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The substance of all the most approved 

Brc^lisJi Grammars extant, briefly defined, 

a7id neatly arranged, 





ie^'prinied frotp. (he "lest London Edition. j| 

MO^'TRV'U. : I 







The substance of all the most approved 

English Grammars extant, hriejly defined, and 

neatly arranged, 






Re-printed from the latest London Edition. 



r' u probable that the original design nnd principal motive of evfinr 
teacher, iu publisiiiiig a school-book, is the improvement of his own 
pupils. Sucli, at least, in the iniinediato object of the pteticnt compil^ 
tion; which, ("or brevity of espressioii, neatness of arrangement, and com- 
prehensiveness of plan, is, perhaiis, superior to any book of the kind. 
**My cliief end hiis been to explain the general principles of trramniir aa 
clearly and intelligibly as possible. In the dehnitions, therefore, easiiien 
and perspicuity have been sometimes preferred to logical exactness." 

Orthography is mentioned rather for the sake of order than from a con- 
riction of its utility ; for, in my opinion, to occupy ih'u'ty or loriy page» 
of a eTammarln defining the sounds of the alplsabet, is quite preposterous. 
On Ktyinoiogy, I have left much to be remarked by the teaciicr. in the 
ame of teaching. My reason fordoing tiiis is, tliat children, wlien by 
themselves, labour more to have tiie words of their book imprinted on 
their memories, llian to have the meaning fixed in their minds; but, on 
the contrary, when the teaciier addresses them viva voce, they naturally 
(trive rnthcr to compreheid his meaning, than to remember his exact 
expressions. In pursuance of this idea, the first part of this little volume 
has been thrown into a form, more resembling heads of lectures on gram- 
mar, than a complete elucidation of tlie subject. Tiiat tlie teacher, how- 
ever, may not be always under ihe necessity of having recourse to his 
memory to supply the deticiencies, the most remarkable observationa 
bare been subjoined at the bottom of the page, to which the pupils them- 
aelveg may occasionally be referred. 

The desire of being has frequently induced me to use very 
elliptical expressions ; but I trust they are all sufficiently perspicuous. 1 
may also add, that many additional and critical remarks, which might 
have, with propriety, been inserted in the Grammar, have been inserted 
rather in t!ie Key; for I have studiously withheld every tiling from the 
Grammar, that could be spared, to keep it low-priced for the geneca* 

The Questions on Etymology, at the 172nd page, will speak for them 
lelves: they unite the advantages of both the usual methods, viz. that 
of plain narration, and that of . question and answer, witliout the incoo- 
Teniencc of cither. 

Syntax is commonly divided into two parts. Concord and Government ; 
and tlie rules respecting the former, grammarians in general have placed 
before those which relate to the latter. I have not, however, aiteiuled 
to this division, because I deem it of little importance; but have placed 
those rules first which are either more easily understood or wliicli more 
freqnently occur. In arranging a Dumber of rules, it is difficult to pleaa» 

IV. P R E F A C e. 

every reader. 1 have frequently been unable to satisfy myself; and 
therefore, cannot expect that the arrangement which I have at liiKt adopted 
will give univeri^al satlBfactiom , Whatever order be preferred, the ont 
rule must necessarily preci de the other ; and since they arc all to be 
learned, it signifies hut little whether the rules of concord precede tbogs 
of, government, or whether they be mixed, provided no anticipationt^be 
madi wliich may embarrass tlje learner. 

For Exercises on Syntax, I have rmt only selected the ehortest SEtiten- 
ces I couM find, hut printed the lines closely together, with the rules st 
the bottom on a small type, and by tliese means have generally compres- 
gea as many faulty expressions into a single page, as some of my prede- 
cessors have done into two pages of a larger size. Hence, tliough this 
book seems to contain but few exercises on bad grammar, it really coD- 
tains so many, that a separate volume of exercises is qtiite unnecesgary. 

Whatever defects were found in the former edition, in the time of 
teaching, have been carefully supplied. 

On Etymology, Syntax, Punctuavion, and Prosody, there is scarcely a 
rule or observation in the largest grammar in print that is not to be foand 
in this; besides, the rules and definitions, in general, are so very short and 
pointed, that compared with those in some other grammars, they may be 
etiid to he hit off rather than made. Every page is independent, and 
tliough quite full, not crowded, but wear-; an air of neatness and cane 
invitingly sweet, — a circumstance not unimportant. But, notwithstanding 
these propertie.-J, and others that might he mentioned, 1 am liir from being 
BO vain as to suppose this compilation is altogether free from inaccnracie* 
or defects; much less do I pri>sume that it will obtain the approbation 
of every one who may clmo-se to peru-ie it ; for, to use the words of Dr. 
Johnson, " He tliat has much to do, will do something wrong, and of 
that wrong must suffer the consenuences ; and if it were possible that he 
should always act rightly, yet when such numbers are to judge of his 
conduct, the had will censure and obstruct him by malevolence, aod the 
good eometimeg by mistake," 

if^ Thnsf. pupils that are cnpaMe of writing, shonlil br. regttested to 
write the plurnl of nouns. ($-c. either at licme nr at school. The Exercises 
on Smitni, should be tcriltcn, in their corrected state, icith a .ttrok* 
drawn under the word currtcled. 

5^ K. means Key ■ the tiKures refer to the JVo. of the Key, not tte 




English Grammar is the art of speaking 
and writing the English Language with 

It is divided into four parts ; namely, OaTiioGiiAPHr, 
Etymology, Syntax, aud Prosody. 


Orthography teaches the nature and powers of 
Letters, and the just method of spelling Words. 

A Lettee is the least part of a word. 

There are twenty-six letters in English. 

Letters are either Vowels or Consonants. 

A Vowel is a letter, the name of which makes a full open 
sound. — The vowels are, a, e, i, o, u, w, y. — The conso. 
nants are, 6, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, I, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z. 

A Consonant is a letter that has a sound less distinct 
than that of a vowel ; as, I, tii, p. 

A Diphthong is tlie union of two vowels; as, ou in out. 

A proper Diphthong is one in which both the vowels 
are sounded ; as, oy in boy. 

An improper Diphthong is one in which only one of the 
two vowels is sounded ; as, o in boat. 

A Triphthong is the union of three vowels ; as, cau in 

A Syllable is a part of a word, or as much as can be 
Bounded at once , as. Jar in fur-mer. 

A Monvsi/'lahle is a word of one syllable ; as, fox, 

A Dissyllable is a word of tiuo syllables ; as, Pe-ter. 

A Trissylluhle is a word oi three syllables; zs.,hut-ter-Jly, 

A Polysyllable is a word of many syllables. 

K3" Why slimilii 7W(/i'C7nrn<, ahridfre.ment, &c. be spellfd without e? 
Howcaii^bt'bin't lik«7 wiihuutitl See Walker's Die. HiKlt'r;uii^«uent. 



Etymology treats of the different sorts of 
JVoi'ds, their various modifications and their 
There are nine parts of Speech : — Article, 
Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, A^erb, Adverb, 
Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction. 

Of the Articles. 

An Article is a word put before a noun, 
to show the extent of its meaning ; as, a 

There are two articles, a or an and the. 
A is used before a consonant.* — *An is used 
before a vowel, or silent It; as, an age, an 

Of Nouns. 

A Noun is the na?ne of any person, place, 
or thing ; as, John, London, hook. 

Nouns nre varied by Number, Gpiidi'r and Case. 


• ^ is used before the Inns sound of a, and bi'fore »e nixl y ; as, A 
unit, n n;. ■<',««;/, a cice, a wfvk, a i/rar, siicli a ovi\ — .lii ]•< iiscil before 
words bi'L'i'iniiisr wi'li A sounded, wli'-n llie acd'iil Is on thv gecond syl 
lable; n?!, .•/ it heroic nciion : nj( tji^'toiical ncconnt. 

.-/ is c;!:!; li ihc iiidefinitc ailicle. b'canwe it dm s nnl poliil out a pat 
liciilar jv rson or ihina; as, j? Icina, lliat is, a/iu kin-;. 

'J7ic y i-; llie drjliiilc iiriicl'', l» canse ii refers to a particulai 
person or llilii;:; as, T/ie Kh!-.'; ilmf Is, the kiii!; of'oiir mm <onn(ry. 

A noun vvliiioutan nnicle lo limii It, is taken in lis widest sense; iia^ 
Mm is iiiorial : iiarnely, nil mmikiuil. 

.1 is used liiCori- iKinns in the mttfrii/ar iniinher only. I' i- used be- 
fore the ()!inal in iiunis pn redMl hy sncli |dii:u4t« .is, ~1 fi'in, a great 
tnaiiif ; as, .fl few htvikst; afri-r.nt iiu'imj n\)\>lct>. 

77. i.siised h'elore nmiiis in l.citli iiiindi rs. and hr.nie'hiies Iteforead- 
vcilis ill the <:oin(iar;i!i\e and supt.-iKiiivu degree; ils, Uu vuire Istudy 
graniinur tlie better 1 iilcc i^ 

Of Number. 

Number i« the distinction of one from mart. 

Nouns have tvw numbers ; the Singular 
and the Plural The singular denotes one 
the plural more than one. 

1. The plural is generally formed by add- 
mg s to the singular ; as, Book, books. 

2. Nouns in s, ah, ch, x or o, form the plu- 
ral by adding es ; as, Miss, Misses; brush, 
brushes ; match, matches ; fox, foxes ; hero, 
heroes. "■ ^°- ^-^ 

3. Nouns in y change y into ies in the 

plural ; as. Lady, ladies : y with a vowel 

before it, is not changed into ies; as, Day, 

4. Nouns in forfe, change/ or /e into ves 
in the plural ; as, Loaf, loaves ; life, lives. 


Nouns endin? in rji, soumiing k, form tlie plural by adding s on\y' 
B8, Stomach, stomachs. 

Nouns in to, with junto, canto, tyro, grotto, portico, solo and quarto^ 
have s only in tlie plural : as, Folio, folios ; canto, cantus. 

Nouns in Jf, have their plural ia s; as, Muff, muffs; except staff, 
which somelimr:s hns staves. 

Dwarf, scarf, ickarf, brief, chief ■, grief, kerchief, handkerchief, mis- 
Aitf; gulf, turf, surf, fife, strife, proof, hoof, rnof n\n\ reproof,^ never 
change/ or /e into ves. — 14 clianse/or/e into ves, 'i7 don't. — K. 22.4. 

Nouns-ap." eiihi-r proper or common ProTier nouns are ihe names ol 

persons, p'aces. seas, rivers, &c. ; as, Thomas, Scotland, Forth,* 

Commtii nouns are the nanies of tliinas in general ; as, chair, table, 

Coiirttii s nouns are nouns that ^isn'il'y Ttiany : as, Multitude, crowds, 
■* .^bstrnn nouns arc the names of qualities abstracted from their sub- 
lances ; as, Wisdom, wickedness. 

r'f.ri.?/ itr poriirijiinl ODU'is are nouns derived from verte; as, reading. 

* Proper nouns have the plural only when they refer to a racf or family; 
'l''.c Oimpiet/.': or to several persons of\\tesnmennine, .•'!•. The eight 
if-rir'ts, the t\v(i Mr. Bells, the two Miss Bruunis, (or witlioiit the nu- 
■icj-i'.) ihe M'f's Hoys ; hut in udures.suier leitets in whicli both or all ui9 
aqua Hy concerned, and also whuu the nniiicb are (///^l'.■^?^^ «c pUirnlize 
tJie liCi:, (Mr. or M;.-.-) :ind wrili' j>!i,-ses Bruwn, Misses Hoy; Miis.'irSr. 
/for Messieurs, Fr.) (JiUhrie and Tait- < 


Exercises on Number. 
Write, or tell, or spell, the Plural of 

Fox,* book, leaf, candle, hat, loaf, wish, 
fish, sex, kiss, coach, inch, sky, bounty, army, 
duty, knife, echo, loss, cargo, wile, story, 
church, table, glass,study,calf, branch, street, 
potato, peach, sheaf, booby ,rock,stone,house, 
glory, hope, flower, city, difficulty, distress. 

Day, boy, relay, chimney,f journey, valley, 
needle, enemy, an army, a vale, an ant, a 
sheep, the hill, a valley, the sea, key, toy. 

Correct the following Errors: 

A end, a army, an heart, an horn, an bed, 
a hour, a adder, a honour, an horse, an 
house, an pen, a ox, vallies, chimnies, jour- 
nies, attornies, a eel, a ant, a inch, a eye. 

. Exercises on the Observations. 

Monarch, tyro, grotto, nuncio, punctilio, 
ruff, muff, reproof, portico, handkerchief 
gulf, hoof, fife, multitude, people, meeting, 
John, Lucy, meekness, charity, folly, France, 
Matthew, James, wisdom, reading. 

• What is the plural iif/oi ? Foxes. Why 1 BiKtaiisc nouns in s, 
tk, ch, I, or o, form ihc piiiral by aililiii'i es. — Wiiat U tli'; plijril M 
book? Books. Why 1 BecausR the plural is gcnprally formed by ad- 
ding s to the singular. — Wliat is the plural of leaf ? Leaves. Why t 
Because noun? in/or /c cliange /oi/e inlo ves in the plural. — What 
Is the plural of nrray ? Jirmieg. Why 1 Because nouns in y chaiip,' > 
into ies in tiie plural. — What is the plural of dmi? Onys. is\K\\ it. 
i, a, y, s. Why not d, a, i, e, s? Because y v\'illi a rvwel liel'ore it \a 
not changed into ies : it takes s only. — What is the difference between 
addinr and chanffingJ — K. No. 37, 40, 41. 

t Many eminent authors chanpi^ ey in the singular into ies hi Xht 
plural, tlius: — Chimnies with scorn rejecting sinoise. — Swift. 

Still as tliou dost thy tad'VMil juumies run. — Prior, 
But rattling nonsense in full vollies breaks. — I'ap*. 
The Socieiy of Procurators or ^■jtturnirs — BisioM. 
This mode of spelling lhui£L <>'>*' similar words is highly improiMr 
How iuconiiistent is, " Jlttomitd " " iaumeyed." 


Of Nouns. 

Some nouns are irregular in the formation of their plu. 
ral ; such as, 

























• The coinpoiiiKis of man form the pliiiul like the simple ; namely, 

by changinK a of tiie siiij'uiar, into e of the plurals Mai<:^clinan, not 

being a compound of mfl7i, is musselmans, it is said, in the phjral ; I 
thiiili it should al.vays be inusoebncjt in the pluial. 


brothers, or bicthrent 

sows, or swiae 





fa'tiiers-in-law, &c. 



Sow or swine I 

Die (for gaming) 

Die (for coining) 




Father-in-law, &c. 
t Brethren is generally applied to the members of the same soctetg 
or church, and Brothers to the sons of the same parents. 

X The sirij!ular of si-ine nouns is distinguished from llie plural by tho 
article a ; as, j1 sheejt, a swine. 


Names of metals, virtues, vices, ami things that are weighed or mea- 
sured, Sec. are in general givgu'.ar ; as, (iotd, meekness, drunkenness, 
bread, beer, beef, &c., except when the dillerent sorts are meant ; as, 
Wines, teas. 

Some nouns are used only in the plural ; such as, .Antipodes, literati, 
eredenda, ininuVw, banditti, data, fu/k. 

The sniinlar of literati, Sec. is nimle by saying one of the literati — 
Bandit, the singular of banditti, is often used in newspapers. 

The words Jijiparatus, hiatus, series, brace, dozen, 7iHaHS, and spe- 
cies, are alike in both luinibers. — Some plnialize series into serieses — 
Brace, dozen, Slc. someiimts admit of the plural form ; thus, he bought 
partritl^es in braces, and books in dozens, &c. 

J^cws and alms are gincrally used in the x/^j^u/ar number, butsome- 
tiioes in ihe plural. Pains i< (generally plural. 

Pease and fsk are used when we mean the species ; as, pe<i.-ie are 
dear, fish is cheap ; but wlu-n we refer to ttio number, we say, peaa 
fishes; as, Tfn peas, {wo fishes. 

Horse and fmit, ini aninj;! cavalry and infantry, arc used in Jie sin- 
gular /crm Willi a plurttl verb ; as, A thousand Afse were ready; ten 
Uiuusand foul were lliere. — Men is understood 



Anliiiulculum aiiiinilcula 
Antithesis antitheses 

Of Nouns. 

As the following words, I'lom foreign languages, seldom 
occur, cxc(!pt a few, tlic pui^il may very properly be al- 
lowed to omit theni, till lie be iarther advanced. 
Focus foci 

GOhius genii t 

Genus g*nera 

Hypothesis hyp' theses 
Ignis fiituus ignis fdiui 
Index indexes, indicest 

Luinina lamina; 

Milgus magi 

,, 3 S memoranda, Of 

JHemorandum j , 

f memorandums 

Metamorphosis me tamorphosea 

Monsieur messieurs 

Phenomenon phenomena 

Radius radii 

Stiimen stamina 

Seraph serapiiim, seraphs 

Stimulus stimuli 

Stratum strata 

Vertex vertices 

Vortex vortices 

Virtuoso virtuosi 
















Cherub cherubim,cherubs 
Crisis crises 

Criterion criteria 

Datum ' data 

Desideratum desiderata 











It was thought unnecessary to give a list of such words 
of our own as snuffers, scissors, tongs, &,c. because they 
are evidently to be used as plural ; but it may be proper 
to observe that such words us malheinatics, laelaphysics, 
pvlitics, ethics, pneumatics, iSlc. though generally plural^ 
are sometimes construed as singular, as. Mathematics it 
a science ; and so of the rest. 

* UuLK. Nouns ill um or nn have a in ilie plural ; ana tliose which 
have is in tlic singalar have es in tlie plural. 

t (j'enii, aerial spirits ; but geniuses, persons of genius. — For wha 
reason L. j\lurray,f:/phi7iston,Oulton and others, pluralize .*uch word 
as genius and reOus by adding ses to the singular, nialtiiig iheni ge 
nius^ses, icbusses, instead of geniuses, rebuses, it is not easy to guess; 
as wojds iinling witli a single s are never accented on the lust syllabhi, 
there can be no pood reason for doubling the * lieliire es. H» lice rule 
Slid, puge "ill, begins Willi "Nouns in «," because those in s iixlude 
tlio-i: la ,<s. 

I /// ./f /«.•••, wlien it signifies pointers oi tables of couleats. Indiut 
When il refers lo algebraic quantiliea 



Of Gender. 

Gender Is the distinction of sex. 

There are three genders : the Masculine, 
Feminine, and Neuter. 

The Masculine denotes the male sex ; as 
A man, a boij. 

The Feminine denotes the female sex ; as 
A looman, a girl. 

The Neuter denotes whatever is without 
life ; as, Milk. 

There are three ways of distinguishing the sex : 

1. By different words ; as, 






liiaid, spinster 



























Bullock, ox 

[ heifer — 'lef-er 



or steer 










^ songstress, or 



( singer 


























Some noitni; are eMhe.r masculinf: nr feminine ; stich as, parent, child, 
eouain, infant, servant, neigkbimr, A-e. 

Soin(; nouns, niitiinilly i»;iitor, are converted into tlie masculine or 
feminine geti<l(,r ; iis, when wo say of llie sun, He is setiing ; and fit . 
the moon, She is eclipsed >>^ 



Of NouNa. 
2. By a difference of termination ; as, 




F E M A L « 









Adininistrutor administratrix 















Author (often)authoress* 










































(sultaness, ar 









e.v "cutrix 






















3 By prefixing ar 

iotht^r word ; as, 

A roc/:-sparrow, a //en-sparrow ; a .^e-goat, a ahe-gost ; 

a 7?ian.servant, a maffi-servant ; a /te-ass, 

a s/zc-ass ; d 

wa/e-child, &-c. ; ma/e-descendants, &c. 

* It doos not appcni to be rifctjsary, nor evi-n proper, to list; avikor- 
*ss; lor tlie f'eiiialo noiiii or pronoun Uhai almost invariably accoai- 
pauics this word, will disUiiguisli tlic gender iii it as well aii in vriter. 

E^GLISH^ETY^OLOGY;^_^^ ^ 13 
Of the Cases of Nouns. 

Case is the relation one noun bears to another, or to a verb, Of fi ^po- 

Nouns have three cases; the Nominal oe^ 
Possessive, and Objective.* 

The Nominative and Objective are alike. 

The Possessive is formed by adding an 
npostrophe and s to the nominative ; as, JoVs. 

When the plural ends in *. the possessive 
is formed by adding only an apostrojj/ie; thus, 

Singular. Plural. 
Norn. Lady Ladies 
Poss. Lady's Ladies' 
Obj. Lady Ladies 
t Proper names generally" vviuil the plural. — Sec page 7tli, last note. 



% Father, brothers, mothers, boys, book, 
loaf, arms, wife, hats, sisters', bride's, bottles, 
brush, goose, eagle's vv^ings, echo, ox's horn, 
mouse, kings, queens, bread, child's, glass, 
tooth, tongs, candle, chair, Jane's boots, Ro- 
bert's shoe, hor.<e. 

* The JVominntic* nn'rely di notes the wnme of a thing. 

The PusiCdsire cienoies pusscssion ; as, .Inn'x book. Possession is 

often expressed by of as well as an V. K. 57 to 63, also 194 and 195. 

The Olrjectivr. denotes the object upon which an active verb or a 
prepiisUion ttiminsUf'S. 

X One' nii'thod ot usii'.(! the above exercises is as follows: — 

Father « noun, singular t(iiinihi-r), muculine (iiender), the numin- 
atire (casf), plural, fathers. Brothers, n iioitii, plural, masculine, tlie 
nominitiee. Motller's, a noun, sin^tUar, feminine, llie possessive,— 
iiuel! It.— K. 44. 

By parsiii'_' in this manner, the pnpll (rives a correct answer to mo 
quea'ions. What pail of S(K;ecli isjrVrf/ier? What number? Wlint^mj 
der7 What r/i.-.e ? without obli^iii); the teaciier to lose time to no pif- 
pose in a-kini.; id. 'in. — Tti-^ pnpil, however, should be made to under- 
■land ihai hi; is^iving ansicers toqucsiions which are always sujijiosed 
to lie aski-d. 

As till' Niiiiiiimtivo and Olijeclive src alike, no inaccuracy can resnit 
from till- puiiilV l>''lii^' iiliiiwi d m (•.•i!l it always the .Ni>Miinailve, till 
he conu> to itic vfih. — tVi.sf may bi* alio-ietlier umiued till tlial lime, 
Uie CJise of pi(iiK)ui)s ejiceiUed. — Si'e Note, piiue 30. 

14 _ _5?,£H?? 5TX?'^^^^"^- 

Of Adjectives. 

An Ailjextive is a word which expresses 
the fjiKiiity of* a noun ; as, A good boy. 

Adjectives have three degrees of compari- 
son: the Po.??7i<'r,(7o?n/;rirrt?7'w and Superlative, 

The comparative is formed by adding cr to 
the positive ; and the superlative, by adding 
est ; as in Sweet, sweider, sweetest.*~^-''^- 

Dissyllables in y change //into i before ct 
and est ; as, Happy, happier, ]uq)piest.'\ 

^ Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Good, (well an Adv.) better best 

Bad, evil, or HI worse worst 

Little less Iciist 

Much or many more most 

Late later latest or last 

Near nearer nearest or next ^ 

Far farther farthest 

Fore former foremost or first 

Old older or elder oldest or eldest 


* Tlio Positive exprcssos the siHi/i-'e ' iiualiiy ; the Comparative a 
higher i)r Imoer degree of the quality ; and the Sujiorlalive the higkest 
or (le;;ree. K. 68, 72. 

Ailjeclivi-s ofune syllablo are {ieiierally conipareil liy adding er and 
est : and those a( more than one by prefixing more and most ; as, More 
nnnieioiis, -must numerous; — or, by Less Siuii leaxt ; as, J..ess merry, 
least merry. 

Dis.sylhibles ending with e final are often compared by c and est; 
as, Polite, politer, politest ; ample, ampler, amplest. 

t ff a vowel precede y, il is not changed into i, before er and «*f; 
as, Gay, gayer, gayest ; coy, coyer, coyest. 

Some adjectives are compared by adding most to the end ofthe won^ 
«s. Upper, vppermost. — Some have no positive ; as, Exterior, extreme 

jVouns are ofu-n used as adjectives ; as, A gold-ring, a silver-cup 

Jidjectives often become nouns ; as, Mocli good. 

Some adjectives do not pro|)erly admit of comparison ; such as, Triia, 
perfect, vnirersni, chief, extreme, <!i-c. 

Much is applied to things weighed or measured ; Many to those that 
•re v:imhi-red. — Elder and eldest to |ii rsons: older am\iildcst lo iliings. 

When the }K>si:ivi' ends ii, a si:iule consonani, pr n ded liy a singte 
vowel, the ccxisouanl is doubled before er vuxA est; \iA,Uig,l)tgger^iggMt 


Of Personal Pronouns. 

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a 
noun : as, Joltn is a good boy ; he obeys the 

There are tlirce kinds of pronouns; Personal, Rclalive 
and Adjective. — Tho Personal Pronouns are thus de- 
clined : — 


JVoTO. Pass. Obj. JVom. ^oss. Obj. 

proiTourro?/! I mine me We ours us 

2. m. or/. Thou thine thee— You*yours jou 
8. m. He his him"^ 

3. /. She hersfher >Theytheirsthem 
8. n. It its it ) 


I, thou, we, me, us, thine, he, him, she, 
hers, they, thee, them, its, theirs, you, her, 
ours, yours, mine, his, I, me, them, u.s, it, we. 

♦ Ye is ofieii used instead of you in llie nominative ; as, Ye are liap- 


Mive and thine were formerly used inslPad of viy and thy before a 
Towel or nil A ; a?, Biol out all mine iniqiiitit's ; Give me thive heart. 

t Hers, ilx, ours, yours, theirs, should never be writlen Acr's, it'j, 
•urV, yoiir's, their's ; but hers, its, ours, ire. 

The"com|)oiitid pirsonal pronouns, Myse!/, thyself, himsflf, &c. are 
eommonly joined cither to tlie siiniilc pronoun, or to any ordinary noun 
to make it more remarJiable.v-See K. SO, 90. 

These pronouns are all Heiiirnlly in the same case with the noun or 
pronoun to which they are joined ; as, ".SAc herself said so;" ^^Thry 
M<wi««^t>c« acknowledged it to me myself ;" '^'Vhe master himself got 

Self, when used alone, is a noun ; as, " Our fondness for self is hurt- 
ful to oiliiTS." — K. 96. 

In sniue re^pcciable eraimnars the possessive case of the different 
personal proiiimns stanii.s thus: Isi, my or mine, our or ttur.i — 2il, thy 
or thine, ymir or ynurs — :id, her or ker.i, their nr theirs \ see no im- 
ptupri-iiy in :liis nieilied; the one I iiave preferred, however, is Jierhapa 
Sea8 liable tu ubjtclion. 

16 ENGj^I£^TTMOL^^ 

Of Relative Pronouns. 

A Relative Pronoun is a word that relates 
to a noun or pronoun before it, ealled the 
antecedent ; as, The master who taught us.* 

The simple relatives are, who, which, and 
hat; they are alike in both numbers, thus: 

JVom. Who. 
Pass. Whose. 
Otrj. Whom. 

Who is applied to peisona; as, The boy 

JVhich is applied to inferior animals, and 
things without life ; as, The dog which barks; 
the book which was lost. 

That is often used instead of who or which; 
as, The boy that reads ; the book that was lost. 

What is a compound relative, including 
both the relative and the antecedent ; J as, 
This is what I wanted ; that is, the thing 
which I wanted. 


In asking (|uestions, ty/ta, icliick ajul what are called inlenogaUveg ; 
as, IVhu i^jiiil that ? ffkal did he do ? K. p. 84, note. 

Tlie re/atire is always of (he same gender, number and person with 
lis anic'ci drn!, but not always in the same case. — K. p. 4:t, b. 

fV/iick lias properly no imsse'sive case of ils own. The ohji'ctiv-^ 
with of before it supplies its place. Our best writers, however, now 
use whonf as the posses-sive ol which; as, " A religion whose origin is 

divine." Blair. — Si-e uioie remarks on Which at p. 131. For the 

relative an, see p. 146. 

* The relative goiuetim< s refersjo u who'e clause as ils nnn'cei ent , 
as, The Bill was rejected by the LHrds, wliich excited no small d.'grce 
of jealousy and discontent; that is, which thing, or circumstance, ea- 
cited, &c. 

t Who is api'.lied to inferior animals, wheu they are represented a 
fpcaking atid aciini; liki: rntinvai l/tings. 

I What anil ichiik are sometimes nswl a.s adjectives ; as, " I know not 
by xchiit finality llii^ adversaries of the motion are imp'^lled ;" — which 
ti.iriL's^nre an allegory. Which here is equal to these. — I'aui- liT, b. 

Whoever, ichusococr, and whoso, are compound relatives, equal to 
JJc who ; or thepersun that. \\. 88. 

It'hiUiBcr and whatsmver, >vith whtcliever and whicii.«ii rer, aiQ 
coiueliiiies adjectives, and combine with a uus ; and soiiieiimes con 

Adjective Pronouns. 
T^iere are four sorts of Adjective Pronouns 

1. The Possessive pronouns, My, thy *hi^ 
her, our, your, their, its, own.'f 

2. The Distributive, Each, every, either, 

3. The Demonstrative, This, that,X with 
their plurals, these, those.'^ 

4. The Indefinite, None, any, all, such, 
whole, so??ie, holh, one, other, another ; the last 
three are declined like nouns. 


pound relative!!, equal to that which. — These compounds, however, 
particulaily whoso, are now generally avoUed. fyhateoerawd whoever 
•re most used. 

* His and her are possossive pronouns, when placed innnediateljr 
before nouns ; but wlien they stand by themselves, his is accounted 
the possessive case of the persunai pi onouu he, and her the objective of 

t Its and picn sf>em to be as much entitled to the appellition of pos- 
ceasive pronouns as his and my. 

t Yon, will) former and /alter, may be called demonUrative pro- 
nouns, as well as this and that. See Syntax, R. 'J8, b. 

II That is sonietinies a relative, sometimes a demonstrative pronoun, 
and somttinies a cunjunctihn. IC. 01). 

Thnt is a relative when it can be tiirnr-d into who or which, without 
destroy inii the sense ; as, " The days thut (or whic li; are past, are gone 
for ever." 

That is a demonstraticc pronoun when il is placed immediately be- 
fore a noun e.\|)res.sPd or understood; as, " 'Phal boi.k is nf;w." '■•ThOL 
is not the one 1 want." 

Thnt is a en nj unction when it cannot be luriieil into whi or which; 
but marks a consi-ipience, an indiru:inn, or linal end ; as, " H<' was so 
proud, that he was universally desi/isd." He answered, " ThitXvi 
never was so happy as he is now." Live well, that you m ly die weU 

All the indefinite pronouns 'except none) and even the demonstri* 
bee, distributive, and possessive, are adjectives heliinuiii.'j to nouna 
either expn-ss+d or uuderstoi'd; and in parsing," 1 lliink ihr )• ought to 
be called adJeciives.—JVune Is used in iotA numbersi ; bull cannot be 
Joined to a noun. 

The phrase none other sliouM be n« other, — AnuUier ha. no plural 

18 ?iiSJil5SL^IL!^^^9Sy 

Promiscuous Exercises on Nouns, &c. 

A man, he, who, which, that, his, me, mine, 
thine, whose, they, hers, it, we, us, I, him, 
its, horse, mare, master, thou, theirs, thee, 
you, my, tl)y, our, your, their, his, her — this, 
these, that, those — each, every, either, any, 
none, bride, daughter, uncle, wife's, sir, girl, 
madam, box, dog, lad, a gay lady ; sweet 
apples ; strong bulls ; fat oxen ; a moun 
tainous country. 

Compare, Rich, merry, furious, covetous 
large, little, good, bad, near, wretched, rigo 
rous, delightful, sprightly, spacious, splendid, 
gay, imprudent, prettv. 

The human mind ; cold wa^er ; he, thou, 
'she, it ; woody mountains ; the naked rock; 
youthful jollity ; goodness divine ; justice 
severe ; his, thy, others, one ; a peevish hoy ; 
hers, their strokes ; pretty girls ; his droning 
flight ; her delicate cheeks ; a man who ; 
the sun that ; a bird which ; its j;ebbled bed ; 
fiery darts ; a numerous army ; love unboun- 
ded ; a nobler victory ; gentler gales; na- 
ture's eldest birth ; earth's lowest room ; the 
winds triumphant ; some flowery stream ; 
the tempestuoiis billows ; these things ; 
those hooks; that brenst which; the rich 
man's insolence ; your queen ; all who ; a 
boy's drum ; liimself, themselves, myself.* 

* 'rhf piTsonal pronouns, Hiinse'.f, he.reeff^ Ihcmnelves-, fee. nri' used 
In tlic vuminative case as well as in Ihe oltjeclivu ; as, Himself shall 

Mr. Rlnir, in his (Jiannnar, stiys, tln-y have only ono case, vi7., the 
nonnniilivr.: but tills is a mistake, lor ilii;y have lli».' rl/Jntive loo.—* 


Of Verbs. 

A Verb is a word that affirms something of its nominative ; oi 

A Vevh is a word which expresses being, do- 
ing or suffering; as, I atn — I love — 1 am loved. 

Verbs are of three kinds, Active, Passive, 
and Neuter. 

A verb Active expresses action passing 
from an actor to an object ; as, James strikes 
the table.* 

A verb Passive expresses the suffering of 
an action, or the enduring of what another 
does ; as, The table is struck. 

A verb Neuter expresses being, or a state 
of being, or action confined to the actor ; as, 
I ojn, he sleeps, you run.-\ 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The auxiliary or helping verbs, by which 
verbs are chiefly inflected, are defective, 
having only the Present and Past Indica- 
tive ; thus, 

Pres. Do, have, shall, will, may, can, am, must. 
Past. Did, had, should, would, might, could, was, must. 

And the Participle (of ftc?) being, been. — Be, 
do, have, and icill are oftt;n principal verbs. J 

Let is an active verb, and complete. Ought is a defrc 
tive verb, having only llie present indicative.—P-''". "•'<'• 

* Jlcltrr vfxhf are t'\\W'i\ traitxitive v(!rb.*, becniisf the action passes 
Gom ihi- aclor to the iihjict. K. p.. 58, note. 

f Jf niter vprbs fire called intnin.trtive, becniisae tlWir nclinn i« ninfiiu'il 
to tlie HCloi, anil ilo.v not pti«s over to an ohji-ct. — Oli/rlrni s/nm/il nut 
be trouhted 'jin noon wUk the diittinetion between actine and neuter nrrbs. . 

X Ii wa-J ihoiisilir qiiiti- itnni'cesjary to conjugate the vi :1k have ami 
do. $i.C ihioiif.'h all iliiir nioorl-: aii<! tetisis; lireaiise i) < liilil tlial run 
readily conjugate the verb to love, can easily conjugate any ottier verb 


A verb is declined by Voices, Moods, Ten- 
ses, Numbers, iind Persons. 

Of the Moods of Verbs. 

Verbs have fvc moods ; name!}'', the In 
dicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative 
and Infinitive. 

The Indicative mood simply declares a 
thing ; as, He loves, he is loved ; or it asks a 
question ; as, Lovest thou me ? 

The Potential mood implies possibility, 
liberty, power, vi^ill, or obligation ; as. The 
wind 7nay blow ; we may walk or ride ; I 
can swim ; he would not stay ; you should 
obey your parents. 

The Subjunctive mood represents a thing 
under a condition, supposition, motive, wish, 
&;c., and is preceded by a conjunction ex- 
pressed or understood, and follovv-cd by an- 
other verb; as. If thy presence go not with 
us, cany us not up hence. 

