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CLUE: A Guide through Gmk to Hebrew 
ScrifMure (Uiatcstarica— Part I). 

THE CORRECTIONS OF MARK (Diate»iarica-P»rt »;. ' 
Dtmf iV0, Cblh, Prut IM- "<•.. y 

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FROM LETTER TO SPIRIT (Piatt»iaric«-P«rt MI). 

Dimy 8f», Ctlk, Prirt -.01. ««." 

' ■ . . • . - 

PARADOSIS (Bialessirica-Pait IV). . 
>■ Dtmy 81V, ClMk, Plw jl.U. mi, ■ . 

^« PP' 3^5 foff- o^ tbia voloin^. ' ^ . 


6i Fifth Avuiva,Ni(w VdtK 





JEdwin a. Abbott 

" Oralit imago anlmi., 

Language- >., 

man ihewt a man." 


JpMiON, Jijr/M. 




Adam ind Charles Black * ' • 




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ABOUT eight or nine years ago, when writing or 
IX revising for the press a commentary on the 
Fourth Gospel, I attempted — among other prepara- 
tions for so ipanysided a task — to construct a key to 
certain verbal difficulties somewhat on the lines of a 
work that I wrote nearly forty years ago, called A 
Shakespearian Grammar. My " Johannine Grammar " 
never went iseyond a rough draft : but, rough though 
it was, it decided me against publishing my commentary, 
. by helping me to understand a great deal that I had 
never understood before, and by forcing me to perceive 
that a great deal more remained td be understodH. 

Studied with the ai<^of this rudimentary Johannine 
Grammar, the author of the Johannine Gospel revealed 
himself in a new lights— as a prophet and. yet a player 
on words ; one of the most simple of writers yet one of 
the mostiambiguous ; with a style, in parts, apparently 
careless, parenthetic, irregular, abrupt, inartistic — an 
utterer of after-thoughts and by-thoughts putting down 
'words just as they came into lAk mind, according to 
Mark Antony's profession, " I only speak right on " — 
but, in general effect, an inspired artist endowed with 
an art of , the most varied- kind,' not metrical, not 
i ;■■.■ 'M "': :■'■':-■■■-:■■: 


rhetorical, never ornate, yet conforming to rules of 
order, repetition, and variation, that suggested, at one 
time the refrains of a poem, at another the. arrange- 
ments oi a drama, at another the ambiguous utterances 
of an oracle, and the symbolism of an initiation into 
religious mysteries. 

At the same time the probleifi presented by- the 
divergence of the Johannine from the Synoptic voca- 
bulary began to seem more difficult to explain in 
accordance with old hypotheses but more capable of 
new solutions. Biographers, though differing in the. 
style and vocabulary of their comments, cannot lawfully 
differ in their reports of conversations.- Yet the fourth ■ 
or latest of these biographers appeared to differ in 
this unlawful manner from the three, and this to an 
extent that seemed amazing unless deliberate, and, if 
deliberate, only justifiable on the ground that he knew 
his divergences to be substantially in a .cordance with 
what he conceived to be the essential truth. Perhaps (I 
reflected) the Fourth Evangelist might be in the right : 
but, if ^ what about the Three .•' Did, or did not, 
Jesus of Nazareth use, and use repeatedly, such words 
as " faith," " repentance," "forgiveness".'' Did He 
condemn "hypocrisy"? Did. He bid men "watch" 
and (^' pray " .' Did He hold up to His disciples the 
example of "litde children" in order to answer. their 
questions about "the greatest"? If He did, as 
assuredly He did, how was it ppssible that a Fourth 
Gospel — even a supplementary Gospel — could give a . 
fair and truthful account of Jesus and' set down at great 
length His discourses, both to the disciples and to 
■ .. ■■:•;■•'■ ■''■■-■ •■. '^-vlii:. ■■ 


others, without so much as mentioning (1676^) one of 
these fundamental words ? 

In order to answer these questions I began to con- 
struct a list of. Synoptic words rarely or never used by 
John, and a Ibt of Johannine words rarely or never 
used by the Synoptists : and I found that these — when 
compared and illustrated by quotations — shewed that 
in many cases John was in reality neither so silent nor 
. so divjrgent as I had supposed. Where he had ap- 
peared to be taking up entirely new ground, he was 
sometimes saying the same thing as one or more of the 
Synoptists, only in a different: tvay. 

- These conclusions were brought home to me more 
forcibly than ever when I recently began to prepare 
for the press a treatise on what might be called The 
Fourfold Gospel, that is to say, the passages where the 
Fourth Gospel intervenes in the Tradition of the Three. 
For the purposes of that treatise it seemed desirable 
to refer to a " Johannine Grammar " and <» " Johannine 
Vocabulary " in print, instead of embodying large ex- 
tracts frorfi a manuscript. I ' therefore decided oft 
printing those' two volumes at once. , 

The "Johannine Grammar, V which will form the 
Second Part of this work, ■ could hardly lie made , 
intelligible to a reader unacquainted with Greek. But 
the "Johannine Vocabulary" stands on a different 
footing. There is nothing to prevent an " unlearned " 
reader from understanding, for example, that a differ- 
ence is intended (as Origei] says there is) when the 
Fourth Gospel describes some as " believing iri " our 
Lord, and others as " believing i« /fts name ". ; and 


that a play on words describes the people in Jerusalem 
as "trusting in His name" whereas Jesus "did not 
trust Himself to them'-' ; and that a contrast is drawn 
between "the beloved disciple" and Thomas, both of 
whom " saw and believed ">-but in what diflferent 
circumstances ! These, and a score or so of other 
•distinctions, relite to a single word (-1463 /c//.) "be- 
lieve," and can all be understood without any knowledge 
of Greek. For this reason I decided to publish the 
Johannine Vocabulary as a separate volume", less costly, 
and more intelligible to the general reader than the 
Johannine; Grammar which, I trust, will speedily follow. 
I am indebted to several friends — in particular to 
Mr W. S. Aldis and Mr H. Candler — for corrections 
of proof and useful suggestions of a general character, 
and to Dr Joseph B. Mayor for valuable criticism on 
points of Greek. Nor must I omit thanks, du^ to all 
connected with the CambridgeAUniversity Press, for . 
their admirable printing of the work and their arrange^ ' 
meitf of the Vocabularies..-.-" / .v •, /r . 


iVtltsidi ■:;':" 

Hampslttd '!,',' 

■ It mutt be undentood, however, thai fti^l, though obtainable 
ieparately, frequently refen, oa points of grammatical detail, to Part II, 
which will contain the Index tu the whole work. 

■'■-■V:; ■ 


CON-^ENTS ' .< 

' "" rAOE 

References aiJid Abbreviations . . stvf— xviii 

iNTRQfcUCTIOW . , . * '• 

ih The problem (1436- 43) 

{ ^ How to deal with (he problem (1444-9) -<«^ 

§ 3 A specimen of allusiveness, ' hating^onet own life (l|tO) 

f 4 Anothtr specimen, " reclining the head " (1451—8) 

§ s Infeiencu (1459-82) 

v' 800K I ' . 


,;•■;:* BELII'VINf^' ^- ^ 

{ I "Believing," or, "trusting, a keyword in the F<Mrth Cotpel 


j 1 Why John prefers "believe to belief (1467—8) 

§ 3 " Believing," in the Old Testament (1488-71) 

W-f X, "Beliering," in Philo (1472-^ 

\i " Believing," in the New Teiiament, excludmg Ui< Fourth 
Goqwl (1474-7) 

} 6 Antecedent probability of a restatement of the doctrine of 
"beUeving" (1478-9) 


7 " Believing," in the Fourth Gospel (1480—1) 

» "Through whom," or "what," do all" believe "?(148J) 

9 " Believing m the name " (li83— 7) 

10 Our Lord's first mention of " believing " or " trusting " (1488) 

1 1 Christ's disciples " believed in him " (1489—90) . 
"Believing the Scripture" (1491—2) 
"Believing," in the Dialogue with Nicodemus (1493—1800) 
After the Baptist's last words (1501—2) 
In Samaria (1803—7) 

le nobleman's " believing " (1808—9) 
lieving" the testimony pf the Father (1510—1) 

18 After\he Feeding of the Five Thousand (1513-9) 

19 " Not believing "(ISaO—l) 

JO "Believing witnesses "(1582— 3) ■ » ' 

21 "AtW the Healing of the Blind Man (1894— 7) 

u The Raising of Lazarus (1828—36) 

13 " Believing in Iheilighf' (1537— 4A)r /. 

34 The Last Discourse (1545— 9) 

35 The Last Prayer (1880) - ^ '. .•■ ' 
16 Alker the Death and Resurteftion (1551—81) 




§ I "Authority," in the Triple Tradition of the Synoptists (1882) 

}2 ''Authariiy,"in the Apocalypse (1883-r-4) 

} ] Luke's view of " authority * (1865-71) 

{4 Christ's "authority," how defined by the Synoptists (1872—6) 

f 5 "Authority,' in the Fourth Gospel (1676—8) 

}6 " Authority" to becc»ne" children "of God (1579— 80) 

f 7 The "authority" of the Son to "do Judgment " (1881—6) 

{8 " Authority " in connexion with " Ufe " (1586—94) 


4?>> • ^ ' CHAPTER* ^11 


{ I The use of synonyms in this Gosprl (15W(— C) 

§2 "Seeing" (1897-1611) 

§3 " Hearing "(18ia-a0) 

{4 "Knowing "(1621-9) ^ 

5 5 "Coming" (1630— ») 

§6 "Worshipping" (1640—0) '' ' 

} 7 " Going away (or, back)," and D going on a journey " (16S3— 64) 

• : - BOOK II ;• V' ■; -^^ . 
. ' CHAPTEH r ' I 


{■ Introductory remarks (1666— 71) •*l;': ?^."Ti". ,.■■!,■ . 

Synoptic Words coMrARATivELY seldom or mever used 
HV John (1672-96) ' 

CHAPTER II - ' <- / J ' ' 

§ I Introductory remarks (1697—1706) ' 

JOHANNINE Words comparatively seldom ok\n>ver used 
BY THE Synoptists (1707—28) 

Additional Note (1728 m— /) 



' 'I BOOK III , ' 


', -■•, ",; .:■ CHAPTER I' ;■.:,'.; 

f I Antecedent probability (172»— 30) ■ . 

fj The fact (1731-2) "iV > ' " "^ T ' " 

-} 3 Parallels and Quasi-parallels (1733) -V;" '"'■■:->■ > 

John-Mark Agreements (1734—8) ' .-^_'; ■''••■ v- .■■■'■■.tiSa 
§4 Jn xii. 9 "the common p^ple^" Ut.'''tbe grisat multilMda." ' ■ 

J S Iftferences (1741—4) ; Additional Note (17M (i)~(xi)) 


f-i PanUelitms very few (174S— 7) '"',"'. 

ja "Lightofthe world," "my brethren" (1748— •)« ' 

JOHN-MAriHKw AnREKHKNTS (17S0— S) ■ ''':■!;• 
§3 Infcrence»(lM6-7) Y ■^;; ■: ■ \[K'- ^{..■^:,'-^ 

■"•,-,■ ' cfHAPTER III '-^'v^'t '-H': -i' 

""words; peculiar to john- aInd luke 

§ I Antecedent probability (17S6— 9) 

§ J The fact (1760-1) , 

§3 Qvasi-paralleU (1784— 3) i.V:^ 

JOHN-LuKF. Agreement (1764—76) • ■: " ;• ; 
}4 "Son of Joseph " (1776—8) ^ •'...*! 

{ 5 "The Lord" meanini! "Jesus" (1779— 81) 
46 "Son»oflight"(178J— 3) 
§7 "My friends "(1784-92) 

} 8 " Standing in the midst " applied to Jesus (1798—7) 
$ 9 " Stooping (?) and looking in " (1798) 
f to What doea ropoivTa mean ? (1799—1804) 


• :,:; CHAPTER IV •;..'■' 

4 I Introductory remarks (1806—9) 


{ 2 AbMdce of Quasi-parallclj (1817) 

'■ ' ■' CHAPTER V i '"r*^ '■■- 




Introductory remarks (1818 -9) }. . •: . 

" Lalchet,"" spices," "rouse up" (laaO—t)'', ' 
Mark, Lulce, and John, on " rejection " (1823-r^X :'\ 
John-MahkLuke Agrekments jlBSS— 4) 
"The Holy Oneof God" (1835) ' •" 


} i/ Verbal' Agreements numerous, but pu^lelisms', non-existent 

§ ly Verbal" Agreements numerous, but puatic 

, . / (1836-8) . ,, /^, 

VV §» "Lay the head to Test "^ie89-«) ■ :' 

§ 3 John-Matthew-Lukc Agreements (in English) (1847-^10) 

Words mostly pecitliar to John, Matthkw, ajid LtfltC 
^ (1851-6«>; Additional Note (1866 (l>r-<|y)) . 


fl Review of the evidence (1867-74) ' ■''; ^ 

§ I What remains to be done (1878 — T) ' ■■ ■''. ' i ;• 

Ji Johannine Grammar (1878— 80) .•'■',"'-■. 

i I . llntroductory remarks (1881—3); sutislics (1884—^)4 

\V ;\ -■ ' - ; V ADDENDA /:,'.^\* 

> ^ . V Supplement to the Vocabularies 1885 (i)4(ii) •"»." 
\ . \ 
'' \ . INDICES 

.\ See«ndof Part II,/iiA<uuu'mCrii«Mar 



, \ , - .'V- ; ■■ ■ .„ _ ■ , ... . 

■' REFERENCES •• -\ 

(i) Bl*it AraUc immiers, e.g. (878), refer to sub'sccliont indicated 
in this volume or in the preceding volumes of Uialeuarica :— 

8T3— m-'Corriclioiu. '.■.;■ ;^' 

tliii—lH9~FrvmLilterlaSpiril. :.: ■ ' ■ . ' •. \, 
1160-1436 = /'ar<Ml»jtV, '^ > • 

(ii) The Rooks of Scripture are referred Id by the ordinary^ ab- 
breviations, except , where specified below. Hut when it is 
aaid that Samuel, Isaiah, Matthew, or any other writer, wrote 
this or tha^t, it is to be understood as meaning Ikt virittr, 
mdumitr A^ may it, of Ikt words in quislion, and not as 
:taeaning tha(the actual ih-iter was Samuel, Isaiah, or Matthew. 

(iii) The Mss. called severally Alexandrian, Sinaitic, Vatican, and Codex 

Bczae, are denoted by A, »•, U, and D j the Latin versions by 

a, *, etc., as usual. The Syriac version of the Gospels discovered 

by Mrs Lewis and Mrs Gibson pn Mount Sinai called the 

■ "Syro-Sinaitic" or "Sinaitic Syrian," is referred to mSS. It U 

-^ ' always quoted from M^ Ilurkitt's translation. 

{iv) The text of the Greek Old Testament adopted is that of B, ediftd 
by Professor Sweie' ; of the New, that of Westcoti and llort. 

(v) . Modem works are referred to by the name of the work, oK author. 
. thevol., and the page, e.g. Leyj- iii. 3430, ■.«' column I, page 343, 

;.- .voLiil, - ,•■ ;.■ -V^ ■■ -.f •■ -'^.'^ ■■•',• J 



: * 

A, B, D, and «, see (iii) above. ■ ; ^ . ; _ . 

Apol. -Justin Martyr's First Apology. - 

Buhl = Buhl's edition of Gesenius, Leipzig, 1899. 
Burk. - Mr F. C. Burkitt's Evangtlion Da-'mtpharrtskt, Cambridge 
University Press, 1904. 

C. before nunjbers" circa, "about" (e.g- c. 10). 


Cbri. - llu words of Christ, as distinct from narrative, see 18TS*, 

Clem. Alex, 43— Clement of Alexandria in Potter's pages. ■ \ 

> Codex B, ihoogh mar* ancient than Codex A, is oAen less eloselo tU 
Hebrew than the latter {Ctiu 38). • '„' * ' 



Dalman, H^orJt" Wardi «f Jans, Eng. Tr^»l. 1901; Artut. C.-« 
Grnmmatik AramSitck, 1894. ' 

Diatcss.- the Arabic I>iatessar6n, sometimes called TXian's, trans- 
lated by Rev. H. W. Hogg, B.D,, in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. 

Ency. — Eneycliiptidia Bitlica. 

Ephrem « Ephraemus Syrus, ed^^Mocsinger. . 

Epistle, the-the First Epistle of St John. 

Esdras, the First Book of, is frequently called, in the text, Esdris. 

Euseb. — the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius. 

Field = Origcnts Hexaplorum quae supersunt, Oxford, 1875. 

Gesen. — the edition of Cesenius now being published by the Oxford 
University Press. 

Heb. LXX = that part of the LXX of which thei'e is an extant Hfibrew 
Original. .0 

H(^r. Heb.>i//<>nit Htbraicae, by John- Lightlbat, 1658--74; eiL 
Candell, Oxf. 1859. * - 

Iren.'thc treatise of Ircnaeus against Heresies. 

Jer. Targ. (or Jer.) I and 1 1 •- severally the Targum of " Jonathail Ben 
\ Uiiicl" and the fragments of the Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch. 
> Where Jer. I r is mining, Ji'r. 1 is often indicated by Jer. 
\ TH.-Kingi. 

\ 1-S. n Liddell and .Scott's Greek Lexicon. ." " ' ^ ; 

\ Narr. — /'« narrqiivf, -is distinct from (a\ speech of Cbritt, (J) qMSCh 
gi^rally (1672»). • "■." ,"■,■■•. 

pnk.^the Targum of Onkelos. on the Pentateuch. ,_ . '■."*, ' / 

Origen is geniHally rcfencd to in Huet's edition, 1668. . .• ' - . 

^^. Cont:.'^ The Ox/oriiConcflriiattce t0 tkf SefituaginL ,*. '" 

, affixed to Mt., Lk., etc., means peculiar to Matthew, Luke, etc 
hito is referred to by Mangey's volume and page, e.^. Philo ii. 334, 
or, as\to the Latin treatises, by Aucher's pages (P. A.) (see 1608). 

R<*th - Resch's Paralltlhxtt (4 vols.). 

'st.ASamuel ', s.-s'^sce." 

Schfittg. =-: Schtittgen's florae Hebraiciu^ Dresden and Leipiig, 1733. 

Sir. A the work of Ben Sira, i.t. the son of Sira. 1 1 is commonly called 
Ecclesiakticus (see W<i). The original Hebrew has been edited, in part, , 
by CowlAi and -Neubaaer, Oxf. 1897 j in part, by Scbechter and Taylor, \ 

SS, se«i(iii) above. 

Steph. ^r Steph. Thes.-Stephani Thesaurus (Didol).. 

Sym.-Hvmmachus's Version of the Old Tiastament. 

'tTvtxxvm.^fXtwtmAW^ CoHcordante to tkt Septu&gint. 

Tryph. = i|ie Dialogue between Justin Martyr artd Trypho thej«fr. . 

Wetst.-Wetstein's Comm. on the New 7Vr/<M«/«/, Amsterdam, I7J1 

W.H.- Wi^stcott and Hort's New Tesument 

A.V. \ ,,'•;- '-^ '".'kva.-/ ; ••■■-i. ^'^i- '■ i.^ 


(a) A bracketed Arabic number, following Mk, ML, etc., indicate the 
number of ihsiancet in which a word occurs in MaA, Matthew, etc, 
«vr. ir^<n Mk (o), Mt. (I), Lk. (I), Jn (7). 

(i) Where verses in Hebrew, Greek, and Revised Version, ate 
numbered differenlljr, (be number »{ R.V, i»j(ivaoaloae. • 



■.■-,. A .-■■- *^' ■/■,■■■■■,-.■ "-:. -, ■ - ■■-.*■ 

'..'.■ . ■■.■"4'. \^r-^''' ' ' ' ■' •■ '-. . "' " ■."■ '"'V ■:*-V ' ■ ''■■'■■ " 

[1436*] The first step towards helping readers of the ' 
Fourth Gospel to solve the problem presented by its voca- 
bulary and Style is to make them sec that 'a problem exists. 
The A.V. very frequently, and the R.V. not infrequtntly, 
conceal its existence. Take, for* example, the Dialogue 
between our I^ord and Peter after the Resurrection, in which 
the former tenderly implies a reproach for past professions of 
"love (dyairav)," while the latter, penitent and humiliated, 
does not venture to say any longer that he "/ores" Jesus, but 
only that he " Hies {if>iketv) " Him. The English " like " is too 
inaccurate to be admitted (even with ai) apology) into the . 
rendering of such a passage ; and there iji no one word in our 
language that can exactly give the meaning; but, since it - 
implies a humble protest on the part of the Apostle that he 
still retains a lower Jtind of Jove for his Master, we may, for 
want of anything better, paraphrase it as " I still love (1716/, 
1728«— /)." Then the dialogue would run as follow*: 

[1437] /esui. Simon, son of John, (ovest thou me mcM 
than these? , > 

. Peter. Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I stM love thee. "' » 

" ," ■ ■ 

Jesus. Feed my lambs. 

■ [14SBii] SceKefmncoonpp. xvi./>//. This u the fifth part of ide 
series enufed Dialessarica.' The fourth fut {" ParaJtuii") terminattd 
with subsection 143S. ' y 


The M-:;4r now repeats His question on a lower level, 
dropping the clause " more than these " : » 

Jeais. Simon, son of John, lovest thou me ? 
, Ptttr. Vea, Lord, thou knowest that I still hve thee. 

Jtsus. Tend my young sheep'. • ■ 

On the third occasion, Jesus cofttes down to a yet lower 
level, to the standard that the humiliated disciple has himself 
adopted: ,^ ,-. - • 

Jesus. Simon, iwn of John, tiA'est \.\\o\ai me slilli- t . 

PtUr. Lord, thou knowest all things, lhou75irA^/(16a4*) 
that I &!« thee j.'j//. 

Jesus. Feed my young sheep'. .',.■.;'■,. ;; 

[1438] The words " thou me more tKan these" are" 
apparently intended to mean "more than these thy comfnnioHS 
whom thou hadst m mind when thou didst say, in effect, 
Though all shoiilddesert, thee, yet will I never'." . The Fourth 
Gospel nowhere puts into Peter's mouth this contrast between 
what he would not do, and what "a//" might do, yet the 
Evangelist appears to Imply the contrast here*. That is to 
sjiy, the author writes allusively, alluding to tradition that he 
has not himself recorded. 

[1439] Observe, also, the thrice repeated " Simon, .son of 
John." It appears to call' attention to the very first words 
uttered by Jesus to Peter, when "Jesus looked . steadfastly at 
him and said. Thou aft [at present] Simon, soii of John \ thou 

' [1437 <i] The Syro-Sinaitic version (which will be denoted hence- 
forth by SS) has here "my ewes," and in xxi. i/'"my sheep." W.H. 
mart;, and R. V. Ixt. have ** my sheep," both here and in xxi, 1 7. 

•[1437*] Jnxxi. 15— 17. A. V. makes no attempt to distinuuish the 
two Greek words ; RV. translates both by "love "in Us text, but adds in 
margin that the Greek words are different. 

' [143d a] Mk xiv. 29 "Even though a// shall stumble yet not"!." 
Sirnil. Mt. xxvi. 33. Lk. xxii. 33 words PetWs protest quite differently. 

• [1438 «] Similarly he says (Jn lii. 14) " For John [the Itaptist] 
was not yet cast into prison," alluding to the imprisonment as a well- 
known fact though h< himself nowhere mentions it. 

nrTRODuenoN ri448i 

J -. _.____^. 

shall be called Cephas," «>. a stone'. Frptn the level of that-high 
and hopeful prophecy the Lord seems here deliberately to 
descend as though He had asked too much from His follower: ■ 
he was not Cephas, after all — "^ot yet »' 'east — only the original 
Simqn after the flesh, " Simon, son of John." Here again the 
Evangelist is writing allusively, but with alliuion to a traditioh 
recorded by himself. ,■■■?!■ '•-.. , < 

[1440] Lastly, although the text is somewhat doubtful, 
the three classes indicated by SS, the " lambs " and the "sheep" 
that need "feeding," and the "ewes" that need "tending," 
appear to correspond symbolically to the distinctions indicated 
m the First Epistle of St John: "I write unto you little 
children...! write unto you fathers...! write unto you young 
men." The Lord might simply have said, as St I'aul says to 
the Ephcsian ciders, " Feed the flock," but He adopts a three- 
fold ^iteration with slight variations, the impressiveness of 
which can be more readily felt than analysed and cxplain<». 

[1441] Thus, the dialogue resolves itself into a short 
dramatic poem with a triple refrain, apparently alluding to 
traditions mentioned in other Gospels but not in this one. 
Most simple yet most beautiful, artless yet in harmony with 
the deepest laws of art, it combines a passionate affection with 
subtle play on words and a most gentle yet powerful sug- 
gestion of loving reproach and helpful precept. The conci usron 
is at once pathetic and practical — that professions of love for 
the Saviour must be tested by labour for those whom the 
Saviour loves. 

[1442] This passage illustrates the Johanninc use of 
synonymous words and the iteration.s and variations charac- 
teristic of the Fourth Gospel^ but it does not illustrate the 
Johannine use of different forms of the .same word, as, for 
example, of the word "understand (yivwaKa)" which the 
Evangelist employs, in one and the same sentence (1627), first 



as Aoristi lIiuiM Present, to mean "understand spiritual'ljr 
and grow in understanding spiritually," but elsewhere as ' 
Perfect, to mean " understand spiritually««nd perfectly." It 
does not illustrate the subtle shades of meaning denoted by 
slight variations of a clause, t.g. "believe" with a Dative, 
meaning "believe a person," and "believe" with "into," 
meaning "fix one's belief on a person," and again, " believe 
into the name of a person "—which will be discussed in^^thc 
first chapter of this work. Lastly, it does not illustrate one 
of the author's most striking characteristics, his frequeitt 
obscurity or ambiguity. 

[1443] A mere glance at the R.V. marginal notes on the 
Gospels will shew the reader that, in the Synoptjsts, the notes 
mostly suggest alternative readings, but in the Fourth Gospel 
they suggest alternative «»(/<T»';^fj. The former imply cor- 
ruption in editors or scribes ; the latter imply obscurity in the ^ 
author, of which the following is an instance ; '■':- • - ' 

l-', ''■_;, ;.; John i.' 1^5 (R.V.) ' -/"'^ " 

•" Text Margin 

"All things were made iy "Allthings were made Mrea^A 

him ; and without him' was not him ; and without Aim was lu/ 

anything made that hath been anything matte. That which hath ' 

made. In him teas life,... And been made was life in him... AnA 

the light shineth in the darkness ; the light shineth in the darkneta; 

and th^daikneai^nr^ni&i/ it ,and the darkness aotrcame It 

not" ■'/' -ji'.-':." •y...-;--,'-,:'v"*'' '■-■ '~^' ■■' ■-■.:;■;":; 

" Oratio imago animi": the specimens given above should 
suffice to shew that, in this case, the "oratio" is of a very 
extraordinary character; that, if we can get back from the 
"imago" to the "animus," we shall discover a very extra- 
ordinary mind ; and that the attempt to get back involves a 
laborious sis well as fascinating problem. . '^ 





§2. Htm to dtal with the prMem 

[1444] ' Many details of Johaiininc style may be explained 
by merely collecting parallel instances; as, fo^ example, the 
author's use of ambiguous verbal hmis (2236) capable 6f 
being rendered indicatively, imperatively, or interrogatively 
("Believe in God," "Ye believe in God," "Believe ye in God?"), 
of " and " to mean " and [yet] " (2136) etc. This statemetit 
applies to most things in his Gospel that proceed from the 
author kimself, that is to say, from the author uninfluenced 
by other authors. So far, a Johannine Grammar and a 
Johannine Vocabulary would help ui to solve most of our 
difficulties; and it is hoped that the reader may find such 
help further oh in the Chapter of Synonyms, the Grammar, 
and the various pa.ssages indicated in the Textual Index. But 
the case is altci'bd when we come to.ambiguitic.s, symbolisms, 
and even literal statements that have the appearance of being 
nallusive. Take, for example, the phrase quoted above from 
the R;V. text as "The darkness apprehtndtd it not," but from 
the margin as " The darkness o-oercami \i not." How will 
our Johannwe Vocabulary or our johannine Grammar help 
us here .' " , 

' [1445] In the following way. In the first place, help 
may be derived from the Alphabetical Index referring to 
"Ambiguities (verbal)" at the end of the second part of this 
work. This will refer the reader to other instances where 
ambiguity arisen from the twofold meaning of a word, t^. 
where Jesus HtrtTself is descril>cd as using language that was 
a;nbigruou8 or obscure to His disciples at the time, as when 
He spoke about " this temple," and about Lazarus as having 
" fallen asleep," and said to them, "A little time and ye behold' 
me not." In the next place, the Textual Index (on Jn i. 5), 
or the alphabetical Verbal Index, will refer the reader to a 
footnote on KOToKaiifimu (1735 <— A) which occurs in the 
Vocabulary under the heading of words common to M^rk and 

' .J - 


udc to the narratives of 
Indeed it would not have 

John. ' There it is shewn that the word generally means 
" catch," " take possession of," " take as a prize," and that it is 
used by St. Paul in a- play on words, by Philo in the sense of 
" apprehending " God, and by John himself in connexion with 
"a darkness" that " catches " people by surprise. .The con- 
clusion sugi^estcd is that ilie primary meaning is " apprthcnded',' 
but that there is also a secondary meaning, " tnkt captive" 

[1448] If John is asj allusive ivriter there- is an ante- 
ce<Jenl probaljility that he would al i 
the Evangelists that preceded him. 
been surprising if he had quoted from them. There are, m 
fact, a few passages, more particularly those bearing on the 
Baptism, the Feeding oT the Five Thousand, the Riding into 
Jeru.salem, and the Hussion, where John, whether quoting 
or not, does at all events exhibit a slight verbal agreement 
with the Synoptists, more especially with Mark. Manifestly, 
the first step to be taken by anyone wishing to study the 
relation of the Fourth Gosjxil to the I'hrec," would be to set 
down all these passages of fourfold tradition, and their con> 
texts, in parallel columns, and to annotate the Johannine 
disagreements and agreements with each of the earlier writers. 
A work of this ki*id, however, would be a work by itself, far 
too bulky to fonn a chapter in the present volume': but some 
of the results of this work wi" be found in the fooj-notes 
appended to the Vocabularies given below. 

[1447] At this point the reader must be careful to 
distinguish the Triple Tradition (318) in which Mark, 
Matthew, and Luke agree, from Other Traditions — Single or 
Double — embodied in' one or more of the Synoptic Gospel*. 
There is, for example, Matthew's story of Christ's birth and 
infancy-; and there is LuHe's story of the birth of John the 

'Under the title o( The Four/M Gos/nl, I hope soon to publish 
such a treatise. It was completed some time &go, but its publication 
was deferred so that it might be revised with the aid of the present 


Baptist, followed by an account '«( the birth, childhood, acid 
early youth of, Jesus. These two may be called Single 
Traditions, of an introductory character, in which Matthew 
and Luke contain hardly any points of agreement Other 
Single Traditions occur at intervals In Matthew and Luke, 
as,- for example, Matthew's story of'^I'dter walking on the 
waters and the parables peculiar to Matthew, and Luke's story 
of "the woman that was a sinner," and the parables peculiar 
to Luke'. 

[1448] As to Double Traditions, there is one, com- 
paratively ■short, peculiar to Mark and Matthew, dcscribmg 
the f^ing of the four thousand, the walking of Christ 
on nle waters, related also by John, and the healing of 
the Syrophtrhician's child. There is another, far ampler', 
peculiar to Matthew and Luke, containing the Lord's Prayer, 
many. pas.sagcs prom the Sermon on the Mount, and other 
doctrinal matters, besides the Temptation, the healing of 
the centurion'.s son, and the niessage of the Baptist to Christ, 
"Art thou he that should come?" with its .sequell ; ' 

[1449] The tearing of these remarks will be better appre- 
ciated >Chen the reader examines particular, wonls in the 
Vocabularies given later on. lie will find for example that 
Matthew, Luke, and John agree in using two words, " murmur" 
and " hallow " (or " sanctify "), never used by Mark. But the 
former does not occur in anj/ imporlant parallel passage 
of the Jpouble Tradition, whereas the latter occurs -there, 
as part of the parallel versions of the Lord's Prayer, in the 
wor3s " iHallowed be, thy name." , The latter (" hallow ") is ' 
likely to be far more important than the former ("murmur") 
for the purppse of ascertaining whether the Fourth Gospel is," 
::j^tten allusively to the Three. For there is far more reason ■ 

> The Single Traditions peculiar lo M«rk arc few and cunipan'tivd)) ' 
unimportant. • : - 

■ ' This, owing lo its relative importance (318 (ii)), is regular'/ qtlltdji. . 
"The Double Tradition" for breyity. .* ^ ■ .S 

■ :. ...- - ■■ ■■ "^ ■. ■■-;■;: -■. - , ■' .?^' 


to suppose that John would write with a desire to illustrats 
Xhia*i/(>uify supported tradition about " sanctifying "or " hallow- 
ing" than th|t he would be influenced by the non-parallel- 
uses of the word " murmur " in Matthew ,apd Luke'. For thin 
reason; in the Vocabulary common to Matthew, Luke, and 
Johrii all words (bund in parallt! passages of the Double 
Tradition are indicated by a special mark. 

§3. A specimen of alUtsivefwis,'' hating oue' s awn life" 

[14601 Sometimes special circumstances may itidicatc a 
probability of Johannine allusiveness, even where a word or 
phrase is mentioned by only one of the. Synoptists. This is 
certainly \rwc (Paradasis, p. i;c. preface) in many tnst.inces 
of similarity between Mark and John: but an instance will 
ficre be given bearing on Luke and Jbhn. Luke records 
a saying of our Lord that' no one cart become His disciple 
unless he hales Mis own lift. This is in the Double Tradition 
of Matthew and Luke : but the former omits thi clause. 
Matthew also has in the context " whosoever WoiWA father 
more than me" where the parallel Luke says that a man must 
"hate" his father'. These facts suggest that, as wc might 
have anticipated, the tradition about " hating " one's " life " 
caused difficulty, and that Luke, though later than Matthew, 
has here retajncd the earlier text, which Matthew has 
paraphrased. John has "hateOi his oxen life"hyH with a 
qualification that makes the. meaning clearer : — " Whosoever 
hateth his own life in this world'." It must not, of course, 
be assumed, on the strength of this single pasiiage, that John 

■ [1449(>1 The word yoyyvfa "munnur,'' used four titnei in Jn, 
occurs once in Mt., vii. x«. II, of Uboureri, in a parable, and once in 
Lk.,'viz. V. 3<\ of "the Pharisees and their scribes." It happen! that 
Mk never uses it. Consequently it appesirs in (he "Words common to 
John, Matthew, and Luke." But there is not the slightest reason to 
suppose ttiat Jn alludes to either of the paisagei in Mt.-Lk. 

' Mt X. 37, Lk. xiv. 26. ■ • Jn xii. 3$. 



U alluding to Lut?t Gosptl^ ; ' for he may hav* known the 
saying from other sources. IJut it is almost Certain' that 
John is alluding to t/u saying ctntaiiud, in Luke's Gosfel, with 
an intention of explaining it, not by altering the Lord's hard 
word "hate" (as Matthew appears to have done), but by 
adding something in. the context to justify the " hating." 

§4. Another sfeeim^,, "rtlining the head" 

[1461] In the Greek Vocabulary of words common to 
Matthew, Luke, and John will be found (18S8) kXi'i'ib with 
a footnote calling attentipn to the xKivia Ki^\r\v 
" Acline the head." This might esca|)e the notice of a read(3! 
unacquainted with Greek': but it is of great interest as 
pointing to the conclusion that John knew O'e Double 
Tradition of Matthew and Luke, and occasionally alluded 
to it. This was made fairly probable by the apparent 
allusion ("hating one's own life") mentioned in. the last 
section. If a second instance can be produced, the two will 
be mutually strengthened. 

{1462] The only instance of "recline the hdad" in 
Matthew is in the well-known saying of our Lord (Mt. 
viii. 20) " Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests : 
but the Son of man hath not where to recline his head," 
where no one denies that the meaning is "recline the head 
in sleep." The only instance in tuke (ix. 58) is in a parallel 
tradition agreeing with this passage of Matthew not only in 
meaning but in word, wr*«/;'»», and the meaning is equally 
indisputable there, " recline his head." ' 

■ Prol>ably he is alluding to it ; but the probability cannQt be 
demonstrated without. ^ comparison of a great number of passages in 
the Gospels. 

' Such a reader would, however, find references to the explanation of 
the phrase if he turned to the Textual Index, and also in the Verbal 
Index, under "head"; tbe latter would refer him to the footnote on 
Mom %t^Mfi as well as to this section. 



[1463] The only instance of " recline the head '' in John 
is in the description of our Lord's death as follows (xix. JO) 
" When, ther^ore Jesus bad received the vinegar hi;, said, 
It is finished, and (lit.) having rtclitud his htad ht dt- 
livtred up his sfirit." The parallel Mark and I.uke have 
sjniply " he expired {efitrvevaev)," Matthew, has ," He let go 
(or, sent away) (nifnjKfp) his spirit." Taking the conservative 
and orthodox- view that these three accounts of the Synoptists 
were accepted as authoritative by Christians several years 
before the end of the first century, we assume that the Fourth 
Evangelist knew these expressions, and ptpforrol to describe 
the 'act otherwise. As regards the last part qf his version 
("he delivered up his spirit") an obvious reason for his 
preference suggests itself. The Johannine phrase brings out, 
more clearly than those of the Synoptists, thj notion of 
martyrdom or, self-sacrifice. But what as to the " reclining " 
of " the head ". ? Some may at first assume (as perhaps K". V. 
" bowed his head") that the physical act df bending the head 
("■/Bclining," not " reclining ") is mentioned as typical of 
resignation or worship (1462 <»). The'ir second thought may 
be that resignation and worship are not so prominent in the 
Johannine conception of Christ as the higher feeling of absoluSe 
and unalterable filial devotion. 

' [1464] infact,however,neithcrthatfirstassumptionkbout 
" inclining " nor that second thought about antecedent prob- 
ability ought to have Come so soon into our minds. The 
first Ihought should have been. What does xXiVu Kd^Xtju 
mean elsewhere in Greek literature and more, particularly 
in any Greek literature likely to be .studied by John? Htre 
> a surprise awaits us. For Stephen's Thesaurus gives no 
instance of the phrasCj under either of the two Greek words. 
The is also absent from the Concordance ,to the LXX, 
though each of the two words,' singly, is extremely common. 
There is indeed abundant mention of "bowing" in the Bible, 
but the LXX and other translators never use this phrase for it. 



One reason appears for its noh-usc when we find Luke > 
describing certain wojnen as"^" bending («Xi>*>) their /»<■«" 
■Uo the ground; for this suggests that !' face "would b* used 
In mentioning the "bending/flrti'(i/-(/" or " bowing," whereas, 
"head" would be used in "bending bathvard" or '' ftclining." 
" Ricline," indeed, is the niiost natural moaning, because the 
verb is used so frequently in Greek for "reclining on a couch, 
or bed," the active, xXiva, being sometimes used to mean 
" cause to lie down'," and the noun, kKivfi, being frequently used 
in N.T., as well as elsewhere, for "couch." ,. 

[14S0J From the grammatical and literary .point of vieAr, 
then-^which is also the scientiiic point of view — the phrase 
should me^n "reclint the heat" in sleep, and there is not a 
particle of literary evidence for any oilier conclusion. ' But 
it may be urged that "from a common sense point of view" 
this meaning is out of the question, because " reclining the 
head in sleep" cannot possibly be intended by J(il4|rand 
" bowing the head in meek; submission ". is absolutely re- 
quired. " ;' " ■:-'' ■-• ■• ' .^;. "■ . 

[1466] This may be," common sense," but it is certainly 
not in accordance with the Johahhine " sense " of what is fit 
and seemly for the Messiah. For where, in" the whole of the 
Fourth Gospel, shall we find Him doing anything In "meel^ 
submission"? He is not "meek'," not at least in the usual 
sense of the tern). Nor does He ever "submit" to the 
Father's wilt It is His "fobd'"'to do it. The first words 
of the Evangelist's Prologue tell us that the Logos was " with 
God," and its last words identify the Logos with " the Only- 
begotten," who is "in the bosom of the Father." Almost every 

' Eurip. Ak. ]6S iititrt lUBiti ii ^, >XiVar> /i", "Itl'mt fit dovm^ 
Oral. S27 •Xii'di' ji' it «t»^», "lay me down on the bed." 

' [14M a] Where Ml. xxi. 5 quAtes Zech, ix. 9 "meei and riding upon 
an asi," Jn nil. 15, quoting the same prophecy, oniits*'*iMil.'' 

> Jn iv. 34. . ■ • ■ ^ 



subsequent page contains some doctrine sug^sting that the 
home of the Son In. the home, or> immediate presence, of the • 
. Father; that He came from this home to do the Father's 
will ; that He is " going to the Father " because the work 
is on the point of completion.; and that He was from the 
beginning, atid is, " one with the Father." What more 
natural, thten, not indeed for a common-place writer, but for 
"such a one as we are considering, that he should conncctjhecry 
" It is finished " with the statement that the Son, in finishing 
t^e Father's viorV, found at last that perfect rest ■which H* 
could never find OH earth} Other martyrs, such as Stephen, 
might be described as "falling asleep," but this would have 
been inappropriate for the Johannine character of the Soin . 
of God, the Strength of Israel, who can "neithec slumber nor. 
sleep," bat who might well be described as laying His head ' 
to rest on the bosom uf the Father. 

[1467] *EhrJ'sostom's interpretation, though it does not _ 
exptessly say that* the phrase means " rest,", does clearly 
distinguish it from bowing the head in token of submission ; 
for he mentions it as an indication Itiat our Lord acted " with 
authority." Moreover he fontrasts the action with that of ' 
ordinary men who, as he say*,-" recline the head" dfttr 
breathing their last, whereas Ch.-ist did it before' : and surely 

'* [14ff7<f] Chrysost. ad loc. \a^» oZv ^ai^ TcrAfdTiu. E4d4t atapaj^iat 
Koi firr* /foviriac trarra nparroyra; Kai ri i^ M rovn difXot. 'Eirfid^ y^ 
irorra dwrfftrtv^ri, cX^Hir r^»- K<0aAI)i' (ovM yifi avnf irpovijXvro), r& rrtvfM 
J^Kc, Tovr/ffTii,, dr^tfrv^. Kairo* ov furA rd «Xiv(u tifK Kf^oX^y «A torrfvnu' 
imavBa At rotvarrt'ov. O^ yn^ iwtthif f^trrtv^fv, fcXiM-n}!, cf^wX^r, 
owtft f^* ilt^* ymrai- dXX' inttHi fcXtfr r^r sf^oX^r,' ror* t^itvtwi. 
hi Mv irarrtH' iSi]Xmirtp 6 rvayyiXurr^r on rov wanrit Kvptot atirot i}r. 
[14S74] It may, •however, be. urged affainit Chrytosiom that the 
position of a man lying, or titling up, in bed, is quite diflercnt from that 
of She cnicified, and that, in the latter case, the head must be iitdiiud 
forward in death. 1 have seen one. modem Frqnch realistic picture 
of the Crucifixion representing the head so bent down that the face is 
hardly visible. But (i) that attitude, as far as I know, is quite eiceplional 

INTROpUCribN [!«•] 

i^/ it must be admitted that the uiual course with n dying man 
(lips a-~t) would be that his head would bend backward or . 
sideward, not forwarilin the qct of "bomiHg'.' ' ■ 

[1408] Possibly it objected that the universally' 

* _ admitted usage of Matthew, and of Luke, and the apparent 
interpretation of Chryapstom, do not constitute sufficient 
evidence of the use of .«XiW m^X^v in the sense "lay^pne's 
head'' to rest " to est^lish th|e conclusion that John usea it 
thus. But the reply is that (ho evidence, so far as it goes; tends 
indisputably to that conclusion, and that litre, ft nirevideHte . 
aiaU derivablf front Greek literature to Justify the supposition 
that he used it in any other fense'. The verdict " insuflficietrt 
evidence" on the one side is, therefore, met by the verdict 
" no evidence at all 'J on the other. The right course would 
•eem to be, either to mark the passage as corrupt and' leave it 
untranslated, or to translate it, in accordance with such evidence 
as at present exists. * ♦ 

• S 5- Inferences ■ ■■ ' .■ 

[146S]k From , the facts above stated it follows that,* 
<v whereas the gramniu vl^the Fourth Gasyiel may be in large 
measure studlod by itself, th; vocabulary pf that G^pel — 
though often capable of being illustrated and elucidated frorti 

ill thV pictures of the Crucifixion ;(}) it secmt pouiblt 'that the head — 
being, as CItrysostom says, "not nailed to [the cross}"— would have 
freedom to droop backwards, or at all events sidewardi, under the . 
relaxing touch of death, in an altitude of rest as distinct from an attitude 
of sutmisiion: and that is all that is needed to satisfy the linkuistic 
requirements, namely that «Xin> means""bend in rest," not "boid in 
resignation." • . * 

> [14S8a] The only basis for the hypothesis that John may have used * 
«XiVa> »^X^> to mean " bow the head,(in4i>csignation)" i> that which may 
be obtained from translations of the Gftlck. U-\i very natural that 
translators should take Jhe phrase to mean " bow.* Such a view would 
harmoniie with the spirit of Roman im^rialism.^ It might also seem to 
some to suit the Synoptic character of Christ. But it cert linly does not 
bannonjSe with the Johannine character. 

•3^ ■ ' \ * 


Johannine sources alone — will sometimes not be fully under- 
stood without reference to the vocabulary of the Synoptists. 
Hence we shall proceed to study John's use. of Words from 
two points of view, first the Johannine, then the Synoptic. ■ 

[1460] We shall begin with one clue-word, so to speak, 
" believe " — which pervades the whole of the Fourth Gospel 
in such a way that to follow the Evangelist's use of it is to 
trace, in brief, the development of his doctrine as well as the 
methods of his style. From a summary of passages about 
, " believing " we shall try to ^ain a general vie* of the writer's 
use of words — his regctitions of the same word in tTie same 
phrase, his repetitions ^f the s4me word in a' slightly different 
form of the. phrase, his repetitions of the same (or nearly the 
same) plirasie . with a slightly different form of the word. 
From " believe " wc shall pass to other words, and especially 
' to those that are synonymous, treating them in the same way 
and always keeping in view the author's general intention 
in the use of the word as well as the meaning of the yarticu|^r 
passage under discussion. . . - 

[1461] In the next place we shall compare the vocabulary 
of the Fourth Gospel with those of the Triple, Double, and 
Single, Traditions of the Synoptists. As regards the Triple 
Tradition, this will be done negatively, as well as positively. 
That is to say, we shall shew what words John does not use 
though they are frequent in the Synoptists, as well as what 
he does use although the Synoptists rarely or never them. 
The statistics of these uses must of course-be expressed by 
bare numbers ; j?ut the footnotes to many of these numbers 
^ill quote passages of importance containing the words, and 
Vill adduce facts bearing upon their interpretation. Some of 
^these footnotes will be intended to suggest research rather 
than demonstrate conclusion. 

[1462] F'or example, under the head of " Remission of 
sins," connected by Mark and Luke with John the Baptist, 
it will be shewn (1000 a — h) that Matthew emits it there ; 

' ■ ^ 14 . 



that he also substitutes " debts " for " sins " (the same Hebrew 
word having either meaning) in his version of the Lord's Prayer ; 
and that the Greek word Apkesis, or Remission, was the word 
regularly applied to the Remission of Debts in the Sabbatical 
Year — contended for by Jeremiah and Nehemiah.but recently 
abrogated (so it is said) by Hillel the venerated head of the 
Pharisees. In its bearing On the Fourth Gospel this detail 
is not of great importance (except as explaining why the 
author may have avoided the term, deeming it to be obscure 
or misunderstood). But it might have important bearings on 
the history A>f the origin of thi Church, and possibly — for us 
now — upon its prospective development'. ' ' 

■ [1402 <i] As regards Jn xix. 30 (R.V.) "bowed his head," it should 
be noted that " bow " and " head " together, in the EngUsh O.T. Con- 
cordance, ^ occur six times, and always in connexion with worship 
expressed or implied : " bow down " ffnd " head " occur four times 
similarly, and once apparently in a bad sense (Is. Iviii. 5] "10 Uw dman 
kit Mtiul as a bulrush.^' v^ . 

[1482 b] f have not found Mfi tt^xAiif in the very copious Indices 
to Aristotle and Uician. The suggestion that. the phrase simply meant , 
"the head drooped in death" appears to mc to ignore two considerations. 
(1) If a Creek author meant this, he would have used-ras liiiuixni. $43 
iu^ivBn d* irtfmvt ko^i}— the passive, and«ll the more certainly because 
the passive jnay mean (Miad vii. 2S4 tMri^) "bent his body," so that 
the active is only used ^^ery few instances to mean " lay on a couch," 
"lay to rest," "lean anything" etc. (2) Even if xXiVft iti^>aXriv could 
meaii " 1 droop my head," such a phrase — appropriate en^uli in Homer 
or Virgil, Hippocrates or Galen, to describe the dcath^H^ warrior or 
a patient'—could not have beeif tiscd by the author of the fourth Gospel 
to describe the outward sign of the spiritual departure of the Son of 
God to the bosom of the Father. 

[1482 r] In 1457 o, the extract from Chrys., after Airi'ruriu, prob. om. 
by error (Cramer) yivrrat^ JXX4 lurtt ri ttirvtwrta fA nXirai. We may 
Y* fairly presume that Chrys.— when saying (in effect) " lie act occtirrvd with 
Him, before death; with'us,Jt occurs after death" — repeats xXirw for 
brevity, to denote the "atl' though, strictly speaking, the act of Christ _ 
was Mrat, the act with us is cXitf^'ot (not indeed being an " act " at all, 
but a passive relaxing of the muscles). _ 

A..V. ■ xy' ■":-.■. ,„.-'^-'"- • -3 . 

■^.^ ; 


*' ' 




■ ■■' ^\ri ..■•!■</■ ■■ >■■■'•-■ •.'.-r i ':. ■'■;■.■.•■ ■,■-'.■••''■,' • 



'7 3-1 



■ ■ ■ •■■-ia 

.; A :--v '?«;;« 

.,!"iv. ■■,'■•■, -fvrA'' 

■;;'v^'-' '.-"';■-'■' ^>>*^ 

.■IT, •-•; ,«■ ■'■■ i' '.y ■ 

w; ',...■;;■■■ , ■• .:■■■- 


Jr.. . 


,. "BtUhVING" ' - 

§ I Mtlievttig' or, imttmg;' a kty-word in tkt , 
T|^ Fourth Gospel 

[1463] The Johannine use oC th< word "believe" deservas 
a separate con<iideration for two reasons. In the first place, 
in a work 'dealing with Johannine grammar and vocabulary, 
the word is of special importance because the Evangelist uses 
it in various phrases and with-various cd^ructions in such a 
way as to throw light upon his general style and method.of 
composition. In the next place, he exhibits "believing" in 
so many difTercnt phases, attributes it (in diflercht phases) to 
so man}' persons and classes, assigns so many sayings about 
it to bur Lor(} Himself, and makes so many evangelistic 
comments about it in his own person, that a summary of the 
Johannine 'dicta about " believing," amounting almost to a 
summary of the Gospel itself, may give a clue to its scheme 
and motive. 

[1464] Look at the Goe;|>el as a drama, and you 'will find 
that few of the leading characters are not placed at some 
timein such circumstances as to shew us— "br make us ask-r 
what, or whom, and how, and why, they "believed," or why, . 
and what, and whom, they were exhorted to beliyve. The 
Baptist himself, though he soon disappears from the scene. Is 
connected with the very first mention of the word because hii 

[14881 "BELIEVING" 

rudimentary work was to produce "beiicP." After that, 
Nathanael is gently reproved — apparently for believing too 
eaiily'. Then came the "glory" of Christut Cana, and "his 
disciples believed in him'." Many at Jerusalem " believe," or 
" trust," because of His signs ; but — a strange play upon the 
word — Christ "did not trust himself to them*." Nicodemus 
and the Samaritan -wpman are instructed in believing or 
exhorted to believe*. The nobleman, pleading for his sick 
child, is told that people in. his condition "will not believe" 
without " signs and wonders." But he does believe — " himself 
and his whole house'." Then Peter makes his confession, 
" We completely believe and know." He says " we," and 
speaks in the name of " the Twelve." Yet Christ has said to 
the disciples "there are some oCyou that believe not"; and 
now He declares that one of the Twelve " is a devil'." After 
this, " many " of the multitude, " many " of " the Jews," the 
man born blind, Martha, ," many even of the rulers" (after a 
fashion)^all, in turn, believe or avow belief. ' In the Last 
Discourse, Philip and the disciples arc stimulated to believe ; 
and they confidently protest their belief just before their 
Master warns them that they will abandon Him'v It is also 
said that the world is to be judged because men "do not 
believe"." Finally, in His Last Prayer, the Lord declares 
that the disciples. " have believed " and prays that the world 
" may believe"." - -" 

[1460]' Speaking in. his' own person, and describing the 
Passion, the Evangelist breaks off from his narrative to 
protest that he " sayeth true " " that ye also may believe^." 
After the Resurrection there is a curious repetition of tra- 
ditions about " leeing " arid " believing." It is said that " the 

'■ ■•!•> . ...'■: '" ■-■ -':■■''■ 

. » i ja . • ij. II. ' ♦. ll«3-"4. ^ iii. u, iv. II. 

* t». 4(, 53. ' vi. A4.-70, • vJir jl, viif. 30, ix. 38, Hi. 37, »ii Ai- 

• xiv. I -IJ, xvi. Ji>— I. '• »vi. ^ " xvii. 8, 20 — 1. 

"BELIEVING" .{l*«] 

other disciple'' (but not Peter his companion) "satv and 

Mieited." Thomas says "If I ste not I will not believe"; 

and Christ's last use of the -word is in a solemn combination 
of blessing and warning, " Blessed are they that have liot seen 
and Miened'." Then immediately follows the Evangelist's 
statement, " These things have been written that ye may 
believe.. .and that, believing, ye may have life in his name'": 
and this is the Evangelist's last dictum about "believing." 

[1466} Almost the only leading characters.i^ot connected 
\Vith the word "believe" are Mary the sister of Lazarus and 
Mary Magdalene. These are not said to believe in anyone or 
in anything nor do they ever use the word. But both "weep*" 
in the Lord's presence. And the we^ng of one precedes the . ' 
weeping of Jesus and the Raising of Lazarus ; the weeping of 
the^other precedes the first manifestation of the Risen Saviour 
^ Himself. Do not all these widely differing facts converge to 
the conclusion that the Evangelist recogiii.scs many kinds and 
shades of believing and desires to subordinate it, even at its 
highest, to some still higher process of receiving spiritual 

truth? •;.- ; . ■:,/ ► . 

§2. Why John prefers " belinie" io" Mief" 

[1467] The Synoptic Vocabulary shews that John never 
uses the noun " faith," " belief," or " trust," but that he com- 
pensates for this by an abundant of (he verb " have faith," 
"believe," or "trust." His reason foj- doing this may bc^ 
illustrated by two passages in Mark. One of these gives, as 
part of Christ's first public utterance, the words " Believe in Ik* 
Gospel" not repeated in any shape by the parallel Matthew or 
Luke and. unique in N.T.* Another is (lit.) " Have J^the] 
faith oLGod" where the context refers to the uprooting of ■ 

r o£God" wh 

'CT.8,J5,J9. . 'JULJI.-. » »lj;JJ,'>JI. U. 

• MIc i. IS, SS "Ais (>'.<.. God's) Gasp^"i i and/oin. "in," and w 
docs Origen (Huet ii ijo) , 



.trees or mountain's and teaches that everything-A>ut possibly 
the meaning is every spiritual thing — will be granted to faith'. 
Here again the other Synpptists deviate from Mark. Matthew 
omits the words '.of God," and says " If ye have. faith": Luke, 
m a diRcrent context, has " If 'ye have faith as a grain of 

[1488] These textual divergences are very natural. The 
influx of wonder-working faith into the Christian Church must 
have been felt muclf more definitely than it could be ex- 
pressed. McYi were con.scious that " faith " had led them fnjm 
death into life. Yet some .found it difficult to explain, to 
others precisely why they had " faith." The Fii^t Epistle of 
St Peter bidslconverts be ready to "give a reason" for the 
"hope" that was in them: so,. the Fourth Evangelist might 
naturally desire to help Christians to "give a reason " when 
they were asked to explain or describe the faith that was in 
them : " Why, and what, or whom, or in' whom, or to whom, 
or to what, do you trust .'" This he does by substituting the 
verb for the Synoptic rioun and .by adding various objects or 
modifying phrases answering these ^questions. ^ ■ . |,V. 

# ^' ■■ ■ - "-■' -' ,-!^^ 

ry.y\%- "Btlwing"' in the OU TtUfttiulff 

[14iB9] The Hebrew verb, "trust," or "believe," is radi- 
cally connected with the words "support," "nourish," "foster- 
father;" " foster-mother," " nurse," " pillar (of a house)'." In 
the Passive, it means "supported," "confirmed,'' " ste^fifast." 
In the Causal, it means " stand firm," " trust," " believe"-^ but 
"believe" in a moral sense, not a mere act of the intellect; 
The best (or least inadequate) riindering is often " trust," 

■ Mk xi. ]i Jim nttmr Aoi : a arid k om. 4>rrf, D hu ii( lj(ni rlrto 
Tov tf«it>, K (I d etc. ins. fj-^onforpiing the text to Mt or Lk.. * 

' Mt. xxi, 31 fif <xT't ^^- xvii. 6 (i <j|«T<. 

' For these and the following facts relating to the Hebrewforms ace 
Gcscn. il/o//. 

"BELIEVING" ■ ■ ,' [lino] 

because our Engfish "trust" is connected etymologicaHywitR 
" true," and with words suggestive of firmness and confidence. 
The Hebrew amati, "support," is connected with our amen 
(an utterance of "confirmation") and with the Hebrew emelA, 
" truth," and limoiiu " master-workman,'" the Vord applied 
in Proverbs to the Wisdom that cooperated *ith God in the 

-Creation'. This Hebrew " trust " differs widely from that/ 
kind of belief (upon more or less of evidence) which we mean 
in English when we say " I Min'e it is about half past two." 

[1470] In Hebrew, one may trust ( i ) absolutely, (2) " to " 
a person or thing, (3) " in " a person ,or thing, or (4) " that " 
a statcinent is true. ' The third of these constructions is ■ 
usually employed in describing trust In GodV ^^. "And he 
[Abraham] trusted in the Lord and he counted it to him for ; 
righteousness." But the LXX— rendering Abraham's "trusting" 
by TTiorewB, which is never followed by a preposition in classical 
Cr/irit'— has " he trusted the Lord '(dat). This often-quoted 
passage reveals the general inability of classical Greek toj- 
represent Semitic traditions about "trust" in God. Now and 
then, espccfally with a negative, the translators of O.T. use 
"in" to denote that Israel did not "stand fast, or- trust, in 
God*"; but, as a rule, they are content with the dative to 
represent A^M of .the Hebrew prepositions. As for the Greek 

*j"to," "trust ii/^ vumiiit> tU, itii*' n?ver thus used lqf*~ 
the LXX,i ■• ; .^\- ■;, '■" .-■:',•.• ■ .''■■:':• ■ 

" " ■ — ■ ■ — r-^-— ■ ' ' 1 '.' "V""' ' ' ' — i— -- ^-^-— *' ■■. | ...» y_ "■ ■' -m.i. t ,i' ..-— -.f.a— 

■. ■ V .• - '■■ )■' -., ■ -.••'■•. ' •■• '^ 

* Prov. viii. 30. ' \ ' " '.■ * ^'■' ' '"■ . 

' Gewn. 53a "the usual opnstructibn wi|b.T>o<l Gn. XV. 6." '{ 

■ steph. ■ A ,../ . ■' ■ • y-^-"" 

' [1470 a] With negative in^,Ps. t)uivii|.'?a^ " becauie they traced not 

, in (3) (t'c) (iod and hdpAt not ui\a)(^i)'liii ialvation,'" Jer. «ii. ^ "Iruit 
not m (3) them" (comp. Sir. xxx'ii. 2t,^)Tt\t»i. not. in (3) the (vay," (i^ 
nttrrtiani ''r H^); without negative in' ft. cvij la (R.V.) "then' *f//W//</ 
they his wqrdv" Dan. vi. 23 (rheod.) R.V. " he had tru^ed in hi« 
God " (A pm. ^1-). ■ ^ j ^ . J 

[1*70*] 'E«-i never occur* wAh^ in LOfX tatpt'ii Wild. xfi. »;_ • 
». rfirl »<, (i.e. God). .,»■»»'>■•'...»<''' . , *.. , ■ 

[1471] "BEtlEVING" 

[1471] Besides this inadequacy in Greek construction - 
there is inadequacy in the Greek verb itself to represent 
the moral meanings of the Hebrew verb in its different forms ' 
and its associatios with firmness and stability. When Isaiah, 
playing on these shades of meaning, says " If ye be not firm 
[in faith] ye shall surely not be madcfir^ [in facty \i^. "if 
yo will not believe ye shall not be establislud") the LXX has, ' 
for the latter clause, "ye shall surfly not understand' ": and , 
a similar saying in Chronicles " Believe in Jehovah and ye 
shall be eonfirmed" (lit. " Be firm in Jehovah and ye shall be 
made firm") is rendered by the LXX "Trust in Jehovah 
' and ye shall be truited," perhaps meaning " ye shall \x proved 
trushvorthy'.". • 

j %i^: " Believiitg' in. PkOo 

, [1472] Philo, being a Greek in language but a Jew in 
faijth and theofogical tradition, shares in the linguistic in- 
adequacies of the LXX (which ^pmed to him an inspired 
version of the Hebrew) but ^H^'s a Jewish sense .that 
Abraham's "trust" was something more than Greek "be»/ 
lieving." Traces of this ap[)ear in his frequeijt mention, or 
implication, of the instability of all other " trust " as compared 
with Wac firmness or stability of trust in God : " It is best to 
trust completely (•7r«ri<rrei;<f€i'Oj) to God and not to the misty 
reasonings and the unstable imaginations [of men]. Abraham, 
at all events, trusted to God and w>as esteemed rightepus' " ; 
" He [Abraham] saw into the iinfixedness and unsettledness of 
material being when he recogni'sed the unfaltering stability 
that attends true BEING, to which [stability] he is said to 
have Completely trusted*." The4)raise of Abraham's faith is 
justified, he says, because nothing is so difficult or so righteous 

* is. vii. 9 <Ahi f«4 irwifrty Sytn. Au^vrrrf, Theod. iTMrrrvtfWifrT. ' 

* a Chrnx. so tvirurrfv^fatff, comp. Sir. i. 15, xxxvi. ai. 
' Philo i. 132 quoting Gen. xv. 6 as iUawt fvofuoBtf. 

■ * [1478^ Philo i. 273 ...di'idpirrok' KUt itfrarov uan'A* n^i, yivtum ^« 
riif wtfH Tit fit, irtvioiavTop tyvtt fifftaUnfra "j lUytrt itfWurrtwtivoL^* 

w - • 


"BELIEVING" [1478] 

as " to anchor ortese|f firmly and unchangeably upon true 
BEING alone'." In the course of a long eulogy on it, he says 
that " the only good thing that is void of falsehood and stable 
is the faith thatvis toward God" or "the faith toward true • 
BEING"." Elsewhere he calls this faith "knowledge," and 
again connects it with stability : — riot that Abraham could 
obtain the knowledge of God's ' essence, he , says, but he 
obtained clearer impressions of His Being and Providence, : 
"Wherefore also he is said to have been the first to have 
' trusted Gody since he was the first to have an unaltering and 
\ stable conception, how that there exists One Cause, the 
Highest^ providing for the world and all things therein. And, 
having obtained knowledge, the most stable of tht virtues, he 
obtained- at the same time all the rest'.". 

[1473] All these extracts bear on one passage of 
Scripture — that which describes the faith of Abraham. But 
they suffice to shew that, in the middle of the first century, .' 
a non-Christian Jf w would have great difficulty in conveying 
to Greeks all that was meant by the Hebrew " trust " when 
it meant "trust in God." This difficulty would be greatly 
increased by the influx of so stupendous a revelation as the 
Incarnation ; and we have now to see how the earliest 
Christian writers grappled with, it. 

Mangey printi j as tlw ot^ectoC v. : t>ut we might read i$ X/ycrM " frciri7t> 
nxi'rai^" " in which rcapect he is said to have ' believed.'" For the perf. 
(here and i. 13a) comp. Demosth. 3 PhiUpp. § 6 oi ^ap^ifnt «ai ' 
wtirurrtvKorts avr^ and (Steph.) Philostr. Epist: 40 irciriirrruKar movr^ 
Kal r*6a^^%aty i.e. " tmst absolutely." 

' Philo i. 486 rii f'lrt ^vtf Ty tvTi HtffaMf Kai axXivwr opjuiv. Thh 

illustrates the use of fVi quoted above (liTOA) fi-om Wisd. xii. 2. 
, ■ ■ Fhito ii. 39 itnyov off ayf^tvkit kiii /jV/jamf ayaffoii ^ ir/»Af rir Slim 

iriffTir, and t^i" ir^r ro 'Ok irt'im*'. 

' [1472^] Philo li. 443 kqI o^ npartpow av^Kiv-ll rpavonpas Xafiiitf 
^avTaviat..'Tijt ttirap^mt aiirov cat tr/KWOiar jf Aucaiov. A16 KUi trtcrrn'trat 
X^ytrai T^ Bty wpiraf, tnttdfl Kol wpigrot UKKtvrj Kai fit^ia¥ tvx*" virtiXtj^ii', 
mt Teriv tp aTriov ri dvMrdrM, kqi r/?ovo(i rvv rf Kwr^ii' ical rw iv ain^. ^ 
KfTIffi^vof Ac ivurrfffujn Hjf aptrmr fittiautrarrfHy trvvfuraro km raff oXXac 

[1474] - " "BELIEVING" 

■: §5. "Btlieving^' in the New Testamenl, txeMing 

- -i- ■ . tht Fourth Gospel ;' ' .; ' \ ' : ■ :'^,-\ 

[1474] The Epistles to the Thessalonians and the Corin- 
thians rarely use irurttva except absolutely', and never with 
■"Christ," "in Christ" etc.: but the Epistle to the Galatians, 
before quoting the words atx)ut Abrahamls ".trust" and 
righteousness," says " We trusted to (eiV) Christ Jesus that we 
might be made righteous (ii«o<«<'ft>/io') from trust in Christ 
(iK _7riW»oi? XpioToO) " and then qliotcs " Abraham trusted 
God (dat.) and It was reckoned to him for righteousness"." 
The Epistle to the Romans begins by quoting the text 
"Abraham trusted Go6 (dat.)..."; it then speaks of him as 
" trusting OH {iiri v;\th accus.) him that makcth righteou.s the 
ungodly," and then, " But [having regdrd or looking\ to (tU 
ii) the promise of God he doubted not through trustle&sness 
but was filled with power by trust. ..but it was written... also 
Tor our sakes...who trust on (eiri with accus.) him that raised 
Jesus onj- Lord from the dead*." Later on, quoting Isaiah, 
"" He that tntstrlh shall' not make haste," the Apostle twice 
follows a version of the LXX in an erroneous insertioi> " He 

' .i* The active alone is discossed 'in the following pages : wiartxHoSot, 
f*'to be believed" or "to be enttusted with," is not considered. 
* ' [1474 <i] It is always absolute in these Kpistlcs except i Thest. 
iv. u " If we trust that Jesus died and rast again," 2 The^. ii. ii "that 
they should trust a he," ii. I2 "thoae who havf not trusted, the truth," 
I Cor. xiii. 7 "trusteth [in] all thitlgsTjraiTa)." 

' [1474*] Gal. ii. 16, iii. 6. In the early portion jof this chapter— for 
the sake of indicaijng the differences of Greek phra«c,>nd the different 
shades of ineaning of the Greek verb— imrrtiltii' will be Sndcred "trust" ; 
ir. avry, "trust him,'' IT, c'fT* airof (or» rarely, ai'-ry) "trust fl/t hint," ir. rit 
aiTif, "trust 10 him." But the reader must be warned that "triusl «*/«, 
or iHlff him " would be a more adequate rendering of ir. tic, if only it were 
English. It implies "looking trustfully iuf/«," ot perhaps sometimes 
"passing into" (1476, 1617). 

« Rom. (v. 3, s, J4. 

' BELIEVING " [1479] 

that trusUth on him (dat. eV avr^)' "; but, speaking in his 
own person lie sdys, " How shall they call on him t0 (th) 
whon) they have not truited'}" and he tells the Philippians' 
that to them " it is given not only to trust to (ti's) him but 
also to suffer for him*." 

[147B] In what sense does the Apostle u^ " to'' or " into" 
with " trust," contrary to Greek usage ? Docs he mean that, as 
a convert is baptized into Christ', so, by the spiritual act of 
" trust," his personality /ajfw into that of Christ ? Or does he 
mean that the convert "trustfully looks to Christ,"-^a thought 
thatsecmed to be implied in the statement that Abraham "[/<w/fr- 
iug] to the promise of God... was filled with power by trust " .' 
The latter is suggested by the Pauline noun-phra.scs " the trust 
to (««'?) Christ," - the love to (ei?) all"." It is also favoured by the- 
Petrine expression. " To wliont, for the moment [indeed] not 
seeing, yet trusting^ " — which implies that " trusting " means 
" rooking to Christ with the eye of trust," as also later on, 
" thSit your trust and hope may be to God'." Compare the 
Epistle to the Hebrews " looking only to (li^pmiTti *«) Jtsus 
the chief leader and perfectef of our faith," which resembles 

' Rom. i«. 33, quoting Is. utviii. i6 (KAQ have tfait; it probabljr 
arose from conflaring "not" as "to him" (779a)),.r«p. Rom. x. II. 

' Rom. K. 14. . ' Phil. i. J9. 

* [1474f] The First Epistle to Timothy has 1. 16 "them jhat arc 
destined to tru^t iiHytiri with dat.) him tit (fiV) eternal life." Here the 
writer might use V'^i^becausc he was going to use tts in a difTereot sense 
later on. Hut «Vi with the dative is contrary to l^auline usage (ext^t in 
quoting). The 'dat. is usedjn 2 Tim. i. 12 m/la ^ ir<irfarrfv«ii and Tit. iii.'8 

ol ir^Krcf Knr«r Si^. 

TOriJ Rom. vi. 3 "as many as were- baptixed in/a £«V)' Christ 

Jesus were baptized inttfitU) his death," i (^r. x. 2 '*they all baptized 

.themselves {i^awrifravto) into (•«) Moaes^" 1 Cor, xii. 13 "were all 

baptizcJ into one body," Gal. iiL 27 " for as trtahy of you at frere baptised 

w/tf Christ." * ' - 

• Col. ii. S r^c *i« X^. fTifTTfwf, i. 4 Ti\¥ tiydir^i' [^i* fjt*"] •'* ir(ii»r«r, 
Philem. 5 r^v witrrtv ^i> t)(tit'tU (marg. frput) t6p KupioK 

•• ' I Pet. i. 8 tU A* apn fiif Apiiyrts witrrtvo¥T9t tti.... 

* I Pet. i. 31 nji' n. vftitv k. tXirida ttvat tlf Btop. ..' ' 

[1476]' ."BELIEVING" 

the doctrine of Epictetus that fre are to "lepi only U) (ii^p- 
wvTcv tiV)iSod in all things gre^t or small'." 

[1476} In the Act.<i — besides occasional instances of the 
dative — "trust on (<Vi)" occurs along with "trust to (€«)*." 
In the former, liti is used, not with the dative as in Isaiah 
(KAQ) but with the accusative. The dative would mean 
"resting on," the accusative ''coming to rest on"; and Ule 
latter might imply " becoming a convert" which is perhaps tne 
meaning in threeM>a.ssages. The Epistle to the Hebrews, 
though it very* frequently uses the noun "trust" (which it 
defines as being " that which gives substantiality to the ^ings 
one is hoping' for") uses the verb only twice, once absolutely 
and once with ot»' — a construction ap(>arently very rare in 
classical Greek*. The Epistle of St James indicates that 
Christians had begun to discuss the relation between " trust " 
(or "belief") and "works"; and — before quoting " Abraham 
-believed God " — it twice uses the verb so as to warn* its 
readers that " believing " may be non-moral : " Thou beli^vest 
that God I's one... the devils also fc/utv and tremble*" 

' [1476*] Meb. xii. 3, Epict. ii. 19. 29. '\<lx>pay •ic-"look away from 
[other things] to." Epictelus says about his iiltal Hercules (iii. 24. 16), 
" For he had heard not .is mere talk [but as iruth] thai Zeus is the Father 
of men : yes, he thought Him and called Him his Father, and lunking only 
towards Hini (ir)wi- ittlvav difiopav) he Kgulated his every action iinparTir 
i Tnftarri)." 

. ' [1476a] In Acts i«. 42, xi. 17, xvi. 31, ». ,'wh^ "become a convert," 
in Acts xxii. 19 "believerj." In Acts x. 4j ». n't dcscriljes the mcani for 
remission of sins, xiv. -23 tic iv wfwttmvKuaaf seems to express inteiifte 
trust as the preparation for a dangerous enterprise, xix. 4 is doubtful,' 
since fit rill 'I. ( I ) may be a resumptive rcpetiiioii of tit C with reference 
to ") roi' fyi^^n^ffof , or (2) may depend on wiarnv^air. 

• [1476*1 Heb. iv. 3, xi: 6. The Utter, requiring a belief that God 
"is" anil thai He "re«.ird5," is like I'hilo's definition of Abraham's faith 
(1472) concetning the yimpfit of (ipd and concerning the fact that He 

' iUnc] Steph. quotes no mstance of ir. fcj, but comp. Epictet. 
hragm. 3 41 ^t'X«i liyutfot tlvai npigrov witrrtwrvv^ iu naitir t^, and 
Xen. tiuro i. 37 has trurnivai foil, by At. ' ; ■ 
, » Jas. 11. I9v*«), 23. . ■' , ; 

- .■ ■,■•. .• ■ J8 . -i ■ ■■•• 



[1477]- In the Synoptists we have seen above (1467) that 
Mark is not exactly ibllowed by Matthew or Luke in the two 
precepts that he attributes to our Lord, " Trust in the Gospel " 
and "Have trust iri God." We must' now add ^ that th* 
Triple Tradition does\noi agrte in a single saying »/ Christ, 
using this verbK Also, as regards the -noun " trust," the only 
verbatim agreement inUhe Triple Tradition in the words of 
^.Christ is in the sayingi to the woman with the issue, "Thy 
t;frwj/ hath saved thecV'W * ' ' ^ ;i V > 

1 [1477 <i] The only triple kgrcement aboqt "trusting" is in a passage 
where the chief priest« and Vlders ^xpreis their fear that jesus may 
condemn them for not **trust|nt(" the Baptist, Mk xi. 31, Mt. xxi. 35, 
Uc XX. 5, " If we «ay from heavtn, he will say, H'hy [M^m] ttulye not trust 
kimf" Other instances are pobuitar to two Evangelists or to one: fbr 
examplCf Mk v. 36^ Lk. viii. 50 Vonly trust" is om. by Mt. Mk xiii. ai, 
Mt. xxiv. 23 " trust' [them] not ''lis om. by Lk. (the rep. in Mt. xxiv. 26 
"trust [them] not" is om. by NUc as well as Lk.). At the end of the 
Healing of the Centurion's servam, Mt. viii. 13 "As thou hasi trusted, so 
be it" is qm. by the parall. Lk. aiid so is Ml. xxi. 32 Yv did not trust 
him... the hariots trusted him... thai ye might trust him"om. in the paraU. 
Lk. vii. 29— 3a Mt. ix. 28 "trust y« that I am able to do this?" occurs in 
•a miracle peculiar to Mt. After toe Resurrection, " trust on " occurs in 
a tradition peculiar to Lk. xxiv. 25 '|slow of heart to trust on (tr. twi with 
dat.) all that the prophets have spokiui." The words "He that shall have 
trusted and shall have been bap^zedll' and "these signs shall follow them. 
that shall have trusted," are in tfSe'M|rk Appendix (Mk xvi. r6 - 17). 

> [1477 ^} Mk v. 34, Mt. ix. 22|\ Lk. viii. 48. There- U also an 
agreement, though iwt-'Verititim, in ] 
Lk. viii. 25 has ** Where is your frust^ 
trusty In Mk x. 52 (Bartiihaeus), Lk( 
thee '' the words are orti. by the paratl. I 
ax^M^r healing of two blind n^cn Mt. 
your trust" In Mt. xV. 28 "O womari| 
Mk vii. ,29 has "on account of this word 
23 has " kindness (7Xfor) and trust " the [ 
God." ' But the Double Tradition agrees \ 
not found so great trust. ..ia Israel," i^"d 1 
a grain of mustard'seed." As regards MIc 

: IV. 40 " Have ye not -yet trust?" 
' and Mu'vlii. 26 "O ye of little 
, xviii^ 42, "thy trust hath saved 
M t. XX. 34 (two blind men), but in 
. 29 has "let it be according to^ 
I great is thy trust,'* the parall. 
I go thy way." Where Ml. xxiii. 
Jirall. Lk. xi- 42 has "the love of 
I Mt.viii, 10, Lk. vii. 9*M have 
\t. xvii. 30, Lk. xvii. 6 ** trust as ' 
xi. 22 and parall., sec 1467. 


'•"/f. .' 


§& ^Htutdciii JiroMUily of a reshitntitHi «f tilt 
^ ';- - doelriMof f helieriiig" •. ■ / vv 

[1,478] Reviewing the\ Ntw Testament doctrines con- 
cerning "fait*," "trust," oil " belief," apart from t4ic Fourth 
Gospel, as they would preint themselves to an Evangelist ■ 
writing at the end of the firat century, wc sec that he might 
naturally desire tp supplement them. He might wish to . 
guard his readers against attaching too mucK importance to 
that Jtind of " faith " which, i^ practice, produced wonderful 
cures of disease— as St Paul cautions the Corinthians, " Thou'^h 
I have faith so that I could move mountains, it profiteth me., 
nothing'." Again, thire was a danger that some might take 
tHe faith of Abraham io be little\more than a belief that. God 
would give him his Jieart's desire, quite aparf from the 
goodness or hadness oA that desire". To meet this, it would 
be well to shew what Abraham's \faith really implied". The 
Epistle to the Hebrewsfia^ deftn^ faith, and we know from 

--■ ••■' . .<''t-^—~~-~ -' 

< [1478<i] I Cor. xiii. It cq^p. Mt. vii.2]«In thy namrhave we'cut . 
out devils " (uttered by those yhoin the Lord rejects) and see C^hriit's 
answer to the .Seventy wHtn tliey say (Lk. x, 17) " Even the devils 
tfe subject to us in thy namely 

■» [H78(] Irenaeus parallel^ the faith of'Abr^Jara with that of 
Christians thus (iv. 21. 1) "illoq^idem credente futuris quasi jam factis 
propter repromis&ionetn Dei ; nons quoque similiter per (idem speculan- 
tibus eaQi quae est in Regno hacreditatem propter repromissionem Dei.'' 
Ilui the Jews believed that Abrahain left his country as a martyr and exile 
at t>od's command in order to preserve the worship of the One God : and 
the Targum taught that he had beeA cast, into a 6ery furnace by Nimrod 
in order to make him apostatite. \The trust of Abraham, then, was ^ 
a trust that the kingdom of God Established in his heart would be 
established, through his descendants, in all the world— a very diHerent 
thing from the mere belief that he would have a son in his old age from- 
his wife Sarah, 

' Jn viii. 56 "Abraham rejoiced ticeedingjy in ohtar that (SOW) ht 
might see my day ; and he saw it and vai gbd." 

"BEUEVINO" > il**91 

Clement of Alexiindrta' that some very early Christians 
added a second definition. Probably there Were many defini-- 
tions. St Paul had spolten^ much about the wortlilessness of . 
"works of the laWj" and the value of " faith," even before works". 
St James had said that ".faith without works" was "dead'." 
, Both had argued truly ; but they appeared to differ. Thp- 
Fourth Evangelist might fef I that, *ithout arguing, a Gospel 
might set forth's doctrine of trust in a Father in sflch a . 
way as to reconcile these ,-ipparcntly conflicting statenie(it.s. 

[1479] Hastly, the writer we have in view would probably 
have some regard to the diflficulties of Grc'(afk believers 
including the educatevi classes, and to their notions about . 
"faith" or "belief." " Wliatever we believe," said Aristotle, 
"comes to us through .syllogism or induction'"; how could thi» 
be reconciled with affjj Christian doctrine of believing.' Un- • 
fortunately wp have no Celsus in the first century to represent 
Greek scepticism. But St Paul's words, "the Jews dtaire 
signs, and the Greeks seek after wisdom'," and the ab.sencc 
to of iiisignificance of " faith " and " believing "in the teaching of 
VEpictetus'i and the statement of Clement of Alexandria' that ■ 

fli, ' [MTSi'l Clem. Aleli. 431 calls >1 " voluntary preconception, an at^ent 
of reverence for Ciod," irf}6^i)<fnt ikavtrioty 0t(Mr*ii*iat irvynnrMmu. Then 
he adils the definition of lleb. xi. i. .Then he says (433) "Hut others 
have explained (livVduKav) faith as a uniting assent to an unseen object 
(a^foit wpttytLoTiti cVwriK^i' Tuyxard^urii')." He derives faith from ordtrir 
(? as a conLraction of fVicmtfrtr). calling it (629} "a settletnent of our 
soul concerning true BKiN<i (t^v ir«pl ro, fiv trraaiv r»;s ^vx^f ij/ii*")." 
Hy a "uniting" assent, he means "that which makes timan at one" with 
the Word, (635) "'io trust to (<ir) Him and through Him {lit uvrm)) is,io 
become — being undistractedly made one {ajripiairairtvs ifovfuvor) in 
Him -a siitg/i httHg {fuwatuKiv)." See Hort arid Mayor on Cl«m.'899. 

' Rom. iii. 20—38, iv. 5 --6, ix. 1 1, 32, xi. 6'. ' Jas. ii. 17. 

' Aristot. Anal. Prior. ii."25(23). t * I Cor. i. 2J.. 

• [1479<>] Epictetus has (Fntgm. § 3) " If you wish to become good, 
first believe that you are bad," but iriffrfiW does -not apjiear in the Index, 
of Schweifjhausor etc. as ir. ri nvy in a corrupt passage (t. 36. 14)'. 

' [1479^] Clem. Alex. 432 irioTt^Sf, 4> tu'tldXJtiivm', «»!)■' «<il /I 

A, V. -■"■, .■■■'• 31 ■■■ ■":•;•'';..;■■■'■•■,; ,., 

[1480] "BBUEVING" ^ 

the Greeks mocked :« at f:*ith— all [joint to the conclusion 
that what Celsus said in later days against the Christian 
ei^hortation to ','believe'" would be said by Greek philo- 
sophers in the first century as stxin as they came into contact 
with the preachings of the Gospel. For the sake of the Greeks, 
then, it was needful to point out the immense difference 
between "believing that" a conclusion is logically deduced 
from prelnises, or "that" a fact is pVoved by evidence, ind 
that othet kind of belief, or trust, in a I'erson, which, as the 
Christians asserted, made men become the children of God. 

., 1 7- f Betievikg" ih t)t( Fourth' Gtipel 

'[1480} It remains to consider -the Johanninc traditions 
about " believing," or " trusting." Thd best way of doing this 
will be to note the different expressions, (" trust ia^sol.)" 
"trust {da/.)," "trust to (ti«)," "trust to (ek) the name of,' 
" trust /A(i/,") in the order in which the Evangelist Introduces 
them, ainl to trace thdr principal recurrences, so as to give an 
outline of his doctrine as exprcssi^d in Christ's words and in 
Evangelistic comments. Here it may be obsefved that " trust ' 
j»" and "trusts" are liot mentioned. The former, since it 
occurs only once in N.T.', might well not be u.sed by John: 
and indeed "abide in," ruther than "believe in," represcnts-his 
doctrine about the highest and ultimate relation of the 
believer to God. " on" also, would be inconsistent with 
his view, which is, that man does not " rest 4« " Jehovah as on 

■> [1479 1] Orig. Celt. i. « "JBut Celsus says thai dertahv people 
discarding -discussion (^»?fl« ^(n\inuvtnii ^Awtu ^ \a^i^vtxv Xitytii"} 'con- 
cerning the objects of their faith (irf/ii liv mftrf i-ovffi) use the [cry], ' Oo not 
examine but trust ' (Mij i^iTu^i iiKka iri(mvtriiy)J' " 

' [1480a] Mk i. IS iriirr«ii«r« <'i/ T<u iCnyytXIif, see 1467 : «V, Written «, 
might be so easily repeated after tli^ #; in »r»crrft*r« that we might be 
justiiicd in- omitting it as corrupt (with * and/) if the phrase weranot so 
rare. Ign. I'hilail. 8 <v ru .i<Jyy<Xi'^ <id irwr.uu is not an instance (Ligbtf.), 
The phrase may have l>eetv conirrion^witli a certain class of early Greek 
Ev»ngeiists but deprecated by their successors. ,• 


' BELIEVING" [1488] 

the Rock of the Psalmist, but that he is "m" the Father — as 
a child is ." in " his father's house, or " in " his father's heart. 

[iM] The Epistl<f to the Hebrews, discussing "faith," 
begins- with definition and proceeds to historical exempli- 
fication. This is the opposite of the, Johanninc plan. Which" 
prefers " narrowing down," that i.s to say, first, a broad, vague, 
and sometimes even inaccurate statement, afterwards cor- 
rected', modified, defined by reference to persons and circum- 
stances, and finally left with the reader not as a definition but 
as an impression. Thus John will begin by speaking of 
" trusting'" absolutely in a context that will lead his readers 
to ask " through whom or what " is this " trust " to be attained. 
Then he will speak of those who " trusted to the name [of the* 
Logos]'" as receiving "authority" to becoiAe ".cliildrch of 
God," but will leave it an open question whether "they availed 
themselves of that authority, "the first use of the word by 
our Lord Himself will be in a gentje reproach to an 
anthusiastic convert for " trusting " too easily*. Spoii^fter- 
wards^ the Evangelist, in hi.^ -own person, repgrfring to his 
phrase "trusting to the name," wjll say, — «^h a°play upon 
words — that although " many " in Jerusalem^ere so impressed 
with His "signs" that they " lriis/edtoiel>t) his name," yet 
"JesMS himself did not trust himself to (dat ),//»:»/*" ! These 
remarks will suffice to shew the need of careful discrimina- 
tion when John varies his phrases ig the following passages.. 
We may not understand the meaning of each variation, but 
that each has some meaning we may feel certain. ' 

§ 8, " Through whom" or*"wltat" do all "believt"? 

[1482] i. 7 '* That he [the Baptist] might bear witness,/ 
concerning the light that all might trust l/trough him {it 

ainov)." The rrieaning probably (2302>— i^ls "that all tiMa 

. "^ — ^.'..-^ — .. — _„_-. _,*'.„«.._* ,., , J^ 

, '"Comp. iii. 22 "and he [tW. J«sus] was baptizing," with iv. 2';"V«4 
Jesus himself was not baptizing," and sec 1925. 
'."1.7. ' i. 12... ♦ i. 5a ' ii. 23-»'4. ■ 

^ '.■ ^■•■. ■■■- ; . ,:i3'.-; ,\ -. '4-2 

[1483] . "BEUEVING" 

might trunt through the light," />. by seeing things clearl/and 
truly .through the pure light of the Word of God and not 
Through the mists and twilights of their selfish fears and 
desires, or through the darkness of sin. Hei-e, without sup- 
plying an object to the verb "trust," the Evangelist suggests 
-rby mentioning the medium — that, in any case, the kind of 
"trust" or "belief" that .his Gos|jcl will delineate is not the 
trust of ignorance or supcr.ftition. It is to be the trust of 
^hose who see things as they are. Kven if it could be shewn 
that "through him" meant "through the Baptist,' it would 
still rcnrain true that all men afe to be led to " trust " through . 
the Light as the higher instrument, the Haptist being the 
lower one, .^ .-, - . ., ,. 

.. ■". ;■ -■■■■»■- ■■-•■■ -■ ■'■' -)'■■■'• ^ ^;-'>-.: :■•■■"■• 

•• .'■■^! ' |9- "Btlffimg in tin- «<!»<«"' r ; .":,;. ,; 

y [1483] i. 12 "But as many^as received (?Vo/9oi') him. to 
them gave he authority to become children of Gf>d, namely,-. 
to those trusting to /lis Jin»u (toIs Triartvovaw d^ to iuoita 
-flfiToi'i).". The "A^" is the "light" proviouKly mentioned in 
I. 9—1 1, " There-was [from the begfhiling] the light, the true 
■flight], which' enlightencth every man, [by its continual] 
coming into the world, lie was in the world and tffe world 
through him came into being, and the world recognised him 
not. To his own [house] (<is- ra !&ia) he came, and his own 
household {ol iSiot)- received him not into [their hearts] 
(wapeXa^en). But as many...." Compare ii. 23 "Many 
trustc<l to his name {(viffrevaav ei<i to Syoffi avTov) beholdinu 
his signs, which he was [then] doing. But Jesus himself 
would hot trust himself to tlum (ouk iiri<rr*vef a'trrov 
aoTptt).,.."' -•:■: ;'.;'•■• ■^'■ 

- [t4M] (On this last passage Origen says, " We must hold 
'fast to Him rather than ur'Nis wrt/w,, wljile 'doing 
mighty works in His name," we should [be forced to] hear' 
His [reproachful wOrds] uttered when men boasted abeut,His 

"BELIEVING" . [1485] 

mere name',"* On the first (I. 12) he observes that receiving 
" authority to become the children of God "■ is not the same 
thing as "becoming children." " Receiving authority" Origen 
regards apparently as a rudimentary stage twlonglng to those 
who have "merely rudimentary, belief ((l»rXoii(rr«poi'.7r»<rTci/- 
OKTW iiovoii)." folding fast to //(/«, as distinct from "f/u 
name," belongs to thoSx who have a more perfect insight*. It 
may be urged that these so-called ''rudimentary believers" 
ire dcsctibed by the Evangelist as having been born from 
God (i, 13 "who were begotten, not... nor from the will of man 
but from God "). But Origen de.scribes the stages of develop- 
ment thus-: first, men recSive the light, and, with it. authority 
to become children of TJod ; then, ' having been brought into 
being from God; tlieyalso hear His words'" and pass into thi: 
higher stage. " \ 

[1486] Origen's medtlihg becomes clearer if wc remember _ 
that "to receive the light" is inuch the same as "to be 
enlightened (^nfeo-fai)" Now the noun "enlightenment" 
is mentioned b)' Justin Martyr in his Apology as being the 
- name given by Christians to "baptism"; and the noun and, 
the verb (" enlighten," " enlightenment ") were_probably used 
before the second century in the sense of "baptism" and, 
"being baptlzcdAiJM Moreover "baptism^' is regularly con- 

• Oriuen (HiKl ii, 196) is referring to the "boait" in Mt vii, jj— j 
;'"In thy name have we done manymighty works," and to the reproach 

in tile Lord's answer, " I neverri^ognised you, depart from me." 

f Origen, lA ii. 324—5 iwpariKmrtMP Korat'ooi/wnf ra Tfjt ^fwri/t^ios, 
' wfittyfiara. * 

* Qrlgen, i^. yift'ifxtvot *'« rw rffoO, khi ttt /ttifiara aitai-ovfftv avtov. 
^ [ItUa] In.Heb. vi. 4 "Thi^e who have been once rnlighuneti and 

have tasted of'thc heavenly gifti" "the Syriac versions give (Westcolt) 

""who have once descended to baptism" and "who have onie been 

r. baptized," and the text is explained (Suicer 1490). by most Greek and 

Latin Fathers as referring to baptism. Comp. Heb. x. 32 "Callto niind 

the former days wherein- Moving ffUn trilighteitid^ ye endured a great 

conflict of sufferings,'* i.e- your conversion exposed, you to persecutions. 

[1486^] This is conArnied-by Justin Martyr, who expressly says that 

. . , 35 ■ " 

lim\ ■ "BKUEVIKO" 

netted with the phrases " tothe name," " In the namCi" in the ' 
Acts, and once in Matthew'. ■ Thus a (jood deal of indirect 
evidence suggests that the Evangelist here has ifi mind the 
profession of faith or trust made in baptism. And this inter- 
pretation is adopted by Chrysostom : " Why did he say, not , 
' motie Ikem children of God' but ' gax<t them authority to become, 
children of God't Kecausc he was shewing us that We need .. 
all diligence to preserve, unstained and untainted — throughout 
our whole lives— the image of sonship by atloptidn stamped 
upon Us in our baptism. And at the samfi time he made it 
clear that no one will be able to. take from us this authority 
U9lut we firit deprive our mvn sch>cs of it" 

[1486] In support of this distinction ■betwcch "tru.stlng 
;■ to the name of " and "trusting- /<>," the Lord Himself, Origcn, 
referring to Jn iiL 1 8', says "'Trusting to His nartic ' diflfers 
from 'trusting to Him.' .Accordingly, he that is to have 
immunity from judgment on account of trust, has that im- 
munity from judgment thi-ough ' trusting to Him,' <iot [through 
' trusting] to His name.' I"or the Lord said, ,'ilc that trusteth 
to me is not judged,' not 'he that trustcti) to my -name is not 
jAjlidged:"; And he goes on to say that " trusting to His name" 

' ' ■ ■ " ' - Si 

■' " enlighttnnwm "-was the name given by Chrittunn to the " washing * of 

baptism, an<l then priKeeds to use the noun and verb in that ictiicMpo/. 

6l KftXfiriit d< rnOri) to XovTftiiV xfnorttrfii'tt,,,Ku'i tn* ovd^trut^i 't. \^....Rdi 
. Vir/^ui'ti^uiror iri-iy/mTiit AyUv...6 ^tort^o^tvoc Xowrni, 65 Kutfiit ivx<it wmijifw- 

/ifKOf vir§p Ti iavriiv Ktii Toi tptatttrSii^Tor... tryph. 122 T«i>ii I'/ifli; /if m iir r^v 
■ yiffi/Nif «oi Tiirr ir^ftnjXvToiT fip^cr^dl vn^i^trt, T^ fWi hi tit ijftal cifiijral rovf 

Aui 'IrjiTotr nt(fMoTiirf^vitvt. The Jews reply tluu the propheiy wpis tAf 
vofiov X«y(i K(it Toil* ifi<aTt(i>tiivmit tin ■ oirov, and '* these " Tthey add) " arc 
the proselytes [o( the Law]." This illustrates the fart' that Jews as well aa 
Chrlbtiaos applied the term Ho proselytes. 

'^|1485r] .\cls ii. 38 (k. 48' ,V rf livilfuin "17^. Xji, «ii. \l> (xix. 5) rJt to 
■ htffiarov Hvfiioii'ltftritv, Mt. xxviii. ig«it r. 6. rnii niirftoi... Comp. I Cor/i. 15, 
15 (irro i. n., at)d 'if TO tfioii o. The Index to Hertiias gives Jlfairn'(« only 
in the phrase T/j. lii. 7 H. ilt rA wofut t«{. Kf/n'ov. 

*' Jn iir. 18 o wtirriiwifjit uiToi' oi' itftiftTat, A firj n^rrrti/mp ifibj itikptrm 
ori fiif rrtitioTiVKtv lis to tCvsptl Tot) liovtrytymt vlov Ttiv Bttii'. 




"Is inferior to "trusting to Him'." That is to §ay, " to trust to 
' the name of the Son of God " avowing that trust in baj 
is only a preliminary stage in the upward, progress 
Christiaa '. 

'[1487] Concierning this stage the ancient AppenVlix to 
Mark says " He that shall believe ^nd be baptized shall be 
saved, but he that shall not believe (airivrijirat) shall be 
judgtd gtiilly {xaTaKpiBi^atraty." But, according*" the Fourth 
Gospel as interpreted by Origen. this stage of belief, or trust, 
.docs not bring full "salvation," though the rejection Of it 
brings condemnation. Origen's conclusion a{)peaTs to be 
sound, and in hartpony with Johaunine thought and lanftuage, 
namely, that "to trust to the name of Jesus" implies /» hxurr J' 
kind of trust, a profession of belief in 6,iptism, which professed 
^: belief, if not followed up and developed by spiritual action, ■' 
might come to nothing'. 

' [1486d] Huet ii 196. Chrysosidm (like olhrrs in Cramer atfldc.) 
ignore* the distinction between *^AiM'^ and "M^ HniHf,^ and says " H* 
[iV. the beliewr] is not liable to judgment in IkU particular point" 
ij. for h.iving rejected the Christian faith. If the believer leads an 
^.Ik impure life, says Chrysostoni, he punished all the more for 
: his sins, "but on account of unbelief he is not punished because he 
btfttCvcd once for all (airioTiuf A« f¥*^a ov K«Xit^«rai duj ro WiTTtMrai 

-«'^." . ":- ^^s -. . : V, ,-.y'- ;^v^,- ■,'.-"; -.■■ 
« [MitApp. xvi. ici' : ' '. : '. . ; 

-" [1487 d] Accordinjt to this view, int&rtwfw tit ro i. rbv Kvptoc mighi^ 

I' ' mean,- in eflect, " he became a Christian convert and was baptixed." In 

the present icnse the phrase inixht be used to remind "bcticvers" ojf 

their rt»ponsibility as converts. iJealinK only with n. tit in i Jn y/. la— 13, 

we find (1) li riffTfiWi* tU Ti>t> vluv r. tf»oi\ (2) oi wiiritrrtvuf tit t^r 

. iMpTVfiiav ffp ni^iafjTvprfKfv (i 6tht, and then, '* These things have I written 

to you that ye may know that ye havtJ eternal hic~[/fl -y^u, /J<J>',] /Art/ 

frus/ to the tiam< of the Stin 0/ Ood^' where perhaps the meaning of the 

Utalicizcd words is, "you, who did not merely once for all "— aWof ,' as 

Chrysosiom iays -^''profess Uiptismal faith hut continurtuSly^ exercise it." 

[14B7^J 1 Jn iii. 23* is- difficult, and doubtful because KAC and 

; W, li. mar){. read frioTtvw^i'- where IJ And W. 11. txi read nttrrtvam^ktv. 

A" »^i"c »l'e d^''^", •^•UK "A"'* *^'s 's *»'" co"'™a"d""'"' tb'» "c trust 

the namt {v ry o.) of hts $on JMUs ChriM and love« (Uya^M^v) one 


[14881 "BEUEVINa" ,• # 

§10. Our Lord's firtt mtitlww of "btlieving" 
^: H^Dr*trutii»tg^'\ .„;.,,. 

[1488] i. 50"Becau»e I said unto thee I saw thee under 
the fitj-tree thou htlUvest t Thou slialt sec greater things than 
these." Wc noted above (1481) that tht- Kvan(;elist's first..use 
of "believing" was absolute, no object being inserted. " Sq it 
is here, and the " belief" is not defined so far as this sentence ' 
goes. But it is. partially defined as being a reply^ to 
■ Nathanael's words, " Kabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou, aft 
King of Israel." That, then, is what Nathanael "believes" 
and it seems definite enough, at first sight Hut is it clear 
what precise meaning Nathanael attached to the phrase, and 
whether he meant " a king "or " the king " of Israel ? Hoth of ■ 
these terms are ca|)able of conventional meanings. All that wc * 
are allowed to know for certain is ( i ) that Nathanael believed 
these to be fact.s about Jesus because the latter declared that 
He had "seen him under the fig-tree" ht the moment when - . 
Phflip called him, (2) that Jesus- replied as above. But the 
tenor of the reply justifies us in inferring that this faith — 
which was based upon a " sign," though not a "sign " of action 
or of healing— was not regarded by our Lord (and con- 
sequently not by the Evangelist) as of the highest order, and 
that He promised Na^ianacl a more .spiritual, basis for a 
higher kindyff belief' i - ^- ;^ .. ■ 

another." Perhaps the" writer, kubsiitutes the .unusual Native for the 
preposition in order to suKgest a trust (flat is not roridal or conventional \— 

^"that wc trust [in heart as veil as in word] that name [which we 
professed to trust in when We were baptized] and that we give effect to it 
b>' a life of brotherly lovcl" liul the text is so doubtful that nothing: 

■certain can be said about 'its meaning. 

' [1188»] It will npi be thought necessary to reinind the reader 
henceforth that frifrm'w means "trust" as wt-ll as "believe." " Uelieve 

- in "■ (not " iMrlievc on," which would better correspond to jr. / »ri) will often 
be use^xccpt where some special context requires the word "trust," 

f " BELIEVING ■' [14W] 

§11. Christ t dUcipUs "Mirvtd in km" 

[1489} ii> 1 1 '" ThU beginning of his signs did Jesus in 
Cana of Galilee, and ht manifested his glory, and his disciples 
btlinmi in him.(litiartvaav tk ainov)." The word 'be- 
ginning '' appears to have been interpreted by Origen as,, 
denoting spiritual precedence, not chronological order. This, 
sign, he says, performed for those who were in heakh. was 
superioi- to the signs performed for the sicic'. Ho evidently 
(without denying the literal miracle) regards the ^ine as 
spiritually efficacious, and probably as an anticipation of the 
Eucharist. If so, it would seem to him more than a mere 
coincidence, that at the time when the wine pas.sed into the 
bodies of the disciples, faith passed into their soiils. 

[1490] But althougli wc niay feel certain that the 
Evangelist records the miracle as a literal on«, yet we cannot 
regard it as equally certain that he takos the miracle .to be 
the caiise of tlie "belief" of the di.s^ples. JIad their faith 
been of that kind, would it riot have been like the faitli of 
Nathanael above-mentioned, and (ike that of Nicodcmus and 
other Jews later on, a faith not in thi; Lord but in His signs.' ■ 
And is it not (in part at for- the purpose of dissi|>atjng 
such an impression that John addsV'awrf ie maitifisled 
' Ms glory"} "Glory," in the Fourth Gospel, is of a spiritual 
•tiature. The Lord had'recently promised Nathanael that he 
and all^the disciples shuuUl sec heaven (646ff) perm.incntly 
opened and the angelS of God ascending and descending on 
the Son of man. Did not this refer lo the life ofxthe Son of 

' [1489<i] Huct ii. i6tt Aiccording lo Chryi!, the disciplcJK "even 
before thife, had wondertd at Him: -now they believed in Hifttt" 
I'wtarivaiit' #if tiirint m fi. niVov ol koi frpu tiivrov ffavfta^ovrtt u^iii'. 
Cramer's version adds, after avrov, " becatise' then tliey received some 
increase of their faith in Him (on tri/i T«»r« npo^rSfjKijv i^i^wTo nva r^r <U 
ttifrttv ri'ffTfftw)." Whoever added thisprobably disliked the nmion tliat 
the disciples now, for the first time, "believed m" Christ. 

' 39 

(1«1] "BELIEVING" 

God on earth' and to His words as well a!i His worl<8? if 
even the officers of the Sanhedrin, sent to arrest Jesus, recoiled 
from their taslJ with the words '.'Never man spaltc Jhus,'- 
might not Christ's own disciples say even more ? '• As for the 
miracle, it is said by the Evant;elist tb have been l<nown to 
the servants that drew the water, but (at the time at all events) 
not to the Master of the Feast and apparently to none of 
those that were sittihg at the table. The jjervants, then, if 
any one, ought to have " believed " in consequence of the 
miracle. But they are not said to have believed. This . 
"belief" is predicated only concerning His disciples, whpse 
eyes had been .so far opened that •'ley could to' some extent 
discern. His''' glory." H«iice they " lelieyed in him." 

;; "; '■ %\i.- "Btlitviiig the\Sct ifture" • ,. . 

[1491] At this point there.comcs, incidentally and out of 
ohrOnological order, a mention of '"trusting the Scripture," 
thus, ii. 22 " When therefore, he was raised from the dead, his 
disciples remsmbercd that he meant' thi'<: and they trusted _ 
tlu Hcripturt and the .saying that Jcstjs said." Chronologically, 
this " trusting the Scripture " comc-s after the Xesitrrectidiiyand 
after the tirne when the disciples hiid begun, in the fullest 
sense, to "trust /o («'?) Christ." This is confirmed by xx. 9 
where^it is said that the beloved disciple, seeing the grave- 
clothes in the tomb of the. risen Saviour " believed— /i"" not 
e\eH yet did they inow the Scripjure that h* tHittt nteds rise 
from the dead'" r 

' flttlfl] "Meant," ft»y.. ft.V. "spake,« }?.V. "had said," bul sec 
Ttnse Impcrf. (9MB). If the mfaniilK had been "spake,", the r.k . 
should have been •'X(iXf|<T<i.; if it had been "hijd Jaid," the Gk should 
havf> been flntv or (xi. 13) (ip^««t. _ 

• [1491^] There is diBfrculiy in the Mmque construction, wjth the 
preposition, in the Epistle (1 Jh v. 10) '' He that doth not trust C^ hath 
made God a liar because he hath not trusted to the testimony that CM Kalh 




•BELIEVING" . [14M] 

[1493] Later.'On, the dative in used somewhat similarly 
in V. 46— 7 " Kor if ye trusted Moses ye would trust me... 
but, if j/t trust not Mis writings, how will ye trust my word* ? " 
The plural "writings {ypaiifuna)" denotes the five books of 
the Law: and in the single pa.ssage in which John utes the 
plural of Graphs, he p^rhapn wishes us to see^the Pharisees 
(v. 39) " searching flu ScriptHrts" hook by book, and yet unable 
to extract their meaning. But in the passage under con- 
sideration J6hn uses the singular, " the Scripture," without 
quoting any Special text ; and "for reasons given later on, it i», 
probable that he means " the Scrifturt as a whole" " the 
ScriftHre as the written Word of God" or " the revealed 
will of God in the Law and the I'rophefs." To " trust " this, 
in the filll sense of "trusting," required the aid of the Holy 

Ulieving," in the Di<fldgne with l^ieoeUmui , 

The prcftice to the Dialogue with Nicodemus s,-iys 
le Jgsus was in Jerusalem during the I'assover " many 
tieved in his name beholding his .signs, which he was [dailyj 
performing'." We have seen above (1483— 7) that this pro- 
bably implies that they "were baptised in Christ's nanH." 

testifiid'coHctming his S0H ifiii itiwiirrrvt*u'-M r^v fiaprvpUv If tviiainr*- 
p¥i%n o 6tU ntfiX Tot) viov ottrw)." l*tobably the writer us*s (he phrase as 
Ignatius' speaks of {Trait. 2) " trusting /,> (ii'ij the death of Christ," 
{SmyrH. 6)""irustm(,' to tU) the blood of Christ," in order \6 indicate that 
Gad's testimony was of the nature of.4 Person 10 whom one. looks in trust. 

' On " The Scripture " meaning " The Scripture «» a whole,"^ see 
ITMo-/. . ^ .* > • 

' [1493<j] ii. 23 fftufHtiprif avrnv rit irtjutia A twoitt, i.t- " beholding his 
signs, whiik he was frcijuenlly, or daily, performing "'(not " beholding the 
signs that he was performing"). The relative clause adds, not defines. 
Kpr want of understanding this, the text, has been corrupted is follows : 
SS "behcved our Lord because they were seeing the signs that he did to 
Ikem ".: a i and / om. airmi : i (besides omitting iiuroii) lias " sigtia' qOae 
facicbat in eos qui Infirmi eran«." See lAM^. 

[MM] "BBLIEViNO" , ; f 

, ,. .. , :_.-, ''•' ' '■ 'y-'i-' -, ' "•-. ■!.. ' 

The 'Evangelist appears to have aiisunied that, when Jeaus. 
succeeded the HaiptUt, the former took up the work of 
baptizing disciples. Th» Synpptists make no mention of 
this; but John infornis us of-U immediately after the Dia- 
logue thus, iii. 22 > After thes<^ things came Jesus and hi» 
disciples into the land. of Judu:a; and there he was tarrying 
with them and was baptizing," and a little later he says that 
Je.sus, or rather His disciples, baptized mure converts than 
were baptized by John'. 1 his Ls antecedently probable ; for 
one baptized jay the Haptist, as Jesus hid been, would 
hardly have discbnfinucd the practice of the great I'rophet 
without some strong reason ; and, if Jesus had discontinued 
it, vyoijld not some one of the Evangelists hiive mentioned 
the discontinuance? Supposing that Jesus, the Haptist's 
successor, continuetl to baptize, we are the better able to 
understand why the subject is i»troduccd at once when 
Nicodemus comes' to Jesus by night. • ' 

[14941 The Kabbi, it would seem, w«s thinking about 
being baptized iind came to consult Jesus about the piatter. 
He is at once warned by our Lord that baptism with water 
is insufficient: there must be regeneration froJn above and 
with the Spirit. This introduces the notion of "-believing," 
but, at first, only in a general sense, believing in spiritual as>' 
distinct from material existences, VJ/hen Nicodemus ex- 
elaim.s, "How tan these things be?" Jesus replies (iii. 12) 
"If I told you tarthly things and >•<• belifve not, hmu will yt 
believe ff 1 tell you heavenly things .?* • Then He concludes ■ 
(iii. 14) "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, 
so must the Son of man be lifted up that everyone that 
betie-.tth may in him have eternal life." 

[149S] The meaning of this allusion— so obscure to us — 
would be comparatively easy to a Jew familiar with the 
doctrine about the Serpent in the Wilderness set forth by 

■ ' -' ■■,.:■■>' JtV-iv. i^-J. -v' • ■.■•'■■ 

* , - ■ " " ■- . ,■'■■*'■'■■- 

■ ::.--.■- ■ • 42 ■ .■■:-'.;-:';y-.'. 

'BELIEVING" [1497] 

Philo, Barnabas, and the Targums', and with Jewish thouglit 
about tiie Serpent as being the author of man's fall. As the 
6rst Serpent and the first Adam brought sin, so a second 
Serpent and a second^Klam milst tske away sin. The first 
Serpent was the passfti for pleasure and .self; the second ■ 
Ser|)ent is to be the p^ision for kindness an() the love of 
others. Thus interpretcd\hcse difficult words teach one of 
the deepest of all truths, that men will never be really 
reformed- on the lines of mere law or on the lines- of mere 
aacetkisM: Never will i human being be rcsha(>ed from 
without, as by a sculptor's hand. He must tfrow from a 
germ of life within, his heart going up, and his desires going 
up with it, out of himselfi into a new Man, a second Adam, 
the Man from heaven. 

[1496] Here, according to the best interpretation, the 
Dialogue ends ; and the Kvangelist proceeds with a comment 
of his own. Comparing Christ's first utterance about belief 
(to Nathanael) with this, His second utterance (to Nicodemus), 
we find Hint in the former promising Nathanael a vision of 
" greater things," but here implying that Nicodemus and his 
friends would fail to believe "the heavenly thing.s." But ia i 
neither case does the Lord define "belief" Onl^ by the >• 
allusion to the Brazen Ser|)ent, along With the. mention of 
regeneration by the Spirit,' we are led to ask what is 
meant by " believing," and what a^re to be its processes and 
objects. • ■'"• 

[1497] The passage that follows has been taken by 'many 
as a part of Christ's, own utterance; but it contains ex- 
pressions ("only begotten Son," "believe in the name of," 
"do truth") used elsewhere by the Evangelist and not usgd 

■ [1495a] See Hhilo i. 79, 82, 315, Ham. »ii. 7, Targ. on Numb. xxi. 
6 — 9 — all. full of interest^ but -not possible (0 discuss here. This is our 
Lord's first mention of "/i/t" in this Gospel. Comp. Numb, ixL 9 
"when he looked unto the 'serpent of brass Ae livtJ." 

"' ■ ' " . 43^ ■ . ■ ■ 




elwwhere by our Lord; it speaks of Redemption in the 
past tense as in Evangelist would speak after Christ's death ; 
and the tone of the passage is like that of"Dther Evangelistic 
comments in this Gospel'. It answers the question " To tvkal 
art urn to IrHslf suggested by the words, "in order that 
Mt that Irusttth may in him h^c eternal life." 

[liW] iii. 16—18 "For God so loved the world that 
he gave his only 'begotten Son that evilyone (hat Irusttth to , 
Aim might not perish but might have eternal \\(e...Jit that 
tntsteti to Aim is not under judgment {oi'i xpunrtu). . He 
that Irusttth not is already judged [guilty] because he hath 

. not tntstfit to tht name of the oiUy begotten Son of Gotf'' 
The comment of li<trnabaa on the healing efficacy of fhe 
Serpent may be of use here: "When any of you shall be 
bitten (salth the Scripture) let him come to the Sdrpent that 
is hanging' on the tree and let him hope lind Mu-i't that it, 
though dead, is able to- tnake alh'e and straightway he shall 
be saved- (i-^. healed)'." This is a very rudimentary and , 
erroneous definition of ." trusting": but it helps us to under- 
stand why John does Hot attempt K" define, and prefers to 
suggest. And his suggestion here is that we arc to trust — 
not in a " dead " person or " thing," nor thol a person or thing 
can "make alive," but — tA(tis) an "only begotten Son," who 

"will make us alive (as will be shewni hereafter) not in spite 
of the fact that He has'died, but because He has died (iu. the 

seed dies to live and to ijive lifeV "■■ ' , ■ ' '■ - • ■ 

■ •■ ' ■ ■• . '■ ■ ' ■-'"' ■ 

■ [1497 a] These argumenli are alleged by Weticott for the conclusion 

. that iii. 16 — 21 is "a commentary on the nature or the mission of the *- 

Son." To these may be added (3066) the frequent use of yof. Alio 

6 Bfot (nom.) — which occurs here in iii. 16, 17 — is very rrtrely used by our 

Lord as compared with o nurijf>, but in the Kpistic it occurs about' 13 times. 

' Comp. I Jn iv. 9 " Herein was the love of God manifested in us that 
God hath sent his only begotten Son into the world that we might live 
through him." ' . ■* 

* liarn. xii. 7 Afltrt* fifl rhv !i<^v,..%t^t't\ni(raru iriariivat Afi oiMf Ar 

44 :.■ '; ':■ r'.'/-.-' 

'•BELIBVING- (1501] 

[14M] The metaphont for describing this giving of eternal 

I]fe through the upl^^d Son o( man upon the Ct-oss ara 
various/' Life mi^flBkgarded negatively as deliverance 
friftn *ln. In that a^mioiir burden of sin may be described 
as falling from oiir shoulders as wc kneel befqre the Cross, 
or^as taken from iis and nailed to it with the Crucified One. 
But. John^probably looks at life positively, »s a union with 
Christ, who, when we look to Him with the eye of faith, 
<fraws us to, or irl&toiniself, or^sses into us tha^j«ie:^ay - 

pass into Him. 

