fee that 
the ancients were aware of the fpirit of God and of his Son; that is 
of the third charafter in the Godhead ; the aflTumption of which 
charafler Chrift means in faying ^* We will come and refide with . 
you.'* Here we fee the AiCpvvi Ep«T« of Orpheus. From the triple 
charafter of the deity Hermes deduced his title of Trifmegiftus, 
Martial's Omnia Solus et ter Unus; which is implied alfo by the 
triplicity of Oro-ma-zeus, or the good principle, in Plutarch. Ban- 
nier fays, Lao Kiun taught the Chinefe thus, " Tad or reafon pro- 
duced one, one produced two, two produced three, three produced 
the univerfe." Neptune's Trident and Apollo's Tripod ar-e fymbols 
of the omnipotent, good and intelligent Trinity. The Athenians de- 
dicated to Minerva (named Tritogenia) the third day of the moon. 
Plutarch fays a triangle was her fymbol.— Parmenides faid that Love 
was the firft of the Gods. Plato's Phaedrus fays, Love is without 
parentage, and none can declare his origin. His Agatho fays,**Love 
is the fource of peace to mankind, and is more ancient than Japet." 


Hefy chiQ 8 

thap. «0 ^ P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y- 33 

This Japct by the way is older than Noah's eldefl fon; on account 
of vbofe antiquity |>eifons enfeebled with age were called Japet^ 
The japet here is that of Phomutus^ produced by divine love for 
human falyluion. ^I mean not to confirm/acred writ by Pagan proofs: 
but to ihew that thefe liniverTal notions of the divine diftinftions in 
Xhe Godhead ^ere GottiBMn to Jews and Gentiles : and produce 
thefe concurrent teftimcMues together, agakift thofc who objeCl to 
tbe fcriptures 4that the notions are Platonic ; and to Plato, that his 
opinions are Jewiib* But wlience were they acquired both by 
Jews and Greeks ? Traditionally, ab origine, from ihofe who had 
diTtae communications, Adam, Enoch, Noah, and Abraham : as 
Plato hinofelf derives the origin of laws from revelation ; and Arif- -^ ^8- 
cotle owns, that pofterity corrupted ancient traditions. But let fcep« 
tics employ their natoral light in advancing more rational tenets : 
then they win have fome pretenGons to decry thofe that were derived 
\o ancient Cages from facred fountains, declared in the golpel, and 
attefted in the ftrongeft manner, in that day that was prefigured to 
Abnbsun, hy his facrifice in the mount. Puerile as the Egyptian 
PhilofophersTound the ideas of their Grecian pupils, yet they found 
them different from modern freethinkers; they found them docile 
and addided to imhibe inllruffion, and to revere fublime truths de- 
rived from refpeftable fources : Truths not repugnant to reafon^ 
dnTHoo vaft'for its comprehenfion ; it being impoflible for finite 
apatcidcs to conceive infinity : thus Plato's Phzdrus fays, divine 
lov^ is ineffable ; and the infcription on Ifis declares, that divine 
intelligence is inexplicable. 

The power of omniprefent love is eloquently difplayed by Plato's 
Agatho ; and thus poetically by Boethius. 

Concordant laws the univerfe obeysi 
And oppTite elements affefiion fways. 
SoPs brilliant car diffufes golden light: 
Hefpec conduds, and Cynthia rules, the nighl. 
Ocean confines his waves in ftated bounds. 
Left lawlefii they tranlgrefs earth's ample mounds. 

F This 


This regularity's atchievM by love. 
Regent of earth, and fea and realms above. 
Should he the reins refign, each mutual friend. 
With friend wou*d fight, and warwou'd never end« 
This fair machine th^'d labour to diflblve. 
Which now their union caufes to revolve. 
Almighty love mankind together draws. 
Who court the fanaion of his focial laws. 
Of nuptial ties he each endearment fends. 
And amity implants in conftant friends. 
Bleft mortals, if your breafts are rul'd by love. 
Who rules the regions of the powers above. 

Thevenot has a Perfian reprefentation of love prefiding over the 
globe, and of one row of men fupporting another with their joint 
arms; expreflive of unanimity and due fubordinatiom 

Previous to the /armation of the world the material part was created 
a mingled mafs of Tohu and Bohu; the confident part being a 
chaos ; the fluid, an Abyfs, Sanchoniatho's Bau, termed Bathos in 
Epiphanius; the French Boue. This turbid medley Sanchoniatlio 
calls Mot, the Ilus of Athenagoras. As Rowland interprets Mot^ 
motion, it probably means Ilus fet in motion or a ferment. The 
Egyptians fignified the Chaos by their elder Onis, whom Ifis con* 
ceived by Ofiris in Terra's womb : the fecond Orus was the world 
arrived at maturity. Thus, as Sanchoniatho obferves. Civil Hiftory. 
was allegorized into Natural. But to deliver a more literal ac- 
count. Prompt to obey the omniprefent fpirit who agitated the 
mingled fluids (the Bohu or Bau) lo, the lucid or igni.fluous fluid 
detached itfelf from the opaque matter, and inftantly formed an af. 
femblage of light in the fun ; for God faid, " Let light be, and 
light was.'* Thus this glorious, minute, eiaftic body, itbe fineft efflu- 
vium of fire, entered on its office of difplaying its colours around, 
with an energy that pervades she migfa^ body of air^ ihe denfe 
body of water, and ftill denficr body of glals, with aUbkite eafe, 
even in defiance of llie laws fif gravity; and woidd pervade the 



Chiqi. t.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 35 

earth to it& centre^ if its extreme elafticity did not occafion its im«. 

mediate and reiterated refle^on from bodies of irregular furfaces 

(both in the aggregate, and as to their conftituentparticles)in a variety 

of direflions, diereby analyzing its compound rays ; that fo faiths 

figkUy <^ painit the forms of things/* by penetrating otir eyes quite 

innocently for a long feries ofyears ; announcing the diftance of 

objefts, by the angle formed by the rays reflefted from the objeft 

to each eye : like as the diftance of an obje£i is learnt by obfervatious 

taken at two different Rations. The expanfe of air next attained 

its proper region : having the fubtle ethereal fluid, pure from grofs 

onelaftic matter^ above; and the denfer fluid, below^ Then the 

tenei^ cohefive matter (fuch ks Schorl, Spar, Quart^^ often im« 

pregnated with gold, filver^ copper, iron) fubfided according to its 

nariaus confiftence, into one folid mafs; its furface thus becoming 

excavated f<»r the reception of the ocean. On this, the extant land» 

^teed (lom biperfluous moifture, and aQed on by combinations of 

ws^ter^ air^andfircj generating faline principles, which are Acid^AU 

kali, and Ajr&nic^ became both diverfified and fertile: Fire renders air Bnffbn. 

inflammable: thefe combined with water conftitute the aerial acid, 

Tlie air^ purified from dcnfe vapours, afforded a pix>fpe3 of the fun 

by day, and of the moon and ftars by night. This eclairciflement . 

. «aii.compIeated on the fourth day. Orpheus faid, ^< Light fliooting in Soidas. 

thro* the realms of ether, illuminated the earth:" when as Plato in Tineo. 

&/$, '^ God with the new bom world commanded the birth of night 

andday^ and months, and years : thefe were not antecedent to the 

heavens; with which time commenced and will expire : this world 

being only the image of a better, whofe duration will be immenfe/' 

Next^ animals were created ; laft of whom, Man^ named Adam ; 
with Eve» literally the collateral objeft of his love : hence arife 
Plato's Andro^rgyn^s, of both fexes at firft united; whence each re- 
tains a defire of union. Ficinus obferves, that Plato affirms man-, 
kind to have been the laft of the creatio^i. Adam feems the radix Protsgoras. 
of theiOfelian Adamta, People. Eve was the foundation of the 
Egyptian Ifis» and Babylonian Venus. Bocharti from the Hebrew 
Chavah (tho* our Englifli name is from thelrifli Aibh, aiv, fimilitude,) 

F a interprets 


interprets Eve, life : fo Plutarch fays, that Ifis is conceiving nature 
Plato's Oufia* Doves (the fymbot of love) hatched Venus, or Ifis, 
Hyginus* . ancient, from an egg. Ovum. Its rotundity reprefents the earth: 
but on the renewal of mankind after the deluge, the egg alluded to 
the Ark ; which floating like an ifland was named Oon, the name 
of an egg, or an ifle. 

Suidas quotes an old Tiifcan author, who counted each day of 
the creation a millennium: faying, **In the firft, God made the heaven 
and earth : in the fecond,the firmament, calling it fky ; in the third, 
the fea and all terrdlrial waters ; in the fourth, the fun, moon and 
ftars ; in the fifth, every animal of fowls, reptiles, beafts and fifhes : 
in the fixth, man.'* — As to the computation here of diurnal time, 
Aulus, Gellius, and Pliny fay, the Athenians began the day from 
funfet, probably after the Egyptians and Phenicians; and the Italians 
do fo now. Nicholas of Damafcus fays, the Numidians counted by * - 
nights. Cefar fays, in Gaul the day was fubfequent to the Night. 
Graevius notes, that the Arabians followed this rule. Tacitus fays, 
the night in Germany introduced the day. The Englifli count by 
fevennights, and . fortnights. The Greeks call the period of the 
earth's diurnal rotation, a Nych-hemeron. Orpheus ftiles night 
the mother of the Gods : Aratus calls her Ancient. Tully reputes 
Kat: Door, day the child of night. But Gellius and Pliny fay, the Babylonian ^^ 
day began from funrife; the Umbrian, from noon; the Roman, ^t 
from midnight. Pliny fays, the Egyptians counted from midnight. 

Concerning the feveral genera in the animal and vegetable worlds 
with which this globe was fupplied at the creation: the known 
plants may be about 1600 kinds; which are comprehended in fev- 
eral orders, that are reduced to 24 clafTes. Bifhop Wilkins formed 
the Birds into nine claffes ; which he diftributed into 195 feveral 
forts. The feveral forts of fiflies may be 600 : tho* Pliny computes 
them under 200. The feveral forts of beafts, unlefs fubdividcd in- 
to their fpecial varieties, are fcarcdy 100. Of infeds and reptiles 
there may be as many. Myriads of Animalcules remain unknown : 



Mullcr has left a defcription of 95 newly difcovered genera. The 
Creator's power appears as wonderful in miniature as in magnitude. 

Innumerable arc the proofs of divine providence in every depart^ 

mcnt of the creation. If the world contains fome noxious and pefti* 

lenda] articles^ to be inftruments of God's juftice and vengeance ; 

nuffiberlefs are the ufeful» the falutary, the comfortable^ the plesu 

furabic^ and the beautiful^ to evince his benevolence and indulgence. 

The Sheep prcfenu wool; the Bee, honey; the Vine, nedar; the ' 

Olive^ oil; the Earth's bowels, fait and coals : the air is the vehicle 

of fertilizing ihowers from the fea, aud of exhilirating rays from 

the fun. Admirable is the fagacity difplayed in the formation of 

plants, and of animals, to anfwer their ends, aud to ad their parts in 

the creation. It is furprifing that Lucretius could illuftrate the 

dam* ft affedion for her young, yet remain blind to the providential 

e^utc The Pfamift fays. 

His tomb Protefilaus failed to hide 

From the ftill bright idea of his bride : 

His fpeftre rofe to clafp the widow'd fair, ' 

In unfubftantial arms and vacant air. 

But what aQuatcs it, feems to be the Anima of Lucretius. Banni'*r 

94. 9. 

Sh^) he not hear, who framed the car: 
Who formed the eye not fee? 

As to man, the ancients fuppofed him to be a triple compofition ; 
body, mind«. and phantom : called by Virgil, 

Cineres^ Animaeq; Umbraeq. 

Snprro's £dda tells us that man received firft, foul; next, life ; then 

ibc fenfes. Saint Paul enumerates Soma, Pfyche, Pneuma. O- 1 Th. 5. 

tbers tcrai thefe diftinftions. Corpus, Animus, Simulachrum. This 

laid is the apparition or phantafm in evocations ; fleeting and impal- 1. 123 

pable as an image on a mirror. Thus Propertius relates. 

1. 19. 



fays, the Egyptians held the foul to cohfift of two parts, phantom 
and fpirit. This laft retui^ns to the deity at diflbtution ; but the 
fimulachrum departs to the {hades ; fleeting away, as Tirefias told 
Ulifies, like a dreain. This may become vifible to the corporeal 

Tufc ^^ ' '^"* ^^ Lacedaemonians evoked the phantom of Paufania». 

Difp- ,_ The intettigcm Tully mentions aj^ritions as proofs of exiftenee 
after this Ufe. But fouls, divefted of dehfe fubftance, can only 
have t6mmunicatbn with fouls in the temporary dilIbl>ution of pro- 
found fleep. Thus angels have aifumed vifiWe forms: but the 
Deity to Abraham, Jacob, and others, difclofed himfelf intuitively in 
dreams. Angels Kkewife have had mental intercourfc with human 
fouls in this manner, as with Mary's Kufband— The Indians believe 
man endued with a'fopremefoul, which is divine? and an animal 
foul^ the fenfitive principle of pfeaftire and pain : thefc referable 
the Animus and Anima of Lucretius. Virgil fays, that fouls in pfo- 

* ^ ^* cefs of time occupy other bodies; except as to thofe who, like Ixion 
20, 35. and Tantalus, are doomed to Orcus. This dpftrine Saint Luke 

A£b countenances; hinting that fome may be adjudged unworthy of the 
24. I $• refurreClion from the dead : for there will be a refurreftion of all to 
John 5. 29. judgment ; yet that of the. unjuft will not be the refurreftion of life, 
but of damnation, Lucretius i>ot only fays, that man conHfts of 
Corpus, Simulachrum, and Anima; but of Animus or Mens, witlv 

3. 423. which the Anima is conjoined, and to which it is fubfervient ; and 
explains, that what he termed Anima in the firft place, he intends by 
Animus in the laft : bis Anima properly being that vital medium 
that conne6is mind with the animal fpirits, 

3. 144. . per totum diffita Corpus, 

Paret, et ad Numen Mentis, Momenq; movetur. 

The feat of the mind he deems the breaft. But when we refleft 
within ourfelves where thought exerts itfelf, we immediately find 
its cabinet council is held in the head ; but the fountain of the af* 
Tufc. Difp. feftions is the heart. Tully like Lucretius feems to confound Ani- 
mus with Anima. As to the materiality of mind, it depends on 

t definition ; 

1. 123 


definition ; if all matter be inert^ mind cmaoi be mauer ; which 
Materialifb confound with fubftancc. 

Mankind were, as to the nobler facu!tie« of the foul, reSeaion, 
volition, judgment^ created fimilar to the divine Archetjrpe* Plato InThc^teto* 
treating of man's fimilitude to God, deems it to confift in wifdom, 
reHitude and fandity : and fays, a good man is God's image. Tullv Sanaitaie. 
afferts. Mens a dik ad lioiiiinef pervcnit: alfo, £ft homini cum Nat. Deor! 
dco rationis focietas. Again, Sic ad intenigendum natus eft homo, pe Leg: 
qoas : morulis dcus, ut equus ad curfum. He lays^ ^ The foul by pj^f ' 
itsaflBnity with divinity is endued with forcfight/^ The Chaldaic 
Oracles fay, *• The human mind affects God :" alfo, « The paternal 
mind fet his image on fouls/* liipparcbus held, human feuls to be 
a portion of heaven. The Volufpa (ays, chat fouls are divine, and 
have communication with fpirits. MaaiiliiM Uy9^ 

Pliny 2. s6. 

\ii du\num eft habiure dcum fub peftore vcftro: l. 4. 

In adumq; redire Animas, Csloq; venire ?-— Again^ 

* Quis dubitet hominem conjungere Csdo ? L. s. 

Eximiam natura dedit Lingoamq; Capaxq; 

Ingenium, volucremqs aninrnm ; qoem deniq^ &i Unum 

Defcendit Deus, atq; habitai; ipfumq; rtcfmiu 

Tlu^ Plalmift fays, 


ril thee my great Creator pralfe, «39* »4* 

For my furprifing fraiQC : 
All thy atchievements wonder raife i ^ 

My foul owns whence it tiame. 

The Eighth pfalm is a noble corfeflioa of that high veneration fo 
well reprcfcntcd by Boyle to ht ilu^ ftom maM'« »teU^ to God. 

Jhe Eighth Pfelm. 

f ar obenwieactli, |elpi»vaf nfp 

The glories of thy name ; 


40 iPRlMltlVE HISTORY. (Book a 

Thou haft difplay'd, above the flcies. 
The fplendour of thy fame. 

The lipsof babes» who preii the brcaft^ 

The deity difclofe : 
In them thy prowef* ftands confeft» 

To fil^nce ali thy foe*. 
When ail tbe beav^ns^ that round HI IhtAe, 

The moon and fteHir rays. 
The fabrics of thy band liivine. 

My feeble fight amaze : 

What then, O t>odl ean man apjpear, 

TThy fond regard to move ? 
The Son of Man, to thee Ya deaot; 

So honour^ in -thy love. 

Inferiour fcarce to heav'nly hofts^ 

Next angels He's renown'd ; 
This rank he thro' thy boulaty boafts» 

By thee with honours crown'd. 

The works of thy almighty IkiU 

AU to his plealUre bow : 
Thou grant'^ft him pdw'r to rule at Will 

Thy creatures here below : 
Oxen and iheep, all beafts that dweli 

In ev'ry wood and field ; 
Each bird, each filfa cf fin or fbell» 

That various climates yield. 

Yar above earth, Jehova, rife 

The glories of thy Tiame : 
Thou haft difplay'd above the Ikies^ 

The fplendour ef thy fame. 

How much nobler are tliofe notions of man, arifing from bis 
wental faculties and powers, to aftoniihingly as 4b<gr have been ex- 



^rted by an Archimedes and a Newton, than Lord Monboddo's 
OTOundlefs conclufions that man was not calculated for converfadon, 
becaufe he attains fpeech with difficulty. We may as well main- 
lain that man was never intended for ambulation, becaufe he is flow 
in learning to walk; or that the was not dcfigned for mafti cation, be* 
caufe born without teeth* He allows that man is formed with or- 
gans for articulation ; but implies that they were not intended to be 
ufeful ; and cannot find this or any other fpecific difference between 
us and Ouran Outangs : a relationfhip with whom his Lordfliip 
claims ; and applauds his friend Bontius for inventing an affinity 
between themfelves and their highly informed Homines caudatos. 
This reminds me of the philofopher, who imperfeftly defined man, 
an animal with two legs, and without plumes ; when his rival, ftrip- 
ping a Cock of his feathers, convinced him that his definition was 
mcom^\eayL Perfons, who fondly imagine an affinity between them- 
fe\ves and biboons, may bring themfelves or others to approve of 
an smorous connexion with them. Several novel philofophers are 
Co prone to beftial alliances and manners, that they affirm man to be 
a quadruped: tho* the influxure of the elbow and knee, the dif- 
porportion of the length of the leg and thigh to that of the arm, 
theanteriorpofition of women's breads, evince that man is not formed 
to )>c a quadruped; in which pofture the hair would obftnift his 
fi{^^ inftead of being a graceful covering for his (boulders from 
&n and rain. When children imitate quadrupeds, they go on their 
knees, not on their feet ; which would occafion a mod expofed and 
ndiculous pofture : but the abfurdity of a propofition beft qualifies 
it to be a novel philofopher*s axionnu 

Prometheus is faid in Pagan ftory 10 have formed the human 
framr; and Minerva to have infpired it; here Prometheus repre- 
favts ihc Monogenes, or Chrift's human unembodied fpirit at the 
•creation; Minerva, the Logos or his divine nature. Montfaucon 
*M a monument of Minerva, with Pfyche the foul's emblem, at- 
^iBg Prometheus iaihioning the human frame. 


I. VoL 


The eOence of hwnan Ibuls exifted from the beginning, in tbc 
omniprcfcnt Deity^ But the expreffion of Levi*i payment of ty(he« 
in Abraham's Loins alludes to corporeal defcent: fo a wife with hq^ 
dowry often purchafes for her iflue as well as berfelf. Soul is tbq 
piyi)f)9e aurs parjticula ; Plato's Qew Maf^ The infinite being per<» 
v^des all nature. Luctn fays. 

Eft quit>dcunque vides^ quocunq; moveris^ 
God is whatever we fee, wheree'er we ga 

Manilius fays, 

Infufumq; Deum Caclo^ Terrifq; Fretoq; 

We may therefore confidently fay that life is God, and God life. 

Seneca fays, ** A holy fpirit refides in us the fuperintendant of good 

men and bad : He will fhew us the fame treatment he receives from 

us/* Pythagoras faid, '• By ill life we torture the God who is in 

us." He held, *• God a mind pervading the univerffe^, the (buifcc 

of life, the univerfal principle animating all/' Virgil fays, Spiritus 

intus alit. Henry More held that the life of God aftuates the 

2. 4. ^^^'* Antonine held a prefident from whom we flow, as from a 

ftream«— The intelleft comes from fome common fountain of its own 

nature." He fays, " Counteraft not the deity within us.'* AHb^ 

5. 10, 27. „ The foul is intelligence and deity." Cleanthes held the Author * 

Faft. 6. of the world to be a fpirit pervading every part of it. Ovid fays, 

Clem: *' Eft Deus in nobis." Orpheus, *• Deus adftat in omnibus unus.** 

^p*- Hefiod fays, •• The human mind is God incognito." TuMy fays, 

Somn. Deum te fcito: alfo that Euripides afferted, " Soul is God." On 

divination he fays, ** The foul's exiftence is from all eternity." 

Addifon fays, •• 'Tis the divinity that ftirs within us :" Pop? ex- 

preffes it, ** Breathes in our foul, informs our mortal part." Saint 

' a£ *' ^^"' ^^y** *' ^^"'' *^^y ^^ ^^^ temple of the Holy Ghoft— In whom 
17. 28. we move and have our being" — Virgil fays, 

** Jovis omnia plena." 

The univerfe is a plenum of Jehova. 




The inhabitants «of the iflands in the South fea maintain the pow^ 
erful infiucncc of the divine fpirit to be univerfally difFufed. — This 
ubiquity of the Deity, whofc infinite fubftance pofTeffcs infinite fpace, 
is an invincible argument againft a vacuum; which js hot demon- 
flratcd from Loco-motion. Bodies are capable of it thro* porofity, 
asalieve thro* water; a glafs platCj againft the folarrays; as opake 
bodies alfo are, by thofe rays giving way thro* the porous air. The 
denfe body of gold is fo porous as to be pervious even to water. 
The fine -ethereal fluid pervades bodies in motion, with as little ob- 
Sruftion to them, as if they moved in vacuo. Eleftricity is a proof 
of a fine fluid poflefling all fpace, and by its contiguity overturning 
cities and mountains, and fhaking diftant regions at the fame inftant. 
When we pufh a long pole againft any objeft, the impulfe given at 
the farther end is not by the particles of the pole touched by us i 
fb the panicles of the eleftrical fluid, which communicate the im- 
pvAfeai the father end of a long condu6lor, or at the farther end 
oJTa large kingdom, are not the identical particles that receive the 
impulfe Mt SrA; but thefe are contiguous to others; fo on uninter- 
nqptedly from end to end : and the fartheft move at the fame inftant 
as the neareft. If a feries of billard balls are placed contiguous, a 
molioii given to the neareft, will be at the feme inftant communicated 
tfir^kije remotcft. Btit if there are intervals tetween them, they will 
Wmaved in fucceflion, or, as Sir Ifaac Newton fays, by fits ; not 
-Sit'omce. Therefore if the motion of the eleftrical fluid be fuc* 
ceffivc. Tome ftill finer body, called by the Chaldeans Empyreum, 
^ffefn^the intervals between the particles of the eleftrical fluid; 
wKch it pervades with as much eafe, as eleftrical matter pervades 
acondador: and thus mind pervades the human fpeftrum, and the 
fpeSmm poffcfles itfelf of the animal fpirits ; and God pervades the 
vhofc: the Pfalmift fays, ^^Ih God's light we ftiall fee light:'* God 3^ ^ 
Mng infinite, tho* without parts, as not liable to partition ; being 
"OBe infeparabie whole, all and every where an unbounded uniform 
"imnd totalty prefent throughout the univerfe ; as a globe prefents 
one imifottittfcirface' towards every direftion throughout fpace, which 
IS that Unlimited extent poflefled by the infinite being.—- As to the 
minuteBCfa '^4)0dief , how fubtle is Aquafoitis^ and fpirituous Al- 

Cr % cahoL 


Alcahol. If we incline a botUe containing cold liquor^ upon our 
letting the liquid fall fuddenly back to the fide contiguous to our 
hand, how fwiftly does a chill effluvium fcnfibly affeft us thro* the 
glafs ; fo on the contrary, if we pour hot water into a glafs, or earthen 
veffel ! How does fire penetrate thro* iron ! W.hat an extenfive fpace 
will a fmall candle fill with light for a confiderable time. Jenkins 
on Chriftianity fays, "If all the luminous fluid emitted from the 
fun during a year could be confolidated into one inert mafs, it would 
not equal a fingle grain of fand." 

That foul is Deity always prefent to aChiate bodies duly organized 
and prepared to obey its influence, Ariftotle furniflies us with fomet 
^^^6. ^7^^^ analogical evidence. He fays, *• If Mice lick fait, they have young 
without copulation; and their young have been /ound pregnant be- 
fore their birth.'* In Plato's Convivium it is maintained, that the 
body and foul of men are in a ftate of pregnancy : but foul here 
means that middle nature between animus, mind, or intelleA, and 
the animal fpirits ; it is the Anima of Lucretius conneding body and 
foul : and, as difcernment and judgment are attributes of the animus, 
imagination and volition feems to be fo of the anima, which I take 
to be ex traduce ; for which I refer to the fpermatic animation dif- 
coverable tliro* microfcopes, Anima may be defined the materi- 
ality of mind, the fpirituality of body : it is the Pfyche afluating the 
animal fpirits, and communicating to the body didatcs and imprcr. 
fions received from the mind : and on the contrary, fenfitive per- 
ceptions to the mind. Our intelleft is divine ; and, as Solomon 
fays, reverts at death to God : from whom our reanimation will en- 
fue at the rcfurreftion ; when the Pfyche clad in a new body will 
regain a commiflion to communicate to it the divine powers of mind- 
Plato's Phaedo fays, the foul exifts fomewhere before its connexion 
with the body. His Philofopher fays, every foul is more ancient 
Stanley, than" all bodies. ' Socrates held the foul's pre-exiftence. Plutarch 
fays, Empedoclcs held, the fouls both of the dead and of the unborn 
have now an exiftence.— To the queftion how we are not omni- 
fcient, if we participate of the divine nature, I anfwer; the foul isfo 
immured in the body, fo blended with it, fo clogged by it, that its 


Chap- tt.) l^RIMITIVE HISTORY, 45 

higheft faculties are under reftriftions ; that it is debarred from inform 
mation but thro' the corporeal fcnfes: thus in Ideots the intellcaual 
powers are almoft totally fufpended j fo in temporary Lunatics, On 
the contrary in fleep, when the fetters of the body are relaxed, the 
foul often exerts a wonderful energy, and exercifes and fports with 
the Pfyche's imagination. Lucretius fays, 

Somnus cum dedita membra. 

Eft aliud tamen in nobis, quod tempore in illo 
Multimodis agitatur. 

Plutarch fays, ^< As the fun is always fplendid, without appearing Deieci Ortc« 
fo till the clouds are difpelled; fo the foul difengaged from this 
corporeal cloud acquires a divine energy." The foul in fleep -is ca- 
pable of communication with celeftial fpirits, by infmuation, the 
CV\a\da\c conveffation without found. TuUy fays, Dii cum Dormi- 
entibus coWoqutntur. Baxter on the foul defines dreaming, poflef- 
/ron In Oeep. Cyrus dying told his fons the foul in fleep becomes 
more cfivine and fees into futurity* Herodotus relates that Cyrus 
xireamt concerning the fuccelfion of Darius fon of Hyftafpes to the 
Pcrfian throne. Tertullian mentions inftances of the foul's power 
t>f divination in dreams. Vefpafian dreamt that he fliould be Em- 
peror, when Nero had loft a tooth j this enfued next day. From a 
iitaan Antonius Mufa perfuaded Auguftus to quit the wing which he 
was then commanding at Philippi ; and this wing was routed. So- 
phocles thro' a dream detefled the thief who robbed the temple of 
Hercnles. Xenophon (4) relates his dream and the fortunate con- 
fequence to his expedition. Lord Verulam, juft before his father's 
dcceafe, dreamt that their country feat was plaiftered with black * 
mortar. In Pliny's time the mother of a Pretorian learnt that ** a t5» t. 
dccoftion of the root of Eglantine or fweet Briar would cure the 
Hydrophobia;*' in which a foiution of Pewter is ferviceable; but 
Ac moft certain remedy for this extraordinary inflamation is repeated 
bleedings ad deliquium. Tully fays, the cure of ferpentine poifon Div, 
by Ariftolochia was learnt in a dream. Sozomen fays, his friend 
Aquilinus in the yellow jaundice dreamt that to dip his meat in a 



Sicv 17. 
2. t4» 

In Synefio. 


compofition of honey, wine, and pepper would prove a cure, as it did* 
Plutarch fays, that Pericles in a dream <}ifcovered a medicine that 

piodor. cured a wounded maa. When Alexander's foldiers were wounded 
with poifoned arrows, the king in a dream learnt what herb would 
perform the cure. Antonine aflerts that in dreams he foUnd a cure 
for fpitting blood, and for the vertigo. Paufanias relates Pindar's 
B«ot. dream of Proferpine's reprimand, and the fatal confequence. A fe- 
male apparition told Socrates truly that he (hould not dfe till the 
third day next enfuing.. The appearance of the Jewifh Hierarch to 
Alexander converted his refentment to reverence, the king declaring 
he had before in a vifion prortiifed him the empire of Afia. Baxter 
inftapqes thq dream of Pelopidas, and Timoleon's. Hamilcar truly 
dreamy, that he fliould fup next ip Syracufe. Dreams difcovered a 
murder to Simbnides and faved him from fhipwreck. Amphictyon 
Pliny. '^^ ^ famous interpreter of dreams. Need I quote (acred writ? 
Homer fays, that dreams are from Jove. • Zoroafter held that fomc 
in fle^E receive divine communications. Here obferve that Zoroa/^ 
ter is am apellative of more than one Orential philofopher^ derived 

Bochart. irom,Zpr, or the Hebrew Schur, tp contemplate, and After a ftar. 
ARuleius fays the fixth Zoros^fter was -matter of Pythagoras, whilft 

fekntley. a c^ptiv.e ofCambyfeSy in Egypt ^ whither however he fays the pre- 
valent account was that Pythagoras went voluntarily. This Zoroafter 
Diogenes names Zabratvis; Ajeximder. in his fymbols, Na-ziaratus; 
Wwtarch, Zaratus,; Suida», Zares; Cyril, Zaran. Hermippus calls 'f.^t*' 
In Amobio.^ o|i? an Armenian, a nephew of Hoftanes : who, as Pliny writes wa« 

contemporary, wiih Xerxejs* HTsrmrppns calls another a Pamphylian,, • 
known to Cyrus j Agathiasf^ys he was contemporary with Hyftafpes: 
He i< Plato's. Erus, who revived after a death of ten days: another 
^.Ba£lriap« the opponent iOjPNmus acco^diagto Trogus, and named 
Ox^ajftes by Diodoros. Suidas mentions a Perfiai\, named by the 
Ara^bians Zaraid^t : but this leemsto be the fame as all the reft, 
except Oxiartes : who fe^ptui to fc.e the fop of Horpmazes in Plato % 
aijudjwhom Phita^ch CQunt^ 690 years before the Trojan war; iSuidas, 
5095 'Caftor.>tbc Ly4ia» 6op years before Xerxes, Hermipjpus 
4Ui^rate4^6Q>ooo of Jiiis verfe$. 



Pljtto dys, the fcft of Qrphcus derive E«ft« from C^^eg^M as it cracylo. 
keeps the foul in imprifonment. Suidas fays^ Soma is a corpfe. 
Plato alfo fays, ** I have heard from fages that we are now dead, Gcorg. 
and the body is our fepulchre:'* and, " It was an ancient queftion, 
•whether life is not rather death ; death, life. The Indian Brach- 
mans held this life, the life of embryos • death, a birth to real life. 
Silcnus told Midas, " No ill is faid of the dead, becaufe their na- Plutarck 
turc is exalted." HeracHtus fays of fouls, ** Our life is their death; 
and when we die they live.'* Empedocles faid that fouls are here In Porphyry, 
in exile. Maximus Tyrius (15) fays, *• Death is the exordium of In Piatarcli. 
immortality, the nativity of a future life." Tully alferts, " li vi- Scip: 
vunt, qui ex corporum vinculis, tanquam c carcerc evolaverunt." 
And, ** Poffe animos, cum e corporibus excefferint, in Caelum^ Tuft, 
quafi in domicilium fuum prevenire." Alfo^ " mortem non interri- ^^P* 
XMva efTe omnia tollentem atq; delentem, fed quandam qua^ mi« 
gTatvontm commutationemq; vita/' Again, **Non eft lugenda Mors, 
^uam immortilitas confequitur." He fays, ^ the ancient Cafci DeScncdate 
held that a man at his deceafc did not totally die; and Pherecydes 
mainuined the foul's fempitemity." Paufanias fays the Chaldeans 
and Indian Magi aflerted the foul's immortality. The Chaldaic 
oracles (ay, ** Tis thine to fpeed to the father's light and gldry : 
f«, as the foul is a fire glowing with the father's virtue, it <5on- 
tknies immortal, and is a queen of life.'* The Druids taught the AmmiMi 
/&o/'s immortality. The People of the Friendly ifies deem the foul 
a vital and divine principle. Thofe of the Society ifles maintain 
that God refumes the foul, and afterwards configns it to an eternal 
manfiott; thus conjoining mind and Pfyche together; the enlarge* 
meitof whkh laft in an amcient fculptore refpeding Prometheus^ i» Montfaacoa. 
figured by a Butterfly. Solomon fays, the duft fliall return to its^ 
priAijie earthy and the fpiric revert to God the donor." Thoth 
Tnfinegiftitt. tells the Egyptian Eficulapiu^,. the human foul ia im^ 
mortal. Cbalcidius wrote that he faid at his death. He lived hero j^ Apulcio. 
in am earthly body an exile and aftranger, and was now returning 
home: that death. wa» not lamentable^ this life being rather death. ^ Laertio. 
'^^pompus &}», the Magi^ who as Ariftotle held were verfed in 



^hilofophy prior to the Egyptians, maintained the rcfurrcftion and 
immortallity of man. Propertius fays, 

Sunt aliquid Manes, Lethum non Omnia finit. 

Lucan fays of the departed foul, 

Rifitq; fui Ludibria Trunci. 

The foul at pageantry funereal fmiles. 

Laer. Anachariis doubted whether we fhould efteem our exiftence here 

a real life. The author of the Religio Medici obferves, that men 
Spe&ktor^if fometimes at the hour of their departure reafon and fpeak above 
diemfelves. Calanus told Alexander, Propediem Te videbo. Cato 
in Tully pleads our concern for futurity to be an argument for the 
foul's immortality; as the Speftator does, the continually improveable 
Tufc : nature of our mental faculties. Tully obferves that the human mind 
Qs*^* has an augury of futurity, which is ftrongeft in minds of the higheft 
De Republic. ^^^P^c^ty* Owing to this forefight Plato tells us, ^ When a perfon 
is at the point of death, anxious doubts and fears arife from a re* 
fle£lion on the errors of his life ; then the pains and torments referved 
for the guilty in the other world, which he had hitherto accounted 
fabulous, and had made the objefls of raillery, begin to affeft and *jf^ 
make an impreffion on him." Thus in Proverbs we read that an f^' 
ti.^. impious man at approaching death is deftitutc of hope. * 

But left what is advanced above be taken to fliew that the infinite 
being, of whom our mind confifts> is limited by inert matter, let me 
obferve that, as water pafles thto* a fponge, air thro* water, ether 
thro* air, light thro' ether; fo blood paffes thro* veins ; animal fpirits 
thro* Mood; the pfyche thY-o* the animal fpirits ; and mind pervades . 
the pfyche : God pervades all : yet the perception of him,, and the 
participation of his energy by coiporeal beings, depends on his 
pleafure; by which alone he can be limited; and by which we are 
prevented from knowing more of him and by him than he chufes. 


Chap 2- P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 49 

Thirs as to the Son of man, the Deity even in him occafioiially faf. 
pended the divine powers : as when he exclaims, ** My God, my 
God, why haft thou defcrted me?" alfo, " If it he thy will let this 
Cup evade me." Yet in bis fuperiour nature he was God incarnate j 
but his human nature was to accomplifli the redemption by his hu* 
man merits as the feed of woman. 

Pure intelleft is divine : and we are taught that we fhall bodily 
fuffer for the bodily abufe of it : tho* no creature is endowed with it 
but in a limited degree : for even in the next ftate it will tenant a 
body, tho* of a nobler (lamp. So Virgil fays. 

Altera fato — Corpora debentur. 

Job fays, •* In my flefh I fhall fee God ; whom I (hall fee for 
inyfelf, and my own eyes fhall behold, and not another, tho' my 
reins bcconfumed within me." Ifaiah fays, " Thy dead fhall live; 
V\\>ci vscj ieai body they fhall arife : awake and fing ye, who dwell in ^^^ 
the duft: for tbe earth fhali emit her dead/f Again, " The earth 
(hall alfo difclok her bloods, and no more cover her flain/* Da- 
niel fays, ** Many of them who fleep in the duft fhall awake, fome '*• *• 
to eternal life, and fome to fhame and everlafting contempt." King 
David faid, " I fhall be fatisfied, when I awake with thy fimilitude." 
Alfo, "Thou (halt guide me with thy council, and afterwards receive 
me to glory;" and fee Pfalm 49. 15. 1 will not quote Chriftian authori- ?3j '4- 
tiesj as Luke 20. or Paul 1. Cor 15. hecaufe it is their perfuaGon 
tmivcrfally. Pliny affures us that Democritus pofitively afferted 
the rcfurredion of the body. Theopompus, 340 years before the 
Chriftian era, wrote that the Perfian Magi held, ** the prefent ftate 
of things, and the ftruggles between the good and bad principle, 
irould continue 6000 years: after which Hades Yfould be deftroyed, PluUrchilfit 
and men would be happy and live without food, and their bodies 
become tranflucent. The Greek poem attributed 10 Phocylides 
has lines to this effeft. 

We hope the remains of the dead will foon from eartb 

Revifit light, and afterwards become divine: 

For fouls continue incorruptible in the dead ; 

For the foul is God's gift to mankind ^and his image. 

H The 


The body we receive from earth ; to that refolv*d. 
We all are duft; but heav'n receives the foul. . 

Here follow my reafons for fuppofing that imagination and volition 
are faculties of the Pfyche or Anima. In fleep we undergo a 
relaxation refembling a diflblution : then the imagination^ uncon- 
trouled by reafon, mind or animus, entertains itfelf with various 
extravagant reprefentations ; fo in a delirum : even dogs, tho' de- 
ftitute of intelled:, poflefs imaginations indicated in dreams. It is 
true that' mind or intelleS, being fuperiotir to the Pfyche, often 
checks and correSs the wild failles of the imagination; which are al- 
ways moft giddy in perfons abounding with animal fpirits. I'he 
imagination therefore has a connection with, and can be inftigated 
by the animal fpirits on the one hand, and is controulable by the 
intellect on the other : it therefore belongs to man's middle nature : 

Tttfc. Difp. which is endued with the fenfe of pain. To this middle nature alfo 
'•*^' belongs volition ; which Locke fays is determined by uneafinefs: as 
indeed it ofttn is by the uneafinefs arifing from ungovernable and 
unfatisfied paffions : but experience teaches us, and the laws infift, 
that it can coincide with reafon or the intelleft : and fometimes it 
a6ts from caprice and whim, the genuine offspring of the imagina- 
tion. Yet how often does it determine contrary to our reafon, judg« 
ment, underftanding, and confcience; which top often prove un- 
. equal to its regulation and government. Therefore, if our niind 
underftanding at any tiftie condemns our will, this is of courfe d^^ 
ftinft from mind; as refolving not only diftinCt from mind, but. 

Rom. 7. 15. contrary to its approbation. Saint Paul fays, " what I condemn^ 1 

^^jaTto.'^' that I do— I ferve God mentally ; fin carnally :" yet he ufes w7/for j 
intellectual approbation, mental choice or confent ; not thait oper- i 
ative wilfulnefs that proceeds to aftion contrary to judgment or ^ 
confcience,. by a determination oppofite to the underftanding ; an 
impetuous refolve, perverfe, and repugnant to found judgment; 
and prompted by the paflions, that too often ^'prevent the operation 

Critic RcT. of the regulating power, which ought to direfl" the will 5 inftead 
oa. 1788* cither of appetites or capricious whims* 





Creation was tompleated in Six Days : InflittUion of the Sahbath. Edcn^ ' 

called in China Lan Theu^ Celtic Jor God*s Precin£l or Clofe^ was 

tuatered hy the Choa/pis, Tigris^ Euphrates and Phyfeus. This proves 

the Surface of the Antediluvian World was uneven. Man*s reJlriSion 

from the Tree of Knoxvledge^ Eve^s SeduHion thro* Satan* s Envy, the 

Motive of ail his Sorceries: of which fome fad Injlances. Adam*$ 

Trasijgrejion and its felf evident effeSs. The World* s Conflagration^ 

HeU \fj the Ancients^ conjijlent with God*s Jfuftice and Benevolence. 

A Divine In/huSor and Saviour expe&ed by Pagans ; prediSed by 

Demons^ mi by Socrates. DifiinSions refpeSing the- Mejfiah \ the 

Logos xvas united with Chrijl*s human Spirit at the Creation ; and be- 

€ame incarnate at the Redemption. The Logos ejfeniialfy One with 

ike Hofy Ghojl. Proofs of the Mejfiah: his Second Advent. Info- 

moos State of Religion at his Firjl. 'Oriental Accounts of the Origin 


TH£ Creation being in fix days compleatedt God on that ac« 
count fandiBed the feventb. Pagans had a Tradition of this 
HdMlcmimdal holiday* Hefiod fays» «< The feventh day is holy/* 
fj who lived 160 years before Rome's foundation^ wrote thus 

ECJojuuov ff/jurj evjflf^ Keu Tw TenKeffro OTcavTU. 

EiSojixTif S**ffresra Kai^ku^ i^ov tffjurji. Clem: 

CalBmachus fays 5^^,^. 5. 

MGotMTVi y^fioi^ Km 9$ Tervxovro (i««vr«. 

H 2 The 

29. 27 




The Goths and other Shemites obferved Hebdomadal periods : 
and from them the Greeks and Romans adopted them ; not, in my 
opinion, from Ham's line, who feem to have obferved Nundinae ; 
in Mefopotamia in Jacob's time Hebdomadal periods were ob- 

The newborn earth was watered with a mift or dew : contrary to 

• the fecundity of Egypt arifmg from inundations of the Nile; and 

perhaps contrary to our partial (howers, which often here , occaGon 

the Rainbow's appearance : tho* feldom obfervable even in Perfia. 

The firft human pair were placed in a moft delicious region thence 
named Eden, eaftward of the defert: and it feems, (tho' doubtlefs 
EzA. 27, ^^^ deluge afterwards greatly altered all low countries) near the 
23. Ifaia 27- confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. Ptolemy places an Addan 
thereabouts. Herodotus (1) fays, that country was the moft fenilc 
he had ever feen, the Corn yielding two hundred fold. Rauwolf 
on his travels found the Tigris to be called HiddekeL The two o- 
ther rivers of Eden were the Choafpis environing Sufiana or Chufe- 
ftan, and the river that forms the ifle of Chader at the head of the 
Perfian Gulf, the ancient territory of Havilah fon of Chus ; whofe' 
Gen 25, 17. defcendcnts here Pliny names Chavelaei. This river is nained Phi- 
i am. 15. 17 ^^^ j^y Sirach's fon, and Phyfeus by Xenophon. Arrian infori 
Alcx.Exp.7. us thus, '* A channel forms a communication between the Eulet 
and Tigris : this laft being alfo lower than the Euphrates, m^ 
channels from this run into that : which receives many other river 
previous to its fall into the Perfian gulf." Salmafius fays, the Eulteus ^ 
is the Choafpis. Herodotus fays, " The Choafpis runs by Sufa,, 
and the Perfian Monarchs drink its water." Pliny afferts'this of * 
the Eulaeus : yet fays, the Choafpis joins the Tigris between Cte-i. H 
fiphon and Seleucia, fome 40 miles from Babylon: the Eulaeus joins 1 
the Tigris at Charax 175 miles from Babylon. To the river Ulai 
Daniel fays, Sufa was contiguous; as PHny fays, to the Eulaeus 1 
who writes that the Eulaeus and Tigris form a Lake near Charax, . 
fituated on an artificial mount at the confluence of thefe rivers ; the 
^ Tigris on the right, the Eulaeus on the left : and that the Eulaeus, 

' in 

Delia Vallc. 


iniucourfc from Media^ divides Sufiana from Elimais: alfo that 
after the two branches of the Tigris form the Pafitigris, this united 
ftrcam receives from Media the Choafpis ; and pafling between 
Ctefiphon and Seleucia> falls into the Chaldean lakes : that origin- 
allythe Tigris and Euphrates had different mouths, till united ar- 
tificially." — We muft conclude that the Choafpis and Eulacus \fere 
fo near at Sufa as to lave two different (ides of that City ; or that 
the fame river has two mouths of different names : however, that at 
Charax was not within the limits of Eden, as it would have confti- 
titcdafifth river. 

Bdola, which Eden afforded, is fuppofed to be Pearls. Mofcs, Exod. 16. 

who fays Manna was white and round like Coriander feed, compares Numb. ii« 

it to Bdellium. Pliny fhews that Pearls (whence the Tower of 

o, 28* 0, 35* 
Paralia) abounded on that coaft. Rauleigh takes it to be a Gum 

\xet tommou in that neighbourhood. Arrian (in his Erythrean 
, Periplus) ucaiing of Horea below the Pcrfian gulf, tells us the 

neighbouring region only produces Bdellium. This Pliny defcribes. 

froftnm teaches us that the Onyx, produced alfo in that country, "' ^* 

nas '' the Murrine flone, of which the Parthians made cups," that 4?' }S: 
, , . . '^ btalibi. 

wnen hcA imparted an aromatic tafle to wme : Pliny mentions their Montfaucon. 

yarigaied colours. 

JEden'sfituation amidfl four antediluvian rivers Ihews, (if we had 
^not been exprefsly told of mountains at the deluge) that the earth's 
furface anterior to the flood was diverfified with inequalities, low- 
lands and highlands. Indeed the globe being at firfl in a fluid flate, «. 
tbc water affcmbling into their appointed bed, mufl naturally have 
fcracd channels in their courfe, and the mediterranean countries 
I fcavc been more elevated than the maritime. Some plants require 
-. an elevated fituation ; and eminences are beneficial in controuling 
tcmpcfts, arrefting rain, fheltering the vallies, and affording defcents 
to mineral waters. 

The Chinefe call the firfl man's place of refidence, Lan Thcu ; 
tKs in Celtic fignifies God's clofe or cloifler, precinCl or fold. 




The firft pair were interdifted on pain of death from an aft figu* 
ratively termed eating \ of the tree of knowledge of good and evil^ 
which grew in the centre of their garden. Some think the virtue of 
compliance and fin of difobedience are the good and evil they were 
to experience thro* this tree ; which they were probably debarred 
froni> as a token of their fubje6lion^ and a trial of their duty. 

Eve, whofe nam^ refembles Efa in the Cuban dialed of Caucafui 

a daughter, was feduced to difobedience thro' an artful Serpent's in- 

{ligation, whom fhe might have miftaken for a divine Seraph : but 

• he was Satan (that apoftate Seraph, the genuine Serapis, an obfelete 

God of Egypt in the time of Herodotus^ reftored by the fon of 

Eufcb. Pwp. Lagus, and deemed by Porphyry the Prince of Demons) who aflum- 

ed or influenced that animal ; ** Being a deceiver of all the world;'* 

*5V'|' and, ^^ a murderer from the beginning:" •* Death -coming into the 

Wifd. 1. 24. world thro' the Devil's envy/' This appears to be the conftant 
motive of Satan's malice towards man; inducing him ** as a roaring 
. Lion to traverfe the world in queft of prey ;** Man's avowed ene- 
my^ like the evil Genius of the undaunted Brutus; of which, and 
of the fpcftre that appeared to Dion, Plutarch makes mention ; and 
inclines «* to the old opinion of- evil Demons invidous to good men 
ueterring and urging them from virtue; left by their perfeverance 11% 
good conduft they fliould attain a happier lot from deftiny than 
ihemfelves." Thefe beaded by the Arch-apoftate feduce men to J* 
vice ; and to affront God, either by the adoration of the planetay^*"' 
or of deified mortals : the former, by conftrufting fchemes and ma- 
9 gical rules and rites refpefting them : the latter by artful oracles at- 

tributed to them, as the Delphic, Dodonean, Ammonean. Henci 
many furprizing prediftions to avert calamities (inflifted by Demons) 
thro' expiations more horrid «ven than thofe calamities: as by in- 
terring alive a male and female Gaul and Greek in Rome ; or the 
human oblations to the Minotaur* Plutarch writes that ** Araxes 
king of Armenia being promifed fuccefs againft the Pcrfians if he 
would facrifice his two daughters, flew thpfe of Micfalcus, an Ar- 
menian Lord ; but flying From his refentment was drowned in the 
Helmus, from him named Araxes." Thus the moft flagitious rites 



w^c reputed divine ceremonies. Plutarch fays, the Cimbri fcruti- 
nixcdthe fate of war in the blood and bowels of their captives. The 
Carthaginians, when beaten by Agathocles, facrificed aoo noble 
youths. Vobifcus fays, Aurelian confented to facrifice all his 
captives at the inftance of the Sibylline oracles. The Moabites 
even facrificed their children in flames of fire to Moloch; which in 
Celtic fignifies a molefter. Hence alfo the many aftonifliing incan- 
tations and evocations, of which even facred writ is not deftitute of 
examples, as at Zoan and Endor. Pelias told Jafon to evoke the 
ghoft of Phryxus from Cholchis. Theanor was forbidden in the ^^ ViniMt. 
aft of evoking the ghoft of Lyfis. Apion declared that he excited ^^ ' ^ 
apparitions to give him an account of Homer, but he dared not di- 
vulge the intelligence given to him. A fpeftre, evoked by -a Thcf- L^can 
falian forcerefe, told Sextus Pompeius the fate of the Pharfalian bat- 
i\c- 1 will not examine into the abominable necromancies of Ti- 
V>cf\u&, ^ero^or Julian; nor the bloody rites of the Cabiri polluted AmoHas j. 
u^ith fratricide. Dr. Hicks tranflates Hervor's nuigical poem to 
evoke her fathtT's ghoft. The Runic chapter of Semund*8 Edda 
celebrates Odin's magtc. Horace mentions Canidia*s damnable 
Philtre of a famifhed boy. The learned Pliny and reverend Potter 
fcem as if they would recommend fuccedaneous Philtres of a more 
uiTUKent nature, when they condefcend to^inform us, that a foal's 
iiippoinanes mix'd with the lover's blood, or the virus of a ftud mare, 
or the left bones of a Toad eaten by Ants, are powerful philtfes 1 
fo are a Cat's brains, as Wierus hints. Captain Carver defcribes t 
fpecies of conjuration amongft the Americans. 

Some of the Pagan divinations are only mere fuperftition: their 
efficacy depends on addrefles to Demons. Such are the Sortcs ^■^•'"^••^ 
Homericae ; or three knots tied on three ribbons of various colourS| 
Numa's fufpenfion of a ring in a cup of Water ; the Mongul Lama's 
circumgyration of a ftool; Com fet for a Cock on the 24 letters, 
which occafioned the dead) of Jamblichus. Some afcribe great 
virtue to plants at particular feafons : as to the Marmaritis in evoca^ 
tions; the Achemenes, for criminal confeflions: mention is made of the 
£alis, by Xanthus, for necrojmancy: the Luni^ria, for Incantations. 




Sometimes the Demomacal oracles were compelled cdnfefledly, as 
Balaam was, by a power paramount to theirs, to difclofe inftruClive 
truths. Thus Theano the Athenian prieftefs being afked, when a 
woman might go from a man's company to the facred rites, replied ; 
" From her hufband's at any time, from another never." The 
Pythian prieftefs told Alexander reluftantly, " Thou art invincible,*' 
Some oracles of this fort appear at firft fight ironical; as when the 
Delian oracle bidits^uppliants,to ftop a peftileAce, learn to double . 
the Cube. ,This is done by finding two mean proportionals between 
two lines as 1 to 2. Thefe proportionals are the roots requifite; and 
are obtained by fetting all thefe proportionals normal to a ftrait line, 
at fuch a diftance that the tops of all thefe uprights fliall touch 
another ftrait line drawn from one to all the reft; whilft three lines 
parellel to one another can be drawn, one from the top of the talleft 
upright to the foot of the neareft intermediate; the fecond, from the 
top of this intermediate, to the foot of the next; the third, from the 
top of this laft intermediate to the foot of the fourth- proportional. 
This prefcription implied ferious purfuits, inftead of intemperance. 
The Delphic oracle faid that " Draughts of cool water would cure 
the Gout:" for whether perfpiration is checked by cold, or by aftrin- 
gent food, water tends to promote it; or, when the malady proceeds 
from vifcous juices, or glutinous blood, thefe are attenuated by di- 
luting draughts, and the inflamation is abated alfo. An oracle de* 
clared that lAOwas the fupreme God. Another oracle owned the jj* 
Hebrew difcretion in adoring a felf-cxiftent God; and to Auguftusi». *i 
the power of a Hebrew child over oracles. Divine wifdom prompted. 
Mercury's Oracle to fay, " I proceed from the king of Heaven ;" 
Dt\xu 13. ^^2it is, as be reprefented divine wifdom. Mofes teaches us that 
God permits Pfeudo-prophets, to try the faith of mankind. But 
where an oracle utters cruelties ; as when the Mcflenians were told 
to devote a virgin to the infernal Gods; Agamemnon, to flay his 
daughter: Or fallacies, as that Pyrrhus the Romans (hould fubdue: 
Croefus a great power (hould fubvert; fo on Alexander's application 
in his laft illnefs, Serapis faid. It. is beft for him to ftay where he is: 
They may truly fubfcribe to the Clarian Apollo's confcffion, ** We 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 57 

are angels endued with an inconfiderable portion of the Godhead.'* 
In this equivocal manner a Druidefs told Dioclefian, "He would 
be Emperor, when he had flain Aper, a Boar ; many Boars he flew 
unfuccefsfully, till he recollefted that Numerian's father in law was 
named Aper. Cambyfes was told he ftiould die at Ecbatan ; he 
he avoided the Median city, biit died at Ecbatan in Syria. But 
Ammon's oracle plainly told Cimon's * legates, tliat " Cimon was 
with them;" fimilar to Samuel's prcdiftion rcfpefting Saul. On Plut. Cimon. 
their return they found that Cimon was at that time dead. Pyrrhus 
was told, " He fliould die when he faw a Wolf encounter a Bull." 
He died on the day of his feeing this fight reprefented on the monu- 
ment of Danaus. Sylla was told, he fliould die in the height of his 
life ; the truth of this prediftion he experienced and attefted. The 
head of Orpheus told Cyrus, their deaths ftiouId be fimilar. Thefe 
accounts prove the operations of thofe apoftate fpirits; moft times. 
CTueV; ofien fallacious; fome times predifting fuch truths as their 
powers could ^ii^\n to; aiming by it to feduce man, by ^rivalling 
God's pre/ciencc. There is fuch a coincidence between Calphurnia's 
dream, and the Augur's prediftion, concerning Cefar's murder, 
that it feeras quite unreafonable to conclude both fortuitous, con- 
firmed as they were by the event. So when Tiberius told Galba, 
Vie ftiould have a tafte of empire; and when ThrafiUus declared his 
oWh imminent danger to Tiberius, invifiblc fpirits feem to have con- 
dti&ed the omens, otherwife quite precarious. Tacitus records 
Vefpalian's miraculous cures under the influence of Serapis, whom 
lie fays fome efteemed Efculapius; fome, Ofiris; fome, Jove ; fome, 
Pluto; fome alfo deeming his image to have been removed to 
Racotis from Memphis. 

Horrid expiations invidioufly intended to rival the grand expiation 
by the Woman's feed, begim from earlieft antiquity; for Manetho ^"^^^ /j^^' 
^rote that Amofis abolifhed human viftims in Egypt; Hercules did 12. 

foin Gaul; Cecrops at Ath-^ns. Demons prefcribed their own rites 
of invocation; Hecate appointed her own ftatute to be of Ivory, or 
Parian marble, with golden fandals, entwined with a Snake from * . 

hcid to foot. Theurgy, or (not to fay divine information in con- ^^ 

I fequencc ^ 


Pyth, 4. 


fequence of a life of purity) the ftudy of God's wifdom in the 
creation. Demons perverted to aftrology, evocations, incantations^ 
fafcinationSf and divinations ; accompanied with diabolical invoca- 
tions, the Jinc qua non for thcfe impious purpofes. Angles and 
Curves are deftitute of all efficacy, only thro' a reference (arbitra- 
rily impofed on them) to certain Demons : thus we might make a 
circle to invoke Hecate ; a right angle, Pluto, Bacchus or Matrs'; 
an acute. Mercury j an obtufe, Terra ; a curve, Diana ; a fquare, 
Juno, Rhea, Vefta, Ceres and Venus : a rhoHabus, Saturn : as a 
crofs among Chriftians regards Chrift, and was the emblem of life 
in Egypt; a triangle was Minerva's fymbol : a Rhombus was the 
fymbol of Venus. Spheres and t:ylinders were ufed in the rites of 

As Antony thro* Woman loft the world. Eve's foUicitation fub- 
dued Adam's fortitude. 

Rom. 5* 
EccUf. 7* 


*^ Fondly overcome with female charm.*' 

Thus by one man fin entered into the world. In regard to which 
fatal effeft of human freedom Solomon fays, " God has made man 
perfeft, but they have explored many inventions.** The beautiful 
Pandora, with her cabinet of woes, derives her origin from Eve*s 
mifconduft : it is remarkable that hope was left for confolaiion. 
Hefiod and other Poets, as Paufanias relates, afferted that Pandora 
was the firft woman. 


Difappointed in their expeflations their crime ftood naked to their 
view. Probably there was a fudden appearance of the badge of pu- 
berty. Concluding that it might difcover their guilt, they were 
induced to apply Fig-leaves for a covering. Job fays. If I covered 
my tranfgrejftons as Adam. Plato mentions the naked ftate of man 
originally. But Bifhop Newton on the fall obferves that the lan- 
guage is highly figurative, and alludes to ancient piQurcs and hie- 
roglyphics, the primitive recorders of thefe tranfaflions. He fup- 
pofcs *« thcferpent to be Satan^5 fymbol: the eating of the forbidden 



fruit to denote the violation of a divine prohibition, the indulgence 

of an unlawful appetite, an afpiring after interdifted knowledge: 

that the Tret of Life is an emblem of a happy immortality ; and 

means no more a real tree than is meant in the Apocalypfe." — Au- 2. Scit. 

guftine allows that the natural Paradife is an emblem of a fpiritual. 

Saint Paul figuratively fays, being cloathed, we fliall not be found 


2. C. 5. 3. 

For this ill office God put enmity between the woman's feed and 
the ferpent's. Maimonides, tho' a Jew, allows that this expreflion 
of the woman* s feed is one of the moll wonderful paffages of fcrip- 
ture. Yet it is not more fo than Ifaiah's, A virgin fhall conceive. 

The ferpent, as Satan's malicious inftrument, is doomed to grovel 

in duft, and to eat it ; woman, to painful childbirth ; man, to daily 

\^>aowT for life ; and then both to death ; eternal death, but for the 

refurreetion obtained by Chrift. The land itfelf was execrated on 

their account. Thus was man's felicity in this ftate feverely marred, 

his manners debauched, his faculties impaired, his fovereignty di-. 

mini/hed, his conftitution debilitated, his life for ever forfeited. 

This is the true reafon of Ovid's obfervation, y^ ,^^ 

Inde Genus durum fumus, experienfq; Laborum ; 
Et Documenta damns qua fimus Origine nati. 

Hence we're a hardy toiling race, and bring 
Abundant proofs from what dire fource we fpring. 

Wato mentions that " men becoming infirm, unfkiHtil, and un- poij{i^.u3 
equal to their own confervation, fell under great difficulties." Man 
became more favage than dogs; they became Canibals. The New 
Zealanders are fuch at prefent. Jerom faw Scotch Canibals. Dio- 
donis fays, the Irifh and Northern Celtse Avere fo : yet I take thefe 
Canibals to be Geta: , for the Hyperboreans were of a mild and in- 
^ffcnfive difpofition : tho' relatively to Greece, fome of the nations 

I 2 bordermg 



Sat. 1. 21. 


L. 12. 

Horn. Od. 10 
Ovid M. 14* 


bordering on the Pontus, of barbarous manners, were deemed Hy- 

Providence inftrufted thefe primitive delinquents to wear the 
fkins of beafts. They were expelled from Eden, left (as facred writ 
reprefents it) they (hould tafte of the tree, whofe fruit had the pro- 
perty of perpetuating life. This tree Cherubs were appointed to 
guard with a flaming fword, which they brandifhed in ever)' direflion. 
Thus Paradife was furniflied with means of prolonging life : and 
mortals, being excluded from it, were of courfe configned to death; 
that this may not prove eternal we owe to Chrift. The Phenix is 
an emblem of man's original eftate ; which is repaired by the Re- 
demption, as the conftitution of the Phenix is renewed ; the brown 
Beetle is a fymbol of man's future condition ; this infe6l, after 
groveling at firft in a reptile and benighted ftation, fuddenly attains 
a fuperior region, and foars above the earth. An Aurelia is the 
Egyptian embleip of Pfyche. 

The lofs of Eden probably occafioned the firft cries of Eva, Eva, 
in the orgies of Bacchus, and of Adon in Egypt and Phenicia ; how- 
ever perverted to lament Hibernal defolation: Hefychius fays 
that Bacchus fignifies lamentation : Militta, Venus Genetrix, figni- 
fies the fame as Eve, as explained by Mofes himfelf. 

Nicander Colophonius mentions a tradition alluding to the human 
fall ; that " The crime of Prometheus was his perfuading mankind 
to refign to the Serpent their priviledge of renewing their conftitu- 
tion." Dr. Slare's grandfire, at 85 years old, had new teeth, and 
his hairs became black; may not fome diet aid this reftorative ap- 
titude. Menander fays that wOman occafioned the affliftion of 
Prometheus. The Dragon in Nonnus tafting the juice of the Grape 
is a fable evidently deduced from the Serpent's tafting the original 
fruit in Eden. From an impcrfeO; tradition concerning the tree of 
life, the Pagans acquired their idea of Moly ; and from Paradife, 
their golden age. 

Ver erat eternum»-per fe debat omnia Tellus, 



Plato mentions the fpontaneous fecundity of the earth originally. Polit. 
" As by one man fin entered into the world, and by one msui's 
difobedience many became finners :" the manifeft depravity of hu- 
man nature proves us derived from a tainted fource; which might 
deprive us of a blifsful futurity, and fubjeft lis to perpetual anguifli 
and reraorfe, or to total annihilation, from a being of abfolute pu- 
rity; if his infinite benevolence did not provide an admirable reme- 
dy, except thro" our own wilful mifcondu6t Job fpeaks of human 
depravity; How can he be clear, who is born of a woman ? David 
lays, I was formed in iniquity; my mother conceived me in fin. The 
Jews told Chri ft, thou waft altogether iorn in fins. For this here- 
ditary taint he fubmitted to baptifm. Plato frequently hints at hu- 
man degeneracy, as in Critias and Thocetetus. He quotes Simonides 
as faying, " It is difficult for a perfon to be truly good.'* In 
Timjcushc fays, " No man is thro' option vicious, but is fo from a 
OLt^uvtd conftitution." Here Option means, what Will means in Chap. 7. 
Saint Paul to the Romans; mental confent, not an impetuous refolve. 
PImrch fays that Empedocles held, human fouls are here in an 
apoftate ftate, vagrants, ftrangers, and fugitives from God. He 
faid, " Life is a fcene of contention, like a combatant's." Horace 
defcribes our growing degeneracy in a moft poetical climax. 

Etas Parentum, pejor Avis, tulit 

Nos nequiores, mox daturos 

Prcgeniem Vitiofiorem. 

ImelJigent Man can fink into Druidical barbarities, Gothic igno- 
rance, and fodomiiical turpitude. Not at once, but age after age. 
Intcrdia literature, the rifing generation will be illiterate; teach 
them fuperftition, they will be fuperftitious; initiate them in vice, 
they Will purfue it induftrioufty. The famous Solomon, wife and 
learned to a proverb, might make us tremble at our propenfity to 
degeneracy, even when bleft with the higheft illumination. Infpired 
to build God's temple in the moft unparelleled ftile of magnificence, 
carnal inclinations made him an apoftate to fiftitious Gods, and dia- 
boUcal rites. How did Nero abandon his virtuous principles? 




How did Domitian ? It is in vain to fay that men are as virtuous as 
their anceftors, and that human degeneracy is void of foundation. 
The nations now eminent are not the defcendents of thofe anciemfty 
eminent; but of progenitors who a few centuries ago were buried 
in ignorance and obfcurity. Their poverty long reftrained them 
from the vices of luxury, fraught as they were with thofe of barba- 
rity. The nations, that were degenerating before the times of 
Horace and Homer, have been long evanefcent, tho* the regions re- 
main. The Affyrian empire is no more; the Egyptian is gone for 
ever. Thus whole kingdoms degenerate, and confequently fink to 
ruin. Others emerge from poverty, ignorance, and obfcurity, to 
power, fame, wealth, and luxury; degenerate in turn, and of 
courfe fall to decay. Hence Egypt, that land of primitive heroes, 
muft groan under perpetual flavery. Great Babylon is totally gone. 
Once glorious Greece, the famous nurfe of patriots and philo- 
fophers, at this day maintains only the flaves of flaves. And Oh 
my Britain 1 reflefi: on Carthage the old empirefs of the ocean; fcairce 
a veftige of her ancient grandeur remains. Tyre arid Crete are 
•whelmed in obfjpurity. Thou, mighty Rbifhe, triumphant queen 
of the world, art now the c'loifter of dreaming drones, the peft of 
induftry, and bane of glory ; and probably thofef are now born, who 
fhall fee even thy cloifters vanifh, ** without leaving a fingle wreck 
behind.'* P«jx»t Pujxi^. 

Jerufalem, thou citadel of fectirity art now fecure in dull. By^^* 
zantium muft foon undergo another revolution. The Belgian ftate« 
are now, even now, in jeopardy. The fantaftical and infidious realnl 
of France is tottering to its foundation. And thou undone Britannia! 
thy ftrides gigantic to deftruftion are beyond all example. Delude! 
by a boundlefs credit, and by the prefence of borrowed wealth in 
thy metropolis, thou haft rioted away thy vitals amidft a tempora:ry 
affluence. Like a prodigal not content with his annual income; 
whilft that affords hundreds, he diffipates thoufands ; till the inhe- 
ritance is gone, and no refource is left to prevent captivity. Cap- 
tivity, unlefs their own bad policy prevent it, by thofe implacable 

and invidious foes, whom thou haft been from tjme to time indulging 


Chap. S-) P R I M / T I V E H I S T O R Y. 63 

vith opportunities to rcplcnilh their exhaufted ftores, that they might 
rcocw the attack with redoubled ftrength : which thy natural fituation 
could efiedually prevent ; if not neglected thro' an infatuation at-, 
tending all natiom in their turn ; when their degeneracy, arrived at 
Jts zenith^ provokes Omnipotence to infli£l it; either by their abo- 
minable guardians being lulled into an unpardonable fecurity; or 
tempted to repair their fhattered fortunes by a national facrifice. 

Thus the circuit will proceed till compleated. The Hurons 
and Siberians will afFeft the luxuries of Mexico and Indoftan : and 
in turn experience the downfal of Egypt and Babylon. Every where 
bad will be fucceeded by worfe ; till the laft extreme fhall incur 
the laft ill confequences. For lo, proportionable evils arife in the 
natural world. Chilling effluvia, noxious to fertility, continually 
defttoy tV\e genial temperature of the air, and the earth's fecundity. 
WY\\\^\T\\>it Torrid Zone hurricanes and tornadoes commit general 
devaliations : the Polar ice increafes continually ; Nova Zemla con- 
fids o/" earrA wafted on funken ice. Untoward fermentations, thro' a 
combination of vapours unfriendly in their nature hourly caufing 
changes of putrid moifture, fultry heat, chilling damps, and piercing 
cold, furprizing and afflifling the human frame by quick viciffitudes 
ot extremes; alfo tempefts, lightnings, earthquakes, volcanoes, in- 
undations ; likewife famine, and peftilence annually varied, as well 
as^noral evils, demonftrate our fituation here farther and farther 
removed continually from a conftant round of felicity ; and daily 
pronounce the impending anathema of an offended God ; which in 
tkc fuinels of time will burft on the world in all its majefty of terror, 
wid " fet on fire the foundations of the mountains. In the day of 
God, wherein the heavens being on fire fhall be diffolved, and the 2. Pet. 3. 
cicmems fhall melt with fervent Jieat" — ''But wars and infurreftions l,|^ ai« 
muft prcvioufly occur. Nation ,wiH rife againfl nation ; and realip 
againft ,^ealm : and mighty earthquakes^ and famines, and peflilences 
ihall be in divers places : and vaft phantoms and prodigies fhall be 
in the fky. This will be the introduaion of miferies"— " The fun Mat. 24. 
ftall be prefeqtly flarkened, the moon refleS no light, the fhining 
planets vanifh^ and the hofl of heaven totter/* «« On earth inex- 

Duet. 32. 22. 


tricable confufion of nations; the (midland) fea and the (circumam-' 
bient) ocean, all in an uproar. Men quite difpirited thro* dr^ad 
and profpeft of terrors impending over the world: for the powers of 
^*5' heaven fhall undergo convulfions.*' — Paufanias mentions irregu- 
larities in the courfe of nature as omens of impending woes. King 
David fays/ 

Pf. 50. Our God fhall come, no longer filence keep : 

Fire all around devour, and tempefts fweep. 

Thcfs. 1.4. Saint Paul fays, '' The Lord himfelf fhall defcend from heaven 
with a fhout, and with the voice of an archangel, and with the trump 
of God. And the dead in Chrifl fhall rife firft.— Chrifl, the firft 

I. Cor. ic. fruits ; afterwards, they who are Chrift's at his advent. Then we 
who are alive fhall be wrapt together with them in clouds, and meet 
the Lord in the air. Thofe, who are alive at the Lord's advent 
fhall not prevent thofe who are afleep — We fhall not all fleep, but 
we fhall be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye : God 
giveth a body at his pUafure.y Laftantius finely expatiates on this 
fubjeft. The Pagans had a full and uniform perfuafion* of this aw- 
ful catafirophe. It is in vain to applyUo Phaeton Ovid's prediftion. 

• AfiFore Tempus, 

3* 3 

Quo Mare, quo Tellus, correptaq; Regia Caeli 

Ardeat. **« 

. *» 

For Antonine fays, Heraclitus wrote much about the conflagra-^ 
tion of the univerfe. Plutarch fays, he held that the world and all: 
corporeal things will be diffolved by fire. The Egyptians, like the 
Stoics, maintained that the world will be deftroyed by fire as well as 
Timcus. 5y water : Strabo fays fo of the Druids. Plato fays, the truth of 
' Phaeton's fable is that •' there Jhall be a great change of things in 
earth and heaven ; and in a Ihort time a diffolution of terreflrial 
things by mighty fire." The Bramins teach the diffolution of the 
world by fire : the moon fhall look red ; the folar rays refemble 
flaming brimflone; lightnings fhall blaze around; the four elements 


Chap 2. P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 65 

fliall war ; till earth by this laft agony fhall be converted into "her 
priftine chaos. Manilius fays, 

Funcra cum Facibus vcniunt, Terrifq; minantur 
Ardentes fine fine Rogos; cum Mundus, et ipfa 
^Egrotet natura, novum fortita Sepulchrum. 

With unabating piles the world fhall bum ; 
And fickly nature fill her deftin'd uri^^ 

The Volufpa of the Scandinavian Edda afferts this general con- 
flagration. Tully fays, Eventurum noftri putant ut ad e'xtremum 
Omnis Mundis ignefceret. Plato quotes a prediftion of Orpheus to 
this efFeft, 

After the fixth millennium earth muft burn„ p, ., , 

Suidas fays, « The Tyrrhenians held that the world would con- 
l/niie only 6000 years from its creation;" but rather from the de- 
luge. Even Lucretius declares, Mundi Tnor/^//^ Templa; alfo. 

Omnia paulatim tabefcere, et ire 
Ad Scopulum, Spacio /Etatis defeffa vetufto. 


Nat. 2. 3. 13 

Seneca fays, fire is to be the end of the world; and that Berofus 

held, the conflagration would enfue, when a'conjundion of all the 

pUmets fhould occur in Cancer. Caffini found a conjunftionof five 

planets, wheri the fun was in Aquarius in the year A. C. 2012, jufl 

before a new moon, in the beginning of Chwen Hio's reign; and 

bere by the way we may obfcrve that he had but four predecefTors, 

who in all are not pretended to have reigned nwre than 439 years ; 

:' thus the Chinefe empire began according to this calculation 2451 

years A. C. and their firfl king Chin Nong (for Fohi, the Japanefe 

Foki, was the firfl man) was a hufbandman, and was the Japanefe 

Sin Noo ; who was a hufbandman, as was the Patriarch Noah :" 

^liom Sin Noo appears to be. ^ 

That the world will at length be deflroyed, all nature round us 
proclaims^loud. The fields, the banks, the high clifts and the lofty 

K moun- 



tains are, in all climates and regions, hourly rufliipg into ocean's 
bed ; thus^Anaxagoras faid, if time fail not, the hills will all fink in- 
to the fea. Providence commiflTions minifters to retard redundant 
population till the feafon of judgment. Yet the natural increafe of 
the human fpecies would of courfe oyerflock the globe ; and man. 
kind would at length have more reafon, than Alexander had, to 
weep for another world. Wood and other fuel is growing fcanty 
in many places : provi^ons will do fo foon. The fubterranean fires 
are raging more and more : and their rage will ftill increafe, as they 
obtain additional vents. The frequency of the Aurora Borealis 
fhews the increafe of the eleftrical matter, which will and doth render 
earthquakes more frequent and fevere ; till the war of elements per- 
form their grand and awful operation. The moon's period, and of 
courfe her diftance, decreafcs; the earth's probably does fo too; her 
inclination to the ecliptic, on which our feafons depend, decreafes 
more and more : and we have God's word that when the various 
feafons ceafe, the world will ceafe alfo. But, whether .folar attrac- 
tion, a comet, fubterranean fire, or an inflamed atmofphere, will 
deftroy the earth, is unknown to man ; who only knows that thofc 
feveral agents are abundantly able to effeft the tragedy. The Si- 

L^ j^ bylline oracles declare jthat it will be effefted by a Comet ; and an- 

!-• 5' other will be a harbinger. 

But we muft excedingly admire that, fo far from injuftice ifc^* 

man's lofing Eden; or cruelty, in his being born liable to fin aiif'\ 

death ; on the contrary God's juftice and benevolence have becfl 

rendered glorioufly confpicuous. A fuppofition that God intended 

man's continuance in Eden is brg with a mutability inconfiftent with 

divine perfeQion. ' He knew that man would tranfgrefs, and the 

plan was formed fuitably : " for whom he foreknew, he predefti- 

Rom. 8. ftated." God has an inftant comprehenfion of all duration. Man's 

option and its fatal attendants are equally prefent to Omnifcience. 

Saint James faid, '* Known unto God are all his works from the 

beginning of the world." That mankind fhould be endued with 

option juftice requires; that fo blifs may be the reward of fpontan- 

Dcut. 30. 19 cous conduQ. Thus God declares, " I call heaven and earth to 


A^i 15. 18. 

Chaps-) PRIM IT I VE HI ST OR Y. 67 

aiieftagainft you, that I have propofed to you life and death; be- 3^^^ 
nevolence and execratioa: therefore chufe life, that both thou and 
thy feed may live." Juftin Martyr, and Clement of Alexandria, 
quote Plato's exprcffion, ** The blame is his who wills a fin, God 
is inculpable ; '* Kiru 'e\oviJievov, Qeog *ctvcciTog^\ Homer has two lines 
to this effefl, 

Mankind to heav'n their ills afcribe ; yet they od. i. 33. 

Spontaneous to misfortune urge their way. 

God fays in Ifaiah, " To whom have I fold you ; for your ini- 
quities ye fold yourfelves/' Clcanthes declares to this efFeft, 

Man to defirc felicity's inclin'd; 
To heav'nly reafon yet both deaf and blind, 
^o\t ^uide to blifs : thus follies all entice ; 
, Each runs impetuous to his fav'rite vice* 

That mankind inherit a vicious propenfity is an innate defeft de- * 
rived from Adam's voluntary fault. That this difpofition, odious as 
It IS to divine purity, has been exculpated, we owe to divine love. 
TViatwemay, ifwepleafe, <jbtain heavenly afliftance to counterafl 
^bis vicious propenfity, we owe to divine grace and benevolence : 
fo Bias the fagc faid, " when good, impute it to God." Tully fays, 
^^erno igitur Vir magnus fihc aliquo adflatu divino. Finally, that Nat. Dcor. 
our penitence can procure us pardon for neglefting to ufe or apply 
for fuch afliftance, we owe to God's infinite love and compaflion ; 
'•'bofe infinite judice is fo confident with thofe adorable attributes, 
^ oy no means to prove infinite feverity : except where defiance 
^nd derifion impioufly challenge the majcfty of the divine terrors. 
Thus the hiftory of the human fall is pregnant with matter not for 
repining and murmurs ; but for piety, gratitude, love, and adora- 
tion. Every man will have the Penny due ; but for more Jehova 
fays, «« I will fliew mercy unto whom I will fhew mercy." Divine 
love becoming confpicuous thro* human frailty is alluded to, where 

K 2 Themis 



(Book i. 

•Themis tells Venus that Cupid would never attain his full ftature till 

Monifaucon. the birth of Anteros. . • 

Ch. 19. 

. Pf. 17. 


That mankind were given in all ages to expeft a wonderful puri- 
fication from the (lain of original fin, we may conclude from Job, 
wlio fays, " I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he (hall ftand 
at the latter day upon earth.'* David fays, " I will behold thy face 
in rirhteoufnefs ; I fliall be fatisfied when I awake with thy Jimilitude.'* 
Some eftcem the names of the Antediluvian Patriarchs to be a con- 
tinued chronicle of the grace intended. Confucius, near 500 years 
before the redemption, pointed out the time of Chrift's nativity. 
. Keating fays, it is certain that Bacrach a Druid of Leinfter predifted 
that " a divine perfon fliould be born in a wonderful manner, and be 
murdered by the great council of his own nation ; tho' his advent 
was for the felicity and falvation of mankind, and to refcue them 
from the delufions and tyranny of infernal Demons." Demons 
were acquainted with the facred prophecies ; as Satan difcovcrs in 
Ezek.30. 13. Chrift's temptation. So it was predifted that there fliould be no 
more a prince of the land of Egypt : therefore the Sibylline oracle 
direfled the Romans, as Dio (39) jelates, " to (hew civility to the 
Egyptian king, but to give him no aflTiftance :** left perhaps they 
fliould be involved in the difaftrous fa^e impending over that realm, 
purfuant to decrees fuperiour to the power of Demons. To facred 
fources it was owing that the Sibylline oracles predifted, as Virgil 
andTully flicw, the birth of an illuftrious fovereign. The objeftioM 
of Galla^us and others from the difficulty of having recourfe to thofe 
oracles are impotent : Varro declares that accefs could be had to 
them. The prediftion of a King was probably in the Tarquinian 
books, which had been burnt only 20 years before Lentulus alluded 
to them. Befides, the Erythraean Sibyl's predictions, amongft tho(e 
recovered by Sylla, and moft in repute, were fubfcribed as hers, 
and therefore known to be the fame as in the former colleftion. 
When the Oracles proftituted by Virgil, who was, not a ftranger to 
Oriental prophecies, tell us. 

De Reruilic* 

Gcor. 3. 12. 

lUe Deum Vitam accipiet, Divifq; videbit 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 69 

Permixtos Heroas, et ipfe videbitur illis : 

Pacatumq; reget patriis Virtudbus Orbem. ^ ^* 

They could never mean Pollio's fon, never mean Oftavia*s. Vir- 
gil's adulation induced him to apply the laft line to Auguftus him- Gcor. i. 24. 
kWex pojl Fa5to ; when the cxpcfted child at Rome proved a female. 
This emperor was fo fenfible of a perfon of divine wifdom being 
predifted, that he affumed Apollo's habiliments. 

Tuus jam regnat Apollo. 

So, *' The fun of righteoufnefs (hall arife with healing on his 
wings." — Again, Magnum Jovis Incrementum; in whofe reign. 

Nee magnos metuent Armcnta Leones ; 
Occidd et Serpens. 

HererccuTto Ifaiah 2 ; 4. 11 ; 6, 7. 65; 25. It is truly of 
Chrin that Statius fays, 

Longamq; Tibi, Rex Magne, luventam 
Annuit, atq; fuos promifit Jupiter Annos. ^' '* 

So the Pfalmift fays, ** Thou gaveft him length of days for ever 
and ever.'* Thofe bold expreflions in the Pagan poets are drawn 21.4. 
from facred fountains. To Chrift not to Probus alludes the Sibylline 
oracle in Florianus. It promifed that under him the world fhould 
be free from favages. 

As Tacitus and Suetonius teach us that the Eaft was full of expec- j^-^^ - . j^^ 
tation of this great perfonage about the time of Auguftus ; fo it is Vita Vcfpa- 
probable that he was to come at the time predifted by Enoch, Noah, 
and mhers. At this predifted time the king of China altered his 
title of Viftorious to Pacific. A fubfequent king, 64 ) ears after- 
wards, fent an embaffy in queft of this Saint, who was to be found in 
the Weft; but thefe filly legates miferably miftook the Idol Fo, in 

India, for this prince of peace ; who is the Mediator, that Plutarch Ifisct 

r Ofiris. 



Jnli Firmici fays the Perfians named Mithras, At Byblus, when Oliris ufed to 
in^Purchafe's be expefted, after much mourning, lights were brought, and falva- 
tion declared. Socrates, in his dialogue on prayer, fpeaks of a di- 
vine inftruftor, *^ who was to come into the world ; and had man's 
welfare at heart, and a wonderful propenfity towards us." Well did 
this fage deferve the Augurial crown prefented to him by Alcibiades 
for this predi6lion. And this prediflion is the moft probable ground 
of TuUy's declaration, Neq; folum cum Laetitia vivendi Rationem 
Leg. 2. accepimus; fed et, cum Spe meiiore^moricndi . Thus do6lrines ob- 
vious to Chriftians, were the higheft arcana of Paganifm: for in- 
ftance: Plutarch's Maneros a Child o/PaleJiine, his Mediator Mithras 
the Saviour Ofiris, is the Mefliah. 

Three diftinftions as to this great Mediator are to be carefully 
noted. By confounding thefe arife all the miftakes as to the Meffiah's 
perfon. Firft, his divine nature, which was the Logos- This 
rnEufcbio. is, as Philo the Jew declares, '' Eternal, infinite, and abfoIuteJy 
God:" One with the Father and the Holy Ghoft. But the Logos, 
properly fpeaking, is God with a reference to Chrift's human nature. 
As man's internal nature is diftinguifhed into Animus and Anima; the 
firft, the foul as indued with intelligence; the laft as it aftuates the 
animal fpirits ; fo God is to be confidered as God diftinft from all 
conneftion with a human fpirit; and as the Logos operating in con- 
juhftion with Chrift's human fpirit, before and after Incarnation. 
The Logos is God communicative, difpenfing orders, performing 
a£ls in Chrift, tho' abfolutely God; whence Ifaiah (9) calls Him, 
the everlafting Father. Saint John fays, the Logos is God. 
John 14. 9, Chrift fays^ '< who has feen me, has feen the Father;" and he fays 
&2s.k vcr, j^ jj^g charafter of the Triune God, " We will come and refide 
with you." Alfo, I will not leave you Orphans, I will come to 
you. 1 John 2. 1. Chrift is ftiled the Paraclete ; thus another Pa- 
raclete (John 14. 16. and 26) means as to tharafler; being totally 
fpiritual and invifible: fo Paul defcribes the Sp'rit as our pathetic 
^^* ' ^ * InUrceJfor; and the beftower of the Word of wifdom and of know- 
I. Cor. 12. ledge ; but fays he, '« the various gifts, adminiftrations, and opera- 
it tions, proceed from the fame Spirit, Lord, and God : for, as the 
■L. • feveral 


feveral members of the body are one body, fo alfo is Chrijl; for by 
One Spirit are we all baptized/* the Spirit being of the fame indi- 
vidual eflence as the Father and the Logos ; w ho are, as this Apoftle 
fpeaks, ''One and the fame Spirit;" tho' diftinguifhed by their Vcr.ii. 
operations; as when the human Animus wills the Anima into aftion, 
confents to the afFeQions, or indulges the imagination. 

The Logos was united with Chrift's 'human nature two feveral 
ways; firft, with his human fpirit (which is Philo's Protogenes) at 
the creation ; for tho' Adam was the firft corporeal man, .and his i. Cor, 15; 
foul was the firft that animated a body ; yet Chrift's was the firft ^^' 

unembodied human fpirit, the Monogenes, that firft foul that exifted 
forages void of flefti ; tho' his Pfyche, which could exift void of 
grofs body, as do the phantoms of dead perfons, exhibited an appa- 
rent form to Mofes in the rock, and to Abraham on the mount: 
coTvwe^ed with this human foul he was the Logos ; abftrafted from 
it. He is the divine Spirit, fee Pfalm 95. The Baptift declared 
that ChriR was prior to him: Chrift afferts Himfclf to have been prior ' ^g/ * ' 

to Abraham; and that " I!c fliall afcend where formerly." He alfo , , 

John 6. & 1 7. 
fays, '* Glorify me with Thyfclf, with the glory I had with Thee 

before the world's exiftence. Saint Paul fays, '* Chrift was the i«Colofs. 
Pioiogenes of all creatures-,"' and, " God created all things by Je- 
fiis Chrift." In the work of creation, the l-ogos or God's commu- 
nicative nature, which Saint John (1. 7.) .calls the divine light; as 
does Saint Paul; and ** Omnipotent wifdom;" afted conjointly i. Tim. 6. 
with Chrift's human fpirit. So John (1. 1. 2.) tells us, " The world '' °'' '' 
wsis made by the Living word of God." Chrift's human fpirit (which 
obtained exiftence without carnal copulation, as Adam did) with the 
Logos, became incarnate for the purpofe of human falvation; which. ,, Tim^^c 
was to be eifefted by the Merits and Paflion of the Man Jefus, the * 
Woman's Seed: when the words of Plato's Sophifts were to be veri- 
fied; Prometheus fufFered for the theft of Epimethcus." For this 
end the efficacy of the divine nature was occafionally fufpended in 
Chrift, and was obtained by his human fuplications. So he fays, 
" Let this cup pafs from me.— My God my God why haft thou j^^t. it and 

deferted ine.~The day and hour my Father only knows." But, 2^- 

i_ Pf. 22. 



however a temporary fufpenfion of Chrift's divine powers took place, 
for the exertion of his human virtues, fuch as fubmiffion, patience, 
fortitude, confidence, benevolence ; yet the Logos became incar- 
'• 4^' nate : Saint John pofitively fays fo. Saint Paul fays, " He was the 
Col. 2.9. Godhead corporeally — God manifeft in the flefh." We therefore 
»• ^^' 3- fhould not derogate from Chrift's divinity, by applying texts and 
fenfes to it, which properly regard his human nature, either before 
John 14.. 28. or after incarnation : as when Chrift fays, " My father is fuperiour 
Mark 13. 32. to me;" and, " knows more than the fon." His human nature re- 
Mat. «. 14. q^i^'^d baptifm to remove the hereditary (lain: this even Saint John 
i5« the Baptift feems at firft to have imperfeftly apprehended. 

This human nature immediately after baptifm regained the fuf- 
L. 3.21 pended honour of union with the divine fpirit: for, "being baptized, 
16. Adls^ 10 ^^^ P^^y^"g» Heaven was opened ; and the Holy Ghoft defcended 
38. in a corporeal form, like a Dove, upon him." And," God anoint- 

ed Jefus of Nazareth with the Holy GhoR and wiih power," as Saint 
Ephcs. 1. 17. Peter confirms : " the God of our Lord Jefus Chrift becoming God 
in Chrift," 2. Cor. 5. 19; *' the incarnate Logos, the Godhead bo- 
dily, God manifeft in the flefli." Owing to this incorporation, the 
Ads 20. 28. blood of the man Chrift is ftiled God's ; the life of the man Chrift 

I. John. 3^ is ftiled God's. His carnal frame became that temple of God, which 
10. * 

he rebuilt in three days, according to his word. He having *' the 

divine power to refume his life :" as he wonderfully demonftrated ; 
thereby proving himfelf to be God, 1. Cor. 6. 14. and the quickning 
fpirit^ 1 Pet. 3. 18, to very numerous wimefles; who uniformly 
attefted the extraordinary faft at the expenfe of their lives, and in 
defiance of the moft excruciating torments; hopelefs as they were 
of temporal advantage, being flatly foretold the contrary : but far- 
ther to confirm his refurreflion, the dead bodies of many virtuous 

perfons revived immediately after him, and leaving their toml>s went 
2^ at • 2 7 c 2 

53. ' into Jerufalcm, " and appeared unto many." 

In like manner as refpefting Chrift, thofe err, who confound texts 

regarding the Holy Ghoft's operations yV^'wh fuch as relate tohis/?^r- 

fon. Of this laft fort are Job 33. 4, " God's fpirit is my maker." 



John 14. 26, The Holy Ghoft, which the father will fend in my name, 
£ff will teach you all. To Ilvfu/i^ — 'eyiciv)(T. So AQs 5. 3, 4, A lie 
to the Holy Ghofl is a lie to God ; not only to a pcrfofi, but a divine 
perfon. And as others there fpeak to him; fo Hcb. 3^ 7, He ad- 
drcffes olhers in the words of Pfalm 95 ; being one in effencc with 
the Logos and God, verfe 12 and 14; and Chap. 4. 7 ; alfo 1 Cor. 
10.9; which is^fferted mod plainly by Chrift himfelfin Saint John John 14. iF, 
14.— Texts treating of the Holy Ghoft's operations befpeak a fubor- ^^' ^^' 
dination inconfiftent with " The eternal Holy Ghoft's" abfolutc ^^^- 9- "4- 
omnipoicnce, an attribute of '* the Lord God and Spirit," who com- 
miffioned Ifaiah, 48. 16; and fpakc by the prophets: for Saint Paul 
Fays, well fpake the Holy Glmfl by Efaias the prophet unto our fa- ^^^* 28,25. 
thers, faying, '^ Go and tell this people, ye fhall hear, and fliall not 
undetftand :" words, that when fpoken Saint John fays, Ifaiah faw 
Goi^oloty: and Ifaiah fays, they were fpoken by the voice of the Jo^n» 12.41. 
Lord. Saint Peter fays that God's faints fpoke thro* the Holy If. 6. q. 
Ghofl's impulk. Chrift's human merits obtained the Holy Ghoft's 
S'^oiojica to be fuhfcrvicnt to his defires, as the human mediator J^^'^ i^- »3- 
with God. So Chrift fays of the Holy Ghoft, " He fhall not fpeak 
of himfelf.- That is, the Triune God, in quality of the Holy Ghoft, 
viW only aft as won by the man Chrift's interccftion. But Chrift, 
as the divine Logos, who is, with the Father and Holy Ghoft, con- 
jundGod, declares, *' I will come to you," and, " we will come ^'•^* "'^ ^' 
^oyou." Even Hindoos diftinguifti between God in the Deity's Johni4. 18. 
general character, and in the particular charaflcr of the Logos. As 
tnefir/J, they call God Naraycna- Brchm is the eternal Logos, or 
God in operation : Brehma is the twofold nature of the Logos afting 
inthework oFthe creation in general. Suidas, treating of Tluilis, 
O'^^ of the Egyptian heroes of the Cynic Circle in Sycellus and the 
Pafchal Chronicle, tells us he reigned over Egypt as far vis the ocean, 
^dafked the oracle of Serapis (which therefore muft have been an 
^^cicnt one in that kingdom) if any prince had been, or would be, fo 
potent as himfelf: the Oracle replied, God is in the firft place, then 
^heword, and the fpirit with them, all coexiftent in unity, with 
power eternal. The hiftorian Socrates fays that a Crofs with a facred ^ 

inscription found in the temple of Serapis was allowed, by perfons jjp 

L vctfed 


verfed in that character, to allude to Chrift. An oracle of Apollo 
Milcfius faid. 

Of mortal body, an adept in miracles, 

Arrcftcd with arms, under Chaldean judges. 

He fuftain'd a bitter exit thro* Nails and a Crofs. 

Thefc predictions are, like fome others, fufpefted, for being too 
plain; as ifobfcurity were a criterion of divine declarations: indeed 
as to the obftinate Jews, ever repugnant to God's literal commands, 
and known that they would reje6l and crucify the Meffiah, as they 
had flain many facrcd prophets prior to him ; to them many prophe- 
cies were couched in myfterious language ; that' during their con- 
tumacy ** they might hear and not underftand ; the fear of the Lord 
being the beginning of wifdom." Yet the Chriftian predictions arc 
all exprefs, precife and literal ; except John's againft Rome, whiJft 
under the Roman empire; a reafon that induced their poet PerGus 
to be as myfterious as the Evangelift ; who fervently requefts his 
Chriftian readers to pry diligently into the fenfe of his Revelations. 
Abulpharag. Zerduftit the Archmage predicted a Virgin's conception ; and that a 
ftar fhould announce her fon to be the incarnate Creator. 

Our divine redeemer, predifted by Socrates, was the woman's 

feed, who was, and came, to bruife the Serpent's head. The abfcu 

lute perfeftion of his precepts is ai> internal proof of their facred 

fource. And, as multitudes at that time had external proofs, by 

miracles, of this do6tor's high authority ; fo we now have, from his 

Luke 21.9. pr editions. His prophecy that previous to the end of Jerufalem, the 

*^* type of the world, ftrange fights in the fky, and mighty earthquakes, 

Hiil. 5. famines, and peftilences, ftiould be in various places, Tacitus, Jo- 

fephus and others confirm ; ** Vifae per Caelum concurrere Acies, 

rutulantia Arma, et fubito Nubium Igne collucere Templum, expaffae 

repente Delubri Fores, et audita major humana Vox, EXCEDERE 

DEOS ; fimul, ingens motus excedentium.'' " The temple (hone 

with a fudden inflamation of the clouds, the doors of the fanftuary 

were inftantly thrown open, and a voice fuperiour <o Awwaw proclaimed 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I TI V E H I S T O R Y. 75 

the departure of the divine guardians ; and lo a loud found was oc- 
cafioned by their retreat." Suetonius mentions continual dearths 
under Claudius; one of them Saint Luke fpecifies. Seneca men- q^ j^^ 
tions a Comet in this reign ; another vifible fix months, in Nero's. Afts u. 
Grotius counts many earthquakes during thefe reigns: Jofephus men- Bell.* 
tions earthquakes in Judea, and famine and peftilence; and prodi- -'" * fj ^J' 
gies in the fky : he fupportsthe furprizing account in Tacitus relat- 
ing to the temple. Chrift's prediflions acquire every day additional 
ftrength. For iiiftance, the invincible and fatal obftruclion to the 
reftoration of the temple under Julian is recorded, not only by 
judicious and credible Chriftian thcologers, but in the flrongeft 
chain of expreflionspodible, even by the faithful and intelligent P<2^«n 
Ammian Marcellinus, an officer of Julian's army. He was by no 
means addiftcd to propagate reports without examination : his ac- 
count is too minute and circumftantial to be fufpefted of negligence; 
\\\s \tnp31n\aUty is too well founded to be blown away by the vain 
puffs of an Ephemcris : even if not ftoutly fupportcd, as his narative 
jSj by the no/efs eloquent than devout Chryfoftom ; the mellifluous 
and con/cientious Ambrofe ; the powerful and religious Nazianzen. 
Ammian fays that ** Julian, dcfirous to extend the memory of his 23. i 
reign by the grandeur of his works, formed the defign of rebuilding, 
at an extraordinary expenfe, the SLnci^nt Jlupendous temple at Jeru- 
falem ; which had been befieged by Vefpafian, and after him by 
Titus; and after many bloody rencounters, with difficulty taken : 
he appointed Alypius of Antioch, formerly vice-prefeft of Britain, 
to accomplifli the work. Therefore, whilft Alypius vigorou/ly pro- 
(ecuted the enterprize, feconded by the governor of the province, 
tremendous VLolumes of flames, making frequent eruptions near the 
foundations, rendered the place inacceffible to the repeatedly burnt 
artificers; and, by the too /aial obftruftion of that clement in this 
manner, the undertaking was abandoned.'* — And he mufl be. an 
abandoned infidel, with very vague and unphilofophic notions of pro- 
vidence, who can infinuate to be cajual dii\ event fo extraordinary, 
fo critically timed confonant to the confident prefages of Chriftians; 
fo punfiually enfuing to vindicate the Meffiah's prediftion, confirm 

L 2 the 


76 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Boak 1. 

the Creed, and fatisfy the expeflance, of all the Chriftian fpeftators. > 

^ 9; 5- The> philofopher Taurus, in Gellius, declares that the nullity of 
Bentley on * . ^ 

Boyle. providence is no tenet even for a (trumpet, Plutarch obferves that 

Pyth. Orac. *' ^^ ^^ "^^ conjefture but prediction, when it exprefTes (as by 
Chriftians, previous to Julian's attempt) what will be, how, when, 
on what account, and by whom :*' as that the work would be fru- 
ftrated, by methods providential and fatal; if in thofe times attempted; 
becaufe it was premature, and whilft fo, decreed to be obftrufted 
by Omnipotence, according to Chrift's declaration. But more than 
all, the lapfe of almoft 18 centuries evinces the truth of this divine 
prediction. — In addition to which, the miferiCvS, diforders, and 
diftreifes, that for fome time paft have been affliCtiiig the world, and 
worfe impending, will probably within a century (tare conviftion in 
the face of the incredulous : as the completion of woe, after growing 
fqrrows, will tremendoudy afTert the truth and honour of an affront- 
Mat. 24. ed MefTiah : '* at whofe advent in the clouds of heaven, when he 
fliall fend his angels with the loud found of a trumpet to convene 
his eleft from every quarter of the univerfe;** the mifcreant wiiJ 
fhrink as a coward, and tremble as a criminal : whilft the cordial 
believer, amidft his follies and frailties, fhall throw himfelf, wiih pro- 
found humility and fubmiffion, on his Saviour's infinite compafTion ; 
exclaiming like the contrite Taxman, " God have mercy on me a 
miferable offender :" without daring to impute merit to his own con- 
du6l and creed ; but relying implicitly on the tranfcendent merits 
and tranfcendent love of the Son of Man, in whom, altho' his foul 

iraia.53. 10. was made a facrifice for fin, the Godhead condefcended to become 
incarnate, for man's admonition. Yet morality joined with belief 
is fo neceffary to entitle us to the benefits of Chrift's paffion ; thai • 
only true contrition can in any degree fupply its place, and be a !l 
recbmmendation to a prodigal fon's portion from celeftial bene- ^ 
volence : except where God's volition chufes to exert its abfolute 
power ; for he will hkve mercy on whom he will. This is the great ^ 
conflift mentioned by Epiftetus ; " the divine enterprize for a king- 
2. 18. dom and for liberty. Now, fays he, remember God, and invoke 
him to be an ally and affiftant ; like Mariners in a ftorm.*' Johnfon 


Chap. 3.) P R IM I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 77 

raid of a Highlander's infidelity, A deep potation would cure the ill 
cffcfls of a Ihallow draught. 

Our novel philofophers fcem unconfcious of the difTercncc 
between the prefent flatc of things, and that in the ages preceding 
Chriftianity. Before that difpenfation, brothels and taverns were 
not the only general places of lewdnqfs and debauchery ; Pagan 
temples infinitely furpafTed in libidinous fcencs even the public ftews. 
All young virgins, (ays Strabo, were proftituted in the temples of 
Pcrfia; and the Armenian virgins, in the temple of Anaitis. The 
Babylonian females were obliged to proftitute themfelves in Mylitta's 
temple to any ftranger who chofe it; (fee Raruch 6. 40.) Lucian 
fhewsthat at Biblus women were proftituted in the temple of Venus; Dca, Syria. 
Valerius Maximus fays the fame as to Carthage; fo in Numidia, at , 
Sicca Venerea; a name in fenfe fimilar to Succoth Benoth. Juftin 
^-^\\^MU\\e virgins of Cyprus were proftituted in the temple of the j^^^q^, ,^ 
Babylonian Belli s; and in Jove's at Egyptian Thebes, a woman was 182. 2. 51. , 
enjoyed nightly. The very Member of Generation was adored 
with rites congenial to it, and p:iraded about in proceflion. Nor 
were men privately butchered in dark nights and blind alleys, thro' 
motives of hate or avarice; but human viftims were publicly 
flaughter*d at their (acred altars, on principles of piety and religion, 
Anftomcncs facrificed 300 men, one of whom w^ the Spartan king, 
to Jupiter: the Carthaginians, when defeated by Agathocles, ofFer'd 
ioo youths to Saturn : 20,000 human viAims annually polluted the 
altars of Mexico. Thefe infamous indecencies, thefe horrid bar- 
barities, were praftifed with complacency and delight, by whole 
nations, in times fo enlightened in other refpefts, as to afford a 
Socrates and a Cicero. Human viftims were facrificed to Taramis, ^"^an. 
Hefus, and Teutates. Elian records a happy mother's joy at fight j^^^-^^^i ,q^ 
of a divine Crocodile devouring her honoured child! The Druids 21. 
offered feveral human viftims inclofed together in a vaft ftatue com- 
pofcd of Wicker. Thus we fee in what a miferable manner the 
unaffifted light of nature is liable to be benighted; and it is an 
alarming proof that the mind of man, capable of tracing the moft 
intricate demonftrations of the mathematics, is obnoxious to the 




feduftion of fome power extremely artful, and indefatigably inali<» 
cious. Socrates forefaw that nothing lefs than a Heavenly Inftruftor 
could effefl: a reformation in religion, abounding as it did with profit 
to the priefts, and with pleafure to the people; and he fagacioufly 
concluded that God would fend One in vindication of his own ho- 
nour, and out of compaflion to his deluded creatures. Tho* the 
human abilities of Socrates tragically failed to accomplifh any reli- 
gious improvement; yet a perfeft fyftem, when attended with won- 
derful proofs of the divine fource, was fuccefsfully introduced by 
a Man, who had otily the education of a Carpenter's fon, feconded 
by illiterate Fifhermen; whofe timid natures were fo altered by the 
divine energy, by a genuine enthufiafm, that they fealed their 
teftimony with ardour in their own blood. Thefe eye witnefTes.of 
the plained, tho* moft wonderful fa6ls, as Chrift's Death, Burial, 
Refurreftion, and Accenfion, had neither profit, power, nor plea- 
fure in view; but were devoted to Pcrfecution and the Crofs, pre- 
vioufly denounced their inevitable doom by a Monitor, to whom 
with abundant reafon they gave the fulleft credit. 

The Afiatic account of the Origin of Things bears fome faint al- 
Richardfon's lufion to truth : it is thus.*- The earth had been formerly inhabited 
and afterwards depopulated. I'he period of the Adamites will be 
700O years; when all mankind will be extinguifhed, and their place 
fupplied by Beings of a more exalted nature, with whom the world 
will end. The Preadamites, who refembled Angels, were named 
Peris and Dives. The firft were beautiful and benevolent; and tho* 
their fins had offended God, they ftill enjoyed divine favour. The 
Dives were hideous in form, and malignant in mind ; differing from 
infernal fpirits only in being unconfined to Hell, but roaming ever 
around the world to fow difcord and mifery among men. The laft 
king of the Preadamites having offended God, the angel Hares was 
fent to chaftize him. A war enfuing, the Preadamite King was 
fubdued, and fuperccded by Hares; who abufing his power, Adam 
was created to be Lord of the Earth. Hares and the Dives rebelled 
«.gainft the divine will; but the Peris, acquiefcing in Heaven's 


Chap. 30 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R V. ^ 79 

mandates, became the friends of man. Hares, with his chief allies, 
was doomed to a long feries of torment in Hell ; but the other 
Dives are allowed to traverfe the earth, as a fccurity for man's obe- 
dience. The Peris and the Dives are fuppofcd to be formed of the' 
element of Fire, and to be longeval, yet fubjcft to death; and tho' 
endued with fuper-human powers, to have in many refpefts the fen- 
tiraents and paffions of mankind. They wage war, and fo forth. 

The Indian Shaftcr tells us, that God having refolved to manifeft 
his power and excellence, by creating a world peopled with intelli- 
gent animals, prepared the four elements; thefe being confufed 
together he feparated; firft, blowing on the water; which taking an 
oval form, expanded into the firmament. Earth and water fubfided 
into a globe. Next he created the fun and moon, to determine 
times and feafons. Laftly, he created a man, named Porous; who 
being formed for fociety, he gave him a woman named Parkouti. 
Their four fons founded the profeflions of religion, arms, commerce, 
and mechanics; but they obtained wives indifferent quarters of the 
world. Weyz, or Vifkermah the artizan, fet Idols under green 
trees, becaufe God had appeared to him amidjl trees. The prieft 
became indolent; the foldier, a tyrant; the merchant, a cheat; the 
artift, extravagant; and his idolatry offended the priefl. Their ill 
examples corrupted their poflerity. God fpread darknefs and terror 
over the flky. Thunders roared, and lightnings flafhed; the feas 
overwhelmed the earth and deflroyed mankind; but their fouls were 
lodged in the Bojom of the Almighty. Then God caufed Three men 
from mount Mero — purbati, to people the earth. To Bremau he 
gave the power (like another Prometheus) of making nien. Vifhnou 
had the qualifications of an Agathodemon. Rudderi anfwers the 
charaacr of a Typhon. Bremau executing his tafk, in the fecond 
Age w^as tranflated to Heaven. This race is to end by a general 
deftrufiion. God ''gave Bremau a written law from mount Mero 
purbati, out of a cloudy which difclofed fome Rays of his Gloiy. 
He faid, the Cataclyfm enfued thro' man's difobedience of his 
former Code. 



80 PRI M I TI VE H ISTORY. (Boak x. 

The Zend Avcfta contains the Cofmogony of the Parfees: it was 
performed at fix intervals. 1, the heavens. 2, the water. 3, the 
earth. 4, vegetables. 5, animals in general. Lajlly^ Man, Ahariman 
corrupted the world, invaded heaven, poifoned man. A general 
rebellion againft God enfued. T* Afchter came (deemed Aftarte by 
Bryant) a ftar, a fun,, three forms like Hecate : fli^ fuperinduced 
the flood. 

The Bramins or Brachmans (defined by Bryant Bar Ach Manes, 
j^ ., fons of the great Manes, or rather fons of the tribe of MancsJ re. 

late that '* the^ferpent (Fohi, the Japanefe Foki figured like a fer- 
pent, as was the Egyptian Cneph; which renders it probable that 
the Preadamites were the apoftate angels) permitted the vicious world 
to fubfide into the abyfs. Sin Noo, long fubfequent to Foki, be- 
came a hufbandman and planter: therefore had an Ox's head :" un- 
lefs this was taken from tlic fymbol which reprefented the Cheri!ibim; 
aS a ferpent was the emblem of the Seraphim. Sin Noo was 
the Chinefe Chin Nong, who was a hufbandman, and certainly 
was Noah : from him therefore the Poftdiluvian kings of China dc^ 

A. Polyhiftor, from Berofus, informs us that " the nfewly created 

animals unable to bear the prevalence of light (which expofed their 

crimes) expired : on this Belus confented to fhed his own blood for 

the renewal of mankind." We cannot but perceive that this Belu% 

Plutarch. jjj^^ ^j^ Perfian Mithras the mediator, alludes to Chrift. 

Sacred writ requires not thefc imperfeft relations for a fupport : 
on the contrary, it fhews the true fource of thefe corrupted traditions; 
which demonftrate that all mankind had originally an account of 
the apoftate angels, and of their antipathy to the human race ; who 
degenerated, and ftill continue' to do fo, from their original 

As Empedocles afferted the air to be Pluto's region.; fo Satan is 
declared to be the prince of the air; hence comes his name Diabolus, 



Devil, from the Hibemo Celtic Dia, God, and Abheil or Avel, Air. 
A ferpent in Irifh is Aithid; which alfo fignifies a fiery perfon 5 
hence Atia in the ftatute of Weftminfter, and Hate, the Greek Ate; 
and probably Hades. Of Ate Homer relates, 

Jove whirld her headlong down, for ever driv'n 

From bright Olympus and the ftarry Heav'n : ^ ^ 

Thence on the nether world the fury fell, 

Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell. Pope. . 

In Arabic Adu fignifies Foes. Richardfon. 

Let me add what Plutarch relates concerning the Perfian doflrine. 

Orimazes made 24 Gods and put theni iiuo an egg (this primitive 

egg, held by the Phcnicians, was the earth; the Druids invented many 

abfurd fables concerning it) '* but Arimanius making as many more, 

\>ac:y ^^o^^ the egg;" that is, they occafioned the earth's diffolution: 

•' Hence it comes that good is intermingled with evil. The fatal 

time /> appnoachingi in which thefc fliall be deftroyed by peftilence 

and famine ; and Arimanius (hall utterly perifli : and the earth be 

made even and fmooth. There ftiall be one life, and one city, and 

one language of all men living." Who does not here perceive 

traces of divine truths communicated to us in the facrcd fcriptures? Lacnius. 

Arimanius was the Perfian Pluto. 

The Bramins compare the Creator to a mighty Spider, who out 
of itfelf fpun the web of the univerfe ; and when fufficiently pleafed 
with the performance, will rctraft and abforb the whole into it- 
felf. Indeed if fo infignificant a creature as a Spider is able to 
perform its ufual but admirable piece of mechanifm ; why need 
we doubt thai Omnipotence, who produces mighty forefts from 
minute feeds, and perhaps from minuter falts, conld produce, from 
feme plaftic and gcncratfve principle within himfelf, the materials 
of a world ? 

Guido Tachard a Jefuit fays, the Siamefe maintain that the 

M fira 




, Bl t» ^^^ men were of greater ftature and longer lived than the pr^fent. 

Grades of That the earth will at length be confumed by fire. Abraham 
Rogers wrote that in Choromandel it was maintained that feveral 
worlds exift in various parts of the univerfe; and that the fame 
world is often deftroyed and renewed again. That our world began 
with 2 golden age, and will perifh by fire ; they compare it to an 
egg; as do the Chinefe. 



B O O K !• C H A P, IV. . 


AiajffCs eldejlfon Cain Jltw his nextj Abel. Cain*s exile to the Land of 
Nod, from God's Prefence. Cain's Progeny. Tubal Cain's Father 
Lamech has AJfurance of ProteBion. In the Time of Seth's Son 
£nofht Idolatry began with the Deification of Men. His Defcendents. 
The Ages of the Antediluvians. Of the Antediluvian Chronology. 
Andtni Stature and Longevity confidered. Time firjl counted by 
Hays, next hy Moons, then by three Seafons, lafily by Solar Years. 
Antediluvian Periods probably counted by Seafons. Of Lunar Years. 
Chinefe Records mention nine Augufi Men^ probably Noah's An^ 
ce/lors; and from them Nine became a noted number. The Ante- 
diluvian Hijlory by Berofus^ AbydenuSf and Alex. Polyhijlor. 

\ DAM'S eldeft fon Cain, whofe name implies an acquifuion, Genefis. 
-^^ purfucd Agriculture. His fecond fon Abel (whofe name, as 
at Genefis 50. 11, fignifies mourning, but in Syriac Theodore) led 
a paftoral life. Each out of his ftore made an oblation to Gx>d. Hcb. n. 
Cain out of jealoufy flew Abel; as his offering, thro' a fuperiour 
faith, wasmoft acceptable: yet Cain was pronounced paramount to 
Abel. For this crime Cain, whom God by fome token affured of 
life, was expelled to the land of Nod ; which fignifying error, and 
being doomed to fterility, feems to be the Defert of Paleftine. But 
he dwelt facing Eden; our Vcrfion fays to the Eaftward of it. Cain 
built a town named after his fon Enoch, whofe name fignifies a de- 
dication : Ptolemy has a town named Anuchtha, in Sufiana. Noah's 
family may have preferved the old name, and repaired it. So Joppa 

M 2 is 


is faid to have been founded before Noah's flood. This is a feaport 
town of Paleftine, famous for the ftory of Andromeda, and the 
Syrian Perfeus of Herodotus deemed Sol's fon by the fcholiaft of 
3. 200. Apollonius Rhodius, and brother of .'Eetes ; but called Sol by Ly- 
A. I CIA. cophron's fcholiaft, and deemed Afteria's fpoufe : his name is Eury- 
Jofh. 15. medon in Apollonius. A tity named Cain was within the limits of 
Juda's tribe. Cain was likewife banifhed from God's prefence : this 
proves that perfons of merit enjoyed divine appearances : fo Pau- 
L. 8. fanius fays, the Gods vifited men diftinguifhed for juftice and piety. 
Odyfs. 1. Plato's Sophift tells us, Homer mentions the Gods as converfant 
with juft and raeriKirious perfons, and took cognizance of human 

From Enoch Irad fprung ; whofe* fon Mehujael begot Methufael, 
Lamech's father. To Lamech Adah bore Jabal a Paftor, and Ju^ 
bal a mufician. Hence we find that many arts arxd fciences were 
knpwn to the Antediluvians, which after the deluge were foft; thro* 
a fcarcity of people of fufficient abilities ; thro' the nQceHity of at- 
tending to the mpft urgent requifites of life ; thro' famine, pefl:ilence, 
floods and earthquakes; thro' inhuman wars. As the arts, literature, 
and polite manners of the Romans were overwhelmed by Gothic 
inundations ; fo clouds of various kinds enveloped in night the pri- 
mitive arts. Ham, the ancient Egyptian Vulcan, was figured with 
a hammer and the key of fcience, as if unlocking the Antediluvian 
fciences. The key indeed is Pluto's badge : fo that Ham may hav^ ' 
' been Serapis as well as Vulcan; for Seraph is Uffit, as Cham is 
Fervour: but Noah, who faw the death of the Old World, \vas the 
. firft Pluto : as he was alfo the firft Oceanus father of the Gods ; 
having cruifed on the moft extenfiye Ocean of any. We cannot 
fuppofe that the huge Ark was conftrufted without metallic tools T 
and we read that Lamech had by Zillah, Tubal Cain a Metallift ; 
whofe fitter was Naamah. Lamech, who confcft himfelf a murderer, 
had even a greater aflurance of pardon and proteftion than Cain. 
This circumftancc attrafted the particular notice of Mofes, who had 
flain an Egyptian. He afterwards appointed Afylums in Paleftine 5 
Diodor Sic. in imitation of Myrina the Amazonian queen, who inftituted an 



aap. 40 . P R I M I TI V E H I S T O R Y. 85 

afylum at Samothrace, in the time of Orus, who was coeval with 
Crotopus king of Argos, according to Statius ; and, according to ^ ' 
Manetho, reigned near three centuries before the Exod. Myrina 
wasNitocris, who after drowning her fecond hufband Menon's afTaf- 
fins in her fubterranean apartments at Babylon, took fauftuary in a 
houfe of Afhes. — But Bifhop Newton, agreable to the Arabic ver- 
fion, reads interrogatively. Have I flain a man? The Englifh mar- 
ginal reading feems moft corrcft ; for I take the true fenfe to be, 
« 1 have flain a man when wounded;" that is in my own defence : 
this being more juftifiable than Cain's aft, any Vengeance exe- 
cuted on me fliall be amply retaliated. Bilhop Louth's verfion Heb. 
confirms this fenfe. ^^' 

Adam had feveral fons and daughters. His Ton Scth, born after 
Abel's death, was (by his (ifter Azura, as Syncellus writes) the fa- 
>i!^e\ otttvolh: in whofe days mankind began to profane Jchova's 
name; by conferring it on mortals. Idolatry did not commence 
with the worfbip of the fun and moon; but with the Apotheofis of de- 
cea fed friends; to whom men dedicated the planets, pretending their 
tranilation to the fkies. So Virgil finds a place for Auguftus a- 
niongft the conftcllations. The primitive people had too exaft a 
UadiiioD of the true God, to miftake the Sun for him, as ignorant 
Indians at this day may do. Almoft all the Pagan Gods were dei- 
fied /)er/bns : thus Uranus not only is Heaven, as the Chaldean Ne- Luyd Arche 
60 now is in RufTia and Dalmatia, but was the title of Ophion the ®^^8* 
Titan king: Occanus was an appellation of Noah. The Syrian 
deities were departed mortals ; as, Nibhaz or Anubis; Adonis called 
aUo Adonofiris, and by Hefychius Mars-adonis : Gad or Mazal 
Job was Agathodemon ; Abraxa or Abracadabra, Sol: Ob (Can- Selden: 
ob, Chan-ob) aDemon; Miphlezeph, Priapus; Samael, Dcus fane- " ^'' 
^us; Nifroch feems to be Afarachus or Afar-agag: Nebo was Uranus 
>i man's name. Afmodcus was Rex Demonum. Achor is Pliny's 
God of Flies, Belzebub, the Jove Apomyos who was Ham, and who Ai„'^/^i£j^ 
vasalfo Belzeboul, Lord of Dung; whofe name was given to the 
I^tin Sterces or Saturn, fo named from mafturing land ; yet Achor 
^s trouble, fee Jofhua 7. 26; this name therefore is the fame in fig- 



nification as Moloch, Celtic for Moleftus ; yet again, Achor feenn 
alfo to be Chor or Choraeus, or Uchoreus, who was Meon : but the 
mod ancient Hercules affiimed a dominion over Flies; I think there- 
fore this Hercules was the Mcon who was Mifor, and freed from 
inundations the territory of Ham, who was the firft Prometheus of 
Egypt. Baal Phegor, Jerom's naked God, and Baal Pe'or hon- 
oured with lewd rites, was Priapus ; Pe and Phe are prepofitives, 
Gwr and wr in Celtic fignify man ; thus Pe'or is the man ; and Peor 
Apis, as By rant obferves is Priapus; that is the man Apis; the firft 
Apis was that Meon or Menes who was Mifor : Aftarte or Athera 
was alfo Atergatisor Derceto, and Baaltis or Dione : Rimmon, the 
Pomegranate, was her emblem; or rather the Ark's ; for the primi- 
tive Dione was one of the females in the Ark, I think Ham's wife; 
and as a Pomegranate contains its feeds within a ftrong fhell, fo the 
Ark contained the fource of mankind. Nergal was a Cock facrerf 
to the fun. Hadad was Dionyfius, adored with Bacchanalian ex- 
Hcfych: clamations. Ada was Juno. Elion a king's name, taken from the 
fun, was Mithras in Perfia; Mencs and Mars in Egypt. Artes and 
Melec-artes, was the Egyptian Hercules ; primitively Mifor, tho' a 
Titan afterwards adopted this name ; from a wrong definition of this 
name Syncellus had his Certes, He is Moncecus; and the Malica 
of Hefychius, from Malek and the Irifh Mai, Rex, whence Pall 
. Mall fignifies King's palace: he is the Sandcs of Berofus in Agathias; 
and Artes being, as Vettius Valens writes. Mars; this probably is the 
Mars named Camulus, being Ham's fon, the Arab Dy fares and 
Menath, the Macedonian Thaumus, in Hefychius; yet Cannilus and 
Thaumus may be Ham himfelf, Cham ol. Benoth was Venus Ura- 
nia. Dagon was a God of Agriculture and feems to have been Ma- 
zeus, the paftoral God, and with Athera to have been the Deities 
Afhtaroth* She was called Cabar, being the Venus older than Jove; 
Arg.^ and one of the Cabiri in the Ark; tho' the Titan Rhea afiumed her 
titles. This Venus was the Perfian Mylitta, the Arabian Alilat, 
NoQiluca, or Lucifera, that i«the Hebrew Cocab; when the planet 
was confecrated to her, as was the moon alfo. Math or Pluto was 
one of the eight Cabiri. Ifmunus the Phenician Efculapius was the 
laft of them; he is Lycophron's Epius. Monimus was Hermes, the 




firft of whom was Mifor ; the fecond, his fon Thoth ; the third, 
Thoth'sfon Tat, the Gallic Teutat or Tuith. Azizus feems to he 
thcGalHc Hefus, fuppofed to be Mars, probably the Mars Camulus 
above: and Behram, Cuftos Itinerantium in Hyde; he was Bachun, 
Sanguineus. Damafcius fays that the Syrians called Saturn El, Bel vita Ifiiior. 
and Bolathes ; this Cronus or Saturn was the firft of Empoleraus, 
vhowasHam, Chamus, Thamus, Moloch, Milcom, Mamas figni- 
fing Lord of men ; and Samael. Remphan or Chiun is the ftar de- Amos 5. 26. 
dicatedto this Saturn or Moloch ; but he being Cham, the ftar was Ads. 7,45. 
Syr, Syrius, Sol, named now Kiun by the Saracens: hence Chon, 
and perhaps John. The primitive Hercules and Athera were called 
Chon; their names being confounded, as Lunus and Luna: this 
Hercules is the Pataecus and Trapezius in Hefychius, being Mifor; 
who after Ham alfo became Thamus or Thammuz : and was the Ba- 
bylonian Sefach pr Seches, in Hefychius, in honour of whom the 
kftlw^ Sacea was obferved, during 5 days, as Caligula direfted for 
the Saturnalia. But tho* Mifor was the Adonis who was Ofiris ; 
yet Him being Chamos and Adonis alfo, fplendid Titles, he is the 
Perfian Abobas of Hefychius ; hence the Titan Saturn is the Apopi_s I^^^- 
ofPJutarch: tho' Amnion's fon Dionyfius was called Epaphus; be- 
caufehewas blended with the Ofiris who was Mifor, Epaphus and 
the primitive Apis : this induces me to think that Ham was the moft 
ancient Phoroneus, and retired to Greece in old age, but long 
prior tothe time of Niobe's fire. He feems alfo to be the Oriental 
ifithras: alfo, that oldeft Mars who was Saturn, and martial Jove; 
for caftem titles were infinite. He is lik^wife the primitive Bel, faid 
byHeiychius to be Neptune's fon ; for Noah was the firft Neptune 

• »dOceanus; as he was Muth or the eldeft Pluto who faw the 

• death of the Old World. Ham or Chamos was probably Barmoth, 
the fupreme. But whether he or his fon Menes was Omanus I can- 
not determine ; probably both were fucceflively ; and the Achaeme- 

nians fignifiy the Tribe of Menes. He probably was Afima, a name pownal. 
that feems to fignify^ like Samos, facred : his emblem is faid to be 
^ Goat, as it was Mifor's, who was Menes or Mendes, or Pan, a 
title of God himfelf, as Meon was: but Afima as probably was a ' ' '7* 
^itle of Aftarte or Belifama, the Anaitis of Perfia: yet as Mifor was 


88 P R I M I T I V E ri I S T O R Y. (Book i, 

Seches, or the Mercury who was the Afumes of Carthage, and 
vowels were interchangeable, he may be the Afima of Canaan. I 
take him likcwife to be Daniel's Moazim, God of Hofts, a Name 
"* ^ * transferred from God to Dionyfius, but firft to that Ofiris who was 
Mifor. — Rimmon may be the God of Pleafure, from the Irilh 
Renjhain; tho' Rimmon is likewife a Pomegranate the Ark's emblem; 
for puns and equivocal terms conftituted a part of Pagan Arcana. 