The Imjicraiive mood commands, exhorts, 
entreats, or permits ; as. Do this ; remember 
thy Creator ; hear, O my people ; go thy 

The Infinitive mood expresses a thing in 
a general manner, without distinction of 
number or person, and commonly has to be- 
fore it ; as. To love. 

Explanatinns of thi; moods and miisi's of verbs are iiispricd ln-re for 
J)c sjiki! (if ord(!r ; Imt it would be hifibly iiuiiropcr toili'liiiii llir learner 
BO loiic as to coiiiiiiit lluiin to iiieiii'iiy ; iiu nii^iit, llierelinv, afK'r get- 
ting! tlio ditiiiilioii ol' u vurb, to proceed lo llic iiitli'Ciioii iilii, wiliioiit 
deliiy: and vvlieii lie comes to the exercises on tlie verbs, lie c;ui look 
oack to the deliuiiiou ut a verl) active, &.c. as occasion may reiiuiie. 


Of Tenses, or Distinctions of Time. 

The Present tense expresses ^\ hat is going 
on just now ; as, / love you ; / strike the 

The Past tense represents the action or 
event either as passed and finished ; as, He 
broke the bottle, and spilt the brandy ; or it 
represents the action as unfinished at a cer- 
tain time past ; as, My father was cominj^' 
home when I met him. 

The Perfect tense implies that an action 
has just now, or lately, been quite finished : 
as, John has cut his finger ; I have sold my 

The Pluperfect tense represents a thing 
as past, before another event happened ; a-s 
All the judges had taken their [daces, heiore 
Sir Roger came. 

The Future represents the action as yet 
to come ; as, I will see you again, and your 
heart sh dl rejoice.* 

The Future Perfect intimates that the ac- 
tion will be fully accomplished at or before 
the time of another future action or event; 
as, I shall have got my lesson before ten 
ydock to-morrow. 

• Mr. Walker ntid others have divided the first rmure, ywo the /a 
hiT* foreldling, and \hf futvrt iir3mixiv<T m commanding. Tlial thU 
distinclion is iilisohiiely necessary, as Mr. Walker aflirins, is ezcceilhigly 
questiuniible ; for when a learner lias occasion to use the ('utnre 
thia division will not in the least assist liiin in determiniii^ whether be 
ought to use vnll, rather than $hall, ire Therefore Uiis division servet 
■o purpotie. 




1. The Present Tmse is used to express a Aaii7 or cwa- 
tom; as, He snuffs; She o'ncs to church. It is sometimes 
applied to persons lonj^ since dead, when the narration of 
their actions excites our passions ; as, " Nero ;".9 abhorred 
for his cruelty.'' " Milton is admired for his sublimity.'' 

2. In liistorical narration, it is beautii'ully used for th 
Past Tense; as, " Ca-sar leaves Gaul, cros.*rs the Rubi- 
con, and enters Italy with five thousand men." — It is 
Bometimos used with fine effret for the Perfect ; as, " In 
the book of Genesis, Moses tells us who were the descen- 
dants of AbrahTwn," — for has told us.. 

3. When preceded by such words as when, before, as 
soon as, after, it expresses the relative time of a future 
action ; as, When he comes, he will be welcome. As soot) 
as the post arrives, the letters will be delivered. 

4. In the continvate, progressive or compound form, it 
expresses an action began nud going on just ?;om:, but not 
complete ; as, I am studying my lesson ; he is irriting a 


The Past Tensr is used when tlic action or state is 
liviited by the circumstance of lime or place; as, " We 
saw him yesterday.'' " We were in bed when he arrived." 
Here the words yesterday and when limit the action and 
state to a particular time. — After death all atjcnts are 
spoken of in the past tense, because time is limited and 
defined by the life of the person ; as, " Mary Queen ol 
Scots was remarkable for her beauty." 

This tense is particularly ajipropriated to the narrative 
style, because all narration implies some cfrcuwsfance; att, 
" Socrates refused to ador!> false gods." Here tho period of 
Socrates' life bein]g^ a limited part of past tiine,circumseribes 
the narration. — It is imjjropcr then to say of one already 
dead, " He has been much admired ; he has done much 
good :" but, " He wis much admired ; he did much ^ood.* 

Although the Past Tense is used when the action is cir- 
cumstantially expressed by a word or sentiment that limits 
the time of the action to some definite portion of past time, 
yet such words as often, sotnetimes, many a time, frequently 
and similar vague intimations of time, except in narrationa, 
require the perfect, because they admit a certaiu latitude,. 

ENGLISH ETY1^I0L0GY^____ 23 

and do not limit the action to any definite portion of pa.«t 
time ; thus, " How often have we seen the proud despiserl." 


The Perfect Tense chiefly denotes the accomplishment 
of mere facts without any necessary relation to time or 
place, or any other circumstance of their cxi^slciice ; as, 
Pliilosopliers have endeavoured to investigate the origin 
of evil. In general, however, it denotes, 

1. An action newly Hni.-hed ; as, 1 have heard great news 
The post has arrived, but hai brought no leuers ("or you. 

2. An action done in a dejinile space of time, (such as a 
day, a rveek, a year,) a part of which has yet to elapse ; as, I 
have spent this diiy well. 

3. An action perfected some time ago, but whose conse- 
quences extend to the present time : as. We have neglected 
our duty, and are therefore unhappy. 

Duration, or existence, requires the perfect; as, He has 
been dead four days. Wo say, Cicero has written orations, 
be'cause tiie orations are still in existence; but wc cannot say 
Cicero has written poems, because the poems do not exist; 
they are lost ; therefore we must say, Cicero wrote poems. 

The following are a few instances in which this tense 
is improperly used for the past : — 

" I have somewhere mot with the epitaph of a charit- 
able man, which has very much pleased me."' Spect. Na 
177. The latter part of this sentence is rather narrative 
than assertive ; and therefore it should be, " which very 
much pleased me," that is, when I read it. — " When that 
the poor hath cried, CoBsar hath wept." Shakesp. . The 
style is here narrative : CfBsar was dead ; it should there- 
fore be, " When the poor cried, Csesar wept." — "Though 
in old age the circle of our pleasure is more contracted 
than it has formerly been, yet", &c. Blair, serm. 12. It 
should be, " than it formerly if as ;'" because in old age, 
the former stages of life, contrasted with the present, con- 
vey an idea, not of completion, but of limitation, and thus 
become a subject of narration rather tiian of assertion. 
" I have known him, Eugenius, when he Arts been going 
to a play or an opera, divert the money which was do 
signed for that purpose, upon an object of charity whom 
he has met with in the street." Spcct. No. 177. It should 
be, "when he was going," and "whom he met with ii^ 
the street ;" because the actions are circumstantially re 
lated by the phrases, when going to a play and in t/u street. 



Upon more careful rcfloction, it appears to mc that the 
Second Future should have will or shall in all the persons, 
as in the Jirst. Mr. Murray has excluded will from tho 
first person, and skaU from the second and third, becanso 
they appear to him to be incorrectly applied ; and in tho 
examples which he has adduced, they are incorrectly ap 
plied ; but this is not a sufficient reason for excluding then 
altogether from every sentence. The fault is in the writer 
he has applied them v.Tong, a thing that is often done with 
will and shall in the first future as well as in the second. 

If I am at liberty to use will in the first future, to inti. 
mate my resolutions to perform a future action, as, " I 
teill go to church, for I am resolved to go," why should I 
not employ icHl in the second future, to intimate my reso- 
lution or determination to have an action finished before 
a specified future time ? Thus, " I trrll have written xny 
letters bofore sup])er,'' that is, I am dctptmined to hairc 
my letters finished before supper. Were the truth of this 
affirmation, respecting the time of finishing the letters, 
called m question, Ihe propriety of using will in the first 
person would be unquestionable ; thH.s, You will not have 
finished your letters before supper, I am sure. Yes, 1 
will. Will what ? Will have finished my letters. 

Shall, in like minner, may with propriety be applied to 
the second and third person. In the third person, for 
instance, if I say, " He will have paid me his bill before 
June," I merely foretell what he will have done ; but that 
is not what I intended to say. I meant to convey the 
idea, that since I have found him dilattory, I will compel 
him to pay it before .June ; and as this was my meaning, 
I should have employed shall, as in the first future, and 
said, " lie shall have paid me his bill before June." 

It is t-ue that we seldom use this future ; we rather ex- 
press the idea as nearly as we can, by \hc first future, and 
say, " He shall pay his bill bofore June ;" but when we do 
use the second future, it is evident, I trust. f"orn the exam, 
pies just given, that shall and v-ill should x b ,. ied in it, 
exactly as they are in the /rsL~S''e 1 Oor. x^ « '■ uU- xvii. W. 

The auxiliary verbs, as they are called, such as, Do, 
shall, will, may, can and must, are in reality sepaiate verbs 
and were originally used as such, having after them, either 


the past participle, or the infinitive mood, with the to sup- 
pressed, for the sake of sound, as it is after hid, dare, &c. 
(see Syntax, R. vi.) Thus, I have Invcd. We may to love- 
He will to speak. I do to write. I may to iiave loved. 
We misht to have got a prize. I would to have ^wcn hira 
the hook. All must to die. I shall to stop. I ran to go. 

These verbs are always joined in this manner cither to 
the infinitive or participle; and although tiii.s would be a 
simpler way of par.'^ing the verb tlian the common, yet, in 
compliment periiaps to the Greek and Latin, grammarians 
in general consider the au.\iliary and the following v'erb 
in the infinitive or participle as one verb, and parse and 
construe it accordingly. 

Several of the auxiliaries in the potential mood refer to 
present, past, and future time. This needs not excite 
surprise ; for even the present indicative can be made to 
express future time, as well as the future itself. Thus, 
" He leaves town to-morrow." 

Present time is expressed in the following sentence:— 
"I wish he could or wuutd come just now." 
' Past time is cxjuessed with the similar auxiliaries ; aa, 
" It was my desire that he should or would come yester- 
day." " Though he was ill, he might recover." 

Future. — I am i-nxious that he should or would come 
to-morrow If he come, I inay speak to him. If he 
would :icl&7 his jouriiey a few days, I might, could, would, 
or should accompany him. 

Although such examples as these are commonly adduced 
as proofs that these auxiliaries refer to present, past, and 
future time, 3'et I think it pretty evident that might, could, 
would, and should, with may and can, merely express li- 
berty, ability, will, and duty, without any reference to 
time at all, and that the precise time is generally deter- 
miucd by the drift or scope of the sentence, or rather by 
the adverb or participle that is subjoined or understood, 
and no. by these auxiliaries. 

Must and utighl, for instance, merely imply necessity, 
and obligation, without any necessary relation to lime : 
for when I say, " I must do it," must merely denotes the 
necessity I am under, and do the present time ; which 
might easily bo made futtire, by saying, " I must do it 
next week :" Here future time is expressed by next week, 
and not by musi. '-" "^ «ay, "I must have done it :" Her* 
&— 3 


must merely expresses necessity, as before, and I have 
done, the past time. " These ought ye to do :" Here 
0Ught merely denotes obligation, and do the present time 
" These ought ye to have done :" Here ought merely ex 
presses duty or obligation, as before ; but the time of its 
existence is denoted as past, by to have done, and not by 
ought, as Mr. Murray and many otiicrs say. 

As 7nust will not admit of the objective after it, nor i 
even preceded or succeeded by the sign of tlie infinitive, 
it has been considered an absolute auxihary, like may or 
can, belonging to the potential mood. 

Ought, on tlic contrary, is an independent verb, though 
defective, and always governs another verb in the infinitive. 
Of will and SHALL. 

Will In \hcfirH person sinjiularand ptu.rn.1, iiiliinales resolution and 
fromising ; as, 1 loiU not l«:t Ihte fio excc'iii thou bles.s nie. We wiU 
go. 1 will iiiaktf of thee a priat nation. 

fVUl, in llif; second and tkird pers-on," rommnnly foretells ; as, He 
tnll reward the rislitcoiis. You, or they, will be very happy liiere. 

Sluill, in the Jirst. per.s('n, only foretells ; a?, I, or we, fhall go to- 
oorrow. In th(^ secund and third person, SJiaU prumises, commands, or 
threatens ; as, They, or you, shaJ.1 Ix? rewarded. Thou shall not steal. 
The soul that siiini-th shnll diu. 

But this must Ixi understo'-xl ofatlirniativo sentences only: for when 
the sentenci; is interrogative, just the reverse couiniouly takes place; 
B8, Shall I scud you ii liiile of the pie ? i. o. wilt yon permit lue to 
(end it'( H'ill James return tomorrow ? i. e. do you expect liiin ? 

When the sermul and third person* are repn sented .is ihe euhjects 
•f their own expressions, or their own tliouahts, HH.ALL foretells, as 
111 the first pei-soti ; as, " He srjys he shall he a loser by this bargain." 
»Do you suppose you shall go?" and WILL prouiisis, as in the first 
person; as, " He says he will bring Pope's Homer to-morrow." "You 
■ay you will certainly couie.' 

Of Shall, it may l)e reniarlied, that it nev«r expresses the will or 
resolution of iu noininatiee ; Thus, I skull fall; Thou «Aa/« love thy 
neighbour; He shall be rewarded ; express mo rt^olutiuu on the part 
of /, thou, he. 

Did leilt, i;n the coMlrarv, always intimate thi! resolution of its noro. 
tie diliiculty of applyius 'will and shall would l)i; at an end ; liul ihii 
cannot be said : for thousrh will in tlie /rst pei-soii always e.xpresses 
tlic resolution of its num. yet in the second and third ii does not aJways 
foretell, bul often ini-iiua'tes the resolution of lis rtom. as sirunsly as it 
aces in the first person; thus, Ye wi'l ijpt come unto uie that ye may 
hi^ve life. He will not perform the duty of my husband's brotlier.— 
/J«at. XXV. 7 — see also verse 9. Arcoiilinaly wuutJ, the past time 
tttwUl, is used in the same manner; a-, And he was anirry, and w<ndd 
Dot go !u. — J.iike XV. as. 

Should iwnl icoiild are subject to the sanie rules as slinll and will; 
they arc generally attended with a supposition ; .as, Were I to run, I 
ihould soon be laliL'ued, &c. 

Should Is often used instead of ought, to express duty oi oi)Iigation 
•«. We should remember the poor. We ought to obey God r ather Uian 
••«••• * See page Hi otis. 3rd. 


Of Verbs. 


J-nUicattbc iWooK. 



person. I love 1. We love 

2 Thou lovest 2. You* love 

3 He loves 3. They love 



1. I loved 1. We loved 

2. Thou lovedst 2. You loved 

3. He loved 3. They loved 

Its signs are have, hast, iias, or hath. 


1. I have loved 1. We have loved 

2. Thou hast loved 2. Y'ou have loved 

3. He has or hath loved 3. They have loved 


ijigns — had, hadsL 


1. 1 had loved 1. We had loved 

2. Tliou hadst loved 2. You had loved 

3. He had loved 3. They had loved 

Signs— sAoiV or tnill. 


. I shall or will love 1. W^e shall or will lovo 

2. Tiiou shall or wilt love 2. You shall or will love 

3. He shall or will love 3. They shall or will lov9 

* You has always a plural v»rl> «vua when applied to a tingU 


Of Verbs. 


[See page 31 ] 

1. Shall or will have loved 1. Shall or will have loved 

2. Shalt or wilt have loved 2. Shall or will have loved 

3. Shall or will have loved 3. Shall or will have loved 

|3otentfal i^mti. 


Signs — may, can, or must. 


1. May or can* love 1. May or can love 

2. Mayst or canst love 2. May or can love 

3. May or can love 3. May or can love 


Signs — might, could, would, or should. 


i. Might, could, would, or 1. Might, could, would, or 
should love should love 

2. Mightst, couldst,wouldst, 2. Might, could, would, oi 

or shouldst love . should love 

3. Might, could, would, or 3. Might, could, would, or 

should love should love 

Signs — may, can, or must have. 


1. May or can* have loved 1. May or can have loved 
8. Mayst or canst have loved 2. May or can have loved 
i. May or can have loved 3. May or can have loved 

• JUimt, allliotiKli it bolor.g8 as properly to tlie present and perfect 
potential as mny or cnyi. has ber-n omitted for want of room, but in 
^•'fflg iViT tlitsu ti.'Mw;s, witli liic aii\ilt;>'i('s, one by o»!«, it is easy to 
I' «; it in thus, 1 must Ivce, tliou musi <uvt. ic- — 8e« Siid note, p. 37. 


Of Vr'RBS. 


Signs — might, could, anu'U, or should have. 


I. Might, could, would, or 1. Might, could, would, or 

should have loved should have loved 

8. Mightst, &,c. have loved 2. Might have loved 

3. Might have loved 3. Might have loved 

Subjunrtibc ijlXooTi. 



1. If I love 1. If we love 

2. If thou love 2. If you love 

3. If he love 3. If thev love* 

£mperatfbe i^ooxs. 


2. Love, or love thou, or do 2. Love, or love ye, or you, 
thou love.t or do ye love. 

JJnfinftfbe fttoot?. 
Present, To love. Perfect, To have loved- 

Present, Loving. Past, Loved. Perfect, Having lovedt 

* "The remjiini;)!; ti'iists of the siibjiinclivH mood aro, in every r«»- 
pect, similar to the coirespiniiliii^ lenses of the inilicuiive niooil, vvim 
ihfl nildilion to iheverh of a conjunciioii expressed or iniplieti, denoting 
a condition, motive, wish, orsiipposliioii." — See p. :J3, note 2nd. 

t 'I'he iniperaiix-e mood is not enliiled lo tkrer persons. In strict 
proi)riety, it h.ts on!)' the second person in both niiinlters. For wlieivl 
eay, Let nn' love; I mean. Permit thou me to love. Hence, IH me lov* 
tecoivstriied thus: let thou me (to) love, or do tlioii let m-; {to) lovp. 
To, tlie sii;n olthc infinitive, is not used alter let. See Syntax, R. Vt 
No one will say that permit (me lo love) is the iierson sir.^'ulan 
imiieraiive mood; ihen why should let (me to love,) wliich is e.xacUy 
similar, !«; call''<l the first person ? 'J'hu Latin veih Wiiiits tlie JirH 
person, and if it has the tktrd. it has also a dili'ereiit teruiinatiou for il^ 
Wiiich is not the case in ihe Enylisli veib.— K. 118. 

t Bee Key, No. 308 211 


Of Verbs. 


* We love him ; James loves me ; it am- 
nses him; we shall conduct them ; they will 
divide the spoils; soldiers should defend their 
country; friends invite friends ; she can read 
her lesson ; she may play a tune ; you might 
please her ; thou mayst ask him ; he may 
have betrayed us ; we might have diverted 
the chifdren ; John can deliver the message. 

I love ; to love ; love ; reprove thou ; has 
loved ; we tied the knot ; if we love ; if thou 
love ; they could have commanded armies ; 
to love ; to baptize ; to have loved ; loved ; 
loving ; to survey ; having surveyed ; write 
a letter ; read your lesson ; thou hast obeyed 
my voice ; honour thy father. 

The teacher, if he chooses, may nnw acqiinint the learner with the 
iBffi'reiice between the nntiilnaiive and the objective. 

Tlie iioiniiialive acts: the objective is acted upon: as. He eats applet. 

The nominative coii»mon!y comes before the verb, llie objective af- 
ter M. 

Conceriiiiifr pronouns, it may be observed, that the first speakt ; ttu 
iccond is spoken to ; and the third (or any noun) is spoken of. 

* We may parse the first sentence, for example. fVe love him. Tfe^ 
the first personal pronoun, plural, masculine or fein., the nominative. 
Love, a verb active, the first person, plural, present, indicative. JE/iai, 
*»e third personal pronoun, singular, masculine, the objective. 


How do you know that love is plural 1 Jins. because tee its nom. It 
^ural. How do you know that love is the first pcrsoi> "? .9n*. Because 
me is the first personal pronoun, and the verb is always of the same 
number and person with the noun or pronoun before it. — K. Wi, 104. 

Many of the phrases in this page may be converted into exercises of. 
a different kind ; thus, the meaning of the s<'ntence, fVe love him, may 
be expressed by the passive voice ; as, He is loved by us. 

It may also be turned into a question, or made a negative; aa, D» 
wt love him 1 ice. We do not love him. 

These are a U'.w of the ways of using the exercises on a sinple page, 
but the variety of methods that every in^ienjous and diligent leaclier 
may invent iind adopt, to engage the attention and improve the under- 
m»aAum of bia pupils, is past finding out. 



Of Verbs. 

fiutifcatilje i^oot). 



1. I am* 1. We are 

2. Thou art 2. You are 

3. He is 3. They are 



1. 1 was 

2. Thou wast 

3. He was 


1. We Were 

2. You were 

3. They were 



1. I have been 

2. Thou hast been 

3. He has been 


1. We have been 

2. You have been 

3. They have been 



L I had been 1. We had been 

2. Thou hadst been 2. You had been 

3. He had been 3. They had been 



L I shall or will be 

2. Thou shalt or wilt be 

3. He shall or will be 


1. We shall or will be 

2. You shall or will be 

3. They shall or will be 

• Put loving after am, &c. and you iiiaku it an active verb in the 
progrestive lorm. — ^TJbus, 1 am loving, thou art loving, lie is loving^ 
tc— p. ;». 

Put lovtd after am, and you will make 't a patirire \nb. — See p. 3^ 

Of Verbs. 



1. Shall or will have been 1. Shall or will have been 

2. Shalt or wilt have been 2. Shall or will have been 

3. Shall or will have been 3. Shall or will have been 

J3otcntial iUoo^. 


1. May* or can be 

2. Mayst or canst be 

3. May or can be 


1. May or can be 

2. May or can be 

3. May or can be 

1. Might &,c. be 

2. Mightst be 

3. Miffht be 


1. Might be 

2. Might be 

3. Might be 

1. May or can have been 

2. Mayst or canst have been 

3. May or can have been 

1. May or can have been 

2. May or can have been 

3. May or can have been 



1. Might have been 

2. Miglitst have been 

3. Might have been 

1. Might have been 

2. Might have been 

3. Might have been 

• See note, p. 28— also note 2nd, p. 37 


Of Verbs. 
.Suijunctfbe iWooU. 



1. If I be* 1. If we be 

2. If tliou be 2. If you U 

3. If he be 3. If they bt 





If I were 


If we were 


If thou wert 


If you were 


If he were 


If they weret 


2. Be, or be thou 2. Be, or be ye or you 

JInfiuitfbe i-Hcu^. 
Present, To be. Perfect, To have been 

Present, Being. Past, Been. Perfect, Having been 

•Be is ofSen used in the Scriptures and some other biioks forthe;>r«- 
tent indicative ; ns, We be true men, tor We are. 

t The rerimuiini; teusi's of this mood, are, in ev(!ry re.spi'Ct, similar 
«o the corn'sponiling t.-nses of tlie indicative mintd. But wnne say that 
'iie future perfect, when used with a conjunUton, lias *Aa// in all the 
persons; thus, If I ahall liave loved. If il)ou slialt have lnvcd, If lie 
shall have loved, If we, you, or they skall have loved. — See page SBt 
note 1st. 

Though, unless, except, whether, &c. may be joined Ic tho subjuiio- 
ttve mood, as well as if 


Of Verbs. 

Am, is, art, wast, are, I was, they were, 
we are, hast been, has been, we have been, 
hadst been, he had been, you have been, she 
has been, we were, they had been. 

I shall be, shalt be, we will be, thou wilt 
be, they shall be, it will be, thou wilt have 
been, we have been, they will have been, 
we shall have been, am, it is. 

I can be, mayst be, canst be, she may 
be, you may be, he must be, they should 
be, mightst be, he should be, it could be, 
wouldst be, you could be, he may have been* 

We may have been, mayst have been, 
they can have been, I might have been, 
you should have been, wouldst have been, 
(if) thou be, we be, he be, thou wert, we 
were, I be. 

Be thou, be, to be, being, to have been, 
if I be, be ye, been, be, having been, if we 
be, if they be, to be. 

Snow is white ; he was a good man ; we 
have been younger ; she has been happy ; 
it had been late ; we are old ; you will be 
wise ; it will be time ; if they be thine ; be 
cautious ; be heedful youth ; we may be 
rich ; they should be virtuous ; thou mightst 
be wiser ; they must have been excellent 
cholars ; they might liave been powerfuL 


Of Verbs. 


JtuKicatfbe ittooU. 



1. Ani loved 1. Are loved 

2. Art loved 2. Are loved 

3. Is loved 3. Are loved 



1. Was loved 1. Were loved 

2. Wast loved 2. Were loved 

3. Was loved 3. Were loved 



1. Have been loved 1. Have been loved 

2. Hast been loved 2. Have been loved 
8. Has been loved 3. Have been loved 



J. Had been loved 1. Had been ioved 

2. Hadst been loved 2. Had been loved 

3. Had been loved 3. Had been loved 



1. Shall or will be loved I. Shall or will be loved 

2. Shalt or wilt be loved 2. Shall or will be loved 

3. Shall or will be loved 3. Shall or will be loved 

CC?" A Pnssive Verb is foriiic<l li\' piillinj; lUc /iitut participir. of any 

tetive verl) al\er the verb to be ihrough all its initudii and lenses IC. 



Of Verbs, 



1. Sviall or will have been 1. Shall or will have been 

loved loved 

2. Slialt or wilt have been 2. Shall or will have be«' 

loved loved 

3. Shall or will have been 3. Shall or will have been 

loved loved 

potential jr^ooti. 



1. May or can be loved 1. May or can be loved 
3 Mayst or canst be loved 2. May or can be loved 
3 May or can be loved 3. May or can be loved 



1. Might &c. be loved 1. Might be loved 

2. Mightst be loved 2. Might be loved 

3. Might be loved 3. Might be loved 



1. May, &c. have been loved 1. May have been loved 

2. Mayst have been loved 2. May have been loved 

3. May have been loved 3. May have been loved 



1. Might &.C. have been loved 1. Might have been loved 

2. Mif;htst have been loved 2. Might have been loved 

3. Might have been loved 3. Might have been loved 

Of Verbs. 

Sufijunctfbe iSoolr. 



1. If* I be loved * .. we be loved 

2. If thou be loved 2. If you be loved 

3. If he be loved 3 If they be loved 



1. If I w«re loved 1. If we were loved 

2. If thou wert loved 2. If you were loved 

3. If he were loved 3. If they were loved 


2. Be thou loved 2. Be ye or you loved 

I-nfiiutfbc iaaotJ. 
Present, To '>e loved. Perfect, To have been loved 

Prei '_^Ag loved. Pas<. Been loved. P«-/.Having been loved 

* The pupil may at umea be reqiiPsted to throw out %f and put «» 
ks>, though, tokether, or lest in ha place. 

5^ After the pupil is expert in going over the tenses of the verb as 
they are, he may be tatiglit to oiiiil all the auxiliaries but one, and go 
over the verb thus: Present Potential, 1 may love; thou mayst love; 
be may love, &.C. ; .and tlienwilh the next auxiliary, thus: I can lov«j 
Ihou canst love; he cs>i love, &c. ; and then with must thus: 1 must 
love; tlion must love ; he must love, &c. ; and then with the auriil- 
ariea of the Past Potential, thus : 1 might love ; thou mightst love, &<s> 

'88 £5£H5SL5XXM2iSSI: 

Of Verbs. 

They are loved ; we were loved ; thou art 
loved ; it is loved ; she was loved ; he has 
been loved ; you have been loved ; I have 
been loved ; thou hadst been loved ; we 
shall be loved ; thou wilt be loved ; they 
will be loved ; I shall have been loved ; you 
will have been loved. 

He can be loved ; thou mayst be loved ; 
she must be loved ; ihey might be loved ; 
ye would be lovrd ; they should be loved ; I 
could be loved ; thou canst have been loved ; 
it may have been loved ; you might have 
been loved ; if I be loved ; *thou wert loved ; 
we be loved ; they be loved. — Be thou loved ; 
be ye loved ; you be loved. — To be loved ; 
loved ; having been loved ; to have been 
loved ; being loved. 


Tie John's shoes ; this is Jane's bonnet ; 
ask mamma ; he has learned his lessons '; 
she invited him ; your father may commend 
you ; he was baptized ; the minister baptized 
him ; we should have delivered our message; 
papa will reprove us ; divide the apples ; 
the captain had commanded his soldiers to 
pursue the enemy^ Eliza diverted her bro- 
ther ; a hunter killed a hare ; were* I loved; 
were we good, we should be happy.f 

* A Conjunction ia frequently to be understood here. 
t Bm Exetcisea of a differeot sort, pagp Sit. 


Of Verbs. 
An Active or a Neuter Verb may be conjugated through all 
its mocds and tenses, by adding its Present Participle to the 
Terb To be : This b called the Progressive ferm ; because 
it expresses the continuation of action or state ; thus, 

I am loving I was loving 

Thou art loving Thou wast loving 

He is loving,&c. He was loving, 8tc^ 

The Present and Past Indicative are also conjugated by the 
assistance of Do, called the Emphatic /orm; thus, 


I do love I did love 

Thou dost loTe Thou didst love 

He does love,&c. He did love, &c. 

Verbs ending in S8,sh, eh, x, or o, form the third person 
lingular of the Present Indicative, by adding ES : thus. 
He dress-es, marches, brush-es, fix-es, go-es. 

Verbs in y, change y into i before the termination es, est 
th, and ed, but not before ing ; — Y, with a vowel before it 
is not changed into i ; thus, 

Pre3. Try, triest, tries or trielh. Past, Tried. Part. Trying 
Prea. Pray, prayest, prays or prajeth. Past. Pniyed. 

Part. Praying. 

Verbs accented on the last syllable, and verbs ofor.e syllable, 
ending in a single consonant preceded by a single rowel, 
double the final consonant before the teiminat ions est, elh 
ed, ing, but necer befori o ; thus, 
Allot, allotttst, ailoU, ailottelh, allotted, allotting. 
Blot, blottest, blots, blotteth, blotted, blotting. 


Of Irregular Verbs. 

A regular verb is one tbat forms its past 
tense and past participle by adding dox edto 
the present ; as, Love, loved, loved. 

An irregidar verb is one that does no 
form both its past tense and past participle 
by adding d or ed to the present ; as, 






hear, to bring f 

Bear, to carry 






Bid, for- 

Bind, un- 




* Those verbs which are conjugated regulaily as well as irregularty 
le marked with an R. 
t Bora is uow more used than iorc 









awoke r* 



; born 

bore, bare born 





bent R 

bent R 

bereft r 

bereft Rf'^^*'^ 



bad, bade 





bitten, bit 











Of Irregular Verbs. 







Build, re- 













caught R 

caught R 



chidden or chid 


' chose 


Cleave, to adhere clave r 


Cleave, to split 

clove or cleft cloven or cleft 






clad R 

Come, be- 







crew R 








D&je, to venture durst 


Dai'Cjto challenge, is r dared 



dealt R 

dealt R 


dug, or digged dug or digged 

Do, wis- un--\ 



Draw, with- 






Build, dwell, and several other verbs, have the regular I'orm, 
Wildcd, dwelled, &c.— See K. No. 135. 

t The compoiimi verbs are conjugated like the simple, by prefixing 
Jie iiyllables appeudcU '.o them ; thus, Undo, undid, undone. 



Of Irregular Verbs. 


Fall, he- 

Flee, /row a foe 

Fly, as a bird 
Get, he- for- 

Gird, he- en- 
Give, for- mis- 

Grave, en- 



dwelt R 















gilt R 

girt R 







dwelt R — 9-^^ 











forgotten, forgot 



got, gottenj 

gilt R 

girt R 






• I havp excluded eat as the Past and PasI PailicipU; of tins verb, 
for though soiiii'tiines used 'y Milton and a few others, the use of it 
does not rest on good authority, and this verb is sutiiciently irreeiilai 
already. lb 

T Oat and begat are often used in the Scriptures for gat and begot. 

t Gotten is nearly obsolete. Its compound /or^otten is still in good usei 


















Hew, rough 


hewn R 



hidden, or hid 




Hold, he- 











knit R 

knit, or knitted 







Lay, in- 



Lead, mis- 


led * 










Lie, to lie down 


lain, or lien 



laden r 






made \ 



meant 1 



met \ 



mown R 

• Hang, to take away life by hanging, is regular; as, Tiie robb& 
was hanged^ but Uie gown wus kung uo. 



Of Irregular Verbs. 


Payi re- 







quit, or 

quitted quit r 












ridden, or rode 


rang, or 

rung* rung 

Rise, a- 











sawn & 












or sod sodden 







Set, fee- 






Shape, mis- 


shapen r 



shaven r 


shore r 






shone r 

shone r 

• Where the past might be either ang or ung, &.C. I have given mtg 
tbe preference, which it certainly ought to iiave. 



Of Irregular Verbs. 














shrank or shrunk shrunk 








sang or sung 



sank or sunk 




sitten or sat J 











slang or slung 



slank or slunk 



slit or slitted 

slit or slitted 






sown R 

Speak, fee- 

spoke, spake 





Spend, mis- 




spilt R 

spilt R 


span or spun 


iSpit, fce- 

spat or spit 

spitten or spit J 

• Or shew, shewed, shercn — pronounced show, ire. see note next p:ig& 
t Many authnrs use saU as tlielJast time of sit ; but this is impto* 
jer, for ii is apt to be confounilfd with sate, to glut. 
t Silien auil spitten are preferuble, tliough obsotescenL 



Of Irregular Verbs. 


Split split split 

Spread, he- spread spread 

Spring sprangfirsprung sprung 

Stand,i«i<A-&c. stood stood 

Steal stole stolen 

Stick struck stuck 

Sting stung stung 

Stink stank or stunk stunk 

Stride, he- strode or strid stridden 

Strike stuck struck,stricken 

String Strang orstrung strung 

Strive strove striven 

Strew,* he* strewed strewed or 

Strow strowed strown, strewed 

Swear sworeors ware sworn 

Sweat sweat sweat 

Sweep swept swept 

Swell swelled swollen r 

Swim swamorswum swum 

Swing swangorswung swung 

Take, he- &c. took taken 

Teach, mis-'^e- taught taught 

Tear, un- tore torn 

Tell told told 

* Stmc and sheio are now giving way to siroto and show, 89 tliejr 
are ptoiiounced. 



Of Irregular Verbs 




Think, be- 










th rust 







waxen r 

















wrought r 

wrought, worked 







Drfective verbs are 

tliose vvhicli want some of tlinir moods and tenses. 




Can, could, 
May, might, 
Must, must. 
Ought, ought. 


^\ . 1 ] 

^ ' ^vnt 

> WOl, 

Name the Past Tense and Past Participle of 

Take, drive, creep, begin, abide, buy, bring 
arise, catch, bereave, am, burst draw, drink, 
fly, flee, fall, get, give, go, feel, forsake, 
grow, have, hear, hide, keep, know, lose, 
pay, ride, ring, run, shake, seek, sell, see, 
iiU slay, slide 


Of Adverbs. 

An Adverb is a word joined to a verb, an 
adjective, or another adverb, to express some 
quality or circumstance of time, place, or 
manner, respecting it ; as, Ann speaks dis- 
tinctly ; she is remarkably diligent, and reads 
very correctly. 


* So, no, not, nay, yea, yes, too, vv^elJ, up, 
very, forth, how, why, far, now, then, ill, soon, 
much, here, there, wdiere, when, whence, 
thence, still, fmore, most, little, less, least, 
thus, since, ever, never, while, w^hilst, once, 
twice, thrice, first, scarcely, quite, rather, 
again, ago, seldom, often, indeed, exceed- 
ingly, already, hither, thither, whither, doubt- 
less, haply, perhaps, enough, daily, always, 
sometimes, almost, alone, peradventure, 
backward, forward, upward, downward to- 
gether, apart, asunder, viz. to and fro, in fine. 


• As and »<», without a corresponding as or so, are adverbs. 