[ISOO] Greek philosophers, as w^ have seen, condonA^ 
Christian faith is irrational ; !>nd in modern times inme might 
liken it to th^ "fancy," or imaginative love, which is >" en- ■ 
gendered in ^he eye" I'robaWy John would have accepted 
this comparison, only asking us to remember what the eye 
of the. soul is and what is the object. of (he soul's, visioh. 
He would have admitted that no man c^n come to the 
Father unless he is, so to speak, " enamoured " with— or as 
Jesus said, "drawn by" — the ideal Sonship., No water can 
suffice to cleanse away sin. TKe pflre fire, and passion.'of 
the Spirit can alone drive out the im)>ure fires and passions i" 
of the flesh. „jj^ ,:_..-._. . \' . , * 

J 14. jl/trr the Baptists last words ; . 

[1801] iii. 36 " He that Irusttik ito the Son hath eternal 
life ; but he that refuseth to obey the Son shall not set lifs,^ 
but the wrath of God abideth on liim." This is part ^f a 
comment by the Evangcliet on th^ last words of the Haptist 
" He must increase but 1 must decrease' ; and it shews why, 
even 3^ compared with the greatest of prophctf, the Son 
" must increase " whil?" their claims' on humanity decrease. • ^ 
because, whi|<^"they Represent God's mes.sages, He represents " IS. 
God's fatherhood. "Refuseth to obey," or "febelleth," is 
closer than R.V. ("obeyeth not (»«a>y,^ belicveth not)") to 



'-/the Biblical use of dmiBtlv, which denoteuMtubborn Aa> 
obedience toTiH: rebellion against, parents, or God, or obvious 
truth'. \ t- '^ ' , 

[1002] Here, then, "trusting to" is indirectly defined, C % 
by being contrasted with " rcielliMg against " \ and thus the ji 
notipn of "loyalty to," ." allegiance to," is connected with v 

the former. The words arc parallel to the above quoted 
Evangelistic commentth'i. 1 8) " Hi^HUUuistetlLJiot_Jto_thc 
Son] is already judged" where the nRaning was " is alreadyN^' 
condemned." This is now more e^nph^ically expressed : 
" the -wrath of God remains permanently on him." The 
£vangeli;it has i n view a " rebel " answering to the appaal 
of 'the GbspjHfT (jod, " 1 will, net believe" that thpu art my 
F»ther," to Xhich the reply must be, "Then thou-dost thyself 
make me refnain thy Judgt"^ '-, 

•- ' '•' '■' ■■'.,. ':■ '■: ':':■" ^■^' . ■?• 

J 15, /« Samaria 

[1003] iv. 21 " Trust me (irl<rtevi fuu) woman, that tht 
hour cometh.when neither in thinnountain nor in Jerusalem 
shall ye worship the Father." • 

iv. 39 — 42 "Now from that city 'many tnated to him, 
[many, I mean] of the Samaritans, on account of the word 
of the woman, when she testified, ' fie told me all that ever 
I did'... (40) and he abode (here two days and many more 
trusted because of his [own] word, and they said to the 
'Oman, ' No longer qn accqynt of thy speaking do wt 4rMst. . 
we ourselves have heard and know.,that this is truly^Rt^ 
Saviour of the world." 

, [1B04] The second of these passaged may be convenie..-, 
taken first, because its motive is clear, nameW, to emphaaize -^ 


' [IlOla] See Rom. \. 21 quotini It. Iiv. 1 and jtom. ii, 8 " rtiti 
against the truth." The adj. occurs inUtom. i. 30^ 3 Tim. iii. 3, "Mbcllioui 
■gainst poienti,'' also in Lk. i. 17, Acts xjiVi. 19, Tit. i. 16, iii. 3. The 
verb occurs nowhere in the Gospels except here. 

.46 , 

■BELIEVING" [1804] 

the importance o( personal trust in Christ. But the statement 
■ is not quite consistent. I^or let us suppose that fifky (" many") 
" believed on account of the word of the woman," and that a 
hundred and fifty ("many more") "belief^ on account of 
his («>. Christ's) word." How. could the hundred and fifty 
say to the woman '' ho longer do we believe on account of thy 
speaking'"? The Diatessaron and SStty to meet the diflliculty 
. by dropping " more " (""many beliqVed becaus^ of his word "). 
Codex e has " much more (multo amplius) did they believe 
because of his word." This makes admirable sense ; but it h> 
unfortunatehi^t supported by other authority*. And, had 
it been the original, why should it have been altered? Pro- 
bably the text is correct and the meaning, though not logically 
expressed, is this : " Some (say, fifty) believed because of the 
woman's word ; but many more (say, a hundred) believed for 
the first time, or (ai regards the fifty) had their belief 
strengthened, because of Christ's word : and all these came to 
the woman saying, 'The beginning of our belief came from 
you : but now we have heard Him for ourselves and we 
believe because of Hi* word'.'" 

' [19M ci] Even uippoaing that fifty of the hundred and fifty had first 
believed " on account pf the wold of th« voman " and were now 
strengthened in their belief "on account of Christ's word," yet the 
fact would remain that a hundred had never owed their belief' to the 
woman, and could not use such language to her. \^. 

' [18M (] Codex e seems to have read nXcioNcniCTCrbw. This 
could easily arise from nAcioNeccniCTcycAN : and irXfiortt anairAf^ovf 
are 'found, as y.r. in Acts xxvii. 12, 1 Cor. xv, 6. Elsewhere m N.T. 
wXctorcr (nom.) is found of persons four 'times (Acts xxvii. 13, xx9bi- 23, 
'1 Cor.' XV. 6, Heb. viL 33) and irX«iovc (nom J thrice (Acts xix. 32, xxiii. 13, 
21). Boti) Origcn juid ^eratleon read "many more" (Huet ii. 344, 24II). 

' [UM<:] Heracleon (according to Origen, Huet ii. 348 B) wished to 
supply fMvtf after XoXuiii (" No longer do we believe because of thy 
speaking alone *). This, however, taken strictly, would indicate that he 
regarded all the speakers as being ori^nally indebted to the woman for 
their faith. 

[1BM/| Origen says (Huet ii. 345 E) 'H M' <^ ^x4 ^' <t'° ^' 

A.V. 47 5 



[1006] We are not obliged to suppCM^hat (he Samariuns 
first described as liaving " trusted to " theXord received this 
faith, before seeing and hearing Him, on tne mere report of 
the woman. The "fifty" may have been so far piypared by 
the ^oman to believe" that, as soon as tBpy entered His 
presence, they actually and gerfuinely believed in Him, but 
with a rudimentary belief. The Evangelist appears to rfccog- i 
nise a lower and a higher faith, even whiK describing the I 
lowes by the phrase hithfrto applied tgrwe faith of the 
disciples ariM true believer»»(" trusting to^KtSit 'N^Ibus a new 
shade of distinction is introduced, belief varying according to 
what the Greeks call the 6t« Tt, or " Whyf" . In the former 
Case, the answer to the Why f is " fbcausc of the word of the 
Woman"; in the latter, " because of His word/'' . ' '. 

[1S06] Let us n6w return to oihr Lord's own saying about 
"belief," or "trust," early in the story. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, and in an ordinary speaker, we might suppose ^ 

the words " Trust me, woman, llutt the hour cometh " to ' 

have been merely an asseveration mean^g " I assure you that 
it is so." But we must have regard to the f»ct that thisij 
in utterance of Christ; the third passage in which He mentions 
"trusting"; and the Gospel has hitherto appeared to be 
carrying us from stage to stage in the development of a 
doctrine about "trusting." We have also to consider the 
conclusion of the i\arrative, and the way in which it seems to 
point ar moral about "trusting" and different k^nds of "trust." 
The result should convmce us that we are bound to try first 
'of all to make sense of our Lord's words in their literal and 

aCiiiirw Kol nhi^wriii* tmv waKky irXfiovwi' irtvmitnmv oimH-i M riv 
Xayoi' r. ytvoiR^f oXXs -^4^ yir X6ymi aimVj where, for iji- ireXXMf, we ihould 
(lerh. read riv iroXXar contraited with rar iroXXf irXtuirav. Origtn'f 
antithesis " The^//i'>>iiut;f...but the iKcreau anil multi^iaHiaH," inajr be 
intended to convey a suggestion that the increase eximdtd U> the "Mie/J' 
and Hot only to Jke HHmbtr &f thou ^* believing" 

- - . 48 - 

■^ .?* 

' "BELIEVING" [1507] 

weighty mtaning by taking them as a precept, " Trust me/' 
Taken thus, they call on the woman (to whom afterwards He 
- vouchsafes the unique revelation of His Messianic nature) to 
" trust Him " that the House of Worship is not Jerusalem , 
or Gerizini but Spirit and Truth. These, He says in effect, 
are the true Temple. 

[1807] The Evangelist has already described , Him as 
meaning "the Ti-miile" when He mentions Himself. So, 
here, the incarnate Temple of God is described as taking 
compas.siun oo this p<K)r Samaritan woman — who, amidst all 
her tempt/iiions of tlV flesh, has this .idditional peril, namely, 
that h'/i idea of G<xi \s a Person much quarrelled about by 
learr«d Jewish and Samaritan Rabbis — and He asks h4r' to 
"tni'it".Him, when He as«ures her that prayer is not a 

' ii. iii "He was aiylhii flhi*] (MM) concerning the temple of his 
body," better perhaps ** meant this to refer to the temple etc." 

' [UOTo] He does not speak as one commanding (aorrst, iriffTtmrav), 
but rather as one requesting (pres. wiarm). Itt this Gospel, Christ never 
uses the authoritative imperative of thi^ jjterb. Neither does Mk' v. 36 
'* Fear noil only A^i'nv(ir^ffT«M}." But thepantll. Lk. viii. sohasff-ifrrrvtmi' ; 
and so has Acts xvi. 31, Some Christians abused it, according to Celsus 
(Origen, Cr/s. i. 9) 4fffrt At rif ar lu^ijjt/tkofuvovt Mavai ^ Xaiiiiiwuv Xoyov 
wtp'i iiv ittimvowi^ Ki"^ diiP¥^^ M^rProf f aXXo trltrrtvtroy xai 17 frt'trrtr trov 
VU991 irt ** (printed by Uindorf as (tvo sayings, the second being, " Thy 
faith will save thee "). ? " . 

[16074] The aorist imper. occurs, huwiver, in Soph. Oiii. Ji. 646 nfit 
$tuv...nioTivmtv rddr, where it seems to impl/ the'urgency of entreaty 
rather than authoritative command. In Eurip. Hei. ^10 Xvyots If- t'/ioiai 
fl-t'imtHrw taA<, it is authoritative. In these,, and in, two other instances 
quoted by Steph., ir. is connected with a heut. accus. Herodian viii. 3. 3: 
TO ii wOfiiSo^p T^s diro^ircwr nitui ndrra «rurt«i^ai, Aristot. Prior, 
Ariatyt, ii. 33 ^urrtw^tv ya^ ^n-ol^a ^ huk ayXXoyuriMW ^ &i iwaywy^t. 
Comp. Habak. i. 5 Ipyvv tyit •py(i(o^i...& qi> fiif wurrnnnirtt where the 
antecedent of 3 is prob. " the doing" of the deed," not " the deed " ; 
" but Acts xiii. 41 quoting this repeats fpyop before i, In N.T, this neut. 
accus. occurs, thrice, -^n xi. 36 mtrrnus roiro, 1 Cor. xi. 18 nipas n 
wurrtMt, xiii. 7 iriiira wtartvii. It is probably of a semi-adverbial 
character like Eurip. Or. 1103 yv^iu^i irurrcva ffpexi, Steph. gives no 
instance of a non-neuter accus. with irumvw. 

49 S— » 

[1808] "BELIEVING" 

sectarian or provincial business. Nathanael had been gently 
reproached by the Lord for " trusting " before he had seen the 
"greater things"; Nicodemus had been warned that" he that 
trusteth " must look upward to the Son of man " lifted up " in 
order that he "might have in him etem.-jl life"; now the 
woman of Samaria is bidden to " trust Him" in the assurance 
that worship <which is the " looking upward " of tfie heart) 
will be effectual wherever it is offered " in spirit and truth." 
This cosmopolitan subordination of local worship ("Jerusalem," 
" Gerizim ") prepares the way for the sublime confession at 
the end of the story — based, not upon faith Cut ujxjn know- 
ledge, and hot on seeing but on hearing — " We have heard 
him ourselves, and ^now that this is indeed the Saviour of 

the Worur ..; ■' -■■ ■ ..:■ '..:'■ '< ;-^^'''X' ■- ',-''■ ■ 

§ lO. The nobleman's " belieiiiit^"^ 

[1B08] iv; 48 "Except ye. see signs and wonders j-e wiU 
asiuredly not believe (oi /t^-iri<rr«ij<r>;Te)r' Compare this with 
iv. 50 "Go thy way, thy son liveth. Tlie man beliex'ed th* 
word that Jesus had spokeiu ' from -which it appears that 'he 
did "believe," in some sfense, ^^cri'he had seen any "signs 
and wonders." It follows that'we must take the words 
"ye will assuredly not " like similar words in xviii. 11 ("I am 
assuredly not to drink it!" (933—6. 100f» and like many 
other exclamations ofjesus, as beingof a semi-interrogative 
nature (2236). ..The utterance, though addressed to the 
nobleman, is not about the nobleman alone. The pronoun 
is not "thou " but "^e," and the full meaning of this condensed 
sentence might be paraphra.sed in modern Kngllsh thus : " I 
know the ways of your class, the Hcrodians, the courtiers, the 
men of the world. None of ydu, as a rule, will believe without 
seeing signs and wonders! Is it to be so with you also?" 
It is exclamatory as regards the class but interrogative as 
regards the individual. " ' ' 

"BELIEVING" [1510] 

[1009] At the same time the Evangeh'st takes pains to 
shew that the man passes through stages of belief. He 
"beh'evirf," in souu sense, at once: but he merely beh'eved 
" the word that Jesus had spoken," namely, " thy son liveth." 
Afterwards, when he ascertained that his son had actually 
recovered in the hour of this utterance, tfien (iv. 53) "A< 
f Mievr^—he himself and his household." What he mnu 
"believed" we are not told. But we are led to infer (i) that 
it was a belief, or trust, "iir," or "to" Jesus ^limself, (2) that 
it was, even now, not a perfect belief, for it had been caused 
in part by a "sign 4nd wonder." We perceive in this 
narrative— which contains the fourth utterance of Jesus 
about " trusting " or " believing " — a recognition of two facts :' 
first, that a certain class of people will not "trust" without 
"signs and wonders," and, secondly, that the Lord, while 
sometimes working such "signs," endeavours to raise theil\ 
to' a trust that is above "signs'," . ;■, '.' 

* I T " Befieving-" tkt testimony «f the Father 

[1010] Hiflicrto, except in> the ^Dialogue with the Sa- 
maritan Woman ("trust me") our Lord has never mentioned 
the object of trust. Now, it is brought before the reader 
in the course of a controversy with the Jews arising from an 
act of healing on the sabbath. Jesiis asserts that He " sees " 
His Father performing such acts as these, that He, the Son, 
does them because the Father, who has sent Him, has given 

' [llXWa] Tht Nobleman in Jn ii, in lome ratpccts, parmUel to the 
father of the " lunatic " in Mk. The former, when he hca^> the words " ye 
will not believe," does not deny the weakneti of his belief but says, in 
effect, "Come down at all eveni K and ^In w hat you can fo^my child before 
it is too late." This is noUHritEeDie father's "//iJum tanil," in Mk, Only, 
in Mk, the father frankly avowed the mixed nature of his feeling " I believe, 
help thou mine unbelief." All this beautiful tradition of Mk's is left out 
by Ml. and U(. Jn gins swnething corresponding to it. 

^, c 

[Hll] "BfeLIEVlNG" 

them to Him t6 do, and that they are His Father's "testf- 
mony " : (v. 24 — 47) " He that hearetb- my word ami tmsMh 
him (dat.) that sent »u hath eternal h'fe and cometh not into 
judgment, but hath passed out of death Into life.... (38)tand 
ye have not his word (or. Logos) abiding in you, because 
whom he sent, him (dat.).^ trust not.... (44) How can yc 
trust (ir»(rT«B(roi), receiving glory from one another and the 
glory that is from the only God yek seek not!.... (46) If ye 
Irusttd Moses (dat.), ye would trltst me (dat.), for he wrote 
concerning me.» But if ye trust not his writings (dat.) how. 
will ye trust my words (AaX..) ? " 

[ISllI Mere, " trust " means " believe tlu testimony 0/!' 
and it is implied that if the Jews had thus tru.sted Moses, 
they would have trusted the Son,, and if they had trusted 
the Son they wbuld have trusted the Father, And, con- 
cerning this last "trust" it is, said that the man possessing 
it "hath eternal life." The section is mainly of a negative 
character. Even the strong phrase " hath eternal life " is 
followed by the negative " cometh not into judgment " ; and 
life is regarded as being in its commencement (" hath passed 
out of death into life"). The context tjhjl that those 
who do not possess within th^ir hearts, in any degree, the . 
Wflrd or l.ogos of Qod, having no affinity with the law of 
moral harmony and order, cannot revolve about His "glory," 
but make their own " glory " the centre of their actions. 
Having broken loose from the attractive force of God's Over- 
ruling and universal Fatherhood, they no longer look to Him, 
or trust Him, as Father, but look always to them.selves. 

§ 18. After the feeding of the Five Thousand 

[1612] The Feeding of the Five Thousand is almost 
expressly said by our Lord to have failed in pnxlucing ' 
* trust " even, in the hearts of those who received the bread- 
" Ye seek me," He says to them, " not because ye saw signs 
53 ■ 

I ■ "BEUEVING". ' [WM] 

but because ye ate of the loaves add were filled. Work not 
[for] the food that perisheth but for the food that abideth 
unto life eternal.... This is the work of God that ye trusl^ 
to him whom God [hath] s^nt.... The bread (or, loaO of God 
is the One' that cometh down from heaven and givcth life ' 
tb the world... I am the bread of life. He that cometh to 
me shall surely not hunger and he that trustcth to me shall 

. surely not thirst at any time. But I [have] said to you that 
ye have both («a/) seen [? me]' and do not trust." 

[1613] These words of Christ, and those of the Jews 
which art' interspersed between them, present great didiculty 
because of the apparent blending of the literal and the 
spiritual. In particular, the last sentence has perplexed com- 
mentators because Jesus is nowhere recorded to have said 
"ye have both seen me and do not truSt." But the words 

I may be intended to sum up al) that Jesus Ijas just Said, 
thus : " Your notion of the Bread of Life is greedy^njoymerit ; 
but the true Bread is trust in God. You say, ' How must we 
work the works of God ?' : I reply, ' The one work of God is 
to trust to his Messenger.' You say, 'What doest thou 
(irowtv), or workest thou (epyd^j)), that yie may see and 
trust thee' ?,' and you point to tha Manna as being ' bread 
from heaven ' : I reply, ' The Manna was not the Bread from 
Heaven. That is a thing of the past But the true Bread 
IS now being oflTered to you, every day a'hd every hour, by 

■ vi. 29 iro irKrr<i>i|r<. On the diitinction between this ami , 
tfiffTfvffiir«, -see 2634~A. , - ' 

' [1512il] vi. 33 6 yap fiftrot r. tfcoO f irrii' A Kitrafiaivuv^ where i Koraiiaipmitt 
is taken by'the Jewi as meaning "the lirtad l,or, loaf) that cometh down," 
■ but it may mean "the man that cometh down." "One" u an attempt to 
represent this ambigtrily. " i\ ^> 

■ [15124] vi. j6. W. H. bracket )u, which it omitted by SS,ai well a> 
tAK and most Latin MSS. But its difjjculty explains (without lustifying) 

Tits omission ; and there is no satisfactory way of explaining how it could i 

•be erroneously inserted. " ^ 

* vi. 30 (dative), but Jesus had used (vi. 39) the prepothion " ta'', 


the Father. The Bi'eacI is not anything that I 'do (*o»fi) 
or work (ipydiofuu).' It is I myself. I am the Bread. You 
ask for a sign that you may 'see and believe.' You Jiave 
sten me, and I have been telling you this, and yet you do not, 
belieine'.'" " _ 

11614] If that is the meaning, Jesus is* reproaching the 
Jews for not seeing the divine facts of human life, somewhat 
as Epictetus repr(jK:hes cultured Greeks for denying the • 
existence of the very moment when 'they were 
eating bread'. According to Johannine doctrine, the Bread 
of Life is not to be sought above the clouds but wherever 
we see good men and women, who .diffuse |x:ace and 
trust around th^m. Jesus was. the incarnation of such 
goodness.* .-.i; ., ... • ji ' 

[161S] An underground stream of Jewish thought, coming 
to the surface in Mark's Go'^pel but not in Matthew's and 
Luke's, is possibly reappearing here — a t^aditior^ about th« 
spontaneousncss of God's kindnesses and about the calm and"" 
trustful spirit in which they are to be received. Mark says 
that the Kingdom is like a man that sows seed "and sleeps 
and rises night and day " and the seed grows " he knows 
not how," and "the earth of ■ itself Vbr'mf;cl]\ forth fruit" 
This tradition about God's giving ta met^ in their sleep appears 
in the Psalmist's contrast between worrying drudgery and 
trustful work, " Except the Lord build the house, they, labour ' 
but in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, 
the watchman waketh but in vain. It is'^l^in Tor you that, 
ye rise up early, and so late take rest and eat ihc bread of* 

■ 'vi, <6— s& • fcpice. ii. i<k Ji.- '' * 

' [1516 It] Mil iv. 28 aurofiori), so Fhilo, on I»ac (the self-taught, 
•iro^q^r) >. 571—3 firri At xoi rpiror 5por rov avro^Mitfot'S r^ dvi^Saivo* ^' 
<vrVaro> (that ' which cometh up of itself). Comp. also Clem. Rom. 
11—3, on "the faith that is in Christ," in connexion with trustful 
acceptance of (lod's mercies ending with words that (Lightf.) " strongly 
reserifble Mlt iv. j6 sq." 1 

■■'■•..'' 54 


' / "BEUEVIKG" •' ■ t"-{l»lT] 

, — - ' . . /■ . — -^ — — — 4:r=5«^.,_^ — .-L_; ■ 

anxiety. He gfueth unto his Moved in sleep as[(mindaiilfy 
as to ^fou]'." / 

[lBl$l,/''&3 here, Christ's principal saying appears to be 
a t>rot«it( against that faithless kind of work which might be 
cMfcA " dead works," the craving for which might lead some 
to accumulate not only purifications but even, almsgivings, 
not from love for man but -from faithless dread of God. 
In answer to the question put by the Jews, " What are we 
to i/o that -we may work the works of God ? " Jesus replies 
in effect, "Do, in the first instance, nothing — nothing, at 
least, that jfou would call 'dofBg.' Simply trus( to God's 

[1617] As regards the metaphor' implied in " trusting 
to," we observe that it occurs in different contexts that may 
imply diffc^nt shades of meaning. " He that cometh to nre 
shall surely not hunger and he that trustelh to mc shall surely 
not thirst at any time*" \m^\es approach to. " This is the will 
of my Father that every one that beholdeth the Son and 
trusteth to him should have eternal life*" implies looking to. • 
But does not this "beholding" correspond to "beholding the 
Serpent lifted up in the Wilderness"?* And, if so, does it 
not mean that kind of " looking to" Jesus.on the Cross which 
draws the sinner /o, or jmo Jesus, so .that he can exclaim 
with the Apostle, "I have been crucified with Christ'"? 

' [1S16 b\ Ps. cxxvii.. V— 2. On " in sleep," see (iesen. 446 a ; " u abpn- 
dantly" Clesen. 486a. For the laUer, Targ. hM " ronvcnienter « recte," 
Sut it t Jkes " sleep " as the object (as A. V. and R.V.txt). The Targ, also 
takes "bread' of putting cares" as "the bread of the miserable for which 
they have toiled," thus " In vain willye labour fur yourselves, ye that rise' , 
up early to practise robbery for yourselves, ye that delay and-sit qutetto 
perpetrate crime, dexouriiig the bread of the iniseriiblefor which they have 
toiled." The first verse of the next I'salm (cxxvhi. 1 ) appears to paint-the 
opposite pictuP^jOf trustful toil. " Blessed is every one that feareth 
(t'.r. reverences) the'Lord, that walketh,iii his ways.' Kor thou ihfit eat 
the labour of tjiine hnlnds and h^ppy ^alt thou be." ■ 

' ^'- 35- ' " ", '' ■ , " " vi. 4*' ; 

. A^al. ii. 20y coHip, Rom. vi 6. ,^ . . 

'' . J As ■.:^- »''■:'; 

•• Vi' 

[1618] , "BELIEVING" 

— — ' -^ ■ • ^; . ' • ■■ — 

The Evangelist himself sugg;«sts this in the context ; for 

- he adds (as words of Christ) " No man is-iftble to come unto 

me except the Father draw him," and, later on, "I, if I be 

lifted up, will dra«v all men unto me'." . » 

[1618] Another as()ect of the spiritual union expressed 
by saying that men are " drauTi " towards- Christ may be 
described by saying that Christ is taken into men as their 
food. .Accordingly, this Dialogue goes on to speak first of 
" trusting^to " the Son, and then of "eating the flesh of" 
the Son, as implying the possession of eternal life'. 

[1619] The conclusion of the section dis.sipatcs any 
literalistic impressions thaf might be derived from these 
intense verbal efforts to represent invisible truths so as to 
force upon us their reality. The disciples arc warned by our 
Lord that " It is the spirit that giveth life, the flesh profiteth 
nothing: the tvortis that I have spoken to you, [these] are 
spirit ai\jl [these] are life" " ; and Peter his allegiance 
to the Lord, and his confession ak the close of the narrative, 
not on the miracle of the loaves and fishes, but on Christ's 
words : " Lord, to whom shall we go ? Thou hfist u>or//s 
of elenial lif/% Similarly the Samaritans isaid, " We have 
.heard [him] and Ijnow that this is of a truth* the Saviour 
of the world." And I'eter, Qioved by the "words," now 
says, i' We irust ZompUttly (itmumiiKaiuv) (3442) and know 
. that thou art the H^ly Qne of God*. ' 

J l§i, "Not Miex<ing" 

"' ■■•■■■>■-■ ■.■.', . 

[1690] Hitherto the has made no mention, 

in his own pecson, of any actual refusal to believe. Or " not 

' vi. 44, xii. yt- '. > 

"> [ISlBa] Cani|»,v!.V'*He (hat thitttlk hath eternal life "(where tit 
• iiU though rightly omit.tcd<^y VV. H. (fom txl hu to be lupplied, in 
thought, frorh the picccdin); wordi), and vi. $4 "He that eateth my iteih 
^ ■ » vi. 63. ■« vi. 68. • vi. 69, Me ItW. 

'■: ' ' -56 

'.BELIEVING" [1981] 

believing'." But now, after the " scandal " created by the 
Doctrine of Bread, when many of the Lord's disciples deserted 
Him, John tells us that (vii.„ s) " ^fot even his ovv-n brethren 
were disposed to trust (on were \theti\ trusting) to him (2466)." 
And at the end of the chapter the chief priests and Pharisees 
ask triumphantly (vii. 48) " Has any one of the rulers trusted . 
to him, or [any one] of the Pharisees ? " This implies a jjeneral 
"not believing," and Nicoderaus, "one of the rulers," Who is 
present, does not say anything to the contrary. 

[1021] On the other hand, it is said that " many of the 
multitude trusted to him," alleging the number of His signs' 
— according to which standard Elisha would be called twice 
as great a prophet as Elijali, since hi worked fourteen signs 
to his Master's seven ! There can be little doubt that the 
Evangelist does not intend his readers to magnify this kind 
of "belieC" t "trust." It is divided by an immense interval 
—this arithmetical belief — from that genuine s|>iritual de- 
pendence . on the Messiah implied in our Lord's word.s 
fojlowing not long afterwards (vii. 37—8) " If any man thirst, 
let him come unto me and drink. He that trusttth to me,... 
rivers shall flow from his belly, [fivers] of living water." 
This carries His doctfine a stage beyond the previous an- 
nouncement, " He that trusteth to me shall surely never 
thirst": for it implies that the believer will satisfy not only 
his own thirst but also that of others. The faithful convert 
will convert others to faith*. 

' [i&20/i] It has occurred, but only in Christ's words e.g. iii. 12, .v. jS 
^tc. : but there is an approximation to an Evangelical 'stateinent in vi. 64 
"He knew... who they were that did not believe.". 

• vii. 31 "The Messiah, when he shall come, will he do more signs 
than this [man] hath done ? " ' 

■ [1621a] In vii. 39, the ^orist participle probably includes future 
believers (M99), who were destined to receive the Spirit after havmg 
"trusted to hiiA." *~ 





, §30. ■" Btlitving wilnetses" 

[1S22] A large part uf the next chapter (viii. i — 46) 
treats of "trusting" as illustrated by the Law about "two 
witnesses." The Father and the Son are declared to testify 
conjointly'. Apparently the meaning is th^ Christ's words 
and acts of healing, ty dtflTusing physical as well as spiritual 
health among men, testify that they are in accordance with 
the Laws of Nature, or in other words, with the wortfs of God 
the Pather. In this chapter, the dative is twice used by our 
Lord, because the meaning is " trust tlu evidence of a witness, 
and because' He speaks negatively, blaniing the Jews because 

" they will */ evefi Intst Hint as a witness, much less trust 
to Him as their Deliverer*. He also once uses (again with 
a negative) the phrase "trust, that" as follows (vui. 24) 
'.' Except ye trust that V AM [HE], ye shall die in your sins." 
This is dis(;ussed elsewhere (2223), and an attempt is made 
to shew that it means, unless ye trust in God's purpose to 
make Man one Vith Himself. 

[1623] Another passage, not in Christ's words- bat in 
narrative, distingiiiishes between (1) "many," who " trusted to 
him," and (2) "those who had trusted him, [being] Jews'." 

•The latter are described as -shortly afterwards becoinfng 
Christ's bitter opponents, then as "liars," and as "children 
of the devil." This is one of the most cogcift of many 

. passages indicating that John sometime denotes great diflfer' 
ences of meaning by slight differences of word, and that he 

' takes pains \6 shew that the word " believe " might represegt 
a transient emotion, or might have a non-moral significance, 

• ' '■ ."■■."■'.■', 

' viii. 18. i\ ... .. 

' viii. 45— 6 (*m) oi iriaJ-tiJn-/ /m. ' • ,• " 

' viii. 30 — I iroXAoi iwiartwa^ tlf .a^rD*... Ti>tc wuriartvK^rat avr.^ 
'lavAauvc. On this, Me 2S06. 



§ 21. After tiu Healing of the Blind Man 

[1B34] A new phase of "trusting" is introducctl by our 
Lord when He says to the blind man, whom He has healed, 
ix. 35 " Thou \at all events] dost trust to (aii -wurTtvai; «'«) 
the Son of man^t" To Nathanael, stimulating him to a 
higher trust, Jeiiis had said that he should see " the angels 
ascending and descending on the Son of man." He had 
also said to Nicodenius, " The Son of man must be lifted ' 
up that every one that trusteth may in him have eternal 
life'" — which implied some conne.xion between "trusting" 
and the Son of man : but Jesus had never, up to this time, 
expressly connected " trust " and " the Son of man," as He 
does here. ■ ^ 

[1620] Thenhrase .seems to denote a trust in, so to sjK-ak, 
the humanity of God, a trust m Man with all his physical 
and intellectual iitiperfectionsV as )>eirig a revelation of God ' 
superior to^the revelation of Him contained in the heavens. 
The blind man has been battling for his Healer against the 
Wgic and brow-beating of the^Sanhedrin, and has been cast 
out of the Synagogue. Now he receives his reward. The 
Saviour, finding him, does not'say to him as to the imjKitent 
man of Bethesda, " Sm no more," but "Thou [I am sure] 
dost trust \xr the Son of man." The .sequel illustrates the 
Johannine conception of<,faithi and, it vawf be added, the 
— — * — '- ■• ^ ' ' ..V ■.■ » ' ■ — ^— ,-«^. \.' 

' [ISMii] On the ,reasons for taking thh as a statement iii inlcr- 
rogative tone, sfe 2342. It corresponds to the interrogative stateinent 
made tp the nu1>leman iv. 48 " Ye will surely not believe " (1808). The 
Iheaning'is, "Thbugh all the nikrs of Jerusalem refuse to believe, thou at 
all events, 1 am sure, doslfbelieve.'', , • 

' i. ji, iii. 14. 
,; ' [lS25a] Ps. viii. 3—5 "The Son of man," in John, is never " the Son 
of tnair'''as conceived in Daniel seated on the clouds. It is rather the 
ideal of the Psalmist, as also tlie ideal suggested in Mk ii, 10 ("the .Son 
of man hath authority upon earth to forgive sins") and ii. a8 ("the Son of 
man is lord also of the Sabbath..."). 

(1M<1 "BEUEVINC," . 

real nature of faith. The man does not even know the 
meaning of the phrase; yet he has in his heart the conception 
of the PeriOH. and is already, virtually, a believer. " Yea, and 
who is he, Lord, that I may trust to him f" and then, " Lord, 
I do, trust." . . - 

_,[1638] As a contrast, the unbelief of the Jews Is* morfe 
and more emphasized. Far from " Ijelieving," in the Christian 
sense, because of the cure of blindness, they ai-c confirmed 
in their belief that the Healer i« a " sioner'." Jesus, in 
Solomon's porch, mates one more appeal to them, asking 
for a lower kind of faith than He had hitherto mentioned. 
He does not now say "trust ta me," nor "trust mt;" but 
"trust works" (x. 37 — 8): "If I am not doing the works 
of my Father, trust me not : but if I am doing [them], even 
if ye be- not trusting mc, tritst tht *H>rks," He seems to 
. mean, " Only trust that the works are kind as well as 
wonderful. Qnjy trust in their mothe. Then you may go on 
from that to j^nething higher." F'or, after " trust the woris" 
He adds, " thaTye may recognise, and grow in the recognition 
(2611), that in me is the Father and I in the Father." * 

[1627] This .section concludes with the statement that 
Jesus, after the Jews had 'attempted . to stone Him in the 
Temple, went away again beyond Jordan " and abode there " 
and "many trusted to him there'." The adverb "there" 
occurs seldom in John at the end of a .sentence, and still more 
seldom at the end of a section. Possibly it is emphatic and 
is intended to contrast the safety of the Lord, and the 
multitude of believers, beyond Jordan, with the persecution 
and unbelief in Jerusalem'. 

' The lonljf mention of " bejiewing," in the Evangeliil's words, at this 
stage, is (ix. 18) ''The Jews therefore diit not Mitvt concerning him that 
he had been bUnd and recovered sight until they called his parents...." 

» ». 40, 42. 

■ [1637 a] 'K«<; is certainly emphatic in Jn xi. 8 "Goest thou again 
Hurt [of all places]?" meaning "the very place where they. sought to 
stone thee." 





§ 22. Tlu Raising of LasarA 

[IBM] " Trusting " is repeatedly mentioned in the Raising 
of Lazarus as, in |>art, the cause of the rairkcle, or of the 
maiifier in which it is' performed. When our Lord prays 
alou^ at the igravc, He says (xi. 42) " Kor the sake of the 
multitude that standeth around I said [it] t|at they may 
trust yiii/ thdu didst send me"; and previously, to the 
disciplW (xi. 1 4^I5H " Lazarus is dead, and 1 rejoice on 
account of you — «'« ordtr that ye may trust — that I was not 
there." AThe latter passage is obscure (!S099>^ llut it seems 
to include the meaning that the Lord's absende has been 
ordained ',in order that the belief of the disciples ia Him may 
be strengUiened by the sequel ix. the Raising ti Lazarqs. 
Nevertheless, " in order that ye may trust," (aoristj is gram- 
matically tcmarkabje if it means "that ye may grow in trust," 
or "that jrc may continue to trust me," It4|»otld most 
naturally rnean " that ye may become believers " \ but, in 
that sense, it could not- be applied to those who wcre|alrcady 
Christ's devoted disciples', 

[1S29] Difficulty is aliio presented by the contikst be- 
tween (I) thc' words uttered by our Lord to Martna and 
(3)' what is commonly, interpreted as His subsequent Velfrence 
to them: .- * 

. (1) (xi. 23 — 6) "Thy bnother shall rise again,.. I aiih the 
resurrection and the life.. He that icir/WvM V« («»'?) 4^, kven 
though he die (or, be dead), shall live; and every one Ihat 
is living and believing in me shall assuredly never die. \ Tftou 
believest this^t" , .■ , * '„' ■" .- 

* • ■ ■ 'v -:^'^.:\'^'-- ■ ' '■ ■■ ' 

' For the difference between wurrninftt and ■rtartOi^'i We 3SM — 9. 

' [1539 d] xi. 26 irtffrfvfir rovrn. On this construction, rare in N.T. 
see 1807^. It is a short way of saying, "Thou believett me as to this?" 
" Believe " has odvantages over " trust " in the rendering of this passage. 


[1580] _. : "BEUEVING* 

• (i) , (xi. 40) " Said l not unto thee', ' l|r thou shjlt believe 
CVikv iriartvaji^) thou shall see the glory of God ' ^,'• , 

To the disciples our Lord, had said (that the sickness 
of Lazarus was to be for the g\6ry of God and of the Son 
of God' ; but not to Martha. And there is nothini; in 
_Christ's first utterance to her to suggest <hat He is looking 
forward to any " rising " of Lazarus from the dead before 
that general " rising again " wjiich He Himkelf mentions to 
her. Nor is there anytliing In it to indicate! to Martha that 
her "believing" was to be a -condition of her ".seeing" her 
brother raised from the dead. On the conwary, the .stor)- 
wiews that Martha \iPas quite ready to believe that Jesus 
could have saved Lazarus from death, and ccAild. even now 
that he was dead, restore him to life '. Uut arly expectation 
of this kind Would naturally be suppressed in her by Christ's 
mention of the " rising again "in general terms, applying fo 
all believers*. 

[1630] But may He not have, uttered these words to 
Martha on a previous occasion.' Bearing in mind the saying 
of Jesus to Nathanael, "Thou .shaft see greater things than 
these," we ought to find n^ difficulty in supposing that He 
uttered similar sayings to other converts. To Martha, there- 
fore, at some time before the Raising of Lazarus, perhaps at 

'.„ < [lSn«] Or as W- H. (in iit) "ihM, if thou shall believe, thou i\\^l 
see." But it.ii more' in accordaiice with Johanoine usage to prim i^n 
'Ed» as above. See oti *♦ recitalivum (2189—90)." 

' xi. 4 "This sicknes; is not unio dcalU but for (uirrf)))the glory of 
God in order that the Son of (Jod may be ghrijUd through it." 

' xi. Ji— 2 "If thou hadst been tiere my brother had not died. Even 
now I l(now that whatsoevct thou shall ask God, God will give thee." 

* [1S29>] xi. 23-4 "'Thy brother 'shall (or, will) riu again (,irairni- 
orrat) '. . .' I khow that he will riu tigaiit in tkt riUng again {a*turrrti^mi tr 
Tfl nHnrrdtru) in the fisl day..."* The following words " I am f^ '^'"'V 
again (avdvraaK) and the life. He that believelh in nie shall Uvc even if 

' he be dead, and every one thai liveth and believeth in me shall never die," 
seem expressly intended to include a/l " believers," and to exclude all 
expectation of a material .or spedjil revivification for her brother. 

"BELIEVING" [1632] 

her conversion, -He may havg said, ''If thou slialt believe. 
thou shalt see the glory of God'," no doUbt in a spiritual 
sense-r-ras Origeo interprets the saying to Nathanael and the 
disciples' — meaning that she should see the mysteries of the 
divine |»o\'e. But, in such a saying, " the glory of God " 
would include that particular " glory " which accrued to the 
Father in heaven from* the signs worked by the Son on 
earth — a "glory " that the Pharisees did not discern- because 
they did not " believe." '■ . ',,, 

[1531] Assuming thfc r^Ution between Jesus ^and the 
family of Lazarus to be as John records it, we arc con- 
fronted, in the death of Lazarus, with } crisis in the Christian 
Ghuri;h — the first death in a family lif " believers." Ma"y 
years afterwards, the Thessalonians were .startled by the , 
death of a belicvcf 'as being something disappointing -and 
unsettling. They seem to have expected that the Lord 
would come from heaven an.d take all the saints up to Mis 
presence before death could touch them. How much more 
might the death of a friend of Jesus caase a chill to fall 
on the faith of some, in our Lord's lifetime, who "supposed 
that the kingdom of God was Immediately to appear' " ! 

[1632] According to this view, Jesus, face to face with 
a threatening crisis for_some of His dearest friends, is here 
strengthening the faith "f one of them by referring to some 

' [1530a] Comp. Mk iv; ii "To >ou is giveii'thc mystery of the 
kingdom of Go4''<where Mt.-Uk. have ^^iif'kffow the inysieries..."; and 
" to i«the mystery" would make good sense) also Mk ix. i "There are 
some of those standing here that shall not taste of death till they jge the- 
kingdora of God having come in power" (Mt. xvi. j8 "the Son of maiv 
coming in his kingdom," Lk. ix. i^ simply "the kmgdom of God"). 

' [1530/^]. Orig. Ceis, i. 48 roiro it rit avmx^rli'at Toiit oiipavovs npoXtyuv 
reir piAfnuc n attrrfp ivofuvov o^iuvtus airo... Km ovrnt.tlavkot tjpwiiyi] itt 
rprrov ov/)<ii'(W itpartpov idwK airin/^avtitjfSiifra... "I do not suppose," lie 

•ays (ii.), "that the sensMi heaven has been opened and its material 
franu (oi/w) divided by opening in order that Ezekiel might record such 
a thing." ■ 

> Lk. iix. 11. 

A. V. 63 6 

[1538] • "BEUEVING'i 

previous utterance to her.'Vjbt recorded in^the Gospel, Strange 
though this may seem, it is ^\c explanatioii ' adopted by 
Westcott of words uttered by Jesus on another occasion, 
" But I said to you ' Ye have ipth seen {me] and did not • 
deluve' ' " : and its adoption there is riiore difficult than here, 
because here there is some antecedent probability th^t our 
Lord would havc.made to Martha the same sort of prortiisc 
that He made to NathaWel and otheft. 

[1K33] Reviewing. all theVicntions of "believing" in the 
Ralising of Lazarifs, we are led to see some similarity between 
the attitude of Christ here and His attitude in the Syroptic 
Gospel when preparing for an act of healing where " belief," 
or " faith," cannot be expected from the ()erson to be Mlalcd 
or revivified. The Sync>ptists descrit)e our Lord as stimulating 
.the faith of the parents, or as being moved by it to perform 
a cure ("Only believe," " 'If thou canst,' all things arc passible 
to him that believeth," "0 woman, great is thy faith'"): so, 
in the Jobannine healing of the nobleman'.; son, the father 
is .stimulated (150d) by the words " Ve will not believe'": 
*nd so. In this critical conflict, John describes the Lord as, 
so to speak, marking out the field of battle and strengthening 
the weakness of His friends and allies, that their faith may, 
in the- order of the Father's puriioses, enable the Son to 
.perform the coming miracle. 

[1634] Even though we may be obliged to reject some 
o( the details of the Raising of Lazarus as unhistorical, we 
may be able to accept the fact that pur I^rd did occasionally 
restore to life those who would ordinarily be described as 
" dead." And the first death among His disciples might well 
cause questioning to the Saviour. Was He to raise up the 
dead in this case ? If so, was He to do so aQerwards in i^veiy 
case? He might feel sure from the beginning, that the 

vi. 36. . • MV V. 36, Lk. viii. 50, Mk ix. 23, Ml. xv. 18. 

'iv. 48. 

"BEUEVING" V . [laat] 

sickness of a particular sufferer was to be "for glory " and > 
no^ for death": but whether the "glory" included deliver- 
ance from physical death, miRht not be revealed to Him at 
irst ; and the strain on the faith of His disciples and friends 
might profoundly effect Him, oven at the ver)' time when 
He taught Martha that the Son of Man Himself, in His unity 
with the Father, was "the Rising Again and the Life'" — 
and that no man, once joined to the Father through thc^Spn,, 
could ever die. ^^ • ' 

[1B39] The sudden departure of Martha from Jesus, 
after her profession o# faith in ilim", may be supposed tg 
have prevented her from recei^g any of those suggestions 
(of a miraculous revivification) which had been thrown out 
by Him ttj the disciples. And they afe no more than 
suggestions. Jesus says, at first, " I go to wake him," and 
is understood literally : but afterwards " He said plainly, 
Lazarus is dc^," and makes no mention of any puri>osc to 
raise him from the dead. Without 'much straining of the 
J narrative, we may suppose that our I,ord did not receive 
• the full revelation of the divinely purposed rising again of 
Lazarus till He stdod near the grave, with His disciples antr 
Martha and Mary, all believing in Him, and all prepj^rcd to ^ 
believe in Him— -whatever He might do or not do. 

[1636] Whatever uncertainty m»y attend thW traditions 
concerning " believing " in connexion with Martha, the 
Evangclistj lea\^< us under no doubt ,as to the effect 6f 
the miracle on the " believing "' of the Jews and as tO its 
■ "general conjictHience : "Tl^pse thatncamc to Mary believed 
in him"; but the chief priests and Pharisees said (xi. 48...53) 
'Mf we let him [continue] ^hus, all tvl/i t ie/ieve in him, and 
the Romans will come JSnd take away our [holy] place and 

. ■ The same word is practically fltpeatcd in "Thy hrb^ber khaU-WM 

again" and "1 am the risinj^ again" (xi. jj, 25) ' ' 

• xi. j8 "Having said Ihis she went away." - .. .; • . 

^' '■'■;■■.;., ' '65. . '/.''''-'■:■•/': 6-4I:. 

[1SS7I , , . "Believing;:, 

'our nation...., Fttam that day therefore tlicy took counsel to 
kill him." Thus, like all the public signs of Jesus, the sign 
of the Raising of Lazarus produ(?es a mingled harvest, t,ii;es 
and wT\cat, belief and unbelief Or, to take the metaphor 
preferred by John, the increasing light produces in some souls « 
, a shadow of incredsing darkness, . . . V, , 

%2i. -'Helitviug iff thf light" ...::> 

• ■ ■ . ' ' ' I - - •- 

[1B37] In the next chapter the darkness just mentlotted 
is described as becomipg darker than ever — an'n this', as an 
indirect consequenec of " believing." That the chief priests 
should "take counsel for!' the death of Jesus, dealing with . 
Him as a magician, was at all events from their point of view 
not an immoral act; but now they pufpose the death of a 
man against whom they t>ring no charge (xii. ii).: "They 
tbok counsel to kill Lazarus, because, on his acccnint, 
many of the Jews. . Mgan to believt in {Mtrrtvnv'tli;) Jesus'." 

[1638] Perhaps" the imperfect tense (" they tfgan to 
believe") and the faci Ikat %hese "Jrws" did nvt ^lieve in 
JcsHs on account of 'Himself^ but " on account of Lasarus" 
and the emphasis laid by the Evangelist on the gri^at part 
played by the "sign" in winning for Jesus a Avelcome 'from 
"the multitude," are all intended- to prepare the roader for 
finding that thS "belief "will speedily end in nothfhg; and 
that more real im'portance is to be 'attached to the qiiiet 
approach of the Greeks to purLordj thi-qugh the mediation »( 
* of Philip, "Sir, we would see Jesus'." At ^1 c'vcnts "the 
multitude" is soon afterwards mentioned— for the last time 
in the Gospel-^as taking the Voice of the Feather from 
Heaven to be thunder, or, at best, the voice of an angel ; 
and th^r last words to the Son of man, — who had lived and 

■ Or, " believed from (itne lo time," iu. now lome, now other*. Rut 
"began to believe," or "were ditpoKd to believe,!' 'irmote probable. 
' xH. ao— 2r. ' • . - 

■-. ee;..- ,-. -.nV ..■.•;.-..: 

'BEUEVINO" [1639] 

was about to die, forHheir sake^y-are^Who is this Son of, 
man'?" ■' - , ' ■" . 

" ,[1839] This was darkniess indeed, as a conclusion of a- 
Gospel of light: and^the rest of this section treats of "be- 
lieving,'' or rather "not bielieving," under the metaphor' of • 
darkness and light. . In this connexion, there;;are two sayings 
of Jesus about believing. The Tirst of these is addijp.ssed to 
the tnultitude after they have asked the question " Vyho 
is this Son of man'?" He no. longer bidjj/fhcm believe in 
the Son*'of man, nor in Himself, but in "the light."'; The 
Epistle says "He that loveth his brother abideth in the* 
light"; and "He that saith he is in the light and hateth 
his brother is in the darkness'." This appears to be the . 
predominant thought here. As light wa.s the first createfl 
thing in the creation of the world, so what corresponds to it, 
namely, lo\'e, is the first principle in the spiritual world, the 
medium- through which God is discerned by man. Christ's 
hearers were in danger of losing .the last spark of this 
spiritual faculty through their subservience to conventional 
religion and through their conveiitional desire to persecute 
non'coii formity. In the presence of these spiritual weaklings 
Christ abates His claim. He docs not say " Believe in nic, or 
Believe in the Son, that ye may hpcome the sons of God," 
but " Believe at all events in the light, so far as* ye have it 

still with you, that ye ma* become spns of light." 

..■ * 

' xu. 34- '• -'■ 

■ [16W<i] Jesus had said nothing here aboul » "Son of man." His 
' words were, "And /, if 1 be lifted up front the earth, will draw all men 
unto me." But His doctrine to Nicodemus had mentioned "th* lifting 
up^of the Son of man," and perhaps fhe Evangelist wishes to describe the 
"muliitude" as rebelling against this new term (which they had heard 
from Jesus on previous occasions) and, as preferring th« familiar and (for 
them) conventional term "Christ" or "Messiah" : "We have heard from 
the Law that the Christ abidelh for ever, and how sayest thou that 
rt* Son of man must be lifted up.' Who is this Son of man}' 

' I Jn ii. 9—10. 

* xii. 36 "So far as." On «r, as distinct from (i*f,,see 2201. 

• ^7. 



[1040]' This expreuion "sons pf light " i» followed by an . 
evangelist-ic comment indicatinu that the appeal was vatg ; 
and the language suggests that the light, henceforth, was 
hidden from the Jews. " llieso things spake Jesus, and he 
went away and icox hidtien {%i9A) from lheni'\ Then tTjc. 
Evangelist siims up his account of the national unbelief. 
"Though he had done so many signs," he says,, "they </*</ 
nal Mint in HirnK" Their unbelief was a judicial retribution- 
predicted by Isaiah: "For this lluy were vol alflt to 
Mitve^ because again Isaiah said, 'He hath blinded their 
eyes....'" Then turning from the nation as a whole to their 
"rulers," he concludes with an astonishing remark. In spit6 
of the general unbelief we should not have been surprised 
to hear that "a few," or "some" of the ruler* believwl ; but 
John says : " Nevertheless,, however, of the rulers also many 
belitved in Aim ■ ; but on account of- the I'hacisecs they would 
not confess [him] in order that they might not be put out 
of the synagogue ; for they loved the glory of men rather 
than' the glory of God." 

[1B41] This remarkable statement may be perhaps best 
explained by supposing that these" many rulers" had not 
only made formal profession of belief in Jesus (having beet) ' 
perhaps baptized bV His di.sciples) but had also believed in 
Him with some degree of genuine conviction, and with 
attachment, calling themselves His disciples — but, like Joseph 
of Arimatha;a, "secretly, for fear of the Jews'." If so, it 
would seem that John deliberately uses the phrase " believed 
in him" in order to shew how cven,0uch "believing" might 
come to naught without " confes.sioh"." He' is more severe 

' »ji. 37 tit •ViirrtMr, »ee MM, p*rh. "they were not disposed to 
believe in him." ' xii. 39. 

' xii. '42 Sfiatt fitrrot KOi iit ruv ipx^*'"'" *o^^Qt tlriartvirap fit avrop. 

' xii. 43 "Rather than," poXXar ^vffi, alinon-"and not," see 9091. 

» xix. 3S. 

" Comp. Rom. x. 7—11 "If thnii shall confess with thy mouth Jesus 
[as] Lord, and shall believe iji thy hean that God raised him from 
, ■ ; • 68 ■ 

" BELIEVING "I ,*: lVm\' 

on t4ietn here than on Joseph of Arimathxa later on. 
Joseph's motive for secrecy, says the Kvatigclist, was " fear 
of the Jews"; the motive of these "many" was "the love-': 
of the glory of men rather than ot the g|ory of God," . But 
he mfers this " love "of (jlory " from the f<»ct that they feared 
to be "cast out of the synagogue." • « 

[1B42] Many peoplCrHow-a-days.' would considiy this an' . 

austere inference." A, •"»" "iay " love th^ glory of Gqd " 

more than "the glory of men," and yet may;be deterred-from 

doing what is right, if his hjvc of God's 'glory is weake( 

than his fear of being tast out from friendship, from social 

intercourse, and from community of wophip, with his 

neighbours and kinsmen. All the more reaionable is it to 

suppose that John, when concluding his hirfory of tlje growth 

of belief and unbelief among the Jews during Christ's 

preaching of the Gospel, wishes to brand with the stamp 

; of inferiority, or spuriousncss, that sort t>{ falith in Christ 

I, which might be called "belief in Him" and Wet .did npt 

^Mead to public confession. .',',* ', \ ' . " " 

[1643] We now come to the last saying of our 'Lord 

: about " bolievijjg," — the last, that is -to say, in \His public 

L' teaching: xii. 44---6 "Jesus cried aloud and said, Me IKal 

^MUvetA in me believeth not in me but in him that sent vu, 

uiuid he that bchoUieth'me beholdeth him that sent me. " I, 

^Jight', have conic into the world in order that everyone that 

Miex>eth in me may not 'abide in the darkness'.' - This is not 

'said to have been addressed to any class in articular. It is 

^8 warning to all.the woMd that " belief" in Christ is not really 

StA-i— -^ - "• ■•'■I , ' - i, ' .;/ ' ; ;■ ' "' ;' ■ ■ r*'-^~-~^V " -';-;--'-^^-^: -- ,:".;-;i i ^ t _ 

the drad, thou ahalt be uved : for with the heart man believeth unto 
righteousness ; and with the mouth confession is niade unto salvation. 
For the Scripture saHh, Whosoever bclicvcth on him shall not be put to 
shatno." Perhaps John implies thAj^ if these rulers had " confessed," they 
would not have been " put to shame," nor would they have beeh afterwards 
ashamed of Christ crucitied. 

' On the force of this appositionat conttniction, see _193S. ^ 

■■:;--..; ■:■•;:■■,,.- ',69 ;;■-.: ;:.^.: ^yy. ■:?.-''' 

[15«*] "BELIEVING" _ '^ 

belief iii Him unjetf it is belief also In /Him thai writ 
Christ, nor i» it true belief.if the believer "abide in darkness" 
i.e. in doubt, ot fear, or unbrotherly feeling:-towacds bi» fcllnw- 
men. \ . 

. [1M41 The announcement, is to be read alonj; with the 
description of the "belief" of the r"'crs, many i^whom-^ 
once, at all events — " believed in him." There are de(;rce!i of * 
"darkness." Some of these " rulers " had perhaps so far. 
turned against their Master that they n6w agreed with- 
Caiaphas that ''one man must dielbf the people" ; these were ■■ 
" abidirig in the daf kness " of midnight. Othefs, like Joseph.. '. 
had not voted "with Caiaphas ' ! but JosC|)li is not recorded 
to Jiave spoken or voted against Caiaphas, and these, top, 
may have kept silent through fear of the Jews." The 
conduct of this second tlvas typified by Nicodenrus, of 
whom it is tvvi<je "sj^id that ''he came to Jesus by night'." 
It was not jhe blackest of the" " night "—the "niBla" asso- 
ciated rfith Judas' n but still it was the night or twilight 
of mei» " abiding in darkness " and not \" believing,"— not 
at iLajfKn. the full sense of the term. With these Warnings 
against false or formal or fearful belief, and With these 
comman({$ to "believe in the light," the putilic teaching of 
Christ is brought to its close. ' . ' ' 

'■ " ■ ■■;■■" » ■■ ■^■ 
■ :■'-' -. ■'■■ • ■'.■ ■ ■ ■%.. -'■'-:■ ■ ' :.-\-\ '■• f ■" 

■■^24. Tie Last Disedursi 

" • I ' - . 

[1646] -After ttie Washing of Feet and the exhortation ' 
to the disciples to imitate then- Lord's action, the discourae 

• - : . .,■ . ■-•:i. ■■-■:'■■■> ■ : -.:■:.■.'/.;■:■■ i.rr^ 
-■■.'":Lk.«»iii. s'l. ■ ' '.■■:■..; .-^ ■-■.-^ ■*.:;■■;' V > 

' Jn iii. 2, xix. 39. ■- • . 

• [164*<i] Jn xiii. 30 "Haviiii? received, .iherefbre, he went 
but. A/im> il iuns tiighf?' The only other mention of "night " in the 
Evangelist'! words (apart from "Christ's) refers.. to the disciples on the 
nightibefore Peter returned to our Uird through the Water (xxi. j); 
" In thai night Ihry loot Hollifng." . 

"B^UEVING" [1M«1 

turns on the "stumbling'" that woold be caused by the- 
impending betrayal. and death "f Christ; and the only 
mention of • believing in this chapter is (Ki'ii. ig) "From 
henceforth' I say [it} to you before it Come to pass, /Jiat 
ye may htUtve, when it .hath come to pas!f, that 1 am (/«].", 
Tht aorist subjunctive, which is probably the correct roadinf;, 
may denote that the verb refers to " believing "titc particular' 
prediction just mentioned, so that the words mean " that ye 
may helinv that I am he [loiia-niiiig whom it has bt/'h lOntlen 
' He that tateth my hrtiid,.!]'," Thisi is Ori^en's explanation ; 
and, if it is correct, the passage describes our' Lord as 
endjeavouring to strengthen the faith of the disciples to miiet 
a particulal' emergency (as in the Kaising. of I.azariist). 

[1M4J' binding that they are still weak' and .their, 
"hearts full of'troubic, Mc presently recurs to the' thought 
of "trusting" or "believing," and now in a general sense 
(xiv. y) fYe heJieve (or, HtHeve) in God. Believe in me also" 
and (siKaking to I'hilip) (xiv. lo) " B'lievesl thou not that 
I am in the Father and' the Father in me.'" Then He 
addresses all the dis<;iples, (xiv. It — 12X "Belime me thaf 
I am in the Father and the Father jn me: but, if (ye Can]- 
not [believe me, i.e. my mere word], belief's on .account of the 
works [fy] ihatiselves," " He that Mieveth in me, the works 

' The «*n/"»tiHiibling'' is nol ustd Jill xvl, i "these things h»ve' 
- i spbktfli unto you that ye may nttt fit- cavsed'to stumble (Jvu ^i^ aitwhaKi9- 
.'^0." . But the M(7i/^'^ of " stumbling "^extends from xiii. 19 onwards. 

' [1546a] "From henceforth" ihay p<!rh,ips mean, that Christ had 
'.BOt said ft before, because tie desired to give judus the opportunity 
of -repenting during the Washing of Feet. Hut there- had beeii no 
repeniancf, and this had Iwen iiidicatcd by the wbnls (xiii. 10— 11) 
"Ye arc not all clean." Since therefore the treachery could not be 
averted, the Saviour says i}iat "from hirnccfoilh" He will not conceal jt. 

* [15i5^] So Origen Ott toe. "Huet li. 594 K 'i'n..'.wiirr«t;iTijT» an iyit tifu 
ir<iii ol Tavra w<irpotf)ifr<vTat. Origen comments at great length on this 
passage (Huet ii. J94— 8). In thetirst thi«e quotations of it, the text has 
irt(rTfvffi}rff,'but in the three following ones irt(rr<v)7r«, see-SSlM, 

* XL 1 5 iva iTiffTf varijTf, stc 2525. 



. ' ' '■■■'..■ - ■ -• " ^,». ■ ■.'-.. 
[1847] V . ; /'BELIEVINd" - 

thitt I <io h«'*lso sliall do;4«nd greater Work!i than then 
shall he do because I go to the Father." He concludes by\ 

- declaring that He has car/icd out the intention, mcnthmed^ 
above, to warn the disciples before the evil faus U(X)n them\ 
(1846), " / say [it] to you be/ore it comt to pass {wpa top. ' 
ytviaiat) that ye may btlinx \inaTt\«n^rt) whfit it sluill hiwe 
comt to pass, that I am ht" I'hese words He repeats, except 
the lyt clause, saying (xiv, ^) "And now I have saiii [it] 
to you, before it hath com*' to J>ass (vpXv i*»iaSm) that,, wheii 
if shall have come to pass, ye may believe (irtaieicnirt)'' The 
object of belief ("that I am he") is not rc|)cat«l, but 
presumably it iti omitted merely for brevity; and' the aorist 
subjunctive here, as : above, indicates a particular, not^ 
general, belief— a belief that Christ's su/fcrings were fore- 
ordained and prophesied. The rtiain object of belief men- • 
tioned in this section is of a general character, the Uqity 
of the Father and the Son (" I in the Father and the Father 
.in me^"), implied by a Iwlief in the Feather inseparable 
from a belief in the Son ("Ye believe {or. Believe) in God. 

•Believe in me. also'"). ' 

[1M7] In all these exhortations and strengthenihgs, 
"belief," in its various forms, is not regarded as an end or 
ultimate object. It is merely an imperfect condition, a 
process of passing into uiiity with the Father in the Son, 
so as to "abide ".in love. "Abiding" not "believing," 
"peace" not "faith," are the ultimate objects. Hence, in 
the chapter that devribes Christ as the Vine, and the 
disciples as the branches that "abide" in the .Vine (xv, 
I — iy), there is no mention of " believing." But the following 
chapter once more takes up the task of strengthening the 
disciples against the trials of " persecution " : and now Jesus 
explains that these . persecutions arise from Xiabelicf for tyhich 
the world will be condemned. The Paraclete will convict 

"BEiJteviso? ' . .: : (i»«) 

the world. of sin. He says, "btciuut tkey belin't net inline'." 
This hannpnizcs with what He told, the Jews: ".This Is the 
work of God, that ye believe in him whom he [i>Jhc Father] 
sent'." The "work" of God being "belief," it follows (for 
those who accept Christ's teaching about a devil) that the 
" work " of tlie devil, or " sin," is unbelief or disbelief And 
the object of the unbelief is the same as the object of» 
the belief, "he whom God hath isent," that is to ,say, God's 
messenger or j[epresentative in every age and society, thosi- 
men and wojhcn who are, as I'latJi says, "most like God." 

[1S48] This high and pure " belief," which the world 
had not, the disciples had,'(xvi.. 27) "For the Father [of] 
himself loveth yoU because ye 'have loved mc and//atv 
belinied that I came, forth from \lhe house of] the Father." But 
the discipkts themselves, even while possessing this precious 
belief, appear to it with one of a baser and less 
enduring metal— belief based u[)on the evidence of signs : 
for, because Jesus has read their thoughts, they say to Him 
(xvi. 30) "Now we know that thou knowcst all things... 
htniy {tv^oinifi) we Mieve that thou catHest forth from God." 
This mischievous coraplafcncy in the possession of a definite 
religious belief based upon definite evidential proof— the root 
of how many evils to Christendom !— Christ hastens to - 
destroy: "For the moment jr believe! Behold the hour 
coiheth and hath come for^ou. tg be scattered, each to his 
own, and to leave me alone." '■.-'■ 1 

[1M9] This is the last mention of "believing" made by 
our Lord in His teaching to the disciples, before the: Resurrec- 
tion : and it is of the nature of % warning against making 
"belief" one's end, and, so to speak, "believing in believing." 
We aft not to aim at believing but at "peace," and this, 
a peace, not gained through conformity with the .selfish 
wqrid, but thro^^ believing in the* unselfish Mes"enger, 

' xvi..^. • Vi. 19. 


[1550] , • "BKtlEVlNG* 

whom the Fatter has Sent to conquer the iselfi9hnc<ta of the 
world. This we are taught by the lost words of the Last 
Discourse (xvi. 33) "These things hava I spoken to you (/lat 
in me yt may hm't piiut. In the world yc have tribulation. 
But be of good cheer, 1 have conqMered the world." 

[ISSO] Our Lord, in His" Prayer, prays for the 
unity of the disciples, but not that thpy may "believe," or 
"Have faith." The latter petition He here reserves for "the 
world." Concerning the disciples — in spite of His yarning 
that their'. belief will not prc,vcnt them from deserting Him-j- 
-He says (xvii. 8) " T/ity believed that thou Hidsl send me" 
Both for them and for tho* whom He calls (xvii. 20) "the 
believers through their word " — that is, the converts niade 
by the Apostles— He prays that they may be "alt one," 
one with the Father, and with the -Son. and with- each other. 
But in connexion with "the world" He mentions the word 
"believing" as an object to be attained hereafter, thus 
(xvii. 21) " Jri order that they also \i.e. the Church] may bt 
in us, in order that the world May grow in tte belief (viffTo'ft) 
that thou didst send "u." The verb is in the present (not 
the aorist) (3624 /<>//)■ and the prayer is that the world may 
receive a living and Browing belief, not a mere formal one, 
that Jesus of Nazareth was sent by God — a belief, not based 
on signs and wonders but on the unity of the Church 
with the Father and the Son, through the Spirit, in brotherly 

§ 26; After the Death and Resurreetion 

[10B1] There remain— -besides an utterance of our Lord, 
which Will be considered last of all — four statements about 
" believing " made by the Evangelist, The first of these 
attests the flow of blood and water from the side of Jesus 

"l '74 

■^ - ^ ; "BKLIEVINtf". . [IVU} 

on theCroM; (xix. J5) "And hc-that hath seen h^th testified; 
and his testim6ny is true ; and hu (2383) knnwcth that he' 
with true t/kit ^t also may grcnv in belief. (Trio-TjilffT*).'' If 
W. U. are ri^ht, as they probably arc, in reading the present 
subjunctive, the belief is ofa general anci^'ital kind, including 
a bclicr in the Lord as ".the fountain. for *in an4 for un- 
cle.inness'." . <-■■'.'.• . ' '' • ''-'. : 

[1S52] Next comfcs the earliest mention' of" "'believing" 
after the Resurrection : (xx; 8) " Then therefore entered in the 
other disciple also, he that came first to the tomb, and he 
sani and deljered (iUtv leai itriaTtvatv) : for not even yet 
idid they know the scripture, [how] that he must rise friirti 
the dead." Apparently this disciple " believed " in Christ's 
resurrection, simpfy on the evidence of the open tomb and 
the grave clothes — although the open tomb suggested to 
Mary Magdalene something quite different, namely, that 
the Lord's enemies had taken away the body. With Ihis 
niust be taken the reply of Thomas to the assertion of the 
disciples that they had "seen" the Lord,, (xx, 25) 'Except 
I see in his hands the print of the nA\h...I mill assuredh mil' 
believe." From the sequcp it would seem that Thomas and 
the beloved disciple were alike in one respect, since both" 
"saw and believed." What our Lord says about this will 
be considered later on. ' 

[lfiS3] The fourth Evangelistic 'mfentfon of "Ijelieving" 
describes the object of the Gospel (xx. 31) "But these things 
have been written thai ye tmty grow in the belief (wivrivrirt) 
that Jesu» is the Christ the Son of God, and that, believing 
[lhis'\ (viarevovrti), ye may have life in his name." Accepting 
once more W. H.'s reading, the subjiinctive,' wc^ ■ 
interpret it as denoting tli^ object to be not the profession 
of faith on the part of cohverts, but the growing faith, or 

' [U81 «] Zech. xxn, 1. If the aort«t were read themeahing mifjht be 
Mief in this special fact, or that "ye might become believers," bufmore 
probably the former. ^> 

■ , ■ . '75- 


abiding iiith, of those already convwted. But why doe* ' 
writer introduce the ^ords " ja his namt " (" life in his name ") 
since we have seen above (IWS — 7) that Origen i» probaWy 
correct in supposing " believing in Mis itamt" to be an inferior - 
stage of belief to " believing in him " ? The answer is that 
he does not speak -here of •' helitviHg in Iht name" of Jtsui, 
but of " iMi'itig life in his ngme." And "name" here, as in. 
the Epistle', is connecte<l with the word " Son," implying that 
life Is fouhd in the divine Sonship of Christ. There is, 
therefore, no reference here to "the rudimentary of initial 
faith professed at baptism. T4<e writer is addressing believers 
already baptized in the njime of Jesuj Christ the Son of God, 
and he says to them, in effect, " I write untp you, children 
of God, in order that you may grow in the faith that Jesus 
is the Messiah, the Soil of God, and that, growing in thi*.^ 
faith, you may have life in His Sonship"' '.:•>';> 

[1684] Last comes the saying of our I^rd (xx. ig^ '. 
"Because thou hast seen me thou hast Believed I Hlesitd 
[are] tkty thai [s/iall] have not seen and [>rfl (J^//] hav* 
believed" to be considered along with the statement tii^ 
"the other "^disdplei"/<»i«' and btti/vt^J' and that Thomai 
said "except I j«...I will assuredly* not ie/ietr'" Both, 
Origen and Chrysostom appear to take the aurist participles 
tu referring to futbre believers (" those -after the apostles")'. 

> [lUSd] I Jn lii. »l"/*/»«»f*«/*/>i'<wi,'V. ly'iktmamio/lktSom 
of Ciod" In I Jri WyM^of tUcouXt of kit »i/i««i".|oHo\<i^U'e words 
"I wril* uoto you, little ckitilrtH (rfitcio), because youi <im> are forgiven)'! 
and appears to mean thhtWh ihe " childtiqed " and the " fotgivcneu " 
ale "on account of the divine So'hship of Ckriit. These are j)ie only 
instances of " name " in the Epistle. ■ t 

* MaK(i/ii«4 ol /ig /floi^cr «ai irurT<^ir'ai.rff(, ooftip. XI;,. 8 (COi ftttr Kfl) 
rfiri»T<vfffr( and xx.'l% likp /ifl i8iB.,.ov firi wurrfva^. 
", ' [ISMn] Origen blames (Vbse who thought that a superior bleising 
was pronounced on those' who had " not seen," bccause,-he .say% "acf^ording 
to their interpretation tkt tuttessors «/ tk^ apo'llet (o^fura r»ir iifoari-^ 
Xovt) are more blessed than the ajwstlei themselves" (Huet ii. 19SC).. 

■ 76. ' ;■; 



The aorii't piartJdple iQlght have that meaning even it the 
time of the ■" blorsing " 1>ad been ^lcfine^^ as present by the 
inaprtion of " are," as in the Sermon on the Mourn" S/essed 
an ye when mcn^sMall revile ytk^"; and It ma)|'much more 
easily have this meaning where the time of the blessing is 
left undefined. Antecedently, it seems, likelytftat this refer- 
ence to. future believers should be at all events included, 
and very unlikely that it should be restricted to, say, a score 
of unmentioned persons, thu»v— " blessed are those who, in 
the course of the last week, have believed [on the strength 
of the teilimony of those who' saw meat the beginning. of 
the week]^apd who have m)t [themselves] ,aecn [m*]." 

[1SD8] But are we to sujtptise that thusc who belieVe 
.without having seen ' are . mtcfv " blessed " "ftan those' who' 
beh'eve because they ha vq seen? Origen earnestly maintains 
that this is unreasonable. The fncaning is, he .says, that the 
former class alio is " blessed," not that it is tnore " blessed." 
In that case, however, is 'not the statement a truism ? And 
What is fthe' force of making the statement to T*homaM, unless 
it suggests a gently reproach 'of some kind, e^. that some 
of those who will believe without seeing are morp' blcstaiKl 
than some of those who believe alter seeing) Moreover, 
is no contrast intended between the beloved disciple, who 
" saui and it fieved," .hut without askjngto "see," and ThDma.<i 
who "saU> and believed" but not till he had refused to believe 
unless he wa^ allowed ip feel as well as to see f > . 

' [15B6] Chrysostom, at all events, recognises such a 
contraiit as likely to occur to his readers. His words are . 
as follows, " And' yet, ^me one may say*) the disciples ' saw 

"' - '" ' "■ ^"""' ■ " t ' : " "^ " "y ' - ; 

ChrysoMom even paraphrase* the aoristi by the future "He pronouAcet 
a blessing not on the disciples alane but also on those who shall believe 
after thclfl irmi% jur tutiitout ""larfwrorrat)." 

'^Mt. V. 1 1 futnaiHot rtrr* oTai* i¥iMtritai¥ viutf (sim. Lk. vi. 31). 

' [1856 ii] The tatin. translation in Hi^e gives " inquies " (or i^itril. 
But it mifehi m<5»n " the aacred nrriter says." This is the general meaning 
of ^•)<">' ■""■{uotations. 

" " , ;; 


icry^Py*^^*^ " if "' ' 



"and believed.' [True,] but they sought no Such thing [as 
Thomas .sougW] (oiSiv roiovTov ii^Tt)<rav), but on the 
evidence of the napkins (aXX' niri t«!i> aouiapiuv) they 
straightway accepted the word concerning the resurrection, 
.and l^fore they had beheld the .body [of the- risen Saviour] 
they exhibite.d the belief [that He had risen] in completeness." 

[1667] These words call attention to yet oi^ more 
difficulty in the context. For the Gospel says "ie," i.e. "the 
other disciple"' (not Peter), "saw and believkd," and it 
suggests that Peter, though he had seen, had ttomC seen and 
believed." Sul Ckrysostam assumes thai both tlu discif>les "saw 
ami believed." So, too, says an ancient Greek commentary 
' in Cramer: "When these, having behdd tlu linen cloths, and 
having believed, departed to their homes in amazement." 
And SS reads the plural " thiy saw and believed'." 

[1668] These readings are not in the least surprising. 
What is surprising is that any MS. has been allowed to 
preserve' the present reading, which implies unbelief, or 
slowiiess of belief, in Peter as compared with " the other 
disciple." .Yet this, by reason of its difficulty and the consent 
of ail the uncial MSS., must be accepted as the true reading. 
And it raises a question similar to that which is suggested 
by Cluysostom, Does not the Erangelist mention two kinds 
of "seeing and believing"? The beloved disciple "^aw and 
believed " on the mere- evidence of what was to be seen in 
the open grave. » He did not " seek " what Thomas sought : 
he did not say, " Until r I \a.ttti seen the mark of the nails in 
his hands I will asisuredly not believe" ; he "siw" much less 
than Thomas demanded to see, and yet he " believed " ; 
surely the Lord would pronounce him " blessed " ! 

Accepting the text, as it stands, concerning the two 
disciples (without Chrysostom's alteration "Ihty believed," 

■ [IBSTd] The Latin HSS. have "hi uw and believnl," but some 
of these agree with It in carrying on the sing, thut " for not even yet did 
he know the Scripture." 



"BELIEVING" [16«0] 

and without the Latin ^alteration "ht knew ") we arrive at 
the following probable inferences concerning the Evangelist's 
meaning and motive. 

[1609] (i) He regards "belief" upon detailed ocular 
evidence* as inferior to that kind of "knowledge" which is 
given to us by the Spirit interpreting tile Scripture as a 
whole' — that is to say, by the Spirit of God inVrpreting 
the history of man in the light of the incarnation. Vet 
both "belief" and "knowledge" must play their several 
parts. The beloved disciple, he .says, "believed" on slight 
ocular evidence. Afterwards he " knew," • and " kneju" too, 
that things "mini be" thus and thus, i.e. "knew" as con- 
6dently as men of science "ktunv," tho|^gh in a different 
sphere, and with a different sense (a faculty that some would 
call "feeling" rather than "knowing"). \ • 

[1B60] (2) He wished to shew that there were many 
■ different roads to this "knowledge" of the risen Saviour. 
Petrfr, in one sense, 'was the first to approach to it. Peter 
entered the tomb first, and was the first to sec the sign.s of 
the Resurrection, but he did not at once " believe." For him, 
this revelation was to come later and through "appearing," In 
accordance with the traditions of the Church : " He appeared 
to Ceptias, then to the Twelve'," and "The Lord is risen 
indeed and hath appcaredi unto Simon'." The tradition 
of the manifestation near Gcnnesaret said that Peter came 
first to Jesus through the waters' — perhaps the waters of 
repentance — "but the other disciple?" came soon afterwards, 
" for they were not far ofp " ; yet the hclo\^ed disciple had 
been the first to say "It is the Lord*," recognising Him by 
the voice, before Peter and the rest had recognised Him by. 
vision. Again, Mary Magdalene did not " believe " so soon 
as the beloved disciple. After he had "believed," she re- 
_- ♦- : -_ ____„J^.___ 

■ For this, the Johaatiine meaning of " the Scripture " (ilng.) set 1722 /. 

• I Cor. XV. 5. ' Lk. xxiv. 34. ' Jri xxi. 7—8. 

• xxi. 4. ■ • xxi. 7. 

A. V. - - 79 

Hii.l:.. . .■ ^ ■: . . ■ :'::•, i:aitf« 

(1561] , "BELIEVING" 

mained " weeping'." Nor did she "see and believe." On ^e 
contrary, she "saw" without "believing" ; fpr she "supposed 
it was the gardener.". But sjje h;?s the first to "hear." And 
when the Shepherd, risen from the dead, "called" the first 
of the flock " by name," slje was the first to hail Him, and 
the first to " see " as well as the first to " hear." She, too, like 
Thomas, desired to " touch." But the refusal of her request 
did not shake her faith, or rather, we should sa^, cancel 
her knowledge. Thomas, latest of ^twlievers, insisted on 
"touching" as well as on '^seeing," as a condition of "be- 
lieving." It is not stated that he " touched." But the Lord 
said to him, apparently in the way of gentle reproof, " Be- 
cause thou hast seen me thou hast believed ! " Then He 
did not add, " Blessed are thine eyes because the>' have 
seen'," but " Blessed are they that have not seen and beliei'ed" 
[1061] (3). This is the last of the Lord's many utterances 
about " believing " in the Fourth Gospel ; and, if it is read in 
the light of His other sayings, illustrated by the Evangelist's 
own remarks and narratives bearing on 'fhe same subject, 
it confirms the conclusion that " belieyin||" is to be regarded, 
in diflTerent aspects, not as a consummatiompr a goal, but as a 
number of different stages, by which different individuals pass, 
{[^accordance with their several individualities, toward the one 
centre, " Jesus, the Christ, the Son of God " in whom they are 
to " have life*." > " - ' • 

' X}(. II. 

. J> [ItSOd] Yet, u it is said, of the woman, (Lk. vii. 47) "her tin, 
v«ch are many, arc forgiven because she loved much," 10 here the 
iSrrativc lays, in effect, concerning Thomas, "His doubl, which was 
great, tiecame blessed tiecause he beUeved much.° It was reserved 
for the doubter to say, with inspired conviction, "My Lord [is] also my 
God." On the reasons for this rendering, see HDW-rSl. 
> Comp. Ml. xiiL 16, Lk. x ir^ < Jn xx. 31. 

'If . _ . ■ _ 




§1. '• Authorityr in tht TripU tradition 
of the Synopt^ts 

[1642] All the Synoptists agree in saying that our Lord 
taught " as one having authority" or that " his word was 
with authority" and, later on, that the Pharisees asked Him 
" by what authority " He acted : and in five of these six 
passages R.V. and A.V. agree In using the word "authority" 
to express i(ov<ria'. But in a much more important passage, 
where jesus Himself says, " that^e may know that the Son of 
man hath authority on earth to forgive sins," the texts both 
of A.V. and R.V. have "fioiver" although R.V. has "authority" 
in its margin*. Clearly our Lord used the word here in a 
good .sense. It is very commonly found with "give" and it 
generally means " power that is delegated," that is to say, not 
tyranny that is seized, but a right lawfully given, .or an 
office or magistracy duly and lawfully appointed. Through- 
out thib^SynoRtic Oospels, in most cases if not in . all, 
"authority." is the best translation, {n Mark, R.V. give? 

' Mk i. 31, Mt. vii. 19, W, iv. 3a; Mk »i. 28—33, Ml. xxi. if-J, 
W. n. J— 8. In Lk. iv, 31 "hii word wat vHii tfitkorily,' A.V. bu 

> Mk ii. 10, Ml. }x. 6, U. V. i4, utUMc. „ 

■ •.. . ■ St-r-' . :': , ;_2 

[1668] "AUTHORITY" 

" authority to cast out devils," and " authority over the unclean 
spirits " ; and similarly in Matthew, " All authority hath been 
given unto me in heaven and earth " : but in these three 
passages A.V. has " power'." 

. ■ § 2. "Authority,'' in I ht- Apocalypse ;■ 

[1663] In the Aixxalypse, this delegated power or 
" authority " is most frequently applied to messengers of God 
^^mmissioned to punish (vi. 8) "There was given unto 
Viem [(//to Death and Hades] authority over the fourth 
pm-^ the earth to kill..." R.V. naturally shrinks from 
using the word when it is applied to "locusts" (from the 
smoke of the pit) to which "authority (R.V. power) was ' 
given as the scorpioqs of the earth have authority ( R.V. 
power)!' " and in^their tails is their authority (R.V. power) 
to hurt men' five months'." Yet even there the context 
indicates that these supernatural " locusts " (like the terrestrial) 
have a ' permitted power," so that "power" alone does not 
quite express the meaning. And certainly " authority " is 
better in the description of the fwo Witnesses, who "have 
the authority to shut the heaven that it rain not during the ' 
days of their prophecy, and they have authority over the 
waters...'." There R.V. has, twice, " power " ; but it returns 
to " authority " in the following, " Now is come the salvation 
and. the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority. 
of his Christ'." 

[1564] It might be suppo.sed, from this, .that R.V, goes 
on the principle of 'rendering "delegated power" to reward 
and " delegated power ' to punish by two different words, 
calling the former " authority " and the latter " power." But 
R.V. tut* "authority" ,repeatedly concerning tlie Dragon 

' MIt iii. I Si vi. 7, Mt. xxviii. it. ' Rev. ix. 3, 10, comp. ix. 19. 

' Rev. xi. 6. * Key. «ii. io. 

82 - --J ':".; 


•jl" AUTHORITY" [MS*] 

and the Beast', and then returns to " power," when describing 
the angel that "came out from the altar, he that hath 
authority over the firey Very rarely is the word connected 
with God as in the following, " They blasphemed the name 
of the God that hath the autlwrity over these plagues'." R.V. 
uses " authority " of evil powers in the following : " The ten 
horns. ..are ten kings. ..they receive (i«/Aor»()' (A.V. power) as 
kings with th? beast for one hour... they give their... power and 
authority (A.V. strength) 'wvAq the beast*," but of a> good 
angel "coming down out of heaven having great authority* 
(hSStowerY An alternative is given by R.V. in describing 
the blessings of those who have part in the first resurrection, 
"Over these the second death hath no authority (so R.V. 
marg,, but R.V. txt and A.V. " /mver "), but they shall be 
priests of Gqfl'." The following instance' Is particularly note- 
worthy, "Blessed are they that wash their robes that their 
authority may be (.') over the tree of life'," R.V. " that they 
may have the right (A.V. have right)'." . _■ . , 

' [166t<»] Rev. xiii. 2— 12 "ihe dragon gave hlin...g>cM' ft»M»rf// 
(jo.-\.V.)...and they worshipped the dragon b^^cause he gave \ai nulhority 
(A-V. pttu'cryMViXa the l>east...and there was given to him authority (A.V. 
ponier) to continue forty and two tnoiitbs...and there was given tu him 
authorify (A.V. powtr) over every tribe and people and tongue and 
nation!..aad he ex«rdKth all \\tt authority ( A. V. /««wr) of the first beut 
in his sight." 

• Rev. xiv. i8. , , 

' [1861^] Rev. xvi. 9 ri irofui ni itoC mi ix-Mmt afAWav. Thi> 
was, perhaps, intended td'rcprcsent tie hialhtti polytkeislit Ihouglil about 
" Iht goil that has authority over these plagues." But it might mean 
"the name of tht [ane] GnJ, wlio has authority" (R.V. "of the God 
which hath," A.V. " of God, which hath "). A.V. and R.V. often use " the 
'..Mhich' where Shakespeare would have used "the...M<»/(!B7S<i)." 

* Rev. xvii. ii, 13. ' Rev. xviii. 1. • Rev. xx. 6. 

' [lfi64r] Rev. xxii. 14 urn tarat 9 i^awrla aijrm¥ fvi ji ^v\ta¥ rift C^Tt, 
A.V. "right to the tree'of Jife," R.V. "the right [to come] to the trie 
of life." See 1594*. 

' All the instances in Rev. have been given above, except Rev. ii, 26 
"He that him will 1 give aulkority over the nations,"' 
which is capable of a twofold interpretation. 




I 3. Luke's vitw of " ai4tMority" 

.^MB66] The two following parallel passages in the Double 
Tradition (318 (ii)) exhibit Luke alone as using the word 
"authority." Perhaps Luke, in both, means "authority" in 
a bad sense, or rather " authority " given by God for the 
purpose of punishing evil, as in the Apocalypse. The first 
passage gives the words of Satan in the Temptation thus : 

Mt. iv. 9 
. " All these tKiftga will I gitte 
thee if thou wilt fall down and 
worship me." / , 

Lit. iv. 6—7 
_, "t'o Ihec will J ({ive all this 
authority and their' glory, be- 
cause they have l>eeh delivered 
tp me, and io whomsoever I 
will I give it. If tliou therefore 
wilt worship lH.fore liie'it shall 
be all thine." 

The second is from the {'reparation of the Twelve 
Apostles, where they are warned by our Lord, tb fpar,,not 
destruction of body but destruction of soul : 

■■■■■, ■• "Mt.-x. J18 " '\'<- 
"And be not yc afraid of- 
them that Mil _the body but are 
not able to kill the soul : but tw - 
aftaid rather of him that is ahU 
(Svra/urov) to destroy both body 
and soul in hell" 

Compare the " castmg," ^n 
Jud^ deliver thee to th^ 

" But I say unto you, [being] 
my friends. He not afraid of 
them that kill the Ixxly, and, 
after these things, have nothing 
4>eyond to do : but I will |x>int 
out to you whom to fear. Fear" 
h im that — after killing — hath 
authority to cast into hell. Yea, 
1 say unto you, fear him." 

Luke here, with " rfBt the 
Exactor (irpiurropi) uidtke 

• •'««> glory," /x the glory of (Ut. Iv. 5) "all the kingdoms of 
the world." 

'.'AUTHORITY" [Wfl7} 

Exactor cast tket into prisonK" It seems probable that Luke 
attributes the "casting into htU" (or "into the prison") to 
Satan acting as God's instrument of punishment i / ' 

[1666] In the firA passage of. Luke this " authoi-ify " does 
not extend to " destroying in hell," but only'to "casting into 
hell." In the second passage (Lk. xji. 58— -9) it is said that the 
prisoner will not come out " until " he has paid ■" the uttermost 
farthing " — which may iipply that ultimately he will come 
out According to this view, Satan and his angels would 
seem to be, like the angels in the Apocalypse, the instru- 
ments of God's justice, having "authority" from the Judge 
to punish man's sins ; and Luke's interpretation of Christ's 
saying is, " Do not fear earthly eiumies ; but fear your spiritual 
enemy, who, if you sin, has authority from God to cast you 
into Gehenna." Matthew, Tiowever, seems to have' taken the 
precept as meaning " fear God, the Judge " ; and this, from 
very early times, appears to have been the view of the 
Christian Fathers, who, iven when following Luke's version, 
have substituted "is able" for " hath authority" so aj to 
suggest God rather than Satan'.. 

[1667] Elsewhere, Luke uses the word ^' authorit>- " in 
several passages peculiar to him.sclf, of which the most 
notable are Christ's words to the Seventy, " Behold I have 
given ydu the autltority (R.V. om. "rt*," AX. "power") to 

■ Lk. xii. 58— Mt. V.' IS "and the Judge to the Officer (ir^p^^) and 
thou be cast into prison." 

■ [ISMn] Ju«ln Man. Apol. 19, as Lk., but "is Me,"- tvriimov, 
Clem. Horn. xvli. 5. 4 mostly Lk., but "fear him that >> at/e to cast both 
body and soul into the Gehenna of fire," Clem. Alex. 97J (£jrc. Tktod.) 

hvva^t»¥ov..,tlt yjtwvan /SuXvii*, but 981 (freely) Tor dvi'ifU¥' ytivrif 

diroXVoai. On the other hand Iren. iii. 18. ;, quoting Ml. mostly, ends 
with Lk.j thus, "timete autem magi.s eum qui hibit potestattm (>»hath 
authority) et corpus et animam miltere in gehennam." Clement's Ancitnl 
Homily jj 5 (Lightf.) has, " Fear him that, after you are, dead, halh 
' authority over soul and body to cast into the Gehenna of fire." 



tread upon seipents and scorpions'," and His utterance at the 
moment of being arrested where (as a parallel to Mark's 
" but that the Scriptures might be fulfilled ") Luke has " But 
this ts your hour, and the authority of darkness'." 

[1668] This l9st expression, "the authority of dark- 
ness," occurs in the Epistle to the Colossians where it is 
said that the Vather "delivered us from the authority of 
darkness and removed us, to the kingdom of the Son jof 
his love'." There, the antithe.sis between " authority " and 
"kingdom" suggests iHat the writer uses the former in the of temporary power, delegated and misused. In 
this sense, and hence in . the serise of blind " despotism " 
(" doing and saying what one likes ") it is used sometimes 
by the later Greek writers, as also .in English poetry', 

■■Lkx. ig.' ■'■ V "'{v '■ ;.'-";'■■ ,;\. . 

' [lS67a] L.k. xxii. 53. Comp. Lk.'xii. 1 1 '' Wlien they bring you before 
the synagogues and-the ruUrs {apxtit) utfl the atttkohtirs {\.\\ f>o7vtrs\" 
XX. 20 " to deliver' him up to the rule (lipxii) "iif '" '*' aulkorily (so 
R.V., but A.V. the pmuer anil authority) nf the governor," Lk. xxiii. 7 
" in Htxo&i jurisdiction " («o R.V, and A.V» and this transl. is neccMary 
herey. ''■'■-.' ". ■ ~ 

•Col. i. 13. ' " 

* [UflSn] The English poets vary in their use of the word, according 
to temperament, perhaps. Milton, for example, wuukl probably never ' 
apply the word "authority'^ to the angels of.dod's chastisements, becauie 
■he regards them as {Comui) "sla«ish instruments of vengeance" in the 
hands of "the Supreme (lOod." In his poems, such phrases as '^rue 
authority in men," "reason and auihority," "authority uburp'd," "the 
authority which I deriv'd from heaven," generally shew, by their context, 
the meaning of the ambiguous word. Milton is followed by Cowper, who 
mostly uses the word in a good sense except where " authority grows 
wanton," or " steeps." Dut Shakcsptarc lays great stress on the evil of 
" the demigod Authority," on "art made tongue-tied " by il, and on the 
hypocrisies of "authority and shew oT truth." Shelley is even more 
. vehement against " the supine slaves of blind Authority." Wordsworth't - 
Brtluiie describes "blind Authority beating with his staff the child that 
might have led him," but it would be hasty to infer that he coiiflemns 
Authority^in the abstract. For th^ context mentions " Decency and 
Custom starving Truth," and no one could suppose that Wordsworth 

"AUTHORITY" . ' [15W] 

though mostly in such context as to make' the meaning 

[1569] In the plural, " ruling powers" and "authorities" 
are frequently mentioned together in N.T., referring to 
human or to angelic powers,— ^sometimes in a good sense, 
sometimes in abad one*. 

condemns *' decency." Tcnnysoa'a use is perhaps best exemplified by 
the line in MorU (t Arthur "Authority forgets a dying king." Pope's 
poems (excluding the Translations) do not contain the word. These 
ftcts bear on the various uses of the" word in N.T. They also serve 
as a general warning against applying to N.T. writers fhcrrule, ** Ab und 
disce omnes," , « 

* [1568^] In>tancc^ quoted by Ughtf. on Col. i. 13^ Dcmosth. 
438 inserts (tyoi',' Xenoph. Nifro !i 5 r^t tU rama^y^ Plut. VU. Eum. 13 
droywytM raU i. tb. Aiex. 33 r^* /• vol r^i* ^Roir^f *A. dvroufatf^ Herodian 
li. 4 dWrou. . . - 

* [1569 fi] Lightf. on Cot. i. t6 refers to Lk. xii. ii, Tit. tit. i (Comp. 
Lk. XK. 2q). Angelic powers arc meant, good, in Eph. iii. 10, Col. i. 16, 
it. 10, but bad in Eph. vi. ra, Col. ii.. 15. Lightf. adds "ift one passage 
al least (1 Cor. xv. 24) both [good and bad] may be included.'' -»_ 

[1669^] In Kom. xiii. 1, imtp*jinvtrai% ffowricut, '^^hightr authoritUs" 
(R.V. *\th€ higher powers," but there ii no article) the epithet might be 
added, in part, to distinguish them from *'*777," or "/(»tv<*r," authorities, 
and it might be rendered ** supteme," as in i Pe* ii. 13 "to the kin^ 
as supreme.^ 'Ywtpix^, when an object is not expressed or obviously 
implied, appears to mean " preeminent atnonx Ihinj^s of its mun kind" 
so that the word in Kom. would not mean '* higher than we subjects are" 
but "preeminent amont," authorities.^^ In, Wisd. vi. $ "^ lirt^tix"^'^** 
means rulers uf the highest kind, and the context includes "kings." In 
I Pet. li. 13, the writer passes from "the king«j J«;*^t*«^" to "governors" 
"sent from time to timc^(it*^ff4V"»'Oi)" to punish evildoers and reward 
Well-doing. In Kom. xiii. 1 , after " supreme authorities," the writer goes 
on to speakof "the rulers," and he says that "there Is no.rtM/A/'nVj' except 
[ordained] by (jod" and recommends ** doing good" as the way "nOt 
to fear^he rtw/Aon/y." 

[1669^] The context of Rom. xiitj. lindkatet that St Paul has in 
view the Imperial authority of Rome— to which he was more than once 
indebted for deliverance from Jewish persecution— and its adequate 
representatives throughout the empire. He wrote before the Neronian 
persecution, at a time when he jpight fairly say that ** supreme auUiori- 
tifls" in the empire deserved obedience. He adds "There is no [real] 

■■87. '. 

[1678] "AUTHORITY" 

[1070]^ Luke in his GQspel — not In his Acts—seems to 
favour the view expressed in an early saying of Jewislk 
Tradition that governors were essentially bad, and that one 
should not " make oneself known to the government'." In 
the following three versions of our Lord's doctrine on true 
government and true greatness, it will be observed that 
Mark guards himself — while Luke does not — against being 
supposed to attack all " ruling " and all " authority." Mark ' 

authority (or, " no [nich] authority ") that is not (drdained]- by God." 
Such a protest might be' needful against Tafknudic views of ** authority" 
(IfiTO <i) among the Jewish members of the Roman Church. Though it 
is conceivable that the Aposllc would have included even Herod Antipas,. 
Pilate, felix, Festus, and Cafaphas among "autlmrities" to whom "sub- 
jection^' was due, he would probably not have included them among 
"supreme authorities." And it is certain that he would not have said 
of the murderer of John the Uaplist, " For the rulers are not a fear to the 
good work but to the evil.^ 

[1569 if] On Col. i. 13 "from (he iuithority of the darkness" Chrys. 
■ays^ " It is a grievous thing to be under the devil <i/ a// {AwXm) : but 
to be thus ufi/A ituthority^ this is still niore grievous (ro 0< ital fur i^tnuriat 
rovTo ;(aXffirwrr/joir).'* This may imply a di^inction between (1) those 
who are attacked by the prince of darkness without having committed 
, any special sin that makes them subject to him, (2) those whom the 
prince of darkness has received ■ ** authority " to " cast into prison " 
becatise, for example, Ihey have refused* to agree with the adversary 
(Lk. xii. %i quoted above). Job would be an instance of the former 
class. ' ■ 

' [1570 a] Atiolh i. II " Shemaiah said, ' Love work ; and ,hate lord- 
ship [Kabbanuth]; and make not thyself known to the g^vmmeMl,'" 
paraphrased thus by Ur Taylor " Avoid growing great and coming under 
the notice of the 'rashuth' ( = /^viri'a, concretely) in such a way as to 
excite jealousy or suspicioii." Comp. Ahotk li. 3 " Uo< cautious wKh lMi>a 
in tuttkority^ for they let not a man approach them btit for their own 
purposes." The feeling that a poor magistrate or governor may be mucX 
more dangerous than a rich king perhaps underlies I'rov. xxviii. 2'-3 
"For the transgression of a land many are the princes thereof... a poor 
nun that oppresseth the poor is like a sweeping rain, which leaveth no 
food " ; and Caesar, in later times, might be a refuge against a ^Pilate, 
a Felix, or a Festus. The words "danger" and "duHgion' are ety- 
mologically — and very naturally — derived from /* dominium " i.e. lordship. 



inserts, ist " thty that seem to rule," or, "are reputid to rule," 
2nd " theythat use authority to the utmost^ " : 

Mk X. 42 

"...they that are 
reputed to rule the 
nations lord it (na- 
Taitupi4vov<r(v) over 
them and tieir ' great 
ones" use authority 
to the utmost over . 

Mt. xx. JJ 
"...the rulers of 
the nations lord it 
over them and the' 
great ones use au- 
thority to the utmost 
over them." 

■ Ik: xxii. aj 
"The kings', of 
the nations are lords 
(frvptfVQvcrii') (1594 (/), 
over them and those 
who use authbrily 
over them are called 

[1Q71] Luke appears to be alluding to the name Euergeles, 
or Benefactqr, assumed by .several Eastern kings, one of whom, 
it is said, was called by the Alexandrians Kakergetes, or Male- 
factor'. It seems antecedently improbable that so bitter and 
pointed a saying as Luke's, if actually uttered by our Lord in 
this context, could have been (Jropped by Matthew as well 
as Mark,. in their report of it. As Litite appears to be 

■ [1870 J] Mk x^ 4a, 1st, tonoimt <ii>x"'' ^■><'< ""- before /{iminii- 
(o<Wir. Mt. omits tjoKovimt Ril has kot: Steph. gives no other instance 
of Kiir((mf(rui(c(»'. Lk. has let, ^(riXvir, and 2ncl, l^trM^nvrtt. The 
LXX has <(oviria(«ii' freq. but jtorf^-iriaffti' nowhere. 

[1570^] Kor't appears to mean "16 the utmost," "oppressively," 
perhaps with allusion also to the idiom "have authority against {Kara 
with gen.)." This idiom occurs in Jn xix. 1 1. Comp. the use of trura- 
in 1 Cor. yii, 31 R.y. " those that us< the world as not 'abusing; it (marg. 
using it to the full ^ Koraximiiivoi)" ix, 18 'Uo as .not to use to the full 
.(so K.V. but A.V. nbuse) my authority (^ Kitraxfli\aua6ai tjj i^vi^y 
A similar abuse or excess is implied-by Mk-Mt. in ic(triijn'fH«uot>ini'. ' 

■ {1570 d] " Their * great ones ' " i.e. those whom they uiU " great 
ones." Mark, not long before, has recorded a discussion on the question 
(ix. 34) ",Who is the greatest?" Matthew has missed the force of , 
"««r," as well as 'V<Jt»/ft/." 

• [1570 f] Lk.'s "kings" goti still further away than Mv.'s "rulers" 
from Mk's "reputed to rule." Comp. Col. i. 13 "(mMon'/;' of darkness 
...the >(/'><,f</0m of his Son," on which see 1568. 

* [1571 a] Wetstein (Lk. xxii. 25) quoting Atheiiaeus xii. p. 549 E. 
Wetst gives abundant instances of this title. 


p5?a] - " AUTHORITY " : - 

deviating from the exact tradition in other detftils lincntioned 
above, we may perhaps take this detail as a paraphrase (or 
mfsunderstanding of a Semitic original). But io any cast, 
regarded all together, Luke's divergences from Mark and 
Matthew indicate a disposition in his Gospel to interpret 
official " authority " in 'a bad sense. , 

§ 4. Christ s " authority" Itow defintd by tht Synoptists 

[1B72] Mark and Luke agree, though not verbatim, in 
associating their evangelistic statementii about our Lord's 
" authpjwy " with authority over devils, «!<•. the power of 
casting out unclean spirits, an instance nf which they give, 
in detail, immediately afterwards— rtogether with the comment 
of the multitude: 

;;';,v-. ;;^Mk.i. «' — ^^j'l :.*"". ';.'- -...'''•ii'.v Lk. iy. 3*-^ . ' 
"And they weru anuued at "And they were amved at 

his teaching : for he was teaching his teaching, iKxausc his word 

..thcni as one having aulhorily was in aHthorily . . .. 'What is 

and not as the scribes... 'What this wocd, that in itiilhority and 

is this ? A new teaching ! With power he commandeth the un- 

onMor/'/r doth he command even clean spirits...' I" 
the unclean spirits...!'" ,1. ■ 

[1B73] Matthew altogethtf omits this insfaftce of exorcism 
and all reference to its "authority." But he inserts the 
tradition — in Mark's fuller form, with the " and not as 
the scribes " — immediately after the Sention on the Moynt, 
thus (Mt. yii. 27 — 9) '"...and great was the fall thereof.' 
And it came to pass, when Jesus had finishetl these wordsi 
the multitudes were amazed at his teaching : for he was 
teaching them as one having authority and not as their scribes." 

[1874] Two distinct kinds of " authority "'might be sig- 
nified by the two clauses in Mark. The first is authority of 
doctrine.^ Christ taught "not as the scribes," who appealed to 

I Qr> What is this word I Uecauw (i.«. F«r)in authority....". 



vious traditions and interpretation of the Law ; He 
ppealed to the consciences of His hearers and to the purity 
bd high morality of His precepts ("Ye have heard that 
bath be$n said to them of old.. ..but I say unto you"). 
he second is authority over the minds and souls of men, 
lifesting itself especially in the casting out of devils 
' iVilh authority doth he command even the unclean spirits "). 
latthew refers here only to the first ("not as tlu scribes")' . 
Luke only to the second ("the unclean sfiirits"). 

[M76] In the healing <iT the paralytic, a spiritual 

"authority" of the hfghcst kind is distinctly claimed by our 

ord in the words " The Son of man hath authorit)- upon 

arth to forgive sins'." But here the evangelistic records of 

he. Comments of the multitude in Mark aqd Luke are 

tingularly disappointing. In these two Gbs|>cls the multitude 

ly nothing about the " authority " to forgive, but .merely 

iWe have never seen [things] thus " or " We have seen 

ange things to-day* " — commenting only on what they had 

Isecn," Tiamely, the cure of the disease. Matthew alone has 

Dmething more to the point, a brief indication that the 

hultitude did actually comment on Christ's a.i.sertion that 

he' Son of man had " authority to forgive." " They glorified 

who had given such authority to men*." In Mark,. 

tie multitude docs not even repeat its previous ^:lamation 

'A new teaching!" And Mark and Luke. leave tite impres- 

on that, when this particular " Son of maW .had passed 

ray, the " authority to forgive " would,, or {night, simul- 

' [1674 a] But, immediately after this mention of Chri!it'>"auIhorit)i" 

latthew places the healing of the centurion's servant at a distance, with 

lie words of the centurion (viii. 9) " I also am a man und^r auth&rity 

•ving under myself soldiers." The centurion evidently supposed that 

\ he and bis soldiers were severally subject to authority, so diseasies 

•re subje<:t to the authority of Christ, who had only to say " Co, ' and 

t disease would go. ' Mkii. 10, Mt. ix. 6, Lk. v. 24. 

> Mk ii. 12, Lk. v. 36. • Mt. ix. 8. 

9« w 

'■■ * 

[18W] '" AUTHORITY " 

taneously pass. But Matthew's version suggests that a -new 
"authority" lutH beta sent down frottt heaven to remain among 
" men" 

\ S. "Authority" in the Fourth Gospel 

[1678] "Authority" in the Fourth Gospel may be re- 
garded first in the Evangelist's order, illustrating the way in 
which he develops his doctrine about it Thus ti-cated, the 
subject begins with what Matthew, as above quoted, calls 
the " authority " given to " men." The Logos was not 
received by His own, but (i. l2) " As many as received him, 
to them gave he autlwrity to become children of God." 
Then comes the authority given to the Son, which is thrice 
mentioned, (v. 26 — 7). "As the Father hath life in himself, 
even so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself; 
and he gave him autlwrity to do judpnent {xpiatv irotfiv) 
because he is Son of man," (x. 18) " No one taketh it [i>. my 
life] away from me, but I lay it down of myself j I have 
authority to lay it down and 1 have authority to take it again. 
This commandment received I from my Father," (xvii. 2) 
" Thou [»>. the Father] gavest him autliorily over all flesh, 
that^a// that thou hast given him, to them he may gilt 
eternal life." , ■ : 

[1677] The last meniHoMjof the word are in a dialogue 
between our Lord and I'lMHthus (xix. 10 — 11) "Speakest 
thou not unto me? knowest thou not that L have authority 
to release thee and have autlwrity to crucify thee ? " to which- 
the reply is, "Thou wouldcst have no authority against me 
except it wer0 ikgiven thee from above ; therefore he that 
delivered me unto thqe hath the greater sin." The detailed 
meaning of our Lord's reply (1390 — 3) may be uncertain, 
but it is clear that He is correcting ^ false notion Of authority, 
which i'ilate regarded as meaning "despotism," the power 
of ruling over others as one likes. The Gospel, takes the 
Pauline view (1640 b) that " supreme authorities " are ordained 
by God. , 

■'-■'',*■;■•;.■'■- ■•'i:.9»" J ■.■> :'.'/' . ■ 



r [UTO] Dfeferriqg the consideration of the above-mentioned 
'authority" given to men to "become children of God," a^d 
reviewing the mentions of the "authority" given to Christ, 
we find that the latter includes (i) "doing judgnient," 
(2> "laying down life and faking it again," (3) "authority 
over all flesh" for the purpose of "giving etem^ life ".to 
"all that the Father has given" to the Son. »;,'.;,;••: ■, 

§6. " Authority' to becomt " childvn" _of God : 

{1679] Against Pilate's nation of "authority" as being, 
the power to do as one pleasqs the Evangelist tacitly protests 
at the very beginning of his Gospel by connecting it with the 
word "children (W*i'o)." This at once implies obedience and 
willingness to obey and love the Father. Hut it also implies 
adoption into the whole family of the Father, whence follows 
an obligation, or rather a .spontaneous impulse, to love and 
help the other children. This corresponds 'to the Synoptic 
doctrine " tffecome as a little child (iraAlav)" or " recefvc the 
kingdom of God as a little child." The Synoptic Tradition 
of our Lord's answer to the question, " Who is the greatest ? " 
is that He replied " He that is the least," meaning " He' 
that makes himself as the least and humblest of the family 
in serving the rest." In one Synoptic passage, our Lord 
likens this service to His own service. " Even as the Son 
of man came not to be ministered unto but to minister and 
to give his life a ransom for many'." This teaches that 
"to become a child of God" means to Become naturalised 
in self-sacrifice: and this is the Johanninc conception of 
the . " authority " bestowed upon men by the Son of God, 
preeminence in child-like imitation of the l'"ather in heaven. 

[1880] As compared with the Synoptic doctrine in which 
the authority given to men consisted in the power of driving 

Mk K. 4Si Mt, XX. aS, Uc difr.,.|||p 127Mni 



out evil spirits', the johinnine doctrine is expressed more 
amply and more permanently. The latter bears some re- 
semblance to the tradition peculiar to Matthew (1678) namely 
that God had given unto men authority to forgive sins. 
But "authority to forgive" might be interpreted by a man 
of Tilate's nature as being "the povycr of giving immunity 
from punishment according to one's. o*n plcasiire." Hence 
the advantage of the Johannine doctrine (" become children "), 
which teaches that "authority" goes hand in hand with 
spiritual childhood. The triie "authority" to forgive rests 
with childlike souls -that can see and hear the Father 
in heaven forgiving before they themselves pronounce the 
words of forgiveness on earth. Acconling to John, human 
authority at itsNiighcst implie? perpetual and. voluntary ' 
dependence upon divine will. '■..-. ,_ . .; ., . ,; 

57. Tkt "authority of iht SoH to "do judgment" 

[1681] It is a remarkable fact that the first mention of 
"authority" in connexion with the Son — whether uttered by 
our- Lord or by the Evangelist — is in the statement that " the 
Father judgeth no one " but gave the Son "authority to do 
judgnunt because he is Son of man*" ; and yet the Evangelist 
has previously said (iii. 17) "Gml sent not tlit Son into the 
tuorld to judge the world but that the world through him 
should be saved." Othet" statements aboCit "judging" are 
(v. 30) " As I hear I judg* and my judgment is true." and 

■ [1S80 a] See Mk iii. i; (piirall, Mt.-Ut. otn.) " authority to^cast out 
the devils," »1. 7 "authority over (geiiit.) the unclean spirits," '.Mt. x. 1 
"authority over (g^t.) unclcaa spirits so as to cast them nut and to heal 
every disease and every sickness," Lk. in. i "power and authority over 
(»Vi H'. accus.) all the devils and to heal diseases." gee also Lk. x. 19 
(to the Seventy) " I have given you th» auttfority t« triad upon {.iiita) 
serpents," probably denoting powers of evil. 

'v. 2 J— J7. Both V. j6— 7 and v. j 1 —3 might be evangelistic 
comments (3086^). 

' " - 94 • "; •, ■':■■■ 

"AUTHORITY" , [V883] 

(viii. 15) " I judge net man : yeii, and if I judge, my judgment 
is true: beCauHc I am not alone, but I and the Father that 
sent me.'' Elsewhere, Using a different noun (tcpifia instead 
of Kplaii) Jesus says (ix. 39) "For judgment came I into 
this world that those who sec not may. sec and that those 
who sec may become blind." 

.[1582] These verbal inconsistencies must have perplexed 
readers restricting their conception of's judgment to an 
image of Him, on a fature day, seated on a cloud, detached 
from those whom He is judging. Probably they were meant 
to perplex and to force nien to enlarge their conception. To 
the same conclusion tend other Joharminc sayings, one, for 
example, that declares the judgment to be already in actloii, 
(iii. 18) "He that believeth not is judgtd already" apd 
another that defines judgment thus (iii, ■ 19) "Now this is 
the judgment that light hath come into the world and men 
Itn'ed darkness rather than iighl" Elsewhere says 
that not He Himself but His word will judge: (Xii. 47 — 8) 
" I judge him not... he... hath one that judgeth him : the word 
that 1 spake, tHe same shall judge him in the last day'," 
(xvi. 8— 11) "He \i^. the Paraclete] shall cpnvtet the world 
concerningy«(J^;Hf«?...coficerning_/i/£^««// because the prince 
t)( \\\\& viox\<S hath been judged!' - 

[1683] In one aspect, the" "judgment " here contemplated* 
seems to be describeij, pimost impersonally, as a Law of the 
spiritual world by wJiich the souls that love the light are 
divided from those that hate it. When the Son of man is 
uplifted on the Cross to save the world, those that see and 
reject Hirfi are by the very act of rejecting "judged already." 
Those that trust in Him pass out of the. sphere of judgment 
into life and unity with Him. The others, by thcir/Own act, 
pass into darkness. It suggests the action of light in attracting 
some creatures while repelling others ; or it may be Ijkened 

' Comp. viii. 50 "There is (emph.) he that seeketh and judgeth." 
A. V. 95 8 


to the power of the sun to. harden clay while It melts wax. 
'Siichvillustrations have this objection, they at once raise 
questions about necessity an4 free will. These problems are 
recognised by the Evangelist, but their solution, is not 
attempted. He assumes that human souls arc not' by 
unalterable nature divisible into "clay'V.and "wax'." Un- 
belief is sin, and sin. divides unbelievers from believer.s. 
Their own sin judges, in some sense, the sinners. In another 
sense, the Son of man judges them. But His object is, not 
to "judge" but lo "save." ' ' ' 

[1S84] In another aspect, "doing judgment" is perhaps 
intendied to be distinguished from "judging." The former 
is used in O.T., sometimes along with "doing righteousness," 
but sometimes by itself, to mean "righting the wrongs of 
the oppressed"." It occurs in the famous appeal of Abraham 
to God in behalf of Sodom: * That be far from thee. 
slay the righteous with the wicked. ...Shall not the Judge 
of all the earth do right .' " A rea.son is given for the 
entrusting of this "authority to do judgment" to the Son, 
• and it is "because he is Son of man." That, is to say, not 
because He. is God and knows all secrets, but because He 
is man and has felt all human sufferings, "a man of sorrows 
and acquainted with griefs." In raising up the oppressed, 
the Champion of Justice must also cast down the oppressor: 
but the result is good for both in Plato's sense of justice — 
"doing the best for all." :'\ ' - . 

[1680] Mark never use^ thi; word " judgment." Matthwv 
and Luke use the phrase "in the day of judgment," or "in 

■ [U83 a^ Comp. Rom. ix. ii ■■ Hath not the potter anihmty over 
the cl»y...?" where the "authority" depends on the knowledge of th« 
poller to do what is best with every kind of cUy: but the parallel is 
between the " potter " and ' the_ all-wiie ' Creator rather than between 
"man" and "clay." 

■ Deut. X. 1 8, Sir. xxxii. (xxxv.) ig etc. Kor "do rigbteottsncis and 
judgment," see Gen. xviii. 19 etc. ' " 


"AUTHORITY" ^ fl6W] 

Jt. — • , . :: .. .:..Z . — ^-.1,^ ^ 

the judgment," to mean a day, or season, in which condeihna- 
tionwill be pronounced. John's definition of "the judgment," 
as given above, and his accumulation of apparently deliberate 
verbal inconsistencies as to the Person judging, indicate 
a desire on the part of the beloved disciple to separate the 
conception of His belovtd and adored Master from that of 
a Judge with flaming fire taking vengeance on His enemies — 
and to lead his readers to see His "authority to do judgment" 
in other aspects. When the -Evangelist sajfs " the word that : 
I spake shall judge him," we are reminded of the "still small 
voice" that questioned Elijah, and akin to this,, perhaps, is 
the saying that the Comforter, or Holy Spirit, will " convict 
the world concerning judgment'." Both of these passages, 
and others in this Gospel, suggest that human conscience is 
to play a part in ratifying the judgment that is pronounced 
with " authority " by the Logos. . . 

I' '■■ ■. .;■.■,.: 

§8. '•Antkorily" in eonnixioH wilk 'life'^ .' - 

.■■'■- ••..., 
(1086] The previous section bore on the .saying " He 

[i>. the Kather] gave authority to him [i.e. the Son] to. 9o 
judgment," which is preceded by the words " As the Father 
hath life in himself, so also to the Son he gave to have life 
in himself" — thus connecting the gift of "life in oneself" 
with tlie gift of "authority to do judgment" We have now 
to consider two dyings that connect " authority " still more 
closely with "life." Both of them are in the first person so 
that they are certainly to be taken as proceeding from our 
Lord Himself, apd not — like the saying in the last section- 
possibly from the Evangelijit. .. 