The Greek and Roman Gods were deified mortals; their Penates 
Apuleius, ^"^ Genii, were guardian Deities particular or general; fometimes 
thefe were Manes; Lares, the domeftic Larvae, or itinerant Lemures 
who were Evil Genii: for as Servius fays, each perfon has a good 
and evil, Genius from birth; fometimes Gods, fometimes dcccafed 
friends were adopted Lares; who refpeft the perfon, as Penates 
the Goods. 

In like manner we may fhcw that the primitive Gods of other 
countries were deified mortals. Of the eight Egyptian Cabiri, as 
* ep. 4. ^^^jj ^^ ^j^^ Primitive Cabiri in the Ark, mention will foon be made. 
It is indeed true that the Egyptian, had 8 phyfical Deities; but their 
names mentioned by Ficinus prove them not prior to the Cabiri. 
Ficinus alfo names the 8 phyfical Deities of Orpheus. 

The Celtae had Gods partly from Egypt and partly from the Getae. 
Ham was Thor or Taran, Jove Taranteus^ for he was, like the 
Egyptian Vulcan who was Ham, reprefented with a Hammer, and 
was honoured or rather difhonoured, like that ancient Saturn, with 
human victims; therefore Woden his fire, ftiled in the Edda the 
Sherringh. oldeft of the Afes or Deities, was Noah; who thus was Serapis or 
the Celtic Dis. Woden then was rightly entitled All-fader. Friga 
was his wife; Dyfa, or Themis, was Thor's. Odin, Thor, and Friga 
were Great Gods. The firft month was dedicated to Thor; the 
fecond to Goca, Gaia, Thorns Daughter, the Egyptian Athyr, or 
Thebe. From the Goddefs Rheda March was named Rhed- 
monath: from the Goddefs Eoftre April ^as named Eoftur; and our 
moft folemn feftival at this feafon ftill unaccountably retains that 



Pagan name; as Chriftnias is a Popifh. Blakulla refembled Tcthys; 
Tanfan, Tyche; Mara is the NighuMare; Nocca or Nick Hen, is 
Old Nick, VagnoFt and Hading prefided over war; Roftiph, over 
augury; Roftar refembled Typhon; Fro or Froto in charaftcr re- 
Tenabled Iris: I fay nothing of Fawns, Satyrs, Elves, Fairies, 
and Goblins. 

Teatat or Tuith was the Celtic Mercury. Their Dis was the 
Punic Erebus with long hair. Their Vulcan was Thor or Ham. 
Hefus was that more ancient Herculean Mercury who was Mifor, 
hence Lucian defcribes him as an old eloquent navigator; to him the 
Hermeraclean Idols relate; being a warrior. He was alfo a Mars, 
and entitled Cad aiidOgmeon, or Potent Menes. This reconciles the 
different places of Tacitus where he fays the chief God of the Ger- 
mans was Mars, Hermes, alfo Hercules. Either he, or his great grand- 
^oTv MauTwis, was the ancient German Hercules called Al-mannus 
founder of their nation; altho* the Goths intruded very Ibon into 
Germany. Belin or Belatucadrus (Bel y Duw Cadarn, the potent j. , , 
God) and Belifama, the facred Goddefs, were thofe Deities whom 
the fun and moon ^cre at firft dedicated to, and afterwards fucceeded 
as objefts*of worfliip. • Probably they were at firft appointed to re- 
pxcfent the Great God, Belin or Belain, way Penin or Penain, the 
capital eye; for an eye on the top of a fceptrc was the emblera of 
Divine wifdom' and omnipotence! Nehsllennia^s Cornuxropia fhew^ 
her to be Ifis, who was Onvana, Ongana, and was adored by the 
Suevi. Crode or Saeter was alfo a Gothic Deity that refembled the 
'Perfian Arimanius. Hertha was Demetet; Camma, Anaitis, to 
whom the New Moon was de icated. Cam fignifying incurvated: But 
Boadicea's Deity was purely Celtic; Andras Ty, fignifies the tute- 
lary power of the North. The martial God Zamolxis was that Lacrtius. 
Saturn and Mars, who was Ham; the name is Zam-ol-Zeus: he gannier. 
was reprefented by a fword. The Vandal Belbuch and Zeomebuch 
Teem to be good and evil Genii. Proao is the God of weights and 
meafures. Porewith fcems to be viftory. Suantovith perfonates 
the four feafons. Rodigaft is like a Cherub. Siva holding grapes 

JN and 

90 P R I M J T I V E , H I S T O R Y. (Book x, 

and an apple is fimilar to Pomona, flyas is an Ethic -Deity^ 
teaching us that tyranical paffions fubdue mankind, and will at 
length fet the world on fire. Irminful was the Hermes who was 

The Scythian Deities Tahiti, Papa, Api, Etofyrus, Artim-pefa, 
Thami-mas-ades, refembled Vefta, Jove, Demeter, Apollo, Aftarte 
and Neptune. — Dionyfius Afer fays the Britons adored Bacchus: 
and Saint Patrick cautioned the Irifh about the worfliip of the dei- 
-fied Sol. 

The Sarmatian Deities Pogwid, Tefla, Laclo, Nia, Marzane, 
Zicuonia, refembled Pallas, Jove> Pluto, Ceres, Venus, Diana. 

Thus the Pagan Deities every where were perfonal, altho' they 
gave fome of them the title of Uranus ; as to the Titan Saturn's fa- 
ther ; Saturn's grandfire was ftiled Sol. It was after the times of the 
Titans that the Egyptians and Phenicians allegorized Civil Hiftory, 
and introduced phyfics among perfonal aflions, as we find from 
Diodorus and Sanchoniatho. This was carried to fo great a lengthy 
that the Perfians adored the winds ; the Egyptians and Romans, al- 
, moft every thing in nature. And as Idolatry was carried to the 
higheft excefs ; fo it began from higheft antiquity : for there is no 
doubt that Mofes tells us that " God's name was profaned in the 
days of Enofh ;" the contrary fcnfe, as in our verfion, is incredible;, 
for Abel and Seth were devout perfons ; and God's approbation of 
Abel's invocation occafioned his murder. 

Enofh had brothers and fitters^ and was the father of Cainan and 
others of each fex. Cainan begot Mahalaleel and others pf both 
fexes. Mahalaleel begot Jared and others of each fcx. Jared be- 
got the pious Enoch, who had the teftimony of God's approbation^ 
Heb. !• ^"^^ ^^^ tranflated to heaven. Pagans had fome idea of thofe tranf^ 
lations : fo Paufanias (8) writes that Arifleus was tranflated. Enoch 
had brothers and fiflers : was a prophet, and as Judc wrote, pre- 



tliftcdthe Lord's advent with his faints to judge finners. He be- 
got Methufela and others of each fex. Methufela's fon Lam^ch had 
brothers and fitters, and children of each fex, particularly Noah, 
whofciiatne implies ceffation : Tzetzes fays it is Attalus in the Lv- 
dian language. He is the Sin Noo of Japan. 


Adam lived • - - 930 

Seth - - - 912 

Enofh - - - - 905 

Cainan - - - - 910 

Mahalaleel - - - ^95 

Jared (the Samaritan copy fays 847) 962 

Enoch - - - - - 365 

Methufela (the Samaritan copy fays 720) 969 

Lamech, (in the Samaritan, 653; in the 7 
Hebrew and Jofephus, 777) J 


As to their ages at Paedogony the He--% 
brew and Septuagint accounts agree that (187 
Jared' $ was J 

The Hebrew agrees with Jbfphus ^^2it7 g 
Methufela's was 3 

And Lantech's - - - 1B2 

Jerom fays the fame of fome Samaritan copies in his time. The 
Alexandrian copy of the Septuagint fays fo of Methufela. And it 
facing improbable that Enoch was 120 years younger at propagation 
than his fon at propagation, we have reafon to prefer the account, in 
the Septuagint; after corre6ling Lamech's and Methufela's ^gesby the 
Hebrew and Jofephus : for SynccUus fays, Eufebius found it in the 
Hebrew thus, ** Methufela, at t,87 years old begetting Lamech, (ur- 

N 2 vived 


vived this 782 years, even to the deluge. The Samaritan accouot 
is in the fecond column here following. 

Adam, at Seth's birth 
Seth, at birth of Enofh 
Enofli, at Cainan's 
Cainan, at Mahalaleel's 
Mahalaleel, at Jared's - - 
Jared, at Enoch's 
Enoch, at Methufeia^s 
Mediufela, at Lamech's 
JLamcch, at Noah's 
Noah, at the Flood 


' Yean. 





















2256 1307 


Dupin lays that '* Bede was the firft who rejefled the Greek Chro- 
nology :*• which in the main is adopted by the hifforian Demetrius, 
Prtp, Evang who lived in Ptolemy Philopator's reign, and is quoted by Eufebius. 
Jle counted 3624 years firoin the creation to Jacob's amval in Egypt, 
which he fet 136a years after Arphaxad's birth, two years fubfe- 
quent to the flood. Dr. Jackfon quotes many authorities confirm- 
ing the .Septuagint's agreement with Jofephus concerning the Ante-- 
diluvian period being 2256 years : tho' he alfo quotes many, for its^ 
agreement with Demetrius, who counts that period 2262 years; which' 
Africanus and Auguftin fublcribe to. But Demetrius counted La-- 
mech 188 years old at propagation; if fo, Methufela died fix years 
before the flood. Sulpitiusf Severus, Eufebius and Syncellus count 
2242 years before the flbocf. But they allow Methufera'^ birth to 
. have been 1287 years after the ereation, and his life to have laflted 
969 : fo thathe muflr have furvived the flood 14 years: this proves 
their Chronoibgy erroneous; Nicephorus has 2242 : yet his par- 
ticuiiaur term^ amxmiirto 2262. 

The Ht^rew aocouiit! c£ the agesr at P^edogony is^ extnemcly diC- 
proportionate, and I therefore think inaccurate. It agrees with the 



Samaritan as to Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Enoch: 
and with Jofephus, as to Jared, Methufela and Lamech. Jofephus 
tgrecs with the Septuagint, except that feveral copies of the laft 
agrees with Demetrius as to Lamech. 

The Antediluvian month was uniformly 30 days; and the year, Auguftin de 
360. Alexander ab Alexandro fays the- Egyptians affigncd 12 Trin:4. 4. 
months of 30 days each to a year ; which they reprefentcd by a 
ferpent with the tail in its mouth : but he fays they intercalated five 
days. This intercalation Herodotus confirms. ^, ^, 

Eupolemus, who lived 170 years before the Chriftian era, alfo 
Saint Peter and Saint Jude, all quote a Book afcribcd to Enoch. V .^ 

This book confirms the Chronology of the Septuagint, by counting 
tixoeh 165 years old in the year of the world 1286. Thence to the 
Rood i\^e Hebrew Chronology agrees with Jofepus ; as this book 
does, before that year of Enoch : thus on all accounts the Antedi- 
luvm CAronology in Jofephus fecms to be abfolute. 

But that the Antediluvian Chronology is folar appears difputable. 
No cxceflive degeneracy has taken place in age or ftature : tho* in 
all ages particular exceptions have occurred. Goliah was fix cubits 
a^dahalf in ftature: a cubit is to an Englifh yard as 231 to 400 ; as 
found by the pyramid's dimenfions taken by Greaves, and by Stuke- 
fcy's meafures of Stonehenge. Og's Bed was 15 feet and a half in 
length. Paufanias writes that in the Ide of Lade oppofite to Miletos 
^ corpfe of Afterius fon of Anax was found to be ten Cubits long* 
Inafmall Lydian Iflc he faw human bones of a monftrous fize, re- 
ported to be thofc of Omphale's fon Hyllus. Oreftes is faid to have 
beenfeven cubits high. Dcrham found the height of an Irifh youth, pliny 7, 16. 
Scinches: yet the Sarcophagus in the great Egyptian Pyramid is 
^0178 inches. Bofwell faw large human bones in the Iflc of Rafay, 

Alkcleton found in the Church-rVard ofWotton, in Surrey, was 111 

• • • ' 

f^Hchcs long. But on the contrary Augiiftus was (horter than our 

Queen Elizabeth ; for the Roman foot proves to the Englifh, from 

Trajan's pillar,, as 2225 to 2304: yet Maximinus was nine feet in 

ftature ; 


L. 3. 

7. 16. 




Apolo, 97. 


flature ; altho' Aulus Gelliqs fays that man's utmoft height is Dsven 
Roman feet, or four cubits. Flinyfatv an Arab 9 feet g inches higb.; 
He and Solinus (5) fay that both Pufio and Secundilla, irn the reign 
of Auguftus, were above 10 Roman feet in ftature. Euniachus m 
Phlegon mentions two coffins in Africa with flvclctons 23 and 24 
cubits long. Pliny's account of a corpfe in Crete 16 cubits long, 
and fuppofed to be Otus or Orion, is fufpicious : Plutarch's, ot 
Antaeus is prepofterous; fo is that of Orontes by Philoftratusand 
Paufanias. That of Eryx by Boccace is incredible. In Stillingfleet 
it is obferved that horfes and other animals muft have been larger in 
proportion, as well as men, to have anfwered their rcfpeflive ends; 
and then, as Grew remarks, pafture would have been infufficient. 
As a providential means of preferving the ftature of mankind it is 
obfervable that tall men generally afFcftfhort women; fhort men, 
tall won^en. Indeed Hakewill cicdlts Purchafe and others as to 
luen 12 or 15 feet high. 


As to longevity and maturity, Ariftotle limits 'ttie procreative 
facuky in men to fixty-five, and in women, to forty-five; they breed 
teeth at feven months old, and fhed them at fcven years; they live 
{fays Hippocrates) twelve times feven years. I may add that man 
attains to half his ftature at two years old. Modern inftances of 
longevity are Parr and Jenkins; this laft lived above 170 years. 
Parr did penance for adultery at 105 years old, and lived above 152. 
Sir Robert^Sibbald afterts that Lawrence, a Highlander, followed' 

Phil. Trans. fifhin<T at 14O years of age. Martha Warterhoufe of Yorkfliire lived 
near 140 years; one Eclesfield of Ireland, and the Countefs'of 
Defmond both exceeded that age. John Sands of Horborn, in 
Staffordftiire died in the year 1625 at 140 years of age. A witnefs 
from Dent, at York affizes 1664, was 139 years old. Saint David 
the metropolitan of Wales, is faid to have lived 146 years: the ages^ 
of Drakenl)org, a Norwegian, in the year 1770, and Colonel 
Winfloe of Ireland in 1766. Francis Confift of Yorkfliire was 150 
years old in the year 1768. Doftor Slare's grandfire had a new fet 
of teeth at 85 years old, when his grey hairs became black; 14 years 

Will. Trans. :after this he died of a Plethora. A woman of Githian in Cornwall, 


Chap.40 * PRIMITIVE H 1ST OR V. 95 

in the year 1676, died aged 164 years. It is plain that Jacob, who 

lived 147 years, was not foold as fome of his anccftors; for Ifaac 

was 180; Abraham 175; and probably he afcertained his fire's and 

grandfire's ages eXaflly; but folar years were not in ufe prior to their 

time. Mofes lived 120 years; yet he fays that men in general lived P?* 9^* 

about 70 or 80 years: fo Herodotus writes that Solon obferved 

man's common period to be 70 years; yet he/TuUy, Pliny, and 

Valerius Maximus fay that Arganthonius lived 120 years; Cenforinus, 

Lucian, and Anacreon allow that royal veteran 150 years. Ephorus Pliny 7. 48. 

VTOiethat fome of the Arcadian kings attained the age of 300 years. 

Suidas fays that Orpheus the fcholar^of Linus and fon of OEager the 

great grandfon of Alcyone daughter of Atlas, flouriflied eleven ages 

before the Trojan war, and lived nine ages, or 270 years. Ste-. 

phanus records that Annacus of Iconium lived about 300 years, and 

died at the time of Deucalion's flood. Suidas calls him Nannacus; 

"E-uWs, Cannae us: hence Bochart, tho* improbably, fuppofes him 

tobeChanocbor Enoch, and the deluge to be Noah's. Pliny was 

credulous enoxigh, and fays from Anacreon that Cinyrasof Cyprus. . 

'ived jfo years; GF.gimius, 200; and that Hellanicus mentioned 

FAol'ms 200 years old; alfo that Damafles afferted Piftor^us an 

Eioliaii to have lived 300 years ; likewife that in Vefpafian's tijme 

Tenentius of Bonona, and Aponius of Araminium, lived each 150 

years; yet even Pliny was of opinion, " that the furprizing accounts 

ofloii/revity arofe from ignorance of the old computations of tinic." 

rhcfirft Dynaflics of Egypt and of Babylon, and the reigns of the 

Theban kings in Eratofthenes, are all, except Apappus, of a mode- 

^^f length; yet fome perfons undoubtedly arrived at a great age; 

JOYC Picus lived 120 years; his father was the emblem^ of time; 

Chiron was extremely old: Epimenides lived at lead 144 years. The Hon Apollo. 

Eg}*ptians fuppofed that mankind and Crows could live 100 


Diodorus Siculus informs us that time was at firft counted by the 
nioon ; next, by three feafons* Plutarch fays, the Egyptians counted 
^injeat firft by the moon ; next as the Arcadians, by Quadrimeftrial '' *' 

periods; a method attributed to fome King Pifo, or Phero, by Cen- N"°»*- 


q6 P R I M I r I V E II I S T O R Y. (Book u 

Ibriniis, who fays they before ufed Bimeftria! periods. Herodotus 
counted three ages to a century; foanjige contained lOo feafon's, 
and a year contained three. Eudoxus in Plato fays, the Egyptians 
c:ounted a month for a year: this Pliny confirms ; and tells us the 
• Britifh Druids counted time by the moon: which argues their Eaftern^ 
derivation to have been of a very early date. At this day to exprefs 
L. 3- a year we fay a twelvemonth. Alex, ab Alexandro fays, the lunar 
years were 30 days. The Chaldeans at firft had years of days ; and 
called years and days, Jomin ; the Hebrews, Jamin : on the con- 
trary prophetic days were years. We muft undcrftand days by the 
Chaldean period in Tully of 4^0,000 years ; and in Diodorus, of 
si^eringham. 473000. The fragment of Palephatus fays, " at Vulcan^s death his 
fon Sol fucceeded to the realm of £^gypi, and reigned 4477 days; 
for then the Egyptians knew no other wayof counting time.'* Hence 
probably Vulcan's 30,000 years in the old chronicle were diurnal 
reaching from the time of Ham's taking poffeffion of Egypt, till his 
fon Sol fucceeded to that title ; he was * either Mifor's brother or 
Mifor himfelf : indeed I think he was Phut, who made room for 
Mifor in Egypt, by removing, as I conclude from Eupolemus, to 
Babylonia. Before the Arcadians eftablifhed the lunar period, they 
counted by days, and hence pr6bably acquired the name of Profc- 
iertians. — Yet Jofephus mentions feveral authors who affirmed the 
longevity of the Antediluvians. Indeed months are plainly dcfcribed 
as parts oTa year in the Mofaic accotmt of the deluge ; tho' Mofcs . 
may have applied this way of counting time, learned in Egypt, to 
his account of the flood, notwithftanding that the folar year was not 
in ufe at the deluge. Manetho fecms aware of lunar years; and 
attributes to the Egyptian 'Vulcan (who is declared on the Obclifk 
ofRamefis to be the fire of their Gods, and therefore is Ham) 9000 . 
years, which is above 727 folar. In the Orphic Argonauts the 
^Macrobii are faid to have lived 12^000 months ; but this is a poetic 

Moft proT)ably^the ages dFtbe Antediluvians were recorded, when 
time was counted "by feafons, which-computation fcems to have been 
<ufed to Eber's death. The poets, 'to preferve the marvellous* 


Chap. 40 P R I M I TI V E H I S T O R Y. 97 

counted each feafon a year. Hefiod mentions Boys of 100 years 

old. Levi's fon Merari attended Jacob to Egypt; Mcrari's fons 215 

yeaP6 afterwards left Egypt along with Mofes. Ephraim is recorded ^* Oe*^^"* 

to have lived to fupply the lofs of his fons at Gath with others. Ta- »• Num. 14. 

cob was 130 years old at his dcfcent to Egypt, yet was fhort of the 

age of his anceftors: and we may conclude that tlie Antediluvians 

were as longeval as their defccndents : therefore they probably lived 

fome 300 years, or thrice as many fcafons. So Fohi the firft king of 

China reigned 1 ^5 years, or 345 fcafons. The Goths and Jews kept 

three grand feftivals annually, which diftinguiflied the year into fo Snorro 

many parts. Varro thought that fcafons have been miftakcn for ^ ^^^ 


But, in comparifon with the Hebrew and Samaritan, the Greek 

Ckonology approaches ncarcft to the truth, in years of 360 days, 

tiW'mtTcalations took place. For in order to rank Abraham as low 

in time as Aftartc (Juftin fhewing that he lived at Damafcus rather 

fubfequcDt to iVthera a name of Aftarte) and to place Mofes as low 

35 Ramfinitus the Treafury builder recorded in hiftory facred and 

profane, we muft allow the Septuagint to be trueft, tho' not exaft. 

In favour of the Lunar Hypothefis it is well argued that however 
longeval men may have primitively been, it is improbable that they 
r lived a century or two childlefs, when propagation was fo requifite : 
Aowever retarded at prefeat ; where rents, for want of public regu- 
lations, grow exorbitant ; and of courfe provifions and wages : oc- 
cafioning a ftagnation of trade and employment, and difcouraging 
*^^)tial conneftions ; as do the want of habitations on uncultivated 
'^ds, on which Labourers may fettle. It is therefore replied that 
^c fons noticed in fcripture are not the eldeft refpeftively. The 
feveral Patriarchs certainly had other children: and there were other 
Clonals created as well as Seth's father ; and they all bore the com- 
°H)n name of Adam: fo it is faid, male and female created He Them; Qcn. i, zi. 
^^ ^hich is added in another place, *^ he called their name Adam ; j. 2. 
^iich about Caucafus fignifies people. In Noah's time there werer 

O Giants 


, Giants ; and the daughters of men fcem a diftinft race from the dr- 

6. 4. " . 

vine line of Seth, from whom Noah, Abraham, David and T^fuSi- 
defcended. Indeed, after the Deluge Noah's three fon's produced 
the three great claffes of mankind; Japet, the fair light haired Scan- 
dinavians and other Northern people denominated Celtae ; on ac- 
Stanlcy. count of which complexion Jamblichus calls Pythagoras, Comer. 
Shem, the Goths who have peopled the middle regions from Aramea 
or Sham to Balk and Carmania in Perfia, and thence to the Chinefe 
Shamo and Cathay ; whence they proceeded ftill eaftward to Ame- 
rica, and on the other hand into Germany, Gaul, Spain, Britain and 
Ireland, from whence they have attained America likcwife, where 
they have found their copper-coloured relations. Ham produced 
a race more tawny ftill, and his fon Chus begot the Ethiopians ; 
hence he had the name of Afbolus : this difference of complexion 
arifes from the colour of the membrane next under the fcarf-fkin ; 
in Negroes it is black; copper-coloured in Americans ; reddifh 
white in true Celtae: intermixed as theleare with the Getae, whence 
they of old conftituted the Celto-Scy thians. In like manner three 
primary tongues fucceeded the original language ; but the Celtic, 
Gothic, and Chaldaic, are now varioufly blended together, and re*- 
inforced with an infinity of new terms adapted to new inventions.. 
But of this more elfewhere. 

As to the objeSion that if the Antediluvian years be fuppofed 
lunar, the feveral progenitors would be too young for propagation; 
that argument only affefts the Hebrew and Samaritan chronologies. 
Women in the Eaft are often pregnant at 10 years old. Arrian 
writes that Indian girls are mature at fevea: Clitarchus fays, they 
have children fo early. Brydone fays that Sicilian women marry 
In Pliny. very young and live to fee five or fix generations. Of juvenile 
propagation Benjamin is an^inftancc, who was born after Dinah's 
rape ; yet ten Tons of his attended Jacob to Egypt. Ahaz begot 
Hezekiah at ten years old : for having a reign of 16 years, which 
he began at the age of 20: his fon fucceeded him at 25 years old. 
Jofiah at 13 begot Jehoiakim ; who at 2^ years of age fucceeded his 
father then only 39 years old. 


Ohtp 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 99 

There are 5974 lunations in 483 Julian years; according to which 
the 'feveral lives before the flood, if counted by lunar years, ftand 
^as follows: they are fomewhat longer, if we allow 30 days to each 
lanar year. 

Adam at Paedogony - iS: 7 At Death 75 : 2 

ISeth - - 16: 7 — ^ 73-9 

£nos - ♦- 'I5* 4 ■ 73: 2 

Cainan - - 13:9 73:7 , 

Mahalaleel - - 13: 4 \ ■ 72 : 4 

Jared - - 13:1 77:9 

Enoch - - ^3:4 29:6 

Methufela - • 15: 1 78: 4 . 

Lamcch - ^4-9 ■— 60: 10 

Noah at the flood - - 48: 6 

On the contrary the long intervals in the Septuagint, tho* pro- 
hably feafons, between the generations in Noah'^ line down to Ja- 
cob, feems to be to aflford time for experience and maturity of judg- 
ment in this felefted race, Tho' many inftances of longevity oc- 
cur in other families. Removes were* flow in Jafon^s line; and in 
t\\al of Achilles ; alfo in that of Minos, for Apollodorus deems 
Ariadne the miftrcfs of Thefeus to be Europa's grandchild. Ci- 
nyras, Saturn, Chiron, Jove Picus, Minos, all lived long. Niobe 
was intimate with Latona, wliofe gallant was Tityus, at another time 
of his Hfe vifited by Rhadamanthus, Alcmena's fecond huft)and : 
this befpeaks longevity in fome of them. — Some maintain the earth 
^o be exceedingly ancient, from the depth of foil on the Sicilian 
JLavas; but fliowers of aflies have conferred foil on fomc of thefe. 

The Chinefe records afford an account of nine men, Nieu Gin ; 
the number of Noah's anceftors. Thefe are ftiled Gin hoam xi^ 
the auguft family of men. From thefe arofe the Dii Novenfiles; and 
the Novendial obfequies. Probably in honoar of the 9 Antedi- 
Juvian Patriarchs, the Curetes and Mufes were 9. ' The civil year 
of 360 days feems to have been divided into 9 periods of 40 days 

O 2 vcach: 

100 P R I M I T I V E H I S T OR Y. (Book at^ 

each : of which fome traces appear in the 40 days of purification^ 

Exod. 24. 18 abftinence and temptation. Mofes ftaid twice on the Mount 40 daytf» 

Kings ^i. 6. The errors of the Ifraelities were 40 years. The length of the* 

^ '7- temple was 40 cubits. The number of ftripes were not to exceed 

Dcat. 25, 3. ^ ... . 

40. Lucina's period is 40 weeks. The Mexican period of 20 days 

was a fubdivifion of the original 40. The year was likewife divided " 
. into 40 periods of Nundinae. The virgin priefteffes of the Gallic 
Deity were nine. Nicander fays that " Rhea was adored on the 
Satur.' ninth day of the moon." Roman males were named at nine days 
old, a period they called Nones: when as TuUy fays, divinare fo- 
lent. Perfons to be initiated in facred myfteries abftained nine 
nights from venery. Olaus fays there was a general affemhly of the 
people among the Gothic nations every nine years, when they offer- 
ed men and beafts in facrifice. The outer circle of fingle ftones at 
Stonehenge feems allufive to the 40 Nundinae in a year: as the 30 
arches do to the days of the month ; the five trilithons to the in- 
tercalatory days ; and the 19 fingle ftones within thefe, like ig o^ 
thers in Cornwal, to the luni folar cycle: and the cfiiptical pofition^ 
to the earth's elliptical ambit. Till Numa's rrign the Roman year 
Dio Caffius. confifted of 10 months; each containing 4 Nundina. He intro- 
duced the Hebdomadal period from Egypt ; the firft day of which 
was, as Montfaucon (hews, dedicated to Saturn* 

^, , Berolus about the time of Alexander the Great, wrote concerninir 

Abydcnns. ^ 

Apollbdorus the Antediluvians to this efFeft. The firft man was Alorus, a Baby- 
" Chr! Ionian, who reigned 10 fari ; which Suidas counts 18 years and a 
. half: Sahra (whence the rivulet between the Ruflians and Chinefe 
is named Saratzin) being the moon in Chaldee, a Sarus was either 
the period of a feries of eclipfes during 223 lunations; or 18 years 
and 225 days, in which Jtime a revolution of the lunar Nodes is 
compleated. This Alor is not Sanchoniatho's Chryfaor, as fome 
fuppofe ; for Alor faid that " God fet him at the head of mankind. 
AUaparus reigned 3 fari. Amotion (whom Abydenus calls Am-il- 
arus) 13 fori, at Pantibibla;'^ fuppofed Sipparain Mefopotamia, on 

Jolh. ist 85. the Euphrates, Ptolenty's Sippara; which Sir Ifaac Newton takes 

to be.Sepharvanii ; but Dcbir was at firft named Kirjath Sepher, the 



City of Records. Ammcnon of Chaldea, Abydenus fays of Panti- 
biblos, reigned 12 fari. There had arrived in Chaldea from the 
Erythrean fea (after 40 fari, fays ApoUodorus) a man of prowefs A. Polyhit. 
named Cannes, clad in a fifh-fkin. He taught aftrology, archi- Chnrn/ 
tefture, laws, politics, geometry, the confervation of feeds and fruits. 
At nights he returned on Shipboard. He ufed Letters, and defcanted 
on the 'origin of things." Hyginus calls this doftor, £uhadnes; in Photio. 
Helladius, Oen, which in Celtic fignifies a Lamb : therefore this 
hiftory may be founded in an anticipation Berofus did not under- 
Hand : a prediCUon is often expreffed in pad terms inftead of future; 
fee the 53d. Chapter of Ifaiah. Helladius fays that " fome counted 
him a fon of the primitive Oos : that he rcfembled a Filh only as 
dad in a fifh-fkin, his head, hands, and feet being human.'* Un- 
der either Amelon or Am-menon appeared another maritime ad- 
vcniuier, named by Abydenus, Annedotus^ 26 fari after the firft ; 
vi\vo i\veirfoTc could not be fo late as the 40th Sarus. After MegaL 
^mof Pamibibla had reigned 18 fari; 4 other adventurers, namely 
Euedocus, Eneugamus, Eneubulus, and Anementus appeared un- 
der i)j{)n of Pantibibia, a paftor who reigned 10 fari. Next Eudoref- 
ckiofPantibibla reigned 18 fari. In his time a feventh do6lornamed Abydcn/ 
0-dacon appeared. Thefe all expatiated on the fummary do£lrinesof 
Oanncs. The eighth king Amempjiuus sl Chaldean of Laranchi 
KigDcd 10 fari : Abydenus here names Anodaphus. Oti-artes of the 
/Wp/ace reigned 8 fari: Polyhiftor calls him Ardatcs. His fon 
Xifuthrus reigned 18 fari. The fum of their reigns is 120 fari; and 
cachfarus being 18 years and 225 days, 120 fari are 2266 Antedi- 
luvian years ; thus if Noah's flood cnfued before the expiration of 
the laft farus, Berofus confirms the Septuagint chronology. 

" Saturn forewarned Xifuthros in a dream, that on the 15th day Polyhiftor. 
of the fecond month a deluge would deftroy mankind: that he fhould ^" ckr**' 
record the origin, intermediate ftate, and end of all things, and buty 
^t writings in Sippara, or Heliopolis: alfo build, and embark in, 
a (hip, with his friends; taking in fowls and quadrupeds. That on 
enquiry whither he was going he ftiould reply, " To the Gods to 
pray for human felicity/' «« Thq fliip was five furlongs long ; two, 



Eufcb. broad.** Berofus wrote that the dduge commenced in the fecond 

Syncel. j^Qjji^j^ J ^hich was Jiar ; not the Macedonian month, Daefius, as 

Hippocrat. interpreted. Galen fays, the Macedonian momh Dius, which the 

Epidcmil. ygj^j. began with, commenced at tHe autumnal equinox. Dr. Jack- 

fon, 2. 70, obfervcs, from Ptolemy 'is Almegeft, that the Chaldean 

and Babylonian year, and (as Gaza from Simplicius fays) the Afia« 

tic year began at the autumnal equinox : tho' the Syromacedoni.. 

ans fet the months each a month later refpeftively. So Jofephus 

Antiq. I. 4. ^^V^* '* ^^^ fecond month was named Dius ; and by the Jews, Mar- 

chefuan :" tho' Mofes ordained Nifan, which anfwers to Xanthicus, 

to be the primary month. Abel and Cain made their oblation at the 

Judg. 9. ^^ of the days, that is of the year ; when the feaft of Vintage was 

Jcrem. 41. afterwards obferved : as by the Sichemites. 

Abydenus fays that " Xifuthrus was conveyed Into Armenia, ft 
Eufeb: Prep, having been predifted to him that a deluge would enfue on the 15th 
of the month Daefius, as it was interpreted ; but Daefius is a month 
in the Macedonian calendar. He was direfted tofeury his records 
at Heliopolis of Sipparae. — On the third day after the abatement of 
the waters he difmiffed birds from the Ark. Thefe, waverfmg the 
boundlefs ocean without finding a refting-place, Sifithrus; 
as others did afterwards, Ofi a third trial the birds appeared with 
muddy feet: this anfwered his'hopes. Then the divine power with- 
drew him from human fight. But the ffeip being' arrived at Arme- 
nia; its wood furnilhed the inhabitants with Amulets, worn at their 

Polyhiftor from Berofus wrote that ^'. when the flood abated, 
Chron. Xifuthrus let out birds, that for want of food returned. Being fomc 
Sycicel. days afterwards let out again^ they returned with muddy feet: but , 
the third time they returned not. Then Xifuthrus opened the fhip; 
which approaching and grounding on a mountain, he difembarked, 
with his wife, daughter, and pilot. Proftrating themfelves on the 
ground, and eriefting an altar, on which they made an oblation, they 
difappeared. Their friends went in quell of them, hut in vain. A 
^celeftial voice declared that for their piety they were tranflated to 



tbe Gods; bidding M^m alfo to be religious, and to repair to Baby- 
lon ; and communicate the records to mankind: telling them that 
the country round them was Armenia. On this they offered a facri- 
fice, and went round to Babylon : the Ark refting on the Corcyrrjcn See Bryant. 
hills of Armenia. Then they took the records from Sippara; foun^'cd 
fcvcral towns ; paid regard to religion ; and rebuilt Babylon;*' Thus 
Herennius Philo of Biblos fays that " Babylon was founded 2000 Pliny, 
years before the timeof (theTitan)Semiramis.*' She lived about 1000 5^?. 
years after the deluge : other cities as Joppa, Anuchta, are held to 
have had an Antediluvian original. Syncellus fays that the Chaldiac 
hiftorians, following Abydenus, Apollodorus and Polyhiftor, ap- 
pear to affert the exifterice of an empire in Chaldea previous to the 
Cataclyfixi; tho'.faered writ mentions it not. — Philo-Judeus fays that 
the Chaldeans exprefsly named Noe to be the perfon, in whofe time 
the univcrfal deluge occurred. He is the Fifli Notius that faved Aftron.'i.s^ 
\t\s, and tiom which mankind defcended. ^^^> 4> 

In memory of this great event a proceflion with a barge was cuf- 
tomary in £g>'pt and other places. Sefoftris built a (hip nearly as 
big a«» the Ark, in honour of Ofiris a name ufed in Egypt for Noah; 
as Oceanus alfo was : thus K«/x\(/«, fignifying both a Crocodile and Clem, Alex 
an Ark, therefore at Egyptian Thebes a Crocodile reprefented the 2/^296. 
^tV.; a Shark the devouring fea; a Hawk, providence; an old 
Man, Noah ; a Boy, new life : and their king (Meon, Celtic for 
Ocean] faved by a Crocodile, means Noah by the Ark. Plutarch 
writes that the Conftellation Argo (G and K being commutable let- 
ters) reprefented the /hip of Ofiris. — Bryant remarks that Hefy- 
Aiu&fays Ippos was a large Fiih ; butihips were called Hipps, and 
^^onyfius entered into 'a Hippa : hence Orpheus fays that Hippa 
^as hisnurfe. He alfoobfcrves that a ceremony in the Elcufinian V. 2.222. 
n^yfteries related to the rcftoration of mankind thro' Noah, whofe 
name fignifies repofe. After much noAurnal lamentations the priefts 
bids the mourners ** Take courage, the perfon whom they lamented 
^5 loft is preferved, and they would be releived from their forrows.** 
^^^ I take a ceremony of this fort at Biblos to have alluded to the 
fall and redemption. However, Lucian mentions Syrian ceremo- 
nies .Jg 


104 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book ^ 

nies relative to the flood : and the Greeks called both a fhip and ^ 
temple, Naos. 

The roof of the Ark refembled thofe rooms, next to the rooFo ^ 
ancient f)alaces, from their form called eggs; fo Caflor an-d Pollu)c: 
were born in one of thefe rooms. From the Ark therefore arofe 
the fable in Hyginus of fiflies bringing afhore the egg that pro- 
ceeded from Heaven to the Euphrates, and being hatched by a Dove 
produced Venus Urania the Syrian Goddefs. Socrates wrote that 
the Argives folicited Bacchus out of the deep, at the fame time com- 
mitting an egg to the abyfs. Iflands, as I (hall (hew, was called. 
Oon, Greek for an egg ; and the Ajk- was the famous floating ifland 
fabled to be Delos. Ham's wife Thebc, a name of the Ark, was 
the Scythian I'abiti, derived from the Chaldaic Tabit, Area. She 
was alfo the (irft Kis or Venus, and Latona, and Beroe the con- 
temporary of Tethys in Nonnus, and Amaia the mother of Aai 
Mercury who was Mifor and the fecond Ofiris, whofe wife was the 
Stanley. firft Egyptian Kis and Chamyna, In the Doric Amaia fignifies gran- 
Pythag, dam ; flie being Thoth's, who recorded thefe events. The Dove 
induced Noah*s family to quit the Ark : thus Ampelius fays, ** The 
dove hatched from this egg a Goddefs benign and compalTionate to 
mankindl^ The Ark refembled the primitive Egg in repeopling the 
world. And the earth refembles an egg, in being a cm ft inclofing 
the ftibterranean abyfs: So Proverbs 8, 27; He fet a circle on thcvf- 
face of the depth : and Job 26. 10, fays the fame. But the A« 
refembled an ifland, Oon ; which is alfo an Egg. Herrera fays df ' 
Cuba, that aged people report of ^n-old man, who knew of an api- 
proaching deluge, that he built a (hip and embarked in it, with hiK 
Family and many animals; and fentout a Crow, which did not re- 
turn at firft, but afterwards brought back a green branch: and men- 
tions NoaVs fons covering him when drunk, and that the Indiana 
defcended from the fon who ridiculed hin^ the Spaniards, from xht 
other fons. 



B O O K I. C H A P. V. 


h Account of the Deluge /ram Mojes : with a Quotation from Enoch' i 
Book^ and from Polyhijlor. The Ark probably built near Babylon^ 
and proceeded Northward^ as Canopus bore over the Stern during the 
Voyage. Mention of the Deluge by various Authors. Plutarch re- 
laies the Month and Day^ and the Dove's mejfage. The Apamean 
VLeial regards Deucalion's Flood. An univerfal Tradition of the De- 
luge. Vijible Effects of it every tuhere. Probable Caufes of it. Of 
tfc« Jbding of America^ and the peopling of it from Sarmatia, Tar- 
tar/, CAina^ Phenicia^ Britain and Norway. Eight Antediluvians 
could defcribe the Globe to their Progeny. Ancients Maps of the Globe. 
Ancient Notions of the American Continent. Ancient Voyages. Traces 
oj Phenicians in the Wefl Indies. Of the Huron Language ^ and the 
Efqimaux^ Seneca's PrediHion concernirig the Difcovery of a dijlant 
Continent. From Cape Tagrin to Rio Grand « only a Fortnight's 
Voyage. Of the Renovation of Plants overwhelm' d a whole Year. The 
Ari grounded on Cauca/us. Site of the Gordyean Hills. Memorials 
of the Ark in China. A Table of ancient Calendars ; with Minutes 
concerning fovie Parts of them. 

T E T us now advert to the information concerning ihe Deluge 
•*^ tranfmitted to us by Mofes. ** The world growing populous, 
the fons of God," by whom is underftood the favoured line of Seth, 
^' admired and converfcd with the beauteous daughters of men :** 
who probably were Cain's ignoble race. The book attributed to 
Enoch deems *' thefe libertines, 200 Egregori of Seth's line, living 
in Jared's days on mount Hermon ; and names 20 of their princi- 
pals : of whom the third was a geographer; the fourth^ an aftrologer; 

P the 



to6 PRTMITIVE H S T O R Y. (Book i;. 

iTie feventh taught the folar motions ; the eighth, pneumatics ^ the 
ninth, the planetary courfes; the tenth wasametailift and lapidarianrt 
the eleventh, a magician ; the twentieth taught the lunar motions. 
From thefe fprung gigantic canihals called Naph-elim; who begot 
the Eliud. God comnHflioned Michael, Uriel, Raphael and Cab« 
riel,to precipitate their ringleaders into the abyfs, till the dayof judg-i 
ment." Ephraim fays that ** Cain's daughters with their mufic fe- 
duced Seth's gigantic fons from the eminences, where Adam fettled 
them, to Od : tho* men in general refided between Paradife and 
the ocean.*' Some, Jews as well as Chriftians, took the fons of God 
Lake 20.35. to be angels ; tho' ccleftialfpirits are void of carnal enjoyment. In 
Auguftin's time fome copies of the Septuagint read *' Angels of 
God." From this, intercourfc fome held that Demons or Incubi 
proceeded, who are fuppofed to have carnal intercourfe with women: 
but this feems a monkifh delufion. Others conclude thofe enam- 
oured beings to be the apoftate angels ; but thefe would be likely to 
continue the commerce, if praflicable. Some with much appearance 
of truth furmize them to be men of power, who took forcibly the 
daughters of their inferiours. Polyhiftor wrote that " A vaft con- 
Eufcb. courfe of foreigners reforted to Chaldea : thefe lived diforderly like 
favage beafts." So Mofes writes that " Mighty Aggrejfors lived in 
thofe days ;" fuppofed to be Cain's progeny : alfo that " from the 
aforefaid intercourfe proceeded an iffue, of whofe violent riots the 
world refounded." This enormous abufe of human liberty offended 
God. He decreed no longer either to controul or tolerate human 
lufts than 120 years ; or as I think, feafons; anfwerable to the 40 
years of temptation in the defert. A Deluge fhould then enfue; 
which God predifted to Noah, who both inculcated and praftifed a 
virtuous life x whilft temporal concerns engroffed the attention of 
the reft of mankind; whom God declared he would deftroy on ac- 
countof <heir violence, with the earth. 

God inftrufled Noah to build an ark of three ftories ; 300 cubits 

long ; 50, broad ; 30, high : a cubit being to an Englifh foot, as 

the fine of 60 degrees, to the cofine; or, as Aulus Gellhis writes, 21 

Roman inches. •— Noah, purfuint to orders, embarked with his wife^ 

, 3 fons 


2. Peter. 2. 

Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 107 

jfonsand their wives ; and took in provifions ; alfo feven pair of 
clean beads, and of all fowls, and two pair of all impure bcafts, which 
arc the carnivorous. The Ark was called Thebah and Thebe, figni- . 
fying alfo Bos: hence Themis in the flood, fuppofed to be Deuca- 
lion's, is reported to have rode upon an Ox. — The Ark was pn). 
bibly built itear Babylon ; that neighbourhood affording Bitumen, 
md Cyprefs, which Gopher wood appears to be j for Cyprefs in 
Hibcrno Celtic is Cufar. Bochart fuppofes the Ark was built at 
Sirabo's Cypariffon, near a paffage leading to Babylon and Seleucia. 
She drifted towards the north; hence the ftarCanopus, in the fouth- 
crnhemifphcre, is on the fhip's ftern: which is fo named from the 
Saxon ftern, and the Iflandic ftarn, a (lar. 

On the 17th day of the fccond month all the refervoirs of the 
Moterancan abyfs were difrupted : and, after 40 days of inceifant • 
3a4cxccfivc rain, the Ark Qoatcd. The Deluge rofe 15 cubits a- 
boveibeloftieft mountains, — After 150 days the waters began to re-. 
treat; and the Ark groui^ded on mount Ararat, on the 17th day of 
the ^cnth' month. In the Septuagint thefe occurences arc dated 
ten days later. The mountain tops appeared ort- the ftrft day of the 
tenth month. Their remaining fo long invifible after the Ark was 
^toond, argues that it fettled on land much higher than any other 
in ihofe regions ; for the waters retreated ib fall that in two monthi 
moret\ic lowlands were vifible: this is confirmed by the Ark's be- 
coming aground on the firft day of the water's abatement, when the . 
hlgheft hills were 15 cubits under the furface of the flood : and the 
Arfeoiuft have drawn that depth of water, which equalled half her 
height. Forty days after the firft appearance of land Noah difmifled 
a raven and a dove out of the Ark ; the dove returned : and, being 
di/patched a week afterwards, brought back an olive-leaf: which 
proved that the waters had now left the lower grounds. Being after 
another week fet at liberty, flie returned no more. — On the firft day 
of die next year, the whole country being free from water, Noah 
uncovered the Arlc. He quitted it on the 27th day 6f the fecond 
Aomh. Here a year of twelve months containing 30 days each is 

Pa diftinaiy 



diftinfily dercribed. The Deluge began on the faine day of the 
month that Plutarch tells us Ofiris went into the Ark, the 17th of 
Athyr ;. in which, fays he, the fun went thro' Scorpio : and he fcu 
the 22d day of the month Paophi (which preceded Athyr) juft after^ 
the autumnal equinox. Thus he determines. the feafon exaftly : o^ 
therwife the Egyptian months were vague, and went thro' the whole 
zodiac in 1460 Julian years,. which compleated a Sothiac period* 
This cycle began on the 18th day of July, at the heliac rifing of 
Sirius : for Macrobius and Dio Caflitis {hew that, the year after the 
Afliac fight; Thoth began on the 29th day of the Roman Auguft • 
and thence to the year 138 of the Chriftian era, there was a precef- 
fion of fix weeks; when, as Cenforinus writes, the Sothiac period 
recommenced: it ofcourfe was inftituted 1322 years before the 
incarnation, at the fummer folftice* Plutarch elfewhere writes that 
Solert. Deucalion fent a dove out of the Ark : thus the Greeks transferred 
AnimaL Noah^'s hiftory to him ; the Egyptians, to Ofiris. This dove was 
facred at Dodona^ and at Ammon's or Ham's temple in Lybia. 

Chron. Polyiiftor, .according to Eufebius, afferted that the Ark grounded 
J°^*P^"'* on the Corey rean hills in Armenia: Indeed Polyhiftor and Aby- 
9. II, 12. denus wrote " that a remnant of the Ark continued thee to their 
time : and that perfons ufed the bitumen aad pieces of the wood as 
amulets." BochaVt writes that Corcur is Navis longa; and that Mela 
an ancient author tells us, " The man, who efcaped with his fons 
Eufeb. Prep, after the Deluge quitted Armenia." Hieronymus an Egyptian, who 
9' *»*&*^9* treated of Phenician antiquities, Mnafeas and many others, men- 
tioned the Deluge and the Ark. Lucian's account of the Deluge is, 
" that the earth emitted from the abyfs a great flood: andvaft rains 
falling, the rivers overflowed more that ufual, and the fea rofe to a 
great height; the whole land was overwhelmed, and all mankind 
periflied except Peucalion. He, for his piety was faved in the Ark 
with his wives and children, and a pair of each kind of land ani- 
mals ; which were with him in the Ark during the flood ; that, fays 
1 he, enfued thro' the contentious, perfidious, implacable and inhu- 

man difpofition of the Antediluvians." Tq this Deucalion, who is 
Itfcah^ Andro Teius alludes in faying that ^« in Deucalion's time 



Chap 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R y. 109 

wicked perfons abounded : for every place was full of people, which 
made provifions fcarce, and mankind fraudulent ; want difregarding 
kings^ laws and religicn." Of him Apollonius relates (3) that " he 
firft erefted towns and temples, and was the firft fovereign in the 
world.'* Ovid extols his equity and piety ; and inftaad of the Titan 
Deucalion's, defcribes the univerfal Deluge, and its caufes, in a 
moft poetical manner. 

Protinus irrumpit venae pejoris in iEvum, w 

Omne Nefas : fugere Pudor, Verumq; Fidefq; 
In quorum fubiere Locum Fraudefq; Doliq; 
Infidheq; et Vis, et Amor fceleratus Habendi. 

Vivitur in Rapto : non Hofpes ab Hofpite tutus; 
Non Socer a Genero: Fratrum quoq; Gratia raraeft ; 
\rt\minet Exitio Vir Conjugis; Ilia, Mariti: 
Luridaterribilesmifcent Aconita Novercae: 
Filius ante Diem patrios inquirit in Annos. 

Quae Pater at fumma vidit Saturnius Arcc, 
Ingentes Animo et dignas Jove concipit Iras-— 
Talibus inde Modis Ora indignantia folvit ; 
•* Nunc Mihi, qua totum Nercus circumtonat Orbem, 
« Perdendum Mortal e Genus---dcnt ocyus omnes, 
•• Quas meruere pati, fie ftat Sententia> Paenas.*' 

Utq; manu lata pendentia Nubila preffit. 
Fit Fragor ; hinc denfi funduntur ab Ethere Nimbi. 

Nee Caelo contenta fuo Jovis Ira : fed illume 
Caeruleus Frater juvat auxiliaribus aquis. 
Ipfe Tridente fuo Terram percuffit : at ilia 
Intremuit, motuq; Sinus patefecit aquarunu 
Expatiata ruunfper apertos Flumina Campos; 
Obruerat Tumulos immenfa Licentia Ponti ; 





Pulfabant novi montana Cacumina Fluftus : 
Omnia Pontus erat ; decrant nam Littora, Pdnto. 

Of this admirable defcription, by the help of 6 lines from Drvden^ 
here follows an Englifh verfion. 

Thro* all the world prevails each horrid crime ; 
That ftill more heinous grows with growing time. 
All modefty has left both age and youth ; 
Integrity is gone, and fled is truth. 
Deceit, fraud, perfidy, fupply their place : 
Force, av'rice, rapine, fway the human race. 
To guefts nona bofpitality allow.: 
No brother {hares fraternal friendfhip now. 
This his wife's father to deftroy contrives : 
Wives flay their hufjbandsj hufbands flay their wives* 
Nefarious ftepdames poiPnous draughts prepare i 
Sons of parental health impatient are. 

The Deity obfervant from al)ove» 
Anger conceiv'd> an anger worthy Jove : 
The God indignant fpoke ia terms like thefe ; 
" Thro^all yon canh, girt round by roaring feas, 
« The foqs'of meivfliall pcrifli ; they ftiall reap 
*' The fruit of their deferts : this vow I'll keep.'' 

He bid$ a world of cloudy Involve the flcy : 
Loud thunders peal : rains tumble from on higlu 

Nor from his patrimonial heav*n alone 

Is Jove content to pour his vengeance down : 

His brother of .the fe^s he urgent craves 

To help him with auxiliary waves. 

Then with his trident Neptune ftruck the ground ; 

With central tremors earth received the wovmd. 



The fhock difclos'd the fountains of the mainr 
Th' expanded waters deluge all the plain. 
The talleft hills are *whelm'd by lawlefs wavesi 
Each loftieft mountain's crown proud ocean laves. 
Coafls intervene amidft the main no more. 
For the whole world's a fca without a fhore. 

Mofes calls the Ark, Thebah, a term learnt in Egypt. So in the N. io6. 
Odyffey, an Ark is Thebotha, its name in Clement of Alexandria. 5^^] j^y^^^ 
But Theba being alfo Bous, whence the fable of lo's becoming a phron, i2q6 
cow, Diodorus fays the Ark of Ofiris was named Bous ; and He- 
fychius fays, *' Bous, Baris, Argos, are names alfo of the Ark;** 
hence priefts are Argiphonts. The Ark alfo was Butus, Baoth, 
Booth, the Indian Buto (boat) Clement of Alexandria's Indian 
Boutta, their Budda: Plutarch fays that tombs were called Buti; 
b\\t.'\i\ iVxe language of the Kifti the moon is Bute. Seira was both 

an ark and -a hive; hence the prieftefles of the Arkite rites were 

Syrens, Meliffky Kvi^shiSug: fee this at large in Bryant.. Kigtrroc, 
whence Kive and Cup, is an Ark, and is akin to Thebotha, juft as 

Cham, Chamos is Plato's Thamos. 

Some Perfons furmize that the univerfal Deluge is alluded to by Montfaocon. 

i\ie Apamean medal of Severus, having an Ark with only twa per- Gent. Mag. 

fons in it; a dove hovers over it; but Plutarch confers a dove on 

Deucalion's Ark. Blanchini and Vaillant fay the infcription was 

Neo; Harduin faw Ncok ; and Gorius takes it to be Neok, initials 

ofNeocuri fuperintendents of a temple: The French king's itiedal 

has Neok on the end of the Ark ; but Falconnier read Noe on 

Philip le Pere's medals. The (lory is a Pagan one of Deucalion, 

^y the defeendents of Magnes, fon of Eolus, Deucalion's grandfon. 

Apamea is denominated Kibotos; which has a proximate reference 

^ Site: tho* that might .have been adopted to refemble their ancef- 

^or's fituation in the flood. Bochart Ihews that towns named Apamea pjjny -^ 

^^^rc furrounded by water; as Apamea in Syria and Babylonia. The Stepha. 

'^^nic is derived from the Celtic Ap-Meon, chili of the fea; Meon 

w Celtic, for ocean, Maon is Arabic for water. 


iia • PRIMITIVE HISTORY. (Book f. 

Plato writes that an Egyptian prieft recounted to Solon the hiftorjr 
In TiflMBo; of the general flood, " long before the Grecian inundatioas :'• 
telling us, Deucalion's flood did not afFeft Egypt. In Critias he 
counts this the Third Deluge. Corata obferves, from Acofta, 
Herera, and others, a tradition amongft the original Americans^ 
that mankind, except a few, were deftroyed by a flood. Lupus 
Gojnara fays fo of the Mexicans: John de Laet, of the Peruvians 
and others: Martinius, of the Chineie. Woodward refers to tra- 
ditions of an univetfal flood amongft the Scythians, Perfians, Bithy- 
nians, Phrygians, Cilicians, Phenicians, Babylonians, Egyptians, 
Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Gauls, Spaniards^ and 

Burnet's Theory mentions that the Spanifti Count Caftiglione had 
from an Ethiopian an account of a tradition, " that the Antedilu- 
vians breathed a pure air, and lived happily; the earth producing 
fruits fpontaneonfly. At length, when mankind had thro' pride de- 
. generated from their primitive innocence, 'the angry Gods caufed 
fo violent an earthquake, that great part of the globe fubfided into 
fubterranean cavities, and the waters contained in thofe recefles were 
thereby protruded." Job fpeaks of a fubterranean ocean. The 

lli 2 P^alfflift fays that God founded the earth upon the feas. Seneca fays, 
" Coniider what vaft lakes are latent under ground, and rivers that 

B.^. run we know not where: thefe from all quarters fliall be the caufe 
of a deluge." 

Nat» Queft. 

The bowels of the earth were difrupted, and various fiflures af the 
globe enfued; fome parts of it fubfided, whilft the bottom of the 
ocean was ejefted, and became continent: thus the earth was de- 

Gen. IS. 13. ftroyed with its inhabitatus, as Mofes records. The Pfalmift fays, 

Pfalm.46. !• it was crumbled to peices. Virgil fays, 

^n. 12. 204- Tellurem eff^undat in Undas, 

Diluvio Mifcens. 

Lycophron fays that " raging tempefts tore the earth to pieces." 
Xn45. Noniius fays, ^' that the world was unworlded." PJiilo Judeuseven 


See Catcot, 

Ghap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 113 

affcrls that ''every particle was reduced to fluidity:" but Ararat 
and other mountains remained at and after the flood; for they could 
not petrify during the time of the Deluge — Amazing diflocations 
appear from the vaft regions of fand in many places; and from va- , 

rious marine foflils in high mountains of all. countries. Cedrcnus 
writes that marine fifli have been found in mount Libanon. Sauffure 
found on the Alps a petrifaflion filled with round fliells, in a di^ 
Tcaion normal to the horizon ; and original ftones mounted on pc- 
irifaftions; and marine fliells at the elevation of 1380 toifes above 
the fea. In fortie mountains of France a flaty grit contains im- 
prcffionsof plants, found now only in India. Shells arc found on 
the tops of fome of the Jura mountains. On the Vogcs are gr-cat 
blocks of granite rounded, as if rolled in water, and lying on grit 
and pudding-ftoncs. Ehrhart mentions round ftones in the moun- 
tains of Memingen: Langius, fome on the Alps. Plot, on Shotover 
\u\\ nt^i Oxon, and Dartmoor in Devon. Hills and wealds in the p.., ^ 
north of England abound with fand and pebbles: Swedenborg ob- 164. 
ferved the like in Sweden. Many places in England abound with 
gravel reniote from water. A large foffil jawbone was found lately 
near Maeft rich t, with turtle and other bones, echcnites and belem- 
nites and corals: alfo a crocodile's flveleton 30 feet long, in the 
Tttountains of Canne. BuflFon mentions lamina of white ftone con- 
taining many and various fifhes, in the mountains of Caftravan. At 
Tooraine in France 36 leagues from the fea, Reaumur mentions a 
W of oyfters of 130,630,000 fquare fathoms. Hardel cliflF in 
Hampfhire contains a great variety of turbir?ated and bivalve (hells. 
In Berks at Catfgrove hill many oyfter fhclls were dug up and 
periwinkles. Rungwell hill in Surrey contains oyfter fliells unpe* 
^ficd. Herodotus, Plutarch, and Strabo fay that cockle fliells ap- 
pear in the mountains of Egypt. Mela treating of Numidia fays that 
** far from the fhore are bones of fiflies, ovtter fliells, and ftones 
fmoothed by attrition.'* Paufanias, Theophraftus, Xanthus Lyilus, 
Strato, and Eratofthenes have mentioned fiinilar inftances. £,chinsA 
turbinets, and pearl fliells have been found in mountains near Genoa. 
Remains of crocodiles have been found in Germany ; of moofc deer, 
^ Ireland; and of whales in the heart of Britain. The banks of 

Q York 


York river in Virginia confiftt of fhells and marine bodies: near the 
^^Amcrr eaftern foot of the fecond mountain in the ridge towards the Allegany^ 
JefFrefton found pelrified (hells different from any now found on the 
fhore of that country; and the whole region weftward of the Bhie 
ridge is a continued bed of iimeftone.. Staehlin's northern Archipclaga 
mentions bones of elephants found in North America. Awhale^s back« 
bones were found in hills beyond the Falls of the river James. Foflil 
fhells are found in Maryland. Pennant found (hells bedded in large 
blocks of (lone in North Wales. Thcfc are not produced from 
marine falts, or fpawn wafted in the air ; for I have found them in 
the folid liraeftone, in confufed clufters, not in pairs» the natural 
ftate of the bivalve forts. Dr. Withering obferved at Dudley in 
Staffordfhire, •• the rock inclofes rounded pebbles ;*• the furround- 
ing ftone being probably an antediluvian petrifaflion made at the 
bottom of the ocean : for fuch petrifadions eonfult the philo(bphic 
V. 6q. p. 1. Tranfaaions. Near StaWeford are fevcral beds of marine (hells. 
Walcot defcribes many remains of animals lodged in (lone ; and 
(ays that in many quarries and pits near Bath petrifadions are found. 
He quotes Ray^s travels for fimilar appearances in Germany ; Pan- 
toppidan, as to Norway; Shaw; as to Afia; Adanfon^ as to Sene- 
gal; Kalm^ as to North America ; Ulloa» as to South America. Bell 
mentions petrified (hells in the rocks about Shamachy^ weftward of 
the Cafpian fea. So Dr. Woodward colle6led proofs obtained in 
England^ Norway, Sweden, Denmark^ Holland, Germany, Flanders^ 
France, Spain, Egypt, Barbary, Guiney, Brafil, Peru, Barbadoei» 
Jamaica, Virginia, and New England. Whitehurft gives us a cu- 
rious catalogue of extraneous foflils found in England, (uch as the 
nautilus, fea-tortoife, and crocodile. Dr. Shaw found that the ftones 
in the Egyptian pyramids abound with foflil (hells and corals. Steno 
fays fo of the ancient walls of Volaterra, a place whofe name is de- 
rived from loftinefs of (ituation. At the elevation of feveral hundred 
fathoms mufcle and cockle (hells are found in Ireland at mount 
Naphat. On mountains near Richmond in York(hire are great 
quantitiesof (tones with refemblances of cockle (hells; fome in the 
middle of the folid rocks; others in beds of limeftone, 6 or eight 
fathoms under ground The Derby(hire limeftone contains marine 



bodies. The impreflion of a crocodile Mr, Watfon found at Afh- 
ford. At Mold in Flintfliire a black flate contains the exaft im- 
prcflions of leaves of feveral plants. Near Whitby are cofnua 
ammonis. In Selborne, Hants, fand is contiguous to clay, and 
Ihclls have been found, that are now generated only in the Indian fea 
or Gulf of Mexico. On hills at Adderlyin Gloucefterfliire areftones 
in the form of cockle (hells and oyfter- (hells. About Frodingham arc 
ihclls fticking out of the ftone-ftrata. Near Reading are fubterra- 
fiean oyfter (hells lying on fand, and extended thro* feveral acres of 
ground: In Hertford{hire, 3 miles N- E. of Rickmanlworth, in cut- 
ting thro* a hill, veins of fand appeared with (hells of mufcles and of 
other ft(he8. A gravel pit near Uppingham contained rounded lime- 
ftones, fea (hells, and fand. Dugdale informs us that in the uplands 
of Huntington(hire the (keleton of a fea (i(h was found above 20 feet HiA. Drains* 
\on^. Hale found in Gloucefterihire a bu(hel of petrified cockle- 
fhtWft iii&\ii6t from one another. Ovid fay% 

Procul a Pelage Conchae jacuere marinac M. 14. 

Sand is the grit of (tones, bones, and (helk; but what^ except an 
ocean, efiefled the grit of the Tartarian, Arabian, and African 
defefts; that have often overwhelmed whole cities, tribes, and ar- 
inies; and render the phyfical Typbon fo tremendous. That the 
bottom of the ocean has been thrown up appears not only from vaft 
regions of fand; but from the feveral ftrata in moft places not lying 
according to their fpecific gravities, but as they were fortuitoufly 
and gradually amaifed in the deep. And that the (trata of the An- 
tediluvian earth were difirupted and difplaced, appears firom their 
prefent pofition in* feveral places, normal to the horizon, as at 
Caldy ifland, and the whole fouth coaft of Pembr6ke(hire. Sir 
Kenelm Digby, and Baker the conlul at Tiipoli mention a town 
and people petrified 40 days journey thcncei S» £• and ^ver- 
^vhelmed with Jand« 

ii6 PRIMITIVE H STORY. . (Book i. 

The fubterranean waters at Noah's flood may have been expreflcd 
by a comet's approach ; as the moon raifes the ocean. Ariftotle in 
Seneca fays a comet caufes tempefts and inundatrons ; of which. 
Seneca quotes a ftrong inftance. Whifton obfcrvcs tjiat the comet 
of 1680 ; whofe period, according tp reiterated appearances, is ap> 
boiit575 years, made an approach 2344 years before the incarnation: 
and with probability concludes- the Deluge was at that time. For, 
tho' the interval, as Archbifhop Ufher computes, between the De- 
luge and incarnation, was 2348 years j yet the firfl ye-ars contained 
only 360 days : 139 of thofe years equal 137 fiderial; 209 of them 
equal 206 tropical. Herodotus writes that the (un had' twice rifen 

% in the weft : this refpefts hcliac rifings of the ftars ; and enfued twice 

in 137 fidereal years. Thoth in Egypt, and his coufingermanEvo- 
chus or Nimrod in Chaldea, added five day« to the folar year. Thus 
four years too much^nay have been counted before their corrcfiion. 
A comet may have drawn the earth fo far beyond its ^cient orbit, as 
to caufc ao augmentation of 173 days to 33 years. — But as the De- 
luge proceeded from feveral caufes (for the rains continued only 40 
days, altho* the flood increafed during 150) a little abatement of the 
centrifugal force, arifing from tlie earth's rotation, would make tlie 
waters recede from between the tropics, and overflow the countries 
beyond them : and after a little interval of time, an increafe of the 
earth's diurnal motion would caufe the fea to return, and inundate 
the equatorial lands. Alfo as air can be condenfed to water, fo may 
the fubtle ether, by a combination of means under Omnipotence ; 
who could diflipate thofe occafional vapours like dew, and exhale 
them into the boundlefs regions of fpace; in which operation a ftrong 
wind according to Mofes played a part. Again, the flowing trains 
of fome of the comets have been obferved of an amazing longitude; 
Johnfon the earth might have been imm^rfed m one of thefe'at the Deluge. 

Seneca N. 2. One in the year 1456 extended thro' 60 degrees: another is recorded 

7».^JS' tof have equalled the m% way in longitude. Pliny mentions the 

Meu^or: comet called Typhon by the Egyptians and Eihiops, and its fad 

PlinVz.* zs- effeas. 

The earth's furface is 200 millions of fquarc miles. A cube of 



ten miles of water will cover 256 miles fquare, to the height of four 
miles; the compre/Iion being lefs, as the height is lefs. Therefore, 
as no known mountain > are four miles high; and the various hills 
would engrofs a confiflcrable part of the fpace contained in that 
height, it is probable that the bowels of the earth contain waters fuf- 
ficient to caufe a deluge, efpecially fupppfing, as we are both told 
ind conclude from phenomena, that the earth was difrupt(:jd and 
fubfided into the cavity : for, tho* the prefent ocean was much com- 
prcffed by fupcrincumbent waters ; yet the waters that covered high 
lands were lefs comprefled in proportion. The eleftrical fluid of 
theatmofphere alfo can expand the waters of the ocean, by defcend- 
inginto the earth, and leave the waters of the fky unfupported like- 
wife: as when it is detached from thunder-clouds and water-fpouts. 
The eleftrical power of the air was known in Hcfiod's time ; who 
deems AcUo, the child of EleQro and Thaumas ; that is in plain 
x«ni\&, icmpeft is produced by wonderful eleftricity. This efFeft 
of an eleSrical ftate of the air is evident from the expeditious flowing Phllos. 
of the kke of Carniola in a thunder feafon. Tranfaa. 

But as the highcft mountains of Armenia were covered only 15 
cubits, probably the Andes of America were not totally overflowed; 
and feveral animals able to furmount ftcep afcents, or that were 
^d there perhaps providentially from the adjacent regions, were 
^creprcftrved. Animals by inftinft often change their fituation 
according to the weather impending, as we find by hares and wood- 
cocks. Animals peculiar to the torrid zone would never migrate 
^''0' Siberia ; and if we fuppofe that the continent of Africa joined 
South America till fome centuries after the flood; how came Ameri- 
<^*to have fo many animals totally unknown in the old world; as the 
hulLfrog ; the rattle-fnake ; racoon and guanaco. The American 
floth cannot travel 18 miles in a whole year ; and could never have 
migrated • from Caucafus to South America, over mountains and 
rivers. And none of thefe animals are in the iflands ; but are pecu- 
liar to the continent: this proves that they were originally prefcrved 
there by the advantageous height of their ftupendous mountains. In 
iikc manner fome animals were preferved in the Atlantic and Nubian 

mountains : 


tr« PRI M I TI VE HI STORY, (Book i. 

mountains: for Africa jufl after the Deluge waS an entire ifland; 
and the Nile is at all times a great obftacle to the migration of wild « 
animals, ofpecially reptiles, from Arabia towards Mauritania. 

As to mankind; altho* the prefent Kamtfchadales feem defcendents 
of the Mungalian Chinefe, both from their perfons and language ; 
and came immediately from the Curule iflands; yet the language of 
the Tfchutfki differs from theirs. Therefore the northernmoft parts 
of America were probably peopled by the Samojedes from Sarma^ 
tia, as far down on the weft as Nootka found : where, as the Sa- 
mojedes do. Idols are kept in tents; in the centre oi which is the fire; 
round this they lie : Carver mentions incantations refembling the 
Samojede; fee Yfbrand Ides. A vril the French jefuit found that 
the northern Tartars in purfuit of Morfes, were often wafted away 
On large floats of ice to diftant places. Lower Sarmatia was probabJf 
the fource of the AJftniboeh : who are feparated on the fouth by a 
river running to the weft and by the Saint Charles, from the Sioux: 
whofe language refembles that of the Chinefe Tartars ; and who* 
above the Mifliflipi, are neighbours on the north eaft, at the Red 
river, to the ChriJHanoux, and the regions noith €(f 4ake Superiour, 
where the Algcniin language prevails : *» it dctth <m the tiorth of 
the river Saint Laurence, a country probably peopled alio from 
Chinefe Taftaiy *: as Greenland was partly from Norway. I'he 
Laplanders, Samojedes, Chinefe and Americans reprefent variout 
t:onceptions by knots. Like the Naap »of sthc Caucafean Kifti^ the 
Algonkin nippee, deep, is akin to nap, tiappy^ The Algonkia 
'Ouifquiba, drunken, refembles the Irifh Ufftebach, and Tartarian 
Aifchy ; as from medd, methu. The Algorikins cali the Englifh, 
Sagaunofli, a name akin to Sacse: their word nip, to die, feems a* 
kin to our word, nip. Mittaus, Stoekings, refembles "Mittens: their 
magat is^he Indian maha, the Latin magnus : malatal, mailum, evil. 
Neepoo dead i^^akin to nekus. The iSamojedes feem to have ex- 
tended themfelves gradually round the north of Hudfon's bay, to- 
wards Greenland, and down as far as Wager river: for Middleton fays, 
the Efquimaux were unintelligible to the Indians at Churchhill; and 
Sans .£gidius writes that the Norwegians in the year 982^ found n, 


wUd people on the weftern fide of Greenland. The Huron language^ 
cc^ious^ expreffive but guttural^ and not fo fmooth as the Algon- 
quin» in thefe refpeds rerembles Celtic; but diftin^ons in it by^ 
tones befpeak it to be an ancient unpolilhed Chinefe ; which is gut- 
tural : Reland fays it has no labials ; if fo^ the Celtic muft difdaim 
all near affinity with it. It is the vulgar tongue on the fouth of 
Saint Laurence to the Miffiflipi : the Algonkin, as Carver tells us» 
prevails from the Ohio and Miffiffipi to Hudfon*s Bay ; is copi« 
CNis, eafy, and not abounding in tones and accents. The Pheni-» 
dan tongue is traced in the Weft Indies and BraGl. Adair's reafons 
for fuppofing the Americans a Jewilh progeny, apply to Phenicia^ 
Canaan, and Carthage, fettlemenu of Ham's family : Jews would 
never have omitted circumcifion. De Lact remarks that the Mexi- 
cans about the year 902 fubdued the prior inhabitants ; who as 
Uerera writes were fettled there A. D. 710, and came from Cali- 
forma*. xVie Mexicans came from firafiL About 30 miles above 
Si. Antonyms Falls, Captain Carver found hieroglyphics fculptured in 
a cave : thefc feem to have been of Phenician origin : the fource 
of thefe vidorious Mexicans. But Strahlenberg mentions pidure* 
writing among the Tartars ; and De Laet and Homius derive the 
Northern Americans from Scythia or Tartary : tKeir errant way of 
\VCe confirms this notion. Capuin Carver obfervts that the Ameri- 
can fliode of removing all their hair, except a tuft on the crown, is 
Ijkewile a Tartarian cuftom* Bell aflerts that the Tongufi refemble ' 
the Canadians ; as do the Tzulim Tartars. Sfaungo is Chinefe for 
a Have ; Shungufh in America fignifies a dog : here remark that ^^^^' 
when the Chriftians are called by Turks, dogs^ the word may like« 
^fc Hgnify Jlaves, the fenfe perhaps here intended. The Americans 
dircover an apathy or phlegm in their temper refembling Dutchmen 
and Tiirks. They confirm their aflent with the word, oath. The 
SvikWs in name refemble the Sacae. The Americans are fond of 
pinting themfelves azure, like the Celtae The Naudbwisffie lan^. 
guage on the weft of the Miffiffipi is extenfive ; their negufh, dead, 
ii NfMuc; Meneh, water, is the Arabic Maon. Pownal (ays thait 
A^can prefixes and affixes to words refemble Tartarian : and that 
die Tartars call two, neacb 1 the Americans^ need). 



Clem. Alex. 

4- *79- 

L. 2. 

Nat. Qucfl. 

2. 4. 





Eight Antediluvians remained to inform pofterity of the various 
parts of the globe. Pherecydes Syrus wrote that Zan delineated on 
a large and fair fheet the earth and ocean. The regions of the earth 
were defcribed on fquare pillars of ftone at Cholchis. Atlas and Her- 
cules drew charts of the globe, and were great navigators, Keat- 
ing's Irifli "hiftory relates that " Biotha's foh Adhna was fcnt, bv 
Nion foh of Belus, to explore the Weft.'* This Nion was the pri- 
mitive Ninus or Nimrod.' Strabo from Plato tells us, the Egyptian 
priefts informed Solon, that the ifle Atlantis, which was as large as 
a continent w-as deftroyed. Seneca from Thucidydes informs lis, the 
ifle Atalanta funk wholly or moftly during the Peloponnefiac War. 
This was much the cafe of Saint Vincent's Ifle in modern times. 
Plato implies that the deftruClion of Atlantis was fubfequent to an 
invafion of Greece by the Ccltae, and 9000 (lunar) years before his 
own times. Ammian, 17, and Pliny 2, 90. relate that the ifland, 
which funk in the Atlantic ocean, was larger than Europe. Proc\u% 
on Plato writes that " there were in his time feveniflands in that 
fea confecrated to Proferpine: and of three other Jarge ifles, one 
was confecrated to Pluto ; another to Ammon; the middlemoft^ of 
1000 furlongs in extent, to Neptune:" perhaps Porto Rico, Hif* 
paniola andCuba: " that the inhabitants of this laft had a tradition 
of the great Atlantic ifle, which was paramount over the others, and 
alfo facred to Neptune." Elian mentions kings of the Atlantic ifle 
defcended from Neptune. Plato writes that *' many potent kings 
reigned there before its deftruQion by a deluge and earthquake^ 
and extended their power over Lybia and Europe." He alfo tells 
us, the ifland was divided between Neptune's ten fons had by ClitO* 
Atlas the eldeft was paramount over the whole ifland. His twin 
brother Gadirus, in Greek Eumelus, as Plato interprets (tho' Gadir 
fignifies a fold, like Cadir in Welfti, whence probably the word^^ 
gather) ruled tjie extremity of the ifle next to the Herculean columns. 
The other twins were Ampheres and Eudaemon; Mnefeus and Au- 
tochthon ; Elafippus and Meftor; Azaes and Diaprepes. But per- 
haps Plato is not more happy in Grecifing the names of thefe,than of 
Gadirus ; there is room to lament that he had not tranfmitted to us 
che original, whicb might have given us fome idea of the Atlantic 


Chap. 5.) PRIMITIVE H I S T O R Y. 121 

language, which Solon learnt in Egypt, and fcenis to have been the 
facred, and alfo the Celtic; not only from Gadir above, but from 
Abaris the facred name of Pelufium ; for Abar in Celtic is filth ; fo 
Minerva's Egyptian name Xeith, from the Celtic Xyddu, pronounc- 
ed Neithee, to fpin : Meon or Mcncs in Celtic is Oceanus the name 
of, the Nile; hence fomc of the names of Menes and A-menophis, 
are by other writers, as I fliall fliew, called Nilus j Serapis is from 
the Celtic Sarph, a ferpent : I will not mention the other Pagan 
Gods, who had their names originally amongft the Ccltae after Tcu- 
uVs arrival in Spain ; from whence his progeny brought the Cha- Trogus. 
lybes and Curetes to the Thermodon ; where mixing with the Cy- 
clops Amazons and Pclafgi, they came to Ph»ygia, Greece, Crete, 
Italy and Sicily, bringing the worfhip of the old Egyptian Cabirs with 
them; which their Titan leaders contrived to transfer to thcmfclves, 
by afluming the names of the ancient Cabiri, as Ammon, Saturn, 
Ofirxs, Hermes, Ifis, Athera, Thebe, to name no more at prefent. 
Euftathius on Dionyfuis (94) fays that 16 was called Selene in the 
Argive dialed; but Proclus on Timaeus fays, the Gods called Selene 
what men called Mene. Briareus was in the language of men called Horn, II. i. 
y£g£on; but Breyr, or Brehyr, in Welfli is a baron : and I fufpeft Pfalm5o, 14* 
that the divine food Moly means the incenfc of praife, from the 
Welfli, Moli, to praife. The bird Chalcis was fo named ironically, 
as not being white, and had its divine name (tho* men named it 
Kumindis) from Caleb, Calx, Chalk; Swinton derives Kumindis 
from Khuni, niger; and Nhus, aeneus: this proves that the Hebrew 
vas not the divine language. Myrinna, the Phenician Muth, is from 
the Celtic Maru, to die. 

To return to Plato ; he (ays, the pofterity of thefe Atlantic kings 
reigned many ages there, and in- the iflands facing Egypt and Tyrr- 
henia; the eldeft fon fucceedingto the inheritance continually. It 
abounded with the bed copper and with elephants. The feveral ' 
groups of idands in the Atlantic ocean, fome of them containing 
volcanoes, may be fragments of that Atlantic region: as moft of thofe 
in the South fea may be >f a continent once exifting in the midft of 
thai extenfive ocean; tho' fome are new iflands^ being fome coral j 

R fome 

122 PRI M I TI VE H I STORY. (Bookie 

fbme volcanic, produ£lions. Plutarch fays, the Atlantic iflands (fti 
In Sertorio. ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ time) are two, feparated by a narrow frith, and diftant 
from Afric 1200 miles: he feems to allude to Britain. On the moon's 
diflc he fays, " the Ogygian ifland is five days failing weilward from 
Britain." He means Iceland^ N. W. for he^adds that " the great 
continent furrounding the ocean was from the Ogygian ifle about 
5000 furlongs;" which is nearly the truth refpefting Greenland: 
but fays he •* not fo far from three other iflands :" thefe feem to be 
Newfoundland, Anticofti, and Cape Breton. Plato tells us " that 
from the Atlantic ifle beyond the Herculean pillars, and bigger than 
Lybia and Afia minor united, a paffage lay to other adjacent iflands, 
and thence to the oppofite continent ; which, fays he, is really a 
continent, furrounding the ocean." This is the land aflerted by 
Plutarch to be a great continent. Theopompus, 340 years before the 
Chriftian era, wrote that Silenus told Midas it was of immenfe ex- 
tent. Lucian, pretending a defire to vifit the Tranfatlantidae, fup- 
pofes he might arrive at fome great ifland in 80 days ? a nice con-, 
jefture probably founded on fome tradition. Photius informs us, 
many authors agree with Olympiodorus, that UlyflTes failed over the 
(Atlantic) ocean. Strabo (1) writes that " Menelaus was reported 
to have failed from Gades to India :" this ftiews the prevalent no- 
tion of its pra6licability ; which was a natural idea, as the earth was 
allowed to be fpherical, which lunar eclipfes demonftrated; and the 
Tully.Mela, ancients were perfuaded of the exiftence of Antipodes. Strabo alfb 
oblerves that " only tit magnitude of the Atlantic fea deterred mar- 
iners from failing, on a partlkly from Spain to India." This was 
precifely the idea of Columbus : neither of them conceiving that fb 
•vafl: a continent as America intervened : which yet appears to have 
been fettled early, and probably at firft accidentally from China ; 
the Europeans found the people there ignorant of letters, coinage^ 
lime, the iron and fail-cloth manufaftures. 

In Timaeo* 

Facie Ltmae. 
3* 18 

Vera Hift. 

z* 67. 

Long voyages were performed in times of high antiquity. Feftus 
Avienus copied Himilco*s voyage from ancient records. Pliny 
fhews that the ancients had a notion of a northern paflage; but the 
Indians faid by him to have been thrown upon the German (or Nor- 

Chap. '5') PRIMITIVE HISTORY. 12^ 

wegian) coaft were probably from Labrador. For the frozen ocean 
of Scythia, at leaft of late years, is unnavigable even by Ruffians 
and Siberians : and no pafTage can exift except thro* Hudfon's Bay: 
where the ftrong and high tides (for which the tides in Hudfon's 
Streights are inadequate) from Whale Cove along the coaft at Ran- 
kin's Inlet ; and from Cape Fullerton and Whalebone point to 
Wager ftreights, with the deep foundings, extenfive openings and 
black whales, argue that Hudfon's Bay has a communication with 
the Pacific ocean; probably thro Nootka Sound. For, as the people 
and animals differ on each fide of that found ; fo the Efquimaux a- 
hove Whale Cove are unintelligible to the northern Indians of 
Churchhilh The Romans had lome account of that rare bird, a black Virgil, t • 
iWan: it exifts in New Holland. ^''^' ^- ^^* ' 

Herodotus had learnt that the Erythrean Jea had a communica- 
tion w\i\\ i\ie Atlantic. The Phenician difcoverers of it in Pharao 
Necho^s reign, failing out of the Indian ocean round Africa, had 
the fuQ to the narth at noon. Pliny writes that Caclius Antipater 2.67. 
faw a perfon who had failed froni Spain to the Arabian Gulf; and 
that a Spanifh wreck was found there in the xeign of Auguftus : alfo 
that Cornelius Nepos mentions onie who went to Spain from Ethio- 
pia in the reign of Lathyr. Strabo had acquired fomc account of L. 15. 
Cathay; this feems from Arrian to be the country near the fources of 
the Indus and Ganges: yet it extends to the utmoft eaft' above China. 
Hanno, who before the reign of Darius Nothu«, coafted much of 
the weftern fide of Afric, with 30 fhips and 30,000 men, colonized ^*^'' ^^^5- 
the ifland Cerne ; which was as far fouthward from the ftreights, as 
Carthage was eaftward : having paffed a defert coaft for two days to 
the fouth,, they failed to the eaft one day. This ifle, two miles in ^* 3«* 
circuit as Pliny writes, with whom Polybius agrees that it is a mile 
from the fliore, lies in the bottom of a bay. By this defcription it 
is juft beyond Cape Blanco, the ancient Hefperium Ceres. Scylax, 
in the time of Darius Nothus, mentioned towns on that coaft Found- 
ed by Hanno : who beyond Cerne entered a lake thro* the great 
^iver Chremetes^ counted by Ariftotle amongft the greateft African 

R z river** 


Pliny 5. 


(Book !• 

6. 32 

4- S 


rivers. It is the Senegal. Thence he failed to another large and 
broad river named Bambotus abounding with crocodiles; this 
anfwers to the Gambia. On that coaft he founded Dum-athiiia» 
Gytta, Acra> Melitta, and Arambe. 

Splinus and Arnobius mention the Canary ifles ; thefe were the 
Fortunate iflands, probably as efcaping the fate of Atlantis. Pliny 
particularly names the ifle of Canary. Polybius, about 170 years 
before the Chriftian era> mentioned the Britannic iflands and their tin. 
Strabo quotes Artemidorus, who was in the time of Ptolemy Lathyr, 
as mentioning the Britannic ifle; and quotes Polybius as refuting 
Eratofthenes, who lived in the 126th Olympiad, and Dicoearchus, 
Ariftotle's fcholar, and Pytheas prior to either, concerning the mag- 
nitude of Britain. Athenaeus writes that the main-maft of the gal- 
ley built by Archimedes, of 20 banks of oars, and prefented by 
Hiero to the ting of Egypt, was brought from Britain. Suidas 
affirms that Charon of Lampfacus, about the 75th olympiad treated 
of the navigation beyond the Pillars of Hercules; who as Pherecydes 
and Panyafis wrote failed to the ifland Erytheia in a fcyphus or 
fkifF,a name fignifying alfo a cup. The Argonautic poem of 
Onomacritus, whp lived 560 years before the Incarnation, or of 
Orpheus of Crotona, contemporary with Pififtratus, mentions Jemis 
or Ireland. Jernis is from the Punic Jar, wood ; and Nis, whence 
the Greek Neos, ifland: the original name Na viod vuide confirms 
this derivation: for tho' Jar in Irifli fignifies weft, it only does fa 
Mona* in a relative fenfe. Rowland Ihews that Plutarch's ifle of Heroes 
was Anglefea; which in the times of the Titans was Thule, and called 
Ynys Dowyll, fhady ifle, as Thule in Syriac is Umbrae: but in the 
time of Pytheas of Marfeilles above three centuries before the In» 
carnation, the Ultima Thule was Iceland; for Dionyfius the poet 
fays, " the fun there, at his neareft approach to the northern pole 
does not fet.*' Solinus fays " that at the winter folftice funrife and 
funfet happen there at the fame inftant; and that Thule is a voyage 
of five days from the Orknics: Strabo (1) fays, *' of fix days from 
Britain, towards the north, and near the Frozen ocean as Pytheas 
afferts.** Norway could not be intended; for Solinus and Pliny call 


Geor. I. 

Chap 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 1^5 

that country Scandinavia, reputing it an ifland. So Agathemeris 
names the ifles Jernia, Albion, Thule and the great Scandia beyond 
thcCimbric Cherfonefus; bcfides thefe, he names the ifland Salice, +''3'** *$• 
hrgerthan Albion; the fize, as well as other reafons, induces me to 
believe this ifland, named by others Taprobane, to be Borneo not 
Ceylon. Servius writes that Thule lies to the north-weft of Britain, 
lowardsthe Orknies and Ireland, and enjoys continual day-light, 
ihcn the fun is in cancer: this exaftly determines Thule to be 

• • Iceland. Bochart ftiews that Thule is Syriac for Umbrae; fo named 

f from the long nights in winter; whence Statius fays, 

Nigrae Littora Thules. Sylv. 

Pliny tells us that ** according to Pytheas, night lafted fix months 

aiTkU, an ifland fix days' failing northward from Britain, and 2. 75. 4* 16. 

I Vwivin out day's failing from the Frozen fea. Suidas fays that Thule 

I tore the name of the Egyptian Thulis, a prince whofe enipire was 

r extenfive: be is counted one of the Cynic cycle in Syncellus and 

f tlie Pafchal chronicle: I take him to be Thulur the friend of Ty- 

h phon or Woden, called Afeth and Afis. Pliny writes that Auguftus 

fcnt a fleet to the Cape of Norway, and thence to the Icy coafts of 

Scythia; probably it was that faid by Paterculus to have been com- 

\ naflded by Tiberius. Solinus counted it a voyage of 40 days to 

rf»e Hefperides; thcfe by their veins of tin, mentioned by the poet 

j Dionysus, are the iflands of Scilly ; being alfo the Cafliterides hinted 

at by Herodotus. Strabo counts them ** Ten contiguous iflands, 3* "5» 

having mines of tin and lead, for which they were frequented by a 

northern courfe from the port of Artabri;" now the Groine. Ono- 

nacritus ftiles Britain the fpacious manfion of Demeter. How early 

Che Phenicians vifited Britain is uncertain; but Achilles wore boots 

of tin; Agamemnon, a breaft-plate; Eneas, a fliield. Strabo tells us, 

*' Publius Craflus was the firft Roman who vifited the Cafliterides, 

where he found the natives addifled to navigation, and of a pacific 

turn:" He was praetor, and governed Spain; Marcus Craflu? was 

his Ton. Democritus wrote on the navigation of the ocean. 



2. 106 

Hom.Il. ig« 



I'he two following accounts are exceedingly remarkable, an 

fupport each other. Diodorus Siculujs firft informs us, " There* i 

a vaft iiland diftant from Afric feveral days failing in the Atlanti 

ocean:" .for which affertion he affigns this reafon. " Pheniciaii 

coafting Africa were driven off by a ftorm of feveral days duratio 

to this land. The Tyrrhenians intended to fend a colony thithei 

but the Carthaginians obftruBed them, left the excellence of tl 

country fhould tempt the whole people to emigrate thither ; keepir 

it in referve for thcmfelves." Here Diodorus before the Chriftia 

era {hews us that he had obtained an account of a region beyort 

the Atlantic known to the Tyrrhenians, Phenicians, and Carthagi 

nians, and both fo inviting and fo cxtenfive as might have occa 

fioned the evacuation of all Tufcany. And this account, ancient a 

it is, only confirms one Jiill older attributed to Ariftotle which 

this: " Beyond the Herculean Pillars the Carthaginians are repone 

Mirabil. to have found a defert ifland, abounding in all kinds of wood, nat 

gable rivers, and variety of fruits, diftant many days failing from t^ 

continent: which^when the Carthaginians frequented and inhabite 

on account of the pleafantnefs and fertility of the place, their rule 

by a law prohibited all perfons from going thither on pain of death. 

This priority of poffeflion fliews the reafon of the obftruaion give 

to the Tyrrhenians. The country difcovered was South Americ 

to which the Caribbean fea, and the Gulfs of Honduras and Mexic« 

gave the appearance of an ifland; which was uninhabited, tho* i\ 

Chinefe may have previoufly difcovered Mexico and Californij 

Well was South America noticed for navigable rivers ; for the Ri 

de la Plata, the river of Amazons, and the Oronoquc, like tt 

Miffiflipi and Saint Laurence in North America, outvie the Danul 

and Wolga ; the Ganges, Oby and lenifa ; the Nile and the Nigc 

On this difcovery the prediQion in Seneca's Medea was probab 


Venient Annis Secula Seris, 

Quibus Oceanus Vincula Rerum 
Laxet; et ingens pateat Tellus. 
Ocean in latter times (hall loofcf his band ; 
' And grant free accefs to a fpacious land. 


From Cape Tagrin in Africa to Rio Grand in America is only 540 

leagues, or a fortnight's voyage. New Zealand and Otaheite are 

farther afundcr than Afric from Brazil; befides their vaft diftance 

at prefent from any cjntinent: yet the fame language prevails not 

on\y in thofe iflands; but at the Sandwich ifles and at Eafter ifland, 

inrliich form with New Zealand a triangle, whofe fhorteft fide is at 

leaft 600 leagues. The fame language is alfo found at .Prince's ifle 

in the Streights qf Sunda; and appears to be Chinefe with prepo- 

fitive vowels. Tho' trade-winds oppofed the direft return of the 

Phcnician (hips from Brafil ; they may have taken, the fame nor- 

dierly courfe as fhips from Brafil now purfue. Strabo fhews us that 

failing on aparellelof latitude was known before the Chriftian era. 

But it is probable that the boundaries of the two worlds were, during 

a long time after the Deluge, nearer to each other than at prefent; 

\Woi(\u\ie contiguous; and that Pelagos, the fea thence fo called, ^^i^^- 

made i\\e dwifion in Peleg's days, by a phyfical feparation; the* 

underwood to be a political partition. Saint Auftin mentions (the* 

he reprobates) the notion that men could crofs the Atlantic to 

a New/ound World. 

The Phenicians feem by degrees to have difcovered the Weft- 
Indies and Mexico. The chief Deity in Hifpaniola was named 
• Chemis; which refembles Chemofh, Chamos, Cham. Bannier even 
mentions Mani-tou, as a God of the Algonquins; and Okki as » 
^^ of the Hurons; the firft is. Manes Tea, the God Manes, 
^C'Jcs, Mendes, or Pan: the laft is the Phenician Minerva; the 
Ottonofthe Irequois ; whofe A-tahaut-a is Sanchoniatho's Taaut 
*^ofMifor, and Manetho's Athoth fon of Menes or Mendes. The 
*^nian Hen or old Ruman of Texeira was Rimmon, a pomegra- 
^^^ the emblem of the Ark : yet the ancient religious were fond Wif«» 
^equivocal terms; therefore Ruman may, like Eros, be a volup- 
^""ous God, and His name be akin to the Irifh Rcmhain^ voluptas. 
'^urchafe relates that captives at Mexico were obliged to fight to death 
^uh aprieft, to become viftims; fhefe refemble the human viftims of 
^f Ae Druids.The Mexican Caufeysarefimilar to the Indian, Iberis^n, 
^Cainpanian. Coloffi and Pyramids arevifible in Mexico and Peru, 

128 PRIMITIVE H I S T O R ¥• .(Book !• 

as in Egypt and China.The fons of Ham delighted in thefe ftupendous 
monuments. From this fource we muft draw the colofli in the iflet 
of the Pacific ocean ; whether the conftruftors came thither from 
China ; or, by the way of America, from the Mediterranean : thic^ 
navigators, who could adventure to that continent, could attempt to 
go beyond it : and thefe, from the fame principles, caufed the fame 
ereftions as in their mother-country. Bryant obferves that a ftone 
Idol in Eafter ifland was named Dago, the Phenician Dagon. The 
Peruvians, like the Manchews, lack the letters, B and D. Mar- 
tinius tells us that the Chinefe anciently ufed the magnet in naviga- 
tion : Gilbert, that the Arabs did fo in traverfing deferts, as ac- 
cording to Pownal Abaris did a magnetic -arrow. 

The Argonautic poem before mentioned relates that " Jafon*s 
comrades driven by a ftorm from Jcrnis, Ireland, and finding them- 
felves in a fortnight at the bounds of the wcftern ocean (probably to 
the northward) in three days more anived at Circe's country; wh}c?i 
was an ifland of; an immenfe magnitude." Altho' we fhouid deem 
this account a fable yet it is certain that, fo early as the date of that 
poem 560 years before .the Incarnation, a notion of a large region 
on the weftern fide of the Atlantic was entertained; indeed far earlier: 
Va.. H. 3. f^j. xheopompus in Elian introduces Silenus telling Midas there was 
a vaft continent beyond Europe and Africa, as alfo (on the other 
hand) beyond Afia. Ammian's expreffion of birds and beafts of a 
, foreign world engraven on Egyptian monuments is fingular: it muft 

be an odd way of exprefling prepofterous hieroglyphics, that oftci 
refemble nothing in real life: it therefore dcferves enquiry whether 
g any of them refemble American animals. The deformed fpeftres in 

p. 129. Britain mentioned by Gilda* feem to be derived from Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics : as thofe in the weftern regions of North America, and 
amongft the Samojedes. Strahlenberg mentions piflurefque writing 
amongft the Tartars, as the Clerk of the California does, amongft 
the Americans* 

Hackluit and Hun»phrcy Luyd ia his continuation of Caradoc of 



Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I ST O R Y. 129 

Lancarvan's hiftory, mentions the difcovery and fetdement of North 
America by Madoc fon of Owen Gwyneth. Luyd relates that the 
<:rofs was honoured there before the arrival of the Spaniards : Her- 
bert notices the life of beads. Powel-, from Gutyn Owen in Edward 
the fourth's reign, wrote that Madoc went thither with ten (hips, in 
the year 1 170. Tlie Univerfal Hiftory quotes the evidence of Davis rp 1 q 
who met a whole fettlement, that fpoke Welfh in purity. Sir Vol. 8. * 
Roger Manley deems the American Doegs their defcendents. Mere- 
dith ap Rhys who gave the account of Madoc, could not build it 
-upon the difcovery of Columbus ; as he died fome years before the 
expedition of Cabot or Cdumbus. The name of the river Gwindor 
in America is Welfli, fignifying white water. Pengwin, a bird's 
name, is vhite head. Gwrando is to liften ; Bara, bread ; Mam, 
mother ; Tat, father ; Bryd, time ; Bu, a cow ; Clugar, a heath- 
cock ; Llwynog, afox; Wy, an egg ; Calaf, a quill.: Trwyn, a 
Tvofc; "H^f, heaven. Peter Martyr fays, the Virginians celebrated 
the memory of one Madoc, as a hero: who may have founded the 
Hurons : for he enlifted men into his fervice for the expedition, and 
Hiir in Welfh fignifies hire. La Hontan fays, ^' their language is 
ftrongly afpirated and guttural :" in this it refembles Welfh. The 
Huron verbs, like Welfh, are conjugated by varying the primary 
'lyWable, as Garero^ I war ; Sarego, thou warrcfl ; Arego^ he wars : 
in Welfh, Gare^viy is to defend. The Huron God of war .4 res-ccm^ 
icfcmWes the ma rial Gods of the old world Ares and Chon : as the 
ifisnd Olchon in t e Baykal Lake of Siberia fignifies Chon's Ifle ; 
ifccriver Orchon, Chon's river: yet I am to fay that Chon is a name 
of the moon: but Chon Is Saxon for fortis. It is elfewhere obferved 
tkat Saturn was deemed the mofl. ancient Mars, or Ares, a word 
probably refined from the Hiberno Celtic, Arach, might: as Pha- 
'^h may alfo be, with the prepofitive Ph. Plutarch fays thatthe 
Greeks inhabited the maritime parts of this great continent ; that the 
^habitants thouiBrIn the comrades of (Chon the Egyptian) Hercules 
^ere intermixt with thofe of Saturn ,- and theiy named the planet 
Saturn Nycturusr thus yVres^coni alludes to Saturn and Hercules. 
5!he Welfh probably were unable to abolifh Paganifm ; the alluring 

S ' Tites 

Lun^s Fadej 


rites of which could debauch thefe emigrants or their progeny; as it 
was able to do a Solomon. Yet in all likelyhood the Welfli fettled 
in Florida : where th« language and proper names bear an affinity 
to the Celtic. Wafer and Malcolm produce many words from 
Darien fimilar to Celtic. The traces of the Celtic language ^- 
mongft the Hurons and other people near the Saint Lawrence river 
may partly arife from a colony of Gre.enlanders in the eleventh cen- 
Mallct Hift. ^^^' Greenland in the tenth century received a colony from Ice- 
Denm. land, peopled at firft from Norway. Yet reafons before affigned in- 
validate the Celtic claim to the Hurons. The clerk of the Califor- 
nia wrote that the Americans bury their deid fitting, as Herodotus 
records of the Namofeans. Stellar found American arrows, and 
inftruments to kindle fire, like thofe of Kamfliaika or Tahan. Bell 
obferves a fimilitude between the Canadians and Tongufians ; who 
are fwarthy like the Tzulim Tartars, whofe language has a mixture 
of Arabic, and Turkifh : many of thefe have fkins fpotted white 
from their birth. Lord Monboddo mentions a Jefuit who difcovered 
that the Efquimaux language refembles the Bafque; which is a Celtic 
dialeft : this receives fome confirmation from the Vocabulary of 
Dobbs. A hand is law, in Welfli Llaw, hence claw : ice is claw^ in 
Latin gla^cits: to call, clay; in Welfli, Galw ; in Greek KaAf«. 
The original Sarmatian language was probably Celtic, I mean in the 
northern-moft regions of that extenfive traft ; where the Samoiede 
nation chiefly refide ; who feem related to the Efquimaux and Lap- 
landers: yet they ufe polygamy like the Oftiacs, who fpeak a Bul- 
garian dialeft, and where originally Calmucks, a people allied to the 
Tongufians, and Yakuti. 

As the Deluge lafted about a year, the renovation of plants fo 
long immerfed (tho* the inundation began when feeds in general in 
our hemifphere had attained maturity, the cattle at difembarkation 
probably proceeding to fuch regions as afford food during winter) 
tends to prove that their reproduftion oft arifes, in fituations con- 
genial to them, from their falts, as well as from perfeft feeds: which 
our famous Boyle proved in regard to flowers refembling wild Pop- 
pies, whofe aflies produced fimilar flowers. A region bf Kannanor 

on . 

Chap 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I ST O R Y. 131 

on the Malabar coaft is fingular in producing Kardamums : their ^ , ^^j . 
aflies produce a new crop. Furze likewife fhoots up plentifully from Hiit^io. 6 
itsafhes. In tlTe Philofophical Tranfaftions young Afh-trees are af- ^^^^\^I^^ ' 
ferted to have fprung from the rotten wood of old water -pipes, in a 
place remote from afh-trces. Indeed marine and mineral falts waft- 
ed thro* the air (and perhaps principles ftill more fimple; and com- 
bining with vegetable falts) produce fome plants, and alter others: 
I mean in a limited degree ; not generating any new fpecies, or any 
capricious Lufus Naturae; but their own feeds can reproduce 
and perpetuate ; as when wheat degenerates to darnel, whofe feed 
will produce the like. I have found this and wheat growing on the 
fame root ; which indeed may have become fo thro' coalefcence. 
As providence ufcs natural methods, fome fuch chemical procefs, as 
is hinted at above, can produce in a defert the cedar, acacia, myrtle, 
oVivc, fir, pine and box : thus Ifaiah tells us, " the defert fhaH re- 35. 
jo\ce andbloflbm as the rofe ;" for tho* this may be a metaphor, 
we can never fuppofe it would be taken from a phyfical abfurdity : 
5ee Lucretius on this fubjefl ; alfo Porta's natural magic, 2. looi, to 



Res lit convertant Formas. 

Things make new combinations, whence arife 
In bodies all ihofe ftrange varieties* 


Concurfus, Motus, Ordo, Pofitura Figuni, 
Cum permutantur, mutari Res quoq; debent. 

As concourfe, motion, form, iite, order do j 
Their fubfequent produftions vary too. 

Nay, I believe the human body contains an animal fait, that in 
•its firft principle is incorruptible, and thro* the Omnipotent operation . 
of the great author of nature, will reproduce our bodies at the fea- 
Xon of the refurreftion j till when it is awaited for, in the regions of 

S 2 departed J0^^ 


132 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book i* 

departed perfons, by the pfyche^ anima, umbra, fpe6lrum, phaiw 
torn or apparition ; that tablet of the mind, and effigy of the body. 
The idea of animal fait, however he fports with it, may have pre*- 
fentcd itfelf to Sir Roger Manley; where his dying philofopher de- 
Tufk, Spy. clares, that he is going to experience the nature of fait. — Lycophron 
fhews that the Deluge was in autumn, where he tells us, however 

'* Whales, dolphins, fea-calves, grapes and acorns eat;" 

It has been held that the Ark reded on mount Thaman'n, which 
Bochart interprets, of eight. Agathias mentions (4) Ka/xv^v G5f/xavt.y. 
This mountain, called by the Arabs Al Judi, and Giudi by the 
Tartars, is one of the Cardue hills between Armenia and Mefopo- 

tamia. The Chaldee Paraphraft therefore calls the hill, Cardu. 

Tournefort. Others fet the Ark's (ituation 280 miles further to the N. E. near 
Chardin. xh^ Araxes; ten leagues from the town Nak-chuvan; Nak in Arme- 
nia being a fhip, 2ind Shivan, refted. It is 12 leagues S. E. from 
Erivan, and two days journey from the th;ee Churches : is named 
Mafis; and is inacceffible thro* fnow. Below is Cemain, which town's 
name refembles Semen or Shemonah, that is, eight. But thefe names 
may have been conferred fubfequent to an hypothefis. - Berofus 
wrote that the Ark grounded in Armenia, on the Cordyean hills. 
In Jofepho. called by Curtius Cordaei. Ptolemy places the Gordiacan hills at the 
fprings of the Tigris ; which Strabo informs us proceed from mount 
Niphates ; and that the Tigris leaves the Gordiaean hills and Mefo- 
potamia on the right. Tournefort confirms Strabo; who fays, " thefe 
fprings are 2500 ftadia diftant from thofe of the Euphrates ;" whofe . 
principal fources, rifing according to him in the northern parts of 
Taurus, produce two dreams to the eaftward of Erzeron the Ar- 
menian capital. Thefe run weftward, furrounding the plain of 
Erzeron ; the one on the north, the other on the fouth, and uniting, 
three days* journey weft from Erzeron, turn fouthward ; leaving, 
fays Strabo, Armenia on the right. The Araxes or Aras runs eaft- 
ward from the fame hills, which are always covered with fnow. They 
arc a northern branch of Taurus, and named by Strabo Mt. Abos : 



pliny fets it in Armenia Major. The northern branch of the Araxes 
is the Arpagi ; which, after receiving a rivulet from Cars, is the 
fouthern boundary of Ferfian Georgia. Turnefort informs us that 
« the Mofchick hills extend from Cars towards Teflis, the capital 
of Georgia five days journey from the Cafpian fea, fix from the 
Ittxine, on a branch of t e river Kur:" it feems to have been the 
ancient Acropolis the capital of Iberia; which was between the Arax- 
es and the Kur: this lail had Albania to the eaft, on the Cafpian fea: 
tk maritime part of it belongs to Ruifia ; tho' a part of Georgia at 
large: being divided from north to fouth by a branch of Caucafus ; 
out of which the Kur iffues. Caucafus and the Mofchick hills are 
the northern bounds of Perfian Georgia. Pliny fhews that the Gor* 
dyean hills were near the Caucafean gates : but that the Cordueni 6. u. 
wcrcformerly named Carduchi, adjoining to Adi^bene, and laved by ' '^' 
i\\eT\p\s.--The Gordiaean mountains he places near the Tigris, Ch. 27. 
MoTckhecomcs divided, nigh the Mefenian Apamea, 195 miles 
ve/lward of the Babylonian Seleucia. This proves that fimilar names 
belong to a vaft range of mountains. Diodorus Siculus mentions L, 14. 
the mountains of the Carduchi as difficult of afcent to the Greeki 
under Clearchus, before their arrival at Armenia proper. Curtius 
and Arrian fhew that the Gordiaean mountains, or mountains of the 
Sogdians were beyond the Tigris, on Alexander's left, the Tigris 
^ his right. Plutarch joins the Gordieni with the Armenians and ^ Lucullo. 
^Ppadocians: yet he fays that " Taurus was between Gordiene and 
^nnenia; and had Iberia on the north, from the Araxes to the 
Euxm: next to whom the the Albani were near the Cafpian fea: '" Pomp^io. 
«the Iberi were about the Mofchian hills, and extended to Cau- 
cafus on the north : here fpring the river heads." Strabo writes that 
*' Caucafus furrounds Iberia, tending fouthward towards Armenia ^* *' 
andCholchis; Iberia is entered by two iVraits from Armenia; one^ 
fixHn Albania; one, from Colchis. *'•- Alio that *• Caucafus furround- 
ing the Iberi, and touching on Armenia, unites with the Mofchian 
hills and the Cholchian, as far as the Tibarenes ;" whom Strabo 
joins with thofe Chaldeans near Trabezond, who were Chalybes. 
— Curtius fays that " Taurus, rifing in Cappadocia, and leav- 
ing Cilicia, extends to Caucafus, and joins the Armenian mountains: 


134 P R I M I T I V E H I S T OR Y. (Pcoki. 

thefe numerous and contiguous hills form a continual ridge ; 

Alexander, whence almoft all the Afiatic rivers iffue, fome into the Red fea, 
fome into the Euxine." Plutarch fhews that the battle of Gaugamela 
was fought between theNiphates and the Gordiaean mountains; which,' 
to reconcile this with Strabo, muft be interfecled by the Tigris : as 

In E •"ebo- the fouthern branch of Taurus is by the Euphrates. Alex. Poly- 

hiftor calls thofe hills, Corcyraean : the language there being, as 

Strabo fays, partly Arabic; in which Bochart obferves that a large 

"Eufeb. Prep, fhip is Corcur. Nicholas of Damafcus, about the reign of Auguftus, 

9* *'• wrote that the Ark grounded on the lofty mountain Baris in the 

province of Minyas in Armenia: and reliques of the fhip continued there a longtime. Baris in ihe Egyptian tongue implies a fhip: 

11 Hcrot. I. Barain the Zingara language is a fhip. Strabo fays that Baris was 
in Armenia an objeft of adoration. This was the Ark, named alfo 

'Sec Bryant. Thebe, Bous, Argo, Campfa, Tabit, Seira, Oon, Ippa, Cetus. 
Hefychius fhews that the Ark was named So-beris. Suidas inter- 
prets Bareis, Naves, Turres. Jerome fays that Baris fignifies a 
tower. Ptolemy has a town named Baris in Pamphylia. But mount 
Ararat, a name, as Goropius interprets, implying a congeries of hills, 
but called by the natives according to Jofephus the hill of defcent, 
is generally taken to be in Armenia, and is thus rendered in the Vul- 

<ien. ¥.' g^^^ ^"^ Septuagint. Jeremiah, 51, joins Ararat with Minni, doubt. 
lefs the Minyas pf Nicholas; by fome derived from mines, with 
which as Procopius writes Armenia abounds. Amos calls this moun- 
tain Armunah ; Aquila, Armona. Bryant efleems it xhe mother 
country of the Minyae. Autonine places there a city named Areas. 
Meon in Celtic, like Mor, is mare; as Maon is Aqua in Arabic: 
thus Armorica is in the Saxon Chronicle named Armenia, the region 
^•* aboye the Tea. — As the Ark grounded on the firfl day of the flood's 

abatement, notwithflanding that the loftiefl mountains were 15 cubits 
under water, it muft have been upon the higbeft hill in all thofe re- 
gions : yet the defcent mufl have been gentle, to accomodate the 
large cattle. Bochart quotes Aratus thus, Armenioc celfis itiftabat 
Montibus Area. 

i,. ,,, Strabo mentions the olive as growing in Gogarene in Armeniat 


Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 135 

it may be that fort which Hercules brought from the Hyperborean 
Goths near the Euxine, from them named Cotinos. Syncellus 
affirms that Ararat is in Parthia. In fad, Solinus ihews 
that " the vaft mafs of mountains called in India Imaus and 
Paromifns; in Parthia, Choatra's; next Niphates and Taurus; that 
turning (northward) at the Euxine, tended to.vards the Rip- 
hean hills, had the general name of Taurus;" probably from J(?r; 
and where higheft, Caucafus; which likewife was a general name of 
the whole trad; tho' commonly appropriated to the fummit between 
Iberia and Scythia. Bochart derives the name from Gog Hafan, 
Gog's Fort. Pliny agrees with Solinus. Therefore Caucafus being 
the higheft part of all thofe vaft mountains, there the Ark grounded. 
Had it refted on a lower mountain, the waters would not have cove- 
red Caucafus; which feems a fit fpot which to difperfe the ani- 
tt\a\s both of hot and cold climates; otherwife lome might have been 
prevented by Caucafus and Imaus from ftocking northern regions^ 
But on what particular fpot of this vaft ridge the Ark really grounded 
is difficult to fay; For Taurus or Caucafus not only extends to Pcr- 
fia; but to the north of Cabul in India, being called Kaf Daghil 
Herbert, who is confirmed by Bell in the firft part, mentions a tra- 
dition that the Ark fettled on Da Moan a large mountain near the 
city Tauris ; and that Noah's wife died near it in the village Mo- 
rante. In favour of weftern Caucafus, Cato, Juftin (2) and Am- 
mian (^22) afTert that the Scythians were the firft people; alledging 
that the rivers defcend from Scythia. Mofes Chorenefis fays that 
Upper Armenia fends rivers towards each quarter of the heavens, 
and is the higheft region of the globe. Yet if the Cafpian Tea was 
formerly united with the Euxine, as held; it is probable that the 
Ark refted about Parthia; to favour the difperfion of animals to- 
wards all quarters. 

The plate of gold found at Malta, 1694, with figures of Egyptian 

Gods, had one with a long ftiell, with a ferpent above it, on his back, 

figurative of the Ark, Noah, and Providence. 



Tho' the Chincfe feem to allude to Noah, when they relate that 
Fohithpir firft king bred up /even forts of crcaturcs,which he ufed to 
facrifice to the fuprcme Spirit of the univcrfe; hence he was named 
Paof)hi, that is oblation; ^u^Paophi is the name of the fecondEgyptian 
month, and probably fo named in honour of Ophionj yet Fohi does 
not feem to be their firft Poftdiluvian king; but the firft human 
being. Chin Nong, the Japanefe Sin Noo, was Noah; whofe. mo- 
ther, they fay, when flie conceived him, was furrounded by a rain- 
bow ; this is an allegory, agreeable to the religious myfteries of Pa- 
ganifm; it alludes to the earth, that common mother invefted with 
the rainbow God's token to Noah. It is notable that the Chinefe 
barges retain the model of the Ark : the length is fix breadths, with 
flat bottoms and level decks ; tl>ey are three ftorie;^ high, each di- 
vided by galleries. 

As there is fome difpute at what feafon of the year the Delugt 
began, I will here annex fome ancient calendars; ;premifing a few 
words touching fome parts of them. 

The Abyffmians began their year with the month of Septeniber ; 

Cockbourn. Simplicius on Ariftotle fays, the Afiatics began the year at the 

autumnal equinox; but the Arabs and Damalcenes at the vernal. 

Galen fays, the Roman September was the Hyperberetaeus of Per- 

Poplicola. gamus, and the Boedromion of Athens. Plutarch tells us, the Idtff 

of September fell on the full moon of Metageitneon: thus the yeai 

was lunar, tho* correBed by intercalations; for Dionyfius Hal. counted 

•the 23d of Thargelion, 17 days before the fummer folftice ; which 

alludes to the folar year. Diodorus Siculus fet Scirophorion partly 

I in Tune and July. Plutarch tells us that Metageitneon was called 

^STcaSh Carneus; and Hecatombeon, Cronius, but by the Bseotians, 



Seal. Canon. The Greek intercalations were fo calculated, that a full moon 

Diodon Sic. occured on the 20th of Boedromion. Meto's cycle began in Greece 

'*• at the fummer folftice, on the the 13th of Scirophorion, 432 years 



before the Incarnation. The Olympic games were at the full moon 
preceding the fummer folftice. 

Plutarch writes that Chabrias took Naxos at a full moon in Camil. Pore- 
Boedromion, on the fixth day of that month. The Sibyl in Ser- ^^ * 
vius fays, the tenth Chaldean month was dedicated to Apollo. Eel. 4. 
Syncellus tells us, the Hebrew Nifan began on (the 25th of the 
Roman March, which was) the 29th of Phamenoth: So Jofephus 
fays that Nifan was (as it thus moftly appears) the Egyptian Phar- 
muthi; and the (Syromacedonian) Xanthicus. Confonant to this 
account from Syncellus, the 15th of Athyr feems to have been the 
17th of the Jewifti Marchefuan; and thus, altho* Plutarch informs 
us that Ofiris went into the Ark on the 17th of Athyr, yet his fub- 
fequcnt relation proves that we fhould read the 15th; juft as Berofus 
^TOtethat Xifuthus embarked on the |i 5th day of the 2d Baby- 
\oman month. 

Afacrobius fays that the days began to exceed tlie nights on the 
eighth of the Calends of April. Plutarch erroneoufly writes that ^ratw. 
the Greek Anthefterion was coincident with the Macedonian Daefius, Sylla* 
and with the Roman March. 

Hyde fays that tlie names of the Perfian months are Median: and Ch. 15.1c 19. 
that the month Phervardih, fovens Religionem, was removed from 
July to March; fo as to the reft, an anticipation took place: fo that 
Aban was their laft month, and correfponded to Oftober: this con- 
firms Plutarch's account of the Flood's commencement when the 
Sun pervaded Scorpio. — Mehar or Mihr was alfo called Azur. 

As to the fpring being the moft favourable time for the end of the 
Deluge, fpring in one hemifphere is autumn in the other: and Po- 
cock notes that wheat and barley, fown in the Eaft in November, are 
ripe in May: the Gofpel informs us that wheat was ripe in Judea 
at Low-Eafter. 

T A Table 


(Book i« 




Odober. Theautam- 
nal Equinox was 
about the loth. 









July. Pliny fct the 
Ridngof Sirius 15 
days before the Ca- 
lends of Aoiguft. 


•Hefiod's Year began after 
the Riling of the Pleiads. 
Plato's the ift Moon after the 
Summer Solfti(;e. Plutarch in 
Pelopidas ihews the old yezt 
beean foon after the Winter 

I. Boedromion. 

2. Maimaderion was the 
Boeotian Alalcomenius; fee 
Plutarch's Ariflidcs. 

3. .Pyanepfion, Pluurch on 
liis counts parellel to Athyr 
and Virgiliarum Ortus. 

4. Antheflerion. 

5* Pofideon. No Star of 
Urfayifibletill the fecond 
Watch; See Agatharcides 
in Photius. 

6. Gamelion. 

7. Elaphebolion. Paufanias 
fet the vernal Equinox in 
this month Elaphius. 

8. Munichion; fee Plutarch's 

9. Thargclion. Dionyfius 
Hal. fct the 23d day 17 
days before the fummer 
Solftice; fee Plutarch's 
Timoleon. Laertius on 
Socrates calls this the 6th 

• month. 

10. Scirophorion. Diodor. 
Sic. fet partly in June and 

1 1 . Hecatombeon. The Ma- 
cedonian Lous; fee Plu- 
tarch's Alexander. 


Galen fays, tho Syromacedo- 
nian months began each a mcrndi 
later than the Macedonian. So 
Joiephus f^.ys their Dius was the 
Jewifli Marchefuan ; and Xan* 
thicus was Nifan. 

1. Dius, began (as Galen fays) 
at the autimiilal Equinox! 

2. Apellaeus. 

3. Audineus. Suidiu means the 
Syromacedonian month, where 
he fets it at the Roman Ja* 


4. Peritius. 

5. Dyfbiis. ' 

6. Xanthicui. 

7. Artemeflu^ . ; 

8. Dxflus. 


9. Panemus* 

10. Lous. 

1 1 • Gorpiaeua. 

12. Metagitneon: in BoBOtia , 

Panemus; fee Plutarch' J "• Hyperberet^us, 
Camillus. I 

Chap. 5.) 





I. Tifrithc 1 ft month 
till the Exod. It is 
Ethanim. 1 Kings. 
8. 2. fee Exod 12, 

« mod \$^^ 

3. Marcker4ian ; is 
Bal, I Kings 6. 

3. Chifleu. 7 Zech. 

4. Thcbc^. * Eftcr, 
' 2. 16. 

5. Sabat. Maccab. i. 
16. 14. and Zech. 
* 11.7. 

^. Adar; fee Hefner, 

7, Nifan ; or, A bib; 
fee. Exod ! z. & 13. 
alfo Heller 3. 

S. Jair or Zif. 1. of 
Kings, 6, 

■ ■• ■* ., 

$; Sivan. 