The penerality of those words that end in ly are adverbs of mannet 
or quality. They are formed from adjectives by adding ly ; as, from 
foolish comes foolishly. 

The compounds of here, there, where and hither, thither and whither 
are all adverbs, except therefore and wher'fore, occasionally conjunc- 

Some adverbs are compared like adjectives; as, often, oftener, of- 
tenest. 5?uch words as ashore, afoot, aground, &c. are all adverbs. 

t When more and vwst quality nouns they are adjectives, but ta 
every other situation they are adverbs. 

An iuljcctive with a preposition before it. is by some called an ad 
»^rb ; as, in general, in haste, i. e. generally, hastily. — It wo'ild be a 
^ieoe of vexatious refinement to make children, in partiing, call in g&- 
feral an adverb, instead of in, a prep. — general, an adj. having way ot 
tiew understood. That such phrases are convertible into adverbs is 
pot a good reason for calling them so. 

There are many words that are sometimes used ag adverbs; as, lam 
tiore afraid than ever — and sometimes as adjectives ; as. He has more 
wealth Uian wisdom. — See uext page. 


Exercises on Adverbs, Irregular Verbs, &c. 

Immediately the cock crew. Peter wept 
bitterly. He is here now. She went away 
yesterday.* They came to-day. They will 
perhaps buy some to-morrow. Ye shall 
Know hereafter. She sung sweetly. Cats 
soon learn tof catch mice. Mary rose up 
hastily. They that have enoughj may 
soundly sleep. Cain wickedly slew his 
brother. I saw him long ago. He is a 
very good man. Sooner or later all must 
die. You read too little. They talk too 
much. James acted wisely. How many 
lines can you repeat ? You ran hastily. He 
speaks fluently. Then were they glad. He 
fell fast asleep. She should not hold her 
head awry. The ship was driven ashore. 
No, indeed. They are all alike. Let him 
that is athirst drink freely. The oftener 
you read attentively, the more you will im- 


• To-day, yesterday, and to-morrow, are always nouns, for they are 
parts of lime ; as. Yesterday is past, to-day is passing, and we may 
never see to-morrnw. Wlieii tlie^e words answer ro tlie quesiion when, 
Ihey are governed by a preposition understood ; as. When will John 
«>ine home ? (on) tu-morrow, for he went away (onj yesterday. 
JliucAisusedl. as an ojlverli; as, It is m«cA better to give than to rer< ive 
'■2. as an adjective ; as, In much wisdom, is inucll grief. 
3. as! a noun ; as, Where viuch is given, much is required. 
Ill sirict propriety, however, much can nevi-r be a noun, but an adjec- 
tive ; for were tlie question to l)e asked. Much what is given 1 it would 
be necessary to add a iwun, and say, where much grace is given, inucll 
gratitude is required. 

t To, before tlie intinitive of verbs, is an adverb, according to John- 
son, and according to iMia-ray, a pieposiiioii. The two together maybe 
called the inlinilive. 

+ Enough (a sufficiency) is here a noun. Its plural — evo7o,\i> applied 
like many, to things that are ninnhered. Enough, an adj. like much, 
(houlU jicrhaps be applied only to tilings tlia art> weighed or measured. 


Of PEEPOsrnoNs. 
A Preposition is a word put before nouns 
and pronouns, to show the relation between 
them; as, He sailed /ro?/i Leitb to London 
in two days. 



About, above, according to, across, after, 
against, along, amid,amids-,among,amongst, 
around, at, athwart. Bating, before, b( hind* 
below, beneath, beside, besides, between, 
betwixt, beyond, by. Concerning. Down, 
during. Except, excepting. For,"- ^""fi om. 
In, into, instead of. Near. nigh. Of, off, 
on* over, out of. Past. Regarding, respec- 
ting, round. Since. Through, throughout, 
till, to, touching, towards.* Under, under- 
neath, unto, up, upon. With, within, without. 


Evf'iy prt'iiosi'iSoh rccinirp.-' an iiliji'iiivn casp after il. When a 

piipi'^ilicn <ii»s iicil <i"vi'rli ;iii obji c ive c!', il liccoiiies an aclverb; 
as, Hi' rides about. Bill in sncli |iliius'-ii a^i cnsl up, hold out. fall on, 
tiie words «/), out, and on, iiiiisl l)r con.-^idond as a part ol tht veib, 
railici llian as prc|x)siii(>ns or adv^rhs. 

SdiiK' wcials ail! used as prejxisfiiOTiR in one place, and as advPibs in 
aimthtr; tliiis, before is a pri'ixisition wliPn it relVrs to pUice ; as, He 
sjoiiil hefore llic di)oi , and an adverb whiiii it refi.TS to time; as, liefnri 
tha' Philip called thee, I saw tliet!. The word before, Jiowpver, and 
Ollii'is ill similar sitnatiiiiis, may still tx; considered as prfjiosiiioi.s, if 
■we supply an appropriate iimin , as, Be/ore the lime that Philip, &c. 

* Towards U a p-^e/ ogilion, hnl toward is an adjrctive, ami mean* 
« Ready to do or It am ; compliant with duty ; not froward." Totcari 
\a someilnies iinpro|ierly used for toward.'. 

The hmeparaile Preposiiions are oiiiitied. because an explanation of 
them can impart no inforniaiion without a previous l^nowlediie of the 
indical word. Sup(X)se the pupil told that con means tofcthcr, will 
this explain eonvme to him ? No : lie must first be told that retie sig- 
nitieij to cnme, and then CON, together. Would it not be belter to leli 
him at once tlial convene means to come or cnll Uigether ? 

Some pramniarians distrilmte adverlis into cla-scs ; such as adverbs 
of v(trn>iiin, ojjirointion. &.C. — prejiosilions into separahle and insepar- 
able— »ii(\ coiijiinciions into seven classes t)esides the two mriilioned 

next pimi'. s-utli a ciassificaliun has been omitted here, because its 

Mttiily is guestioiiablu. 


Of Conjunctions. 

A Conjuvciion is a word which joins words 
and sentences together ; as, You and I must 
go to Leith : hut Peter may stay at home. 


Cojndative — Also, and, because, both, for,* 
if, since, that, then, therefore, wherefore^ 

Disjunctive— X\x\\ou^\i, as, as well as, but, 
either, except, lesf, neither, nor, notwiih- 
stancling, or, provided, so, than, though, un- 
less, whether, yet. 


Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he 
became pr;o;-. Blessed are the meek ; for 
they shall inherit the earih. The life, is 
more than meat, and the body is more than 
raimen*^. Consider tiie rnvens ; for they 
&eith;;r sow iioi reap ; which have neither 
Store-house nor barn ; and God feedeth them. 
\rou are happy, because you are good. 


* Wlii'ii for c;iii bi' tiirnfti inin because, it is a conjunction. 

Several wonls which an- marked as adverln in Johnson's Diction- 
ary, are in many (grammars marl<*'d as conjiniclions; such as, Jilheit, 
else, moreiiver, likeicise, otherwise, neverlkeiess, then, therffi/re, ichcre 
fore. VVheilier iht-y be called adverbs or coiijnnclioiis, it sigiiities but 

But in s/-)nip cases is an adverb ; as, •' We are but lonty) of yester- 
4ay, anil know nothing." 

Somi'times the same worris arc used as conjiinctinns In one placp^ 
and as prejMisitions or adverbs in another place; as, Since (conj.) we 
must part, lei us do it pi'aceably ; I have not seer, him since (prep.) 
that time; Our friendship commenced long since (adv.)1 

I As many disiinctioMS, hovvevi-r proper in ineniselvo, may prove 
more hurtful than useful, they should not h«' in'tde till the letirncr be 
perfectly aci)iiainti-d with the more obvious facts. 


Of Interjections. 

An Interjection is a word which expresses 
some emotion of the speaker ; as, Oh, w^hat 
a sight is here ! Well done ! 


Adieu ! ah ! alas ! alack ! away ! aha ! begone 1 
hark ! ho ! ha ! he ! hail ! halloo ! hum ! hush 1 
huzza ! hist ! hey-day ! lo ! O ! O strange ! 
O brave ! ^shaw ! see ! well-a-day ! &c. 


I saw a boy which is blind.* We was not tiiere.t 
I savy a flock of gooses. I loves him. 

This is the horse who was lost. He love me. 
This is the hat whom I wear. Thou have been busy. 
John is here ; she is a good boy. He dare not speak 
The hen lays his eggs. She need not do it. 

Jane is here, he reads well. Was you there ? 
I saw two mouses. You was not there. 

The dog follows her master. We was sorry for it. 
This two horses eat hay. Thou might not go. 

John met three mans. He dost not leara. 

We saw two cliilds. If I does that. 

He has but one teeth. Thou may do it. 

The well is ten foot deep. You was never there. 

Look at the oxes. The book were lost. 

This horse will let me ride on her.Tliou will better stop. 
I can stay this two hours. The horses was sold. 

I have two pen-knifes. The boys was reading. 

My lady has got his fan. 1 teaches him grammaik , 

Two pair of ladies's gloves. He arc not attentive to it 
Henry the Eight had six wifes. Thou shall not go out. 
I saw the man which sings. If I bees not at home. 
We saw an ass who brayed at us.Thou can do nothing for 
They will stay this two days. John need not go. [me. 

* Tlifwe oxercisHs will iit once nmusc ami improve the |)uj)il. — See 
B>Titai, Kuie J4 and 15. 1 Syniax, KuIm 1. 



Having the Exercises on Parsing* and Syntax in one 
Toluaie with the Grammar is a convenience so exceed- 
ingly great, that it must be obvious. The following set 
ctf exercises on Parsing are arranged on a plan new and 

All the most material points, and those that are apt to 
ptizzle the pupil, have been selected, and made the subject 
of a whole page of exercises, and, where very important, 
of two. By this means, the same point must come so of- 
len under his eye, and be so often repeated, that it cannot 
fell to make a strong impression on his mind ; and even 
riiould he forget it, it will be easy to refresh his memory 
6y turning to it again. 

To give full scope to the pupil's discriminating powers, 
the exercises contain all the parts of speech, promiscuously 
arranged, to be used thus : — 

1. After the pupil has got the definition of a noun, ex- 
ercise him in going over any part of the exercises in par 
Bng, and pointing out the nouns only. This will oblige 
liim to exercise his powers of discrimination in distin- 
guishing the nouns from the other words. t 

2. After getting the definition of an adjective, exercise 
him in selecting all the adjectives from the other words, 
»nd telling why they are adjectives. 

3. After getting all the pronouns very accurately by 
teart, let him point out them, in addition to the nouns 
and adjectives. • 

4. Then the verb, without telling what sort, or what 
number, or person, or tense, for several weeks, or longer, 
till ho can distinguish it with great readiness. 

5. Then the definition of an adverb; after which, exer- 
cise him orally with many short sentences containing ad- 
verbs, and then on those in the book. 

* Parse should be pronounced parce, and not pan. — See Key, p. 71. 

t Thosi; accustomed to utc Mr Murray's lesjoiis in pareing, will per- 
haps think the foliowii f too difficult ; let such, however, reflect that 
Mr. Murray's are loo easy; ("or when no other words are iiiirodiic«4 
than an article and a noun, no exercise is given to the pupil's judiieinent 
at all ; for in every sentence lie finds only an article and a noun; and 
fci the next set, only an article, an adjective, and a noun, and so on. — 
There is no room for discriniiiiatioii here, and ye( discriuiination is tlui 
very tiling be sliould be taugtit. 

£i ENmiSH^GlRAMJV^^ 

6. Get all the prepositions by heart, for it is impossibla 
to give such a definition of a preposition as will lead a 
child to distinguish it with certainty from every ^tJicr sort 
of word. 

7. Get all the conjunctions by heart. They have been 
alphabetically arranjred, like the prepositions, tu facilitate 
the committing of them to memory. 

8. After this, the pupil, if very young, may go over all 
the exercises, by parsing every word in the most simple 
manner, viz. by saying, such a word — a noun, singular, 

without telling its gender and case such a woid, a 

verb, without telling its nature, number, person, tense and 

9. In the next and last course, he should go over the 
exercises, and tell every thing about nouns and verbs, &c 
as shown in the example below. 

^iCr" t" llie Exercises on Parsing, the sentences on every pag« are 
numbered by small figures, to enable the reader to find out any sen- 
tence in the Key which he may wish to consnlt. 

Tlie small letters refer to the Nos. For example, p. in the first gen- 
tencc of No. a. direcis the learner to turn »o No. p. page 74, and nniark 
that it says, "The verb to be or to have is nften uwterstuod ;" iniimal- 
ing to him by tlii^^ reli rence, tliat to be is understood alter vian in the 
first sentence of No. a. 

O how stupendous was the power, 
That raised me with a word ! 

And every day and every hour, 
I lean upon the Lord. 
O, an interjection — Iww, an adverb — stupendous, an adjective In th» 
positive degree, compared by more and most, as, stupendous, more 
stupendous, most stui«'ndous — was, a verb, neuter, third pi'rsoii singu- 
lar, past indicative, (*agreeing wiiii its nominative power, here put 
after it) — the, an article, the di'linile — paiccr, a noun, singulai, neutci, 
the nominative — That, a relative pronoun, singular, neuter, the nom- 
inative, here used for which ; its aniecedent is power — raised, a verb, 
active, third person singular, past indicative, (agreeing with iig nomin- 
ative that) — me, the first personal pronoun, sinsiular, masculine or 
feniinitie, the objective, (governed by raised) — with, a preposition — a, 
an article, the indefinite — icurd.a noun, singular, neuter, ihe obj^'ciive, 
(governed by wit/i) — jItuI,?^ conjunction — every, a disiribuli >• pronoi 
— day, a noun, singular, neuter, the obj 'Ctive (because the ,-.e|)(isilio 
through or during is underslood) — and, and every, as betbre — hour, a 
noun, singular, neuter, the objective (because day w.-is in il, and coiv 
junctions couple the same cases of nouns, &c.j — J, the personal 
pronoun, "iegular, masculine or feminine, the nominative — Itjin, a verb 
neuter, first person singular, present indicative — upon, a pr> p.silion — 
the, an p"icle, the definite — Lord, a noun, singular, masculine, tba 
objeclive, ^governed by upon.) 

* Omit the tvurds witlihi the ' till the pupil gets the rules otSynJU 


Exercises in Parsing. 

A. few easy sentences chiefly intended as an Exercise on 
the Active Verb ; but to be previously used as an Ex- 
ercise on Nouns and Adjectives. 

No. a. 

A good conscience and a contented mind 
will make aman^happy.^ Philosophy teaches 
us to endure afilictions, but Christianity"* to 
enjoy them, by turning them into blessings*. 
Virtue ennobles the mind, but vice debases 
It^. Application in the early period of life, 
will give happiness and ease to succeeding 
years'*. A good conscience fears nothing^ 
Devotion promotes and strengthens virtue ; 
calms and regulates the temper ; and fills the 
heart with gratitude and praise*". Dissimu- 
lation degrades parts and learning, obscures 
the lustre of every accomplishment, and 
sinks us into universal contempt'. 

If we lay no restraint upon our lusts, no 
control upon our appetites and passions, 
they will hurry us into guilt and misery^ 
Discretion stamps a value upon all our otheV 
qualities; it instructs us to make use of them 
at proper times, and turn them honourably 
to our own advantage: it shows itself alike 
in all our words and actions, and serves as 
an unerring guide in every occurrence of 
life". Shame and disappointment attend 
sloth and idleness'". Indolence undermines 
the foundation of every virtue, and unfits a 
man for the social duties of life'^ 

* Supply leaches its. as n rcfcrciico ro No. p intimates. — See OC^ In 
tbe prectdjiig page. — See Key jmge 7.1 &.c 

Exercises in Parsing. 
Ohieflj on the Active Verb, — continued from last pag* 

No. a. 

Knowledge gives ease to solitude, and* 
gracefulness to retirement^*. Gentleness 
ought to form our address, to regulate our 
speech, and to diffuse itself over our whole 
behaviour'-*. Knowledge makes our being* 
pleasant to us, fills the mind with entertain- 
ing views, and administers to it a perpetual 
series of gratifications'''. Meekness controls 
our angry passions, candour our severe jud- 
gements'^ Perseverance in labour will sur- 
mount every difficulty'^ He that'takes plea- 
sure in the prosperity of others, enjoys part 
of their good fortune'^. Restlessness of mind 
disqualifies us both for the enjoyment of our 
peace, and the performance of our duty'^. 
Sadness contracts the mind; mirth dilates it'^ 

We should subject our fancies to the go- 
vernment of reason^. Self-conceit, pre- 
sumption, and obstinacy, blast the prospect 
of many a youth^'. Afiluence may give*"^ 
us respect in the eyes of the vulgar ; but it 
will not recommend us to the wise and good^. 
Complaisance produces good nature and 
mutual benevolence, encourages the timor- 
ous"^, and soothes the turbulent^ A constant 
perseverance in the paths of virtue will gain 
respect^. Envy and wrath shorten life ; 
and anxiety bringeth age before its time^ 
Bad habits require immediate reformation*. 


Exercises in Parsing. 
Chiefly on the Neuter Verb, — including tlie verb to be 

No. b. 

Economy is no disgrace : it is better tq 
live on a little"^ than to outlive" a greal 
deaP. A virtuous education is a better 
inheritance than a great estate''-. Good 
and wise men only can be real friends^ 
Friendship can scarcely exist where virtue 
is not the foundation*. He that swells in 
prosperity, will shrink in adversity^. To 
despair'^in adversity is madness^ From idle- 
ness arises^ neither pleasure nor advantage : 
we must flee therefore from idleness", the 
certain parent of guilt and ruin''^. 

You must not always rely on promises^ 
The peace of society dependeth on justice^ 
He that* walketh with wise men shall be 
wise'''. He that' sitteth with the profane is 
foolish'^ The coach arrives daily'^. The 
mail travels fast'^ Rain falls in great 
abundance here**. He sleeps soundly'^. She 
dances gracefully*^ I went to York*^, He 
lives soberly*^ He hurried to his house in 
the country'!' They smiled^? She laughed'^*.'* 
He that' liveth in pleasure is dead while he 
liveth^. Nothing appears to be'"so low and 
naean as lying and dissimulation^^ Vice is 
its own punishment, and virtue is its omti 
reward'^. Industry is the road to wealth, 
and virtue" to happiness^. 

* Thii^i' Vf rlis would be active, were a prcposilion join''(l to tliem.' 
Thus, "slit: .iiiiiied at him," "she smiled upon him" — " she lavgks at 
me." lu thf4 ca:ie, ihe prcpoeiuon must be considered as a jmrl of tb« 

Exercises in Parsing. 

Chiefly on the Passive Verb. — See p. 35, bottom. 

No. c. 

Virtue must be formed and supported by 
daily and repeated exertions^. You may 
be deprived of honour and riches against 
your will ; but" not of virtue without your 
consent*. Virtue is connected with emi- 
nence in every liberal art^ Many are 
brought to ruin by extravagance and dissi- 
pation''. The best designs are often ruined 
b}'^ unnecessary delay^ All our recreations 
should be accompanied with virtue and in- 
nocence". Almost all difficulties may be 
overcome by diligence'''. Old friends are 
preserved, and new ones are procured by a 
grateful disposition^ Words are like ar- 
rows, and should not be shot at random^ 

A desire to be thought * learned often 
prevents our improvement^". Great merit 
is often concealed under the most unpromis- 
ing appearances". Some talents are buried 
in the earth, and others are properly em- 
ployed^^. Much mischief has often been 
prevented by timely consideration^^. True 
pleasure is only to be found in the paths of 
virtue ; and every deviation from them wil 
be attended with pain'*. Thatf friend i 
highly to be respected at all times, whose 
friendship is chiefly distinguished in adver- 

* Learned, here is an adjective, and should be pronounced 
t Conceininc Uutt, see notes, page 17. 


Exercises in Parsing. 
Chiefly on the Passive Verb. — Continued. 

No. c. 

There is not a more pleasing exercise of 
the mind than gratitude : it is accompanied 
with such an inward satisfaction, that the 
duty is sufficiently rewarded by the perfor- 
mance^'^. The mind should be stored with 
knowledge, and" cultivated with care". A 
pardon was obtained for him from the king^*. 
Our most sanguine prospects have often been 
blasted'? Too sanguine hopes of any earthly 
thing should never be entertained?" The table 
of Dionysius the tyrant was loaded with deli- 
cacies of every kind, yet he could not eat".^* 
I have long been taught that the afflictions of 
this rife are overpaid by that eternal weight 
of glory which awaits the virtuous"^.*- 

Greater virtue is required to bear good 
fortune than bad^. Riches and honour have 
always been reserved for the good'^*. King 
Alfred is said to have divided the day and 
night into three parts : eight hours were 
allotted for meals and sleep, — eight were 
allotted for business and recreation, and 
eighf for study and devotion^. All our 
actions should be regulated by religion 
and reason"^ Honours, monuments, and 
all the works of vanity and ambition, are 
demolished and destoyed by time ; but the 
reputation of wisdom i^ transmitted to pos- 
terity^. These two things cannot be dis- 
joined ; a pious Hfe and a happy death^. 


Exercises in Parsing. 
Different sorts of verbs in the imper^ive. 

No. d. 
Forget the faults of others, and remember 
your own^. Study universal rectitude an 
cherish religious hope^. Study your desire- 
to things, and not things to your desires'. 
Cherish virtuous principles, and be ever 
steady in your conduct*. Practise humility, 
and reject every thing in dress, carriage, or 
conversation, which has any appearance of 
pride^. Allow nothing to interrupt you? 
public or private devotions, except the per- 
formance of some humane action^. 

" Learn to contemn all praise betimes, 
" For* flattery is the nurse of crimes'." 

Consider yourself^ a citizen of the world: 
and deem nothing which^regards humanity 
unworthy of your noticed Presume* not in 
prosperity and despair*not in adversity''. Be 
kind and courteous to all, and be not eager* 
to take offence without just reason"'. Be- 
ware* of ill customs ; they creep upon us 
insidiously, and by slow degrees'^ 

" Oh man, degenerate man, offend no more ! 

" Gof learn of brutes, thy Maker to adore !'"* 

Let your religion^ connect preparation for 
heaven with an honourable discharge of 
the duties of active life^'. Let your wordsij 
agree with your thoughts, andj be followed 
b}'" your actions^*.' - •-• • 

; , J ■ ■ ' '' ' • I 

• See note first, p. 41. t f^o •■"i" '««"» """e both in tlic tmperatiM. 
t See noie, iiexi page. ■ ' 

Exercises in Parsing. 

Different sorts of verbs in the imperative. — Continued.* 

No. d. 

Let all yonr thoughts, words, and actions, 
be tinctured* with humility, modesty, and 
candour''\ Let him who wishes for an ef- 
fectual cure to all the wounds the world can 
inflict,* retire from intercourse with men to 
intercourse wnth his Creator^^. 

Let no reproach make you* lay aside ho- 
liness ; the frowns of the world are nothing 
to the smiles of Heaven'^. Let reason go 
before enterprise, and counsel before every 
action'^. Hear Ann read her lesson^^. Bid 
her get it better^. You need not hear her 
again-^ I perceive her wepp*^, I feel it 
pain m.e^. I dare not go^"*. You behold him 
run-^. We observed him walk off hastily^. 

And that tongue of his, that bade the Romans 
Mark* him, and write his speeches in their books, 
Alas ! it cried — give'^ me some drink, Titinius". 

Deal with another as you'd have 

Another* deal with you ; 
What' you're unwilling to receive, 

Be sure you never do". 

Abstain from pleasure and bear eviP. Ex- 
pect the same filial duty from your children 
which you paid to your parents^*^. 

* Tliffnext verb after bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, fed, let, per- 
eeive, behold, observe, have, and known is in tlie infinitive, having tt 
undcrsinod ; as, " Tlie tempest-loving raven ?carce dares (toi wiiifr ths 
dubious dusk." I have known him (to) divert the money, &.c. 7'o U 
B<ten used after the compound tenses of these verbs; as, Wlio wii. 
dare to advance, if I gay— stop 1 Them did he make to pay tribute. 
B— 3 


Exercises in Parsing. 

The nominative, though generally placed hefore the verb, 
is often placed after it ; especially when the sentence 
begins with here, there, Sec. or when if or though ia 
understood ; and when a question is asked. 

No. e. 

Among the many enemies of friendship 
may be reckoned suspicion and disgust^ 
Among the great blessings and wonders of 
the creation, may be classed the regularities 
of times and seasons^. Then w^ere they in 
great fear^ Here stands the oak^ And 
there sat in a window a certain young man 
named Eutychus^ Then shall thy light 
break forth as the morning^ Then shalt 
thou see clearly"^. Where is thy brother** ? 
Is he at home^ '( 

Th6re are delivered in Holy Scripture 
many weighty arguments for this doctrine?" 
Were he at leisure, 1 would wait upon him?^ 
Had he been more prudent, he would have 
been more fortunate^^. Were they wise, 
they would read the Scriptures daily'^. I 
would give more"" to the poor, were I able?* 
Could we survey the chambers of sickness 
and distress, we should often find them^peo- 
pled with the victims of intemperance, sen- 
suality, indolence and sloth'^ Were he to 
assert it, I would not believe it, because he 
told a lie before^*"'. Gaming is a vice^preg- 
nant with every evil ; and to it are often 
sacrificed wealth, happiness and every thing 
virtuous and valuable". Is not industry the 
road to wealth, and" virtue" to happiness"? 


Exercises in Parsing. 
TUe nominative is often at a great distance from the verb. 

No. /. 

That man'who is neither elated by success, 
tior dejected by disappointment, whose con 
duct is not influenced by any change of 
circumstances to deviate from the line of 
integrity, possesses true fortitude of mind^ 
That fortitude* which has encountered no 
dangers, that prudence which has sur- 
mounted no difficulties, that integrity which 
has been attacked by no temptations, — can 
at best be considered but as gold, not yet" 
brought to the test, of which, therefore, the 
true value cannot be assigned^. 

The man'who retires to meditate mischief, 
and to exasperate his own rage ; whose 
thoughts are only employed on means of 
distress, and contrivances of ruin ; whose 
mind never pauses* from the remembrance 
of his own sufferings, but to indulge some 
hope of enjoying the calamities of another ; 
— may justly be numbered among the most 
miserable of human beings : amons those who are* 
guilty without feward ; who have neither the glad- 
ness of prosperity, nor the calm of innocence'. He 
whose constant employment is detraction and cen- 
sure ; who looks only to find faults, and speaks only 
o publish them; will be dreaded, hated and avoided* 

He* who through vast immensity can pierce, 
See woricls on worlda''^'compose one universe, 
Observe how system into system runs, 
What-*' other planets circle other suns, 
What varied being peoples every star. 
May tell why Heaven has made us as we are* 

64 ______J5N^L^H_GR AJM[a^ 

Exercises is Parsing. 

The infinitive, or part of a Kcntence, being equal to a noun, 
is often the nominative to a verb. 

No. g. 

To be ashamed of the practice of precepts 
which* the heart approves and embraces, 
from a fear of the censure of the^l^orld,* 
marks a feeble and imperfect character^. 
To endure misfortune with resignation, and 
bear it with fortitude, is^^^ the striking cha- 
racteristic of a great mind^ To rejoice in 
the welfare of our fellow-creatures, is, in a 
degree, to partake of their good fortune ; 
but to repine at their prosperity, is one of 
the most despicable traits of a narrow mind^ 

To be ever active in laudable pursuits, is 
the distinguishing characteristic of a man of 
merit''. To satisfy all his demands, is the wny 
to make your child^truly miserable? To prac- 
tise virtue is the sure way to love it*. To 6e 
at once merry and malicious, is the sign of a 
corrupt heart and a weak understanding/ To 
bear adversity well is difficult, but to be tem- 
perate in prosperity is the height of wisdom'? 
To advise the ignorant, relieve the needy, 
and comfort the affliciedt,are duties that fall 
in our way, almost every day of our lives^ 
To dread no eye, and to suspect no tongue, 
Is^^Uhe great prerogative of innocence"^. 

* Wlmn iiotliinR but an infinilive precedes the verb, then it is the 
iitfinitive that is the nominative to it; as, To play ig pleasant. But 
When the infinilive hius any adjuncts., as in tlie sentence, To drink poi 
ton is death, it is the part of a sentence ; for il is not to drink tiiat ii 
lleatli, but to drink poison. 

t Tv^o or nior(' inlinitives require a verb in the plural. See also 

Bynta.x K. 18, b.t 

Exercises in Parsing. 

|The relative is the nominative to the verb, when it stand* 
immediately before tiie verb. When not close to the 
verb, it is in tiie objective, and governed either by the 
verb that comes after it, or by a preposition.* 

No. h. 

The value of any possession is to be chiefly 
estimated by the relief which it can bring us 
in the time of our greatest need^ The veil 
which covers from our sight the events of suc- 
ceeding years, is a veil woven by the hand of 
mercy-. The chief misfortunes that befal us 
in life, can be traced to some vices or follies 
which we have committed^. Be ware'^of those 
rash and dangerous connexions which may 
afterwards load you with dishonour*. True 
charity is not a meteor which* occasionally 
glances, but a luminary \vhich*in its orderly 
and regular course, dispenses a benignant 
influenced We usually find that to 

be the sweetest fruit which* the birds have 
picked^. Wealth cannot confer greatness ; 
for nothing can make that^great, which the 
decree of nature has ordained to be little'. 
Justice consists not merely in performing 
those duties which the laws of society oblige 
us to perform, but in our duty to our Maker 
to others, and to ourselves^ True religion 
will show its influence in every part of our 
conduct ; it is like the sapf of a living tree, 
which p ervades the most distant boughs^. 

• All lulcerb or ;i clause lieuveen two commas, rieqiieiilly comes b«i 
tweeu iho relativ« and iht- verb— 'I'lie rule at the top i:; oi'it a gtnerat 
rule ; for in poetry, in particular, the relative, though not close to Ul« 
feib. is fouietinies in tlie noiuiiiaiive. — See first line of poetry, page 63, 

^Sap, lUti obj goveinwiliy to umlcrstood after Wis, and aiilec.lo»Ai«*i 

86 EN<ffly[SH^R\MM^ 

Exercises in Parsing. 

When (he antecedent and relative are both m tlic nomina- 
tive, the relative is the nominative to the verb next it 
and the antecedent is genorally the nominativs to tlie 
second verb. 

No. i. 
■ He who performs every part of his busi 
ness in its due place and season, suffers no 
part of time to escape without profit^ He 
that does good for the sake of virtue, seeks 
neither praise nor reward, though he is sure 
of both at the last^. He that is the abettor 
of a bad action, is equally guilty with him 
that commits it^ He that overcomes his 
passions, conquers his greatest enemies* 
The consolation which is derived from a 
reliance upon Providence, enables us to 
support the most severe misfortunes^ 

That wisdom v/hich enlightens the under- 
standing and reforms the life, is the most va- 
luable^ Those, and those only,who have felt 
the pleasing influence of the most genuine 
and exalted friendship, can comprehend its 
beauties''^. An error that proceeds from any 
good principle, leaves no room for resen?' 
ment^. Those who raise envy will easily in* 
cur censure? He who is a stranger to industry, 
may possess, but he cannot enjoy ; he only 
who is active and industrious,can experience 
real pleasure)*' That mai/who is neither elat- 
ed by success nor dejected by disappointmen* 
whose conduct is not influenced by an}^ change 
of circumstances to deviate from the line of 
integrity, possesses true fortitude of mind^^ 


Exercises in Parsing. 

What is equal to — that which — or the thing which — ant 
represents two cases; — sometimes two nominatives ; — 
sometimes l\vo ohjectives ; — sometimes a nominative 
and an objective, — and sometimes an objective and a 
nominative. Sometimes it is an adjective. 

No. j. 

Regard the quality rather than the quan- 
tity of what you read^ If we delay till to- 
morrow what ought to be done"- "^^ ''to-day, wd 
overeharge the to-morrow with a biirderf 
which belongs not to it^. Choose what is 
most tit : custom will make it the most ag- 
reeable"'. Foolish men are more apt to con- 
sider what they have lost, than what they 
possess, and to turn their eyes on those whor 
are richer than themselves, rather than on 
those who are under greater difficulties^. 

What cannot be mended or prevented, 
must be endured^ Be attentive to what 
you are about, and take pains to do it well®. 
What you do not hear to-day, you will not 
tell to-morrow'. Mark Anthony, when un- 
der adverse circumstances, made this inte- 
resting remark, "I have lost all. except what 
I gave away^." Mark what it is his mind 
aims at in the question, and not Avhat* 
words^he utters^ 

By what* means shall I obtain wisdom 1 
See what* a grace was seated on his brow'"! 

* fVliat here, and geiiprally in qiieslinns, is an adjective, like manf 
«n " many a flowfr."— Soiiif'tinies it is an intcrjectioii ; as, IV hat! 

What is somerintes nscd as an advert) for partly: thus, IV hat wUh 
thinking, what with writing, and what with readnig, 1 am weary. 


Exercises in Parsing. 

The compound relatives, — whoever and whosoever — aa 

equal to — he who. 
Whatever and whatsoever are equal to — the thing which, 

— and represent two cases like what, as on the precedi- 

ioff paffe. ^'^'^ P'^S^ 1^1 '''''' t**''* notes. 

No. k. 

Whatever gives pain to others, deserves 
not the name of pleasure'. Whoever lives 
under an habitual sense of the divine pr^ 
sence, keeps up a perpetual cheerfulness of 
temper^. Whatsoever is set before you, eat^. 
Aspire after perfection in* whatever state of 
life you choose^ Whoever is not content in 
poverty, would not be so in plenty ; for the 
fault is not in the thing, but in the mind'. 
Whatever is worth doing, is worth doing well5 

By* whatever arts you may at first attract 
the attention, you can hold the esteem, and 
secure the hearts of others, only by amiable 
dispositions, and the accomplishments of the 
mind^. Whatever delight, or whatever so- 
lace is granted by the celestials to soften 
our fatigues — in thy presence, O Health, 
thou parent of happiness ! all those joys 
spread out and flourish^. * Whatever you» 
situation in life may be, nothing is more n** 
cessary to your success, than the acquire- 
ment of virtuous dispositions and habits'^ 
•Whatever be the motive of insult, it is 
always best to overlook it, and revenge it in 
no circumstances whatever'". 

• Whatcner is an ndjective here, for it qiia!ifics arts, fee; anil when 
BO noun is after it, it aj^rees witii thing underslood. Tims, H'^haUvtr 
may be the motive, &,& Uiat is. Whatever tliinff may be. 


Exercises in Parsing. 

Do, did and have are auxiliary verbs when joined to ano- 
ther verb ; when not joined to another verb, they are 
principal verbs, and have auxiliaries like the verb to lova. 

No. /. 

He who does not perform what he has pro- 
mised is a traitor to his friend^ Earthly 
happiness does not flow from riches ; but 
from content of mind, health of bod}^ and a 
life of piety and virtue^. Examples do not 
authorize a fault^. If we do not study the 
Scriptures, they will never make us wise"*. 
The butler did not remember Joseph^ You 
did not get enough of time to prepare your 
lessons*'. Did you see my book"? Do you go 
to-morrow^? I do not think it^proper to play 
too long^. Did he deceive you^''? He did 
deceive me^^ I do not hate my enemies^^. 
Wisdom does not make a man^ proud'"^. 

Prindpal. — He who does the most good, 
*has the most pleasure^"*. Instead of adding 
to the afflictions of others, do whatever you 
can to alleviate them'^ If ye do these 
things, ye shall never falP''. If thou canst 
do anything, have'' compassion on us. and 
nelp'^ us'^. He did his work well'*^. Did he 
do his work well'''? Did you do what I 
requested you to do^'^? Deceit betrays a lit- 
tleness of mind, and is the resource of one 
who has not courage to avow his failings'^ 
We have no bread". 