* [1S85 <i] Jn xvj. II. "The day of judgment ** is ^A mentioned 
in the Gospel. The nearest approach to it is (v. 29) "resurrection of 
Judgment" coniraaied with "resurrection of life." "The day of the 
judgment" occurs once in the Epistle, not in connexion with "adver- 
saries," or "the wicjced," but with ourselves (1 Jn iv. 17) "that *e may 
have confidence in the timy of the judgment " 

97 8-2 " 

[1887] '.'AUTHORITY" ' '. 

[1687]„Thc first occurs in the Parable of the Good 
Shepherd, which is really a discourse on Rood rulers. It 
describes the natural king, the kin^ called by God, as jtulihg 
by his voice, not by coercion. He does not drive the sheep, 
he leads them. He calls them each by name; they hear him 
and follow: The secrc't of this success is, that thus ideal 
Shepherd is ready to lay down hl.s life for the sheep : 
(X. 17— r8) "Therefore doth the Father love me because. 
I lay down my life that I may take it again. No one taketh 
it -away from me, but I lay it doun of myself 1 have 
-autkority to lay it down and I have aiitliarity to take it 
aeain. This commandment received I froin my Father." 

[16S8] No one "has authority" to lay down his life 
.except that he may,, in some sense, tal^e it again, any more 
than the iiower has V authority'" over "the grain of wheat" 
to throw it into the fire. No one "has authority" to lay 
down his life for his own sake alone, that is, for his owjt 
honour or pride or to secure eternal happiness— without any 
regard to others. If life Is to be "laid down" with 
"authority," it must be laid down out of "love ""for others — 
love for the Father and His children, not for the Father 
alone. The " army of martyrs " is " noble,'' but not unless , 
it is ennobled by " love " : " Though I give my b<xiy to be 
burned and have^ not love, I am nothing." Hut the man 
that lays down his life in the harvest field of humanity to. 
brfng forth fruit, the true .Mart)*, does-not, and cannot, do 
this in his own strength, bfit because he has been ennobled, 
and ^strengthened to do it, and has received high rank and 
"authority" in the kingdom of Heaven. He docs it, in one 
sense spontaneously, but, in another, obediently, saying in 
the moment of martyrdom, "This commandment received I. 
from my Father." 

' Th« Sower might be said ><i have "authority" over the leed u "the 
Potter" has (1883 n) over the clay, but' authority based on knowledge 
. of Law, and obedience -to Law, 


'AUTHORITY ", - [1690] 

[1B89] This, the Johanhine view of "authority," f*. » 
wholesome antidote against cogiplaccncy and a strong stimu- 
lant to well-doing. " Even the devils are subject to us in 
thy name," say the Seventy to Jesus, in a tradition |>cculiar 
to Luke. But their Lord's rcpty warns them agaijist rejoicing 
in this authority, and bids them rejoice rather that their 
names were written in heaven'. Much more, we may be 
sure — from what He said in the Triple Tradition— would He 
have bidden them rejoice in. making themselves lords over 
their own passions'for the .sake of being servants of mankind 
in the spirit of Him who " gave his life for the sheep." While 
it discourages selfish asceticism and artificial self-humiliations 
— which (Hjrhaps St Paul meant by his term "voluntary 
humiliation " — the Johannine doctrine keeps the eye of the 
possessor of " authority " fixed on the source of all authority, 
namely, the Father, whose "commandment" cannot be 
"obeyed" without perpetual regard to His children. 

[1690] The' next passage connecting " authority " with 
"life" (Kcurs io the beginning of the Lord's last prayer, 
(xvii. 1—2) "Father, the hour is come, glorify thy Son, that 
the Son may glorify thee : even as thou gavest him authority 
ever all Jlesli—XhaX, a.W that thou hast given unto him, to 
them he should give eternal life," where the italicized words 
may be compared w^(.h those peculiar to Matthew describing 
the sending forth of the Apostles to preach the Gosjiel to" 
the wojld, "All authority lufth been given unto tHe in heaven 
and earth. Go ye, thci-cfore, and make disciples of all the 
nations'....," It cannot be supposed that the author of this 
tradition in Matthew jneant that "all authority... in earth" 
had been given to the Saviour in such.a way as to necessitate 
the immediate conversion of the whole "earth " to Christianity. 
The meaning must be that the Son h^jl been appointed by 
the Father to be Lord of mtti de facto in heaven and di jure 
on earth. • 

'* ' Lk. X. 17— KX ' Mt ixviii. 18. 



[1091] This limitation is expressed in John by the «yurc)s ' 
"all that thou giycn him." The phrase (3444) ilei^otes 
the Church on earth. The whole .sentence and the coritext . 
recognise that "all flesh" will wo/ own the "authorityT of 
the Son. Even among the Apostles,, one, "the. tonioJT' 
destruction," must be "destroyed '," or " lost ": the Son 
Himself acknowledges thi.s. But He also acknowledges tHat 
the "glorifying" of the Father consists in giving "clernpl 
life," and that the Son has "authority over all flesh" to olfir 
this gift, whether accepted or not. The impression luft upoi 
■ .us i.s, that although the "destruction " of "the son of de\ 
struction" must take place that the Scripture, that is, the wilU 
of the Father, may. be fulfilled, and although "all flesh" will] 
not at once accept the gift of life, yet, in the end— whether ' 
■* by .ultimate acceptance ar not we are pot told — by some 
means God will be fully "glorified.". And there the Evan- 
gelist leaves the insoluble problem of sin. . , ;' ■ ■ 

[1692] As regards " authority," it is defined by the terra, 
unusual in N.T., " all flesh," a term. u.sed repeatedly in O.T. 
to describe the destruction of all animate nature with the 
, exception' of Noah and his companions, in the deluge". It. 
is also used by Luke in his Gospel and in the Acts in quota- 
tions from Isaiah and Joel describing the vision of glory, ^ 
or the outpouring of the Spirit, in the kingdom of iGod», • 
In both these .senses it may be intended here to denote 
' that the authority of the Messiah is to extend to Gentiles as 
well as to Jews, and to dominate human nature., 
- [1693] The last mention of "authority"- in the Fourth 
Gospel is in a dialogue that serves the purpose of summing 
up the Evangelist Ji doctrine about it' by contrasting the 

: ■ ' ■ ■ " ' ..■ - ." '■' ■' " '- .- •. ■ — ■'"' *:■■ . ' '■'■ . ■ 

' Jn xvii. 12. 

* Gen. vi. I}, 17, 19, vii. IS, i6<tc. " 

" Lit. iir. 6 (1j, il. 5), Acis ii. 17 (Joel ii. 38). It is also in Ll'el; i. 24 

(Is. xl. 6). It does not occur elsewhere in N.T. without negative, "no 

flesh" Mk xiii. 20 etc. (2980-3). 

•■•■.': — ■ lod .:.'•■■ . -.-. 


wrong with the right conception. It exhibits the nominal 
Ruler, who has the scmblantje bf autlK>rity, and is proud of 
it, sitting in judgment on the real Ruler. The former is 
a mere slave. Of hUs own will, he would release Jesus. 
But the crowd cries " Thou art not 'Caesar's fricml," and 
Pilate "thtrtfort brought Jesus furth." Again the "Governor" 
struggle; for permission to release the innocent, and again 
the crowd cries "We have no king but Caesar." "Then, 
therefore'' Pilate "delivered him unto them to be trucificd'." 
Yet this same man had just sijid to his prisoner, " Knowest 
thou not that / have authority to release th^ and / have 
authority to cT\ic\iy X.hcii''!" ...: ■■'.:• 

[1694] Jesus, in His reply, contents Himself, with pointing 
to the responsibility that attaches itself to "authority." It 
is "given," He says, " from.above." As for the true meaning 
of the term, Pilate — who ask^d " What is truth ? " — was ho 
more competent to receive it than were the Pharisees to 
whose question ("By what authority"?") Christ had refused 
to answer. To grasp the conception of true " authority " 
we must be able to grasp the conception of the Good Shep- 
herd : and to do this — .so the Gospel teils us-^tlie Jews 
were absolutely unable. They said " We sec," but they were 
blind. Jdsus spoke' to them about the Shepherd, but they 
could not touch the fringt of- His meaning. " They" did , 
not know what the things were (1721 a) that he was speaking 
to them'." In that I'arable, Christ had virtually replied 
by anticipation to Pilate's boast "/ have aiillwrity'' The 
false Ruler says to the true, "I iiave authority to tSke thy 
lifo": the true Ruler replies"'! have a«/,*<»r/0' to la-y it down'.".. 

' xix. U-16.' ■ » Kit rok -S 'llkxi. «etc.(HM).. ,•. 

' ix. 39— X. 6. 

' [ISM a] The-mischiff that might arise from regarding the 
[:** authority" of Christ as a magical power of casting out evil spirits, or 
CVf .imparting the .Spirit of Hohness—a power limited to the Twelve in 
¥^ark,and-t.Q^the Twelve and the Seventy in Luke—is seen in the request 

■f - toi . . ■ 


of Simon Magus in the, Acts (viii. IQ) lo be allowed to purchase "this 
autHori(y" namely, to impart the Spirit. A protest against superstitious 
or servile views of it seems also to Undorlic several passages in the 
Epistles to the Corinthians where^ St I'aul refuses to use certain material 
Itpostolic privilenes that had come to be connected with apostoHc, 
"authority" (i Cor. tx. ,1—5) '*Am I not an w/»f///r.''.,.Have we no 
authoriiy to eat and drink {at the cost of the Churches]. ..even as /A/ 
rest of ike Apostles.,.?*' There was, perhaps, a danger that some nf the 
large ouinber called Apostles or Missionaries in the first century, while 
saying (i Cor vi. u) *^r have authority {i^«<rti¥) to do all things/' might 
forget lo say {ii.) " But 1 will not be hronght umief the authoriiy of tiny 
(ovK f£ovcridir^i}ffT>fMu I'lrii Tifof)." That is tO Say, they mig^t be tempted 
to rule ovej- converts in the spirit of Filate rather than in the spirit 
of Christ (Mk x. 42, \ Pel. v. 3) "exercising lordship to the utmost 
(xaroKufMfVfO'nc)." Comp. Didaeh. xi. 12 " Hut whosoever shall say in the 
spirit, 'Give me money, or other things,' ye shall not listen to him.** 

[ISM^] As regards Kov. xxii. 14 (quoted in 166^^) i^i^avaUi txhtuv in\ 
tA jfi'Xof, the interpretation is complicated by thekfart that Kev. has 
(i) accus. also irt vi. 8 c'dii^ omi« i. «nl to T«rn/*roi>, r.y^, xili. 7 /doAf 
aur^i. (Vi iratrtu' i^vXi}i>, xvi. 9 roC Btov rov ij^ovrot t. r. iw\ Tt frXi^y^r - 
rovrat, but (3) genit. in ii. 26 Awrw avryr «'. in\ ribr i&¥&v^ xi. 6 «. fjfovinp 
•VI T. vharmv^ xiv, 18 6 i\»v t. *Vi t. jtij^c, Perhaps iVi with accus. may 
imply ''ertendinj^ over," suggesting " extending. //»." Or, if criticism 
decides that the book is coinp«tsite, that migb.t explain the variation. 

[1594 i) In Mk ii. 10, Mt. ix. 6, Lk. v. 34 (referred ^o in 1562) . 
Lk. (and sin^- Mt.) has t. fj^fi Jn'i nyr yijt (whereas Mk has iVlrrji yijt at 
the end of the Lord's words) thus suggesting the meaning " hath 
authifrity over the earth,", as in Revelations (1883—4). There is -great 
variation in the Latin versions between "in terra," "in terrani'," and 
. "super lerram." In ,LXX» *^'»^(a with «»»' is very rare (Sir. xxx. 28 
l^xxxiii. 19) ^tXy'^ii} Aye*. iVi W, Oan. tii. 97 (LXX, not I'heod. nor Heb.) 
4. Sbvr «0* 0X17V r^r x'*^'«) '• ^v* i^vaidi^ iwl with, ift in Neh> v.^ t5A' 
ijt. 37, I Mac. x. 70 (of oppressive authority). ' \ . A 

[lS9i^/] Lk. xxii. 25 (1570) probably avoids. «ara«i>>mt^. not because \ 
he wishes to soften the word, but because, outside the LXX, it meaAt' \ 
*^ overtome" as in the only instance mentioned by Steph., Uiod. xiv> 64 \ 
** having ovtrcome [tna naval engat;eMinf].'^ . 4- , , ■ - \ 





\ , . * i'" 


{ I TAf use oj synonyms in ihh GesptI • 

[169B] In the Introduction {I486— 7) it wa^i pointed 6ut 
that the Dialogue in the l*6urth Qospel between our Lord 
and Peter, after the Resurrection, interchanged the words 
"Iqye (070^011)" and '• like ((^«\€U')" in a manner hardly 
capable of being briefly and literally expressed in any 
English Version, and not expressed by our Revised Version 
except by a marginal note stating that the two Greek words 
for "love" arc difTercflt. The whole of this Gospel is 
l>erva(led with disturctions of thought, represented by subtle 
distinctions of word or. phrase— words and phrases so far 
alike that at first the reader may take th^ thought to be 
the same, thouyl) it is always really dirtVrent. In discussing 
the word "trust." or "fjelicve," for example, it appeared that 
"'trust to the name of," "trust to," and "trust," signified 
different things. Again, the word '" authority " was shewn 
to mean a different thing in most Synoptic |>a'ssagcs from 
what it means in the Fourth Gospel ; and, even in the I-'ourth, 
Pilate uses it in one sense and our Lord in another. If the 
writer thus emphasizes the vari(5u!i shades of meaning in the 
same words ("trust" and "authority") we must anticipate 
that he will do the si'mc thing in using different (though 
synonymous) words, and that his play upon "loving" and 
"liking" will have many parallels in his Gospel. 


■■■ ■■■■' ' \ 



[1096] Some of these will be hard to detect. For 
ey ample, the word-^iXm, or "take as a friend," which is 
for the most part (1728 m—J>) a lower word than Hyairiitt, is 
applied by our Lord Himself (on the very first occasion on 
which it occurs in this G<)spel) to the love of the Father 
for the Soh; thus (v. ,20) "For the Father taietk as a fritnd 
the Son artd sheweth him all that he himself doeth." Codex 
D and a few other authorities alter this to* loveth." A most 
natural alteration ! But if we compare what Christ says 
later on where He declares that henceforth He will call 
His disciples "friends" because He intends to fell them att 
His secrets', we shall find that the meaning is, not that the 
Father "loveth" the Son (which is assiinncd) but that the Son, 
to speak in metaphor, is of age to-be, a fellow-counsellor with 
the Father, who treats Him as a fritnd, and "sheweth him 
all that he himself thethy These remarks will suffice as an 
introduction to a discussion of soi»e'"of the most important 
of the Johannine ' synonyms. . " .- 

,..■;,.-";: -§2. "Seeing«\ : 

[1597] A distinction between "seeing" and "beholding" 
is clearly implied in the saying of Jesus, to the discii)les 
(xvi. 16) " A little [while] and ye no longer iehoU me 
(Stapeiri fu), and again a little [while] and ye shall see tnc 
(iilrt<t9e ii€)." The disciples repeat the saying in perplejjity. 
It is repeated again by Jesus in Hi^ reply to their que.stionings 
with one another. In each of the three cases the same 
distinction i^i observed, apparently Indicating that " behold " 

' [lS96ii] XV. 14 — 15, So, in Genesii (xviii. 17), God refusn to hide 
His plans from to^ham, His Qff. ii. 1%) "frimd." The same iiicaniiig 
is probably imenued in Jn xvi. 27. On the other hand, in xx. 2 "the 
disciple whem Jesus 7in/A/" (tiyawa in xiii. 33, xix. 26; xxi. 7, 20) is 
perhaps called " the disciple whom Jesus (IW6) still li>veit(i<i>0^ti\'' because 
he had not yet " believed,", so that he is regarded as under »i cloud. 

104 . 


means "tteholdwi'th the bodi!y eye!' but '•lee" me»n»"see 
spiritually^." ■ ^ 

(i) BtWiw. ' ' 

[1S98} This distinction !« pretty regularly maintained. 

'O^lrtafiai is repeatedly used . of spiritual piorhise (i. J9) 

" Come and ye shall see';' (j. 50) " thou skalt see greater things," 

('• 51) "ye sliall see the heaven opened and the angels of 

God." (xi. 40) " thou shall see the glory of God," and thrice 

in the passage referred to above, concerning the resurrection 

\of Jesus. This makes seven mentions. Then occurs the 

hought,thaf our "seeing" Christ depends on Christ's "seeing" 

uk just as man's "knowing" God i.s sometimes identified. both 

in^.T. and in O.T. with God's " knowing " man'. The seven 

J1BV7 «] Coinp. Phllo i. 578 " that which' receives the divine appari- 
tion \. Biiav t^airrtiaiav) is the eye of the sout. For, else, What the mere 
\eyes behold (ffittpoviri) they appreheiid with the cooperation of 
f tptiti jffmiuvot Kma\nj4i4afovtrt»)..,.", {i. 579) "Whenever 
1 Cod nfipeartil (a^iota) to men, understand that this takes 
t from material litfht (^x^t^f au^yrov)." 

I 'O^^Kw, "appeared," or "wiuNwen," is the word regularly 
Haul to describe the man^tations of Christ after the 
^tio» (I Cor. XV. 5—8). )ii-ixi. 1, 14 uses .'^►ip»9i| "was 
manifcKM "tor iifiaviptiiriw lavri' "manifested himself" (Mk App. [xvi. 
13, 14] /^r|ii«4'>). But in predicting His self-manifcsialion, Jesus 
(xiv. ii)'usesYf4'<^'C'>i saying that He will "make himself manifest''' 
to the helicvenand not to the world because He and the Father will 
"come to him «nd make an abiding place in his heart (irufi' air^)." 
This illustrates what Philo says, that, whenever CJod has "appeared to" 
(or "been seen bjt")men, it has been "apart from material light." It 
is unfortunate that\ in English we render <I04i) in two ways, (1) "was 
seen by,"i(j) "appeared to." If it is rendered "was seen by,*' we must 
remember that the sight is (in many cases) m>( rtctiveH by Ikt bmtily tye, 
• If it is rendered "apfieared to," we m»5i remember that the thing seen 
is to be regarded as rr<V'"''^ ^^('^^'^^<'> though spiritual. *t- 

• [1896 /)] Some infefior mss. read " Come and see," assimilating the 
phrase to the ordinary RVbbinicil formula (on which see Wetst, SchSttg. 
and //or. Heb. ad he.) expressed in j^n i. 46 "Come and see." 

' [1598 *J Comp. Gal. iv, 19, where .St Paul, after saying " But now, 
having inowit (7^//,"' corrects himself and adds- "or rather being ^notun 
iy Gvd," i.e. being taken into the family circle of Cod and Iwing recognised 
u His children. 

'OS ' 


promi.ies, thcrefi>re, of "j«/«jf " art summodup in a promise 
of "Mug setk" (xvi. 22) '"1 will stt you (S'^oiuu v/iaf) and 
your joy no man shall take from you." On the other hand 
<'<a>p«(i', at all events at the outset of the Gospel, is used of 
unintelligent, superficial, or at least inferior " beholding." ' 
People (ii. 23) "behold" Christ's signs, but Jesus does not 
trust them ; the Samaritan woman asserts that she <iv. 19) 
"beholds" (in a mere feeling of wonder) that jfcsus. is "« 
prophet": the multitude that (vi. 2) " beholds " Christ's signs 
is avbided by Him because they, uninteltigently desire to 
make Him a kinj; by forctf; the disciples (vi. 19) "behold" 
Jesus, walking on thf water — "and feared." When a higher 
signification exi.sts. it seems derijjfd from a special context, 
as in vi. 40 " Kveryone that txilioldeth the Son and bcluvilk'' 
and so (xii. 44, 45) ' He that believeth on me...t>clieveth ori 
him that sent- me.. .(45) and he that [thus, in a spirit of'- 
belie/} beholdcth me beholdeth him that sent me." Or .else, 
a better meaning is derived from antithesis,- as when the 
wprld's " bcjiolding " with coarse material vision is contrasted 
with the rudimentary spiritual "beholding" vyhich Jesus 
appears to acknowledge in the disciples even before the 
Resurrection, (xiv. 17—19) "The Spirit of truth, which the 
world cannot receive .because it does not behold it {Ofupn) 
nor so n^ch a« have an understanding of it (oM^ 7(i>wa'««(); 
ye h^ unddt-standirtg of it.i.fig) Yet a little while and 
the u/rld bcholJeth me no more ; but ye (emph.) Mold tm : 
becaifce I live, ye shall live also," i.*. " the world shall cease 
to beVold my visible and material body, but ye shall still 
behold mtf* with the faith of afisction'." ' 

■ [ISMr]- This ibodld be compared with the highei' tundard of 
spiritual vision iidqpted later in xvi. 16-T-19, "Ye btkold (<««()«irt) me 
no more," f>. yc shall rise above tbe l^eholding in, the flesh, and also 
above the beholding in mere half-faith. Literally, tbe EvanKelitt (as 
often) contradicts himself. ^ He appears to do it with > deliberate 
purpose (IMS). . i». 

'■•■>■ - 106 ' '. |,-.--.'^" ■ 




[1699] In the post-resurrection narrative, there appears 
a remarkable and systematic distinction between "verbs of 
seeing," intended apparently to lead up to the word^s of 
Jesus that even «/»> kind of nitre "siting" is inferior to 
bslieving (xx, 29 " Blessed are they that have not seen 
(ilhiinn) and have believed >*)— although *' believing" itself 
is only a preparation for "abiding" in the Son. 

[1600] The Resurrection is regarded as a mystery; Itttight 
into it is gradually bestowed on the disciples in three different " 
stages'. Kirst Mary Magdalene "notes (fi\etrtt)" the stone 
removed from the tomb. Then the«two disciples run towards 
it. The Uisciple whom Jesus loved (1696 o) reaches the 
tomb first. . He "glanses in (Ta^«(i/^o«')" and "notes 
($\hm)" something more than Mary-vthe linc>i swathing 
bands that had X"'"- 40) once 'iboimd " the body, now 
discarded. He does not venture, however, te enter the ■ 
darkness" of the sepulchr^. Peter is the first to do this, 
and there he " beholds (fi^ttpti) " — steadfastly and in perplexity,- 
but still not as yet in faith — the napkin, which had confined 
the head of Jesus, now discarded. Then (as a third stagc> 
the beloved disciple is dc^icribed as pasting through three 

' [1S99 ,1] Merc usage may «o>iietiniC5 cause » change from one verl> 
to another even where the meaning is (he same. Kor example, IA«r is 
the regular word for past "seeing" IfiXl^rat |)eing very rare),'and /n/ir«, 
not Re, is used, especially by MIc, to mean "look to iC'"lalce heed." 
'Eifaua, used by Mary Magdalene (««. 18) "/ Aai'i urn the Lord," 
implies probably more than mere material seeing, and perhaps not 
material seeing at all. It is very unlikely that the^Evsngelist supposes 
that Caiaphas, had he been standing by the side of Mary, would have 
seen the Saviour. See 1601» 

' [1800 a] Comp. Schrtttg. ii. 76 (quoting Tanchum. 77 a) " When God 
reveals His Shechinah 4o the Israelites, it is not done in a moment"; 
" Come and learn [a mystery] from the case of Joseph', who did not for 
many years reveal himself to his brethren. So thertfore God revealed 
Himself by degrees and slow degrees." 

• [1600^] On nupatinrtt, whith occurs in N.T. onlyher^ (»i. 5, 11), 
possibly in Lk. xxiv. 12 and certainly in /as. i. 25, 1 I'et: i. 13, see 
1796-1801 'In the Epistles it hat a spiritual meaning. 






processes ; he " entered in " and " saw («li«i') " and " believed." 
We are not t6ld that he "saw" anything but the gra^ 
clothes and the empty grave : l»ut it is implied that he " »aw* 
the truth of the Resurrection. 
A [IMI] The two depart, and Mary is left aloneJ Twice 

she ip mentioned as "weeping." Then^ she, too, "glanced' 
into (wap4K\h^tv «'?)" the tomb, and "beholds (Oiupti)" two 
angels ; but still there is no faith. Twice is the question 4>ut 
to her, "Why weepest " th9u ? " In the second case, it i« 
put by Jesus, and the word 0««p(i is repeated. She "be^ 
holds" Him, but not intelligently: she. mistakes Him for 
sQme one else. Not till .she is "'calltd by ktr name'" doe« 

'she recognise and answer. Thus her faith is apparently 

caused not by sight but by AranVif; and, although she really 

-•has seen Jesus, and. in her report to the di$ciples, she says, 

"I have sttn (ivipcuta) the Lord'," the intention appears to 

.be to emphasize the spiritual truth that the mei-e " beholding" 
($(mp'a) of an image of the risen Saviour is not a true 
"seeing" (ipaaii). Philo lays stress on the .statement that 
the children of Israel* " jaif the voice of the lx)rd (Iw/M tijv 
^lavrpiy" • So Mary's vision was caused- by a "voice." She 
only bthtld {ffeupti) the form, but may be said to have seen 
(itipaKe) the voice,, oj Jesus, _ Thomas refused to believe 
unless he might touch the Lord, Majy is forbidden to 
"touch" Him.: nor is it said that He- "shewed her hit 
hanVts and /tiis side " in order to convince, fier (as He i« ^ 
'said -i to have convince d _pthe rs) that Ht was not "the 
gardener." In ojic stfll^, then, she might be said lo have 

.believed, like the beloved disciple, because she discerned the 
truth, though she had not "seen" with -the outward eye 
the body of Jesus : and perhaps Maty and the beloved 


■ Comp. Jn X. 3—4 " He callelh'hii own sheep Ity name and leadeth 
tb«n< out.. '!tn>l the.&|)p:p follow him for they know hi> voice," 
• x«.. i8. * Philo i. 443, quoting Ex. xx. i8. 




disciple are both'Includtod in the bleiiihg proriouhced upon 
those who have " nel seen (li&vmY and believed." • . 

[160S] In' the third and last and specially saqred mani- 
festation of Jesus to the Seven, this notion — 1>. -of revelation, 
not through sight, but through some other caua« — is still 
further developed. While the disciples are fishing, Jesus 
suddenly "stood on the beach." The disciples do hot 
recognise Him by sight, nor even by voice, when He calls 
them "children" and directs them towards success. It is 
not till they have obeyed His word and have been rewarded, 
that the beloved disciple exclaims to Peter, " U is the Lord." 
Then— with a repetition quite needless but for the writer's 
desire to insist on belief .through Juartng—\.\\e narrative 
describes how " Simon Peter, having heard that it viai tMt 
Lord" plunged into the sea and hastened towards Him*. 
And even while the disciples are participating in the sacred 
meal of the Loaf and the Fish they are (so it is- implied) 
unable to recognise Hini by sight, but only by Jtnowltdgt, 
" None of the disciples dared to qucstioQ^him, ' Who art 
thou?' knowing that it was tlie Lord*." If 'they had recog- 
nised Him by sight, where was the need to "iquestion"? 
The writer indicates that theit knowing— though it was 
"ai>solute knowUdgt" (•i'Wtm')— proceedwi nit, from, sight 
but from inward conviction. _ ^ 

' [IWS] Being thus used to express a rudimentary stage 
of "seeing" spiritual truth, 0taptiv a not u^ at all in the 
Epistle metaphorically, and only once literally'. 

■ [1601 a\ n. 39. Note that the Evangelist do« not, and couM not, 
write (il n tf'int. In that s|jiritual ten«c, Jetui could not pronounce 
a blessing on "those who have not' Met)': for tftnt meani "true 
vision." - ' • 

• x«i. 7. • iixi. \1. 

' * [lOOSii] I Jn iii. 17 tt»i>i r. ittX^w mni xf"" ^X'^'y M' stolidly 
beholding one's broths in need and doing nothing to help l^sb 






(ii) %taa0ai. 

[16M] This word, being connected with "'theatre" and 
with the notions of a spectacle and a multitude, will be 
rendered here " contemplate " — a rendering inadpqtiate but 
intended to distinguish it' from Btmptiv "behold." It is used 
turice of jesus. The first instance is when He " contemplates " 
His two earliest disciples (i. 38) " follovying " Him. These 
are the beginning of the Church. It is used again when 
He (vi. 5) lifts up His eyes to heaven and "contemplates' 
the great multitude coming to the Feast of the Bread from 
heaven. These rejiresent the developed Church. Elsewhere 
it is used of disciples, or believers, contemplating some mani- 
festation, not of God, but of the glory of God (i. 14, 32. iv. 35, 
xi. 4S) and so in t Jn i. 1, iv. rj (" No man hath contemplated 
God"), 14. 

(iii) '()pa»>. .' ' • , 

[160B] John's use of thia verb is confined to the future 

■ (lOM a] eratrtfui cannitt perhapi be expressed in Englith so u 10 
distinguish it froili j)r«p(ir. "Contemplate" is quite inadequate, and 
so are "gase at*^ and "survey." |In N.T., ttwriat is almost always 
connected with a Mmmber ofpe^pU either as " seeing " or as " being seen," 
e.g. with the muhitudes going out to "see the sight " of John the Uaptist 
(Mt. >i. 7, Lk. vii. 24), pr with the king coming in to see the assemblage 
.of his guests (Mt. xxii. 11). In the Synoptists, the only exception to this 
' is Lk. V. 37 where ).esus watches Levi engaged in his public occupatioik 
(parall. Mk ii.. 14, Mt ix. 9 <a»). But Mk App. [xvi. )i] <'tfiMf 
liir' avT^t is applied to Jesus seen by Mary Magdalene alone after the 

[16M#] In Jn (i. yi) it is applied once to the Baptist seeing (be 
^oly Spirit descend on Christ. In Rom. xv. 24 it probably meant 
that the Apostle wishes to have the joy of beholding the assembly of 
the whole of the Roman Church. It is perhaps impossible to say 
confident^' how the writer differentiates Jn i. 18 6t^¥ w0«if im^vnw 
„ir«froT« from i J n iv. 12 B*h* ov^Xt vAirori rftf/urm. The former would 
most naturally apply to the revelation of God received individually by 
Patriarchs and Prophets, the latter to that received by the saints of the 
collective Church. The abwiute God has been seen by. none, whether 
singly or collectively. 



iirc'iiM and the perfect itapiuca'. 'Eupaiia, in John, means 
that kind of " having seen " which has produced a peftnancnt 
result enabling the man that " hath seen " to " bear witness." 
There are few exceptions to the letter, and none to the spirit, 
of this rule. It is possible, however, to "have seen" — so far 
as the bad can " see " — and to " disbelieve," or even to " have 
seen " and to " hate," not only the Son but even " the Father": 
and the mention of "the Father" .shews that spiritual sight, 
not material, is contemplated'. It is characteristic of the writer 
that, while he sayiJUGod no one /uitA seen at any time*," he re- 
presents Jesus air apparently blaming the unbelieving Je»'S for 
not having " seen " the " form " of the Father (" Ye have neither 
heard his voice nor seen Ins form, and ye have not his word 
abiding in you*"). Jesus also says : " Not that any one hath 
seal the Father except him who is from the Father," and 
" He that hath seen me hath seen the Father'." The object 
is to shew that the pure in heart must needs " have teen" the 
Fathernn the Son. , 

[16061 'E<upa«u( is applied to "/taxiing seen" (through 
divine revelation) the fountain of blood and water that gu.shcd 
from the side of Jesus., Here,, too (as in i. J4, iii. 33), 
"witnessing" follows close on " hatnng seen": (xix. 35) "He 
that katk seen hath borne witnessf." 

' [1606 <t} It would be intereiting 10 uoertain the motivet that led 
the writer to dispense with the present. (In Philo the pns. is b«q., 
especially of Israel "seeing God." In the L.XX it is often used as a 
noun, t^. 2 S. xxiv. 1 1 " Uand's strer (tAi- ipiivra (A ■+T6r) Aawrt).") 
In ]n vi. 2, nuny .jjss. read nipnv : but probably the scribes cancelled 
the first two letters of the original teciopuN (for -oyn). 

* vi. ^6, XV. 34 " They have both seen and haled me and itiy Father." 
' i. 18. 'v. 37. * vi. 46, xiv. 9 (cotnp. xiv. 7). 

* [1606 a] Besides these two passages there is iv. 45, "The (Galileans 
received him, hiruing setn (<«|M«>Ttc) all the things that he did in 
Jerusalem." Although the writer may intend to correct the very un- 
favourable impression given of the Galileans by Luke (iv. 39), yet, in 
a context describing such transient faith or ."receiving" as this, we 
should rather expect Btttpt'ai than lipof. \tt vi. 3 ihfmv in some Mss. 

A. V. Ill g 


(iv) BXiiroi'. 

[1807] hxtwtiv is used of material sight, especially in 
connexion with the healing of blindness (ix. 7 — 35, five times). 
In the same conneiyon it means (with a play on the word 
(ix. 39—41)) spiritual seeing. It is also used of "looking" 
in ordinary life (xiii. 22 " they looked on one another ")'. 
Only by a rare metaphor is the wor(J used of the Son of 
God, in heaven (v. 19) "looking at " the deeds of the Father 
(in which sense Philo also uses it of the Eldest Son of the 
Father in heaven " looking at {ffjUiran) " the acts of the Father 
as patterns for His own action)'. 

(v) Alptw o^aXfiow etc. 

[1606] The act of "raising the eyes" or "looking up" 
is regarded by Philo (on Gen, xviii. 2, P. A. 242) as sym- 
bolical'. Jesus uses it in a symbolical sense when He bids 
t{|e disciples (iv. 35) "lift up" their "eyes" and behold the 
spiritual harvest But it is also thrice used by the Evangelist 
concerning Jesus: In the first case, (vi. 5) it precedes the 
sign of the Bread ^f Life. In the second, it precedes (xi. 41) 
the raising of Lazarus. In the third (xvii. i) it introduces 
the last prayer of the Son to the Father ; and there, a^ 
if a climax was intended, the Evangelist writes, ndt simply 
" lifting up," but " lifting up to heaven." 

(vi) 'ittlv etc. 

[1609] The thought implied by this verb often differs 
according to its grammatical form owing to considerations 

has wrongly supplanted ittifiovf (1006 a). . Conibly, here too, after 
iritm, sinod an original tiMuphkotcc which has been altered 10 

■ CoDip. i. 29, xi. 9. In XX. I, 5, xxL 9, w it refers to things "mcb" 
or " noted " after the Resurrection. 

■ (1007 a] Philo i. 414 Tin>n> itir yip irfMir/9vTarto Mr i rAm imit 
irirtiXt fron^p, fti' hipmtt wpttrvyonow inroftavft «ai i ytvrtfSiU ^rrvi 
lUftoviurot rAf TCI' waritir Uovf, wpU wqpadtiyfuno Aftx^rvwa Jxtivov 

' See also Philo i. oj, 199, 645, ii. IJ. , 




other than grammatical. In the participle and the sub- 
junctive, this is the customary verb to express ordinary 
seeing, so that its use implies no special meaning. But in' 
Gen. i. 31 it is used in the past indicative {tlStv) concerning 
the Creator surveying His work and pronouncing it good, 
and this stamps that tense as Jikely to tie used by Philo and 
his school to express that kind of "sight" which precedes 
some spiritual utterance or process. Also, in Rabbinical 
writers, "Come and see" is commonly used as a preface to 
the statement of some profound mystery',.and this is hinted 
at in the reply of Philip^ta Natfianael (i. 46) " Come and see 
(fS*),'' «" if. in 'answer to Nlthanael's incredulous words, "Can 
any good come out of sMzarcth?" God replied through the 
mouth of the unconscious instrument, Philip, " Come and see 
[t/u mystery of mystmes, the Supreme Good]'." Another use 
of this formula is where the Jews themselves invite Jesus to 
" come and see " the apparent triumph of death, unconsciously 
inviting Him to the highest manifestation of His own divine 
and life-giving power in triumphing over death (xi. 34)': 
" ' Where ha:ve ye laid him ? ' They say unto him, ' Sir, tome 
and see.' Jesus wept*." 

• S« ^w. /fr*. on Jfti. 47 (R.V. L 4(»). . 

* In the Johannjnc Epistles thifi vb. occurs thrice,, i Jn in. I ia<Tv 
voraw^i' dydiri})' JWd«*Kci'..., v. |6 iav nt ^ r. a3«X04w, 3 Jaxiv. ikwi(m... 

> [1600 a] "Come and set" Aiutt be- diitinguished from (i.' 39) (R.V.) 
" Come and ye sktUl st* (i^trSt) ** (A.V. " Come and see " reading Strf), 
which is not a Rabbinical precept but a Messianic promise.- The context 
there is full of emblematic yeaning. It contains the very first utterance 
of Christ, " IVMat stek yt f " — which is, according to Philo (i., 196 
commenting on Gen. xxxvii. ij), the utterance wherein Elenchos (1./. 
the Convicting Logos or Spirit) addressing the wandering soul, asM it 
what is the object of its existence^ 

[1000^] The two seekers after truth reply, "Rabbi.. .where aiiJiit 
thou ?," unconsciously asking the Son to tell them of His eternal Abiding- 
pUcc, the "Eternal Home," "tM^bosom of the Father" The Saviour 
does not say to them (see Chryiostom) as He says, in elTect, to the 


9— a 


[1610] In the indicative, tUov is used of the disciples 
(i. 39) "coming and seeing" where Jesus "abides"; Abraham 
also (viii. 56) " saw," prophetically, the glory of the Messiah, 
and Isaiah (xil. 41 "saw") is probably represented as seeing 
. it in the same way. Whei> the beloved disciple enteretJ the 
tomb of Jesus, he " saw " and " believed " (10S2 — 60). Applied 
to Jesus it occurs thrice to describe His mysteriously " seeing'" 
, Nathanael under the fig-tree', the blind man to whom He 
gives sight, and Mary to whom He restores Lazarus from 
the dead'. 

[1611] Philo, commenting on the statement (Gen. i. 31) 
that "God saw (ciSev) his works," deprecates the literal 
. meaning, and apparently implies' that the words indicate 
» a traHS/erence of knoviledge or intellectual "sight" from Him-' 
self to His creatures'. Certain ifis that in each of these last 
two casot, when Jesus "saw (elSev)" a human being, the act is a 
prelude to a /ra«j/'ip»-<wf(r from Him of.(i) sight, (2) life: and, 
in the case of Nathanael, the threefold elStp prefaces a trans- 
ference: of spiritual life. ■ . 

§3. "Hearing" 

» • - 

[1612] A difference between the Johajinlnc and the 
Synoptic view of " hearing," as a means of receiving the 

Scribe (Mt viii. 20^ Lit. ix. 58)"Fo«s have holes— but Ihe Son hath 
no abiding-place." On the contrary. He promises that, if. they will 
" come," ihey shall " sec" the abiding.-place. 
' ' i. 47—50 "Je«(iis satv(<!ifv) Nathanael coming...! saw {tlSar) thee.;'. 
. Because I said to thee 1 saw (<79ok>) thee...." 

' ix. I, xi. 33. In ihe hitter, it is said that "when he saw her 
weeping and the Jews that had coin« with her wfeping he.. .troubled 
himself." In fhsjiMling of the impotent man the participle u used 
(v. 6) ToOtwi. liity 6 'I..., and also in xix. 26 'I. oSv iiHtp r^v fitfripa.... 

>(ieilii] rW\\oi. U2 \iynmyapiti(,C,tn.i. 3i)tJif¥i9titri wAn 

Svn twoiijinPt oi^ uTvv ry, S^tp iKdirrott wpoat^'Kfv, liXX* ti&tfaut xol yvAvtv 

«(ii KoroXif^if Jr iwaifjirtv. That this represents (iod ;is "teaching," 

appears from the following words, ti'x' ruiVi'v tiwiHvit «<^iyt'm$ai «iu 

, MiaaKttv Kfit tliixyi'vm.... 




revelation of Christ, is perceptible in their different ways of 
representing the last part of the following passage of Isaiah — 
which is quoted by Jesus Himself in the Three Gospels, and 
by the Evangelist in the Fourth, The Hebrew is (R.V. txt/ 
(Is. vi. 9 — 10), "Go and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but 
understand not, and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make 
the heart of this people fat, and make their ears h^vy, and 
shut their eyes: /est thty ste with their eyes, and hear with 
(heir ears, and undtrstand with Ihtir he(\ft, andtum again and 
be healed" '.:■■' ; .■" ^ 

Mkiv. 11-12 (lit.) 
" parables. 
That seeing (/3W- 
Toi-tn) they may 
lee and not per- 
hearing they may 
hear and not un- 
derstand, lest at 
any time they • 
should turn and 
it should be for- 
given them." '?,»" 

Mt. xiii. I] l,k. viii. lo 

"...m par- 
ables. Be- 
cause seeing 
they do not 
see and Hear- 
-ing they do 
not hear, 
neither dci 
they under* 
stand'.**-. ! ^ *. 

" par- 
ables, that 
seeing they 
may not see 
and hearing 
they may not 

Jn xii. 39-40 

" For (his cause 

they could not 

believe, for that 

Isaiah said again. 

He hath blinded 

thtsir eyes and he 

hardened their 

heart i lest tht.) 

.should see with 

their eyes and 

perceive (vviitnt- 

9W) with their 

heart, ancT should 

. i.'.' ' ■" , ■' ; ■ turn and I shall 

' - .'•■;■; •'('•'■ should) heal 

'.. " ^■■.,-1 .. *, .'■ ■.; . ■ ■ ' them," 

[1613] This is not the place td discuss iill.the dlfTerences 

of these four versions, Ijut merely to indicate that John, in 

quoting this prophecy, consistently drops all that refers to 

hearing ("make their ears, heavy" "lest they...***!*- with their 

tan"). Did he do this because it seemed superfluous, the 

' Ml. continues, " And Iher* is being utterly fulfilled for them the 
prophecy of Isuiah tiiyiniE, 'By hearing ye shall hear. ..lest at any, time... 
Ikey thould turn, and 1 shall yi-t. should) heal them '"— iiuoting the LXX 
version of the whole of the prophecy given above. 

. "lis 



metaphor of the " eyes " being sufficient ? It is probable that 
he deemed no word in Scripture superfluous. But he may 
have had regard to the whole tenor of his own Gospel — the 
revelation of the incarnate Word. How could the Word be 
heard by those whose " ears " have been " tnade heavy " by 
God ? To modem readers it will occur at once that this 
difficulty is no greater than that which is suggested by the 
parallel question, "How could the Light of the World be 
.*een by those whose ' eyes ' have been ' blinded ' by God ? " 
Logically, that is true. But under the influence of traditions 
9bout the (Ps. Iviii. 4) "deaf adder that stoppcth her car," and 
(Jer. viii. 17) "adders that will not be. charmed,"^ some might 
reserve this particular metaphor (of "deafness") to denote 
incurable spiritual defect. 

[1614] It is a remarkable fact that John (joes not relate 
a single instance of the cure of the deaf. He does not even 
mention the word "deaf" in the whole of liis Gospel. Using 
the word " hear " in two senses, (I ) " perceiving by the sense 
of hearing," (2) " hearkening to " or ^ obeying'," he represents 

' [1614 o] 'Atmmt with accus. - "ptrceive by htttring^ with ^enit — 
"kearttn to" or "»6ty." The following passages illustrate the difference 
between the two constructions., 

[1614^ (i) 'AcoMi with accuse fit. 8 fthou ktartsl its voice," but 
knowest not its home, object, and meiining ; v. 24 " He that htarelh 
"my word and bclievelh...," i,e. not merely hears ; v. 37 ** Ye have never 
\so much as\ ktard his voice," much lets understood and obeyed it ; 
viii. 43, 47 (l«14rf); lix. 8 "When therefore Pilate htard this woril 
(XiiYoy^ "—to be contrasted with xix. 1 3 " Pilate therefore, j^iviftf^ tar to 
tktu 7tfoniU i^aymr)^ i.e. intimidated by them and obeying ihctn. 

[1614 ir] (s) 'AioMt with genii, v. 25—8 "the [spiritually] dead shall 
keartiH to the voice (^'it) of the Son of God and they jhat hearken 
shall livr...all that are in \^t tombs shall Atarien to his voice," and shall 
obey by coming forth to judgment, whether for good or ill ; (vii. 40) 
"having hfitrktrud to these words, said, *This is truly the prophet,'" 
X. 3, 16, xviii. 37, of those ** hmrki:ning to" the voice of the Good 
.Shepherd, or " my voice," xii. 47 " Kvery one that shall hrartin to my 
words and not observe theint" it. understand them, and either not obey 
them, or obty tktm for a timt^ but " Hot kttp (^uAii^jf) ti^mP 




Jesus as saying to some of the' Jews that they were unable to 
" hear " His word, even in the former sense. The context im- 
plies that they were of the nature oif |'the deaf adder" — which 
will not hear the voice of (vii. 24, comp. I's. Iviii. i) "righteous 
judgment" — tHe Serpent or Slanderer; "Why do ye not recog- 
nise the meaiiitiMof (ytvdirKtrt) my speech ? Because ye are^ 
Hot able td hear my word '. Ye are from your fatlier the devil!' 

[1615] The importance attact^ed by John to " hearing " as 
compared with " seeing " appears in several passages and not 
only in the rebuke to (Thomas. When Mary Magdalene 
returns from the tomb t4i the disciples, "I have seen the 
Lord " is not the whole of Tier tidings. She adds that " He 
said these things to her": and it has been shewn above (1601) 
that she believed in the'Resurrcction, not because she "saw," 
but because she heard. The . Kologuc of the Gospel, it is 
true,- mentions what we have called above (160I4) — most 
inadequately — "contemplating." "And the Word became 
flesh and tabernacled among us and we coutcmfldttd his 
glqry." But if this is compared with what may be called the 
Epilogue, that is to say. the Kpistic, it will appear that this 
"contemplation" of,'' or "gazing on," the earthly form and. life 
of the Logos, was but a rudimentary and transient manifesta- 
tion. The higher manifestations are described iis " lieariag" 
and " seeing," both of them in the perfect : — " what we have 
heard [and retain in our hearts]," " what we have seen [and 
keep in our minds]." In contrast to this the " contemplating " 
is spolysn of in the past, along with the "handling" — "we 
contemplated," " our hands handled." 

[1616] The M(holc passage in the Epistle' is well vvorth 
study for the light it throws on John's use of synonyms and 

> [16U</] Jn viii. 43. In antithois, it is Mid (viii. 47) "He that 
is from (lod perceive«-by-hearin^ the words (dKnt'n. ra ^^tora) of <itod,* 
I.e. he has the fnculty of perceiving the voice of (lod. Si^. \ii. 13 ("Who 
will pity a snake-charmer?") shews that "deaf adders* were frtqueiil. 
They represent unjust rulers in Jer. viji. 17. See £iKy. 4394. 

> I Jni. 1—5. ' > '.. 

•■■ ti7 :■'•■•■■ '- , 


for other reasons. " IV* liave Jttard" is repeated thrice, and 
so, is " w( /iavt seen." On the other hand, " we driiig tidings " 
((i«'a77^Xo/Mi>) is repeated twice, and then the verb occurs 
a third time, slightly varied — " we publish tidings " (avayyiX- 
Xo/«j"), The first words in the Prologue are, " /// lAe beginning 
was the Word" — which implies "hearing." The first word.s 
in the Epilogue are " T/uil which was from tlu beginning, that 
which we have heard." Then the writer says " t/uit which we 
hax'e seen with our eyes!' Why did he not also say "that 
wkich we have heard with our ears," in parallelism, and alVer 
tne manner of Isaiah ? This is one of many questions 
(aning out of Jphanninc style) to which the answer must be 
tha\lhe author had some motive, but that we do not know 
whaWt is. We may.however fairly conjecture that the motive 
is connected with his omission of Isaiah's clause about 
"hearing" to which attention was called above (1613). 

[1617] The Epistle continues in aorists, " That w|)ich we 
contemplated and our hands handled." H seems to mean 
" saw and touched .in the flesh "—transient facts, but facts on 
which the permanent " having heard " and the permanent 
"having seen" are based. 'And the writer does not make 
these earthly manifestations two ("that which «•<• cont$m> 
plated, that which we handled") but only one. "Handling," 
— perhaps, better, ' feeling in the dark " — may well allude to 
doctrine — such as Paul utters but not of necessity distinctively 
Pauline — that God placed men on the earth '' if perchance they 
would handle him and find him'." According to this view^'' 
the Epistle teaches us^ that what men's hands handled " con- 
certing the Word of life," was a rudimentary though necessary 
manifestation. It was preparatory for something higher, just 
as the " contemplation " or " .spectacle " of the glory of the 
Incarnation was preparatory fo^the higher "seeing," or 
'■ vWon," of the glory of God. , ^ , ' ' 

■ Acts xvii. 17. ttka^am (Steph.) almdit always meant "Ytefin the 

' d»ri:.' ... 



[1618] After Raying that the subject of this hearing, 
seeing, contemplating and touching vvas "the Word of life," 
the writer repeats himself thus : " And the life was manifested, 
and wc have seen and -bear witness and bring tidings to you." 
He then breaks off to define the subject of the tidings as 
being - the eternal life that- was with (wpo?) the KatHer and 
was manifested to us." Then he repeats himself once more, 
" That which we /wxt seen and have heard «e bring tidings of 
to you also." 

[1619] Why "to you also".' Because of a feeling of 
" fellowship." And this leads hini to think of tho " fellow- 
ship" of the Father (whom he has just mentioned) with the 
Son (whom he has not yet mentioned but mentiorts now) as 
follows, " in order that ye also may have fellowship with us. 
Yea, and our fellowship, is -with the Father aiid with his Son 
Jesus Christ" 

[1620] Another way-bf saying " for the sake of fellowship" 
would be " for the sake of making men feel joy together 
in brotherly love." Accordingly, the writer defines his object 
a second time in connexion with "jpy " ami with "light," the 
typb of joy, "And these things we write unto' you in order 
that our' joy may' be fulfilled [by your fellowship therein]. 
And this is the tidings (orffiKiii) that we have heard from 
him and publish as tidings {warpfiXKaii^v) to you, that God is 
light and in him is no darkness at all." Thus gradually the 
writer has led us on from stage tu stage ; and from " that 
which was from the Beginning" we have been brought down 
to "fellowship." Now he is fairly on the way to apply his 
high theology concerning " fellowship " in heaven to practical 
morality about "fellowship" on earth, and here we must leave 
him. .But. we shall have examined this passage to little 
purpose if we have not perceived that every stage is carefully 
considered, every word weighed, and every repetition de- 

'. ' : ' V-n^yWrjoyi" \ , ■" 

■ ■• -,'.:,:.;/.'.- • ',' 119;., i.'''', ..-:•''"'-■ - . 



liberate. Iff particular, we are to note the threefold repetition 
of " Rearing " and " seeing " and the prominence given to the 
former. " T/utt whitk wc hav* heard" begins, and "the 
tidings that we hai'e Af«rrf"conclades, these reiterations of the 
avenues by which the Logos has revealed itself to men. In 
harmony with this doctrine, Mary Magdalene believes because 
she " hears " though she does not " see," or sees amiss — and it 
is "hearing'' that elicits the Samaritan confession, " This i^ 
the Saviour of the worl^l'." 

- ■ ■ : ,' ■ § + " Knowing" 

[1621] The verbs of "knowing" arc olSa and Yiviwrxai. 
OJSa means " I kfiow," or, in a popular sense, ""know all 
about " : fivitaxa means "I acquire knowledge about," "come 
to know," " understand," '' recognise," " feel.V ... 

(i) OJ«a. ' - , • ^ 

[1623] It is only in a popular sense that-man said 
to "know (all about) (tHha)" God, or even about a human 
being (for the soul, in the strict sense, is beyond human 
knowledge). In the last words of Jesus (xvi, xvii), alia, is not 
used at all. In the Epistle it is never used with a personal 
object, but, generally, only about the " facts " of revelation. 
Yet by some of the, prophets <Is. v. 13 (LXX), xlv, 5, Jer. iv. 
22, ix. 6) it is brought as a charge against the people, or their 
leaders, that they neither " know " (oI£a) nor wish to " know " 
God ; and Jeremiah (xxiv. 7, xxxi. 34) predicts a time when 
all shall " know " Him. Many of the Jews may have a.ssumed 
that they, having discarded idolatry, the sin of their fore- 
fathers, were not only distinguished from (I.s. Iv. 5) ''the 
nations" \i^. Gentiles) that "knew hot God," but were also 
entitled to say that they themselves " knew God." The 
Evangelist exhibits Jesus as denouncing this assumption and 
as declaring that the Jews are entirely ignorant of Him. 

[1C83] Their ignorance proceeded from th«ir attempt to 

See llMa-7, UWO, IMl. 

120, . ' 


rise to the conception of God tm^gh a written I^aw, and not 
through Goci's Creation as a whol^ including the Law but- 
also including Man. As there was no humanheartedness in 
their conception of God, so there was nothing divine in their 
conception of Man. If, therefore, many of the Jews thought 
they "knew all about" God, when they affixed to Him the 
labels authorised by Moses and the Prophets, much more 
would they suppose that they " knew all about " man. And,' 
of course, Jesus would be no exception to their rule of 
universal knowledge. According to them, it was enough to 
say that they " knew all about " the " father and mother " of 
Jesus, and it followed that they " knew all about " Him. The 
Me.ssiahHim.self would b? no Messiah to them if they knew 
" whence he is " : He must needs come from" some incompre- 
hensible source : else He has no titfe to allegiance. 

[1624] With manifest irony the Evangelist makes the Jews 
say to one another (vi. 42) " Do not v/e(emp/i. ij/uiit) know his . 
father and'his mother [too]?" Later, on, they say (vii. iy) 
"As to this man, weknozu (mSaiitv) whence 'he is; but as to 
the Messiah, when he is to come, no one is to understand 
(yivmaKti) whence he is."- Jesus repeats their assertion (2236) 
half as an as.sertion of theirs, half as an exclamation of His 
own, and then points out its falseness (vii. 28) " ' Both me do 
ye know and ye know whence I am ! ' [So ye .say] and [yet] 
I am not come from myself; but he that hath sent me is true, 
whom ye (u/m«) [being false] kn<nv not: I (e^w)knou' him,..," 
and again (viil. 14) "\ knoiv whence I came {tjXOov) and 
whither I return; but ye (viuU) Itnmit noi whence I come 
(ipxiiuny or whither I return," and (viii. 19) " Ve neither 

' [lOMn] A distinction appcari to be drawn between "1 eanie''and 
*' I come" (or "am coming"). The Logos *'c(imf" from the Father 
(1637) when He (i, 11) ^Watitf" in the special act of the IncarnaUon: - 
but the Logos is also constantly "comi'Wjf "from the Father to the created 
world, in a myriad of non-special arts or sustaining processes. Even in 
this lower and less personal sense— as the source of the <" ever coming." 
Logos— the Father is not known to the Jews. 



iwv.' me nor my Father; if ye Aii/ known (gitirt) me, ye 
would /tave known my Father also {nv jiBtiTe)." Now for the 
first time yivoHrmv is applied to " God," as object, in order to 
introduce a solemn protest, in which Jesus thrice repeats the 
word olia in connexion with the Father, (viii. 55) "Ye have 
Aad lie iindtrstandiHg 0/ (tyviiKaTt) him ; -but I iiioio (i.e. Aavt 
iiisolule hiinvledge of, olia) him; and if I say that / know 
(oiSa) him not, I shall be a liar like unto you : but I tnow 
(oUa) him'." 

[162S] Henceforward, this popular use of olia, in the words 
of Jesus, applied to " the Jews," is dropped, with the single 
exception of xv. 21 ("They know not him that sent me"). ^ 
But the Jews— having above asserted (vii. 2y) "We kiwn- this 
man whence he is," now say (ix. 29): " But this man we know 
w/ whence he is." They mean, apparently, that they do not 
know with whjit authority He comes. But they arc intended 
by the Evangelist 'to testify unconsciously against themselves, 
" We know not the Living God." For "God " is the " whence 
he is." ,■■' ''■/,. :\" ■:...-. • .■ /7' . : ' : 

(ii) Vivtoaiem. ' ■, ■ ' '■ 

[1626} Even when used in the perfect, this verb is quite 
distinct in meaning from oISo. Strictly speaking, we ought 
not to say .that the Father, or the Eternal Son, yimiiriett 
' " comes to know," " understands," or " feels " : but the Evange- 
list, after applying the word to the Good Shepherd, who 
(X. .14) "understands (yii/mff***) " and is und<jjJst5oaby, His 
sheep, delights in applying it, in a^spiritualymetaphor, to the . ■ 
Father and t4»e Son («A 15): " Evtn as thefather ««(/,frf/<j«rfx 
me and I understand the Father " : and iie ha> previously 
used it of Jesus entering into and " understanding " the 

' [1624 b] For other instances of mlin and yifwvKu in the tame 
sentence, see 1626 and cpmp. jn xxi, 17 "Lord, thou /inst Abtolutt 
kiiowUdge of (otdaf) all things, thou tmdcritaniiett (or, feeiest, ytvita^tn) 
that 1 still love thee " t where the meaning seems to be that the Alt-knowing 
must have sympathy, enough to understand the ;}iiicere though imperfect 
love of a sinful but penitent creature). 

, V , • ■ ■ 122 


weaknesiies of those who " believed on his name'." He 
sometimes (1624 d) uses the word so as to imply " sympathy "; 
and we may then render it by " feel." The present tense is 
especially frequent. Note the contrast with the aorist in the 
following distinction (x. 38) " Ev«n if ye do not now believe 
in me, believe in my works, that -ye may fome to kmnv 
defiifitely hy evidtnct (7C&T*) and that ye may contintu in llu 
ever grvwing knmvMge (•yicV'aicijTf ) that the Father is in mc." 
Here the aorist {yv«nt) means "ascertain," the present 
(74Ki»<r«i;Te) "feel bx- constant experience'." In several 
passages there is a contrast between ytvaaKu and 0I80 ; ( xili. 7) 
" What I do thou hast no kiiotvltdg».-o( {oliai;) now' : but thou 
shalt uniierstatid (yvtiftrri) hereafter." Note also the distinction 
between fjiene and e^iMctnt in the two following sentences, 
the former addressed to the Pharisees, the latter to the 
disciples. . ■ . 

(i) (viii. 19) " If you had known all about (^httrt) me. [as 
you assumed], you would have Itaii absolute kuoivledgi of 
{ffUiTt ax') the Father." ■ « 

(ii) (xiv. 7) " If you had learnid to umlerstaud and 
sytHpathite with (iyvuiKdre) me, you would also Aaiv /md 
absolute knoivUdgr of (jjSttTe «>>) the Father? from henceforth, 
[understanding me] you feci and understatid (yuuiaxm) him 
and [indeed] have seen him'f", -■ — : " i 

' Jn ii. 24 — 5 "Jesus wuuld not trust himsejr to them because he 
[by] himself ioulti utuiersttMid alt [men] (dta ru ainw ytvwtntiv n-tiiTuir).., 
for he [by] .himself .(>«/</ underslanil (airot ■yoyi tytrmamr) wlutt Was 
in man." 

^ [1696 a] Comp. the distinction between the aorist and the present 
subjunctive of irtirT«t'.«. Both in mimvtt .-ind in ytvmr^u the prcs. subj. 
expresses a Inking and f^rou'iHj^ faith or knowledge (3S24). 

^ [1626 h\ U'iiK a negntive^ 'ittd and iyi^ttica need not mean '* I have 
not a perfect knowledge," '* I have not a perfect understanding.** They ■ 
may mean simply " I have no knowledge, or no understanding," r.g. xiv. 9 : 
".So long a time hiive I been -with thee, and hail tkou no und/rsttinding 

^(ot'ic fyfanat) me, I'hilip?" 

< [1628 c\ the writer, tetnu to taka a pleatun; in varying his tcnns, 



[1627] It is interesting to observe how the Evangelist, 
while always using the perfect o( " sec " (iapaita) prefers the 
presatl of " come to know " (•yiiwirxu) : naturally, because — 
whereas a thing " seen " is sometimes taken in at a glance — 
•• knowing," if it is genuine " knowing, " is in constant growth ; 
(xiv. 17) "The world doth not behold (Otvptl) it [«>. the 
Spirit] nor grow in the irndtrstanding of \^ivKaictC\ it : ye 
(emph.) ^ro«i «'» the undtrstanding of (u/uU 7ii'<»<r«trre) it 
because it abideth with you." Note the contrast between 
(xiv. 31) Tra 71'^ cocr/io; and (xvii. 2}) T/'a fivmaKji o Koaiurs: 
the former means, " in order that the world may Utirn once for 
a// [from the crucifixion and sacrifice of Christ]" ; the latter, 
" in order that the world way graiiually learn [from the 
spectacle of the divine unity of the Church]." The present is 
also found in the definjtion of eternal life (xvii. 3) " This is 
life eternal that they should grou> in the knowledge of 
(fiviiaKioai) thee, the only true God." The same thing is 
expressed in the Epistle, where the writer *speaks of this 
special "knowledge" as the result of a Special "intellect "or 
"understanding (itavoui)" which God gives us, (1 Jn v. 20) 
"The Son of God hath come and hath given us -an under- 
standing (lidvouiv), that we may k<n>e the living and gromug 
knowledge of (yitxo&Ko/ier) {sir) him that is true." 

[1628] In the Epistle, yivwaKa is con.stantly u.sed for the 
spiritual instinct by which we feel, or recognise, .spiritual 
truths, (I Jn ii. 3) " Hereby we understand (yivoiiriconfii) that 
we have reached a perfect understanding of (iyviaKaiuv) God." 
Cojnp. 1 Jn ii. 5, t8, 29; iii. 19, 24 ; iv. 2 etc., and especially 
iv. 6 — 7 " He that feeleth, or understandeth, (yivtuaKwv). God, 
giveth ear to us; he that is not from Gocl giveth not car to us: 

flbt for the Mke of variation, but for the sake of dttaichini his mnjer 
from filed formulae: xv. ]i "Thcw things wilt Ihey do because they 
hunv (<>Ba»i») n9t him thai sent me," xvi. 3 "These things will they do 
because they did not recognise (or, dl4 ,n»t receive Ike knavUdge of) 
{iyvmrav) the Father or me." • ' 



■from this we feel, or understand, the Spirit pf truth and the 
Spirit of error. . .. Everyone that loveth is borri of God and 
feeleth (lyit^c/tet) God...; he that loveth not nfver felt (oi« 
#/!>») God." 

[1629] In the Gospel (vi. 69) the Confes.<iion of St Peter 
places belief before knowledgc^-as if the former prepared the 
way and the latter followed, the former being the more 
rudimentary and the latter the higher development — " We 
ha'iie a perfect bjelief {irtvtaTtvKa/ien), and we Aave a perffct 
knowl^ge (ifvteicaiitv), that thou art the" Holy One of God." 
On the other hand, i Jn iv. 16, reversing the order, says, "Wc 
kave a perfect knowledge and we liavc a perfect belief [^a to.]- 
the love that God hath in us." In the former the meaning 
seSms clear, "We believe, tfay more, we know." ' Hut in the 
latter (iyvaKanev xal ■KtirurrevKaiiev ri)v dirnmji'), the accusa- 
tive appears to be governed by the compound verb " know 
and believe," since vt<rTe\jta could not' have an accusative 
of the object (1607 i) unless it were neuter — and the question 
arises. What is the reason for 30 harsh a construction ? 
Possibly the vvriter~had in mind the beautiful saying in the 
Ephesian Epistle (iii. 19) "to iminv the Ifive'of Christ which 
passeth knowledges" When St Paul has used the phrase 
"having recognisAl God," he corrects it into "or rather 
having been recognised by God (169fl*)." So here, the 
writer perhaps began to say " we know the love that God 
hath," and then broke off into " believe," as though to imply 
that it is "beyond knowledge" unless the "knowing" daily 
grows in conjunction with " believing'," 

' [M2B a] There is great difficulty in Jn xvii. 1;, (lit.) " O righteous 
Father, on the one hand.(K<i4') the world recognised (ryv«) thee not : but 
I recognised (iywttr) thee..." Does this mean (1) that the prc-incamaie 
Son "recognised" the Father from the beginning,, or (2) that the in- 
carnate Son recognised the Spirit of the Father when He was baptized 
and sent forth to preach the Gospel? Chrysostom tries to explain it, 
but soon falls into a change of tense that breaks the antithesis, I'yv iidr 



§ 5. "Coming"' 

[1630] The Ficst Epistle to the Corinthians, aftei: "the 
salutation of me Paul with mine own hand," has "•' If any 
man loveth not the Lord let him be anathema. Maran atlia" 
"Maran atha" is explained by R.V. margin as "Our Lord 
Cometh'." Thjs proves that the two Aramaic words vrere used 
to Corinthians, about the middle of the ifirst century, by an 
Apostle familiar witn them, "as a kind of watchword. Like 
many other watchwords, it was misunderstood at an early 
period. The Earliest epitaph known to contain it quotes as 
follows "If any of our own [folk] (tiJi'. ijtoji') or other 
person, dare to depo.sit a body here, besides us two, may he . 
give-account to God and let him be anathema maranalliaH 
(sic)*;" This inscription is said by the Editor to be of the 
fourth or fifth ceptiiry : but it is highly probable that at 
a very much earlier jjcriod Greeks took the to be 
a kind of curse, as it is taken popularly now and has been for 
centuries. The juxtaposition of "anathema" in St ^Paul's.i 
Epi.stle would facilitate, the misinterpretation. Nor would it 
be corrected by the knowledge,— which a few Greeks might 
retain and transmit to a gradually diminishing number — that 
the word had some connexion with the "Lord coming." 
"That" — the misinterpretcrs might .say — ^" justifies our view. 
The Lord is 'coming' — to smite sinners. with a curse." 

at -Quia iTXXm ^' trc oyx t yvwra v. It happens fyvwi' is followed by' 
KOI, and erNioKAi 'Hiight .i^se from a corruption of efNoiK&K&i, which 
is the readinjf of I). More probably, however, the aorist is used for 
antithesis in comrasting the Son with the VVorW : and perhaps the 
words are meant to sug^st the two forms of recognising above 

' .1 Cor. xvi. 22. 

* [1630 <i] IJoeckh Imcr. Or. 9303. Hastings i>)V/. renders nt rin 
lliittv- " private person " : but the above seems to make better sense. 
There is of course no punctuation in the Epitaph. 



[1681] Yet there are good reasons for thinking that it does- 
not mean "the Lord is come, or coming," but "Come, Lord'." any case it was certainly used in the second century, and 
probably in the first, as a pact of the Eucharistic Liturgy, 
wher^t " cursing " is out of the question : " Let grace come 
(iXiSira) and let this world go (irapiXBira)'. Hosa.nna to the 
Son of David. If anyone is holy, let him come (lit. be 
a comer, ip-)(ia8ui) [to the Lord]. If anyonff is not [holyj let 
him becoine repentant (fiframeiTiaX Maran alha. Amen." 
If the is imperative, then this invpeation is singularly 
apt and impressive after receiving the sacred bread and wine : 
" Come, Lord, [into our hearts] !" Of course the prayer may 
also have reference "to 'another " coming," namely, " on the 
clouds"; -and the latter, which might easily overshadow the 
' former, might be taken to mean " Come, Lord, to avenge thy 
saints," and nothjpg else. The formula, as used at the close 
of the Apocalypse, " Ve.'T I come quickly : Anien, eome. Lord 
Jesus" seems to refer to the "coming on the clouds'." Vet, in 
the same book, the preceding invitation to "come" suggests a 
spiritual meaning: " .■\nd the Spirit and the Bride say. Come. 
And he that heareth, let hini .say, Cotne. And he that is 
athirst, let him come'" veiy much resembling the combination 
of "'If any one is holy let him- come," and "Come, Lor.d," in 
theDidacA^. ' . .-■ V "-:,■-'-■ J ' " 

[1632] In the account of the Baptism, aU the Gtfspels 
agree in assigning to John the Baptist' the word " comttk" 
in connexion with the Deliverer whom lie heralded.- More- 
over Matthew and Luke represent the Uaptist as using the 
word in a message sent to Christ, " Art thou >i^ M«/. rowM? 

'11631a} Ehc. and Hastings' Diet. ("Maranatiia') both taitt titii 

view. . " • " 

' [1631 h] Pidack. x. 6. It is difficult to uprcss (Ktin and irnpikffcir 
exactly : "pass itito our hearts " and " pass away," or " appear '' and 
"disappear," tnieht express one aspect of the play on the wonji,-. ..- -\, 

^ Rev. xxit. JO. ' Rev, xxi>. 17. . . ' 

A.V,'' v' ;;-':' /.';.■■ ?*7"" ■;,:/•; ^,"-' "> 


or look wis for another'?" Taken together, the two traditions 
demonstrate that " he thax copieth," as a title of the Lord 
Jesus, would be known to His followers in Galilee before any- 
thought of Him as "coming on. the clouds of heaven ".had 
entered their minds. '. 

[163S] Apart from, the utterances of the Baptist, all the ' 
Gospels agree that when Jesus rode into Jerusalem the crowd 
\velcomed Him with the word.s " Blessed is Ac that cometUV ' 
This is a quotation from the P.salms, and the words might be 
addressed to any pilgrim entering the City ; but, if "he that 
Cometh" was already a Galilean title for. the new Deliverer, 
the successor of D.ivid. then it becomes almost a certainty 
that the multitude used the phrase in the .sense of " prince " or 
'' king " : and accordingly all the Evangelists insert some 
paraphrase of this kind". This confirms our view of "he that 
Ameth" as a technical Jewish term. According to Matthew 
and Luke these words are quoted by our 1-ord Himself in 
a. warning to Jerusalem: "Ye shall assuredly not see me 
[Mt. + henceforth] until ye shall sayi Blessed is Ae tliat cometh 
in the name of the Lord." But, Luke places these words long' 
before the Entry into Jerusalem, apparently taking the predic- 
tion to be fulfilled on that occasion. Matthew places them 
after the Entry (when the Lord is bidding farewell to the 
Temple) apparently looking forward to a .second coming". 

[1634] Except in the Entry into Jerusalem there appears 
in the Triple Tradition little or nothing to indicate a desire to 
■ use the word " cometh " about Jesus In a technical or mystical 
manner to suggest a Messiah or i)eliverer. But there is 
perhaps an allusion to a " coming " of a different kind. The 
warning to " waWh," and the words " in an hour that ye think 

' Mt. xt. 3, IJl vii. 19. V - '-'■ ■ • 

' [1633a] Ml, xxi. 9 "the son of Davhl," Lk. xix- 38 "king," Jn xii. 13 
"king of Israel," Mk xi. 10 adds a whole clause " Blessed is the coming 
kingdom of our father Uavid." ■ , 

' Lk. xiii. 35, ,Mt. xxiii. 39. -^ ■ I, ■ ., '^'' ■ 


not, the Son of mancometk" are followed, ho( lontj afterwards, 
by a threefold " comiht; "• of Christ to the disciples at Gethse- 
mane, each time finding them asleep. Matthew here thrice 
applies the historic present " cometh" to Jesus. In Mark (who 
does the same) this is not surprising, as he use^ the historic 
present freely. But the fact that Matthew here, and here 
alone, applies this form to Je.sus', suggests that on this special 
occasion he may have retained Mark's tradition as having 
a symbolical assMiation. 'The connexion between " hi that 
conieth" and a "king," pointed out above (1033), is illustrated 
by the prophecy of Zechariah " Behold thy king cometh " : and 
Matthew is the only Synoptist that quotes this". . 

[1636] Passing to the Fourth Evangelist we ffiay note first 
the /acl — and it is a most important Qne considering how 
seldom he agrees with the Synoptists in quoting the same 
passages from Scripture — that he too, like Matthew, quotes 
from Zcchariah, Jn connexion with the Entry into Jcni.salcm, 
the prophecy, " Behold, thy k\n^ cometh." Moreover, through- 
out his Gospel, he .seems to take a pleasure in usinp the 
wortfe " cotneth," or " he that cometh," about Christ, as though 
to suggest that He is the realisation of^he popular title of the 
Deliverer, even though the people do not receive Him. That 
He is ever " coming," like the sunlight, is suggested in the 
Prolc^e'. In the Triple Tradition, the Baptist's words about 

■ ^1631 a] Mk applies ipxirm to Jesus in iii. 2q, vi. i, 48, k. i, xiv. 17, 
'37i4', Mt. only in xxvi. 36, 40, 45- Mt. also ditice repeats <(ipx*»"oi in 
the previous warning (where Mk and Lk. have {it only once and twice 
respectively) xxiv. 4J— 4 "ye know not on what day your Lord eo'meti... 
if he had known. what watch the thitfcomrtA ..A what hour ye think 
not the Son of man cometh." 

" [1634 *] Ml. xxi. 5, quoting Zech. ix. 9. Mat hew's fondness for this 
particular word in connexion with "the .last 1 ay" may perhaps Ik 
illustrated by Mt. xvii. ii " Elijah indeed «»>i rt ". (where the parall. 
Mk ix. I J has "h.iving come") and certainly by Vli. xxv. 19 "But after 
a long time the lord of those servants cometh'- and maketh reckoning; 
with them." 

^ i. 9, where "coming into the world" should be connected with "light." 

129 10—2 


1 ' ' ^^- — • ^ — — '*^- — ■ — ^^--Ji , 

the Messiah ("cometh, or coming, after roe ") setm to indicate 
dJKipleihip. " After me"- is omitted by Luke. But John 
retains the. phrase, and interpret^'^t so as tu testify to. the 
Messiah, whom the Itoptist "seeth coming unto him'"; and, 
later on, speaking in his own person, he dfcscribes th<! Lord 

not as " he that came," but " /le tMit cometh from above he 

that coiHtlh from heaven'."- The Woman of Samaria with 
very misty views of the Messiah, the Five Thousand (who 
wish to make "fho prophet" Jesus a king), (he Jews in their 
discussions about the Messiah's birth-place, all use this word 
y^ " cometh "■ — ignorant that the Messiah is always coming and 
had actually come'. ; •• . • 

[1636] The present tense is also introduced into the 
narrative of the Raising of I^zarus', as though in sympathy ' 
with the "coming" Deliverer concerning whom Martha says, 

."Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, that cotntth into the. 
world'," and similarly in the Entry into Jerusalem, "having 
heard that Jesus cometh" which prepares the w.-iy for " Blessed 
is he that cometh" and " Behold thy king cometh*:' -In the 
sacramental washing of feet, also, Jesus "cometh to Simoir 

. Peter'." After the Resurrection, there are three instances of 
"corning." The first is in the past tense>perhaps to denote 
that Jesus, on this first occasion, had come from the Father (to 
whom Ht had a.scended) in a kind of second spiritual incama-.. 
Hon. The second is in the present tense though the context is 

' i. 15, 37, i%2p. ' iii. 31. . . 

' iv. 25 "I know jhat Messiah i-owrrt," vi. 14 "This is of a truth the 
prophet that cotntlli into the world," vii. 27 " When Christ is to come 
(ipXT"")," vii. 41 "Comttk Christ from GaWee?" vii. 4J "Christ c«mttli 
from Uethlehem." -.-^ ," !' , .. ■■, ■ ..-,.. ^^'' . .^ 

' xi. 20, 38. ■— V .4 ;• '■'••' -,■■''<: /r'' ■■■■ \ 

'"•27. i • xii. 12, 13, ij. • '.siii. 6. 

• XX. 19 "And, the doors having been shut...)'jlAV.>'t;n<' Jesas'and 
stood in the midst." On the past tense used to express the "coming" 
in the Incarnation, see 1637. 

' '.'JO 



.liinilar to that in the first'. The third is also id the present, 
but the context" is <|iiite different. It describes Jesus as first 
saying ["Come] hither! break your fast," and then as 
Himself corning. "There tpmtth Jc<us and ta]keth th? bread 
and giveth to thcrh'." ., < 

[1637] In our Lord's. own words, the Aorist is ;;enerally 
used to describe His coming, or being sent, from the Father, 
and the Perfect to describe Hi.s arrival in the world, as though 
He s^id, " I <•(?>«(• (or, was sent) from heaven ; I om came to 
earth." The Evangelist also prefers the Aorist to describe 
the former aspect. For this reason, " come forth" is always in 
• the Aorist when describing the Jocaroation'. In the Last 
Discourse Jesus tbricc uses the Present " I am coming," to 
express His future coming to the Disciples, even where it is 
joined with a Future: "I am coming t() you and jwV/ receive 
you to myself'" Once, He uses the. Future " ll-V shall comf" 

' \x. 26 •• J'liirt-tomtlli ]thai,\\Mc doors having been shut, and stood 
in the midst." ' 

' [I036n] xw. II— 13. Perhaps the disciples are to be regarded as first 

obeying thcLotd by coming and'recliAing around the "(one; loaf" 

' and the "(onelfish '; and then the Lord "comes" and gives them "the 

■ loaf " and "the fish" (Tii il^iifjiop'). In the Washing of Feel Jesus "comes" 

to Peter separately. So, perh.ips, He comes^ round to each in turn here. 

5 [1637 a\ viii. 43 " I rrtw/i- forth {4^inv) from (iod .ind tfin lomt 
(^«m) ; tor indeed I har.'f ittU xonit {iKifXvfia) from myself but he j/ii/ me." 
'Hkm is also in Ps. xl. 7-8 "Lo, / ,»« citme^.A delight to do thy will," 
'quoted as a Messianic utterance iii Heb. x. 7, 9, "Behold / tim cfltni 
(•i'uj to do thy will." 'K(^kAir is similyly used in Jn xiii. j, xvi. 27, 18, 
30, xvii. 8. In Jn i. 11, " He came (ifi'ttp) to his own," it cannot be said 
that the notion of coming liuin the father predominates ; but it does in 
'viii. 14 ** I know whence I uM,-.'' And the Aorist is also^uscd when the 
** coming " is regarded as a Mission —the Son* being sent by the Father 
in order to do something ix. 39 " For judgmem I came into this worlds" 
X. 10 "! cam/ that they might •ha've life," xii. 47 "For I tarn/ not to 
judge the world." This seems to be the meaning of iXduv in- 1 Jn v. .6. 
" This is he thit came through water and blood," u that came from the 
Father to redeem mankind 

* xiv. 3i'comp. jiv 18, 18. 



to describe the Joint visit of the Father, the Son; and the 
Spirit to the soul of the believer'. 

[1638] His last use of the verb is in the Prestiit, twice 
repeated, and it is very significant " If I will that he 
[i>. the beloved disciple] remain zv/ftle / am (omihg, u-hat is 
thaj to thee? Hollow thou me." The words would most 
naturally mean "during the sh»rt 'm\cr\a.\, while I am coming" 
as we use the phrase in ^English, meaning, " I am on the |x>int 
of^coming," and as it is used in Greek, in the First Epistle to 
TinJDthy'. But they lend themselves .to ain inrter. meaning 
that would harmonize with Origed's view . concerning the 
• " fielcived di.sciple " who, he says, was in the bosom of the Sqfi 
spiritually even as the Son was "in the bosom of the 
Father'." .\"v"--': •, . .• '.; 

[XtiSi] According to thi» view we might su|)p<isc that the 
author of the Fourth .Gospel^ accepting the old traditional 
Johanninc name of G<xl, "He that IS and was and IS 
CCMiNi;'," wished to differentiate it from the merely gram- 
matical associations of Past, Present, and Future, and there- 
fore laid stress, consistent .stress throughout the whole of the 
Gospel, on the' claim of the Logos to be called COMINII not as . 
being future, but as being e^'tr present to come ami save, 
Hence in the Prologue of his Gospel, he describes the Light, 
.from the beginning, &s 'Reaming into the world." Now, at its' 
close, after idcscribing the Son as, in ong, /raT'»«;f come, 
and as having prepared " the beloved di.sciple " to wait for 
Him, and to represent Him, on' earth, he suggests that, in 
a second sense, the Son is still " co(ning " to help such 
a disciple, and in a third sense, that He will hereafter " come " 
to make those who thus wait one with Himself. 

' [US7 i] xiv. aj. I> this intended to emphasiie the fact that (vii." 39) 
"there was hoi yet the Spirit becauM Jciiu had not yet been gloriAcd "? 

' ! Tim- iv. 13, see 1738(1. 
■" ' prig, on Jn xxi. 2ofoll. (Huct ii. 405— 6), . ' Rev, i. 4. 

. * [1638 o] A comparatively unimportant use of Ipxtrai may be noted 

■'•V ; . •- ,■' -Wa^.-./;:- ;•'"- -.v. 



. J 6. "JVorshipfhig'y.-. : :''^ '■>.■'' 

(i) JXpitaKVviia, in the Saman'tan Uialogue. . . , ' 
[IMO] In the Dialogue with the Samaritan Woman, Jttui 
is represented as using ■KPoaKvvin twicfc with dative, twice 
with accusative, and, in twa more instances (" ye worship that 
which (<i)'ye Icnow not, we worship tiMt which (Z) we know") 
with construction that must remain doubtful because the ante- - 
cedent may have been intended to be either dative or 
accusative'. The accusative is certainly employed at the ond, 
iv. 23—4 (R.V. hilt see 2167, 2398) "For such doth the. 
\Father seek to be his -Morship/>ers (roin irpoaKWovina^ ai/Vov). 
lid is Spirit and tliey tluM 'oorship him (0/ irpacKvvoyint^ 
)iurov) must Worship in spirii'and truth." When we- ask 
wBat is the meaning nf "siuh," we are led back to the 
preceding' sentence "The triie worshippers shall iLvrMp-{lo) 
(dak) the Father in spirit ami truth." The. question arises 

in lh« Johannine phrase " the hour i-o»kM,'' or " the hbur itiitulh atul 
HOW lA' where the Synoptists say *' the days wilt tomf." Similarly when 
.tl% ipn arc waiting fi>r the same train, one, looking at the statioM-clock, 
may sa)V'The train V/// soon kr comwX'" while the other, at the fame ; 
momenttVatchin]; sight of the train itself some two or three miles away, 
may say, V The train is loming.^' John represents Christ in the latter 
way, speawng as a Seer., Epx<rai is 'used by John thu9 seven times 
(1891). oA me last occ.tsion, instead of "and now is," there is added 
the I'erfect \vi. 32) "The hour conitlkinA hath coiiit.' 

[1639*] "uTie hour halh com," occurs thrice.: (i) (lii. 23) "There 
Cometh Andrnv and Philip and they tell Jesus [about the desire of the 
(iieeks to see Vl'n<l' ""t Jesus .mswcred them saying, T/(/ tinur hafh' 
tome that the Sin of man should be glorified," (2) (xvi. 32)." Hehold the 
hour Cometh andVAdM comf that yc should be scattered each to his own 
and leave me aloXe ; and yet 1 ain not alone because the Father is with 
■nf." (3) (xvii. 1) "Salher, Ik, hour huh Mine, glorify thy Son." In the 
context of the first iXstance occur the words (xii. 27) " Father, glorify thy 
name." We may, ihorcfore, say that in each of the three instances the 
Son is regarded as inXclose communion with the Father who sees the 
accomplishment of the n^rcordained future as though it were past. 

' Orig. Comm. (Huetyi. 213 B) indicates that Heraclebn {jfitttar n'«t 
irp<wiciii|«un) took the antecedent to be dative. 

■''■''.. '^ '33 ' ■ :''''■■■- :■■■ '■ 

: M 



what was meant by the variation of cane, and the attempt to 
answer it necessitates an examination df the ginCral use of the 
vrorA wprxriivi^u, .. -1, 

(li) npoo-«i/W«>, outside N.T. ■ 

[1641] From Herodotus'. dbwn'H'Etrds, it was recognised. 
tfiAt "to worship (■npoaxvi'tiv)" a king by prostration was 
a slavish or barbaric custom unworthy of- Greeks. The ' 
Spartans said, and the other Greeks agreed with them, that it 
was not in accordance with law and custom («V i/d/ifi) to 
"worship a man." The Greek*i did not suppose that such 
"worship" implied a belief that the man so worshipped was 
a god— any more than /ack Cade supposed himself to be 
a god when he said that his people were to "worship" him as ^ 
"their lord'." Hut whereas Englishmen felt that a vassal 
might " worship " his " lord," Greeks, befi^rc the Christian era,, 
felt that they could not "worship" any human being. In 
almost all cascs^-the cxceptTons perhaps being where they 
desired to emphasize t|ic- attitude of worship-^ttje Greeks Used 
vpwncvvia, in this sense, with, the accu.sative'.' , : ^. ' 

' Steph. quoting Herod, vii. Ij6, vill. n&, Demo;l|i. S49. 16 rp. rait 
iftipiCoftas tluwfp iv Tn\t ^Ofi^poiS. See illso L. -^■ 

" [1641 a] ; Htii. 17. iv. 3. Si "I thank you, gyod people, there shall 
be no money ; all shall eat and drink'X>n mj' score,- and 1 will apparel 
them all in one livery, that they may agree like brothers and tuorthip me 
Ikcir lord" 

• [1641^] See Went, (on Mt. ii. j) who quotes Aelian \'.,H. i, ji 
u using the dative whin he is going to deurihr the posture in detail, 
^Xv^viat attrj(vf^t ;(wf>i( ""w flrptrMf [iatrtXii irftmrttij/tirrtv, but the 
accusative when he merely states that one could not have audience 6( 
the king n-pii* ^ n-^oaKvi'^at niTof. Wetst, quotes Lucian .\'<«'*i'. § ja 
with the accus. ; and in lA § J7 irpoirKvvfiTtoaav ^^Zr Keiiz reads iimw 
gov. by rlp'^u. The Jndex to Lucian gives no instance with the dative, 
but several with the accus.itive. Also in I'olyb. v. 86; 10, quot«d by 
Wetst. with dai., Steph. follows Reisk. in reading riiai,Klfov<n for 
irptHrKvyovtri. Steph. adds "Apud Josephuni plurima sunt utriusque 
structurae exempla libris interdum dissentientibus " : in Ant. vi. 7. ' $ 
■ the accus. and dat. are in consecutive lines ("God ".being, in both cases, 
the object) (see 1642^),' but in vii. 5, s, iX' 13-3, li"' 3- I, the accus. is used 

, . ' '■ < -134 ' ." ■■' ■■ '; • ' ^- 


[1M2] The canon. LXX uses ■irpo<rifi'i'/o> ,miire than- 
a hundred times with €he dative tf> represent "bowinpdown 
to" Jehovah, or to false gods, or t<> great men, and the dative 
represents the Hebrew " to." Thc^ccusative occur.t only six or 
seven times, and then in connejjlwi with some special circum- 
stances, mostly implying contempt, after the manner of the 
Greeks'. The coincidences of meaning in these are too . 
striking to be accidental and they indicate that a Jewish writer, 
might exceptionally use irpoiritvvfv in' the Greek style, with 
the accusative, to denote exceptional "worship" (like that of 
the sheaves) or " Worship" that ought not to be paid except by 
slaves (like the "worship" jiaid by I'haraoh's servants and by 
the princes of Jbash and refused Ijy Morddtai), or even 
ordinary idolatry'. . ' , -. - 

. (iii) Ilpoiracvx^a) jn N.T. ' . ■ . 

[1843] Passing to NT. we find a striking instance of the 
juxtaposition of. the two constructions in the Temptation, 
where Satan uses the verb with the dative but our Lord in 
His reply uses it with the accusative. In the Satanic verbal . 
demand for mere "/iros/ra/ion" the Lord discerns a latent 
demand for '"tuorship" : and He answers the latter, not the 

! tIM2>i] Iii Gen: Kxxyii. ;;>, 9,-it d«crib«i the "ihcavcs" and the 
"stars" worshippin);, in Jgseph's dream. In Ex. xi. 8, Moses says ihat 
" the servants of Pharaoh will come 'Vbeseeciiin^" him (r^tfcvf^iroi'iri /*«) 
(lit. " bowing down to me "V In 2 Chr. xxiv. 1 7 the princes " came and 
tmuid dowH to (aecus.) the king [joash]. Their theliing hearkcne<l unto 
them and they forsook the house of the Lord. ..and served the Asherim.",., 
In Is. xliv. 15 it means worshipping idols; and the Epistle of Jeremiah, 
in consecutive verses, uses the accusiitive for the worship of falsJe «ods, 
and the dative for that of Jehovah {irpoaKvvm^vrw mTn...iro( hu wpov- 
KVMiv). A Greek insertion in Esther has the. accus. twice, in a singlti 
verse (iv. 17) "As to my refusal to worship the haughty will, 
worship no man " — which is quite in Greek style. 

' [1642^] It would be interesting to ascertain ihe usage of Josephus,' 
and whether it varies in An/, and in IVars. The instances given (1611^) 
by Steph. Are too few to be of much vaipe ; but so far as they go, they 
indicate that josephus favoured the accus. and that Ant. vi. 7. 5 t^ 0t^ 
is a corr. of (A ^co (96Si7). 

■ *■ iVy : ■". 


■formtr. We may suppose Satan to be sayinf; " All that I ask 
is that thoU wjlt iaw iion'ii to int \\MVt, before »«;]— a mere 
gesture, nothing more"; whereto the L,orcl replies' "Thou 
demanclest, in effect, ttWjAji/. And it is written. Thou .shalt- 
worship the Lord thy God." In any case it can hardly he 
doubted that some distinction is intended. es))ecially as Lnke, 
while deviating slightly from Matthew in Satan's utterance, 
agrees with Matthew, against both the Hebrew and the Greek 
of Deuteronomy, in differentiating the construction of the 
verb in our Lord's reply'. " ■ 

[1644} In Mark, vpoaxu^ia with^ the accusative is once 
• used — where the parallel Luke has " fell down before him '' — 
perhaps to i'cprcsent the demoniac as actually worshipping 
Jesus, since he calls' Him "the Son- of the Mnist High'." 
Matthew — apart from the quotation in the Temptation— never 
uses it with the accusative. Apart frogi the Temptation, 
Luke- never has irpovKvyia at all, except in a possible inter- 
polation describing the disciples as "worshipping" Christ after 
the Resurrection. There it is used with the accu-iative'. The 
dative is once used by Mark to describe the mock homage ' 
paid to Christ in the Passion*; and several times by Matthew 
to describe people prostrating themselves before Jesus', <>r 

» ' [1643 ,i] .Vll. iv. 9 irp. iiM, Lie. iv. 7 nf. <'>siri(ii' 'Voii : .Mt. iv. 10, 
Lk. iv. 8 KvfHov To». fittw mn> trp.': Ucut. vi. 13 "Thou 6halt/«i/ the Lor<^ 
thy CiHi," i^fit^6i)vrj (but A ittmttKvviivtit). Codex A corrupts the text, 
again in Deut. x. 20, presum.iMy influenced by the CMristian (iospels. 

[1643^] Antecederitb' we might have supposed thai the Creek 
Churches would frequently have altered the Hebrew " fear " (in " fearing 
God ") into some word less likely to suggest servile terror, e.g. " rcver- 
tn^K ** : and, if that had been the case, it might have ^plained wfH^gvft'iy 
in this quotation. (he LX.X such alterations {e./;- Jonah i. 9 viffofuu) 
are almost non-existent./ 

■ Mk V. 6 (but Tisch: avry), Lk. viii. 28 niiooiwtitr air^ (Mt om.). 

' Lk. [[xxiv. sj]]. ■ . 

< Mk %i. 19, om, 

' Mt. viii. 2, K. 18, xiv. 33, xv. 25. The dative in Mt. ii. 2, 8, 11 
describes homage or worship to be paid to the infant Christ. 



(once) before other superiors'. One of these instances 
describes the women prostrating themselves before Christ 
after the Resurrection'. In two instances Matthew uses it 
absolutely, onct when describing the. mother of Zebedet^'s 
children petitioning Jesus, and once describing tliq disciples 
of Christ vyOrshif ping after the Resurrection'. • . 

[1645] Reviewing the Synoptic use of irpocrkvviia we see\ 
that Matthew is alone in using the dative to describe people 
fis prostrating themselves before Jesus. Mark never uses it 
thus except to describe an act of mockery,, and Luke never at , 
all— his reason perhaps being indicated by Peter's words io* 
Cornelius, when the latter had fallen and " worshipped " in the- 
Acts, " Rise up, 1 also am a man'." The Epistles avoid the 
word; it is not used in any of them (outside quotalioas) 
except once to describe a man suddenly converted " He will 
fall down on his face and worship God'." On the other hand, 
we have found the accusative used once by, Matthew and 
Luke to describe the actual worship of God ; once by Mark, 
probably, to describe the worship of the Son of the Most 
High; once by an. early tradition in Luke to .describe the 
worship of the risen Saviour. 

[1646] These facts, so far as they go — suggesting that the 
Synoptists reserve the accusative for the worship due to God 
or to God's Son — contrast with tlic use in the LXX illustrated 
above, and still more with the use in Revelation which remains 
to be mentioned. The accusative i.s used in that book no less. 
than six times to- denpte the ;wor.ship of "thelleast" or of 
devils*. Both grammar and history, on this point, might be 

' Mj. xViii. 36. , ' Ml. xxviii. 9. 

^ Mt. XX. 30, xxviii. 17. 

* [1616a] Act^ X. 35 : apoa^vttitt occuri al«> in Acts viii. 17, xxiv. 1 ■ 
(absol.) of going up to Jerusalem to "worship," and vii. 43 ■r/xxrui"'!)' 
niiroii (an addition to Amos v. 36) o(,idolatry. 

* I Con xiv.,35. In H<!b. i. 6, xi. 31 it is either quoted er allusivcljr 

* Rev. ix. 20 " devils,* xiii. 8, 13, xiv. 9, 1 1, xx. 4. 


illustrated by a letter from Tiridates to Nero, who is generally - 
supposed to have been " tl)e Heast " mentioned in Revelation: 
" 1 cany unto thee, (as being] my Ciod, to worship thee even 
as the [God] Mithras'." Thd Greeks would speak of the 
worship of the Kmperor in the Greek form {i.f. with the 
accusative) and the author of Kevelation (or of pqrfions of it) 
might sometime^ adopt the Gentile pht'ase in speaking, .of '^ 
Gentile idolatry, while at other times he might emplo'y'the 
construction :moM usual In Jewish Greek, 
(iv) npooixuveo) in John. 

[1647] Coming to the use of the word in the Fourth' 
Gospel, we iihd it with the datiyo describing the man boni 
blind. " worshipping " Jesus'; and u»ed absolutely, concernidg 
"Greek.s," who "went up to wo«hip at the feast'," '• In the j 
Samaritan narrative; whete the verb is frequent, it has been 
noted above (1640) that the accusative comes twice after two 
instances of the dative. That passage also attributes to Jesui 4 
language ("salvation," "the Jews," "we worsl)ip that which 
. we know") quite inconsistent with His character and, Ian- j 
guagc as elsewhere represented in this Gospel. It would 
leem to be jtiore appropriate to the Samaritan woman 
mimicking the doRniatism of Jewish Rabbi-s : "Ye [Samaria 
tans] worship that which yc.know not: we [Jews] worship, 
that which wc know, because salvation is from the Jews." 
Origen's long discission of tlic context, and his brief allusion* 
tQ the views of a writer earlier than Heracllon, '«hew that ta. 

J [irtBaJ Wetst. (on Jn m. 38) " Did 63. Tiridates aj Haontm.iyA 

«. Jn ix. 38 (D . 

. ' Jd xii, }a The verb i> alio used abttlutely in ihe .Samaritan, 
dialogue, iv. jo {Ms), 24. 

* [1647 a] Huet ii. 31 1 t> tlo\i Jti iWi yiv irqpaTi6<ir0ai roil 'II^aKA/wi'Of 
rA ^iTTfi, fliro roC iwvytypaitiiiifav n/r^m- Kritiiyfumt wofiaXnfifiui'ofHra... 
Aifiirff] txiipTat \iw<fm0ifn$Oi raCro ftnt'iiy firtVf}l^ioyiuttot.... This appears ■ 
to mean " // ts [/oo] fhitck at this ^ini iii ituatt from Heracleoo the 
[exact] layings, alleged from the [work] entitled Feter's I'reaching... 
wherefore we dcliberalely pass them over, noting these alone...." The 
. Latin, instead of "[400] much" has "Ibnge melius." 




earty times indeed- the whole of tho panage caufied 
culty. Origen's words even 'UKgest that Heraclcbn 
I before him (or thought he had) some tradition that inter- 
ited " Yt [wursliip that which ye Icnow not] " as ' yt JewsK'\ 

■ [1M7 ^r (^riKcn't triit ai Ihit point it lull of corniiptiont u indicated 
rHuet'« margin, aiid Hetarlton'a yicw« do not come out wry definitely, 
lit Uri|[<n draily aecUso llcracleon uf having, "accepted the word 
ptir in an eccentric way and incontitAAtly with the context (idioc «al 
■mpi Ti^v atf^miBimm r«i^>^irr«v.,.f«^£u>M»>i>rV" Then follow these words, 
I which. I l>racket what appear to be corrupt : TA, 'y^»if iii-Tt roii 'inifAaioi, 
WfeaJJ, iufyifwrb- o^f M ivTi wpiir t^i» Xoftmfumi' Xiyta^iti, ''Y^iii oj 
' [4 wpAt t«/Mi«>cini', 'Yfuir <•'< •'•'•««]! "He explained tlie word 
ypu' as being instead of the vtord Jews [tlentiles]. Hut how absurd 
l-ivthat it should be said to the Samaritaii, Ve Jews [or to a Samaritan, 
JTe Geiltiles] I " ^ • 

[IH7>] All this confusion can be explained on the hypothesis that 

tcracleon had before him a tradition arranging the words as part of the 

amaritan's speech thus "Our fathers worshipped in this mountain <ind 

t say,'[that] ' /n JtruuiUm is thi: filiht- whcrt onf must woriktfi. Vr 

Samartlaiu] worship yt Ittvnu not what, ««■ \jews\ worfhip Ihtil whtik 

\ kHDW, btcauit salvation is from Ihijtvjs.'" Heracleon regarded the 

Ordt "Ve worship " as uttered by the Samaritan, not in the character 

r a Jewish Kabbi but in her own person against the Jewish Rabbis 

R Ye "therefore seemed to him to stand "I'x Ike plait of tKiivorJJiwt 

4rrl rou *I.)." [Coinp- Eustath, on Hiaii i. 117, nV " % itiMafiai ' drrl roO 

i'lirtp."] This was very natural~~so fur. And, if we read on and ask 

ow Heracleon -explained " salvation is from the ^ews," we find him 

laayinKlbat salvation (Muet ii. aij B- cj "cnme to pass in the Judaean 

jiand] but was no/ in [Ht /tu's] /iem[st/i'ei] \aK\' ovk iV ni'Tnit)," and 

> " Fiwii that nation salvation eamt forlli and the Word [came] into 

world." In other words, he seems to say iHat salvation did not 

•l^ng to. the Jews but "camt forth from thtm " it( ordtr to pass to 


[IMT tl] 'It' li not at all certain' that this is Heradeon's meaning, or 

Origen represents Hedcleon rightfy, or that Origen's present te»t 

presents Origen rightly. Uut the hypothesis of transposition of persons 

V some way toward explaining the undoiibled fact that Origen discerns 

Heracleon's rendering of "yc" "inconsistency with the context." As 

or the words I have bracketed in Origen, they appear to have Ijcen 

■dded by some editor that look Jwi 10 mean "inslttu/ o/" in the sense 

"(I mislaht for" so thai a blank seemed to need filling (" He inter- 

eted the word 'yc' as meaning, instead of Jews — -"). Then he filled 

lie blank suitably by adding "Gentiles " and adiipted thecontext 

•39 ■/:, >'>.: 



[1648] A very ancient tradition is. quoted by Heracleon 
from the Preaching of Peter to this effect : " P^ter taught that 
on< ought hot to worship after the manner of the 0) Greeks'. , . 
serving stocks and stones, nor tti pay one's devotions to the 
Divine Being after the manner of the Jews since they, tiikiU 
supposing thtmsttvts to be alont in the knowledge of (iiut.,, are 
ignorant of lijm, serving angels, and the month, and the 
moon'." Heracleon $eeni8 to have quoted this as bearing on 
the words in the Samaritan Dialogue " iVt (fiiUi<)—i.e. we as 
distinct from others— worship that which i*e know." In any 
case, this extract certainly conftrm.* the view that the word* 
" we know " were uttered by the Samaritan in the character 
of a Jewish teacher and not by our Lord in His own person*. 
The extract also Illustrates the possibility of a reference to 
twofold worship, suggested by the twofold construction of the 
verb, in the passage under consideration. 

[1649] The Jews thought it essential to prostrate them- 
selves before God in Jerusalem, the Samaritans in Mount 
Gerizim: Jesus— who, even when He prays, is not described in 
this Gospel as " praying (irpoirei-jfpnai)" or as using the word 
" pray "—cuts at the root of all local worship and even of all 
rules about external attitudes of worship, by first denying the 
claims of Ixith mountains, and then indicating that the Person 
worshipped is "the Father" toward;) whom "prostration" 
wohid be out of place: "Believe me, woman, that the hoijf 
cometh'when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem'shall. 

— * ■ ' — ■ ^ : — ~ ^^ ■ —. 

■ [1648ii) Huet it . ll I E. tUrpov tMianos itii ^i" tnttKtir kt (marf, 
KOT* ifiinKOVs, I BUggmt Ka& 'EXXi^fOc) npoVKWtli' ra i^t vXtft yrii<rftun9 
airobt](Ojii¥avtt fa\ \aTp4wnirat (vXoic xal XiBott^ fiifrt Kara 'louJtoi'ot'B aifitiv 
rh itlw, twtiirtp Kal* atroi /itiroi oiofuvw iwiaram^tu fitinr t^foetVif otrriHf 

• [ItWi] "-The month." Comp. Gal. i». lo "ye observe days and 
moifths," Col- >>• i6 "Let no man judge you. reipect of a frail day.or 
a new moon or a sabbath," 

' Comp. Rom. >i. ly "Thou bearett the name of a Je'w.-.and gloriest 
in God and ^ff«>w/j/ his w^I." , - 

" '' ^■, • 140 



ye prostrate yourwlvts before the Father." ' Then He con- 
tinuesV still using the Jewish Idionr, but qifalifying it so as to 
non>literalise its meaning ; " Nay, the hour cometh, and now 
is, when the true worshippers shati prostrate themselves before 
the Father [not in Gerizim or Jerusalem and liot in any 
literal sense, but] in spirit and truth." 

[16S0] Now, having extended the area of what was unce 
mere Jewish and Samaritan " prostration " in -Jewish and 
Samaritan sanctuaries, and having made it coequal with the 
aica of "spirit and truth,";the Dialogue pnx:e<ds, as in the 
Temptation, to drop^thc Jewish phrase (with the dative) and 
to'take up the Greek or cosmopolitan one (with the accusa- 
tive). Only the Evangelist has to bear in mind that the 
Greek phrase with the aAusative was fjrequeritly applied to 
the polytheistic worship, of "a god" or "gods." Hence, he' 
not only repeats " the Father " but also defines " the [one] 
God," as beintt," Spirit," thus: "For such doth the Father 
seek to WorsAip hijn (acciis.). The [orte] God is. Spirit [not 
limited by place nor one that requires prostrations at his 
feet] and they that worship him (accus.) must worship in 
spirit and truth." :_ ,;"' . \ . 

[1601] Accordlr^- to'this view, there is"here, hi also In 
the Temptation, a deliberate difiercntiation of two Greek 
constructions capable of representing various distinctions 
^according to the nationality or individuality of the writer 
But both in the Temptation the Samaritan Dialogue 

' [1648tfJ " Continues," f>. if the words "Ye worship..;from the Jews" 
are transpoied (u abov< suggested) and assigned to th< Samaritan 
' as personating a Jewish ctiaracier. Urigcn says (Huet ii. 209 B — c)" The 
phrase, ' TAe kmr comith' is written twice, and, irt the first instance, 
' and now is' a not ladded : but in the second Ihi EvamgtHst ti^s'Nay 
Ike hour comtik ohJ how u."' Uut I do not understand him to mean 
that these last words (iv. 23—4) are Evangelistic comment. If they were, 
the, accusative might be explained on that ground, as proceeding Irom 
the Evangelist and not from Jesus, and as being in a different style 
But there art many reasons against this: 





the Evangelists appear to use wpovKwiti with the accusative 
as meaning such worship as ought to be paid to God alone, 
i.e. not prostration but " reverence," which the Hebrews called 
" fear " — " Thou shalt /ear the Lord thy God and him alone 
shalt thou serve." This verb " fear " had been actually 
paraphrased (1643 d) by Matthew and Luke as "worship" (in 
the Greek idiom), I'ossibly John has in mind the DeutJero- 
nomic saying about " fear" and its Evangelistic paraphrase as - 
" worship " : and this is all the more provable as he says that 
" perfect love casteth out fear'." But in any case we are safe 
in asserting that John is here using two diflferent forms of the 
same phrase with differences of meaning, in an attempt to 
represent the Lord as raising^men's hearts from formal to 
spiritual worship. 

I 7, "Going a'Jiiyi {or, back)" and "going 
{on .jjouriity)'" _^- _^ 

(i) 'Twaym and vopevofiai. 

[1662] The importance of the distinction between these 
two words consists mainly in their application by our Lord to - 

— • -' 7 'f— ■ 

' I Jn iv. 18. / 

• [1852a] 'Ytrayit, in Jn, mostly— "go back (oyhome)" : iriip<va/iat— 
"go (or a journey)." In contexts specifying an errand or place, jur^yH^ 
' in Jn, means simply " go away," as in (ix. 7) " Go away, wash in the pool 
of Siloam " (rep. ix. i 1 ) and perhaps in xxi. 3 vw6ym AKuintf (unless it 
implies retiltaing a former occupation). Elsewhere "home" may be 
implied in "going back," at in (iv. 16) '^Go kotiu, call thy husband," 
(vi. 67) "Do ye also desire to f^ to your Aomesf" (xviii. 8) "Let these 
go to their stiteral homes,** (xi. 44) " Loose him -and let him go hcnu.** 
In vi. 21 "to the land to which they^ert mahing their wiiy {vwiffem)" 
may refer to Capernaum as a home, or 'simply to the Western coast t|i 
which they were "going back." In vii. 3." Go (iway) into Judaea," the 
meaning may be " go back," as it certainly is in xi. 8, " Dost then g* back 
(tiwdytiff) again there,*" i.e. into Judaea. 

[1653 «] In xii. 11 (K.V.) " By reason of him \i.i. Laiaruf] (V aMv) j 
many of the Jews vent aiuay iyitiffty) and believed {im'wrwov) on Jesus," ' 
the meaning of 'ooriyat depends on the meaning of i{ airir. If d' nMc, 



limself, inraytt, "go away," being, frequently thus used 
throughon^ the whole of the Gospel; but itopdofuu, "go on a 
journey," being sometimes used by Him along with viriiTai in 
•vhis Last Discourse. The question is. What distinction, if 
any, is intended to be drawn between them' ?. . V ^_ 

(ii) Why Luke avoids inrar^a. ■ * 

[16S3] The first point to notice is that vKa'ya, both in the 
LXX and in the Synoptic Gospels, appears to have been what 
may be called a " debateable " word, i.e. a word preferred by 
some and disliked and deliberately altered by others. In 
canon. LXX it occurs only once* (Ex. xiv. il) "The Lord 
caused the sea tog'o [ituk]," inrtjyaytv. But in Tobit, N has it 
four times in ^he sense of "go home," whereas B ha.s, in one, 
of these instances, jfoptio/iat, and in others no certain 
equivalent*. Precise^ the same phenomenon, only on a 
larger scale, medl||us in the Syii6ptists. In the first four 

in Jn, could mean "by rcaton of somelhinx in the past concerning him," 
then it might mean^here "on account of the raisin){ of Latanis," and 
I'lr^^i' K. iniartvov might be rendered " were in the habit of going away 
to their several homes and believing as a consequence of a visit to 
Ljuarus in Bethany." But dui rv/a in Jn appears generally (1884 d, ^) 
to mean "for the sake of a per^n, with reference to \.\it future,'" ; and 
in the pneceding context (xii. 9), Aid toi- 'Ii^oCi', "/or tkt sake tf/ Jcsys," 
meiins "/tfr the sake of seeing JeAii." Hence xii. 1 1 must probably be 
rendered " Many, for the sake of [seeing] him [/./. Laxarus^ useii to go 
away [from their party, or,fromferusa/em]:..?' In xii. 9 it is said that 
"many came (i^$a«)...lo see-Lazartis" ; now it is implied that although 
the rulers of the Jews discouraged visits to, Bethany the temptation to see 
Laxarus was to great that "many". from time to time slipp^jtaMiy* or 
deserted their party for the sake of seeing him, and, if they ^BKI him, 
they always used to believe. ^^ 

* [1803 c] Before the Last Discourse our Lord never sayf woptifuu^ 
except in the preface to the Raising of Laxarus, where the words (xi. 1 1) 
" I go to awake him [i.e. Lasarus] " presumably refer (fit least primarily), 
to a literal journey into Judaea. 

' Sctiinf^ aside Jerem. xxxvi. 19 (W*) vrifynt for ir^<ir. , 
' [1863a] Tob. viii. 21 jTira^ vyiaiVwi' ir^r rip itmHfia «m, B (ropcv- 
•vAu luri Irniat, x. 11 and xii. ; (K) vymirtui twtryt (B GIB.), X. I] i!iray< 
irp^r r^v ircptfr/nW' ffoti (B rifui robr ir. ffov). 

A. V. 143 II 



instances wh^re Mark uses virdytt (followed twice by Matthew) 
Luke has ' severally ain\6»v, iropevov, iiroarp*^*, and 
•mpmm^. In the Riding into Jerusalem, Luke, for oi\ce, 
follows Mark' (and that too, against Matthew) ; but after- 
wards Luke substitutes severally tlirt>JBovTttv and vo/xi/rrat*. 
The last of these instances is oT particular importance be- 
cause it is uttered by our Lord about Himself, " The Son of 
man gtetk home (or, tatk) (ittar^d.') even as it is written 
concerning him," where Luke has, " The Son of man goetk 
(*optvtrai) according to that which is decreed*." 

[lOM] The reasons for Luke's dislike of the word may be 
inferred from any good Greek Dictionary ; for it would shew 
that, when intransitive., inrdym may mean quite opposite 
motions, such as "go back," "go quietly, or slowly, away," 
" go on," or " come on " (in the sense of our vernacular " came 
up I " or " cheer up I "). All these are exclusive of its transitive 
meanings, Luke, therefore, may have been quite justified in 
altering a word endeared to some by iiB use in the vernacular 
Greek Gcispel, but liable to-ambiguity aricTperhaps not used 
among the educated as Mark uses it The naturajncss of such 
an alteration confirms the conclusion suggested by the agree- 
ment of Mark and Matthew, namely, that our Lord was 
reported in the earlier Greek Gospels tahave said about Him- 
self "The Son of Man goeth away, gotth back, or gotth lumt 
(virayti)" and that Luke changed this into "goeth (on a 
journey) (tropeiern)'' 

(iii) 'T'a;^*, "go kome." - - 

[166S] John's first use of inrtifyw is in a sayijig of our 
Lord about the New Birth (iii. 8), " thou, knowest not whence 
it Cometh nor whither it goetk away, or goetk huk (vnar/ti)." 
He is speaking about ^e fm'MMa, - Breath, or Holy Spirit. 
Playing.on the word as .though It \yere God's breath on eartl^''^" 

< Mk i. 44, ii. II, v. 19, 34 and piiraU. Mt.-Lk. 

* Mk «i. 2 (where Mt. ha* iropivfirtff). ' Mk xiv. 1 J, II. 

' Mk niv. II, Mt. uvi. 34, Lk. »ii. ii. 




the wind, He says " It breatheth, or bloweth, >yherp it willeth, 
and thou hearest the voice, or sound,,, thereof." So far it 
might mean " wind " — though Pneuma would very rarely be 
used in this sense. But then, after describing its mysterious 
motion. He says, " So, i.e. equally mysterious to thee, is every> 
one that is begotten of the Pneuma " — and the Rabbi at once 
perceives that Jesus means " Spirit " now, and perhaps meant 
if before. Probably He included the two meanings, since 
men live amid the motions and voices of Pnfuif[a in both 
senses and are equally ignorant of their sources and ten- 
dencies. Compare thi.s passage with (vii. 33)' " I ^o back 
(imafta) to him that sent me," and with (viii. 14) " I know 
whence 1 came and whither I go back {\ma^), but ye know 
not whence I am comiiig and whither I go back" It appears 
from these passages that as the Breath or Spirit of Gud may 
be regarded as exhaled when it comes forth to men and 
inhalid when it goes back to God, so the Word or Son of 
God is regarded as " coming " when He is manifested to men 
as beginning to do a work appointed by the Father, and as 
" going back " to the Father when He is manifested to men 
I as having accomplished the *ork '. 

[1666] 'in the First £pistle of John it is said, " He that 

' [1685 (j] We might speak similarly of the "waters" of God, which 
" come " as rain and " go back " partly as clouds, paitly as tre«s, grass, 
com. These, in turn, in the shape of decaying vegetation, "go back" 
directly to their Mother. Or else, as pasture,. they "go back " indirectly, 
helping the animal world to " go iMck " in a corresponding way, i.t. to 

^nake its return, or pay its offering, to Nature. Comp. Is. Iv. i — ii^ 
"Come' ye to the waters. the rain Cometh down and the snow from 
heaven and returneth ntit thither but watereth the earth and maketh 
it bring forth and bud and givelh seed to the sower and bread to the 

- eater, so shall my word he that gofth forth out of my mouth : it shall not^ 
return unto me void, hut it shall otromp^ith that which I please, and it 
shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." In Ps. civ, 29 — 30 the same 
Hebrew word "spirit" or "breath," LXX nrti^a, is repeated, "Thou 
gatherest their spirit, they die.. .thou sendett forth Iky spirit, they are 

145 ••— * 



hateth his brother is in the darkness and walketh (irepiiroTel) 
in the darkness and knoweth not where he gotth \lo his goaf] 
(wiruTet)'"; and the Gospel appears to suggest a siijiiiar igno- 
rance of the " goal " of man's life as being implied in the 
inability of the Pharisees to understand where the Son is 
"going home," or "going to his goai" Perhaps their minds 
were fixed on another notion of "going home" which is set forth 
thus in the Jewish Prayer Bbok : " Know whence tliou camcst 
and whither thdu art going, and before whom thou wilt In 
future have to giv?'account and reckoning. Whence thou 
earnest: — from a putrefying drop ; whither thou art going :^ 
to a place of dust, worms and maggftts ; and before whom 
thou wilt in future have to give account and reckoning: — 
before the Supreme King of kings, thi; Holy One,, blessed 
be he'." ' - 

[1667] But a Jewish Teacher of the first century, com- 
menting on the question of the Angel to Hagar, " W/unce 
earnest thou and whither goes! thmi {iropeuri)}" says that it is 
the voice of Conviction and that it is a reproach a<l<lresscfl to 
the wandering soul that has deserted the service of the Higher 
and Sovereign Purjxise. And he adds expressly that this 
poor vagrant's " going (iropevofiai)" is indefinite: "Thou art 
chasing after uncertainties, rejecting ackniwlcdged truths'." 
John, in the GosjiCl as well as" in the Epistle, seems to 
. distinguish this mere "going (7r<ip|i/o/io«) " from the "going 
home {vvi'i-ya)" of a child of God, begotten of God and 
returning to God. The " home " is the love of God, and the 
way to it is the love of man. Those who will not receive 
the Spirit of God have no conception of the "home " or the' 

' [1686a] I Jn ii. ii. So Weslc. ail Im., "the final (jo»l (.iaovftt not 
whitAir) to which life is directed." But 1 cannot reconcile this with a 
note of his on the same p:\gt^"viray*i,^etk The idea is not that of pro- 
ceeding to a definite point {wop«in&4m) .bfit of Iftaving the present scene." 