10. Thiunmuz. 

11. Abb. 

12. Elul ; fee Nehem. 
6. 15. . . .' 


1. Thoth, at each commence- 
ment of the Sothiac Cycle, 
began at the Heliac Rifing 
ofi>iriiLs; fee.Pliwc, 2v47. 

2. Paophi. Plutarch fet the 
22d day (in his time) juft 
after the aytomnal Equinox. 

3. Athyr. When Sol pervn^es 
Scorpio; fee Plutarch. The 
BcEotian Damater. 

4. Choiac. December ; fee 
Plutarch's Romulus. 

5. Tibi. 

6. Mechlr. The fixth day was 
ante Id, Jan. in Pliny's 
Time, 6.^ if. this month is 
the Coptic Amfhir. 

7. Phamenoth; the 29th day, 
as Cedrenus writes. Was the 
25th of the Hebrev*^ Nifan. 

8. Pharmathi. Suidaa fet at 
the Roman April: Jofephus 
at Nifan. 


■ \f 

9. Pa-chon. The nth was 
ante Non. Mail. Scaii]^. 
Canon. 3. 13. ' 

io. Payni. 

II. Epiphi. Ptolemy fet the 
Rifing of Sirius on the 21ft ' 
day, in his tme. Thwn 
fet the Summer SolHice 
in this month. 

12. Meibri. 

r. Aban; 

2. Adar. 

3. DL 

4. Befaemeti* 

5. Afphander. 

6. Pharavardin began at the 
vernal Equinot: Scaliger's 
Canon. 3. it. yet a. 

7. Adarpahafch, or Ardibe- 

8. Churdad. 

9. Tyr, or Tir ; Sagitta, yd 
Planet a Mercurius. . 

10. Murdady or Mor-dad; 
mortem dans. 

11. Sheriva. 

12. Mehar. The 21ft day^of 
the feventh Month from the 
Vernal Equinox was the 
24ch of the fuEth Jewiih* 
Haggai, 2. i. 



B O O K I. C H A P. VL 


Noah quits the Ark: He was Oceanus Sire of the Pagan Gods, and 
Chief of the Eight Cabiriin the Ark. His Hijlory attributed to OJiris: 
fome Hero in mojl Countries has the Honour of other Men*s ASs ; as 
Arthur in Britain: A Digrejfionjhews who and when Arthur was. — 
Noah^s Curfe again/1 Canaan's Father. All Mankind ajfociated 'till 
the EreSion of Babel. Of Canaan. Of the Primitive Mercury. Of 
Letters reinvented by him and Thoth Hermogenes his Son ; tho* known 
to the Antediluvians. The famous Library at Memnonium was prior 
to the In/litution of the Sothiac Cycle. Cecrops brought Letters to 
Attica ; Cadmus^ to Basotia ; Saturn^ Hercuks and Evander to Italy. 
The Seth, who was Typhon^ engraved Pillars at Thebais. Odin had 
Letters from Thuler^ whofeems Thulis and Lucian*s Hercules Senex^ 
Jove wrote on- Goat'sjkin. Deriades wrote to Dionyjius. An Indian 
King^ to Semiramis. Sefojlrisfet Infcriptions on triumphal Columns. 
The Number of ancient Letters* Commutation of Letters. Sacred 
nnd Hieroglyphic CharaBers. Different ways of Writing. A new 
and unchangeable Alphabet. 

NOAH, having difembarked, made a burnt offering of every 
clean bead and fowl, on an Altar, to God : who declared, 
*' Man's imaginations to be vicious from youth ; yet he would no 
more execrate the earth ; but whilft it fhould laft, the feafons and 
day and night fhould fucceed in due rotation.'* He bleffed Noah's 
family ; gave them dominion over, and perm iflion to eat all animals, 
except their blood. He decreed to retaliate murder: and promifed 
that the Rainbow fhould be a token that another Deluge fhall never 
be. I have fworn, fays God, the waters of Noah fhall overflow the 




earth no more* Homer mentions the rainbow as Jove's token to Ifaiah, 54. 

mankind. Here obferve that, tho* the rainbow appears often in our ^' *7* 

clitaate ; yet in fome other countries it feldom or never is feen ; as 


fc Cedrenus writes that, 8 years after the flood, on mount Libanon 

[ of Armenia, Noah cultivated vines ; in which alfo Ofiris refembled 

him. Before the ufe of letters every notable exploit was^ attributed 

to the moft famous man in each country: as by the Egyptians, in re* 

gaidto N'oah> concerns ; who was thus the firfl Oliris; a name, 

thatby iu relation to Sihor, fignifies the Nile called ocean : but as 

it relates to Syr, Celtic for a ftar, is Sirius or Sol. Ofiris was like- 

wiiea name of Ham's fon Mifor : thus Tacitus ftiles Ofiris, " An- 

ilquiffimum Egypti Numen." That Mifor was the primitive Egyp- L. 4, 

uaT\?>o\TuUy fhews ; ftiling Nile's fon Vulcan or Phtha the fire of 

Sol: hercKWc is that parent of the Gods, Oceanus, who was Noah; Nat. Dcor. 

and Vulcan, as being a Cabir and both fire and grandfire of the o* 

ihtr Egyptian Cabiri, was Ham: for Sanchoniatho fhews thatMifor's 

nephew Ifraunus was the eighth Cabir or Deus Potens ; whofe great 

progenitors were Ogen, Okem, or Ocean and Tethys ; that is (for 

O^cii in Celtic is an Agar) the predifter of the Deluge Noah, and 

hisconfort, the two principal of the 8 univerfal Cabirs in the Ark. 

The Egyptian Cabirs are 1. Phtha or Opas, who was Ham; 2. his 

w/eThebe or Latona: 3. Sol: 4. Pan or Mendes, Mifor or Ofiris; 

5« Wswife Ifis or Chamyna, the name of an ancient Ifis in Paufanias: 

6. Plato names Theuth or Thoth, who was Hermanubis and Hermo- 

pnes Mifor's fon, in Eratofthenes: 7. Varrd names Muth, who was 

Scrapis ; I take the moft ancient Serapis to be Noah, who faw the 

Death of the Old world ; unlefs wc except that Serapis who was 

Satan. Epius, Apis or Ifmunus was the eighth. Suidas fays, the 

Grecians had medicine from Apis ; Clement of Alexandria writes 

^hat Apis a native Egyptian invented medicine before I6\s arrival 

ihither, and founded Memphis: he is Menes or Mifor; but the 

eighth Cabir was Mifor's nephew Knui.uis, Lycophron's Kpius. 

Homer names their two progenitors. Ocean and Tethys: Herodotus, 

the 3 firft males, and the primitive Latona, who fecms to be Thebe 



•i. -..^■ 

Tolly Nat. 




VRl M I TI VE «IiSiT?.QR,Y. {(fiopjf,^ 

^f Egypt,. not the Titan Latof^ajnwho j^ffumed her namcf j^^d ?wai 
cpevai iwith Tifcyuf aQ4. Ra^amfir^ in faying. Qlljrk 

^gd Ifi&*?were Oc€a3 and TjCthys^-.raean^SvNoahanfljhij confort.. 3m * 
their grandfon Mifor was the firft Egyptian Ofiris; and^^ wife 
Chamyna was their firlt Ifis and Minerva the daughter of Thebe and 
thM ancient Prometheus, who alfo was H4m 2 H.his^ugbter^ef fiis 
fead alfe^rhe naAeidf Thebe after her ritotber. Mifor, being the im- 
#rediate founder of the Mifraim or Egyptians, bad all the titles adUt» 
kktion c6uld bellow-; a!s Sol, Pan, Sirius, Ofiris, Adonis, Adono^ 
firis, Titin, Tharauz, Hyperion,' Apollo, Agathodemon, Dionyfius, 
BaccHus;, Faunus, Mercury, J^eon or Oceaii,! Neptune, Nile, 
Choirseus, Uchoreus, Siris, Egyptus, Priapus. 
^::I.'' ,>>■' •-. ^v:I^ .. ••• ^ ^.- . • . 

-VTKefe 'Titles were afterwai-iisaff^^^ by fome of the Titans ; as 
Nve^e the'titfcs of Ham*s other immediate defcendents. So Clement 
cff' Alexandria fays the Athenian Minerva was Vulcan's daughter: 
but this Vulcan was Ham ; and this daughter was the ancient Egyp^ 
tian Ifis wife of Mifor or Ofiris, long before the Gecropian Minerva 
<vh(>^ was only her copy. This Vulcan's wife was alfo a Minerva, 
ihd daughter of that primitive Nilus or Ocean, who was Noah, the 
Edda's Ymer, from Mor, Oceanus : and Snorro's B^rgel Mer, borri 
before the earth's renovation," and faved on fhipboard. 

Ham's fon Mifor is the firft Egyptian Menes or Meon, a name tbk 
in Celtic implies Ocean 5 as Maon is Arabic for, water. And, from 
the interpretation of the Theban lifts of Kings, implies Sol alfo; ^ 
likewifc docs Mar; whence in the Egyptian hiftory, Menes, Amcft 
nophis and Maris are often confounded, and frequently are called. 
Nilus. Mifor is the Ofiris to whom were attributed the aflions of 
the Egyptian Bacchus, the Titan Ammon's fon Dionyfius : who was 
likewife confounded with the original Bacchus or Evochus, Nimrod, 
Nebrod or Faunus, a name given to him from his fawn flcin Tunic: 
hence the Bacchanal, in Senca's CEdipus, 

l^ebride facra precinfta. 


Chap. 6.) P R I M I T I V E II I S T O R Y. 143 

To Nimrod properly relates the title of Zagreus. His true name 
probably was Ninus, affumed afterwards by the fpoufe and fon of 
Scnuramis: for Dicearchus in Stephanus fays that '^Babylon was built 
by the fourteenth king after Ninus the founder of Nineve." He was In Chaldcob 
Nimrod. But where Pliny fays **Oppiduip Nebriffa cognomine Vene- 
ria,"thefe names relate to Ammon's fon Dionyfius, and that Egyptian 
Venus or Ifis who was Ceres his Confort. Silius Italicus fays, 

Nebriffa Dionyfaeis confcia facris. 

Much con fufion is bred in hiflory by the cuftom of attributing re- 
markable exploits in general to one famous perfon ; or giving the 
true performer the title of fome former hero : as in regard to Saturn, 
Jove, Bacchus, Apollo, Neptune, Pluto, Mars, Mercury, Her- 
cu\c%;^\mo, Venus, Minerva, Proferpine. Thus the Gothic Odin 
is thereprefentativc of various heroes of different ages. O, is a 
prepoBiive; Din is Dis : the firft Dis was Noah ; the fecond, Japet, 
the third, Acmon's brother ; the fourth, the Titan Japet. But 
Typhon Has the mod formidable Odin, in the Titanian. wars; in 
which all the regions from (Jades to Babylon were involved. Typhon 
commanded Getae, and the Titans retreated to their ftronghold named Die Cafs. ] 
Xeira.-Iji Britain, all famous feats of antiquity are attributed to the 
i'CDow/ied Arthur : and almoft every notable place contributes to 
thw Across memory. Yet it is not eafy to difcover who he really 
^^ Arthur was certainly a great viftor over the Saxons, who came 
^ Britain in Vortigern's or Gwrtheirn's fourth year, during the 
confulate of Felix and Taurus, as Nennius writes : who fets the 
• ^wmencement of Vortigern's reign in the confulate of Thodofius 
'^d Valentinian, A. D. 425. But he counts 42t years, inftead of 
M from Patrick's Miflion to his own time, A. D. 858 in the reign 
of the firft Mervin ; tho' commonly fuppofed the fecond ; as Nen- 
'''US counts 429 years to Mervin's fourth, from the advent of the. 
Saxons : who are erroneoufly held to have come later than the firft 
mentioned confulate A. D. 428. Stapleton's verfion of Bede fets 
the arrival of the Saxons in the 429th. year of the incarnation: but 



Bede places it in Marcian's reign : whence later hiftorians and edi- 
tors have counted the time according to that reign, inftead of the 
year of the Chriftian era. Hence we may conclude that the pathetic 
letter, quoted by Gildas and Bede, conveying the groans of the 
Britons !to Etius in his thijrd confulate, was prompted by Saxon 
cruelties. Ethelwerd fays, the Romans quitted Britain 485 years 
after Cefar's invafion ; that is, A. D. 425. The Saxon Chronicle 
mentions a battle between the Saxons and Vortigern A. D. 455: but 
It is improbable that he and his allies were at variance within fix 
years after their advent; for the Saxons at firft were engaged againft 
the Scots and Pids. Henry of Huntingdon records a battle be- 
tween them at Stamford. The Hallueluja fight in North Wales un- 
der Germanus againft the Saxons is related by Conftantius of Lions, 
about 30 years after the death of Germanus, as well as by Bede and 
Paul Diacon: Nennius fays that Germanus went to France after 
Vortigern*s death, and Cambden proves that Germanus died A. D. 
L. 26. 435* Ammian mentions the Saxons and Scots as foes to Britons fo 
early as his time. Claudian fays^ 



Profpicerem <iubiis venientcm Saxona Ventis. 

Maduerunt, Saxone fufo, Orcades. 

But Arthur and his contemporary Merlin arc real perfonages only 
as they coincide with Uther and Aurelius Ambrofe. Thus hiftorians 
blend Uther's aftions with Arthur's: their names have the fame im- 
port ; both Uthr and Arthur fignify wonderful. Gildas writes that 
Aurelius Ambrofe often fought the Saxons, and inftances the Bado- 
nian fight; which others, particularly Henry of Huntington, who re* 
fers to Gildas, attribute to Arthur. So William of Malmfbury fays 
that Arthur fought for Aurelius Ambrofe, whom he deems Vortigern's 
fucceffbr ; efpecially at the Badonian fight : which Polydore Virgil 
afcribes to Uther; from his creft furnamed Pendragon, but Arthur's 
creft was a dragon. The Flores Hiftoriarum fay that Nathan Lcod 


Chap. 6.) P R IM I T I V E » I S T O R Y. 145 

(or Lluyd) was a captain under Uther : White of Sarnigllokc counts 
him an officer under Arthur. Ethelwerd fays he was king, and fell 
by the Saxons, 14 years after Cerdic's arrival. Henry of Hunting- 
ton and the Saxon annals fay that Nathan Leod (who perhaps had 
the epithets of Uthr, and Aruthr) was a famous king 60 years after 
the arrival of the Saxons, and fell in battle A. D. 508. Henry 
deems Arthur' a general of the Britifh kings about this time. For- 
dun fays. Lot of Scotland miirried Ann, Uther's filler j Geofry 
deems her Arthur's. Bede is filent about Arthur, whofe birth is 
fiftitious; and gives the honour of the Badonian fight (which Staple- 
ton's verfion fets 55 years after the advent of the Saxons) to Aure- 
lius, who was of Roman dcfcent. Gildas, iFordun, Polydore, and 
Bede's late editions count that fight 11 years fooner. Trithemius 
deems Arthur coeval with Clovis, A. D. 482—511. He routed 
PoWio, Tribune under Leo, who reigned A. D. 460-474. Pro- 
WbVy A.nhur was Childric*s ally againft. Pollio A. D. 470. Ar- 
thur fent his nephew to Simplicius, who was Pope, A. D* 465 
to 483. To conclude, Arthur and Uther are appellatives of a 
Brifift prince celebrated byLowarch Hen and Talieflin; heflourifh- 
ed about the year 470 and till about 511. His real name probably 
was Nathan Leod. Arthur's remains are faid to be now at Malmf- 
laury. As to his tomb at Glaftonbury found by the Abbot Henry 
de Sully, in the reign of Henry the fecond ; who comrhanded the 
ftarch, owing to the fong of a Welfh bard at Pembroke, this whole • 
account feems to be one of the many fiQions of Giraldus ; who fays 
that Arthur's fliin bone, according to the Abbot's report, exceeded 
the length of a tall man's leg by thfee fingers. The Latin epitaph 
it fufpicious ; tho' Camden reprefents.the letters rude and of a Go- 
thic form, as copied formerly from the original during itspreferva- 
tion in the Abbey ; Leland faw the original ; but fays that Arthur's 
queen Giiinevor was buried at Ambrefbury. Arthur is the reputed 
founder of Windfor Cattle. Sir John Prys cites a donation to Landaff 
Cathedral by Arthur's fon Noe : but Arthur is not mentioned by 
Gildas; who feems to attribute the Badonian fight to Ambrofe ; and 
mentions Maelgwn Gwined long fubfequent to him; tho' William of 
Alalmfbury writes that Gildas was interred at Glaftonbury, A. D. 

512. which tends to prove that the advent of the Saxons and Arthur's 

U vars 


,46 PRIMITIVE, HISTORY- , (Book 1. 

wars were earlier than commonly eftimated. — As to Merlin^ he was 
named Ambrofe Wledic ; which laft imports Aurelius ; for Conati " 
Aurelius was Conan Wledic ; yet Pennant interpret3 Wledic, mar- 
tial. It is argued that Merlin called himfelf Ambrofe Guletic ; this 
Nennius dubioufly and wrongly interprets, / am named Ambrofe* 
Nennius wrote Guletic, the W. being unknown in Latin, fo William 
is Gulielmus. Vortigern gave much land to Merlin : this prefent 
befpeaks him a prince, as the Britifh hiftory coun s him,' and of 
Roman defcent ; in which alfo he refembles Ambrofe Aurelius. 

To refume the Patriarchal hiftory. ' Noah being once overcome 
with wine, and lying naked in his tent, his fon Ham Canaan's father 
faw and divulged it to Shem and Japhet : who brought clothes into 
the tent, with their backs toward Noah, and covered him decently. 
Noah learning his youngeft fon's difrefpcflful behaviour^ curfed 
Canaan's father, dooming him to ferve his brother. Shem had a 
blefling : and Japhet, probably as eldeft fon, had a promife to pof- 
fefs the lands both of Ham and Shem. ' This enfued during the 
Greek and Roman empires; for tho' Shemites have occupied a great 
part of Japhet's territory, it is by intermixing with his pofterity rather 
than by fubduing or removing them. Japhet will again triumph, 
after the 1260 years of the firft beaft in the Apocalypfe ; whofe 
period commenced during the Exarchate of Ravenna : when the 
crowns, implying independent power, were on the ten Horns, or 
branches of the Roman empire : probably when the namcfake of- 
Jove Papa affumed a fpiritual authority over all kindreds, about 
A. D. 606. at leaft, before the Antichrift became the fecond beaft, 
with the two horns of power, fpiritual and temporal, on obtaining 
the fovereignty of Ravenna, A. D. 756, or 666 years after John's 
vifion. This laft number feems to be ftiled a man's, as commencing 
from an event refpefling a private individual, that is, John's pre- 
diftion; riot from any public era. Thro* a fpirit of predi6lion Ham 
was accurfed in the particular line of Canaan, agreeable to the fe* 
cond commandment; where itis declared that a wicked progeny ftiall 
have lefs m^rcy by reafon of Parental fins. Human oblations rend- 
ered Canaan's idolatry doubly abominable. 



Noah lived with his foiis at lead till after Canaan's birth. And 
Mofes mentions the whole people as afTemblcd at Shinar; there- Cen. ir. 
fore the creftion of the tower of Babel was previous to. any dif- 

Canaan's name is more exa6lly Cnaan : it fignifies a merchant^ 
like Mercury. He is Sanchoniatho's Cna, the brother of Ifiris,. 
the inventor of three letters, or rather alphabets. For this Ifiris, 
Hyfirus, or Ofiris^ being Canaan's brother, was Mifor or the pri- 
mitive Menes or Mercury of Egypt who >yas the father of Thoth 
Hermogenes. In his reign letters were invented, before the time 
of Phoroneus„ the brother of Egialeus, as Anticlide* recorded.. PHny. 
Thus Plutarch and Gellius inform us that Mercury 2i primitive God Sympos.. 
of Egypt is reported to be the difcovererof letters. Plato who men- 
uotis Hyperborean letters attributes this invention to Thoth or 
Tbeuth; but it was in his father's reign. Tully tells us, ** Thoth- 
taught the £gyptians laws and letters." Thoth was expert in letters,, j^^^ q^^^. 
being /ecretary to the firft Cronus- or Ham. Sanchoniatha attributes 
to him the invention of the facred charafters.. In- Stobacus Ifis tells 
Orus that ** Hermes depofited the facred lymbols of the mtindane 
elements near the Adyta of Ofirisr'' here Hermes is Thoth, Ofiris 
IS Mifor. Tofothrusy the Egyptian Efculapius and Thoth's contem- 
porary was expert in letters. Varro^ ir> Auguftinv fays, ^^ the 
Egyptians were taught letters by Ifis 2000 years before his time." Cir. D. 18.^ 
She was Mifor's wife : Cybele and her daughter Ceres affumed this ^^' 
name fome five centuries afterwards. A famous library, called the 
Mind's Relief, was at Memnoniiim, prior to the commencement of 
the Sothiac cycle, 1322 years before the Chriftian era; for the 
Golden circle of Ofymand) as at Mcmnonium proves that the year 
was then 365 days exaftly. Manetho confulted Thoth'^hierographic 
infcriptions : biu deems him the firft Hermes; tho' Eratofthenes calls 
him Hermogenes, 

Berofus fhews that letters were in ufe among the Antediluvians^ 
Peter, Jude, Polyhiftor and Eupolemus quote a book attributed to 
Eqoch: it was not genuine in their time, yet probably contained 

U 2 ' paiTages 


pafFages of Antediluvian original, and allude to one n^ore ancient. 
Varro flicws that the Egyptians had letters 2000 years before his 
age. Jofephus mentions a tradition that Seth erefted two fquare 
pillars, on which all inventions were recorded. Thefe remained 
even to his time in Syriad. Sculptures there were near Schirath in 
Judg. 3. . £p}^raim. Ammian (22) fays, the Syringes, (according to Paufania^^^ 
near the vocal ftatue in Egypt) were fubterranean and ferpentine 
recelTes, where adepts in ancient rites, prefaging the Deluge, engraved 
many hieroglyphics. Thefe probably were that Seth's, who Was 
Jambfich'us, Typhon. Pythagoras and Plato read them ; and they remained 
to the time of Proclus. Letters were in ufe in the time of Job (ig) 
who indeed appears to have lived (30. 3) after the Exod : Ccdrenua 
counts him Efau's grandfon. Cyprian, Tertullian and Minutius 
L. 7. Felix affirm that the Titan Saturn brought letters to Italy : Pliny 
and Solirius fay, the Pelafgi brought letters thither. Diodorus Si- 
culus relates that a Deluge deftroyed all the literary monuments of 
£^ . Grcexre : hence the Egyptians pretended to be the firft aftronomers; 

which fcience Sol's fon Aftis taught them. Euftathius in Homer 
fays, the Pelafgi alone preferved their letters, after the flood. Tacitus 
Annal.ii. 14 ^"^^^ that Cecrops introduced letters into Attica; and the Italian 
Aborigines had letters from Evander the Arcadian ; who, as Aure- 
lius Viftor relates, brought letters to Italy ; Ifidore gives this honour 
to Evander's mother. Juba, in Plutarch, fays *' They learnt letters 
from Hercules:*' he was taught by Linus : which accounts for the 
Latin letters being the moft ancient Greek; for Linus rejeded the 
S- iS. 'Cadmean innovation: which -laft, as Herodotus writes, were firft 
received by the lonians; Hefychius and Harpocration fay the Attic 
were the moft ancient. TuUy attributes the Phrygian charafters to 
the Egyptian Hercules : thus the Phrygian were the Pelafgic : this 
Hercules was Demaraon the father of Melcart, in whofe honour were 
the Ifthmian games; hot Damaratus, as in Tacitus. But Leo Al- 
latius and others fay that Ifiod of Japhefs line invented the firft 
Grecian letters. Pliny fuppofes that letters were known to the 
AflTyrians from the earlieft times; but owns that Gellius afcribed 
their invention to the Egyptian Mercury ; as others did, to the 

L Syrians. Diodorus fa}'s the Egyptians had letters from Ethiopia; 

' but 

Chap. 6.) PRIMITIVE HISTORY, ^ 149 

but Thebais was reputed a part of Ethiopia. The Gentoos fay that l. 3. 

Brahma invented letters. Suidas attributes the Hebrew letters to ^ 

Abraham. Mofes recorded the defeat of the Amalekites, before he 

received the Commandments. Nonnus mentions that Deriades wrote L, 21. 

to Bacchus, alTertinghimfelf to be Mithras and the Aflyrian Phaeton: 

deriding Sol, Jove, and Saturn, he acknowledged only earth and 

Water divine. * Zenobius fays that Cadmus flew Linus for oppofing 

his own Pelafgic lettera to the Phenician : therefore the Cretans, 

who, according to Mimnermus, derived letters from the Mufes, 

daughters of Uranus^ truly afferted that " the Phenicians did not j^. , '. 

invent, but only alter, the forms' of letters." Tacitus afferts that 

the Phenicians had letters from the Egyptians : whofe letters, as in- 

fcriptions (hew, refemble Etrufcan. Paufanias faw an infciiption on 

the tomb of Cora^bus a contemporary of Crotopus. Prometheus, 

CecTops, Phenix, Danaus, and Orpheus conftituted different alpha- 

betSi as merchants have their different marks; which Chinefe letters 

refemble reinarkably : thus the Samaritans feem to have invented a 

crabbed charafter, to be unintelligible to other Jews. In like man* 

ner it is probable that, as the powers of pronunciation were afFefted 

varioufly at Babylon, this event furnifhed the hint to the feveral 

captains, to introduce new words into ufe j rather than that words 

radically new were inflantly applied, inftead of old. So as to mea- 

fuTCs, one clafs of men meafured by their general's foot ; another^ 

by the length of the arm from the elbow down. — Herodotus (aw 

monumental trophies of Sefoftris in Paleflinc containing infcriptrons; -, 

andm Ionia on two of his ftatues this infcription in the facred cha- 

rafters of Egypt, " I won this region by thefe fhoulders of mine.'* 

Odin bad Runic letters from Fimbul Tyr: Tyr here fignifies Tyriusj 

^* Tyr became a proper name amongft the Goths ; the Edda ftiles 

Ae Gothic God Tyr fagacious and brave to a proverb. Tyr is the 

name of a month in the Perfian and Ethiopian calendars ; as Athyr 

is in the Egyptian, and Theri in the Armenian : yet Tyr, which is 

S^gitta, was the Perfian name of the planet Mercury. Fimbul feems 

to be the oldeft Hercules; for he was alfo called Thul-ur, Senex j 

^ucian writes that this Hercules was figured in Gaul as an old mari- 

*^^^ drawing his audience by the ears with his tongue. Thulur is 



150 P R I M I T I V E II I S T O R Y. , (Book 1. 

the Egyptian Thulis; for Is fignifics a man, as Ur \n/ Celtic does. 
fie is Snorro's Fimbul Thul, and his Afa Tor, or divine Tor. He 
was Meon (Ogmeon) who was Mifor. One Gothic Odin was as 
earfy as the Phenician Hercules ; for Valerius Flaccus (hews that 
the Goths were in Europe prior to the time of Sefoftris : they were 
fo'in the Titanian war, and their leader Odin feems to be Typhon; 
tho' the original Odin was Noah. Yet Snorro (hews that the laftOdin 
^w^as in the twenty fecond generation from Priam. A Copper urn 
dug out of the ground in the time of Epaminondas contained the rites 
paufanias. of the great Goddeffes recorded on a roll of tjn. Lucan fays that 
records were made in Egypt on ftone, prior to bark or leaves. Let- 
ters on wooden tablets were in Irifh called Feadda, wood, wydd . 
this term is Gothic, and probably from the Goths Ireland had letters, 
Suidas tells us, Jove recorded events on the (kin of the goat that 
fuckledhim: this parchment was called Diphthera; its antiquity 
5. 50. was proverbial. Herodotus fays that parchment grew into ufe thro* 
afcarcity of paper of Biblos. Ctefias mentioned the Indian kmg's 
letter to Semiramis ; who as Diodorus writes, infcribed a rock in the 
mountain Bagiftan with Syriac letters. But Ophion's feven books 
defcriptive of tht univerfe, mentioned by Nonnus, is the oldell 
Poftdiluvian treatife on record ; for Apollonius Rhodius (hews ui 
that Ophioii was Uranus depofed by his fon Saturn. Strabo men- 
tions letters on linen: Symmachus, Perfian letters dyed on filL 
Pliny 7. 58, and Tacitus, in faying that the Latin letters were Ae 
Ann. II. 14 "^^^ ancient Greek, are confirmed by Dionyfius of HalicarnafliU 
(4) as to letters on a column in Diana's temple at Rome. Pliny re-- 
fers to a Delphic plate of brafs then ii>the Palatin Library. — Strabc^ 
mentions very ancient Ethic poems of the Turditani, probably fimi-^ 
7. .63. '^ir to the Old Arifmafpian verfes tranfcribed by Arideas prior to^ 

c„^«^. Plutarch and Pliny count the Cadmean letters 16. Herodotus, 
(5- 58-) fays that the lonians firft received thefe: the Attic letters 
being the old Pelafgic; which were the fame as the Latin in the time 
of Pliny, Tacitus, and Dionyfius of Halicarna fTus. The Druids did 


Chap. 6.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 151 

not commit their maxims to writing; yet Cefar fays the Gauls ufed 
Greek letters^ but were ignorant of that language. Plutarch teaches 
us that Alcmena's tablet had charaflers ufed in Egypt^in the reign Soc. Ifis. 
of Proteus ; alfo that the Egyptian letters were 25, equal to their 
luni-folar cycle of 25 years of 365 days. Coins of Bericus and 
Cafwallon prove letters in Britain as early as 6efar. 

Ariftotle in Pliny fays that Z and $ wefe two of 18 old letters, and 
that Epicharmus added fl and %. But Caffiodorus writes that Z was 7- S^* 
no ancient letter; double 5 anfwered its purpofe; and Plato tells/tis 
Zwas a modern letter. Vega on the contrary fays, the Peruvians 
lack S, that is the foft found of it; it being pronounced hard like z, ^''*V**'*** 
as in dies, days. The Latins fubftituted^ for it, as Patriffo, YlAT^tflfii 
the Greeks put fometimes a fingle 5 for it, as 5^«|«, £aj<r«. Sometimes it 
v/as converted into /. Confonant, as t^M^oq^ lugum: and into G. as 
WaLipa^o, ?Toin 'apaj&i alfo into Z), as Zeus, Deus; Zancle Dancle, 
Nidor from jiv/J^. Edward Lluyd tells Rowland that the Armoricans 
nkdZfordh; hence Theuth and Dheu became Zeus, and perhaps 
Heus. The firft and third infcriptions in Apollo's temple at Thebes, in 
Cadmean charafters feen by Herodotus, contain, as now reprefented, 
. all the letters except L h *. the three double confonants. Plutarch 
fajfilW Palamedes and Simonides invented four letters each.Tzetzes 
attributes two to Simonides, three to Epicharmus. Pliny deems the Pa- 
iamedcan, d. i. 0. %. and the Sinionidean Z. H. *. «. Two of thefe 
*^ dipthongs; three double confonanti; three afpirated confonants: 
^Wch lad Viftorinus attributes to. Simonides. Suidas deems Z, 
infteadofj, a Palamedean; this Ariftotle's account of Z renders 
probable. Simonides and Epicharmus lived about 500 years before 
™ Incarnation : but infcriptions in Fourmont fhew that /Twas ufed 
*^ years before the Chriftian era. Yet Plato fays, the Athenians 
"fed the fhort £, and 0, for the long: So, the famous Sigeari in- 
'cription tranfmitted by Dr. William Sherrard, Conful at Smyrna : * 

y^Uhis has the afpirated Confonants; as likewife has the Baude. 
lotian lombftone at Athens, A. C. 450; together with /fafpirate; 
^hb, and AT, C,. K, and G, are Gutturals. The Sigean Letters 
^c thcfe; (Stt Piatt x,) S i$ fometimes an expletive, as Mufca 

from J^l 


152 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book i. 

from Mwu. S is often a prepofitive, as feveral other letters are; fo 
Omalos, Similis; akis, Sagitta; the Irifh Alt (whence vault) is Saltos: 
Hecr, fir; Semajim, heaven; Havo, fave; Myrina* Smyrna; Micy* 
thus,. Smicy thus; Tyr-henia, Tyr-fenia; the Irifli Siar is lar; Halea» 
Salcn; fait is from Al; Septem from Hepta; Semi, from Hemii; 
Indus, Sindus; Upnos, Somnus; Ur, Sur in Syncellus; Elli, Selli; 
Alpia, Salpia, in Lycophron: a hog, Suka, Sic: Aracen, Saracen. 
The Welch Taru is the Belgic Steer; Ber, a fpear. Smoke is from 
the Celtic Mwg; Hell is in Hebrew Sheol: Hen, old in Celtic, and . 
venerable, is the Highland Sean, the Chinefe Chan, pronounced i 
Shan, and the Latin Senex. Sol is from the Celtic Haul; as Apollo 
IS Ap Haul. Slip is from Labor;* Ship from Hippa: Sub from .uro r 
Scribo from Tfa^ftr; Selene from Elane, whofc facred Lake in the 
Gevaudan bore her name. 

The Latin B came from the Ccltac; it is the firft letter of the 
Irifh table; which, inftead of Alphabet, is termed Bcth-luiTnon. 
Vega fays the Peruvians lack B; which fometimes is changed into 
V; as Be, Galic, and Beith, in Irifh, Biote in Greek became the 
Latin Vita; Febris, Fever; Dabid, David:, In India Bedh and Vedh 
Bochart. are fynonymous : the Suevi are Ptolemy's Suebi. B and P are com- 
Canaan. I. mutable; as Cubo, Kvzlu; Boko, Pafco; ab, apo; Labor, lapfer 
Pha/jg!'4-*4. Pepper is in Turkifli, Beber; Bras is Prcs in Celtic, hence price. 
Lady Mont, goods being eftimated by it formerly: Gabon is Irifli for Capo: Pufc 
is the fame as Beth in Celtic; Pibifeth is Bubaftis; Prydyn, Brium 
Rutupinus, Rudby; Epifcopus, Bifhop; Cophtos, Cobt; Peto Ac 
ancient Beto; Pel Celtic, Pila, Latin, for a Ball: Ampelus, Ham* 
belus. Hyde fliews that the Perfians put P for B. Plutarch fays 
the Eolians put P for B. In Haim's Punic coin B refembles P: fo 
in the Runic Alphabet : Purgos in Greek is the Phenician Borg, the 
Gothic Burg and Berg; and in ancient Latin Uvppog was Burrhus: 
Puer is the Tartarian Baar; hence, the Oriental and Irifh Bar, fon. 
Blood is the Tartarian Plut. Balaena is Phalaina; Berenice, Phere- 
nice. The Macedonians put B foT *, as Bilipp )s for Philip. Plu- 
tarch fays the Boeotians ufed B for P, as BuGos for Pufios. At 
Otaheite B is pronounced like P. The Arabs like the Irifh had 



no P; but, without the character, applied much of its found to the 
B, as the Welfli are now apt to do. On the contrary, P and T 
lerve the Manchews inftcad of B and D as in Peru, where G is fup« 
^ted by K, and F by V. B was ufed in Latium about the year of 
Rome 493i as the DuilUan pillar evinces ; it occurs in two of the 
Ettgubian tables. Sir George Whelcr fays, *' the modern Greeks 
jironounce B, as we do V; hence Balcrianos on Valerian's medals ; • 
and, to reprefentB ufc M P. The Irifli turn B into M, as Bean a 
woman, in the plural is Mna; fo the Eolians had Murmex for Bur- 
»iex, whence came Formica ; fubmitto becomes fummitto, Seben- 
nytus, Sementioud, Berodach, Merodach ; beer, Merum, whence 
merr)': the Celtic Cam is the Hebrew Gab, whence the Latin Gib- 
bus. In Numbers 32, Beon is Meon. By this tranfmutation of 
\eticrs, the Celtic Buyd, or Armorican Boet, became the Englifh 
tatai Mid food, the Danifh Mad, the Latin Viftus; in Galic it is 
I.4,\rtici\ce Edo. B, P, and K, often ferve for each other; as 
Pen and Kyn, head ; fo Hefychius has Boptopvyvi, and Ko^opvyvi ; the 
J^rifhBw, white, is Can in Celtic, hence Canus; and Sicani, mean 
'om of the Cani or white men : Ilf/xTf, Cinque, quinque. Barleiis 
on Lucian would thus convert Deucalion into Thubal : but I de- 
'JVC it from Deu Gael Ion, Ion the divine Celt. He was a native, 
"^J^d his family inhahftants,' of Celt:- Sc^thia during feven generations 
*^* Teiitatcs or Tat: fo I am a Cambrian, as born in Wales, 
^w*"^ my family have lived during during feven generations from 
.'*™T> Ferrar's heirefs, the wife of Lewis Williams, Reftor of Nar- 
■ "Wh, but a native of the county of Hereford: Pezron is right in 
*^ing the Titins, Celts; but not in deriving them from Gomer, 
*^ccpt thro' intermarriages : for Tuith, Teiitat, Tat or the fecond 
^'^h, was Ham's great grandfon ; being the fon of the fecond Her- 
®^j who was Thoth Hermogenes fon of Menes or Mifor. — B is alfo 
• inverted in F; as Far is from the Celtic Bara, bread : the Irifh 
^^ in Englifh, bear, is Fero; Turba is turf: Bremo, Fremo : Bu- 
"•'ais, Bufalus. The Eolic Digainma was the Phenician Vau in form 
*^d power: fo the Englifh fay indifferently, bereaved or bereft: 
**fc becomes lives : Vir, in the Celtic Ur, is Fers in the Tartarian 
^&i^; Fir in the Irifh: the Belgic Vier is fire; Voet, foot. 

X Terentius 




Terentius Scaurus fays the Digamma was ufed for the Afpirate H ; 
as Faedusfor Haedus; Fordeum, Hordeum; Femur, Homer: Prifcian 
fays the Eolians did fo; the Spaniards have'Haba, Habla, for Faba, 
Fabula: Folamh in Irifh is hollow. But inftead of the F the Greeks 
chiefly ufed *, which is P afpirated. F fometimes became G, as 
Fel, Gall ; for, fup ; and as G and C are commutable, Ovid has, 
Chloris eram. Flora vocor. Sometimes it has the power of Gh in 
enough, often pronounced cnow; fo MenzikofF becomes Menzikow. 
The Perfian Ghihar is the German Vier, the Englifh four, the Tar^ 
tarian Fyder; alfo the Cambrian Pedwar, juft as Pifcis is fifh : or 
Caput is the Saxon Heafod, head. F often fupplies a guttural ac- 
cent, as Floyd is Lloyd ; fo the Eolians for RoJov had FpjJov tho' 
ftriftly L and R are only femigutturals ; R being the Canine letter, 
the real gutturals are G, H, K, Q. Sometimes F fupplied an Hiatus; 
fo Prifcian from Alcman ha^Dafion for Daeon: Turneforfs Delian 
infcription has the Digamma F, filling the Hiatus in avro thus ATFTO 
written from the left ; fo Hafoc, a hawk. The Roman Digamma is 
the fixth letter, like the Hebrew Vau or Whau. In Greek the Z, 
which argues itfelf by that means a late letter, fupplanted F j and in 
numerals by fome accident it degenerated into the double letter ft, 
named Bau Epifemon; probably becaufe F originally refembled this 
form J for what is Bau, but Vau? Ifidore fays that V redoubled is 
the Eolic Digamma, which was W; fo Dionyfius Hal. tells us the 
diphthong Ou was prefixt to vowels, and fimilar to the digamma ; m 
Ouanax, Wanax, Fanax ; and Silvius, Silfius, Silouiusj Ouate^ 
Vates : fo woman is Faemina. Sir George Wheler fays, •* the mo- 
dern Greeks'pronounce Au and Eu, as Af and Ef/* The ancients 
changed the laft U of two into an O, as Volgus in Ennius. DonatU3 
faid, " V and I were confonants, when they preceded vowels.'* 
But at firft, the Latins ufed the Digamma for the V confonant, as 
Fotum for Votum. The Welfh convert V fometimes into M, as 
Vaur or Maurj fo the Latin Mavors is the Sabine Maniers : fome- 
times into B, as Vach or Bach ; fo the Latin Vado is the Greek 
Bado : - as the Englifh bull is Vol in Sclavonian, Bole in RufTian. 
15 vowel was often pronounced as Ou ; fo Ouranos, UranuQr For 




this diphthong a fingle O was fomctimes fubftituted, as Dionyfo in- 
fcribed on an ancient cup. O fomctimes ftood for the diphthong Athcncus. 
au; fo Lotus, lautus. O has (bmetimes been exchanged for U, as 
Fretu, Acherunte : Pliny fays, the Umbrians did fo ; tho* the U in 
their alphabet is invifible to Hodiernal antiquaries, yet Swinton fhews 
dni V was ufed early in Latium. U redoubled was fomctimes con- 
vened to G as war, Gueire; warranty, Garranty ; William, Gwillim, 
Gulielmus. V is fomctimes a prepofitive as E/Jw, video. Y is often 
fabftiiuted for G ; as Ceag, key; Gear, year ; Gemen, Yemeaor 
yeoman, commoner* 

Tk Latin V ferves greatly for the Greek Upfelon as a vowel, 

and often carries the found of a diphthong, as in Guy. . Bochart pij^jg^ . ^g 

fliers that I is fomctimes fubftituted for U ; thus Ifaiah's Phul, and 

.' x\\t CViiidean Phulac is the Egyptian Philae: fo Itis is Idus, in Ma- qj^ ^5^ 

\ crobius: Varro fhews that U and E are commutable, as Turma, 

Tema. Us fomctimes fubftituted for E, as lanus, Eanus ; decern, 

I undecm; Dei, Dii, eis, iis ; Heth, Hittite; Sikelia, Sicilia: Gel- 

Jius fays that E or I was ufed indifferently ; Firma is Perm, farm, 

Feonn; Gibel is Iccbel. I often fuperccdes A; as Ibrahim, Abra- 

bam: foEdocs; as Anglia, England; France, French; Tar, Terra. 

Tw.kunic alpliabet lacks E; as the Etrufcan is fuppofed to lack O 

MJodi^; and 'Wife remarks that the Hebrew Aleph is no pcrfeft 

Fovel : hence wc may conclude rhat I fupplicd the place of allthe 

other vowels. E, O, U, fcrve for one another in Geta*, Goths, 

Gutae. In Irifh MSS. A, O, U, are written indifferently for one 

another ; and E for I : fo Dear, Djor and Deur is a tear. Hccabe 

15 Hecuba in Latin; Armuza is Ormus ; Calamos is Culmus. AI, 

El, II, 01, fignify great: from the Latin Bonus comes bene ; from 

Cura, care; from cavus, cove; hence Urania was Couella ; Caelum, 

Covum. In ancient languages vowels were rather implied than ex- Scjct Pomp. 

preft : fo in Welfli, Gwydr (Gwydir) is glafs. Hebrew abounds 

with inflances. In Englifh an E final fuppliesthe intermediate vowel, 

as people, populus, in Welfh Pybl : but the E final is more modern 

dian Robin Hood's epitaph. The Latins turned a long vowel into 

X 2 a double 


double one; fo Lucretius has Fluuida: fometimes into diphthong^ 
as loure for lure, in Ennius: we render Duplex, double : the Duil 
lian pillars has Caftreis. The Welfli pronounce the U final, as-ir 
the termination of the word obloquy. But the Latin Y was fubfti. 
Ornore. tuted for the I final. Tully fhews that Y was ufed in his time, but 
Mont&uc. j^Qj. by Ennius. — A final in the dative cafe was fubfcribed with an I 

raJeo. ' 

Graec. in old Marbles; alfo, O w^hen long; and E, when long. 

G in the Celtic tongue was an old letter : but in Latium the G 
was long fupplied by C as in the Duillian infcriptiqn Anno Urbia 

Qucft. ^16^ Plutarch fays it was introduced by Carvilius. They are com- 
mutable: Geranus is Crane; Ai-guptos, Regio Coptorum ; Carthago, 
Cartacoi Cerens, Gerens, on the Duillian column; Golaith in 
Welfli ifthc Latin Clades: the Hebrew and Irifli Gamul is Camel ; 
acer is eager; from Centum, Quingenti; vicefimus, viginti ; ago, 
aftus; rego, rexs, rex; Acraganta, Agrigentum; Gorjeftan, the 

Aufon country of the river Kor.— Q was added after Cata's time* The 
* ^ ' Eugubian tables lack X, Y, Z. but have Q and G: but when G 
was introduced at Rome, C fuperceded K, and Qj as Prifcian re- 
lates : but the Tufcan alphabet fhews that C was the original K; tho* 
in the Greek confounded with S; hence Sybele for Cybele in Mont- 
faucon. The Roman interpretation of the Sibylline oracle, Tria 
kappa kakifta proves that the Latin C was the Greek Kappa. — Xwaj 
fubaituted for the joint letters C S, and as Varro fays, G S. hencc 
Frux, frugis ; it is on the Duillian column. Q, like K and G, Wtt 
often put for P, as Ilf/xTe Quinque ; Lupus, Avaog ; Itto^, Equus ; 
lepus, Auyutr. The Cadmean Gamma in the Sigean infcription re- 
fembles the Etrufcan Pi» and the Runic L; as the Runic S refembles 

Wonn. jT^jurn^ont's Lacedaemonian. The Runic B, I, K, R, T, refcmble 

the Grecian. Q, from the Hebrew Koph, had no place in the 

J,, r , Greek table, but was the Koppa epifemon in numerals; as their 
Aififworth. ^ o • r , , 

Epifemon Sanpi was from the Hebrew Tzade, or Z hard. X is a- 

kin to the Hebrew Schin, and the Greek Chi ; and is often refolved 

into this laft, as in the Nuchemeron ; tho* in Attica the % was long 

before it fupplanted the K ; as like wife was the H^ K C being tena- 


Cbap 6.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 157 

cioufly continued. The Latins had B, D, and G from the Celts. 
In the South Seas, G, C, K, and S are Supplied by T. 

Plutarch fays eleven letters fufficed the ancients; the reft being 
affe&ions of letters, denoting differences, as accent, quantity. piJton, 
Therefore in the Tufcan, yhich as Pliny lays was Pclafgic, the E or 
I, and H, will beft bear fuppreffion: but Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus 
imtcs that fome held that alphabet to contain 13 letters: which writ- strud. 
ten from the righthand to the left (the L, M, N, S, refembling the ^^' '4* 
Sigean) are according to Swinton as follows, and are the ancient Pliny, 35^ 
Laun leuers. (See Plate i.) ^ *'• *^' ^• 

If this was the entire alphabet, we might conclude that the Pelafgi 

luidnoithe three letters of Ofiris, added to the Phenician alphabet* 

't\\tl>ras like the ancient Greek Sigma or San inverted, and by 

theShepWd in Atheneus Compared to a Scythian bow, which was 

much iflCflrvated. And I fufpcft that the infcrit>tion on the Taren- 

tincmedi\ mentioned by Pollux from Ariftotle, was not Taras, but 

Tanc ; for ^Tarachon, Chon of Tyre, or Melcart ; for Bannier 

Ays he fometimes bore a Herculean club : his father Demarapn Zeus 

WIS Jove ThalaflTius or Neptune. Atheneus fhews from Euri^es 

aftd others how the letters (^S^^ Plate 2*) were formed; Gori ful)l^ 

Itfatcs V'au for Swinton*^ digamma : if fo, U when a confonant In Pr^fcian. 

ifaVed for F, and when a vowel for O ; thir laft Pliny confirms. 

Indeed how can we fuppofe an alphabet to lack a vowel expreffive 

of a ftrong full found, as O, Ou, U ; as well as the fmart found of 

A, or the tinfel founds of E, or I. The proper names of places and 

perfons revolt againft the idea; as Porfenna, Bononia, Volfci, Boii, 

Volta, Voltumna, luturna, Volturnus, Volumnus, Vertumnus, Por- 

tumnus. — The O is fcarce vifible in a Lacedaemonian infcription as 

if one of Plutarch's affeftions of letters. (See Plate 4.) 

In the Irifh alphabet A was commutable with O, and U.— B, with 
P.— C, with G.— D, with T.— E, with I— F, with V.— H, was an 
afpirate : therefore the eleven letters of the Irifh alphabet, if that be 



the true number of the primitive letters, as Plutarch aflfirms, 
Were thefe, 

B. C D. E. F. L. M. N. O. R. S. 

Yet vowels were at firft' implied, not expreft; and F is of doubtfu 
antiquity; thus at firft there feem to have been only eight confo- 
nants. Fohi's eight elementary characters fupplanted the Chinefc 
knots upon chords, a mode of recording matters, ufed alfo in Ame- 
rica. But from the above account of Irifh letters, E, 0,^were more 
fufficient vowels foruniverfal ufe, than Plutarch's E. L The Do- 
rians ufed O, for Au. Yet that there were three primary vowels is 
probable, anfwerable to bafe, tenor, and treble; others fubfequeru 
to thefe were Defleftions. The Hebrew Tetragrammaton contained 
all the vowels of the Jewifli alphabet, implying a fine qua non; that 
every name Ihould even litterally owe exiftence to God, If Wife is 
right in excepting to the Hebrew Aleph as a pcrfeQ vowtl, we then ob- 
tain from the otliers the Celtic /cm. Indeed the Sacred Tetragramma- 
ton^ Porphyry's levo, where only the E, O, feem eflTential, ap- 
pears from Macrobius to have originally been a Trigammaton 
lap, implying a Trinity, and the God of Mofes, according to Dio- 
Sat. 1. L. I. dorus Sicu^us. Chiflet publifhed an Antique containing three hcads^ 
erroneoufly fuppofed to be the Eumenidcs, with ferpents depending 
from a tree, and the word lAO. As the Egyptians dropt the A, ia 
in forming lO, their Goddefs or Principle of vScicnce; fo the^ 
' Hebrews, omitting O, formed Jah, Ja,. Je. Plutarch not ob- 
ferving the Oriental way of writings reverfed the letters to Ei^ 
Thus the Egyptian tity On became No ; Rhea, Hera; Neitb 
or Anaitis, Athene, which fbme derive from Athan. Thro* fuch 
errors Sabbaco became S®; Amenophis, the Noph of the Hebrews^ 
and the Coptic Memph; the Neochabis of Atheneus, Pliny's Nefta- 
bis. Plato deems I an ancient vowel; L, and R primitive confo- 
nants. Thefe are commutable letters according to Lucian; hence 
Mazaroth, Mazaloth; and the Gallic Azur is in Spanifli Azul; Lud, 
Rud. Sir George Wheler fays " the modern Greeks pronounce B 
as F; the Eta as I, in lip; the Epfilon, broad:'* yet B is moll com- 


monly commutable with P; therefore Plutarch's eleven radical let- 
ters feem to be thefe. 

A. I. O. K. L. M. N. P. R. S. T. 

This arrangement of the Vowels affords a new Trigrammaton in 
the vocal AIO, the true Roman Aio Locutius. But, as Ifidorc 
fays, tlie Eolics (whofe language feems from Pezron to be the moft 
ancient Greek) doubled U, inftead of a Digamma; and Dionyfius 
Hal. writes that Oic ferved that purpofe; I think that O, was pro- 
nounced nearly like Ou, or like Oo in Book. And when I note 
the affinity between A, E and I; likewife that between O and U; I 
fee the chafafters that denote a perfonage truly divine, the Alpha 

and Omega of Sacred Writ. The eight confonants reprefent the 

e\^\vi Cabiri; and with the vocal I, the nine Mufes. 

T Vu\\ aT\ afpirate (and fometimes without, as Itis, Idus) fupplied 
the place oFD, which oft is a prepofitive as Jana, Diana; and fome- 
times is an expletive as Ko, rcdco. Gwynt is Celtic for wind; OtA 
for oetas; Mud for mute; the Th in the Engliffi thou is equivalent 
to the double D in Welffi, as Nyddu, to fpin, is pronounced Nythee. 
Tagesand Tagus are names from the Pheniciair Dagon, or elfe from 
^^iPifcis. Thur in German, Thura in Greek, is door in Engliffi, 
Doras in Iriffi. Tree is from Deru. Theos is Deus; Salt, faid; 
^^% Pedro; Strada, ft:reet; Tentyra, Dendera; Tahapanes,Taphncs, 
^aphnas Pelufiae ; Ardovan, Artapanus. Th, in the old Engliffi 
^'phabet is D. Brother is, in the Tartarian tongue, Brudor; day 
'^Hi Duo, Tua, in Engliffi, two: The Latins wrote indifferently 
Haud or Haut; the French Verd or Vert; the Engliffi- mixed or 
^^^U learned or learnt. Quid, is what: Ad, at: Udor, water. ^^ ^ 
•^ir George Wheler heard' the modern Greeks pronounce D, as our 30. 

^^^i th, in that, the Saxon Dhat. Da and De in the Eaft fignify Shcrring. 
^^^' T is often converted to S ; as Glotta, Gloffa; fo as to D, 
^^^on, Rofa: D, N, S, T, and X, in Hebrew Schin, Dens, alfo 
^» are Dentals. But L, N, and R, fupply the place of D, as Sella, 
'^^ Sedda, whence Scdes, feat; Penna from Pendeo; Arceffb. 


V6o P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book I* 

Anciently in Latin^ confonants conftituted more mafculinc inU 
Ainfworth. ^**'^ ^^^^ vowels; fo they did terminations; thus D on the Duiliian 
pillar is applied to that purpofe, as in " Altod Marid pucnandod.'' 
T has fometimes been converted into B, and C, as Terebra, from 
Teperpw ; Proceres from UpoTspoi ; and into L, and N; as Mitis, 
mild; Tlirvgy Pinus: alfo B into D, as the Irifh, Doit from Boit, 
fire, akin to heat. Des, Bes; Duellum, Bellum. K was JTormed 
like the reverfed C in the Tufcan, and refembles the Chaldee Kaph 
(wlience its Greek namq Kappa) and alfo the concave palm of the 
hand, which Kaph not only does, but fignifies; hence arifes ftrong 
proof, that the Chaldee alphabet is more ancient than the Samaritan: 
which if the evidence of Phenician infcriptions, Punic coins, and er- 
rors in the Septuagint owing to fimilar Hebrew letters, want it is 
confirmed by other -letters, as Vau; which fignifies and reprefents 
a hook: Pe, fignifies a mouth, and refembles one with its tongue 
and the ancient Gr^^^ P, as it was at firft reverfed; the Chaldee 
Gimel refembles the Gothic; yet the Samaritan is the Greek Gam- 
ma reverfed, as anciently: the Tzade has a much greater refern^ 
blance of our Z inverted, and approaches nearer to our S (which 
is founded often hard as days, raife) than the Samaritan doth: and 
here obferve that this hard found of S, before it was reverfed to 
form Z, or hard S, gave C an opportunity to ufurp its foft found^. 
as in cedar, city. The Samaritan Lamed refembles our L, and pn^ 
bably they had it from the Getae; for the Tufcan L is in a reveiSl* 
pofition; and the Greek Lamda refembles the Chaldee Lamed, whick 
fignifies a goad or fpit. But the infcription from the Defert of Sin, 
in Shaw, differs from the Chaldaic letters, and refembles the Celef- 
tial in Agrippa. 

K fupplied the place of C, G, and Q. Bochart derives Agbarus 
from Acbar; Caene in Egypt is Giene. Ring in the Tartariai^ 
tongue is Rink: in Irifh, Cabhar a goat is now Gabhar; Sag^rt^ 
Sacerdos; Chin is Gen in Welch: Beth Gamul is Domus Cameli-. 
Bryant derives Aqua from Ogua. Bochart contrary to Richardfon^ 
fays the Perfians utter H ftrong, like K, or C in, cry; fo Shah is Shach,. 
Paul Vinetus calls Hormuz, Cormoza; fo on the contrary Kwr 



\s hound; K^p^v, horn; Cham, Ham, Sanchoniatho's Amynus : 
ChaAh, Eve: Hamor, Emmor; Cair air; fo Caer Celtic for a 
citadel, was not only Car, as Car-chemifh, but likewife Her, as Hir 
Cherefli is Heliopolis or Balbcc. The Saxon Hwegol is cycle ; 
Ehun is Cant, Centum: Hus, houfe, CaFa : Hwa, who. Qui ; what, £^^ Lluvd 
^id. Selden flicws that Hadaand Chada are related-: he fays that 
■ Hada is feminine ; Adad, mafculine : fo, in Irifli, an afpirate before Dli Syr. 
a vowel, or after a confonant, beginning a noun, implies the femi- 
nine gender. Jablonfki fays that Ph, in Egypt was the mafculine 
artide; thus the ftatue of Ph'amenophis in Paufanias was that of 
Amcnophis, Mcnophis or Mcnes : the Ph'anaccn of Paufanias fig- 
nifies either the king or the Phenician : and Pharaoh, fetting afide 
the prepofitive, is derived either from Ares, or like Agrotes 
from the Celtic Ar, whence Aro; yet the Egyptian light-houfe was 
Aenvcdfrom the Hiberno Celtic Phara, or Faire, to watch. He- 
lydnustys the Cretans prefixed B to radical vowels: and thus El 
becaiDcBcl. Prepofitives (whether afpirSites, gutturals, the Di- 
^j/uma or other confonants) were neceflary in thofe tongues, where 
vowels were implied rather than infcrted : and confonants give a 
folidity to language, vary its miifical conftruclion, and exercife the 
oral organs : hence Tiog became Filius ; Aia, Gaia ; Epta, Septem; 
Ores, Tor ; Saos, Samos. I, confonant fupplied the foft G, as 
Jacob, John : fo Jain in Hebrew is Gwin in WelOi; Vinum in Latin; 
Oinon in Greek ; wine in Englifh. Bochart fhews that the Arab G, 
if founded as in giant. K fometimes is converted into M; as the 
Polifli Kotka, a cat, is the Hungarian Machka. ^'^^^ '• ^4- 

Inftances of A, E, I, fcrving for one another are ; fiiire, fhare ; 
wcg, way. Via, — Littcra, a letter. — Bracca, breeches. —Mater, ^Vov!d^ 
MjfT£p. — Ago, Abigo. — Mentha, mint. — Hcri, here.— imploy, em- 
ploy; intail, entail.— Sabaoth, febaoth. — Pa! : , Pelus.- — Sarapis, 
Serapis. — Pilhom, Patumos.— Migdol, Magdoi. in.— Apis, Epius. 
— Letous, Latona. — Ereb, Arab. Sometimes O is fubltitutcd for 
I, as Olli for Illi ; O fupplied the place ofU, UU, OU^ OO ; as 
Servos, Dionyfo, Volt, Vol gus, Equos: fo in the Delianinfcription, 

AiBq for AiBqv'j I on the Apian column, Odeni, for Oudeni : in the 

Y Dullian 


Duillian inrcription Diebos for Diebus: Jefus, Jefous. O fonr 
times fuperceded E, as Tego, Toga; Vefter, Vos: \sy»^ Xoyor. 
Englifli, O frequently affumes the found of of U, as work, doj 
fon : fometimes I does fo, as ftir, fir. The Hurons lack the U vow 
but exprefs the diphthong Ou : on the contrary Sextus Emperic 
writes that the founds of Ou, Ei and Ai were fimplc, like finj 
vowels. A foinctimesis founded like Au, as all, cjlI\. O is found 
fometimes (hort, fometimes long, as mofs, mod : fo I ; as wii 
mind. Sometimes Ea takes the found of £, as head, lead. Moi 
faucon lays that ai did fo anciently. E fomciimcs is converted 
to U, as Percello, perculi. A- and O are fo ueiimes commutab 
Ainfworth. gg. Spartum, Sporta; arid O has been converted into A u, as Coilt 
Caudex. U has been converted into A, as Ki>\;-, Calix: into E, 
N6(po% nubes: into I, as Xa^/^r, carus ; fo Optumus, optimus. 
Wclfh, Byrr is a fhort male ; Berr, afhort female. 

F, V, B, P, M, are Labials and often ferve for one another ; 
Fotum for Votum. From the Celtic Trefcomcs uibe ; from Ma 
Llysfam, ftcpdame. A vine is Muin in Irifli. Dived became L 
metia. IJfiOa, fido; Ovis, Opilio; Coup, cuff. In Celtic Ava 
apple, whence Abella in Campania : Pliny Ihews that B was ufed 
that name before V. Beneventum is Benebentos: the Greek Po 
mos, Bellum, is become Maloma. In Welfh, as Rowland teaches 
Mona. Yon, Von, Mon, Bon is Finis ; fo Lifbon or Llylbon fignifies 
extreme court. Avon in Welfh is the Irifh Amhan, the Latin A 
nis. The Irifh and Spanifh, like the Greek, lack V : B and Bh 
Irifh ferve inflcad ; fo Garbh is pronounced Garv. P, is ofte 
prepofitive as Platus, Latus ; Puro, Uro: it fometimes is an I 
pletive, A^«?, lapis: fo is B, as ambufh from Amus, Irifh. 
and N arc often fubflituted for each other, as quondam. L is for 
timwS turned into N ; as Nv/^sJ)^, Lympha; Nankin,. Lankin; for 
times into D, as Lacryma, /i^xpvaa: fometimes into S, as Bel 
Fcftus. Belias; Annibal, Annibas. 

R is fometimes converted into S, as Arbos, Honos ; and into 


2S Awpcv, donum ; Mo-m, mora : aereus, aeneus : into C as paucus 

from Ur.vpog ; and G as Apiv, agna ; Seges from Sero. R is fome- 

umcs put for D ; as Medidies, Meridies. The Chinefe lack R ; 

and for B, D, R, X, Y, iife P, T, L, SS: at faint Kilda R, P 

and G are not ufcd; fee Martyn. 

Tranfmutations of letters occur in the Celtic radicals grammati- 
ally. In the Cornifh tongue Beu is living ; yn vcu, alive. Benen 
is woman ; a Vencn, O woman. Darn (pronounced Daurn, whence 
perhaps to darn) is a hand ; Ith Tarn, in thy hand. Fual, fhackles, 
1$ in Amiorica hual. Fordh, a way ; Gyz Vordh, your way. Guyn, 
white: Maga Huyn, as white. Golou, light; a Volou, of light:: 
Ker, dear; Mar Ger, fo dear. Kolan, a heart ; Ou Holan, my 
heart. Mira, look ; Da \'^iraz, to look ; hence admiro. Piban, a 

'^V^e, anBiban, the pipe. Pries, a fpoufe ; Ou Fries, my fpoufe. 
Tan fire: aDan, of fire; Dour ha Than, water and fire. In Irifh, 
Tiarna is a ford ; a Dtiarna, their lord; mo Thiarna, my lord. 

Cinishcad; Gin, heads. Mathair is mother ; a Vathair, his mo- 

The Egyptians had three forts of characters, probably the inven- 
uonof Ifiris or Mifor, rather than three letters. The epiftolary, 

™ wcerdotal, the hieroglyphic. This laft was either cyriologic, Clem. Alex. 

^^ty initials, as T, D. Theologi^ doQor : or fymbolic; which 
Vn was either allecTorical, as an emblem of God is a hawk; or 
[ piaurefquc, as a crefccnt reprefents the moon ; or laftly topical, as Plutarch. 
^V' Jno. for Efquire John. Of this laft fort are Anagrams, con- 
filling of tranfmutations ; as Roma, Amor, Oram, Armo, Mora, 
Kamo, Maro. Of fymbols the following are inftances ; and for 
^Ofe, fee Horus Apollo, Kircher and Shaw. A pyramid reprefented 

"^cafcent of fire. — A cone, an eagle, alfo a beetle, reprefented the , 

i> Clem* Alex. 

^^^» as did a fceptre bearing an eye : this was Belain and Penain. Macrobius. 
-^cylinder. Terra; an egg, the world. A moufe; deftruftion from j^^J^i;^^^ ,7. 
i^s undermining. A bee, a king. A vulture, nature from its epi- Plutarch. 
^^ gender; or from univerfal depredations. A hare acute tearing, 

Y 2 from 

a 64 

Hor. Apol. 
Eufcb. Prep, 
Hor. Apol. 



from Its long ears. A knot neceflity. A horfe, promptitude. - A 
kifs, love — A crofs, life — An eye, providence.— A kite, fpeed.— 
A hand open, liberality;' fhut, avarrce.— A fcrpent, fagacity.-w/ 
fceptre, power — Honey, death ; as bees robbed of it experience 
—A fword. Mars, in Scythia.— A fly, impudence.— A dog, vigilance 
and fidelity — A circle, eternity — A hippopotamus, Typlcwi. Plu- 
tarch fays, .impudence; and a fifh, hate:— An old man, d^-ath; an in- 
fant, birth — A hoar, winter —The Pythagorean Y fignified the path 
of life, thro* ^hich from the fimplicity of youth we proceed to vice 
or virtue:— Y in China fignifies juftice. A black pidi^eon denoted 
widowhood; hence the Dodonean Prieftefles were fabled to be Pid- 
geons.— An aurelia fignified Pfyche— The palm-tree, a year; as did 
an annular ferpent:— An anemone, difeafe — Two crows, nuptials. 

A ftag, longevity — A. fealcd book, remote time A hogidefolation. 

A mule, barrennefs \ bat^ i.nbecility.,^\ phoenix, the reOir- 

reflion— A mole, blindnefs — A beaver, felf-injury— A hyena, mu- 
tability; her Ikin, perfcverance.— A crocodile, evil A winged globe. 

Divine ubiquity. 

Lady Montague of Turk'fh Hieroolyphics informs u% *' Tbere is 
no flower, fruit, herb, weed, pebble, or featlcr, but has a fentence 
implied by it: we may quarrel* cenfuro, fend letters of pifTion, 
friendfliip or civility, without ink.'* Dio Idfus Siculus fays, •< Thtf' 

. hiftory of Ifis and Ofiris was engraven on a ohnnn in facred cha* 
rafters at Nyfa: and the triumphal columns of Sefofiris had infcrip- 
tions in thefe charaQers; alfo that the Egyptian KierogH phics weri^ 
Ethiopic charafters." The Scythians ufed Hieroglyphics (taught 
probably by Tuitho) and fent Darius, a nioufc^ a bird, a frog, and- 
arrows, fignifying that he muft fight, or fwim and fly to efcape de- 
ftruftron. The Sasniundine Edda contains fymbolical doctrines. 

, Pownal obferves that the elementary charafters of Egypt are in«cr- 
fpcrfcd amongit Hieroglyphic infcripti< ns, and that they refemble 
Etrufcan. Dr. Woidc has noted them in Coptic manufcripts. 

The Irifli Ggham, which Cohmci Vaiancy derives from the Phcu 



nician Ocham, is a facred or ftate charafter. It confifts of ftrait 

lines of various len^r' s and in various direQions on each fide of a 

long perpendicular line. Theferefemble the firft Chinefe charaflers: ^^^* 

tho' their prefent refenible the Egyptian HierogUphics; fee 

Porphyry of Pythagoras. The Ogham has an advantage overall 

other alphabets: a hermit, in a dcfoKite forcft, with a knife planing 

two fides of a rod, fo as to f )rm a fharo edge or angle between them, 

which might .infwer the purpofe of the perpendicular line, could 

make (Iran incifions on each fide of the angle, of lengths and in di- 

rctlions confonant to the Ogham ; and this probably was their ori- jamblichai, 

ginal Feadda; and is probably the oldeft of all alphabets, as it is the 

fi ?ip'e(l. As Pownal fays that Ogham is Great Ham, fo Ogmeon 

relates to Meon, Mi for. 


A. book of Democritus treated of the facred charaQers of.Baby* 
Ion. P\ularch fays that Ainun fignified Recondite; thus Sancho- 
niatho*s Ammnnenrt letters were facred charafters of Phenicia: it is 
c/er/vccf /rom the I r'fli Amus, ambufli. Heliodorus -ays the Ethio- 
pians bad vulgar letters and regal ; which laft refembled the Sacer- 
dotal of E:jvpt. S^erringham derives the name of the Runic from 
Ryne, myflery. Theodorct on Gencfis mentions the facred cha- C. 6i, 
ta&cTs of Greece 

The Phenicians, Egyptians, and Tufcans wrote from the right- Hcrodot. 
Jiand to the left. Matthias Belius publifhed Scythian letters written ^" 3^- 
from right to left. Lybian letters are faid to have been difcovcred ^jp, ,-,g^ 
on ancient Coins in Spain. Scriptures in Greece, after the time of 
CadYnus, were performed in alternate direftions; the firft line from 
the left to the right, a^ Ifidore affirms; the next reverfed: this, fronri ^"8^^ ^* 
its refemblance to ploughing, was termed Bouftrophedon. The Ark 
ofCypfelus, Tyrant of .Cotinth, was, as Padfanias writes, thus in. 
fcribed; fo were Solon's Law^; fo the Marble before the Temple at 
Sigenm, defcribed by Chifhul. Feftus and Paul Diacon (hew that 
the Greieks knew the Chinefe way of writing in perpendicular 
columns; beginning from the right hand; this direflion may have 
been deduced from th)8 Ogham. There are perpendicular Infcrip- 


1.66 P R I M I T I V E n I S TOR Y. (Book i 

nons at Perfepolis. Diodorus Siculus fays that this form of wriiin; 
was ufed in the Iflc of Taprobane, fuppofcd to be Ceylon, but pre 
bably it is Borneo; it being a circular ifland under the Equato 
Marcian Heracleotes calls it Bopeicv. Pliny fays, ** it was ne; 
the Seres; 7000 STtadia long, 5000 broad, and divided by a river; 
belonged to a group of feven." Thefe were Borneo, Sumatra, Jav 
Celebes, Timor, Ceram, and C^ilolo; being the principal of lY 
the Sunda and Molucca iflands ; beyond which the (hallows ne? 
New Guinea were thofe that obftrufted the fleet of Sefoftris. Thei 
iflanders had feven letters; and varied each by four differer 
pofitions, as w, ^ ^ Av. 

It is furprizing that it is uncertain to whom the world is indebic 
for the great advantage that letters have received from the art c 
No. 3877. ^™^^"6- ^^ ^^^ y^^r ^775* ^^^ catalogue of Lockyer Davis cor 
tained a book, printed at Paderborn three hundred years before 
and within fifty years of the difcovery, announcing it to be the Rr 
pertorium Domini Johannis Mills, arte quadam imprimendi. But 
find that Colophon did not refpeft the art in general, but only the 
particular book. Trigault aflerts that the Chinefe praftifed this a 
five centuri^ before his time; their way of ftamping a whole pag 
with one entire block Coftar ufcd at Harlem 366 years ago; Fau 
ufed Angle types 332 years ago; his Pfalter was printed at Menu 
A. D. 1457. his Officiale Durandi, 1459- 

If we except the V^^^ Ogham all the alphabets now known are to 
complex to be primitive; altho' probably, out of various we migl 
feleft an alphabet that is both fimple and perfeft ; which it cannc 
be, where one charafter Can be converted into another; as c into < 
o,'a, b, d, p,'q, g; or i, into b, 1; 3 into 8; o into 6, 8, 9 : S 
that if the modern charaflers excel in beauty, they are deficient i 
certainty: and the Bornean method above-mentioned of feven cha 
ra6ljers confifting of combined ftrokes effentially different, and eac 
containing four different fignifications according to its diref 
reverfed, fupine, or proflrate poflure, feems preferable to an 
that have ever yet been introduced i^to praSice; for inftanc< 








-^\ "I 

..^^ 5 


^ c 





r. "c 



3 -tr\ 




































ts s^ 












(See Plate 5,) Thefe we may thus denominate (See Plate 6 J Se- 
veral of thefe charafters are in ancient alphabets; fee the Tufcan 
L and P; the Runic K, N, A, L, the Sigcan G, L Y. See Cha- 
raflers of Perfepolis. Out of this alphabet it is eafy to form com- 
pounds and de-compounds, finilarto the Chinefe manner, and not 
unlike fome branches of Brachygraphy: thus (See Plate 7.) Baptift 
Porta mentions fingle charaders denoting entire words, from Tully; 
as M. Modus ; T. Tempus. 


Phil, Tran. 


So far I have taken the liberty of remarking on this extraordi- 
nary, thall I fay, as the Mexicans thought, this magical art of paint- 
ing founds, and of analyzing them, by refolving words into diilinft 
marks; that, when duly arranged, can carry fpeeches exatlly, tho* 
filently, all over the world: and convey the information of perfons 
afuT their death even to their lateft pofterity: the fame print and 

^aL^aWing durable for feveral centuries. 


Emendations of this Firjl Book. 

'Vi.The Marginal Ref. is to Plutarch. 

— 'f line 5. Pythagoras— 16. appendage. 

— W. line 23. For lefs, read lacking. 
"•'0. line 9. Kiun. 

• 3^»iinei3. Omit the firft Comma. 
•" Jl?« line 2 1 . After Damnation add, Ovid 

%s Bis duo funt i^lominis. Manes,, Spiriius, Umbra. 
■" 39' line 9. For quas, read quaii. 
**4flinc20. Animation. 
•^ 4^. '*'^^ 9- Hicrarch. 1. 18. Appellation. 
■^47' quafi. 17. Cafci. 
■"5^' line I. Demoniacal. 

— 58' line 31. Records. 

— 59- line 4. Before Auguftinc, Thus 

Hnfebius mentions the 
<^^TOv^ KoyoMC of Mofes. 
-61. line 9. For clear, read clean. 

Page 87. line 6. Eupolemus. 

— 94. line 2^. For above, read about. 

— 97. line 17. Seem. 

— 104. 10. Ifland. 1. 30. mention. 

— 113. line 7. For Shells, read Pebbles. 

— 1 14. line I. Confifl. 

— 119. line 6. Of the. 

— 125. Hue 16. For Cycle^ rea4 Circle. 

— 1 26, line 2. OiMtJirft. 

— 135. line 19. After Daghi add. And as 

far as the fprings of the Oxus, Indus, 
and Ganges, uniting with the yn- 
menfe mountains of Thibet, a name 
akin to Thebe and Theboth: thefe 
mountains are alfo called the Boot-an, 

— 141. line 20. Augur, p. 143. line 26* 


— 156. line 3. i^illar. 1. 15. Recs. 

— 160. line 16. For P, Pi. , 

Gen. lOt lo. 


B O O K IL C H A P. I. 


Noah*s Family came to Stnnaarfrom the Eajlernjide of the Tigrh 
The erection of Babel contrary to God*s Command^ " to Replenijh th 
Earth.'* Memory being impaired and the Organs of Speech affeBed 
thefe DefeEts occajioned the Confujion. Babel mentioned by fevtra 
Ancients ; particularly by a Sibyl: An Account of thefe. Pri^nitii 
Language. Ruins of Babylon : the PrediHion of its Fall, fro 

NO A H 's family came, as our verfion fpeaks, from the eaft 
ward : that is from the eaftern fide of the Tigris, to Shinar 
or Sennaar, in Arabic, Senjan The Armenian hills arc to th 
north of Babylonia, Berofus wrote that they were direfted to pro 
ceed by a circular rout. Heftiaeus in Jofephus mentions Sennaar a 
Babylon. Many mentionthe city Singara in Mefopotamia ;. fome I 
region of that name thereabouts : Piolemy places a town and moun- 
tain there : to all thefe the modern Senjai* feems to relate. Hyd« 
tells us the city Senyar lies fouthward of Nifibin, three ftages tc 
the weft of Mufol on the Tigris :but Ptolemy places Singara at tha 
river. Mofes flicws that Sennaar was the region in which Babylo 
was fituated* ' . 

They refolved to build a town : alfo a lofty tower of burnt brick 
laid in flimy bitumen ; for a mafk, that they might know where v 
affemble. Glycas fays that 40 years were fpent in profecuting thi 
enterprize. The Mofaic account doth not direftly fhew that tht 
creftion of this edifice was fo much an aft of impiety, as of extrava 
gance : yet the defign of this tower was probably idoiairous; fo 
Eupolemus writes that Ham had the title of Belus, El, and Elioi 


Chap. 1.) PRI MI T I V E H I STORY. 169 

gonify Sol ; and Hefychius teaches us that the Cretans and others 

prefixed B to words beginning with vowels ; hence Bel and Bal ; fo 

Balbec, Balbechiswas Heliopolis; like as Atarbechis in Egypt was 

the city of Venus Urania. Sylburg on Paufanias fays from Hera- 

ditus, that the Pamphylians turned Elios into Babelios. He feems 

to be the Balcn of Efchylus, and the Britifli Belih in Herodian, that 

\ is Bel Hen, venerable Bel; he was alfo Belain, thc# folar eye, 

and Penain the capital eye, and was reprefented by a precious 

lone on a fceptre, lignifying perception and power ; whence 

theftone (Bclain) in Pliny is termed " the eye of Belus the Affyrian 



37. 10. 

Shem's Tons were confederates with the reft; for God faid, the 
people were then one: and Mofes implies that they fharcd in the ^^^ *'' ^ 
general confufion of fpeech, where he fays, thefc are Shem's fons 
aJiti\\\e\r tongues ; as Homer fpeaks of men of divided tongues. j| j 
Indeed tk notion that the Shemites preferved the original tongue 
/yro^ai/y groundlefs; as it is that the Hebrews, tho* Shem's defcend- 
cms, /poke the language of Shem ; for the Hebrew, tho* it has a 
tinflureof the Gothic, which in reallity is the language of the She- 
mites, and alfo a mixture of Celtic, Gomer^s tongue, thro* the in- 
toads of the Cimmerians; yet the Punic fpeech in the Poenulus of 
Kawus, akin as it is to the Phenician, proves that the Hebrew lan- 
jBigcwas that of Chaldea, where Abraham's family refided, and of 
Canaan whither they reforted ; that is in faQ, the language of Ham's 

The ereftion of this mighty tower, as we may well fuppofe, en- 
pged all the men then in the world ; for an Egyptian pyramid for 
ftveral years engaged above 360,000 men ; befides 240,000 in the 
Quarries on the Arabian fide of the Nile. It therefore tended to pre- 
vent men from expanding themfelves over the various regions of the 
earth, in brder to tenant and cultivate the lands, of the feveral climates, 
*nd render the different parts of the globe beneficial to man : thus 
plantations of colonies are agreeable to the plans of providence; 
whofe command was to ** Replenifh the earth." The Sibyl obferves • 3' 

Z that 



that thro* the difperfion the earth was peopled; for as Mofes declares^ 
the Lord difperfed them over the whole world. Thro' God, as fome 
read the M9faic account, ^* Men's fen fe of hearing was fufpcnded/* 
So Scaliger's Barbarian Chronologer fays that God declared ** One 
man fhould not hearken to another ;" and this term became cx- 
preffive of difobedience. But mod probably their organs of fpeech 
became varioudy affefted, as if thro' fome paralytic ftroke, fo as to 
produce a variety of dialeSs; and their memories likewife became 
too confufed to retain the ufual terms, by which ideas were defcribed? 
fo as to compel the different families, on their difperfion by divine 
power, which probably deftroyed their ftores of provifions, to in- 
vent new terms and idioms to communicate their ideas : this united 
thofe of the fame language, whilft it feparated them from thofe to 
whom they were unintelligible. Hence the tower was named Rabel 
which fignifies confufion. Pliny tells us, memory may be impaired 
tliro* fear, or difeafe or hurts: he inftances one, ** who thro* the 
blow of a ftone forgot to read, but nothing etfe." — I think the chief 
alteration was in the organs of fpeech ; by which fome w ^re pre- 
vented from articulating one fetter, fome another; as happens at 
this day : and the original language being perfeftly fimple, a Onall 
alteration occafioned words to carry a very different fenfe; as Bibo, 
Vivo: beat, cheat, feat, heat, cat, meat. Weal h pronounced vetA 
by the French ; who find as much difficulty in exprefling /J7/VA, as 
in keeping it. Valerian was in Greece called Balerian ; Philip was 
called in Bceotia, Bilip. The Peruvians lack B, D, F, G and S. 
The Chinefe ufe L for R. The Hurons lack the letter U, apd ai 
Reland afferts all the Labials. In the South Seas T is ufed for K. 
For other inflances of fubflitutions of letters I refer to what ha& 
been obferved concerning them already. 

Cedrenus writes that the Babelian confufion was 616 years before 
Abraam's migration. Several profane hiflorians mention the ereClioa 
Bryant. of Babel and the confequences attending it. Homer fays that Vul- 

can (who was Ham) was thrown from the tower of Belu^. Being 
nine days in his fall or retreat, hence arofe the Novendial period* 
Eupolemus afferted that " the city of Babylon was firft fonnded by 



tlicperfons preferved from the Deluge; who were giants, and ereftcd Eufeb. Prep, 
the famous tower: which falling thro* the divine aft, the giants 9* '7» *8- 
were difperfed all over the world." Nonnus (34) dcfcribes this dif- " 
perfion; and Nimrod was the Bacchus who had the command. 
' Polyhillor wrote that " the gigantic inhabitants of Babylon were 
deftroycd for their impiety." Abydenus fays, " it is reported that 
the primitive men produced out of the earth proud of their ftrength 
and fizc, and preferring tijemfelves to the Gods, erected a lofty 
tower where Babylon now is: but when it had almoft attained the Eufcb!thra. 
Iky, hurricanes ilTuing from the Gods fubverted the whole fabric : 
the ruins acquired the name of Babylon : for the Gods made their 
language various, who had till then only one tongue. The place 
-where they built the tower was named Babylon, on account of the 
expreffivenefs of the primitive diale6l; for th« Hebrews term con- 
WW, Babel." Synccllus adds from him that the war between 
Saturn ai\d Titan was fubfequent to that event. Juftin mentions 
^' Pbenicistns driven to Tyre by an earthquake," which probably 
fubverted Babel : thefe emigrants were defcendents of Canaan, who^ 
as Eupolenfius informs us, was the founder of the Phcnicia?is. Thefe 
hiftorians fhew that the tower erefled by the firft Poftdiluvians was 
^oli/hed. It was afterwards repaired by that Belus, who as Poly-. 
WloT wrote efcaped deftruftion, remained at Babylon, lived in it, 
*w)flamed it Belus. Abydenus fays he furrounded Babylon with a 
•a/1, that decayed with age, and was rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar. 
Thus the Belus, deemed by Enpolemus to be the brother of Mifor, 
Canaan and Chus, rcfidcd at Babylon after the general difperfion 
*^d after Nimrod's death ; who, as Cedrenus, Syncellus and Jo- 
ftphus tho* improbably write, perifhed under the tower. Belus 
tounded a kingdom there, according to Berofus, 163 years after the 
Deluge: for it was 2405 years after the creation, according to the 
computation in Syncellus, which fuppofes the creation 2242 yeSlrs 
l^cfore the flood. The partition of the earth into fubdivifions ^was. 
^^ the time of Phaleg and Ham*s grandfon Thoth : therefore feveral Hygin, 
years after the foundation of the Babylonian and Egyptian empires; ^*^* H> 
^hich enfued immediately after the general difperfion. Jofephus 
^Uotts the Sibyl thus 5 ** All mankind, having one language, built 

Z 2 A 



a mighty high tower, as if by that means they would fcale heaven : 
but the Gods raifing tempefts overturned the tower, and made each 
man's fpeech peculiar : hence the city of Babylon had its name.** 
Syncellus fhews that Polyhiftor on this head ufes the exaft words of 
the Sibyl. But, as there were feveral Sibyls of different countries 
and ages, a difcuffion concerning them is fomewhat necefTary to- 
wards afcertaining to which of them this hiftorical paffage belongs; 
only let me premife that the Oracles now extant are fiftitious in gen- 
eral ; yet they feem to be interfperfed with fome of the ancient pre- 
diftions; particularly the third and fifth books have fome pretenfions 
to authenticity : the third mentions Babel. 


Ladan tills. 


Plato mentions the Sibyl, a name, as Diodorus fays, fignifying 
cnthufiaft. Servius derives it from the Doric Sios, Deus, and Bui- 
los, full ; or Boule, counfel. The Sibyl quoted by Jofephus could 
not be the younger Chaldean, who (as Strabo fays) was Athenais of 
Erythraea, in Alexander's time, and refembled the ancfent Ery- 
threan: but, as Suidas and Paufanias write, wasSabba the daughter 
ofBerofus and Erymanthe ; yet Sabba feems only an appellation, 
fignifying fanfla. She of courfe (as Paufanias writes) was later tbai> 
the Cuntean Demo^ or rather Semo, which alfo fignifies fanfta. Shr 
is Varro's fevcnth^ whom he calls Demophile ; alfo Amalthea, hcl* 
name in Suidas and Ifidore. She is the third bibyl of Bochus; wat 
buried at Lilybaeum ; and was Tarquin's Sibyl ; but is confounded 
with the firft Gumean Sibyl of Ionia; whom Ariftotle and Virgil 
ftile the *• Longeval virgin of Erythraea;'* Strabo mentions her an- 
tiquity : Plutarch and Clement of Alexandria call her Herophile. 
Ovid fays fhe had lived 700 years, when vifited by Eneas at the 
Italian Cumae, and had 300 to come. Phlegon fays fo of the Ery* 
threan. This calculation of the time elapfed arofe from counting 
the interval between the mod ancient Sipyl, and the Iliac wars. Livy 
counts Evander's mother Carmenta prior to the Cumean Sibyl's ad-< 
vent. . Virgil calls this Deiphobe, the daughter of Glaucus ; but 
fhe probably was Tarquin's Sibyl. Herophileis Varro's^M, men^ 
tioned by ApoUodorus; alfo \i\i fourth^ mentioned by Nevius and 



Pifo, and called the Cimmerian. Suidas feems to Tay that (he was 
alive and 483 years old at the capture of Troy : having flourifhed 
during the voyage of the Argonauts, and in the time of Tros: that 
flic was reputed the Sicilian, Rhodian, Lybian, Sardian, mentioned 
by Elian and the Scholiaft of Ariftophanes ; alfo (as by Jerom and 
Plutarch) deemed the Samian Sibyl : likewife the Lucanian, and 
Gergethian, or Hellefpontine. But the Samian, Varro's^xM, men- 
tioned by Eratofthenes, was named Phyto ; or rather Pytho : tho' 
Jcrom and Auguftin take the Samian to be Tarquin's.; but Euripides 
fays that Lamia^s Daughter vifited Samos ; of her more prefently ; 
flic of courfe being Phyto. Paufanias fays that Hcrophile before 
the Trojan war came to Samos, Claros, Delos, and Delphos. He 
mentions the ftone at Delphos, from which fhe uttered predictions; 
and.aflerts that fhe was the firft who received the name of Sibyl : 
xiv^i ftie explained Hecuba's dream, and died at Troas : alfo, as 
^u\d^tays of a Delphic Sibyl before Troy's fall, that named her- 
felf Diana; which Clement of Alexandria afcribes to a more an- 
cient Sibyl. Suidas fays her oracles were in Heroics. Herophile 
is Lycophron's and Arrian's Sibyl, the daughter of Dardanus by 
Teucer's daughter Nefo: tho' Paufanias names her father Theodore; 
Laftantius and Ifidore fay Ihe was born at Babylon ; thus, like 
l^n Martyr, confounding her with Strabo's laft Erythrean. 
She lays in Paufanias, flie was born at Marpeffus, of a nymph of 
*^ She was fabled to be Noah's daughter, probably becaufe flie 
®^^ioned her father's ark : but he was Dardanus, who in Deucal- 
ion's flood efcaped in a bark, according to I^ycophron, 

Dardanus renown'd of yore. 
For the bold fwimmer's art! like Iftrian boar. 
Roving alone in leathern mail he rides ; 
And o'er the main, like Cretan fea-fowl, glides : 
Deferting Hecate's Zerynthian cell. 
At Saos, where the Corybantes dwell. 
What time Jove's airy realms flood all below ; 
And to their bafe the loftieft turrentg bow. 




Man on the watry world then ftruggling lies ; 
Whilft univerfal fate infults his eyes. 

Paufanias tells us her tomb was at Troas ; he recites her epitaph. 
Bochus in Solinus mentions a Delphic Sibyl, fenior to Herophile: 
(he is Phemonoe, whofe poems Homer pirated. Clement of Alex- 
andria deems her .older than Orpheus. He agrees with the Scholiaft 
of Ariftophanes that fhe affumed the name of Diana. This Phemo- 
noe, the Sibyl of Servius, Paufanias deems the firft Delphic prieftefs, 
yet fubfequent to the Peleades of Dodona^ Phaen king of Chaonia's . 
daughters, who were the firft that fung, 

Jov€ was, and is, and will be; mighty Jove! 

Therefore, when Paufanias tells us her oracles were the firft in 
. Hexameters, he means at Delphos that facred place on the fouthern 
fide bf Parnaffus, (in Phocis, famous alfo for the mounts Helicon 
and Cithaeron) a few miles north of the Crilfaean bay in the Gulf of 
Corinth. Yet he fays, Boeo*s hymn recorded that Olcn the Hyper- 
borean, with his countryman Pagafus, Agyiejis and others dedicated 
that oracle to Apollo, firft uttered prediftions there, and invented the 
Hexameters : before which, when Oracles was common to Terra an^ 
Neptune^ Paufanias fays that Pyrcon delivered Neptune's refponfe% 
• till that God refigned his intereft to Terra ; who uttered her own 
refponfes, till flie ceded the place to Themis, whom Apollo fucceed- 
«d. Paufanias gives us a prediction of Phemonoe's^ touching a fa- 
crilegious Eubean, to this eiFeCL 

A mortal arrow, from Apollo's hand. 
Shall flay this robber of Parnaflian land ; 
His expiators then ftiall come from Cret^, 
And fame eternally record the feat. 

Ifidore and Pliny deem her Apollo's daughter, and 25 years be** 
Tore Linus; Clement of Alexandria fays, 27. Paufanias writes thaf 
^he daughter of Jove (Suidas fays, Apollo's, wliom PMny call^ 



Phemonoe) and of Lamia^ Neptune's daughter, was older than Hero- 
phile ; but he counts Lamia herfelf the firft Sibyl ; who is V arrows 
fecond, a native of Lybia, and mentioned by Euripides : yet Cle- 
ment of Alexandria deems Lamia, a Sidonian.. Bryant defines La- 
mia and the Chiiiefe Lama, El Ham ; and derives Cuma from Chum 
or Chus, Ham's fon. Plutarch doubts whether Lamia's daughter, 
or the Sibyl educated by the Mufes at Helicon, and mentioned by 
Serapion, was the primary Pythian prieftefs. Clement of Alexan- 
dria fays, (he gave a refponfe to Acrifius. Phemonoe feems to be . 
the Sibyl, who won the prize at the funeral of Pelias, father of 
Acaftus : and Lamia's daughter to be the Egyptian mentioned 
by Elian, Clement of Alexandria, and Suidas, who counts her 
coeval with Atlas and Tarachon king of Egypt 2 tho' Paufanias 
lays that fome deemed Sabba, the Egyptian Sibyl. Varro's third 
SibyX, ftyled alfo the Delphic, mentioned by Chryfippus, was the 
daug\\vet of Tirefias, and named by Apollodorus and Suidas, Manto; 
Daphne, by Diodorus, who accufes Homer of pilfering her poems. 
Varro's eighth was the Hellefpontine of Marpeffus, contemporary 
with Cyrus, as Heraclides Ponticus related : but here probablyt as 
others do, confounding the two Cumean Sibyls ; the eldeft being 
ibc Erythrean or Cimmerian. Varro's ninth was a Phrygian of An- 
Ofu, probably the Colophonian Lampufa of Suidas, fprung from 
Cbdchas. Suidas deems Cajfandra a Sibyl, calling her alfo Tar- 
Mondra, and Sar-bis. He alfo names a Sibyl, ElifTa; and one of 
Threfpotis ; this lad is the Dodonean prieftefs prior to Phemonoe . 
for the Dodonean territory was anciently named Threfpotis ; it forms 
Aecoaft of the Ionian fea near the ifle Corcyra; and had the Moloffi StrabiK 
caftward : its old inhabitants were the Selli or EUi, whence its name 
Ellopia: from Opiacame Opis, Ops, Terra; as from Apia, Apis. 
Varro's tenth Sibyl was Albunea^ the Tiburtine : fhe was Carmenta, 
orNicoftrata, not Leucothoe. Varro's primitive Sibyl is his Per- 
fi^n, firft Chaldean, and Hebrew ; the Judean of Elian and of 
I Alex, ab Alexandro : her name was Sambethe ; that is prieftefs of 
tnc Sacred Houfe. She probably was alfo EUifla. Suidas agrees 
^^ Laftantius that Alexander's hiftorian Nicanor mentioned her ; 


176 p R I M I T W E H I S T O R Y. (Book i. 

for a prcditlion, fays Suidas, concerning him. This feems to be 

the Sibyl, who mentions Babel. The Sibyl of the oracles now ex- 

l' ^* tantaflerts herfelf to be wrongly fuppofed the daughter of Circe and 

^' 5- the Gnoflian Jove ; and filler of Ifis. Some of thefe prediftions are 

no lefs true than Angular ; for inftance. 

The Britons, and the Gauls with op'lence crown'd. 
Shall ocean make with bloody wars refound. 

Tarquin's oracles were Pagan, as Dionyfius Hal. (4) Livy (32) 
Plutarch, TuUy, Tacitus, Macrobius, Lucian, Zofimus and Suidai 
L. 3 evince. Tully and Livy fay they were poems. Thefe were burnt 
before Sylla was diftator. Some of the primitive Oracles were very 
poetical and fublime; as Virgil, and Homer's adoption fliew. TuUf 
fays, the "oracles in his time were acroftics, compofed artfully, 
^ and equivocally. The prediction of a king to fubdue Parthia, that is 

L. 3. Magog, and the world, feems to have been in the firft oracles, in 
the care of the Quindecimvirs. In the confulate of 06lavius and 
Curio, 1000 poems were collefted ; chiefly, as Varro wrote, from 
Erythrae ; thefe being figned : they were fcrutinized by the Quinde- 
cimvirs. Suetonius fays, that Auguftus burnt 2000 prophetic trea* 
* tifes; but felefted and preferved the Sibylline, thefe Stilicho bur* 
Tacitus tells us, dubious and filly poems under the name of Sibyl* 
line, were in circulation ; when Tiberius ordered thofe obtaine* 
at Samos &c. to be fcrutinized. Dio confirms this account. A 
Tiber. Gothic Sibyl was named Vola ; whence fool, and the Italian Fol* » 
Ihe was authorefs of the Volufpa* 

The number of the Sibyls. 

1, Sambethe, the firft Chaldean, the Egyptian Sabba; probabl>^ 
the primitive Thebe; and the Sibyl who was in the Ark, Ham's wif^' 

2. Lamia, the Lybiah, Neptune's daughter; fhe was the daught^^ 
of Meon and Cybele, and founded the Samothracian rites. 

3. ?hytc^^ 

Chap 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y; 177 

3. Phyto, Lamia's daughter, the Samian, 

4. Phemonoe, the firft Delphic. 

5. Herophile, daughter of Dardanus, the Erythrean, the firft 
Cumean, the Cimmerian, and (econd Delphic and Samian. 

6. Daphnis or Manto, daughter of Tirefias, the third Delphic. 

7. Carmenta, the Tiburtine Albunea; fee Clement Alex. 

8. Caffandra. 

9. Lampufa, daughter of Chalchas, the Phrygian. 

10. Deiphobe, Demo, Demophile or Amalthea, daughter of 
G\a\icus, Ac fecond Cumean, and Tarquin*s. 

To thefe add 

11. The Threfpotian of Suidas, that is the Dodonean prieftefs ; 
the firft of whom was Promenea ; the next, Timaretc j the third, 
^icandra; fee Herodotus. 

u. Sabba or Athenais, the daughter of Berofus; fhe feems to 
^t borrowed her name from Sambethe, the Egyptian Sabba of - 

Mofcs Chorencnfis writes that Maribas of Catina was fent to Ar- 
«ces (who flew Antiochus Sidetes) by his brother Val-arfaces king 
^Armenia, to fearch the archives of Nineve : in which a volume, 
^flated from the Chaldee into Greek, by Alexander's order, con- 
^^ed a hiftory of Zeruanus, Titan, Japetos-thes, and their fuccef- 
fors. It mentioned that thefe, the firft iflue of the Gods, were for- 
'^idable, illuftrious and great benefaftors, and the fource of popula- 
^^^ Diftinft from them was "a race of Giants, who arrogantly 
*^^cd an impious defign in the ereftion of a tower. In the courfe 

A a of 



of the work, the irritated Gods liaving raifed a tempeft fubverted 
that immenfe ftrufture, and endued the feveral individuals with 
ftrange languages, which created diforder and confufion. One rf 
thefe was Japet's defcendent Haic, a famous and valiant chief, ex- 
pert at the javeHn, and a ftout archer. Mofes adds that Japetofthes, 
Merod, Sirath, Thaclath, were Japet, Gomer, Thiras, Thor-go- 
mus : then follow Haic and his pofterity, as named from AbydenusJ 
who wrote that Haic's fon Armenacus, was (lain by Belus : Haic's 
grandfon Arameis was the fire of Amafia; whofe fon Gelamius was 
the fire of Harma ; his fon Aram was the father of the handfome 
Araeus, flain by Semiramis. She therefore was contemporary with 
this twelfth perfon of Japhet's line: but probably was more advanced 
in years than he; who appears to be the Arabian ally of her huf. 
band Ninus, and Abraham's adverfary Arioch king of EUazar, an 
Arabian tribe. 

Some furmize that by one tongue in the Pentateuch is meant one 
voice, or unanimity, preventing a feparation; and that the enfuing 
confufion arofe from diffention. To fupport tliis fenfe, David is 
quoted as imploring God ^* to divide their tongues;" that is, to fct 
them at variance. But the effential and iotal diverfity of names for 
primary objefts, as the fun and moon ; befides the great organical ' 
defleftion in fuch names as are radically akin ; tend to evince, not 
only that the organs of fpeech were affeQed and impaired as if para- 
litically, occafioning letters to be fupplied by others of a different 
organ, as B for D ; fimilar to the Irifh Bot, Boit, fire, converted to 
Doite; and both' akin to the Englifh heat, hot: but that memory 
was impaired and new terms invented thro' neceffity. Thus let us 
fuppofe that by the converfion of M into L the Englifh moon is the 
irifh Luan, and by tranfpofition the Latin Luna; alfo by converfion 
of N into R, the Welfh Lhoer and Cornifh Lur, whence lure : and 
that the Bohemian Mefyc, and Circaffian Maza, are derived froiit 
the Celtic Mis, a month, and perhaps At, a caufe, rule or reafon ; 
which lafl is abfolutely and alone the Turkifh name of the mooiT 
and of a month : yet why do the Hungarians call it Hold : and the 

jook 2.) P R I M I T I V E II I S T O R Y. 179 

rifb alfo name it Re ; which likcwife fignifies time ? The names 

[{old, and Ai or Ay, may be nearly related, and likewife refpecl 

jiKic in the Gothic language; for Hold is. old with an afpirate ; atid 

^e have a common idiomatic expreflion, ** for ever and ay." Con- 

fotiantto this, Ifis was Luna; and Ifis, Ifcka, fignifies ancient; hence 

Ifckie in Laponic is Annus, as years conftitute antiquity : thus En- 

nus. Annus, is from fwojr, antiquiis. So as to foot; the Welfli 

Trocd produced the word tread; the Armoric Troad, produced trot, 

and trotter: the Irifh Kos (whence the Skas of man, the root of Scate) 

is the Greek Pous^ Podos ; the German Fus^ whence fufs ; and the 

Gothic Fotusi In Hungarian it is Laab^ whence leap, labo, flip and 

flipper: the Turkifh ^^^^ produced our jog; and may be akin to the 

Sclavonian Noga. Yet we muft allow that Troed, the Irilh Troidh, 

isdifFerent from the Hibernogothic Kos and German Fus radically, 

aUo from the Hungarian Laab, and Turkifli Ajag; altho* we have 

txv^Wfti words, as above, allied to them all ; whence we might be 

induced locon elude them all fynonymous expreffions belonging to one 

copious language ; to which we may add Paftern, and Hoof, whence 

huS, In exprefijvc tongues, a fmall variation in the thing occafions 

a different name, as a poniard, dagger, tuck, cutlas, hanger, fword) 

fabre, brqadfword, rapier: the Arabs had a looo terms expreflive 

of i fword. 

^fltNoah's three fons had each a language in the main radically and 
i^JWimaticaliy different from one another: however theCeltic, Gothic 
andChaldee, became in various inftances blended together : for the 
Goths and Huns have many Celtic words, many Chaldaic: the He- 
brew has many Celtic, many Gothic : the Celtic many Phenician, 
and (particularly the Iliberno-celtic, arguing thence the Ifcotti to 
be originally Getae) many Gothic. Thus the Hungarian Viiz is 
akin to the Irifh Uifge, the Manks Wyftee, the Laponic Keatfe; in 
fnglifh it is water, akin to the Phrygian Udor, whence Dwr, and 
Endor, and many Chaldean names ; alfo the Hiberno-Gothic Bea- 
Ara, whence bathe. The Hebrew Phaser is the Hungarian Feir, 
Ac Englifti fair. Gore is the Celto-Scythian Guyar, the Hiberno- 
Goihic Keara, the Hungariar> Veer; as blood is the Tartarian Plut; 

A a 2 the ^ 


the Welfli Kray is the Lufatian Krae, the Sclavonian Kry, the Po- 
Ufli Krew, the Irifh Kru, the Latin Cru-or, whence crude and 
cruel and the French Cru. In Irifli it is alfo Fuil; in Manks^ Phul;. 
perhaps akin to the Dell of the Efquimaux. In Welfli alfo it is 
Guad, akin to the Cantabrian Odda ; and the laft fyllable of San^ 
guis, as the firft may be to the Turkifli Kan. All of them are re- 
mote from the Greek Aima, which came from Phenicia. Many are 
the inftances of curtailing words, as Caput is the Saxon Cop ; in 
Laponic Oyvie, the Hungarian Fey. The Chaldaic Nebo is the 
Ruffian Nebo, and the Celtic Nev : and N being a prepofitive, the 
Gothic Heav-en, or fupreme Nev : from Nebo came Nebula. By 
Converfion of V into M, and the prepofitive S, Heaven is the Perfic 
Seman ; and by the prepofitive T, the Chinefe Tien. In many in- 
ftances the Turkifli, Hungarian and Sclavonian agree with the Go* 
thic and its neareft relations ; To the Turkifli Beber is in Englifli 
pepper: Okoz, ox: Oth, fire, is akin to heat. Difch a Tooth, to 
Tuflc. A cat, in Latin Catus, in Welfli Kath, is in Turkifli Keti, 
hence kitten : from Kuck heaven came cockloft; alfo Kucklops. 
Indeed the Gothic tongue appears to be the bafis of the other three; 
which yet have all of them admitted many Celtic and many Pheni- 
cian words; and have an infinity of late invented terms peculiar \0 
themfelves refpeflively. The Goths were related to the PcrfianI, 
as will be fliewn hereafter ; fo they were to the Scythians and Tar- 
tars, and in the courfe of this hiftory the fimilarity of the Gothia 
tongue to the Tartarian will be fatisfaftorily exemplified. Somt 
Turkifli and Tartarian words are allied to the Celtic, as the Turkifl* 
Er, the Tartarian Firs, the Latin Vir, is the Celtic Ur and Gwr, 9^ 
man. The Turkifli Turegh is akin to the Irifli Tork, heart; whence^ 
Turk ; as Lelex was from Lelek, Anima. Surprizing are the de- 
viation of words from the primary roots : Lord Monboddo derives 
ftranger from Ex, whence extra, Extraneus, Eft ranger, ftranger. 
Eye is allied to Oculus and Lygad; for in Sclavonian it is Oku, 
whence Oculus ; Ocellus feems to be compounded of Oye and Ceil, 
as if a Celt being a(ked what he called an eye fliould fay Oye, Ceil, 
as a Roman might fay light was Lux, Lumen, and the two names 
fliould be fuppofed one: yet O in Ocellus may be a prepofitive ; as 

Dbap, 1.) P R I M I T 'i V E HISTORY. ttt 

tin the Welfli L*ygad, congenial to the Gallic tongue; then Ygad 
is ikin to the Irifli Aedh, and both to the Saxon Eage, eye ; which 
inCircaflian is Nay, N being a prepofitive. An inftance fimilar to 
Ocellus from Oye Ceil is Ins-ula ; which is from the Celtic Inis» 
and Ulo which is from the Chinefe Pulo, P being a prepofitive. The 
Latin Cauda is not only akin to the German Queue, but became 
the Italian Coda, and by changing D into L their Cola ; then by 
converting C into T we have the Englifli tail : but how different 
from any of thefe are the Welfh Lhoft, the Scotch Urybul, the 
Caniabrian Buztanac, the Greek Oura, the Spanifh Rabo, the Cer- 
ium Schwantz, the Bclgic Steert, the Iflandic Rooa, the Sclavonian 
Rep, the Polifh Ogon, the Hungarian Fark, the Turkifh Coiruk! 
Yet many of thefe may be fynonymous terms of one copious lan- 
piaje; as we fay tail, rump, bottom, backfide, breech, fundament^ 
V«AtT\OTs, befides other terms of a ruder cafl. 

Hvginusfhews it was an ancient opinion that " Mankind for a pab. 134. 

longtime ufed all one language; and lived unincorporated till the 

reign of Phoroncus fon of Inachus and Atchia Ocean's children : that 

afterwards Hermes interpreted the feveral languages, into which 

their fpeech was divided ; andalfo diftributedthe earth intonations, 

"■ttking the firft appointment to Phoroneus :" this Hermes was Thoth, 

- Acfcft Simandes or fon of Mendes or Menon faid by Anticlides, 

tt Pliny, to have " invented letters 15 years before the time df 

fiioroneus the moll ancient king of Greece." The longevity of the 

primitive Poftdiluvians brings it within the bounds of probability 

^ Mcnes or Mifor and his fon Thoth were alive about the birth 

ofPhaleg, and in the time of Phoroneus. Yet I think that either 

Plioroneus the brother of Egialcus was older than Niobe's fire ; or 

dfethat Pliny's Menon or Menes was Tuitho's fon Mannus Acmon*s 

fire. For Thoth having invented letters during his father's reign> 

his fon Teutat, Tat or Tuitho brought them to Spain, Gaul and . 

Germany: Tat*s fon Mannus, or Almannuswho may be the ancient 

Hercules that propagated the Phrygian charatlcrs, brought them to Tully. 

Cappadocia and Thcffaly. Xiobe's fire liVed 1800 years before the 


1 82 P R I M I T I \' E HISTORY. (Chap. x. 

Chriftian era; for Hellanicus, Philochorus, and Acufilaus fee him 

1020 before the Olympic, ^hoth reigned 300 years earlier, as ap- 
£u/cb Prcp. ' 

pears from ihe Theban kings of Eratofthenes; whofe lift, by the 

way, evinces that the reigns in thofe ages were not in general re- 
markably long : the.reafon may be this; the eldeft fons begotten in 
youth did not long furvive their fathers*. It was othewife as to 
children begotten late in life: fo Saturn's fon Jove lived to cohabit 
with Alcmena; and Chiron, to inftruQ: Achilles. The reigns of the 
Demi.gods, and of the Cynic Circle, and firft Dynafties of Egypt 
and of Babylon, were all of a moderate length. The Alexandrine 
Shcrringhim Chronicle fays that Mercury reigned only 35 years; SyncelUis that 
Arphaxad reigned 33; Palephatus, that Sol reigned only 12. 

Horus Apollo fays, " It is reported that the world was formerly 
in feventy-two divifions:'* Syncellus mentions feventy-two lan- 
Dcut t2 8 S^^ig^s- Mofes fays, " When the Supreme divided to the nations 
their inheritance; when he feparated Adam's fons, he fet the boun- 
daries of the people, according to the number of the Children of 
Ifrael.** Elfewhere he names 15 perfons of Japhefs line, 32 of 
Ham's, 27 of Shem's, with Peleg's nephews; in all, 75, with Cainan; 
as Ephorus and others afferted; yet Clement of Alexandria fays there 
was only feventy-two languages: If fo, Noah's three fons were not 
alive at the partition of the earth. The Chinefe fuppofe the number 
of the nations to be feventy-two ; their number according to the 
Pfalmift, 78, 55. 

That there was once an univerfal language, its opponent Lord 
Monboddo alrpoft brings himfelf to prove; where he finds " Good 
realon to believe that all the languages in Europe, Afia, and a part 
of Africa, fprung from the fame original." His objeftions to making 
this an univerfal propofition are taken from the Hurons of North- 
America, and the Galibi of South America; for he fays that the 
third language, which he can depend upon, has an affinity with the 
»«364« 337- Galibi: He derives it partly from the Galibi, partly from Florida; 
where, as he afterwards tells us, the Welfh planted a colony. The 
Galibi are as inconfiderable as the.Flemmings of South Wales; fome 



of whofe antiquated words are derived from the Celtic, Iflandic, 

Gothic, Bohemian, Greek, Turkifh, and old Sicilian, and perhaps 

other tongues; for inftance, brock, a badger, is* Saxon; Boddar, is 

from the Irifh Bodhar, and the Welfli Byddar. Kaffle, to fquabble, 

(words akin) is from the Iflandic Kafla, a cudgel. HagI, hail, is 

Iflandic. Pulk, as in the North country dialcft, is a pool: Velg is 

fallow; Wilg, willow: Vitty, fit: Dearn, ftern: Spr^t, fprightly: 

Den, day, as in Bohemia: Neal, a needle, is the Iflandic Naal. 

Foor, Furrow, as in Greek: To till, reach; from lihXca. A 

zangle of corn is from the Sicilian Zancle, a fickle. Buflucky, a 

ruptured perfon, is from the Turkifli Bufl'uck, ruptured, fraftured. 

BUnch is akin to the Greenland Blink, the gleam thro' refleftion 

from fnow. ^ 

If the obfolete words of a fmall province in a Welfli county are 
toTsufcellaneous, who can affirm the language of the Galibi to be 
fimple and original ? Who can affure us beyond a doubt that it doth 
/jor contain both Phenician words and Chinefe; fome words reaching 
them by means of voyagers acrofs the Atlantic, and of others acrofs 
the Pacific ocean? The diverfities of fenfe that the fame word in 
the Huron language bears, according to tone and accent, implies 
&at it came to America from the Chinefe Tartars. But we muft 
grant that the language of his Lordftiip's caudated gentry' of Nico- 
bar is undoubtedly Sui Generis! His Lordfliip confefles that " The 
N^w-Holland^rs and all nations found in a very barbarous ftate, yet 
having the ufc of fpeech, did not invrut, but by intercourfe obtain 
it." But as all nations were barbarous at firft, all nations muft have 
obtained their language by traduftion; and art only contributed to 
P^lifh and amplify it: tho* it is fomewhat mortifying to find that our 
' inventive faculty is inferior to that of the caudated wits above men. 

tioned, voluble as we muft allow them to be in converfation. But • 

the truth is, that thefe facetious geniuffes neither owe their language 
to invention, nor to comniunication, but innate inftinft; and twenty 
baboons, brought inftantly from birth into as many diftinfl countries, 
^ill all talk the fame language, and underftand one another at their 
firft vifit Indeed one of therir fraternity is a remarkable exception; 


I mean a jovial gentleman, whofe honourable lineage was fo ancient, 
that like Melchizedeck's, its origin was unknown ; his name was 
Silenus ; but his tail belonged to his leathern jerkin. 

Amidft the various languages that arofc from the confufion of 
fpccch at Babel, to conjefture which approaches neareft to the pri- 
mitive tongue, we may with Plato fuppofe that " Names had fome 
congruity with the things they related to:" that animals received 
names from fomewhat peculiar to them; as the cuckoo, from its note: 
and that founds tended to reprefent the things to be defcribed, and 
were a piftura loquens. Ariftotle and Plato term names, M//xv)jOLarar, 
, imitations: So in Welfh, thunder is Taran, whence thundering 

Jove is Taranteus. Grwnn is a hog; hence, groan, grunt. Swine, 
Mwch: a cow,* Buwch, in Irifh Bo, whence the Latin Bos, a buK 
or COW; hence the Irifh name a cow, Bol, which occafioned the lu- 
dicrous proverb of an Irifh Bull. A calf in Welfh, is Lo: a crow, 
Bran: a groan, Och: a neighing, Wihi; to roar, Rhlio. DellaValle 
fays the Hottentots call beeves. Boos: fheep, Baas; Ba is the plural 
of Bo in Irifh: Hefychius tells us Ma is fheep in Phrygia. The 
beaft called by Europeans a fluggard is named Ah, from the noife 
* it makes. In the South Seas, the nofe is Aheu; which expreffes the 
found made in fneezing: So amongft the Efquimaux, to fneeze » 
Y^-ice: a goofe is Hah ; belly-ach, Ei-yah, from the complaining 
note it occafions. Eufebius fays that " Perfons, in Saturn's (that 
is Ham's) reign, had the fkill of converting with beafts:" This mufl 
have arifen from the congruity of founds to the ideas they reprc- 
fented: Even now good mimics will deceive partridges and other 
birds ; and we may perceive that crows ufe different notes on diffe- 
rent occafions; fome to call, fome to elude, fome to alarm. 

Phornutus pofitively afferts that the Ancients deemed Japhet 
the Father of langnage. 

Pfammeticus, to difcover the primitive language, had two infants 
nurfed by dumb perfons, apart from other human vifitants, and fuck* 
led by goats: at length the children pronounced Bekkos, which was 


Prep. It, g. 

Chap. 1.) PRI MI T I V E H IS TORY. 185 

concluded to be the Phrygian word for bread; whence our hake; 
but probably the children meant the goats; the word refembling the 
note of that animal; and Pezron obferves tha^ *' a goat is in Greek 
called^^Hvj, and in Celtic Bic ;" hence the Italian Becco, and our 
buck ; alfo the Hungarian Bak. The Egyptian king might there- 
fore more readily have concluded in favour of Celtic, a dialeql of 
which is Gomr-aeg, or Comer's language in Wales; in which a 
Teat, in Latin Mamma, is called Mam, a word that children when 
only a few days old pronounce : from giving fuck ^ nurfe is called 
Mamniaeth ; a mother, mam and mamma; in Arabic and Laponic, 
Am : Delia Valle tells us the Hindoos fay Mamma Havah, for mo- 
ther Eve. Thus Atheneus fhews that Ti^fliiv is a nurfe ; this is de- 
rived from the Celtic, Teth, a teat; as is the maternal Goddefs 
Tethys, the confort of Ogen, the Irifli Ocein, that is Og Hen, Cel- 
tic for old Ocean, who was Noah, the parent of the primitive Cabiri. Gale Court 

_,.... ^ _ ^ - of Gentiles. 

rrom this primitive Oceanus, Ogenus or Ogen, Erafmus teaches 

us that old men were called Ogenides. Ogan in Wclfh is Vatici- 
J9/(ini, and fuits Noah who was a prophet. Og in Celtic is alfo an 
epithet fignifying potent ; hence Ogmeon is (like Ogmor) potent 
Ocean ; as is Elmannus, the name of an ancient Hercules ; either 
Acmon's fire, or the Meon who was Mifor. But Oghen in the Ne* 
ther Lands fignifies eyes. 

Some words from their univerfallity befpeak themfelves to be pri- 
mitive ; as Mam : alfo 5r», a cow, B being converted into C. Ba^ 
or Ma, fhcep. Moon is either derived from the Oriental Mun, to 
illuftrate, or (as Bryant fays) from the Hebrew Mon or Moonah 
an image ; hence by converfion of M into L the Irifli Luan^ Luna, 
is from the Celtic Llun, an image ; as it reflecls the folar light. 
Cano in Latin, is in Welfli Canu ; in Arabic, Cainat is a fongftrefs. 
The Ladrone iflands, the rendezvous of pirates, are fo tailed from 
Ladron, Celtic for Latro. Carim in Turkifli, like Cams in Latin, 
is beloved; Caru inWclfh is to love. God in Welfh is Duw\ atManga- 
lor, Deu, which in Perfia isGeiiie; in Cambaia Maha Deu is magnus 
Deus ; at Mexico God is Teu; the Greek dative is Theo ; the Latin 
Deo : hence Zeus, and Sios in the Doric : the Hindon Cam-deo 

feems to be Cham Deus. In Irifli God is Dia, in Saint Kilda Tia, in 

B b China 




China Ti pr Tia. A tooth is Dant in Wclfh, in India Dandon, 
dentem: in Dutch, Tant, in Saxon, Than, in German Zaii, in 
Hebrew Shan or Schin : in Hungarian it is Fogh, akin to the Irifb 
Feag.— From the Celtic Coch^ red, comes Cochiiieal; Neall in Hi-^ 
berno Celtic being noble; hence the word fignifies noble red. InLatin 
Mors is death ; in Greek, Moros is fate, and Callimachus has Mortoi 
mortals; in the South Seas Morai is a repulchre;in Perfia Mor is death; 
at Surat, Mor is to kill ; in Celtic Marw is to die ; in the Ofetian 
tongue Mard, is death ; in the Iflandic Mprd is murder. In Welfli 
a manfion is Bdd ; in Perfia and India Abad ; hence the Bangorian^ 
Egyptian, Phrygian and Macedonian Abydos ; the Englifh abode, 
abide, bed, booth: the world itfelf in Welfhr is Byd. In the South Seas 
Eei is Edo, eat; Taata is a man; in Welfh Tat is a father, as is the Greek 
Atta; whence Attes was called papa, Pappeus and Apappus, and pro- 
bably Epaphust and hence the Celtic God Teutat figniBes the parent 
God; he was called fimply Tat, father; alfo limply Teuth or Teutho, 
Deiis : O is a termination frequent in Wales. Mercury was the 
great Gpd of the Celtae; fo wasTcutho; who therefore was Mercury 
Teutates : fome fancy him to be Pluto : but his g'randfon Deois or 
Dis was one Pluto, called Summanus from Mannus his fire. Japhet 
was alfo a Pluto : but the oldeft Pluto was Noah the firft Muth and 
Serapis. Tuitho, Teutat or Tat, being Ham's (the firft Vulcan's) 
great grandfon^ introduced the Vulcanian arts and worfhip into 
Europe. That Vulcan was a Celtic God Viridomarus in Plutarch 
evinces. Cefar tells us, " Vulcan was a German God :" and Ham 
being Zeus, the Gallic Thor was figured with a hammq^; and this 
proves that Odin his fire was Noah. Tuitho founded the Her- 
minones, named likewife Hermanduri, from Hermes, Mendes and 
Dwr, water ; for Paterculus places his Hermandori on the banks of 
the Elbe. From Tuitho alfo came the Tuitones and Teutanes near 
Pifa. Tacitus has thruft an S into the name, owing to the fimilitudc 

Lae^^^ between T and ft in Greek. SoEmpedocles calls Neith, Neitis, Anaitis, 

Neftis : Cote in French is in Englifh, coaft. Tautah (Tatta) is a 
father, at the Ifthmus of Darien.— Behar in Perfic is Ver in Latin: 
the change of B into V is frequent ; fo Ber in Welfc is in Latin, 
Veru. This explains the name of the God Latobius: he was the 

k God 


2. io6. 

Chap. 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 187 

Cod of health, fo was Latana's fon, Letou Uios, hence Latobius; 
Horace calls him Latoe. 

Ajlar^ in Greek Aftera, in Perfic Ster, hence Efter, Eafter and 
th6 Phenician Aftarte, in India is Starra— Dryr in Wales, and Dur 
in Ireland, water, is the Phrygian 'Ydor; and Durbeta, a town 
near the Tigris, fignifies waterhoufe ; fo Duram in Daniel feems a 
place near water : Endor (Ain-dor) is waterfount : hence ialfo the 
Naiad Doris, the Phenician Dora of Stephanus, and the city Dorath 
on the river Diur or Dwr in Mauritania: die Siberians call the eaftern 
fea, Al-utor-a, the great water. A hound, in Greek Kviov^ is in 
Chinefe Keuen : tlie name of a Chinefe king was Lao Kiun; but 
Kiun is generally fuppofed to be the Phenician Saturn; tho' it feems 
lobe Sirius, whether the ftar, or Sol : for Kiun is Sol in Turkifli ; 
Wl\he Dogftar was of prime importance in Egypt on account of the 
annuimundation. — Taboo in the South Seas feems akin to the He- 
brew iji found and fenfe; and thefe interdifts arifing principally from VoUS^' 
coDUgms difeafes. Tabes is allied to Taboo ; and contaminate is (o, 
hy tic converfion of B into M. 