• MiBP, hast^ han, hath, had, and kadst, are auxiliaries only wliea 
they liavt! the past particiijle of another verb after them. 


Exercises in Parsing. 

Tlio verb to be has very often an adjective after it ; and 

Bome adjectives seem so closely combined with it, as to lead 

young people to suppose that they have got a passive verb. 

No. m. 

Prudence and moderation are productive 
of true peace and comfort^. If the powers 
of reflection were cultivated* by Jiabit,' 
mankind would at all times be able to de- 
rive pleasure from their own breasts, as 
rational as it is exalted^. Learning is pre- 
ferable to riches ; but virtue is preferable to 
both^ He who rests on a principle within, 
is incapable of betraying his trust, or desert- 
ing his friend*. Saul was afraid of David'. 
And the men were afraid^ One would have 
thought she should have been contented'. 

Few things are impracticable in them- 
selves^ To study without intermission is 
impossible : relaxation is necessary ; but it 
should be moderate^. The Athenians were 
conceited on account of their own wit, sci- 
ence, and politeness^". We are indebted to 
our ancestors for civil and religious liberty?* 
Many things are worth inquiry to one man, 
which are not so to another^^. An idle per* 
son is a kind of monster in the creation, be- 
cause all nature is busy about him'^. In> 
press'^your minds with reverence for all that 
is sacred". He was unfortunate, because he 
was inconsiderate^''. She is conscious of her 
deficiency, and will therefore be busy'^ 1 
am ashamed of you^'. She is sadly forlorn^^. 

* IVere cultivated, a verb passive. 

iliJMjUjlSM UKAiVllVlAM.. 

Exercises in Parsing. 

1. Active and neuter verbs are often conjugated with their 
present participle, joined to the verb to be.* 

2. A noun is always understood, when not expressed, af- 
ter adjectives and adjective pronouns; such as, few, 
many, this, that, all, every, each, either. — See p. 145, un- 
der they, those. 

No. n. 

1. While I am reading, you should be lis- 
tening to what I read^ He was delivering 
his speech when I left the house-. They 
have been writing on botany^ He might 
have been rising to eminence'*. I have been 
writing a letter, and I am just going to send 
it away^ She was walking by herself 
when I met her^ We are perishing with 
hunger : I am willing therefore to surren- 
der". We should always be learning^. A 
good man is always studying to be better^ 
We were hearing a sermon yesterday^*^. 

2. Those only are truly great who are 
really good'^ Few set a proper value on 
their time^-. Those who'despise the admo- 
nitions of their friends, deserve the mischiefs 
which their own obstinacy brings upon 
them'^. Among the many social virtues 
which attend the practice of true religion, 
that of a strict adherence to truth is of the 
greatest importance'*. Love no interests 
but those of truth and virtue'-^. Such as are 
diligent will be rewarded^^ I saw a thou- 
sand". Of all prodigality, that of time is 
the worst'^. Some are naturally timid ; and 
some bold and active ; for all are not alike^^ 

* Many words both ui ing and til ate mere adjectives. 


Exercises in Parsing. 

The Past Participle has uniformly either a relative of 
personal pronoun, with some part of the verb to be uo- 
derstood before it.* 

No. 0. 
Make the study of the sacred Scriptures 
your daily practice and concern ; and em 
brace the doctrines contained in them, as the 
real oracles of Heaven, and the dictates of 
that spirit that cannot lie^ Knowledge sof 
tened with complacency and good-breeding 
will make a man beloved and admired^ 
Gratitude and thanks are the least returns 
which children can make to their parents 
for the numberless obligations conferred on 
them^ Precepts have little influence when 
not enforced by example"*. He is of ail hu- 
man beings the happiest, who has a cons- 
cience f untainted by guilt, and a mind so 
well f regulated as to be able to accomodate 
itself to whatever the wisdom of Heaven 
shall think fit to ordain^ JMerc external 
beauty is of little estimation ; and deformity, 
when associated with amiable dispositions 
and useful qualities, does' not preclude our 
respect and approbation*". True honour, as 
defined by Cicero, is the concurrent approba- 
tion of good men^. Modesty seldom reside 
ia a breast not enriched with nobler virtues^ 

• It is oftpn difficult to supply the right part of the verb to be. An 
tdeerb is oftfii understood. The scope of llii- passnpe must detnnnine 
what van of to Oe, and wliat adverb, vvlieii an adv. 13 necessary, should 
be siippliwl ; for no rule for this can bi' given. 

Q:^- The Past Tense has always a nom. either expressed or easily 
Mndf'rstood : but tho Past Part, has no nom.— See K. p. 81, No. 163. 

f Untainted and reffulated are adjectives here. 


Exercises in Parsing. 
On the past participle — continued fix)m last page. 
".: , No. O. 

An elevated genius, employed in little 
things, appears like the sun in his evening 
declination ; he remits his splendour, but re- 
tains his magnitude; and pleases more though 
he dazzles less^ Economy, prudently and 
temperately conducted, is the safeguard of ■ 
many virtues ; and is, in a particular man- 
tier, favourable to exertions of benevolence?' 

The lovely young Lavinia once had friends., 
And fortune smiled deceitful** on her birth : 
For. in her helpless years, deprived of all, 
Of every stay, save* innocence and Heaven, 
She, with her widowed mother, feeble, old, 
And poor, lived in a cottage far retired 
Among the windings of a woody vale ; 
By solitude and deep surrounding shades, 
But more by bashful modesty concealed". 

We find man^ placedf in a world where he 
has by no means the disposal of the events 
that happen^^. Attention was given that 
they should still have sufficient mear.sf left 
to enable them to perform their military 
service^^ Children often labour more to 
have the words in their booksf imprinted 
on their memories, than to have the mean- 
ingf fixed in their minds^*. 

• Sane may be considorfd a preptsition here.— See K Nr. 140. 

t In many cases, the infinitive to be, is understood before the past 
participle. Thoufrh tlie verb that f", Jows have, dare, &c. is in tlie in 
dnitive, to (a inadmissnble, and vvl te to is inadtnissable, the be that 
follows it is inadmi.-ssable too.— Ma So be placed— Means to be \efi, tet 
Bee Syntax, R. 6. • 

74 ^^^^EireUSH^RJiM^ 

Exercises in Parsing. 

Supply all the words that are understood. The infinitive 
to be, or to have, is often understood. — Not supplying 
what is understood after than and as, is frequently the 
cause of error. 

No. p. 
Disdain'^even the appearance of falsehood, 
nor allow even the image of deceit, a place 
inyourmindK Those'who want firmness and , 
fortitude of mind, seem born to enlist undei; i 
a leader, and are the sinners or the saints of « 
accident^. They lost their mother when very ; 
young^. Of all my pleasures and comforts ' 
none have been so durable, satisfactory and 
unalloyed as those derived from religion*. 
For once upon a raw and gusty day, 
The troubled Tiber chafing with his shores, 
Caesar says to me, " Dar'st thou, Cassius, now, 
Leap^''' in with me into t}Jj angry flood, 
And swim to yonder p Hot' ■?" 
For contemplation he^ and valour formed , 
For softness she, and sweet attractive grace*. 

Is not her younger sister fairer than she'^ '( 
Only on the throne shall I be greater than i 
thou*^. We were earlier at church than they^ 
I have more to do than he'°. He is as dill- I 
gent as his brother". I love you as well as \ 
him^^. Virtue is of intrinsic value and good I 
desert, and of indispensable obligation ; not 
the creature of will, but necessary and im- 
mutable ; not local or temporary, but of 
equal extent and antiquity with the divine 
mind ; not a mode of sensation, but ever- 
lasting truth ; not dependent on power, buti< 
the guide of all power^. 


Exercises in Parsing. 

1. The objective after an active verb, especially when a 
relative, is ol'ten understood. 

2. Sometimes the antecedent is improperly omitted, and 
ranst be supplied. 

No. q. 

1. He that moderates his desires enjoys 
the best happiness this world can afford^ 
Few reflections are more distressing than 
those we make on our own ingratitude^. The 
more true merit a man has, the more does 
he appland it in others^ It is not easy to 
love those we do not esteem*. Our good or 
bad fortune depends on the choice we make 
of our friends^. An over cautious attention 
to avoid evils often brings them upon us : 
and we frequently run headlong into misfor- 
tunes by the very means we pursue to avoid 
them^. He eats regularly, drinks moderate- 
ly, and reads often'. She sees and hears 
distinctly, but she cannot write''. Let him 
labour with his hands, that he may have to 
give to him that needeth'-*. 

2. For reformation of error, they were 
that thought it" a part of Christian duty to 
instruct them^°. There have been that have 
delivered themselves from their misfortunes 
by their good conduct or virtue^^ 

Who live to nature rarely can he poor; 

Who live to fancy rarely can be rich". 

Who steals my purse steals trash". 

For if there be first a willing mind, it is 

accepted according to that a man hath, and 

not according to that he hath not". 


Exercises in Parsing. 
L The objective generally comes after the verb that go^ 

verns it ; but when a relative, and in some other case^ 

it comes before it 
S. When two objectives follow a verb, the thing is governed 

by the verb, and the person by a preposition understooA 

No. r. 

1. Me ye have bereaved of my children- 
Them that honour me I will honour^. Him 
whom ye ignorantly worship, declare I unto 
you^. Them that were entering in ye hin- 
dered*. Me he restored to mine*ofiice, and 
him he hanged^ Those who have laboured 
to make us wise and good, are the persons 
whom we ought particularly to love and 
respect^ The cultivation of taste is recom- 
mended by the happy effects which it natur- 
ally tends to produce on human life''. These 
curiosities :we have imported from China^. 

2. And he gave him tithes of alR Who 
gave thee this authority^"? Ye gave me 
meat". He gave them bread from heaven'^. 
Give me understanding^^ Give me thine* 
heart^*. f Friend, lend me three loaves^ 
Sell me thy birth-right^^. Sell me meat for 
money^''^. I will send you corn^^. Tell me 
thy name^^. He taught me grammar^. If 
thy brother shall trespass against thee, go 
and tell him his fault between thee and him 
alone^'. Bring me a candle^-^. Get him a 
pen^. Write him a letter"*. Tell me noth- 
ing but the truth^^. 

* Mine, a possessive pronoun, used here for mi/, as thine is for tJlp. 
t Friend is tlie noininiitivc, lor )ie is named. Sujiply the ellipsis ttttu 
O thou, loho art my friend, \eiii me, itc. ' • 

^^^^GUSH^RAftmA^ 77 

Exercises is Parsing. 

L The poets often use an adjective as a noun, and some. 

times join an adjective to their new-made noun. 
ft. They sometimes improperly use an adjective for an 

X Though the adjective generally comes before the noun, 

it is sometimes placed after it. 

No. S. 

.. And where He vital breathes there must be joy'^ 

Who shall attempt with wand'ring feet 

The dark, unbottom'd, infinite abyss, 
And through the palpable obscure find out 
His uncouth way, or spread his airy flight, 
Upborne with undefatigable wings, 
Over the vast abrupt, e'er he arrive* 

The happy isle ?^ Paradise Lost, b. U. 404. 

%. Thus Adam his illustrious guest besought ; 
And thus the god-like angel answer'd mild* 
The lovely young Lavinia once had friends, 
And fortune smiled deceitful on her birth.* 
When even at last the solemn hour shall come, 
To wing my mystic flight to future worlds, 
I cheerful will obey ; there, with new powers, 
Will risinor wonders sins.* 
The rapid radiance instantaneous strikes 

The illumin'd mountain.® Gradual sinks the 

Into a perfect calm.' [breezp 

Each animal, conscious of some danger, fled 
Precipitate the loathed abode of man.* 

8. But I lose myself in him, — in light ineffable.^ [ 

— Pure serenity apace j 

Induces thought and contemplation still 

• The poets often vtry improperly omit the preposition. 
be " E'er ho arrive at the happy isle." And again, " Here i 
all circumspection," for, need of all circumspection. 

5^ After this, the preface, with many other parts of the p ' 

iBfty l>e used as additional exercises on parsing. 




Nominative, naming, [ing to. 

PoggesHve, possessing, beiong- 

Objective, the object upon 
which an active verb or pre- 
position terminates. 

Comparison, a comparing of 
qualities. [excess. 

Positive, the quality without 

Comparative, a higher or low- 
iar degree ot"the quaUty. 

Superlative, the highest or 
lowest degree of the quahty. 

Pi'efixing, placing before. 

Pcrjiona/.belonging to persons 

Relative, relating to another. 

Antecedent, the word going 

Demonstrative, pointing out. 

Distributive, dividing into por- 
tions, [ed. 

/nrfe/int/e,undefined, not limit- 

Inlerrogative, asking. 

T7yminiive, (action) 
an object. 

Intransitive, (action) confined 
to the actor ; passing within 

Auxiliary, helping. 

Conjugate, to gfve all the 
principal parts of a verb. 

mood, or Mode, form or man- 
ner of a verb. [ing- 

Indicative, declaring, indi'mt- 

jPo^eniio/,having power orwill 

Subjunctive, joined to another 
under a condition. 

Negative, no, denying. 

Affirmative, yes, asserting. 


Promiscuous, mixed. 

Imperative, commanding 

Infinitive, without limits. 

2'ense, the time of acting 

Present, tfip time that now i 

Past, the time past. 

Perfect, quite completed, figj 
ished, and past. ••' 

Pluperfect, more than perfect 
quite finished some time agti 

Future, time to come, [parts.! 

Participle, partaking of othel 

Regular, according to rule. 

Irregular, not accord, to rule. 

i)«/ec/it)e, wanting some ofita 

Copulative, joining. [parts. 

Disjunctive, disjoined. 

Annexed, joined to. 

Governs, acts upon. 

Preceding, going before. 

Intervene, to come between, 

fntYj/one,several acting as one 

Con<ing*nci/,whatinay or may 
not happen ; uncertainty. 

Plurality, more than one. 

Futurity, time to come. 

Omit, to leave out, not to do 

Ellipsis, a leaving out of some- 
thing, [ous kinds. 

Miscellaneous, mixed, of vari 

Cardinal,* principal, or fun- 
damental, [order 

Ordinal,-f numbered in theis 

Universal, extending to all. 

Ambiguitij, uncertainty which 
of the two it is. 

* The Cardinal numbers are, One, two, three, four, five, si.x, seven, 
eight, nine, ten, &c. ; from the first three are formed the adverbs onca, 
twice, thrice. 

t Tlie Ordinal numbers are, First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, 
•eventh, ei^^hth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, iliirtceMlh, fourteenth, 
fifteenth, sixteenth, Beventteutli, eishleenth, nineteentli, tweuiioth, 
twenty-first, twenty-second, ice. From these are formed adverbs of 
•rrirr: as, Firslly,secondly,tliirdly. fourthly, fifthly, sixiilily. seventhly, 
eighthly, ninthly, tcnthly, eleventhly, twelhhly, ihirteentlily, fourteen- 
•jhly, fiftefnthly,sixteeMt'hly, seventeentlily, eijihteentlily, ninetccnlhly 
^eniiethly. iwenty-firstly, iwenty-secondly, &.c. 


Syntax is that part of Grammar which treats 
of the proper arrangement and connection 
of words in a sentence.* 

A sentence is an assemblage of words mak* 
ing complete sense ; as, John is happy. 

Sentences are either simple or compound. 

A simple sentence contains but one sub- 
ject and one finitef verb ; as, Life is short. 

A compound sentence contains two or more 
simple sentences connected by one or more 
conjunctions ; as, Tijne is short, but eternity 
is long. 

A phrase is two or more words used to 
express a certain relation between ideas, 
without affirming any thing ; as. In truth ; 
To he plain loith you. 

The principal parts of a simple sentence 
are, the subject, (or nominative,) the attri- 
bute, (or verb,) and the object. 

The subject is* the thing chiefly spoken of; 
the attribute is the thing affirmed or denied; 
and the object is the thing affected by such 

* Syntax principally consists of two parts, Concordand Government. 

Concord is the agreeiiicnl wlilch one word has with anotiier, i/r 
■HmtM>r, gender, case, or person. 

Government is that [Hiwer which one part of speech has over ana- 
ther in determining its mood, tense, or case. 

^Finite verbs are inose to which niiniher and person appertain. Tha 
infinitive mood has no respect U) nujulier or prison. 


Rule I. — A verb must agree with its nomina- 
tive in number and person; as, — Thou 
readest ; He reads ; We read. 


I loves reading. A soft* answer turn 
away wrath. We is but of yesterday and 
knoweth nothing. Thou shalt not follow a 
multitude to do evil. The days of man is 
but as grass. All things is naked and open 
to the eyes of him with whom we has to do. 
All things was created by him. In him we 
live and moves. Frequent commission of 
crimes harden his heart. In our earliest 
youth the contagion of manners are observ- 
able. The pyramids of Egypt has stood 
more than three thousand years. The num- 
ber of our days are with thee. A judicious 
arrangement of studies facilitate improve- 
ment. A variet)'" of pleasing objects charm 
the eye. A few pangs of conscience now 
and then interrupts his pleasure, and whis- 
pers to hirfi that he once had better thoughts. 
There is more cultivators of the earth than 
of their own hearts. Nothing but vain and 
foolish pursuits delight some persons. Not 
one of those whom thou sees clothed in pur- 
ple are happy. There's two or three of us 
who have seen the work. 

t Him and her were of the same age. 

* Rule. — Jln adjective agrees with a noun in gcjider, number avl 

tase; as, A good man As tlie adjective, in English, ij> not varied on 

account of gender, number, or case, this rule is of little importance. 

T RuLK. — 7'he subject of a verb should be in the nominative ; tbua, 
Him and her were married ; should be, He and site were married. 

J^^AIl those notes at the bottom that have exercises in tlie text are 
to be couuDitted to memory, and applied like the rules at the top. 


IluLE n. — An active verb governs the objective 
case ; as, — We love him ; He loves us* 


He loves -we. He and they we know, 
but who art thou? She that is idle and 
mischievous, reprove sharply. Ye only have 
I known. Let tliou and I the battle try. He 
who committed the offence thou shouldst 
correct, not I who am innocent. 

Esteeming theirselves wise, they became 
fools. Upon seeing 1, he turned pale. Hav- 
ing exposed hisself too much to the fire of 
the enemy, he soon lost an arm in the ac- 

The man whof he raised from obscurity 
is dead. Who did they entertain so freely ? 
They are the persons who we ought to res- 
pect. Who having not seen we love. They 
who opulence has made proud, and who 
luxury has corrupted, are not happy. 

X Repenting him of his design. It will 
be very difficult to agree his conduct with 
the principles he professes. Go, flee thee 
away into the land of Judea. 

II 1 shall premise with two or three gene- 
ral observations. He ingratiates with some 
by traducing others. 

• The participle, being a part of the verb, governs the same case. 

t Note. fVhen the objective is a relative, it comes before the verb that 
governs it. (Mr. Murray's 6th rule Is uniitxcessary. — Sve No. /;. p. 05.) 

t Ui'LK 1. — A'tuter vtrbs do not admit of an objective after them ; 
thus, Rppenring him of his d«'slsn. should be, Repentini; of iiis design. 

II RrLg n. — Active verbs do not admit of a preposition after tAem; 
thus, I must preinisn with thiuc circiiiiii-iaiices, should be, I must pre- 
mise tJirtje ciicuiuslancus. 


Rule III. — Prepositions govern the objective 
ease; as, — To whom rruich is given, of him 
much shall be required. 


To who will you give that pen ? Will you 
go with I ? Without I ye can do nothing 
Withhold not good from they to who it is 
duo. With who do you live ? Great friend- 
ship subsists between he and I. He can do 
nothing of hisself. They willingly, and of 
theirselves, endeavoured to make up the 
difference. He laid the suspicion upon 
somebody, I know not who, in the company. 

* Who do you speak to ? Who did they 
ride with ? Who dost thou serve under ? 
Flattery can hurt none, but those who it is 
agreeable to. It is not I thou art engaged 
with. It was not he that they were so 
angry with. Who didst thou receive that 
intelligence from ? The person who I tra- 
velled with has sold the horse w-hich hs 
rode on during our journey. Does that boy 
know who he speaks to ? I hope it is not I 
thou art displeased with. 

t He is quite unacquainted with, and con^ 
sequently cannot speak upon, that subject. 

• Rule I. — The preposition should be placed immediately before ti 
relative zrhich it governs ; as, To whom do you speak 1 

The preposition is often separated from the relative : but though thl 
Ib perhaps allowable in familiar conversation, yet, in solemn composi- 
tion the placing of the preposition immediately before tlie relative ia 
more perspicuous and elegant. 

t Rule U. — It is inelegant to connect two prepositions, oroneandom 
active verb, with the same nvun ; for example, Tliey wi!re nluscd en- 
trance into, and forcibly driven /rom the house ; should be, They were 
refused entrance into the house, and forcibly driven from it. — 1 wioto 
t», and warned him : should be, I wrote to him and warned hiiu. 


Rule IV. — Two or more singular nouns ■coup'^^ 
^ led loith AND, require a verb and pronoun 

in the plural; as, — James and John are 

good boys ; for they are busy.* 
Two or more singular nouns separated hy or, 

or NOR, require a verb and pronoun in the 

singular ; as, — James or John is dux.f 


Socrates and Plato was the most eminent 
philosophers of Greece. The rich and poor 
meets together. Life and death is in the 
power of the tongue. The time and place 
for the conference was agreed on. Idleness 
and ignorance is the parent of many vices. 
John and I reads better than you. Wisdom, 
virtue, happiness, dwells with thg golden 
mediocrity. Luxurious living and high plea- 
sures begets a languor and satiety that des- 
troys all enjoyment. Out of the same mouth 
proceedeth blessing and cursing. 

Neither precept nor discipline are so for- 
cible as example. Either the boy or the girl 
were present. Neither character nor dia- 
logue were yet understood. The modest vir- 
gin, the prudent wife, or the careful matron, 
are much more serviceable in life than the petti- 
coated philosophers. It must be confessed that a 
lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery 
or murder, Man is not such a machine as a clock 
or a Avatch, which move merely as they are moved. 

*And is the only conjunction tliat combines the agency of two or more 
into one; for, as well as, nev(!r does that ; but merely stales a sort of 
comparison; thus, "C'lsar, as well as Cicero, was eloquent." With Ig 
•ometiiiiesiised forn7i(Z. — See Miscellaneous Olisei-vaticms, p. 141 &142 

t Or and nor are tlie only conjuncti jns applicable to this rule 


Rule V. — Conjunctions couple the same moods 
and tenses of verbs; as, -Do good and seek peace. 

Conjunctions couple the same cases of noun^ 
and pronouns ; as, — He and / are happy. 


He reads and wrote well. He or me must 
go. Neither he nor her can attend. Anger 
glances into the breast of a wise man, but 
will rest only in the bosom of fools. My 
brother and him are tolerable grammarians. 
The parliament addressed the king, and has 
been prorogued the same day. If he under- 
stands the subject, and attend to it, he can 
scarcely fail of success. Did he not tell thee 
his fault, and entreated* thee to forgive 
him ? And dost ihou open thine eyes upon 
such a one, and bringest*me into jftdgement 
with thee ? You and us enjoy many privi- 
leges. Professing regard, and to act diti'er- 
ently, mark a base mind. If a man have a 
hundred sheep, and one of them is gone 
astray, doth he not leave the ninety and 
nine, and goeth into the mountains, and 
seeketh that which is gone astray. 

f Rank may confer influence, but will not 

necessarily produce virtue. She was proud, 

though now humble. He is not rich butj is 

espectable. Our season of improvement is 

hort; and. whether iispd or notfwill soon passaway 

* The same form of (he verb must be coiitimied. 

t Conjunctions t'ipquently conpl<; liiflerdiit moods and tenses of verb*; 
but in these instances liie nominative is generally repeated ; as, He muf 
return, but he will not continue. 

X The nominative is generally repeated, even to the same mood and 
tense, when a ccutrast is stated with but, not, or though, &.C. as in tlUS 

Rule VI. — One verb governs another in the in- 
finitive mood; as, — Forget not to do good.* 

To, the sign of the infinitive, is not used after 
the verbs, bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, 
feel, let, perceive, behold, observe, have, 
and know.f 


Strive learn. They obliged him do it. 
Newton did not wish obtrude his discoveries 
on the public. His penetration and dili- 
gence seemed vie with each other. Milton 
cannot be said have con< rived the structure 
of an epic poem. Endeavouring persuade. 
We ought forgive injuries. 

They need not to call upon her. I dare 
not to proceed so hastily. I have seen some 
young persons to conduct themselves very 
discreetly. He bade me to go home. It is the 
ditfeience of their conduct which makes us 
to approve the one, and to reject the other. 
We heard the thunder to roll. It is a great 
support to virtue, when we see a good mind 
to maintain its patience and tranquility un- 
der injuries and afflictions, and to cordially 
forgive its oppressors. Let me to do that. 
I bid my servant to do this, and he doeth it. 
I need not to solicit him lo do a kind office^ 

* 'i'lie infinitive mood is frwiuently governed by nouns and adjec- 
tives ; !is, 'rii'-y liiivi- a desire to liiara : H'orlhy ti> be loved, hor, 
before \\\n infinitive, is unmci'ss-ary. 

/-.«« Kdverns tiifi objectiVB case ; as, Let him beware. 

t To '\a penerally used after the passive of these verbs, except let; ax, 
He was made to Oeii.roc it; II' icag let go ; and soinetiiiies after the 
W!iv.' in the past tens*;, esp«'cially of Aaoc, a principal verb ; as, I kai 
\Ov.alk ali tile way.— Sre p. ti!. b. 

'J'tie infinitive is oficii iiide|i(Midi'nt of the rest of the sentence ; aa 
T» proceed ; To eonftat tiie truth, 1 wa.i m fault. 

Rule VII. — When two nouns come together 
signifying different things, the first is put 
in the possessive case ; as, — John's book ; 
on eagle's wings ; his heart. 

When two nouns come tOKi'llier sisnifyin;; llie same, thing, they agm 
in case ; as, Cicero llie orator ; The city Edinburgh. 


Pompeys pillar. Virtues reward. A'mans 
manner's frequently influence his fortuna. 
Asa his heart was perfect with the Lord. A 
mothers tenderness and a fathers care are 
natures gif s for mans advantage. Helen her 
beauty was the cause of Troy its destruc'ion. 
Wisdoms precepts are the good mans delight 

* Peter's, John's, and Andrew's occupa- 
tion was that of fishermen. He asked his 
father as Avell as his mother's advice. 

Jesus feet. Moses rod. Herodiasfsake. Righl- 
eousness's sake. For conscience's sake. And they 
were all baptized of him in tlie river of Jordan. 

* Ril.K. — IVhen several nouns come tiigetker in the possessive eatei 
the apostrophe with S is annexed to the last, and understood to the restf 
as, Jane ;iiiil Lucy's books. 

When any words intervene, the sign of thcpossessive should be annexed 
to each ; iis, This {^ninwl ilie king's as well us the people's iipprobatiorj. 

t To prevent too much of th(> hissin;; sound, the s afrer the ajjost- 
rophe is (icncially omitted whi'u \\n- first noun ha? an s in e;ich of its 
two last <-y\\x\\thfs, and Ilie second noun hpcins with s, as, highteouf 
ness' sake, For conscience' sake, Francis' sake. 

It has lati:ly become common when the nominative sineular ends ie 
t, or ss. tof'orui the jiossessive by omitting the s atter the apostrophe., 
as, Jatnes' book, Miss' shoes, in.stead of James's book, Miss 's shoet 
This is improper. Put these phrases into questions, and tlien they will 
appear ridiculous. Is tiiis book James'? Are tliese slioes Miss'? Not 
are they less ridiculous without the interrogatory form ; as, This booll 
is James' &c.— K. 195-6-7. 

We .sonuliiues use of inslead of the apostrophe and s; thus we say. 
The wisdom of So<:rates, rallier than Sacrates's wisdom. In some 
instances we use the of and lb«' possessive teriniiiation too ; as. It is a 
discoveiy of Sir Isaac JVeirtun's, thai is, one of Sir Isaac .Newton's 
discoveries. A picture oj my friend, means a portrait ol liim ; But a 
picture of my friend's means a poitrail of some ot/ter persun, and tlltit 
it belongs to my friend. 

As precise rules for the formatir)n of ihe^possessivecase, in all situa 

Rule VIII. — When a noun of multitude con.' 
veys unity of idea, the verb and pronoun 
should he singular; as,-The class was large. 

When a noun of multitude conveys plurality 
of idea, the verb and pronoun should be 
plural ; as, — My people do not consider; 
therj have not known me. 


The meeting were well attended. The 
people has no opinion of its own. Send the 
multitude away, that it may go and buy it- 
self bi-f ad. The people was very numerous. 
The council was not unanimous. The flock, 
and not the fleece, are, or ought to be, the 
object of the shepherd's care. Whim the 
nation complam th** rulers >-nould listen to 
their voice. The regimen* consist of a thou- 
sand men. The multitude eagerly pursues 
pleasure as its chief good. The parliament 
are dissolved. The fleet were seen sailing 
up the channel. Why do this generation 
seek after a sign ? The shoal of herrings 
were immense. The -remnant of the peo- 
ple were persecuted. The committee was 
divided in its sentiments. The army are 
marching to Cadiz. Some people is busy, 
and vec does very little. Never were any 
nation so infatuated. But this people who 
knoweth not the law are cursed. 

tlons can scarcely be given, I shall merely subjoin a fi'w coirect exam- 
plesforthe pupil's ir.iiiatioii ; thus, I left the parcel ai Smith's the 
bookseller; the Lord Mayor of /^nrfon's authority: For Daviil ihy far 
tAer'sxake; He took refuseat the o■<»l•e)•nor'«theA•^»^r'^- rei.resemative; 
Whose L'lory diil he emulate? lie emulated GrMr',«, tin- fireatest ge- 
neral of aniiiiujty. — See last note under rule xii. also rule xxx. 


Rule IX. — The verb to be should have the 
same case after it that it has before it; as, 
I am he ; I took it to be him.* 


It was me who wrote the letter. Be not 
afraid, it is me. It was not me. It was him 
who got the first prize. I am sure it was 
not us that did it. It was them who gave us 
all this trouble. I would not act the same 
part again, if I were him. He so much re- 
sembled his brother, that at first sight I took 
it to be he. Search the Scriptures ; for in 
them ye think ye have eternal life ; and 
they are them which testify of me. 

I saw one whom I took to be she. Let 
him be whom he may, I am not afraid of 
him. Who do you think him to be ? Whom 
do men say that I am ? She is the person 
who I understood it to have been. Whom 
think ye that I am ? Was it me that said 
so ? I am certain it was not him. I believe 
it to have been they. It might have been 
him. It is impossible to be them. It was 
either him or his brother that gained the 
first prize. 

* When the verb to be u understood, it has the sauie case after It 
tJiat it lias before it; as. He seems the leader of a party ; 1 supposed 
him a man of learning ; — that is, tn be the leader, &c.; to be a man, &c. 

Part oj^ sentence is sometimes the noniuiative botli before and after 
the vcibfB be ; as, His maxim was, " Be master of lliy aiijier."' 

The vi'il) tu be is often followed by an adjective. — See No. j;i. 

Pa'!swe verbs which signify namuig, and some neuter verbs, have a 
nominative after them ; as, He shall bo called JoAn ; He hicame the 
slave of irregular passions. Step/ten c'ied a martyr for the Christian 

Seme passive verbs admit an objective alter them ; as, John was first 
denied apples, then he was promised tJw.m, the : he was offered tkem. 

Rule X. — Sentences that i?nply contingency 
and futurity require the subjunctive mood; 
as, — If he be alone, give him the letter.* 

W7ien contingency and futurity are not both 
implied, the indicative ought to be used ; as, 
If he speaks as he thinks, he may safely 
be trusted. 


If a man smites his servant, and he die, 
he shall surely be put to death. If he ac- 
quires riches they will corrupt his mind. 
Though he be high, he hath respect to the 
lowly. If thou live virtuously, thou art 
happy. If thou be Christ, save thyself and 
us. If he does promise, he will certainly 
perform. Oh ! that his heart was tender. 
As the governess were present, the children 
behaved properly. Though he falls he shall 
not be utterly cast down. 

f Despise not any condition lest it happens 
to be thy own.* Let him that is sanguine, 
take heed lest he miscarries. Take care that 
tliou breakest not any of the established rules 

J If he is but discreet he will succeed. 
If he be but in health, I am content. If he 
does but intimate his desire, it will produce 

* The exercises may all be corrected tfy the rule at the t(rp. — K.201 

t Rule I. — Lest and that annexed to a command require thesubjune 
•ve mood ; as, — Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty. Take 
heed Uiat thou speak not to Jacob ellhcr good or bad. 

JRuLE U. — IC, with hM following it when futurity is denoted requiret 
Hie subjunctive mood; as, If he do but touch tlie hills, they shall smoke. 
But when future time is not expressed, the indicative oujht lobe us^. 

In the subjuiiciive the auxiliaries shall, should, &-c. are ^cjierally un 
derstood; as, Tlioii(ili hnfall, i.e. thoujjh he should fail. Until repent 
■DCe compose bis mind, i. e. until repentance shall compose. — K. 256. 
















Rule XI. — Some Conjunctions have their cor- 

■ respondent conjunctions ; thus, 

Neither requires J\'or after it ; as, JVcither he nor his brotlier was in. 
■""■ — ' '^-' Though he was rich, yet for our sakes, tec 

Whether he will do it or not, 1 cannot teU 

Either 8hn or her sister must go. 

Mine is as ^od as yours. 

As the stars so shall thy seed be. As tb4 
one dieth, so dieth the other 

He is not so wise as his brother. To see 
thy glory so as I have seen It, &c 

I am 50 weak that 1 cannot walk. 


It is neither cold or hot. It is so clear as 
I need not explain it. The relations are so 
uncertain, as that they require a great deal 
of examination. The one is equally deser- 
ving as the other. I must be so candid to 
own, that I have been mistaken. He would 
not do it himself, nor let me do it. He was 
as angry as he could not speak. So as thy 
days, so shall thy strength be. Though he 
slay me, so will I in him. He must 
go himself, or send his servant. There is 
no condition so secure as cannot admit of 
change. He is not as eminent, and as much 
esteemed as he thinks himself to be. Nei- 
ther despise the poor, cr envy the rich, for 
the one dieth so as the other. As far as I 
am able to judge, the book is well written 
His raiment was so white as snow. 

* The ports frequently use Or — or, for Either — or; and .Vor — nor, 

for M'either — nor. In prose not — nor is often used for neither — nor. 

The ijet after thouirh is frequently and properly suppressnl. 

Or does not require either before it when the one word is a mere aac 
vlnnatinn of the other; as, i20g. or £i sterling is enough. 

t See K. No. 204. 


Rule "XH.—TVhen the present participle is used 
as a noun, it requires nn article before it, 
and of after it ; as, — The sum of the mo- 
ral law consists in the obeying of God, and 
the loving of our neighbour as ourselves.* 


Learning of languages iS very difficult. The 
learning any thing speedily requires great 
application. By the exercising our faculties 
they are improved. By observing of these 
rules you may avoid mistakes. By obtain- 
ing of wisdom thou wilt command esteem. 
This was a betraying the trust reposed in 
him. The not attending to this rule is the 
cause of a very common error. 

t Our approving their bad conduct may 
encourage them to become worse. For his 
avoiding that precipice he is indebted to his 

friend's care. J What is the reason 

of this person dismissing his servant so has- 
tily? I remember it being done. 

* Thesp phrases would bo ri?ht, were the article and of both omit- 
ted ; 8s, The sum of the moral law consists in obeying God, ami loving 
our nciijhbour, &c. This maimer of expression is, in many instances, 
preferable to the other. In some cases, however, these two modes ex- 
press very diti'erent ideas, and therefore attention to the sense is neces- 
lary; as. He confessed the whole in the hearing of three wiinesses, 
and the Court spent an hour in hearing llw'n depojitiim. — K. No. a08 

T The present participle with a possessive before it sometimes admits 
qfofaflrr it, aid sometimes not ; as. Their ob>erving of the rules pre- 
vented errors. By his stuiiyiiip the Scriptures he became wise. 

fVhiH a preposition folloKs the participle, of is inadmissable: as, His 
flependijii: on promises proved his ruin His neglecting to study whea 
youuc rendered him iguorant all his life. 