' Jewish Prayer Book, ed. Singer pp. 190—1, quoting Moth iii. I. 

» Philo i. 576. ■ ' 



way to it. Conceming these Jesus says, at the close of His 
Qospel, what perhaps is, in effect, (xii. 35) " He that walketh in 
the darkness knoweth not his way fume (-rrov VTayet)." Con- 
cerning Jesus Jdimself, His Gospel having been now preached, 
the Evangelist says, first, "Now before the feast of the 
Passover, Jesus, knowing that the hour had come that he 
should pass away (/icTafi^) from this world to the Father," 
and then, " Knowing that the Father had given all things into 
his hands and that from God he had come forth, and to God 
he was going home {imniuy" — and then follows the account 
of the Washing of Feet, the""legacy of Christ's example 
bequeathed to the Disciples. ' 

[1668]. We see then that in this last passage the Evan- 
gelist, after describing the impending death in his own words 
as a " passage to the Father," adds clauses to shew the full 
trust reposed by the Father in- the Son, and concludes with , 
the word used previously by our Lord about Himself ("Af was 
going home"). From henceforth, Christ is represented as using 
the word repeatedly, at first Without any suggestion of the 
goal or object of the "going back" or "going home," and as 
it were provokjng the Disciples to ask Him what the goal 
may be. " Whither I go home ye cannot come,'.' " Whither I 
go home, ye know the Waty," " I go home and I come to you"." 
Towards the. end of the Ui)!course, He becomes more definite; 
"But liow 1 go home unto him that sent me'," and, strangely 
enough — though one of the D^ciples has expressly uttered the 
question ."Whither goest thou home.'*" — He say.s, "None of 
you asketh me, VVhither goest thou home?*" Finally He 
^leclare-s, " I go home to the Father*." ■» 

(iv) 'Tira7«i( appKed to the Discipl^. # 

[16S9] Before comparing these passages with others (in 

' xiii. 1— 3. " xiii; 33, xiv. 4, ig. »-»vi. 5. 

■ * liii. J6. * XV). 5. • xvi. la 

. " 147 


S ■ -.^___ ^_ 

the same Discourse) in which Jesus speaks of "going " to the 
Father, it will be well to mention one in which intnya is used 
by Him about the Disciples, (xv. l6) " Ye chose not me but I 
chose you and set'(Wi)<ta) you. that ye may go (Iva vyxU 
v/rafptr*) and may bear fruit and that your fruit may remain." 
On this Chrysostom says, " / set you, that is, planted («^i/- 
Ttuo-o)"; and then, " That ye t(iay go (he still keeps the 
nrietaphor of the vine), that is, that ye may be stretched out' 
{iiTadtin)'." But this rendering "W/r/fArt/ »«/," i.e. "may 
groiv" " make progress" is against the regular Johannine usage, 
of which, as we have seen, there are many insitances. Hence 
most modem commentators render it " That ye way go^ away 
from me and bear fruit," i.e. may go forth as missionaries. 
But does this, as Chrysostom saytf, " still keep the metaphor"? 
Is it not contrary to the whole drift of Johannine thought, 
which represents the Disciples as unable to "bear fruit " unless ' 
they "abide in" Christ, or "abide in" the Vine.' If itrnyu 
had to be taken of literal motion, would it not mean in this 
Gospel, not "go abroad," but "go away to your homes," as it 
means when Jesus says to the Twelve " Do ye desire to 
go away from me .'" Lastly, would it not be a curious mixture 
of metaphor ("bear fruit") and literalism ("go away to the 
cities of Israel ")? 
■ [1660] For these reasons the best explanation is perhaps 
a modification of Chrysostom's, based, not solely on the 
metaphor of the Vine, but also on the whole Johannine con- 
ception of "going home " as being the appointed errand of the 
grain of com, and the I'ine-bramh, and the human son/, and 
tlu Incarnate Logos. All these "came forth from God" and 
are bound by the Law of their Nature to "go back home to 
God." As the Spirit (16S6) "goes, home," so they that 

' [16S9a] Chrys. refers to Pi. Ixxx. ii "she stretched out 
her branches.'.' Oti riSijftL, " let," and very probably interpreted 
by Chrys. as "plant," see 1336r. It might include "grafting." 


hat *e 



bom of the Spirit " go home " when they hav^ done their work 
on earth. Yet, even before they are " at home with the Lord " 
(as St Payl says) in heaven, they are " at home " with Him on 
earth, " abiding in " the Vine. There if, therefore, a confusion 
of metaphor in a literal sense, but it is a deliberate confu.<iion, 
such as we find in the statements that the Father " is in " the 
Son and the Son" is in "the Father. The meaning probably 
is, not, " that ye may go away from me to Joppa, Antioch, or 
Ephesus," but "that ye may go home with me, by the way of 
the Cross to the Father in heaven." 

(v) Ilo/sctio/iat substituted for trtraya. 

[1661] There remains the most difficult passage of all, in 
which the Saviour gives up, for .a time, ivgyu, and substitutes 
vopfvofuu, "go (on a journey)," Most unfortunately, the 
interpretation of it is complicated by the context, in which 
the words ordinarily rendered " I should have said [it] to you 
because " (tltrov Sx viilv ort) may mean — and (it will be main- 
tained later on) probably do mean—" I should have said to 
you Ikati' Moreover the passage is full of emotion that is 
reflected in the style. TVs Jesus elsewhere .says that He came 
not to judge the world but adds " Yea, and even if I should 
judge («a» ikv xpivto Sf <7<»), my judgment is true'," so here. 
He seems to say " I do not admit that 1 am going from you ; 
I do not admit that there is any need to prepare a place for 
ypu in my Father's Heuse where I have supreme authority 
and where there is room for all. I am not 'going on a jounuy 
(irb/>ei'ofiai),' I Am going Aome (viriiya)." Then, like a mother 
with very young children, He instructs their ignorance by' 
dropping into their way of speaking : " But even if I should 
'go on a journey^ and even if I should 'prepare a place /or you,' 
yet where is the harm? I will come again and receive you to 

[1662] From this point onward, to the close of the 

viii. I& ' Kiv. 2—3. See 2186 foil. 



Discourse, Jesus occasionally uses voptvoiuu, "I go (on 
a journey)," and iiripxoiuu, "I go away" in His efforts to 
comfort and fortify the Disciples against the impending 
assault'. This "going <o'n a journey)," He says, «will be 
profitable" for them. It will strengthen the believer: 
(xiv. 12) "Greater works than the|^ shall he do because I go 
(iTopevofuu) to the Father," (xiv. 28) " Ye have heard that 
I said to you '\ go home (irtriiyw) and come [again] to you. 
If ye loved me ye would have rejoiced that I go (iropfuo^un) 
to the Father, for the Father is greater than I," (xvi. 5-— 7) 
" I go home (vvnim) to him tha^ sent me : and none of you 
asketh me ' Where goe^t thou home .' '. But, because I have 
said these things to you, the sorrow [thereof] hath filled your 
heart. But I tell you' the truth: it is profitable for you that 
I go aivay (nVeXtfu). For, if I go not away, the Paraclete will 
assuredly not come unto you. But if \ go (rropevOu) I will 
send him unto you"; (xvi. 28—9) "I came forth from the 
Father andrhave come into the world : agllin I leave the world 
and go (iropevo/iai) to the Father." - " 

[1663] This is the Lord's last word about " going " of 
"going home," and it willbe noted that 'He ends with the 
former, the word (so to speak) of the Disciples, not the word 
that He generally chooses for Himself On hearing it, the 
Disciples joyfully exclaim (xvi. 29) "Now speakest thou 
plainly " as though now they understood everything. But He 
at once daslies down their joy : " Do ye now believe .' Behold 
the hour cometh and hath come that ye should be scattered 
every man to his own and leave me alone." Clearly, if Christ 
intended to strengthen the Disciples by predicting to them the 
immediate future and by preparing-them to stand by His side 
before Pilate as fellow-martyrs. He did not succeed. But the 
impression left on us by these mysterious interchanges of 

' So perhaps St I'aul says that he, like a nurse, uses babf language 
to the new converts, 1 Tbess. ii. 7, reading vfiwuu. 



synonymous phrases of departure is that the Evangelist felt 
that the departing was partly objective, partly subjective, and 
that the Lord Himself could not succeed, and did not wish to 
succeed, in doing more than prepare the Disciples ultimately ' 
to realise the nature of the " going " and of the " going home " 
and the " profitableness " of the " going away." 

, [16M] Logically, or spn-itually, one might argue that, if 
Peter had not denied his Master but had faced Caiaphas and 
Pilate by His side, there would have been, in one sense, 
no "going away" of the Lord, no severance (for him) from 
his Master, not even when Jesus breathed His last upon the 
Cross. For the eye and ear and hand of faith, Jesus would 
still have been present, still speaking, still to be "Handled." Hut 
this was not decreed. It was not given to any man to pass 
into the higher life save through the shadow of death ; and 
this shadow was to^be cast, partly on the minds of the 
Disciples, partly on the Logos Himself, so there *as indeed an 
actual " going away" as well ns-a." going Aomt'." . 

On the difference between 'ayairam and ^i\em, see 1716 li—/ 
and 1728w/— /; (iXijCiJ? and ii\ii0iv6^, see 1727 </ — i'; niroaTeWu 
and vefiTTo), see 1723 //—g ; Siaxowii and SovXik, see 1717 d—g 
and 1723 <; nfiiiiratt- And Troit'oi, sec 1772^; and for other 
synonyms ^ee Verbal Index in Part II. 

' [1664ii] In the Acts of Jotin (f, n) (ed. James) the beloved disciple, 
weeping on the Mount of Olives, is represented as actually hearing 
Christ's voice there, while He is hanging on the Cross below ; but this 
is obtained by a complete surrender of reality in the Passion. The 
passage illustrates early Gnostic thoughts, of which the beginnings were 
probably ofil°n present to the mind of the author of the Fourth Gospel : 
"John"— says the Lord's voice — "unt6 the multitude down below in 
Jerusalem 1 ^m being cructfieii and pierced with lances and reeds, and 
they are giving me gall and vinegar to drink: but .unto thee 1 am 
speaking, and hearken thou to what I say." 



• < .. 

\ f 







"• f 



- ftSk 



§ I. iHtrodiutory rtmarhs 

[1668] In order to use to the best advantage the following 
English alphabetical list placed here for future reference as 
well as for an immediate cursory glance, the reader should 
„bear in mind that this Vocabulary deals almost entirx;ly with 
such words as Axe^common to tht Three Synoptists h\xX omitted 
or rarely used by John'. It omits, foi" example, the words 
"blessed," "confess," "devil'." "judge," because they are not 
used by Mark. , These must be deferred till we discuss the 
vocabulary of the Double Tradition of Matthew and Luke in 
its relation to that of John. 

[1666] This greatly restricts the scope of the present list 
which, at the first glance, seenls to teach us little but what we 
knew before, namely, that John excludes from his Gospel 
a great deal that may have interested the Churches in Galilee 
and Jerusalem in the last half of the first centuiy much more 

' Occasionally the Vocabulary will give a typical word used by two 
of the Synoptists and not by Jn, i^. "to make common," uted by 
Mk-Mt. but not by Lk. See 1671 c. 

' [166S<i] i.t. Jii/SoXot, 'iht devil." Aoi^rior "d devil," in the 
sense of an "unclean spirit,!' is freq. in Mk. " Blessed," ^nifiM (not 
•iXijyi)>Wror etc) is denoted above. 

.::':;\.-'-'Mv^^.'v^'>:'t:%:^. ■■.■■■' 


than it appealed to the churches of A^ia Minor, aiid to 
the Roman world in general — and perhaps, in particular, 
to fairly educated inquirers after moral truth, such as the 
followers of Epictetus— at the beginning of the' second 
century. Under the heading " devils," for example, we note 
without surprise that John omits all reference to " casting 
them out"^ Many, too, will be prepared to find in his Gospel 
no mention of several forms of disease such as " leprosy," 
"deafness," "dumbness," and "paralysis/' His desire to 
subordinate the individuality of John the Baptist to his 
instrumentality in testifying to Christ will also explain v^hy he- 
is silent about " Herod Antipas " and his brother " Philip." 
For this, and for other reasons, "divorce" and "adultery" 
(which are connected directly with the names of these. two 
princes and indirectly with the murder of John, the Baptist) 
are nowhere mentioned by "him. Even the distinctive names 
. of " Sadducees," " Scribes," and " Publicans " — so important to 
Jews — nowhere find mention in his cosmopolitan Gospel. 

[1667] At these omissions wo cannot be surprised, and we 
learn comparatively little from them. We learn more from the 
absence of words denoting special sins or temptations — for 
example, " hypocrite " iind " hypocrisy," " rich," " riches," " pos- 
sessions," " money," " treasure," and the word " temptation " 
itself. And, as . we proceed in our examination, we find 
omissions of iiuch a kind as to convince us that tRey do not 
in all cases indicate omission -of the subject but only 
variation in the mariner pf expressing it. For example, it has 
been pointed out that the Fourth Gospel does not contain the 
words " repent," " repentance," " forgiveness," " watch " and 
"pray." But who can believe that the author did not 
recognise the ntcessity of these ihings, and the necessity that 
every Gospel should indirectly, if not directly, inculcate 
them ? 

[1668] It would not be easy always to distinguish those 
things which John really omits from those things which he 

, "56 


Expresses variously ; still less would it be possible to assign 
in <9ch case his motive for the omission or variation of 
expression. But an attempt has been made in several in- 
stances to indicate, in footnotes to the following lists, the 
Johannine substitute for a -Synoptic wordi and, in some- fpw 
instances, to suggest the motive. Generally, we may say that 
John prefers to pass over local distinctions of sect.s classes, 
and rulers, material distinctions of physical evil, and moral 
distinctions of various sins, in order to concentrate the mind 
on the elements of the spiritual world, light and darkness, 
spiritual life and death, truth and falsehood. Comparisons 
and discussions as to " greatest " or " least," and even the 
mention of the " little ones " so common in the Synoptic 
Gospels, are ab.sent here. The word " righteous '' is never 
used except in the words, " O ri^hteou3. Father." The Synop- 
tists contrast the "old" and the "hew": the latest Gospel 
never uses the word ".old." The Synoptists freqUtntly re- 
present Jesus as "rebuking," "commanding," "having com- 
passion," "being fiHed with indignation": John dispenses with 
these words, mostly thinking it enough to say that Jesus 
" said," or " spake," or ' did " thi^ or that, and leaving the 
words and deeds of the Messiah to speak for themselves'. 

[1668] Apart from these general Johahnine equivalent?, 
it is oc<Jasionally possible to point out the definite Johannine 
equivalent of a Synoptic term. For example, instead of the 
word " parable {vapaffoXij)" John uses " proverb (irapoifiia)," 
(rendered by some, "dark saying"); and instead of "mighty 
works (ii/vri/«i«)" he uses " signs (o-ij^Io)." In the footnotes 
to these terms in the several English Vocabularies in which 
they appear the reader will find explanAtions of . these 

' [1668 a] In the case of Laiarus, the Lord's " friend," John describM 
an affection and a mysterious " self-troubling " of the Lord accompanCed 
with tears ; and on two other occasions he mentions " trouble " (1727 i) ; 
but this is CKCeptionaL 


. deviations. The motive, in both cases, seems to have been 
a desire to prevent spiritual truth from being burje^ under 
religious technical terms or obscured by heated discussions 
that had attached themselves to special tcrm». And in 
making the. second of th^se two changes (the change of 
" mighty work " to " sign ") John is consistent throughout his 
GospeL For he avoids the wofd Svvaiu<t not only when 
meaning a "mighty work," but also in the sense of "power." 
He abstains also from the kindred word "powerful," and from 
the synonymous words "strength" and "strong." He seems 
to desire to shew that heavenly power is far above mere 
" might " and deserves a higher name. Accordingly, he ealls 
it by the term discussed in a previous chapter ^662-94), 
"'authority." , . . ' . . " - 

11670] These remarks will siifljce fo guard the reader 
against being misled by a mere statistical and su|>erficial view 
of the words and numbers In the appended Vocabulary. 
The words are sometimes grouped together to prevent such a 
danger. For example, under the head of "faith" it will be 
found that, although John never uses this noun, he com- 
pensates for it by using the verb, " have faith," or " believe," 
far more often than the. Synoptists. Similarly, lest, the 
reader should be misled by being told th^t Lukw never uses 
the noun "Gospel {fvayye\i6i')," it will l)e pointed out that he 
uses the verb "evangelize," or "preach the Gospel (evayyt- 
\/f«)" with a compensating frequency. 

[1671] As a i-ule, where a word is onlyonce or twice used 
by one Evangelist and often used by other Evangelists, the 
one or two passages are quoted in a footnote. Thus, under 
the \yord " angels," a footnote, giving the three instances of 
Johannine use, shews that it is only once used in an utterance 
of our Lord, and theje-almut angels "ascending and de- 
scending on the Sjwof man" — a different aspect from any 
mentioned bvthe Synoptists. So, another note on "children,", 
giving all tfie Johannine uses of the word, suggests a parallel- 

- 158 


ism between John's tradition about " becoming children of 
God " and Matthew's tradition about " turning and btcoming 
as children." On every page,- facts will be alleged, aiid 
passages quoted, to shew how unsafe it is to draw an inference 
from" rarity of usage in one Gospel, and from frequency of 
usage in others, without some reference to the passages 
themselves'. ■ 

,' [1671(1] !the need of discrimination in dealing with the statistical 
results of the following Vocabulary may be illustrated by the facts . 
■collected under the words ( i) " A5tonish(ment) " and (a) " Twelve, the.",. 

(i) Several of the words used by the Synoptists apparently in a good 
sense to express the amazement or astonishment of the multitude at 
Christ's miracles are altogether omitted by Jn ; and he nowbere^pplies 
any.such word to our Lord Himself (as the Synoptists do). Jn does use 
one of these words (tfav^fw) rather frequently. But it will bt ihmm fluj 
ht afptan to uti it i* a Aorf stHsr, to dftcribr uninlilligenl surfriu. 

[1671*] (J) "Th? Twelve" afe- mentioned— as will be shewn by the 
note—four times by Jn, but alwayi in connexion with some mention of\ 
treachery, - possible desertion, or unbelief. Again, whereas Matthew * 
(«. 40, and sim. Lk. x. 16) represents Jesus as saying, apparently to the] 
' Twelve, "He that receiveth ^«< recisiveth me," Jn, in the corresponding! 
saying, instead of "jw«," has (xiii. ao) " mhomsonier I shall stud." Also, ^ 
while omitting the names of many of the Twelve as given (with some 
variations) by the. Synoptists, Jh records the calling of Nathanael, and 
his subsequent presence at the Eucharist of the Seven, in such a way as 
to suggest that he must have, been if not identical, at all events on a 
level, with one of the Synoptic Twelve. These (acts seem to point to 
somt consistent purpose, although its exact nature (whether supplemen- 
tary, or corrective, ot both) may be difficult to determine. In any case 
the fact remains that the Johannine mentions of "the Twelve" are 
divergent from those of the Synoptists, except where the latter use the 
phrase "Judas One of the Twelve." 

[1671 f] As the first Vocabulary is constructed largely for the purpose' 
of giving an EngUsh reader a general view of the Gospel words that Jn 
does not use, I have inserted in it some words that do not occur in all 
three Synoptists. So, too, in the later Vocabularies, iiratter will be 
occasionally inserted that may not fall strictly under their several 
headings, if it will be useful for further reference, and if it can be ijiven 
with such numeral statistics, or annotations, that the reader cannot 
possibly be misled. See, in particular, 1838. 





. Greek Mk 





wpovrt0niu j^ 1 

■ ' 

7 ' 


Adultery, adulter- 

»™*«*'''. fO'X^'f'h 

oiu, etc. 

lUHXiia, lUHX'ith 

. K^xi' 5 



K^it'' ' S 



Age, world [apart 
from the phrase 

' ■ .-■- ■■■■■' 

tltri, a2»a]> 

'■u> ^ :-■ ■"■! 



Ahd (Hebraic)' 

niu e. 400 

c. 150 



Angel or messen- 

, ^ ■" 


iyyi^ot .,■ 6 




Angry, s, Indig. 


iyaraxrtm J 


Anxiety, s. Care 

><V)M,»i.o .( I ■■ 


Apart, privately* 

<lir' c'iluir 7; 



Apostles U-e. the 

4 -■ 

<dw<loToX4H ' 3 ■ 



' [M78»] "Chrl."opposite'to any word signifies "in Christ's words,' 
and ""narr." signifies " hi narrative." Thus " body " (Chri.) is put down as 
occurring twice in Mk, but Mk uses it also twice in "narr." By "narr." 
(unless called "strict narr.") is meant "outside Christ's words." "Narr," 
tHerofore, would include words assigned to the Baptist, Pharisees, 
disciples, «c. ("Strict narr." excludes such words.) For Addenda see 

« "Add" is Hebraic in Lk. xx. Ij, i j (lit.) " he yi^lH^rf to send," R.V. 
'•he sent ^c/." 

> [IfiTJa] "Age," "World." Jn ix. 3J R.V. "Since the world' began 
iiK rot) alitvot)." Yoi Jn's use of al^v elsewhere, alwS^ in the phrase 
fir ritv aiwa "for ever," sec 1713 </. 

* "A 'id" ("in oratiorte historica ex simplici Hebracorum narrandi' 
modo," Bruder (i8gg) p. 456). The numbers are roughly given. See 2133. 

* "Anj^el." The instances in Jn art i. 51 "Ye shall sec.the ^/ff^/Zr 
of God ascending and descending on the Son of man,"'xi|. 29 "an nngtl 
hath spoken to him," xx. 12 "she beholdelh two ungils" 

* [1672 *] " Apart, privalel;^," freq. applied by Synoptisls to Christ's 
teaching. Contrast Jn xviii. 20 '* I have spOken^ openly to the world. 

. I ever taught in synagogue and in the temple. ..and in secret spake 
i nothing. 

' "Apostles." Jn xiii. 16 "nor is an a^of//< greater...'^ means "any- 
one sent " .ind is not confined to one of the Twelve. 




EnglWi Creek 





Arise iourritai (In intrant, 
„ [used of the 
sun, Clauds etc.] „ „ 


' '. J'' 


■ o 

Ask, »'.<. question^ iw§pttriut (not 




2 or 1 




ittrnXilcvoiuu • 




[WIS] Ailonish(ment)' 





Saii^, Sa^oiuu 



■■ • ,"• 

[9m„^» . , 

7 . 



' [1672 f] "Ask," i-e. question. )n in. jj "He is of agt, ast him" 
(marg. ^pinnjimTt), xviii. 7 ''He asiej them, Whom seek yef^ see alsp 
"pray" (1888) and "ask," ,;mr<i>i (1708). N.ll. " 2 or 1 " indicates v.r. 

' [1673<2] " Astontsh(ment)." In Jn, tfav^ta^ is used twice in narrative. 
In iv. 27 "they [the disciples] it£aH If marvfl that he Was talking with 
a woman," it implies a shock of surprise at Christ's unconventional 
conduct. In yii. ij, "the Jews therefore btgan io marvtl saying. How 
knoweth this man letters," the context seems to shew that the " marvel " 
was not that of receptive awe, but that of perplexed hostility. In iii. 7, 
V. 28, " marvfl riot," Jesus rebukes " marvel," as implying warn, of insight, 
and in vii. 21, irt answer to the Jews, who say "Thou hast a devil," He - 
says " I have done one work and ye all marvel' i.e. stare at it in 
unspiritual amasen^ent. So far, Jn's use suggests that he takes the 
word ('n 11 Aa/ rrtj* (which it has generally in the CanonicalXXX). 

[1673 4] There remains Christ's reply to the Jews- that (v. 18) 
"soughf the more to kill him" after the mighty work of healiiig 
accomplished by Him on the sabbath. To these would-be murderer^ 
blind to the divinity of beneficence, Christ replies (v. 20) "(Ueater works 
than these will he [the Father] shew him [the SonJ— that yd mnjf go 
OH manfelling (iva vfifU BiMvfidCV')" If "marvel" is here in a'bad sense, 
as in O.T., this is akin to the famous saying of Isaiah quoted elsewhere 
by John (xii. 38—40) that God " blindetl^''' the eyes of men " lAal Ihty 
might not l^tva ^4) SH with their eyes." \So here the meaning would be 
that the Father will shew the Son still greater works— and all that yt~ 
the pronoun is emphatic~ye, blind and resolute enemies of ' the light, 
may go on persisting in your Mfifrv/. 

[1673ci It is not surprising that Mr Burkitt's Syriac text (SS is 
illegible) renders this difficult passage " AmI do not wonder," adding, 
"that I have said [it] to you." But the comparison of Jn xii. 40 makes 
the meaning consistent with the language of Isaiah, as well as with the 

161 12—2 




■ :..m 






'— :4"■■ 




-^ ■» . 

o . 






. :3»' 

' fV 


Bott(j) - 


"-;.»• -• 

' 4 


Bed, couch (I) 

KXtnlf ■ 

'-■"■■ ^i-'- 


Bed, couch (j)' 


■■. i • 

" "o 







Johannine qm of th^ verb "marvel "-^which, in ihc Fourth Gospel, 
is lut/ a virtue but a r/r**, quite distinct from "iiwr" ar *^ rrtvrfuce." 

[1673*/] Mk vi. 6 has "And he marveiUdiiSaviuiatp) because of their 
unbelief" (in the visit to Natareih) where the parall. Mt. xiit. 56 (? I.k. iv. 
16—34) has no such statement. But Mt. viii. 10, Uc. vii, 9 have. "But 
having heard it Jesus marveUed {iBuv^atv)^ i.e. at the belief of the 
centurion^ In the former case, the word is equivalent to "Ihocked"* 
as in Gal. i. 6 (which means that the Apostle is "shocked" at tbc„ 
Galatiati. instability); in the latter, it implies wonderinf; admiration. 

[1673«] It appears from Hwckh's Grtek Inscriptions (4768 foil.) that 
Xhmv tOavfiaaoj Or ctSoK lai tSaiftaaa, was the regular phrai^^ use among 
toUriiits in the second century to record their impressions after visiting 
the underground tombs at Thebes, ** I saw and tuondered." If tht phrase 
had- already become hackneyed in that sense, John may hav«_had an 
additional reason for' disliking ^v^d^w as a word to express Christian 
wonder or awe. An interpolated but very early tradition in Lk. xxiv, 12 
says that Peter, after visiting the empty tomb " went away (.jir^Xtffv) to hit 
home (wpor wrhy) wondrrinx at that which had come to pass." .The 
interpolation somewhat resembles Jn xx. 8~ 10 wMch says that* one at all 
events of the two disciples "/au/ and Mirned^ aAd then that they "went 
away again to their homes (dn-^Xtfov »tv trpos ai/rovs)," Possibly Jn's 
"joW and Mieved" contains an allusion not only ta the general 
hackneyed phrase "saw and leondered^'' but also to some particular 
Christian application of it, such as appears in the interpolation— which 
is regarded by W. H. as l>eing of very early date. 

1 [1673/] '* baptist,'* in the Synopiists, distintjuishes John the son 
of Tacharias from John the A^stle. In the Fourth Gospel, John the 
Apostle is never mentioned by name! though probably implied in "the 
disciple that Jesus loved," and in other phrases. The Fourth tiospel 
mentions a John as father of Peter but only in Christ's words (" Simon, 
son of John "). 

' "Bed." KpajSoTTot (Mk ii. 4— la, Jn v. 8— 11, also pi. Mk vi. 55) is 
a term Condemned by the Grammarian Phryeichus. 

■.. : . ..-.;/:■,' 162 '.".'' 

." ^- ■*" ,. ' V • - .-''t;.*.',.''--''- V ■■■■.•■■*-*; „.■ ■ 

jjfm;- • 









[1«T4] Begin' 






Bthold 1 (0» 

tli,i (not Of) 





Behold 1 (i) 



. .■♦, 



Believe, believiiifi 

s. Faith 

■ if.-' 

.'" ■ '• ■' 



. , i>:'- 


.•.', i» 

Beseech, etc.* 

waptticvX49i ' 

: 9.- 

9 , 




viSihyi : 

•■■- ■■».. 


-;, t 

: . ' 


irrrfti'di' - 


':A- ' 



Blaspheme, blas- 


ffkeurffnjiiitt, -ia 

' t 

■- ; r;- : 

■jl ■ 


Bless, blessea' 

tvXoyiu, -tiT6f 

■■ «•■ 

■ i-':-. 


-. -'l ■ 









'■'■■, *' '. 

„ ■'•■y ■ 

,' i- 

' [1674(1} ** Begin," only one* in Jn (xiii. 5) " He Hfgam to wash the 
feet of the disciples." This unique use of the word in jn {as contrasted 
with its frequent use in the Synoptists) is very noteworthy and may have 
been among the reasons that led Ongen (a^ /oL-.*ti\ict it, "380 B) to interpret 
it as meaning thafjesus ^^dfj^an" the purilication mrw and completed it 
afterwards. I n such a writer as J phn, " began " must be assumed here to 
have some definite meaning, and not to be used as'in Mark. 

'[1674*] '* Behold f" Jn iv. 35.and xvi. 52 (Chri:>, xil. 15 (quot. . 
Zech. ix. 9), xix. $ (Pilate) " flM^^/^yJJrhe man!" Mk and Jn never use 
it in narr. : Mt. and Lk. freq. use jt in narr.,.and tive times agree in Using 
it {362) against the parail. Mk." 

' "Beloved," always with "son" exc Mt xii lft(quoting Is. xlii." i- 
<VA<>cT(ir). But see "love.^tjyairaw (17l6f/ foil, 1728w foil., and 1744(i)foll.). 

* "Beseech." nnpaxaX^c* in Mk and. parail. Mt.-Lk. is used of 
"beseeching**. addressed to Jesus 1 outside the Triple Tradition it 
sometimes means " comfort," " exhort," r.^. in Mt. ii. iS, v. 4, L.k. iii. 18, 
xvi. 25. ' - ' 

' ** Bird." Mt. xxiii. 37, Lk. xiii. 34 have Ai* r^oiror t^vu iirurv¥iiy*i... 
'Opvis is not used by Jti. ' , 

* " Blaspheme," etc., in Jn, only x. 33 aXki wtpi (iXairt^fuar, uttered by 
the Jews, X. 36 {i^ic X/yrrc ore, BXao^^ic, by Christ replying to the 

' " Bless," ia Jn. only xii. 13 tlXoyrifiivot 6 ipx6fu»ot..., the cry of the 
multitude quoting Ps. cxviii. 26. For fuutaptQS,. " blessed," see 1850/. 

* " Branch," KXaAot. ' Bitf Jn has kX^/ui, " branch " in his Parable of 
the Vine xv. 3, 4, 5, 6. 


[1W8] . 


Englidi Grtdi Mk Ml. 

[1675] Break (brea 1)' <Xiu. .■' : 'j. j 
Bring word, i.- , ' 

Build, «, alto ', 
-, • Houm" oltoioHfa ,: ' •;. 4- > ' » .' 

'* . 


Call, <>. name^ 
Call, i.e. tummwi, 
■ invite* 
Call anyone to 
[1676] fare.' 

Cast out, s. DeviU 



Mk intrrvfiiMity Mt.- 
' bk. 4tiaroin-4pj(ijt 


., J- 



• [1675 d] " Break (bread)." The Synoptistinever use this word except 
in connexion with the Feeding of the Five Thousand (where Jn oqiits it) 
and at the Eucharist. Mk and Mt. use it alio in the Feeding of the Four 
Thousand, which Lk. and Jn omit. 

' [1675^] "Bring word," diroyytXia, in Jn, only xvi. 3j "/ivi/ZtriHg 

tvoni to (R.V. tell) you plainly about the Father." 'Airiryy>AXai in the 

Gospels, apart from quotations, should never be rendered " tell " (as 

^f in R.V. Mk v. 14, 19, vi. 30 etc.) but almost, always "bring word" (as in 

.. R.V. Mt. i|. 8, xxviii. 8) or "report." Epictetus ii. 23. 2 condemns those' 

%irho asserted that there was no "repotting power (Hvpaiut dirayytXrui)" 

in the senses (comp. Sleph. quot. Sext. Pyrrh. i. 197 oU annyytXTitit). 

There is a " spirit," he says, infused in the eyes, which goes forth from 

. them and returns to them with an impression of the things seen, and no 

"messenger" is "so swift." The Sibyl (vii. 83) calls the Logos "4 

-t^tporttr (dfriyyfXr^^) of logoi," and .Steph. quotes Euseb. Dem. v. 202 & 

Btnv Xoyov cV av&fi»n^f r^r rot) irarpin twTf^iat Airayyt)iTiK6y. The word* it 

therefore appropriate to the .Spirit of the Son in heaven, "reporting" to 
man on earth. 

' [1676 (] " Buildv" in Jn, only ii. 20" In forty-six years was this temple , 
built." Comp. Mk xiu. 58, xv. 29 parall. to Mt. xxvi. 61, xxvii. 40 about 
the building of a new'Tcmple (riot mentioned in Lie). 

* "Call," i.e. name. Mk xi. 17, "sMnll ie calkdi House of prayer," 
quoting 1$. Ivi. 7 ; Jn i 42 •^Ukou shall it called Cephas." • 

' ".Call," i.e. invite, summon. In Jn, only ii. 2 "Now Jesus aljali'itr 
invited, and his disciples." 

•"Care." Mk iv. 19 "Ihecum of the wArld" paralL ta Mt xiii. 22, 
Lk. viii. 14. The verb /upifinai. '" be anxious (or, careful) " is in Mt. (7), 













* ' 

4 , 



t4* vov 



■4 , 

s " 

, Child (Kttle)' 


. la 




Child (infant) 

■ v^viot 


a , 


e ■ 

Ch'ildnn (babci, 



o ' 



Chosen, masc, i.e. 


the elect' 

/>;kf>r^ . 



■ * 






City (narr.) 

■ritXu ' • 

• 7 ■ 

• '3 



Cleanse, make 


clean, purjiTy ' 












I . 






\ [1676<i] "Child," r/«roi> Jn i ij "He gave them authority to 
become children of (jod," vni 39 " If ye are t-hildren of Abraham," ki 5a 
"...that he mif;ht (falher...the children of God." To ^^ becotw children of 
God^ is apparently equivalent to "being (Jn iii. 3) ^^ born from itSove'' 
without which, it is said, a man ^' cannot sec the kingdom of Cod " : and 
the two expressions together appear to resemble the tradition peculiar to 
Matthew (xviii. 3) " Except ye turn and become as little children ye shall 
in no wise enter into the kingdom of bcavcii." T<«»/a (pl) is in Jn xiii. 3.3. 

' [1676 i] " Child (little)," irmJiiv. Jn iv. 49 " Come down before my 
child die," xvi. 31 "But when she is delivered of the child, she re- 
membereth no more the anguish," xxi. j " Children, have ye (R.V.) aught 
to eat?" In the Synoptists, "(little) childrerv" may be called a "funda- 
mental word" of doctrine. In jn it is never used except vocatively, and 
hence, in the Preface (p. ix) it is said to be omitted. On xxi. 5, see iSSSc. 

' (1676f] "Chosen," masc. Jn i. 34 (SS) "/he chosen [one] of God," 
W. H . " son " (683 a). Comp. Lk. xxiii. 35 " the Christ of God the chosen 
[one]." Elsewhere the word is masc. pl. as in the Epistles, "the fleet 
(ones}" Jn has "choose" five limes— .Mk (1), Mt. (o), JJt. (4)— and 
always in^he words of Christ, concerning His choice (exc. Jn xv. i6 "Ye 
did hot choose me "). 

* "Cleanse," used by the Synoptists mostly of "cleaptjAg* (torn 
leprosy, which (1666) Jn never mentipris. 

' [1676i/) "Clothe," in Jn, only xix. a " Ibty, cloth/d him udlh 
(tripiiliakoi' avrdr) a purple garment," probably written (1806-6) with 
allusion to Synoptic parallels, including Lk. xxiij. 11 " Htying clothed him 
in gorgeous apparel {wtpiffaymv tirSi^Q Xa^w^)." 

... . i . 165 , 






Greek •*. 

Vk . 




[W7] Coli' 

irAXof • 

■4 ■-■ 


.-■ '« ■-.' 

. i 



i.;;--.JOf6 . 


'■«« . 




•::\-: ♦ - 

■"^; ♦^ . 

Command (2) 


. J !■'■*■ , 



Command (3) 


♦ '. '■■\, ^ 

■ -'«.'■ 

-■'■■ «. 

"Common," make' 



^- i-- 


. '■ Compassion, com- 

1 t^tot 

.-■•. 0. ■. 

- ■$■':• 

■ ■ ' »".. 

passionate, pity- 



■ : •; 

• ■.■■4- - 



' 9W}^X^K«I^ 

.- '■■: -4 / 


■ -[y 






[MT8J Confess' 

f'^o^oy/o/MU. . 


■ »-. 

■'■'. I :■ 

Country, the c. 

-■' ;-■'■ . V 

round about 


;.. V\ 

■'-» -• 

\- i V ■■ ■ 


Cross (Chri.) 

arwp^ ./■'. 



'•■ .» ' 


Crucify (Chri.)' 

OTOVpoM . •. ■ , 

■ *'' 


. ';■'' ■■ 

Cruci^ with 


- '"'■ '■ 


' . ": 

■ i •"',■;' 

. .' ■ ■> 

'- • 

' "Colt," in Jn, only xii. 15, quoting Zech. ix. 9. Jii lays much less 
stress than the Synoplisis lay on the Finding of the Colt. He uses the 
word "ass," where Mk-Lk. use "colt," while Mi. uses "ass and colt" 
(1861 »). 

• [1677 n] " Come to," iri' Jn, only xii. 11, of the Greeks, who " cnmt It 
Philip " saying, '( Sir, we would see Jesus.' In the Epistles, it occurs only 
in I Tim. vi. 3 (?), Heb. (7), 1 Pet. ii. 4, and always of approaching k 
source of grace. 

' 11677^] "Common," i.e, unclean' All th«i< instances occur in 
Mk vir. 2— 23 and the parallel Mi. (Lie omits' the whole). Mk vii. 3, J 
also has {its) Koipbc (adj.) in the phrase Kotwats jftpaiv,, 

• [1677 c\ "Compassion." The Synoptic words" meaning "pity" 
sometimes correspond to the Heb. ^DH, which also means "kindness," or 
" Iming-Jkiiuhuis.'' This might sometimes be expressed by " love," which 

. occurs in Jn mote'frequeiuly than in all the Synuptists taken together. 

• [1677 rf] "Condemn." Jn, however, usfs npiVo, "judge" freq. (19)— • 
Mk never, Mi.-Lk. seldom (1714</— /) — and often where the context 
indicates "condemn," as Jn iii. 17, 18 (where A.V. has "condemn* 

• [1678 1] "Confess." Mk i. 5, Mt, iiL b " confim'itg their sins," Mt 
xi. »5. Lk. X. Jl " 1 mate cmfission, or actmnuUdgmtnl, to thee, Father." 
Lk. xxii. 6 (act) iim)u\iyii<riii, "[Judas Iscariot] madt an ngrtfmenl.'' 
Jn (1861/?) has aitoXnyim but not of "confessing sins" (exc. in Epistle). 

' "Crucify" (Chri.) Mt xx. 19, xxiii. 34^ xxiri. 2 (1806). 

.-.:,:.■ "■■ .■-■•.. 166 - ■ ■ . , ■■-. i 






Ml. * 


J» , 

Cnicify with 

(another) ' 











- Q 

. <••' '. , 




:- « 

[WK] David« 




Deaf or dumb 

.--H,: ,. , 


6 » ■ . -3 

Daiith, put to' 


» ' 


4 -. ►*^ 

Deny utterly' 


4 ' 

4 , 

• /.^'i 

Dewit, dewlate 



(adj.) ■■ 




^ J 






Devils (plur.) 

6 or J 



Devil(»), catuout 

JiffiXXmi. . 








V 1 

« 1 • '4 



i • 


o '^ 


caCMf Jj^m/ 




' [1678 A] "Crucify with laitolher]." Thii occurs in Jn xix. Jl. Iluithe 
johannine context so dlflers from the Synoptic as to make the meaninfp in • 
Jn "crucified with the ftril matt/actor^ not "crucified Vith Jtsus." Lk. 
omits the «ord altogether. See 1817 r. ^ 

« [1878f] "Cup." UcomltsMk X. 38— 9, Mtxx.3i-r3"ATeyeabk 
to drink the m/..,?" Jn's single instance is (Jn xViii, 11) "The ftp that 
the Fnther hath given me..." , 

• [1678rf] "Daughter," in J.n, only xii. 15, qudting Zech. ix. 9 
"ZJ.JK;?*/*'^ of Zion." 

« [1679(1] " David." Hoth Jn's instances are in vii. 42 " Did (tot the 
Scripture say that from the seed of David, and from IJethlehem the 
village where David wu, the Christ is to come?" 

' " Death, put to." Lk. xxi. 16 (diff. from parall. Mk xiii. 12, Ml x, 21) 
"they shitU put to death some of 'you," comp. Jn xvi^ z "he that kilteth 
(<liro«T<ii'iit) you." For "death," see 1710 f—rf, 

•" Deny utterly." Jn has "deny," apv/o^uu, concerning Peter's Denial 
xiii. 38, xviii. 25, 27, and i. 20 "confessed and denied not." 

' [1670^] "Destroy." But, corresponding to KoraAvw. used concerning 
the temple or its stones (Mk xiii. 2, xiv. 58 etc.), Jn ii. 19 has Xwrurf. 

' [1879 f] "Devil(5), possessed with," in Jn, only x. 21 "Others said, 
these are not the works of am pmstssed with a devil." But Ji* has — 
always in dialogue->d<u^Fu»' 3j|»(s} and htu^vw (1). 

• [1679</] "Disease." Jn has iiMifm (2) and aaeirim (8). The 
former is used once in Mt (viii. 17 "took our infirmitiea ") but that is 
in a quoUtjon froi ' the Heb. (not LXX) of Is." liii. 4. 

'67 ■'-;.: -^ ■.■</■•■■•-- 



; E.«iuh . 






, Diitant (alio in»n< 



"enough," "have 
in fiilPP 






Divide uunder' 




i*o\vM (R V 



^ 4 





paW] Ear* 


• 7 






Eat' , 






■■■ EWew" ■ 



Elect,' f . Clioitn 












o ^ 

Enough (tee note 

above on Dl(- 



inix- ' 




' " Distant etc " 1 he nambert inchide the three nwanings. ^ „ 

' *' Divide asunder," in Jn, only xiii. 14, quoting Ha. xxiL 18 aboiit Ifef^ 
division of Christ's garments. 

• " Divorce." These numbers do not include liimXuo «. " teleaui^i 
"send a«v»y " tic. 

• "Ear.* Jn xviii. 10, 26 has iripun (1), irlor (l), both about the i 

• [ISSOn] "Earthquake." Mk xiii. g(parall. Ml. xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 11)' 
predicts earthquakes In the Last Days. Mt. viii. 24 ir<ur/u>t luyat ry^rtro 
iv T. ,ffaXdairjt means "tempest," Ml, xxviii.. 2 mentions an earthquake 
at the time of the Resurrection (not in Mk-Uc-Jn). 

• [X680a "Eat." This does not include («> ^oy«;» and (*) rpSytv. 
'♦oyfii' is fre^ in all the .Synoptisis, and fairly frcq. in Jn. T/mytiy occurs 
only in Mt. (i) (xxlv. 38 "eatinp and drinking") Jn (5) always of eating 
Christ's flesh, exc. in xiii. 18, quoting Ps. xli. 10, (Heb.) "he that ratelk 
my bread." *EffA'*i, th^ pres, tense, occurs in discussions about eating 
with sinners, and in the narrative of the Eucharist etc. 

' " Elijah," in Jn, only i. 20, 2$- 

• [1880 f] "End," in Jn, only xiii. 1 " He [Christ] loved them to the 
//></ (2319— 23)." There is nothing in Jn about "the end" as meaning 
the Last Day etc. See 1716 a. 

' * " Enemy." Mk xii. 36, only in quoution (Pi. ex. i) psnOL to Mt. xxi). 
44, Lk. XX. 43 (1««) 










Enter, go into 




EicKdingly (i^ 




Exccfdingly (2) 



Exceedingly (3) 




Exceedingly (4) 




[MM] Face' 





Faith, or, belief 

(1470) • 



, « • 

Faith, have, in. 


i.f. believe 




C. 100 

FaiihfuL, believing 





Faithless (ness) 


unbelieving (-be- 


<i<r«rrfo i-ia, «c} 




Fall (Chri.)' 



11 or 13 


Fall (tiarr.) 





Fall against,' fall 



down before 




Fast, fasting 

vflintia, fljma, 




^>^>r * 




Fear (vb.) (Chri.)« 


. 3 



Fear (vb.) (nan-.) 





' [1681a] "Face." In apparent reference to a passage where^ihe 
Synoptists use (MIf i. 3,'Mt xi 10, Lk. vn 27) irf>o nimrmnnv, Jn m 28 

uses Jfivpwr0tp, 

' [16BM] "J'aithful," "faithless," in Jn, only xx 27 "Be not ««• 
• MlevtHg {Hwiarm) (R,V. /«M/«j} but bfhntinj( {ntaroty* ^In idiomatic 
English, ^^ faithless" now means "not keeping faith," and is applied to 
breaking one's word, breach of trust etc. Jn docs not mean this 

* " Fall " (Chri.), in Jn, only xii 24 "Except the gram of com havmg 
JtslUn {*«vm) into the e^rth die " 

' [1681 f] " Fear" (n), In Jn, always in a bad sense, and in the phrase 
(Jn vii. 13, xix. 3?, xx. 19) " because of the/iror of the Jeivs," /./. because 
they were afraid of the Pharisees. Mk iv. 41 and Mt.-Lk. freq. use 
^d/3or iii a good sense, to mean ^tmie" Comp., the only passage 
mentioning fear in the Epistle, 1 Jn iv. 18 "There is no fear in love,i>ut 
perfect love casieth out/ir«r, because /lur' hath puniahhient." 

' [1681 rf] "Fear" (vb.). Jn vi. 20 "It is I ; fear not." In Chnst's 
words it is always used thus negatively in Mk (2), and almost atways 
in Mt.-Lk. In Mt.'s narrative it is once used by an angel Mt xxviii. 5 
"/Vrtr not ye.'" 


ik . 


lU^kh OfMk 





F««(p1ur.) aXi'yw 





Field iypit 

. 8 



[Wtejfire' wip : ,,; 

>.;4 ;..' 

'"■ •* ' . 



First (»dj. or noon, 
not adv.) (Chri.)' w^int . „, 

'■- , 

:'-:'J ' : 

•t. " 

> ?■ 

■ o 

Flee* ♦«>• '■ 

V; ;»■■/. 



,.■ ,«. 

Forgive, forgive- 

neu* "l^'1H«. ^<nt 





G«in(vb.)» ttpiairit'.. 





Gather* iwmrirfH-.i''". 

■ ..J ,v 




Generation ll*'fi. 


'HJ ■ 



Gentile,!. Nation! ■ * . 

.- " ■ ■ -" .' ■'■'', 

Gift' . .M(W ; ■' 

r. ' 

:••* .' 

'■ ■■■« : 

Go before*." . «/io4[f# ' '; 

",■ s''^^ 

6 • 


;:■:;<> ^^ 


, ,«; 


Go before, go for- 

■ /■ \ 

' -', ' -..^ 

ward' itpaipx^iLOi 



■ .■*. 


• [1682 rt] " Fire," in Jn, only xv. 5 " Tkey gather them and call them 
into the/"," in the metaphor, or parabU, of the Vine. Ml. twice uses 
"fire" in connexion with "Gehenna,! or "hel^ (v. ]}, xviii. 9) which' 
does not occur in J n. ' 

' [UI82^] " Kir!t.' Jo omils all discourKS aix>ut "who shall be 
/«/," as also about "who sTiall be the greaUil' {1683i— f)i 

' [1688 f] "Flee," in Jn, only x. j, IJ, of the sheep "fleetng" from 
the stranger, and the hireling from the wolf. 

• [WSiil] "Forgive." This does not include ai^'a^iu meaning "leave," 
"suffer." " Forgiveness" occurs nowhere in Jn, " forgive " only in xx. jj 
" Whose soever sins ye forgive, they axeforgivtn unto ihem." See also 
(1090) " Remission of sins." 

' [1683r] "Gail)." Comp. "reward," fLurtit, Ml. (10), but Mk (1), 
Lk.(3),Jn(i). -»• , ' .. 

• [1683/] "Gather." Jn xi. 52 (iva xol ri rUvn rov 0tov...iTvrvy*yg 
tit fit) uses tntfoyt* in a sense similar to tITat of intavfaytt in (a) Mt 

. xxiii. 37, Lk. xiii. 34, ir«ra'*ir rffiiXtftra .iwurwetfayiiif {L\t. t'wt(rv¥tt(m) rA 
V^Kva (fov (where, however, Jn speaks of the scattered children of God 
generally, but Mt. Uc. refer to the children oL Jerusalem), and in (>) 
Mk xiii. 27, Mt. xxiv. 31 Virurvi-rf^i (Mt. r^ovotr) row itXtKtovt aimv , 
(< riK Ttinr. irijuM. All Use irvxiya, Mt. more fr^, than Mk Uc. and 
Jn taken together. 

' [1682 j'] '.'Gift." See "gain," and " reward," ficq. in Mt. Jn has the 
form imiiti once (iv. 10) " If thou knewest the gi/l of Goo." 

■ [16824] "Go before, or, forward." Jn generally prefers simple 

■ : 170 '■. ■ ' 





I EmIUi Gitck 





Good [applied to 

i" a penon]' iytSit 



r. 6 \ 

:;■ I'-;. 

'■ Goipcl •ioyyAwl' 

■■' 7 

;_--f ■ 

V .'«' ■< , 

*. ' 

Goipel, preach ih*" 


' :' >■ ^ .■ ■ 

(lit. sp«ak goi- 

pel)' <i»yyMi», H|fM> 





1 Governor" T)*(W«( 

1 . 




l^taN xV*t 




1 ... 

■IS] Great* lUyn 





' Great, luflicient l««>>(t_ 

'. »■■■ 




how great, 1 

S''' ' ' 

how niU(h, 1 irmror 

: iV. 



; , how many t ''-".;' 

■ '■'. 

Greater (of pier- 

- '. 

,- " ■- ■■ 

1 »oni)» pi'f.. 

•1 ■■ 

.-■■-* ■■ 

'f "^ 

' 7". 

verbs with prepotitionf to compound verba. Comp. jn xiv. 2 " I go 
to prtpare [tmit^taiS » V^Cf for you.' Thi» impliei " going before." 

1 "Good," appl. to a penon, in Jo, only vli. 11 "Some ^d, He [)'./. 
}e*aa]is j[oi?i/." 

^ [ItHij] " Gospe), preach." See also " preach," " proclairn," i'./. 

. MiUmnrti, which Jn never uses. On the other hand, jn uses XoA^n, 

'yi^ak," more freq. than Mk and Lk. taken tDgelher. 

/ ' [1682/] "Governor," or ruler. Each of the Synoptists uses the word' 

/once in Christ's prediction that the disciples will be tried btfore "rulirs 

*^d kings." The other instances of Ml. and Lk. (except Mt. ii. 6) refer 

to Pilate. „ 

* [168S<i] "Great" is never' applied by Jn to persons as it is in 
Mk.x. 42— jajid parall. Mt., (Lk. "greater"), jn applies it i^iyr) only' 
to (vi. i«) "wind." (vii. 37, xia. 31) "day," (yi. 43) "voice," (xxi? 11) 
"fishet." , 

' [16834] "Greater," of persons. Mk's only instance is Mk ix. 34 
" They bad conversed with one another in the way [on the quaation], 
Who is the /«<i/«/ [litj ;fr/«//r] (n't /MiC<»»)?" Mk represents Jesus, 
in His replyy'as sa^g-' Whosoever of you desireth to be >?"/,"' but 
Mt. and Lk; both in the parallel and elsewhere assign to Jesus the word 
"greiUer" concerning "persons"— in particular about the Baptist (Mt. 
xi. 1 1 ovK iyityffrrai...itMiCi**.,.& ii ttiupArti}Ot,,,iiti(mif^ and sim. Lk. vii. 28). 

[1683 <r] Jn assigns to the Samaritan wonun the words (iv. 12) "Art 
thou fn<i//r than our father Jacob?" and tu the Jews (viii. $3) ''Art thou 
grtttUr than our father Abraham ?" But when the word is used by 
Jesus it is either used with a Hf^ative (xiii. 16) "the bond-servant is not 
greaUr than his„ master nor the apostle grttUer thiin the [apostle's] 
sender" (comp. xv. 20), or else applied to the Father as "greater" than 

.7. . V 









H»Bd.(Chri.) ,., 



Band (nmrr.) 


19 fl 



Have (in fuU) (K« 

'. - ■ ,■ ; 


note above on 

. ' ■ 



\ t 




y . 


■ Heal(j)« 



Hell, ». Fire 



Here (Chri.) 


^ 6 


Here (narr.) 


6 ' 


Herod (ihe'Gieat) 



Herod (Antipaa) 






,0 ■ 




High ■ ' 



Higheit ■ 

Urumt f ■ 

a- * 

7 , 



< 19 


Home (j) . 

J'« , . 

■ .n 





Hunger (vb.)« 



Ihe Son (xiv. aS) or "greater" Ihan all Ihingi (? x. ?9 W.H. marg.). 
John auumes that all that i> great and good in men comn to them from 
their being in the Father (or the Father in them) so that arithmetical 
comparisons betwMn mail and man are /it of place. Comp. Plato 69 A 
{Pkatd. ti) which declares that the balancing of pn'fa vfiAt A(jrra is not 
"the right exchange with a view to virtue* 

> [U8S</] " Heal" (iX in jn, only v, 10 "The Jews therefore began 
to say to him IM had itin kialid (ry riBtpawniitirfX" ij. the man that 
had been (Jn v. 5) " In his. infirmity.' 

' [1683 <] "Heal" (2). Mt xiii. 15, Jn xii. 40 art quotations frdn ' 
Is. vi. la Jn V. 13 4 1< taS^it (Tisch. intittir) is called i nStpawniUrt 
in. Jn V. 10. Jn iv. 47 "that he would come down and ktal his soo*' 
is a request to Jesus. It will be seen that Jn never uses tt^tnim or 
Uo/uu in his own person' except participially to describe people that hav6 
been healed. 

> [1684a] "House" (i). It means " househol<;i " in Jn iv. 53 and 
perh. in viii. 3; ("doth not abide in the house for ever"). It meani 
"the Father's house" in xiv. 3, and the house of Martha and Mary in 
xl. 31 and xii. 3. See also " build." 

* " Hunger," in Jn, only vi. 35 " He that Cometh uato me shall 
assuredly not ^uiigtr.'' 





EntlUh ' 

Creek , 






y-cy* , 




iiriKfNr^f, trii 



► • Incmte, grow'' 





Indignant, b«- 





Inherit, Inherit- 

ance, inheritor 

«Xl|(i«r.)rf», ^ ^ 











1« ' 


Jamea (un of 


Alphaeut etc)* 

• *' * 



James (ion of Zebe- 

dee or brother of 

S • 


' 4 . 


' o 




John (jon of 







Juil, justify etc, 




s. Righteous 

(M861 Wngdom' jSwdufa , 19 

Kne^ recogniie* irKytrtSvmm . 4 





♦ "t; 

> " Huabandman," in Jn, only xv 1 " My Father » the kuttamltiuui.'' 

• ;* Increase," in Jn, only iii- 30 " He must iitcre*ai but I oiutt 
decrease." » . 

« 11694^] "Indignant, become." 'o^ifo^ui, " be angry," occurs Mt. (j), 
Lk. (>),.but Mk (9), Jn (o), and therefore is not in this vocabulary. • 
, « " Isaac." In Mk, 9nly «ii. m,^quoiing Ex. iii. 6. * 

> [MMc] "Israel" jn iii. 10 "Art thou the teacher of Isnul and 
Jtnowest not these things?" appears to contain a shade of irony. It is 
the otaly Johlnnine instance of the use of " Israel" in the woftis of the 
Lord. The others are I 31, 49, xii. 13. Of Lk,'s instances, 7 are in his 

• [1681 </] "James." These names and numbers are giren ai in 
Bruder (1888). But the distincttbns ate doubtful The important fact is 
that "James" docs liof occur at all in Jn. 

' [lJ86rt] "Kingdom." "The kingdom of God, or, of heaven etc.," 
occurs more than 80 times in the Synoptists. In Jn it occurs only in the 
Dialogue with Nlcodemus, iii, 3, s, "the k. of God," and in xviil 36 
"my kingdom "(thrice repeated, 4ft fni)- * " 

^ [168B «] " Know, recognise." For yittiatm, am) oiSo, see ITUi 




johannine deviations 

Enflidi Greek 




Lame'. Jt**^*** 



V Lamp, lampstand' Xixrot, -ia 



I Last (excluding 

"last day")' lirxarot jt 
Lawful, it is' l(tcnti ^, 





Lead astray, go 

astray, err trXarim 



Lead away airoya 



Leave tanAtiwrn 



Leaven (n. and vb.) {it"y -<>* ' 

5 . 


Leper, leprosy - Xurpik, -a 



[16n] Liken, compare* iimim 

1 # 



Little ones' /uupoi 



Manifest, known 

(adj.)' , <txu,.pi. 

, 3 



Market-place iyo/ia 

3 , 


Marry, marriage' yii/»<«>, -i(m, -ot etc. 





Marvel, s. Astonish 

>• [U85i:] "Lame," in Jn, only v. ] "A multitude of them that ireic 
infirm, blind, tamt^ withered." ■ 

• [168Srf] "Lamp," \ixrot. The only insunce in Jn la »i,.35 "He 
[(./."John the Baptist] was the iamp." 

' [16tS<] "Last" is not applied to persons etc. in Jn, but "the /ast 
day,' i:r. the Day of Judgment, iffx9^ W^ft occurs 7 times in Jn and 
never in 3>-noptiftts. , 

^ " Lawful, it is," in Jn only v. tth" It is mat lawful for thee to take up 
thy bed," xviii. 31 "// u »«/ Zipv/v/ for us to kiH anyone." 

' [16860] '^iken," Mk iv. 3a " Like," jfiom, is also freq. in Mt. (9), 
Lk. (9) (but abs. from Mk) in connexion with parables. In Jn Ipxat 
occurs twice, Jn viii. 55 ^likt you," ix. 9 "liki him." 

• [1686^] "Little ones," in Triple Tradition, only in Mk ii. 4a, 
Mt. xviii. 6, Lk. xvii. 2 "one of these little oiut" [Mii + " tiat MitUf," 
Mt. + "tHtit Mievi in m; "]. The most reasonable explanation of Lk.'t 
omitting ',' that believe in me " and of Mk's omitting " in me " is that the 
bracketed words were early glosses explaining or defining " little ones." 

' [1686 1] " Manifest" The vb. ^tfim, however, occurs Mk (1 -t'la]), 
Mt (0), Lk. (o), Jn (9)i Besidt^Mk iv. 11 it occurs in Mk App. xvi. 11, 
14 concerning the Resurrection. ^^/Jn xxi. 1 (Hi), 14 it refers to the 
Resurrection. See in6i,y. , 

• [1686</] "Marriage," yiifHv occurs in Jnii. 1,1 of the "martiafe'at 



>* -lvYy'\ 









Mary (mother of 

the Lord)' 







• ■ .' ': ' '-• 

. ■' a-, ; 


Mercy, s. Co'm- 



Middle, midst 

(iVffot, •'» 

W<rr. •'« 

,. ■ . . - 

"'* ■. ■ 

ri fUmr etc. 5 




Might, mighty 






Migh'tv (possible, 


• 5 

■ > •' 

'. ■■* : 

'■ 0' 

Mighty (1)» 

^yv^■if ' 






1 is,, 

V " 5 


Money, silver' 


r 1 ■ 









[1887] Nations (plur.)«, 



f./. Gentiles 






Nor, be or draw 

near (vb.)' 








^ 3 


' " Mary." Mk vi. 3 " Is not this the carpenter, the son of Afaty ? ">' 
■ [1686<] "Mighty work." Instead of iwd^fir, "mighty works," 
which is the usual SyiM|>tic word for Christ's miracles, Jn uses aijiuut, 
"signs." To express "power," in a certain sense, he. freq. uses i^owria, 
where R.V. gives "povw" in txi. but sometimes " rigkt,^ sometimes 
" auihdrity^ in margin. " Authority " would perhaps be the best word in 
alirtost every case (156^94). ^, 

• [1686/] " Mighty " (a). Note that in Mk i. 7, Mt. iii. 1 r, I.k. iii. 16, 
John the Uaptist says, concerning J«sus, "Mightier (iii](«(>anfot) than 
I": whereas Jn i. 37 gives the context but ninits these words. 

* "Mock," in Mk x. 34, xv. 70, 31 concerning the "mocking" in (he 
Passion, predicted or practised, and so in Mt.-Lk. exc. Ml. ii. 16, 
Lk. xiv. 29, 

• " Money." Mk xvu\ i "They promised to give him [Judas Iscariot] 
mmuy." Jnii. 15 ha^nRpfi<iTa^"(copper) money." 

* [1687a] " Nations." The sing., however, iBvos occurs $ times in Jn 
(1718/) and also in Mk xiii. 8, Mt xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 10 "Ha/itin against 
HitUoK," Mt. xxi. 43 '"a KaHoH," Lk. vii:'^, xiiii. 2 "our nation.'' 

'[ie»7*] "Near." The adv. iyyi. " near," occurs Mk (3), Mt.- (3), 
U. (3), Jn (11). ., . , 

1 [1887^^ " Neighbour." In /n irXijiriiw occurs only in Jn iv. 5 
ir, «^iJr li 

" Sychar, 

A. V. 

to the parcel of ground...^ 





EnglUi Greek 





OI ■ » ■ . 4. . ; 

. .1' 

2 " 



Oath (M>><> Swear) ffMw '• 

f ■■ 




Oil IXoiD* 


3 . 

Old' WiAmit . ^ 




Olivn(Mtof) iKmiw [til -my) 





Other, another' m/m (not SkXot) 





Parable' irapa/SoXif: 





Paralytic iri^Xvnxit 

5 • 



o ■ 

Pats, pass by (1) iMp/prv»' 

s . 








Pay, render, re- 


quite' iwoliiuiu • 





[1688] People' \,,6, 

Philip- (founder of ^ 

' ';' 




. •■. ' 


Caesarea) . 4iXifririit 

1 ■ 


. "1 


Philip (husband of 

,' " 

Herodias) 40Uiriroc ' 


■■■ ";i, .,: 



Physician tarp6t 

V 3 • ' 

r ■•.' 

3' , ■ 


Pity, s. Compassion "; 

Plant (vb.) . ^>vr«v« -; 

.-:',« • 

',■':'■ 2' 

, 4 ■ 

Poor(Chri.)' •rrmxis •.;.' 

. ■?-; 

■.-V; : 

8 t>r- 9 


Power, s. Might 

■ ' 

Pr^y, prayer rportix'l'^ '1 





Preaoi, proclaim Kt}pv9<rm 









' [1887 rf] "Old." Compare, ho*eve( i Jn ii. 7 about the "o/rf 
commandment " (6is). i -. ■ . ■ 

• [1887 c] "(An)other," in Jn, only xix. 37 "Again anolkfr Scripture 
saith...." As it occurs only in Mk App. [xvi. 12] (as indicated by thc- 
bracketed [1]), and not in Mk, it ought not, strictly, to come jn this list. 

' " Parable," wapafioki^^ is, in jn, itaptHiua. See 1721 <*~w/. 
' " Pass by" (a), irapayv, injR^fcly ix- i " hni, fmsiing by, he iaw.a 
man blind from birth." '^ 

• " Pay, render," in Mk only xil. 17 " Rtmier therefore to C*e»«r...." 
s;ee " Render (18M)." , 

• [1888 a\ " People," in Jn, only in the saying of Caiaphas (xi. Jo, 
xviii. 14) tlial " one man " was to " die for llu peitpli." In Mk vii. 6 it is in 
a quotation from Is. itxix. 13 ; in Mk xiv. 3 it is in a saying of the chief 
priests ; in Mk li^ 32 W.H. have ixkmi.. 

' [1688 b] " Poor " (Ciiri.), in Jn ohiy xu. 8 " The>«*r ye hare always," 
om. by.S.S and D. , 

' [1888 c] " Prepare," ^r«^f«, in Jn, only xiv. 2—3 {Hi) "I go to 
prefari a place." Also <anur«fini(» occurs Mk (1), ML (1), Lk. (2), Jn (t>). 








Prepared, ready' 






Prevent, binder 









3 " 







• 6 


Privately, apart' 

car* iSiav 

■ 7 

. h 



[1689] Publican 






Put on(a garment). 

1 fVAvM 

'"(inid.)he clothed' 

in» . 1 







Aw-pov, hW, -wffir 



3 ■ 


Head (scripture)* 






Ready, s. Prepared 



4 . 




AtaXoyi'^o^alj 'itrfitit 



1 2 ' 



twiTitmtt ,„ 




' Receive* 

«€>i.Aini ... . 





Recline, lie, some- ] 

1 > \^ *•.'■' 






times 'cause 1u| 

■ ( 

lic» ) 

1 KartutXivti 




'U . 

Recline ii:illi» 


; 3 



* "Prepared," "ready," in Jn, only vii. 6 "but your time is always 

' " Priest," in Jn, only i. 19 "priests and Levitcs." 

* " Prison," in Jn, only iii. 34 " For John was not yet 'cast into prison.'' 
The numbers aljove do not include ^vKaxi) meaning '* watch,'' for which » 

<" Privately," see." Apart " (1672 *). 

'" Put on," see " Clothe" (1676). 

' [1689<i] "Read (scripture)," Jn has nviiyii'«>r<u once, but not of 
scripture, xix ■ 30 "This title, therefore, the Jews rrad." 

' [168B *] " Reason," when used in the phras; " reasoned among them- 
selves," is sometimes synonymous with " murmur," yoyyv^u, which occtirs 
Mk (o). Ml. (1) (in parable), l,k. (1), Jn (4)-^or with Jlioynyyilf*.. which 
occurs- in Lk, alone (3). 

^[1689^] "Receive,'* htx^li^h '^^ J"> °"'y 'v- 45 "the GaliUeans 
meivtil him " : but \ii)tiU»»t, " receive «'./•, welcome (a person)," occurs 
Mk(o), Mt. (o), Lk. (o), Jn(ii)(17il/— ^). n<viiXo>i/*i»« ^curi Mk (6), 
Mt. (16), Lk. (6), Jn (3), always of personi except in Mk vii. 4, but not 
always of friendly reception. 

■ [16B9r^ " Recline " (almost always at meals). 'AVannfun and liixi- 
iri'irrv, in a siipilar sense, iKcur in all the Four Ooipels. 

^ V«77 n-2 






Reed- '■ 
[1690] Remission of 
,t sins' 

&ptiTtt Afiapriilv 

Mk Mt. • I*. . Jo 

3 J I O 

' [1689/] "R«rf." Mk XV. 19, 36, Mt. x«»ii. 59, 30, 48, Lk. om., 
of the "reed" mentioned in the Passion : Mt. xi. 7', Lk. vii. 24 (the only 
instance) "a ntd shaken by the wind": Mt. xii. 20 (quoting Is. xlii. 
3) "a bruited ma." 

' [1690ii] " Remission oCsins," j^irit li/iopfwi', "is connected by Mk 
i. 4 and Lk, iii. 3 with the Baptist's preaching, but the parall. Mt. iii. 2 
omits it and mentions "the kingdom qf heaven" [Mt. xxvi. 28, however, 
inserts " for the remission of sins " in the account of the Eucharist where 
Mk-Lk. omit it]. The following facts bear on ^<ric in LXX and on 
Jewish traditions about the Hebrew original of (he word. , 

[1690^] (i) Apart from a few unimportant exceptions, Si^tra, in 
canon. LXX, means /^/ "rtUase" of ihe Sabhaticnl VriJr^ or of JubiUty 
and is not connected with atonement except once in a passage describing 
the scapf-goat that is (Lev. xvi. i5) "'for Asaset." Josephus speaks 
of Jubilee as the year {,Anl. iii. 11. 3) "wherein debtors axe freid from 
Iktir debts and slaves are ul al llbtrly" ; and he says that "the name 
denotes ApMesis.^ Isaiah Ixi. 1^2 connects ^^liberty {t^av) to the 
captives " with "the acceptable year of the Ijird" which (Ibn Eira says) 
means "the Year of Remission " : and this forms part of the text, so to 
speak, of our Lord's first sermon in Luke (iv. 17—19). I->ebtors sometimes 
sold themselves or their children into slaver>' ; so th:tt remissioo of 
servitude and remission of debt would naturally often go together. 

[1690 f] (ii) Part of the obsen^ance of Aphesis consisted in "re- 
.leasing" the land from service by abstaining from agriculture for a whole 
year and allowing the poor to partake of such fruits or crops as grew of 
themselves. That this institution was observed shortly before, and shortly 
after, our Lord's birth, we know from the testimony of Josephus Ant. xiv. 
16. 2, XV. 1. 2, Philo in Eus. Praep- Evang. viii. 7 and Tac. Hist. v. 4. 
Josephus says that it caused great distress when Herod besieged Jerusa- 
lem (as well it might), and he quotes {Ant. xiv. la 6) a decree of Julius 
CaesarTcmitting tribute for every Sabbatical Year. 

[1690 d\ (iii) That inconvenience was caused by (he " reinission " 
of debts in the Sabbatical Year as late as the birthtime of Christ, we 
know from the Mishna, which tells us that Hillel (probably about the 
beginning of the Christian era) introduced a- legal means of evading the 
Law because people entertained the (I)eut. xv. 9) "base thought" oT 
refusing to lend in view of the approaahing X/Mm'i. But the Cemara 
(/. Shebiith x. 4) adds (Schwab ii. 428) " Mais est-ce que cet acte [de 



Hillel] * pour originc la Tori? Non ; leulement loraque Hillel I'a 
innitu^, il I'a bas^ sur une allusion bibliquc." 

[1690r] (iv) In Jeremiah (>x»v. 13— IJ) the act of "proclaiming 
Aphtsis " is Shawn by the context to mean, ' or include, freedom from 
servitude ; and both that prophet and Nchemiah (Neh. x. 31 "that we 
would forgo lit Tsevmlk fiar ami the eraclioM of evtry dtti") contended 
against the wealthy for that very observance of AphtsU which Hillel 
practically abrogated. Hillel was the greatest and best of the Pharisees 
and acted <no doubl) from perfectly pure motives ; but the Pharisees 
of the next generation were called a " generation of vipers " by the 
Baptist, and he refused to give them baptism. It iV.^ntecedently pro- 
bable that peasants and fishermen would dislike the evasion* of the Law, 
and that the Baptist, the last of the prophets, who bade those that had 
"two coats" to "give to him that had none," would with still more force 
insist on the observance of the yatute Law of the Nation, which no 
Pharisee could abrogate. «r< 

[1890/1 (*) Josephus tells us t^at.the Baptist {Am. xviii. 5. a) 
insisted that his disciples, before "being baptized, should be "thoroughly 
purified beforehand by rigk/eousiuss" and he distinguishes ^^ rigkttousHtss 
towards ont another^ from "piety to God." Luke iii. 12, 14 tells us that 
the publicans and soldiers said to the Baptist " ff/in/ lAatl wt lio!" 
and were told how to exercise " righteousness " according to their ability. 
These two witnesses convert the above-mentioned probability to a 
certainty, that the Baptist would make rich men and Pharisees "i/o" 
something before be gave them baptism : and the least they could do 
(according to the view of a Prophet) would be to observe the written 
Law in all its requirements for th^ good of the poor. ' 

[1600^] (vi) Both in Greek and in Hebrew, "release" means also 
"forgive." In Aramaic (1181) "debt" and "sin" (nay be represented 
by the same word. Hence ^'forgive us our sins " might be interchanged 
with " retiast us from our debts" The conditional prayer, " Release us 
from our debts as we release those (hat are- indebted to us" might have 
a twofold meaning. 

[1690 <l] (vii) The fact that Matthew reads "dirMj" for "x/«" in the 
Lord's Prayer should be considered in this connexion. And iliany other 
kindred questions deserve discussion, althoufrh they cannot be discussed 
here, f(»r example, whether John the Baptist rtid not intend something like 
a compulsory socialism, and whether Jesns of Naiareth did not intend to 
convert this into What should ultimately become a voluntary socialism. 
Possibly it may appear that such an incident as the death of Ananias 
and Sapphira was one of many signs that might reveal to the Apostles 
and their successors the evil of importing into the Church what was 
(practically) a compulsory socialism twenty centuries or more before the 
Church was ready for even any form of voluntary socialism. 

'79 ■ 








[1091} Render, requite, 




■ 8 



Repent, repentance luraroJm, -raa 




, o 

Report, bring word 

to, s. Tell , 












Rest, the 






Retain, seite, uke 

hold of 




i 3 


Rewarfl, wages' 





Rich, riches' 

irXoviTior, irXovroc 





Right, on the* 

(R A«fi*if ijiov) or 

#V Ttiir dc^i'otr 





Righteous, . just 
ftppl. to men) 






Righteous (appl. 


to God)' 





; > " Render," see " Pay " (1687), and the note on " Reward " below, v 
*[16Blfi] "Retain etc." Jn uses Kparitt twice, but only in one 
passage, and nietaphorically (xx. 33) " Whose soever [sins] ye retain they 
arts rgtatMed." The meaning is obscure. See 2517—20. 

* [1691 A] ** Reward," " wages." The two instances in Mk and Jn are 
Mk ix. 41 " He shtiii surely not lose his reward^' Jn iv. 36 " Aireq^y*^* 
is fitking his reward." The former regards the reward as future, the 
latter regtirds it as present. 

* [1691 c\ " Ricb," sec '* Poor" (Chri.) which 19 shewn (1688 **) to occur 
only once in Jti (where D and SS oni. the mention). 

'^ [1691 </] " Rig^ht, on the." Jn makes no distinction of "rit[ht" and 
" left " between the malefactors crucified with the Saviour. Also, he 
never speaks of the Son as "<»/ the ri^ht hand'" of the Father, but aji 
"m" the Father, or '*(>/«" Vkh (he Father, and similarly of the disctplos 
as being "j'h" the Son. Jn xxi. 6 "on the right side" Is not included in 
the list atx)ve because " side (^'pi;) " is added. 

* [1691/!] " Kighte;(>us" Applied lo t>od occurs in Jn xvil. 25 "O 
righieOHS Father." Applied (o thingst it occurs Mk (o), Mt. \x. 4 
" Whatsoever is righteous {i.e. Just) I will give you" ; Lk. xii. 57 "Why, 

. even of yourselves, judge yc not that tt/hiih is righteous (rn dixaiof)?^" • 
i.e. judge yi*i//v ; Jn v. 30 "My judgment is righteous^ vii. 24 "Judge 
ri]|fA//<wj judgment." ; Jn and Mk never use JtuaiM* "justify," "make 
righteous," which occurs Mt. (a) Lk. (5). . On "righteousness," which 
occurs Mk (o) Mt. (7) Lk. (1) Jn (3), see Vtbkb. The facts suggest that 
Jn uses the adjective and noun in the Platonic sense of "just" and 
"justice" rather than in the technical Hebrew meaning, "observant 
of the requirements of the Law [of Moses]." On "judging justlv," see 
ViXkd-g. , 

180 * 



* EngUib 













■.- a'. 


[1«9S] Sadducee 



8. . '-. 


Sake of, fer Ihe' 










1^ frvvUptop 











. Save' 



■ 5 



'" Rock," in Mt only XV. 46 " Hewn out of nw*." 

* PMia] "Sake." Jn however uses vWp in xili. 37, 38 (A.V.) "/or 
thy, myi saJtr," (R.V.) "/or thee," "/or me." Comp. Jn xv. }| "These 
things will they do unto you because 0/ ihio) my name," (A.V. and R.V.) 

. "/or my name's sakeJ^ Jn xii. 30 "/or your saJkes" has dui, Jn xvii. 19 
"/or their saJtes" has vwJp. For the difference between the Johannine 
and the Synoptic view, see'lSS-^. On the Johannine " sake," tti, a«e 
-*mi, and 1884 n-^. '*' 

* " Sanhedrin," etc. Lie. xxii. 66, Jn xi. 47. 

* [189S J] "Satan," in Jn, only xiii. 17 "Then (i.^. at that moment, 
r<{r«) entered into him Saian^ i.e. into Judas Iscariot ; Lk. xxii. 3 (" But 
Salan entered into J udas ") places the " entering " earlier. 

' [1692 <^] * Satisfy," in Jn, only vi. ?6 "Because ye ale from the 
loaves and were saHs/Ud" lit. fed as beasts with grass—probably used 
by Jn in a bad sense, but not so by Mk vi. 4]r'Mt. xiv. jo, Lk. ix. 17 etc. 

" [I6M1/] "Save." In the words of Christi "lai'*'' is used by the 
Synoptisis in the phrase " Thy faith halh saveil thee " (after acts of 
healing), " he that will save his soul (i.e. life) shall lose it," etc. But there 
is no Synoptic statement that Christ came /< "luvr" except in the story 
of Zacchacus peculiar to Luke (Lk. xix. 10) " For the Son of man came 
to seek and to sa^te the lost." 

'. [1693i'] Mt. xviii. 11 (R.V. marg.) has'" Many authorities, some 
ancient, insert, ' For the Son of man came lo save that which was lost " : ' 
Lk. . ix. 56 (K.V. marg.) has, besides another insertion sujiported by 
" some ancient authorities," {he following one supported by " fewer " : 
" For the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives but to save [tkem\" 
But W.H. omit both of these without marginal alternative. And they 
«IC omitted by SS. . 

[1693/1 Jn iii. 17 "God sent not Ike Son into the world that he 

should judge the world but that the world tkoutd be sieved through him," 

is probably, as Westcott argues at some length, a comment of the 

" Evangelist, not an utterance of Christ : but the necessity for so long an 

Bigument shews how easily comment 00 Christ's words might be taken 










Scourge, i.e. pain- 
ful aisease 









'4 , 

Scriptures, the 

a.\ ypa^ai 




Seed (lit.) 

anipfuij trmipot 




Seed (melaph.)' 





~ Sieize, retain, take 

Jl bold of" 






Sell (Chri.) 





Sell (narr.)» 




Set before* 


■-' ♦■ 

» ■ 



as part of Christ's words, and illustrates the growth of the interpolations ' 
jnentioned in the last paragraph. * 

[1692^] The ^ohannine version of the words of Christ certainly 
represents tfim as saying (a) Jn v. 34 "These things I say that yr mny 
bt saved^ {b) Jn x. 9 "Through me if anyone enter in ht skali bt saved" 
(e) xii. 27 "Shall I say, 'Father, save me from this hoiir?'" (933^-40), 
((/) xii. 47 " / came net thai I might judge tke world but that I might save 
the world." The ist, 2nd, and 4th of these deatly imply spiritual 

' [laUA] " Seed" (metaph.). Jn vii. 42 "From the i«rfof David," 
viii. 33 "We are Abraham's seed," viii. 37 " I know that ye are ^briham's 
seed," Jn xii. -24 has kokxih for ** grain (of wheal)," to suggest ihe soul 
dying that it may liye. 

•"Seiie." See above, •* Retain " (1891 a). 

' "Sell" (narr.). All these relate to the casting out of them that 
"sold" in the Temple. 

• [IWi] "Set before," i.e. set food before, Mk vi. 41, Uc. ix. 16, 
in the Feeding of the Five Thousand; and Mk viii. 6 (bis), y in the 
Feeding of the Four Thousand. But Mt. in the parall. to these three 
passages of Mk omits wofmriSiiiu. Ml., when using this word, applie* 
it to spiritual food, or teaching by parables, xiii. 24, 31 "Another parable 
he set before them." 

[1892>] Lk. has x. 8 " Eat the things set tefore you," xi. 6 " I hav*^ 
nothing to set be/ore him," but also uses the middle to mean (xii^ 48,^ 
txiii, 46) "entrust," "commend." Comp. Acts xiv. 23 "commended lhem( 
to the Lord," but xvi. 34 (act,) "set before theifi a table," i.e. fed them, 
xvii. 3 " opening [the Scriptures] and setting before them [the doctriiu] 
that it behoved the Christ to suffer." The word has these various 
meanings in the Epistles also; i Cor. x. 37, I Tim. i. 18, 2 Tim. ii. 1, 
I Pet. iv. 19. 

182 • 

■ . ^ r ■ • ' ■ ■'■■ 










Seven, seveta times 

irri, -»it 



■ »■ 

She4 blood 

CKJIfVKI'M ttlfUt 



2 or 3 

Sick, s. Diseased 

Koums ^x*"* 




[WBS] Sidon 

- 3Ah 




Silent, be (|) ' 



Silent, be (2) 




' 2 


S'inner, sinful' 






Sit (I) 





Sit (a) 






Sit (3) . • 











. Sleep {2)« 





Smite (I) 





Smite (2) 









3 or 3 

So as to, so that> 






So to say, as it 

were, about' 

■ ixTfi ': >,:; 

. . «■■ . 

■ ■ •?•' - 

■•>.»' V 

■; 6'. 

Sodom (1671*) 



' "i '. 







■ 3 ■' 

Spit on" 


3 ■•' 

■ ■»'■ 

■ ' ; I ' ; 

• ■.<>' 


(1910 foil.) 

tUit , . 


; >■■■ 


, 3 

Straightway (i i) » 
(UU foU.) 



: °0'' , 

' " ■' 

.,. ft.- . 

;■ i ■' 

' "Sinner" occurs in \.n only in the dialogue about the mah born 
blind, four times, Jn ii. iS, 34, 25, 31 (1871 b). 

,'[16»Sa] "Sleep" (2). Koifiao/uu means the sleep of death in 
Mt xxvii. 53 ** the saints thai siept arose." 'In Jn xi. 1 1 " Lazarus has 
fattin asUep (ic<Koi/iifrm)," the disciples take the \xrb literally and 
comment on it thus (xi. 12) "If he kasfaittnastiep he will recover (1858)." 

' [1683^] "So as to,* "so that," occurs in Jn^nly in iii. 16 "so thai 
he gave hi^ only begotten Son," a comment of the Evangelist, nOt a 
saying of Christ's. See " save " above (1691/). 

* [lS03ir] "So to say," " about " occurs in Mt. xiv. 3i,parall. Lk. ix. 14 
"»^K/Ave thousand," but Mk an^B,^ha also mention "five thousand," 
do not thus qualify it. _ - ' ^^ 

' " So]^," in Jn, only iv. 36 — 7, of spiritual sowing. ., 

' [1683 </] "Spit on," referring to the Passion, does not occur in Jn^ 
but irriM, "spit," occurs in Mk vii. 33, viii. 23, Jn ix. 6 in. connexion with 
healing. See 1737*. 

■ 183 



Engluh - ' 

Sirarghtway (»)' 
Strcngtb, strong 
Strong, be' 
Sti«tch out the 
[16M] Stumble, make ( 
to stumble, 8tum-.< 
.bling-block* ( 

Substance, poa* I 
sessions, liring I 


Sufficient (marg. 
worthy), great 
' S wear (s. a) so Oath) oiivvt 






"•*M^X^>«« " 




Ivx*'^* tv}(Vp6t 










f vrtJM* x*VM(f} 



3 , 






■ ■»" 


_ 1 



















IjXlOt ' . . 

' 4- 



oiivvm v'. ^■•- 

^ ^■:-^ ■ 

', '" ' - 



x«i(XK .. :' 4" 




. 8 



" 2 

wen! noJO* 

■ > [1683^] "Straightway" (3). Ila^xF^/^ i* not strictly entitled 
a place here, but it is inserted to explain that Lie's deficiency in resp 
of «v$vt and *l$i*»t may be compensated by his excess in respect (#^ 
another word of similar meaning. Uapaxp^t^a^ both in Mt. and Lk., it 
connected with miraculous results in the context exc. {a) Lk. xix. il 
"that the kingdom of Cod was destined to come imnuJiaiely^ {b) 
Lk. xxii. 6o "And imnudiateiy, white he was yet speakinj;, the cock J 
crew." In*'((i), the meaning is, perhaps "come by special miracle""; ^ 
in (d), attention seems to be called to a miraculous coincidence. 

* [1693/] "Strong, be" obcurs m Jn only in xxi. 6 "They wed 
longer strong [enough] to draw it [i>. the net]." On Jn's non-t 
"strong," "mighty" etc.. sec the latter (1686/). 

' tl683jir] "Stretch out the hands," in Jn only xxi. i8 ",Thou shall 
stretch out thy hands^ to which is added, " Now this he spake signifying 
by what manner of death he \i.e. Peter] should glorify God," i>. by 
stretching out his hands on the cross. 

* [1694 a] "Stumble' etc. jn has only the verb, vi. 6i " Uoth this 
make you to stumble}^ xvi. I "This have I said to yjou that ye be not 
made to stumhlt^ 

* [1694^] "Synagogue," in Jn, only vi. 59 (R.V.) "These things said 
he rn [the, nr, a] tynagogue (<V v^tvaymr^fi) as he taught in Capernaum,'* 
xviii. 20 " I ever taught in [the, or^^\ synagogue {iw avvaymyj^) and in the 
temple." Perhaps "in synago^e" (Uke our "in church") would l^e the 
best rendering in both passages. 




Engliih Omlc 

Take bold of, s. 

Retain tpariit 

Teacher, M alter 
.,. (nx.)' «iM<r««Xf- . 

" Tell (R. v.), bring 

word' drayyAAa V 

[UBS] Tempt, tempts- ' " 

tion* vfi^^M, -otfftoc 

Testimony* fiofiripto* 

That (i.e. in order 

that)* V iwmi •. ! 

Then (/./.after all) Spa i ; ; ■ 
Then (,U. at that. • ■',■,• ',"•'■ 

time) »*»,:•'•..:., 

Third" rptrf^X. V 



Xk- . 




. ■ 

■ 5 


'' . 



;; 6 

' -''5»"'. 

'.'" ? 


. "-S- 

;/-"|l; . 

•. .' ; 


s ■ 









■^6. - 

■ I 





* ■ ' *. 

■ *-l 




■ a ■ 

.^ •.fr;- 

■--^ ' 


> [14Nr] "Teacher," voc, in Jn,' only i. fi 'ea$fiu i.Xfytriu.iMt. 
^MaxaXi, xx.'i6'Pa/9V3ovvfi & \Jyrrat AxM(rKaX#. jn viii. 4, whe^cft. oc^tirs' 
without the Aramaic, Is an interpolation. For " Rabbi " see UI8. 

• [189* </] "Tell [R.V.)," in Jn, only xvi. 35 " I will //// you pUinly 
concerning the father" (see 1875^). Jn also has ayyiXXu (not used by 
Synoptists) in xx. . 18 "then cometh Mary Magdalene UlltHf^ the 

' [1696 a\ " Tempt," in Jn, only vL 6 " But tbis he said tempHng him," 
of Jesus "tempting" fhilip. 

• [1606«] "Testimony." In Mk-Mt., only in the phrase At 11. ainii 
(or, roic Ihm) which seems to mean "as a testimony against them" 
(Mk i. 44, vi. I r, xiii. <>, Mt. viii. 4, x. iC, xxiv. 14) or "a testimony with 

. regard to them in citse they should disbelieve." l.\f. ix. 5 (parall. to Mk 
vi. 11) has tU p. «V* mVovt, but Lk. v. 14 tic p. avroir. Uc. xxi. 13 baft 
iwo^ijairai ir/tiv tU fi. absolutely. This must be carefully distinguished - 
from fiaimiila, a freq. Johannine term (1736). ' 

' [1886<r] "That," i.e. in order that, Mk iii. 6 (Mt. xii. 14) oit^t aMf 
awoKivmvty, Jn xi. 57 Swmr wta&mrtv avriii*. It is noteworthy that the only 
instance of Svm* in Mk-Jn refers to attempts to destroy or arrest Jesus. 
Comp. Mt. xii. 14 eir«c aiTin awoK4vt»t¥, xxii. 15 oiTNr avrir .iray*6tvamoilf 
iv Xoy^ xxvi. 59 offMf avnv Bavaritottinv . Lk.-vi. 1 1 (parall. to Mk iii. 6, 
Mt. xii. 14) has ri b wot^ctutv ry 'I. These figures havC nothing to do 
with ba " in order that " (1786). 

• [1606 (/] "Third," in Jn, only ii. « "On the third day there was 
a marriage in Cana." " Oh /At third day" in Mt.-Lk. always refers lb 
Christ's Resurrection ; but Mk has " afltr thru days " (URT). . 

185 - -. ' 





1 '..''■■ \ — 
Greek-- ; ,."-V.: MV. 




Third time, the 


Tptravt iu rpinv . 1 , 

I. . 

. ' 

■ J 

Throne (1671 c) 

0pUot O 



Time, Kason ' 

gaipik \'.,X :;- 5 

. 10 




iri/u/xn- ' - ' •.. I 

". 7 

1 J, 


^a,t{m,-M ^ ; /, i 




awronai- ' , ' Ih 


.. 10 


Tradition (1671c) 

wapadc&H ' -5 • 




Trea»ure, treasure- 

.' V ■ ' " 

, ;-^.■■ 

house, lay up 

• ■■"* r, ■■ -•■ > 

, -,,. treasure ' 

»<,<ra,,pi{m, -i, , . . > | 


. 5 « 

* a 


<<i>af>oi> ' '^.'[ -a.' 

■■'■ li-. 


•• Turn, turn back' 

iwiarpiifm " '4.' 




Twelvefdisciples, or (ol) dWArKu .(/to^iiroj, 



apostles), the' 

avwroXw) .11 


'■ '7^ 

. *. 

/:^T>ie :?(■■; v'^ 

■;-~':.'-' ';,. *•■:•■ -.iy- 

■ ':'A: ^ 

; •J-' 



- .x> ■ 

aKoBaprot ■> iV- 

'\'*: . 




(TWtTJIU^ ttVVtffU, ' . -' 

standing . 

irwfTdt ; 6' 


•' i- 

[1896] Verily (i)' ' 

■ »»"»jil ■■:'"',':■■■■ ;"M. 

• :c-V 

"■ ;*' 

Verily verily (i)« 

iMiW*- ■;•• • P 




' [1696r] "Third time" (ad».). This occurs in Mk xiv. 41, "comBth 
tkf third time" Mt. xxvi. 44' "prayed a third time (/« rpWm/)" In Lk. 
xxiii. 31, Jn xxi. 14, 17 {Us) there is no parallelism. Jn xxt 14 rofiro ftif 
r^iVor itftavtpttfiji refers to a *' third ** manifestation of the Resurrection. 

' [1696/] "Time,"* "season," in Jn, only vii. 6—8 "my timf {Mi)... 
your timt." ' ' , 

• [1669^] "Touch," in Jn, only xx. 17 " Tourh me not." In the 
Syiuiptists it almost always refers to Jesus touching the diseased or the 
disstsed touching Him or His garments. 

'' [1696 h] " Turn," in Jn, only xxi. so " Peter, turning aitui {inunpa- 
^I't)." The active is applied to Peter in Lk. xxii. 32 " When once thou 
hast turned again (/irurrp^^fntr)." 

* [1695/] "Twelve, the," never mentioned by Jn except in connexion 
with the treachery of Judas (vi. 70, 71) or some suggestion of desertion in 
the context (vi. 67) "Will ye also go away ? " or some unbelief (xx. 14) 
"f homas, one of the Twelv*.' 

■ [1666 a] " Verily." No one has been able hitherto to explain why the 
Three Gospels never use d^v doubly, and the Fourth never singly, in 
reponing the sayings of Christ. Lk. also has iikiftin thrice (ix. 27, xii. 44, 
xxi. 3) with X/y«, a combination peculiar to him. 

■ 186 


Engluh Grttk- 

Mk Mt. 



Villages (pi.)' nafiu 

~* 5 



Vineyard ofurfUF 

J |0 


WaUet nnpa 

■,■ / I » ■ - 1 



Watch (vb.) » y^ffoplu ' ' . 

.6 '.Vftr: 

■:..« , 


Walch, a (of the 



i, , - ■ 

night) ^vXa«4 

'":»■ ', 

^ '?i>^ 

Way, road' lAit 


':.** -' 

■ ; *■■. 

Wealth, ». Riches 

Well-pleased, good .., '' 

V ■ ^■' ' ,'"'•' ■" *' '" 

- -,-* ■. ' 

pleasure tiAoxim^ .'Ik/^- . y 

'/■ r ? ''a':- 


■ » '. 

Widow xwi'V- 

■ '■■ii... ■ «i' 



Wife(not''woman") ymii '■ 

•'. la. ■ i6 , ■ 


.■ '"■ ' 

Wind ai>f(»ot 

'' i ■■■ \- 


" ■ I ■ 

Wisdom, wise' irotfua, a^6t 

■ ■^-f■■■^•■5'•V 


■» ■«. 

Within ttrtSto 

' :*'- * *■■ 

.'■3- - 


Without, outside ifuttv' ;.' 

■*, .»<»3':--3--': 

,. «-■ ■ 

':■ " 

Witness* fidprvt • / f 

'■. .""/■::•'}■■■ 


■;■ ■ P ■ 

:Woe ni-ai ,'.■/ 

■•- :*r;^y- 

^»* •. 

" -■•'?'■.■ 

Wonder, s. Astonish .' '■, 

'r.C'' •■'.,■'¥;'■■.■". 

Zebedee_. UtiMm ■ ■'■ ; 

;: /.^4*,.:v'* J 


. .;;|: 

> [ia96«] "Villages "(pi.). All the Evangelists use tm^ii (sing.), Jn 
(3) referring to (vii. 43) Uethlehem or (xi. 1, 30) "Bethany." 

' [IGSSr] "Way," jn mentions " the Way" in only two passages, one 
(i. 23 quoting Is. xl. 3) describing John the Baptist as bidding nien "make 
straight" the ivay of the Lord, the other (xiv. 4, 6^ describing Christ as 
saying " whither I go, ye know the way" and " I am the uiny" . 

' [1096 </] "Wisdom," "wise." In Mk, "wisdom" occurs only in Mk 
vi. } (parall. Ml. xiii. $4) " What is this wisiiain that is given to this man?" 
Mk nowhere uses ''wiK." Mt-'I-k. use also <t>piriiu>t Mk (o), Mt. (7), 
Lk. (2), Jn (o). 

« [1698 f] "Witness." Ml xxvi. 25 (parall. Mk xiy. 63), also Ml. xviii. 
- 16 (alluding to Deul. Jlix. 15) twi irrofiarof iCo fiafmrfHtf Ij rpiwi' trraBji irpf 
pi)/ui. Comp. Jn viii. 17 "Yea, and it is written in your law, that of two 
men the testimony is true ixmar$pmwmw ^ /iaprvfua aXtjfiijt ttrru')" In 
Rev. ii. 13, xi. 3, xvii. 6 pipryr = " martyr "teven R.V. is obliged tft^render 
it thus in txt. of xvii. 6) and prob. also (of Jesus) in i. 5, iii. 14 (meaning 
" Itsli/ying hjr one's death "). Possibly this technical sense of fuiprvc in 
some Christian circles at the beginning^f the 2nd century caused John 
to abstain from it. 



CHAPTER II ^- / - 


5 I. I ntrodiutorf remarks ' 

~ [1697] In the following list of words characteristic of the 
Pourtn GoBpel and comparatively seldom (or never) used by 
the Synpptists, one of the most noteworthy among many' 
noteworthy facts is that' Mark only once mentions the word 
"Father" as expressing God's fatherhood in relation to men'. . 
The noun " loxt" to<i, never occurs in. Mark. Matthew use* 
the word once in a prediction that " the lm>e of the many 
shall wax cold." ' Luke speaks once' bf "the love of God " 
where the parallel Matthew omits it". Mark's deficiencies are 
to some e.\tcnt filled up by the two later Synoptists ; but if wc 
put ourselves in the position of an early evangelist trying to 
convert ,.the world with nothing but Mark's Gospel in his 
hands, we shall be all the better able to understand the atti- 
tude of John towards Christian doctrine in general and Mark's 
version of it in particular. Mark, for example, mentions God 
■ as the Father of men once, and God the Father, in all, four 

■' Mk xi. 35. Mk viii. 38, xiii. }i, xiv. j6 mention the word in relation 
to the Son of man, but not in relation to men in general. 

• Mt. xxiii. J3 " Ye have left [undone] the weightier matters of the Law 
namely, [righteous] judgment and kindness and faith," Lk. xi. 43 " Ye pass 
by. [righteous] judgment and the love of God." 


times: John uses {he term a hundred and twenty times. 
Mark abundantly uses the term Gospel, or Good News, but 
nowhere tells us what the "good news" is: John nowhere 
uses the term, but everywhere exhibits the Son of God as 
bringing to mankind the best of good news, namely, that God 
is a loving Father, and that men can find an eternal home in 
His love. 

[1698] Where the Synoptists speak of a Kingdom, there 
•John implies a Family. That is the great difference between 
the Three Gospels and the Fourth. The latter nowhere 
_mentions the Kingdom of God represent Jesus as 
warning a great Rabbi that it cannot be seen or entered 
except after a new birth ; and in the first of, these warnings, 
the words " born from above " indicate that one must become 
a child of the Family of Heaven. Something of this kind 
appears to l>e latent In the Synoptic dyctrines about " little 
children " and " little ones." In this connc^bn the Synoptists 
inculcate two distinct duties. One is the duty of " receiving " 
Utile children ; the other is that of " i-eceiviiig the Kingdom 
of God as a little ehijd". meaning, apparently, with an 
innocent, pure, and sincere heart. A great deal is implied in 
each of these precepts, and both are liable to be misunder- 
stood. The second, for example, might encourage some to 
suppose that they were to become " as a little child " in under- 
standing; and these would require the Pauline warning, "In 
malice be ye babes, but in understanding be ye men '." 
Against an error of this kind, men would be fortified by the 
Johannine doctrine that " little children " meant "the children 
of God,"' and that this was a title of " authority "—but 
authority in sense, the " authority to lay dowii one's life " 
for others (1686^94). ^ 

[1699] John teaches that, as there is an eternal unity in 
the divine Family, namely, the Father, the Son and the 

' 1 Cor. xiv. 26. 
■ 89 



Spirit, so tliere is a foreordained unity for the human Family 
(namjly; those who receive the Spirit of the Father by 
receiving the Son). Into that Family they must first be 
" born " from above. Then they must " abide " in it. Or, 
from another; point of view, it must " abide " in them. They 
must "eat the flesh" of the Son, so that the Son may be in 
them, even while they are in the Son. They must also "drink" 
His "blood." Other metaphors describe the members of this 
Family as eating the " bread " that " descends from heaven," 
the "bread of life," as "drinking" of the "water of life," as 
"doming to the light," and as " walking in the light." In a 
family, "prayer" from the children to the father is, out of 
place. Hence John never uses the word " pray." The Son 
speaks always of " requesting " or " asking," and He bids the 
disciples "ask " what they will in His name. The Father's 
"will" is the sole "law" for Him. If the Fourth Evangelist 
mentions the Law, it is as. being the Law of the Servant ("the 
law of Moses ") or the Law of the Jews ("your law " etc.). - 
The Soji never sfays, in this Gospel, " I have come to fulfil the 
Law " but " I have come to do the will of him that sent me." 

[1700] Instcid of a -Kingdom and ihstead of the laws of 
a King, the Fourth Gospel proclaims Nature ; only, of course, 
not materialistically, not a mere machinery, but, as we might 
put it. Mother Nature. According to Epictetus, " Nature is 
of all things the most powerful in man and draws him to her 
desire'" ; and he says elsewhere that there is nothing to which 
man is so mucltdrawrt as to the Eu-Lbgon'; and man is .by 

I [1700 o] Epict. ii. 20. 15. He Is arguing against Epicurus, who, he 
says, desired to eradicate the belief in (i*. ii. fa' 6) "natural human 
lellowship (ri)p ^writi^v Kottntfiar atffipmwott rrpof iiXXi}Xovf ) " and yet was 
forced by Nature to act inconsistently with his own theory. 

' [1700 *] Epict. i. i. 4 TO ri!>oyo». "That which is reasonable " does 
not fully express the Oreek. It might be rendered " good Ijogos " (a« ri 
<irnx^f might- be rendered " good fortune," to tvytvU " good birth " etc.) 
so as to give play to the many meanings of Logos. 

- • '9° 


Nature created for '-'fellowship." John represents the Eu- 
Logon, or Good Logos, as one with the Father in the Spirit Of 
Fellowship. But he also repr^sentit Hihn as incarnate and as 
revealing the Spirit of Fellowship at a height never before 
reached. The beast dies for the herd fighting against wolves, 
and man (jies for his country against foreigners. Both are 
inspired by Mother Nature, the Spirit of Fellowship. But the 
incarnation of the Good Logos dies as a Jew, crucified by 
Jews, for "all men " alike, with the prediction, " I, if I be lifted 
up, will draw a// men unto me". — i.e. 1 will draw all men into 
harmony with Nature. 

[1701] These remarks may be of use in preparing the 
reader for a prominent feature in the following Vocabulary, 
namely a predominance of simple terms siich as a child might 
use to describe family life. The one term wanting is" brother!' 
This, in the Fourth Gospel, is me»ged in the relationship 
between the Father and His children, ancj it is not used tilF 
after the Resurrection : " flut go unto my brethren, and say 
unto them L ascend unto my Father and your Father." 

[1702] Where the Fourth Gospel deals with history,, it is 
. in a cosmopolitan spirit. Not only do the-SynoptIc distinctions 
of " publicans," "sinners," "scribes," and " Sadducees," dis-- 
appear, but, instead of the old fundament^ demarcation 
between "the people," i>. Israel, and "the nations," i.e. the 
Gentiles, we find the term "Jews." used, almost as Tacitus 
uses it, as the embodiment of narrow hostility to all f<jat 
is humine ^d truthful'. Both the Romans and the Greeks 
—never mentioned by the Synoptists— are. introduced ^ by 
John, the foriper as destined to "take awa/" the "place'i^of^ 
the unholy "nation'," the latter as exemplifying the devout and 

>■ . / ■ ■ •- : — *■■ . ' 

' [1702 a] On the corrupt ailribution to Jesus of the word;, " Salvation 
ij, from the Jews," see 1647-^. On the other hand John alone uses 
(i. 47) " Israelite " as synonymous with " upright" . 

> xi. 48. 

* "' ■ . ' 

A. V. . 191 " ■14 



intelligent world awakening to the truth— the "confiing" of 
the "isles," as Isaiah' predicted, to the light of God's glory'. 

[1703] Since the Johannine Gospel deals with Nature (in 
the higher sense) and not with books or written codes of laws, 
it naturally speaks of things that can be seen and known by 
any one that will use his natural powers. The three Greek 
words most commonly used to mean " kii&u/" and "see" (oliet, 
yivmrKu, and of>u«>) are used more often in the Fourth Gospel 
than in the Three taken together'. The same statement 
applies to the word "•testify ""^r "dear witness" (liaprvpia). 
The Evangelist regards the Gospel not as a message progeed- 
ing from a prophet, but as a " testimony " to what the Son of 
God " seei" the Father doing iii heaven ; and what He sees 
He can enable all the children of God to see. Hence comes 
a great insistence on " the truth" a wbrd never used by the 
Synoptists in the modem and Joltannine sense of truth in the 
abstract. By " knowing truth,'' John means a correspondence- 
of the human mind to divinei' facts (that is to say, to the divine 

- ' Is. Ix. g. See Jn xii. 20 — i, comp. vii. 35. 

* [1702^]. This cosmopolitan view of things may, in part, explain Jn's 
omission of many of the names given by one or more of the Synoptists, 
eg. Matthew, Bartholomew, Lebbaeus, or Thaddacus, and the names of 
the brethren of the Lord. 

[1702 c\ But on the other hand V Cephas " appears for the first time in, 
the Fourth Gospel as the equivalent of the Synoptic " I'cter," alid we 
cannot feel sure that Synoptic n.imes may not be latent under "Natha- 
nael " whom our Lord calls " An Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." 

[1702^ Jn and Lie. alone mention "Annas," Lk. in the phrase 
"Annas and Cajaphas being High Priests." John explains that he was 
not High Priest but the High Priest's influential father-in-law. Other 
names that jn has, in common with Lk. alone, are Martha, Mary,.> 
Lazarus, Siloam. The whole group requires careful investigation, as alio 
do the names peculiar to Jn—Aenon, Bethany beyond Jordan, Bethesda (?), 
Salim, Sychar, etc. 

> [1703 o] The exact statement about li/ijn is that, including forms of 
oijm^i, and iS<titiiv, it occurs in Jn jo times, and in Mk-Mt-Lk. 31 times. 
The Verfect, «M^aicfi, occurs as follows, Mk (o), Mt. (o), Lk. (a or 3). 

.'■ • ■ 102 


' facts of love and self-sacrifice) analogous to that correspon- 
dence between a man's words and his thoughts which is called 
" sincerity " or " veracity," and to that correspondence between 
his words and external actualities which implies knowledge 
and is called "truth." - 

[1704] What somi: have called "the egotistic element" in 
the Fourth Gospel will be found reflected in its abundant use 
of " I," "my,'' "myself" etc. as shewn below. It must not be 
supposed, however, that these pronominal forms exclude the 
impersonal phrase " the Son of man." This is found in John 
almost as often as in Mark, and he employs it towards the 
close of his account of Christ's public teaching in a pas.iage 
that may perhaps explain in part why he substituted for it,.as 
a general rule, the first person (xii, 34) " How .sayest thou 
' Tilt Son of man must be lifted up'? lV/it> is this Son'. of 
manf" This is the last utterance of the bewildered "multi- 
tude." - Other causes — moral causes especially— beside the 
various meanings o/" Son of ma«," caused their bewilderment. 
But still it may have occurred to an Evangelist writing largely 
for educated Greeks that this Jewish technical term — even 
though it was actyally and. habitually used by our Lord 
instead of the first personal pronoun, to denote ideal humanity 
as created in, God's image — ought to be sparingly Nised in 
a Gospel intended mainly for Gentiles. 

[1706] Instances will be found where John appears to be 
alluding to words, names, or, that might (1811) cause 
difficulty to the readers of Mark and Matthew, as, for 
example, John's use of the word translated " groaning " in the 
Raising of Lazarus. ' It will alsobc noticed that the epithet 
" eternal," or " everlasting," applied sometunes by Mark and 
Matthew to " sin," " fire " etc., is applied 'by John to "nothing 
but " life," and that John's doctrine about " (ire " is confined to 
one brief metaphorical passage. Occasionally, attention will 
be called to passages Where John may be alluding to doctrines 
like those of Epictetus. For example, the conception of the 

193 ~ "14—2 

W^V^^'M^ ■ ' 


Son as '". testifying" or " bearing witness" to the t<'ather, can 
be illustrated far more fully from Epictetus than from the 
Prophets. Negatively, too, John's avoidance of the word 
"hutHble" and his condemnation (in the Epistle) 6f "ftar!' 
indicate that he may have been impelled by Greek influence ' 
to discard these and othci' Biblical terms that' con veyed to the 
Greeks a suggestion not of good but of evil. 

[1706] Under the head of " trduble" however, reasons will 
be given for thinking that John is allusively dissenting from 
Epictetiis, with whom " freedom from -trouble '' was the highest 
of blessings. Not improbably, many things in the fourth 
Gospel imply a similar dissent. For example, John lays great 
stress (1226) upon the fact that the Son docs all things "for 
' tht sake of" the Father or 'for the sake of" the disciples.' But 
Epictetus says (i. 19. 11) " Whatever lives has been so framed 
as to do all things for its oum sake (avrov Ivtxa). For even 
the sun does all things for its own sake, and, indeed, so docs 
Zeus Himself" Of course Epictetus could prove philosophi- 
cally that this is consistent with real unselfishness. But from 
the point of view of a plain man with no pretension^ to 
philosophy, this means either selfi.shness or solitude. And, 
since God cannot be selfish,^ it reduces Him to a solitary 
Being. John teaches that God \Vas from the beginning not' 
alone, because the Word, or the Son, was with ilim: and 
instead of " doing all things for His otvn sake," He is revealed 
in the Washing of Feet as making Himself — in tl^e person of 
His Son — the Servant of His creatures, doing all things " for 
the sake of" others. 




English " Gr«k . Mfc Ml. Lk. Jn 

[1707] Abide, remain' lUtrn ■''; 1 ^J 7 40 

. ■ [1707.*s. 188S(ii)r6lL] This Vocabulary includes wonbchariKteristic 
of the Fourth Gospel as contrasted with the words used by the Three 
collectively. Occasionally— in order to groiip kindred wprds together, 
or to supply a reader that may be iKtiorant of (ireek with a fairly, 
complete alphabetical list of important Johannine terms— 'it will include 
a word used by only two of the Synoptists {g^. "judge," NfHvw, not found 
in Mark) or sometimes qnly one {f.f^. "manifest," t^vf^W, not found in . 
Matthew or Luke). But, wlirre thaf>is the case, such a word will be 
repeated later on under one of the following headings i :" . 

(I) VVords peculiar to Jn and Mk (1729— 44^ » ■ 

<i) „ „ Jn and Mft (1746-67). .•';' ;:.<."•: 

(3) ,. ;, Jn and Lk. (17J8-1804). -/:,■..:.>• 

•♦♦>• „ , ... • ■ . Jn, Alk, and Ml. (1806-17). ". . , . ■ v. 
' (5), „ „ - Jn, Mlc, and Lk. (1818-36). . 

(6) „ .„ Jn, Ml., andLk.(183ft-6«). 

' (1707 <i] "Abide." Mk vi. 10 (sim. Ml. it. 11 and Lk. ix. 4, x. 7) 
"There rt^/<i<>>until ye go forth," Mk xiv. ^4 (Ml. xxvi, 38) "abhlt here 
and watch." Jn uses the word to denote the abiding of the Word of 
God, or Christ, in man (v. 38, xv. 4, 5 etc.), of Aian in Christ (vi. $6, 
XV. 4, 5 etc.) or in Christ's Word (viii. 31), or in Christ's love (xv. 9, loj ; 
also Ihe abiding of the Father in the S^n (xiv. 10), and of the S^ 
in the love of the-Fathcr (xv. 10). It is also used, without rcsftect.i 
locality, to denote the permanence of the " food " that " abideth unto 
eternal life" (vi. 27), and of the "sin" of the proud (ix. 41). Jn, alone 
of the Evangelists, in recording the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus, 
■ays that (i. 32—3) " it itiodt on him." 

[1707 i] The predominance of Ihe thought of "abiding" in the 
writer's -mind may be inferred from the fact that " abide " occurs in the 
First Epistle of St John almost as many (23) times as in all the non- 
Johannine Epistles taken together (25). 

[1707 f] In LXX, lUra freq.=>DtP "stand upright," concerning an 
ordinance that "stands,'* i,f. holds good, e^, Prov. xix. 31, "The counsel 
of the Lord — that sljall j/<j»frf(LXX •!« riv amra lum)," Is. xl. 8 "The 
word of the Lord slandtlh (fi'ti) for ever," Deut. xix. 1 j " at the mouth 
of two witnesses. ..shall a mailer stand (R.V. be established)," LXX 
<rT^<Tiu. Mt xviii. 16, merely alluding to DeuL xix, 15, has >miti 
















About (w. nuniben 




• 1 or o 



About (w- numbsrs 

. etc.) (a) (1670) 



I * 


o • 

Abo^ije, up« 






Above, from above' 

i>^„- :■ 

' .A' 

"■'* ' ' 

-.- >, . 


Advocate,!. Faraclete 


. Ip.;. 

" > ,-', 




.•^fcir- • 

- -O' . 

' ■■ '"-••,■ 

1 - 

\ Again' • .:i' . ' 

'' «A|>- ; ,■ 

■■,a» ■ 

■: V •" 

'■:i . 


, Age, »; Elemaf, : ; ' 

■ , ''■•-! 

• . 

; Already, s. Nd«r ■ 

• . , '-. 





A» ■ 


" -■■'»' 

■ 7 

Am, I< 


' 4 

■.-• 14: 



[1706]. A>k (tb« Fuller)' 

.v«^. :' 



-, P- 


"made In sl»n^" but Jn viii. 17, quoting it as "written," has "I'j Iriii." 
In the same verse of Deut. "One witness shall not risf up (DIP*)" is 
rendered by Jer. Targ. "The testimony of one witness shall not be valU,' 
and LXX rei)ders it imuvtl, This illustrates the connexion in the Jewiab 
mind iKtween "aUdlng' " slanjin^ fiul" and "Irulh." 

' " Abiding-place.'' Sec l'ara,iosis, 139J-7. 

• [1707 (/] "Above,"" up," means " heaven(ward) " except in Jn ii. 7 
"filled them to /4^ brim (Jut 'im)." The only instance alleged ef itf 
Hvm is 2 Chr. xxvi. 8 "to the top," i.e. to the utmost. 

' [1707^] " Above," " from above." 'AiWiK.fn Mk xv, 38, Mt. xxvii. $1 ' 
n used of the veil of the temple "rent /row lep to bottom," in Jn xii. 1} 
of Christ's coal, pr tunic, " woven /rem the top throughout," concerning 
which the soldiers say " Let us not rend it." Elsewhere Jii (iii. j, 7, 31) 
uses it of the heavenly birth "from above" (comp. Jn xix. 11). In 
Lk. i. 3 it means " from the source, or fountainhead." For the ^iroof that 
it does not mean " anew " m Jn, see 11103 foil. 