Bochart obferves that Rix or rich in Germany, Gaul, and Britain is 
^iinto the Arabic Ric, Robur. Rath is a mound in Wales, Ireland, g^ Samme 
•■d Arabia, — Oon on the weftern coaft of North America means an 
Se, and is allied to the Celtic Yn : fo Oon Alafchka is the ifle 
AWchka, or American ifland; for the Siberians call America, 
Altfchka; and the fenfe. of the word is to be found in Hiberno- 
Cckic; Ala-afcath is the foldier-s nurfe. When Captain Cook in- 
sured for the ifle Oon Alafchka, the tautology rendered his queftion 
'^ifttcUigible: there was amon^ the Britons a fimilar tautology; 
AvaLon fignifies Apple-ifland, yet the place was ufually called Ynis 
Avalon, the ifland of Apple ifle; as failors fay the ifland ofBell-ifle; 
^nd here obferve that the Cekic Ynis is the Algonkin Minis, with 
^ M prefixed. Mount Hor, whence the Greek Oros, is a fimilar 
taotcrfogy : as Portugal is Port a Port : in Anglefea is Pont Rhyd- 
pont, the Bridge of Fordbridgc. The foreft of Dean fignifies the 
foreft of Foreft. Bales is old Bel, yet Bfchylus calls him old Ba- 

B b 2 ten, ^ 

4. iJ. 


len, or old Signior Bel. An ifle near Odn Alafchka is named Ooin 
Ella; a Peninfula, Oon Emak. One of the Sandwich ifles is named 
Oon Neeheoow. The city On in Egypt figniBes the t/lr^ as the iflc 
of Ely : Strabo fays that (On, or) Heliopolis was built on an arti- 
ficial bank. Mela calls certain Iflanders in the German ocean, Oontrz 
Pliny mentions the ifles Oona in the North Sea, called by the Cim* 
brians, Morimarufa, the dead fea, from M6r and Marw. Irelan J 
was named by the Welfti Yverdh-on; I think it means the ifle that 
is the final country or tribe; from Ibh, regio.aut Tribus, and Err 
or Eirr, finis; whence alfo Eire, Eirin, the final Ifle : as Pryd-j^n 
is fair ifle ; which TalieflTirt, redundantly as above, denominates- 
Ynis Prydyn. The town of Comer-on, Comer's ifle, is in the 
Danube near Prefl)urg. Antilles is derived from On or Yn, ifle, 
and the Erfe Tealla, Tellus, land, ifle lands, iflands. Tor is an ex- 
tenfive word ; it fignifies a high rock or fummit: fo of Cholchis 
Pliny fays, the Toretac inhabited the fummit of Cape Cronea ; and 
the Agarturi are Arabian mountaineers: hence To Opog^ mons; and 
4. 5. 28. jj^g ig^nd Tyra in Egypt, where from the port Datneon Sefoftris Dar- 
ius and Ptolemy the fecond attempted a canal to the Nile ; which 
the fear of fpoiling the water put a flop to. Here was Caph Tor. 
Prom Tor comes Mam Tor in Derbyfllire, and Torbay in Devon; 
which fome explain Tortus, but not Sans Tort ; for alt bays are in- 
curvated. Crocken Tor is a Devonfliire hill. Chitor is a famous 
city on a high hill in India. Tor is varied into Tzor, Tur, Tar, 
Sor, Sur, Scur, Sar, Scar: thus from Sarrhanus comes fcarlet. The 
Englifli beer, a liquor invented by Ofiris, owes its name to the He- 
brew Beer a well; and hence Meriim ; as the Hebrew Jain, wine is 
from Ain,^ Foiv; Continens pro cgntento. — Stan, Tan, Tain, Tania^ 
a region, feems an univerfal word*; hence Teneo. — Pczron notes 
that Lacus is in Celtic Laguen ; hence Lagune. — Wineis Gwtn m 
Welfli, yinum in Latin, Oinon in Greek, Jain in Hebrew. 

Pliny 2. 29. 


Plato faid that Solon began a commentary on the Atlantic Jan- 

guage, which he had learnt at Sais, and may have been tolerably 

genuine before the.Perfian conqueft, as remote from opportunities 

of corcuptioh s it may obtain among the Brebes of Morocco at tbiiB 

V f' day : 

Chap* 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Yi 189 

day : yet Strabo fays that Hercules brought the Moors from India. 

Some words are allied to the Celtic; indeed the Atlantidae had great 

connexions with Europe. Moor is derived from M6r, fea : Neith 

from Nyddu, pronounced Neithee, to fpin ; and fhe being Nitocris, 

ihe Irifli term battle, Neith. Abydus is from Bod. Pelufium was 

in their facred language called Abaris ; Abar is Celtic for filth, 

which is confonant to the fenfe of Sin and Pelufium : but Rowland 

infifts that Abaris the Hyperborean was named Ap Rhys. Pa^nus 

is Celtic for induftrious ; Molochj for molefter. The prevalence 

of the Celtic tongue is furprizing ; Malcolm fays the Dialed in the 

Hebrides is akin to the Chinefe ; and inftance or two will confirm 

that prefently. Parfops on Japhet, tells us the Hiberno-Celtic is 

fpoken at Thebet, Wafer fays the Daricn language refembles the 

Celtic. Yet after all, fimilar words in languages of countries fo 

xttaoie rather prove that they belonged to the original tongue, than 

to any articular one that fuperceded it. Teutat introduced many 

Oriental words amongft the Celts, as Hefus from Hizzuz : Mar3 Dj^^ 

from Mar, a lord ; hence mayor : his Greek name is from the Cel- p^vici. 

tic Ar, Clades. But in the language of Otaheite a Prince is named 

Arte. For more inftances of agreement between the Celtic and 

Hebrew, lee Rowland's Mona and the end of this chapter. When 

Tcatat or Tuitho's pofterity proceeded from Gaul eaftward to the 

Ikrmodon, and then defcendedto Phrygia, Greece, Crete, Pheni* 

cia, Italy, Sicily, Egypt and Lybia, they brought many Celtic words 

with them ; fuch as their. own names, Meon, Uranus, Sadom, Cro* 

nus, Jou-patcr, Mercury, Neith, Venus, Juno, Rhea; and Saturn, 

ai well as other Titans, brought many other Phenician words into 

Europe. The Phenitian Hercules may have brought many Coptic 

and Atlantic words into Hungary ; which country received fronii 

bim its name : it is derived from Chon Kaer, Chon's caftle. He 

iikewife gave his name to other places; thus Italy was called Chonia; 

a province of Spain Tarachon, Tyr Chon^ Terra Choni. 

The Chinefe bids as fair as any to be the primitive language, from 

its fimplicity, containing as fome affert only 330 radical \t6rds, tho* 

others augment them to 1500, all monofyllables, having no variety 

of dcclenfions, conjugations, nuit^bers, or genders; tho* altered by 



^go PRIMITI VE. H ISTORY. (Book 2. 

tone and accent to 6o,ooo different fenfes. Yet it is greatly inter*. 
mixt with Celtic, Gothic, and Chaldee; and probably corvfifts moftly 
of thefe three parental tongues, that immediately fucceeded the ori- 
ginal language. The politeft Chinefe contains the moft extenfive 
fenfe in the concifeft terms. The affinity fuppofed between the 
Chinefe tongue and Hebrew relates to the fimpleft words expreft by 
the fimpleft charafters, which yet enter into the compofition of 
others. Pie in Chinefe is animal heat; Pia in Hebrew, hot embers; 
the Englifli word pie iiakin to both: and probably the Hebrew re- 
fembles the Chinefe in more words of Gothic original, than either 
Chaldee or Celtic; for the conftitution of the Gothic language rc- 
fembles the Chinefe, as abounding in monofyllables void of dc- 
clenfions, conjugations, and numbers. The Englifh fubftantivc* 
adjeftives, pronouns, and verbs were originally almoft all mono- 
fyllables, infomuch that it would be to the laft degree tedious to 
enumerate them; this we may inftantly perceive in reflefting on the 
names given to the parts of the human body, as nails, toes, heeK 
feet, joints, veins, blood, (kin, fleffi, kg, fliin, bone, knee, thigh, 
&c. So as to all nature, animate or inanimate, is ag«, youth, man> 
child, boy, maid, girl, beaft, bird, fowl, fi(h, horfe, mare, coh; 
bull, cow, calf, Iheep, ram, fewe, lamb, wool, horn; goat, \si^ 
fwine, pig, boar, fow, hog, dog, bitch, whelp, cat, rat, moufi\ 
goofe, duck, drake; cock, hen; egg, neft; eel, trout, carp, tend, 
crabs, prawns, fin, fhell ; tree, wood, grove, copfe, bufh, plaati 
Ihrub, branch, bough, fpray, fprig, twig, rod, fwitch, ftick, ftal^ 
pale, fhoot, root, leaf, bud, bark, rind, fap, heart, pith, ftumpi 
ftakc, feed, fruit; alh, oak, elm, fir, beech, birch; corn, ftrav, 
flieaf, thatch, chaff; wheat, oats, hay, grafs, blade, herb, reed, 
rufh, weed; fpace, room, time, fire, light, day, night, fun, mooa, 
ftars, fky, air, wind, cloud, fnow, mift, dew, rain, hail ; fea, tide, 
, wave, flood, brook, ftream, lake, pond, well; earth, ground, landj 
foil, dirt, mire, duff, mud, clay, (time, marl, (tone, rock; nn^at, 
food, drink, clothes, drefs, (hoes, hofe, coat,.(hirt, cap, hat; — old, 
young, tall, (hort, black, brown, fat, lean, fick, well, wife, dull, 
good, bad; hot, cold, moift, dry; give, take, do, go, walk, riide, 
run, dance, leap, ftand, &t, lie, fleep, watcfa» fpeak, talk, fing, 


Chip, u) P R I M I T 1 V E HISTORY. 191 

laugh, cry, hear, fee, feel; truth, liesj hate, fear, love, war, peace. 

Thcfe fpecimens are quite enough, a complete vocabulary would be 

as irkfome as voluminous. I have dwelt To long on the fubjefl, 

becauie the Gothic tongue was one of the firft after the confufion ; " 

iu kin to the Tartarian is fhewn by Wife, from authors of note. The 

Latin and Greek tongues have many words taken from the Gothic, 

as well as from the Celtic and Phenician ; as Viclua, widow ; foam, 

Spuma; edge, Acies; foal, Pullus; wound, Vulnus: father. Pater; 

brother, Frater; mother. Mater; daughter, Thugater; fhrine, fcrecn, 

Scrinium; gall, Fel; law. Lex; worm, Vermis; light. Lux; nephew, 

Mepos; nut, Nux; axe, Afcia; head. Caput; foot. Pes; ox, Bos> 

whore, Scortum; ram, Aries; fifh, Pifcis; otter, Lutra; boar, Aper; 

fow, Susi cow, Vacca-, bee, Apisj wafp, Vefpis; orchard, Hortusi 

way. Via; wind, Ventus; fee, Feudum ; hill, CoUis; one, Unus| 

vwo.Duo; three. Ties; fix. Sex; feven, Septem; eight, 0£lo; right, 

Rednftittiort, curtus; long, Longus; glad, Lsetus; when, Quando; 

then^ Tuoc; at. Ad; over. Super; make, Facio; call, Kaleo; niagn 

Mignusi name, Nomen-, pit, Puteus^ pair. Par; knee. Genu; my, 

Muos, fly; Hafur, caper; Afe, avus; Ude, udus; Afmur, amor; bear, 

Feroi break, Fra6lus; breach, firakos, iEolice; brook, bruax, 

£olice; Wic, vicus; Wyly, oiolos; crane, heron, Geranos; Deer, 

TVara; door,Thura; dare,Tharro; dyke, Teichosj path from xtmv 

njMcr, Ruter, iEolice; leave, Leipo; whole, Olos; whore. Oar; 

Udor, water; Ule, weald; Uphe, woof; Habeo, have; hard, Arduus; 

grofc, Craff^s; Ic, Ego. 

The Chinefe charafters fingly denote things, as a fire, torrent. 

Butfo do the letters of other languages. * The Irifh have names of 

trees; A, Ailm, a fir; B, Beith, a birch. In Galic E and I fignify 

be and (he: and all the vowels are interjeftions. The Gothic names 

of many letters have particular fignifications in Irifh, and this proves 

Ikat Irifh bears a great affinity to the Gothic. Thus A is Collis; Be, 

Femina; C<, Terra, vel Nox; De, Dies: Ge, Anfer: I, Regio: O, 

Auris; Ne, Heri: Re, Luna; Se, Calidus. But the relationfhip 

between the Irifh and Gothic will appear foon. 

Hebrew letters are moflly names; for tho' Bryant interprets Alpha, 


L.' 17. 



Vox Dei^ the Phenician Alpha (or Hebrew Aleph) is a Bull; and 
letters being numerals, perhaps JovcCs feip was marked Alpha; hence 
l^"^^^^^^ the fable of Europa's bull: yefthe ftbry had a higher origin: The- 
mis is faid to have efcapcd the Deluge on an ox ; thefe name^ allude 
to the ark. The Hebrew Beth iis a houfe; Gimel, a camel; Daleth, 
a gate; Vau, ahook; Lamed, a goad; Pe, a mouth; Refch, a head; 
Schin, a tooth; Tau, finis. Plutarch writes that the firft Egyptian letter 
refembled the Ibis. Amraian fays the Egyptian letters were entire 
names; and aword comprehended a whole fentence. Martyn'saccount 
of Saint Kilda, and Wafer's of Darien give us reafon to think the 
Chinefe are fons of Japhet. The Chinefe language is guttural like the 
, Welfli. One Chinefe king was named Chwen Hyo, which no Euro- 
peans, except Cambrians can exaftly pronounce. Fohi's native p^ace 
was Lanthieu, in Welfh God's fold, clofe, cloifter, or precinft, pro- 
nounced with an afpirate Hlaa. Kall-Gan, which Bell interprets the 
cverlafting wall, fignifies the white wall. Chart pronounced Shan is the 
Sean of Saint Kilda. Indeed there are feveral reafons to think that 
Japhet's iflue peopled China; particularly fimplicity of manners, and 
pacific difpofition, which diftinguifhed the northern Celtae. Yet many 
Egyptian names and rites appear both in China and India. Probably 
in countries fo extenfive fome defcendents of Noah's three fons 
effeQed fettlements; as they peopled the three Zones throughoBl 
Afia; altho* the original partition feems to have been according to the 
three great divifionsof the old world. Hailed aflferts that the Shanlcrii 
tongue, appropriated by the Bramins to religion, is the parent of 
the feveral dialefts from China to the Perfian Gulf; tho' the Benga- 
lefe is neareft to it in expreffion, conftruftion, and grammar: yet he 
found words in the Shanfcrit refembling Greek and Latin as well as 
Perfian and Arabic. 

A great affinity. has been difcovered between the Greek, Gothic, 
and Perfic: but the ancient Greek was chiefly a dialeftof the Celtic; 
as many Irifli and Welfh words fully teftify: yet the Goths tinftured 
it, as they have the Celtic, and particularly the Irifli; but they 
almoft extirpated the Celtic in Germany, except a few. words col- 


Chap. 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 193 

lefted by Pezron. Stemhelm fays the Finnic abounds in Greek 
words ; thefe doubtlefs were originally Celtic. For Greek words 
derived from Celtic, fee Sarames and Pezron. Highland foldiers 
found in North America a language fimilar to the Erfe, a diale6l of 
the Celtic : which the language of the South Seas refembles in its 
grammatical con{lru8 ion; as Tane, Maritus ; Aheine, Mulier; Hua- 
hine. Uxor; Teine, Frater; Toohine, Soror. 

Tho* the language of Canaan had received a great mixture of fo- 
reign words, yet the objeftion againft the Hebrew as the original 
tongue (however it might not be fo in reallity) merely on account 
of its artificial conftruftion, becomes only perfons like Diodorus 
Siculus; who was ignorant of a polite primitive language derived from 
one well inftruftcd family. Doubtlefs the greateft remains of the 
ongjinal tongue are to be expefted about Chaldea and Canaan; as 
neareft. the fcene of the firft variation ; for as people removed ta 
greater diftances, their language departed more and more from its 
onginal purity. But there arc no grander miftakes than that the lan- 
guage of Shem was that of Canaan; or that Abraham's language was 
Shem's; or laftly, purer than the other dialefts of the Chaldee. The 
particular branch of Shem*s line, from which Abraham defcended, 
had by fome means fettled in Chaldea, and had acquired the Chal- 
(fean tongue; but frequenting Mefopotamia, Damafcus, and other 
regions northward of Chaldea, the Hebrew acquired a mixture of 
Gothic and Celtic, as the lift of words in Rowland's Mona evidently 
proves : thus as to the Gothic ; Gehel, coal : Phar, bear ; Se, he ; 
Evil, evil ; Gaah, gay : Haras, harafs : Dal, tall : Sahap, fweep : 
Nodah, note: Lufs, lofs : Cis, cheft : Dakar, dagger : Shibbar, 
Oliver: lild, child : Parak, break: Meria, marrow: Rafah, grace: 
Sac, a fack : Nut, nod: Kol, call: Ahel, ahall: Burgad, burgefs: 
fianc, a bench : Marak, a mark : Colar, a collar : Kun, whine • 
from gavel came gravelkind, a tenure : Kalal, vile. Hoberi; men 
over againft. — The Scythians brought the Gothic language, a dialeft 
of the Shemite, in fome degree into Mefopotamia; the Cimmerians f«c Richard- 
left fomewhat of the Celtic in Phenicia. As the Arabic was origin- 

C c ally 


ally Shem's language, their Nicht is our Knight; Khattaf, caitif: 
from Gau, Sol, came gaudy; from Gib, Gibl, came Gable end. 

Perhips I am Angular in furmizing that the three branches of 
Noah's family had each a diftinft tongue, which produced fubor- 
dinate dialefls among their refpeftive defcendents. Canaan was a 
Pacnulus. fon of Ham, and Plautus proves that his language, which was in ufe 
at Carthage, is the fame as the Hebrews made ufe of. Words in 
the Japhetic or Gomerian language are varied in the primary let- 
ter. Ham's progeny tranfpofed the primary letter ; Shem's inftead 
of altering words ufed particles, as do the Tartars as well as the 
Englilh: for, that the Goths are Shem's pofterity will hereafter be 
proved: and from that fource alfo fprung the Sclavonians, Hungari- 
ans, Turks and Tartars; thefe being all defcendents of the ancient 
Scythians; who to the northward intermixed with the Celtae, and 
towards the fouth with the Jndi. Thus as to the Celtae, the natives 
of Baraba between the Irtilh and Oby (a name from the Perfian Ob, 
water) are honeft ; fo are the genuine Tongufi, who (as Bell tells 
us) refembles the Canadians; yet their language is theCalmuc: and 
the Tzulim Tartars, who referable Americans, have an Arabic dia^ 
left : which language is intelligible, fays Bell, from Egypt to In- 
doftan ; as the Sclavonian (ufed by the Calmucs) from Venice to 
Kamtzatka. The Gothic language by degrees drove the Celtic in- 
to Armorica, Wales, Cornwall, Ireland and the Highlands ; the 
language in which places was called Gomr'aeg, and the people 
Gomri ; hence Mon mam Gomri, Anglefea the mother of the Cam- 
brians: Wales and Welfh being apellations conferred by foreigners^ 
The Sclavonian prevails in Bohemia, Poland and Ruflia; they being 
originally Celto-Scythians. The Hungarians, as Ammian and Pro- 
copius write, refided anciently between the Don and Wolga. As 
they penetrated to the fouth of Caucafus, fo they came to Hungary, 
and were called Ugri, Sclavonic for Aquatic : but mixing with the 
Cbuni of Ptolemy on the Boryfthenes, received their name, derived, 
as I have obferved, from Chon or Chun the founder of their town 
and of Choniad* It hence appears that the Hungarians arc com- 



pofed of two different nations. The Chinefe deem ihe Huns to be 
Turks, and rcfident between Corea and the Getes : the Byzantine 
hiftorians fet the eaftern Turks beyond Sogdiana, deeming them 
Sac£ ; Vr^hich proves their affinity to the Gctae. There were Hun- 
gars far to the eaftward of the Alans, upon the Edel, Raa, or Wolga; 
fee Menander : but they feem to have come originally from regions 
ftill much farther to the eaftward : in faft from Eaftern Tartary, and 
Tongufy. After all the Hungarian tongue feems to be an cxtraor^ 
dinary medley. 


An Univerfal Diftionary, formed with caution and flcill, would 
tend to (hew original words, or derivatives from them j and the 
various mixtures of languages^ thro' intercourfe^ in procefs of time. 

C C A 

A Model 




Engliih, Tooth. 

Turkilh, Difch; hence Tufk. 

Greek, Odous, odoncos. 

Latin, Dens, dentis. 

Ofetian, Dendak. 

Indian, Dandon. 

Welih, Dant, hence daunt. 

Dutch, Tant, hence taunt. 

Danifli, Tand. _ 

Iflandic, Ton, ten. 

Saxon, Than. 

German, Zan. 

Hebrew, Shan, or Schin. 


I Hangariaa, Fogh. 
Iriih, Feag. 

Diminutive Fiakail. 
Mankf , Fhegil. 

N. B. The Irifh Dant it not 
what bitea, but is bitten; a 

Englifh, Mo9B. 
German, Mon. 
Daniih, Mone. 
Greek, Mene. 
Belgic, Mane. 
Saxen, Maen, 
Laponic, Manna. 
Arab* Manah. 

2. L UNA. 

Latin, Luna. 
Sclavonian, Luna. 
Irifh, Luan ; alfo Re. 
Celtic, Lun. 
Greek, Se-lene. 
In Gaul, Eiane. 

Wd(h, Lhoer. 
Armonic, Loar 
Corniih, Lur, 
hence Lure 

Poli(h, Zab. 
Bohemian, Zub» 
Sclavonian, Sob. 
Lufatia, Sub. 

Hence« fup, fip. 

Polilh, Miefyac. 
Bohem, Mefyc. 
Dalmatia, Mifzccz. 
Lufatia, Meiitz. 
Circaffia, Maza. 

Perfia, Mah or Maw. 
Lefa uis. Moots. 
Kifti, Bute. 






Amoric, Troat; hence Trot, 

and Trotter. 
Iriih, Troidh. 
Cornifli, Truvd. 
Wclih, Troed ; hence tread. 

I3. PES. 
Iriih, Kos, Erfe, Kas. 
Manks, Skas, hence Scate. 
Greek, Pous, podos. 
Latin, Pet, pedis. 
German, Fus; hence fafs. 
Danifh, Foede. 
Gothic, Fetus. 
Iflandic, Fet. 
Engliih, Foot. 
Belgic, Voet. 
Siamefe, Bat. 

I Sclavonian, Noga. 
Bohemian, Noha. 

Hungarian, Laab; hence leap» 
labo, flip, flipper. 

Turkifh, Ajag or Ajakj hence 

[Or thus. 4. COR. 

Latin, Cor; Gallic Caeur; Italian, Cuore; Spanifh, Coracon; Irifh, ^Kroidhe; Greek* ytcpSiM 
Englifti, heart; Dutch, Htrt; Daniih, Hicric; Saxon, Hcrte; German, Hcrte; WeJih, Kalon; 
Corniih, Colan; Armoiic, Kalon; Sclavonian, Serze; Polifh Serce; RufBan, Serxe; Hungarian^ 
Szivn; Turkifh, Giur*eg« akin to Cor: and Turegh, akin to the Irifh Tork. 

. r ' Jofephus 

Chap 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 197 

Jofephus writes that the tower of Babel was built by Nimrod, 
Ham's grandfon, whom he ftiles enterprizing proud and impious^ 
as a refuge from another Deluge : to which he might fuppofe a level 
country liable. But the Babylonian tower feen by Herodotus was 
a fubfequent work: the original tower having been deftroyed at 
the confufion of human fpecch. Herodotus fays, the bafe of the 
Babylonian tower was a fquare furlong. Strabo fays its height was 
• a furlong. IC confifted of eight fquare towers (landing one on ano- 
ther, each having a lefs bafe than its next fupporten Herodotus 
obferved that the fmall river Is ran by a tower of that name, into 
the Euphrates, wafting along lumps of bitumen, thence conveyed 
to Babylon, eight days journey diftant. Ifidore of Charax names 
the place Eliopolis, mentions its fprings of bitumen, and places it 
on the Euphrates, 215 miles weft of Seleucia, which was where- 
abouts Baghdad was built ; for that town, as Emirchond of Tcx- 
cita relates, was at firft erefted on the weftern fide of the Tigris. 
Strabo fets Seleucia 300 ftadia from Babylon. Is, or Hit, is a great L. j6. 
town to the weft of the Euphrates. Three miles to the fouth-weft 
of it, in a valley, are many fprings, puffing out liquid bitumen with 
a loud noife : the inundations of the Euphrates from time to time 
waft away the ftagnant pitch. Pliny fays that Charax (which figni- 5^ ^.^ 
fics a bulwark, like the Irifti Carraic) is fituated on an artificial 
mount at the confluence of the Tigris and Eulaeus ; and that Juba 
counted 175 miles thence to Babylon. He writes that Seleucia was 
40 miles from Babylon ; where a new cut was made from the Eu- Ch. 26. 27. 
phrates to the Tigris ; and Ctefiphon was three miles from Seleucia; 
between thefe towns ran the Tigris joined by the Choafpis. This 
defcription is precife ; and alfo diftinguifhes the Choafpis from the 
Eulaeus. Yet many travellers take the tower of Babylon to be 8 or 
9 miles W. N. W. from Baghdad, in a wide plain : it is called Kar^ 
huf. All, who mention it, call it Nimrod's tower : and fay that the 
people there believe it to be fo, and that it is now termed the tower 
of Babel. If fo, Nimrod's tower and old Babel did not ftand, where 
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon did. But the Arabsaflert that this tower 
was ercfted by a prince of theirs for a beScon ; altho' attributed to 

Nimrod : 

igS P R I M I T I V E ,H I S T O R Y. (Book z. 

Niairod : as t!ie vulgar impute all great matters to their mod famous 
chieftain. Rauwolffuppofes the tower of Babylon 36 miles S. W. 
of Baghdad. Texeira deemed it a day's journey, or fome 40 miles 
from Baghdad. Delia Valle going down from Baghds^d five days 
on the river, tho' he returned by a direft road in two, fuppofed he 
had found the ruins of Babel farther S. W. from Baghdad, both 
from its fituation, and its being called Babel by the Arab?. 

Thus when we refleft that mankind cannot afcertain even the lite 
Polit. 3. a. of the greateft city of Afia, '* a city (fays Ariftotle) as extenfive as a 
nation, infomuch that many of its inhabitants were ignorant of its 
capture during three enfuing days ;" with the moft profound humi- 
liation muftvthc prefent race of men contemplate the judgements of 
Almighty God on the vanity of mortals long evanefcent : whilft hit 
power and eternity Hand confpicuous to our feeble eyes, by the con- 
trail they form to the tranfient and impotent works of the moft illuf- 
trious princes : whofe very names, maugre their grandcft efforts to 
the contrary, elude our ftrifteft refearches. Kaiah's no lefs true 
Ch. 13; than fublime prediftion of the final fall of Babylonj verfified in part 
Whefcldon. j^y ^ fcllow-coUegianof mine, here follows compleat. 

The Down/all of Babylon. 

Thus big with forefight of impending woes, 
Th' exclaiming prophet heav'n-infpir'd arofe. 
•* Jehova bids the royal harlot mourn ; 
I fee the phials of his fury burn. 
Lo, he commands, '* Bid all my pow'rs prepare 
Their bloody banners for the day of war. 
High let the trumpet's brazen clangor rife ; 
Each portal fhake, and uproar rend the fkies. 
Mufter my bands ; bid countlefs legions pour, 
Make the hills thunder, and the vallies roar. 
Rebellious war let ftates revolting wage. 
Funds of my wrath, and heralds of my rage. 
Yc planetary globes my force proclaim 5 



Syftems of worlds, and rolling orbs of flame ! 
This day be mine : triumphant vengeance fly : 
Aflert your God, ye armies of the flty I 

Howl impious city! for thy doom prepare : 
Let cries and groans and clamour wound the air« 
Let dire difmay enervate ev'ry hand : 
And lawlefs rapine ftalk thro' all the land. 
Let helUbred horror ftrike thro' ev'ry part j 
Each vifage mar, and harrow ev'ry heart.** 

That God, who fills th* infinity of fpaCe^ 
Who (lamps confufion on the guilty facc^ 
See, fee, he comes ! he cleaves the burfting flcy. 
And makes the ether blaze before his eye* 
Awe at his fight the whole creation feels ; 
While vivid lightnings flafli beneath his wheels. 
Black defolation gathers all around : 
War (hakes thy tow'rs ; and blood diftains the grounds 

" Hear ! by my own tremendous name I fwear, 
No fun that day (hall gild the fields of air : 
No moon refleft a gleam of borrowed light; 
No ftar (hall glimmer thro' the gloom of night. 
Shrunk at my prefence melting clouds (hall fly ; 
And worlds di(rolving fmoke beneath mine eye* , 
The pride of man fuftain a mortal wound: 
And arrogance (hall wallow on the ground. 
Not gold (hall buy the fight of human face ; 
My fury (hall deftroy th* infernal race.'* 

Like fcatter'd fheep they flee, nor refuge know ; 
From coaft to coaft purfu'd where'er they go. 
Myriads of flaves difpers'd, from bondage freed ; 
Seek their old homes ; no lord controuls their fpeed. 
Whoe'er remains, the hoftile fword (hall thtuft 
Thro' his vile heart, and bid him bite the duft^. 





Confederate hofts in heaps their blood fhall (hed ; 
The dying fadly mingled with the dead : 
The (hrieks of ravifh'd matrons pierce the fkies ; 
And butcher'd infants blaft parental eyes. 

Lo the Medes rufh like fome overwhelming flood ; 
Not gold they covet, but they thirft for blood. 
As Sodom and Gomorrha fell before. 
The glorious Babylon (hall be no more. 
No more (hall glad inhabitant remain ; 
No more the (hepherd tune the rural ftrain. 
No more her youth (hall trip the fprightly round. 
In airs refpon(ive to enchanting found. 
No more full bowls her flufter'd fons employ : 
No more the ring of revel, laugh of joy. 
There noifom dens the tigers (hall explore ; 
There monfters bellow ; there the lion roar. 
The moping owl there fix her folemn court. 
And horrid fatyrs take their frantic fport. 
Savages howling thro' her ftrcets (hall roam ; 
And dreadful dragons haunt each desMate dome. 
This is her fate; this, this her mighty fall ; 
" Death haftes amain ; one hour overwhelms her all.*' 






Of JaphcCs Iffu^e. Of She7n*5 Concerning the ages of the Pojldiluvian 
Patriarchs. The Chronology of the Septuagint bejl; hut too long. 
Abraham^ s Migration 393 Years htfore the Iliac War, 771 after the 
Flood: or^ a^ will bejhcwn, it could not be earlier than 15 years be- 
fore theft Dates, A Coincidence of feveral Chronological Accounts 
fhfws the Interval between the Flood and the Chriflian Era to be 2348 
Years. A Difciijfmn of the Egyptian Chronology. 

JA P H E T ' s fon Gomer, the father of Aflikenaz, Riphath 
and Togarma, was the Brother of Magog, Madai, Javan, Tu- 
bal, Meflicch and Tiras. Javan*s fons were Elifha, Tarfhifh, the 
Kittim, Dodanim, interpreted by the Septuagint Rhodians, who 
peopled the Gentile Ifles. 

Noah began to have fons at the vigorous age of 500, Arphaxad 
was born two years after the flood, when Shera was 100 years old, u, lo* 9, 
and Noah 602 : and Ham was Noah*s youngeft fon. Japhet of ^^' '°' ^*' 
courfe was the eldeft, as Mofes afferts. 

Shem's fon Aram the father of Uz, Hul, Gether and Mafh, was 
brother of Elam, Afliur, Lud and Arphaxad; whofe fon Salah was 
father of Eber, the father of Joktan, and of Phaleg, fo named from 
the partition at his birth. This event'occurred long after the Baby- 
lonian difperfion; probably on account of that confufion continuing 
for fome time : in the interim perfons feized places indifcriminately, 
and lived unincorporated and unfociably: an irregularity that Italy 
laboured under even till the time of their Janus and of the Titan 
Saturn his contemporary and friend. In Greece focieties commenced 

D d under _, 




Fab. 143. under Phoroneus, who as Hyginus fhews, had that country allotted 
to him by Hermes. I take this Phoroneus to be elder than Niobe's 
fire ; yet to be the real brother of Egialeus, and the Phoroneus who, 
according to Anticlides, reigned 15 years after Menon communis 
Pliny, cated letters. Solon enquired of the Egyptians concerning this firft 
Plato, Phoroneus. Heftiaeus Milefius wrote that the difperfion enfuing 
thro* the diverfity of language, people refided where they plcafed, 
and every one occupied whatever land occurred. Thus no ftated 
partition took place immediately. Bengelius, not improbably, holds 
that this partition was a phyfical one, by the ocean : tho' Pagan 
writers mention an amicable diftribution of territory. Diodorus 
^* 3- Siculus writes thus concerning the primitive people. '* They led 
an irregular and favage life ; fed on fucculent plants and fruits. Be- 
ing annoyed by wild beafts, they learnt the ufe of mutual aid ; and 
fear urging them to fociety, by degrees they embraced relationfhip. 
But as yet with an indiftinft voice proceeding to articulate founds, 
L, I. *ud to invent names for things, they at length attained an elocution 
defcriptive of all things. But as feveral focieties in this manner ex- 
ifted in the world, and each connefted words fortuitoufly, all did not 
ufe the fame language.'* This is his notion ; thro' ignorance that 
there was once an univerfal language : which however is mentioned 
Fab. 143. by Hyginus, Abydenus, and the author of the third book of Sibyl. 
line Oracles, which has.*a greater appearance of authenticity than 
any of the reft. Yet the three fons of Noah formed the three great 
clafles of mankind foon after the difperfion ; and many terms being 
forgotten, new ones were invented ; and thro' defe6l in the ufe of 
the vocal organs, as we have noted, feveral letters were altered in 
original words ; as K for P ; L for R ; Z for Dh ; B for D ; T into 
' B, L, or N ; D into R, L or N ; S into L, R, T, or N ; L or M 
into N: befides labials, dentals and gutturals into their like. More 
than this, the grammatical conftruftion of the three grand languages 
was quite different ; and, as Plato tells us that Thoth inftituted the 
grammar rules of Ham's language ; fo Phornutus informs us that 
Japhet was by the ancients reputed the father of language in Greece. 
The third generical language was the Gothic ; which prevailed 
among the Shemites, who peopled all the regions of the lower Scy- 



thia and Sarmatia, down to Perfia and Arabia ; and paffing thence 
into AbyflGnia extended themfelves round into Nubia and Numidia; 
of this more hereafter: I will only add here that Scenite Arabs who 
were Nomades occupy Barbary under the Tropic. 

In the direO: line of defccnt from Phaleg are Reu, Serug, Nahor, 
andTerah whofe children were Haran, Nahor, Abraham and Sarah. 
Joktan's fons were Elmodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerach, Ha- 
doram^ Uzal, Diklath, Obal, Abimael, Sheba the fecond, Ophir, 
Havilah the fecond, Jobab. 

Some eaftcrn authors relate that in Serug's time Afifanus a king of 
Egypt built a fhip and invaded the maritime regions : that his fuc- 
ceflbr was Pharo fon of Sanes, probably the Atlifanes of Diodorus: 
OmiI giants were frequent in Nahor's time ; one was Ad, an Arab -, 
anoiW Hellen, fabuloudy faid to have been at the ereftion of Ba- 
bel, and adored in Greece. Noah's hiftory being applied to Deu- 
C2Llion, their pofterity became confounded. This Oriental Hellen 
was theBalen of Efchylus. Serug is faid to have invented gold and 
filvercoin: his contemporary Samirus a Chaldean king, lilk-weaving, 
dying, weights and meafures. He fecms to be the Samiras of Cte- 
fias, in Pliny, who invented gallies. Sorne Arabs deem Terah to 
be Azer, the ancient name of the planet Mars: Oriental authors fay 
that Azer was a man of note, Nimrod's fon in law, and his favourite; 
becaufe he made his idols, which required (kill in aftrology, as to 
timeand materials. I think that N'imrod was Samiras, a name akin to 
Sabazius, a title of Bacchus, who was Nimrod. Sam Ur is holy man. 

Concerning the ages of the Patriarchs from Shem to Abraham^ 
at paedogony and death, the Septuagint is confirmed by the Samari- 
tan chronology, and moftly by Jofephus, as to the age pf each at 
propagation : it therefore claims a preference. I have conftrufted 
the table accordingly ; following thofe copies from which Jofephus 
counts Nah6r at paedogony, 129 : for the Hebrew has 29 ; having 
dropt a century as to him and his predccefTors. Dr. Jackfon allows 

D d 2 that 


that^one copy of Jofephus counts Tcrah 430 at Abraham's birth. 
This feems to be the truth : otherwife we muft cither admit the Sa* 
maritan account of Terah's being 145 years old at his death, for 
Ads 7. Abraham was 75 then ; or elfe 60 years maft have elapfed betw«CH 

the birth of Terah's eldeft child, and of Abraham. Syncellus ob- 
ferves that ^* according to the Hebrew chronology Abraham muft 
have lived in Noah's days : but the Church received the Septuagint 
verfion on the authority of the Apoftles/* 

Ages at Paedogony Years. If Lunar; Months. If Seafonij Montlu. 

Arphaxad after the flood 2 28 

at Salah^s birth 135 10: 11 45* o 

Selah, at Eber's - - 130 ■ 10: 6 43: 4 

Eber, at Phaleg's - -' 134 10: 10 44: 8 

Phaleg, at Reu's - - 130 10: 6 43: 4 

Reu, at Serug's - - 132 ■ — 10: 8 44: o 

Serug, atNahor's - - 130 10; 6 43: 4 

Nahor, at Terah's - - 129 10: 5 43: o 

Terah at Abraam's - - 130 10: 6 43: 4 


1052 85: o 350* 8 

Thofe copies of the Septuagint that attribute 79 years to Naho^ 
and 70 to Terah at paedogony, place Abraham's birth 942 years after 
the flood. The correftors of the Hebrew chronology found there 
would be nothing furprizing for Abraham to wonder at, in his be* 
coming a father at 100 years old, if his father and grandfire did Co 
fome 30 years later in life ; to obviate this remark they counted 
his grandfire 79 at paedogony, and Terah 70 : whilft the later He- 
brew copies omitted a round century : whereas, till about the time 
that Abraham applied himfelf to aftronomy, time was counted by 
quadrimeftrial periods in Egypt: as are the 3400 years in Diodorus^ 
from Proteus to his own time. 

7. 48. Pliny tells us that fome nations counted the year by two feafons ; 

Plutarch writes that the Egyptians had at firft lunar years; then like 




bme other nations, quadrimeftrial years; and the Arcadians trimef- 
rial ; that the Arcananian year hstd fix months. Among the various 
^ays of counting time, as there arc two moons in 59 days, it is pro- 
bable that fome Afiatic nations might have counted by bimcftriaF 
periods; and others may have divided the double olympiad into 12 
portions; fo that as the grand period confifted of 8 years; the fub- 
divifions were 8 months ; and this method of counting time may 
have been obfcrved by Shem's family, till Eber's timej who feems 
to have obtained his n^me from eroding the Tigris into the Mefopo- 
lamian territories of Chaldea; as his pofterity had that of Hebrews 
from palTing the Euphrates into Syria. And this period may 
have been determined by the periodical time of the planet Venus, 
dedicated to Aftartc; whofe name I take to be rather Perfian than 
Phenician; and to have been familiar to the Shemites. Her perio- 
4\ul time is very nearly 32 weeks; and as nearly 25 Nundinae. 
loji of her revolutions are performed in 647 years : but I count 
Abraham's birth 680 years after the flood. It is remarkable that 
EaUcr bears Aftarte's name; and it is probable that 8 months were 
counted in this Venereal year; as 12 months are in the Terreftial ; 
1052 periods, each containing 8 lunations, equal 680 Tropical 
years. This correfpondence between the Lunar period, and the 
Venereal, accounts for the dedication both of the Moon and planet 
Vtms to Aftartc or Venus Urania; as the correfpodence between 
. Aerifing of Sirius and the Tropical year occafioned both the Dog- 
Star and Sol to be confecrated to Ofiris. 

But the truth feems to be this. The Jews miftook the expulfion 
^fthe Hycfi, for the Mofaic Exod; and placed this event fo high 
as the time of Inachus; which computation mounted Abraham up to 
^"e days of Noah. The Greek tranflators found that the intervals 
'^^twecn father and fon refpeftively from Noah to Abraham accord- 
*^g to the Hebrew chronology placed Abraham too near to Noah; 
therefore a round century was added in the Septuagint between 
every defcent ; which proved too much. On the other hand, to 
confirm the notion that Mofes was as ancient as Inachus, collateral 
periods during the Judges are fet in order offucceffion. ButtheAme- 



nophis at the Exod was fubfequent to the Ramefis whp lived during 
the Trojan war, and built the famous Treafure-houfe, and furvived 
that war at lead eight years. And from the Exod, in the 14th 
year of this Amenophis we are to count up to Abraham's birth. 

Saint Luke names a Cainan between Arphaxad and Salah: 
Jofephus counts him 130 years old at Paedogony. Demetrius, above 
220 years before the Incarnation, feems to include him in the pe* 
digree; as he counts 1360 years from Arphaxad's birth to Jacob's 
defcent to Egypt. This period indeed reaches too far down; for 
Diodor. Sic. Jacob was fettled in the country called Ramefis, a name of Sefoftris, 
who drained it, and lived 1400 years before the Incarnation; a 
body of his foldiers, whom Danaus commanded, and fettled at 
Cholchis, had adopted the rite of Circumcifion: this was a^ 
Ifhmael had propagated that rite in Arabia; of which country tholt 
colonifts were natives; for Diodorus fays they were Jews intermixt 
with Arabs and Syrians. But as the followers of Danaus into Greece 
did not practice Circumcifion, it appears that Danaus left Egypt 
prior to Jofeph's meridian elevation. Of the above colony mention 
is made by Herodotus, Dionifius the poet and Agathias: of the 
Egyptian expedition to Cholchis befides thefe Authors, notice if 
taken by Apollonius Rhodius, Val. Flaccus, Juftin, Pliny, «(t 
Euftathius. Their praftice of circumcifion Herodotus and Diodonn 
mention. yEaetes, the fon of that Sol who was Orus Apollo, feems 
to have had the command of that colony delegated to him, and to 
have founded Cholchis. He was alive in <he time of Phrixus. 
Or fignifies Sol, as in Job 31. 26; hence Sol and Apollo are 
the fame. 

The lengths of reigns in Egypt, as they ftand in Jofephus, (he^*^ 
that Jofeph's defcent was 13 years before the reign of Rameft * 
Miamun, the Pharo or Phero of Herodotus; for the Exo^^ 
was in the 14th year after the reign of Ramfinitus, the Remphis o^^ 
Diodorus, which according to Manetho in Jofephus lafted &6 years^^ 
Prior to him Sethos or Proteus (the elder) reigned 59 years. Hi^ 
predeccfior Amenophis or Memnon Phefo's fuccellor reignecT 

19 years 

tap. 2.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. toj 

years and a half; Pliero reigned 65 years. Jofeph had been in 
rypt full 2 2 ycari before Jacob's defcent, which preceded the 
cod 215 years. 

Conftantine Mariaffes rightly places Abraham in the time of Belus, 
ho was engaged in the war of Saturn and Amnion; for Jofcphus 
ills us, Abraham's fon Apher(whom Suidas wrongly deems Saturn's 
lyPhilyra; but he was Chiron) accompanied the Egyptian Hercules 
n his expedition againft Anteus. This Hercules was the comrade 
>f Ammon's fon Dionyfius: he (lew Bufiris Agenor's half-brother; 
^^ho lived, as Ifocratcs affirms, 200 years before Perfeus; that is 
500 years before the Trojan war. Diodorus fays that " this Her- 
cules and other warriors fought with clubs in the Titanian war.** 
that was in the fourth century before the Iliac. Our gothic word 
battkis derived from that weapon, called in Irifh Bat, a name pre- 

fcmdin the game of Cricket. The Sibyl counted the Titanian war 

during A^ tenth generation; as was Abraham. 

When Ab aham vifited Egypt he was civilly entertained, tho* a 

pallor: this fhcws that the paftors or their allies were then in power. 

But when Jacob went thither, paftors were quite in difrepute. Eu- « ri^ p 

pokmus wrote that Abraham converfed with the priefts of Helio- 9. 17. 

f(&: but Diodorus (hews that the founder of that city was Sol*s 

i» Aftis ; whofe brothers were Ochymus the grandfire of Lindus 

licucalion's contemporary, and Triopas, whofe daughter Iphimedea 

^as mother of Otus and Ephialtes: therefore Abraham was not prior 

^Aftis the father in law of Cecrops : owing to whom Menander 

>ys, " The Athenians efteemed themfelves coeval with Sol." Iphi- Diodon Sic, 

•edia was ftolen by the comrades of Butes fon of Boreas, whofe fon 

ycurgus was coeval with Orus: therefore Abraham was fcarce 

^or to Boreas; who by the fifter in law of Xuthus and of Cephalus, 

id Zethes and Calais. Procris wife of Cephalus was accufed of an 

triple with Minos; but falfely, becaufe not infeQed by him with \ „ , 

,p.,«,j. r'l Apollodorus, 

c Venereal difeafe ; he was cured of it by Pandion's fon; what time 

• difcovered that Pafiphae's pregnancy was not by him, as (he alfo Palacphatu«. 

i not receive infeftion : therefore Minos was partly contemporary 



II. 20. 220. 


2d8 . P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book t. 

with Abraham: but, as they were both longeval, n^uch of their lives 
really fell under different periods : thus Minos was coeval with Gep- 
lialus and at laft contemporary with Thefeus ; it does not follow that 
Thefeus was Abraham's contemporary : Old Parr lived under ten 
fuccefTive reigns ; yet the firft of thefe fovereigns could not be con- 
temporary with the laft. Orus, who was coeval with Butes and Ip- 
himedia neice to the founder of Heliopolis, was, as Statius fhews, 
coeval with Crotopus of Argos; therefore Abraham was alive during 
Lycophron. his reign; which was about the time of Cecrops and Deucalion, 
whofe flood was in the time of Dardanu^, whofe fon according to 
Homer was contemporary with Boreas. Abraham lived nigher to 
the time of Noah's flood by above three centuries than he is counted 
in the Septuagint : which chronology proves, from a comparifon of 
various accounts, too long; yet is nearer the truth than either the He- 
brew or the Samaritan. There is luch a coincidence of accounts from ' 
different authors, concurring to prove the interval between the flood 
and the Chriftan era to be 2348 years ; that they cannot poffibly be 
done away by afingle chronology, which is far, very far from being 
above exception. The confonant acQpuntsI mean are thefe. Conftan- 
tine Manafles fays, the interval betweenMenes and Cambyfes was 16^ 
years. Varro fays that Egyptian Thebes, whofe founder was Meocr 
their firft king, was built2ioo years before his time. Diodorus SictlHv 
and Cephalion affirm that the Affyrian empire commenced lOOO 
years before the fall of Troy. Berofus concludes that it began 163 
years after Noah's flood, fuppofing that event 2242 years after the 
creation. Auguftine fays that "Ninus was 1000 years after the flood.*^ 
He and Semiramis were about the time of Juno, Europa and Cad- 
mus. Emilias Sura counted 1995 years from the fall of Antioch^^ 
the Great up to Ninus, the founder of Nineve as Dicearchus cal^^ 
him ; who was not the Titan Ninus, but Nimrod. The Septuagi^^' 
tranflators finding the Hebrew chronology erroneous as to the fever^ 
ages at paedogony, from collateral accounts in Egypt, and Chalde^ 
added a round century to each perfon'sage: which tho* nigher tlm ^ 
truth, yet makes an excefs in all above two, if not three, centurie^ 
This opinion is confirmed by Abraham's ridiculing the idea of hi -^ 

, bein^ 

Patei cuius 

Stephan : in 

:hap 2.) P R I M I T I V £ H I S T O R y. 209 


eing a parent at 99, or Sarah at 89 ; for why fo, if their immediate 
nceftors were much older at pacdogony ? Auguftin (ufpefts fuch an 
iddition in the Greek chronology as is here defcribed. 

Civit. Dei. 

Concurring accounts evince that Mifor's reign in Egypt began 
about 159 years after the flood. The 16th Dynafty (of Thebans) 
in Eufebius were the five firft kings in Eratofthenes^ Both count 
t\ie fum of their reigns 190 years, fimilar to the period attributed in 
the old chronicle to the collateraJ Dynafty of Thinites, next to the 
kings in the Cynic circle of that chronicle : who were either feleft 
worthies of Egypt, or princes during the ufurpation of the Hycfi, 
and therefore were either collateral with thefe or with fome of the 
other Dynafties, but did not precede the Theban Dynafty, or firft 
Tbinite : for the fecond king of Thebes, and of This, was Thoth the 
fonofMenes, fhcwn by Sanchoniatho to be Ham's fon Mi for; the 
^mmc Mcncs, who founded Memphis ; for Thoth erefted a 
palace there. To Eratofthenes we owe a lift of the Theban kings 
/ramAfenes to the kings who reigned there fubfequent to the Trojan 
war, and collaterally with the laft Amenophis of Egypt during the 
Exod. Eratofthenes fhews thai the interval between the foundation 
ofthe Theban kingdom, and the capture of Troy, was about 1008 
T^s: and the commencement ofthe Egyptian empire preceded the 
^rian fome feven years; the Egyptian being allowed to have been . 
Ac firft that was eftabliftied in the worlds fubfequent to the flood. 
Manetho attributes 511 years, in all, to the Hycfi : who were ex- 
pelled by Amofis, as Ptolemy of Mendes wrote: he was Thummofis, 
*JJd as Plutarch teaches u^* " Ammon ;" or Apappus, who reigned 
"y himfelf and his lieutenants, 100 years: and was Phiops, who 
reigned at Elephantis and Memphis 94 years. Syncellus fays, he be- 
8^n his reign at fix years old: as if he lived only 100. But there 
'* no end of Oriental titles; he was Cinyras king of Syria, who lived Pliny 7. 48. 
^60 years. If Amos or Amofis in the i8th Dynafty, and Manetbo's 
Teihmofis, be his Tmofisor Tuthmofis, and the intermediate reigns 
be thofe of his vicegerents, as Chcbron was his fon Dionyfius, and 
Ameffis was Nitocris wife and fiftt r of Dionyfius, whofe Indian ex- Diodor.Sic.3 
pcdition was during the wars of Ammon his fire j then Ammon, 

E e Amos 



(Book ^- 

Amos or Amofis muft have reigned 129 years. But the feventh and 
eighth kings, as well as the firft and Tecond, are Ammon and his fire: 
hence Syncellus rightly accufes Jofephus of tautology ; which ap- 
pears ftill plainer in the next Dynafty. Therefore the feventh, eighth 
and ninth kings are to be fet before Chebron's predecefTor, who is 
Ammon, after the expulfion of the HycG, according to Theophilus 
of Antioch: as Thmofis the eighth king is alfo Ammon, prior to 
their expulfion: Amenophis being reg?nt during 30 years, whilft 
Ammon was under difficulties between tl e Krft part of his reign and 
the latter; when Saturn, who feems latterly to have commanded the 
Hycfi, had fome advantage. Thus the Hycfi Teem to have been 
finally expelled juft before the'laft 25 years of A nmon's reign: 
which laftcd in the Lower Egypt, with the interregnum of Ameno- 
phis the firft, tho* fet fecond in Jofephus, fome 65 years. I there- 
fore compute time in Egypt from the deluge to the Exod thus. 

From the flood to Mi Tor's reign. 

Five Theban kings before the Hycfi feized Mem- 
phis, fome 63 years after their inroad to Pdu- 


Duration of the Hycfi after their feizure of\ 
Memphis, tho* their whole ftay in Egypt was> 
511 years. ^ 

Thmofis (who had formerly -reigned almoft 10) 
years, as Amenophis above 30, prior to the r 
expulfion of the Hycfi) reigned after that event 

Dionyfius, or Chebron, a name fignifying fociaL 

Amenophis regent during the excurfions of Dio- 
nyfius, and fecond hufband of Nitocris by 
whom he had Egyptus and Danaus: fiie was j 
Ifis, Ceres, Semiramis, Myrina; he was Menon, 
Belus and a Nilus 

Years. Months, 
159 : O 

igo : O 
448 : O 

25 • 4 
13 : O 

20 : 7 


Years. Months. 


. Ameffis, or Nitocris fitter and wife of Dionyfius; 
afterwards fhe was wife of Ame 
and laftly of the Titan Ninus, 

afterwards fhe was wife of Amenophis or Menon, i 21 

Mephres, viceroy during the abfence of Orus 7 
her Ion, - . ^ 

Orus fon of Nitocris and Dionyfius or Chebron, 

Achenchres — Rathofis— Armais; viceroys of ) 
Sefoftris, J 

Sefoftris or Ramefis after his return, 

Ramefis Miamun, Phero or Nuncoreus, 

Amenophis or Memnon, 

Rapfes, Sethos or Proteus, 

Ramifes or Ramfinitus the treafury builder and 
new king at the birth of Mofes, and the( 
jroungeft Proteus who furvivedthe Iliac war at{ 
leaft eight years, fee Pliny and Hyginus. 

-Amenophis, the laft Nilus of Diodorus ; in his 7 





















14th year the Exod enfued, 


Total 1 202 

This period ftiU more evidently appears, if we count thus; only we 
niuft fto reconcile the fum of the reigns mentioned in Jofephus and 
Syncellus to their fum, as it follows from the particular lengths of 
^efeveral reigns) fill up the firft king*s reign, the length of which is 
Omitted, with fixty years : tho' the old chronicle allows only 348 
years for the duration of the whole Dy natty : and I miuch fufpeft 
that the Dynafty of Hycfi reigned fomc years collaterally with the 

E e 2 firft 


firftikiiig of the i8th Dynafty ; which may be the true reafon that 
thejength of that firft king's reign is unmentioncd; it coinciding with 
the latter part of the Paftoral pelriod t otherwife Apophis, who is 
allowed 61 years, and is the laft king in the lift of Afi icaiius ; and 
whom, from Plutarch's mentioning the war between Apophis and 
Sol^ in which DionyfiQs was againft Apophis, I concluJe to be the 
Titan Saturn, could not be the opponent of Tethmofis, Thmofis, 
Amofis, or Amos, who was the Titan Ammon. Of tliis more foon. 

From the flood to the commencement of Mifor's 
reign, _ . - 

The firft Dynafty of This ended, when the Hycfi "J 
had lived at difcrction many years in the Lower > 
Egypt, after a continuance of - - J 

The fix firft kings of the Hycfi, who were Idngl 
a Banditti like their brethren the Ta rtar^and 
Arabs, without regal or regular govewment^ 
and were at length eclipfed, reftriftcd and 
finally expelled by the Titans Uranus, Ammon 
and Dionyfius or Chebron ; iri whofe honour 
Arbe, or the city of Jarbas fon of Jove Ura- 
nus and Garamantis was named Hebron, J 




TheTitanian or i8th Dynafty in all, 
Rhapfes, Sethos or Proteus, 

Rhemphis, Raamfes, Ramifesor Rhamfinitus thei 
Tneafury builder, and younger Proteus who^ 
received Menelau*, - - 

Amenophis, in whofi: year was the Exod, 







€hap. 5.; P R I M i T I V E H 1 S T O R v. ^13 

Yet J cannot retraft what I have before fuggefted, that the laft 
years of the Part oral Dynafty coincide with the firft of the fubfe- 
quent Dynafty; for which reafon the period of that reign is not fpe- 
cified in Jorcphus. I therefore think that the Paftoral Dynafty did 
not comnnence till after a longtime of confufion, during which there 
was an interregnum at Th^s; for Sefoftris, as otherwife muft be the 
cafe, did not reign there fo foon as 482 years after the commence- 
ment of the ^Egyptian empire; becaufe Nitocris, who reigned at leaft 
70 years before Sefoflris, and afted a moft martial part in the Tita- 
Tiian wars, docs not appear in the Theban lift of fovereigns till 670 
years after the foundation of that kingdom. I therefore conclude 
that the Paftoral Dynafty ftiould be fet many years lower-, and an 
interval of feveral years be admitted between the firft Thinite Dy- 
nafty and the Paftoral. This fuppofition affords room to fet the 
¥.xoda few years higher than otherwife; but it muft be at all events 
9L&Aowas22 years fubfequentto the fall of Troy: forRamifes, who *"^' 
then reigned in Egypt, was the Proteus of Herodotus who intercepted 
Helena, and according to Hyginus was, tho* an old man, alive eight 
years afterwards; and the Exod occurred in the 14th year of his 
fucceflbr. But if (he Paftoral Dynafty ended entirely before the com- 
tncncenient of the 18th Dynafty, Troy's fall muft have preceded the 
Swi 37 years* The Amenophis after Manetho's Rhamphis, the 
IcBJihis of Diodorus, the Rhamfes of Tacitus, the Raamfes of 
Mofe, Pliny's Ramifes, the Ramfinitus and youngeft Proteus of 
Hcmdotus, the Proteus alfo of Hyginus, is the laft Nilus; his fuc- 
ceffor Diodorus deems above lOQO years before his time, which was 
wut 60 years before the Incarnation: therefore this Nilus was 
*^ncd at the Exod, about the time above computed. 

Miamun's predeceflTor was the real Sefoftris; as appears by his 
naving expelled his brother Armais. His name of Ramefis Cyril of 
^*cxandria confers on Egyptus, who as Manetho wrote was Sefoftris. ' 
^ *nis Diodorus Siculus confirms by faying the Egyptian colony at 
^"^'chis were foldiers of Sefoftris, and fettled there by Danaus the 
"'other of Egyptus. The intermediate rulers between Sefoftris and 
Orus arc regents, in the abfence of Sefoftris. In the 2d and 12th 




(Book s« 

I. 570. 

Scolia Apol. 

Rhod. 4« 


L. 3. 


Dynafties the reign of Sefoftris or firft Ramefes is 48 years; which 

equals the intermediate reigns between him and Orus in the.iSth 

Dynafty, letting afide the odd months. Statins difcovers that Orus 

Apollo reigned juft before Sefoftris; Orus being expiated touching 

Typhon's murder by Crotopus of Argos, whofe fon was fucceeded 

by Danaus brother of Sefoftris. Dicaearchus doubted whether Orus 

or Sefoftris introduced Horfemanfliip into Egypt; this proves the 

proxin)ity of their reigns. Indeed he afferts pofitively that Sefon- . 

chofis (or Sefoftris) fucceeded Orus 2500 lunar, or 202 folar years 

before the Theban Nilus, whofe reign was 436 folar years (then in 

ufe) before the Olympic era: thus Sefoftris reigned 1414 years 

before the Chriftian era. As to Egyptian regents Eufebius fliews 

that petty princes reigned there; as '' Telegonus fon of Orus Apollo 

the Paftor, under Acherres," who was a viceroy under Sefoflik 

Jofephus places Sefoftris, where Herodotus fets Proteus. But tht 

Proteus deemed by Apollodorus coeval with the Egyptian Dionyfiui 

and Rhea, as he alfo was with Bufiris, was a more ancient Proteui 

than even the (ire of Helena's Proteus; and became the Janus of j 

Italy, as Julian Aurelius afferts, and may have been the Janias of \ 

Herodotus. ^^^ Hycfi. This may have mifled Jofephus to fet Sefoftris content 

porary with that later Proteus, whofe fon Ramfinitusor Ramifes w0 

furnamed Proteus alfo; for Herodotus and Hyginus name a Prot* 

in Egypf during the Trojan war, when as Pliny relates Ramifo 

reigned there: and Ramifes being formerly a title of Sefoftris, thii 

likewife may have contributed to miflead Jofephus, or prompt himi 

' ^' to miflead others in fevour of the Jewifli Legiflator's antiquity, 

which was fet in competition with that of Phoroneus and Apis- 

Diodorus calls Proteus, the father of Rhemphis, Cetes; this denote^ 

him to be Sethos at the head of the 19th Dynafty. The error i«^ 

Jofephus is a plain repetition of names; tho' his length of reigi^^ 

throughout, down to the Exod, feems to be near the truth^ only b^ 

gives fome room to furmize that the. 17th Dynafty did not end, ti^ 

fome years after the commencement of the 18th, the Hycfi ftill pr^-^ 

ferving fome power. Jofephus, having named Armais and Rameffe^^ 

who is Sefoftris, before Miamun and his fucceffbr, immediately aft^^ 

thefe introduces them again; but in the fecond place the fon c^^ 


jf^ap- IK.) PRIMITIVE H 1 S T O.R Y. 115 

^thos, the SefoH's of Jofephus, is furnamcd Rhamphes, who ii 
tficmphis the fuccefTor of Proteus in Diodorus, the Rhamfes of 
pacitus, the Raamfes of Mofes, Pliny's Ramifes, the lal Proteus, 
l^id by Herodotus anJ Hyginus to have furvived the Trojan war. 
felut, as juft now hir.ted, a Proteus, far ancienter than he or his fa- Gcor. 
IJber, is mentioned by feveral authors. Virgil fays he was vifited by 
ijirifteus deemed by TuUy to be the fon of Dionyfius, and held by Vcrrc84. 57. 
^Taufanias to be a friend of Areas the Arcadian king who wedded 
^ Autonoe daughter of Cadmus. Apollodorus fays that Dionyfius vi- 
fited this Proteus; whom Conan (in Photius) deems contemporary 
i with Cadmus, and with Bilfiris, who facrificed Pygmalion's brother 
1 Thafius (or, as Apollodorus names him, Thrafius) to experience Hygin^,, 
f his augury touching a famine, that laded nine years, and feems to be 
* he fame that affefted Ammon, Abraham, and Teucer of Crete. 
CoRanfays that Proteus married Chryfonoe the daughter of Clitus^ 
t'lAand prudent king of the Sithoni, a people of Thrace, and ex- 
ptRmg Ae Bifalti, reigned over their country. The Egyptian 
Hercules flew his two brutal fons, whom Proteus interred, and ex- 
piated Hercules. Hyginus names a daughter of Proteus, Idothea; 
aibealfo calls a daughter of Ocean: therefore this ancient Proteus 
ferns not only the Paftor Janias, but the firft Amenophis of the 18th 
Djiafty; for every Meon, Maro, and Amenophis was a Nilus and 
' ftcanus: thus he may alfo be the Aufonian Maro, and the fame 
I^ribn as Janus; whofe friend Saturn, being Meon Cybcle*s hufband^ 
*^y by fome be fuppofed to be this Maro; however that be, the an- 
^nt Proteus was the contemporary, if not one or other, of ' 
wcfe perfonages. 

Africanus, at the 18th Dynafty, is filent about the firft part of the 
^gn of Amos or Amofis, who expelled the Paflors, as Tatian from 
? ftolemy the Mendefian prieft evinces. This fhews that Africanus 
"ippofed the firft part of this king's reign coincided with the latter 
P^nof the reign of Apophis, deemed by him the laft king of the 
%cfi, and appearing from Plutarch to be Saturn; as Amos to be 
^niinon. The Titanianwar was not over till 1506 years before the "^' *"** 



,216 • P R I M I T I \' E II I S T O R Y- (Book a. 

Incarnation ; or till 842 years' after the flood : it ended with the 
death of Dionyfius, when AmefSs became queen. Menes founded 
the Egyptian kingdom about 159 years after the flood, Confequent 
for the moft part to the I'heban Dynafty of five kings during 190 
years, the Hycfi remained in Egypt^5ii years: for they entered 
Egypt, but did not gain pofle/fion of Memphis, before the clofe of 
that Dynafty ; nor of This^ till the end of the firft Thinite Dynafty, 
when they occafioned an interregnum there. Confonant to this ac- 
count Nitocris, who a6led a diftinguiflied part in the Titanian war, 
appears in the Theban lift of fovereigns about 670 years after the 
commencement of that kingdom, which perhaps preceded the Mem- 
phite fome three or four years. Yet Africanus fets her later at 
Memphis; which fliews that the Heptanomis was not recovered 
during her fway at Thebes, from thfe Hycfi^ but was fo fliortly aftcif. 
Ayards. Tacitus mentions the migration of a great multitude (whom 
he prefentiy terms an Aflyrian concourfe) out of Egypt towards 
Hift. 5. Sj. Syria, in the reign of Ifis, a name aflumed not only by the wife of 
Dionyfius, but by her mother Demeter or Rhea, Ammon*s confort. 
But Tacitus (like others) confounds the Hycfi with the Ifraelites, 
who, as Manetho proves, were long fubfequent to the Hycfi. The 
Jews indeed were the Ethiopians (or Chaldeans) faid by Tacitus tp 
be emigrants (that is,' to Egypt) in the reign of Cepheus, Jacokfl. 
contemporary. Polemo in Africanus faid that Herodotus wrote ol. 
a body of men, who retired out of Egypt in the time of Amofis : *• 
migration of this fort Herodotus (7. 89) mentions. Polemo's o^rO^ 
account is this; ** In the reign of Apis fon oJF Phoroneus part of ^^ 
Egyptian force relinquiflied Egypt, and fettled in Syria." The"^ 
feem to be the fugitives from the Red Sea, mentioned by Stephan"^-^ 
to have founded Azotus. They were the Hycfi. The long x€\^ 
of Apappus may have reached from the time of this Apis to the er^ 
of the Titanian war, about the time of Lycaon and Cecrops. Eith^^ 
Ammon, or Uranus his fire, was the gallant of Niobe daught^^ 
of Phoroneus : thus Ammon was contemporary with the Argiv 



Men and Mar, both fignify emanations cither of light or water. 
Amenophis the predeccflbr of Orus is the Myris prior to Sefoftris : 
Uio' Herodotus, who deems him goo years before his own time, 
confounds him with Maeris who was Maro or Maindes the founder 
of the Labyrinth, and Amenophis the laflking of the i8th Dynafty. 
Jacob's defcent was in the tenth year of Phero's reign, who was 
Miamun, or the fecond Sefoftris fon and fucceflbr of the firft. 
During his reign the Sothiac cycle was introduced, 1322 years be- 
fore the Incarnation. Miamun was the younger Sefoftris, who 
formed the realm into diftinft jurifdiftions; for Mofes writes that 
Jofeph formed the whole nation into diftinft corporations. Tho* he • • 7* 
had lived 13 years in Egypt under the Great Sefoftris ; whofe fuc-. 
ceffes brought fuch an influx of wealth into Egypt, that new regu- 
laiions became ncccftary ; yet Jofeph had not diftinguiftied himfelf 
Vfljuft at the death of this hero. . Jofeph alfo lived in the reign of 
M«m, the Maro and Mendes of Diodorus, Strabo's Maindes and 
McDWOn, mentioned juft now ; for the great canal, from the Nile 
^orfcis king's famous lake, is named Jofeph's Canal to this day. 

On the whole, if the kings of the Hycfi were wholy prior to the 

i8lh Dynafty, yVbraham's birth was about 695 years after the fjood: 

Ki removal to Canaan, 770 years after the flood ; the Exod twelve 

centuries aPt r the flood. Yet, if the firft part of the 18th Dynafty 

Coincided with the latter part of the Paftoral Dynafty, Troy's fall 

DUiy have preceded the death of Ramifes only eight years; and his 

^cath preceded the Exod almoft fourteen years: and Abraham's 

"*nh, and the Exr)d may be fifteen years refpedively nearer to 

N^Oah's flood. This appears to me to be the beft eftimate of all. 

The determination of the era of the Titanian war, and of the ex- 
P^^fion of tiie Hycfi ; and of the interval between thefe events and 
Abraham's arrival in Canaan depends on a true arrangement of the 
18th Dynafty; which according to the old chronicle contained 14 
^^^gns : Jofeuhus enumerates 18 ; and from the fum of their reigns, 
•^y him r{^ J^Hedly mentioned, the firft king muft have reigned 60 
years. But Syncellus accufes Jofephus of naming fome of the - 

E f kings 


fi8 PRI MIT I VE HIST OR Y. (Book*. 

kings twice; yet allows the period of that Dynafty to be, according 
to Manetho, whom both pretend to follow, 391 years; only two lels 
than in Jofephus ; who therefore appears to name fome kings twice ' 
owing to interruptions in their reigns. The period of that Dynafty 
is allowed by Syncelius to be nearly right : but the old chronicle 
probably afcertains the true number of kings. Among the fuper- 
^ numerary perfons named by Jofephus the firft and fecond kings are 
his feventh and eighth alfo. The firft may have been long inter- 
rupted in his reign by the Hycfi ; and" the fecond by Titans in alli- 
ance with them. Thefe contentions fubfided, when Chebron or 
Dionyfius aflifted his father : but the Titanian war, faid to be 322 
year& before the Trojan, ended when Typhon flew Dionyfius, 1506 
years before the Incarnation. During the interval between the two 
parts of his father's reign in Egypt the Amenophis fet next to Or» 
by Jofephus feems to have been regent ; and the two reigns next be- 
fore his, ftiould ftand, along with his, before the fecond reign in 
that Dynafty ; which is the reftored reign of his predeceffbr: for 
thefe three diflocated reigns let Orus and his father Chebron too far 
afunder : and as each Amenophis feem to have been only regents^ 
one in Ammon*s diftrefs, the other in the abfence of Dionyfius^ 
Orus is only the fixth real king ; not the tenth, as in Jofephii* 
1. Mephramuth reigned 60 years during contefts with the Paftoiu 
and then, inftead of being the 7th king, he reigned, after the rcU 
triftion of the Hycfi, 26 years longer.— 2- His fon Amofis during 
their reftriaion, reigned near 10 years, when his rival Saturn, wha 
had alfo oppofed his father, compelled Ammon to remove to Lybia 
and Crete, fome 30 years, whilft Amenophis held Egypt : Saturn 
was the Paftoral Apophis ; Melcart was Arcles ; and Typhon, Aflis.^- 
Afeth or Seth. Dionyfius afterwards reftored Ammon, when hc^ 
reigned 25 years more. 3. Dionyfius or Chebron fucceeded himi^ 
during 13 years; when he appointed a fecond Amenophis (Bclusthe 
father of Sefoftris) regent during 20 years ; taking with him old 
Maro, the firft Amenophis, to Thrace. Typhon flew Dionyfius at 
his return. 4. His queen Ameflis (ucceeded to the throne: but 
when her fon Orus flew Typhon he was difabled fror eigning, till 
























his expiation by Crotopus of Argos. 5. Mephres held the fceptre, 
till Orus became qualified; in the interim he and his mother vifited 
Europe and Afia. Note that if Amenophis.was a real king, Mephres 
may be deemed only a regent. 

1. Mephramuth reigned at firft, ^ . -j 
after reflrifting the Hycfi, j 

2. Amofis or Ammon reigned before the ex- 7 

pulflon of the Hycfi, - _ C 

3. Amenophis, regent in Ammon's exile, 

Amofis reftored by Dionyfius, 

4. Chebron or Dionyfius, 

appoints the fecond Amenophis regent, 7 
during his decennial war with the Giants, 3 

5. Ameffis his qu^en fucceeded Dionyfiui, 1 

whom at his return Typhon flew, - J 

Mephres was regent during the difquali- ^ 

fication of Orus, on his flaying Typhon, J 

<f. Orus, after his expiation by Crotopus of } 

Argos, - - - - 3 36 : 5 

The reft follow in due order in Jofephus, as I ftiall fliew. 

The expulfipn of the Hycfi was a confequence of the Titanian 

^T; and fubfc<Juent to Abraham's arrival in Canaan. His vifit to 

JEgypt was under Amenophis, before their expulfion, and during 

,;Ammon's retreat to Crete, in the time of the great famine. A for- 

conate inundation of the Nile may have exempted the region about 

fIcUopolis from it. The latter part of the Titanian war was the Gi- 

jr3.i)tic; it lafted 10 years, and ended 1506 years before the Incar- 

n3.tion, or 322 before the fall of Troy. This date agrees with the 

tixne of Nitocris in the Theban and Memphite lifts of fovereigns. 

^cufilaus and Philochorus counted 1020 years from Jnachus to 

^^ Olympiads. Caftor counted 384 years from Jnachus to Sthenelus 

^W fon of Crotopus, who expiated Orus Apollo. This Sthenelus 

therefore lived till the 636th year before the Olympiads, or 1412 

before the Incarnation. Danaus the brother of Egyptus or Sefoftris, 

^feom Ariftotle deems prior to Minos, came to Argos in the time of 

F f 2 Gelanor 


Gelanor fon of this Sthenelus: therefore Jofeph came to Egypt in 
the generation fubfequent to that which lived A. C. 1412. If the 
total period of the Paftoral kings was prior to the commencement of 
the 18th Dynafty, his arrival there was about A. C. 1385; the Exod 
37 years after the Iliac war; Solomon's death 231 years after the 
Exod and 916 before the Chriftian era. But I think the firft years 
of that Dynafty coincided with the laft of the Hycfi; and Jofeph*s 
captivity was 1400 years before the Incarnation, and the Exod 22 
years after the fall of Troy, which Ramifes certainly furvived 8 
years; the Exod was 14 years after his death, and according to this 
laft account 246 years before Solomon's. David began his reign 
390 years before the 70 years of captivity, which ended with the 
capture of Babylon; thence 80 years elapfed to the 7th year of 
Artaxerxes, which was 144 years after the eclipfe predifted by 
Thales, and calculated by 'Hipparchus to have been 601 years before 
the Incarnation. Booz may have been the father of Obed65years 
after the Exod; if we compare Joftiua 14. 7-*io, with Ruth 1. 4. 
Jeffe may have been born 21 years afterwards; and at 50 years of 
age, as he was old at GoHah's death, have become the father of 
David who died at the age of 70. Solomon furvived him 40 years. 

The ages of Abraham's Poftdiluvian anceftors are, according to 

the Septuagint, as follow. « 

Shem, - - . .- 600, 

Arphaxad* - - . - 538, or 565, 

(Caiaan - • * - - 460,) 

Salah, -- - - - 433>or 4^0, 

Eber, . - . ^ - 404, 504, or 564, 

Pbaleg, . . - . 339, 

Reu, 339* 

Serug, - ... 330, 

Nahor, - - - 208, 

Tcrah, • - - * - 205. 



The Jcwifh chronologers ever aimed to magnify the antiquity of 
their nation, by fetting the Exod, inftead of the expulfiojn of the 
Hycfi, (which was above three centuries earlier according to 
Jklanctho's account tranfmitted to us by Jofephus himfelf) in the time 
of Amofis and of Phoroneus Niobe's father: tho' Amofis and his 
rival Saturn, who were both longeval, lived till the time of Lycaon> 
Deucalion, Cecrops, and Crotopus; that is their lives were about 
the lengths of Abraham's or Ifaac's, or from 160 to 180 years; 
Saturn's fon Picas lived 120 years, jgis did Mofes^ which was ten 
years iooger thaQ Jofeph. Chiron, the Iba of S^uaru whofe longe- 
vity rendered him (the emblem of time, was (b long lived, that he is 
faid to have exchanged immortality with Pi»n^tlieusj which only 
means in reallity. that one long lived man was bora juil |U the death 
of another. 

That the Exod was a little after the Trojan war we may conclude 
from Slrabo, who writes that foon after that war Phenicians founded 
towns on the Atlantic coaft of Lybia; and Procopius quotes this. 
Phenician infcription, extant in his time in the region of Tangier; 

We fly from joOiua, &c. 

Here by the way we may believe -durt, as the Phenicians were ac- 
quainted with the Britannic Ifles, and probably gave them the name 
of Baratanac, fignifying Tinlaad^ they retired in great numbers to 
Britain ; for Sammes teaches us that many Britifh words are allied 
to the Phenician tongue: as Dun, a hill; whence downs: Ceren, 
Cornu.] Pen, Pinna, a fummit.' Careg, Carac, a rock: Caer, Car^ 
a fort ; Cum, Cum, low ; Get, Gwith, a (eparation ; Gwith, Get, 
a breach ; Katurfa, Katerva. Meath, Mawath, a plain or mead. 
Ara, Ahar, flow : Garaw, Garaf, fwift : Bro, Bare, Regio ; hence 
Allo-broges, Aha Regio. Taran, Tarem, thunder : Hefus, Haziz, 
fortis; Jamblichus in Julian fays he was Mars; as Monimus was 
Hermes ; Hefus and Taramis had human oblations. The Caenaej 
nine Gallic priefteffes, were named from Cohen a pried: as the Magi 

ifom Hogf^ Golva akin to the Britifli Galvus is from Cheleb, fat. 




(Book a. 


Rhcda a chariot is Phenician. Efledum a Britifli waggon is from 
HafTedan. Breeches is from Brachyn Knees. Bard from Parat 
(hence Parrot) to chaunt : their Nablia or Dodecachords, from Na- 
bal ; the Cinyra was a Decachord. Dwr, Udwr, water. Rhyd, 
Vadum, is the Phenician Rid. Magon, Manfio. From Keven, a 
ridge, Les Cevennes. Laith is the Phenician Laiith, humidity ; 
Dale, Daula. Gamulus, Camol, a prince. Sorb in Phenician is 
Aridity ; hence abforb. Uchel, high, Uhel. Aber is a conflux of 
waters in Wellh and Phenician. Cetra, a Britifh fhield is Cetera, 
the Moorilh Citura. Rich, ftrong, Ric. Apollo's Augurs Paterae 
from Patar to interpret. The Samolus cut with the left hand is from. 
Samol, Siniftra. The Parti.coloured Bardiacus is the Phenician 
Bardes, the Ai^b Borda. The Javelin Matara fignifie^ to dart: from 
the Median Dart Palta comes Pelt. Spade is Spatha ; Camon a 
trumpet^ Camo in ^yriac. 



B O O K 11. CHAP. IlL 


Of Ham's IJiie^/rom whom the Titans^ who ruled the Regions furrounJU 
ing the Mediterranean Sea. Of Nimrod^ and the Jirjl Kings of 
Babylon. Of Minus, Semiramis^ and Myrina. The Duration of the 
Affyrian Empire. Various chronological Matters as to Egypt and 
AJfyria. The Chronology of the Book of Judges proved erroneous: 
The Afyrians polcnt early. Semiramis was Ifis; but her Mother 
jwutimes had that Name, they being often confounded together. A 
TaHtofihe direS Defcendants of Noah's Three Sons. 

T JAM is the eldeft Cronus or Saturn of Eupolemus, and youngeft 
^ ^ fon of Noah ; who being the primitive Oceaniis fire of the 
Gods ; is the Pluto figured with Neptune's trident -, hence Plato 
and TuUy deem Saturn the fon of Ocean; for Ham is the Saturn } 

counted by Diodorus the youngeft of the (Antediluvian) Gods: his 
laws Charondas introduced at Carthage ; and he is the Vulcan, fon 
of Nilus or Oceanus (in Laertius) whofe laws Cecrops introduced at 
Athens; being the eldeft God of Egypt, the primitive Ammon and 
Chamos. Ham derives his name from the Hebrew Ama, Sol : fo 
Chavah is Eve ; Hamor, Emmor. Ham is Plutarch's Caimis, who 
was the primitive Or, or Sol ; a title like others affeQed afterwards 
by the Titans. Ham is Marnas, and Jove Martius, and Tarantaeus, 
or Thor. But Shaw interprets Ham, Carnage ; which agrees with 
^res, from Ar, flaughter in Hiberno-Celtic. Ham's fons were 
Cufti, Mifraim, Phut, Canaan. From Canaan fprung Sidon, Heth, 
the Jebufite, Amorile (which three laft branches dwelt in the Judean 
mountains) the Girgafiiite, Hivite, Arkiie, Sinite, Arvadite, Ze-^ 

roarite ^ 



marite and Hemathitc. — Mifraim's iCTue were the Ludim, Anamira, 
l.ebabhn (fuppofed Lybians) Napthaim, whence Neptune's name^ 
P'atlirufim, Caphtorini, Cafluhim from whom the Philiftim. The 
two lad tribes fettled promifcuoufly ; for Amos fays, ^' The Philif^ 
tines carne froiti Caphtor;" which feem^ to be on the weftern fide 
of the Upper part of the Arabian Gulf, Pliny's Tyra, about Colzoum; 
when the prefent Ipace between the Mediterranean fea and that 
Gulf, in the line between Tanis and Arfinoe, was covered with 
water. That Mifor or Mazor is the true name of the father of the 
Mifrtiim or M^ftteans Sanchoniatho ffliews. Bochart (hews that Egypt 
•' was calkd Mifor and Mafor (as Weli as the land of Mifraim) in 

facried wHt. Jofephus fays^ they all called Egypt, Mezre. Bochart 
1.7. fays, ** the Arabs now call Alcairo, Mefer ; the prime Egyptian 
Momh is Mefort.*' He interprets the name to fignify a fort, aillb 
ftfei^ts ; both applicable to the nature of Egypt: but Sanchoniatho 
lays, '« Mifor is liberal i'* being from the Syriac Meforo. Mifor or 
Menes had feveral cities dedicated to him, as Mendes in the Delta; 
\lena& in Sicily, having a facred well of that name near it; Manaira 
in Judea-j Mendae in Thrace; Mendes the Egyptian Pan, the oldefl 
God of Arcadia, being Menes or Mifor. 

Cufh, Pliny's Ethiops fon of Vulcan, was the father of Sebi» 
Havila, Sabta^ Raama, Sabtecha and Nimrod. Raama's fons were 
Sheba and Dedan. Cufh was furnamed Afbolus, as being the pro^ 
genitor of the Negroes, whofe fable complexion arifes from a metti^ 
brane under the ikin, which contains a black humor in Negroes: 
yet Chuz fignifies a nation ; and Choumi, a people ; fee Richard* 


Nimrod is the Bacchus faid by Arrian to be 15 generations older 

than Hercules. Nimrod add his kinfman Sidon refemble Sancho^ 

niatho's Agreus and Haleus. Nimrod or Nebrod was the origirial 

Bacchus or Evochusone of the firft Chaldean kings after the Deluge. 

Nebrod being a famous hunter, as Homer's OdyfTey L. 571 defcribes 

Orion to be ; ^ he had the name of Nebrod : hence the Pafchal 


Jofii. 21 

, Chap 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 2*5 

chronicle fuppofes him. to be Niinrod, ; His name Nebrod arofe from 
his Fawhflcin Tunic, which Diodorus Siculus terms Nebris ; hence 
Seneca's , 

Nebridc facra precinfta. 

See Pezron. 

Hence alfo Diodorus calls Bacchus, Faunas. Hence Mercury 
in the Alexandrian chrvjnicle is called Faunus: Mifor or Ofiris be- 
ing Mercury, and likewife Bacchus; thus the Anthologia afcribesthe 
invention of wine to Mercury; namely that Mercury, who was 
Mifor : but his (ire and grandfire were acquainted with the juice of 
the grape as well as he. yVnother Faunus was the Italian ; who (as 
Plutarch (ays) was flain by Hercules; and was the fon of Mercury ; 
for Mercury being an Ofiris, as above, and this being an appellation 
ot Ammon's fon Dionyfiusor Jove of Nyfa, he became confounded 
V\lVi Saturn's fon; for this Faunus was really the fon of that Jove, 
who, as Pliny writes, was named Picus: for the Titans ruled all the 
regions furrounding the Mediterranean Sea : thus Suidas fays that 
Fjcus gave the Weft to Hermes ; who fled to Egypt from his bro- 
thers. Silius Italicus fays. 

Bacchus domitabat Iberos. l. 3. 

Diodorus Siculus fays an infcription of Ofiris recorded that he 
penetrated into India, and the Artie regions, and to the Springs of g^j^^^ 
the Danube. Lucian informs us that Bacchus fubducd the Tyrhe- 

From Bacchus, which fignifies fon of Chus, came the Irifh Bach, 
ebriety. Bacchus was called Nana; which Tzetzes (on Lycophron) 
interprets TTa^vvitvj;;: hence Ulyffes is therecalled Nana. Hellanicus 
(in Dionyfius of HalicarnafTus) mentions Nana, king of Pelafgi, ex- 
pelled by the Hcllens, and fettling at Crotona. Arnobius has a 
Nana, the daughter of fome Sangarius, and mother of Attis : Ban- 
nier fays Nana or Nannea was Anaitis or Diana; but flie was Venus 
Urania or Aftarte: yet was confounded with her daughter; who is 

'G g Nicaea 


Nicaea Sangar's daughter in Photius. The explanation of Nana by 
Tzetzcs fhews it to be fynonymous with Aleta, Titan^ Rhodian, 
N Spartan, Pelafgus, Itinerant, Similar to which are the Nani in the 
Edda : and^ as Amnion's image was carried about in a boat, fo the 
Nani made a (hip for their Qods, whom they called Afes: As, in 
Gothic fignifying divine; the title given them by the Pelafgi; whence 
Afia, or Afaia, fignifies the land of the Gods. Gruter has a calendar, 
in which notice is taken of the (hips of Hercules, Ammon, and Ifis, 
She invented failing (hips : and fecms to be the On Nana, a figure 
of whofe head was found at Clermont. Yet the firft Ifis wat 
Ham's confort. That Picus above was Saturn's (on, Virgil (bevs, 
who fays, 

•Picufq; Parentem 

Te, Satume, rcfert. 

The Juno confort of Picus was Circe. Thus Circe in Valerius 
Flaccus declares concerning herfelf, 

Aufonii Conjux Ego Regia Pici. 

37. So Nonnus deems Faunus, Circe's Son. Arnobius fays, the Boni 
Deawas Fatua the wife of Faunus; but (he was the wife of that Egyp- 
tian Faunus who wasAmmon's fon Diony(ius. The barbarous Latio 
chronicle commended by Scaliger fays that Picus was Ninus. Ei>* 
Clem. Alex, febius fays that " Belus his (ire was Saturn:" who reigned in Italy^ 
and there acquired the name of Sterces, from manuring land; hence 
Gale interprets his Syrian denomination, Bel-zeboul, Lord of Dung. 
He is the Phaethon who aflPeQed his father's throne ; his retreat, is 
his fall into the Po. Philochorus wrote that he died in Sicily. Suidas 
fays the empire of Jove Picus extended from Spain to the Euphrates. 
Diony(iu8 of Halicarna(rus fays, that Atlas was the firft king of 
Arcadia : Apollodorus places him among the Hyperboreans. He is 
in the lift of the firft navigators ; and had concerns in Lybia a3 welf 


Clem. Alex. 


as Scythia. The river Mofel had iu name from Neptune, who as 
Bochart (from TzetzesJ affirms was named Mos El, God of the 
\vater. This Neptune was Meon Cybele's hufband, that is the Titan 
Saturn. Lucan fays, 

Venit ad Occafum Mundiq; Extrema Sefoftris. 

Dicearchus fays that Sefoftris affefted to live a Grecian. Diodorus 
Siculus fays, Uranus not only ruled the Atlantidac, but the major Apolbn 4. 
part of the Univerfe, efpecially towards the weft and north. Alfo *73' 
that Saturn reigned over Lybia, Sicily, Italy and the weftern regions. 
Hecateus (in Diodorus) and TuHy fhew that Apollo frequented the Nat. Dcor. 
Hyperboreans. The Cyclops of Sicily, (whofe name according to 
Bochart is Punic, from Chek Lub, Sinus ad Lybiam ; but Pliny 3.S. 
and Mela fet them near Etna) were Celta? ; but were blended with ** ^' 
tiveOpici or attendants of Ops •, KuxA, goggle, comes from the Cel- 
tic Gi9g, Gog, fury: tho' fome may derive Cyclops from Kuck, 
kuckl, (as Gibl from Gib) heaven; for they may have been aftro.. 
nomers like the Druids, and ufing Telefcopes been thence deemed 
Monoculi ; as were the Arimafpians : yet they feem to have been fo 
named from (hutting the left eye in taking aim: for Herodotus fays 
Aal Spou is eye ; and the Scythians were Arimi, or Arameans : 
Tacitus deems the Fenni or Finns, great archers. Pindar's fcholiaft 
(hews (from Phrenicus) that the Titans were from the north: Gallic 
machus fuppofed the Celts defcendents of the Titans. This arofe 
from the Titans being defcendents of Acmon, the grandfon of Tui- 
tho or Teutat, the Gallic Mercury, Thoth*s fon and Mifor's grands 
Ion: who takinfr the advantage of the Mediterranean, vifited Spain, 
Gaul, and Germany, when only inhabited by rude forrefters, to 
whom his ai:complHhments appeared divine.— Hence Latona (in I- 2 
Diodorus) is a Hyperborean. — Paufanias fays that Lucina (who was 
older than Saturn) came from the North to Latona's aid ; and that 
Achaia came to Delos from the Hyperboreans ; Suidas fays Achaia 
was Ceres. — In fme, the Titans fprung originally from Ham, but 
affeaed Europe. Hence the Pelafgi found that the names of their ^^""^^^ *' 

G g 2 primitive 

228 PRIMltiVE HISTORY. (Bookt. 

primitive Gods came from Egypt. Thefc Pelafgi had come to Athens 
from Samothrace, anciently called Leucania ; where they inftituted 
the rites of the Cabiri, tho* ignorant of their names. Thus, (the* 
the Titan dominions were fo extenfive that they obtained that name, 
akin to Bar-tane, from the Celtic TyT(inu» the overfpreading houfc; 
from which name their metropolis in the Lower Egypt was called 
Tanis, Tan, Tzan, Tzoan, Thon, Thonis, a name expreffive of 
^ adventurers) yet Homer derives all the Gods from Ethiopia ; or the 
territories ofChus: hence Babylonian Neftar isthe wine oftheGods, 
His primitive Oceanus, the progenitor of the Pagan Gods, was 
Noah. Some interpret ^Inachus to be Anak-Chus: I derive it 
from Anak fimply; for the Cufhites were Negroes; the Pelafgi, not: 
yet Ahak or Inak (ignifies the fame as Phenician, P' being a prepo- 
fitive; thus Aufonius has Ph'anax : and Chadre Anak the name of 
Carthage is the feat of the Anakfm from Phenicia ; Anak primi- 
tively came from Anach, fury, in Hiberno-Celtic. However that 
be, the Pelafgi had knowledge of the Egyptian theology ; of courfe 
an ancient conneftion muft have fubfifted between them and the 
Egyptians. But it was the worfhip of the ancient Cabiri that thefe 
Pelafgi were acquainted with ; not Neptune's, Juno's or Vefta's; but 
Mifor's, or the firft Mercury's whom they figured, as in Egypt 
immodeftly ; to exprefs the prolific powers of his race ; on whick 
account his emblem was a goat, the prize of the Dithyrambic chortti 
» thence called Tragedians. Yet it fhews that Mi for, Ofiris, or Bac- 
I^e^^ -, -^ chus was confounded with Ammon's fon Dionyfius, whom the fabu- 
lifts feign to have been transformed to a goat ; a ftory applied by 
Ovid to Semele's fon, tho' long fubfequent to the Titanian war. 
As to the Pelafgi, whofe name is derived from Pelas, afar, and 
Gaia, region, Dionyfius Hal. afferts that they inhabited Argos fix 
generations before they colonized Hemonia or Theffaly; which they 
occupied for fix other generations before their expulfion by Deu-: 
calion, with the Leleges and Curetes. Confonant to this account 
Paufanias deems Car the fon of Phoroneus tz generations, that is 
four centuries, before Lelex (the fon of Lybia and Neptune) came 
from Egypt. Thus, as Eufcbius hints, there is reafon to fuppofe a 



Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 929 

Phoroneus exifted In Greece prior to Niobe's fire. Some Pe^afgi 
attained Arcady (more anciently called P-elafgia) prior to the advent 
of the Cecropian Minerva, who was Venus Urania; whence they 
were (tiled Profilenians, that is, before thofe Sileii or Siatyrs who 
adored her. Afius an old poet, by faying Pelafgus was produced 
by the earth on the Arcadian hills, only meant that he was a native : 
To the river is meant, when Inachus his fire is faid to fpring from 
Ocean and Tethys. — The Lydian colony that came to Italy were a 
branch of the Titans, as well as the Oenotrians : but the Tyrrheni 
both there and in Greece were ancient natives, named from Tyr 
Hen, that is old people of the land, who were Celtae. Xanthus 
Lydius fays the brother of Lydus was Torybus not 1 yrrhenus. 
Rafen the Tyrrhenian chief (in Dionyfius Hal:) derives his name 
from Rhys Hen; which proves him to be an Autochthon. The Ly- 
dian colony Teem to have been the real Opici led by Ops and Saturn, 
MarCyas and Tarchon or Chon of Tyre. Diodorus Siculus (in Eu- 
febius) fays that Saturn was a king of Lydia and Italy : Solinus iays 
that JWarfyas came to Italy. The Opici communicated their name 
to fbme of the natives. The name ^of Hercules, their comrade, is 
(aid to be Chon ; hence Chonia in Italy, and Chone a town of the 
QBnotrians, in Stephanus. Suidas fays the Chaones were called 
(%ones. All this evinces that Ham's family occupied a great part 
of Europe. ^ 

Nimrod grew potent, and for hunting became a proverb : hence 

this original Bacchus was furnamed Zagreus. Yet Nonnus and 

Tzetzes erroneoufly deem Zagreus " the fon of Jove and Profer- 

pine**- the elder, who was Rhea Ammon's confort. ' Hence, tho* 

this laft Bacchus, who was Dionyfius, is deemed the fon of Jove 

5^"d Proferpine by Tully and Orpheus, yet Orpheus elfewhere ftiles , 

h^ni fon of Saturn, as he alfo gallanted Rhea ; who however was 

^^'^^y the reputed mother of Dionyfius. Tully makes two of one 

Bacchus ; for his fecond is the fon of Nile, or Occanus, that is of 

Wton or Saturn, Cybele's or Rhea's fpoufe. Every Meon and 

Amenophis was a Nilus or Oceanus, which Meon in Celtic fignifies. 


zChron. 7.8 


23Q P RI M IT I VE H 1ST OR ¥• (Book tv 

' Jablonfki derives the name from Ame Nouphi, teller of good newfi 

but how Ihall we obtain Memphis from this fource? A is only an 

uncertain prepofitive, as Seth, Afeth -, Thoth, Athoth ; Cenchris^ 

Achenchris; Cheres, Acheres ; Menes, Men, Araanus, that is Sol; 

fee Leviticus a6, 30; and Gale's Court of the Gentiles 2* 8; fo wc 

fay round, around ; rife, arife. As Nilus is derived from Nahal^ a 

torrent; fo every Ofiris has an affinity to Sihor ; and Uchoreus or 

Chorjeus to Ghor : as has Achores the God of flies at Gyrene, that' 

1 Chron. 13. j^ Bgi^ebub ; who was Meon or Saturn : yet Achor is Dolor, and 
« *5" 

refpefts Moloch, in Geltic Moleftus. 

Nimrod was Lord of Babel, and of Ercch, which feems to be 
Pliny 10. 21, 
Dia. Car: Ptolemy's Orchoe, or Arecca ; but Herodotus has an Anderica io 

S'^pli* Sufiana, and an Anderica in Babylonia : Nimrod was alfo Lordjif 

Accadj called in the Septuagint Archad, probably Argadof Sittacenc; 
and Lord of Galneth in Shinar, Ifaiah's Chalne or Galane. The 
Greeks call the country about Ctefiphon^ Chalonitis : thence Hor^ 
nius derives the philofophers, Galani. — Bryant fuppofes Erech to be 
Bars-ippa ; as the Arab interpreter calls Erech, Al-baris ; and 
Strabo fays that Barfippa was famous for Linens: but Nonnus calli 
the Erech near the Tigris Arachne on this account. Nimrod ex* 
pelled Afhur and built Nineve, (he being the primitive Ninus) wHbr 
a branch of the Euphrates reaches to the Tigris ; alfo Rehoboth, 
fuppofed to be Ptolemy's Birrlia ; tho' that refembles Balak's Hu- 
zoth : he likewife built Calah, probably the capital of the country 
called by Strabo Calachene: alfo, between Galah and Nineve, he 
founded the great town of Refen, fuppofed Zenophon's Larifla. 
The Berofus of Annius fays, Nemroth Saturn, the fire of Jove Belus, 
founded the Babylonian kingdom 131 years after the Flood. But 
Alexander Polyhiftor from Berofus affirms that the firft Dynafty of 

InS n kings at Babylon began 163 years after the Deluge: forSyncellus 
fays it was 2405 after the Creation ; between which and Noah's 
flood he computes 2242 years. Annius forged ahiftory of Berofus in 
five books; for Tatian fays that Berofus only wrote three. Polyhiftor 
who flourifhed about a century before the Chriftian era, deems Evo- 


Cha^ 30 P R IM I T I V E H i S T O R Y, ,3, 

chus the fame perfon as Choum-afbolus, counted by him the fecond 
of this Dynafty, who were in all feven Chaldeans, and reigned 190 
years. Polyhiftor probably had at the head of the lift the fecond 
Belus of Eupolemus ; who, being the brother of Mifraim, Cnaan, 
and Choum-aibolus or Chus, muft be Phut; with probability deemed 
the primitive Apollo, called Pythius; he difcovered the qualities of 
nightfhade to Ifmunus the eighth Cabir of Egypt, and either Mifor's 
fon or Nephew. Evochus, who certainly was the original Bacchus^ 
or Nirarod, was probably only a lieutenant under Belus his uncle; 
and feems to have died before his father Choum-afbolus. Nimrod's 
chief fway feems to have been at Nineve ; for Dicearchus (in .Step- 
hanus) mentions the founder of Nineve to be Nitius; but that Ninus 
v^as Nimrod. 

Africanus counted the continuance of the firft Dynafty 924 years 
v:\dahalf: and he, Ccdrenus and Syncellus^ deem Evochus to be 
Nimrod ; and fet him at the head of the lift^ 

Evochus, - 

6 ■ 

Choumafbolus, - - 





43 > Totals 824 4 





Zinzirus, ... 


Africanus attributes a fhort reign to Evochua. He probably 
reined the major part of his time at Nineve, during the life of his 
imcle the firft Babylonian Belus, as Eupolemus fhews. Tho' Belus 
being a regal title, Mofes Chorenenfis ftiles Nebroth both Belus and Eufcb.Prep. 
Saturn. Artapanus fays, ** Belus alone, of the gigantic inhabitants 9* '9- 
of Babylonia by a divine judgment deftroyed for their impiety efcap- 
ing death, refided at Babylon, in a tower, which he had built and 
bore his name.*' Philo fays, Babylon was built by the fon of the Stcph. 
moft wife Belus. Eupolemus (who wrote 170 years before the In- ^ * 
carnation) fhews that this founder was Phut; who leaving no iffue, 



his dominions devolved to the collateral line of Chus. Therefore 
whatever names in Africa allude to Phut may relate to one of the 
Mifraim, who had that name in honour of his anceftor's brother : 
for Eupolemus fays plainly, " from the firft Belus or Cronus came 
^. ,V, ■ Belus, and Canaan fire of the Phenicians : his fon too was Choum, 
named by the Greeks Afbolus, fire of the Ethiopians, and brother of 
Meftraeim fire of the Egyptians." Afbolus implies Negro : Ovid 
gives this name to a black-tan ftag-hound of Afteon's pack. Tatian 
makes mention of Afbolus a Centaur. 

The next Dynafty confifted of fix Arabs ; thefe continued to 
reign 215 years, fays Eufebius. Syncellus counts the Dynaft) 









Nj^bonnabus, - - 

25 J 


Syncellus fays, Arabian kings are held to have reigned in BaV}- 
lonia prior to Ninus : that the Arabian Dynafty was (tho' quite im- 
probably) fuccededby4i Aflyrian kings ; the firft of whom was 
Belus; and the laft, as Polybius, Diodorus, Cephalion, Caftor, 
Thallus and others agree, was Sardanapalus. The chronological 
dates of the two firft Dynafties feem uncertain. Stephanus deems 
the founder of Babylon to be the fucceffor of the Arab Dynafty : he 
In Chaldeo. fays, " Dicearchus wrote that Babylon on the Euphrates was founded 
by Chaldeus (or a Chaldean) who was the 14th king from Ninus, 
who founded Nineve:" that is Nimrod, with whom the fpoufe and 
fon of Semiramis are. confounded. It muft be from this 14th king 
that Paterculus reckons the duration of the AfTyrian empire 107O 
years. Tho' there are who deem this founder to be Nebuchadnezzar; 
and in the fourteenth generation after the Titan Ninus. This opinion 



Anlmaf. 12. 


makes fad havock of the loii'^ Cterian lift of Affyrian kings in Syn^ 
cellus ; but accords with the foundation of the Affyrian empire ac- 
cording to Herodotus. It is impoffible there Jhould be 32 kin<ys 
between Ninus and the Trojan war; incredible, that there fliould 
be 22 ; as the Cecropian line at Athens confifts of but ii.defcents, 
and Semiramis was as late as Juno, Deucalion and Cecrops. So 
the line of Inachus contains 1 1 defcents to Agapenor, who was at 
the fiege of Troy. Alfo, Heftor is the feventh inclufively from 
Dardanus the brother-in-law of Cadmus, who went in queft of Eu- 
ropa contemporary with Jove and Juno. 

If the chronology of Africanus refpecling the two firR Babylonian 
Dynaiilies be true, thence to the Titan Belus of Babylon there 
appears, according to the arrangement of the kings m Syncellu-s^ a 
chafm in the Affyrian hiflory; authors mention fome princes whofe 
umes and order are unknown. Elian fays an eagle carried'Tilgamus 21 
(or 're\eganus, fee Bochart's Canaan, 2. n.) the grandfon of Bac- 
chorusy a king of Babylon, into a garden. Samirus ai Chaldean 
king, coeval with S^nig, invented filk-Weaving, dying, weights and 
jneafures : and fcems to be the Samiras of Ctefias in Pliny, who 
invented gallies. Apollo was the gallant of Leucothoc the daughter 
of Orchamus feventh king of Babylon from Belus. But I think the 
four intermediate reigns in Mofes Chorenenfis, between Belus and 
Ninus, really preceded Belus, and are arranged in an inverted order: 
injr reafon will appear prefently. This Belus is the Tyrian men- 
tioned by the ancient poet Dorotheus. 

'A^X^ivi BaSvXuv Tv^iov B^Xoio UoXtClJi^* Jul. Firmicu 

This is the Titan Belus, who (as Thallus wrote) was engaged in xheophil 
awar againfl Ammon, 32a years before the Trojan, when Attica was Ad Autolic. 
called Afte : but he wrongly added that the king there was Gug, or 
GyguS) that is Gyges or Ogyges : for Cedrenus quotes proof, and 
Syncell us. confirms it, that the Ogygian flood was 248 years before 
Beucaiion's : which Apollodorus fets in the time of Cranaus the 

234 P RI M IT I VE HIST OR Y. (Book t. 

• p r 1^- /ucceffor of Cecrops : and Africanus fays that " the Ogygian flood 
having depopulated Athens, no king reigned there during 189 years^ 
till the reign of Cecrops ;" from whofe father-in-law A£Us that 
country was denominated Afte. Paufanias counts Cecrops, Jove 

Arcad. Saturn, the Curetes and Lycaon, contemporary. Cato deems^ Ninus 

250 years after a great Deluge, .which feems to' be that of Ogyges 
by the irruption of the Euxine. . Otherwife this Ninus was Nimrod. 

Hefiod. That this Titanian war, whtch lafted at Teaft ten years, happened 

Thcog. 636. about 320 years before the Trojan, appears from the table of Theban 
kings by Eratofthenes. For Nitocris (according to Diodorus Siculus) 
aided Ammon, after he was worfted by Saturn: and Conftantine 
* ManafTes fhews that the Egyptian empire began 2188 years before 
the Chriftian era: and Eratofthenes fliews that Nitocris began her 
reign 670 years after the commencement of that empire, that is 334 
years before the fall of TrOy : Africanus, in his feries of Memphite 
princes, brings Nitocris about 20 years lower, in that part of Egypt. 
Nitocris ftands like a polar ftar in the lift of Eratofthenes to regulate 
the Dynafties ; as her fon Orus in the Dynafties, to fix the times of 
the Titans. Thus Epiphanius rightly fays, that Abraham and Ninus 
lived during the period of the 18th Dynafty ; and Conftantine Ma- 
naflfes as rightly obferves that Abraham lived alfo as early as tie 
Babylonian fielus ; for that patriarch lived 175 years. 

Diodorus Siculus (from Euhemerus) fays that " Jove was enter- 
Fragment in tained by Belus at Babylon ; when Caffius, whofe name Mount 

Eufcbio. rr^ 

Caflius bears, ruled Syria 5 and Cilix, Cilicia.'* Caffius ftands high 
in Sanchoniatho*s lift ; but Camus was a name of Jove himfelf; Ci- 
lix was fon of Agenor. Abydenus mentions the war between Saturn 
In Eufcbio. and Titan ; who is Ammon or Hyperion. — This Tyrian Belus is 
Sanchoniatho's Demaraon Zeus, the father of Melcart or the Ty- 
rian Hercules. Bannier fays, the Phenician Hercules was Agenor* 
Thefe names are epithets. Tully names an Egyptian Hercules the 
fon of a Nilps, that is of Oceanus or Neptune. This is the Nilus^ 
who as Ptolemy Hephacftion wrote was Hercules Egyptius ; and th^ 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 235 

Belus, who was Tally's " Indian HercViles/' the father of Agenor, 
Melcart or Chon. This Chon was the Etrurian' Tar-chon, or Chon 
of Tyre, the Egyptian Tarachon of Suidas, contemporary with Cc- 
crops. Atlas and the Sibyl ; he was Strabo's Tearcho, who vifited 
the weftcrn limits of Europe : from him part of Italy was named l. 15. 
Chonia: Strabo deems him a Chufhite. He is the O-tfor-chon of the 
Dynafties : tho' the Hercules of Germany, who was Al-mannus and 
Og-meon of Gaul, was prior to Chon ; and was Mannus the fon of 
Tuitho or Teutat, who ^ame from Africa to Spain and Gaul. A fon of 
Mannus was Deois or Dis, probably theCeltic Pluto,progenitorof the 
Gauls: tho' the Titan Japet was a Pluto; as was Noah's eldefl fon, and 
I think Noah himfelf was the Egyptian Serapis. Bochart, unwilling 
to be a defcendcrit of the Devil, as the lineage is fomewhat difhon- 
ourable, furmifes that Cefar wrote Diefpiter ; Cefar wrote Ditem 
Patrem ; yet the Gauls derive their volubility of tongue, didimula- 
lionand other mercurial talents, from that Mercury who was Tuitho 
or Teutat. But alas, Mercury was a Deus inferus, one of the in- 
fernals, likewife. Thus the Gallic tribe, when gathered to their . 
fathers, and entering into OJlia Ditis^ may with peculiar propriety 
fey with Adrian, / 

Thou little fleeting fprightly foul. 

The body's gueft, companion, friend. 
Thou pale cold naked little fool, '" ': 

Ah, whither whither wilt thou tend! 
No more gay wit and humour (hew. 
That copious lately us'd to flow! 

This digreflion is to be imputed to Bochart*s fuperlative delicacy: 
tho' I muH: own that the original Dis, Odin, Muth, Serapis^ was 
Noah, who faw the death of the old world. He feems alfo the Pluto 
(and Ham the Saturn) adored by the GEnotrians. Macrob. 

Belus or Zeus of Tyre was an uncle to Jove Picus, and was the 
Jove Thalaflius of Hefychius, or that marine prince who was father 

G g 2 of 


of Agenor and of the Egyptian Belus or Amcnophis, called (in 
Diodorus Siculus) Nilus the father of Danaus and Egyptus. From 
Belus Ovid counts Orchamus to be feventh in defcent; yet I incline 
to deem this Belus, Arbelus. Hyginus names among the Argonauts 
Therfanon the fon of Leucothoe, daughter of this Orchamus; this 
name may be compounded of Or Cham ; yet more probably it is 
derived from Orch^ chief, and Amous. Mofes Chorenenfis writes 
'moI^^ thatBelus, after many fuccefsful engagements with the gigantic princes 
of the adjacent regions, was (lain in a bloody battle with Haic^ the 
^ gigantic king of Armenia. But this account is inconfiftent with what 
he quotes from Abydenus and Maribas of Catina ; for he telU us, 
'* Haic's fon Armenacus was born after the death of Belus ;** bm 
Maribas, who wrote 130 years before the Incarnation, fays, **he was 
born before Haic's revolt and retreat to Armenia ;'• and Abydenui 
Ppcp.Evan, fays, ** Belus flew Armenacus." Abydenus (in Eufebius) informs 
us that Belus drained the country about Babylon of the water that 
overflowed it ; and furroundcd the city with a wall. He feems to 
be Elian's Belus Archacus. Curtius (5) fays, he built the city : but 
Hei^odotus decbres, ^* that metropolis rofe gradually under feveral 
kings." And I believe Ammian's Belus antiquiflimus, who built 
the tower, and (as Pliny writes) invented aftronomy, was Nimwrf 
or his colleague: for aftronomical obfervations had been preferveA 
there during 1903 years before the Macedonian conquefts. Arrian 
fays (3) he obtained divine honours, and Alexander defigned to re^* 
build his magnificent temple in the middle of the city; which Xerxes 
(7) had fubverted. Pliny wrote that this temple's remains were ex* 
tant in his time : Curtius, that his palace was, Abydenus (in Mofes 
Chorenenfis) names him four fucceflbrs ; and fays that Haic of Ar- 
menia's fon Armenacua wa&flaia by Belus; and that Haic's fucceflbrs 
were Armaeis, Amafia* Gelamius, Harma and Aram ; whofe band* 
fome fon Araeus was flain by Semiramis. Africanus fet the four 
fucceflbrs of Belus long aft^r Nivus^ but faid iheir reigns lafted %s 

6. 26« 



Chap. 3*) P R I M I 1 1 V E H I S t O R V. %sf 

Belus, 55, whofe fon Mithras Servius mentions; Nonnus: 
Babius^ 37, calls him Deiiades, from Deru in Celtic 
Anebis, 38. an oak, whence Drus, ahd Druid, and 
Chaealus, 45. Dryad, 
Arbelus, 42, 

N. B. Herbert deems Bel us to be Nimrod*s fon, and Baladan^ 
fire of Berodach. 

Cyril of Alexandria tells us Abydenus miftook Arbelus for the fa- Contra, 
ther of Ninus: which confirms my opinion that this lift ftands here Julian* 
in an inverted order ; that Arbelus fhould be firft ; Belus, laft. 
There is reafon to fufpeft the non-exiftence of four intermediate 
reigns between Belus and Ninus: for Eufcbius fays that Egialeus of 
Sicyon reigned, when liclus and Ninus did at Babylon; which im- 
pVics that there was no interval between the two laft: therefore it is 
probabk that the king, who flew Haic's fon, was Arbelus; miftaken Chron, 
(as Cyril aflerts) for Belus the predeceflbr of Ninus ; tho* not his 
father, but his uncle the Tyrian Belus of Dorotheus, and Agenor's 
father. Yet Eufebius, fuppofing Egialeus the firft Sicyonian king to 
be Niche's uncle, as is ufually done, miftakes in faying the Belus, 
iv\i6 vas Lybia's fon, was his contemporary : for as Eufebius himfelf 
aflettfj Danaus the fon of this Belus was contemporary with the * 
Jl/Uenth king of Sicyon. Therefore the Belus coeval with Egialeus 
was the Babylonian Belus of Eupolemus Canaan's brother, and his 
facceflbr Ninus was Nimrod. And he was a more ancient Phoro- 
neus than Niobe's fire, who was the brother of Egialeus, and to 
whom Trifmegiftus allotted Greece ; not the fon of Inachus, who 
was coeval with ih(^ Jeventh king of Sicyon. Probably of this eldeft 
Phoroneus Pliny fpeaks, when he fays that fifteen years before his 
time Menon (or Menes the eldeft Egyptian Mercury, from whom 
his {on Thoth was called Hermogenes) invented letters. Ham him- 
felf feems to have been a Phoroneus, as he was a Prometheus. 

Ifis fled from Typhon to Babylon with Menon, or Amenophis the 
Xgyptian Belus, and there efpoufed Ninus: tho* her former hufl)and 




Dionyfius altered the fate of the Titanian war, begun in the time of 
that Babylonian Bclus who was the Tyrian; therefore, tho* Nonnus 
implies that Dionyfius was really not young, when he paid his ad- 
drefTes to Beroe (42) who, as being a legiflatrix, feems to be Ceres the 
daughter of Venus Urania, Aftarte or Rhea, that is the noted Ifisor 
Semiramis; for Nonnus fhews that fhe was taken for Diana, as Ifis 
was; and that fhe 'and Bacchus paid attention to agriculture; and 
that (he was the daughter of Venus Urania; notwithftanding this, the 
utmoft we can fuppofe is that Bacchus, being bom about the time 
that Belus died, may have married Ifis 60 years afterwards, when 
(he was 12 years old; and fhe, 32 years afterwards, may have mar- 
ried Ninus. Saturn's fon jove Picus is faid by Diodorus to have 
been born when Dionyfius routed Saturn; and Scaliger's barbaroor 
Chronologer with probability fays that Picus was this Ninus. Thk 
the four intermediate kings between Belus and Ninus (if really fo) 
could not on an average have reigned longer than 23 years each. 
But Diodorus fays, tho' improbably, as I gather from Nonnus,' that 
Tritonia, (Nitocri^ or the younger Ifis) was born prior to Dionyfius^ 
whom I think he in that place miftakes for Semele's fon. However 
that be, thofe four reigns more probably, preceded Belus as well ai 

• Ninus, and all ftand in an inverted order in Mofes Chorcncafc; 
for in Syncellus and Eufebius, as their place is different, fo thfis 
order is, reverfed. They arrange them thus, Arbelus, Chaleus, 
Anebus, Babius. Mofes betrays his own error; for inftead of fay- 
ing Arbelus /on of Chaealus, as his pedigree requires, he fays, 
Chaealus fon of Arbelus. To explain this away, he formed a table 
having one Arbelus fire of Chaealus; another, his fon. — If Ninus 

' was Picus, he was the Jove who became famous, as Diodorus re- 
lates, after the death of Ammon and his fon. Suidas fays he lived 
120 years; if fo, he was born before Dionyfius routed Saturn; and 
this is moll probable, for Saturn's having male ifTue occafioned the 
Titanian war. Ctefias counted Semiramis 62 years old at her death, 
,and that fhe reigned 42 years; but this is improbable, except her reign 
in Egypt to be included; as, to fay nothing of her connexion with 
Dionyfius, fhe had two fons by Menon, and one by Ninus, with whom 


Chap 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 239 

fhe lived fome years in conjunftion: fo her reign began at Babylon 
at a late period of her life. That Ifis was Spmiramis I will fhew 
prefently.— Pliny (after Juba) writes that this queen was fo leud as 
to copulate with a ftallion: which with Juba's leave could not have 
happened, except the ftallion was as unnatural as herfelf. But this 
ftory, improbable as it is, tends to prove her to be the noted Ceres; 
whom the Pythian Oracle (in Paufanias) denominates a horfe's 
bedfellow. It arofe hence, Neptune or Ocean in Celtic is Meon> 
which was Saturn's name; who therefore is Neptune the firft Cen- 
taur, and the gallant of Ceres; thp' here (as ufual) the younger 
Ceres is taken for the elder. Neptune got the name of a horfe like- 
wife, becaufe Rhea prefented Saturn with a foal inftead of young 
Neptune. When Ifis went to Babylon with Menon or Amenophis, 
fhe feems to have acquired the titles of Semiramis, Nitocris, and 
Myrina, who built Smyrna, and was flain by the Thracians, when 
^Tfon Orus reigned in Egypt; with whom fhc had made a treaty 
of anmyj having probably refigned Africa to his fway. 'Hyginus 
fstys that Semiramis burnt herfelf to death for the lofs of a horfe : 
this report, tho' apparently fabulous, gave countenance to the fcandal. *^^' 

Horfemanfhip was juft then invented, and a managed horfe, of high 
value; befides, the fleetnefs of her horfe preferved her in the Indian 
mff, Plutarch mentions her ftrange method to cenfure avarice; (he 
hwk a Cenotaph, on which an infcription encouraged a fearch 
tfcerein for treafure; but Darius only found a mifer's reprimand* 
Plutarch fays ftie built fhips and made a furvey of the Red Sea, . 
Many noble works are attributed to her. Strabo fays the town of 
Zela in Armenia, where Anaitis was folemnly adored, was fituated 
on a mount of Semiramis's: thus refembling Bubaftis. Maribas of 
Catina attributed to her a city and palace in Armenia; whither (he 
reforted in fummer, but in winter refided at Nineve. Pliny fays 
ihc. founded Melita in Cappadocia, near the Euphrates; and 5. 3, 23, 28! 
Arachofia or Cophe in CapifTene: alfo Abefanius and Sorafte, in the 
region of the Omani. He alfo mentions her pendent gardens. 
Ammian fays (he built the walls of Babylon, which' name Suidas fays 
ihc fubAituted for Nineve: thus Nineve on the Euphrates was the 



city of Babylon. Ctefias wrote that thefe walls were 360 Stadia in 
L. 23. circuit They were at Icaft 50 cubits highj Herodotus fays «cx>: 
Curiius fays 3S& feet broad. Yet Berofus blames the Greek hiftorl- 
ans for fuppofmg that Semiramis founded Babylon, and afcribing the 
Cont.Apion. famous ftruftures about it to her. Jofephus afcribes the Pcnfile 
gardens to Nebuchadnezzar: Pliny hints that they were attributed 
to Cyrus. To her Herodotus, 484 years before the Chriftian cra^ 
attributes the admirable mounds of the river, to prevent inundations. 
L^ ^^ Polysenus meiuions her Column, noting the Eaftern boundary of her 
empire to be the river Inomane, or rather, as Pliny writes, lomene 
beyond Ganges; the South limits, the region of Myrrh and Frankin- 
cenfe. She, as Ifis, was confounded with her mother: thus Suidas 
fays, fhe was called Rhea: He adds that fhe ere£led pyramids; thus 
, Syncellus afcribes thie third pyramid to Nitocris, who is no oth^ 
than Semirainis. Suidas fays, Ihe invented Metals, and employed 
her captives about them. He mentions her fiftitious Elephants 
among her vaft preparations during three years for a war in Indiab. 
Conan makes her the precedent of inceftoiis marriages amongft the 
Mcdes and Perfians; her commerce with her fon begun in error, 
was continued thro* choice: but Juftin fays, her fon flew her for 
attempting fuch a connexion; fo various and uncertain are tiir 
the aOiions and death of this heroine, •;; 

Diodorus Siculus, the capital hiftorian of Ninus and Semiramia^ 
tells us that feveral befides Ctefias wrote of Semiramis. He relates 
that " Ninus of Aflyria in conjunftion with Ariaeus king of Arabia, 
fubdued the Babylonians, and flew their king. Next, Barzanes of 
Armenia fubmittcd to him. Then he fubdued the Medes, and cru- 
cified Pharnus their king; and in 17 years fubdued all Afia^ except 
Baftria and India, and conquered Egypt. He then founded on the 
Euphrates (the Mefopotamian city) Nineve, 150 Stadia in length, 
and 90 in breadth. The walls were fo broad as to admit three chariots 
abreaft to go over them, and 100 feet high; having 1500 towers, 
each 200 feet high: his former refidence being Telane, the moft 

ancient city of Aflyria, according to Stephanas. He next marched 


In Photio. 


into Ba6lriana, where he married Semiramis, whofc mother Derceto 
was an inhabitant of Afcalon :" Which being founded by Afcalus 
the brother of Tantalus, proves that Semiramis was not earlier than 
thefe perfons. Diodorus proceeds, " Derceto afhamed of having 
this child expofed her, and drowned herfelf; hence the fable of her 
becoming a fi(h ;" which however proves her to be Venus Urania, 
according to the poet Pifcc Venus latuit. " Doves nourifhed the 
child by pecking the cheefes of farmers; who next educated her, and 
then delivered her to Simma the king's agent ; who named her Se- 
miramis, from the benevolent Doves; Semiramis in Syriac meaning 
a Dove." So Diodorus mentions that the youngeft Cybele was ex- 
pofed, till relieved by fheperdeffes. Menon the governor of Syria 
married her, and had by her two fons . Hypates and Hydafpes, at 
Nincve. Meantime Ninus led 1700,000 foot, 200,000 horfe, and 
lOSoo chariots armed with fcythes againft Ba£lriana, in feveral di- 
vifioiis. Oxyartes, with 400,000 men, cut oflPa part of his forces: but 
Niniu fending fuccours routed the Baftrians, and befieged Baftra, 
a &wng place. Semiramis came to her hufband then in the army. 
o/ATinus, in a drefs fo commodious, tbo* it difguifed her fex, that 
it was long a pattern among the Medes and Perfians. Being a woman 
not only of great beauty, but excellent parts, (he remarkt that the 
BaBtrians relying on the natural ftrength of the citadel, had' in it a 
ii^t garrifon : and^ with a feleft band of foldiers, took it by fur- 
prife. Ninus fell in love with her, and unable to perfuade Menon 
to refign her, threatened to pull out his eyes : on this Menon hung 
himfelf, and Ninus married Semiramis. By her he had a fon Ninus; 
and, foon after dying, left her the realm. His Sepulchre at Nineve 
was nine furlongs high ; forty, in circuit. Menon is the Meon of 
Xanthus ; his wife is Callirhoe daughter of Ocean, or the Meon 
who was the Titan Saturn. 

Semiramis employed two millons of men in building Babylon, on 
both fides of the Euphrates. The wall was 360 furlongs, with many 
towers; fix chariots abreaft could go over them ; others faid only 
two chariots, and that they were 50 cubits high, with 250 towers. 

I i Diodorus 

i4'2 P R I M I T I V E H I ST O R Y. (Book a. 

Diodorus fets an interval of two Plethra between the hoyfes and wall, 
which was compleated in one year. Hence, 

Dicitur altam 
Coftilibus Muris cinxifle Semiramis Urbem. 