X Rei.K.-.^ noun before the present participle is put in the ptissrssive 
tase; us. Much will depend on the pupil's composing frequently. 

Somi'tiniHs, however, the siiise forbids it to be put in ilie possessive 
ease; thus, What do you think of my horse running to-day 7 means, 
Do you think I should lei him rim ? hut. What do you think of my 
h»rae't running? ineans. He has run. do vou think he ran well 7 


Rule XUI. — The past participle is used after 
the verbs have and be ; as, — -I have written 
a letter ; he was chosen. 


He ha swrote his copy. I would have 
wrote a letter. He had mistook his true 
interest. The coat had no seam, but waa 
wove throughout. The French language 
is spoke in every kingdom in Europe. His 
resolution was too strong to be shook by 
slight opposition. The horse was stole. 
They have chose the part of honour and 
virtue. The Rhine was froze over. She 
was showed into the drawing-room. My 
people have slid backwards. He has broke 
the bottle. Some fell by the way-side, and 
was trode down. The price of cloth heis 
lately rose very much. The work was very 
well execute. His vices have weakened his 
mind, and broke his health. He would 
have went with us, had he been invited. 
Nothing but application is wanting to make 
you an excellent scholar. 

* He soon begun to be weary of having 
nothing to do. He was greatly heated, and 
he drunk with avidity. The bending her- 
mit here a prayer begun. And end with 
sorrows as they first begun. 

A second deluge learning thus o'er-run ; 

And the monks finished what the Goths begun. 

* RcLE. — The past participle must not be used instead of the paH 
tense, it is improper to say lie befun, for he began; he run, for he ram 

1^ ^^^GUSaSYWTJ^^^^ 93 

Rule XIV. — Pronouns agree in gender, num- 
ber and person icith the nouns for which they 
stand; as, — John is here, he came an hour 
ago. Every tree is known by its fruit. 


Answer not a fool according to her 'oily. 
A stone is heavy ; and the sand weighty ; 
Dut a fool's wrath is heavier than it both. 
Can a woman forget his sucking child, that 
he should not have compassion on the son 
of her womb ? yea, they may forget, yet will 
I not forget thee. Take handfuls- of ashes 
of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it to- 
wards heaven, in the sight of Pharoah ; and 
it shall become small dust. Can any per- 
son, on their entrance into life, be fully se- 
cure that they shall not be deceived ? The 
mind of man cannot be long without some 
food to nourish the activity of his thoughts. 

* This boys are diligent. I have not seen 
him this ten days. You have been absent 
this two hours. Those sort of people fear 
nothing. We have lived here this many 
years. The chasm made by the earthquake 
was twenty foot broad, and one hundred fa- 
thom in depth. There is six foot water in 
the hold. I have no interests but that of 
truth and virtue. Those sort of favours did 
real injury. 

• RrLE. — J^ouns and numftriU adjectives must agree in number atr 
cording lo the sense ; thus, TV* i a- boys, should be, tAcse boys, becausa 
boys is plural : and six foot, should be, six/eet, because siz is plural. 
Whole should never be joined to common nouns in the plural ; thug, 
Almost the whole inhabitants were present; should be, Almost a// the 
inbabitanis: but it may be joined to co//cct/ve nouns in the plural; thia^ 
Wkolt cities were swallowed up by the earthquake. 

9*^ 5SSH^H,..5X!CJ^ 

Rule XV. — The relative agrees with its ante' 
cedent in gender, number, and person ; as, 
Thou who readest ; The book which was 


Tnose which seek wisdom will certainly 
find her. This is the friend which I love. 
That is the vice whom I hate. This moon 
who jrose last night. Blessed is the man which 
walketh in wisdom's ways. Thou who has 
been a witness of the fact, can give an ac- 
count of it. The child which* was lost is found 

t The tiger Is a beast of prey, who dest- 
roys without pity. Who of those men came 
to his assistance ? 

X It is the best which can be got. Solomon 
was the wisest man whom ever the world 
saw. It is the same picture which you saw 
before. And all which beauty, all which 
wealth e'er gave, &c. The lady and lap-dog 
which we saw at the window. Some village 
Hampden, which, with dauntless breast, &c. 

* It does not appear to me that it is liarsh and improper, as Mr. Mur- 
ray says, to apply who to children^ because they have little reason and 
reflection : but if it is, at what age should we lay aside whith and apply 
who to them 1 That seems prei'erablo to cither. In our translation of 
the Bible, who and that are both applied to children, but never whicL. 
Bee 2 Sam. xii. 14 and 15. Matt. ii. 16. Rev. xii. 5. 

t Which is applied to inferior animals, and als-o to persons in asking 

X RuLK.— That is used instead of Who or Whk H — 
1. ^fter adjectives in the superlative di.'gree, cifttr the words Same <m 

All, and often after Some and Any. 
8. When the nnter.edent cmisists of two nouns.the one rcrjuiringW ho an 

Me otAcr Which ; as, — Tho man and the horse that we saw yesterday. 
3. Jifter the interrogative Wiio ; as, — Who that has any sense of rfr 

iigion would have argued thus 7 
There seems to be no satisfactory reason for preferring that to who after 
tame and a//, except usage. Tiicre is indeed as good authority foru<ing 
wAo after all, as for using tluU. Addison, for instance, uses all wAr 
•everal times in one paper. 


Rule XVI. — Wlien the relative is preceded by 
two antecedents of different persons, it and 
the verb generally agree in person with the 
last ; as, — Thou art the hoy thai was dux 


I am the man who command you. I am 
the person who adopt that sentiment, and 
maintains it. Thou art a pupil who posses- 
ses bright parts, but who hast cultivated 
them but little. I am a man who speak 
but seldom. Thou art the friend that hast 
often relieved me, and that has not deserted 
me now in the time of peculiar need. Thou 
axt he who driedst up the Red 8ea before 
thy people Israel.f 

X The king dismissed his minister without 
any inquiry,who had never before committed 
so unjust an action. The soldier, with a sin- 
gle companion, who passed for the bravest 
man in the regiment, offered his services. 

• Sometimes the relative agrees with the former antecedent ; as, — 1 
am verily a maii who am a Jew. — Acts xxii. 3. 

The propriety of thi? rule has been called in question, because the 
relatives should apree with the subject of the verb, whether the subject 
be next tlie relative oi not. This is true, but it is also true that the 
subject is generally next the rela.ive, and the rule is calculated to pre- 
vent the impropriety of changing from one person ol the verb to au 
Other, as in the 3rd example. 

t When we address the Divine Being, it is, in ray opinion, more di 
rect and solemn to make the relative agree with the second person. In 
the Scriptures this is generally done. See Neh. ix. 7, &c. This sen 
tence may therefore stand as it is. In the third person singularof verbs, 
the solemn etk seems to become the digtiify of the Almighty better than 
the familiar es ; thus, I am tlie Liord thy God who teocAetA thee to 
profit ; who leadcth thee by the way that thou shouldst go ; — is more 
dignified than, i am tiie Lord thy God wlio teaches thee to profit ; wha 
Uads thee. 

X RuLc, — The reiative ought to be placed next its antecedent ; to pre- 
vent ambiguity ; thus. The Ssy beat his companion, whom every \mAj 
beheved incapable of doing mischief; should be. The boy, whom er«{7 
^ddi' bdieved incapable of doing mischief best his compiuiiaB. 


Rule XVlI. — When singular nominatives of 
different persons are separated hy or or 
NOR, the verb agrees with the person next 
it ; as, — Either thou or I am in fault ; I, 
or thou, or he, is the author of it.* 


Either I or thou am greatly mistaken. 
He or I is sure of this week's prize. Either ; 
Thomas or thou has spilt the ink on my 
paper. John or I has done it. He or thou 
is the person who must go to London on 
that business. 


Your gold and silver is cankered. Fea. 
and a snare is come upon us. The master 
taught him and I to read. Let not a widow 
be taken into the number under threescore 
years old, having been the wife of one hus- 
band, well reported of for good works ; if 
she have brought up children, if she have 
lodged strangers, if she have washed the 
saints' feet, if she have relieved the afflicted, 
if she have diligently followed every good 
work. The candidate being chosen was 
ow"ing to the influence of party. The win- 
ter has not been as severe as we expected 
it to be. Him and her were of the same age. 
If the night have gathered aught of evil 
disperse it. My people doth not consider. 

• The verb, though expressed only to the last person, is nnderstooj 
in Its proper person to each of the rest, and tlie sentence wlien the elllp- 
ris is supplied, stands thus, Either thou art in fault, or I am in fault 
and the next sentence, Either 1 am the author of it, or thou art Um 
author of it, or he « the autlior of iu 

Supplying the ellipsis thus would render the sentence correct; batM 


Rule XVIII. — A singular and a plural nom- 
inative separated hy or or nor, require a 
verb in the plural ; as, — Neither the cap- 
tain nor the sailors were saved.* 

The plural nominative should be placed next the verb. 

Neither poverty nor riches was injurious 
♦o him. lie or they was offended at it. 
Whether one or more was concerned in the 
business, does not yet appear. The cares 
of (his life, or the deceitiulness of riches, 
has choked the seeds of virtue in many a 
promising mind. Neither the king nor his 
ministers deserves to be praised. 

f A great cause of the low state of indus- 
tr}- was the restraints put upon it. His meat 
M^ere locusts and wild honey. His chief 
occupation and enjoyment were controversy 

X Thou and he shared it between them. 
James and I are attentive to their studies. 
You and he are diligent in readirtg their 
books, therefore they are good boys. 

Itrons is our natural love of brevit)', that such a tedious and rorinal 
Btteniion to correctness would jut^ily be reckoned stiff and pedantitt. 
It is better to avoid both forms of expresbion when it can be convO' 
Biently done. 

* The same observation may be made respecting the manner of sup- 
plying the ellipsis under this rule, that was made respecting the last 
A pardonable love of brevity is tlie cause of the ellipsis in botli, and 
iu a thousand other instances. 

T Ri'i,g 1 — When the verb to be stands between a singular and plw 
ral nominative, it agrees with the one next it, or with the one which is 
more naturally the subject uf it; as, "The wages of sin !.s dtalh." 

X Rule H. — When a pronoun refers to two words of different par 
sons, coupled with And, it becomes plural, and agrees with the (irit 
person when I or We is mentioned; and with the second, Kben I or Wd 
ia not mentioned ; as, " John and 1 will leiul you eur books." Jaam 
and you have got your lessons. 

98 ^^ 5^£^!^E^I1T£!L,^ 

Rule XIX. — It is improper to use both a noun 
and its pronoun as a nominative to the same 
verb ; as, — Man that is born of a woman, 
^e is of few days, and full of trouble y — 
*omit he. 


The king he is just. The men they were 
there. Many words they darken speech. 
My banks they are furnished with bee* 
Who, instead of going about doing good, 
they are perpetually intent upon doing mis- 
chief. Disappointments and afflictions, how- 
ever disagreeable, they often improve us. 
Simple and innocent pleasures they alone 
are durable. 

t Which rule, if it had been observed, a 
neighbouring prince would have wanted a 
great deal of that incense which has been 
offered up to him. J Man, though he has 
great variety of though'S, and such from 
which others as well as himself might re- 
ceive profit and delight, yet they are all 
within his own breast. 

II For he bringeth down them that dwell 
on high ; the lofty city he layeth it low. 

The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried. 

Grapple them to thy soul with hoeks of steel. 

* In some cases where the noun is liighly emphatical, the repetition 
of It in the pronoun is not only allowable but even elegant ; as, The 
iiord he is the God. 1 Kings, xviii. 39 ; see also Deut. x.vxi. 6. 

t It oueht to be, // this rule had been observed, a. neighbouring, &c 

j It ought to be, Tkottgh. man has great variety, &c. 

II Rule. — It is improper to use both a noun avd its pronoun as an 
objective after the same verb; tiius in Deut. iv.3. Your eyes have seen 
what the Lord did because of Baal-peor, for ail the men that followed 
Baal-peor, the Lord tliy God hath destroyed them from among you ; 
«Aem is superfluous, as a transposition of the last clause will showi 
thus. For the Lord hath destroyed all the nun frpiu among you tlMt 
followed B«al-p«or. 


[Rule XX. — The infinitive mood, or part of a 
sentence, is sometimes used as the nomina- 
tdve to a verb ; as, — For me to live is Christ, 
and to die is gain.* His being idle wa* 
the cause of his ruin. 


To be carnally minded are death, but to 
be spiritually minded are life and peace. To 
live soberly, righteously, and piously, are 
required of all men. That warm climates 
should accelerate the growth of the human 
body, and shorten its duration, are very 
reasonable to believe. To be temperate in 
eating and drinking, to use exercise in the 
open air, and to preserve the mind from 
tumultuous emotions, is the best preserva- 
tives of health. 

That it is our duty to promote the purity 
of our minds and bodies, to be just and 
kind to our follow-creatures, and to be pious 
and faithful to him who made us, admit 
not of any doubt in a rational and well in- 
formed mind. 

* The infinitive is equal to a noun ; thus, To play is pleasant, aud 
hcys love tn piav ; are equal to, Play is pleasant, aiid boys love plaf. 
—p. W, b. 

The infinitive is sometimes used instead of the present particijile ; as, 
To advise ; To attempt; or advising, attempting ; this substitution cnii 
ke made only in the beginning of a sentence. 

NoTK. — Part of a senleiice is often used as the olrjective after a vert/ 
•8, " You will soon find that tlie world does not perform what it pro 
Discs." If haX will you find 7 .Ins. Tiiat the world does not perform 
What it promises. Therefore, the clause, tJtat Vie world does not per- 
form., A-c. must be the objective .nter find. Did 1 not tell (to) thee, 
that tliou wouldst bring me to ruin? Here the clause, that thou wouldtt 
irinff me to ruin, is the objective after leU. 


Rule ^Xl.— Double comparatives and super- 
latives are improper ; thus, — Mine is a 
more better book, but John's is the most 
best ; should be, Mine is a better book, but 
John's is the best. 


The nightingale's voice is the most sweet- 
est in the grove. James is a worser scholar 
than John. Tray is the most swiftest dog. 
Absalom was the most beautifulest man. 
He is the *chiefest among ten thousand. 

His assertion was most untrue. His work 
is perfect ; his brother's more perfect ; and 
his father's the most perfect of all. 


The great power and force of custom 
forms another argument against keeping 
bad company. And Joshua, he shall go over 
before thee, as the Lord hath said. And 
God said, let us make man in our image, af- 
ter our likeness, and let them have dominion 
over the fish of the sea, &c. And the right- 
eous men they shall judge them, &c. If t hou 
be the King of the Jews, save thyself. The 
people, therefore, that was with him, when 
he raised Lazarus out of his grave, bare 
record. Public spirit is a more *universal 
principle than a sense of honour. 

* Chief, v7tiversal, perfect, true, &c. imply the siipcrliilive deirree 
»»lthout or most. In langiiaj!)? siihliine or pnpsionHte, howmcr, the 
word perfect rw|ii)rcs the sii|K'rl!itive form to pive it e/lVct. A lovei 
•nrainured witli liis mistress wo(il(} naturally call her the most perfut 
of her sex. 

Superior &ni inferior always /m;//y comparison, and re<iuir« to aftef 


Rule XXII. — Two negatives in the same sen- 
tence are improper;* thus, — I cannot by 
no means allow it ; should he, I can by no 
means allow it, or, I cannot by any means 
allow it. 


I cannot drink no more. He cannot do 
jothing. We have not done nothing to-day. 
He will never be no taller. They could not 
travel no farther. Covet neither riches nor 
honours, nor no such perishing things. No- 
thing never affected her so much. Do not 
interrupt me thyself, nor let no one disturb 
me. I am resolved not to comply with the 
proposal, neither at present, nor at any 
other time. 


As far as I can judge, a spirit of inde- 
pendency and freedom, tempered by senti 
ments of decency, and the love of order 
influence, in a most remarkable manner 
the minds of the subjects of this happy re- 
mi hiic. James and 1 am cousins. Thy fa- 
ther s 'iients sets thee forth to view. That 
it IS our duty to be pious admit not of any 
doubt. If he becomes very rich, he may be 
less industrious. It was wrote extempore. 
Komulus, which founded Rome, killed his 
brother Remus. 

* Sometimes the two iv^gativpfl are intended to be an affinnativci 
as, J^or did lliey vol perceive biiii ; that is, They did perct.ive him. 
In tliis case ihey are proper. 

When one of the negatives, fsuch as dis, in, un, im, &c.) is joined 
ID anotlier woni, the two nocatives form a plensiti!; and <lelicate va 
liety of expression ; an. HI? language, though simple, is nut indeganl 
tbal is. It is elegant. 


Rule XXIII. — Adverbs are for the most pari 
placed before adjectives, cfter verbs active or 
neuter, and frequently between the auxiliary 
and the verb ; as, — He is very attentive ; 
She behaves well, and is much esteemed.* 


We should not be overcome totally b^ 
present events. He unaifectedly and for- 
cibly spoke, and was heard attentively by 
the whole assembly. It cannot be imperti- 
nent or ridiculous, therefore, to remonstrate. 
Not only he found her employed but pleased 
and tranquil also. In the proper disposition 
of adverbs, the ear carefully requires to be 
consulted as well as the sense. 

t The women contributed all their rings 
and jewels voluntarily to assist the govern- 
ment. Having Jnot known, or having not 
considered, the measures proposed, he failed 
of success. He was determined to invite 
back the king, and to call together his friends. 

II Ask me never so much dowry. 

* This is but a general rule ; for it is impossible to give an exact and 
determinate one for tlie placing of adverbs on all occasions. The easy 
flow and perspicuity of the phrase ought to be chiefly regarded. 

t The adverb is sometimes placed with propriety before the verb, at 
M some distance after it ; as, The women volvvtarily contributed all 
Ihoir rings and jewels, &c. They carried their proposition farther, 

t JVot, when it qualifies the present participle, conie» before it. 

d JV"c»er is often improperly used for ever; thus, " If I makeniy hand 
never so clean," should be, " £zer so clean." 

OCT The n.->te in former editions, staling that " I.y is cut off frrn 
txceedingly when the next word end.' in /y,' has been removed, bot 
because it properly belonged to the 2-ith rule, and because it was in 
some degree encouraging n oreach r that rule. Two words whicb 
end in ly, succeeding each other, areiijdoed a little ofleiisive to the oar, 
but rather than write bad grammar, it would be better either to offend 
U, or avoid the use of exceedingly in this case altogether ; and instead 
of saying " He used me exceedingly discreetly" say " He used me very 
disrreetly," or, if that is not stfong enough, vary the expressioiu 


Rule XXIV. — Adjectives should not be used 
as adverbs, nor adverbs as adjectives ; as, — 
Remarkable well, for remarkably well ; 
and, Use a little wine for thine often in- 
firmities, instead of thy frequent infir.tii- 

' ties ; or, 

Adverbs qualify adjectives and verbs Adjectives qualify nouns. 


They are miserable poor. They behaved 
the noblest. He fought bolder than his 
brother. He lived in a manner agreeable 
to the dictates of reason and religion. He 
was extreme prodigal, and his property is 
now near exhausted They lived conform- 
able to the rules of prudence. He speaks 
very fluent, reads excellent, but does not 
think very cohejrent. They came agreeable 
to their promise, and conducted themselves 
suitable to the occasion. They hoped for 
a soon and prosperous issue to the w^ar. 

* From whence come ye 1 He departed 
from thence into a desert place. Wheref 
are you going ? Bid him come here imme- 
diately. We walked there in an hour. He 
drew up a petition, where J he too frequent- 
ly represented his own merit. He went to 
London last year, since when I have not 
seen him. The situation where I found 
him. It is not worth his while. 

* RrLK 1. — Ftom should not be used before hence, t/tejtce and whenctt, 
because it is implied. In many cases, however, the omission of from 
vuuld render the language intolerably stiff and disagreeable. 

t RuLK II. — After verbs of motion. Ai<Aer,/AitA*r and icAitAer should 
t« used, and not here, there and where. 

X Ri'LK III. — Wh^n and xhile should not boused as nouns, nor MA«r« 
aea proposition and a relative i. e for in which, tc— For while, K. 33$> 


Rule XXV. — The comparative decree, and 
the pronoun other require than iffer them, 
and such requires as ; as, — Greater than L 
No other than he. Such a^ do well.* 

E X E R C 1 S h, b. 

He has little more of the scholar besides 
the name. Be ready to succour such per- 
sons who need thy assistance. They had no 
sooner risen but they applied themselves to 
their studies. Those savage ]ieople seemed 
to have no other element but war. Such 
men that act treacherously ought to be 
avoided. He gained nothing farther by his 
speech, but only to be commended for his 
eloquence. This is none other but the gate 
of paradise. Such sharp replies that cost 
him his life. To trust in him is> no more 
but to acknowledge his power. 

f James is the wisest of the two. He is the 
weakest of the two. I understood him the 
best J of all others who spoke on the subject. 
Eve was the fairest of all her daughters. 
He is the likeliest of any other to succeed, 
Tane is the wittier of the three, not the wiser. 

* Such, meaning cither a consequence or so great, requires that; as, 
His beliaviour was suck, that 1 ordered him to leave the room. Sucit 
is the influence of money, that few can resist it. 

t RuLi. — ffhen two objects are compared, the comparative is gener- 
ally used; but when mare than two, the superlative ; as, This is tlie 
younger of the two ; Mary ie the wistst of them all. 

When the two objects Ibrm a group, or are not so much opposed to 
each other as to require than before the last, K)ine respectable writers 
use the superlative, and s;iy, "James is tlie wisest of the two." " Ha 
ts the weakest of tlie two." The superlative is often more agreeable to 
the ear ; nor is the sense injured, in many cases a strict adherence to 
tlie comparative form renders the laiiguage too stiff and formal. 

t A comparison in which more than two are concerned, may be ex- 
jH-essed by tlie comparative as well as by the superlative; and in some better; but the comparative considere the objects compared aa 
belonging to different classes ; while the superlative compares them aa 


Rule XXVI. — A pronoun after than or as^ 
either agrees with a verb or is governed by 
a verb or preposition understood ; as, — He 
is wiser than I (am) ; She loved him more 
than (she loved) me.* 


John can write better than me. He is as 
good as her. Thou art a much greater loser 
than me by his death. She suifers hourly 
more than me. They know how to write as 
well as him; but he is a better grammarian 
than them. The undertaking was much bet- 
ter executed by his brother than he. They 
are greater gainers than us. She is not so 
learned as him. If the king give us leave, we 
may perform the office as well as them that do. 

f Who betrayed her companion? Not me. 
Who revealed the secrets he ought to have 
concealed ? Not him : it was her. Whom did 
you meet 1 He. Who bought that book ? 
Him. Whom did you see there ? He and 
his sister. Whos,, pen is this? Mine's. 

fliclu<l«d ill one class. 'J'lio coiiipiiralive is usi'il thus: "Gii-rce waa 
mori' polifliid than any other iia(iiin of antiquity." Here (iieece stands 
by itsijlf as (ipposoil to the othi;i nations iif antiquity — Shevvas none 
of Xhii iilher nations — Shi; was more polislit'd tlian they. The fiims 
idea is expressed by the superlaiivo wlien the utird other is left out; 
thus, "Greece was tlie most |K)llshed nalion of nniiipiity." "^e 
Greece is assi<:ned the lii-jhest place in the tl.tssof ol)iecls«7«nwg-2cA.i;A 
slie iri numbered — the nmiojis of antiquiiy — she is one of ihem. 

* Wlien wko innnediaiely follows than, it is used improperly in the 
Objeciive case; as, "Allied, than wkom a df'-ilter kinif never rei^'ned ;" 
han whom is Mfit grammatical. It onijht to be, than wko; becansi! idJi» 
It the nominative to tr.i* imderstood. — 7'Avih wkom is as bad :i pliinse 
a.s " He is taller than kim." It is true that some of our best writers 
have used lJi,m whom; hiil it is also true, ihai Ihey have iisi-,1 «/A»r 
phrases which we have rejicied as iingratnroalicnl ; then wliy not re- 
ject this too ! — The rci.-es in the early editions have beru fxc/uiled.^ 

Rl'LK. — The word containing the avswer to a gvestion, must be in 
the same case with the wirrd which asks it ; as, Ifltu said that 7 J 'eatd 
It.) <f'A»ie hooks are iTiese ] /»Ajt's fbooka.) ■ -■ 

106_ fiiraySH^YNT^^ 

RxjLE XXA'^II. — The distributive pronouns, 
each, every, either, neither, agree with 
nouns and verbs in the singular number 
only ; as, — Each of his brothers is in a 
favourable situation ; Every man is ao 

f countable for himself; Either of them t* 
good enough.* 


Let each esteem others better than then> 
selves. Every one of the' letters bear date 
after his banishment. Each of them, in 
their turn, receive the benefits to which 
they are entitled. Every person, whatever 
be their station, are bound by the duties of 
morality and religion. Neither of those 
men seem to have any idea that their opi- 
nions may be ill-founded. By discussing 
w^hat relates to each particular in their or- 
der, we shall better understand the subject 
Are either of these men your friend ? 

f And Jonathan the son of Shimeah, slew 
a man of great stature, that had on every 
hand six fingers, and on every foot six toea^ 

X Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aarqjv 
took either of them his censer. The kiifg 
of Israel and the king of Judah, sat eithei 
of them on his throne. 

* Each relates to two or more objects, and signifies both of tlie twc^ 
or every one ot' any number taken singly. 

t Every relates to more than two objects, and signifies each one ol 
them all taken individually. — It is quite correct to say, Every six mile»^ 

Either signifies the one or the other, but not both. JVeither imports 
not either. 

X Either is sometimes improperly used instead of each; as, On either 
dde of the liver was there the tree of life : instead of, On each side of 
•ike river. 


Rule XXVIIL — When two persons or things 
are contrasted, that refers to the first men- 
tioned, and this to the last; as, — Virtue 
and vice are as opposite to each other as 
light and darkness ; that ennobles th 
mind, this debases it. 


Wealth and poverty are both tempta- 
tions ; this tends to excite pride, that dis- 
contentment. Religion raises men above 
themselves, irreligion sinks them ^eneath 
the brutes ; that binds them down t*.,. a poor 
pitiable speck of perishable earth, this ex- 
> alts them to the skies. 

* And the cloud came between the camp 
of the Egyptians, and the camp of Israel, 
and it was a cloud and darkness to them, 
but it gave light to these. Moses and So- 
lomon were men of the highest renown ; 
the latter was remarkable for his meek- 
ness, the former was renowned for his wis- 
dom. I have always preferred cheerfulness 
to mirth ; the former I consider as an act, 
the latter as a habit of the mind. Body 
and soul must part ; the former wings its 
way to its almighty source, the latter drops 
Into the' dark and noisome grave. 

* Former and latter are often used instead of that and this. They 
ore alike in both numbers. 

That and this are seldom applied to persons ; hM former and latter 
«re applied to persons and things indifcriminately. In most cases, 
however, the repetition of the noun, is preferable to either of them. . 


Rule XXIX. — In the use of verbs and words) 
that in point of time relate to each otner, 
the order of time must be observed ; fori 
example, — I remember him these manyi 
years, should be, I have remembered him' 


I have compassion on the multitude, be- 
cause they continue with me now three 
days. And he that was dead sat up, and 
began to speak. The next new year's day 
I shall be at school three years. The court 
laid hold on all the opportunities which the 
weakness or necessities of princes afford it, 
to extend its authority. Ye will not come 
unto me that ye might have life. His 
sickness was so great that I often feared 
he would have died before our arrival. It 
would have given me great satisfaction to 
relieve him from that distressed situation. 

f I always intended to have rewarded 
my son according to his merit. We have 
done no more than it was our duty to have 
done. From the little conversation I had 
with him, he appeared to have been a man 
of letters. It was a pleasure to have re- 
ceived his approbation of my labours, 
intended to have written you last week. 

* The bost general rule that can be given, is, To observe what tk* 
$enae necessarily requires. 

t RuLK. — j?/fer the past tense, the present infinitive (and not the per 
feet) should be used ; as, 1 intended tc write to my father, and not I 
tnteiided to have written ;— for however long it now is since I thought 
of writing, to write was then present to me, and must still be comadwed 
«8 pjcsr.nt when 1 hrinj bark thnt timp aiid the thoughts of it. 

JEi?ifH£E..?IH!^^^ 109 

Rule XXX. — It is improper to place a clause 
of a sentence between a possessive case and 
the word which usually follows it ; thus, — i 
She began to extol the farmer's, as she 
called him, excellent understanding; should 
be, She began to extol the excellent un- 
derstanding of the farmer, as she called 


They very justly condemned the prodi- 
gal's, as he was called, senseless and extra- 
vagant conduct. They implicitly obeyed 
the protector's, as they called him, imperious 
mandates. Beyond this, the arts cannot be 
traced of civil society. These are David's, 
the king, priest, and prophet of the Jewish 
people's psalms. This is Paul's the Chris- 
tian hero, and great apostle of the Gentile's 

* Howsoever beautiful they appear, they 
have no real merit. In whatsoever light 
we view him, his conduct will bear inspec- 
tion. On whatsoever side they are contem- 
plated, they appear to advantage. Howso- 
ever much he might despise the maxims of 
the king's administration, he kept a total 
silence on that subject. 

f Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat 
the fruit thereof. 

• Rule. — Whichsoever and whatsoever, are often divided by ths 
interposition of the corresponding word ; thus, On whichsoever side 
the king cast his eyes ; should be, On w/iick side soever tlie king, &c. 

1 think thisnile unnecessary, if not improper. It would be better to 
»ay. However beautiful, &c.— See my reasons, K.p. 12:!. Nos. ^47-8-9. 

t Whoso Is an old word used instead of he that ; as. Whoso inocketb 
Ibe poor, reproacbeth his Maker ; it tbouJd he. Ut that mocketh, JM 
U— 1 

J.10^ fcNQl£SH^SYNTAX. 

Rule XXXI. — Before nouns of places, 

To — is used after a verb of motion ; as, He went to Sp&ia 
At — is used after the verb to be; as, I was at Leith. 
In — is used before names of countries and large citien j 

as, I live in London, in England. 
At—\s used before villages, towns and foreign cities ; 

fie resides at Gretna Green ; at York ; at Rome. 


They have just arrived in Leith, afid are 
going to Dublin, They will reside tvro 
months at England. I have been to London, 
after having resided at France ; and I now 
live in Bath. I was in the place appointed 
long before any oi ihe rest. We touched in 
Liverpool on our way for New- York. He^ 
resides in Mavisbank in Scotland. She has 
lodgings at George's Square. 

f Ah ! unhappy thee, who are deaf to the 
calls of duty and of honour. O happyj us, 
surrounded with so many blessings. Woe's 
T, for I am a man of unclean lips. 

* One inhabitant of a city, speaking of another's residence, says, He 
stays in Banic street; or if the word numler be used, at No. — Prince's 

T Rule. — TIjc interjections Oh I and jlh ! &c. generally require the 
objective case of the first personal pronoun, and the nominative of the 
second ; as, Ah me! O thou fool ! O ye hypocrites! Woe's thou, would 
be improper ; it should be. Woe's thee ; that is, Woe is to thee. 

X Interjections sometimes require llie objective case after them, but 
they never govern it. In the first edition of tliis Grammar, 1 followed 
Mr. Murray and others, in leaving tee, in the exercises, to be turned 
into us ; but that it should be we, and not us, is obvious ; because it is 
the JVom. to art understood ; Thus, Oh happy are we, or, Oh we are 
happy, (being) surrounded with so many blessings. 

As interjections, owing to quick feelings, express only the anotiems 
of the mind, without stopping to mention the circumstances that pro- 
duce them ; many of the phrases in which they occur are very ellip- 
tical, and therefore a verb or preposition must be understood. JSe, for 
instance, in j?A me, is governed by befallen or upon understood ; thus, 
Ak. what mischief has befallen me or come upon me. 

Oh U used to express the emotion of pain, sorrew or turprU*. OM 
dKd to ezprea vUhing, tzclainatiom w a lUrect addru$ to a penokL ^^ 



Rtjle XXXII. — Certain words and phrases must 
hefoUowed niiih appropriate prepositions ; such as, 

Accuseof— P'^^- 

Exception yro?7i 

Abhorrence of 

Expert at or in 

Acquit of 

Fall under 

Adapted to 

Free from 

Agreeable to 

Gladof or at— P- '"">•■ 

Averse to— '"?•'" ^• 

Independent of or on 

Bestow upon 

Insist upon 

Boast or brag of* 

Made (f 

Call on or for 

Marry to 

Change for 

Martyr for 

Confide mf 

Need of 

Conformable to 

Observance of 

Compliance with 

Prejudice against 

Consonant to 

Profit hy 

Conversant, un'th, ir^- ' " ''• 

Provide iciih 

Dependent upon — p-"*''- 

Reconcile to 

Derogation from 

Reduce under or to-^-^"*' 

Die of or by 

Regard to 

Differ /rom 

Replete icifh 

Difficulty in 

Resemblance to 

Diminution of 

Resolve on 

Disappointed mor of-^-^*' 

Swerve from 

Disapprove o/ij: 

Taste /or or of—^- '* *• 

Discouragement to 

Think 0/ or on— P-'"* 


True to 

Eager in 

Wait on 

Engaged in 

Worthy of§ 

*Boast is often used without of; as, For if 1 iiave boasted any thing. 

tTiie samt! preposition tliat follows tiie verb or adverb generally fol- 
0W8 tli« iwuu which is (lorivcd from it; as, Confide in, confidence in; 
disposed to tyrannize, a disposition to tyranny ; independently of. 

^ Dis>appruvc and approve are frequently used without of. 

^ Of Is sometimes omitted and sometimes inserted after worthy. 

Many of these words taKe outer prepositions at"ter tliem to eiptrss 
other meanings ; thus, for example, Fall in, to concur, to comply. FaK 
•J", to forsake. Fall out, to happen. Fall upon, to attack. Fall to, to 
begin enpcrly to eat, to apjily liinxseJf to. 


Exercises on Rule xxxii. 

He was totally dependent* of the papal 
crown. He accused the minister for be- 
traying the Dutch. You have bestowed 
your favours to the most deserving persons. 
His abhorrence to gaming was extreme. I 
differ with you. The English were very 
different then, to what they are now. In 
^compliance to his father's advice. He 
would not comply to his measures. It is no 
discouragement for the authors. The wisest 
princes need not think it any diminution to 
their greatness, or derogation to their suffi- 
ciency, to rely upon counsel. Is it conson- 
ant with our nature? Conformable with 
this plan. Agreeable with the sacred text. 
Call for your uncle.f 

He was eager of recommending it. He 
had no regard after his fathers commands. 
Thy prejudice to my cause. It is more than 
they thoughtj for. There is no need for it. 
Reconciling himself with the king. No re- 
semblance with each other. Upon such oc- 
casions as fell into their cognizance. I am 
engaged with writing. We profit from ex- 
perience. He swerved out of the path. He 
is resolved of going to the Persian court. 
Expert of his work. Expert on deceiving. 

*Dependent,(fependence, are spelled either wilh a or e in the last syllable. 

t Ca.\l for is to demand, to requi'-e. Call on is to pay a eliort visit, to 
request ; as, While you call on him — I shall call /or a bottle of wine. 

The authorities for think of and think on are nearly equal. Th« 
latter, however, abounds more in the Scriptures than the former ; as, 
Think on me when it shall be well with thee: Think xipon me for 
good : Whatsoever things are true, &c. think on these thiDgSi But 
ikink of is perhaps more comtnon in modern publications. 