« [1707/] "Aenon" is mentioned only in Jn iii. 33, "And John also 
was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water 
there.". The locality of Aenon (as well as that of Salim) is disputed. 

» [1707 jf] "Again" occurs in Lk., only vi. 43 (om. by many author.) 
where, if genuine (but PTTAAI for ITAN), it would mean "on the other 
hand"; xiii. 30 (I) diff.) ; xxiii. 30 "Hut again Pilate..." (where the 
parall. Mk xv. 13, and Jn xix. 4also have''" again "), ' . 

•"Am." See "I am "(1713). • • 

' [170e<i] "Ask." Jn xiv. 16 " I will ask the Father," and to xvi. 26, 
xvii. 9 (bii), 15, 30, always in Christ's words, and in the 1st person 



EDglith J* 






Barley (adj.)" . 

'piSifot .; 

-■ . o .. 




Bear, begei' 



. 5 


■ 8 

Because (nart.)* 

Sn ■ -, 

4 + [t] 




- Bcfar«(adv.) 

(t6) wpoTipav 




Beget, s. Bear 


I. ■■ 

s; . . 



Beginning (Chri.)* 



" '4 * 

, o 


Beginning {narr.)» 

"Vxi ■■ ■ 

, I " ■" • 

o t. 



Behold Cvlj.)« 

ft«>(i/«i / 

■ ■ 7 ■ . 




Behold! See! Lo!' 


■. 8 

* ■,:- 


Bethany (beyond 



Toy 'loftiim) . 

..■ <>••'■" 




' "Barloy,"Jn vi. 9, 13. ' ' 

• {1708 *] " Bear," ■" beget." The numbers above do not include the 
use of yiyvdn (40 times) in Mt. i. 2—16. Both there and in Lk. i. 13, 57, 
jixiii. ig, Jn xvi..^i, the vb a act. In Mt. i, J— 16 the act. means 
"beget"; elsewhere It means "bring forth" (of the mother). In, the 
Syhoptists it is nevisr used spiritually, as it freq.. is in Jn. 

' [1708^] "Because" occurt in EvangeHstic stateinent (which alone 
it here meant by "narr."), 4<> Mt., only in ix. 36, xi. 20 and xiv. '^. 
Mt. xi. 20 resembles Mk App. [xvi. 14] "reproached them ttcaust they 
believed not." The numbers are uken from Bruder (1888). See also 
line. - 

• [1708 </] -"Beginning" (Chri.)i occurs in Mk x. 6, Mt. xix. 4 con- 
cerning the making of male and ftniale "from Ike tuxitatlHgX''''' "Cxit)," 
to which Mt.adds, as to divorce (Mt. xix. 8) dir' apx^^^^^ y*yovif ovrtn. 
The other Synoptic instances arc (Mk xiii.'-8,' Mt. xxiv. 8) "These things 
are Ifie beginning of travails {Apxh it^iytav ravro)" and (Mk xiii. 19, 
Mt. xxiv. 21)" from M< beginning of creation ( Mt. of the world)." ■ 

[1708 ir] Jn has viii, 44 "He was a murderer from the beginning 
{in' i.\" XV. 27 "because ye are with m« from. Mi beginning (in i.),' 
xvi. 4 "tfitse things I told you not from Ihe beginning Ui d.)." Also 
in reply io"Who an thou?" Jn has (viii."25) frir**- aimnt \ti]'\^aovt triv 
ipjP!' ori «ii \o^i iifur (txt interrog., marg. affirm.) (2154—8). 

' [1708/] "Beginning" (narr.) Occurs in Mk i. i " Tie beginning of 
the Gospel...," Lk. i. 3 "those who were from Me beginning cye- 
witnesses..-," comp Jn i. 1 " In tie beginning was the word...." 

• "Behold" (vb.). Used by Jn sometimes of unintelligent wonder 

' " Behold ! " Mi. Contrast " Behold ! " 1801; (1674). 

' [1708;f] "Bethany beyond Jordan" is inentioned onl)J*in Jn i. 28 
"These things were done in Bethany t>eyond Jordan, where John was 
baptizing." Its locality is disputed, arid there are y.r. Bethabarah, 
Belharabah etc. See 610—16. 

197 / 


Synoptic deviations 


Gmk Mk 


. L"k. 



Break, deitvoy* 
' Brethren, the (J.e. the 
Church) (i>arf.)» 

W.H. txt fh^oBi, 

marg. irfiaq^a a 
\iu «♦ o 

ol (idfXi^i. ■" " o 





36 . 


[1709] Cana 

Catch, Sfire, take' 

irnlfto O • 



Choose (Chri.)' 



r. ■ 


' [1708 A] " Bethesda " is mentioned only in jn v. j " Now there is in 
Jerusalem by the sheepfijale] a pool which is called in Hebrew Ikthesdn 
(v.r. Bethsaida, Bethzatha), having five porches." Other various readings 
are fl<i(aSa, IliX(fi9ii, Betzatha etc. Its locality is disputed, and so is the 
interpretation of the " shecp[^.'^tc]," the ellipsis of which ia said by 
Wesicoit to be "(apparently) without parallel" (2210). 

' [1706 il "Break," " destroy," occurs in Mt. v. 19, jn v. 18, vii. 2j,. 
X. 35 of Arrtih'ng a "commandment," "the sabbatH," *She law of Moses," 
"the Scripture,'! J n ii. 19 "flVj/ro/ this temple." These numbei's do not 
include Xuiii — " loose," "unbind." 

' tl708y) " Brethren, tlie," «>. the Church (narr.) : Jn ixl. 33 "This 
saying therefoti wcAt forth among ('ft) iJu Urtlkren." Camp. Acts i. 15, 
xiv- 2 etc. ■ . 

' [1708 i] " But," iWi, mostly fullpws a n<:gaiive : and jn's habit of 
stating things negatively and positively with a'"but" appears early in his 
Gospel, i. 8 oi'K.,.iiXX' 'u>q, i. 13 oi'/k it aiuArmr ^.JiX' U 6tm (20B6). 

'"Catch." Se(rl7aiyandl723ii— *■. 

• [I7OO11] "Cephas," in jn, only i. 42 "thou shalt be called Cephas 
wbich is interpreted Petros" i.e. a stone. Comp. Mt. xvi. 18 "thou art 
Petros" i.e. a stone. The naming is mentioned by the Synoptists thus, 

Mk iii- 16 K. inifiijtuv 5vf}fta r^ Xi'^wi'* IliV^v, .Mt. X. 3 fr^mroK t. 6 Xfyo- 

fuyot tlt'r^r, Lk, vi. H S. iv K. uvoftaiTfv n. See 17287,. 

' [1709 i] " Choose " (Chri) occurs, in Mk, only in xiii. 30 " the chosen 
whom ht halh ckoieu," where Mt. has merely "the chosen." In Lk,, 
"choose" does not occur in the Lord's words except Lk. x. 43 "(Mary) 
kath ^hostti the good part." In jn it occurs almost always in the phrase 
"I (Chtis^) have chosen," and in two instances with an allusion to juda* 
Iscariot in the context (vi. 70 ." Hime not I ckoun you the twelve, 
and dne of you is a devil," xui. i» "I know whom / have t/iDjc«, but 
that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ' He that ealeth my bread lifted up 
his heel against me'"). . , 


^■' • 






Cl»y« , 


Comfortct, ». P»ra- 

. clete 


Cry (appl. to ChriJi)' 

' ■viC' . 




_awtnt6wrm - 

[1710] Darkness (I)' 


Oarkfiejs (j)» 


Ueah (lit.)" 


Uealh (melaph,)' 







o- . 



.-■' 0- 

.■. .:0' • 

' 4 


■ ■■■!.■ 


•'. : I .- 



0, , 

■. '"v- 



:'•■ 3-' 

: 1-; 


■ * 

. 4 . 



• ,6, •, 






* [1709 f] "Circumcision." The \er\) wtfHTifivv occurs in.Jn (i), 
Lk. (a). In Lk. (i. 59, li. 21) the-vcrb is used with reference to vhe 
circumcision of the child Jesus ; in Jn (vit. 22 — 3) the verb ^nd the noun 
are used to shew that, if Circumcision is allowed on the sabbath, Christ's, 
act of healing niust be allocable. * 

' "Claj." Jn ix. 6—15, of " making clax" in the healing of thediii^ 
born blind. 

' t'Cry," "cry aloud," itpdf« and KptivyaCa^ sec 1752<i— / 

* [ITOOrf] "Cutoff." 'AiroKiiffTw— a wyrdfreq. connected with mutila- 
tion — is used by Jn (xviii. 10, 36), to describe the cutting sff oiT^he ear 
of Malchus where all the Synoptists have dt^pita'. Comp, Gal. v. I3. 
See" also 1734A. 

' [1710 rt] "Darkness." Moreover, in the Epistle, Jn uses (5) trKoria 
and (1) ffKUTor, which is also in Jn iii. 19 "they lovtJd rather tkc tiariness 
\t6 tfKufor) Mdtf the li^ht (^ tA ^ff)," where perhaps the neuter form is 
preferred as supplying^ a more complete antithesis of sound illustrating 
the antithesis of sense. 

[1710^J IitoTia and ajcomr are. always melaphodcal in the Synoptists 
except as to the darkness during the crugfixion (Mk xv. 33, Mt. xxviu 45, 
Lk. xxiii. 44). In Jn, tncoria is m^aph. except in vi« 17, xx. 1, where 
however it probably has a metaphorical suggestion, as "night" has in 
Jn xiii. 30 "Hff [Judas Iscariot] wpnt out straightway. Now it was 
nigkC _ .- . ■ * .■ , 

* [1710 f] " Death." the six instances of ••deatli "-(Hl) in Mk and 
Mt. are all in veHtatim agreement. Lk. (ix. 27) "shall surely not taste 
death " agrees with only one of them <Mk ix. i»->1t. xvi. 38) uttered before 
the Transfiguration. The only Synoptic metaph. instances ai^ in Mt. iv, 
16, Lk. i. 79, not parall., but both quoting Is. ix. 2 "the shadow of 

[niOd] Jn has ff. (lit.) (xi. 4, 13) about Laxarus, (xii. 33, xviii. 32) 
aboai the Crucifixion (" by what death- he was to die ">, and (xxi. 19) about 


[1710] syHOfpic "deviations 

Englitli Grtdii' 





ncnani (plur.) (iipjrt 
from par»blts)'(19Tlf) t^Miua 




Didyrtius' Aitiiut 



Die' ,. iwaitiiatm 


'.■ 5 



, pnobejr' ..*,««*■ 



' Draw (water, winir 

- .elc.) irrXfa ■ . 

'•■:6 y, 

' '0 ■ ■' 


' Dr»w', draff fXtim 

/ O ; 

' ' '■"■ ■■■ 


"■'. falt» •. rpiyu 

V'-p- :■' 

■ ■" r 


EfAnitm* 'E^fBi/^ 

'■ : o' / 

. o ■ 

■. '. 

Peter's nurtyrdonK In v. 14, viii. 51 Jetns Uses S. melaplioricaUy, but in 
vjii. 52, whereas jesui had said "He shall not tthold dtalA," spiritually, 
the Jews misquote it as "he shall not tasit of d*ath," and take it 
literally. ,. .; 

' [1710*] "Denarii." Mk yt J7"Are we to boy bread for fw« 
hundred dtHaHil' »iv. j " sold for above three hundred JtMarii," Jn vi. 7 
" bread of [the price of] two hundred dtnarii" »ii. j " sold for three 
hundred dtnarii?' 1-hope to discuss these passages in a futuVe treatise. 

' " Didymus," applied (J" "'• 'A '"'■ '4> ""'^ ') "• Thomas, whom Jn 
mentions 7 times, and each Synoptist once. ■. ' 

' [1710/] " Die," iwot'liirKu, is freq. in Jn m connexion with Laiarus, 
and with Christ's "dying for the peop^" ur "dying" on the Cross. 
It is metaphorical in vi. 50 )tij diro^di'^, xi. 26 ut'. f^ a^tSayji, but |>erh. 
nowhere else. T«XftTo<», "die," occurs in Mk (2), Mt. (4), l.k. (1), Jn (i). 

• [1710;f] " Draw." Mctaph. in Jn vi. 44 "Except the Father rfrasu 
|iim,"xii. 32 "I will (A-iiti' all men unto myself," lit. in xviii. 10 (a swurdw 
xxi. 6, II (a net). Epicletiis says that man (i. 2. 4) " is drawn (i^miufm)/ 
to nothing so much as to the (1700) Good Logos," and (ii. 2a i}) 
" nature " is " the strongest of all things in man, drawing him tfl her will 
(^vXijpi) despite his reluctance and bewailings." He uses the Johannine 
word i\*vi» to mean " drag " (iii. 22. 3) or to describe the seduction of vain 
imagination (ii. ift. 23). Acts (xvi. 19, xxi. 30) uses the two words to mean 
"^r^gging" a perftin violently away. Jn uses <Xcv« in both meanings. 

'[1710*] " t-aX," rpifym. from the numerous instances of this word 
in Steph. it would seem to-be used in ordinary Oee^ exclusively to mean . 
eating vegetables, fniit, sweetmeats etc., never flesh. In Mt. xxiv. 38, 
where it perhaps means "eating sweetmeats or delicacies," the parall. Lk. 
xvii. 27 has .'irtfiV Jn has (vi. 54—8) " He tbit ealtlh my flesh (4i»," "he 
that tattlh me," " he that ta(tih this bread." Jn xiii, 18 uses it in quoting 
Ps. xli. 9 " He that iittrlM my bread," where the LXX (which never uses 
rpitym) hlli iireia: See alto " eat " <aOi'« (1680). 

■ "Ephraim-". Jn xi. 54 "a city called f/MnuM." 


Englith Onwk ' Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Eternid, everUtting' Mom 36. 4 17 

[ini] Father (divine)' ir«^<> .4 44 16 110 

< [1710 O " Eternal," otirwr, in Jn !• always used of "life,'' never of 
"punisliment," "fire" etc. In the Synopfists, it is used with {w^ (8), 
ri'p (3), KoAoirir (i), AnifmiiuM (i), VKijvai (i), ..Llc^ like Jn, always uses it 
of good, never of evil. 

" [ITlln] " Father" (divine). Mic viii. 38 "When he shall come in the 
glory of his Falier," xi. ij " that your Falhir who is in the heavens may " 
'forgive you," xiii. 31 "...not ev6n the angels of heaven, nor yet the Son, 

but only the Falktr,' xiv. 36 " Mih», Falhir " ^Apart from doctrine 

about the Last Day (where the Father is mentioned in connexion with the 
, Son expressed or implied) lit Mtmihirt hwhHohs God as tie F'aHer 0/ 
men ere. M Ue waming atout/nr^iveiuss {xi. 2i) ptnU. to Mt. vi. 14—15 
but Id nothing in Lk. Uut the single passage In Mk, containing an 
apparent reference to the Lord's I*rayi;r, confirms the belief (based on 
Mt.-Lk.) that a large part of Christ's doctrine must have referred to ''jthc 
Father " by name. 

- [1711 S] Epictetus sii'ys (i. 3. 1 folL) " If one wet« thrilled a« he should 
be with the thought that we [men] have all been Uniquely (iriKtiyoviUrtit) ■' 
brought into being (ycyiivafui.) by God, and tifat God is the Father of 
both men and gods, I think we should be far from all ignoble and servile 
notions about ourselves" : and again (/A), " If Caesar were to adopt you 
as a son, there would be no enduring your arrogance. If you know that 
you are son of Zeus, will you not it lifUd up {tttapHian) by that f' Hut " 
as it is, we do no such thing." We'turti aside, he says, from ty^ divine 
sonship, which we have in virtue of "thcpurppse and the Logos" within ' 
us, and we prefer 6u> kinship (which we have in virtue of our body) with 
the brute beasts. ' A man calls himself Athenian or Corinthian, (i. 9. 4—6) 
"Why should he not also call himself 'CosmianT' (as being ciiiten of 
the Cosnibs) " Why not son of Cod f " ^ 

[1711 f]. John would agree with a great deal of this, but not (not, at 
' least, without a cowa/) that a man should be "lifted iip" by the thought 
of* being "son of God." His Prologue, indeed, distinguishes those 
"begotten of God" from those begotten of "blood" or of "the will of 
flesh,"-and describes the foiiner class as receiving "-auHmily to become 
children of God " — a phrase " that recalls the " adoption by. Caesar '' 
above mentioned. But it is nothing to be "lifted up" about, if "to be 
lifted up" meaiis "to be proud." John, it is true, represents the Son 
of God as being "lifted up (inJ^oJerJni)," but it is the "lifting up" on the 
Cross. He also has "authority," but it is "authority tl^toy down life that '• 
he may take it again." The silence of Mk and the Epictetus 
may have inHuenced John in the development of the Christian doctrine of 
the divine Fatherhood. . 


id'. ... 



• OiMk 





Father (himun)' . 

J- «4> 








J • 







" o 





: ■ 

o , 

■■i ' 

' [ITili/] "Father" (hMm»n). )n viii. 4« alio uwt irann> thrice 
concerning the devil as (be father of Hart etc., thus making I5.insunces 
where it is not applied to God. (As tp insertion in this hst, see 1670—1.) 

• [1711 <•] "Feast." Mk xiv. j, Mt. xxvi. 5 Mi» V» r^ ioprj, Mk xv. 6, 
Ml. xxvii. 1$ «ari Hi ioprrif flmSti.,.. Lk. (besides ii. 41, 4]) has xxii. i 
tfyyiitv mil ioftrff T&¥ d(viMtv. Jn mentibns several feasts for which Jesus 
goes up to Jcnisalem. ^ 

' [1711/] " Fire (of coah)." 'AfSiiiuiii in Jn xviii. 18 is the "fire of 
coals" in the High Priest's hall, Mk xiv. 54>iif, Lk. x«ii. J5— * «ii)i... 
^r, Mt. xxvi. 58 om. (180— fl). Luke's astonishing phrase wvp iripidirTo 
is unlike any use of mpuiwrm in Sleph. except I'halar. £pM v. p. 24 
(L. .S. -28) ijiffUfiairafuv ovrif «. ir«/H^i^^i', " we put him in and kindled [a 
fire] "roxind [him? round the man enclosed in the bull]" whcr? Sleph. 
adds "recte, ut vldetur, Lennep. wvp ifi^^fr." 

[1711^'] Ephrem (p. 2 J?) says "Near the coal (ire he denied, near the 
coal fire he confessed," which suggests that some may have regarded the 
fire in Eetcr's 'Denial as a symbol of a "fiery trial "of temptation, and 
later on, of purificarion (xxi. 9) "they see njlre 0/ mats laid ready.., and 
a loaf," The phrase " cake baken on Iht coab " occurs in O.T, only in the 
story of Elijah's being strengthened (1 K. >ix. 6) for the journey to Horeb 
in which may be seen a parallelism to the Eucharistic " breakfast " m Jn 
whereby the Apostles are strengthened to preach the Cospel to the world. 
The Hfb. word u?ed for "coal" in 1 K. xix. 6 occurs nowhere else 
<Gesen. 954") in O.T. except in Is. vi. 6; where the Prophet Isaiah is 
purified by a " coal " from the altar for his prophetic task. Ephrcm's 
tradition, " he conftiud near a coal fire," is curiously like Philo's tradition 
that the ^rtfpof, i.e. ^^ioa/," or ^^ carbuncU^ represents Judah as being 
(i. 6o)"a coHftssing (^{<i^ki>yi7ri«iit) disposition," which "is inflamed in 
the eucharist of (f.r. thanksgiving 10} (iod (ir(irvp«riM tV ivxafitoji^ 6nv)" 
Not improbably John had in view traditions of this kind. 

[1711 k] tt may be worth noting that (1) Aquila-has i^i/ior it. stone, 
or pebble, for ^'coal" in Is. vi. 6, (i) LXX freq. has <I»«pof, "coal," to 
represent a precious stont (Geii. n. 12, Ex, xiviii. 18, xxxvi. 18, Eiek. %, 
9 etc.), (3) Rev. ii. 17 combines "manna" with "white slunt {1^^ 
XtvKtiv) " as a gift to "him that overcometh " — an expression that baa 
perplexed commentators and perhaps remains>to lie explained (SMWd). 

• [man] "Fish." Jn uses ix«t to mean "fish" (xxi. 6, 8, 11), 
apparently restricting ii^ipim to mean " fish " ^ ta/ing (1796 f). 




For (conj.) (nttr.)' 

Fret (vb.) , . 
Freely, opcnix' 

Greek ■ 
$U rovt atmpot 

. Mk 






: > 




: I*. ■- 


c. y> 

■ ■ a ■'■ 


■ ,- * 






' : * 

■' a 



: a 


' [inii] " Flesh.". Of Jn> 13 iiwtMcei, 7 are from vi. ji'-fij "my 
flesh" etc. . 

* [ITltr] ■• For " (narr. here meaning (1873*) Evangelistic siaiemeni). 
This is mctfe characteristic of Mk than of Jn ; but it is inserted for 
comparison with ^'because" (narr,) (1TO8). Iti Jn the question is 
complicated by the great difference of opinion among commentators as to 
passages that are and that are hot, Evangelistic comment (3066). 

' imSrf] "Forever." In Mk iii. 29,«i. 14 (parall. Mt. x«i. 19) "for 
ever " is connected with a negative and with condemnation (" hath not 
forgiveness /<>r rt»»»-," " let none eat fruit from ihet /ar ever") ; in Lk. i. 
33i is *'''< an aiSnnative and with promise ("shall nign.../oreiftr," "to 
Abraham and his ttti /»r ever"). In Jn iv. 14 ." shall not thirst /br ever," 
vl. 51 "shall livf/or ever,' an() sim. vi. $8, viii. 51, 51, x. 18, xi. 26, 
xiv. 16, it is connected, positively or negatively, with promise jy^iilMriiit- 
(in0>)injn. See alto 1673 a. On Jn viii. 35, tee 3363 <. 

* 11713 «] ."Free" (adj.). Mt. xvii. »6 "Then are the sont,^<," 
ij. free (rom paying tribute. This occurs in a difficult context describing 
the finding of the slater in the fish'i mouth. Origen (ad Joi.) says, " They 
are free who abide in the truth (Huet fitiviwrtt jjt iiXi)4<i'f 7 ins; <V, or leg. 
iltiuitarrn) of the Word of God and thereby know the truth that they 
may be also freed by (i* ? leg. iir') it." Origen had in mind Jn viii. jj— 6 
"If ye ahijje in my word. shall know the truth and the tnlh shall 
Ma*/ /oa/rw.... Everyone that committeth sin is the bondservant [of sin]. 
Anif the bondservant abideih not injihe housi for ever ; the son abideth 
for ever. If therefore the Son shall make you free ye shall be free 
indeed.' The connexion between a Gospel of ionship and a Gospel 
oi freedom is manifest: and it is recognised abundantly in th* Pauline 
Epistles. Uui the Triple Tradition lays practically nothing about "free- 
dom" and very little, dirtrctly, about " soitxkip!^ though Maltlew aiM 
^uke frequently imply it in doctrine about the Father in Heaven. It 
remained for the Fourth Gospel to give promioence to the spiritual 
doctrine latent in the tradition peculiar to Matthew, " The sons are frei." 

'[1713/] " Freely, openly." Mk viii. 33 "He was speaking the word 
openly (ir<i(i|ji)<7if)." Jn uses it twice in Christ's words : xviii. jo " I ha^e 
spoken fpenly to the world," xvi. J5 (R.V.) " I shall tell ytnpUuHly of the 
Father." See 174* (xi)<i-and 1917 (i). .- 




Greek '' Mk 

(inS] Go (meiaph.)' 

raffffati o 

Ml, l*. .J» 

o «' i 

6 $ . 
4 9 1< 
7 . '3 i» 

1 ' o C..I8 
CO 3 

> [lliijr] "Gird," in Jn, halmiys literal, of the Lord dr Peter xiil. 4, 
5, wi. 7, 18 (Ms). TliptCifviu (nM in Mk-Ml.) occura thrice In Lk. xii. 
3Si 37< xv><' 8< ■'*■ metaphor or parable. 

> [17124] "Glorify," in the Synoptiits, is mostly applied 10 m/H 
'^Klorifying God" because of miracles. In Jn, it is used concerning the 
glorifying of the Father by the Son, and the glorifying of the Son by the 
Father, but most freq. of the Son's being '' glorifitd*\iVk reference to the 
Cnicifixion and its sequel. Comp. Heb. ii. 9. Only once is it used in 
Jn tbhceming a man glorifying God («ii. 19) " signifying by what death 
he (».<. Peter) should ghrify t;od." 

> [1712 {] " Glory;" Mk viii. 38 " when he shall come in Ikt glory 0/ 
hi^ Fat/ier," ^vM. Ml. ivi. 27 sim., but parall. Lk. ix. lb" in kit glory amil 
.that of the Father" • Mk x. 37 "that we may sit /* IJky glory,' parall. Ml. 
XX. 11 "that these may sit..,«<> /*r Ungdom" (Lk. om.) ; Mk xiii. J5 "the 
Son of man coming in (Mt. on the) clouds (Lk. cloud) wilk powot and 
great glory" (parall. Ml. xxiv. 30, Lk. ^xi. ify 

[ITlJy] These three passages speak of the "glory ""of the Son as 
future. Jn i. 14, ii. 11 speak of >l as manifested by the Son in the past 
("we beheld his A'/orc," "manifested hit glory" at Cana) : xi. 4o(comp, 
xi. 4) "thou shall see Ikt glory 0/ God' means apparently " thou shak see 
God's glory manifested in the raising of Laiarus"; xii. 41 says that 
Isaiah "saw his [i.^. Christ's] gJory" : xvii. j, jj, 14 spkak iif," glory" 
(apparently that of the divine unity, implying the devotion of the Son and 
the love of the Father) as possessed by the Son " before the world was," 
and as already " (Iven " to the disciples by the Son ; at the same time the 
Son prays " that they may be beholding ray glory, which thou hast given 
to me, because thou lovedst me from the foundation of the world' 

* ^713 a] " Go " (meiaph.). Mk xiv. Ji, Mt. xWi. 14 " the Son of man 
goelk (Jrayfi)," where par^l. Lk. xxii. 11 has woptimu. On the difference 
between the two verbs, see 1652—61 

' [1713((] "Greeks." Jn vii. 35 "Will he go to the Dispersion of 
(2016) the Grtiii, and leach the Greeks }' In this specimen of 
Johannine irony the Jews unconsciously predict what seems to them 
absurd. The same thing is predicted in action subsequently (Jn xii. M>) 
" Now t|»ete were certain Greets of them that came up...." Mk vil. 16 
alone has the fern. 'EXXiji'/t where the parall. Mt. xv. 3j omiu it. 



W-- Ki«IUfc 

Greek Mk 




Creek, in' 
Grief, iorrow' 
Groao, niunnur' 

•exx,i.i»t( / . -^ a. 

Xiwil ■ 0.. 


« ■ 



Hebrew, in* 


■ 1 

- ■- 


1 (nom.) (1TO») 
>-am(itt pert.) 
I »ra [he] (Chti.)« 
Interpret (HW 4) 

iyi (IncL .,iy*)-. 16 







>■ : 

,- ~4 ,■ 

> [ITUf] " In Greek." Jn xix. w " It wu wriltfn in Hebrew ind In 
Roman [I'.r. in Latin] and in Gmk." . 

•.[ITlSrf] "Grief," "aorrow." Jn »vi. 6, Jo— aj describe* Jetut u 
menlioHing on the lut night the "iorrow" of the ditciplea (Hat ia 
dCKribed by Luke ai occHrriHg on the kel night (Lk. wii. 45) "He ^ 
found them sleeping for tnrmu." - 

> [ITlSr] "Groan," "murmur." 'B^pi^opu In Jo xi. 33, J8ii proh. 
used, in part, allusively to explain the difficulty caused by its use in 
Mk i. 43, Mt ii. 30^ where it might teem to some to represent Jesus 
M "roaring against" thoscinj^m He healed. See VOia—c. 

» [1713/] "Hate." Mk xiii 13 "Ye shall be ktltd by all for my » 
namc'i sake," parall. 10 Mt. xxiv. 9 (aid x. 11), Lk xxi. 17. Lk. xiv. 16 - 
makes "htuing one's own lift" a condition for ditcipleship, an expresston 
not found-in Mk or Mt. Jn adopts it, with a qualification (xii. 2$) " He 
itM. haltth kh lift in lUt viorlJ' (lUO). 

• [1713^] " In Hebrew," in Jn, thrice of names, v. i (?) " Bethiaiha," 
xix 13 "Gabbatha," xix. 17 "Golgotha": also xix. 20 "written in 
Httrew, in Roman, in Greek," and xx. 16 " &he taith to him in Htirru), 
Rabboni." . 

• [ITIBA] "I (emfih.) am [he]" (Chri.). Mt.'s tingle instance i;i in 
the Walking on the Wattrt (Ml. xi». J7)»here it is also inserted by 
Mk (vi. 50) and Jn (vl 20). (Lk. omits the whole narrative.) 

[iTlSi] Mk'a second instance is in the Trial, in answer to liie 
question "Art thou tlfe Christ?" where Mk xiv. 61 ha» "/am" (but 
Mt. xxvi. 64 " Thou saidst it," Lk, xxii. 7t> " Ve tay that / am (Sri iyi 
clfu)" not included above as not being the utterante of Christ in Hit 
own person). 

[I713>] Lk. placet a form of the phrate, with lArit, after the Resurrec- 
tion, xxiv.~39 " See my hands and my feet that^ it is I myself (ir> t'ya ilfu 

[1713 i] In Jn, besides the utterance in the Walking on the Waters 
(vL 20), the phrase is used, with no predicate exprctsed, in viii. 24 






Eagliih • 

Jew, »• 

J«ws(plur.)' ■ 
ant) John (Peteej 
"Jordan, beyond"' 






w4pap rov 'lopliarov 3 

"Jud)|5,notIscariot*' 'lovAar, oi)[ 4 *!»• 

"Except ye believe that /am [Ikt]' where R.V. m*r(. gives "I am" 
absolutely, and to in viii. 18 The meaning in iheM and other instances 
needs detailed comment (XUO foil). The command D^t. ««ii. 39 Vim 
i8<Tt on cfu eiMi "Siie, see, thai I AM," is Interpreted by I'hilo (i. 158) 
«^ as a command to " behold the existence {iiwap^t) of God." 

' "Israelite," Jn i. 47 "an /srat/ilt indeed in whom is no guile." 
See lT02a. 1 

" [IfU/] "'Jew,'a," occurs in Jn iii. i; "questioning. ..with a /tw' 
(tx't. perh. corrupt), sarcastically in iv. 9 " How is it that thou being 4$ 
Jew askest drink of me?-" and contemptuously in xviii. 35 "Am I 

• [ITlS »•) " Jews " (plur). This includes " king of Hujrws," Mk (5X 
Ml. (4), Lk. (3X Jn (8). Apart from this title, the Syrtoptists use the 
word only as fallows, Mk vii. 3 "The Pharisees and all Ikt Jiwt," ' 
Mt. xxviii. IJ "This saying was- spread abroad among tAt Jtws,'-, 
Uc. vii. 3 " He \ie. the centurion] sclit linto him \i.i. Jesus] elders 6f 
tkt Jrwa," xxiii. $1 "Arimathaea, a city of Ikt Jtvi." On Jn's use of 
"Je«rs^" mostly in a bad sense, see 1702. On Jn iv. 22 see IMT— t: 
xviii. 36 (Chri.) may mean "So far from my bring 'king of the Jews* in 
your sense, fiiy servants would contend against *th4 Jewi!" repeatiof 
Pilate's- phrase. 

* [lTI4(i] "John" (Peter's father). Jn i. 42 "Thou art Simon, (he 
sofr o( J6km\ thou shalt be called Cephas"; xxi. (thrice) 15, 16, 17 
*^imon \ym\xA John^ lovest thou me ? " 

' [17M<] "Beyond Jordan'" occurs in Mt. iv. 1$ quoting Is. viii. 13- 
and apparently meaning "west of the Jordan.* It was an ambiguous • 
term. Lk. never uses it. The SynoptisU and Jn apparently use it 
always (except in Mt. iv. 15) to mean "east of the Jordan." See 1813*r-v 
^' [1T14<] "Judas, not Iscariot" is unique in Jn xiv. 22. But ihelik . 
name Judas, apart from genealogies and not applied to Iscarioti occurs^ 
in Mk vi. 3 "the brother of James and of Josrs and of JuJas' Mt; xiii. j; 
''^ "his brothers James.. . and /iMlu," Lk. vi. 16 "JuJiu of James" (in the 
list of the Twelve). This last is parall. to Mk iii. 18 " ThaJjMiu,' 



Enflish Gml> Mk Ml. I'ic. Jn 

Judge (vb.)* * ^"/w* ° ^ ** 6 W 


Mt x«3 "Thnddans" (Tisch. " Ltiiatmi"). If this "Judas" wu 
variously cbaracteriied in early times, Jn'^ characteriiation woiild have 
the advantage of not committing the writer to one tradition against 

< [17U(f] "Judge, to." This verb will be repeated in the Jn-Mt.-Lk. 
Vocab. (1809 a); but it is too characteristic of the Fourth Gospel not 
to be giiien here although it does not belong to the Synoptic Tradition — 
which, strangely enough, contains nothing about "judging." Even the 
Double Tradition contains no precept about judging justly ; and the 
negative precept in it (Mt. 'vii. i, Lk. yi^j/t^^iuige not that ye may 
not (Lk. and ye sbtll not) ii JMiiged3fmg\i\. be taUoi as prohibiting 
all judgment, even judging tighteausly. ^^ 

[1714/] Mt. V. JS "(R.V.) Agree with (urA firobr) thine adversary," 
where the parall. Lk. xii. 58 has Jt^r ipyatfiav arniWaj^Oat [atr*] aimw^ 
can hardly be intended to command "agreement" with unjust, ex- 
tortionate, or oppressive claims, without any regard to circumstances. 
Moreover, Steph. and Thayer give no instance of r^fMiv, "agree with." 
Its regular meaning is " be well disposed to," " have good will to " : and 
it is possible to entertain this feeling even for the unjust, and even while 
one is defeitding one's just claims against the unjust. Is "the adversary" 
Satan, or an avenging angel,' or a personification of the prayer of the 
injured person? It ii hard to say. Luke puis before the difRcull 
passage the words (xii. 57) "But why, oven of yourselves,yu(^« ye not 
that which is'righteous?" That is intelligible and fair. Hut it dncs not 
explain how we are justi6ed in "agreeing with" an "adversary" under 
all circumstances. Moreover Matthew omits this fair and intelligible 
precept. The whole is very obscure. 

[1714/] John accumulates passages to shew that the divine judgment 
consists (in one sense) in not judging (viii. 15 "I judge no man ") but 
in maHrig the gnilty judgi thtmstlves through the conviction of the 
Logos within their hearts, so that the Son really docs "jmigt," in that 
sense (viii. 16 "And yet, if I judgt, my judgment is true"). The Son 
came, "not to Judge" but to "save," and to bring "light" Yet the 
JTJection of the ngtu causes "judgment," by the laws of spiritual Nature, 
.to fall on those whol^^^ it. At the same time John records an appeal 
to the Jews (resembling Lk. xii. 57 above quoted) for "justice" in the 
Gentile sense of the term, conformity with the moral, as distinct from the 
Mosaic Law (Jn vii. 24 "Judge not according to appearance, but yWi^r 
rigkttous jiulgmtnl'). See also ISMa. 

[1714 jf] The Epistle to the Romans is profuse in condemnations of 
"judging" (Rom. ii. 1—27, xi». 3~JJ) and the First Epistle to the 

A. V. 207 15 

■ • 




Gnek \ Mk 




Keep, w»tch' 
Know (})> 




Lut day, in the' 

"Law, your"' 

Lay down one's life' 

( - 



. o' 



Corinthians says (iv. 5) ^ Judge nothing before the time," apparently . 
looking forward to the Day of Judgment. Uut the Apostle himself goes 
on to say of a certain offender {ib. v. 3) "I have already judged him 
that hath thus wrought this thing." In proportion as the expectation, 
of an immediate Day of 6nal Judgmeat diminished* it would be necessary 
to bring out the spiritual meaning of Christ's doctrine about not " judging," 
and to shew that the old Greek and Hebrew rules about "judging 
justly" were to be fulfilled, nqt irypplanted, by the New Law of love. 
* ^ [1714 a] "Keep." Tupim^^^keep*' (metaphorically) a commandment 

^' etc., occurs in Mt. xix. 17, xxiii. 3, and in Jn viii. 51, 52, 55, xiv. 1$ etc. 

In "Mk vii. 9, iro n^v irapa'doo-ii* iijtmv njpijai^Tff. (but D, SS etc. have 
frnfVfjT*) is parall. to Mt. \y. 3 diA r^y ir. li^v. '^Sec 1816. 

•■''Know.'' On the distinction between oI9a "know*' and yifw^RM 
" come to know," ** recognise !' sec 1621 —9. 

' [1716 n] "Last day." jn does, not use frx^ror except in this phrase; 
LXX has '/last of the days." For Synoptic ivxaros see 1685. 

"* [1715A] "Law, your," Jn viii. 17 " In your law it is written...." 
X. 34 "Is i^not written in your law,..}" No other instance is given 
*- by Westcott, and probably none could be given, of any prophet or 
teacher, Hebrew or Jewish, speaking of the Law of Moses- to his 
countrymen as "^i»irrlaw." Theoretically it could be justi6ed as mean- 
ing "the Law that you yourselves recognise as given to you and'as 
binding on you." But, if our Lord used the phrase thus, why is it not 
found in any of the Synoptists? The natural conclusion is that the 
Fourth Gospel anticipates the phraseology of a later date wbeti CbriatUnt 
had separated themselves from the Law so that they spoke of it to Jewi 
as "jfours.^* In Pilate, of course, this is natural, and it implies contempt ' 
(jn xwiii. 31) "Judge him according io/our law* 

p"-^,, [1716 f] A similar anachronism is to be found in Christ's words to 

N. ^V. the Disciples, (Jn xv. 3$) "That the word might be fulfilled which is 
y I written in tkeir /mt/, * They hated file without a cause.' " 

^ N» 1^716 </] "Lay down one's life." Jn x. 11, 15, 17, 18 (^j), xiii. 37,38, 

XV. 13. The phrase is used; t.i$et'by our Lprd, including one inStaac« 
where he MysXtiii. 36) n^ i^. <rev vnip V>mv tftfvfif 1 in juiswer to P^eHt 
protest (xiii. 37) r^" ^* M*w vwtfi ovv tf^vw (1318). 













Life (spiritual) 





Life (phyjioil)' 





Lift eternal 

(to^ ai»t¥tot 





(fA. . 




[1716] Linen cloth < 

itirn, . 




' 4 

Little, a (adv.)' 


■ -''v^- 


.;■ .9 

Live, cause to. 

i-* ' 

. .\. ■ 

\; "• 

' .■ 


{■airOH'a ' 

•. V.-<i'-- 

• "■ * ' 

." <* 

■'- •J 

■ [1715 <] "Laurus," in Lk., is the name of the beggar in th« star) 
of Dives and I^aiarus; in Jn it is the lume of the brother g( Martha 
and Mary (17pa</). 

• [1718/] " Life (physical)." Lk. 'xvi. 25 " Thou receivedsi to the full 
thy good things during thy /t/i (rV rji C«ff (rnv).'' Mk xii. 44 
(Lk. xxi. 4) ipeans the widow's "UviHg," and sim. in Lk. xv. ij, 30, 
comp. Lk. viii. 14 ("the pleasures of lift (r. (Btav)*), Mcxand Jb nowhrit 
use iSt'or. ' ' 

. ' [1716 jf) "Light." Mk xiv. 54 "Warming himscit near the liglil 
[of the fire]," and sim. Lk. xxii. 56 "seated ne^ir tl>e lij^kl," see 1W-.A 
Where .Mt. v. 14-16 has "ye are the lighl" and "let yiHir lig/il shine," 
there intervenes a precept (v. 15) about the •' htup" Xix'it, and the 
parall. Mk (iv. ji) mentions only "tarn/)." Mk never uses "light" 
metaphorically. Lk. xvi. li in the Parable of the Unjust .Steward, peculiar 
to himself, speiiks of " soin 0/ ligkl," and s*6 do Jn xii. 36 and I Thcss. v. 5. 
Comp. Eph. v. 8 "Walk as chiklren of light." On "lighrof the world,'" 
ace 1748. - , ^ 

* [1716 <i] "Linen cloth." '0S«rua> occurs in Lk. xxiv. i] in a doubly 
bracketed passage parall. ttf Jn xx.' S- t' means "linen bandage." 
Mft.xv. 46, Ml. xxvli. J9, Lk. xxiii. 5], in their parall. to Jn xix. 40 have 
"HntM (in»lloi'n)" ; but Ml.-Lk. (MO— 1) deviate in the context from Mk, 
and prob. Jn is emphasising Mk's tradition by insisting that tlu^bodyof 
pur Lord, when' buried, was not only " swathed* in linen " but "bound 
fast with linen bandages." 

' [17164] "Little, a" (adv.); In Mk-Mt., only in the narrative of 
Gethswnane, Mk xiv. 35, Mt. xxvi. 39 npotXtitt lunpir, and to Peter's 
Denial, Mk' xiv. 70, Mt. xxvi. 73 lurk lumpitr. In Jn, ^txpot* is always 
|)raphetic, xiiij 33,' xiv. 19, xvi.«i6 — 19, and means, "a little while." 
Jn also has vii. 33, xii. 3; latpht XP"""' " non-synoptic phrase. 
Mk i. 19, Lk. V. 3 have ikiynw (adv.) "a. little sptce," Mk vi. ji 
' (adv.) "a little time." , ' , 

•" Live, cause to.* jn' v. ai (Mr), vi. 6). r •'• 

i09 ' iJ— J 




English Greek 
Love (n.)' iyairri 
Love(vb.)(i)» dyoiTM. 
Love (vb.). (not 

"kiM")(2)> «iX/» 

Mk Mt. 

O 1 

5. • 7 

o 4 








' [1716c] "Love** (n.) belongs to Jn-Mt.-Lk. Vocab. but is ins. here 
as being a characteristic word of the Fourth Gospel. In Mt. it occurs 
only in xxiv. ii "The. /otv of the mapy shall wax cold,^ an insertion, 
p^Iiar to Mt., in the discourse'on the Last Days. In Lk., it occurs 
only^i^ xi. 42 "Ye pass by judgment and the /oi'f of God," paratl. to 
Mt xxiii. 3^ "Ye have left undone the weightier matters of the Law, 
judgment and mercy and faith." Perhaps Lk interpreted "the weightier 
matters of the Law " as referring to the first and greatest commandment, 
"10 "love God." It is noteworthy that Mk nowhere mentions "love." 

' [1716*/] " Love" (vb.) dyawoM. Of the Synoptic instances, 2 in Mk, 
4 in Mt., 1 in Lk., are in quotations from O.T. All Mk's instancet 
(except X. 21 "He (i.e. Jesus). loved him {i>. the ruler)") arc in the 
discussion on the command to love God^and one's neighbour (xii. 

■ 30-53)- 

' []J16^] "Love" (vb.) ^/«. On the distinction between ayavam 
and ^^«* in Christ's Dialogue with Petet, see 1436—7. The first few 
instances of each word in Jn are as follows :-. 

I. iii. 16 ovTots yiifi /fyuntjefv 6 I. V. 30 6 yhp irarrip ^tXfi r^ '' 
Btot TOf KotTfiOV. vidi' xai irairii Arinvwrif afru 

Aai^ror wout. 
3. iij. 19 tiydnrjirav 01 av$fmwoi 2. xi. 5, 36 i3c, tv iftiXfU titrfiivu 

ftaXXay ra itkotos $ rt^ ift»s. , ...!9< irur t'l^iku aiiT»v. 

3k iii. 3}^ wartip -Jtyan^ r^p uUa' 3- xii, 35 ^ ^Xw> r7»'^;^i7i'-ai*Toi' 
xai irdi^n d/ftHNfC «V tji X'*P* diroXXwi o^i'. 


[1716/] tiX^M sometimes implies the love that comes from use and 

wont, and hence from home-life, and dyawa» sometimes implies the; love 

tliat looks abroad. Comp. Jn xv. 19 "If ye were from the world the 

world t^ouiti love (iiftlKti) [you as being] its own (rA tUmf)" The nouns 

. do not exactly follow the verbs in all their shades of meaning. ♦iXm 

■ occurs nowhere in N.T. except Jas iv. 4 " ihe /neHtfsMip of the world." 
Jn can •'say. " God is liyofrq," but he could not say "God is ^^a,'' 
although he says (xvi. 37) avrits yap A war^p <fn\<ti Ipat or* vpar ipi 
ffft^Xfidirf, "The Father hath a fatkerty /tn'e for you.because ye have 
had a brotherly love for me.* As compared with dytiwAm, i^iX/«. might 
be used of still retaining a "friendship" or "liking" after the higher love 
has passed away (see 1436 and VtlA m), ' ..«„^^. 

[1716/] '«iX^ occurs in Mk xiv. 44". Ml. kitvi. 48, Lk. xxii. 47, meaning 
" kijs" 





■' •^-■ 




Manifest (vb.)(l)' 


■ 'O . 

■ -f. 






. o 


[1717] Manna> 





' 2 







Mary (sister of 












1. ■ 

■ (17161] "Manifest" (vb.) (i) ^^n'fa belongs to Jn-Mt. yocab. 
It occurs in Ml xxvii. 53, of "the bodied oC the dead" that arose and 
^wtrtmanifesttd to many," Jn xiv. 21 ." I. will manifeit myself to him," 
xiv. 22 "What is come to pass that thou art about to mair^trfl> thyself 
to us and not to (he world?" In the Pentateuch, the word occurs only in 
Ex. xxxiii. 13, 18 where MoscS says to God (LXX) ^Wlanifisl thyself 
{ifV^t>tffo¥ tnavTvv) to me.'' The word is also used of God's self- 
manifestation in Wisd. i. 3, and of phantasmal apparitions in Wisd. 
xvii. 4. jAsephus {Anf, \. 13. 1) uses it of God manifesting Himself to 
Abraham. The Gk word would naturally convey to a reader of the LXX 
the notion of a visibU " manilestation," and it would naturally prepare 
a reader of^p for the following question, " How can the Lord manifest 
Himself to us and not to the world?" . 

" [1716 iT "Manifest" (vb.) (2) ^ttfim occurs in Mk iv. 22 "For 
there is nothing hidden except . in order that it may be manifested 
(^M/jw^)," wljcre Mt. x^ 26 has dn-oRa^i/irrw, Lk. viii.. 17 tpatufttUf 
Yfvqmrai. Mk App. [xvi. 12, t4] has "he was maHsfested" of Christ, 
risen, a phrase als(9 found in J n.„ For the adj. ^fcfwr, sec lfl86. 

• [l7l6/] Jn xxi. I (Wi) uses " manifested himself;' and xJi. 14 "««« 

mamfeiled/ to' describe Christ's self-manifestations after His resurrection, 

whereas 1 Cor, xv. 5 — 7 uses «l0tfif,i.e. ^* appeared;' or "ttw seei*;' Jn's 

' first use of the'wQrd is in the person of |ohn the Itaptist i. 31 "That. he 

[i.e. Jesus] sbould be manifested xa Israel, for this cause came I...." 

'"Manna." Jnvi. 31,49. 

' [1717a] "Martha." Jn xii. ■i "■ Meurtka served,* coimp. Lk. x. 40 
"Martha was cumbered about much serving" (1717/, 1771 «). . 

'[17174] "Mary" (sister. of Martha). Jn «ii. 3 "^ajy-.-anoiifted 
the feet of Jesus," c«mp. Lk. x. 39 " Mary, who also sat at the Lord's 
feet" (1771*). . 

• [1717 1-] "Messiah." In Ji».i. 41 "We have found the Messiah" is 

said by Andrew 10 I'eler. The context adds " which is, being interpreted, 

Christ." The woman of Samaria says (iv. 25) " 1 know that Messiah 

• Cometh." The context again adds " which is called Christ." The word 

is not found elsewhere in N.T. Seel7SJ8/f 

-all rv* ■■■ : ■'■ ■. ■ ■■: .' '■ :'•;; 





Minister (n.)' 


Minister (vb.)> 














' fin? 4/] "Minister" (n.)- The n. Aiavoyof is uted in Mk ix. 35 
paralL to Mt. xxiii. 11 and in Mk x. 43 parall. to Mt. xx. 36. Doth 
passages deal with Christ's doctrine of Service as constituting Uie true 
primacy. This is expressed in Jn xii. 36 (after the VV'^ashing of Ttci) 
where he uses both the noun and the verb, "If any one fie ministerim^ 
(JUoKor^) to me, let him follow me, and where I am, there also shall'niy 
minisUr be. If any one Ar ministering (Auucor^) to me, him will the Father 
honour." The other instances, m Jn, are in the "sign" at Cana, it. 5 
" His mother sailh'to the miniftrrs," ii. 9 ** But the ministers knew, they 
that had drawn the water." ' * 

■ [1717*] "Minister" (vb.). Uc. never uses the n. thanovnt, either in 
the Gospel or in the Acts, but Lk. xxii. 36 "let him become as Ae tkai 
ministere/A " uses the vb, parall. to the n. in Mk x. 43, Mt. xx. 26 "shall 
be your minister." In the parall. to Mk ix. 35, "he' shall be last of all 
and minister of all," Ml. xxiii. 11 "he shall be your mim'ster" Lk. ix. 48 
hat "he that is least among you all* the same is great." The vb. is used 
once in connexion with a "supper" by Jn (xii. 3) ^ JW MiipBa ^rfnovct. 
Lk. uses the n.iliaKovia (not found elsewhere in the Gospels) also about 
Martha in connexion with the statement that she ** received (virt Ai'^oro) " 

Jesus, (Lk. X. 40) q df MdpBa wtputntatQ irr/ii iroXX^v ^iaiLoviav. 

[1717/] Mk X. 43—4 and Mt. xx. 2& -7 place "shall be slave of aU 
{hoiikot)" and "shall be your j/^ty" after "shall be yoMx- minister,^' givinff 
the impression that they are synonymous terms, and that the meaning of 
"shall be slave of all" is "shall be reduced, as a punishment, to the level 
of slave of all." Perhaps for this reason Lk. xxii. 36 sabstiiute« "let him 
become" for "shall be" in tfrder to indicate that the meapin>; is (tial. v. 13) 
"in love be ye slaiies to .one another." And perhaps he avoid*, 
"mintitet'," as it had come to have an ecclestastical meaning. 

[171^^] Greeks might be repelled by Mk*! apparent U!te of "slave" 
and "minister "as parall. terms. As to slaves, Epictetus says {Frafpm. 8) 
A* Freedom and si(wery are, severally, names of virtue and vice. Both are 
results of will (wfHKu^(r<Mr)....No man is a slave as lung as he keeps \i^ 
lyill free." As for the man that cringes to fortune or to his ft'Ilow-men 
(tv. I. 57) "Even though twelve rodBl' [tb« insignia of a consul] "precede 
him, call him a slave." A " minister " is a very dilTerent thing : " 1 count . 
Cod's win," he says ^iv. 7. 30}, " b^tet than mine. I will attach myself to 
Him, ai His minister and follower," (iii. 33. 69) "The true philosopher 
(lit. Cynic) should give himself wholly to the ministry of God." SA 
178i~92 on Jn xv. 15 "No k}nger dp I call you slaves." 

213 ■'■'. .■'" '■ 








Morrow, on the ' 

rji iwaiptof 





[1718] Munnur, murmur- 






My, mine (1704) 

ili6t (not ind. pov) 


5 , 




iftavnv, -dv . 











Nation (ling.)* 


2 . 

3 V 

:'* '' 

■ .'i': 

' [1717 /I] " Morrow, on the." Mk xi. it "Oh IIu morrvw fAicn Ihejr 
came forth from Bethany," Mt. xxvii. 62 " On Ike morrimi, which is the 
day after the rreparation." In Jn, "<?«/*/ (Wflrrvw" occur*!. 39. 3 S, 43, 
in such a way as to lead the reader to perceive, but only after a careful 
retailing of the days, that a week, excluding the sabbith, has elapsed. 
A week of "six days*^ is also more definitely expressed in Jn xii. 1, 
as closing Christ's work in the Hcsh. . 

AtfHor— not -used by Mk or Jn— occurs Mt. (3), LkT (4), alw. in words 
of the Lord. 

•[1718(1] "Murmur," " murmurjng." In Mt. (xx. ii (pec.)) the 
** murmuring" is against the householder, who gives the denarius to all 
alike. It is inserted by Lk. (v. 30) in a Triple Tradition (where Mk ii. .i'6, 
Mt. ix. II, have simply " said ")— describing complaints made by the 
Pharisees against Jesus for^with publicans and sinners. Else- 
where, in portions of Lk's Single Tradition (xv. 2, xixi 7) Atayoyyvfa* is 
used to describe similar complaiins. 

[1718 i] In Jn, the first three mentions of ^murmuring" (vi. 41, 43, 
61) refer to the offence caused by Christ's saying that He is the bread that 
cAme down from heaven, and that His flesh and blood are to be given as 
■the food and' drink of "men. In O.T., the Israelites *' murmur" for the 
first time when they crav& drink and food f£x. xv. 24,'xvi. 7 — 15). ' 
' ' [1718rJ "Myself". In Mt. viii. 9, Lk. vii, 7,8 the centurion uses 
the Word " myself' and it occurs nowhere else in Mt.-Lk. In Jn it occurs 
always in words of Christ about Himself 

< [1718rf] "Nation" (sing.). (For plur, see 1687.) Two of the 
Synoptic instances occur in the phrase ".nalion against nation " (Mk xiii. 
8, Mt. xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 10). Mt. alone .idds t« the I'arable of the Vine- 
yard xxi. 4}, " Therefore I say unio ynur The kingdom of Cod shall 
be taken away from you, and shall be givf n to /l nation bringing forth the 
fruits thereof , . " . 

[1718/] Lk. represents the elders qf the Jews as saying to Jesus con- 
cerning the centurion (vii. 5) " He loveth »»r nitHon (i.e. the Jews)," an3 
US saying to Pilate (xxiii. 2) " We found this man perverting our natiom.'* 

[1718/] The instances in Jn are in speeches of the chief priests and; 
the Pharisees' (xi. 48) "The KoinuM lli^ come uult*k» away both our 



Greek ' ' 





Near (adv.)' 









o ■ 



Night (metaph.)' 






(1719] Not yet> 






place and our tmh'm,' Caiaphas (xi. 50) " That one man should die for 
the people (XooC), and that tAe wMt mtfion perish not," with the comment 
"he prophesied that Jesus should die for lAt nalioii ; and not for tit 
iutti(fH only, but that he might also gather together into one the cliildren ' 
of God that are scattered abroad," and Pilate (>viii. 3;) " Thine own 
Motifn and the chief priests delivered thee unto me." 

' [1718^] " Near" (adv.). Jn compensates for the abundant use of 
the adv. by the nonuse of the vb. t'yyifa Mk (3), Mt. (7), Lk-. (18) (1887). 

» [1718 A] "Night" (nieUph.). Jn ix. 4a "Tbo «)(;*/ conieth when 
no man can work," xi. 10 " But if a man walketh in the m'^At he stumbleth 
because the.light is not in4iim.^ The second of these passages indicates 
internal darkness, not the " night " of temptation but the " night " of "sin." 
The first (ix. 4rt) must be taken with (ix. 4*) "Whenever I am in the 
world 1 am the light of the world," and it indicates a period in which thC' 
world rejects the light, so that " no man," not even the Light, or U>goS, 
" can work " — not, at least, for " the world." 

11718 <} Apart from actual metaphorwe may note what may be called - 
"sympathetic" emphasis laid on "night" by some Evangelists as being 
not only the actuai time of an occurrence but also (apparently) Ms being 
an iippropriatt time, bfiausr th( oci'urrence is of tfii'-niUurt of a truU t*r 
timplalion. Thus in the Prediction of Peter's Denial, Mk xiv. 30 has 
"to-day, tliis mghf," Mt. xxvi. 34 "this Htgil." But there Hebraic and 
Greek reckonings of "day " and " night " might influence the text Or 
Mark might add "this night" tti emphasise the accuracy of the predi<!(ion. 
The. Walking on the Waters mentions first ( 47, Mt. xiv 23, Jn vi. 
16) " evening," aiid then (Mk vi. 48, Mt. -xiv. 15) " the fourth watch of the 
"tf^A" (Jn vi. 17) " it was now dark." 

In Lk. xii. 20 and xvii. 34 "on thf^i^il" is < onnected with the sudden 
death of the rich man, and with theiAming of the Day of Judgment. 

L1718yJ In ]n xiii. 30 "he 0"<^* Iscariot] went forth: now it wh 
mgA/," it is manifest that "sympathetic" emphasis is intended, and it is 
'probably intended also in Jn xxi. 3. Similarly "darkness" probably has 
a "sympathetic" meaning in Jn vi. 47, xx. i, where the disciples are 
(owing to different causes), apart from their Lord. The coming of 
N icodemus to Jesus (Jn iii. 3) " by fi/jfA/ " and the repetition of the phrase 
in Jn xix. 39,' are probably intended to illustrate his character 

' [1710 <i] " Not )'et " occurs in Lk only once, and concerning the past 
(xiiii. ;3). Where Mk xiii. 7, Mt. xxiv. 6 have "The 'end it liot ftl," 





Now (».«. this 

moment) Jpri - o 7 

Now (i,;. at the \ • '■ 

preient time)' rvr 1 ' ' ; ,4 

Lk. xxi. 9 has **««/ strafghtway (o»'tM/«t).'' Jn assii^] the word four 
times to Jesus, concerning His "hour" or "season" or "ascension" 
(ii. 4, vii. 6, 8, XX. 17) as being " nol yel" »\iO Jn vii, 8 " I go tuil yll up 
' to this feast (v.r. «c/)" 

' (1719 b\ "Now (»i;»)." Jn sometimes uses ►vi' U, as in olassical 
Gk— without past time, but with ref. to what might have hten— 
for " but, [as things] now [are]." viii. 40, ix. 41, xv. :2, 24, xviii. 36 (xv. 34 
may mean '^but now [at last]"). Lk xix. 42 perh, means "but as things 
are," but more prob. " but now \it is too late anti] it is hidden from thine 
eyes" (as in Lk xvi. 25 "hut now [on the other hanii\" with reference to 
the past time when Lazarus received evil things). See 191S (i}^ foil. 

[1719^7 In Jn iv. 23, v. 25 "The hour is coming and [indeed] now is," 
there ^is a contrast between the past, when the "hour" might be called 
"future" or ^coming" and the present, when the hour "1^." (icnerally, 
in Jn. vvv seems to imply a contrast with the past, unites it is expressly 
contrasted with the future as in xvi. 22 " Now on the one hand (jiiV) ye 
have sorrow, but..." xiii. 36 "Thou canst not iwm'... but thou ^hah /(frv- ' 
after." ' . " 

[1719 (/] Hence we should suppose a reference to the past in Jn ii 8 
"'Draw water noit' [i.e. now that the. niater-ftots hm^e been duty filledX' 
iv. 18 "He whom thou »»7<' hast [.is tliy husband, lite thy five past 
husbands]..^ vi. 42 " We know his father and mother \and his past lift 
awtoHg us] : how then doth he ffcff say...?" ix. 21 "[//e was blind] but 
how he now secth we know not." 

[1719c] There is ambiguity in xi. 22 "If thou hadst been here my 
brother hj^d not died ; and now {itai ¥vv) [? \n spite of. his death] 1 know 
that whatsoever llu)u shalt ask of God;'^jodwilI give thee."' in rlassical 
Gk K<i\ vit¥ would naturally mean "^^ now": but itVoufd hardly be 
used in this sense at the beginning of a sentence fbecausc in that position, 
Kai would' naturally be takett as **and." ' The question is complicated by 
the use of Kai I'iJi' in LXX, where f'Ov'represents more than a do^en'Heb. 
words, sec 1915 (i) foil. 

[1719/] In view of Jn*B usage, yitr should probably be rendereti "fftftc 
at last," "now in the lifne foreordained by the Father," in Jn xii. 37 
"Now is my soul troubled," xii- il" Mow is the judgment of this world, 
now shall the ruler of this world be cast out," and* so in xvii. $, 7, 13. 

[1719 jf] In Jn xi. 8 "but now [i.e. recently] (»i») the Jews were 
seeking," rif is used for tbe classical pir t^. But ii. tbii the .iiiuniag 




Engliih Greek Mk 

^ Officer, or minister.* vwitp^nft ■ 2 

Openly, freely* (cV) <r<i^)ji)irif i" I.' 

[1730] Own' auc ■• * I. 




in Jn xxl. «o "Bring of the fish that ye[hive]caiight mna (iriinm »((»)"? 
Considering (i) the position of the word — at the end of the sentence, 
where it roust necessarily be emphatic —(J) the superfluity of'recently" 
in such a context, and (3) above all, the ordinary meaning of yiw in jOi 
it seems best to 'translate thus,' "the fish that ye have caught at last* 
j.e. after long toiling (xxi. 3) " in that night," before they heard the voic« 
of theSaviour and obeyed His command. See 191S><i) foil. -• 

' [1719A] "Officer" : used in M.t. .v. 35 of the' "officer" arresting » 
deblor and in Mk-Mt. elsewhere of the "officers" that arrested Jesus. 
Iq Lk, i. 3, iv. 20, the Word -means a "minister" of the Gospel or of the 
Synagogue. In Jn it always means "officers" of the Jews sent to arrest 
Jesus, except in xviii. 36 (R.V. Ixl) "then would my ttnuuifs fight," on 
which see ParaJotis (1388-9i). 

- '"Openly." See" Freely" (im/) and l»W{i) foil. 

' [ITlDii] "Own" (I) in "his own disciples." This phra'se, not 
elsewhere found in 'N.T., is used by Mk in the sole instance in which 
he uses the adj. " flivn*^ Jn uses " his mvH (pi. masc.)," but never ">fcM 
ovjt^ d iscipU s." After saying that Jesus "spake not without a parable*" 
^rees with Mk, the Utter alone continues thus, Mk iv..j4 

* Hut privaiBv to his tnuit disiipUs he expounded' all things." These 
. must bc\compared«witb ,. , 


"And wlicn he was "The diadples,'! 

aloDC, they that wcr«- 
abDut him with the . , ' 
Twelve...." ■ ^ . 

flTSOii] These facts suggest,, in Mk, conflation from some Hebrew 
word capable of meaning "ptivalely" and also, in v.irious senses, 
"disciples." And, as a faci, the Hebretl' btlh, "house," in various 
contexts means (1) "at home,." "privately," (2) "disciples" (as lleih 
Hillel) — which might be subdivided into (2<i) "they that were about. 
him,"(jd) the inner circle of "the Twelve." Mt. and Lk. have simply 
(3). Mk has in one passage (iv. 10) conflated three renderings* and in 
another (iv. 34) two of thepi. In Ksth. v. 10, "his house" is variously 
rendered (a) "his houst" («> "his f>tw« j(rA Mm)." Eir. yi. 1 1 "his *oii«" 
is parall. to-i Esdr. vi. 31 "his own {ru> ihmf airoC)." See also 370. 

[1730 r] There may have been"early controversy as to the existence 
of an inner cirele of " kis tviH " disciples within the Twelve (/^. Gal. ii. 9 

■'.■•'■: ■v.■^ '.■■'■; «»*■■■ ■'■' • 

Lk. viil. 9. 



**tbe pilUr" Apostles) which might induce Mt.-Lk. to omit the epithet 
as unedifying : but more probabl)r the epithet did not exist in traditions 
(earlier than Mk] to which Mt. and Lk. have returned. 

[1730^ Jn uses ol Ouh— but without t^ofittnu— in a double sense* ' 
« ist of the Jews and of Christ's brethren, who did not, as a whole, receive 
Him, snd of those among them who did (exceptionally) receive Him 
(i. ii) "Hf came to [his] own [home] (t4 Uut) and [Ais] own {ol Bw*) 
did not receive him ; but, as many as received him, to them gave he...." 
(xiii. i) "Having loved [k$s] own [rovt lilovt) that were in the world...." 
Whether Jn wrote with, or without, a reference to Mk's phrase " Ai> own 
disciplev" it is probable that he would, deprecate any suggestibn of a 
distinction between *' disciples" that were \A some peculiar sense Christ's 
"««'«," and others that were not. 

[1730 «] "Own" (3) in its general use. "l^r expresses, or implies, 
contrast — like "own" in English ("my own [and not anothcr^s])," Thi 
^ only Johannine instance where contrast might be questioned is Jn i, 41 
("He first findeth Ais &wH brother (rii- n. top Wmv)") where it might be' 
argued that Jn simply means '•'A/'s brother," on the following 'grounds : 

[1720/] (i) Jn never uses the possessive iavroi, -wr, found in Mk vi 4 
(Tisch.), viii. 35 (but Tisch. nvrov), jil 7 (marg.), Mt. viii. 22, xviii. 31, 
xxi. 8 (but Mk airwr), xxv. 1 (but Tisch. airmv), xxv. 4, 7, Lk. ii. 3, 39, 
iv. 34 (Tisch.), ix. 60, xi. 21, xiii.- 19, 34 {iavr^t), xiv. 26 (but Tisch. a^t), 
' xlv. 26 (no vir.), xiv. 37, 33,^h<pA^0ut Tisch. avrov), xvi. 4, 5, 8. xviii. 13 
(J)ut Tisch. oiToC), xix. 13, xix. 36 (but Tisch. avrm'). 

[1730^''] (ii)''ln the L\X, ZIW corresponds to avrm in I £s. v. 8 
cjcwrrof *U r^f ifUa¥- iruXii' parall. to Eir. ii. 1 iWffp ttc tri>Xiv ayrov. It 
corresponds to the simple Heb. pers. suffix in Job ii. 11 ^' every one from 
Ai's [own] place," iSiac, and in Dan. i. 10 "So should ye endanger my 
head" Theod. ftov, but Dan. t. 10 KivHwtvtrm ry ifiiif Tft«x^^V- 

[1730A] (iii) In recording iKe visit of the Lord tp His "rountry,' 
where all the Synoptisu (W.H. txt (Mk^vi. 1, 4, Mt. xiii. $4. Lk. iv..34)) 
have pimply **Ais (ai/rov) country," Jn alone uses Vttot (Jn iv. 44 r^ i9tf 
warpiit). J[l\\it Mt. marg. xiii. $7 r^ iMa w.] 

On these three grounds it may be argued that Jn may have used Xfitot 
to express the Synoptic avrov. 

[1790/] Against these arguments it niay be replied 4hat there is a 
special reason here for supposing emphasis to be intended, namely, 
(he repetition of the article (1962^. \Vhen the- article is repeated with 
JBiof elsewhere (v. 43, vit. 18) the meaning is "Arj oWn [and not an- 
other's],'' i.g. vii. 18 "He that'speaketh from himself seeketh Ais own 
glory." 'lAiof with the repeated article is very rare in N.T. and appears 
to be always emphatic, Acts u 35 "A/f own place," xx. 28 ^*Ais ou>h 
blood." It is also highly characteristic of this Evangelist that he should 
in this indirect way suggest, instead of stating, that ahcr Andrew had 



Englilh '' 


Mk . 




Parable, s. Proverb 






' Paraclete' 






Philip (the apostle)'. 

. ^Atiriror 



1 . 

■ 2 

"lirst" found "A<V tnvM" brother^ Andrew's companion (1901 A) did the 
same thing. On the whole, then, lAiof is probably emphatic in Jn i. 41. 

» [1720/] "Faraciete." Jn xiv. 16 "I will ask the Father and he 
shall give you another ParacUte that he may be with you for ever, [even] 
the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive...,'' xiv. 26 "the 
ParaiUte^\}M Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name...," 
XV. 36 "the ParacUie,..y\i^ Spirit of truth," xvi. 7 ** If I go not away, the 
Paraclete will assuredly not come to you; but if 1 go, I will send him unto 
you.'' Comp. 1 Jn ii. 1 "We have a Partuleie^ with the Father, J e:ius 
Christ, a righteous [Paraclete]." ♦ . 

[1730 k\ " raraclelV *''• " called in [to aid]," " advocatus," or " Advo- 
cate." was a Greek word, Hebraized as Parklele, in the sense of a legal 
advocate. But the ailcient "advocate" difTcred from (he modem in 
that the former did not take a reward but pleaded a friend's cause for 
th^ friend's sake. The neaivst Synoptic equivalent to Ct\ri«t'4 promise of 
a Faraclete l» .; ^ 

Mk xiii. It 
•' For il \\ not ye ihai 
spA^, but the lioly 
Spirit.** .' . »' 

Mt. X. to 

""For il ia not ye 

that speak, Imt the 

Spirit of your Father 

that spcakcth in yuu-" 

Lk. xxi. 1; 
'*! mill give yoa a 
mouth and wJKlom that 
alt your Mlverssrirt 
shall not be able to 
withstand or gainsay." 

. Jn's doctrine guairds against a narrowing of the Synoptic tradition, 
especially Lk.- as though the object of the Paraclete would be merely to 
help the Christian to make a successful defence when brought before 
kings and rulers. On Parkieie^ see Hor. ffeb. on Jn xiv. 16. ' 

[1730/] The variations in the Syno^tists favgur the view that Jesiii 
used some expression like the Aramaic Pttrkktty which was variously 
paraphrased by the Synoptists. Against any superstitious notion that the 
Advocate would procure special favours frdm' (jod, contrary to justice, Jn 
guards by saying that it is " the Spirit of truth" or ** the Holy Spirit," <fir 
"Jesus Christ, a righteous [Paraclete]." j-' 

* [1730//r] "Philip," the only Apostle described by Jn in his first' 
chapter as being (i. 43) ** found" by |esus Himself. The others, ahd 
Nathanael, either (i. 37^-8) "followed" Jesus, or were (i. 41, 45) "found" 
by other disciples. * . ^ 

-■■■" ,.■-■.'-.-■■-'.■':. tit '':'.' 



English Greek . ■ Ilk 

Pool* KoXvitfilidpa . '<^'. 

[IT31] Proverb, parable' napmiiM - o 





' [1730n] "Pool" U ujed in connexion with the healing of a man 
described as "in infirmity" (Jn v. 2—7) and the name Bcthzatha, 
Bethsaida, etc. varies greatly in MSS. and versions. " Pool " is also used 
in connexion with the healing of a m^ born blind, where it is called 
(Jnix. 7)"the/<w/of Siloam"(1708A). . - 

■ [1721 a] " Proverb," iropoifuii, is rendered by R. V- (txt) " parable "-^ 
the usual rendering of wapa^Xri (Which jn never uses}-»in Jn x. 6 "This 
firwtrd spake Jesus to them, but they (Jkttroi 64) understood iiyvvaay) 
not what thifigs they were that he Was speaking to them (riva^^v i lAuXvt 
almU)." He had been saying that (x. i — 5) the "sheep'' follow the 
" shepherd " whose " voice " they " know," but do not follow a " stranger." 
These facts were, and are, " frmririial" both as to the literal shepherd of 
sheep and as to the metaphorical "shepherd of the people" mentioned in 
the Bible and the Iliad ; and they could hardly be mistradersiood. But 
perhaps "understood not etc.'* means that those whom Jesus was 
addressing had no conception of the idea of the true shepherd. They 
could not misunderstand the proverb, but tbey could and did fail tO' 
understand the spiritual truth that it represented. 

[1731^] Jn's Other ^instances are xvi. 25^9 "These things have 
1 spoken unto you in prm'trbs. There cOmeth an hour when 1 shall no 
longer speak to yon in prmerbi but I shall bring you word pliiinly about 
the Father." Tolhis the disciples reply "Ste, now [at last] (1719/) (»« 
ȣv) thou speakest plainly and speakest no^rin'rri^," contradicting their 
Maste^ But His answer to them, and the sequel, shew that they were 
wrong, and that His words had not been " plain " to them. 

[1721 <-] Why does John avoid the Synoptic word " parable " (1687) and 
introduce, in its place, a word unused by the Synopiists? Partly, 
perhaps, because the Synoptic tradition varied. Mark alone (iv. 33) says 
that Jesus taught by parables "ai Ihty wen able I0 undersland!' 
MiUthew alone (in the parallel to Mk iv. 33—4) tjuotes an O.T. saying 
about "things hidden from the foundation of the world ".(xiii. 35). l.uke 
omits all this. Matthew (as well as Luke) omits Mark's statement that 
\t^ii^ explained in private all things (o his oum disciples.' Moreover, 
Mark (iv. 11 — 12) and. Luke (viii. 10) differ considerably from Matthew 
(xiii. II — 13) in their descriptions of the reason for teaching in parables 
(Mk-Lk. "M<i/... hearing they may not understand," Mt. "*<'n«<j/... hearing 
they hear not neither do they understand "). 

[1721 d] In any case, Jn prefers to say that Jesus taught by 
"proverbs" i.e. by tmths of general import, wherea»the Paraclete was to 
teach truths of particular import, appealijg to the experience -of the 



, ■ jfc, '— -■ — — ^ . : . 

Engliih ^Grtek Mk Mt. IM. Jn 

Quicken' (tiowoi4m o o o 3 

Raise up' afitmffu (active) 0104 

Receive (a person)' Xafi^vp O o on 

' Remain, 8. Abide ftJim -a n , 3 -. ' 7 40 

Remember*" ftvrfttovtvm , i : i ' ' 1 3 

individual. n»/wM^ia does not appear to mean " dark saying " cither in Jn 
or anywhere in r.rcck literature. But a proverb, or general saying, 
being brrcf, and dispensing with quahfications and modifications (which 
the hearer has to supply according- to circumstances) is always liable to 
become a "dark saying" to tho^se thai will not take the trouble'to think 
about its special meaning or application. 

' "Quicken," sec (1718) "Live, make to." 

' [1721/) "Raise up," in Mt., only xxit. 14 "raise up seed," quoting 
Deut. XXV. 5 ; Jn vi. 39, 40, 44, 54 " raise up [from thv dead]," always foil. 
' by "on the last day." J[The numbers above do not include t'ytifna.) ^ 

' [1721/] " Receive (a person)." (The numbers above do not include 
ti^xotuti (16890) In all but two passages (Jn vf. 21, xix. 37) the receiving 
means spiritual reception,* (>. "receiving" doctrine, influence, or spirit. 
In the saying " He ^hat rtifi-wf/i me rtuivtth him that sent me," Jn xiii. 
30 uses Xcifi^fivw whertas Mk ix. 37, Mt^ x. 40, Lk. ix. 48 use A«;^^i. The 
latter word Jn never uses except in Jn iv. 45 "the (Ulilacana receivtd 
(/JW^vro) liim " describing oirr Lord's visit to His native place where He 
>vas not honoured. ' PAhaps Jn means that they merely " welcomed" or 
"entertained" Him, because of the signs He had wrought, but did not 
believe in Him. Jn uses Xa/i/SoFw in the Prologue (i. 12} " But as many 
as received Mwci^Xo them he gave authority to become children of (iod.** 
The word Xa^f^v^ is used by Mk-Mt. (but not by Lk) in the Eucharistic 
precept "■''Receive [it], This is my bod>'," and in Jn xx. 22 "AVcmv the 
Holy Spirit." Lk. xxii. 17 has "Receive (Xit^r«) this, <>. the cup, and 
divide it among yourselves." Sec 1341. , *. 

[1721^] .\a^i3<iw«) rivd meaning "welcome" iriust be distinguished 
from X. ni-a meaning "take," e.g. (Mk ix. jlb\^ taking a child," (Lk. xx. 
29) ^UcUting a wife," (Jn xix. 6) "lake him and crucify him." The 
instances of " welcoming " in jn are applied fo the receiving of the 
Logos, of Christ, of those whom He sends, of the Spiiri.t, of the- mother 
of Jesus when committed to the beloved disciple. 

* [1721A] " Remember," only in words of the Lord^Mk viii. |K (Mt. 
xvi 9) ^^ renumber ye not?" about the loaves, Lk. xvii. 33 ^'rememStr 
Lot's wife." Jn^s mstances are all in the. Last Discourse, l^xv. so^ xvi. 4) 
about ** remembering" Christ's warnings, and xvi. 31 "she r/memb^re/k 
not the anguish." 

[1721 1] Konns of/r^ir^vtt occur in Mt. (3), Lk. (6), Jft (3). Jn'i 




}tk Ml. 





Retain (sina) (?)>. 


o b 





o 9 


I . , 

Roman, in' 


" o ■ o 


I ■ ^''.. : 



' , 



4 4 





t>. o 



17M] Scripture, another' •Wjja ypaiftti 

- v^-::*> 



' ^S 

Scripture, the 

v y/W>i 

. -''.o^ •. :o. 


to , 


Scripturt, this 


■•■; ,.i:..::^q- ' 




instancfis all say that the disciples (ii. 17, 21, xii. 16) "remembered 
((^i-^ir^rfartr) " prophecies about. Christ, or words of Christ, (ii. 32) "when 
he was raised from the dead," or {xii. 16) " when he was ylorified." 

' [1721y] " Retain (sins),*' only in Jn xx. 23 ** whose soever sins ye 
retain they *re retiu»eit, Hv rivati- Kparfftf [sc. tac Atuxprw] **«^Ti7i'riu." 
The meaninc is, obscure (2617— aO). .See also 1891. 

" [1721 if'l "Romans," Jn xi. 48 "The Komnns will come and take 
away both our place .-vnd our nation." ■ * , ' ' 

, ' [1721 /]"ln Roman," Jn xix. 20 " It wa; written iitHcbitW, and Vw 
A'OMiMi [i.e. in 1 atin], and in tlreek." 

* [1721 m] " For the sake of (a person).'' This excludes (li mCrt etc, 
On the Synoptic "sake," ivikq, see 1892. tin the double meaning of.^ii, 
see 1884 a—h, and 2294 foil. Un viri> see 2369—71. 

'[1721«] ".Salim." Only in Jn iii 23 ".iinon near to ^j/iot." Iloih 
localities are variously identified. " /Epon " may mean " fountains." 
"Salim "may mean "peace." Comp. flfcn. xxxiii. 18 (R.V. Ixt) "peace," 
(marg.) " Shalem " ;' Ps. Ixxvi. 2 " in Salem," LXX " peace.'' . • 

* ll722o] "Scripture, another" etc. "The Scripture" oc.<jjirs in J'n - 
at least twice without^ any Scriptural quotation in the context, ii. 22 
(R.V.) " When therefore he was raised from the dead his diiciples 
remembered that he spakis this ; and t^ey believed the uTipture^ and 
the word which Jesus had said," xx. 8—9 (R.V.) "Then entered in 
therefore the other disciple also, which came first to the tomb, and he 
saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the senpture that he must 
rise again from the- dead." Wesicott (ar//iv.)and Lightfoot (Gal. iii. 22) 
talc^ "the Scripture" as Fs. xvi. 10 "Thou wilt not leave' myi soul in 
Sheol," or some other single passage of Scripture in the Evangelist's 
mind. But against this are the following facts. 

[1722*j["The Scripture" (sing.) occurs in N.T., Clement of Alexandrio, 
and Origen, in two senses, ist, and most freq., the Scripture speaking 
throuijh a single text (as we say, "The Bible uiys, 'Pride cometh before 
a ia1l'"\ 2nd, the Scripture as a whole, or as a person representing 
God's voice, or will, oj action. Uefore considering these usages, it will 
be convAient to discuss the plural. . ' , . 


EnglUh Gi«t Mk J *''■ i'^- J" 

Scriptures, the al yyu^' .1 4 J 1 

[1732 c] "The Scriptures" (pi.) is the form prefenvd by the Synoptists 
to mean all the books of Scripture, and hence, loosely, the Scripture a> 
a whole. They never use the sing, except in Mk xii. io"HaVfe ye not 
even read M« scripturt, 'The stone...'?" [where Ml. xxi. 41 has, loosely, 
" Have ye never read ;>i tht scriplHrei^'The stone...'?" and, Lk. xx. 17 
" What then is this that is written (W oCy tWir ri yiypatitUvov roirg), 
'The stone...'?"] and Lk. ir. 31 "This day is fulfilled this scripturi your ears," i-t. the passage of Isaiah just read. ^ 

[1722 </] "The Scriptures" (pi.) is the form used by Mk-Mt. (a) with 
reference to the resurrection of the dead (Mk xii; 34, Mt. xxii. 29 " Ye err 
not knowing tht scriplurts," Lk. om.) and ^i) with reference to the 
"delivering uf" of the Messiah (Mk xiv. 49, Mt. xxvi. 56 "that tht 
scriptures (Mt.+of the prophets) might 5e fulfilled," comp. Mt. xxvi. 54 
"how then should the scriptures be fulfilled?" Lit. om.). The first of 
these passages indicates a belief on the pan of Mark add Matthew that 
the doctrine of the general resurrection of the dead runs through the 
Scriptures, but Luke does not imply this. The second indicates a belief 
in Mark Ihat the doctrine of I'aradosis runs through the Scriptures ; but 
Matthew limits this to " the scriptures of the frophcts," and Luke again 
dissents. ■' . 

[1722;] "The Scrijlture*" i» used twice by Luke in »he Walk to 
Emmaus (xxiv. 27—32) "And beginning from Moses and from nil the 
prophets he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things con- 
coming himV^^*'.. While he opened to us the scriptures" and, later on, 
xxiv. 44—5 " how that all things must needs be fulfilled which are written 
ill the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. 
Then opened he their mind that they might understand the scriptures." 
The object of this appeal to "the Scriptures" was to shew that "it 
behoved" the Messiah (Lk. xxiv. 26) "to suffer these things and to enter 
into his glory"; anil, in this process,^he promise to Abraham, the 
sacrifice of Isaac, his restoration as it .were (Heb. xi. 18—19) "from 
the dead," the typical life of Joseph, the Story of the Braien Serpent, 
and many other things " written in the Law of Moses" might play a part 
Thus we can understand that St Faul may be referring to the general 
tenor of Scriptural types as well as texts wheii he says 1 Cor. xv. 3 — 4 
" Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures.. Mc hath been raised 
on the third day according to the scriptures." 

[1722/] These facts indicate room for individual difference of 
expression. On such a point, for example, as the I'aradosis, or "delivering 
up," of Christ, Mark might say that it was predicted by "the scriptures," 
Matthew might correct this by saying "thie xii^iMi-o/ the prnphets," 



Luke might prefer not to apply so broad a term as "Stniptur&s" t6 
a single Messianic eveht. When Luke uses the plural he applies^ it 
to the whole of the divine Messianic plan Sot redeeming mankind. „ On 
the other hand another author might, dislike the plural "Scriptures" 
except where the teim denoted the drffitrent " writings " of the Bible and 
a passing from one "writing" to another or a comparison of one with 

[1722 j^-] "Tljc Scriptures," in Jj»., This last remark prepares us "for the 
fact that John, as against ten instances of "the Scripture/' uses t^e 
Synoptic term ^* thie 'Scriptures" onfy ■OMce^'{v. 39) "Ye search the 
scriptures^ for ye {emph.). think to have in therh eternal life." The 
context appears to shew that the mej^ning is : "Y^ pass from book to 
600k, searching, and comparing, and studying this passage and that, and 
losing the whole in the parts, failing to recognise the testimony of the 
Scripture while poring over the Scriptures'* 

[1722 A] Retutning to "the Scripture" (sing.), and considering it 
first outside Jn, we hnd that it mostly introduces a quotation : Acts i^ 
16 — 20 '*/A/,J. that the Holy Spirit uttered... (P9. txix. 35 and Cix. 8V* 
viii. 32 — 5 "The passage of the s. that he was reading. ..from this i.," 
Rom. iv. 3 "What saith tfie j....,"-ix. xy^^Yhe s. saith to I'haraoh...." 
(simil- X. II, xi. 2, Gai. iv. 30, 1 Tim. v. 18, Jas ii. 23, iv. 5 (?>— all of 
which have "saith " etc.), Jas ii. 8 "according to the s, 'Thou shall love 
thy neighbour,'" I Pet. ii. 6 "it contains Iff *." 

[17221*] "The Scrjpture" in N.T. apart from quotations. Where 
there is rto suclj^form as "saith," "uttered," " contains," and no quotation, 
" the Scripture " is regarded as a whole and sometimes personified. Kven 
where there is a quotatioti, it is personi6ed in (Jal. iii. 8 " The, j., /wr/- 
seeing- ■■Preached.** There is no quotation in Gal, iii. 22 "Tj**'»t 
up all things under sin...," 2 Pet. i, 20 "every prophecy of J...." (ial. iii. 
22 resembles Rom. xi, 32 ** God hath shut up all men.^^ which indicates 
that "Scripture," in Gal. iii. 22, means "the will of <?od as expressed in 
Scripture." There is no single passage of Scripture that mentions this 
"shutting up": the Apostls-i^robably referring to a numbet; of passages 
such a$ those quoted in Rom^i. 10^18, and 41so to Ps. cxliii. 2 and 
Deut. xxvii. 26 quoted in Gal. ii.^iViii. 10. Schtittgen (Gal. iii. 8) quotes 
Siphi^* 186^ for a similar person nkatiun of Scripture: "What did 
Scripture have in vieu't in placing the itiew Year"and the Day of Atone- 
ment between Passover and Pentecost ? 

[1722y*] "The Scripture" in Clem. Alex, and Orjgen. The (ireek 
Fathers most akin to the Fourth Gospel *e Clement of Alexandria and 
Origcn. Clement uses "the Scripture Santh," tq introduce quotations or 
allusions,. but -also such phrHses as ^3) "collecting testimonies from * 
Scripture (»« y.)," (890) ">vresling the Scripture (rfff y.)t" "believigg the 
Lord's Scripture*{ri KvpusK^ y.)," meaning ^ripture as a whole. Origca 

A. V. „ 22i 16 


also (Huct i. 26-— 7) ipeaki of "the Scripture" as having a body aiid 
a soul. He says that our faculties are strengthened by reading "the 
Scripture," that "the whole Soripture (iriiiTav n)n y.)" is (Huel i. 204 ft) 
"God's one complete and peifectly adapted inslrunxent." Similarly 
he says n the Philotalia, chap. x. " There is not a jot or rittle written in 
' tke Scrt/^ift that... docs not perform its walk." Chrysoslbm says (oil 
Rom. XVI. s) " not even apparently small points in (he Scripture are placed 
thert at random or in vain." .Suiccr also quotes Chrys. Homil. xcii. torn; 
vi, "Whatsoever things tke Scripture saiih, these things arc more trust- 
worthy than the things that are seen (ir4irTcir«/>a t»» ip^^UttrV Clem, 
personifies Scripture when he says that it (882) "«//i to strangers those 
who have fallen ((way" (comp. 506 "m/M they Are sold," and see J^dg. ii. 
» 14, iii. 8, iv. 3, X. 7; I S. xii. 9^ Is. 1. r which describe Jehovah as "selling 
Israel " because of its sins). ^ " 

{1732 /], "The Scripture," in Jn, apart from the two passages under 
consideration, occurs as ibllows: vii. 38 "Even mtkes. [hath] said...," 
^scure, perh. quotation, but perb. general tenor of Scriptural promises 
to them th,it (vii. 37) " thirst." On. vii. 43 " Did not Ike .t. say that the 
Christ comeii from the seed of Uavid and from Uethlchetp the village 
where Uavid was?" VVeslcott himself refers the reader to Is. xi. 1, )tj. 
xxili. 5, Mic. V. 2, without meiilioning any one.of these as specially in the 
Evangelist's mind. Probably the meaning is " the general tenor of the 
Psalms and'the Prophets concerning the birth and birthplace of (he Son 
of David," who, it was assumed, must be born in the city of Oavid. 

^In X. 34—5 "Is it not written... If.. .M^ scripture cannot be destroyed 
(ki^^TWi) (lit. loosed)," the reference may be to the passage just quoted 
(" I said ye are gods ") but it is more in accordance with Johanninc style 
to suppose Scripture as a whole to be i'nlended (for " loosing " comp. ii. i^ 
and perh.' I Jn iv. 3). After xiii. 18, xi«. 34, 36 "that Ike s. might 
be fulfilled," there follow quotations. In xvii. 13, there is probably 
a reference to the previously (juotetj Scripture so that we must render;, 
"that Ike [aiove-^uiitei/, xiii. 18] j. might be fulfilled." In xii. 38, 
"Jesus,. ..that tke s. might be perfectly accomplished, saith, '1 thirst,'" . 
.the words 'I thirst' are printed by W.H. as a quotation. In xix. 37, 
a quotation is intrbduced with the phrase, "And ag^in another i. 

[1722/] There remain for consideration Jn ii. 32 "they believed Ikf 
scripture;' xx. 9 "they knew not the uripturl^' As to the former, 
Origen, in a very (pll comment, suggests no one passage of SCriptiire that 
the Evangelist must, hare had in view. Nor does Chrysostom. Cyril 
(Cramer ad loc.) parapkraics in 'tke plural^ " comparing with the issue Ike 

* Ikings tkal kiui been -writlen {rk ' yty^/i^iVu)." Also in his brief com- 
mentary on the context of the second passage, Chrysostom mentions no 
definite text of Scripture. Westcstt, though maintaining that one definite 

224 I 


' Cngliih 


■■'.■■ ;«>• 




[im]s«(i)' ■ 

3X1 ITU 









.■■ 6' 







ip^ . • 


V >J 

It ' 

' 30 

Seiie, catch, take* 


'.■' ■ -■'-«» ■ 

\' «»'* . 



passage it intended, does not profets to uy with certainty what it is 
(WestQ. Jn ii. 21 " hardly any other than I's. xvi. 10,' but on Jn xx. 9 " (he 
reference is probably to Hs. xvi. 10"). II is extremely unlikely that 
Christians in the first century would have fastened their faith in the 
Scriptural prediction of the Messiah's resurrection on one' passage 
(excluding, for example, jsaiah and llosea, and limiting themselves to a 
single text in the Fsalms). Much more probably they would have adopted. 
Luke's view that the Saviour, after the Resurrection, ** beginning from 
Moses and from all the prophets," revealed to the disciples (xxiv. 27, 32, 
45) " all the Scriptures," i.e. the tenor of the Scriptures. It would be 
quite in harmony with Johannine style and thought to represent this by- 
" ii/ Serif /utf." . . , ^ ' 

■[lT23ri] "Sec." On 0\inm see 1607, on «<dof<ai 16(M, on gimpim 
US6— 1603, on 6fidK 1606— 6 and 1703 u. 'iafii> is the most fretjucnt word 
for "seeing" in all the Gospels, but less freq. in jn than in the rest. On 
Jn's use of •!»<»■ sec 1610. 

' [1723 J] "Seite." In Jn xiii. 3< 10 maCm is used of catching fish. 
Elsewhere in Jn it always describes attempts of the Jews to "c^tch" 
Jesus. ■ ,^ ■ .' ■ 

The Synoptists differ among ihemielves in their language in 
MIc xii. Ij Mt. xxii. 15 Lk. XX. so.. 

, '■' ^ ■ ■ ." '•■.■-';.'-"*-.*</,■' 4fiV9t^ ToC tr^tiiinol., 

—where Lk. is at some pains to shew that (he " catching " was to be mors 
(at all events in its results) than n^ere "catcliing in word." 

Mk liv. I Mt. XXV), 4 l.k. xxii, 1 

[1723 c] In view, perhaps, of various and slightly conlUcting: tra- 
ditions, Jn uses hafattually one word, without adding Xuyy or d<iXy. Us 
use (in the sense of " catching " a prisoner) in writings so various as Acts 
^ii. 4, 2 Cor. xi. 32, Kev, xix. 20< shews that it must have been freq. 
in Christian communities. In ^ant. ii.' 15 "catch foxes," LXX ■rwo-urf 

■'."■ '.'] :-'^l\ . ";;■ '32^ 16—2 '.'■■." 


Sends including — 
■ • "He that tent (me, 

Gredi Ul^ 
i W(n(»bt.Oi«,atrii») 6 

■ Ml. 


.. ^ 






Sym. has avKXifitr*. In^^hr. i^tH.-^! » io g#yrtr w , A has KQXa^f^trtroL 
[In Jer. xviii. so xiiXaair is perh. a conflate^rendering of a word meaning 
"pit," which suggests "snaring" or "calching."! 

For " Seiie," KparJm, see 1691 a. ''^■•^ 

» [1723^0 "Send" etc., irinn»>. In the canonical LXX this>ord 
occurs only Q times (whereas dirotntWn occurs about 480). ii is th<^ 
mark of a non-Hebraic style, occurring 4 times in Wisd. and (4 in Maca 
In the Pentateuch, it occurs only where Rebecca (Gen. xxvii. 42) "j/o/ 
and called Jacob," who is presumably in the same house wirh her or j)ot 
far off. In ttie Synoptists, it is used of sending (on a short prrand) 
mes:>engerst soldiers, executioners, servants etc., who for the most part 
have to return with something accomplished or with some report, Mk's 
only instahcc, however, is Mk -v. 12 "send us into the Swine" (paralt. 
Ml. diroffTitXoi', Lk. iwtrpfi^f] uir<X^fii'). The Synoptists lise far more 
frequently uirooriXXM, which is also used by Jn, thus:-^Mk (20), 
Mt. (22), Lk. (25). Jn (28). • 

[1733 <■] "Send" etc. in Jn. Jn's frequent use of wifurv arises m part 
from the frequency of the phrase " He that sen/" (almost always applied 
to the Father) in the words of Christ, occurring ifore than 20 limes. If 
this phrase were deducted^ Jn would 'use iriiinto only abou^ix times, 
i.g. less frequently than Luke. Except in Jn i. 22, 33 ("that we may give 
an answer to them that sent us,'*' "he that sent me tobaptiie") irifiir« • 
always occurs in words of Christ. Apart from the phrase " He that stnt^ 
are (xiii- 20) "He that rccciveth whomsoever I i/wf/," (xiv. 26) "(The 
Spirit] which the Father will semi in my name," (xv. 26) "[The Paraclete] 
whom I will send to you from the Father,'' (xvi. y) " But if I go, I will 
semi him [the Paraclete] unto you," (xx. Ji) "Even as the Father HATH 
SENT (f ir^aroXKc*-) me, I also (teoyw) semi (niit*t») ^ou." 

[1723/1 n^pfroianddirocrWXXM. This (xx. 21) terminates the instances 
in Jn both of diroorcXXs and of wtfiw^; and it cannot be doilbted that 
Jn intends a difference of meaning by the dilTerent jirords. Had he 
wished to use the perfect of viftnu ("hath sent," wtnoftii^)^ no gram- 
matical coiisiderations need have deterred him; for there are two instances 
of it in the LXX alone'(i Esd. li. 26, 2 Mace xi. 32). x 

[1723;^] nifiirta is never used in the First Epistle .at all, but dfrooT^XXv 
is used concerning the Father's seniting of the Son in three solemn 
passages (i jn iv. 9, 10, 14) and six times in the. Last Prayer in the 
Gospel, where we find (xvii. 18) "Even as thou didst send (dn-cWftXaf) 
me into the world, I also (x^yw) did sknd (dWinrrtXa) them into the 

326 ■ ■*■" ■■.;'. ■■ ■ ■ * 


EnRliih . Grwli ;}ik Ht, ' .tk. '. J* 

Servant (Chri. pre- -' •^'' - " 

ceptSrnoi parables)' Aut>Xoi - 

Sheep' irptidoTor 

[1724]Sick> .' M„l,i . 

Sick, be* , iirSifix 

Sickness'':'"-' aafftviut 


:'"»:. ■ 

1 ■ : 6 

1 ■ . 


* W 

t . 

■ ■!■. .' 

•t ■ b ■ : 


■' J--' 

•-■1 :■ "g:. 


■:■ i .. 

■ ^ .,-•■* 

World." Uompftring the p&ssage in quesUon - (xx. t\) with xvii.* iS antl 
with others where AwtmriWm is defined by various contexts (r Jn iv. 9, to, 
14), we are perhaps justified in thinking that tiirotrWAXw inean« *' sending 
away into the world at large," but ir«Vir« " sending on a spect.ll errand." 
Th^ Saviour sends all the Apostles collectively into the world to preach 
the Gospel (dfro0T/XX#i), but He -sends them on special errands tu Jews, 
GeiUiles, Rente, Athens, Antioch etc. (mi^nn). If so, the distinc)i<in in 
Jn XX. 21 is between the mission of the incarnate Son now accomplished, 
and the mission of His followers now beginning : *'£ven as the Father 
HATH KEMT {anioTukKt) mc [into the world], I also sentt {nifina) you 
[severally to -the several nations of the world]." 

' [1723^] " Servant " (Chri. precepts, no* parables). AoCXor, "servant" 
or "slave/* in parables, occurs in Mk xit. 2, 4, xiii. 34, and much more 
freq. in Mt.-Lk. But, in Synoptic precepts, it occurs only Mk x. 44 
"Whosoever may desire amonj; you to be first shall be sertumt of all," 
Ml. XX. 27 sim. Lk. dlff. (op which see 1276—80) ; Mt. x. .34—5 "por is 
a servant above his lord. ..and the serrun/ as his lord" (where IJt. vf. 40 
di lifers ) ; Lk. xvii. 10 (after a parable) "Say ye, wc ftre unprofitable . 
servants.*^ As regards irais, sec 805—11, and 1802. 

[172$/] It was shewn above (1717 ^Z—c) that Epictetus rej^ards. 
a "servant" or "slave"— if a slave in «/>rrf and not merely in social 
condition-'-As essentially bad, being the slave of his fears, passions etc. 
So Jn says (viii. ■54) "Everyone that doeth sin is (W.H.) a sfttvf[o( sinj," 
and adds that (viii. 3$) " t^^ s/ave doth not abide in the house (or ever," 
contrasting the " slave" with the " son," who "abides for ever (2263^,/)." 
Later on, he follows Matthew (x. 24—5) above quoted in say)ng;(xiit. 16) 
(rep. XV. 20) "A servoMt is not greater than his lord," applying the word 
to the apostles. Later still, he says (xv. 15) "No longer do 1 call you 
sH^iants because the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth." He 
adds, " But you have I called friends.^' Oh the connexion between this 
and Lk. xii, 4 "you, my friends," sec 1784—92. These and many other 
facts indicate a mental friction arising from the collision, or intermixing, 
of Greek and Hebrew words and notions about "service." 

' [1723>] " Sheep. '^ Comp. Mt. x. 6, xv. 24 "the lost sht-ep of the 
House of Israel," with Jn x. 16 ''oKh^ sfuep that are not of this fold," 
where Jn suggests that the precept in Mt. x. 6 was but for a time. 

? [1724 (t] "Sick" etc. , Jn nowfaere uses the word KcJiroi;. Mt. once 

■\ ■-■-:.■;" 32/ ' [•: • ' 




Or«k . 



Simon (falh^ of 

Judas Iicariot)' 






Speak, 1 (Chri.)* 


[1739] Stand* 

arijKm _ . 

Stand(appLto]eiu$)' taniiu. 





. o 








o ■ 







p . 

1 ■ 

- I 

4 ■. 

(viil. 17) uses Jo-Wmui in a quotation from Is. liii. 4'(Heb.~ not LXX). In 
canon. LXX iaS^ytia occurs only 5 tiincs, once (Job ««xvii. 7) in error, 
and twice (Jef. vi. 3f , xviii. 33) to express moral " stumbling.." 

' [173**] "Signify." the phrase («ii. 33, xviii. 32, xxi. 19) 
"'igmfyiHg by what death "he' should die, or glorify God. Apart from 
Acts XXV. VJ ("iigni/y the charges against him"), it occurs in N.T. else. _ 
where only in Acts xi. it"iigtiijfr<1 through the Spirit," Rev. 1. 1 "signified ' his servant John." »■ 

• [17Mc] "Simon"(rather of Judas Iscariot): Jn vi. 71 'loiiflai-xijiMnit 
ItrxOfiwrov, xiil. 3 'lovdac Z^tweor *Iiritapu«r,}(, xiii. 26 *Ioij^ ZiMWoff 

- *I<ritafMwrou. 

■[1734i/] "Soldier," in Jn, all in the narrative of the I'assion 
(xix. J— 34).- - "■ .■,.'. 

« [1734 1\ ■" SojJ," only in Jn xiii. 26-.-30, and not elsewhere in N.T. 

• [1734/1 "I speak" (Chri.). tjie numbers include the first pert, 
sing, of any tense of XoA<»'in Chnsl's words. Sec 1704. Mi.'s single 
instance it xiii. 13 "Therefore speak I to them in parables," and Lk.'s i« 
xxiv. 44 " These arc my words which I spake unto you." 

• [1736a] "Stand," »t7<», generally means "sund last (or, upright)" 
as in Rom. xiv. 4, 1 Cor. xvi. 13, Gal. v. 1. It is appropriate in Mk xi. 3J 
"When ye */a«rfi/if(a^<ir/^ praying," but not so obviously in Mk iii. 31 
(where U has iirrini) unless it means that the mother and brethren of 
Jesus "took their stand" at the door with persistence. In Jn viii. 44, 
the meaning is " He was a murderer from the beginning and did not . 
itand/asl in the truth." In i. 26 ^<nt i,imr ffnj.iv " there ilMidiik in the 
midst of you [a certain one], whom Jfc know not," the verb perh. hat (a« 
Origen suggests aj loc.) ol spiritual as well as a local meaning. 

' [1738*] "Stand," imj/ii, appl. to Jesus. The Synoptists associate 
the ' standing" of Jesus (Mk x. 49, Mt. xx. 33 oris, l.k. xviii. 40 ti»»%ii 
(1738 </)) with a cure of blindness. The tradition peculiar to Lk. vi. 17 
"having gone down [from the mountain] he ilooJ (fim?) with them," 
suggests a parallel between the Sermon on the Mount and the Law given 
on Mount Sinai, whence Moses descended and tpoke to his brethren. 
Lk. v. I "slmtUitg (ArrA,) by the take" (in the CaJIpf feier aiid the 



Miraculoat Draught) lufigests parallcliim to Mk. i. i6 "paiiing <Mt. 
if. 8 walking) b)r (he sea" (in the Call of Peter), or to Jn x>i. 4 "he 
stood (Jffwj) on -(fit) the beach" (in the Repentance of Peter and the 
Miraculoui Draught). On Lk. xxiv. -36, "stood in the midst" (/irn) cV 
liiir^} see 17J»— 7. 

[172Sc] "Stand steadfastly," irratf^nii, is applied to Jesus in Mt. xxvii. 
II, Lk. xviii, 40, and 4s prob. not adequately rendered by R.V. "stood," 
which suits the form used by Mk x. 49, Ml. xx. 52 ordt. Lk. uses nattit 
because he means that Jesus "^tood still," "refused to go on" in spite of 
Hit followers, wtfo were rebuking the blind man. because they did not 
want to have the procession interrupted. Mk xiii, 9 oriiSifirtaBi does not 
mean "ye shall stand," but "ye shall tlitml (]tt. i. 18) its 'pillars' bcftire 
kings for my sake," i.e. stand as steadfast witnesses for me (where Mt.- 
Lk., missing (he meaning of this, have Mt. x. |8 axUimirtt, Lk. xxi. i] 
awttyafu¥ovt). In the- LXX, oTo^vat, when not meaning "weighed," 
regularly means "established," or is, at all events, distinct from "stood," 
i.g. Ex. xj. 17, Numb. ix. 15 (K.V.) "reared up," Deut. iii;i. 15 (A), 
i K. xiti. 6, Eccles. ii. 9, Dan. vii. 4, 5, 1 Mac. xiv. 19. In Judg- xx- i, 
loriStiaav (\ Sim)) is prob, intended to represent the Heb. exacllyt "pre- 
sented themselves," "took their stand" (Gesen. 426). 

tl726rfi iTuB'ii'ai, ip N.T. generally, be distinguished faomirT^xu. 
On Col. iv. liinairraS^f, Lightf says "j/a«rf/ri>/"— not asR.V. "stand"— 
" doubtless thecorrcct reading rather than irr^ti comp, Mt^ ii. 9, xxvii. 11, 
where also the rec. txt substitutes the weaker word." Hence we should 

render Mt. ii. 9 " stoaf sti/l," and Lk. xxi. 36 "that ye may be able to 

standfast" (where D alter! mat^viuXo m^atatt). In Lk. xviii. 11—13, 
a contrast is intended between the Pharisee " standing met XimSiis) " and 
the Publican " standing (lirruv) a(»t off." Lk. xxiv. i; is one of thevery 
few passages c6rrectly rendered by R.V. " t/ity stood still." 

[172S e\ " Stand as a steadfast witness " is a meaning of trraifitnu that 
naturally follows from the above-mentioned Hebrew notion of a prophet 
as (Jer. i. 18) "an iron /t'V/ar"— the word "pillar", meaning "that which 
stands " — standing to tes^ for Jehovah : and such a meaning would be 
favoured by the saying orUeuteroiiomy xix. i j.."in the mouth of 'hree 
witnesses shall every word if made to Hand" LX.X mlfiTrtai, but A 
oraBrfirrratf and alluded to in the latter form in Mt xviiL 16. Hence, 
something more than the mere attitude of " standing " fs implied in the 
precept (Acts v. 20) ''Stand and {irraSiwrts) speak in'tlie temple to the 
people," where the angel means " stand fast as witnesses for the Lord," 
and this is the meaning of oru^tic applied to Peter and Paul in Acts n. 14, 
xvii. 22, xxvii. 21. This, too, is probably the meaning in the tradition 
peculiar to Matthew (xxvii. 11) "Now )t%}X\' stood \erect\ or stood \as 
a witness for God], before the Governor." 

[1726/] Jn has (besides the above-mentioned (172J a) t. 26. m^ui) , 


vti. 37 *^ Jesus stocd (Ivr^K(i) and cried saying, If any man thirst, let 
him come unto me," xx. 14 *'[Mary Magdalene] bcholdeth Jesus stanHing 
(/oTwffl),'* XX. 19 •" Jesus came and stood in the midst iStmf §lt Wr'^/ffoi-)," 
rep. in xx. 26, and xxi. 4 "Jesus s/ttttd. on {ttmj tlt)ihe-ihpri:." On the 
last three instances, see 1706. 

[1725^] It is a commonplace with Philo that ^i. 94) "None but the 
true God siandith ('cn-Mm)," aad he speaks of (i. 93) "the stamtini^y whole- 
some, and right Logos." Coflip. i. 369, 276, 425, 586, 591, 6li7, 688. 
"That which is phenomenal," he says (i. 383) "does not stand." Simon 
Magus is said to have clamed to be the Standing One iClem. Alex, 456). 
Origcn (Huet ii. 128—9) connects the "standing (cn^««)" in Jn i. 26 with 
jhe "standing (lotijKft) " in vii. 37, and speaks of the Katber as pre- 
eminently " standing " : " lint Here stands a/so His Lffgos ever in the act 
of saving {tvrtjKt 8« ttai 6 \6yos avrov dt\ eV r^ ertt(fiv) — whether He be 
flesh, or whether He be amidst of men, not apprehended, nay, not even 
seen («&»< yfiii^rai (r^pi kov ^4aot !f' at^Bftttirw ov tarnXafifiavu^iros n'AX' 
oW« ^Xiiro/Mvot)— but He stands also teaching, inv^iting all to drink......" 

(and then hequ6tcs Jn vii. 37 " If any man thirsf..."). No doubt Origen 
also, has in view (as regards "stood and cried" and the invitation to 
"diink") Prov. viii. 2 — 3 "Wisdom j/iim/l'M(<Vn;K#)... She rrvWA aluud," 
and Prov. ix. 5 "Eat ye of my bread and drink of the win,e that 1 have 
mingled." Probably John had the same passage in ylevv. 

[1725i*] The phrases "jrfa'...jAus stamti»/r'' -^^^ " I yho/d...thk Son 
of mAn standing" (like that connccted-wilK NIary Magdalene "she beheld 
Jesus standing") UK used of the Martyr Stephen in Acts v". 55—6, with 
the addition, "at the right \\^A qf God." Chrysostom (Cramct d/Z/ffC.) 
says, "Why, then, 'standing' and not *sealed'? To shew the active help 
(oiTiXq^ii') [extended] to ((is) the Majlyr, For also about the F'ather it 
is said, 'Arise, O Clod' (di-uffra, i tf«ut), and again, *Now will I arise 
(oMOT^o-o/iaO, saith the Lord."' But the wonl "Arise" thus qiiote<l twice 
from the Psahns is quite different as to its Hebrew meaning from the 
word vfrrf/Ko, used of (Gen. xviii. 2) the three angels '* standing'* heiott 
Abraham, and of God (Ps. Uxxli. 1) ""standiA^ in the congregation of the 
gods,*' and of Wisdom (Prov. viii. 2) '•^standing in the midst of the way*" 
and "crying aloud." The latter means "stand as a pillar," "stand fftt," 
"stand as a watchman or seijtinel." The expjanation given by Basiliut 
(Cramer ad ioc.) is more like that of Vhilo and Origt^n, and moic con- 
sonant with the LXX Use of iartiKa or ttrrrip : "I think the staining and 
fixedness (r^*- fiiv ffraaiv k. t. Kadift^vertv) si^gcsisuhe compactntss of 
nature and its universal stability (ro irayioy t^« <^i^(r«*>r k'. fffiiri/ maatfiow 
vwo^MMtvuvy The Revelation (iii. 20) represents Jesus as saying, " Behold, 
1 stand at the door and knock." Perhaps John wished to describe Him, 
after the Resurrection, as thus "siandittg/' and Mary Magdalene as the 
first to re*p6nd to the call. ' 


-. ■ <^ .:-■: ■".■'■ ■'■■' : 230 •' 'i/ ■ ■■: ■ ■ - 






. o 

- + 

■.0/. ■■ 


■ 1 :■ 


■ -" '.• 




■ i, j 

•■/p '.'. 


.0 .'- 

P '■ 

' ?''-v 


O ' 

:..r,- ■■ 




.- 1. 

■■1 ■ 

; -u • 






'■ »". 


■; P 


^^ EnglUh' Greek ' ■ " ■' 

(ITO] Stone (»b.)' '^''•if" 

"Sloop and look in"' in^mSirnt 
Sychar* >i^4> 

Synagogue, put out 

of* , ' ,4w^tawaywyQt 

Take, seiu, catch-' tuiC' 

witness* I fwpTvpio¥ ;- 

.That, or because ■• '"-■ ' ■ 

(2174 foil.) : ,,<t« - •: • "c. i«o. c; 140, c. |<o c. jyo 

■ £179t^] "Stone" (vb.). AlwayiappUe<ltpanatteinptto''itoAe''Jeau>; 
Jn X. 31— J. xi. 8 (comp. viii. sy "they therefore took up stonea to cast M 
him"). sM(m is itlso in [Jn viii. j]. AiBo^Mu occurs Mk (o), Mt. (2), 
Lk. (i),Jn(o). ... 

• [Vtat] ''Stoop and look in" (so R.V. in Clospjls, but?). In Jn, 
only in XX. s, 1 1, of the^lovcd disciple a«d Mary looking, into the sepul- 
chre ; perh. also in dLk. xxiv. u]]. In N.T. elsewhere, onlj in Jas i. 15, 
1 Pet. i. 12, of a metaphorical looking into the Law of Liberty or this 
mysteries of Redemption. See 1798— 180*. . , .' 

' "Sychar," Jn iv. 5, SS "Shechem," sec £»«•. "SyCfcar,"- ^a . '- 

• "Synagogue, put out of," Jn ix. 31, xii. 42, xvi. a. Not el^Slilfre (li 
N.T. ■, ■ • ., V '■ ,■ . 

• "Take." See notes on "seiie" (1723*— ir), and oh ^"receive" (1781/-/)'. 

• [1738f] "Testify," " testimony '' etc. The word itaprvpia is very rare 
in canon. LXX. It nowhere represents a Hcb. word, exc. in the 
phrase Ex. xx. |6, Deat. v. 20, Prov. xxv. 18 li. ^iv^t in | S. Ix. 24 
(A) tit iMiprvpiay (U -ov)t and in Ps. xix. 7 "The UstinwHy of the Lord is 
sure, making wise' the simple." 

[1796</] Epicietus, toward the end of the first' century, had probably 
made iiaprvpia (to denote the " testimony " that every good man is bound 
to give to God) a household word among many serious Greeks (i. 29. 48) 
"What lesiimoHf ioiX thou give to God?" (iv. 8. 31) "He testifieth a 
ttttimony to virtue." (Gomp. i. 29. 49, iii. 22. 86.) . The same writer 
introduces God as saying to man (1. 29. 47) " Ttst(fy utito me," describes 
(L 29. 49) what man is to "testify' and inculcates (i. 29. 56) "Irsti/ying 
by action to one's words." He also freq. uses nn^rvt in this sense 
(iii, 26. 28) " God doth not cease to care for His ministers and witnesses,*^ 
Reasons have been given above (18M«) for Jn's avoidance of the term 
fuifjrvSf as being, in some. Christian circles,' used in the tectfnical sense of 
" martyr." On the Synoptic phrase rit itaffripuir, see 16064. 

■,,;,.;.;, ajt/:;'. .•.,:■■,>■-.■ 







LX. . 


Thai, i.e. in order 
that (IMS') 












1 ' 



Thou (nom.) (3402) 


• 10 


C2b ( 



. Tifitpuil 



\Vm] Together' 

i,u>i ^ 



Trouble* . 

nwfcw- • 

■ J / ; 

■■ , .'7 - 

i - ■ 


' "Thomas." Mk iii. 18, Lk. vL IJ- MitfAiuw x. a^r, Ml. Hi. 3 
Bttfiat K. MuS0aiot 6 rfXtfK^. 

■ [ITae.-] "Tiberias," in N,T only in Jn vi. i "the sea of Galilee 
which is [the sea] of Tibtriiu,' vi. 23 "There came boats from Ti'lvriat" 
%x\: I " Jesus manifesied himself again to the disciples at the «ea of 
Tiitrias." Mk-Mt. use-" sea of Galilee "or "sea," Lk. "lake" pr "lake 
of Gennesarei." » • 

" [lW7a] "Togetlier," Jn iv. 36, xk. 4, xxi. j. In N.T., the only other 
instance is Acts iii 1 "They wcre,all logeUitr in the same place," where it 
appears not to be superfluous but to imply unity 0/ purpose. This is also 
implied in Jn iv. 36 "that he that soweth may rejoice tegelher and he that 
reapeih," where instead of i^v tai we should have expected iimmt taL 
Probably it is also implied in the account of the two disciples "running 
together" to the sepulchre, Jn xx. 4 hpixm Si ol 4w> 6iuii (comp. the 
Targ. on Gen. xxii. 8 inoftivBtiiTar ajuftortpoi (xxii.' 6 ol ivo) ^wt, Onk. " as 
one," Jer. I "«'« iear/ entirely at one"). The last insunce in Jn denotes 
the unity of the Seven shortly before the Feast on the One Bread, where 
the first places in the list are given to Peter the Denier and Thomas the 
Unbeliever (Jn xxi. a) "There were together Simon Peter and Thomas...." 
In the canon. LXX, i^i occurs nowhere except Eir. ii. 64 AR iljMii; 
(B om.). Job xxxiv. 29 i^v (K i/uiioi;). It is 13 times in Wis'd. and Mace. 