In the narroweft part of the river fhe erefted a bridge five furlongs 
long; the arches were 12 feet wide. The ftones were bound with 
iron cramps, having melted lead poured into the fockets. Each 
pier prefented an angle againft the ftream. It was 30 feet broad, 
and floored with beams of cedar, cyprefs and palmtrees. She faced 
the banks of the river at each end for the diftance of 100 furlongs 
with a wall as ftrong as that of the city ; and erefted a callle at both 
ends. The weftern was in circuit 60 furlongs; the other, 40 11 
length, and 100 yards high ; the towers, 40 yards higher ; having 
hunting-matches reprefented on the vfalls. It had 3 gates, and brazen 
ftatues of Ninus, Semiramis and Jove Belus. Underneath wcfcf 
banquetting rooms of brafs, the entrance to which was a curious 
piece of mechanifm. Next fhe funk a. lake 35 feet deep; each fide 
being 300 furlongs in length, lined with brick cemented with bitu- 
men. Diverting the river into this tank ; fhe made a fubterraneJff 
gallery of communication between the two caftles, 12 feet high, i^ 
broad ; compleating it in 260 days : the brazen gates of it remained 
till the Perfian conqueft. In the centre of the city fhe erefted thte - 
temple of Jove Belus, with bricks and bitumen. Here the Chaldeam« 
made aflronomical obfervations. On the top were golden. flat ues c^^ 
Jove, Juno and Rhea ; this proves Semiramis fubfequent to thcCr"« 
Titans. Diodorus proceeds thus, " Jove's flatue pajfant was for*^ 
feet high, and weighed 1000 talents;" and, being in the Dedali^— 
flile, argues Semiramis not to have been long prior to Mina^--^ 
" Rhea's, of the fame weight, fat on a golden throne, having tW "* 
lions flanding at the footflool, and near them two huge filver fe<"^ 
pents weighing each 30 talents. Juno*s flatue wasereft, andweighe ^ 
800 talents ; her right hand held a ferpent by the head ; her left, ^ 
fceptrc adorned with gems. A table common to the three Deitic^^ 

Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 243 

of gold 40 feet long, 17 broad, and weighing 500 talents, held two 
flagons, of 30 talents in weight; alfo two cenfers weighing 300 talents. 
Of three vafes, that confecrated to Jove weighed 12QO Babylonian 
talents ; the other two weighed 600 each.'* Each talent according 
to Varro in Pliny was equal to eighty pounds. " I'hefe the Perfian 
kings made prize of. The Penfile gardens were made by a Syrian 
king to pleafe his Perfian concubine ; tho* attributed to Semirami^ : 
each fide extended 4 plcthra. The foundation-ftones were 16 feet 
long, 4 broad. Then feveral ftories of arches were raifed ; the 
upermofl being 50 cubits high. The walls were 22 feet thick. Sheets 
of lead covered this pile : on which a depth of foil was laid fufficient 
for the growth of large trees. The arches contained apartments. — 
She built other cities on the Tigris and Euphrates; for the com- 
merce of Media and Paraetacene. She caufed an obelifk to be hewn 
out of the Armenian hills and brought to the river by afles and oxen; 
\iV\cnce it was conveyed to Babylon ; being 135 feet high; and 25 

on each fide of the bafe.** Pliny writes that Cyrus made prize of 33- 3- 

her bowl weighing 15 talents. 

'* Marching into Media, at a mountain facred to Jove, and named 
Bagiftan, (he conftrucled a garden 12 ftadia in circuit. The rocks 
of this mountain, contiguous to this Paradife, rofe 17 furlongs in 
hdght. Here her flatue was engraven, with 100 fuitors. An 171-- 
fififtion in Syriac recorded that flie afcended to the fummit on the 
baggage of the army. Proceeding thence to Chaon a city of Media, 
ihe Turrounded an extraordinary high rock, fituated on an elevated 
plain, with a garden. Here fhe lived voluptuoufly ; chufing hand- 
fome foldiers for enjoymen.t, whom Ihe immediately configned to 
deai.h. Removing to Ecbatari, fhe conftrufted a direft road over 
Mount Zarca^us : built a palace at Ecbatan ; and plentifully fup- 
plied that town with water, thro' an aqueduft 15 feet broad, and 40 
deep ; cut thro' the mountain Orontes, which was 25 ftadia in height, 
and 1 2 ftadia from the town : by which the water of the lake on the 
other fide was conveyed to the city. She then made a tour thro' 
Peifia and other provinces, forming roads by removing rocks and 

I i 2 hills: 



hills : rometimes railing mounts on plains as fepulchrcs for de- 
ceafed officers, or to build towns upon them; and fmall mounts 
for her own pavilion, to review her army. She traverfed Egypt, and 
fubdued a great part of Lybia. On confulting Ammon*s oracle, 
fhe was told Ihe fhould quit the world and attain divine honours ,when 
her fon Ninyas fhould confpire againfl. her. She afterwards fubdued 
Ethiopia in a great meafure. Then Ihe led her army back to BaOra. 
Having enjoyed peace a confiderable time, fhe at length prepared 
to invade India, whofe king was Stabrobates. His army wasimmenfe, 
and elephants numerous. She therefore fent to her viceroys to enrol 
all the able-bodied youth, to appear at Baftra in three years time. 
Then fhe had fhipwrights from Phenicia, Syria and Cyprus, to con- 
flruft the frames of portable barges, for rivers; fhe being apprehenfivc 
of a fcarcity of materials on the (hoflile) banks of the Indus. Wii 
the hides of three hundred thoufand oxen fhe made fiditious ele- 
phants; an artifice imitated by Perfeus of Macedon with fimilar ill 
fuccefs. Thefe inclofed a camel with its rider, and were made in 
an inclofed place, to prevent the information of fpies and deferters. 
Her army amounted to three millions of foot, 500,000 horfe, 
100,000 chariots ; and as many Camel-riders, with fabres four 
cubits long. Two thoufand frames of boats were carried, like tbe 
artificial elephants. By camels. Thefe reprefentations were rendeMi 
familiar to the horfes by ufage. The king of India conflru6led fotir 
thoufand boats of huge reeds, and colle3ed an army more numerous 
than that of Semiramis; and augmented the number of his elephants* 
Then he fent. an embafTy to Semiramis to cenfure her unjufl con*- 
duft, and libidinous life ; vowing to crucify her, as foon as made 
captive. Semiramis having read the letter^ replied ** The Indian 
fhall foon experience my virtue." On her arrival at the InduSj 
finding the enemy's fleet prepared for battle, fhe foon fitted out 
her barks, and lined the river-bank with foldiers. After a long 
and fharp engagement, viftory declared in favour of Semiramis/ 
who funk 1000 barges, and took a multitude of prifoners; and fub- 
dued the iflands and towns of the river, making 100,000 captives* 
The Indian pretended flight to intice the enemy to land: Semiramis 

accordingly threw a bridge over the river, and purfued the foe. 



leaving 6o,QOO men to guard the bridge. The Indian fcouts, de* 
ceived by the mock Elephants advancing in front, made a tremen- 
dous report concerning them. But fome centinels of Semiramis, in 
difgrace for negleft of duly, deferled to the Indians, and difcovered 
the fallacy. Both armies advanced to battle; but the Indian Horfes^ 
offended at the fcent of the hides, fell into confufion. Semiramis 
with a feled body of men completed the rout. Stabrobates led on 
his foot (uftained by Elephants; himfelf, mounted on a large on?, 
attacked the queen in perfon; his Elephants proved irrefiftible. He 
wounded her firft with an arrow in the arm, then obliquely on the 
back with his javelin. The queen's Steed, being fleeter than the 
Elephant, preferved her life. At the bridge multitudes preft one 
another to death. But when the major part of her furviving forces 
had repaired, Semiramis ordered the bridge to be broken, which 
^Qi an end to the confli6l. After an exchange of prifoners, fhe 
ttxoxw^ toBaftra, with fcarce a third of her army.'* Arrian and ' '*' 
Strajboby, Ihe died during her Indian expedition: But Megafthenes Alex, L.6. 
(kkSirabo) denies that Semiramis went fo far as India. Arrian allows 
ibe was there, but was put to (light. 

*• Sometime after the Indian war, an eunuch, at her fon*s inftiga^ 

^om attempting her life, fhe refented it not; but refigned the em- 

]rin^ and prefently difappeared/* Valerius Maximus fays that when 

Bafylon revolted from Semiramis, fhe ^polled againft it, without 

fiaying to put her difhevelled hair in order before fhe reduced it to 

obedience. Several writers faid that perfuading her hufband to 

permit her to reign during five days (which feem to be their great 

feftival) fhe imprifoned him on the fecond, and held the empire till 

old age. She appears to be the Lybian Myrina whom Homer and j)io^jQrus 

Strabo celebrate as a fwift charioteer. Her hiftory in Diodorus is 

to this efFeft. " Myrina queen of the Amazons (thus refembling 

Minerva Ammon*s ally, and indeed his daughter Ceres or Ifis) with 

30,000 foot and 2000 horfeycovered with fkins of fnakes, and armed 

with fwords, bows, and javelins, routed the Atlantidcs, crazed their 

town, and flew all the males above 14 years of age, and enflaved all 

others, males and females. On this the whole nation fubmitting, fhe 



founded the town Myrina, and fettled her captives there.** This is 
Smyrna, fee Lycaphron, and Syncellus; called fo after the daughter 
of Cinyras of AfTyria, fays Hyginus: but Cinyras being Ammon, 
this daughter is Ifis the Egyptian Venus; efpecially as Hyginus (ays, 
*' Adonis was the fon of this Cinyras, and of the Elder Smyrna,** 
who was khea, and Adonis was Dionyfius. Myrina of courfe lived 
in the time of Orus fon of Ifis, as is recorded. Diodorus proceeds, 
*' Myrina next, in behalf of her new fubjefts, invaded and beat the 
Gorgons, taking 3000 captives: who furprized and (lew their guard, 
but were themfelves at length flain. The queen interred her people 
under three great Barrows. Entering Egypt, fhe formed a league 
with Orus; and thence invaded Arabia. She next reduced Syria, and | 
kindly received the Cilicians; fubdued the country about Taurus 
overran Phrygia, to the Caicus: built the maritime cities Cymca^ 
Pitane, Priene, and (bme inland towns. She feized, among other 
iflands, Mitylene, named after her fitter:" the' Diodorus elfewherc 
s A b ^^y** ^^^^^ ^^^ daughter of Macareus the fon of Jove Cyrenaicut 
Macareus is faid by Myrtillus to be the fire of the Mufes; but he 
was a Jove, and moft probably Ammon and Cinyras. But to pro* 
ceed: " On account of a tempeft Ihe made a vow to the motherof 
the Gdds, by which fhe went alone, and cpnfecrated an altar to tin 
Goddefs in Samothrace, or the facred Ifle; and inftituted the faCwA 
Order of the Corybantes there; fome of whom were her own foB>> '■ 
and a facred Grove for an afylum:" thefe incidents prove that ftc \ 
was Cybele's daughter Ceres, Ifis or Nitocris, who as Herodotus 
writes took afylum in afhes; and Corybas the Samothracian Hieraro» 
was her fon. — " Mopfus being expelled Thrace by Lycurgus, irm- 
vaded the Amazons (thought by Bryant to be votaries of Ha*^ 
Azon; but Amhafan in Irifh fignifies Ferus; and Amhas, pugnato^ ^> 
as Araatz in Hebrew is fortis) inconjunftion with Sipylus of Scy^' 
thia; and flew Myrina." Hence I conclude that Lycurgus was fla^ ^ 
by the Grecian Bacchus, not by the Egyptian; as, in the reign of tV^^ 
Egyptian's fon Orus Lycurgus was alive. Strabo writes that b^ 
tomb named Batieia was in the Trojan plain. Conan in Photi^ 
fays that *• Semiramis was held by fome to be tne daughter ^ 
Ninus:" thus Jove was faid to have lain with his daughter Profe^^ 


Chap, 30 PRIMITIVE M I S T O R Y- 147 

pine; here Uranus and the elder Proferpine, Ceres, or Semiramis, 
who was Rhea, are meant. Great confufion arofe in the Titanian 
Hiftory by confounding both Uranus and Ammon with Saturn's fon 
Picas; and the two Proferpines, and Cybeles together. The elder 
Proferpinewas Rhea^ fhe cohabited with Ammon, and alfo (as being 
Eurynome) with Uranus her fire; and is confounded with the youngCf 
Ceres, Ifis, or Semiramis, who cohabited with Picus: fhe is alfo 
confounded with the younger Proferpine, her daughter, according 
to Sanchoniatho; but ufually reputed her grand-daugher. 

The Robe of her invention, Juftin informs us, was a contrivance 

to prevent her being diftinguifhed from her fon. It feems to have 

been effeminate rather than martial: for fhe is faid to have intror Martiaf. 

duced parti-coloured vefls; and Perfian fculptures reprefent flowing 

robes, not fuccinft. Juftin feems to fay that Ninus was later than 

Sefoftris. Agathias pofitively fays fo. Yet they mean the younger 

Ninus; for the elder was Picus; and his wife, Rhea's daughter; but 

that the elder Semiramis was Rhea herfelf Cedrehus implies, in 

Gtying Jove Bel us was her Ton. 

Ninils or Ninyas, the fon of Semiramis, was a moft effeminate 
-pnncc; invifible to all except concubines and eunuchs. However, 
for internal fecurity he annually raifed a militia out of every pro- 
vince^ which aflembled at the metropolis; and he fent a faithful 
officer to govern each province. At the end of the year he difbanded 
his troops, on their taking an oath of Allegiance, and raifed others: 
giving none of them time to form confpiracies. Atheneus, from 
Phenix Colophonius, has given us his epitaph to this effeft, 

Ninus, Affyrian king, as authors hold. 

Was once poffeffor of a fea of gold ; 

And wealth cou'd boaft more copious than the fand. 

That numberlefs o'erfpreads the Cafpian flrand. 

He ne'er beheld a ftar's celeftial light 1 

Nor do I think he e'er defir'd the fight. 

He ne'er performed what facred rites required; 

Nor to adore the Deitv afpir'd. 


Diodorus 2. 


PRIMITIVE H I S r O R Y. (Book 2. 

He trampled on the laws, nor ftoopt t' accoft 
His flaves; nor knew how many he cou'd boaft. 
A man of prowefs or to drink or eat; 
Bumpers he fill'd, fcorn'd every other feat. 
The dead when this ridic'lous monarch joined. 
He this ftrange memorandum left behind. 

" To yon cold fepulchre, where Ninus lies, 

Affyrian, Mede, curl'd Indian turn thine eyes. 

Next hear mc, I no trifling truths declare; 

I Ninus was, and breath'd the vital air. 

Gates gratified my palate; and my arms 

Were fatiated with heavenly beauty's charms. 

The wealth I owii'd, my enemies now may own; 

As ivy wreaths mad Bacchanalians crown. 

Gone to the fhadcs, my treafure's at an end; 

Nor gold nor cavalry cou*d me attend; 

Nor me a filver chariot thither bore-, 

I now am dufl, who once a diadem wore." 

Eufebius and Syncellus name Ninyas, Zames, which figniftsr 
SanBus. Gedrenus fays that Thurus reigned after Ninus; Rhti'i 
brother, who was his father Zames, called him Mars. Cedreniii, 
and Suidas fay •' Thuras was, after Ninus, king of AfTyria, and 
Marfliam. firnamed Mars after the Planet. He was a fierce warrior; and 
attacking the gigantic tyrant Gaucafus, a defcendant of Japhet, cut 
him off. The AfTyrians deifying him, firnamed him Baal, which in 
their tongue fignifies Mars.*' Rhea or Gybele is here miflaken for 
the younger Gybele, Geres, or Semiramis, the mother of Thurus. 

Diodorus Siculus fays that Sardanapalus was the thirtieth king 
I» Syncello. from Ninus, founder of the Affyrian monarchy ; and that Teutamusy 
the king at the time of the Trojan war, was the 20th from Ninyas, 
fon of Semiramis: Cephalion who wrote above a century before the 
Incarnation, deemed him the 22d from Belus; whom he here con- 
founds with Arbelu5« 




Thus then I fiorm the Table of Babylonian kings after the Arabian 
Dynafty, from Arbelus, the Belus of Abydenus. 


1. Arbelus, 

16. Lam-prides, 

8. Chaleus, 

ty. Sos-aresj 

3. A-nebus, 

i8* Lamp-ares, 

4. Babius, 

19. Panyas coeval with'Jafon, 

5. Belus, 

20. Sofarmus, 

6. Ninus, 

21. Mithraeus, 

7. Semiramis, 

22. Teutamus, or Teutanes ; 

8. Ninyas Zames, 

during the Trojan war. 

9. Arius, 

23. Teuteus, 

10. Aralius, 

24. Thineus, 

11. Xerxes Baleus, 


25. Dercylus, ' 

la. Anna-mithres, 

26. Eupacmes, Eupalmus, £u- 

13. Bcl-ochus (counted the fe- 


cond) coeval with Perfeus: 

27. Laofthenes, 

be feems from 


28, Pyritiades, 

to be the firft ! 


29. Ophrateus, 


30. Ephe-cheres or Ophratencs, 

14. Bel-eterOwS, who 

truly was 

31. Acra-zapes or Acra-zanes, 


32. Thonos Concolerus, orSar- 

15^ Setbos, 


As Semiramis was later than Jove the father of Minos (for Ihe 
erefted his ftatue) the reigns between her and Teutaraus muft have 
been fliort. But Ihe and her mother feem to have borr.e the name 
of Semiramis, in common. 

Cyril (againft Julian) deems Laoflhenes 165 years after the Tro- 
jan wisir. But as to Dioaorus Siculus, if Teutamus was the 20th 
from Ninyas, Sardanapalus muft, as the lift ftands after giving four 
kings their feniority to Belus, be the 32d from Ninus : Cephalion 
counted 23 effeminate kings from Ninyas to Sardanapalus; thus he 
^'^d Diodoras fliew that the prefent lift contains too many by two, 

K k below 



below Teutamus: befides the four kings at the head of my lift: Ce- 
drenus counts only Ninyas, Thurus and Lamis between Nirarod and 
the firft Sardanapalus. 

Diodorus Siculus and Cephalion agree that the Affyrian kings 
reigned fucceflively to the capture of Troy during loob years. They 
mean from the firft foundation of a kingdom at Babylon, 163 years 
after the flood, according to Polyhiftor, fuppofing the flood 2242 

In Syncello, yearj after the creation. From the flood therefore to the Chriftian 

era, the interval was about 2348 years. Emilius Sura (in Pater- 

culus) counted from the reign of Ninus, who muft be the founder of 

Nineve, 1995 years incufively, to the reduClion of Antiocjius the 

l^ Great, 190 years before the Incarnation. Conftantine Manafles 

fays, the Egyptian empire lafted 1663 years, till its fubverfion ly 

Apolon. Cambyfes, A. C. 525. And Mifor probably founded his kingdom, 

4, 268. fomewhat fooner than Nimrod's was, as Egypt was the moft ancient 

Synccl. p. 38 empire: if therefore about 160 years after the Deluge; the interval 
between the flood and Incarnation will be 2348 years. Eratofthencs 
counts about 1008 years from the firft king of Thebais to Phuron, 
when Troy was takent therefore if Menes began his reign in Thebais 
about 156 years after the flood, the interval between the flood and la^ 
carnatiofi will be 2348 years. Diodorus Siculus counts 23,000 (luatrj 
years from Ofiris (or Mifor) to Alexander's conqueft of Egypt, ^ 
years A. C. thefe lunar years are almoft i86o folar ; this fets the 
commencement of the Egyptian empire 156 years after the flood. 
Hence it appears that Cenforinus means the interval between the 
Olympiads and Noah's flood, inftead of the Ogygian ; when he 
counts it 1600 years. 

The Egyptians are deemed the moft ancient nation in Ariftotle*s 
Meteorology, 1 ; and Apollonius Rhodius ftiles Egypt " the mother 
4. 268. of the firft men": hence Egypt was called Ogygia, fignifyingits an-*^ 
tiquity, as Stephanus acquaints us ; and probably on this account- 
Dionyfius the poet termed Hecatompylos, Ogygian. 



That the kingdom of Thebais begun about 156 years after the 
flood Varro alfo (hews : he fays that Thebes was founded 2100 
years before his time. Thebes was built and governed by Thoth's 
father Menes ; who, as Sanchoniatho fhews, was Mifor. Jofephus 
fays that Menes founded Memphis long before Abraham's time, 
and 1300 years before Solomon's ; which computation exceeds 
mine a very few years. Diodorus fays that Uchoreus, the eighth 
of the race of Ofymandyas^ built Memphis; but he miftakes 
Uchoreus, the Choreeus of Dionyfius HalicarnafTcnfis, and father 
of Callithea or Ceres, who was Cybele's hufband Meon or the Ti- 
tan Saturn, and was the eighth of Ham's line, as thus. Ham, Mifor, ^ 
Thoth, Tat, Mannus, Acmon, Ophion or Uranus, Saturn; I fay 
he' miftakes this Meon for Menes Thoth's father, who probably was 
Ofymandyas or the Ofiris, whofe vocal ftatue was made at the com- ' 

mand of Sefoftris; and who was the Ofiris that founded Chemmis and Diodorus i. 
TbeVts: and the eighth of this family amongft the founders of Mem- 
phis wai Ifmunus the eighth Cabir ; a palace there was built by his afties/ 
cou/iii-german Thoth. 

The old chronicle in Syncellus tells us that the Auritac, (that is, the 
Hycfi of Avaris) poffeft the Lower Egypt : next, the Meftreans of 
Tliebais ; who under Amous, as Plutarch calls Ammon, expelled 
tbe Hycfu After this Titanian race, common Egyptians obtained 
tfcc Ibvereignty, the firft of thefe feems to be the firft Proteus of 
Herodotus. This chronicle mentions a long period of 36525 years- 
which is their Sothiac cycle of 1461, multiplied by 25, to form a 
Lunifolar cycle. This it fills up moftly with phyfical periods relative 
to the celeftial Gods : attributing to Vulcan 30,000 years ; to the 
reft of 12 Divinities, 3984 years; to the Demi-gods, 217 years; to tbe 
Cynic cycle 443 years. This circle feems to relate to the Hycfi 
during their fupreme power. The period of the Hycfi Manetho 
counted in all 511 years ; but their power was abridged fome years 
before their final removal. He counts fix kings among the Hycfi 
during 260 years : tho' Apopis and Afeth or AfEs were Saturn and 
Typhon, as we learn from Plutarch : but if inftead of Affis we read 

K k a Arcles 


Arcles, he is Melcart or Plutarch's Melcander, contemporary with 
Ifis, and king of Biblos. Thefe probably were aided by t}ie Hycfi 
againft Ammon, and had the fupreme command : but the Hycfi re- 
mained fometime in Egypt, after they had loft the fovereignty as 
well as before they acquired it. Abraham's fon Midian feems alfo 
to have been their ally, and (lain by Adad, Sanchoniatho's Adod, 
fon of Ammon, Jove Pappeus or Apappus. The Hycfi reigned 
collaterally with thofe kings of Thebes and This, whofucceeded the 
firft Dynafty at each place. The Titan Gods and Demi gods make 
Ifis. a great part of the 1 8th Dynafty, as Orus fliews. The general fuc- 
ceflion of kings began with the i6th Dynafty, whom Eufebius 
deems the five firft Theban kings. The period from this Dynafty to 
the thirtieth inclufively is 1881 years, according to the old chro. 
nicle; ending eight before Alexander beat Darius 330 years before 
the Incarnation. This makes the commencement of the Egyptian 
empire a few years fooner than the foregoing calculations : but 
the term of that chronicle will be proved a little too long by a future 

Terom, ^hc Latin tranflator of the Chronicon of Eufebius fays, Manetto 
counted from Vulcan to Menes 2100 years; that is, inclufivd|; 
thefe being Lunar years, the interval from the time that Egypt vu 
taken pofteffion of by Ham, to the end of Mifor's reign was 170 
folar years. 

The partition of territory at Phaleg's birt^, whereby it is faid 
that Thoth made the firft diftribution to Phoroneus, proves fubfe- 
quent to the foundation of the Egyptian and Babylonian empires. 
This laft Syncellus fays continued uninterruptedly under 40 kings 
after Belus, during 1460 years (which is a Sothiac period) to Ma- 
cofcolcrus, whom (fays he) Polybius, Diodorus, Cephalion, Caftor, 
Thallus and others call Sardanapalus. Diodorus counts 30 kings 
from Ninus. The duration according to this Hiftorian is now, in 
one place, 1400 years; in another, 1360 : but Syncellus fays, he 
reckoned fomewhat above 1300, Juftin fays 1300. Agathias, at 
the end of the annals of Glycas, 1306. However, Diodorus and 


Chap- 30 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 253 

Cephalion count 1000 years from the commencement of the empire 
to the Trojan war. And the commencement of the Egyptian empire 
in Eratofthenes and Conftantine Manaffcs fliews this date reaches to 
the primitive Babylonian fettlcment under Nimrod. Dica^archus 
(hews that Nimrod was the primitive Ninus ; as he calls the founder Stephan. 
of Nineve by that name. The Titans aflTeSed the names and titles ,^^ Chaldco. 
of Ham's immediate defcendcnts ; as, the Egyptian Dionyfius was 
called Bacchus, who really was Nimrod fon of Chus ; and his wife 
probably was the real Semiramis, asCedrenus afTerts: but Rhea having 
affumed her name, Cedrenus thought that the eldeft Ninus and Semi- 
ramis were the parents of Picus, Belus and another Ninus : who 
feem all to be one perfon, the father of Minos : he ruled Aflyria, 
as Cedrenus writes, 30 years. Picus may have aflfefted the name 
of Ninus, when he came to Babylon. Whence hiftorians, to recon- 
d\c Picus with Nimrod, put feveral perfons into the Aflyrian lift of 
kingi between Bclochus (the contemporary of Perfeus) and Ninus: 
ihcfe may have been real kings of Nineve after the real Nimrod, 
but not after the Titan Belus of Babylon, and his fucceflbr; yet their 
foreign names befpcak them to be fiflitious. 

That Ninus, the fucceflbr of this Belus, could not have been 1000 
yean before the Iliac war is plain ; for the Titanian war in the time 
of Belus was in the fourth century before the fiege of Troy. Ap- 
pian counts the duration of the Affyrian, Median and Perfian empires 
fcarce 900 years. Herodotus reckons 520 years from the Median 
revolt up to Ninus. But they both compute too fhort: as they bring 
Ninus down within 50 years of the fall of Troy. Auguftine more 
rightly counts Ninus 1000 years after Noah's flood. The Chronicon Civit.Dci. 
of Eufebius is not very remote from the truth in placing Ninus in ^^• 

the time of Miamun, who feems contemporary with Ninyas. Oro- 
fius computes near the truth in faying '* The great king Ninus was 
3184 years after the creation :" this preceded the deluge 2256 years: 
thus Ninus was 928 years after the flood, or 1420 before the Incar- 
nation. As Ninus appears to be Picus, his life and reign were both 
long, Paterculus counts the duration of the Aflyrian empire to the 



Median revolt 1070 years; and, as he mentions Emilius Sura's com- 
putation to the fall of Antiochus to be 1995 years, Paterculus ap- 
pears to count from the 14th king faid by Dicearchus to be the 
founder of Babylon; as thus. 

From the Incarnation to the Median revolt, - 710. 

From that revolt to that fourteenth king, - 1070 

The fix' Arabs reigned - - - aig 

The feven Chaldeans, - - ^ igo 

Thefirft reign began after the flood, - 163 - 


There is reafon to believe that 1 1 reigns were interpolated in the 
lift of Aflyrian kings: for Syncellus counts 41 from Ninus to Sarda^ 
napalus ; Diodorus only 30. Teutamus is his 20th, from the fon 
of Semiramis; and is Cephalion's 22d from Belus. Syncellus calls 
him Teutamus ^rnd Tautanes ; and deems his 32d king Babius to be 
Tithonus and TatUanes : thus the foundation of his great longevity ir 
his being alive when thole kings lived who were contemporaricm 
well of the twenty fecond king of Babylon as of the thirty-fecond. 
I farther fufpeft which are the the kings fo interpolated -, and think 
that the firft Belochus and Baleus, the ninth and tenth kings of his 
table, are the fame perfons as the fecond Belochus and Bel-eteros, 
which fignifiesthe fecond Bel : thefe are the 19th and 20th kings in 
the table of Syncellus. Sethos, the 11th king, is^omitted by Jerom; 
but nfiore probably his neighbours ought to be fo : for he may be 
the great Sefoftris, fovereign of Affyria and Egypt. It is probable 
that Belochus the fecond (who feems to be the firft alfo, and is 
called Belimus by Cephalion, who counts him contemporary with 
Ferfeus, and 640 years after Ninus, that is Nimrod) is Jove Belus ; 
for AgatHas calls him Belleus; and Eufebius fays his daughter Atofla 
was called Semiramis. Conan attributes to her all the exploits of 
laPhotio. ^^^ famous Semiramis j thus the invention of letters is attributed to 

Atofla : 

Chap, a-) P R 1 M i T 1 V E li 1 S t d R V. is^ 

Atofla: tho* due to Mifor'swife and Ton. The interpolated names 
feem to be thefc; Mamythus, Afcalius, Sphaerus, Mamylus, 
Sparthaeus, Afcatades, Amyntes, Belochus the fecond, the Tame as 
the firft ; Beleteros, the fame as Baleus ; befides two after the 
Trojan war. If Belochus was fo low as Perfeus, Sethos or Sefoftris 
preceded him. 

Two incidents contributed to induce chronologers to extend dates? 

enormoufly. One was the ufe of Lunar, Trimeftrial, and Quadri* 

meftrial periods. The other was the confounding of the Exod with 

the Faftoral expulfion ; thro* a defirc to confer an antiquity on 

Mofes equal to Inachusor Amofis; tho* Manetho fhews that four 

centuries elapfed from the end of the reign of Amofis, who expelled 

the Hycfi, to the Exod. But the fcveral chronological accounts 

before mentioned, all concur to determine the interval between the 

Deluge and Incarnaiion Lo be about 2348 years. This calculation 

Vill ftill more fully appear well-grounded, when Mofes is bfought 

down to the time of Rhamfinitus the famous Treafury builder of 

/acrerfand prophane hiftory; who^ is that Rami lies faid by Pliny to 

have lived in the time of the Trojan war, at Heliopolis; and finally 

l^heo the Chronology of the Book of Judges is reduced to a period 

anfwerable to the number of defcents in David's line, and in the 


Sunuel fays, after Sifera's oppreffion were Jerubbael, Bedan 
^Machir*s great grandfon) and Jeptha: He is filent as to Sampfon 
and the reft. Aaron's grandfon Phineas, who was a man grown 
when in the Defert, was living after Sampfon's days; when he muff 
have been at leaft 456 years oM, according to the prefent extended 
hiftory and chronology. 

If it be contended that the latter part of the Book of Judges ,^\j,, 

(where, after the account of Sampfon, Phineas is mentioned as ftill 20.^8. 

alive) is not placed in its due order; what proof is there for tliis 

opinion; which would occafion a chafm of fome centuries in the 

Sacerdotal fucceffion? But Jofephus fays that Salmon's fon Bodz 

Jcffc's grandfire was Eli's contemporary. Booz married Ruth,whofe 




firft hufband was one of the invaders of the Moabites between the 
times of Othniel and Debora. The Tyrian annalsfhew that the inter- 
val from Hieram, whole eleventh year was Solomon's fourth, to iFam 
contemporary with Cyr^s, was only fome three centuries. . Manetho 
fhews that the Exod was about four centuries fubfequent to Amofis 
or Amos, declared to be Ammon the Titan Saturn's adverfary in 
the Titanian war above three centuries before the Trojan ; which 
laft therefore occured about the time of the Exod. The exceffive 
length of time, at prefent pretended in the Book of Judges, is in- 
compatible with the few perfons in the regal line from the Exod to 
David, which is feveral times recounted in the facred Scriptures. 
Chronological errors are become frequent in the Old Teftament, 
of which inftances fhall foon be produced; but erroneous dates do 
not invalidate fa£ls. 

Jofeph could fo early as Deucalion ^nd Cranaus; for he 
was put in Iron fetters, and Iron was not invented till 73 years, after 
Deucalion's flood. A fon of Abraham by Chetura was a comrade of 
the Egyptian Hercules, who was in the Titanian war. Cedrenus 
writes with much appearance of truth, that Abraham was cod- 
temporary with Rhea and Picus. Aftarte's temple was m ruins before 
Solomon's was built, which was, as Jofephus writes, 1440 ygmi 
after Noah's flood. Horfemanfliip was in ufe in Jofeph's time,% 
was invented about the time of Orus, Neptune, and Ereftheus. 
Jofeph wore a parti-coloured vefl:, an invention of Semiramis, a 
native of Afcalon, built by a brother of Tantalus. A fcarlet thread 
was tied round Zara's wrift; but Melcart invented the fcarlet dye» 
Num. 35. 32 ^"^ ^^^ Titiin Saturn was the firft who wore a fcarkt tunic. Mofes 
Pliny 35- 3* mentions pidures; an art, as Pliny writes, fubfequent to Troy. The 
Hycfi were expelled from Egypt by Amos, the Titan Ammon, before 
Jacob went thither; Paftors being then an abomination to the 
Egyptians. Manetho fliews that the Exod was near three centuries 
after Orus thencnth king of the 18th Dynafty: Orus vifited Croto- 
pus of Argos, who reigned 21 years; his fon Sthenelus 11 years; 
from the end of his reign were 384 years up to Inacbus, who was 
1790 years before the Incarnation; thus the Exod was in the twelfth 


chap. 3.) P R ,1 M I T I V £ H I S T O R Y. ^57 

century before the Chriftian era. Manetho likewife (ays that at the 
Exod Abaris was caWtd formerly (imp\y\ng long be/ore ihat event) 
Typhon's city.: Typhon wns flain by Qrus, for which parricide he 
wa;s expiated by Crotopus. Thus, erroneous is that general opinion 
af the Jews and, early Chriftians (who furmized that the HycG were 
the Hebrews under Mofes) that the Exod was about the time of 
Phoroneus: indeed Jofephus. candidly enough informs us that the 
Egyptian hiftorian Manetho^ from the records of that kingdom^ had 
pofitively afleried otherwife* 

Concerning uncertainties in the Book of Judges, Theophilus 
Bifhop of Antioch fets Shamgar after Sampfon. Eufebius fays that L. 3. Ad 
Elon was omitted in the Septuagint. Clement of Alexandria omits "^ ^^* 
Jair. The Pafchal Chronicle allows Othniel only 32 years; Afri- 
cuias and Clement Alex, afford him 50 years. As to Sampfon his 
Tcigp was during the Philiftine tyranny; therefore it concerns not 
jCkiMoIogy whether Sampfon ever exifted, or not. The Chronology 
in rhrflook of Kings islefs than that in Judges by a century^ and 
was fo in the time of Eufebius: Saint Paul'^ peciod of 450 years 
Mgards events prior to the Judges; *' Aftqr thfie events (fays he) 
^hiring 450 years, he appointed Judges." A readii^ confirmed by ^^^ '3- 
Aie beft manufcripts; and proving ihat^ as 5 years were between the 
40 years of error, and the appointment of Caleb's lot, fo there were 
5 fears more to the appoinlment of Judges. It is probable that^ 
Aaing the oppreflion of Ifrael^ co//a^^ra/ princes reigned in feveral 
{ttovinces; and that thefe reigns are counted at prefent fucceffively; , Ghron. 
die original records not being extant at this day: fuch as the ancient ^7» ^^ 
Chronicles written when Jotha^i was king of Juda,- and mentioned 
by -the prefent written in the captivity. 

Here follows a genmnc lift of fucceffive Judges and Priefts; and 
of David*^ line, from the tranfit over Jordan. 

LI The 

I. 6. I. 




Stroa. 1/ 

1. Jofliua, I 

2. Othniel, 

3. Deborah, 

4. Gideon, 

5. Bedan; 1 5am. 12. 

6. Jepthath, 

7. E\v,Sain.4. 18. 

8. Samuel and Saul, 

7- ^S^^ 

The LIS r, &c. 

1. Eleazer, Jo/k. 24. 33. 

2. Phineas, 

3. Eli, 4, 9. 

4* Samuel, 

5. Ahiah, and brother 

to Ahimelet. 

6. Abiathar. 

1. Nahfhbn^ 

2. Salmon^ 

3. Booz; fee 

4. Obed,. 

5. Jefle; old in 
Saul's time* 

6. David; JeflSS* 
youngeft foo* 

That theie lifts could not be more numerous, appears henc^?** 
Hezron, who was Gilead's brother in law, (1 Chron. 2. 21.} hai*^ 
by Abiah, (verfe 24) Afliur the fire of Tekoa, the fire of Ikke/ln^ 
(2 Sam. 23. 26.) fire of Ira, one of David's 30 guards. Abiafa|iilk 
(Exod 6. 24.) the fon of Korah, Levi's great grandfon, was in lir— 
Defert under Mofes; and his fon Kore was the father of Shalhlii 
who, with his fon Mattathiah, (1 Chron. g. ig. and 31.) wcflB^ 
officers of Solomon's temple. This argues that Tohu, the grc 
grandfire of Samuel's father, was not lowefr in defcent than 
grandfon of that Elkanah, who was Korah's fon, (Exod. 6.H^^ 
Sadoc, the Hierarch at the dedication of Solomon's temple, was (^^ 
Clement of Alexandria writes) the eighth inclufively from Aarott -^ 
as Ezra was the fixteenth. 

Salmon, 41 years after the Exod, may have had Booz by Rahab. 
Booz, at 25 years old, may have begotten Obed; who, at 20 yeah 
old, Jeffe; who, at 35, David : He died at 70; Solomon died 40 
years after David. This whole period amounts to 231 years« 
Solomon appears to have died 916 years before the Chriftian era^ 



for Ezekiel (hews that 390 years clapfed between the commence- 
ment of David's reign and the captivity; which, after 70 years ended 
with the capture of Babylon ; thence 80 years elapfed to the feventh 
year of Artaxerxes; which was 144 years after the eclipfe predifted 
by Thales, and calculated by Hipparchus to have been 601 years 
before the Chriftian era. 

1. Year, Darius Medus born, 600 
years, A. C. 
62. Babylon taken, 
a. Darius reigned there. 

7. Cyrus reigned after him. 

8. Cambyfes and Smerdes. 
I'he eclipfe, A. C. 601 36. Darius Hyftafpes. 
The paffion, P. C. 29 i ai. Xerxes. 

—— — — 7. Artaxerxes» when Ezra's com- 

630I miffion. 

M4 — 144 



4861, middle of the 70th week. 

3[, =«= remainder of the week. 

7—7=490 In the midft of the laft week the real facrU 
fice of Chrift fuperceded the typical. 

Some account the eclipfe 16 years later: But Cyrus was born 
the year after Darius : Tully fays that Cyrus lived 70 years : he 
reigned in all 30 ; and is allowed to have begun his reign 559 years 
before the Chriftian era. Herodotus and Eudemusdeem this eclipfe 
in the reign of Cyaxares. 

The chronology above is fhortcr than that commonly received, 
by fonie 80 years : but the dates in the old fcriptures abound with 
anachronifms. Thus Ahaziab, Jehoram of Juda's youngeft fon, 
fucceeded his father at 42 years old; who yet ended his reign at 40 2. 21, 20. 

Lis years 




2. K. 15,30, years old. Hofea conrpired againft Pekah of Ifrael in JotTiam's 
^^^» 33- 20th year; yet Jotham's reign began in Pekah's fecond year, and 
lafled only 16 years ; and fcarcely that, as Ahaz fuccceded Jotbam, 
* and 2"^°' ^" Pekah's 17th year. — Again, Hofea fucceeded Pekah immediatelyi 
2. K. 1.6. I. v'lu) reigned 20 years ; yet Hofea's reign began in the 12th of Ahaz 
(2. K. 17. 1,) tho' Ahaz did not begin his reign till the 17th of year 
of Pekah, — So, Amaziah of Juda reigned only 15 years after Jero- 
2, K. 14, 17 boam of Ifrael befcatne king: yet Amaziah's fucceffor began to reign 
in Jeroboam's 2yth year. — Alfo, tho* Amaziah reigned 15 years 
collaterally with Jeroboam, whofe reign was 41 years : whereby he 
2 K: 14; 17, furvived Amaziah 26 years only : yet it was in the 38th year of 
2 K. 15.^8. Amaziah*s fucceffor, that Jeroboam was fifcceeded by his fon. J6- 
fephus counts this Jeroboam*^ reign 40 years. — Saint Matthew namei 
in the regal table of Juda, Uzziah or Ozias, next to Jehoram; M 
Jotham next to him, as' he is 2. K. 15. 13 and 32. The fa6l fcdtk 
to be this ; Azariah (who is Uiziah) fucceeded Jehoram. In the 
interim Jehu reigned in Ifrael 28 years. All between him and Gadi, 
who probably was Jehu's fon, are interpolated. All between Joram 
and Azariah in the line of Juda (one of whom rs a woman) are in- 
terpolated, as faint Matthew fhews : therefore chronology of courfe 
proves it as to Ifrael. Ahab's 70 fons were begotten by the tsme 
prolific Rabbi, as begot 60 children for Ibzan: and the murderof 
thefe 70 refembles judge Abimelec's murdering 70 other bretben^ 
fo eafy it is to make and unmake mortals in the regions of romance. 
From Solomon's death to the captivity even Jofephus counts but 
374 years : that exceeds my cajculation 54 years. Clement of Alex* 
andria mentions that fome computet} only 352 years from David to 
the end of the captivity. Alexander Polyhiflor placed Solomon as 
-low as Vaphres of Egypt. Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus fhews from 
Timaeus that Carthage was built 38 years before the Olympic era, 
which began 776 years before the Chriflian : Jofephus fays that 
Solomon's temple was founded 143 years before Carthage. This 
Ant 8 2 2iccount places Solomon nearly at tlie time that I do. He alfo fays 
that Solomon built the temple 1440 years after the Deluge. The 
extreme age that mull be attributed to Phineas after Sampfon's days, 


Strom. I. 

Chap. 3-) PRIMITIVE HISTORY, a(5i 

argues that the prefent, hiftory is prolonged with three fi£litious cen- 
turies at lead ; ftill allowing Phineas a life equal to any of the fons 
pf men fubfequent to the £xod. 

Ramifes, fon of the firft Proteus of Herodotus, lived as Pliny 

v^rites, in the Trojan war; and appears to be the Ramfinitus the 

Treafury builder, who harafled the Ifraelites. The Greeks called 

him alfo Proteus after his fire. But Apollodorus means a much 

older Proteus (probably the Proteus faid to be Janus) when he fays 

that Dionyfiuswent to Proteus, and thence to Rhea. So Conan laPhotio. 

lays, Proteus was contemporary with Cadmus and Bufiris : Virgil, 

with Arifteus. Proteus and his fon Ramfinitus or Rhemphis feem 

from Herodotus to be the firft and fecond kings of the 19th Dynafty* 

and the laft of thefe two is the Ramefis or Proteus who lived during 

the Trojan war ,- and commenced his reign at the birth of Mofes ; 

tko' the Exod happened under his fucceflbr, who is the laft Nilus of 

Diodmus. Jofephus, to advance the antiquity of the Exod, con- 

f vena the Proteus and Ramfinitus of Herodotus, Pliny's Ramifes^the 

iCi^€tDphis of Diodorus, Manetho*s Rhamfes, the Raamfes of Tacitus 

and Mofes, into a fecond Sefoftris and fori : and <:reates at fecoiul 

Armais for this purpofe. But Herodotus fhews that after Sefoftris 

and his fon Phero (Manetho's Ramefis Miamun, and Pliny's Nun- 

coreut) Proteus reigned, before the Trojan war: he was the Rhapfes 

aotf Scthos of Jofephus, fucceeded according to Herodotus by the 

ftnloua Treafury builder; but Diodorus intcrpoles between Phero q^^.^. j^ i^^ 

and Sethos a Marus^ who is Amenophis the laft king of the 18th 

JOynafty, Strabo's Maindes or Menon. The Treafury builder lived 

in the time of the Trojan war; and his fucceflbr, at the Exod. — 

Ptezron confirms my computation; he fets Mofes three centuries after 

Jove and Europa. 

To return now to the Aflyrian hiftory. Ctefias may have aug- - 
mcnted the lift of kings with fiditious names ; fome of thefe being 
Gcccian, fome Perfian, fome Egyptian. The intention . >vas to ex- 
tendi Ninus up to the. founder of the ancient Nineve^ a^ Ctefias pro- 


bably took him to be ; for want of records probably demoliflied at 
the capture of Babylon by Cyrus: conquerors being fond of appearing 
at the head of hiftory, and giving rife to a new era. Ninus is proved 
Suidas. to be Picus; and Semiramis, Ifis. Picus lived 120 years; in his 
youth he was contemporary y^ith Ammon and his fon ; latterly with 
Ammon's grandfon Orus ; and at laft with Egyptus and Danaus: for 
Europa and Cadmus lived in the time of Picus and Danaus. Ame- 
nophis the father of Egyptus or Sefoftris was Menon fpoufe of Se- 
miramis ; and, being fubordinate to Jove Picus, they attended him 
in the Ba6lrian expedition. Sefoftris and Armais were their children. 
^ , The mother of Egyptus was Sida; who was Aftarte, as Selden aflertsi 

that is Venus Urania; but (he was often confounded with her 
daughter the younger Venus, Ifis or Semiramis. Armais or Armes 
was the Mercury who was the councellor of Ifis, and alfoof Sefat 
tris in Elian. But Anubis being a Mercury, PluUrch deems bin 
the foh of the Egyptian Venus ; who was the Titan Ifis. But Ami. 
bis was far more ancient than Picus or the mother of Armais ; he 
beiiig Thoth. Soon after the death of Ninus, Sefoftris grew famous 
and invaded Ba£iriana in his turn : whilft the fecond Ninus led t 
voluptuous life, taking care only to raife troops for the fecurity of 
"Babylonia, and the regions about the Tigris. 

It is an error to fay there were no Aflyrian kings prior to PA\ 

And Hygin. merely becaufe, having no concerns with Judea, facred writ takes 

no cognizance of any. Apollodorus fays, Cinyras was a king of 

Hift. 2. Aflyria. Lucan fays, the Temples built by Cinyras in Phenicia were 

as old as the Egyptian. Tacitus fays, he founded the moft. ancient 

ventcs. 'pgjjjpi^ Qf ^j^g Paphian Venus. Clement of Alexandria fays, (he 

was the daughter of Uranus, and miftrefs of Cinyras; therefore fhe 

was Rhea and he was Ammon. Cinyras was buried in the Paphian 

temple; whence probably this Pagan Profanation originated* 

Apollodorus fays he wedded Pygmalion's daughter Metharme. 

Suidas fays the dominions of Picus extended from Spain to the 

Euphrates. Nonnus fays that Staphilus became king of Aflyria after 

Bacchus; whom fome count Silenus (here an apel^ative like fatyr) 

and Staphilus his fon. Pliny ftiles Horus king of Aflyr a. Tzetzes 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 263 

ftilcs Sefoftris and Ofymandyas kings of Aflyria; but by thefe names 
he probably means oneperfon; Symandias fignifying fon of Mendes, 
Menes, or Amenophis. Manetho fays, the Hycfi fortified the eaftern 
fide of Egypt thro* fear of the potent Affyrians. Ifaiah fays, an 
Aflyrian haraffed the Ifraelites in Egyptj and during their errors, 
tbe Aflyrian is faid to be powerful in the Holy Land. Diodorus fays 
that Sefoftris fortified Egypt, from Pelufium thro* the Defert to 
Heliopolis, againft the incurfions of the Syrians and Arabs. 

Scaliger's barbarowi Chronologer agrees with Cedrenus and 

Suidas that Semiramis was Rhea; both (he and her daughter having 

this title, derived according to Bryant from Sama and Ram; and 

fynonymous to Belifama. So Cedrenus fays, ** Semiramis had thefe 

fons, Jove Belus and Ninus;*' but Jove Belus was the reputed fon 

of Rhea or Cybele; he feems to be Jove of Nyfa. Again he fays, 

" After Ninus, Thurus ruled Aflyria; his father Zames firnamed ^*^t^*** 

him Arcs:*' but Ares was fon of Jove. Cedrenus fays ** The 

AByrians erefled the firft ftatue to this Thurus, fucceflbr of 

Ninas.*' But Apollo was denominated Thurius, derived from Thor, j^ g j|^ 

a Cow in the Phenician tongue; this being the fymbol of Aftarte, 

implies Thurius to be her defcendant. Bochart indeed fays, the 

Sueci called Thunder, Thor; who therefore was the Gallic Taramis, 

whence Jove Taranteus; both being from the Celtic Taratij Thunder. 

But Thor*s bearing a hammer fliews him to be that Zeus who was 

the Egyptian Vulcan, or Ham ; whofe fon Menes or Mifor was 

therefore ftiled Dionius. However, the Celtic Thor was long 

before tho. Aflyrian Thuras. Bochart quotes a Greek author thus, 

•• After Ninus, Thuras ruled Aflyria, his father Zames, yuno's 

brother^ called him Mars, after the planet.*' It feems clear that, 

if Thurus was Mars, his father (Juno's brother) was Picus, and there 

was but one Titan Ninus ; who, if Semiramis was Rhea, was her 

lbn« But the fecond Ninus is the fon of Semiramis, and taken for 

his father Ninus who was Picus: and he being blended with Ammon, 

Semiramis was confounded with her mother Rhea, Cybele, Aftarte, 

Dionc, Baaltis or Derceto. That Derceto was Aftarte Artemidorus 

Ihews, Semiramis was the Egyptian Minerva, Neitb, or Nitocris: ^^^^^' 




fo Suidas fays, (he built the pyramids; Syncellus ftiys Nitocris built 
the third pyramid. , Herodotus calls the builder, indead of the 
building, Che-ops, houfe of Ops. Clement o^ Alexandria :fays, Se- 
Strom. I. miramis was a queen of Egypt : but Herodotus could hear of no 
other queen of Egypt than Nitocris, or Minerva ViSrix.; therefoit 
Nitocris or Neith was Semiramis. But Plutarch fays that by Minerva 
Ids was frequently underAood. As lfi» or Ceres was often con* 
founded with her mother; fo this elder Ceres or Ops was often con- 
founded with her own mother, the elder Vefta, Titaea or Terra : for, 
6^267. ^ho* Virgil (Eneid 8. 137) diftinguifhes Terra from Demetcr j yet 
he feems to do fo, as the younger Ceres was (tho' improperly) called 
Ovid Fail. Demeter ; which means the mother of A^w, or of Ceres. Tbc 
V * younger Vefta, Rhea's daughter, lived a virgin; as did the Minem 
Civ. Dei. ^jjQ ^2s the daughter of Picus. Varro (in Auguftine) fays. Tern 
was Ops, Proferpine and Vefta. Aufonius (Epigram 29)fhewstlnt 
Dionyfius or the Titanian Ofiris the fpoufe of Ifis was Adonis, and 
Attes : thus Paufanias ftiews that Attes was ilain by a botfi 
Pliny ig. 4. ^* ^^^ Adonis. And Venus being Semiramis, her pendeBt 

^, „ Gardens at Babylon were called gardens of Adonis. He wn 

Manil. 4* . . 

called Adonifirisj and fhc was the Venus who fled from Typha* 

^^? 61*^' ^^ ^^^^ ^^y^' Venus Dione fled from Typhon to the A* 
phrates; alfo Pifce Venus latuit: So Tzetzes fays that Seminoik 
was coiiverted into a fifti. Artemidorus fays, " The Syrians eat i» 
fifli, out of refpefl to Aftarte:" Here as ufual the two Cybcki 
are confounded, for Rhea the elder Cybele was in alliance witk 

When Semiramis appeared in the Aflyrian army, (he was called 
from the fingularity of the aft and of her drefs, as well as by wa^ 
of eminence, Venus, the Woman, in Celtic Beneu; the B bcin^^ 
turned to V, as from Ber comes Veru; fo Manorbyr in Pembrokc^*^ 
fhire is the Manor of the Spit, which was formed by Cauldy, or th^^ 
Ifle of the Coldees; as the Ifle of Wight forms Spithead. By con—" 
verting B Into M Beneu is made to fignify beauty in Hebrew. 
Semiramis thus became Benoth, the Binos of Su'das. Tho* fome 
define Venus Owen, a fmile, agreeable to the epithet Philomedes; 


Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 265 

and Bryant derives it from Oiva;, a Dove; yet my derivation proves 

correft, from the grammatical tranfmutation of primary letters in 

Celtic: thus in Cornifli, Bcncn is a woman; a Venen, O woman. 

Benoth has nearly the fame fignification ; Succoth Benoth being the ' 

Tents of the. virgins ; or rather of Venus Urania : for Mofes calls 

the firft (lation of the Jews Succoth ; Jofephus calls it Latopolis ; 

for Latona, who was a great Deity of Egypt, was cojifounded with 

Ifis, or Venus Urania, as being the mother of Orus. Hence Homer 

makes Venus the miflrefs of Bacchus; Dionyfius being the father '^' * ^ 

of Orus. The African Sicca Venerea is confonant to Succoth Be^ 

liolh ; in both thofe places of devotion women Were proftituted in 

honour of Venus. Eufcbius fays, Latona is Juno: Plutarch (on 

Craflus) writes that fomc call Juno, Venus. Ifis is derived from v^^ld*/* 

Ifchka, which is of the fam^ import as Latona or Letous, who was 

Kfiiia Perenna; for Ifckie in Laponic is Annus; fo is Lato in 

Lufafian; Leitou in Sclavonian ; years being at firft lunar : and as 

from Annus came Annofus, fo Ifis fignified ancient, as Eufebius 

stSetts. Plutarch (hews that as Ifis had many names, fo that name 

l|ad many fignifications. Suidas fays a city in Crete was named 

Bene. Aflabinus, the Ethiopian name of Dionyfius, bears fome ^ ^. 

. .- ^ ^ OaRianus. * 

ftlltion to Venus; the Deities Afliteroth being Lunus and Luna ; 

ifetiice the mafculine Venus, pollens Deus. AfTabinos is Aita-binos; 

T amf S are commutable, as Thalaffa, Thalatta 5 Glofla, Glbtta. 

ItiUt is the fame as Papa, a name of Jove, and allied to Atys, a 

' itUtte of Dionyfius, Jove of Nyfa.-^Cedrenus fays the Wife of Bclus, 

I the was Amenophis or Menon, was Sida; but Selden (hews that 

S/ddi in Ecclefiaftes means a beautiful woman. Suidas deems Sida, Ci. 11. 

. 4e daughter of Taurus (the Jove who ftole Europa) and that fhe 

^landed Sida in Pamphylia: he calls herhufband, Tmolus: but fhe 

^as ArnmorCs daughter ; and mother (not daughter) of Danaus, in ^ 

Pavifanias. Plutarch fays " Ifis fled to Biblos to Aftarte;*' who 

^ais Rhea, Athera, Derceto, Dione, Baaltis or Beltis ; deified at 

Bafeylon by Venus Semiramis; which name is faid to fignify a dove: 

but. Dione rather does fo, and was probably given hcif in gallantry ; 

M m hence 


266 PRIM I TIVE HI STORY. (Book t. 

hence that bird became facred to Venus : yet according to Bryant, 
the dove had relation to the primitive Ifis or Venus and to No^h*s 
dove.— I think Noah's wife, who feems to be Friga, the priniitive, 
Woden's, was deemed a Venus ; as Ham's was in Egypt, and Mi- 
for's afterwards ; long before the Titanian beauties, who aflfumed 
their honours. Plutarch plainly (hews that Ids lived in the time of 
Athera, Atergatis or Derccto, and her daughter Semiramis : as in- 
deed Semiramis was Ifis. Eufebius, according to Jerom, deemed 
Semiramis contemporary with Europa ; yet inconfiftently places her 
above 500 years before Cecrops ; who was full as early as Deucalion 
the coufin German of Ele6lra the mother of Harmonia wife of Cad- 
mus Europa's inquifitor. Plutarch fuggefts that Semiramis was a 
fervant: yet that Semiramis is Ifi , Ceres or Cybelc, appears hence? 

^,??"** Semiramis is recorded to be the authorefs of Eunuchifm ; which k 
MarceJhn 14 f* rr> r x - 

Chil.9. 175. attributed to the miftrefs of Atys. T zetzes lays, the Tynan records 

mention that Semiramis became a fifh ; fo Pifce Venus latuit. She 
^- '4* is Thefmophorus or the legiflator Beroe (in Nonnus) the daughter 
of Venus Urania or Aftarte: but Berytus or Beruth, which is Beroci 
is (in Stephanus) a fifh. Hefychius fays (he was called Ddiphat\ 
Selden derives this from the Syrian Delphah, venereal embracei 
The Penfile gardens of Semiramis were famous-, Suidas fays, " tbrf 
were called gardens of Adonis and proverbially barren :" but AdoWl 
was Ofiris the gallant of Ifis, who was Venus. Eudoxus (in PliH 
tarch) fays that Ifis-prefided over amours. Suidas (hews that Pru- 
pus, fon of Jove (of Nyfa) and Venus, was Orus Ion of Ifis: thiu 
Prep. 2. 2. Priapus is in Eufebius the fon of Venus and Dionyfius. LuciancalU 
Priapus a DaQyl and Titan; meaning Orus Apollo. Epimenides 
deemed Venus the daughter of Saturn and Eurynome ; (he wa» . 
Derceto; for Paufanias reprefents Eurynome, like Dercetp, h?ilf 
Apollonius. woman, half fi(h. She was the concubine of Opbiwn or Uranus^ 
prior to her connexions with Saturn and Ammon: for (he wasRhca^^ 
Aftarte, Athera and the eldeft Proferpine, with whom Uranus (wa^ 
thus the Jove who) committed inceft. Apollonius Rhodius men- 
tions Eurynome's commerce with Ophion, whom Saturn depofed* 
Ifis being confounded with her mother the elder Profepine, the Core 


De Saltu. 
L. 8. 

Fab. Ult. 

Chap. 3.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 267 

Protogone of Paufanias, Clement of Alexandria fays that Proferpine 
loved Adonis : therefore fhe is the fame as Venus : who is by Epi- Natal.Comes 
knenides, and Diodorus (i) faid to be the daughter of Saturn, he 
being the father of Ceres or Ifis. Hyginus fays, Ifis invented a fhip 
with fails, to go in quell of her fon Harpocrates ; this is the elder 
Ifis, and her fon, Adonofiris. Ifis is the Salambo of Babylon (in 
Hefychius) who fpent her time in roamingafter her loft Adonis. 
Venus is alfo faid by Apollonius tohave been beloved by Dionyfius; 
flie therefore is Ifis : and, being Ceres, a name derived from the 
Hebrew Keres, Clades, was the Libitinsea infera. Clement of 
Alexandria fays, the Argives adored Venus the grave-digger. Plu- 
tarch fays, Ifis was fometimes called Muth, death. Paufanias calls 
death. Fate; and (1) the celeftial Venus, the eldeft Fate. Apiileius l. 5. 
ftiles her queen of the Manes and the Cyprian Venus. Aufonius 
mentions that April was dedicated to that Venus, who was Ceres. 

Rhea, Aftarte, Dione or Baaltis was, as Artemidorus fliews, Ater- '• 9 
gatisand Derceto : alfo Athyr and Athera, which in Egypt fignified ^ 

fas Tzetzes fays Thebe in Syriac does) a cow, the Symbol of the Lycophron. 
elder Ifis, the Aftarte or Aftitoreth of Phenicia ; the Venus Urania, 
whom the fcholiaft of Apollonius (3) deems older than Jove. So 
Hcfydiius fays, the Egyptians call Venus, Athyr; as Plutarch calls 
Ifii; 5trabo fays, " Athera was called Atergate, whom Ctefias calls 
Derceto.'* Pliny fay^^, Atergatis was Derceto. Diodorus calls Der- 5. 23. 
relo the Goddcfs of Afcalon, and fays the mo'l ancient temple of 
V^Mus Urania was at Afcaloti. Macrobius fays that Adargatis was 
rterra. Thus Derceto being Athyr, and Athyr the elder Ifis, flie 
••^s the mother of S( niiramis. To her the Egyptian month Athyr 
^s dedicated. Panfaiias fhews that her hufband Sitarn (being 
r^on, which fignifics ocean) had the name of Neptune: for he fays 
^si-t Neptune was Defpoina's father, and that ftie wa«; Ceres Demeter's 
• Ti^ht<T; hut this Ceres was Saturn's daughter: beiue I conclude 
^^a^^ Saturn was the Neptune who invented Horfe:narifhip ; his fon 
Z/V\iron bei'ig a HorTcman. The Idea Mater of Lartantius, and of 
V^Vy (gy) is named Venus, by Solinus, 7. alfo Mdier Deum ,- as *h. 7V 

M «i 2 likewife 

ft68 P.RIMITIVE HISTORY, (Bock t. 

likcwife by Valerius Maximus, i. i. and is his Ceres vetuftiffima i 
the antiquiflima of Tully and Laftantius. Varro fays, the PheoU 
cian Aftarte was the Latin Ops, and the Egyptian Ifis ; wherein (hq 
is, as ufual, confounded with her daughter. She is the Cecropiail 
Minerva, who at Eiis was named Meter ; tho* the Minerva, who 
was in the army of Bacchus (as the poet Thymaetes in Diodonis 
wrote) was the younger Ifis. That poet faid the Egyptian Bacchus 
was Ammon's fon, and of courfe the fon of Rhea or the elder Ifis. 
Mythologifts fay Minerva was anciently called Men-erva; which 
name is partly derived from Mene, Luna. She is Nitocris, and 
Nicea whom Nonnus calls Luna ; and, " Diana in the field, Venus 
in the chamber :** thus Paufanias fays, ** Eurynome was taken to be 
Diana;'* fhe being- Derceto, Athera, Aftarte, Venus Urania or tW 
^, 5 2^ eldeft Diana, grandmother of Orus Apollo and of his fifter Bubaftn 
Agathias writes that Anaitis was Venus. Ifis is the younger Min* 
erva, whom Herodotus counts the daughter of Neptune ; who was 
Meon Cybeles* fpoufe and father of the younger Ceres or Ifis. Hence 
Suidas fays Minerva's temple at Athens was that of Ceres, Neptuiw 
and Dionyfius. Apuleius (ii) ftiles Ifis " Cecropian Minerva, JunOt 
Deum Mater, Ceres Vetufta, Proferpine, queen of the Manes ,Hi^ 
cate, Diana, Luna, Venus." Servius deems Ceres, Luna, Dim 
Gcor. I. 5. Juno and Proferpine: hence the planet Venus was alfo called Jm^ 
^'iSando^^ Sanchoniatho fays, Saturn and Aftarte traverfed the whole worfit 
and that flie was mother of the Artemidcs : hence (he is Diana Cc— 
leftis, the Venus Urania in Tully, Herodotus (1) and Plato's Sym— 
pofiacs, who counts her the daughter of Uranus. But Tully, owip^ 
to Venus being called by her mother Dione's name, confouni^ 
Aftarte with the Venus, who was efpoufed by Adonis or Adonofirisr^ 
the fon of the eldeft Cinyras, who was Ammon. Strabo (16) fays^ 
his palace was at Biblos. ** He was made king of Cyprus bf^ 
Dionyfius," when worfted by Saturn. Cinyras is feigned to haver 
Adonis by his daughter; becaufc Rhea or Cybele was confounded 
with her daughter Ceres, who is the Venus beloved by Adonis: thus 
Tatian fays that Rhea became a tree; and Clement of Alexandria, 
on the contrary, fays that Venus was beloved by Cinyras. And 
Proferpine is faid to have been enjoyed by Jove her fire, the' ftie 


Chap. 30 P R I M I T I V £ H I S r O R Y, t^ 

died a virgin; becaufe fhe is confounded with the cider Proferpine 
who was alfo Rhea, and Eurynome who cohabited with Uranus her 
fire; but was the mother of Jupiter Europ:a's gallant; who, being 
confounded with Ammon, is faid to enjoy his mother : and as San- 
choniatho fhews that his daughter Minerva was Proferpine's fifter ; 
Amsion had the younger Proferpine by the elder Ceres or Rhea, Hygin: 
the mother of that Ceres who was the real Ifis, the Venus who fled -« "^'t** 
from .Typhon, and Derceto's daughter: who being Serairamis, proves 
hcF mother to be Dione or Baaltis, and Aftarte or Athera: this Af- Nonnus 
tacte or Venus Urania gave her name to the city Urania in Cyprus. 
Of her daughter Germanicus on Aratus fays, " The daughter 
of Venus was transformed to a fi(h, and deified by the Syrians.** 
Amenophi^ or Menon the fpoufe of Semiramis is the Egyptian Belus, 
nho (as Paufanias fays) went to Babylon: he is the Nilus, in Dio- 
4.oi\ii, the father of Egyptus and Danaus; for every Araenophis 
\nis ^ Nilus. Their mother, fays he, was Memphis daughter of 
Uchorcus : Memphis is a Patronymic of Ifis: Uchoreus (from Chor) 
isfynonymous to Meon, Cybele's hulband. Diodorus (in Eufebius) 
fays that Ceres is Luna and Juno. Tully fays Luna had Bacchus 
by jove: this fhews that Rhea, the elder Ceres and Proferpine, the 
reputed mother of Dionyfius by Ammon, was Aftarte, Venus Urania, 
^^^tbian Alilat. Apollonius (4) and Virgil fay that Pan enjoyed Geor: 
L«ni io the fhape of a ram ; they mean Aftarte and AmnK>n ; the 
'iwfiid by Diodorus (in Eufebius) to be Saturn's brother, Lucian 
^ Aftarte, Selenaea: and flie is the Thracian Bendis faid by Pro- 
«*»« to be the moon. Nicomachus ftiews Themis, Ifis the elder, 
%a, Diana Celeftis, Afteria, Vefta, Vemis Urania, and Dione j^ pj^^^j^ 
^ l>e the fame perfon ; alfo. Fate and Death. Plutarch fays that In Numa: 
Vcnuswas Libitina. In Tully ftie is fortune alfo; fo in Hygintfs. z.lT^* 
J^^kfonfays (Chron/2. 179) the moon was in Armenia called Tyche. 
^"^J" in Suidas, and Nonnus (5) tell us Tritogenia was Luna or 
^^^\is Urania. Plutarch fays that Minerva was Ifis; who had a 
*"^fand names. Minerva being Athera, Ovid fays Met.4. tcc. 

Maftatur Vacca Minervac. 




And being Aftarte or Venus Urania, Virgil terms the planet Vcnui 
En. II. 260. Minervae Sidus. Thus both Minerva and Venus had the name ( 
Apaturia: and when diftinguiOied, they are fo as mother and daugl 
ter, who are too often confounded. Paufanias fays that the ftatue ( 
Venus Urania was arrayed in armour; thus Lycophron calls Minerv 
the Phenician deity: yet her daughter was the Egyptian Nitocrii 
who aided Ammon, when her mother was of Saturn's party. Rhc 
or Aftarte is the Minerva faid in Strabo to be the mother of the Co 
rybantes: iho* JlriBly they were the fucceffbrs of thofe Curctes wIm 
were really the Daftyls, and related to Rhea: thus feme reputec 
Saturn to be their fire; as he cohabited with Rhea: fome reputec 
them to be fons of Sol, tl.e Sol or Titan who was Ammon, Sa- 
turn's rival in love and empire: hence Euripides and others deemed 
them to be fons of Jove. Diodorus has an infcription for Ifis, whid 
(hews that the elder I (is was Diana Celeftis, faying, Bubajlis wai 
founded in honour of her: but as it calls her the mother of Orus, i« 
alfo refpefts the younger Ifis. 

As Eufebius (from Diodorus) fays that Pan was Saturn's brother^ 

Prep: Ev, 2. it confirms my opinion that Ammon was Saturn's brother, and fom^ 

Hcfychius. times named Hyperion, Titan and Sol. He is the Zeus Caraiusy 

Clem: Alex, the BoBOtiarts: hence the ftory of the ram's tefticles thrown 

bofom of Ceres. The eldeft Ceres and Ammon were the Gods Afflte^ 

roth. Quintus Curtius fays that Ammon's idol had a ram's head. Juba 

4.7. wrote that the Greeks called wool Thalaffia; hence probably cain< 

Jove Thalaffius: yet Efchylus (in Paufanias) has a maritime Jupiter 

who feems to be Neptune, Agenor's fire, called by fome Bclu 

Prifcus, and the Tyrian Belus of the poet Dorotheas; alfo to be San 

choniatho's Demaraon Zeus. To Ammon relates Turnefort's in 

fcription from the Ifle of Naxia. 

O^cg Aiog 'MviXcaOov, 

On Eneas Hefychius fays that Ma-zeus was a Phrygian name of Jove ; and thj 
Rhea was called Ma, among the Carians and Lyd a is; whofe Ian 
guage Bochart fays is allied to the Phyrgian. Hefychius fays M; 


;;hap. 8-) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 271 

1 Phrygian, is fheep. Thus it anfwers to Afhleroth, Tlis name 
Fa/ares is fynonymous to Mazeus; Sar, which is primarily a rock, 
nifi^sa potentate. Ammon probably was Anammelec; Anam in 
abi« being fheep. He alfo was Philo's Phenician God Agrotes: 
icrobius reprefents him holding ears of corn. Paufanias (1) men- 
tis Ceres Ovifera, meaning the el Jeft Ceres. She was Sais of Lycophron. 
rypt; and the Saites adored flieep. Rhea or Aftane was the real 
ino, Hera, wife and fifler of Ammon, not of Picus. Lucian fays 
j^artewas Juno. Augiiftine fays, Allartc is a name of Juno. Hence JudiQu; 16. ^ 
J\odorus fays, fome held Ofiris to be Juno's fon: and that Ifis was 
Icctned to be Ceres, Juno and Luna. So Eufebius calls Luna the mo- 
ther of Bacchus. Hefychius (ays BvjxGv); 'vj^H^r* \ 'Acp^oSir^i; meaning 
Venus Urania. Sanchoniatho fhews that fhe was alfo called Dione. 
?\uiarch mentions the Goddefs called by fome Juno, by others Venus. 
YauWnm (3) mentions an ancient wooden ftj^tue of Juno Venus. 
' Strabofjj fays the Tufcans call Juno, Cypra; ihe is Cyprus the 
; ^ghterof Ciri) ras in Stcphauus. She is here the younger Titanian 
Ms;dio,* as Juno, the elder Ifis: they being (let me repeat) often 
Wended together. This Cinyras was older than the fon of Thyas in 
Suidas, who gave Agamemnon a brcaftplate, and was grandfon of jiomcr. 
"»-nacus, a name compounded of Pharo-Anax. Hyginus fays he 
^AcSwi of Paphos and extremely handfome. Catullus {hews that 
f J^licina is Diana and Luna. She was Elithya and Phofphorus; and 
iflftjrfjcus,Pafiphae; being Venus Urania, as Paufanias affirms. Olen _ 
'^ftufanias fays, (he was Cupid's mother, and was Pepromene or 
I ^^i but that fhe was older than Saturn. TuUy fays, that Luna 
wd Lucina are fynonymous names ; aod that fhe was Diana, (the 
rfdcr) Proferpine's daughter; here as ufual the younger Ifis is con- 
founded with the elder: for Macrobius calls Diana, Opis; who 
is Ops or Rhea the daughter of Uranus, Ophion, or Ophis. 
She is certainly the Oupis of Callimachus and Palephatus, Ttilly's 
Upis, the Opis of Herodotus, who brought the facred rites to Delos; 
ho' from that office he places her in a menial capacity under the 
3ods, that is under the original Cabiri: hence perhaps the notion. 
hat Semiramis was a fervant. We muft obferve that mod of the 




(Book t. 

titles, affumed by the Titan Rhea, and her daughter Ceres, originally 
belonged to Ham's wife, and to his- daughter Mifor's wife ; fuch as 
Ifis, Thebe, Chamyna, Latona; as Ham was the firft Egyptian Vul- 
can, Prometheus, Cronus, and Belus-, and Mifor, their firft Ofiris, 
Bacchus, Mercury, and Pa"h. The floating ifle of Delos feems to al- 
lude to the Ark, in which Ham's Latona was. 

In Cefar: 



3, Paufaniis. 

Some take Ninus, who efpoufed 3emiramis, to be the Lydian 
Ninus defcended from Omphale and the Tyrian Hercules; Alcides 
being feveral generations later: for Apollodorus fays, (he was the 
relift of Tmolus king of Lydia, who (as Ovid fays) differed from 
Midas in the conteft between Pan and Apollo: and (as Hyginus 
writes) had Midas by the Mother of the God^; and therefore feems 
to be the famous Gordius, who, (as Plutarch fays) had Midas by the 
Bona Dea. On rivers, he fays, Tmolus killed himfelf from a pre- 
cipice, thro* remorfe forravifhing Arrhippe one of Diana's train. 
Others fuppofe Ninus to be the fon of the Babylonian Belus, Saturn's 
ally. If be was Picus^, he was Saturn's youngeft fon, who extended 
his fway from the Euphrates to Spain; and this is probable, as the 
times coincide; efpecially confidering this Jove's longevity, dLmount- 
ing to 120 years. 

A TA B L E 0/ the dircH (Ufcendants of Noah's three fans. 




Aracus, flain by 












— I 














pf Noah and his Sons. Of Ham and the Cabiri; Curetes, DaByls^ 

Palici^ Patacij Penates^ Lares, Corybantcs, AnaEles, Diofcuri, t?c. 

The Settlements of Ham* s JJ/'ue. Of Mi for, in Egypt; Cujh, in Su- 

tana ; Canaan, in Phenicia, 0/ the Belus who went to Babylon. 

Of the feveral Mecns. OfCyhde^ the Titan Meon*sor Saturn's Rhea 

or Lady. Of Teutat or Tuitho, Sire of Mannus, Founder of the 

TiloHs. Of the Titans and their Contemporaries. Of the Phenician 

ffercuUs prior to Cadmus and to Sfjojlris : Yet the Titans were long 

after the pri7nitive Cahiri^ Meon or Saturn, theFather cf Picus, dijlin- 

^Jked from Amenophis and Acmon^s Sire, and from Mi for, one of . 

Ac Egyptian Cabiri here enumerated. Of Ammon, TeuMamus, Amoiy 

wr km^s. Of the Antiquify of the Titans. 

T ET us now trace Noah's family in general. Noah is the Aion 

[ of Nonnus ; and the ancient Proteus of Orpheus, who bore 

^ie keys of the Ocean. He is the ancient Nereus of Apollonius 

"nodius. Alfo the Ofiris whom Plutarch calls Oceanu«. And the 

^^^ being called Boiis, he is the Oceanus in Euripides, and the q ^ g 

'fcptune in Hefycliius, called Taurus. Herodotus mentions the L. 4. 49. 

"vcr Noas in Thrace ; it is a branch of the Danube. Pliny (6) 

tells Us there was a town of that name near the Red Sea : faid to be 

the native pUire of the Sibyl Sambctlie; whence perhaps the fable 

CI nerbeinir Noah's dauolncr. Suidas mentions the town Noae in 

Sicuy, Thefe are all furjM:fcd to he named in honour of Noah : 

lb probably was No in Eg\pt ; as Chemmis in honour of Ham; 

N n Mezre 


Mezre and Mendes in honour of Mifor. Noah feems to be the 
German Alcis or El-zeus, The firft Janus may have been Noah^ 
jji^ J and named Jah No; as Ovid hints that Janus was more ancient thaa 
all the Grecian Gods. 

Noah's three fons produced iflue of three different complexions; the 
Ethiops, Getae and Ceftae; who neverthelefs intermixed with one 
another in the countries between 20 and 50 degrees of narthem lacL 
tude : conftituting on one hand the Indo-Scythians ; on the other, 
the Celto-Scythians. 

Critia8« Thefe fons of Noah are Plato's Gods, who took their realtMlqr 

Lot without contention: tho* this pacific difpoGtion continued m 
long time ; for Ham's fons Chus and Canaan poflefTed thelnfetm 
of Babylon and Paleflinc ; whilft the Arabian Hycfi invaded 
Similar to this primitive divifion of the earth, the Titans long 
afterwards made a partition of the Vorld between Saturn, Titan 'tr 
Ammon, and Japet : Saturn being Meon, was an Oceanus mi 
Neftune ; Ammon was Jfove ; and Nonnus mentions the glotff 
realms of Jiapet, who thus was Pluto^ Of thefe Titans the "fti^ 

Kai tu^tXtvffe Kpovog, hccs Ttrav^ luxeloile* 

The Greek and Roman Poets wrongly attributed this partition Id 
Saturn's fons. 



In Tcrtullian 



Lord Monboddo, from a French Jefuit, fays the Americans deem 
themfelves defcendents of three families. The Saturn, faid in the 
Sibylline poems to have been the firft fovereign in the world ; alfo 
faid to be the firft crowned head, is the Cronus or Belus prinius of 
Eupolemus: that is Ham, who gave his name to the art of chemiftry: 
yet in Perfic Cham is fmall. He is Tully's Valens, Mercury's fire; 


ChaiNj.) PRI M IT I VE HIST OR Y- . tj^ 

Sadorh (whence Saturn) fignify insr Valens. This Mercury was Mifor: 
bat his fon Thoth was the Hermes wljofe mother Phoranis (her . 
ocher name Chamyna being a Patronymic, like the flritifh Camma}^ '^^^^X- 
feems the daughter of tho mon: ancient Phoroneus, whoo) I take to* 
be Ham; confounded a^ he is with the Ton of Inachus. Ham was 
alfo Ae great Egyptian Vulcan, progenitor of their Cabiri. 
Hence be is the K^jx^hI^*? of Afclepiades, Stobeus, and Photius. 
Alexander the Great wrote to his mother that a pried liad difclofed 
tofkim the mortality of their Gods, and that Vulcan was the prin*. 
Ctpal. He is the Tan Fan of the (fOths; this name (ignifying Ignis Minnt Pefix* 
Numeni Tan being Celtic for fire; Fan, is Numen in Teutonic; 
hence perhaos Fane, a temple; many words are thus compounded, 
as Hen Caftle, Pembrook, Crunwear, Penzance: yet Sherringham 
fays Tan in Teutonic fignifies Sor .-He is theVolian or Vulcan an Marcdlas 
^d God of Gaul. He is the eldeft Thamuz, the Macedonian 
Tbauims or Mars ; hence Genitor Mavors; and being, the original q^^^^ "*** 
Zaniolxis, or Zam-oUZeus, the mighty God Ham, the Samolus anr 
•mblem of prolificity was dedicated to, and named from him; yet 
Samol Ggnifying the left hand, this plant was gathered with that 
band* He was the Egyptian Thamiiz: hence Plato fuppoles him to 
be Ammon, a name prim tively of Ham, tho* affumed long after* 
^»w^ by Rhea's Gallant, Plutarch fays Amun is recondite, the 
lenft of Baflkreus according to Hornius; this was a name of the 
Tilan Ammon's fon, who in that name and in others was confounded 
with his fire; fiinilar to the Cefars and Ptolemies. Plutarch's Amyn 
is Sanchoniatho's Amynus Thoth's grandfire. Camafene in Sicily 
feems «to have been named in honour of Hanu Nonnus in bis 14* ai, 
Dionyfiacs writes 

*Itectg ^R^atgroto Svu flwpiu^f Kct^etpovg^ 

He names tVem Alcon and Eurymedon, which fignify power and 
cxteprivc dominion, and allude to Mifor and Canaan. Apollonius ^ 
R^odiu^ favs that Eurymedon was Perfeus; and this (hews that the 
Titans aflumcd tlie titles of Ham's immediate defcendents. Jackfon 

N n 2 refers 


ty6 PItlMITIVE HISTORY. (Book » 

refers to a Medal of Carrhac, having the image of a Cabir, or Deiu 

Scho? A^t PQ^^"s> ^^^^ ^ hammer and key. The Hammer is peculfar tc 

Rhod. Vulcan, The key feems to imply that he unlockt the arts to th< 

Poftdiluvians: but Paufanias fays, the key alludes to Pluto; fron 

from which we might fuppofe him to be Muth or Serapis, as well a< 

Vulcan: for he was Ammon, Montfaucon's fetting Siiii. Horniuj 

fays that Sol is Serapis from Seraph, owng to burning; hence alio 

he derives Seraphs, and Pro-ferpine. Cham in the Zingara laii- 

guage is Sol, the great Pheniciau Deity Chamos. Cham and Zeus 

alfo figriify fervour; hence Jove Serapis in Selden : but his foo, 

being Ofiris, was Serapis alfo; for Oriental titles were common'jr 

transferred from fatiier to fon, Paufanias writes that the moft anci- 

Sttidas. ent Temple of Serapis was at Memphis. Cecrops broug' t iWn 

Vulcan's laws to Athens; and Ham being the primitive Cronuv 

Cbarondas faid the laws, he inftituted at Carihaoe, were Saturn^ 

Ham is called Belus, as well a^ Cronus, by Eupolemus. Eratoft- 

henes, by Riling Thoth's father, jovius, fhews that Ham wa^ called 

Jove; Mifor or Menes being his fon. He is Tully's Jove, who b^ 

the primitive Proferpine had the frft Di-ana. The Celtic Thai 

Irifh for a lord, but Iflandic for Audacia, was this primitive Jove 

*^ ' for SchefFer fays, after Rheen, that *• in Lapland Thor was figWBi^ 

with a hammer in his hand," Vulcan's badge; Ham being VuiHti 

Cronus, and Zeus. This explains Paufanias, where he ftiles Vulcan's 

' ^' altar, Mrrtial Jcve*s: for the eldeft Mars was this Saturn; tho? 

Gruter's infcrption Mars Camulus relates to Mifor, the primitive 

Mercury in Macrobius: Camol fignifies a prince. Ham is Lir- 

cian's Mars, who taugjbt Priapus to dance. LaBantius informs us 

this Mars, theThracian Cod, ** was in Macedonia named Gabirusj 

the Arabian Cabar in Stiden; that is Cabir, potent: thus Ham is tt"" 

I. 918; Jove deemed by the Scoliaft of Apollonius to be the oldefl Cabf 

and his fon Mifor bcii g Ohri , a name given to Dionyfius, he 

reputed the yonngeft Cabir. Ham being Thor, the Meon who w^ 

Noah or the firft Oceanus and hi confort Tcthys (whom the Tita 

Meon and Cybele affecled to perfonarc) became Odin and AffiiT 

Kertha, Terra ai^d Frga: this Odin i^ the oldeft of the Afaein th' 

Edda, fuperior to the Potent Gods : but Typhon long afterward 


Chap. 4.) P R I M 1 T I V E H 1 S T O R Y. ^n 

feems to have been an Odin alfo. Wormius fhews that human ob- 
lations were made to Thot; as they were to the primitive Saturn of 
Egypt, who was Ham; Jeremiah's Chemofh ; the Chamos of the 42- 7» 
Septuagint: to him Hamburg feems to have been dedicated, probably 
by hisj^reat grandfon Teutat or Tuitho. Ham was Taramis or Jove 
Tarameus. He is aifo the primitive Egyptian Prometheus in Phornu- 
tus; not the Aftrono.ner of Caucafus, but the fource of men in Egypt. 
His wife's name was Thebe the mother of Chamyna^ that Ifis or Mi- Paofan. 
ncrva who was MiforVs con(ort. Hecatompylos was called Thebes DioJorui i: 
fr(jm her; as (he was called Thebe from the Ark; fee Bryant; and 
Ham feems the real Zeth of Apollodor.UvS, from whofe. wife Thebe 
Thebais had its name. She was Coria Tully's Coriphe. Pau- 
fanias fays that Prometheus was a Cabir, but miftakes him for Deu- 
calion's fire; and fays that fome myflerious donation of Ceres initi- 
ated the Cabiri; which regards the Samo-thracian Cabiri; a name 
thai feems allie 1 to the Perfian Ghabri; Ghabr, Ghavr, fignifies a 
faj^c, or ma^e, a na ne derived from Mogh, Sacerdos, which agrees 
withrfie fcnfc of Mage in Apuleius; tho* they properly were Luna*s 
priefts, Luna in Perfic being Magj. Ham was the Prometheus of 
Egvpt, in whofe time a deluge deftroyed a great part of mankind, 
as Diodorus wr'tes: this was no other than the univerfal Cataclyfm, 
Tlwtt (in the hiftorical fenfe) it is, that Plato tells Dionyfius^ '* The 
Ancients joined Prometheus to Jove:** in a theological fenfe, the 
Logos and Omnipotence are meant. — The Gallic Hercules, whom 
Lucian proves to be Mercury, and whofe worfhip was inftituted in 
Gaul by Tuitho or Teutat, tho' afterwards tran ferred to himfelf, 
was Ham's fon Mifor, the firft Egyptian Mercury s^nd Hercules; 
hence the Hcrm-eraclea mentioned by Hornius. His father made 
him Viceroy of Egypt, where he embankt the river near Memphis, 
thus termtnati'ig the Eagle's ravages on the vitals of this primitive 
Prometheus: tho' the Titans afFefted the titles of the Cabiri, 
wherever they imitated their aftions; as we now ftile any great hun- 
ger, a Nimrod: This is the Prometheus who, as Suidas write?^, re- 
formed language in a grammatical manner-, for his fon enafled laws* 
his grandfon invented letter^; which feem fubfequent improvements. 
Tiic daughter of this primitive Prometheus was, as Anticlides fhews, 



that Ifis Mifar's wife; whofe name Rheaor Cybele and her daughter 
Ceres adopted. This aReQation caufed the old hiftoriand to, blend 
the Titans \^ith Ham and hU immediate defcendenls; Co Eufebiui 
with good grounds fuppofes a more ancient Pboroneus than Niobe*s 
fire ; tho* no records reaching higher than them, Plato fays they had 
nothing more ancient. Cham's renown extended to the fiirtheft Eafti 
Cambalu is named from Cham Baal : Japan, Pan's Land» is named 
Chamis ; Cham there is Sol. 

In Cratylo. 

Tully, Laertius and Ampeliiis fay, *' the Egyptian Vulcan wai 
fon of Nilus •/• that is of the firft Oceanus, Oken, Ogen^ or Noah: 
for Plato J Tomer, Hefiod and Orpheus, deem Ocean and Teth)ji 
the i^rents of the Gods, Vulcan being the firft God of Egypt : ai4 
being Prometheus, he (in Efchylus) profefTes himfelf the inventor ol 
medicine and ineuls;, and is moft probably the Zeus-Afclepius of 
Ariftides. Ammon and his fon Dionyfius, or the laft Ofiris, being 
blended with Ham and Mifor the fecond Ofiris, Noah being the 
firft, are by the Scholiaft of Apollonius deemed the firft Cabiri : buW 
the Titan Ammon was not prior to the four next Cabiri there men- 
tioned : for Axieros, derived by Bochart from Achfi Eres, the eaiA 
is mine, is Terra, Dcmeter or Cybele ; AxiokerCas^ Axixxkeufi; 
the Deities of mortality (Keres being death) are Pluto and Pni^ 
pine ; the fourth is Cadmillus, the Tufcan Camillus from the Phcm--' 
^ cian Chadanty to minifter : he is the Hermes whom Lycophron call^ 
Cadmus. But the grand Cabiri were Ofiris and Ifis ; or Sol an^' 
Luna. In honour of thefe Cabiri the Druids erefted Ahiri ncr^^ 
Oldbury : .its platform is the figure of a ferpentine feraph, abov^^ 
two miles long,, formed of 400 huge ftones ereQed ih two rows : '\l^00 
head, on Overton hill, called Hak Pen confiOed of an outer circle*^ 
of 40 ftones; and an inner, of 19. The middle of this feraph per* 
vades a circle of 100 ftones about 10 cubits high and broad ; and 1-5 
afunder, inclofing two temples each confifting of two circles ; one, 
of 30 ftones, and 250 cubits in diameter; the inner, of 12 ftones 
and 100 cubits in diameter: near the altar of the folar temple is an 
obelifk ; near that of the lunar, three ftones forming a crcfcent. The 

Chap. 3-) P ]fe I M I T I V £ rt t ^ T O R Y, 179 

40 ftones allude to fo many Nundina^i the 19, to the lunifolar cycle; 
the 30, to the days of a month; the 12, to the months in a year. 
Herodotus fays the Cabiri were Vulcan's fons. Pherecydes (in ^' ^7' 
Strabo) lays the Cabiri were three fons and three daughters of Vul- 
C^u and Cabeira daughter of Proteus ; who here means no more than 
Nereus, Neptune, Nilus, Oceanus; he is Noah; Cabeira is only 
an apellative of Thebe or the primitive Athyr, the Arabian Caban 
Yet Pherecydes here miilakes Noah's fons and daughters for Vul- 
can's ; and the Cabiri of the Ark, for the Egyptian. Servius fays 
** the Cabiri were the Penates, Ceres, Pales and Fortune :** but En. a; 325: 
Ceres herfelf was Fortune. Varro and CaQius Hemina fay the Same- Maaobim; 
thracian Gods were the Penates, and the great beneBcial and potent 
Deities : thcfe were Ops, Proferpine, Pluto anid Hermes: but Arno- 
bius fays they were Neptune and Apollo. Virgil fhews that Vefta En. a; 
was one of his Penates patrii. Alexand ah Alexandro calls the Lares, ^^ g^ 
Dymon, Tychis, Herois, Anachis^ Amobius fays they were Func- 
torum Animse; and this is moil probable. Euripides mentions the 
Cyclopean Lares. Ovid derives them from Mercury and the Naiad 
Lam: but the Egyptian Mercury was often one of theni himfclf, 
beiiig Tychis or Agathodemon, the Egyptian Ofiris or Dionyfius 
who was Mifor. Thoth and Ifmunus were the two others : but 
^ISkA being blended with his fire, the Latins had only two general 
LmrcB. So Athenagoras wrote that " in the Pcnetrale ftood the ftatues q^^^^ ^r* 
df two youths, 2 feet high, and clad in dogs^flciiis*^rc)pTefcni!ng Ifmunus cheol, vol, S. 
and Thoth. Ifmunus orEfculapius was the Lar of Socrates. Varro fays 
the Lares were the Manes; indeed perfons often cbofe the ghoftsof 
their anceftors for their Lares, hence iftilcd Paternal by Dionyfius 
of Halicarnaffus. Thefe propitious or tutelary Gods were named 
from the Celtic Llary, mild, gentJe: Penates, from Pen, Head, 
fignify the heads of the family: Servius En. 2.514 fays the were 
Dii Domi culti, Domeftic Gods. Hyginus, in faying the Curetes ^* ' '^^' 
and Corybantes were the Lares, confounds the Cabiri with the 
Curetes and Corybantes, who latterly were their priefts, ?md origin- 
ally were the nine Telchines, from the ifle Telchinis, now Rhodes; 
attending Rhea thence to Crete. Pherecydes (in Strabo) fays the 



nine Corybantcs, fprung from Apollo and Rhytia, refided in Samo. 
thrace ; that fome deduced them from Cholchis; fome affirmed, the 
Titans gave them to Rhea, as guards, being Ba6lrians. Strabo fays 
they were fons of Athene and Sol, that is Ammdn. — Diodorus fays 
(3) the Cureles were fons of Jove the brother of Uranus: and in this 
place counts them ten ; taking them for the Daftyls : elfewhere he 
fays they were fons of Jove and Rhea ; but that fome deemed them 
the nine Tons of the Da£lyls. Indeed the Daflyls were Curetes; to 
whom fucceeded others, and in the firft place their defcendents. 
Thus Paufanias afferts that the Idean Daflyls were the Curetes. 
Fab. Bacch; Euripides fays, they were fons of Jove. Their name is derived from ■ 
Couris, afpear: fo Lycophron calls Demeter flea Kup/T« ; for this 
Ceres the elder, Rhea or Aftarte, was Athene or Venus Armata. 

. Bryant derives Curetes from Cur Ait, Sol Igneus, and fuppofcs 
them to be priefts of the fun ; which feems partly the cafe ; but we 
muft add, of the other luminary alfo. He derives Telchines frotft 
Tal, Talos, Sol ; and Chan, Rex. Paufanias fays, the Curetes o^ 
Idaei Daftyli came from the Hyperboreans to Ida in Crete (tho' pro-* 
bably firft to Rhodes) and from Crete to Olympia in Peloponnefuilr 
• where in the golden age they built a temple to Saturn (or Ham)<i 
the hill Kronion. With the Titan Saturn and Spartans, a liife 
equivalent to Titans, fignifying a fpreading people, they went io 
Italy : the Sabins were their pofterity (tho' fettled in the country cT 
the Umbri) and built the city Cures; their Salii continued their an- 
cient rites : the origin of tragedy, at firft dirges in honour of Bac* 
chus, and deemed more ancient (by Plato) than Thefpis the lup- 
pofed inventor of tragedy, becaufe he introduced aftion into thefc 
Dithyrambic exhibitions ufual at the time of vintage; tho' at firft 
Elegies. The Sabins feem to be a peculiar colony of Dionyfius or 
Sabazeus, the holy God, whofe priefts were the Zabii: and B being 
commutable with M, he was Semo ; and hence Samos had its name, 
which, as Diodorus tells us, fignifies facred: but this Jove ofNyfa 
being often confounded with Jove Picus, a name to which Sancus 


Chap. 30 PRIMI T I V E M I S TORY. 2S1 

is fynonymous; he was Semo Sancus, Saint Picas, Saba-zeus, holy 
Jove i yet Saba in Phenician is to be drunk ; as the Goddefs Methy 
is from the Celtic Medd. Thcfe Spartans and Curetes (as Stephanus 
writes) depofited infant Jove in Crete: who as Callimachus fays, 
the' held by fome a native of Crete, was born on Mount Lyca^us in 
Parrhafia, a diftrift of Arcady, held once by the Apidani. Saturn, 
being betrayed in an attack on Crete, by the aid of fome of thefe 
Spartans (who feem to be the Leleges fometimcs mentioned with 
Curetes) efcaped, as Julius Firmicus afferts, to Italy. Some of the 
moft ancient Curetes or priefts of the Cabiri went with Teutat to 
Spain and Germany; thus this order were earlier than the Daftyls 
who in Crete were initiated in it. With Mannus and Acmon they 
went from Germany to Cappadocia and Phrygia : then with Uranus, 
Saturn and Rhea to Arcady, Rhodes and Crete; where the Da£lyls 
and their fons afTumed this Sacredotal office : the Daftyls were re- 
lations of the Titans, and the fubfequent Curetes were their iflue 
wd Sacerdotal fucceffors ; and in Samos had the name of Corybants 
(as Diodorus writes) from Corybas Jafion's fon: his uncle Dardan^ 
wbok real name was Polyarches, fee the Scholiaft of Apollonius, 
as Jafon's was Etion, brought the rites thence again into Phrygia ; 
the Cabiri, in whofe honour they were inftituted, being the Phr)'- 
^aB Penates : but at Samothrace the Titan Gods were added to the 
original Cabiri, whofe names the Pelafgi there were ignorant of. Dar- 
dan, or Tartan, is a chief or Pontifex of fire, Vulcan's Hierarch. 

Reland derives the Cabiri from Chabar, Socius, aflbciated : he 
adds that the Englilh Gaffer alfo fignifies Socius ; and by a change of Wife. 
F into M, comes Gammar, and the Celtic Cymmar; fo Cymmerau 
is a conflux. But Bochartjuftly derives Cabiri from Cabir, potent; Chan. i. ra; 
for Orpheus and Varro call them powerful. Wife thinks them the 
DiiConfi; Varro's 12 Dii Confentes, defcribed as propitious Deities; 
and quotes Eratofthenes as mentioning the altar on which the Gods 
vowed their league. Thefe Ennius names, 

Juno, Vefta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus; Mars, 
Mercurius, jfovis^ Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. 

• O o But 


But Julian Aurcliiis, befides tliefc, names eight Patrician Deities; 
janus, Saturn, Geniu."^, Pluto, IJacchus, Sol, Luna, Tellus. Yet 
thefc are not cxaftly the Cabiri : for Herodotus fays that Bacchus 
2. 43, & 50. ^^^^ Q„^ Qf jj^g iWnd clafs ; and that Juno, Vefta, Themis and Nep- 
tune were not Egyptian Divinities ; and Hercules was of the fecond 
clafs which augmented the primitive eight to twelve. Saturn was 
alfo (according to Macrobius) a late Deity in Egypt. Therefore 
the Egyptian Cabiri were different in a great degree from the auguft 
Gods of Rome. Ammon and Rhea, as well as Saturn and Hercules, 
feem to have been added to the eight ancient Deities. The third 
clafs was Dionyfius, Neith, Orus or Harpocrates, and Bubafte.' 
Varro errs a little in faying that Caelum and Terra were Saturn and 
Ops, Taut and Aftarte, Serapis and Ifis. Caelum and Serapis 
were as different as Heaven and Hell ; but Terra Titaea's daughter 
' was Ops, Ifis and Aflarte ; Saturn was Caelum*s fon ; Taut was the 
fecond Egyptian Mercury, (tiled Hermogenes by Eratofthenes. The 
Egyptian Cabiri were eight of Ham's family. I take the original 
Serapis to be Ham's father; he is Muth; and the primitive Odin 
faid in the Edda to be fuperior to the other potent Gods: the Tufcan 
En. 10. Mantus of Servius. Ham was Phtha, Opas, Vulcan, Prometheus 
Chamos, Zeus, Belus, Cronus. Ham's wife Thebe feems to be/fe 
moft ancient Latona, one of the great Egyptian Divinities mentionti 
by Herodotus, alfo the firft Ifis and Athyr. Their (on Mifor, or 
Ofiris, who was Men, Menes, Mendes Thoth's fire, feems to have 
been a dual or rather univerfal Deity ; from him the people of Baf- 
fora call themfelves and their language, Mendai : he was Pan ; and 
probably a Sol: he was Plato's Thamus Thoth's contemporary, indeed 
his fire ; alfo Agathodemon, Bacchus, and Mercury, Sirius and 
Adonis. His wife Chamynay/diS alfo called Ifis, and Athyr : nam^* 
alTumed by Cybcle and her daughter long afterwards. Athyr fignifi^ ^ 
Bos ; as Thebe does according to Tzctzes. Mifor's fon Thoth w^-' 
Trifmcgiftus the fecond Mercury. The Memphite Efcl-epi* ^ 
deemed by Pliny one of the primitive deified men, and called Epii 
by Lycophron, Apis by Clement of Alexandria, who deems hi 
the founder of Memphis, and a phyfician prior to I(;, (as Snidi? 



Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H 1 S T O R Y. 283 

counts him a king of Memphis, rich, the inventor of medicine, and 
a God) is the eighth Cabir -, thence is named IJmunus. This is the 
true Ogdous of Diodorus : tho' he blends him with the Uchoreus or 
Choreus, who was Meon or the Titan Saturn, the eighth direQ: 
defcendent of the royal line of Ham ; from whom came Mifor, 
Thoth, Tat, Mannus, Acmon, Ophion or Uranus, Meon or Saturn. 
Strabo fays Apis was Ofiris. If fo, he was Mifor himfelf. But 17. 
Plutarch tells us that fome deemed Apis the fon of Ofiris. Api in 
the Malayan tongue is fire: as Baal in Iflandic is Incendium.— 
Two of the Cabiri were named in Sicily Palici ; from the Punic, 
Palichin, rendered by Bochart, venerable. Diodorus Siculus fays, 
thefe excelled other Gods in antiquity and veneration. Their fire's 
apellation was Adran, potent. They probably were Ham and Mifor. 
They had a facred well called Menaisj near the city Menai, fays . 
Apollodorus. Their Idols were fmall and named by mariners, " *^ ^^' 
Paixci ; which as Bochart fays is expreflive of fculpture ; or, if B 
has been converted into P, derived from Balach, allufive of pro- 
teSion. Herodotus fays, Vulcan's image at Memphis was diminu- 
tive, like thefe. But Perfeus ftiles thefe Gods therafelvcs, 

Ingentes de Puppe Dii. 

Thefe maritime Gods were Cabirs ; probably Oceanus or Noah 
thefirft Neptune-, Jove or Ham ; Mifor or Hermes, who was Aga- 
thodemon and the firft Hercules; hence Hercules Pataicus in Hefy- 
chius. He is the eloquent Hercules of Gaul reprefented as an old 
mariner. Herodotus mentions a temple of the Cabiri at Memphis. 
Of thefe Gods I fhall fay more prefently. 

The ancient Deities of Greece mentioned in Plato's Cratylusfeem 
to have been brought by the Getsc from Perfia ; namely Sol, Luna, 
Terra^ Stellae, Caelum. 

Herodotus fays the Perfian Gods are Sol, Luna, Terra, Urania, 
^g'^is. Aqua, Ventus, Jove. Ficinus fays that Evander found thefe 

Oct eight 



eight named on an Egyptian column, Saturn, Rhea, Ofiris, Spiritus^ 
Caelum, Terra, Nox et Dies. But I have already named their eight 
perfonal Gods froni Herodotus, Plaro, Varro and Sanchoniatho.— 
Hence it was that the ancient Gallic temples had eight fides, and 
eight images were figured on each. To the old Cabiri were added 
at Samqthrace (in the time of Orus) Ceres, Proferpine, Pluto and 
Hermes ; or rather, four Titans afliimcd thofe titles belonging to 
Ham's immediate iffue. The Cabiri alfo became confounded with 
the Diofcuri ; the firft clafs of whom were fuppofed to be Ammon 
and his fon Dionyfius; but really w^re Ham and Mifor: the laft, 
were Caftor and Pollux : and all thefe became confounded with the 
Anaces or AnaQes who were deemed this Dionyfius, and Eubuleus 
or Hermes, and Tritopatreus or Orion: but I think originally were 
Ham, Mifor and Nimrod. Again, thefe all are confounded with 
the Daftyls, the relations, attendants and priefts of the Magna Mater; 
j^^^ ,who, as Paufanias fays, was adored at Thebes with the Cabiri. Dio- 
dorus (3) fays, her myfteries were inftituted at Samothrace in the 
Hcrodot. a. reign of Horus. Yet the primitive Cabiri, whofe rites the Pelafgians 
50— 52, had previoufly introduced there (for they came thence to Athens, 
prior to Cecrops) were the primitive Gods of Egypt; tho' the Titans 
afterwards aflumed their titles, attributes, and merits. For Hem- 
dotus fays, the Pelafgi knew not the names of the Gods, but caWtd 
them. Divine, the Gothic Afes, till they had other names from 
Egypt, and the Oracle of Dodona authorized them: after which, 
they adopted Dionyfius. From this religious turn Homer calls the 
Pelafgians divine. Yet Herodotus thought the Pelafgi introduced the 
names of Vefta, Themis and Juno; as unknown in Es;ypt. Themif. 
cyra was named in honour of Themis, before the Titanian wan 
Mcflen. Paufanias fays that " Cadmus inftituted Cabiric rites near Thebes : 
Melampus, at Eleufis in Attica: Caucon, at Meffene. Thcir'grove 20 
furlongs from Thebes was confecrated to Ceres and Proferpine. The 
myfteries arofe from a prefent of Ceres to Prometheus a Boeotian 
Cabir, and his fon Etneus." This fecms an impcrfeQ account, owing 
to the great Egyptian Cabir being that Prometheus who was Vulcan 
or Ham : whofe lot at firft feems to have been Africa; l;ut Canaan 
feized Phenicia; Chus extended himfelf to Babylon, Sufiana, and 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 285 

India; and his progeny, probably with Phut after the Babylon dif- 
perfion, got to Mauritania; thence gradually into Spain. 

Egypt, Ham's dominion, was formerly called Aeria^ a name it 
had in common with Crete: if derived from the Celtic, it fignifies 
the feat of war; Aer in Welfh fignifying battle, hence Ares. The Gellius. 
Scholiaft of Apollonius derives it from the blacknefs of the foil; .270. 
-whence Suidas fays that Egypt was called Melam-bolus: as Ennius, 
according to Servius, faid the Nile was called by the Latins Meloj ^T^i ^' 
and Plutarch, calls it Melas; fo Diodorus calls it Oceames from the* Ifis. 
Chaldee Okem, black: Isomer calls it Oceanus. It was alfo faid 
to be named Actos, as" Egypt was Aetia, from the dark hue of an Lycophroni 
eagle; and Egypt, from the dark colour of a vulture: hence the 
fable of Prometheus tormented 30 years, as Hyginus relates; till the 
Egyptian Hercules drained his province. From this colour, the 
Ethiopians, as in the poet Dionyfius, called it Siris, as Pliny does: v. 223. 
and Chronicles 1. 13, 5. it is called Sihor from its muddinefs, ac- 5.9. 
cording to Jerom. It was named Nile fi'om Nahal, emphatically 
tJie river. Apollonius Rhodius ^. 269.) and Lycophron call it I" ^^*"^ 23: 
Triton ; hence moft probably the Egyptian Minerva was denomi- 
nated Tritonia. Pliny calls it Agathodemon; it being called Ocea- 
imtj which in Celtic is Mron^ the name of Menes or Mifor who was 
that Ofiris called in Plutarch Agathodemon. Stephanus fays, 
" Egypt was called Ogygia, allufive to the antiquity of that king- 
dom; as alfo was Egyptian Thebes. Euftathius on Dionyfius tells 
US it was named Hephallia, from Vulcan. Bochart fays, '^ it was 
named Rahab, ^rom Ryb, a pyramid, which is the fhape of the 
Delta;'* but probably from its being the Land of the Pyramids. It 
was alfo called Ypea. Plutarch deduces its name, Chemia, from the 
blacknefs of an eye. But Egypt is in the Pfalms termed the land of '°5' *° * 
Ham or Cham: who as Sicilian authors report built Camefenc 
in their ifland, fuppofed by fome to be called Camarina; but this 
may have been named from Comer Hen-, as Camafene from Cha- 
mus Hen; who was Camefcs or Cham Hizzus; indeed Panormus 
feenis to be the God Pan, who was Mcndes, Menes, or Mifor, the 
fon of Ham: and as Panormus became Palermoj fo Panos, Pales. 




He is the Belus Primus of Eupolemus: from him came the Baby 
Ionian Belus, as Eupolemus, Paufanias and others write^ Diodon 
" miftakes him for Lybia's fon: Julian Aurelius calls him the lecon 

Gen. c6, II. Belus. Moles calls the Egyptians Mifraim. The old Egyptia 
Andq. I. 6. Chronicle and Jofephus call them Meftreans. Reineccius cw 
authors to fhew, that the natives now call that country, Mezr 
Suidas fays it was called in his time Mefer. Memphis was ancienti 
named Mefer, as Abulfeda writes; till Amrou deftroyed it, an 
founding Foftat named it Mefer. The fort of Babylon ftood nea 
this place; as therefore according to Jofephus, did Latopolis, b 
which Mofes took his march. Foftat, after its deftruftion, ws 
Savary. named Mafr Elatic, ancient fort, which literally is Old Cairo, Cac 
being a fortrefs: and Grand Cairo had the name of Mefer. Mofe 
fays that the firft movement was from Ramefis to Succoth, whicl 
fignifies tents, as Foftat does.. — Mendes was alfo built in honour c 
Mifor; as Chemmis in honour of Cham; and Thebes, of his wife 
Delia Valle fays the people ofBafTora call themfelvesand their Ian 
guage, which is a dialed of the Arabic, Mendai. There was a towi 
in Pallene called Mende. The Egyptian month Mefori was dedi 
cated to Mifor; as Thoth, the next month, to his fon: Rhea a 
Athyr, Muth or Pluto, Ophion or UrAnus, Chon and Epaphus,W 
this honour in the months Athyr, Phar-muth, Pa-ophi, Pa-dMft^ 
and Epiphi. Mifor, the Mifer or Mifes of Orpheus, was the firf 
Egyptian Ofiris or Bacchus, and alfo Menes or Mendes the ancien 
God Pan both of Egypt and Arcadia; thus Suidas fays that ** Pai 
wore a fawnfkin;" which was the robe of Bacchus. He was th 
Ofiris flain by a river-horfe, which occaGoned the dirge Manero 
and Perimanos in Suidas; tho' this was afterwards applied to tin 
ftory of Typhon and Ammon's fon Dionyfius: and alfo phyiGcall; 
to the Sun. He was the Atutug o'ASuvtg vto Ue^C^icoVy in Hefychius 
Ptolemy'S' Mars-adonis. He was alfo the primitive Mercury, fathe 
of Thoth, hence called Hermogenes. This is the Mercury dccme 
in Paufanias the youngejl fon of Saturn; for this Saturn was Haf 
hence Paufanias calls (this) Hermes, Param-mon, the fame as Ba 
ammon. Rhea's hun)and took the name of Ammon from Ham; \ 
was Amos, Apappus and Phi-ops, which may fignify fpoufe of Op 


See Selden. 

C4iap. 4,) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 287 

Suidas fays that Mercury was contemporary with Mcftres, not aware 

that he was either Thoth the fon of Meftrcs, or Mcflres himfelf^ 

called by Eratoflhcncs, Dionitis ; his father being that Zeus who 

was Ham, Saos or Sol, proi^enitor of this Dionyfius. Therefore 

Suidas inverts the order, when he lays Vulcan fucceeded Mercury; 

and it is probable that he reigned 1680 lunar of 131 folar years, 

before Menes or Mifor was deputed under him: otherwifc Suidas 

muft confound the Oliris, who was Mifor or Mercury, with the 

Ofiris who was Noah. He fays Vulcan's fon Sol leigned 4477 years, 

which he counts diurnal ; this probably wa^ Phut, as Mifor's reign 

was longer: Shcrringham attributes this account to Pdl«phatus, 

Mifor and his wife Chamyna are the Oiiris, and Ifis (daughter of 

Prometheus or Ham and Thebe) who as Diodorus writes were buried 

atPhilae : and their mother is the eldell Ifis faid in Plutarch to be 

i\\e mother of Ofiris. 


M\(or's iffue the Napfhuim fettled about Marntiarica and Barea on 

the LybiaM fea : Promontories being there ca'led, fays Plutarch, 

N^pthm-^ hence Neptune, deemed a Lybian God by Herodotus. 

Bochart places the Naphthuim near Cyrenaica. — The Lnbim are 

joined in the Chronicles with the Eajvptians. The Lebahim are 

^Acnto be the Lubim, who with Shifhac invnded Judea; and are 

prohiily Lybians, a name derived from Luh^ thirft. — The Anamim, 

"^^ Anam in Arabic, (beep, feem to be the Anamii or Nomades 

• ^rNaramonitis.— The L?i'/mptohably founded L.ydda near |oppa. 

^2ekicl and Jeremiah join Lud with Phut and Cufh.— The Pathriifim 

occupied P'athros, which feremiah joins with Noph ; naming them 

Wh Mizra'm, Mi^f^ol and Taphnes; or Mezre, Maj^dola and 

Daphne PeluficT. Ifaiah navies Path ros with Mifraini and Chus: 

^o'emy fets P'athyns near Thebais.— As the PhilitUnes are derived 

from the Cafluhim ; fo in Amos, from Caphtor: but thefe invaded 

^"^ Avims about Gaza, and fettled there. Tor alludes to an elevated 

^^^\ therefore Taph-tor appears to be the mountainous track io 

^8ypt near the head of the Arabian Gulf, before the DeUa'6 cxiftence. 






% 29: Pliny mentions the land Tyra in Egypt, where Sefoftris began Uij 
canal. As the Delta is a new country, and Strabo fays " the bor 
of the Lake Maeris was once a fea coaft, and the Nile flowed in 
the Gulf near Coptos ; as the Mediterranean did at Heroopolis; 
intermediate range of hills between thefe towns feems to have 
Caphtor ; where Atfih and Colzoum now ftand, and the hill faci 
Memphis, fouth of the Canal to the Red Sea. There is a Torj 
mount Sinai.. 

Canaan's Settlement is evident. He is Cna, Sanchoniatho*8 firfl 
Phenician. Canaan's fons fettled at Sidon ; at Area near Lebanon; 
at the Sea Arvad or Aradus and that ifland; at Simyra 5 at Hamath; 
in the country of the Gergefenes ; next to whom were the Emorites; 
the Jebufites were at Salem ; next to whom were the Hivitcs : Hcth, 
near Hebron or Chebron, a name given in honour of Chebron, who 
from Manetho appears to be the Egyptian Dionyfius, The Sinitc i 
was at Pelufium or Sin, names that denote a muddy place. It wai : 
one of the primitive cities of Egypt, and was named Abaris ; Alnr 
in Celtic (ignifie's filth, which is confonant to the' other nana i 
Here the Hycfi made their firft lodgement, in their attempts aj^ 


The city Cercufium, at the conflux of the Euphrates and Aboriii 
and evidently compounded of Caer-Chus, is named in honour of 
Nimrod*s fire : as Car-chemifh, in honour of his grandfire. ChilJ 
himfelf feems to have fettled at Gaza anciently named lone, tl 
Stephanus writes: hence he is the lonichus ofEtham Ninirod'l 
councellor, fee the Nuremburg Chronicle, and Bryant. Chus is» 
in the Volufpa, Niger, who came from the South ; fee Snorra 
The defcendents of Cufh extended themfelves to Arabia and the 
Num, 21. vicinity of the Nile : for Mofes married a Cufhite of Midian. I 
derive the land of Gos-hen, from Cufh-hen, Celtic for Old Cufh* 
The Cufeans extended to Cholchis ; and as Ephorus in Strabo fays, 
from the rifing of the winter fun to its place of fetting. Bryant 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E HIS T O R Y. tSg 

thinks that Cuthai fignifies land of Cufli : but I rather think it 
means Gothland, and was peopled by Shcm's progeny. 

\ ^r Some Cufeans came to Europe, hence Samothrace and Lefbos 
[ 4irere named Ethiopia. But Cufh, who is Pliny's Ethiops fon of the 
Xgyptian Vulcan or Ham* fettled principally in Sufiana, and is the 
phoum-afbolusof the Chaldeans and of Eupolemus. Dionyfius the 
poet has Sabeans at the River Cophe in India; and others to the weft 
of the Indus. Havilah fettled at the head of the Perfian Gulf. 
Nimrod (with Belus or Phut, as I conclude from Eupolemus, and 
becaufe Ezekiel and Jeremy join Phut with Cufli and Lud) founded 
an empire in Shinaar : fo far are the Cufhites from being the people 
of the difperfion. Nimrod is the ancient Zagreus or Bacchus, whom H- 
Nonnus mentions as prior to the Egyptian Dionyfius, who invaded 
India, Phut having no iflue on record, probably his name was 
renewed in Mifor's family, as there are feveral monuments of that 
Dame in Lybia : indeed, after the difperfion he may have removed 
mto Africa. Pliny mentions the city Putea 2 Ptolemy, the river 
Pbut in Mauritania i from which Jerom fays the country was named 
Regie Phytenfis. Bochart derives the name from Phuts, fcattered ; 
which h^s an affinity to Spartan, and to Titan, a name given by 
Viycophion, and Callimachus to Tethys : it is derived from the * 
Cdtic Tjt, Domus, and Tanv, fpargere ; hence Sanchoniatho calls 
the Titans, Aletap, which Suidas interprets Errones : thus Titans 
ac length became an opprobrious n^mti fo the fons of Temenus hired 
Titans to flay him: tho* once honourable \ thus Tithonus lived with 
Teutamus of AfTyria, among the Titans or Nobles. Ham's family 
in earlieft times had concerns with Lybia and Atlantis. Teutates 
came thence to Spain. He was Thoth*s fon Tat, and grew famous 
among the Celtae ; was called in Germany Tuitho: he may be Heus, 
but is wrongly fuppofed to be Hefus, who was Mars, Azizus, from 
Hizzus, fortis : Hefus and Teutates are diflinftly mentioned by 
Lucan. Teutat fignifies either father Teutb, or the father God ; 
for Teu is Cod : fo Ficinus fays, " whom we call Deus, the Egyp- 
tians call Tenth j'' the Teu of Mexico, the Deu of Mangalore, the 

P p Duw 



Duw of the Celtae, the Theo (in the oblique cafe) of- Greece, the 
Deo of Rome and the Cam-deo of the Hindoos. Tuitho founde 
the Teutones, and probably Hamburg in honour of his great grand 
fire. He was the father of the famous Mannus, Al-mannus, the 
ancient Hercules named alfo Og-meon, thefe being names of die 
fame import ; hence the Gallic Hercules was reprefented as a mari- 
ner : yet their anceftor Menes of Egypt was the primitive Hercules. 
. Mannus was the father of Deois, or Dis, and of Acmon the imme- 
diate founder of the Titans. Hence they were reputed Scythians ; 

Scoh Pindar, as Deucalion is by Lucian •, and Hyperboreans, by Pherenicus ^ 
ym, 3. ^jj.^ Celtae, by Callimachus. The Orphic Argonautics deem the 
Thracians of Titanian race. Thrace was a principal fcene of the 
Titanian wars; as well as of Telchinian Sorceries: Strabo fays the 
Corybantes were either Baftrians or Colchians appointed to be Rhea's 
guards, by the Titans : which (hews they had extended themfelves 
towards Scythia. Thus TuUy brings Latona's fon from the Hyper* ■ 

In Diodorus. boreans : who (fays Hecateus) vifited an Arftic ifle of theirs, as iMg . 
as Sicily, every 19 years ; which period alludes to the lunar cycle. ; 
Julian Aurelius fays " he had his fon Thelmiffus by the daughter 'I 
of Zabius a Hyperborean king;'* or rather of his father Sabaze*^ 
4.33. ^ho was Dionyfius. Herodotus fays, Argis and Opis, Hyperb»i» 
maids, who attended the Gods, brought the facred rites to lite 
from Scythia. Eratofthenes fays that Apollo hid the javelin wWA 

Hcrodot. 4: fl^^ ^^^ Cyclbps, amongft the Hyperboreans ; Abaris had it after- 
wards. Strabo (4) fays that Ceres and Proferpine were adored in an 
ifle near Britain, probably Mona. Paufanias fays the Curetcs (con- 
founded by him with the Daftyls, who were only a fpecial fet of the 
Curetes, as their fons were afterwards) came from the Hyperboreans 
to Crete. Eufebius fays that Cronus reigned in Lydia and Italy. 
Prep. 2. Prometheus refided on Caucafus. 