Exercises on Rule xxxn. 
The Romans reduced the world* to their 
own power. He provided them of every 
thing. We insist for it. He seems to have 
a taste of such studies. 

He died for thirst. He found none on 
whom he could safely confide. I dissent with 
the examiner. It was very well adapted for 
his capacity. He acquitted me from any 
imputation. You are conversantf with that 
science. They boast in their great riches. 
Call of James to walk with you. When we 
have had a true taste for the pleasures of 
virtue, we can have no relish for those of 
vice. I will wait of you. He is glad of ca- 
lamities. She is glad at his company. A 
strict observance after times and fashions. 
This book is replete in errors. These are 
exceptions to the general rule. He died a 
martyr to Christianity. This change is to 
the better. His productions were scrupul- 
ously exact, and conformable with all the 
rules of correct writing. He died of the 
sword. She finds a ditliculty of fixing her 
mind. This prince was naturally averse 1| 
from war. A freeholder is bred with an 
aversion from subjection. 

* Reduce under, is to subdue. In other cuses to I'ollows it ; us, To 
feduce to practice, to fractions, &c. 

t We say conversant with men, in tilings. Addison has conversant 
tmovg the writings of the most polite authors, and conversant abovi 
worldly affairs. Conversant with is preferable. 

X Glad of is perhaps more proper, when the cause of joy is somo- 
thing gained or possessed ; and glad at, when something bel'als another; 
as, Jonah was exceedingly glad o/ the gourd; He that is glad at cal- 
amities, shall not be unpunished. 

II Averse and aversion require to after them, rather than from; but 
boUi are used, and soiuetiiueij even bv the same author. 


Rule XXXIII. — All the parts of a sentence should cor- 
respond to each other, and a regular and dependent 
construction throughout be carefully preserved.* For 
example, the sentence, " He was more beloved, but no 
so much admired, as Cinthio," is inaccurate ; because 
more requires than after it, which is no- where found in 
the sentence. It should he, He was more beloved tkau 
Cinthio, but not so much admired. 

A proper choice of words and a perspicuous arrangement 
should be carefully attended to. 


The reward is his due, and it has^^ al- 
ready, or will hereafter, be given to him. 
He was guided by interests always differ- 
ent'*^, sometimes contrary to those of the 
community. The intentions of some of 
these philosophers, nay of many, might"^ and 
probably were good. No person was ever 
so perplexed^S or sustained^ the mortifica- 
tions as he has done to-day. He was more 
bold and active"^, but not so wise and stu- 
dious as his companion. Then said they 
unto him, what shall we do that we might 
work^ the works of God 1 Sincerity is as 
valuable's and even more valuable^, than 
knowledge. The greatest masters of criti- 
cal learning differ^^ among one another. 

But from this dreary period the recovei-y 
of the empire was become desperate ; no wis- 
dom could obviate its decadence. He was at 
one time thought to be a suppositious child. 

* TJjis rule is scarcely of any value as a rule : for every sentence 
. on tills poge, except llie last two, may be corrected by the ()ricecUBg 
rules, as the reference by small figures will show; but it lias been re- 
tained, because where two words require a iliitgjeiit coni-iru'-lion,,!! 
will lead to correct lh»; common error of forgetliii^' the coiislructioa Oi 
Ute former w^rds Wl adtteriiig to tha; of Uie latter. _ , ^, 

RuLB XXXIV. — A is used before nouns in the singular 

number only. TA^'is used before nouns in both numbers. 
The article is omitted before a noun that stands for a whole 

species; and before the names of minerals,metals,arts,&c. 
The last of two nouns after a comparative should have no 

article when they both refer to one person ; as, He is a 
^ better reader than writer. 
' fo use the articles properly, is of the greatest importance; 

but it is impossible to give a rule applicable to every ceise. 
Examples of tlie improper use and omission of the articles. 


Reason was given to a man to control 
his passions. The gold is corrupting, A 
man is the noblest work of the creation. 
Wisest and best men are sometimes be- 
trayed into errors. We must act our part 
with a constancy, though reward of our 
constancy be distant. There are some 
evils of life, which equally affect prince and 
people. Purity has its seat in the heart ; 
but extends its influence over so much of 
outward conduct, as to form the great and 
material part of a character. At worst, I 
could but incur a gentle reprimand. The 
profligate man is seldom or never found to 
be the good husband, the good father, or 
the beneficent neighbour. 

t He has been much censured for paying 
a little attention to his business. So bold 
a breach of order, called for little severity 
in punishing the offender.^ 

* The is used before an individual represenUng tte whole of ita spe- 
cies, when compared with anofhor individual representing another 
specii's ; thus, 7'Ac dog is a more jjrateful auimal than the cat ; i. t. 
^U dogs are more grateful tliaii cats. 

t A nice disiinclioii of the sense is sonietimearaadeby tlieuseoroml^- 
ilon of the article a. If Isay,he behaved with a littie reverence; I praiae 
•lini a little. If I say, he bcliaved with little reverence ; I blame hiiu. 

116 ENGIJSH^SY^n\^ 

SuLE XXXV. — An ellipsis, or omission of some words, it 
frequently admitted. Thus, instead of saying, He was 
a learned man, he was a wise man, and he was a good 
man ; we say, He was a learned, wise, and good man. 


A house and a garden. The laws of God 
and the laws of man. Avarice and cunning 
may acquire an estate ; but avarice and 
cunning cannot gain friends. His crimes 
had brought him into extreme distress, and 
extreme perplexity. He has an affectionate 
brother and an affectionate sister. By pre- 
sumption, and by vanity, we provoke en- 
mity, and we incur contempt. Genuine 
virtue supposes our benevolence to be stren- 
gthened and to be confirmed by principle. 
He is temperate, he is disinterested, he is 
benevolent. Perseverance in laudable pur- 
suits, will reward all our toils, and will pro- 
duce effects beyond our calculation. We 
often commend imprudently, as well as cen- 
sure imprudently. Destitute of principle, he 
regarded neither his family nor his friends, 
nor his reputation. He insulted every man 
and every woman in the company. The 
temper of him who is always in the bustle 
of the world, will be often ruffled and will 
be often disturbed. 

* He regards his word, but thou dost not 
regard it. They must be punished, and 
they shall be punished. We succeeded, but 
they did not succeed. 

♦ The auxiliaries of ttie compound tenses are often used alone ; at, 
Vfe have done it, but thou hast not ; i. e. thou hast not iio»e U. 

ErraLISH^YNT AX. 1 1 7 

|Ri7L£ XXXVI. — An ellipsis is not allowable when it would 
obscure the sentence, weaken its forte, »r be attenaed 
with an imj)ropriety; for example, "We speak that we 
do know, and testify that we have seen," should be, 
We speak that which we do know, and testify that 
which we have seen. 


^' A noble spirit disdaineth the malice of 
fortune ; his greatness of soul is not to be 
cast down. A house andf orchard. A horse 
and ass. A learned and amiable young man* 
I gladly shunned who gladly fled from me. 
A taste for useful knowledge will provide 
for us a great and noble entertainment when 
others leave us. They enjoy also a free 
constitution and laws. The captain had 
several men died in his ship of the scurvy. 
I must, however, be so candid to own I have 
been mistaken. The sacrifices of virtue 
will not only be rewarded hereafter, but 
recompensed even in this life. Oh, Piety ! 
Virtue ! how insensible have I been to thy 
charms ! That is a property most men 
have, or at least may attain. There is no- 
thing men are more deficient in, tha,n know- 
ing their own characters. Why do ye that 
which is not lawful to do on the Sabbath 
days ? Neither has he, nor any other per- 
sons, suspected so much dissimulation. 

* A nnble spirit disdainetli, Sec. sliould be, .S man of a iiobln spirit 
flisdainelh, &c. This will render the sentence consistent with the 
rules of graniniar and with coiuinon sense; to talli of tlie soul of a 
fpirit is ridiculous. 

t The article bein;; once expressed, the repetition of it becomes un- 
necessary, except wlien a ditforeiit form of it is requii-iie; as, A house 
and an orchard ; and when some peculiar emphasis requires a repcti- 
tion ; B3, Not only the year, but the day and the liour were appoluted 


Tlie four following lines are coustrui^d by way of exainiilc. — ^The) 
were parsed at page 54. They tire construed here, because the pupii; 
sliouid uow be ablv to apply the Kules ut Hyiitax 

Oh how stupendous was the power 

That raised me with a word ; 
And* every day and every hour, 
' I lean upon the Lord. 

How stupendous, adverbs are for the most part placed before 
adjectives, fee. A power is understood thus ; stupendous a 
poiver.-f an adjective agrees with a uoiin — A power, the article 
a is used before nouns in the singular number only — Ifie power, 
tlie is used before nouns in butli numbers — the poicer was, a 
Verb agrees with its nominative — x[\e power that, the relative 
agrees with its antecedent, tec. Thai raised, a verb agrees 
with its nom. — liaised me, an active verb governs the objective 
case-^JFitt a iL>ord, prt-posilions govern the objective — A 
tDOrd—A is used before nouns in the sinjjular, &C. (During 
is understood) during ei'tv'/ rfaiy, prepositions govern ilie ob- 
jective CASH— Every day, an adjective agrees with a noun — 
bay and hour, conjunctioiis couple the same Cfi!^;s of no'unfl 
e,nd pronouns; for hour is governed -by duriiif^ understood 
aga'm^Everyhoiir,,^iin adjective agrees, S:ti.—1 lean, a verb 
agrees with its nominative — Upon the Lord, prvpositionsgo- 
veni the pbjective pa$e. ■•■;/■-)■■ ,. ■'■■-• ' > : 
"'The possessive prghobns,' ■my,{liy,his, her, bur, your, iheir 
and i«s, tnust be constriied exbofly like nouns in the jjo««s«i»t 
case, for a pronoun is an ex;ict resemblance of a. noun in cum/ 
thing but one ; nainely, it will not admit of an adjective before 
it liSe a noun. 

His is equal to John's, and her to Ann's, and iheir to the 
men's, in trie following sentences : 

John lost his gloves, i. e. John lost John's gloves. Ann found 
her book, i. e. Aim found Ann's book. The men took otf tAeir 
hats, i. e. The men took olf the men's hats. The garden is 
productive, and its fruit is good, i. e. the garden's Iruit. In 
all these cases, and in such phrases as, mi/ nouse — thy field — 
our lands — t/ourestates — i/icir property — loAosf horse, the ml 
is, " When two nouns come together, signifying diil'eren 
things, the first is put in the possessive case." 

* It is impossible to construe bad grammar, ^nd here is so very 
vaguely used, that the rule " Conjunctions couple the same moods amd 
tenses of verbs, and the same cases of nouns and pronouns," will not 
apply in this passage. From the sense, it i.s evident that Jlnd shouUl 
be Yen, meanir.^ not only so, but — every day, &.c. 

t Or, liow stupendous the power was ; but it l.s certainly better (D 
supply a power, thus : O how stupendous a power was llie power tbat 
laiscd me with a word. 





John writes pretty. Come here James. 
Where are you going, Thomas ? I shall 
never do so no more. The train of our 
ideas are often interrupted. Was you pre- 
sent at last meeting ? He need not be in 
so much haste. He dare not act otherwise 
than he does. Him whom they seek is in 
the house. George or I is the person.. They 
or he is much to be blamed. The troop 
Consist of fifty men. Those set of books 
Tras a Valuable present. A pillar sixty foot 
high. His conduct evinced the most ex- 
treme vanity. These trees are remarkable 
tall. He acted bolder than was expected. 
This is he who 1 gave the book to. Eliza 
always appears amiably. She goes there 
to-morrow. From whence came they ? Who 
do you lodge Avith now ? He was born at 
London, but he died in Bath. If he be sin- 
cere I am satisfied. Her father and her 
were at church. The master requested him 
and I to read more distinctly. It is no more 
but his due. Flatterers flatter as long, and 
no longer than they have expectations of 
gain. John told the same story as you told. 
This is the largest tree which I have ever 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

Let he and I read the next chapter. She 
is free of pain. Those sort of dealings are 
unjust. David, the son of Jesse, was the 
youngest of his brothers. You was very 
kind to him, he said. Well, says I, what 
does thou think of him now ? James is one 
of those boys that was kept in at school, for 
bad behaviour. Thou, James, did deny the 
deed. Neither good nor evil come of them- 
selves. We need not be afraid. He ex- 
pected to hav3 gained more by the bargain. 
You should drink plenty of goat milk. It 
was him who spoke first. Do you like ass 
milk ? Is it me that you mean ? Who did 
you buy your grammar from ? If one takes 
a wrong method at first setting out, it will 
lead them astray. Neither man nor woman 
were present. I am more taller than you. 
She is the same lady who sang so sweetly. 
After the most straitest sect of our religion, 
I lived a pharisee. Is not thy wickedness 
great ? and thine iniquities infinite ? There 
was more sophists than one. If a person 
have lived twenty or thirty years, he should 
pave some experience. If this were his 
meaning, the prediction has failed. Fidel- 
ity and truth is the foundation of all justice. 
His associates in wickedness will not fail to 
mark the alteration of his conduct. Thy 
rod and thy staff they comfort me. 


Pkomiscuous Exercises. 

And when they had lifted up their eyes, 
they saw no man, save Jesus only. Strive not 
with a man without cause, if he have done 
thee no harm. I wrote to, and cautioned 
the captain against it. Now both the chief 
priests and Pharisees had given a command- 
ment, that if any man knew where he were, 
he should show it, that they might take him. 
The girl her book is torn in pieces. It is 
not me who he is in love with. He which 
commands himself, commands the whole 
world. Nothing is more lovelier than virtue. 

The peoples happiness is the statesmans 
honour. Changed to a worser shape thou 
canst not be. I have drunk no spirituous 
liquors this six years. He is taller than me, 
but I am stronger than him. Solid peace 
and contentment consists neither in beauty 
or riches, but in the favour of God. After 
who is the King of Israel come out ? The 
reciprocations of love and friendship be- 
tween he and I, have been many and sincere. 
Abuse of mercies ripen us for judgement. 
Peter and John is not at school to-day. 
Three of them was taken into custody. To 
study diligently and behave genteely, is 
Commendable. The enemies who we have 
most to fear are those of our own hearts. 
Regulus was reckoned the most consum- 
mate warrior that Rome could then produce. 
Suppose life never so long, fresh accessions 
of knowledge may still be made. 

im^^__^^__^NGLISII ^YNt AX. 
Promiscuous Exercises. 

Surehr thou who reads so much in the 
BiWe, can tell me what became of Elijah 
Neither the master nor the scholars is 
reading. 'Trust not him whom you know 
is dishonest. I love no interests but that 
of truth and virtue. Every imagination of 
the thoughts of the heart are evil continu 
ally. No one can be blamed for talking due 
6are of their health. They crucified him, 
and two others with him, on either side o:tt0, 
and Jesus in the midst. ' ' ' 

I have read Popes Homer, and Urydens 
Virgil. He that is diligent you should. com- 
mend. There was an earthquake viiiich 
rhade th€ earth to tremble. And (God said 
't6 Solomon, Wisdom.: , and knowledge!. is 
gi'anted unto thee, &c. I cannot commend 
him for justifying hisself when he knows 
that his conduct was so very improper. He 
\Vas very much made on at school. Though 
he were a son, yet learned he obedience by 
the things which he suffered. If he is alone 
tell him the news ; but if there is anybody 
With him, do not tell him. They ride faster 
than us. Though the measure be myste- 
rious, it is worthy of attention. If he does 
but approve my endeavours, it will be an 
ample reward. Was it him who came last? 
Yes, it was him. 

For ever in this humble cell. 
Let thee and T my fair one dwell. 


■ PROiirsctyotrs ' Exercises. 

Every man shbuld act suitable to his 
character atid station in life. His argii- 
ments were exceeding clear. I only spoke 
three words on that subject. The ant and 
the bee sets a good example before dronish 
boys. Neither in this v/orld, neither in the 
world to come. Evil communications cor- 
rupts good manners. Hannibal was one 
of the greatest generals whom the world 
ever saM^ The middle station of life seems 
to br the most advaniageously 'situated for 
gaining of wisdom. ' 

These are the rules of grammar, by t|ie 
observing which you may avoid mistakes. 
The king conferred on him the title of ^at 
duke. My exercises are. not well wrdtef, "*! 
do not hold my pen well. Grammar teaches 
us to speak proper. She accused her com- 
panion for having betrayed her. J will not 
dissent with her. Nothing shall make me 
swerve out of the path of duty and honour; 
Who shall I give it to J Who are you look- 
ing for 1 It is a diminution to, or a deroga- 
tion of their judgement. It fell into their 
notice or cognizance. She values herself 
for her fortune. That is a book which I am 
much pleased with. I have been to see the 
coronation, and a fine sight it was. That 
picture of the emperor's is a very exact re- 
semblance of him. Every thing that we 
here enjoy, change, decay, and come to an 
end. It is not him they blame so much. 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

No people has more faults than they that 
pretend to have none. The laws of Draco 
is said to have been wrote with blood. It 
is so clear, or so obvious, as I need not ex- 
plain it. She taught him and I to read. The 
more greater a bad man's accomplishments 
are, the more dangerous he is to society, and 
the more less fit for a companion. Each has 
their own faults, and every one should en- 
deavour to correct their own. Let your pro- 
mises be few, and such that you can perform. 

His being at enmity with Casar and An- 
tony 'were the cause of perpetual discord. 
Their being forced to their books in an age 
at enmity with all restraint, have been the 
reason why many have hated books all 
tbeir lives. There was a coffee-house at 
that end of the town, in which several gen- 
tlemen used to meet of an evening. Do not 
despise the state of the poor, lest it becomes 
your own condition. It was his duty to 
have interposed his authority in an affair 
of so much importance. He spent his 
whole life in the doing good. Every gen- 
tleman who frequented the house and con- 
versed with the erectors of this occasional 
club, were invited to pass an evening when 
they thought fit. The winter has not been 
so severe as we expected it to have been. 
The rest (of the stars) in circuit walls this 
universe. Sir, if thou have borne him hence, 
tell me where thou hast laid him. 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

A lampoon, or a satire, does not carry in 
them robbery or murder. She and you were 
not mistaken in her conjectures. My sister 
and I, as well as my brother, are employed 
in their respective occupations. He repents 
him of that indiscreet action. It was me, 
and not him, that wrote it. Art thou him T 
I shall take care that no one shall suffer no 
injury. I am a man who approves of whole- 
some discipline, and who recommend it to 
others ; but I am not a person who promotes 
severity, or who object to mild and generous 
treatment. This Jackanapes has hit me in 
a right place enough. Prosperity, as truly 
asserted by Seneca, it very much obstructs 
the knowledge of ourselves. To do to oth- 
ers as we would that they should do to us 
it is our duty. This grammar was purchased 
at Ogle's the bookseller's. The council was 
not unanimous. Who spilt the ink 

upon the table ? Him. Who lost this book ? 
Me. Whose pen is this. Johns. There is 
in fact no impersonal verbs in any language. 
And he spitted on the ground, and anointed 
his eyes. Had I never seen ye, I had never 
known ye. The ship Mary and Ann were 
restored to their owners. If we consult the 
improvement of mind, or the health of body, 
it is well known exercise is the great instru- 
ment for promoting both. A man may see 
a metaphor or an allegory in a picture as 
well as read them in a description. 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

I had no sooner placed her at my right 
hand, by the fire, but she opened to me the 
reason of her visit. A prudent wife, she 
shall be blessed. The house you speak of, 
it cost me five hundred pounds. Did I not 
tell thee, O thee infamous wretch ! that 
thou wouldst bring me to ruin 1 Not only 
the counsel's and attorney's, but the judge's 
opinion also, favoured his cause. It was 
the men's, women's, and children's lot, to 
suffer great calamities. That is the eldest 
son of the King of England's. Lord Fever- 
sham the general's tent. This palace had 
been the grand Sultan's Mahomet's. They 
did not every man cast away the abomina- 
tion of their eyes. 

* I am purposed. He is arrived. They 
were deserted from their regiment. Whose 
works are these ? They are Cicero, the most 
eloquent of men's. The mighty rivals are 
now at length agreed. The time of William 
making the experiment, at length arrived. 
If we alter the situation of any of the words, 
we shall presently be sensible of the melody 
suffering. This picture of the's does 
not much resemble him. 'These pictures of 
tlie king were sent to him from Italy. He 
who committed the ofience, thou shouldst 
correct, not I, who am innocent. 

* Ri'tE. Tt is improper to tisc a neuter verb in thcpas.'ivc form. Thus, 
I am purposed— lie is an iveil : should be, 1 hate puipo-scd— He haa 

arrived. From this rule there are a luiiiiberof txctptioiis: lor it 

t£ uIlo\vul)lti ta say, He is come Shu is gone, &c 


PROMiscuots Exercises. 
But Thomas, one of the twelve, called 
Didymus, was not with them when Jesus 
came. I offer observations, that a long and 
chequered pilgrimage have enabled me to 

(make on man. After I visited Europe, I 
returned to America. Clelia is a vain wo- 
man, whom, if we do not flatter, she will 
be disgusted. In his conduct was treachery, 
and in his words faithless professions. The 
orators did not forget to enlarge themselves 
on so popular a subject. He acted con- 
formable with his instructions, and cannot 
be censured justly. 

No person could speak stronger on this 
subject, nor behave nobler, than our young 
advocate, for the cause of toleration. They 
were studious to ingratiate with those who 
it was dishonourable to favour. The house 
framed a remonstrance, where they spoke 
with great freedom of the king's preroga- 
tive. Neither flatter or contemn the rich 
or the great. Many would exchange gladly 
their honours, beauty and riches, for that 
more quiet and humbler station, which thou 
art now dissatisfied with. High hopes, and 
florid views, is a great enemy to tranquil- 
ity. Many persons will not believe but 
what they are free from prejudices. I will 
lay me down in peace, and take my rest. 
This word I have only found in Spenser. 
The king being apprized of the conspiracy, 
he fled from Jerusalem 

128 ,,,____ENGL][SI£^YOTAX 

Promiscuous Exeecises. 

A too great variety of studies dissipate 
and weaken the mind. James was resolved 
to not indulge himself in such a cruel am- 
usement. They admired the countryman's, 
as they called him, candour and upright- 
ness. The pleasure or pain of one passion, 
differ from those of another. The court of 
Spain, who gave the order, were not aware 
of the consequences. There was much 
spoke and wrote on each side of the ques- 
tion ; but I have chosen to suspend my de- 

Religion raises men above themselves, — 
irreligion sinks them beneath the brutes: 
that binds them down to a poor pitiable 
speck of perishable earth, — this opens for 
them a prospect to the skies. Temperance 
and exercise, howsoever little they may be 
regarded, they are the best means of pre- 
serving health. To despise others on ac- 
count of their poverty, or to value ourselves 
for our wealth, are dispositions highly cul- 
pable. This task was the easier performed, 
from the cheerfulness with which he enga- 
ged in it. These counsels were the dictates 
of virtue, and the dictates of true honour. 
As his misfortunes were the fruit of his own 
obstinacy, a few persons pitied him. And 
they were judged every man according to 
their works. Riches is the bane of human 
happiness. I wrote to my brother before I 
received his letter. 


. .^ws^AAAAA/^n^' 

Promiscuous Exercises. 
When Garrick appeared, Peter wa!=^: tt-r 
►me time in doubt whether it could be hlni 
or not. Are you living contented in spirit- 
ual darkness ? The company was very nu- 
merous. Shall the throne of iniquity have 
fellowship with thee, which frameth mis- 
chief by a law ? Where is the security that 
evil habits will be ever broken ? They each 
bring mat-erials to the place. Nor let no 
comforter delight my ear. She was six years 
older than him. They were obliged to con- 
tribute more than us. The Barons had 
little more to rely on, besides the power of 
their families. The sewere (shores) must, be 
kept so clean, as the water may run away. 
Such among us who follow that profession. 
Nobody is so sanguine to hope for it. She 
behaved unkinder than I expected. Agree- 
able to your request, I send this letter. She 
is exceeding fair. Thomas is not as docile 
as his sister. There was no other book but 
this. He died by a fever. Among whom 
was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother 
of James. My sister and I waited till they 
were called. The army were drawn up in 
haste. The public is respectfully informed 
that, &c. The friends and amusements 
which he preferred corrupted his morals. 
Each must answer for themselves. Hen- 
ry, though at first he showed an urswil- 
lingness, yet afterwards he granted i2*s fty 


Promiscuous Exercises. ] 

Him and her live very happily together. 
She invited Jane and I to see her new 
dress. She uttered such cries that pierced 
the heart of every one who heard them. 
Maria is not as clever as her sister Ann 
Though he promises ever so solemnly, 
will not believe him. The full moon was 
no sooner up, in all its* brightness, but he 
opened to them the gate of paradise. It 
rendered the progress very slow of the 
new invention. This book is Thomas', 
that is James'. Socrates's wisdom hai 
been the subject of many a conversation. 
Fare thee well, James. Who, Avho has 
the judgement of a man, would have drawn 
such an inference ? George was the most 
diligent scholar whom I ever knew. 1 
have observed some children to use deceit, i 
He durst not to displease his master. The 
hopeless delinquents might, each in their 
turn, adopt the expostulatory language of 
Job. Several of our English words, some 
centuries ago, had different meanings to 
those they have now. And I was afraid, 
and went and hid thy talent in the earth : 
lo, there thou hast that is thine. With 
this booty he made off to a distant part 
of the country, where he had reason tc 
believe that neither he nor his mastar.' 
were known. Thine is the kingdom, the 
power, and the glory. I have been at Lon* 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

"Which of the two masters, says Seneca, 
shall we most esteem ? — he who strives to 
correct his scholars by prudent advice and 
motives of honour, or another who will 
lash them severely for not repeating their 
lessons as they ought? The blessing of 
the Lord, it maketh rich, and he addeth 
no sorrow with it. For if there be first a 
willing mind, it is accepted according to 
that a man hath, and not according to 
that he hath not. If a brother or a sister 
be naked and destitute of daily food, and 
one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, 
be ye warmed and filled ; notwithstanding 
if ye give them not those things which 
are needful to the body, what doth it pro- 

But she always behaved with great se- 
verity to her maids ; and if any of them 
were negligent of their duty, or made a 
slip in their conduct, nothing would serve 
her but burning the poor girls alive. He 
had no master to instruct him : he had read 
nothing but the writings of Moses and the 
prophets, and had received no lessons from 
the Socrates's,* the Plato's, and the Confu- 
cius's of the age. They that honour me, I 
^ill honour. For the poor always ye have 
with you. 

• The possessive case must not be used for the plural niimher la 
UtU quotation from Baron Mailer's Letters to hia Daughter, liie proper 
■aines should have been pluralized like common nouns; thus, rrooi 
the S»{raU*u, the Platoes, and the CoTifuetutu of the age. 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

The first Christians of the Gentile world 
made a simple and entire transition from 
a state as bad, if not worse, than that of 
entire ignorance, to the Christianity of the 
New Testament. 

And he said unto Gideon, every one that 
lappeth of the water with his tongue, as a 
dog lappeth, him shalt thou set by himsel£ 

The duke had not behaved with that loy- 
alty as was expected. 

Milton seems to have been well acquaint- 
ed with his own genius, and to know what 
it was that nature had bestowed upon him 
more bountifully than upon others. 

And on the morrow, because he would 
have known the certainty wherefore he 
was accused* by the Jews, he loosed him 
from his bonds. 

Here rages force, here tremble flight and fear, 
Here stormed contention, and here fury frowned. 
The Cretan javelin reached him from afar, 
And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. 

Nor is it then a welcome guest, affording 
only an uneasy sensation, and brings always 
with it a mixture of concern and compassion. 

He onlyf promised me a loan of the book 
for two days. I was once thinking to have 
written a poem. 

* Accuse requires of before the crime, and by before the person »» 

T Tliis sentence expresses one meaning asit stands. It miy be nuida 
ID express other four by placing only after me, or /<?•«. re book, « 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

A very slow child will often be found to 
'. t lessons by heart as soon as, nay some- 
times sooner, than one who is ten times as 

It is then from a cultivation of the per- 
ceptive faculties, that "we only can attain 
those powers of conception which are essen- 
tial to taste. 

No man is fit for free conversation for 
the inquiry after truth, if he be exceedingly 
reserved ; if he be haughty and proud of 
his knowledge ; if he be positive and dog- 
matical in his opinions; if he be one who 
always affects to outshine all the company ; 
if he be fretful and peevish ; if he affect wit, 
and is full of puns, or quirks, or quibbles. 

Conversation is the business, and let every 
one that please add their opinion freely. 

The mean suspicious wretch, whose bolted door 
Ne'er moved in duty to the wandering poor ; 
With him T left the cup, to teach his mind, 
That Heaven can bless if mortals will be kind. 

There are many more shining qualities 
in the mind of man, but there is none so 
useful as discretion. 

Mr. Locke having been introduced by 
Lord Shaftesbury to the Duke of Bucking- 
Lam and Lord Halifax, these three noble- 
men, instead of conversing with the philo- 
sopher on literary subjects, in a very short 
time sat down to cards. 

134 SH!5iSL ^151^:1^: 

Promiscuous Exercises. 

Bad Arrangement. 

It is your light fantastic fools, who have 
neither head nor hearts, in both sexes, who 
by dressing their bodies out of all shape, ren- 
"ier themselves ridiculous and contemptible. 

And how can brethren hope to partake 
of their parent's blessing that curse each 

The superiority of others over us, though 
in trivial concerns, never fails to mortify 
our vanity, and give us vexation, as Nicole 
admirably observes. 

Likewise also the chief priests, mocking, 
said among themselves, with the scribes. 
He saved others ; himself he cannot save. 

Noah, for his godliness, and his family, 
were the only persons preserved from the 

It is an unanswerable argument of a very 
refined age, the wonderful civilities that 
have passed between the nation of authors, 
and that of readers. 

And they said among themselves, who 
Bhall roll us away the stone from the door 
of the sepulchre? And when they had 
looked, they saw that the stone was rolled 
away : for it was very great. 

A great stone that I happened to find, 
after a long search, by the sea-shore, served 
me for an anchor. 

It is true what he says, but is not applio- 
able to the point. 


Promiscuous Exercises. 

Bad Arrangement.* 

The senate of Rome ordered that no part 
of it should be rebuilt ; it M'as demolished 
to the ground, so that travellers are unable 
to say where Carthage stood at this day. 

Thus ended the war with Antiochus, 
twelve years after the second Puuie war, 
and two after it had been begun. 

Upon the death of Claudius, the young 
Emperor Nero pronounced his funeral ora- 
tion, and he was canonized among the gods, 
who scarcely deserved the name of a man. 

Galerius abated much of his severities 
against the Christians on his death-bed, and 
revoked those edicts which he had formerly 
published, tending to their persecution, a 
little before his death. 

The first care of Aurelius was to marry 
his daughter Lucilla once more to Claudius 
Pompf^lanus, a man of moderate fortune, &c. 

But at length, having made his guards 
accomplices in their design, they set upon 
Maximin while he slept at noon in his tent, 
and slew both him and his son, whom he had 
made his partner in the empire, without any 

Aurelian defeated the Marcomanni, a fierce 
find terrible nation of Germany, that had 
invaded Italy, in three several engagements. 

*The exercises on this page arc all extracted from the octavo editioa 
of Goldsmith's Roman Histoiy, from which many more might be got 
It IS amazing bow many mistakes even our most popular authors hive 

You suppose him younger than I. 

This may mean either that you suppose him younger 
than I am, or that you suppose him to be younger than I 
suppose him to be. 

Parmenio had served with great fidelity, 
Philip, the father of Alexander, as well as 
himself, for whom he first opened the way 
into Asia. 

Here we arc apt to suppose the word himself refers to 
Fannenio, and means that he had not only served Philip^ 
but he had served himself at the same time. This how- 
ever is not the meaning of the passage. If we arrange it 
thus, the meaning will appear : " Parmenio had not only 
served Philip the father of Alexander with great fidelity, 
but he had served Alexander himself, and was the first 
that opened the way for him into Asia." 

Belisarius was general of all the forces 
under the emperor Justinian the First, a 
man of rare valour. 

Who was a man of rare valour ? The emperor Jus- 
tinian we should suppose from the arrangement of the 
words ; but tliis is not llie case, for it was Belisarius. The 
sentence should have stood thus, " Belisarius, a man of 
rare valour, was general of all the forces under the empe- 
ror Justinian the First." 

Lis] as promised to his father never to 
abandon his friends. 

Whether were they his own friends or his father's 
whom Lisias promised never to abandon ? If his own, it 
should be, Lisias promised and said to his father, I will 
never abandon rny friends. If his father's, it should be, 
Lisias promised and said to his father, I will never abao- 
«lon yuar friends. 


Improper Expressions. 

Tautology, or the repetition of a thought or word 
already fully expressed, is improper. 

The Hatter end of that man shall be peace. 
Whsuever I try to improve, I f always find I can do it 

saw it in here — I saw it here. 
He was tin here yesterday when I spoke to him. 
Give me both of them books — give me both those books.* 
They both met — They met. 

I never fail to read vihenever I can get a book — when. 
You must return fback immediately. 
First of all I Khali say mj' lesson — First I shall say, &c 
Before I do that I must ffirst finish this. 
He plunged fdown into the water. 
Read from here to there — from this place to that. 
Lift fup your book. He mentioned it fover again. 
This was the luckiest accident of all iothers. 
I ran after him a little way; but soou returned fback iagain 
I cannot tell ifor why he did it. 
Learn ffrom hence to study the Scriptures diligently. 
Where shall I begin ffrom when I read. 
We must do this last iof fall. Hence f therefore I say. 
I found nobody felse but him there. 
Smoke ascends iup into the clouds. 
We hastily descended fdown from the mountain. 
He raised fup his arm to strike me. 
We were f mutually friendly to each other. 
It should fever be your constant study to do good. 
As soon as I awoke I rose fup and dressed myself. 
I leave town in the flatter end of July. 

O" Avoid the following vulgar phrases. — Behoof, be- 
hest, fell to work, wherewithal!, quoth lie, do away, long 
winded, chalked out, pop out, must needs, got rid of, han- 
ded down, self same, pell mell, that's your sort, tip him- 

the wink, jiitched upon. Subject matter is a detestable 

plirase — Subject. 

t The word immediately after the dagger is to be omitttd became il 
.« Bunorflimus. 
* Tkete^ if the person has them in hia hand. 



Improper Expressions. 

My every hope, should he All my hopes. 
Frequent opportunity, Frequent opportunities. 

Who finds him in money ? Who finds him money ? 
He put it in his pocket. He put it into his pocket 

No less than- fifty persons, No fewer than fifty persons 
The two first steps are new. The first two steps are new 
All over the country, Over all the country. 

Be that as it will, Be that as it inay. 

About two years back, About two years ago. 

He was to come as this day. He was to come this dajfc 
They retreated back, They retreated. 

It lays on the table, It lies on the table, 

I turned them topsy turvy, I overset them. 

I catch'd it. 

How does thee do ? 

Overseer over his house, 

Opposite the church. 

Provisions were plenty, 

A new pair of gloves, 

A younjr beautiful woman, 

Where do you come from ? 

Where are you going ? 

For such another fault, 

Of consequence. 

Having not considered it, 

I had rather not, 

I'd as lief, 

For good and all, 

This here house, said I, 

I caught it. 

How dost thou do ? 

Overseer of his house. 

Opposite to the church. 

Provisions were plentifuL 

A pair of new gloves. 

A beautiful young womao. 

Whence do you come ? 

Whither are you going? 

For another such fault. 


Not having considered it. 

I would rather not. 

I would as soon. 

Totally and completely. 

This house, said I. 

Where is it ? says I, to him. Where is it ? said I, to him. 
I propose to visit them, I purpose to visit them. 