• [17274] "Trputle," rci^wiriT*, in the .Synoptists, means (pass.) . 
"alarmed," Mk vi. 50 (parall. Ml. xiv. 16), Mt. ii. 3, Lk. i. 12, ixiv. 38! 
In Jn, it occurs (Chri.) in xii. 2? " Now is my soul tronbled^'. and xiv. i> 
27 "Let not your heart be Irouiled." On its threefold application to 
Christ as "trpubling himself," "troubled in soul," and "troubled in 
spirit" (xi. 33, nil. 27, xiii. 21) set WO. 

[1787 f] " Freedom from trouble," lira/Kijia, is, according to Epictetut, 
' the gift of God to man, and no one has a right to te "IroutleJ,' {Knch. H J) 
"Men are IrouhUd ira^irott) hot by /acts but by their notions about factl. 
For example, death is not terrible — since else it would have appeared 
[so] to Socrates— but the notion about death, the notion that it is terrible 
—this it is that is the terror. When therefore we feel pestered (rf/iiro- 
itiittu6a\ or troubled, or grieved (XuirM^utfa), let us never blame others, 
but only ourselves, that is to say,.our own notions." No group of words 



. KnglUh 




. Lk. 


Troe (1)' 







» . ■ 

aXiffiufot * . . 


» " 




ia perhapi more frequent ip Epicttlus'tlmn those bearinu nn "iro^Mt" 
And " frcedoni from trt^ubU" ; and it ii almost certain that J^, in dcKribiiig 
Christ as thrice "troubled," and as on one occasion "troubling himself/' 
is writing with allusion to this. Stoic doctrine which must have been 
fttniliar to all educated Greeks at the beginning of the second century; 

> [IWrfJ "True" ()), ax^tfiif, in Synoptists, only in Mk xii; 14, 
Mt xxii. 16 "We know that thou art Iruf" paralt. Lk. x>. 3i,'"We know 

that thou sayest and ti^chcst rightly." It is not surprising that Lk. 
deviates: for "true" is pcrh. only once applied to persons.. in c^non. 

. DCX (Nehcm. vii. 3 "a faithful man," dvrj^d.): and Steph. gives very few 
instances, except where the poets speak of a " truthful accuser," a 

' "/n»M/i</ friend," or (/IMxti. 433) " an *»i««/ sempstress' (lit. truthful 
in weighing out her work), jn thrice applies it .10 persons, once, generally, . 
vii, 18 "he that seeketh the glory of him that sent him is true" i.e. not 
tempted to falsehood by self-int*esi, or affectatioit, and twice of Cod, 
iii. 33 "God is true," viii. j6 "He that sent me is tmf." ' 

[1727«] In Ji), vi; 55 "my flesh is /rue food and my blood is, /nw 
drink," Origen (once) and other authorities have "trulfi"" and Chi^, 
while reading " true," appears to give " truly ''as one of two interpretations. 
But it may be used in the sense in which Socrates maintained (Plato 36— 
40) in the PMitfiiitf -thAX some pleasures are "tnie (dXi)(9fir)," others 
"false." So in the Phadp, Socrates speaks oT (Plato 69H> "true viriue-" 
• [1TJ7/] " True " (2), dXij^ii'iir, in classical Greek, means " gentiine," 
and could not mean " truthful " except in special' co.ntexts as When one 

- speaks of a'"^fHuJMt prophet, judge etc." In this sense it occurs in . 
Ui. xvi. II "If ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, 
who will entrust to you tMi genuint [riches]?" Ilut in LXX it is applied 
to God, as in Exodus (xxxiv. 6) " aboutuiiiig in truth," dXit^ivdt ; and wheie 
Ezr. ix. 15 has"0 Lord,. ..thou art n^f/t/'roiu (JUxiioc)," the pirall. I Esdr. 
viil. 89 has iXifBtrit. Philo ii. 599 contrasting "the gftiuine God" with 
"the falsely so-called god," and St Paul (1 Thess. i. 9 " Ye turned.!. .from 
idols to serve a living and geMine God "), use the word in its classical 
sense: but in Rev. 111^,7—14, vj. 10, where "true," dUifAriii, is wmbined 
with " holy " and " faithful," the meaning seems to be " truthful.'* 

[1737^] In Jn, an attempt is made to combine the Greek meaning 
of "giHuitu" with the ^ebraic meaning of "Irut" (i.e. "faithful to one's ' 
word," " keeping one's promise"). A false god, or a false prophet, might 
speak "truth"— ani deceive, "keeping the word of promise to the 
ear"— as wiiards and witches do in Shakespeare, Isaiah says bitterly to 
Israel, trusting in false lighu (1. 11) "Walk ye in the light of your fire." 



Truly" {»■ 1696 n) 







Jn'» Prolmiue calls the Logo* (*• 9) "'•>« li^t, /** gtnntiir l/igttY «nd 
the Epi»lc ttyi (■ Jn ii. 8) "A new commandinent I write untn you, 
which thing ii tmt (AigMf) in him antW* yau,:^cause the darkneii li 
passing away and the /igif, Iht gtnnim [light] (fi <t^t rli aXtitivir), now 
•kinelh." This means that the new light is not only "true" ^ul "the 
only genuine light," the source of all light from the beginning of the woild, 
now at last to be revealed not in twilight but in daylight. 

[1T37A] In jn, (Utif^ivuc it never confused with iiXi|(l^r. It never 
means merely "true " in the sense of vtracieui. As in Hebrews (viii. j) 
"the Irm tabernacle" is the one that "the Lord pitched and not roan," 
and the earthly sanctuary is regarded not as being the "true one "but 
«nly (Heh. i». J4) "typical of Hi true [oiu\' so in Jn, (vi. 3a) "the Irtu 
bread" and i(xv. i) "the Imt vine" mean that the ideal is now al last 
revealed. It has been suted above that "gtHuim" when applied to • 
"prophet" or a "judge," necessarily includes the additional menning of 
"trulkjul' and so it does in Jn viii. 16 " My judgrnent is gftniiu 
[judgment)" (.r "not biassed, xi'x. 35 " His testimony \% genuint \Uiti- 
many]" i.e. the testimany of an -eye-witness, one that has enjoyed the 
sight, or vision, of that to which he testifies. In vii. 28 "1 have not 
come bf myself, Au/ ki iftitt j/nt me u~," the antithesis requires that the 
italicised clause should mean "but I have a rial mission" as opposed to 
a false prophet, who has Hi> "riar mission. Hence what has to be sup- 
plied is "(I rial and tnti Sindtr^ The." reality " (no doubt) here includes 
not only " rraify" sending but also-^ding with a "not" missagi, i.e. a 
live message. Hence liXiit'ii'iit may here bie described as ine/udiiig-Lbut 
not as mtaning — " true." 

[1W7<] Jn iv. 37 {R.V.) "Herein is the saying /fw/. One sowcth, and 
another reapeih (<V ya/j v-ovr^ i Xuynr itrrw aki^win on, *AXXr,v...)" is not 
a correct rendering. The meaning is — as Cyril, jn effect, says abotjt the 
context (Cramer ad loc.) and as Origcn's comment suggests {ad toe. Huet 
ii. 233 — 4, 241 — 2) — "The, cynical worldly laying about 'one sowing and 
another reaping ' ^nds Hi idial and Imi expression in the world of the 
spiritual harvest to which I have bidden you 'lift up your eyes,' in which 
the sower and the reaper rejoice together." This, says Cyril, " does not 
happen in the material world but it does in the spiritual." 'AXiiftnit, then, 
'(as in Hebrews) nwans here "really, ideally, or spiritually existent.'* 
Chrysoslom, although misled by reading a dXit^^r, ii not much misled al 
to the sense : " This saying was in . use among the common folk (oJ 
■roXXai')...and He means that this saying yfiMit its truth more tspetially 
^lin {ivraiida ftaXurra r^v dXijf}* u]» 'x'*)'" ^"^ ^^ explains " herein " as 
referring to the spiritual sowing of the prophets. 

' [IWj] "Truly," in Lk., only in (Chri.) " I say unto you 0/ a tnti 





^- ehii* 



Mm. tky- 

j» . 

i* Trulh' 

\t)J^» ■ 

-■' '.•i'Z 

: :i ■>:■>»'■(• 



. ' ti. 

(i.)" Lk. '«L 17, xii. 44(D-i)fiiip), 11x1.31. !t«rer(Cliri.) Ill Mk-Mt. bututed 
in uitfrtions that Peter i> "truly " one o( Chriii't dlKipIn or that Chrirt 
U the Son of Cod (Mk >iv. 70, Mi. «vi. 73, Mk iv. 39, Mt. -xiv. jj, 
Exvii. 54). 

[ITSTi] In Jn it i< applied to assertibni of believers about Chriit is 
iv. 43 "truly ths Saviour of the world," vi, 14, vii. 40 '^Im/y the 
prophet." In vii. 2b^ " Can it be that the ruleri tmfy ricpgnistd (aXij^ftt 
Iffmiar) that this is the Cbriit ?" the meaning may bi: " that they milly 
rtcogniaed [it. knew i'« Iktir Juarti (hough they would not own it] " Or 
•'con ('/>' r^n/Zr '1" that they recognised.' 

[17J7/] In }n, it occurs in Christ'a.words as follows, i. 47 " See, [here 
is one that is) tn/y an Israelite," viii. 31 "[then] are ye IrMly my 
disciples,'.' xvii, 8 " and they retKgHiied truly (/yraHrar oKifilii) that I came 
forth from thee." In these three cases the meaning is probably "in fact 
\and not minly Hi >mm(]," or " I'l htart [and not mmly in wordy and 
perh. in i. 47 there is Some play on the word " Israel," the root of which, 
though distinct from KiH*ar, ;' upright," " straightforward," is identical 
with the latter without vowel points. [ K<wA<ir— Tromro. once iXtfiuu, five 
limes i^.itirot.'l This is more likely than that J n (like Lk.) should repre- 
sent Jesus as using " truly " in the sense " I speak the truth." 

■ [1717m] "Truth," in the Synoplists, occurs only in the phrase "in 
truth' [Wt xii. 14. 32, Mt. «ii. 16, Lk. iv. 35,.xx. 2i, xxii. 59 iw' dAijtftiVic, 
exc. in Mt. xxii. (6 i' <>.X and in Mk v. 33 " told him all the trulh." As 
an attribute of God, or a |ubject of Christ'!) teaching, it is non-existent in 
the Three Cospels. 

[17J7»] "Truth," wiih "grace" in Jn,' occurs "twice , where the 
Prologue (ii 14—17) describes the incarnate Logos as "fiill of grace and 
tntti" and "the Law " («.r. the Law mentioned in O.T.) as " given through 
Moses " but " the grace and the truth " ((e. perh. the grace and the truth 
mentioned in O.T.) as " brought into being through Jesus Christ." The 
OiT. constantly couples "mercy" and " truth "„wh«re we should rather 
•pe^k of "kindness and truth." Jn, systematically avoiding the Creek 
word " mercy (Ami) " (Heb. " kindness C"r, mercy) ") probably represents 
it here by "grace** 1./. " graciousnesf," We might expect thai the Foutth 
Gospel would proceed to develop this twofold revelation of (1) "gract," 
(3) "truth." But the Pauline Epistles had sufficiently develo^ied the 
doctrine of "gratt." The Fourth Evangelist says that we have received 
from the fulness of the Logos (i. 16) "grace for grace," but after this 
passage he never mentions "grace" again in the Gospel or First Epistle. 
He concentrates himself on the doctrine of " truth." 

[1727 0] "The truth," in Jn, cannot be discussed apart from "the 




Sisirit." For John regafdi it primarily a> a correipundence belirecn Cod 
and- the Wordi or the Father and the Son, in "the Spirit." Thii 
hannoniiea with the philoophy of Epictetus about " (he apirit " of nun 
■nd^io nuuioX' Explaining how the imagea of things «r< tee art 
connyed through the eyea, Epictetui layt (it. >3. 3) "Uid God give you 
eyaa for nothing ^ Uid He for nothing ik/km in tlum a tpiril ao atrong 
and of nch a graphic pow^ that it darts out far away and takes the 
impressions of the thinga seen ? What musanger could be so quick and 
careful ? " So St Paul asks ( i Cor. ii. ii ) " What man knoweth llit IhiHgi 
of ll{f man, save only Me ifiiril of llu manl" Le. the" Spirit" that is 
" infused " in his senses ; and he sayt that, similarly, Ihi Ihinj;! of God are 
aearched by. "/*« ^/(W/ (>/■ (;<!(/." 

[17J7/] The Johannine phrases of ccyinexlon between "the truth" 
and " the Spirit " ate largely explained by the facts of the last paragraph. 
Sometimes they aio both regarded as spheres, sometimes "the Spirit it 
a witness (o, or a ^uidc to, the sphere of spirittial " truth." The "genuine 
(ikT/iam)" worshipper is to worship (iv. J3— 4) (Us) "id spirit ami 
Irjiih." SataA (viii. ,m) '"'did not stand fast )« Ut Irulk" and "there i> 
no truth in him." The Last Discourse thrice mentions («iv. I7,'>v. i\ 
Hvi. 13) "/A<' SpiHl of Iht mih," and says that it will guide the disciples 
. (ivi. 13) "into all Ike IrHlh." The Epistle not only repeats (1 Jn iv. 6) 
"M/ spirit of Iht trmh," but adds (v. 6) "the Spirit it is*lhat teatifielh, 
because Iht Spirit is Ikt triilk^~\\A\ is to say, the SpM, like the 
"swift messen'ger" described by Eplr'rids, cannot help "testifying" 
because lis very being is that kind ii eternal coming and going in *he 
correspondence or harmony between Godaiid Ilischildren by which imn 
is enabled to "search thc-decp things of God." 

\}!Wq\ "The truth," or "the Spirit of truth," bei'ng identified with 
the "coHespondence" between the Father and the Son, might be called 
the Spirit of wnship, or the Spi^rit of Freedom as opposed to that of 
F Slavery. Hcnu our Lord says (viii. 32) "The /'«M sMllw<s/('.yo«yny'' 
(as St Paul saj^ a Cor. iii. 1 7 " where Ikt Spirit of tke Lord is, [there] 
frtidom is "). And since many religions move the mind ma7nly through - 
fear, and their priests and prophets and "holy men" make gain out 
of false fears, stress is laid by John upon the connexion between 
"holiness" and truth (xvii. 17) "Make them koly in tky triitk." The 
Logos also says to. God the Father (xvii. 17) "Thy Logos is trMlh" t-aai 
since, through this Logos or Truth, one passes to life in the Father, Jew* 
is represented as saying (xiv. 6) " I am the way, tki Irxlk, and t^ 
life." V 

[ITJTr] This doctrine of "Imlk" tKe Evangelist dcscribea at being 

put before both the Jewish and the Gentile world in vain. The Jews, 

when they hear Christ saying (viii. 31) "Ye shall kqpw tkt truth and the 

_ truth shall make you free," put aside " the truth " and fasten on " free " 




W] Up. 1. Above 




•W««h>, If. hatha 




Whence f » 




Whole, healthy' 


,Mk ' 



• J" 

- o 









» . 














«» an insult: "We are Abmham's lecd and have never been in bondage 
to any man "—the faq being that they had no right conception of "free' 
dom " and hence no right conception of" truth." Aga(n,when Jesua aayi 
to Pilate (xviii. 37) ''Everyone that it of /At Inih hearkeneth to my 
voice," the Roman Governor, who has some smattering of Greek 
philosophy, taking the view attacked by Epictclus, replies, not as|(ing 
what "/^ truth I' may be, but questioning whether there is any such 
thing, "What is trvtJH" This Is the last mention of the word in the 
fourth Gospel. 

. ' [ITSSa] "Wash," n'm*. in Jn, refers, 5 times, to the washing of the 
blind man iri the pool of Siloami and 8 limes to the Saviour washing the 
feet of the disciples. Mk vii. 3, Ml. xv. 2 refer to the Jewish washmg of 
hands before meals. . Ml. vi. 17 "uxut thy face" is the only instance 
(Chri.) in the Synoptic Jn xiii. to "he that is liatlieii (\:V.. 
washed) " distinguish<:s the washing of the whole body from the washing 
of a .part. . . 

• [1728*] "Water" (Chri.), in Mk ix. 41 "a cup ol*ii/a/tr," if parall. 
to Mt. X. 41 " a cup of cold [water] (^X/xH') " : Mk xiv, 13 (Lk. xxii. 10) 
" a man bearing a pitcher of it/alrr" is wholly omitted by Mt^: Lk. vii. 44 
" thou gavest me no water for my feet " is peculiar to Lk., and so is 
Lk. xvi. 14 (parable) "that he may dip the lip of his finger in maltr." 
None of these passages are docrrinaL The Johannirie instanf|S-^with 
the exception of ii. 7— are all doctrinal (iii. 5) " bom of water and spirit," 
iv. 10 — 15 (the dialogue on (he "living wb^"), vii. 38 "rivers .of living 

• [1728 c] " Whence." no*'"" fteq. occurs in discourses as to the 
origin of the Spirit, the Messiah, and Jesus, among the Jews and in 
words of the Lord jn iii^ 8, vii. 17 (*"). s8, viii. 14 (*«i) ix. ift 30^ al»d 
in Pilate's question (lix. 9) ." Whence art thou I ° (8*03). 

< [ITTAd] "Where." Do5, in Jn, occurs firsf in i.^38 "Kab'bi,n>Am 
abides! thou ? " and then freq. of the goal or abiding-place of the Lord, or 
of the Spirit, Jn iii. g, vii. 35', vili. 14 (Us), xiii. 36, xiv. 5, xvi. 5 i also in, 
Mary Magdalene's doubt <(xx. J, 13. <5) "»*»« they have laiifhim." 

' [1728 <] "Whole," "healthy," Jn's insunces of i^iit all refer to the 
man healed on the Sabbath, v. 6—1;, vii. 13. fn J^v.h, it is pan of an 









WiMernest (of 


















WitiKM, %. testify, 

ItapTvpia - 





' testimony 








-, ' I 




" Work (n.)» 

»(ryB» ^ • 





intcrpotatioR.. In Mk t. 34, Uii&y>iit Jiri ti« itiimyit mm — where it i« 
one of three Mk<lause>, of wbirtnLk. has one, and Ml. two— it seems to 
be^ ctfnfUtion. In Mt. xii. Ui/'it was restored ui^l*, as iht othtr^ 
Mk Lk.,oinil "wkolt as the tlktfF Lk. has the vb bytdtit (3), not in Mk, 
Mt., or Jn. 

' [1788/] "Wilderness" (of Arabia^ in Jn iii. 14, vi. 31,49 referring 
to the braien serpent, or the maqna, " in the wilderness." [In xi. 54 Jn' 
appears to mean "the wilderness of JudoM," and in i. 33 Jn (like the 
Synoptists) quotes Is. xl. 3.] On tffi\^m (adj.) see 1679. 

• [1738^] "Will," in Mk, occurs only in Mk iii. 35 "Whosoever shall 
do the will of GoJ," where parall. Mt. xii. Jo has " the vSitt ef my Faltur" 
and Lk. viii. 31 "the word of God." The contrast in Lk. xxii. 41 "Not 
my fvi7/but thine" (expressed by the vb. BfK» in the paralL Mk xiv. 36, 
Mt. xxvi. 39) occurs in Jn v. 30 "] seek not mine own wttl but the viitt 
of him that sent me," and vi. 38 " not that I may do. mine own will but 
the will of him that sent me." The children ^f God are said to be 
begotten (Jn i. 13) "not from the will of the flesh nor from the will of 
man {lirhiiit) but from God." > 

• [1738 A] " Work" (n.). The only Synoptic pricept about wnHu al 
righteousness is in Mt y. 16 "that they may see your good tronti," unlet* 
one can be said to be implied In the parable in Mk xiii. 34 " having given each his work" Jn mentions "works" in two ways, 1st as good 
bad, in men, who accordingly come to the light or flee from it (Jn iii 
10, 31, vii. 7, viii. 39) and comp. viii. 41 "ye do t\ttworis of your fat 
the " father " being afterwards called " the devil "'I 3nd, as the " » orl 
appointed for the Son by the Father. Evil " works " are recognised io 
two of the three instances of the word in the .Epistle (I Jn iii. 8) '-'that he 
may destroy the works of the devil," (iii. 13) "because his works were 
evil," (iii. 18) " let us not love in word. ..but in work and truth." 

.[1728<] Epictetus says (i.; 39. j6) "It is nof maxims that are how 
wantiiw^ The books are cH^ke full of Stoic maxims. What then is 
wantigjp* The man to use these maxims. The man to testify in action 
(lfty<f) 10 his vcffAi (roi> Xi>yM#)." Pouring scorn on the philosopher that 
tests his progress by the amount of hit reading, he bids him seek 

■ ; »38 


Work (vb.)' 
World, age« 

Ye (nom.) (23 
Yet, not" 














. 3'. 

■2 ' 

■ C.,20 

} I, 


progress in actim {i. 4. ii). Jn agrees with him in the importance 
that he attaches to action, but difiers from him .in one very important 
point In Epictetus, "action " consists (i. 4. 1 1, ii. 14. 7) in so regulating 
one's desires and impulses that one may be " in harmony with what goes 
on (rott ytvofUptiu)" and that nothing may happen to us against our will. . 
In Jn, " action " consists in such deeds as a father would do to cbildreit 
or a brother to brothers. r* 

' [17287] "Work" (vK) ipyiCnfuix, occurs in Mk xiv. 6 (paralL 
Ml. xxvi. 10) "she iatk wrought (ij/>yii<riin>) a good work on me," wheje 
Lk. om., and Jn differs. Lk. has xiii. 14 "there arc six days<in which 
one must ««>/-*." 'Epydnjct "labotirer" or "doer," occurs Mk (o), Mt. (5)» 
Lk. (4), Jn (o). ■■..." 

• [1728 >^] "World,"/./, the creation of the world. Jn ix. 32 "From 
ttu [irfotion of tkt\ world (« row minot) it was never heard...." Tlic 
pumbers above do not include the phrase n't rir w'&ra (or (it rtAt nivlac), 
on which see " For ever" (1712 rf). 

'[1728/] "Not yet," in Lk., only in xx1ii. 53 "not yel laid." In 
Mk iv. 40, viii. 17, 21, Mt. xvi. 9 " Have yc not yt-t faith, understanding 
, etc" In Mk xiii. 7, Ml. xxiv. 6 " But not ytt is the end." In Mk li. 2 
" had rtfl//c/ sat." In Jh, "not yet" occurs in 'connexion with "my hour, 
or season," ii.' 4, vii. 6, 9pd with "bis hour" vii. 30, viii. 20. Comp. - 
XX. 17 "/ViVj'*/ have I ascended..,." 

[1728/J 'Epfi^vfuH, in N.T., is connected, tvith Jn i., 42 Kig^r, ix. 7 
SiXiwfi, Heb. vii. 2 McXxxnl/'. Metf«(>(<i)»«v« is in Mk v. 41, xv. 22, 34, 
Ml. i. 23, Jn i. 38, 4t.' The Synoptisu always translate the Aramaic 
"Cephas" and "Messias" into Gk. j Jn transUterates the Aramaic and 
adds the Gk. interpretation. 

A. V. »S9 >7 


[1738 m] The variations in the use of ayairav and ^iX«ti> 
may be illustrated by Xen. Mem. II. vii. 9, 12, Where Socrates 
tells Aristarchus that, because he gives his fourteen dependent 
female relations nothing to do, he (at present) does' not "/i/iv 
(<f>i\ttv)" them nor they him; but, if he will give th^ some 
occupation, then, says Socrates, " Yo\i will //><•. (i^<X«i>>) them, 
se(;ing they are profitable to you, and they will /ove (ayairav) 
you when they see that you take pleasure it/ them." The 
narrative gues on to say that Aristarchus took this advice, 
and "They began to Me ((^iXcw) him al their (Jfotector and 
he began to iove {ayairav) them as being profitable to him " — 
a curious reversal of terms that may be fxpliined as humorous 
(if Aristarchus wis a little too fond of money) but hardly as 
unintentional. L.S. {ayairav) quotes this passage as shewing 
that dyairav " strictly differs from ^Xeiv as im|Tlying regStrl 
or affection rather than passion " : but no passion is contem-' 
plated here either in a. or in ^. Steph. {liyairav) also quotes 
Dio 44, p. 175, «'^«Xi;aoT< ainov (i< irarepa xal rjyairtjaaTi,^m% 
iutpyirrtiv, "you were fond of him as a father and loved him as 
a benefactor." 

* [1738 «] The following' passage from Plato's Lysis suggests 
that ar^atrav sometimes implies " being drawn towards," and 
^iXtix" drawing towards oneself," (2 1 5 B) "'And he that needs 
{ieifuvm) nothing would consequently be drawn towards 
nothing (ouS« Ti liyair^ iv)f' ' He would not.' * And that 
which he was not drawn towards, he consequently would not 
draw towards Aimulf (6 &i iiii dyair^, ovS' &v ^iXoi)?'" 
The element of chokre (but sometimes also sexual love) in 
^iXf w comes out also in passages where some man or woman 
is said to be loved or favoured above anothnl^Steph. /tiad 
vii. 2014, ix. 450 etc.). In Aelian far ffist. ix. t 'irdvu iripoipa 
.,j '■'■,:. :■■.' ■ 24a 


. :* — . , '. ^ 

afmnjv(K avroiii coi vir* aurmi ^t\i)0cif i» r^ M^/X'i the 
phrase in r^ /tiptf, " for their part," is probably to be explained 
ai Xen. Anab. vii. 6. 36 cV rfi lUpti koI irapa to itipoi, "in tht 
discharge of duty 'and beyond duty." Hence the meaning 
probably is "being loved by them in thti'r turn' almost 
equivalent (b "as in dtity bound" ; and it perhaps implies a 
slight contrast to the "exceeding affection (ir^ioBpa ayairq(rtKY'~ 
on the other side. _ , 

[1728 0] These facts are ioip<irtant as -shewing that a. 
distinction between ayairav and ^iXcw was recogni.sed in 
Greek literature — as also the distinction in Latin between 
"amo" and "diligo" (Wetst. on Jn xi. 3) — from Plato down-- 
wards. But John would be influenced by the LXX,' 
where ipiXeu' more often (14) represents the Hebrew "kiss" 
than the Hebrew "like" or "be fond of" (10), and in the 
latter sense is applied to " liking" food or drink in Gen. xxvii. 
4, 9, 14, Prov. xxi. 17, Hos. iii. I. It'also describes Jacob's 
favauring Joseph in Gen. xxxvii. 4, and is used of " lovers," in 
a bad siense, in Jer. xxii. 22, Lam. i. 2. The dislike of the 
\,X\ to apply this comparatively low-class word to the 
'•Wisdom of God comes out clearly in I'rov. viii. 17 "I /cjv 
(dyairatt) them that love (^iXwi/ra; ) me," .where the satiic 
Heb. verb that is rendered ^uXttv when ap'plied to. men is 
rendered dyair&v when applied to .the Wisdom of God — 
assuredly not for variety or euphony, but for seemliness 

[1728/] John, who says that "God is-dynirri, and that the 
fundamental* ommand.of Christ is aiaVai/, could not but- use 
^airav to signify the highest kind (of love. The lower word, 
^tXfii', John uses as follows, (i) JTwicc fxi. 3, 36) it is "put 
into the mouths of the-sislers of Lazarus and the Jews, as the 
word used by ti^nt about Christ's special love, where the 
Evangelist himself prefers to say (xi. 5) ■rjyiiwa.' (2) Once 
(XX. 2) it is «ised by the -Evangelist to describe the bj:loved 
disciple himself whep he had temporarily Talleii in)p unbelief 
and was for the moment not worthy of the higher love. 
241 •■ 17—2 


^ . . — I— 2 

(3) In our Lord's lips it is used thrice, iii- special contexts 
(v. 20, xvi. 27 its) metaphorically about " taking into the 
circle of one's friends and household'.'-' (4) Twice (xii. 25, 
XV. 19) the Lord uses it to describdhe sensual and selfish'love 
of one's life or the love of the world for its favourites; (5) He 
also uses it once, and for the last time.(xxi. 17) concerning 
the lower love, to cause the : repentant Peter to be (ii.) 
" grieveji," that he may rise from the lower love to the higher. 
(6) In the context, it is used four times (xxi. 15, 16, 17 iis) in 
the same sense by Peter and the Evangelist. These are all 
the instances of the Johannine use of the word. 

' [l7J8y] SeelT^i— 92. Comp. Rev. iii. iq"!am»ay is ] fi/aie amvK/; 
my friinds (^iXa) I reprove and chaslen." In Til. iii. 15 <i<rirair<u r. ' 
^iXoCvrnf i\^i fV irt'oTti, the meaning is doubtful. Not much cftn be 
inferreif from 1 Cor. xvi. 2) •' ric ot' 0iXri r. Kvpior, as oii ^« is freq. in 
Glc. literature in a sense nearly equivalent to ix^aifm. The fourth and 
1ast\instancc of 0. in N.T., outside the Gospels, is Rev. xxii. 1 ; trie ipAfir 
«. troiar ^vior. 'f%t rarity of <!>■ in the Epistle^, and the fact that the 
Synoptisis scarcely use it exceptor the "iis*ng" by Judas, make Jn's use 
of it all the more remarkable, and conltfM|j^ view that he has a purpose 
in employing the word and in distinguishing it from aymriir on which 
see 1744vi)— (xi) 



- •!■.■•.;■',■:-:;: >-■,, 

-: J- .■■'>»*■: 

-. :^ft.- -■ V'". ." . - * 

7v;^ •'.•.■ ;■'■•;'!' 


;5v •./<:;■■. ;,^ ',-;;• 

•.«'v ',, 

'}'■■ ■■ 

', "-J*'' : 

.'.■■"/;■ > • .■ 

', . ', 

', .11 ■ ■ ' ■ 

■ ^ '. ' 

:":•■■■ i'':'*' ,<"■■'• - 


..yi..,''<- '•'•■♦•' • 

; ■;:.!!*;:,'; -V; /■•; 


• V ' 

< r 



• "* 


' § I Anttddtnt prtbabtli^ 

[ITSOf Mark is the mojt concrete of the Evangelists, John 
the most abstract. Mark d«als 'mostly with " mighty works," 
especially works of healing (and these, largely, of an exorcistic 
character); Johq describes ortly seven "signs," and np 
txorcisms. In Mark, -Christ's sayings are brief, and the 
Evangelistic comments turn largely on local and contcmr ■ 
porary affairs (the death of John "the Haptist, Herodias, 
Hetodians, washings* of the Pharisees; Corban, etc.): John 
— whetlier in reijorfing Christ's words or in commenting on 
them — deals in di.sfoifrses and long dialogues and cosmo- 
politan or celestial things. Hence we should not exjiect to 
find much affinity betiVcen ' the vocabulary of thete two 

[1730] There is anoflier -reason 'for supposing, ante- 
cedently, that John would have few or nrr words or phrases 
peculiar to himself and Mark. Mark (318), at all events ii\ 
large part, contains traditions that have been borrowed by 
Matthew and Luke. If thcrefqre Jxjhn also borrowed from 
Mark, he might- of necessity, in many,'' agree with 
Matthew and Luke where the three borrowed' identically. 
And indeed we may well, Why should John ever borrow 



from Mark aif^thing that Matthew and tuke agreed in 
rejecting — whether as being erroneous, or obscure, or too 
detailed — unless, in each case, he had some special nfiotive 
for so doing? ' 

> -I* The fact ■'.'■. 

[1731] The fact is, Jiowever, that John has several striking 
agreements with Mark. -alone, where Matthew nhd Luke 
abandon Mark (besides others with Mark and ^fatthew 
together where Luke alone abandons Mark ). H^ way of 
explaining , this antecedently improbable fact, some have 
suggested that these agreements-^.which, for -brevity, we 
may call "John-Mark agreements" — are of-late date, added 
to Mark after the publication of 'Matthew and Luke, and 
borrowed by John from a larger edition of Mark, which is 
the" one we now use. But these^ John-Mark ajjrecments do 
not bear the stamp of late addition. They do not remove 
difficulties, or soften abruptness. On the contrarj', they pft^h 
create abruptness or difficulty. Moreover Matthew, as well 
as John, sometimes follows Mark where Luke abandons 
Mark, 'as in the Walking on the Waters, and the Anointing 
of Christ by a woman; and this, is a serious blow to the 
hypothesis that all \he agreements pC John with Mark where 
Luke deviates from Mark are late additions. These facts 
tend to shew, not only that John borrowed fr6m an. early 
edition of Mark — or from early traditions contained in Mark 
—but that he also sometimes borrowtd, perhaps by preference, 
such passages as might cause difficulty to an educated 
Evangelist like Luke. 

[1T82] What John's special purpose majr have been in 
-borrowing these traditions from Mark — whether to clear up 
obscurity, or to substitute a spiritual for a materialistic 
interpretation, or to do both these things — cannot be fully 
discussed except as part -of a detailed examination of the • 
relation between the Fourth Gospel and the Three. For the 

- '. ■'■:-'•:''' S,--;.-: ;.■;... ' 246- 


present, we have to bear in mind, 1st, that the John-Mark 
agreements in the, foUowing list are probably not late but 
early traditions, and 2nd, that previous investigations' favour 
the view t^at they must be connected with Luke's deviations 
from Mark. There are not enough of them to make an 
alphabetical arrangement in English necessary, especially as 
sonie derive their interest not from their English meaning, but 
from their being unusual and perhaps Imv-class Greek ; — shch 
as the word Kpdfiarrat, for " ded," in the T .nrd's^^^p^ an rl 
"Take up thy ied and walk"; the word "fistic" which is 
given by R.V. Tnargin (txt "spikenard") in the account of 
the Anointing of the Lord ; and a word qieaning literally 
"blows with the palm of the hand," or "slappings," in the 
account of the Passion. . 

§3. Ptirallels atid Qnasi-faralMs 

[1733] Of the three words Kpafiarro^, irtorueij, and 
pavtana, the last two are marked + to denote that they 
are not only peculiar to Mark and John but also parallel ; 
that is to say, they are used in the description of the same 
detail of the same event. But the first, icpiiffaTTa^, is marked .'t 
to denote, by the query, that the contexts differ. In Mark, 
the command "take up thy ie/l" is uttered to a paralytic, in 
John, to an "impotent" man lying near a pool. The same 
.query is applied to the word " beggar," irpoirfltTijt, and to 
" spit," imiai, to denote not parallelism, but qu&si-'paralletism, 
as is explained in thp foot-notes. On the "other hand no 
query is attached to "two hundred" or "three hundred" 
because the traditions about " buying bread for two hundred 
denarii " of " selling ointment for three hundred denarii "-^ 
' although a.ssigned by John to Philip and to Judas Iscariot 
severally, arid not thus assigned by Mark nor stated by the 
latter in exact agreement with.John — undeniably refer to the 

See U82-8, 1309, ISll, UM, 1373. 


[1783] WORDS^CULIAR " 

sairfe detail in the name narrative. True parallelism also will 
be found ip the rcferenfts to the crown " of thorns " under the 
adjective uxdiifitpoi;, and " embalming,", (Wo^iao-MW. both of " 
which however are, in effect, to befound in Matthew as well 
as in^Mark. "The description of Peter as "warming himself" 
at the fire in the High Priest's hall is, perhaps, the only other 
point of interesting agreement between the two Ev,ingelists. 
As to the words not marked t, such as " thunder " ffpovn^, 
"porter" dvptop6<!, "catch ".(or "apprehend") KataKaiifiavu 
etc., they mostly occur in altogether different contents and 
will be found of very little importance as bearing on the - 
relation between the Fourth Gospel and the Three 




JOtlN-MAKK AGREfiMENTS' >< ■-,;• 


• ' ■.* 

• Mk j„ 

• lv«*.-; 

■■ ig/i^iin** 

\: '* '"■*, 

fylmitai (in con-' 
nexion w. 

.■■'■I ;,.I ; 

[17M] *i,i,tu>m> 

* [1734/i|] An 4uteri»k attached to a word denotes that Mk Snd.Jn use 
it in diflferent scnse^^ t denotes that the word not. only has the same 
meaning in Mk and jn but stlso occurs in parallel passages/ ? t indicates 
quasi-parallel ism, on which see 17^. Words not annotated occar in the 
same sensc'but in quite different contents. > 

' [1734a] 'AKO»'()i»'or, *'of thorns," (Mt.'Tikvii. 29, Jn xix. ifrX<^a*^r- 
•T. ■?{ niiovSw) is in Mk xv. 17 TrXifafTic ttKav$tvop or., Jn xix. 5 tftap^v 
T. aKavBtwov or., concerning the "crown of thorns," all refercnrc to which 
is otnitted by Lk. XRis word^ m effect, belongs tofhe list of words used 
by Mk Mt. and Jn in common (1006 — 6). 

' [1734*] 'Airaniwrm, "cut oif," Mk ix. 4i(Mt. wiii. 8 iVicdirrw), ix. 45. 
jn xvtii. 10, 36 tises the word about Matchus, prob.^with a double meaning, ' 
Malchus being taken as the representative of the High Priest. Comp. 
Deut. xxiii. 1 (3), iial. v. 13, "Und (for the iHiiion'of retribution) Deut. xxv. 
13, 2 S. iv. 12 Aq., Judg. i. 6, 7. , . ". 

^'[IXMf] I'lVo^i in connexion with *l«ui>f f. 'Kyivm 'iMdvtfr.occurs in 

Mk i. 4, and in Jn i.^ 6 lyivtm S^ffpmir^ot Hyofta alr^ 'itttipfiv. *np, 

not tytPtTo, is the more usual word to introduce a riew character in U.T. 
(Lk. ii. 25, 36,. Jn iii. 1, xi. 1, 2). Lk. uxs'tyiviro to imroducc the father 
of John the Uaptist (Lk. i. 6) " Zachariah." The hut Dook of Samud 
Opens with the words ** ami there was a «rrf«,"and Job with "a witn there 
was." The LXX has'i S. i. "i ^f (A ^yi»'*To),,Job i. t-^v : add Judg. xiii. 
3 ^c (A 4yi*rro\ xvii. 1 iyiwrra (A Vyfi-^ij), 1 S. ix. i LXX om. vb, but 
A ^f. Jn i. 6 contracts iyivtm^ applied to "a man," with. ij», applied to 
"the Word" (1937). .* 

*^1734//] A«ud*i<i<»'"lwo hundred." Mk'vi- 57, Jn vi. 7- "bread for 
300 denarii" (\l\Oe^ 1733). Comp. Jn xki, 8 "aboijt 300 cubits away." 

* [1734/] 'Evrn^uur^or, "embalming," is in Mk xiv. 8 (Ml. xxvi. 13 
ivTQ^9ak\ Jn xii. 7. Practically this word belongs to the Mk-Mt.-Jn list. 
Jn xix. 40 4vra^tQ^ti¥ refsp to Nicodemus aqd JoKph. . ..'• 


. Mk Jn Mk Jn 

^1736) *W (w. indie, ' : Tt^iXor (without , ,' 

prei)* 13 nel. or ou)* '3 3 

+ 3tpf^aiwfuu^ ' 2. 3 0vfM»p6f " '■•■ I ' 3 

. 'IffiOfToKvtuirat i 1 icimOkaf^v«^ 1 3 

' [1735rt] tut with indie, pres., "while," in Mk, only in Mk vi. 4; «tu 
avrits aVoXwt, wlierc parMK Mt. xiv, 22 tut o^ iino\v<rfi. Jn ix. 4 j«r 
(mar|[. ir) fjnifM iirrlv **wkiU it is yet day," xxi. 12 ^llt.) "If I desire 
him to remain 7vhile I am cominj^ {!m fpxapai)" rep. in xxi. 33. Comp. 
I Tim. IK 13" JKA/Ar / rtw Cftmin^ (w tpx^'M^') g'*e heed to ihc reading." 
See 1638, also 20e9, 2301. 

* [1735^] 'HB*\ov without relative or ov. "The importance of this 
agreement arlse;5 from the fact that -Mark and John use the rare form 
iffffXov in the Walking on the Waters, but in dilTerent contexts, the former 
" //ir desired to pass by them^" the latter '* Thfy desired, therefore, to raeivf 
Ifiim": — Mfc vi. 48 i\6t\*v vaptkBtlv avrov%y Jn vi. 21 ^6*\nv mV "Km^'w 
airtiv. Negations and relative constructions (such as Mt. xxvii. 15^ 
Jn'vi. II, xxi. 18) being excluded, ffBtXav occurs elsewhere only in 
.Mk vi. i9".../frjf/r£'rf...and could not," artd Jn vii. 44, xvi. iq : also in Acts 
X. 10, xi\-. 1 3, xix. 33 always about xifsire -of whkh the fulfilment is pre- 
vented (in Jn xvi. i^ by fear). The ist pers. is so used in (Jal. Iv. 20 ■ 
(comp. Test. Abr.%%^Bt\a). In L>vX, it occurs in Ksth. 1. n (A ij^WXijir**), 
Dan, vii. 19 ^Bikov l^atptfimtraffBm^ Theod. t(^ovf dxptfiiity viii. 4 iVoi'li 
«r fj6*\t, Theod. tiroitjtrtv nari t6 Bihipa avrov, also t Mace. iv. 37 (with 
out), 2 .Mace. iv. 16, XVI* 38. 

[1730 <r] The difficulty of supposing that Jesus entertained an un/^l- 
'filled ilesire m*yhi well cause corrections of the text iq Mk vi. 48. D reads 
ij6i\T}dtVt which— when conlpai^d with Deut. ii. 3o".Sihon desired nat ' 
t/tat we should go across through him (i.e. through his land)," aW i^'tfAijtn 
wttpt\6*lv i7>io<—5uggesif an interpretation, "Jesus willed that they should 
go atross" or, (comp. Jn vi. 21) that they should be ^immediately on the 
landto which they were )[oing* But others may "have read q^flXor irapfX- 
Bu¥ avTnv taking it to mean " they desired thai hi should come to \fhtuiY 
John may have paraphrased this as "they desired to receive him." 

\ [1735 <y) Btppaipopaif " warm oneself," Mk xiv. 54, 67, Jn xviii. 18^ 35, 
always of Peter "warming himself," at the High Priest's fire. Jn xviii. 18 
also mentions the ser\'ants and officers " warming themselves." See 
" F;re of Coals " (1711/-^). ' : 

' [1730^] RdroXo^i'M nieans "catch," or ** take " in Mk ix. 18 and in 

Ja xii. 35, "lest thedarkness catch, sutprise^ or tn'ertake you." In Jni, 5, - 

R.V. txt has " the light shineth in the darkness and the darkness appre^ 

hended {%ap(Ko^v) it not," but the margin has "overcame." It never 

^means " overcome " except so far as that may be implied in/* catchiog," or 




Mk Jn Mk Jn 

[X736] ?tiijxijSiiTTof> 5 4 • iMrtir6t' i 2 

" Ming,' U iMms to mean " tnit " in the sense of " aptnthftid (menially) " 
(compare our vernacular "Uo you take nic?"Xin Micah vi. 6 (LSX) ex- 
pressing " Whereby mvf I allain fo, or apprektiid, the Lord ? " This 
meaning ol intellectual apprehension is v'e^ common in Greek philosophic 
writers and in Philo, e.g. (i. 579, ii. 654) " Real Being is not npprrhcndtd 
by any man " " One jiiust needs begin by becoming a God before one can ■ 
have strength to apprthend C.oif.' Simon Magus (Hippol. vi. 18) main- 
tained that the First Principle of things was an " iimppreitmiMf silence .' 

[173S/] St Paul plays on taraXafifUi^ and \a0<lyti in a manner best ^ 
expressed perhaps by "lake," thus (Phil. lii. 12) "Not that I have 
already /aign (tXa^v) [the prize].. ....but I press on, if perchance 1 might 

ovtrtiitt (or, lakt as my prisf, «aniX«<*«) that for which I have been Inttn 
over (or, taken as his eaptive^ nanXruifftfftfv) by Christ." Perhaps Jlj 
wishes— by using a word habitually employed in two distinct meanings— 
to suggest that the mere intellectual apprehension of light would he 
distinct from moral ** reception ** (jn i. 11 ira/KiXa/i^uvw) and would, if it 
were possible, result in an imprisonment, " taking captive," of the light. 
if so, we arc not called on to decide whether he means (i) "did not take 
rnptive," or (2) *' did not appreA/nd'* ; for in that case he means both. 

[1738 jf) Origen says (Huel ii. 74 »)"/« liiv iimys (lk)(it) the darkness 
hath 'not apprehended' the light.J' Hut his inlerpretations arc (i)the 
darkness ,bas persecuted the light but not tiiken it captive^ or suppressed it ; 
(2) the darkness, in following after the light and coming too close to il, ' 
has not overtaken it, but has fallen into the snare ^so to speak) set for it 
by the light, and has perished by absorption in the, light. Chrysostom . 
takes much the, same view, but adds that the light "is unsubduable 
{jat%arttyuvi(rTov\ not being wilting to dwell ih the souls t/iat do not desire 
■ Id be enlightened (ntii tfulHXo\MpoL'y rate ^ij ^vrrttr0'ivat' ^wXoftivait 
^xWr) "—which rather sugge^^ts intellectual "apprehending." 

[1736A] In the interpolated Jn [viii. 3—4], «iiTAaw8a>M ^i>/» means 
"catch." ■ #■ 

' [lT36(i] Kpa^arm, "pallet," a word condemned by Phrynichus, is 
ivpeatedly used in Mk ii. 4 — 12, Jn v. 8 — 11, about the healing 
of a man to whom Jesus says, " Arise, take up Ihy pallet." Hut in several 
important, circumstances the narratives differ. The word ii Jhercfore 
marked ?t. Elsewhere in N.T. the word is used only Hi Mk vi. 55, Acts 
v. I } i)nd ix. 33 [of cures, in both cases in Acts, wrought by Peter]. 

' [1738*] Murtfuriit, in Mk i. 20 of Zebedee's " hired servants,", Jn x. 
■ a, 13 "hireling," as opposed to the Good Shepherd. 

■■■'■■.%',':.'■:.■ .-'i^:'..'.: :::>':. ■..'■■■■. 


[1737] - '■ WORDS PECULIAR 






t ,mp»o,' 


•r . 

•»w*V ■ 



t rurnKftf'" 




■ 1 


[17S7] JtrpoffoiV 

' ' 

. J- 



r N^/»fiov, " spikenard,"- Mk xiv. 3, jn xii. 3, see bcIoW (1736rf). 

?in«^f«|r(a, Mk (I X Jn (9), sec 1252-4, 1432— 8, 1744 xi. 17, 1917 (i) foil. 

' 1 1736 c] ntrx^. The asterisk denotes that the meanings are entirely 
diffierent. Mk v. 29 uses n-Ty^ about ** the woinan with the issue." In Jn 
iv. 6 — 14 it is used of Jacob's well and once in metaphor. 

* [1736//] II10TIKOC, of doubtful meaning, occurs in ^^k xiv. 3, Jn xii. 
3 ''^'Pisiic nard." This adjective is nowhere else Known to be applied to 
things, but it is applied to a " faithful " wife by Art(^idoru$ (a.D. c. 150) 
il. 32, frioTiK^ Kti oiffovpof, elsewhere ii. 66, iti. 54 fritrri) rat Mmtvptfc. 
VVetstein (Mk xiv, 3) gives abu.hdant instances of (nri«drnv as the nan>e of 
^n ointmenft^om "spica"). t^SUcx L) om. the clause, but i/has "pistiri,** 
k "piscicae," vul((. "spicati," a "optiihi," Wetstein quotas passages indi- 
cating, that this ointment {aintLorov) was in use among women of luxury. 
Possibly an early Galilfean tradition, finding in the original sonic form- of 
crriKornK, played upon it by saying '* not cnriKorni' but nan « (if." Jerome 
(Swete on Mk xiv_. 3) played. thus on the word, "ideo vos vOcati cst)s 
*pistici,'...." There is no evidence to shew that it was a tradesmeh's 
term meaning^ " genuine;" . . " 

* [1736^] n^owptoi' "little boat," and mrA^^ (1738^)'Lit. "little ear." 
,.are two diminutives peculiar to Jn and Mk. Jn has also Ivai^mv ''as^," 

i^fum "fish," and irdidiiptor "youth." Variations in the MSS., and Jn'» 
apparent liking for diminutives, lessen the weight of any inference from 
his use of them in common with Mk [In Lk, v,,2, VV.H. have txt trXnio, 
marg. irXouipta]. AccOrdfng to W.H., Jn gives the name (vi. 24) n-Xmopta 
to vc&sels previously called (vi. 23) irXoia. He seems to do this in 
-xxi. 3--8, perhaps wishint^.to suggest in xxi. 8 that the boat, bcinj^ small, 
was readily brought ashore (but? Vin the little boat"). 

* (1737 rt] n/MKrfl.'Ti;r V beggar," Mk x. 46 the blind Bartimaeus, Jn in. 
8 a man born blind. Since the narratives are not parallel except in the 
coincidence of "blindness" the word is marked F't'. It should be added 
that the parall. Lk. xviii. 35 has fVairii-. But the parall. Mt. xx. 30 
(which rnentions two blind men) omits all mention of " begging." 

n^rrair7f is used by l.ucian (iii. 264, Navig. 34) to mean "a common 
beggar," or " beggar of the lowest class," " The millionaires of tlie present 
day, in comparison with me, are [such as Hofher's) Irus and \c0mmoM\ 
^.^"^ (''p« *"* irpxFuiTm)." Steph. quotes PluL HtlUn. Probi. p. 2^ A 
" taking rags and wallet and becoming a \tommon\ b*£gar" 

* [1737 h] llrM*. " spit," is marked ? \ (not ? t) to indicate that only one 
of the two instances in Mk it in a quasi-parallel with Jo. Mk rii. y% 


. [1788] 

Mk Jn 



. fl-«pOM ' 

2 1 

- ■PoflSovwi* 



, + patturfut' 

1 2 

- ffr^Kw' 

2 . 


[1738] f tixatoaun^ 

1 1 



■ 9 

^¥tpAt ' 

1 1 


• I . 


t imfHov* 

1. _l 

i» . 

■■.'/;- '-.-.i 

* . 

refers to the healing of a nian deaf an^ dumb, to which th^ere Is* nothing 
even remotely similar in jn. Mk viii. 33 refers td tlfe healing of a blind 
man, and so docn Jn ix. 6. The two pa!>sages, therefore, -agroe in 
describing Jesus as healing blindness' by "spittings" but they differ in 
other respects. • . ^ 

> [1737 tj llM^fiat, "harden" is in Mk vi. 52 "But tRcir heart was 
hardened^ viii. 17 "Have ye your heart.Art/vfrmv/? " of disciples; Jn xii. 
40^only in a free quptation (Is. vi. 10) " Me hardtned th€ir hearti*' ofuke 
Jews^ rVwpMTf y, on the meaning of which see 24f 9 a, 
„ * [173?rf] 'PWi/SwM^ uttered by (Mk x. 51) l}artimaeus/(Jn xx. i6j 
Mary Magdalene. Theforfncr occm in a prayer "that I may receive my 
sight,** the latter in an exclamation after Mary's eyes have been opened to 
see the riscn^aviour. ^. 

^ [1737^] 'P^fruTfia, lit. "slapping," in Mk xiv. 65, Jn xviii. 32, xix. 3, 
refers to blows given'to Je^us, comp. Is. 1. 6 (LXX) *fr ^iri'ir^tara. The 
parall. Ml. xxvi. 67 has the vb- ^iri'ft*. The n. ^iria/ia was condenincd 
(492—3) by Phrynichus, and Lk- uses neither ^nmus^ nor ^wi(t : but 
the former might commend itself -to Mk and Jn owing to it^ Messianic 
associations in bai.ih. The parall. Lk, xxii. 63 haf fHpo^rts. 

* JrrfKtt, " stand fast,'* Mk iii. 31, xi. 35, jn i. 26, viii. 44. See-1726d. 
^ TpwKotnot, "three hundred," Mk xiv. 5, Jn kii. 5* "sold for fAref 

hnndred denarii (1710 r, 1733)." 

• [1738 /rj ♦tii'fp.w, "manifest" fvb.), is in Mk Iv. 22 along with lK$ji 
tlt<^*fiov: the parall. Mt. x., 26, and Lk. xii. 3, have (JiroiaXt't^^irnw 
along with yvoKr^^trn-ai, and the parall. Lk. viii. 17 has t^vtp^p ytvi^trai 
along with yvu<r^ ma\ tit ^vtpit* tXfijf. In Jn xxj. 1 (fit's), 14, it ii thrice ' 
used of Christ's "manifesting himself or "being manifctftd" after the 
Resurrection, and so, too, in Mk App. [xvi. 12, 14]. 

' ♦ai'O'it, '^'openly." Mk i. 45, Jn vii. 10 both refer to Christ's not 
going "openly" or "publicly " to a city or to a festival at Jerusalem : but 
thti circumstances are quite different. 

" XiXiopj^of, "captain of thousand," is in Mk vi. 31 "his great men and 
lAi/ittrtAs" Jn xviii. 12 "the cohort therefore and the chiiiarch*' 

.• [1738d] 'flTiipwF, "ear "(lit. "little ear",) i? in Mk xiv. 47j(1ftt. xxvi. 
$1 wriW, Lk. xxii. 50 olt) and Jn xviii. 10. Note that Jn xviii. 26 (in 
parenthetic explaqatipn) has iniw, (1796^) and 10 has Lk. utii. \u 




§4. Jn xii. 9 "the common people," ttVtht great. 
• multitude" . r. 

[1739] To the preceding list we may perhaps add the 
phrase used by John alone (xH. g; i2) o i)(Kixi 7ro\w, contrary 
to Greek syntax. Mark xii. 37 has iroXuv i-)(>JK, in 
accordance with Greek syntax, Matthew and Luke nowhere 
use troXw i-](Km with 0. "'O •<to\iKi-j(Kov" has a meaning of 
its own, quite distinct from TroXvt i-)(Ko<i. Concerning the 
former, " the great multitude," Philo says (ii. 4) " they welcome 
vice": and thus and kindred phrases meanH(Lobeck, Phryn. 
p, 390) "the riff-raff." In Mk xii. 37 "the common people 
were hearing him gladly," Syr., Diatess., and SS have " all the 
multitude" the Latin MS.S. have " multa turba," D has not 
irdKxXi SyXoi Ka\....i.e. "and [there was] a great multitude 
and...." All these readings avoid the suggestion of "a foolish 
vulgar mob " which Mark's true text might convey. See full 
quotations in Stephen's Thesaurus and Field. The parall. 
Mt.-Lk. omit the whole clause. Even where Mk (xi. |8) 
says "all the multitude (iy\o^) were astonished at his 
teaching" — a phrase that need not suggest contempt — Lk. 
(xfx. 48) has "all the people (Xow) hung on his lips." 

[17^] Jn has xii. 9 (IJKL) tyvto oiv 6 ox\o<! voXiis « tmj' 

'louSaMiv, xii. I2(BL) i;^XOT iroXvi 6 i\0a>v ft? rt]ti eopTtju... 

(but M 4x^<" ■"■"^"^ fKd.), and the question arises wUy he thus 

,.(if these MSS. are corrc^ breaks the rules of Greek syntax. 

is intelligible that such a phrase as vvtOiia aytov, " Holy 
S))irit," should be (very rarely) treated as a compound noun, 
and have the article irregularly prefixed (i Cor. vi. 19 
W. H. marg.). But it is quite unintelligible that in d ira\xK 
SxXtK — a recognised form of speech, (neaning "the riff-raff" — 
a writer should interchange the noun and the adjective, 
breaking one of the strictest canons of Greek, unless he 
intended to convey some different meaning. Perhaps John 

i54 . 


wished to meet the charge brought by enemies of the Church 
against Mark's tradition, not by suppressing the words (which 
Matthew and Luke, if they knew them, have done) but by 
adopting thein with a modification intended to express that 
the phrase did not have the bad signification that was 
ordinarily attached to it. B is sometimes untrustworthy as 
to the letter when near C (1961) as here, and the expla- 
nation of B's reading, if correct, is very obscure. Possibly 
some editions of' Mark contained a marginal correction J;(Xov . 
iroXuf for iroXu? ij(\of. The former, finding its way into the 
text without omitting o, may have been adoptC(l by John, 
.. meaning, in xii, 9, " tAe great multitude of the citizens," and, 
in xii. \2' " t/ie great multitude of the pilgrims." He will not 
say o iroXiis i-xKot, for that would mean -" the riff-raff." He 
says o SxKxm ToKm, "the multitude in great nnmberSi' 

§5. Inferences . ' \ ":'•■-' 

[1741] No less than four of the "words marked f above' , 
belong to the Anointing of Christ by a Woman — a narrative 

' given by all the Evangelists but Luke.and otic that has 
caused difficulty to commentators from early times because 
of its points of agreement and disagreemcnt^with Luke's 
narrative of the Anointing by a VVomail tliat was a Sinner. 
Another refers to " the crown of thorns," mentioned, with . 
slight difference, by Matthew, but wholly otriittcd by Luke. 

(HAnothcr describes the humiliating blows'inflicted on Christ ; 
and here, too, Matthew uses an almost identical word, but 
Luke "an entirely different one'. These fact? confirm the 
view that John's intervention is in some way connedted with 
Luke's dmiation or omission ; and they suggest that in a few 

* 'Evra^wo'/idr (Mt. (yra<^ta(M), vapAnf, iritrriKOr, rpiaictWiiH. 

' 'Aifiir^troc and fidtrtviia^ Mt. AKayB^f and JpawuraPt Lk. pm. -and 

A. v! 255 ' i8 ■ 


_: — ^- -.^ — _ — 1_ — -_ ^^: — __,j — ^ — _ 

such special cases John (contrary to his usual custom) adopted 
the actual words of Mark in order to explain them in a' new 
sense. ' „ : . 

[1748] Two words, severally marked ? t »nd ? }, " beggar " 
an^ " spit," belong to John's Healing (in j6rusaleM) of " a man 
bom blind?' In Mark, the former word (" beggaf," wpoffoiTij?) 
belongs to the Healing(near Jericho) of the btjnd "Bartimacus'' 
— which is sup|)oscd to be related by all the" Synoptists'; but 
the latter word (" spit," ttti/ui (1737 A)) belongs to the Healing 
of a blind man near " Bethsaida," a story peculiar to Mark. 
It must be added that a narrative peculiar to Matthew' 
describes the healing of two blind men at a place unnamed, 
containing many features in common with the Mealing of 
Bartimaeus. The impression left 'by all these narratives is, 
that' there was early difficulty in distinguishing the cures of 
the blind wrought by Jesus ; that Matthew and Luke omitted 
Mark's detail about the use of " spittle " in performing some of 
these cures ; and that John rcvertcdto the old tradition. These 
facts once more confirm the vie^v that John intervened on 
account of the omission of primary facts by secondary Evan- 
gelists : but Ih this case the burden of omission is thrown, not 
on Luke alone but on Matthc\y as well. The same conclusion 
is suggested by Mark's and John's traditions concerning two 
hundred and three hundred denarii*. 

[1743J Comparing this Vo«bulary with the following 
ones in this Book the re^cr will fitid that the proportion of 
words marked + is very large. And the fact that, in some of 
these instances, Matthew is nearly identical with Mark so that 

\ .The three narfaiive« probably refer lo the same ewent. But Mt-Lk. 
oinit "bartimaeus," and Mt. represents two blind men aj being healed. 

' Mt. ix. 37—30. 

' [1742a] The former is omitted by Matthew, as well as by Luke, in 
the Feeding of the Five Thousand. The latter, in the Anointing of 
Christj\by a Woman, is modified by Matthew, who- substitutes " muck ** 
(xx>i. 9 "it could have been sold for mmch") lot the definite sdBi 
Dientioned by Mark and John. 

'^": ■■.*•.■ ■■; ■ '. 256 '■. ,.'.■ ,- ^ " 

■ V 

to JQHN ANl5 »^ARK [IT*«<i)] 

John is practically in agrtcmtnt iuith Matthew as tvtll ai 
Mark, ought to make the inquirer defer any final judgment 
that he might be disposed to base upon the present list till' he 
has seen the list, of words peculiar to John, Mark, and 
Matthew, which, if Mart is earlier than Matthew and if 
Mark is largely followed by Matlliew, may shew that John 
follows Mark even more than appears from the facts given » 
above. . - ._ .* ..■'■'..'■•■ ' '-,' 

[1744] Meantime, regard being h{td to the (act admitted 
by all critics, that John wrote long after Mark,' and to the . ' 
probabillty-(assumed as a certainty by jiomc) that Mark had* 
an authoritative position at the end of the first century, a 
good case is already made out. for the qontcntiun that John 
intervenes In favour of Mark where the later Evangelists 
deviate from him. This contention does not assume that, in 
these instances, Mark and John are historically rijjhfc The 
former itia^ have Ic'd tlie latter to an erroneous intervention. 
. But the point Is, not that Mark is in such ca.scs right, but that 
Mark is supported by John. It will subsequently be con- 
sidered whether John also intervenes in favour of .Matthew 
and of Luke, singly, or in favour of Matthew and Luk(^ 
jointly, where the two agree. Kut ttfat will not affect Ihe 
present question, which is, whether jqhn occasionatly inter- 
venes in favour of Mark. ^ ^ , ■ - * . 
. • . - V," ' ■ • 

•' .. • 'X' ■ • 

ADDITIONAL NOTE ('.Kf^wim in Jn-Mk naiT.> 

■■ V , ■' ■ . ' ■■■■■■.•■ 

[1744 (i)] fifairatt, in strict narrative (1672*), does not 
occur in Matthew and Luke, but occurs once in Mark in the 
story of the man with "great possessions," of whom Mark 
says (x. 2l) "Jesus looked on him and lo-Md him (o 8« T, 
inffKeyyai nir^ ijynrnjcrev avTov)," But the end was that " he 
went away sorrowing," after being commanded to Sell whatever 
he had and to ' give to the jioor " I he character and conduct 



[174* <ii)] WORDS PECULIAR 

of the man arc discussed by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, 
Kphrem, and Chrysostom, and we learn from tiR-m thai there 
was difference of opirtion. But hone of these writers deal 
effectually' with the difficulty^ — difficulty to some early 
Christiwis though jierhaps only a pathetic fact to us — that 
this unique nicntion of Christ in the Synoptic Gos|h;Is as 
" loving " some one, ends in what seems worse than nothing, — 
" he went away sorrowing." The difficulty is so great that 
we cannot be surprised at the dfRission of the clause ("looked 
on him and loved him ") b)' Matthew and Luke. 

[1744 (ii)] One way of removing or minimising the 
difficulty in Mark would be to take "loved." as meaning 
"treated kindlj', or gently"; and one of the best English 
scholars of the last century says, "Perhaps we might translate, 
'caressed him,'"" quoting a passage from I'lutarch in support 
of this rendering. He might also have alleged Clement of 
Alexandria. (940) "Accordingly jesus does, not convict him 
as one that had failed to fulfil all the words of the Law ; on 
the contrar)-.He loves O^ greets him with uuiisual conrlesy 
(w^aira Ka\ imepaaviiHtTat)." Moreover codex i renders the 
Greek by "osculatus est eum." Epiirem and Epiphanius bot)i 
have " rejoiceii'." These facts suffice to shew that, in the much 
discussed prgcept about selling all one's goods arjxl giving to 
the poor', this particular phrase, " Jesus -looked on him and 

' Tertullian is bricfer'ihan any of these,* and most severe, /V Stono- 
gam, 14 "Discessit ct ille dives, qui non ceperat substantiac dividendae 
.egenis pra^cfptun^ et dimissus est sententiae suae ii Uuntino. Nee ideo 
duritta imputabilur Christo de arbitrii cuiuscuniquc libcri vitio." This 
can hardly be called "effcctijaL" , .; , v 

-■ Field, O/, A'OTO. ad loc. ■-....; . * . •■ 
' ' [17M(ii)«] Ephrem p, 168 "Sed cum observator lel^is nionstrassct 
sc legem diligenter servasse, tunc legislator de co gavisus est ci exuUavit," 
Kpiphan. 690 n tlra ^ffi, Xavra ntivra twhiqiru •« vtiirtfTiit ^y. a. 
Antivffas ixapii- This he repeats expressly, dta fap rm «twtiv ort 'X^t 
" by sayihg that he * rejoiced.' '.' 

' [1744 (ii)*} Uesides the authorities above quoted, Justin and 
Irenaclu and many other earl) writers have quoted freely the different 

TO JOHN AND MARK 11744 (in)] 

vd him" would be likely to attract special attention because! , 
fits apparently ineffectual result. ,; i'' 
[1744(iii)] Before referring to'John's use of nydnnai in 
narrative, some notice will be necessary of its use in Greek 

, literature as bearing on Field's suggested translation of Mark, 
"Jesus can-sseii him." 'Ayairwai seems, from the Odyssey . 
onwards, to have meant a 'going forth to meet," a "demon, 
stration pf affection'." It does no% occur in vEschylus oi" 

•Sophocles. But Euripides has it twice, and nfairiit^ai once — 
—always meaning " pay the last obsequie!^" to the dead'. 
Xenophon and Plutarch uSe it in the scrtsetoC." fondling" the 
yoUng'. But in very many cases it means' simply " love," 
without allusion to external action, differing perhaps, some- 
times, from ij>t\i<i in that dyairaa less frequently refers to 
"favour" and sexual'lovc. The LXX^ uscii "707r(ia> very, 
frequently in every sense of the word "love," but hardly in the tense above mentioned — ■' mnjii/isliiig lofe ih 
action^'' The aoiifist ^ditnaa occurs for the first time in the 

versions of this story, .ind passages of Irenacus (i. 3. ^ quoting as Syr^ 
Burk., and i. 30. 2) shew that it was much quoted by early heretics. * ' ~ 

' [1744 (iii)<i] It does not occur in the lliaii. But dyairii/v.'which 
occurs once (xxiv. .464) ayanaii^Mv ^I'nji', means " make the first ap- 
proaches to." 'Ayairuw occurs (L- S.) twice- in the Odyssey^ j^xiii. 214 
" Be not angr)'. that I did not I'm^raee thee thus {^f>* ayairf\aa) at the lirst," 
(referring to 207—8 where Penelope kisses and embraces Ulysses), xxi.- 
289 "Dost thou not hug \l/iy j,'noii/orlum]l" i.e. "art thou not tvr/l 
pleased" — a frcq. meaning in later Gk. esp. with* negative. *.%yairo(#, 
-o^, in Odyjsey freq.^ means " embrace.'* 

' [1744 (iii)^] Eurip. Hel, 937 irpuffM o^* airdmi daxfiMur Jlr Tydiriii', 
Suppl. 764 0ni'i7( hv ft wap^fftf* uT ^ydffa ffx^r. The reply is " Old he 
himself wash the wounds of the unhappy men?" Comp. Pkom. 1327 
fitivv r«i iTftiduf ayana^ttv (/iot>. 

' [1744 (iii)(j I'lut. (153) Vil. Pericl. 1 «iirar TUtia..jv rait xiXiroa 
ntpt^ptWTos K. ayairitrras. Also Sleph. quotes (? ref.) *' Xen. Cyrop. vli, $, 
18 p. 447 " lutvovqim tr rmt liyKtiAur wtpupt^ittv ai^ovt ayawitPTit^ 

• [1744 (iii) rf] In JPs. xclv. 19 "thy comforts dt/ig»/ (lit. /oiid/e) my 
soul," tiyanrjauv, AM* tjOiftpavatf, Is. v. 7 "the plant o\ h\i fondiing 
(ijyinri;/i/vo»)." By error the LXX has I's. cxix. 166 igydirTira, Confusing 
the word with the Heb. for I'lroi'tjirn, which Aq. and Sym. bsve. ■ 

*■ ■■ 259 ,■ , ■:.,., ■'.■'",'■ 



Temptation- of Abraham (" thine only son, whom thpu lovesl 
(VYam/ira?) " and frequently thus to represent the Hebrew 
past where it approximates to ^fcc English present: but in 
the next instance ("and he loirJ her") and in many others 
it riepresents .the English past'. In the LXX, then, the 
context must in each case be called in to determine th«f 
meaning. ^ ^ • 

[1744(iv)] Inthe Pauline Epistles, the active vfrb, when 
not used of human love, is almost always in the aorist,- 
referring to the love of Christy in ac^, as redeeming mankind, 
Rom. viii. 37 "we are more than conquerors through.him that 
Imtd (nyairriiTavTos) us'," (Sal. ifc 2b "the Son of God, who 
kved me and gave himself for me," Eplv v. 2 " as "Christ 
/ovedyon and gave himself up for you (marig. us)," v. 25 "even 
as Christ also foveii tlje church and gav<; himself up for it," 
■So in Rev. iii. 9 " Behold I will make them to come and 
worship before thy feet an^l to know that I hvrJ thee" it is 
the Son, not the Father, that is speajcing, and " \ limed t/ue " 
iipplies " I' delivered and made ttue victorious'." 

4~ — ' — ^^1 — ' — ■ 7" — "^ ~~ — ■^ — '-'^~ --^ — ^ ^' T r 

*" ' [1344 (iii)!-] (ien. xxii: 2, xxiv. 67. The imperf., which is very rarci 
O^rs in r,cn. xxxvii. 3 ^ydira irnprf, I S. i. 5 tfydna virifi rnvrnv (but it.' 
r. i« a LX.\ addition) where "love*" implies favouritism. Comp. (ieti. . 
xx\'. 28 ijydvTfff* flf 'itraitK riiv *Uirav../Pt^KKa Hi ^iiTrii top 'liiKuff (where 
the Heb. tenses differ) arid 1 S. xviii. 28 nas 'lir/i. qynirn avrtiy^ where LXX 
differs from Heb. and perh. takes the meaning to be. "loved him [David] 
more than Saul." 

' [1744 (iv)a] In view of the preceding (Rom. viii. 35) " love of 
Christ," and the prevalent Pauline lise of aor. of nynirdu, this, must refer 
t6 the Son, not to the' Father. Comp. Phil" iv. 13 "I have strength 
[for] all things in. him that makes me^'powerful" i.e. " Christ '\ (comp. 
I Tim. i. 12). But it docs rcfqr to the love of the Father in' liph. li. 4 — 5 
"God...fOf the great love wherewith he /iw'rt/ us. ..quickened us together 
with Christ," and to the lovcof Ibe Father and the Son in 2 Thess. li. 16 
" now .our Lord Jesus Christ hithsclf, and (iod our Father, who loved 
{i aX(nrr}<Tas) us.., ''.where, though ayavritrits agrees grapimatically with 
0tos K. n-oT^p, it is intended to include the- redeeming ^ove of the Son. 

^ [1744 (iv) ^3 Ign.W^'W. 6 firci ov*" *V rms wpqffryjiaixiuvoit iTfMtvif 

trots rA Irak ir^fi&os iSi&fnjtra iv nitrrtt k. tiydwrjira seems to mean " Since 

'260 * " 


9y .■ 

TO JOHN ANn MARK. [174*,(vi)] 

[J744(v)] Coming to 'Johannine usage, and bearing it) 
mind this double use of the verb to express the emotion and 
the act, We should first npte an insistence on the latter aspect 
■ in' I Jn jii. 18, " Little, children, /<•/ us not love in word nor 
witk the tongue, but in tuort and tru//i." The whole of the ' 
Epistle insists on the active nature of God's love and ofman's 
love so far as it imitates the divine original. 

(1744 (vi)] Then, in the narrative portions of the Gospel, 
we find the following: iii. l6 "For God so /oi'cU (rjydyrtiaw) 
the world that' he gave the only begotten Son...'," xi. 5 "Now 
Jesus was wont to love (riydTra.) Martha and her sister and 
Lazarus'," xiii.'i " Now b<;fore the (icast of the Passover, Josus, 
knowing that his hour had come that he shpuld pass out of 
this world to th'e^ Father, Imviiig Itmtd (a.iantr\aa<i) his own 
that were in the world — to tke end he loj'cd IJiem (sU t.Xo? 
if^mriiatv outok)," xiif, 23 "There Was lying-at table one of 
his disciples, in the bosom of Jesus, rc'/w>« Jesus was wont to 
love (hv i)7n7ra[o] "I.)," xix. 26 " Jesus therefore having seetl his 
[lit. the] mother, and the disciple standing hy, wliom lie was 
. wont to love (ov ^(iTro)," xxi, 7 " So that disciple whom Jesus 
, was wont to love saith to Peter, It is the Lord (\e7e» uvv 0, /i. 
iKeifOt hv ^yfiira a 'I. r^i XliTptti, 'O Kvpiov l&rtt')." After 
this, comes the dialogue between our Lord and Peter, (" lo'itst 
(a7aira9) thou me more than these?" " lovcst thou me.'")— 
not a part of narrative, but not wiihout bearing oti the use of 

then I lieheld ii) faith inA Hiitryeit [m the spirit] the whole muliituda 

* [of the Magnesian Church] in the abdve-mentioned personi^ [of thrir 

deputation],'' Potyc, 2 f>u k. n^ tlttrfia >iou a tjynwritrnt " hand mj^ bonds, 

which thou didst im^ingty ■weUont^^ perh. personitied as in i^hil. i. 14 

I "trusting in my btmds^ — the "bunds" being, in each case, a sign or 

messenger from Cod, revealing His iMwer to strengthen His martyrs. 

' I'robably an utterance of the-Evangclist (nol of Christ, 1497). 

' [1744 (vi)*] " iVoHf" perh. better "always used" (s. .Skeat), is .tn 

attempt to render the imperfect. Other statements abdut man's love are 

.iii 19 " men loi'eti the darkness rather than the light," xii. 4> " for thty 

- [i.e. the rulersj Coved the glory of men rather than the glory of<kHl." 

U744(vii)] WORDS PECULIAR . 

'the word in narrative — and tiiially xxi. 20 " J'cter, having 
turned, jiuteth lite discipk that Jesus was wont to love, follow- 
ing (ff\iitti 10V fi, i>v t'l^iiira 6 '1. iiKoXovfiovVTa)" 

[1744 (vii)] Reviewing these passages, we find tfiat the 
first mention of the Son's being " wont to love " introduces the 
greatest of all His "signs," the victory over death at the ijrave 
of Lazarus. As to. the next, it will hereafter (8319 foll.)<t)e. 
shewn that "loved ifiem to tDe end (e»? t«\ov t'lyamiirtv avroo^)" 
means, not only "loved them /(> lite end" but also "loved them 
to the supreme and victorious consummation of lo/vi'.' It refers 
to the Washihg of Keet as well as to the Sacrifice on the 
Cross. lA the former, the Lord is regarded (1283) as wiping 
off upon Himself the impurities of the disciples, so that all of 
them that will accept His love accept at the same time His 
purification — all but Judas, who will not accept it. 

[1744 (viii)] In the same scene that brings before us 

■ one disciple spiritually refusing this act of lo^'e', there is 
introduced about another disciple, "in the bosom of Jpsus," 
the novel " tvkom Jesus was wont to lovt" At first, 
this adjective clause is not inseparable from "disciple." It 
is'not " tlu. disciple that Jesus wa.s wont to love," but "one of 
the- discipki" \ and there is added "whom Jesus was wont to 
love." So stated, it might apply to several disciples, of whom 
this disciple was one. Hut it recurs as " the disciple standing 
by, ifAow'jesus was wont to love'," add lastly as " tilt disciple" 

> [1744 (viii) a] Peter refuiet it <far the mainent) iii word and out- 
wardly ("Lord, thou shalt never wash mjr Ceet") but accepts it in spirit 
Judas accepts it outwardly but rejects it spiritually. 

' [1744 (viii)*]. The intervention of "standing by," and the consequent 
possibility of pause, afford a loop-hole for regarding the relative here 
not essential to the antecedent.. It might just possibly mean " the disci; 
[about whom I have so often spoken] standing by, one of whom Jesus was 
very%nd." But there is no such loop-hole in the next instance. The 
usage of the LXX (1744 (iii)^) would facilitate the use of qyaira to ihean 
" Was specially fiAd," " loved above others." 

■■:'.'*'.-:.. '-■;.. '■/■■';'■■:• ada'' •.■ ■■/■ ' 

TO JOHN AND MARK , ^1744 (x)} 

t/iat Jesus was wont to love," and in this last instance pre- 
eminence is unmistakcablc. 

[1744 (ix)] Whether intentional or not, thpre is certainly 
a striking contrast between the incipient disciple in Mark. • 
who proved to be no disciple-^although he called Jesus 
"Good teacher" and .although Jesus " Imied him" —wnA " tlu 
Jiscifle iliat Jtsus loved" \n the Fourth Gospel. The former 
" went away sorrowing." To the latter the Lord, when on 
the point of death, entrusts His own mother. To him, alone, on 
the shore of Tiberias, it is given to say, "It is the Lord," when 
l?etcr and the rest had nbt yet discerned Him. He, too, 
though not " following " the Lord in the pal+i assigned to 
Peter (the path of the Cross) is nevertheless seen " following " 
in another way ; and the last recorded utterance of tfie 
Saviour includes a mysterious saying suggestive of the 
prolonged abidance of this disciple upon earth : " If f will .IvM 

thai he tarry till I come, wliat is that to thee ? " 

{1744(x)] This typical aspect of "the di.sciple that Jesus • 
loved" is quite compatible with the literal asjicct in which he 
is regarded as literally lying on the bosom of Jesus. Origen 
assuredly accepted t^)c latter, but he accepted the former also. . 
"The Word of God on earth," he says, "since He is become 
man, we see as a being of man's nature... but, if we have lain 
oil the hritst of the Word made flesh, and if we have been able 
to follow Him when He gckth up to the High Mountain, we 
shajl say, ' We saw' his glory.' " And again, " We must thare- 
fore dare to call the.Gospels the prime of the Scriptures, and 
the Gospel according to John the prime of the Gospels. Of 
this Gospel noTie can receive the meaning except he have 
fallen back (Jn xiii. 25 avaittaiiiv) on the breast. of Jesus, 
and except he have received Mar> from Jesus' so thaj she 
becomes (lit. becoming) his own liiuther also. And this' 

* [1744 (x)a] Orig. P/titoetil. 19. The rt'kronce is to the Transiigura* 
tioik He quotes Jn 1.14 <tffla(rd/tfltfii as fido^af, "wc5a«r.'' 

P744(xi)] JOHN AND MARK * 

other future ''John '' must also become such a one that {*o 
to speak) the ' John ' is pointed out by Jesus as being ' Jesus.' 
For, if there lino other son of Mary (according to those whti 
entertain wholesome opinions about her) except Jesus, and 
[if] Jesus says to His mother, 'Behold, thy son,' and not, 
' Behold, this, too, [is] thy Son '—this Is all the same as if He 
has said ' Behold, this is Jesus, whom thou didst biear,' For 
indeed every one that is initiated (Gal. ii. 20) livcth no longer ' 
[of himself] but Christ livcth in him : and, since Christ liveth 
in him, it is sard concerning him to Mary, ' Behold, thy Son, 
the Christ!'"' t' 

[1744 (xi)] It may be taken as certain thiit John has some 
meaning ami purpose (beyond mere graphic or euphonic 
variation) In his various descriptions of the beloved disciple ; 
,and it is highly probable that Origen has hel|jed us to 
elucidate a part of his purpose, in bringing before us this 
unnamed and mysterious character as a permanent witness 
—" tarrying " till tlic lord's " coming " — to flie all-conquering 
love of Christ. And having rcjfard to the early and wide 
discussions about the parallel' phrase in Mark, we may regard 
it as means improbable that the Fourth Evangelist is 
tacitly confrastihg this "disciple that Jesus loved "with the 
ineffectual approacher to disciplcship, of whom lyi^irk records 
that he called Jesus "-teacher," and that Jesus "Itx^ked on him 
and loved him," and yet that, itt tlie end, '.'Ik^ went away 
sorrowing'."- ►"';; .^'- \ : ■■'. ; J , ; .' • 

1 ■— — '■ ■ / _ '''■ .i. : \'\ ■ .ir'i '!' _ — ;• I ■' ' -.^' i ";). .' ' 1 " 1 ' -. — ■ — 1— 

> »ng. Huetii.6. ' ' . ' * - ' '' 

» (1T44 (»i) a] As to ? + iraiipiria, omiiied by error in 1736 but placejl 
in note there, it will be shewn that John may be wriiin^ with allution to 
Mk viii. 32 w. TiyXityof {\i\u (omiutil by Mt.-Hi.) or even in paralMsni 
to Mk a» given by SS and *. See 1917 (i) ibll. 






§ I . PatafMisms vtrjr /(w , ,, 

[1740] In this list, though larger than that of words 
peculiar to Jrthn and' Mark, only one word will Ix: found 
marked f, and that with a query, namely, ^Ijiia, "judgment 
scat," concerning which John says that Pilate " sat down on a 
judgment seat" just before he said to the Jews, " ])ehold your 
king." Matthew has "While he was sitting on the judgment 
seat, his [i^. Pilate's] wife sent unto him..." Then follows 
the mention of her dream, of whiqh John makes no mention. 
The word occurs frequently in the Acts to mean the 
" platform," or " tribunal," of a judge, so that it might well be 
used by the twp Evangelists independently. The absence of 
the article, however, in John ("<» judgment seat ") may indicate 
that he is calling Attention to a fact that might pass unnoticed 
by readers of Matthew'. 

(1746] The reader will notice the large number of asterisks 
|«Jenoting that Matthew and John the same word in 

■ [17iB»] Comp. ]mefk. Belt ii. 14. 8, where Floru* erect! "o 
libun^l" and then cncities a number of Jewj in front of it. Pil»te may 
live first " sat on Me tribunal " in the Craetoriuin (as Matthew says) and 
ay bave then had a spicial "Irihunal" set up in Gabbatha for the 
aipo'C o' ^""l decision. .Surh a course would Ik all the more natural 
I the Chief Priests (}n xviii. 28) would not come into the I'raetorium to 
ar his decision. The Article is iifterted before t^^ when used in N.T. ■ 

olutely eUcwherc^Acts x'i. :i, <viii, 12, 16,. 17, x"- 6, lo^ 17 

." a6$ 


different senses, as where the former use* iupfdr to mean., 
•'with a liberal hand,", but the latter to mean "without a 
cause." So ffp&irK in Matthew means "rust," but in John 
"food"; and ti/o; means in Matthew "price," but in John 
"honour'." Kor.thc mcst part the words in this list tell us 
nothing of interest. For example, Xa>iVa(, f>. "torch" or 
"lamp," is connected by Matthew with the V'irgin.s that go 
out to meet the.JJridegroom and by John with the soldiers 
that arrest Jesus: o-^rpvo, ■■' frankincense;" in Matthew refers 
to the offering of the Magi to the infant Jesus, in John to the 
act of Joseph .of Arimathaea and Nicodeinus placing the 
Lord's body in the tomb. 

[1747] It will be found suggested in one of the ftot-notes 
(1762/r— -/) that, when John applies to Jcsu.s the wOrd 
tcpavyiil^a, " ciy aloud," — used by some authors to -xpean 
"scream" or "cry in terr{>r" — he. may be possibly atludin§^to a 
tradition peculiar to Matthew, who quotes a iaying of Isaiah 
." He shall not cry aloud" and who uses xpavydl^ia in his 
|)eculiar rendering of the prophecy.. But this is a conjecture 
that would need support from many other Johannine pas.sages 
or allusive tendency. There is greater probability in the 
hypothesis that Joiin's version of the naming of Peter, "Thou 
s/m// 6f calUd Cephas, lohich is by inlerprttation Petros [i.e. 
Stonc\" was written with allusion to the tradition peculiar to 
Matthew " Thou art Petros [i.e. Stone]." But this hypothesis 
' IB not based on anything in the list given below, it 
.does not rest on any word peculiar \fi JjDhn and Matthew. 

§2, " tight of the world',' " my brethren" 

[1748] Taking the list as a whole we find no one word, by 
itself, as to which John can be .said with confidence to be 
alluding to Matthew. But the two words making the phrase 
^&^ Koa/MV, " light of the wor/d,'^ stand on a different footing. 

■ In the Jn-Mk list only one word (ntfyii) was tlfui marked. 

■'■.•:■■ 266 ' 



In Matthew, our Lord says " Kr are the light of the world "i 
in John, " / am the light of the world." h has been maintained 
in an earlier part of th[s series (486) that Matthew la in error, 
and that John, when efhphasi^intj the doctrine that Christ ts 
the Light of the world and that other people /lavt the light, 
was not writing without some allusion to this corruption, 
peculiar to Matthew, namely that Jesus said to the disciples, 
" Vt are the light of the world." This appears extremely 

~ [1749] Another combination of two wot;ds peculiar ,to 
Matthew and John is the phrase "w/y'Ar^/Arffi"" iir€hriHt'« 
words after the Resurrection'. ^Atat^w says that the 
women, when the risen Saviour met thcptj "/ooi hold of his 
feit" arid that He said " Go back, bear word to my brethren 
that'lhey go away into Galilee'." ; In John, the Lord .says to 
Mary Magdalene " Touch me not, for I have not yet ascended 
to the Father : but go to my brethren and say to them, I am 

' [174B<i] Mt: V. M "Ye are (v)i«'« •'»'') '*< '<?*' '}f the ■^'orlfl!' It 
has bt-en thcwn (435> that this might be an error, either through Ok or 
through Heb.' corruption, for "^* have the light of the world." Both 
J«with and Christian doctrine woufd teach that the saints arc (Phil ii 
I5)"''ghl5," or (Jn v. 35) "lainps,"but no\" the light" : and Do authorit> 
has been nljegcd fpr the view that even il^9 collective body of the saints 
■could receive this name. No other Synoplist supports Mt. in his version, 
and Jn may not improbably be writing allusively to ii, and with the 
purpose of tacitly correcting it,, in the following passages : (i. 8) " Me 
[i.e. John] was no/ the light," (viii. 11, in. i)" I am the light nf Iht tunrU," 
(xii. 35) "Walk (R.V.)' while ye have tlie light," xii. 36 <R.V.) "While jr 
have the light believe on the light that ye may b«come soiis of light ' 
That a body of men should believe themselves to be a collection of 
" lights " reflecting the Light of the World, difl^crs radical!^ from the 
doctrine that the same men should believe themselves to be " the Light of 
the World" : and Jn appears to be protesting against the latter belief 

• [1749 o] This is tq be distinguished from ilk iii. 33—4, Mt. >ii 
48 — 9, Lk. viii. 21 "my mother and my brethren," where our Lord gives 
a spiritual interpretation to "my brethren.' The only other instance 
(Chri.) of " my brethren " is Mt. xxv. 40 (in parable). 

* Mt. xxviii. la 




' ■ I I I ... I t 11 — ■ — . ' — '[ ,« 

ascending unto my Father and your Father and my God and 
your God'." The tradition of Matthew uses the' "took 
hold," which ^n perhaps read as the imperfect "began (or, 
wished) to take hold"— the action being thccked b^ the 
words of Jesus," Do not touch me'.'-' Luke omits all mention 
of. this manifestation of Christ to women. Mark's dospel 
breaks off just before, it. The MarkrAppendix, which ukes 
up the narrative, simply says that the Saviour "appeared 
(^^1^)' first to Mary Magdalene." There is a very strong 
probability indeed that Jt)hn here, writing with allusion to ^c, 
narrative peculiar to Matthew, wishes ( I ) to retain the 
beautiful tradition " Go tell iny brtlhrtn " a.s part of the first 
utterance, of the ascending Saviour, (2) to indicate that the 
■womtn did not "take hold" of Mis feet'. 

' JBM. 17. . " 

' [1749^] Even Thomas i> not represented in Jn as actually 
"touching" or "taking hold of" the risen Saviour. The Apoith: it 
described as being invited 10 "reach ''hit "hand-'' Hut apparently he 
believes without this evidence (Jn u. 29 " Itecaiue thou hau sum thou 
hast believed ! "). . '. ' , 

■ [1749r] 'K<^»7 is here used for the more cUmmfon «f(^. It is also , 
used in Ml. i. w«,ii. 1J,19, but with nor' hap,i' in a dream." In tjt. i«. 8 
•'Hkiat it^>"i it is without «ur' iv^. It is also applied to the shining of a 
sta^(Mt, ti. 7) or to a character bright at a star (ChiL ii. i }). 

' [1749 </] "My brethren" might be interpreted literally by tientile 
readers ignorant of Christian vocabulary. In Mt, K* readt "the 
brethren." The Johannine conteit, "my Father and your Father," nukes 
it clear that the brotherhood i!i spiritual. In Acts i. 14, " his brethren " 
means James and Jude etc because preceded by "hit mother.'' 







. i»i ■ 





[ITBO] <Ur^6t 

. a. 

4wrif- • 




?+ »}»«■• 


* M^it' . 


' 5 ■ 

[1781] • J-^J, («lv.)» 







■4ri>7i'Vfu>*r '. 

' ". 1 

', [1788] .povyiCp" 


*•!«« . 


■ [ITSOd,] An aatcriak attactinl to a word denotu chM Ml. and Jn 
lise il in diflerent lenKi : t denotci Ihai the jvord not only haa the lame 
meaning in Mt. and Jn but also occurs in parallel passages. 

'Bi/in, "judgment seat," Ml. xxvii. 19 "/*^ j.," Jn xix. 13 "a J." See 
1748. ' , 

> [1780<i] Mt. "nist,"in Jn "food." 

• [1780^] Atifxio, " I thirat," in Mt. xxv. 35, 37, 41, 44 means physipal 
thirst, in Ml. v. 6 "hungir and tAiril afttr righUouttitst" (where Lk. vi. 
ai ha> merely "hunger now"); Jn Jn, the woman of Saiharia interprets 
Christ's, " shall never thirsl" literally (" that I may not t/iiril"). Apart 
from'Miis dialogue, th^ word is never usedjiterally in the Fourth Oospel, 
Ainless it be in xix. 28 where it is printed by W.H. as a quotation. If il fs, 
the men! likely source is I's, xlii. 2 "My soul is atlliril" (not as W.H., Ps. 
Ixix. 21). In that case the meaning weulfl be spiritual as well as literal. 

• flTSl a] Au/ndf (adv.), in Mt. x. < {Us) " freely," in Jn xv. 25 (quoting 
Ps. XXXV. 19) "without a cause," "gratuitously." 

• [1781 *J 'tXtCttpat, in Ml! xvii. 26 "the sons are'/r«,° Jn viii. 33— 6 
'tyo shall become /r/c...the ,Son shall free {{knti^uvji) you. shall be 

/m.' 'E«x'«, Ml. ix- 1 7.1' spill" (Jn it. i; "pour out" money) may be 
regarded at-Lk. v. 37 ^«xvi"<>ff<ui and is therefore omitted abovb 
' 'Efi^rifn,** manifest ' vh., see 1716 A. 

• [1781 <^] 'Evra^ulfa, "embalm," Mb xxvi. 12. The parall. Mk xiv.8 
has irra^itiTitit. Jn has the n. paraUel to Mk (1734/), and the vb. xix. 40 
"as it is the custom to embalm " not paralL to Mk or Mt. . 

• 'tinatm, in Ml ii. 8, x. 11, "ascertain"; in Jn xxi. 12, "question." 
'* Korifyi'v/u, in Mt. xii. 20 (loosely quoting Is. xlii. 3) "a bruised reed 

he ifiall not hnai' ; in Jn xix. 31—3 of " breaking " limbs. 

" [inSo] igiavydC*, " cry aloud," is used eight times in N.T.' Seven 
of these are (a) Jn xiL 13, of the multitude shouting " Hosanna ! " (^ Jn 
xviii. 40, xix. 6, 12, r5,.^cts xxii. 23, of the multitude clamouring lor some 

^ ■': 




one't death, (•:) Jn xi. 4J " He critd aloud (itpaiyaatr}, Unaru* ■' [Come] 
out, hither!" i 

[179S^] The remaining instance is (</) Mt. xii. i<) " He shall not strive 
(«^trft) not* ay aloud ioiii KfMvyaati\ nor shall one hear in the streets his 
voice,' quoting Is. xlii. }'''He shall not cry^ nor lift »/, nor cause to be 
heard hisivoice in the street." LXX renders "lift up^' (as though it were 
"lift (the burden «f sin)," i.i. "forgive") by <i»7<r«i, *' forgive "—as in Is. i. 
14, ii. 9 (and frtq.)— having oci ««^d^«rai (A xpii^nu) ov^ arifoti. Mt. 
quotes Isaiah's context in full as illustrating Christ's waidimce of publicity 
in His acts of healing (Mt (ii 16 " He rebuked tMB that they should 
not make him manifest "). Perhaps Mt. takes " cry ""iS " cry, or summon, 
to arms," a meaning of the Niph. (Gcsen. 858 A) : but Kimchi and Ibn 
Ezr. (ad toe-) explain it as denoting the loud harsh tone used by a jud^ 
in order to impress his hearers with a sense o&/au^^prity. SyHA'rSa^' 
stitutes " f hall bedeceived (<'fairiiTi;tfi»«Tm) " fbr "llffT*«n error UHllng 
from Hebrew confusion. 

[ITSSi-] These facts indicate thaf there were early difficalties in 
interpretiiig the Isaiah passage, and that there would be, toward the end 
of the 1st century^ different views about applying to the Messiah either 
«/»{• (LXX) or KfSiyi{u (Mt.). Kfxivydfai, in O.T.. is used only in Ezr. 
iii. 13 of a multitude crying aloud with mingled feelings ; and Alticists, 
when not applying it to clamouring crowds, would probably use it (as 
Plat. Xip. X. 607 B (in poit. quot.)) of a "yelping" hound, or (Demosth. 
Ctmi'p. 1258, 26)' of a drunkard ''yelling." Phrynichus says that Kpavymr- 
}i6t (for KiKpayft^) is ilUicrate. Kpictctus applies tpavyaiu (apart from 
the discordant cry of u raven (iijii. 37)) to shoutini^'in the theatre, crying 
to Caesafr for help, and to a bad-tempered master bawling at Kis slaxes 
. (iii. 4. 4, 22. 55, 26. 22) — in all cases implying w^ant of self.control. 

[llStd] For these reasons many Evangelists would shrink from 
applying itpACvt^ and stilt more Kpavya(<*, to Christ. But Matthew extends 
his quotation of Isaiah so that it might be read thus, " He shall iu>/ cry 
a/fud... until he bring Jbtlk judgmtnl to victory.' ■ This might mean that 
Ike " crying aloud' did not take place tilt Christ s death when He m'ercame 
dtath upon the Cross : and Matthew, though he does not use K^wayi^ in 
connexion with the last cry, uses there the kindred word (xxvii. 50) 
iipdfot, alone among the Evangelists. 

[ITIKIr] Olivers might take the view that both ««>d(a and <fjavya(a 
were forbidden by the words of Isaiah to be applied to the Messiah : and 
neither of these wovds is applied to Him by Mark o^ \M\ut. On the 
Cross^ Jesus is described by Mark as ^lA* <^w^ ^Myo'Af; or d^tic ^f^v 
^ryoX^K, by Luke as ^pmvitaas *^wv,9 l^ya^Hi hut not as ^^Cfying' or 
^Urying aloud' . r 

[176il/] John takes a diflereut course. He represents Jesus as "crying 
(>/»(•>)" in solemn announcements of doctrine (vii. 28,57, xii. 44) thrice. 






•Ml. Jn 

[ITU} fixrri,* 


pvvtrm-* • 

oil fiMor^ 
[ITM] wpuia' 



• irrpunrot* 

•^ tr^vpfo" 


bul not on the Cr6u, where the limple worts " uilh " or " laid " are Hied 
(xix. 16—30 Xiyit-tlnty). But he applies " ery a/eidd (ipalydfa) " to (he 
(ingle occafSn («i. 43) of the raising of J^iarus. Then, too, Jesus " ««pt " « 
wid "troubled himself." Perhaps the Evangelist fell that the Messiah, ''A,. 
who could Hfithrr "weep" nor "cry alomP* for Hi* own sake, mighrttes ' t 
riahtly described as " crying aloud ' fur thupke of Laiarus, His " friend^ '" 
whom jfie " loved." y , ..' . -^- ' . 

• M«#w» (*pu), "'w^ satisfied with wine," pr "Intoxidated." tit Jn 
ii. 10 " when they int drunk fretly (pass.)," not so strong as in Mt. xxiv. 
49 (act.) (parall. Ll^M 4^ iu0wrKtv6ai). « 

' Mxmic, "full," in Jn always literal, in Ml, xxiii. 18 metaphoiy:al. Kj 

• Nwr<r«, " pierce." See 1766. *-«i^ 
» Ov itmor, "n^'j^nly," in Mt., only in x».'if" JVtt'oH/y the [worHar^ 

miracle] of the fig-tre« shall ye do." \ 

• Ilffwiriit, " superabundant^" Mt. v. 37; 47. t* Jn «. 10 "that they 
may have life (,{"•!') »nd have it suptrabundaHlly ^wt^utnip)'' the adj. is 
used adverbially, a usage of which instances are given in pi. itifHaiti, and 
also in sing, conipar. liipurampow (by L. S. and'Steph.), but ho instance 

of WtfHOVOV. ' ^ '.,"*. 

' nXfvpa, "sideh Se/ITM. \ . ' ■ ' 1"^' ■ ■ 

' noXvrifuic, "pi|Mious,''Mt. xiii. 46 "ompfKieitifiM''fa'xH. 3 "of 
nard pistic (1736(/)l/*>rrfo«i.'^ 

' npmuif "early,! ipa being understood. In Mt, xxvli. 1, Jn xxi. 4, 
irpMtar d( (}n + ^lln)\yMvofii¥tit (Jn yti'OftMvfii) occurs to introduce (m Ml.)- 
the morning of the ^ci6xion and (in Jn) the manifestation of the risen 
Saviour to the sevenjdisciples. 

'• [176«a] lui., i" Sion," (|uotcd'by Mt. xxi, 5 and Jn iiik.<f 5 ftoin. 
Zech. ix. 9, see 1468fl and 1767.. 

'I It\tiitot, "hard," Mt. xxv. 24 "a ^ardnaa," Jn vi.6o "th* saying is 
iard." . ■ ' 

" liiiimi, " fi-ankincense," Mt. ii. 11, the gift. of the Magi to Christ in 
the cradle ; Jn xix. 3% the gift of Nicodemus to Christ in the tomb. 

" l^paylCu, "seal," Mt. xxvii. 66 "sealing" the stone of Christ's 
sepulchre, Jn iii. 33, vi. J7 metaph.>" attesting." 

A.V. 271 , , ,9 



[1785] »nm' 




(Ml. jfn 

■ ' 5 

"' I I 



[17S6] Two inferences may be drawn from the facts given 
above. One relates to the three words with [[i]] opposite to 
them, J^x*)' **<"">< 9fd itXtVfia, "spear," "pierce," "side." 
They all come from one passage, found 'in somr of the best 
Greek MS.S. of Matthew, and given by R.V. in marg. thus, 
"And another (efWo? ik) took a iptar and pierced hi a tU t 
and there came out water and blood*." .Thesg^resemble the 
words of John, " But one (aXX.' Ai) of the soldiers with a sptar 

, pitrcid'Vvi side and there came out straightway blogd and 
water*." Matthew places the piercing before the death, and 
gives no explanation qf it ; John places it after the death, and 

^ explains that the soldiers had received orders to kill those 
.t^ho were on the crosses. If the passage wae originally a 
part of Matthew and was omitted by the Syriac and Latin 
versions of its inconsistency with "John, we should ' 
then have to suppose that John (on the hypothesis that he 
knew Matthew's Gospel) was here intervening to place the 
piercing it] its right order,^s having occurred after, not before, 

- '.,:.••:-: '^ A ., :'. V [' : 

' Ti(ifl, in M«. xxvii. 6, 9, " prici;" ; In Jn iv. 44 " honour." 

* [17Hit] Tpaya, "<at," ill Ml. xxiv. 38, "citinK (Kfuttonously]'' ; in 
Jn alic. in good tense (exc. xiii. ig (quot. Ps. xli. 9, bul LXX VsA'ai')) of 
spiritual "catintf." * ., 

' 'YmiiTiiiric, "meeting," Ml. \viii. 34 (siorcism), xxv. 1 (p*nbl*^^^ 
V^VfixtirAii tit »:. ]a Xli. r} has the tame phrase in the Riding intol^ 

* *opi», "wear," in Mt. xi. 8 "they that ■uvar soft clothing" (parall. 
Lk. " in glorious raiment and luxury"),Jn xix. ; " vHoring the crown of 

* Mt. xsvir. 49. \ •JpiihtJ* 



Christ's death. But had he done this; he^ould not— so far - 
as we can judge from the list given above — have used 
Matthew's exact words. Regarded as an intervention of 
John, the phenomena would be unique. Regardefl as a 
q^^iless and misplaced interpolatioh from Johanninc tradition 
(in which perhaps the Johanninc AAAtIC was tal<en as AAAOC) 
the insertion in Matthew is fairly explicable. 

[1767] The second inference is of a more general character. 

■ It is derived- from the fact that we find only one word marked 

?t, but many words marked •• ; that is to .say, when John 

- haJDpens to use a somewhat rare word peculiar to Matthew, 

he frequently uses it in a different seivse from Matthew's, and 

^__^most always in an entirely different context'. The word 

2»«)i> is marked ?«• That is because it is quoted both by John 

and by MatjJlew from Zechariah ; and it has been shewn abnve_ 

(14S6<?) that John actually .ventures to differ from both the 

prophet and the Evangelist by omitting the word "meek." 

- which is an integral part of the prophecy. In tjiis list, then, 

there are (practically) none of the agreements that we found " 

in the John-Mark list. Consequently, when We come, later 

'. on, to a number of passages where John agrees with traditions 

* reported identically by Mark and Matthew (but not by 

Luke), it is a.reasonable inference that John's real a/rreemeiit 

is with Mark. John's agreement with Matthew "is most 

reasonably explained by the fact that he and Matthew are 

borrowing from identical pa.ssages of Mark. 

■ [1767 n] It i< fair to add thai Mt. and Jh agree in applying the word 
Xi't to melaphorical "loosing." But thfcy never do" parallel cnntemi, 
even where il inifht be expected OBIT—JO). 

273 ' '9—* 

C^' ' -'*' - 

-■' ■■':.:-■• 

' '.. ■»''.' . -. 


,7 .''-:■.■■■'•.■■.'- 

.-. ' " •■ ' - 

•■>■' ■'^■i' '• 

/-. /. '/ ■• :-. 

•;'•'■■' •'■ 



A y.-'-v. 


WOSDS peculiar to JOHN ANO. LUKE 


\ I. Aniectdtnt frobabUity 

[17S8] Luke is recognised by all as having not only 
written in his own style but also confpiled traditions in - 
various styles, the differences between which are clearly per- 
ceptible. This may be seen in the Pauliifie, Petrine, an(d other 
portions of the Acts. It is also manifest in his Gospel, 
which contains (t)a short Preface in Attic style, (2) a History 
' of .Christ's J^irth and.Childhood in Hebraic style, (3)8 History 
of Christ's acts and short saying in which he agrees largely 
with Mark, (4) a Collection of Christ's longer sayings (inclu- 
ding the Lord's Prayer, U)e Beatitudes and th/;ir context, etc.) 
in which he closely agrccshvith Matthew, (5) a Collection of 
parables in common witA Matthew, (6) a Collection of 
. parables and other traditions'>peculiar to himself, in which a 
variety of styles is manifest, (7) an Account of the Passion, 
differing in style and matter from those of Mark and 
Matthew, (8) an Account of the Resurrection quite different 
in subicct-matter from that in-Matthew, and differing in style 
from Luke's own History of the Jlirth and Childhood. 

[1769] A compilation of this kjnd, even though revised 
by the compiler, and in parts |)erhaps rewritten by him, would , 
naturally have a wicier vocabulary than a book written in one 
style. Hence we may naturally cxi>cct Luke to include a 
large number of words that would be indejHiBdentty employed 




by any educated evangelists at the end of the first century, 
though not used by Mark or Matthew. ' We should therefore 
expect to find the "John-Luke" more numerous than the 
" John-Matthew " and very much more numeroii;! thM0he 
"John-Mark " agreements, but — in view of the instahcc?wherc 
John supports Mark against Luke's silence or deviation — to 
find also that the number of words marked f , as being paral- 
lelisms between John and Luke,.is very smalL ■ ■.• ,.^ ,. , •,. 

§2. The fact - ' ; 

[1760] The fact hannonizes with this expectation. The 
list of vefbal agreements is very long, and would be longer 
still if we placed in it some words that belong rather to 
grammar than to vocabulary' and will be mentioned later on. 
But even when the word is rare, there is hardly ever any strict 
parallelism in the context. " Napkin," for example, in Luke's 
parable, wraps up a talent, but in John it is used for entomb- 
ments*. " Breast," in J.ukc, occurs twice to describe " beating 
on the breast " ; but in John it refers to the disciple lying on 
the breast qf Jesus"! 

[1761] Such parallelUir^ as there ar^ witl be found to be 
confined either to Luke's Single Tradition,,or to the Double 
Tradition of Matthew and Luke. As to this, it was pointed 
oyt above (1400) that Jcthn sup|X>rts Luke against-JVIatthew 
in retaining the apparently harssh precept about "hating one's 
own Kfe*." .■\nother instance, will be given from the Double 
Tradition (1784 — 92), where Christ's appellation of the dis- 
ciples as " my frieijds," which occurs in Luke's version (but 

' ^ITM o] For example, funf ii common to all the Go«p*lai but ^mk 
ravrn is peculiar to Jn-Lk. Nvv (Chri.) ii almost peculi&r to jn4-k. n^c 
after verb» of "speaking" (ejcc. in the phrase "to one another") is prob. 
peculiar to Jn-Lk. See 23MMnS (vi)//, and 2366^. 

'- Lk. xix. 2o, jn xi. 44, xx. 7 irovJUfMor. 

\ Lk. xviii. 13, xxiii. 48,- Jn xiii. ];, xxi. >o or^c. 

< This, however, not being ii word but a phHue, does Dot appear in 
the lilt below. 

,': ■;-*^■V-^..^^;V■,»/!l^.■ ^,fe^f;:...; •■ ■>:' '^ 


not in Matthew's), is repeated by John. Luke's Single 
Tradition describes the Saviour as coming after the Resurrec- 
tion and " standing in the midst " of the disciples : a similar 
phrase is used by John. These are about all the parallelisms, 
strictly so called, that can be Tound between John and' Luke. 

I J." Quasi-paralUU 

[1762] Other instances, however, occur where John and 
Luke use the same»words, and these rare words, in describing 
events that are apparently not identical though similar. For 
example, the word iniinavu, " wii>c," is used by both writers 
in describing the Anointing' of Jesus by a woman. Luke 
says, "with the hnir of ha* head she bti^an to zvifif (his feet]," 
and again, "with her hair she wiped" them. John speaks of 
Mary the sister of Martha as "the one that wiped his feet 
with her hair,'- and afterwards describes the act,-".tAt' wiped 
with her hair his feet." Hut Luke, in the Anointing, calls the 
woman "a sinner," and speaks of Mary the sister of Martha 
eLsewhere, without any suggestion of identity. 'Commentators 
are divided, and have bcei» from- vcr>' early- times, In their 
attempts to explain John's agreement with. Mark and Matthew 
in their general account of the Anointing, but with Liikc in . 
this detail. For the prcsetit' it must .suffice to say that the 
phrase in the two Gospels, although apparently not referring 
to the same event, appears nevertheless allusive in the later . 
(John) to the narrative contained in the earlier (Luke). . 

[1763] " Di.sembark," d-iroficUvm, occurs in l^ukc's version 
of the Calling of Peter on the l^ke of Gennesaret'. In this, it 
is said that Jesus " saw two boats standing by the lake but 
the fishermen had disemborked from them " ; Peter, one of the 
fishermen, had "toiled all night" and "taken nothing"; but, 

■ The (Mint will be ftilly ditcuttcd in The Fourfold Gotpet (M« 
Preface above, p. ix). .' Lk. v. 3 foil. ^ 



at Christ's command, they let down ^heir nets and take such a 
multitude of fishes that " the nets were breaking." According 
to John", Jesus, after the Resurrection, "stood on the. beach" 
and called to the disciples who "in that night had caught 
nothing." At His command they cast the net on the right 
side of the ship* and take one hundred and fifty-three great 
fishes, yet "the net was not rent." It is after catching 
this draught that,- according to John, "they disembarked 
on the land." 'Xtroffaiva, though frequently thus used in 
classical Greek, nowhere else has this meaning in the'Greek 
Testament Old or New'. Hence this single verbal coinci- 
dence would suffice to claim attention : but when it is com- , 
bined with the similarities m the context, the total cflTect 
suggests that John is writing allusively to Luke's tr.ulition, 
or, at all events, that the twv traditions are in soiii^ waj' 
related. . * 

' Jn xxi. 4-='9. - ^ 

< [1763 o] There is nothing in Lk. parall. io Jn (xi.6 "cut yoarnttcm 
he ri^it side of .the ship." Hut in I'l. Ix»ix. 4 1 " the ri^tl (lit. the 
DUth) " is rendered **si'a'^ in LXX by Hebrew confusion. Comp. Uc. v. 4 
put out into the if^/p and let down'your nets for a' draught." 

' [1763 A] In LXX, it isfreq. and means ''turn out," " prove to be," 
id it means this in Lk. xnl. 13, Hhil. i. 19. " Disembark "->'f<rp;[iifuii in 
Ikvi. 34, Mt. xiv .44. These fact; make the J n-Ut. 'agreement some- 
what more remarkable. 



;■.,," . _;>,;• 


— -r— - — -— 



■ ■,-:W- i^ 

■ '. f' '■:-.-, ■■:■ '" 

:;;ijt. jn 

• aywviXo/tai* 

: V-/'!1- . *.'• 

'■■:.,i«*t(t ;■■■•. v.. 

■4 > 

dXtf^tvos*. ' 

' -. ■t-./.r'- 

.V'VUp.i*:. .",./■ 

. i 2 



ft diro*ilV»». ,■ 

■'',■- *-., ■ ' 


iptSfiot'- ■■■■■' 

I I 

(l(>XI>i^«* (J«w.) 

4 3 

' [1764a,] An Asterisk denotes th»t the same wordis used in drffcrent 
senses by jn and LlcVj^.^ tty«»>i'fo/iiu, Jn "fight," Lk. " Strive (to)." No 
words are marked f, because tlfere is no certain instance of parallelism. 
?f denotes a qua^i-parallel context. 'O06wto¥ and napaicvKTtt occur in' 
a passageifnclosed by W.H. in double brackets, which will be discussed 
later oivcHOB- 1804). 

' 'Aym¥i(oinuy in Lk. xiii. 34 " Stnw to cn^er" (parall. Ml. vH. 13 
"enter"). Jn xviii. 36 *'My officers would s/riiVt" i.e. Jff^Mt. 

^ [1764a] 'Adiicui, "unrighteousness" which in Lk. xiii, 27 is parall. to 
Mt. vii. 23 avoftia, occufs, ID jn, only in,vii. 18, ^' this man is irue and there 
is no unri^hteotistuss in him ".: but it is also in 1 jn 1. 9, y. 17. For the 
most part jn uses "darkness," or "lie," to express " ufirighteousnesl" 

*"'AX»^iir(Jr, "true,"/./, genuine, Lk. xvi. 1 1 , see 1727/— 1. ^ 

* [1764^] *Ap>Mar, Lk. iii. 2 "In the hjgh'priesthoQd.ory^Affa^ and 
CaiaphasT That of Annas ended (fi'/r*-. "Annas") a.d. 15. That oT 
Caiaphas tasted aj>. 18—36. jn xviii! 13^24 explains that Annas was 
the father-in-law of Caiaphas, and leads us to infer that lie at all events 
occasjon^Iy exercised tht civil authority of the high-pricMhood, since 
ChristS captors (xviiL 13) "led him to Amnai Jirst}\ 

* ^kmiKiyu^ Lk. ii. 34 "a sign spoken against" Jn iix. 12 "^ speaketh 
agaittsi Caesar." 

' 'Awo^*^, "disembark," see 1763. ' , 

« 'Apirf/wf, "number," Lk. xxii. 3 "of the numbtr of the- Twelve," * 
jn vl. IQ "in numbfr about five thousand." * 

* [1766a] *A/}x>>*'r<c (of the jews), mentioned in the sing, by Mt. ix. 18 
"a [certain] ruUr^' where parall. Mk v. 22, Lk. viii. 41 indicate that 

'h& was a "^^ ruler of the synagogue." But, in the pL, Lk. xxiii. 13, 35f 
XMV. 20 refer to members of the Sanhedriji (there is nothing to in^KSte 
the meaning in Lk. xiv. 1). In J[n vii, 26, 48, xii. 43 it probably means 
members of the Sanhedrin, and Jn iii. 1 "'Nicodemus...a mltr iA the 
-K^ Jews" is subsequently represented as taking part in the dflibetations of 
tli^>^anbedria (vtL %\). 

■ ■:.■-■.»•■ ■ ■ ;47!»\- ';■/ " ,>\„i ■■■-?■..■ 



■• Lk. Jn 

•/Sa«.' » I I 

[1766] ffovXiioiuu ■'-' k ^ 

ffp^im,' ■■■':, V,l. 

yiiTW ' ■ ' ^ ' 5 .J J 

[1767] yvmnit' .-'■; '^ - ;»:• 

duidfJW/u ;■-*'* ;?'. * 

•Sm' ■ " ■ . ■'■• ■».. j-.i" ■ 
[1768]?t.'«piinn.' ' .i*' S 

•'»«<i8« ^ I ■ »^* 

ivTiv9tv - 1 -J 

[17«9] ;f,y*.^» v ; <■ \i' 













4W0lt% ■ ■;. - 


< Batf»(, ''deep,'* Ul ucii^ I ^Arr^ (lit dttp) dawn," jn Iv. 1 1 ''the 

well i« ti^f^** 

* BdirrMf " dip-," Lk. xvi. 24 " that he should <&/... and codi my tongue," 
Jn xiii. i6 {bis) of Jesus *' dipping " tMc sop. - , ^ 

> Bpaxwi-, "arm," Lk- i. 51 " He hath shewed strength with his armi* 
(quoL Ps. Ixxxtx. 10, or xcvlii. iX Jn xii. 38 (quoting U. liii. 1), "To whom 
hath the arm of the Lord fcen revealed?" 

* rvwcrrof, "acquaintance," Lk. ii. 44, xxiii. 49 of the '''■ acquniniami*' 
of Christ's parents, and of Christ, Jn xviii. 13, 16 of the beloved 
disciple as being an *''' lUquaiHttxnce of the high priest." 