Phut, Pythius, is the Apollo who difcovered the qualities of nighu 

Diofcoridcs. ihade to his nephew I fmunus : hence Tully's eldeft Apollo was fon 

of Vulcan, that is of Ham ; and was Carneus or Cronius ; Ham 

being Cronus. Eupolemus proves that Phut is really the Belus^ 



who as Diodorus writes went* from Egypt to Babylon ; which is 

fomewhat confirmed by Paufanias, who fays the Babylonian Belus 

Was from the Egyptian; whom he wrongly fuppofcs to be the fon of 

Neptune; unlefs he be the firft Neptune, who was Noah, Virgil's 

Nereus Grandacvus, and the Deoriim antiquiflimus of ApoUonius 

Rhodius, alfo Homer's Oceanus. The Egyptian Bclus fire of Sc- 

fojllris was from the Babylonian, who was the old Tyrian Belus mcn^ 

tioned by the poet Dorotheus : he was the Titan Saturn's brother 

Demaraon Zeus, or JoveThalaffius, the fire of Melcart, Melcander 

or Agenor, titles of the Tyrian Hercules. Cedrenus fays, the wife 

of (the laft Egyptian) Belus was Sida, a name from Siddah, a beauty-, 

as Potter fays Core is in the Moloffian dialeft. She was Venus Se- e u 

^ Sclden: 2: 4: 

miramis, or the younger Ifis, and went with Menon or Amenophis, 
or the youngeft Belus father of Sefoftris to Babylon : being after- ' 

wards a widow, fhe became the wife of Ninus. — Polyhiftor fays, 
" The gigantic inhabitants of Babylon were deftroyed by the Gods Eufcb: Prep.- 
Ibrdieir impiety -, except that one of them, Belus, efcaped deftruc- 9- *^> 
cioo; refided at Babylon ; ereCled and lived in a tower, that 
boTt, his name." This is the fecond Belus of Eupolemus, Mifor's 
brother. Herennius Philo fays, '* Babylon was built long before 
the reign of Semiramis, by the fon of Belus;" that is of the Belus 
prauus of Eupolemus, who is Ham. But Herodotus fays, Babylon 
lofc gradually under feveral kings: thus Stephanus (from Dicearchus) 
WTDle that Babylon was built by the fourteenth king after the founder 
of Nineve : this exaftly anfwers to the king who fucceeded the Arab 
dynafty of Babylon : for Polyhiftor counts feven Chaldean kings 
fucceeded by fix Arabs. Yet the length of their reigns as recorded, 
will not admit that the next fuccefibr of thefe Arabs fhould be the 
Tyrian or Titan Belus, who (as Thallus wrote) was engaged in the 
Titanian war, in the fourth century before the Trojan. So that 
probably Elian's Belus, aud Ammian's, was either the Babylonian 
Belus of Eupolemus, or intermediate between him and the Titan 
Belus of Thallus and Dorotheus. Indeed as Mofes Chorenenfis 
(hews from Abydenus that Africanus poftponed four kings ante- 
cedent to Ninus, it is probable that thefe kings have becen as 

P p 2 erroneoufly 



orroneoufly poftponed to the Titan Belus, as well as to Ninus; and 
lluit Mofes Chorenenfes has inverted their orderj Belus being really 
after them; and Arbelus the firft of them; and probably the 
fourteenth king from the founder of Nineve. Cyril againft Julian 
(3) afTerts that Abydenus miftook Belus for Arbelus. — Strabo and 
Berofus attribute the famous Tower to a Belus, but (as I have faid) 
it is uncertain whether this Belus, Ammian's Belus antiqufffi tius, 
and Elian's Belus archaeus, be the Babylonian Belus of Eupole- 
mus, or not; moft probably he was; as aftronomical obfervations 
were made early at Babylon. He is the Balen of Efchylus; and 
the Titans made this name known in Europe. 

la EoTeb. Eupolemus, quoted by Polyfliftor, reprefcnts Ham to be Cronuj 
or Belus Primus. He is the Cronus, whom Plato (in Timaeus} 
deems the Ion of Ocean; for Noah was the mod ancient Neptune^ 
and monarch of the moft fpacious ocean, when Omnia Pontus craL 
Noah's grandfon Mifor was the fecond Oceanus, Neptune, Ofiris. 
He was alfo Sirius or Sol, whence a Cock was Mercury's fymbol, 
and Sol's: He likewife was Mendes or Pan, Agathodemon, the 
primitive Mercury, Nilus, and whatever titles adulation coutf 
beftow; as Herculfes, whence Hermheracles; but HermharpocniBi 
alludes to Thoth, who was Harpocrates as appears from d*t 

Anubis his fymbol. Mifor or Ofiris was often confounded 

with Nimrod, who was the real Faunus and Bacchus; and with 
Ammon's fon Dionyfius, who was the third Ofiris; and had the 
names of Bacchus and Faunus in common with Nimrod; as alfo 
had the Italian fon of Picus.— Mifor was not the Ofiris or Bacchus, 
who, as Clement of Alexandria writes, was Orcus, that is Muth or 
Serapis; (hence, Ofiri-Serapis; fo Diodorus Siculus fays (1) Ofiris 
was Serapis; hence alfo Manes was a name of Pluto) for Montfau* 
con mentions a Pluto with Neptune's fymbols; therefore Serapis 
feems to have been Noah. Mifor is Sanchoniatho's Mercury, to 
whom the firft Saturn or Cronus (names derived from Sadorn potent, 
whence Talieflin calls Saturday, Dydd Sadwrn, and from the Celtic 
Crwnn, circular, a crown being h\A to he f rft worn by Saturn) 
granted Egypt. This Saturn was Ham, miftaken by Sanchoniatho 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H i S t O R Y. 193 

for the Titan, whofe contemporary he counted Mifor, the Faunus 
whom fome of the later Greeks miftook for the Italian, whom there- 
fore they deem Mercury. Mifor is Cadmillus, one of the three 
Cabin, whom Acufilaus of Argos reputed fons of Vulcan. He is 
tbc' Mercury called by Lycophron Cadmus-, whence Ifidore wrote 
that Cadmus built Egyptian Thebes. Mifor's confort Ifis was Mi- 
nerva Hygeia, or Medica. Mifor is alfo Sanchoniatho's Ifiris, the 
brother of Cna, mentioned by Stephanus, and the Hyfirus of 
Hellanicus in Plutarch; that isthefirft Egyptian Ofiris. Krentzemius 
fays, Mifor and Ofiris are names nearly allied in Hebrew.— 
Mifor, Mendes, Meiies, Meon, the Arab Menath, wa? confounded Tenifon 
with Acmon's fire, and with Cybele's hufband Meon the Titan 143- 
Saturn: with whom Ham was confounded, as well as with Ammon, 
the Titan Saturn's rival. So Plato fays that Theuth (Mifor's fon) 
ftounttied when Ammon ruled Egypt: but Theuth was Ham's 
grandlbn, and long prior to the Titans. So alfo Sanchoniatho fays 
th^t Thoth was fecretary to Cronus, meaning the Titan Saturn, 
infteatf of Ham. Thoth, being Hermes Trifmegiftus, the fecond 
Mercury, called alfo Hermogenes as being^ Mifor's fon, is the Mer- 
cury faid by Diodorus to be the fecretary of Ofiris; that hiftorian 
there confounding the Ofiris, who is Mifor, with Ammon's fon 
Dkmyfixis: this Dionyfius (being the lateft Ofiris) refembles Mifor, 
in fliaf be was (lain by Typhon, who was reprefented by a river- - ^.yJ!^*^* 
hork^ as Porphyry wrote; for Menes the firft was flain by one of 
thofe animals. But in as much as Ofiris was put into an Ark, he is 
blended with Noah, the primitive Ofiris: and is the Neptune, and 
Agaehodemon, with a ear of corn on antiques. Menes, Mifor or 
Ofiris IS alfo blended with Dionyfius, in Paufanias, where he fpeaks 
of the 'f heatre of Menes as the Theatre of Dionyfius. That Mifor 
was the firft Mercury appears alfo hence; Julius Firmicus fays 
*' Mercury taught Aftronomy to Anubis;'* who is often called 
Herm-anubis: he is Trifmegiftus, who was Thoth the Hermogenes 
of Eratofthenes. Manetho fays the fecond Mercury was Agathode- Sy"^^""^. 
men's fon and Tat's father. Plutarch calls-Ofiris (that Ofiris who 
was Mifor) Agathodemon. SeWen fhews that Mifor, Menes or " ^'^' 
Agathodemon was Gad; which in Celtic fignifies an army, and may 



refpecl Mars: he fajts^Gad was tranflated Daemoniilm ; and Meni, 
Tyche: and by faying that the Sun was facred to Agathodenioiv 
he fticws him to have been the primitive Egyptian Sbl. Elfewheie 
he fays. Pan and Sol were the fame ; but Pan was Mendes, Menes,' 
or Mifor. Diodorus fays that fome held Pan to be Ofiris. A goat 
was the emblem of his prolific nature, as was Priapujs; who, as 
Phornutus thinks, was Pan, and Agathodemon, the Gad or good. 
fortune of Syria. Mifor or Menes was Sirius, which often fignifiei I 
Sol, as Men does; and Saos at Babylon, as Hefychius writes: and 
Malyc among the Kifti; whence he is Hercules Malica, the primitive 
' Melec-ertes; Artes being Fortis, as is Chon or Con in Saxon: 
Artez is alfo a name of Mars; and that planet, called alfo Hercules, 
was dedicated to him. Bochart fays Seir'is a Goat; thus the firft 
Egyptian Ofiris appears more plainly to be Mendes, Menes, or 
Mifor; from him Edoni was at firft called Scir: and hence Maimo- 
nides fays the Zabii adored Goats: but Suidas (hews that Seir is 
Sol, alfo Sirius, and indeed (from Ibycus) any other ftar; for Syr 
in Celtic is a ftar. Ofiris comes from Sirius a name of the Nile: fo 
Meon, Manes (whence thp Englifli Main-, the Hebrew Main or 
Man, and Ha-main or Haman, the waters; the African Aman, ii 

Univ. Hift. Shaw: the Arabic Maon, water; alfo Armenia; and the river Mm6 
'^' '97- and the rivers Menan of Siam and Lao; the Latin ManoJ is Ocewtt, 
a name of the Nile, and of the great fire of the Pagan Gods, who\s 
Noah, or Baal Meon, a name alfo of his grandfoft Mifor, of Acmon's 
fire, and of Saturn. Thus Plutarch fliews that Ofiris was Nilus: 

Prep. 3. 2, 3. Eufebius fliews, both from Diodorus and Manetho, that «* Nilus 
was Oceanus progenitor of the Gods:" but Plutarch means the Nilus 
who was at the head of the Egyptian Gods; the Ofiris who was Mi- 
for; Eufebius means the primitive Oceanus, Ofiris or Noah. His 
confort Tethys, whofe name is derived from Teth, the Celtic for a 
teat, whence the Greek Ti6or, and the Gallic Tettes, is the great 
primitive mother of the Gods. Rhea, being the mother of Jove, Jano 
and others, was afterwards honoured with that name; as alfo with the 
titles belonging to the elder Vcfta, who was her mother Titaea or 

FaiL.£ 26 '^^^^^y as Ovid evinces: fo Euripides fays ^' Mother Rhea;" alfo, 

^■■k ** Ge is the Goddcfs Demeter." Yet Virgil diftinguiflies between 

,^^BI§ Terra 

Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 195 

Terra and Demeter, probably becaufe the younger Ids was often 
called Demeter ; tho* the name belongs to the mother of Avia^ Ceres "' * ^^^* 
or Ifis. Rhea was one of the Deoe Matres : for Tully fays, the Vcrru8 9.44: 
fane of the great mothpr was at Enguiiios; and Plutarch fays. En- 
guinos was famous for the Deoe Matres. They feem to be Vefta or 
Titaca, Cybele or Rhea, and Ceres or Ifis. Ariflophanes and Plato Y^t' . . 
fay *' commencing with Vefta." So Cyrus at his entry into Sardis 
(Cybele's native place, as Herodotus writes) paid Adoration firft to 5: 

Vefta. Panfanias fays, this was the cuftom at the Olympic rites. 
Bnt fome may place Proferpine inftead of Vefta; for. Montfaucon 7015.2,2,+, 
(hews that *' Vefta and Cybele were Terra/' and Ceres and Profer- 
pine were entitled Defpoinac. Seldcn fuppofes the Deae Matres to , 
be the Aftarte of the Septuagint, and the Enneae Numina Divae of 
Silius Italicus; the magna Mater being Hecate, that triple Divinity, 

viYio is the Diva triformis in Horace. But the Temple of Xeres at ^^ 

Ode 3, 22, 
Patiathad the ftatues of Terra, Ceres, and Proferpine; and where 

Anftophanes mentions Demeter, Proferpine, and Calligenia, he Paiifanias 

means Rhea, Proferpine, and Ceres, who was the Bona Dea or 

Callithea. Yet as to Hecate, the triple faced Proferpine of Apuleius, 

tria Virginis Ora Dianae, Diana the younger was oft confounded with 

Venus Urania, Aftarte or Rhea, the univerfal mother; who is the Am- 

masof Hefychius, from the Syrian Amma, Mater; and the Perfian g^y 

Mitra, from Mather, Mater: alfo Mylitta of Aflyria (the Arabian 

AJjtfta)derived, as Scaliger fays, from the ChaldeeMylidtha,Genetrix: 

alio Alilat, from Halilath, Noftiluca. Diana is fometimes the re- 

jM^fentative, fometimes tne daughter of Ifis, Luna, Venus Urania, 

as Savary obferves; becaufe a young Diana appears juft after the letters on 

conjun6lion of Sol and Luna. She is Callirhoe the wife of Manes 

or Saturn, and mother of Atys ; her daughter was Memphis (or a 

Mcmphite) the mother of Sefotlris. She was Nahalennia as her 

Cornucopia declares. Well faid Plutarch, that Ifis (the younger 

and elder taken together) was Myrionyma : ftie was indeed Pafithea: 

her name Juno Couella is from the Celtic Coel, belief, and is the 

fame as Fidia: Hefychius and Suidas read KoioXi^g, facred. Sextus 

Pompeius fays Covum, Caelum. She is the legiflatrix Beroe in 

Nonnus j Thia ; Thyone, in Diodorus ; Maia and Amatai Antaea, 



'Achaia, in Suidas ; Matuta; Athera, Atergatis, Derceto, Semira. 
mis, Dione or Baaltis, Venus Urania, Luna, Aftarte, Ileibya, La- 
cina, Diana, Bubafte, Juno, Hera, Cyra, Buto, Latona^ Leda, J 
Eurynome, Afima, Euclia, Callithea, Calligenia, Bona Dea, Vcfta, I 
Alilat, Alytta, Mylitta, Demeter, lo, Thebe, Metragyrte, Aftronoej i 
Aftroarche, Bafiiea, Brimo, Deo, Rhea, Cybele, Ceres, Ifis, Ops, 
Opis or Upis, Cubebe, whence the Babia of Damafcus; Proferpine, 
Core, Hecate, Ifis-Serapis ; in Proclus, Bendis; this is the Irifli 
Baindia. She is in Plutarch Nephthes, Methyer and Muth, bonce 
Thermuthis or Athyr-muth ; Nox, Styx, Empufa, Clades, Sors, 
Fatum, Tyche, Nemanus and Saofis : Anaitis, Ncith, Onka, Mio^- 
erva, Myrrha, Nitocris ; Sais, as Charax in Tzetzes relates: Siga 
in Paufanias, derived by Sherringham from Siggi, viftory ; alfo 
Chamyna, Pepromene, Erynnis, Europa; in Ovid, Anna Perenna; 
in Lycophron, Ampheira, Curites, Mamerfa; Sito and Simalida 
in Atheneus ; Cenchreis in La6lantius •, Damia, in Feftus ; Clatra; 
Aferot, from Aferim, woods j Medea in Macrobius; Ada, Achero, " 
Elle, Gerus, Ma, Amnias, Salambo, Azefia, Deliphat, Saretes, Iq 
Hefychius -, Daeira, in Efchylus; Fauna, Fatua, Pales, in Boccacci 
Lemnos, in Stephanus: Sida, in Cedrenus; Benoth ; Nannea, froit 
Nain, Celtic for grandam ; as Edda is Gothic; Nana is mother J 
the Kifti tongue : Anea from Ana, like Amma, mothep ; fo Ifim 
is Lucis Mater, as Pezron affirms. In the language of the Kifi. 
Bute is the moon ; and the earth is Latte, Lette ; whence Latona. 
Lucian aflerts Rhea to be Cybele ; fo Claudian deems Ceres the 

FrofcrpincR daughter of Saturn and Cybele. Yet Rhea was confounded (let mc 
ftill repeat) with her daughter, whole name is derived from the He* 
brew Keres, Clad<?s ; fhe being one of the Cabiri of Eleufis : thus 
Paufanias (i) calls her the eldeft Fate: and Plutarch fays, flie was 
fometimes denominated Muth, or Death; thus ftie was Thermuthis, 

Epiphanius. ^^ Athyr-muth, and Ifis-Serapis : and the Venus who embalmed 
the corpfe of Heftor. But we muft ever remember that the Titans 
aflumed the titles of Ham and his immediate dependents. Rhea 

InVcrrcm. ^as the Ceres antiquiffima of Valerius Maximus, and of TuUy* 
^^'9' Her idol was conveyed to Rome with immortal parade, Rhea is the 
^s, mother of Ofiris in LaClantius: tho* Ifis properly wa.s Rhea's 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R f . %fj 

daughter whom Paufanias calls Demeter Chthonia^ or Terredrial ; 3. 

in oppoiition to Aftarte or Venus Urania. The younger Ceres is 

Euclia in Plutarch fuppofed to be Diana ; the* the Diana Celeftis ^ ,«. ' 
. Arutidcf 

vas her mother^ the eldeft Semiramis authorefs of Eunuchifm^ her 

||Nriefts being Galli. She is Eurynome Ophion's lady in Apollonius 

J Rhodius ; hence Potter thought Eurynome to be Diana, that is the . . ^ 
• ^ I A- t 1 ir - Antiq. Gr. a 

^Ccleuial: hence alio, Jove's inceft vith Profcrpine ; Rhea being 20. 

' ihe elder Proferpine daughter of Uranus, in Arrian (a), and in Dio- 
I 'dorus from Orpheus: fo Paufanias (4) calls Demeter, Core; 
^ Uending the eldeft Ceres with the youngeft Proferpine : tho Potter 
; lays that Core in the Moloflan dialect fignifies a beauty; which futts 
Venus Urania. Sanchoniatho deems the Proferpine who died a vir- 
gin to be Saturn's daughter*, taking her for the daughter of the elder 
Ceres ; Claudian fays her daughter was nurfed by £ie6ira 5 who, as Proferp. •, 
Uyginus writes, was Vulcan's wife. The elder Ceres inculcated 
' agrkuteire with Jafion, and with Ammon, who is Sanchoniatho' s 
J Dagofl^ or Jove Arotrius: tho' oft confounded with his nephew 
Pkii^ hence the Latter's fuppofed inceft with Rhea, in Arnobius, 
Atbenagoras and Clement of Alexandria ; for Rhea's gallant was 
Aflnnon, tho* (he cohabited aflfo with Saturn: and they being Cybele 
orihe*eldeft Ceres and Meon, who was Oceanusor Neptune, hence 
Nej^neand Ceres were placed in the fame fane; yet PVutarch 
liSgniLi&fb a phyfical reafon. Sida is an Arabic verfion of Rhea | Sav«7* 
Riband Rhea being Celtic for lord and lady, as Sidi and Sida in 
Aniric. Sida being alfoa pomegranate, as Rhoia is, Rhea became 
Rhoia and Rimmon ; and hence the tale of Atys deriving exiftence 
£pom a pomegranate. It being u'fual for a daughter to take her 
mothef 6 title, as Cybele, Ceres, IGs, Demeter, Dione, Rhea's 
daughter became the Sida of Cedrenus ; fhe being the mother of 
Danaus; other writers tell us Ihe was Ifis, and after the death of 
Dionyfitts wedded Belus, Menon or Amenophis Neptune's fon, who J^^' .. 
thus proves to be Orion; for Apollodorus fays his wife was Sida. 
He was fitnamed Tritopatreus, it being uncertain whether Neptune, 
Jove or ApoDo was his father j this Apollo was Arueris. 

Q q Tat 

298 . PRIMITIVE HI5TORY. fBook 1 

Chro. • Tat was Mifor's grandfon: for Eufebius and Manetho in Synccllus 
fay that he was the Ton of Trifmegiftus the fecond Mercury, Livy 
(22. 44) fets the tomb of Tat or Teutat at new Carthage. He pro- 
bably was the founder of the Teutaei in Tingitania, as faid by Mar* 
4: 6. 44 mol : and Tuitho, founder of the Teutones; and of the Teiitanes, 
En. lo, 21*^ ancient people about Pifa mentioned by Cato in Servius. He 
introduced the worfliip of Vulcan, Sol and Luna into Germany : 
Ccfar that is of Ham, Menes and his wife Chamyna. 

To him Tuefday was devoted. — Mannus, Manes, Man or Meon 
fon of Tuitho or Teutat was, as Polyhiftor wrote, the father of Ac- 
Phornutus. mon, Sanchoniatho's Elios : for Uranus the fon of Elios was fir- 
Hcfychiu. named Acmonides. Uranus is, by Lycophron and Apollonius 
Rhod: Rhodius, named Opbion ; who, according to Pherecydes (in Eu- 
Prcp, Evan, fcbius) was a Syrian God. Nonnus fays Ophion was an aftronoroer; 
as Uranus is, in Diodorus. From him came the Ophiogenes^ their 
founder being faid to be converted from a ferpent to a hero. Ly- 
cophron and Apollonius fay his confort was Eurynome ; by whom 
Hefiod fays a Jove (either Uranus or Ammon) had the graces. Ar- 
nobius an4 Athenagoras, by Jove's inceft with Proferpine, mean 
Uranus and the elder Proferpine: tbo' the ftory is applied to the 
father of Minos and the daughter of Ceres, who died a virgiiuThfo' 
this confulion of names Sanchoniatho and Paufanias ftile the c\Att 
Proferpine, Core-, tho' fhe was the Magna Mater. She is Eury-i* 
nome the beloved concubine of Uranus, feized by Saturn : ihe is 
alfo no lefs than thofe three young ladies fent by Uranus to furprize 
Saturn, namely Aitarte, Rhea, and Dione ; Sanchoniatho miflaking 
•• titles for perfons. Paufanias fhews that Ihe was Derceto, the nier« 
maid ; being thai Venus Urania, of whom the poet, Pifce Venus 
r^^^!^^ latuit.— She is Beroe and Berytus, faid by Heftiaeus (in Bochart j to 
23: be a fifh. Uranus begot the Core ProLogone of Paufanias in a fer- 
pent's form, becaufe he was Ophion : but in this Athenagora3 miC 
takes him to be his Grandfon the Cretan Jove. Uranus fecms to be 
, ^.. ^h^ gallant of Niobe, who probably was the eldeft lo, called by 

fjvid 1 horonis: this Niobe being the daughter of Phoroneus, deemed 
by Anticlides the oldea king of Greece i by Acufilaus, the firft 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. ^ 499 

man. He was reputed the Ton of Inachus and the brother of Egialeus: 
alfo, according to Plato, Caftor and Acufilaus, contemporary with 
Ogyges, probably the Agag of Mofes, and deemed, by the Scoliaft 
of ApoHonius, the fon of Bootes. Clement of Alexandria places 
Cres of Crete in his time. Acufilaus counts the flood of Ogyges 
1220 years before the Olympic era : Ccdrenus connts it 248 years 
before Deucalion's: it was 189 years before Cecrops, as Africanus 
in Eufebius aflerts. Ogyges, according to Lycus in Tzetzes, and OnLyco- 
to Paufanias, wedded Thebc the daughter of Uranus. Their daughter ^ 

Alalcomene nurfed Minerva, Ammon*s daughter, named by Efchylus 
Onka and Neith : Plato calls her Neith ; it is derived from the 
Celtic Nyddu, pronounced Neithee, to fpin: yet in Hiberno Celtic 
Neith is battle: Onka is potent: from Neith comes Neo ; from 
OkkdL, occo. 

Pwfanias counts Ceres coeval with Pelafgus Lycaon's fire, and 

witb Prometheus Deucalion's fire, deemed by fome in Syncellus 94 l' 

yetrs after Ogyges; and with Lycaon Niobe's grandfon coeval with 

Cecrops ; whom Ifocrates deems 1000 years before Solon and Pi- 

fiftratus, who lived 56b years before the Chriftian era. The elder 

Cerea was meant by Paufanias above; for he writes that " Lycaon's 

Vralher Temcnus educated Juno" the filler of the younger Ceres. 

ApQllodorus counts Lycaon's fon Nyftimus contemporary with 

Deocalion ; wlio was coeval with Phaeton, Cranaus and Crotopus; Clem. Alex: 

llfo, as Manetho wrote, with the fixth king of the 18th dyHafty. 

Plutarch on Pyirhus fays that Phaeton was firft king of the Molofli 

after Deucalion's flood, and was deemed Sol's fon, owing to his 

flLiIl in the folar motion:>. Deucalion was a great grandfonof Urahus; 

and generally reputed a nephew of Atlas, whofe daughter Sterope 

wedded Ocnomaus fon of Alxion (as Paufanias writes) andofEgina 

daughter of Afopus. Oenomaus flew Tricolonus Lycaon's great 

grandfon; and was flain by Pelops, in the reign of Endymion*s fon 

Epcus : Endymion himfelf was coeval with Clymenus a defcendent 

of Hercules the Daftyl, and reftorer of the Olympic Games fifty 

years after Deucalion's flood. Lycaon's grandfon Areas was, as 

Paufanias alfo writes, coeval with Triptolemusj who, as Strabo ^g.. 

Q q 2 writes. 


^00 '^ P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Hook i. 

writes, went in purfuit of lo the ward of Argus Panoptes, and the 
daughter of Jafus. Eufebius fays, fhe wedded Telegonus fon of 
Orus (Apollo) the paftor; but in that (he is deemed the mother of 
Epaphus, flie is confounded with a prior Io> who feems to be Niobe 
and, lo-damia. — Paufanias fays that Lelex was the fon of Neptune 
and of Lybia, daughter of Epaphus ; thus Lelex was Agenor't bro« 
ther and uncle of Danaus. Lacedacmon, grandfon of Atlas, wedded 
Sparta grandaughter of Lelex and mother of Euridice wife of Acri* 
fius. Polycaon the youngeft fon of Lelex (as Paufaiiias writei) 
wedded Mef&ne daughter of Triopas. The Grecian Mercury was 
another grandfon of Atlas; and was educated by Lycaon't ion 
Acacus. Oardanus was likewife a grandfon of Atlas ; who, as Acn^ 
filaus wrote, was a contempcM'ary of Triopas ; and whofe grand* 
daughter Harmonia was wife of Cadmus the father of Seroele^ and 
of Autonoe the wife of Arifleus, and of Ino the wife of Deucalion's 
greatj grandfon Athamas, uncle of Polydeftes, who entertained 
Danae. Athamas was father of Melecerta ; who being confounded 
with Melcart the Tyrian Hercules, Lycophron attributes his iecond 
name Palemon to Hercules. Ovid fays, Melecerta met at Tibur i« 
^* ts* Italy a Hercules, who muft be Ammian's ^* Hercules antiquiop/ 
Melcart, orChon, from whom part of Italy was named Choris 
H^^' Con in Saxon fignifies fortis. Suidas places him in the tinie4 
Minos and of Athamas. He was later than Ogmeon of Gaui, tbt 
Al-mannus of Germany, whom Eufebius and Jerom deem the muft 
ancient Hercules. I take Ogmeon to be older than Elian's ancient 
V.H:9. i6. Maro king of the Aufones ; tho' Meon and Maro are names oft 
fimilar import: for Meon is Ocean; and Maris or Mxris is derived 
from the Celtic Mer (humor) the fource of the Latin Mare, die 
Englifh meer,' and mirc; the Egyptian Mxris and Mareotis; the 
Hebrew Mar, Gutta; the Arabic Mara, mano, which alfb is in 
Arabic, Mana; whence the Rivers Menan of Siam and Lao i and 
Maon, Aqua, in Arabic. Mar and Maon thus prove fynonymousi 
hence Ar-morica from the Celtic Mor (akin to Mar) is in the Sascon 
Chronicle called Armenia : fo Og-meon is the fame as Og-moM, 
the Great Sea; and Mor-gan-wg, the true name of Glamorgan, h 

f • 99« 

Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H 1 S T O R Y. 501 

the head of the Great Sea: and Morgan, the fame as Kyn.mor^ is 

head or prince, or Khan of the iea : and Maur-itania is from M6r« 

tain^ a region by the fea ; as Aquitain, a country by the water. 

Mcon and Maro^ names confounded in the Egyptian Hiftory, in 

another fenfe fignify the Sun, Men and Mar^ as appears from the 

explanation of Theban names in Eratofthenes. Emanations of light 

and of water appear to have been defcribed by fimilar words, as 

Sinus, Siris ; Mar, Men ; Aur, Or ; thus a river in the Lefgais 

language is Or and Khor. So Mifor was both Siris or Meon (that 

is Nilus or Oceanus) and Sirius or Sol : thus Tully deems Vulcan^ 

Sol's fire ; they are Ham- and Mifor. Owing to this confufion^ 

Memphis built (as Manetho wrote) prior to the Hycfi, is faid by 

Herodotus to have been built by Menes : Diodorus calls its founder 

Uckoreus, a name in import fimilar to ^Meon ; but firnames him 

Ogdous: thus miftaking him for the Meon who was Cybele*s hulband 

Silttm» called Choreus in Dionyfius of Halicamaffus^ from Chor, 

aCOffftBty as Meon is Celtic for Ocean, the old name of the Nile. 

Tfalt Athenagoras (from Hefiod) deems Uranus the father of Ocean; 

fflhooi Hefiod counts Saturn's brother ; but his name is fynonymous 

CO MecHi Saturn's own name. Efchylus deems Ocean the brother of 

AUass whom Nonnus (a) deems the fon of Terra, that is of Titaea; 

inASanchoniatho deems Atlas Saturn's brother. Hefiod*s Ocean 

here u Demaraon Zeus, Jove Thalaifi^As, the Tyrian Belus who 

went Srom Tyre to Babylon, the Neptune who was Agenor*s Sire^ 

tbat is Melcart's. Apollodorus fays that Agenor's wife Telephafla 

died at Thafus; which adds to the probability that he was the Thafian 

Hercules : as his father feems to be that Egyptian Hercules whom 

Hephaeftion calls Nilus, that is Ocean or Neptune, or Jove Tha- 

laffius. He feems alfo Maker the father ofSardo in Paufanias. 

Thus Lycophron deems Tarchon (or Chon of Tyre, the Phenician 

Hercules) the •• fonof a Hercules;" who is Hepheftion's Nilus, the 

Tyrian Belus, and TuUy's Indian Belus, Demaraon Zeus. Tzetzes 

erroneoufly deems Tarcbon and Tyrfenus fons of lera and Telephus 

the fon of Alcides and Auge ; this is irreconcileable with Tarchon's 

being coeval with Marfyas, as Solinus writes ; and with Cecrops 



and Atlas, as in Suidas. Saturn being Meon, Ocean or Neptune; 
hence Macrobius fays a Triton was ufuajly fct on Saturn's temple: 
hence alfo Virgil fays that Neptune produced a horfe ; Chiron's fire, 
who by Lycophron's Scoliaft is accounted a Centaur, V. 1200, 
having firft learnt to manage a horfe; he may alfo have imported horfes: 
I believe the Marcomanni were the firft nation of Cavaliers. Phorcys 
king of Corfica faid by Varro to have been routed and flain by Atlas, 
was fon of Pontus and Terra, that is of Meon and Cybele. This 
Meon is the L^choreus whom Diodorus counts Ogdous ; being (as 
faid before) the eighth from Ham incluGvely : Thus, Noah and Sa- 
turn's fon Jove inclufive, the Sibylline poems rightly fct the Titans 
in the tenth generation from the Deluge. But the Meon who was 
Mifor muft be the founder of Memphis, as his fon Athoth founded 
a palace there. Diodorus in fetting Symandias long before Uchoreus 
or Saturn means either Thoth, or Menes his fire ; tho' Sefoftris 
was a Si-mandyas; the narne meaning a fon of Menes or Amcnophis: 
but Is-mandes fignifies divine Mendes ; lo As in Gothic is divine. 
Owing to the fynonymy of Men and Mar, Diodorus fays Maro the 
fecond,who foQndedthe Labyrinth, was fome to be Mcndcii 
he is Strabo's Maindes, Imandes and Menon. That Maro and 
Maris (frbm Mor, which is allied to Meon, whence Mencsjarc 
akin to Chor, Mofes evinces, in faying that Seir was the mow- 
tain of the A'morites, Canaan's defcendants -, yet the Horim or 
Duet. I. & 2. . . . ' 

12. Chorim were the ancient inhabitants ; in other words, this was their 

ancient name. 

Chon mentioned juft now was Tearchon, Tara-chon, O-tfor-chon, 
Chon of Tyre, S^nchoniatho's Melcart; that is a name derived from 
Meier, king (the Malica of Hefychius) and Artes fortis; fo Hero- 
dotus fays that Artaxerxes means a ftout warrior; and Vettius 
Valens tells us Mars was in Egypt named Artes. Berofus in Athe-, 
neus calls Hercules, San3es ; it fignifies in Celtic amazing. He, 
as Tally writes, was a fon of Jove, that is of Demaraon Zeus, by 
Afteria, who feems to be Ailarte latinized-, for Ampelius feems to 
name her Athera. Chon may likewife have been the Daflyl. Pau- 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R T. jog 

fanias calls him Sar-do, Ton of Makeris, from the Phenician 
Macharid, terrible. Sar is the fa ne as Tfor, Tor, and Tyre. He 
colonized Sardinia with Lybians; the old name of that ifland was 
Ichnufa; fignifying like the prefcnt (derived from the Phenician 
Sarad) a fole or print of a foot^ yet it may be derived from Sardhyn, 
the citadel of Sar, the Tyrian^ as Sardo is the Tyrian God, from 
Deu, Deus. He was probably the Hercules who contended with 
Apollo for a Tripod. Diodorus fays, he aided the Gods againft the 
Giants, when their weapons were clubs, as Hyginus alfo relates. Fab. 274. 
He traverfed a great part of i\vQ earth triumphantly; vifited Cau- 
cafus and the North; aided Prometheus; flew Emathion king of 
Ethiopia; alfo Bufiris, who lived two centuries before Perfeus, as 
Ifocrates affirms. He alfo flew Anteus, and erefled a Column in 
Lybia; from whence he obtained the golden Apples, or rather 
Sheep of the Hefperides, neices of Atlas; whofe daughters Bufiris 
fent Pyrates to feize; thefe Hercules flew. Atlas, for the reftora- 
tion of his daughters, taught Hercules aftronomy. Pliny fays there 
was a chapel of Hercules at Lixos in Fez, anci enter than that at 
Gades. Tacitus fays, the Lybians aflerted that the moft ancient 
Hercules was a native of their country. Salluft fays, he founded J"8'*'"*' 
the town of Capfa. Hebe became his bride. He cohabited with 
'Pyrcne the daughter of Bebryx; flie was entombed in the Pyrenees. 
He fiAdued Chryfaor in Spain. By launching into the Ocean he 
was feigned to open the pafs. He founded Alexia in Gaul; and 
flew Dercylus and Alebion Neptune's fons. Agatharcides relates 
that he wounded Dis; who muft then have been old; if he was 
Acmon's brother; but he probably was Japet Saturn's brother. Ta- 
citus found that Hercules had been in Germany-, yet probably this 
was Al-mannus, Tuitho's fon, and Acmon's fire. Hercules crofled 
the Alps. Potitius and Pinarius, chiefs of the Aborigines, entertained 
him on mount Palatin. He next fubdued Giants at the Phlegrean 
plains of Cuma near Vefuvius; and Eryx fon of Venys and Butcs in 
Sicily. He died in Spain; yet fome fay, Typhon flew him. He is . 
deemed the inventor of the Tyrian dye. Having the title of Mya< Arnob. 
grus, he feems to be Bel-zebul; tho' the former name probably 



arofe from the equivocal fenfe of Zebul; jirft* as the Dodonean 
priefteffes were feigned to be pigeons, from a word which fignified 
alfo old women or widows. Zebul is the fame as the Eolic Zabulus, 
Diabolus. Buttho* he was Tar-chon, whence the Tarquins; for Q 
by the Normans was called Chpn, Choq, fimply may be the name of 
his mother Athera. Cona in Iflandic is the Greek Gune; birt Chon 
in the Hindoftanic and Zingara tongues is the moon, who was Venus 
Urania, Aftarte, Athera. Van-cA^in at Siam is Monday; and falls 
on our Monday, as near as confifts with difference of Longitude: fo 
their Thurfday is Van Pra Haat, the day of the venerable Atta, the 
fame as the Scythian Papa, Jove Pappeus^the Egyptian Apappusor 
Ammon: their Friday is Van Souk\ Souk refembles Siga, Minerva 
in Paufanias^ or Venus Viftrix, Sherringham*s Siggi, viSory. Yet 
Strabo fays a crocodile was in Egypt named Souchos, and tliat it was 
the name of a certain king: to whom Plutarch adds the title of Pete, 
Sacerdotal. Sieldcn fays it docs not appear than Chon was the name 
of the Egyptian Hercules; named by Paufanias Maker; heiice Magar, 
a place at Carthage; but Suidas fays Tara-chon was a king of Egypt 
contemporary with Cecrop$ and Prometheus: Solinus mentions him 
in Italy with Marfyas. When Saturn marched weftward, Aftarte 
and Melcart attended him; thefe two heroes accordingly had 
temples at Cades. Timagenes (in Ammian) fays, *« The AAtt 
Hercules led the Dorians to the confines of the Ocean:" the name of 
this colony is probably derived from Dwr, fignifying water: yet it 
may arife from his own name Dorfanes derived from Ador San^ 
and as Bryant fhews that San and Es bear the fame fenfe, he feems 
to be Juftin's Adores. The Hyperboreans whence he brought the 
Olive were thofe Northern Goths near the Euxine, whence it was 
named Cotinos. Sanchoniatho fays, ** Aftarte accompanied Saturn 
over the World." She became the Minerva Belifama of Gaul. 
Saturn being Meon, equivalent to Maro, I take him to be Elian's 
Aufonian Maro,^the firft Centaur or horfeman; hisfon was an expert 
hprfeman. Yet this Mar6 may be the old officer left in Macedonia 
by Dionyfius. — Cadmus, who was fubfequent to Me'cart, is gene- 
rally reputed a couGn germ an of Danaus and Egyptus, who in 
Manetho were Armais and' Sefoftris; this Diodorus (8) confirms 


Silv: I* 570. 

Chap. 40 PRIMITIVE H I S t O R Y. 305 

by faying that Danaus founded the Cholchians : but this colony was 
part of the troops ofSe(oftris. He was the firft Ramefis ,- and Cyril 
of Alexandria fays Ramefis was Egyptus. Dicearchus deems Sefof- o l 1 * 1 
tris, the fucceffor of Orus Apollo; this is extremely probable; for Rhod. 
Ariftotle fets Sefoftris before Minos Europa's fon: and Jove, Euro- 
pa's gallant, was coeval with Orus and Cadmus. Trogus Pompeius 
and Agathias deem Sefoftris as early as Ninus and Semiramis, whom 
I take to be Sida the mother of Egyptus in Cedrenus: for Belus the 
fire of Egyptus is faid to have wedded Ifis when a widow; and Ifis 
was Semiramis: this Sida in Suidas is deemed the daughter of Jove 
Taurus; whom he thus confounds with Hammon the fpoufe of 
'Rhea, Sida's mother: Taurus was Europa's gallant. Statius writes 
that Apollo, who as Athenagoras fays was Orus (and he was fon of 
ifis) was expiated touching Typhon's murder by Crotopus of Argos, 
Deucalion's contemporary, as Tatian writes : he was the fire of 
Sthenelus, whom Danaus either fucceeded or fuperceded, being 
the gueft of Gelanor. Two daughters of Danaus Wedded two grand-- 
fons of Xuthus. 

Thus the times and contemporaries of the Titans are tolerably 
afcfcrtained. For Orus was foti of Dionyfius or laft Ofiris fon of Paufanias* 
Axtenon the fpoufe of Rhea, fifter and concubine of the Titan Sa- 
tUTBffiTe of Chiron, and of Europa's gallant educated by the Dac- 
tyls, wio invented iron 63 years after Deucalion's flood. Homer 
coihm Europa the mother of Minos the grandfire of Idomeneus^ 
So, Apollodorus counts Ariadne, Europa's grandchild. Minos and 
tiis brother Radamanthus were adopted by Afterius the younger 
Saturn ; hence Pindar calls Radamanthus, Saturn's fon. He ef- 
poufed Alcmena, Amphytrion's widow, and vifited Tityus the gal- 
lant of Latona. 

The Titan Saturn or Meon was Anak; hence the Cretan Afterius Paufanias. 
is called the fon of Anak, and Carthage was Chadre-anak, or Cadyr 
Anak, tbe king's citadel. But Ham was the Saturn who was that 
ancient Mars called Genitor: alfo Moloch, Celtic fignifying a 

R r moleftor; 

8o6 ; P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book %. 

molefter-, and Virgil's Gradivus. But where Dionyfiusof Halicar- 
naffus deems Mars the grandfire of the Italian Faunus,' he means the 
Titan Saturn; thus Mars was a (on of Jove Uranus. But Ammon's 
fon Dionyfius, the laft Egyptian Faunus, being reputed Rhea's fon 
fee Scldcn. alfo, was by-fome deemed Saturn's-, and is Ptolemy's Mars-adonis, 
whom Hefychius calls the Abobis of the Perfians : he feems to be 
the Egyptian Epaphus-, tho' Saturn was Apopis. This Dionyfius is 
the Mars called by Hefychius, Thamus, a name more truly a|)plied 
•by Plato to that more ancient Ofiris, who was Mifor, indeed of 
either Ammon or Ammon's fon. Dionyfius, being a Mars, was 
called Mafares ; that is Rhea's Mars ; for Hefychius fays (he was 
called Ma in Lydia. Suidas, like others, confounds Faunus fon of 
Jove Picus, when he calls him the aftronomer Hermes, with Mifor 
the firft Egyptian Mercury, Mars, Pan, Hercules, and Ofiris ; tides 
moftly affefted by the Titan Dionyfius. 

Picus is Sanchoniatho's Jove Belus. Lycophron fays, ** For him 
Europa was taken from Sarepta, to avenge lo ftolcn for the lord of 
Memphis*," who at that time was Ammon. This Jove Belus was 
not the fire of Sefoft Hs; whofc father Amenophis was Belus Agenor's 
brother. Agenor's father, the Tyrian Belus went to Babylon aitd 
Eufcb: Prep, there entertained Saturn's fon Jove. He was Demaraon Zaus^ and 
Jove Thalaffiu$ ; hence he was a Neptune ; tho' uncle to the Kt^ 
tune who was Saturn's fon. Amenophis being a name of like im- 
port as Meon, which is Ocean the old name of the Nile, Diodorus 
fays that Nilus in a bull's form begot on Memphis the daughter of 
Uchoreus (a name derived from Chor, a torrent ; and of the fame 
import as Nilus, Ocean, Meon, and belongs here to Cybele's fpoufe) 
their fon Egyptus ; whofe father is by Manetho called Amenophis; 
and by Apollodorus, Belus: who fays, he had Egyptus by the 
daughter of Nilils; which fiiews my explanation of Uchoreus to be 
right : and it tends to confirm the account that Ifis the daughter of 
Saiurn, Meon, Nilus or Uchoreus wedded the father of Egyptus, 
after the death of Dionylfus. Apollodorus adds that Belus was the 
grandfon of a Memphis the daughter of (fome older) Nilus; who 


z, 2. 

Chap. 40 PRIMITIVE HISTORY. 307 . 

perhaps was Acmon's father Meon, Man or Mannus. A Nilus ftill 
older is the fire of the Ecjyptian Vulcan, Sol's father, in Tully : 
thefe are Noah, Ha:n and Mifor. The ftor) of the bull has no re- 
lation to Europa's amour ; but arifes herice : " there was a tradition 
amongfl: the Egyptians (fays Elian) that Menis an Egyptian king 
defirous to inditute the wordiip of an animal, chofe the bull." This 
he devoted to Ham his fire, who was the Jove whence Eratofthenes 
fliles this Nfenes, Jovius; it alludes to the Ark named Bous; hence 
Plutarch and Varro derived Serapis from Soros Apis, Cheft of Apis: 
others derive it from Apis and Sar a prince ; whence fir. From 
Mifor's adoration of Apis, Ofiris is faid to have tranfmigrated into 
Apis : from this bull Mifor became Neton the martial God of Spain; 
as his grandfon Tat, Teutat or Tuitho was their Mercury. Hiilory 
often confounds other Meons with this primitive Menes or Mifor: 
^ho being an Ofiris, a bull became the fymbol of every Ofiris, or 
Meon ; for the Ofiris who was Mifor, being the primitive Egyptian 
Sol, his ftrength was refembled to a bull's. Thus as far as regards 
the bull, the Meon or Amenophis firle of Egyptus being the Menon • 
or Belus who went to Babylon with Ifis or Semiramis, is confounded 
with Mifor. — The Egyptians were fond of giving the names of their 
important river to their kings ; or perhaps their names to the river, 
viYienever they improved its utility ; as Chor, Meon, Siris, Ocean, 
Nahal, Egyptus, Tritonia. But in faft not only Amenophis in this 
matter of the bull is confounded with MifoY; J)ut the lady's firft 
liu(band Dionyfius, as being an Ofiris-, for Lycophron denominates 
him Taurus likewife : indeed this Jove of Nyfa is oft confounded 
with Picus, the Taurus who ftole Europa. 

Agreeable to tl^ defcent of Egyptus in Diodorus, Tully fays Nile, 
was the father of his fc^nrlh Mercury. He is Danaus the brother of 
Egyptus : bciri^ Armuis, Armes or Hermes, fignifying a Diviner. 
Elian fays, " He was the councellor of Sefoftris," or Egyptus. 
Tully riy<; " I is name was not to be mentioned ;" probably as ba- 
nifhed for ufurpatien. 

R r a Acmon's 



Acmon's father was alfo called Meon ; as well as his grandfon 
Saturn Cybele's gallant, the founder of the Meonians. Acmon 
being Elios or Sol, and his father Meon's name fignifying Oceanus, 
7- 5^' Gellius (in Pliny) fay% Ocean's fon Sol invented gold, phyfic, and 
honey. The Nile being called Ocean, which is Meon, Saturn is 
Nilus the father of TuUy's fecond Minerva, counted by Sanchoni- 
atho Saturn's daughter. Thus Herodotus and Paufanias (i) fay that 
. Minerva was Neptune's daughter j and (8) that Neptune had a 
daughter by Ceres, that is the elder, or Cybele : and thus Hefychiuis 
(on Belus) mentions Jove fon of Neptune ; Neptune being fynony- 
mous with Ocean, and Meon, the name of Cybele's hufband : thus 
Saturn wis the Neptune, Ammon the Jove, and Japet the Pluto 
who divided the world ; a partition attributed to Saturn's three fons. 
Saturn is meant where Herophilus and Diodorus fay that Rhoda was 
the daughter of Neptune and Venus ; and Epimenides fays, of 
Ocean and Venus ; that is of Meon and Urania, Aftarte or Rhea; 
whofe gallant being Ammon, as well as Saturn ; and Ammon (as 
Plutarch fhews) being, as many others were, honoured with the 
Natal.Comes title of Sol, Pindar and Afclepiades deem Rhoda Sol's daughter. 
Her name was ta^ken from the lOand of Rhodes, fo called frofp 
the Celtic, Rhodio, to walk ; the Rhodians being Pelafgi or Itiacr 

rants. ^ 


Diodorus i. Mifor was Menes that ancient king who invented Lotus Bread s 

and Ofiris founder of Thebes, when the Lower Egypt was a morafs: 
and as he built Memphis he is the Uchoreus of Diodorus, but not 
the eighth from Simandes, but Simandes himfelf; and the firft 
Bufiris, not the 8th after him. He was flain by a Hippopotamus : 
is oft confounded with Memnon the inventor of delicacies and great 
archite6t; who founded the Labyrinth ; being Strabo's Imandes i^i^fl 
Maindes, the Mendes and Maro of Diodorus, and that Amenopliis 
who was the predeceffor of the Proteus of Herodotus, whofe fon 
Ramfinitus, Pliny*s Ramifes, was called Proteus alfo; and by tly- 
ginus deemed old, eight years after the Trojan war ; when accord* 
ing to my calculation he had reigned 51 years. In the 14th year of 
his fucceffor, the laft Amenophis or Nilus, happened the Exod* 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 309 

All thefe Meons and the fire of Sefoftris, alfo the Amenophis next 
after Chebron, and Cybele's hufband, and Acmon's father muft be 
carefully diftinguifhed from that primitive Menes who is Mifor ; 
with whom they are often confounded ; and who was Pan ; whence 
Ifis the queen of this Ofiris, Mendes or Pan, is on Rigord's medal ' 
ftiled Theou Panos: after his death Thoth was her councellor. 

That Mifor was Meon, Menes, or Mendes Manetho and Sancho- 
niatho fhew: the firft deems Thoth fon of Menes; the other, Mifor's; 
vfho was the Ofiris that, in honour of his fire,, founded Chemmis, 
•* a grand city (fays Herodotus) in Thebais, near Neapolis;'* and 
the native place of Danaus. But Noah was the primitive Ofiris: and ^^^^^* *• 
he was the firft Caelum faid by Trifmegiftus to be living in his time 
vith Saturn and Mercury; who are Ham the primitive Cronus of 
Eupolemus, and his fon Mifor the Mercury on whofe account Era^ ^*^**^: 
tofthenes calls his fon Thoth (who was Trifmegiftus) Herraogenes; 
and the Ofiris afferted by Plutarch to be Agatho4emon. Hence 
Ammon's fon Dionyfius being an Ofiris, Atheneus coqfounds him 
with Agathoderaon; to whom the firft cup of wine was dedicated: for ^ 

be was the Ofiris and Mercury who taught the ufe of the griape. 
bence alfo the firft cup was confecrated to Mercury; fee Suidas: 
Mifor being that firft Mercury to whom (as Sanchoniatho wrote) 
Ctpnus or Ham granted Egypt. Mifor with Thoth and I fmunus > 
cooftituted the three Lares or Penates; yetbeficjes thefe each perfon 
butd his peculiar Lares, who were fuch Qods, or fometimes the 
manes of deceafed friends, as Roman .Catholics, Patron- faints; 
tho* Chrift is the univerfal proteftor, annulling all inferiour tutelage. . 
Ariftophanes tells us Mercury has many iirnames, Hellanicus fays 
^firis was called Hy-firus : Sanchoniatho calls the brother of Cna 
the firft phyfician, Ifiris ; this fhews the prepofitive uncertain: fo ' 
Scth, Afeth ; Thor, Athyr; Vefta, Avefta; Thoth, Athoth; Taaut, 
Athauta: Sarraoth, Afarmoth; Seman, Afoman-, Dis, Ades; Anubis 
tfrom Nobeah; Thena, Athena; Neith, Anaitis; Manes, Amanus, 
tOm^nus; Mihr, Pcrfic for Amor; AfTouan, Syenc; Ram; Aram; 
Zan, Azan; Melee, Amelec; Menophis, Amenophis; Cheres Acheres; 
.Ccnchris, Achcnchris; Pteras, Aptereosj Margians, Amyrgians, 



Pachman, Apachnas; Phtha, Aphtha; Star, Eftcr, Aflera: Tabor, 
Atabyrius; Dorfancs, Adorfan: Bel, Abellio: Der-ceto, Atargatis: 
Dione, Idione. 

This ancient infcription, " Saturn the youngeft of the Gods is my 
fire, I am Ofiris," relates to Ham and his fon Mi for: for the .father 
of the Egyptian. Bacchus, called alfo Ofiris, was Ammon not Saturn, 
whofe juniority is dubious: Sanchoniatho counts Cronus the firft fon 
of Uranus: fo Diodorus in the Cretan Theogony. The above in- 
fcription fhews why the Ofiris_who was Mifor or Menes was efteemed 
the 'firft mortal king of Egypt, being a Poftdiluvian. Ham was the 
youngeft Antediluvian, or univerfal Cabir, tho' the prime Cabir of 

Diodorus Siculus, in placing Ofimandius before the founder of 
Chemmis, argues him to be Menes or Mendes, that is Ifimandes or 
Is-mandes, divine Mendes: as he does Uchoreus, by him reputed 
that founder, tp be Hmunus, Mifor's fon or Nephew, who was Og- 
dous as being the Eighth Egyptian Cabir, who is amongft the build- 
ers of Memphis; tho' Herodotus fays its firft founder was Menes: 
He is Mifor, for his fon Thoth built a palace there: but the T/»/i 
Saturn Meon or Uchoreus was Ogdous as being the eighth inclu&vc 
in Ham's direft line.— Mifor or Menes was efteemed the firft mortal 
king of Egypt as being next to Ham the youngeft Antediluvian 
Cabir; .but the eight Egyptian Cabiri were of Ham's peculiar family: 
his parent Ogen or Og Hen (old Ocean) who was the firft Se- 
rapis^ being the moft ancient perfon in the Poftdiluvian world, was 
the patron of ancient men; as his eldeft fon Japhet became prover- 
bial for antiquity. Let me recapitulate the eight ancient Gods of 
Egypt, (i) Vulcan^ Phtha, Opas, Hamhimfelf, called alfo Cronus, 
Belus, Zeus, Prometheus, Chamos. Diogenes Laertius fets him at 
the head of the Egyptian philofophy. Cecrops introduced his laws 
at Athens: being called Cronus, his were the Saturnalian laws of 
Carthage, at firft called Chadre Anak : as Sicily was Trianak, in 
honour of Ham: Carthage was alfo called Charchadon in honour as 


Chap. 4.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y/ 311 

Bryant fays of Adonis; and Carthada, in honour of Juno: that Juno 
who was (2) Ham's confort Thebe; and feems to be that ancient 
Latona deemed by Herodotus a gr^at deity of Egypt : (he is the 
ancient Venus mother of the Gods. (3) Her daughter, Mifor's wife 
Chamyna, afterwards the Britifli Camma, feems to be their IfiS . 
daughter, of the ancient Prometheus or Ham, and the Amaia of 
Suidas. Their primitive Sol (4) Sirius, Siris, Syr, Sihor, whence 
Sir, Sur, Swr, Princeps, was Mifor, Men, Menes, or Mendcsj who 
likewifewas Pan ("5) and therefore a dual divinity, or rather univer- 
fal; for he was Ofiris, Agathademon, Hermes; Bacchus, Thamus^ 
Scraps, and the firft Efculapius; for he was the Ofiris faid to be 
Apis; hencehe was the Bacchus faid to be Priapus,aname derived by Dii.Syr^ 
Bryant from Pe'or Apis: Pe' is a particle or prepofitive, u^ and yca^ 
fignify man in Celtic: hence Peor and Phcgor arc the fame, and relate 
to Priapus: fo Jerom fays that Phcgor was a naked God; and Mofes 
proves (Numb. 25.) the lewdnefs of Peor's rites. Phornutus agree- 
ably to this account deems Priapus to be Pan. The name fuits the 
prolific founder of the Egyptians; as Hefychius fays Apis is from 
Appas a parent, in Callimachus Appa, the Hebrew Abba: hence 
Papa, and Apappus. Selden fays, *« the Sun was facred to Aga- 
thodemon; alfo, that Pan and Sol were the fame.'* But, when the 
Egyptians complimented this immediate founder of their nation into 
aPViyfical Deity, feigning him the Sun; they under different deno- 
minations llilcs him the Sun in different refpeCls; as Serapis he was 
tbt winter Sun; as Apollo, he was unrivalled; as Pan, prolific; as" 
Onis, progredivc: as Arueris, operative; as Amoun, refplendentj 
as Ofiris (from 0(h-iri) time-former; as Harpocrates, feeble as an y^^j, 
infant; Mercury, for his aftivity; Bacchus, for exhilarating power. 
Agathodemon, for benefits. This is the Ofiris, who was counted 
Antiquiflimum ^gypti Numen; Herodotus fays the Titan Ammon's TacitJt. 
(on ** Dionyfius was a junior God;" tho' he affumed the name of 
Ofiris: fo Polyaenus fhews that one of his generals bore the name of 
Pan, who by noifes in the night ftruck the foe with fear; hence 
imaginary terror accquired the name of panic; fuch as afterwards 
terrified Brcnnus. Another of his officers affefted the name of Anu- 
bis; who originally was Thoth, the fon of the an^cient Ofiris or 



312 P R I M I T I V E . H I S T O R Y. (Book 2 

Mifor. (6) Thoth as Plkto (liews, was an ancient Egyptian God; 
ihus proving with Acufilaus and Sanchoniatho that fome of Ham's 
Ions were Cabiri alfo. (7) Muth^ Serapis or Piuto, whofe divinity 
. Varro afferted. He was Noah the prinnitive Neptune; hence at Ca- 
nopus Ifjov TloQuluivog. He is the Tcrrejlial Serapis, who (as Suidas 
fays) reprefented the Nile; holding a cubit and a bufhel, to meafure 
the river and its plentiful produce. Socrates, the ecclefiaftic fays 
that Serapis prefided over the Egyptian inundations: but Paufanias 
fays that Neptune was the God of all inundations. Jablonfki derives 
the name from Sari Api, column of meafure. Ruffin fays it was a 
cuftom to keep theNilometer in the temple of Serapis. He was theGod 
Canopus, who was fancied to be the pilot of Menelaus, and by others 
to be the pilot of Sefoftris. But, as God of the waters of the Nile, he 
was reprefented by a watcr-vafe. Rufiiius. fays that, in a conteft with 
fome Chaldean Priefts, the Egyptians fecretly had a porous vafe coat- 
ed with wax; which melting near the Chaldean fire, the water iflTued 
out, and extihguifhed the Chaldean God. Serapis was the Hibernal 
^un, which occafioned nature's periodical death; hence he was infer- 
nal Jove; fo Apollo's oracle fays, in Macrobius, '' Dis, cum faevit 
Hyems. He is the primitive Odin, father of Thor who certainly 
was Ham : but the /Titans affefted thefe and all other names orxgmlfy 
conferred on Ham and his family. Noah faw the death of Niturc 
at the Deluge; and was the great All-fader Odin and Oceatius. 
The moft famous Temple of Serapis was at Canopus; and there his 
worfhip was in the higheft repute. A prieft told Ariftidcs that the 
place was nan>ed Canopus before the vifit of Menelaus. Savary de- 
rives it from Cahi, land, and Noub, gold; and fays the filtering 
pots, fuch as above, were made of clay obtained at Canopus, a 
name that feems corrupted from Chan Opas, or Ob. Ocean, 
Ofiris, Neptune, Proteus, Triton, were all Gods of the Nile; but 
the River God of Canopus was certainly Serapis.- Strabo, by the 
Serapiums at Memphis and Canopus, means repofitories of Nilo- 
meters facred to Serapis; whofe moft ancient temple, (as Paufanias 
writes) was at Memphis. A uguftin terms Serapis, Maximus Egyp- 
tiorum Deus. Varro fays Serapis and Ifis were great Gods: but fhc 
was the primitive Ifis daughter of the Eg>'ptian Prometheus or Haiil; 


Chap. 4.) PRIMITIVE H I S T O R Y, 313 

and he was the cekflial Serapis who was Ofiris or Mifor. (8) Epiu* 
or Ifmunus is Clement of Alexandria's phyfician Apis, a builder of 
Memphis;, more ancient than lo, Pherecydes calls the mother of 
the Egyptian Cabiri, the daughter of Proteus; that is of that primary 
man who was Noah or Ogen, Virgil's Nereus Grandaevus, the mod 
ancient God of ApoUonius Rhodius. Her name Cabira is an apel- 
lative ; fhe being one of the eight univerfal Cabirs in the ark. 
But fhe was the mod ancient Beroe the daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, who were Noah and his wife. She was aifo called 
Thebe, which as Tzetzes fays is Bos ; fo is Athyr, a name 
afterwards affumed by Aftarte: but Ham's wife originally had 
the name of Thebe from the Ark called alfo Bous -, which figni- 
fyinga cow or bull, a cow beciame her fymbol, as a bull was Noah's, 
Ham's, and Mifor' s. From Thebe's furmounting the Deluge (he 
was named Il-ithya, from A/flu/tf, as Bryant remarks : fo Lytophron 
termk Dardanus a fea fowl for the fame reafon. Ham the Egyp- 
tian Vulcan was both an Egyptian and univerfal Cabin Pelafgians 
brought the rites of thefe Cabiri to Samothrace, the* ignorant of Hcrodoe, 
their names : they afterwards fettled at Athens ; when they obtained 
the names of the Gods from Egypt : Luciah fays th^ Egyptians firft 
knew the names of the Gods: but Herodotus adds that V^fta, Themis 
and others had names from the Pelafgi t which proves them more 
modem than the firft Cabiri, whofe names were unknown to their 
Pefalj^ic votaries •, who had learnt their rites from Teutafs defcend- 
cnft ; and who feem to be at firft Celtic followers of Mannus arid 
Acmon out of Europe to the Thermodon ; and afterwards to have 
- come with Alizons, Cyclops and Syrians, to Theffaly, Athens, Sa- 
mothrace, Crete, Rhodes, Lefbos and Italy, The Cyclops feem to Herodot. 4. 
be Arimafpians ; and with the Amazons to be akin to the Scythians: 
for the Amazons taught fome of the Sarmatians theScythian language: 
tho* Procopius derives the Goths from Sarmatia; which indeed was 
partly Celto Scythia, where Scythian or Gothic or Tartarian manners 
prevailed; fuch ashorfemanfhip, refidence in waggons; fee Tacitus. 

Hafti was denominated Ammon long before Rhea's gallant ; who 
had the title of Sol, but was grandfon of that Sol who was Acmon. 

S f Plutarch 


312 ' PRIM ITIVE .HI STORY. ^^_ 

Mifor. (6) Th-^th as Plkto flicws, was an ancient Egyptian God; 
thus proving with Acufilaus and Sanchoniatho that fome of Ham*a 
Ions were Cabiri alfo. (7) Muth^ Serapis or Piuto, whofe divinity 
. Varro afferted. He was Noah the prinnitive Neptune; hence at Ca- 
nopus Ifjov TloQulicvo;. He is the Tcrrefiial Serapis, who (as Suidas 
fays) reprefented the Nile; holding a cubit and a bufhel, to meafure 
the river and its plentiful produce* Socrates, the ecclefiaftic fays 
that Serapis prefided over the Egyptian inundations: but Paufanias 
fays that Neptune was the God of all inundations. Jablonfki derives 
the name from Sari Api, column of meafure. Ruffin fays it was a 
cuftom to keep theNilometer in the temple of Serapis. He was theGod 
Canopus, who was fancied to be the pilot of Menelaus, and by others 
to be the pilot of Sefoftris. But, as God of the waters of the Nile, he 
was reprefented by a water-vafe. Rufirtus fays that, in a conteft with 
fome Chaldean Priefts, the Egyptians fecretly had a porous vafe coat- 
ed with wax; which melting near the Chaldean fire, the water ifliied 
out, and extinguifhed the Chaldean God. Serapis was the Hibernal 
Ain, which occafioned nature's periodical death; hence he was infer- 
nal Jove; fo Apollo*s oracle fays, in Macrobius, " Dis, cum faevit 
Hyems. He is the primitive Odin» father of Thor whn ccrtaiiij/ 
Was Ham : but the. Titans affefled thefe and all other namc^ origiiid!j|^ 
conferred on Ham and his family^ Noah faw the death of NilMr 
at the Deluge; and was the great AlUfader Odin and Occantf 
The moft famous Temple of Serapis was at Canopus; and there } 
worfhip was in the higheft repute. A pried told Ari(tide^ thai ^ 
place was nan>ed Canopus before the vifit of Menelaus* Savary 
rives it from Cahi, land, and Noub, gold^ and fays the filtei 
pots, fuch as above, were made of clay obtained at Canot 
name that feems corrupted from Chan Opas, or Ob, 
Ofiris, Neptune, Proteus, Triton^ wer6 all Gods of the Nit< 
the River God of Canopus was certainly Serapisj- StftI 
Serapiums at Memphis and Canopus, mean!^ repnfifr 
meters facred to Serapis; whofe moft ancient tcm^ 
writes) was at Memphis, Auguflin Terms Seraj^ 
tiorum Deus. Varro fays Serapis and His 
was the primitive Ifis daughter of tiic 


of the Egyptian Bacchus, and of the Venus who was the younger 
Ifis, Dione or Semiramis ; alfo of Mars, and the Grecian Pan. And 
their fon Dionyfius was the Jove of Nyfa, the father of that Apollo 
and Diana, who were Orus and Bubafte. Animon'5 fon by Maia 
had Hermaphrodite by Venus Eleflra, who as the Sclioliaftof Apol- 
lonius 1. 9. 6 writes, refided at Samorhrace. Tho' all thele are 
reputed ufually the children of Jove Picus or Lapis, the father of 
Semele's fon, and of Minos, Radamanthus and their brother Sarpedon 
often confounded with Bellerophon's grandfon the Trojan warrior, 
hence alfo deemed a fon of Jove ; who was the fdther of the Lem- 
nian Vulcan, and his beauteous wife ; alfo of Caftor and Poilux, and 
finally of Alcides. By the elder Ceres (according to Sanchoniatho) 
Ammon was the Jove (that great difpenfer of benefits miftaken by 
Diodorus forthefather of Minosjivho begot the younger Proferpine 
ftblen by Aidoneus king of Epirus, from Sicily: -which occafioned 
the diftrefs and errors of Ceres (fo finely difplayed by the poets, par- 
ticularly Homer and Claudian) during -which fhe paid her celebrated 
vifit to Celeus, and beftowed wheat on Triptolemus his cldeft fon:: 
tho* Panyafis and Pherecydes give him other parentage. 

Diodorus fays than Minerva Vi£irix was Ammon's daughter. 
T\dly fays her father was Saturn's brother and fon of Uranus. Am- 
mon yi2is the ancient Cinyras, Ton of Paphus^ and the gallant of 
Vcnnsm Clement of Alexandiria, and the father of Adonis who was 
Addnofiris, Ofiris or Dionyfius; tho* ^efiod has an Adonis fon of 
Phcnix. Suidas deems Cinyras, fon of Thyas, and grandfon of 
Pharnacus, Cyprian kings ^ and famous for his wealth': but this is a 
later Cinyras, Agamemnon's friend. Apollodorusfays that Cinyras 
Pygmalion's,was the fonof Sandoc a defcendentofCecrops; 
his wife's name was Metharme : he feems to be that Affyrian king 
whom Panyafis calls Thoas. Cinyras the father of Adonis founded Hift?2j^' 
Paphos: and the ancient temple of Venus at that place, as Tacitus 
afferts. But Sandoc's fon was a difTe rent Cinyras from the gallantof 
Venus-, who moft probably was the kingof Affyria father of Adonis 
or Ofiris, whofe mother was the Venus that infliCled infanityon the 

S f 2 fons 



fons of Neptune' and Halia, in Rhodes (and contemporaries of tbtf 
three fons of Jove by Imalia, begotten after the Titanian war) for 
Diodorus. ^j^^jj. inhofpitality towards her in her progrefs from Cytherae to Cy-. 
prus. Laftantius calls the wife of Cinyras, Cenclireis, which fig- 
nifies Serpens, and alludes to the elder Ceres, 

Plato calls Ammon, Thamus; owing to his being blended with 
that Ofiris, as piodorus writes, who was his fon Dionyfius; and Dio* 
nyfius with the Ofiris who was Mifor and Thamus, as Plato (hews by 
deeming him Thoth's contemporary. The Titans (as already faid) 
j^fFefted the titles of Ham and his immediate defcendents. Thus the 
Titan Prometheus, and Atlas, alfo Phoroneus, were not the firft of 
their refpeSive names. — I take Ammon's fon Dionyfius to be San- 
choniatho's Adod, and thie Adad of Macrobius; and Hadad fon of 
fiedad who fmote Abraham's fon Midian. Ammon is lo's gallant^ 
and flew thofe Curetes thjjt concealed his fon Epaphus, the fecond 
Dionyfius of Diodorus, wju) became a king of Egypt, and inftituted 
divine rites: He was born in Crete. Ammon is Tully's Arcadian 
Jove the fire of Minerv^ victrix, Nitocris or Neith. Likewife tbg 
Jove who efpoufed Protogenia the aunt of Dorus, and mother of 
Aethlius Endymion's father.— As Plutarch fays Ammon was Amou^ 
he feems to be 1 euft-amus, whom Diodorus in defiance of chvono- 
logy, deems the for^ of Dorus. He fays Teu£iamus had Afterius 
(whom Manetho counts Pandion's contemporary) by Creta; butih/s 
was Ammon's confort. Ammon being th^ fon of Uranus, he ^d 
his fon Dionyfius are Sanchoniatho*s Diofcuri, tho* placed amongft 
Sydic's Tons: and are thofe to whom Epicharmus in Atheneus (4) 
fays that Minerva fung a war fong: the meafure was two daftyls and 
a fpondee. When Timotheus fung this fong, called Orthios, ac- 
companied with mufic to Alexander, Suidas fays he inftantly in ^ 
martial tranfport fliQUted to arms. This was the tune of the military 
dance Betharmus, invented by Pyrrhicus one of the Curetes, a name 
derived from Couris a fpear: thus Juftin 43 tells us that fpears were 
Attic, anciently revered as divine. There was a Satyric dance called 
Sicinnis, in Athenaeus. The Indians in the South-vSeas and North- 
Americans fing a war-fong. Paufanias fays Afterius was fon of Anax, 




fon of Ge; who here is Titaea: Anax was Saturn, and being Am- 
nion's rival, Saturn often fathered his children. Apollodorus counts 
Afterius, and Jove Lapis, brothers; fo Sanchoniatho deems Zeus 
Belus^ and the younger Saturn who was Afterius: and as the elder 
Saturn was Neptune, Afterius was the younger Neptune. Rhea 
Ammon*s wife was the mother of Lapis, whom Eufebius calls Lapes; 
but the name alludes to Rhea's giving a ftone to Saturn for her fojri. ^^^.^'* 
Agathocles fays Rhea had that ftone from the ifle Proconnefa. Pau- 
fanias, who mentions Zeus Lithos (3) fays that Saturn fwallowed 
this ftone on mount Petrarchus : it was preferved and daily anointed 
in the Temple at Delphos, and covered with wool that grew during 
the Saturnalia. Tully mentions the oath by Jove Lapis; whom Apu- 
leius calls Deus Lapis. This is the Coel Faen or Credence ftone of 
the Welfh, derived from Jacob's Bethel: fee Rowland's Mona, and 
Gcnefis 31. 46. Perfons fwore on fmall ftones as tokens of the 
Bxtyl. Midius Fidius was the Roman path; and this proves Jove 
Pious to be Sancus, named Piftios in Dionyfius Hah Plutarch fays Dc Flam. 
Mithras was born of a ftone. Some think this an allegory alluding 
to flints: but Mithras refembled Apollo, not Vulcan: it therefore 
probably refpefts Lapis, who had an univcrfal empire, like the Sun. 
" Baiinier fays Elben fignifies a ftone or a child; and Rhea fubftituted 
amiihcr child for her own. Le Clerk on Hefiod fays that Balah fig- 
nifict to confine, as well as devour. La6tantius thought this ftone 
wMMtkc God Terminus. Prifcian fays the Latins called it Abaddirj 
ibe Greeks, as Hefychius writes, Bstylus. This name arofe from 
Jacob's Bethel. Bochart fays the fame word fignifies animated and 
tQointed: therefore the poets call them animated ftones. Some of 
them were fmall and worn a3 amulets. But the true Betyls were the 
rocking ftqnes of the Gaurs: thus Damafcius fays, " I faw a Betyl 
iqaving in the air.** — As to the name Jovis, Jove, it neither comes 
froin Juvo, nor from the Celtic Jou, yopng; for it was a name of 
^.aturn's fire, and of his rival Ammon, as well as of Lapis or Picus: 
Jovje is th^ fame as Chova, which in Cochin Chin4gi is king: both arc 

ifrom Joua, Jehova. 




TeuSamus and Ammon (if diverfe) poffcft dominions in Cret^ at 
die fame time; and both married Creta, Teutamus feems to be 
Teutamides (in Dionyfius of HalicarnaflTus) the father of Nanas^ a 
name given to the mother'of Atys in Arnobius: (he is Venus Urfyiia 
Aftarte or Diana, whom Bannier reports to have been called Nan^ 
nea or Nana: hence perhaps the legend Na;neae Sebefio, yet Bacchu^ 
was called Nana fon of Venus Urania, or Rhea, often confounded 
(let me repeat) with her daughter, whofe father was often reputed to 
be Ammon, Amos or Teuft-amos- Teuft-amus is derived from 
Tauft, a title of honour in the Eaft, according to Delia Valle; fig- 
nifying what is meant in facred writ, and in Milton by Thrones^ 

Jove Lapiswas Egiochus, and hence is confounded with Atys (fo 
named from Attagos, a goat) fometimes reputed the fon of Manes or 
Saturn; but rather of Ammon; for he was Dronyfius. Arnobius owns 
his account of Atys to be a fable. Dionyfius Hal. fays Atys was the 
father of Lydus by Callithea daughter of Choreus, that is by Bona 
Dea or the noted Ceres; by whom (but here confounding her with 
her mother) Plutarch fays Gordius, who from Strabo feems to be the 
fon of Triptolemus, had Midas; whofe daughter la was betrothed ra 
Atys. Arnobius took this goddefs to be the wife of the Italian Fau- 
nus, inftead of the Egyptian, who was Dionyfius. As Choreus im- 
ports the fame as Meon, and is Cybele's hufband; Diodorus fay^ 
** Meon king of Lydia had Tby his wife Dindyme his daughter Cy- 
bele: *'but Dindyme was the elder Cybele. Thus the miftrefs of Atys 
was Claudian*s Noia Ceres. Diodorus blends the (lory of Atys and 
Cybele, with Hyperion's, by miftaking the younger Cybele for her 
mother. Atys or Dionyfius was nurfed by a goat, and became Jove 
Egiochus, a name erroneoufly given to his coufin german Picus. 
Diodorus Siculus fhews that Ofiris was fometimes deemed piony* 
fius, fometimes Jupiter. Dionyfius Hal. fliews there was a Jupiter 
Faunus; who was this Ofiris, Bacchus, or Dionyfius. Bannier fhews 
:ihat the name Sabafius was common to Jove and Dionyfius, 



, whore name fignifies Jove of Nyfa. The Rhodian Oracle in Gale 
is thus. 

Magnum Atten placate Deiim, qui caftus Adonis, 
Evius eft, Largitor Opum, pulcher Dionyfius. 

. Sufebius alfo fhews that Attis was Adonis: tho' the ancient Adonis 
or Thamus was Mifor; who being flain by a river-horfe, he was alle- 
gorized into the Sun overpowered by Winter, whofe fury was more 
commonly compared to a boar's; this likewife was fabled of Acmon^ 
when he became Elios. Ammon's fon being firnamed Ofiris, and 
flain by Typhon, a river-horfe became Typhon's emblem. Paufanias 
writes that Attis was flain by a boar, as Adonis is faid to be. 

Plutarch calls Ammon, Amos; as Africanus calls Amofis, who ap- 
pears to be Ammon by his priority (in the Dynafty) to Orus, Am- 
nion's grandfon. Ptolemy ot Mendes wrote that Amofis expelled 
the Hycfi. In the reign of Amofis Heliopolis appears to have been 
recovered from them. The Hycfi had loft Memphis in the reignof 
Mkris, 900 years before Herodotqs. Amofis is the Amafis in Dio- 
dorus mifplaced after Sefoftris ; as is Adifanes. 

That Ham's Titan defcendents were of high antiquity appears from 
the foMowing confiderations. Arbe, who founded Chebron in ho- 
nour of Chebron fon of Amofis, or Ammon's fon Dionyfius, was 
Anak's father, and grandfire of Achiman, Shefliai and Tholmai, 
who lived at the Exod : he feems alfo to have been Jarbas fon of 
Jove and Garamantis. 

The Rephaims of Affiteroth Carnaim were in Abraham's time, j^^^ ^ 
whofe father was an idolater : Carnaim refpefls Saturn;. Afliteroth^ 
Aftarte. Juftin and Nicholas of Damafcus fay that Athera (Aftarte) 
the goddefs of Damafcus, was deified prior to Abraham's refidence 
there. Mofes mentions Afliteroth Carnaim, lo called from her and Gen.* 14: 
her hufband Cronos. Plutarch fays that Ifis went to Aftarte at 

Biblos ; 

320 P R I MIT I V E H I S T O R Y. . (B6aU *. 

Biblos ; therefore Ifis was as early as Abraham: who is faid by £11- 

Eufeb. Prep, polcmus to have lived at.Heliopolis; a city founded by Aftis brodi^r 

^ ''^' ofTriopas, in honour of Sol their fire : Triopas aided Deucalion's 

fons againft the Pelafgi in TheflTaly : Ochymus, brothtr 6f Triopas, 

Diodorus: was grandfire of Lindus, who was living before the death of Deu- 
calion, the contemporary of Cecrops, Cranaus and Lycaon. Poly- 
hiftor quoted Cleodemus (whom he denbniinates a Prophet and 
Malchas, and a hiftorian of Jewifh aflFairs) thus ; " Abrahtm had 
feveral fons by Chetura ; three of whom were Afer, Afur^ Afran : 
from Afur, Aflyria had its name ; from Afer and Afran, the city 
Afran and all Afric. Thefe were comrades of Hercules in his ex- 
pedition againft Lybia and Anteus: by Afran's daughter Hercules 
had Diodorus the father of Sophon, from Whofti the Sophae." This 
Hercules was the comrade of Ammon's fon Dionyfius,. and was en- 
gaged in the Titanian war : he was Melcart, or Melcander contem- 
porary with Ifis; aHbthe Malica of Hefychius. — Afcalus the brother 
of Tantalus, who was C6eval with Oenomaus fon-in-law of Atlasi 
built Afcalbri : a kihg ^f which, as Juftirt writes, compelled the 
Tynans to build their city; which was a ftrbng town in Jofliua's time. 
Ezekiel fhews that this refpefts ancitiiit Tyrfe, which was ** at the 
26. 2. paflage to the fea," and wall deftroy^d by Nebuchadnezzar ; when 
infular Tyre arofe from its ruins : fo the Tyrians told Alexander 

Curt: 4. 2. that the temple of Hercules was at Paletyre on the continent. Se- 
miramis was a native of Afcalon, which proves her not* earlier thto 
Tantalus. Afcalon is interpreted the fire of infamy ; it therefore 
feems to have been built, when Sodom was deftroyed. Afhdod or 
Azotus, as Stephanus fays, was built by fugitives from the Red Seat 
thefe appear to be the Hycfi expelled by Amofis : in Jofhua*s time 
it was a town of note. — Jofephus fays Aftarte's temple was grown old 
and ruinous, before Solomon's was founded. — The Pfalmift fays 

Ant. I. 5. that Jofeph was put in irons; but Helladius and Thrafillus wrote that 
,Q^ iron was not mvented till 73 years after Deucalion's flood.— The 

Diodor: Egyptians fought with clubs in the Titanian war, and time of Belus; 

^ygin- but fwords were in ufe in the time of Jacob, G^n. 48. m. In Jofeph*8 

time horfemanfhip was in ufej the praftic6 of which Dicearchus fa)s 


29: 29. 

Chap. 5,) ^ PRIMITIVE HISTORY. 321 

Avas introduced by Onis, or his fuccefTor Sefollris. Plutarch fhews ^ , , 

. \ Scol. Apoi- 

it was by Orus, who told Ofiris the ufe of a horfe in purfuit ; and Ion. Rh. 

fays that Typhon fled on an afs. Orus. is (hewn by Manetho to have 
been confiderably prior to Amenophis the king at the Exod, who in 
imitation of Orus wanted a fight of the Gods : Statius Ihews that Sylv: 1,570: 
Orus was coeval with Crotopus. Paufanias fays (1) there was a 
ilatue 6f Neptune on horfeback encountering the giant Polybotes : 
and that Adraftus according to the poet Antimachus was the firft 
Greek cavalier. Hprfemanfliip, as Nonnus writes (22) was in ufe in 
the Indian war of Bacchus; and Erectheus ferv^init as acavalier. 
Semiramis rode a horfe in the Indian war. Horfctnanfliip com- . 
menced in Greece in Chiron's time : in Italy under Maroi whom 1 
take either to be the old comrade of Dionyfius ; or Chiron's 
father Meon or Saturn. Danaus taught the Greeks to fink wells ; 
as Abraham taught the Syrians : about which time Silenus obtained 
water at Pyrrhica in Laconia, by finking a well. Demetrius Pha- Paufanias. 
krius fays, martial trum,pets were not in ufe at tlie fiege oF Troy : 
Lycophron fays that Concks ferved the purpofe ; as now in the 
South Seas : martial trumpets were in ufe at the Exod. Paufanias 
fays, trumpets of war were invented by a fon of Alcides. Diodorus 
and Suidas fay the Tyrrhenians invented them: fromwhom the Hera. 
cWde learnt their ufe. Indeed Euftathius mentions a kind of fonorouS 
tube employed in religion by the Egyptians, and invented by Ofiris: 
he, like Minerva, was a general parent of inventions.— Mofes was. 
acquainted with military turrets for fieges : thefe were unknown at ^"•^' *°- *® 
the fiege of Troy •, the famous wooden horfe at which was an arrant 
fable; for if the gate was broken dowci for its admittance, the con- 
cealed warriors were quite unnecefTaty, Jofeph wore a particoloured 
veft : but Martial 8. 8. fays that "Semiramis invented particoloured 
robes: hence Pliny calls particoloured cloth, Babylonian. Juda's g. .g. 
fon Zara had a fcarlet thread tied round his wrift ; but Melcart in-, 
vented tlie fcarlet dye; and the Titan Saturn was the firft who wore 
a fcarlet cloak. Jewels were unknown at the Trojan war; but were 
ufed in Egypt at the Exod. Mofes mentions piftures : but Pliny 
fays the invention of that art was later than the Trojan war. 

T t Yet 


Yetthofe, who fet the Titan Saturn as high as Ham, err on the 
other hand; for Saturn's fon Chiron was alive after. the birth of 
Achilles: and Abydenus counts the Titanian war fubfequent to the 
Eafeb. Prep Babylonian difperfion. But it appears that the Titans adopted the 
^* '^* titles of Ham and his defcendents^ Eupolemus calls Ham, Cronus; 
which appellatron Chiron's fire afFeftcd. Ham wasalfo entitled Belus 
and Zeus ; hence his fon Menes or Mifor was ftiled Dionius. So 
Ceres was denominated Ifis; yet the worfhip of Ifis, by Ceres eftab^ 
lifhed at Athens, was not fo muth her mother's, as that of the an- 
cient Chamyna, wife of Menes or Mifor, the firft Egyptian Ofiris, 
Plato's Thamus, coeval with Thoth, and really his fire. He is the 
Ofiris of whom Tibullus fays, 

'• ^ Primus Ar^tra Manu folerti fecit Ofiris, 

For the Hycfi had vaft arable pofTeffions before the reign of Grus, 
Chebron or Amofis; but Orus was Ainmon's grandfon : his father 
Dionyfius acquired the name Ofiris, becaufe he and Ceres fupplied 
Greece with corn in time of fcarcity. But Mifor is the Ofiris who 
is figured on an old Britifb coin with a ear of corn and named Camu, 
from Camusj ocean; for Camillus and Cadmus were names of tliis 
«r«ckEpigr j^^^^, Oceanus or Hermes. His fon Thoth invented the fickle. 





Settlements o/Jfaphet's IJUe. 0/ Magog. Of the Celts, Scythians^ and 
Perjians. The Saronida: or Druids attended Ham's Family. Gomer 
Sire of Cimmerians, Comerians, Chomarians^ peopled Phrygia. Of 
their Inrpads : Of Migrations^ and legal Remedies for that Evil. An 
Account of the ancient Celta:. Of Britain peopled by Gomerians, Phe* 
nicianSy Trojans, and Goths. Jfcotti or Inferior Goths came to Ireland 
after their Defcent into Spain. A Table of the Royal Families of 
Ireland. The Firbolgs, viz. Belgce; Fir Gaili, Viri Galli. Of the 
Progrefs of European Population. The Gomerians proceeded atjirfl 
northward, then wejlward, along Rivers and between Mountains. 
The Goths moved wejlward: The Sclavonians northward. The Hun^ 
^avians are a mixed Clafs. 

JA P H E T, from whom the Titan Japet probably derived q^^, 
his name, peopled all the North. He feems to be the primitive 
Di$, Difcelta, or Samothes, mentioned by White of Bafingftoke^ 
and fo named from his wifdom. Nonnus (31) mentions the gloomy 
realms: of Japhet. His pofterity being fair, his divifion of territory 
was named Europe from Ur Appa, vir Canus • hence Sicani fignify 
fons of white men ; yet Sammes derives this from ^Secanim, neigh- 
bours. Being Noah's eldeft fon, his antiquity became proverbial : 
as his hardy pofterityafFeQed the northern regions, above the Euxine 
and Cafpian feas, and beyond Mount Caucafus, Horace calls them 
Audax Japeti Genus. That mountain being their boundary, the 
Titan Japhet's fon was feigned to be confined to it.--^Magus reputed 

T t 2 a 




a king of the Celtae was Magog •, deemed by the hrftorians, who 
adopt this account^ a great founder of towns, as Moguntia, Rotho- 
magum : for White fays his name in Celtic implies a houfe: Bochart 

Can. 1. 42. (hews that Magus in Syriac is a manfion ; which Meon (ignifies ac- 
cording to Bifhop Cumberland, Twine fays *• the Welfh Cots re- 
femble the Punic called Magaria,*' by S6rvius, En. 1. 320. San- 
choniatho has a Magus who was an archifeft. He deems him Mifor*! 
uncle inftead of Coufin-germah: yet the Celtic Magus feems to be 
fon of Dis or Deas Acmon's brother. Florence of Worcefter ftiles 
the Bifhops of Hereford, Magetenfes -, but Magus here is a variation 
(not unufual) of Fagus : for Hereford was Caer Fawyd. As the 
Belgac were named from balck, might, but nick-named from Bolg, 
belly ; fo Mage in Iflandic is belly •, but Maagur is AflBnis ; and in 
old Englifh Magas is kingsfolk ; Meagtha, a tribe. The ancient 
Hercules had his name Magufanus from Magus. Some derive 
Magus from the Iri{h Magh, a plain field; in Welfh, Maes; in 

LoydArchs- Hungarian, Mezeu ; others derive Magog from Mpgb in Perfian a 
®1®S* priefl; which therefore Apuleius tells us that Magog in Perfic 
fignifies. • 

Syncellus derives the Celts and Galatae from Magog ; as Jofepfam 
does the Scythians ; who flriftly were Shemiles ; tho* towards tfce 
north intermixing with Celtae, they became Celto-fcythians. Scyth 
or Scuite fignifies emigrants: as do Rhodians, Balaroi, Pelli^ 
Titans, Spartans, Najii ; and Cymmerau fignifies a conflux: henct 
Cimmerians; which does not (ignify darknefs, unfuitable to ibt' 
Cimmerians near the Euxine : thus alfo Scot fcarcely comes frti 
Scotos, rather from Scuta. But Scoui Ifcotti are lower Goths*. 

Juftin fays the Scythians were laborious, flrong, fierce in war, tho* 
temperate viftors; fevere againft thieves; negligent of gold and 
diamonds; their riches being their flocks, whofe milk was their 
diet; (kins, their apparel. Women were debarred from marriage, 
men from feafls, (Ariflotlc favs from the feftal bowl) till they had 
(lain a foe. They feem to haveacquired the apellation of Comati 
from an imitation of their God Dii called at Carthage Erebus and 


Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H 1 S t O R Y. a^S 

reprefented with long Ibofe hair, fee Polybius. Innovations were 

capital crimes. Herodotus fays that Anacharfis having feen the 

worfhip of the Magna Mater, privately pra6lifed the fame at his 

return to Scythia ; for which he was flain on the fpot : as was a king, 

for fome alteration of drefs and rites. Governors of provinces made 

an annual entertainment for thofe who had flain any foe •, at which 

they ufed the fculls for cups : tho' the heads (a prize at this day 

carefully preferved by the Americans) were after a battle prefented 

to the king, who returned them to the viAors: thefe drank the blood 

of their firft captive; and offered one in a hundred to Mars, and flayed 

the flain for ufe and triumph. They ufed fmall pills on marches, that 

were durable food; in this the Britons refembled them: as alfo in having 

wives in common; as Plato hints: like the Lybians, as Ariftotle avers^ 

and the Limyrnians, as Nicholas of Damafcus relates. Pliny fays 

a Scythian weed would (uffice their horfes for ten days at once^ 

The men eat venifon, honey, chcefe, milk, efpecially Mare*s: to 

obtain a greater quantity they ufed inflation. Swine they detefted* 

They removed their families in covered waggons. Contrads were 

confirmed by dipping a fword or dart in wine mixt with their blood, 

which the company drank with imprecations againft violaters of the L. 30. 

coinpa6i. Pliny fays the Britons were fo addifted to ibagic, that 

thty may be fuppofed to have communicated it to the Perfians, 

whufe Magi Ariftotle acquits of magical legerdemain: yet Suidas^ 

fiiyi^he Perfians were called Magufeans, and Magog, from him; and 

dMCbe was the inventor pf magic; but the Perfians were Shemites; 

iuywever Celtae may have intruded amongft them. From the Goths 

fvho were Shemites) came FoHf, and Goetic. Magic depended 

much upon aftrology, as difplayed by Aratus and Manilius, and de« 

termining the Sidereal afpefts and pofitions, that render the fecret 

virtues of herbs, minerals, or animal fubftances, moft powerful for 

incarnations, accompanied with addrefles to Demons. By convert* 

ing vegetable falts into animal, they trisinsformed rods into ferpents; 

9^ evoked Ghoftsj x>r Demons in their fimilitude ; by ufing parti. 

Miliar forms of words and figns, alfo peculiar herbs, and obferving 

particular days, hours, feafons, times of the Moon^ and planetary 

MpP^i as extremely efficacious. Baptift Portii (4rom Paracclf^s) 

^ and 

Hift. Britain 


and Cefar Longinus defcribe the magical Ungucntum Armarium. 
Piftorius defcribcs various forts of divination, fuch as by the fievc 
and fheers. Rue and a virgin's Fluor are amulets; fo the ftellated 
Pentagon, or an open hand: but fome Demons are to be averted 
only by falling and prayer; and only a life of fan6tity can obtain the 
affiftance of good Angels. The magicians of Egypt were famous: 
Sanchoniatho tells us that Thoth made ufe of fpells; indeed the 
Gaurs, who were people of black complexions, feem to have their 
magic and religious rites from Chaldea and flam's family; thefe the 
Titans and Goths propagated thro* Europe, and in Sarmatia, whence 
it has reached the weftern regions of North-America: the Idol 
Shaitan between the Irtifli and Oby refembling the Penates of thofe 
Americans; and the incantations of Tongufian Shamans, the Ame- 
rican defcribed by Carver; as do their arms, lances, and fmall 
batchets; and fnow ihoes. Shaitan is the Perfian Shitan, Satan. An 
old Ode in Bartholin calls Odin the father of magic. Artemis de- 
rived from Hartom, M'izzard, was the Goddefs of Tauris. Con- 
cerning the Spirits attendant on incantations, Agrippa 3. 24. re- 
counts thofe that prefide over the planets, zodiac, days, winds and 
elements. Aban named Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Samael, SachicI, 
Anael, Caffiel; Dardiel, Satael, Miel, Caftiel, Rachiel, Machataii; 
Hurataph, Amabiel, Seraphacl, Afafiel, Uriel, and three more^. 
^Artabel deems 36,000 legions fubfervient to Aratron the Spirit of 
Saturn; 29,000 legions to Bethor, Jupiter's; 36,536 to Och, Sol's; 
4000 to Hagith, the Venereal; 100 to Ophiel, Mercury's; befides 
Phaleg in Mars and Phul in Luna; a legion being 490: or 6666 ac- 
cording to Wier, who names and defcribes about 70 heads of nume- 
rous legions; among whom, befides Lucifer, are Baal, Byleth, Be- 
lial, Afmodeus, Amon, Cerberus, Paymon, Bune, Berith, Aftaroth, 
Orias, Bifrons, Balam, Phenix. Trithemius attributes Michael^ 
Soli; Gabriel Lunac; Raphael Mercurio; Anael Veneri; Samael 
Martio; Zachariel Jovi; Oriphiel Saturno. 

Sarron the fon of Magus is deemed a cultivator of arts. Jolin 

Lewis derives Sarum or Sarron from him. White makes Paufanias 

fay, his death arofe from purfuing a hart into the fea; but befides 

chat horfemanfliip was not in ufe fo early, Paufanias counts Sarron 


Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 3^7 

(clafled by Ariftides among the maritime princes) a king of the 
Traezenians, and fucceflbr of the grandfon of Orus Apollo; who as 
Statius writes was expiated touching Typhon*s miirder by Crotopus 
of Argos, and therefore was only one generation prior to Danaus 
and Cadmus. Thus Paufanias fhews that Saron was later than Da- 
naus; alfo that Orus like other Tit^ans, had dominions in Europe. 
He may be the Sol who was Medea's grandfire. — Diodorus Siculus 
mentions the Saronidae as philofophers; they were Druids-, and fcem 
to have come into Europe with Ham's family. As Lucan and Lac- 
tantius fay that human viftims were offered to Teutat and Hefus, 
they probably came with Tat, Teutat, Tuitho: for Amofisand Her- 
cules were" averfe to human viftims; tho' Hercules feems to have 
have brought the Curetes to Cadiz, where Juftin finds them; being 
at firft Satellites; afterwards a facerdotal order, when Rhea was 
deified. Bloody facrifices begun early in the family of Ham, the 
primitive Saturn, whofe laws and rites were brought by Teutat to 
Spain; and the firft Curetes probably attended him and his fon 
Mannus, as well as their defcendents Acmon, Uranus, Saturn, Rhea 
and Melcart. Thefe priefts were the fource of the Corybantes, and 
Salii who danced to the clattering of their armour; the city Cures 
\rair founded in honour of them. Ariftophanes fays that Orpheus 
a\to oppofed human viftims; and the Titans appear to be reformers 
id this refpeft: but the Maflagetae continued this horrid praftice in 
Europe. Yet Apuleius (ays that human viftims were flain for the 
Syrian Goddefs; but I take her to have originally been Ham*s con- 
fort. Hefychius fhews that Saron fignifies a hollow oak; as an oak 
whence Drus (in Hebrew Alon, whence Alona near Delphos) in 
Celtic is Deru, and reprefented their fupreme God; hence their 
pricfts-were called Druids; whofe tenets were contained in oral 
poems; and moft perfeftly inculckted in Britain; tho' Gallic Druids 
refidcd in Armorica. Their civil maxims remained long among the Aufoiiiu5. 
Turditani, in Spain; as Straho fays their laws were in' metre; like 
thofe of the Agathyrfi; which Ariftotle fays they fet to mufic; 
as Athenaeus fays the Athenians did the laws of Charondas. 
It was to aflift memory; hence laws and fongs were usLtncd' NomoL Arift. Prob. 
Sweden has lately thrown their laws into metre; whil^ the Univerfe 


328 P R I xM I T I V E HISTORY. (Book i. 

can fcarce contain the laws and Reports of Britain. The moral 
maxims of the Druids feem to have been contained in the 
three books of Arimafpian verfes committed to writing by Arif* 
teas the Proconnefian; of whom fee Herodotus arui Strabo. 
Laertius fays that the Druids inculcated Divine Adoration, moral 
turpitude, praftiee of fortitude, difregard of death : that the Magi 
(who feem to have a great affinity with the Druids) encouraged 
piety and juftice; praftifed Divination; tho* Ariftotle denied their 
being converfant in magical Divinations. 

They held an Agathodcmon named Jove and Oro-mazeus ; a 
Caco-demon named Pluto and Ari-manes : and afferted the efficacy 
of prayer. Cefar fays, the Druids decided on controverfies and 
crimes. Difobedience incurred excommunication ; a grievous 
punifhment, the delinquent having intercourfe with none. The 
Druids difcanted on the ftars and their motions; on the magnitude 
of the earth and the univerfe; and of the power of the immortal 
Gods. Mela adds that " they taught geography, the foul's immor- 
tality, and pretended to teach the defigns of providence. They 
were corporeal phyficians, ufing amrulets ^nd charms." As they 
ufed magnifiers for celeftial obfervations, fhutting one eye ; the 
name of the Cyclops, who were Monoculi, like the Arimafpians, mvf 
be derived from Kuck, Turkifh for heaven, whence we fay Cock- 
loft ; Kuck becoming Kuckl, as from Gib Gibl, a hill ; and Lofft 
in Iflandic is air. Yet the Cyclops, whofe name is more probably 
derived from Gwg, fury ; and whofe fierce countenance produced 
the term goggle, kuci, may have been deemed one eyed, as well as 
the Arimafpians, from the praftice of fhutting one eye in archery* 
Pliny fays, the Druids cured fore eyes with the fumes of Selago^ 
which refembles Savin : this they touched only with a white cloth,, in 
gathering it, and after an oblation of bread and wine. They deemed 
a decoftion of Mifleto, cut on the moon's fixth day with a golden 
fickle, a remedy for fterility andpoifon. The fuperftitious floryof 
the ferpent's egg thrown by the Druids into a river to fwim with a 
golden ring round it, had a myflerious relation to the globe fur- 

24: II. 

t6^ 43: 

Chap. 5.) PRIMITIVE ft I S t d It Y. ^w§^ 

roondbd by tfte Zodiac^ Mate hints that bw*» Abairiir the Hyper^ 
boreaMfv and Zamoloii^ ufed ifU7a!matk>n^-~H^ fiventioM a^ fn^dicat 
maxim of the latter agciinft topical expedkms ; that the ey« (houtd* 
not he cured wit botit* thehead^ nor the heaid wiidkuMfllie body; adding^ 
Bor ibe body witliouc the ioul'« 

Of the tlwee cliLlTes, tke Bank wefe- the loweft $ next weref the 
Vat;e3*; the fupreme were the Druids or divines'; over whom pro- 
fided:a^ Hierarchy in the atnofual aflembly of this mitionai^ €ouft. o^ 
judicatures facerdotal! convocaiion^ and cotlego o( phiIo(bp}icf^air 
Where at trials women fee» to have confticuted a^jiiry at:eoj*diftg:tcr 
^acitus^ H. 4. 61,. and Plutaroh deMuIieribus:; Patormias ghnes aii 
inftance of this among the Elians.. indeed ther^ w»ope DruidefTe^ 
-and female Augurs in high repute among the Celtaetone of them was 
the famous Velleda in Tacitus, H. 4. 6i, The fuperiour order of 
Druids were ftiled Vacerrac, apparently from Vachdatach (Irifh) 
a prefident. The Bards celebrated in hymns the praifes of their 
heroes; the Vates aflfifted at facrifices. Yet as if to demonftrate the in- 
confiftency, the frailty,, the. corruption of human nature ; the puerile 
fuperftitions of the Druids render them contemptible ; their mur- 
derous auguries and oblations fo great a difgrace to mankind ; as 
to^dtferve that total extiipation the Roman arma compelled them to 
uoA^tgp: tho* the fuperftitions andidtes of their oonqyeixH'S werd 
qiut^^ ridiculous, andi too often as bloody as their ownr Itrfbllov^a^ 
tliat Chriftianity has bothhumanised and elevated fodesty iiifteiad oC 
debftfing it,as fuperficial critics^pretendgiwhofcandallEeEyangdical) 
tratba-with the illeife£l$ of Gothic ignorance and brutality, followed^ 
byi the ADtichriftian arts of facerdotal defpotifm>. which for feverati 
ages debarred the laity from, the light of the gofpel; Since the in-' 
cftimable invention ofthe Prefs, ignorance, fuperftitton and barbarity 
dk^in^^ery free conftitution.; and- whilft f deuce increafes and artr 
inprove^ true fiprtitude groundedion Ghriftian pnnciplba marcher 
hand in: band. with humanity, and baniflies all favage ferocity from- 
the* viftor's bread. If any prefer the barbarous rites of the Druids^ 
to themildand rational duties of Cbriftianity; let thera enjoy Gefar^s- 

U Ui defcripdon 


defcription of the unhappy vi£lims inclofed in Oziers, and burnt. 

alive : Let them under Lucan's conduft traverfe the horrid fhades 

of the abominable Maffilian Grove. If they long to renew the 

elegant rites of Priapus ; they may think ir their duty to adore the 

delicate Cloacina likewife ; or to parade daily (like the Peguers) 

^ith the Devil's brcakfaft. They may glory in facrificing their 

. children to Saturn, or in being facrificed themfelves to Taramis, 

Hefus and Teutat -, yet are too fceptical to comprehend the miracles 

and-prophecies, that (confirmed as the latter are by time, like thofe 

refpefting the doom of Babylon, Tyre, Egypt, and Jerufalem) atteft 

the divine power of the Mefliah. Bloody viftims may raife them to 

ferocity of butchers ; while true contrition would fink them into 

heaven-born fons of peace, and votaries of God-like love. 
Antiq: I. 3. 

Jofephus gives us reafon to think that fome of Tubal's pofterity 

fettled in Spain. 

Govfitr peopled Phrygia ; hence Claudian, 

Dat cunfla Vetuftas 
Principium Thrygibus. 

But Herodotus and Strabo 7 inform us the Phryges were Bryipf 
from Thrace. Cato fays mankind were renewed in Scythia. Bo- 
chart fays that Gomer which fignifies adjuft and Phrygia (a naiae 
derived from cPpvysiv ) are of the fame imports Pliny mentionii the 
city Cimmeris there. Sherringham derives many Phrygian names 
from the Celtic ; Paris, from Par, Hafta ; Deichus, from Dycb, 
fortis; Hyllus from Hyl, Ferox. The Cimbri and Cimmerians^ 
Gomarians and Chomarlans, alfo the Humbrians or Umbrians are 
Gomer*s dependents ; and even the Cimmerians of Campania, con- 
founded as they are by Homer with the Arftic Cimmerians ; which 
however befpeaks them of the fame origin : the Laeftrigones were 
^^* "• fome of them ; whom Homer alfo places in the North : Bochart de- 
rives the name from the Hebrew Lais Tircan, Leo mordax ; hence 
they were the Sicilian Leontines, and their language probably was 

Celtic. • In Italy they were alfo the Aurunci. Yet the Cyclops, 


7- 73' 

Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 331 

tbo* intermixed with them, were the Chalybes, who came to Greece, 
Crete, Sicily and Italy with the famous Acmon. From their re- 
movals they acquired the name of Pelafgi or foreigners. They were 
intermixed alfo with the Chaldeans of Cholchis; and founded Them- 
ifcyra in honour of Themis Ichnea, or the Canaanite, fee Homer's 
hymn to Apollo. As they came to the Thermodon thro* the north 
of Europe, they were ftiled Hyperboreans: tho* they had previoufly 
come from Spain with Teutat northward, and were the original 
Teutones overrun afterwards by the Goths, who gave the name of 
Jutland to the Cimbric Cherfonefus : near which, on the fea coaft 
of Germany Strabo places Cimbri and Sicambri. Ptolemy mentions 
Chomarians in Batlriana, and Chomer their capital ; faying they 
were more civilized than the Scythians : yet he deems the Sacks on 
the laxartes Comerians; for being Scythians blended with Comer's 
race they were Celto-fcythians. Arrian mentions a Comar in India; 
another was in Theflaly. Lycophron has Kufjiv^cg. Cape Comerin 
fign^fies Comer's ifle and is the extremity of the hither Peninfulaof ^'^J^'- 
India. But the Sacks properly were Scythian or Gothic defcendents 
of Shem. Cato mentions Scythia faga. Pliny fays the Perfians 6. 17. 
called all the Scythians, Sacae. Strabo found the Sac£ in Armenia, 
and Cappadocia. Seiks inhabit Lahore. Sakita is a province of 
ftucbaria. Their country alfo feems to be Seiftan ; the Welfh now 
givethe name of Sais to the Saxons and Angles. The Sacae may 
have been named from the Arabic Saka, Potum praebere; as mu£h 
as to fay Soakers ; of this their ancient manners were a ftrong con- 
firmation : but Sacae may be derived from Sacham (Irifh) to attack; 
lience to fack, and the Shields Saceae. Yet Saca in old £ngli(h is 
Ibrrow : Saga is a faw, tale or prediSion. The Byzantine hiftorians 
^em the Sacae Eaftern Turks beyond the Sogdians ; and SacaR live 
at the head of Indus. The Eaftern Turks are reputed Huns by the 

As the Titanian fons of Ham had their name from Ty Tanu, mean, j^^ i^^^^ 

ing the overfpreading houfe; Japhet's was Andras Ty, the northern 

houfc Hefychius tells us, Andras in Tufcan is Boreas. 

U u 2 When 

Fatientta dir 

^34 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R ¥• (Book «. 

When Boadicia invoked Andras Ti^ the Romans rurmifed this td 
be a feminine Deity ; as Plato and Plutarch mention Adraftea^ tht 
daughter of Jove |and Neceffity, their hiftorians therefore framed 
the addrefs to her : but (tho* Rowland interprets Andrafte, viftory) 
the queen meant the tutelary power of the north: agreeable to fcrip^ 
ture, which confirms the opinion of fpiritual fuperintendants over 
the various provinces of the world: thefe are the Local Genii of the 
Romans. — AJhhenaz fettled about Si thy nia, where the Afcanianlak^ 
and river are fituated. Afcania Was a town in Troas ; on the coafl; 
•were the Afeanian iftes. Homer names a king Afcanius at the 
Trbjan war. The Pontus Axifius or Euxinus feems derived from 
Afhkenaz. Jofephus fays the Paphlagonians were called Ripatheans 
from Rip&th. In their country Mela finds the Riphaces; Pliny, the 
Riphaci. They exftended along.lhe Don and the Riphean mountsrins. 
About Pontus and Cappadocia, famous for horfes which were their 
tnerchandize, were the Trpgiiri and Trogmades, Ions of TogaiFttm, 
Baek: "p, & ^\^ fettled nerth ol Judea and tradetlto Tyre* The Phrygians were 
pa? dy fipdm him, and called Tigramtnanes.— *The Septuagint reaA» 

. prince "of Rofli, Mefech and TubaJ. Between the Euxine and Cafpiafn 
(Wre Ihe Rhoffi a;nd Mofeliid: hence the Rufs and Mufcovite* to 
y. 22. thenOMJh of Syti^k PUny has th6 to«wn Rhofos, and mou«t RhoiSm ; 
••9* "® .and near Aimenil^, *e Mofclieni ; alfo on the Iberus, the MdMA: 

g thitrt Htrodotus joins with the Tibarenes under Ariomardus foft^ 
Darius and of Parmye the daughter of Smerdis fon of Cytus^ 


Kodhatt derives C^ucafus from Gog-hafan, Caer Gog, or Gogh's 
fort. The Magini near the Tanais are fuppofed to have been att- 
tiently natntd Magogini ; and the Maiotis, Magotis, from Magog. 
DeaSyr'r Pliily fays, Hiefapolis Was by the Syrians called Magog; tho* Lucian 
fay*, Deucalion wa^s its founder. Suidas fays the Perfianswere called 
amongft themfelves Magog and Magufaei, hence magic ; and that 
fome held the Perfians to be Aflyrians : it is certain that Nineve the 
capital of Aflyria was on the eaftem bank of tbe Tigris ; tho* Baby- 
lort was ntoied the city of Ninus by the hulband of Semiramis^ The 
God Magog. ka& reached Japan.«^Madai planted Media, fiocbtrt 


Chap. 5-) . PRIMITIVE HISTORY^ .388 

^et^ives Sarmatia from Sear Madai, a Remnant of Madai ; but Sear 
In Celtic is an Attizan. 

Pliny fays, the Sarmatians were anciently defcended from the 
Medians. Herodotus derives the Sarmatians from the Scythians; 
bat this is an indefinite term owing to thq mixture of Celts and Scy- 
thians^ and the roving difpofition of the lattCK Herodotus means 
^ofe Celto Scythians, when he diftinguifhes Scythians from proper 
Cimmerians, who were Japhet's iffuej and on the other hand from 
the Maflagetac who were Shem's; hence Gothic, Belgic or Gallic 
manners in Abyflinia, whither Shemites migrated from Arabia. 
Scyths and Celto-fcyths puflied themfelves fometimes from Europe 
into Afia, as tinder Ham's famous defcendent Mannus Acmon*s fire, Herodot. k 
and in the time of Sefoftris, and of Midas and Marfyas, who terri- gj^toi'^* 
lied them with ftrange noifes; alfo in the time of Pfammeticus; and 
under Lygdamus and Cauibaules and Brennus; but Juftin's relation 
that they held Afia tributary "during igoo years is incredible. At 
other times they fallied from Afia into Europe, as when commanded 
by Woden, under the name of Goths, Getae; fome of whom^ as 
Valerias Flaccus writes, repulfed Sefoftris. Hyginus mentions the 
treachery of Carnubutas king of the Geta in Myfia to Triptolemus, 
W*warch fays that Gauls the progeny of the Celts migrated beyond Camil; 
AtlUphean mountains, to the coafts of the Hyperborean fea: yet 
d*ft appear rather to be Goths; and their pofterity remain amongft 
lie Tzulim, whofe language has a mixture of Arabic^ and amongft 
tfce lV)ngufians, whofe tongue is a Calmuc dialeft, as Bell remarks; 
tfcey differ little from the Yakuti wnderthe Arftic circle weftward 
^ the Lena; who at this day leave their aged parents (whom the 
Getie ufed to deftroy) to die of famine in a (olitary hut. Mont- 
ittuicon "writes that the Derbices flew and eat their kin, when above 
70 years old. Strabo fays the Cimmerians invaded Greece about 
tbe time of Homer, Tacitus lays the Iberians ahd Albanians came 
ftom TheflTaly in the time of Jafon. If Pliny finds Dardans on the 
benks of the Dfmobe; Strabo (7) in return fays, the Phrygians are 
Brygcs a nation of Thrace.— Well may this life be called a meer 
paflage; fince we find all the nations on earth have been^ age after 




age, in a Rate of inceflant fluftuation; moved by falfe hopes, and 
removed thro* real difappointment; difturbing themfelves and one 
another, till the inftant departing breath leaves their bodies motion- 
lefs, and puts a period to their various undertakings. — Altho' the 
major part oFa country, under a vigorous and intelligent police, 
could receive more than double its improvement, have we not feen a 
nation tranfporting its people; whilft new taxes, laid on the refidue, 
are raked from the extremities to the centre, without provifion for a 
due reflux; that the needy Provincials mud either follow their money 
to the Metropolis, or their countrymen to the Antarftic Pole. Indeed 
a trip to the capital is a promifing ftep to death or exile. Indivi- 
duals in the country grow fo poor, thro* taxes and remittances,- they 
cannot employ others; and the public has provided no adequate re- 
fource; the neceffitous repair to town, where the cafe is much the 
fame, except as to French cooks and frizcurs, and Italian fidlers; 
they therefore take wicked courfes, for want of honed employment. 
Bridewells are now the feminaries of vice, tho* formerly houfes of 
induftry: houfes, to be rendered effeftual only by joining feveral 
pariflies together, to fupport a common one between them.— .^^s an 
induftrious multitude are the ftrength of a kingdom, and the only 
remedy againft defertion, I recommend the following regulatkm to 
fome future Emperor of New Holland; for a fupreme magi&mt 
(hould prefide in every nation, to be, as Ariftotle defines him, a con- 
fervator of right; therefore his authority is founded in law; alfo in 
confent, at lead of his own troops and officers, as the Pretorian 
bands made the old Romans fenfible. But confent is only another 
word for eleftion. For, tho* in domedic focieties, where the eldeft, 
by the courfe of nature, grows fooned mature in abilities coporeal 
and mental, the governments were hereditary and according to pri- 
mogeniture; and the right was irremovable without confent and ab- 
dication, as in the cafe of £fau; and men were divided at fird ac- 
cording to their families and tongues; forming petty communities, 
with each a prefident: which was the origin of feudal tenures; pa- 
rents having a perfonal authority over their children; maders, over 
their fervants: at length feudal conditions became incident to grants: 

and fome fuch are frequent even in leafes at this day. Yet when 



many of thofe families coalefced into a nation, they paid little regard 
to priority of birth unaccompanied with other merit: fo the Hycfi x 
eleStd a king: the daughter of Uranus was voted to the fovereignty 
of the Atlantides by the public voice; maugre the falfe notion of 
right divine, which the inftances of Saul and of David, Jefle's 
youngeft fon, ferve fully to explode. Mofes had not the divine 
right of birth or even lineage: and Othniel was a younger brother. 
The evils attending eleftions have wrought in favour of hereditary 
prelenfions, more than all other pleas whatever; therefore the tenet 
that the Britifli Lords and Commons have the power of appointing 
a king, notwithftanding the aft that fettled the fucceflion in the Ha- 
noverian line, has a ftrong tendency towards the Polifh fyftem and 
all its inconveniences. Improper is the exertion of fuch a power, in 
a Hereditary government; except where the birth right is forfeited by 
a conduft that flrikes at the vitals of the conftitution; or by an ex- 
treme impotence of mind: when the honours arc to be transferred to 
the next perfon, unexceptionable, according to the eftablifhed li- 
mitations, in the fame line of defcent; the two eftates being incom- 
petent to Sinnul a law or to make one; and a power not in themfelves 
they cannot confer on others, efpecially fo far as to convert an here- 
ditary monarchy into an eleftive oligarchy. Reprefentatives are 
TMitned for ordinary bufinefs confonant to the conftitutionj for any 
futtdwnental alteration, in which the people ought previoufly to be ' 
appealed to, they fhould have an opportunity to delegate fuch re- 
prefentatives as they can beft confide in about fuch fpecial bufinefs. 
Natul*al reafon direfted people to feleft the ableft man for a leader: 
no private intereft or attachment took place : people in a primitive 
ftate of nature fee only the main objeft, which engrofles their whole 
attention; the public fervice ftares them at. once in the face; no 
otherimportantobj eft can well prefent itfelf; till refined laws have 
nicely diftinguifhed private property, and in a manner alienated it 
from the public: when the people become Weanedfrom the commu- 
nity, and are led to fludy finefTe and duplicity, in the preference 
that the acquired eafe and profperity of the ftate affords them to 
give to their private intereft before the conjmon weal. Thus a 


3j6 PR I MITI VE H ISTOR Y. (Boofc: a^ 

flate, flaurifhing in peace and the Jux«rie« of life, requirei l^ms tm 
force individuals to refign private advantages for public good* Bu» 
in a ftate of indigence and difficulty the public good fupei?cede» tbio' 
. necefRty every other confideration in the human brea(H Sb in tho 
American Hords at this day, the fupremacy is yielded'* by tacit conn 
fent to the ableft bodied and moft enterprizing man ; not thro* force* 
and fear; for, tho* the ftouteft man might compel each fingiy^ to^ 
make way for him^, yet the community muft be too ftrong for any 
iwdividuah The emperor Maximin was told. 

Let him fear many, who make:s many fear^ 

It. i§ the abfolute propriety and fitucfs. of the thing, which Wolw. 
la(lon calls truth» that ftamps convidion on the human mind. So 
it. daily happens (where a^ laborious feat is to be performed) a^ fooa 
a^ theflrongefl; man amongft. the multitude fteps forward, a tacit 
comparifon is formed, and confcioufnefs. induces the company to 
prefer that man to the taik. When HeSor challenged the Greeks 
the honour and glory of military ofEcers^ induced feveral to m^et it^ 
partly to {hew Grecian courage to the foe ; partly, to gjive their owft; 
forces a good opinion of their bravery; and in One a fenfe of ofeft. 
gation and gratitude combined with thefe motives* Yet few yieA. 
diflent from my Opinion, that all the other competitors were cob- 
vinccd that Ajax was the propereft man : each would have written 
on his ballot, Ajax next to myjelf. Thus difputes about the poft* of. 
honour is abfolutely wrong. Who are fitteft for any fervice or, 
ftation is to be determined by thofe who are empowered to form the 
bed judgment they are able, and often are accountable for it. — Bui 
if fociety would beuniverfally attached to the commonwealth, there 
would be no neceffity that one Ihould have an ejlablijhed power over 
another; man being equal by nature. Where emergencies arife^^ 
ihefitteft (hould (pro tempore) perform every office and duty requifite^. 
and afterwards become, like a Roman dilator, an equal member of. 
fociety; and liable to applaufe or cenfure according to his condu6L 
** In hours of peace content to be unknown,** But when a nation 
hecomes fo depraved as to lofe fight of moral obligations, and of the 



public good i and the daily enforcement of rules are neceffary : then 
an eftabli/ked power muft be vetted fomewhere for that enforcement. 
Yet on the coiittslry, when that eftablifhed power becomes abfolutely 
immutable and abfolutely defpqtic; acting at will, not by law^ which 
Plato (from Pindar) ftiles the queen of Gods and nien • the remedy 
is as bad as the difeaft. The corruption, diffipation and contention 
ill the Roman republic ihduced the profcription: it neceffarily enfued 
from fo many equals ftruggling for fuperiority. A fuperiority did 

and liiuft take ^lace fbniewhere ; unlefs, as at Gibeon all fall to Sam. t: 21 

a man. But ^vhen this fuperiority became uncontroulable, Rome 
was as miferable as ever, under animals fo horrid as Tiberius, 
Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Domitian, Commodiis; fucceeded by 
the Pretorian bands; fadly teaching us the dreadful evils that cor- 
rupt perfons entail on pofterity. A permanent fdvereign feems not 
to be fo much the Vox Dei, as the refult of humah immorality and 
difingenuoufnefs, preventing men from being a law to themfelves. 
Not thro' God's approbation but indulgence Saul Was conftituted 
king: hot- was his crown hereditary, but went to the yoUhgeft fort of 
ihdther min. In fine, Saliis Populi fufrema Lex. — Cortcluding 
therefore that a fupreme magiftrate will, in fome unborn age, govern 
the largeft ifland, in the fined fituation and clithate, of the univerfe, 
I tbtei prefume to advife hirti. Keep provifions low, by punifhirtg 
fdirdkaBcrs and confpirators •, alfo, by fetting lands only according 
to tht Valuation of a jury empanelled from the whole province, who 
miy require intelligent ^rfons to give them information; at every 
Edltr lands (to be fet at the enfuing aututtin) may be refeted to 
fiicft juries : alfo^ by public magazines; for farmers will find a market 
ID tfirtdes 6f plenty, to balance lofs in times of fcarcity — Cherifh the 
families of middling fortune ; thefe produce divines, lawyers, phy- 
ficians, merchants, fherifs, msfgiftrates, grand Jurors, and officers 
ofmiKtia. Let not a nation confift only of princes and paupers. 
But foph a fcheme in a commercial country, where only an extenfive 
trade can fupport the public credit, istrHally ideal. Fifty lie\tborn 
gentlemen are ever ready to dart from behind a cotmteV, to purciiafe 
a large eftate loft at dice or at a horfe-race. — Caule high cultivation 
every where fuited to the foil, under the furvey of government. 

X X Recommend 


Recommend refcrvoirs in every arable ground to fave the fleeting 
foil. As Great Britain in a few years will be half-peopled by 
baftards, for want of houfes on waftes, where labourers may live in 
wedlock; let a fociety of agriculture have miflionaries to inlpcQ 
lands lying wafte, or extravagantly monopolized: which, on their 
report, and notice (to the occupier) of the fad, if continued, may 
be aflumed by governnient at a fair rent; who fhall fet induftrious 
men on thofe lands, ere£l farm offices, raife fences; the whole to be 
under the infpeftion of a fociety, and men deputed by them ; all 
men that want rural employ, to apply for work at thefe public farms, 
or at the houfes of induftry. Let a report of proceedings be made 
every autumn to judges of circuit. Set up public houfes of induftry 
for both fexes: Parifhes and parochial officers are generally inade- 
quate to this i and, their . office being annual, interruptions enfue. 
Every town and port confider, and promote the particular utility of 
each. Keep every where ftrift watch and ward, and fupprefs va- 
grants conftantly. Rendefvoufes of pleafure fupprefs, particularly 
gaming houfes : but that fubjefts may not be total flrangers to paf- 
time, have feflive meetings once or twice a year, under flri£l rules,- 
for which publifh previous charges, arid inflid; fubfequent penalties: 
and let the paftimes be athletic and full of a6Uon.«-As the confump^ 
tion of imports is not vicious ; and is even beneficial, whilft exports 
increafe equally ; or money is fo redundant and of courfe fo dimi- 
nifhed in value, as to render exports too dear for foreign markets ; 
that private vices are public benefits is a falfe maxim arifing from a 
confufion of terms: to drink wine or brandy is not vicious; drunken* 
nefs is ; and the profit, arifing to the public from the confumption 
of a liquid merchandize, is lofl by its difabling men from induftry 
and the fupport of their families. If perfons get employment by 
adminiftring to extravagance, the advantage accruing to one fubjefi 
is another's bane; and in the latter's damage the public fuftains a lofs: 
a bacchanalian to day promotes a tavern's profit and the public re- 
venue : to-morrow he will be unable to ferve himfelf, his family 
or the public : would he not be more ufefully employed in raanu« 
fafluring cloth, hats, or hard-ware ; in navigation or fifhing ; in 
forming engines ; in conftrufting canals, or other patriotic labour ? 


Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. .339 

Another contrafts debt for cloaths, or a carriage, is arretted and con- 
fined, and (o are his creditors, who become bankrupts. Thus one 
clafs of idlers gives the laws an opportunity to oblige two to be idle. 
Therefore extravagance is partially and precarioufly beneficial; but 
induflry and callings to fupply the neceffities of mankind are abfo- 
lutely and undoubtedly fo: and frugality tends to reduce the price of 
exports. But if the vices of drunkennefs and extravagance are of fuch 
uncertain u(e to the community; perjury, robbery, murder, adultery 
are far from being of any. Superfluities have been miftaken for 
vices : a man of large fortune may buy Italian marble to adorn his 
manfion, or Chinefe ware to deck his table, without being vicious', 
whilft he enables the merchant and mariner to furnifh other countries 
as well as ours with foreign merchandizes purchafed by exports. Yet 
the man who employs mechanics in erefting a palace, may as bene- 
ficially engage them in building a village on waftes and defolate 
hinds. — Put prifoners to labour of fome fort, according to their capa- 
cities. Their fuperintendant fhouldhave an intcreft in their labours; 
to prompt him to aHivity in his ftation. There fhould be no men- 
bcrs of the commonwealth abfolutely idle: the children of rich men 
fliould learn fome mental fcience or manual art, to contribute towards 
the public advancement, in fome manner and degree. Let even 
Tftcn of the beft fortune be ufeful members of the community : if 
fudi aleft to be above laws, they will always have imitators. Ex- 
travagant fafhions fupprefs : thofe who live by making fuperfluou3 
drefles, may do fo by making decent and convenient: for perfons 
in general will ufe their money in fome way, by which members of 
the community will get employment. How rediculous is it that 
fafhion, thro* a falfe maxim of public benefit, fhall, by forcing fome 
to buy a garment twice as big and dear as neceflary, prevent their 
buying a new hat ; or it will remain unpaid for. But (hall every 
pretender drefs like a gentleman ? to prevent this letfumptuary laws 
regulate the dreffes of all ranks ; imitate the ancient Romans. If 
live have good Agrarian laws, let commiflioners annually give printed 
charges aSout their objefts to the land tax-afleflbrs, and fwear them 
to particulars every year : the fault often lies not in the laws: but in 

X X 2 a 



540 PRIMITIVE HISTO R Y. (Book t. 

a want of infpeQion into, andL of a vigorous and fummary method of, 
their execution. Let the laws be rendered concife and unequivocal. 
Imitate the twelve tables. ** Mores Populi regunto. — Senaius ceteris 
fpecimen efto. — Quodcunq; Senatus creverit, agunto. — Paenaviolati 
Juris efto. — Lites cbntraBas judicanto.'* Ruffians and outlaws 
abound, where expences of profecution are extravagant: pepouder 
courts, refembling a coroner's inqueft, held by niagiftrates of the 
divifion. Tor fmall crimes would anfwer well. The means to obtain 
right thro' Englifh laws grow every day more alarming; particularly 
by fpecial jurits. A deputy fherif, out of twenty-four whom ji« is 
to fummon, provides levcn or eight; and a few truly fpecial fellows,. 
in waiting among the circumftantes, fupply the deficiency: and much 
is in the power of corrupt attornies in felefting the twenty-four. As 
rural deans could controul perfons in ecclefiaftical offices, under 
bifliopsi; efpeoially if thefeheld their fees (like college livings) im- 
mutably ; and were more.addifted (like Ifaac) tp rural meditations: 
fo barrifters at law might perfons in civil ftations^ under judges 
bf affizc ; provided that even thofe councellors fliould not efcapc 
with impunity for abufca: and attornies ihould by brought tojuftice 
by other means than by men of the fame clafsr Let printed charge* 
of all indiftable matters, as well aff ruleis of cqndufl in office, be 
given to cx>nftables and overfeers; whoibould be examined annu^jtty 
touching them, on ?l Jolemn oath at the autumnal affizes. Let mifen, 
who have an unreafonable fum in their hands an improper length of 
time, be indifted. Overgrown fubjefts are dangerous ; a ftatutc of 
gravelkind affefting cftates above a certain amount might be a nation's 
falvation. Let taxes be proportionate ; if a tax be on game,, grant 
not the game of fixteen manors ?for half a guinea ; whilfl another 
man cannot traverfe a farm of 100 acres under two guineas. If light 
be taxed, let not houfes of 25 windows pay more in propoi-tion 
than a palace — nor manfions of a low rent more^than others of a high 
rent ; as if light were criminal and fineablc. 