He spoke contemptibly of me He spoke contemptuously o[ 

It is apparent. 

In its primary sense, 

I heard them pro ^ con. 

I an't hungry, 

I want a scissars, 

A new pair of shoes. 

It is obvious. [me 

In its primitive sense. 

I heard both sides, 

I aw not hungry. 

I want a pair of scissars, 

A pair of new shoes. 

I saw him some ten years ago I saw him ten years ago. 

I met in with him, I met icith him. 

The subject matter. The subject. 

I add one more reason, I add one reason more. 

_^EN£LI^H^YP^TAX^^ 139 

Improper Expressions. 

Do you mind how many chapters are in Job? — remember. 
His public character is undeniable — uiiexceptionahle. 
The wool is cheaper ; but the cloth is as dear as ever — 

omit the in both places. 
They gained five shillings the piece by it — a piece. 
It is not worth a sixpence — sixpence. 
A letter conceived in the following words — expressed. 
He is much difficulted — at a loss, puzzled. 
He behaved in a very g-entlemanny mda\3.\ex-gentleman-like 
The poor boy was ill-guided — ill-used. 
There was a great many company — much company. 
He has been misfortunate — unfortunate. 
A monientuoiis circumstance — momentous. 
You will some day repent it — one day repent of it. 
Severals were of that opinion — sever at, i. e. several persons 
He did it in an overly manner — in a careless. 
He does every thing pointedly — exactly. 
An honest-like man — A tall good-looking man. 
At the exi>iry of his lease — expiration. 
If I had eeer so nmch in my offer — choice. 
Have you any word to your brother — message. 
The cock is a noisy beast — fowl. 
Are you acquaint with him — acquainted. 
Were you crying on me — calling. 

Direct your letters to me at Mr. B's, Edinburgh — address 
He and I never cast out — never quarrel. 
He took a fever — was seized with a fever. 
He was lost in the river — drowned (if the body was got.) 
That militates against your doctrine — operates. 
If I am not mistaken — If I mistake not. 
You may lay your account with opposition-you may expect 
He proposes to buy an estate — purposes. 
He pled his own c-ause— pleaded. 
Have you plenished your house ? — furnished. 
J shall notice a few particulars — mention. 
I think much shame — / am much ashamed. 
Will I help you to a bit of beef — shall. 
They wared their money to advantage — laid out. 
Will we see you next week ? — shall. 
She thinks long to see him — she longs to see him. 
It is not much worth — it is not worth much. 



Improper Expressions. 

Is he going to the school 1 — to 

He has got the cold— a cold. 

Say the grace — say grace. 

I cannot go the day — to day. 

A four scjuare table— a square 

He is cripple — lame. [table. 

Get my big coat — great coat. 

Hard fish — dried fish. 

A novel fashion — ncio. 

He is too precipitant — hasty. 

Roasted cheese — toasted- 

I dinna ken — I donH Icnow. 

Sweet butter— /resA. 

I have a sore head — headache 

A stupenduous work — stupen- 
dous, [endows. 

A tremenduous work — irem- 

I got timous notice — timely. 

A summer's day — summer day 

An oldish lady — elderly. 

A few broth — some.* 

I have nothing ado — to do. 

Ass milk— as»'«. 

Take a drink— draught. 

A pair of partridges — o brace. 

Six horse — horses. 

A milk cow — milch. 

Send me a swatch— ^a</<>m. 

He lays in bed till nine — lies. 

I mind none of them things — 

Give me them books — these. 

Close the door — shut. 

Let him be — cdone. 

Call for James — on. p. 112t 

Chap louder— AnocA:. 

I find no pain— /ecZ. 

I mean to summons — summon 

Will I help yoni— shall. 

Shall James come againl-icill 

He has a timber leg — wooden. 

I an't angry — I am Hot. 

That there house — thai house. 

Go and pull berries — gather. 

Pull TOseB— pluck or gather. 

To harry a nest — rob. 

He begins to make nch-groto 

Mask the tea — infuse. 

I was maltreated — ill used. 

He mants much — stammers. 

I see'd him yesterday — saw. 

A house to set — to be let.^-^-^* 

Did you tell upon him-inform 

Come here — hither. 

A house to sell— to be sold. 

I knowed that — knew. 

That dress sets her— becomes. 

She turned sick— greio. 

He is turned tall— grotOTj, 

This here hoy— this boy. 

It is equally the same— 1< is 

the same. 
It is split new— quite. 
That there m&n— that mati. 
What pretty it ia— How. 
His is tar neater— mwcA. 
That's no possible— not. 
1 shall go tne morn-to-morrow 
I askea at him— asked him 
Is your papa in 1— within. 
He was married on— to. 
Come into the fire— nearer. 
Take out your glass— q^. 
I find no fault to him— in. 
Cheese and bread — 6read cmd 

Milk and bread— bread ^mili 
Take tent— toftc care. 
Come,say away come, proceed 
Do bidding— 6e obedient. 
He is a v.'idow—uidower. 
He stops there— stays, dwells, 

Shall they return soon"?- ictW. 
Will we go home now*?- sAoZi 
He misguides his book-a6«scs 
He don^t do it well— rfoes noL 

"Sroth is always singular. Powdered beef i.s beef .iprinJUed wlflj 

•alt to preserve it for a few days.- Salt beef is Ijeef properly Beasoafid 
With saJt. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 
Additional Remarks under the 4:th Rule of Sijniax. 

1. When and is understood, the verb must be 
plural; as, Wisdom, happiness, (and) virtue, 
dwell with the golden mediocrity. 

Some think, that when two singular nouns, 
coupled with and, are nearly the same in mean- 
ing, the verb may be singular ; as, Tranquility 
and peace dwells there. Ignorance and negligence 
has produced this effect. This, however, is im- 
proper ; for tranquility and peace are two nouns or 
names, and two make a plural; therefore the verb 
should be plural. 

2. Two or more singular nouns coupled with 
and, require a verb in the singular number, when 
they denote only one person or thing ; as, That 
able scholar and critic Art* been eminently usefuU 

3. Many writers use a plural noun after the 
second of two numerical adjectives ; thus. The 
first and second pages are torn. This I think im- 
proper : it should rather be, the first and second 
page, 1. e. the first j>age and the second page are 
torn \ are, perhaps ; because independently of anrf, 

they are hoth in a torn state. Generation, hour 

and v)ord are singular in Exodus xx. 5. Matt. xx. 
5. Acts xii. 10. 

And and Not. 

4. When not is joined to and, the negative 
clause forms a parenthesis, and does not affect 
the construction of the other clause or clauses ; 
therefore the verb in the following and similaT 
sentences should be singular. Genuine piety and 
not great riches, makes a death-bed easy ; i. e. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

Genuine piety makes a death-bed easy, and great 
riches do not make it easy. Her prudence, ncrt 
her possessions, renders her an object of desire. 

Every, And. 

5. When the nouns coupled with and are qua- 
lified by the distributive Every, the verb should 
be singular ; as, Every man and woman was as- 
tonished at her fortitude. Every boy and girl 
was taught to read. — See rule 27th. 

With and And. 

6. When a singular noun has a clause joined 
to it by with, it is often difficult to determine whe- 
ther the verb should be singular or plural, espe- 
cially as our most reputable authors use sometimes 
the one and sometimes the other ; for example, 
some would say. My uncle, with his son, was in 
town yesterday. Others would say, My uncle, 
with his son, were in town yesterday. 

If we take the se^ise for our guide, and nothing 
else can guide us in a case of this kind, it is evi- 
dent that the verb should be plural; for both uncle 
and son are tlie joint subjects of our affirmation, 
and declared to be both in the saine state. 

When we perceive from the sense, that the 
noun before With is exclusively the real subject, 
then the verb should be singular ; thus, Christy 
with his three chosen disciples, was transfigured 
on the mount. Here the verb is singular, because 
we know that none but Christ was transfigured ; 
the disciples were not joint associates with him; 
they were mere spectators. There seems to be 
an ellipsis in such sentences as this, which, if sup 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

plied in the present would run thus : Christ (who 
was attended) with his three chosen disciples, was 
a'ansfigured on the mount. 

Mr. Murray, however, thinks that the verb 
should be singular in the following and similar 
sentences. " Prosperity, with humility, renders 
its possessors truly amiable." " The side A, with 
the sides B and C, composes the triangle." In my 
opinion, on the contrary, the verb should be plural. 
For, in the first sentence it is not asserted that 
prosperity alone renders its possessor truly ami- 
able, but prosperity and humility umied, and co- 
Operating to produce an effect in their joint state, 
which they were incapable of achieving in their 
individual capacity. 

If true, as Mr. Murray says, that "the side A" 
in the second sentence is the true nominative to 
the verb, then it follows, of course, that the two 
sides B and C have no agency or no share in form- 
ing the triangle, and consequently that the side A 
alone composes the triangle. It is obvious, how- 
ever, that one side cannot form a triangle or three- 
sided figure, and that the sides B and C are as 
much concerned in forming the triangle as the 
side A, and therefore the verb should be plural. 

Upon the whole, we may venture to give the 
two following general rules : 

1. That whenever the noun or pronoun after 
With exists, acts or ^w^crs jointly with the singu- 
ar nominative before it, the verb should be plural; 
as, " She with her sisters are well." " His purse, 
■ with its contents, were abstracted from his pocket." 
* The general with his men were taken prisoners." 
In these sentences the verb is j)lural. because the 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

words after With are as much the suhject of dis. 
course as the words before it, — her sisters were tcell 
as well as she ; the co7itents as well as the purse 
were abstracted ; and the inen, as well as the gene- 
ral were taken prisoners. If, in the first example, 
we say — is well, then the meaning will be, she is 
well when in company \\\\h. her sisters ; and the idea 
that her sisters are well, will be entirely, exc/M(/e<Z. 
2. When the noun after with is a mere involun- 
tary or inanimate instrument, the verb should be 
singular ; as, The captain with his men catches 
poor Africans and sells them for slaves. The 
Squire with his hounds hills a fox. Here the verb 
is singular, because the men and hounds are not 
joint agents with the Captain and 'Squire; they 
are as much the mere instruments in their hands 
ts the gun and pen in the hands of He and She 
in the following sentences : He with his gun 
shoots a hare. She with her pen writes a letter. 

Of the Articles, with several Adjectives. 

A or the is prefixed only to the first of several 
adjectives qualifying one noun; as, a meek and holy 
man : but the articles should be repeated before 
each adjective when each adjective relates to a ge- 
neric word applicable to every one of the adjectives. 
For example, " The black and white cows were 
sold yesterday : the red will be sold to-morrow." 

Here cows is the generic word, applicable to 
each of the adjectives, hlack, white, and red, but 
for want of the before white, we are led to suppose 
that the black and white cows mean only one sort, 
which are speckled with spots of black and white ; 
and if this is our meaning, the sentence is right ; 


Miscellaneous Observations. 
but if we mean hco different sorts, the one all 
black, and the other all white, we should insert 
the article before both, and say, The black and 
the white cows, i. e. The black cows and the 
white cows were sold. 

Some think this distinction of little importance ; 
and it is really seldom attended to even by good 
writers; but in some cases it is necessary; although 
in others there cannot, from the nature of the thing, 
be any mistake. In the following sentence, for 
instance, the repetition of the before horned is not 
necessary, although it would be proper : " The 
hald and horned cows were sold last week." Hero 
there can be no mistake : tico sorts were sold ; for 
a cow cannot be bald and horned too. 

The same remark may be made respecting the 
Demonstrative pronouns, that has been made res- 
pecting the articles ; as, " That great and good 
man," means only one man: but that great and 
that good man, would mean two men ; the one a 
great man, the other a good. 

They— Those. 
They stands for a noun already introduced, and 
should never be used till the noun be mentioned. 
Those, on the contrary, points out a noun not pre- 
viously introduced, but generally understood. It 
IS improper therefore to say. They who tell lies 
are never esteemed. They that are truly good 
must be happy. We should say. Those who tell 
lies, and those that are truly good ; because we 
are pointing out a particular class of persons, and 
not referring to nouns previously introduced. A 
noun when not expressed after this, that, these, AnA 
those, is always understood. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 
Another — One — Every. 

Another corresponds to one; but not to some 
nor to every ; thus, " Handed down from every 
writer of verses to another," should be, From one 
writer of verses to another. " At some hour or 
another," should be, at some hour or other." 

One is often used in familiar phrases (like on 
in French) for we or any one of us indiscrimi- 
nately ; Thus, One is often more influenced by 
example than by precept. The verb and pro- 
noun with which one agrees should be singular. 
Thus, If owe take a wrong method at first, it will 
lead them astray : should be, It will lead one 
astray, or, It will lead him astray. 

That and Those. 
It is improper to apply that and those to things 
present or just mentioned. Thus, " They cannot 
be separated from the subject which follows ; and 
for that reason," (fee. should be, And for this rea- 
son, &c. " Those sentences which we have at 
present before us : should be, These or The sen- 
tences which we have, &c. 

As Follows, as Appears. 

As is often used as a personal or relative pro- 
noun, and in both numbers ; and in these cases it 
should be construed as a pronoun ; as, " His 
words were z.% follow ;" that is, His words were 
those which follow. Here as is plural, because 
words, its antecedent, is plural. His description 
was as follows. Here as is singular, because des- 
cription, its antecedent, is singular : that is, His 
description was this which follows. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

This account of as, thougli in unison with Dr. 
Crombie's, is at variance with that of Dr. Camp- 
oell and Mr. Murray. They explain the follow- 
ing sentences thus : " The arguments advanced 
Were nearly as follows;" " The positions were as 
appears incontrovertible." That is, say they, "aa 
it follows," " as ii appears." Whatit? The thiTig. 
What thing ? — //., or thini^, cannot relate to argu- 
ments, for argunnents is plural, and must have a 
plural pronoun and verb. Take the ordinary 
method of finding out the nominative to a verb, by 
asking a question with the verb, and the true no- 
minative will be the answrr : Thus, What fol- 
lows ? and the answer is, The arguments follow. 
It must be obvious, then, that it cannot be substi- 
tuted for argumew's, and that as is equal to those 
which, and that t'.e verb is not impersonal but the 
third person plural, agreeing with its nominative 
which, the last half of as. In the second example, 
as appears is a mere parenthesis, and does not 
relate to positions at all ; but still the as is a pro- 
noun. Thus, The positions, it appears, were in- 

They say, however, if we use such before as, 
the verb is no longer impersonal, but agrees with its 
nominative in the plural number ; as, " The argu- 
ments advanced were nearly such as follow." "The 
positions were such as appear incontrovertible." 
This is, if possible, a greater mistake than the for- 
mer ; for what has s7ich to do with the following 
verb ? Such means of that kind, and expresses 
the quality of the noun repeated, but it has nothing 
to do with the verb at all. Therefore the con- 
struction must be the same with such that it is with 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

as, with this difference in meaning, that when stuJk 
as is used, we mean of that kind which follows. 

When we say, " His arguments are as folloio** 
we mean those arguments which follow are verb- 
atim the very same that he used ; but when wb 
say, " His arguments were such as follow," wa 
convey the idea, that the arguments which follow 
are not the very same that he used ; but that they 
are only of the same nature or kind. 

Their position, however, that the verb should 
be plural, can be made out by a circumlocution, 
thus : " His arguments were nearly such argu- 
ments as those which follow are :" but this very 
solution would show the error into which they 
have fallen in such phrases as, as follows, as ap- 
pears, for they will not admit of similar solutions. 
We cannot say, " His arguments are nearly as 
the arguments which follows is."* 

This means, SfC. 

The word means in the singular number, and 
the phrases, By this means, By that means, are 
used by our best and most correct writers, when 
they denote instrumentality ; as, By means of 
death, &c. By that means he preserves his supe- 
riority. Addison. 

Good Avriters use the noun mean in the singular 
number, only to denote mediocrity, middle state, 
&c. as. This is a mean between the two extremes. 

This means and that means should be used only 
when they refer to what is singular ; these means, 

• Addison and Steele have used a plural verb where the antecedent 
to OS is plural. See Tattler, Nos. 62,104.— Spect. No. 513. Dr. Camp- 
bell, in his Philosophy of Rhetoric, vol. il. p. 7, has mistaken the m»- 
■truction of these phraacs. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

end those means, when they respect plurals ; as 
He lived temperately, and by this means preservea 
his health. The scholars were attentive, indust- 
rious, and obedient to their tutors ; and by these 
means acquired knowledge. 


Amends is used in the same manner as means; 
as, Peace of mind is an honourable amends for 
the sacrifices of interest. In return, he received 
the thanks of his employers, and the present of a 
large estate : these were ample amends for all his 

Into, In. 

Into IS used after a verb of motion ; and in, 
when motion or rest in a place is signified ; as, 
They cast him into a pit; I walk in the park. 

So and Such. 

When we refer to the species or nature of a 
thing, the word such is properly applied ; as. Such 
a temper is seldom found ; but when degree is 
signified, we use the word so; as, So bad a tem- 
per is seldom found. 

Disappointed of, Disappointed in. 

We are disappointed of a thing, when we do 
not get it, and disappointed in it, when we have 
it, and find that it does not answer our expecta- 
tions ; as, We are ofi;en disappointed in things, 
which, before possession, promised much enjoy- 
ment. 1 have frequently desired their company, 
but have hitherto been disappointed of that plea, 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

Taste of, and Taste for. 

A taste o/"a thing, implies actual enjoyment of 
it ; but a taste for it, implies only a capacity for 
enjoyment ; as. When we have had a true taste 
of the pleasures of virtue, we can have no relish 
for those of vice. He had a taste for such stu- 
dies, and pursued them earnestly. 

The Nominative and the Verb. 

When the nominative case has no personal tense 
of a verb, but is put before a participle, indepen- 
dent of the rest of the sentence, it is called the 
case absolute ; as. Shame being lost, all virtue is 
lost ; hiin destroyed ; him descending ; him only 
excepted ; — him in all these places should be he. 

Every verb, except in the infinitive mood or 
the participle, ought to have a nominative case, 
either expressed or implied ; as. Arise, let us gt 
hence ; that is. Arise ye. 

Every nominative case should belong to some 
verb either expressed or implied ; as. To whom 
thus Adam, i. e. spoke. In the following sentence, 
the word virtue is left by itself, without any verb 
with which it might agree. " Virtue, however ix 
may be neglected for a time, men are so consti- 
tuted, as ultimately to acknowledge and respect 
genuine merit;" it should be, However viuchvir- 
tue may he neglected, &c. The sentence may be 
made more elegant by altering the arrangement 
of the words ; thus, Such is the conslilution of 
men, tJiat virtue, however much it may be neg- 
lected for a time, icill ultimately be acknowledged 
and respected. — See Rule XIX. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

The nominative is commonly placed before the 
verb ; but it is sometimes put after it. or between 
the auxiliary and the verb. — See Parsing, No. e. 

Them is sometimes improperly used instead of 
these or those ; as, Give me them books, for thost 
books, or these books. 

What is sometimes improperly used for thai y 
as, They will never believe but what I have been 
to blame ; it should be, But that I have been, &c. 

Which is often improperly used for that ; thus, 
After tchich time, should be, After that time. 

Which is applied to collective nouns composed 
of men ; as. The court of Spain which ; the com- 
pany ichich, &c. 

Which, and not who, should be used after the 
name of a person used merely as a icord; as, The 
court of Queen Elizabeth, who was but another 
name for prudence and economy ; it should be, 
which was but another, or whose name was, &c. 

It is and it was are often used in plural con- 
struction ; as. It is they that are the real authors. 
It was the heretics that first began to rail, 6ic. — 
They are the real authors. The heretics first 
began, &c. would perhaps be more elegant. 

The neuter pronoun it, is frequently joined to 
a noun or pronoun of the masculine or feminine 
gender; as. It was // It was the man. 
^ Adjectives, in many cases, should not be separated 
from their nouns, even by words which modify 
heir meaning ; thus, A large enough number ; A 
distinct enough manner ; should be, A number 
large enougli; A manner distinct enough. The ad- 
jective is frequently placed after the noun which .»* 
qualifies; as, Goodness divine; Alexander the^rea^ 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

All is sometimes emphatically put after a num. 
bar of pai'ticulars comprehended under it ; as, 
Ambition, interest, honour, all (these) concurred. 

Never generally precedes the verb ; as, I never 
saw him ; but when an auxiliary is used, never 
may be placed either between it and the verb, oi 
before both ; as, He was never seen, or, he never 
was seen. 

The present participle is frequently introduced 
without any obvious reference to any noun or pro- 
noun ; as. Generally speaking, he behaves well. 
Crranting his story to be true, &c. A pronoun is 
perhaps understood ; as, We speaking ; We grant- 

Sometimes a neuter verb governs an objective 
when the noun is of the same import with the 
verb ; thus. To dream a dreain ; to run a race. 
Sometimes the noun after a neuter verb is go- 
verned by a preposition understood ; as. He lay 
six hours in bed, i. e. during six hours. 

The same verbs are sometimes used as active, 
and sometimes as neuter, according to the sense ; 
thus, Think, in the phrase " Think on me," is a 
neuter verb ; but it is active in the phrase " Cha- 
rity thinketh no evil." 

It is improper to change the form of the second 
and third person singular of the auxiliaries in tlie 
compound tenses of the subjunctive mood ; thus 
If thou have done thy duty. Unless he hav 
brought money. If thou had studied more dili. 
gently. Unless thou shall go to-day. If thou 
will grant my request, &;c., should be. If thou 
hadst done thy duty. Unless he has brought. If 
thou hadst studied. Unless thou shall go, «Scc. 


Miscellaneous Observations. 

It is improper to vary the second person singu- 
lar in the past subjunctive, (except the verb to 
be;) thus, If thou came not in time, &lc. If thou 
did not submit, &c. should be, If thou earnest not 
in time : If thou didst not submit. 

The following phrases, selected from the Scrip- 
Cures, are strictly grammatical : 

If thou knewest the gift, if thou didst receive 
ft. If thou hadst known. If thou wilt save Is- 
rael. Though he hath escaped the sea. Thai 
thou mayst be feared. 

We also properly say. If thou mayst, rnightst, 
couldst, wouldst, or shouldst love. 


1. The first word of every book, or any other 
piece of writing, must begin with a capital letter. 

2. The first word after a period, and the an- 
swer to a question, must begin, &c. 

3. Proper names, that is, names of persons, 
places, ships, &c. 

4. The pronoun J, and the interjection O, are 
written in capitals. 

5. The first word of every line in poetry. 

' 6. The appellations of the Deity ; as, God, 
Most High, &c. 

7. Adjectives derived from the proper names 
cf p aces; as, Grecian, Roman, English, die. 

8. The first word of a quotation, introduced 
after a colon; as, Always remember this ancient 
maxim: " jrno?^? thyself." 

9. Common nouns when personified; as, Como 
gentle Spring. 



To the King's Most Excellent Majesty,— S'tVe, or Majj it 
please your Majesty. — Conclude a petition or speech 
with, Your Majesty's most Loyal and Dutiful Suiijert 

To tlie Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, — Madam, or J; tj 
it please your Majesty. 

To his Royal Hijrhness, Frederick, Duke of York, — Mag 
it please your Royal Highness. 

To his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, — May it plcn-'x 
your Royal Highness. 

In the same manner address every other of the Royal Fa- 
mily, male ot female. 

NOBIIJTY.— To his Grace the Duke of ,t— iVy 

Lord Duke, Your Grace, or M;iy it please your Gram 

To the Most Noble the Marquis of ,—My Lorrl 

Marquis, Your Lordship. 

To the Right Honourable , Earl of , — il/yi 

Lord, Your Lordship. j 

To tlic Right Honourable Lord Viscount , — My' 

Lord, Your Lordship. 
To the Right Honourable Baron , — My Lord, May 

it please your Lordship. 

The wives of Noblemen have the same titles with their 
husbands, thus; 

To her Grace the Duchess of , — May it pleast ■ 

your Grace. , 

To the Right Honourable Lady Ann Rose, — Jfy Lad^ 
May it please your Ladyship. 

The titles of Lord and Right Honourable are given to all 
the sons of Dukes and Marquises, and to the eldest sons 
of Earls; and the title of Lady and Right HonourabU 
to all their daughters. The younger sons of Earlt are 
all Honourable and Esquires. 

• The superscription, or what is put on the outside of a letter, !■ 
printed in Roman characters, and begins with To. The terms of aii- 
ircss imed either in beginning a letter, a petition, or verbal nddrcMk 
are printed in Italic letters immediately after the superscriplion. 

t Tiie blanks arc to be tillci\ up witii the reo/ name and titie. 

ENGLISH tlrkAMMAR. _*55 

Forms of Address. 

Right HonourahU is due to Earls, Viscounts and Barons, 
and to all the members of Her Majesty's Most*Honour- 
able Privy Council — To tho Lord Mayor of London, 
York & Dublin and to the Lord Provost of Edinburgh 
during the time they are in office — To the Speaker of 
the Ilouse of Commons — To the Lords Commissioners 
of the Treasury, Admiralty, Trade and Plantations, &c 

The House of Peers is addressed thus : To the Right Hon- 
ourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament 
assembled. My Lords, May it please your Lordships. 

Tlie House of Commons is addressed thus : To the Hon- 
ourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the Unit- 
ed Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament 
assembled. Gentlemen, May it please your Honours 

The sons of Viscounts and Barons are styled Honourable 
and Esquires ; and their daughters have their letters 
addressed thus : To the Honourable Miss or Mrs. D. B. 

The Queen's commission confers the title oi Honoutabl.e on 
ar»y gentleman in a place of' honour or trust ; such as, 
The Commissioners of Excise, Hor Majesty's Customs, 
Board of Control, &.c. — Admirals of the Navy — Gene 
rals, Lieutenant-Generals, and Colonels in the Army. 

All Noblemen, or men of title in the army and navy, use 
their title by right, such as Honourable, before their 
title oirank, such as Captain, &c. thus, the Honourable 
Captain .James .lames, of the . Sir, Your Honour. 

Honourable is due also to the Court of Directors of the 
East India Company — The Governors and Deputy Go- 
vernors of the Bank of England. 

The title Excellency is given to all Ambassadors, Plenipo- 
tentiaries, Governors in foreign countries, to the Lord 
Lieutenant, and to' the Lords Justices of the Kingdom 
of Ireland. — Address such thus : 

To His Excellency Sir , Bart., Her Britannic 

Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to 
the Court of Rome. Your Excellency, May it pleaae 
your Excellency. 

* The Privy (JoiinsfUors. inken collectively, are styled Her Majesty'i 
JUott Honourable Privy Council 


Forms of Address. 

The title RightWorshipful is given to the Sheriffs, Alder- 
men, and Recorder of London ; and Worshipful to the 
Aldermen and Recorders of other Corporations, and to 
Justices of the Peace in England, — Sir, YourWorship. 

The Clergy are all styled Reverend, except the Archbish- 
ops and Bishops, who have something additional ; thus- 

To his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, or, To th« 
Most Reverend Father in God, Charles, Lord Archbi- 
shop of Canterbury, — My Lord, Your Grace. 

To the Right Reverend Father in God, John, Lord Bish- 
op of , — My Lord, Your Lordship. 

To the very Rev. Dr. A. B., Dean of ,—Sir. To 

the Rev. Mr. Desk ; or to the Rev. John Desk.* 

The general address to clergj'men is Sir, and when writ- 
ten to. Reverend Sir. Deans and Archdeacons eire 
usually styled Very Reverend, and called Mr. Dean, 
Mr. Archdeacon. 

Address the Principal of the University of Edinburgh thus: 
To the Very Rev. Dr. B. Principal of the University 
of Edinburgh, — Doctor; when written to, Very Rev 
Doctor. The other Professors thus : To Dr. D. B 
Professor of Logic in the University of E. — Doctor. If 
a Clergyman, To the Rev. Dr. J. M. Professor of, &o 
— Reverend Doctor, 

Those who are not Drs. are styled Esq. but not Mr. too ; 
thus : To J. P. Esq. Professor of Humanity in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, — Sir. If he has a literary title, it 
may be added ; thus : To J. P. Esq. A. M. Professor o£ 

Magistrates, Barristers at Law, or Advocates, and Mera- 
h'jis of Parliament, viz. of the House of Commons, 
(these last have M. P. after Esq.) and all gentlemen in 
independent circmnstances, are styled Esquire, and 
their wives Mrs. 

* It seems to be unsettled whether Mr. slioulil be used after Reve- 
rend or not. In my opinion it should; because it gives a cler<rymaa 
bis own honorary title over and above the common one. May we not 
use the Rev. Mr. as well as the Ri'V. Dr.? Besides, we do not ahvayi 
recollect whether iiis name is James or John, &c. Mr. in such a case, 
would look better on the back of a letter tiiaii a long ill drawn dash } 

thui", The Rev Desk. In short, Mr. is used by our best writan 

after Reverend, but not uniformly. 

The words To the not being necessary on the hack of a letter, are seV 
dom used ; but in addressing it in the htside, lell hand corner, at tli0 
Ibouom, they are generally used. In addressing bills they are uecesBU]^ 



Punctuation is the art of pointing written compo- 
sition in such a manner as may naturally lead to 
its proper meaning, construction and delivery. 

Of the Comma. ? 


A simple sentence in general requires only a 
ftll stop at the end ; as, True politeness has its 
•eat in the heart. 


The simple members of a compound sentence 
tfre separated by a comma ; as, Crafty men con- 
temn studies, simple men admire them, and wise 
men use them. He studies diligently, and makes 
gyeat progress. 


The persons in a direct address are separated 
fbom the rest of the sentence by commas ; as, My 
mm, give me thine heart. Colonel, Your most 
obedient. I thank you, sir. I am obliged to you, 
my friends, for your kindness. 

RULE I v. 
Two words of the same part of speech, whether 
iK)uns, adjectives, verbs, participles, or adverbs, 
do not admit of a comma between them, when 
coupled with a conjunction ; as, James and John 
ore good. She is wise and virtuous. Religion 
crpanrls and elevates the mind. By being ad- 
mired and flattered, she became vain. Cicero 
spoke forcibly a?KZ fluently. When the conjunc- 
tion is suppressed, a comma is inserted in ita 
place ; as, He was a plain, honest man. 


Of the Comma. 


Three or more nouns, adjectives, verbs, parti- 
ciples, or adverbs, are separated by commas; as, 
the sun, the moon, and the stars, are the glory 
of nature. 

When words follow in pairs, there is a comma 
between each pair; as, Truth is fair and artless, 
simple and sincere, uniform and constant. 


All phrases or explanatory sentences, whethei 
in the beginning, middle, or end of a simple sen- 
tence, are separated from it by commas ; as, To 
confess the truth, I was in fault. His father 
dying, he suceeded to the estate. The king, ap- 
proving the plan, put it into execution. Paul, the 
apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his zeal 
and knowledge. Victoria, queen of Great Bri- 
tain. I have seen the emperor, as he was called. 
In short, he was a great man. 


The verb to he, followed by an adjective, or an 
infinitive with adjuncts, is generally preceded by 
a comma ; as. To be diligently employed in the 
performance of real duty, is honourable. One 
of the noblest of the Christian virtues, is to love 
our enemies.* 


A comma is used between the two parts of 
sentence that has its natural order inverted ; as, 
Him that is weak in the faith, receive ye. 

* Some insert a comma Itoth before and after the verb to be when it 
U near Ihp middlf of a long seiituncf, b'cause tho pronunciation require* 
it ; but that is a bnd reasou ; for pauses and points are ulti-n at variance 


Of tfie Comma. 


Any remarkable expression resembling a quo- 
tation or a command, is preceded by a comma ; 
as, Th«>4'e is much truth in the proverb, Withoul 
pains no gains. I say unto all, Watch. 

Relative pronouns admit of a comma before 
fliem in some cases, and in some not. 

When several words come between the relative 
and its antecedent,* a comma is inserted ; but not 
in other cases ; as, There is no charm in the fe- 
malo sex which can supply the place of virtue. 
It is labour only which gives the relish to pleasure. 
The first beauty of style is pi'opriety, wiiliotit which 
all ornament is puerile and superfluous. It is 
barbarous to injure i\\o?,Q from whom we have re- 
ceived a kindness. 


A comma is often inserted where a verb is un- 
derstood, and particularly before not, but, and 
though, in such cases as the following ; as, John 
has acquired much knowledge ; his brother, (has 
acquired) little. A man ought to obey reason, 
not appetite. He was a great poet, btit a bad 
man. The sun is up, though he is not visible. 

A comma is sometimes inserted between the 
two members of a long sentence connected by 
comparatives ; as. Better is little with the fear of 
the Lord, than great treasure and trouble there- 
with. As thy days, so shall thy strength be. 

• That is, whi'ii the relative claiiBe is merely explanatory, the relativs 
Is preceded by a comma. 


Op the Comma. 


It has been stated in Rule VI. that explanatory 
words and phrases, such as, perfectly, indeed, 
doubtless, formerly, in fine, &;c. should be sepa- 
rated from the context by a comma. 

Many adverbs, however, and even phrases,when 
they are considered of little importance, should not 
be separated from the rest of the sentence by com- 
mas ; as, be ye therefore perfect. Peradventurts 
ten shall be found there. All things indeed are 
pure. Doubtless thou art our father. They were 
formerly very studious. He was at last convinced 
of his error. Be not ye therefore partakers with 
them. Nevertheless the poor man's wisdom is 
despised. Anger is in a manner like madness. 
At length some pity warmed the master's breast. 

These twelve rules respecting the position of the comma^ 
include every thing, it is presumed, to be found in the 
more numerous rules of larger volumes. But it is impoa- 
sible to make them perfect. For, " in many instances 
the employment or omission of a comma, depends upon 
the length or the shortness of a clause, the presence or 
absence of adjuncts ; the importance or non-importance of 
the sentiment. Indeed, with respect to punctuation, the 
practice of the best writers is extremely arbitrary; many 
omitting some of the usual commas when no error in sense 
Of ill construction, is likely to arise from the omission, 
GkmA sense and attentive observation are more likely to 
regula,te this subject than any mechanical directions." 

I'he best general rule is, to point in such a manner a 
to make the sense evident. 

0O" No exercises have been^ubjoinefl to tlieKules on Fiinciuutiont 
bicaiiM- none can be piven fqiial lo ihose llie pupil can pn'sciibe fof 
himself. After he lias learned Die rules, lei liiin traiisciilii' u piece 
from any ^mkhI author, omittiii"; Ilie poiiils and capiluls : and theii| 
liaviiii; jiiiinted his iiiamiscript, and restored the capitals, lei liiin comr 
(lOie his own piiiictualion wiili the author's 


Of the Semicolon. 

The semicolon is used to separate two mem- 
bers of a sentence less dependent on each other 
than those separated by the comma. 

Sometimes the two members have a mutual 
dependence on one another, both in sense and 
syntax ; sometimes the preceding member makes 
csomplete sense of itself, and only the following 
one is dependent ; and sometimes both seem to 
be independent. 


As coals are to burning coals, and wood to fire; 
so is a contentious man to kindle strife. As a 
roaring lion and a ranging bear ; so is a wicked 
ruler over the poor people. Mercy and truth 
preserve the king ; and his throne is upheld by 
mercy. He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor 
man; he that loveth wine and oil shall not be 
rich. Philosophy asserts, that Nature is unlim- 
ited' in her operations ; that she has inexhaustible 
stores in reserve ; that knowledge will always 
be progressive ; and that all future generations 
will continue to make discoveries, of which we 
have not the least idea. 

The semicolon is sometimes employed to sepa- 
rate simple members in which even no commas 
occur : thus, The pride of wealth is contemptible; 
the pride of learning is pitiable ; the pride of dig- 
nity is ridiculous ; and the pride of bigotry is in- 

In every one of these members the construction and 
sense are complete ; and a period might have been used 
instead of the semicolon ; which is prefixed merely be- 
cause the sentences are short and form a cUmax. 


Of the Colon. 