* rpa^/M, in Lk. jtvi. 6, 7 "Take thy bond^' Jn v. 47 " his \i,e> Moses's) 
turitings^^ vii. 15 " Mlw knoweth this man leUtrsV 

^ • Eidttc, " appearance," Lk. iii. 32 " in bodily appearancf^^ ix. 39 ** The- 
apptarance ofhis face became different," Jn v^ 37 " Ye have neither seen 
his [f>. God's] rt/Z/^rrtrtf^." , ' ■ *"" 

' [1768 «] 'K«fui(rir«# Bp^W, "wipe with hair," occurs in Lk. vii. 38, 44 
and jn xi. 2, xii. 3, concerning the " wiping; " of Christ's feet with the hair 
of a woman described by Lk. as "a sinner," but by Jn as Mary the sister 
of Laiarus (1702). Jn (aii^^^lso uses the word Concerning the "wiping" 
of the feet of the disciplSby^rist. % 

■* 'E^irtfiirXif/u, "fill." Lk^i. 53 "The hungry he hath/ZA-rfwith good 
things," vL 25 " Woe unto you, O ye that a^xtfillid now," Jn vi. 1 > *' Uut 
when they [/^. the 5000] ynttt filled^'' 

' 'Eriovrdr, "yea^" Lk- iv. 19 (Is. Ixi. s) "the acceptable f*«r of the 
Lord," Jn xi. 49, ji,ftviii. 13 "the high priest in that^f'ar," i.e. Caiaphas. 

" [1768 i] ■£»'#«*»', " before the fac» of," *in ihe sight of," In Jn, only 
in xx. 3f> ";nany oner signs, therefore, did Jesus in the sight of the 
disciples," comp. Lklxxiv. 43 "and-he did eat in their sight {i.- ai/ritp)." 
Jn is probably red^rikg to manifestations, like that in Lk, xxiv. 43, pf the 
risen Saviour, "in Jfc sight o(" the disciples alone. 

'EfirWo|iair*rcUte," " dAcribe." Lk. xxiv. 35 " they itescriM that 





U. Jn 



• ffViRffl/MH* 

i - 2 

" l/UiTIVIu!** 

' ». ■-■ Tct 

' 4 

HAWM*" < 

3 -, *| 

[1770] «v<X.h.* 

' ••» 

.'■•.". «v(Mof, A* (Jesus) 



"^•'4 "S:! 


. .,■:- t. ' '■' 


* \m 

. \ \nvnrii%* 

•■ A>':' \ ■ 

" •X.yJf.Hu* . 

' ■•1 

[1771] XiJir,'* ■ - 

;,'./■■ -l*. 


J ■ ' i^'l 

/Map«iW« •' 




. -■ -' V ■ • 

i', — '-ii - :,. '..'i.. 

■ '' ... -i \\ M 

whictfhad occurred to them in the iray," lY.ihe appearance 6i the risen 
Saviour, Jn i. i8 "the only begotten hath t/tsitidfi f h\m" i.e. God, whom 
"no man haih seen." 

1 'EriKfi^i in Lk. v. i, xxiii. 25, means "to be pressing upon, or 
importunate," in Jn'xi. 58, xxi. q ** lying on tbe^op of/' 

* 'I/iaruTftut, "clothing," Lk. vii. 2$, ix. 39 ; Jn xix. 24 (quoting Cs. jtxiL. 
18 "pn my vesture they cast lots"). - 

^ ' KoXirof, "bosom," Lk. vi. 38 "good measure... into your dosom" xvi. 
2Zt 33 of Abraham's **bosotH^" Jn i. 18 "the ^osom of the Father," xiii. 3^. 
" in the bosom of Jesus." 

* Kv«XcNM, "surround," Lk. xxi. 30 "Jerusalem surroutuied \»y armies," 
Jn X. 34 " the Jews therefore mrrountied him," i.e. Jesus. 

* Kb/Moc, D, *'thc Lotd," meaning Jesus {not in vocative}, see 1779-'-81. 

* Sayx^^^y "draw lots for," "obtain by lot," Lk. i, 9, Jn xix. 24. 

^ AttCu/Mr, i'k. xvi. 20—5, Laiarus the beggar; Jn xi. 1—43, xii. I— 17» 
the Laxanis that was raised ffom the dead. -^ 

" Afvri'rffr, " L^vjte," Lk, x. 33 in the parable of th« Good Samaritao* 
Jn i. 19 "priests and Levites." 

* .\nyifo/Mu, "^kon." "consider," in Lk. xxil. 37 (quotirtg Is. liii 13) 
"he was reckoned" in Jn xi. 50 "nor do yc consider." 

'• Auiri;, "sorrow," Lk. xxii. 45 " He found them sleeping for sorrow^^ 
Jn xvi. 6, 30—33 in words of Christ, concerning the ** sorrow" of the 
disciples at the thought of being parted from their Master. 

", [1771a] Moptfa, in Lk., only In x. 38, 40, 41 ; in Jn xi. 1—39 (tb« 
raising of Lazarus) and xit. 9 " Martha was serving (AurKuvo)," which 
corresponds to the noun "service" in Lk. x. 40' "M. was districted about , 
much seniice (JtoKorta*')." 

" [1771^] Ma^(^), in Lk., only in x.,39, 43 ; in Jn xi. 1—45 (Utc 
raisipg of Lazarus) and xii. 3 " Mar). ..anointed the feel of Jesus." Uk. t> 
39 describes her as "sitting at the feet of the Lord," and Jn xi. 3o at 
' "sitting in the house. '*^' 
. " Mtpnm, in Lk. XX. 37 "Moses indicated in the passage about the 
bush," in Jn xi. $7 "if any man knew. ..he was xagii'e information.'' 









• ftoroyn^r* 


.«ii«, ■ 

, 6e»YiOP* 






«X^(ii;t (of Chrisi; 

l» I 





• XiXvafi' 



ffT^tfot - 2 '• 





. Lk. 


" I- . 

I. ■„ 

J or J 

■ Moroytvigc. tk. vii. 13, viK. 4}, ix. ]8 of "an only child" ; JA i, 14, 
18, iii. 16, 18 "the only begotten" Son of riod. ^ . 

' [1771c] Nuaui, "conquer," Lfc 'xi. 22 "Uut when the man that 
is stronger than he shall come against him and, lOH^uer him," Jn xvi, 33 
"He of good cheer, I have conqutred the world." la the rest of N.T. 
rncftM occdfs only in Kom. iii. 4 (quotation), xti. 31 {bis\- 1 Jn (6,, Kcv, (14 

' 'Otfiirior,." linen banclage," perh. in Lk< Mv. 1*1 see 1796. ISM. 

* Jla^nKvirrM, " sloop (?) and look into," like Moviar in last note. oCcurs 
perh. in Lk, xxiv. I2,see 1798— 180*. 

" [1772 </) nX^(i^t "full," applied to Christ in Lk. iv. 1 "/»//of1he 
Holy Spirit," Jn i. 14 lof ihe Logos) "full iif grace and truth." Ilolh 
passages occur at the outset, where the two Evangelists are describing 
Christ's'%ntrance into public life. ^Jotli might"naturally be written with 

* some reference to contemporary d^||($sions about the n^anner in which 
(Col." ii. 9) " the (uiness of the (iodhead dwelt 'Mn J esus " bodily." Luke, 
who uses the expression " bodily " in connexion with Itie- " dove," might 
interpret the "fulness" as referring to the Holy Spirit descending at 
baptism. « John miglit sec the "fulness" in the human, yet divine, 
" graciousness and truth," i.t. probably " kindness and truth." manifested 
in the incarnate Logos and imparted by Him to men. Acts \i, 24 ** fall 
of the Holf Spirit " is appliedio Barnabas (coinp. Acts vi. 3. vii. 55). 
If Christ's disciples were" commonly described .is "full of the Holy 
Spirit," John may well have considered that Ihe "fulness" of Christ, at 
the outset of the Gospel, needed a different description. 

* • [1772 A] Ilpdirfrv, in Lk., (iii. 13. xix. 33) *" /-.tvit-/," elsewhere (xxii. 23, 
■ xxiii. 15, 41 bis) "do \eviIY ^ In Jn iii. 20, ^-^i.Xfi m^attmv opp. 10 iii. 21 

i 8^ wtumv nj> iXi\6t\av : in Jn v. 29 ol rh iya0a jriHtjiraprfr precedes 01 tu 

^tfXa wpifavrtr. Comp. Kom. vii. 19 ott yip b fi/Xt* worn i^ntuf^ dXXn.& 

tA 0^u KaKov rovrn wpiwu. 

' liXviifi, " Siloam," Lk. liii. 4 " tower," Jn i«. 1 " pool." 

' ZvvTi'^f/iai, "agree," Lk. itxii. 5 "they 'agreed to give him [Judas 

licariol] money," Jn i)c. 22 "The Jews had ngrted" to cast out of the 

synagogue any one that professed belief in Chrisi. 

• [1774 a] Xamg^ "^ayioiir," Jn iv. 42 "'This is indeed the Saviom of 




{1778] iwoiuiiyllirKl 

U • Jn 
4 I 
» S 

raJ^ittt 2 

v/iiripos , . . I 
It ^iK(n (not appL 

to Christ)' 14 



!♦' ■■ ■ 

tAf ivorU" This remarluble utterance ts assigned to .Samaritans. 
"Saviour of the world," in N.T., occurs elsewhere only in i Jn iv. r4 
" The Father hath sent his Son [to be the] Saviotir of Iht-world," Lit. 
has i. 47 " My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour,** and ii. ii *' There 
was born for you to-day a Saviour,** 

' [1774*] XoinMHo, "salvation." On Jj iv. ii " Sj/Jvaliom is from the 
Jews," see 1647. In Lk., it occurs in his Introduction i. 69 — 77, and in the 
stor)- of Zacchaeus Lit. xii. 9 " to-day hath sahmtioK come to this 

•» [1774 <■] TiXtiiW, "accomplish," or "perfect," occurs tn Lk. ii. 43 
'• when they had accompliiluti the days," Lk. xiii. ji " on the third day I 
am to be perf/iieJ (Tt\»miiuu).** In Jn iv. 34, v. 36, tviii 4; it is used pf ihe 
Son " perfyctinj; " the work 'appointed by the Father.. In xvii. 23 "that 
they all may \>c per/ii led iaio one," it describes the unity of the Church. 
The last instance is xix. 28 " that the Scriptuce nuy be aicompliiked.*' 

' [1775 rt] ♦iXor,-" friend," occurs once in Mt. xi. 19, applied 10 Christ 
(parall. lit Lk. vii. 34) **friend\i\ publicans and sinners." Apart from this, 
it occurs, in Lk., in the Discourse of Christ where, after the appointment 
of the Twelve, Jesus prepares them for persecution. Ml. x. 24, 28 omits 
'(fiends," thus; "The disciple is not above the teacher.. .And a be not 
afraid of them that kill the body." Lk. separates these precepts, having 
(vi.'40) "The disciple is not above the teacher," and, much later (xii. 4) 
•' Bal I say unloygUy [MHg\ my friends, be not afraid of them that kill 
the body." John, in the Last Discourse, has a division similar to that of 
Luke, first -(Jn xtii. 16} "The bondservant is not greater than his lord, nor 
yet an apostle ^ater thjin he that sent him," and then (Jn xv. 14, 1$, 30) 
" Ye are my fritnds, if ye continue doing that which 1 command you, 
N'o longer do I call you bondservants,. .but 1 have called you fHends,... 
The bondservant is not greater than his lord : if they persecuted me, they 
will also persecute you." . ., 

[17754] This then is one of tW few passages where Jn follows a 
tradition found in Lk. aloni!, or rather, in Lk.'s version of the Double 
Tradition. Uutijiwhercas Lk. wraps up a great deal in the apposiiional 
phrase "you, [being] my friends,** Jn shews both why the disciples are 
henceforth to be called friends and what ihey must be prepared for, as 
the consequence of the title. On this tradition, and its origin, ice 

iTM-gs. - 




Xapit' >■■ ' 






.§•4. '• Son 0/ /fsefh" .. "'v 

[1776] In addition to the single words above mentioned 
there are several phrases of great importance peculi&r to Luke - 
and John*. Foremost among these, in Johanninc orrfer, 
comes (i) "Son of Joseph" applied to Christ. j"hcre ar<i 
also (2) the above-mentioned application of " the Lord " to 
Jesu^ in narrative ; (3) "sons of light" used in both Gospels 
by Chriit ; (4) " my friends" ^plied by Jesus to the disciples; 
(5) " Jesus... jtojrfiM the midit" describing Christ's manifesta- 
tion after the Resurrection ; (6) the combination nf the rare 
words " glancing into " and " linen bandages " in a description 
of what was seen by a di.sciple in Christ's sepulchre after He 

■ *«ri(«,"enlighten,''inUL«i.;36inasiniile,ora''VaM/"; Jni. 9, in 
a metaphor, of "the true llskl." " 

• [1778 f] Xd/jit, "grace," Lie. i. 30 "thou hast found jfriKc with Ciod," 
at the Annunciation, ii. 40, 52 of the -"grace" of (iod on Jesus as a child 
and as a youth, iv. 22 of the words of " grace " from His mouth, vi. 32, 33. 
jM^ht-tt I/lank have ye?" xvii. 9 "Uoe> he give liniikj)" In Jn, it 
occuKof (i. 14— I7)"^a« and truth" (*« distinct froiik" Law") cominf 
to man through the incarpatc Logos. . " . 

' [1778i/] 'Of, "when," occurs'(i5) in Jn with aorist (incl. Ii')—* ■ 
frequent meaning in LXX. Except in «ix. 33 (where *»t occurs in 
parenth.) Jn always has hi, or «iv, before, or after, vr " when." With 
imperf. (xx. 11 f^Xoi*!') ft means *^while" ("wAiy*- she was weeping'"*. 
On Jn xii. 35-6 {dis) see WOl. 

[1775;] The number given above (15 or 16) in Lk. excludes xxiv. 31 
(Wj)(R.V.) "v{/iih" (with impcrf.)r,xii. 58 •'whilt thou an going," xx. 37 
" when (or, since) he calleth." In Lk., *tr never precedes ovf, and it :never 
precedes h4 except in Lk. v. 4, Jii. <2. Mk-Mt; prefer «ri (t.g. in Mk li. i, 
Mu xxi. I, contrasted with Lk.Tix. 39 itt). 

* There is also the tradition about "hating one's own Kfe" wflich has 
been discussed above (1400) as a specimen of Jn's allusiveneis. ItMcuts 
in Lie's version of the Double Tradition, (in fiaiTTa(u aravpir, sec 1792 j(. 


had risen — a passage certainly genuine in John, but bracketed 
by W.H. in Luke. Each of these requires separate discussion, 
and they will now be taken in their order.- 

• [1777] ■ Mark >and Matthew say that when Jesus visited 
"his own country," people in the synagogue. said " Is not this 
the- carpenter," or, "the son of the carpenter?'" Luke, relating 
a visit to "Nazareth where he had been brought up," makes 
the people in the synagogue say, " Is not this [//«•] son »/ 
Joi(/A}'" John gives no such utterance in his account of out 
Lord's visit to Galilee where He quotes the proverb about "a 
prophet in his own country'" : but in his account of Christ's 
Kucharistic teaching in the synagogue at Capernaum* he 
makes the Jews say " Is not this Jesus tAf son of Joseph whose 
father and mother we (emph.) know." " Mark and Matthew 
agree with John in mentiOniAg or implying "mother" (Mk 
" the son of Mary," Mt. " is not his mother called Mary?") and 
both add a. mention of Brothers and sisters : but the names of 
the brothers vary. 

■*[177B] At the outset of tKe. Gospel, John represents Philip 
as saying to Nathanael, " We have found him of whom Moses 
in the Law-wrote, and the Prophets [wrote], Jesus [the] son of 
/«<•///, [Jesus] of Nazareth*," Natharthel raises no objection 
except on the ground of ' Nazareth," and almost immediately 
after\vards confesses Jesus to be " the i>on of God " and " King 
of Israel." Thus John's narrative brings Nathanacl's belief 
in "the son of Joseph ' as being also "the Son of Go«l," into 
contrast with the unbelief of the Jiws in "the son of Joseph" they "know" His "father and mother." Luke 
certainly does not believe Jesus to h»\'c been "son of 
Joseph" any more than he believes him to have been 
' ■ • , - • - ■ • -t 

> Mk »i. 3, Mt niiff 55. 
' Lk. iv. 31 oijfi uinf i&Ttv *I. oftos ; - ;, '. 
' JnW.«-4. < Jnvi._59- '' ' 

■. ■,■_'• *-Jn vi. 41 oix^ offiit itrnv '\. ^ vlot 'I. f 

• Jn i. 45 .'li^Ci" uloi* roC 'liMT^ rit- i^i N. 


I — — ■■ ' i 

bom at Nazareth. It is the Jews, according to- Luke, that 
are in error. The Jews call Nazareth (Lk. iv^ 23) "thy 
country," Luke cajls it ('Lk. iv. 16) " Naiareth w/iere Ac was 
brought up" : and similarly Li|^e intends us ^to believe that „ 
the Jews were deceived about'is being -"th< son of 
Joseph " and that Jesus did not undeceive them. John seems 
^o'differ from. Luke on both points. But in any the K^eat • 
error of the Jews, according to John, would .seem to hiave 
consisted in their imagination that the Soi\ of God could not 
be" incarnate in a man wiMse '' father and mother " they 
"knew." We cannot, however, say that John is here alluding 
to Luke's particular phrase, " son of Joseph," for it must have 
b^h the subject of many controversies before the end of the 
first century, and John may be alluding to these as a .whole; *■ 
differing from Luke's view of the controversy, but not referring*' 
specially to Luke's language. 

'm'.- ' § 5- "T>ic ^^rd" intaniug "Jtsui'i , l /: ' . , 

!|W■■^l ■ . ■. •'■•' v.i'. .'■ V. 

[17791 In Evangelistic narrative — ^strictly so called, i>. 
excluding speech of any kind as well as the speech of Christ 
— "the Lord" means "Jesus" about fourteen tinlcs in. Luke' 
and five times in John: and there is a great difference between 
th<i two in usage as well as in frequency. In Luke, for 
example, this title introduces the raising of "the widow's 
son at Nain ("and when t/ie Lord saw her he had compassion 
on her") and' the sending of the Seventy ("J>Jow after these 
things- t/ie Lord appointed seventy others ") and. Chriat's 

' [177Si>] Lk. vii. ij, 19, X. 1, 39, 41, xi. 39i >ii. 4>> xiii. 15, ivii. ;, 6, ^ 

xviii. 6, xix. 8, xxii. 61 {bis), comp. xxiv. 3 r^ ait^ .[[roO KvpiW *lif<rovn. 'f^ 

Some Latin Mss., as well as itAD, have it (SS "our Lord") in Lk. xxii. ' - 

jl. In xii. 4>, xvii. ; (if compared with Mt. xviii. ii),'xiii. 6f, there is '; 

mention of Peter in the context or in parallel Mt. In Lk. ntii. 31, if : ■' 

genuine, it precedes an utterance of our Lord to Peter. ' - ^ 



definition of the Taithfuj steward (in reply to a question of 
Peter's) " And Jhe Lord said: Who then is the faithful and 
■ wise' steward...?" Luke .also describes John the Baptist as 
sending disciples " to tlu Lord" ; Mary, the sister of Martha, 
as *■ sitting at the Lord's feet," and " the Lord" as gently 
rebuking Martha. In all these cases, the phrase containing 
" the Lord " is an integral part of the narrative. 

[1780] But this is not so clearly the case in John e.g. iv. t 
"When, therefore, 7Af Lord knew. ..he left Judaea," where the 
sentence might be regarded not exactly as narrative, but 
rather as comment intended to explain the situation and to 
prepare the way for what was done. Still less can the phrase 
be called "integral" in vi. 23 " Howbeit there came boats 
from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they ate the bitad 
after (he Lord had given thanks" — which R.V. prints as a 
. parenthesis, being indeed a parenthetic explanation of the 
'situatiqn. So, too, in xi„ 2 (R.V.) " It was that Mary which 
anointed the Lofd with ointment," the sentence is not a part of 
the narrative of the raising of Lazarus (which immediately 
follows) but a parenthetic definition of this particular Mary 
—since there were others of that name. There remain xx. 20 
"rejoiced at seeing the Lord" and xxi. 12 "knowing that It 
was the Lord." Both of these may perhaps be explained with 
reftrence to a previous mention of " the Lord " in speech: In 
the former case, Mary had on that same day come to the 
disciples s.iying " I have seen the Lprd"^ and bringing a 
message to them. Then when Ho appeared to them they 
rpjoiccd that they too had "seen the Lord." In the latter 
case,' the beloved disciple had just said to Peter (xxi. 7) " It 
is the Lord," and the narrative-proceeds, " Simon Peter, having 
heard the words'" 'It '\s the Lord." Afterwards, when the 
disciples were convinced ,that this was true, the Evangelist 

' Jn xxi. 7 Jn is prob. equival. to inverted commacs, or "the wordi 
(ai89-«0). ■ 

;•:■- '286, ^.":--., 


not unnaturally records their conviction b)!^ a repetition of 
the same phrase ("it is tlu Lord"). Or perhaps the meaning 
may be "knowing [and saying to themselves] 'It is the Lord.'" 

[1781] The fact above noted (1779 o) that some of the ' 
passages in Luke mentioning "the Lord" are connected 
with Peter, deserves- to be studied along with the fact that 
the fragment of the Gospel of Peter speaks of Christ % " the 
Lord," and by no other term; and this, before the Resurrection. 
In that fragment. He is not called " Jesus," even by enemies : 
they cannot, of course, call Him Lord, but they use. the 
personal pronoun or leave a pronoun to-be supplied', 
in a passage where Luke has "The Apostles, said td Ihe- 
Lord, 'Increase our faith,'" .the preceding verse in Luke aUput 
" forgiving seven limes " is parallel to a'passage in MattneW 
in which Peter asks how many times one must forigiva^a 
brother'. Most of the passages in Luke are peculiar to 
Gospel : and they give the impression of having been taken 
from some book (perhaps containing the teaching or preaching 
of Peter) in which Je.sus was habitually called " the Lord" 
There is no ground for thinking that in this point John 
alludes tq Luke or imitates his usage. * 

§ 6. " Sons of light" , . / ' 

[1783] Luke has, in the Parable of the Unjust Steward, 
(xvi. 8) "The sons of this world are, for their own generation, 
more prudent than the sens of tlu light." John has (xil. 36) 
" Believe in the light that ye may become sons of light." In 
Luke, " the sons of this world " would naturally take, as its 

' [1781 <i] Evan);. Pet. ^ 1 " Herod the king commands the Lent xa 
be taken (iriip[aXi|/i]^7kai)...§ 1 Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the 
L0ni.^.asktd the body of Mr /.(>n/... Pilate sending to Herod asked for 
Ais b«dy...}ferod said. Brother Pilate, even if no one had asked for Aim 
we should have buried Aim..." 

' Lk. xvii. 5 "increase our faith," preceded by xvii. 4 "if seven times 
a day he sin," which is parall. to Mtt xviii. It foil containing Peter's 
question f" until seven times?"/ 

A. V. 287 20 


antithesis, " the sons of the world to come," of which Wctstein 
and Scho'ttgen give abundant instances while giving none of 
" the Sbns'of light." But the occurrence of '' sons j>f light " and 
"children of light" in two of the Kpistles' shews that such 
expressions must have been jn early use arhong Christians. 
The Book of Enoch contains several kindreil phraSfes, in- i 
dicating that " light" will "not only "appear to the righteous" 
but will pass upon them : " The light of the I^rd m spirits is 
seen on the face of the holy and righteous and elect " ; it also . 
classes " the holy ones who are in heaven " with. " the elect 
who dwell in the garden and every spirit of light "; and 
it speaks of " the spirits of the g;ood who belong to Iht 
generation of light^" 

[1788] Matthew and Luke record Christ's doctrine that 
" the light of the body is the. eye," but they say nothing about 
"the light of the soul":'and some readers might infer that 
ea«h man's " light " belongs to himself, instead of being the 
Light of the World accepted by each through the eye of the 
soul. Mark does not mention the word " light " except 
as that of the fire at which Peter warms liimself. On the 
subject of spiritual light he has nothing except a sentence or 
two about a " lamp." Yet the ...three Synoptists say just 
enough to shew that our Lord must have said a great deal 
more about the "light" that "the Lord of spirits" imparts » 
to men. There were many reasons why He might prefer the 
Enoch metaphor of "liglu" to the metaphor subsequently 
adopted by the Talmudists, " The sons of the world that is to 
come." The latter might be restricted to the future and to* 
those who should hereafter have risen from the dead. The 
former might be applied, as St Paul applies it. to living 
Thessalonians and Ephe-sians, with the practical precept. 

' I Thess. V. 5 " Ye are sont of light and sons of day," Epli. y. 8 " B«t 
now are ye light in the Lord, walk as cUlttren of tight.' 

' Enoch (ed. Charles) xxiviii. 2 — 4, Ixi. ij, cviii. «i. These extnicta 
are of different datei but all (it. p. 33) " befora the beginning of the 
CHrisiian era." .'•... ■. 

• •' ■■ ■,-;■;■ 288 .. ■ :■ ■■- :.-^ 



" Walk as children of light." There: is not the slightest reason 
to think that John, in using the phrase "sons of light," is 
referring to Luke's single use of it. •-, . 

§7. •'My friends" ^ . r 
[1784] Where Luke represents our LonB^ saying to the 
disciples "my friends," the parall,el Matthew contains two 
prominent thoughts. The first is, that the disciple i» not 
greater than his master, so that the former ought to be 
prepared to share the persecutions endUred by the latter. 
The second is,' that the disciples must not be afraid of any 
earthly enemy, for he has no power beyond the grave. Luke 
and John separate the two', as follows : 
Lk. vi. 40 
"A disciple is not 
above hi« teacher, 
perfected shall be 
as his teacher..." 

Ml X. 24— a 
"A disciple is not 
above his teacher 
nor a bond-servant 
above his lord. ..if 
they called the Mas- 
ter of the. House 
Beelzebul, how 

much more them of 
his household (olnia- 
wivt) I Kear them 
nW therefore... What 
I say to you in the 
darkness, 5ay(eriniT€) 
tn the light... And be 
nol afraid of (aid) 
them that kill tlie 

xn. 3—4. 
" :.. Wherefore, 
what things ye said 
(fliratc) in the dark- 
ness sh.ill be heard 
in the light. ...^»/ 
/ Say unto you \bt- 
inf\ my friends. Be 
not afraid of them 
(accus.) that kiU 
the body. ..." ' ' . 

:" r. 

' ,Ki ' . * I '-»■ . 

v ■■■. ■.■■■ ,'--,• 

Jn xiii. 16—17 
"A bond-servant 
is not greater than 
hi's lord nor one 
tent (lit. apostle) 
greater than he that 
sent him. If ye 
know these things, 
blessed are ye if ye 
be doifig them." 
XV. 14—15, JO 
" Ytart myfritnds 
if ye be doing that 
which I coilimand 
you. No longer do 
I . call you Ijond- 
Msrvants.but I have 
called you frunds... 
Remember the word 
that I said to you. 
The bond-servant is 
not greater than his 
lord. If they per- 
secuted me the) will 
also persecute ^ou." 

■ Moreover, in.Lk. and Jn, the/"/ thsught has noihini; 16 dq wfth 
289 20-r2 


[1786] Here Matthew u^s first "bond-servant," and then 
" them of his household," to express the relation of the 
disciples to their Teacher. Luke, giving the words as two 
distinct utterances made at different times, makes jio reference 
to "bond-servants." nor ttf "them of his hqu.schold," but in the 
second he inserts, "/ say unto you \beiiig\ my fri<Hdj." John 
agrees with Luke in mentioning "■friends^' in the second 
utterance; but hfr disagrees from Luke, iind. agrees with 
Matthew, in retaining the word "hond-servanl." He represents 
■ Jesus as saying to the disciples, in effect, ■' I called you once 
bond-servanls, aad indeed it is true Wat, if their lord'l>e 
persecuted, the bond-tervaHti miist expecf>^ersecution: but 
now I call you my friends...:' 

[1786] In order to explain Matthew's onuo^ion of "I .uy 
unto you, my fnends (dat.V recourst -raly be had to the 
analogy of the Sermon on the Mount, where he frequently 
omits Ihtroductory clauses inserted, by Luke stating the 
» persons to whom, and the circumstances in which,, the ut- 
terances were severally made, he prefers to treat the 
whole as one continuous discourse. Moreover the Greek 
dative of "friends," following "to you," might easily be taken 
as vocative, and consequently as not very important.- Indeed, 
if " my friends " occurred in the Aramaic original, it may have 
very well been actually vocative, but may, have been inter- 
preted by Luke as implying a reason for not fearing: " I say 
unto you, my friends," — i.e. " since you are my friends," or 
"[being] my friends (^iXim),"^-" do not be afraid." This 
makes excellent sense, but translators might be excused for 
not rendering a vocative thu.s, ancf some, not seeing its force, 
might omit (he noun. 

[1787] This explanation however fails to take into account 
that Matthew here uses a word ("them of his household") 

persecution i the inference, in Jn, from "not greater than hi» IBfd," i» ( Jn 
xiii. t6— 1^) thai the disciple must serve his brethren as the Lord served 
them. ... 

H ..■•■-\ , • 

■■; a^o; •■ \- . ■ ■ : ■ 


that might be taken as meaning "relations " or "frunds and 
relations" — a word, too, that is' actually taken by him in this 
sense (quoting Micah) a little later on : " I came to set a man 
at variance against his father... and a man's (pes [shall be] 
thty of.his own household'." In Micah, the Hebrew is "men 
of hi.s house"; iii Matthew, the Syriac has "sons of his house," 
Either of these terms might well be rendered "friendj" {n 
Greek. Suppose, then, that a Greek Evangelist attempted to 
explain to Greeks the words jn Matthew, "A disdple is not 
above his teacher, nor a bond-servant tAynvc his lord... if they- 
called the Master of the House Beelzebul, how much more 
th* men of his 'house I Fear them not therefore...": might he 
not think it necessary to bring out the meaning of this 
ambiguous term " men of his house " ? This he might di> by 
calling attention to the fact that Jesus had previously used 
the term "bond-servants" and that this new term meant 
something different; "The Lord had before called them 
bond-servants hut now He call^ them friends, saying, I'ear 
them not..."? 

[1788] According to this view John is intervening In the 
Double Tradition in order to bring out the full meanthg of a' 
doctrine that he conceived to be partially, and imjibrfectJy 
expressed by Matthew and Luke; and, while adopting Luke's 
phrase " my friends," he throws the essence of Matthew's 
"version into the first person as the teaching of Christ, " I 
before called you bond-servants, but now I call you friends." 
A Greek \vould naturally take " bond-servant" as antithetical 
to " friend'." John perhaps regards •" bond-servant," not as 

, ' [ITSTa] Mt.x. 36 quoting Mic. vii. 6 "The Mir dishanourcth the 
father. ..a man's enemies are /Ae irun of his own house (LXX ol tv ry 
oUif avToi).' In the LXX of Esther, "frtemts (^Am)" is loosely used to 
denote the ianer circle of the counsellors of the King or of Hunan, 
Esth. i. 3, ii. 18, vi. 9 *' princes," i. 13 the " wise men that knew the times," 
vi. 13 "wi^e men." 

' [1788 a] This anthhesis would be familiar to those whom Epictetus 
uught to say (iv. 3. 9) " 1 via fret and a friend oj God' (comp. iii. }>. 

.-'•..' ■■ ■'■■ «9«'-': ■ ;.';.-. A' ".:■■■.'■•■ 



antithetical, but rather as ihferior, and -prf:paratory, to 
'friend." But that will be considered later on'. . 

[1789] It is possible, and indeed probable, that' our Lordj 
repeated more than once His doctrine of encouragement •■, 
under persecution; and a juxtaposition oi 'servant" and.'' 
"frund" occurs in the passage in which Isaiah, after describing 
the malcing qf an idol by "the cafpenter" and "the gold-- 
smith," encourages his countrymen in the name of Jehovah to 
■ refuse to conform to idolatry: "But tliou, Isratl my senant, 
Jacob whom I have jhosen, thc''.seed of Abraham (R.V.) my 
fritnd; thou whotp J have taken hold of from the tnds of the 
eatt!h...^(jr thoH m)t,,toT I am with thee'." This suggests 
a possibility that the doctrine of "friendship" with God, 
and of a di.stinition between Mis"//7V-«(/j" and \\\i"strvauts" 
may have formed a larger part of the higher Jewish teaching, 
and also bf Cl^rist's Gospel, than is generally supposed. 

9S and 14. 60). No^ improbably, John ha4 Eptctetu's iii view in another 
use of the word "friend." I'ilate, servilely Irucklinj; lo- Ihc Je«», |i 
intimidated by their cry ^Jn xix. \2) " If thou let this man go, thou art 
not a friend of Cttesiir" KpictefuA fretfucntly satirises the man that is 
ptoud lo call himself " a friend of Caesar " (a title rrsemblinR our " Kight 
Honourable" applied to Privy Councillors); (iv. I. IT— 14) "1 am of 
senatorial rank," says one, "and" 1 am i friend iif Carsttr, and I have 
served as consul, and I have crowds of slaves.,, VVKo can put constraint 
on me, save Caesar, who is Lord of all.'" To which the philosopher 
replies that, if this poor rich man can have constraint put upon him by * 4 
Caesar, he is, by his own confession, a slave, his only distinction from 
common slaves being that he i$v~**a slave in a lance housv-" Just so, he ; 
says, the servile Nicopolitana "have a way of shouting '//y Ctustn't 
fortune, we are free'' VI - ., , . ' 

' Jesiis says (Jn XV. 1 5) " AV /^rtt,vr rfo / (Vi/Z^ynw bond-servants^" which 
suggests that the " bond-service " was recognised by Him as a ludimeniary 
stage, and not condemned by Him as essentially bad. 

' [1TS8«] Is. xli. 8 ** Israel, my servant," LXX iriuf iimi, btit the other 
translators taiU juxi, "Abraham, mi friend" (Ibn E«ra, "my lover"), 
LXX &>%;ifyuirij«ra, Aq, ayantjroii fiov, Sym. Toii ^i\ou nov. Comp. 2 Chr. 
XX. 7 "the seed of Abfdham ihy friend," L.X.V aripitmi '\. ry liyawiiiLtftf 
*ov, 1./. " thy^beloved seed of Abraham," al. r^ ^' mv iftiXov. 



[1790] Take, for example, the following parallel between 
the' Fourth Gospel and Philo in which the essence, of free 
service is defined: ':""'■ >■ \ '"'.'■ v ■ ' ' 

Jn XV. 15 ■ . ■ Fhilai. 401 

"The ionti-strvtlat knoweth " For wiwlom is God's /ritnH 

not what his lord doeth: but ■ (^Xjiv...$tif) rather thin *»»</- 
I have oiled you friends ; for semanl (SoCXov) : wherefore also 
all things th«t I hearil from my [the sacred writer] says clearly 
Father I have made known un- about Abraham 'Shall I hide 
to you." ' ■^, ;[it]frBm Abraham my /n>W?"" 

, Philo's reference is to the p^sage in Genesis where GofI 
reveals His purpose of destroying Sodom. The Heljrew omits 
"friend," having simply, "Shall I hide from Abraham that 
which I do.'"; but the LXX has"frpm Abraham my 
strvmit" (iroi&lv, not " bond-strvant "), and. the Jei^iisalem 
Targum has " from hhrAYiam my friend'." Without stppping 
to investigate the origin of the variations in quoting from, or 
translating, Genesis, we may take it to be almiwt a matter of 
deroolistration that the imjjlictl Johanninc definition of a fret- 
servant, or friend, of a " lord," as one that " Ijnoweth what his 
lord doeth " is cnimected with the tliought of Abraham "the 
friend of God," which pervades Jewish literatureV and which 
has left its mark 4poii the most Jewisb of our Canonical 
Epistles'. ^ . •i-' ,.;,'. ; •■, .'..,„ '.-'■'•,';• 

, ' [ITflOn] (Jen. xviii. 17, I'hilo has M^ imtdki^m iylt awli 'a^^xu^ kiJ 
^"Xou /lov; where LXX has M7 upv^^nt Jyit ijir^ ^A^rav vailiii liov A iyi»~ 

' The Targum Has, for*'' friend," DTD, which closely lescmblea the last 
three letters of the preceding word " Abraham " (Om). 
• ' [1790 *] Jas ii. 33 "he was called Iht friind of OodJi From (he . 
Jews the name passed 10 the Arabians with such effect as to- supplant the 
old name, " Hebron," of Abraham's burying place, known in modern 
times as El Khalil, "The Friend." It would l>e interesting to ascertain 
whether Epictetus was to an/ extent indebted .to Jn^ish thought, or 
to Jewjsh expressioii (through Hhilo or other writcr<) for such sayings as 
that (juoted above (1788 n) " I ^mfra and ^ friend (f God, that I may 
willingly obey Him." ^ . 


[1791] These circumstances, no doubt, weaken the ' 
evidence for the view that John- in his doctrhic about the 
''friends" of Christ is alludinff to the DouWe Tradition, 
For they seem to shew that Jewish doctrine about "th<; 
friends- of God " and Christian doctrine about " the frUuds 
of Christ " may hive been ampler than we supposed ; and 
John may hive been describing one part of this ample 
province while Matthew and Luke may have been describing - 
another. Moreover, if the reader looks at the context .of the 
passage in Isaiah he will sec that therf is no anfilkcsis bthvim 
Israel the " servant^' and Aliraham t/ie ' l(n<er" of God. On 
the contrary, it is implied that because Israel is the true Seed 
of Abraham %\\e ',' lever," therefore he is the "«rtvi«/." The 
honourable title of '■' servant " is given to tl)e Messiah in the 
following words, " Heboid my servant whom I uphold, my 
chosen in whom my .soul delighteth'." Jews mi^t say "The 
'dlsttiil^ion between 'servant ' and ' freeman ' is not a true one 
with respect to God. We are all His servants. But some of 
us are His free and willing servants, others His slavish and 
unwilling servants. Wc recognise the dilTerencc ; but whereas 
the Greeks can express this in two' nouns, iraiv' and £oi>Xof, 
wc cannot, or at all events seldom do, in pur Scripture." 

_ (1792] This is perfectly true, and it confirms our hesitation 
Jii finding a real antithesis in the passage quoted from 
Matthew above (" A disciple js not above his tcacl^er, nor 
a botid-stniant above his lord..."). "Sond-sen'ant " nay h^ve 
been used by Matthew here as we have found it used (1789 a) 
by most of the translators in Isaiah where the LXX has 
"servant," to mean "a devoted servant" of God. The two ' 
clauses, then, in Matthew, are more probably parallel than 
antithetical, and John would be wrong in finding an antithesis 
in them. But did he find one .' If he had done .so, ^nd if he 
iia/i used SoCXot in the sense of " servile," of slavish," would' 

f' ' ' 1». xlii. I. 


he |iave introduced our Lord a? saying to the disciples, in 
effect, (}n xv. i S) " A'i' /ongtr do / fall you ' slavish ' or 
'servile'".} Much more probably John found among educated 
Greeks a misappreciatlon of the Jewish use of "bond-s«fvant," 
whieh had led Luke tb omit it in an imixirtant passage of the 
Double Tradition. And whore Luke omitted, there — as is 
frequent in matters of importance — John intervened '■ 

' [1792a] The conclusion thai Jn is htre atludint; lo Mt. x. J4— 5 <•> 
the Double Tradition is confirmed by the fact that elsewhere he secmi to 
allude to passages not indeed in Mi.'s context but in Lk.'s parallels to Mt.'s 
context. Mt. x. 36—7 says " A m,uf$ tinmiti (•')(*/>«■) \.'hM te] tkty of 
its kouuMd..^ that lo»eth father or mother above me is not worthy of 
me." The italicized words miffht be paraphrased ** A mitffs haters must 
te Ais relatidms," or, " A man must htUt his relations" I.k. xiv. 26 says 
"If a man cometh unto me and haleth not his muiyfather and tnothtr.,, 
yea, and his ovin life...\x cannot be my disciple," and we have seen above 
(1480) that John alludes lo "A<i/;«A''ff«A <«>'« /i/<^-" 

[1782*] The next verse in Ml. is, " Wliosoevdf takcth (Xaji/Wrn) not 
his cross." * The paral|. Lk. has " supporttth (jSo«rti4f «) his own (invrnv) 
cross." This last phrase .occurs nowhere else in the Synoplists, who have 
in thieir Triple Tradition (Mk viii. 34, Mt. xvi. 24, Lk. ix, 13) " I,^t him 
taJtr */> (dporu) his cross." In the narrative of the Crucifixion, no 
Synopiist uses the word "support," but the three— though not in exact 
agrecment—descnbe Simon the Cyr«nian as bearing the cro^raltogether' 
or in part, jn on the other hand expressly says that Jesus went forth 
(xix. 17) "supporting (lta<rrd(mi^) the cross /u»- himsel/ (jaiinf)." It is easy 
to conceive that such traditions as ** whosoever would follow the Lord 
Jesus must take, or bear, his'cron " may have been confused with " bear 
//is cross," and such confusions may have led Luke to substitute "support 
his own cross " (like St Paul's " each man must bear his own burden "). 
Others may have objected to this emphasis. John ma> have thought 
that so emphatic a phrase was best reserved for our Saviour Himself— 
especially in view of heretical legends that Simon not only bore the cross 
but also sufle^ crucifixion in Christ's place. .See 928(t)— (x). * 

[1792 tr] John's apparent interventions m the traditions about (1) "my 
friends," (j) "bond-servants," (j) "hating one's own life," all df which 
occur in a few verses of Matthew or in Luke's parallels, make it probable 
that he was also familiar with the phrase (4) " supjmrt one's own cross" : 
and the cumulative evidence increases the probability that he intervenes 
in the first three passages,, * . 

af»S y 


§ 9. "Standing in (4p or •»?) the midst" applitd to Jtsus 

[1793]- "In thf midst" gccurs in Mark and Matthew 
concerning the little child, whom Jesus " niadt stand (iarfiatv) 
in the midst of them [iV. the disciples] " as His representative*, 
and in Mark ard Luke concerning a man called by Jesus to 
stand " in the midst " of the synagogue, before being healetl". 
Matthew Has it in Christ's promise to be with " two or three " 
..of His disciples, "There am I in the midst of x\\cm" a tradition ' 
peculiar to himself, which is repeated at the close of his 
Gospel in a different form, " Behold I am xuit/i you'." The 
I Abolh says, " Whert ten sit and arc occiipied.ln words of the 
Lawthe Shekinah is among thnn, for it is sald,(Ps. Ixxxii. i ) God 
standeth in the congregation of the mighty. And whence [is 
the same proved concerning] even five ? Because it is said, 
He judgeth in the midst iX-W .iv niaif) of gods'." Thus, 
although Matthew does not mention " standing hi tlu midst" 
we .see that his doctrine about Christ's abiding presence might 
naturally be expressed fhus in Jewish. Tradition. , 

[1794] The Epistle to the Hebrews says, " He that is 
sanctifying and they that are being sanctified are all from 

' [17B3a] .Mk ix. 36, Mt. xviiT. 2 !imi<rfp nvrS I'l. ^laif niriy. The 
parall. Lk. ix. 47 has firn]trtv aiirii nu,t' lavr^ The action mtuht remind a 
Jew. of Deut. xviii. 1 5, " The Lord thy (lOit will cause to stand up for thee 
a prophet frttm tAt! midst .fif tkee% of thy brethren, like unto me." Samuel 
anointed Uavid ( 1 S. xvi. 1 3) " »;/ Ihc midst of his brethren." The Spirit 
of the Lord came on a prophet (3 Chr. xx. 1 5) " in iht midst oj the con- 
gregation." As the tree of life is (Oen. xx. 9) "in Iht midst i/the garden," 
and (Ex. viji. a) "the Lord in the midst oj the earth," so an impartial 
judge must be (metaphorically^ Ps. jxxxii. 1 "in Iht midst of" (R.V. 
among) those whom he judges, and a prophet (Is. vi. 5) " in the midst of" 
those to whom, or against whom, he testifies. (Ps. xxii. 22) V 1 wilt declare 
thy name unto •ay brethren, in II" miilst o/the congregation will I praise 

' Mk iii. 3 fyiipf (Lk. vi. $5 «" »Tii*i) •« r» /»'''». (Mt om.). 

' Mt. xviii. 20, xxviii. 20. ■ ■ 
"•* AboHm.')- . '' ■ ' 



tone. For this cause he is not ashamed to call them 'brethren,' 
saying, I will announce thy name to my brMhren: in thi midst 
of the congr):gation will I sing hymns to (vmH<"') thee'." 
This is Trom the.23nd Psalm beginning "My God, my Gnd, 
why hast thou forsaken me?" Justin Martyr, after quoting 
( Tryph. 98) Ps. xxii. 1 — 23 (including the words " in the midst 
of the congregation will I sing hymns to thee") says that 
Jesus " ^tood in the midst (iv fia^) of His brethren the 
A(:«ostles...and (?) spending the time •({1117101')' with them, 
sang hymns to God," where the (onteitt ("who repented... 
after He cose from the dead ") indicates that he does not 

..refer to the "hymn" sung at the Eucharist*, but to Luke's 
tradition that Christ '^ stood in the midst (iv lUtttf)'" of the 
disciples after the Resurrection. In the Apocalypse, "the 
Lamb" is .seen "standing in the midst of the elders," i>. in 

'the midst of the Church, or "walking in the midst of the seven 
candlesticks/' /./. in the midst of the Seven Churches; and 
the Oxyrhynchian' I^gia represent Jesus as saying " / stooti 
in the midst of the world and I. appeared to them in the flesh*.". 
[1796] Two Evangelists alone, tuke and John, apply 
the phrase "stood in the midst" to Jesus in their narratives. 

' Heb. i). II, quoting ft. «xii. Jt ' 

' [179t<|] Tryph. 106. ^tiyu a\iO mKim " nourish.' Comp. Acts 1. 
4 "being aisimiled together with them," marg. "eating with them" 
(fftti'fAi^ufMi'of) where Field rejects both renderings. If juftin refers to 
the period after the Keturrection, could he be reading, instead nf in<«iiXi{ii- 
IU¥ost nvtAaKa(6iu»ot} *AXtAa(u is freq. in LXX, and sometinics3i**sing 
in triumph," "shout in triumph." The act. and mid, fut. are interchanged 
in V. r. It might be supposed to represent the Heb. " Hallel." 

* Mk xiv. 26, Mt. xxvi. 30 itufijirovrtf i^Xfiovi not in Lk. 

* Lk. xxiv. 36. The Acts a/ /i/h»,'bovcver, says that before Jesus 
went forth to Gethsemane, He said (!| 11) " Let us sin( a hymn to the 
Father " and "placing Himself in the mit/st {<* i^tinf d« avros ytvoiuwoi) " 
bade them say Amen to His uuerances. 

' Rev. V. 6, ii. 1, comp i. 13, vii. 17. The passage in the Logia, how- 
ever, continues, "and 1 found all men eating and drinking...," so that il 
does not refer to the appearance of Christ after the Resurrection. It 
seems 10. describe the Incarnation. 


Luke uses iKnly once concerning a manifestation of Christ 
after tlie Re^rrectidn, to wliicli, as we have seen (17B4), Justin 
Martyr appears to refer. At the moment when the disciples 
were hearing the tidings " He hath appeared to Simon," 
•*miftenly "ye himself stood in tht midst of them." To 
convince them of His identity He said,'" Have ye aught to 
eat (/9paKrt/ioi>) ? " and ate some fish in their presence'. 

[17W] The Fourth Gospel begins with a i<indred ex- 
pression uttered by the Baptist, " There stan^th fast (rriiKti) 
midst (itivo^) of you one whom ye know no*'," words probably 
(as suggested above (ITSBi)). intended to have a mystical 
allusion to the pre-existing and all-supporting Logos. The 
next application of the adjective to Jesus is in the crucifixioii 
where John says that they crucified "Jesus in the midst 
(lliaov)'." Then, after the Resurrectioii, he says that Jesus 
"came and stood in (lit. to) t/ie midst'" and gave the disciples 
the Holy Spirit and the^power of remitting and retaining sins. 
On the next occasion, in order to convince Thomas, "comcth 
JesUs and stood in <lit. to) the midst'" But on neither of these 
occasions does He eat with the disciples nor they with Him : 
and for some reason or other, John uses the peculiar phrase 
" to the midst " and not Luke's phrase '• i« the midst of thtm." 
On the third manifestation Jesus "stands," but not "in (lit. to) 
the midst" : He "stood on (lit. to)-the beach " of the Lake of 
Tiberias. There He asks a question rendered hy R.V. in 
' terms similar to those of the* question recorded by Luke, 
" Have ye aught to eat (mpoa^fiov) ?' " . But this rendering 

' Lit. xxiv. 36—43. ' Jn i. 26. 

* Jn xix. 18. The Synoptists.'inention one nuUefactor on the "right" 
and another on the " leri," and i<) not use lUnt. Jn doel not here make 
these diitinctions of "right" and "left" 

' Jn XX. 19 JfXitr i 'Itirnt tei leni ch ri ^nr> 
' Jn m. j6. 

• [1798a] Jn xxi. 5 (R.V.). Field " Have ye laien tnyJSsJii" Field 
shews that fjjfr* ; regularly means " Have you [had] any [spon] ? " "Have 


TO }6HN and LUKE 


probably not quite accurate. And, instead of eating in 
beir presence, He "comes" to tliem and gives them the 
that He has provided. 

[1797] If Luke's Gospel was authoritative, or even In wide 
^itulatidn, at the time when John wrote; It i^ difficult to 
oubt that the latter wrote here with allusion to the former. 
Ind John's omission of all mention of (l) Christ's eating, and 
lis parallel statement that (2) Christ gave food to the disciples, 
ridicate that Ik believed the former tradition to have arisen 
Qut of a misunderstanding of the latter. 

J 9. "Storing (f) amt looking in" ' 

[ITM] We com* now to the two words distinguished by 
bracketed numbers. The passage wjiere they occur in Luke 
I enclosed by.VV.H, in doublp,brackets, thus : 

Lk. xxiv. iiHutj > ' 
'•[[But A|w having 
en up ran tollu tomb 
d, having stt^d (/) 
r looktd {mfnmlmt), 
uth Ifikiau) tkc lituH 
(Mo'rw) alone 
(jUhl): and he depart- 
ed to his home (<rp^ 
airoV) wondering at 
that which had corae 
to pass.]] .^nd behold, 
two of them were going 
on that same day etc" - 

" Jn w. J— II ■ ':• 

" There went out therefore Petfcr and 
the other disciple and they beganlo come 
to the tomb, ffut the two wererunning 
together. And the other disciple ran 
first, more (|uickly than Peters and came 
first to the tomb and, having slooftd (f) 
and loohtd (irapairv^at), he snih (/SArrii) 
lying [there] (xci/ura) Iht linen cloths 
(Mi>Ku>). Howbeit he entered not in. 
There cometh therefore Simon Peter also, 
following him, and he entered into the 
tomb : and he beholdeth (Snopii) Iht lintn 
thihs lying and the luipkin (which had 

you {caught] anything.'" i>leph. thews thki irptxr^Syui, is a low-clais 
word meaning lomething " eaten in addition [to tiread] " and hence, more 
particularly, i>i^iipu>i', " fish." K. V. seems to have taken it as " [fit] for " 
(ir(wr) "eating" (0oy»i»). The question arises whether Lultt (Miy. 41 
" H<nir ye aught to tat (Ixft ri ^(mviiuir) here?") has madq the same 
mistake. If so, !x"' interrog. ought to appear in the list of John-Luke 
agreements, marked with an asterisk. 




L4(. xxiv. i>— 13 Jnxx. J— II 

[Hoe followi the itory been upon hii heut) not lying with the 
of the ioumty to Em- linen clothi, but tpart, rolled up into one 
maut.] • place. Then .therefore entered'in the 

other disciple alto, he that came fint to 
the tomb: and he uw and believed.... 
The disciple* therefore departed again to 
their own h6niet. But Mary was stand- 
ing at the tomb outside weeping. While, 
therefore, the war weeping, the i/<M/a/(/) 
[ttini looktd] into the tomb.and beholdeih 
two angels....." 

iKkat does wapaKumm mean f 

[1799] napacvirrai is translated above with a query 
" stooped and looked,!,' nearly as R, V. But that is probably 
incorrect ■ In Greek of every kind and period, thi word is ap- 
plied to those who takt a rapid-^ut not nectssuHly eartUis — 
glanct at anything (1) put of a window, open door, hole of a 
cave, etc, or (2) in at a window^door, or other aperture. This 
is its meaning in- Demosthenes, Aristophanes, Theocritus, and 
Lucian'. Henc^ Achilles Tatius applies it to youth, which 
just "pteps up " and vanishei'. 'Hence Demosthenes uSes it of 
those who "givtjnst oiie glanu" to the affairs of Athens and 
then go about their own business: and Dio Cassiiis sayii " one 
cannot \a%tpeep at playing with emp^f and tHeH go lack into 
oti/s Mole'." "When the weather . Won't let us sail," says 
Epictctus, "we sit on thorns, perpetually ^?iiMfi»/f 0»/— which 
way is the wind •? " In LXX it means "glatuing out, or, in " 

> [1799 »] See Sieph. In Lu^ian't Index it is always used with fw'^i 
^d^, or lUKfiov (if we read wpo<tv^t tf Bptyn^ (for wapoKir^ai) in DitU. 
Mrr. 12, Vol iii. p. 313) "just glancing," " not even a gfante." ^,^ 

' Steph. qu. Acbill. Tat. ii. 3S iraiKui^ntr iiirm of^iTai. It is usetkof 
coy glances (Steph.) in Aristoph. Pac. 983, Tkesm. 797—9, Theocr. iiL 17. 

» Steph. Uemosih. 46, J7, Dio Gass. 5», 10. • Epict. i. 

1. 16 uoBiiiuBa anmiMViH k. wapatiwrofttv owf^Mf r^ Awtltot wvtit 

TO JOHN AN 1) LUKE [>•»]. 

..{iJtOic). In the description 6( Sisera's mother, urhd is 
perhap* conliMUmisfy \oSk\n\n out of the window,- Codex A 
substitute! iUKvmiv for B'.t vapiKv^tv'. . Phllo uses trapa- 
Kvyryu metaphorically, to note the absurdity of supposing 
that the " ignorant " can even "glance into, or, catch a glimpse 
^,'' the counsels of " an imperial soul'." 

[1800] The Epistle of St James, at first sight, appears to 
use wapaitvirrm, instead of irfinnrrtt, to mean, " looking con- 
tinuously upon," "peerini; intently into." But the writer is 
distinguishing those who. perceive their own faces ift a mirror, 
and go away and forget, from the man that first glancts at, or, 
calchet a glimpst of, the perfect law and then, abides by it, 
being captivated by its beauty: "Hut he that hath caught" 
a glimpse 6/ the perfect law of liberty and hath abode by it, 
not letting himself become a forgetful hearer but a doer of 
worit"— he will be blessed in his doing'." The Epistle of St 
Peter spieaks of "angels" as desiring to "catch a glimpse of " 
the developments of the mysteries of the prophesied re- 
demption of mankind*. The context here suggests, that the 

■ Jiidg. V. 38. Note the imperf., A alto addi n. tanimtarn, ' 

' [1799 A] Philo ii. 5S4 iroO y^p Toic>i%«riur wp^ lumfiov $ifus Wr 
^lAAvut^r ^vx^t mpati'^Nu fiov\<vfumi ; Uctc-npi''fuKpov seems to mean 
that they cannot glance into them^even "a little while before [their fulfil- 
ment].*' This is the meaning assigned to wpi /ux^ in Steph. (wpi) and 
in L.S. referring to Poll, i w. . 

[ITBBr] Philo frequently uses other forms of tiwrm,' mostly in 
metaphor, to describe the soul of man looking out, 'or up, or beyond, the 
bars of material nature mto tht* spiritual world e^. diaKiwTm,,liwtpKvifruf 
less freq, dviuvirTtti and tKKvwTm (Philo i. i6, 471^.478 ([it), 48% 570: ii. 
17 (lit.), 44 (lit.), 63, .8s, 19S, 299, 540 (lit.), 546, 6^. Steph. quoiei 
wpoKtnrrm of the mind (Sext. Emp. p, 441) "peering fffough the avenues 
of the senses as it were through chinks." 

' [1800a] Jas i. 35 i ti napamHrat <It fapm rAnor riv r^c wXivttplmi 
Kai iTopaptivas: Perh. the context implies a contrast. Those who " take 
cartjul Hale (nararafo)" of -thei^- faces in the glass cannot, s&mchow, 
remenriber them for a moment. Some, " catching a tture glimpse "' of 
the Perfect Law, abide, and cannok forget it. These •are blessed. 

• [IBOO^] I Pet. i. 13 >/c il cViAifiovffci'^ifyyfXiit wofwiS^iu. Hort 



" angels " are goo^f^STf he difficulty of deciding whether they 
are good or bad is illdstrated by the usage in the Acts of 
Thon^il^here the verb is used in consecutive chapters to 
descri^H|at, a spectator "glancing (or, peeping) into" the 
several torture pits of hell, and then the attempts of the 
tortured souls to "peep out of" th« cave in which they are 
Imjlrisoned'. l\ap€uciirr<a does not\ppear in any case to 
mcyn " stoop down and look at," " pore over," or " examine 
minutely'." \ 

[1801] The Gospel of Peter says tha|t^P^ women, finding 
the sepulchre of Christ opened, "approached and glanced in 
there, an'd saw there a young man sittinr in the midst of the 
gi'ave'." This may perhaps correspond/to LAe's description' 
of the women as " bending their faces tcT the eirth " when they 
see "two men^' after entering the to^b'; but it is also used 

assumes that the angels "look dovn from heaven" as in Enoch ix. i 
ViifW«u^> '<rt t4> y4''t hut this is. not certain, see 800. Hort says (ad he.) 
"When used figuratively, it (i.e. w.) commonly implies a rapid aii^ 
cursory glance, ne\ter the contrary. Hese, however, nothing more seems 
to be meant than looking down out of heaven." In Enoch, the word 
means that the 'angels, h^ng the cry of the oppressed come up to 
heaven, "glanced on the earth" and saw bloodshed everywhere. Im- 
prisoned "angels" (Jude 6) might wish vofMuvim* "peep oul" (not 
" in ") as below. 

' [ISOOr] Act. Tholh.'jj 53—4 "He caused me \o petp into (». tU) 
each pit. ..and pteping in 1 saw mud and wcrms—pripiHgimto which 
I saw souls.. .But many souls were trying le petp nil from it (iiMn 
tra^«vinm) wishing for a breath of air, but their keepers would not let 

them/fl^^ tf*/ (wapajtvirTfw)." 

' [IMOi/] This meaning is. reserved for^yivwra, Clem. R. tfiyuto- 
, ^<>r<r €ir r4 /UA) r^r ttim ynxrimt, 45 fir ri« yfx^c, 5J tit ri/kifia nu 
Ini, I'olyc. PUt. 3 (poring over (fi'i) the Epistles of St t'aul), Clem. 
Hom. iii. 9 (dat.) Scriptuivs. 

S [)801d] Evang. I'etr. 13 wptitri^^iru itap4Kv^av ittl *- 
* [18014] Lk. x»iv. 3 tlnXtovnt Indicates that the women had entered 
Ihetomb. Evang. I'etr. speaksof them as"havingipproached(rf»<'fXfi><<- 
mu)." Cou^ Lk. have understood jrofMiivwni as "stooping down"? It 
would be Ims improb. that he should have read it as irp«ivirrM (sec 
lT9Ba). . ^ . 




hy John to describe Mary as " catching- a glimpse (lit) into (<iV) 
the tomb" and.beholding "two angels." Finally, "to come to 
the John-Luke passage^ under consideration, Luke describes 
Peter, near the tomb, 9&" glancing in" and "seeing the linen 
cloths alone" and "going to his home." John assigns the 
"gtandng $n" liot to Peter, but to another disciple, who 
outran Peter. This disciple (John says) subsequently entered 
the tomb and " saw and believed " ; Peter also entered and 
saw, but is not said to have "believed." 

[18Q2] Although the two disciples have the same evidence 
before them, the Fourth Gospel here restricts tlie mentTon of 
" belief" to "the other disciple" {"At Mieved") implying that 
Peter did not "believe." It is not surprising that some au- 
thorities substitute "they btlieved'." But perhaps the earliest 
tradition taught that Peter believed in consequence of's 
appearing to him ("He appeared to Cepba^; then to the 
Twelve'") — whereas others had previously believed because 
they ha^ " seen a vision of angels' " or had been enabled to 
"catch a glimpse of" the mystery of the Resurrection, and, 
as St James says, to " abide * in the possession of that 
truth. It will be observed that the bracketed passage in 
Luke, though it gives such prominence to Peter as to mention 
no companions', nevertheless does not \siy that Peter believed, 
but merely that he " went away to his hpme wondering." - 

* SS, Chrys., and a comment in .Cramer tui he. ^'Codtx M, prob. by 
homoioteleuton, omits xx. 5 6 aitd 6, so th^t it makes no mention of 
Hher's enterini; the tomb, and then alters " ihef knew " to " he knew " for 
consistency. ,v 

' I Cor. XV. 5. • Lk. xxiv. IJ. 

' [1802 a] Contrast this with Lk. ixiv. 24 " Somi tf ikou itiik ui 
went to the tomb." " Tkost with kim" (and still more easily "thou with 
au") might be confused in Hebrew wtih "Simon!', And this may 
'explain Ign. Smyrn. jf 3 "When He' came 10 tlust vrilk I'tltr (i.e. th» 
Eleven)' (rovf «fpi Ilfr/iov).'' Hence we may explain conflations, and 
interchanges, of " those with him," ""disciples," "the tl«rtn," " those *iih 
Fcier," "Peter" ttc. Mary, or the women, biing tidmKS of the Re- 
surrection (Mk App. <I) xvi. 10) "to Uuu that had ieen wi/Jk Urn 





[1808] The inconsistency in Luke, who in the bracketed 
passage mentions Peter alone, but, later on, " some of those 
with us," as going tq the tomb, is an additional reason for 
supposing that the fo^er passage is genuine, and that Luke 
copied it vtrbatim from early tradition, not altering the words 
although he knew that " Peter," in such, traditions, oftetr- 
meant more than one| disciple, and although he himself implies 
more than one later! on. The bracketed words are omitfed, 
it is trua; by D,^ by several Latin MSS., and by other 
authorities : but almost all of these Mss. p/ate /oMh before 
Lukt in thfir pans, and, after writing John's elaborate 
account, the scribes pf these MSS. might natuftlly shrink from 
inserting Luke's account using the same rare words but in a 
narrative so curt and (as it would seem to them) so one-sided'. 
Moreover, in answe^ to those who maintain that the passage 
is interpolated in ^uke frxnn John, it may be urged that 
it is incredible, that Anyone but a heretic or a rejecter of the 
Fourth Gospel could interpolate such a truncated ami falsified 
version of John's consistent narrative, without even taking the 
trouble to reconcil^ it with Luke's later, statement {" some of 
thi^withus")- ■ ' ■■ ■ 

[1804] The most probable conclusion is, that the words 
in Luke are not an interpolation but an isolated tradition 
inserted by him inj hi^ Gospel,-as he found it, without attempt 
to explain its exict meaning or to reconcile it with other 
traditions, and that John writes with allusion, nut only to 
Luke, but also tp other traditions in which the rare word 

"li> those vrilh Peter^ (Lk. xniv. 9) "to 

(i.e. wHkJesH$\" (MIk App. (Ill 

the Eleven and the ^M." I'tth^^ 

^H^ the p*rall. Ml. xxviii. 7 "to- Alt' 
disctpUt") andin Lit. in. 33 " But Heter and tiau vtilA Urn." Note alto 
Mk iv. 10 "Ikuu wtiA him [jcaut] (ol wt^\ aiirm) with (mi.) tht hue/ve," 
parall. Mt. lili. 10 j*the Jiuip/tJ," Lk. viii. 9 "hit disciplt!." Comp. the 
chapter on " No> qiii cum eo fuiniut " In S01U of Francis by A. Macdonell 

(p. J7foii.). ' " ,. :.■- :-:^ : ■ . 

■ The DiateisVoD aUo omili tht^wordir . TV; ' ■- - 

■ ! ".. '. V, 304-' ',",* -'■';.' ;••■' 

TO JOHN aWTlUKE [1804] 

undet consideration was connected with "angels" and with 
the mystery of the Resurrection of Christ. I.ukc' mentions 
" two disciples," immediately after this visit to the tomb, as 
having this mystery revealed to them, when their hearts hafl 
been opened to discern the Scriptures. John says that the 
two disciples that visit the tomb " knew not yet the 
Scriptures " ; yet one of them was enabled to " catch a 
glimpse" of facts that -led him to "see and believe," even 
before Pe4er had believed. Mary Magdalene attained yet 
more. She remained by the tomb, weeping, and^he "caught 
^a glimpse (lit) into fthe spiritual revelation of] the tomb 
^jrapiisff^fv «V TO /ivfiiuiov)," where she beheld, not " /»W« 
c/i(As aloiie" but. "angels',' preparing the wiiy for a full 
tevXlatipn of the risen Saviour. John is perhaps alluding 
to Luke in his detail of the " lintn cloths" lying "apart" 
from the head covering, which seems to be an interrelation 
of Luke's " lintn cleths alone (^i/a)." But the question before 
us is whether John is writing allusively to Luke in respect 
of the words irapaxtin-Tu and o6ovm. To jhis the preceding 
investigations give an affirmative an.^wcr. And, as iti the 
iltstainces of "l^vvav, (Kfiaaaia, diroffaivia, irtri «'? iiioov, so 
4s regards irapaicvfrTtD and oBovia, John appears to be not 
only allusive, but also cOrrectivf'. * 

' [UMa] W.H. also enclose in double brackets (/t) Lk. uiv. 36 «ai 

Xtfy«i aimnt, Etp^af i'f'**', (^) xxiv. iO Kai rovro tiwiitf f8«i^ atrnif rilr 
J^lpai <t«i rofr ffufldf. Comp. (1) Jn xx. 19 xni \<y*t a^roir, f.lflil»if i'luv, 
«fll Toim ilttitf t^i^v Kfll rat x'H"'* *** ^^ wXtvpif avr<Hs. In Lk., D and 
th« best Lat. Mss. om. both ii and A. SS om. S. Lk^ever uses the 
liisloric present Xify>i (freq. in Mk and Jn) of Jesus. Frllhererare (a) is 
genuine, it was prob.' inserted by Lk. from ^me ancient tradition, which 
Ut. prcfened not to rev^s< or alter (ISOS). The Latin MSS. may have 
omitted it'b^ause Lk.'s text goes on to tay that the disciples "were 
afraid," and such fear would more naturally precede, than follow, the 
words " Peace be mtto you " As to (4), it cmild not hare been inlerpolaiM 
from J n without the violent alteration of *Xn>p<ii> to iratat, which seem\ 
improbable. may have been a genuine ina^nioa of Lk.— perh. 

305 ■ '•:.:''. .;'>!*»«■ 


[1804] JOHN ANbXUKE 

added by him in a late edition of which there were only a few copies- 
omitted by the Latin MSS. because Jn's accountMeemed preferable. 

[180i^] It is probable that Jn wrote with a view to these traditions of 
Lk. and especially t(]|J.k.'s tradition that our JLord said '* Handle me 
{i^XaiplirarJ fu) " to the£leven. According tp Jn there was 410 mention 
of ** handling" to the assembled disciples, until Thomas had refused fo 
believe without the ,^videncc of touch, for which be was rebuked in 
a second minifestation. The word "handle" occurs in 1 Jn i.,i "and 
our hands handled^ probably -attestmg the genuine Incarnation ag'ainsl 
heretics of (*nostic tendencies, who asserted that Christ had not come .in 
the flesh. It does not appear to refer, as the word does in 1^., to any 

-actual "handling " of the Lord's body after the Resurrection. St Paul 
uses it in a bold metaphor in the Acts xvii. 1^ " to seek Cod, if haply 
they might ktmdlt Urn (or, ftel. Jiim vUM Uuir kandt) and [thus] find 

'him."^ ■ :■ .■.- ;:■;.' V;: '■"— ^ r',''. :. ' ■. 

•' '. •'::' ; - > ■ ".! — , - . ;'■ ;'';; '-v/-'; 

[18Mr] UafMKinrTu, in LXX— apart from Judg. v. 18, where C17W) A 
reads At/Kfirm', and from' 1 K. vi. 4 ^ptdar tro^Rvrro^/vai Theod. htaitvw- 
To^iVar— means " looking through a window," Gen. xxvi. 8 of Abimelech 
seeing Isaac with Rebecca, 1 Chr xv. 29 of Michal seeing David dancing, 
Prov. vii. 6 of the "strange woman," whom the LXX erroneously regards 
as looking at the young man passing in the street. Cant. ii. 9 of a lover 
in the street looking through the wihdows of the house of hts beloved. In 
Sir. xxi. 23 it is used of alool prying through an open door (paradoxically 
used in a good sense in Sir. xiv. 33). The Heb. word regularly rende'ivd 
wapoKvit^v, u never tkus rendered when applied to Hod looking out of 
keaven, e.g. Fs.' xiv. 2, liiiT 1 (cemp Ixxxv. 12), Lam. iii. $0 AukOwth, P*. 
cii.^ «K«virTi( etc 

[18M</] The Syriac of irapaivirra in Jn xx. 5, 11 and Lk. xxiv. 11 it 
simply "look" (without "stoop"). The Latin versions have (Jn xx. r)<- 
«(f) " proscultans," * aiid^"se inclinassel et 4)rospexisset," d »M ^ 
"prospiciens,"/"se inclinasset " ; (Jn xx. 1 1) a "...dspexit " (r[a]dsprxit), 
* andy "inchnavit se et prospexii," d and e "prospcxit,"/ "inclinavit 
se ct prospexit." Lk. xxiv. 12 is om. \>y a, i,d (with U) and e \ J has 
" pracumbens." In Jn xX. 11, Chrys. throws no light, but Cramer hat 
(from Euseb. of Caf^.) in hi vat Awi woXAui; Xoyw wupttvwnm, where the 

imprrf. a> in Judg v 38 (A) p»rh de"0>>-S (I'W) rominuousness. 



• - * . . 


§ I. Introductory remarks 

[180B] Antecedently we might expect that the number of 
>}ohannine words peculiar to Mark and Matthew would be 
smaller than the number peculiar tp Mark alone. Mark's 
style is occasionally uncouth, and, where Matthew corrects 
it, John cannot be identical with both. Take, for example, 
the narrative of the crown of thorns : 

• Mkxv. 17 (lit) 
"And they put on 
{ii^AMtmuow) him 
purple . ((Top^iSpar) 

and plafe round 
{■wtpvriBiaaw) hini 
having woven a 
thoin[yj (Jwn^iMv) 

MLi^viL 18-^^9(111.) 

"And having put 

off from him [his 

owA clothes]' ({<c- 

hx^arttt aiiriv) a 

scarlet cloak (,\Xa- 

/iu&i AOKNt'i^i')' ihey 

placed round (npt- 

Sw HrfKor) him and 

, , having woven a 

- - crown from thorns 

(ii axiwASf) they 

placed [it] oo (iwi- 

«i|im)' hit head." 

Jnjdx. j(lifc) 

"...having woveiv 
a crown from thorns 
(ti imv9i»)' they 
placed it on (M- 
07«iir)his head (dat.) 
and a purple gar- 
ment they clothed 
him withal (I^'noi' 
irop^vpovf wtpii- 
/JaXor otrof)." 

I. V. r. " having put mi Aim " and " purple garment and tcarbt, dfli " 

■-W.H. ititiium iwi, B iitfUStitm Viri, lit. "placed it round oiU^i^ - 

' [UOB «] This passage well illustrates the danger of arguing irom 

mere statistics apart from circumstances. In the Jn-Mk list, liidKArn 

307. • , _ 


[1806] Here, there seems to have been a very early 
confusion between €NAYCO " put on," and €KAYCO " put off," 
and between "placing a purple garment round " the body and 
"placing a crown of thorns round" the head. Mark uses 
"place round" concerning- the crown. Matthew uses "place 
on" concerning the crown^and, to make the distinction quite 
clear, adds'" tRi head." John ah<o, like Matthew, has " placed 
it OH his head" Like Matthew, t(k>, he has the phrase "haying 
woven y^w thorns'^ ;|here Mark has "thorny." It is very 
probable that John accepted these corrections of Mark from 
Matthew': but in any case the result is that the tkrte writers 
do npt agree together in the exact use of the verb of crowning 
(" put on " or " put round ") or as regards the construction of 
the crown (Mk " thorny," Mt.-Jn " from thorns "). 

[1807] Bearing these facts in mind we may well regard 
the number of words peculiar to the thrtfc Evangelists as 
large, and" the proportion of words marked f '1 the appended 
list as surprisingly Urge. Endeavouring to classify them, we 
.find that one is a proper name, "Golgotha*"; and another is 
a technical term, " Hosanna',"* The parallel Luke in bath 
passages gives the substance of Mark-Matth(<^ but emits 
" Golgotha " and " Hosanna." Perhaps- spme confusion be- 
tween " sicull " and " place of skull " induced Luke to ontit 

appcartd, becaute of Jn xit. 5 "weuiiig the thorny, crown." Tlw 
ttdjt<UvtK.tyin nowhere but in Mk xr. 17, }n xix. j.-. But the noun, uml 
the whole- phrase, "having woven a crown /ri>m /Aorns" occur iiaih In. 
Ml. and in Jn. The Jn-Mi. list, however, could^tat include "thorn," 
a> the word (occurring in the Pa#ble of the Sower in Mk-Mt.-IJt.) ii 
not peculiar to Jn and Mt. 

< [UWa] A( regards Jn xix. 2 "-clothed (ircfx^^oi')," it happens that 
Lk. xxiii. 1 1 (wtpttiayif J(rt^r» Xafiirpif) has this very word to denote 
Herod's clothing Christ with gorgeous raiment in mockery. Jn may 
have had this in mind. IlffiijiaXXv, however, is a more appropriate word 
than tifpiTii<iiu to express cjolhing except as applied to a Kar( or short 
cloak placed round the neck. Sleph. quotes Herodian iii. ;. 11 r^v 

• rtAyaia, see 1810, note 4. . , ',• 'Offni, ste 18U*. 

■■■- •-^■■.; ■ • ■■■ ■ 308 r-'.:' -.- ■ - 



the former : and some doubt about the fitness of such a term 
as " Hosanna " in a Gospel for educated Greeks unacquainted 
with Hebrew may have induced him to omit the latter. 

[1806] Apart from the Passion, the only words of im- 
portance are " money-changer^ " in thp I'urification of the 
Temple, and " sell"" in the Anointing of Christ by a woman. 
A third, "evening*" — unimportant unless evidence should^ 
sKew that the word may point to original symbolism — is 
found in the Walking an the Waters. In all these cases 
a reason for John's intervention may be found in Lake's 
omission. The latter omits, in his account of the Purification, 
the detail about the " money-changers " ; and he altogether 
omits the narrative of, the Walking on the ^ Waters, and 
substitutes for Mark's narrative of the Anointing another 
of an entirely different tendency. 

[1809] In the Passion, the words marked f are "cohort*," 
"crown [of thorns]'", "plait*," "praetorium'," "put round," 
and " sponge"." In every case. Luke has omitted not only 
each wor^but also the whole narrative containing thBword. 
In Luke, there is no "crown of thorns." TjUe mbcking of 
the "cohort" is either omitted, or replaced by an entirely 
diffdrent story concerning the' soldiiJrs of Herod i^tipas, "palice " he |)crhaps identifies with the Synoptic • 
" praetorium." The incident of the " Sfxingc " full of vinegar 
— explained by John (1813 <') in connexion with "hyssop," 
perhaps originally the hyssop-bunch used on the Passover 
night — Luke wholly omits. This is not the place to consider 
whether John is right in all his interventions : the object now , 
is merely to demonstrate that John's agreements with Mark 
and Nfatthew coincide almost in each .case with omissions or 
deviations of Luke. 

•, McUUA., •aitrp4«a,w«ltt«*' 

> 'Of ^ see iai3 >t. > 2iiipa,Kt Vntt. 

' XWi^fot, Kt 1808 6. " aUtm, tee 1814 1». 

^ npatriifMuif, see 1814,'. ' TUfMrit^fu and 9m i yytt,tt$ M$t\ 





Mk Ml. Jn 
[1810] <iXi^c(lT17(/) I I -M 

Mk Ml. 

ava\mfMm^ 1 lo 

5 4 

5 3 


[1811] Mux* 

I'lttifHitmiuH* . 

. > (1810a,] No word has nn xstcrisk nllached to ii in this list bec.iuse 
no word is used by Jn in a different sense fmpi that ^hich it has in 
. Mk-Mt. : \ denotes that the word not only has the same meaning in Jn 
and Mk-Mt. but also occurs ia..paranel passa);es : ?t indicates quusi- 
parallelism, on which see 1817 ; the only word thus marked is awtipa^ 
"cohort." The list does not include parts of speech used in a special 
sense, f-jf. JUd with accus. of person, "for the sake of" tl731 jw). 

• 'AvaxxiWas "retire," .Mk iii. 7 (Ml. xii. 15), )n vi. 15. 

' [IBlOd] '.\ir»XMa, in .Mt. vii. ij, Jn xvii. 13, means "(spiritual) 
destruction," and Jn xvii. .13 calls Judas Iscariot "the son ni litstrmti^n" 
In the parall. to Mk xiv. 4, .Mt. Jixvi. 8 "Why this tistruction or wiutel" 
Jn xii. 4 mentions ^^Judat Iscariot}^ The Original ^nay have'coiitained 
sonte mention oi ^ iUstructhn^ variously interpreted as (Mk-Mt) ^^asU^ 
{in)"[i'>no(]tlfslnKlioii:' -" . .„ 

« roXyn<»d, i.f. "skull." Mk XV. J2, >lt. xxvii. 33, J n xl«.' 1^. ;ni« 

- parall. Lk. xxiii. 33 simply gives "skuU," and not the Heb. equival^ent. 

' [18104] Tv^tnlr, "naked," in Ml. only in a Parable xxv. 36 "mited 
and yeclothed ine" (rep. xxv. 38—44). In Mk xiv. 51—2 (twice) it refers 
to a young man deprived of his "linen garment** ; in Jn xxi. 7, to Peter, 
"naked," but ">;irdiitg himself" before entering his Master's presence. 

• [1810 <] :uir), "/lirifr" in («) .Mk vi. ji "[Cimf] Millur ye by 
yourselves into a desert place and rest or, refresh yourselves) a tittle," 
(t) Mt. xi. jg. "[Ciii/ii^kil/ur unto me .ill that are weary. . and I will give 
you rest (or, refreshment ," aml*{c) Jn xxi. \2'^\Citmf\ kUAer, break your 

- fast," occurs in ^ords of Christ inviting the disciples to "take refresh* 
ment" (dvdiraviru', -a^iu\ or lo "break their fast" : m; is in the Triple 
Tradition without parall.' in Mt.-Lk.. (h) is in Mt.'s .Single -Tradition, 
immediately alter a passage of the Unuble Tradition J Mi. xl. 27, l.k. x. 21 
"All things were delivered tome by my Fathet.T,'!), (r) in Jn, refers to the 
period after the Resurrection. • , ' 

' ^axuvtrt, *^ minister." In the parallt to Mk x~. 43Vkd«oi'uf, Lk. xxii. 
36 has dui«oi>«i>, so thai, practically, this word is common to the Four 
Gospels (1717 d—g) in Christ's Doctrine of .Service. 

• AdXot, "guile," Mk vii. 22, xiv. 1 (Mt. xxvL 4), Jn i. 47. 

\ • [1811 «J 'iMtHurAfi is in Mk nv. 5 (R.V.> "miirmiirtd aeaiiul 


(dat.) her.' It describes perMCutora (Euseh. v. i. 60) "narimg" and 
gnashing their teeth, madmen (Sicpfa. iii. 825 a) futpmhu «U Jiiffpiiim- 
fufoi. Luciairi. 484 couples ^K/S^ifi^iiTo ^ Bpiiii with "Cerberus barking." 
The vb. ana der. nouns describe God's anger in Ps. vii. 1 2 {Aq.)t Is. avii. 
iJ(Sym.X E«ek. xxi. 31 (Theod.)etc. tomp. Dan, xi..30 (LXX). • 

[IBiit] In Mk i. 43, Mt. ix. 30 it is applied to Jesus (R.V. txt) 
^strictly (macg. slemly) cfutrgCng" those whom He has healed. But Ok. 
usage seems to demand some such rendering as "roar " — used of Jehovah 
(R.V.) in Jer. xxv. 30 (Ns), Hos. xt. \o(,Hs), Joel iii. 16, Amos i. 2. 

Jn applies it to Jesus twice (xi. 33—8), describing how, when He 
■aw Mary and the Jews weeping for Lazarus, (1) iyiUfHitiiv an ry nvtv- 

pari Koi irofia^tp iavrov km *li;irot)ff oin viiXir (2) itt$pttu»ti.tvot tp Jatry 

tftX*rm lit t^ liwifiuiop. According to the analogy of the dative in the 
three Synoptic instances, the dat. r^ npivfian should be the object of the 
verb ; and this is not -inconaistent with a parallelism between r^ wviv^tttri 
and <y Imir^ for if anyoae "roars against " his own spirit, he may be said 
to be doing it "in himself," />. not against another. Uut the meaning is 
uncertain and perhaps intend^ by the fclvangelist to be u, except so far 
as it contains an allusion lo,^nd perhaps a protest against, the tradition 
of Mk and Mt. (discarded by Ul) that Jesus "rA/ri'f/ itgitimt" those 
whom He healed— -traditions fC^ps based on a statement that He 
"cried out against *' unclean ^spirits or diseases, not against the diseased. 

[1811 ('] As regards the positive Johannine meaning, if " spirit'" is the 
-object of " roared againsl" some might suppose that the Logos is regarded 
M rebuking Himself and forcing Himself to weep and to be troubled in 
sympathy with the friends of Lazarus, although He knows that Lazarus is 
not realty dead. But we have to compare r^ nvfvfLort here with the only 
other Johannine use of it (Jn xiii. 21) "he was troubled >/> Mir (i e his) 
tpiril" This suggests that John does not follow the grammatical 
construction of the Synoptilts in the use of thi> rare verb, but that 
he uses it absolutely, without expressing an object, first, " roaring in his 
'(i"l" and then "roaring again iVa Utmel/.'' If so, the Evangelist leaves 
it to us to imagine what the Messiah is " ronriii^ itgaiHsl." Presumably, 
it is against all the evil that makes men slaves instead of being the free 
children of God. One aspect of thi; is death, through fear of which men 
were (Heb. ii. is) "all their lifetime subject to bondage." See also 
(im*) "trouble." 

"' [l|lli/] edXiurini T^t r., "Sm of OaliUt," is used by Jn (vl. i) 
followed by " Tiierias," so as to explain its meaning. Lk. substitutes "latt" 
whenever that sea is mentioned or implied, Jn calls ttrmercly (xxi. 1) 
" Tiberias " when he coonectt it with the tnanifesuttuo <>f the risen Saviour. 

7:\:':-y-m ■' ■''''■. ■ ■■ ■' ■■■• 












»W^«« J 


[1813] a,' 



t .oXX»/Jum(,«, 1 

" 1 



-2 , 



^lovAii'w I 



,uic/id«(m6«) ] 


[1813] ,lwru (1738<t) 



w/«* 3 

+ ifia' 



rii/Miy«*' 3 



WpOK (rovjapi 



t ntfiTtBiliu,' 3 



cheer, | have 
g0od i 


1*] So/iWm, "be ofgood cheer," in Jn, onljr xvi. 33"A^ij/'jtwi/ 
overcome the world." In Mk vi. 50, Ml: xiv, 27 " Be of 
(ivpviTt), it is I, be not afraid," Jn (vi. 20) omits Saiurtirt. 
"wonderful," should have been inserted here, occurring in 
II, Ml. xx'i. 42 (quoting Ps. cxvij. 2J>L^nd in .Jn ix. 3a . 
1811/] ftXirfm, "tribulation," is used by Jn only in »vi. 21, 33 
hembereth no more the atigviti," " In tfte world ye have trihulation> 
In 'Mk iv. 17, .>tt.' xiii. 21 " Iribulalion or persecution," Lk. viii. 13 has 
" trial "^or "temptation" (a^ipav/nit). » 

" [UUd] "H», "see!" is never used by Mk vid Mt In parallel 
passages, nor by Jn in any paralL either to Mk or to Mt, 

' [1812 b\ KoXAf/ltiirr^t, " moneychanger," occurs in the Purification of 
the Temple m Mk xi. 15, Mt. xxi. 13, Jn ii. 15. But Jn places th< Puri- 
fication al the beginning, Mk-Mt. towards the end, of Christ's preaching. 
' NiMu, " perceive," in Jn, only in quotation Jn xii. 40 (Is. yi. 10). 
" [ISlSrt] 'Ch^Mi, "evening," occurs in Jn ti/ in ihe-VValkfng on the 
Waters, MJt vi. 47,. .Ml. xiv. 23 4, Jn vi. |5, (1) in the fini Manifesiatinut . 
of the risen Saviour to the assemblej^ diiciples, Jn xx. 19. Luke hat a . 
parallel 10 the latter, but. not to the fomier. In Mk-Ml.'s version of iKe -♦■.' 
Walking on the Waters, the disciples fear because they think Him 
" a pkuHtoim" (.SS "devil"); m Lk.'s version of the M'inifesialion they 
fear because they think He is "<i spirit!' I) " pkanlaim" Ign. Smym. 3 
"koiii/ess demon." Jn has no mention of "a spirit" or ^" phantasm " 
in either narrative. 

' niip<fyfi, " pass by," occurs in Mt. xx. yH Jn ix. J, in the Healing of 
the lllmd, concerning Jesus "passing by," but in quite different circum- 

-^ [1813^] n<paf rob 'lajjAtlfov, "beyond Jordan." Ut. prob. om. the 
term as ambiguous, see 1 K. iv. 24 R.V. "ok tiit side (marg. beyond) the 
river," L\X wipar Ttti w. Eir. iv. 16, 17, 20 "A<r>w>H/M/ n'fvr" is panUI. 
to I Esdr. ii. 24, 2J, 27 "in Celosyria(orSyri*}and Phenice." -; 'i 
" [lIlSi-] n»/>«rift)(u, "put round," is in Mk xv. 36, Ml. xxvii. 48, 
Jn xix. 29 about the offering of the vinegar by means of a "sponge.* 
Perhaps Mk-Mi. look a "hyssop-bunch," of which the "sponge" may 
. have been composed, as a sulk of hyssop. See Tike Femrjald Gttptl. 





Mk Mt. Jn 




[1814] firtirfHiffo.' 

> 3 ' ' 
3 > ' 




[UiS] : irpWi 
?+ vwtlpa^ 

5+[i]l+[i] J 

1 ■ 1 2 






' [1814a] IIiir/>ilirii«|,'' Mil," is in Mk xiv. 5, Mt. xxvi. 9, Jn xii.' 5, 
about the perAime that"" could have b«n soM" for (.Mk-Jn) " 300 denarii," 

■ [1814/y nx<ni, "plait," is in Mk xv. 17, Ml. xxvii. 29, Jn xix. 2 
concerning '^he crown of thomsT.. 

''[]^14r] llparntptov, ** praetorium," or "palace," occurs In Mkxv. 16, 
Mt. xxvii. 27 as the place to which the soldiers take Jesus, a/tfr Pilate 
had pronounced sentence, jh'here they clothe Him with purple and crown 
Him with thorns, just before the Crucifixion. Jn xviii. 38 mentions it as 
the place to which the soldiers take Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate for 
trial, and from which Pilate brings Jesus out clothed in purple 'and 
wearing the crown of thorns fie/ort pronouncing sentence. It is implied 
that Jes|S i$, led back to it, as Pilate (xix. 9) "entered into the^praetorium 
agiu'n "Bd there' speaks to Jesus. Luke never mentions the "praetorium," 
nor the'' crown of thorns," but rctiresents Hirod as having,plothed Jesus 
in " bright raiment" The Acts mentions the word once in Acts xxiii. 35 
"Huriflg.bidden him to be kept in Htrvifs I'melerium." It is possible 
that Luke took the " Praetorium" in Jerusalem mentioned by Mk-Mt. as 
being Herod's *^pat(ue.^ This might induce John to emphaaiie the 
meaning of the word so as to correct Luke's error. On the .mis- 
understanding that seems to have led Luke to introduce Herod in the 
narrative, see 56, 902 — 3. 

* [1815a] n^i "early" (marked | because it may refer to the same 
feveot in Mk-Jn, but certainly does not in .Mt-Jn), in Mk xvi. 2 "very 
tariy," and in Jn xx. i " farly, it being still dark," is used about the visit 
of the women (Jn mentions Mary Magdalene alone) to Christ's tomb. 
Mk App. xvi. 9 "having risen early" is used about Christ's manifestation 
to Mdl^ Magdalene. 

[1815^] In describing the trial, .Mk xv. 1 describes the Sanhedrin as 
assembling "straightway early" i.e. immediately on dawn, while Jn xviii. 
28 uses " early," perhaps meaning a samewhat later hour, to describe the 
Inding of Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate. 

^ [1815 r] Jwtipa^ "cohort," is not mentioned by Mk xv. \6, .Mt. xxvii. 
27 -till after Pilate's sentence when "the whole coAort" is " called' 
together" to mock the condemned. Jn mentions it earlier as having been 
(xriii. ]) "taken" by Judas to arrest Jesus, and as (xviii^u) "seizing" 

313 . 


Mt Ml. 


. Mk 



t ffW4a>w (1806 

iwrmvpAm^ 1 


I ■ 

-«) ■ 11 


vjiiajia* I 



[1816] Wpqc 1 1 


nifW. (1714/1) 1 



Cy.i.(17»<), . 1 1 



(metaph.)' r 



X«(i-» .• 1 ?I+[i] 


X-p/" I 



.<?^' ■.'"■■.';'.•;' '- 


iiratM* »■ 


. ■■ 

§2. Atsentt of QiMsi-fiar<ilUls 

[1817] Comparihg this list with previous ones we find the 
number of qtiasi-parallefs (».f. words marked ? f because 
though the word is the, same the context is altered in such 
a way as to imply disagreement) very small indeed, only one 
iairelpa) being thus marked. There are more quasi-parallels 
in the John-Mark list and in the John-Luke list. The reason 
for theit absence here is, perhaps, that this list represents the 
cases where John agrees with hoI Mark atom hut Mark 
supported by^Matthew. The combined evidence of Mark and 
Matthew might seem to John too weighty to reject in the 
details of fuch narratives as the I'urification of the Temple 

Hint ; Md, when he toro^ to desetibe the mocking, he simply mcntioiu 
"the soldieri." 

It has been suggetied (1386) that John may have been led to Infer that 
Judas "received n cohtfrl" ham a confusion of the tradition that he 
"received ti si'jpt" — "lign" and "cohort ' (in the form mf/juua) being 
similar (jreek words. But Mt. xxvii. 27. avvriyaynv in' uiV^y JXi;* t^ 
ffwfifMn', " they gathered together against Mim,ihe whole of the cohort" is 
an ambiguous Expression. ' It* might very well have been understood as 
meaning " They gathered together the whole of the cohort /« tare Jesus," 
and perhaps John understood it thus. 

' Jvpmavpou, see 1817 1\ 

* [1816 rf]X;<;ir»«i,'' tent,'"' schism," in Mk ii. ii (httl*. 16) "airtrse 
r/Mt," lit., but in parable. In Jn vii. 43, ix. i5, if. 19, it deseribn a 
"schism" among the Jews, some favouring, some rejecting, Chritt ' 

* [1816(i] 'Yirtfyw (metaph.) "depart," "go home," Mk xiv.'.3i, 
Mt. xxvi. 14, "the bon of man dtpartitk (Lk. xxii. ii moftiimu).'' On 
iivirpm and wo^vofiiu, sec 1663 — 64. 

* [1816^] 'aaatra^ " Hitsanna," Mk xi. 9— 10, Mt. xxi. 9 (rep. xxi. 15), 
Jn lii. 13, is parall. to Lk. xix. ]8 "jn heayen peace (tu) j|lory (1807)." 



and the Passion. And in points that might be called matters 
of taste, e.g. the question whether " Hosanna " should be 
retained or paraphrased in Greek Gospels, the usage of Mark 
when confirmed by Matthew might decide John to adopt the 
Jewish term in preference to the paraphrase in Luke. There 
are no words marked * as being used in a different sense b^. 
John from the sense in Mark and Matthew', ^-^-"^r^'r^. .' 

■ [U17<i] X«fi/a, "find rbbm for," "hold,"'is (he ncamt apprpnch to 
such a word, for it also means "go" in Mt. xv. 17 but not perhaps in Jn 
except in viii. 37 (R.y. tx!) "AfiM noi frei course in you." Prob. however 
Field is right in upholding A.V. (R.V. marg.) '*Aa/A no p/ttci- in you." 
He compares Alciphr. Epist. iii. 7 where a. doctor " wonders where and 
how food finds a place in a glutton's stomach." 

[1817 A] For the Jn-Mk-Mt. use of "sea" in "sea of Calilce," and of 
"beyond" in "beyond Jordan," see ^fiXairira (1811 </) aiid wJpttv (1813^). 

[1817 r] Jvvtmivpom^ "crucify together with," might perhaps have been 
marked ?t or even +. It occurs in Mk xv. 33, Mt. xxvii. 44 shortly before 
Christ's death, but in Jn xix. 32 shortly after il. In Mk Mt. it means 
"crucified m/M" Jesus, but Jn applies it to the second malefairtor 
"ataditd tinii" lAe/irst maU/ar/ar. See 1678. ., , y..- 

v'";-^'.?-'; ■■- ■'•-■'1 

3* J 




I I. ItttrodHCtory remarkt 

[1818] Antecedently, if we knew nothin); about the Three 
Gospels except that Matthew and Luke borrowed" from Mark, 
and nothing about the Fourth except that it was written 
at a time when the Three had become authoritative, we 
might expect the number of Johannine words peculiar to 
Mark?and Luke, and also those marked f as being in parallel 
passages, to be as large as the same numbers in the john- 
Mark-Matthew list. 

[1819J But Luke fottows Mark most closely in narratives 
of a thaumaturgic character and especially in exorcisms ; and 
these are just the subjetts that John avoids or passes lightly 
over. Mo/eover, Lukcj eycii where following Mark closely, 
alters low-clsiss Greek words such as «pa/9oTT09, which JohiT 
retains. And generally, since we find John not only sup- 
porting Mark when Luke deviates from' him, but also taking 
different views from Luke, we ought to be prepared to find 
the number of John-Mark-Luke agreements small, and the- 
humber of parallelisms, very small indeed. 

§2. " Latchet;' " spieti" " rouu up" 

. {1830] And thi.s i.s the case. Only one word, I'/id?, " latchet," 
is marked t without query, occurring in the Baptist's descrip- 
tion of theroming Deliverer, the "latchet" of whose shoe he 

s-m •> 


declares himself unworthy to loose. Matthew, instead of 
"loosing the shoe-latchet," has "bear the shoes," perhaps ' 
blendinf; together the performance of two mental services as 
explained in the foot-note (1833 </). This deviation of 
Matthew from Mark, while Luke and John adhere to th« 
word " latchet," accounts for the otic Johannine word in the 
following list, parallel and peculiar- to Mark and Luke. 

[1821] The word' "spices," a/Ma/iara, marked ?t> is of 
interest, although not exactly parallel. In Mark and Luke it 
refers to "splits" prepared by the womc!) for the bfxly of 
Christ But Matthew, though closely agreeing with Mark in 
the context, makes no mention of "spices," nor of any 
preparations for embalmingvon their part John uses the 
word concerning the " spicfs" actually used by Jpseph and 
Nicodemus in the burial of Christ : and, as he speaks of these, 
and makes no merition of "spice.s" in his account of the visit 
of the women to the tomb, we are led to infer that he agreed 
with Matthew that the women came simply " to behold tjie 
tomb." John appears to be tacitly correcting what seemed 
to him wrong in Mark and Luke by ip$ertii)g what seemed 
to him right (1838*). ,' " 

[1822] The word Sieytlf^, " rouse tip,*' though not marked 
t, derives interest from its extreme rarity (as indicated in. the 
foot-note (1832 r)) and from the possibility that it may |X>int 
to some explanation of Luke's omission of the story, of Christ 
walking on the water, which John inserts. On the Mher 
hand John omits the story of Christ falling asleep in the boat 
and awaking and rebuking the storm, which fluke inserts. 
And this rare word Sieytipai is used by Mark and l-ukc in 
the one narrative to describe Jtsus, but by John ip the other 
to describe the ^fti, as being " roused up." ; .-' . ^. 

%\- Mark, Luke, and John, on "rejection" 
[1823] The word oflrrew, " reject " or "set- at naught," is 
nowhere parallel in Mark and Luke, but it occurs in Luke 

317' . ;,.:-\:x^^^/ v; .; ,. 



and John, as will be seen below, in th» ^phrases "he that 
rejtcUlk you" and "he that rejetttth mi" with words of 
warning as to the consequences of rejection. 

[18M] Mark uses it in a saying of thot Lord that the 
Pharisees lirejat the word of Cod" in ordir that they' may 
keep their own Itaeiitd^t^ that is tp say, thiy allow a man to 
break the commandment about honouring one's father, under 
the shelter of the word " Corban." Matthew, too, has this. 
But, besides other deviations, Matthew uses "transgress" 
instead of " reject'." 

[1886] The difference between Luke and Johtv is worth, 
looking into, and Luke should also bo compared with the 
parallel Matthew: 
. Mt. X. 40—1 ■ .;'.,.' Uti *■ 16 
'■ He that receiveth " He that heireth 

you receiveth trie, youhearethme,«nd 
and he that receiv- •■\\e \yai rejecteth yen 
ethmereOcivethhim rtjectelh me. Rut 
that sent me. He he that rejeeteth me 
that receiveth a pro- rejuteth him that 
phet in the name of fttil wu." 
a prophet...," , 4 

Jn xii. 44—8 
"He that believ- 
eth on rot believeth 
not on me bu^ on 
him that sent me... 
And if any man \\tA 
my words and ' Ob- 
serve them not, I 
(emph.) judge Kim 
not...H« Ihul reject- 
tlh me and liketh 
not my words (^ 
/lata) [into his heart] ^ ' 
hath him that judg- 
eth him. The word 
that I spake — that 
[word] shall judge . 
him' in the last day." 

[ttM] H will be noted that Matthew, omitting all mentk>n 
of ' tejtclingl' conhnes himself to the doctrine of "receiving" 

' [USttn] Mk vii. 9 iSm'm, ML xv. 3 wofcAiittn. The same thing 
is expressed by Mk vii. 13, Ml xv. 3 itifmm. Lk. omits all this. 



His tradition Imay be rearranged, tb shew its parallelism with 
the Triple Tradition and with the tradition of John on 
"receivings," thus: > • . ■.•^'■.":" 

Mk \x. 37 

shall receive 
(S^{i;Tai) [one] 
of such little 
children in my 
name receiveth 
me, and whoso- 
ever is receiv- 
ing (S<xvro') me 
is receiving not 
me but him 
that sent me." 

^t. £ 40 ■ 
"He that 
receiveth you 
receiveth me, 
and he that 
receiveth me 
receiveth him 
that sent me." 

Lk. iir. 48 - 
shall receive 
in my name 
receiveth me, 
and whoso- 
ever shall re- 
ceive me re- 
ceiveth > him 
that sent me." 

' Jnxiii. »o 

ceivelh whom- 
soever I shall 
send receiveth 
me, and he 
that receiveth 
me receiveth 
him . that sent 
me'." - 


[1827] Reviewing the evidence, we note, first, that the ■ 
earliest of the Four Gospels (Mark) u.-ics the word "reject' 
to signify the rejection, not of maris word but of God's ^lord, 
"-Tiamely, the command to honour parents^ The next^in date, 
Matthew (using the word "transgress" for " reject "), sub- 
stantially agrees with Mark. These two Evangelists say. in 
eflTect, that the Pharisees rejected the Word of God in order 
to keep the words of men, and that Christ condemned this. 

[1828] Luke omit.s the whole of this. But the distinction 
between rejecting the words of individimls and rejecting the 
laws of natural religion, or the Word of God, Ls a very 
important one. If the Third Evangelist failed to bring this 
out, it was all the more gecessary for the Fourth to do so'. 

,' Jn xiii. 20, as also Jn xii. 44—8, uses Xoft^t " take [into one's heait]" 
instead of {he Synoptic iixoiuu " receive " : but, for brevity and parallelism, 
\afitiaif» in Jn )(iii. 20 is rendered " receive " above. 

' [1828 ii] The distinction may be illustrated by what is probably 
one of the earliest of the l^aulinc Epistles, where the A^stle, after 
forbidding fornication, says (1 Thess. iv. 8^ "He that rtjtctilli [this< 
doctrine] (j a&frw) njecteth not man, but God, who is [ever] giving 
(dt'dorra) his holy Spirit upon.(<ir) us." ' - : 

A. V. 





[1829]'There is also another reason why the Fourth Gos|iel 
should intervene. The earnest of the Gospels does not say " He 
that rcceiveth you receiveth me.'ibut " He that rccciveth one 
mof siuh little ones" There is a jreat difference between the 
two. Mark's vcrsiAn struck at th|e ro6t of apostolic or clerical 
arrogance. Luke's version in tne Triple Tradition (" Whoso- 
ever shall receive tJiU .little child") gave no clear precept as 
to the future ; and his version in the Double Tradition (" He 
that heareth you ") was limite^ to the Seventy, who are 
mentioned in the preceding verses. Matthew's version ("He 
that rcceiveth you") is limited to the Twelve. Christians, 
therefore, with only the Tfcree Gospels in their hands, might 
still require some further answer to the question " Whom arc 
we to receive as coming from Christ ? ^ 

[1830] The full consideration of John's in^plicd answer 
to this question, and of all the j>assages bearing on the 
Doctrine of Receiving, must be deferred'. Meantime, even 
a glance at the parallels suggests that John is writing with 
allusion to Luke's version of the Double Tradition, accepting 
his tradition verbally, so far as regards the use- of the verlj 
" reject," but surrounding it with such a conteSct asrto freii it 
from all risk of being abused. Instead of Luke's ambiguous 
"heareth me" (which might mean hearing without doing), 
" John (xii. 44 — 8) substitutes "believeth on me," connecting a 
subsequent mention of "hearing" with "not observing." 
Then, in ca^e any domineering elders or bishops might judge 
those who "rejected " them, as rejecting Christ, he represents 
Christ Himself as deprecating such "judgrnent" ("/(emph.) 
judge him not "). John seems to have in mind a tradi^oa 
similar to that of St Paul " Judge nothing before the time." 
The true judge is not to be this or that teacher or collection 
of teachers, but "the word that I spake"; and the time of 
judging will be "the last day." John, like Mark, seems to 


> They will be diicuised in The FoarfoU Gotp^. ' 

. TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUK.E [1881] 

represent Chrialf'as appealing, against conventional judgments, 
to the 6rst principles and funcjamental decrees of humanity, 
the Isws or spiritual Mature, those words, or (aws, which . 
"shall never pass away." ' • 

[1831] Our conclusion with reference to the Johanninc 
use of d$tri<a, and the Johaniiijie phrase "/u^at rejecUth mc" 
is that John is almost certainly writing with allukion to 
Luke's tradition "he that rtjecteth you etc," It is also by no 
means improbable that, in the phrase " He that rcjccteth me 
and takethnot my words [into his heart]," he Is alluding to 
the tradition of Mark al)oi)t. Christ's condemnation of the 
Pharisees, "Ye reject the Word of^ God" takirfg it in. its 
broadest sense, not limiting it tp the commandment " Honour 
thy father and thy mother," but taking it as the uttered 
thoughts of the Father in Heaven, expressed from the 
beginning through the Logos, and, recently, by the "words 
(^q/tara)" of the Logos incarnate upon eatih, > ^ ' 

* ,■ 

- ' ,.. 

• ^ ) 

jai 3»— » ' 


^'■'.' V*a 



- A 


LgreeXi^nts' ■ 

■ - 

Mk U. jiS 

A Mk. 



[1832] agrrim' ^ 2 S(rep.)'"l 

(433$) , 3 :• 1* 'i 
[1833] •i.Xiy.iuM.^ ; I > J 

*Aaivu> "l ' 

I . 

, 1 . 

. r 

; I, -. 

. I 

' [1832(7,] An asterisk denotes that the same word is used in different 
senses by J«-Mk atld Lk., g.j^. tXawu Mk vi, 48, Jn vi. 19 "row," but Lk. 
viih 39 '-' driven [by an evil spirit]* : t denotes a parallelism, ? + a quaii- 
parallelism. For other signs, see the foot-notes. 

' ' [ISSSo] '\Smit, "reject," see 1823—31. It is used with accus. 
of pers., only ih Mk vi. 26, Lk. x. 16, Jn xii. 48, 1 Thess. iv. 8. In Mk vi. 
2(ijt perh. means "break faith with her," as in Jerem. xii. 6, LaDi. i. 3 (K). 
TjOtrtftrap aiirfjf. 

' 'Airop<«i, Mk vf. JO (act), Lk. xxiv. 4 ajitl Jn xiii. J2.(mld.). 

« [1832^] 'Afimitara, "spices," in Mk xvi. i, Lk. xxiii. 56, xxiv. 1, refers 
to " spices" prepared by the women for the body of Jesus and brought to 
the tomb on the momini; of the Resurrection ; in Jn xix. 40 it refers to 
"spices" used by Joseph and Nicodetnus in entombing ^the body. ■ 
Mt. xxviii. I (pamll. to Mk xyk 1 ) mentions no '.' spices," and says that the 
women came simply " to ^'^)/r^ the grave." . 

' '\niul(a is in the Parable of the Viiieyard, .Mk xii. 4, Lk. xx. ir 
" /realftl //isgr,uY/u//y," in Jn viii. 49 "But it' liisliaHour mc." 

" [1632 c] Au yti'pw, " quite rouse," or " rouse up," is used of Jesus tii 
the Stilling of the Storm .Mk iv. 39, Lk. yiii. 24 (A«) " Thty raiused kim 
up. ..He 7nt.( roujcrf »/ and rebuked the wind" : Jn has in the Walking on 
the Waters, (vi. 18) "»rhe sea— by reason of a great wind blowing— was 
roused up." Outside 2 I'et. (i. 1 3, iii. i ) the word does not occur elsewhere 
in N.T., and it does not occur at all in ctnon. L.\X. 

' [1833 n] 'eMyo/uu, in Lk., occurs only once in Christ's words, Lk. x. 
43 " Mary AdM chosen the good part." Lk.'s other in^ances are vl! I J 
■' ''^having chosen twelve," ix. 35 " my ckdscn son," xiv. 7 " they chose the 
first scats." Sec 1709 b.' 

" [1838 1^] 'EXavKu in Mk vi. 48, Jn vi. 19, is used of the disciples 
"towing" in the Walking on the Waters (Mr. xir. 24 has " by the .waves).' 
Lk. viii. 29^ has the word in a dUTerent sense, "He was driven by the ' 

. » [1833V] 'Eititfu/u'« in Mkiv. 19, Jn viii. 44, means "lusts"; Lk. xxii. 
1 5 is different, " with desire have 1 desired to eat this passorer." - 

'■.' ,.- „, ■ ,;. ■v.,.3i»«-' "r-;- .,■-' ■:■■'':■'. 

TO JOHN, MARK. AND tUKE \ fl884]' 

"• ' ' 

Mk Lk. 




+ V"«' " 

1 1 


3 ^X, 


,* V^ 



- ■ * 

(ITM^-rf) 3 

1 IT 


1 » 

_ t . 

irct^KOi'ra I ■ 

3 > 


3 «. 


. vpa^atf^ 1 

I 1 


..««p(Chri.)« J 

3 7 

'■■ . afl9B«).r 

■ > ' ' ■ '■" ... ( 


■:'->;''■: -v'''. 

.- '.;-:': • 

' [laaSdl'liiAt, "latehet," in MW i. 7, Lk. iii. i6,^Jn i. a; abput 
"looting" the " latchtl of the shoe," Where Mt. iii. II hat "<•(«•»>• 
(jSairTftiriu) the shoes." (i) *^ Loosing \\i^ shoe,'%ind (2) ^carrying bathing 
utensils to the bath " were recognised duties of a slave to his master. 
'Possibly Mt. has confused and combined parts of the twd^ 'In any ctsc, 
Jn follows MIc (and Lk.) as aifainitMC 

' [1833 ^j Katffl^KT/iur, *'puri6cation/' occurs in the Cure of a Leper, 
Mk i. 44, Lk. V. 14 ".Shew thyself to the priest and offer (oncerning Ihy 
purifiiiUion" where Mt. >iii. 4 has " Shew thyself to the priest and offer 
Iht gift' The other instances are Lk. ii. 13, Jn ii. 6, iii. 25. J n nowhere 
mentions lepers or anything connected with thcni, . . 

' [ISSfd] Kordoi^h "lie [sick]," Is used by Mk i. 30, where the 
parall. Mt. viii. 14 has 3«3XimmVi}i', " prostraUd \ivitk sii-kness^ and the 
parall. Lk. iv-.38 ■rvrf^oWi";. 'n the Healing of the Paralytic, Jlk ii^ 4" 
describes the Jetting down of "the pallet where the paralytic hy" (Ml. ix. 
3 has, again, '^prostrated"). Lk., at the end of the story, says (Lie v. 25) 
** He took up that on which he hy [jiVjfr]." Jn, in the, quasi-parallel - 
Healing of the liian with an "infirmity,". uses «. twice (Jn v. 3 — *t 
Kar/kfiro irXT^uff rSay aa6ivmivTm¥.,.T0vrav liitv i *\ifaovs taramifkivoy, . 

[1834^] Kardsft^i is used .also in Mk ii. 15, xiv. 3, Lk. v. 39, vii. 37 
and I Cor. viii. to of "lying [at table]"; and for this reasoii Mt- 'nay 
have preferred another word. As regards jMJc, Lk.. and Jn, the facts 
prove ndthihg except that they did not object to using the word (though 
ambiguous) in the s^nse of " lie [sick]." . 

' [1834 1] BKritos, " multitude," occurs in Mkiii. ?, 8 iroXirVX^tfot, and 
wX^ot iroXi;, of the muhiiudes coming to Jesus, Jn v. 3 rX^ffoi of the sick. 
XiK^jBoi l)i8imy wokv is in Lk. v. 6, and dwa roii irX^ovr rwf ^i](0vw in Jn 
xxi. 6, describing a miraculous draught of fishes (Lk. long before, Jn soon - 
after, the Kesurrectio'n). ■_ - " 

' [1834(/] npd^it, "pretext," Is in Xlk xii.'40^ Lk.'xi. 47 wpofift, 
luXKpa ir/KNTVvx(>M**'<H, Jn XV. 22 npij^Huriir oiiK t;|[OMrti'. 

' [18J4*] 'VHfp, "water" (in Christ's words), occurt in- Mk xiv. 13^- 
Lk. xxiisjo "There shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of waUr.^ 
Mt. xxvl. 18 omits the whole sentence. See 1728 A 

1 ' f ■ ' ■ 

. -.y-^ . 3'i ■.: .■■.-...:'..'. 




§4. '"The Holy Ont of Gad" 

[183S] To these- words maybe added the phrase <!<yio« 
ToD 6tm, " the Holy One of God," applied to our Lord by ' 
a demoniac in ^^jark and Luke", and used by John in I'eters 
Confession, "We. ..know that thou arX tlu Holy Out ef God'." 

"' Mk i. 24, Lk. iv. 34, " Ha* thou'come to destroy mf I know thee 
mYio l^iov Alt, iMe.Hoty One of Ood." •-»-. 

> [1896it] Jn vi. bif: Aaron is called (I's. cvi. t6) "/*e hmy One of 
God,", apparently with reference to Numb. xvf. 5—7 "The,inan whom the 
l«rd shall choose, he shall be iofy." Comp. Jn x. 36 "Whom the Father 
itaiit kiify (^^ylaam) and sent into the world." Peter's confession (in Ji> 
yi. 69) seems to imply in the first part a Prophet (" thou hast the words of 
eternal life") and in the second part the ideal Priest ("the Holy One of 
:God"). ■,- 

[1835^] (t is interesting to contrast the two stories~-perfectly 
compatible with each other, and perhaps even complementary— in which 
Ptteris rcpn^enleU by Luke as s,iying at first (v. 8) "Depart from me, ' 
for I am a sinful man, Lord ' " while, later on, John (vi '67) represents 
Jesus as saying to the Disciples " Do ye also desire to tlep.irt > ' and Peter 
replies, in effect, refusing to depart (" Lord, to whom shall we go? ) 





. . AN0,LukE" ■■; ■";■■ :v:^ ■'•■■.; :■ 

5 I. Verbal agrumeiits numerous, but paralMisms 
Hmi-exislttit ■;''■; 

il8S6] The list of wofds peculiar tri Johh^^Matthew, and 
Luke, is longer than any of the last five lists. This is not 
surprisiht;, since three Gospels deal largely or mainly 
with the words of the i-ord, whereas Mark deals mainly with 
the acts. Acts may with advantage be variously reported, 
and we lean) much about' them from a variety of reporters 
describing various asi«K:ts of the same thing. Wor<ls are best 
reported just as they arc uttered. We cannot therefore be 
surpri.sed that the three long Gospels that attempt to record 
Christ's words contain such words as " hallow " (pr " sanctify"), 
tWe verb "sjn," the noun "love," and such words as "Jigbt" 
and " darkness " in a metaphorical sense etc. What is re-' 
markable is, that in the whole 'of the long Vocabulary given 
below we shall not find a single word (1866 (i) foil,) of which 
VDt can confidently say that it is used in the same context in 
,faralltl passages of John, Matthew, and Luke, apart from Mark. 

[1837] Yet the list will not be without use in more ways 
than one. In the first place, it will shew the limited scope of 
Mark, by exhibiting the words that he never uses — except 

3*5^ ■■■.■;-, v-V.- '.■.■■ 



perhaps in a quotation or some quite subordinate fashion' — 
and it will indicate how much needed to be Supplied by 
subsequent Evanf^elists in order to elucidate Christ's doctrine. 
In the next place, by giving us a bird's-eye view of the 
common vocabulary of the three " doctrinal Gospels," as we 
may call thietn^— and./by shewing that, whereas the two 
Synoptists (Matthew and Luke) agrefe almost verbatim for 
sentences and even for short sections, the Fourth, evep while 
using the same vocabulary, rarely or never uses it in the same 
context — it may lead us to appreciate, by contrast, the 
significance of John's frequent parallelism with Mark, with 
whose vocabulary he has so little in common. 