But now to refume the fubjeft of primitive population, Tiras 
planted Thrace.— J^ai/^n, Jaonia, a province of which was Aonia^ 
afterwards BcEOtia. Javan feems to be Aon. From him a later hero 



had this name, ^vho from Apulia came by water to Boeotia, and was p.^ q^^ 
fucceeded there by his fon Dimas. Javan is wrongly fuppofed to be Steph. 
Janus of Italy, who was as late as Lycaon's youngeft fon CEnotrus. 
Aurelius Vidor (tho* improbably) deems Janus a grandfon of 
Er^chtheus. However, he was no earlier than the Titan Saturn 
Chiron's father. — Alexander the great is known at this day at Tanjaor 
by the name of Javanna Raja, king of the Javans. And is Daniel's j^^^ ^^j^\ 
Javan. Stephanus fays Ictcav ea rov letcav. Hefychius fays the Hift, 
Hellens were called Janncs. Strabo fays that Attica was named Jas; 
that is Jan. Anacharfis deemed the Athenians, Scythians; he meant 
Celto-Scythians. Thucidydes fays the inland towns'of Greece were 
ancienter than the maritime: which fhews that the firft colony en- 
tered it from the Continent. The Scoliaft of Ariftophanes fays the 
Barbarians call all the Greeks Jaones: Homer mentions the laones, 
Iliad 13. and Epiphanius fays the lonians retained the ancient lan- 
guage of Greece: they arc called by Ariftotle Selli, and Elli, and 
Eoli from Eol, Celtic for fcience*; and fome of them Dori, from 
Pwr, water; long before thofe Dori who were Hellen's fons had ex- gailuft. 
jftence: thus the Phenician Hercules led Dorians to the coaft of Bell. Jag. 
Gaul; who after his death in Spain went, with their Armenian and 
Median comrades, into Africa. Dorians accompanied Teuftamus , 

g;raBd(ire of Minos into Crete. Here note that PaufaniaS attributes 
ancknt Hymns to the Dorians. Herodotus deems the leaders of , 
the Dorians, Egyptians. Strabo fays the Dorians were Perfians: 
hence he and Varro found Perfians in Spain. To explain 

this; Teutat or Tuitho was an Egyptian, who went to Spain 
and Gaul; his fon Mannus went to Germany; his grandfon Acmon, 
to the Thermodon; thence he led a mixt people partly Celtae, 
partly Geta^, partly Syrians and Chaldeans. lornandes fays the* 
Amazons were Getae; Nic^phorus unites Amazons with^ MafTagetae 
and Sarmatians at the Cafpian fea; as he does Sarmatians with Ger- 
mans in Europe. Hippocrates fets Sarmatian Amazons at the Palus 
Masotis; fo, Mela: alfo Turcae or Thyrfa-getae. Palephatus fays, 
*' the Amazons were Men, vfho plucked their beards,'* as Americans 
now; do. There were Amazons and Nomades in Lybia; from Ara- 
bia they attained Abyflinia, Nubia, Numidia and Mauritania. Thcfe 

and M 




and the Goths, like the Arabs, were Shemites. Herodotus calls the 

Germans Perfians. To return to the Eoli, they ufed a language 

more nearly akin to the Celtic, than other Greeks. Pezron obferves 
that Four^ in Welfh, Pedwar, was Petores; Five^ in Welfli Pump, 
was Pempte; a month, in Celtic Mes, was Meis •, wine in Celtic 
Guin, was Goinos; a hill, in Celtic Dun, was Dounos, hence downs, 
and from fortreffes on fuch fituations, town: a pork, Porkos; a water 
pit Puteos: a breaft, in Celtic Bron, was Brun; a car, Carron; heart, 
in Celtic Chor, was Choros. Coleworts, Kaulos, in Celtic Caul: 
a fkull, Kranion, in Celtic Crene; an oven, Fornos, in Celtic 
Forn; hence furnace: a forum was Phoros, in Celtic Foir, fair. 
Clamour, Thraus, in Celtic Trous. A boat. Bake, in Celtic Bac. 
The Greek Broton is from the Celtic Brot, bread. Un, en in Greek, 
is one; Daw, duo, two; Tri, tres, three: Deg, deka. Myrdd, Myrias, 
a Myriad. Agos, Aggos, finitimus; Al, alios, alius; am, amphi, 
about, as in ambit., Amwyn, Amuno; Arth, arftos; Bloefy, Blaefus; 
Brochy, e?vHw, refpefts ferocity. Cib, Kibos; Claiar, klearos, warm. 
Cledr, kleithron, a rafter; Clod, kledron, laud. Cnithio, xvvjfla, 
ferip. Cnoi, Kv«w, knaw. Diliis, iv\Xog. Dwr, uJwp, water. Eiddo, 
Idios. Elin, wAfv^. Etto, eti, yet. Faelu, (JHjAow, fallor, fail. Flaw, 
CpA/e«, a flaw. Garan, Geranus, a crane. Geylifio, Gigglizein, tickle, 
hence giggle. Halen, als, fal, fait. Haul, iiA/o?, ctXiog Eolice, SoL 
Medd, medu, mead. Nyddu, Niiflw, neo. Porthwys, Porthmeus, \ 
ferryman. Rhechayn, ffy%f/v. Rhyn, rin, a hill. Seban, O^m^ 
fapo, foap. Sirig, Serikon. Cyroch, violence, (whence perhaps cou- 
rage) is akin to the Greek xf^^cw, to exafperate, and Circius, ^ ve- 
hement wind, called the Syroch in Sicily at this day. Dionyfius Hal. 
informs us the Folic Greek was akin to the Latin; and Ifidore fays 
that " the ancient Latin was the language of Italy in the time of Ja- 
nus/* when it probably had a great (hare of Celtic words: the Latin 
Mare is from Mwr; Lana, from Glan: Caterva, Caturfa. The names 
of Ofci and Volofci are derivable, like the Eoli, from the Hiberno- 
Celtic; Ofci and Ufli being from Uiflc, water; and Volfci, Vol-ofci, 
Bol-ofci,are fkilful watermen; Bol, like Eol, fignifying fltill. Feftus 


Dion. KftU 

Chap. 5-) PRI M IT I VE HIST OR Y* 343 

derived Petorotum, the four wheeled car of Gaul, from the Ofci,who 
called four, Petora, as did the Eoliansi and the Celts alfo, with a 
fmall variation Varro fays that Hoftis in old Latin, as Pezron fays of 
the Celtic, was a hoft. 

Elifha planted Helas or Elis, called Elilha by Ezekiel 27. famous 
for purple and the Olympic games. There was an Alefium between 
Elis and Olympius. Strabo has an Alefium in Peloponnefus; but 
Paufanias fays the name (as it implies) is owing to Rhea's errors: (6 
the Titan Hercules her companion founded Alefia in Gaul. Alefa 
was a city of Sicily: Alefus a ^iver there. Alefuswho built Alfium 
in Italy is fuppofed to be Eliflia. Virgil fixes in Campania Aga- 
memnon's officer Alefus faid by Ovid to have fettled in Eturia. 
Tarftiifii planted Tarfus — Macedon is Chettim or Ketim which, as 
Bochart tells us, fignifies latent Bryant derives itirom Ktroc.inter- 
preted a fliip by Hefychius, and referred to the Ark. Hefychius 
calls the Myfians, Cetii; which name Pownal thinks equivalent to 
Getac; he deems the Maketes, hither Getae. Ma-cetes, Mctmryig, 
the old name, is derived from Ma, (heep, and Ketim; they being 
paftors. Dionyfius Hal. names a town in Latium, Ketea. Ariftotle, 
a lake near Cuma, Ketus. Suidas fays the Latins were anciently 
called Ketii; and by Daniel, Chittim. The Arabic Chetim figni- 
fies t\ie fame as Latium; yet fome derive Latium from Lat, incanta- 
tion. — Branches of families removed to different places thro* traffic^ 
war, marriage, and other inducements; as the family of Corytus to 
Phrygia; Cecrops, Lelex, Danaus, and Cadmus to Greece; Teutates 
to Spain; an Egyptian colony fettled at Cholchis, hence the Chol- 
chians are termed Egyptian Scyths, Moors, and Chaldeans. Ptolemy 
has a country near Lycia named Cetis. Homer mentions the Cetii, 
weftward of Cilicia, according to Strabo, 13; Jofephus fays that 

Cyprus was firft named Chetima. Bochart patriotically condufts 

the Rhodanim of the Septuagint to the Rhone; yet Rhodes is com- 
monly fuppofed their feat: Rhodes and its vicinity are of courfe the 
Pagan ides of Mofes. Sammes interprets Rhodanim, yellow; as is 
Chalu, whence Galatia; but others derive Rhodes from Rod, Ser- 
pens; but it comes from the Celtic Rhodio; whence road. Parme- 




344 ' PRIMITIVE HISTORY. (Book 2. 

nides in Suidas fays the citadel of Thebes was called the Happy ifless 
' Mela fays they were near the promoittory of mount Tatui'us: the 
Egyptian Oafes were alfo denominated Happy Ifles. 'But Crete is d 
Happy Ifle in Lycophron v. 1194, 1200; fo Macris, from Macar; 
Beatus; alfo Eubaea, Icarus, Rhodes, Chios, and Naxos named 
Dia: yet Macarr in Arabic is merely a pkce of refidence; fee 
Richardfon. The Rhodanim are however called Dodanim, arid fome 
more probably efteem Dodbtia their place bf fettlehlent : Diiw Dun 
fignifies God's hill. They were Dodohaei afterwards called Pelafgi. 
Hefiod fays Dodona was the feat of the Pelafgi. Epholrus (ih Strabo) 
'^' fays the Pelafgi founded the Oracle of Dodona; in the country firft 
called Threfpotis, inhabited ancieritly by the Hielli : hence the 
Threfpotian Sibyl was the Dodonean prieftefs, who was a widow 
j^ g. hieroglyphically reprefented by a black pidgeon. Homer in Strabo 
thought thefe people Barbarians : but the Pelafgi, who gave their 
name to the Dodoneans and founded the Oracle, were probably the 
iffue oF Acmon's followers who brought the worfhip bf Themis and 
Vefta from Phrygia. But the Oricle refembled Ambn's : and thic 
Deities of the Pelafgi were moftly the fanle as the Egyptian; for being 
ignorant of their names, they learnt them frorh Egypt : having de- 
rived their Teligibn from Teutat: and hence I conclude that Avamda 
the great Lybiian God was Ham, not the Ifitan Saturn's rival. Juftifi 
11:2: S40: (7) fsiys Ae Macedons were Pelafgi : Homer fets Pelafgi at Troas. 
Herodotus fays the Eolians, Arcadians, Attics and lonians were 
Pelafgi. Some of thefe were originally Homer's Alizons, the 
Amazons of Ephorus in Strabo 12; the Moor^, faid to be at Chol- 
chis by the Orphic Argonauts, 741; as Syrianis are fet at the Ther- 
modon by the Scholiafl of Dionyfius, 772. In fiift the Pelafgi were 
partly Chalybes or Celtlae, and pattly original Afiatics blended with 
them under Acmon Teutafs grandfon ; Celta? came with him from 
Europe to the Thermodon, and thence with Afiatics to Greece, and 
afterwards to Italy ; hence the Strymon in Thrace is named Palef- 
tinus in Plutarch (defluv) and Pliny mentions Foffae Philiftinae at 
the Po ! Jofephus fays the Iberi on the fouth fide of the Euxine 
"were named Theobeli from Tubal; Ptolemy there places the city 


Chap. 5.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 345 

From Gomer Jofephus deduce ^ the Gomerites named by the Greeks 
Galatians or Phrygian Gauls. Herodotus (4) places the Cimmerians 
hereabouts, Pliny names the town Cimmeris in Troas. ButPezron ^ ,. 
derives the European Gauls from Gomer, and not the Afiatic: tho* 
they were akin : for European colonies fettled in the Afiatic 
fide of the Euxine in the time of Midas and Marfyas 5 and ftill 
earlier, under Acmon. Euftathius from Arrian, fays that Thracians 
were l^d by Patarus into Afia. 7. Strabo fays the Phrygians were 
Thracians : whofe language was Gothic : thus the Phrygian tongue I'lonyfi^^ 
became Celto-Scythian. Diodorus Siculus, and Pofidonius (in 
Strabo) fay the Cimmerians were Cimbri : whom Strabo fets with 
Sicambri (called by Cefar " Si-gambri/* fons of Gomer) on the ^" 7- 
German coaft: he fays, the Germans refembled the Gauls in perfon, 
manners and diet. Appian thought the Cimbri were CeUs or Gauls: 
yet flriaiy, Gauls were not Cehae but Getae. Plutarch and Feftus ^^^^^'^ 
hold that Cimber means Latro: but it is derived from Kemp Ur, 
camp-roan.' Strabo fhews that the Cimbri were Cimmerians. Ap- 
pian, that they were Celiac, Some think Galatae means faved from 
water: Bochart thinks it alludes to red hair; for which reafon 
Tacitus derives the Caledonians from the Germans. In tbe ides of 
Scotland the old inhabitants are faid to be red-haired^ and in this to 
Tefemble the Scandinavians ; the refult is that the Celto-Scythians 
pr€biki(y were fo: as Ammian reports of the Alans to the eaftward of 
the Don, and about the Cafpian Sea. Lucan fays *'FIavis Britannis.*^ 
Tacitus fays the language of the iEftyi on the Baltic refembled the 
firidffi ; in manners they refembled the Suevi, whom he aflerts to be 
vorfliippers of Ifis: both having received religious rites from the 
Titans. Some derive Gaul from Gwal, a vale; and hence Wales. 
John Lewis thinks that Albion is from Gai-bian, Little Gaul: others 
' from Ail Ban, White Cliff, in Irifli. The Highlanders call their 
-country Albain. ' Some furmize that Gauls, alfo Celts and Pifts, Didl Cha: 
fignify warriors. Keating fuggefts that Fir Gailli means fpear-men; 
but that Gaodhal, derived from Gaoith^ Lore, and Dil, love, is a 
philofopher. Others maintain that Gael, as well as Celt, is woodi 
^nd that Gauls or Celts being forrefters had thence their denomin- 

Y y ation 1 


. ation : thus Liguria and Llaegria are from Llech Gwr, a man in a 
covert, fuch as the primitive woods on the Loire : and Ireland is 
rather from^ the Punic Jar^ wood, than from the Geltic Jar, weft ; 
for Jerne was the name it bore abroad, not at home. Yet Callus 
comes from Gallu, might; as Belgas from Balk, converted cpn- 
temptuoufly to Bolg, from their knapiacks. 

The Celts occupied the major part of Europe. In Italy the Opici 
Pol. 7. as Ariftotle afferts, were the Aufones, deemed by Elian the primary 
Italians ; and were fo called before they were named Saturnians i 
and are the Aurunci, as Servius writes, the oldeft Italians : their 
name is derived from Wr-rhongca, Celtic fignifying libertines, dif- 
folute men. Yet properly the Opici followed Saturn and intermixed 
with the old inhabitants : as the Tyrrhenians of Athens received 
Amazons of Lybiawith Miherva; their name Aeorpata in Herodotus, 
given to them by the Scythians, fignifies worfhippers of the air, over 
which Pallas prefided^ The Umbrians or Humbrians Servius and 
Bochus (in Solinus) derive from the Gj^uIs, that is, Gaels or Celts. 
Pliny fays the Tulcanrftook 300 of their towns; which proves them 
3^14;. populous as well as ancient: accordingly, Pliny and Florus deem 
them the moft ancient Italians. They def ive their name from Corner. 
- 5; 5. Pliny fays the Pelafgi mtruded on them ; as they in turn cecW ta 
the Lydians; whom he confounds with the Tyrrheni: for tho* dit 
Tufcans came from Lydia, the Tyrrheni derive their name from 
Tyr Hen, Celtic ; being the old people of the land. From Hen. 
came Sen, Senes, Senex, as from Haul, Sol: Hepta, Septem, Hex, 
Six. Dionyfius Hal. rightly concludes them, from their language, 
different from thofe Pelafgi who came from Greece ; and alfo from 
the Lydians. He derives the Sabines from the Umbri. Silius Ita^ 
licus miftakes Picus for Ammon in faying their firft king was Sabus 
fon of Sancus; who feems to be Semo Sancus: Semo fignifies facred. 
and Sancus is Picus,. from the Celtic Sanca, to peck. The Umbrf 
N* and ^"^ Aufones were the fanie people ; and were invaded by the 

CEnotrians, both on the weftern coafts, as Dionyfius writes, where 
PqI they had fettlements mentioned by Ariftotle; and from the Adriatic^ 


Chap. 5.} P H I M I T I V E H I^ T O R Y. 347 

The Phoronis of Hellanicus fets this event jn the time of Nana, whofe 
fire Teutamides was fon of Anayntx>r ;. whole Cre Pbraftor was fon 
of Pelafgus and Menippe daughter oi Peneiis. Suidas fays the 
JLatins (a name derived by Rochart from the Phenkian Latin^ incan- 
tations) were anciently called Ketii: therefore all thefe people feem 
Ketim, defcendents of Javan; and I think them the true AtK>rigines, 
'whom Dionyfius fays were by fome deemed Indigena?; tho* he thought 
them CEnotrians cwr Pelafgi ; who took the names of I talus and hi« 
fucceffor Morges^ who^received Siculus-; yet he deems the Siculi 
original natives: Philiftiis Giysthat Siculus foa of Italus commanded 
Ligures^ in his invafion of Sicily. 

The Celtae of Gaul SiKiis kalicu€ ftiles^ 

Vaniloqoum Gcltc Oenus« 

Diodorus Siculus fays thf!y fpcak •vafinjy of themfelves, contemp- .^ 

tuoufly of others. Arrian calls the Celt« a felf coiiceited race. Yet 

^thc Cehse were of a martial <uriw Tully iay« they gloried to die in ^"^'^" ^^^^ 

liattle, but dreaded dtfeafe: biH J take this dilpofition and many 

others here related, to have belonged to the G^Uiji who ftriClly 

{peaking were Goth% not Gpnaerians : t)ius polyga;ny was a Gothic 

prafiife in ufe amonft the Maifagetaei Agathyrfi, and the Danes: fo 

Mcfa fays, Getae ad Mortem paraliflimi. fLlian fays th^y would 

1>ear up againft the waves of the fea in foil armour; and Nicholas of 

Damafcus writes that they would pcrfift in the ftruggle Xo death to 

avoid fufpicion of timidity, Atheneus. tells ^s thai after fupper they 

ufed to exercife themleives in mQck*i;ombats^ aijid were attended by 

-armour-bearers at their meals;. - The greateft hero always challenged 

the thigh of any animal; difp«tes about this pretenfion were decided 

by the fword. The mod agreeable death was to lie down voluntarily 

on a fliield and be flaia with a fword, to prevent any more ignoble 

end. Previous to a battle their Bards, like the Americans in their 

war-d5>nce, fung the panegyrics of their heroes. Arrian fays that 

the Indians commemorated their heroes in fongs : as Tacitus writes 

«of the ancient Germans, as to Manniis and Tuitho. The name of 

Y y a :their 



country was more fimple: for Pliny fays the Romans long ufed Pulte> 
non Pane: and Plautus (an Umbrian) terms himfelf Pultifagonides, 
from Puis (the Celtic Pouls) He derives Pulmencum. Theopompus 
in Atheneus (2) fays the Tufcans had their wives in common; as is 
aflerted of the Britons; alfo by Ariflotle of the Lybians. The Ma- 
labar women are allowed great latitude in this refpcft: hence the iffiie 
derive their pedigree from the maternal line. ' Promifcuous copula^ 
tion was general till about the time of Cccrops: when legitimacy was 
neceffary to inherit property. Yet thofe Britons who had their 
wives in common were Belgic or Gothic; for Eudoxus in Laertius 
(on Pyrrho) related that this was apraftice amongft the Maffagetae; 
and Strabo fays that amongft fome tribes of Arabs the fame woman 
was common to a whole family, each man leaving a ftaff at the 
door of the tent durbg his amorous conveffation; a praftict 
in Britain. 
^ . • . . 

The Celtiberians in piiace pradifed dancing with great agility. 

Diodoms. They frequently waffled their bodies with urine; and wore buflkins 
of hair and fhort coats oF'blacH wool^ a common drefs in Spain at 
this day. Some of the Celtae wore coarfe parti-coloured clothe^ 
and fliaved their beards^ Their chiefs cut their ?yelid^, bur not 
tbeir beards. Their hair was inclined to red^ which they darketidi 
by art, and curled with irons ; and wore it ftiffened over th^k 
fhoulders. They were tender, fair, and tall; of quick parts, biit 
affefted obfcurity in converfation: yet were hofpitable to ftrangers, 
tho* cruel to enemies; whofe heads they embalmed, and kept reli- 
gioufly, and cut off the right hand of captives. Their afpeft was 
fierce, their voices ftrong; the women, as robuft as the men. Scy*. 
thians, fays Lucian, " gloried in affifting their friends and in fharing 
their diftrefs. But their friendfhipswere particular, and ratified by 
diinking fome of each other's blood: they \\6[A^ general friend in the 
fame light as a common harlot. They even revered Pylades and 
Oreftes for their ftriQ friendfhip, calling them Coraci" from Corarvgy 
Celtic for generous. ** Both fexes wore rings, bracelets, chains, and 

Diodorus. ^Qrfg|g|^3 Qp gold; but their breaft plates were chiefly of iron: heU 

mets of brafs with crefts^. They carried fhiclds with devices: the* 


Chap. 5.) P R I M 1 1 1 V E tt 1 S t O R V. S5i 

fome, thro* excefs of courage, fought naked: king iron fwords made 
cither to cut or ftab, hung by a chain at their fide. They bore 
lances, whofe (hafts were above a cubit long, and broad as two 
hands: thefe their chiefs hurled from a chariot and pair^ before ihey 
clofed on foot with the foe; the ftouteft of whom they often chd- TufcDifp!^ 

' lenged to fingle combat." As TuUy tells us the old Romans did at 
entettaimnents, they celebrated theanceftors of fuch as diftinguiflied 
themfelves in fight. Their Bards, were Boreadx, ormatinifts^ cho« 
rifters to the morning fun j their influence was often fuch as to part 
contending armies; to whom they fung their panegyrics to the harp: 
their clarions were loud and flirill." Strabo fays, *^ their drums 
affixt to their cars made a terrible found.*' He tells us ** theCelti- 
berians celebrated the full moon by feafting and dancing at their 
doors all night:'* fo did the Egyptians. Cor Garir^ the Britifh name 
of Stonehenge, came from this exultation; it fignifies Chorus Jubili; Rowland, 
Cor in Irilh fignifies mufic: and as Dyn inlflandic is related toTono; ^ *' 
<b Dm in Pcrfic is Religio. The Indian Brachmans had their name 
from Barach^ to celebrate: the Gaurs, who now at Ifpahan (fee Bell's 
travels) have black hair, are fwafthy, and do not fpeak Perfic, but 
fcem originally Chaldeans, were afacerdotal clafs denominated from 

- this exultation; like the Salii and Curetes, whofe dance according i. nj-. 
to Apollonius Rhodius called Betarmus was invented by one of them 
oapeil Pyrrhic us by Paufaniasand Nonnus: but Dionyfius Hal. and 
Epicbarmus attribute it to the Athenian Minerva. Brown's travels 
memion a remnant of it in Hungary, with a claihing and brandifliing 
of fwords. Turnefort found fome traces of it in the ifle of Candia. 
Thefe dances had not always a military relation, but were of a reli- 
gious, fuperftitious, enthufiaftic, and augurial nature, like the Si- 
bylline agitations. So Beli tells us that at this day the Shamans of 
Baraba, who are male and female, and verfed in incantations, in- 
voke their Shay tan with a doleful tune to a drum with rings of brafs 
and iron : the refponfes are obfcure and ambiguous; for fimilar rites, 
fee Cai?ver as to America. From Ghavr or Ghabr, which fignifies a HydcCh. 29 
fire*\^orlhipper, comes Gibberilh; tho* the Hebrew Chaber, Chaver 
or Hhaver is do6lus or fapiens. 



At worfhip, fays Athenaeus, " the Celt ae turnecTto the right/* 
He, like Homer, being a Grecian meant the Eaft. Their Seers drew 

Diodoniss. prediftions from their oblations; which were often fo horrid that thejr 
would cut a man's throat, to judge of future events by his manner of 
falling, his agonies, the gufhing of the blood, and appearances in the 
entrails. Procopius fays that the inhabitants of Thule facrificed men 
even in his time. Tacitus tells us, ** Mona*s altars were polluted 
with blood of captives, and events predided from their entrails.*' 
. The Celts and Irifh were reputed Cannibals. But the fielgx from 
the heart of Afia, infefted by the Chaldeans and Canaanites, feem 
to have introduced thefe horrid rites into Europe. Jerom fays *' the 

Ethic: 7. c. Scotch were Cannibals;" they wpre Goths or Scythians. Ariftotlc 
^•,5' mentions Cannibals on the borders of the Euxine; as Diodorus fays 
of the German and Irilh Goths. Lucian accufes the Scythians of 
eating the corpfes of their parents*, he meant thofe near the Tanais^ 
*• '7- they were probably Getae, who as Pliny writes were originally Ara- 
means. Lucian fpoke of Scythians with long hair, " in which, fays 
he, they differed from the Alans:'* thefe, as Claudian and Procopius 
write, refided between the Maeotis and Cafpian gates. Mela reports 
the Carmanians to be hairy: Ovid (de Ponto) mentions Getas hir- 
futos. Refpeding the Getae Thucidides fays their manners rckmbled 
their Scythian neighbours. On the contrary, maugre the prqu^ 
diced and illiberal Pinkerton, who forgets that his favage GbtVu 
overwhelmed all Europe in Stygian night for many centuries, Ta- 
citus teaches us that ** the Chauci in the North of Germany, tho' 
numerous, were honeft; free from avarice and rapine, tho' furnilhed 
with arms; and their neigbours the Cherufci were ftiled honeft and 
equitable;'* as are the Barabintzy now. Of thefe Northern Germans 
or real Celtae it is that Tacitus fays they obferved monogamy: for 
the Goths gloried in polygamy, fee Menander in Strabo; as even 
lately did the Tobol&i, among whom many Gothic cuftoms ftill prc^ 
vail; fuch as that of throwing money into graves, as Americans do 
their moft valuable effefts. Mela fays of the Hyperboreans, ^* they 
are more honeft longeval and happy than others; live "at their eafef 
t:hiefly adore Apollo; are ftrangers to quarrels and war; inhabit 
groves and forefts; and when fatiate of life, plunge themfelves cheer- 

Chap. 5.) PRIMITIVE HISTORY, 353. 

fully, and crowned with garlands, into the ocean." Pliny confirms 
thisaccpimt: as doth the innocence of the Samojedes at this day:. 
But to continue the general charafter of the Celtic ilations: " murder 
was retaliated; other culprits were outlawed. When a man of power 
was dangeroudy ill, they burnt human viClims in piles and cages of 
ofier. Criminals and captives they facrificed to the Gods." *' Their 
religious awe was fo great, that money dedicated to a Deity lay about 
the temples unpilferred." Nay heaps of plunder confecrated to Mars, 
even gold and filver, flood untouched in many Gallic towns. The 
Te£lo.fagi, faid by Juftin to have plundered Delphos, depofitcd 
their booty in a facred lake at Thouloufe in perfeft fecurity. Reli- I^iodorui 
ques of this cuftom continued in the time of Gregory of Tour^.: it 
being ufual to throw money into the lake Elane, lb named as dedi- 
cated to Luna, in the Gevaudan; hence Neh-alennia may be Nea- 
Selene, Nova Luna. A ctiftom of throwing pins into wells continues 
to this time. This fecurity fhews that Sacerdotal refpeft is fcanda- 
Ibufly^iminirtied at this day, partly thro* the unreferved manners 
and example of too many honoured with the Prtefthood; partly thro* 
the deprivation of authority owing to the flagrant abufes of it: but 
xhfefly becaufe the education of the whole youth of a nation was 
*ftridly attended to by the government in ancient times: but now we 
<Ai|erve ojherwife.— In public calamities fome viftims were burnt on 
hajjibme tied to a tree and fliot to death; and. tho' tTiefe were gj^^^j^^ 
Joided with execrations, yet many -confented to die for the public. 
The Maffilians, fays Petronius, would fatten a voluntary poor 
•wretch a whole year for facrifice; and fo powerful was fuperftition 
that perfons of Jiote became viftims thro' choice. 

As the Celts and Celto-Scythians were comprehended under th€ 
general name of Scythians, I will* from Herodotus, who faid the 
Scythians were great votaries of Vefta,mention Tome of their bloody 
ntes, which I take to be Gothic. Indeed Ephorus in Strabo, 7. 
mentions Scythian and Sarmatian Cannibals; and Mela deems the 
Scythae and Sacae to be fo; which laft are by Chaerilus in Strabo 
^deemed a Scythian race. Yet the Sarmatians ftriftly were defcended 
{from the Medes. But Dionyfius the Poet has Sarmauans neighbours y, cjt. 

Z z to 


354 f^fUi t r V E HtSrOKY. (Book .a; 

to Indians: and Scytha is an indefinite name, for even the Sere^ were 
Scythians, fee the Scolia of Diofiyfius the poet. Psiufanias dieems 
them Scythians intermijct with Indi; in other words, Ind^o-Scythians* 
Tertiullian fays the Cimmerian Scytbac were Cannibals; but the^ef 
dwelt near Che Euxine, and were properly Cefto-Scythiansv 

Herodotus informs us, ^' The corpfe of a king was embalmed and 
paraded thro* the kingdom : the attendants wounding their ears, 
forehead, hofe, left hand and arm, and (having their heads. Where 
the Boryfthenes becomes navigable, they interred the body in a large 
fquare hole of earth, on a bed fet round with fpears: covering this 
with timber, they fpread a canopy over all : in the vacant places of 
the pile they fet his concubines, cook, grooni, waiter, courier, 
horfes, all ftrangled; together with golden cups and other utentris; 
and raifed a mound of earth over all as high as poflible. At the entf 
of a year, they ftrangled 50 horfes and 50 noble youths, his officers: 
emboweled and ftuffed the horfes and men with ftraw; and fattened 
* the men with iron ftakes on the horfes, which they fet on woddetr 
ftages round the Tumulus." Vaft Tumuli are at this day found ow 
the banks of the Wolga, Tobol, Irtiffi, Ob, and Yenifei. TUr 
corpfe often lies on a flieet of gold, with arms, utenfils, and Ocett^ 
tons of horfes. Wives, and flaves were made to accompany th^tfi, 
till the Ruffians interfered. A Tumulus at Abury in^ England is- 
100 cubits high; its bafe 300 in diameter; 60 its fummit. Bell in- 
forms us that *^ between the heads of the Oby and Jenefey are funereal 
Mounds of the Tartars, containing, befides the corpfe, gold, filv^er, 
jewels, arms, equipages, dead horfes and elephants; brazen ftatues; 
corpfes on filver tables.'* So the Americans are faid, in the Cali* 
fornia's voyage to Hudfon's bay, to bury a corpfe with its beft ap- 
parel, kettle^ gun, hatchet and other effefts. Lycurgus reftrained 
the Spartans from this Gothic or Scythic cuftom. The Scythians 
not only offered beafts, particularly the horfe; but one in a hundred 
of their captives, by cutting his throat after they had poured a liba- 
tion of wine on his head. With his blood they bathed the fword of 
the Deity, which (as in Gaul) was depofited on the altar. Both Goths 



and Celtae imbrbed thele borrid cuftoms from the errant fons of Ham, 
particularly Canaan's progeny. JEuberoerus, and £nnius in La6Un- 
tius, affert that Saturn and Rhea were Cannibals. Philoftratus fays 
fo of the Lamiae; one of whona was Scylla, according to Ste{ich#u^. 
TThus Omnifcience had Xufficient motives to execrate Canaan's 

Only Savages can re{)ine that adoration of the div.ine mind i« 
Spirit has fupplanted thofe infernal rites; too nearly refembled as 
they were by what is fantaftically denominated th^ elegant Mythology 
of Greece, as an indirect infult to Chriftianity; a proof that thofe, 
whom God pleafes, are totally infenfible of the beauty of holinef:^ 
and abfolutely unconfcious that Chriftian humanity has civilized the 
breads of wolves and tigers. Carnal inclinations difown duties that 
demand compun&ion, and .expe£l a contrite heart in delinquents; 
the true oblation to that facred Dwity, who prefers the love of God 
and Man to Hblocaufts .aixd Hecatombs jrneed I. fay, to the inde.- 
cencies of Bacchanals, or the blood even of finners. 

Strabo, Paufanias and Cefar confound the Gauls with Celtae: yet 
ftridly^ the Gauls intruded amongft them, and were originally the 
Cune as the Belgae: hence Suetonius mentions Gallic Breeches; 
Millkl, Britifh; Lucan, Batavian like Sarmatian mentioned by 
hhh: Coats, Cotae, had their name from Goths; the Celtae were 
coated with paint. Pliny mentions the Celtici and Celtiberaans of 
'Spain, and the Celtic promontory there. Herodotus places the 
'Celts in the weft of Europe: thefe really were the original inhabi- 
tants, thruft, as they were, by the Goths into Armorica, Wales, 
Ireland, the Scotch Highlands, and Lapland, and the north of 
Sarmatia, whence they attained Thibet and China. Nonnus finds '^ ' 
Celtae on the banks of the Rhine; to whofe waters they had recourfe, 
to prove the legitimacy of children; as Julian alfo afferts. 

Phenicians, and as fome relate Trojans too, fettled in Britain 
prior to the Belgae or Goths : yet the primary inhabitants were de- 
rived from Gomer. They at this day call Wales Gomri, as Mon 

Z z -2 mam. 



Mam Gomri ; their language, Gom'raeg, Gomer*s fpeech ; as they 
term the Saxon language, Cumbria is Gomeri Aia; fa 
is Comerie in Strathern. Cefar and Diodarus deem the inland 
inh* itants. Aborigines : Agathias derives them from the Huns ; a 
notion reprobated by Jornandes : thefe were fubfequent vifitors of 
Europe, originally from countries to the eaftward of the Goths. As 
to Phrygians reaching Gaul,- Virgil and Silius Italicus mention the 
Bebryces about Narbonne : Lycophron gives that name to the 
Trojans. Solinus fays, an infcription on an altar proved that Ulifles 
had vifited Scotland. Ammian fays '* there are 600 traces of Ulifles 
and others from Troy, in Spain, both viftors and vanquifhed. Ta- 
citus, of Germany, tells us an altar was found on a bank of the Rhine, 
in ancient times, confecrated to Ulixes and Laertes his fire. Here 
by the way Tacitus ufes the letter X, as if an ancient letter : but 
that hero feems here to have been the Lar of fome Roman : the hero's 
Grecian name was Odyffeus. As to Greek letters and monuments^ 
Cefar fhews that the Gauls ufed thofe letters, tho* not the language. 
If Brute or his defcendents came to Britain, which is improbable, 
it was either from Greece or Troy. Homer hints that Eneas re- 
mained at Troy : Strabo thus underftands that poet. Brutus is faid 
to have come firft to Gaul. Paufanias fays, Diana dircAed tbe 
Trojans to new fettlements: Gildas tranflated her Oracle into Ltfiia 
verfe. Nennius, Talieflin, and Merlin mention Brute. Gildas, 
according to Fordun, did fo, Wheelock thus latinizes an old 
Saxon poet. 

Inf ula di£la fuit Britannia, Nomine Bruti. 
The ifle Britannia owes its name to Brute. 

Sigebert Gemlacenfis (who lived about a century before Goefrjr 
of Monmouth) and Henry of Huntington count Brute the fon of 
Silvius, the grandfon of Eneas. Girald Barry fays the Bards de- 
duced Pedigrees from Eneas. Tho* Geofry of Monmouth's hiftory 
abounds with fables about Arthur and Merlin : yet the bafis of his 


a.o« 307 


hiftory is as credible as 4hofc of Herodotus and Livy; whofe hiftorics 

are interwoven with fables. This Britifti hiftory is greatly coiifirined 

by records and oral tradition. The hill Golgotha near Nottingham 

is famous for the battle fought there by king Humber. The laws 

of Dunwallo, and of Martia (the mother and guardian of king Sifilt 

the fecond) tranflated by Gildas into Latin, and by Alfred into 

Saxon, as Higden relates, are notable : and the highways of Belinus. 

King Lucius is afferted by Uflier and Stillingfleet. Bede mentions 

the erudition of Martians hufband Cuhelin, or Guitelin. Caius 

proves from an old hiftory, '* Tempore Guthelini erat Univeriitas in 

Anglia:" and he refers to the Deflorationes Gurguntii, Cuhelin's 

father ; which he fays is the foundation of Geofry of Monmouth's 

hiftory. The Tudor pedigree, from the Welfti records, proves the 

ancient Britifti line of fucceflion. Latinized as the names are in 

Geofry : whilft it differs from it, where Tudor's anceftors did not 

wear the crown. Thus the royal fucceflion in Geofry agrees with 

that pedigree from Brute to Leir*s grandfons* The hiftory gives 

the fucceflion to Cordeila's family: but mentions civil wars and many 

changes in the fucceflion till Dunwallo's reign ; whofe defcent is not 

fpccified in the hiftory : but from the Tudor pedigree is ftiewn to be 

from Regau, Cordeila's fifter, and wife of Henwin, Old White, 

Idng of Cornwall. John Lewis in his Britifti Hiftory relates from 

the Wclfli antiquities, that 18 battles were fought in the quarrel 

toocbing the titles of Leir's three daughters. It is true that Goefry's 

biftory was a compofition from materials, fome authentic, fome 

fiibulous, about the time of the Crufades : fo he fays that Hengift's 

funeral was after the manner of the Soldans. His conluls are pro- 

perly Twy fogion, chiefs. His Silvius, mentioned by Wethamfted, 

is Silius, in Latin, Julius. Fulgenius, is Sulien, in Latin, Julianus, 

Belinus is Beli Hen. Brennus is Braan,^ hence Bren in Suidas. 

Lcil is Leon. Llaw is Leo, not Loth. Caraufius is Carawn; whence 

Tregaron. Canock wood is Canute's foreft. Thus his Latinized 

denominations have a real foundation ; as appears farther from the 

Tudor pedigree. Caius fays that Gurguntius wrote the hiftory 

Latinized by Geofry, A. C. 335. Yet the account of Brute is on shcrringh; 


55^ P R I M I T I V E )H 1 S TO R Y. (ftooli %. 

, ' the whole fufpicious ; as none of the R<«mian 1>iftorians TOcntion 'Vmii 
in this ifland. The Monks foifted liira into the records, to reccmcilc. 
the Britons to the fupremacy of the Roman church, by this pretended 
alliance between Britons and Romarns ; after the Saxons in Auftin*& 
time had deftroyed the real Bangorian records. Britain and Troy 
trfed military cars in common with Phenicia. But whatever TrojaiM 
came to Britain ^found prior infhabitants there. Richard cf -Ciren- 
cefter fays tliat Britain was fuppofed to have been 'peopled lOOQ 
years before ihe Incarnation ; 'bm this alludes to Brute. Sherring^ 
ham fttrmizes that the primary iriha(bitants ^df Britain -w ere Pheniciairs, 
who fled from Joihua; It is more certain that they traded w»ith fbe 
Gomri for tin : and thence, as Bodhart thinks, named the ifland 
' fiardtanac, Tinland: >^hence the Orecians *named the Britannic ifles, 
of which Herodotus had an obfcure account, Caffiterides. So Pliny 

' writes that all the idands Were called in general firitanniae* CatuU 
lus fays. 

Hone timem Britannia. 

The Romans probabjy foftened the original name in the termi. 

nation, to Britannia : which fome derive from Prutania, mecat 

Phenician traders probably fettled there; as the Britifli hiftor^men^ 

lions fome of Ham's progeny in Britain before the time of Brute-, 

and feveral names about Cornwall are Phenician; thus Pownalob^. 

ferves that TuUy has a Pendennis in Cilicia. Ndrden mentions 

Main Ambre, a facred rOcking-ftone in Cornwall ; as Nonnus doe« 

(40, 41) two rocking- ftones called Petrae Ambrofiae and A/flo/ f /x-v^u^oi, 

animated ftones near an olive tree, where (Agenor or) Melcart built 

'Tyre; proving by the way that the Tyrian Hercules was Agenor 

and inventor of the olive. In the hieroglyphics of Horus Apollo 

^w^rr is interpreted facred. The dimerifions of Stonehengeanfwcr 

to the fame cubit of 20,79 inches, as the pyramids do: and I think 

the internal length of the Dundalk Ship-Temple is 26 of thefe 

cubits. The true ftandard of the Egyptian cubit is to be heft learnt 

from the dimenfions of the fepulchral chamber in the grand pyramid: 

its length is 20 cubits; height, 11 -i; breadth, 10, or 17. 19 



Chap. 50 PRIMITIVE HfSfdRY. 

Englifh feet: thus the cubit is 20 1 inches. Pownal obferved Phc- 
nician charaft^rs on the Irifh monument at New Grange. The 
Phenicians introduced the Druidical religion : and, among other 
words, Dwr, from 'Ydwr, water; which in Irifh is Uifk, whence the 
rivers Ufk in Wales, and Ifca in Hungary ; Pen, head, tho* akin 
to the Celtic Kyn, the Irifh Kean, the Tartarian Chan : the God 
Bt^lin or Bel-ain, circle of the fun * from Ain comes Annus and 
Annulus ; alfo Ain, Yn, Oon, an ifle, as land encircled. Twine 
from Madoc fets Ethiops in Mona; that is becaufe the Pheniciari 
Gods as Homer writes came from Ethiopia : for at the difperfion 
Ham*s fons propagated Paganifm from Mauritania to Japan. Ham 
is Hoang of China, Hoam of Japan. Dagun is a Chincfe God, as 
Ehigon is a Phenician. Britons praftifed Phenician cufloms. The 
Britifh rocking-flones are the Pheniciafn Butyls, or animated (not 
anointed) flones : for Damafcius fays, *'' I faw a Betyl moVed itt t(he 
lir.** Buxtorf fhews that Jodham Morain, the name of the Druidical 
breaft:-phte, is the Chaldee of* Urim and Thummim: As the Caan-. 
tnites made their children not ohlypaf^ thro* fire. Lev. iff. 10, but 
garee them in facrifice^ fo Edward LIuydfrom an old GlofTary fhews 
Aat the Druids drove the cattle thro* fire twice a year : their human 
factifices are well known. The fire was callied Beal Tine ; Tan, as 
lYiel^lietiician Tzan, being fire. Tertullian faiys, they marked their 
bodies vfth a hot iron : Lucian fays the votaries of the Syrian God- 
deft Sd fo. Tacitus fhews that the Pheniciian Goddefs Athera was ^^^ Gtrm. 
adored in thofi parts :' for, faying that Demeter was adored in Ger- 
many under the name of Hertha, earth, he adds that in an Oceanic 
i(l^, mofl probably Mona (yet it may be Rhe, for Re is an Irifll 
Mine for Luna ; tho' Ree is Rex) flood a facred grove; theGoitdiefs 
covered with a vefl was paraded about in a vehicle drawn by cow»; 
fliitf refemblis the proceffion of the Phenician Agrotes in Sanchonii. 
itho ; smrf'Atftmon's in Q. Curtiils : primitively Arcite rites, aftcr- 
irafld^ eortfered on the Titan Rhea; fee Bryant. As the Caftha- 
gtniAM' cjirried About, in covered chariots termed by Euflathius 
(II. 1'.) portable temples, borne by oxen, fniall idols; fo Sulpitius 
Scverus fays, the Gauls (whofe religious rites were the fame as the 
Britifh^) mad€ a procieffion with their Gods covered with a white 



360 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book t 

about their farms: this (hews them to be the Phenician Deities Afhte-^ 
roth. Tacitus adds that they afterwards bathed the Goddefs in a rivu* 
Ovid Faft.4.. '^^> '^^^ refembles the Roman ceremony touching Ceres: on the fixth 
of the Galends of April according to Ammian; when as Herodias 
writes they paraded with plate, as our morrice-dancers now do. 
The German Goddefs Hertza had a lake in her facred grove, to 
which flie retired after her proceffion. (Tacitus Annal. 5. 9. Mon. 
Germ.) Artemidorus (in Strabo 4.) (ays that in an ifle neai* Britain^ 
Proferpine and Ceres were adored with rites (imilar to the Samo* 
thracians; who, as Diodorus writer, " were an original people,|having 
Shcrringham ^ language peculiar to themfelves:*' but it probably was Celtic 
Bryant fays that Anglefea was named Mona and Menai from Venus 
Urania, the Moon; alfo that many Corni(h Saints were Pagan Gods, 
Tacitus fays the Suevi adored I (is. From her groves Ceres was 
named Aferot, from Aferhn^ woods; yet Regner interprets Afucr, 
^ Terra; faying (he was the wife of Aiianus (fuppofed Woden) a name 
Syncel. that was a(rumed by Cybele's hu(band, and her (on Typhen: whofe 
Plutarch, f^^^y^^^ according to Phrygian accounts referred to by Plutarch was 
an ancient Hercules. A(ianus is Afis, fee the Sibylline poems; and 
Affis was Afeth,who was Seth or Typhon the gallant of Ifis. Grucer 
has an ancient Calendar noting the (hips of Ifis, Hercules, and Aau. 
mon: the Edda mentions the (hip of the Nani (or their Gods. 
Archcolog. Bacchus was called Nana, which fignifies not Pygmy as in Godhic 
V. 7. 150. fables, but as Tzetzes on Lycophron interprets, planet, itinerant; 
^ words fynonymous to Aletae, Titans, Rhodians, Spartans, Balaro^ 
Scuits. Some of the Nani were Cyclops, for the Edda defcribei 
them as forge-men. Yet originally, as Bryant tells u% thefe 
Ships alluded to the Ark. In imitation of thefe religious (hips were 
the (hip Temples of Ireland. The Briti(h God Bel in mentioned by 
Herodian and TertuUian, wa« the Sun, the Phenician Belain, God's 
37. 10. Eye, in Pliny. He is the Balen of jEfchylus. Edris or Idris, a 
Welfli name, is alfo a Phenician and Arabian.— —Gavelkind was a 
Titanian cuftom; Potter obferves it was a Grecian^ The corpfe of 
Cimon's father was afrefted for debt; a praftice the Wel(h appre-* 
hend to be legaf at this day. The cuftom of decking a corpfe with 

'flowers and a white (hroud is common to Greece and Britain. As 


Chap. 50 PRl MITIVE HISTORY. |6i 

Sandys fays that Balaam's Pethor, rynonymous to Bethel, is named 
Rath AlHat, fo in Wales are many Comahs or mounds named Raths, 
and fo called in Hiberno-Celtic. Pczron mentions many Spartan 
nfages fimilar to Celtic ; yet I fufpeft them in both places to have 
been Titanian. The cuftom of leaving the upper lip unfhavcn came 
from the eaft. Twine fays the female garb in Wales refembled the 
Punic. The Univerfal Hiftory recites many Druidical cuftoms 
fimilar to Phenician and Jewifh. Indeed as the great Phentcian 
Deities were Baal or the fun, and Aftartc who was Luna and Lucina: 
fo I take Stonehenge'the great tribunal and temple of the ifland, on 
the Ambrofial or facred mount, to have related to the fun and mooh; 
Betin or Bel-a-tu-Cadrus, Bely duw Cadarn, the potent God ; and 
Belifama, the holyGoddcfs ; as the name of the ifle of Samos ac- 
cording to Diodorus fignified facred. Its plan is Scythian • for 
Scyths, Getae and Perfians attended the Titan heroes weftward; and 
introduced funereal barrows, which are of high antiquity. The 30 . 
apertures in the great colonade refpe^ed the days in the Druidical 
aioftth ; the 40 circular ftones within it pro|>ably refpeft the weeks 
in Lucina's period, as the Mifleto regarded her: or, if the Druids 
did not (as I fufped) obferve Hebdomadal periods, 40 Nundtnx, 
Into which the 360 days of the year were divided. The five Trili- 
tfeoM alluded to the five intercalatory days ; and the 19 (tones re« 
fatted to the lunifoiar cycle, introduced afterwards into Greece by 
Mdbt^i it was alluded to by Apollo, who every 19 years vifited the 
JBfypcrboreans, (aid by Pindar to refide near the Happy iflands. 
Thus Stonehenge was probably erefted before the invention of the 
.Sochiac period : the Druids probably correfting their calendar every 
19 years; with a farther correction at the end of four of thofe periods* 
The Gaurs and Salii celebratc-d their facred feftivals with great ex- 
ultation : therefore Selden with great probability derives Adod or 
Adad (the great Phenician Deity) from clamour and excitement* 
Ruftics in villages imitated thefe exultations in their Dithyrambics, Heiych* 
' accompanied with Orchefis ; hence Thefpis, Orchefticus* Ovid «»««•• 
mentions the clamour of the Druids about the Mifleto. But tragical 
brfolemh tunes were ufed in incantations; as now by the weftern 

A a a Americans, 

36^ P R I M I T I V £ H I S T O R Y. (Book t. 

Americans, and by the Shamans of Siberia, who fing difmal tunes 
to a drum with brafs and iron rings, in addrefling their Shaitan, the 
Perfian Sbitan, Satan, whom the northern Scalds adopted from the 
example of the Ghaurs. ' For the Druids feem rather to be of Per- 
fian origin, than Phenician, tho' under Phenician heroes who led 
Perfians, Amazons, Hyperboreans, Sarmatians^ Cyclops, Chalybes, 
and Getae, into Europe; where the Gaurs ereQ;ed their Gothic 
temples, blended as they were with Phenicians 2 the Thyrfagetae 
obferved the rites of Bacchus — I take TalieflTrn's Prydyn to be from 
Prydy beauteous, and Yn an ifle: Humphry Lluyd fays that Pryd 
is white : conibnant to which'the Gomri named the ifland, Inys wen. 
White ifland : this agrees with the Leucon Cherfon in the Argon- 
autics of Onomacritus : whence probably Albi^on ; this and the 
Latin Albus being probably from the Hebrew Alphen, white. So 
Pezron fays that Alp is Celtic for white : yet others fay that Alp is 
Celtic for high ; and Strabo fays the Alps were firft called Albia i 
North Brition was named Albania, from Alb Ban, high hill, or 
Alb-ain, high ifland : the people were called Alban-Ich, or Acb, 
the Highland Clans. In the Runic Alphabet fi and P are (imilar* 
As to the giants Albion and Belgion or Bergion^ whom Ogmeon (tbe 
Hercules who traverfed Gaul as Lucian writes) fubdued, Hocbsat 
Chan. 1. 41 fays they are by fome named Alebion and Dercyn. — Briuin» if 
allied to Prydyn, is not derived from any word whole radical letter 
i5 B , for the Welfli convert not a radical B into P and their Prydatn 
in Lowarch Hen, Pryd-ain in Pabo's days, Prydyn in TaliefliB^ 
cannot come from the Cambden's Brith, painted, or from Whitacre's 
Brlth and Brit, which he fays primarily fignifies divided ; fupported 
as this notion is by the poets. 

Toto divifos Orbc Britannos. 

But Britain feems to have no relation to Prydyn, but to be de« 
rived from Baratanac. 


Comer's defcendents ufe their old language in the interiour part# 



of Wales, and in the north of Scotland : for their fpeech proves the 
Pi£ts to be Celtae, if not efpecially ancient Britons: who (as Solinus 
fays of the Agathyrfi) painted themfelves azure, which in.Welfh is 
Glas : and it being by means of fea-ore, of which glafs is made, that 
manufaQure had its denomination from that colour : hence Mela 
calls it Vitrum. But the South Britons, who foon difufed that 
praAice, being driven by the Goths (who are Cefar's Gallic Britons, 
miftaken by Pinkerton for -ancient Britons) and by the Romans into 
Wales and Ireland ; and the language of thefe laft being blended , . x 
with foreign words from Norway, Spain, Phenicia and elfewhere; 
for Tacitus obferves that commerce made frequent vifits to the Irifh 
ports ; therefore their language varied much from the Old Celtic in 
the Highlands, yet originally was the fame : thus the WelQi Mawr 
is the Erfe More^ as Glay more : Dun Can is white fort : the i(le of 
Moch is Buchanan's Infula Porcorum: 2jk, Domus ; buy, yellow. 
Buchanan fays the Scots and Pi6b are the fame people as the Britons: 
but John Major rightly denies this as ta the Scots, yet calls them 
Irilh: but the Scotch were a Scythian or Gothic race. Of the Scotch 
J-crom fays, they had wives in common : but the Celtae, tho* not the 
Goths, of Germany obferved monogamy: therefore they feem to be 
Belgic Britons and Scotti or Ifcotti, who pra6Ufed promifcuous 
copiibtion The Scotch were alfo Cannibals, as were the Get»: 
andtbofe Irifh who were deemed fo, were Goths or Scotch; at 
Phjpcrtius fays, 

Hiberniq; Get«. 

" Gambden takes the Pifis to be Britons. Continuing the ufe of 
paint longer than others^ the Romans gave them thence their namc^ 
Claudian lays, 

Nec falfo Nomine PiSou 

Lucan terms the Britons in general^ Caledonii ; a name derived 
Irom Gael Dbyn ; whicb^ like Glyn Dhyn, the derivation of London^ 

A a a a fignifies 



fignifies Wood Town, Wotton. Florus calls the woods adjoining 
to the Thames, Caledonian. Valerius Flaccus mentions the Calc 
donian ocean. Eumenius on Conftantine blends the Caledonians 
and Pifts together: but Ammian diftinguifhes the Di-calidones from 
the Scotti and Attacotti. Keating fays the Pifts went to Scotland 

Brit. Hid* from Ireland in Heremon's reign: and that Briotan Maol, Neimhid^s 
grandfon, did fo long before. John Lewis fays the Scots and Pifls 
were Britons ; being deceived refpefting the Scots, by their ufe of 
many Hiberno-Celtic words. Bede, not underftanding their language, 
thought the Pifts different from Britons. He fays the Pifts came 
from Scandinavia, named by the Welfh Lhych-lyn. Indeed Torfcus 
names a region in the fouth of Norway, Vik^ ; ofwhiph Olaus 
Magnus fays, Vichia olim Regnum. Vic in Norwegian is a bay 5 
in Iflandic, a cape, fee Andreas. But the language of the Pitt* 
proves them to be Celtse ; thus Edward Lluyd fays that in Briiiflt 
books the Pifts are called Gwydhelians, which is a name of the 
Celtae, who were forefter-s. Pinkerton is inclined to derive the Pifts 
Pehts or Pehs from the Teutonic Pheftan, to fight. But the name 
may relate to Pic or Peak, and be Celto-Scythiian from Pic and Uw 
Of Gwr, men of the Peaks, Mountainers : Pikland is Pentlandf, 
Headland. Hence, as Pownal dbferves, they may be the Kuntftte 
of Herodottis. Some of the Piks feem to be the Y Gwydhyl ?\m^ 
tiaid feid by Sir John Price to have overrun the I(le of Man in the 
fixth century. Some etymologife Pifts into Vits, Jutes: but the 
name appears more akin to Vic, Vicus, from their living in com« 
panics or clans. Pinkerton deduces the Piks from the Pici men* 
tioned by Plautus, and, according to Nonnus, the Griffons who 
were at war with the Arimafpi. He thinks they inhabited the Illc 
of Peiice at the mouth of the Danube; whence as Baftemae, be traces^ 
them, in Tacitus and Ptolemy, to the Baltic. In the Saxon chro* 
nicle the Pifts are faid to come from Southern Scythia: indeed the 
Dacae, Getae, Sarmatians, Geloni and Agathyrii coloured their bodies 

*"^ "'. *' ^^^^ azure paint. Geofry of Monmouth fays that one Rodric led 
them to North Britain in Vefpafian's time ; and that one Fulgeniu* 
led othen in the rcfgn oi Severus, The Scotti were termed Milefian 



Spaniards; and their general was not called Mil or Milefius, but 
Golamh the Milefian, fireogan's grandfon. The; Irifh Hiftory fays 
he was conten\porary with Neftanebus, whom it counts the fifteenth 
Pharaoh from him who reigned at the Exod, and called there Gin- 
gris, or rather Chenchres. Plato's contemporary, Eudoxus, carried 
letters to Neftanebus from Agefilaus. The elder Neftanebus was 
only fome 360 years before the Incarnation; the laft Neftanebus was 
about 20 years later. — Edward Lluyd fhews us many old Spaniih 
words amongft the Irifh ; but they feem in both countries moftly 
Gothic. So the Irifh Hiflory^ afferts that Ith, the uncle of Golamh, 
told the Irifh that their language was preferved in his family : and 
Irifh writers allow that the Scots in Ireland fpoke the fame language 
as the Danifh tribes in the north of Ireland. Ith's grandaughter 
Tea" founded Thea Mhuir or Tarjt. The Irifh accounts fay that 
NiuPs defcendent Bratha^ great grandfire of the Mileftan Golamh; 
went from Gothland to Spain. This leader was called by a Celtic 
nanne Gaedhal Glas; that is in plain Englifh, the Aziire Celt. All 
the Northern people coated themfelves with paint : fo Virgil has 

Piftofq: Gelonos-pidiq; Agathyrfi. 

In ^ain they probably had difufed paint. From Spala his def^ 

cewknts came to Irelaod. 


The Gangani and Luceni in Ireland were from the Concani and 

Lucenfi of Spain, or Iberia, a name alfo of Ireland, according to 

Ilidore: it is derived from Ibris, a boundary; fo Gadir is Septum, 

confines. Polybius fays, *' the Locrians eflimated 'nobility by the 

feottle liiie:" and Lycian fesiales were heirs-, as amongfl the North- 

.Amcricafifi, particularly the Hurons; fo it is not improbable that 

Ireland was named fianba, under Woman. Strabo fays that female^i 

wcare the heirs to patramoaiial eftates in Cantabria; which is alfo th^ 

ancient Scouifh ufage, Diodoru* Siculus relates that the inferiour 

fof* of Egyptians allowed fuperiority to their wives. Heraclides 

fays tke liyciar^s were originally governed by women. Nicholas of 

I>amafcufi fays, tbeitr daughters Succeeded to the inheritance; and. 





the Sarmatians obeyed their wives. Bede writes that the Pitls elected 

a king from the female line.— —The Milefians, who came to Ireland 

from Spain, proceeded at firft from Scythia to Gothland; whence 

many Gothic words (or as Edward Lluyd fpeaks, Teutonic) are 

blended with Hiberno-celtic: as. All, all; Geal, coal; Acar, eager. 

To Rowland ^j^^.^^ ^^^^. Adair^ adder; D^//, dull; Acdh, eye, for the true Celtic 

word is Suil, the Gallic Ceil: Aodh, heat, Belgice Haud; Cudh^ head ; 

Maidhdean, maiden; Sac^ a fack; Afal, an afe, in Belgic Efel, whence 

the Latin diminutive Afellus; the Sclavonian Ofel; the Welfh is Afyn, 

whence Afinus. Bean, to bang; Sead, fede*, feat; Fal, a wall; Amad, mad; 

Amerce' is from Amhark, Culpa; Tam, time.. Anadh, need; Aofla, Aujl, 

old. A ftray from y<y?r^m. Alt, vault. C^^t/n, capon. 5f/r, bear, 

fero. Dear, a tear. Gamut, camel. Doras, a door. Muin, a vine. 

Mathair, mother, rfiater. Ail, will, hence avail. Maid, wood. 

Fabhar, favour. Aibh (aiv, fimilitude) Eve. Diahheil, Devil. Aer, 

air. Agha^ aghaft, awe. Ocein, Aigein, ocean. Arrears from 

Airedr, to fatisfy. Ard (airde) hard, arduus. Airm, arms. Ait, 

pleafant, hence the Flemifh word Highly, Afcal, in German Achfel, 

armpit, axilla. Athair, father; Atta Greek and Gothic, the Cretan ^ 

EitUs. Bad, boat. Ba'ighin, waggon. Bailc, Belgae, bold; Baic, 

ftout; Balch (Welfh) arrogant. Balla, a wall. Bann, an interdiO. 

Bar, filius, hence Beam (as from fhoe, fhoen) in Saxon. £ai^ ^ 

bat or (lick. Bearla, parley. Beajlin, bead. Braori^ brows. 

Brathair^ brother, frater. Beathra, water, hence bathe. Baeh^ 

cbriety, hence Bacchus. Beilt, belt. Beim, a beam. Bine, fine, 

bene. So of other initials, as Cuihet^ covet. Ceall^ kil, a cell. Gial^ 

gill. Stad^ (lay. Sort, fort. 

The Goths, originally a different people from the proper Celts^ 
by mixing with them formed the Celto-Scythians; and both their 
manners and languages received reciprocal commutations. Thus 
Woden, wliofe firname Uggur, OgGwr (igniges in Celtic potent man, 
introduced Jthe cuflom of burying or burning the moveables of a 
dead perfon with his corpfe, and the ercftion of vafl Tumuli over 
the fepulchres of princes, with infcriptions on (lone, and circular 
temples of ftone« Woden (who had alfo the name of Balder, from 



Chap. 50 PRIMITIVE MlSTORV. 8^7 

bawl; as Galldur, Magia is from Gale, call, invoke, inchant; and 
from Woden may come Wod, mad) dealt in magic, and held the 
foul's immortality like the Druids; both probably after the Perfian 
Zabii. He alfo offered human viftims. Thefe praflices and rites the 
Celtae adopted from their Gothic invaders. Equivalent to the Celtic 
title of Oggur, Woden was namec^ Siggi, Saxon for viStor. Hence 
Paufanias calls Minerva, Siga: yet O^ur^ confidered as one word, is 
in Iflandic Fretum; which alfo applies to Noah as the primitive 
Oceanus, Ogen or Ocein. 

But there are (uppofed to have been three or four Wodens; 
the primitive Oden is Noah; the number of defcents in Henry the 
fecond's pedigree from Shem to Woden, and from him to Ina, are 
fo few, that two Wodens feem to be there confounded together; 
one is fet in the time of Pompey; one older is deemed a defcendent 
of Saturn or Ham; hence like Adonis or Mifor he was wounded by 
a boar. Another, from his name AHanus or Affis, feems Afeth, 
Seth, Typhon: the Titans had conneftions with the Getae, and re- 
tired to their ftrong-hold Keira; they were in Europe prior to 
Sefoftris. The turban ivorn by Irifh females proves their relation to 
Turks and Tartars; tho* the German Goths probably came to Eu- 
rope before the introduftion of that article of drefs.— — The Irifh 
accounts fay, the Milefians refided in Gothland during eight gene- 
rations or three centuries. Having migrated thence to Spain, they 
tbeace came to Ireland about the time of Gurguntius as Girald Barry 
aflerts. But Partholaim, tho' related to thefe, yet was long before 
before them-, and therefore is wrongly confounded with them. For 
inftance, CaAtalupe's hiftory of Cambridge fays, Partholaim a prince 
of Cantabria was perniitted, by Gurgunt fon of Belin of Britain, to 
fettle in Ireland. Nennius fays, ** Partholaim and his adherents 
foon died of a peftilence.'* But he writes fabuloufly of his Spanifh 
fuccefTors; yet rightly afferts the Scots to be (originally) Scythisjins; 
who are moflly Shemites, but intermixt with Japhef's line in the 
North; and with Ham's in the South: hence came the name of Ar^ 
cott, Goth's fort* Sir James Ware fays the Dutch call both Scot* 
' and Scythians, Scutten, which fignifies to fhoot. But Scotti, Ifcotti, 




are Gottis, H being an afpirate, and G commutable with C, Is is a 
man, IfTa fignifies inferiour; hence Ifcotti mean Gothic mentor infe- 
riour Goths. Procopius of the Gothic war ftiles the Alpes Cottiae, 
V. 455. H'AovTtai : Dionyfius Periegetes names Gadira, KonvovC^ the Gothic 
ifle. In Britain they were the Attacotti, diRinguifhed by Ammian 
from the Caledonians, who as Eumenius obferves were Pifts or 

Celtae. The anceftors, of thefe Milefians went from the North of 

Europe down into Spain, after Woden had led his Goths thro* all 
Europe to Belgium and the Cimbric Cherfonefus: whence thefe new- 
comers into Spain from Jutland, had the name of Goths likewife, tho* 
their language partook much of the Celtic; yet, as Edward Lluyd 
tells Rowland, it was more tinflured with Teutonic (by which he 
means Belgic or Gothic) than the Welfh. The Goths were Getas, 
MaflTagetae, Dacians, or Daae from the confines of Margiana and 
Baflriana, fee Strabo. They fell down into Carmania, as wejl as 
T^oved into Germany; and thro' Carmania into Anatolia and Dur- 
guti and Kut-aia; founding Coty-aeum; alfo Cot-atis in Georgia; 
hence Hefychius calls the Sindi of Thrace, Gens Indica; and hence 
many Perfian words fimilar to Gothic; hence alfo Varro, in Pliny, 
finds Perfians in Spain; for Hercules led Dorians to thofe coaftsj and 
Strabo fays the Dorians were Perfians. The Goths and /ndo- 
Scythians (whence Hefychius calls Scythia, Sindia; and Prifcian 
found Scythians on the Indus; and Cuthaia is Gothland; Calcutta, 
the Gothic bill; and the Pafcal chronicle mentions Scyths in Perfia) 
were not fo civilized, according to Ptolemy, as the Chomarians of 
Baftriana. Mela mentions the MafTagetae above the Cafpian fea, next 
to the Chomari, who lived more towards the North : Hence the 
Greeks named them Chimerians and Cimmerians. Herodotus dif- 
tinguifhes the Cimmerians (that is Celto-fcythians) and the Scythians 
from the Maffagetae; yet deems them all neighbours. Strabo fays 
the Scythian Nomades fed on mare's milk and were of high integ- 
rity; but from what is faid, he means the Celto-fcythians, who had 
imbibed the mild manners of the Cimmerians. The MafTagetae were 
fo favage as to deftroy their parents in old age. Strabo, who fays the 
Daae and Getae had the fame language, places the Maffagetae and 
Sacae, deemed Scythians by Pliny » beyond the Daae eaOward. 


3« 1* 

4» II* 

Chap. 5.) P R J M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 569 

Ptolemy fets them where Balk is at prefent. Pliny fays the Saca? 

were anciently Arameans. The youngeft Woden's pedigree is 

deduced from Shem. Abydenus and Syncellus faj the Germans were 

Shemites: hence the numerous Hebrew words akin to Gothic, Mona. 

brought by Shcm's iffue into Canaan: as Gehel, coal; Phar, bear. 

Evil, evil; Dum, dumb-, 'Haras, harafs; Shibbar, (hiver; Parak^ 

break. The Chomarians of Baftriana feem to be exiles from Par- 

thia in the time of Sefoftris and Jandyfus, mentioned by Arrian in 

Photius. Tribes of thefe may have moved Southward and joined 

Getae, and adopted their manners. But the Maflagetae, Getae, Goths, 

became in Gaul ^the Galli Bracchati, like the Arayrgians or Mar- 

gians of Herodotus. Ovid fays, Elcg.4. 6u 

Bracchataque Turba, Getarum-, 
And — Pcrfica Braccha tegit: 

Perfius mentions the Medi Bracchati. Goths fignify veterans; fo sat. 3. 
Oraii; fo Artaei, the name given by Hefyehius to the anciclit Per- 
sians : yet that name may be derived from the Irifli Art, a tent.— 
Ovid fays truly that Greek is^ blended with Gothic; for fcveral 
Greek and likewife Latin words are (imilar to Gothrc: as ITt;^, fire; 
YdoTj water-, Kuon, hound; thel'e words Plato traced to Phrygian 
aid)^, year; Uper, overj Hera is from the Teutonic Heer. in 
the Iflandic diale£l we find CEdie related to ffivj, Mos: Ave, Avu&. Hicks* Tknr 
Afur, amor. Akur, ager. Argus, a^yog, piger. Afne, afinus. Aufa, 
ta haufta; boon, bgnunu Dyn, Tono. Drag, trabo. £1, ala Am, 
furo* Er, aro; hence Erd, earth. Eat, edo. Fata, a fat, vas. 
Float, fluit. Howl, ululo. Hauft,. aeftus. Ir, irruo. Juck, JuSi 
Kier„ Charus. Kiel Gelu. Kin, Genus. Cheft, Cifta. Clcfe, 
con-clave, a clave. Kona, yvyv^* Ledia, Lutum, Magur, macen 
Me, me, Myg, meib^ Mir, mordeo. Moufe, mus. Nighty No6le. 
J«Jafu, nomen. Os, Oftium. Penne, Pcnna. Rofc Rofa. Scat» 
iSedes. Sed, Satio. Sign, figno. Stada, Statio. Stryd, Stridor^ 
Taa, Taaus. That, id. Theige, taceo. Then, tendo. Thu, tu^ 
Ude, udus. Boil, ebullio. Wade; vado. Vil, volo. Voor, ver, 
Wife^ Marfhal and Hicks affirm that the dual Number is common 

B b b to 


370 -^ PRIMITIVE H I S t O R Y- (Book a 

to the Greeks and Goths. Anacharfis denominated the Greeks, 

Clem. I. scythic; that is Gothic: a name that, altho' Clerk on Hefiod affirms 
otrom. !• ' 

" Cot to be Phenician for a Wrangler;'* and in New Holland Cotta 

is a dog, is derived from Cott or Goth, Welfti for ancient, veteran. 
Hen Uri from which reverfcd comes Uranus, the venerable An- 
ceftoroftheTitansj for Hen fignifies alfo the dignity accompanying 
feniority, as Senators, Sanhedrim, Seigneur, Senefchal, Alderman, 
Elders: fo the Druids had the title of Senani. Thro* the title of 
. Hen, Bel became Bclin, Balen, Bel Hen, fupreme Bel: and Co- 
Hen, the Arabic Cahcn, is a Hierach5 hence the Cabiric Goes of 
Hefychius. Cohen, and Goes differ no more than the Englifh Houfen 
and Houfes: fo.Golh is the fupreme God himfelf, ancient of days^ 
Cotti or Goths are names of the fame Import as Heneti, a name de- 
rived from Hen, Old: fo Tyr-hcni is from Tyr Hen, Old Land. 
Sherringham fays that Woden's followers were called veterans. Thus 
Archeolbg. ^^^ place called corruptly Kitty Cot's Houfe, means the place of the 
7- 167 Old Man's Vifionv Cith being a Vifion. OJd in the Zingara lan- 
guage is Cofhta. Ammian (15) finds Cotti on the Weftern fide of the 
Alps* There were Cotti who occupied the regions between the 
Rhine and the Hartzian hills. Cotta is not only a Roman name, 
but a PerCan: the brother of Briarcus was Cottus: Cotys was the /t- 
cond king of Lydia: a Hill in Mauritania was named Coiiai«<— 
Arrian's Periplusbas Cottiaraat the Indian cape. Strabo, Scotoufa 
In Pelafgian Theffaly; and fays that the Edon^of the Hebrus cele- 
brated Cotys; that is Is Goth-, tome Gothic prince.— The Poet 
Dionyfius fays, the Iberi colonize4 thofe Weftern iflands that pro- 
duce Tin. The Southern Irifh refemble Spaniards in their lank 
I,. II* ftature and long vifage. The Iberians, as Strabo writes, were di- 
vided into pefmanent claffes, like the Egyptian^: thus the manners 
of Egypt inculcated at Cholchis, may have been at length received 
in .Spain: the ports of which the Phenicians ufed in their way to the 
Britifh iflesi this introduced the Spaniards to an acquaintance with 
Ireland. Thus it is probable that the laft king of the Firbolgt 
married a Spanifh lady as recorded. Tacitus concludes that Iben«» 
mis come from Spain to Britain. 



55 o 








0^ s 


to 3 S . 

S I ». C*< (sj 



















870 -^ ' 

to tK^B-^ 
Clem. I. scy«Sraik2 

Strom. I. ' vj 




I. u. 

•2, -^ -g ^ "8 a"* 


8 ft' 



^'^'5 «? 

5 I § 
- w 




i BO 

►2. H 


o . 

9 So 



Z; CO ^ i3 S°— .6— •^— .2 — o 




CO . 



• o • 
b -5 

O O o 




CO £ 



O H 








o o 


•S - 

^ ^ 
^ w 


z ;s 5 

2 -«= 




o c 

.•5 . 

at ^ 




(^ I B 
to \ S 

0Q O 


There is fomc ciccount, and not improbable, that before Partho- 
laim's arrival in Ireland, 1002 years after the flood, Fifhennen in- 
habited it two centuries. At his landing tbcy were under Ciocal, 
fon of Nil, fon of Garv, fon of Uad'nioir, 

Ciocal had landed there with 300 men and their wives in fix fliips. 
Partholaim was three generations after Niul ; whom, tho' deemed 
Magog's great grandfon, even Irifli accounts place in the time of 
the Exod ; and with appearance of truth, according to the fuppofed 
date of that event. But Pharaoh Gingris was, according to Julius 
Pollux, the fon of Cinyras ; that is he was the EgyptiaA Dionyfius 
coeval with Amphyftion: therefore Niul was coeval with them ; 
being the fon-in-law of Gingris, who if he was Dionyfius, explored 
all the European Continent himfelf. This Magog or rather Magus^ 
was not Japhet's fon, but the founder of Moguntia, and fon of Dis 
fon of Mannus, fon of Tuitho. While Acmon the other fon of- 
Mannus founded the family of the Titans, being the father of Uranus; 
Dis proceeded weft ward and became the Celtic Pluto : in Photius 
he is faid to have been wounded by the Egyptian Hercules, Ofor- 
chon or Tarchon -, unlefs we fuppofe this Pluto to be Japet. Par- 
tholaim was the brother of that Tait who was the great grandfire of 
Ncmedius ; and feventh in defcent from Magus or Magog : a name 
akin to Mage, which like Bolg and Cres, fignifies belly. 

The Firbolgs are plainly Viri Belgae, who arrived at the N. W. 
of Conaucht under Slaingc the T2th defcendent from Nemedius: 
who came from theEuxine 217 years before: having paffed by' cer- 
tain mountains on their left, which feem to be the Carpathian hills. 
The Irifh accounts fay Nemedius himfelf came to Ireland •, and an 
African Force expelled his grandfons to Scotland and Denmark. 
Firgaili or Viri Galli, that is Celts or Gauls cSme with the Firbolgs . 
or Belgae, who were Goths : Whitacre derives Belgae from Balk, 
mighty: as the Welch (tho* moftly Gomerians) have that name 
from Balch, arrogant : Hornius derives Belg from Peleg: as Salmafius 
<lerives Grec from Ragau, Peleg's fon. Yet Belgae may be from 

Bbba Balg, 



Balgj a fcholar ; as lioli, from Eol, fcience. But mod probably 
Belgae and Sacae were named from Bolg and Sac (their bags to hold 
plunder) at leaft by their enemies; whilft Balk and Gallu^ Might, were 
the roots from whence they deduced their own titles : from Balk 
comes the Belcac of Mela, for Belgae. Ptolemy fets the Maffagetae 
where Balk now is. Cefar fays, the Belgae from Germany difplaced 
the Gauls; by whom he means the ancient Celtae : but as to Galli, 
tho' derived ufually from Gael, I take it to be from Gallu^ niight, 
and a verfion of Balk: from Gallu came gallant. Richard of Ciren- 
cefter fays that about the year A. C. 350 the Belgae intruded on the 
Britons. Divitiacus brought over Belgic reinforcements, and fub- 
dued moft part of the idand. The great grandfon of Geanann^ 
Slainge's brother, reigned at the advent of the Danes or Danans, 
' fiippofed defcendents of Jobhath a great grandfon of Nemedius : 
thefe arrived there 37 years after the Firbolgs; and held the ifland 
197 years I when the Milefian3 about the time of Neftanebus ob* 
tained the fovereignty 5 foon. after Broegaa'& fon Ith the uncle of 
the Milefian Gallamh h^ explored Ireland, in the time of the fons 
of Cearmada the coufin German of Danan« This Broegan fon of 
Bratha is accounted the founder of the Brigantes and of the city 
X. n. Braganza..-^-— Strabo means the fame,as Celar above when he Wji 
the Cimmerians were diflodged by Scythians ; that is Goths. 

Before navigation or tranfits over large rivers, the firft colonies 

followed the courfe of countries along the fertile banks of rivers, and 

between great waters, barren. mountains and other reftraints, Gomer's 

race probably extended themfelves between the Cafpian and Euxine 

fcas ; next, between the Don and Wolga : then turning weftward 

thro' Mufcovy, fo called from Mefcch his brother, attained Poland 

between Borifthenes and the Duna ; and pafTed between the Weifel 

and Neifter, founding the town Komara at the head of the latter: 

and leaving the Carpathian mountains on the left, they proceeded to 

Bohemia; next, on one hand where the Danube was paflable, turning 

fouthward, they founded another Comara.between Buda and Vienna: 

on thje other hand they pufhed into Jutland (as the Goths did afler* 

wardvj between the Oder and the Elbe j beyond which laft Strabo 


Chap. 50 PRIMITI Vfi H is t Oil V. ' J7J 

fays the Romans had little knowledge : fo tliat Norway fo greatly 
intercepted as it is from the reft of Europe by the Baltic, appeared . 

to be an ifland ; as Solinus defcribes Scandinavia to be. That 

this was, thro' the intervention of natural obftacles, the neceflary 
rout of the firft fettlers appears hence: Herodotus writes that the Scy- ^. m 
thians (that is, thofe who dwelt between the Borifthenes and the 
Danube, a country out of the track of thofe who formerly extended ^ 
themfelves above the Borifthenes) held their nation the moft' modern 
of any : that Targitaus firft occupied their country then a defert. 
' He is Strabo's Tearcho, who marched as far as the Herculean pillars, 
and was in faft their ereftor, and the Tarchon of Suidas and Solinus^ 
coeval with Cecrops, Atlas and Marfyas; that is Chon or Chun of 
Tyre, from whom part of Italy, was called Chonia« His title Mar*, 
cufanus comes from Marchuis Gothic for caftle. He went from Shcrringham 
Spain thro* the north of Europe, became famous in Gaul and Ger- 
many. Strabo (ays he led an army ta Thrace and Pontus. .There 15* 
is a town in Hungary named Choniad. The Sicilian Promontory 
was called Pa-chunos from him; who invented watch-towers called Bochart 
Bachons, Beacons, fiannier fays he was Agenor : Plutarch's Sym- 
{K>fiacs mention the adoration of Agenor at Tyre as being their firft 
phyfician : in Amatorio he fays Hercules was a phyfi^cian and cured 
Alceftis. Hungary and Tranfylvania (occupied by the Huns, who, 
as Ammian (31) and Procopius ftiew, anciently dwelt between the 
mouth of t**e Don and Wolga) lying between the Neifter and Danube, 
Jmd probably thro* negled become the rendefvous of Banditti who 
demanded a Hercules to reform the country. Yet I think his name 
was Chun, akin to the Turkifh Giun,^ Sol: Chon fignifies th^ moon, 
and beloqgs to the companion of this Hercules, namely Aftarte, 
who with Saturn joined in this expedition: and was the Minerva who 
gave her name to Athens ; and the Belifama of Gaul, a name figni- 
lying facred lady; as doth Semiramis. In honour of her the Lake 
^machon in Paleftine probably had its name. 

Ammian fays he led Dorians. Strabo 8. fays the Dorians^ were 
Perfians: in fa£t they were Getae: the Titans feem to have removed 


^74 P R I M I T -I V E HISTORY. (Book 2 

bodies of people to diftant places, to introduce arts. Thus an Iflc 
in the Baykal lake was named Olchon-, a river near it Orchon; the 
river between the Ruffians and Chinefe was called Saratzin from the 
new Moon: near Cazan two Tribes who fpeak a peculiar language, 
adore a Bull, like the Egyptians. Owing to the late colonization of 
Hungary^ their language in numerous inftances differs both from the 
Celtic and Gothic. Thus White in Gothic is Huit; in Danifli, Huid; 
in Belgic, Wit: in German, Weis: in Spanifli it is Blanco; in Gallic, 
Blanc; in Latin it is Albus; in Hebrew, Alphenj in Greek Leucosi 
in Welfh it is Gwyji; in Irifh, Fin, Banj in Manks,Ben: in Scla- 
vonian it is Beel, whence perhaps j&^/f, in Polifh, Bialy; in Turkifh, 
it is Akj in Hungarian, it is Ftir\ whence perhaps Fair, both akin 
to the Hebrew Pheer — The Englifh Ear is akin to the Latin Auris; 
as the Greek Ous is to the Ruffian Oufe, the Bohemian UfE; yet 
the Hungarian Feul and Laponic Pealle, feem related to the Englifh 
peal, appeal, and the Latin Appello; and to call^ the Greek nahim 
So Baculus a (lick is in Sclavonian Paliza, in Hungarian Paleza, 
both akin to the Spanifli Palo, and the Englifli pale: from the Iflaodic 
Kafla, a cudgel, came the old Flemifli Caffle; as beat comes from 
Bat,- Irifli for ftafF. Let me obferve that probably a great variatJioA 
of languages after the feparation of men, arofe from one company 
cxpreffing an idea by one term, another by a term fynonymous toil 
in the Original tongue: as if a foreigner afk what colour Albus was 
called, one perfon fhould fay a white colour; another, a light hue; 
another, a candid tinge; another, a filver dye; another, « fair var^ 
nifli; another, a bright lacker. He would think Britain peopled by 
as motley a medley as it is reprefented in the True-born Engliftiraan. 
• If you, my reader! on being afked what fliips fail upon fiiould fay 
the main; I, the ocean; another, the fea, or the tide, or the water, 
would any ftranger think our language the fame? Thus one Cambrian 
may fay a boy is in Welfh, Maccwy; another, Bachgen, which is a 
metaphor from a little chin. So, as Kru and Full are fynonymous 
words in the Irifh tongue, fignifying blood; Kray and Guaed are fo 
in theWelfh; Cruor and Sanguis in Latin; Gore and blood in Englifli: 
Gore and the Hungarian Veer may have came from the Celtic 


Chap. 50 PRIMITIVE HI SfdltY. ^fs 

Guyar, which alfo is blood, as is th^ Irifli Keara. The German 
Krieg, war, whence the old Flemifli Grig fignifies outcry; in Belgic 
Criich, whence fcreech; as the Danifh Stryd, Stridor; the Hanga-* 
rian Had, war, is akin to the Wel(h K4d, fight. Inflead of faying 
to reach, the old Flemifh word in Wales is to till, from the Greek 
T/AA«: and their Foor, furrow, is the Greek Phwr: their Buffecky, 
broken-bellied, is from theTurkifh BufTuck, broken: and their Den, 
Dies, is the Bohemian. They call a handful of ears of corn, a 
Zangle; but Zancle in old Sicilian was a fickle. But as to difference 
of dialed, it might arife from climate, diet, ftammering, lifping, 
rufticity, affeftation, mifconception, and other reafons. A perfon 
may not pronounce gloffary, tho* able to exprefs polyglot: Cook, in 
the South Seas was pronounced Toot. I will add that words ap- 
pearing fynonymous, had probably at firft fome diverfity of fenfe, m 
to the qualities and circumftances of the things; as tame, wild, old, 
young, big, little, blue, red: thus epithets were implied in the 
fubftantives; as Catulus, a little dog; Dwarf, a little man ; Giant, a 
big man; Negroe, a black man; the Arabic and Chinefe abound with 
inftances; both languages being exceedingly copious, yet wonder- 
fully limple: the Arabic had looo terms refpefting a fword; 500, 
regarding. alioi>; 200, expreffive of a ferpent: the Manx:hews call a 
fivaggy dog, Taya; one with long ears, Yolo: So have we particular 
tcnmto diftinguifli different qualities in dogs, as cur, terrier, fpaniel, 
mafli^i hound, greyhound. But to fele6l another inftance of the 
Hungarian, day in Wellh is Dydhj in Irifh and iSpanifh, Dia; inr 
Dutch and Sazon, D«ch ; in Danifh, Dag; in German, Tag ; in 
Gothic, Dags; in Latin, Dies; in Crete, Dia; in Stlavonian, Dan; 
m Bohemian and in Pembrokefhire, Den; in Dalmatian, Daan; in 
the iflc of Ceylon, Dina; in Siam, Van; in Cantabrian, Eguna; in 
Turkifh, Gun, Giun; in Arabia, Yum: in Finland, Peiva; in Hun^ 
gary it is Nap: the Italian Giorno, the French Jour, the Latin ad^ 
icftive Diurnus, are from the Welfh Diurnod, like the Cornifh 
Dzyrna; in Greek Hcmera. I think this Greek word is from Mar, 
^Ij fee the explanation of Theban Names of king* in Eratoflhcnes. 
The alterations that words gradually undergo is furprizing: Edward 



Lluvd tells his friend Rowland that Sum7nfr ^nd //^proceeded from 
the fame root: vowels were oftTuiiftituted for one another; S is a 
prepofitive, a^s Septem. Hepta; and M is fubftituted for F, as Mon, 
fon: but Mer (whence Mare) fignifies tide, as noon tide, even tide^ 
Shrovetide. Lord Monboddo plainly fhews that the Englifli word 
Stranger came from the Latin prepofition Ex; whence Extra, Ex- 
traneus and the French Eftranger. 

The great tide of people pouring towards the Weft, as if follow* 
ing the Sun, at length reverted towards the Eaft. To events of this 
fort in the time of Midas, Sefoftris, Pfammeticus and Brennus, let 
me add that lornandes tells us, Filmcr, fifth king of the Goths aftef 
Berig, not only proceeded to the Pontus, but croft the Oby 
into Scythia from the ifle of Scanzia; and hence Tartars are 
found not only between the Ttir and Tobol; but on the 
Tzulim between the Oby and Jennefey; where the huts arc half 
funk in the ground with a hole a top, a fire in the centre, and 
benches to lie or fit on around; a mode (fays Bell) prevalent from 
Lapland to the Eaftern ocean: The Tzulim tongue is partly Arabic; 
and the Tongufian tongue is the fame as the Calmuck. Other Goths 
l)iodoni8 ^^"^ ^ I>acia, Thrace and Maefia, under a Zamolxis, who enaftcd 
his laws in Vefta's name, and whofe literature is attefted by many 
hiftorians, calling him their third Philofopher; the firft being Zeut, 
doubtlefs Theus, Tuitho: the fecond Dicenaeus, that is Dis Hen, 
Old Dis: but I have faid the original Zamolxis was Ham; alfo that 
Hen fignifies both age and veneration attending it, as Senator: fo 
Ur Hen, Uranus, is Vir Summus, rather than Senex; Co-hen, a 
Hierarch ; Bel Hen, Belin, the chief lord, fee Tertullian: and 
Penin, Pen Hen, was chief head, or chan, lord paramount: the 
Saxon Nocca was Nick Hen, Old Nick. Hen, with the prepofitive 
S, is the Sean of Saint Kilda, and the Chinefe Shan or Chan. So 
Criona in Irifli is fage, as well as old; hence K^/vw Indico. Suidas 
and Hefychius fhew that OgygiuS, which figuratively fignified anci- 
ent, implies likewife fupreme. Delia Valle fays that Pirin Cambaya 
fignifies both old and venerable. 


Chap. 5.) P R I M ITI V E H 1ST OR Y. 377 

Javan and Tiras pafTed at the Thracian Bofphorus, not opened 
by the Euxine deluge till Deiicallbn's time: thefe peopled the regions 
fouth of the Danube. Claverius proves that the firft fettlers in 
Germany, Gaul and Britain all ufed the the Celtic language, which 
^ is only allied to the Hebrew as to words adopted from the Cim- 
merians by the Scyths, and communicated by them in Syria : as 
Gever Hebrew, Gwr, Vir, Fir ; Dal,- Tal, tali; Nodah, Nodi, note; 
Kalal, Gwael,. vile. Jain, Gwin, Wine, Vinura, oinon. Tan, 
Tzan. Baw, Sanchoniatho's feau. 

The Goths were Getae, as Spartian and others write ; placed by ^*^ AmvMtn 
Ptolemy with the Sauromatae, Pontics, Iftrians, and Gelonians. 
But they came more anciently from countries above the Oxus : the 
people of which neighbourhood Pliny fays wer€ originally Arameans, 
and called the Perfians, Chorfari ; who denominated them Sacae ; it 
may be from imducing Sorrow, in aid Saxon, Saca : but Sakia in 
Algonquin is love ; hQticc fake or regard: this name has been treated 
of already. Micou in Sherringham fays the Goths in the Mufcovite 
tongue were called Poland, plunderers, as fome interpret Sacse, a 
name akin to Sacks, as Belgae to Bolg : the prefent Seiks feem to be 
their defcendents. The Edda deduces them from Turkey. Hero- 
dotus deems them Medcs, 5. 9. As they obtained Saxony, Abydenus ^"*"^ ^^ 
in Syncellus derives the Germans from Shem. They are Strabo's 
Arim-afpi,. from Aram and Afpal, Cactui- Salmafius on Cebes fays 
that the German and Perfian tongues are akin : thus Bend is bind ; 
Gow a COW; Mamma, mother; Daughter, a, girl; Novas, novus ; 
Mirfh, a moufe : Sucker, fugar. In Henry the fecond's pedigree 
Woden is the fifteenth from Shem incluGvely; Ina the 32d. Epi- 
phanius wrote that Phaleg and Ragau, from the age of Terah, re- 
moved towards Europe, and united with the nations whence the 
Thracians, Trogus fays the Iftrians were fent from Cholchis in pur* 

fuit of Jafon. Bufbequius, the German embaffador, found that • 

the language of a Tartarian envoy had a great affinity with the Ger- Language, 
man : prefixing the article The ; and terming blood, Plut ; ftool, 
ftul ; houfe, hus ; rain, reghen ; brother, brudor; filver, filvir : Abkat 
fait, fait J fiih, fiia $ fun, fune ; moon, mine ; hand, handa ; ring. Tongue, 

C c c rink; 



rink ; waggon, Waghen ; apple, apel. To thefe we may add a few 
inftances from the Caucafean dialefts/; as name, nom ; boy, baar : 
eorgwn. jj^^p^ j^^^^^p . ^}fg^ ^j-q, like fro : valley, velly, kauley : (kin, kan. 
Gold, oker. Annus, Ans : ftar, ftella. Ear, Oos. Latitude 
latteh ; and the earth is called latta, lette, whence Letous Latona. 
Night, jet ; but alfo Bak and in Georgia Gam : yet Sol is Marab, 
fimilar to the Egyptian Mar; alfo Malyk; Luna, Mazia; Muys, Moots, 
Buts, Booto, Boofh. Amnis, or. Aqua, don. Fire, art. Heaven, 
arv. Silva, cad. Maritus, maar; hence mas, maris. Tongue, 

mot. Strahlenberg the Swedifh officer found Runic infcriptions 

in the Tartarian deferts. Indeed the Getae and Tartars as well as 
Arabs feem to be Shem's defcendents. Areus of Lacedaemon 
Macab. 1. 12 alfertedthat the Spartans and Jews were relations. — Procopius brings 
*°' the Huns northward from the Albanians : yet Tacitus tells us that 
thefe proceeded once froip Theflaly; founfettled a creature is man; 
perpetually vagrant and in exile here. 

The Sctavonians came from the banks of the Boryfthenes : their 
AmUn.Hift language prevails in Bohemia, Poland and Ruffia: but coming fa 
8?. 19. $38. jj^^g as the emperor Zeno's time into the empire, the weftern countries 

were too populous and martial to admit of their incurfions, and of 

courfe, innovations. 

The Turks, Huns and Sclavonians proceeded from regions 
above, about and beyond the Cafpian lake, at diftant times. And 
as they migrated from regions of a great extent; fo they had formerly 
removed from countries far remote from one another. Ammia^- 
and Procopius fhew.that the Huns refided between the Don and 
Wolga ; yet the Chinefe fay that the Huns, the fame as the Turks^ 
had dwelt in the defert between Corea and the Getae. Thus the 
Huns and Turks were northern Tartars, above the MaflTagetae, and 
below the Cimmerians. The Sclavonian language, and the Hun^ 
garian (which is an extraordinary medley arifing from a variety of 
people that at different periods reforted thither) differ widely from 
the Gothic: but tho* each has received a multitude of foreign words 
from different quarters, the Gothic feems to be the bafis of the other 



two. They have all of them intruded on the Celtic : jud as Cefar. 
faiys the Belgae fallied into Gaul from Germany. Diodorus Siculus 
fets the Celtae in the northern parts of Gaul; and Gauls in the fouth 
quite along to Scythia : thqs proving ^hat the proper Gauls were 
Goths or Scythians; as the language and manners of ^he people 
even fo far as the lake Baykal pi'ove them to be. Procopius fays 
the Goths were Sarmaiians : but Sarmatians were properly Celto- 

The migrations of Teutat, Mannus^ Acmon, Uranus, Taracon, 
and Cronus tended to corrupt the ancient Celtic tongue; as di<t the 
Phenician and Roman in Britain. And, tho' Noah's three fons at 
firft occupied the three grand divifions of the Old World ; yet they 
expended themfelves feverally eaft and weft, thro' different parellels 
of latitude. Japhet attained the northern regions not only of Eu- 
rope, butof Afia, quite to Thibet and China. Shem, the central 
quite to Jutland on one hand, by the inroads of the Getae, Seiks, 
and Belgae into Europe ; and on the other hand thro' Chinefe Tar- 
tary quite to America ; and maintaining their ground in Arabia 
croffed into Abyflinia, and proceeded thence weftward to Numidia 
and Mauritania ; Michael of Tripoli the Abaffin embaffador men- 
tioi^ vagrant Gauls called Chava, in Ethiopia. 

The Tartarian defert is now called Shamo; and the Tzulim 
Tartars fpeak a mixture of Arabic. Ham in turn foon incroached 
on Shem in Chaldea, Sufiana and along the whole Erythrean coaft 
to China and Japan ; and probably proceeded thence to Peru and 
Mexico^ And altho' Shem's defcendents were reinforced in Arabia 
by Ifhmael's iffue ; yet the fons of Chus made an imprefEon on 
Arabia, or Ereb-aia, fignifying weftern land ; hence its name of 
Cufli-ath, the tribe of Cufli. Dionyfius and Sefoftris fubdued 
Arabia ; hence the old Arabic language bore a great affinity to the 
Etbidpic : yet it$*original baiis was the Shemite. 






Settlements of Skein's IJfue. Abraam*s Tranfit to Canaan: The ditine 
Promife. Hij Vtfit to Egypt. Confequences of Sarahs Beauty. The 
Time of Abraarn^s Migration fettled by the Time of the Exod\ and this 
fettled by the Reign of the Treafury Builder. Abraam lived at Da^ 
mafcus after Athera : His Son a Comrade of the Egyptian Hercules.^ 
AbraatrCs Return from Egypt. LoCs Refcue. Abraam' s Oblation 
and Vi^on^ Ifhmael born. Circumcifon ordained. Sarah promifei 
a Son by God, and by Three Angels. Sodom burnt. Metamorphojis 
of Lot's Wife. His Incejl. Abimelec's Error and Amends. Ifaa^s 
Birth and Circumcijion. Ifhmael expofed. Abraham's Treaty with 
Abimelec. God's Order for Ifaac's Sacrifice ; his Redemption. Of 
Worfhip on Eminences^ Sanchoniatho alludes to this Sacrifice. ^ Pur^- 
chafe of Sarah's Sepulchre. Rebecca' fent for. Keturah Abraham's 
Jecond Wife ; their Iffue. Abraham died at 175. Ifhmael, at 137, 
Efau and Jacob born. Efau fells his Birthright. Abimelec* s virtuous 
Orders refpeHing Rebecca : His Treaty with Ifaac. Efau marries 
two Hittites and an Ifhmaelite i His Iffue. He is defrauded of his 
Bleffing. Jacob goes to Padanaran. His Dream : The Origin of 
Betilia. Jacob welcome to Laban : Hence tie Twelve Tribes. 

O HEM, Sem, or Semes fignifies Sol, and is akin to the Phenician 

Samen, the Italian Semo ; whence OfJ^vog; and M being conrniu^ 

Uble with B, henee came Sabin, Sabis and Ce€oiicti, and the priefts 

Zabii; as from Samen, Samanaei, Samos, and Samorna the old 


Chap. 6.) P R I M i t 1 V t H 1 S t O R V. 361 

name of Ephefus, in Stephanus. Of Shem's line Elam gave his 
name to Perfia. Strabo places Elymais between Media and Sufiana. 
Media and Elam are named together in Ifaiah, Jeremy and Afts, t. 
They were famous archers, reprefented on the coin called ^Darics. 
In Daniel's time Sufiana feems to have been a part of Elam. Ptolemy 8. 2. 
fets the Elymaei in Sufiana. But Elam was probably j^t firft of fmall 
extent. Herodotus fays, ** the Perfians were anciently named Artaei; 
but by the Greeks, Kephenes: being afterwards named Perfae.*' 7.61. 
Bochart derives Perfae from the Arabic Pharas, a horfe : fo Daniel 
calls the country. Paras. Kephenes is derived from the Celtic 5^ ^^^ 
Cefnu, to conquer. 

Hefychius and Stephanus fay that Artaei fignify veterans. They 
may originally have been thofe people who defcended from the north 
into Carmania ; while others of them proceeding weftward had the 
name of Goths, which in Celtic likewife fignifies veterans: their en- 
terprizing nature has carried their pofterity and language at length 
into North America. AfTur gave his name to Afluria, tho* ex- 
pelled by Nimrod; whofe family extended themfelvcs along the 
whole fouth coaft of Afia. Aflyria taken at large was a country of 
great extent. Hefychius fays it reached from Phenicia to Babylon. 
Herodotus fays, the Greeks call thofe Syrians whom the Barbarianj -5.^ 
call Aflyrians. Nonnus mentions Libanus in Aflyria. As Tzor, 
Sot, Sur are the fame as Tor, Tyre and Tar in GibraUtar, Aflyria 
is Atyria, Aturia ; yet thefe laft names may be derived from Athyr 
and Thor, Bos, the fymbol of the Syrian Goddefs Aftarte or Athera: 
fhc and Ammon, who was Jove Arotrius and Dagon, being the 
divinities called Afhteroth, the Paftoral Deities of Syria. 

Some place Arphaxad in Arrapachitis, a northern province of 

Aflyria : his defcendents were in Chaldea till Abraham's era.. Jofe- 

phus fays, the people afterwards named Chafdim ^or Chaldeans were 

from him named Arphaxadeans : yet the Salae near Cholchis may 

have been derived from his jfon Salah ; from whom the City Sela in 

Sufiana, as Bochart writes, derives its name. Strabo places Chaldeans 

near Trapezond. — Except the Lydians had their firft name Meonians i2> 


382 PRIMITIVE H I S T O R Y. (Book 2, 

from Meon or Mifor, their fubfequent name could not be from 
Shem's fon Liid. Herodotus derives' it from Lydus fon of Atys, 
whofi? father Meon was Cybele's fpoufe, and was the Choreus of 
Dionyfius and the Uchoreus of Diodorus, whom he calls Ogdous, 
Plony, Hal. being the eighth inclufively from Ham. Atys had Lydus by Callithea 
the daughter of Choreus, that is by Bona Dea or the younger Ceres, 
Herodotus fays the Lydians invented the games adopted in Greece, 
and were excellent fpear-men. 

Mefopotamia and Syria proper bore Aram's name. Homer men- 
II. 2. 783. tions the bed of Tiphoeus in Arime, Hefiod, Echina in Arime, 
Strabo (16) fays the Syrians were named Arimaei and Arime. — 
The Canaanites intruded into Phenicia illegally, as they did into 
other parts of Alia, and into Europe: thus, tho* the Canaanite is 
faid to be then in the land, yet it is declared to be Abraham's inhe- 
ritance. Who yet being educated ill Chaldea, and removing 'into 
Canaan, fpoke the language of Canaan, that is of Haxn's family; thus 
the Punic in Plautus totally refembles Hebrew. Uz built Damafcus. 
Dama in Arabic fignifies man-fit; and Mafcenon, Manfio. Bochart 
fays the vale of Damafcus was called Al-gaut; and fhews that Uz 
and Uts are fimilar to Gauts; it fignifies concave; which being 
Amyca in Syriac, Polybius calls this region, Amyca. Another JJz 
wa:-: Abraham's nephew: Job's country is in the Septuagint probably 
from him called Aufitis, placed by Ptolemy in Arabia Deferla: 

Frcp. 10. 13. Hence Eufebius ftiles the Chaldeans uxouco/; Hyc or Uch being 
Celtic for fuperiour. A third Uz was a Horite of Edom: hence 
Idumea is the land of Uz. Juftin fays Damafcus was founded by 
Lam. 4. a king of that name (others fay by Danias, a general under Diony- 
fius) and Athera this king's wife became a great objeft of adoration 
there. Juftin counts Abraham one of this king's fuccefTors. Indeed 
Strabo deems Abraham a king; Ephron ftiles him a great prince. 
He certainly refided there; his fteward, who was a Damafcene, was 

Sec Jofcphus. ^^^n in his houfe. Nicholas of Damafcus wrote thus, ** Abraam a 

foreigner, reigned in Damafcus, whither he came from the TranC 

Babylonian Chaldea with an army; but foon removed into Chanaan 

with his people; leaving a great and lafting memorial of himfelf 

k thro* 

Chap. 6.) P R 1 M I T i y E H i S f 6 R Y. 383 

thro* the whole region of Damafcus; where a villa was fhewn, faid 
to be Abraam's manfion." Obferve that Chaldea included Mcfo- 
potamia: on the contrary Pliny fhews that Mefopotamia extended to 
Babylon. Abraam's Ur was between Nifibis and the Tigris, men- 
tioned by Ammian: for Abraam*s anceftors lived beyond the Eu- 
phrates; from their tranfit over which the Jews were named He- 
brews. Babylon belonged to Ham's iflTue, not to Shem's. Pliny has ^, 24. 
an Ura where the Euphrates turns to the EaR from Palmyra, Bochart 
fays that Abraam's brother Haran, or Charan, founded Charrhae at 
the conflux of the Chabora into the Euphrates; and it is by Mofes Gen. 14. 
called Nachor: and near Charrhae was a town named Sarug. Afts 
7. 2. implies that Abraam's abode was in Mefopotamia, before he 
removed to Charran. Ircnaeus omits that pafTage of the A6ts;j'et 
Genefis 15. 7. and A£ls 7. 4. (hew his ofders of removal were given 
at Ur. — Bochart places Hul in Cholobetene, a part of Armenia 
Major, where the names of many places are compounded of Choi. 
Mafh or Mefhech fettled in Armenia, about mount Mafius or Mafis, 
taken for Ararat. Stephanus 'names the people there Mafieni.-— 
The large plain near the Tigris and Euphrates, called in Judith, 
Arioch's, and by Herodotus (in Arrian 7.) the Nifean, had its name 
from Reu or Regau, the vulgate calling it Regau, as the Septuagint 
call il\e adjacent country. Arrian fays, it maintained 150,000 horfes; 
Diodonis (17) fays 160,000. Arrian places the city Ragae a forced 
day's march from the Cafpian gates, Ifidbre calls Raga the greateft 
city of Media: it is called Rages in Tobit, and was near Ecbatan. 
Reu's fon Serug is deemed the founder of Saruji the capital of 
Diyar Modar. Bochart fettles Joktan's ifTue in Arabia Felix. And 
as the Scenite Arabians prove thusjo be Shem's defcendents, and 
their police fimilar to the Tartarian, the Tartars were of Sheim's line 
Hkewifc; and as Strahlenberg, Rudbec, and ThomafTin prove an 
aiffinity between Turks, Tartars, and Goths, thefe all were Shemites. 
The Tartars would be thought Japhet's defcendents, -being towards 
the North blended with Gomerians: they fay that Shem fettled in 
Iran, near which and Irac was a city named Sham: the North of 
Perfia, and the fegions of that latitude, were certainly peopled by 
Shem — Who is the Shemingh^ or Shem Inca of the Scandinavian 



or Gothic Scalds. A town named Joktan was one day's ftage diftant 

from the Red Sea, and feven from Mecca.- From Elmodad, 

whofe name implies a great meafurer, fprung the AUu-metae^ near 

the Lar. From Saleph came the Salapeni, near the fource of the 

Betius— Hafarmaveth is the Arabic Hadhramauth or Chadramauth. 
Theophraftus mentions the region Adramyta ; Strabo, Chatramytis; 

which Pliny places in Arabia. In Ptolemy the ifland Hierach-on 

faces the CafTanitae. Hadoram probably founded the Drimati^ in 

Pliny, on the Perfian gulf. — Bochart finds a realm named Uzal in 

Arabia. Dikla, being a place of palms, is deemed to be Phaenicon 

in Diodorus. Abal feems to have fettled at the Sinus Abalites 

of Pliny, the African fide of the Arabian gulf. Abimael_ is the 

fire of Mael or Mali, which Theophraftus frts in Aromatic Arabia. 

Mael in Celtic fignifies gain. Saba founded the Sabeans in fouth 

^ Arabia Ophar, in Arabic Auphar, is rich ; the feminine is 

Uphre. EupoleiTt\is wrote that the ifle Uphre in the Erythrean fca 
abounded in gold. Solomon's Ophir was more remote ; probably 

Guinea. Chavila occupied Chaulan, near the Sabeans. Ptolemy 

fets the Jobabites near the Sacharites. We may hence conclude 
that the Hycfi were Shem*s iflue. That his iffue were Idolaten 
Mofes fhews us. That they offered human facrifices is probable; 
for Amofis, who expelled them from Egypt, aboliflied human vic- 
tims, as did Cecrops, Orpheus and Hercules. The Maflagetae were 
of Shem's line, and their manners barbarous enough. So l\\al 
Abraam's merit of faith and obedience is their fole title to Heaven's 
peculiar favour. 

Shem's defcendents, according to Jofephus, extended themfelves 
eaftward: but they alfo at firft got into Arabia, and were the Aba- 
feni who paffed into Abaffinia: and from them many Gallic or Belgic 
cuftoms prevail there at this day ; for as Belgae are named from 
Balk, mighty ; fo Gauls are from Gallu, might; this term being^a 
Celtic interpretation of the Gothic Balk. Shem's language was the 
Gothic, which was the Perfic, till this was blended with Chaldec : 
hence, as Shem peopled Arabia, there is a great fimilitude between 



Dutch and Arabic, He and his dired defcendents to Terah had 

fohs and daughters. Terah's fon Haran, who died before his father, 

in hii native country at Ur in Chaldea, was the father of Lot and of 

Nahor's wife Milcah, and of Ifcah. Terah with Abraam, Sara 

and Lot, removed to Haran, where Terah died. Abraham at the Aas?. 2; 

age of 75 years, having before had God's benediftion and command ^^^' *5- 7- 

went from Haran into Canaan, fince called Palacftine and Judea. It 

has Phenicia on the north, the Mediterranean on theweft, Idumea 

on the fouth ; the Jordan on the eaft. 

Polyhiftor from Eupolcmus wrote that " Abraam was born in the Eufeb. Prep, 
tenth generation after the flood, in Camarine a city of Babylonia, 9* '?• 
called alfo Urie and Chaldeopolis : was the founder of aftrology 
among them: and of fo great integrity and piety, that being in favour 
with God, he was ordered by him to remove into Phenicia. He 
taught that nation aftronomy, and other excellent fciences, which 
recommended him to the king of Phenicia/* Camarine was a Sici- Herodotus 
lian city : the Afiatic city meant by Eupolemus was Camaritc, men- . 7'^S^' 
tioned by the poet Dionyfius, for hofpitality to his jovial namefake. 
Polyhiftor fays that " Melo counted Abraatn's birth after the third 
age/' This arofe from the Grecian way of counting a century equal 
to three generations; his birth being in the tenth generation. — The 
4J0 years of pilgrimage began when Abraam left Ur. The 400 years q^^ 
fccm to commence from his pofTeffion of the well Beerfheba. In i3.Aas.7.6 
Genefis (12) it is faid that God had given Abraam a promife and 
order: we are told (15. 7) where it was 5 and we find (11. 31) that 
Abraam left Ur to go to Canaan; tho* he made fome ftay at Charan. 
Afts 7.2, fhews where the command was given : for tho' Irenaeus 
omits the place ; yet in the Acls it is faid, Then came he out of ,, 
Chaldea to Charan. 

On Abraam' s arrival at Sichem in the plain of Moreth, a Divine 
vifion promiled him that land. Here therefore he^erefted an altar 
and adored the Lord. Thence he ftill proceeded to ihcfouth. Then 
a famine compelled him to go to Egypt. This feems the fame famine 
that drove Amnion from Lybia^ Teucer from Crete; and on account 

D d d of 



of which .Bufiris made Thrafius the Cyprian fatally experience his 
^^^"^^Vir^u' ^^" augury. The Pelafgi, who laboured under the fame aflBiaion. 
Dion. Hal. i devoted the tythe of their children to the Cabiri. Callimachus men* 

tions a drought in Egypt during nine years. 

Apprehending danger thro/ Sara's beauty Abraam called her his 
filler. The Pharao took her : and Abraam had herds, flocks and 
fervantS' male and female, and great favour on Sara's account. But 
on her account God fent great plagues on the Pharao ; who repriw 
manded Abraam for deceiving him: but difmiffed him in peace with 
all his property ; rich as he was in cattle, gold and filver. Suidas 
calls this king, Abimelec. If fo, he was Melec-ertes, the Titanian 
Melcander ofApoHbdorus. Nicholas of Damafcus wrote that** Abraam 
diftreft by famine in Canaan, went to Egypt, converfed with the 
priefts, and improved them much in morality, with great honour and 
9. i6i applaufe ; alfo in arithmetic and aftrblogy ; Abraam's intention being 
to improve them or himfelf.** SynceHus fays that Afeth (the prede- 
ceffor of Amofis, who expelled the Hycfi; who, or their allies as 
being paftors, entertained Abraam) intercalated five days into the 

jj^.^ g calendar: if this addition took place then, it was probably owing to 
Abraam's information ; who if we credit Artapanus, lived 20 years 
in Egypt, and inftruCled king Pharetho in aftronomy.' Jofephus calif 
this king Pharaothes, He feems to be Othoes, and Pliny's Tithoes, . 
five reigns at Memphis prior to Nitocris : fome think him Tutis, as 
Marfham affirms. Polyhiftor on Eiipolemus wrote that Abraam re- 

Jbidp. 17. fided at //^//(?^o/i5, and taught the Egyptians aftronomy and oth«f 
fciences. Eupolemus attributes aftronomy to Abraam and the Baby- 
lonians ; yet in fuch a manner as to give the invention to Enoch. 
Heliopolis was built by Aftis the brother of the Rhodian Triopas, 

D'lodot. J. ^"^ "^^ft probably the father-in- law of Cecrops. The neice of Tri- 

A^>oiloQor, opas was the mother of Lindus Jalyfus and Camirus; at the time of 
Deucalion's flood, in the reign of Cranaus fucceffor of Cecrops.- 
Therefore Abraam certainly lived about this time. Indeed he is 
commonly placed about the time of the Titanian war, which was 
about this time likewife. Thus Cedrenus counts him contemporary 
with the fon3 of Uranu^ and that war at the time of his vifit toEgypt. 


Chap. 6.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 387 

Jofephus affcrts that Hecateus wrote an entire book concerning 

Abraam. Melo, tho' an adverfary to the Jews, owns that *'Abraam 

was famous for fcience ; and had by a kinfwoman one fon, whofe ^"'^^- *'''^P* 

.9' *9* 
name implies laughter;" but miftakes Ifaac for Jacob in faying 'Mie 

had twelve fons, one of whom was Jofeph." He fays '* Abraam 

had by an Egyptian flavc twelve fons, who cantoned Arabia amongd 


As the Sibyl L. 3. tells us in the tenth generation were the Titans: 
fo Berofus, without naming him fays, '^ In the tenth generation 
after the Deluge, there was a great perfon in Chaldea, who was a 
cultivator of juftice and an adept in aftronomy.'* Abraam's migra- 
tion to Canaan was about 770 years after Noah's flood, and 394 be- 
fore the fj\ll of Troy : it could not be above 15 years higher than 
thofe dates. Jofephus tranfportation to Egypt was about 13 years 
before the end of the reign of Scfoftris or Egyptus, tailed alfo 
Raniefis: who by cutting a canal from the Nile to the Arabian gulf, 
drained Gofhen, and gave his name to that region, which was occu- 
pied by Jacob : whofe defcent, as appears from the length of reigns 
in Manetho, was about the tenth year of the reign of Ramefis Mi- 
amun, the Phero of Herodotus. His fucceflbr was that Amenophis 
vfVio is the Marus or Mendes of Diodorus, and Strabo's Imandes or 
Mcttinon. This is the Menes who introduced luxury: the wealth 
brought into Egypt by the conquefts of his immediate predeceffors 
filmilhed him with the means of indulging in delicacies.' Next to 
him was Proteus, Cetos, Sethos or Ramifes : in the reign of whofe 
fon Ramifes Pliny fets the Iliac war. He probably, as was ufual, 
had his father's name Proteus; for Herodotus and Diodorus place a 
Proteus in the time of that war ; and Elian fays he was an old man 
eight years after that fiege. The former Proteus (tho* not fo ancient 
as he whom ApoUodorus places in the time of Dionyfius ; Virgil, 
coeval with Arifteus) reigned 59 years. His fon, the Ramfinitus of 
Herodotus, and the famous Treafury builder of facred and profane 
ftory, was the new king at the birth of Mofes, and reigned 66 years. 
The Exod enfued, after his fucceffor the laft Amenophis, and laft 

Nilus of Diodorus, had reigned 13 years. The age of Mofes coin- 

D d d 2 cides 

888 PRIMITIVE HIST O.R Y. (Book «• 

cides with this account ; and as the fall of Troy happened at leaft 
eight years, before the death of his predeceflbr, that war mull al 
lead have ended 22 years before the Exod : but as Conftantine 
ManafTes fetsthe commencement of the Egyptian empire only 1663 
years before the Perfian invafion, it appears from the period of the 
16th Dynafty, and from the fubfequent ones in Manetho that the 
Exod was 37 years after the Trojan war, or at leaft not lefs than 22 
years after that event. Juftin (hews that Abraham was at Dannafcus 
later than the deification of Athera or Aftarte, to whom Ifis fled. 
Eufeb. Frcp. Apher and Aphra, otherwife Aphra and Japhra Abraam's fons, (the* 
lofcphus! Afer is counted Saturn's by Cedrertus ; Abraam being deemed a 
Anat. 1. 16. Saturn) were comrades of the Egyptian Hercules againft Anteus ; 
and this Hercules was a comrade of Ammpn*s fon Dionyfius, and 
of his fon Orus. Polyhiftor (in Jofephus and Eufebius) adds from 
Malchus, that Hercules by Aphra's daughter had Diodorus or Dedor 
the father of Sophon founder of the Sophaces. Yet Plutarch fays 
that Hercules had* by Tingis widow of Anteus, Sophaces the father 
(not fon) of Diodorus ; a complimentary fable, adds he^ to their 
defcendent Juba the famous and royal hiftorian 2 fo that probably 
Tingis was not the lady. CedVenus reputes Afer the fire of Aphrodite 
by Aftynome. Jofephus from Manetho would fain pafs the former 
Proteus here for Sefoftris ; and for that purpofe generates a fecond 
Armais for his brother. However, the perfon pretended to be by 
Jofephus, was not Sefoftris : for the Ramefis who was Sefoftris 
reigned before Jacob's defcent to Egypt ; the land given him to 
occupy being from that king named Ramefis : and Herodotus Ihews 
that the Treafury builder was long fubfequent to him; tho' he is in 
Scol. Apol- Jofephus next to his Sefoftris. Dicearchus fhews that Sefoftris or 
Ion. 4. 275. his predeceflbr Orus invented horfemanfhip : but horfemanftiip was 
in ufe in the time of Jofeph j therefore he was not prior to the time 
of Sefoftris. 


Abraam returning to his altar between Bethel and Hai, there in- 
voked Jehova. Lot's fubftance and his increafing, they feparated. 
Lot removed eaftward toward Sodom, to Jordan's fertile plains. 


Chap. 6.) ? R 1 M 1 1 I VIC rt t S t d It V. 38^ 

Then God promifed Canaan to Abraam, who fettled in Mamre's 
plain in Hebron. Africanus mentions fome contention between Lot 
and Abraham before their feparation. 

Bera king of Sodom, Birfha king of Oomorrha, Shinab king of 
Admah, Shem-ebcr king of Zeboiim^ 5ind the king of Bela or Zoar, 
petty princes of fmall diftrifts contiguous, had been 12 years tributary 
to Chedorlaomar king of Elam : but now revolted. He therefore 
with his allies Amraphel king of Shinar, Ariocb king of Ellasar a 
tribe of Arabs, and Tindal king of the nations about Gilgal or 
Galilee, invaded and routed the Rephaims in Afteroth Carhaim, a 
people devoted to Cronus and the.paftoral Divinities Athera and 
Dagon ; the Zuzims in Ham j the Emims in the plain of Kiriathim; 
the Chorites in mount Seir, to Elparan near the defert, who feem to 
have been fubjefts or defcendents of Choreus, Uchoreus, Achoris, 
who was Meon or the Titanian Saturn. Returning. by En^mifhpat 
or Kadefh, they routed the Amclekites and the Amorites of Haze-> 
zon-tamar. Encountring the revolters in the vald of Siddim (or ^ , 
worfliipers of Sida, a name of Cybele) as this place was defaced 
with llime-pits, the kings of Sodom and Gomorra fell in retreating. 
TVic'^viftors pillaged their country, carrying away Lot aftd all his 
fubftance. Abraam, With 318 of his dependents, joihing the forces 
of his patron Mamre and his brothers Arier and Eflicol, purfued 
the viftors to Dan ; and furprizing them in the night in two different 
places^ routed and purfued them to Hobah, to the left of Damafcus, 
retaking the captives and their booty. The (new) king of Sodom 
met Abraam in the vale of Shaveth or Dale-royal. Melchizedec 
king of Salem Jehova's prieft, whofe parentage Saint Paul fays is 
unknown,brought him bread and wine, and gave him his benediftion. 
Abraam prefented him with the tythe of the fpoil: the reft he re- 
ftored to the king of Sodom, except the fhare of his allies. Amra- 
|>hel of Shinar, whofe name fignifies fupreme Bel, is fuppofed to be 
Arabel king of Babylon : but he feems to be Belus predeceffor of 
Ninus : and Arioch to be the Ariaeus afterwards the Arabian ally of 
Ninus, and the Araeus flain by Semiramis ; for Pliny fays that Arabs 


gjo P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y- (Book t. 

occupied die banks of the Euphrates to the Syrian defeft. Of this 
war Polyhiftor Wrote thus, after Eupolemus, counting it prior to 
Abraam's vifit to Egypt, tho* prematurely, as Mofes Ihews. ** Th^ ;^ 
Eofcb. Prep. Armenians vanquifhed the Phenicians in a battle, and took AbraamV 
nephew captive; Abraam afTembled his domeftics, routed the 
viftors^ and took their wives and children prifoners. The foe fcnt 
to redeem them, Abraam complied on receiving a ftipend for his 
foldiers. At the Sacrarium of thie city Argarizis, that is the mount 
of the Supreme, he was hofpitall/ entertained, and received prefents 
from Melchifedec, prieft and king of the place.'* Suidas fays 
Argarizis is the name of a nation, and Melchifedec was fonof Sidon* 
Here we may obferve that Abraam's power over his vaflals and his 
fon Ifaac (hews the feudal fyftem a remnant of the Patriarchal. 
Sefoftris eftabliftied tenures by.military fervice, in Egypt^ 

In the Canon of Eufebius a battle between the Chaldeans and 
Phenicians is recorded: but that, being four years after the reign of 
Orus king of Egypt Ammon's grandfon, was fome feat of Sefoftm 
about the time of Jadob and >Iinyas. 