The colon is used when the preceding part of 
the sentence is complete in sense and construc- 
tion ; and the following part is some remark na- 
turally arising from it, and depending on it in 
sense though not in construction; as, Study to 
acquire the habit of thinking : no study is more 

A colon is generally used before an example 
or a quotation ; as. The Scriptures give us an 
amiable representation of the Deity in these words: 
God is love. He was often heard to say : I have 
done with the world, and I am willing to leave it. 

A colon is generally used where the sense is 
complete in the first clause, and the next begms 
with a conjunction understood ; as, Do not flatter 
yourselves with the hope of perfect happiness : 
there is no such thing in the world. Had the con- 
junction for, been expressed, a semicolon would 
have been used ; thus, Do not flatter yourselves 
with the hope of perfect happiness ; for there is 
no such thing in the world. 

The colon is generally used when the conjunc- 
tion is understood ; and the semicolon, when ibe 
conjunction is expressed. 

Note. This observation has^ not always been attended 
o in pointing the Psalms and some parts of the Liturgy 
n then, a colon is often used merely to divide the verse 
t would seem, into two parts, to suit a particular species 
of church music called ckun1in;j; ; as, " Mj^ tongue is the 
pen : of a ready writer." In reading, a Cicsural pause in 
such a place as tliis is enough. In the Psalms, and often 
in the Proverbs, the colon must be read like a semicolon, 
or even like a comma, accordin'o: to the sense. 


Of the Period. 

When a sentence is complete in construction and 
sense, it is marked with a period ; as, Jesus wept. 

A period is sometimes admitted between sen- 
tences connected with such words as but, and, for, 
Oierefore, hence, &c. Example : And he arose 
and came to his father. But when he was yet a 
greRt way off, &c. 

All abbreviations end with a period ; as, A. D. 

Of other Characters used in Composition. 

Interrogation (?) is used when a queslion is asked. 

Jid.miTat.ion (') or Exclamation, ii used to express any sudden emotion 

of tile iii;iid. 
Parenthesis ( ) is used to enclose some necessary remarfc in the body 

of another rvi'itence ; commas are now used instead of parentheses. 
jSpostrophe (') is used in place of a letter left out ; as, lov'd for loved. 
Caret (^) is used to show that some word is either oniitiwl or interlined. 
Uyplicn (-) is used at the end of a line, to show that the rest of the 

word is at the lj<3ginniiig of tlie next line. It also connects com- 
pound words; as, Tea-put. 
Section (§) is used to divide a tiscotirse or chapter into portions. 
Paragraph (If) is used to denote the beginning of a new subject. 
Crotchets [ ] or Brackets, are used to enclose a word or sentence which 

is lo be explained in a not ', or ihe explanation itself, or to correct 

a niisialie, or supply some deficiency. 
Quotation (" ") is used to show that a passage is quoted in the author's 

iiKiex (SO") is used to point out ary thing remarkable. 
Brace * '* "^*'^ '° 'connect words w.'iich have one common term, or 

\ three lines in poetry, having the same rhyme, called a triplet. 
Ellipsis ( ) is used when some letters are omitted ; as, K — g for 

Acute accent (') is used to denote a short syllable ; the grave (^ ) a long 
Breve (") marks a short vowel or syllable, anf" tlie dash (") a long. 
Diaeresis (••) is used to divide a diphthong into two syllables; as, a rial 
Asterisk I*)— Obelisk {^)— Double, dagger (+)— and Parallels {]])— 

Willi small letters a.:n\ figures, reler to some no<e on the margin, 

or ill t'ae bottom of the page. 
(***) 'I'wo or thre<' asterisks denote the omission of some letters m 

some l)o!d or indelicate expression. 
Cash ( — ) is used to denote abruptness — a signiticant pau-e — an unex 
' ' peeled turn in the sintimenl — or that the ^irst clause is comina\ 

to all tiie rest, as in this dejinitiun of a dasli. 




L A.TI N. 

Ante Christum* A. C. 

Artium Baccalaureus A. B. 

Anno Domini A. D. 

Artium Magister A. M. 

Anno Mundi A. M. 

Ante Meridiem A. M. 

Anno Urbis Conditae A. U. C. 
Baccalaureus Divinitalis B. D. 

Custos Privati Sigilli C. P. S. 

Custos Sigilli C. S. 

Doctor Divlnitatis D. D. 

Exempli gratia e. g. 
RegiEE Societatis Sociua R. S. S. 

Regiie Societatis Anti- B.S.A.S, 

quariorum Socius 

Victoria Regiiia V. R. 

Id est i. e. 
JesusHominumSalvator J. H. S. 

Legum Doctor LL. D. 

Messieurs (^Freiuh) Messrs. 

Medicina: Doctor M. D. 

MemoriiE Sacrum M. S. 

N Ota Bene N.B. 

Post Meridiem P. M. 

Post Scriptum P. S. 

Ultimo Ult. 

£t castera &c. 

a NO I.I8H 

Before Christ 

Bachelor of Arts (often B. A.) 

In the year of our Lord. 

Master of Arts. 

In the year of the world. 

In the forenoon. [cJty — Scnw : 

In the year after the building of riM 

Bachelor of DiviHity. 

Keeper of the Privy Seal. 

Keeper of the Seal. 

Doctor of Divinity. 

For example. 

Fellow of the Royal Society 

.Fellow of the Royal Society of Antir 

Victoria the Queen. 
That is. 

Jesus the Saviour of Men. 
Doctor of Laws. 
Doctor of Medicina 
Sacred to the Memory of (or S.M. 
Note well ; take notice. 
In the afternoon. 

Postscript, something written after 
Last (montli.) 
And tlie rest; and so forth. 

A. Answer, Alexander 

Acct. Account 

Ba.rt. Baronet 

Bp. Bishop 

Capt. Captain 

Col. Colonel 

Cr. Creditor 

Dr. Debtor, Doctor 

Do. or Ditto The same 

Viz.-f Namely 

Q,. Question, (Jueen 

R. N. lloyal Navy 

Esq. Esquire 

L.C.J Lord Chief Justice 

Knt. Knight 

K. G Knieht of the Garter 

K. B. Knight of the Bath 

K.CB- Kt.CommanderoftheBath 

K. C. Knight of the Crescent 

K. P. Knight of St. Patrick 

K. T. Knight of the Thistle 

MS. Manuscript 

MSS. Manuscripts 

N. S. New Style 

O. S. Old Style 

J. P. Justice of the Peace 

*The Latin of these abbreviations is inserted, not to be got by netrt, 
but to show the etymology of the English; or explain for instance, hov 
P. M. comes to mean afternoon, &c. '*' Contracted for videlwU. 



Prosody is that part of Grammar which 

teaches the true pronunciation of words ; 

comprising Accent, Quantity, Emphasis, 

Pause and Tone, and the measure of Verses. 

Accent is the laying of a greater force on one 
tillable of a word than on another ; as, SurmoimZ. 

The qtcantity of a syllable is the time which is 
occupied in pronouncing it. Quantity is either 
long or short ; as, consume. 

Emphasis is a remarkable stress laid upon cer- 
tain words in a sentence, to distinguish them from 
the rest, by making the meaning more apparent ; 
as, Apply yourself more to acquire knowledge 
than to shew it.* 

A pau^e is either a total cessation or a short 
suspension of the voice, during a perceptible space 
of time ; as, Reading-makes a full-man ; confer- 
ence — a ready-man ; and writing — an exact-man. 

Tone is a particular modulation or inflection of 
the voice, suited to the sense; as, How bright 
these glorious spirits shine !f 


Prose is iianguage not restrained to harmonic 
sounds, or to a set number of syllables. 

Verse or Poetry is language restrained to a cer- 
tain number of long and short syllables in every 

Verse is of two kinds; namely, Rhyme and Blank 

• Emphnsis should b« made rather by suspending the voice a little 
^fter the emphatic word, than by striking it very forcibly, wliich is 
disagreeable to a good ear. A very short pause before it would render 
It Btill more emphatical ; as, Reading malces a—full — man. 

t .Accent and quantity respect the pronunciation of words; emphasii 
and pause the meaning of the sentence ; while tone refers to the feeK 
tugs of the spealcer. 


verse. When the last syllable of every two lines 
has the same sound, it is called rhyme; but when 
this is not the case, it is called blank verse. 

Feet* are the parts into which a verse is divided 
to see whether it has its just number of syllables 
or not. 

Scanning is the measuring or dividing of a verse"} 
into the several feet of which it is composed. 

All feet consist either of two or three syllables, 
and are reducible to eight kinds;, four of two syl- 
lables, and four of three, as follow: 



A trochee ; as, lovely.:}; 
An iambus ; became. 
A spondee ; vain man. 
A pyrr/iic ; on a (bank ) 

A dactyle : as, probably 
An amphioracA ; domestic 
An anapaest ; niifimprove. 
AtribracA; (com)l'6rtably 

The feet in most common use ai'e Iambic, Tra 
chsiic, and Anapajstic. 


Iambic measure is adapted to serious subjects, and compriaes veraei ti 
geveral Icinds ; such as, 

1. Of four syllables, or two feet ; as, 
With rav-ish'd ears, 
The mon-arch hears. 

It sometimes has an additional short syllable, ma. 
king what is called a double ending ; as, 

Up6n-a mountain, 
Beside-2 Coan-tain, 

* So called Trom the reseinblaiioe which the movement of the longu 
in reading verse, bears to the motion of the feet in walltiiic. 

t A single iiiie is called a verse. In rhyme two lim« are called 
mruplet; and three endiMg with the same sound a triplet. 

% The marks over the vowels show that a trochee consists of a l»ng 
and a short syllable, and the iambic of a short and a ione, &c 

{fCT' In scanning versos, every accented syllable is called a long- syl 
lable ; even although the sound of the vowel in pronunciation be tkort. 
Thus the first syllable in ravish'd is in scanning called a /<ni^ syllable, 
although the vowel a is short. Ky long then is meant an aecentei syl 
lable ; and by short, an unaccenied syllable. 


8. Of three iambics, or six syllables ; as, 

Aloft - In aw - fill state, 
The god - like he - ro sat. 

Our hearts - no long - 6r Idm—guish. An adilitionai 


8. Of eight syllables, or four iambic feet ; as, 

And may - at last - my wea - ry age. 
Find out- the peace -ful her- milage 

4. Often syllables, or five feet ; called hexameter, 
heroic, or tragic verses ; as, 

ThS stars - shall fade - away, - the sun - himself 
Grow dim - with age, - and na - ture sink - In years 

Sometimes the last line of a couplet is stretched 
out to twelve syllables, or six feet, and then it 
is called an Alexandrine verse ; as. 

For thee - the land - in fra- grant flow'rs - Is drest ; 

For thee - the 6-cean smiles,- and smoothes- her wa-vy breast 

5. Of verses containing alternately four and three 
feet ; this is the measure commonly used in 
psalms and hymns ; as, 

LSt saints - below, - with sweet - accord. 

Unite - with those - above, 
In so - l^mn lays, - to praise - their king, 

And sing - his dy - ing love. 

9Cr Verses of tliiB kind were anciently written In two lines, each con- 
taining fourteen syllables. 


This measure is quick and lively, and comprises verse*, 

1. Some of one trochee and a long syllable, and 
some of two trochees ; as, 

Tamult - cease. | On thS - monntaln, 

8Iaktd-p«&ce | By<-founti^ 


2. Of two feet or two trochees with an additional 
long syllable ; as, 

In thS - days of - - old, 
StoriSs - plainly - - told. 

3. Of three trochees, or three and an additional 
long syllable ; as, 

Wh€n our- hearts are - mourning. 
Lovely - lasting - peace of- - mind. 
Sweet dS - light of- human - - kind. 

4. Of four trochees, or eight syllables ; as, 

Now the - dreadful - thunder'a - roaring ! 

5. Of six trochees, or twelve syllables ; as, 

On a - mountain, - stretch'd bS - neath a - hoary - wUlSw, 
Lay a - shepherd - swain, and - view'd th6 - roaring - billow. 

Thoee trochaic measures that are very uncommon have been omitted 


1. Of two anapaests, or two and an unaccented 
syllable ; as, 

But his cour - age 'gan fail, 
For no arts - could avail. 
Or, Then his cour - age 'gan fail - - him. 
For no arts - could avail - - him. 

2. Of three anapaests, or nine syllables; as, 

yS woods - sprSad your branch - 6s apace. 
To your deep - 6st rece^- 6s I fly ; 

1 would hide - with the beasts - of th6 chase, 
I would van-Ish from ev-ery eye. 

Sometimes a syllable is retrenched from the first 
foot; as, 

Ye shep - herds so cheer - f ul and gay, 
Whose fidcks - n6v6r care - iSssly roam 


3. Of four anapaests, or twelve syllables ; as, 

'Tis the voice - of th6 slug - gard ; I hear - him cSmpUun, 
You have wak'd - me too soon, - 1 must slum - bSr agiio. 

Sometimes an additional short syllable is found 

at the end ; as. 
On the warm-cheek of youth,-siniles and r6s-6s, are blend-»ng 

The preceding are the different kinds of the Prin- 
cipaP feet, in their more simple forms ; but they 
are susceptible of numerous variations, by mix- 
ing them with one another, and with the Se- 
condary feet, the following lines may serve as 

an example : [Spon. Jlmph. &c. apply only to the first line.] 


Time shakes -the stable -t'ranny- of thrones, dec. 
Where is - to morrow 1 - in anoth - er world. 
She all - night long - her am - orous des - cant sung. 
Innu - mfirable - before - th' Almigh - ty's throne. 
That on - weak wings - from far - pursues - your flight. 


A Figure of Speech is a mode of speaking, in 
which a word or sentence is to be understood in a 
sense different from its most common and literal 
meaning. The principal Figures of Speech are 














• Iambus, trochee, and anapaest, may be denominated prineipm, 
ftet; because pieces of poetry may be wholly, or cliieliy formed of et- 
Umt of them. The others may be termed secondary feet because Ibeilf 
<feM uw M to diversify the numbers, and to improve the vetse. 


ProsopopcEia, or personification, is that figure of 
spepoh by which we attribute life and action to 
inanimate objects ; as, The sea saw it andjled. 

A simile expresses the resemblance that one 
object bears to another ; as, He shall he like a tree 
planted hy the rivers of water. 

A metaphor is a simile without the sign (likev 
or as, &c.) of comparison ; as, He shall he a tree 
planted hy, SfC. 

An allegory is a continuation of several meta- 
phors, so connected in sense as to form a kind of 
parable or fable ; thus, the people of Israel are 
represented under the image of a vine : Thou hast 
brought a vine out of Egypt, SfC. Psalm Ixxx. 8 to 17 

An hyperhole is a figure that represents things 
as greater or less, better or worse, than they really 
are : as, when David says of Saul and Jonathan, 
They were swifter than eagles, they v^ere stronger 
than lions. 

Irony is a figure by which we mean quite the 
contrary of what we say ; as. When Elijah said 
to the worshippers of Baal, Cry aloud, for he is a 
god, SfC. 

A metonymy is a figure by which we put the 
cause for the effect, or the effect for the cause ; 
as, when we say, ETe reads Milton; we mean Mil- 
ton's works. Grey hairs should be respected, i. e. 
old age. 

Synec'doche is the putting of a part for the 
whole, or the whole for a part, a definite number 
for an indefinite, &;c. as the waves for the sea, the 
head for the person, and ten thousand for Knj great 
number. This figure is nearly allied to metonymy. 

Antithesis, or contrast, is a figure by which dif- 
ferent or contrary objects are contrasted, to make 


them show one another to advantage ; thus, Solo- 
mon contrasts the timidity of the wicked with the 
courage of the righteous, when he says, The wicked 
flee when no man pursueth, hut the righteous are 
hold as a lion. 

* Climax is the heightening of all the circum- 
stances of an object or action, which we wish to 
place in a strong light ; as, Who shall separate 
us from the love of Christ ? SJiall tribulation, or 
distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or 
peril, or srvord? Nay, ^c. See also Rom. viii. 
38, 39. 

Exclamation is a figure that is used to express 
some strong emotion of the mind ; as. Oh the depili 
of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge 
of God f 

Interrogation is a figure by which we express 
the emotion of our mind, and enliven our discourse 
by proposing questions ; thus, Hath the Lord said 
it ? and shall he not do it ? Hath he spoken it ? 
and shall he not make it good ? 

ParaJepsis, or omission, is a figure by which 
the speaker pretends to conceal what he is really 
declaring and strongly enforcing ; as, Horatius was 
once a very promising young gentleman, but in 
process of time he became so addicted to gaming, 
not to mention his drunkenness and debauchery, 
that he soon exhausted his estate and ruined his 

Apostrophe is a turning oflT from the subject to 
address some other person or thing ; as. Death is 
swallowed up in victory : Death, where is thy 
tting ? 

* Climax, Amplification, Enumeration, ir Gradation 




What is English Grammar? 
Into how many parts is it divided! 
What does Orthography teach 1 
What is a letter, &.C.1 
Of what does Etymology treat! 
How many parts of speech are 
there? — 


What is an article? 

How many articles are there? 

Where is a used 1 

Where is an used 1 


What is a noun ? 

How are nouns varied ? 

Wliat is number ? 

How many numbers have nouns? 

How is the plural general ly formed 

How do nouns ending ins, sh, ch, 

X, or 0, form the plural ? 
How do nouns in y form the plural? 
How do nouns m / or fe form the 

What is the plural of man, &.C.? 


What is meant by gender ? 
How many genders are there ? 
Wliat does the masculine denote ? 
What does Ihe feininiiie denote ? 
What does the neuter denote ? 
What is the feminine of bachelor, 
&c. — 


What is case ? 

How many cases have nouns ? 

Which two are a/ike 7 

Howis the possessive sing formed? 

Howis the possessive^i/ur.formed'' 

Decline the word lady. 


What is an adjective ? 

How many degrees of comparison 
have adjectives ? 

How is the comparative tormeA'i 

How is the superlative formed ? 

How are dissyllables in y com- 
pared ? 

Gomoure the adjective good. 


What is a pronoun 7 

Which is the pronoun in the ten 

tence, Ife is a good boy. 
How many icinds of pronouns tM 

there ? 
Decline the personal pronoun 17 
Decline thou — backwards, tee. 


What is a relative pronoun ? 

Which is the rel. in the example T 

Wliich is the antecedent 7 

Repeat the relative pronouns. 

Decline who. 

How is who applied ? 

'J'o what is wliich applied ? 

How is that used ? 

What sort of a relative is What ? 


How many sorts of adjective pro 

nouns are there ? 
Repeat the possessive pronouns. 
Repeat the distributive pronouns. 
Repeat the demonstrative. 
Repeat the indefinite. 

On the- Observations. 

Before which of the vowels is a 
What is a called ? [used ? 

What is the called ? 
In what sense is a noun taken 

without an article to limit it? 
Is a used before nouns in both num- 
How is ihe used ? [hers ? 


How do nouns ending in ch sound- 
ing k form the plural ? 

How do nouns in io, &c. form th 
plural ? 

How do nouns ending in jf form 
the plural ? 

Repeat those nouns that do not 
change/ or /« into ues in the pi.? 

What do you mean bypjnpernouns 

What are common nouns ? 

What are collective nouns ? 

What do you call abstract nouasi 



Questions on the Text and Observations. 

Obs. Continued. 

Wlmt do you call verbal noiinB I 

What iiQuns arc generally sing-a- 

Repeat some of those nouns that 
are used only in the plural. 

Sejjeut some of those nouns that 
are alike in both nunibeiji. 

What is the singular o( sheep? 

What gender is parent^ &.C. ' 


What does the positive express, 

How are adjectives of one syllable 
generally compared 7 

Dow are adjectives of more than 

. one syllable c()ii!))ared 1 

How are dissyllables ending with 
E final, often compared 1 

Is y always changed into i, before 
er and est ? 

How are some adjectives compar- 
ed ? 

Do all adjectives admit of com- 
parison ! 

ilow are miuh and niamj applif.dl 

When is iho final consonant doub- 
led before adding er and est ? 


V/hcu are tcho, which, and what 

caWeA interrogatives? 
Of what number anil person is vhe 

relative 1 


When are his and her possessive 

pronouns 7 
What may former and latter be 

called 1 
When is thnt a relative pronoun "! 
VVheii is that a demonstrative? 
When is l/iat a conjunction ? 
How many cases have himself, 

herself, k.c. ! 


Wl'.at is a verb ? 

How many kinds of verba are 

there 1 
What does a verb active expresst 
What does a verb passive expresrf 
What doi's a verb neuter express? 
Repeat the auxiliary verbs. 
How is a verb declined ? 
How many moods liave verbs 1 


Wliat is an adverb ? 

Name the adverbs in the example. 

What j)art of speech is the gene- 
rality of those words that end 
i-" ly ? 

What part of sp(«ch are the coih- 
pounds of where, there, &c. % 

Are adverbs ever compared ? 

When are moi-e and iiiost adjec- 
tives and when are they adverbsl 


What is a preposition ? 

How many begin with a ? 

Repeat them. 

How many begin with b ? 

Repeat them, &c. 

What case does a preposition re- 

(piire after it 7 
Wiien is before a preposition, and 

when is it an adverb 7 


What is a conjunction 7 

How many kinds of conjunctioiBi 

are there 7 
Repeat Uie copulative. 
Repeat iho disjunctive, 


What is an interjection ? 

Note.— As these are only the leading questions on the dirTt^rent par* 
of speech, many more may be asked viva voce. Their distances from 
the answers will ohlii^e the pupil to attend to the between 
everj' (piestion and its res(X'clive answer. The observiuujns that hava 
no corresponding question, are to be read, but not committed to memory 


As the following words and pliiase?, from the French and Latin, f^' 
qiiently occur in Eniilish autlioi-s, an explanation of them has been 
Inserted here, for Ilie convenience of tliose who are iinac(|iiainte<l 
Willi these laiignages. Let none, however, hna^iie, thai liy doing 
this f iiitiMid to encnuJafte the ii-e of them in English c...ii|iosition. 
On the contrary, I disapprove oC it, and aver, that to express an idea i 
In a foreign language, which can be expressed with equal pi rspicuity ^ 
in our own, is not only pedantic, but highly improper. Such words \ 
and phrases, by being frequently used, may, notwitlistandinjc Ih i 
Uncouihness of their sound and appearance, gradually incorp<irat 1 
v/ith our language, and ultimately diminish its origuial excellence ! 
Rnd impair its native beauiy. j 

Aide-de-camp, *iid-de-kong\ an assistant to a generaL \ 

A la bonne heure, a la boii oor\ luckily ; in good time. J 

Affair de cceur, af-fiir^ de l?oor\ a love affair ; an amour ] 

A la mode, a la in6d\ according to the fashion. i 

A fin, a finff, to the end. 

Apropo?, ap-pro-po\ to the purpose ; opportunely. 

Au fond, k fong\ to the bottom, or main point. 

Auto da fe, a to-da-fu, (Portuguese,) burning of heretics 

Bag^atelle, bajj-a-tel^ a trifle. 

Beau monde, bo mongd\ the gay world; people of fashion 

Beaux esprits, boz es-pre\ inen of wit. 

Billet-doux, bil-le-du\ a love letter. 

Bon-mot, bong mo, a piece of loit; a jest; a quibble. 

Bon ton, bong tong, in high fashion. 

Bon gro, mal gre ; bon gra, mal gra ; with a good or ill 

grace ; whether the parti/ will or not. 
Bon jour, bong zhdr, good day, good morning. 
Boudoir, bu-dwli.r\ a small private apartment. 
Carte blanche, kart blangsh\ a blank; unconditional terms 
Chateau, sha-to\ a country seat. 
Chef d'oBUvre, she dooH'er, a master-piece. 
Ci-devant,\ formerly. 
Comme il faut, coni-il fo, as it should be. 
Con amore, con-a-moVe, (Italian,) with love ; with the 

partiality of affection. 
CongtJ d'elire, kong-zha de-ler\ leave to elect or choose. 
youp de grd.ce, ktl-de gr;iss\ stroke of mercy; the finishin. 
""'Oup d'oeil, ku-dail, a peep; a glance of the eye. [stroke 

Short vowels are left unmarked — fi is equal to v. in rule; a to a in 
art; ou, abused here, has no correspondent sound in Ensilish; il is equal 
to u as pronounced by the common prople in many counties of Scotland 
ill the words use, tout, Sec. — a is equal to a In ait. 

* ji U not exacily a hmir here; ii is perhaps as near* in met, as o In 
make, but a will not be so readily mistakrii. It is iinpossibie to convey 
the pronuuciaiion accurately without the tongue. 


Coup de main,\ a sudden or bold enterprise. 

Debut, de-boo\ jirst appearance in public. 

Dernier resort, derii'.ya-res-sor\ the last shift or resource 

Depftt, de-p6\ a storehouse or magazine. 

Double entendre, diibl ang-tang 'der, double meaning, one 

in an immodest sense. 
Douceur, du-soor\ « present or bribe. 
Dieu ct inon droit, dyoo^ e-inong drwii, God and my right 
Eclat, e-kla, splendour; loith applause. 
El6ve, el-av', pupil. 

En bon point, ang-bong-pwang', in good condition ; jolly. 
En masse, ang inass\ in a body or mass. 
En passant, ang pas-sang^ by the way; in passing; by the by 
Ennui, eng-niie^, wearisomeness ; lassitude; tediousness. 
Faux pas, fo-pii, a slip ; misconduct. 
F^te, f:U, « feast or entertainment. 
Fracas, fia-c:l\ bustle; a slight quarrel; more ado about 

the thing than it is worth. 
Hon! soit qui mal y pense, ho-ne-swa'ke.mal e pangs\ 

evil be to him thai evil think.s. 
Hauteur, ha-toor\ haughtiness. 
Je ne s^ais quoi, zhb ne sa kwa, / li/ww not what. 
Jcu de mot=, zhoo de mo\ a play upon words. 
Jeu d'esprit, zlioo de-spie\ a display of wit ; witticism. 
Mal-apropos, mal ap-ro-p6\ unfit; out of time or place. 
Mauvais honte, nio-va.z-hont\ false modesty. 
Mot du guet, mo doo ga.\ a toatchicord. 
Naivete, na-iv-tii\ ingenuousness, simplicity, innocence. 
Outre, \x-irh.'', eccentric ; blustering ; wild; not gentle. 
Petit maitre, pc-te.miVter, a beau; a fop. 
Protdg^. pro-ta zlia^, a person patronized and protectedr 
Rouge, rd^h, red ; a kind of red paint for the face. 
Sans, sang, without. 

Sang froid, sang frwil, cold blood ; indifference. 
Savant, sa-vang, a wise or learned man. 
Soi-disant, swa-de-zang\ self-styled ; pretended. 
Tapis, ta-pe, the carpet. 
Trait, tra, feature, touch, arrow, shaft. 
T6te h. tete, tat a tat, face to face, a private conversation 
Unique, oo-nek\ singular, the only one of his kind. 
Un bel esprit, oong bel e-spre\a pretender to tcit, a virtuoso 
Valet-de-ciiambre, va-la de shoni^ber, a valet or footman 
Vive le roi, vuve le rwi, long live the king. 



The pronunciation has not been added to the I^tin, because every IctUa 
is sounded.— c final being like y in arvaj. 

1. A loTiff or short over a vowel denotes both the accented syllable and 
the quantity of the vowel in English. 2. Ti, ci or si, before a vowel 
sounds slu. 3. Words of tttio syllables have the accent on ttie/ral 

Ah initio, from the bcginninj^. 

Ab urbe condita, /row the buil- 
ding of the city— A. U. C. 

Ad captandum vulgiis, to en- 
mare the vulgar, lout end. 

Ad infinitum, to infmily, teiih- 

Ad libitum, at pleasure, [lion. 

Ad referendum, /w considera- 

Ad valorem, according to value 

A fortiori, ivith stronger rea- 
son, much more. 

Alias (a-le-as), otherivise. 

Alibi (al-i-bi), elsewhere. 

Alma mfiter, the univei-fity. 

Aaglice (ang-li-cy) inEnglish. 

Anno Domini, in the year of 
our Lord — A. D. 

Anno INIundi, in the yearoftlie 
world— A. M. 

A posteriori, from tlie effect, 
from the latter, from behind. 

A priori,/?o7n the former, from 
before, from the nature or cause. 

Arcanum, a secret. 

Arcana imperii, state secrets. 

Argumentum ad homineni, an 

appeal to the professed principles 
or practices of the adversary. 

Argumentum ad judiciuin, an 
appeal to the common sense of 

Argumentum ad fidem, an ap- 
peal to our faith. 

Argumentiira ad populuni, an 
appeal to the people. 

Argumentum ad passiones, an 
appecd to the passions, [i-ides. 

Audi alteram ^mrii^m, hear both 

Bona tide, inreality, in good faitA. 

Contra, against. 

Cacoetnes scribendi, an itch 
for writing. 

Cffileris paribus, other circum- 
stances being equal. 

Caput mortuum, the worthless 
remains, dead head. 

Compos mentis, vi one's senses 

Cum privilegio, with privilege 

Data, things granted. 

De facto, in fact, in reality. 

De jure, in right, in law. 

Dei Gratia, by the grace or fa 
vour of God. 

Deo volentc, God willing. 

Domine dirige nos,0 Lord di- 
rect us. [warMng. 

Desunt caetera, the rest an 

Desideratum, something desir- 
able, or much wanted. 

Dramatis personae, charactert 

Durante vita, during life. 

Durante placito, during jjfeo* 

Ergo, therefore. \ur^ 

Errata, errors — Erratum, on 

Excerpta, extracts. [error. 

Esto perpetua let itbeperpetual 

Et caitera, (&c.) aiui the rest. 

Exempli gratia, (e. g.) as /w 
example. \of offic*. 

Ex ofl'icio, officially, by virtue 

Ex parte, on one side, [tatiot*. 

Ex tempore, wHJiout premedi- 

Fac simile, exact copy or r»- 

Fiat, let it be done or made. 

Flagrante bello,(2urtng hostile- 

Gratis, for nothing. [tie^ 

Horafugit, the hour or time JUa 

Humanuin est errare. to erri* 

Ibidem, (ib.) in the same plan. 

Id est, (i. e.) that is. 

Ignoramus, avuv.xunmformiM 

In loco, in this place. 

Imprimis, in the first place. 

In terroreui, as a looming. 

In propria persona, in his owa 

In statu quo, tn the former slatM 

Ipse dixit, on his sole nssit'liijn 

Ipse facto, by the act itself. 



Ipso jure, by the law Uaelf. 

item, also or article. 

Jure divino, by divine right. 

Jure humano, by human law. 

Tus gentmm,the law of nations. 

Locum tenenadeputy substitute 

Labor omnia vincit, labour ov- 
ercomes everything. 

LicSntia vatum, a poetical li- 
cence. _ [tongue. 

Lapsus linguae, a slip of the 

Magna Charta, the great char- 
ier, the basis of our laws and 

Memento mon, remember death i 

Memorabilia, matters deserv- 
ing of record. 

Meum et tuum, mine and thine 

Multum in parvo, much in lit- 
tle, a great deal in a few words. 

Nemo me impune lacesset, no 

one shall provoke me with impunity 

Ve plus ultra, no farther, no- 
thing beyond. [tcilling. 

Nolens volens, willing or un- 

Non compos mentis, not of a 
sound mind. 

Nisi Dominus fnistrata, unless 
the Lord be with us, all ef- 
forts are in vain. 

Ne quid nimis, toomuch of one 
iking is good for nothing. 

•S^em. con. (for nemine con- 
tradicente,) none (^posing. 

Nem. dis. (for nemine dissen- 
tiente,) none disagreeing. 

Ore tenus, from the mouth. 

O tempora, O mores, O the 
times, O the manners. 

Omnes, all. 

Onus, burden. 

Passim, everywhere. 

Per se, by itself alone. 

Prima iacie, at first view, or 
at first sight. 

Posse comitatus, the power of 
the county. 

Primum mobile, main-spring. 

Pro and con, for and against. 

Pro bono publico, for the good 
cf the public. 

Pro loco et tempore, for the 

place and time. 
Pro re nata, as occasion serves 
Pro rege, lege et grege ; fortht 

king-, the constitution Si-the people. 
Quo animo, vnth what mind. 
Quo jure, by xohat right. 
Quoad, as far as. 
Quondam, formerly. 
Res publica, the commonwealth 
Resurgam, I shall rise again. 
Rex, a king — Regina, a queen 
Senatus consultum, a decree 

of the senate. 
Seriatim, in regular order. 
Sine die, without specifying 

any particular day. 
Sine qua non, an indispensible 

prerequisite or condition. 
Statu quo, state in which it was 
Sub pcEna, under a penalty. 
Sui generis, the only one of his 
Supra, above, [kind, singular. 
Summum bonum the chief good 
Tria juncta in uno, three joined 

in one. 
Toties quoties, as often as. 
Una voce, with one voice, vn- 

Ul'timus, the last, (cont. «/<.) 
U'tile dulce, the useful with tht 

Uti possidetis, as ye possess or 

pi^esent possession. 
Verbatim, toord for word. 
Versus, against. 
Vade mecum, go vnth me; a 

book fit for being a constant com- 
Vale, farewell. [panion. 

Via, by the way of. 
Vice, in the room of. 
Vice vers&, the reverse. 
Vide, see (contracted into v.) 
Vide ut supra, see as above. 
Vis poetica, poetic geniiis. 
Viva voce, orally; oy word of 

Vivant rex et regina, longliv 

the king and the queen. 
Vox populi, the voice ofthepeo- 
Vuigo, commonly. \jpl* 





Two .ir more nouns in the sing. 83 

Tw< nouns disjuint'd, &c ib. 

NoiiJ^s of multitude 87 

One iioun governs another 86 

Of a clause between them 109 

Several nouns in the possess.*. 86 
fiingclarnouns of diff. persons !I6 
A singular and a plural noun. 97 
A noun nnd it^ pronoun im- 
proper 9S 


Pronouns agree in gender, &c . 93 
Each, every, either, agree, &C.106 
That and this, former & latter. 107 
Relative agrees with its antec. 94 

tAat and trAicAf ib. 

preceded by two an- 
tecedents of dilf. persons. .. . 95 
Rel. should be placed next ant.* ib. 

Jf/io after than* 105 

When a pronoun refers to tico 

words of different personsX-- 97 
Of whichsoever, &c.* 109 


A verb agrees with its nom.. . 80 

An active verb governs 81 

Neufer vbs. do not gov. an obj .| ib. 
Active verbs admit of no prep.|| ib. 

One verb governs another 85 

The infinitive is u?ed as a nom. 99 
Verbs related in point of time. 108 
The verb to be has the same case 88 


Participle used as a noun 91 

A possessive pronoun before the 

present pa rtici plef 91 

A noun before tlie present par- 

ticiplej 91 

Past part, is used after have & &« 92 



Of the position of adverbs.... lUS 
Adjectives not used as adverbsUB 
Of hence, thence, there, &c.*. lb. 
Double comparatives improper.lCD 

Two negatives improper 101 

The comparative degree re- 
quires Uian IM 


Prepositions govern objeclivCv 88 
should be placed 

before the n^lative* it. 

Dilf. prep, with the same nount lb. 
To, at, in, before names of 

places IIS 

Words requiring appropriate 

prepositions Ill 

Conjunctions couple like moods 84 

require subjunctive mood 89 

Lestaud thatt ib. 

If, with but followingt ib- 

Conjunctions in pairs 99 

TAanandos ,. .UO 


Interjections 110 

General Rule 114 

Use of the Articles 115 

Ellipsis is frequently adniitted.llO 

improper 117 

Construction... * 118 

Promiscuous exer. on Syntax. 119 
Miscellaneous Observations. . .141 

When to use capitals 153 

Punctuation 157 

Prosody 185 

Of Vemfication ib. 

Figures of Speech 1(39 

Questions on Etymology 173 

French and Latin Piira8e8....l74 




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