[1838] Large parts of the Double' Tradition, beautiful 
though they are, have no direct bearing on Christ's uniqiie 
nature, mission, and doctrine. The exhortations, for example, 
not to be anxious about the morrow, might have proceeded 
from Hillel, or John the Baptist, or Epictetus*. Not much is- 
to be learned from a comparison of the vocabulary of these 
pas-sages with the vocabulary of the Fourth Go3|)el. The 
Sermon on the Mount is full of concrete terms such as "lilies," 
" spin," " barn," ." oven," not. uSed by John, nor entitled to a 
place below, and omitted because thtir insertion would teacfi- 
the reader nothing except what he knows already, that the 
author of the Fourth Gospel does not deal largely in such 
particularities, yut the insertion of a few im{X)rtant abstract 
or doctrinal terms used by Matthew and Luke but not by, 
John may throw light on differenfes of doctrine or differences 
in expressing it. Some of these— though not strictly entitled 

< [1837a] E.g. the word "peace" is nowhere jh Mk except ifl Mk v. ' 
34 " Go in peace/' and " Abraham " nonihere except in a quAtation about 
(Ex. iii. 6, quoted in Mk xii. 36) "The God of A. and of Isaac and of 

■ Comp. Epici. iii. 22. 69 " the philosopher mult be devoted with hit 
whole being and without distraction to ^he ser\'ice of God," and (iii. 26. 
38) "God doth not fail to care for them that serve Hiro." 

• 326 - H 



_ — .. ::__ — _ . . 4 — -~^. — — : — ---; 

to a place fn thi|' Vocabulary— ^rc given below in Greek, and- 
are inserted here in Englbli alphabetical order with their 
Greek eqOivalcnts;;::^- 

A\m3 tKtriiuiaviii), angry ^to be) 0/971 {Vs'tfot. babes i^idi, 
beseech Sioftai, brother (thy) (metaph.) aS«\^ot (rov, enemy 
ix^po^, gather o-u\X<70), humble (adj. and vh.) Tawtti>6<i, -ow, 
justify SiKotia, mercy IXttK, prudent if>p6»tito<i, understanding 
(adj.) o-vivrw, wisdom (Chri,) (To^to, wise <re^. 

§2. "Lay tie Aeadio rtst"' : 

[1839] It was shewn above (1451—8), that this phrase is , 
not known to exi«t in Greek literature (including the LXX) 
«utside the Gospels, and an attempt was made to prove that 
it is used by John in the sense in which all admit it to have 
been used by Mattbew and Luk^(" lay the head to rest "). 
Only, whereas the two,earlier Evangelists employ it literally, 
the fourth Evangelist applied it .spiritually to our Lord's 
finding rest for His head on the bosom of the "Father. So 
it was maintained above. But now, if it appears that this is 
the only phrase peculiar to John, Matthew, and Luke, and 
that the contexts are not parallel, the reader may naturally 
say, " Unique exceptions are always to be suspected. The 
abstinence of the Fourth Gospel from the phrases of the 
Double Tradition of Matthew and Luke is so complete 
that it does not 'seem antecedently probable that this single was borrowed. We admit that kXuxu ic(^d\iji> cannot 
be rendered otherwise than ' lay the head to rest' But that 
■Meaning may have been much more common in the first 
century than- we suppose, John may have used the phrase 
thus without any allusion to Matthew and Luke. And this 
is all the more probable because there is no connexion or 
affinity of thought between the contexts in the Double 
Tradition and John." ' . ■•;.* 


[18M] This objection may be partly answered by shewing 
th^t there is an affinity of thought— thoMRh latent — between 
the two contexts. The former, the Dolible Tradition, spealts 
of " following." Acqording to Matthew (and Luke is very ' 
similar) a "scribe" said to Jesus "Teacher, I will follow thee 
whithersoever thou art departing." To this He. replied, "The 
foxes have holes and the birds 'of the heaven nests but the Son 
of man hath not where to lay his head '." This appears to mean 
(some\yhat as Chrysostom suggests) " You expect to follow 
me to a palace and to share in the conquests of the Messiah, 
but I have not even a home of my own." But does this 
exhaust the meaning.' Ooes it even cxpresi; the meaning — 
if we arc to take the- words in their mere literal — ' 
without exaggeration.' Literally speaking, were there not 
many place^ where the Son Of man could "lay his head"? 

[1841] Origen's allusion to the words, although fancifully 
expressed, seems to touch the spiritual truth at the bottom of 
them when he says that Jesus could not "lay his head" in 
Jerusalem but only in Bethany as being "the House of 
Obedience'." That is to say, the Lord found rest and repose 
in obeying and doing the will of the Father. This harmonizes 
with the words, "My meat is to do the will of him that sent 
me." The " scribe," if Chryiiostom's view is correct, .supposed 
that a literal "following" wiis to end in a "laying of the head ' 
to rest" in a literal palace. Jesus replies that, in th>it sense. 
He has "no place to lay his head" on earth. That final rest 
could only come when the labour on earth was accofnplished 

' [UtO>*l Ml. viii. 19 — 30.' Lk. ix. 57^ sutalitutes "going- in Ih* 
u'aj>" ibt "scriic" Perhaps thtre was some early confusion between 
(Mt.) "a guide in the way [of ^he Law]," i.e. oiii causing to g^ and 
(Lk.) "going." . . 

' Origen (on Mt. xxi. 37) Huet i. 446 c, where see the context. He 
seems to mean that Jerusalem was a House of Disobedience tiecauio the 
disobedient resided in it, and Bethany a House of Obedience, partly 
tiecause of his interpretation of the nam^ partly because of the obedience 
of the disciples residing there. 



I the laboui^ rested In the bosom of the Father. Accord- 
; to this view, our Lord, in His reply to the scribe, does riot 
ean to insist on the fact that He had rfo fixed abode of His 
vn, and, still less, to suggest that there were not many 
ends and devoted disciples ready to give Him hospitality. 
lis real meaning was that, in the scribe's sense of the term, 
I Son of man had no " resting-place." 
[1642] It was, of course, inevitable that the Apostles and 
f issionarics of the first century would often be able to say, 
*h St Paul, in a literal sense, "We both hunger and thirst 
nd are^'naked and are buffeted and have no cerfam duvlliiig 
place'!' But by the end ofNhat century there would inevit- 
ably be some, of vagrant dispositioB, to whom the absence of, 
a " certain dwelling place " would not be unwelcome provided 
that it did not bring with it " hunger and thirst " : and 
accordingly we find the Teaching of the Apostles forbidding 
believers to entertain' any missionary ,'or, as it says, "apostle," 
for more- than two days'. Long before that precept was 
written, it would probably be necessary to warn some converts 
against suppo.sing that they were " following" Chriijt by merely 
making themselves homeless " apostles." Tte Synoptists, it 
is true, emphasize Christ's saying that " follvwing" must go 
with "tUking up the cross": but, even there, Luke thinks it 
desirable to warn his readers that they must " take up the cross 
daily*!' ■ - 

[1843] John brings out the true meaning of "following" 
in a dialogue between gur Lord and Ppter, who does not 
indeed (like the " scribe ") proclaitil that he ivill " follow," 
but asks " Why cannot I follow thee now.? I' will lay down- 


• Diiliuh. «i. 3— 5. 

' MkViii. 34, Mr. xvi. 24, Lk. ix. 33, " If anjr one dniretti t« cotnc 
(Mk Mt. /X*fi», Lk. tpx'afat i.e. come daily, 'UMc) after me, let him deny 
himself and take up his cross (Lk ^- daily, tag' lil"P<") >■>'' follow me " 


-1te^ifc13»fti_ A%.i^'S^j}, 1 kii. _% j.j:_.* . 



my lire Tor thee'." Jesiis had, at an earlier period, told the 
Jews that they could not follow Him, and He has just 
declared that it ApjSlics to the disciples also for the present*. 
It ia this that elicits Peter's vehement question. No direct 
answer is given to it'. But the Washing of Feet taken 
'with it» sequel constitutes an indirect answer, namely, that 
"following" the Son means serving the Son, and, serving 
the Son means serving the brethren with the love with 
which He loved and served them*. This doctrine is carried 
on to the last page of the Gospel. Peter is warned that, in 
his own case, " following " will lead him to the cross. But he 
" turns and sees " the other disciple also " following " — thj one 
that used to lie on the breast of Jesus. Then he learns that 
this disciple may (icrhaps " tarry " till the Lord comes, so that 
it is possible to " follow " Him in flnariy wayi! 

[1844] If it is admitted that the Fourth Gospel contains 
a great deal that bears on the right and the wrong kind of 
"following," then it will hardly be denied that this particular 
tradition about the "scribe," who did not know what 
"following" meant, would probably attract the Evangelist's 
attention. It would be so likely to be misunderstood by 
opposite parties; The enemies of Christ might take it as 
a jnere pathetic self-deploration, " I have no home, no resting- 
place I" False apostles might allege it aS an excuse for 
-^ — — -— ■ • — ^ :— ^ '■ — 

* Jn xiiL 37. , This was exactly true. The Apostle <i6i/" lay down hit 
life" thus, .ind Christ does liot deny it in His reply. Uc. (xxii. 33^ 
represents I'cter as saying "I am nli^ >o go both 10 prison and to 
death." This was not eiiactly true. TWk Apostle w^x no/ " ready." - 

' Jn xiii. 33 "Even as I said to the jiwi, >\Vhet» I t!0 ye cannot 
come,' [so] I sly to you also now." 

' The answer is Jn xiii. 38 "Thou ■uHlt lay dmun thy lift for nu! 
Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall surely not Crow till thou 
hast thrice denied me." The italicised words are half exclamation, half 
interrogation (2236 foil.). Later on (xxi. iS— 19), the Lord commands and 
predicts that the Apostle tc/// 'I follow" Him on the way 10 the Cross. 

* Jnxiii, 34, XV. n. " . : ■ 


vagrancy. It might close the minds of literalists and simpk 
people against the conception of the trUe rest and the true 
resting-place. An old tradition quoted by Clemeht of 
Alexandria and found in recently discovered Logia represents 
Christ as saying " He that rtigns shall reitK" Justin Martyr 
twice quotes a tradition auociating* the " nigu" with the 
"cross*." The Epistle to the Romans speaks of "suffering 
with [Christ^ that we may he glorified ^ith" Him'. The 
^cotut Epistle to Timothy mentions together "enduring" 
{with Christ] and "rfip'ing with" Him, apparently as part 
of a "faithful saying'." All these traditions, outside the 
Gospels, shew how natural it would be to regard Jesus as 
beginning on the Cross His "rest" as well as His "reign." 
[18i6] The Double Tradition and the Fourth Gospel, if 
both are regarded. as referring to the "resting" of Christ, 
harmonize with these early traditions — which they may have 
helped to originate — as well as with 'each other. But if in the 
Joltannine passage we substitute " bowing the head in submis- 
sion," instead of "laying the head to, rest," we disconnect it 
from these external traditions amid which it finds a natui'al 
. place,- and coniiect it with such iloctrine as that of the ' 
Epistle to the Hebrews, "He learned ' obedience through,' 
the things that he suffered'" — which is not the a.spect 
presented by the Fourth Gospel. Thert is no Gospel that 
so consistently as the Fourth associates crucifixion with 
"reigning" by describing it as " glorifying " ^nd "lifting up." 
[1M6] These considerations may suffice to answer the 
objection that "there is no connexion or affinity of thought" 
between the contexts of the phrase uijder discussion in John 
and the Double Jradition. For the rest, it has been pointed 

' Clem. 455 and 704. 

* RoiTi. viii, 
"S* Heb. V. 8. 

' Clem. 455 and 704. , " 

' Apel- % 41 and Tryph. § 73, erronepuiljrquoting Ps. jKvi. (seecontejt). 

' Rom. viii. 17. • 1 Tim., it. .11 




out that John does Intervene more tlun once io important 
doctrines of the Double Traditipn— »««:h as the relation 
between the "friends" and the "gcrvahts" of Christ 
(1784— »8), the meaning of "hating one's own Ufe" and 
the circumstances in which such "hate" is justified (1450), 
and also as regards the doctrine of " rejection " added by 
Luke in the Double Tradition where Matthew confines 
himself to the doctrine of "receiving" (1823—81). The 
diflerehce was that in these, cases Matthew and Luke did 
not agree in the use of the- particular words repeated by 
John, whereas her<j Matthew and Luke do thus agree. 
Matthew for examf^Ie (1784) had- "bond-servant," Luke 
had " friends," and John repeated ^th terms. Here John 
repeats a couple of *i«)»ds in which the two agree. Such 
a repetition, though unique, is, : under the circumstanced, not 
very surprising. 

§3. John-Matlhew-Liike Agreements {{n $nglish\.,. 

* [1847] From what has been said, it will be inferred that 
comparatively little information of a critical kindwill be 
d^ived from the Vocabulary given below. Its main restOts 
will be to shew what a large province of doctrine Mark left 
untouched ; how many rvordi Matthew, Luke, and John have 
in common ; how often Matthew and Luke agree r-erhatim ; 
and how absolutely John refrains from 'ttsing ti\e\x p/irases or 
expressing their thoughts in tlu same way. These facts, 
however, are »f some interest in themselves, and they can 
be made clear to readers unacquainted with Greek. For 
their sakes, the words will be given first in English alpha- 
betical order' and with the sign (iiWsignifyiqg " Double " — 
attached to those words~that occur in parallel passages of 

' This lilt will not include, particles, such u yf, given below in the 
Greek, list alone. . • 

ISt'* '"Ji-j ■■•'■ ; ' ' "' ^ -.;( 

.■•■'•■ ^ ■'".' i 


the Matthe»(,Luke Double Tradition. The Greek equfvaliAt 
will be added so that the ifcader may pass from this Hat td 
' the Greek lisV and its foot-notes, which followlat^ on. 

[1B48] (ii) WIT (Abraham' 'A/3pod^, (ii) age (or stature]^ 
^Xutui.'another (s, other), asleep (to fall) xoi/iiio^t, as9 JvoT. 

(.') Bear (a child) nicra, (ii) behold, Btao/un, Beth- ; 
lehem "^SXtiit, (ii) blessed /taxnpuit, blow (or breathe) vviu, J 
(ii) bondage (to be in) Sav\<iioi, bone iariov, (ii) '.'boy "•.»«!«, 
(ii) bride vi//i^i;, burn naltt. 

Caiaphas Kain'^r, (ii) clean «f0ap^, (il) come ((itm, 
iii) confers' o/u>Vo7f«, (ii) cubit w^;^. 

In) Darkness (metapli.) VKorla, trKorm, (ii) dash (s. slum- -i 
blfe),(ii) devil ««<i/9(.XOT. * *' *■ I 

Ear <uWoi<, (ii) exalt (or lift up) ^o*.' • ■ ' r 

(ii) Faithful irHrrii?, finish T<X^a>, flock Voi/u>ir, (ii) food I 
T|tb^iJ, foundatioii «aTa/9<)Xt;, (ii) friend ^tXo«, furlong ardiio^, 

(ii) Guide (vb.) oii77«o>. .. ■ ■ 

[1849], (ii) Hallow a^ia j;'(>i, hide npivrm, hope (vb,) iK^i(m. U 

Inquire Trwfloro/io*. * •\,\ ' : .. 'V 

■ Joseph (husband of Mary) 'luir^^, (ii) judge (vb.) :«p(ti^; ' 1 

(ii) judgment leploif. ' ■ , . ' 

* (ii) Law KO^JOt, (ii) lay (due's head) «XiW x«^\i;k, (ii) lie 
(i>. be placed) kci/mh, lift up {itaipa, (ii) lift up (or exalt) 
v^oa), (ii) tight (metaph.) ^w«,-*(ii) like (adj.) i/uHas, (ii) lot 
/Mpov, love (n.) dyatnj. ' . i • 

(ii) Mourn Bprjvia, (il) mouth mfi^, murmur TOTyvCai, 
(ii) myslIT- t^wToi;. 

__ — : ; _•- __j__- ,.. . — —J . ^j „-, I 

■ [Ui8<i] Occasionally, a word, ^.^/" Abrabam," that occun in Mark I 
as part of .1 quotation, or in some manner -quite unimportant as comparecT 
wjifiiisBSe-fti the Double Tradition, is included in this list. Such a 
word is 4enoted by "Mk." TJf^ words ' alms," "angry," and a few others, 
non-existent in ]ti, but characteristic of the Double Tradition, have already 
been given in English above (1838) in a separate group^ipnd are not 
repeated here, but in the Creek vocabulary they will b« included with 
-ithe rest. , 

' Not used in N.T. of confessing situ (exopt in i Jn i. 9). 






Nazoraean (for Nazarene) No^w/Mtov. 
(ii)U|(Ik open (vb.) avolytt, (it) other (another^ frtpm, owe 
(Jn ou^t) < 

I o^tKw. 

Pass /MTa/9aiW, (ii) M(c peace tt'/»;virT(ii) 'persecute SmI««, 
present (I am) iraptifu. , \ . • . 

[18(0] (li) Reap 6tpi^a, rejoice greatly (>YaXXia#. reprove 
tfiiyya, remember luiunjaKofuu, (ii) reveal airoicaXvTriru, right- 
eousness hucaioavvrt, ruler (Jewish) (sing.) Apx^v, « "* 

Samaritan Sa>taf)«'Ti;4 (ii) sanctify i^U^a, (ii) I scatter 
aKOpiH^m, (ii).servc (s. boncragel shut KKtit, sickness d&$ivtta, 
(ii) sin (vb.) aimpraim, sit i^^e^o^wu, sleep (n.) \C1ry9T, 
(ii) Solomon SoXo/Mty, strange[)|) oXXiT/uat, suffice ilpiM, 'm 
(ii) stumble irpo<r«olrra). \ i "^ 

Tend (as a shepherd) Toi/uiiixuVe^tify napnrvpim, (ii)ithief .' 
(tXefl-Ti)?, (ii) toil (vb.) xmritim, turn rWind (to speak) arpi^. 

Wedding (feast) lyaiittc^ witness, bi^ar (s- testify^ (ii) \—"' 
\vK(K, (11) worthy afiot, wrap (?) ivrvXi^ait (MM (1^ 


voir . 

I '.'iH 






(ii) ddfX^ff aov* 




(ii) *»-;«' 

' [18S1 a,] Words marked (ii) occur at leatt once in ptxralM passages 
of the Double Tradition «f Matthew and Luke, e.g, irpa^u^ Mt. vi. 9, 
Lk. xi. 2, ** HiUtttwed be thy nan\e." These are often -given in Gk to 
shew verbatim agreement or the nature of disagreement. 

The words distinguished by " Mk " occur in Mk, but only ip quotations 
of O.T. or in such other special circumstances that it did not seem good 
to omit the word from a list attempting to give a genw^al view of the 
Jn-Mt-Lk. vocabulary. ' 

A few words non-existent in Jn have been inserted in special cases 
{e.g. (x'pw, <ra^'a) where they seemed likely to throw light on lh«> relation 
ofJtitoMt.-Lk. (1838). 

"Pec." means that the context is peculiar to the single Evangelist Ml. 

' [I8U11] 'A/9/xiii(» is included because its single occurrence in Mk 
(xii. 36) is a quotation (parall. to Mt. xxii, 53, Lk. xx. 37). Six of the 
insunces in Lk. are in the story of Lazarus. The instances in Jn are all 
in viii. 33 — $8. ' The paralL instances in Double Tradition are Mt. iri. 9, 
Lk. iii. 8 waripa fx^M'** ^"^ 'A.-^tytiprn r/Kfii r^ 'A., and Mt. viii. II (sim. 
LIl xiii. 38) apaK\t0ii<ra¥fiii fxira 'A. «. 'ItFoax «. 'taxSijS. 

' [18Ui] 'A^XXioM, Mt. V. 12 X!"P"{ '■ <>><iAXiatr4<, Lk- i. 47 
^yaiJuar*!' ri wirniid futv iVi rf $t^, ^-^V '" "^^ ''17 ^*"f qyaXXuitraro r^ . 
- W¥*iiusTt r^ 4yi^ Jn v. 3$ vfuls d< IftftXriatrt* o^dtXtatf^vot npits ^iHW Jir r, 
^ifirt avraVf viii. $6'Afiftoafi...^ya\XtiiraTo Ua ttlfi^.. ^ 

* [18Slr] .'Aydirij, Mt. xxiv. Is ^vyfivwrat 9 ^vi; r. itoAAmv. In 
' Lk. xi. 4i irap4ftj^tir0< r. npiaiv ka\ r. ayawijy r. finv, the paralt Mt. xxiii. 

33 has d^fiKon T. ^pvTfftn r. ¥ffpunt, r. itfMii¥ na't r. JXini itai T.'nurTt¥. 

* 'Ayui(«, Ml. vi. 9, Lk. xi. 3 6ytafftHtTM rA ivoita irov. 

* [1861>/] 'AJfX^t mnt, " thy brother," (metaph.) occurs in Mt. vii. 3,,. 
4, ;, Lk. vi. 41, 43 (WjJ about "the mote in /Ay brother's eye," and 
in Mt. xviii. ij (bis), Lk. xvii. 3 "if thy br«lher%\n against thee." It 

'^Kcurs also in Mt. v. 33-.-4 i^is) "be reconciled to thy brother.^- 
' '^J)i)c, Ml. xi. 3], Lk. x. 15 nil (Lk. 4-roi)) fjov tnrioit^. 
■ 'AXXitrpwf, Lk. xvi. 13 Vr ry liXXar^if (neut.) : in Mtjn it it irilK. 

• A. V. 






1 . 





I,k. Jn 

1 W«» . 






2 . 




(ii) <i>o.>'(Mk) 1 1 
(iOiJiroKaXiVrM* 4 


(sing.) 3 
y." 4 

7 " 
5 - I 

2 or 3 1 
2 I 

8 1 


I [USSo]. 'Afuprdni, M't. xvili. ij, 21 "if thy.brathcT aV "how 
ny timn shall my brother sin against mc," lim. parall. Lk. >vii. 3—4- 
lln has.v. 14 "5/(» no more.'^ix. i—a "Who did sin, this man or hii- 
nacfents...? Neither <//^ this man ji'iv nor his parents." It also occurs In 
Jn[viii. 11]., • , 

' [U82i] 'Kroiy. Included in this list (though it occurs once in 
Mk (rii. 35) tinolyifirtir almi ai JfoaC) because it is in the parall. Mt. vii. , 
17 — 8, Lk. xh 9—10 "knock and it shall be opiiud.' In Jn it is always 
used of the opening of the eyes -of the man born blind, except in i. Ji 
f'the heaven oftntd," x. 3 "to him the porter ofxiulh." In Jn i. ji ft 
maybe used (646 n) to mean " permanently opened " in contrast to the 
hiomentary "opening," or (Mk i. 10) "rending," manifesiol to the 
JBaptist. If so, the Johannine allusion would be to the Triple Tradition. 
j * "a^ios occurs in the parall. Mt iii. 8, Lk. iii. 8 a. r^« ^tfuvotdr, and 
jMt. X. 10,' Lie X. 7 d. yaf) o f^ryitnfr, also in Jn i. 27 of ot* fiffi ^idt 
l(Mk-Mt.*Lk. IxoinIc) Xvu Xmtm avroO rAi> X^kvrxt rm virottiifiamt. 
I * 'KirotaXvwTt, Mt. x. 26, Lk. xii. 2 " there is nothing covered that 
j shall not be rmtaled," and Mt. xi. 25— 7 (*«>;), Lk. x. 21—2 (Ut) «a! 

i dtrrauiXut^iir avra •'7irt'(Hr. . .^ iiv (Lk. Af ) ^ovXi^w d t'loc dwoRoXvlfr*. In 

I Jn only xii. 38 quoting Is. liii, I "T« whom hath thearm of the Loid 

I been revtaled}" 

' * 'Apm'a, Mt. XXV. 9 (pec), Lk. iii. 14 (pec.), Jn vi. 7, xiv. 8. 

\ ' [1852 c] 'Kpx" sinK' meaning " ruler of the Jews," " of a >ynag6gu(" 
etc., occurs in Mt. ix. 18 (rep. iik 23) 'Vx*"' Lk. viii, 41 Hpx***^^ "v^nyriti * 
but Mk V. 22 has tUruw d[p;(Mrvro'y«tf^v, so that practically Mk, too, has 
*ipX'**- '^ occur* in jn iii. i ^tK6^fun...fyxmtrmv *lovdai'«i'. In Triple 
Trjiditiun, Lk. xviii. 18 nt, ..ipxf (^^ '^ ■?■ ^''' "'"' '^ '^'^ ""^ '" 
Double Tradition Lk. xii.. j8 4irdy««...«ir' i^p^orni (Ml. v, jj diff.) prob. 
mean a Jewish " ruler." On"4pjfo»T«f (Jewish) pi. see 1768 rf. 

^ 'Aff^rflui, in Mt., only in viii. 17 o^r^ r, *<i<rtffvffutr V**" fX»ftr¥, 
quoting Is. liii. 4 (Heb). 

• BiitMit, in Jn, only in iriL 41 '* Hath not the Scripture said that the 
Christ cometh...from BiUiUlum...} " The qiikstion i* urged as an objec- 
tion against those who said " This is the Christ." 

* rofuc, in Jn ii. 1^2 (sing.) of the marriage in Cana. It is pi. in Mt 
and Lk. exc. Mt xxii. 8, II, 12. •• 

" [18(3 a] r«, in Jn, only in it. 2 xninxyi (firuder p. 146 «iifm y») 

■■■■■ >-■ .336' ■ ' AJ-' . 



Ml. U. Jn 




[18M] (ii) ^n^oXof > 

• * 


(ii) ai«u<i>> 


(ii) imiXnm' 



[18»] A/yx-' 



Mt. Lk. Jn 

{li)i4ofiai* I 8 O 

^iKOUxri/vif* 7 I 2 

*(ii)d*««#' 6 3 3 

{ii)flpiir,»{Mk) 4 i3+{[in6 
AciM*Mrvi|9 330 

a compound unique in N.T. liut xWrot is in Acts xiv. 1/, Hcb. iv. 3. r< 
occurs in the Triple Tradition in Mt. iit. i?, Lk. v. 3^ 37 tlbi piryr(parail. 
Mk.ii. 31 »l6i ^^); also in Lie's version (x. 6) of Double Tradition (parall. 
Mt. X. 13 «a¥ df fuj) ; and in Mt. pec. and Lk. pec. ^ . 

* Toyyv(m, Mt. xx. 1 1 (of the labourers in a parable), Lk. v.. 30 (o( " the 
Pharisees and their scribes "). , ' ■ ' " 

' ^'o^(, non-occurrcnt in Jn (1667) but in Mt. ix. 38I Uc. x. 3 dfijAfTt 

oiv rot KVftinv r'oi $rpitrftov. , ' 

' [18M(i] Atd/3oXor, Ml iv. 1 — 11, (siqg.) Lk. iv. 3— i3(of the Tempta- 
tion); 'also in Mt's Single Tradition xiii. 39, xxv. 41; and in the 
explanation of the parable of the Sower Lk. viii. I3 o fUafioXot (paralt. 
Mk iv. \f$ di, 3Eararar, Mt. xiii. 19 6 wovripAt). Jn yi. 70 "One of you is 
a dtinli" viii. 44 " Ye are of your father tht devUi* xiii. 3 *' The drvU 
havlhg now put if into' the heart of Judas.** 

* [1854d] AiKa*6irii|.i/, Lk. i. 75, Jn xvi. 8—10 (on "conviction"). -In- 
paralL-to Mt t. 6 '* hunger... after r{ghtebusntss^ Lk vi. 21 hat "hunger 
-rMv." (See 1691 «■.) ^ ." 

* AiKoiow. Mt. xi. 19 ihixamBrt 9 (tm^io airA rmv 7fiytt¥ ai^r^r, parall. 
IM. vii.' 35 «fiiKaiot$t} ff trtrt^a airo wdtTmy rwc t/kvaii' avr^s. 

*.[18Mr] AiwKw. Mt. xxiii. 34 t( aiiritf Awourtft'tT^. km -trTttxIfmuriri... 
Kot 6m^* airii iri>X(*)r ci'c wSKiw^ parall. Lk. xi. 49 «'( avrmi' iwmtrtyitvoiv 
icai tim$ov<Ttv. Jn v, 16 Ika rovro /At'aiKur 01 'IovAouh rvw^'ltfirovi', xv. 20 <j 
ifU fd(»^v KOI i/fias du*^v(rir. . 

T [ldM</] AavXctW, Mt. vi. 34(3i>), Lk. xvi. i3(Mf) e(a«it(Lk.'+o2Ktfn)c) 
Apforiu Itvai Kvpiikt dovKt%m»..,ov ivpaa^r 49fy duifXfbiir kqi /uifMavf^ 
Jn viii. 33 oi^pi titiovXtvuafuv iri»iror« (which would bt;, literally^ a 
violation of the precept Ueut. xiii. 4 airr^ liov\ivaaT« (AF, om. by LXX 
in «rror)| 1 S. vij. 3 dot-Xctvart airry ^oi^ but -the Jews mean uvdfci 
AirBpuirf). s "^ " 

** [18Mr] £i»»->r, incl. bccaute its single fKCurrence in Mark is the 
unimportant phrase (Mk.v. ,14) **^o in p^me" whereas it occurs in 
Mt.-Lk. in the important tradition Mt ju 34 (sim. Lk. xJl. $1) "Think 
not that I came to send peace on the earth." Jn xx.. 19, 31, 26 describes 
Jesus AS thrice sa)ing "7V<ti:/ [be] unto you." W.H. insert the clause - 
in double brackctrin Lk-. xktv. 36. / 

" *EXiy;(«, Mt.xviii. 15 " shew him [i.e. thybrother] Ai> /ain//," Lk. iii. . 
19 "[Hetod Antipasl being reproved hy htm [i.e. John thf Baptist "J.- 




Mt. . Lk. 


— . »'" . 1 — ■ 






Avif«> • 1 



(.ii), 'nt«n.* 

I 3 




I 6 





9 c. 34 

(ii)^X<«*'(Mk.) 7 



4 4 

(ii) ^«ia' ■• 1 




•.■ •♦ 3 


Cii)*pif«' 3 






■.~%>fVt>" (Mary'. . 

'/ husband) 7 



' Airi'fia, Mt. xii. 31 quoting Is. xlii. 4 "And in his name siiall Ihe 
Gentiles *<?><•," Jn v. 45 " Mosei on whom ye Anvt uf four Itopt 
(^nUan)." See 8474. ... -fi ■ 

' 'E/iamir, Ml. viii. 9 "having under myttlf soMi^fj^ paralL'M 
Lk. vii. 7—8 (^>), uttered by the centufion whose servant is healed, ' 
In )n it is always uttered by Christ 

' 'Ewai'fMf, In Mt., only xvii. 8 Jna/^mt 6i rovt'&^a)^^if aurfiv. 

' [1886 «] 'Ert^i, Mt. xi. 3, Lk. vii. 19 tj rrrpon tr^imrloivftir (foil, by ' 
Lk. fi nXXsK (marg. frtpow) wpov^utuv^ which, if /lAXgi' is genuine, 
indicates that the disciplts of the llaplisi soCiened his^ensage into 
"Are we to expect another of the same kind?" but the txt is doubtful), 
Mt. xii. 45, Lk. xi. 26 trtfta m'tiftara wonipm-ipa. It occurs, in Jn, only 
in xix. 37 Kai wiiXiv Mpa ypa^ X/yfi, also in Mk App. [xvi. 12). 

° '■f.^tfiit, Mt. V, "44 (I.k. vi. 27, 35) dyo)roT« mit §'</•(»« ir^iw. It 
occurs in'Mk xii. 36 as a (flotation (I's. ex. 1) paralL to Mt, xxii, 44, 
Lk. XX. 43. 

• "H««,. Mt, vUl, if, Lk. it«i, 19 if^wir, Mt. xxiv. 50, Lk, jeR. ^6^,^ 
<J KVfHof T, dot'Xo^.,.. It is. applied by Christ to Himself in Jh viii. 42 iy^ 

yap IK T. 6mv J(iiX0op k6\ iJKU, comp. t Jn V. -20 n viof f. tffw ijKfi, 

Heb. X. 7, 9 9»»(froni Ps. xL 7), Heb. x. 37 i iitx''i"'«t i(tt (from 
Hab. n. 3). 

' 'HXiti'a, Mt, vi, 27, Lk. «ii. 25 "add one cubit unto his s/atkrr." 
Jn-ix. 31, 23 "He is of af/ (^XmV Ixn)." 

• el<■o|l<l^ Mt. xi. 7, Lk. vii. 14 ri iflfXta— tit r^* lp<ii>or ttmaalm j It 
occurs in Mk App. [xvi. 1 1, 14], , * 

> ^fuC", 'Mt. vi. 26, Lk, xii. 24 oi riri^Hwmv otM ttixfrnmir, Mt ran. 
24—6 (Lk. xix, 21 — 2) SifiiCmv owm (l.V. ft) M» lvwiiiutt...iifti(^i' vwmi 
(Lk. Sipi(ai t) oit hmtfui. Jn iv. 36—8 ^3 times) il 4i|i4(«i', (once) f •fn'Cxv. 

'" ApifWa, Ml, xi. 17, L^. vii, 32 ifptltiliTaiul' «ai nf« t'to^aair (Lk. 
(VXovirftrr). In Jn xvi. 20 nXavirfr*' cni fiftifvijtrtTt Iftus. 

" [Ml a] 'liMrij^ (Mar)''s husband), in Mt-Lk., occurs only before 
Christ bettins to preach, exc. Lk. iv. 32 oi-xl vUitimv 'I. nlitvsi which 
rctei)ibl»Jn'ri, 4) w|[iirfnirV>ni'1j}in>vc4vUtl( See 1779 r^ . 






. • 








(ii) Katapoi' 

- 1 

[18Si] .«..>> 









(ii) KorutK^i*' 






. *■■ 

~ 1 



^ ?t (ii) .XiV»" 




> [1857^] Koyw, marked (tii)^cmuse it occurs in Mt. and Lkr. (unlike 
the words marked (ii)) in ihe Triple Tmdilion, where Mk jtt. 39 has 
/mpMi^fTH Iftas !wa Xvyov, but Mt. xxi. 34, Lk. xx. 3 have Jf^^vm vftas 
KoyM X<(yoi> ira (Lk. om. «va) (406 (iii)). It doei not occnr in botKvertiont ' 
of any parallel pa»ages of the Double Tradition of Mt.-Lk. 

' [18fi7c] Kntfci^c, Mt. xxiii. 26 iwa yi^tfrat k. t6 «VrAr attpi Katfa^rir, 
parall. tq Lk- xi. 41 Itioi vavra Kofiapit v/uv mtiV. Lk. omits Mt. v. 8 
tuMKQfum nl KoBapol r*} -KapSi^. In Mt. xxvii. 59 irii^uvi KaBap^, the epithet 
is om. by paralt. Mk xv.^6, Lk. xxiii^ 53. All jn's instances are in the 
Last Discourse, xiii. iti{dis), 11, xv. 3. 

' Ka$i(ofun, applied to the child Jestu in Lk. ii. 46, anij used. by Jesus 
' concerning Himself in Mt. xxvi. ;$. . Mk uses only ndBiffiatt xaBi^. 

* Katdt^c, in Lk., only iii. 2 «V1 d^x>'P<'*" '-^^fty t. Kauiifw (1764 fi). 

' Kalm, in Ml., only v. 15 twii Kaiovmp Xv^imtf ; in Lk.,. only xU. 35 
ttvrmaav vpm¥...a\ Xu^^foi xttiofuvai: Jn V. 35 cal|s' the Uaptist it Xi/^fpi <( 
latofUfor. It means "burn" i^n xv. 6 tit rh nvp (iiiWotur^f «. vaurqi. 

* Kora^oXif, in jn, on)y xvij. 2}f^^0lhnfmi»-itmmf^^jiaTafin\fjt «(^^v. . 
T KuroM^w, Mt. xii. 45, Lk. xi. 36, tlvtXBiWTa ■ 

* Kuptu, Mt. iii. lO^ Lk. iii. 9 ^ a^irrf wfiot r. pi(nr r.^ 

There is some similarity between Jn xx. I3 oiruv fcflcm r6 trApa 1 
£nd Mt. XKviti. 6 r. rbiroi' otrou ?Kfiro (Mk iCvi. 6 & rowot oirou tBtimav nlT> 

* KX<iM, in Jn, only xx. 19, 36 r. Bvpmv KiKXturiUfrnv. 

" IU^im)r,»Mt vi. 19—30 (sim. LR. xii. 33) "wierc tlun>fj break 
throuffh": also Mt. xxiv. 43 (Lk. xii. 39) "if he had known in what watch 
(Lk. hour) the Mi>/' cometh." In Jn.x. 1— 10 "the /Aiyand the robber" 
are contrasted with the Good Shepherd : ii# Jo^ xii. 6 judu licariot is 
said to have been " a M/*^" 

'< [18S6n] KXiVw, marked?! because it is probacy quasi'paraltel. It 
occurs in Mt. viii. 10, Lk. ix. 58 nim fjff* irov r. M^aX^v vXiMf^, jn. xix, ,30 
Kklvnt T. Kt^\tiv wapitiuMty r. wwiifta. Frob. both meaii *' leanintc the 
he«d" in the sense of "finding rest," and jn prefers this expression to 
iKotfufStf "fell asleep (in death)" (1839 — 46). KIsewhere in N.T. it occurs 
only in Lk. ix. iz, xxiv. $, 7% Heb. xi. 34. 

" Kotpdofuu, Mt. xxvii. 53 "the saints that kadfalien asUtp^ xxviii. 13 
"while we nitxt sltepingi^ Lk. xxii. 49 ^^sUr^n^iot sorrow," Jn xi. ii-^l) 
" <tr/ri^...if he xm/oIUh aslttp k* w$/i rttffvtr.^ 





[UN] (ii) toiruW' 
(ii) uplnt' 
(ii) Xitfo«3oX^«' 

(ii) jMKOfHOt ' 





U 15 

(ii) Kpivm* 
(ii) XvKoc* 







■ Koiruiu, Ml. vL }8, Lk. xii. 17 "Ihey Ml not, neither do they ipia.' 
» [ISSftn] K(iir»,Ml. vii. i,"y"4'»'notthatyebenot(Lk."and 
ye shall not be") Judj^eii,' Ml. xix. sS^parall. to. Lk. xxii. 30, but with 
important dilTe'rences in contex^ ^^JKd^'^i! the twelve tribes of Israel." 
Jn contains nu prohibition against "judging," but a prohibition againtt 
judging wrongly and a conVmand to. judge righteously (vii. 34) "Judge 
not according to appearance but judgt rightcdus jujlgment," and Jn adds 
(viii. 1 5) " Ve judge after jhe flesh, I judge no man, and yet if 1 be 
judging my judgment is true." 

^ [1869^] IC/>iinr occurs in Ml xi, 23, Lk. x. 14 Tvpif %q\ Zi^yi a»9Kr6- 
Ttpov itrrai iv iittipif xpi'irfwc (Lk. (V r. xpurai). But Mt. xi. 24 y^ Xodfifiwr 
ityfKrnrf/jol' iorat iv ^fiifiif npiatrnt fj mi, snd Mt. x. 15 avtKT. icrrm y^ Z. 
Kui r. <V fijiipq Kfiia«mt $ r/i nikn i»ti»j], njay taken us i^aratl. to 
Lk. X. 1 2 Xn^ttfUHt iv Tji fjfi. iKtivji ^icr. ttrrnt t) rf/ nAXtt intivj]. Other 
parMKIs are Mt. xii. 41— 2, Lk. xi. 31— 2«VrJ «pi'(r^ (it<j) (and Mt. xxiii. 13 
T. Kftiaiv KOi T. cXcpr Koi-t. tri'irrti', Lk. xi. 42V. xpimv kuI r. Ayainjv r. 4toi). 
The Gospel of Jn seems to define f}-Kpi<rit in iii. 19 as a "loving of \ht 
darkness rather than light "^ it never mentions V^pn KpitriufiMt has 

V. 29 tit avdv^iHv Kpitrtmt and xii. 31 I'i'i' xpiifit iffTif r. m'urfiov rotVov. 

The Epistle has (1 Jn iv. 17) fV rjj lipip^ r^c itpiatnt. 

' [1919c] Kpiiirrt. There is nn parallelism in any of the instances.' 
'ExptiSh^ occurs in Lk. xix. 42 vtr JW i^pv^ awo it^tfuXpwr <rqtt (referring 
to " the things that belong to peace " which are " hidden " from Jerusalem) 
and jn viii. 59, xiK ^ i^pvfiif, of Jesus " hidden " from the Jews. 

[1869//]. The doctrine " There is nothing hidden that shall not be re- 
vealed," is expressed by Mk iv. 22, l.k. viii. 17, upvwrnv and liirmcpiM^i', Mt. 
X. 26 KtKoKvppivov and KpvwTov, Lkj xii. 3 wytcttifiXvptUvnv and upvntAv. 

^ Attp^oyim, Mt. xxiii. 37^ Lk. xiii. ^ Xi0a/SbXot'ira>. dirf^rrfaX^t/voiir. 

* Avvnf, Mt. x. 16, Lk. X. 3 (IVQ^XXm vpmt...iv piatf X*i[iiv. 

' [18t9<'] Mntapun, Mt. v. 3— 11 (sim. Lk. vi. 20-22) " Bleiied m' 
the poor...," and Mt. xi. 6, Lk. vii. 23 " HIeeied is he'that shall tiot be 
made to stumble in me," Mt xiii. 16 (sim. Lk. x. 23) " Bitijitd are your 
eyes..." : Ml. xxiv. 46, Lk. xii. 43 "■ Blessed n that .servant. ..." "Jn. xiii. 17 
"If ye know these things, Uitsed are ye if ye !«! doing them,'' xx. 29 
"Bl/sied are they thai have not teen and yet have believed." The 
former of Jn's instances reseniblei Lk. xi. 28 (pec.) " lUitstd are th«y 
that hear the word of God and keep K.". ' 

' Mi^»rvp^«^ Mt. xxiii. 31 &rr« iiapTvp*in ^ovrmf, Lk. iv. 33 irrfifvt 
iltaprvpovv mtrr^ , . - ' < 




























(ii) y^viM* " 


(ii) »o(«it' 













• -a; 

(ii) 6fLoXoy4^" 

. 4 




•■3 ,. 

' 'I' 

{ii) ipylCofuu" 




irWor". . 

.:'j ■• 










* M^^, Mt. xxiv. 51, Lk. xii. 46 r. n^pot a^oi) ^wra r. 6iro«ptrwr t^^vft,- 
Jn xiii. 8 oiix fj^nr ^'por >i«r' c'^. It also means "part," "district." 

* Mn-a/Sat'vw,' alw. literal in Mt., and fn Lk. x. 7 and Jn vii. 3 ; spiritual 
in Jn V. 34» and in jn xiii. 1 ira furati^ fV r. KiUrnov. 

' Mrra^v, marked* <1734fi,], means, in Mt. xxiii. 35 (sim. Ik. xi. 51) 
"beiwien the sanctuary and the altar," in Jn iv. 31 "in the nuanwkiU." 

* Mi/i*>i}(rKo;uu, in Jn ii. 17, 32, xii. 1.6 alw. of discipjes "remembering" 
the correspondence between Scripture and words or deeds of Christ. 

* Na^wpotor, Mt. ii'. 23, xxvi. 71, Lk. xviii. 37, Jn xviii. 5, 7, xix. 19. 

* N^frtot, Mt. xi. 25, Lk. X* 21 dfffKoAv^r atVd i^n-iiMr, albo Mt. xxl. 16 
(pee.) (quoting Pa. viii. 3) <k trrnfutroc viiwrnv Koii 0rfKa(6¥rw. * •r 

' N<ipoc,'ML V. 18 (aim. Lk. xvi. 17) ^a Kfp4n,.,aita roC n^r, Mt.,xi> 13 ' 
(sim. Lk. xvi. 16) ol npo^rirai k. n ro^r «Mff 'jMiipob. See also in* Triple 
Tradition Mt. xxii. 36, Lk. x. 26. 

' Nu/K^; Mt X. 35 (sim. Lk. xii. 53(&'j)) *V'ii(fcA/^»''ff-/(*«*'«gainst her 
. molher-in-law," Jn iii. 39 ',' He that baih the MV/*." 

* 'Qjgfiy/w, Mt. Kv. 14 (sim. Lk. vi. 39) "Hut if the h\ind guiti^ ihe 
blind," Jn xyi. 13 "The .Spirit of truth shall guide you." " 

'• 'O^iOMw, Mt. «i. 16, Lk* vii. 32 " Uke children 'sitting in the market- 
places,'^ and freq. in Mt. Lk. parables. .\^ viii. 55 **Hkt unlfr you» a liar," 
ix. 9 " he is' /i>jf him." '■ - ; ' 

" [1861 rt] 'o^Xoy^W, Mt. X. 33(«^j) (sim. Lk. xii. 8 (*«)) "whoever 
shall confess me...." Jn ix. 22, xii. 42 says that the Jews had agreed to 
excommunicate a "confessor'^ of Christ and that hence €ome believers 
feared to ** confess" Jn never uses i^naKayav^my which in Mk i. 5, ^ 
Mt iir. 6 means "rfliytw (iiV)," but he uses f^p^^Myim thus in 1 Jn i. 9, 

" [1861 ^J 'Ofor, Mt. xxi. 2—7 has Bvot nai wmkot, Mk xi.'2~7, 
Lk. xix. 50—35 have ir«Xoff alone, Jn xii. 14 has ova^iav alone (though* 
xii. 15 quotes iruXoi' J»'ot<) in the Entry into Jerusalem.*. Lk. xiii. 1$ hv 
^off'in the discussion about "loosing" one's ass on the Sabbath. 

" *op><CoH>*t Mt. xxii. 7, sim. Lk. xiv. ai {the L'arabte of the Feasrtbat 
wa* declined). Not parallel elitewhere- . "" - . 

" 'OiTTfoi', Mt. xxiii. 27, Lk. xxiv. 39, jn xix. 36. - . 

» 'o<^iXv, in Lk. x,vii. 10, Jn xiii 14, xix. 7 "ought," eUcwherr "owe" 







Mt. Lk. Jn 


. 8 




2 ^ 

""("'WW"' 2 ! 10 o 
(ii) »ixv.« - I *' I I 

>**• 2 1 2 

> [1863a] noir occurs in Mt. viii. 8, tk. vii. 7 «'<r^ X<*yt ""^ lo^frot 
(Lk. /a^«) ^ irair ^av. Camp. Jn iv. $1 " Hi^ bond-servaf\fs (dot/Xm) 
came to meet him saying that his son (lit. boy) (iratfywas alivcj' where 
the context relates how Jesus -from a distance (beins apparentlynn or 
near Cana) healed the ton of a person in the royal retinue (/liairiX»oc) 
** whose son (vi<ir) was sick at Capernaum." tiy repeatedly mentioning 
" j<?ff (ujvr)" the'narrattve makes it clear that iraic, in.Jn, must hcHpiean 
**j0n " and not "'sert'an/." ^^Bftt 

[l9Bli/>] The Double Tradition of Mt.-Lk. (Mt. viii. 5— i3,flHi. 
I — 10) describes Jesus as having "entered into Capernaum" whenHe 
receives a request to heal (Ml. viii. 6) a >'^/ (*fair)," or {Lk. vii. 2) 
^^ kond-sfn'imt (^CXor),'^ of a centuriofiy Mt. describes the man as making 
his request in person, L)c. as making it through others; both. use the 
phrase (Mt. viii. 8, Lk.'vii. 7) 6 watr itov. Most commentators take Ml. 
and Lk. as referring to the same event, and, if so,, must regard "^^" in 
Ml as meaning ^*' bomi-sen>ant." 

[1883^] Irenaeas (it, 22. 3) "(Jn) FiUum (Mt.-Lk.) ctntMrionis absens 
verbocuravit, JWr, (J n)/y/«/«tfJT'rv//"—whethcrquoting wrongly through 
lapse of memory, or combining details from na^atives that he supposed 
to relate the same event—demonstrates the ease with^which the two 
stones about the centurion might be confused with the Johannine story, 
^rtd the ambiguity that might attach to ""boy" in tlie earliest of the three. 
It'is probable, though by no means certain, that Jn »-rute with a View to 
this ambiguity. ' ; 

{1863i/j Mt xvii. 18 tfitpawnBii i nalst paraU. to Lk: ix. 43 loaoro 
rftw vdtda, is in the Triple Tradition, where Mk Ix. 34 has' *wdi«v, 
previously called by all (Mk hu 17, Mt. xvii. 14,4-k. ix. 38) vUt, 

* 110^X^7^, see 1683/. 

* Odpttfu, Mt. xkvi. $0, Lk. xiii. 1, Jn vii. 6, xi. 39. 

* Ufx^c, Ml. vi. 37, Lk; xii. 35, <» r. i7XuEui*'$xv»t Jit xxi. 8 aic-JwA 

wtif^Av tUaKOffimv. ^ ■ 

■ [1862/] nurroff, in Mt.-Lk, "faithful,^ Mt uiv. 4$ <Uc. xU. 4a) Wr 
^M fWif i nurris IktvXot (Lk. otKaimftot) koi (Lk. A) t^poftftat; Mt. xxV. 
3I| 33 (twice) t6 ^ovXt aya$i sat wiirr4, <irt Akiya Jfr ritfriir, Lk. xix. 17 
fjtyc, iyaBi IhiX*, on ^p iXaxi<rrf wwr&s 4y4pav, Jn.xx. 37 (to Tbomu) 
"Be hot unbelieving (i^wiartn) but Mining {itivrAt)." 

* nr^M, Mt. vii. 35, 37, Lk. xii! ($, Jn vi. 18, is in the description ^ a . 
tehipest; in Jn iii. 8 it is connected with regeneration, ro wvt\>iha Jrov 

tfAfi irrri. 








Lk. Jn 

notttaivm* I 

I 1 




1 1 

[1883] irp»roi;(w.inf.) 1 

2 ' 


(ii) wpovtiwrtf* 


I 2 

wvpffdrofuu^ I 




3 3+W 

(ii) ffttopirifw* I 




2 • 

1 8 

[1864] (ii)iriiin'ot(metaph.)'5 





3 ' ' 

^(ii)iro^'n(Chri.)" 3 





1 o 

ffrd^wf" 1 





9 ' 

np4<tm" 6 





' 1 o 

* ' [1863/1] ZxoriiyUt. X. 37 ft XryM v/iiv fc r, ffcoTiy, «TfraT« 
parall. Lk. xii. 3 av^^maaa tV r. axoti^ tlwmt (iodic.); Also in 
(ffivine a version of rT ix. 1) ^ Xain i KoBiiutimt Jv trcoria. 

Hoafuiiiv, Mt. ii. 6 (quoting Mic. v. 1), Lk. xvii. 7 (pec.) "Which of 
jrou shall have a bond-servant ploughing or skup-ttniUHg (jm^^anm)" 
~n xxi. Id "//m/ my young sheep." 

' no//ii>7, Mt. xxvi. ]i (quoting Zech. xiil 7 vrongly), Lk- ii- 8, Jn x. 16 
shall become ont/hei, one shepherd." 

p»<r«il<rr«, Mt. iv; 6 (Lk. iv. 11) "Lest tKbu dask thy foot" (Ps. 
Mt. vii. 27 "smoli upon that house," Jn xi. 9, 16 "stumiU." 
nvrMro/Mu, Mt. ii. 4 /fri;rtfdi'cTo.,.irov AXp. ynforai, jn iv. 53 t'lrv^cni 
o^f r.. Apar .irap' avTuy* 

' XopifMin;;, Mt. X. 5 fit iroXi* 1. ;<l) «J<rAA;rr. W.H. bracket Jn iv. g. 

* X«v><ri{«s .Mt. xij. 30, Lk,. xi. 33 " He that galbereth not with me 
tcat/en/Ji," fa X. 13, "the vo\l sdUtertlh them,", xvi- 32 "....that ye shall 
be scattertii.'* ' ^ , 

•iiriiTi Cimper.), 
Mt, iv. 16 
(giving a version ofl^ ix. r) i Xadr 6 xu^/tmir fV vkoti^. 

' [1864 /f] ZKdror (metaph.), Mt. vi. 33 <I o^i' ro ipmt r%<K o-w a%tamr^^ 
fWif ru VKoTot frd<roi', parall. Lk. xi. 35 /i^ rd ^r t6 tp ^ anarog ivpv. 
Mk has 7<arM once (xv. 33J but in a literal sense. See ITlOo. 4 

^ * loXo^i^r, Mt. vi. 29, Lk. xii. 37 oM< >., Ml. xii. 42, Lk. xi. 31 r. m^im 
1 — irXfMiy Z., Jn X. 33 /v r|7 vrof rod Z. . 

" Zn^io, Mt. xi.'l9, Lk. vii. 35 iiwatrntri i) trii^ta, Mt. xii. 43, Lk. xi. 31 
^Kmxxax r. trotpiav ZoXo^yot. Zo^a also occurs (outside. Christ's words) 
in Mk vi. 3 (sim. Mt. xiii. 54) rk 1) iro^a....,' 

" Zo^iic,' Mt xi. 1$ (Lk. X. 31) on hfivt^u (Lk. <lv/it/nn(nt) ni/n iwA 
Vo^mv Kdt (Tvi'trM'.. 

" ZrdJiot, Mt. xiv. 34 (ixt.), Lk. xxiv. 13, Jn vi., 19, xi. 18. 

'? Iri^^u, ,Mt. xii. 34, Lk. vi, 45 "out of the abundance of the heart the 
mmUk speaketh," Jn xix. 39 "[they] brought it to his mouth" ■ 

'* [1864^]. Zrpa^it is applied to Jesus, "turning round," before 
speaking, in Mt. ix, 33, xvi. 33 ; Lk. t^ 9, 44, ix. j;, x. 23, xiv. 3;, xxii. 61, 
xxiii. 38. Lk. uses the word in no other sense. Jn uses it thus once 
(i. 38) to introduce the fiV wor<ls uttered by Jesus, addnsssed|/Hi> first 
two converts, Andrew aAd another. 

" ZiiXX/m>, Mt. tii. 16 /iTTi irvX^^ymigii' iwh itartixi ota^tiXdf, Lk. vi. 


__t , ■— : . ^ _ . — 

Ht. U. Jn • Ml. Lk. Jn 

[1886](ii)in/»«T<)t' r i o (ii)ni»«»iif, •<!••• 4 6 o 

rt - - -.3 "9 3 nXi»> 741 

{?)ri.jt»« -■ ■ 4 >■ I ■ (iOr^ij* 4 II 

(l\}'^wApj(o¥ra* 3 8-0 y«rirt>»^ I 1,1 

[1886] (Hi) ;<rrt,)o» » .711 (ii)i^> 365 

44 oS yip i( itarHit wXX^yowriK nxa. Mt xiii. 2fl — 4% UW9 itvkXiym «r 
} gathering the tares that are to be burned; Jn xV. 6 uses mviym of 
\ . gathering withered branches for the same ' purpose. 

' ^ Jucrffk, Mt. xi. 35t Lk. X. 31 iit6 w^iv koi owtrim (see note on 

' <"^)- . ' , . \ 

. ■• ' [I8880] TairnKiio is m Mt ixiii. 12 (sim. Lk. xiv. 11) (*/V) ''Whoso- 

ever shall humilc himself shall be exalted...," rep. in Lk. xviii 14. 
.Toirnnit is only in Mt. xi. 29 (ped), Lk. i. 52 (pec). Ml. xviii, 4 "hum6(t 
himself as this little child" seems to be an explanation of Mk x. IJ 
"receiving the kingdom of God as a little child," Mt. xviii. 3 "turn and 
become as little children." 

Epictetus regularly uses rmrnrit (-im) in the tenie of "servile": 
(iv. 4. I ) " The desire of wealth makes men sert'Hi and subject to others," 
, (i. 3. 1) " One who believes that God is his Father ought to have no servih 

thoughts about himself" etc. 

' [186S»] T<X/i>, Mt. five times (vii. ig, xi. i, xiii. 53, xiii. i.xxvi. 1) 
in such phrases as ort Mkto^v o *1, rnvr Xoyour nvroiit, introducing a new ■ 
section of narrative. Jn xix. 282^3<rtTJ)ir il *!. or* (Jflij iravra rtriXrarrtu.... 
itirtv TfrrtfffTni. * ' 

• Ti'cna, Mt i. 21 ri(tr<u ti oliii' (uttered to Joseph) may be regarded 
. b^some as parall. to Lk. i. 31 Wfo liir (uttered to Mary): in Jn, only 

xvi. 21 ij yi-vrj urm* rii^^-Xvir^tr ix^ts . * * • 

' Tp«l>il, Mt. VI. 25 otx'i li ^xi rXtiif imr r. T/tix^t; parall. Ut. xij, 
23 'I y"P ^- ^Xii6¥ fiTTii* r. rpo^t : Jn iv. 8 iro rpo^t iynpAtrmrw. 

• 'Yva'pxoiTa, Mt. xxiv. 47, Lk. xii.44iiri iroffUTsif t'....Karii^if<rfi«Mr. 
' iTiri'iK, Mt. i. 24, Lk. ix. 31, Jn xi. 13. 

" 'YffTfpoi', Mt. xxii. 27 vimpotilti nivrttv awiBnvrv ^ yv¥i),\Jlt, XX. 32 . 
vartfmv k. 17 yvv^ awi6ai^¥. The word is marked (iii) because the 
passage in which Mt and Lk. agree is in the Triple Tradition, where 
Mk xii. 22 das itrximr nmrmr : in Jn, only in Jn xiii. 36 oKoXovtliirtu Hi 

• [late a\ 'Yf<U, Ml. xi. 13, Lk. i. 1 S (ts Capernaum) " Shalt thou be 
txalltd to heaven ? " also Mt. xxiii. 1 2 (*(*) (parallel to Lk. xiv. 1 1 (Kt\ 
and xviii. 14 (*(j)) "Whosoever shall trait himself..." In Jn, always 
(iii. 14 (bis), viii. 28, tcii. 32, 34) concerning the "lifting up" of the Son of 
man (illustrated once-by the "lifting up" of the brajen serpent). 

344 :■. 







' Jn 

<ii)<^Aot< I 
(ii)^t(meupli.)> 6 











^•W* I 



, i.f 

' [1866^] •Aw, Mi. xi. 19,' Lk. viL 34 "a frienH of pablicani and 
sinoen." On Christ's phrase * my friends," «ee 17M— 92. 4iX/« occurs 
Mk (i). Ml. ()), Lk. (3), Jn (13), but not always .wilh the same meaning. 
It means "kiss" in Mk xiv. 44, Nit. xxvi. 48, Lk. xxii. 47. In Lk. w. 46 
^tmnng salutations" it parall. to Mt. 'x5tiii. 6—7 ",But they tovt^AnA 
salutations." Since it never means "love (persons)" in Lk., ana since 
it occun once in Mk (meaning "kiss") it is not placed above. ^CKiu 
means "love (persons)" in Ml. x. 37 (Us) and always in Jn exc xil, 15 
"he that Imeth his life." Sec VnHe—gxai 1738 m— /». 

s ^povt^f, Mt xxiv. 45, Lk. xii. 43 rir ap0 ivr\v h iriirr^ dot/Xor «. 

' *iK, Ml. vi. 33, Lk. xi. 35 ri ^f rh it ifoi, Mt. x. 17 t Xt'ya vfuV •'■' r. 
aKori'f «Tirarf (imper.) tp r. ^wri, bui pjirall. Lk. xii. 3 Mra Jt r. aKori^ 
ttwan (indie.) iir r. ^vri aKow0fjfftTm, In Jn xii. 36 71*0 fiVt ifn»rttt 
•ftvfivii is parall. in form, though not in context, to Lk. xvi. ii^porifUnipM 
iwip T. vloitt T. t^t0r6s. On Jn-Mt. "light of the^ world," see 1748. 

* 'Oawi'p^ Mt xxiv. 37, Lk. xvii. 24 Stvirip yAp t/ a(rrpairfi.... In Lk. 
and Jn, alw. foil, by yap exc. Lk. xviii. 1 1 fiir^cp (v.r. Ik) oI XiHtroi. 

* [1866^] 'ariof is used by Mt. xxvi. 51 in the wounding of the High 
Priest's servant (Lk. olt, Mk and Jn impiof) but by Lk. xxii. 51 (pec.) in 
the heahng, and by Jn xviii. ]6 in a reference to the woundiojf. - 

-''•'■ "i ■ 

, ■■•..>/-■■'■: V : Nv-' J" ^^r 

'v ;■,-■»■• :■■■■■; 




- [1886(1)] "EnrXurir- occurs in Matthew's and-Lukc's v«r«ions of the 
Triple Tradition dcKribing Christ's burial thus : • 

Mk IV. 46 ' Ml. mxvli. J9 Lk. x»iii. .^J 

(icilXiir tutrlw httK^n 'Ifll^ IttriXlio' aW aM rirlht. 

TJ <fi»Jl»i. [<») »p'M»r fnenpi. Jn «ix. 40 (ti|«v. 

Ur Mark, R.V. has " womhJ him' (.\.V. " virappedhim ") ; In Matthew 
and Luke, R.V. has "-K/rapptd it." It has been explained elseMere 
(580—1) that Mark might deliberately use /►tiXrii,, " bind fasti' m order to 
shew the reality of the death, and of the burial, and the impossibility of 
a hasty removal of the body apart from the burial clothes, a point urged 
by Chrysostom'. - But Matthew and Luke may have objected to the word 
(especially when applied, as by Mark, not to "body" but to "him") as 
being unseemly^ because if is used of fettering prisoneVj, swathing 
children hand and foot, holding people fast in a net, entangling them in 
evil or in debt, and generally in a bad sense'. 

[1866 (ii)] 'EvrvXimra, apparently a much rarer word than itiCkiu, is 
free from the objection of being used in a bad or hostile sense ; for iflli 
used of wrapping oneself up in a cloak or a rug, and, so far as can be 

> [1886(i)ii] Qiflfs. (on Jn, Migiie p. 465) "John says that he was 
buried with a great amount of myith, which glues as it were the linen 
cloths 40 the body like tlw soldering of lead (^ )ta\ij^bw ^x l^rroc 

' [1886 (i) ^] Steph. quotes Synes. Ep. io$ p. 34S n mAm^tvov rotr 
wfm rh ytt>il fiiAXicovinv, Plut. Mar. p. 830 E i Swit( iMiX^dr (aeri 
alieno) lum uptivTJit. Artemid, i. 13 connects it with helplessness or in- 
activity, ofyyA yap ra iitti^ Kai JftiXoCfiMva' Tat x<'/**>', '^- $4 **■ A'fi^v 
<WiXf7^i'7i- Ix^iv Sia TO ^py^f ftfoi.... Plutarch Cars. 66 says that Caesar 
&<Tirip 9tfpiov cVfiXfiro rait warrw x'P*^"- Steph. adds Artox. c. 1 1 KOpa¥ 
TiHt woKtitlats UnXovfufOff QuintUS 14, 294 K^r...voX<fwri /i* fVfiXijffavro 
Kaitotiri, and Hesycb. explains ivttkiirai as Vfij^wroj. These passages and 
others quoted by Steph. suggest that I'olyc. PUlipp. § i roi'c ivtKxip,hMt 
rots liyuiirpfirfirii' htvpmt.irwa ianv dudq/utra draws a contrast between 
the physical fettering of martyrs and their spiritual adornment, because, 
though they are ^'fast bound" in thent, they do not regard themselves as 
(Ps. cvii. 10) "fast bound \ti misery and iron," but as wearing "diadems" 
of the elect. At the same time Polycarp emphasises the necessity of 
helping those who are thus unable to help themselves. 

I 346 

JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1866 (iv)] 

judged from the Thesaurus, never impnes constraint'. Dut no instance 
is jUteged of its meaning " wrap up a covering," " roll up a napkin " 
except in John xx. 7 "[Simon] beholdeth the linen cloths lying, and the 
napkin, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but 
apart, rolltd up {iyrtrvXiyiUpm) (lit.) into one place." 

[1866 (iii)] 'ErrvXiVirai as used by John and meaning " ri>/l »/ " is not 
similar in meaning to I as used by MattheW-Liike meaning "wrap." 
Nor are the two words in parallel contexts. Yet, having regard to the 
extreme rarity of the word in Greek literature of every age and to the fact 
that it does not occur anywberein O.T. or (I.T. except here, it is difficult 
to avoid the inference that J$hn uses it with reference to the diverging 
traditions of the Synoptists — Mark using "Sind/ast," Mitthew and Luke 
" wn^." John (xix. 40), avoiding the word ^vf iXi«, substitutes a wonS tl^t 
means the same thing, <9i)<rai', "foH«u^"and headds,as Chrysottom says, 
a. -mention of "abundance of myrrh" which would have th^ effect of 
" iiHiUiig fast;!, like "the soldering of lead." At the same time, while 
substantially siding with Mark, John accepts the rare word of Matthew . 
and Luk^ as expressing a fact, though not exactly the'fact they describe. ' 
" There wat '^ John seems to say—" a ' wrapping,' or rather a ' ■a rapping 
up,' in connexion with the burial of the Lord. Uut it referred to' Iht 
burial garments alone\ not to the body its^." 

[1866 (iv)] Some illustration of the facts above mentioned may be 
derived from the facts mentioned elsewhere (640 — 61) as regards Vhat 
Mark (i. 10) calls the " remiing {axiW of the heavens, whereas Matthew 
(iii. 16) and Luke (iii. 21) use the word "open (iroiytt)." John omitfr this, 
but has later on (i. ji) "Ye shall sec the heaven ut open (dKoi'y*))," 
agreeing verbally with Matthew and Luke but by no means in parallel 
context. 'EvrvXiWt* if far rarer than awniyw, and is used by the three 
Evangelists in contexts that are much mure nearly parallel than those 
referring to di'otyw. The demo^istration, thercfoi?, is far stronger here 
that John is writing allusively to the Synoptists, and he appears to be not 
only justifying Mark but also explaining what he may have .thought 
a misunderstanding in Matthew and Luke. 


' [1866 (ii) d] Arisloph. Nub. 983 tV IfutriW irp^44dfrK«ir f vrrrt/Xix^ai, 
Plut. 692 KixTi\v ivTv\ifyta ^(rv^^. Steph. also quotes Athen. 3 p. 106 r, 
107 A, where it describes the wrapping up of the liver etc. He refers to, 
but does not quote, Diocl. ap. Antiatl. Ilckk. p. 97, 9: It does not oo'ur 
in LXX (where ivtC^iiv^ax occurs once), and would seem to be a very rare 
woBj in Gk literature of all periods. „, 

*^[1886(iii)(j] Comp. Lk. [xxiv. 12] "M/ linen cMhs alone (itira)," and 
Jn IX. 5—7 " the linen cloths. ..the linen cloths. ,.l\it napkin, with the 
linen cloths, but apart," and see 180i un "the linen cloths alone," a phrue 
that may have been the subject of many interpretations. 



% l.^fRtvkf of the evidena . ' 

The Vocabularies given above have exhibited resiflts that 
•may be tabulated as follows: ' 

[1867] (l) Synoptic Vocabulary, i.e. the Vocabulary of 
the Triple Tradition. This differs widely from the Johannine. 
Where the same words are used by all four Gospels, the 
Fourth often u^ metaphorically what the Three use literally. 

[1868] (2) Johannine Vocabulary. This would be found 
very small indeed as compared with the Vocabulary of || 
Matthew by itself, or with that of Luke by itself, and even 
when compared above with the limited number of words used 
by Mark, Matthew, and Luke in common, it is small. It 
omits words of local or temporary interest and rings the 
changes on a small number of elementary words and their 

[186ft] (3) John-Mark Agreemeiits. ,. The verbal agree- 
ments are few, Mark being the most conoretc, and John being 
the most abstract, of the Evangelists. But the number of 
parallelisms is large, or — if regard be had to the small number 
of verbal agreements^very large indeed. They are also 
undeniable. For example, no one denies that the sayings 
about "buying for two hundred . denarii " and "selling for 
three hundred denarii" are recorded by Mark and John in 
connexion, severally, with the same events. 

[1870] (4) John-Matthew Agreements. The verbal agree- 
mefits are more. numerous than those in the John^-Mark list. 



But there are no parallelisms unless we suppose that John, 
when mentioning "a tribunal " in connexion with Pilate, 
wishes to distinguish it from "titr tribunal" mentioned by 
Matthew. There are, however, the phrases " my brethren " 
and " light of the world," assigned both by Matthew and by 
John to our Lord but in different contexts — and the latter 
(1748) with the several prefixes, " Ye are," and " I am." 

[1871] (5) John-tuke Agreement*' The verbal agree- 
ments are very numerous ind.ced, exhibiting the two Evan- 
gelists as educated writers naturally using a similar vocabulary 
(except where Luke gave up, and John retained, special words 
of low-class Greek — [lerhaps endeared to some readers by old 
Evangelic associations). But parallelisms either are non- 
. existent 'Or are of a corrective character. For example, John 
twice uses Luke's word (KfiAaan) to emphasijie apparently 
the fact that the woman that " wi(\d " the LorcTj. feet was 
m>t a "pinner," but Mary the sister of Martha. Since also the 
evidence indicated that we ought to include in I Luke's text 
the description of Peter's visit to Christ's sepinchre', there 
appeared to be another quasi-parallelism thatNmist be 
described as corrective. And other corrective passages ap- 
peared to exist in John, in connexion with the phrase " stood 
in the midst," applied to our Lord after the Resurrection by 
Jiim and Luke. ■ 

' [1871 u] The passage, like others in Luke's account of tb^Re- 
surrection, might have been added by Luke ^imself in a second edition 
of his Gospel. I am infonned by my friend Dr Israel Golbnci that 
there ii evidence to shew that in the poemi of Langland certainly, and 
perhaps in those of Chaucer, there are copies containing additions that 
■ 1>roceeded from the ai)thor himself. In the clays before printing, am 
author's second edition, if madcshortly before his death, mij[ht appear at 
first in only a fe«f copies, whereas the first edition Miinht cojint its 
bundret^ or thousands. This might discredit the addilioiis in the second 
edition, so that e^ren those scribes that copied it might thyik it Accessary I 
to correct the second by the first, omitting what appeared to some " ihrfw 
corrupt inlerpolatk>iu of the lata copies." i " ' 




{1873] (6j John-Mark-Matthew Agreements. Here, is 
in the John-Mark list, the number of verbal agreements is not 
large, but the parallelisms are proportionately very numerous; 
and the facts indicate that, in these, John is not following 
Matthew but Mark, whom Matthew has previously followed. 

[1873] (7) John-Mark>-Luke Agreements. The verbal 
agreements are not humerolis — ^the vocabulary of Mark and 
tiiat of Luke being seldom likely to be similar except where 
both are describing exorcisms, a subject never mentioned by 
John. There is only one parallelism, ndmely, in the descrip- 
tion of <h«; Baptbt as not worthy to loose the " latchet " 
of Christ's Shoe, where Matthew has " carry the shoes." 
One quasi-paratlelism appears to be of a cofrective nature, 
bearing on the " spices '•' used, or to be used, in emb«nning^ 
the body of Christ. Mark and Luke connect these \vith the 
women, Matthew omits "spices," and says that the women 
came to "beholdJ' the tomb. John assigns the "spices" to 
Nicodemus and Jokeph. The paucity of parallelisms contrasts 
with theabundance in the John-Mark-Matthew list. 

[1874] (8) John-Matthew- Luke Agreements. The verbal 
agreements are very numerous indeed : but there is not a single 
parallelism. There is, however, an allusive use of Matthew- 
Luke's phrase " lay the head to rest," applied by John (18SB) 
to the description of Christ's death. John sometimes alludes 
(14S0, 1784) to Matthew's or Luke's version of the ^uble 
Tradition and (eg. 1866 (i) foil.) to Matthew's and Luke's 
versions of the Triple Tradition ; but in no case does John 
agree exactly with Matthew and Luke combined, or with 
either separately. 

, ■'.'$*. Wkit rtmaiits to it doiu ' ■ . : 

[1876] It may be objected against the preceding sy.stem 
of Vocabularies that it is incomplete, and — so far as concerns 
the attitude of the Fourth Gospel to the collective evidence of 
the Three — negative, "The 'first "^t may be said — "of the 



eight Vocabularies tells us what words are characteristic of 
Mark-Matthew-Luke and absent or rare in John: the second 
tells us what are characteristic of John and absent or rare in 
iElark-Matthew-Luke. But this is largely negative informa- 
tion. Where is the Vocabulary o( -words eommon to tht 
Four, the John-Marh-Matthtxu-Lukt Vocabulary^ That 
would give us purely positive information, for want of which 
the preceding investigation must be pronounced defective!" 

[1876] Let us consider this objection in the light of facts 
as presented by page l A' of Mr Rushbroqkc's Syiwpticoti, 
which prints in large red capitals all the words common to 
the Four Gospels in the description of John the Baptist and 
his baptism of Christ. They are as follows: "Voice of one 
crying' in the wilderness, straight[en] the way of the Lord... 
Isaiah the prophet...! bapti[ze] in water... com[ing] of whom 
I am noE. . .the shoe. ..Jordan . . .baptiz[ing]. . .Spirit descend[ing} 
as %dove from heaven.. .him. ..baptiz[ing} in the Holy Spirit... 
the Son (v.r. elect)." Now suppose we were to tabulate these 
words alphabetically, should we derive any information from 
them apart from a close examination of their co«tc.\f ? For 
example, the last two words " the Son " (if genuine) occur in 
John the Baptist's testimony. " I have borne witness that this 
is the Son of God."- But the Synoptic mention. of " Son " at 
the conclusion of the account of the Baptism refers it to a 
Voice from heaven, " This is (or, Thou art) my beloved Son." 
Again, Luke distinctly says that the Spirit "descended in 
bodily shape as a dove"; Mark and Matthew say " H5 saw" 
the descent, the former apparently, the latter certainly, 
referring " He " to Je.sus (69C). The Fourth Gospel makes 
the Baptist clear up this doubt by saying, "/ have beheld 
the Spirit descending as a dove." ' These distinctions are 
most important. But what important gain would there be 
fro|n simjJy reading, in a" John-Mark -^latthew-Liike Vocabu- 
lary," such an intry as " ■l^ep^Qr*pa MV. (2), Mt. (3), Lk. (2). 

A. V. 351 24 

[1877] . CONCLUSION 

[1677] If mere tabulation would be useless as to the words 
specified above (" Son " and " dove ") which belong to a 
narrative (the Baptism of Christ) where the Fourth Gospel 
intervenes in the Triple Tradition, much more would the 
charge of uselessness apply to such words as must necessarily 
form the common stock of all Gospels, e^. " man," " woman," 
"live," "die," "soul," "spirit," "heaven," "earth," etc. We 
may _ therefore dismiss the project of a complete Fourfold 
Vocabulary as not likely to be what Kacon calls " luciferous." 
But we cannot dismiss so readily the thought — suggested by 
the last paragraph — that a close critical examination of the 
johannine and the Synoptic nari^ives of the Baptism, and 
of other passages where John intervenes, would be of great 
value. Take, for example, the Feeding of tl\e Five Thousand, 
where all the Kvangelists except Luke mention "grass "'in 
vari ous ways. In a mere Fourfold Vocabulary this fact 
would not appear because Luke uses "grass" in other 
contexts. Even if a note were added, calling attention to 
Luke's omission, its 'significance would be lost among other 
notes necessarily Mtai^licd to the word." grass " if it had to be 
annotated at all. It is only in a commentary on the four 
accounts of the miracle, that this and other points of Johan- 
nine agreement, or disagreement, with this or that JSynoptlst, 
could be satisfactorily discussed. ;,, 

I 3, JohanniHt Grammar '. 

[1878] It might seem, then, that the lie^t step should be 
to examine in order all the passages where the Fourth Gospel 
intervenes in the tradition of the Three. Equipped, as we 
now are from the preceding Vocabularies, with information as 
to the words that lohn favours and disfavours, his metaphorical 
method, and 1^ apparent preference for Mark or Mark- 
Matthew (as compared with Luke) We could apply this know- 
ledge to each narrative iil turn, shewing how the Fourth 


Gospel sometimes deviales from all three in virtue of his 
peculiar tnethod or style, and sometimes approximates to- 
onft, or two, of the three in conformity with his rule of 
preference. -. 

[1879] But we do not know quite enough about John as 
yet to do this effectually. It is not enough about any writer 
— least of all about a writer in Greek, a language abounding 
in facilities for expressing thought and emphasis by variety 
of order and construction — to know merely;what Verbs, noun.s, 
and prepositions he likes and dislikes. We must also know 
something of his syntax. There ar© more ambiguities in the 
Fourth GQspel than in all the Three taken together, and it is 
&sy to put one's finger on the cause of many of them. One, 
for example, is the attempt to express meaning by order of 
words or by reference to context. .The very last words of 
Christ in freedom, uttered before He is led away in bonds to 
Annas, are what, proceeding from a classical Greek author, 
would have to be rendered, "Xhe cup that my Father hath 
given me I will assuredly not drink it." There can be no 
doubt here that the words are to be read either interrogatively 
or as an exclamation implying surprise that Peter should try 
to prevent Him from drinking the cup: but there are many 
other passages where the meaning is far from clear until they 
have l)ecn^Justrated by the comparison of a large number of • 
similar instances. . - 

[1880] Again, it is a peculiarity of John's style, and som«-' 
• times almost an obtrusive one, that he repeats some .statements 
twice, others thrice, and that asevenfold arrangement appenfs 
in parts of his narrative, and he occasionally prefers to make 
a literally inaccurate but practically accurate assertion, e^. 
"Jesus baptized," and then, instead of cancelling it, to supple- 
ment it by an exact statement of the fact, that Jesus Himself 
did not baptize, but His 'disciples did. These peculiarities, 
and several others, fall under the head of Johannine Arrange- 
ment of Words, so that they have not been discussed in the 

353 'M—2 

*&. '.1 -*, 



preceding pages where words alone have been considered. 
Without spitje study of Johanninc Grammar as well as 
Johannine Vocabulary, we should be at a di^dvantage in 
approaching a discussion of the Fourfolcf Gospel. The next 
step, therefore, to be taken will be the publication oX Johamiine 
Grammar, as the Second Part of this work, with an Index to 
the two Parts. 












t .__rL 




§ I Introductory rtmaii^r^^ 

** [1881] No English alphabetical liaU coulw well represent 
the differences between the Johanninc and tne Synoptic use 
of prepositions and particles. And even Greek- statistics, 
without careful annotation, might be misleading. Prepositi«^s 
that are u.sed by the Synoptists frequently, but almost alwayii 
literally, may be used by John almost as frequently but 
hardly ever literally. It is useless to be informed that two 
writers use "in" with the same frequency, if one mostly uses 
it in such phrases as "in that hour," "|« those day.s," ")« 
Capernaum," etc., and the other ii) such phrascii as "abide in 
me." . . ■. 

[1882] The same thing holds good about "to" or "iHto." 

This, in the Synoptist.s, is mostly literal; but in John it is very 

frequently metaphorical — in the phrases "come into the 

■^MvqM," "sent into the world." Frequently, too, 

■. " believe »'«" by " believe ««to («'«)." Luke uses avo,"from" 

more than thrice as often as John, but John would be found 

' The Jahanni;ie" Prepositions will be discussed singly from the 
graipmatical point of view in the Second. fWt of this work, the Johannint 
Grammar. Her« they are treated collectively as illustrating th^contrast 
between the Johannine and the Synoptic vocabulao'- And the list will 
include one or two words- it.g. oZf) of a specially illustrative character. 



to exceed Luke in special phrases, e^. "from Mimstif," "from 
mystlf" "from GW,". etc., where the words have a moral or 
spiritual meaning. Hence ^v, «/;■, in and irpot .are not 
inserted in the following list; but "on" (M with gen.) I» 
inserted for a special reason. It is not used by John in 
Christ's words more than once, and then only toward the end 
of his Gospel in the declaration of an accomplished mission, 
"I have -glorified thte oh the earth"; the reason is that this 
preposition does ntk lend itself to spiritual metaphor. So, 
too, ira/M with accusative meaning "hy the side of " oc£un 
often in the Synoptic "ly the sea" etc.; John uses, it not with 
accusative but with genitive, to express the Son's coming 
"from the side of," or "from the house of," the Father. 
Lastly, the mediatorial preposition "for," imip with the 
genitive, occurs fai- more frequently in the Fourth Gospel 
than In all the T^iree together. 

. [1883] In the fohaimine Grammar, John's use of "thtrt- 
fore!' oSv, will be 'disSVssed under "Conjunctions," but some 
remfirks on it may be useful here. In narrative, John is very 
fond of it, as carrying on the story from step to step in logical 
.sequence. Oi^v in the Fourth Gospel is vpry much like the 
English "*«" in. 'a story for children: "He did this, so. [as a 
natural consequfrtce] she did that." John also frequently 
inserts it in describing the talk — often idle talk — of the 
multitudes, or of " the Jews," whom he represents as chattering 
with a Mse appearance of logical sequence. But he hardly 
ever inserts, it in his record of Christ's words, perhaps because 
he does not like to represent Him as prone to arguing. 
Hence, though the particle, occurs in the Fourtn Gospel about 
195 tiriies, against 90 times in the Three, it is not faunct.tnore 
than 8 tinus in Christ s wor4s_ (188S</). In the Epistle it is 
never used at all. .,•;•■ .•■'•-■ . • ■■ 

Except when ch is uMd (pr Vr. 

358 . ;. ' 


J 3. A fiv) st€Uistics about Prtpofitiont 

» ■■ 

; Mk- :. 




[ISM] tid (accui.. of pen.)' 

■ A ' 

' ■ ♦ "' ■ 


■9 '■ '■ 

. <I< (for .V)« 


■ », ■ 

■■:t . 

■■' J ■■ :■.:■ 

•Mxa, -V*', f ?i'«Kn' (1092 d) 

4 or 5 




\ /»« (accui.) (total) 



t Ido 

.19 ■"■■■■' 

; ■ •' ' „ (accus.)(Chri.i« 





V „ (<!»•.) (Chri.) 
- » (geh.) (Chri.)' 




'.0 - 

-r:-^- ■• 

■■». . 

; «?■■'■ 

',-•-- -. ; 

' [ISM a] &ta r4>'a, in N.T., mostly msans "for the uke of benefiting, 
tatisfying, supporting, glorifying etc. a person " (not *' 6/taitse of what a 
person has JoMe in the past"): nor can (Mk ii. 4, Ut. v. 19, viii^ 19) 
" because of the crowd," with a negative, be regiffded as citceptioiis, sin»^ 
" crowd " is there regarded impersonally. Uut " I coxni for your siite Ijfi 
9t) " might be used to mean " 1 come to see ^Mr*[and not to see anyone 
else]," and so Jn >ii. 9 ov 4«A r. 'I. lUvut means " rtpt /oj« Jesus only" In 
Jn xii. 1 1 iroAJ^ot it^avrhr vnifyoif.., seems to mean " Many of the Pharisees 
were in the habit of going away [from their own party] /or the snke of 
teeing him [Laiarus] and were becoming believers in Jesus." Jn vii. 43 , 
" there was a division y^r his sake " may mean " for the sake of {supporting 
cy attacking]„him " ; Jn xii. 42 *^for the sake o/>\it Pharisees they did not 

Knfess hjm" may be explained as GaU ii- 4 ''/it the sake of th^ false 
ethren," which Lightfoot renders " I0 satisfy, to disarm, the . fali^e 

[IBMi^] All this bearj on jn vi. 57 where " living /or /** la/^i'/' the 
Father" and ".living^r my sake"- must not be confused with livmg "Ay 
meaits of (.iia with gen.). It is true that "eating "is mentioned in the 
context. But the primary meaning prob-ibly is that the Son " lives /or He 
sake <y glorifying the Father." See 1294—2300. • 

• [IMit-] eit for (V. These numbers are taken from Ufuder— after 
rejecting Mk i. 39 (reading fXttr not ^r), iL I, Lk. xii. ai (>it e<ip 
wXovTMi'), and inserting Jn u.'i9, 26 Ith) tti tv ftf'irm. Jn's other 
instano^ 'are i. 18 6 4r <Ir t<W coXirov rov irar/Mt, xvii. 23 ifa Avi 
rTtXtw^rot </e IV and xxi. 4 Jtmi 'lijvwt tit (marg. Jwi) rdv alytaXiw. 
Lk.'s instances axe all local. Concerning Christ's manifestation after the 

' Resorrection Lk. xxiv. 36 has aMs Itmi <V iJirf avrvv. 

' [1884<f] 'Eiri (accus.) (Chri.) in Jn, only i. 51 t-the anjgds of God 
ascending and descending upon (fVi) the Son qf man " (from Geo. 
xxviii, 12, LXX it' avriji, U Jw' avrg) and xiii. 18 "hath lifted up biilieel 
i^iiM/ me " (from Ps. xlL 9). 

* [188t«] 'Uvl (gen.) (Chri.) in Jn, oiily xvii. 4 "I [have] glorified thee 
«• (Jwi) the earth." 

359 24— S 



Ml. -Ui. > 

.; " "• fat Iprep.". turn)' 

e.i9 « fOw 

■ord (accui.) . 


",^;'S7 7 

„ (K«n.)' ' .■ 

16 • 6 f ■ 

[U86]H«»'f> »>,, 

i " 9 ' 

i fiqirorfl, or /4^ iroff • , 

.■-''."■■-'. 1 . 

:-t:-'^-. T ■- ■.,-«v' .;^ 

farii (of peraonn)* • 

. *f n .' I" ..' ■ 

'.■ ;- ■■■■«*•■ ■ ■--■.■. 


J6. 30- C.I9I 


■7 .'3 >> 

,■,•.■•:.■ ,. (gen-)' .;. -: 

J 9. '$ 

■ ■»-:■-■-»■ o 

" - m/M (accut.)' ■ 


' tWp (gen.)» . ■■;. , 

> *'>,W >j 


> 'E«c prep; w. noan, in Jn, U only in viii. g "from the fini unto the 
last "—an interpolated passage. 

' [1884/] KaTd (gen.), in Jn, only xix. 1 1 ode fr;(<f Jfnvriar >ar' i(H) '■ '■ 

' [1886fi] MfNi'r. The. Johannine non-use of any form of 'futMt\ 
indicates that Jn does not contain such prohibitiona as "Tell m> -man" 
" Let NO *<ii>i know it," " Take noikiHg for the journey " etc (Mk i. 44i ' 
Mt. viii. 4. ix. 30, Lk. v, 14 etc.). • - - 

< [1888 4] Mi;iror<, in Synopt., alw. meins "lesi" exc. perh. Uc. iii. 15 
•reasoning, ..(R.V.)M'*</*^r haply he were the Christ." In Jn vii. j6 
^q««rff...ryi'iMr(ii', it means ^CaH a bf t^aJ,..}** 

* [1886 c] 'p»Tit, of pers., in Synoptf, mostly means "every one that" 
or "that" used as n dffining relafive. But in Jn it Seems to be a ' 
tHppUmintary relative ("ti/*o" = "o«r</ he") Jn viii. 53 "Art thog greater 
than our father Abraham ■who (mrrn) is dead. . . ? " See M13. 

• (1886>/] ol: Jn altogether differs from .Mt.-Lk. in his use of ■><!>. 
Tbey mostly use it in Christ's words. Jn uses it freq. in the words of 
others (i. }|, 25, iv. 1 1 etc.) and in narrative i. >], 39, ii. 18, v> etc, but 
very rarely indeed in Christ's words (vi. 62, viii. 24, 36, 38, xiL 50, xiii. 14, 
xvi. 22, xviii. g) about 8 times. In Mt|s Sermon on the Mount alone, Jt 
occurs 13 times. 

' [1886^] ntifi (gen.). Jn's use is almost always in the phrase "from. 
God (or, the Father)" r;f. i. 6, 14, V. 44, vi. 45, 46 etc. < 

* Dr/H' (accus.), see n. on imip. 

• [1888/] 'tntf (gen.). Mk ix. 40 " He that is not against us is/or 
XT," and sim. Lk. ix. 50, but "against /en... for /«<"; M^. om., but haaMt 
v. 44 " pray /or them that persecute you," where Lk. vL 2S has " pray/l*," 
expressed by nTfi. [Lk. xxii. 19, 20] is doubtful 

[1886 j-} Jn's first instance is j. 30 " This if he aiotit {iwip v. r. wtpt) 
whom I said...." John the Baptist is speaking of Christ, and Imlp is all 

■ ■*!; ■ ■3<5o -■ ,* ;■' 



■ ■ 



14. , 

n — -■■ ". 

tinl (accui.)' 
„ (gen.)« ■ 




■7 - 

■ 1 

th« more remarkable becaute (i) he bai, in Jn 1. iS, 'Utirtt ^i^irvfMi «tp) 
•iniv, (j)everywhereel»e in JntWp meant "/(wrt/j«*<^" Perh. i. 30^ 
having a shade of difference from i. I J. meani " m ttM/ 1/ wkom," 
i.e. as H\% representative. 

[U8S/i] I.n jn xiii. 37, 38 vWfiU Iwii:* used about Peter's profession 
that be would "lay down his life/xr" ChniH in avii. 19 "I sanctify 
myself /w them " seems to refer to Christ's alf.Uevotion on the cross ; iti 
almost all other passages the word i|^ cerinfttMiied in conncilon with 
Christ's dying /<rr man, whether mentioned wf Christ Flimself, or 
(xi. 50 — J, Jiviii. 14) W Caiaphas, or by the E*ange)is( referring to 
Caiaphas. The prevalence of t/u word^ therefore, ift Jh it ebte tojkt 
'■: ^nvaUwe of mediatorial doctrine. 1^ 

' [I8H1'] 'twi (kccus.) in Jn, only i. 48 v<ri r^o avvft fell, by i. jo, 
' bwKint T^t (TviTf, On which see 2ST2 — 31 

• [1885y] 'Tui (gen.). The rarity of virii w. gen. jn J(1 arises from his 

preference of active to passive, as in Jn x. (4 R.V. "mine own Icflbw me," 

I'fbut V. r. and A.V. " I am known of mine." The only genuine instance is 

ij0Xiv.3l... w'iviK iarvf ^ Aymtu¥ \Uy it hi wf^vmif ^9 BPf^irifiiinilrai i/w^ rov 

iratp6t fiov, Kifyw Ayawtfirm aifrop where rif hi i})«irMvra iiii would bt 

avoided by many writers as bemg in form; though not in fact, ambiguous 


■> 4 

n , 




[U8S(i)] Vocabulary 1 (1873—98) Kives ■ chantcteristic but not 
a complete list of words uied in the Three €kispe1> and comparattvel)r 
nldom or never in the Fourth. The textual list was intended for readen 
unacquainted with Greek. The annotations called (Itention to points 
Home of which the author hopes to discuss in a treatise on " The Fpurfold 
Gospe^" The list omitted roiny words such as "carnal," " can<4le>fick " . 
(A.V.)," " herd," " mother-in-law," concerning which everybody knows that, 
the Synoptists use them and John does not. .Their inclusion appeared 
likely to make the Vocabulary inconveniently Iar)(e without jn^eatly 
faicfleasing its utility for the general t^der. Hut here, for the benefit of 
the student of the Greek Testament, the omitted words are set down in 
Greek dphabetical order. The list isnot complete even now. It omits 
prepositions' and particles discussed el^where, and also woeds used 
differently by the different Synoptists f./;. ItuuP^im, tttrafiriCu, towrm, and 
Arywi'. But still, if the student combines the following JisI with the 
instances marked in Vocabulary I as Jn (o), he will have a tolerably 
complete view Of Ikeaioriis uud by tkt Thrtt Gosptls and ntver mtJ iy ., 
/df Pourth. 'KyfKr, J, 3, 2 = i. Mk (3), Ml. (j), Lk. (i), and so of the 
rest :— 

[USD (i)a] "AyAi; », 3, 3 : ihvtarot 1,1,1: otufioc I, I, J ; itfnr a, 2j 
I : ({X/i;Soirr^K)r 2, i,.l :. dXuvr 3,' 3, 1 ; 'AX^atof 2, I, f : .dwcryci^M I, f, I ^ 
av4)(oiuu f, I, I : dwaifim I, I, I : unoiiJfUu- I, 3, 3 : AirothmtftaCtt 2, I, 3 : 
iwoKaBlanffu 3, 2, I ; AvotttpaXi(m 2^ I, I : dirwrvXiw I, I, I : aptnii^^l, I, I : 
<w«ii< 4, 4, 4 : iairaloiuu 3, 2, 2 ; dcr^risir^tc I, 1, S : ii0(u^» I, 1,4 (1709i/). 
Bitot I, I, I : dlu\ir/ita I, I, I : SiffXot I, I, 2. . I'aAiiMt 1, I, I : 

ywrrrip I, 3, 2 ; ytvijita I, I, I : rttunjaap^r I, I, I. ^a0k4wm I, I, 

I : iiafiijKij I, I, 2 ; dtawoia 1, 1, 3 : Atawtpim 3, 3, I ; Stap^aum I, I, 2 : 
tinrcoXw r, I, I : Hftd I, 3, 3. EUitt I, 1, 1 : tjmia I, I, I : 

<Vdt'd«/u I, 2, 1 : ffViJn) A/Ml 3^ 3, ■ ^ rvr/W»ofMU f, 1, 3: i^tjKorTa 3, 3, I.: 
iwiffyiiiM I, I, 3; iwiyiMpli 2, I, 3 : ('iri<r>«l(i« I, I, 3 : i/iiiiiutnt 1, I, I : 
fMvbj[adj.) I, I, 3 : r^KOirwrf/fOf 3, 3, 3. Zrnuom I, I, I, f*4pot 

I, I, I : AjXdfs I, 3, 3 : Mfta i, «> 2. KofU^Xot 2, 3, I : cofilni^iy/o 

3, I, 1 : KoroyfXiif* 1, 1, 1 : Komwirairiux :l, I, I ; Korapuoiiat I, 1, I ; 
KoroffKrvo^a I, i, 3 : cnravKi^rM* I, I, I : Korq^Vw I, 1,3; cor^rom 3, 3, 
I : Kpaoirtdor i, 3, I : xptjittfot I,>i, |-: Kvpi^faiof I, I, I. - i 

[188S(i)4] , Adj^oFiii' I, I, I : Xifiu^ i, I, 4 : Xvxri'a I, I, 3. Mcrfl/a 

3, 2, i : liidtot 1, I, 1 : fiv<rrifpiop I, i, 1. Ntawitrxot 2, 3, r; rvp^v 

li 3, 1. Miktt (pt) 3, 2, I. 'Otoit I, 8, I : ippau I, 1,1: 

opjfioftai 1, 3, I : ^tf^vf I, .[, I. Qap4x0 i, 1, 4 : wtvfifpa 1, i, 3 :- 

r</>tXiHrar 3, I, I : ircptmriv/M I, I, I : *tptcitmpot i, I, 4 <1683f): 
ir<n( 3, 3, I : mSKtpat 3, 2, 3 : woKifpia I, 1, 1 : rippa 1, I, 2 : 4pittau I, 


ADDENDA [l«88(ii)«] 

I, I : irp«rMa4>tpM i, I, 2 : wixnMXtvh t, ■■ a ;. #v^tw ■■ l,t. 
'P4M«ff 1, It I : fiifywviAi 3t' St 3. S«^«Mi I, 3f 4: rtXqnf I, I, I ; 

ftvtnri It 3, 3 ; ffurMf 3, I, I : ^Nqvif i, i, a : ffnui i| 1, i : itkvXXm i, I, 2 : 
9ir6fHfiot It 1, I : fftdjKvf 3, I, I : ^Wyi^ I, I, I ; rvKM" 'i, i, I : vvrXoMw i, 
I, 3: uy'lya >i ■) 3 1 ffvrnifWa 1, 1, 1. TiXinar}, I, t :,nXXi> 1, 

I, I : rpaxilXot It I, 3. 'YiraKOMf 3, It 3 : C>ira|Wi'ti It 3, I. 

♦a^ofuu (raid, or pan.) l-f[l],' 13. 1 : ^^ 1, 3, 1 1 ^tim I, S, i : 
^kJvof 3, I, 3 ; ^ipoyptf I, I, I. *nio*i>o^liT^t I, 3t 1. 

[188S (il)} Vocabulary 1 1 (1707:f U) oniit(ed a large number of wonlt 
uMd by John alone, but uaed by film only once or twice, so that they 
could not be called characteristic, ij(. JXi%, ipa^x", /^u>r, yrrt). ■ These 
belong citber to special narratives, or M^'tp special details, not given by 
the SynoptiUs ; and their inclusion seemed Kluly to make the Vocabulary 
inconveniently long without campensatin^«4>m|]u«to the reader 
unacquainted with Creek, llut there i»flt<(ch to be learned from some of 
these, t^. from John's unique use of /umVo (" lest they (the chief priests) 
should if iltfiled") immediately before the priests accuse Christ of " doing 
nnl" when compared with Matthew's statement "That which comeih out 
of the mouth defililk (imroi) the man." Some of them will be discussed 
in Part H of this work, t.g. AXofui (2314—6), others, it is hoped, 
in a future treatise. For the convenience of the student, instead of ' 
figures stating how often the word occurs in the Fourth Gospel, the 
list appends references to the several passages. No Synoptist uses the 
following words : 

[1886(ii)a] 'AyyfXX* xx. 18, <>r>i{o xi. 5$, AAofuu iv. 14, dX^xix.'39, 

llftroc i. 39, 36, Jforprirtf ii. 1$, dc/fijjo/Mil vi. 3, (ll'9p«iro«r({i'uc viii. 44, 
imtMum. 36, ipa^ xix. 13, ift<rtM viii. 39, J^Kiw xxi. IS, ifxnfiiiKaat 
iL 8—9; Bau» xii. 13 (3M7)i /3a<nXi«it iv. 46, 49, ^imaitu vit 13. 

rtfrrif ix. I, y4fim''iu. 4, y^pivKU xxi. 18, yXmrviuoftoif xii. 6, Xiii. 29. 
^attpCm xi. 35, itarpiffta iii. 22, idhmtot v'u 45,- Amp^a \v. 10, 8. also ltt3j^. 
'tfitoiui ipa iv. J2, Uarritt xix. 37, V«i»m V. 13, flutrriu iii. 30, Adrra* ii. 
10^ <Xiy/M xix. 39, ifiwopiaii Hi. 16, t'lufivirim XX. 33, Jftclria X. 23, Joofiant 
vii. 49, iwiytat iii. 13, ^iriX/ya V. 3, iftxpiu ix. II, iwciipmut iii. 12, 
ip€m>im V. 39, vii. ^3, titinm i. 33, ixtit iv. $3. 

[1888 (ii) i] ZqXw ii. 17, C>^int iii. 35. "hXcs xx. 35 (to). 

8«Wf/S4c ix. 31, ttitt) xviii. 1 1, Spi^pa iv. 13. Katfa/fW xv. 3, nunryofNa 

xviit. 39, (t'vi') K/9p«ir. xviii. 1, KnpU xi. 44, ttippa ii. 15, irfp^ufrMrr^t ii. 
14, ttiwmip6t XX. 15, «Xi/M XV. 2— 6 (4 «i«es (1674)), KXawar xix. 25, 
ico^iiivir xi. 13, tap-^tpmi lx<t iv. 52. Aarfxlaxvl. 3,X<n'iar xiiL 4, 5, 

XiAmv ii. 6, AMarpmrot xix. 13, Xlrpa xii. 3, xix. 39, Xotigp^v ix. 28. 
tfalropat X. 28, MoXj^ xviii. 10, ^<(i>pu vi. $3, ptrim vii. 14, fuo/ra xviii. 
38. , . Nnw xiir. 34, viirr^fi xiii. 5. 'OtiHwapia iv. 6, 8{« xi. 39, 

otitm xxi 35, itipim xii. 14 (1738 <), JtrXar xviii. 3, d«^ xii. 3, ftfrx vii. 34, '' - 
xi. 44. noiJiifiior vi. 9 (1738(), wapa^vUopat xi. 19, 31, wrttpit ' 



[188S(ii)r] V ADDENDA 

xviii, 13, WfpMm xL 444 wtpum^iu xi. 43, wop^ipfot six, 3« 5, «^h vu 55, 
■rfM^Snui) V. 1 (1218), wpo^m xxi. !6, 17, rpovW* ix. 8 (I *1#0 
■uporaimi ima\ wpeaoKiriit iv. 23, *pvt^iyiM x«i. $, wtip'K xiii. 18, 
wrinpa il. 6 (>. also wrvo, 1737 ^ > ' 

' (WBOOf] 'Wnvjl. 38. Xa^ioptmc iv: 9 (Mi), »Ai>« xix. 31, ]1, 

33, ni^roiriTyw vii. 2, antf/im i. 14, vto^ v, 1, X. 13, nttil^tpxapiu vi, 1), 
xviii. 1 5, awpaJbffrifl y^. 16, mipm xxi. 8, rx^rlov ii. I $. Tax*wv xiit 

27, XX. 4 (1918), rfRWov xiii'. 33 (1676 if), rtrnffioim xi. 39, rrrp«/«ifM>t iv. 3$, 
rfrXor xix. 19, to, rwrot xx. 2$ (MxX "'^■'« xii. 4a 'ttp\a ii. 6, 7, . 

. iVi .38^ %miA^vfpa xiii. 15, vairhwot xix. 39, fi^rrdi xix. 23. ' •«*'• 

(nCtive) i. 5, v. 35, ^orih xviii. 3, ^avXof iii. 30, v. 29 (17T24), ^ptf xii. 
■ 3 (3047), 0p<iy<XXi<» ii. IJ. Xaftal ix. 6, xviii. 6, x'ttutOP" *^W' ■> 

XoXiio vii. 23. *niet viii. 44, ^lirr^t viii. 44, }S, 'H'X^ "*'"' ■"' 



' IBiatWBatfca, ^atts f— IF 






Dtmy 8ve. thth. Pri^t 71. 6i/. w/,. - - 

, - •• ■ ■ r . ■,«♦■■ 

"So br at we CM }uage, th«y (the argument*) are learned and 
ibgcnioui, though perhaps iniufticicnt to cirry the whole weight of hik 
hypothesis,"— Z«>»M. 

■•■-.■ * 
^ ' " Worked out in great detail and with unflagging interest.. Fot 
Dr Abbott throws life into everything he touches... A contribution 10 
the 'Synoptic Problem,' claiming examination and commanding atiep-'? 
}AOTi.'—Exposihry Timti. 

"We hav» nothing but thanksyo ofler Ur Abbott for the patient 
industry with which he h^ collected and* put before u>, with great 1 
clearness, doiens of ejm|iiJ|cnts upon which ^ even' those who are not 
experts either in Hebrew oxfGtiek or Biblical criticism can exercise their 
common sense. '^ — Guardian, 

"A ver)- ingenious and very interesting aigumefU."— i9a<^ News. 

" Of extraordinary interest and suggestiveness."— 

< Manchtsltt CuanUaii. 

" The thcxiry may be commended jit moat ingenious, and its applica- 
tion as very interesting and full of light on ptany ve^d readings." — 
■ • Siotsvtan. 

" Oectainly, at &r at least as the Septuagint is concerned, he hM 
found a Ver^ Cwm."—AI>trdtt>i Frte Pms, ' - 

, ■ ' *" ■"..•♦ 

" Learned, acute, and ingenioi»»."—*n<M4 **'"'*(>'. 





Demy Zvo. cloth. Price i^s. net. 

"There is lomething very altracu»e in the way in which Dr Abbott 
forces the documents to teli their Kcret historyVnot by brilliant guess- 
work but by the use of rigid sCientiAc method.'— Mipu'i''lfrf Gtmadian, 

"There is j||k|' <'«'' "' valuable infomution in this second instal- 
ment of Dr AuQPl.great work, whether one agrees with the main thesis 
or not"— Gi(«ral<a». 

" Full of acute and learned criticism.'*— /*/7tf/. 

"The industry and ingenuity displajred through the work ate marvel- 
lous. . In this attempt to solve the Synoptic variations Dr Abbott is as 
ploddingly persevering as he is daizlingty original." — Exftwtory Timts, 
' "One encellent feature in iHs the effort to bring ■4he whole evidence 
.within reach of an intelligent English reader." — DutuUe Advertiur. 

"As an exposition of the documentary theory of the origin of the 
Gospels, Dr Abbott's work promises to -hold a high place." — 

I Glatgov Herald. 

" De<erVts to be read with the utmost cin'—QHllaei. 

" A tnonnent of patient, scholarly labour."— C^tm/iViw WerU, 

.©art tH 

d4«i> 8w. chth. Prict lOi. net. * 

"The candid 
reader's sympa^y 
forth with an 


reverent spirit in which tl|c book is written wins the 
Tbe criticism exhibited is ofteii acute and it is set f 
lulation of detail which- is evidence of pencveriOK 



research ;...For the writer*! ability^ laboar* and candour we have great 
respect; . ..' — Guardian, 

** The book \$ noteworthy as a defence on new grounds of the hiitorical 
tradition pretcnt in the Fourth Gospel, and the authtfHs diligence in 
collecting details horn every quarter must be universally admired."— 
* AtMettaum. • 

*'A monument of painstaking comparison and analysis .The 

appendices and indices teem With suggestive material He has steeped 

himself in the spirit, and he has logically explained much which toother 
critics is mere opportunity for wriggling.'* — Outiook. 

**The notion (hat St John wrote not to supplement the Synoptics but 
to substitute a spiritual for a materialistic conception of Jesus. 
exceedingly suggeg^e and worked^ut with much ingenuity."— 

Daiiy News. 

" A fresh illustration of the author's sound learning and keen exegetical 
insighL"— /?«//>' ChronicU. 

" Very original and suggestive." — Cambridgi RevUw. 

"To' the proving of his case Dr Abbott brings all the wealth of 
curious learning and the singular fertility of linguistic conjecture for 
which he is so justly distinguished among biblical critics of the day."— 



"There is in the book*. .a large amount Of careful work which will be 
found helpful to all whi> are seeking their way through the letter- to the 
spirit of the Gospels.*' — Bookman. 4 * 

"Has the true scienti6c temper The discussion, does not fail to be 

stimulating and suggestive."— Zii^r/irv W^IH. 

"Tbe result at once of gireat learning, indomitable industi^, and 
remarkable ingenuity, this is a work that stimulates and rewards.'' — 

Aberdeen Free Press. 

"Oftei^ throughout the book the incidental matters which rrop^up are 
of the greatest interest. For instani^, what Dr Abbott says on the 
prjjbability of Christ's 4|eaching about 'taking on oneself the yoke' 
becoming misunderstood and perverted to 'taking up the cross' is 

luminously suggestive It is a storehouse of learning, and, quite apart 

from the conclusions which Dr Abbott seeks to establish, it will be valued 
for the recondite material both from Jewish and Christian early writings 
which it brings tofether/tfUd makes easily accessible."— CAiri>//<fiM ffVr/ri 

"He spares no pains to bring a very ingenious ^iscussidR*up to date 
and well within the reach of those who have no knowledge of Greek or 
Hthnw.'*— Dundee Adifertiser. 

"The accumulation of such facts is a tadc of great labour, but is , 
valuable to all workers in t|)e (tcM of Biblical criticism, whether tney 

agree with Dr Abbott's vj^w of the Synoptic problem or t»ot The 

curious facts which he has gathered about the Rabbinical beliefs con- 
cerning * voices from heav«i' contain mw:h that is new to m%*^— Pilot. 

■ ' ■;-.•■•■'■■'■" -^..^ ^ 

" A valuable contribution to the Synoptic problem.*'— />^«itr Aftrcuty^ 

"The strength of his position lies in the accumulation of particulars. 
He must be examined page by page and point by point"— 

- Expository Times. 

"Warm thanks arc due to the author for the immense labour he has 
undertaken."— /'nddjiV/T/c hfetkodist Quarteriy Rnnew. 

** With thorough and penetrating scholarship! ^"^^ * degree of toil 
beyond all praise^ Dr Abbott has sought out parallels to facts and- 
expressions in the Gospels for the purpose of elucidating their meaning, 

and tracing them to their original sources. Such a work as ihts,, which 

ctrtainly puts t* shame the sluggishness and the spiritual indifference/ 
and the miserable formality ordinarily displayed in the study of the 
Gospels, will require prolonged and serious investigation, such as cannot 
hie given to it in a notice like the present. It Inaterially advances our 
comprehension of the intellectual conditions and methods of instruction 
of Christ's age...."— ^(i///i/ Magasine. 

" They are full of minute and curious learning, and help to advance 
Dr Abbott's plea that the study of The Aramaic versions \s of essential 
importance for the interpretation of the Gospels."— J/rtnMcj/rr Guardian. 

"The book is not more remarkable for its striking hypotheses than it 
is for its careful and systematic collection of evidence.. ..Or Abbott's recetit 
scries of volumes (soon happily to be followed by another) really constitute 
a new and enlightening commentar>' on some of the most important 
passages in the New Testament, And the commentary is^equally 

illuminative of the Kabbmical pabsagei* quoted It is full of learning, 

"^of originality, but above all of suggest ivcness Page after page. 

scintillates with bifilliant points Dr Abbott has clearly relied- a good 

deal on secondary sources, but he has so carefully verified and ex%mined 
his. materials, he has applied to them so pei^trating and soUnd a criticism, 
that his book is distinguished by its accuracy in details. Dr Abbott 
stands forth as a conspicuous|||ample of the salvation which lies in 
precision of thought and exactness of method."— y/tc/M Quarterly Hevifw. 
• The ChusicaJ Rn'irt^, stating in detail " what results tbc writer has 
attained which seem tolerably certain to be correct," adds " Incidentally 
Dr Abbott gives us a most valuafaM'diasertafion of 43 pages on Hath Koi* 
, i,e. Voices from Heaven in Jewisn'Tradition, reprinting in an Appendix 
Pinner's collection of examples from the Tatmuds and Targums ; be 
gives us a useful restatement in another Appendix of the reasons fdc 
believing that the so-called Second Epistle of St Vt\eT is a forgery, aod 
in yet another a convmcing re\-iew of Eusebius promise to record the 
evidence accessible to him that bore on the^aonictty or authenticity of 
Christian writings. He ■demonstrates anew tnb cnrrectqess of Hishop 

Lightfoot's interpretation of that promise The temper of I)r Abbott's 

irriting is worthy of bis subjccf...he has shown u» the true significance of 
unregarded^vords." * . ; - 



WAS (?) BETRAYED." , ,; ;. 

Demy 9vo. cloth. Price is. dd. net. - 

"We are inclined to think that the present instalment, although the 
thinnest in bulk, isHhe most valuable of the four....-...l)r Abbott exhibits 

his customary industry, acuteness, and learning. One finds oneself, 

mOch more often than usual, able to follow not only with interest, but 
with wiUing assent." — GuardiaH. 

Tlu Dumtte Advertistr, while calling attention to the " conjectunfi' in 
the chain of argument," says " There is, however, a strong te;u^tion to 
think Dr Abbott's hypothesis established when it is s«en to be the key 
that fits into one -difficulty after another," and adds ** For ingenious and 
scholarly work there is nothing being done at present in the English 
language like the series of volumes by Ur Edwin A. Abbott. It is 
research work, painst.iking and slow and elaborate." 

"In great detail and with learned elaboration the various passages are 
examined ; "but the liiain tooK of this )>ook is often the occasion for 
interesting digressions into fhibs in which ^^x Abbott is always an 
instructive, if not always a convincitig, companion." — ^. . . 

LoniloH Quarltrly Kevin). 

"A inar\'el of minutescholanhfp and of patient industry."— 

. , Westminster Uagatint. 

" He has, in a rare dcgree,'the true scientific temper, whictv knows 
tb;it far-reaching implications may be hidden in apparently trivial facts, 
t'nd^ed it may safely be said that, had he never established a single 
conclusion, his investigations would, for their patient and unobtrusive 
thoroughness, alone suffice liXixn him an honourable name. This kitest 

book, the fourth part of the 'ontessarica,' is^acase in point The real 

value of ^he book, however, is not in the conclusion but in the way in 

which the conclusi9n is sitpported. Or Abbott works out his argument 

with great elaborateness aitd detail, and to follow it conscientiously is to 
be ainply itpaid, whether one eiid in agreement or dissent. One of 
Dr Abbott's incidental remarks is too valuable to pass without reference : 
'We need,' he says, 'to become more, not less, anthropomorphic in our 
thoughts about Qod, after the pattern of the best anthropomorphism of 



the propheU of Israel and the Son of God.' Not many more ludiil 
reminders could come to those who have the forminR of modem 
theology."-arMAa» WorU. 

, " Unwearied industr; and remarkable ingenuity, a word which we use 
hcHorii carnn, distinguish this as they distinguish all Dr Abbott's 

work."— 5/»<-/<i<or. , . ' ' 

"The criticish) is marked by that singular nicety that marks Dr 
Abbott's work, particularly in ah explanation of the intrusion of 'Galilee' 
into the Resurrection narratives." — Pait Mall Gaxitte. 

" We ari; struck once more by the ingenuity with which Dr Abb«|t 
follows his theory of an Aramaic original, 'and tfnds in subsequent 
misunderstandings of its text a reason for many of the divergences in the 
canonical Gospels...... .The conjectural character of a great deal of his 

work is inevitable in such an unexplored field, but he is providing us with 
a mass of aew material for the liurary study of the Gospeli^ especially iii 
the direction of accounting for discrepancies in parallel narratives.'*—' 
■« Matuhesttr Gmtrditm. 

"In fearless scientific criticism of the Gospels as documctits, 
Dr Abbotboccupies a front pUce among modem scholars, but bis 
criticism is instinct with deep reverence, and always in his own happy 
phrase 'an attempt to reach through varymg voices the abiding 
wori."'—Littrwy IVorlit. 

" We gladly confess that we have learned a great deal from the work 
before Mi-'—Ritonl. . » 

" It is characterised by the same estrtme. care and ntinuteness of 
detail and thoroughness of scholarship which are found in preceding 
volumes."— i//i<i Mtrcury. _ ■ ' 

" A scholarly work, worthy of Dr Abbott'^ gre4^ reputation as • 
Biblical critic.''-0((Wo<i*. 

" This it the fourth part of Dr Abbott's great work, ' Diatessarica,' and, 
like its predecessors, ' Clue ' and ' From Letter to Spirit,' is full of mite 
criticism and painstaking i|iquiry. It is indeed monumental in its breadth 

and 4horou|thnest Novel as this Interpretation is, no one has a/ight 

to set it aside who ddes not study the contents of this learned, reverent, 
and careful y/oxV.!'— Baptist Magaxint. . • 

' •/r.;; •• '::] ."■':'.''.' , : ,■ *.- • 

cAHaaiDot: raJNTau iv johh clav, m.*. at THt ONiviafiTV raiss.