Abraam in a vifion being promifed proteftion and profperity, ex- 
preft a fear that being childlefs his Reward Eliezer of Damafcus, 
born his domeftic, would fucceed to all his Effefts. Then Abraam 
received a promife that his ifTue fhould be as numerous as the ftan: 
and was ordered to divide a Heifer, a fhe Goat, and a Ram, and la 
offer them with a Dove and a Pidgeon: God in this feeming to divert 
human follies towards a more divine objed, than a Chamos, Cronus, 
Dagon or Aftarte. But in the Pfalm he demands 

Will I make flefh of Bullocks my repafl. 
Or blood of Goats e'er condefcend to tafte ? 
Jehova praife; to God devoutly pray; 
Thy fervent vows arc offerings thou muft pay. 

Kat. Deo, g^ Socrates held obedience the beft worfhip; and Tully, ** Cultus 
Optimus pura Mente et Voce Veneratio." — Abraam kept off birds 

; V. of 

Chap. 6.) PRIMltiVti rfl^foRV. 

6f prey froaithe carcaffes, and at fun-fet fell afleep: when God told 
him his defcendents fhould know toil and trouble in land not their 
own 400 years; at length their' oppreflbrs ftiould be oppreft; and 
<hey Oiouid be extricated and enriched in the fourth generation. It 
being now intenfely dark, a fmoaking fitrnace and a lamp of fire 
pafled between the portions of the .facrifice: and God promifed 
Abraam the country between the Nile and the Euphrates. 

Ten years after Abraam's firft arrival in Canaan, Sarai having no 
child induced Abraam to cohabit with her maid Hagar; who proving 
pregnant flighted her miftrefs. Sarai complained of her infolence to 
Abraam, who refigned her to Sarai's difcretion; the Concubine's 
petulant, and Abraam's conjugal behaviour affording an inftruftive 
leflon to fucceeding ages. Then Hagar receiving harfh ufage eloped. 
An Angel direfted her to return; promifed her an innumerable iffue; 
and bid her name the fon, flie was pregnant of, Iflimael; who would 
be a man of fpirit, and live in defiance of all. He was named 
Iflimael accordingly. 

When Abraam was near 160 years old, and Sarai abput go, God 
required integrity of him, and engaged to make him the father of 
multitudes, and of kings; and to grant Canaan to his pofterity. As 
a tnailLof his promife every male of Abraam's family was ordered 
to be'cifcumcized at a week old, on pain of death. His naiiie was 
aite^ to Abraham, and his wife's to Sarah; who was promifed a 
fon within a year. God alfo declared that twelve princes and a nn- 
merous iffue fliould defcend from Iflimael. Abraham and Sarah at 
firft furmized their great age would be an impediment. 

Abraham feeing three men neiar his tent invited them to fit under 
atree there; whilft he fent for water to bathe their feet. He enter- 
tained them with veal, butter, and milk. Thefe promifed Sarah a 
Ion, The Lord refolving to vifit Sodom and Gomorra, thefe mini- 
iler« went thither: but God promifed Abraham, at his requeft, 
that if only ten virtuous perfons were found there he would fpare 

the place. 

. ■ . Lot 


Deut. zgM 



Lot in Sodom Teeing two perfons (who were Angels) arrive at the 

gate, rofe and bowing invited them to his houfe all night. The 

Sodomites young and old came, arid infifted on a carnal commerce 

with them. Lot offered them his two maiden daughters : but they 

attempted to break into the honfe. The Angels ftruck them blind; 

and in the dawning hurried Lot, his wife and two daughters away, 

his fons in law difregarding the notice. At fun-rife Lot arrived at 

the fmall town of Zoar, which was fpared at his requeft. Sulphur 

and fire deftroyed Sodom and Gomorra, and all the inhabitants. 

Lot's wife difobediently looking back, became inftantly a column of 

Salt: which Jofephus fays was extant in his time: Burchard and others 

have feen it fince. God in fparing Lot regarded Abraham, who be- 

held the tremendous fcene. From this calamity arofe Homer*f 

2. 783. account of Typhon's bed in Arime, and Hefiod's Echidna there: 

for Strabo fays that fome fix this fcene in Syria, and that the Syrians 

called Arami, had the name of Arimi, and Arimeans; that Sodom 

was the capital of twelve cities, (bme of which were fwallowed by 

earthquakes, and the eruption of fire, and of hot bitumen and ful- 

phur. Stephanus writes that fome place Arime in Syria. Mofesand 

Hofea add Zeboim and Admah to Sodom and Gomorra. This event 

occafioned the fable of Phaeton, who was coeval with Deucalion, and 

of courfe with Cecrops; who was contemporary with the Titans and 

with Abraham. 

Lot removed to a cavern in the mountain with his daughters : who 

made him twice drunk with wine, and lying with him alternately, the 

eldeft became Moab's mother; the other Benammi's, who founded 

^^^\^?' the Ammonites: thefe deftroyed the Zamzummims; as the Moabitcs 

did the Emims, gigantic nations. 

Abraham removed Southward. Sarah paffing for his fitter, Abi- 
melec king of Gerar feized her. But being a perfon of merit, God 
prevented his being an adulterer ignorantly, cautioning him in a 
dream to reftore a prophet's wife. Then Abraam owned her to be 
his wife, yet his father's daughter by a different mother. The king 


Chap. 6.) P R I M ITI V E H IS.T OR Y. ^ 393 

reftored her, and gave Abrahain oxen, fh'eep and fervants male and 
female; and pcrmiflion'to refide wherever he liked; and told Sarah 
he had given her brother 1000 peicesof filver to provide her a veil. 
Abimelec rendered impotent, and his wife and maid fervants ren- ■* 

dered barren on Sarah's account, were re-enabled to have iffue. 

Abraam circumcifedhis fon had, as he was promifed, by Sarah, at a 

week old, naming him Ifaac. At his weaning Abraham kept a 

feftival. Sarah urged Abraham to difcard Hagar and her fon, 

owing to an affront from the latter. God ordered Abraham to 

comply without reluClance. This he did on the next morning : 

giving Hagar bread and a bottle of water. She went to Beerfheba. 

The water being expended, (he laid her fon among fhrubs, and 

went a bowfhot off, to avoid the fight of his death. An angel told 

her to take him up, and that his iffue ftiould become a great nation. 

Then (he difcovered a well. The lad grew up, and became an 

archer in the defert of Paran, and married an Egyptian. He founded gj^. p^^^ 

the Scenite Arabs and Nomades, who in their deferts often fubfift ^^^^e in 

for feveral days on the blood of their Camels. 

Abimelec finding God propitious to Abraham required an oath of 
allegiance to him and his defcendents. Abraham engaged : but 
told the king that his people deprived him of a well. Then he gave 
ihc king fluep and oxen : and they made a treaty. He gave feven 
ewe lambs in token of his having funk that well, called from the 
oath, Beerfheba. There Abraham made a plantation, and there 
invoked the Lord. From hence I date the four centuries of the 

After this, God to try Abraham, told him, go with thy favourite 

fon Ifaac into the land of Moriah, and make him a burnt offering, 

on a mountain I will (hew thee. The pious Patriarch convinced in 

' foul that implicit obedience mufl be paid to the peremptory command 

of his God, equipt his afs early, and took Ifaac and two of his youths 

E e e with 



with him : and clave wood for the fire^ and went to the place of 
appointment, which he dcfcried on the third day. He bid his 
fervants ftay with the afs, till he ami Ifaac (hould return from worfhip. 
He carried fire and a knife, and laid the wood on Ifaac, thcn^ (at- 
Jofephus writes as years of age, Ifaac a(ked •* where is the viftim/' 
Abraham, with a prefence of mind refulting from a full confidence 
in the Divine love, replied^ •' God will provide one/' Then he 
bound and laid his fon on the wood upon the altar he had eredecL 
On uking his knife^ a divine angel cried^ Abraham, touch not the 
youth \ thy compliance proves thy fubmiffiom I'hen Abraham faw 
a ram entangled in a thicket. This he burnt for an oblation i and 
named the place Jehova-Jirethi having faid, to day in the mount 
the Lord will be vifible. The angel told Abraham^ the Lord faith, 
« By myfelf I have fworn, for this thy compliance I will blcfs and 
multiply thee as the ftars, and as the fand on the fea ihore: thy feed 
ihall poflfefs the gate of thy foes i and in thy feed (hall all nations be 
Weft, for thy obedience to me." Happy would it have been for 
this numerous {(fue, if* they had inherited their great progenitor*! 
faith, obedience and reliance : as only their diftruft, impiety and 
apoftacy deprived them of heaven's peculiar favour, always (hewn 
them when they endeavoured to deferve it.-— -— Polyhiilor mentions 
this oblation as follows, ** Cod commanded Abraham to make for 
him a burnt^oblation of his fon Ifaac, Therefore he immedia(c/y 
brought the youth to a mountain, and fetting fire to wood, laid Jfaac 
on it: but as he was going to flay his fon, an angel prohibited Abra- 
ham's a£^, and tendered him a ram for facrifice i this he flew, and 
releafed his fon from the flames// 

Thus Cod is not offended with oblations to the proper obje£l| 
on eminences j but with their mifapplication to Demons. Indeed 
there is a fort of conneftion of ideas, that renders worfliip on fummiti 
mighty decent. We own God fupreme in dignity and (lation j and 
therefore, tho* aware of his \jbitjiiity and immenfity, fuppofe him in 
the moft exalted fimation, the lioavcn of heaven^ Ofcourfe, In 
afcendinj[» towards the fl^ics, the- idea prefcntsitfelf of our approachiiig 
C -^'^ flirone : our thoughts arc apt to be elevated with our bodiesj 


Chap, 6.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 395 

leaving the earth and all ahjeft appurtenances beneath us: and with 
foaring minds we afceiid to the houfe of prayer on a mountain j whofe 
elevated fituation is moft fuitable to be the manfion of the exalted 
fpirit, to whom it is dedicated. Chrift went to prayer on a mountain. 
Solomon's temple was built on mount Sion. Luke 6, 

Thus an elevation of the Commuioti Table in Churches is alfo 
extremely fitting : it adds an appearance of fublimity to the rite ; 
tends to remove degrading familiarity, and protefts it from pollution 
and infull from the vulgar: for however ufage reconciles it to us, 
to permit the Sanftum Sanftorum to be trampled upon promifcuoufly, 
contrary to the ancients; yet this, and the interring of corpfes (often 
infeftious) tho' only the oflfials, the excrements of fouls, in the temple 
of the living God", are praftifes fo indelicate and unbecoming, that 
even the Efquimaux and Hottentots would be fcanda-Iized at it.— — 
We fee that Abraham procured burial ground: Chrift had a fepulchre 
(previoufly made) in a garden. The Romans were fo far from 
poMXiting their Temples with dfead Garcafles, that they woirid not 
permit them interment even in the city. But we Cliriftians, who 
pretend to a refined and fpiritual worftiip* of an incorporeai God; 
invoke hia divine purity to give us audience in the repbfitory of 
p«tiid< corfes! 

Sanchoniatho its faid by Porphyry to have obtained from a Hier*. 
arach named Jerombaal, fuppofed to be Jerubbael or Gideon^ Sqvm 
information towards his biftory : which, amidft a heterogeneous 
medley of men and mountains, partly real, partly fabulous^ like 
Hefiod'^s genealogy, contains ibme imperfefl tcadittons of feveral 
real matters mifapplied» and mif|)laccd ; &tfa- as ranking Uranua in 
the time of Mifor. He attributes to his Cronus fomr incidents that 
Bslafie to Abraham : they were really contemporaries. The mothjer 
ofi J><toud, the Yehid of Genefis, he- names Aiiobret, which fignifics 
conceiving by grace ; an epithet applicable to Sarah. And he fays 
Jeeudwas facriiiced to heaven by his father, who was. circumcifedi 
it wad a^ pradiic, fays Philo in Eufebiu^^ among the ancients, for 

E e c a the 

22. 2 


the rulers of cities, or nations, in great perils, to devote a favourite 
fon to death for the public calamity ; to appeafe the anger of the 
Gods. Thefe devotees were flain with myftic rites. — Saturn, whom 
the Phenicians call II, and who at his death became the planet of that 
name, reigning over that realm, and having by Anobret a native 
lady there, an only fon thence named Jeoud, as the name there 
implies, facrificed in a dangerous war this fort, royally robed on an 

altar of his ere6iion. After this example fays Porphyry, *« The 

Phenicians in public diftreffes of war, famine or peftilence, facrificed 
to Saturn fome favourite perfon chofen by public voice. Sanchoni- 
atho's hiftory abounds with inftances/* 

Abraham next dwelt at fieerlheba ; and found that Nahor's iflue 
by Milcah was Huz, 9uz, Kemuel Aram's fire, Chefed, Hazo, 
lidlaph, and Bethuel ; and by Reumah his concubine, Tebath, 
Gaham, Thalafti and Maachath. 

Sarah at 127 years of age died at Kirjath Arba, or Hebron in 
Canaan. Arba, who feems to be Jarbas fon of Jove and Gara« 

Num. 13. 22 jjiantis^ founded this city feven years before Tariis, whichwas founded 
by the Tftans. Arba*s fon Anak was the fire of Ahiman, Shefliai, 

Jolh. 14. Sc an4 Talmai contemporary with Joftiua. The city had the name of 
'** Hebron or Chebron, from Chebron fon of Amofis j thefe I take to 

be the Egyptian Dionyfius and his fire. Abraham came to mourn 

for her : and faid to the fons of Heth, •* I am a ftranger, grant me 
a fepulchrc.'* They rfcplied, •* Thou art a great prince, chufe a 
fepulchre/*^ Abraham faid, " Apply toEpron, Zohar's fon to fparc 
me the cave of MachpeJah for its full value.'* Ephron faid, ^'Before 
the fons o^my people the field and cave in it I give thee.** Abra- 
ham replied, ** I will pay thee for the field.** Ephraim faid, '* IM 
full value is 400 fhekels ; what is that between* us ?** Abraham 
weighed this fum, current raetaL The field and trees on it being 
transferedy Sarah was buried there: and thus in death took pofleffion 
of the promifed land. This was a beacon ereftcd for the Ifraclites^ 
which they never loft fight of ; till, according to the Divine promifi^ 


Ch^p. 6.). P R 1 M I T i V ii tl 1 S t li V. 39^ 

they filled the adjacent country with defcendents as numerous as the 
fand of the ocean. When the difobediencc and incredulity of this 
very pofterity, reiterated and aggravated continually, at length exr 
pelled'tbem from the regions acquired by the faith aed obedience of 
their anceftors; and to be hereafter regained by their children's con- 
verfion to the belief of truths enfuing confonant to prior prediftion^, 
and confirmed by concomitant miracles as well as prediftions. 

Paleftine had been occupied by Shem's fon Aram, till the Csina- 
a'nites difpoffeft him: therefore Abraham feems to have a hereditary 
claim to the country by his defcent from Shem, a part of whofe 
pofTeffions it was. Ham's domain was Africa : yet his fon Canaan'^ 
language was fpoken in Paleftine and Chaldea. 

Abraham being far advanced in years told his fteward, •' Put thy 

hand under my thigh, and fwear by the Lord, thou wilt not provide 

a Canaanite for my fon's wife : but one of my own kin and country; 

yet not bring my fon thither." This guardianfhip fhews that Ifaac 

was ftill young, or of mean talents. His bemg detefted in careffing 

his wife ; his inability tq deteft Jacob's fraud ; and his confirmation 

of Jacob's bleffing notwithftanding the Dolum malum, are arguments 

by no means in favour of Ifaac's acute parts. Abraham feems loath 

to triift his fon to Mefopotamia, left he fhould be infefted with the 

idolatry, that prevailed amongft his anceftors. 

The fteward, in confequence of his engagement, went with ten 
Camels into Mefopotamia, to Nachor. There without the city he 
made the Gamcls kneel in the evening, when women go for water : 
and he prayed for a token to know his young matter's bride. When, 
lo! a fair virgin came with a pitcher on her flioulder ; which fhe 
filled and brought up out of the well. The fteward alked leave to 
drink out of the pitcher. She faid, *' Drink, and I will water thy 
Camels too." This being the token he implored, he took a golden 
jewel for the forehead, weighing half a ftiekel, and golden bracelets 
of ten Ihekels weight, and faid, " Whofe daughter art thou ? Has 



thy father lodgings for us?" flie faid^ *'My father is Bethuel fon of 
Nahor and Milcah : we have ftraw, provender and lodgings.** 
Bowing his head he faid, " Bleffcd by the Lord God of my mafter 
Abraham ; the Lord has led me to my matter's relations." Wkb 
this news the maiden ran to the houfe. Her brother Labati went * 
and invited him thither. He declined meat, until he he had opened 
his commilfion. Obtaining Bethuel's confent, he prefenied Rebecca 
with gold and filver ornaments, and garments ; and made rich pre- 
fents to her mother and brother, Rebecca confenting, ftie and her 
nurfe and maids fet out on Camels* Kaac, who dwelt toward the 
foutfa, was walking along the path that led to the well Lahai-roi, and 
devoutly meditating in the fields, when Rebecca faw him. Quitring 
her Camel, fhe took a veil; for the farv^uic faid, •* It is my mafter.*' 
Ifaac condufted her to the tent which had been Sarah's, and proved 
an afFe6tionate fpoufe, being then 40 years of age. 

Abraham had by Keturahis fecond wife Zimram, Jokfhan, Medan^ 
Midian, Ifliibak, and Sbuahw Midian's fons were Eph^h, Ephev, 
Hanock, Abida and Eldaah. J.okflian begot Sheba and Deduk 
Dedan's fgns were the Aflbutim^ Letufhim and Leummim. JoB^ 
phus fays that Shuali was the fether of Sheba and Dedan, whom be 
calls Sabacan and Dadan: that Chetura's pofterity occupied tbc 
region of the Troglodites, and the parts of Arabia Felix adjacent to 
the Red Sea : that Epher or Ophres is faid to have fubdued Lybia, 
named from him Aphric, and held by his defcendents : alfo that 
Polyhiftor quotes Cleodemus a hiftorian of the Jews, as confirming 
the account of this feulement; and that Hercules being one of them 
fought Anteus in Lybia; and had by Apher's daughter his fon Dedor 
the father of Sophon founder of the Sophaces. This Hercules was 
probably the Egyptian ; who feems to be the father of Sefoflris; h^ 
brother Agenor being Melcart the Tyrian Hercules. 

Abraham portioned the fons of his concubines, and fent them 
eaflward. He left all his eftate at his deaths being then 175 years of 
age, to Ifaac : who, with Hhmael, bufied Abraham in the cave of 



Machpelah. Ifaac fettled by the well Lahairoi. Khmael died at 
i37 years of agej leaving 12 fons ; Nebajoth, Kcdar, Adbeel, 
Mibfam, Miflima, Duma, Mafia, Hadar, Tenia, Jetur, Naphifh, 
Kcdemah, thefe dwelt from Havilah to Shur facing Egypt, in the 
road to Aflyria. 

Ifaac fupplicated God on account of Rebecca's fterility, who then 
conceived twins, Thefe contending in her womb, God informed 
her, two nations fhould thence arife, and the elder branch fhould 
be fubfervient to the younger. At her delivery, the firft child being' 
ruddy and very hairy was named Efau. At his birth his brother 
took hold on Efau's heel, and hence was named Jacob. Ifaac was 
then 60 years of age. 

Efau proved expert in hunting and rural affairs; Jacob wis fedatc 
and of a domeftic turn, and Rebecca's favourite : Efau was Ifaac's, 
and fupplied him with vcnifon.— Efau once coming from the field 
told Jacob, '^ I am quite faint, let me eat of that red pottage of 
thine.'* Jacob faid, *♦ Sell me thy birth^right to day.'' Efau re- 
ified, " I am at the point of death, of what ufe can my birth-right 
be to me ?*' Then on oath Efau fold his right, which he difregarded, 

and Vccame profane by transferring the priefthood annexed to it. 

Jacob gave him bread and his pottage of lentils. 

A famine enfuing, Ifaac went to Abimelec king of the Philiftines, 
at Gcrar. God told him, •' Refide here and I will blefs thee, and 
grant to thee and thy feed all thofe regions, and perform my en- 
gagement to Abraham; I will augment thy feed as the flars; and in 
thy feed (hall all nations be bleft: for Abraham obeyed my voice 
and kept my charge, and my laws." Ifaac fefided there, and faid 
Rebecca was his filler. But Abimelec thro' a window feeing Ifaac 
carefling her, aficed him, how fayeft thou, *♦ She is my fitter.** 
Ifaac replied, *^ Left I die for her." The king faid, what is this? 
Some man might have enjoyed her and thou have brought guilt on 
lUt Then he made proclamation, ** Let none touch this man or 



400 PtllMITIVE HISTORY- Chap. 6.) 

his wife on pain of death/* Thus the Philiftine government, tho* 
it tolerated fornication, condemned inceft and adultry. 

Ifaac had that year from the land a centuple return, and thro* 
divine favour augmented his flocks herds and houfehold. The 
Philiftines envied him, and choked Abraham's wells. The king told 
him, *' Remove her^e, thou art abler than we." Then he went to 
the vale of Gerar, and opened the former wells, and funk two others 
in the valley. Thefe being claimed by the herdfmen of Gerar, he 
removed thence and funk a third*; which he held unmolefted; Going 
thence to Beerfheba, God that night repeated hispromife. Ifaac 
built an altar and invoked the Lord. Pitching his tent there, his 
fervants funk a well, which he named Sheba, the Oath: for Abimelec 
attended by Ahuzzah and Phicol, repaired to him and faid, ** We 
faw the Lord was with thee, let us make a covenant on oath, that 
thou wilt not hurl, us, as we haye not hurted thee." He entertained 
them, and next morning they made mutual vows : then his 
guefts departed. 

Efau at 40 years of age married Judith the daughter of Beeri, uid 

Gen. 26^4 Balhemah Elon's daughter, both Hittites, againft the confent rf 

Gen. 36. 2. Ifaac and Rebecca. Balhemah is elfewhere faid to be Ifhmaers 

daughter; but that feems to be an error for Mahaleth. Adah Ehn's 

daughter is faid likewife to be his wife; as alfo Aholibamah daughter 

ofAnah, Zibeon the Hivite's daughter. 

Ifaac grown old and dimfighted told Efau, '* Kill fome venifon, 
and drefs it to my palate, that I may blefs thee before my death." 
Rebecca hearing it told Jacob, *♦ Kill two kinds, which I will drefs 
to Ifaac's tafte ; thou (halt prefent it, and obtain the Benizon/* 
Jacob faid, " Eftu is hairy, I am not; my father .may feel and punifii 
mc with his curfe." Says fhe, '* Be that on me." Here as elfewhere 
Rebecca feems to fway the domeftic fceptre. The meat being dreft, 
flie decked Jacob in Efau's fineft clothes, and put kidfkins on his 
hands and neck. Then he told Ifaac, " I am Efau, tafte my venifon 
to blefs me/' Ifaac faid, « Come near that I may feel thee.** 



Then fays he, '^ The voice is Jacob's, but the hands are Efau's." 
After eating, having drunk fome wine he faid, " Kifj me my fon.'* 
At faluting him he perceived his robe perfumed, and gave him his 
benedifiion : *' My Ion fmells like a field bled by the Lord. God 
give thee the dew of heaven, the fat of the land, plenty of corn and 
wine. Let people fcrve thee and nations fubmit to thee : be Lord 
over thy brethren ; and let thy mother's fon bow down to thee. 
Curfed be each who curfes thee, and bleffed each who bleffes thee.'* 
Prefently Efau addreffes him, " My father, tafte my venifon, to 
blefs me." Ifaac cries, Mfho art thou ? He replies, " Efau thy cldeft 
fon." Ifaac trembled and faid, •' Who is he whofe venifon I have 
already eaten? Him I have bleffed, and blcft he (hall be." Efau 
lamented greatly and faid, " Blefs me, even me alfo, O my fathet! 
haft thou no Benizon in refefvc for me?*' Ifaac faid, *'Thy brother 
has won thy bleflingby ftratagem. Lo, I have made him thy Lord, 
and all his brethren hts fervai^ts; with corn and wine Hhave made 
him abound. What now my fon ftiall I do for thee?'' Efau (aid^ 
^^ Haft thou bbt of>e benedi3;ion, my fatberf Blefs Hie, me alfo 
O my father!" jand he wept aloud. Ifaac repliddi ** Thott/flialt 
live in the fatnefs of the land and in the dew of heaven. By thy 
(word thou fhalt live, aild ferve thy brother : at length thou (halt 
break his yoke and have the domiliion/^ Lo time has confirmed the 
Palriarch's predidiofl* l^ot only the Babylonian captivity was by 
Edom's fons: but the Saracens have exercifed a long dominion over 
Jacob; which is likely to continue at leaft during the major part of 
next century ; and until the times of the Gentiles be compleated. 

Efau hated Jacob for his/raud, and faid, ** The days of mournin<T 

For my father are near; I will then kill Jacob." Rebecca apprizing 

Jacob of this told him, ** Retire to my brother Laban at Haran a 

little while, till Efau's refentment cool ; why (hould I loofe you 

.both at once?" She next • protefted to Ifaac, " If Jacob marry a 

Hittite my life will be miferable." Ifaac told Jacob, " Marry no 

Hittite, go and marry a daughter of Laban's ; and God blefs thee 

and make thee fruitful, and augment thee to a multitude; and grant 

thee Abraham's benediftion." 

F f f Er*u 


Efau feeing Ifaac's diflike to the daughters of Canaan, vifited the 
Ifhmaelites^ and added Mahalat^ KhmaePs daughter to his wi vesi (he 

26* 3. 


was Nebajoth's fifter; but is elfewhere called Bafhemath; who before 
was faid to be Elan's daughter : tho' here he is alfo faid to have 
wedded a daughter of Elon's named Adah^ and Aholibamah the 
daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite : another Zi* 
beon prefently appears to be a Horite^ and an Anah to be bis foni 
recorded as the firft difcoverer of Mules. 

Befides the fons of Efau by Bafhemahi Adah and Aholibamah^ h^ 
had by others, probably by Judith and Mahalath, the dukes Timtiah, 

5eat. 2, 12. Alvcth, Jctheth, Aholibamah, Elab, Pinon, Mibzar, Magdiel, Irani. 

•*^* £ftiu*» fons deftroyed the Horites of Seiri the Avim of Hazerim to 

Azzah ; and the Caphtorim, who came from Caphtor. Efau it the 

Erythras who failed on the Arabian gulf, before the time of Danaus. 

(. ZIzi ^^^ 8*^^ ^^* name to the Azanian fca, which receives that gulf,^ 
His fepulchre being in the ifle Ogyris, iia miles in circuit, and 115 
diftant from land. Arrian on India fays it was named Oarada, and 
100 miles in length. 

Efau'8 wife Mahalath ) I —Duke Nahah 

IlhmaePs daughter, or( n^..^i I— Duke Zerah 
Balhema, elfewhere f — *^«"«*-* j —Duke Shammah 
iaid to be Eloa'^. J J —Duke Mizzah 

Cliap. o.) 



I — Dulce Tcman 
^ion— Adah, Efau's wife-— Eliphaz — j — Duke o^ar 

— Duke Zepho 
— Duke Kenaz 
— Duke Korah 
— Diike Gatam 

'^Timna con-J 

cubine of C Duke Amelec 
Eliphaz 3 

I —Hori 

— Duke Lotan J —Heman 

— Alvan 
—Duke Shobal— 

Seir theHorite; yet 
Seir was a name 
of Efau, Gen. 
£5- 25. but the 
Homes wereHi- 
vites^ Gen. 36.2 

— «*Manahath 
— .Ebal, Shepho 

Duke 7 I — Ajah 

Zibeon J j -«.Anah — Aholibamah — 
— Duke Anah 

—Duke Pifhon— 
— Duke Ezer— — 

Duke Difiian«. 

— Hemdan 
— Efhban 
— Ithran 

— Bilham 
— Zaavan 

.'. — Achan 


I .Aran 


Beer's fon Bela of Din-habath wasfucceded by 

Zerab of Bozrah's Ton Jobab. His fucceflor was 

Hufham of Temani : his was 

Bedad's fon Hadad of AvUh ; Midlands Viflor 5 fticceeded by 

Samlah of Mafrekah. The next was 

Saul of Rehoboth, by the river Euphrates. Next, 

Achbdr's fon Baalhanan. Next, 

Hadar of Pan : his wife Mehetabel was daughter of Matred, 

Daughter of Mezahab. 

Brydone has tranflated two Chaldean infcriptions at Palermo in 
Sicily importing that Efau's grandfon Zepho was governor of a 

F f f 2 tower 

^04 PRIM! TI VE HISTORY- (Bookt. 

tower there named Baych, near another named Pharat at Palermo :. 
whither in Efau's time many Hebrews,Damafcenes and Phenicians 
/ came to refide. Indeed fome of Abraham's fons appear to be com- 
rades of the Pheflician Hercules. 

Jacob in hjs way to Padan Aran, which as Bochart fhews is the 
cultivated country of Mefopotamia, after fun fet laid his head on a 
ftone and fell afleep. He dreamt of angels afcending and defcending 
on a ladder betweert heaven and earth. And the Lord above faid, 
^* I, the Lord God of Abraham and of Ifaac> grant the land, on 
which thou lieft, to thee and to thy feed ; who fhall be as numerous 
as the duft. Thou Ihalt expand thy felf towards the eaft, weft, north, 
. and fouth ; and in thee and thy feed fhall all nations on earth be 
■ hleft. Lo I am with thee, and will preferve thee whither thou goeft, 
and reconduft thee hither ; nor leave thee till I have performed my 
promife." Jacob awaking (aid, '* The Lord is certainly here, an<i 
I was unconfcious of his prefence.** Impreft with awe he exclaimed, 
" This is God*s manfion, this is Heaven*s portal,'* Early in th^ 
morning he converted the ftor^e thkt was under his head to a pillarj 
and anointed it: and inftcad of Luz, named the place. Bethel: vowing 
to acknowledge (Jod his proteGtor, and to pay him the tythe of all 
his fulur« fubftance. From the ftone fet up at this religious Ipof, 
whbfe name fays Bryant fignifies the fame as Petor (whence the^ 
Egyptian Petores or Augurs) the Greeks derived Petros, to which 
Chrift alludes. Hefychius interprets flfrjo^ *o ET^iytvuCiocv. 

This aft of Jacob was the origin of Sanchoniatho's Betilia: ihfiy 
'^ ' ' had this name from the ufe of the placfs whereev^r they were ereficd; 
which was to worftip God: fo we call a Temple the houfe of Go<[ j 
that is of his worfhip : and El being Sol, hence really came Zeus 
* ^7' Lapis— Hence arofe the rocking ftones of the Gaurs ; fo contrived 
that they might feem animated, and fill the fpeOators with wonder. 
They feem to be the Htfrmaea, defcribed by Strabo, in Egypt, and 
the Hebrew Margemah« Norden fiiys the Pendre ftone pear Blifton 
lo feet long, 4 broad, go inches thick) moved with the wind. Bryant 
was informed that a perfon with his cane moved the rocking ftone in 


Chap. 6.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 40S 

the Qiinefe ifle of Amoy, about 40 feet long. Apollonius Rhodiiis 
mentions one iir the ifle of Tenos. 

Jacob proceeded to the eaftward, and favv three flocks of flieep 
near a well. The pallors told him that country was Haran ; that 
Laban was their acquaintance; and that his daughter Rachael was 
coming with flieep thither. At that junflure ftie ai^rived, Jacob 
uncovered the well, and watered her flock. Saluting her, he with 
tears of joy told her, he was Rebecca's fon. She h^ftened to inform 
Laban : who ran to Jacob, embraced, faluted, and condufted him 
home; telling Jacob, " Thou art the fame as myfelf." He^refided 
a month with Laban ; who then faid, **Aflift: me not gratis, tho* my ^ 
kinfman; but name thy wages.** Laban's eldeft daughter Leah had 
weak eyes ; her fifter Rachael was handfome and admired by Jacob. 
He faid, I will be thy fervant feven years for Rachael. Laban con- 
fented. After the Hebdomadal feftival on account of the nuptials 
fome contend that Jacob demaiaded his bride, whom he was to earn 
\}y fuiurt fervice : but the demand is made after the completion of 
the fervice is declared* Thefe critics read, ** Jacob had faid, give 
me my wife, for my days (meaning, fay they, the feftal week) are 
compleated. But it was confequent to this demand that the feftival 
was made : and when Jacob was cheated with Leah (the confumma- 
tion being probably fimilar to the Spartan manner, and itisobferv- 
able that in New Zeland nuptials are confummated in* the dark) he 
wclaimed, did not I ferve thee *for Rachael ? Laban, pleading that 
primogeniture took place by cuftom in marriages, replied, " Thou 
Ihalt have Rachael for feven other years ^1?/ of Service." Thefe 
fervitudes were then fafhionablc : about this timeOrus Apollo 
ferved Admetus: the Tyrian Hercules, Omphale: and Cadmus, 
Mars, for Harmonia. Jacob, by Laban's daughters and their two 
handmaids, proved the founder of the 12 illuftrious tribes of Ifrael. 

Awhile let us leave them, to take a view of profaTie hiftory, im- 
perfeft and ebfcure as all the accounts of the moft ancient times 
prove in Pagan authors to be. 



^ Emehdakons of the. Firji. and Second Books; the former being 


In the Titan Genealogy, the hn of Dardanus is Erichthon. 
Page I, The Margin refers to Plutarch. 

— 3, line 27. After Ciz^ii/ read, Caffini junior, A. D. 1740, calculated the motions 

of the planetary Nodes 5 and determined that of the Venereal to exceed the Tcr- 
reftrial 34 feconds annually. ' 

— 9, line 20. Paufanias 

— 10, line 26. Between Edris and Origen infert a period 

— 15, line 5. Pythagoras Page 16, In the Margin read, Juliae 

— 10, line 23. For iefs, read lacking*— —Page. 20. line 9, Kiun 

— 27, In the lafi reference read. Sic:— Page 36. line 13, Omit the firft comma 

— 37, line 10. Exhilarating- Line 13. After Creation add, Male and female 

are contrived for> and attached to, one another 
-— 38> line 21. After damnation fet a period: and add^, Ovid fays. Bis duo funt 

hominis. Manes, Caro, Spiritus, tJmbra. 
— > 39, to line 2. add. As to parts beyond parts, mind is one divine whole, indiviiible 

line 9. For quas: read quafi.- line 4. Mynd in Iflandic is Image 

.-* 41. 19. Read in-flexure, or inward flexure 

— 44, to line 9. add. The minutenefs, multiplicity and Uniformity of lucid pardcles 

keep one another fleady in their diredion, inftead of jofUing one another aiide : 
thus the rays of many tkoufand ilars pafs continiudly and diredly to immenfe 
diftances. So rays imprint an objed innumerably and perfectly on all parts of a ■ 

— 45, j^g. Omit, in whic^i a foludon of Pewter is ferviceable 

— '40, hue 18, And in other places, read appellative "Line 26, with 

— 45, line 5« At life the Quotation ends 

— 52, line I 3 Omit all between oS/er<ve^ and Nrndinm 

— 15, At bottom add, Cafaubon on Credulity hints at powerful virtues in Peoaf 

and Dittany 

— 59, line 4. Before Augofline infert, Thus Eufebius mentions the tt^vjfrov^ Aoyoi^ 

of Mofes 
*— 61, line 9. For clear, read clean' ■ ■■ Page 63, line 20. Surprizing 

— 73, 29. Syncellus Page 81, line 28. Could 

— 83, In the fourth line from the bottom, before Cain, infert, we might conclude 

that he retired to Cathay ; for Dr. Hide interprets Cbata^ error. 

— 87, line 6. Eupolcmus— — 8, fying : — 32, fy 

— 88, line 1. Add, as. 30, For the period put a comma 

— 91, line''5. After language, add that is Atta El. 

Exchange Jared's and Methufela^s ages at Psedogony ; and in the laft place 
read Jofephus; To page 93, line 14 

— 94, line 22. For above, read about -* 24, Waterhoufc 

— 98, line 29. Before of, infert. He inflanccs perfons having forty, nay forty-fevcft 

children; as Lycaon, Egyptas, Danaua and others had fifty each.- indeed 
women in the Raft frequently bear feveral children at a birth, fo that the earjj 
population of tiie world i« readily accounted for 

— 99, line 17. Read feem -Page 103, line 10. Chaldaic ■ ■ .33, relieved 

— 104, line 10. read Ifland— -30, mention— —Page 105, line 3. Omit 0*4/ 

— 109, In the firft Latin line omit the Comma—— Page iii, line 17. Read Kibotos 

— 113, line 7. For Shells, Pebbles 113, linei, Confift 

— ! 16, Margin, read Meteor— page 117, line 22. For there, thither 

— 1 18, 30. After magat infert, the Greek megas 119, line 6. Add, the 

— 123, line 9; for thro' jpcad, between Nevil Bay fuid« 


Pag I ^3 » « .Moor and Smith fawtwo pcrfons on the South fide of Wagcr'sBay different 
xn complexion and manners from the Eiquimaux 

— 125, hne j6. For cycle read circle j^6, line 2. Omit firft 

— 130, hne 26. For where, were 

— 131, hnc 5. After Trees add, Brydonc mentions the (lone in Sicily and Calabria 

that with due watering and heat produces Muairooms 

— 1331 in the headline for 4 read 5; fo page 137,5 for 6. 

~ 135, After line 19, add, And as far as the fprings of the Oxus, Indus and Ganges, 
"t"*r^"?r n "'^ ^«« ^^g^ mountains of Thibet, a name akin to Fhebc and Theboth; 
tkcfc Hills are alfo called Boot-an 

•- *37».To line 19, add. Put Corfini fcts Majmadlerion in the ufual place of Anthc- 
Itenon : which he und Harpocration poftpone to Gamelion 

— 141, line 20. Augur Page 143. line 26. Thcodofiusr ici, line 14. Zugof 

~ i54» "n« 3 ' • After Welch infcrt, pronounce F like V, and 

—156. line 3. Pillar ..line I5,rcc« 

— i^,line 16. For P, Pi ^toline 28 add, the Chaldaic infcription at 

Palermo refembles rhe Etrufcan alphabet in having L and S rcvcrfcd ; but it 
has alfo U dirca page 163, line 4. For Y, read Z 

B O O K II. 

— 176, Add to line 25, It iignifies Vaticinium; as Edda, like Nannea and Amaia^ 

iignifies grandam, and refpeds the Magna Mater 

— 191, At the end of line ai, add a Colon 

— 206, line 10, Dionyfitts 26, before hence infert, and Horns Apollo's 


— 22i» line 8. Length Page 248. At the laft reference at the laft line page 

25 1 , line 29. For Cycle, Circle 
*^ 263, line 16. At Jo^e infert. And Tkurus or Arius feems a brother of Ninyas, 

and fon of Jove Picus. 
' ■2Q> For then ivas but ^m, read, the firft 

-— 216, Laft line; read, Proferpint— 275, Headline, Chap |. —line 14, Omit tAi 

— aTQt Headline, Ch. ^— -line 11, at Fortune add, and Ifis; Pales was Pan, 

MUftdes, Mifor, Oin s line 14. At Apollo add, Thefe were Meon or Mifor, 
^ aid Ham th* firft $ol, Arneris or Qrus reprefented by Priapus, as ^as Mendes. 
'——line 15, At Patrii add. This Vefta was Mifor's confert Ifu 
*-*28i. Headline, Ch. 4— line 15. Sace/dotal. 

— 292, line 3. Firft— 295, 28, For>j&*, who 

— 303, line 33. For inVwread, the Egyptian 316, Set the Reference at the laft line 

«^ 217, Une 24. At Terminus add. That is Picus; in whofe reign as Virgil hints. 

Landmarks were introduced 
In the Contents of Ch. 5, for viz. read viri. 

— 332, line 23. For tbere, Aefc— — 3 j6, line 27. For wealth, weal 

•— 947, line 3. At Peneus add. Yet Nana and his fire were the Egyptian Dionyfius 
and Teudtamus or Ammon«— — line 1 1. Add, lulus was Taurus or Picus 

— 350, line 2. At the end put a Colon 

*- 351, line 21. In the Margin for L pnt i — and fet the laft Referenceat the^laftllno 
—^'302, line 8. At Phenicians add, Iphigenia in Euripides ftiles Mycenae her Cyclo- 
pean Home 

— 369, Line penult: at Ver fet a period; 

— 375» line 2; Before war infert is line 26. Sakon 

«— 377, line 15. Inducing— «»in the Margin fet Sherringham at Une tt* 

— 388, In the Margin for Anat, Ant.— —391, line i. From 
^— 396, line 2 J and 28, Iphron.— — 3J7, line ^ Airf. 




0/ the Pagan Remnants of ancient Hijlory. Of Sanchoniatho: Manetho: 
The old Egyptian Chronicle. Oftht Table of Theban Kings from 
Eratojlhenes. Of the Interval between the Flood and the Chrijlian 
Era. Of Herodotus^ Jofephus^ Apollodorus^ and Diodorus. Ancient, 
Account of 'Italy: The Umbri^ LigureSj Volfci, Tyrhenians^ Aurunci^ 
Au/oneSj Ofici^ Lce/lrigonSj Cyclops, wer& Celta, but intermixed with 
Pelajgi, Lydians and Phenicians. Of Annacus^ Goriius^ and Midas^ 
Kings of Phrygia. Of Manes, Alcimus, Gambles^ and Jardan, 
Kings of Lydid. Of Rhodes. Of Lefbos: OJ Iphimedia and Butes ; 
mnd of Cadmus. Ancient mention of the Scythians; of the Getce ; of 
China. Ufe of a Genealogical Table of Collateral Lines. European 
Poffejfions of Hatn^s Family. Of Janus^ ofTeutat and Acmon, Ham's 
. Befcendants. A Genealogical Table from Sanchoniatho^ 

WJ HEN an irrefiftible tempeft has deftroyed an unfortunate 
^ ^ fiiip; and fpeftators on a promontory difcern a few fcattered 
remnants of the wreck, bandied about at random on the turbulent 
bofom of the boiftrous ocean : this melancholy fcene refembles the 
ftraggling fragments of the mod ancient hiftories ftill floating on the 
'Ocean of time. What a lofs was the ancient Hiftory of Memnonium^ 
Democritus wrote a Hiftory of Chaldea, and of Phrygia: Xanthus^ 
of Lydia : Anacharfis, of Scythia; Epimenides, of theCuretes and 
of Rhodes: Ariftippus, ofLybia: Heraclides, of Perfia, Sancho- 
niatho, Dius, Heftiaeus, Hypficrates, Mofchusand Theodotus (which 

Ggg 1^ 


laft three were tranflated into Greek by Chaetus) were Phenician 
Hiftorians ; Eumachus and Procles, Punic, preferved for a time 
with the library of Carthage by Scipio. Ray fuppofed there was 'sl 
library that belonged to the ancient Ethiopians atAyefas exifting even 
in his time. 

The adulterated and confufed medley remaining of SanchaniatBoir 
a few detached paffages of Manetho and Berofus ; a part of a fhort 
Egyptian chronicle ; with the firft part of a valuable table of the 
kings, of Thebais by Eratofthenes ; and fome fcanty extracts in 
various authors, from others more ancient than themfelves ; have 
Airvived the general devaftation. Some of thefe relics are invalu^ 
able. The lift of Theban kings difcovers the length of thne front 
the firft fettlement of Egypt to the Trojan war. Dionyfius of Hali- 
carnaffus fets the capture of Troy at a full moon 17 days before the 
fUmmer folftice, and eight before the end of the month ThargcHon. 
Agreeable to this accdunt Apollodorus counted 408 years before 
the Olympic era, which began A. C# 776. A full moon in the 
year A. C. 1184 happened i6| days before the folftice. Dionyfeiir 
of Argosand HeHanicua wrote that Troy was taken on the twclfft 
of Thargelion j thus fevouring Eratofthenes, who fet the capture of 
Troy a year later : but Agis and Dercylus and fome Attic wrttera 
confirm the firft account. Thus is this remote event fettled to a year. 
and thence upward to the firft Menes of Egypt ; whofe fettlemcnt 
was probably full a« foon as his kinfmen's in Chaldea about x6^ 
years aft^er Noah's flood. 

Bsut for the extra^s and fragments now mentioned, there would be 
an univerfaLfilenceasto the firft Poftdiluvian ages amongft profane 
authors} who have mifapplied a few imperfeft incidents, that regard 
Noah, to Ogyge«i Ofiris and Deuealidn : fome, that refpcft Ham^ 
to Ammon, orhis rival; the Titan Saturn^ fome, that concern Mifor^ 
Meon, Menes, Mendes, tOi Acmon's father Mannus, or to Cybele*a 
huft)and Meon who was the Titan Saturn, or Ammon's fon who had 
the honorary name of Ofiris in common with Mifor, or to Amenophi* 


Chap, u) PR I M ITI VE HISTOR Y. 411 

fire of Seioftris; or to Memnon ; inftiort to any one nam^ Meon, 
Menon, Menes, A-menophis, or Maro, ^11 of whom had the name 


Groping thus in the dark, fome think the Italian Janus was Java^, 

tho' contemporary with Chiron's fire. Plato deems Thoth CMifor's 

fon) coeval with Amman the rival of Chiron's fire. Some aflert that 

Thoth allotted dominions to Phoroneus : but Niobe's fire was 

not two centuries before Cccrpps ; therefore fome more ancient 

Phoroneus muft have been the brother of Egialeus, and Thoth's 

<:ontemporary; alfo a few years fubfequent to Thoth* s father Menes, 

in whofe reign letters were invented; tho' I think that Mannus A,c- 

mon's father propagated letters in Phrygia, which he had from his 

father Tuitho or Teutat: who probably taught them to the Turde* 

tani of Spain, as in Strabo. Stephanas and the Scholiaft of ApoU 

lonius tell us Acmpn the fon of Mannus founded Acmonia in 

.Phrygia ; his brother I>oeas the cities Lycailiaj^ Themifcyra and 

Chalybia inhabited by Amazons and Chalybes near the river Ther- 

modon. Juftin fays the Chalybes derived their name from a rivcer 

in Spain. Phornutus deems Uranus, called Acmonide^ by Hefychius 

and Simias of Rhodes, the fon of Acmon; who therefore is Saneho^ 

niatho's EHon, and died a hunting: but he was fome ages later than 

T^h Mifor's fon. 

Some good intelligence is to be extrafled out of Manetho's 

Pynsffties in Syncellus and Jofephus. For, tho' Africanus and 

Eufebius aimed to ftretcb thofe Dynaftics (which were $0 including 

Gpds and Demigods) to the fame number exclufively ; y€it the 18th 

Dynafty difcovers the error, for it contains OruSy who was a Demi- 

God, and^e firft Dynafty of This begins with the firft kings of all 

Egypt, Mifor and Thoth; who of courfe are the firft alfo in the lift 

of Eratofthenes : five of whofe firft kings preceded the Hycfi, as 

in the 16th Dynafty of Eufebius, tho' he has omitted their names. 

The fixth king of Thebes is exprefsly a Memphite; fo that probably 

Memphis being the principal royalty of Egypt, as appears from 

Thoth's building his palace there, the fixth king on the paftoral in- 

• G g g a vafion. 




vafion retired to Thebes, ' Jofephus from Manetho Ihcws that their 
ufurpation continued sif^years^ 260 of which they were under a 
regal dominion; by the firft kings of the 18th Dynafty they were 
expelled. 518 after the commencement of this Dynafty,'Amenophis. 
began his reign ; in whofe 14th year happened the Exod. 

Berofus counted 163 years from the Deluge to the firft king of 
Babylon. Emilius Sura in Paterculus counts.from (Nimrod, often 
miftaken for) Ninus, 1995 years to the overthrow of Antiochus the 
Great ; whence to the Chriftian era is igo years. So Ctcfias counts 
1000 years from the fall of Troy up to the commencem^t of the 
AfTyrian empire; which, as faid above, was 163 yeafr after the 
flood. Conftantfne Manaffes fays, *' the Egyptian kingdom lafted 
-1663 years; Cambyfes fubverted it A. C. 525. So that if Mifor 
founded it three years before the Babylonian (which is probable, as 
it was the firft empire) the period from the flood to the Chriftian 
era is about 2348. years. The 23000 lunar years in Diodorus Si- 
culus between Mifor and Alexaiider ; and the table of Theban kings 
by Eratofthenes, make the cTommencementof Mifor's reign 156 years 
after the flood. ^ 

3ad Herodotus tranfmitted to us his intended hiftory of AfTyria, 
and had it been in the power or will of the Egyptian pricfts to %vc 
afforded that venerable Grecian a more exaft hiftory of their coun- 
try, the information concerning the moft intimate occurences of 
ancient times would have been ai)undantly more* fatisfaftory, than 
we muft expeft it ever to be. — i— The defire of Jofephus to enhance 
the antiquity of the JeMifh nation, by placing Mofes as high as the 
Hycfi and Inachus; and the ftudy of other garblers of Manetho to 
compleat an aftronomical, inftead of an hiftorical, period in the 
Egyptian annals, with a fiflitious and tautological lift of imaginary 
perfonages (extending for that purpofe 15 Dynafties to 30) have 
ferved to augment the obfcurity of ancient hiftory: thus we have 
collateral kings placed in fuccefTion; and a long lift of princes, whofe 
aSions are iinrecordcd, becaufc they never exifteiJ. Other hifto- 


Chap, i.) P R I M I t I V E H i 5 r O R V- 4x3 

rians, pofleft with the fame aftrononiical phrenzy, have compleated 
a Sothiac period with fiflitious kings of Aflyria, from Ninus inftead 

of Nimrod. To Apollodorus we owe an excellent genealogy of 

the Titans and their contemporaries, with fome fketches of their 

hiftory, We fhould have been more obliged to Diodorus and 

Trogus, if inftead of Ctefias they had followed Berofus, fince abufed 
by the forgeries of Annius. But let us now have recourfe to fuch 
materials as ftill remain, 

Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus writes that in Italy the Umbri, whofe 
name Pliny derives from Ombros, a Ihowcr, faying they efcaped ^'i/n"^*, 
from a Deluge and wete the moft ancient nation in Italy (300 of Cp. S. 
\\ hofe towns were captured by the Tufcans) were a numerous and 
ancient people^ Near thefe Dionyfius fets the Ligures: fo named 
from Llech Owr, being forrefters who inhabited Gaul and Italy : 
indeed both nations were Celtac; the names of their. towns bein^ 
moftly Celtic; as Trebula from Tre Bol; hence Vol-ofci or Volfci: 
Tre being a town, Bol in Hiberno Celtic fkill; yet Fol whence Voio 
is high. Maruvium, on an unwholefome lake, is from Marw, to die* 
Iffa in Celtic is inferiour. Tiora is from Ty, Domus, and Or, Ora. 
Lifta, from Llys, Aula. CutiHa, from Cwtt, a cot. Crotonia, alfo 
Cfottf, from Crwth, uter: yet others fay from the God Crodo. So 
Tyr-benia is from Tyr-hen, old land; and their chief, Rafen, from 
Rhys Hen, old lord. From Hen comes Sen, fenes. Dionyfius fays, 
there were Tyrheni, as much as to fay Celtae, once at Athens: thefe 
were the laones called alfo Graicoi, from Grec, Celtic for old. 
Snorro writes that Europe was named Enea, that is Hen Aia, old 
land. It is not wonderful that Livy, Polyaenus, and Plutarch 
fliould deem the Tyrhenian langiiage different from the Latin of their 
times: for tho' both were originally Celtic; yet the Latin was blended 
with Greek and Phrygian, which had received a flrong tinfture of 
the Gothic, as Plato inftances in Pyr, fire; Ydor, water; Cuon, 
hotind: the old Celtic word for water was not Dwr, but Uifk, hence 
Uflc. The Tyrhenian language was mixt with Phaenician by Tarchon, 
Marfyas and Saturn. The Latins (by whom I mean the colonics of 
Evander and Eneas with a mixture of the ancient Celtae) had fome 

» • mattery 


414 P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book.3. 

maiter^ from .the Theffalian Pelafgi under Oenotrus, in CQVimon 
with theTyrheni, who were old Celtae mixtwith Phaenicia^ns. For 
inftance, Dionyfius,. Tacitus and Pliny fay, the Roman letters were 
the mo/l ancient Greek, that is the Pelafgicj and Solinus, as well as 
Pliny, writes that the Pdafgi brought letters to Italy; Aureliug 
Vi£lor and Tacitus fay they were brought thither by Evander- 
Minutius Felix, Cyprian and TertuUian fay that Saturn brought 
letters thither: Juba in Plutarch fays that Hercules brought letters 
to Italy: thefe were fimilar to the ancient Greek, and taught by 
Linus; whofe, according to Zenobius, were Pelafgic: and, as JHero-. 
dotus fays of the Egyptian were written from the right to .(he left; 
as were the Etrufcan; which, according to Plipy, were Pdafgic. — 
In Athcneo. Theopompus wrote that *' The Umbri near the Adriatic led w eaiy 
life like the Lydians;'* with whom he feems tp confound' them: ** 6y 
the fertility of their foil raifed to great profperity, they (pent their 
time ia^ames and revels; more ftudious of loading their mb^s with" 
variety of diflies, than of a life of decorum/' Hence the nan^e of 
Aurunci (from the Celtic Ur Rhongca) libertines. The Umbri 
were expelled (lays Pliny) by the Heturians^ DionyGus Hal. &y% 
by the Aborigines or Pelafgi, or as Aurelius Viftor ftiles ^e/i, 
Aberrigines, that is vagrants: yet the name of Orobians f^gnifipl 
mountaineers. Dionyfius Hal. informs us that thefe Pelafgi werp 
akin to the Dodoneans: they appear to be Afiatics, who intermixt 
with the original people there, and came from Themifcyra; bemf^ 
originally foUowers^ of Acmon Teutat's grandfon : hence their know- 
ledge of the Cabirian Rites. They are the Hyperboreans faid by 
Pherenicus' in Pindar's Scolia to be of Titanic defcent. Paufaoias 
wrote that Olen, who compofed the ancient odes of Delos, was a 
Hyperborean. Pherenicus above fliews us that they were alfo Ari- 
mafpians ; and Strabo joins thefe with Hyperboreans, and Sarma^ 
tians. Some of them were the Amazons about the Thermodon* 
Callimachus in the Scolia of Theocritus tells us the daughters of an 
Amazonian queen, who inftituted the facred dance and no£lurnal 
vigils were Peleiades: thefe were Dodoneanpriefteffes; and (he was 
Cybele Myrina and Lamia. The Titans brought Amazons and 
Pelafgi to Athens in the earlieft times. Thefe Hyperboreans were 


Chap. 1.) P R 1 M I T I V E ri i S t O R Y. 415 

only relalively called fo : thus Hercules brought the Olive from 
Them^ yet not from the Arftic regions. The Pclafgi were ever 
fluftuating and unfettled: in the fixth generation after their refidence 
in Argos they removed to Haemonia (which had changed its name to 
Theffaly) under Achaius, Phthius and Pelafgus fons of a Neptune and 
Larifla. In th^ fixth age fubfequent to this, Deucalion the fon of 
Prometheus and Clymene Ocean's daughter, with the Curetes Le- 
leges and Parnaffians, expelled them to Baeotia, Phocis, Eubea, the 
Hellefpont, Afia, Crete, Lefbos and elfewhere. The Pelafgi were Dionys.Hal. 
were firft led into Italy by CEnotrus. Niobe'a fon Pelafgus, as 
Pherecydes of Athens wrote, had Lycaon the fire of this CEnotrus 
by Deianira daughter of an elder Lycaon, fon of iCzeus, a prince from 
whom Arcadia was named at firft iEzca — Italus, whofe name Bochart 
interprets to fignify Taurus, a defcendent of CEnotrus, inftituted 
(as Ariftotle wrote) public entertainments; which however were con- 
da£led with regularity and ccconomy. His fucceffbr Morges received 
Siculus; whofe people preft by the Aborigines, went afterwards to Strabo: 
Sicily, then lately occupied by the Sicani, a name that fignifies fons 
of white men or Europeans: yet Diodorus and Timaeus, Sicilian 
hiftorians, maintain thatthefe were original inhabitants. The Mo'r- 
geiei, who went with the Siculi built Morgantia; than which only 
Zai«^ (which fignifies a hook) afterwards Meflina built by Orion, 
Cztizni^ Enna, Panormus, Camafene, and perhaps Camarine, can 
boaft a higher antiquity. Hellanicus wrote that the people under 
SicuJus were Aufones-, near whom the CEnotrians fettled : that they 
foltowed the Elymi, who fled to Sicily five years before from the 
OEnotri, in the third age preceding the Trojan war. ^The Dodoneail 
Oracle in M-acrdbius fcts the Siculi and Aborigines in Sicily before 
the Pfclafgi. Favorinus in Gellius, aud Servius fay, the Anfones 
were primary inhabitants of Italy, Tzetzes, Servius, and Bochart, Eneid, n. 
deem them the fame as the Aiirunci, near the Laeftrigones of Hor- '5*- 
mia; who in- Sicily wereihe Leontines, and (as Thucidydes hints) the 
Cyclops. Homer de^ms them Hyperboreans, that is refpefting 
Greece: they came froiri the Thermodon, and were called Chalybes. 
Elian mentions the Aufonian Maro as introducing horfemanfliip; 
therefore he may be the Meon who was Saturn and Neptune the 



brother of Jove Ammon: otherwife he may be the Proteus who i^ 
faid to be Saturn's friend Janus ; but mod probably he was the 
Egyptian Maro who fettled in Maronea, and feems to be the firft 
Amenophis of the i8th Dynaffy. 

Philiftius calls the people under Siculus, Ligures; probably called 
• Aufonians from their old king in Diodorus, 5 ; whofe Ton Liparus 

colonized the Eolian ifles: Lipara was anciently named Meligomis. 
Thucidydes fays they were Siculi expelled by the Opici ; who alfo 
as Plato writes inhabited Sicily. Thefe three bodies of men were 
emigrants intermixed with Umbri : the' Opici, whom Dionyfius 
alfo mentions, being probably followers of Ops and Saturn^ who 
gave their name to fome of the prior inhabitants of Italy and Sicify. 
Stephanus fays the Opici were Ophici, fromOphion: he was Saturn's 
father Uranus. Diodorus in Eufebius fays that " Saturn reigned 
over Lydia as well as Sicily and Italy :*' we may add Egypt and 
Phenicia. Thucidydes deemed the Leftrigons and Cyclops the old 
inhabitants of Sicily : from the Cyclops Demetrius Calatianus de* 
duced the Sicani. 

Dionyfius agrees with Xanthus Lydiu^ that no Lydianr colony caiilt 

to Italy, however he derives Lydus and his brother (called Torybas 

not Tyrhehus by Xanthus) from Callithea the daughter of Choreua 

(Meon or Saturn) and from Atys, the Egyptian Dionyfius, fomc* 

tiihes fuppofed Meon's fon, as being Rhea's. Herodotus in one 

place deems Atys the brother of Cotys ; which is moft probable, 

aho' Dionyfius deems Cotys his father : for Meon or Choreus wai 

Saturn the hufband olCybele or Rhea the mother of Callithea, Bona 

Dea or Ceres, and of Atys or Dionyfius; Solinus fhews that Mar- 

fyas and Tarchon certainly brought a colony to Italy. Lycophroa 

tells us tha^t *^ Italy was anciently called Chone" or Chonia ; ms 

fuppofed from Chon, or Chun, whence the Tarquins. He was the 

Phenician Hercules, who was Tar-chon, and O-for-chon, and Sar- 

^o; but Chon fimply fcems to be Aftarte, Luna or Venus Urania^ 

wIto (as Sanchoniatho fays) attended Saturn, 



Plutarch (from A. Polyhiftor) informs us that Anius an Etrufcan 
king had a beautiful daughter named Salia. Her Cathetus^ a man 
of note, at fome paftime faw and admired-, then feized and brought 
her to Rome. The father after a vain purfuit drowned himfelf in pjutarc. 
the river Anio. To Cathetus Salia bore Latinus and Sali us, founders Parcllcl 
of two noble lines. 

In Sicily a Chaldean infcription at Palermo imports that in Br^done 
Ifaac's and Efau's time many Hebrews, Damafcenes and Phenicians 
fettled at Pan Ormus: thefe feem to have been Pelafgic followers of 
the Titan Saturn. 

In Phrygia and the adjacent region where the Tigrammanes, de- 
rived from Togarma, dwelt, the firft prince of note as ancient 
Hiftorians inform us was the famous Manes, from whofe exploits 
Plutarch on Ifis fays, notable aftions were called Manic. He was 
the famous Titan Saturn's great grandfire Manes, Meon or Oceanus 
father of that Sol who was Acmon. 

Before Deucalion's flood reigned Annacus or Cannacus. Suidas 
fays, the time of Annacus was proverbial of antiquity. Having 
lived 300 years he inquired of all thp mod famous Oracles how long 
hclhonld ftill live. The anfwer was that all things (hould perifh at 
Ills death. He ftrove to avert the impending woe by tears and 
fupplications ; hence to weep like Annacus became alfo a proverb. 
The flood of Deucalion enfuing occaConed the death of him and all 

The next king is Gordius. One day at plough an eagle fat on 
the yoke of the team. A young Augurefs of Telmiflus in Lydia 
told him he would be a king; and offering to be his confort, flie 
became fo. On an infurreiftion an Oracle told the Phrygians to 
crown the firfl man feen riding in a car to the Temple of Jovc; this 
was Gordius who tied his Car in the Temple with the famous knot 
cut afunder by Alexander. This Temple mud have been dedicated 

Hhh to 

. rjrV 


418 PRIMITIVE H I S T O R Y. (Book 3 

to Jove Arotrius or Dagon. Plutarch on Cefar fays that Gordius 
had Midas by the Bona Dea; this was the eldeft Ceres, who pro- 
bably taught him the ufe of the plotigh, by which he feems to have 
acquifed wealth fufficient to procure the fovereignty, and in token 
of it devoted his plough to the God of Agriculture. Into the mouth 
of Midas, when an infant, a fwarm of ants conveyed wheat, a prefage 
of his future wealth ; or rather a proof of wealth arifing from corn 
L. 14. thro* itiduftrious hufbandmen, Strabo mentions his rich mines in 
mouht Bermius. He was efteemed handfome and devout. Orpheus 
infttuSed him in religious rites ; which (fays Juftin) he inculcated 
mightily in Phrygia. He introduced funereal dirges : and by his 
anniverfary lamentation in memory of his mother, obtained her 
divine adoration. He built Ancyra, where an anchor, which was 
his invention, was feen byPaufanias. He refided at Peflinus; where 
Herodian fays that Ilus routed Tantalus, and firft named that place, 
Peflinus. Ammian, 22. fays that, tho* fome attributed the name of 
Peflinus to Ilus, yet Theopompus did fo to Midas. Diodorus 
Siculus 3. 5. writes that he erefted a famous temple there, in honour 
of the mother of the Gods; who; as Hyginus relates, was his mother 
by Tmolus. Yet feveral other authors confound the two Cybelcs 
together: thus the wife of Tmolus was Sida (as Suidas writes) the 
daughter of Jove Taurus, miflaken here for Ammon, whofe daughter 
Ceres was Sida the mother of Egyptus by Belus her fecond hufband, 
as Cedrenus relates. Midas invented white lead and black. De« 
ciding in Pan's favour againft Apollo, the latter beftowed on him the 
<?ars of an afs; which fiiews that animal to have been in thofe early 
times as contemptible as now. Conan in Photius fays this fable arofe 
from his numerous fpies, figuratively his ears. Tertullian writes 
that Silenus being brought by Paftors to Midas, he lent him his 
long ears; Voflius interprets this as attending to his inftruftions, for 
he was the tutor of Bacchus. Diodorus fays *' he was king of Nyfa 
of an ancient but unknown parentage;" which refemblcs Melchifedec. 
rFor his hofpitaliiy to Silenus, Bacchus granted Midasthe faculty of 
turning all things to gold ; that is, made him fo abfolute that he ex- 
torted money on all occafions. His great wealth, according to Plu- 
tarch, did not preferve him from fuicide. When alive it fcarce 




prererved him from famine, ■ ■ — AthencTus writes (2) that 

" Midas made Silenus drunk by pouring wine into his well." B;on 
wrote that it was thence named the Vinous well, and is be- 
tween the Medesand Paeonians. Photius fays that lome Satyr was 
thus deluded, but does not name him. Thefc accounts prove Midas 
from his age to be fon of the elder Ceres. The river Paftolus was 
a great fourcc of his wealth. He intended his daughter Ja for the 
famous Atys, who from his name Papa feems to be Jove Pappaeus or 
Egiochus : but with him Atys or Dionyfius was often confounded, 
or rather is this Jove, miftaken ufually for Jove Picus. Atheneus 
(12) counts Midas contemporary with Omphale ; who certainly ^ 

lived long before Alcides ; and is faid by Apollodorus to have been 
the wife of Tmolus, the daughter of Jardan, and mother of Agelaus: 
her hufband left her the kingdom of Lydia. Herodotus fay^ the 
father of Midas was Gordius; that he reigned in Phrygia; and made i. 14-' 
an oblation at Delphos of his regal throne, a great curiofity. In 
the gardens of Midas, which Herodotus places in Macedon, grew 
the Cabbage Rofe : among them Silenus is faid to have been appre- 8. 138. 
hended. The Bermian hill in that vicinage is faid to be inacceffible 
in winter, thro* fnow. Homer's life, afcribed to Herodotus, has 
the epitaph of Midas as infcribed on a female ftatue, and attributed 
to Homer. This epitaph is more fimple, natural and concife in Plato. 
Bui Laertius hints that Simonides attributed this infcription to 

Here I er.e&ed ani| a brazen maid^ 

To mark the tomb where Mida3* corpfe is laid : 

While water runs ; while trees afpire on high; 

While brillant Sol and Luna grace the (ky ; • 

While rivers glide, and ocean laves the Ihpre 5 

Here fixt, the death of Midas I deplore. 

On tinted marble Rationed, 'tis my care 

To tell all travelers who this was fare, 

For Midias thcfe fepulchral honours are. 

H h h 2 ' That 



That in PIrfto may be thus tranflated. 

A brazen maid on Midas* tomb I ftand^ 

While fountains flow, and tall trees fliad^ the land ; 

On this fad mon'ment ftadon'd 'tis my care, &c. 

Plutarch fays that Midas grew melancholy, and obtained death by 
drinking bull's blood. Caranus firft king of Macedon, making a 
herd of goats his guide, deprived Midas of Edifla, and named it 
Egca. He feems to be Aurelius Viftor's Herculean Re-caranus. 
Pliny writes that Midas invented the Cornet. Heraclides celebrates 
his queen Hcrmodica for her wit and beauty. She taught the people 
of Cyme to coin money. By her Midas had Gordius, Ancharas^ 
and Otreus. Lityerfes was a baftard. Gordius furrounded Gor- 
dium with a wall. Plutarch informs us that, when a cliafm of the 
earth had fwallowed a great part of Celanae, the Oracles faid, ** to 
clofe it the mod valuable thing in life muft be thrown into it.'' Many 
valuables were fo, inefFeftually. Ancharus, deeming life itfelf 
moft v&luable^ took leave of his father and of his wife Timothc% 
and rode in on horfeback : the chafm immediately clofed. Curdn 
the Roman a6led thus long afterwards. Stobaeus fays that Mjdas 
threw his fon into the opening. — Homer's hymns ftile Otreus kiag 
of Phrygia^ and the contemporary of Anchifes. He probably /ho* 
ceeded the fecond Gordius. Lityerfes reigned brutally at Cylena. 
Sofitheus the Tragedian wrote that he devoured in one day three 
Atheneus 10 Afs-loads of bread. He delighted in agriculture: a harveft fong in 
Phrygia was from him named Lityerfes. Hercules for his cruelty 
flew him, and call his corpfe into the Meander. — About the time 
Strabo. ^^^^ Midas died Cimmerians entered Phrygia : Paufanias calls them 
Gauls, and fays they were terrified by the new invented pipes of 

Of Phrygia minor Servius counts Cynthius a king long before 
Teucer : who as Virgil writes was a Cretan and retired to the Con- 
tinent on account of a famine; Scamander, a native of Crete, was 


Chap. 1.) PRI M I TI VE HI STORY. ^ai 

his fire. Being annoyed by mice he built a temple to Apollo Smin- 
thcus, a moufe being called Smintlios. Dardanus fon of Corytus 
and Eleflra wedded Teucer's daughter and fuccecded him. Lyco- 
phron places this about the time of Deucalion's deluge; the famine 
feems to be that which afrc6led Abraham in Paleftine, Ammon in 
Lybia, and Bufiris in the Delta. Arrian fays tha^t the daughter of 
Dardan by Teucer's daughter Nefo was a Sibyl; flie feems to be 
Herophile, who fays in Paufanias, fhe was born of a nymph of Ida. 
Harmonia the fifter of Dardanus wedded Cadmus. — — Otrcus king Homcf. 

" H; n.n. 

of Phrygia was the father of Venus mother of Eneas. 

In Lydia Manes the fon of Jove and Tell us (and therefore Cy- 
bele's fpoufe) had by Ocean's daughter Callirhoe, Cotys, and as 
Herodotus fays, Atys: but Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus writes that 
Cotys was the firq of Alius and of Atys (from whom the Atyadae) 
by Halia the daughter of TuHus a native. I have mentioned that 
Lydus was the fon of Atys. This pedigree falfifies the fables con- 
cerning Atys in Arnobius and othen. One of his defcendents was 
Hermon or Adramys king of Lydia, and founder of Adramitium in ^^^ ^""^' 

Myfia, on the Caicus. In Suidas, Xanthus a Sardian hiftorian, 

fon of Candaules, when Sardes was taken in the reign of .Darius, 
Tays^at Alcimus was a pious and humane king of Lydia; in whofe 
reign the fubjeft enjoyed peace and plenty; on this account, in the 
feventh year of his fway the whole nation made a fupplication that 
his reign might continue as long as it had: the event proved fo, and 
the realm enjoyed felicity. Stephanus adds from Xanthus, that 
*' Afcalus fon of Hymenaeus and brother of Tantalus, under Aciamus 
(as he names him) kingof Lydia,ledan army into Syria, and captivated 
with the charms of a young lady built Afcalon;" which was a ftrong 

town in the time of Jofhua. -Xanthus in Athenaeus (lo) relates •'^ S- '• ' • 

that Gambles king of Lydia (and one of the Atyadae) was a drunk- 
ard and a glutton. One night he devoured his wife; and next morning 
the hand being found dill at his mouth, the deed became public, and 
he deftrdyed himfelf. Nicholas of Damafcus fays that " fufpefting 
forcery, and {landing with a drawn fword in the public forUm, he ex- 
claimed thus, '* Jupiter, if this is my wilful deed, I will punifh my 
own crime; but if forcery eflFefcled it, let punifliment cut off the 



forcerers." Thus faying he flew himfelf publicly; foine ridiculing 
the glutton; fome commiferating the lunatic. But it was fufpe^ed, 
that Jardan, who was at enmity with Gambles, was author of the 
mifchief: whofe daughter was Omphale, from whom Craefus de. 
fcended. Diodorus Siculus fays that Hercules had Cleolaus by 
Jardan's maid. Omphale admiring Hercules emancipated and took 
him to her bed, and had by him her fon Lamon: tho' the Heraclida^ 
in Lydia defccnded from Cleolaus. Athenaeus fays that a noble 
Lydian puniflied Omphale and Midas: the lady be expofed, becaufe 
flie flew her gallants; Midas for his effeminacy and luxury he dc- 
pofed and dub'd an Afs. 

Diod. Ssc. 

The ifle of Rhodes was firft peopled bythe Telchines, who af- 
fifted Ocean's daughter Caphira to educate Neptune. They were 
reported to be fons, that is defcendents, of a Mars, who muft of 
courfe have been older than that Mars, who was Neptane''s nephew. 
Indeed he was Ham himfelf, that Mais who was the Macedonian 
Gabirus, or Cabir, and Mars Camulus. They were certainly Tu 
tans; for Apollo and Juno were clafle)! among them. And, as Ae 
Diod Sic. name of Titans arofe from their overrunning the countries round 
the Mediterranean, it being deemed in Sanchoniatho equivalent to 
Aletae, wanderers; -fo, the ifle of Rhodes had its name from the 
Celtic RhodiOy to walk. Bryant derives Telchines from Taf, Sol, 
and Chan, Kingj and efl:cems the name fimilar to Curetes, derived 
Eufcb ^^^"^ ^^^' ^^^^' Stephanus fays Ait is SoU Cur is Dominus. Pho- 
roneus Niobe's fire being in conjunftion with the Parrhafiaiw 
attacked by the Telchines 'and Cariatae, drove the Telchines to 
Rhodes, named then Ophiufa. Bochart derives Telchin from 
Talchis a wizzard. Diodorus fays *' that the Telchines invented 
idols, called anciently by their name:'* but by Mofes Teraphiin, 
equivalent to Seraphim, as Thettalus'for Theffalus. ** Being nuk 
gicians they could produce cold and fliowers of fnow. Prefaging a 
deluge, they quitted Rhodes.'* Strabo (14) fays,. ** they came 
thither from Cyprus; but at firft from Crete; were the firft artizans 
in brafs and iron, and made Saturn's fcythc. They could meta- 

morphofe themfelves at pleafure: and were Nine, who attended 


Chap. 1.) P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. 423 

Rhea to Crete, and were deemed Curetes." Diodorus fays (^. 12.J 
that ** Neptune, who was educated at Rhodes, had })y Halia filter 
of the Telchines fix fons and a daughter named Rhoda (deemed by 
Apollodorus, Amphitryte's daughter) the mother of the Heliades, 
who fuccceded the Telchines/' aud were as early as Cecrops. Sol 
their fire was Ammon and Hyperion : for Diodorus fays that 
** Pafiphae was daughter of Sol and Creta," who was Ammon's wife. 
So Plutarch fays that Sol's fon Ofiris aided Jove; but this Ofiris 
was Dionyfius Ammon's fon. Diodorus fays that " Sol's fons in 
Rhodes were Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macar, A6lis, Tenagcs, Trio- 
pas and Candalus. His daughter Eleftryone dying a virgin received 
divine honours; in this refembling Proferpine: and Hornius fup- 
pofes Macar to be the fame as Mercury; hence Jove Ammon feems 
to be theii: father; indeed Rhea had the name of Juno. Ammon at 
this time had by the nymph Imalia three fons Spartaeus, Cytus and 
Cronius, except this laft be fathered on him by Rhea; for he feems 
to be Saturn's fon Jove Picus. The Heliades were adepts in aflro- 
nomy, geography, and navigation. Tenages had the befl capacity, 
but was (lain by fome of his brothers; who fled, Macar to Lefbos; 
Candalus to Coos; Aftis to Egypt, where he founded Heliopolis in 
honour of his fire, and brought aitronomy thither: He feems to be 
tlie father in law of Cecrops. Ochymus the eldcfl reigned in Rhodes, 
and had by the nymph Egetoria, Cydippe or Cyrbe; whofe brother 
Cercaphus becoming king had by her Lindus, Jalyfus and Camirus: 
in whofe time Deucalion's flood enfued. Each built a city of his 
own name, after they had made a partition of the ifland. Triopas 
fettled at Triopium a promontory of Caria. And Meliffus king of 
Cherfonefus having expiated Triopas touching his brother's blood, 
he aided Deucalion's fons in the-expulfion of the Pelafgi from 
Theffaly; and had the country of Dotion for his reward. But bding 
banifhed thence for felling a grove facred to Ceres, he built Trio- 
pium in Gnidia. Adventuring thence, he obtained Cherfonefus, 
. and a good part of Caria likewife. Another Triopas was Neptune's 
fon by Canace, whofe fire was Eolus. Another, the fon of Lapi- 
thas Apollo's fon and of Stilbe daughter of Peneus: thus Diodorus 
deems Fhorbas his brother; Atfaensus fytaking qf this. Triopas, 


AH P R I M I T I V E H I S T O R Y. (Book 3, 

fays after Deuchidas, that ** the ides between Syme and Gnidos 
were called Execrations: becaufe on a diffention (after the death of 
Triopas) between his adherents, fome returned home; fome attach- 
ing themfelves to Phorbas, removed to Jalyfus: the adherents of 
Periergus held Camirus, and execrated Phorbaj: who, being fhortly 
fhipwreckt with Parthenia his fifter^ efcaped to Jalyfus. Thamneus 
then a hunting met and received them hofpitably; difpatching a fer- 
vant to his wife to make preparations: but Thamneus finding nothing 
ready, pounded wheat and prefented cakes to his guefts. Phorbas 
was fo pleafed with this condefcenfion, that at his death he requefted 
the funeral rites might be performed by gentlemen-, which in the 
Phorbantean facriftces ftill obtains." This is the Triopas whom Dio- 
dorus counts coeval with Neptune's fon Chthonius; whofe grand- 
daughter Nyfteis was daughter in law of Cadmus: her filler Antiope 
was wife of Epopeus of Sicyon and mother of Amphion fon in law 
of Tantalus. — Elfewhere Diodorus fays, '* Xanthus fon of Triopas 
a Pelafgian peopled Lefbos, at {iri> named IfT^i, fcven generatiom 
(or above two centuries) before Deucai.v n\s floor).'* This is pro- 
bably the colony, (which as Athenjtus \. .:rjs^ Gra with other kin|g# - 
commiffioned to Lefbos. When an Oracle bid them caft a virgin 
into the fea for Neptune, her lover Enallus leapt into the fea aRtr 
her, and both were apparently overwhelmed by the waves; yet 
Enallus was afterwards feen at Methymna. But Dionyfius oF Hdli* 
carnafTus fays, that Macar fon of Criafus led the firft colony thuViei 
from Greece. This ifland took the name of Lefbos fon of Lapithai 
fon of Eolusj Lefbos having efpoufed the daughter of Jove*s grand- 
fon Macareus, owner of the ifle- ApoUodorus mentions a Triopas 
fon of Iphimedea mother of Otus and Ephialtes fons of Alocus; 
deemed by Paufanias a fon of Sol. She and her daughter Pancratis 
were flolen from Strongyle, fince named Naxos, by a party ofThra- 
cians under Butesfon of Boreas; deemed by Apollonius Rhodius to 
be Strymon's fon. Boreas having Lycurgus by a former wife, Butcs 
6n a quarrel went to that ifle, and wanting females, his party ftolc 
them wherever they could. ButButes feizing Coronis in TbefTaly, 
as fhewas performing rites to Bacchus^ that God rendered him 
infane, and he threw himfelf in^s ? ^lU which fhcws this event not 

' .f ' earlier 

See C:i. 6 

Chap. I.) P R I M I T I V E n I S T O R Y. ^25 

earlier than the time of Danaiis,. who taught the art of finking wells 

in Greece. Butes had Eryx by Venus : he was flain by the Tyrian 

Hercules. The fucceflbr of Bntcs in Strongyle'wedded the filter of 

Otus and Ephialtes, who called the ifland Dia, till Polcmon's fon 

Naxus took it 200 years afterwards. Smardius the great grandfon dj^^j^ gj^^ 

of Naxus was coeval with Thefeus. Seneca fays that the Thracian 

Lycurgus was the fon of Dryas. 

About the fame time as his ^oufin-german Danaus, exiled by his 
brother, arrived at Argos, and his brother-in-law Dardanus founded 
the Trojans, Cadmtcs, and his mother TelephafTa whom Agenor had 
efpoufedin Eiirope,came,under the pretence of feekingEuropa either 
his neice or fifter, to Thrace; where their companion Thafus founded Apollodoru^ 
a town of his own name. Strabo (10) mentions Arabians among his 
attendants: Homer's Scholiaft, Spartans. Being at Delphos direfted r, . 
to follow a cow, and v/hercvcr fhc refted, to found a city, Thebes 
in Boeotia became the place. Sometime afterwards he fubdued the 
Illyrians, hence he named his youngeft fon Illyrius. His other 
children by Harmonia are in the Genealogical Table ; and their 
hiftory, reaching lower than the fettlement of the principal families 
in Greece, will have no place here. It feems as if the Deluge of 
Ogyges had defolated Boeotia as well as Attica; as that prince had 
Vei|ped there long before the arrival of Cadmus. But of the firft 
fcttfements in Greece I Ihall treat prefently. Pliny relates that 
Cadmus found a copper-mine in Cyprus and a golden one in the 
Thracian mountain Pangeus. The nuptials of Cadmus and Har- 
monia were celebrated with great magnificence. Ceres provided the 
bride-cake. Mercury a harp. Minerva a charming necklace, veil Diodoras 
and mniical pipe. Eleftra played on the cymbals and tabqrs ufed. 
in the rites of Magna Mater: Apollo on the harp ; the Mufes on 
{lutes J all the other Gods joining in the general feftivily.- Nonnus 
y^. writes that the Hefperides and Atlas joined the mufic with their 
voices. Apollodorus fays that Minerva decorated the palace ; and 
that (according to Pherecyde*) Europa prefented the bride with a 
flowing robe and braceleti'of't'^^titban's workmanfhip; Jupiter's pre- 

:^^^' i fi . ' fent 


Ch. 6. 

in Photio. 


fcnt to herfelf. Arifteus wedded Harmon ia's daughter Autonoe : 
more mention will be made of Cadmus prefently; who according to 
Paufanias expofed his daughterSemele and her fonBacchUs in an ark. 
Atheneus and Dionyfius Afer mention a monumental barrow in 
Illyricqm to the memory of Cadmus and Harmonia. A few other 
fragments fcattered here and there remain of fome ancient nations. 
Arrian relates that the Parthians, ;n the time of Sefoftris and of 
Jandyfus a Scythian king, emigrated from Scythia their country, to 
their prefent region. The Alexandrian chronicle fays that 15^000 
removed at that time. Curtius fays they were Europeans. The 
Scythians, as Herodotus writes, afferted that " their nation had 
fubfifted about 100a years before Darius Hyftafpes invaded them : 
their firft king wasTargitaus; the next, his youngeft fon Colaxas/* I 
fufpeft the firft to be Tarchon with a colony of Afiatics, and this 
Scythian province to be Hungary : and that he founded Choniad; 
and was Agenor, whofe wife was an European. 


^ Shcrringi 

Jornandes fays thatBerig led the Getes out of Scandinavia. Others 
fay (tho* improbably) that he was Eric or Erifthon, who expelled 
Amphyftion from Athens. Vigetor fon of Eric led a colony into 
Maefia. In his fon Vingenor's reign Zamolxis the Scythian legiflator 

. came from Maefia to Scandia and was deified. Diodorus fays he 
enafted his laws in Vefta's name: he feems to have introduced 
many Perfian rites, and many Gothic. Herodotus mentions him : 
Plato fays he was a king, legiflator, and a God : but the God Za- 
molxis feems to be Ham. Filmer the fifth king led a colony to the 
Euxine. His fon Tanaus repulfed Sefoftris. Juftin (erroneoufly) 
counts them prior to Ninus : Sefoftris was immediately fubfequent 
to Ninus, and in his glory during the infancy of Minos ; for Danaus 

. went to'Greece about the time that Cadmus was in purfuit of Europa^ 
Pliny names two other Scythian kings contemporary with Sefoftris. 

■ Soon after the retreat of Sefoftris the Amazonian kingdom was 
founded under Marpefia and Lampedo— But in Jutland, the Gothic 
Woden was fucceeded by his fon Skiold, near 1000 years before the 
Chriftian era. In Henry the fecond's pedigree Woden is the 



fifteenth from Shem- This dclcent is confirmed by Abydenus, who la Syncelio* 
derives the Germans from Shem : probably alluding to Woden's 
migration. Pliny fays '^ the MaflTaget^e were originally Aramcans;'* 
who were defcendents of Shem. They lie under the imputation of 
propagating human facrifices. It is certain tliat the Titans con- 
demned this praftife, reprobated by Amofisor Ammon, the Tyrian 
Hercules, Cecrops and Orpheus : tho' Ham was the Cronus, for 
whom the infants of Canaan (hed their blood ; a praftife probably 
learnt from Canaan's fons by the Aramcans : for it does not feem to 

have been a praftife amongft Ham's Egyptian iffue. — Valerius 

Flaccus fays. They were Goths or Getae, who repulfed Sefoftris; 
therefore they had a footing in Europe above 14 centuries before 
the Chriftian era. Woden being called Afianus, and Affis, which 
is Afeth, and Plutarch faying that Seth was Typhon, it is probable 
that Typhon, whofc dcfccnt is omitted by Sanchoniatho, was a 
Woden : and poetically faid to be a Terrigene, as coming from an 
inland region. 

Except the countries adjacent to the Mediterranean fea, there is 
almoft as total a filence as to the world in general till NabonaflTar's 
era, as if none had exifted : unlefs indeed we credit the Annals of 
CViina concerning primitive events • which however in the main are 
Bot above fufpicion ; indeed in fome points are undoubtedly erro- 
neous. Thus the great conjunction of the planets is fet in thofe 
records 500 years higher than, as Caffini calculated, it really occured; 
who found that 2012 years before the incarnation, Saturn, Jupiter, 
Mars, Venus and Mercury were in conjunftion, juft before a new 
moon. It was in the beginning of Chwen Hio's reign j his four 
predeccfTors reigned in all 439 years. 

A moft fingular and extraordinary people the Chinefe unquef* 
iionably are. Detached and lequeftered from all other intelligent 
nations, they arrived at great perfeftion in polite arts, by their own 
native genius, unaflifted by the foreign aid derived from commerce, 
and focial intercourfe. This, added to the fimplicity of their 

Ilia language 


4tt PRI M I TIV E HISTORY. (Books- 

language confiding of 330 monoryllablcj, each denoted by a pecu- 
liar charaQcr(derivativc8 having a compounded charader containing 
in it the primary cbarafter of the radical word) might induce us 10 
conclude them defccndents of the Poftdiluvian children of Noab| 
- whofc latter biftory and fettlcment is to U3 unknown, tbo' the 
third part of hi« life enfued after the deluge. Thus the firft cha- 
rafters denoted worda, not lettera: the Hebrew character* denoted 

China feems to be StraboU Cathea 1 tho* this U faid to be weft* 
ward of the Ganges, The Seres inhabited a part of China : fop 
Pliny fays, «« the Lanos (or Lana) interfered their country 1" fo 
diftaiH from ^ome^ that Floras avers ^ their ambaiFadors were four 
months on their journey :'• and, as they invented filk, they muft 
have lived in no highly northern latitude* They are the Sin» roen- 
tioned iti Arrian's £rythraean Periplus ^ and Ifaiah's Sinim, 

However, many Celtic words, and many Egyptian names^ in 
China evince their ancient connexion with the fons of Japhet am/ 
of Ham* Japan is in Paulanias, and now, named Sac^ia, Lwl 
of Sacas* 

Sanchoniatho's fragment is chiefly worth attention, where lioc^ 
incides with the^ accounts of others ; thus his Titan genealogy tho* 
crroneoufly fct coeval with Ham and his fons, appears true in ibe 
main^ as it refembles the Atlantcan in Diodorus) and oftea a^rcM 
with Tully* 

I fliall infert the genealogies of Sanchoniatho, Hefiod and 
Cicero : and add a copious Uneal tabic of the Titaos and their Con« 
temporaries from Apollodorus, but fomewhat enlarged from other 

This table will at one view demonftratc the number of dcfconts 

from the grandfire of Uranus to Deucalion's defccndents in the 

Trojan war. It will (hew that not only Mars and Neptune (whofe 

trial was in the firft year of Cranaus) but Deucalion, lived in the 


Chap. 1.) PRIMITIVE HISTORY* , 4*, 

time of Cecrops and Cranaus, as Varro in Auguftine tells us ; and 
of Dardanus, as Lycophron, aud Euftathius on Homer inform us ; 
andof Nyftimus foa of Lycaon the contemporary of Cecrops, as ^^-^-^'S' 
Paufanias writes, and great grandfon of Phoroncus, faid by Caftor 
and Acufilaus to be contemporary with Ogygcs 5 whofe flood, after 
he bad reigned 32 yeairs, Cedrenus deems 248 years before Deu- 
calion's J who, as Tatian writes, \yas coeval with Phaeton and Cro^ 
topu§ the contemporary (according to Statius) of Orus Apollo ; as 
his Ton Sthencluswas of Danaus. 

Ptolemy of Mendes dceraed Amofis coeval withlnachus, counted 
by Dionyfius of Halicarnaflus in the fourth generation (or about 130 
years) prior to Cecrops, and deemed by Clement of Alexandria co- 
eval with Cres, a name in Arabic fignifying belly': hence Saint 
Paul's Sloro Bellies: yet Biihop Cumberland deems the Cretans, 
Cerethitcs, fignifying archers. Africanus fays the flood of Ogyges 
proceeded Cecrops 189 years. Caftor wrote that the reign of 
Cecrops began 429 years before that of Melanthus father of Codrus ; J^j synccUo 
tnd that the reigns from Inachus to Sthenelus fon of Crotopus (both 
\nclufivc) took up 384 years. In the reign of Sthenelus Tatian fets 
iuTopa's rape, and the arrival of Dardanus in Phrygia; and Pro- 
ferpine'ji rape in the timcof Lynceus, Paufanias fliews thatHcrcynna 
daughter of Trophonius wa« one of Proferpine's companions. Acu- 
iilaus counred Triopaa of Argos coeval with Atlas and Saturn, who 
were contemporary with CecropSj Lycaon and the Curetes. Thallus 
(inThcophilus) counted thcTitanian war 322 years before the Trojan. Tatiaa and 
Pauftinias fays that Carmanaor of Crete the great grandfire of Tha- Clem, Alex. 
myris expiated Orus Apollo as to Python, Diodorus fhews that 
Orus was coeval with Lycurgus of Thrace, who was the fon of 
Boreas, and was coeval with Aleus and Iphimedea, and their fons 
Otus and Iphialtcs, the contemporaries of Butes fon of Boreas the 
fon-in-law of Erefthcus, wbofc daughter Creufa wedded Xuthus, and 
whofc daughter Procris wedded Cephalus grandfon of Eolus, and had 
an intrigue with Minos. The Grecian Bacchus depofed the afore- 
faid Lycurgus, aud fet Thcrops in bis room. 



The gcncalo^ncal table will alfo fliew the contemporaries of Afo- 
pus, Lclcx, Atlas, Tantalus, Oenomaas, Dardanus, Danaus^ Cad- 

niiis. and others For Ny£leis grandaughter of Cthonius wedded 

Polydore the great grandfire of OEdipus, and fon of Cadmus: hpr 
nephew Amphion, (whofe daughter Chloris was Neftor's mother) 
wedded Niobe daughter of Tantalus, who was coeval with Tros, 
and by Egina the daughter of Afopus had Pelops fon in law of GEno- 
maus, who wedded Sterope the daughter of Atlas, and aunt of Dar- 
danus and of Harmonia whom Cadmus wedded, and of Jafion by 
whom Ceres, who was contemporary with Orthopolis of Sicyon, 
had Corybas, who wedded Thebe the daughter of Cilix, and niece 
ofCadmus. Sterope's fecond huflband was Sifyphus, Bcllerophon's 
grandfire, who was acquainted with OEnone the daughter of Afopus 
the grandfire of Eacus Chiron's fon inlaw and grandfire of Achilles. 
Ifmene, a daughter of this Afopus, was daughter in law of Niobe 
Diodo. y.ii. the daughter of Phoroneus. Cadmus was grandfire of Pentheus, of 
the Grecian Bacchus, of Melecerta whofe fon was Naxtis, and of 
Chiron's pupil Aflcon the fon of Arifteus, whom Diodorus deems 
the fofter father of the Egyptian Bacchus, but more probably o^ 
Semele's fon. Europa's fon Radamanthus (deemed Egina's fonbj 
' Plato) wedded Amphitryon's widow Alcmena, and vifitcd Tityol 
Latona's gallant, and Lycaon's great grandfon. Sappho (in Atbe^ 
neus) fays that Latona was intimate with Niobe the daughter of Pho- 
roneus. Sparta (who was either the grandaughter or great grand- 
child of Lelcx a name probably from the Hebrew Lei, Nox, often 
confounded with Luna the queen of night) wedded Lacedemon the 
grandfon of Atlas and Maia's nephew. Polycaon the fon of this 
Lelex (Lybia's fon and of courfe the brother of Agenor and Bufiris) 
wedded Meffene daughter of Triopas, who is deemed (by Acufi- 
laus in Eufebiusand Tatian) coeval with Saturn Atlas and Prome- 
theus. Sparta's daughter Euridice wedded Acrifius Danae's fire^ 
and the uncle of Melampus Jafon's coufin german. Sparta's fon 
Amyclaswedded the daughter of Lapithas. Ihis the fon of Tros 
wedded Euridice daughter of Adraftus. Endy mien's mother was 
Hellen's grandchild and maried his nephew; her fitter was wife of 
Ceyx and aunt of Polydeaes, Danae's hoft. Lycaon's brother 


Chap. 1.) PHI M IT I VE H 1ST OR Y. 431 

Temenus educated Juno: and Lycaon's grandfon Areas was coeval 
with that favourite of Ceres, Triptolcmus the contemporary of Eu- 
molpus; who was routed by Ion the Ton of Xuthus, and (as Tatian 
writes) contemporary with Praetus. Mufaeus fays that Triptolemus 
was the fon of Ocean and Terra; Orpheus deemed Difaules his 
father. Elatus the fon of Areas, and uncle of Stenobaea the wife of 
Praetus, and Auge's aunt, wedded Laodice the daughter of Cinyras. 
Other celebrated contemporaries are already mentioned in the fourth 
chapter of the fecond book, concerning Ham's defcendents, 

Japhet peopled all the North. Yet Ham*s pofterity acquired all 
the regions furrounding the Mediterrean fea, by their early (kill in 
navigation. The temperate climate on* the northern fide of that fpa- 
cious fea the Titans were particularly fond of. It was affefted by 
Ogyges, Atlas, Saturn, the Egyptian Hercules, Jove Picus, Diony- 
fius, Orus, Cecrops, Lelex, Agenor, Cadmus and Danaus. Pau- 
fanias writes that " Lybians, prior to Arifteus, went from Greece 
to Sardinia:*' thefe probably were part of the forces under Teut- 
amus. Bannier notes that Phorcys king of Corfica, which Sammes 
derives from Corfis, a woody place, was fubdued by Atlas. Strabo 
fays that Ceres and Proferpine were adored in an ifle near Britain. 
janus amongft others croft the fea and fettled in Italy. Aurelius 
Vi€tor fays that Janus was Creufa's fon; this is improbable, as Janus 
reached Italy prior to Saturn's final retreat thither; yet, whether he Julian Aurcl. 
was the ancient Proteus, or a defcendent of Deucalion, he too was 
probably of Ham's family. Nigidius in Macrobius calls him Apollo; 
being probably Arueris, the elder Apollo, who gallanted Ceres. 
Arnobius fays he was fon in law of luturna and of Vulturnus the 
father of Fontus. He is alfo faid to be Vertumnus. Fabius Piftor 
wrote thus; ** In the time of Janus there was no monarchy (that is 
in Italy) for the defire of empire had not yet infefted the human 
breaft. Janus firft inftrufted men to ufe wine and meal at facrifices. 
Hcfirft inftituted altars, fruftiferous groves, and facred rites." Yet 
Plato deems Prometheus the founder of religion. But this Prome- 
theus is Ham, whofe family produced the Pagan Gods; at the head 
of whom was Ogen or Ocean, who was Noah ; his three fons un- 


.^ »s> 

P R I M I T I \' E HISTORY. (Book 8. 

doubted! V inftituicd religious rites in their (everal families. And, 
when their refpeBive iffue became fubdivided into nations and tribes, 
each Patriarch inculcated the duties of religion in his tribe: thus 
Menes in Egypt, Tuitho in Gaul, Phoroneus at Argos, Deucalion 
inTheflaly, Cecrops at Athens, Aftis at Heliopolis, Rhea in Crete, 
Hercules at Ga !es, Janus and Saturn in Italy, were introducers of 
religion: and wherever men formed a political corporation, their 
prefident was deemed the founder of Aeir inftittitions civil and reli- 
gious. Thus alfo as to the Titan Saturn^s contemporary Janus (who 
could never bejavan, as he was no earlier than Lycaon's fons; altho' 
Janus the ancient God was probably Noah, Jah Noa.) Xeno in 
Macrobius tells us, " He wasthefirft conftruftor of temples, and 
inftituted religious rites: in his time every family was pious and de- 
vout: in the poems of the Salii he was ftiled God of Gods-, and was 
named Confivius, as being the founder of mankind," that is of civil 
fociety. Atheneus fays ''He-married his fifter Camefes in Perrhaebea, 
Plutarch's Perrhaebus, which Pliny fets in the vicinage of Pindus. 
Mount Janiculus had its name from himj as alfo the river Janus. 
Arnobius deems him a fon of Uranus and Hecate, He invented 
(hips and crowns and copper coin: wherefore in Greece and .Skify 
as well as Italy money had a Bifront impreflion, with a fliip or co* 
ronet on the reverfe," — See more concerning Janus prefently, 
who may have been Janias the Paftor king, as Apopis was Satutik 
Thofe err who take this Saturn, or Saturn's rival Ammon, to bcHanv: 
for in their time the world was grown populous, and the navigation 
frequent between Lybia, Crete, Cyprus, Greece, Egypt and Phc- 
nicia. Prometheus in Efchylus afferts himfelf the inventor of fails; 
an honour confcred by others on Ifis. Atlas was a famous navi- 
gator as w^ell as aftronomer. Cecrops taught navigation. Sancho* 
niatho mentions the fhipwreck of the Phaenician Diofcuri. 

Among otlicrs we may remark that Tat, Teutat, or Deu-tat, that 
is either the God Tat, or Parent God, did not confine himfelf to 
Egypt. According to Manetho he was the fon of Trifmegiftus, 
counted by him the fecond Mercury, and fon of AgntLodemon-, who 
as Plutarch fays was Ofiris: that is, the Oiiris who was Mifor; 

whence * 

Chat). !•) P R I M I T I V E HIST O.R Y. 433 

whence his fon I'hoth, is by Eratofthciies firnamed Hermogenes : 
tho' Manetho, as if he fubftituted Thoth for Mi for, deems Thoth 
(Trifmegiftus) the firft Mercury : but Sanchoniatho rightly deems 
Thoth Mifor's fon. Teiitat was the founder of the Teiitones, and 
chief Deity of the Gauls. He probably founded Hamburg in 
honour of his anceftor ; as Pergamus alfo feems to be. Tacitus 
writes that " the Germans, whofe principal Deity was Mercury, 
celebrated in ancient Poems the God Tuitho and his fon Mannus 
the founders of their nation: from the three fons of Mannus came 
the Ingaevones neareft to the Ocean ; the Herminones next ; and 
then the Iftaevoncs : fome derive many more from that God, who 
was deemed a Terrigene :'* as ufual to leaders of Colonies, of 
parentage unknown like Melchifedec's. Here we may trace the . 
Titan family to its fource. Acmon, the fire of Ophion or Uranus 
who was firnamed Acmonides, founded Acmonia in Phrygia, and 
was the brother of Doeas or Dis who founded Lycaftia Themifcyra 
and Chalybia; and was firnamed Summanus from their fire Man- 
nus or Manes, the fon of Tuitho, Teutat, Tat, the fecond Thoth, 
^the fon of Theuth Hermogenes the fon of Menes Dionius or 
Mifiar; Theuth was the Hermes who was Saturn's councellor, that 
is, of his grandfather Ham the firft Egyptian Cronos, Belus, Zeus, 
Valcan or Prometheus. Noah was the firft univerfal Cronus, 
Ofilis, Oceanus : but God is the divine Cronus of Berofus, who 
cautioned his Si-futhros to build the Ark. As Acmon's brother 
founded the city ofTliemis, the Pelafgi were his defcendents ; for 
Herodotus tells us, they introduced her worfhip into Greece ; and 
as they brought with them the worfhip of the Cabiri or unknown 
Gods; being ignorant of their names, which they obtained fn/^) 
Egypt, they appear therafelves ,to have been of Egyptian original : 
eCpccially as they founded the Dodonean Oracle, which was fimilar 
to Ammon's. Paufanias fays that Pelafgus was the firft man who 
appeared in that country, and was endued with excellent qualities 
of mind and body : the Scoliaft of ApoUonius Rhodius deemed 
Pelafgus the fon of Inachus : this confirms my opinion that Phoro- 
ncus was prior to Inachus. Probably Ham himfelf latterly with- 
drew into Greece, and was the primitive Prometheus and Phoro- 
neus ; twelve generations after whom Paufanias places Lelex ; as 
Dionyfius does Deucalion, after the arrival of the Pelafgi at Argos. 













t; o s 

S Si's' 








Sanchoniatho*s Fragment^ with Remarks. A Genealogical Table frotn^^ 
Hefiod. The Allantean Theogony of Diodorus. A Table and Dif- 
cujfion of Tully's Titan Gods. The Cretan Theogony of Diodorus. 
A Sappltment to the Curetes in Diodorus. A Genealogical Table of 
the Titans and their Contemporaries. 

T will here infert the fabftance of Sanchoniatho's hiftorical frag- 
•*• ment, with fome obfervations of Biihop Cumberland and others. 
It contains matters of note refpefting the Titans-, but errs at pcefent,, 
thro* a diflocated paflage, in counting them contemporary with 
Mifor ; who was the father of the Mifraim, and particularly of 
Thoth, and thus proves to be Menesfirft king of Egypt, in the next 
generation after the eight Antediluvian Cabiri faved in the Ark. 
Indeed Saturn, Ammon, Dionyfius and his fon Orus (as appears 
from this laft in Manetho) were fubfequent to the Hycfi ; whereas 
the eight primitive Gods of Egypt were prior to them, and lived 
before any appearance of the Delta. Thus the Auritae or Avritac, 
who were the Hycfi and inhabited Avaris, -are in the old Egyptian 
Hchionicle fct prior (in Lower Egypt) to the Meftreansj who (during 
five reigns) at firft pofleft the Heptanomis and Thebais,*for 190 years 
l>efore the Hycfi retrenched their dominion about Memphis : the 
old chronicle, as is evident from the number of years and of reigns 
iir its 16th Dynafty, has fet the period of thefe five Thebans to the 
eight Thinites of the firft Dynafty; the two firft kings of which were 
the fame as the two firft Thebans ; but the Thinite Dyivafty reigned 
longer than the five Thebans, and this difference induced Eufebius 

K k k 2 to 


to fet the five Thcbans in that Dynafty agreable to the period in the 
chronicle. The Meftraeans of Thebes at length under Amos or 
Ammon expelled the Hycfi ; from which time the old chronicle 
acknowledges them kings of the Lower Egypt. And partly out of 
them Manetho and the chronicle fele£led their Gods and Demigods: 
who are the diftinguifhed heroes of the houfe of Ham ;' partly the 
primary kings of that houfe ; and partly (after a long interruption) 
fome of their famous defcendents; partly in fuccefEve order, partly 
in collateral. Vulcan or Ham, Agathodemon or Mifor, Anubis or 
Thoth, were primitive Gods. Moll of the reft of Manetho's Gods 
were much later, and many of them contemporaries during the 
Titanian war. Thus Herodotus fays that the Egyptian Hercules 
was one of thofe added to the eight primitive Gods, to augment 
the number to 12 ; and Dionyfius was in the third clafs, that is, fub- 
fequent to thofe 12. In (hort the Gods and Demigods were the 
worthies of Egypt, fome before, fome after the Hycfi, down to 
Danaus. Thefe political luminaries of Egypt ftand felefted at the 
head of the Egyptian kings; as firfl: in dignity, tho not altogether 
fo in order of time : but they are alfo mentioned in their fevenrf 
places in the general Dynafties>the 15 laft of which are fucceflivc; 
the Titans being in the 18th Dynafty, and fubfequent to the Hycfi, 
But Sanchoniatho, miftaking the Titan Cronus for the primitive, has 
trrontoujly fet them in the time of Mifor % for it is certain that the 
Titan Saturn*s fon Chiron (who indeed was extremely longeval) V34 
alive in the infancy of Achilles : and Saturn himfclf is the emblem 
of time : thus Saturn and Chiron, like Cinyras, may have lived 160 
years each, 

Eufeb. Prep. Porphyry fays that *' Sanchoniatho of Berytus related the Jewiflx 
affairs with veracity 5 according with their own hiftory in the names 
of places and men. He had his accounts from Jerombaal (probably 
Jerobaal or Gideon) prieft of the God Jevo: and dedicated his 
work to Abibal king of Berytus, who lived before the Iliac war, 
and whofc examiners allowed the work to be true ; Sanchoniatho 
having compiled it from the records of towns and temples with a 
fpecial regard to veracity/' Philo of Biblos fays, ^* he ftudied the 



fcriptures of Taaiit, the inventor of letters and the firft hiftoriart. 
Obtaining the Ammonean or Recondite records in the Adyta of the 
temple he rejefted allegories and fables inferted therein by the 
Phaenician Hierophants ; but' the priefts afterwards reftored the alle* 
gorical fenfe. Benefaftors were deified, and their names conferred 
on the mundane elements and fotne of their reputed Gods: the fun . 
moon, planets and elements were their phyfical Gods." Sancho- 
niatho fays, '* his hiftory contained records made at Taaut's (or 
Thoths) command, by the Cabiri, Sydic's feven fons, aind their 
8th brother AfcKepius." The ancients did not well diftinguifh be- 
tween brothers and coufin germans. Damafcus in Photius fays, 
*' Sadyc's fons were named Diofcuri and Cabiri ; the 8th of whom 
was Efmunus or Afclepius. Being a handfome youth Aftronoe the 
Phaenician Goddeft, who was the niother of the Gods, fell in love with 
him, Obferving, as he was hunting, the Goddefs in queft of him, he 
cut off his privities." But in this ftory he is confounded with Atys, 
who was the Egyptian Adonis or Dionyfius : and as to both the ac- 
count is a meer fable. Arabians affert that Afmunus was the fon 
of Mifor, who fet him over the Upper Egypt. Philo writes that, 
" Thabion's fon the firft Phaenician Hierophant allegorized the 
rccords,interfperfingphyfics, for the prefidentsofthe facred myfteries: 
one of whom had been Ifiris the irtventpr of three letters, and bro- 
ther of Cna the firft Phaenician." So Eupolemus deems Canaan the 
firft Phaenician. " Afterwards the God Sur-mu-belus (who feems to 
be Muth, the Belus ofTzor)and Thuro, called alfo Chus-arthis 
(orChus^artes)illuftrated Taaut's doflrines thus allegorized.' ' Thuro, 
who was a female, feems to be Athera, Aftarte or Rhea. She was 
the elder Ifis or Ceres ; who was fometimes called Muth, and is the 
Thcr-tnuthis of Epiphanius, that is A-thyr-muth; equivalent to 
which was ^^her name of Ifis-ferapis. Jofephus calls the Egyptian 
patroneft of Mofe?, Thermuthis, to raife his antiquity. — Bryant 
thinks Thabion's fon fignifies prieft of Thebe or the Ark, and of 
Ion the Dove. Sanchoniatho derived the creation from a fermen- 
tation of the Chaotic mafs thro* the co-operation of fpirit and love- 
whence arofe an affeftion that produced Mot^ or a Mucilage •, that 
word being by Bifliop Cumberland derived from the Arabic Matha^ 




Jerom» on 


(Book 3. 

to macerate: the fpirit Colpias is from Colpi-ja, Vox. Oris Dei. 
Philo names Sanchoniatho's firft man and ^oman " Protogonus and 
iton/'that is Primogenious and Life : yEon refembles Eve in letter 
andfenfe; alfo Oon, Ovum, the primitive egg, and the primitive 
parent, in Photius. '* iEon, fays he, difcovered the food produced 
by trees;" this alludes to the forbidden fruit. Philo renders their 
fon's name. Genus, a derivative from Gennao, to generate ; which 
probably is from the Hebrew Kana, as Cain is ; G being equivalent 
to K, and a letter of the feme organ. His wife was named Genea; 
as the wife of Faunus was thence named Fauna; and as Is, and Ifla 
a name of Eve in Genefis, fignify male and female , Vir et Virago. 
*' Thefe lived in Phenicia. A great drought enfuing, they ex* 
tended their hands towards theT^m, deeming and naming him Baal- 
famcn. Lord of heaven." Philo names the iffue of Genus, Phos, 
Phur, Phlox, that is, light, fire and flame : in Hebrew, Ur, Beer, 
Labahim. " Thefe invented and taught (he method to generate 
fire by the friction of flicks*' A difcovery attributed by fome to • 
Phoroneus, by others to Prometheus. *« Their gigantic fons gavt 
their own name to the mountaihs they inhabited, Caffius, LibaAii% 
Antilibanus and Brathys." Diodorus Siculus wrote that *' Caffivs 
lived in the time of Belus of Babylon, and Jove the father of Pro- 
ferpine by Ceres;" yet Diodorus, as he counts him father of the 
Curetes, meant Jove Uranus father of the elder Proferpine, or Cc- 
cropian Minerva, who was Rhea. Syncellus mentions Cafus and 
BjcIus fons of Inach-us, as founders of Antioch. ** Thefe bcgH 
Memrumus and Hypfuranius, fo named by their mothers; but the 
women of thofe ages were fhamelefs projlitutes.'' This confirms the 
SccGcncfis. the opinion that the daughters of men were Cain's iflTue. The two 
names lad mentioned Bochart thinks did belong to one perfon; the 
laft name, a verfion of the firft which is Rimmon inverted, is derived 
from Upfo3 and Ouranos : but as a plurality of perfons isdefcribcd, 
the original name, of which Hypfuranius is a verfion, might by a 
cafual error have been inferted inftead of Ufous. For it is faid, 
** Hypfuranius inhabited Tyre (fo named by Anticipation)-, was the 
firft conftruftor of huts with reeds, ruflies and the Papyrus; and was 

Eufcb. Prep. 
2. 2. 


at variance with his brother Ufous/* Tliis is the name aUb of a fort 
of Aram. ** Ufous was the firft who clad himfelf with fuch wild 
beafts as he could catch," Thus Sanchoiuatho proves ignorant 
that Adam and Eve wore this fort of apparel. '*Ufous alfo ventured 
on the Jea on a tree difmantled of its boughs. Violent winds, by 
rubbing the branches of trees, having fct on (ire a wood at Tyre, to 
wind and fire he corifecrated two ftoncs, and worfhiped them, and 
made oblations to them of wild beafts taken in hunting. Their 
pofterity confecrated to them after their death logs of wood and 
ftones, which they paid worfhip to j and inftituted anniverfary fef- 
tivals to their memory." Ufous here feems to be Noah, with 
whom Agrotes is confounded : Noah's fon Ham was Chryfor and. 

*« Long after thefe came Agreus and Halieus," as Philo calls them. 
Thefe refemble Nimrod and Canaan's fon Sidorr. Jf they are fo, 
this is a diflocation, and fhould follow the account of Thoth ; or 
otherwife Sanchoniatho outrages all chronological order; as Mifor 
and Thoth, Ham's fon and grandfon, are fet long after thefe : and 
not till after he has named the Titans, whom he blends with Ham 
and his children. " Thefe acquired fkill in hunting and fifliing." 
Diodorus fhews that one Agreus was Arifteus, deemed to be Agreus 
andNomiusby the Scholiaft of ApoUonius. This Agreus may be 2.590.- 
Plutarch's Arueris or eldeft Oru^. '* From thefe defcended two 
coufin-germans, who invented the forging of iron." This Mofes 
attributes to Tubalcain^ of which name Vulcan is thought to be a 
corruption. " One of thefe was named Chryfor," interpreted Vul-^ 
can by Philo. Bochart derives it from Chorcs-ur, ITupiTf^v/rf;; Le 
Clerk on Hefiod interprets it fire Keeper, ** He praftifcd fpells and 
charms ; invented the hook, bait and, and cockboats ; alfo 
fails.'* If this be not a tranfpofition of Sidon's account. '* He after 
his deceafe was deified by the name of Dia-michius, or Jove the 
engineer." This Diamichius feems to be the Egyptian Vulcan, 
progenitor of their Cabiri; that is Ham, here confounded with the 
Antediluvian Vulcan of Cain's line. •* Some fay, thefe kinfmen 
invented brick walls.--^r^Frora this generation came two brothers, 

' one 

Gen, 4* 20. 

440 1>RiMITIVE HISTORY. (Book j. 

one named by Philo, Technitcs, the ariift-, atranflation (fays Bifhop 
Cumberland) from Malachi.. Philo calls the other Geinos ALhtochton 
a native of theland. TheBifhop fays this name has fome affinity with 
Epher and Ephron. I deem Vfous, Technites, and Geinos Au- 
tochthon, all to be Noah, and confounded with Agroueris who was 
Mifor. " Thcfe made tiles of clay and ftraw, dried in the fun. 
Two of their defcendents were Agrus, and Agroueros'or Agrotes,'» 
the ruftic, and the hufbandman : but thefe feem to be one perfon. 
Mofes fays that Jabal was the fire of Paftors. The Bifhop thinks 
Agrus was originally named Siddim or Sadid, the naniie of a fon df 
Cronus, and confonant to the Greek name; and that the laft was 
Aroueris the Egyptian God ; Agros and Aroura being fynonymous. 
" He had a ftatuc held in great veneration, and a portable temple 
borne about Phenicia by oxen; at Biblos he was fupreme God," or 
Bamoth. I take this Agrotes to be miftaken for Noah, who purfued 
agriculture ; and his fon Amynus to be Ham, as being Mifor'sfire. 
'* Thefe invented fences and vaults." Hence fuch receffes wert 
called Amynean; Plutarch fays ihdii Amjin fignifies recondite. 
They are the patrons of hufbandmen and hunters: and are fliW 
Aleta (fignifying, fays Hyginus, vagrants) or Titans.*' Hcic' 
Sanchoniatho begins to confound Ham and his fons, with Tit«a*s 
iflue. *' From thefe fprung Amynus and Magus; who formed 
villages and collefted flocks. Their iffue were My for and Sydic." 
Yet Magog was in reality their coufin-german, not their uncle; 
whofe names fignify «* The liberal and the juft. Thefe difcovered 
the ufe of Salt." Bifhop Cumberland derives Pharao, from Paray, 

7) 18. Liber. Sydic fecms to be Juflus the Canaanite, whom Jofephus 
deems the founder of Jerufalem; and is probably the Melchifedec 
of Abraham's time, tho' then of a very advanced age: Siiidas fays 
that Melchifedec reigned 1*3 years. Bochart tells us that the 
Planet Jupiter was in the Eaft named S«dec. The Bifhop on good 
grounds takes Mifor to be Mifraim, and Menes the firfl king of 
^gyP^ Thoth's father, (faid by Sanchoniatho to be Mifor) and the 
inventor of letters, attributed by Anticlides to Men^s. " Taut was 

In Pliny, ^he councellor of Cronus (or Ham) who granted him Egypt.** This 
favours the Biihop's opinion that Mifor himfclf did not (particularly) 



fettle in Egypt: this is probable, for the Philiftim and Ludim or 
Lydians were Mifor's pofterity; and thefe laft being primitively 
named Meonians, may have received that name from him, and not 
from any fubfequent Menes. Sanchoniatho fays *' Hypfidus or 
Elion (who muft be Acmon the grandfire of the Titan Cronus) was 
contemporary with Amymis .Mifor's fire." This implies that the 
Titanian line was not the fame as Ham's; but as thehiftorian miftook 
their age, he alfo miftook their family; as to their age, Chiron's 
fire was feme centuries later than Mifor. " From Sydic came t^je 
Cabiri,'* or Dii potentes, whom Philo confounds with the Diofcuri; 
and alfo with the Corybantes, who were the facerdotal fucccffors of 
the DaClyls Rhea's attendants and the original Curetcs. Herodotus 
and Pherecydes count Vulcan the father of the Cabiri. Acufilaus 
Argivus held that Vulcan was their grandfire, Camillus their father. 
He was Mifor the firft Egyptian Mercury Lycophron's Cadmus. 
Ham was the Egyptian Vulcan. " Thefe, fays Sanchoniatho, built 
^Jhxp\ from them fprung others who difcovered the virtue of plants, 
the cure of bites, and the power of charms.** The firft Diofcuri 
were Ammon and his fon Dionyfius: after thefe, Caftor and Pollux, 
ftiled alfo Anaccs, a title ftriftly belonging to Tritopatreus (who 
was Orion) Eubiileus (or Hermes) and Dionyfius. ** Sydic alfe 
bad (the Phertician Efculapius called)- Ifmunus, (Lycophron's 
Epius) by a Titanis, the daughter of Cronus and of Aftarte." Here 
again Ham is blended with Chiron's fire; for tho' Ham had the 
title of Cronus, and hif? confort may have been the original Aftarte ; 
yet they were'not Titans. Apuleius fays that Apollo (who here is 
Phut) taught Ifmunus the virtues of nightftiadc, palled after him in 
Punic, Aftir Ifmuni. Clement of Alexandria deems him a Mcirt- 
phite. Damafcius faid Efculapius of Bcryta was riot an Egyptian j„ photio. 
but a Phenician ; which he concluded from his name, for fays he, 
" Among the Cabiri Sydic's fons, the, 8th was Ifmunus'** Sancho- 
niatho fays, ** Elion and his wife Beruth dwelt about Byblos. He 
was flain by wild beafts in hunting, and deified by his children." 
Berytus was fo named in honour of his wife. Nonnus fays that 
Bcroe, called by the Latins Berytus, was the firft city jn the world. 

L 1 1 « £lion's . 

^^, PRIMITIVE HISTORY. (tiook 3 

"Elion's fon was Epigeus or Autochthon afterwards named Uranus/* 
He is the formerAutochthon, confounded withNoah theAgrotes who 
was Ham's father. ApoUonius Rhodius and Lycophron fhew that 
his name was Ophion. He was founder of the Ophiogenes and bc-« 
came a'hero. " He invented Betylia^ or animated Jiones ;** Bochart 
reads erroneoufly anointed Jiones ; Damafcius fays^ ** I faw a Betyl 
moving in the air."^ They are the racking ftones of the Druids, and 
Strabo's Egyptian Hermeia: fuch as Main Ambre in Cornwall; and 
the two Petrae Ambrofiae, or X1601 ti^yl/vzot near Tyre, fee Nonnus, 
40, 41* *' Uranus had by his lifter Ge four fons, Ilus or Cronus, 
Bctylus, Dagon or Siton/' the Laponic Scita, the God of corn, **and 
Atlas/*^ Dagon*s name is derived fram Dagan^ bread corn, the 
ufe of which he difcovered, or rather improved the culture of: from 
bis attachment to agriculture he was named Jove Arotrius ; I take 
kim to be Ammon. Betylus in Arabic is a fubduer : £1 or II is 
potent, as is Sadorn* '^ By other wives Uranus had much ifliie ; 
on this account Ge quitted him : but Uranus, whenever he thou^t 
fit^ would cohabit with her by force, leaving her immediately. He 
attempted to kill her children^ Ge obtained aid, and both defended 
and avenged herfelf. Cronus grown to manhood and ufing ThoA 
as his councellor, ally and fecretary (in which account Chiron's fin 
is blended with Ham) avenged his mother by the advice of Thothf 
and of his daughter Minerva, whofe ^er Perfephone died a virgin;'* 
being the daughter of the eldeft Ceres and named Core. Hence it 
appears that Proferpine was Saturn's daughter, not grand-daughter^ 
and the Jove her reputed father was Ammon, not Saturn's fon Lapis,. 
or Dionyfius the Jove of Ny fa. *' Saturn made an iron fpear and fcfc* 
mitar,*' this is the earlicft accountof that metal. "Thoth infpiredby 
/pels the partizans of Saturn to fight Uranus; who was thus expelled 
his kingdom, to which Saturn fucceeded; and took captive a favourite 
and pregnant concubine of Uranus ;" who, as Lycophron and ApoU 
lonius Rhodius fhew, was Eurynome. She from Paufanias appeals 
to be Derceto, fhewn by Strabo to be Athera, Aflarte, or the eld^ 
Ceres ; and thus this amour of Jove Uranus is Jupiter's incefl wth 
his daughter; and fome taking him to be Jove Lapis, deem it his inceft 
with his mother Rhea the eldefl Ccres,or Athera; Uranus is deemed 
in Homer's hymns to have cohabited with the Magna Mater. "After 


Chap, t.) E R I M I T I V E n IS TORY, 443 

Cronus had given her to Dagon (who is Ammon) flie was delivered 
of her fon Zeus Demaraon :" whom I take to be Tully's fifth Her- 
cules or Indian Belus, and fire of Melcart or Agenor the Tyriaii 
Hercules (whom Tully regardlefs of order names fourth) and of the 
Egyptian Bclus, Amenophis or the Hercules, called by Hephaeftion 
NHus. Hefiod fays this lady had the Graces by Jove, that is, by 
Ammon. — ^ Cronus afterwards furrounded his manfion with a wall; 
and is faid to be the founder of Biblos the firft city of Pheniciaf' 
tho* juft before it is deemed Elion's refidence ; and Agrotes was 

the fupreme God at Biblos long b